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Full text of "History of Hillsborough County, New Hampshire"

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HISTORY 



OF 



HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



coiymLEr) tjitdee, the su feij-visioit oe 



D. HAMILTON HURD. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



I'll I I, A hi: I. I'll lA : 
J. W. LKWIS & CO. 

i.ssn. 



CorYKloiTT, lS8r., i!Y .1. W. Lewis & Co. 






PUBLISHERS' PREFACE. 



Nearly three years ago the attention ot the publishers, wlio liave long niade a specialty 
of this class of work, was called to the fact that a iiistory of Hillsborough County was needed. 
After mature deliberation the work was planned and its compilation commenced. The best 
literary talent in this section of the State for this especial work was engaged, whose 
names appejir at the hesid of tlunr respective articles, besides many other local writers on 
special topics. These gentlemen a2)proached the work in a spirit of impartiality and 
thoroughness, and we believe it has been tlieir honest endeavor to trace the history of the 
development of the territoiy embodied herein from that period when it was in tiie undis- 
puted possession of the red man to the present, and to place before the reader an authentic 
narrative of its rise and progress. The work has been comj)iled from autiientieated and 
. original sources, and no effort spared to produce a history which should ])rove in every 

respect wortliy of the county represented. 

The Publishers. 

Philadelphia, August, 1885. 



■* r A' -•<-) -'O 



tt 



CONTENTS. 



GEIS'EEAI. HISTORY- 



CHAPTER I. 
Early History and Organization of Courts . 



PAOt 
1 



CHAPTER II. 



The Bench and Bar 



TOWN HISTORIES. 



Manchester 40 

Nashua 139 

Amher.st 219 

Antrim 252 

Bedford 265 

Bennington 284 

Brookline 289 

france.stown 297 

Goffstow.v 303 

Greenfield 331 

Hancock 350 

Deerino 366 

Hillsborough 391 

HoLLis 435 

Hudson 457 

Litchfield 486 



Lyndeborough 498 

Mason 513 

Greenville 618 

Merrimack 527 

MiLFORD 551 

New Boston 585 

New Ii'SWich 610 

Peliia.m 631 

Peterborough (550 

Sharon i>7() 

Temple 672 

Weare 678 

Wilton 695 

Windsor 727 

Mont Vernon 7;it> 

Appendix 745 

V 



BIOGRAPHICAL, 



PACE 

Adams, rlilnoliM 123 

Athcnoii, Cliarlw G 12 

Atherlon, ClmrlM H 10 

Atberton, Jut(hua — 9 

ATerill, Clinton S 579 

Aj'er, Ik'rOaniin F 34 

Ajcr, Samuel H 13 

B«lch, CharlM E 133 

Balch, Mark 300 

Baldwin, Samuel 288 

Bartlill, CharlM H 32 

Boll, !<aniucl D 17 

Berry, Augui^tmt 647 

Blood, Aretas 75 

Bnxlford, Kphniini P 606 

Bradloy, Denis M 104 

BriggB, Jamiys F 29 

Brookft, Ifioac 249 

Buck, William D 120 

Burnham, Alwl C 426 

Burnham, llenr)' E 32 

Burna, l.'liarli'a H 39 

CamplM-ll, riiarleo n 250 

CamplKll, iJaniel 250 

Camplxjll, Daniel, Jr 251 

Clianilterlain, James L 526 

Cbampney, Kbenezer 9 

Cheney, Penwn C 83 

Chriatic, Miirrif! 202 

Clagitefl, Clifton 10 

Claggett, Wiseman 8 

Clapp, Allen N 132 

Clark, Daniel 17 

Clark, Lewis W 26 

Clarke, John B 55 

Clarke, Joseph B .33 

Clarke, William C 20 

ClouKh, Luclen B 32 

Cragin, Daniel 725 

Crombie, Ninian C 609 

Cro«bj', Joalah 126 

Cro», David ,31 

Curanor, Nathaniel W 129 

Currier, Moody 01'. 

Cutler, John H 005 

Dana, Samuel 10 

Darls, .loaoph 304 

Doarhorn, Cornelius Van M 207 

Doarl).>ru, SAninol G 201 

DfMlge, I'erley 35 

Dulihip, Archibald H 211 

Katun, Harrison 547 

Kdwards, Supply W 67fi 

Farley, Benjamin M .39 

Fellows, Joseph W 3JI 

Ferguson, John 128 



I'AUK 

Fltib, Charles D .348 

Forsailh, Samuel C 84 

Foster, Herman 26 

French, John C 133 

Fuller, John G 425 

Fulton, James 389 

Gilbert, John 431 

Gilnian, Horace W 209 

Gilmau, Virgil C 210 

Goodale, John H 379 

Goodalo, Levi 429 

Goodale, T. N 429 

Goodell, David H 200 

Goodale Familj* 428 

Godfrey, Reuben 214 

Goffc, John 47 

Gove, Charles F 12 

Graves, Josiah G 199 

Gray, U. S 726 

Greeley, Horace 250a 

Gregg, James 389 

Griffln, George 496 

Grimes, Francis 422 

Grimes, James F 423 

Hall, James H 216 

Hiill, James Harvey 296 

Hamblet. Kli 484 

Heald, David 580 

Hildreth, .lotham 512 

Holman, Charles 201 

Hosley, John 136 

Howard Family, The 213 

Hutchinson, John W 581 

Jones Family, The 427 

Kimball, Gilman 203 

Kingr^bury, Cleorge 300 

Lincoln, Leavltt 030 

Livermore, Solomon K 573 

Lund, Charles 216 

Maynard, John H 136 

Morrill, James B 483 

3[oorc, Joseph C 60 

Moore, Xonnan J. M 202 

Murrlsjin, Georgo \V 13 

Murray, Orlando D 203 

Xowell, Joseph 722 

Parsons, William M 137 

PartridKo, S. II 347 

Parker, John M 326 

Parker, William T 649 

Pattee, L. N 330 

Pevoy, Peter 349 

Povey, /ebcdiah 344 

Pierce, Franklin 10 

Potter, Chandler E 136 

Preston, John 028 

vii 



BIOGKAPHIES. 



PAGE 

Bauise.v. Juhii 347 

Sawyer, Auroii F 3C 

Sawder, Aarun W 36 

Sawyer, Moat's 694 

Seconib, John 250a 

Shirley Kainily, The 327 

Simuua, Hiraui COi 

SimuDS, Lewis C92 

Smith, George L 608 

Smith, Isaac \V 27 

Smith, John B 429 

Smith, Luke C07 

Smyth, Frederick 67 

Spalding, Isaac 199 

Stanley, Cliutou W 22 

Stark, John 46 

Stevens, Aaron F 37 

Stevens, William 743 

Stimton, Charles 327 



PAGE 

Straw, Ezekiel A tjQ 

Sulloway, Cyrus A 32 

Swallow, Stillman 217 

Tarbell, Joel H 511 

Tuttle, Jacob 261 

Upton, Samuel 34 

Wallace, Alonzo S 294 

Wasou, Elbildge 605 

Webster, Kimliall 432 

W^ells, Charles 127 

Weston, James A 12I 

White, Jeremiah \V 205 

Whitford, Elliott 216 

Whiting, David 723 

Wilkins, Alexander M 550 

Woodbury, John 045 

Worcester, Joseph E 455 

Worcester, Samuel T 39 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Adanu, Pbinehas 124 

Av«rill, Clinlon 8 578 

Balch, Charles E 134 

Balch, Mark 300 

Baldwiu, Siuuuel 288 

Berr>', Augustus 647 

Blood, Arelos 75 

BraiUev, Uunis M 104 

Bruilfoni, Epbraim P 600 

BriMiks Iijuac 249 

Buck, Wlllliiiu D 10(i 

Burnliam, Alwl C 422 

Burns, Charles H 40 

Cani|ihi'll, Charles H 260 

Caiii|i)>fll, Daniel, Jr 2o0a 

Chaniberlain, .lamoB L ;V2G 

Chentj-, I'ersiin C 83 

Cliristie, Slorris 202 

Clai.p, Allen X 132 

Clark, Daniel 18 

Clarke, John It 55 

Clark, Lewis W 27 

Cloughr Lucicn B 32 

Crosby, Joslah 125 

Cn««, Daviil 31 

Crouible, Ninian C 609 

Cnniner, Nathaniel W 120 

Currier, Moody 66 

Culler, .lohu H 060 

Davis, Joseph 364 

Dearborn, Cornelius Van M 200 

Dearlj..rn, Samuel G 200 

Dodge, Perloy 35 

Doe, <ieo. I. Rraof. 704 

Dunlap, Archibald II 211 

Rlwards, Supply \V 576 

Ferguson, John 128 

Fil.li, Charles D 348 

Forwiilh, Samuel C 84 

Ko-ler, Herman 20 

French, John C 1:)3 

Fuller, John G 424 

Fulton, .hinies 390 

(;illK!i1, John 431 

Oilman, lloniru W 208 

Cllnian, Virgil C 210 

Godfrey, Itonben 214 

Go.»liih-, Levi 428 

G.H,dale. Tli.>maii N 429 

G.K)dell, David H 200 

Graves, JoslaliG 199 

Gray, H.N 726 

Gregg, James 389 

GritBn, liuorgc 490 

Grimes Francis 422 

GrinieH. .lames K 42.3 

Hall, Jiinie-* Harvey 296 



Ilaml.let, Kli. 



484 



lleald, Davl.l 580 

Hlldrelh, Jotlmui 512 



PAGE 

Holnmn, Charles 201 

Ilosley, John 136 

Howard, Ezra P 212 

Hutchinson, John W 582 

.lunes, Parker 427 

Kimball, Gilman 263 

Kingsbury, George 301 

Lincoln, Leavitt 030 

Liverniorc, Solomon K 574 

Lund, Charles 216 

Map *jf Hillsborough County 1 

Mayniird, John H 135 

Jlerrill, James B 483 

Moore, Joseph C 60 

Moore, Xornian J. M 202 

Murray, Orlando D 203 

Newell, Joseph 722 

Parker, John M 326 

Parker, William T. 549 

Parsons, William M 137 

Partridge, S. U 347 

Pattce, L. N 330 

Pevey, Peter 349 

Pevey, Zehedlah..... 344 

Pierce, »unklin 10 

I'otter, Chandler E 136 

Preston, John 61i8 

Ilamsoy, John 346 

Sawyer, .\arou W 36 

Sawyer, Moses 694 

Shirley, E. 328 

Simons, Himm 691 

Simons, Lewis 692 

Smith, George L 608 

Smith, Isaac W 28 

Smith, John B 430 

Smith, Luke 608 

.Smyth, Friilorick 68 

Spalding, Isaac 198 

l*t<inley, Clinton W 22 

Stark, John 46 

Stevens, Aaron F 38 

Stevens, William 743 

Sllnsiin, Charles 327 

Straw, Ezokiol A SO 

Snlloway, Cyrus A 33 

Swallow, Sllllman 217 

'I'arbell, .loel H 611 

Tuttle, .Jacob 261 

I'pton, .Samuel 34 

Wallace, Alon/.o S 249 

Wason, Elbridgo 605 

Webster, Kimball 482 

Wells, Charles 127 

Weston, James A 121 

White, Jeremiah W 2(M 

Whilfonl, ICIIIott 215 

Wblliiig, David 724 

Wllkins, AlexamlerM 650 

Woodbury, Job 648 

ix 



HISTORY 



OF 



HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



CHAPTER I. 

EAKLY IIISTOKY AND OKGANIZ ATK IN OF COURTS. 
BY GEORGE A. RAMSDELI, 

For many years previous to 1740 the boundary lines 
of the province of New llara|ishire were in dispute. 

Massachusetts claimed that the division boundary 
between that State and New Hampshire was defined 
by a line drawn from a point on the Atlantic coast 
three miles nortli of the mouth of the Merrimack 
River, and running on the northerly and easterly side 
of the river, and at a distance of three miles from it, to 
a point three miles beyond the parallel of the junction 
of the Winnipiseogce and the Pemigewasset; thence 
due west to the Connecticut. This covered all the 
territory included in the present limits of the county 
of Hillsborough, excepting the town of Pelliam and 
such portion of the town of Hudson as lies more than 
three miles from the Merrimack River. Ft also in- 
cluded the whole of Cheshire County and the larger 
part of the present limits of Merrimack and Sullivan 
Counties. 

New Hampshire claimed for her southern boundary 
a line produced due west from the same jioitit on the 
ocean. Hy this claim the towns of Pelham, Hudson, 
Litchfield, Nashua, Merrimack, Hollis, .Vniherst and 
other towns lying within some fourteen miles of 
latitude were conceded to be in Massachusetts. The 
aiicifint town of Dunstable, containing more than two 
hundr 'd sipiarc miles, and including all of the towns 
above named and portions of other towns within the 
present limits of New Hampshire, made a part of the 
county of Miildlesex, in Massachusetts, and had not 
bctbre 7W been regarded by any party as in part the 
territory of the province of New Hampshire. 

Previors to 1740 a board of commissioners, acting 
UMiler the royal authority, had established the eastern 
1 



boundary, but failing to agree upon the southern line 
the King himself terminated the controversy in favor 
of New Hampshire, fixing the present boundary and 
granting the State a much larger territory than had 
been claimed. The decision, though somewhat arbi- 
trary and not in accordance with the prayer of either 
party, was founded upon sound suggestions. By the 
letter of the grant to Massachusetts it would seem that 
her claim was good, but it was urged by the King's 
Council that when the AFassaehusetts grant was made 
the country was unexplored, and the course of the 
Merrimack was supposed to be substantially at right 
angles with the ocean its entire length, and that it 
would bo just and efpiitable between the parties to 
follow the river so far as its general course was from 
the west to the eiUit and no farther. 

This act of the King annexing so much territory, 
before that time under the government of Massachu- 
setts, to the province of New Hampshire was not 
satisfactory to the people of Massachusetts, or to the 
inhabitants of the lands so virtually annexed. It was 
very naturally urged by the people, who were thus 
made to attorn to New Hampshire, that it was unfair 
to sever them from a more powerful province against 
their remonstrance and annex them to a weaker at a 
time when it seemed there would be no enil of Indian 
wars and dei)redations An attempt was made to have 
the matter reheard, which failed, as well as a |)roposi- 
tion to re-annex the entire |>rovince to Massachusetts. 

Upon the settlement of a (piestion which had 
troul)lcd the province for half a century, the towns 
which had had a corporate existence under Massa- 
chusetts were rechartered by the province of New 
Hampshire, and new towns were formed from those 
jiortions of existing towns cut off from Massachusetts. 

The i)olitical history of New Hampshire to the 
middle of the eighteenth century is simply the history 
of the southeastern portion of the State, Portsmouth, 
Exeter and Dover being the towns of consequence at 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



that time. Previous to the year 1770 the entire State, 
for all finanrial and judicial purposes, was a single 
count. All business of a public nature was transacted 
at one of the three towus named, and most of it at 
Portsmouth. All the royal executive officers resided 
there. Portsmouth then had a population of more than 
four thousand, and was practically the capital of the 
province. 

As the province increased in jioimiation the peo))le 
demanded other and smaller ])olitical divisions, in 
which ordinary business could be transacted. 

In 1707, John Wentworth, the second of that name, 
was appointed Governor of New Hampshire, and one 
of the measures brought forward at the opening of 
his administration comprehended the division of the 
province into counties, and the erection of a judicial 
system to meet the wants of the entire State. It was 
opposed by the residents of what is now Rockingham 
County, on the ground that it would increase the ex- 
penses of the province without corresponding advan- 
tages. The Governor favored the measure as one likely 
to develop the province, an end to which he devoted 
his entire energies, iienetrating the wilderness so far 
as to lay out an estate and erect an elegant mansion 
at WoUTjorough, upon the Winnipiscogee. 

The matter was debated in several sessions of the 
Assembly before all points of difference could be rec- 
oncded. The number of counties, and lines of divi- 
sion were not easily agreed upon. It was finally 
settled that the province should be divided into five 
counties, with an ample judiciary system. The act was 
finally passed, suspending its operation until such 
time as the King's pleasure should be known. The 
act took effect in the spring of 1771. 

(Jovcrnor Wentworth named the counties (after his 
friends in England) Rockingham, Strallord, Hills- 
borough, Cheshire and Grafton. It may be remarked 
that by the efforts of parties opposed to any division, 
the counties of Strafford and Grafton, by an amend- 
ment to the act, remained connected to the county of 
Rockingham until 1773. Sullivan has since been 
taken ofl' Cheshire, Coos from Grafton, Merrimack 
from Rockingham and Hillsborough, Carroll and 
Belknap from Strafford, 

Hillsborough County upon its organization in- 
cluded all the territory of the present county, except- 
ing the town of Pelham, which for a time formed part 
of Rockingham County, It also included all of the 
present county of Merrimack west of the Merrimack 
Eiver, excepting the town of Bow, the city of Concord 
and portions of other towns whose lines have been 
changed within a few years. The territory thus set 
off for the county of Hillsborough was not all incor- 
porated into towns. Some of it was not even settled, 
and some lands then settled remained unincorpor.ated 
for several years. The population of the county at 
the time of its organization was not far fnmi fifteen 
thousand. There were eighteen incorporated towns 
within the i)resent limits of the county, ranking as 



follows in j)oint of population and valuation : Am- 
herst, Hollis, New Ipswich, Dunstable, Merrimack, 
Nottingham West (now Hudson), Peterborough, 
Litciifield, Bedford, Goffstown, Derryfield (now Man- 
chester), Wilton, New Boston, Ma.son, Wcare, Lynde- 
borough. Temple and Hillsborough. More than half 
the population of the county at this time resided in 
the six towns Amherst, Hollis, New Ipswich, Dun- 
stable, Merrimack and Nottingham West. 

New Hampshire was settled by immigration coming 
in through four different channels, the Portsmouth 
.md Piscataqua colonies, the Londonderry colony, 
the settlers coming into the State by way of Dunstable, 
and the line of immigration coming up the valley of 
the Connecticut Eiver. The county of Hillsborough 
was peopled from the second and third of these sources) 
and very largely from the Londonderry settlement. 

No sooner was the demand for the division of the 
State into counties in a fair way to be answered affir- 
matively than the question of the selection of the shire- 
town began to be agitated. Three towns were named 
in this connection, — Amherst, Hollis and Merrimack. 
The attention of the Governor of the province was 
called to this matter as early as October, 1767, by the 
Rev. Daniel Wilkins, the first minister of the town of 
Amherst, in the following letter : 

"i/oii. and hear Sir: 

'* After duo tsuhitfitioiis I beg leave to iilform your Hon' lliat the pro- 
posal of the geucVal Court, that Merriiiuick be the sbire-towu of the 
county ou the west side of Ulerriinack river, has caused a general un- 
easiness throughout the county, and many thinking men in i^lerriniack 
itself (as I have been credibly iuforiued) are well satisfied that if the pro- 
posal be established, it will bo greatly to the town damage in general, as 
they are small in numbers, consisting of seventy odd families, no more, 
and tliose much scattered, and many of that number are new places and 
no ways accommodated to entertain a Court, especially with hay and paa- 
turago ; neither do they ever expect to be accommodated witliin the pre- 
mises, as a great part of their land is poor and ch»thed with shrub. The 
uneasiness of the people arisen from the said proposal not being for Am- 
herst rather than Merrimack, not only as.\mhen(t has been talked aa for 
a shii-e-town ever from it» infancy, thereby fixing the mind of the 
people upon it, being from its situation nearer to the Heart of the county, 
80 that many towns can come from homo in the morning and return 
home in the evening. They could not possibly do the like if the Court 
beat ]VIerrimack, and thereby save a great deal of charge to poor people. 

"And now, honored sir, I beg leave to give a ilescription of .\ndierBt 
in a few words : ' Tt is situated about eight miles from Mr. Lnlwickes' 
Ferry, on Merrimack river, the contents of wliicli is about six miles 
square, containing about one hundred and sixty families and accommo- 
dated, acconling to men of the bust judgment, to settle one hundred fami- 
lies more than is already settled, and near a hundred of them are good 
country farms, well accommo<1ated with fields and pastures, and chictly 
all good Husbands.' 

"The middle of the town is pleasantly situated, a good coach road 
from tlie eastern and southern imrts of the province, and all roads center 
there. The peo)de in general, knowing the situation and accommodations 
of .-VinberBt to entertain the Court, suppose that the General Court's 
proposal for Merrimack springs from a misrepresentation. The occa- 
sion of these lines to your Hon' wafi the cries of the people, and I beg 
leave to subscribe your humble servant. 

" Amheral, Oct. yo 1, 17C7. 

" To thr. Hon. Gtorge J^ftey, E»q., in Portsmouth" 

The arguments of this divine, reinforced by other 
expressions of the voice of the people of the county, 
prevailed, and Amherst was made the shire-town. It 



'DaNIP.I. Wir.KINS. 



EARLY HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION OF COURTS. 



was a just decision, it being the most populous town, 
and located near what was then the centre of popula- 
tion anil near the present geographical centre of the 
county. Amherst then had as large a population as 
to-day, but it must be remembered that its territorial 
limits have been contracted, the towns of Milford and 
.Mount Vernon having been taken from it. For a long 
lime it was a place of business and social consequence; 
many people of culture and distinction have there re- 
sided. X lack of water-power and railroad facilities 
luive co.st the town the prominence it once had, and it 
has receded from the first to the ninth place in rank 
among tlie towns of the county in the matter of popu- 
lation and valuation. It was sole shire-town for the 
present county limits until 1846, when a term of court 
was estal)lishid at Manchester, and another term at 
Xivshua in 1807. In ISlJoajail was legally established 
at Manchester, and the old stone building at Amherst 
was discontinued. In 1866 the records, for so long a 
time at .Vmherst, by vote of the county, were removed 
to Nashua, where they are now kci)t in substantial 
liuildings and vaults. In 1879 the only term of court 
then held at .Vndierst was abolished, and the town, 
after an honorable record of one hundred and eight 
years, ceased, in the language of Parson Wilkins, to 
entertaia the courts. 

It is not generally knf>wn that a town of consider- 
able importance, called Monson, had a chartered 
existence in this county previous to the year 1770, 
tt lay upon the south of the Souhegan River and 
measured upon the river about six miles, extending 
from a little above Jones' Corner, in Milford, to a point 
a little below Danforth's Corner, in Amherst. The 
breadth of the town from the river south was some- 
thing more than four miles. The inhabitants of this 
town made several attempts to be annexed to Am- 
herst. The principal reason given in their petition 
to the Assemlily was the lack of any central place in 
the town suitable for a meeting-house, .\inherst at 
tirst opposed the annexation, but afterwards voted to 
take a part of the town if Monson would be at the 
expense of the annexation. .Vccordingly, an act was 
passed annexing to Amherst that part of Monson in- 
cduded in these limits: "From Souhegan River, 
southerly by the town of Merrimack, two miles; from 
llien<o west to the west line of Monson ; from thence 
northerly to the river, and from this point down 
the river to the first jjlace mentioned." The 
remainder of the town was annexed to Hollis. 
Thus was dismembered a town of the best natural 
facilities for no better rea-sou than that thegeographical 
centre was not smooth and level enough for a meeting- 
house common. Amherst held these rich Jlonson 
intervales until 17".H, when, on the incorporation of 
Milford, shesurrendcred them, with other choice lands 
upon the north side of the rivar, giving up in 1794 
more than she had received in 1770. 

The act of the .\ssembly by which tlie cniinties were 
organized was entitled '' .\i\ .Vet for clividing the 



Province into Counties and lor tlie more ea.sy admin- 
istration of Justice." 

It provided for the erection of three courts of justice 
and for necessary county buildings. 

The courts were named, — First, the Superior Court 
of Judicature, which was to be the supreme tribunal 
of the province; this court existed until 181.3, when 
the Federalists, having the political power in the State, 
abolishedit forthepurijose of getlingrid of politically 
obnoxious judges and erected the Superior Judicial 
Court, which, in turn, was overturned in 1S16 by the 
Democratic Republicans, aud the Superior Court of 
Judicature re-erected. The last-named court con- 
tiniied to be the court of last resort until the year 
185.5, when the American or Know-Nothing jiarty, com- 
ing into power, abolished it and re-established the 
Su)>reme Judicial Court, which, in turn, in 1874, was 
abolished and the Superior Court of Judicature estab- 
lished. This court existed until 1876, when it was 
succeeded by the Supreme Court, now in existence. 

In 1813 it was claimed that the Legislature could 
not, l)y changing the name and, in some minor partic- 
ulars, the functions of a court, get rid of its judges in a 
summary manner ; that the only way was by address for 
cause shown or by impeachment. But however much 
politicians and jurists may differ as to the soundness 
of the ])olicy of such radical legislation, it seems now 
to be well settled that this method of procedure has 
been and is constitutional, else the first court erected 
under any fundamental law could never be changed, 
though time and experience should show it to have 
grave defects. 

The chief justices of the Supreme Court of the State, 
under its various names, have been as follows : Before 
the Revolution, Theodore Atkinson and Mesheck 
AVeare ; since the Revolution, Mesheck Weare, 
Samuel Livermore, Josiah Bartlett, John Pickering, 
John Dudley, Simeon Olcott, Jeremiah Smith, Arthur 
Livermore, William M. Richardson, Joel Parker, 
John J. Gilchrist, .\ndrew S. Woods, Ira Pcrley, 
Samuel D. Bell, Henry A. Bellows, Jonathan E. Sar- 
gent, Edmund L. Cushing and Charles Doe. But two 
of these distinguished men were born in Hillsborough 
County, — Jeremiah Smith, at Peterborough, and 
Samuel D. Bell, at Francestown. 

But one judge has been removed by address of the 
Legislature (an<l in this case nothing worse was 
charged than inability to discharge the duties of the 
office by reason of old age), and no judge of our State 
courts has been impeached; a judge of the United 
States District Court for the district of New Hamp 
shire was charged with drunkenness and conduct 
unbecoming a judge, ami was tried by the Senate of 
the I'liited States; he admitted his irregularities, but 
defended upon the ground that he was not intoxicated 

as ajustice, but as j)lain Mr. ; theSenate, however, 

were of opinion that when Mr. was intoxicated 

the court was drunk, and he was removed from oflice. 

The next court in order of jurisdiction was the 



HISTOKY OF HlLLSBOflOUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Inferior Court of Common Pleas. While tlie Superior 
Court of Judicature hadcoj,'uizanoe of all (luestioiis of 
law and divorce, and ultimately was clothed with 
equity powers, the Inferior Court of Common Pleas 
was the tribunal in which all ordinary controversies 
were settled; this court, established in 1771, continued 
under the name of the Inferior Court of Common 
Pleas and the Court of Common Pleas (excepting that 
it was discontinued from 1820 to 1825) until 1859, 
when it was abolished and all the business of the 
court transferred to the Supreme Judicial Court. In 
1874 it was revived and continued to exist until 1876 
when its business was transferred to the Supreme Court' 

The third and last court i)rovided for by the bill to 
organize the counties was entitled the Court of Gene- 
ral Sessions of the Peace ; this court had for judges or 
justices all the justices of the peace in commission for 
the county of Hillsborough ; it had a limited juris- 
diction in criminal complaints, and was attended by 
a grand and petit jury ; it had also the entire control 
of all financial art'airs of the county ; the number of 
justices attending the earlier terms of this court rarely 
exceeded ten ; some later terms were attended by forty 
or more justices, depending upon the number in com- 
mission from time to time ; the law did not require 
the justice to reside in the county for which he was 
commissioned, and some of the most distinguished 
men of the State, residing in other counties, were 
commissioned for this county and had the right to sit 
in this court. 

This court continued as at first organized until 1794 
it was a cumbersome piece of judicial machinery; it 
was a matter of choice with the justices how nniuy 
should sit at any particular terra, and it was claimed 
by Samuel Dana, in the Legislature of the State, at 
the time the court was abolished, that parties having 
causes to be heard at any particular term were accus- 
tomed to stir up the justices and obtain the personal 
attendance of their friends at court. 

In 1794 the functionsof this court were incorporated 
into the Court of Common Pleas, some of the judges 
of the last court (side judges, as they were called) 
attending to financial matters, and special committees 
appointed for that i)urposc laying out highways. The 
sessions docket, which we now have as a branch of the 
business of our general term in the Supreme Court, 
but formerly in the Common Pleas, is the remnant of 
this Court of General Sessions of the Peace. 

In 1855 a board of county commissioners was insti- 
tuted to act in conjunction with the court in adminis- 
tering the financial all'airs of the county and in laying 
out highways. With the addition of this auxiliary 
tribunal, the services of side judges, men generally of 
sound practical sense, but of no legal learning, were 
dispensed with. It is generally supposed that these 
judges were but ornamental appendages to the learned 
judge who actively presided in the court; but, in addi- 
tion to the discharge of the duties now substantially 
performed by the county commissioners, they often 



aided the court by their sterling common sense in 
matters requiring not legal learning merely, but an 
acquaintance with men and the ordinary concerns of 
life, which is not always possessed by learned law- 
yers. 

There were but three lawyers resident in the county 
before the Revolution, — Atherton, at Amherst ;Champ- 
ney, at New Ipswich ; and Claggelt, at Litchfield, — 
but prominent attorneys from other parts of the State 
attended all the sessions of the court. 

It would be useful, and perhaps not uninteresting, 
to examine into the condition of the statute and com- 
mon law at the time of the organization of the county. 
The limit of this paper will not permit anything like 
an exhaustive enumeration of the laws then in force, 
and allusion only will be made to some most at 
variance with the present code. 

In 1771, Lord Mansfield was chief justice of the 
Court of King's Bench in England, and for nearly 
half a century had devoted his entire energies to per- 
fecting the common law of that realm; neither before 
nor since has any one man done so much towards 
making secure the reciprocal rights of the govern- 
ment and the governed, judged by the standard of the 
civilization of that day. The common law of Eng- 
land was l)rought over and became a part of the law 
of the colonies by the settlers of this continent ; vari- 
ous modifications were made in the statutes to conform 
to the necessities of a new country, but in the main 
the inhabitants of the State were amenable to the 
same legal conditions as the inhabitants of England 
one hundred and fourteen years ago. There were 
eight capital crimes in the province at that time, now 
but one ; severe penalties were meted out for small 
offenses; matters which are now left to the tribunal of 
the individual conscience were then made subjects of 
statute law, the violations of which were punishable 
in courts; the whipping-post, the pillory and the 
stocks were recognized as suitable api)liances to have 
a place in the machinery of a Christian government, 
and all existed in connection with the jail and court- 
house until the commencement of the present century. 
In punishment of crime, distinctions were made 
founded upon the color or condition of the party to 
suffer the penalty. 

IJenefit of clergy, or the exemption of the clergy 
from penalties imposed by the law for certain crimes 
was in existence in England and not abolished 
until the reign of George IV. The history of this 
exemption is long, and was thoroughly woven into 
the texture of English criminal law ; its practical 
working was to exempt the clergy from the punish- 
ment affixed to most crimes ; it was no inconvenient 
thing to be able to plead benefit of clergy, and at one 
time not only those regularly in orders, but all retainers 
ofthe church and someothers claimed the i)rivilcgc. To 
make certain who were entitled to this pleH, before the 
time of Henry VII. a statute was passed extending 
the exemption to only such as could read. 



EARLY HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION OF COURTS. 



A single instance is found where this plea was 
made in this county in colonial times. Israel Wil- 
kin.s, of HoUis, w:ts indicted at the September term, 
1773, of the Supreme Court, for the murder of his 
father; he was found guilty of manslaughter; he then 
prayed the benefit of clergy, which was granted; the 
court branded the brawny part of his thumb with the 
letter T, confiscated his personal estate and let him 

go- 

A creditor, until the passage of the revised statutes 
in 1842, upon any debt, could seize his debtor, and, in 
default of payment, throw the victim into prison and 
keep him there until he had paid the la.st farthing. 

One of the chief justices of the Court of King's 
Bench was imjirisoned early in life for debt, and dur- 
ing his confinement of five years entered upon and 
completed his legal studies and became one of the 
best of English pleaders. 

Defendants held for this purpose at first were con- 
fined as closely as prisoners awaiting trial or serving 
out a sentence, but as tlie minds of men became lib- 
eralized they were allowed some privileges not com- 
mon to the average criminal. .Jail limits were estab- 
lished in time, and the del)tor allowed the privilege 
of going a certain number of rods from the jail. 
Within the present century men have been confined 
at Amherst for debt, one, two, three and even four 
years, and in several instances carried on extensive 
mercantile business while i>risoners at the suits of 
creditors. 

A lawyer by the name of Shattuck, held for debt, 
established his family within the jail limits, built a 
house and practiced law with considerable success for 
several years. 

The law is now so lenient that it has become 
difficult U) collect lion&st debts. It is not an 
uncommon thing to find the wife owning the home- 
stead — and a jjretty large one sometimes — and the hus- 
band owing all the debts. 

The organization of tlie Court of (ieneral Sessions 
of the Peace was first perfected and was really the act 
by whidi the county was organized. 

Its first book of records contains twenty pages, six 
indies l)y nine, and covered with common brown 
paper. 

The first entry is iis follows : 

"TItK I'ROVISCK Of NKW II AM I'SII 1 RR." 

" At a Court of General S(!80tuii8 of thi- Pence, l)ol<l for t)io purpoflo of 
preparing a [trltton, ralpiinK money, et>'., pnrHuant to an uet of said proT< 
ince, entitled an art for divliiliif; tlie wiine intoConntiCH and for the more 
easy ailniinistnition of .TuHtice, hold in the ptlhlic meeting-house in Am- 
hentt, within anil fur the ronnty of Ilillitliorongli, in said provlnce,'on the 
sixth day of May, in Ilie idi'Veiitli year of his MujeHty'n reign. A.n. 1771, 
held by adjonriinu-nt frum tile lirst Tliniudny afl'-i- tlit- lirst TiK-sday of 
April last. 



Pri'dent,- 



*' John Oofi'k, 

** K. <J. LKOrWYCHE, 

"John IIai.k, 
** John Siiki'Iiktip, Jn., 
*' Samibi. Hohabt, 
" Samiki, ltl.oi>oi:T. 



fJiK/r'n, 



".\ppointed .lohn Shepherd, Jr., Clerk, ;>ro l^tiijtore. Then adjourned 
to the liouw of Jonathan Smith, lau-holder in said Amlienit. Instantly 
met at th<> house of said Smith. 

" .\ppointed Samuel llobart, John Sliepherd, Jr., and neiijamin Wliit- 
ing, I-^i'r, a committee to cause said pri(*on to be built. 

" .Vjiiioiiited Sanil. Hobart, Esq., Treasurer. 

*' OrtUred, That the committee aforesaid provide a suitable house in 
said .Xiuhorst and make it tit to keep 'i>nsouers in uutil a prison can be 
built." 

In accordance with this vote, temporary accommo- 
dations were provided. 

John Gofi'e, whose name is at the head of the jus- 
tices of this court and who seems to have taken the 
lead in the organization of the county, was one of the 
early settlers atGotle's Falls, on the Merrimack River, 
living at dillcrent times on both sides of the stream. 
He conniianded the regiment raised in this vicinity in 
1760, and was present at the capture of St. John's, 
Montreal and Quebec. His regiment mustered at 
Litchfield, and on the 2oth of May he issued the fol- 
lowing uniipie order: 

**(_'olonel CiulTe requires the oflicers to V»e answerable that the men's 
shirts are changed twice every week at least ; that such .is have hair that 
will atlmit of it, must have it constantly lyod ; they must bo obliged to 
coinli llioir heads and wash their hands every morning ; and as it is ob- 
served that uumbei-8 of men accustom themselves to wear woolen night- 
caps in the day-time, he allows them hats ; they arc ordered for tho fu- 
ture not to be seen in the day-time with anything besides their hats on 
their hi-ada, as the above-mentioned cust<^m of wearing night-caps must 
be detrimental to their health and cleanliuw". The men's hats to be all 
cocked or uniform, as Colonel GoUe pleases to direct." 

Colonel Goffe marched his regiment across the ferry 
at Thornton's, (then I>utwyche's) Ferry, and thence up 
the Souhegan River to Amherst ; thence to the ford- 
way at Monsou (now Milford village) ; thence on the 
south side of the river for the larger jiart of the way 
to Wilton, and thence to Peterborough by way of the 
notch in the mountains to the ea.st of Peterborough ; 
thence by way of Dublin to Keene; thence up the 
valley of the Connecticut to Charleston. From Ilonton 
to Keene hia rtmte lay mostly through a wilderness, 
and this distance the regiment cut a road for the 
tran>i|)ortati<in of their baggage and provisions. 

Amherst and Peterliorongh were incorporated the 
year of Colonel Gofie's march through the county ; 
but there was no sutticieiit highway from Peterbor- 
ough to Amherst, the principal route of travel from 
Peterborough to the sea-coast being through the 
towns of Ma.son, and Townsend in JIassachusetts. 
Wilton was not incorporated until two years later, 
and .Milford not until the year 17!>4. 

Colonel Goffe, though a man of war, was a thor- 
oughly religious man. He often otiiciated as chaplain 
in his regiment, and after his military career was 
endetl.and he was a resident of Bedford, he someliincs 
officiated in the pulpit in the absence of the clergy- 
man of the town. He was the first judge of Proliate 
for this county, and may justly be ranked with the 
prominent men of ante-Ilevolutiouary times. 

Edward Goldstone Lutwyche, whose name appears 
as the second justice upon the roll, was an English 
g.'ntleiiiiui not long in the country, at this time resid- 



G 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW IIAMPSIIIUfc:. 



ing at Thornton's Ferry, then called, from the name of 
its owner, Lutwyche Ferry. He was colonel of the 
regiment at tlie breakinu; out of the War of the Revo- 
lution, but on the Declaration of Independence joined 
the English and left the country. His name appears 
among tlie twenty -four whose estate* were confiscated 
at the close of the war. 

Captain John Hale, another of the justices, was a 
prominent citizen of HoUis. He held a military 
commission ami represented his town in the General 
Court in 1775; wa.s a successful physician, having 
practiced his profession many years in Hollis ; was 
surgeon in the army during the French and Indian 
and also the Revolutionary War. After serving his 
generation in two wais and in many years of peice, 
he died in the summer of 1791. 

Samuel Hobart, a colleague of Hale, was a resident 
of Hollis; was register of deeds for this county I'rom 
its organization to 177(), and its first treasurer. He 
frequently served the courts in the capacity of auditor 
and upon financial committees, and was the most 
practical business member of the court. While regis- 
ter of deeds he resided in Hollis, and during a por- 
tion of the time kept the registry at that place. 
He was also a member of the New Hampshire Com- 
mittee of Safety. 

Samuel Blodgett, another justice, was a resident 
of what is now Manchester, at that time Gofi'stown ; 
was for many years at work upon a plan to put a 
canal around Amoskeag Falls. Having spent his 
own large fortune in the enterprise and failed, he 
subsequently obtained autliority from the State to 
raise large sums of money by lottery to aid in the 
building of his locks and canal, and afterwards 
authority for a second lottery was granted, the pro- 
ceeds of which were to go towards the same object. 
Massachusetts afterwards gave him the same privilege 
and repeated the grant in 180G. After a i>rolonged 
struggle bis enterprise was completed, and he had 
the satisfaction of seeing his work an acknowledged 
success. He was an active and useful member of 
this court, and a most striking example of untiring 
perseveranic. 

John Shepherd, Jr., was a resident of Amherst at 
this time. In addition to many places of trust which 
he worthily filled, he is found in the year 1766 pre- 
siding at a town-meeting in Derryfield (now Manches- 
ter). It happened on this wise: a small niin<irity of 
the legal voters had irregularly called a town-meeting 
and chosen a full complement of officers for the year 
in the ab.sencc of a large majority of the voters. The 
Governor and General Assembly, on petition, annulled 
the proceedings of this meeting, and ordered a new 
election, and by special act autliori/.ed John Shep- 
herd, Jr., of Amherst, to call a n)ccling of the lega' 
voters of Derryfiebl, and to preside in the meeting 
until a full list of town officers was chosen. 

Reuben Kidder, another justice of this court, was 

distinguished citizen of tlic town ,,r X^w Ipswich, 



a large farmer and one of the most influential men of 
his neighborhood. He was the only justice in his 
town beforethe Revolution, having settled near the hill 
or mountain in New Ipswich which bears his name. 
He maintained a style of living superior to most of 
his neighbors; having lield two offices under the 
King, the War of the Revolution found liim a mod- 
erate Tory; but the respectability of his character and 
the rectitude of his intentions saved him fnmi arrest 
and imprisonment. 

JIatthew Thornton was a justice of this court five 
years before ho signed the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence and before he became a resident of the county, 
(the law then not requiring a justice to reside in 
the county for which he was commissioned). In 
1780 he came to Merrimack ; was a physician in 
good standing, and visited professionally most of the 
towns in the county. In addition to the many promi- 
nent positions he occupied in the province and State, 
he was at one time chief justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas, and afterwards one of the judges of 
the Superior Court of Judicature. He died in the 
year 1803, at the age of eighty-eight, having written 
political essays for the press after he had completed 
his fourscore years. 

William Clark, of New Boston, engaged as sur- 
veyor of land, and the only nian in town commis- 
sioned as justice of the peace by royal authority, 
was a member of this court. His sympathies at first 
were not with the jiatriots, but after the Revolution 
he served his constituents in every position within 
their gift. 

Moses Nichols, one of the justices, was a native of , 
Reading, Mass. He was a physician by pro- I 
fession, and jiracticed many years at Amhei'st ; 
was appointed colonel of the Si.Kth Regiment in 
December, 1771); was at Bennington under Starke. 
He was register of deeds for this county from 1776 
until his death. I 

Wiseman Claggett, one of the justices, had been ' 
the King's solicitor-general, and left the office on ac- 
count of dissatisfaction witli the home government. 
He came to Litchfiehl to reside in December, 1771; 
was an efficient prosecuting officer, attaching great 
consequence to his position ; was active in the Revo- 
lution, ranking among the foremost in zeal for the 
success of the colonists. He was made attorney-gene- 
ral of the State in 1776, and held the position until 
1783. 

Joshua .Vtherton, of Amherst, Mathcw Patten, of 
Bedford, James Underwood, of Litchfield, Robert 
Fletcher, of Dunstable, Noah Worcester, of Hollis, 
Francis Blood, of Temjjle, Zacheas Cutler, of New 
Boston, and other prominent citizens of the county 
were from time to time justices of this court. 

The course of business must have been ditferent 
from the order pursued in most judicial tribunals, 
lor among the rules promulgated tor the government 
of the court were the following : 



EARLY HISTOIIV AND ORGANIZATION OF COURTS. 



"I. No iwnMili sliiiU BiH'«k w'it)iitiu fitvt tiiiviii-; ubtitiiifd U'livc fiMin 
the iirf«iil<*ut. 

"II. Tliat all spvecbes inteiuleil for thi- court be a<ltlre»^;(l to tliu 
president. 

**III. That every member speaking to the president shall do it stand- 
ing. 

'* IV. That no member speak twice upon any motion until every mem- 
ber has liati un opportunity of speaking once." 

At tlie October term, 1771, the first ltiiiuI jury ever 
empaneled in the eouritv \Vii.< ealkHl. General John 
Stiirk was one of tlic jury. One indietmont made up 
the sum total of the findings of the grand jury. The 
unfortunate individual by them presented answered 
to the name of .Jonas Stepleton. He wa.-i brought 
to the bar, and being arraigned, pleaded guilty :iii,l 
threw himself upon the mercy of the court. The 
mercy of the court was dealt out as follows : 

** It is onleixHl that tlio lijtid .Stepleton Ite wliipi>ed twenty stripes on the 
naked back at the public whipping-post, between the hours of one and 
two of the afternoon of this :id day of October, and that he pay Nalnun 
Baldwin, the owner of the goodsstolen, forty-four [Kjunds lawful money, 
beint; tenfold the value of the goo<ls stolen (the goods stolen being re" 
turnt-tl) anil that in default of the payment of said tenfold damages and 
costs of prosecution, the sjtid Xahnm U;tMwin be authorized to dispo^' of 
the i^aid Jonas inser^-itudo to any of His Ma^jesties' subje<-ts for the space 
of seven years, to commence from this day.'' 

In the Superior Court, a little later, one Keef was 
convicted of arson, and received the following sen- 
tence : 

" It is therefore considered by the Court that the sjiid Michael Keef 
is guilty, an«l it is ord'-red and ut\judged that he sit one hour on the gal- 
lows with a rojH' round his neck nn<l be whipped thirl.v stripes on liis 
naked back, on Thursday, the tentli day of June next, between the hours 
of ten jind twelve oVIock in the forenoon ; that ho be imprisoned .'^ix 
months from the said tenth day of .luite, and give bonds for his good be- 
haviour in the sum of one hiindretl l>ounds, with two sureties in the sunt 
of fifty jsiundH each, for the space of two yeai"s from the c-xpiration of 
said six months, and pay the costs of prosecution, taxed at nine pounds, 
■even shillings and ten pence, and sliind conunittr'd till nentence be per 
formed." 

Benjamin Whiting, one of the committee api>ointed 
to look out the place for a jail, was a resident of JIol- 
lis, and sheriff of the county at the time of its organi- 
zation. He adhered to the King, (piitted the country 
on the breaking out of hostilities, was proscribed ami 
forbidden to return and his estate was confiscated. 
He was a zealous oliicer of the King, as will apjiear 
by an account of some of his oflicial doings, and was 
a representative man among the Tories of his time. 

Most of them were men appointed to office by the 
royal authority, and of course were in .sympathy wilh 
the general purposes tind objects of the government. 
In a word, like all honcft ollice-lioldcrs, they believetl 
in the administration, and had taken an oath to .sup- 
port the laws of their country. May it not be said 
that the Tories of the Revolution, with few exceptions, 
were right-miiiilcd men, fearful of change and consti- 
tutionally opposeti to innovations? It seemed to 
them like desertion of a paternal government to 
make common cause with those who stood to them as 
rel)cls ; they also doiibteil the ability of the colonists 
to achieve their independence, and were unwilling to 
put in jeopardy their forttines in so hazardous nn un- 



dertaking. The lapse of a century leaves them in a 
somewhat improved condition so far as the morality 
of their action is concerned. 

Sherifl' Whiting had many obnoxious laws to 
execute, among others the statute giving every white 
pine tree from fifteen to thirty-six inches in diameter 
to the King, for the use of his royal navy ; every man 
in the province held his land subject to this incum- 
brance, and severe penalties were inflicted upon indi- 
viduaLs who might use a stick of white pine within 
the proscribed diameter. 

There was a surveyor of the King's woods, with 
many dejiuties, who were naturally obnoxious to the 
people. The owner of land, before he commenced 
cutting, was by law compelled to employ the surveyor 
or deputy to mark the trees upon the premises fit for 
masts for the navy, and neglecting to do this, or t)cing 
too poor to pay the surveyor his fees, the whole was 
forfeited to the King. 

Seizures and forfeitures were common wherever the 
pine-tree grew and mills had been erected. The 
greatest hostility prevailed again.st the officers execut- 
ing the law, and soon extended to the government. 
The execution of this law in the interior of the prov- 
ince was with the inhabitants of this county nn ex- 
citing cause of the Revolution. 

In the winter of 1771 and 1772 an extensive seizure 
was made in the northern portion of the county. 
Although the pine is found in most towns in the 
southern i)art of the State, it was more aluindant uj>on 
the Piscatatjuog River than in other places in this 
vicinity The great road from Manchester to East 
Weare, known even now as the Mast road, was origi- 
nally built to facilitate the transportation of masts 
from (ioflstown, Weare, New Boston, Dunbarton and 
other towns to the Merrimack, to be floateil down 
that stream to the ocean at Newl)uryport. 

A deputy visited this locality in 1771 and 1772 and 
condemned a large amount of lumber in the mill- 
yards on the Piscataquog. They were libeled in the 
.Vdmiralty Court at Portsmouth, and the owners cited 
to appear ami show cause why they should not be 
forfeited. The citation was publisheil in the Nevj 
IJampshire Gazette of February 7, 1772, and called 
U|)on all i)ersons claiming property in certain enu- 
merated white pine logs seized by order of the sur- 
veyor-general in Gofl'stown and Weare, in the prov- 
ince of New Hampshire, to appear at a Ctmrt of Vice- 
Ailmiralty to be held at Porlsnioiith, February 27, 
1772, and show cause why the logs should not be 
forfeited. The |)artics interested in the lumber seiz- 
ure sent .Smiiuel Blodgett, before s|)oken of as one of 
the justices of the Court of Sessions, to Portsmouth 
to effect a compromise. He made an iiriangement by 
which the inlorniations were to be wilbdrawn upon 
the payment of certain sums of money in each case. 
Blodgettwiis appointed agent to make this settleincnt, 
and was also made a dejiuty by the surveyor-general. 

Bhulgctt, upon bis return, sent the offenders a note 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



saying that at the request of many of their number 
be had niaJe a journey to Portsmoutli and obtained 
leave to settle the complaints in a manner easy to the 
trespassers, informing them he was appointed a dep- ' 
uty of the surveyor, and calling ui)on them to settle 
with the King. 

A settlement was efl'eeted with all the owuera of 
logs excepting those at Clement's Mills, in Weare; 
they would make no comi)roniise. Accordingly, com- 
plaint.-! were made out against them and put into the 
hands of Rcnjarain Whiting, of Mollis, the sheriff of 
the county, for service. 

On the 13th of April, 1772, Mr. Whiting and his 
deputy, Mr. Quigley, proceeded to serve their warrants. 
One of the defendants was a Mr. Mudget, residing in 
Weare. Whiting arrested Mudget, who agreed to give 
bail nc.Kt morning. Mudget, in.steadofgetting bail in the 
usual way, collected a company of his friends during 
the night, and very early in the morning called ujjon 
the sheritt'and told him his bail was ready. Mudget 's 
friends were disguised. The officer had not dressed 
himself for the day when they rushed upon him in 
his bed-chamber. He attempted to fire upon them, 
but was seized, disarmed and severely beaten. 

A more desperate encounter preceded the capture 
of (Juigley. The horses of both were disfigured by 
the cropping of their ears, manes and tails. For a 
time the officers retiised to mount these sorry-looking 
animals, and were helped into their saddles in no 
ceremonious way. 

Whiting and Quigley repaired at once to Colonels 
Gotfe and Lutwyce, who at their request ordered out 
the pnsse comilatm, aiul the force thus raised 
maiched back to Clement's Mills. The rioters had 
taken to the woods and not a man of them could be 
found. One was afterwards arrested and lodged in 
jail; others gave bail for their appearcnce at court. 
Mudget and seven others, all citizens of Weare, were 
indicted, pleaded 7iolo confindere, and were fined by 
the court for this assault on Whiting. It was an un- 
justifiable resistance to an officer in the discharge of 
his duty, and although the action of the government 
wa.s ()i)pre.ssive, it was not the proper way in which to 
inaugurate a revolution. 

From this tinu- forth the county was in a state of 
continual political excitement until the oj)ening of 
the Revolutionary War. The last court record, made 
upon a half-sheet of crown foolscap, is as follows: 

" Amio Kc'giii IlcRi^ Gt-orgii Tertii. 
*'Jiily sottsion, 177'>. JusticvH prt'^iit, Jotiii 8lK'])an], Jr., Muactf 

**Grui)<l .Titronncn prosi-nt, William IlnidfunI, Samuel Ituliey, Willjiim 
McQiiUllii. 

" At his Miuc^ty'li Court of Qenoral Sewioiii* of tbo Peace, hold at Am- 
lientl, in »iid fur the cminty of Ilitlfltjorougti and Province of New 
IIainii**iiire, on the tirst Tlmi-wliiy next following the Hrat Tnesilay in 
July, 177'>, sail! Court electi'd Most'f* NichnU, Ksq., Clerk pro tem, and 
ai^ourui-d :*aiti t^^ourt of Gonerul Setwions of the Peace to the first Thurs- 
day next following the first Tuesday of October next. 

"3IosE»t Nlellol'S, Cltn-k pro Um." 



Only two justices present, — one presides, the other 

is c\cTk pro tempore. The court is adjourned to meet 
upon a certain day in his Majesty's name, but the 
coming of that day found the patriotic justices with 
business to their hands more congenial than holding 
court in the name of George III. 



CHAPTER II. 



THE BENCH AKI) B.\R. 



I'liioR to the War of the Revolution there were 
but three members of the legal profession residing 
within the present limits of Hillsborough County. 
These were Hon. Wiseman Claggett, of Litchfield ; 
Hon. Ebenezer Champney, of New Ipswich; and 
Hon. Joshua Atherton, of Amherst. 

Hon. Wiseman Claggett was born at Bristol, 
England, in the month of August, 1721, and received 
an early and liberal education in that country. Hav- 
ing finished his academical studies, he became a stu- 
dent at the Inns of Court, (|ualifieil himself for the 
profession of the law, and after going through a regu- 
lar course of preparatory studies, was admitted ti bar- 
rister in the Court of King's Bench. 

A few years after his admission to the bar he 
ci'ossed the Atlantic to the West Indies, settled in 
Antigua under very flattering circumstances, and was 
cordially received by the principal inhabitants of the 
island, particularly by a gentleman of fortuue, who, 
as an inducement for him to remain there, settled on 
him a handsome annuity for life. He was api)ointed 
a notary ])ublic and secretary of the island. He dis- 
charged the duties of these offices with fidelity, and 
pursued his professional business there with success 
for several years, until the decease of his particular 
i'riend and patron. He then embarked for this coun- 
try, and settled in Portsmouth. He was admitted an 
;ittorney of the Su|)crior Court at the next session 
after his arrival, and was soon after appointed a jus- 
tice of the peace. In the exercise of this office he 
was strict, severe and overbearing. For many years 
he was the principal acting magistrate in Portsmouth, 
and his name became proverbial. When one person 
threatened another with a prosecution, it was usual to 
say, "1 will Claggett you." 

He received the appointment of King's attorney- 
general for the province in the year 1767. He took 
an early and decided [lart in opposition to the opjjress- 
ive acts of the British Parliament at a time when a 
considerable ])ortion of his property was in the con- 
trol of the government. Previous to the Revolution 
he removed to Litchfield, where he possessed a large 
and valuable estate on the banks of the Merrimack. 
He represented that town and Derryfield, classed 



THE BENCH AND BAK. 



9 



with it, several years in the General Court. Being 
omitted one year, the towns of Merrimack ami Bedford 
elected him for their representative, although not an 
inhabitant of cither of those places. He always re- 
tained a grateful remembrance of this mark of conli- 
dence and respect, and frequently .spoke of it with 
jileasure. He was for some time a member of the 
Committee of Safety, and was active, attentive and 
useful. He was influential in framing and carrying 
into effect the temporary form of government which 
was first adopted in New Hampshire, under which 
the office of solicitor-irenenil was created, and Mr. 
Claggett was the only i)erson who ever had that 
appointment; the office ceased at the adoption 
of the constitution, in 17S4, a little previous to his 
death. 

He possessed a great flow of wit, which, accompa- 
nied by his social talents and learninfi, made him an 
agreeable companion. He was also distinguished for 
his classical knowledge. He wrote the Latin language 
with ease and elegance and spoke it with fluency. 
He had a fine taste for poetry, and many jeu.v d'esprit, 
the productions of his pen, have been preserved by 
his friends. He did not i)ossess a perfect o(|uanimity 
of temper, but was subject at times to great depres- 
sion of spirits. He died at Utchfield the 4th of De- 
cember, 1784, in the si.Kty-fourth year of his age, 

Ebexkzer Chami'XKy' was born at Cambridge in 
1743, and was educated at Harvard University, re- 
ceiving the degree of Bachelor of .\rts in 1702, He 
was at first designed for the ministry, and to that end 
studied divinity and i)reachcd two years. He re- 
ceived a call to settle in Township No, 1 (now Mason); 
tliis was declined, and soon after, he left this profes- 
sion for that of the law. He prepared himself for 
this vocation in the ofiice of Hon, Samuel Livermore, 
and was admitted to the bar at Portsmouth, N, H,, in 
17118. In June of the ,same year he removed to New 
Ipswich, and entered u]ion the duties of his profes- 
sion. In the spring of 1783, Mr, Champney went to 
Groton, where he remained until 1789, was represent- 
ative in 1784, when he returned to New Ipswich, 
His first commission as justice of the peace was re- 
ceivcil from the celebrated Governor John Hancock, 
of Massachusetts, 

In 1795 he was appointed judge of Probate for the 
county of Hillsborough, The duties of this oflice 
were appropriately discharged until his resignation, 
a few ni'inths before bis death. 

Judge ('ham|iney married, first, n daughter of Uev. 
Calel) Trowbridge, of (Sroton, in 1704, which con- 
nected him with the distinguished families of Cottons 
and Mathers, By this marriage he had seven chil- 
dri'u, three of whom died in infancy. He became a 
widiiwi'r in 177'), and was marrie<l again, in 1778, to 
vVliigiiil Parker, by whom he had four chiblren. She 
died in 1790, and he was again married, in March, 

1 From " lIJBlory of Now Iiiswlcti." 



179G, to Susan Wyman, who died the September fol- 
lowing, 

.ludge Champney was a man of very respectable 
talents, and exercised no inconsiderable influence in 
the vicinity. During the earlier years of his practice 
he was the only lawyer between Kcene and Groton, 
and had offices both at New Ipswich and the latter 
place, in conjunction with his son. The labor of at- 
tending the courts at that period was very great, the 
circuit being extensive, and all journeys were neces- 
sarily ))erformcd on horseback. 

During the controversy between the colonics and 
the mother-country the sentiments of Mr. Champney 
were adverse to those extreme measures that led to 
the Revolution. He was a moderate Tory, and dep- 
recating a resort to arms, believed that with prudent 
and moderate counsels all causes of disatt'ection might 
be satisfactorily adjusted. He wished to preserve 
his loyalty and the peace of the country; but, like 
many others who forebore to take part in the contest, 
he lived to acknowledge the beneficent efl'ects of that 
struggle which gave us our liberties and free institu- 
tions. 

He died on the lOtli of September, 1810, at the age 
of sixty -seven. 

Hon. JosHiw Atheutox- was born in Harvard, 
Mass., June 20, 1737. He numbered among his class- 
mates at Harvard, Elbridge Gerry, Jeremy Belknap 
and other distinguished men. While resi<ling in 
Litchfield and Merrimack he was intimate with Colo- 
mi Liilwyche, a retired colouel of the British army, a 
man of means, of refined tastes, aciiuaintcd with the 
world and used to good society. 

Having received the appointment of register of 
Probate for Hillsborough County, Mr. Atherton re- 
moved from IMerrimack to Amherst in the summer of 
1773, iuid was soon busily engaged in the practice of 
bis profession. In a short time, however, as the dis- 
l)ute between the mother-country and her American 
ciilonies increased in bitterness, as he was an open 
and avowed Loyalist, he fell under the popular dis- 
pleasure. 

In common willi many other well-infornicil men of 
his time, he was not insensible of the wrongs inflicted 
upon the colonies by the liritisii government, but 
saw no prospect of their redress by an appeal to arms. 
His profession, too, was an unpojmlar one, and it was 
an easy matter for the leaders in the new movement 
to excite the jicople against him. It is also notice- 
able that much of the persecution to which he was 
subjected had its origin in towns adjoining .\mlicrst, 
rather than among his townsmen. 

In 1788 he was chosen a delegate to the convention 
to ratify or reject the proposed constitution of the 
I'liited States. Acting upon his own convictions of 
right and the instructions of his loMslituciils, he op- 
posed its ratification. 

>Can<lonM!d ttom iiocoink'a " lllslory ol Amlmnl." 



10 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



In 1702 he was apiwiiitcd a delttrate to tlie convcii- 
tiou called to revise the State constitution adopted in 
1783. After several sessions the work of this con- 
vention resulted in the amended constitution adopted 
by the people in 1792, which remained unchanged for 
nearly sixty years. 

In 1798 and 1794 he served as Senator in the State 
Legislature, and in the latter year received the ap- 
pointment of attorney-general of the State. At this 
time many young men resorted to his office for in- 
struction in their chosen profession, AVilliam Plumer, 
William Coleman (afterward of the New York Even- 
ing Post)n\\>\ \Villiani Gordon being among the num- 
ber. 

After the new administration of the affairs of the 
country under the Federal government had gone into 
operation, and had exhibited proofs of a steady, wise 
and firm rule over the whole country, he became one 
of its firmest supporters. 

In 179S he was appointed a Commissioner for the 
county of Hillsborough, under the act passed by Con- 
gress i)th July of that year, providing for the valua- 
tion of lands, dwelling-houses, etc., in the L'nitod 
States, with a view to levying and collecting direct 
taxes for the support of government. This act wiis 
an exceedingly unpopular one, and his accei^tance of 
office un<ler it revived all the old ill-will against him. 
He, however, discharged the duties of the olhce, and 
had the honor of being hung in effigy at Ueering. 
His health and mental vigor becoming impaired, he 
resigned the office of attornej'-general in 1800, and 
thenceforth devoted himself to the pursuits of a pri- 
vate citizen. 

Hux. Cliftox CL.VKiETT ' studied law under the 
direction of his father and commenced practice in 
Litchfield in 1787, whence he removed to Amherst in 
1811. While residing in Litchfield he represented 
the town in the lieneral Court several years. In 1802, 
1816 and 1818 lie was elected a Keprcsentalive to 
Congress. In 1810 he was appointed judge of Probate 
for Hillsborough County, and held the office until 
September, 1812, when, having been appointed one of 
the judges of the Superior Court, he resigned. From 
this last office he was removed, upon the reorganiza- 
tion of the court, by the Federal party the following 
year. 

In 1823 he was appointed judge of Probate for the 
county of Hillsborough, and held the office until his 
death. 

Dr. John Farmer wrote of him : " Without any com- 
manding powers, but with the [xissession of respecta- 
ble attainments, .ludge I'laggett gave his constituents, 
and the public generally, that satisfaction which has 
not always been imparted by those of higher acquisi- 
tions, or by those of the most popular and splendid 
talents." 

lIo.N. SA.MfKl. Dana was burn in what is now 



Brighton, Mass., January 14, 1739. He graduated 
from Harvard, and in 1781 was admitted to the Hills- 
borough bar. He resided in Amherst. 
■ In November, 1782, he was chosen a delegate to the 
convention which framed the constitution of the 
State. Shortly after the adoption of the constitution i 
he was appointed a justice of the Inferior Court of I 
Common Pleas, but declined to accept the office. In 
1785 he was appointed register of Probate for Hills- 
borough County, and held the office until January 9, 
1789, when he was appointed judge of Probate. This 
office he resigned December 21, 1792, saying, in the 
letter conveying his resignation, that " for the sup- 
port of my family 1 am obliged to practice as an 
attorney, and there is danger that I may not always 
be able to distinguish between a fee to the attorney 
and a bribe to the judge." 

In 1793 he was chosen to the State Senate to fill a 
vacancy caused by the resignation of Hon. Joshua 
Atherton. He died April 2, 1798. 

Charles Humphrey Athertox, son of Joshua 
Atherton, born in Amherst, graduated at Harvard 
College in 1794; read law with Joshua Atherton and 
William Gordon ; commenced practice in 1797 ; Re- 
presentative in Congress 181.5-17 ; register of Probate 
1798-1837 ; died January 8, 1853. 

He occupied a prominent place in the Hillsborough 
County bar for nearly fifty years. He was a prudent 
and judicious counselor and a faithful advocate. As 
a Probate lawyer he had few equals and no superiors 
in the State. 

He represented the town of Amherst in the General 
Court in 1823, 1838 and 1839, and served many years 
on the superintending school committee of the town, 
ever manifesting a deep interest in the prosperity of 
its common schools. 

Fraxki.ix Pierce- was born at Hillsborough, 
N. H., November 23, 1804. His father. General Ben- 
jamin Pierce, served throughout the Revolutionary 
War, and in 1827 and 1829 was (Jovernor of New 
Hampshire. The early youth of Franklin Pierce ex- 
hibited great mental promise, and it was the aim of 
his family that his education should be thorough. 
His initiatory and academical courses took place at 
Hancock, Franecstown and Exeter, and in 1820 he 
entered college at Bowdoin, 5Ie.. where Rev. Dr. 
ytone, Nathaniel Hawthorne, John P. Hall. James 
Bell and others no less celebrated subsequently, were 
his classmates. He took his degree in 1824 and 
spent the three following years in the study of law, 
at North Hampton, Mass., and Amherst. In 1827 
he was admitted to the bar, and opened his office in 
his native town, where his success was speedy and 
great, largely because his application was equal to his 
ability. It was early seen in his career that he 
would attain the very highest local celebrity, — a con- 
viction that was ultimatelv fullv realized. While so 






I By Daniel F. Secomlt. 



- B.v **(.|uiifl Kniiik n. mid Kirii I>. fierce. 




^:^^^/^/C^^^ 



Tlir. I'.KNCIl AM* I?A1{. 



11 



raniestly applying himself to his duties as a lawyer 
lif I'sjioused himself with •ritat zeal to the cause ol' 
I'omocratic principles, and during the second year of 
his legal practice, and for two subsequent years, he 
ua.s chosen to re[>rcsent Hillsborough in the State 
L.gisUiture. In 1832 and 1833 he wasalso Representa- 
tive and Speaker of the House. This and associate 
lionors were not won by any underhand action, but 
by a firm adherence to political principle, eloquence 
in debate, untiuestioued capacity for public business, 
uniform courtesy and an exhibition of frankness and 
manliness of character. In the second year of his 
incumbency as speaker, lieing then in his twenty- 
ninth year, he was elected to represent his native 
district in the United States Congress, which he did 
in that and the succeeding Congress with nuich 
aliility and credit. 

In 1837 he was chosen by the Legislature to ropre- 
• lit New Ilami)shire in the United States Senate, 
Mil ids statesmanship was such as to be the subject 
of universal encomiums among men of all parties. 
Though one of the youngest, he was one of the most 
influential of that then most distinguished body. 
Few public men had such power as he iu making 
friends, and very few had a wider circle of admirere. 
I'rom causes of a purely personal and domestic nature. 
Senator Pierce resigned his oftice in 1842, and came 
liome to Concord, where he had removed his family 
some years previously, and resumed his profession as 
ic lawyer. In 184;'), owing to the vacancy in the 
I'nited States Senate caused by the appointment 
lif Hon. Levi Woodbury to the Su]n'rior l)ench, 
the successorship was offered by (iovernor .Tcdin 
Steele to Mr. Pierce, but was gratefully declined. He 
lUo declined the nomination for Governor of the 
State and a seat in the Cabinet of President Polk. 
In his declinatory letter to the President he said that 
when he left the Senate he did so with the fixed pur- 
pose never again to be voluntarily separated from his 
I'amily for any considerable time, except at the call-of 
his country in time of war. When the Mexican War 
broke out, in 1847, a l)attalion of soldiers was called 
tor from Xew Hampshire, and Mr. Pierce was among 
the very first to enlist as a private soldier, and one of 
the most earnest in the ranks at ilrill. He was coni- 
inissioned March 3, 1847, as brigadier-general, and 
mailed with a dctaciiinent from Newport, R. L, and 
l;indeil at Vera Cru/ on the I()llowing 28th of June. 
He left Vera Cruz with his brigade for the Mexican 
interior the succeeding month to reinforce (icneral 
Scott. On the way, with his two thousand four hun- 
dred men, several severe skirmishes with guerrillas 
took place, in all of which the enemy was defeated. 
He carried liis force, losing very few men, to Pu- 
ebla, where they Joined the army of the comnnind- 
ing general. Conlreras, Cherubusco, Molino and 
Ohapiiltepec were hard-fought fields, on which 
he lilierally shared the honors of victory, as the 
official reports of these actions abundantly and 



creditably show. An eminent military oflicer, in re- 
viewing the history of these struggles and the merits 
of the leaders therein, says: "I have reason to believe 
that every old officer in the army will sustain me 
when I say of General Pierce that in his service in 
Mexico he did his duty as a son of the republic, that 
he was eminently patriotic and gallant, and that it 
has added a laurel to his beautiful civic wreath." It 
would be unjust to his memory to neglect mentioning 
his remarkable regard for the comfort and health of 
the men under his command; witii untiring vigi- 
lance and open hand he administered without stint 
or measure to the alleviation of their privations and 
their sufferings. In 1847, when peace with Mexico 
was assured, General Pierce returned home to meet 
the welcome of his many friends and to realize the 
highest honors they could bestow upon him. .\mong 
them was the presentation of a splendid sword by 
the State Legislature, as a token of esteem for him as 
a man and of his gallantry as a soldier. From the 
period of his return from Mexico up to 1852 he de- 
voted himself to his profession, his principal j>olitical 
action being his presiding at the Constitutional Con- 
vention of the State, which met at Concord in 1850. 
Some that are now alive, and were present in court at 
Manchester, in May, 1850, will never forget the won- 
derful eloquence, the powerful logic and the amazing 
legal skill which he exercised preceding the acquittal 
of both the Wentworths, of Saco, Me., charged with 
the murder of Jonas Parker, in Manchester, in 1845. 
As an orator, he presented his thoughts in a style that 
would do credit to any age or nation. His rcnnirks 
on the death of Daniel Webster are unexcelled in the 
English language. In 1852 the Xew Hampshire 
State Democratic Convention recommended him as a 
candidate for the Presidency ; but he declined, for 
reasons modestly assigned liy himself, to allow his 
name to be used in that relation. However, the Na- 
tional Democratic Convention, which met in Haiti- 
more in .Juiu' of 1852, after forty-nine ballots, gave 
him the nomination by a vote of two hundred and 
eighty-two against eleven. The enthusiasm demon- 
strated all over the nation in favor of tieneral Pierce 
was uniirecedented, and the result of the campaign 
was his election over General Scott, the Whig candi- 
date, the Pierce electoral vote being two hundred 
and fifty-four and that for Scott forty-two. 

President Pierce was inaugurated at Washington 
March 4, 1853. he being then in his forty-ninth year. 
He had called to aid him a ( 'abinet contii(ise<l i>l' men 
of rare ability. A member of that cabinet has truth- 
fully said, — 

*' Tlio nilnitnti^Iratiori uf FmiiUIiii TiiTcc prfKonts ttio onI.v IliKtunci- tli 
our Iifltory uftlK' culltllntliliceitf nCnIiiliel foi- four yi>apfl wlllioiit r flillKli' 
cliaiiKo ilt ItH pfrsnmir-L Wlu'ii it In rcluelitl>fn->il tliiit tllero wilB liiucll 
cllmlniiliirlt.v, if nut InooDgrully, uf cluinii lir iiiiiunK llif mctiilMTs of Hint 
I'lililiict, some iili-a nuiy ho foriin-*! of tlic [mimit over irn-n im»wphmI unj 
oxcn-iwil Uy Mr. I'ivrci'. Cliivalroun, Keni'roiiH, iinii(tl>Ii>, tnii' to lil« 
friuiKl)! onil lo lili fulUi, Crank anil IhjIiI in lila ili-clnnitlon of liiaoplnionK, 
lio nfvtT ilcccivi'd nnv om\ Anil if trcacluTy bail t-vt-r i-oiiif iirar liliii, 



12 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



U would have stood abashed in the presence of his truth, his mauiiness 
and his confiding simplicity." 

Among the more important events of his adminis- 
tration were the dispute respecting tlie boundary be- 
tween the United States and Mexico, resulting in the 
aeijuisition of Arizona; the exi>loration of tlte routes 
projtosed for a railroad from the Mississippi to the 
Pacific ; the amicable settlement of a serious dispute 
with Great Britain about the fisheries ; the affair of 
Martin Kozta; the repeal of the Missouri Compro- 
mise; the organization of the Territories of Kansas 
and Nebraska; the Ostend conference; the treaty 
negotiated at Wasltiugton providing for commercial 
reciprocity between this country and the Canadian 
provinces; the treaty with Japan negotiated in 1854 
by Commodore Perry ; the dismissal of the British 
minister at Washington and the British consuls at 
Kew York, Philadelphia and Cincinnati. While 
much political agitation marked the term of bis of- 
fice, still it was a period of remarkable prosperity to 
the nation. President Pierce's devotion to his coun- 
try and flag was never shaken or im)iaired by any 
misrepresentation or abuse on the part of his politi- 
cal enemies. In public and in private life his speeches 
and correspondence evince a sincere sympathy with 
the Union and a devotion to the priuci])les of the 
L^uion, to which he had been from childhood a most 
earnest and sincere advocate. 

On retiring from the Presidential chair, and after a 
brief sojourn at home, he visited Eurojie and trav- 
eled extensively over Great Britain and the continent. 
Everywhere he was received with marked attention 
and respect, although he eschewed all ostentation. 
He returned after an absence of about three years and 
devoted himself almost entirely to the duties of a 
couini )n citizen. Socially, no man had more or 
deeper respect than he, during the period spent bj' 
him in political retirement. He was beloved by 
young and old, and there was no ]]artisan limit to that 
affect ion. 

President Pierce died childless. His wife was 
Mary A. Api)leton, who gave him two sons, Benjamin 
and Frank; tiie latter died when but a child, and Ben- 
jamin was killed in a railroad accident near Andover, 
Mass., soon after his father's election as President. 
Mrs. Pierce died in 1803, and President Pierce passed 
away <)ctol)er 9, 1809. The event was a universal 
cause for mourning ; higli honors, local and national, 
were i)aid to his memory. The family lie buried in 
the beautiful new cemetery at Concord, N. H. 

Hon. Cn.\KLE.s GoKDOx Atherton' was born at 
Amherst, in Hillsborough County, N. H., July 4, 
1804. He graduated at Cambridge University, in 
1818, with unusual re])utation for ability and scliolar- 
shij) at an early age. He studied law in the ollice of 
his distinguished father, Hon. Charles H. .Mherton, 
was admitted to the bar at the age of twenly-one and 

■ By Hon. L. B. Clongh. 



established himself in business in the town of Dun- 
stable (now Nashua), in his native county. In his 
profession his success was decided and his rise rapid. 
His mind, clear, logical and strong, with the balla.st of 
exrellent common sense, the adornments of a quick, 
fancy and a cultivated taste, was admirably adapted 
to the studies and the labors of the law. So far as 
was permitted by the interruptions of political life, 
he continued to the la.st in the active practice of his 
chosen profession. As a lawyer, it is not too much to 
say of him that he .stood in the front rank of a bar 
which has always been fruitful of legal strength and 
acumen ; his jjlace was side by side with such com- 
peers as Pierce, Woodbury, Parker, Bartlett and Bell 
— following, but not unworthily, in the path of those 
earlier "giants of the law," Webster, Mason and 
Jeremiah Smith. 

In 1830 he commenced his j)ublic career as a Repre- 
sentative from Nashua in the New Hampshire Legis- 
lature, and continued in this otfice for a period of 
several years. He was Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives for the last three of those years. In 
March, 1837, he was chosen one of the Rei)reseutative8 
of New Hampshire in the national Congress, where 
he remained for three successive terms, At the ex- 
piration of that period he was transferred to the 
Senate of the United States for the term of six yeai-s; 
successor to John P. Hale at being re-elected to the 
Senate in JIarcli, 1853, occupying a seat in that body 
during the executive session succeeding the inaugura- 
tion of President Pieice. He was also a member of 
the Baltimore Convention which nominated General 
Pierce for the Presidency. Mr. Atherton died Novem- 
ber 15, 1853. 

Hon. Ch.\kle)< Fkedekuk Gove, A.;M.,- tiie son 
of Dr. Jonathan and Polly (Dow) (fove, was born at 
Golistown, May 13, 1793. He graduated at Dartmouth 
College in 1817; read law at Harvard Law School, 
graduating LL.B. in 1820; began i)ractice in Gofts- 
towii ; was assistant clerk of the New Hamijshire 
House of Representatives in 1829; njiresented Goffs- 
towu there in 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833 and 1834 ; was in 
the New Hampshire Senate, and elected its president 
in June, 1835 ; solicitor of Hillsborough County from 
1834 to 1835, when he was appointed attorney-general 
and served until 1842, and circuit judge of the Court 
of Common Plca.s from 1S42 to 1848 ; then became 
superintendent of the Nashua and Ijowell Railroad. 
He removed from Gortstown to Nashua in 1839; mar- 
ried Mary Kennedy, daughter of Ziba Gay, of Nashua, 
September 22, 1844. He died at Nashua, October 21, 
1850, aged sixty-three years. He was a man of great 
energy of mind and character, but unfortunately jios- 
scssed of a feeble constitution. John (iove, D.C., was 
his half-brother. 

Judge Gove, in private and public life, sustained 
the character of an upright, honorable man. Ever of 

2B>'Hon. L. B. Clough. 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



13 



a slender constitution, yet his industry and energy led 
him to fill the various ])ublic offices with which he 
was honored with credit to himself and to the general 
acceptation of the public. He was equally firm in 
his friendship and in his einnity. 

Hox. S.^.MiEL H. Ayer,' son of Dr. Aver, was 
born in Eastport, Me., in the year 1819. He gradu- 
ated at Bowdoin College in 18.'{9, and afterwards com- 
I iienced the study of law in the office of Messrs. Pierce 
.v Fowler, at Concord. He was admitted to prac- 
i'C in Ilillsborou^'h County, and opened an office 
It Hillsborough in 1842. For five successive years he 
r. presented the town of Hillsborough, from 1845 to 
1<4'J, the last two years of this time being Speaker of 
the House of Representatives. In 1847 he was ap- 
pointed solicitor of the county of Hillsborough, and 
siiccessfiilly performed the duties of said office until 
liisdeath. 

He removed to MaiK-hcstcr in 1850, and opened an 
"tlice in connection with R. F. Ayer. Although of the 
-ame name, he was not related by blood to B. F. Ayer. 
In 1852 he was one of the commission for revising the 
statutes of the State, and in connection with the late 
Governor .Metcalf and Calvin Ainsworth, in June, 
1853, submitted their compilation to the Legislature, 
known as tlie " Compiled Statutes." He was a pleas- 
ing and effective speaker, frank, generous and just, 
and won the esteem of all who knew him. Hon. S. 
H. Ayer died October 4, 1853, aged thirty-four years. 

Hqx. George W. Morrison.-— The family of 
Morrison was originally of Scotland, a branch of 
which emigrated to the north of Ireland about the 
middle of the fifteenth century, ami settled in Lon- 
donderry. 

" Charter " Samuel, so called because he was one of 
the grantees of Limdouderry, N. H., was among the 
first settlers of that town. He was there as early as 
1721, and signed the jjctition for a ciiarter. 

James Morrison, father of (ieorge W., was born in 
Londonderry, N. H., in 1781, and removed with his 
father, Samuel, grandson of Charter Samuel, to Fair- 
lee, Vt., about the year 17!'l. Wlieri quite young he 
was apprenticed to a carpenter and joiner, served his 
tinie faithfully, learned his trade and learned it well, 
and after his emancipation, followed the business in- 
diLstriously for many years. 

With the proceeds of his labor he purchased a farm 
at Fairlce, to which, during the latter years of liis 
life, he devoted his |)rincipal attention. Physically. 
he was a noble specimen of a man ; liad a gixid figure, 
very strongly built, and weighed more than two hun- 
dred pounds. He possessed a well-balanced mind, 
sound judgment and a vigorous understanding. He 
died in full strength at sixty, without an infirmity or 
even a grey hair upnu him. In 1802 he nnirried 
Martha Pdton, daughter of John Pelton, of Lyme, 
N. H. She was a lady of excellent understanding, 



• lly Hon. I.. II. Clough. 



5 By David V. IVrklns. 



modest and retiring in her manners, managed her 
household with great discretion and good sense, and 
bestowed upon her family of nine children all the 
wealth of a mother's love. She died at Fairlee, July 
14, 1870, aged eighty-seven years. 

Hon. (teorge W. Morrison, the second son of James 
and Martha, was born in Fairlee, Vt., October 16, 
1809, lived with his parents and worked on their 
home farm until the fall of 1830, when he entered the 
Academy of Thctford, and continued there a little 
more than four uKmths, thus completing his academic 
course of study. He then entered the oflice of Judge 
Simeon Short, of Thetford, as a student-at-law, and 
read with him and Presburg West, Jr., in all about 
four years. But while he was pursuing his legal 
studies in the offices of Judge Short and Mr. West, he 
was accustomed to return to the farm and assist his 
father in haying and harvesting. Reaping was his 
special delight. Xo man within the circle of his 
acquaintance, either in Vermont or New Hampshire, 
could excel him in the use of the sickle. His father 
was a man of small means ; he had a large family to 
support ; money was scarce, and George, who was his 
chief dependence in carrying forward his farm-work, 
from a sense of filial duty, rendered him all the assist- 
ance in his power. At the same time he supported 
himself by teaching school during the winter months, 
and by hard labor at night in a saw-mill, in the 
sjjring of the year. Sawing logs commanded better 
wages than teaching in the village school. 

Mr. Morrison was an ambitious young man, am- 
bitious for success in all his laudable' undertakings, 
and always took the advantage of every means in his 
power for improvement. By the laws of Vermont, 
when he was a student, a justice court was entitled to 
a jury panel of six. Before such a tribunal he often 
successfully appeared, even while he was a teacher iu 
the common schools, in the defense of some unlucky 
yeoman. And so, while he was a teacher one winter 
in Western New York, he gained quite a reputation 
na a successful practitioner in the justice courts. 

Such were his |)reparations for the great duties and 
re8i)onsibiIitie3 of his professional and political life. 
His mental endowments were of a high onler, among 
the most ajjparent of which were his keen perceptions 
and his self-reliance. As a studcnt-at-law, in the 
practice of his profession, in his addresses to the jury 
or the court, on the hustings, in the State Legislature 
I and in the halls of Congress his self reliance never 
I forsook him. 

At the June session of 1835 the Orange County 
Court was holden at Chelsea, and Mr. Morrison had 
the sole charge of Mr. West's extensive business, and 
tried without assistance every case, with one excep- 
tion. It was at this term he made application for 
examination, pursuant to admission. He had Matter- 
ing certificates from both gentlemen with whom he 
had read, but on their [iresentation objections were 
nnide by some of the young gentlemen of the bar, on 



14 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



the ground that the applicant liad not complied with 
the rules, having read less than five years. Judge 
Nutting-, author of Nutting's Grammar, used exten- 
sively in the schools, an accomplished scholar and 
distinguished lawyer, replie<l that the young man had 
not asked Cor admission to the bar, but for examina- 
tion ; Jtnd as Jlr. Jlorrison believed he possessed a 
suflicient knowledge of the law to justify him in sub- 
mitting to an examination as to his qualifications, he 
thiMiL'ht that so reasonable a request ought to be 
granted. 

Judge Parker, of Uradford, tlieriujton moved that a 
committee of three be appointed for such examina- 
tion. The motion prevailed, and Judge Nutting, 
Judge Parker and Jlr. Ordway were chosen. 

The committee held three sessions, of two hours 
each, and gave Mr. Morrison a most thorough and 
searching examination, which he passed triumph- 
antly, and on sulimitting their report to the bar, he 
was unanimously admitted. 

Before entering upon the practice of his profession 
he traveled somewhat extensively in New York, 
Pennsylvania, New Hami)shire and Maine, and on 
his way home from the latter State to Vermimt, he 
stopi>cd awhile at Amoskeag Falls, in Manchester. 
Its immense water-power attracted his attention. In 
conversation with some of the leading citizens, he 
was informed that a company of Boston capitalists 
had recently purchased large tracts of land upon both 
sides of the river, with the view of building up ex- 
tensive manufacturing interests. He saw clearly a 
flourishing manufacturing town S])ringing up in the 
immediate future, as by magic, holding out singular 
attractions to a young and ambitious lawyer. Acting 
upon his own judgment, with reference to its capacity 
and business prospects, he decided to make Man- 
chester his permanent residence and grow up with 
the town. It was in the .summer of 1836 that he took 
up his residence at Amoskeag, and opened an office 
in an old school-house, near the west end of McGreg- 
gor's bridge, the only bridge at that time across the 
Merrimack Kiver within the present limits of Man- 
chester and about half-way between the two villages 
of Amoskeag and Piscataijuog. At that time there 
were four lawyers at Squog(so called) of some distinc- 
tion, and two at Gotfstown. One of these old lawyers, 
who had been in constant practice thirty years, often 
met Mr. Morrison in the justice courts, and at first 
treated him with contumely and reproach, called him 
a beardless boy, who had received liis education in 
the pastures of Vermont, and now presumed to prac- 
tice law in the courts of New Hampshire; but a few 
lessons of sarcasm, a weapon Mr. Morrison knew well 
how to use with terrible eflect, silenced his antagonist, 
and ever after inspired him with the most profound 
respect. 

Mr. Morrison did what little business came in his 
way during the summer and fall, and in the winter 
taught the village school. The next spring people 



flocked in from all the surrounding country, the town 
WMs raj)idly built up, and he removed his office from 
the old school-house to the east side of the river, and 
has continued to reside in aud make Manchester his 
home till the present time. He was a constant at- 
tendant when the court was in session, whether he 
had business or otherwise ; this particularly attracted 
the attention of Hon. Mark Farley, who asked, " Why 
he was always in court?" "To cure the evils of a 
defective education," responded Mr. Morri.son. 

On the 5th of November, 1838, he married Miss 
Maria L. Fitch, of Thetford, Vt., a lady of culture 
and refinement, daughter of the Hon. Lyman Fitch, 
ftu- many years a county judge in Orange County, 
afterwards, and until his death, a prominent citizen 
of Lyme, N. H. 

Business now poured into his office, and he at once 
took a front rank among the ablest lawyers of the 
State at the New Hampshire bar. Early in the 
practice of his profession he was accustomed to meet 
as antagonists .such men as Franklin Pierce, Charles 
G. Atherton, Samuel D. Bell, James U. Parker, Mark 
Farley, Daniel Clark and many others distinguished 
for their character and ability, and it can safely be 
said, "It is no disparagement to any of the eminent 
men whom he met at the bar in the different counties 
of the State, that, as a jury lawyer, he was one of the 
most successful practitioners in his time in the courts 
of New Hampshire." 

Among the distinguished men of New Hampshire, 
Charles G. Atherton stood high, both as a lawyer and 
statesman. In 1850, at a term of the court for Hillsbor- 
ough County, holden at Manchester, an important case 
was tried before the jury, in which Mr. Morrison and 
Mr. Atherton were engaged as opjjosing counsel. The 
trial lasted several days. At last it was concluded ; 
the arguments were made and the case was submitteil 
to the jury, after which Mr. Atherton invited the 
writer of this sketch to accompany him to his rooms. 
Now, Mr. Atherton was an exceedingly gifted con- 
versationalist. On reaching his chambers at the ho- 
tel, he asked, "What will be the verdict in this 
case? Which i)arty, in your judgment, will be likely 
to win?" The resjjonse was, "I think the chances 
are in favor of Mr. Morrison." " I am inclined to the 
same opinion," was Mr. Atherton's reply, and then 
continued: "When Mr. Morrison commenced prac- 
tice at the Hillsborough bar I watched him closely, 
and at first entertained strong doubts as to his success 
in his profession. He commenced the practice of the 
law under three great disadvantages, — ill health, a de- 
fective education and poverty ; but on my first ac- 
quaintance with him I particularly noticed his self- 
reliance. Nothing that occurred at the bar escaj)ed 
his attention, for he nas uniformly in attendani e. 
Soon he commenced the trial of cases • his examina- 
tion of witnesses was thorough and exhaustive, his 
perceptions were clear, his arguments logical and 
condensed, and he had the wonderful faculty to seize 



THE BENCH AND I?AK. 



15 



the .strung points of his case, and so present them to 
the jury that he seldom failed to win the verdict. If 
he happened to make a mistake as to the rules of evi- 
dence, the law or its application, he was sure not to 
repeat it. I soon made up my niiud tliat he was no 
comnion man, that he was bound to rise, and he did 
rise rapidly, not alone in mi/ estimation, but in the 
estimation of the people of the county and of the 
State. And now he stands at the head of the bar. 
And I tell you in all sincerity that I have never met 
theman in our courts, in the Ilouseof Rejiresentatives, 
or in the Senate of the United States I more fear, or 
have frreater cause to fear as an antagonist, tlian as 
such I fear to meet Gecjrge W. Morrison." 

In the practice of his profession he was true to his 
client ; especially was he the friend of the poor man, 
and, apparently, would work harder to win the case 
for his client when ho had no reason to expect ade- 
quate compensation than for the rich client who was 
alnindantly able and willing to pay lil)erally. Mr. 
Morrison, in the best sense, was a man of the people, — 
easy in his manners and simple in his tastes; unos- 
tentatious in his intercourse with all, looked down 
upon no man, but treated every one on terms of equal- 
ity ; generous to a fault, ever ready to extend the 
helping haml to those who needed help. It is no 
wonder that such a man should at once build up and 
maintain a lucrative business, and become one of the 
most popular men in his profession. He had been 
accustomed to athletic sports from his boyhood, and 
when a young man took peculiar pleasure in a wrest- 
ling match, in which he often participated. To lay 
him upon his back requiretl not only well-developed 
muscle, but generous practice and scientific knowledge. 
Hon. Moses Norris was a man of|)Owerful physiiiue, and 
in his prime weighed two hundred and twenty-five 
pounds, while Mr. ^lorrison scarcely ever exceeded one 
hundred and fifty. Though comparatively of slight 
figure, he waa wiry and very elastic. They were warm 
personal and political friends, and in familiar conver- 
sation often addressed each other respectively by their 
given names. 

On the -Ith of .July, lSo4, lioth gentlemen were at 
Wa.shington, D. C, — Mr. Norris a United States Sen- 
ator and Mr. Morrison a member of the House of 
Representatives. The Fourth was a holiday, and 
Congress was not in session. The writer was with 
them at his rooms on Capitol Hill ; nootherperson was 
present. The Senator, in course of conversation, hap- 
pened to speak of a certain occasion upon which he 
had exhibited his great strength, to the surprise of 
the bystanders. Mr. Morrison playfully replied, 
" Mose.", I could lay you out so easily that you 
wouldn't know how it was dime." "Nonsense!" 
resjionded the Senator; " why, George, I could throw 
you over my head without an eH'ort." "More easily 
said than done," replied Mr. Jlorrison. Then, like 
two grown-up boys, they took each other at arms- 
length, and soon commenced to wre.stle in good earn- 



est. Mr. -Morrison, fully ou his guard, waited and 
watched the chances for a certain inside lock, the 
advantages of which he well understood. Ky-and-by 
he had the Senator in the desired position, and in- 
stantly droi)ping upon the right knee, he laid Mr. 
Norris upon his back without any apparent exertion. 
The Senator sprang to his feet, and said, " That was 
handsomely done, George. How in the world did 
you do it ? I did not believe there was a man in 
Washington who could throw me." 

Mr. Morrison was elected to the State Legislature, 
and served during the years of 1840, 1841, 1844, 1849 
and 1850. He was one of the most active, useful and 
edicient members, and his influence was such the last 
years of his service that he usually carried the House 
with him on all the more important measures. He 
served one year as chairman of the committee on 
incorporations, and four years on the judiciary com- 
mittee, two of which he was chairman. In 1849 a 
bill was pending in the House for the incorporation 
of the city of Portsmouth. That provision in the 
charter which constituted each ward a town, for the 
]>urpose of elections, excited a good degree of interest 
and vigorous opposition, on the ground of its sup- 
posed unconstitutionality. It was well understood that 
this particular and unique clause in the charter was 
drafted at the suggestion of Mr. Morrison, and that 
he would give it all the support in his power. The 
day when he was to speak upon the question was 
known beforehand, so that all who might take an in- 
terest in the meitsnre and desired to hear the discus- 
sion could do so. The result was that many of the 
leading politicians of the State repaired to the capital. 
A full delegation from Manchester, including agents 
of the cori)orations and other distinguished citizens, 
were present. The galleries were crowded, and many 
of the more favored found scats on the Hoor of the 
House. 

Mr. Christie, of Dover, one of the ablest lawyers in 
the State, having been selected by the opponents of 
the measure to reply to Mr. Jlorrison, took his seat, 
pen and paper in hand, near, and at the right of the 
Sjieakcr's desk. .\t lengtli Mr. Morrison arose, look- 
ing pale and feeble, for he had been ([Uite ill all the 
session, but his mind was never clearer. As he went 
on with his argument with reference to the constitu- 
tionality of the bill, Mr. Christie at first took a few 
notes, then dro])ped his pen and listened attentively 
to the close of the argument. Mi. Morrison sat down; 
the House was perfectly still ; not a sound was 
heard ; all eyes were turned expectantly towards Mr. 
Christie. He did not arise. He declined to speak. 
The writer was assistant clerk of the House at that 
time, and a.sked another distinguished lawyer, a 
l)ersonal and political friend of Mr. Christie, why 
he declined to answer Mr. Morrison. His reply was, 
"Mr. Morrison's argument was unanswerable — ho 
was clearly right. And Mr. Christie, upon being con- 
vinced that he was right as to the constitutional 



16 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



question, declined to reply." Though the charters of 
the cities of the State have frequently been amended, 
particularly tlie charter of the city of Jlanchcster, 
that provision, constituting each ward a town for the 
purpose of elcctious, still remains. 

In 1845, Mr. Morrison was appointed solicitor 
of Hillsborough County, discharged the duties of 
the office nearly four years and resigned. He 
was a member of the House of Representative in the 
Thirty-tirst, and was re-elected and served in the 
Tliirty-third Congress. Mr. Morrison's personal and 
political relations with President Pierce had been for 
many years of the most intimate and confidential 
character, and as he was regarded as one of the ablest 
members of the Xew Hampshire delegation, the Pres- 
ident, whose Congressional district he represented, 
expressed the desire that he support the Kansas-Xe- 
braska Bill, which he had made one of the leading 
measures of his administration. He knew very well 
he could rely upon Mr. Jlorrison to support every 
measure of his administration which he deemed would 
be consistent with his constitutional obligations and 
for the promotion of the best interests of his country. 
In a personal interview with the President, Mr. Mor- 
rison told him his present convictions were against 
the bill, particularly that clause in it repealing the 
Missouri Compromise ; that lie would make a careful 
examination of the measure, and would support it if, 
in his judgment, the interests of the country would 
demand its becoming a law. He did examine the 
bill, and examined it thoroughly, after which he in- 
formed the President that he regarded it as a most 
dangerous measure, frauglit with evils, which, should 
it become a law, would lead to the most disastrous re- 
sults, and, painful as it was to him to dirter with the 
administration upon one of its leading measures, still 
he must oppose it with all the energies of his mind. 

Among the reasons assigned at this interview as the 
ground of his opposition to the measure were that 
the slavery question had but recently been settled by 
the compromise measures of ISSO, and to reopen the 
subject now, would, in liis judgment, be a most dan- 
gerous experiment, would be disastrous to the Demo- 
cratic party and to the best interests of the North, 
and, in his belief, would endanger the perpetuity of 
the republic itself. 

In his speech, made a few weeks after this inter- 
view with the President, Mr. Morrison said, — 

"On a greftt question like tliiu— one wliich will seriunsly Hffect the 
free lalKirere of tlie Nortli, will dutt'i-niine the inHtitutiona of u vast ter- 
ritory; one fmuglil with fearful clonienta of ilisfoiil, which ultimately 
may endanger the iRTpetuily of the I'nion itself— I can follow hut one 
guide : the convictions of my own Judgment. I n-Kret lluit the friends of 
this hill hivl not reail anil wall considered the patriotic denunciation by 
Jefferson, with reference to sectional parties, before they sprang this 
quei^tion upon Confjress ami the country. This is the first attempt in 
our political history to rep^-ul a (freat coniproniiHe of contlictinn interests 
and opinions between the different sections of the country. This meas- 
ure contains more elements of danger ami sectional diword than any po- 
litical question of the age. If this bill should become a law, I fear the 
spirit of concession and compromise will have passed away forever. The 



Union has, in the judgment of intelligent and patriotic statesmen, been 
twice preserved from dissolution by concession and compromise. Wheu 
similar questions again arise, as come they may and will, I ask, Can 
other compromises bo made if tiiis is stricken down ? if this shall not be 
sacredly kept and faithfully abided by? Sir, any man conversant with 
the prejudices which are enlisted and the obstacles to be overcome in the 
accomplishment of such compromises must feel and know the danger ; 
and here let me siiy, if this I'uion shall ever be dissolved, history will 
surely point to tliis as the lii^-t stride, tlie entering wedge wliicli led to 
dissolution and all its fearful consequences. I have neither time nor in- 
clination to pursue this thought further. .^11 can see the danger, all 
must feel it." 

In this great speech betook the ground distinctly 
that slavery could not for any considerable length of 
time be forced upon the jjeople of that Territory ; and 
from the above extrticts copied from that speech it 
appears that he clearly foresaw, should that bill 
become a law, all harmony between the different sec- 
tions of the Union would be destroyed, and ultimately 
result in civil war. 

Colonel Thomas H. Benton, of Missouri, who had 
served thirty cori.seeutive years in the Senate of the 
United States, and had been elected to the House 
from the St. Louis District to serve as their Repre- 
sentative in the Thirty-third Congress, was an atten- 
tive listener during the delivery of this speecli, and 
after its close, remarked to a gentleman who sat near 
him, "That is a true man sir; n smart man ; a man 
of brains, sir." He then went forward, took Mr. 
Morrison cordially by the hand, and congratulated 
him in the most sincere and friendly manner. Sev- 
eral days after, the writer of this sketch, called on 
Colonel Benton at his house, and listened to his con- 
versation witli reference to the excitement over this 
question whicli prevailed throughout the North, when 
hesaidtliat "Mr. Morrison's speech on the Kansas- 
Nebraska Bill was the ablest speech delivered on that 
question during this excited and protracted debate." 

Years afterwards, when the whole country was con- 
vulsed by the great civil war, the Hon. Salmon 
P. Chase, Secretary of the United States Treasury 
under the lamented President Lincoln, and subse- 
quently chief justice of the United States Supreme 
Court, speaking of Mr. Morrison, said, "He was a 
man of ability and incorruptil)le honesty. That his 
course in Congress on the Kansas-Nel)raska Bill had 
made a most favorable and lasting impression upon 
his mind." 

But his crowning success in life was that of an ad- 
vocate, and as such he will be chiefly remembered. 
In this respect he was endowed witli rare gifts, and 
has had but few equals and no superiors at the Xew 
Hampshire bar. He pre|iaied his cases with great 
care, fretiuently after the adjournment of the court; 
would study the evidence far into the night, prepara- 
tory to his argument in the morning, when men of 
less nerve would have considered themselves tit sub- 
jects for medical treatment. He studied the panel 
as though it had been an open book, and acquainted 
himself with the peculiarities of each juror. He 
was apt to seize the salient points in his cause as they 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



17 



presenteil themselves to the jury, and to study the 
eticct of the evidence as the cause progressed. He 
watched the effect upon each juror with great care as 
the argument proceeded, and could tell with singular 
accuracy whether he carried his hearer along with 
him. When he discovered a leaning against him on 
the part of any doubling juror, he adapted himself 
to the views of that juror, with arguments so con- 
vincing, in a manner of such candor, sincerity and 
truthfulness, and with an influence .so mesmeric that 
he was quite sure to win him over before he closed. 

Hon. Lewis W. Clark, associate justice of the 
Supreme Court, formerly a law-partner with Mr. 
Morrison, said of him, in a recent convei'sation, — 
" He was the coolest man under fire I have ever 
seen in court. The most damaging piece of evidence, 
so far as the jury could observe, produced no im- 
pression on his mind ; and he exercised wonderful 
judgment in handling a dangerous witness. He 
knew when and where to leave a witness better than 
any man I ever saw in the trial of causes before a 
jury." 

Saml'EIj JJaxa Bell was born in Francestown, 
N. H., October 9, 1798. His father was the Hon. 
Samuel Bell, LL.D., a judge of the Supreme Court, 
four years Governor of New Hampshire, and twelve 
years a Senator of the United States. His mfrther 
was a daughter of the Hon. Samuel Dana, of Antrim, 
N. H. He manifested at an early age the love of 
study which distinguished him through life. He 
entered Harvard College in his fourteenth year, and 
was graduated in the class of 1816. He then com- 
menced the study of the law in the office of the 
Hon. George Sullvan, of Exeter, and was admitted 
to the bar of the county of Rockingham early 
in the year 1820. He commenced practice in Mer- 
edith, where he remained a few months, and then 
estaljlishod himself at Chester, then a town of some 
note and the home of several gentlemen of cultiva- 
tion, taste and distinction. Entering into practice 
there, he soon acquired the reputation of being a 
sagacious, learned and trustworthy lawyer. In 1823 
he was appointed solicitor of Rockingham County; 
in 1825 and 1826 was a member of the Legislature; 
in 1827 and 1828 was clerk of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. Mr. Bell remained in Chester ten years, 
and then removed to Exeter, and for some years was 
cashier of the Exeter Bank. In 1836 he removed to 
Concord, and in 1839 to Manchester. In 1846 he 
was police judge of Manchester, and two years later 
was appointed circuit judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas. In 1849 he was appointed a judge of the 
Superior Court, and in 1859 was chosen chief justice, 
which position he occupied until his resignation, in 
1864. 

Judge Bell iiosHCSsed rare personal qualifications for 

a position upon the bench. Dignified in appearance 

and bearing, he was distinguished for i)atieni'e and 

courtesy. He had all an honorable man's aversion 

2 



to meanness and the lower arts of the profession. He 
used his position and authority to promote no par- 
tisan or partial purjioscs. The duties of his position 
were always properly discharged. He was a man of 
very decided opinions. 

The purity of Judge Bell's public and private life 
deserves to be mentioned to his honor. The ermine 
which he wore was unsullied indeed; no shade of 
wrong or dishonor ever fell upon his name. When he 
came to Manchester, the present metropolisof theState 
was a mere village, with its future all undetermined. 
Judge Bell entered with interest into every movement 
for the prospective welfare of the town. Among the 
public enterj^'ises which he was greatly instrumental 
in establishing was that of the City Library, which, in 
spite of all drawbacks, is to-day extensive, valuable 
and incalculably useful to the people. He was also 
an early member of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, and for years held its principal offices. He 
dictl in Manchester July 21, 18G8. 

Daniel Claiik,' the third child of Benjamin and 
Elizabeth (Wiggin) Clark, was born in Stratham, 
Rockingham County, N. H., October 24, 1809. His 
father was both farmer and blacksmith. He was re- 
spected by all who knew him for his integrity. He 
was industrious, frugal, temperate, kind and obliging. 
His mother was strong-minded, devoted to her family 
and very religious. She was not indifferent to the 
good opinion of others, and was ambitious for the 
success of her family, and especially of her children. 
They lived upon a beautiful farm, in the upper |)art 
of the town, near the historic town of Exeter. The 
subject of this sketch remained at home under the 
care and nurture of his excellent parents until he was 
thirteen years of age, going to the common district 
school in summer and winter, or so much of the time 
as it was kept, and assisting about the ordinary farm- 
work in vacation. He learned at school easily, ami 
was more fond of his books than of work ui)on the 
farm. At the age of thirteen he was sent with his 
older brother to the academy in Hampton, N. H., and 
put upon the common English studies. He did not 
then expect to acquire a more liberal education, al- 
though his mother had some undefined notions of a 
higher course of studies for her son. He continued 
at Hampton at intervals, there a term and at home a 
term, helping upon the farm, some four years or more, 
when he determined to go to college. He pursued 
his preparatory studies at Hampton, teaching school 
two winters, and at twenty was prejiared for college. 
He entered Dartmouth College, graduating, in 1834, 
with the fii-st honors of the institution. Rev. Dr. 
Lord, the president of the college, was then in the 
prime of his life. Although he had presided over the 
college but a few years, he had already secured the 
confidence of its friends, so justly merited, as subse- 
quently shown by iiis successful adniinistration of the 

I By Hod. Imao W. Smith. 



18 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



aflkirs of the college tor more Ihau a third of a century. 
AiuDiig Mr. Clark's classmates were Albert Baker, who 
entered upon the practice of the law at Hillsborough, 
N. II., and died at tlie age of thirty-one, his untimely 
death extinguishing hopes which his short but bril- 
liant career had caused his many friends to entertain 
of his future usefulness; Hon. Moody Currier, LL.D., 
of Manchester, Governor of New Hampshire; Hon. 
Richard B. Kimball, LL.D., of New York City, lawyer, 
scholar and author; Rev. Edward A. Lawrence, D.I)., 
Marblehead, Mass.; Rev. Newton E. Marble, D.D., 
Newton, Conn. ; and Professor Alphonso Wood, presi- 
dent of Ohio Female College. Mr. Clark taught school 
winters during his college course and while pursuing 
his professional studies, eight winters in all, including 
the two years before entering college, defraying, in 
part, the expenses of his education with the funds re- 
ceived from teaching. Immediately after graduation 
he entered the office of Hon. George Sullivan, then 
the attorney-general of the State, son of General John 
Sullivan, of Revolutionary fame, at Exeter, and com- 
menced the study of the law, remaining with Mr. 
Sullivan a year and a half. He completed his legal 
studies in the office of Hon. James Bell, afterwards 
United States Senator, at Exeter, and was admitted 
to the bar of Rockingham County in 1837. In the 
same year he opened an office at Epping, where he 
remained some eighteen months, and then, in 1839, 
removed to Manchester, N. H. This thriving city 
was then just rising from the ground. Not a mill was 
running, the canal even being unfini.shed. The only 
railroad then constructed in the State was the Nashua 
and Lowell. The telegraph and the telephone had 
not then been invented. The lumbering stage was 
the only means of jiublic travel. The rates of postage 
were high and the mails slow and few. The embryo 
city was hardly more than a desolate sand-bank, where 
a few hundred people had gathered, allured by the 
prospect of business about to spring up with the im- 
provement of the water-power at Amoskeag Falls. 
Mr. Clark was among the first to open a law-office 
here. He soon acquired an active practice, which 
afterwards grew to large proportions, and for twenty 
years he was employed upon one side or the other of 
nearly every important trial in the county, attending 
the courts also in Merrimack and Rockingham Coun- 
ties. He was employed on behalf of the State in 
the preliminary examination in the "Parker murder 
trial," being occupied almost continuously for a period 
of nearly two months. He succeeded in procuring 
the extradition from Maine of the supposed murderers 
after a lengthy trial in that State, and after a hearing, 
lasting nearly a month, before the Police Court of 
Manchester, procured their commitment to answer for 
the crime of murder. Opposed to him as counsel were 
General Franklin Pierce (afterwards President of the 
United States), General B. F. Butler, Hon. Josiah G. 
Abbott and the late Charles G. Atherton, — an array of 
legal talent seldom seen in this State. Mr. Clark was 



employed for the defense in two capital trials in the 
fall of 1854, — Curtis' and Marshall's. Marshall was 
acquitted, and in the case of Curtis the jury disagreed. 
During the period of his active )iractice the bar of 
Hillsborough County was unusually strong. Among 
its prominent members were Benjamin M. Farley, of 
Hollis; James U. Parker, of Merrimack; George Y. 
Sawyer and Charles G. Atherton, of Nashua; Samuel 
II. Ayer, of Hillsborough; and Samuel D. Bell and 
George W. Morrison, of Manchester. General Pierce, 
of the Merrimack bar, also generally attended the 
courts in Hillsborough County. Of these eminent 
lawyers, Mr. Morrison is the only survivor. General 
Pierce, as a jury lawyer, had no superior in the State. 
He had a very pleasing address, was dignified without 
being reserved, and possessed a magnetic influence 
over men, which rendered him a formidable antagonist 
before jurors. But, in many respects, Mr. Atherton 
stood at the head of the Hillsborough bar as a lawyer 
and advocate. He was a man of scholarly attainments, 
possessed a graceful diction, had a good command ot 
language, knew how and when to use sarcasm, could 
appeal effectively to the passions and prejudices, was 
thoroughly read in the law and was perfectly at home 
in the court-room. With these and other able lawyers 
Mr. Clark spent the most of his active professional 
life, and he was recognized as their peer. His prac- 
tice was as varied as it was extensive. Whatever he 
undertook was thoroughly done. He was loyal to the 
court, faithful to his clients, courteous to opposing 
counsel and kind and magnanimous to the younger 
members of the profession. In his arguments to the 
jury he was never wearisome. He seized upon the 
weak points of the other side and the strong points of 
his own side and made them i>romincnt to the jury. 
He wasted no time on imnuitcrial matters. While he 
did not possess the personal magnetism of Pierce or 
Atherton's power of sarcasm, he could put before a 
court or jury his case with convincing power and in 
its strongest light, and if .success did not always attend 
his efforts, it was not because he failed to present all 
the favorable views of his case. Legal ])apers drafted 
by him were models of accuracy and clearness. They 
were also remarkable for their brevity, all useless 
verbiage being avoided. In his writs the cause of 
action was briefly and clearly set out, and it was rare 
that he had occasion to ajiply for an amendment. His 
clients became his fast friends. His charges were 
moderate, and no client went away feeling that undue 
advantage had been taken of his position or that his 
interests had not been fully protected. 

It is unfortunate, jierbaps, for his legal reputation 
that Mr. Clark was drawn into politics. But it was 
his fortune to live in times when questions of great 
public interest were being discussed and settled, and 
it was inevitable that a person of his ability, education 
and temperament should not entertain pronounced 
views on public questions. In the early part of his 
professional life there was a difference of opinion as 




^ 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



19 



to the wisdom of encouraging the extension of manu- 
facturing ami railroad operations in the State, and 
unfortunately the iiuestion got into ])olitics, and the 
two parties took oi)posite sides. With the ac(piisition 
ol' California came the question of the extension or 
restriction of slavery, the repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise, the civil war, the abolition of slavery and 
the reconstruction measures after the close of the war. 
As a rule, the lawyers of New Hampshire have very 
generally taken an active interest in political ques- 
tions. Thus circumstanced, it was hardly possible for 
Mr. Chirk not to have some inclination towards politi 
cal life. In 1842 he was elected one of the repre- 
sentatives from the town of Manchester to the Legis- 
lature, and was re-elected in 1.S43, and again elected 
in 184G. In 1854, after the adoption of the city 
charter, he was elected representative from his ward, 
and re-elected in 1855. In 1849, 1850 and 1851 he 
was a candidate for the State Senate, but his party 
being in the minority in the district, he failed of an 
election. He acted with the Whig |)arty until its 
dissolution, when he helped to form the Kepublican 
party, with which he has since been identified. He 
■was often upon the stump during the campaigns pre- 
ceding the elections in 1854 and 1855, speaking in 
every portion of the State, from the sea to the moun- 
tains. He also took part in the election contests during 
the decade which immediately followed. Party feel- 
ing ran high, the contests often being exceedingly 
bitter. No speaker was received with greater enthu- 
siasm or addressed larger audiences. It was largely 
owing to his labors at the hustings that a change in 
the iiolilical sentiment of the State was brought about. 
In 1S.")I) hu was a member of the National Rej)ublican 
Convention, and in November of that year was elected 
one of the Presidential electors in New Hampshire, 
and voted for Fremont and Dayton for President and 
Vice-President. 

In 1855 the Legislature was called iipcpii to elect 
two United States Senators. For the first time in a 
quarter of a century, with a single exception, the 
Democratic party was in a minority. The oi)position 
was composed of the Whig party, then on the point 
ofdissolving, the American party, commonly known as 
the Know-Nothing party, and the Free-Soil party. 
These elements, a year later, were fused in the Ile])ub- 
lican party. By common consent, Hon..Iohn P. Hale 
wius nominated for the short term, and the contest 
for the long term wa.s between Mr. Clark and the 
Hon. .lames Bell. In the Senatorial caucus the latter 
was nominated and subseiiuently elected by the Legis- 
lature. The contest, although warm, was a friendly 
one, so that when, two years later, in 1857, the Legis- 
lature was called to fill the vacancy in the ofiice occa- 
sioned by the death of Senator Bell, in obedience to 
the common wishes of their constituents, the Repub- 
lican nuiubers nominated and the Legislature elected 
Mr. Clark. Upon the expiration of his term he was 
re-elected in 1800 with little op|)osition. The ten 



years spent by Senator Clark in Congress constituted 
the most eventful period in the history of the repub- 
lic. He witnessed the rise, progress and overthrow 
of the Rebellion. This is not the time nor place to 
review his Congressional life. One will get a glimpse 
of his position ujjon the slavery question on page 
268, volume i., of Mr. Blaine's "Twenty Years of 
Congress." He served u])on some of the most import- 
ant committees, and was chairman of the committee 
on claims, and, during portions of two sessions, presi- 
dent pro tempore of the Senate in the absence of Vice- 
President Hamlin. He was a firm supporter of the 
various war measures adopted for the sujipression of 
the Rebellion, and had the confidence of President 
Lincoln and Secretary Stanton. He failed of a re- 
election in 1866, as his colleague. Senator Hale, had 
done two years before, not from any lack of ap]>recia- 
tion of the invaluable services they had rendered the 
country, nor of the honor they had conferred upon 
the State by their course in Congress, but because the 
rule of rotation in office had become so thoroughly 
ingrafted in the practice of the Republican i)arty in 
the State that a departure from it was not deemed 
wi.se, even in the persons of these eminent states- 
men. 

In the summer of 1866 a vacancy occurred in the 
office of district judge of the United States District 
Court tor the district of New llaiiipsliire, and Senator 
Clark was nominated forthe position by President John- 
son, and unanimously confirmed by the Senate. He 
thereupon resigned his seat in the Senate and entered 
ujwn the discharge of his judicial duties. The wisdom 
of bis selection has been justified by his career upon 
the bench. The ofiice of the district judge iloes not 
afford such opportunity tor public distinction as the 
bench of some other courts, thejurisdiction of the court 
being limited principally to cases arising under the 
constitution and laws of the United States. New 
Hampshire, from its size, location and business rela- 
tions, furnishes only a small amount of business for 
the Federal courts, and not much of that generally of 
public interest. In addition to holding his own court, 
Judge Clark has frequently been called to hold the 
Federal courts in other States in the First Circuit. 
He has brought to the discharge of his judicial duties 
the same learning, industry and inlercsl that charac- 
terized his labors at the bar and in the Senate. His 
decisions have commended themselves to the profes- 
sion for their soundness and tiiirness. Judge Clark, 
apparently indift'erent to the preservation of his 
opinions, has neglected to jiut them in shape for 
publication in the reports of the First Circuit, to the 
regret of his professional friends and admirers. Ho 
has now (1885) been upon tiie bench nineteen years. 
He was entitled, under a law of Congress, to retire in 
1870, upon the salary lor the rest of his life. But he 
has preferred to earn his salary, and "to wear out 
rather than rust out." Willi liis physical strength 
but slightly impaired, his mind as vigorous as in the 



20 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



years of his full manhood, he, at the age of seventy-five, 
gives promise of many years of future usefulness. 

In 187G he was a member and president of the con- 
vention called to revise the constitution of New 
Hampshire. 

Judge Clark, in 1850, formed a copartnership with 
his brother David in the practice of the law, which 
was dissolved by reason of the ill health of the latter, in 
1856. In December, 1856, he entered into copartner- 
ship with Isaac W. Smith, now upon the Supreme 
bench of New Hampshire, who read law with him in 
1848-50. Their firm was dissolved in December, 1861, 
at which time his practice of the law may be said to 
have substantially ceased. So much of his time was 
absorbed with Congressional duties, and other public 
duties between sessions, growing out of the disturb- 
ances caused by the civil war, that he had but little 
time or inclination to follow the courts or attend to 
the calls of clients in the office. 

Judge Clark has been fully identified with the 
growth and history of Manchester. He has taken 
great interest in its material prosjierity, and has 
merited and received the confidence of its inhabitants. 
Besides representing the town and city five years in 
the Legislature, he has held various offices of trust, 
viz.: member of the School Board, chief engineer of 
the Fire Department, trustee of the City Library, city 
solicitor, trustee and president of the Manchester 
Savings-Bank, director of the Amoskeag Manufac- 
turing Company and trustee of the State Industrial 
School. No citizen of Manchester, with possibly the 
exception of the late Governor Straw, has exerted so 
much influence for its growth and prosperity as he. 
As he looks to-day upon this beautiful city of forty 
thousand people, and their busy mills, well-paved 
streets, shady sidewalks, fruitful gardens and peace- 
ful homes, he, if any one, may repeat the words of the 
Roman poet, " Quorum magna parsfui." 

Judge Cl^rk has not failed to take a deep interest 
in his Alma Mater, which, in 1866, honored herself, as 
well as him, by conferring upon him the degree of 
LL.D. In 1861, upon the invitation of the City 
Councils of Manchester, he delivered a eulogy upon 
the life of President liinciiln, and in 1880, upon the 
iuvitatinn of the alumni of Dartmouth College, a 
eulogy ujion the life of Judge George F. Sheplcy, 
before that association, both of which were subse- 
quently published. In 1869, on the occasion of the 
centennial anniversary of the founding of the college, 
he delivered an address before the alumni at the 
invitation of the trustees. A copy was requested for 
publication, which, unfortunately, was withheld too 
late for it to appear witii the other published pro- 
ceedings of that occasion. 

Judge Clark has contributed liberally to the sup- 
port of preaching, worshiping with the Unitarians. 
His views correspond witli tliose of llev. Dr. A. P. Pea- 
body, of Cambridge, Mass., or with the views of what 
may be called the Orthodox Unitarians. He has no 



sympathy with the doctrines of the ultra portion of 
that denomination. In more recent years he has 
worshiped at the Franklin Street Congregational 
Church (Orthodox), Rev. Dr. George B. Spaulding, 
pastor. 

Judge Clark has been twice married, — the first time, 
in 1840, to Hannah W. Robbins, who died in October, 
1844, leaving no children ; the second time, to Anne 
W. Salter, in 1846, who is still living. He has had 
four children, — three sons and one daughter. The two 
oldest are living, engaged in the practice of the law 
in Manchester. One son died in infancy, and the 
daughter when between two and three years of age. 

Hox. William C. Clarke.' — Among the public 
men of New Hampshire who have lately passed away, 
none was more widely known in the State, or more 
sincerely respected, than Hon. William Cogswell 
Clarke, of Manchester. He was born in Atkinson, 
N. H., December 10, 1810, being the eldest sou of 
Greenleaf and Julia (Cogswell) Clarke. His father 
was a farmer and master-mason, the constructor of 
many fine business buildings in the neighboring town 
of Haverhill, Mass., and a highly-esteemed citizen of 
Atkinson, where he served as selectman andjusticeof 
the peace. He was descended from Nathaniel Clarke, 
a merchant of Newbury, Mass., who died in 1690, and 
from Captain Edmund Greenleaf, of that place, an 
officer of repute in the wars of the early colonists 
with the Indians. The wife of Greenleaf Clarke was 
a daughter of Dr. William Cogswell, of Atkinson, 
who was a surgeon in the Revolutionary army, and at 
one time chief of the Military Hospital at West 
Point. 

William C. Clarke pursued his early studies at At- 
kinson Academy, of which his maternal grandfather 
was one of the founders, and then entered Dart- 
mouth College at the age of eighteen years. He was 
graduated with high honors in the class of 1832, 
which included Professors Noyes and Sanborn, of 
Dartmouth, and the late Samuel H. Taylor, LL.D., 
the noted instructor at Andover, Mass. Immediately 
becoming principal of Gilmanton Academy, he held 
the position for one year, while beginning the study 
of law. He continued his legal studies in the Har- 
vard Law School, in the office of Stephen Moody, at 
Gilmanton, and in that of Stephen C. Lyford, at 
Meredith Bridge (now Laconia), N. H. On his ad- 
mission to the bar, in 1836, he began practice in the 
latter town, and on the creation of Belknap County, 
at the close of 1S40, he was appointed county solici- 
tor. He held this position until the spring of 1844, 
when he removed to Manchester, and continued the 
practice of his profession. Two years later he was 
one of a committee of seven chosen by the town to 
petition the Legislature for a city charter, and at the 
first city election, in August, 1846, was the Democratic 
candidate for mayor. There being two other candi- 

I From Clarke'u " Successful New nampshire Men.'* 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



21 



date3, there was no choice, and he withdrew his name 
before the second ballot, in September. In the same 
year, however, he consented to act as chief engineer 
of the Fire Department of the young city, and he re- 
tained this position till the close of 1848, having a 
number of leading citizens as his assistants. 

In 1849 he was elected to the office of city solicitor, 
which he held for two years, and in 1850 he served 
as a member of the State Constitutional Convention. 
Appointed the juilge of Probate for Hillsborough 
County in ISol, ho ol)tained the judicial title which 
clung to him thereafter. In 1854 he was again the 
Democratic candidate for mayor, but the Whig ticket 
was successful. A year later Judge Clarke was ten- 
dered, by Governor Metcalf, an appointment to the 
bench of the Supreme Court, but he declined the posi- 
tion. As judge of Probate he discharged his duties 
with high public approval, but his removal from this 
office, in 1856, was included in the sweeping political 
changes which began in 1855. In 1858 he served as 
a member of the Manchester Board of Aldermen. 
Soon after the death of the Hon. John Sullivan he 
was appointed, in 1863, to succeed him as attorney- 
general of the State, and, receiving a reappointment 
in 1868, he continued to fill the office until his death, 
in 1872. 

From the time of his admission to the bar until he 
became the chief prosecuting officer of the State, 
Judge Clarke was actively engaged in private legal 
practice. He early acquired the reputation of a sound 
and able lawyer, and obtained an extensive clientage. 
As attorney-general he was highly successful in the 
performance of his duties, to which he devoted him- 
self with conscientious faithfulness. Recognizing the 
semi-judicial character of his office, he did not allow 
the zeal of the advocate to outweigh more important 
considerations, and, in cases where a minor oOense had 
been committed for the first time, he frequently caused 
indictments to be suspended so as to give the culprit 
both a chance and a stimulus to reform. Hardened 
or flagrant criminals he imrsuccl with the rigor de- 
manded liy the interests of justice, leaving no stone 
unturned in his ctlorts to secure their conviction. He 
drew all his indictments with the greatest care, and 
it is said that no one of the number was ever set aside. 
He took equal pains with the jjreparation of evidence 
and of his arguments in all important causes. The.se 
cases include a number of murder trials, which at- 
tracted wide attention when in ])rogress, and which 
affi)rded marked proof of his legal skill. Ilissenseof 
duty being above all other considerations, he was un- 
moved by all attempts to aflect his official course by 
private a])peals or by any species of ])ersonal influ- 
ence. 

Judge Clarke bad a marked distaste for ordinary 
politics and the arts of the politician. On the few 
occasions when he consented to be a candidate for an 
elective office he did not seek the nomin:ition,luit ac- 
cepted it at till' re]U<st of his friends, riiinly believ- 



ing, however, in the original principles of the Demo- 
cratic party, he often gave his voice and pen to their 
support, and was long a prominent member of that 
party in New Hampshire. When theKebellion broke 
out he did not hesitate a moment in regard to his po- 
litical course, but was among the foremost of those 
who urged all citizens to sink minor party differences 
and rally to sustain the imjicriled government. Dur- 
ing this crisis he was active in calling and addressing 
many public meetings, which i)ledged aid to the most 
vigorous measures for the defense of the Union. At 
the great war ma.ss-meeting held in Concord, N. H., 
on the 17th of June, 1863, — which was attended by 
thirty thousand people, from all parts of the State, 
and was addressed by men of national eminence, in- 
cluding a member of President Lincoln's Calnnet, — 
.ludge Clarke called the assembly to order, and read 
the call, after which he was chosen first vice-president. 
Being dissatisfied with the attitude toward the war 
assumed by many of the leaders of the Democratic 
party, he was largely instrumental in organizing the 
zealous War Democrats of the State into a third, or 
" Union," party, which nominated a separate ticket 
for State officers in 18G2 and 1863. This organization 
was not maintained after the latter year, and Judge 
Clarke thenceforward voted with the Republican 
]iarty; but after the early years of the war he re- 
frained from any active participation in politics, which 
he regarded as inconsistent with the nature of his du- 
ties as attorney-general. 

lie was one of the original directors of the Man- 
chester Bank, serving from 1845 till 1849, and of the 
City Bank, with which he was connected from 1853 
till 1863. He was also a trustee of the Manchester 
S ivings-Bank from 1852 until his death. For many 
years he was a trustee of the Manchester Athenieum, 
and when this was succeeded by the City Library, in 
lS.'i4,he was chosen a member and clerk of the board 
of trustees of the latter institution, retaining both 
positions during the rest of his life. He was the first 
treasurer of the Manchester and Lawrence Railroad 
Company, holding that office from .July 31, 1.S47, till 
his resignation took eti'ect, February 8, 1849; and he 
was the clerk of that company from February 28, 
1854, until he died, being also its attorney when en- 
gaged in private legal iiractice. He was a trustee of 
(iilmanton Academy, and in 1854 was a member of 
the national board of visitors to the United States 
Military Academy at West Point. 

Judge Clarke was one of the earliest mendiers of the 
Franklin Street Congrogational Church in Manches- 
ter, and one of the original officers of the society, to 
lioth of which he rendered valuable service. 

S)me mention of his personal appearance should 
not be omitted, as he was a nnm of unusually distin- 
guished presence, having a large, finely-pro))ortioned 
figure, with a handsome, dignified head and face. 
Witlioul undue formality, his manners were invaria- 
Idv conrleiMi- .and refund. Willi excellent literary 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



tastes, he possessed much general inlbrmcition, :ind 
was very attractive in conversation. Though rigid in 
his sense of right and wrong, he wiis eminently chari- 
table in his views of others, having a broad tolerance 
of oi)inions which ditlered from his own. His dispo- 
sition wa.-< genial and his kindness of heart unfailing. 

He was married, in 1834, to Anna Maria Greeley, 
only daughter of the late Stephen L. Greeley, Esq., of 
Gilmanton, X. H. His wife survives him, with four 
children, — Stephen Greeley, Anna Norton, Julia 
Cogswell and Greenleaf. 

The death of Judge Clarice occurred at his home in 
Manchester on Ai)ril 25, 1872, and was the cause of 
widespread sorrow. At his funeral there was a large 
attendance of prominent citizens from many parts of 
the State. Resolutions of regret and eulogy were 
adopted by the city bar, the Hillslxirough County bar. 
the Manchester Common Council and various other 
bodies with which he had been connected. In the 
resolutions of the Common Council he was spoken of 
as " one who, as a former member of the city govern- 
ment, and its legal public adviser, served it with 
marked fidelity and ability, and who, by his many 
virtues, had won the coutidence and esteem of his 
fellow-citizens." His associates of the Manchester 
bar declared that "he was a faithful officer, a wise 
counselor, a respected citizen and a Christian gentle- 
man. He wa.s courteous in manner, efficient in duty, 
upright in character and an ornament to his profes- 
sion." In the resolutions adopted by the bar of Hills- 
borough County, and entered upon the records of the 
Supreme Court, Judge Clarke was described as "a pub- 
lic officer faithful and upright, discharging his official 
duties with signal ability ; a lawyer of large exjic- 
rience in his profession, of well-balanced judgment 
and discretion, well read in the principles of the law, 
and faithful alike to the court and his client ; a citi- 
zen patriotic and public-spirited; in his private rela- 
tions, a gentleman of unblemished reputation, distin- 
guished for his high-toned character, affable manners 
and uniform courtesy; and illustrating in his public 
and private life the character of a Christian gentleman, 
governed by the principles which he was not ashamed 
to profess." 

Clistox Warrixgtok Stanley.' — The subject 
of this sketch was born in Hopkinton, N. H., Decem- 
ber 5, 1830. He was the eldest of four children, 
having one sister, Helen Isabel Scribner (deceased 
March, ISfiS), and two brothers, Edward W. Stanley, 
of Hopkinton, and Hen ton M. Stanley, of New London. 

His father, Horace C. Stanley, still living at Hoj)- 
kinton, is a farmer of moderate means, but of frugal 
and industrious haliits, which are often a surer guar- 
anty of the comforts of life than greater riches. He 
is a sturdy, honest man, of well-balanced character, 
and has always enjoyed the respect and confidence of 
his communitv. 



> Uy lluu. Jo8c|>!i W. Fuilowa. 



His niothir, Mary Ann (Kimball) Stanley, was a 
noble and intelligent woman, highly appreciative of 
the value of learning, earnestly and devotedly at- 
tached to the interests of her family and friends, and 
an ardent worker for the good of society. It was 
largely due to her energy and encouragement that 
her son was enabled to acquire his collegiate and ■ 
professional education. ' 

She commenced his instruction at home, and at the 
age of three years jilaced him in the district school, 
where he made good jirogrtss and showed signs of 
those properties of mind which marked his course in 
later life. 

When about eleven years old he entered Hopkin- 
ton Academy, where he remained until his prepara- 
tory education was completed, and at the age of 
fourteen was admitted to Dartmouth College. 

He was the youngest member of his class, and one 
of the youngest who ever completed the course of 
study in that institution. He graduated in 1849, and 
immediately began the study of law in the office of 
Hon. H. E. Perkins, in Ho|ikinton. During the fol- 
lowing winter he taught school in that town; and, 
although it was a difficult school to manage, and he 
young and without experience, still he completed the 
term with remarkable success and gave entire satis- 
faction. 

He continued to study with Judge Perkins until 
April, ISol, during which time he had the entire 
charge of the post-office at Contoocook and conducted 
its bu.-iiness in the name of his instructor, who was 
postmaster during the administration of President 
Pierce. He then came to Manchester, and entered 
the office of Hon. George W. Morrison, where he 
continued the study of law until his admission to the 
bar in the Supreme Court in Hillsborough County, 
August 12, 1852. During this time he taught school 
in Acton, Mass., two terms (winter of 1850-51 and 
1851-52), where he met with good success. 

One of his pupils, now a prominent business man 
in that vicinity, says: "Mr. Stanley was the most 
successful teacher we ever had during my school-days. 
Ho was able to im|)art knowledge in a [dain, intelli- 
gent manner, which even the dullest could under- 
stand ; and his instruction was impressed upon the 
minds of his scholars in a forcible way which enabled 
them to remember it with great distinctness. He is 
still remembered by the people here with much re- 
spect." 

While pursuing his legal studies he displayed the 
practical ability and industry of his character. Judge 
Perkins says: "He was quick to see just what should 
be done, and always did it witliout being told." 

Mr. Morrison says: "He was one of the best stu- 
dents I ever had. Without interfering with his stu- 
dies, he very soon became familiar with the practice 
sufficiently to do the ordiiniry business of our office 
with remarkable facility and accuracy." 

The office of Mr. Morrison afforded a rare oppor- 



THE BENCH AND BAU. 



23 



tunity for law-students. A great volume of business 
was being transacted, and probably do other place in 
the State had siiidi advantages for learning the prac- 
tice, and (ew lawyers Cduid have been found as well 
quali(ic<l to impart instruction or convey to the stu- 
dent the subtle and intricate lessons of the advocate 
and jurist, and it is easy to see how a man possessed 
of the ability and genius of Judge Stanley became so 
thorough a practitioner even while a student. 

Ininiediatcly after being admitted to the bar he 
returned to Ilopkinton, and remained at his home 
until April, 185;i It was during this time that the 
decease of his mother occurred. He returned to 
Manchester, and became associated with Mr. Morri- 
son and John L. Fitch, Esq., under the firm-name 
of Morrison, Fitch & Stanley. That copartnership 
continueil until November, 18r)7. During its exist- 
ence the health nf Mr. Fitch gradually became im- 
paired. In those days the Hillsborough bar con- 
tained some of the ablest lawyers in the State. It 
Wiis a period of extensive litigation. Morrison, Fitch 
& Stanley were engaged in most of the important 
cases, and their practice extended largely into utlur 
counties. The preparation of causes for trial and the 
care and burden of the office-work devolved ujion the 
junior member. 

It was a kind of labor which he enjoyi'd uml for 
which he was well fitted, and he pursued it with zeal 
and assiduity. JIu was faithful and painstaking in 
the extreme in the investigation of complicated mat- 
ters of fact, and his judgment in the application of 
legal principles was sound and comprehensive. The 
close scrutiny with which he examined every cir- 
cumstance, and watchful care with which he gathered 
U|> all the details of business, gave him uncommon 
readiness and great advantages of an executive char- 
acter, and combined to make him one of the most 
successful practitioners of his time. 

In February, 185G, Patten's Block, where their 
office was located, w;ls burned, and nearly all of the 
lilirary and other books, together witli matiy valuable 
papers of the lirni, were destroyed. In Novenilier, 
1S'>7, Mr. Fitch withdrew from the firm and the 
business was conlinued in the name of Morrison & 
Stanley, but with no material change in its character. 

In 18">8, Ju<lge Stanley was appointed by the United 
States Circuit Court a commissioner of that court, 
which position he held until he was made a member 
of the Circuit Court of New llaiiipshire. In .Vpril, 
1800, Hon. Lewis W. Clark became associated with 
them, under the style of Morrison, Stanley & Clark, 
which continued over six years. The prominence of 
this firm is widely known. Mr. Clark brought 
to it his rare combination of aliility as an advocate 
and a lawyer, and, although llie junior, he fairly 
divided the honors with the other members of the [ 
firm. They had the largest docket in the State and 
were justly entitled to a front rank in the profession. 
The natural result of their situation, however, was to 



more than proportionally increase the responsibility 
and the labor of Judge Stanley. He carried more 
burden of solid professional work during those years 
than any other man in the State, and, in the belief 
of many of his brethren, his work would have com- 
pared favorably with that of any member of the 
profession in the country. 

In December, 1866, Mr. Clark retired, and the 
former style of Morrison & Stanley was adopteil, which 
continued until 1872. Early in that year Mr. Frank 
Hiland w.as associated with them, and they continued 
their business in the name of Morrison, Stanley 
& Hiland. The firm of Morrison & Stanley was the 
oldest law partnership in the State at the time Mr. 
Hiland became a member. 

They continued together until the Sujierior and 
Circuit Courts were established, and .ludge Stanley 
was appointed one of the associate justices of the 
Circuit Court in September, 1874, a position he held 
until that system of judiciary was abolished, in 1876. 
When the Supreme Court was established by the 
Republican party, the selection of suitable persons to 
constitute the court was not entirely without embar- 
rassment, but it was universally conceded that .Judge 
Stanley should be one of the appointees. In the two 
years which he had been upon the bench he had 
demonstrated his entire fitness and ability for a higher 
position, and his selection as one of the associate 
justices of the Supreme Court w:is commended by 
the bar an<l the peo))le of the State with one accord. 
This position he held until his decejise. Indeed, he 
was in the midst of a jury trial when the " poisoned 
arrow " fell at his feet. 

Notwithstanding the many duties and responsibil- 
ities of his professional and official life, he still had 
time and strength for other labors. 

In 18(55 he was elected president of the City 
National Bank, which position he held until 1879, 
when the bank wjis changed and became the Mer- 
chants' National Hank. He was elected a trustee 
of the Mancliester Savings-Hank in 188;?, which 
position he held at his decease. He was a good 
financier, aiul being familiar with the law concern- 
ing commercial paper and securities and possessing 
superior business ability in a general sen.se, he was 
qualified to discharge the duties of those places of 
trust to which he was elected with remarkable ease 
and facility. 

.Judge Staidey was earnestly interested in educa- 
tional matters. He was one of the trustees of Dart- 
mouth College from 1881 to the time of his dcAth, 
and was one of the most efficient and active managers 
of that institution. He was not wholly in sym- 
pathy with the long established course of study, but 
favored the " optional " principle and the introduc- 
tion of the modern languages and scientific studies, 
to .some extent, in place of the classic c(Uirse of the 
early days of the college. But high above all prefer- 
ences of this nature with him was the deliTmination 



24 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



of his character to do well and thoroughly whatever 
was being done, and if it were not the wisest way, 
then to change for that which was such speedily. He 
realized also that institutions of learning like Dart- 
mouth College couhl not be successfully managed 
unless upon the same business principles which in- 
sured success elsewhere, and he applied himself to 
the duties of the college trustee with the same thor- 
oughness and fidelity that characterized his eftbrts in 
other places of public trust. That venerable institu- 
tion lost one of its stanchest friemls and safest 
advisers in the decease of Judge Stanley. 

He was one of the most earnest promoters of the 
undertaking to establish a school under the auspices 
of the Unitarian denomination, and was one of the 
committee of the Unitarian Educational Society to 
procure, as a Unitarian institution, the Proctor .\cad- 
€my at Andover, N. H. He was one of the trustees 
from the time when the society took control of the 
school, and was one of its warmest and most efficient 
friends. He was an earnest advocate of the " country 
• academy," believing it to be one of those institutions 
in our educational system which afforded the i)riv- 
ileges of school to certain classes that would otherwise 
be deprived of them, and that it shoul<l be fostered 
and multiplied until evc;y village and hamlet in the 
country had received its advantages. 

Judge Stanley attended the Unitarian Church 
during most of his life in Manchester. He was for 
many years a trustee, and at the time of his decease 
the president of the first Unitarian Society. His 
connection with that society and his discharge of the 
duties of chief executive officer were characterized by 
the same earnest desire to do his whole duty that dis- 
tinguished him everywhere. 

Politically, .Judge Stanley was a life-long Democrat, 
although he was in no sense a [)olitician. He had 
strong, clear convictions upon the matters of admin- 
istering the government, both in the State and the 
nation, and was in sympathy with the principles and 
theories of the Democratic party, and never hesitated 
to express them whenever occasion required. 

His connection with the Masonic fraternity was 
somewhat prominent, and his resjicct and regard for 
that institution were pronounced and sincere. He 
became a member of the fraternity in January, 1862, 
receiving all the degrees of the American system, in- 
cluding the orders of knighthood, during the following 
year. HewasWorsliiptul Master of Washington Lodge 
in 18(37 and subsequently held important offices in the 
Grand Lodge of the Slate. He was a good Mason. We 
can express no higher eonnnendation. As a citizen. 
Judge Stanley was a model. He was quick to respond 
with his means and counsel in all worthy enterprises, 
while he was prudent and sensible in the expend- 
iture of public funds or private contributions. As a 
friend and companion, he was dear to his chosen circle, 
highly resi)ected for his wise admonitions and cherished 
for his pleasant cordiality and entertaining maiuurs. 



He married Miss Lydia A. Woodbury, only daughter 
of William Woodbury, Esq., of Weare, N. H., Decem- 
ber 24, 1857. He resided about two years in the north- 
erly part of the city, on Beach Street, but in 1859 he 
purchased and remodeled the place on the corner of 
Concord and Pine Streets, which he made his resi- 
dence, and where he lived until his decease. There, 
in one of the happiest of homes, he gathered his law 
and miscellaneous libraries and pursued his official 
labors and studies in the most agreeable manner 
possible, and no matter how humble the petition, how 
unreasonable the hour or how unnecessary the intru- 
sion, his frank and genial welcome was always ex- 
tended to the visitor and his patient and kindly 
audience given. His easy and social manner relieved 
those with whom he had official relations of every 
restraint, and the performance of his duty was always 
free from harshness or useless formality. Those who 
met Judge Stanley, either officially or socially, will 
always rembember such occasions with feelings of 
respect and gratitude. 

While Judge Stanley was able to do everything 
which came within his sphere of life well, and seemed 
to lack for no faculty, he was nevertheless distin- 
guished by certain jirominent traits of character and 
endowed with certain mental qualities in a remark- 
able degree. He had great tenacity of purpose — not 
the sentiment which springs from personal conflict, 
but a strong and abiding principle running through 
every fibre of his being and steadily a.sserting itself 
in every action. He was a man of strong, clear con- 
victions and was as faithful to the course which they 
marked out as the needle to the pole. He disregarded 
abstractions in reasoning and despised methods of 
so])histry. His logic was remarkable for its directness 
and brought him to conclusions with the rapidity 
almost of intuition ; and it is not too much to say, 
generally with unerring precision. He was possessed 
of a wonderfully strong and comprehensive memory, of 
very great industry and remarkable powers of endur- 
ance, and, what seemed to be made up from many facul- 
ties, a grand general business ability which rendered 
him so valuable and efficient in every place where he 
w;is called to act. He loved the practice of the law, 
because it afforded a wide field for his intensely active 
nature, and an O])portunity for the protection of in- 
dividual rights. 

But it was upon the bench that Judge Stanley was 
able to do the best work of his life. He knew well 
the value of a fearless and conscientious court. His 
discriminating mind, accurate memory, great love for 
justice and equity, and quick energetic decision of 
character fitted him in a remarkable degree for the 
duties of that position. Few men have been able to 
transfer their labors from the "heated conflict of active 
jiractice to the unimpassioned and exalted duties of 
the bench" with more perfect adaptation or complete 
fitness. The universal commendation of his official 
life and the jirofound resi)ect in which he was held 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



25 



by the members of the bar are evidence of his great 
merit as a judge. 

Judge Stanley died December 1, 1884, after a very 
brief illiu':?s. He was holding llie September term at 
Nashua, and sus|>ende<l for a few days on account of 
slight indisjiosition, as was generally understood, 
when, suddenly and without warning, the fatal change 
came. His death was a painful shock to the whole 
Slatr, causing deep and widespread sorrow. The 
whole community mourned liis decease as a public 
loss, and the distinjruished concourse which assembled 
to pay the last sad rites and show their respect for 
him was a more eloquent tril)ute to his worth than 
tlu' ]»rofoundest eulogy. 

We cann(tt conclude this imperfect sketch of our 
esteemed I'riend more iittinjrly than by subjoining the 
proceedings of the Supreme Court at tlie law term 
in March, 188o, concerning liis decease. 

Tlie attorney-general, Hon, Mason W. Tappan, 
addressed the court and said, — 

•'^Va// U ph'iue your houorg: 

" I rise to tilt" iMjrfomiiincc of a im-Innrhnly duty, — that of presenting 
reflolutions id rcterenco to tlio death i>f your hite ossuc-iate, Judge Stan- 
ley. 1 had inteiidt'd to have pi-escnted these rosulutions at the session 
of this court in Dei'ember, but it wtut thought hewt tn postpone it till the 
present time, when there would be u more general attendance of the 
nienibere of the bar fruru the various rounttes in tlie Slate. 

"The announcement i»f the deatli of .Judge Stanley in the early daya 
of winter foil with startling suddenness upon the uicniheni of tho bar 
and the people of tho State, and very few knew of liis serioue illness until 
the intelligence was Hashed over the State that he wan dead. 

".\nd it is veri" hanl to realize even now that lie, who, but a few 
weeks ago, seemed in tho enjoyment of such jierfoct health and who gave 
promiBe of HO nuiny yeare of future urt«-futne5d in the position which ho 
adorned on the IkmicIi of this court, has pa*i*ed from anu^ng us forever. 

*"nie suddenness of .Judge Stanley's ileath cannot help reminding us 
of tlie wordu of Mr. Burke i>n a soliiewhat sitnilar occasion, which are 
frequently ipioted, but att little heeded : 'Snatehed from us, as he was, in 
the midst of his usefulnew, while his desires were as warm and his hopes 
M oftg'T AS any of oun, has feelingly told us what shadows we are and 
what shadows we pursue.' 

" His funeral was attended by a largo concourse tjf people, not only 
from the city whore he <iwelt, but by the members of the bar and others, 
coming, I believe, from every county in tho State, showing the high 
c»teem in which he waa held by all raidis and clus^es in tin* community. 

"The friendly and genial relatiuiiH which e.\i»ted ht-twi-en Judge 
Stanli'y and the nienil>ei*s of the bar genemlly, and, I may add, uf tho 
bench ob well, will cause him to be sincen'ly mourned and his naino and 
character to bo held in kiutlly remembrance as long as any of tho(«c who 
knew )iim Hhall live. I move, your hoixtrs, the adoption of tho following 
renolutlons : 

'* It'toh-eil, That in the death of tho Hon. ''linton Warrington Stanley, 
one of the aiUM>cia(<' just i'-ef* of tin- Supreme Court of New Hampshire, on 
the iHt day uf D.-cmlH-r, 1x84, we rccngui/e tho b.-w-.f one i.l the most 
untiring members of ih<- bench, who, by his ability, integrity and faithful 
devdtiun to the duties of his otllce, had deservedly earned and jiossessod 
the enieoni, confldoiico and respect of Ills fuisuctates and of the bar and 
people of the State. 

" We recogni/e, also, Ills sterling ipialities as a man and n cttlxon, 
which made him honored and res)>ected in all (he relations of private 
life. 

"And wo n-spectfully request the court to direct that these pmcoedlnga 
be entered upon its reconls, and thai a copy thereof be presented to his 
widow, with the assurance of tair deep and heartfelt sympathy tn hor 
ben-avi'inonl." 

Mr. .lustice lilodget then spoke as tbllnws: 

"The estimation in which Judge Stanley was held by the profession 
ha» been so Ittly fxpreivod in the resolulions which have been |)i«*sented, 

ami in the remarks »}iii'h have bfcu inadr, that nothing seems to remniti 



for the court to add but to express brietly it* high appreciation of his 
worth and the <leep sense of its heartfelt loss. 

"To say that our brother was invaluable to liis aseociatt^s upon the 
bench is but tho feeble utterance of a self-evident truth, well-known to 
the bar of the State and to all others having business in her courts during 
tlio last deaulo. And from his very nature it could not be otherwise, for 
it was OB natunil for lilni to work as to breathe, and he ceased from his 
laboi's only ;ls he yieltled up his life. But be was far more than a mere 
worker; he was an able, {uiinstaking and an upright judge. His com* 
preheusive mind, sound judgment, retentive memory and unexcelled ex- 
ecutive capacity, added to his untiring industry and the ability practically 
to apply legal pnnciples, gave him eiuitjent qualifications fur the rapid 
discharge of his judicial duties, and commended him alike to his associ* 
iitfei, to the bar and to the general public. To say this is not eulogy, but 
only the repetition of what has been said by all who knew him upon the 
bench, mistakes he undoubtedly made, and failings he undoubtedly had, 
fur he was huinaii, but they may be all covere<l by a mantle of charity 
less broad than ho Wius ever willing to extend over tlie erroi-s of othere ; 
and if men are to be judged by the aggregate of giwd and of evil in their 
lives, by the balancing of their virtues and their faults, few, indeed, will 
be found to stand better than he, either in the estimation of their fellows 
or in the judgment of their God. 

" But it is not for his judicial life alone that Judge Stanley will long 
bo affectionately remembered. As a companion and as a friend, as a 
man and a citizen, — in short. In all the relations of life, — ho nuMited and 
ii'ceived tho confidence and regard of all cbisses of our people. And as 
We recall his simple habits, his cheerful presence, his delightful social 
ipialities, his true heart, liis loyalty to duty, his nice sense of honor, his 
love of justice and hatred of wrong, it is not surprising that in this gen- 
eration, at least, the death of no other citizen of New Hami>shiro has 
carried moi"o widespread sorrow to the hearts of her people or called 
forth more notable tributes of their respect. 

"But while, humanly speaking, we mourn his untimely rcmoval in 
the prime of his niaulio(.>d and in tho midst of his usefulness, we cannot 
but be grateful that his busy, laborious and faithful life was crowned 
with a most fitting close ; for with only u brief illness, and with all his 
faculties unimpaired, ho was mercifully called away without a struggle, 
by a touch as gentle as that which loosens tho ripe fruit from its bough. 
'tJod's finger touched him and he sle])t.' His work was done,— his mis- 
sion was accomplished." 

Chief Justice Doe spoke as follows : 

"Brother Blodget sjieaks for ns all, but my personal relations with 
brother Stanley were of such a cluiracter and duration that I bog to bo 
excused for adding a word. As school-males, brother Clark and I be- 
came acquainted with hitii Ibirty-i-ight yeai-s ago last .\ugust, an<I wo 
remained on intiinali- terms, with some separation of time and siMice, till 
the sudden end last December. For us and many others no death, out- 
side the immediate family circle, could come so near home. Tho melan- 
choly feeling of personal loss is witness of the social and nioml side of 
the man. So many friendly acts without ostentation of favor; so many 
sri'Ties of harmonious counsel ; so long a j)oriod of united labor, with some 
inevitable and highly useful diversity of view and opinion, but without 
a single unideasani jar or discord left in recollection; so much constant 
attention to the wants of others ; so much assistance rendered so habitu- 
ally as to be exptrcted ami received as a matter of coui'se ; so nuich sjicri- 
fic e of his own time, Ial>or and convenieiico for our own benefit ; so many 
hours and days and years lighted up by his tolerant and cheerful spirit, — 
all this and all the pleiuiures of life that this suggests bring a sense of 
poi-sonal bereavement sehloni exjierioncod by those who are not of neor 
kindred. 

"Tho untiring energy that rendered tho most valuable judicial servico 
was enllsteil in helping his asw^clates, im well as In various eiiterpiisi'B, 
public and private. His capacity for continuous labor, for details and 
for everything comprised in the successful conduct of business, combined 
with equanimity and profound and enthusiastic interest In everything ho 
nnth'i'took, made him an invaluable memlK<rof the court and would have 
carrierl him lo the highest dlotincllon ami succem in an.v d<>|)artnu<nt of 
active life. 

"One instance of his Incessant usefulness illustrates the productive 
nature of his talents. The present system of examining candidates for 
ndmlsslon to (he bar Is entirely his work, and the great advantages 
ilerived from ll by the profc-vion and the communitv are a result of Iho 
mis-'ion of iirogni* ami improvement in which he was always engaged. 
Should thisMystom be long continued, it will go far topn>tluce such a bar 
and bench as the lnter>»»tii and the cnnlit of the State demand. This one 
movement bus already ilonc enough for the cuuse of b>gnl eduaitlon In 



26 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY. NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



New llamiwhire to be a lasting monument to his memory. On every 
siiie we have in improveil ii ethods of adininistnition abtinditnt evidence 
of his practical genius. 

'*Whrtt made him specially pleasing as an associate, and his life the 
happiest and most sttisfactory, was his imiierturbable serenity. I have 
seen liini in circnnistanren of annnyiince wljen he Tuost luive thouglit 
himself iil-ntre*!, and when others in iiis i)lace woiiltl have iiiaile mure or 
less exhibition of anger, but from all these thirty-eight and a half years 
I cannot recall a single occasion when he showed any sign of irritation. 
If this extraordinary fact is due to a memory that failed to record some 
expressive change of voice or color, it is, nevertheless, true that in kind- 
ness of nature and freeiloni from fretfulness aiul resentment — qualities 
the most desirable in a friend and of prime necessity in a judge — he was 
unsurpassed. 

"The resolutions of the bar will be entered on the records of the 
court and a copy sent to Mrs. Stanley." 

Hon. Herman Foster was born at Andover, 
Mass., October 31, 1800. He removed to Hudson, 
N. H., with his father's family in 1810. He 
prepared for college, but was jjrevented from pur- 
suing a college course by a disease of his eyes. He 
first engaged in mercantile business in Bo.ston, and 
was married to Harriet M. A. Whittemore, of West 
Cambridge, Mass., in November, 1826. He removed 
to Warner in March, 1830. He studied law with the 
Hon. Henry B. Chase, of Warner, and was admitted 
to practice in December, 1839. He commenced prac- 
tice in Manchester, N. H., in 1840. 

He was town treasurer before the city was char- 
tered. He was a member of the State Legislature in 
1845-46 and in 1868-69; member of the State Senate in 
1860 and 1861, of which body he was president the 
latter year. He was one of the first directors and 
clerk of the Jlanchester and Lawrence Railroad, a 
director of the old Amoskeag Bank lor many years, 
a director of the Amoskeag National Bank, and a 
trustee and one of the investigating committee of the 
Manchester Savings- Bank from its organization to his 
death. He also wtis one of the founders of the City 
Library, tresisurer and clerk of the JIanchester Gas- 
Light Company from its organization to his death. 

In his profession, Mr. Foster was a safe and valu- 
able counselor. He formed his opinions upon careful 
study and examination, and they were generally cor- 
rect and reliable. In the preparation of a cause he 
was thorough. He neglected nothing and was seldom 
caught unprepared. It may safely be said the afiixirs 
of no client suffered in his hands. Mr. Foster died 
February 17, 1875. 

Li:wi.sW.Ci..\RK.'— Judge Lewis Whitemore Clark, 
son of Jeremiah and Hannah (Whitemore) Clark, was 
born in Barnstead, N. H., August 19, 1828. 

With most excellent natural mental capacity, he 
early showed a hunger for knowledge. His education 
began in the common schools of his native town, was 
pursued through Pittsfield and Atkinson Academies, 
in which institutions he prejiared for college, and 
Dartmouth College, where he was graduated with ex- 
cellent standing in 1S.')0. 

He immediately began the special preparation for ' 



By Rev. (larimi II. Kimbiil 



his chosen profession and at the same time was prin- 
cipal of Pittsfield Academy. His principalship of 
this school continued from August, 1850, to December, 
1852, with eminent success. He began his law studies 
with Hon. Moses Norris, continued them under the 
direction of Hon. A. F. L. Norris, and on Sei)teml)er 
3, 1852, was admitted to the bar of New Hampshire, 
to commence a career of i>rofessional service that has 
been alike honorable to himself and creditable to the 
commonwealth of which he is a citizen. 

He practiced law for a time in Pittsfield, N. H., but 
his abilities were such as to soon call him to the me- 
tropolis of the State, where he has since resided, one 
of its best-beloved citizens. 

He was associated in the practice of his profes.sion 
with Hon. George W. Morrison and Hon. Clinton W. 
Stanley, late associate justice of the Supreme Court, 
and remained in this law firm for six years. After a 
time he formed a law partnership with Hon. Henry 
H. Huse, under the firm-name of Clark & Huse, and 
continued thus until May 24, 1872, when he was ap- 
pointed attorney-general of the State by Governor 
Weston, an appointment which his learning and ability 
justly merited. This position he held, with great credit 
to himself and benefit to the State, until August, 
1876. 

His ability and great learning as a lawyer, his faith- 
ful and eminent discharge of the duties of attorney- 
general of the State, and his already marked judicial 
ability pointed to him as the man to fill the vacancy 
which had occurred on the Supreme Bench, and on 
August 13, 1877, he was appointed judge of the Su- 
preme Court of New Hampshire, an appointment 
highly satisfactory to the able bar of the State. 
This position he has filled to the present time with 
highest honor to himself and in a manner worthy the 
great lawyers who have occupied the Sui)reme Bench 
of New Hampshire. 

In December, 1852, he united in marriage with Miss 
Helen M., daughter of Captain William Knowlton, of 
Pittsfield, a lady every way i|uali6cd for the com|ian- 
ionship other eminent husl)anil. Two children have 
been born to them, — Mary Helen and John Lewis. 

Politically, Judge Clark is a Democrat, and while 
not a partisan, has been a wise and honored leader in 
the Democratic party. In 1855 he was the nominee 
of his party for Congress in the Second Congressional 
District and served as a member of the New Hamp- 
shire Legislature from Pittsfield in the years 1855, 
1856, 1857. 

Since his elevation to the Supreme Bench, in ac- 
cordance with his high sense of honor, he has with- 
drawn from active participation in politics, while still 
profoundly concerned in all rpiestions relating to his 
country's weal. 

The private chanicter of .Tudge Clark is one of 
stainless integrity. His mind is eminently <me of 
great self-poise and unusually perfect adjustment. 
He possesses in an unusual degree the [lOwer to grasp 





r^- 



ct^///^c^^ i^^c^ZeA^ ^^ 




Os<^Sz-<:i,irTr^--^^>^"'~nx:?' 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



27 



all sides of questions that come uiicKt his noti(.e, and 
with impertiirliiible i-almness <leal witli tlioni. 

He is pre-eminently a lawyer. He loves his profes- 
sion, and whether at the bar pleading, or on the 
beneli deciding, he is always the searching, candid, 
judicial-minded lawyer. This word is ennobled and 
and dignified iiy Judge Clark as it is and has been by 
the thousands of otlier great names who have so much 
to do in niaicing the great in American history. 

Socially, Judge Clark is genial, cordial, of great 
amiability, direct, and in all his bearing towards all 
marked by a large-hearted kindliness and perfect 
simplicity. 

His whole character is permeated l)y profound reli- 
gious conviction. Personally he is a Baptist, in regular 
communion and active fellowship witii the First Bap- 
tist Ciiurcli of Manchester, but his great catholicity of 
character and mind put him in warm fellowship with 
all noble lives of every faith. 

In the Confraternity of his profession he stands 
envial)ly high. In the circle of society in which he 
moves he is sincerely respected and loved. In the 
community of his residence lie is esteemed and 
honored ; and as a citizen, his large influence can be 
uniformly depended upon in behalf of the public 
well-being. 

Isaac W. B.mith.' — The oi>portunity to attain the 
posts of high honor and extensive influence, which 
under our free institutions is put within the reach of 
all who feel stirring within them the requisite latent 
ability, and are willing to submit to the requisite 
labor, is illustrated in the life of the subject of the fol- 
owing sketch, the Hon. Isaac W. Smith, associate 
justice of the Sujireme Court of New Hampshire. 

Paternal Anceatrtj. — I. Samuel Smith, supposed to 
have emigrated from England and to have been 
among the early settlers of Haverhill, Mass. 

II. Samuel Sniilb, <licd .Tune 2, 17S1, in the eighty- 
sixth year of his age. Sarah, his wife, died April .i, 
1801, aged ninety-two years. 

III. Joseph Smith, born January 22, 1740 (t). S.), 
died January 28, 1816 ; moved from Plaistow, N. H., 
to Hampstead, N. IT., March 4, 1800. He was a sol- 
dier in the War of the Rev(dution. His grandmother 
(whether iiaternal or maternal is not known, nor her 
name) <lied .March ."), ITSir), at the age of one hundreil 
and two years. He married (1) Hannah Harriman, 
May 6, 17()2, who was born March 25, 1744, died 
May 6, 1782, and by whom he had eleven children ; 
(2) Mary Sawyer, December 2, 1784, daughter of .Ton- 
athaii Sawyer, born (October 10, nri.S, at .\tkinson, 
X. II.. died December 2, 1X02, and by whom he had 
live children; {'.i) .Mrs. Phebe Runnels, September 5, 
lSo.'{, who died in July, 1821, aged seventy-nine years. 

IV. Isaac Smith, fourth child of Joseph and Mary 
(Sawyer) Smith, born at Plaistow, X. H., May 
:?I, 17'.i:!, died ;,( Hampstead, N. H., June 11, 186ii; 



'By Rev. K.lwiirl II. 



,k-y. 



married (1) Mary Clarke, daughter of Kathaniel 
and Abigail (Woodman) Clarke, July 18, 1822, who 
was born January 21, 1800, died June (!, 1S.'{3, and by 
whom he had three children ; (2) Sarah Clement, Oc- 
tober 23, 1834, daughter of Moses and Mary 

Clement, of Salisbury, N. H., who was born December 
9, 1795, died May 2, ISGC, and by whom he had two 
children ; (3) Abigail Clarke, March 20, 1807, daugh- 
ter of Nathaniel and Abigail (Woodman) Clarke, 
who was born April 5, 1795, and died .Vugust 27, 1879. 
She was the widow of David Clarke, of Sandown, 
N. H., who died November 24, 1834, at Lowell, Mass 
Isaac Smith was a country merchant, who carried on 
an extensive business for nearly half a century in 
Hampstead, and was widely and favorably known as 
a public-spirited citizen, strongly identified with the 
religious, educational and political interests of the 
town. He was charitable in his views and liberal 
with his means, and was often called to positions of 
public trust and responsibility. His character was 
above reproach, and he died honored and lamented 
by all who knew him. 

Maternal Ancestry. — I. Nathaniel Clarke, born in 
1044 and died August 25, 1690; married, November 2.3, 
1663, Elizabeth, born November 1, 1646, daughter of 
Henry and Judith Somerly, and died March 15, 1716. 
X^alhaniel (.'larke's namea])pears among the early set- 
tlers of Newbury, Mass., where he resided. He 
appears to have been a man of unusually strong qual- 
ities, mental, moral and physical, and these qualities 
have been transmitted from generation to generation 
among his descendants to a (|uite remarkable extent. 

II. Nathaniel Clarke, Newbury, Mass., born March 
13, 1666; died October, 1690; marrie<l Klizal)eth, born 
October 16, 1665, daughter of Dr. Peter and Jane 
Toppan.and sister of Rev. Christopher Toppan, D.D. 
Her father wassixth in descent from Robert, of Linton, 
near Pately Bridge, in the West Riding of York, 
where his descendants continue to the present day 
among the most respectable families of that country. 
Nathaniel went with the expedition to Canada in 
1690, and was mortally wounded there on board the 
ship "Six Friends," in October of the same year. 

III. Xathaniel Clarke, Xewbury, Mass., born July 
29, 16S!I; died in 1754; married, March 7, 1700, Sarah, 
liorn Xovendier 3, 1602. daughter of Samuel and Sarah 
Kent Greenleaf. 

IV. Nathaniel Clarke, Haverhill, Ma.-is., born in 
1728; died November 7, 1805; married, February 18, 
1753, Mary Hardy, of Bradford, Mass., born October 
8, 1733, died .lune 13, 1817. He was a member of 
Captain Richard Saltonstall's (2d) company of foot ; 
served in 1780 on the committee to collect clothing 
for the army, and wa.s active in furthering the cause 
of the Revolution. 

V. Nathaniel Clarke, Plaistow, X. H.,born in 1766, 
died March 19, 184(i ; married .\bigail Woodman, 
born August. 1765, died April 3, 1844. When fifteen 
years old be enlisted for three years as fifcrinCni- 



28 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



tain Nehemiah Emerson's Company, Tenth Massa- 
chusetts Regiment, and remained till the close of the j 
war. He w;w wounded at the battle of White 
Plains. 

VI. Mary Clarke, born at Plaistow, N. H., January 
21, 18U0; died June 6, 1833, at Hampstead, N. U. ; 
married Isaac Smith, July 18, 1822. She was a woman 
of great personal beauty and rare sweetness of char- 
acter, po.ssessed of gentle ways, dignified manners 
and fine womanly sense. She lived an exemplary 
Christian life, and her early death was dei)lored by a 
large circle of friends. 

Isaac William Smith, the second child of Lsaacand 
Mary (Clarke) Smith, was born in Hampstead, N. H., 
May 18, 1825. His parents shared fully the honor- 
able ambition which lias from the beginning charac- 
terized our old New England families, and which goes 
so tar to account for the moulding and controlling 
force of the New England element in the country at 
large, — the ambition to secure the best possible advan- 
tages of education for their clildren. For an end so 
important in their estimation they were willing to toil 
and to make large sacritices, and for this, in his case 
as in so many others, a debt of gratitude not easily to 
be repaid is felt to be most justly due. 

His early years were passed in the quiet atmosphere 
of a country village, under the influences of a pure and 
hap])y home, and in attendance for brief periods at 
the academies in Salisbury, Atkinson, Derry and San- 
borntcm. At the age of fifteen years he was sent to 
pursue his studies preparatory for college at Phillips 
Academy, Andover, Mass., then under the care of 
Samuel H. Taylor, LL.D., one of the most distin- 
guished educators that this country has as yet pro- 
duced. Having com|)leted these studies, he entered 
Dartmouth College in 1S12. The president of the 
college, Rev. Nathan Lord, D.D., was then in the 
full meridian of that remarkable career which secured 
for him a place am(mg the foremost college presidents 
of the country. The class with which Judge Smith 
graduated in 1841) was small in number, but is re- 
markable for the proportion who have become distin- 
guished in professional life, including Rev. Charles A. 
Aiken, D.D., president of Union College and pro- 
fessor in Princeton Theological Seminary ; Hon. Ben- 
jamin F. Ayer, LL.D., lawyer, Chicago, 111. ; Dr. 
Josiah W. Barstow, sujjcrintendent of Flushing (N.Y.) 
Insane Asylum ; Rev. James J. B'aisdell, D.D., 
professor in Beloit College; Hon. Joseph JI. Cavis, 
judge of Fifth District Court, California ; Dr. Edward 
H. Parker, professor in New Y'ork Medical College; 
Rev. Alonzo H. Quint, D.D., trustee of Dartmouth 
College; Hon. Edward J. Warren, judge of Superior 
Court, North Carolina; and Rev. Joshua W. Well- 
man, D.D., trustee of Andover Theological Sem- 
inary. 

Soon after his graduation Judge Smith commenced 
his legal studies in the office of William Smith, Esq., 
at Lowell, Mass. After spending nearly a year in 



this office, he removed to Manchester, and completed 
his studies in the office of Hon. Daniel Clark. He 
was admitted to the bar July 9, 1850, and soon after 
entered into a partnership in legal jiractice with Hon. 
Herman Foster, which continued nearly two years. 
Subsequently he was for five years the partner of 
Hon. Daniel Clark. 

He was early recognized by his fellow-citizens as 
taking a lively interest in the welfare of his adopted 
city and as qualified to fill j)Ositions of trust and re- 
sponsibility in its affairs. He was president of its 
Common Council in 1851 and 1852, city solicitor in 
1 854 and 1855, and mayor of the city in 1869. In 1855 
he was appointed judge of the Police Court of Man- 
chester, but resigned the office in 1857 to engage more 
fully in tlie practice of his profession. He was 
elected in 1859 to represent his ward in the Legislature 
of the State, and was re-elected in the following year, 
and in the latter year was chairman of the judiciary 
committee of the House of Representatives. In 1862 
and 1863 he was a member of the State Senate and 
chairman of its judiciary committee. In 1863 he was 
a])i)ointed by President Lincoln assessor of the Second 
Internal Revenue District of New Hampshire, and 
held the office until 1870. He was appointed associ- 
ate justice of the Supreme Judicial Court, February 
10. 1874, by Governor Straw. In August of th.it year 
the court was reorganized, and he was appointed by 
Governor Weston associate justice of the new court.and 
held the office until the court was again reorganized, in 

1876. After leaving the bench he resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession, and continued it until July, 

1877, when a vacancy occurred in the Supreme Court, 
and he was, upon the recommendation of almost the 
entire bar of the State, appointed by (Tovernor Pres- 
cott to fill it, a position which he still occupies. 

As a lawyer, Judge Smith has throughout all his 
practice been characterized by a clear, penetrating 
judgment, unsparing industry, unbending integrity 
and fidelity to all trusts. The high re|)Utation which 
he early acquired, built on solid tbundatidns, has 
never been shaken. Upon the bench his well-known 
ability as a lawyer, the conscientious care and thor- 
oughness with wdiich every case upon which he is 
called to express an opinion is examined, and the 
judicial poise and impartiality which he always main- 
tains, secure for his rulings and decisions a high 
degree of confidence and respect. 

.Judge Smith's personal interest in the affairs of his 
A/ma Afater has suffered no abatement as other cares 
and interests have multiplied. He was president of 
the Dartmouth Alumni Association in 1881-83, and of 
the Phi Beta Kai)pa Society in 1882-84. In college he 
was one of the charter members of the Dartmouth 
Chapter of the Alpha Delta Phi Society. In 1880 he 
delivered before the Alumni Association a eulogy 
u|)on the life and character of Hon. AVilliam H. 
Rartlett, late associate justice of the Supreme Court 
of New Hampshire. In March, 1885, he was elected 




/^,_^ A-.^ 



THE BENOH AND BAR. 



one of the trustees of the college. He has found 
time amid the press of professional duties to indulge 
his taste for historical investigation, contributing his 
share to the researches of the New Hampshire Histor- 
ical Society, of which he has been a member since 
18C1. As early as 184!) he delivered an address, 
which was subsequently published, at the centennial 
celebration of the incorporation of his native town. 
His tastes in this direction gave a special zest and 
value to a visit which he made, in the summer of 
1878, to several of the scenes of special historical in- 
terest in the Old World. 

Politically, the sympathies of Judge Smith have 
been with the Republican party since its first organi- 
zation. He was an earnest advocate of the great 
principles which that party bore inscribed upon its 
banners in our terrible civil stri'c and in the period of 
reconstruction which followed it, and which are des- 
tined to go down to the future as the inspiring and 
plastic force in one of the great epochs in human his- 
tory. He was, in 1856, a delegate to the National Con- 
vention which nominated Fremont and Dayton as 
candidates for President and Vice-President. 

Religiously, by education and by conviction, his 
sympathies are with the Orthodox Congregationalists. 
He early identilied himself with the Franklin Street 
Congregational Society in Manchester, assuming his 
full share of its burdens and responsibilities, being 
called at did'erent times to fill the oflices of president, 
treasurer and director in it. In liSTO he became a 
member in full communion of the church with which 
that society is connected, and has always taken a 
warm and lively interest in its prosperity and in the 
advancement of the cause which it represents. 

Judge Smith was united in marriage, August 1(1, 
18.34, with Amanda W., daughter of Hon. Hiram 
Brown, the first mayor of Manchester. Their chil- 
dren, eight in number, are Mary Anumda, born June 
5, 1855; William Isaac, born February 22, 1857; 
Arthur Whitney, born March 9, 18G0 ; Julia Brown, 
born January 17, 1802 ; Edward Clark, born October 
24, 18()4; Daniel Clark, born April 5, 18G(); Jennie 
Patterson, born Septendjcr 2it, IStiS; and Grace Lee, 
born September 10, 1870. 

Jamk-s F. BltuniS.'- — John and Nancy (Franklin) 
Briggs were of that class of working Englishmen who 
had the courage to flee from hard surroundings which 
no strength could overcome, and seek in a new world, 
among .strangers, a chance to improve their condition. 
They were factory o[jeratives at Bury, Ijanca.shire 
County, England, where their son James F. wjis born, 
October 23, 1827. When ho was lourtcen months old 
they took passage on an emigrant ship for America, 
and after a rough voyage of more than seven weeks 
landed in Boston, Marcli 4, 1829. (Joing direct to 
Andover, Mass., the father found employment in a 



'Bjr Honry M. Putney, from Clark'i "Snccemful New Hampiblro 
Men." 



woolen-factory there. From that place he removed 
to Saugus, where he worked a short time, and from 
thence to Amesbury, which was the family home 
until 183G. In the fall of that year the father, in 
company with two brothers, bought a small woolen- 
factory at Holderness (now Ashland), N. H., and, 
having established his home near by, commenced 
business on his own account, in manufacturing 
woolen cloths. But few operatives were needed to 
run this mill, and they were mainly the three pro- 
prietors and their children, among whom was the boy 
j James, then a lad nine years old, who had begun to 
earn his living in a factory before the removal from 
Massachusetts, the liimily circumstances being such 
that all had to contribute to its support as soon as 
they were able. He was continuously em]>loyed in 
the mill for the next five years; but during this time 
he had learned enough of books to make him ambi- 
tious to know more; and, as the affairs of the family 
were fairly prosperous, at the age of fourteen he was 
sent to the academy at Newbury, Vt., and afterwards 
to the one at Tilton. Being an expert operative, able 
to take the wool I'rom the fleece and convert it into 
cloth, by working in the factory a part of each year 
he earned the money to pay his expenses at these 
institutions one or more terms every year until 1848, 
when he arranged to commence the study of law with 
Hon. William C. Thompson, at Plymouth; but in 
February of that year his lather died, leaving a family 
of eight children, six of whom were younger than 
James, in destitute circumstances. This aflliction, 
which threw the care of the family largely upon the 
young man, compelled him to change somewhat his 
plans; but he did not for a moment lose sight of the 
object he had in view, and, as he could not enter the 
law-oflicc at Plymoutli, lie liorrowed books from it 
and pursued his studies during such time as he could 
get at home, for a year, when he entered the ottice of 
Hon. Joseph Burrows, then a practicing lawyer at 
Holderness. 

In 1849 the family removed to Fisherville, in order 
that the younger children might obtain employment 
in the factory there, and he completed his studies in 
the oflice of Judge Butler, from which he was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1851. A few months later he 
commenced the practice of law at Hillsborough 
Bridge, whither he went a jicrfcct stranger, without 
money or reputation. But he had ability and energy, 
was willing to work, knew how to live within a snnill 
income until lie could make it larger, and little by 
little lie gained clients and friends, who gave him a 
lucrative practice, accepted his counsel, followed his 
leadership and established his reputation as the most 
popular and influential man of the town. In 185)), 
1857 and 18.'')8 he was sent by a nearly unanini'Uis 
vote to represent Hillshorougli in the Legislature, 
where he was at once accorded a prominent position 
aa a member of the judiciary committee, and the 
third year was honored by the nomination of his 



30 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



party for the Speakership. At this time lie acted 
witli the Democratic party, ami cuiitiiiucd to tlo so 
until the War of the Rebellion, when he felt that all 
loyal men should unite to save the Union and main- 
tain the national authority, and, having been nomi- 
nated by the Democracy of his district for councilor 
upon a platform which enunciated peace-at-any-price 
doctrines, to which he could not assent, he declined 
the nomination, and from that day has been an 
ardent, active and enthusiastic Republican. 

While the Eleventh Regiment was being recruited 
he tendered his services to the Governor of the State, 
and was appointed quartermaster on the staff of Col- 
onel Harriman. In this capacity he served through 
the battles of Fredericksburg, the military operations 
in Kentucky, and the Mississippi River expeditions 
which resulted in the capture of Vicksburg and 
Jackson, for about a year, when he was prostrated by 
the malaria of the southern swamps, and compelled 
to resign and return to his home in Hillsborough. 

During his absence in the field aud the illness 
which succeeded his return his legal business had 
become somewhat demoralized, and on the recovery 
of his health he concluded to start anew in a wider 
field of action in Manchester, to which city he re- 
moved in 1871, forming a partnership with Hon. 
Henry H. Huse, which still exists. Manchester gave 
him a cordial welcome. Her mill operatives and 
other mechanics greeted him as an honored graduate 
of their school, who in his after triumphs had never 
forgotten the hard road by which he had journeyed 
to success; her lawyers and clients were already well 
acquainted with his professional abilities; her sol- 
diers recognized him as an old companion-in-arms, 
and her politicians a.s an earnest Rei)ublican who 
could and would be a tower of strength in every 
campaign. Under these circumstances he did not 
have to wait for business or political preferment. 
Soon after opening his office he was appointed city 
solicitor, an<l in 1874 he was elected to the Legislature 
from Ward Three. Two years later he was chosen 
Senator from the Manchester District, and in the same 
year wiis sent to the Constitutional Convention. 

In all these positions he won reputation and friends 
to such an extent that in 1877 he was nominated for 
Congress without substantial opposition, and elected 
by a large majority. At the expiration of his first 
term he was unanimously renominated, and after an 
exciting campaign was re-elected by a majority of 
eight hundred and forty-nine over the combined 
Democratic and Greenback vote. Two years after- 
wards it became a (piestion whether he should be 
returned. The traditions and jirejudices of the dis- 
trict were strongly against a third term. Four other 
able and deserving men were ambitious to succeed 
him, and he declined to push for the nomination, but 
accepted a call to take the stumj) in Maine, leaving it 
for his friends to determine whether his name should 
be used in the convention. To one of these, who 



wrote him that he ought to return from Maine and 
attend to his canvass, he replied; "'I am assured that 
I can be of considerable service here, and, as it is of 
vastly more im))ortauce that the cause shall triumph 
in this State next Monday than that I shall be re- 
nominated, I must remain and trust to you and others 
to decide whether it is best to send me back to Wash- 
ington. Whatever that decision may be, I shall be 
satisfied." The convention met just after the disas- 
trous defeat of the party in Maine, and when it 
ajipeared that there was only a desperate chance for 
its nominee to be elected. It decided that if any 
man could succeed he could, and a few days after he 
took the stump. Manchester, which was counted a 
doubtful city when the convention assembled, gave 
him more than eight hundred majority, and the rest 
of the district swelled this to fourteen hundred and 
eighty. 

In Congress, Mr. Briggs was from the first a faithful, 
hard-working member, always in his seat, tireless in 
serving his constituents, especially the veteran sol- 
diers, and conscientiously devoted to the discharge of 
all his duties. In the Forty-fifth Congress he was a 
member of the committee on patents; in the Forty- 
sixth, of the committee on naval affairs; and in the 
Forty-seventh, chairman of the committee on expen- 
ditures iu the War Department, and a member of the 
judiciary and reform in the civil service. No 
member of the House commanded a more perfect 
confidence in his associates, and few, if any, were 
able to accomplish so much. He succeeded at Wash- 
ington as he did at home, by quiet, patient, persistent 
work, and was satisfied with results rather than with 
Ijrilliant outbursts and noisy exhibitions of his rhet- 
orical [lowers. 

Mr. Briggs married Roxana Smith, the daughter of 
Obadiah and Eliza M. Smith, of New Hampton, and 
has had three children, all of whom are living. The 
oldest, a son, was educated at West Point, and served 
four years in the army, when he resigned, and is now 
engaged in the manufacturing business iu Trenton, 
N. J. Two daughters reside with their parents in 
Manchester. 

In concluding this brief sketch, written without the 
knowledge of its subject, the author feels that it will 
fail to satisfy those who have known Mr. Briggs inti- 
mately without some direct reference to the (pialities 
which characterize him in all positions in life. Prom- 
inent among these are his perfect fidelity, industry, 
steady courage and thoroughness. It is natural for 
him to be true, impossible for him to be false. He is 
ambitious, and few prize more highly the honors they 
win; liut he is incapal)le of the duplicity, demagogy 
and all the clieaj) artifices by which some men suc- 
ceed. His faithfulness to his convictions does not 
count cost or query about consequences to himself. 
He is as stanch and true a friend as ever lived, and 
he never cheats those whom he dislikes or despises. 
His generosity and devotion to his family are far- 





t^^^-^>^ LO^i^^(>^ 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



31 



reaching and untiring. He is a public-spirited citi- 
zen, a kind neijrlibor and a pleasant companion. He 
is always approachable, i)atient and considerate. In 
every cause in which he enlists he is a hard worker 
and a free giver. He knows how to wait and how to 
look beyond temporary reverses to the complete tri- 
umph which he always believes will crown and estab- 
lish the right. He never frets and never rests until 
the result is secure. His private life is without a 
stain, and the fierce light of the hottest campaign has 
disclosed no shadow of a blot upon his public record. 
His symi)atliies are with the people, and his head and 
hands are controlled by his heart. These qualities 
have made .lames F. lirijr]Lrs what he is. They have 
supplied the place of early advantaj^es, inllucntial 
friends and fortune. They have carried him from 
the woolen-mill, working for a few cents a day, to 
the national House of Kepresentatives, commissioned 
to speak and act for the largest and richest district in 
New Hampshire. They made him strong at the bar, 
popular at the polls and influential in Congress. 

Davjd Cross, one of the loading lawyers at the 
Hillsborough County bar, was born in Weare, N. H., 
July 5, 1817. His father, David Cross, son of Abial 
Cross, was born in Salem, N. H., June 19, 1772, and 
died in Weare, March 7, 1856. His father w-as a 
farmer, a man of great energy, remarkably indus- 
trious and upright, kind and hospitable, and held in 
high esteem by all who knew him. 

His mother was Olive Kimball, daughter of Thomas 
Kimball and Olive Lovejoy Kimball, ofPembroke; was 
born Junel9,1782,and died April .3, 1871. Hefittedfor 
college at Hopkinton and Phillips Academy, A ndover, 
Mass., and graduated at Dartmouth College in 1841. 
He read law in the ofHcc of Willard Raymond, in 
Troy, N. Y., at the Harvard Law iSchool, and office of 
Hon. Daniel Clark, in Manchester, and was admitted 
to the bar in December, 1844, and has continued in 
active practice to the present time. 

In IS.'iO he married Anna Quackenbush Eastman, 
a daughter of Hon. Ira Allen Eastman, who was 
a member of Congress frpm this State for four 
years and one of the judges of the Supreme Court 
for fifteen years, and one of the most distinguished 
lawyers of the State. He died in Manchester in 1881. 
Her mother, a daughter of .lohn N. Quackenbush, of 
Albany, N. Y., is living in Manchester. 

Of the five children of Mr. and Mrs. Cross, two 
died in infancy. Clarence Eastman Cross died Janu- 
ary 11, 1881, he being withineleven days of twenty-one 
years of age. He was a member of the junior class 
in Dartmouth College. The death of Clarence was a 
terrible griff to his parents and a disappointment of 
many cherished plans. He seemed to have inherited 
from his father and grandfather a taste and an aliility 
for the law, and his character and talent gave high 
hopes of success. He seems abun<lantly qualifu'd to 
a.ssist his father in professional labor and to achieve 
for himself an honorable position. Of the two sur- 



viving children, Allen Eastman Cross, born Decem- 
ber 30, 1864, is now a member of the senior class iu 
I Amherst College; Edward Winslow Cross was born 
July 21, 1875. 

Judge Cross has always manifested an interest in 
all matters tending to advance the moral and mate- 
rial interests of his city and the State. 

In 1852 and 1853 he was city solicitor. In 1848, 
1849, 1856, 1876 and 1877 he was a member of the 
Legislature from Manchester. 

In 1856 he was appointed judge of Probate for 
Hillsborough County, which office he held until 1874. 
He was United States pension agent from 1865 to 
1872. During all the time he was judge of Probate 
and pension agent he continued in the active practice 
of law at Manchester, — the business of the pension 
agency being done by clerks under his supervision 
and direction. The labor in his profession from 1865 
to 1872, with his other business, was severe ; he, how- 
ever, always worked with great cheerfulness, and 
filled every position creditably and honorably. 

Judge Cross was one of the directors, from 1855 to 
1865, of the Merrimack Kiver State Bank, and has 
been one of the directors and vice-president of the 
First National Bank since its organization, in 1865. 
He has also, since 1861, been one of the trustees of 
the Merrimack River Savings-Bank. He is an active 
memberofthe Franklin Street Congregational Church. 
He has been associated as partner in the practice of 
law with Elijah Miller Toplifl" Henry E. Burnham, 
Ira A. Eastnuin, and at the present time with D. 
Arthur Taggart. No office in the State |)rohably for 
the last thirty-five years has had so many law students 
as that of Judge Cross. 

That Judge Cross has been eminently successful in 
his chosen profession the records of the courts of New 
Hampshire and the testimony of his cotemporaries in 
])ractice abundantly prove. He came to the bar of 
Hillsborough County at a time when such men as 
Pierce, Perlcy, Daniel Clark, George Y. Sawyer and 
George W.Morrison were in the full tide of successful 
practice, constituting a gala.xy that for ability and bril- 
liancy has seldom been seen at the .same time in prac- 
tice before the courts of a single county or State. 
While not so richly gifted with oratorical powers as 
some of these men, he at once took a jxisition, and 
has since maintained a re])Utation not inferior to 
theirs as a sound lawyer and a safe ami prudent 
counselor. 

The secret of Judge Cross' success seems to be 
largely due to causes over wdiich he had no control ; 
he had the rare good fortune to be endowed naturally 
with strong and active mental powers, keen moral 
l)crception and a sound constitution. Careful disci- 
pline of these gifts and faculties has produced in him 
a broad and well-balanced mind,|>ractical good sense 
and judgment, an even and cheerful temper, warm 
and deep sympathies, a cordial and engaging manner, 
a modest and unselfish disposition, a sturdy honesty 



32 



HISTORY UF HILLSBOROUGH COUiNTl', iNEW HAMPSHIRE. 



that temptatiuii assails in vain, ami a capai'ity aud 
love for the often laborious work and duties of his 
profession which make all burdens light and labor 
pleasant. 

Judge Cross enters into the cause of his client with 
zeal and jirosecutes it with energy, but never forgets 
the principles of justice, and is never unmindful of j 
the rights of others, seeking in all his acts to aid the ! 
court and jury to reach just conclusions upon the law 
and evidence. By his candor and fairness in con- 
ducting the numerous causes before the courts he has 
won the confidence alike of court and jury, which 
fact has deservedly contributed largely to his success, 
and at the same time gained for him the warmest 
personal regard of his brethren at the bar. To the 
large number of younger men who in forty years have 
made Judge Cross's office a school in which to pre- 
pare themselves for the duties of profcs.sional life 
he has been more than an instructor. By his uniform 
courtesy, his upright, honorable conduct, fairness and 
unswerving rectitude, he has taught them not only the 
principles of law, but the principles that underlie high 
and manly character as well. 

In the full vigor of his professional life, with a large 
and successful business, rich in the confidence and 
regard of his [)rofcssi()nal brethren and fellow-citizens 
in every walk of life, he seems to have reached the 
full fruition of his labors, and to be in the enjoyment 
of the pleasure that an honorable and unselfish career 
confers upon any man. 

LrciEN B. Clouoh was graduated at Dartmouth 
College with the class of 1850. 

He commenced his legal study with Messrs. Morri- 
son & Fitch, of Manchester, in 1850, and afterwards 
pursued it with Raymond & King, of Troy, N. Y., 
and was admitted to the bar in Albany, N. Y., 
upon examination, in 1851. 

In 1853 he returned to New Hampshire and, after 
being admitted in this State, opened an ollice in 
Manchester. 

In 187-t he was api)ointed judge of Probate for the 
county of Hillsborough, which office he held about 
two years. 

In 1878, David F. Clark, Esq., who studied his 
profession with Mr. Clough, became associated with 
him as junior jiartncr, under the style of Clough & 
Clark, which firm is still in practice. 

Cyrt's a. Sulloway, son of Greeley and Betsey 
L. SuUoway, was born in Grafton, N. H., June 8, 
1839. His boyhood was passed in his native town, 
where his opportunities for securing an education 
were very limited. He, however, improved such ad- 
vantages as were afforded by the common schools, and 
subsequently attended the academics at Canaan, An- 
dover, Franklin, and Colby Academy, at New Lon- 
don, N. H. 

Having decided upon the legal profession as his life- 
work, he began the study of the law, in 18(il, in the 
office of Pike & Barnard, at Franklin, N. H. He 



was admitted to the bar at Plymouth, in November, 
1863, and soon after located in Manchester, forming a 
coi>artnership for the practice of law with Samuel 1). 
Lord, under the firm-name of Lord & Sulloway. This 
partnership continued until September, 1873, when 
Mr. Sulloway associated with him Elijah M. Topliff, 
the firm being Sulloway & To|)liff. Dennis F. O'Con- 
nor subsequently became a member of the firm, it 
now being Sulloway, Topliff & O'Connor. 

Mr. Sulloway was a member of the Legislature in 

1872 and 1873, in the former year being chairman of 
the committee on elections, and in the latter chair- 
man of the judiciary committee of the House. He 
was also deputy collector of internal revenue from 

1873 to 1878. In 1878 he was opposed to the con- 
traction of the currency, and in that year was the 
Greenback candidate for Congress. He was a mem- 
ber of the Republican party down to 1880. In that 
year he cast his vote for Hancock, and in 1884 for 
President Cleveland. 

May 31, 1864, he united in marriage with Helen M., 
daughter of Jonathan W. Fifield and Theodorah 
(Dickinson) Fifield, of Franklin, and their family 
consists of one daughter, — Belle H., born July 31, 
1868. 

Mr. Sulloway, upon his admission to the bar, at once 
displayed such energy, ability and adaptation to his 
profession that he soon surrounded himself with a 
large clientage, and rapidly rose to prominence. 

To great keenness, penetration and power of ana- 
lysis he adds fluency, pungency and force in the pres- 
entation of a cause to a jury, and as an advocate, 
he espouses his causes fearlessly and leaves nothing 
undone, in the line of honorable warfare, to win suc- 
cess. 

His prominence in the trial of the most important 
causes in his own county, and his constantly widening 
field of practice, now embracing a majority of the 
counties in the State, are conclusive proofs that his 
legal fame rests upon a solid aud enduring basis. 

Hon. Henry E. Burxuam, son of Henry L. and 
Maria A. Burnham, was born in Dunbarton, N. H., 
November 8, 1844. He graduated at Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1865, and was admitted to the Merrimack 
County bar in 1868. He began the practice of the 
law in Manchester, N. II., in Septemberof same year. 
He was appointed judge of Probate for Hillsborough 
County July 25, 1876, and resigned June 3, 1879. 

Charles Henry Bartlett was born in Sunapee, 
N. H., October 15, 1833. He is the fourth son of 
John and Sarah J. (Sanborn) Bartlett, and is a lineal 
descendant, in the eighth generation, of Richard Bar- 
tlett, who came from England to Newbury, Mass., in 
the ship "Mary and John," in 1634. 

The original orthography of the name was Bartte- 
lot, which is still preserved by the family in Eng- 
land, whose ancestral home in Stopham, Sussex 
County, has remained in possession of the family for 
nearly a thousand years, and the present occupant, 



I 




I 

I 




I 

I 



it 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



33 



Hon. Walter B. Barttelot, is the member of Parlia- 
nieiit from that county. 

In the same ancestral line is found the name of 
Hon. Josiah Bartlett, who, as a delegate in the Con- 
tinental Congress from New Hampshire, was the first 
man to vote " yes " on tlie passage of the Declaration 
of Independence, July 4, 177(), and the second to afii.\ 
his signature theret<j. All the liartktts wliosc names 
appear in tlie annals of New Hampshire trace their 
lineage to the same ancestry. 

Mr. Bartlett has four brothers — Joseph S., who re- 
sides in Claremont, and Solomon, John Z. and George 
H., wiio reside in .Sunapec — and two sisters, — Mrs. 
Tlioraas P. Smitli and Mrs. John Felch. His parents 
passed away at the advanced age of eighty-two years, 
in the enjoyment of an ample competency, the fruits 
of a long life of earnest and cheerful labor, and the 
practice of astern, self-denying economy, a character- 
istic of tlie best type of our New England husbandry. 

Mr. Bartlett's early life was mainly .spent upon liis 
father's farm, laboring through the summer season 
and attending school during the winter. He early de- 
veloped a decided taste for literary pursuits, and from 
childhood devoted a liberal share of his leisure mo- 
ments to tlie perusal of such books as were accessible 
to him. He also contributed liberally to the current 
literature of the day, and showed remarkal)le facility 
in both prose and poetic composition. He received 
his education at the academies at Washington and 
New London, after which he commenced the study of 
law in the office of Jletcalf & Barton, at Newport. 
He studied subsequently witli (leorge & Foster, at 
Concord, and witli Morrisson it Stanley, at Manches- 
ter, beingadmitted to thebar of Hillsborougli County, 
from the office of tlie latter, in 1858. In that year he 
began the practice of his jirofcssion at Wentvvorth, 
N. H., and in 1803 removed to JIanehester, where lie 
has since resided. For some two years he was law- 
partner witli the late Hon. James U. Parker, the 
partnership termin.ating with the retirement of the 
latter from active business. In June, 18(i7, he was 
appointed, by Judge Clark, clerk of the United States 
District Court for tiio New Hampshire district, since 
which time he has not actively practiced his ]>rofes- 
sion, but ha.s devoted himself to tlie duties of liis 
office, which became very onerous and responsible 
upon the passage of the Bankrupt Law, about the time 
of his appointment. The holding of this office under 
the government of the LTnitcd States has discpialifieil 
him from accepting any olfice under the State gov- 
ernment. He was clerk of tlie New Hampshire Sen- 
ate from ISfil to l.SGo, Governor Sniytli's private secre- 
tary in 1865 and 18G6, treasurer of the State Reform 
School in 1866 and 1867. In the same year he was 
unanimously chosen city solicitor, but declined a re- 
election, owing to liisappointnientas clerk of the Dis- 
trict Court. In 1872 he was elected, as the nominee 
of tiie Republican party, mayor of the city, and serveil 
till February is, 1,S7:!, when he resigned in accord- 
.S 



ance with the policy of the national government at 
tliat time, which forbade United States officials from 
holding State or municipal offices. His cheerful co- 
operation with the administration in this matter, 
though at a sacrifice of a most conspicuous public 
position, was handsomely recognized by President 
Grant, through Attorney-General Williams. His hist 
official act as mayor was to order the city treasurer to 
pay the amount due him for salary to the Firemen's 
Relief Association. Mr. Bartlett has been a trustee 
of the Merrimack River Savings-Bank from 1865 to 
the present time, and a trustee of the People's Sav- 
ings-Bank from its organization, in 1874. He is also 
a director in the Merchants' National Bank. He was 
the Master of Washington Lodge of Freemasons from 
April, 1872, to April, 1874, and now holds the position 
of United States commissioner, to which he was ap- 
pointed in 1872. The only positions of trust he has 
held since his appointment as clerk of the United 
States Court are as a member of the last Constitutional 
(convention and chairman of the commission ap- 
pointed by the Governor and Council to investigate 
the affiiirs of the New Hampshire Asylum for the In- 
sane. 

Mr. Bartlett married, December 8, 1858, Miss Han- 
nah M. Eastman, of Ooydon, N. H., by whom he had 
one son, Charles Leslie, wlio died at the age of four 
years, and one daughter, Carrie Bell. 

Clarke's " History of Manchester," from which the 
foregoing facts are gathered, closes its biograjihical 
sketch of Mr. Bartlett as follows: "Mr. Bartlett has a 
keen, well-balanced mind, whose faculties are always 
athis command. He thinks readily, but acts cautiously, 
and seldom makes a mistake. Hence he has been 
financially successful in almost everything he has un- 
dertaken. He is one of the most practical lawyers in 
the State, and was for several years in charge of the 
law department of the Mirror, giving general satis- 
faction, and his withdrawiil, wlien his business com- 
pelled it, was a source of much regret to the readers 
of that paper." 

In 1881 Dartmouth College conferred ujion him 
the honorary degree of JIaster of Arts. 

In 1882, Mr Bartlett was elected to the New Hamp- 
shire State Senate, resigning his office as clerk of the 
United States District Court. .\t the assembling of 
the Legislature, on account of his eminent fitness, he 
was chosen president of the Senate, an office second 
in rank to that of Governor of the State. 

JosKiMi B. Cl.AKKi-: was born in Gilford, N. H.,. 
June 21, 1823. He graduated from Brown Univer- 
sity, 1848. He commenced the study of tlie law 
with the late Judge Asa Fowler, of Concord, and 
subsequently entered the office of 8. C. Lyford, 
at Laconia, and was admitted to the bar in 1853. 
He eommenced the ])ractice of his profession, 
in Manciicster, in 1855; was city solicitor in 185S 
and 1859; representative in the Legislature in 
1850; was mayor of the city in 1807; was appointed 



34 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



county solititurin ISGl, ;iiiil licM ilio oflice ten years. 
He is identified willi the bankiiii; and otiier leading 
interests of the city, and ''has taken part in whatever 
miglit be prominent in society at any time, interest- 
ing himself in politics, military affairs, hanking, rail- 
ways, etc., and his election to the mayoralty of the 
city testifies to the confidence with which he has been 
regarded as a public man. Cautious, prudent and 
thoughtful, a hard worker and a true friend, he has 
made a good name in the city, and is favorably 
known throughout the State. He is a good citizen 
and was one of the foremost men and most liberal 
givers in the construction of the First Baptist Church." 

Hon. Bexjamix Fkaxklin Ayer,' the son of 
Robert and Louisa (Sanborn) Ayer, was born at 
Kingston, April 22, 1825. He graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 1846, and read law with George W. 
Morrison, Esq., and at Harvard LTniversity Law 
School. Went into practice in Manchester in July, 
1849 ; was elected clerk of Common Council in the 
same year and again in 1850. He was a partner in 
the practice of the law with Samuel H. Ayer, Esq., 
from about IS.")!) until the decease of the latter, then 
continued in bu.siness alone until June 1, 1854, at 
which time he became the law-partner of Herman 
Foster, which partnership continued until April 10, 
1857. He represented Manchester in the New 
Hampshire Legislature in 1853 and was attorney for 
Hillsborough County from 1853 to 1856. One year 
later he removed to Chicago, 111. He succeeded Sam- 
uel H. Ayer, Esq., as solicitor for Hillsborough 
County and held the office several years. He has 
held the office of city solicitor in Chicago and is the 
present attorney of the Illinois Central Railroad. 

Hon. S.\mui;l Urrox, who has spent most of his 
active life in the city of Manchester, in this State, has 
been long known as an earnest and aggressive worker 
in politics and a sincere advocate of the cause of 
temperance and of religion. His father, Daniel Up- 
ton, a descendant of John Upton, an Englishman of 
considerable means, who settled very early in what is 
now the town of Danvers, Mass., came to Wilmot, 
this State, in 1816, where he lived until his death, 
which occurred in 1856. He married, for his second 
wife, Asenath Teel, of Goffstown, N. H., in 1822, and 
had a large family of children. Of him it has been 
said that he jwssessed little of worldly wealth, but 
was rich in Christian faith and good works ; that he 
possessed sound intelligence and made his influence 
felt in moulding into form the crude elements which 
at best enter largely into the composition of all new 
settlements. 

His eldest son by this marriage, Samuel, thesubject 
of this sketch, was born September 12, 1824. The 
story of his early life differs little from that of many 
others who have, unaided by fortune, successfully 
Struggled against hardships and privations. Cour- 

' By Ili.ii. h. n. Clougli. 



ageously, however, he entered the contest, thcmgh his 
delicate health counted against his success. Exhaust- 
ing at an early age the resources of the public schools, 
at that time indifl'erent in quality, and limited in 
quantity, he .sought, by such labor in the fiehl and 
the workshop as his health would permit, to obtain 
means for further education in the academies of 
the State. In time he was enabled to attend one 
term at the New London Academy, and subse- 
quently completed a course at Kimball Union Acad- 
emy, Meriden, N. H., in the fall of 1841), defray- 
ing, by manual labor during vacations and by teach- 
ing winters, the entire expense of his course. He 
loved books, and the pleasure derived from their study 
was to him ample compensation for the many depri- 
vations through which their companionship was pur- 
chased. While j)ursuing his studies and subsecjuently he 
taught in the public schools, — one term in Danbury, 
X. H., three in Wilmot, two of which were in his 
own district, into which school he introduced modern 
methods of teaching, and raised its standard a marked 
degree, infusing an ambition and pride among the 
pupils which is still felt. 

He also taught one term at Meriden immediately 
after his graduation and finished one term at Cornish 
Flatt, from which school the unruly boys had driven 
the former teacher ; then taught four terms in Ash- 
land, Mass., five in Manchester, N. H., four of which 
were in connection with the High School as assistant 
or principal. He also taught in academies one term 
each at Ashby, Mass., Corinth, Vt., and Deeriug, 
N. H. As a teacher he was eminently successful, and 
though fond of the work, he was looking forward to 
the law as a profession. For this purpose he eom- 
naenced reading law in the office of Butterfield & 
Hamlin, Andover, X. H., in the spring of 1851 ; re- 
mained in that office one year, then completed his 
studies in the office of D. & D. J. Clark, in Manches- 
ter, N. H., in the fall of 1854. Upon admission to 
the bar he opened an office in that city, and soon was 
a<lmitted to practice in the United States Circuit 
Court. In 1857 he was appointed justice of the Po- 
lice Court in Manchester, which office he held for 
seventeen years. During his occupancy of this posi- 
tion the powers of the court were extended, and his 
administration of the duties of justice received gen- 
eral commendation from all parties. 

From his boyhood he was active in i)olitics, an<l in 
his school-days showed an a|)titude for political dis- 
cussion much in advance of his years. On the sla- 
very question he had but one opinion, — that if human 
slavery was not wrong, nothing was wrong, and he 
lost no opi)ortunity to wage warfare U)ion that 
institution. He cast his political fortunes with the 
Liljcrty ]>arty, and his first vote wasjirobably counted 
as scattering. In the organization and success of 
the Republican party he took an active interest, and 
was prominent as a public speaker, making many 
canvasses of the State. He represented Manchester 





Oiyut i / ^ lyOk/l (^^ 




f 




i 



I 



THE BENCH AND BAK. 



35 



iu tlie State Legislature in 1855 and 185tj, and in 
December, 18G3, waa appointed, by President Lincoln, 
commissioner of Hoard of Enrollment for the Second 
Congressional District, which position he held until 
the close of the war, in 1SG5. He was also appointed 
visitor to the West Point Academy in 1861, but owing 
to sickness in his family, w'as unable to attend the 
examination. He also served three years on the 
Public School Board in Manchester, taking an active 
interest in the schools, esjjccially in tliu Hijrh School, 
the Lincoln Street Grammar School and the Training- 
School, the care of which was especially assigned to 
him as a sub-committee. 

As a temperance worker he was connected with 
several organizations and delivered an address before 
the State Temperance Convention on "The History 
and Workings of the Prohibitory Law," which at- 
tracted much attention, and was i)ublished by the 
convention iu pamphlet form for circulation. Early 
in life he united with the Congregational Church, and 
in some capacity has ever since been connected with 
its Sabbath-schools. For eight years he was superin- 
tendent of the Franklin Street Salibath-School, in 
Manchester, to the interest of which he devoted much 
time and labor, and he now looks upon the time thus 
spent as the most pleasant and profitable of his life. 

In 1875 he removed to Western Iowa, hoping the 
ehange might benefit the health of his wife, and free- 
ing liimself from political work, be enabled to de- 
vote a few years to a more remunerative occupation. 
There he engaged in mercantile business with his 
brother-in-law, under the firm-name of Prescott & 
L^pton, and the firm soon became well known in the 
business community for its enterprise and success. 
As individuals, they did much to build up the new 
town and to establish for it a good reputation. It 
was said to be the only town between Dubuque and 
Sioux City free from the curse of beer-saloons. To 
this new field of labor Mr. Upton carried with him 
not only bis zeal for temperance, but also his love for 
Sabbat li-scboiil work, uniting with the school the first 
Sabbath after his arrival, and laboring as teaciier of 
the class of adult scholars and sis superintendent 
during his residence there. He also served as a mem- 
ber of the Public School Board, and on the incorpora- 
tion of the town, refusing to allow his name to be 
used for mayor, he served as one of the Council. 

In 188:5 he returned to New Hampshire, settling in 
Golfstown, opening a law-oHice there and in Man- 
chester, and also engaging in trade. He is at present 
superintendent of the Sabbath-school in the village 
where he resides, and a member of the Board of Edu- 
cation. In 1857 he marrieil Jennie L. Merriman, 
one of the teachers in the High School at Manches- 
ter. Their only child died in infancy. Measured by 
results, Mr. Upton can look back upon a most suc- 
cessful life. Engaging in the liberty cause when to 
befriend the negro, even in New England, subjected 
one til vile taunts and social ostracism, he has seen i 



the cause he knew to be right spread until slavery is 
forever dead and a President, elected by its former 
supporters, escorted to the Capitol by a battalion of 
negro soldiers without exciting comment. Advocating 
a prohibitory liquor law when liquor was openly sold 
in every town in the State, he has lived to see the 
liquor traffic suppressed in all but one or two cities in 
the State, and the measures he advocated received 
almost the unanimous approval of both political 
parties. As a public si)eaker he possesses in a marked 
ilegree a capacity for marshaling facts and for pre- 
senting them to the public in a manner which both 
pleases and instructs. For his efforts in jiolitics and 
the cause of temperance he has been both censured 
and jiraised, but no one has doubted for a moment the 
integrity of his purpose or the unselfish motives 
which have ever prompted him. He is yet in vigor- 
ous health, and likely to enjoy for many years the 
proud satisfaction of having been an active worker 
on the successful side in the two great struggles, one 
of which has relieved the country of human slavery, 
while the other has well-nigh driven from his native 
State the liquor saloons with their train of evils. 

The present members of the Manchester bar are as 
follows : 

JolinH. .\ndrews, Qiarlcs H. Bartlett, John P. Bartlctt, Samuel N. 
Bell, John C. Bickforil, Henry W. Blair, James F. Brigjre, .\lbert 0. 
Brown, Henry K. Burnliani, Charles A. Carpenter, Bradbury P. Cilley, 
Benjamin F. Clark, Daniel Clark, David F. Clark. B. F. Clark, Henry S. 
Clark, Joseph B. Clark, Lewis W. Clark, Luciuu B. Clough, Charles E. 
Cochran, David Cross, Josiah tJ. Dearborn, .Tames E. Dodge, Joseph W. 
Fellows, John Foster, Christopher \. Gallagher, Alichael J. Healy, Isaac 
I,. Heath, Nathan I'. Hunt, Henry H. Huse, Kdwin F. Jones, Joseph L 
IJoeuf, William Little, Geoige A. Little, Frank C. I^ivingston, Sanniel D. 
lA*rd, Thomas D. Luce, George I. McAllister, John T. Moore, (Charles It. 
Morrison, George W. Morrison, Herbert F. Norris, Charles .\. O'Connor, 
Dennis F. O'Connor, Alpheus C. Osgood, Joswo B. Patten, William R. 
Patten, David L. Perkins, David P. Perkins, George W. Prescott, Albion 
K. Simmons, Isaac W'. Smith, James B. Straw, Cyrus \. Sulloway, Ar- 
thur D. Taggart. Klijali M. ToplilT, Newton H. Wilson. 

Pi;kley Dodge was l)oni in New Biistcin, N. H., 
.May 17, 17!t'.l. He is the son of William and Rachel 
(Poland) Doilgc. His father was a farmer, and the 
boyhood of Mr. Dodge was spent on the farm until 
his sixteenth year. He then fitted for college, and 
finally graduated at Union College, Schenectady, 
N. Y., in the class of 1824. He chose the law as his 
profession, and studied with Titus Brown, of Frances- 
town, and Xehemiah Eastman, of Farringlon, N. H. 
( )ctober, 1827, he was admitted to the bar, and began 
])ractice with bis I'ormer instructor, Titus Brown, at 
Francestown and New Boston. This co|iartnership 
was continued until 1832, in March of which year Mr. 
Doilge removed to Amherst, N. II., wliere he now re- 
sides at the advanced age of eighty -six years. He 
conliiiued the practice of law at .\niherst until IS.'ii), 
when, in October of that year, he was appointed clerk 
of the courts of Hillsborough County, the mulliform 
iluties of which position he faithfully dischargeil until 
March, 1857. He then returned to the |)i'actice of 
his profession, which he has conliiiued to the present 



36 



HISTOKY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



time, though for the past few years he has practically 
retired from the active duties of the profession. Mr. 
Dodge has been a wise and safe counselor and a suc- 
cessful practitioner, and is regarded as one of the old- 
est and most honored members of the New Hampshire 
bar. 

In 1837 he was elected as representative from Am- 
herst to the General Court, and again in 1853 and 1854 
he was re-elected to the same position. Was chairman 
of the committee on banks in 1853, and of railroads 
in 1854. 

It may be stated, as a remarkable fact, that Mr. 
Dodge has attended every court of record in Hills- 
borough County since his admission to the bar, and 
during all the years he was clerk of the court, he took 
every verdict from the jury except one (and that 
omission was occasioned by his illness). Mr. Dodge 
is a calm, dignified, plain-spoken man, of clear judg- 
ment and comprehensive intelligence ; conservative 
in his views, yet in hearty sympathy with whatever in 
his judgment tends to the elevation of the mental or 
moral tone of the community in which he lives, or of 
mankind in general. In politics he has always been 
a Democrat. 

He married. May 31, 1831, Harriet, daughter of Hon. 
Peter Woodbury, of Francestown, and sister of the 
Hon. Levi Woodbury. Their children were, — 

Perley Woodbury, born March 28, 1839, married 
Sophia E. Phelps, August 13, 1863, and resides in 
Amherst. They have one child, Charles Perley, born 
September 3, 1864, now a *udent at Sherburn Falls, 
Mass. 

Charles William, born September 4, 1842, married, 
first, Rebecca C. Christy, of New Boston, September 
4, 1869. She died January 2, 1873. He married, 
second, Lelia J. Small, March 11, 1878. She died 
April 4, 1885, in Amherst. They have one child liv- 
ing, Martha Belle, born July 10, 1882. Maurice 
Whipple, born July 31, 1881, died June 25, 1883. 

JIartha W., born June 25, 1846, married James B. 
Whipple, of New Boston, June 25, 1877, and died July 
21. 1881. 

Hon. Aaron Flint Sawyer was born April 
24, 1780, at Westminster, Mass. He was educated at 
Dartmouth, from which college he was graduated in 
1804. He practiced law for many years at Mont 
Vernon, N. H., and removed to Nashua about 1828, 
and there followed his profession until his death, Jan- 
uary 4, 1847. An able lawyer, he was longa conspic- 
uous man in the community, and represented Na.shua 
in the Lower House of the State Legislature in 1847, 
the year of his death. He was a gentleman of the old 
school, with some not uni)leasant eccentricities arising 
from the strong positivenesa of his nature ; a kind- 
hearted and cheerful individual, he was a good citizen, 
an excellent neighbor and a strong friend. He was an 
eminent Christian, and for years a zealous worker and 
teacher in the Congregational Sabbath-school. He 
married, August 20, 1811, Hannah Locke, grand- 



daughter of Rev. Samuel Locke, D.D., president .of 
Harvard College from 1770 to 1773. Of their children, 
two have attained eminence in the legal profession ; 
the oldest, Samuel L., now of Independence, Mo., has 
been for a long time a leading member of the bar of 
that State and a circuit judge for many years. He 
has also been a member of Congress. Aaron W., his 
third child, occupied an equally honorable and dis- 
tinguished place at the New Hampshire bar. 

Hon. Aaron Worcester Sawyer ' w;is born in 
Mont Vernon, Hillsborough County, N. H., October 
11, 1818, and died in Nashua, N. H., August 23, 1882. 
He was the sou of H(m. Aaron F. and Hannah (Locke) 
Sawj-er. His father was a man of liberal education, 
a lawyer by profession, a gentleman of the old school, 
a man of warm and generous impulses, a devoted and 
active Christian. His mother was Hannah Locke, a 
granddaughter of Rev. Samuel Locke, D.D., the 
president of Harvard College from 1770 to 1773. Mrs. 
Sawyer was a woman of strong and marked character, 
of much refinement and excellent judgment, and the 
moral and intellectual qualities of Judge Sa^^'J'er bore 
the strong impress of his mother's character and 
training. The first few years of Judge Sawyer's life 
were passed in Mont Vernon, from which place his 
father removed, about 1828, to Nashua. He was 
educated at the public schools of Nashua, and the 
academies of Hancock, Derry and Nashua. During 
the years which he devoted to the study of the law, 
and, in fact, before he entered upon its study, com- 
meucing at an early age, he taught the winter terms 
of the district schools in neighboring towns. This was 
an occupation in which he took great enjoyment and 
in which, pursued for eight or ten years, he acquired 
an exceptional and deserved popularity. In this pur- 
suit he exhibited a diligence, patience and thorough- 
ness which marked the character of the man, while 
he drew to himself the friendship of his pupils and 
their patrons with a strength and warmth which 
remained through life. 

He was admitted to the bar in 1844, and in 1846 
began the practice of the law in Nashua. From that 
time until 1872 his professional career was continuous, 
uninterrupted and successful. Ciminiencing with a 
love of business and fondness for legal lore, his practice 
was marked by a wonderful patience of research in its 
profound depths, an unflinching courage in the ad- 
vancement and presentation of his views, and an un- 
swerving fidelity to his client and his cause. He was 
no machine lawyer, ready at all times to try, but 
inditferent to results; nor did he prostitute his profes- 
sion to speculative purposes, unprofessional in char- 
acter. His presentation to court and jury was earnest, 
vigorous, persuasive and convincing, and, on occasions, 
eloquent. The natural tendency of his mind was at 
once mathematical and logical. His memory was 



' Chiefly condensed from a memorial addren by General Aaron F. 
Stevens before BilUborough County bar. 




./ 



(^C^u-t^^^ 



\ 



I 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



37 



fresh and retentive, his knowledge of human nature 
accurate and profound, and in his appreciation of the 
individual man, he was seldom, if ever, deceived. 
Those who have been a.ssociated with or opposed to 
him will agree that when putting forth liis whole 
strength, — bringing all his resources to bear upon the 
contention of the hour, — his power was wonderliil, and 
his success alnmst certain. 

In 1848, Mr. Sawvor formed a copartnei-sliip with 
Hon. Charles U. Atherton, one of the most eminent 
men of New Hampshire, a connection which continued 
till the death of the latter, in November, 1S53. From 
that time he pursued the practice of his profession 
alone until April, 18-)8, when he formed a professional 
connection with (ieneral Aaron F. Stevens, which 
continued for more than a quarter of a century. 

Mr. Sawyer was a positive man, with fixed and 
distinct idea.s and opinions. He had, withal, a spirit 
of independence, which led him sometimes to grow 
im])atient of the restraints of organizations and the 
behests of party discipline; but in his loyalty of con- 
victiiin of what wa.s demanded for the welfare of his 
country he was never known to fail. He was a warm 
and ardent patriot, and met with alacrity the call ol 
the Governor for financial aid, when the first warlike 
note of tiie Rebellion fell upon the ear of New Hamp- 
shire. Eminently fitted as he was for public station, 
the allurements of ambition neverdrcw him from the 
more congenial comforts and joys of home or the ardent 
pursuit of professional duty and success. A small 
measure of public fame satisfied a mind well fitted to 
correct the vagaries of politics, and to te.st the genu- 
ineness and value of human pretension. I 

Mr. Sawyer held all imi)ortant bjcal offices of his ' 
town and city, served as Representative and Senator 1 
in the State Legislature, and from 1867 until July, 
1876, he held tiie office of register in bankruptcy. 
On the 22d of July, 1876, he received from Governor 
Cheney his commission as associate justice of the 
Supreme Court, but failing health obliged him to 
resign iiis office within two years. In all tlie public 
trusts to which he waa called, strength of character 1 
and fidelity of purpose marked his administration. I 

Mr. Sawyer married, first, Mary Frances Ingalls, of 
New York City ; second, Fanny, daughter of Francis 
and Almira (Stetson) Winch, of Nashua, Septeml)er 
12, 18')0. Tlicir children were Fanny Ingalls (<le- 
feased), Fanny Locke, Aaron Frank (deceased) and 
William Merriam. i 

.ludge Sawyer was not only an eminent lawyer and 
jurist, 1)ut also a devoted lalxiror in the vineyard of 
Christ. For many years lie was a member of the Fii'st 
Congregational Cliurch of Nashua, a teacher in the 
Sabbath-school, active in tlie |irayer-nieetiiig and 
useful in all Christian work. About eight years be- 
fore his deatli he received from the Hollis Aasociation 
a license to preach the gospel. In his discourses, 
which be ])repared with great care, he possessed rare 
power. His subjects were ]inti(ntly studied in the 



light of Scripture, and, with the aid of the best ex- 
positors, thoroughly digested and a.ssimilated in his 
own thoughts ; his sermons pa.sscd through the glow- 
ing furnace of his own experience and came before 
the listener rich, full and warm with religious fervor. 
Their delivery was marked by a certain tenderness of 
tone and manner which led each auditor to feel that 
the speaker Wiis seeking the individual good of his 
hearers. 

*' If to have won for hims-'lf n proud position in the ranks of his profee- 
sion, tho suffmgos anii npproliulion uf liis fellow-citizens to the full meas- 
ure of his opportunities and a-spirations ; to have utilized snpcrior intel- 
lectual power and endowiuents to the constant and wise solution of the 
abstruse problems and varied alfairs of his profession ; to liave gained, with" 
out pretension or ostentation, by the strength and force of character, the 
abiding; confidence of his clienta, and to have held that contidence through 
all tests and trials to tho end ; to have become the favorite adviser of his 
younger and trustful brethren of the bar ; if to have constantly clothed 
his daily walk with the example of a pure life, whose morality, though 
Ann and constant, never taught him to be morose or austere ; to have 
elevated that life of undeviating morality to its twinship with a Christian 
faith ; if to have adorned his domestic life witKthe enduring fidelity of 
the husband, the deep and constant affection of the father; to have 
so cherished industry, frugality, temperance, that these virtues won for 
him, and for those who were his by the sweet and holy ties of naturv and 
kindred, the boon of indep«?ndence and fortune, and then to have mot 
death without fear, and in the calm, triumphant hope of a glory beyond, 
— if these, and such as these, are the true and justly coveted fruits of 
htiman life and human exertion, we have their illuslratton and example 
in the life and death of Aaron W. Sawyer." 

Genee.\l Aakox F. Stevens. — Aaron Fletcher 
Stevens was born in Londonderry (now Derry), N. H., 
August 9, 1819. He was the only son of Captain 
John F. and Martha Stevens, both of whom were na- 
tives of Massachusetts. His father, who for many 
years had followed the sea, went to Londonderry a 
short time before the birth of his son, where the 
family lived till 1828, when they removed to Man- 
chester, then a small town in Hillsborough County, 
now the largest and most prosperous city in the 
State. Here the father, then in the prime of man- 
hood, tried the ex])erinient of farming, but at the end 
of three years abandoned the pursuit, and took up his 
residence in Peterborough, the oldest manufacturing 
town in the State, attracted thither by the superior 
facilities presented for the education and employment 
of his children. 

At Peterborough young Stevens found work in a fac- 
tory umler the charge of Governor Steele, and for about 
four years alternateil between tliat employment and 
attendance upon the district school. In the mean 
time, however, the united savings of the family en- 
abled him to return to his native town and attenil, 
lor a short time, the Pinkerton Academy. Tho 
means to defray the expenses of this schooling were 
furnished in jiart from the earnings of elder sisters, 
who still live to witness the fruits of their i^ounsels 
and sacrifices for a brother. The jiarcnls, careful an<l 
fond of their children, sympathized with their aspira- 
tions for improvement, yet the limited means at their 
coininanil enabled thoin to furnish little more 
than the fiicilities of a common-school education. 
The early aspirations of the son for liberal education 



38 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY. NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



1 



and professional life were thus held in check, but he 
accepted with alacrity the alternative before him, and 
at the age of sixteen was apprenticed to the trade of 
a machinist. He worked at his trade several years 
as a journeyman, varying his employment, however, 
by attendance at the academy at Nashua, as well as 
by school-teaching, which occupied his time for 
several winters. 

In August, 1842, Mr. Stevens, at the invitation of 
Hon. George Y. Sawyer, then a distinguished lawyer, 
entered upon the study of the law at Nashua, and in 
August, 184.5, was admitted to the bar. The same 
kind interest led Mr. Sawyer to propose a partner- 
ship with Mr. Stevens, who, in that relation, entered 
at once into a prominent practice before the courts. 
At that period Hillsborough County was greatly di.-s- 
tinguished for the ability of its bar, numbering on 
its roll, besides Mr. Sawyer, Benjamin M. Farley, 
Charles G. Atberton, George AV. Morrison, Daniel 
Clark, Samuel IT. Ayer and others, all of eminence 
in the State, and some of wider legal reputation. It 
was into such a professional school that Mr. Stevens, 
sensible of his deficient early culture, and peculiarly 
averse to all presumption, was thus early thrown. The 
courage and the thorough preparation with which he 
entered upon his work, together with his power in 
grasi>ing the substance of a case, and presenting it in 
a clear, logical manner, commanded the respect ol' 
both court and bar, and gave him a high professional 
rejiutation. 

In the early part of his jjrofessional career Mr. 
Stevens was for five years solicitor of Hillsborough 
County. The absence of the attorney-general ordi- 
narily imposed upon Mr. Stevens the duties of prose- 
cuting officer for that large county, thus bringing him 
into professional conflict with the most adroit and 
experienced practitioners, furnishing a rigorous test 
of his resources, and contributing essentially to his 
early distinction as a lawyer. He subsecjuently en- 
tered into a professional i>artnerslii|i with Hon. Aaron 
W. Sawyer, an old schoolmate and townsman. 

Mr. Stevens entered ui)on active political life as a 
Whig, and followed the fortunes of that party with 
unswerving fidelity as long as it had an existence. 
His first effort in the political arena was in the mem- 
orable campaign of 1840. He was a member of the 
last Whig Convention in Baltimore in 1852. In 1849 
he was a member of the State Legislature, represent- 
ing Nashua, and again in 1854, when the Democracy, 
after an unparalleled contest, was defeated in the 
Legislature and overthrown in the State. He was 
again a member of the Legislature in 1850 and 1857. 
His candor, judgment and forecast, united with dig- 
nity, clearness and condensation as a debater, gave 
him a commanding infiuence in the House, and 
justly made him one of the most popular speakers in 
the State. In the Whig party he belonged to that 
portion who were strong in their anti-slavery convic- 
tions, and he carried those ideas with him into the 



Republican organization, of which he was an early 
and leading member in New Hampshire. 

When, at the outbreak of the Rebellion, a call was 
made for men to defend the capital, Mr. Stevens was. 
oue of the first to ofi'er his services, and on April 29th 
was commissioned by the Governor as major of the First 
New Hampshire (three months') Regiment of Infan- 
try. The regiment reached Washington, took jiart in 
the movement to Harper's Ferry, but was engaged in 
no battle. 

Returning home with his regiment, he resumed the 
practice of his profession ; but the next year was, by 
the unsolicited tender of the Governor, commissioned 
as colonel of the Thirteenth Regiment of New- 
Hampshire Volunteers. He i)romptly organized hi& 
command and led to the field a superb regiment^ 
made up of men from seven of the ten counties of the 
State. There was probably no regiment in the war of 
greater intelligence and high soldierly qualities. 

Among the names inscribed on the standard of this 
gallant regiment are : Fredericksburg (its first battle), 
Suffolk, Swift Creek, Drury's Bluti; Cold Harbor, 
Battery Five, Petersburg and Battery Harrison, in all 
of which battles their colonel shared the conflict with 
them. During the siege of Petersburg, in 1864, Col- 
onel Stevens commanded a brigade. In the assault 
on Fort Harrison, September 29th, he fell severely 
wounded at the head of his regiment and brigade. 
He remained upon the spot, close to the fort, till the 
colors of his command were planted upon the cap- 
tured parapet and the victory won. In December 
following he was breveted brigadier-general. The 
official records of the war, as well as his companions- 
in-arms, bear witness to his courage as a soldier and 
his coolness and skill as a commander. 

Having closed his military career and resumed the 
practice of his profession, General Stevens was, in 
December, 1866, unanimously nominated for Congress. 
In March, 1867, he took his seat as a Representative 
in the Fortieth Congress. He served in that Con- 
gress on the naval committee, and the "Treatment 
of Union Prisoners." Having been re-elected to the 
Forty-first Congress, he again served on the naval 
committee, and the committee on patents. During 
his Congressional service (ieneral Stevens did not 
often address the House in formal sjieeches. Hia 
chief efforts were given to the Investigations of the 
committee room. But he occasionally spoke on na- 
tional subjects. The vital national interests which 
were identified with the |)olitical struggle in 1868 
called forth from him a well-considered speech in the 
House in February of that year, in which he pre- 
sented the subject of reconstruction in its essential 
features. He also made a short but terse argument 
in favor of the impeachment of Andrew .Johnson, in 
which he paid a merited tribute to the great war 
minister, Edwin M. Stanton. In February, 1870, he 
addressed the House on "Grant and the Administra- 
tion," in which he fully sustained the policy nf the 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 



39 



President and denounced repudiation and the expan- 
sion of the currency. 

After the close of the Forty-first Congress, General 
Stevens again gave his attention to professional busi- 
ness. In June, lS7ii, ho lacked but two votes of being 
the Republican candidate for United States Senator 
— the nomination being equivalent to an election. 

In 18G1 he married Miss Adelaide M. Johnson, of 
Lynn, Mass., an educated and accomplished woman. 
For several years they have passed their winters in 
Florida, having an orange grove on the River St. 
Johns, three miles north of Palatka. General Stevens' 
home, however, is at Xiushua. 

Aside from his well-known ability as a lawyer, his 
graceful manner and fluency of utterance make him 
welcome on all public occiisions in New Hampshire. 

Besj.\.mix M. Farley, .son of Benjamin and Lucy 
(Fletcher) Farley, and grandson of Lieutenant Sam- 
uel Farley, one of the first settlers of Hollis, was born 
April 8, 1783, in that part of Hollis afterwards set oft' 
to Brookline. Mr. Farley prepared for college at the 
academy in New Ipswich ; graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1804; read law with Hon. Abijah Bigelow in 
Leominster, JIass. ; admitted to the bar and settled in 
his profession in Hollis in 1808, and continued to re- 
side in Hollis till 18o.5, when he removed to Boston. 
Upon being established in his profession he soon rose 
to a high rank in it, and for many years he had no 
superior at the Hillsborough bar, of which he was for 
several years president. He died September IG, 1S65« 
Samuel T. Wokcester, son of Jesse and Sarah 
(Parker) Worcester, born August 30, 1804, prepared 
for college at the academies in Pembroke, N. H., and 
Andover, Mass., and graduated at Harvard College in 
1830. After leaving college, taught an academy for 
one year at Weymouth, Mass., and also for one year 
at Cambridge. Read law in the office of Hon. B. M. 
Farley, in Hollis, and also at the Law School in Cam- 
bridge ; settled in his profession in Norwalk, Ohio, in 
1835, and continued in the practice of the law in that 
place till the summer of 1867, when he removed to 
Nashua, N. H., where he still resides (1879). May 
13, 1835, married Mary F. C. Wales, daughter of 
Samuel Wales, Esq., of Stoughton, Mass., who de- 
ceased at Na.shua, April 29, 1874. Was a member of 
the Ohio Senate in the years 1849 and 1850; elected 
district judge of the Tenth Ohio Judicial District in 
October, 1859, and while ludding that office was 
elected a member of the United States Congress in 
the spring of 18(11. Publications: 1831, "Sequel to 
the Spelling-Book ;" 1833, "American Primary Spell- 
ing-Book ;" 1871, revised editions of " Worcester's 
Comprehensive and Primary Dictionaries;" 1871, 
'• Old and Now ; or, the School Systems of Ohio and 
New Ham])shir(! compared." He died Dec. 5, 1882. 
Joseph W. Fellows, son of John and P(dly 
Hilton Fellows, was born at Andover, N. II., January 
15, 1835. 

He was educated in the district schools of his na- 



tive town and at the Andover Academy. He entered 
Dartmouth College in July, 1854, and graduated in 
1858. 

He taught school in Bradford and Concord, N. H., 
and in Upton, Mass., during his college term. He 
was also a teacher in the Brownwood Institute, in La 
Grange; also, the Marietta Academy, in Marietta, 
Ga., in 1859-(50. 

He studied law in the office of Hon. John M. 
Shirley, of Andover, and of Pike & Barnard, of 
Franklin, N. H., and subsequently graduated from 
the Albany (X. Y.) L'niversity Law Department, class 
of 1801. 

He was admitted to the l)ar in August, 1801, and 
commenced the practice of the law in Manchester in 
1862, where he has since resided. 

He was appointed judge of the Police Court of 
Manchester in 1874, and resigned the i)osition in 
1875. Judge Fellows was elected clerk of the Con- 
cord Railroad corporation in 1873, and was re-elected 
each year until 1884. He hits been one of the trus- 
tees of Proctor Academy, at Andover, and of the 
Unitarian Educational Society of New Hampshire 
since its organization. 

Politically, Judge Fellows is a Democrat and an 
able and fearless exponent of the principles of that 
party. 

In religious matters he is a Unitarian of the liberal 
class. 

Although in the active practice of an arduous pro- 
fession. Judge Fellows has found time to indulge his 
i taste in literary pursuits and has prei>ared many life 
sketches of his neighbors and friends, and in this 
branch of literary labor is not easily surpassed. He 
has also given much attention to the Masonic history 
of Manchester, and the able article which appears in 
this work is from his pen. Judge Fellows is a i>romi- 
nent and active member of the Masonic fraternity 
and has been through all grades and held nniny posi- 
tions. Judge Fellows has been twice married — first, 
to Miss Frances Moore, who died in 1874, and second, 
to Mrs. Lizzie B. Davis, October 8, 1878. 

JiiMiEs oi" Probate. — The Ibllowing is a list of 
the judges of Probate for the county of Hillsborough 
from 1784 to the ])resent time: 

Jonjitlmn Dlanchttnl, trom IIM to 178!i ; Siuiiiicl Dniin, from 1789 lu 
IT'.lS; KIwMi'Zer Clmmpncy, from Folirimr)' V.i, I'm, to Miiy, ISlll; Tllf- 
toii Clnggolt, fn)in lull to IS12 ; .loljn llnrrla, fixim AiikiisI 111, ISI'2, to 
ixi); Clifton CliigK<-tl, Aiigmt 5, I8il, to Jiimiar.v Jii, 1829; Kilwnnl 
l>iirkiT, from 1820 to 183,'); Liiko WoiHlliiiry, from 18:t;i to 18.M ; 
Wlllliim 0. Cliirko, from Soptombcr 8, 18fil, to July III, IK-'iO ; Diivlil 
Cnws from July 14, 18.'.6, to Juno Itn, 1874; Luclon B, flough, 
from July 14, 1874, to July 'ii, I87ii ; Ui'iiry K. Uiiriiliiin, from 
July i'l, 1871., to Jiim> :i, 18"'.l ; Eiliviinl E. PurkiT, Jun.j :l, 187!i, prm- 

unt ilirllll)lK!llt, 

Charles Henry BfitN.s' was liorn in Mill'md, 
N. H., January 19, 1835, of good old New Englaml 
stock, which on both sides had been prominent in 
that town from its earliest settlement. 



1 By B. M. Wn'luco. 



40 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



On his father's side he descended from that Scotch- 
Irish race which has given to New Hampshire and 
New England so many able men. 

His ancestry on his father's side is as follows : 

1. John Burns, of Scotch origin, born in 1700; 
came to America from north of Ireland in 1736; set- 
tled in Milford, N. H., in 1746; died in Jlilford, 
N. H., in 1782. 

2. Thomas, seventh child and third son of John. 
It is not yet known where or when he was born, but 
he was probably born in Milford. The date of his 
death, which occurred at Milford, is also unknown to 
the writer. He was, however, not far from eighty 
years of age when he died. He married Elizabeth 
Hartness, of Lunenburg, Mass. 

3. Samuel, si.xth child and third son of Thomas 
and Elizabeth, born at Milford, September 17, 1779, 
died at Milford, September 20, 1817. He was select- 
man in Milford from the age of twenty-one for 
ten years. He was a strong man and died of 
brain fever. His funeral was the largest ever held in 
Milford. He married Abigail Jones, February 12, 
ISOl. She was a woman of great strength of mind 
and of most excellent character. 

4. Charles A., fourth child and second son of Sam- 
uel and Abigail Burns, was born at Milford, January 
19, 1809, and died of fever at Milford, January 25, 
18.i7. He married, December 31, 1833, Elizabeth 
Hutchinson, of Milford. They were both people of 
the highest character and well known for their intel- 
ligence and worth. 

5. Charles H., son of Charles A. and Elizabeth, 
born at Milford, January 19, 1835; married Sarah N. 
Mills, January 19, 1856, at Milford. They have four 
living children, — Charles A. Burns, Bessie Burns 
tiregg, Blanch Burns and Ben. E. Burns. Tlicy have 
buried one son, Arthur H. Burns, aged twenty years, 
and three infant children. On his mother's side, who 
wa.s a Hutchinson, he is of English de-scent, and we 
here give a somewhat extended record of that old 
family. The antiquity of the Hutchinson family in 
England is very great, and was represented by Barnard 
Hutchinson, of Cowlan, in the county of York, in 
1282. He was denominated esijuire, and his wife was 
the daughter of John Bagville, one of the oldest fam- 
ilies of Yorkshire. They had children, — John, Rob- 
ert and Mary. 

1. Richard was a direct descendant from John, the 
heir of Cowlan ; was born in England, and married, 
December 7, 1627, Alice Bosworth. He resided at 
North Markham, and about the year 1635 emigrated, 
with liis family, to New England. The earliest men- 
tion made of him in this country is found in the town 
records of Salem, Mass., in 1636, when the town 
made him a grant of land. In 1637 the town made 
hiin an additional grant of twenty acres, "provided he 
would set up a plough." In 1654 and 1660 further 
grants were made. The land was situated in the 
vicinity of Hathorn's Hill and Beaver Brook, which 



now runs through the town of Middlesex into the 
Ipswich River. He died about 1662. 

2. Joseph, son of Richard, was born in England in 
1633, and came with his father to New England and 
settled u|)on a portion of his father's estate, which 
was conveyed to him in 1666. 

3. Benjamin, .son of Joseph, died 'Ji 1733. He mar- 
ried Jane, daughter of Walter and Margaret Phillips. 
He married, second, January 26, 1714, Abigail Foster. 
Eleven children by Jane. 

4. Benjamin, son of Benjamin, born at Salem, Janu- 
ary 27, 1693. He wa."* a man of large wealth. He 
married, February 7, 1715, Sarah, daughter of John 
and Mary (Nurse) Tarbell. Seven children. 

5. Nathan, son of Benjamin, baptized February 10, 
1717. He was a farmer, and remained with his 
father at Bedford, Mass., until 1734, thence to Amherst 
(now Milford), where he died January 12, 1795 ; mar- 
ried Rachel Stearns ; si.x^ children. He was one of 
the first settlers in the territory of Milford. 

6. Nathan, son of Nathan, born in Amherst (now 
Milford), February, 1752, died December 26, 1831. 
He was a farmer. Married, 1778, Rebecca Peabody, 
daughter of William and Rebecca (Smith) Peabody. 
She was born January 2, 1752, died February 25, 
1826; seven children. 

7. Abel, son of Nathan and Rebecca, born at Milford, 
August 8, 1795, died February 19, 1846 ; married, Janu- 
ary 22, 1816, Betsey, daughter of Isaac and Elizabeth 
Bartlett. She was born in Amherst (now Milford), 
October 26, 1796, died at Milford, August 23, 1873; 
nine children. 

8. Elizabeth, daughter of Abel and Betsey, born at 
Milford, June 18, 1816, now living; married, Decem- 
ber 31, 1833, Charles A. Burns; nine children. 

9. Charles H., son of Elizabeth and Charles A., etc. 
Betsey Bartlett, wife of Abel, was also a descendant 

of the first Richard, througii Joseph, third son of 
Joseph (first). The three races above named — Burns, 
Bartlett and Hutchinson — are of the highest character 
and respectability. This is also true of the Peabodys. 

Mr. Burns spent his early years upon his father's 
farm, and there developed that strength and good 
constitution with which he is so admirably e<iuipped 
for the battle of life. He early evinced a desire for an 
education, and after getting what assistance he coul<l 
from the common schools of Milford, which were 
always of a high order, he entered the .Vppleton Acad- 
emy, at New Ipswich, N. H., at that time under the 
management of Professor Quimby, from which insti- 
tute he graduated in 1854. 

For some time he had entertained the purpose of 
entering the legal profession, for which he had 
already exhibited an aptitude. He read law in the 
oflice of Colonel O. W. Lull, in Milford, and subse- 
quently attended the Harvard Law School, where he 
graduated in the class of 1858. In May of the same 
year he was admitted to the Suffolk bar, in Massachu- 
setts, and in October following he was admitted to the 







■'W -'/J- .4 H .-'ui'-- 



^X«^>^.A^, 



lA-yV^^i^ 



II 



THE BENCH AND BAIL 



4Ua 



New Hampshire bar. In January, IS")!), Mr. Burns 
fommenceil the practice' of the law at Wilton, N. H., 
where he ha.s since resided, although of late years his 
extended practice through Hillsborough County and 
the State luis necessitated the removal of his office to 
Nashua. He commenced his professional labors, as 
every young man must who has no one to rely upon but 
himself, with the smaller and more ordinary kinds of 
legal work; but by slow degrees he has risen, until to- 
day he is one of the most successful lawyers in New 
Hami)shire, and his practice includes the highest order 
of eases. Mr. Burns, although a good lawyer in all 
the brauches of his profession, especially excels as an 
advocate. His advocacy is of a high order. He is 
what most of our lawyers, and public speakers even, 
are not, a natural orator. The whole bent and incli- 
natiou of his mind has, from his earliest years, always 
been in this direction. He has given himself a thor- 
ough training and practice at the bar, on the stump 
and on all those varied occasions when a public 
speaker is called upon to address the people. This 
natural talent, thus trained, has made him a clear-cut, 
incisive and polished orator, who never fails to hold 
and impress his audience. 

It can be said of him, what can be said of very few 
men, he excels in advocacy and general oratory. 
His arguments before juries best illustrate his power 
as a speaker, while his public addresses exhibit his 
peculiar charm its an orator. As an advocate he ranks 
among the first in the New Hampshire bar. As an ora- 
tor he compares favorably with our best pul)lic speak- 
ers. He has held various important oflices in the line of 
his profession. In I87<) he was appointed by Governor 
Cheney county solicitor for Hillsborough County, and 
W!Ls subseiiueiiliy re-elected twice t<i that otfice by the 
people, the constitution in the mean time having been 
changed so as to make the office elective instead of ap- 
pointive. He held this office in all seven years, and dis- 
charged the difficult and delicate duties of a prosecu- 
ting officer in a large county ably and satisfactorily. 

In Febru.iry, 18H1, he wius appointed Ignited States 
district attorney for New Hampshire, and in Febru- 
ary, iH.S.'i, was reappointed to that office, which he 
still holds, bringing to the performance of its duties 
the same zeal and fidelity which he does to all his 
profe-ssioruil labors. 

.Mr. Burns has been a life-long Iiei>ublican. His 
father, Charles A. Burns, was an active and prominent 
anti-slavery worker in that little hand of anti-slavery 
agitators which existed in Milford. Young Burns 
when a boy was brought in contact with such men as 
Parker Pi'll.sbury, Wendell Phillips, William Lh.yd 
(iarrisiin and Fred Douglass, and imbibed the senti- 
ments with which they were animatc<l,sothat by force 
of these iiilluciices he was naturally a Kc puldiian, 
welcoming this party iis the means to carry out the 
principles of emancipation and freedom. 

When i|uitc young his interest in the Republican 
cause, together with his aptitude for public speaking, 
led him to take the stump for bis party. For years 
he has ])erformed in this way the most efficient ser- 
vice for the Republican party, and to-day is one of its 
ablest and most elo(|uent stHtn])-speakers. .Mr. Burns 



was elected county treasurer of Hillsborough County 
in 1864 and I860. He was also a member of the New 
Hampshire State Senate in 1873 and again in 1879, aud 
in both years was chairman of the judiciary eonnnittee 
took a prominent part in directing and shaping the 
and legislation of those years. He was appointed by 
Governor Head, in 1879, on his staff, judge advocate- 
general, with the rank of brigadier-general. 

He was a delegate-at-large to the National Repub- 
lican Convention at Cincinnati in 1876, and repre- 
sented the New Hampshire delegation on the com- 
mittee on resolutions. He was one of the three New 
Hampshire delegates who strenuously opposed Mr. 
Blaine's nomination for President, at first voting for 
Mr. Bristow and finally for Mr. Hayes. 

He was selected to preside at the Republican State 
Convention, held at Concord September 10, 1878, and 
upon assuming the chair made one of his character- 
istic speeches. The speech was delivered just after 
the Greenback party had wou a victory in Maine, 
and the public mind was full of false theories, and 
the high ground taken by the si)eaker in favor of 
honest money and national faith created a deep im- 
pression throughout the State. It was everywhere 
commended as a strong, forcible presentation of the 
issues of the hour. Mr. Burns is a man of scholarly 
ta.stes and habits; he has a fine law library, one of 
the best in the State, and a choice and valuable col- 
lection of miscellaneous books. He is an honorary 
member of the New Hampshire Historical Society, 
and also of the New ICngland Historical and Geneal- 
ogical Society. In 1874, Dartmouth College con- 
ferred upon Mr. Burns the honorary degree of A.M. 
He is a life-long and prominent Mason, having taken 
thirty-two degrees in that order, lie hiis also been 
master of the lodge with which he is connected. 

Mr. Burns was united in marriage with Sarali N. 
Mills, of Jlilford, N. H., upon his twenty-first birth- 
day, January 19, 1856, by whom he has had eight chil- 
dren, four of whom are now living, — two sons and two 
daughters. His oldest son, Arthur H., a high-minded 
young man of line character and great promise, died 
in 1877, when only twenty years of age, a great loss 
to his parents and to the community in which he 
lived, by whom he was universally loved and respected. 

Mr. Burns Inis a tine homestead in Wilton, in which 
and all its surroundings he very properly takes great 
pride and pleasure. To his wife, his family and his 
home lie has ever been loyally and devotedly attached. 

On the twenty-fifth annivereary of his wedding his 
friends to a large number met at his house to celebrate 
with him that occasion. It was a notable gatheriiig. 
Governor Heail and numy other prominent persons 
were present and celebrated with bis frieiuls that event 
with good cheer, with the giving of many valuable 
l)re.scnts ami by appropriate speeches, expressive of 
their regard and appreciation of the lives and char- 
acter of Mr. Burns and his wife, and by other appro- 
priate literary exercises. 

The engraving in this " History of Hillsborough 
County," which accompanies this sketch of his life, 
is from a |)hotograph taken January 19, 1885, the day 
be was fifty years of age. 



HISTORY OF MANCHESTER. 



CHAPTEE I. 

Geographical— Indian Occupancy— The First Scttlemeute— Names of 
Pioneers— Tlie Fisheries— Biographical Notices of Early Settlers. 

Manchester lies in the eastern part of the county, 
and is bounded as follows : On the north by Merrimack 
County, on the east and south by Rockingham 
County, and on the west by Bedford and Goffstown. 

This territory was originally occupied by the Am- 
oskeag Indians, a tribe subject to the Penacooks, 
who dwelt around Amoskeag Falls. The Indians, 
however, did not remain here until the advent of the 
white settlers. Probably forty years elapsed after the 
red man left his much-loved fisheries at the falls be- 
fore the white man became a permanent resident. 

The First Settlement.— To John Goile, Jr., Ed- 
ward Liiigfield and Benjamin Kidder is ascribed the 
honor of having been the first white settlers within 
the limits of the present town of Mancliester. They 
located in 1722 and erected habitations on Cohas 
Brook. 

The excellent fisheries at this point soon attracted 
the attention of other enterprising pioneers, and not 
many years elapsed ere the locality witnessed a large 
(for that early day) influx of settlers, anxious to rear 
their homes at the " fishing at Ammosceeg." Among 
these were John McNeil, Archibald Stark, Benjamin 
Hadley, Benjamin Stevens, Nathaniel Martin, Kph- 
raim Hildreth, Charles Emerson, 'William Perham, 
Benjamin Kidder, Benjamin Blodgett, John Ridell, 
Alexander McMurphy, Jr., John Hall, Thom:is Hall, 
Michael McClintock, David Dickey, William Gam- 
ble, Robert Anderson, Barber Leslie, William Nutt. 

Of these early settlers nearly all were active, en- 
terprising men, while some were possessed of marked 
ability, and subsequently became thoroughly identi- 
fied with the public enterprises of their day in this 
section of the Merrimack Valley. Many of these 
early settlers were from Londonderry, and were of 
Scotch-Irish extraction. 

John Goffe was an influential man in the new 
settlement, and had a son John, who became a distin- 
guished oflicer in the French and Indian AV'ar. 

Benjamin Kihher doubtless came here about 
40 b 



1722 with his father-in-law, John Goffe, as he was a 
grantee of Londonderry in that year. He probably 
was originally of Billerica. He entered in the com- 
pany under the famous Captain Lovewell, in the ex- 
pedition against Pequauquauke, and while on the 
march, and in the neighborhood of Ossipee Lake, was 
taken sick. It is probable that he did not long sur- 
vive the hardships and exposures of this expedition. 
His son, John Kidder, was named as a legatee in 
the will of his grandfather, John Goffe, Esq., made 
in 1748. 

Edwabd Lingfield. — Of Edward Lingfield very 
little is known. He married a daughter of John 
Gofte, Esq., and settled here about 1722. He was 
a corporal in Lovewell's expedition, was one of the 
thirty-four men who marched from Ossipee Lake to 
Pequauquauke, and took part in that famous battle, 
where he fought with great bravery. He was one of 
the nine men in that battle "who received no consid- 
erable wounds." After his return from that expedi- 
tion he received an ensign's commission as a reward 
of his heroic conduct in the battle of Pequauquauke. 
Archibald Stark was born at Glasgow, in Scotland, 
in 1693. Soon after graduating at the university he 
moved to Londonderry, in the north of Ireland, be- 
coming what was usually denoted a "Scotch-Irish- 
man." Tiicre he was married to a pour, but beautiful 
Scotch girl, by the name of Eleanor Nichols, and emi- 
grated to America. He at first settled in Londonderry, 
where he remained until some time in 1736, when, hav- 
ing his house burned, he removed to that portion of 
land upon the Merrimack tlien known as Harrytown, 
upon a lot that had been granted to Samuel Thaxter 
by the government of Massachusetts, and which wjis 
situated upon the hill upon tlie cast bank of the 
Merrimack, a short distance above the falls of Na- 
maoskeag. Here he resided until his death. An 
educated man. Stark must have had a strong desire 
that his children should enjoy the advantages of an 
education ; but in a wilderness surrounded by sav- 
ages, and upon a soil not the most inviting, the suste- 
nance and protection of his family demanded his 
attention rather more than their education. His 
children, however, were instructed at the fireside in 



MANCHESTER. 



41 



the rudiments of an English education, and such 
principles were instilled into them as, accompanied 
with energy, courage and decision of character, made 
them fit actors in the stirring events of that period. 
His education fitted him rather for the walks of 
civil life; but yet we find him a volunteer for the 
protection of the frontier against the ravages of the 
Indians in 1745 ; and for the protection of the people 
in this immediate neighborhood, a fort was built at 
the outlet of Swager's or Fort Pond, which, out of 
compliment to Mr. Stark's enterprise in building 
and garrisoning the same, was called Stark's Fort. 

Mr. Stark had seven children, — four sons and three 
daughters. His four sons — William, John, Archi- 
bald and Samuel — were noted soldiers in tlie Indian 
and French wars, and the three oldest had distin- 
guished themselves iis officers in the notable corps 
of Rangers prior to their father's death. The 
second son, John, became the famous partisan officer 
in the Revolution, and as a brigadiei won unfading 
laurels at the battle of Bennington. Jlr. Stark died 
the 2.jth day of June, 1758, aged sixty-one years. 

John Hall came to this country probably after 
1730. He tarried some time in Londonderry, and 
then moved upon a lot of land near the west line of 
Chester, and in that part of the town afterwards set | 
off" to form the town of Derryfield. He was an en- 
ergetic business man, and for a series of years trans- 
acted much of the public business of this neighbor- 
hood and town. He kept a public-house until his 
death. The original frame house built by him, but 
added to according to business and fashion, until 
little of the original could be recognized, was stand- 
ing until 1852, when it was destroyed by fire. It had 
always been kept as a public-house, and generally 
by some one of the name. 

Mr. Hall was the agent of the inhabitants for 
obtaining the charier of Derrytield in 1751, and was 
the first town clerk under that charter. He wiis 
elected to that office fifteen years, and in one and 
the same year was moderator, first selectman and 
town clerk. 

Wir.i.i.\M Gamble axd MiriiAEL MrCuxTOCK. 
— William (iambic came to this country in 1722, aged 
fourteen years. He and two elder brothers, Archi- 
bal<l and Thomas, and a sister, Mary, started to- 
gether for America, but the elder brothers were 
pressed into the British service upon the point of 
sailing, leaving the boy William and his sister to 
make the voyage alone. William was saved from 
the ]ires9-gang alone by the ready exercise of 
"wnman's wit." Tlie (Jambles had startoil nn<ler the 
protection of Mr. and Mrs. Jlichael .AlcClintock, 
who resided in the same neighborhood, and were about 
to emigrate to New England. Upon witnessing the 
seizure of the elder brothers, Mrs. McClintock called 
to William (iambic, "Come here, Billy, (|uickly," 
and u[)on Billy approaching her, she continued, 
"Snuggle down here, Billy," and she hid liini under 



the folds of her capacious dress [ There he re- 
mained safely until the gang had searched the house 
for the boy in vain, and retired in high dudgeon at 
their ill success. 

Upon coming to this country the McClintocks 
came to Londonderry. They were industrious, thriv- 
ing people, and Jlichael and William, his son, built 
the first bridge across the Cohoes, and also another 
across the Little Cohoes, on the road from Amos- 
keag to Derry. These bridges were built in 1738, 
and were probably near where bridges are now main- 
tained across the same streams on the "old road to 
Derry." The McClintocks were voted twenty shil- 
lings a year for ten years for the use of these bridges. 

William Gamble, upon his arrival in Boston, went 
to work on the ferry from Charleston to Boston. Here 
he remained two years. During the Indian War of 
1745 he joined several "scouts," and upon the com- 
mencement of the "Old French War," in 1755, hav- 
ing lost his wife, he enlisted in the regular service, 
and was in most of the war, being under Wolfe on 
the " Plains of Abraham." 

John McNeil came to Londonderry with the first 
emigrants in 1719. The McNeils of Scotland and in 
the north of Ireland were men of known reputation for 
braverj', and Daniel JIcNeil was one of the Council 
of the city of Londonderry, and has the honor, with 
twenty-one others of that body, of withstanding the 
duplicity and treachery of Lundy, the traitorous 
Governor, and affixing their signatures to a resolu- 
tion to stand by each other in defense of the city, which 
resolution, placarded U])on the market-house and 
read at the head of the battalions in the garrison, 
led to the successful defense of the city. 

John McNeil was a lineal descendant of this 
councilor. Becoming involved in a quarrel with a 
person of distinction in his neighborhood, who at- 
tacked him in the highway, McNeil knocked him from 
his horse, and left him to be cared for by his re- 
tainers. This encounter, though perfectly justifi- 
able on the part of Mr. McNeil, as his antagonist 
was the attacking party, made his tarry in Ireland 
unpleasant, if not unsafe, and he emigrated to 
,\merica, and settled in Londonderry. Here he es- 
tablished a reputation not only as a man of cournpe 
1)Ut one of great strength, anil neither white nr red 
man upon the borders dared to risk a hand-to-hand 
encounter with him. Measuring six feet and a half 
in height, with a corrcspcmding frame, and stern, un- 
bending will, he was a fit outpost, lui it were, of 
civilization, and numy are the traditions of his per- 
sonal encounters during a long and eventful border 
life. His wife, Christian, was well mated with him 
of strong frame and great energy and courage. It 
is related that upon one occasion a stranger came to 
the door and iiu|uired for McNeil. Christiana told 
him that her '" glide nioii " was not at home. Upon 
which the stranger cxpri-ssed much regret. Christiana 
inc|uircd a.s to the business upon which he came. 



42 



HISTORY OF IIILLSROROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



a:id the stranger told her he had heard a great deal 
(if the strenirth of McNeil and his skill in wrestling, 
and he had come some considerable distance to throir 
him. "And troth, mon," said Christiana McNeil. 
" Johnny is gone, but I'm not the woman to see ye 
disapiiointed, an' I think if ye '11 try mon, I'll throw 
ye meself." The stranger, not liking to be thus ban- 
tered by a woman, accei)ted the challenge, and, sure 
enough. Christian tripped his heels and threw him 
upon the ground. The stranger, upon getting up, 
thought he would not wait for " Johnny," but left 
without deiirninj: to leave his name. 

The Fisheries at Amoskeag.— At the time the 
white settlers located along the Merrimack the fish- 
eries at Amoskeag Falls had became famous through 
the adjacent country. Here salmon, shad, the alewife 
and lamprey eel ' were found in great abundance. 

In a journal kept by Hon. Matthew Patten, of Bed- 
ford, is the following entry : 

"1759, June K-9.— Fislu-d at Niinioskejig FaUs aud got 120 ehad and I 
guve Robert Mc^Inrphy 10 of them, and I got 4sbad and I small suluion 
for my part from the setting-place. Wui. Peters fished for me by the 
halves." 

Says Judge Potter, in his "History of Manches- 
ter,"— 

'* The fishing at Amoskeag was of the greatest importance to the peo- 
ple. Tnwiition has it that the lU-v. Mr. McGregore was the first person 
of tlie Londonderry settlement to visit the Kails, led thither by curiosity. 
and prompted by information obtained at Andover i^ to their grandeur 
and the abundance of fish to be found near them at certain seasons of 
the year. From this fact originated the cnstom of presenting Mr. Mc- 
Gregore and his successors the first fruits of the fishing season. The 
first fish caught by any man of Londonderry, salmon, shad, alewife or 
eel, was reserved as n gift to * the minister.' 

" As early as 1720 a road was laid out and built from Ninian Cochran's 
house (in Lonrlonderry), ' then keeping by or near the old ]>ath to Am- 
moscceg Falls.' And another road wiis )uid out at the sanu- time inter- 
secting tbo ' Ammosceeg road,' for the accommodation of other sections 
of the town. This undertaking of building u road some ten miles 
through tlie wilderness, in the infancy of tlnit colony, shows of how 

1 " Our fathers treasured the slimy prize : 
They loved the eel a* their vcrj' eyes : 
And of one 'tia said, with a tilander rife, 
Fur a string of eels ho sold his iri/« / 

'* From the eels they formed thoir food in chief, 
And eels wore called ^ berryjiclil bet/! ' 
And llie marks of eels were so plain to tnice, 
That the children looked like eels in the ftice ; 
And before thoy walked, it is well confirmed, 
Thnt the children never crept, but $qHinnetL 

*' Such a mighty power did the sijuirmers wield 
O'er the gowUy men of old l>«'rryfield, 
It was often wiitl that their only ran*. 
And their tinly wish, and their only prayer, 
For the prcwnt world and the world to come, 
Was a ttrimj of etU and ajtnj of ttnn .'" 

—-Ertrac'/'Om ponn by WiUiun Stark, re.nl ut the centeiiuia' cr!,l,niii:,t o/ 
Manchetter m 1851. 



great importance the 'fishing at Ammosceeg' was considered by the 
people of Londonderrj' ; ami it was natural that they should be strenu- 
ous in niaintjiining their claim tu th<- lands adjacent. Accordiuijly, we- 
find their claim to the lands and the subject of the fisheries connected 
with them matters acted upon in their town -meetings at an eaily date. 
As early OS 1720 people had moved upon these hinds probably for tlie 
purpose of holding them for ?Iiiss;ichnsetts she claiming to a hue three 
miles east of the Merrimack by her charter. This was a serious matter 
fur the people of Londonderry, and in the warrant for a town-meeting 
beariup date January S, 17;iU-31, there was the following article : 

"'lltbly. To ;*ee whether tbey will allow a Lawyer to be consulted 
almut those persons that are settling at Ammosceeg.' And at the meet- 
ing this article was thus disposed of, — 

*' 'lltbly. Voted that they are willing to leave the consulting of a law- 
yer about the settlement that is carried on at Ammosceeg to thf select- 
men and committee that is appointed for the defence of the propriety.' 

"It is not known what action was taken by theseleetmen and committee 
\ipon the matter ; but it is to l>e inferred, as the records are silent ufKin 
the subject, that no legal action was taken at that time. The peojile from 
Massachusetts continued to occupy the lands in this neighbuihood at in- 
tervals, and it is probable that wnne of them IkkI a continuous occupa- 
tion from this time under the authority of their government. Under 
such circumstances it is probable that after 'consulting a lawyer,' the 
people of Londonderry concluded to take quiet possession of the laud and 
wait the result of the hearing about to be bad in Kngland as to the 
claims of Massacbusetts. That the people of Londonderry continued in 
control of the business here is shown by the records of the following 
year, wherein is found the warmnt, one article of wliich reads thus, — 

" ' 4thly. To see whether they will beat the expense of twn canoos to 
be kept at Ammosceeg for the safety of the people at the fishing.' 

"On the day of the meeting, April 22, 1731, the following action was 
had on the 4th article : 

'* '4ihly. That in ordor to the safety of our town's people at the fishing 
at Ammosceeg tbo selectmen is empowered to allow and jwy out of the 
public charge or rates of the town three pounds in Bills of credit tosuch 
pereou or jiersons as shall be obliged to make two good sutficient canoos^ 
the selectmen obliging the aforesaid undertakers to serve the Inhabi- 
tants of the town the whole tirue fishing before any out town's ]>eople, 
and shall not exceed one sliill pr hundred for all the fish that they shall 
ferry over from the Islands and the owner of the tish and his attendants 
is to be ferried backwards and forwards at free cost." 

The whites took the fish with spears, scoop-nets 
and seines, and in large quantities; so that people 
coming from the surrounding country with tlieir 
wagons and carts could get them tilled sometimes for 
the carting the shad away, to make room for the sal- 
mon, and always for a mere trifling price. Immense 
quantities of shad were taken at one haul or drag of 
the seine. The Xeiv Hampshire Gazette of ^lay 23, 
1760, has the following item under its editorial head : 

" One day last week, was drawn by a net at one Draught, Two Thou- 
sand Five hundred odd Shad Fish, out of the River Merrimack near Bed- 
ford, in this Province. Thought remarkable by some people." 

Among the namesgiven to the various fishing-places 
were the following: Eel Falls, Fire Mill, Todd Gut, 
Russ Kay's Hnokinjr-Flace, S(»uth Gut, Thompson 
Place, Watching Falls, Little Fulpit, Mudget Place, 
Slash Hole, Point Rock, Black Rock, Swine's Back, 
Snapping-Place, Pulpit, Racket's Stand, Sullivan's 
Point, Crack in the Rock, Bat Place, Dalton Place, 
Pupi)y Trap, Pot Place, Patten Rock, Setting Place, 
MapU* Stump. The (_'olt, Salmon Rock, Eel Trap, 
Salmon (iut, Mast Rock. 



MANCHESTER. 



4a 



CHAPTER II. 

MANCHESTER. {Continued,) 

The JVenc-h ami Imlian War — A Fort Built — Xuines of Soldiers from 
Derrjfield — Captain GufTe and Others— DerrjlU-lii Men at Crown I'oint ; 
also at Fort Williuin Henry— War uf the Kwolutioii — First Action 
of tho Town— Derryftpld Men at Lexinjjion — Names of Kovolutionary 
Soldiers — M^jor-General John Stark— Sketch of His Life — Buri;il- 
Place. 

DuRiXG the French and Indian War, which began 
in 1746, the settlers of Amoskeag took an active part 
and a fort was erected at the outlet of wliat is now 
Nutl's Pond. Tlicre were soldiers from this town also 
in the French war in 1755. this locality sending three 
companies. These were commanded by Captains 
Goffe and Moor, of Derryfield, and the other by Cap- 
tain Rogers, of what is now Dunbarton. 

The roll of Captain Gofie was as follows : 

John Gofle, captain ; Samuel Moor, lieuteiiaut ; Nathiiiiio] Martain, 
^nrign ; Jonathan C<^rliti, sergeant; Jonas H;LStin^, i^er^ea lit ; John 
Goffe, Jr., sergeant ; Thomas Merrill, clerk ; Samuel Martuin, corporal : 
John Ttluor, corponil ; Joshua Martjtiii. corjH^nil ; Benjamin Eastman, 
corporal; Benjamin Kidder, dnimmer; Joseph (ieorgc, John Bedell, 
Benjamin Iliulley, Thomas George, Israel Young, Josiah Ituwell, Wil- 
liam Kelloy, Jo8eph Merrill, Daniel Corlis, ElienezerCoston, Paniel Mar- 
tain, .Tacoh Silliway, Stephen Georgo, David Xutt, Robert Xntt, Ohadiah 
Hawe«, Pavid WiHson, William Ford, Aaron Quinby, Nathan Howard, 
Thomas McLaughlin, John Littell, William McDugal, Itobert Holmes, 
John Wortly, Benjamin Vickery, William B:irr<>n, Nutlianiel Smith, 
WiBiam Wnlker, David Welch, Caleb Daultuu, Jamew Potters, Aaron 
CoppH, Jacob Jewell, Ebpiiezer Martuin, John Harwood, Atrmziah liil- 
dreth, John Kidder, John Itowell and Thomna Wortly. 

Captain Moor's roll was as follows : 

Jolin Moor, captain ; Antony Knuiry, lieutenant ; Alexander Todd, 
ensign : Matthew Rend, nergoant ; Thomas Read, serfioant ; James 
SIiMir, sergeant ; William Spear, sergeant ; E/ekiel St«ol, corporal ; Sam- 
«el McDnffy, cori>i)niI ; J'dm Rickey, corporal ; John Spear, corporal ; 
Ro)>erl Cochran, Thouphalas Harvey, Barber Lcsly, William Cumpble, 
JamcH Onail, Robert Tawddlo, John McConly, Tlmmns Gregg, Joshua 
BowlingH, Thomas Ilutchings, Rnbert Edwards, Edward Cariis, Alexan- 
der McClarj, Roliert Smith, David Vance, Robert Kennade, Robert -Mc- 
Keen, James Bean, .Tohn Cunningham, Samuel Boyde, John Crage, 
James Oughtcn>on, Micliatd Johnsi*n, John Logan, Robert Morrel, .Tohn 
McXight, John Welcli, Jumeis Ligget, John Mitchel, Daniel Toword, 
Esa Stevens, I^Iark Care (or Kary,) Samuel Miller, Edward Bean, Wil- 
liam Konniston, James Bah-y, Natliani*>l McKary. 

The following, mostly from this neighborhood, were 
at the battle of Lake George, and were subsequently 
ktiown as the " Riingers:*' 

Robert Rogei>, captJiin ; Richard Rogci-s, llcutonnnt ; Noah Jotinson, 
onnign ; James ArcliDraM, sergeant; John McCiinly, sorgeanl ; James 
McNeal, cori)oral ; Nathaniel Johnsi^m, corporal ; John SUchol, Isaac 
Cotton, Jamext Henr>-, James Clark, Timothy Hodsdasc, John Wtullelgh, 
Steplittn Voiing, Jonhna TKwoikI, James Adlson, Jonathan Silaway, 
John Brown, Klisha Bennett, Rowling Foster, James Grim*, James 3Irir- 
gan, Jiiines Welch, 3Iat!how Christopher, .lames Simonds, Charles Dud- 
ley, John KiM-r, Juhn llartmun, John Frost, James Mars, Samuel Letch, 
David Nult, William McKeon, Nathaniel Smith, I'lillip Wills, William 
Cunnlngliam, William Aker. Ji)lin l.'ilon, Wi Ilium Whetder, Simon 
Toby, Beiijiimin Sipiunlon, I'ileh Simimm, I'iller Mabatilon. 

A regitnpMt of New Hampshire men was raised for 

the oxjx'diti "ii to Crown Point in 175fi, of whirh John 
Goffe was ma or. The company from this hicality 
\\as as foil iws : 

Nat)iaui<-I Martim. tieutemuit ; Thomas Morrel. second lieutenant ;John 
GofTo, Jr., ensign; Siunuel Murrain, sergeant; Joseph Eiir<truan, ser- 



geant ; Ebeuezer Martain, sergeant ; Thomas SIcLaughlin, aergcaDt ; 
John Worlly, corporal ; John Straw, corporal ; Jacob Jcwoll, corpora! ; 

j Josiah Canfield, corporal; Benjamin Kidder, drummer ; Joseph Ordway,, 
Joseph George, Benjamin Badly, Thomas George, William Keueston, 

I Ebenezer Coaston, John McClellen, Jonathan Filleld, James Blanchard, 

' Paul Fowler, Plumer Hadley, John Fowler, Peter Moose, Joel Mannnel, 
George Shepimrd, Samuel Shepi>ard, James SlcCuuglilin, Ebenezer Ord- 
way, Isajic Walker, James Peters, Jacob Sawyer, Daniel Flanders, Daniel 
Emerson, William Barron. Timothy Barron, Andrew Stone, Caleb Emury„ 
/ebediuh Karuuiti, Luther Morpin, Joseph Pudney, John ^IcLaughtiD,. 

' John Redder, Caleb Daulton. 

The following company of Derryfiold men were at 
the siege of Fort William Henry : 

Richard Emnr>', captain; Nathaniel Martain, tii-st Ijenteiiant ; i'al- 
lata Russell, second lieutenant ; Jnhn Mome, ensign ; l>arby Kelley, 
sergeant ; Joseph Pearsons, sergeant; Benjamin Kidder, Sr., sergeant ; 
John Little, sergeant; Caleb Emary, Sr., coriwral ; Robert Munlock, 
corporal; Micajah Wynn, corporal ; John Hutchenson, corporal ; George 
Borrj', drummer; Josiah Bean, Jonatlian Prescutt, Benjamin Roberts, 
John Moore, Joseph Whicherwued, James Dunhip, Edward Bean, Wil- 
liam Batchelder, Edward Critchet, Joseph Hllhiyerd, Ebenezer Hutchen- 
son, Samuel Hardie, Heniy Hutchenson, Joseph Ekerson, Jouathaa 
Melcher, Samuel Ring. Elijah Ring, Hezekiah Swaine, William Towle, 
Joseph Web:^ter, Juhn Burnes, Jonathan Corlis, Jr., Asa Corlis, James 
Clougti, Caleb Daulton, Caleb Emary, Jr., Daniel Emei-sun, John Grif- 
fin, John CJordeu, Thonms George, Thomas Kennady, Robert Kennndy» 
Benjamin Kiddor, Jr., John Kidder, William McDugall, (for B. Linkfield), 
John Merrill, James I'atterson, Benjamin Pettingai, Ezekiol Stevens,. 
James Titconib, Leonard Blanchard, Timothy Barron, M'ilHam Butter- 
field, James BIcCalley. Samuel Gilison, Thomas Lancey, Josiah Parker, 
Sinmn McQuestin, Peter Bussell, Samuel Chase, John Davis, Benjamin 
Davia.'William Hutchenson, David Parker, Henry Parker, William Sil- 
laway, .lolin Webster, (for 1). Allen), William I'roiij^lit, La/arus Rowe, 
Daniel Darling, Stejihen Gilman, Tristram Ouimby, John Sandburnc, 
Gideon Young, Samuel Young, Stephen Webster, Solomon Prescutt, 
Thomas Parker, Ceasar Nero, John Corlis, David Nuti, Ebenezer Coar- 
ston, Moses Chase, John Slell, Jacob Bridgham, Patrick Clark. 

The first vote of the town in relation to the War ol 
the Revolution wiis under date of January 2, 1775, 
when it was voted to call a meeting on the 10th of 
the same month, — 

'*21y. To see if the town will chose a man or men as Deputies to go to 
Exeter the 2oth Day of January Instant, in Behalf of Siiid town in or- 
der to meet with the Deputies from the Neighboring Towns in said 
Province." 

At this meeting it was 

"Voted on the second article, not to send a man to Exeter, but that the 
Selectmen sond a Lctler to said Exeter, an<l int^ort in siud T>etterthat 
the siiid town will bear their Eiiual piMportion of money that i-hall here- 
after arise towards paying the cost of the General Congress, as any 
other town in the Pn)vince," 

There were thirty-four men from Derryfield in the 
battle of Lexington, and there were but thirty-six 
men in the entire town ra|)able of bearin-r arms. The 
names of the soldiers have not been jirocurcd, but 
the subjoined tax-list of Oerryfield lor I77o sliows 
that a large majority of the tax-i)ayers wcivof the 

volunteers: 

£ ». d. q. 

"Conl. John Goffo 19 4 

John Rand, Va(\t 13 H 

31iu. John Moors 3 13 6 *2 

Ensin. Samuel Moors 10 It 2 

James mc Night ft 

Capt. Nalhanii-l Morton 3 6 

William Nult 9 9 2 

Timothy Mcrtiou 3 

Jidin Griffen 10 6 6 

John GrilTen, Junr 3 

Bxiitamlti Rp.k. I, .0802 



44 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



£ 8. d, q. 

Benjamin liaker, Junr 3 

Johaurttlmii Merrcll U 5 2 

Ji'iwe Bakor 3 (» 

Joseph Gorge 10 2 

Abrhiim Merrell 10 'J 2 

Abrhaiii Merrell, Junr C 2 

David Merrell 3 8 

Joseph (iriffen 

Ezekiel Stavens 11 8 2 

Joi^eph fanner 3 

Isaac farmer 3 

Widow Samh Riis3 4 11 

Hubert Clark G 2 

John Keay 4 

Coal. John Stark 15 

David farmer 3 

Levt. James mc Galley 7 G 

Eain. Samuel Stark G 10 2 

Robert me- Night 3 

David nic Night 3 G 

DaiQel Blodget, Litchfield 1 

Joshua liloilget, Litchtield 4 4 2 

Capt. William Parhaui 10 9 

John Parham 10 3 

Ebenezer Coster 5 G 

Charls Eamerson 10 5 

CbarlsEamersou, Junr 3 6 

Gorge Eamerson 4 G 

John Har%'ey 19 2 2 

William Parham, Junr 10 3 

Micheal mc Clintock 4 4 2 

James Pairces 8 11 

Capt. Alexander mc Murphey 12 4 

Benjmen Crombie ... 7 o 

Moses Crombio 3 G 

Esin. Samuel Boyd 8 3 2 

E«in. Natheniel Boyd C 3 

Widow Margaret Boyd 5 1 2 

John Dickey 8 2 

William Gemblo 11 2 2 

Robert Cuuingham O 4 2 

David Starret ii 11 4 

John Hall 7 3 2 

Daniel Hall 8 2 

Sergl. Ebnezer Stivne 9 7 2 

Hugh thompson 3 10 

Benjmen Pilslmry 3 6 

Ihouuw Xunian ... 3 I 

Josep Masten, Bakerstown 8 

Jamea Lagon, Londonderry 8 

Rubrt mc Clouer, Londonderry- 4 

Alexander Irving 3 G 

Ceaaer Griffon. 4 

*' Joseph George,) „, 
•'Samtel Stahk, j 
*' Recorded this 24th day of December, 1775. 

"John Hall, Tomi Clark.'" 

Stark was at work in his saw-mill, at the head of 
the Amoskeag Falls, when he heard this news, and 
without a moment*8 delay he shut down the gate of 
his mill, repaired to his house, took his gun and am- 
munition, niouuteil his Ixorse in his shirt-sleeves, as 
he came from the mill and rode on to meet the enemy. 
Ashe journeyed on lie left word for volunteers to 
meet him at Medford, and without delay made the 
best of his way to Lexington. On his entire route his 
force continually increased, so that on the following 
morniiiir, when he arrived at Lexinjrton, he had at his 
command a large force of "backwoodsmen." 

The town Committee of Safety, in 1775, consisted of 



John Harve, Lieutenant James McCalley, Samuel 
Boyd, Ensign Samuel Moors and John Hall. 



'Colony of New Hampshire, etc- 



-COMMITTEE OF SAFETY. 

"April 12, 1776. 



" To the Saleclmen of Derryfield : In order to carry the underwritten re- 
solve of the Honorable Continental Congress into execution, you are re- 
quested to deeire all Males, above twenty-one years of age (luuatice, idiots 
and negroes excepted), to sign the declaration on this paper, and when 
so done, to make return thereof, together with the name or names of all 
who shall refuse to sign the same, to the General assembly or Committee 
of Siifety of this Colony. 

"31. Weare, Chairman. 

"In Congress, March 14, 177G. 
Resolved, That it be recommended to the several Assemblies, Conven- 
tions and Councils or Committees of Safety of the United States imme- 
diately to cause all persons to be disarmed, within their respective Colo- 
nies, who are notoriously disaffected to tho caut^e of America, or who 
have not associated and refuse to associate to defend by Arms the United 
ColoDies against the hostile attempts of the British Fleets and Armies. 
" Extract from the minutes, 

" Charles Thompson, Secretary. 

" In consequence of the above Resolution of the Continental Congress, 
and to show our determination in Joining our American bretliren in de- 
feuding the lives, liberties and properties of the inhabitants of the United 
Colonies, We, the Subscribers, do hereby solemnly engage and promise 
that we will, to the utmost of our power, at the risk of our lives and for- 
tunes, with arms, oppose the hostile proceedings of the British Fleets 
and Armies against the United American Colonies." 

This was signed by the following persons, and duly 
returned by the selectmen : 



" John Hall. 
Thomas Newman. 
David Merrill. 
William JlcClintock. 
John Gofle. 
Robert Cunningham. 
Samuel Boyd. 
Michael McCIintock. 
David Starret. 
John I'erham. 
Benja. Baker. 
M'illiam Perham. 
Simon Lull. 
Jamea Peirse. 
Abraham MerrilL 
John Ray. 
Nathaniol Boyd. 
Robert Clark. 
Joseph George. 
James Gorman. 
John Grifen. 
Moses Crombey. 
Joseph Farmer. 
John Sloor. 



William Perham. 
Ebenezer Stevens. 
Daniel Hall. 
John Dickey. 
John Rand. 
Alcxr. McJIurphy. 
Charles Emerson. 
Benjamin (-'rombie. 
Ezekiel Stevens. 
William Nutt. 
John Harvey. 
George Greaham. 
William Gambell. 
Abraham Merrill. 
Jonathan Jlerrill. 
Moses Merrill, 
.lohn UuBs. 
Sanuiel Stark. 
Jesse Baker. 
James AIcNight, 
TheotHas Grifin. 
Joseph Grifin. 
Hugh Thompson. 



"Colony of New Hampshire, June Ist, Day, 1770. To tho Hon. Mr, 
Weare, Cheannan, this is to certify that we the subscribers has I'resented 
till' Within Declaration to tho Inhabitants of said Town and they Have 
alle Signed Said Declaration, which we in our Judgment thought had a 
right to Sign the Same. 

" Certified by ub, 

" David Starret, "1 

" Ezekiel Stevens, {. Selectmen.'* 

"John I'erham, ] 

June 1, 177G, the following persons were in the 
army from Derryfield : Colonel John Stark, Captain 
John Moor, Captain James McCalley, Captain Alex- 
ander McMurphy, Captain Nathaniel Martin, Beii- 
janiin Baker, Nathaniel Baker, Ebenezer Costor, 
'i'iniothy Dow, Samuel Harvey, — more than one fourth 
of the inhabitants of the town " fit to Bare arms." 



MANCHESTER. 



45 



In 1777 a bounty of eight dollars was voted to each 

man wlio should enlist for a term of three years. 

The tax-list was as follows : 

£ >. d. 

•• Michael McClintock 1 2 10 

Mooi-s Merrill 1 2 2 

jHnies IVirce 2 19 2 

Barber Lesely 1 8 

Williaoi Parliam Juuior 2 14 

John Hervey 4 9 1 

Charles Kmerson 2 I" 4 

C'apt. William I'urham 2 IS 6 

Levt. John rarhiUM 3 2 

Kbenezer Coster 1 1.1 2 

Benjamin I'ilsburey 19 6 

£nt(iu. Samuel Boyd 2 3 7 

Ensin. Katlianicl Boyd 18 2 

Widow and William Boyd 1 8 

Capt. .\Iexallder McMurphy 3 9 7 

Benjamin Crombie 2 2 3 

John Dickey 2 8 2 

William Gamljoll 3 14 2 

Thomas N'ewnmn 1 2 

Timothy bow 15 8 

James Gorm:in 2 9 7 

George Gnliam 18 2 

Coazer Griffcn 1 11 1 

Alexander Irwing 16 o 

Jamee Lyon of Londonderry 5 2 

William McClintock 3 a 

John Goffe Junior 1 6 

Nathaniel Martain (I 18 2 

Ho«eit Crombie 1 4 8 

Samuel Morrson 1 10 

William Page of Londonderry 2 8 

David P'armer 18 2 

Hugh Thompson 1 12 6 

John Hughs 2 8 2 

Joseph Sarirlers 1 3 4 

Nathaniel Merrill Ifi 8 

Daniel Blodgot, Litchfield 7 10 

Colli. John Goffo 3 3 4 

John Band, Kinir 1 f. 

Maj, John 3Iwirc 4 4 C 

Capt. Samuel Moor 4 7 2 

James Mcnight 15 8 

William .Nutt 2 13 4 

Joseph Griffen 2 14 8 

John Griffin 2 4 

Benjamin Baker 2 17 2 

Joseph George 2 1 

Abniham MeiTill 3 1.5 4 

Ensin. Abraham Merrill 1 13 2 

Ezeklel Staveni 3 12 2 

Joseph Farmer 3 10 2 

Widow and John Buss 1 13 10 

John Bay 9 2 

Conl. John Stark 4 19 8 

Capt. James Mealley 1 15 2 

Eusin. SHHiuel Stark 2 9 4 

Joimtluin Merrill 1 7 4 

Jeswe Baker Ifi 8 

Benjamin Bilker, .lunr 18 2 

Nathaniel Baker 15 8 

Thoofllas Griftii 18 2 

I.«vt. Elwne/er .Stavens 2 17 5 

John tJriffen, Jnnr 1 2 1 

Levt. John Hall 3 17 8 

Daniel Mall 2 4 

David Stnrrcl 3 15 7 

£132 13 I •' 

A few months after, the town voted Colonel John 
Goffe a committee to furnish Robert McNight's fam- 
ily with proper provisions during his absence in the 



Continental army, or the family of any other soldier 
who should need assistance. 

And the people were equally liberal on other occa- 
sions when acting individually. Thus, this same year 
they subscribed most liberally in aid of volunteers, 
although they had already submitted to a double tax. 

When the retreat from Ticonderoga was first heard 
of in this town. Captain Nathaniel Martin, Theophi- 
lus Griffin, Nathaniel Baker, John Nutt, Enoch 
Harvey and David Fanner immediately volunteered 
and marched to Number Four. A contribution was 
made among the inhabitants for Martin, Griffin and 
Baker, and £4 10«. were raised. Soon after, when it 
was seen that an encounter with the British was 
inevitable in that quarter, and Stark was in need of 
troops, another contribution was made " to hold on 
John Nutt, Enoch Harvey, Theophilus Grillin and 
David Farmer," and £44 10«. were raised, and they 
" held on " and participated with their neighbors in 
the glorious battle of Bennington. 

Tlie following is a list of those subscribing: 

"The account hereafter Sat Down is money jiayd by liidividiml In- 
habitants of the Town of Dcrryfield to the Soldiers Raised at Sundry 
times for Carrin on this unuateral ware from the first of September, 
1776, and upwards is as follows : 

£ s. d. 
'* Ezekiel Stavins paid to Enoch harvey for going 

to New York 3 o 

Capt. Samuel moor & David Starret paid to Na- 
thaniel Baker do 4 10 

Levt. John Parhaiu paid to Timothy martin 

for ditto 3 



£10 
* paid by the Sundroy persons hereafter Named to 
Nathaniel martain, Theophilus Grifnn ic Na- 
thaniel Baker as volunters wen they went to 
Noumber four about the retreat from Ty are as 
followeth : 

£ 

William Gamble 

Eiisn. Samuel Boyd 

Samuel morreson 

E/.ekiel Stavins 

James German 

Abmliam luerritl .lunior 

Capt. Samuel mooro 

Villiam Parham Junior 

■James mc Night 

f.cvl. .lohn Hall 

James Pairro 

Abrhani Mi-rrill 

Jonutbau .Merrill 

Ebene/r Stavens 

Joseph Sanders 

John IMckey 

John Hall Junior 

W llllaiu Nntt 

Daniel Hall 

Col. John Stark 

Capt. William Parham u 

William Mct'linlock 

Col. John Goffe n 

and John harvoy 



10 



£4 10 



' paid by Individuals to hoUl on John Niitl, 
Enoch harvey, Theophilus Griffin * I'livid far- 
mer, wen they went Willi Genenil Stark to the 
Battel ut Betienlou, are as followeth, (viz.) ; 



46 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOKOUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



1. .. <i. 

Jaiiifs SlcXiglit 1 4 

Col. John Goffe 2 8 U 

Majr. John Moore - 2 

William Nutt i; 4 

John Griffin U 12 

Benjamin Biikcr 1 In n 

Joeepli George i> 18 '* 

Thonina Newman 'J 9 

Abralinm Merroll 2 2 

Joseph Farmer .0 10 

Ensn. Samuel Stark "12 

Levi. John Hall 1 Hi 

William Gamble 1 4 

John Dickey IS 

Ca|it. Alexr. nir murphy 1 In 

Ensn. Samuel Boyd 1 10 

Michael McClintock 12 

William mcClintock 1 4 U 

Capt. AVm. I'arham 2 8 

Cliarles Emerson 18 

John Hervey ^ 

John Hughs 1 10 

James Pairce 18 U 

David Starret 18 

Zacelieus Uirhison 2 G 

Moses Merrill 

Capt. Samuel Moor. ... 10 o 

Ensn. Ahraham Merrill 12 " 

Ezekiel Stavins 2 8 

Daniel hall U IS 

Levt. John Parliam 1 10 

James Garman 12 

William Parham, .lunr 1 4 

Joseph Sander* 12 

Jonathan Jlerrill U 12 

Moses Cronibie 12 

Nathaniel Merrill 

Levt. Eljenezer Stavins tl 12 

£ 14 l;i i: " 

The following sketches of Revolutionary jiatriots 
are taken from Judge Potter's "History of Man- 
chester." 

Majok-General John Stark was the third 
son of Archibald Stark, Esq., one of the early settlers 
of Derryfield. His father was a man of education, 
and imparted to his children such instruction, and 
such principles at the fireside as few others upon the 
frontier were able to confer upon their children. Dur- 
ing Stark's boyhood the remnants of the Pennacook 
Indians were .still in the Merrimack Valley, and ;nade 
Anioskcag their annual rendezvous during the fishing 
season, and, in fact, in the earlier Indian wars, some 
of them were employed as soldiers by our govern- 
ment, and were enrolled with other .soldiers. In this 
manner, young Stark, a hunter from position and 
necessity, became well ac(|Uaintcd with the habits of 
the Indians. This knowledge gave him a superiority 
over most of his brother soldiers in the war with the 
Indians and French that followed. However, this 
knowledge would have been to no great purpose had 
it not been united in him with other qualities pecu- 
liarly befitting a soldier of those times. He was re- 
markable for the vigor and activity of the jihysical 
man, and hence for his ca|)ability in sustaining fa- 
tigue. Adding to these, quick perception, indomit- 
able energy and remarkable decision of character, he 



was the ^()lclier lor the limes in which he lived, and, 
in fact, .such(iualities are the elements of success at any 
and all times. His success as an officer in the noted 
Rangers of the Seven Years' War gave him a popu- 
larity among the people at large, and the soldiers in 
particular, that placed him in the front rank as a suc- 
cessful soldier upon the breaking outof the Revolution. 
It was this popularity among the soldiers that gained 
his services to the country, for if his appointment or 
promotion had been left to the politicians of the day, 
it is doubtful, from the way in which he was treated by 
them, whether he could have succeeded to any com- 
mand. Once at the head of a regiment, and in ser- 
vice, the battle-field told the story of his bravery. 
His brilliant achievements at Bunker Hill, Trenton, 
Princeton and Bennington are well known. 

Early in 1778 he repaired to Albany and a.«sumed 
the command of the Northern Department, and re- 
mained there until ordered to join General Gates at 
Providence. 

He passed the winter in NewHamjishire, in urging 
forward recruits and supplies, but in the spring joined 
General Gates at Providence. 

In November, by General Washington's orders, he 
joined him in New Jersey, and after a short time was 
sent by Washington to New England to make requi- 
sition for men and provisions. 

In 1780 he was with Washington atMorristown, and 
took part in the battle of Si)ringfield. 

Soon after, he was ordered to New England, col- 
lected a body of militia, and marched them to West 
Point. 
1 General Stark was one of the court martial who 
I decided the fate of Major Andre, and reluctantly, 
though in obedience to his duty, and for his country's 
advantage, favored the sentence of death upon that 
brave but unfortunate officer. 

In 1781 he again took charge of the Northern De- 

I partment. The country was overrun with robbers 

and Tories, and he had but a weak and inefficient 

force, but his strict discipline and stern justice dealt 

i out to spies andTories soon brought things into better 

order. 

The capture of Lord Cornwallis brought the war to 
a close, but General Stark was ordered to New- Hamp- 
shire for men and supplies. 
j The most of 1782 he was afflicted with a rheumatic 
j comiilaint, brought on by long exposure, and was not 
able to join his command. 

In 178.'5, how'ever, he joined Washington, and soon 
afler aided by his counsels in allaying those feelings 
of disquiet excited by the treacherous Newburg letters 
among the officers and soldiers of the army. I'pon 
news of peace. Stark bore the happy intelligence 
to New Hampshire, and forthwith retired to his 
farm at Derryfield to enjoy that rejiose he so much 
needed. 

But his active mind cmild not lie at rest, and he en- 
gaged in all of those plans for the advantage of the 



MANCHESTEK. 



47 



town and Stiitf which were so necessary to be matured 

and carrit'd out liy clear heads and strong nerves. 

The unjust claim ot'thc Masonian proprietors to the 
lands betwixt a straight and a curve line, between the 
northeast and the northwest corner bounds of the 
.Masonian grant was first suecessl'ully opposed by Mm, ' 
and to his exertions it was mainly owing that the 
Legislature took the matter in hand, and established 
the claim of the State to the lands in ([uestion, thus 
<iuieting hundreds of small farmers in the possession 
of their lands, and in the end adding largely to the 
funds of the State. 

He was ever found upon the side of his country, 
and when, in 1780, discontent had ripened into open 
rebellion, and the Legislature had been surrounded 
by armed malcontents, the veteran Stark stood ready 
for the occasion, and would have volunteered his ser- 
vices had not the insurrection been repressed by the 
judicious councils and determined action of the gal- ' 
lant Sullivan, who was at that time, most opportunely, 
at the head of our State government. 

He refused all civil office that would takeliini from 
his home, but in his native town he was ready to \ 
serve his townsmen in any capacity where he could 
be of advantage, and that did not trespa.ss too much 
upon his valuable time. 

Thus living not for himself alone, but for his country, 
the veteran Stark passed into the wane of life, ever j 
taking, as long as life lasted, a lively interest in every 
incident in our country's history. At length, suffering 
from the effects of a paralytic shock, at the extreme 
agi- of ninety-three years, eight months and twenty- 
two days, the old hero departed this life on Wednes- 
day, the 8th day of May, 1822. 

The Friday following his death his remains were 
interred, with military honors, in a cemetery he had 
inclosed upon his own farm, a large concourse of 
people being in attendance to witness the imposing 
ceremony, and pay their last res])ects over the body 
of the man who had contributed so largely in filling 
■" the measure of his country's glory." 

The cemetery is situated upon a commanding bluff 
upon the east bank of the Merrimack, and over his 
remains his family have placed a plain shaft of 
granite, indicative alike of his simplicity and hardi- 
hood, U|)on which is inscribeil " Maj.-< ieneral Stark." 
This 8im|ilc stone i)oints to his ashes alone, but his 
■deeds are traced in deep-lined characters upon the 
pages of our country's history, while his memory is 
engraven upon the Ik arts of his countrymen. 
Such a name needs no other monument. 
M.v.lOK .lollX MouKiv. — He hail been an officer in 
the preceding French war, in which he had won the 
reputation of a man of courage andenergy. After the 
coni|Ue.st of Canada he ipiietly settled down ujion his 
farm at ('oboes lirook. Upon the news of the battle of 
Lexington he Icil his neighbors of .Vmoskeag to the 
scene ofaction, and on the ■J4th of Ajiril was conimis- 
sioneil liv the Committee ofSafetv of Massachusetts 



as a captain in Stark's regimen t. Thomas McLaughlin, 
of iiedford, was commissioned as his lieutenant at the 
same time. He forthwith enlisted a company of fifty- 
seven men, mainly of Derrylield, Bedford and Gotls- 
town. His roll was as follows : 

Jolin Moore, captain ; ThoinRS McLaughlin, lieutenant ; Nathaniel 
Boyd, eurgeaut ; Juhn O'Xeil, sergeant ; David McQuig, (tergeant ; John 
Junlan, sergeunt ; William Patterson, corporal ; Abraliani Juliusuu, cor- 
IHii-al ; Joshua Page, corporal ; Satuuel Patten, corponU ; Jiurry Glovor 
Iruniiiier ; Jainea ISuttorlield, lifer ; Jolin Allil, Kdwnrd Bickshey, Samuel 
Barron, Benjamin Baker, Jolin Callohau, John Cyplicrs, Samuel Cald- 
well, Jonas {'uttiup. Edniond Davis, Charles Emerson, George Enieraon, 
Luke Egan, John Goffe, John Gregg, Benjamin George, James Gledder, 
James Gibson, James Hogg, .\rthur lloit, Thomas Huse, Solomon tlutcb- 
inson, John Hunter, James Houston, iJeorge Hogg, Lemuel Harvey, Cal- 
vin Johnson, Samuel Martin, Timotliy Martin, David McKnight, James 
Mcl'herson, John Caldwell MiXeil, John .Mills. Joseph .Matthews, John 
McPlierson, GotTe Moore, Thonuxs McClary, Samuel Moore. David >loore, 
John McMurphy, William Newman, James Orr, .Vrchihald Stark, t'aleb 
Stark, John Turner, John Wyer, Hugh Campbell, .Vlexander Hutchin- 
son, William McGilway, James Sloore. 

Three of the men joined the company at a subse- 
quent date, viz.: Samuel Patten, of Bedford, June 
17th; James Gibson, probably of Londonderry and 
John McMurphy of Dcrryfield, July 16th. Samuel 
Patten enlisted on the 17th, and, with the fifty-seven 
others enlisted on the 24th of April, participated in 
the battle of Bunker Hill. In that battle none did 
liCtter service than Captain John Moore and his 
company of Amoskeag, as related elsewhere. 
j On the 18th of June, the day following the battle, 
Captain Moore was complimented with a major's 
commission, to take the place in Stark's regiment of 
Major McClary, who had been killed in the battle of 
the day preceding. Lieutenant !MeLaughlin was 
]iromoted to the caiitaincy thus made vacant, and 
I Sergeant Nathaniel Boyd, of Dcrryfield, was made 
j lieutenant in his place. Major Moore remained with 
i the army but a few months, when the state of his 
health obliged him to retire to his farm. He con- 
tinued, however, his active participation in all matters 
on foot in the town, county and State, to forward 
the patriot cause, until his removal from the State, 
in 1778. In that year he moved to Norridgewock, in 
Maine, where he ever maintained a most respect- 
able position in life. He died in January, 1809. 

Majou John Goffe was a son of the noted Colo- 
nel Jtdin GotVe, of Derryfielil. He resided in Bedford, 
just across the Merrimack from his father. In the 
Seven Years' War be was a lieutenant in Caiitain 
Martin's company, in Goffe's regiment. At the 
close of the French war he returned to Bedford and 
resumed his occupation as a farmer and miller. 
He received a captain's commission from Gov- 
ernor Wentworth in 17(i4, and 1708 wsis |iro- 
moted to a majorily. At the commencement of 
hostilities he volunteereil, went to Cambridge, en- 
listed in Captain Moore's company as a private, and 
was in the battle of Bunker Hill. In the summer 
jifter, he left the army anil returned home, his business 
rci|niriug his presence. Several of his sons scrveil in 
the War of the Revolution, ami two of them lost their 



48 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



lives in that struggle — Stephen being lost at sea, and 
William killed in an engagement. But in civil life 
Major God'e was active in the patriot cause, and was 
successful in furnishing recruits for the army. When 
General Stark called for more troops to assist in con- 
quering Burgoyne, Major Goti'e at once volunteered 
his services as a private, and marched to th^ conflict, 
thus favoring the great cause by precept and exam- 
ple. Of a truth, the good that such men do lives after 
them. He died at Bedford, aged eighty-five years. 

Lieutenant John Okr was of Bedford, where, at 
the commencement of the Revolution, he was a suc- 
cessful farmer. He volunteered under Stark in his ex- 
pedition to Bennington, and was appointed a lieu- 
tenant in Captain McConnell's company, in Colonel 
Stickney's regiment. This regiment was one of the 
two that were sent against the Tory breast-work on 
the right of the enemy's works, south of the Hoosac. 
Early in the tight Lieutenant Orr was wounded in the 
knee by a musket-ball. Unable to stand, he lay upon 
the ground some time before any one came to his 
assistance. Sergeant Griffin then came to him, and 
with the assistance of another soldier carried him to 
a place of safety, forced to drag him upon his back 
through a corn and flax-field to shun the sharpshoot- 
ers of the enemy. From want of skill the fracture was 
not properly reduced; but employing a private sur- 
geon he began to mend, but was unable to be removed 
until February. On the 4th of that month he started 
for home, riding upon a bed in a sleigh, and reached 
home in ten days, after much suffering. He was una- 
ble to step till the October following, with crutches 
even. In the end he recovered his health, and though 
ever lame, was able to resume the active duties of 
life. He was much in public business, and filled the 
offices of selectman. Representative and Senator in 
the State Legislature with credit to himself in town 
and district. J^ieutenaut Orr died in Bedford in Jan- 
uary, 1823, aged sixty-five years. 

Sergeant Epiiraim Steven.s was another true 
soldier of Derryfield. He never knew fear. Whether 
driving the Hessians from their ([uarters, or attacking 
them without regard to disparity of numbers, as at 
Trenton, he was the same dauntless man. He was 
one who "snufled the battle from afar," and w^as 
ready to engage in it. When relating his afltiir 
at Trenton, in beating up the quarters of the Hessians, 
he was wont to say that the bayoneted Hessians, as 
they lay upon the floor, was tlie prettiest sight he ever 
saw. He was of powerful make, and had the reputation 
of being the " strongest man in the army." In the 
camp at Valley Forge, when, by the recommendation 
of the officers, the soldiers engaged in all manner of 
athletic sports, Sergeant Stevens was wont to "beat 
the ring " wrestling and lifting. The trial of strength 
was in shouldering and carrying of "oak buts;" he 



could shoulder and carry the biggest " oak but of any 
man in the army." Such a man was invaluable as a 
soldier. Want of education prevented his promotion. 
After the close of the war Sergeant Stevens returned 
to Derryfield and became a successful farmer. He 
died in 1845, aged eighty-seven years. 

Sergeant Theophilus Griffin. — lie was an- 
other brave soldier of Derryfield. He was with Stark 
at the battle of Trenton, and was one of the men 
who assisted Stevens in adventure with the Hessians, 
before related. The most of the day he went bare- 
footed through the snow, throwing ott' his worthless 
shoes soon after commencing the pursuit of the re- 
treating Hessians, and this without a murmur. No 
man fought better than Theophilus Griffin ; but he 
must have a leader. He could execute, not direct. 
When the news came of the retreat from Ticonderoga 
he was one of the first to volunteer his services to meet 
the enemy, and was with Stark at Bennington, where, 
in addition to fighting bravely, he assisted with the 
greatest hazard in carrying Lieutenant Orr from the 
field when disabled by a severe wound. After the 
close of the war he settled down upon a small farm, 
but with indiflerent success as a farmer. Habits fos- 
tered, if not contracted in the service unfitted him for 
steady employment. He preferred the exciting scenes 
of the camp to quiet labor, and, used to those, in the 
time of peace he sought excitement where it could be 
found, and, as was often the case with other soldiers, 
l)a.s*ed the last years of his life with little advantage 
to himself or society. He, however, fought nobly tor 
his countrj', and his name deserves a place among the 
patriots of Derryfield. He died at Derryfield at an 
advanced age. 

Samuel Kemick. — He was an apprentice in Bed- 
ford at the time of Burgoyne's ai>iiroach from the 
north. He volunteered under Stark and was at the 
battle of Bennington. He stood by Lieutenant Orr, 
saw him fall and carried from the field. As he 
emerged from the corn-field he took a position behind 
an oak and commenced firing upon the enemy. He 
fired some eight or ten times, when, as he was loading 
his gun, an unlucky bullet from the enemy's works 
brought him to the ground. In this position he 
loaded and fired several times upon the enemy. At 
length, giving his gun to a man, the lock of whose 
gun had been broken by a ball, he dragged himself to 
a fence near by, where he was taken upon a blanket 
and carried to the surgeon's quarters, an open field on 
the banks of the Hoosac. He soon recovered, and 
lived to a good old age, receiving the bounties of his 
country for his sufferings in the cause of lihertj-. 

The following were also in the war from this town : 
Ephraim Stevens, David Merrill, James Thomjison, 
Benjamin George, Isaac George, Ichabod Martin and 
Robert McNight. 



MANCHESTER. 



49 



CHAPTER 111. 

MANCHESTER— (Conirnnerf). 

CIVIL HISTORY. 

The Charter of I)orr)fleld— Original Bounds— The First Town-Mooting— 
Officers Elected— Portion of Iliirrytown Anne.\o<! in 17U.'>— Town 
Named Maucliester in 18111 — List of Solectnien, Moderutors iind Town 
Clerks— Tho Town-Meetiug of 1840 — Much Kxcitement Prevails — 
Thirty Constables Chosen to Keep Onlor— The Waning Power of the 
Town— Strength of tho *' New Village " — First Town-BIeeting in the 
"Now Village" — Town House Erected — Incoriiuralion of tho City 
First City Election— Otlicers (lioson- Organization of Firet City Gov- 
orniiieut — List of Mayors and Clerks from Organi/.ation to ISSo. 

The town of Manchester, embracing portions of 
the towns of Loinloiulerry and Chester, and a tract ol 
hind lying on the Mcrriinacic River, belonging to the 
Masonian proprietors, called " Ilarrytown," was char- 
tered September 3, 1701, under the name of " Derry- 
field." This name is said to have been derived from 
the fact that the people of Londonderry had been ac- 
customed to pasture their cattle within its limits. 
The charter was as follows : 

"PlloVINCE OF New IlASd-SIIIUK. 

••ILS.] 

"Gt'orge the second by the grace of God, of Grunt Uritiiiii, France and 
Ireland King, Defender of the Fuitb, Ac, and toiill whom these preaentd 

Bhull come. 

"Grketiso ; 

*' mtercas, OUT loyal subjects, inhulpitnntii of a tmct of land witliin our 
provincoof New Hamiwhire aforesaid, lying partly within that part of our 
province of New Hunipshire called LcndouiliTry in i>art, and in part in 
Chettter, and in part of land not heretufure grunted to any town within our 
province aforesaid, liavi- hiirnbly ptititioned and reqnested to us that they 
ni»y bo erected and incorporated into a township, and infrauchise*! with 
the same powers and privileges wjiichiillu-r towns within our said prov- 
ince by law have and enjoy ; and it appearing to us to bo conducive to the 
general good of our said province, as well us of said inhabitants in jiartlc- 
iilar, by maintaining good order, and enconntging the cnltivaiion of the 
land, that the same shonld bo done ; Know Ve, therefore, that we, of our 
especial grace, certain knowledge and for the encounigtmient and pi-o- 
moting the good purposesand t.-iuin afuresaid, by antl with tin- advice of 
our trusty and well-beloved liennington Wi-nlwortb, Ksq., our Governor 
and Commander in Chief, and of our Council of our Province of New 
Ilanipshire aforesaid, have erected and ordaint^d, and by these pres*}nts, 
for ourselves and succt^sors, do will and ordain, that tho inhabilanftof a 
(the) tmct of land aforcsa'ld, shall inhabit and improve thereon hereafter 
bulled and tK)unde<l as folbfWB, viz.: Degioning at a pitch i>ine tree 
standing upon the town line, betwoon Chester and Londonderry, marked 
one hiindreil and thirty-four, being the bounds of one of the sixty-acn- 
lots in naid Chester, being the Sniilh \V«-st curni-r of said lot ; theneo run- 
ning south into the township of Londonderry one hundn-d ami sixty 
rods to a stake and stones ; thence running west to Londonderry North 
and South line ; thence runnliig South upon Londonilerry line to tho Head 
line of Litchfield to a stake and stones ; thenru running upon the head 
line of Litchflehl to the Hank of the Merrlnnick river ; tbenco running 
up said river, as the rivt^T runs, eight miles to aslakeand sloiiesstunding 
upon the liank of sairl river ; theno? running Kast South ICast one mile 
and three (jnarterf, thnmgh land not gninted to any town, until it comes 
to CbfNtrr line ; tbenci- running two miles and a half an*! Ilfty-two rods 
on the sjime couive into tln' townshiit of Cln"*ter, to a slake aiifl sl<»no« ; 
tbenrL' running south four mites and a half to the boumls fli-st mentioned, 
all which lands within stud bounds which lies within the townships of 
Londonderry and Ctiester aforesaid, are not to lu> liable to pay any taxoii 
or rates, but as they shall be settletl, and by these presents are iloclared 
and ordained to be a town ctirporateil, and are hereby erected untl Incor- 
porated into alKHly poUtlrk, and aeorponitlon to have continuance for- 
ever by tho name of Dcrryfleld, with all the iM>wont, authorities, pHvl- 
loges. immunities and infranrhises to them tin- said inhabitants and their 
■nccessors forever, always reserving to us, our In-irs, and nucressiu-n, all 
white pine tr«ee growing and bring, or that shall herraftergrow and Iw 



on tho said tract of land, fit for tho uae of our Royal Navy, reserving 
also the power of dividing gaid town to us, our hoire and succoaBoni, when 
it bliiiti appear uecesei^iry and convenient for the benefit of the inhabitants 
thereof, and as the several towns within our niaid province of New nanti>- 
shire, are by law (hereof entitled and autbori/.cd to assemble, and by 
the majority of vot«s to choose all said oflicersas are mentioned in tlio 
said laws. 

"We do by these presents nominate and appoint John McMurphy to 
call the fli-st meeting of the inhabitants to be held within tho said town 
at any time within twenty days from the day hereof, giving legal notice 
of the time, place and design of holding sjiid meeting in said town, after 
which the annual meeting in oaid town shall be lu-ld for the choice of 
town ofHcers,and forever on tlio first Monday in J^Iarch annually. In 
testimony whereof we have caused the seal of our said I'rovinco to be 
hereto affixed. 

•' Witnesis Benning Wentwortb, Ksq., our Governor and Connnander 
in Chief of our said Province, the third day of Septembt-r, in the year of 
our Lord Chiist, one thousand seven hundred and hflyHine, and in the 
twenty-tifth year of our Keign. 
" By His E,\celleucy'8 Command 
with advice of Council, 

*' B. Wkntwohth. 
"TiiKonoRR Atkinson, Sec^y. 

"Province op New IIami'suire. 
" Entered and recorded in tho Book of Charter, this third day of Sep- 
tember 175G, pages 79 & 80. 

" I'cr TiiEonoKE Atkinson, Src'y."' 

This charter covered about eighteen square miles of 
the southwest part of Chester, about nine square miles 
of the northwest part of Londonderry, inchidiiijr The 
Peak, and the strip of hind between Londonderry, 
Chester and the Merrimaek River, called Ilarrytown, 
containing about eight square miles. 

This charter did not embrace the wholeof what was 
known as Harrytown, a nook at the north part, be- 
twixt Chester and the Merrimack being left ungranted. 
This contained about two square miles, wan called 
Harrysborough, and was added to Derryfield in ITU'J. 

The act of incorporation empowered John McMur- 
phy to call the first town-meeting, which was held at 
the house of John Hall, inn-holder, September 23, 
1751, as follows : 

'*l*RoviNcE OF New Hami'SMIke. 

"At a meeting of tho proprietors, fi-eeholders and inhabitants of 
Derryfield, assembled at the house of Jtphn Hall, In said town. At this 
first meeting upon Monday, the twenty-third day of September, Ann» 
l>om'o, 17r>l, by His Kxcellency's direction in tho charter for said town- 
ship, dated September tho thini, 1761, according to the direction In Mid 
charter, by His Excellency's command, 1, tho sulwcrilK-r Issued a notifica- 
tion for choice of town otlicers upon the affonwiid day. and the atToresaid 
bouse, and the people being iwst>mbled, 

" Vol&J, John Golfe, first Selectman. 

William Perham, Ditto Selectman. 
Nathaniel Boyd, " " 

Daniel McNeil, 
Elie74i Wells, 

"3dly, for town clerk, John Hall. 

"4thly, Commisslonei-s for assowment, to examine the Selectmen's ac* 
eounl. William McCllntock, William Stark. 

"Sthly, for countable, UolM'rt Andei-s«tii. 

"C.lhly, for (ylbing men, John Harvey, William Elliott. 

"7thly, for surveyors of highways, Abraham Merrill, John lUddlo' 
John Hall. 

*'8thly, for Invoice men, Oiarh-s Eniemm, Samuel Martin. 

"Othly, for Haywaitls, Mosi-s Wells, Wlllliim (iurubln. 

" lothly, Peer-keojM'm, Charles Ememm, William Stark. 

" nth, for culler of staves, Benjamin Stevens. 

"I2thly, for surveyor of boanls, planks, Joists and timlMT, Abraham 

Merrill. 

" Reconled by me, 
[ 'MituN Ham, 1\nen CXrrk.'* 



50 



HISTOKY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIllE. 



Thus the tosvn was organized under the charter. ' that the phxce some day would l.e the Manchester of 

The next town-meeting was holden the 16th of ^ America." 
November following, and mainly for the purpose of | 
raising money to defray the expenses of obtaining ' 
the cliarter. On the 4th of November the meeting 
was called by warrant of the Selectmen, the second 
article of which was 

••■>. To raao money to defray the clmrges that Mr. John Hall has been 
at ill obtaining a corporation for said town ami to cliuso a committee for 
examining and allowing his accounts." 

At the meeting held November 26, 1751, upon the 
second article of the warrant, it was : 

" VoUd, that .Mr. .lohn Hall be piid all the money that a committee 
uiwn the examination of his accounts shall allow to be his just due for 
obtaining an incorporation for this town, and the committee's names are i 
as lolloweth : John GotTe, William SIcrlinto, William Pcrham." 1 

This committee made their report to the selectmen 
DeceiiiluT 21, ITol, as follows: 

" DF.ltltYFlELn, December ye 21, IT.'M. 

"To the selectmen of Derryfield, Gents, We, the subscribers, being a 
coiiiraittec chosen by the town of Derryfield to examine and allow the 
ac^iounts of .Mr. John Hall, that we should find justly due to him for his 
obtaining a corporation for said town, we have set upon that affair, and 
upon a critical examination of the accounts of ssiid John we find that he 
has o.vponded iu money and time, at a reasonable, or rather moderate al- 
lowance, amounts to the sum of two hundred and litty-one pounds old 
tenor, and accordingly we judge it highly reasonable that he should 
have the sum with all po^ible expedition. 

" Certified by us the day and year above. 

" Wm.i.hm McClinto, 



"John GoFrE, 

*' Wli.i.i.vM Perha.m, 

" Crtwiniittee .Ifea." 

.\t the same meeting the following votes were 
p;isRed : 

"3dly, VoUii, to Ease 24 pounds old tenor, to be rased to paye fore 
Priching for this present year. 

" 4lhly, ViiUit, to Ease 12 pounds old tenor to ihifray the charges that 
may arise the present year.'' 

As originally incorpuratcd, tlir town was wholly on 
the east side of the Merrimack. In 1795, by an act 
of the Legislature, a gore of land was annexed to the 
north side of the town, being a portion of " Harry- 
town,'" and was intended to be included in the original 
incorporation. June 13, 1810, the name of the town 
was changed to Manchester, it is said, as a compliment 
to Hon. Samuel Blodgett, who constructed a canal 
around Anioskeag Falls and who had often asserted 



1 " It «cema that a portion of this city, noxt to tho Merrimack, consist- 
ing of a strip of land three miles in width, extending through its entire 
length, was granted, in 1635, to Ephraim Hililreth, John Shcpley and 
others, by the Province of Maesjichuselts, that province claiming that 
their north line extended three miles north and east of tlie Merri- 
mack. Hildreth and Shepley. for themselves and other soldiers under 
Captain William Tyiig, iH?lilioned the Ceiicral Court of Massachusetts 
province for the grant of a tract of land six miles sriuaro lying on both 
sides of Merrimack Eiver at .\mo«Ueag Falls. The petition was pres<!nted 
on the ground of services rendered in an expedition against tho Indians 
on snow-shoes, in the winter of 1703. 

"This petition was granted and the tract of land included within It 
was known by the name of Tyngstown. Tyngstown extended from 
"Suncook or Lovewell's town" (now INuiibrokei to Lilchfield, and was 
bounded on the west by the Jlerrimack, and 4in the oast by a line paral- 
lel III tho Merrimack, and al the distance of Ihive miles from the same. 
Thus the town was about twelve miles in length and three miles in 
length."— W«e. C. W. Waltacr, D.ll. 



The following is a list of the selectmen and town 
clerks from the organization of Derryfield, in 1751, to 
the incorporation of the city in 1846 : 

SELECTMEN. 
1751, John Goffe, William I'erhani, Satlianiel Boyd, Daniel McNiel, 
Eleozer Wells ; 1752, John Golfe, Archibald Stark, .Alexander McMur- 
phy; 1753, William Perhaui, .\lexander 5IcMiir])hy, John Kiddell ; 
1754, William McClintock, .Alexander McMurphy, John Hall ; 17.55, 
Daniel MeJJiel, Kobert Andel-son, John Harvey ; 1756, Daniel MeNiel, 
liobcrl Anderaon, John Harvey ; 1757, Eleazer liubbins, Koliert Ander- 
son, Daniel McNiel : 17.'iS, William Perham, William McClintock, .\bra- 
ham Jlerrill ; 1739, William Perham, William McClintock, Abraham 
Merrill ; 17G0, William McClintock, Hugh Sterling, Abraham Merrill ; 
1761, William Perhaui, John Hall, Thomas Euss ; 1762, William Per- 
ham, John Stark, John Moors ; 17C3, John Stark, William McClintock, 
John floors ; 1764, William JlcClintock, John Stark, John Moore; 1765, 
William Perham, William JlcClintock, .\liraham Merrill ; 1766, Alex- 
ander McMui-phy,l Ebenezcr Stevens, John Hall, David MeKiiight; = 
1767, Eleazer Robbins, Alexander McClintock, Nathaniel Bovd; 170li, 
John Hall. John lioflb, John Harvey ; 176'.l, William McClintock, Alex- 
ander McMurphy, John Moor; 177ii, William McClintock, Alexander 
McMuiphy, John Moor ; 1771, William SIcClintock, Alexander Mc- 
Murphy ; 1772, Alexander McMurphy, John Sloor, William Mc- 
Clintock ; 1773, John Stark, Samuel Boyd, .lames McCalley ; 1774, 
James McCalley, Samuel Boyd, John Perham ; 1776, John Stark, 
John Sloor, Joseph George ; 1776, David Stjirrett, Ezekiel Stevens, John 
Perham ; 1777, John Goffe, Ebenezer Stevens. Benjamin Crouibie ; 1778, 
John Hall, Benjamin Baker, Samuel Boyd ; 17711, David Starrett,^ John 
Perham, Samuel 5Ioor, Jonathan Kuss;< 17S0, Jonathan Kuss, John 
Sheldon, Samuel Moor ; 1781 John Hall, Samuel Jloor, Jonathan Buss ; 
1782, Samuel Moor, Jonathan Kuss, Joseph Sandei-s ; 1783, Samuel Moor, 
Joseph Sanders, Jonathan Kuss ; 1784, Joseiih Sanders, John (ioffe, John 
Hall ; 1785, John Goffe, Jr., William Perham, Samuel Stark ; 1786, Jo- 
seph Femior, John Goffe, Jr., Isaac Unse ; 1787, James Thompson, Isaac 
I Huse, John (ireene ; 178S, .lohn Hall. .lohn Webster, John Perham ; 
1789, James Thompson, John (ireen, John Hay ; 1700, Isaac Huse, SiUii- 
uel Moor, John Stark, Jr.; 1"'.I2, Daniel Davis, Samuel Moor, John 
Stark, Jr.; 17113, John Goffe, Isaac Huse, John Webster; 17',>4, John 
Stark, Jr., Daniel Davis, .Samuel Moor, Jr.; 17'.l5, Daniel Davis, John 
Stark, Jr., Samuel Moor, Jr., John Kay, John Perham; 1796, Isaac 
Huse, John Tufts, John Stark, Jr.; 1797, John Goffe, Samuel Moor, Jr., 
Samuel Blodget ; 1798, John Goffe, Daniel Davis, John Stark ; 1" 
John Kay, Josejih Moore, Daniel Davis ; lSi»i, Samuel Moor. Jr 
Ray, Israel Webster ; 18cil, Samuel .Moor, Jr., John Kay, 
ster ; 18112, Samuel Moore, Jr., Israel Webster, John Kay ; 
Moor, Jr., Israel Webster, John Stark (3d) 
Isaac Huse, .lohn Stark (.Id) ; 18ii5, Samuel 
Archibald Gamble ; ISlH'i, Samuel Jloor, Jr. 
ton; 18(17, Samuel Moor, Jr., Amos Weston, 
uel Moor, Jr., Amos Weston, Samuel Ilall 
Isiwc Huse, John Stark ; 181n, .Samuel Moor, Jr., Thomas Stickney, 
Isaac Huse ; 1811, John Stark, Jr., Amos Weston, Israel Webster; 1812, 
Samuel Moor, Jr., John Stark, Jr., John Dickey ; 1813, Samuel Moor, 
Joli Kowell, John Dickey ; 1814, Isaac Ihise, Israel Webster. John G. 
Jloor; 1815, IsiUic Huse, Israel Web^Ier, Ephraim Stevens, .Ir. ; 1816, 
Isaac Huse, John Frye. John Stark (4tli) ; 1817, Isaac Huse, John Stark 
(4th), John Dickey; 1818, Isaac Huse, John Dickey, Nathaniel Moor; 
1819, Samuel Moor, Ephraim Stevens, Jr., John Stark (4th) ; 1820, Joseph 
Moor, Ephraim Stevens, Jr., Amos Weston, Jr.; 1821, Amos Weston, 
Jr., Ephraim Stevens, Jr., John Proctor; 1822, Amos Weston, Jr., 
John PuKtor, Nathaniel .Moor; 18'2:!, Amos Weston, Jr.. Nathaniel 
Moor, John Proctor; 1824, Amos Weston, Jr., Nathaniel .Moore, leaar 
Huse; 18'2.5, Amos Weston, Jr., Isaac Huse, Nathaniel Moore; 1826, 
Frederick G. Stark, Israel Merrill, James Mcyueston ; 1827, Frederick 
G. Stark, Amos Weston, Jr., Franklin Moor; 1828, John Gamble, .lohn 
Hay, Nathaniel Moore; 1829, Frederick G. Stark, Archibald Stjyk, 
James Mctjiieston ; 183(1, Amos Weston, Jr., John Proctor, Natlianiil 
Conant; 1831, Frederick G. Stark, John Proctor, George Clark; 1832. 
Amos Weston, Jr., FreOerick U. Stark, licorge Clark ; 18:i3, Amos Wes- 
I ton, Jr., John Proctor, James Mcljueston ; 1834, James Mc(;ue8ton, Gil- 



lolin 
Israel Web- 
18(13, Samuel 
18114. Samuel Moor, Jr., 
Moor, Jr., Edward Kay, 
Edward Kay, Amos M"es- 
Edward Ray ; 1808, Sani- 
18U9, Samuel Moor, Jr., 



> Until August nth. 
»To Julv 16, 1779. 



s From Angnst 1.1th. 
« Fiom July I6th. 



MANCHESTER. 



51 



l>ert Grffley, KreJerick O. Stark ; Ha'», KroJorick C. Stark, Amus Wes- 
ton, Jr.. iNoac liuse; 1836, Frederick tj. Stark, Amus Weston, Jr., Gil- 
twrt (Jreeley ; 1837, Auios Weston, Jr.. Gilbert tJreeloy, Joseph BI. Row- 
*ll : 183», Josepll M. Kowoll, .\rcliibuld Uanible, Jr., Inaac Huse; l&W 
Joseph M. Ilowell, Archibald Caiiible, Jr., Ifiiiac Uuse ; 1840, .\ino3 
We-ston, Jr., J. T. P. Hunt, Iliniiii Hrown ; 18-11, Amos Weston, Jr. 
Isaac C. Flanders, Isaac Huso ; ls42, Jloses Fellows, .\ndrew Bunton, 
Jr., .\bniin Hrighaiu ; 1843, Moses Fellows, Andrew Ihinton, Jr., David 
C'liild : 1S44, Xatlmn Parker, Warren L. Lane, George Clark ; 1845, Na- 
than Parker, (ieorge Clark, Charles Chase; 184t>, Sloses Fellows, An- 
tlrew llunton, Jr., Kdward Mc^uesten. 

MODEIlATllUS. 
IT.'.l, John (ioffe; 1752-,'^, William I'erham ; 17.'>5-oO, John Goffe ; 
17.57, ArihibaldStark ; 17.''8-ljli, William McClintock ; 1701, William I'or- 
liani ; 1 7f.2-<i;i, John t: (Te ; I7tl4. .lolin Stark ; 17C.5, .Vlexander McMur- 
lihv ; KOl'i, .lohn Hall ; 1707, Havid Starrett ; 1708, Thoiuus Russ ; 17C'.l, 
William JlcClintock ; 177U-73, John Stiirk ; 1774, John (Joffe ; 177.'», John 
Stark; 1776-77, John (ioffe : 1778, John Hall ; 1773, John Goffe; 1780, 
John Harvey ; 1781, John Hall ; 1782, John Little; 1783, John Stark ; 
1784, John Hall ; 178.0, John Stark ; 1780, John Hall ; 1787, John Lit- 
tle ; 1788, Jamcstiorman ; 17811. John Stark ; 179(', Samuel Moor ; 1791-92, 
John Stark; 1"!P3, John Webster; 1794, John Stark; 1795-90, Daniel 
Davis ; 17'.I7, John Goffe ; 1798, Sajuuel lilodget ; 1799, Satiiel Davis ; 
18"", Samuel P. Kidder; 18"1, John Stark; 1S"2, Joseph Moor; 1803_ 
John .Stark ; 1804, Joseph Moor; 181.'., Samuel P. Kidder; 18U0, John 
Stark ; 1807-8, David Flint ; 1809-11, John G. .^loor ; 1812, David Klint ; 
1813, William Hall ; 1814, John 0. >Ioor ; 1815-16, John Dwiunells ; 
1817-18, John Stark; 1819, Samuel Moor; 1820, Nathaniel Moor ; 1821, 
John G. Moor; 1822, John Stark ; 182;t-25, Nathaniel Moor; 1820, 
Kphniini Stevens, Jr.; 1827, John Stark (3d); 1828, Nathaniel Moor; 
1>^29, Kphraini Stevens, Jr.; 18;}0-32, Frederick G. Stark ; 18:13, Ephraim 
Stevens, Jr.; 18:14. Gilbert Greeley; 1835, Kpliraim Stevens, Jr.; 
18:)0, Gilbert Grtjeley ; 1837, Frederick G. Stark ; 1S38, Kphraim Stevens, 
Jr.; 18:)9-l", Charles Stark ; 1841, James McK. Wilkins ; 18I2-'13. Joseph 
OKhniii, Jr.; 1844, tieorge W. Morrison ; 184."i-'16, Herman Foster. 

TOWN CLKHKS. 
17al-53, John Hall ; 17.'J4, Alexander Mc3Iuri)hy ; 1755^"»6, John 
<>afrc; 1757-00, John Hall; 1767-74, David Starrett; 1775, John Hall; 
1770-79, David Starrett;' 1779-80, Asael Smith ;- 1787, John Ituss ; 
1788, John Hall; 1789-9:1, John Goffe; 1794, John Stark, Jr.; 1795, 
Isaac Husi-; 1796, Samuel P. Kidder; 1797-98; John Tufts; 1799-1810, 
Samuel Moor, Jr.; 1811, John Sunk, Jr.; 1812-13, Isiuic Huse; 1814, 
Samuel Moor; 181.5-18, John G. Moor; 1819-23, Frederick G. Stark; 
1824-25, Amos Weston, Jr.; 1820-28, Franklhi Moor: 1829-:!", Samuel 
Jackson; 18:iI-;«, Amos Weston, Jr.; 18:)4-:i7, John R. Hall; 1838-4", 
^muol Jackson ; 1841, Walter French ; 1842-46, John M. Noyes. 

The town-meetings were held in the town until 
1840. The increasing power of tlie "New Village" 
wius not looked upon with favor by the old inhal)itants, 
who regarded these new-comers a.s interlopers. 
Mutual jealousies soon arose, which finally resulted in 
a stormy town-meeting in March, 1840, which re- 
quired the selection of thirty constables to keep order 
before the other town oflicers were elected. 

It had become apparent (said Judge Potter, in re- 
ferring to this meeting) tlnit the inlGibilaiits of the 
" New Village " would soon outnumber those of the 
town, if they ilid not at that time. The people of the 
village ilid not talk or act with much moderation. 
They openly told their intention of controlling the 
affairs of the town, and the nomiiiiitions for town 
officers by the two jmrtics seem to have been made 
with this idea, as all tlie candidates for the important 
offices in the town lived at the " New Village," or in 
its immediate vicinity. At llie annual meeting, 
the votes of the first day showed conelusively tliat 

iTo.luh II.. 1779. "Fr. lulv 16lh. 



the people of the " New Village " predominated. 
Accordingly, when about to adjourn on the eveuiug of 
that day, a motion was made to adjtjurn to meet at 
Washington Hall, on Amherst Street, at»ten o'clock 
A.M. of the next day. This motion at once produced 
a most stormy discussion. Upon putting the question, 
the utmost confusion prevailed and a poll of the house 
was demanded. Finally it was |)roposed that the two 
parties to the question should Ibrm in lines upon the 
common, in front of the town-h<iuse, and should be 
counted by the selectmen, thus taking the vote surely 
and in order. This suggestion met the views of all 
parties ; the question was put by the moderator and a 
l.irge portion of the voters went out and formed lines 
as suggested. While most of tlie voters liad thus left 
tiie house, some one made a motion to adjourn the 
meeting to the next day, then to meet at the town- 
house; the moderator put the vote, it was carried, and 
the meeting was declared adjourned. When the 
"outsiders" heard of the vote, they rushed into the 
house ; but to no purpose, the meeting was adjourned, 
and the moderator would bear no motion. After 
much confusion the people left the house and went 
home ; but on both sides it was only to rally their 
forces for the contest the next day. The voters of the 
"New Village" met the same night in Washington 
Hall, and laying aside their i)olitical preferences, 
nominated a union ticket for town officers. The next 
day the parties were at the polls at an early hour, all 
under much excitement ; so much so, that it soon be- 
came apparent that they could not proceed with the 
meeting without an increase of the constabulary 
force ; it was accordingly " Voted to postpone the choice 
of selectmen until constables be chosen." 

They then made choice of thirty constables, as fol- 
lows, viz.: James McQuesten, J. L. IJradfbrd, David 
Young, William P. Fanner, Mace Moulton, Matthew 
Kennedy, Walter French, John IT. Copp, Levi Sar- 
gent, Adam Gilmore, .Fonathan H. Cochran, Isaac C. 
Flanders, Joseph B. Hall, ,lr., Alonzo IJoyce, Nehe- 
niiah Chase, Taylor L. Southwick, IJarton Mousey, 
(ieorge W. Tilden, Josiah Stowell, Thomas Gamble, 
Jonathan C. Furbish, E. W. Harrington, Hiram 
lirown, Alonzo Smith, Reuben Kiml);ill, .Tohn H. 
JIayiiard, Henry S. Whitney, .racob ( i. Cilley, .Joseph 
M. Ilowcll ;m(l Klienezer 1'. Swain. 

They then jiroceeded to elect the Hoard of Select- 
men, and made choiceof the gentlemen nominated in 
the caucus at the " New Village," viz. : Amos Weston, 
Jr., Jona. T. P. Hunt, Hiram Brown. 

After this ballot the business of the meeting pn.ssed 
off quietly, the village party having things their own 
way. After choosing the usual town officers tliey 
raised a committee, consisting of the selectmen, 
(ieorge Clark and James Hall, to purchase a " Paujjer 
Farm," without limitation as to the price, and author- 
izeil the selectmen to hire .such a sum of money as 
might be iieces.sary to pay for saiil farm. They also 
constituted the selectmen a conimittee to take into 



54 



HISTORY (IF HILLSBOROUGH COUiNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



and American and Messenger, continued the publica- 
tion of the former and united the latter with the 
ZVemoera/, under the name of the Democrat and Ameri- 
can. Soon afterwards Simeon D. Farnsworth, then a 
school- teacher of Concord, came to this city and 
entered into partnei-ship with Goodale, and the 
firm became Oondale & Farnsworlh. In the fall of 
18G1 the latter bought out his partner and continued 
the sole proprietor till April, 18G3, when, having be- 
come a paymaster in the army, he leased the daily and 
weekly to Gage, Moore & Co. (Henry A. Gage, Orren 
C. Moore, James O. Adams), and the name Democrat 
was dropped from the title. In August, IStiS, O. C. 
Moore sold iiis interest to Sylvester C. Gould. In 
December, 1803, Mr. Farnsworth bought back the lease 
and sold both papers to John B. Clarke, who united 
them with the Mirror. The last issue of the Daily 
Amirican was dated December. 26, 1863. 

The Gleaner was issued November 12, 1842, its pub- 
lisher being William A. Hall and its editor John Cald- 
well. It was suspended in the latter part of 1845. 

The Manchester Palladium, another of Mr. Cald- 
well's enterprises, was begun May 21, 1846, and 
continued about six months. 

The White Mountain Torrent was published here 
a few months in 1843. 

The Manchester Operative was begun Saturday, 
December 30, 1843, by Willard N. Haradon, and 
discontinued November 16, 1844. 

The Independent Democrat was begun in tliis city 
May 1, 1845, by Robert C. Wetmore. It was re- 
moved after a few weeks to Concord, and was subse- 
quently united with the Independent Statesman. 

July 3, 1845, was issued the first number of the 
Manchester Mercantile Advertiser, published by 
Charles H. Chase. It was suspended after an ex- 
istence of nearly five months, and then Mr. Chase 
began the publication of the Manchester Saturday 
Messeiif/er, November 21), 1845. The Messenger ap- 
peared March 28, 1846, with J. E. Davis, Jr., and 
Israel P. Chase as publishers. E. D. Davis took 
Mr. Chase's place in the firm on the 15th of August 
of the same year. They continued its publication 
till March 20, 1847, when they disposed of the es- 
tablishment to William II. Gilmore and Israel P. 
Chase. Joseph Kidder, who had been its editor from 
the start, resigned his charge at the close of the 
second volume, November 20, 1847. Mr. Chase was 
thereafter the principal editor till he retired from the 
paper, June 24, 1848. Subsequently, Henry A. Gage 
bought Mr. Gilmore's interest, and May 26, 1849, 
associated with him Francis F. Forsaitli, who then 
became the editor. He withdrew January 25, 1851, 
and was succeeded by Benjamin F. Wallace, who 
had been for several years the principal of Piscata- 
quog Village Academy. In 1852 it was sold to 
Abbott, Jenks & Co. (Joseph C. Abbott, Edward 
A. Jenks and Henry A. Gage), the owners of the 
American, and united with that paper. 



The New Hampshire Temperance Banner was es- 
tablished in 1847, and in about three years removed 
to Concord. 

The Old Hero, a short-lived campaign paper, wa» 
issued in 1848 from the oflice of the Manchester 
American, in advocacy of the claims of General 
Zachary Taylor for the Presidency. 

September 9, 1848, the first number of the ^fan- 
chester Telescope was issued by Haradon & Kiely. 
After an existence of about two years its name was 
changed by Mr. Haradon, who had become its sole 
proprietor February 19, 1849, to that of Haradon's 
Weekly Spy. A .subsequent change made it the Man- 
chester Spy, and under this title it was published till 
the beginning of 1852, when it was sold to the \>\\h- 
lishers of the Farmers' Monthly Visitor, and incor- 
porated with that paper. 

The Merchants' Own Journal was begun in No- 
vember, 1S4S, by Haradon & Storer, and was issued 
for a short time. 

About 1849 the late Dr. Thcmias K. Crosby, then 
a practicing physician in Manchester, conceived the 
idea of publishing an agricultural paper in the city,, 
and at length having associated with himself James 
O. Adams as publisher, issued the first number of 
the Granite Farmer February 26, 1850. It was a 
weekly of eight pages, and, according to the an- 
nouncement on its first page, was "published under 
the patronage of the New Hamphire State Agricul- 
tural Society." At the beginning of the fourtli 
volume, in January, 1853, the Rev. A. G. Comings, o*' 
Mason, became associate editor, but he removed from 
the State about March, 1853, and the twelfth number 
was the last which bore his name. The paper was 
sold, October 5, 1§53, to the Hon. Chandler E. Potter, 
and was united not long afterwards with the Farmers* 
Monthli/ Visitor. 

The Manchester Daily Mirror was started i»s a. 
mdniiiit;- paper, :\Icinday,t)ct()lKT liS, 1850, by Joseph C. 
Emerson. With the seventh number appeared the 
name of F. A. Moore as that of the editor. He was. 
succeeded as editor, December 16, 1850, by Edward 
N. Fuller. Monday, June 23, 1851, it was changed 
from a morning to an evening pajier. Mr. Emerson 
began, Saturday, February 22, 1851, under the UMme 
of the Dollar Weekly Mirror, a weekly paper, made 
up from the columns of the daily, of which also Mr. 
Fuller was the editor. In February, 1852, he retired 
from the editorship, and his i)lace was filled by 
John B. Clarke. He held the position till Sejitember 
1st, when Mr. Emerson, who had been engaged in the 
manufacture of fireworks, lost heavily by fire, and 
became financially embarrassed. He struggled along 
till October 20th, when he sold at auction the daily 
and weekly, which were bought by John B. Clarke^ 
who has owned and edited them ever since. He 
bought, in 1863, of S. D. Farnsworth, the Daily and 
Weekly American, in which the Manchester Democrat 
had been swallowed up, and united the latter with 





y^/b^M-z/et 



k (■CI'fLt-^. 



MANCHESTER. 



55 



the Dollar Weekly Mirror and the former with the 
yA(i7;/-l/iV)o;-, which has since been known as the Daily 
Mirror and American. In 18t)3 lie bouglit of Francis 
B. Eaton the iVcic Hampshire Journal of Agriculture, 
which had already absorl)ed the Granite Fanner and 
the I-arnier"' Monthly Visitor, and united it witli the 
wecicly, under tlio name of the Dnllar Weekly Mirror 
and New ]{amj/«hirc Journal of Agriculture. July 
8, 18G5, its name was changed to tliat of Mirror 
and Farmer, and under tliis it has since been pub- 
lished. 

CoLON'EL JoHX 15. Cl.\kke,' editor and proprietor 
of the Manchester Mirror. — .\moug the business en- 
teriirises in which the men of to-day seek fortune anil 
reputation, there is scarcely another which, when 
firmly established upon a sound basis, sends its roots 
so deep and wide, and is so certain to endure and pros- 
per, bearing testimony to the ability of its creators, as 
the family newsiiaper. Indeed, a daily or weekly 
paper which has gained by legitimate methods an im- 
mense circulation and a profitalile advertising patron- 
age is immortal. It may change owners and names, 
and character even, but it never dies, and it^ as is 
usually the case, it owes its early reputation and suc- 
cess to one man, it not only reflects him while he is 
as.sociated with it, liut pays a constant tribute to his 
memory after he has ]iassed away. 

But, while the rewards of eminent success in the 
newspaper profession are great and substantial, the 
road to them is one which only the strong, sagacious 
and active can travel, and this is especially true when 
he who strives for them assumes the duties of both 
pul)lisher and editor. It requires great ability to 
make a great pajier every day, and even greater to sell 
it extensively and profitably, and to do both is not a 
possible task for the weak. To do both in* an inland 
city, where the competition of metropolitan journals 
must be met and discounted, without any of their ad- 
vantiiges, requires a man of grip, grit ami genius. 

In 1852 the Manchester Mirror was one of the 
smallest and weakest papers in the country. Its 
weekly edition had a circulation of about six hundred, 
that of its daily was le.ss than five hundred, and its 
advertising receipts were extremely small. Alto- 
gether, it was a load which its owner could not carry, 
and the whole establishment, including subscription 
lists, good-will, i)re8s, type and material was sold at 
auction for less than one thou.sand dollars. 

In 188;) the Weekly Minor and Farmer has a cir- 
culation of more than twenty-three thousand and 
every subsi-riber on its books has paid for it in advance. 

The Jtaily Mirror and Amerirnii has a eorrespon<I- 
ingly large and reliable constituency, and neither 
paper lacks advertising patronage. The office in which 
they are printed is one of the most extensive and best 
equipped in the Kastern States out of Boston. In 



' From the /f<iy Slate Moiillilii. 



every sense of the word the Mirror is successful, strong 
and solid. 

The building up of this great and substantial enter- 
prise from so small a beginning has been the work of 
John B. Clarke, who bought the papers, as stated 
above, in 18u2, has ever since been their owner, man- 
ager and controlling spirit, and in spite of sharp ri- 
valry at home and from abroad and the lack of oppor- 
tunities which such an undertaking must contend 
with in a small city, has kept the Mirror, in hard 
times as in good times, steadily growing, enlarg- 
ing its scope and influence, and gaining strength 
with which to make and maintain new advance.^ ; 
and at the same time lia.s made it yield every 
year a handsome income. Only a man of 
pluck, push and perseverance, of courage, sagacity 
and industry could have done this ; and he who has 
accomplished it need point to no other achievement 
to establish his title to a place among the strong men 
of his time. 

3Ir. Clarke is a native of Atkinson, where he w:;s 
born January 30, 1820. His parents were intelligent 
and successful farmers, and from them he inherited 
the robust constitution, the genial disposition and the 
capacity for brain-work which have carried him to the 
head of his profession inXew Hampshire. They al>o 
furnished iiini with the small amount of money neces- 
sary to give a boy an education in those days, ami in 
due course he graduated with high honors at Dart- 
mouth College, in the class of 1843. Then he became 
principal of the Meredith Bridge Academy, which 
position he held for three years, reading law mean- 
while in an ollice near by. In 1848 he was admitted 
to the Hillsborough County bar, from the office of bis 
brother, at Manchester, the late Hon. William 
C. Clarke, attorney-general of New Hampshire, and 
the next year went to California. From 1849 until 
1851 he was practicing his profession, roughing it in the 
mines, and prosi)eeting for a permanent business and 
location in California, Central .\nierica and Mexico. 

In 1851 he returned to JIancheslcrand established 
himself as a lawyer, gaining in a few months a prac- 
tice which gave him a living, but in October of the 
next year the sale of the Mirmr afforded an opening 
more suited to his talents and ambition, ami having 
bought the property, he thenceforth devoted hinisi'lf 
to its development. 

He had no experience, no capital, but he had con- 
fidence in himself, energy, good Judgment and a wil- 
lingness to work for the success he was determined to 
gain. For months and years he was editor, reporter, 
business manager, accountant and collector. In liiese 
ea|iacities he (lid an amount of work that would h.'ive 
killed an ordinary nutn, ami did it in a way that told ; 
for every month added to the number of his patrons, 
and slowly but steadily his business increased in 
volume and his papers in influeMce, 

He early nmde it a rule to condense everything that 
appeared in the eolumsofthe Mirror into the smallest 



56 



HISTORY OP HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



possible space, to make what ho iiriuted readable as 
■vvfll as reliable, to make the paper better every year 
than it was the 2>recerling year, and to furnish the 
weekly edition at a ptUe which would give it an im- 
mense circulation without the help of traveling 
agents or the credit system ; and to this policy he has 
adhered. Besides this, he spared no expense which 
he judged would add to the value of his publications, 
and his judgment has always set the bonds for off on 
the very verge of extravagance. Whatever machine 
promised to keep his office abreast of tlie times, and in- 
crease the capacity for good work, he has dared buy. 
Whatever man he has thought would brighten and 
strengthen hisstaff of assistants he hiw gone for, and, 
if I)()ssible, got, and whatever new departure has seemed 
to iiim likely to win new friends for the Mirror he has 
made. 

In this way he has gone from the bottom of the ladder 
to the top. From time to time rival sheets have sprung 
up beside him, but only to maintain an existence for 
a brief i)eriod or to be consolidated with the Mirror. 
All the time there has been shar|) competition from 
publishers elsewhere, but this has only stimulated him 
to make a better paper and push it successfully in 
fields which they have regarded as their own. 

In connection with the Mirror, a great job-printing 
establishment has grown up, which turns out a large 
amount of work in all departments, and where the 
State printing has been done six years. Mr. Clarke 
has also published several books, including "Sanborn's 
History of New Hampshire," ''Clarke's History of Man- 
chester," " Successful New Hampshire Men," " Man- 
chester Directory" and other works. AVithin a few- 
years a book-bindery has been added to tile establish- 
ment. 

Mr. Clarkestill devotes himself closely to his business 
six hours each day, but limits himself to this period, 
having been warned by an enforced rest and voyage to 
Europe, in 1872, to recover from the strain of over- 
work, that even his magnificent i)hysiquc could not 
sustain too great a. burden, and he now maintains 
robust and vigorous health by a systematic and regular 
mode of life, by long rides of from fifteen to twenty- 
five miles daily and an annual summer vacation. 

In making the Mirror its owner has made a great 
deal of money. If he had saved it iis some others have 
done, he would have more to-day than any other in 
Manchester who has done business the same length of 
time on the same capital. But if he has gathered 
like a man born to be a millionaire, he has scattered 
like one who would spend a millionaire's fortune. He 
has been a good liver and a free giver. All his tastes 
incline him to large expenditures. His home abounds 
in all the comforts that nmney will buy. His farm is 
a phu-ewliere costly experiments are tried. He is pas- 
sionately fond of tine horses, aud his stables are always 
full of those that are higldy bred, fleet and valuable. 
He loves an intelligent dog and a good gun, and is 
known far and near a* an enthusiastic sportsman. 



He believes in being good to himself and generous 
to others, values money only for what it will buy, and 
every day illustrates the fact that it is easier for him 
to earn ten dollars than to save one by being "close." 

A business that will enable a man of such tastes and 
impulses to gratify all his wants and still accumulate 
a competency for his children is a good one, and that is 
wiiat the business of the Mirror counting-room hiis 
done. 

Nor is this all, n(«' the most, for the Mirrorhns made 
the name of John B.Clarke a household word in nearly 
every school district in Northern New England and 
in thousands of families in other sections. It has given 
him a great influence in the politics, the agriculture 
and the social life of his time, has made him a power 
in shapingthe jiolicy of his city and State, and one of 
the forces that have kept the wlieels of progress mov- 
ing in both for more than thirty years. 

In a word, what one man can do for and with a 
newspaper in New Hampshire John B. Clarke has 
done for and with the Mirror, and what a great news- 
paper can do for a man the Miiror has done for J(din 
B. Clarke. 

The Manchester Union. — The first Democratic 
newspaper in Manchester was the Amoskeag Jiepre- 
sentatii-e, started in October, 1839, by John Caldwell. 
.V few mouths later its name was changed to Mnii- 
c/iester Representative. In 1842 the course of the 
Repre-teniative on important party issues became so dis- 
tasteful to a majority of the Democrats in the town 
that measures were taken to establish a new organ, 
and in April of that year William H. Kimball and 
Joseph Kidder started the Manchester Democrat. A 
few months later Mr. Kidder sold his interest to 
George W. Morrison and Moody Currier, Mr. Mor- 
rison subsequently disposing of his share to Mr. Cur- 
rier, who became associate editor with Mr. Kimball . 
In October, 1843, Mr. Currier's interest was pur- 
chased by E. B. Davis, and in the spring of 1844 the 
pai)er passed by purchase into the hands of Chand- 
ler E. Potter, a graduate of Dartmouth, and at that 
time a practicing attorney, tha Representative was 
discontinued soon after the Democrat was started, and 
Mr. Caldwell established the Gleaner, a scurrilous 
sheet, the conduct of which involved the proprietor 
in numberless difficulties and lawsuits, and finally 
drove him from the town. 

In 1848, Judge Potter, who was a forcible writer 
and an earnest advocate of Democratic principles, 
sold the Democrat to John H. (xoodale, a native of 
Deering and a graduate of Wesleyan University, at 
Middlctown, Conn. Mr. Goodale conducted the 
paper in full accord with the principles of the Dem- 
ocratic i)arty until 1850, when he evinced a decided 
tenilency to espouse the doctrines of the Free-Soil 
party, then becoming a prominent factor in national 
politics. 

At the Democratic State Convention in De;eml)er, 
1850, .lohn .Vtwood, of New Bosti ii, \\\\« had been a 



MANCHESTER. 



67 



liaptist miuister and for several yearsState treasurer, 
wa-^ nominated as candidate for Oovernor. In the 
platforin adopted by the convention the question of 
slavery was not specifically mentioned, but the com- 
promise measures which had just been passed by Con- 
■j-rcss were fully indorsed. Soon after the convention 
Mr. Atwood, in answer to a letter addressed to him 
l>y John H. White and other Frec-Soilers, expressed 
-I'Mtiments similar to those held by the leaders of the 
Free-Soil party. This letter was not immediately 
published, but when its contents became known to 
- )nie of the Democratic leaders there wa.s great ex- 
ritement. (icneral Pierce, who believed that Mr. At- 
wood had written the White letter without due con- 
sideration, endeavored to persuade him to retrace his 
-teps, if he could conscientiously do so. Thereupon 
Mr. Atwood signed a letter in which he substantially 
revoked the sentiments contained in his letter to 
White. U|)on tliei)ul)lication of this letter the Frec- 
Soilers printed his eommunieation to White, though 
Atwood declared he never gave his consent to its 
piiljlication. Naturally, Mr. Atwood soon found 
liimself in a most melancholy predicament through 
hi.i attempt to please both parties. The Democracy, 
linding there was no way of escaping from the di- 
li'Mima in which Atwood had placed them, except by 
llirowiiig him overboard altogether, immediately 
called a new convention, repudiated their former can- 
didate and renominated Samuel Dinsmore, who was 
then serving his second term as Governor. 

Mr. fioodale, as editor of the Democrat, had be- 
come thoroughly imbued with Free-Soil |)rinci])les, 
and sustained Jlr. Atwood in the controversy. In 
this state of afi'airs the leaders of the Democratic 
party in Manchester held a meeting on the 28th of 
D.'ccmber, 1860, to consider the question of starting 
a new paper which should correctly reflect the prin- 
ciples of the party. .Tames MeK. Wilkins presided, 
and .Joseph Kidder was chosen secretary. On motion 
<if William C. Claiki', it wasvoted that a committee be 
appointed to establish a paper which should advocate 
sentiments in harmony with those of the Democratic 
party, and the following gentlemen were chosen such 
committee : Riclianl H. Aver, Walter French, Mace 
MoultoM, .lohn S. ICidder. Warren L. I.,ane, William 
C. Clarke, A. G. Gale, Isaac (.'. Flanders, Charles 
Stark, William ,V. I'utney, S. H. Ayer, I. N. Hays, 
Sihia Teiiney, (i. 1'. I'rescott, Samuel Dame, James 
McQneston, William Boyd, E. W. Harrington, S. W. 
Parsons, D. P. Perkins, .Fohn Iv. Fitch, J. D. Emer- 
son, Leonard Lyon, Thomas Rniidlett, AVilliam 15, 
Johnson, Edward Hall, Lnren/.o Dow, S. W. Jones, 
Charles Uundlett, W. S. Morey, James S. Cheeney, 
Charles li. Gleason. Shrilnirne Fogg, Thomas P. 
Pierce, Isaac Marshall, .1. L. Keniston, C. E. Potter, 
J. .McK, Wilkins, Moody Currier, Joseph M. Rowell, 
Li'onard Riindlett, Samuel N. Hell, Robert Ayer, 
John Stark, Isaac Currier, Franklin Tenney, Nehc- 
miah Chase, A. JIatcli, S. P. (Srceley. D. F. Straw, 



.loseph Kidder, J. S. Elliott, R. D. Moocrs, Walter 
P. Fogg, Dustin Marshall, W. W. Baker, A. G.Tucker, 
John Sargent, S. S. Coffin, A. Kimball. 

The committee immediately purchased the neces- 
sary material and fitted up an office, and January 24, 
18-51, the first number of The Union Democrat was 
issued. For a few weeks the editorial work was per- 
formed by a number of gentlemen who were able and 
experienced writers ; but finally the committee made 
an engagement with James M. Campbell, by which 
he was to assume the entire editorial management of 
the paper, and he entered upon his new duties with 
great zeal and enthusiasm. 

In the spring of 1852 it seemed unlikely that any 
of the very distinguished Democratic statesmen who 
had been named for the Presidency would receive the 
nomination at the next national convention of that 
party. Under these circumstances Mr. Campbell be 
lieved it jiossible to bring about the nomination of 
General Franklin Pierce. With this view, he wrote 
a letter in Mr. Pierce's behalf to his friend. General 
Conway, a leading Democrat at Frederiek.sburg. The 
convention met and fitiled to agree upon a candidate 
during twenty-five ballots. After the twenty-fifth ballot 
the Virginia delegation retired for consultation, when 
Mr. Campbell's letter to Conway was read, and it was 
decided that at the ne.xt ballot the vote of Virginia 
should be cast for General Pierce. This was done, 
and on a subsequent ballot he was nominated. The 
letter of Mr. Campbell was afterwards published in 
the Jiichmond Enquirer and in most of the other 
Democratic papers of the South, 

In his conduct of the I'nion Deiiwcrat through the 
trying times that followed the election of General 
Pierce, and continued through his administration and 
that of Buchanan, Mr, Campbell displayed the high- 
est qualities of statesmanship, maintaining throughout 
a steadfast allegiance to the constitntifin. In State 
and local all'airs he ])Ursued a wise and conservative 
course, buihliiig his pa|ier upon a solid foundation. 

In February, ISoG, the office was destroyed by tire, 
but was immediately re-established in Union liuild- 
ing, corner Elm and Market Streets, 

In 18G1, Walter Harriman, of WanuT, became 
joint owner with Jlr, Campbell, and assumed charge 
ol' its eilitorial columns, the name of the paper 
being changed to the Manchenter Union. Colonel 
Harriman retained his interest in the ]iaper until 
January, 18G3, when he disposed of it to Colonel 
Thomas P, Pierce, and the old name, Union Drmocrnt, 
was restored. The same month (.olonel Pierce sold 
his interest to Charles Lamson. of Nashua. 

March 1, 18(;3, the first number of the Manchenltr 
Daihj Union was issued from the office of the Union 
Democrat, and in .\ngust following, Mr. Lamson sold 
his interest in both papers to .Vlplieus A. Hanscnm, 
(»f Eliot, }Ie,,and the firm became Campbell & Hans- 
com, the latter clevoting his time chiefly to the busi- 
ness management of the otiice, though a fre<)uent 



58 



HISTORY OP HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



contributor to the eiliturial colums. Early in 1864 
the office was removeil to Merchants' Exchange. 

In September, 1872, George A. Hanscom, a brother 
of the junior partner, and James L., tlic second son 
of Mr. Campbell, were admitted as partners in the 
business of printing and publishing, the firm still re- 
taining the style of Campbell & Hanscom. Mr. 
Campbell, Sr., retained control of the editorial col- 
unis, George A. Hanscom took charge of the local 
department and Jame4 L. Campbell attended to the 
mechanical part of the business. In the winter of 
1873-74 the firm erected a brick block on Manchester 
Street, near Elm, twenty feet wide and fifty feet deep, 
four stories high, with ba.sement, the ofBce occupying 
the greater part of the block. The first paper printed 
in the new building bears date February 'J, 1874. 

Mr. Campbell continued to edit the paper until the 
fall of 1876, when, finding his health greatly impaired 
by his long-continued and confining labors, he severed 
his active connection with the Union Democrat and 
Daily Union, and went to Florida, where he purchased 
a tract of land and engaged in the occupation of 
orange culture. He was succeeded in the editorial 
chair by A. A. Hanscom. Mr. Campbell maintained 
a lively interest in the paper, and sent an occasional 
contribution to its columns from his Southern home. 
He died quite suddenly at Sorento, Florida, on the 
last day of April, 1883. 

November 10, 1879, marked a new era in the history 
of the Manchester Union. On that date the paper and 
material passed by purchase into the liands of Stilson 
Hutchins, of Laconia, John H. Riedell, of Boston, and 
Joseph C. Moore, of Lake Village. July 27, 1880, a 
s'.ock company was formed, of which Mr. Jloore 
became president, Mr. Hutchins treasurer and Mr. 
Riedell secretary. June 26, 1881, Messrs. Hutchins 
and Moore purchased Mr. Riedell's interest, and later, 
on the 5th of December, 1882, Mr. Hutchins dis- 
posed of his interest in the office to Mr. Moore, 
since when no further change in proprietorship has 
been made. From the inception of the enterprise, in 
July, 1880, Mr. Moore was the leading and active 
spirit in the management of the paper, and his addi- 
tional interest acquired in December, 1882, was a 
natural and eminently proper sequence. 

The new proprietors, realizing fully the task to 
which they had put their hands, brought to it the 
same enterprise, energy and sagacity that would have 
been found essential to success in any otlier business. 
It was their purpose to publisli the best newsiiaper in 
the State, and not only that, but one wliich could 
compete successfully with the larger nietroi)olitan 
dailies in the publieation of news. And they suc- 
ceeded. When the paper i)assed into their hands, 
November, 1879, an evening edition only was issued, 
and comparatively little attention was paid to tele- 
graphic news. On the morning of the 20th of 
November the first issue of the morning edition 
appeared. The change from an evening to a morning 



paper was looked upon with disfavor by many of the 
strongest supporters of the paper, who could see no 
possible chance of success in a business rivalry with 
the Boston dailies. Time, however, vindicated the 
wisdom of the enterprise. Full telegraphic service 
was obtained through the National Press Association, 
the editorial and reporlorial force was increased and 
special arriingements made for early transportation 
over the lines of railmad to the north, and as a result 
the circulation of the paper throughout the State in- 
creased with phenomenal rapidity. In January, 1882, 

; the national telegraphic service was exchanged for 

I that of the Associated Press, with its extended facili- 
ties for securing news from all parts of the civilized 
world. With the increase of circulation naturally 
came increased advertising patronage. To meet the 
demand for additional space, the paper was increased 
in size at various times, until it had grown from a 

' twenty-four column to a thirty -six column sheet, and 
even then a double edition on Saturdays has been 

! found necessary to meet the wants of advertisers since 

! November 10, 1883. 

I For nearly twenty years after the establishment of 

i the IVeekfy Union, and about seven years after the 
daily was started, the press-work was done outside of 
the office. Until 1856, when Patten's building was 
destroyed by fire, the presses upon which all papers 
in the city were printed were located in the basement 
of that building. These presses consisted of two Adams 
bed and platen presses and a Guernsey press, the 
latter of a pattern that would scarcely be accepted a& 
a gift by any live establishment to-day. They were 

' destroyed in the conflagration that swept away the 
offices of The Union, the Mirror and the American, 
After the fire S. C. Merrill, who carried on the cotl'ee 

' and spice business in a building located on Elm Back 
Street, in the rear of Merchants' Exchange, and had 
surplus steam-power which he wished to utilize,, 
bought and put in ojieration two Adams pressis,, 
on one of which was |)rinted The Union and 
on the other the Mirror. The forms of type were 
taken fnmi The Union office, then in Union Building, 
at the corner of Market and Elm Streets, and carried 
on a hand-bier to the press-room, a task tliat was any- 
thing but coveted by those U])on whom it devolved. 
Merrill subseiiuently built a brick block on the curner 
of Manchester Street and Elm Back Street, to which 
the press-room was removed. This block, with its 
contents, was destroyed by the fire of July, 1870, again 
leaving The Union office without press facilities. The 
press-work of the daily edition was then for a time 
printed on the press of C. F. Living.<ti)n, and the 
weekly forms were sent to Concord and printed on 
the Patriot press until the proiirietors purchased a 
CottrcU cylinder press and placed it in Merchants' 
Exchange, to which the office had been removed, ob- 
taining power from the Mirror engine in the basement. 
This press was rated at a speed of fifteen hundred 
impressions per hour, though it was seldom s|ieeded 



MANCHESTER. 



5i> 



liiater thau one thousand or eleven hundred. The Cot- 
trell w;ui moved into the new buildiu<!: erected by tlie 
proprietors ol' Tlie Union, iu 1874, on Manchester Street, 
where it met the requirements of the paper until it 
passed into the hands of the new proprietors, in 1879, 
when a Hoe two-cylinder replaced it. 

Up to this tinxc the old style presses had proved of 
uin|)le capacity to print the editions of the daily and 
weekly. But with the establishment of a morning 
i-dition of the daily, and the journalistic enterprise 
(li8i)layed in other directions by the new firm, the cir- 
culation of both papers increased so rapidly that Ite- 
fore a year ha<l passed, the capacity of the two-cylinder 
press was severely taxed to meet the demands made 
iipcin it. From 1879 to this date the growth in cir- 
lulation had been steady, far exceeding the most 
-anguine expectations of the proprietors, until the two- 
cylinder press, printing four thousand i)apers per hour, 
was utterly inade(|uate. There was no alternative but to 
again increase the printing capacity, both in size and 
speed, and it was determined not only to meet pres- 
ent demands, but be prepared for still further increase 
in circulation. An order was placed in the spring of 
1883 with R. Hoe & Co., New York, the greatest 
press-builders in the world, for a type-revolving, web- 
perfccting press, capable of printing thirty-two thou- 
sand impressions an hour, or sixteen thousand com- 
plete papers, i)rinted on both sides. At the same 
time, a new folding-machine was purchased, which 
cuts, pastes and fcdds the eight-page editions of the 
daily and the weekly edition. With this new 
machinery and an entire outfit of type. The Union 
otlice is as finely eijulpped as any newspaper office in 
New England. 

These improvements, however, necessitated more 
commodious quarters, and in February, 1884, a ten- 
years' lease of the east half of the (Jpcra-House Block 
on Hanover Street, with privilege of purchase, was 
obtained. A three-story brick building, thirty-two by 
thirty-four, was built in the rear of the opera-house, 
in which is located the press-room and composing- 
rooms, a new engine and boiler being placed in the 
basement. This building having been erected es- 
pecially for the purpose to which it has been devoted, 
is admirably adapted for the dillerciit mechanical de- 
partments of the pai>er. The business oflice and 
editorial rooms are on the ground-Hoor of the Opera 
Block, and, taken all in all, it is one of the 
most complete newspaper establishments in New 
England. 

The lii-st eilitor or editorial writer of Tlf Union aa 
a morning daily was Henry II. Metcalf, who began 
his labors with the first number and closed them Oc- 
tober 22, 1881. He was followed by B. F. Saurman, 
who remained till .Vpril 22, 1882. On May 4tii, of 
the same year, George F. Parker as-iunied the |)osltion, 
filling it till l)eccnd)er 9th of the same year. The 
editorial work was provided for from several sources 
till the first we.k in January, 1882, at which time the 



arrangement now in force went into operation. Im- 
portant changes were made. The scope of the edi- 
torial work wiis enlarged, and the labors divided. 
John T. Hulme and Edward .J. Burnham were as- 
signed to duty in this department. On December 22, 
1884, Mr. Burnham was transferred to the subscrip- 
tion and collection department, filling also the duties 
of stafi' correspondent. 

The first city editor was Edgar J. Knowlton, who 
remained in the position till June 5, 1880, and was 
succeeded by Herbert F. Eastman. Mr. Eastman 
fulfilled the" duties till January 22, 1881, at which 
time John T. Hulme came to the position, holding it 
continuously till he was promoted to his present 
position. On his promotion, Henry H. Everett came 
to the duties of the position. Edgar J. Knowlton re- 
turned to the staff as a local reporter October 20, 
1884, and December 29th of the same year succeeded 
to his old position as city editor. 

Walter E. West was first telegraph editor of the 
paper, filling the position till October (?, 1883, when 
he retired, and was followed by the present occupant 
of that chair, Willis T. Dodge. 

John B. Mills and Herbert N. Davison at present 
comprise the staff of local reporters. John B. Mills 
was in a similar capacity in the first two years of the 
morning paper, but retired and returned in February, 
1884. True M. Thompson followed him, and was 
succeeded by George F. Richards. C. Fred. Crosby 
was also a local reporter for some two years. 

John H. Rcidell atteniled the State news and several 
other <lepartmcnts of the papier up to January 6, 1883. 
On the formation of the new arrangenurit that went 
into force at that time, Edward J. Burnham assumed 
special charge of the State news and agricultural de- 
partments, and also took the editorial management of 
the weekly edition of the paper. On the retirement 
of Mr. Burnham, Henry H. Everett assumed the du- 
ties of the position. 

John T. Ilulme undertook to provide for the " ex- 
change " work, both in the line of general and politi- 
cal miscellany. He also retained the musical and 
dramatical assignment. 

Seven gentlemen have sat at the proof-reader's 
desk in the following order: E. D. Houston, F. L. 
Rowe, E. J. Burnham, David W. Cobb, Henry H. 
Everett, W. H. H. H. Snow and Alvin T. Thoits. 
The last-named gentlentan still fills the position. 

The longest incumbent was E. J. Burnham, who 
filled the position sixteen months, retiring from it to 
his present place. 

April 3, 1883, a special department, "The Vets' 
Budget," was added to the paper under tin' charge of 
Henry H. Everett, who still continues the work. A 
Grange department was also added in 1884, and came 
under the direction of E. J. Burtdiam. "The Fireside" 
was a feature of The Union when the nii>rning daily 
was started. It was under the si)ecial charge of Mrs. 
L. A. Scott, who continued till December 29, 1884, 



60 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



wlu'ii Mrs. Etta F. Shepard assumed the toiidiict of 
the departiut'iit. 

The agricultural (loi)artinent iiuiiibers among its 
special contributors the following gentlemen : James 

0. Adams, secretary of the State Board of Agriculture ; 
James M. Connor, of Hopkinton ; George R. Drake, of 
Pittsfield ; G. A. Simons, of Wearc, and others. The 
session of the State J^egislature in 18.S1 was specially 
reported for The Union by John T. Hulme. In 1883 
and 1885 the same gentleman took charge of the 
work. 

Regular staft' correspondents of Tlw Union are 
located at Concord, Nashua and Portsmouth. At 
Concord the duty is performed by True L. Xorris, at 
Nashua by Charles S. Bussell, and at Portsmouth by 
Samuel W. Emery. A large force of correspondents 
furnish local news from all the prominent points in 
the State. The Granges of the State have by vote ap- 
pointed special correspondents to furnish the news 
pertaining to that order. 

Since the inauguration of the morning daily, Dana 

1. Ea.stman has taken the press rei)orts and furnished 
by ftir more " copy " than any other single individual. 
The mechanical departments of the paper are in 
charge of the following gentlemen : Foreman of the 
composing-room, Frank T. Parsons ; day foreman, J. 
AV'ilbur Fife; foreman of the press-room, Edward H. 
Murjihy ; engineer, James Barry ; mailing and deliv- 
ery clerk, John N. Pearsons. 

The counting-room is presided over by Howard L. 
Kelley, who, since 1880, has attended to the manifold 
duties of the business office. 

The growth of the MancheMer Union has been mar- 
velous. In 1851 an unpretentious weekly sheet, 
started for the purpose of educating the people in the 
principles of true Democracy, a work in which its 
founderspent the best and most fruitful yearsof his busy 
life; struggling against the apathy and indifference 
of men who had yet to learn the value of a newspaper 
and to estimate its real worth; slowly thrusting its 
roots down deeper and deeper into tlie pulilic mind, 
and getting a firmer grasp upon the public confidence, 
from which it drew nourishment, while giving in return 
the best results of the facile pens and fertile brains of 
its editors, until to-day, grown strong and self-reliant, 
it takes its place among the solid and substantial 
institutions of the Granite State. The Union is an 
able exponent of the i)rinciples of the Democratic 
party, fearless and outspoken in its views, and 
takes front rank among the leading dailies of New 
England. 

Joseph Clii roiti) Moore.— Hon. Josejih Clifl'ord 
Moore, editor of the Munchenter Union and the finan- 
cial head of the Union I'ulilishing Company, is a 
thorough representative of that valuable class known 
as self-made men. He is the second son of Dr. D. F. 
and Frances S. Moore, and was born in Loudon. N. H., 
August 22, 1845. His early education was limited 
to th 3 common schools, and more or les« shared with 



labor. Later in life, having made the best of such 
advantages as came within his reach, he pursued witli 
success a course of medical training at New York , 
Medical College. From this training he returned to 
Lake Village, the business centre of the town of Gil- 
ford, which has been his home since he was ten years 
of age, and entered upon the practice of medicine in 
partnership with his father. Dr. D. F. Moore. This 
was in 1866, and from that time up to his joining in 
the newspaper enterprise at JIanchester, in November, 
1879, he followed his profession with untiring industry 
and gratifying success. His practice extended over a 
wide section, and involved long hours and much 
arduous travel. During this time he was also active 
in general business enterprises. 

Mr. Moore began his journalistic career without 
the benefit of any special training whatever, but 
brought to the work a clear, cool head, ripe judg- 
ment and honest purpose; but it was early apparent 
that he possessed that rare quality, " the newspaper 
faculty." Careful, prudent, cautious and conserva- 
tive by nature, he applied that faculty with con- 
stantly increasing shrewdness and wisdom; so that 
the enterprise not only developed a remarkably rapid , 
butasoundand healthy, growth. Exercising good busi- 
ness judgment and methods, he successfully main- 
tained the financial standing of the paper, notwith- 
standing the excessive demands of a rapidly-growing 
jilant. In shaping the tone and conduct of T/m Union. 
he has uniformly aimed to give it a character fm 
independence, integrity and respectability, advancini; 
it on the true line of progressive modern journalism. 
He is a ready editorial writer on political and gene- 
ral topics, eschews the ornamental and descriptive, 
and goes straight at the meat of a matter in a plain 
and direct style. His methods are convincing as well 
as terse and vigorous. 

Mr. Moore has always taken a warm and active 
interest in politics, not from the selfish motives of the 
ollice-seeker, but as an ardent believer in and stanch 
sup|)orter of a sound, sterling and progressive De- 
mocracy. At the State election of 1880 he was 
elected a member of the State Senate from the Sixth 
Senatorial District, and filled the seat with credit to 
himself and his con.stituency. He introduced and 
was chiefiy instrumental in securing the passage of 
the measure which created the present State Board of 
Health. Always under self-command, easy and 
agreeable in manner, he proved to be valuable in 
legislative work, and was invariably relied upon to 
release the Senatorial body when sharp conflict of 
opinion led it into a jangle. Since the ex])iration of 
I tills official trust his time has been given exclusively 
to business matters and the conduct of the Union. 

In .Tatuiary, 1885, he was unanimously chosen 
president of the New Hampshire Club, an organiza- 
tion comprising the leading business and professional 
men of the State, and shortly after accompanied it on 
a successful excursion S)utli. As president of this 




y- 



.A C ^^-> 



i 



MANCHESTER. 



61 



body he is broad and liberal, seeking only to develop 
its intorests and extend its influence. 

Dartmoutli College, at the June comnienceaient, 
18.S4, conferred upon him the degree of A.M. 

Mr. Moore retains his residence at Lake Village, 
with his aged parents. He is married, but has no 
children. In manner he is esisy and agreeable, and is 
I'avored with an excellent address and attractive per- 
siinal presence. In business affairs he is careful and 
conservative, and at the same time enterprising. 
Honorable and just in his transactions, he enjoys tlie 
confidence and respect of business men. At this 
writing he is in the full vigor of his powers, with the 
promise of a useful and successful future before him. 

The Farmers' Alonthlt/ Visitor, which liad been pub- 
lisiied at Concord by (xovernor Isaac Hill since 1838, 
was suspended in 1841t, but revived in this city in 
1852, when Rowell, Prescott & Co. (Joseph M. 
Howell, George P. Prescott, Chandler E. Potter) be- 
came its proprietors, and Judge Potter its editor. It 
was publislied its an octavo of thirty-two pages, and 
its first number was issued in Mancliestcr, as the first 
number of ita twelfth volume, in January, 1852. 
Judge Potter bought the Granite Farmer of Mr. 
Adams, October 5, 1853, and Dr. Crosby retired from 
the editorship two weeks later. In 1854 the latter 
was united with the Visitor, and published in folio 
form under the name of the Granite Farmir and Visi- 
tor. Judge Potter, having bought out his partners, 
was then the sole proprietor and editor. About a 
year later Lewis H. Hildrcth, of Westford, Mass., a 
writer upon agriculture, came to Manchester and 
entered into negotations in reference to a i)aper. As 
a result, he and James (J. Adams each bought a third 
of the Farmer and 17»(7or, Judge Potter retaining a 
third and Mr. .\dams' name apjieariiig as that of the 
editor. Hildrcth, however, remained but a few 
months, and about .Vpril, 18.57, the paper was sold at 
auction to John C. Merriam & Co. (Henry C. Adams), 
and it was issued, July 18, 1857, as a new paper 
under the name of the Granite State Farmer. Subse- 
quently Merriam retired, and Henry C. Adams owned 
it for a while and then sold it to S. A. Hurlburt, who 
was the sole proprietor and editor — James O. Adams 
then leaving the editor's chair — till the latter part of 
1859, when Gilniore & Martin (William H. Gil- 
more. Warren Martin) bought the paper and issued it 
in folio form as the Xew Hampshire Journalof Agri- 
culture. Ze|>haniah Breed and Moses A. Cortland, 
both of Weare, became the editors. In 1801 the 
paper was sold to Francis B. Eaton, who published it 
till January, 1863, when he sold it to John B. Clarke, 
who united it with the Dolliir Wcekhj .Mirror, of 
which he was then the owner, under the name of the 
Dollar Weekly Mirror and New JIainpahire Journal of 
Agriculture. 

The Crusader was l)egun in Concord about 1850. In 
December, 1851, it was published simultaneously in 
Concord and Mancliestcr, and in February, 1852, was 



published altogether in this city. It was not long 
afterwards moved to Concord, united with the Phanix 
of that city and afterwards absorbed by the Xeio 
Hampshire Gazette at Portsmouth. 

In 1853, Benjamin F.Stanton and William B. Burn- 
ham issued, lor a short time, a small sheet devoted to 
phonography, called the Junto Organ. 

A pajjer called the Ladies' Enterprise was begun 
January 1, 1854, and published for a time. 

In 1854 the Utars and Stripes, a " Know-Nothing " 
paper, was established, and was removed soon after- 
wards to Laconia and absorbed iu the Winnipesauiee 
Gazette. 

The New Hampshire Journal of Medicine was first 
issued at Concord in August, 1850, and was removed 
to Manchester in July, 1850, and continued till De- 
cember, 1850, when it was suspended. 

The New Hampshire Journal of Education was es- 
tablished in January, 1857, and soon after removed 
to Concord. 

The Literary Visitor, begun .January 1, 1850, by 
George W. Batchelder and Martin A. Haynes, was 
short-lived. 

The True Republican was started February 4, 1859, 
by Benjamin F. Stanton. With him were afterwards 
associated Hector Caufield and Orren C. Moore. The 
paper was continued about a year under the titles of 
TVue Republican, City Messenger and Republican and 
Manchester Republican, 

Moore's Musical Record, .John W. Moore, editor, was 
begun in January, 1857, and published monthly, by 
John W. Moore & Co., for two years. In Jan- 
uary, 18f>9, John W. Moore, Samuel C. Merrill, Charles 
Clough and Sylvester C. Gould began the publication 
o{ tha Manchester Daily News. It was soon discon- 
tinued. 

La Voix du Petiple, was begun in 18()0, but was 
short-lived. 

The Labor Journal was started March 24, 1870, by 
Daniel S. Holt, and soon after suspended. 

The Public Forum, a weekly paper, was started Sep- 
tember 30, 1871, as a Denuicratic journal, by George 
J. Foster & Co., Joshua L. Foster being its edi- 
tor. It was soon after removed to Dover, its name 
changed to that of Foster's Democrat, and is still jiuli- 
lishcd there. 

The A'eiu Hampshire Journal of Music was begun 
January 1, 1872, by Imri S.Whitney. .John W. Moore 
was its editor till the close of 1874. DisconfiniU'd. 

The Saturday Night Dispatch was begun Saturday, 
January 24, 1874, by Merritt S. Hunt. James O. 
Adams was associated with Mr. Hunt as editor and 
proprietor from Se[)tember 1, to December 1, 1874. It 
was subsei|Ucntly changed to Manchester Times, and 
conducted by Henry II. Everett until late in the win- 
ter of 1883, when it was discontinued. 

The New Hampshire Sunday Globe was begun Feb- 
ruary 7, 1875, by Rollins & Kingdon. Discontinued. 

The Manchester MWkly liudget was estnbllshed 



62 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



June Ifi, 1883, by William M. Koiulall, Jr., and David 
M. Ladd, by whom it is still published. The success 
of the Budget has beeu phenomenal, the eirculation 
having reached seven thousand five hundred copies 
weekly. The size of the paper is twelve pages, seventy- 
two columns; subscription price, two dollars a year. 
The circulation of the Budget now penetrates nearly 
every village and school district in the State. 

The American Young Folks was establislied in 1875, 
and consolidated with the Boys and Girls of New 
Hampshire in March, 1S82. Editor, George W. Browne. 
Issued semi-monthly by the American Young Folk.s 
Company. j 

The Evho des Canadiens was established July 2, 1880, j 

with Leander Boudreau editor and Charles L. Fitz- 

patrick and Leandre Boudreau proprietors. Discon- | 

tiuued. 

Le Ratrau wa.s established November ."5, 1881. P. 

C. Chatel, editor and proprietor. Discontinued. i 

Manchester Guardian was established July 14, 1883. 
Charles A. O'Connor, editor-in-chief. Discontinued. 

The Semi-Weekly Record was started December 1, j 
1883, Frank H. Challis, editor and publisher. "A 
penny newspaper," published on Wednesdays and 
Saturdays. Discontinued. 

Xotei and Queries, a magazine containing miscella- 
neous notes and queries, with answers, for professors 
and students, teachers and pupils, is published monthly 
by S. C. &L. M. (iould. 

Mr. S. C. Gould manifests a deep interest in his- 
torical matters, and has a collection of books, pam- 
phlets and magazines relating to Manchester, number- 
ing over sixteen hundred, from 1743-188.5. 

This collection comprises book and pamphlet lit- 
erature, including some of the leading magazine 
literature published serially. It contains the published 
literary etfortsof former and present residents, whether 
native or temporary, and whether published prior to 
their residence here or subsequent to their departure; 
also, all works relating to or published by the city. 
The collection also includes more or less of literature 
relating to Bedford, together with some relating to 
Londonderry and Dcrry, of which towns Manchester 
was formerly a part. 

The first published pamjihlet in reference to Man- 
chester, now known, is the (Rev. Joseph Secombe) 
" Discourse uttered in part at Ammauskeeg-Falls, in 
the Fishing Season, 173',l; ' Business and Diversion in- 
oflensive to God, and necessary for the comfort and 
support of human .society;' " from the text, "Simon 
Peter saith unto them, ' I go a fishing.' " This dis- 
course was printed in Boston, in 1743, — one hundred 
and forty-two years ago, — and only five copies are now 
known to be extant. The first pamphlets to be im- 
printed in Manchester, now known, were " An Address 
delivered at Pembroke, N. H., May i;i, 1841," and "A 
Historical Sketch of Bedford, N. H., a discourse deliv- 
ered July 4, 1841," both by Rev. Thomas Savage, 
A. M., and printed at the office of Emerson & Mur- 



ray, iu 1841, octavos of sixteen pages each. The first 
book now known to have been imprinted in Manches- 
ter was "The Life and Adventures of Seth Wyman ; 
Written by Himself," and printed by J. H. Cate, iu 
1843, a duodecimo of three hundred and ten pages, 
bound in cloth. This book was suppressed by rela- 
tives of the autobiographer, before a hundred copies 
were sold, and is now a scarce book. 

EducationaL — In 1784 the town voted a liberal 
expenditure for educational purposes, and in that 
year also the town was divided into four school dis- 
tricts ; but it was not until 1795 that a school-house was 
erected in "I>erryfield." This primitive educational 
institution was built by private subscription and was 
located upon what was then known as the Falls road, 
in the rear of the present residence of Hon. David Crosg. 
This house was purchased by the town in 1798, and it 
was also voted that year to erect two additional ones. 
In 1809 the town was redistricted and a school-house 
built at the Centre. 

The school district system, which was originated in 
1773, continued until 1868, when the city assumed 
control of the schools. The first teachers were, — 
1791, Jonathan Rand; 1792, Edward Blodget, Ste- 
phen Potter and Frederick Hastings; 1793, William 
White and Peter Severens ; 1794, John Tufts and 
Peter Severens ; 1795, John M. Laughlin ; 1796, 1797 
and 1798, Samuel Moor, Jr. ; 1799, Samuel Moor, 
Jr., and Mathew Reed. 

Mr. Rand was the first teacher in town of whom 
any record can be found. The wages paid were from 
eight to twelve dollars a month. The highest sum 
; paid per month from 1791 to 1801, as appears from 
the selectmen's book, was " to Samuel Moor, Jr., 
; twelve dollars for keeping school in the lower district 
one mouth." 

The school property now owned by the city is val- 
ued at over three hundred thousand dollars, and con- 
' sits of a High School building, on Beech Street, 
valued at forty-five thousand dollars, and numerous 
others. 

HioH ScHooi,. — The High School was first kept in 
the old building now standing on the corner i>f Low- 
ell and Chestnut Streets. The house was erected in 
1841 at a cost of three thousand dollars, and was used 
for a district school, with David P. Perkins as the 
first master. Some five or six years later it was 
changed to a High School, and in 1867 it was moved 
to its present locati(m, on Beech Street, the new 
building having been erected to meet the demand for 
better accommodations for the school. 

Fraxki.ix Stkkkt Schools. — The school formerly 
I called the South Grammar School was originally kept 
in a chapel on Concord Street, from which it was 
moved, in 1847, to the brick building on Park Street, 
built for its use. Ten years later it was transferred to 
its jiresent location, on the corner of Franklin and 
' Pleasant Streets. This building and lot are valued 
at eighteen thousand dollars. 



i, 



MANCHESTER. 



C3 



Si'Klxti tJTKEET ScHOOl>s. — A sc'hool was begun in 
1848 in tiie brick building on Spring Street, and then 
called the North Uranimar. Jloses T. Brown was its 
hrst principal. 

Lincoln Street Schools. — Under the name of 
the Kast Grammar, a school was begun in 1867, in the 
new High School house, with two divisions, gathered 
from the North and South Grammar Schools. In the 
fall of 1868 another division was added, and in the 
spring of 1869 it was moved to the old High School 
building, where a first division was added and a 
master was appointed. In 1871 a new house was 
built for its accommodation on the corner of Lincoln 
and Merrimack Streets, worth fitU- thousand dollars, 
where it is now located. 

.\sii Street Orammau Schools. — In 1874 a tine 
building was erected on the corner of Ash and Bridge 
•Streets to meet the growing demand for school facili- 
ties, and a grammar school was established, composed 
of pupils residing in the northeiistern section of the 
city. The building is a fine sjiecimen of school arch- 
itecture, and is valued at fifty-eight thousand dollars. 

Mais Street Schools, West Maxchkster. — 
With the annexation of Piscataipiog village, in 1853, 
the grammar school came under the care of the city. 
It was kept in the Centre Street building until 1874| 
when it was removed to its present location, on Main 
•Street. An addition was made to the building in 
1882 for the accommodation of the considerable in- 
crease in pupils. 

Werster Street Sc;hools, West Manchester. 
. — During the year 1882 a handsome school building 
was erected on Webster Street, between Elm and 
Chestnut, at a cost of seventeen thousand dollars. It 
is designed for scholars residing at the north end of 
the city. Two schools are already located there. 

There are other schools located on Blodgctt, Bridge, 
Lowell, Manchester, Merrimack and Beech Streets ; 
also on South Main Street and School Street, West 
Manchester. There are a number of suburban 
schools. The largest of these is located at Bakers- 
ville. The school building was erected in 1883 at a 
cost of twelve thousand dollars. Others arc: No. 1, 
Stark District; No. 2, Amoskeag ; No. 3, Bakcrs- 
ville ; No. 4, (loffc's Falls ; No. 5, Harvey District ; 
No. 6, Webster's Mills; No. 7, Hallsville; No. 8, 
Youngsville; No. 9, Mosquito Pond. 

Catholic KnrcArioNAi. Estarlishments. — 
Miiiint Si. Mary's .-Vcademy, corner Union and Laurel 
Streets, is under the control of the Sisters of Mercy. 
This is a boarding-school for young ladies. It has 
been in existence for twenty-five years, and has an 
average attendance of sixty jnipils. The course of 
studies, euibracing five years, includes all the branches 
of a useful ami ('hristiau education. Young ladies of 
all religious denominations are received, and inter- 
ference with their religious convictions is scrupulously 
avoided. The present superior is Rev. Mother Fran- 
ces Leeson. 



The school for boys in Park Street, taught by 
twelve Sisters of Mercy; Rev. Thos. Corcoran, princi- 
l>al. Number of scholars, about four hundred. 

St. Joseph's School for boys, corner of Lowell and 
Beach Streets, taught by six Sisters of Mercy. Num- 
ber of pupils, two hundred and fifty. 

St. Joseph's School for girls, corner Lowell and Pine 
Streets, taught by six Sisters of Mercy. Number of 
pupils, two hundred and fifty. The schools of St. 
.rosejjh's parish are undi-r the immediate su]>ervision 
of the right reverend bishop. 

St. Agnes' School for girls, corner Union and Spruce 
Streets, taught by seven Sisters of Mercy. Number of 
scholars, three hundred. 

St. Augustine's School for boys and girls. East 
Spruce Street, taught by Sisters of Jesus and Mary. 
Number of pu|)ils, five hundred. 

St. Mary's School for boys and girls, connected with 
St. Mary's Church, West Manchester. This school 
has just been erected, and will be under the control 
of the Sisters of Providence. It will accomodate four 
hundred |iuiiils. 

i'/inrifiib/e Institutions. — St. Patrick's Home and 
Hospital, Hanover Street, conducted by the Sisters 
of Mercy. Number of orphans, sixty ; patients 
in hospital, fifteen. 

St. Patrick's Home for Aged Women, Hanover 
Street, managed by the Sisters of Mercy. Number of 
inmates, fifteen. 

(lERMAN School. — The first German School-house 
in the State of New Hampshire was dedicated here in 
1884. It is located at the corner of Third and Ferry 
Streets, and is of brick, thirty-two by forty-eight in 
size, and two stories in height, with a flat roof. Over 
the main entrance, on Third Street, are two tablets of 
polishecl granite, bearing in gilt letters of (icrnian 
text the words, " Deutsch Schule " and the year of 
erection, " 1884." The German School Society, to 
which this convenient and comfortable little edifice 
owes its existence, was organized August 22, 1875, 
nuiinly through the cfl'orts of members of theTurn- 
verein. 

The State Iniu'strial School. — The movement 
which resulted in the establishment of this institution 
was started in 1855, when the Legislature passed an 
act authorizing the Governor and Council to appoint 
a board of three commissioners, empowered to buy a 
tract of land and erect buildings thereon, to provide a 
"house of rcformatiiin for juvenile and female oll'end- 
ers against the laws." The connuissioners— the Hon. 
Frederick Smyth, of Manchester, the Hon. Matthew 
Harvey, of Concord, and Hosea Eaton, of New Ips- 
wich — were appointed that year, and selected, as the 
site for the house projiosed, the fiirni which was c»nee 
the home of General John Stark, two miles north of 
the city hall, on the east bank of the Merrimack 
River, containing about one hundred acres. The 
price paid was ten thousand dollars, and another 
piece of ten acres was bought soon after for a thou- 



64 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIKE. 



sand dollars more. The building was eorameneed in 
the spring of 1856, finished in the autumn of 1857 
and furnished in the spring of 1858. Its cost was 
thirty-four thousand dollars; the total cost of build- 
ing and land was forty-live thousand dollars. The 
house was dedicated on the 12lh of May, 1858, and 
occupied at that time, when the first superintendent. 
Brooks Shattuck, was appointed. He was succeeded, 
on the 20th of April, 1S6G, by Isaac H. Jones. Upon 
his departure Edward Ingham was elected, the 17tii 
of May, 1870. The present superintendent, John C. 
Ray, was appointed on the 2d of July, 1874. The 
institution is now known as the tetate Industrial 
School, and is under the management of a board of 
seven trustees, by whom the superintendent is chosen, 
and who are appointed by the Governor and Council. 
A fire, on the 20th of December, 18(55, nearly destroyed 
the building, and the children were temporarily kept 
in the buildings known as the "Stark house" and 
"Gamble house," which had stood near by since the 
early settlement of the town. During their residence 
in it the "Stark house" was set on fire and consumed. 
As soon as possible after the fire the old school build- 
ing wiis repaired and the inmates returned to it. The 
institution is in annual receijit of interest from the 
legacies of .lames McKeen Wilkins, of Manchester, 
and Moody Kent, of Pembroke, which amount to eight 
thousand and three thousand dollars respectively; 
also the income from Miss Louise Penhallow's bequest 
of one thousand dollars, to be expended for a library. 

The Manchester City Library' was established 
in September, 1854, under the terms of a contract 
between the Manchester Athenajum and the city of 
Manchester, whereby the library of the Athenaeum 
was transferred to the city, to be the foundation of a 
free public library. 

The Jlanche.ster Athena-uni was established in Feb- 
ruary, 1844, mainly through the etibrts of Hon. Samuel 
D. Bell, Hon. Daniel Clark, Hon. Herman Foster, 
Hon. Moody Currier, David Gillit, Esq., John A. 
Burnham, Esq., William A. Burke, Esq., and others, 
with the design of founding a library, reading-room 
and museum. In accordance with the liberal policy 
pursued by the manufacturing corporations towards 
the iiublic institutions in the city, the Amoskeag 
Manufacturing Company presented to the AtheniBum 
the sum of one thousand dollars, and the Stark Mills 
and the Manchester Print-Works the sum of five 
hundred dollars each, for the purchiise of books for 
its library. Donations and loans of books were also 
made to the library by many of the members of the 
association, and accessions w'ere made by purchase 
from time to time from the money derived from mem- 
bership and the annual tax. For the following ten 
years the library of the Athenanim continued to in- 
crease in size and value till, in 1854, it numbered 
nearly three thousand volumes. 



By Hon. Natban P. Hiiut. 



In 1854 the subject of the establishment of a free 
public library having been brought to the attention 
of the City Council by the mayor, Hon. Frederick 
Smyth, in his inaugural address, a committee was ap- 
pointed to confer with the managers of the Atheuieum 
in relation to the transfer of the library of the Athen- 
anim to the city lor that i)urpose. The matter was 
favorably considered by the managers of the Athen- 
ieum, and a proposition made by them to transfer 
gratuitously to the city their library and other prop- 
erty, to form the basis of a public library. This propo- 
sition was accepted by the city, and authority for the 
purpose having been obtained Irom the Legislature, 
the transfer of the library was made to the city in 
accordance with a contract, dated September 6, 1854,. 
executed by the Athenaeum and the city, and the City 
Library established on a permanent basis. 

The ct)ntract provides that the city shall annually 
appropriate and pay to the trustees of the library a 
sum not less than one thousand dollars, to be expended 
in the purchase of books and periodicals, and shall, 
by suitable appropriations, provide for the expense of 
maintaining the library. The control and manage- 
ment of the afl'airs of the library is vested in a board 
of nine trustees, of whom the mayor of the city and 
president of the Common Council are members ex 
qffieiis. One trustee is elected annually, by joint ballot 
of the board of trustees and of the aldermen of the 
city, for the term of seven years. 

Thus established, the library progressed successfully 
until February 5, 1856, when, by the burning of Pat- 
ten's Block, in which the library was located, the 
whole library, with the exception of about six hundred 
volumes, — the greater part of which were odd vol- 
umes, — was destroyed. Immediate measures were 
tiiken by the trustees to reorganize the library and 
replace the books destroyed, and it was reopened to 
the imblic July 22, 1856, in rooms obtained in Mer- 
chants' Exchange, but subsequently was again located 
in Patten's Block, when it was rebuilt in 1857. In 
1871 the city erected a brick building for the use of 
the library, upon a lot on Franklin Street, which was 
given to the city for this purpose by the Amoskeag 
Jlanufacturing Company, the cost of which was about 
thirty thousand dollars. In 1881 the increase of the 
library requiring larger aceonmiodation, an addition 
was made to the library building, at a cost of nine 
thousand dollars. The addition nearly doubled the 
cai)acity of the library building and [)ri)vidcd for the 
regular increase of the library for many years. At 
the date of the last report of the trustees, December 
31, 1884, there were in the library about twenty-eight 
thousand volumes, including pamphlets, of which 
there are about nineteen hundred. Connected with 
the library is a reading-room, which is sui)plied with 
sixty-seven periodicals and newspapers, and the library 
and reading-room are both open to the 2>ublic eight 
hours each day and evening, except Sundays, through- 
out the vear. 



! 



MANCUESTEll. 



65 



The liito Oliver Doau, who was prominently con- 
iiecteil with the niiinufucturing interests of the city, 
bequeathed to the library a legacy of five thousand 
dollars, the income of which is expended by the 
trustees in the purchase of scientific, mechanical and 
technical works, and designated as the "Dean Fund 
Purchase." | 

In 1872 the Hon. Gardner IJrewcr, of Boston, 
Mass., presented to the library a collection of six 
hundred and eighty-three volumes of the Tauchnitz 
edition, uniformly and handsomely bound, which is 
known as the "Brewer Donation." In 1876 Hon. 
Moody Currier presented the libraiy with Bohn's 
Standard, C'la.ssical, Illustrated, Ecclesiastical, Scien- 
tific and Anti(iuariaii Libraries, and Harper's Select 
Family Library. To these lie subsequently added a 
number of valuable works on ecclesiastical history, 
and a collection of Greek, Latin and foreign authors 
in the original text. The number of volumes in this 
collection now amounts to eleven hundred and forty- 
seven volumes, which are known as the " Currier Dona- 
tion." 

Under the will of Mary E. Elliot, late of this city, 
the sum of two thousand dollars was bequeatlied to 
the city of Manchester, to be securely invested, and 
the annual income thereof to be spent in the purchase 
of medical books and periodicals. This amount 
became available in the early part of the year 188-^, 
and the income when sufficient will be devoted to 
the class of books indicated, which will be placed in 
alcoves by them.sclvcs and designated as the "Elliot 
Fund Purchase." A large number of other citizens ; 
have also, from time to time, generously aided in the 
increase and usefulness of the library by donations of 
valuable books and fdes of news|)a[)ers. 

The volumes in the library arc well selected as to 
use and value, and the whole collection contains a 
fair representation of every department of English 
literature, as well as the sciences and arts. In the 
selection of books for the increase of the library it 
has always been the policy of the trustees, while pro- 
viding a reasonal)le number of books of a more tem- 
porary character as the demand from the patrons of 
the library for the same seemed to require, to eSpeiid 
by far the larger part of the amount appropriated by 
the City Council in the purchase of works of ])crma- 
nent value. This course, pursued for so many years, 
has made the library one of the most valuable in the 
State. The library is i)articularly valuable in the 
number of volumes relating to local history and in its 
files of newspapers, many of which, if destroyed, 
could not bo replaced. 

The first Hoard of Trustees consisted of Samuel D. 
Bell, Daniel Clark, Ezckicl A. Straw, Saiiiuel X. 
Bell, William C. Clarke, David Gillis and William 
P. Newell. In 1862 David Gillis removed from the 
city and was succeeded by Samuel Webber. Mr. 
Webber served as trustee till September, 1864, when 
he resigned, he also having removed from the city. 
6 



The vacancy thus occasioned was filled by the elec- 
tion of Phinehas Adams, who continued in office till 
1876, when he was succeeded by Moody Currier. 
Upon the death of Samuel D. Bell in 1868, Water- 
man Smith was chosen to fill the unexpired terra, 
and was succeeded in 1873 by Nathan P. Hunt. 
Upon the death of William C. Clarke in 1872, Isaac 
W. Smith was elected a member of the board. Sam- 
uel N. Bell resigned in September, 1879, and Luciau 

B. Clough was elected to fill the vacancy. Ezekiel 
A. Straw died in 1882 and was succeeded by Thomas 
L. Livermore. The present board therefore consists 
of Daniel Clark, William P. Newell, Nathan P. 
Hunt, Lucian B. Clough, Thomas L. Livermore, 
Moody Currier and Isaac W. Smith, and the mayor 
and president of the common council. The first 
treasurer of the trustees was Samuel N. Bell, who 
held the office till he resigned in September, 1879, 
when he was succeeded by Nathan P. Hunt. William 

C. Clarke was clerk of the board from its organization 
till his death in April, 1872. Isaac W. Smith was 
chosen to fill the vacancy in .lanuary, 1873. Mr. 
Smith served as clerk till January, 1876, when he 
resigned and Nathan P. Hunt was elected in his 
place. At the organization of the library Francis B. 
Eaton was chosen librarian and served in that ca- 
pacity till September 30, 1863, when he resigned and 
Marshall P. Hall was elected to succeed him. 51r. 
Hall served till June, 1865, when he also resigned 
and Benjamin F. Stanton was appointed to fill the 
position. The latter resigned in April, 1866, when 
Charles H. Marshall was elected. Mr. Marshall held 
the office till July 1, 1877, when Mrs. Lizzie B. Davis 
wiis elected, and resigning July 1, 1878, was suc- 
ceeded by Mrs. M. .T. Buncher, the present incum- 
bent. 



CHAPTER V. 

MANCHESTER— ((7oii<iriu«rf). 

The AmoitkeAg Nntioiml Bank — Tlie Slanclicetor Nutiuiml Biink — Tha 
Merchants' Natiurinl liunk— Tlio Vint Nutioiiiil Dunk— Socund Nntiunnl 
Bank— Tlio Mnnchestor SavingH-Uank— Merrinmck Uivor Savlnp*. 
Bank — C.ilaranty Savings-Itank — Tlie .\iiiuf«kva^ SavingM-Hunk— Tlio 
Pc'ople't* SaviiiKH-ltank. Tho MantirHcdirinK IntcnwtH: Tlio Aniofl- 
koag Manufacturing runipany — Stark Mills — Mani-hiwtur ^lllln— 
Langdon Mllla— Aniory Slanufiictnrliig Coniimny— Naniattko MilU— 
Pi-ary MlIIii — P. C. Clienoy Tapor Cuinpany— AiuO((k«'aK rajM^r-Mill- 
Manclu'nter I.ticoniotivo-\Vorka— Manclnwtvr Gaa-I.lght (.'oni|Miny — 
Furxaitli Mniiufactnring Conipany — Oilier >Ianuractun-«, 

The Amoskeag National Bank. — The Amoskcag 
Bank was incorporated June 21, 1S48, and commenced 
business, in October of the same year, with a capital 
of SilOO,(X)0. This was increased, .Vugust 5, 1860, to 
$iri(),00n, and, August 7, isr)4, to $200,(100. 

The first board of directors were elected October 2, 
1848, as follows: Richard H. Ayer, Samuel D. Bell, 
Mace Moulton, Stephen D. Green, John S. Kidiler, 
Sle|>hcii Maiiahaii and Eilson Hill. Richard H. Ayer 



61) 



HISTORY OP HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



was chosen president and Moody Currier cashier. 
February 14, 1853, Walter French succeeded Mr. 
Aver as president and officiated until his death, which 
occurred in a railway accident, at Norwalk, Conn., 
the same year. May 9, 1853, John S. Kidder was 
ciiosen president and officiated until the bank was 
discontinued. 

The first and only cashier was Moody Currier. 

The Amoskeag National Bank was organized No- 
vember 1, 1S64, with a capital of $100,000, which was 
increased, June 12, 1865, to $200,000. The first 
board of directors was as follows: Moody Currier, 
John S. Kidder, Stephen D. Green, Edson Hill, 
ITenry Putney, Adam Chandler, Daniel Clark, Dar- 
win J. Daniels and Horace Johnson. Moody Cur- 
rier was chosen president and G. Byron Chandler 
cashier, both of whom still hold their respective 
offices. 

Hon. Moody Currier, LL.D., the present Gover- 
nor of New Hampshire and one of the leading bankers 
and capitalists of the State, has been the architect of 
his own fortune, and by his energy, clear business fore- 
sight and indomitable will, has risen from a penniless 
laborer on the rocky farms of Merrimack County to 
the present exalted and honorable position he oc- 
cupies among the citizens of his native State. 

The rudiments of his education were acquired at 
home, in the evening, after the day's work was 
done, and in this manner he fitted himself to enter 
Hopkinton Academy. From thence he went to 
Dartmouth College, where he graduated with high 
honors in the class of 1834. Hon. Daniel Clark, of 
this city, also graduated in this class. After leaving 
college he taught school one term at Concord and 
one year at Hopkinton Academy, and then became 
principal of the High School at JjOwell.Mass., where 
he remained until 1841. In the spring of that yfear, 
having, in the mean time, read law, he came to Man- 
cht'ster, was admitted to tlie bar and formed a part- 
nership with Hon. George W. Morrison for the practice 
of his profession. This partnership continued about 
two years when it was dissolved, and Mr. Currier 
pursued his profession alone until 1848, acquiring 
a large and lucrative practice. 

During this time he had developed rare skill as a 
financier, and upon the organization of the .\moskeag 
Bank, in 1848, was elected its cashier, a position which 
he retained until its reorganization as a National 
Bank, in 1864, when he was chosen president of the 
bank, and is the present incumbent. Mr. Currier 
has led an active life and has been prominently iden- 
tified with many of the largest and most successful 
Dioiiied institutions in the city and State. He has 
been trciisurer of the Amoskeag Savings-Bank since its 
incorporation in 1852, a director of the People's Savings 
Bank and of the Manchester Mills since their organ- 
ization. He was a director of the Blodgett Edge Tool 
Company and a director and treasurer of the Amoskeag 
Axe Company. He was also treasurer of the Concord 



Railroad in 1871 and 1872 ; has been treasurer of the 
Concord and Portsmouth Railroad since 1856; pres- 
ident of the Ea.stern Railroad in New Hamjishire 
since 1877 ; treasurer of the N ew England Loan Com- 
pany since 1874; director of the Manchester Gas- 
Light Company since 1862, besides holding various 
other positions of trust and responsibility, in all of 
which he has been eminently successful. 

Notwithstanding he has been actively engaged in 
the management of large financial operations, he has 
found time to indulge his taste for literary pursuits, 
and is one of the most accomplished scholars in the 
State. While a teacher in Concord, he edited a lit- 
erary journal and later edited and published a weekly 
paper in this city. His tastes have led him into the 
realm of poetry, and in 1879 a volume of his poems 
was published for private circulation. 

Politically, Mr. Currier is a Republican. Prior to 
1852, however, he affiliated with the Democratic 
party, which elected him clerk of the State Senate 
in 1843 and 1844. He subsecjuently became a Free- 
soiler and has been a member of the Republican party 
since its organization. 

He was a member of the Senate in 1856 and 1857, 
and in the latter year president of that body. In 
1860 and 1861 he was a member of the Governor's 
Council and chairman of the committee for raising 
and equiping troops to fill New Hampshire's quota 
of men in the War of the Rebellion. In 1876, Mr. 
Currier was one of the Presi<lential electors who cast 
the vote of New Hampshire for Hayes and Wheeler. 
In 1884 he received the nomination of his party for 
the gubernatorial office, and was elected by a majority 
vote. There were three candidates in the field. He 
has been married three times, but has no children 
living. 

Mr. Currier is one of Manchester's leading and 
most honored citizens, and all measures tending to 
advance the welfare of the city have found in him an 
earnest supporter. 

The Manchester National Bank. — The Man- 
chester National Bank was chartered in December, 
1844, and organized in 1845 with the following 
directors : Samuel D. Bell, Hiram Brown, Jacob G. 
Cilley, Isaac C. Flanders, Walter French, William C. 
Clarke and Nathan Parker. At the annual meeting 
in .Inly, 1845, the following board of directors was 
chosen : James U. Parker, Samuel D. Bell, David A. 
Bunton, Hiram Brown, Jonathan T. P. Hunt, Wil- 
liam C. Clarke and Isaac Riddle. The bank began 
operations September 2, 1845, with a capital of $50, 
000, which was subsequently increased to i*l 25,000. 
The first officers were .Tames U. Parker, president, 
and Nathan Parker, cashier, both of whom officiated 
during the existence of the bank. 

It was organized as a national bank in April, 1865, 
under the style of the Manchester National Bank, 
with the following officers; Nathan Parker, presi- 
dent; Charles E. Batch, cashier; Nathan Parker, 






^, 



I 



m 



MANCHESTKR. 



i'<; 



Benjamin F. Martin, Phinehas Adams, Oilman H. 
Kiinbiill, .lolin H. Maynanl. Duviii A. Muiiton and 
Horact- 1'. Watt.-i, directors. 

The original capital of the bank was $100,000, 
which was increased, April 2, 1872, to $150,000. 
Natlian Parker, the first president, has continued as 
such to the present time, and Charles K. Halch, the 
first cashier, remained in that position until his 
death, October 18, 1884. He was succeeded by Wal- 
ter M. Parker. The present board of directors is as 
follows: Nathan Parker, Horace P. Watts, Phinehas 
A<lam9, B. F. Martin, .T.din H. Maynard, N. S. f'lark, 
William J. Hoyt, Waller M. Parker. 

The Merchants' National Bank. -This bank was 
cirj;anizcrl as a Slate li.Liik under the name of City 
Bank in 18.W with the followin-j; directors : Isaac C. 
Flanders, William C. Clarke, Oliver W. Bailey, 
Samuel W. Parsons, Andrew G. Tucker and William 
n. Hill; I'resident, Isaac C. Flanders; Cashier, 
Ivlward \\\ Harriii-rton. 

In 18i;i the bank was converted into a national 
bank under the name of the City National Bank, 
when Hon. Clinton W. Stanley was elected president 
to succeed Mr. Flanders, resigned. 

In 1876, Daniel W. Lane was elected cashier, to 
succeed E. W. Harrington, deceaseil. 

The original capital was $1(10,11(11), wliieb has 
been increased to $100,0(10. 

Jaiuiary, 187!>, Hon. James A. Weston was elected 
president, to succeed Hon. Clinton W. Stanley. 

In 1880 the name of the bank was changed to the 
Merchants' National Bank. 

The present board of directors are Hon. .lames A. 
Weston, John C. French, Hon. Nathan P. Hunt, 
Bushrod W. Hill, Hon. John M. Parker, Hon. 
Charles H. Bartlett and William C. Rogers. OHicers : 
President, Hon. James ,\. We.ston ; Cashier, Daniel 
W. I,ane. 

The First National Bank was Ineorporaticl under 
the name of the Merrima<k Hiv<'r Bank, .Inly 14, 
IS.").!, Ralph Metcalf being (iovernor of the Slate. The 
idiarter was granted for the term of twenty years from 
.Tuly l.">th, anil was accepted .\iignst 1st by the fol- 
lowing board of grantees: William Whittle,' William 
O. Means, John II. Moore,' Peter I'. Woodbnry,' 
Frederick Smyth. WilliaTii I', .Newell, 'l'iin<illiy W. 
Little,' William Patten,' Isaac Tompkins,' Isaai- W- 
Smith, Frederick (i. Stark,' .lohn Ordway,' George 
W. Converse,' .fosiah V. Eastman, William Shep- 
herd,' D. J. Daniels,' C. W. Baldwin.' .laeob G. 
Cilley," Alonzo Smith,' David Cross, I'binehas 
.\dams.' I'Vancis II. Lylbrd, B. F. Martin, William 
Richardson,' Waterman Smith, I''rank .\. Brown,' 
.\l|)heus Gay, Jr., Joseph B. Clark, John M. Parker, 
Henry T. Mowatt,' George W. Bailey, William Per- 
kins and their associates. 

The first meeting of the grantees took place at the 



1 DoCPlu>e(l. 



office of Frederick Smyth, No. 4 Smyth's Block. 

Suitable by-laws were adoi)ted, the capital stock, 
one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, divided into 
fifteen hundred shares, and the requisite machinery 
for the successful working of the new institution was 
provided. 

The first organization was as follows: Directors, 
William G. Jlcans, William V. Newell, William 
Whittle, Waterman Smith, .lohn H. Moore, B. F. 
Martin, David Cross ; President, Willi;im G. Means; 
(^iushier, Frederick Smith ; Clerk, John D. Irving. 

The Bank of Commerce, in Boston, was selected as 
a place of deposit. The discount of notes was author- 
ized November 1, 18.55, and the first loan was made 
to the agent of the Manchester Mills. By November 
7lh the capital stock had all been subscril>ed and 
paid in. In 1856 the board of directors was re-elected 
and in November of that year William Whittle re- 
signed and Phinehas Adams was chosen in his place, 
and there was no further change until 1850, when 
Mr. Means resigned as president, and was succeeded 
by B. F. Martin, who served one year, and w.is suc- 
ceeded by Waterman Smith, who continued until 
1884, when he was succeeded by .lolin Frederick 
Smyth, the present incumbent, .lohn Frederick 
Smyth was cashier of the bank from its incorporation, 
in I.S55, to 1884, when he was succeeded by the |«res- 
scnt cashier, Jlr. Charles F. Morrill. 

Onthe22dof March, 18(15, the stockholders voted 
to reorganize, under United States laws, ius the First 
National B.auk of Manchester, and the old board of 
officers continued until the annual meeting in the 
following .lanuary, when they were re-elected. 

The present olficers and directors are as follows: 
Hon. Frederick Smyth, pri'sident ; Hon. David 
Cross, vice-president ; Charles F. .Morrill, cashier ; 
John P. Goggin, clerk ; DirecUirs, David Cross, 
Joseph B. Clark, Thomas Wheat, Frederick Smyth, 
F. B. Eaton. Frank Dowst, .loseph F. Kennard. 

The clerks in employ, in the order ol time in which 
they are name<l,are as follows: 

John l>. Irving, now insurance commissioner, 
Toledo, Ohio; Samuel T. Foster, died in Washington, 
I ). C. ; H. A. Viarly, banker in Boston, Mass. ; George 
(iage, now bank commissioner for New Ham|ishire ; 
George I!. Lord, now at St. Louis, Mo.; W. R. 

WalkiT, in savings-bank at C 'ord, N. 11.: .losiali 

Morrill, died while in the employ of the bank; .bdin 
Porter, resigned on account of ill-health. The charter 
was obtained against the most strenuous opposition 
on the part of other resident bankers, and was re- 
garded as a personal triumph of Mr. Smyth. The 
fact (line accomplished, however, all opposition sub- 
sided, and till' business rehitioUH have ever been har- 
monious with his fellows. His Ibrtunale investments 
and always ciHisorvative management have gained for 
the bank an enviable reputation, secoixi to none in 
the State. 

l"i!i:i)i;iti<K Smyth.— The subject of this sketch was 



68 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



liorn Marcli 9, l.Sl'.i, in Caiifiia, Rockingham County. 
Hisance.-^tors, as tar as wo liaveany record, were thrifty 
t'armers, ami lie was early iiiiuvrl to the toils of farm- 
life on the homestead, in the northwest jiart of that 
picturesiiiie town. 

The common school and the High School gave him 
all they had to give; a single term at the Phillips 
Academy, in .\ndover, JIass., completed his brief 
study of text-books, and his education thenceforth 
continued in the larger school of men an<l all'airs. For 
a short time he was a partner in trade at Candia with 
Thomas Wheat, now a distinguished physician of 
Afanchester. The field, however, was too limited to 
satisfy his ambition, and in 18o!) he sought and found 
employment in the establishment of (ieorge Porter, 
Ki>i\., who did a large business in the sale of general 
merchandise in Manchester. During the days of his 
clerkship he was librarian of a reading club, of which 
Samuel I). Bell, John A. Burnham, John Porter and 
others were members, when the Xorth American 
Sepieu; the Southern IJternry Meniienger, the Knicker- 
bocker Marjazine, etc., were placed .within his reach. 
This appears to have been the germ of the Manches- 
ter Athena'um. 

After about two years he entered into company with 
John Porter, Esq., and bought out his employer. This 
was the beginning of a brief but successful mercantile 
career, which terminated with liis election as city 
clerk in 1849. While in trade he was very scrupu- 
hms in regard to his financial obligations. In the 
panic of 1847 every firm doing business on the street 
went under, except two, and one of those was that 
with which Mr. Smyth was connected. I, ike others, 
he was compelled to trust out large ipiantities of 
goods, and was unable to cummand much ca|>ital. He 
went to his Boston creditors, frankly told them his 
situation, said he did not want to fail, and so impressed 
them with his evident sincerity of purpose that they 
promised him all the gooils and time he wanted. The 
event justilied their confidence, and to-day no man 
H ho knows him needs to be told that his word is as 
good as his bon<l. 

He was elected city clerk by the usual party major- 
ity, and did his work so acceptably that he was re- 
elected by a City Council two-thirds of whose mem- 
bers were politically opposed to him. The American 
mill Mcssenr/er of that date said: "This is a com- 
pliment to Mr. Smyth, which has been well merited 
by his faithfulness and e<mrte8y during the last year." 
His manifi'st efficiency in city affairs, and the thor- 
oughness with which he mastered every detail, sug- 
gested his fitness for mayor, and he was accordingly 
nominated and elected to that office in March, 1852. 
He was re-elected for two successive years thereafter, 
and again at a time of peculiar importance in munic- 
ipal affairs, in 1864. A distinguishing mark of his 
first year's administration will ever remain in the 
trees which adorn our [larks and street.s. He advo- 
cated an act of the City Council, which passed in spite 



of considerable opposition, aullmrizing trees to be set 
on all the public streets, parks and lands, and every 
year since, with but few exceptions, be has personally 
inspected the trees, and notified the proper authori- 
j ties when any of them needed replacing. With this 
1 good work some, but not all, his successors in office, 
! have sympathi/.ed. In July and October of Mayor 
I Smyth's first year the Whig ])arty lost its two great 
leaders, — Henry Clay and Daniel Wel)ster, — and the 
attention of the citizens was called to some fitting 
expression of feeling in both cases by a brief message 
from the mayor. His first election w-as by Whig votes 
over the opposition of Democrats and Free-Soilers ; 
his second by Whig and Free-Soil votes, and an in- 
creased majority ; his third with very little i>pposition, 
and his fourth with virtually none at all. iJuriiigliis 
second year the Amoskcag Falls bridge was rebuilt, 
and parts of Goffstown and Bedford were annexed to 
the city. The most honorable monument, however, 
which will stand to his name is the part he took in 
the foundation of a free public library. In the first 
instance, the conception belcjugs to the late Hon. 
Samuel D. Bell, but it is very doulitful if that idea 
would ever have been realized without the active and 
persistent efforts of the mayor. The city government 
of that day was composed of men mostly practical 
in their ideas, with Init little faith in the value or 
necessity of literary culture. Workingmen were op- 
posed to all needless expenditures in city afliiirs, and 
it required tact and wi.se handling to get a measure 
which called tor an annual expenditure of two thou- 
sand dollai-s, with a certainty of future increase, framed 
into a law, and it was largely d\ie to the confidence 
they had in their chief executive officer that they 
supported the mcasu.'-c. When Mayor Smyth was 
about retiring, as he supposed finally, at the end of his 
third year, the following resolution, offered by the 
Hon. S. D. I'cll, Alarch 7, 1854, was unanimously 
voted : 

" Rcnolred, That the thanks of the trustce.s of the 
City Library beprescntcd to the Hon. Frederick Smyth 
for the early, decided and succes.sful exertions made 
by him, as chief magistrate of the city, for the estab- 
lishment of a free public library." 

In 1855 he was appointed by (iovernor Metcalf .ind 
Council chairman of commissioners to locate and builil 
a House of Kefbrmalion for juvenile oH'cnders, the 
late ex-Governor i larvey, of the United Stales ( 'ircuit 
Court, and the late Hon. Hosea Eaton, being his asso- 
ciates. The signal success of this institution Is well 
known to every intelligent citi/.en, but many have 
doubtless forgotten the storm of parti.san obl(M|uy 
through which it was piloted to popular favor. From 
the first Mr. Smyth thoroughly believed in it, and in 
his remarks at the dedication, in 1858, he .said : 

"This institution to-day dedicated .supjdies a need 
of the State, that incipient crime may not become 
confirmed wickedness; that the jail and tlic priso/i may 
not forever harden ami fix what they were designeil 





"t^fLey'Z^t^!//^ 







L 



MANCHESTER. 



69 



to prevent." The importance of this occasion can 
hardly l)e over-estimated, if we look at the sad pro- 
portion of young persons on the criminal li.st in our own 
and othcrStates. If \vc investigate the results of means 
which it is now proposed to use, that society may be 
saved from the curse of their vicious lives, and them- 
selves from the greater curse of mental and moral de- 
struction, we shall find that the cost in dollars and 
cents dwindles in comparison into utter insignificance. 
He was able, also, to announce that " the building 
had been completed within the amount appropriated, 
that no contractor had failed to perfoim his work, that 
not one cent of the amount had been expended except 
through legitimate channels and for duly authorized 
purposes." Governor liaile, in the course of his re- 
ply, complimented the commission upon the fidelity 
■with which their work was done. 

In the years 1857-58, Mr. Smyth was a member of 
the House of Representatives in the State Legislature, 
and was also made treasurer of the Reform School, in 
the good management of which he took great interest. 
His executive ability and reputation as a good linan- 
cier caused him to be selected as the treasurer of the 
New Hampshire Agricultural Society, and the ten 
years during which he held that place were years of 
the society's greatest usefulness. He was also a di- 
rector in the United States Agricultural Society, and 
manager of the tliree great fairs hehl at Kichmond, 
■Chicago and St. Louis by the National Association, 
and also vice-president of the American Pomological 
Society, which, under the lead of the venerable Mar- 
shal P. Wilder, has done so much to improve Ameri- 
can fruits. 

Jleantime, men were ncjt wanting who believed in 
our mayor's fitness for the highest otfice in the State, 
and in the convention which nominated Ichabod 
■Goodwin, in 1859, he stood fourth on the list of candi- 
dates. In 18(;0 he was president of the State Repub- 
lican Convention, ami was soon after appointed by 
Secretary Ch;ise one of the agents to obtain subscrip- 
tions to the national loan. In 181)1 he was appointed 
as one of the agents on the part of the United States 
to the International Exhibition at London, where 
Her Majesty's commissioners made him a juror; by 
the Jury he was made reporter, a position which gave 
him some advantages not easily obtaine<l in knowl- 
edge of the exhibition. He wrote some private letters 
home, and his impressions of matters and things 
abroad were published in the New Hnmpshire 
■Journal of Agriculture, then under the editorial man- 
agement of the writer of this sketch. 

It was war-time, iis we all know, and he wrote: " In 
regard to American all'airs, I do not think there is a 
particle of danger of any interference from l^ngland, 
■or has ever been ; most people sympathize with 
Americans and the North, when they understand the 
issue." It was fouml on Mr. Smyth's arrival that only 
three of our commissioners were present, and ncithiiig 
had brrn ilniii' 1(1 plai'i' <iiir (IcpMrtiiii'iit in readiness. 



Patriotic resident Americans contributed about three 
thousand dollars, and work began in earnest. Very 
much of the favorable exhibit we made on that occa- 
sion is fairly due to a few men who, with Mr. Smyth, 
did double duty. His position as juror enaliled him 
to do much towardsecuringarecognition of the merits 
of goods exhibited by the Langdon Mills, and by the 
Manchester Print Works, both of which took a medal. 
He was also, by virtue of his place, admitted to many 
social entertainments, one of the most interesting of 
which was that given by Lord and Lady Salisbury, at 
Hatfields, where he met Gladstone aud Disraeli, the 
two foremost men of England. 

In company with C. L. Flint, Esq., secretary of the 
Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, he visited France, 
Germany, Switzerland and Italy, and managed to 
compjiss a great deal of sight-seeing into a brief space 
of time. While at Rome, tidings from home were far 
I'roni assuring, and Mr. Smyth deemed it his duty not 
to prolong his tour. He landed at New York in Sep- 
tember, when mattei-s had already begun to take on 
a more favorable look for the Union. He was then 
cashier and principal tinancial manager of the Merri- 
mack River Bank, of which he is now president, and 
also of the Merrimack River Savings- Bank. His faith 
in the government led him to invest largely in bonds 
and to accept the charter for the bank of discount, 
which thenceforth became the First National Bank of 
Manchester. At that time few monied men or banks 
in town cared to follow his example, but the event 
justified his sagacity. Mr. Smyth's course in finance 
has been strictly conservative ; he has never dabbled 
in fancy stocks or in merely speculative matters for 
himself or for his bank, and the reputation thus ac- 
(|uired enabled him, as will be seen, to lift the State 
from a condition in which it was compelled to ])ay 
exorbitant interest to one not inferior to that of any 
in I he Union. 

In May, 1S()3, a fair was held at Manchester in aid 
of the Sanitary Commission. Mr. Smyth was chair- 
man of the committee, and gave the use of his hall 
and his zealous personal etlbrts to promote its success. 
The sum raised was about four thousand dollars. In 
the years that followed he did his best to keep up the 
spirit and courage of the people. With others, he 
went down to the battle-field of (iettysburg, and 
labored among wounded and dying soldiers, and, in 
conseipience of exposure at the time, was confined to 
a sick-room all the ensuing fall. In May of the next 
vcar, however, he again went to the front, and after 
the battle of the Wilderness rendered efficient aid as 
before. He has since received many testimonials of 
gratitude I'mm men who oweil, under (iod, their lives 
t'l him on that occasion. 

In this year (1S(>:{) he was again elected mayor of 
Manchester, under what circumstances and to what 
end, let another say. The Dnili/ Mirror and Ameri- 
can, of November 2S, lSi;4, in it« leading editorial, 
said, — 



70 



HISTOKY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



"A year ago this month the (.iovernor and Council' 
of New Hampshire wisely recommeudcd the towns 
and cities of this State to cash the Government bounty 
of $302, payable in installments, and fill up their 
quotas. The advice was taken. It took between 
three and four railliims of dollars of ready money to 
carry out the idea. It drained every bank, and made, 
lor the time being, the best securities seem of no 
account in raising money. Manchester was in trou- 
ble; she needed more funds than could be had, and, 
with all her wealth, seemed like a beggar. ... In 
this critical condition of financial affairs the question 
of mayor of tliis city came up. The field was can- 
vassed again and again, and each time the report 
would be ' Hon. Frederick Smyth is the man, but he 
won't take it.' It was a necessity that the chief 
executive of the city should have the confidence of 
business men and be familiar with financial matters. 
Finally, the pressure was so great that some of our 
leading citizens went to him and convinced him that 
it was his duty to accept of the onerous position one 
year. He reluctantly assented, with a distinct under- 
standing that he should not again be called upon for 
that place. Some ten years ago he was three times 
elected to fill the office of mayor, each year with 
increased majorities, and time had shown that his 
municipal record grew higher and brighter as new 
opportunities to judge of its merits presented them- 
selves, and a year ago he was elected for a fourth term 
without show of opposition, an event unprecedented 
in our municipal history, or in that of any city in the 
State. It was a wise choice. From the moment he 
took the mayor's chair harmony prevailed in every 
department of the city government. He is a peace- 
maker. He believes that a ' house divided against 
itself cannot stand,' and has the power of discerning 
almost intuitively the average sense of mankind, what 
is generally called common sense, and hence is a 
natural leader of the people." 

Such was the opinion and the feeling concerning 
Mayor Smyth at home, where he was best known. 
Butthis feeling, also, had obtained toa considerable ex- 
tent throughout the State, and his friends had forsome 
time determined to present his name as a candidate 
for the highest office in their immediate gift. In the 
Republican Convention, therefore, of January, 1865, 
he received two-thirds of an informal ballot, which 
was then made unanimous by acclamation. He was 
elected by a majority of over six thousand, the largest 
majority given to any Governor for twenty-four years. 
He entered upon no easy task. The State was begin- 
ning to feel severely the stress of the time. Gradually a 
great debt had accumulated, regiment after regiment 
had been promptly equipped and sent into the field, 
the banks had advanced money quite to the extent of 
their courage, and nearly to that of their ability. In 
the open market we met the gold bonds of thegovern- 
ment, free from taxes; thcsame trouble pulsed through 
all the arteries of the body politic, and the people of a 



State always careful and conservative in all its. 
expenditures beheld with something like dismay 
this mountain of obligation, swollen into millions. It 
was almost impossible to get money for current ex- 
penses. A previous Legislature had authorized the 
issue of three and one-half millions of six per cent. 
State bonds, payable in currency; only four hundred 
and twenty-four thousand dollars had been taken. 
Governor Smyth, in his first message, recommended 
the issue of bonds better calculated to meet the exi- 
gencies of the case, and that current expenses be pro- 
vided for by taxation. As a matter of interest to 
capitalists, he took care to set forth the res(mrces of 
the State, its prudent habit in expenditures and the 
hostility to repudiation in every form, which our 
people had inherited from a frugal, patriotic and God- 
fearing ancestry. " We must," he said, " now observe 
the most rigid economy in expenditure, and bring 
the expenses to a peace basis as soon as possible. Our 
people are naturally economical, and hold sacred all 
pecuniary obligations." He compared, in a very 
effective manner, the agricultural products of a State 
which had hitherto borne the reputation of producing 
only men with those of some of the more fertile mem- 
bers of the Union, to our decided advantage. He 
called to mind the unrivaled water-power, with its 
present and prospective improvement, and urged that 
attention to the latent wealth of the State which due 
regard to our prosperity demanded. 

Resides these matters which had to do with the imme- 
diate restoration of State credit, he took advanced Re- 
publican ground in regard to our obligations to the 
freedmeuand to the maintenance of the authority of the 
national government. He indicated in a few words^ 
the factthatour indebtedness had its full compensation. 

"From the outbreak of the Rebellion New Hamp- 
shire has stood firmly by the flag: and knowing what 
we do to-day of the scope and aim of the great con- 
spiracy and of the infamous means which brought, 
about its inception and urged on its progress, can any 
one regret that the State was so far true to her hon- 
ored name and her noble memories as to offer without 
stint of her name and means for the re-establishment 
of national authority?" 

In the first three months of his administration he 
raised over one million of dollars on favorable terms,, 
a large amount of which was obtained in Manchester. 
From that time forward the financial affairs of the- 
State received the most scrupulous attention. In the 
haste and waste of war unavoidable contusion at 
times arose in accounts between the several States 
and the general government, and it was not only then 
impossible to pay our debts, but equally so to get our 
dues. Governor Smyth's large acquaintance with 
men gave him infiuencc at headquarters, and he suf- 
fered no opportunity to pass to advocate the claims 
of his State. As will appear from the following 
extract from the 1-Yovidence Journal, all States haj 
not been so fortunate: 



MANCHESTER. 



il 



"At the close of the war lie (Governor Smyth) 
tbuiid the suspended and disalluwed aceounts of the 
State against the jreneral iiovernnient of over one 
million of dollars. These disallowances and suspen- 
sions were mainly in the e.xpeiiditures growing out of 
earlier military operations previous to his accession 
to office. Governor Smyth did not busy himself to 
fix charges of petty larceny against one officer, or ol 
wholesale robbery against others. He did not assume 
that every man who was charged with fitting out the 
first regiment sent from the State had stolen all that 
he could n't duplicate vouchers for on official paper. 
On the contrary, he urged upon the accounting offi- 
cers at Washington the impetuous zeal with which 
the State had responded to the call of the govern- 
ment ; he represented the impossibility of complete 
exactness in the accounts. Under such circumstances 
he exerted himself to obtain vouchers where his 
predecessor had omitted to secure them, and to ex- 
plain their absence when they could not be procured- 
... In this way he saved hundreds of thousands of 
dollars to the treasury of the State, and put no stain 
on its fair fame." 

Among other things relating to the prosperity of 
the State, the Governor took up and advocated with 
zeal the restoration of the fisheries. He quoted the 
opinion of Agassi/, and otliers, that our waters could 
he restocked at no great expense. In his second 
annual message he was able to state that the Legisla- 
ture of Massachusetts had been induced to move in 
the matter. On our own part, it was provided by law 
of June, 1865, that no dam or weir should be erected 
on the Connecticut or Jlcrrimack Rivers, or upon the 
Pemigewasset, Ammonoosuc,Winnipiseogceor Baker's 
Rivers, without suitable fishways below the bounda- 
ries of the State. In the Ibllowing October the Gov- 
ernor announced, by proclamation, that the law, by 
its terms, was to be enforced. The attorneys of the 
several corporations concerned, however, on one pre- 
text or anotlier, managed to delay the consummation 
of this useful act until a very recent period. 

This first year of Governor Smyth's administration 
was a busy one. Our soldiers were returning from 
the war; it was the Governor's i)ride to receive them 
with something of the enthusiasm and warmth which 
he felt was their due. lie urgeil that Slate aid sliould 
be exten<led to sick or disalilcd .soldiers, and on this 
ground protested against the removal of tiie Webster 
Hospital, then maintained l>y the general govern- 
ment, at Manchester. Something of this efl'ectivc 
service in behalf of the volunteers, no doubt, pointed 
him out as one peculiarly fitted to .serve on the board 
of managers of the National Home for disabled vol- 
unteer soldiers, the establishment of which, on so 
grand a scale, rendered State aid unnecessary. To 
this important place he was appointed by vote of 
Congress in 18GC. His associates were the President, 
Chief.Iiistice and Secretary of War, ex-ajl'icin; Major- 
(ieiicral B. F. Butler; Major-tietural .loliii II. Mar- 



tindalc, Rochester, N. Y.; Hon. Louis B. Gunckel, 
Dayton, Ohio; General Thomas O. Osborn, Chicago, 
111.; Hon. Hugh L. Bond, Baltimore, Md.; Dr. Eras- 
tus B. Wolcott, Jlilwaukee, Wis.; Major-General 
John S. Caveuder, St. Louis, Mo.; Major-General 
James S. Negley, Pittsburgh, Pa. Governor Smyth 
was one of the vice-presidents of the board. He was 
reappointed in 1872 tor a second terra of six years. 
Acting on his often-expressed idea that no man ought 
to take an office of the kind unless he was willing to 
devote to the discharge of his duties all the time and 
effort required, he has been a very efficient manager, 
traveling many hundred miles annually on visits of 
inspection at Dayton, Milwaukee, Hampton and Au- 
gusta, and to be present at meetings of the board in 
Washington, besides giving his personal attention to 
the admission of soldiers to the Eastern Branch, all 
this without other compensation than that which 
arises from a consciousness of duty done. 

General B. F. Butler, in a letter written from Boston, 
said, not long since: "I know I shall echo the opinion 
of all his associates when I say Governor Smyth was 
one of the most valuable members of the board. His 
accurate business knowledge, the skill and ability 
displayed by him in adjusting complicated accounts, 
caused the board to |)Ut upon him more by far than 
his share of such work. 

General Gunckel, of Dayton, Ohio, said: "Every 
one who visits these Homes recogni/.es the peculiar 
fitness of the selections made, especially for the Cen- 
tral and Northwestern Branches ; but few people even 
in Ohio and Wisconsin knew how largely this result, 
as well as the saving of thousands of dollars in the 
purchase, was due to the taste and judgment, the 
Yankee tact and shrewdness, of New Hampshire's ex- 
Governor. In the management and control of an 
institution caring for eight hundred disabled soldiers, 
and expending a million and a quarter annually, 
there wiu enpecml need of junt such a man as Governor 
Sni;/l/i, and I do not exaggerate when I say that 
through the watchfulness and care, the courage and 
determination, of (Jovernor Smyth, thousands, yes, 
tens of thousands, of dollars were saved to the govern- 
ment and people." 

An extract from an a<ldre.ss of Governor Smyth, at 
the Dayton Home, In 18G8, .shows somewhat of the 
s|)irit he brought to the discharge of his duties. It 
was on the occasion of laying the corner-stone of the 
Veteran Soldiers' Chapel, — 

'"This little church which we quarry from this 
beautiful stone, and begin to build here to-day, is a 
token of allegiance, a signet of loyally, both to the 
rightful authorities of the land and to the Supreme 
Ruler over all. The best and truest citizen, the world 
over, is he who first discharges his duty to his God, 
and under Him to the laws of the land. 
A memorial like this holds out no threat and con- 
veys no taunt to a van(|ui>hed foe; it says as it means, 
— pence to all who will have peace, — but as a symb'd 



Y2 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



of the highest authority, it also proclaims a law to 
be obeyed. Liberty without law is worse than worth- 
less, for it means the liberty of the mob and of riot, 
and by it the weak are ojipressed and the poor made 
poorer yet. . . . But I hope that this building 
also will convey to you the idea that the four cold 
bare walls of an asylum is not all that the country 
owes or will give to its defenders. She recognizes, 
let us all hope and believe, the hand of an all-wise 
God in every act of this great drama, while com- 
pelled to take the sword to preserve a liberty unsul- 
lied by violence and law made with regard to the 
rights of every man, she offers to her citizens, every- 
where, a fireside safe from intruding wrong, and a 
worship and a Bible free to the humblest." 

In September, 186-i, the New England Agricultu- 
ral Society held its annual session in Concord. Gov- 
ernor Smyth delivered the address, and among other 
distinguished gentlemen present upon the platform 
were the late Governors Andrew, of Massachusetts, 
and Buckingham, of Connecticut. In his introductory 
remarks, Governor Smyth said : " I cannot claim to 
teach you as a practical farmer, but I can claim to 
have made a constant endeavor, in my humble way, 
to keep alive agricultural enterprise and to stimulate 
agricultural investigation. It has always been my 
firm conviction that the safety of the State and the 
l)r<>»perity of the jicople require as a foundation an 
intelligent knowledge of agriculture ; and while I 
have been oldiged to admire the practical operations 
of others, and to search in fields not of my own for 
the results of well-managed experiments, I have 
learned to respect the great art which feeds and 
clothes us, and secures for us all the comfort and 
beauty of adorned and civilized life u])on a subdued 
and cultivated earth." The address, as a whole, was 
received with very marked favor, and the volume of 
the "Society's Transactions" in which it was pub- 
lished met with a large sale. 

In some remarks following. Governor Andrew 
took occasion to thank the speaker for his eloquent 
words, and called for cheers, first for " His E.\cel- 
lency. Governor Smyth, and ne.xt for Governor 
Smith's address." During this and the succeeding 
year he gave many brief talks at county and other 
fairs, always evincing the liveliest interest in the 
welfare of the State. At Milford, in the course of his 
remarks, he said: " I know it is often said that ' New 
Hampshire is a good State to emigrate from,' and 
perhaps it is generally believed that our young 
men can better their fortunes by turning their backs 
upon their mother State and seeking elsewhere for 
larger returns and richer rewards for their labors and 
enterprise. For one, I do not share In this feeling. 
I believe that ours is not only agoo<l State to be born 
in, but a good State to live in, an<l to die in, and that 
one great concern of the fathers and mothers should 
be to awaken in the hearts of their sons and daugh- 
ters a feeling of attachment and affection for, an<l 



of pride and interest in, the homes of their childhood 
and the State of their fathers." In 1876 he deliv- 
ered the annual address at the Vermont State Fair, 
in St. Albans. 

At the end of his first year his nomination for a 
second term followed as a matter of course. A Con- 
necticut paper, in advocating the election of General 
Hawley, said : " New Hampshire, in her State elec- 
tion of the 13th inst., has nobly led the way in re- 
electing her patriotic chief magistrate by so hand- 
some a majority, considerably larger than was given 
Mr. Lincoln in ISG-l;" and it also<iuoted, with marked 
approval, that passage in his message beginning 
" The question of negro suffrage is one of those de- 
fenses behind which slavery will yet entrench itself, 
and by which it will seek to regain some fragment 
of the power it has justly lost. " 

The second year of Governor Smyth's administra- 
tration was in all respects as satisfactory as the 
first. The State debt was funded at a lower rate of 
interest than was offered by the general government. 
The revision of the statutes, the reorganization of 
the militia, measures looking to the restoration of 
fish to our waters, and the publication of ancient State 
papers are among some of the matters of general 
interest. I have before me an autograph letter from 
the late Rev. Dr. Bouton, thanking the Governor in 
the most complimentary manner for the interest he 
had manifested in the preservation of these important 
])apers. 

One very pleasant incident of the year was the 
visit of scholars and teachers of the public schools 
of Manchester, on the Governor's invitation, to the 
State institutions at Concord. On two occasions dur- 
ing his occupancy of the Governor's chair he spoke at 
the dinner of the New England Society in New York, 
in brief but effective efforts, which were received with 
emphatic demonstrations of applause. 

So successful was the administration that, contrary 
to precedent, many of the most influential and re- 
spectable journals of the State, among which were 
the Xatinnal Eagle, the Concord l^tate^uuin, the Dover 
Enquirer, the Portsmouth Journal and the Keene Senti- 
nel, advocated his nomination for a third term. The 
Governor, however, declined to be considered a 
candidate, and his letter to that effect was published 
in the Statesman in January, 1867. A brief extract 
or two from some of the jiapers of the day will serve 
lo show the assumptions of this sketch, not unwar- 
ranted by public opinion : 

Said the Boston Journal: " Governor Smyth's ad- 
ministration has been highly successful, not only in a 
financial point of view, which is demonstrated by 
statistics, but in all other respects." The Commerrial 
Hiillctin : " He has been as vigorous and careful of 
the interests of the people, as if those concerns were 
personal to himself, and successftilly sought so to 
manage the financial affairs of the State that its 
credit stands as well as anv other commonwealth." 



MANCHESTER. 



73 



The Daily Monitor : "To-day Governor Smyth resigns 
his trust with the j)roud consciousness of leaving 
mithing uncertain or unsettled which diligence, busi- 
nea- tact and untiring zeal could close up and ar- 
range, nor has Governor Smyth's administration been 
merely a financial success ; he has neglected no single 
jmblic interest ; himself a practical example of all 
the virtue? which constitute a good citizen, he has 
interested himself in every movement which looked 
to the welfare of the community and the promotion 
of industry, temperance and good morals among the 
people." 

It is a signiticant fact that in a time of much party 
feeling the Governor was able to say, in his vale- 
dictory : " Wliatever may have been the ditlerence of 
opinion among us, there lia.s been no factious opposi- 
tion from any source to measures necessary for the 
public good, but I have uniformly received the 
hearty co-operation of all parties in this difficult 
work." Only once during his two years' administra- 
tion did he consider it necessary to interpose his veto, 
an<l the Hou.se sustained him, one hundred and thirty- 
two to six. Another fact indicative of confidence in 
the executive was the appropriation, on motion of a 
distinguished political ojjponent, of fifteen hundred 
dollars to defray expenses incurred while on business 
for the State, and for which he had refused to take 
anything from the contingent fund. The apjjropria- 
tion Wiis advocated l)y leading men of the opposition 
and unanimously voted. It was also declared by one 
of the journals "that no hostile criticism had been 
made from any source upon the conduct of affairs." 
It wiis extensively fiuot«d, and, as far as I am aware, 
has never been contradicted. 

>Ir. Smyth now found it expedient to devote his 
time to the interest of the banking institutions of 
which mention has been made, and to his personal 
business affairs. 

In 1876 he was an active member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention, when several important amend- 
ments were made to the State constitution, including 
the removal of the Religious Test Act. 

One of his marked characteristics is an unwearied 
industry, and it seems to be the opinion that one who 
<loes muih can always find time to do more. Among 
thi- :ippointments he still holds are the following: 
president and director of the Concoril Railroad, 
trustee and treasurer of the New Hampshire College 
of .Vgriculture and Mechanic Arts, director and 
treasurer of the Manchester Horse Railroad, direc- 
tor of the National Agricultural Society, vice-presi- 
dent of the American Pomological Society, president 
of the Northern Telegraph Company, president of 
the Franklin Street ('ongri'irational Society, trustee 
and treasurer of the Northern Telegraph Company, 
president and manager of the First National Bank 
of Manchester, trustee and treasurer of the Merrimack 
River Savings-Hank. In 18G6 the faculty of Dart- 
mouth College conferred n|ion him the degree of A. B. 



In the spring of 1878 he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Hayes one of the commissioners on the part of 
the United States for New Hampshire to the Inter- 
national Exhibition at Paris. He left home, accom- 
panied by his wife, in April, and reached Paris, after 
a few days in London, early in May. On the 14th of 
that month they left Paris for an extended tour, 
visiting the principal points of interest in Egypt, the 
Holy Land, Turkey and Greece, returning, by way of 
Italy, Switzerland, Holland, Belgium, Austria and 
Germany, to Paris in September. Some interesting 
extracts from private corresjiondence were published 
in the Mirror and Farmer, in the course of which the 
condition and work of the American Missions was 
spoken of. He was much impresscil with the value 
of this work to the growing civilization of Eastern 
nations, and has freijuently expressed his opinion to 
that effect in various addresses since his return. 

Ex-Governor and Jlrs. Smyth were the recij)ients 
of many attentions from ministers and consuls res- 
ident al)road, particularly at Constantinople and 
Athens. At Paris they were among the few invited 
guests at the dinner of the Stanley Club to General 
Grant, and were also present at the reception given 
by the American Legation to " General and Madam 
Grant." With a trio of other ex-Governors, — Haw- 
ley, Hoflniau and Fenton, — he was made an lionorary 
member of the Stanley Club. 

Soon after the return of Mr. and Mrs. Smyth from 
this foreign tour they visited Cuba and Mexico. The 
Mexican trip was exceptionally agreeable from the 
fact they were invited to join the party of Major- 
General Ord, and so were made guests of the repub- 
lic. A baiKiuet was given '.heir party at Vera Cruz, 
at which General frevino, son-in-law of General Ord, 
and many distinguished officials were |)re8cnt. The 
trip to the city of Mexico by rail was accompanied by 
a guard of honor, and they had every facility for see- 
ing all that was most desirable in the ancient capital 
of the Aztecs. Mrs. Smytli, particularly, wa.s the re- 
lipient of many attentions from the courtly Mexican 
officers. 

As souvenirs of this journey they brought home 
quaint specimens of Mexican manufacture, — onyx 
tables, feather-work, images of street occu|)ations, etc., 
— to add to the interesting collection at the Willows. 

In December, 1882, ex-Governor and Mrs. Smyth 
sailed again for Europe in the royal mail steamship 
"Servia," spent Christmas near Lomlon and the New 
Year's day in Paris. From Paris they journeyed 
leisurely thrmgh Switzerland in a season meino'rablo 
for destructive Hoods in the valley of the Rhone, and 
went by the Mt. I'enis Tunnel to Turin anil (ienoa. 
From thence to Nice, Marseilles, and by the (inlf of 
Lyons .across tiie Pyrenees to Barcelona, in Spain. 
In that country they spent some time, visiting Sar:i- 
gossa, Madrid, Toledo, Cordova, Grenada, Malaga, 
Seville and (iiliraltar. From Gil)rallar they crossed 
over to Tanirlers. on the .\frican coast, and returning. 



74 



HISTORV OF HILLSBOKOUGH COUxNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



took ship lor Malta ami Alexandria. This latter ciiy 
was half in ruins from the recent British bombard- 
ment. From Cairo they ascended the Nile to the 
first cataract, passinj; throu-ih Lower, Middle and 
Upper Ejry|it to Nubia, visiting on the way the old 
temples and tombs of Uenderah, Luxor, Karnac, 
Thebes, Assouan and other famous places. Then, 
after visiting the battle-field at Tel-el-keber, they 
passed through the Suez Canal and landed at Jaffa, 
the ancient Joppa. After visiting the principal points 
of interest in the Holy Land, — Jerusalem, Jericho, 
the Jordan and the Dead Sea, etc., — they went on, via 
Tyre and Sidon, to Beirut, Damascus and the 
ruins of Baalbec, Cyprus and Antioch. From thence 
by steamer along the coast of Asia Minor, touching 
at Troas, Smyrna, Ephesus and other places, they 
reached Constantinople. After an interesting stay 
of some days they crossed the Black Sea to Varna, and 
went through Bulgaria and Eoumania to Bucharest. 
From thence, through Hungary, Austria, Bavaria and 
Germany, returning to Paris. 

During this trip, as on other occasions, they re- 
ceived numerous attentions, and Governor Smyth 
had an interesting interview with the Khedive. 
They brought home many articles of value, curiosi- 
ties and special manufactures of the countries visited. 
On this occasion, also, the Governor made a successful 
ascent of the great pyramid and explored the labyrinth 
within. This occurred on the last day of his sixty- 
third year. 

In February, after their return. Governor Smyth 
presided at a very large meeting in Smyth's Hall 
which was addressed by Hon. John E. Redmond, 
M. P. for Wexford, Ireland. He introduced the elo- 
quent "Home Ruler" in a brief si)eech, saying that he 
believed in " Your purpose to raise up the lowly and 
oppressed and weaken the bonds of the oppressor," 
and sharply arraigned England for her course in 
Ireland as well as in other lands, as he had observed 
it when abroad. 

In September of the same year Mr. Smyth tend- 
ered a reception to the Hon. James G. Blaine, the 
Republican candidate for the Presidency. A dinner 
was given at the Willows, on Thursday, September 
4th, when Mr. Blaine met some of the most distin- 
guished citizens of New Hampshire, and in the even- 
ing the house and spacious grounds were brilliantly 
illuminated and thrown open to visitors. A fine mil- 
itary band occupied a jmsition on the lawn, and il was 
e8timate<l that fully ten thousand people passed in to 
see the candidate. 

At this very time, and in the midst of all this joy 
and popular acclaim, a shadow was settling over the 
two lives which for forty years had been as one. The 
beautiful lady of the house, who that night and day 
had entertained her guests with all her old-time in- 
terest and vivacity, was within a few days stricken 
with a fatal illness. To so large a degree had Mrs. 
Smyth been identified with her husband's public 



career and success that no sketch of the life of one 
of the most eminent citizens of New Hampshire 
would be complete without mention of her. 

Emily (Lane) Smyth was born in Candia, July 22,. 
1822, and was the daughter of John Lane and Nabliy 
(Emerson) Lane and the granddaughter of Colonel 
Nathaniel Emerson, who fought under Stark at 
Bennington. Her father was a man of prominence 
in town. She was a near neighbor to her future 
husband, and was a bright and ready scholar in the 
schools of the district and in the town High Schonl. 
Her school-days were completed at a young ladies' 
seminary in Charlestown, Miiss., and she taught 
school for several terms thereafter in Candia, Chester 
and Manchester with marked success. She was mar- 
ried December 11, 1844, and brought to her new- 
position some most admirable qualities. Her excel- 
lent good sense, intelligent comprehension of public 
affairs, vivacious manner, rare personal beauty and 
entire freedom from any afl'ectation of pride gave her 
at once a popularity which, widened and extended 
as her husband's success introduced her into other 
circles. Receptions given by Governor Smyth .-it 
Concord, in which she was so conspicuously charm- 
ing, are still remembered as among the leading social 
events of the State, and she has entertained at her 
hospitable board some of the most distinguished [peo- 
ple in the United States, including Chief Justice 
Chase, Chief Justice Waite and his family. President 
Hayes and wife, the wife and daughter of General and 
President Grant, Vice-Presidents Colfax and Ham- 
lin, General Chamberlain, of Maine; Henry Ward 
Beecher and wife, and General Butler has been a fre- 
quent guest. At home and at ease in the highest 
circles she was nowhere more delightful and more 
engaging than in the houses of her old neighbors, to 
whom she was a perpetual joy. Industrious and 
possessing great ability, she has accomplished much 
during her life-time that counts for truth and good- 
ness. Her ear was ever open to the call of distres.% 
and she was one of the most eflicient workers in the 
various benevolent organizations of our city and State. 
That the impression Mrs. Smyth made upon ])er- 
sons of both sexes and of all stations in life was no 
passing and ephemeral eBect, is shown by the letters 
of a memorial volume printed for private circulation 
only, but which contains most remarkable testimony 
to her character and worth. Governor Smyth fully 
a|>preciated the worth of his helpful companion, and 
for nearly forty years their mutual devotion was a 
noble example of the beauty and sacredness of the 
marital relation. Her health had for the most part been 
so good, and her manner was always so hopeful and 
cheery that no immediate alarm was felt at her con- 
dition. A few weeks, however, devclo|)ed fatal 
symptoms, and in spite of all that the best medical 
science of the country and the care of skillful nurses 
could do, Mrs. Smyth died 'January 14, 1885. The 
obsequies at the Franklin Street Church called out 



i 





^ 




MANfllESTKR. 



!•> 



ail iiiiiucii:ie concourse of peojde eiiger to liriug 
tributes of iillection anil to dn honor to the lovely 
character of the departed. 

For many years Mr. Smyth luus had an extensive 
acquaintance with the |inl)lic men of the time. It 
will lie remeiiiliored that six numths prior to Mr. 
Lincoln's iKiinination for the I'residcncv lie intro- 
duced him from the platform in Smyth's Hall as the 
next President, and with Mr. Lincoln, and in after- 
days with his great war minister, Stanton, he was on 
most friendly terms. 

His conservative course in finance, his reputation 
as a safe adviser and his freneral sood judgiiient on 
|iublic all'airs has caused liis (uiiiisel to be often 
.sought in high quarter.s. 

A truth which forms a large part of every man's 
experience ought never to lose its freshness. There 
is no royal road to succe-ss. Ex-Governor Smyth luis 
had the advantage of good health, a sound constitu- 
tion and great power of endurance; but he is one of 
the most industrious men in the State, and the means 
by which he has achieved his position are open to 
every young man of equal energy, self-denial, high 
aim and conscious rectitude of purpose. Some of 
the results which he set himself to attain were beset 
with dillicuhies ; but he was not di.scouraged by oji- 
positioM or disheartened by delay. 

The Second National Bank was chartered in 1877. 
'I'he lirsl board of directors, which has not changed 
since, was ius follows : Aretas Blood, .losiah t'ari)enter, 
Frank V. t'arpeiiter, .lohii Hoyt and X. S. Bean. Mr. 
Blood was elected president and .losiah t'arpenter 
ciLshier, positions which they still occupy. The bank 
has u capital of one hundred thousand dollars. 

Aretas Bi-ooD, son of Nathaniel and ]{oxellaiia 
(Proctor) Blood, was born in Weatherslield,Vt., October 
S, 18U!. When he was but three years of age his parents 
removed to Windsor, Vt,, where he remained until sev- 
enlecn years of age, improving the meagre advantage-s 
alforded by the common schools of those days. He 
was then apprenticed to the trade of blacksmith, 
which he worki'd al about two years and a half and 
then became a machinist. In IMO he journeyed to 
Kvaiisville, Ind., where he worked at his trade until 
.lunc 17, 1.S41, when he started eastwaril in .search of 
employment. He stopped at city after city, but each 
time was disappointed in his hopes. He traveled on, 
however, still in quest of work, and it was not until 
he reached North ( 'hclmsford, Ma.ss., that he found 
empliiynieiil for his ready and willing hands. Alter 
remaining here a short time he subsei|Uently went to 
Lowell as a machinist in the Lowell Machiiie-Shop. 
Here he remained seven ycai's and then went to Law- 
rence, where he commenced the nianufucture of mii- 
chiiiist.s' tools for the large machine-shop then in pro- 
cess of erection at that place. Here the eliaracter of 
the man asserted itself. His ability demanded greater 
scope, and soon after be assiinii il the management of 
the establishment there and began the miiiinfacture, 



by contract, of tools, turbine-wheels, locomotives, 
stationary engines, etc. His untiring energy had at 
last found its reward. He was master of the busiiu>ss. 
September 7, 1853, he came to Manchester and estab- 
lished the Vulcan Works, under the name of Bailey, 
Blood & Co., for the manufacture of locomotives. 
Business was first commenced in Mechanics' Row, but 
in the .sjiring of 18o4 buildings were erected on the 
present location and in the same year tlie company 
was incorporated as the Manchester Locomotive- 
Works, with Oliver W. Bailey as agent. He was 
succeeded in 1857 by Afr. Blood, who has since 
resided in Manchester and has given his personal 
supervision to the business. 

The l(K'oniotivc-works are located on Canal Street 
and cover about six acres. The machine-shop is a 
substantial building, parallel with Canal Street, two 
stories in height, four hundred and thirty feet in 
length and eighty-lbiir in width. The wood-slio|i is 
also a two-story building, one hundred feet long and 
tbrty feet wide; the blacksmith-sho]) is three hundred 
and sixty-five feet long and fifty feet wide; the boiler- 
shop, two hundred and five feet long and fifty-two 
feet wide. 

There is also a large brick building, two hundred 
and thirty by thirty-si.x feet, for making bra.ss cast- 
ings and building steam fire-engines. In the spring 
of 1872, Mr. Blood purchased the steam fire-engine 
business of the Amoskeag Company, good-will, pat- 
ents, etc., and now manufactures the "Amoskeag 
Engine," which is the old engine in name only, as it 
has been entirely remodeled and is now one of the 
iiio.st com]dete, perfect and etticient engines manut'ac- 
tured. There are now over six hundred and fifty of 
these engines in use. Here are also built all kinds of 
hose-carriages, fire apparatus, etc. 

Mr, Blood has proved one of the most successful 
locomotive-builders in the country, twelve hundriil 
and twenty-three having been turned out at these 
works. .V thorough machinist and a man capable of 
handling a large force of men and conducting large 
business operations, he has commanded success, and 
the MaiK'heslcr Locomotive- Works are one of the repre- 
sentative institutions of manufacturing New Kngl.ind, 

Mr, Blood is also a director in the .\nies .Manufac- 
turing Company, of Chicopee, Ma,ss, ; president of the 
Globe Nail Company, of Bo,ston ; and treiusurer of the 
Niushua Iron and Steel t'ompany, which is doing the 
largest business of its kind in New Kngland, llewas 
a director in the Merrimack Kiver Bank from 18ii0till 
its name was changed to Fimt .National Bank, in bsil.'i, 
and iinlil I8t;8 a clirector of the latter ; was a direct<»r 
in the .Ahinchester National Bank from IH74 till 1877, 
and fnmi 1877 to present time has been president of 
the Second National Bank, 

September -I, 184.'), he united in marriage with 
.Miss L. K. Kendall, and Ihi'ir family coiisisls of (no 
children, -Nora, wife of Frank P. Carpenter, of this 
city, and Emma, who resides with her parents. 



76 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Politically, Mr. Blood is a Republican. His first 
vote was cast for (toncral Harrison, but he has been a 
member of the Republican party since its organiza- 
tion, although never an active politician. He has 
been twice elected aldernnin,and was chairman of the 
electors who cast New Hampshire's vote for Garfield 
and Artlnir. 

The Manchester Savings-Bank was chartered 
July 8, 184ti, and organized with Samuel D. Hell 
president and the following board of trustees : John 
A. Burnham, Daniel Clark, Herman Foster, Nahum 
Baldwin, George Porter, David Gillis, William P. 
Newell, Hiram Brown. Nathan Parker was cho.sen 
treasurer and has lield the otiice to the present time. 
Mr. Bell resigned in 1847, and the succeeding presi- 
dents have been as follows: Hiram Brown, William 
P. Newell and Hon. Daniel Clark. The present trus- 
tees are as follows : Nathan Parker, Charles F. War- 
ren, B. F. Martin, Charles Wells, W. M. Parker, 
Charles D. McDuffee and Stephen N. Bourne. Present 
amount of deposits, four million five hundred tlnm- 
sand dollars. 

The Merrimack River Savings-Bank was incor- 
porated June, l.S.')8, under the name of the Manches- 
ter Five-Cent Savings Institution, and the charter 
was issued to the followingboard of grantees : Phineas 
Adams, .Joseph B. Clark, .John (jidway, Warren 
Paige,' Waterman Smith, John L. Kellev, George 
Porter, B. F. Martin, Daniel Clark, Harry Leeds, 
Frank A. Brown,' Samuel Upton, John B. Cha.se, C. 
Sackrider,' Daniel \V. Fling, Brooks Shattuck,' David 
Gillis, John H. Goodale, William Crane, Henry T. 
Mowatt,' Stephen Palmer, Kzra Huntington, Calvin 
Boyd, JosiahS. Shannon, John B. Clarke, David Cross, 
John M. Parker, George ThomjKson, Frederick Smith, 
Charles H. Cam])bell,' George W. Thayer, Charles C. 
Parker, F. B. lOaton, James M. Varnuni, Thomas G. 
Holbrook,' n. N. Batchelder, .lames S. Cheney,' 
Israel Dow, Kbenezer Ferren, Isaac Riddle,' M. O. 
Pearson, W. W. Li-ightou, Thomas Wheat, E. W. 
Harrington,' Varnum H. Hill,' AlonzoSnuth,' William 
Richardson ' and their a.ssociates and .successors. 

In 180') the mime Wiis changed by act of Legisla- 
ture to that which it now bears. The first meeting 
for theadi)ption of by-laws, clioiccof ollicers, etc., was 
held .luly 14, 18r)8, and the following board of ollicers 
chosen : President, Waterman Smith ; Vice-Presi- 
dents, E. W. Harrington, George Porter; Trea-surer 
and Clerk, Frederick Smyth ; Trustees, B. F. Martin, 
.loseph B. Clark, Isaac W. Smith, William B. Web- 
ster, F. .V. Urown, (ieorge Thompson, Peter S. Brown, 
Frederick Smith, Josiah S. Shannon, John L. Kelley, 
James M. ^'arnum, Alonzo Smith, Thomas Wheat, 
Warren Paige, Albe C. Heath, E. S. Peabody, John 
B.Clarke, Joseph \. Haines. 

The first deposit was made August 2, 1858. 

The business has been transacted in the rooms oc- 



1 Deceased. 



cupied by the First National Bank, and its details at- 
tended to by the clerks employed in that institution. 

Waterman Smith remained president until 1884, 
when he was succeeded by Hon. Frederick Smith, the 
present incumbent. Hon. Frederick Smyth continued 
as treasurer until 1884, when, upon a.ssuming the presi- 
dency of the bank, he was succeeded by C. F. Morrill. 

The present members of the corporation are as fol- 
lows: Jos. B. Clark, Waterman Smith, Jno. L. Kelly, 
George Porter, B. F. Martin, Daniel Clark, Henry 
Leeds, Samuel Upton, John B. Clarke, Daniel W. 
Fling, David Gillis, John H. Goodale, William Crane, 
Stephen Palmer, Ezra Huntington, J. S. Shannon, 
David Cross, John M. Parker, George Thompson. 
Frederick Smyth, F. B. Eaton, James M. Varnum, 
Ebenezer Ferren M.O.Pearson, W.W.Leighton,Thos. 
Wheat, Joseph Kennard, Joseph L. Stephens, E. M. 
Topliff, A. J. Lane, Charles Williams, John Porter, 
C. F. Morrill, T. L. Livermore, G. P. Whitman, John 
H. Andrews, A. W. Quint, John P. Goggin. 

President, Frederick Smyth ; Vice-Presidents, 
Joseph B. Clark, F. B. Eaton ; Treasurer and Clerk 
C. F. Morrill. 

The amount of deposits, January 1, 1885, were 
$l,882,82f).38. 

Guaranty Savings-Bank was ineorporated in 1879, 
with the fiilluwing iiiccirporators: Nathan P. Hunt, 
Robert M. Shirley, William R. Patten, H. K. Slay- 
ton, Alonzo Elliott, James A. Weston, Jesse Gault, 
J. W. Hildreth, Horace Pettee, George W. Weeks, 
James F. Briggs, George A. Bailey, John C. Ray, 
Patrick A. Divine and Rufus H. Pike. The first ofli- 
cers were as follows: President, John M. Parker; 
Treasurer and Clerk, James A. Weston. The present 
amount of deposit is six hundred and tweuty-five 
thousand dollars. The first board of trustees were 
James A. Weston, Alonzo Elliott, Nathan P. Hunt, 
.lohn P. Moore, David A. Parker, Patrick A. Devine, 
Hiram K. Slayton, .I(din Kennard, Busbiod W. Hill. 
Present board of trustees are .lolm M. Parker, 
Alonzo Elliott, Nathan P. Hunt, John P. Moore, 
David A. Parker, John Kennard, Hiram K. Slayton, 
Bu.shrod W. Hill, James A. Weston. 

The Mechanics' Savings-Bank was organized in 
1>»77. with the following trustees: Aretas Blood, 
.lo.siah Cari>enter, Frank P. Carpenter, N. S. Bean 
and (ieorge Dodge. Mr. Blood was the first presi- 
dent, and was succeeded by Henry E. Burnham on 
October 1, 1880. Mr. .Josiah Carpenter has been 
treasurer from the beginning. 

There are al.so two saving-banks — the People's 
and the Amoskeag — located in the .\moskeag Bank 
building. 

The Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, one of 
the largest eori>oralions in New England, was incorpo- 
rated under its present name in 1831. Manufactur- 
ing, however, had been carried on at this point with 
inditierent success since 180!t. In that year Benja- 
min Pritchard, who had built the first cotton-mill in 



MANCHESTER. 



77 



New Hampshiro, in New Ipswich, in 1803, came to 
.Vraoskeag Falls, and, in company with Ephraim, 
David and Robert Stevens, built a small mill at 
Anioskeaj; village. In the following year these en- 
;irprising men organized a stock company under the 
name of the Amoskeag Cotton and Wool-Factory. 
I'he first move in this direction was as follows: 

**We, the SHbecril)«r8, Owners & proprietors of a large Tract of Land 
1 ri GofTstown, iu the cuuuty of I]illst>urough, Joining on Amoskeag falii^, 
;ii the Morriiuack river, witli the water privilege Sufficient for carrying 
ri the Manufacturing of cotton A wool at all Seasons of the year, and 
ti.iving hegan the works by cutting a Canal for Carrying the water, 
' rt-cting Buildings Convenient for Said Factory, & preparing a consider- 
ilile part of the 5Iachinon', have agreed to form a Company for improv- 
ti;; .Said privilege, by dividing the Same into one hundred Shares, by 
'. ■oeiving from Said Company a fair price for the privilege, and the La- 
^ 'Ur Expended, which, if not agreed upon by Said Siibscriben* & the 
< oinpuny, to be apprised by men appointed by Said iwirties, and a Good 
i itle by the Subsi-ribers. 

" Si'-m.-d by " KpHRAIM StEVENS, 

" BeSJN. PRICHARn, 

" KoBERT & David Stevens. 
" Goffstown, .lanuary 18th, 1810." 

To this paper was attached a caption of a subscrip- 
tion and signatures as follows : 

"We, the Subscribera, .\gree to takeiho Several Shares iu the above 
mentioned privilege & factory annexed to our names, res|)ectivoly, agree- 
able to the above proposals. 

Shares. 

" Itenj*n Prichard, Goffstown 25 

James Parker, Bedford 2 

William Parker, Bedford 3 

Jotham liillis, (Joffstown 1 

William Parker, Jr., Bedford 1 

William Walker, CofTstown 1 

Kphniini Harvill, Bedfonl 1 

Sitmuol P. Kidder, GoflTslown 1 

Robt. McGregore, Gofifstuwn 5 

Joseph Kichards, Goffstown . . 1 

Seth Hartlelt, Goffstown 1 

Kphraim Stevens, GolTstowu 1 

David L. JIurrill, GolTstown '1 

Isaac Hartly, Goffstown 1 

Moses Hall, Goffstown 1 

Benjamin Allcock, Ite<lfonJ I 

Alcnson Prichard, Goffstown 3 

Kliiathan Whitney, Goffstown 2 

David Strgent, Goffstown 1 

John G. Moor, Manchester 1" 

The following notice was then issued: 

'* Notice is hereby given that a meeting of the proprietors of the 
Amoskeag Cotton A wool Factory will be holden at Col. IU>bert Mc- 
Gregore's, on Wednesday, the 31 dav of January instant, at one of the 
clock, P. M.. for the puriioee of tjiking into considomtion the regulation 
of Said Factory, A dis|)ose of shares not s<»ld. All i>erBons who wish to 
become proprietors are re*iue«ted to attend, when and whore they uuiy 
bo accommodated with Shares. 

'* BeNJ'X PlUCIIARb. 
"Goffstown, January 2.'ith, 1810." 

January 31, 1810, the company organized with 
Joseph Richards, of Goffstown, as president, and 
Jothani Gillis, of Goffstown, as clerk. 

March 2. 1810, Messrs. Ephraim and Robert Ste- 
vens excciiteil a bond to tliis company, agreeing to 
keep their dam ill repair, and to furnish the " Wool 
and Cotton Manufactory" a certain quantity of water 
at all seasons of the year. 

The first mill was put in operation in 1810, but it 
was without pickers or looms. The cotton was picked 



and the yarn woven iu the ueighborhtwd. It is said 
that a smart weaver might earn thirty-six cents per 
day ! This company was not successful, an<l after 
1815 little was done until 1S2.'>, when the majority of 
the stock was purchased liy Dr. Oliver Dean, Lyman 
Tiffany and Willard Sayles. Dr. Dean was made 
agent and from this time forward manufacturing at 
this point has been a continued success. 

July, 1831, tlie present company was incorporated, 
it having up to this time been a private enterjfrise. 
July l.Sth, the ait was accepted, which allowed a capital 
of one million dollars, and on the following day the 
first officers of the new corporation were chosen : 
Lyman Tiffany, president ; Lyman Tiffany, Ira Gray 
and Willard Sayles, directors; Ira Gray, clerk ; Oliver 
Dean, agent and treasurer. With Lamed Pitcher, 
these were the five men who accepted the charter on 
the evening of .July 13, 1831. 

The property of the old firm (says Mr. Clarke, in 
his excellent "History of Manchester") was ex- 
changed for stock in the new company, and the latter 
acquired by purchase a title to land on both sides of 
the river, mostly, however, on the east side, where 
engineers had decided were the best sites for mills 
and the best tracks for canals. In 1835 the new 
organization bought the property and interest of the 
Bow Canal Company, the Isle of Hooksett Canal 
Com|)aiiy, the Amoskeag Locks and Canal Com))any 
and the Union Locks and Canal, all of which, as their 
names inii)ly, had built canals at different points on 
the river. The Hooksett Manufacturing Company- 
was merged with the Amoskeag in 1836 and the Con- 
cord Manufacturing Company shared the same fate 
the next year. The .Vmoskeag Company thus had 
obtained a full title to all the water-power on the 
river from Manchester to C(mcord and all the land 
in Manchester on the Merrimack available for mill- 
sites. It Wits also in possession of large tracts of land 
adjacent to the river and extending for some distance 
from it. 

Having thus cleared the way, they soon began 
operations in earnest. In 1836 the wooden dam 
which had hitherto checked the river's flow at Amos- 
keag Falls was thoroughly rei»aired in order to answer 
the purposes of a coffer-dam, and the next year was 
begun the construction of a wing-dam of stone, with 
guard-locks on the east side, which was completed in 
1840. At the same time the farther from the river of 
the two ]«resent canals was built by Lobdell A Rus- 
sell. In 1838 a contract was made with Russell, 15ar» 
& Co., (of which firm Isaac C. Flanders, after- 
wards president of the City Bank, now Merchants* 
Bank, was a member), to construct the " lower canal," 
and the contract was fulfilled. The first building put 
upon the east side of the river was what was then 
the Stark Mills counting-room, at the foot of Shirk 
Street, jiart of which was temporarily used for a 
counting-room by the land and water-power depart- 
ment of the .Vmoskeag Company. The next was the 



78 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



■one designated as "No. 1, Stark Block," where the 
agents and clerks of the mills boarded with S. S. 
Moulton till November, 1839, when the Manchester 
House was finished. The first mills built on the east 
side were what were then No. 1 and No. 2 Mills of 
the Stark corporation, which were erected for that 
company in 1838 and 183'J. 

At that time a number of men who have since been 
well known in Manchester were in the pay of the 
Amoskeag Company. Hiram Brown, afterwards mayor 
of the city, was employed to oversee the stone-work; 
Pluiiehas Stevens, was its millwright and wheelwright; 
John D. Kimball was an overseer of carpenter-work ; ; 
T. J. Carter was the resident engineer; Henry S. 
Whitney was an overseer of general out-door work ; 
AVarren Paige had charge of the lumber-yard ; Nahum 
Baldwin, Daniel L. Stevens and Charles Hutchinson, 
were employed in the planing-mill ; George F. Jud- 
kius managed the saw-mill, and Samuel Boice was 
€mployed in it ; Samuel B. Kidder had charge of the 
locks and canals; Andrew Bunton and Levi Sargent 
were contractors for stone ; John H. Maynard was the 
head carpenter ; Jonathan T. P. Hunt and Joseph E. 
Bennett were employed as masons in the building 
of the mills. 

The company laid out the site of a town with a 
main street running north and south, parallel with 
the river, with other streets running parallel with this 
and across it, reserving land for public squares, and 
in 1838, having divided part of its lands into lots 
suitable for stores and dwellings, sold it, bringing 
into the market by this and subsequent sales a large 
part of the land on which the city of to-day stands- 
In 1838 they sold a site and privileges for mills to a 
new comjiany which had been incorporated as the 
Stark Mills, and built for them, in this and subse- 
quent years, the factories they now occupy. After 
the burning of their old mills at Amoskeag they 
finished, in 1841, two new ones just below the Stark 
Mills for their own use, and added to them in subse- 
quent years as their needs required. In 1845 they 
sold land and built mills and a printery for a new 
corporation which had been organized as the Man- 
chester Mills. To meet a demand for machinery for 
their own mills and those they erected for others, they 
built in 1840 a machine-shop, in 1842 a foundry, and 
in 1848 replaced both these by new and larger ones, 
beginning at that time the manufacture of locomo- 
tives, building new shops for mechanical ]>urpose8 
when needed. In 1859 wiis begun the manufacture of 
the famous Amoskeag steam fire-engines. Some time 
after they had finished mills for the larger corpora- 
tions already mentioned they built, for the convenience 
of individual enterprises, a building known as " Me- 
chanics' Row," at the northern end of the canals, and 
also sold land and erected shops for small corjjora- 
tions which were subsequently organized. They 
carried out meanwhile their original idea of the city, 
building boarding-houses and tenements for theirown 



operatives and those of the other corporations, giving 
away land for churches andpublicbuildings, selling it 
to manufacturers and business men, and continuing a 
liberal policy to the present time. 

The first directors of the company were Lyman 
Tiffany, Ira Gay and Willard Sayles, elected in 1831. 

The following is a list of otficers from 1831 to 1885: 

1831: Lyman Tiflfany (president), Ira Gay, Willard Sayles, directors : 
Ira Gay, clerk ; Oliver Dean, treasurer and agent. 13;W : George Dau- 
iele, clerk. 1834; Harvey Hartshorn, treasurer and agent ; Lyman Tif- 
fany, ttliver I)ean, Willard Sayles, directors. ls:i6: P. T- .lackson, Ly- 
luan Titlany, William .\ppleton, George Bond, Samuel Frothingham, 
I)aniel D. Broadhead, George Howe, (iliver Dean, directors; Francis 
c. Lowell, treasurer; Hiram X. Daniels, clerk. 18;i7 : Kobert Read, 
clerk ; William Amoix treasurer ; Oliver Dean, Willard Sayles, George 
Howe, Francis C. Lowell, Samuel Frothingham, John .\. Lowell, Sam- 
uel Hubbard, Daniel D. Broadhead, William ,\ppleton, directors. 1838 : 
Francis C. Lowell, president ; William G. Means, clerk ; George W. Ly- 
man, Nathan .Vppleton and .lames K. Mills succeeded Samuel Frothing- 
ham, John A. Lowell and Daniel D. Broadhead as directors. 1840: 
David Sears succeeded Samuel Hubbard as director. 18-12: Joseph 
Tilden succeeded Francis C Lowell as president and director. 1847 : 
William Aniory succeeded Willard Sayles as director. IS."!! : Robert 
Kead succeeded William Aniory as director. 1853 : Gardner Brewer suc- 
ceeded Joseph Tilden as director; Oliver Dean succeeded Joseph Tilden 
as president ; E. A. .Straw succeeded William G. Bleans as clerk. 18.'»r. ; 
Jona. T. P. Hunt succeeded Robert Read as director. 18.^7 : David Sears 
resigned as director. 18G1 : Oliver Dean, George Howe, George W'. Ly- 
man, William Appleton, Gardner Brewer, Jona. T. P. Hunt, directors. 
Isii2: William -Vppleton, deceased. 180.^: Daniel Clark succeeded Jona. 
T. P. Hunt as director. 186G : T. Jefferson Coolidge and Tbomjts Wig- 
glesmith were added to the directors. 1871 : Oliver Dean and George W. 
Lyman having tleclined re-election, and George Howe having ceased 
to be a stockholder, William .Amory, John L, (Jardner and William P. 
Mason succeeded thera as directors ; Gardner Brewer succeeded Oliver 
I>ean as president. 1874 : Charles .\niory succeeded Gardner Brewer, 
deceased, as director ; Daniel Clark succeeded Gardner Brewer, deceased, 
as president. 1875 : William W". Bremer succeedeil Charles .\mory as 
director. 1870 ; T. Jefferson Coolidge succeeded William Amory as treas- 
urer ; William Amory succeeded Daniel Clark as president. 1877 : John 
L. Bremer succeeded William M. Bremer as director ; George Dexter and 
F. A. Straw were added to the directors. 1870: Thomas L. Livermore 
succeeded K. .\. Straw as clerk and agent. 1880 : Channing Clapp 
succeeded T. .Tefferson Coolidge as treasurer ; Channing Clapp 6uccc«ded 
K. .\. Straw as director. 1885: Herman F. Straw succeeded Col. Liver- 
mon> as clerk and .agent. 

The company once owned fifteen hundred acres of 
laud on the east side of the river. They own land on 
the west side also. 

The present dam at Amoskeag Falls was built in 
1871 by the company, after Mr. Straw's i)lans and 
under his personal supervision. Its predecessor had 
lasted thirty-four years, had become leaky and unsafe, 
was built low and in the wrong place. The old one 
ran straight across, but the one which took its place 
curved around so as to give a wider entrance from the 
river, was built two feet higher and farther down the 
stream. It is in two parts, the main dam, from the 
west side to the bridge, being four hundred and twenty 
feet long, and the canal wing, from the bridge to the 
gate-house, being two hundred and thirty feet long, 
making a total length of six hundred and fifty feet. 
It is eight feet wide at the toj), averages twelve feet in 
height, and cost, all things included, about sixty thou- 
sand dollars. The upper canal extends from the basin 
at the dam to the weir at the foot of Central Street, 
where it empties into the lower, and is five thousand 



MANCHESTER. 



79 



Hmr hunilred ami eighty feet long. The lower begins 
at about the same place, and extends to the weir below 
the Naniaske Mills, where it emjities into the river. 
It is si.v thousand nine hundred feet long, and runs 
ji i>art of the way over the track of the old Blodget 
Canal. Till 1855 the canal was* connected with the 
Merrimack, near the old McGregor bridge, by a set of 
locks, the conii)any having been under obligation to 
keep the canal open to the public as when it was 
owned by the Anioskeag Locks and Canal t'onipany; 
but the Legislature of 1855 gave permission to discon- 
tinue the locks. The openings of the canals at the 
guard-gates are five hundred and ten feet square. The 
c-anals' width at their head is seventy -three feet, and 
at the weirs fifty feet, with an average depth of ten 
feet. The fall from the upper to the lower canal is 
twenty feet, and from the lower canal to the river 
thirty-four feet. 

Xo. 1 and No. 2 Jlills are northernmost, and are 
«xact duplicates of each other. They were the first 
mills upon the Anioskeag corporation, were built sepa- 
rately, one huntlred and fifty-seven feet long by forty- 
eight wide, and si.\ stories high, in 1841, but in 1X59 
and 18G0 were united by what is called No. 6 Mill, 
€ighty-eight feet long by sixty wide. 

No. 3 Mill, directly to the south of this triple com- 
bination, was built in 1S34, and thoroughly rebuilt in 
1870. It is five stories in height and four hundred 
and forty feet long, while its width varies from .sixty- 
five to seventy-two feet. At its south end is a three- 
«tory picker-house, one hundred and thirty-five feet 
long by sixty wide. [ 

At the upper end of the mills, on the lower level, 
is a low building, four hundred and seventy-two feet 
long anil thirty wide, used as a hag-mill, wliich h.is 
forty bag-looms. 

No. 4 Mill was built in 1846 and enlarged in 1872. I 
The original building was seven stories high, two 
hundred and sixty feet in length by sixty in width. 
In the fall of 1872 an extension was l)uilt in the rear, 
one hundred feet long and sixty feet wide. In the 
rear, also, are two picker-houses, three stories high, 
fifty-six feet in length by thirty-seven in width. 

No. 5 Mill is just north of the one last mentioned. 
It is two hundred and fifty-eight feet long by sixty 
wide, and has a picker-house, sixty-two feet in length 
by forty-four in width, in the rear. 

The l)uilding at the north of No. 5 Mill, occupied 
as a dye-house and gingham-mill, consists of a centre- 
piece and two wings. The south wing is the dye- i 
hou.se, and is two hundred and three feet long, sixty- | 
seven feet wide and three stories high. The middle ' 
part is one hundre<l ami twenty feet long, sixty -seven 
feel wide, three stories high and is occupied by dress- 
ing-machinery for ginghams. The north wing is of 
the same length and breadth as the dye-house, but 
four stories high. 

A mill was built in 1874, just at the north of these 
buildings and iiaralKI with them. It i.s two hunilred 



and sixty feet long, sixty-eight feet wide and four 
stories high, 

The bleachery and napping-house, for bleaching 
and napping fiannels, are in a small building, one 
hundred and ten feet in length and thirty-six in width, 
in the rear of the old gingham-mill and near the river. 

In 1874 the company erected the mill of the Amory 
Manufacturing Company. In 1880 they built a large dye- 
house, two hundred and eighty by fifty feet, tw'O stories, 
and in 1881 a new mill with forty-faur thousand spin- 
dles. In 1880 the old machine-shop which originally 
.stood on the bank of the river was taken down and the 
new machine-shop erected, one hundred and ninety by 
fifty feet, three stories high. The machine-shops up 
to 1872 manufactured the celebrated .Vmoskeag fire- 
engine. In that year this business was sold to the 
Manchester Locomotive- Works. There are also seven 
cotton-houses, one hundred by seventy feet, three 
stories high. The mills are driven by seventeen tur- 
bine wheels, six and eight feet in diameter, which are 
sufficient to run all machinery in ordinary stages of 
water. In addition to this power, there is al.so 
one pair of engines of eight hundred horse-power 
in No. 3 Mill ; one pair of two thousand horse- 
power for driving machinery iu Mills Nos. 4, 5, 7 and 
8; also an engine of two hundred and fifty horse 
power to drive the machine-shop. There are forty- 
eight boilers, one-half for high pressure, to be used 
when engines are run and exhaust steam is used for 
heating and drying. These engines are only run in 
low water. The other twenty-four boilers, of an old 
type, are only used when the engines are not run, be- 
cause suited to lower pressure. These boilers have 
all been placed in a great boiler-house, about two 
hundred and fifty by fifty feet, on the west side of 
the river, next to the coal shed, which is a new one 
built of brick, with a capacity for twenty thou.sand 
tons, having three railroad tracks from which the coal 
is unloaded. On this side of the river al.so a chimney 
has been erected two hundred and fifty feet high. 
The steam is carried across the river in a pijie twenty 
inches in diameter and two thousand live hundred 
feet long, which crosses the river on two bridges, dis- 
tributing steam to the whole establishment. The 
mills are lighted by electricity, the first Iight(Wc8ton 
& IJrush,) having been put in February, 1880. The 
corporation runs ten mills, including .Naniask Mill, and 
eight huiidreil tenenu'Uls. This immense establish- 
ment has six thousand looms, uses forty thousand 
bales of cotton and twenty thousand tons of coal per 
year, and manufactures annually sixty million yards 
consisting of ticking, denims, stripes, ginghams, cot- 
ton fiannels and cheviots. l'>mploys live thousaml per- 
sons, with a monthly pay-ndl of one hiimlred and 
sixty thousand dollars. 

The present ollicers are as follows : 

William Amory, Daniel Clark, T. Jelfersoii Coo- 
lidge, Thomas Wigglcsworth, George A. Gardner, 
Williiiin V. Mason, .lohn L. Hrenier, Channing Clapp, 



80 



HISTOKY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTS, NEW HAMPSHIKE. 



George Dexter, directors ; William Amory, president ; 
T. Jefferson Coolidge, treasurer ; Herman F. Straw, 
clerk and agent. 

EzEKlKL AMiEUTSruAW wasborn in Salisbury, De- 
cember 30, 1819, making his age at the time of his 
death sixty-three years. He was the eldest son ol' 
James B. and Mehitable (Fisk) Straw, and one of a 
family of seven children (five sons and two daughters), 
and of whom three survive, — Miranda (wife of Benja- 
min F. Manning), Abigail and James B. Straw, Esq., 
all residents of Manchester. His father, after a few 
years' residence in this State, removed to Lowell, 
Mass., where he entered into the service of the Apple- 
ton Manufacturing Company. Mr. Straw acquired 
his education in the schools of Lowell, and in the 
English Department of Phillips Andover Academy, 
where he gave especial attention to practical mathe- 
matics. Upon leaving this institution, he was, in the 
spring of 1838, employed as assistant civil engineer 
upon the Nashua and Lowell Railway, then in pro- 
cess of construction. In July, 1838, he was sent for 
by Mr. Boyden, the consulting engineer of the Amos- 
keag Manufacturing Company, to take the place of 
T. J. Carter, the regular engineer, who was absent 
from work on account of illness. He came to the 
city of Manchester July 4, 1838, expecting to remain 
but a few days, and has ever since made it his home. 
This was before a mill had been built upon the 
eastern side of the river ; among his first duties 
were the laying out of the lots and streets in what is 
now the compact part of the city, and assisting in the 
construction of the dams and canals. In November, 
1844, he was sent by the Amoskeag Company to Eng- 
land and Scotland to obtain information and machi- \ 
nery necessary for making and printing muslin de- 
laines, and the success of the Manchester I'rint- 
Works, which first introduced this manufacture into 
the United States, was due to the knowledge and 
skill he then acquired. He continued in the employ 
of the Amoskeag Company as civil engineer until 
July, 1851, when he was ai)i>ointed agent of the land 
and water-power department of the company, the 
mills and machine-shops then being managed sepa- 
rately, under different agents. In July, 1856, the first 
two were united and put in charge of Mr. Straw, and 
in July, 1858, all three were combined under one 
management, and !Mr. Straw assumed the entire con- 
trol of the company's operations in Manchester. 

Mr. Straw was prominent in the early history of 
the town's prosperity. He was a member of the com- 
mittee to provide plans and specifications for the re- 
building of the town-house in 1844, and one of the 
first committee appointed to devise ])lans for the in- 
troduction of water into the town. He was connected 
with all the subsequent |)lans for the same purpose, 
and when the board of water commissioners, who 
had charge of the construction of the present water- 
works, was appointed in 1871. he was made its presi- 
dent, and held the office until within a few years. He 



was chosen, in 1854, a member of the first board of 
trustees of the public library, and held the office for 
twenty-five years. In 1846, Mr. Straw was elected 
assistant engineer of the Fire Ueijartment, and was 
re-elected several times afterwards. In 1859 he 
served as Representative in the State Legislature, and 
was re-elected in 1860, 1861, 1862, 1863, and during 
the last three years was chairman of the committee 
on finance. In 1864 he was elected to the State 
Senate and was re-elected in 1865, being chosen its 
president in the latter year. He was also chosen, on 
the part of the Senate, one of the commissioners to 
superintend the rebuilding of the State-House. In 
1869 he was appointed by Governor Stearns a mem- 
ber of his staff. In 1872 he was elected by the Re- 
]Hiblicans of New Hampshire Governor of the State, 
and was re-elected the succeeding year. In 1870 he 
was appointed by President Grant the member from 
New Hampshire of the commission to arrange for the 
centennial celebration of the independence of the 
United States at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1876. 

From the organization of the Naniaske Mills, in 
1856, till the dissolution, Mr. Straw was the trea.surer 
and principal owner, and after 1864 until near the 
end of his business career the sole proprietor. In 
1874 he was chosen a director of the Langdon Mills. 
He was the president and one of the directors of the 
Blodget Edge-Tool Manufacturing Company from its 
organization, in 1855, till its dissolution, in 1862, and 
during the existence of the Amoskeag Axe Company, 
which succeeded it, he was a director. He was one of 
the first directors of the Manchester Gas- Light Com- 
pany when it was organized, in 1851, and was chosen 
its president in 1855, holding the office until January 
29, 1881. In ISGO he was elected a director of the 
Manchester and Lawrence Railroad, and in 1871 was 
elected president of the corporation, resigning in 1879. 
Upon the organization of the New England Cotton 
Manufacturers' Association he was chosen its pres- 
ident, and was also president of the New Hamp- 
shire Fire Insurance Company from its organization, 
in 1869 to 1880, when he resigned. He was one of 
the founders of the First Unitarian Society, in 1842, 
its clerk and treasurer from that time till 1844, its 
president from 1853 to 1857, and was chairman of 
the committee which built its present house of wor- 
ship. 

Governor Straw married, Ajiril 6, 1842, at Ames- 
bury, Mass., Charlotte Smith Webster, who died in 
this city JIarch 15, 1852. To them were born lour 
children, — Albert, who died in infancy; Charlotte 
Webster, wife of Mr. William H. Howard, of 
Somerville, Mass. ; Herman Foster, agent of the 
.\moskeag Mills ; Ellen, the wife of Mr. Henry M. 
Thompson, formerly agent of the Manchester Print- 
works, and now agent of the Lowell Felting Com- 
pany, of Lowell, Mass. 

There are now seven living grandchildren, — AlVjert 
Straw, William H. and Sarah Chenev Howard. Par- 



I 



i 



i 



MANCHESTER. 



81 



ker ami Harry Ellis IStraw, aiul Albert W. and Her- 
man Ellis Thompson. 

His rapidly-iailiug health and strength obliged Mr. 
^^t^a\v lo retire from the active management of the 
Amuskeag Manufacturing Company in ISTU, and at 
the aunual meeting of the proprietors of the company 
next following, this resolution was unanimously 
adopted, — 

" Itesotvfit, That the Hon. K. A. Straw, ageiit of this company at 
MuncheNtiT, having since our lut^t annual meeting been compelled by ill 
health tu resign hi» office, iu which fur about forty yeufs, in many dilVci- 
pnt capacities, he has MTved the corpomtiuM from it^ infancy with signal 
ability, fidelity and skill, we owe it to him and ourselves to put upon rec- 
ord the testimony of our high appreciation of the value of those eervices, 
our sincere regret at his resignation, our deep sorrow for the cause, our 
curdial thanks fur bis lungHXnitiinud and exrellent manageniont of our 
iiffain* in this city, and our earnest wishes that, fi-ee from pain orsuffer- 
ing, ho may pass the remaining yeare of his life improved in health. 
pr<J^I>e^ous and happy.'* 



Clark, on rising t(» second the 



The Hon. l»aniel 
resolution, said, — 

*' Mr. I'lejiidmU and Gentlemen, — It is with mingled feelings of pleasure 
•Dd of iHtin that I second this resolution. It is now forty years, and 
more, lince I came to Manchester. I came in a one-horse wagon to ii 
ooe'horso town, — to a town, in fact, having no bones at all. As you 
know, sir, the canal was not then finished. It wob a muddy trench. 
They were blasting stone and laying them in the walls an<l throwing out 
the dirt. There was not a mill then flnishi-<l. Tlie walls of one of the 
Stark Mills wt^rc up, the roof was covered in ; but there were no windows 
iu the milt, and, I think, no machinery. There was not a school-house ; 
there was not a cliurcb ; tliere was not a hotel ; tlieR- was not a place to 
lajr my head ; and I went away ori-r into what was then CofTstown, now 
Amoskeag viUage, to find a place to board. There ba<t been a luud sale 
the fall Iwfiire, and the hill yonder was covered over with strikes, denot- 
ing the corner-lots and whore the streets were to go. Thrre wa« not a 
street well nnule that I remember of seeing, and a butcher's cart coming 
along got stuck in the sand not fur from where Elm Street now is, sixiii 
after I came hero. 

"Soon after 1 came there ap|M*ared upon the scene a young man, 
healthful, coni|»actIy built, about nineteen or twenty yeai-s of age, with 
a fresh, ruddy countenance, with an air of assurance, hut without arro- 
gaDCc, who manifested suctt industry and energy and pluck as gave 
promise of bis futun* brilliant sui-cet«s. I think, sir [addressing the pres- 
ident of the meeting], I think on a former occasion you used the word 
* luck ' instead of pluck. I think you must prefix a * p ' to the word and 
make it ' pluck.' 

" TbiK g.-ntlL'nn»n, mxm after cnniing to this city, went into the Amos- 
keag rotnpany's em]>lcy as a^iistant engineer. I think his chief was a 
gentleman distinguished for bis scientific attainments. From that time 
forth that young man has bei^n iu the employ of this company, irnder 
his Industry, »"kill, direction and perseveriince, it has grown iVoni tln« 
iM-gjiitiing that T have indicated t" what it Is now. I do not mean to wty 
tliat he has done this entirely alone, for be luis received the aid of others, 
and, furlnnately, uf yourself. Of that I have spoken on a foinier occa- 
«l('U ; but fnr furty years In- has been steadily engaged in the service uf 
this rompany. Thi-rr is nothing here, «ir, which does not Iw-ar the im- 
pH'sa of his hand. Certainly the river boa acknowledged his power, for 
he hiM twice danitno<l it anil turned it out of its course. There is not a 
railroad about us, sir, in whicli his skill and wise counsel have not been 
manifested; tlioro is not here u highway ur public building in which 
his management has not been discernible. We have our gas-light com- 
pany, of which ho has been president for many years. I spcuk of these 
as showing the honuntble services of this num to tin- connaunity its well 
as to tbis coni|»any. We havi- the New Hamiwliiri" Kire Insurance C4im- 
pony, the only hUhU. Insurance company in the .State, of which ho bos 
been the president. Wo have built Iiero the city water-works, bringing 
tht- sweet waters of the Maawibesic to our city, of which lio was one of 
the chief movers. There Is not a school-honsu here, filled with happy 
scholans tlmt he has nt>t In some way assisted ; there Is not a church here 
to whose support he bag not given his aid. We have a Hbrarj*, a fre«' 
library, to which evory oiterativi-, man, wonnin or child, who can pro. 
run- winie one toNjiy that be or she is a lit pen*on to be be intrusti'd with 



its books, cau go to receive Its benefits. 1 may say hero that there is no 
man in this city to whom the city owee so much for the lib iiry, I think 
I may say it, sir, as to your late agent. 

"I once said, sir, I think, here, that that library seemed to me like 
an aviary of sweet singing birds, and at morn and noon and eve they 
fiit away to the homes of tired labor. They porch upon the window-eills, 
upon the table and the chair and the shelf and the mantle and the pil- 
low, and sing their sweet songs in the ear of tired labor, and it is be- 
guiled of its imin and sinks to rest. In the morning labor rises refreshed ; 
it takes up its bunlen, and thus ever goes on the round ; and at night 
IaI>or is again tired, and as it goes to its home the sweet singing birds are 
there to welcome it and stdaco the hours of weariness. None can say 
how much lalwr owes to Governor Straw. No one can know, except 
those here, how much this company, how much this city, how much wo 
all, OHO to this same man. 

"And now, Mr. ]*resident, I cannot forbear to say for myself, that, 
through all these forty years tliat I have Inien lyeside my friend yoniler, 
he has never forfeited my esteem, my resinrct, my afl'ection and my htve, 
and 1 think I have always received his ; and you may judge, Mr. Presi- 
dent, bow sad it is to me to see him now, like M>me great ship that has 
bufieted the waves and sailed forth triunipbantly, laid on the shore. I 
am glad to see that she lies so easily and so (juietly, and may it be a 
great while before her timbers hhall Ik' broken up and she disappear in 
the sand. 

"But, Mr. President, goncnitions pass away, and I see now not ten 
men In this city that were bore when I came. I stand almost alone. I 
stand with yon, sir, and with a few others ; but our friends and we shall 
soon piu«8 away, for such is the common lot. 

"I do not know that I have anything further to ad<l, but to reiieat 
what my friend has said in the resolution. Long may it bo before the 
sun shall finally go down on my friend. May his last days be his U'st 
days; and when bis sun shall finally set, may the raysstrcaui to iho 
zenith in one bright Hume, a fitting emblem of a well-spent life." 

After a long and weary sickness, Governor Straw 
died October 23, 1882, but his memory is still green 
in the State he served, in the city he helped to build 
and among the friends he loved. 

On the afternoon of his funeral busiruss was 

generally suspended throughout the rity. the Anuts- 

keag Mills were closed, and hundreds of his fellow- 

I citizens visited the Unitarian Church, where the body 

lay in state. 

Mr. Straw was emphatically a great man, not only 
in his profession, in which lie towered far above 
nearly all others, but in all the various positions to 
I which he was called, lie was not known as a brilliant 
or a sharp man. He had little need of the helps 
which other men gain by dazzling or outwitting 
friends or foes ; for there was a massiveness about 
him, a solid strength, which enabled him to carry out 
great plans by moving straiglit on over obstacles 
which other men would have been compelled to re- 
move or go around. Ills mind was broad, deep and 
comprehensive; he had rare good judgment, great self- 
reliance and a stability of purpose which seldom 
failed. He was peculiarly titled for the management 
of vast enterprises. His plans were far-rea<hing and 
judicious, and his executive ability was equal to the 
I successful carrying out of whatever his mind pro- 
: jected and his judgment apprtived. 
I For twenty-tive years he carried business burdena 
' which would have cruslied almost any half-dozen 
' strong men. He was agent of the Amoskeag cttrpora- 
' tion, having in his charge its millions of d(dlars. its 
\ thousands of operatives, its acres of streets and build- 
iiigH. its numerous water-powers and all its costly 



82 



HISTORY or HILLSBOllOUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



extensions and improvements, besides the daily opera- 
tions at its factories. He was Governor of the State, 
and answered for two years all the exactions made 
upon the occui)ant of that position. He was a rail- 
road [ircsident, president of an insurance company, 
president of the gas company and a director and lead- 
ing spirit in several other moneyed institutions. He 
was a public-spirited citizen, whose time was always 
at the service of the community in which ho lived; 
but with all these duties, he neglected none, postponed 
none, failed in none. He had great opportunities 
and he left no one of them unimproved. In the 
management of the Amoskeag corporation he found 
room for the display of magnificent abilities, and the 
uninterrupted success and growth of that corporation, 
not only in seiusons of general prosperity, but at times 
when nearly all others failed, attest how grandly he 
])lanned and how well he executed. 

As Governor, he entirely justified the confidence 
that secured his election, gi^-ing to the people the full 
benefit of his integrity, industry, sound sense and 
great business abilities, and leaving a record which 
will always be a credit to the State ; and in the dis- 
charge of the numerous other public trusts committed 
to him, he added constantly to his reputation as a man 
in whose hands any interest was both safe and for- 
tunate. He had great knowledge of men and read 
character at a glance, so that in selecting his hun- 
dreds of assistants he seldom made a mistake. He 
possessed vast stores of information upcm a multitude 
of subjects, which he had acquired by extensive read- 
ing and observation, and was able to use it upon 
occasion with great effect. He had decided views 
upon all current events and all matters connected 
with his busine^^s, and could state his opinions most 
clearly, compactly and convincingly. He spoke 
easily, but without any attempt at rhetorical display, 
and wrote without ai)parent eftbrt in plain, vigorous 
language, which contained no surplusage. He was a 
willing and liberal helper to any object which he ap- 
proved, and there was nothing narrow or bigoted 
about him to confine his benefactions to his own sect, 
party or nationality. He was a genial, entertaining 
and always instructive companion, a good neighbor 
and a true friend. Manchester was proud of E. A. 
Straw, and, whenever occasion offered, delighted to 
honor him. He has been one of her citizens during 
most of her history as a city, and it is safe to say no 
other man contril)Utcd more to her rapid growth and 
progress in all profitable and plea.sant directions than 
he. He always remembered, too, that he was a 
citizen of Manchester, and did not allow any antagon- 
ism between her interests and those of the corporation 
he represented, but worked constantly and zealously 
for the good of both. Her people were not slow to 
respond to this feeling, and there has existed from the 
start the utmost cordiality and unity of purpose, 
which have contributed in no small degree to the ad- 
vantage of both city and corporation. For his potent 



Clerk, C. A. Hovey ; 

Directors, William 

Lewis Downing, Jr., 



influence in this direction. Governor Straw will long 
be gratefully remembered. 

Stark Mills. — This corporation was chartered in 
1838, with a capital of five hundred thousand dollars, 
and commenced operations in the same year. In 184;j 
the capital was increased to seven hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars, in 1846 to one million, in 1847 to 
one million two hundred and fifty thousand. They 
own fifteen acres of land, occupied for mills, bourding- 
house and overseers' blocks, etc. The goods manu- 
factui-ed are cotton and linen, the latter product being 
in the form of crash and toweling, while the cotton 
goods are sheetings, drillings, duck and bags, the 
latter being known as t"he " seamless bags," being 
woven in one piece. 

Phinehas Adams was agent from 1847 to 1881. He 
was succeeded by Mr. S. N. Bourne, the present 
agent. 

President, William Amory ; 
Treasurer, Edmund Dwight ; 
Amory, J. Ingersoll Bowditch, 
T. Jefl'erson Coolidge, John L. Bremer, J. Lewis Stack- 
jKile, Roger AVolcott ; Agent, Stephen N. Bourne. 

Manchester Mills. — This corporation was organ- 
ized in 1839, with a capital of one million dollars, for 
the manufacture of dress goods. The Amoskeag Com- 
pany had previously made the fabric for delaines in 
their mill at Hooksett, but the printing was done else- 
where. In 184-5 the first mill for the printing of de- 
laines was erected, which went into operation the next 
year. In 1847 the property was sold to a corporation 
which was chartered the previous year, with a capital 
of one and a half million dollars, under the name of 
the Merrimack Mills, which was afterwards changed 
to the Manchester PrintWorks, and its capital in- 
creased to eighteen hundred thousand dollars. In 
1873 it was reincorporated, under the name of the 
Manchester Print-Works and Mills, with a capital of 
two million dollars, and in 1874 the name was changed 
to the Manchester Mills. 

The corporation owns about forty-three acres of 
land in all, a part of which is on the west side of the 
river. It has six mills, containing two thousand seven 
hundred looms, and leases forty mill-[)ower8 of the 
Amoskeag Company. The goods manufactured are 
principally worsted dress goods and prints. 

President, Samuel R. Payson ; Clerk, Josiah S. Shan- 
non ; Treasurer, John C. Palfrey ; Directors, Samuel 
U. Payson, William H. Hill, Moody Currier, Benjamin 
P. Cheney, William O. Grover, Joseph H. White, 
Jacob Edwards ; Agent, Charles D. McDuffie; Super- 
intendent of Printing Department, Benjamin C. Dean. 
Langdon Mills. — -This corporation was chartered 
in 1857, and organized in 1860. Its capital stock was 
two hundred thousand dollars, which was subsequently 
increased to five hundred thousand. It has two mills, 
one of which was formerly used as a paper-mill, the 
other having been built in 1868 by the company. 
Eight hundred looms and thirty-seven thousand five 




mi 




MANCHESTER. 



83 



liuiidreil spimlles are 0|>eriiteil. They iiiaiiul'aitiire 
sliirtiiifts and sheetings. 

President, William .Vniory ; Ch'riv, William L. Kil- 
ley ; Trea.snrer, ('luirles W. Amciry ; Direeliirs, Wil- 
liam Amory, Henry H. Rodgers, John R. Brewer, 
John L. Bremer, William P. Ma.son, C. W. Amory ; 
Agent, William L. Killey. 

The Amory Manufacturing Company was 
ehartered .luly I, 1S7'.I, willi a ia|iital nfiiirn' luindreil 
thonsand dollars. Dnring that year Imilding ojiera- 
tiiiiis were vigorously pushed, and the mill Wius tiui.shed 
and work commenced in the fall of 1880. The mill 
has fiHy-six thousand spindles and fourteen hundred 
ami twenty looms, and emjdoys eight hundred oper- 
atives. The goods manul'actiired are lineaiid mecliuin 
shirtings, sheetings and jeans. 

President, William Amory ; Clerk, Gilbert P. Whit- 
man ; Treasurer, ('. W. Amory; Directors, William 
.\mory, Daniel Clark, T. Jefferson Coolidge, .lolin 1.. 
Bremer, (}. A. Gardner, Channing Clapp, F. I. 
Amory; Agent, G. P. Whitman. 

Namaske Mills.— This corporation wa-s organi7.e<l 
as the .Xmoskcag Duck an<i Bag-Mills in 18o(j, and ten 
years later the name was changed to Namaske Mills. 
In 1875 the property jiassed info the hands of the 
Amoskcag Company, hy whi>m it is now managed. 
The goods manufactured arc ]iriMcipally ginghams 
and shirting tiannels. .Mr. William B. Wi'lister, the 
superintendent for many years, resigneil in October, 
]HX:i. He was succeeded by Mr. J. Walter Wells. 

Derry Mills. — This corporation was organized in 
I8l)0, with a capital of one hunilred thousand dollars. 
Mr. S. Ft. Payson is now projirielor, and George ]•'. 
Lincoln the agent. The property comprises three 
mills on the Colias Hmok.at (iutle's Falls. 

The p. C. Cheney Paper Company carries on an 
e.Mensive business in the nianulailure of manilla anil 
card-board paper in its mills at .Vmoskeag. This com- 
pany also does a large business in waste of all kinds, 
and has a large trade in paper manufactured elsewhere. 
Il lias pulp-mills at fioflstown and Peterborough. 

I'Eii.su.N- C. CilK.VKY.' — The Cheney genealogy is 
traced from England to Roxhury( Boston Highlands), 
Mass., and tVom Roxbury to Newburyport, some of 
the family being there as early as HiSO. 

Diaeon ICIias ( 'luney, born in Old .Newbury, Feb- 
ruary '.'II. 17-11. seltb'd rpiite early in life in Thornton, 
N. II., and died therein 1805, at the age of eighty-six. 

Deacon Elias Cheney, son of the above and fatherof 
Deacon Moses Cheney, also lived and died in Thorn- 
ton. The latter died in Ashlaml (formerly HoI.Ier- 
ness) in 1875. 

Person Colby Cheney was thesim of Deacon Moses 
and .\bigail ( Morrisim) Cheney, who were types of 
I lie ( io<l-fearing, ( !od -serving, clearheaded andstnuig- 
bodied men and women of the earlier days. 

Their intelligence, industry ami integrity won the 



> By llonry H. Putiic.v. 



respect of all with whom they ever had aeciuaintanee. 
They taught their children (five sons ami six daugh- 
ters), by prece|it and example, how to succeed in 
broader fields, and gave them as an inheritance, in the 
place of great wealth, good sense, true hearts and will- 
ing hands. 

Of the sons. Rev. Oren B. Cheney (founder and 
president of Bates College, Tjcwiston, Me.) is the oldest. 
The second son is Moses Cheney, a retired paper manu- 
facturer, now living in Henniker, N. H. The third is 
the late Charles (t. Cheney, a graduate of Dartmouth, 
class of '48, who read law with Nesmith & Pike, of 
Franklin, and settled in Peterborough, dying in 1862. 
The tifth is Elias II. CIn'ney, proprietor of the Lebanon 
Frrr Press, and at the present time a State Senator. 

The subject of this paper is the fourth son. He 
was born in Holderncss (now .Vshlaud), February 25, 
1828. In 1835 his father, one of the pioneers in the 
paper-making industry of New Hampshire, sold his 
mill in Holderness and moved to Peterborough, where 
he, in company with the late A. P. Morrison, his 
brother-in-law, purchased a small mill. In this mill, 
in the schools of Peterborough, in Hancock Academy 
and in Parsonfield (Jle.) Seminary (then taught by 
his oldest brother) he received the education and 
training which have enabled him to reach the promi- 
nent positions he has occupied in business, political 
and .social life. 

Early learning paper making in all its details, at the 
age of seventeen he was placed in charge of the estab- 
lishment by those who had purchased it of his father, 
who at this time returned to Iloldcrne.ss. In this posi- 
tion lie succeeded so well that in eight years, in com- 
pany with two other gentlemen, he built another mill, 
of which, at a later day, he became sole jiroprietor. lie 
continued to make j)ai)er at Peterborough, gradually 
enlarging his business and engaging to some extent in 
other enterprises, until 18t)0, wlien hefonneil aparlner- 
.ship with Thomas L. Thorpe, of Manchester, lor the sale 
of paper stock and the manufacture of paper, the mills 
of the comi)any being located at .Vmoskeag. in Man- 
chester and at Goll'stown. This partnership was suc- 
ceeded by one of which Mr. Cheney, Dr. E. M. Tuhbg 
and Hon. Ira Cross were members, and upon the death 
of Dr. Tubbs, in 1878, by the P. C. Cheney Company 
which now owns and operates the' pulp-mills at I'lter- 
biirough iind Gollstown, the pulp .-iinl p:iper-mill at 
Amoskcag, and extensive timber tracts in the town of 
Washington. The mills of the company produce 
seven tons of paper daily, and give employment to one 
hundn-il and fifty operatives. 

OI'lhisconi|)any Mr. ( 'heney, who was its creator and 
who owns most of its stock, is tri^itsurer and manager. 

It is one of the largest, Ih'sI- known, most reliable 
and popidar business concerns of the State. Its 
mime is everywhere synonymiius with honesty, honor 
and solvency. The iiualities which have enabled Mr. 
Cheney to buihl up this great industry hold it steady 
in hand and keep it strong and growing in the wurs; 



84 



HISTORY OF IIILLSHOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



of panics, as well as in good times, cliaracteri/.e liiin 
ia all the relations of life, and make him a controlling 
power wherever good advice is wanted and hard work 
is to be done. These same (lualitios made him a 
leader in the Kepiililieau party in its early days, and 
they have kept him among the few t(i whom it always 
looks for help when wise eoiincils and judicious man- 
agement are required to insure success. 

In 18.33 he represented Peterborough in the Legis- 
lature. In 18l)l-l!'2 his time and his money were freely 
and zealously spent to make for New Hampshire the 
record which is her greatest glory. In 1802 he offered 
his services to the government, and was asiigncd to 
duty as quartermtister of the Thirteenth Regiment. 

Exposure and overwork in the Fredericksburg 
campaign brought on a long and dangerous illness, 
from which his friends did not expect him to rally. 
The nursing of a devoted wife, however, brought him 
back to life, and after a long period of suffering, to 
health and strength, but not until the cause of the 
Union was won and the war was over. 

In 18(54 he was elected a railroad commissioner and 
served three years. When he removed to Manchester, 
in 18(17, the people of that city gave him a hearty 
welcome. In 1871 the Republicans, being then out of 
power in city and State, insisted on his accepting a 
mayoralty nomination, and, finally consenting, he was 
elected mayor by a large majority, his election jjaving 
the way for the redemption of the State the next spring. 
Mr. ('heney declined a renominatioii for mayor in 1872. 

In 187o the Republican State Conventiini met un<lcr 
most discouraging circumstances. Their opponents 
had carried the State the year before, and had in- 
trenched themselves in power by every ilcvice 
known to ixditical cunning, audacity and determi- 
nation. Many Uepublicans were of the opinion 
that it was useless to try to elect a State ticket, and 
all of them felt that it was only with a leader of great 
resources anil dauntless courage that they ha<l even a 
fighting chance. Mr. Cheney being nominated as 
such a leader, with great reluctance accepte<l the 
nomination. How wisely the convention judged was 
shown by the result, which was the defeat of the 
Democratic candidate for fiovernor and the election 
of a Republican Senate and House. There being no 
election of Governor by the people, Mr. Cheney was 
chosen by the Legislature. 

The next year he was nominated and re-elected by 
a handsome majority of the popular vote. 

In the long line of executives, the State has had none 
who discharged the duties of the office more faith- 
fully, with better judgment or more to the satisfaction 
of all classes, and he retired iiniver.sally esteemed. 

He has since ilevoted himself to his private busi- 
ness, declining further political |ireferment. !!<• is 
always ready and willing, however, to render any 
service which may contribute to the success of the 
party in whose principles he thoroughly believes. 

Mr. Chenev is a Unitarian whose faith is reflected 



in his works. He is a Royal Arch Mason and a mem- 
ber of the order of Odd-Fellows. 

He married, in 1850, MissS. Anna Moore, who died 
January 8, 1858, leaving no children. 

In .June, 18.">i(, he nuirried Mis. Sarah White Keith, 
to whose devotion, grace and accomplishments he owes 
nnich of the success and happiness of his busy life. 

He has one child, Agnes Anna Cheney, born Octo- 
ber 22, 1869, who is now at school in Washington. 

He resides in an elegant home in Manchester, in 
which a hearty and refined hospitality greets every 
visitor, and from which there goes out to every good 
cause that his neighbors and fellow-townsmen are 
engaged in, generous and unostentatious help. 

The Amoskeag Paper-Mill is one of the best in the 
State, with the linest machinery and all modern ira- 
provenieiits. Tin- pi<j[]riclors are .lohn Hoyt ik Co. 

Olzendam's Hosiery-Mill i> located in Mechanics' 
Row. 

Manchester Locomotive-Works.— For an account 
of this establishment, see biography of AretasBlood. 

Manchester Gas-Light Company was chartered 

in IS.'il). Capital stock, one hundred thousanddoUars. 
The works are situated in the scmtheru part of the 
city, near the Manchester and Lawrence Railroad, on 
a lot of land four hundred feet square. The company 
has also, at the north end, near the Langdon corpora- 
tion, a gas-holder to regulate the supply and pressure. 
The annual product of gas is about sixty-five million 
culiic feet, together with live thousand chaldrons of 
cok<' and one llinusand barrels of coal-tar. 

Miscellaneous Manufactures. ~ Lowell's Iron 
Foundry, corner of Auburn and Canal Streets ; Corey's 
Needle- Works, corner of Concord and Maple Streets; 
.Fames Baldwin & Co., West Manchester, bobbins, 
spools, shuttles, etc.; Austin, .lohnson it Co., door, 
blind, siush and bracket-nniking ; A. C. Wallace, 
West Manchester, boxes; Manchester Chair Com- 
])any, chairs and tables; Kimball it Oerrish, corner 
Elm and Bridge Streets, roll-skin manufacturers ; 
Hutchinson Brothers, iron and wood-working machin- 
ery ; (ieorge .\. Leighton, Korsaitli's buihling, mann- 
iacturerof knitting-machines ; Sanborn CarriageCom- 
jiany and J. B. McCrillis it Son, carriages ; Bisco & 
Denny, card-clothing manufacturers; Carney & 
Co., brewers, at Bakei-sville ; C. B. Bradley, Me- 
chanics' Row,and JohnT. Woodward, Franklin Street, 
roll-covering; S. .\. Feltonandthe Manchester Brush 
Comi>any, brooms and brushes; the tiranitc Stale 
Plating Company ; Manchester Pottery-Wmks ; .). A. 
V. Smith, nmnufacturer of filers; Forsaith Machine 
Company, and others. 

S.^^^^:El. C.m.hwei.i, Foks.vitii. - Robert For- 
saith, the father of the subject of this sketch, 
was a farmer and lived in (iolfstown, N. H. He 
nuirried Elizabeth Caldwell, who bore him seven 
children. Samuel C. was born in (ioHstown Septem- 
ber 29, 1827. His boyhood was passed on the farm, 
where he assisted in the work. His educational ad- 




■ 'W '^- A_f{ 'lUT'if. 




zrz^ 



c<-^ 




I 



« 



MANCHESTER. 



85 



vantages were those afforded by the common schools 
of hii native town. At an early age he became inter- 
ested in mechanical work, was fjuick to comprehend 
the intricacies of machinery, and at the age of fifteen 
had constructed and set up on the bank of the river 
near his home a miniature saw-mill, complete in all 
its parts and in running order. At the age of seven- 
teen he left home and went to Manchester, N. H., 
then a town of about five thousand inliabitants, and 
entered the machine-shop of the old Amoskeag Mill 
as un apprentice. His close attention to his duties 
here showed his fondness for his chosen trade, and 
his subsequent success showed the wisdom of his 
choice. His frugal habits enabled him to live on a 
salary that at the present time would not suffice for 
«ven the most unskilled labor. Thrown out of em- 
ployment by a destructive fire, he next worked in the 
Stark Mills until September 1, 1850, when he went to 
Milford, N. H., to take charge of the machine repair- 
shops connected with the cotton-mills of that place, 
remaining eight years, when he went to Biddcford, 
Me., as foreman of the Saco Water-Power Machine- 
Shop, where he stayed for two years. In 1860 he 
determined to go into business on his own account, 
and with this purpose in view, returned to Manchester 
and hired an upi)er room in the shop of the Manches- 
ter Scale- Works. In this room, without other capital 
than hi.s determination to sui-cecd, he started. His 
fir*t job here Wits the manufacture of hay-cutters, in 
which he was so successful that he resolved to make 
a push for business, and sent out a large number of 
cards announcing that he was prepared to do all 
kinds of job-work. Gradually his business increased, 
and at the end of the year he was furnishing employ- 
ment lor four journeymen. During the second year 
he secured a vacant shop adjoining the scale-works, 
which he soon found none too large to accommodate 
him. Soon after moving into the new (|uarters he 
bought a patent machine for folding newspapers. 
The original owners had been unable to make the 
machine work. Mr. Forsaith saw that the design was 
practical, and set about perfecting it, which he did 
successfully. In order to make the folder a financial 
success it must be put to practical test, and to this 
end Mr. I'orsaith visited the chief newspaper offices 
in the leading cities, representing the merits of the 
machine, and succeeded in placing a sufficient num- 
ber to warrant a very general test. Perfect satisfaction 
was given, and the orders for these machines came in 
fast. Besides the manufacture of the folders, the 
building of circular saw-mills, sliafting, mill-gearings, 
water-wheels, etc., gave constant employment to the 
regular force of twelve workmen. That he might 
meet the re<|uirenients of his job-work, and also to 
kee|) pace with the demand for the folders, in 1803, 
Mr. Forsaith took a lease of the entire scale-works 



and enlarged his working force. In 1867, becoming 
crowded for room, a new shop was built, which is now 
the main building of the present set of buildings, 
which cover an acre and a half", filled with busy 
mechanics and machinery for meeting the multiplying 
demands of what has come to be the largest business 
of its kind in the State. In 1872, Mr. William E. 
Drew (who had been an apprentice in this shop) was 
taken into partnership. The concern does its own 
])rinting, and issues (juarterly an edition of some 
twelve thousand catalogues, which are mailed to all 
parts of the world. The pay-roll of this establish- 
ment furnishes an average of four thousand five hun- 
dred dollars per month. In May, 1884, the business 
had become so extensive and the care and responsi- 
bility so great that it was decided to organize this 
great industry into a stock company under the general 
laws of New Hampshire, capitalizing with two hun- 
dred and seventy-five thousand dollars, and the com- 
pany is now under the management of officers chosen 
by the board of directors, and is in a flourishing con- 
dition. The history of this industry, from its small 
beginning to its present magnitude, is a fitting and 
well-deserved tribute to the energy, thrift and good 
judgment of Mr. Forsaith, and shows what a resolute 
purpose can accomplish. In politics Mr. Forsaith 
was a Den)ocrat, and took an active part in the coun- 
cils of this ])arty. He was also a i)roniinent member 
of the Masonic fraternity, an Odd-Fellow, an officer 
of the Amoskeag Veterans and a charitable and kind- 
hearted citizen, whose loss will be felt wherever he 
was known. 

Mr. Forsaith was twice married, — first, to Nancy 
W. Pierce, February 20, 1848, from which union 
lliere were three boys, — Frank P., George B. and 
William, who are now living. Nancy W. died Ajiril 
21, 1871. His second wife was Clara J., daughter of 
Colonel J. C. and Clara J. Smith, to whom he was 
married December 28, 187'). From this union there 
arc also three boys, — Samuel C, Jr., born December 
l(i, 187(); Clarence S., born February 19, 1878; Dar- 
win J., born October 19, 1880. In the winter of 1884, 
Mr. Forsaith took a trip to the Bermuda Islands, 
accompanied by his wife, seeking rest and recre- 
ation, and after a short visit returned to his home in 
Manchester, and after a short stop lie started to visit 
the Worhl's Fair at New Orleans, where he had a 
large exhibit. On his journey home, while on the 
cars, he was stricken with apoplexy. On reaching 
the city of Philadelphiu he was taken to the hospital 
of the Jefferson Medical College, where he died 
March 2.^, IHH."). lli» funeral, from his late residence, 
in Manchester, was atlendeil liy the varinus civil and 
military organizations of which he was a member 
and by many of the ](roniincnt citizens of Manches- 
ter. 



86 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



CHAPTER VL 

MANCHESTER— (Condiiiierf). 
ECCLESIASTICAL HISTOKY. 



They complied with the wishes of the petitioners, 
and issued the following Wiirraiit to the constable of 
Derrvtiekl: 



Early Chnrcli History — Coiitention anil Pis«'onl— Record Ilietory of this 
Peri(nl — First Congregational Church— Franklin Street Church — First 
Baptist Church- Merrimack Street Baptist Churcli— Pine Street Free- 
Will Biiptist Church- Merrimack Street Free-Will Baptist Church— 
Firet Slethoilist Kpiscopal Church— St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal 
Church— The First Unitarian Society— Universalist Chui-ch— Grace 
Episcuiul Church— Roman Catholic Churches: St. Ann's, St. Joseph's, 
St. Augustine (French), St. Jlarie (French). Christian Church— St. 
.laines Methodist Episcopal Church— Second Advent Society— City 
Blisdionary Society — I'nion Congregational Church, West ^lancbester 
— Spiritualist Society — tJenuan Church of the New .lerusaleni- 
Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church — First Presbyterian Church 
(German) — French Protestant Church. 

The early ecclesiastical history of this town is a his- 
tory of contention and litigation, and to such an ex- 
tent was this continual strife carried that at one time 
its baneful influence seriously retarded the settlement 
of the place. 

The following is principally the record history of 
this season of unrest and discord. In 1752 a move- 
ment was made for the settlement of a minister, and 
in the warrant calling the annual town-meeting of 
that year was the following : 

'•To see if the town will .loyn with the town of Bedford lu Giving nir. 
mcDoe! a Call to the worke of tiie ministry Between the two towns and 
to Do and act in that affair that the town shall think proiMjr." 

March 5th, it was 

" Voted, to give nir. mcDouell a Cauell to the work of the ministry, 
Eathcr to Joyen woth Bedford or by our selves. 

" Votefl, .Tolin Ridill, .\le.xander nicnturphey, John Hall, a Comitey to 
prosequi the given uf nir. nicDoul a Cauell to the work of the mineetery 
to Joyn woth the town of Bedford or seprat and Distink by our selves." 

April 26, 1753, it was 

"Voted, tow Houndreil poiimies old tenor for yearly sokry to lur. mc- 
Dowall Provied he Kxcpts of uur Call to Juun woth the town of Bed- 
fonl." 

Nothinj^ further appears on the tow*n records rela- 
tive to the call to :\Ir. McDowell. 

By the recortls of Bedforfl it appears that a call was 
given by Hedford to Mr. McDowell. March 28, 17o8, 
it was unanimously 

" Vntedj to present 11 cull for Jlr. AicxaiuU'r McDowell to the Uevd. 
Pn-sliytery for the work uf (he miniBtry in this town." 

But the records of the town show nothing further 
in relation to him. 

As early as 1754 the town voted to build a meeting- 
house, and to locate the same on the land near John 
Hall's house. This location produced much ill-feel- 
ing, and on the 3d of February, 1755, thirty of the 
inhabitants petitioned the selectmen to call a meeting, 
on the 20th of the .same month, to reconsider the vote 
locating the meeting-house and raising money to build 
the same; but the majority of the selectmen refused 
to call the said meeting, thus denying the aforesaid 
inhabitants a plain and legal right. This refusal of 
the selectmen produced great excitement, and the in- 
habitants aggrieved petitioned Joseph Blanchard and 
Matthew Thornton, two justices of the |»cace for the 
province, to call a meeting of the inhabitants, as pro- 
vided by law. 



"PROVINCF OF NkW IIaMI SHIKE. 

"To BoDJa. Hadley of Derrj'fifld in the sd Province, Constable uf said 
town, — Greeting, 

" Ultereas it has been mead to appt-er to ns the Snbscribers, two of hi» 
Miyestes justes of the Peace of !*d Province, Qurom I'liues tliat Thirty of 
the freeholders and Inhabitants of the sd town of Penytield, by their 
Bequest signed by ye sd Inhabitants and freeholders made to the nug'r 
Part of the Selectmen of Dcrryfield iifure«ud. When together did on ye 
third Instant Deliver and present such application in writing for the 
Calling .a meeting of the Inhabitants of sd town to be held on the 20th 
Day of Feby, t'nr't for the following Articles. 

"First to see if the town would Reconsider ye Vote Relating to the 
choice of a meeting-hou.se place and make the Siinio null and void. 

"Also to see if the town would Keconsider that vote for Raising mony 
for Building a meeting-house and order that ye Constable Omit his Col- 
lecting the Same and discharge the Sever.dl freeholders and Inhubitents 
from such part uf the Tuxes in some proper method as shall then be tbot 
Best and that the sd Select'n did on the siiid 3d day of Feby, Curnt In- 
reasonably refuse and deny the Calling a meeting for the Propritors 
aforesd and ye sd freeholders and Inhabitants have applyed unto us for 
warnt, for the Calling of the freeholders and Inhabitants of Derryfield 
aforesd for ye doing of the Busuess aforesd to be held on ye tirst Day of 
march next, — at ye house of John Goffe, Ksqr. 

" These are Therefor in his majyt name to Require and f'ommand you 
the sd Constable to Notitio and warn the freeholders and Inhabitants of 
sd town of Derryfield, that they assemble at the house of John Goffe 
Esqr. in Dernp'field, aforee'd, on Saterday the first day of March ni.Kt at 
ten o'clock forenoon, then and there to act on the following articles. 

"First to see if the town will Reconsider the Vote Relating to the 
choice of a meeting-house place and make ye same null and void. 

"Also to see if the town will Reconsider that Vote for Raisaing money 
for Bulding a meeting-house and order tlie Constable omit hie Collecting 
the same and discharge ye Severall freeholders and Inhabitantii from 
snob part of the taxes in Some proper method as shall then be tlMt best 
here of faile not and make due return, Given I'ndcr Our hands and Seal 
at Merrymac- this six day of Feb. 1765. 

"Joseph Bl-vxcharh, ) Juscesof ye peat-t*. 
"Matthew Thornton", J Qrotmut r»t«." 

The meeting was duly held on the 1st day of 
March, 1755, and it was voted to reconsider the vote 
** making choice of a meeting-house place," and also 
to reconsider the vote raising money for building the 
meeting-house. 

The following protest was presented and entered 
upon the record : 

"DERavriELP, Marvh ye Isl IT'S. 

"Wee, ye under Subscribere freeholder and Inhabitants of ye town of 
Derryfield, for Divers and weighty Reasons do Enter our Desent against 
the proceedings of this meeting which wee will make appoear at lime 
and pleace Convenient. 

" ROBEKT DkKEV. 

"Root. Anderso-V. 
"Alkxe. McCi.intock. 
" Nf.tiie.nell Bovd. 
" WlI.I.M. Elott. 
"WiLI.M McCl.INTOrK. 

' JouN Cochran. 

" Walter MAcrFARi.ANn. 

"Saml Maitearlasd. 

" WiLLM Gamble. 

" Jaues Mac Nkall." 

It seems that a majority at this meeting were nut op- 
posed to the erecting of a house of worship, but op- 
posed the location. 

"Deuryfiklp, Auguest ye 27 ITfiS. 

"To the selectmen of the town of Derryfield, Gentlemen, Freeholders 
and Inhabitants of stiid town. We the under Subwriliers hiking upon our- 
selves as under a great Disadvantage for want of a pirace of Public Wor- 
ship, as we have rising fameleys which cannot ateiid at other places and 
OH it would be encoragement for ministers to Com and prea4-hunto us if we 
were forward in getting a place for the public worshipe of God ourselves. 



MANCHESTER. 



87 



'■Capt. Alfxr. McMurphy. 
John Hull. 
Rubert AnJersoii. 
James Itiddell. 
Samuol Buyil. 
Juhn Dickey. 
Binjiniiii Stivinu. 
John UvhMl. 
Jumva HunipUrcy. 
Hugh Stirling. 



Mickell McClintock. 
llobrt Pfcky. 
Jtihn niirrull. 
Jnmoti Piters. 
Williuni Petiore. 
Witlium Niitt. 
Janu'8 peiree. 
John Ilarvt-y. 
Wni porlmm, Jr. 
Thunis Hull." 



On the 2d of September, 1758, ii warrant was issued 
for a town-meeting, at the barn of John Hall, on tlie 
21st of the same month : 

"To wo if the freflioMre and inhabitants of the town wouhl vote to 
build a met'ting-huuHo this present yeur. 

•*ToBec what spot uf ground the town would vote to build said nicetlng- 
houtH! on. 

"To set- how uiiich money the town would vote to raise for building 
the 8aid nu-vlinichouse. 

"To Bee what dimensions they would vote to build ftiid nieetinK-honsi-. 

"To B<?e if the town would vote to choose a committee to carry on the 
building of Miid nieetingdiouso. 

"To we if the town would vole to raise any nioiiej- for preaching this 
year and how much."' 

At the meetinf^ Captain Alexander .MeMurpliy was 
moderator, and it was 

" Voted to build a meeting-house this present year. 

" VoUit lo buihl the meeting-house on John Hall's laud joining the 
road biiding to Thomas HnU's Ferry and the Anioskeag Falls. 

'* Voted to raise six hundred pounds to carry on the building the mul 
meeting-huu<t«. 

*' Vftt^tl to niise the said meeling-hou8c forty feot in length, and tliirty- 
flvo feot in breadlh. 

" Voted Capt. William Perhain and Lt. Hugh Sterling and John Hull 
the committee to carry on the building' of the above said meeting-house." 

A frame was put up, but nothing farther was done. 
Pe(T]»lc refused to pay their taxes, and the committee 
could make no progress. 

At a meeting, July 15, 1759, it was 

" Voti-d lo collect five hundroti pounds olil tenor Ibis prei*ent year to be 
applied towards Boarding and Shingling of our meeting-house, said !>uiii 
is to bo tJtken out of the five hundreil pounds new lennr that was voted 
in the year 17-'»7 for building the above said nieeting-liouBC. 

" ro(<W('apt. William Perham, Lieut. Hugh Sterling and John Hull 
n committee to Kpend (he llv hundred pounds old tenor, townra bonding 
and shingling the meeting-house. 

" Voleit that John Hall apply to the Gentlemen that have land not 
rnlttvated or improved in Derryfiotd, for monoy to help ub In building 
our meetlng-hous*' in said town. 

" Voted that whoever jtays any money to the atnive saiil nu'cting-huime 
•hall have their names and sums of money they pay recorded in Perry- 
flold town \nmk of reconls." 

The building committee was accused of mismanage- 
ment, and at a meeting, November 15, 1759, — 

" Votffl ^ men a mmmittee to examine the accounts of the commttteo 
that wiw chosen to build our meeting-house in sahl town. 

" 1*.,/,^/ Michael McClintock. John Harvey, and David Slarrctt, iho 
committee to r-xtimini' the itecounts of th*- meet lug-house so far as they 
have proceeded in building of siiid houm-. 

" r«*/rr{ to reconl the six hundred pounds old tenor that was collecletl 
in 17'>H, and the following sums as they are ccdieclwl for building the 
aforewtid meeting-tiouM- and eai-h iiutn's luinie and sum what he pays to 
the aforesaid house. 

" V'-led to allow nil the comndriM-'s accounts, as they brought them In 
before th« town, in time and money «p-'nt by them in building ourmeet- 
Ing-hoiUMi in said town, tu> far as they have pro«-eeded in sjtid building. 

" Voted not to underpin our niuetlng-houBe at present but to make onu 
door thiB year." 

At a town-meeting, December 3, 1759, it was 

" Votfd not to collect any more money frcun the town tliii yvnv lo- 
wanls the meeting-house. 

" Votrd to born)w what remains flue for the meeting house to clear off 
the comriiiltee's accounts, aiul pay the inten-jtt fur tin' wime. 

" Vi'trd that the pn-wnt Selectnu-n for the year IToD borrow money to 
pay off the committee for buihling the nuH>tlng-houM.> so far as they ha\o 



proceeded, and tho Selectmen in tliu year 1760, Bhall be equally bound 
to pay tho money borrowed as tho present Selectmen and shall have full 
power in law to collect tho Baid monoy from the freeholders and inhabi- 
tants of the town." 

At an adjourned meeting it was 

" Voted to reconsider tho vote that tho Selectmen borrow tho money, 
and voted that Capt. William Perham, Levi. Hugh StirlingandLevt. John 
Hall are impowered by the freeholders and inhabitants of the town of 
Derryfield to borrow the sum of four hundred and twenty-threo pounds 
six shillings old tenor, and to pay interest such as thoy can hire the 
above money for, and all their time and exi)enBes paiil by the said town 
as well as tho above sum of four hundred and twenty-three pounds sir 
shillings old tenor. 

'* N. B. — Till such time Jis tho above sum is paid to them by the afore- 
sal'l freeholders and inhabitants of said town." 

The money was hired and the accounts paid oil" 

" Agreabel to a vote of the free houtdors and Inhabitantes of Derry- 
flold at a meeteing held in the nieeting-Houee of Sd town, Novm. l."*, 
1759, Voted, one ye third artical of the Warrcnt to Record tho nioneay 
that was Cuiiected In the year 17.'(H and the IVillowing Sounu;« as they 
aro Corlected for tho IJuldon the meeting-houes In Derryfield and eacho 
mans name it Some of mouay w-hat hie Peayes to the a for Sd meeting- 
houes which I<!achc mans and Soum ishiearSet Down In the foUowe order : 



" This tirst column is 


for ye year This is foi 


je 


for 


ye year 17'»8. 




17o 


i. 


year HGO. 




f 


». 


i 


s. 


d. 


£ 


«. 


./. 


"Coin. John GolTo 


3(1 


18 


19 


7 





21 


13 


10 


Capt. Wni. Perham . . . 


18 


4 


\r, 


3 





21 


10 


2 


Ciipt. Alex. McMurphy 


liit 





23 


IG 


4 


23 


17 


6 


Capt. John Starks . . 


10 


10 


10 


7 


1 


19 


3 


2 


Lieut. Hugh Shirlea . 


10 


14 


!» 


1.5 


4 


9 





6 


Lieut. John Mourn*. . . 


7 


4 


7 


4 





8 


1(1 


8 


Ens. Daniel Niell . . . 


22 





13 


7 





l.i 


3 


6 


Kns. Ruht. Andraon . . 


13 





13 








18 


1 


5 


Sorgt. Win. McClintock 


21 


12 


20 


2 


n 


24 


11 


10 


Sergt. Abniliani Jliral 


3(1 


10 


ai 


7 


4 


18 


1 


n 


Sergt. Ebenr. Stivlus . . 


H 


■} 


12 


11 


(1 


12 


11 


8 


Sergt. James Itiirell . . 


7 


s 


it 


10 





9 


1 


4 


Hiujmin Stivens . . . 


2'i 


1(1 


1.-. 


9 


4 


13 


I 


2 


Itinjinin liiilte.v . . . 


23 


1(1 


IS 


10 


u 





II 





William Quimby . . . 


1(1 


■J 




















John Kidoll ..... 


13 


5 

8 


8 
9 


4 

9 


u 

4 


7 
9 




n 


Mikel MeClinto. , . 


!) 


a 


ChairleB Knierson . . . 


11 


12 


1(1 


14 


5 


11 


7 


2 


Thomas Rush 


!l 


1(1 


8 


17 


n 


11 


4 


10 


Klizcr Roltiens .... 


•,i 


Ci 


8 


111 





10 


1 ■ 


1(1 


.rauK'8 McNipht . . . 


23 


12 


1(1 


2 


4 


20 


'.; 


2 


William Tagourt . . . 


2(1 


16 


18 


l(i 


8 


18 


3 


10 


William Ccmble , . . 


10 


1.-. 


M 


1 


u 


18 


11 





.luhri Ilarvo 


in 


2 


1.'. 


l.'i 


9 


17 


.'. 


10 


Neohmio McNill . . . 


10 


1.1 


11 


2 





12 


2 


s 


James I'mphra. . . . 


1(1 


If. 


7 


13 


4 


8 


IS 


10 


.\(luin I>iiUey 


111 


r. 


it 


1 


4 


9 


II 


8 


Thoma»<;illis 


10 


•t 














11 





John nickey 


10 


K'l 


9 


17 


1 


8 


13 


10 


•Tames Pirces 


7 


17 


7 


14 


8 





II 


n 


.himes Piters 


IC. 


1(1 


II 


18 


> 


9 





\a 


Joseph (Jorge 


:< 


:. 


(I 





8 


14 


2 


Daviil MiKnight . . . 


7 


Ill 


I'. 


(1 





7 


8 


n 


William N'ulle .... 


M 


14 


10 


1 


1 


!( 


8 


8 


Hobrt Dicky .... 


K 


(1 


8 


16 


S 


7 


11 


B 


.lohn Culuigham . . . 


;t 


s 





(1 











n 


MoM-fl Carneril .... 





s 


i; 


19 


1 


7 


(I 


8 


Widow I!.^v.l 




IX 


4 


7 





2 


1 


2 


Samuel Itoyd 


10 


111 


(> 


17 


(1 


8 


n 


« 


Alex Mccilnlock. . . 


10 


1.'. 


(I 


8 


(1 


7 


17 


2 


William Pi'rham . . . 


lo 


3 


9 


IG 


A 


10 


14 


4 


.lohn SeotiMib. ... 


- 


H 


('• 








G 


It 


8 


Levi. John Hall . . . 


in 


'J 


If. 


8 


in 


12 


n 


8 


Thonuis Hall 


(1 


11 


11 


10 


s 


12 





8 


Levi. .lohnlJoire . . . 


(1 


13 





17 


4 





19 





William Smith . . . 





!l 





10 


8 





11 


2 


James Sloorn Kun {htin 


) » 


17 


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A 


8 


I 


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ft 


SlwrCrlfmi 


8 


3 


7 


8 


9 


7 


8 


10 


K/.eklel 


Slorens 


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n 


4 


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James Willson . 





10 


8 











Un 


vici Slin-t . . 


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7 


(1 


9 


13 


.1 








.!< 


hn 


MInill . . . 


I'l 


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Siimnol (jnimlmy. 


18 


II 


11 








John 


Tagourt . . 


A 


n 


8 








Obldu 


lluo«B . . . 


n 


19 


4 








W 


m. 


Wlllaon . . 


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Sllfen Gorge . . 


f. 


11 


8 



88 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



£ «. d. I 

Mr. Tliomaa Parker of Litclifield « Oj 

,luiuc8 WillsiHi in Lc. Derrj-, pd. if Soillli W | 

Jolm .SruarJ in Lo. Uerry, liaf a thousand of Boarils .... 10 
" Recorded per me, .lOHN Hall, 

"March ye 2, 1761." " Town Clark. 

Still (says Jiulge Potter, in his excellent '• History 
of Manchester") the house remained unfinished. 
Meanwhile, Mr. Hall was accused of retaining the 
money given by the non-resident land-holders, and at 
a special meeting, held the 15th of December, a com- 
mittee was chosen "to call John Hall to account for 
the money that he received from gentlemen that has 
land not settled in Derryfield." 

As this committee made no report, and there was no 
further action upon the subject, it is fair to presume 
that they found no such money in Mr. Hall's hands. 

Thus there was a continual quarrel kept up be- 
tween the parties, sometimes one controlling the 
atlairs of the town, and sometimes the other, as the 
partisans happened to be present at the town-meet- 
ings, matters pertaining to the meeting-house and to 
preaching being the subjects of contention. And at 
an adjourned meeting, held April 2, 1764, the opposi- 
tion on these subjects wa.s carried so far as to vote 
not to raise any money for preaching for the year, and 
not content with this vote, at a special meeting on the 
29th of October following, they voted to apply the 
money already raised for preaching the preceding 
year, and in the hands of a committee, to pay the 
tlebts of the town. 

Their opposition to the location of the house not 
only prevented the finishing it, but they would not 
have preaching in it 1 However, the other party mus- 
tered at the annual meeting, March 4, 17(35, in full 
force, and carried things with a high hand, voting 
that the selectmen furnish i)reaching for the current 
year at the cost of the inhabitants. Thus there was 
more preaching in the house for 1705 than ever before. 
Such continual strife had a most deleterious effect 
upon the prospects of the town. Emigrants of re- 
spectable character were very careful to avoid a place 
of so much contention, and the inhabitants them- 
selves had less inducement and less time for indus- 
trious pursuits. What with the spring fisheries, 
neighborhood canvassing, personal altercations and 
town-meetings, there was little attention paid to agri- 
cultural pursuits. 

The following is the tax-list of this year (1765) the 
first one recorded in the ancient town records : 



'Tliu cnpay of the Licato In Lawfiill niony, 1765. 



•John Hall 

Widdow Sarah Andrsou 

Kbne/er Stavena 

.I(«eph Maaten 

J.evt. DanUl McNieal 

Sanmol Stark 

Knai^n .lames Mel 'allow *> 

Cai't. .Tohn Stark 1 

l.evt. Arthabald Stark « 

John Uiddell " 

Janui Bidden <• 

Thomas Ru8« ^ 

Johnathan Rn** ^ 



£ >. d. 

riinu.li Kichordeson *> 8 

Henrv lilasdel " ' 8 

Benjamin Steaviens 1 ■' ^ 

Ezekile -Stivena « 3 7 

SerKt. Abraliam Mcrrell 10 5 

Abrhani Merrell, Jnnr 7 10 

Jo^ephe Gorge 7 7 

John t-lrifenj: 7 4 

William Nutte 7 7 

Cajit. John Moors 14 11 

Conl. Jolm Goffe 1 » 

Samuel Moorrs 7 6 

Thomas Newman 6 6 

William Tagert 11 

James McNight 12 1 

David MeXight 8 5 

William Hall « 10 

Elizer Koljena '-' ^ 

William Pirhain 12 11 

John Pirham ^ ^ 

Charleas Emerson 16 9 

John Harvey 11 2 

William Pirham Junr 9 5 

Michael JlcClintock 14 5 

Samuel Boyd 8 1 

Nathaniel Boyd " ~ 4 

Widdow Marget Boyd " <' 6 

Isabeld McFarlon * 

rapt, .^lisaiider McMnrphy "19 

James Hornor 6 1 

Alexander McClintock 7 1 

William Gembel " '>^ * 

John Heron .... 9 7 

JanicB Perces '> T 

David Stiratt " 1" 6 

Sergt. William SlcClintock 18 9 

John McClintock 8 15 

William McClintock Jun 6 

John Dickey 9 6 

Davit Been 6 

Davit Been, Jnnr G 

James Kamiesy, Londonderry 6 

En. William Bller 2 

William Smith " 6 

John Eacken, Londonderry " 5 

llobt. McChier, Londonderry 4 

Capt. John Goffe, Jnn. Bedford » 6 

Edward Barry 6 (1 

Johnathan siirall 7 10 

John Crown 6 

John McCallon 6 

Joseph Sloorrs ^ *• ^ 

Ebinezer Xoyea 4 6 

James Graves ** ^ ** 

Joseph (Jnimby * ' •" 

Samuel guimby 1 0^ 

Joseph Jouens " 1 6" 

But a year of preaching did not produce any better 
state of feeling, and both parties prepared for a severe 
contest at the annual meeting in March, 1766. 

The quarrel had now become almost entirely jjcr- 
sonal, iind the object of both i)arties was to elect cer- 
tain leading men to office. True, these men were in 
favor of or against certain measures, but the men of 
one party, at least, seem to have been more cared for 
than measures. On the 3d of March the annual meet- 
ing came off at the meeting-house, and the Hall party, 
taking time by the forelock, were present in force at 
the time appointed for the meeting, and proceeded to 
organize and to choose officers. 

The following officers were chosen, viz. : John Hall, 
moderator; John Hall, town clerk; Alexander 
McMurphy, Ebenezer Stevens, John Hall, selectmen 
James McXight, constable. 



I 



MANCHESTER. 



8i> 



Alter this successful manceuvre iu the choice of the 
principal town officers, the meeting was adjourned for 
a half-liour to John Hall'stavern. The object of the 
adjournment is not set forth, but as Mr. Hall kept a 
tavern, it may be that they adjourned to enjoy some 
element of rejoicing not found in the meeting-house. 

Tlie adjournment over, they proceeded to elect 

''Mickael Mcdintock, Hondry Blaisdel, Cliarleas Euien«on, Joseph 
fjorge, Soniere of Higways ; Josepli JIarsten, WiUiam N'utt, Tuylhing- 
nien : The JSelectrm-n, Kciirt'-viewcns; Klizer Itubbius, James Kiddell, 
I'ecr-Keepere : Kbini-zor Stevens, Siirvier of LiinilM-r ; Thomas Ituss, 
Sltfler of Leather ; Micka<?I McClintock, Elliezcr Robns, Committee to 
^ttle with S**lectnien of 1T5G ; The Selectmim^ Takers of Invoice 
.••jNTpb Gorge, John I'erham, Samuel Boyd, Hog Reeves; William Per- 
tiani, Ctork of the Market." 

The meeting then adjourned to the 81st day of 
March. The business was all transacted before the 
arrival of the other party. When they arrived, there 
was no little excitement, and they forthwith proceeded 
to organize the meeting, and to choose officers. After 
the choice of a complete set of town officers, this 
meeting was adjourned. Thus there were two sets of 
town officers. The last set of officers are now un- 
known, as their names were not recorded in the town 
records, they being in possession of the opposite party. 
Both set^ of officers entered upon their duties and with 
a will. The utmost confusion was the consequence. 
To add to the excitement, a special town-meeting was i 
held on the 27th day of June, at which it was voted to 
finish in part the meeting-house, and fence the grave- 
yard near it. 

At this time the better part of the community be- 
gan to look about them in all seriousness and examine 
the state of things; and well tliey might. The quar- 
rel was fast driving people from the town. 

The following is a letter from Colonel John Gofle 
to f r()vernor Wentworth relative to this election : 

■'Derryfield, September 1« 17Ce. ' 
■'.Miiy it pli'iuic yuiir Kxcellcncy I 

" 1 went at the Retjneiit of Sliuons Proprietors to the Society I<iiiicl be- 
tween Pcttembiiruli A IlillBbunili to wo when- Ilie Tre8|>iu«ers had lM*n ut 
W'irk .V whtrtjc Lots tbi\v )iad Improved iii»iti .V found they had ileured, 
•t h'ft^t cut a grate deal of Timber down, liad bnllt a ciiinp U|)on Solly \ 
Marclius^Aon Slo^irvi-y A Blanchards and your Exi'dlencys Lots on , 
the wfft Bide of Contncimk River they Iiavo don a great deal of work 
fi'Dciil It all In with a Considonible Good Rnning fence have bnttt a ' 
rnnip on it X alth<>' no hin\y wait thejr when we M^ro their yet we are | 
prity tare that Poc' Perry is the man thathris Treapassecl u|M(n your lot A \ 
I"'lly it is that he )<hould nut be prosecuted tu* li<' Ts Die Ringleader of all i 
tbe Ki-fit, thefre], and ox M>n as they Hit U> wt>rk again I have 2 men In- ' 
gnK*«d to Be*- thorn at work A acipiaint me with tlieir iianiet.— Tlie Land , 
Im Kxceeding Go4)d but I think your Excellencys Im (ttiiwrior to aiiy at 
that part of tb« Society l^nd and (hat maid them fellows O.Tet It it i« i 
certainly worth mony— I Intended to have wated u\ioii your Kxcellcncy 
when the Infe' Cort set but I hurt my self when up their with heat and \ 
laying out in the Wet mo that I have not ben well wncc I came from ' 
their — Your Kxceltency may Remember that wo In Dornfleld |»eti- 
tluiu'd the Gen" Cort for an act to call a town meeting fur tlie choice of 
lo«n offlciTB which when I calM .luhn Hall with f'ol" Ilarr who have > 
RirivtH) III! that in in their |>owi>r t<» Injun' in<; of late A at tho mefilng , 
Col" Rarr cam on porpos to affront me A Col" Barr Hiored" votoni for 
John haU with I^rgo promises and Webster a Trader at Chester hall 



' Samuel SoUey and Clement March. 
'If I'oloncl Uoffe stated th<3 tnitli in ()■• 
hlrini; vot«r* la not no mndern. 



f.ii..i;,.iiic. Ibe |>nuli.'. 



Iliered 1 have by good Information to come to Threaten hii* detters in 
town, if thoy did not vote for Ilall he could not stay upon them Ac, 00 
that upon the whole with their Influence hall obtained eighteen voters 
be side him self and there was oighteon vote» on the o])|>o9ito Hide of the 
most substantial men in town so that when they had don all they could 
that could not git hall any olhce without voting for himself nor none 
that was chosen that day A several Rec* Deeds from Col^ Barr A others 
that day to make them voters which I suppose held them no longer than 
that Night fur I am confident they wouM not Trust them A shilling 
ever expecting to Git it. — And as soon as tlie meeting was over Juhn Hall 
told Es(]r Sheepard the moderator that he had Beat GofTe now A he 
would have a commission of the peace In spit« of any body that should 
oppose it for Col** Barr A Maj Emerson and M' Webster with his friends 
at the Bank would procure it for him — now may it please Your Excel- 
lency if such an Insulting fellow (for I have beard bim Insult thewhol 
Gover') nmny timea and a man that lias Live ;W or forty years upon a 
place A could never Raise half his provision, to Git that post would 
strive for to make niony by it and put the i)eoplo into confusion for 
work he <lont Incline to A is allway contriving unjust ways to maintain 
his Luxury A 1 am very sure your Excellency never will Give a com- 
miaeion to a man that wants it for no other end than to Revenge and Git 
mony by it. Therefore I Beg your Excellencys favour that John Hall 
nor non for him may prevail in that Resi>ect. 

** I am your Excellencys most Humble 
A Devoted Servant 

"John Goffe. 
'* His Excellency, Govenor Wintworth." 

The following is the tax-list for 1700 : 

"The Copy of the List in lawful money for yo year 17G0 of the polU 
and Estates. 

£ «. d. 

"David McKnight 8 n 

James McKnight 10 5 

John Hand, F:8q 5 4 

John Goflfe, Esq 169 

Samuel Moors ti 7 4 

('apt. John Moors 11 8 

William Nutte G 

JohnGrifen 6 4 

Benjamin Backer 4 3)-^ 

Juhepho Gorge ** 4 ."i^ 

Sergt. Abraham Mirall 00 1 

Johnathan Mimll '1 7 

Ezekiel Stivens - '.> % 

Benjamcn Stiveiis 07 

Handicy Blliwial 7 3 

Thuma.-^ Ilatl 00 G 

Thonios Rn*i. 4 

John Riddell 4 

Sergt. James Ridell <> 7 '^ 

Capt. John Stark 17 }4 

Ensign James i^IcCawallow lo 

Ensign Samuel StJirk 4 •% 

John Hutchen 4 » 

Lcvt. Daniel ilcNieall n II 4 

Sergt. Ebinof-er Stivom* 9 3 

JoAepb Masteu 5 

Levt. John Hall I 1 'J 

Daniel Hall ■ . . . 4 .1J^ 

Samuel Hall f-'^ 

Allx. .^IcCllntock 068 

Jami's Hurnor 4 \^ 

David Slirmte OH 6J^ 

William Mct'lint.K-k 13 II 

John Mri'lintock it ", V^-i 

Jubn Diikey In 

William GemlR-al 2n 10 

Cupl. .\lexander McMurphy Oil 7 

Samuel B*»yd fi II 

Sergt. Nathaniel Boyd u 6 

Widow B..yd u I I 

Mi.kel Mei'liulock n In 8 

Jame<( Pin-eas 6 

William Hall 04 7 

(apt. Willium Pirbu.u 084 

John fiib.UM ..084 



90 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Elizei- Uobens 7 13^^ 

Chiiee Emerson 12 

John flarve (' l:i Z]^ 

Williiiiii Pirham. Junr 05 7 

Juni(.-s Ramsey, Londouderry 04 

Robert SlcClure, liondonderry 003 

John Eacken, Londundc-rry 4 

Williiim Smith 6 

Ensign Alex. Bller 099 

"Recorded Feb. 7, 1707. 

"per me John Uall, 

" Town ('lark.'' 

From a comparison of the town-lists, it will be seen 
that during the year preceding the making of the tax- 
list of 17GG there had been a decrease of twelve ])o\]s 
in the town. The list of 1765 contained sixty-three, 
while that of 1766 contained hut Jiff y-o/ie. Eighteen 
men had deceased or left town, and six had been 
added to the town. But the case was still worse than 
this. Two of the men added to the list of 1766, 
Daniel and Samuel Hall, were men of the town just 
come of age, or never before taxed, so that in reality 
there had been a decrease of fourteen polls, or more 
than one-fifth of the polls of the town. 

In this state of things a petition was forwarded to 
the Legislature for redress. The petition was as fol- 
lows, viz.: 

"To His Excellency Banning Winlworth Esqr & Commander In Cheiff 
of His Mayestye's Province of New llampsbier, the Honorable his mivjes- 
tye's Councell And House of Representatives In General Assembly Con- 
veneil. 

** The Pettt'tion of A number of the freeholders & In Habitants of the 
town of Derryfield Humbly Sbeweth, that the first moniiay of Murch 
annually is appointed by charter to be tbo Day for chueiugof Tuvvne 
offecere for the Currant year and the usual Co&tom of til town has been 
to warn the Town of time and place and Design of holding said meeting 
with the Several articles to bo acted upon on sd Day, by posting up a 
Coppy of Said warrant at three several places In said Town, (viz.) one at 
John Goffe Esqr's, one at John Hall, A one at Lr. Itusses at N'anieskeeg, 
which was a vote of Said Town, but so it was that mither of th« places 
had any Notification Set up, and one of them Particularly Nameskoeg 
had no Coppy Set up in that part of the town, So that they knew not the 
time of Day the meeting was to bo held ; yet notwithstanding two of 
the Selectmen and town Clarke did contrary to former Costom, with 
about ton or a Dozen of the Inhabitants and boys and iinqiuilified voters, 
did Enter and in about five nienuita time Chouse all the principal offecers 
for the town, Notwithstanding one of the Selectmen and the Constable 
A Several of the Inhabitants opposed them and told theiri it was not fair 
to hold Uie mectin before the Inhabitants rume.and that it was not the 
usual time of day that the meeting vse to begin <.1 that the inhabitants 
that must pay the Greatest part of the Taxes that shall com upon the 
town were not pi-eaant A that they would bo here presantly, yet 
they proceeded as afore Said, and at five minutes after eleven o' the 
clock a considerable number Cume & in balfe an hour the Inhabitant^ 
Cbeifly Came & uppon hearing that the princiital offecers were Chosen by 
a Small Number of voters and many of them not Qualified, they Con- 
cluded as thiit was the Day by Charter to Chuse town offecers they beinp 
the I-arger part of the Qualified voters belonging to Snid Town, maid 
proclamation that thoy were going to hold the town meeting A all were 
Desired to attend and they went to the meetinghouse and nmid Choise of 
a modemtor & Town Clark A Selectmen A all town ofTecors, A they were 
sworn to the faithful discharge of their Duty as the Law Directs, So that 
their is two Setsof offecere in Said town ivliich makes Confusition ; we most 
Humbly therefore Pray your Kxcelency A Hun'rs to take our Case under 
wiw» Coiisidemtiou and Grant that there may bo a Kegular town meeting 
in Said t<iwn A that wo may have town offerers Choisen as the law directs 
and that our Confusion may bo brought into order, and might be Inablod 
to Raise the provence taxes, mend high ways A do the neeseeery busine^ 



of the town and that your Pettionors may bring in u bill for that Eod - 
A your Petten'ors as in duty bound shall Ever Pray. 
" Dated at Derryfield first of May, 17C(3. 



'* John Goffe, 
William McClintock, 

DavinStarrett, 
Samuel Boyd, 
Nathaniel Boyd, 
Charles Kmen>«^in, 
William Xutt, 
John Griffin, 
John Stark, 



James McCalley, 
Samuel Siark, 
Daniel MeNeale, 
Thomas Kuss, 
John Band, 
John Hervey, 
Samuel Moor, 
John Moor." 



It will be seen that some of the men who had gen- 
erally acted with the Hall party signed this petition. 
They were doubtless dissatisfied with the unfair pro- 
ceedings of that party at the annual meeting. In fact, 
Captain W. ^IcClintock was present at that meeting, 
and told them that they were proceeding in an unfair 
manner. He was one of the selectmen for 1765, 
elected by the Hall partj-, and had hitherto been with 
them. 

While the matter of the petition was progressing, a 
meeting was called of tlie tnwii June 27, 1766, at 
which it was 

" Vuted to Kepear the meeting-House in part thies year. 

" Voted to Lay a good fllor in the 3leeting-House and make three Got-d 
Dores and Hinge them one s;xid House and shout upe the ounder windows 
and aCommadate the Meeting-House with forms Suitable for to Sit on." 

Meantime the petition came up for consideration 
before the House of Kepresentatives on the 3d of 
July, and the petitioners had leave to bring in a bill. 
On the 8th the bill passed the House and was as 
follows : 

" An A<-t for Vacating the meetings of the Town of Derryfield for the 
year 1760 held there by the Inhabitant** for the Choice of town offecers 
and for Deriecting A authorizing a meeting A the Choice uf town offecers 
for Said year. 

" Whtre>\s Sundry of the Inhabitants of Said Derryfield have Pititioned 
the General Assembly Respecting that Some designing men of Said In- 
babiUmts Having Some purpose to effect Relative to the affairs of Said 
town which they could not otherwise accomplish, buried on the annual 
meeting Sooner in the Day then is usiutl A before many of the princi|>al 
Inhabitants were Come to the place of Sdmeetiugwhereby a Selof offct-rs 
were Chosen who were Disiigreabel to the principal Inhabitants that af- 
terwards when the said Inhabitants Come thoy maid Choice of another 
Set of town offcers who on botlie Sides were Sworn A have proceeded to 
act in their respective offces whereby the greatest Confusion was like to 
Knsue in the town A therefore they pniyed that both of Said mectiugs 
might bo Vucted and maid void and a new mectinge Called for the Choiie 
of town offcers for thisyear which having been Exaeuined and both partys 
heard thereon and it appearingo that the affairs of Sd town are by this 
means Invollved in Confusion A perplexity which would Isue in Disor- 
tion of all the Legal Rights and Privileges of Sd town ; 

" For Prevention MTiereof ; Be it Enacted by the Governer Counseil A 
Assembly that both the Said meetings A all the Electiones their made and 
the whole proceedings of Each of them l>e and heareby is ileclairred null, 
void and of none Effect but are utterly Vacated and Destroyed and that 
the persons Choisen to any ortict- at Kithi*r and Each uf Sd meeting* are 
Hereby Dii^iti'^fic^ ^"'^ Rendered wludly uneable to act in tbeni or any 
of them and it is hereby further Enacted that n new meeting of Said In- 
habitants shall be Called fur the Election of town ottioers fur the Currant 
year and all parsons Quallifyeil as the Law Directcs for the Qualification 
of Such as are authorized to vote in the Choies of town offcers in the an- 
nual town meetings Shall be permitted Wediieii'day 13 Day of august at 
2 clock in tho afternoon if they Shall Se caues to Vote at Sd meeting but 
all others A all minors are hereby E.xcluded from Voting at Said meet- 
ings as they oiiglit to be in hU such Cases and John Sheepard Juner of 
amherst Esqr is Hereby appointed to Call and Govern Sd meeting till the 
Whole busnees thereof Shall \» Ended A that no Parson Concerned may 



MANCHESTER. 



91 



Justly Coonipltiiuuf uitul ul uuiici-s iliu ^ Julin Sheoi>artl is hereby l>o- 
rected tu Give a NotiflcAtionto the T^st years Consluble of Sd towneetiDg 
firttie tliu time and pltico Detfigris of liuMing uf Csl mooting with the pur- 
|.<.UB thereof uud that Sd meeting id Called by tho authority of thiBact 
\v 111 fi -hall be Delivered to Said Constable at least fifteen Days before the 
\\i\ .i|puinled for holding SU niL-eting and Sd Constable Shall Give par- 
- iiul notice to all tho Quallied Voters of Sd Town ud has Some Custoni- 
iry times ben the there or leave a Coppy of the Sd Notiflction at the last 
'ire of the alxwl of fluch of said peretins us he Cannot meet with at 
ii r>ay8 before the meeting And all the Town othcere which shall 

. .-M II pursuant Hereunto Shall have the same Power & Authority Jis 

. ly other Town officera have llelalive to the Duty uf their Respective off- 

ts And tho Said Constnlwl is hereby gubjetted to a, ponulty of three 

I»>und4 for Kefuseing or Neglecting his Duty herein to be Recovered by 

the Selectmen that Nhall be Cbo«cn by Said town for the use of Said town. 

"Province of \ In the Fluuse of Representatives, July 

New IIami«hiro / 8tli, 1706. 

" The foregoing Bill having ben three thnes Read Voted that It pass to 

bo Enacted. • 

" Lewis G. Goodwin, Speaker. 

"InCouncilJuly 9th, 1766, The foregoing bill Read a third timo & 
past to be enacted. 

"Theod W. Atkinson, Secretary. 
" Consented to 

" B. Wentworth. 

"In ucconlance with this Act, Mr. Shepherd on the l.'ith of July is- 
-iied tho following Warrant : 

" l*rovince of » To tho Constable of Derryfield in Said 

Now Hampshire. J ProWnce for the year 1765. 
' ' WherfOM by a Special Act of the General Court for Sd province, paSMcd 
t their .Session this pris Instant July I am authorized to Call and Govern 
1 meeting of tho Inhabiliintcs of Derryfield in order to Reform Some dis- 
orders that thoy have lately thrown themselves into Relative to town 
office rs : 

'* Wherefore you are hereby Kir<iuired in his Majesty*! Name forwith to 
warn tho Inhabitants of Said Derryfield Qualified by Law to Vote in 
Chusinj; town officere, to Convene at the ineetmg-House in Derryfield 
Qualified by T-aw to Vote, on Wednesday tho 2'Ml day of August next at 
two of tho clock in the afternoon, to CliiiHe Comnion<fc ordinary townolfi- 
cere for the Curmnt year ns the Law Directs, and you aro to give ten 
days Notices at lea^t to each.pemon Qualified as aforesaid which notice 
must bo pontonal or left at the persons Usual place of abode ; hereof you 
Diay not fail A nmck Ihio return. N B by tho above Vested Act you aro 
Subjected to the penalty of three jKiunds for your Refusal or Neglect. 

''John Shei'ari>, June'r. 
"Datttd July 16th 1766. 
" Recorded Feb. 28th 1707. 

"John Hall, Town Clark. 

" I'pon thi(* Warrant the Constable made tho following return : 

" Province of 
Now Hampshire, i the Inhabitants of Sd DerryAeM to Meet at time 
and placo & for tho purpose as mentioned in Sd precipt. 
"Charles Kmekkon, 

"ConHtablo for Derrvfield 1705. 
"Dated August i:ilh 1766. 
"Becordofl February :J8th 1767. 

"per mo John Hall, Town Clark." 

Auj^iiat 18th, the foUowinj^ officers were chosen : 

"John Hall, Town Clerk; David McNlght, Kbenexer Stevens, John 
Halt, Selectmen; James McKnight, Conshibto ; MIckael McClintock, 
Hantlry illais<lel, William perhani, Joseph Gorge, Surveirsof IIIgwayeN ; 
Joseph Mamton, William Nutt<>, David McKnight, Taytlilngmon ; tlie 
Selei'tm<'n, Fence-viowerH & praysoni of Damigo in the town as tho T<aw 
Direrkes; ICIi/.er RobblnH, JanifX Ridall, Deer-Kce|H'rH ; Kb<'nc/or Ste- 
Tcni, Survier of Lumber ; Thomas Ruw<, Sielor o( T.caiber ; Mlckel Mc- 
Clintock, Kllle/.er Rubens, Committee to settle with SeU-ctmen of 1766; 
Tho S«-lectmen, Take the Invoico of the polls and Kfltates of tho town 
of nerryflcld for ye year 1766 ; Joseph Gorge, John I'crliam, Samuel 
Boyd, James perces, Houg Keeafes; William Perhaiu, Clork of tho Mar- 
ket. 



}Pursent to tho foregoing precept I Imve Warned 
the 



" Recorded February 28, 1767, 



The H:il! [uirty wns triuniphanf. 



'John Hall, 

"Town Clark.' 



At a special meeting called for the 22d of December 

following, to vote on the following articles: 

" istly. to Chuefl a moderator to Reglate Said meeting. 

" 2dly. to See if tho town will Rease any money for prechln then what 
the Select men hies all Ready provided this year. 

"3dly. to See how much nionay the town will Reaes to Defray thu 
contingent Charges of the town for the present year. 

"4thly. to See if tho town will Complay with the Law of the Gover- 
ment to provied wightes and mir^hurcs or if not to Defentl the present 
Select men of any Coste or trobli> for not providing tho afore Sd wights 
and mishers as the Law hies provided in that Kasse. 

"othly. to heir tho Keporte of tiie I'ommitey that waa Choseon to Ex- 
aming Sundry years accounptes in behalfo of the town, to wite, Conel 
John GofTe, Capt. Alex McMurphy, & mr Neathainel B*'yd Conmiiley 



The opposition rallied and voted the f<mr business 
articles down. The record stands thus: 

" Voted one tho 2 artical not to Reaies any monay for Prieching this 
year. 

" Voted note to Reaise any money for Necrisey i'harget* In Behaif of 
the town for theis year. 

" Voted one the fourth artical in the warrant not to Rcaise any monay 
to provide wightes & miushere for the town. 

"One tho fifth artical tho occoumptes w;ig Read but now 

" Vot was paste one tliem and they rcniaien on Sitled." 

The excitement was now j^really increased. 
March 2, 17<w, tho Goil'e party carried the day and 
elected officers, as follows : 

"David Starret, Moderator ; David Starret, Town Clerk ; El iz«r Rob- 
ins, Alexander McClintock, Nathaniel Boyd, Selectmen ; John Harvey^ 
Constable; James McCoIley, James McKnight, Charles Kmerson, John 
McClientock, Surveyors of Highways; the Selectmen, Fouce-Viowcre ; 
Charles Emerson, Ebenezer Stevcnw, Surveyors of Lumber ; John Moor, 
James McColley, Counters of Votes ; John Hall, To taka Invoice ; Alex- 
ander Slorrill, James Piorce, William Perhani, Jr., Hog Constabloa ; 
Thomas Russ, Sielerof Leather." 

Mardv 6, 1T69, the 

"Town voted not to pay Levt. John Hall llifi Demands Relating to 
the Borrowed money without u suit at haw, it being thought an uurea«- 
onablo demand." 

Mr. Hall then eoninieneed a suit aj^ainst the towQ 
for his claim. 

In the warrant for the annual town-int'etinjr in 
1771 there were the following articles: 

"Fifthly, to Hear lite accompt« of Corll. John Goffe, and William 
McClintock OS .\gonts for the town to Defend the Town against ibe ac- 
tion Lovt. John Hall conmienced against tho town of Derryfield and to 
approve or not approve. 

"Sixthly, to See If the Town will Chuw a Committo to settle with 
Levt. John Hall all the nccompts Between said Hall and the Town of 
Derryfield." 

At a meeting held March 4, 1771, the accounts of 
the committee which defendid the suit brought by 
Lieutenant Hall were read, and are of an interesting 
character, showinp: the expense of litipntion, etc., at 
that early (hiy. The following is a copy: 

" Corll. John floffe as agent for tho Town of Derryfield, Dr. 

£ «. d. 

" My account of Time and money I Expended in mrryng 
on the T^w Sute for tho town of Derryfield ngiiliiHt 
Lavl. John Hall. 

1761t, Sept. t<i time flvu Days at the Inferior <'ort at 2« i>er 

Day fl 10 

To travling feoii one huudre<l miles at two paiu-e |kt 

mile 16 8 

To Halfe a C.lnno to mr parkcr tu* a fov . . ■ 1 1 n 



92 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



24th Nov. to watiiig. on the Kule of Cort at Samuel Thoiiip- 
8k>na, one day 23 my Hors Hier 33 and Esq. underwomi 

for Summons for Evidences and hia attendance 88. . . 13 

To a Fee to mrautburton half a Ginne 14 

To Charge and Exjmnco at Tompsons 18 

1770, 27 Feb., to Mories Senters, whan the Rvil for I>erryfiold 

Case waa to Held their one Day my Serif and Hors . . 03 
to Cash jMiid Sauter for my own and william mac Clin- 

tocka and witnes Expent^es 

to Esqr. underwood for 8ummoU8 

For a man and liorato goe to E&ir. Lovewells 

to a Pay in Giting paper and preiwiring for Tryal ... 

to a Fee to one parson 

1779, 5 Sept., to Esijr. nnderwood for fouer witnesses ... 

to a Notifycation 

to I'harge and ExpenKes while Swaring Evidenca and 

the Esqi-s. Dinner at my House 

to one Days attendance my Salf 

17911, Sept., at the Inferior Cort twelve Days at 2s ymr Day . 

Traveling fees on Hundred mils at 2p pr mile .... 



Extra Charge 

to my Expanco at portumoulh 

to mr pickren fee 2 Dolrs mr Lowel for 2 Dolars ... 1 
1775, Feb. 7, at Supperior Cort to a Coppy at the Case to mr 

Ring 4 

to mr Dowel 1 Doler as a fee 

to mr pickren 4 Dolore as a fee 1 

to twelve Pays at 2s per Day 1 

to our Eating and Lodging and Hors Keeping as pr 
Marches Bill for Captn Jolin Stark and David Star- 
ret 5 

Extra Expenses 

to Traveling fees one Hundred miles at 2p per mile . . u 



12 
04 
12 

02 
07 
02 
01 

OG 
02 
04 
IG 
06 
04 
0-t 



£ 




Captn John Stark account as Evidence, attendance at 
Samuel Thompsons In Londonderry 5 Days and 
Travling fees 24 miles at 2d \h;t mile 

to a Day attendance and travL-ling fees at IVIoees Stau- 
ters Jun., IJtchfield I'.t mile.s at 2d pr mile .... 

to your attendance at Portsmouth upon Semance at the ■ 
Superior Corte andtravoling fees 100 miles at 3d pr 
mile 

to G Days aitendence at Is Rd jier day at Said Cort . . 

i 
the above is the total of Capn Stark account, E Expected. 

Capt'n John moore attendance first Rule Corte Day Is 6d 
to Ihir Rule at Santera Is fid 

attendance as a an Evedoncu 1st time Is Gd the second 
time for thf Supperor Cart Is Gd travling fees 18 
mites at 2d per mile 

the above is the total of Captn moor account E Expected. 



David Starotts account against the Town of DoiT}fi<?W. 
Dr. for gowing to Cor'Il Goffe'^ wife upon summons 

and Eximnco 

to Santors In Litchfield 1 Day of my Salf and Hors ... 
to Coppeys at Sundrey times Rtdaiing thu Cose .... 
to G Days attendance at the SuppererCort upon Som- 

ance at 28 per Day 

to Hors Hiere to Portsmouth 

£nl 
the above is the total of David Starreta account E Ex- 
pected. 

ThcTownof Dcrryfloldto william mac Clintock as agent 

Dr. to two jounnies to Londondorrj-, for to procure £ 

the C^pey of the writ 

to i^y for the Coppy of the write 

1769, Seplmr. at tbt- Infereor Cort to mr pickn'U as a fee . U 

to Hors Jomey to Portsmouth, 66 and ottes for Said Hors 

28, to hors keeping 28 

to my own time four Days at 2s per Day 

to Expanses while Gone to |>ortsmoutli n 



10 

06 

04 

04 



02 
06 
10 8 



the above is the whole of the Conlls account Exceptd . £ 21 19 



£ 8. 



06 8 



03 
03 
06 

12 

06 



f. 


d 


03 





04 





12 





10 





08 





no 


n 





03 
06 






03 








02 


t> 





02 


9 


f07 


13 


08 



17G9 24 Nov., to waiting upon the Rule of Cort the first 
time at Samuel TomiJsous In Londonderry 1 Day of my 

Salf and of my hors 

lT7o, 27 Feb, to moses Senters in Litchfield at tlio Second 
Itule of Cort, For 1 Day of my Salf at Is <>d per Day and 

1 day of my hors at Is 6d per Day 

1771, Feb. 4, to ExiMincesses to Portsmouth for my Salf and 
Captn John Sijirk and David Starrett, in tlio whole at 

sundry plasses 

to mr Lowel as a fee 3 Dolers to phlips at Dwiers 2 mugs 
to Cash paid to Corll Goffe In mr marches In ports- 
mouth 

at Chaster to a nials of otes and a jil of Rum a Coming 

horn 

to 12 Days of my Salf at 2s per Day 1 

to hors hire to Portsmouth 

to Capn John Stark and David Starrott accounts for Ex- 
pance a Coiniiit; horn from portsmputh which Ex- 
pance Said nic Clintock paid at grenlan to 1 Bowl of 

Todey and two mess otes 

at Exetor as by folsomes Bill for Eiting and Drinks and 

otes 

at Kings town for Loging and hors Keeping . . . 
at Chaster to Eating and Drinks and otes ..... 



the above is the totel of william mc Clintocks account, 
E Expected." 

At this meeting it was voted that 

'A committee of five men be chosen to settle all accounts Between 
Levt. John Hall and the town of Derryfield, and this Committee shall 
have full power ot substitution in behalf of said town, to make a Com- 
plete and final settlement with said Hall and make a report to the Town 
as soon as may hv convenient." 

The settlement was, no doubt, soon after effected. 
The expense of this suit to the town had amounted to 
£43 17s. 8(/., more than the whole tax of the town. 

"21y, to see if the Inhabitants of Said town will Vote to Give the Revr. 
George Gilmoro a Call to the Worke of the Menietry in said Derryfield to 
be tlicir MoneSter. 

" 3ly, to See how nuich yearly Salai-y they Will Vote the said Gilmore 
if he Ext--ept their Call. 

"4Iy, to See how much Setelment Money they Will Vote the said Gil- 
more if he Except their Call. 

":dy, toSee if they Will Vote to Sand a man or nieen to treet with the 
said Gilmoro and agree about the mater as the tuwn pleeses to order." 

September 6, 1773, it was 

" Votetl to Dismis the above Warrant but the town thought Be«t to 
sand for the Revr. George Gilmore, and it was put to vote and the Town 
voted to sand for the Revr. George Gilmore as sun as possible to com and 
jireach with us Eighth Days upon Fonder Trill." 



December 23d, same year^ it was 



•Toterf on the third Aiticul in the »'arrant to Give Rovt. George Gil- 
more a Call to the Work of the Ministry to be our settled Minister in 
Said Town. 

"Then Voted on the fourth Articul in the Warrant to Give the Revtl 
George Gilmore thirty Pounds LawfuU money in Cash, for his annual 
Settled yearly Sahiij So Long as ho the Said Gilmore Contenes to ho our 
>ettled minister in said Town. 

'* V<Ue>l on the Said Articul to Give the Revt. George Gilmore for a 
fcttioment thirty I'ountls Lawfull money in Ca«h and Sixty Pounds Law- 
full money to be pjiid in Labour at two shillings Lawfull per Day for man 
and the Sjime fur oxen, the Said Labor is to be i>nid in four yearw Com- 
mencing from the lime that the Said Gilmore Excepts and settle-'i with us 
in Said town fifteen Pounds per year and the Above Cash within one year 
uf the Said lime. 

" Voted on the fifth articul in the Warrant to Chuse a Committee to 
treet with the Revt. George Gilmore Relating the above Votes, then 
Voted David Starnt, Samuel Boyil, J«ihn [wrhatu and Levtn. James mac 
Callev to be the Conunittee and make report to the Town. 



MANCHESTER. 



93 



*' Then Vototl to a^j^uru tlii^ nictitiog tilt tbo third moiiiliiy Id fubru- 
ary to the house uf Levtn. John balls^ at one of the Clock in the after* 
noon OD tbo Said Day. 

*' Derryfielp, Febniiiry the 21th Day, 1774. 

"Then nitet according to adjournment the luo'Iemtor and Ck-rk pres- 
ent and tbo luoetia Caled, then Votod to DitumiH thu Sixth urlicul in the 
Warrant by IletKm tliat the above Contniittco had nut Rect-ivt-d unuy an- 
swer from the Rcvt. Geargo Gilmorc/' 

Nothing was done towards repairing the meeting- 
house during the Revolution, and it became much 
dilapidated. 

On the 22d day of May, 1780, an attempt was made 
to sell the ''pew ground,'' Ibr the purpose ot" raising 
money to repair the meeting-house, but the project 
was voted down. 

June 3, 1783, it wad 

'* Votett to Rjiisone hundred DoUum and to apply tbo Sitnie toards Ue- 
pairing ttie nicetiug-bouso iu Dt-rryfiuld and that the Haiiie Bu RaitH-'d this 
prvwnt year the one half in nimiey iind the other Imlf in Luhour and 
niitabic nietorials 6ut<:li as Shall Be Excepted By the Connnitty that Shall 
be Hereafter Choose n fur that puri>oBo. 

" VoUil that 31ajor Webnter, Levt. Dan'l hall and Sanuiel Stark Be a 
Committy to provide nieterials an<I liitbourers to do thu Work and to 
Repair tbe mceting-bouBe So fer as the aforesaid Hundred Dollars will 
Do." 

But the repairs were not completed, and September 
24th, of the following year, it was voted to raise fifty 
dollars towards rejiairing the meeting-house. 

In 1790 an eflbrt was made, and with success, to 
sell the **pew ground'' and finish the house, and 
March 1st of that year it was ^' Voted to sell the Pew 
Ground, to finish the Meeting-house." 

Major John Webster, John Green and John Hall 
were chosen a committee to sell the pew ground. 

The committee sold the ground at pul)lic auction, 
on the 22d of .luru' of that year, upon the following 
conditions: 

"The Conditions of Sail of the Pew ground in Dcrryflold meeting- 
hoiMo agreahln to an adv<Tt»oment [tubliBbcd bearing Date Juno, the 4th, 
179(1, by tbo KubHoriberH in bm follows : 

" Istly. tbo f^round lor i-Kcb ih;w to bo built on, will bo Struck off to 
the UlKbest Riildcr, tbt-y giving good s^icurity U> the Committoo for the 
Sum of monry that S^l grounds fw sold for the to help to repair tlio moot- 
tng-houHe this year. 

*' 2dly. Ho that Purcbewth any of the ab<ive jww f^und shall have a 
bill of Siill from tbo Committee in their Cupiussify of the number & price 
that it C*>st Ihem, to bo Recorded In Di;rrylU'ld Town Book. 

";tdly. TIm- Buyer muHt pay Iwn-lhirdHof the purchiso in tilaw, NalloB, 
or man-hanlable CliibboanU or Putty itt or beforo Ibo Ilret day of Se|»- 
tenibor Next, tV and tbo Remaindering third In Cash at or before the 
flnrt Pay of .Fanuary Next. 

"given umlor our Hand, Dat<rtl at Derrytlold Juno *J2d, 1700. 

"John WEiigreR, John Hall, Cbmmtff«« ilffri." 

The sales were thus: 

"Number. £ i. 

14 Struck of to. . Maj. .lohn Webetor 2 

2 . . I>aniol Diivlso 2 1 

18 . . Daniel lliill 2 

1*1 . . Capt. John Porhaiii 1 5 

.'10 . . .laim-H fiomnin I 13 

24 . . .Tobn firwn 1 2 

'-"^ . . Capt. John Perhum I 7 

2«) . .John Hall I 11 

2.'. . . Levt. David Merrell 1 o 

1 . . John Stnrk, Jr I 4 

IT . , Jonathan (.Jn-ely 1 R 

.:i . . Ami lluMltlne 



" Number. je i. 

4 . . David Webster 1 o 

3 . . Jo!*epb Iliiwltino 1 4 

32 . . William Nutt l o 

II* . . Doctr John DuHton 1 9 

1- . . Abnibam Amniy 1 6 

26 , . Isreal Young I 6 

10 . . John Dickey 1 5 

31 . . Capt. Samuel Hoor 1 

13 . . Joaepb Farmer 1 o 

15 . . Peter Kuiereon I o 

8 . ArcbilMild Uamblo 1 4 

7 . . JobIi uu Perse 1 

2;j Samuel Moor 1 1 

y . . Thomiia Griffon 1 

11 . . Joseph Farmer 1 

27 . .JohnGofVo 1 

24 . . Maj. John Webster 1 1 

Total £30 II 

" Recorded January 11th, 1791. John GciFrr,, Totm Vlerh. 

The purchasers built their pews immediately, and 
the lower part of the house was of respectable tinish. 
March 5, 1792, it was 

"Voted to raise forty dollars to Repair the Meeting Uoubo. 
** Voted that the Selectmen lay out the Money to Build the Gallery 
Stares and Lay the Gallery Hores." 

The stairs were built and the floors laid, aud on the 
30th day of October following it was 

'* Voted to BcU the Pew Ground in tbe Gallerj's, k tbo pews to be five 
feet in frount froni the Wall." 
" Voted that the pew ground be sold at Vendue." 
" Voted that the Selectmen bo a committee to sell the pewg." 

The sale took place on the 10th day of November, 
1792, on the following conditions : 

" DKiiitrriELD, Nov. 10th, 1793. 
" Articles of the Sale uf the Pew ground in tbo Gallorys of the Derry- 
fleld MoetinK-Hou«). 

*' Artical first, the highest bidder shall bo the pnrcbasiT. 
*' 2dly. No bid shall bo excepted loss then sixpence. 
"3dly. the purcbosur shall give security to the Kxcoptanco of tbe Com- 
mittee to be paid by tbe last day of May Next. 

"4thly. tbe purchewr shall huvo for bisftecurity the plan A the No of 
the pew struck off to him Itoconiod in the Town Itook. 

*'5thly. the committee shall have E>iuul liiborly to bid with the other 
!u habitants. 

"John Staiik, 
"Daniel Davib, 
"Samukl Moob, 

" Commiltre,''* 

The account of the .sale was as follows : 

£ «. J. 

" No. 2 struck off to William Porhani 1 10 

" 1 " " David .siovomi 2 13 

" 3 " " John Sliirk 3 10 

" 4 " " Aide Huso 1 7 

" 6 " " Jainee MiOoroy 1 6 

" " " Samuel Smith 1 6 (J 

"16 " " " " 2 12 

" 14 " " C»i)t John Porham .... 2 13 

" 11 " " a»pt Samuel Moor. ... 1 12 

" 10 " '* William Porham 1 in 

" D " " Able Ilutto 1 GO 

" 7 " " Green Simon 1 7 

" 8 " " Wllllum Sievenrt 1 7 

" 12 *• " Daniel DavjH 1 

" 13 ■' " J. dm Malt Jr I 8 ft 

jC2r. 12 fi" 



94 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



The house, however, was never tinished. Conten- 
tion and discord had borne their fruits. Tlie majority 
of the people cared but little about the building, and 
at no time was it fit ibr public worship. 

The Rev. Mr. Pickels (says Judge Potter, in referring 
to this old house), an eccentric clergyman of that 
time, preaching in it as late as about 1803, took 
his hearers to task for not finishing and rejjairing the 
house. 

After telling them of their duty in this matter in a 
very forcible strain, as was his wont, he closed by 
naming to them the penalty for not doing their duty 
in this particular. " Why," continued he, " if you 
don't repair tlie house of God, the d — 1 will come in 
and carry you out at the cracks." 

It is said, that for fear of the penalty, the house 
was immediately repaired so as to prevent any such 
egress for his satauic majesty and the delinquent 
hearers. 

The Rev. William Pickels was a native of Wales, 
where he married Margaret Tregallis. After emigrat- 
ing to this country he preached for a time in Phila- 
delphia. He came into the neighboring town of Bed- 
ford somewliere about 1787. He preached in Bedford, 
some years, a portion of the time. At first he was 
very popular as a preacher, and it was proposed to 
settle him, but for some reasons, not readily accounted 
for, an opposition s])rang up against him in Bedford, 
and became so violent as to forbid the idea of a settle- 
ment. His enemies charged him with dissolute 
habits in Philadelphia, but the charge was stoutly 
denied by his friends. At length tlie strife waxed so 
warm and became so pointed that Lieutenant John 
Orr offered to lay a wager of fifty dollars that the 
charge was true. The wager was taken by Mr. Pick- 
els' friends, and Mr. William Kiddle was agreed upon 
as the agent of the parties to proceed to Philadelphia 
and investigate the charge. His report was to be 
final. Mr. Kiddle went to Philadelphia on horse- 
back, investigated tlie matter, found the charge untrue 
in every particular, returned and reported the result. 
There was great exultation on the part of the winners 
and they met at the store of Isaac Riddle, Esq., to re- 
joice over the victory. Mr. Riddle was designated as 
their agent to go to Mr. Orr's and get the wager. He 
accordingly waited ujjoii Mr. Orr and made known 
the result of the investigation. Without making a 
remark. Lieutenant Orr went to his desk and ])aid 
over the money. Mr. Riddle took the money back to 
the winners, and it was .spent at the counter in liquor 
for the multitude. But the result did not stay the 
opposition against Mr. Pickels, and he was forced to 
abandon the idea of a settlement. He, however, con- 
tinued to preach in Bedford a portion of the time for 
some sixteen years. His friends would i)ay their 
money for no other man as long as he was in the 
neighborhood ; and as they constituted near one-half 
of the people in Bedford, and among them some of the 
most influential, Mr. Pickels continued to "supply the 



pulpit " about one-half of the time. The remaining 
part of the time he preached in the vicinity, mostly in 
Derryfield. At length an opposition .sprang up 
against him here, probably having its origin in Bed- 
ford, and it was thought best to settle the question of 
his employment in town-meeting. Accordingly, in 
the warrant of October 19, 1796, was the following 
article: 

"4thly. To see if the town will vote to raise money for the purpose 
<>r hiring Mr. Willijim Pickels to Preach for them some part of the year 
Ensueing, if lie can be obtained." 

At the meeting November 7, 179(), it was 

" Voted to hire Mr. William Pickels one third part of the Year Ensue- 
ing to Preach in this town." 

From this time he continued to supply the pulpit in 
this town till 1804, sometimes hired for a specific num- 
ber of Sabbaths, and again to " preach out the money 
raised." About 1804 he removed to Maine, where he 
continued to reside until his death. 

Mr. Pickels was an eloquent preacher and a fine 
scholar, but very eccentric in his habits. He finally 
announced his belief in the doctrine of universal 
siilvation. 

The First Congregational Church.— This church 
was formed by the union of a Presbyterian Church, 
which was organized at Manchester Center May 21, 
1828, and a Congregational Church, organized at 
Amoskeag December 2d of the same year. The 
Presbyterian Church never had a house of its own 
and a pa-stor was never settled over it. For a few 
months after its formation its pulpit was supplied 
by the Rev. William K. Talbot. In 1833, Benjamin 
F. Foster was ordained as an evangelist, and he for 
some time furnished occasional preaching. Those of 
its members who united with the Amoskeag Church 
to form another .at the new vill.ige in Manchester 
were Moses Noyes, Lucy Noyes, Robert P. Whitte- 
niore, Hannah Jane Whittemore, Jennet Dickey, 
Eliziibeth Hall, Bally Whittemore, Eliza A. Moor, 
Jerusha Griffin, Maria Noyes, Elizabeth Stark, Abby 
Stark, Mrs. F. G. Stark. 

Like the Presbyterian Church, the Congregational 
was without a house or a pastor of its own. Among 
those who occupied its pulpit were the Rev. B. F. 
Foster (who divided his time between this church 
and the one at the Centre), the Rev. Mr. Noble, the 
Rev. Mr. French, the Rev. Mr. Stone (afterwards a 
missionary in Siam), and Cyrus W. Wallace, who be- 
gan his labors with it on the last Sunday in April, 
1839, and who afterwards became its pastor. About 
that time the church began to hold meetings at the 
new village in Manchester with the a])proval of the 
church at the Centre, sustaining thus the first regu- 
lar Sunday services in what is now the compact part 
of the city. At the time when it ceased to exist as 
a separate church its members were Daniel Farmer, 
George Berry, Samuel Poor, Henry Peacock, Nahum 
Baldwin, Betsey Farmer. Mrs. Samuel Poor, Mrs. 
Nahum Baldwin, Lettice McQuesten, Betsey Flan- 



\ 



MANCHESTER. 



95 



<lers, Mary Eodgers, Lydia Drew, Harriet Jones, 
Mary C. Perry, Catharine French, Mrs. Polhird. 

It had become by tills time patent that a nnion of 
tlic.-se two churches would be a gain to each, and that 
the place for tlie new church was at the village 
which the manufacturers were building on the east 
bank of the Merrimack. The union was effected 
August 15, 1839, by a council which met first at the 
house of Phinehas French in .Vmciskeag village, and 
then adjourned to Franklin Hall, and the church 
thus formed wiis called the First Congregational 
Church in Amoskeag, a house of worship being 
built for its use at the new village in 1839. The 
name was afterwards changed to that of the First 
Congregational Church in Manchester. Cyrus W. 
Wallace, then a licentiate of the Londonderry Pres- 
bytery, had already, as has been said, commenced 
his labors with the Amoskeag Church, but did not 
])reach as a candidate for settlement. He supplied 
the pulpit till November of that year, and then re- 
ceived a call to become the pastor of the church 
and society. He accepted the invitation and was or- 
dained January 8, 1840, being the first minister ever 
ordained and installed in the town. 

At the time of the union of the two churches Moses 
Noyes was the deacon of the Presbyterian Church 
and Daniel Farmer of the Congregational Church, 
and by mutual agreement they became the deacons 
of the new church, continuing in office till death 
removed them, the one in October, ISOO, and the 
other October 30, 1865. 

Dr. Wallace, who had been tlic pastor of the church 
since its formation, and whose uninterrupted service 
with one church far exceeded in length that of any 
other clergyman ever settled in Maneliester, sent his 
resignation to the church January 11, 1873, and it 
was accei)ted by the latter, to take effect the la.st of 
August. Edward G. .Selden accepted a call to 
succeed Dr. Wallace, and was ordained Decem- 
ber 1(), 1873, an<l dismissed in 1885. By a vote of the 
church, " as an expression of their afleetionatc re- 
gard," Dr. Wallace was made " ]nistoremeri/iis" of the 
church on the 1st of January, 1874. The church has 
a membership of about six hundred. 

A meeting of persons interested in forming a Con- 
gregational society was held at Amoskeag April 4, 
1838. These were organized as the First Congrega- 
tional Society in Amoskeag Village, and at an ad- 
journed meeting on the 27th addpted a consti- 
tutinn and chose Daniel Farmer, president; 
George W. Kimball, secretary; Nahum lialdwin, 
Samuel Poor and George Perry, directors. 

Shiirtly after the fiirniation of the society a vote 
WiLs lutssed to form the Amoskeag Joint Stock Coni- 
|>any for the purpose of building a church in Amos- 
keag village. This vote was rescinded, other plans 
and places were discussed and in 1839 it was decided 
to build a house of worship on Hanover Street, near 
Elm. The Amoskeag Company gave the lainl and 



the Stark Mills gave five hundred dollars to help 
bnild the church. Other means were obtained by 
making shares of stock, which were soon taken up. 
The house was begun in the spring, finished in the 
.lutumn and dedicated in November of 1839. It then 
contained one hundred and twenty-two pews and 
would accommodate six hundred and fifty persons. 
During the process of building, the society, which 
had already left Amoskeag, worshiped in Franklin 
Hall, on Amherst Street, nearly in the rear of the 
present church. In 1852 the house was enlarged, the 
congregation worshiping meanwhile in the city hall. 
About 1842 a vestry or chapel was built just back of 
the church. 

About 1846 the society forsook its original name 
and took that of the F'irst Congregational Society in 
^Manchester. January 9, 1865, it having been twenty- 
five years since the settlement of the Rev. Dr. Wal- 
lace, the event was celebrated by the society and 
other friends by a gathering at Smyth's Hall, Peter K. 
Chandler, then president of the society, in the chair. 
Dr. Wallace ijreached a commemorative sermon, and 
addresses were made by the llev. Thonuis Savage, of 
Bedford, a member of the council convened to settle 
Mr. Wallace; the Rev. Henry E. Parker, of Concord; 
the Rev. Nathaniel Bouton, D.D., of Concord ; the 
Rev. Henry M. Dexter, of Boston, and the Rev. 
William II. Fenu, of Manchester, former pastors of 
the Franklin Street Society ; William G. Means, of 
Andover, Jlass., secretary and treasurer of the first 
society from 1842 to 1854; and John B. Clarke, of 
Manchester. Dr. Wallace was made the recipient 
of several articles in testimony of the regard of his 
people. 

The present church eilifiee was completed in 1880, at 
a cost of about si.\ty-five thousand dollars. It is a 
substantial and commodious brick structure, beauti- 
fully located, and has a seating capacity of thirteen 
hundred and fifty. It was dedicated May 12, 1880. 

The Franklin Street Cong'reg'ational Church 
was ()rgani/.<'(l May 7, 1S4I, as llic Second 
Congregational Society, with the following ofli- 
eers: .(ohn Crosby, president; -Xbram Urigham, 
clerk' and treasurer; William C. Clarke, Thomas 
Carleton, Walter T. Jaquith, directors. On the 27th 
of June, of the same year, a church was organized in 
connection with the society. The first pastor was 
Rev. Henry M. Dexter, who was ordained November 
6, 1844. They worshiped in the town hall until its 
destruction by fire, then in a chapel on Concord 
Street and a hall in Patten's block, then in the new 
town liall until the comi)letion of their present 
houscof worship, on the corner of Market and Frank- 
lin Streets. A|)ril 25, 1860, the name was changed 
froip Second Congregational to I'" ranklin Street So- 
ciety. The church building was remodclerl in 1878 
at an expen.sc of about twenty-three thousand dollars, 
and the seating capacity increased to fourteen hun- 
dred. A tower was added, in which has been placed 



96 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



a chime of nine bells, weighing seven thousand fivc 
hundred ijounds, the gift of ex-Goveruor Smyth. 

Mr. De.Kter remained pa-stor of the churcli until 
March 14, 1849, when he was dismissed. His suc- 
cessor was Rev. Henry S. Clarke, who was installed 
September 26, 1849. The latter remained till July 1, 
1852, and November 3, 1852, Rev. Samuel C. Bart- 
lett was installed. He was dismissed February 18, ] 
1857, and his successor, Rev. Aaron C Adams, was i 
settled on the 22d of July, of the same year. ; 
He left September 22, 1858, and Rev. William j 
H. Fenn became pastor February 10, 1859, remaining 
over seven years, being dismissed July 17, 18()6. He 
was followed by William J. Tucker, who was ordained 
January 24, 1867, and continued pastor of the church 
until April 21, 1875. The ne.xt minister was Rev. 
Washington Choate. His installation occurred Sep- 
tember 29, 1875, and his dismissal December 26, 1876. ' 
William V. W. Davis was ordained and installed 
September 12, 1877, and dismissed September 25, 
1882. Rev. George B. Spalding, D.D., having re- 
ceived a call from this society, resigned his pastorate '. 
at Dover, and was installed pastor of this church ! 
February 14, 1882. and is the present pastor. 

First Baptist Church.' — The first church in this i 
town was of the Baptist denomination, and was or- 
ganized in 1S12, under the pastoral care of Rev. David 
Abbott. It consisted of fourteen members. It flour- 
ished under Mr. Abbott's teaching until 1820. At i 
that time it numbered twenty-two, when dissensions I 
among the brethren crept in, and the spirit of religion 
went out and the church was broken up. In 1829 a 
Methodist Episcopal Church was organized, and in 
the following year a liouse of worship was erected. 
This was the first meeting-house finished in Manches- 
ter. In 1831-32 the Rev. Matthew Newhall, from the 
New Hampshire Conference, was stationed here. 
With the above exception, the First Baptist Church of 
this city was the first church in town to call and set- 
tle a pa.stor. This church was gatnered by Rev. John 
Peacock, who has lell on record the initiatory steps 
of its organization, as follows : 

"Lord's ItAV. July ;;i;, 183.^. 
" The Baptist Church in (joflatown voted this day tu ackuonledgo us 
whofio names are liere eni-olled — the .\nioskeug Urancli of tlio Goffs- 
town Cburcli ; authorizing Uit to engagu our ntiniiiter and reward liini, 
to receive members and dismiss tbeltl, and to enjoy the communion, .Vc, 
Ac. 

" Elder John Peacock, Daniel Gooden, 

Mrs. JIary R. Peacock, Jolm Stevens, 

Hopoy Tewkslinry, Mrs. Susan M. Steveni, 

Betsey Towksbury, Eli/.abetli McIntiPe, 

Zilpah Gould, Abigail Rider." 

The Branch held its meetings for religious worship 
in a hall at Amoskcag village, and under the faithful 
services of its pastor accessions to its numbers were 
receivfed from Sabbath to Sabbath. At length the 
time came when it was deemed that the interests of 
religion required a separate organization. 

I By l>avid P. Perkins. 



December 1, 1836, at a meeting of the Branch, it 
was voted substantially as follows : 

"Ist. That it is now expedient to form (in independent church, aud for 
that purpose to ask dismission from the church at (JofTstown. 

" 2d. That we adopt as the articles of our faith and practice ' the arti- 
cles prepared by the New Hampshire Baptist State Convention.' 

*':{d. That our pastor be authorized to call an ecclesiastical council fur 
advice, aud to take such action as in their wisdom the best interests of 
the church may seem to require." 

January 4, 1837, in pursuance of the foregoing ac 
tion, a council consisting of the following brethren 
assembled in Roger Williams Hall, at Amoskeag vil- 
lage, to wit : 

Rev. George Evans, Horace Eaton and others, of 
the Goffstown Church; Rev. D. D. Pratt, of Nashua ; 
Rev. A. T. Foss, of New Boston ; Rev. Mark Carpen- 
ter, of Milford ; Rev. Bartlet Pease, of Hudson ; Rev. 
Samuel Abbott, of Bedford ; and Rev. S. C. Pratt, of 
New Hampton. 

After full deliberation, the council vnted unani- 
mously to recognize John Peacock, Daniel Goodeii, 
Andrew J. George, John Washer and their associates 
of the Amoskeag Branch as an independent church. 

The following are the forty-five original members, 
who were thus publicly recognized : 

Rev. John Peacock, Deacon Daniel Gooden, John Stevens, Stephen 
Washer, John Washer, Andrew J, George, Hopie Tewksbury, Betsey 
Tewksbury, Klizabetli Mclntire, Zilpah Gould, Abigail Rider, Eliza ^Ic- 
Duffie, Mrs. Blary R. Peacock, Mrs. Marinda Gooden, Mrs. Susjui M. 
Stevens, Mrs. Louisa A. Washer, Mrs. Polly Washer, Emily George, 
Lettice Caldwell, Abigail Caldwell, Dolly Leonard, Mary J. Tewksbury, 
Lucy Ann Chellis, Rebecca Dean, Mary .\un Smith, Lucy Reed, Mary 
Runno, Emeline Towle, Mrs, Caroline IL Goodwin, Rachel Colby, Muiy 
Muzzy, ,?ane McCoy, Maria Davis, Lavina Kimball, Lydia Caldwell, 
Sarah Whipple, Lois Smith, Xancy Tewksbury, Rhoda .\nn McCoy, 
Hannah Lord, Sally Kolleusbee, Harriet Is". Plumer, Judith H. Plunier. 
Sarah Lord, Mary .\nn Mar>ih. 

Rev. John Peacock continued the pastorate until 
the following October, when, at his own request, he 
received from the church a letter of dismission and 
recommendation to the church in Peterborough. 

During these few months, nineteen had been addeil, 
— by baptism, six ; and by letter, thirteen. Removals, 
ten, — by letter, seven ; exclusion, three. 

July 9, 1838, Rev. Ephraim K. Bailey entered upon 
the pastorate, and the church, having removed to the 
new village, as,sembled for religious worship in Wash- 
ington Ilall, on Amherst Street. October 17, 1839, a 
contract was made between Daniel Gooden, John B. 
Goodwin, Dr. J. H. Morse and J. W. Watkins, on the 
part of the First Baptist Society, and E. Morri- 
rison and William McPherson, on the other part, for 
the erection of a church edifice on a lot of land situ- 
ated at the corner of Manchesterand Chestnut Streets, 
given to the society by the Anioskciig Manufacturing 
Company. 

Agreeably to the contract, a brick building was 
erected, seventy-six feet long by fifty-eight feet wide 
and twenty-six feet from the principal floor to the 
beams. 

The enterprise was completed at an expense of 



MANCHESTER. 



97 



about t>ix thousand dollars, and in the autumn of 
1840 the church was dedicated to the service of 
Gjd. 

" At a church-meeting, September 22, 18-Ml, it was 
Voted, That this ehurcli shall hereafter be called and 
known by the name of ' The First Baptist Church in 
Manchester.' " 

The pastor, Rev. E. K. Bailey, having served faith- 
fully and successfully during the period of three years 
and five months, severed his official connection with 
the church and society December 19, 1841. 

The results of his pastorate in additions to the 
church were one hundred and twelve, of whom thirty 
were by baptism, eighty by letter and two on expe- 
rience. 

Removals, twenty-one, — by letter, sixteen ; by death, 
three; and by exclusion, two. 

Rev. James Uphain entered upon the pastorate 
January 16, 1842, and resigned January 16, 1843. 
There were gathered into the church through the 
fkithful services of this l)eloved piistor, one hundred 
and thirty, — by baptism, forty-nine ; by letter, seven- 
ty-six ; experience, four; and by restoration, one. 

Removals, thirty-two, — by letter, twenty-nine; by 
death, one ; and by exclusion, two. 

Rev. Benjamin Brierly served as pastor of the 
church from December 10, 1843, to May 24, 1846, in- 
clusive, — a period of two years and six months. 

It was mainly through his influence that the Sec- 
ond Baptist Church in tills city was constituted, about 
thirty members of the parent church having been 
dismissed on the 27th of October, 1845, for that pur- 
pose. 

During the pastorate of Mr. Brierly one liuiidrc 1 
and forty-one members were admitted to the churdi, 
— by baptism, thirty-seven; by letter, ninety-nine; 
and on experience, five. 

Removals, one hundred and four, — by letter, seventy- 
four ; by death, nine ; and by excommunication, 
twenty-one. 

Rev. Thonuis O. Lincoln's pa.storate commenced 
August it, 184IJ, and terminated August 11, 1850. He 
served four years, resulting in ad<litions to the church 
of one hundred and thirty-nine, — by baptism, fifty ; 
•letter, eighty-four; on experience, two; and by 
restoration, three. 

Removals, one hundred and forty-five, — by letter, 
ninety ; by death, fourteen ; droppe<l, thirty-six ; and 
by exclusion, five. 

Rev. Isaac Sawyer's pastoral care of the church 
commenced November 3, 1850, and terminated by 
his resignation May 28, 1854. During this jia.storate 
there were received into the church one liuiidred and 
sixty-one nienibers, — by baptism, one hundred ; by 
letter, forty-nine; on exi>erience, nine ; and by resto- 
ration, three. 

Removals, one hundred and thirty-one, — by letter, 
seventy-one; by death, sixteen; dropped, forty; and 
by exclusion, four. 



Rev. B. F. Iledden served the church as pastor two 
years, from September 24, 1854, to September 29, 1856, 
inclusive. He received into the church Ibrty-seven 
members, — by baptism, twenty-six ; by letter, eigh- 
teen ; cm experience, one ; and by restoration, 
two. 

During this pastorate there were seventy removals, 
— by letter, fifty-eight ; by death, eleven ; and by ex- 
clusion, one. 

Rev. George Pierce was the pastor of the church 
eight yeare and six months, from March 15, 1857, 
to October 1, 1865. During this pastorate there were 
added to the church one hundred and ninety-one 
members, — by baptism, one hundred and ten ; by let- 
ter, sixty-seven : on experience, thirteen ; and by 
restoration, one. Removals, one hundred and sixty- 
three, as tbllows : By letter, eighty-two; by death, 
thirty-four; dropped from the rolls, forty; aud by 
exclusion, seven. 

Rev. N. C. Mallory entered upon the pastorate 
December 10, 1865, and resigned .luly 1, 1870, having 
served the church in the pastoral oHiccfour years and 
seven months. The additions to the church received 
by Mr. Mallory were ninety-five, of whom forty-five 
were by baptism ; by letter, thirty-five ; on experience, 
fourteen ; and by restoration, one. Removals, one 
hundred and six, — by letter, fifty-nine; by death, 
fourteen ; dropped from the rolls of the church, thirty- 
two ; and Ijy excomniunicatiou, one. 

July 8, 1870, the city of Manchester was vis- 
ited by a most destructive fire, consuming a vast 
amount of valuable property, and the meeting-house 
in which the church had worshiped thirty years be- 
came a heap of smoldering ruins. 

The pastor had been dismissed but a few days, and 
thus the church was left houseless, homeless and with- 
out a spiritual guide. After the loss of their house, 
among the first things proposed by the church and 
society was the erection of a new one. 

A lot of land situate on the corner of Conconl and 
Union Streets Wius procured and contracts made lor 
the con.struction of a church edifice on a scale the 
proportions and expense of which far exceeded the 
old building. 

In the mean time the church and society extended 
a call to the Rev. Alfred C. (iraves to become their 
pastor. The call was accepted, and January 1, 1871, 
Mr. (iraves entered upon his work. Tlie church and 
congregation hehl together with constantly in- 
creasing interest, working in harmony, shoulder t(» 
shoulder, apparently regarding their great misfortune 
a blessing in disguise. At first they worshiped in 
Music Hall, then in the old Fuitarian house on Mer- 
rimack Street, and lastly in Smyth's <)|>era-IIoiise. 
The work upon the building went forward with en- 
ergy, and on the 14tli day of July, 1X72, justone year 
from the laying of the corner-stone, the church and 
congregation held their first meeting for religious 
worship ill ihcir new vestry. Here they continued 



98 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



to worship until Ihe house was i'ully jiiopared for 
occupancy. 

April 30, 187.S, the house having been completed 
in all its parts, was dedicated to the service of 
Almighty God. This beautiful structure, occupy- 
ing a most eligible and central position, is an orna- 
ment to the city, a credit to the church and society by 
wliose energy, courage and sacrifice it was erecteil, 
and to tlie denomination which they represent. 

Mr. (iraves continued to labor with the church with 
marked ability and faitlifulness until the 1st of Oc- 
tober, 1870, having served a period of live years and 
nine months, when, by his resignation, his official 
connection with the church and society was termi- 
nated. 

During tlie pastorate of Dr. Graves 171 members 
united with the church, — by baptism, 92; by letter, 
60 ; on experience, 27 ; and by restoration, 2. Re- 
movals, 74,— by letter, 41 ; by death, 26 ; dropped from 
the rolls of the church, 2; and by excommunica- 
tion, 5. 

William Hayne Leavell was pastor of the chureli 
five years, from Slay 4, 1877, to May, 1882, resulting 
in admissions to the church of 142, — by baptism, 87 ; 
by letter, 42 ; on experience, 10 ; and by restoration, 3. 
Removals, 72, — by letter, 45; by death, 24; and 
dropped from the rolls, 3. 

Rev. Clarion H. Kimball, our present pastor, united 
with the church August 2o, 1882. He entered at 
once upon the duties and responsibilities of the 
pastoral office. He has gone forward in the work of 
the ministry with energy and ability, and has been 
successful in building up the church. The additions 
received by Mr. Kimball are (18, as follows: By bap- 
tism, 47; by letter, 20; by restoration, 1. Removals, 
38, — by letter, 27; by death, 10; and by excommuni- 
cation, 1. 

It would be an interesting chapter in our history 
could wo state with accuracy the full contributions to 
the various charitable and benevolent objects of the 
day. Unfortunately, we have not always kept a 
record of our receipts and expenditures. It is 
believed, however, that, in this respect, we are not, in 
proportion to our means, behind our brethren in other 
sister churches. 

Many changes have oicurrcd during the forty-eight 
years of our existence. Not one of the original meni- 
l)ers remains. Through sunshine and shadow a kind 
Providence hius watched over us; still, we have had 
our share of darkness and trial. Some have fallen by 
the way; many have passed over the river, and 
entered the promised land. With weariness and 
watching, others arc ready and waiting to follow the 
loved ones who have gone before. 

All hoi>e for a brighter day ; may the Lord pour out 
His Spirit upon us, " that we may be as a city set on 
a hill that cainiot be hid ; that our light may so shine 
before men that they may see our good works and 
glorify our Father which is in heaven." 



SUMM.\Ry. 
January i, l.s:l7. Original mombera 45 

RECEPTIONt). 

By baptism 67!) 

By Utter 633 

On experience 88 

By rcsturatiuii 10 

14lr. 

Tntal niembei-stiip 1461 

REMOVALS 

ny letter 599 

By death 165 

Drupped from the rolls l.'>3 

By excomnivinication 62 

909 

.Taniiary 4, 1S85, whole number on the rolls of the 

clnireh 49:i 

Merrimack Street Baptist Church was organized 
October 31, 1845. Rev. A. T. Foss was the first 
I)astor. Meetings were held in Classic Hall and 
other places until the completion of the brick church, 
corner Elm and Pleasant Streets, which they occupied 
February 22, 1849. In 1853 they adopted the name 
of Elm Street Bajjtist Church. Some misunderstand- 
ing arose concerning the purchase of the house, and 
in 1857 they left, and worshiped in Smyth's Hall until 
the completion of their present church, October 27th of 
that year. Mr. Foss was dismissed July 11, 1847, 
and was succeeded, December 26th, by Rev. J. C. Mor- 
rill, who left July 15, 1849. The next minister was 
Rev. O. O. Stearns, who remained not quite a year, 
and was followed, in January, 1851, by Rev. Isaac 
Woodbury. January, 1853, Rev. John Peacock, form- 
erly pastor of the old Amoskeag Baptist Church, 
supplied the pulpit till the middle of April. In July, 
1853, Rev. J. M. Coburn became pastor. His resig- 
nation was accepted October 8, 1855, but seven weeks 
later he was invited to again become pastor, and 
accepted the invitation. He remained until Decem- 
ber 5, 1858, and Rev. King S. Hall was recognized as 
pastor March 30, 1859. He left September 4, 1862, 
and Rev. A. W. Chaffin succeeded him June 10, 
1863. He remained till February 2, 1868, when his 
resignation was accepted. Rev. Alden Sherwin was 
installed November 8, 1868, and dismissed in April, 
1879. Rev. N. L. Colby has offirialed since June, 1879. 

Pine Street Free-Will Baptist Church.— The 
Free-Will Baptists hold meetings in Manchester as 
early as the year 1838, and a society was formed in 
1839. They l)uilt a house of worship, in 1842, at the 
corner of Merrimack and Chestnut Streets, which 
they exchanged in the fall of 1859 for the church, on 
the corner of Jlerrimack and Pine Streets, previously 
ocoupied by the Unitarians. A separation took place 
in the society, and a large portion of the members 
left, and organized in 186it as Elm Street Free-Will 
l?aptist Church. A council was called, and the re- 
maining members were reorganized a.s the Pine 
Street Free-Will Baptist Church. 

The first pa.stor was Rev. J. M. Bailey, who was 
installed December 21, 1859. He closed his labors in 
November, 1861, and September 10, 1862, Rev. Reu- 



MANCHESTER. 



99 



ben V. Jen. less was ordained. He resigned June 1, 
180:i, and was succeeded by Rev. Nalium Brooks. | 
The latter resigned May 12, 18()9, and was succeeded 
by Rev. N. L. Rowell, 1869-73; H. F. Wood, 1874- ' 
76; J.J. Hall, 1876-79; N. L. Rowell, 1879-81; B. j 
A. tSherwood, 1881; H. G. Corliss, 1883-84. | 

Merrimack Street Free-Will Baptist Church.— 
Till- lueniliiTs of tlif First Fict-Will Bajitist Church 
who left and formed a new church commenced wor- 
ship in the old brick church on the corner of Klin 
and Pleasant Streets. After some vicissitudes, they , 
finally purchased the former house of worship, on the 
corner of Merrimack and Chestnut Streets, which ] 
they now occupy. 

The pulpit was first occupied by Rev. J. B. Davis, 
who i)reached for a few months only. In March, 
1861. Rev. J. A. Knowles was installed as pastor, 
continuing such till the Ist of March, 1871, from 
which date until July 2, 1873, when Rev. Samuel 
McKeown was installed, the church was without a 
pastor. Mr. McKeown resigned July 1, 1874, and 
Rev. George M. Park liccame pastor in November of 
that year. He resigned December 3, 1879. Rev. 
Lewis Malvern became pastor March 3, 1880, resign- 
ing his charge in December, 1882. Rev. A. M. 
Freeman has occupied the pulpit since March 4, 
1883. 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church. — As 
early as JsiiO .Mcthodi.-^t servicis w<tc held in the 
town-house at the Centre by one Reuben Peaslee. 
Religious services were subsequently held by Rev. 
John Broadhead, Caleb Lamb and others, and on 
September 27, 1829, a church w:ls organized in Man- 
chester with eighty persons, among whom were 
Daniel Webster, John G. Webster, Joseph B. Hall 
and Isaac Merrill. The erection of a house of worship 
was commenced at the Centre in 1829, and completed 
the following year, at a cost of two thousand dollars. 

The first pastor was Rev. Matthew Xewhall, in 
1830. The following is a list of pastors of this church 
from its organization to the present: 

JmnciG. Smith, 1831; Leonard Bennett and Enoch II. I^ndd, 183'^ ; Silaa 
Orcemt, IKLt; Culub Diiatin, IKU ; Willinin S. Locke, IKi.'. ; Convorae li. 
McCiirdy, lH3li-37 ; Williulii J. Klddor, 1H.'18 ; Mallhtw Noahall, iinecond 
time In IKV.t ; Jc«ie|ih llayi-x, IH-llJ; .Ichii S. 0. Gndlej', ISIl ; William S. 
Locke, lS4'J-)4 ; Cliarlcs II. Kaatinan, 1S4&-IC; Ezekiel Adunin, 1847; 
Horntiii N. Taplin, IKIS; Ilinry Niitli'r, IS^IO-oO; laaac W. Ilnnlle}', 
18.')! to Xov.nil..rl., 1>«2; Klljah It. Wllkin», I8V1; ItolK^rt S. Stublw, 
ISM; IliirriBon .\. Hart, I8.Vi ; llenr)' Nutter, IRIli ; Loren H. Cordon, 
186T-.'>8; Anioe II. Kiiaaoll, lH.'iU-eO; Joxlah V. Sthichneld, I8CI. There 
waa no piu»tor in \Htii ; E. It. Wllkini lireiirheil here ft ]>art of the year. 
Ileleklah .\. Malt(wn, I8r,3-<M ; William Ilughes fur a part vt the fol- 
lowing year ; Nathaniel L. Cha««*, 18tJ6-l'>7 ; Janiea Ileitn, I8C8 ; J. Mowry 
Baun, 18611-71; Thuniaa Tyrir, I87'J, hut IvH the church ; julued the 
Free-Will ItaptlKtu ; Cliarlea W. Taylor, 187:i-71 ; WatMn W. Smith, 1875- 
76; GooriseC. .Voyin, 1877-78; William li. Jonea, 1870-81 ; Joiwph II. 
Brown, 1882 ; Rev. .lainoa W. Preabry, 1883-85 ; J. W. Bean, 1885. 

St. Paul's Church.'— The First Methodist Epis- 
copal Chiirili in Manrliister was organized Scptein- 

' D) Iter .1. M. Avann. 



ber 21, 1829, at the Centre, where it still continues. 
The Second Church was organized December 16, 

1839, and is now known as St. Paul's Church. Its 
first pastor. Rev. John Jones, was appointed in June, 

1840. During that Conference year a chapel was 
built on the corner of Hanover and Chestnut Streets. 
It was subsequently removed to the corner of Pine 
and Merrimack Streets, has recently been enlarged 
and improved, and is now owned and used by the 
Christian Church. Mr. Jones was followed by Rev. 
Silas Green, who took charge in 1841, and remained 
one year. His successor. Rev. Elihu Scott, found the 
chapel too small, and a new building was erected in 
1842 on Elm Street, costing with the land and fur- 
nishings, sixteen thousand dollars. From that time 
until 1862 the church w'as known as the Elm Street 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

In 1856 a third church was organized, called the 
North Elm Street Methodist Episcopal Church. Rev. 
E. Adams, wdio had been at Elm Street two years, 
was its first pastor. About the middle of the year he 
took the agency of the Conference Seminary at 
Tilton, N. H., and Rev. C. N. Smith filled out his 
year. He was followed by Rev. G. W. H. Clark in 
1856-57, and he by Rev. Charles Young in 1858-59. 
Rev. G. S. Dearborn was pastor in 1860 and psirt of 
IStll. Before the close of 1861 he was transferred to 
Lislion, and his year was filled out by Rev. Mr. 
Owens. 

In the spring of 1862 the two Elm Street societies 
were united. Bishop Baker named the new organi- 
zation the St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and appointed Rev. .Tames M. Buckley, now editor of 
the Chrislinn Advocate, its first i)astor. Rev. D. C. 
B;ibcock was appointed in Ajiril, 1868, and continued 
with the church two years, during which time some 
three thousand five hundred dollars was expended in 
reiniirs. Under the labors of Rev. G. W. Norris, in 
1878-79, the last dollar of a long-standing and bur- 
densome church debt was ]iaid. 

The society known as the Tabernacle Methodist 
Episcopal Church was organized in the spring of 
1875. Its pastors were Rev. J. B. Hamilton, three 
years; the late Rev. L. E. Gordon, of precious 
memory, one year; and Rev. O. S. Bakctel, who 
closed his labors with the society in 1879, when, in 
view of a new church enter|)rise previously started, 
and designed to provide a more comiuitdious house of 
worship, both churches deemed it wise to unite again 
their strength. 

For about forty years St. Paul's Chiinli had wor- 
shiped on Elm Street. As the city grew in size and 
business houses multiplied, the noise of trade bfcame 
so great that it oftni disturbed the services. The 
society also sutlered I'mm the want of a suitable place 
in which to hold its social meetings, for it owned but 
one story of the building, the first floor being occu- 
pied by stores that wore not under the control of the 
church. 



100 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



The building was out of repair, and between spend- 
infi three or four thousand dollars on it and putting 
up a new church there was some hesitancy. Wlicii 
Rev. A. E. Drew w.is appointed to the pastorate, in 
1880, he at once began to learn the minds of the peo- 
ple, and found them quite generally in favor of a new 
church. The title by which the property on Elm 
Street was held permitted it to be used only for re- 
ligious services. This was a serious encumbrance 
upon its sale, and nothing could be done until it was 
removed. Mr. Drew spent the greater part of a year 
in securing its removal, and it was only through his 
determined perseverance that the work of disentan- 
glement was successfully completed. The old house 
was sold for twelve tliousand dollars, and the parson- 
age which the society owned on Laurel Street for 
four thousand two hundred dollare, and over nineteen 
thousand dollars was raised by subscription. 

A building lot on the corner of Union and Amherst 
Streets was bought for five thousand seven hundred dol- 
lars; the corner-stone was laid .Tune 3, 1882, and the 
completed structure was dedicated April 13,1883. The 
church is built of faced brick, with cut-stone window 
trimmings, the arches being adorned with bond stones 
and the buttresses being capped with stone. The 
audience-room is finished in ash, and with its stained 
windows and frescoed walls produces a very i)leasing 
effect. It will seat eight hundred persons. The main 
vestry will seat six hundred, besides which there are 
class-rooms, parlors, kitchen and dining-room. The 
parsonage stands immediately north of the church, and 
is in the same style of architecture. It contains eleven 
rooms, is heated by furnace, lighted with gas, and hiis 
every arrangement for convenience and comfort, and 
is nicely furnished by the society. It is probably 
not equaled by any parsonage in the Conference. The 
entire cost of lot, church and parsonage, as com- 
pleted and furnished, was not far from thirty-six 
thousand dollars, and the society believe that abetter 
church for the money does not stand i?i New Hamp- 
shire. There is no mortgage upon the |)ro|>erty, and 
the society is free from debt. The plans of the church 
edifice were drawn by \Vm. M. Butterfield, a member 
of the church; the building committee consisted of 
David H. Young (chairman), Hilas Dickey, Wm. M. 
Butterfield, Charles Hutchinson and Clirtord M. An- 
derson. These gentlemen, especially the first on tlie 
committee, gave a great deal of time and earnest 
effort to the enterprise. Under their supervision the 
expenditures were made with unusual care, and 
great praise is given them for the results, so highly 
satisfactory to all. But credit is especially due to 
Rev. Mr. Drew, who obtained and collected most of 
the subscriptions and bad a general oversight of the 
whole work, lie toiled early and late, amid mani- 
fold discouragements. He determined to conquer, 
and the church stands as a monument to his energy 
and persistency. He de-serves all the good words that 
can be said of him in connection with this enteri)ri8e. 



A grateftil society will ever hold him in remem- 
brance. 

The pastorate of Mr. Drew having expired. Bishop 
Simpson, in April, 1883, transferred Rev. J. M. 
Avann from the New England Conference (J2astern 
Massachusetts), and appointed him as the first pastor 
of the new church. 

St. Paul's Church has always been a revival church. 
Scarcely a year has passed without a goodly number 
of conversions. Up to December, 1884, twelve hun- 
dred and ten had united with the church on proba- 
tion, and doubtless five or six hundred other converts 
have gone from its altars to swell the membership of 
the other Protestant Churches in the city. The church 
has never had men of large means among its mem- 
bers, and it has suffered many disadvantages, so that 
social considerations have drawn many away from it 
to other churches in the city ; besides this, the tran- 
sient character of a large part of the population haa 
scattered its former members far and wide over the 
country. The records show that three thousand seven 
hundred and fifty-one persons have been connected 
with this church from first to last in lull membership. 
Now that the church has better facilities for work> 
there is the prospect of increased usefulness, with the 
assurance that it will hold and assimilate those who are 
drawn to it. The firstyear in the new buildinghas been 
one of unu.sual success. One hundred and twenty-four 
have been added to the membership, — sixty-three by 
conversion and sixty-one by letter. The receipts from 
pew-rents and collections during the year have been 
four thousand six hundred and twenty-seven dollars^ 
one thousand and fifty-two dollars of which has been 
for benevolent objects and the remainder for current ex- 
penses. The present membership of the church is 
five hundred and seventy. The following is a list of 
former pastors, with the years of their service : 

John Jones, 184" ; Silas Rreen, 1841 ; Elihu Scott, 1842 ; Jsmcs W. 
Morey, 1843-44 ; (isitian (', Baker, 184n ; .Tolin .lones, 1846-47 ; Saiiniel 
Kclley, 1S4S ; Loreuitu 1>. Barrows, l»4!l ; Charles N. Smith, 186<) ; Silas. 
Quidiby, l^ll ; John .Spauliling, 18.'t2 : Klisha .\dani8, IS.'ia-M ; H. H. 
Ilartwell, 18'j.m'.C ; Kichard S. Rust, 18.".; : HcTirj- Hill, 1858-5!l ; John 
Currier, 18WI ; .lames .M.Buckley, 181.1-02; Jonathan Hall, I86.i-&1; 
William H. Thomas, 180,1-06 ; Hiram L. Kelsey, 1807 ; Daniel C. Bab- 
cock, 1808-09 ; E. .\. Smith, 1870-72 ; James Tike, 187.'i-74 ; C. B. Pit- 
blado, 187.')-77 ; George W. Xorris, 1878-7!l ; A. E. Drew, 1880-82. 

The First Unitarian Society.' — The Unitarian 
Church in ^Manchester did not originate from a change 
of base on the part of an orthodox Congregational 
Church, as in so many cases in New England, nor yet 
in an open and formal seces.sion from any existing 
ecclesi;istical organization. It appears, rather, to have 
been an independent movement, promi>ted by a desire, 
on the jiart of a few persons, to sustain liberal senti- 
ments in religion, and to worship God in a freer and 
happier way than seemed possible to them in the 
orthodox connection. 

In January, 1841, Rev. S. Osgood, a ministei* thea 

1 By Rev. E, B. Payne. 



MANCHESTER 



lUl 



residing in Nashua, began, by invitation, to preach 
the Unitarian faith in Manchester, i^abbatli stTvices 
were held for four months, when it was thought best 
to suspend them until the town hall, then in process 
of erection, should be completed, aflbrding a more 
suitable place in which to hold the meetings. 

In March of the following year, 1S42, the town hall 
■was secured and services were re.sunied, with a view 
to making them permanent. Rev. Charles Briggs, 
secretary of the American Unitarian Association, in 
Boston, preached on a Sabbath, and Rev. O. H. Wel- 
lington was then engaged for the month of April. On 
Sunday evening, .\pril 24, 1S42, pursuant to a call for 
& meeting of those interested in sustaining Unitarian 
preadiing in Jlanchester, the following persons met 
for consultation at the house of William Shepherd: 
John 1). Kimball, William Shepherd, E. A. Straw, 
James May, M. G. J. Tewksbury, James McKeen Wil- 
kins. H. F. Richardson, R. F. Osgood, Edwin Bodwell, 
Herman Foster and J. H. Kimball. 

After thorough (lelil)eratie>n the following resolution 
was unanimously adopted: 

" Itftolted, That wo will form (lurselvea into a society for the more 
■effectual support of Unitarian preaching in the Town of Manchester, and 
that wi- will pruceed, aia soon aa may bi;, to organi/A' regularly under the 
law* '^( thin State." 

Jlessrs. Daniel Clark and E. A. Straw were appointed 
a committee to draft ami report a constitution for such 
a society, and an adjournment was then had until 
Wednesday evening of the same week. 

At the adjourned meeting (Wednesday evening, 
April 27th) the committee, above mentioned, reported 
a cMjnstitution for the government of a religious soci- 
ety, to be distinguished as the First Unitarian Society 
in Manchester, N. H. The i>reaml>le, as iniiicating 
the spirit and purpose of the organization, is hereby 

appended: 

" Preamiii.r. 

"The object of this AMOclation is to support andetuoy the more effect* 
ually the institution of our Jioly religion. Our belief Is in the reality of 
Divine Reveliitiun, and in the Hiblo an the recoiil of that revelation. We 
xlcsire to know its truths, and, in nil charity and love towards our fellow- 
men, to maintain them. Such being our purpos«>, we unite ountelvos in 
this ass4j<-iati(>ii, with the love of God, and of his son, .lesus Christ ; the 
love of the Ojvine truths as taught hy Christ during his mission ui>on the 
earth ; and the love of all his eliildren, our felloW'Uien and brethren, 
•trong in our hearts, hoping to establish and maintain an ultur where 
the sons of iniiii may worship their t'reittor as their conw-ietices slinll dic- 
tate, nntratumeted by any of tlies^,- fettering creeds, the offspring of hu- 
man ingenuity alone. To do this wo pledge our zealous and humble 
efforts, and in promoting this obji'ct it sluill be our endeavor to merge 
all local and party feelings and all sectarian prejudices. Praying for Di- 
vine useistance, and hoping for tlio riches of Ood*s gnicc and mercy, 
conscious of purity of intention, of muinal alTection, of a love for truth, 
and holy concern for our fellow-inoii, we unite ourselves, fur the further- 
ance of our object, into a religious society." 

The articles of the constitution arc omitted from this 
sketch, as being only the business basis of the organ- 
ization and of no public interest. The preamble and 
constitution were unanimously adopted, and the orig- 
inal signers were as fullows: E. M. Straw, William 
Shepherd, J. D. Kimball, Job Chamberlin, Joint H. 
Kimball. .Tames May, George W. Tilden, George Hall, 



M. G. J. Tewksbury, Daniel Clark, Francis L. Clark, 
.\lfred W. Rhoads, Benjamin F. Osgood, B. F. Man- 
ning, Isaiah Winch, J. B. Upham, A. G. Tucker, J. B. 
Moore, O. P. Wareuer, H. S. Reed, Charles F. Warren. 

E. A. Straw was chosen clerk and treasurer, and at 
a subsequent meeting, May 1, 1842, John D. Kim- 
ball was elected president, and Messrs. William Shep- 
herd and B. F. Manning directors. 

The movement being now well launched upon its 
career, the members set hopefully to work to realize 
their objects. Rev. O. H. Wellington became the 
first pastor. He was ordained July 19, 1842, Rev. 
C. SteLson, of Medford, preaching the ordination 
sermon. The attitude of the religious coniniunity to- 
ward Unitarianism wassbown in the fact that, whereas 
the pastors of all the churches in the town were invited 
to be present at the ordination and assist in the ser- 
vices, they all declined except the pastor of the Uni- 
versalist Church. 

In the afternoon of the same day Rev. William 
Channing, of Nashua, preached before an assembly 
called to organize a church in connection with the 
society. In view of the above-mentioned action on 
the part of local ministers, it is curiously suggestive 
that the text of Mr. Channiiig's sermon was the words 
attributed to Jesus in John xvii. 22, 23, — " That they 
may be one, even as we are one: I in them and thou 
ill nio, that they may be made perfect in one." 

The church was duly organized, the following per- 
sons.beingthe original members: Benjamin F. Osgood, 
S. Manning, Esther Parker, Melinda Osgood, Mehit- 
able Eastman, O. H. Wellington, C. A. K. Welling- 
ton, Susan Jlanning, .John Cadwcll, H. M. A. Foster. 

The following statement was adopted as the basis 
of their union : 

"I. This Society believe that the Bible is an nuthoritativo and suffi- 
cient rule offaiti) and prnetico, and is the creed, and tlio only creed, that 
should bo imposed upon eliurchos, and the only platform upon which alt 
churches can Ih' founded. 

'* II. As fiod hiLs made no two ntinds alike, diversities of opinion, even 
among Christians, must be oxpecte.1 to occur,— diversities which no men, 
or biidy of men, liave a rlglit to suppress by any measures other than an 
appeal * to the law and the testimony,' by fair argunu'Ut and i>ersuasion, 
I and not by i^xpulslun from church meudtership or by tlie cry uf heresy, 
I and tliereforo this society recognizes, iw its second leading principle, the 
right of private Jndgeinont. 

" 111. As men may believe in correct doctrines and y<d have corrupt hearts 
— may profes.s rullgl(Ui without iMissessing it,— may comply without en- 
tering into their spirit and nmy luive excellent feelings and emotions and 
yet not he Ciirlstians, hut cannot live hubltniilly the Christian life and 
manifest the Christian temper and spirit unless they be Christians, this 
I society therefore fnrtlier declare that in their Judgmetit tlio CliristiaD 
I life and character are the only true and reliable tests among (Christians, 
and cheerfully agree Uy invite and nK:elve to their fellowship all, twth 
ndtiisters and people, who manifest this character and receive the Scrip- 
tur>'s as their rule of faith, however mmdi any such uu*y differ from the 
I majority of the society in ri'spect of opinions." 

It will be seen from these declarations that the 
founders of the church made it their primary end 
to emphasize and espouse the practical and vital 
interests of religious life anil work, and were com- 
paratively inililt'erent to theological and ecclesiastical 
1 concerns. 



102 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



For nearly a year more tlie jjublic services of the 
new church antl society were held in the town hall, 
but during the following year a. lease was secured of 
a small chapel, built by the Methodists in 1841, and 
standing on the corner of Hanover and Chestnut 
Streets. The first services were held there on July 
2, 1848. Some time during the suuinicr this building 
was purchased from the Methodists and removed to 
a lot, donated by the Amoskeag corporation, on the 
corner of Merrimack and IMne Streets. 

Mr. Wellington remained as pastor only two years, 
when his health necessitated his de[)arture. He was 
succeeded by Rev. A. Dumont .lones, who was installed 
July 10, 1844. Mr. Jones remained only until the 
end of March, 1845. From that time until 1848 the 
church was without a settled pastor, the pulpit being 
supplied by different ministers, none of whom re- 
mained for any great length of time, except Rev. M. 
J. Motte, who preached regularly for one year during 
1846—47. This was a period of great discouragement 
for the friends of the movement. Their numbers 
failed to increase, and debts were incurred, and the 
prospect generally seemed unpromising. Atone time 
a motion was made to dissolve the society. This, 
however, did not prevail, but seemed to inspire the 
faithful with a determination to persevere. Resolu- 
tion and zeal brought the enterprise through these 
disheartening days. 

A fortunate move was made in February, 1848, in 
extending a unanimous call to Rev. Arthur R. 
Fuller, a brother of the famous Margaret Fuller. The 
call was accepted and Jlr. Fuller was installed March 
29, 1848. The new pastor proved to be a man of 
unusual talents, and during the five years of his 
pastorate the society was greatly increased and 
strengthened. It was found necessary to enlarge the 
church, which was done, its seating capacity being 
increased to the extent of twenty-four pews. Tlie 
life and work of the church promised large and liberal 
things, but in 1853, Mr. Fuller, whose abilities had 
become widely recognized, received a call to the New 
North Church in Boston, and resigned his pastoral 
office in 1855. 

The society was now established and strong, and 
since that time has held its ground and steadily 
grown until it is now one of the leading religious 
organizations of the city and State. The pastoi-s who 
have served the church since 1853 have been as fol- 
lows: Rev. Francis Le Barren, from August, 1853, to 
October, 1855; Rev. W. L. Gage, from June, 1856, to 
April, 1858; Rev. Sylvan S. Hunting, from Septem- 
ber, 1858, to November, 1861 ; Rev. A. W. Stevens 
from September, 18G2, to October, 1865; Rev. Au- 
gustus M. Haskell, from September 6, 1866, to March, 
1869; Rev. C. B. Ferry, from December, 1869, to the 
summer of 1874 ; Rev. Harvey from November, 
1874, to the spring of 1883. The present pastor is 
Rev. E. B. I'ayne, who was installed in February, 
1884. 



The church worshiped in the building on the cor- 
ner of Merrimack and Pine Streets until 1859, when 
an exchange was made for a larger building, for- 
merly occupied by the Free-Will Baptist Society, and 
standing on the corner of Merrimack and Chestnut 
Streets. This building, in turn, they sold in 1871, 
and erected their present house of worship on the 
corner of Beech and .Vmherst Streets, dedicating the 
new church in 1872. 

It remains to be sai<l only that the years have wrought 
significant changes in the mental and spiritual attitude 
of the society. It has gradually departed farther and 
farther from the ortliodoxy of forty years ago. It 
no longer stands, in all respects, indeed, upon the 
platform provided by its original founders. It still 
emphasizes, as much as the older generation did, the 
practical and vital side of religion, rather than the 
dogmatic and ecclesiastical interests. It would re- 
affirm, upon occasion, the sincerity of its intentions, — 
the love of man, the purpose of affording opportu- 
nity to worship in the free and untrammeled exercise 
of conscience and the desire to do good in the com- 
munity where it lives and labors. But it has dropped 
out of its thought and sympathy almost entirely the 
theological ideas held by the early members, and 
expressed or imjilied in the preamble to the consti- 
tution and in the statement of principles on which 
the church was founded. Indeed, the church, as a 
separate organizatif)n, has disappeared, interest in it 
and the conscious need of it having ceased. There 
remains only the society. The Christian ordinances 
of baptism and the Lord's Supper are no longer ob- 
served. The majority consider these as so much 
entangled with the orthodox and historical Christian 
faith that they ought to be passed by by those who 
seek the natural foundations, the real essentials and 

1 the sweet simplicities of religion. So, too, the ma- 

I jority have ceased t« trouble themselves with the 

j vexing question whether or not we are, in the histor- 
ical and accepted sense, a Christian Church- Tliey 
believe there is something which is indisputably 

I nobler than to be Christians, — namely, to be souls, 
genuine, generous, hale and hajipy souls, ready to 
accejit every reality in itself and in its relations, and 
holding themselves as servants to the truth, when it 
is knowu. And even these ideas are not formulated 

I into a church creed to compete polemically with the 
definite creeds of other churches, and to constitute a 
dividing line between our little communion and an 

: outside world regarded iis hostile and alien. These 

; sentiments indicate rather a drift of tliought and 
feeling to which we gladly yield, iisto a movement of 
the brooding spirit which appears to move on the 
waters. The society, in short, is a simple organ iza- 

i tion, uniting those who realize the moral quality, the 
spiritual significance and the impartial justice of 
the universe, and to accept it, before all BibUs, as 

j the revelation of the true, the beautiful and the 

' good. 



MANCHESTER. 



lOS 



The TJniversalist Church,' — The germ of what 
is now the Uiiiversalist Society of Manchester was 
started in 182o at Amoskeag vilhige, by Dr. Oliver 
Dean, then agent of the manufacturing company out 
of which the Amoskeag Company grew. 

I)r. Dean was a man of energy and hirge business 
capacity, and the succes.s of manufacturing in our 
city is largely due to his eft'ort.s. But he was not only 
a man of hu.-iiness capacity, but was a man of strong 
religious principles, and even before he settled per- 
manently in the community he invited ministers of 
his faith to the village and e.stablished Univcrsalist 
preaching. Services were continued under his direc- 
tion until 183;?, when we learn from the records these 
facts: On the 4th of September, l.S3;i, the following 
persons associated themselves together as the First 
Univcrsalist Church of Bedford and Gofl'stown, and 
l)artook of the Lord's Supper : 

Frederic A. Hadsdon, John Stark (3d), George 
Daniels, Hiram A. Daniels, John Mullett, Edwin 
Smith, David Fiske, Xelieniiah Preston, Mary Parker, 
Mrs. Pattee, Nancy I'oor, Moses Gage, John V. Wil- 
son and Caleb Johnson. There is now but one of 
the original members living, the Rev. J. V. Wilson, 
who was ordained to the ministry in 1835. The first 
pastor of the ehunli was Rev. Frederic A. Hadsdon. 
On the 2()tli of November, 1S33, the church met at 
the school-house in Amoskeag, and chose Rev. Frede- 
ric A. Hadsdon moderator, and George Daniels 
cleric of the meeting. After adojiting a declaration 
of faith and a constitution, ( Jeorge Daniels was chosen 
clerk and treasurer, and Wilbur Gay a deacon. The 
meetings thereafter werehelil in Amoskeag Hall. The 
records were kej)! until November 21, 1833, at which 
time Archibald Dow was chosen moderator. The 
meeting dissolved and no further records of the 
church can be found. 

In the following year, 183!l, the society removed to 
the village of Manchester, on the east side of the 
river, and erected the church now occujiied by the 
8'jciety iti the same year. The church wiis dedicated 
in 1840. The size of the house originally was fifty 
by eighty feet. The land on which the church stands 
was given to the society by the Amoskeag Company, 
and contains ten thousand S(|Uare feet. 

It appears by the records that on the 12lli day of 
April, 1842, several members of the society met at 
the residence of the pastor for the ])uri>o.se of consult- 
ing on the subject of church organization. A com- 
mittee wa.s appoi?ite(l to report on the subject, and on ! 
the 10th of May follnwing, a church was organized. 

Thus it appears that a second ehureh was organ- 
ized, though there is no record that the first church 
was ever disbamled. Thus far we have only a record 
of churches. Whether during this jieriod there had 
been a parish organization we know not, but there 
probably was. The oldest record is in isto. The 

Ulv H.'V. I.. K. M. Kiiiii.l. 



oldest record there is of a legal meeting is Decem- 
ber, 1850, at which time S. W. Parsons was elected 
president. 

The society has had in its history ten settled pas- 
tors, — Rev. Frederic A. Hadsdon, whose pastorate 
began with the history of the church and closed in 
1837. Neither the records nor the history of Man- 
chester show that there was any other settled pastor 
until 1840, but older members of the society say that 
Rev. Hiram Beckwith wiis settled for two years after 
the resignation of Rev. Mr. Hadsdon. Rev. N. Gunni- 
son, the next pastor, began his services in May, 1840; 
he resigned in October of the same year. Rev. 
George W. Gage was ordained as pastor in June, 
1841, and was dismissed at his own request in 1843. 
In January, 1843, the Rev. B. M. Tillotson was settled 
as his successor, and continued in charge until October, 
1859. He was succeeded by Rev. B. F. Bowles in 
June, 18G0; ho resigned in ISGfi. The Rev. S. L. 
Rorifaugh was installed June 26, 1867, and resigned 
October, 1868. He was succeeded, January 1, 1860, by 
Rev. Thomas Berden, who resigned in December, 
1871. The Rev. G. L. Demarest began his labors as 
pastor September 1, 1872, and closed his labors Feb- 
ruary 1, 1875. Rev. L. F. Mclvinney became pastor 
of the society on the 1st of May, 1875, and continues 
as pjistor at the present time, or nearly ten years. 
After the buildingof the church the society prospered 
beyond expectation, and the house proved too snuill 
for the congregation; accordingly, in 1850 it was en- 
larged by an addition of twenty-five feet in width, or 
one-half its former size; it was rededicated the same 
year with ai)propriate services. In 1855 a vestibule 
was added to the front and the organ now in use pur- 
chased at an expense of three thousand dollars. In 
1878, the church being in need of repairs, it was deter- 
mined to raise funds for that purpose. Eight thou- 
sand dollars was the estimated cost, which was readily 
subscribed, and in June of that year the work was 
commenced, and uniler judicious management was 
completed at a cost of seven thousand dollars. The 
church was rededicated "with approjiriate services in 
October of the same year. Rev. A. .1. Patterson, D.D., 
preaching the sermon. The one thousand dollars re- 
maining was a[)|died to the payment of a debt of 
fifteen hundri'd dollars that had long been owed by 
the society. The following year the balance of the 
debt was paid, and from that time till the present the 
entire expenses of the society have been paid from 
the pew rentals of the church. The society cele- 
brated the liftieth anniversary of its organization on 
the 2d of November, 1883, with appropriate exercises. 

Twice in the history of the society a new society 
has been organized from it, but neither were destined 
to live. Nearly every society in Maneliester nundicrs 
among its mend)ers those who once worshipeil with 
the I'niversalists. Almost the entire wealth of one 
of the large societies was in time past connected with 
this organization. Somt; of the most intluential men 



104 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



in the city and State have been connected with this 
cliuich, and few churL-hcs have done more to educate 
and liberalize the general public. The church build- 
ing i3 now the oldest in the city. The society is free 
from debt and ])ro.siierous. With a faithful member- 
ship in the future, as in the past, and the blessing of 
God, it will still have a work to do that shall redound 
to the good of the community and the praise of Him 
who is the source of all truth. 

Grace Church.' — The first services of the Episcopal 
Church were held in the school-house, on Lowell 
Street, on the second Sunday in July, 1840, by the 
Rev. P. S. Ten Broeck, of Concord, and were followed 
by others, conducted by the Rev. T. Edson, of Lowell, 
and otiier clergymen. A hall in Union Building was 
subsequently fitted for services, af which a meeting 
for the organization of a church, to be known as St. 
Michael's, was held November 28, 1841, and on De- 
cember 17th the Rev. W. H. Moore was elected rector, 
and entered upon his duties on Christmas eve. 

A building, i)reviously used by a Baptist Society, on 
Concord Street, was hired and occupied in June, 1842, 
and until December 28, 1843, when the congregation 
removed to a new church, built of wood, on the north- 
€ii.st corner of Lowell and Pine Streets. 

On the Sth of June, 1860, the corner-stone of a new 
church, to be built of stone, was laid on the same lot 
by Bishop Chase. The name of the church was at 
this time changed to Grace Church. The church was 
built after designs by Richard Apjohn, and was con- 
secrated December 4, 1860. 

The church has grown with the growth of the city, 
the present number of comnmnicants being over two 
hundred. The following is a list of the rectors, with 
the duration of their rectorships: the Rev. W. H. 
Moore, from December 24, 1841, to Ai>ril 23, 1848, six 
years and four months; the Rev. John Kelly, from 
June 18, 1848, to April 1, 1852, three years and ten 
months; the Rev. 1. (J. IIul)l)ard, from May 16, 1852, 
to April 1, 1866, thirteen years and eleven months; 
the Rev. W. J. llarri.s, from June 3, 1866, to January 
1, 1869, two years and seven months; the Rev. L. 
Sears, from November 1, 18(J9, to the present time, 
fifteen years and six months. 

St. Ann's Church (Roman Catholic).— In 1844, 
when the Catholic piipuhilioii nf the town numbered 
about six hundred. Rev. William McDonald was ap- 
pointed as their pastor. They connneneed worship 
the next year in Granite Hall, and, four years later, 
commenced the erection of a brick church, on the 
southeast corner of Merrimack and Union Streets, 
known iis St. Ann's. After they had begun to hold 
services in it, it was Ibund to be unsafe, and they were 
compelled to take it down and rebuild it. The prop- 
erty, including a parsonage, is now valued at about 
sixty thousand dollars. The venerable Rev. William 
McDonald still remains the pastor at St. Ann's, 

1 lly Kov. L. Soars. 



assisted by Rev. John T. Lyons and Rev. John 

Griifin. 

St. Joseph's Cathedral. — St. Joseph's Church was 
built in 1869, on the southeast corner of Lowell and 
Pine Streets, being dedicated April 18, 1869. Rev. 
John O'Brien was jiastor until 1877, being succeeded 
by Rev. Thomas D. Healy, who remained in charge 
until June, 1880, when Rev. Denis M. Bradley became 
pastor. Rev. James Doherty and Rev. F. X. Burke 
have been his assistants. This church, on the occa- 
sion of the consecration of its pastor, Rev. Denis M. 
Bradley, as first bishop of Manchester, was raised by 
the Holy See to the dignity of a cathedral, and is now 
known a.s St. Joseph's Cathedral. The right reverend 
bishop is assisted in attending to the spiritual wants 
of the people by Rev. Thomas Reilley, Rev. Denis 
Hurley and Rev. John Teniin. The church property, 
including the new episcopal residence, is valued at 
about one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars. 

Right Rev. Dexis M. Bradley, Blshop of Man- 
chester — Bishop Bradley was born in Castle Island, 
County Kerry, Ireland, February 25, 1846. His father 
died in 1853, leaving his widow to care for their family 
of six children. In 1854shecamewith them to America 
and settled in Jlanchester, N. H., where the boyhood 
of Bishop Bradley was jiassed. He attended the 
Catholic schools of Manchester, and fi)r a more lib- 
eral education entered the College of the Holy Cross, 
located at Worcester, Mass., where he was graduated 
in 1867. In September of that year he entered St. 
Joseph's Provincial Theological Seminary, located at 
Troy, N. Y., where, .June 3, 1871, he was ordained 
priest. Shortly after his ordinati(ni he was assigned 
to the cathedral at Portland, Me., by Right Rev. 
Bishop Bacon, where he remained nine years, 
during which time he filled the various positions ot 
rector of the cathedral, chancellor of the diocese and 
bishop's councilor under Bishop Bacon, and also 
under his successor, Bishoj) Healy. Close applica- 
tion and long-continued attention to his various 
duties at Portland impaired his health, and in 1879, 
with the view of regaining it, he went to Europe, 
where he remained six months, and returning but 
slightly improved by the change and rest, re-entered 
upon his duties at the cathedral, which had become 
even more exacting than when he left. After a short 
time, finding that he was unable to discharge the very 
laborious duties of his position, he was, on this ac- 
count, chosen by Right Rev. Bishop Healy, in June, 
1880, pastor of St. Joseph's Church in Manchester, 
N. H., which position he held until consecrated to 
the high jjosition of bishop. It having been found 
that the diocese of Portland, embracing, as it did, the 
States of Maine and New Hampshire, was too large 
to be properly cared for by one bisho]), the arch- 
bishop and bishops of the province of Boston united 
in a |)etition to the Holy See to create New Hamp- 
shire a new diocese, with Manchester as the Episcopal 
See. The Holy Father, in accordance with the prayer 




-^J^^ J^ '^-^ 



! 



MANCHESTER. 



105 



of the. petitiou, created the See of Manchester, and 
appointed Rev. Father Bradley its first bishop. He 
wa.s consecrated in his cathedral cliurch, in Man- 
chester, .June 11, 1884, by the Mo.st Rev. Archbishop 
of l!<.>ston, at the age of thirty-eight years, four montlis 
and six days, thus being the youngest person in the 
history of the Roman Catholic Church in the United 
States to hold so exalted a position. There were 
present at the consecration ceremonies the arch- 
bishop, six bishops and one hundred and eighty- 
five priests. Bishop Bradley luts under his juri-sdic- 
tion about eighty thousand Catholics, under the 
spiritual care of forty-five priests. There are in the 
new diocese forty churches, fifteen parochial schools, 
two academies for young ladies, two orphan asylums, 
one hospital and one home for aged women. 

Bishop Bradley is a gentleman of culture and has 
the confidence and respect of a large number of the 
citizens of the State, irrespective of denominational 
boundaries. 

St. Augustine's Catholic Church (French). — To 
Rfv. ,1. A. Chevalier's elliirts is iliu- the organization 
of the parish of St. Augustine. When he came here, 
in May, 1871, the French were worshiping at St. 
Joseph's and St. Ann's. He immediately took steps 
to organize a congregation of the French Canadians 
of the city, and soon held services in Smyth's Hall, 
which were well attended. Subsequently his followers 
Wiirshiped eleven months in a hall at the corner of 
Elm and Pleasant Streets, and then for two years in 
the church at the corner of Merrimack and Chestnut 
Streets. Meanwhile money for a church edifice had 
been raised, and one wjis in the process of erection at 
the corner of Beech and Sjinice Streets, its deilication 
ov urring November 27, 1874, which, with the parsoii- 
ag •, is valueil at sixty-five thousand dollars. Rev. 
Mr. Chevalier still remains the pastor, and is assisted 
by Rev. ('. Lfafcrtum''. 

St. Marie Catholic Church i French). — So large has 
been the increase of Manchester's French population 
that St. Augustine Church soon became inadei)Uate to 
accommodate the worshipers, and in l>i80-81 another 
church, St. Marie, was erected in VV est Manchester, 
on Beauport Street, nearly opposite the McGregor 
bri'lgc. Its dedication occurred in the spring of the 
latter year. The first pastor was Rev. .loseph I). 
Halile. He remaine<l in charge of the parish until 
March, 18.S2, when Rev. Peter Hevcy, the present 
I)astor, wiLs appointed as his successor. The church 
property, which includes a parsonage, is valued at 
eight thousand dollars. 

Christian Church.— September 21, 1870, in Whit- 
ney's Hall, Ferren's buililing, occurred a meeting 
which brought intoexislenee the Christian Churcli in 
thi> city. A society was organized October I9th of that 
year, and the men and women interested in what is 
technically known as the Christian belief held meet- 
ings in Whitney's Hall for a year. January 15, 1871, 
the Fir~t ('hristiaii ('Iiim<1i was organized. The first 



settled pastor was Rev. O. J. Hancock, assuming 
charge of the church August 6, 1871. The next month 
the place of worship was changed to the city hall. 
Jlr. Hancock left the church August 28, 1872, and 
shortly after was appointed superintendent of the 
Young Men's Christian Association. January 5, 1873, 
Elisha H. Wright became pastor, remaining until Sep- 
tember 9, 1876. The other pastors have been E. C. 
Abbott, from September lo, 187t), to February 10, 
1879 ; D. B. Murray, from April 1, 1879, to April 1, 
1880. The present pastor, Rev. Gideon T. Ridlon, has 
had charge of the church since December 18, 1881. The 
society owns no real estate, but leases Mirror Hall as 
a place of worship, which it has occupied since 187G. 
The church membership is one hundred and forty- 
one. 

St. James' Methodist Episcopal Mission Church. 
— This church was organized Juue 2, 1881, under the 
name of the People's Methodist Episco|)al Mission 
Church, with twenty-three nanies upon the member- 
ship list. Services were held in the city hall for 
eighteen months, the church then removing to the 
chapel that had been erected on Pennacook Street, 
near I'ine, and has since worshiped there, but for the 
hist few months under a new name, — the St. James' 
Methodist Episcopal Mission Church. The society 
greatly pro.spered under the ministration of Rev. 
W'illiam A. Loyne, who acted as pastor from its in- 
ception until April, 188.'), when he was succeeded by 
Kev. Otis .S. Danlurth. 

Second Advent Society. — Believers in the second 
advent doctrine held servicesinJIanchesteras early as 
1843, and have continued them most of the timesince, 
worsliiiiing in (iraiiite Hall, Merrimack Hall, in halls 
in Museum Building, Merchants' Exchange and Mar- 
tin's Block. In 1881 a church Wiis creeled between 
I'carl and Arlington Streets, near the Ash Street 
School-house. Not till 1870 did the Adventists have 
any organizatiim, but on the 1st of August in that 
year they formed a society on the biLsis of a belief in 
the spceily coming of Christ, and the adoption of the 
New Testament as a rule of life, making Christian 
character the only test of mend)ership. The present 
chapel was dedicated January 2, 1881. Tlie property 
owned by the Adventists, which includes a parsonage, 
is valued at five thousand dollars. Elder Charles R. 
Crossett, who had been pastor of the society since its 
reorganization, in May, 18H0, having resigned, a call 
was exti-nded to Elder B. .McLellen, of Lowell, which 
was accepted in October, 1883.- The Second .Vdvent 
Christian Association controls the property. 

City Missionary Society.— In the spring of 1847, 
.1. E. Seymour was iiii|iloyed as a city missioimry .by 
individuals interested in the cause of religion, who 
paiil bis salary and hired a hall, where he opened a 
Sunday-school and conducted religious services. In 
this way the idea of a free church was suggested, and 
the building on the northwest corner of Merrimack 
and Beech Streets was built in 18.')0,and dedicated on 



106 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



the 23d of October of that year. The land on which 
it stands was given by the Amoskeag Company, and 
tlie nioni'v which built it was the contributions of in- 
dividuals in the city, and of the ConfjiCjiatioual and 
I'rcsbytiTiuu Churches in the State. The property is 
held in trust, on condition that the seats in the church 
shall be free, and that public worship shall be main- 
tained by the Manchester City Missionary Society, 
which was leaally organized A|)ril 24, ISaO. Shortly 
after the church was liuilt it seemed desirable that a 
church should be regularly organized to worship there, 
and December 30, isr)2, it was formally organized un- 
der the name of the Christian Mission Church, which 
has been extinct ior many years. 

West Manchester Union Congregational Church 
was organized September 10, ISS.'i, with lifty members. 
Ira Barr, George Murdough and Adam Dickey were 
elected deacons, and Ira Barr clerk. On Thursday 
evening, September 13th, Charles F. Carter, of Chico- 
pee, Mass., a graduate of Andover Theological Semi- 
nary, was ordained and installed as pastor of the 
church. 

The building in which the society worships, located 
on Main Street, was constructed in 1820 by the resi- 
dents of Piseataquog who were of the Presbyterian 
faith ; but the occupants of the ten dwellings then 
constituting the village were not able to support a 
l)astor, and services were not held regularly, and in 
1842 the proprietors disposed of it. The |iurchasers 
fitted the upper portion for educational purposes, and 
an academy was opened that year. The Wesleyan 
Methodists held services in the lower part in 1855. 
For ten years, from 185(5, the Presbyterians occupied 
it, having organized a church in 185!). In 1870 the 
church l)uilding was given to Mrs. Mary P. Harris, 
through whose liberality it was repaired. She placed 
it in the hands of the Young Men's Christian Associ- 
ation, which leases it to the Union Congregational 
Society. 

Spiritualist Society. — Tliis society was organized 

DcriiuKcr. ISSO. 

German Church of the New Jerusalem. — This 



church was regularly 



orgaiiizei 



September 4, 1881, by 



Rev. A. O. lirickman. 

Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church.— This 
church was organized in .lunc, 1S82. Services are 
held al tlie Mission Chajiel. 

First Presbyterian Church (German). — Thechurch 
organization was effected July 2(>, 1882, by the Pres- 
bytery of Boston. The pastor, Rev. Fred. Erhardt, 
was installed October !(>, 1882. 

French Protestant Church. — The organization of 
this church was cllceted March 24, 1881, when the first 
pastor. Rev. Gideon .\ubin, wiis installed. 



CHAPTER \11. 

MANCHESTER— [Continued). 

Odd-Fellowship— Othur liOiiges and Societies — The IJlotljiet Ciinal — 
Driving Park — Court-House — Cemeteries — Water-Works — Fire I>e- 
partnieut — Tlie Amoskeiig \'eterana — Military Record, ISCl-Co — List 
of Officers and Privates — Soldiers' Mouument. 

Odd-Fellowship' as understood and practiced in 
j this country, though, in a measure, the outcome of an 
1 English order, is emphatically an American institu- 
[ tion, and will ever be so regarded in history. It 
claims no great anti(iuity. Its origin is not clouded 
I in the misty legends of ages long since written on the 
scroll of time. No raysterios surrounded its birth ; 
no Eleusinian rites attended its baptism; no Druidic 
ceremonies were performed as it entered upon its ca- 
reer of usefulness through the instrumentality of men 
then only known in the humblest walks of life, seek- 
ing to lighten the burdens of a common humanity 
and to promote the interests of those banded together 
for a common purpose. The leader in this fraternal 
and benevolent enter])rise, that has now culminated 
in one of the grandest charities of this or any other 
age, was Thomas Wildey, an Englishman by birlh, 
an American by adoption. A mechanic by trade, of 
generous impulses, po.ssessing a sympathetic heart 
and an open hand, soon after his arrival in Baltimore, 
and while struggling for a livelihood among those <if 
his own class in a portion of the city visited by want 
and pestilence, he conceived a scheme of mutual 
assistance and self-help in time of sickness and gen- 
eral misfortune. To this, he thought, might be added 
the pleasures of a social hour when the toils and bur- 
dens of the day were at an end. Full of this iileaas he 
|)loddcd at his trade or rested his weary body at iiigbt 
upon a scanty bed, with the encouragement of one 
sympathetic soul only, John Welch, he ventured to 
call a meeting at the Seven States Tavern, on Second 
I Street, for consultation. This meeting occurred on 
the 2Hth day of April, 1819, at which time five pcr- 
I sons were jiresent, whose names have liecome distiii- 
I guished, and one of which, at letist, is immortal, for 
the part taken in the organization of a world-wide 
charity. We give their names for historic reference: 
' John Welch, John Duncan, Richard Rush worth. 
1 John Cheathem and Thomas Wildey. These were 
■the founders of Washington Lodge, No. 1, still ac- 
tive, whose humble, commencement marks the origin 
of American Odd-Fellowship, now grown to be one 
of the largest, most successful and eminently popular 
fraternities in the world. Thomas Wildey, in a 
special sense, was the father and founder of American 
Odd-Fellowsliiii, and his great name will ever be as- 
sociated witli this wonderful mission of humanity in 
the world. 

Owing to adverse circumstances and the unrelent- 



' By P. <i. M, .loseph Kidder. 



MANCIIESTKK. 



107 



ing prejudices that existed against all secret societies 
in our country, the growth of Odd-Fellowship was 
Blow and feeble. At the end of two decades there 
were only one hundred and thirty lodges, with a 
membership of less than ten tliousand. The total 
revenue fell below sixty thousand dollars, while the 
annual relief did not aggregate five thousand dollars. 
In 1840 the bulk of the lodges were located in Mary- 
land, New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia, while in 
thirteen other States and Territories the order had 
gaine<i a foothold only. .Vboutthis time jjcople began 
to consider the exeelleney of its principles, and to ad- 
mire its unselfish charity and benevolent works. In 
three years it took a rapid stride and more than tri- 
pled its lodges, membership, revenues and relief. A 
widespread interest was awakened, and its growth 
became almost unparalleled in the history of the 
organization. Like a huge wave, started at the centre 
of the sleeping lake, it widened and broadened its 
circles until its influence touched nearly every State 
and Territory in the Union. It was during the latter 
part of the year 1843, September 11th, that it gained 
a foothold in New Hampshire in the organization of 
Granite Lodge. No. 1, at Nashua. -Vt that time Man- 
chester, now the queen city of the State, was only a 
vigorous little town lying on the east bank of the 
Merrimack River. The population was small, but 
the people had great expectations. Among those 
drawn to the embryo city in the hope of acquiring 
weahh and achieving an honora1)k' reputation among 
their fellows were men of liberal views, sagacious 
instincts and benevolent imi)ulses. An.xious to pro- 
mote the material interests of the place and to better 
their own condition in legitimate ways, they were 
still not unmindful of the claims of society for a higher 
civilization and better systems of relief to those in 
sickness and in want. In various ways they learned 
of the new benevolent and fraternal order,Jii.st estab- 
lished in a neighboring town. They desired to test 
its practical value by personal knowledge. They 
would see and know if its pledges and promises were 
fulfilled through its daily works, anil if the results 
would justify the necessary expenditure of time, 
money an<l effort to organize a lodge. Five of this 
class ajiplied to Granite Lodge and were admitted to 
membership and took their degrees, sis the preliminary 
8t<'ps for a branch of the order at Manchester. .Vrraed 
with the necessary papers, they ai)plied to the proper 
source fur a charter, and on the 21st day of December, 
18o;i, Ilillslporougli Lodge, No. 2, was duly organized 
by grand ofhcers from MiLssachusetts. The names 
of these pioneers, representing different trades and 
professions in life, were Dr. Charles Wells, Walter 
French, .lames M. Harncs, Isaiah Winch and .Taeob 
Ci. C'illey. These brothers, one after the other 
having fullillcil their mission, dropped out from the 
earthly life and entered the lodge of the unknown. 
The last to part with his lodge was the venerable Dr. 
Wells, who died December 28, 1884. Of those ad- 



mitted to the lodge on the night of its institution only 
one remains. John S. Kidder, a native of Manchester. 
I The first Noble Grand of the lodge wjus Captain Walter 
French, a man of noble presence and generous im- 
pulses, who lost his life May (>, 1853, in a terrible rail- 
road accident at Norwalk, Conn., while returning from 
a l>usiness engagement in the South. 

Popular from its org.inization, Hillsborough Lodge, 
like the county from which it derived its name, has 
ever occupied a pnmd positicm among the social and 
fraternal .societies of the State. In all, there have 
been received to membership during the forty-two 
years of its existence nearly one thousand brothers, 
embracing representative men from all the honorable 
walks of life. Deaths, withdrawals and other causes 
have reduced the nund)er. so that now the list shows 
less than four hundred in good standing, — the fourth 
lodge in membership in the jurisdiction. Its total re- 
ceipts aggregate sixty thousand dollars, while the dis- 
bursements in charity and relief alone have reached 
twenty thousand dollars. Its present assets, exclu- 
sive of furniture, fixtures and other property, are 
811,046.45. Since its organization it has never 
omitted its regular weekly session for the transaction 
of business, and the continuous meetings, without in- 
terruption, in round numbers, are two thousand two 
hundred, — a record, perhaps, which no social, religious 
or benevolent society in the State can claim. The num- 
ber of Past Grands falls a little below one hundred. 
For thirty-two years in succession the lodge has cele- 
brated its anniversary with approjiriate services in the 
presence of brothers and their families and invited 
guests. This lodge is as permanently established as 
any church in the city, and enjoys a high reputation 
for works of charity and love. 

Odd-Fellowslii|) in .Manchester grew up with the 
town and city. On the 21st day of November, 1845, 
on the petition of Horace (lordon and six other 
brothers holding withdrawal cards from Hill-sborongh 
lodge, our late brother, Samuel H. Parker, then 
Grand Master, in accordance with the laws of the order, 
issued a dispensation for Mechanics' Lodge, No. 13, 
and after the institution installed the oflicers. 

It was an event of unusual inlerest. The new 
lodge started with the approbation, prayei-s and best 
wishes of the mother-lodge. Its growth was phenom- 
enal. Under the wise administration of its charter 
members and others attracted to its membershiji, it 
soon became a social ami fraternal power, ami as- 
sumed high rank among its sister organizations. 
Three of its members, viz., .lolin I '. Lyford, (Jcorge W. 
Weeks and Charles H. Brown, were elected Granil 
Masters of the Stale, and subsequently occupied the 
distinguished positiiin of representatives in theSover- 
eigTi Grand Lodge at Maltimorc. Many of its brothers 
have filh'd important places in the city government, 
and exerted a large influence in the social and civil 
affairs of the State. To-day, numerically. Mechanics' 
Lodge is the largest in the Stati', and financially it is 



108 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



■on a. solid basis, having a surplus above its present 
needs of twenty thousand dollars or more. Its mem- 
bership per last report was lour hundred and twenty- 
four. Its prospects for the future are of the most 
i'heering character. 

From the returns in the office of the Grand Secre- 
tary, it appears that in 1852 there were thirty-nine 
subordinate lodges in the jurisdiction, with a total 
nu'nibership of twii thousand five hundred and seventy. 
Through various adverse circumstances during a 
jieriod of eight years, Odd- Fellowship in New Hamp- 
shire experienced a retrograde movement. In 1860 
there were only twenty-three lodges, sixteen having 
become dormant or extinct, reporting only sixteen 
hundred and forty-one members. The outlook was 
discouraging, and many brothers dropped out of the 
order, with the general impression that it would 
soon collapse, aud its mission prove a disa.strous 
failure. In this hour of darkness to the fraternity, 
a few noble brothers, with unflinching faith in their 
hearts, and willing to make personal sacrifices in 
behalf of "Friendship, Love and Truth," re- 
doubled their diligence, in the full assurance that 
their labors would not be in vain. Brother George 
W. Weeks was Grand Master; and, conscious of the 
responsibility placed upon him by the Grand Lodge, 
with the encouragement and assistance of a few 
whose faith in the institution and its grand princi- 
ples never faltered, even in the darkest hour, he gave 
his best efforts in l)chalf of the trust committed to his 
charge. The outflow from the order was stopped. 
The doubting were confirmed ; the feeble made 
strong. The clouds lifted, and again the sun shone 
on the enterprise so dear to faithful hearts. The 
year closed with the loss of a single lodge, but with 
an increase of seventeen members in the rjtate. The 
year 1860 was the pivot on which the order turned. 
It was under Brother Weeks' administration ; and 
from that day forward, now a period of twenty-five 
years, there has been an annual increase in our num- 
bers, until to-day we report seventy lodges in good 
condition, with an honored membership of more than 
nine thousand in the (iranite State alone. Fidelity 
to our principles aud faithfulness to our brothers 
during the war with the South commanded universal 
respect, and brought hundreds knocking to the doors 
of the lodges, who would scarcely have known of the 
order but for the protection, assistance and comfort 
it brought to the soldier on the tented field, in the 
camp, the hospital and the prison-pen. 

In 1866 several young men, members of Hillsbor- 
ough and Mechanics' Lodges, petitioned Grand Mas- 
ter Doe for a new lodge to be located at Manchester. 
The movement was ai)provcd by the old lodges and 
some of the influential brothers. On the 8th day of 
August, Wildey Lodge, No. 4"), was instituted, with 
imposing ceremonies. Henry A. Farrington, since 
■Grand Master and Grand Representative, for his zeal 
And aitivitv in the movement, wa.-* elected the first 



Noble Grand; and he performed the arduous duties 
with much credit. Like its predecessors, Wildey 
Lodge has made for itself a history of which the 
order may well be proud. Probably no lodge in the 
State has upon its rolls so many professional men, 
iiuluding lawyers, doctors, ministers and teachers, as 
Wildey Lodge. In point of ability, character and 
efficiency, it is the peer of any in the State, and will 
ever do its part to bear aloft the banner on whose 
folds are inscribed the beautiful emblems of our 
order. Its present membership is nearly three hun- 
dred. Bearing the honored name of the father of 
American Odd-Fellowship, may the members ever 
emulate the zeal and persistency of the founder of 
the order, who gave his long and useful life to the 
dissemination of our j)rinciples. So shall Wildey 
Lodge be a pillar of cloud by day, and a i)illar of 
fire by night, to lead many weary feet into the paths 
of virtue, plenty and peace. 

Beside the three subordinate lodges here mentioned, 
there are other branches of the order in Manchester 
of which we would speak. Wonolanset Encampment, 
No. 2, has a membership of two hundred and twenty- 
five; and Mount Washington, two hundred and eight. 
Ridgely Camp, No. 2, of Uniformed Patriarchs, num- 
bers about one hundred, composed mo.stly of young 
men who have a taste for military movements and 
military display. The rich uniforms and the fine 
martial bearing of the Patriarchs constitute a feature 
of nuicb attraction when the members are on parade. 
During the summer they usually make an excursion 
or two out of the State for recreation and amuse- 
ment. 

Social Rebekah Degree Lodge, No. 10, is said to be 
the largest and best organization of the kind in the 
world. It numbers nearly five hundred members, 
about equally divided between the sexes. It has 
been organized more than ten years. With the ex- 
ception of Noble Grand, the officers are mostly ladies. 
Between the several bodies here named the most 
friendly relations have ever existed, and they work 
in the utmost harmony to promote the best interests 
of the fraternity. They jointly occui)y apartments in 
Odd-Fellows' Block, a building owned by the order, 
and worth fifty thousand dollars. Residing in the 
city are seven Past Grand Representatives to the 
Sovereign Lodge. The order in the city is a great 
power for good, and is so regarded by the people. 

In Hillsborough County there are twelve lodges, 
eijual to one-sixth of the seventy in the State. They 
are located as follows, viz.: Granite, No. 1, and Pen- 
nichuck. No. 44, Nashua; Hillsborough, No. 2, Me- 
chanics', No. 13, and Wildey, No. 4o, Manchester; 
Peterborough, No. 15, Peterborough ; Wel)ster, No. 
24, Gotfstown; Mount William, No. 37, North Weare; 
Valley, No. 43, Hillsborough Bridge; Aurora, No. 49, 
Hollis; Waverly, No. 59, Antrim; Gustos Morum, No. 
42, Milford. These twelve lodges embrace a member- 
ship of two thousand two hundred, or very nearly 



i 



MANCHESTER. 



109 



onc-i|uarter part of all the Otld-Fcllows in the .*^tatf. 
From this Dic;igre sketch somcthiug may be learned 
of the hold the order has on the people of the county, j 
and the miglity, salutary influence it may exert on | 
all the institutions within her borders. With seventy 
thousand dollars of surplus means, every dollar of 
which is sacredly plcdfred to the relief of its mem- 
bers, with the intellectual and moral force represented 
by the brotherhood, together with the friendship and 
love begotten of the order, there is reason to believe 
the institution is permanently located in our midst, 
and will i>ro8per for an indefinite period. ' 

Other Societies. — Among other societiea, etc., are 
the following: 

Knights of Honor. — Alpha Lodge, No. 245, instituted 
March 11, 1876; Temple Lodge, No. 2065, instituted 
February 27, 1880; (rolden Rule Lodge, No. 2445, in- 
stituted April 2il, 1881 ; Alpine Lodge, No. 2886, or- 
ganized December 28, 1882. 

Knights and Ladies of Honor. — Harmony Lodge, 
No. 423, instituted April 13, 1881; Unity Lodge, No. 
642, instituted March 30, 1883. 

Knighinof Pg/hiuK. — Granite Lodge, No. 3, instituted 
April 8, 1870; Merrimack Lodge, No. 4, instituted 
May 6, 1870; Endowment Rank, Section 26, instituted 
December 18, 1877 ; Knights of Pythias Mutual Aid 
Association, instituted May 23, 1872; Knights of Py- 
thias Uniformed Battalion, instituted May, 1882. 

United Order Golden Cross. — Grand Commandery, 
instituted .May 1, 1870 ; Manchester Comnuindery, 
No. 89, instituted December 8, 1879 ; Mizpah Com- 
mandery, No. 181, instituted February 1, 1882. 

AyidenI Order of United Worhne/t. — Pioneer Lodge, 
No. 1, instituted August 9, 1878; Security Lodge, No. 
8, instituted April 20, 1883. 

Ruyal Arcanum. — Delta Council, a mutual benefit 
association, instituted Jlay 8, 1878. 

Ancient Order of Foresters. — Court Granite State, No. 
6790, instituted April 4, 1881. 

United Order of rUgrim Fathers. — Webster Colony, 
instituted July 5, 1881. 

Improved Order of Bed Men of New Hampshire. — 
Pasiiaconnaway Tribe, No. 5. instituted April, 1881. 

Provident Mutual Relief Association. — Sub-Associa- 
tion No. 38, instituted May 1, 1879. 

Order of the Iron 7/'///.— Instituted July 20, 1883. 

American lycgion of Honor. — Rock Rimmon Council, 
No. 40, instituted October 14, 1879. 

Patrons of Husbandry. — New ilanipshire State 
Orange; .\moskeag (irange. No. 3, instituted August 
26, 1873. 

Grand Army of the Republic. — Lncampment Louis 
Bell Post, No. 3, organized 1868 ; Mutual Aid Associ- 
ation, instituted March 3, 1876. 

Manihcster War Veterans. — Organized in 1866. 

Sons of Vetrrans. — Camp W. W. Brown, No. 1, or- 
ganized October, 1882. 

Sons of St. George.— llcurt of Oak Lodge, No. 91. 
Oerman •Societies. — Turnverein, organized 1870; 



Order of the Harugari, Barbarossa Lt>dge,No. 329, in- 
stituted February 4, 1874. 

£oat Clubs. — Cygnet, instituted June 21, 1882; 
Emerald, organized .\ugust 19, 1881; Emmet; Leo; 
Longwood; Northern Star, organized .Vugust 23, 
1879; Shamrock; Star; Trident. 

Military. — First Regiment New Hampshire Volun- 
teer Jlilitia; Head Guards, organized July 24, 1865 ; 
Manchester City Guards, organized March 17,1873; 
Sheridan Guards, organized August 1866; First New 
Ham|)shire Battery, Platoon A, organized August 31, 
1868 ; Amoskeag Veterans, organized in 1854 ; Man- 
chester Cadets, organized in 1873 ; Amoskeag 
Zouaves, organized June 13, 1883. 

Independent Order of Good Templars. — Grand Lodge 
of New Hampshire, organized October 11, 1865; 
Union Degree Temple, No. 20, instituted February 21, 
1876; Stark Lodge, No. 4, instituted May 31, 1865; 
Merrimack Lodge, No. 4, instituted December 6, 1866; 
Harris Lodge, No. 45, instituted May 22, 1878. 

Royal Templars of Temperance. — Granite State 
Council, No. 1, instituted November 28, 1878. 

Hanover Street Temperance Society. 

Sons rf Temperance. — Instituted March 12, 1S83. 

Catholic Temperance Societies. — St. Paul's Total Ab- 
stinence JIutual Benefit Society ; St. John's Total 
Abstinence and Mutual Benefit Society, instituted 
February 18, 1875. 

Woman's Christian Temperance Union. — Instituted 
November, 1874. 

Reform Club — Instituted May, 1874. 

The Old Ladies' Home, located on Hanover, corner 
of Pine Street. A benevolent enterprise, which owes 
its existence to the thoughtfulness of Rev. William 
McDonald, is this institution which adjoins the Or- 
phans' Asylum. It was established in 1880, anditsob- 
ject is to provide a home for aged and indigent women. 
The Home is in charge of several Sisters of .Mercy. 

<SS;. Patrick's Orphan Asylum. — It was instituted in 
1870, and was first located on Laurel Street, and in 
the same year, upon the purchase by the Roman 
Catholics of the Harris estate, at the corner of Han- 
over and Pine Streets, for which fitVy-five thonsaud 
dollars wa.s paid, it was moved to that place. The 
asylum is designed to supjily a hotne for orphans and 
sick and needy women, and is under the direction of 
Sister Mary Ligouria, assisted by a number of Sisters 
of Mercy. Instruction is given in the elementjiry 
branches of education, and the children arc also 
trained in housework. This worthy benevolent in- 
stitution was founded by Rev. William .McDonald, and 
the funds for its maintciumce are contributed by St. 
Ann's Church. 

W(/mcn'» Aidand Relief //os;7i7a/.— This institution, 
located in Bakersville, was established by the Man- 
chester Women's ,\id ami Relief Society in 1878, llie 
free use of the building, owned by the Amoskeag 
corporation, having been tendered for this purpose 
by the late ex-Governor E. A. Straw. The building 



110 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



has been put in thorough repair, enlarged by the ad- 
dition of another story and otherwise adapted to its 
purpose. It is supported and controlled by the 
Women's Aid and Rclief'Society, and its main pur- 
pose is to provide a home and nui-siug for the indigent 
sick, but patients who are able to pay are received 
when desired, it' there are beds unfilled. 

Miscellaneous.— New Hampshire Agricultural So- 
<'iety ; New Hami)shirc Poultry Society, organized 
1867; New Hampshire Fish and Game League; New 
Hampshire Press Association, organized July 25, 1868 ; 
Manchester Women's Aid and Relief Association, in- 
stituted Janu.ary 21, 1875 ; Manchester Board of 
Trade — President, Daniel Clark; Manchester Grocers' 
Association, instituted May 16, 1862 ; Manchester 
Teachers' Association, organized February 16, 1883 ; 
Manchester Scientific Association ; Chautauqua Lit- 
erary and Scientific Circle, organized October 1, 1880; 
the Grattan Literary and Dramatic Association ; 
Dartmouth Alumni Association ; High School Ly- 
ceum ; trustees of the Elliot Hospital, incorporated 
in 1881 ; Electric Light Company, chartered by the 
Legislature of 1881, and organized with a capital of 
twenty-five thousand dollars; New Hampshire Tele- 
gragh Company, chartered July 10, 1876 ; Northern 
Telegraph Company, organized in 1866; The Granite 
State Telephone Company (Bell patents); Opera- 
House Company ; Uncanoonuck Road Company, 
chartered June 26, 1877 ; Amoskeag Honorary Asso- 
ciation, instituted December, 1881 ; Young People's 
Working Association, organized November, 1882; 
Philharmonic Society, organized October 16,1883; 
Ancient Order of Hibernians, No. 1 ; Ancient Order 
of Hibernians, No. 2, instituted November 20, 1880; 
Ancient Order of Hibernians, No. 3, instituted June, 
1882; St. Patrick's Mutual Benefit and Protective 
Society, organized March, 186H; St. AugustineSociety, 
organized June 16, 1878, incorporated March 7, 1882; 
St. Jean Baptiste Society, instituted April, 1871 ; 
Toadies' National League, instituted December, 1880; 
Irish National League, organized April 13, 1883 ; 
Sodality of the Blessed Virgin Mary, organized April, 
1860; Young Republicans' ]..eague, organized October 
4,1882; Young Men's Democratic Club, organized 
December, 1882; Franco-Canadien Naturalization 
Club, instituted August 11, 1882; Derryfield Club, 
organized April 13, 1875; Jackson Literary Club, 
instituted December, 1880; Manchester Bicycle Club, 
organized March 22, 1882; Manchester Rifie Club, 
instituted May 7, 1883 ; Manchester Shooting Club, 
organized April 2, 1879; Society for Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals, organized June, 1880; Manches- 
ter Horse Railroad, incorporated 1876; Mendelssohn 
Choral Society, organized October 16, 18S3; Thalia 
Club, organized August 1, 1883; JLirnionic Society, 
instituted October 22, 1883 ; Gazaille Transmitter 
Company, chartered by the New Hampshire Legisla- 
ture in 1883. 

The Blodget Canal. — The first projector of inter- 



nal improvements in this section of theState was the 
Hon. Samuel Blodget, who was born in Woburn, 
Mass., April 1,1724. He was an active and persever- 
ing man. He bad been a sutler in the colonial wars 
and also in the War of the Revolution, a judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas, and a merchant with exten- 
sive business connections. He located at Amoskeag 
in 1793, and soon conceived the idea of building 
around the latter a canal, through which might be 
carried to market vast quantities of lumber from the 
Ibrests which grew on the banks of the river. He be- 
gan work upon it May 2, 1704. He lost time and 
money in a vain attempt to make practicable a lock of 
his own invention, and it was not until May 1, 1807, 
having spent all his own fortune and what money he 
could raise by lotteries, that he saw his work done. 
He died on the 1st day of September of the same year, 
and his canal, passing into the hands of the proprietors 
of the Middlesex Canal, was of great benefit till the 
railroad destroyed its usefulness and it went to decay. 

Judge Blodget was a far-sighted man. He invited 
Boston capitalists to build in Derryfield the mills 
which others erected thirty years after, and, in antici- 
pation of their construction, he bought the clay lands 
where the well-known Hooksett brick are made to- 
day. It is well written on his monument in the Val- 
ley Cemetery that he was " the pioneer of internal 
improvements in New Hampshire." 

The following is a copy of Blodget's charter for the 
canal : 

" To the honoral>le the SetKtle rf: House of Representatives of the State of 
yeir Hampshire^ the Petition of Satituel Blodget most respeet^fitlli/ shewcth — 
"That a spirit of enterprise and exertiun has cif lute been wunderfully 
.Tnd successfully displayed by the citizens of a neiglihouriiig State in the 
erection of briilges and formins of canals, even in places which, not 
many years since, were esteemed impracticable — that a canal round 
Patucket falls is nearly conipleatod — that another leading from sjiid falls 
to Boston, by a mul not exceeding twenty miles, will bo commenced 
next spring — that a third carried n>und the falls at Amoskeaj; would, in 
coiyunction with these, open a direct water communication with Boston 
k Newburyport to the inhabitants of an extensive country on the banks 
of the Merrimac above said falls, the wood and timber of whose forests 
are now of inconsiderable value, occasioned principally by the loss of 
imtnensc quantities of lumber of the most valuable kind in passing over 
tile falls ; a melancholy proof of which they at all times exhibit— that 
your petitioner is fully convinced that the whole of this loss may bo pre" 
vented by a canal — that under this conviction be has purcbiuied the only 
piece of ground over which one is practicabb — A has actually entered 
ii{)on the enterprise, with an intention to risque his fortune in accom- 
plishing a work of so much public utility. — Your petitioner, therefore, 
relying on the public spirit of the honoralilo Court, requests that your 
hoiu^rs will take the premises into consideration, and gratit him a Char, 
ter, by which he nuiy bo secured in the peaceable enjoyment of the valu- 
able property, which he is about to invent in the proposed canal — A 
assign him a reasonable toll to compensate him for his services ; A giro 
him leave to bring in a bill accordingly. 
**.\nd as in duty bound shall evei' pray 

"Sam" Bi.onoKT." 

Post-Offices. — The fiist post-office in this town was 
established at the "Center" in 1831, with Samuel 
.Jackson postmaster, a{)poiiited by President Andrew 
Jackson. Mr. .Jackson held the office until it was dis- 
continued in 1840. 

The first post-office in what is now the city proper, 
then known as " Amoskeag New Village," was estab- 



MANCUESTEll. 



Ill 



lislicd in February, 18-HI, with Jesse Duiicklee as post- 
MKtstcr. Tlie following is a list of the postmasters 
Jiom that time to tlie present : Jesse Duncklee, from 
IV'bruary, 1840, to March, 18-10 (deceased) ; Paul Cra- 
'zin, 1840—15; Warren L. Lane, 1845— 19 ; James Her- 
M.y, 1849-53 ; Colonel Thomas P. Pierce, 1853-«1 ; 
havid J. Clark, 18iil-t)5 (deceased) ; Colonel Bradford 
I'.. Cilley, 18(J.5-70; Joseph L. Stevens, 1870, present 
incumbent. 

The Amoskeag post-office was established in 1828, 
with Samuel Kimball as postmaster. 

The post-office at Gotlc's Falls was established in 
1872, with Isaac \V. Darrah, postmaster. 

The Piscataquog post-office was established in 1810, 
with James Parker postmaster. He was followed by 
Jonas B. Bowman, James McKeen Wilkins, Colonel 
John S. Kidder and Leonard Kuiidlett. The office 
was discontinued al)out 1840. 

The Water-Works.' — So rapid was the early 
growth of Manchester that a pressing need for a 
public water supply came earh' in her municipal e.x- 
istence, and earlier than public opinion was prepared 
to indorse the undertaking of an enterprise of su<-h 
magnitude. Some bitter experience must needs first 
■come as an educator, and it did come from time to 
time, as in several tires among the mills, the burning 
•of the town-house, the destruction of the public 
library and museum, of several newspaper offices, of 
the State lleform School building, of important com- 
mercial buildings, and finally of an extended conHa- 
gratioii, destroying a whole sijuare in the heart of the 
city in 1870. 

The construction of a public water supply is, with 
rare exceptions, the most important matter which any 
municipal organization is forced to consider, inaugu- 
rate and push on to completion, or, on the other 
hand, to hinder and defer, while the necessity and 
devastation continue. .Vfter the burning of the 
town-house, in 1844, a committee of citizens was 
chosen to consider the question of a water supply, 
but the citizens were not yet ready for united 
action. An aqueduct company was chartered by the 
Legislature in 1845, and the city, although invited, 
declined to take stock to aid the private enterprise. 
Other charters were obtained from the Legislature in 
1852, 1857 and 1865, but the city still declined to 
foster the enterprise or to agree to pay for public fire 
hydrants, but constructed some fire-cisterns in the 
streets. In the mean time there was a thirty thou- 
sand dollar fire in the Stiirk Mills, a sixty-five thou- 
sand dollar lire in the Print-Works, and the library 
was destroyed. 

In 1860, Hon. .Tames A. Weston, Jacob F. James 
and Ilev. William Richardson made an extended re- 
connoisanee, covering all the sources available to the 
city, and prescnteil the information gathered to the 
City ('ouncil.s. Mr. J. B. Sawyer prepared a report in 



> Bj J. T. Funning, O. E. 



1869. Early in 1881 the City Councils ajjpoiuted 
a committee to consider anew the question of a 
public water supply. This committee employed Wil- 
liam J. Mc.Vlpine, an eminent engineer, to advise 
them, and embodied his report with their own for 
presentation to the City Councils. 

The report of this last committee, following as it 
did soon after a disa.strous conflagration, led to a peti- 
tion to the Legislature for the passage of a water act. 

An "Act to enable the City of Manchester to 
establish Water- Works " wiis passed on the 30th of 
June, 1871, and " An Ordinance in relation to Water- 
Works " was i>asscd by the City Councils on the 1st 
day of August in the same year. 

This ordinance vested the management of the water- 
works in the mayor ex-officio and six other persons, 
to be elected by the Board of Mayor and Aldermen, 
and styled the Hoard of Water Commissioners. 

Immediately after the i)assage of the ordinance, 
.Messrs. E. A. Shaw, E. W. Harrington, William P. 
Newell, Aretas Blood, Alpheus Jay and A. C. Wallace 
were elected water commissioners, and Hon. James 
.v. Weston, being mayor, became a member of the 
board ex-nfficio. 

On the following 7th of August this board per- 
fected its organization by the election of Hon. E. A. 
Straw as president of the board and Hon. S. N. 
Bell as clerk. 

The ordinance provided that one of these original 
commissioners should go out of ofiice each year, and 
that one member should be annually elected in the 
month of September, for a si.x-year term, by the Board 
of Mayor and Aldermen. 

There had been up to this time, and still continued 
to be, much diversity of opinion as to which was the 
best source of supply, and confiieting opinions as to the 
system of sui>ply and the design of various details of 
the proposed work. The earnestness with which these 
matters were publicly discussed and difl'erenl sources 
and plans advocated led to the pa.ssage of a resolution 
by the City Councils instructing the commissioners to 
examine different systems of water-works in different 
cities, in order that the best, mo.st economical and 
advantageous mode of sup|)lying the cily with water 
might be adopted. 

A majority of the board, complying with the 
instructions of the Councils, visited several cities in 
New England, and also M(mtreal, and carefully noted 
the peculiarities and ellectiveness of different systems 
of water supply. While at Norwich, Conn., they met 
Colonel J. T. Fanning, engineer of the water-works 
then recently completed in Norwich, anri engineer 
also of water-works in several other cities, and invited 
him to make for them an examination of the sources 
of water supply available t<> the city of Manchester, 
and to report upon the sources and method of supply 
which he shoulil deem most advisable for the com- 
missiiiners to adopt. 

In the mean tijiie the commissioners obtained per- 



112 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



mission to use tempi)rarily a supply of water from the 
Amoskeag Manufacturing Company's reservoir for 
fire purjjoses, and pii)es of ciglit inches diameter were 
laid from the company's main, on Brook Street, along 
Chestnut, Pearl, and Pine Streets, to Merrimack 
Street. This line of pipe was commenced in the 
autumn of 1871, and completed in the following 
spring, and immediately filled with water for a fire 
protection. It included about one and three-eighths 
miles of pipe and seventeen fire hydrants, and cost 
$10,141.15. 

On completion of the preliminary surveys and re- 
port, in the autumn of 1871, Colonel Fanning was 
appointed chief engineer to the Board of Water Com- 
missioners. The additional surveys, plans and esti- 
mates necessary for a detailed comparison of all the 
sources were completed in the spring of 1872, and the 
results embodied in a report to the commissioners 
under date of March 1st, and the report contained a 
general map showing all the sources considered. 

The nearest and most ample volumeof water being 
the Merrimack River, early consideration was given 
to this source. The Merrimack waters could be 
pumped to a reservoir that might be conveuieiitly lo- 
cated on the hill east of the State Reform School 
building, but experiments with the water showed that 
it must necessarily be filtered when the river was 
above the ordinary spring level, and that proper fil- 
tration would require a heavy annual expense for 
operation, and a ccmsiderable expenditure for con- 
struction of filter-beds of sufficient capacity. The 
Piscataquog River was examined and carefully studied 
also. It having been urged by a few of the citizens 
that some of the small ponds northeasterly of the city 
would furnish sujjplies of water. Dorr, Chase, Burn- 
ham and Stevens' Ponds were thoroughly investigated, 
and found, by proper computations, to yield entirely 
inadequate supplies for the immediate needs, irrespec- 
tive of the future needs of a growing city. At Ma- 
ple Falls, in the southea-stern part of the town of 
Candia (distant about eight miles from the city hall) 
were found natural features admitting the construc- 
tion of a fine storage reservoir of nearly four hundred 
acres area, and of considerable mean depth, and hav- 
ing a water-shed of about ten sciuare miles. This 
storage reservoir would have been at an elevation of two 
hundred and twenty-three feet above Elm Street at 
the city hall, and is the only gravitation source near 
the city that was found to be worthy of adoption. 
Southeasterly of the city lies Lake Massabcsic, having 
an area of nearly two thousand four hundred acres and 
water-shed of about forty-five square miles. The out- 
let of the lake is about four miles from the city hall. 
Analyses of the Massabcsic water showed it to be 
of most excellent (juality for domestic and industrial 
uses. The vegetable organic matter in the water was 
found to be l.CG grains, and mineral matter l.Ki grains, 
or a total of 2.82 grains per gallon, equivalent to 4.7 
parts in 100,000 parts. The stream flowing from this 



lake is known as Cohas Brook, and enters the Merri- 
mack River at Gofte's Falls. 

On Cohas Brook, about one-quarter of amile below 
the outlet of the brook, near the old McMurphy mill- 
site, a dam was located and raised to the level of the 
water in the lake. This, with the canal below the 
lake, gave a fall of forty-five feet available for power 
where the pumping-station was located, near the ter- 
mination of the canal. In the pumping-station were 
located two pairs of pumps, of the vertical bucket- 
plunger class, of combined capacity to pump a maxi- 
mum of five million gallons of water in twenty-four 
hours. Two Geyelin-Jouval turbines were placed Id 
the building to drive the pumps, having a combined 
capacity of two hundred horse-power. A pumping- 
station was constructed of bricks, with slate roof, to 
contain this machinery, and attached to the station 
is a commodious tenement for the attendant in charge 
of the pumping-station. 

A reservoir of about thirteen million gallons ca- 
pacity was constructed near the church at Manches- 
ter Centre. The water of the lake is lifted by the 
pumps one hundred and thirteen feet from the lake to 
the reservoir, and as the reservoir is elevated one 
hundred and fifty-two feet above Elm Street at the 
city hall, the water flows from thence throughout the 
city by gravity. This reservoir was filled on its com- 
pletion, near the close of September, 1874, but the 
pumps had Itcen started early in the previous July, 
pumi)ing the water through the distribution pijies, 
with the surplus flowing into the Amoskeag Com- 
pany's reservoir. The force main from pumps to res- 
ervoir, eight thousand one hundred and seventy-one 
feet in length, and supply main, eight thousand tour 
hundred and ten feet in length, from reservoir to Elm 
Street, are twenty inches in diameter. The entire i>ipe 
system contained, at the completion of the original 
works, at the close of 1874, one hundred and tweuty- 
two thousand and seventy-one feet of pipes, one hun- 
dred and seventy-two stop valves and two hundred 
and fifteen public fire hydrants, and seventeen thou- 
sand six hundred and two feet of small service pipes, 
laid by the commissioners from the street mains to 
the property lines for the supply of water consumers. 

The cost of constructing the works, including cost 
of lands, water-rights and preliminary surveys, was 
$614,009.83. The cost of service pipes, meters and 
oi)crating expenses during construction of the works 
wiis 820,028.75. On the 24th of October, 1874, a 
public test was made of the water-works by the city 
Fire Department. During the test sixteen hydrants 
were brought into simultaneous use, twelve of which 
were supplying leading hose-streams and four su])ply- 
ing steam fire-engines, and thus twenty powerful 
streams were arching over Elm Street and its loftiest 
buildings at the same time, presenting in the sunshiny 
October afternoon a most brilliant and beautiful scene, 
and strengthening the confidence of the citizens in 
the capacity and efliciency of their public watersiip|ily. 



I 



MAXtllESTER. 



113 



On com|iU-ti(m of the original works, Mr. Charles R. 
Walkor became their supiTintenilent, and has retained 
the office ten years. At the close of 1884 the amount 
of pipes laid had increased to 229,916 feet, about 43.5 
miles, the .stop-valves to 310 and public fire hydrants 
to 371 in number, and the service pipes, to a total of 
65,7t)t) feet, supply 247(i consumers of water. 

In the mean time the total cost of construction, in- 
cluding the extensions of the pipe system, had reached 
1824,989, and the annual income of the water-works 
for water sold had reache<l $75,580, or nearly ten per 
cent, on the cost. During the ten years the works 
have been in operation no contiagration has resulted 
from the many fires started, and every fire within 
reach of the works has been extinguished so promptly 
that there has been no material loss at any single fire. 
The original cost of the works has undoubtedly been 
saved to the citizens in iirevention of losses by fires, 
while the city now finds that it has been a financial 
investment that willf by its income, soon reimburse it 
for the original outlay and further an investment that 
will return to its citizen proprietors an almost incal- 
culable annual interest of safety, comfort, convenience 
and health. 

The Manchester Driving Park Association was 
organized 1 )e(eiiilier 1, l.Ssii, and its first ofiicer^ were 
as follows : President, John B. Clarke ; Treasurer, 
James A. Weston ; Clerk, Samuel F. Curtis ; Direct- 
ors, John B. Clarke, A. C. Wallace, C. D. Welch, A. 
D. Uooden, Alpheus Bodwell, Samuel F. Curtis and 
George W. Riddle. Subsetpiently John B.Clarke re- 
signed the otlice of president, and fieorge W. Riddle 
was elected in his place. 

The association, after a careful examination of va- 
rious sites for a suitable location for a park, decided 
to jiurclia.se forty-five acres situated in the southeast- 
ern section of the city, on the line of the Xutt road 
and the Manchester and Lawrence Railroad, one mile 
and three-iiuaiters Iroiii the post-office. The land was 
considered well adapted to the purpose, and though 
nothing better than a rough pasture with some wood- 
land, it was transformed in four months' time into an 
attractive park, and was visited the first week in Sep- 
tember by thirty thousand people. This exhibition 
of entcrjirise was but one of the many which have 
been characteristic of Manchester people whenever 
they have sought to add a new feature conducive to 
the interests and pleasures of the city. 

The jiark is furnished with all the conveniences of 
a first-class driving i)ark and liiir-grounds, including 
grand stand, i)ress stand, restaurant, judges' stand, 
cattle-])eris, stables, building for bench shows of (logs, 
poiillry-lionse, etc. 

The Parker Murder. — The history of Manchester 
would be iiicoiiiplrte with no reference to the murder 
of .lonas L. Parker. Tiie facts were as follows: f)n 
Wi-dnesday evening, March 2(>, 1845, a man called at 
the bowling saloon, on Manchester Street, belonging 
to Mr. Parker, stating that a Mrs. Bean, from Lowell, 
8 



desired to see the proprietor on important business at 
Jauesville. Mr. Parker passed out of his saloon to 
accompany the gentleman, first securing a lantern, as 
the night was so exceptionally black, that " as dark 
as the night of the Parker murder" has since become 
a household phrase. On the way to their destination 
the two men crossed Pine to Merrimack Street, and 
soon took a i)atli that led through a heavy growth of 
pine, and from this forest, in the vicinity of what is 
now the corner of Beech and Manchester Streets, the 
cry of "murder!" was .soon heard; but none dreamed 
that it heralded the monstrous crime. "Oh, don't, 
don't I" was supposed to be the outcry of .some one 
being placed under police surveillance. The morning 
light disclosed the terrible ghastliness of a murdered 
man upon a bed of snow. Mr. Parker lay with 
trachea doubly severed and deep gashes about the 
hips, and wounds on other parts of the body were 
discovered by Coroner .Joseph M. Rowell. The 
appearance of the ground indicated a mighty struggle 
for life against a fiend armed with razor and butcher- 
knife, incited by the knowledge that thousands of 
dollars were upon the person of the victim. About 
sixteen hundred dollars escaped the rapacity of the 
murderer. Mr. Parker held the office of tax collector 
the year previous, and the collector's book, then in his 
possession, bore the impress of blood-stained fingers. 

Several persons were suspected of the crime, arrested 
and tried, but no one was convicted, and the mystery 
of the Parker murder, after a lapse of fi>rty years, is a 
mystery still. 

The County Court-House, located on the corner 
of Jlerrinuick and Kr;iiikliii Streets, was erected in 
1868, at the cost of forty thousand dollai's. It is a 
two-story brick building. 

Cemeteries. — The oldest burial-place under the 
control (d' the city is what is known as the Valley 
Cemetery, which was given to the town by the Amos- 
kcag Company in 1840. It contains about twenty 
acres. Pine Grove Cemetery contains about fifty- 
four acres, and is located about two and a half miles 
from the city hall, between the Calef and River roads. 
Other cemeteries are the .\nioskeag, St. .Joseph, St. 
Augustine, .Mount Calvary; also the old burying- 
ground at the Centre; one at Gotl'e's Falls; one in 
West Manchester; one near the school-house at 
Harvey's Mills, called the Merrill Cemetery; one in 
the eastern part of the city, known as Stowell's 
Oroniid; the Bay Cemetery, on tlie River road, near 
Ainoskeag Falls; the Forest Cemetery, on the ohi 
Weston farm, in the southeastern part of the city : and 
a small yard in the north part of the city. 

Fire Department. — In 1839 the town votc<l to buy 
a (ire-eiigine ami necessary apparatus. To this single 
engine others were added from time to time until eight 
or ten engine and hose companies were under the 
city's conlrcd, when the first steam fire-engine was 
bought in 1859. This was also the first one macle by 
the Amoakeug Company, whose engines have since 



114 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



gained a world-wide celebrity. This invention wrought 
a revolution in the Fire De])artnient, and, as more 
steamers were added, the haud-matihines were with- 
drawn and the memborsliip diminished until the de- 
partment acquired its present projiortions. The fol- 
lowing is the organization of the department; 

Chief Engineer, Thomas W. Lane; Clerk, Fred- 
erick S. Bean; Assistant Engineers, Orrin E. Kim- 
ball, James F. Pherson, Frederick S. Beau, Horatio 
Fradd. 

The following is a list of the companies, giving the 
location and the names of members : 

Amoskear Steam Fire-Engine Company, No. 
1. — House, 30 Vine Street. Foreman, James R. Carr; 
Assistant Foreman, Charles F. McCoy; Clerk, Frank 
E. Stearns; Driver, George W. Butterfield. 

N. S. Bean Steam Fike-Ex(;ixe Company, No. 
4. — House, 22 Vine Street. Foreman, Eugene S.Whit- 
ney; Assistant Foreman, Edgar G. Abbott; Clerk, 
John Martin; Driver, Jeremiah Lane. 

Penxacook Ho.se Company, No. 1. — House, 24 
Vine Street. Foreman, Albert Maxfield ; Assistant 
Foreman, Clarence D. Palmer; Clerk, Joseph E. Mer- 
rill; Driver, Walter L. Blenus. 

Massabesic Hose Company, No. 2. — House, Ma- 
ple Street, corner East High. Foreman, John F. 
Seaward; Assistant Foreman, Revillo G. Houghton; 
Clerk, Parker W. Hannaford; Driver, Walter Sea- 
ward. 

E. W. Harkinoton Hose Company, No. 3.— 
House, Clinton Street, Piscataquog. Foreman, .John 
T. G. Dinsmore; Assistant Foreman, William Doran; 
Clerk, Joseph Sihofield ; Driver, John T. O'Dowd. 

Meukimack Hose Company, No. 4.— House, Park 
Street, corner JIassabesic Street. Foreman, George 
B. Forsaith; Assistant Foreman, Louis N. Dufrain; 
Clerk, John S. Avery; Driver, Charles H. Rogers. 

Excelsior Hook-and-Ladder Company, No. 1. 
—House, 16 Vine Street. Foreman, Milo B. Wilson; 
Assistant Foreman, Jerome J. Lovering; Clerk, Oscar 
P. Stone; Driver, Charles .M. Denyou. 

Independent Hose Company, No. 5 (Volunteer 
Company).— House, Main Street, corner Old Falls 
road (Amoskeag). Foreman, George I. Ayer ; Assist- 
ant Foreman, Shernuui L. Flanders; Clerk, George 
L. Stearns. 

Two steamers. Fire Kixci, No. 2, and E. W. Har- 
rington, No. 3, also one hook-and-ladder truck, are 
"on reserve duty," to be called in ca.se of need, and 
manned by members of the department. There is 
also a two-wheeled hose-carriage at Derry Mills, 
Gofle's Falls, for use by men employed at mills. 
There are three hundred and seventy-one hydrants 
(not incluiling those in mill-yards) scattered over the 
city, supplied from water-works. 

There is in the department nineteen thousand five 
hundred and fifty feet of fire-hose. 

Total value of apjiaratus is fifty-seven thousand 
four hundred and thirty-four dollars. 



Fire-Alakm Telegraph. — This valuable adjunct 
to the Fire Department was constructed in 1872, and 
comprises about twenty miles of wire, traversing the 
com|)act ]>art of the city, and reaching to .Vmoskcag 
and West Jlanchester, Hallsville and Bakersville. 
There are thirty-si.x alarm-boxes, whose keys are kept 
at adjacent houses or stores, and six strikers, situated 
on the city hall, the Lincoln Street, Webster Street 
and Ash Street Scliool-houses, the engine-house in 
West Manchester and a tower at the north end of the 
city. There are also gongs at the engine-houses and 
the residences of the engineers and others. 

Firemen's Relief Association. — Organized Feb- 
ruary 14, 1873. Designed for the relief of any of its 
members who may be injured or disabled at a fire. 
The following is a list of its officers: 

President, Thomas W Lane; Vice-President, James 
F. Pherson; Secretary, Joseph E. Merrill ; Treasurer, 
Horatio Fradd ; Executive Committee, — Amoskeag, 
No. 1, George R. Simmons; N. S. Beau, No. 4, E. G. 
Abbott; Pennacook Hose, No. 1,W. L. Blenus; Mas- 
sabesic Hose, No. 2, R. G. Houghton ; E. W. War- 
rington Hose, No. 3, John Patterson; Merrinuick 
Hose, No. 4, George B. Forsaith; Hook-and-Ladder, 
No. 1, Jerome J. Lovering. 

The Amoskeag Veterans. — This well-known or- 
ganization is next to the oldest veteran corps in New 
England, the exception being the Ancient and Hon- 
orable Artillery Company of Boston. The Amoskeag 
Veterans is an independent company, and wa.s organ- 
ized November 6, 1854, at a meeting of which Hon. 
Hiram Brown was chairman and Hon. C. E. Potter 
clerk. 

The first oflicei-s were as follows: 

William P. Riddle, colonel ; William Patten, first lientenant ; Samuol 
.\ndiew6, second lieutenant; Hiraiu Brown, first major; K. T. 
Stevens, second ninjor ; Sainnel W. Parsons, first sergeant ; Jacob (». 
Cilley, second sirgeant; S. M. Dow, third sergeant; Reuben D. 
M"oet«, fourth sergeant; .lames Wallace, first corporal ; Phinohas 
Adams, second corporal ; E. G. Guilford, third corporal ; lliomas 
Rundlett, fourth corporal ; .Tolin S. Elliot, surgeon ; William W 
lirowu, surgeon's mate; Deujaniin M. Tillotson, chaplain; .lames 
llersey, treasurer ; Frederick G. Stark, Daniel ('. Gould, John S. 
Kidder, George Porter, Theodore T. Abbott, executive committee. 

The objects for which it was organized were desig- 
nated by the constitution to be military parades, the 
protection of life and property, the iireservation of 
the peace and social enjoyments. Its first parade and 
ball occurred February 22, 1855. 

The following is a list of the commanders of the 
veterans from its organization to the present time: 

General William P. Riddle, 18S4 ; Colonel Chandler E. Potter, 18".'i 
Colonel Theodore T. Abbott, 18.17 ; Colonel Thonuis Rundlett, 181", 
Colonel Henry T. Mowatt, 1862; Colonel Chandler E. Potter. ISM; 
Colonel David Cross, ISM ; General Nott Head, 18(18 ; Colonel JIartiii 
V. B. Edgcrly, 18":i ; Colonel George C. Gilmorc, 1S75 ; M. V. li 
Edgerly, I87i; ; A. C. Wallace, 1877 ; D. A. Simons, 1878 ; N. W. 
Cumner, 1879-80; Henry C. Merrill, 1881; frank A. McKeaii, 
1882-83 ; Geo. H. Chandler, 1884 ; Henry H. Huse, 1885, 

The Amoskeag Veterans include the most proiiii- 
iieiit and influential citizens of Manchester and ad- 



i 



MANCHESTER. 



115 



joining towns, and is one of the celebrated military 
bodies of New England. 

Prior to the organization of this corps there liad 
been several independent companies organized in Man- 
cliester, viz. : Manrliester Rifle Comj)any, organized 
in lS2o, under command of Captain James McQues- 
tion; the Stark Guards, organized .Vugust 10,1840, 
Captain Walter French; the Granite Fusileers, 
organized August 10, 1842, Captain Samuel \\\ Par- 
sons; the National Guards, organized August 17, 
18«>.3; and the Smyth Rifles, organized in 1865. 

Police-Station. — The present p(»lice-station was 
ereited in }>^<'k It is located on the c(»rner of Man- 
chester and Chestnut Streets. It is a neat and sub- 
stantial brick structure, with granite trimmings. 

War of 1861-65.— The following list of soldiers 
was furnished l>y Manchester during the late Rebel- 
lion : 

FIRST UEGIMENT. 

Uicbanl N. Batchelder, <|imrteriiiaster ; Fraocie H. Pike, tife-mtviur. 

Compani/ C. — Joho L. Kt-lly, Murlin V. B. Richardson, CharlcB 0. 
Jviiiiiwiii, Micliaol O'Flynn, Wiiliniii Mayiio. Robert Lo.viJ, Patrick Bo 
ban, Cbuilos J. AiHJrews, (')iarles 11. Allen, .lames W. Allierlon, Abm- 
bain Bn>wn, Frank Burr, Jeronm Blaisdoll, William H. H. Black, 
n«iiiy B*jum;ll, C'harleji \. Cressc-y, Ilafikcll P. Cutlin, Francis Caliill, 
Chark'8 Conner, Tbomas F. Gary, Francis II. Conner, Jobn W, Clark, 
Gtrorge U. Clianiplin, Augustus B. Caawell, Cliarles H. IX-merrett, Ed- 
ward <». DtKige, Jolm M. Evans, Page Ciould, John GurdrnT, John Goff, 
Daniel Gile, Mantbatl IIuU bins, Frank It. Ilackett, Witliam W. llaMvl- 
tou, .losepb Ilasulton, Sumner A. Ilixl^^kins, Dennis Hynes, Dsuiel Kid- 
der, Frank L. Kendull, .lohn L. Lear, William 3Iajor, Charles Mace, Jr., 
Aldeii E. >I«lcalf, Charles II. Jlorrison, Frederick G. Manning, Slicbael 
MardtfQf William F. Ordway, Samuel W. Pierce, Robert Richards, Al- 
bert E. Rogers, (Jeorge F. Rennett, James Rooney, George W. Uinglar, 
David \\. Rolling E<iniund T. Reynolds, Noble :*quarefi, Charles li. San- 
bum, AddifMiu W. Tobio, George Weiivur, George W, Wells, Thomas 
Welch, RoU^'rt McAnalsey, Peter O'Brien, K<lwin F. Bjildwin. 

Company H. — William H. D. CiK:hmne, Christian S|iicer, Ernest 
Weinbold. 

iJomptXMXf A'.— HoUifl 0. Dudley. 

SECOND REGIMENT. 

Thomas P. Piorco, colonel ; Samuel G. I^ngloy, ailjutant ; Sylvanus 
Bunt<.>n, Hur^reon. 

Oomitautj .1.— Cliarlea 0. Tuttio, John C. Bcnarcbad, .\lbert Lovett, 
Patrick McGrutb, Alexander Bellic, John W. Riley, Julius A. Alexan- 
der, Thomas .Xdams, Jobn (.-olenian. 

Corii/iuti|/ /J.— George Nelson, Thomas Kennoy, Charles Donnully, 
George Coyle, All>ort Kalnon, George Bullen, Jnhn Camnicl, Michael 
Culligan. 

Oom;>'nit/ C— Michael Mnllins, John Smith, David Brown, James II. 
Piatt, Richard A. I^wrence, Benjamin F. Cliaac, Alvin h. Wiggin. 
Truik O. Robinson, Alfred W. Berbain, Lemuel M. Cox, Abner II, 
Glenivnt, Duvid W. Colbiirn, Frederick R Allen, John A. Bjirker, 
Charles W. Bruwn, William Calef, Henry F. Carey, John II. Cole, Har- 
Tey M. Ctilby. Andrew 31, Connel, George W. Cmig, lla/en Davis, Jr., 
John Dnris, Fre<ierick W. Deurlwrn, Tburlow A. Emerson, Henry II. 
H. Everett, Bernard J. Farley, Williani Fit/gcrald, Barnett E. Fowler, 
Charles L. French, George R. Hanson, Cornelius Hjistings, William Bt. 
l1olme>«, Jubn Adams, Wilham Brown, I>uniel DnfTee, GeiM'Ke Dexter, 
Janiert Grinin, George (iilbert, James HowanI, Thoimts Jones, William 
Jnmw. Williatii Kdley, Tboniiis Lorkhiirl, Peter Lnwson, Tiewin Suver- 
•DCe, ]>nniel Miirry, Jubn Ni-wton, Jitnies P<-aks, Willnini I>a\is, Lewis 
FlitU-, Cboilis A. McLanriEn, Harvey Hill, William HudKou, James J. 
Lord, John A. .Ma«>>n, Elijah Muiih*, Charles McGlaugblln, George F. 
Perr)-, George Pickuj*, Timothy H. Pike, Jonatlmn C. Qulmby, .lobn K. 
Blcbanls, George H. Sargent, AlfW-d 1. Sanborn, William .'<mitb, John 
H. Stearns, Alvin R. Smith, Hunitlo N. Stevens, Luroy H. Sherburne, 
Charles L. TalKir, William H. Tilton, George B. Tuttio, Franklin R. 
TuikiT, Franklin F. Weiberbeo. 

OtiHpnn]! /). — .lainiw Dalton, William Flynn, George Scbullz, Thomas 
•Smith, John Thom|Mon, .\rtbur McGinnisH, Earnest Waltham, Samuel 



Woods, Jobu McDonald, John Gibson, James Johnson, William Conner, 
John Lane. 

C'<my*«»y E. — John Gartley, James Tracey, John Miller, Thomas 
Riley, Terrence Riley, Henry Schwenke, Edward Smith, John Cos- 
telle. 

Cotiipunn F. — Joseph Leramons, John Jarchan, Henry Ronton, Henry 
Bntnk, James Cunningham, John l>onuolly, George McCoriiiick, Charles 
SIaM>n. 

Oitnpnuy G. — .\ndrew Quinn, William Brown, William S. Bennett, 
.\udrew Christeusen, Michael Corcoran, Charles Elliott, Willinm H. 
French, Custer Jackson, John Peters, William Steele, Charles Smith, 
Jubn Travis. 

Company H. — Tbomafi Beatry, George P. Williams, Frank .\. Eastman, 
.\bial A. Haunarord, Lucius Farmer, Heno' J- Flanders, Nathaniel F. 
Swett, Joseph Tallen. 

Com2>any I. — David M. Perkins, Rodney A. Manning, Thorndike P. 
Ueatb, William H. Griffin, Hazen B. Martin, Edward L. Bailey, Joseph 
A. Hubbard, Oscar .\. Moar, .\Ibion Simonds, .\lbert E. Shotes, .\rthur 
E. Buckminster, Perkins C. Lane, Charles Vickerj', Charles H. Smiley, 
Stephen J. Smiley, Samuel T. Newell, Daniel W. Newell, William H. 
Appleton, Lynmn M. .Vldricli, James G. Burns. Fnink M. Hoiitelle, 
Nicholas M. Biglin, James R. Carr, John S. Callcy, Leonard B. Corliss, 
Jesse E. Dewey, George B. Damon, Lyman A. Dickey, Moses L. East- 
man, (->rriu S. Gardner, Joseph H, Gleiison, Nonnan E. Gunnison, Eu- 
gene G. Hazewell, Maitin A. Haynes, Charles T. Hardy, Luther P. 
Hubbard, James M. House, Jloses A. Hunkins, Edgar D. Keiiaston, 
George F. Lawrence, John E. Ogdeu, Samuel H. Oliver, Chailes K. Par- 
roti, Henry M. Pillf^burj-, Solon K. Porter, .\lbert B. Kfibinson, Levi 
H. Sleeper, Jr., Josiah S. Swain, William W. Wood, Charles B. 
Wright. 

Company A*. — Benjamin F. Ashton, Charles G. Sargent, James 
Curley. 

Company I'nhtoicn. — Samuel Easkie, Charles Wing, John Williams, 
I William G. Slark, James Donnolly. 

I THIRD REGIMENT. 

.Vlviu H. Libby, atljutant ; Henry Hill, chaplain ; Harrison B. Wing, 
' principal musician. 

Ompuny ^.—Rufua F. Clark, Jubn R. Hyuee, Ruthven W. Houghton, 
j Frank L. Morrill, Charles A. White, Roger W. Woodbury, Thomas 
Johnson, Jubn N. t_'hiise, Amos D. Baker, Thomas T. Moore, (ieorge E. 
Jubnson, Richard T. Holland, Samuel George, John W. Evans, John M. 
Evans, William Hammett, James Sullivan, George J. Woodman, Al- 
bert G. Dane, George H. Webster, Kli K. Bowman, Samuel 1>. Brels- 
fords, Daviil Bryant, James (i. Femald, Cliarles 0. Ferson, Edward 
Shelmn, John F. Stokes, William E. Hamnett, William L. Bennett, Ini 
J, .\dams, Haskell W. Bantill, Charles N. Buckinan, George W. Bridge- 
ham, William 0. D. Brown, Harrison S. Cass, Robert A. Challis, Albert 
N. ("lougli, Daniel F. Culby, Harrison J. Copp, Gideon Coty, H. J. Cum- 
mings, Charles o. R. l)avis, Joseph Dupray, Charles <}. Emery, C'harles 
0. Fei-sou, W. W. Flanders, John Flood, George T. Fogg, Thomas F. 
Gay, .Vlbert George, Charles 0. Gibson, Charles Gilbert, Walter A. 
Green, Cyi-us Gorman, John W. Goodwin, Thomas Hanson, Henry T. 
Hatch, John Houseman, William S. Ilodgmau, An^Irew J. Holmes, Wil- 
liam II. Huntress, William M. Karney, George H. Lawrence, Luke 
Leaf, George W. Lee, Samuel H. Little, Nathaniel Marshall, James Mc- 
Ewen, David H. Newton, Stephen W. Nlles, Austin E. Perry, James 
D. Proudman, William H. Ramsey, John II. Sjinder**, Geerge H. Web- 
scei-, Hiram C. S'luires, Collins P. Tebbetts, Leander White, John R. 
Wbittcn, William II. Carter, George S. Thomas, Edward Reynolds, 
.Mpheus Chickortng. 

fyiutpany C— John Kerwin. Michael J. Connelly, Thomas Casey, 

Hugh DulToy, Matthew Byrns, John Casey, John JlcClemens, John 

Crosbie, Eugene Cadorath, John IZagan, Timothy Ilealoy, Robert O'Con- 

nell, .Michael E. A. Galvin, Thomas McEnry, Michael T. Donoboe, 

I Robert II. Allen, Wall«r Cody, Joseph J. Donehue, James Wilson, John 

I Currnn, Byron Costellu, Patrick Larkin. John Mclntire, Diiniel Maho- 

\ ney, David Moure, P«ter Pelkey, James <.^uinlan, James Sniiib, Lewis 

Potter, Charle* Hall, Stephen Welsh, Biistin Miir-shalt, William Allen, 

Peter Smith, Joseph Potter, Edwin O'Brien, Francis Sberiibin, William 

Spraguo, Ednnind Htu-kett, George .Mien, William Hukor, John Barrett, 

John Ikioth, George H. Briggs, David Bryant, Bernard Farry, James 

Henderson, Robert P. Murry, Gwtrge A. Woodburn, Sjinmwl Whittjikor, 

James Welch. 

Compttnii D.— William H. Maxwell. 
Company K— George Stearns, James B. F. Towns. 
' Vomitaay (1. — (liarles Gilbert. 



116 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Qfmpnnt/ ff— Clmrles K. Freuch, Henry B. Eastman, Henry C. Page, 
(Thai-les Hiirvey, Jacol> BoutellB, Albert Blood, Charles F. Biirnbani, 
John S. Cole, Kdwani Cotter, John B. Pavis, >\'illiaui II. Foster, Fnink 
Ferren, William Gracy, David Gracy, Levi Gardner, Cliarles E. Harris, 
William H. Hill, Fninkliu Halladay, William E. Handy, Isaac H. 
Kingsbury, Kobert C. Dow, Henry F. Hopkins, Morris Hennessey, 
RobtTt Vincent, Walter J. Richards, Eben R. Adams, David A. Page, 
Julius Griggs, littnson Blake, Daniel N. Atwood, Ameiicus Briggs, Al- 
bert H. Luckwood, James O'N'eil, Alb-rrt H. Stevens, Donald Smith, 
William Todd, James Walsh, George Bailey, John Cruwsou, Peter tiiiig- 
ley, William H. Knox, William H. Knowlton, Daniel Luce, Alexander 
Le Mudge, Alden E. Metcalf, Daniel S. Morrison, Charles Morgan, 
Jerome B. McQueston, George Munlough, Timothy Parker, Waller 
J. Richard, James C. Roach, Albert IL Stevens, Volney F. SimmoDS, 
Joseph H. Wallace, Anson T. Williams, Patrick Woods, Patrick 
Welch. 

Compamj I. — William Johnson, David Earles, William G. Nichols. 

Oompany K. — Edwin Brackelt, James H. A. A. Stead, John Whitney, 
Fnincis Boyutou, Thomas Robinson, Andrew McNeil, Thomas Thomason, 
Varnum H. Hill, Corwiu G. Parker. 

FOURTH REGIMENT. 

John L. Kelly, quartermaster ; Benjamin F. Fogg, conimisoary 
sergeant . 

Bawl. — Walter Diguam, Francis H. Pike, Henry Slurpby, Lemuel H. 
James, John O'Brien, Alonzo Buntin, Frederick T. Page, Samuel A. 
Porter, John Harrington, William Dignam, Eugene K. Foss, H. Augus- 
tus Simonds, Eliphalet Dustin, Juhu Googin, Orrin X. B. Stokes, Henry 
Lewis, James A. Fanihain, ReinhoUl T. Trumblum. 

Company A. — Patrick BIcGee, Augustus Stenger. 

Company B. — Martin J. Staunton, Slarlin V. B. Richardson. 

Compuny C. — Jackson Dustin, Joseph L. C. Miller, Perley B. Rand, 
George D. Stiles, George S. Tuck, William 0. Woodbridge, George M. 
Kidder, Cornelius E. Parker, Robert A. Seaver, Daniel W. Rollins, 
Eben H. Nutting, Alanson W. Barney, William G. Burke, Daniel W. 
Knox, John Lovett, Byron Putnam, William E. Kubinson, Chauncey 
Smith. 

Cotnpafiy D. — Charles O. Jennison. 

Comjxiii^ fc'.— Frank B. Hutchinson, Cyrus H. Hubbard, Charles H. 
Reed, Stephen Kendrick, Charli-s Whiting, Edward O. Hill, Thomas L. 
Newell, Francis V>'. Parker, .\iidrew J. Edgerly, John IL Baker, Alvard 
E. Wilson, Charles M. Whiting, Robert Hume. Edwin Weatherstield, 
Lyman Wyman, Charles Bracket!, John Malone, John L. 9Iaek, James 
M. Dickey, John Lynch, Anson K. Hall. Frank A. Allen, Edaon Wyman, 
Horace G. Heath, Woodbury Wyman, John G. Hutchinsi.in, Horatio N. 
Bicklord, George F. Davis, Charles H. Williams, George W. Williams, 
Frank Matthews, Oscar Perkins, Orrin Corrigan, William H. Webster, 
Charles A. Newton, Hermann Greager, Thomas S. Burns, Kmory Wy- 
man, Michael Curdy, Caricton C. Richardson, William K. Cobb, Henry 
C. Osgood, John P. Smith, Charles A. Newton, John G. Hutchinson, 
Charles H. Allen, William H. H. Allen, Francis A. Allen, Rufus Bailey, 
William Bonner, James M. Cummings, Patrick Castless, Isaac K. Colby, 
Charles A. Cressey, Owen Corigen, Joseph P. Cressey, Amos Cressey, 
George E. Dunell, James M. Dickey, Jr., Daniel Emery, John Fallon, 
AlpheuHi D. I-'Iag, William Gunneil, James F..GritRn, George H. Harris, 
William Magerty, John Hobert, John Hackett, William B. Hart, Charles 
H. Lee, John Lynch, Charles C. Livingston, Lewis S. ]MerrilI, James 
Mocklor, Harlan E. Page, Levi Putnam, Thomas P. Philbrook, Ben- 
jamin F. Quimby. Daniel S. Russell, Henry K. Richardson, George W. 
Robinson, Larkin Sargent, John Stewart, Joseph T. Snow, Benjannu 
Si>aulding. 

Ojiitpanii F. — William Haskell, Charles L. Brown, James Murphy. 

Company (;.— Peter O'Brien, Lyford Hunt, Michael Shaunnessey, 
Dennis Ilines, William H. Brooks, James ]SI. Fogg, John Ganluer, John 
E. Gerry, Charles C. Mai-sh, John ItluHen, Michael Bliwldcn, Dana 
Runels, Dennis Walnh, William Beede, Edward Fields, Thomas J. Gal- 
vin, Patrick Conway, .Vmos W. Brown, Morris Foley, Penni» Glle, 
Zi?bina .\nni8, John Smith, Stephen C. Chapman, Frank Buss, Elbrldge 
Geary, Patrick Dowd, Richard Smith, Charles P. Glcason, Peter O'Brien, 
Jerome Blaisdell, Fnuiria Cahill, George A. Runneln, James M. Allen, 
Michael Brosiuihau, William H. Brooks, Jaiui-s Merrow, Fii-derick D. 
Wood, Jeremiah Spelan, George H. Stewart, Charles T. Maitlen, Pat- 
rick Broderick, Terreiice Tniwley, William Gunston, Jeremiah Kellehor, 
John Pickett, Daniel Sullivan, William Sullivan, Cornelius Sullivan, 
Owen Tully, Lawrence Hern. Michael SIcHugh, John Smith, Ricliard 
Smith, John Frank, Peter Williamsiin, AVilliam H. Thompson. Patrick 
Brt>derick, AInios Cushing, Patrick Donnelly, James Donovjin, Itenj.tniin 



F. Fogg, Edwanl Field, James Ferry, Thomiis Follen, Hiram B. Frost, 
Louis J. Gillis, James Garman, Dennis Hoynes, John Howard, Cornelius 
Kennedy, Dennis Keefe, James Larkin, John 0. Mastin, Charles C. 
Marsh, Patrick McDonald, James Melasky, Charles Marden, Frank 
Quinn, John Quinn, James Quinn, Patrick Quinn, William II. Rey- 
nolds, Michael Reardon, Timothy Reardon, JIartin J. Staunton, Ashel 
Stoddard, Abraham S. Sanborn, John Shea, I>eunis Tehan, Francis B. 
Willey, Dennis Walch, Clark E. Wilson, John Walch, John SDirphy, 
Owen Tulley. 

t'oiitpuny II, — William Bonner, Orren Bush, Daniel H. May, Charles 
H. Bartlett, Samuel D. Marckrey, Bartholomew Maloney, Curtis R. 
Hartly. 

Comjiatty I. — Geerge W. Stevens, Ephraim F. Brigham, Jonathan 
P. Nicholw, John H. Powers, Heruian Nichols, Benjamin K Quimbyi 
Benjamin H. Smith, Benjamin W. Smith, Enoch C. Stevens. 

Company K. — Job R. Giles, Harvey M. Weed, Charles L. Batchelder, 
Charles M, Currier, George W. Hackett, Israel N. Gale, Samuel B. Mace, 
James Wyman, Albert G. Ormsby, Clinton Farley, John F. Davis, Gsorge 
E. Fitch, JoIhi Barry, Beiijamiu Welch, Robert Clayton, Geurg*- W. 
Stevens, .^lorris C. Wiggin, Samuel M. Dole, William U. Sanborn, Mon- 
roe Stevens, Joseph Wallace, Fernando C. SpauUling, Benjamin Harts- 
horu, William S. Barker, Joseph W. Bailey, Albert Cass, Edward Dolion, 
James Fern, Frank A. Garland, Charles A. Hackett, Frederick W. Lou- 
gee, Patrick O'Conuell, Nelson J. Pierce, William H. Perkins, Horace J. 
Parker, William Shever, Homtio H. SteTeiLS, Heury D. Tompkins, 
George Wyman, Joshua B. Webster. 

Oympnnij Unknoim. — James H. German, William Hall, William A. 
Viltnian. 

FIFTH REGIMENT. 

Samuel G. Langley, lieutenant-colonel. 

Company A. — Thomas Brown, John Evans, Charles Taylor, .\lfred 
Brown. 

Company B. — George Stanton. Frank Howard. Tliomas Knight, James 
O'Connell, .Alexander Hos*, William Hickman, John Myers. 

Vomp'iny E. — Walter Summertield, George H. Houghton, t>8car E. Car- 
ter, Cornelius H. Stone. 

Company F. — George B. Jenness. 

Company 0. — Thomsis Smith. 

Company H. — WarreTi Clark, Samuel T. Smith, James Stetson, GoorgV 
Bradley, Abram Cameion, Edward Chopjienger. 

Company I. — George Nichols. 

Company Unknown. — Walter Barnes, Hila Davis, Thomas Burns, 
ThonuLs B. Langley. 

SIXTH REGIMENT. 

Company .1. —Charles White, Charles B. Seavej'. 

Company B. ^Charles J. Gardner, Edward R. Barnett, Charles L. 
Davenpt»rt, Allison Towns, 
Ounpauy IJ. — John Fitch. 
Com2>any K. — Ti Tison, Owen Kelley. 
Compantf Unknown. — Lafayette Pettingill. 

SEVENTH REGIMENT. 

Joseph C. Abbott, lieutenant-colonel ; William W. Brown, surgeon ; 
Henry Boynton, assistant surgeon. 

dmtpuny A. — Nicholas Gill, Granville P. Mason, Edward May, Virgil 
H. Cate, William C. Knowlton, James Williams, Oliver P. Hanscom, 
James .\pplelon, Benjamin F. Clark, .John S. Merrill, Granville L. Ful- 
ler, Henry Burke, John Hobin, Charles H. Hall, William R. Thompj-uu, 
Henry S. Benton. 

Company B. — Charles H, Dwiunels, .\ltVed B. Shemenway, Henry G. 
Lowell. 

Company C. — Robert Rochester, Charles F. G. Ames, Patrick Crosby. 

Company D. — Frank Moore, James Collins, John .\Ilen. 

Company E. — Henry F. W. Little, George F. Robie. Michael Dean, 
Charles G. Pyee, Henry C. Dickey, Joseph Blanchett, Lewis .\sh, George 
W. Putnam, Louis Seymour, Erian V. Villingham, Charles H. .Vbbott. 

Company F. — Francis M. Kennison, Thomas Gilmore, John Harking. 

Company G. — Waller McDonald, Patrick ,0. Day, James Doberty. 

Company I. — James McCarty, Joseph FreschI, William Smith, CbarleA 
Caiue, John 0. Silver, Avery Bixby, John G. Sfarkham, AVesky Glidcbn, 
Edwin B. Hodgeman, Silas L. Darrah, Charles .\. Rowell, John Hjit«li, 
Calvin Brown, Adam Going, William A. Clifford, Frederick G. Merrill, 
Edwin Sturtetant, John Hennessey, Newell B. Bixby, Benjamin F. 
Clark. 

Company K. — Henry Osboru, James .\. Hills, Henry T. Robbins. 

O-mpuny Unknown. — Warren E. F. Li-own, James Spinnington, William 
Halt. 



MANCHESTER. 



117 



KIGUTII KEGIMKNT. 

Ilawkeii Fearing, Jr., i-ulom-l ; Charles A. Putney, quartermaster. 

tompaiti/ A. — Ilybert Jones, Juiiics Slurry, James S. Jloiiroo. 

Oimp-imj Ji. — Robert Keefu, Tlioiniki Harrison, Frederick Ltiiit, Joseph 
- Abbott, rhHrle»i ^lills, James Wilson, John Lawton, Aloiizo W. Flao- 
I' rj, William Waugti. 

Compnmj V. — John Urailley, Jotteph ('ollins, George Darling, William 
II. Ingrahain, William Mooro, Thomas Khodes, John Shairbartt, Henry 
I Warren, Daniel JlcCarty, John Collins, Kdwunl M. Cobb, Giistavus 
•[«>a, Tliomua Connelly, Cornelius Healy, Jr., William J. Gannon, 
William Jonea, Lawrence F'oley, Mward Boyle, Michael Healey, Dennis 
" Hrien, Thomas Gannon, Jeremiah Driscoll, Thomas Fitzgerald, John 
Harrington, Daniel Haggerty, Patrick Kelk-y, John -Smith, Thomas J. 
> itzgenild, John l^Iilan, Howard Judkins, Timothy Breim, Thomas 
lUake, Patrick Itohen, James U. It;illon, Janu-s Flynn, Francis Kelley, 
.I>hn Mullin, James T. Martin, Peter A. Shodd, Cornelius Crowley, John 
'•■Ilins, 3lichael Carney, Patrick Conner, John Delaney, Peter Doherty, 
.'.uiiea Daley, Jolin Dowd, Patrick Driscoll, John Fowler, John Flem- 
iJting, Morrice Fitzgemld, Thomas Flaherty, Thomas Flynn, Michael 
I '\, John Gibbons, Patrick Glejison, John Gallagher, B<-rnard Gallag- 

r, Pei<-r Gaffrey, Michael Gritlin, John Harlnett, Patrick Hurrington, 
-i -lin Howe, Patrick Henlihen, James McNally, Tiniuthy McCarthy, 
Itugli >IcIfermott, John >lc('arthy, Dennis Murphy, William Mclntire, 
luiiiel Mclntire, Michael Murry, James Martin, Patrick Cro(il)y. Daniel 
M..Millen, John Murphy, James H. McDomtld, Kdward McCabe, Timothy 
>liihuney, Michael Martin, Hugh ^Iclntire, Daniel McNally, William 
O'Doniiell, Michnel O'Nwil, Timothy O'Conner, Felix O'Neil, James 
Paluicr, Patrick Iteagan, William Shea, I^Iichnel Savage, Martin Shea, 
Michael Sullivan, Michael Shea, Patrick Sullivan, Jr., Patrick Sullivan, 
Joseph St. John, Matthew Taft, John Wals^h, Stephen Tohin. 

C'oinptiinj /'.—James Allies, Joseph J. Ladd, Thomas .>!. I.eaTitt, 
William K. Hubbard, Hiram D. Kidder, John II. Austin, Theodore L 
page, John C. Aldrich, Francis Gilbert, John K. Knox, Israel J. Lang- 
maid, Barnabas B. Kussoll, Daniel Stevens, Josiah Limbury, Carl Miller, 
Charles Meger, Francis Iiavenport,'Richard J. H<dmes, Patrick Sullivan, 
Watson 1). Bean, ('harles Conway, John Gora, Kudolph Helfreich, Peter 
Miller, Daniel Wyman, William .McCann, James Miles, (.'urtis Smith, 
Jacob K. Chandler, John U. Wilhird, John JI. Austin, John <\ Aldrich, 
George Hope, Joseph A. Spear, Samuel Weston, Thomas ^I. Lcavitt. 

Oimpnny E. — James Higgins, Benjamin Schuyler, James Brulhcr, 
Cliarles J. Mme, <'harlew F. Smith, Walter N'easey, Benjamin F. Phil- 
brick, Thomas H, Kogers, James F. W. Fletcher, William K. Brown, 
Mathun H. Pierce, Sylvester Clogston, John Dickey. Charles Korshann, 
George S. Mclntire, Thomas A. Plummcr, John II. Robinson. 

t'vmpany K— Angnstus C. Annis, Cyrus S. Burpee, Charles K. Rown, 
George K. Dunbar, John F. P. Robie, George W. Allen, George G. Blake, 
Jen7 W. Blye, Klislia T. (jnlmby, Charles P. Stevens, Kdwin It. Stevens, 
Ralph Stone, Daniel Klrby, John Fogg, Knos Shchan, -lames Linery, 
''>hn Smith, Augustus C. Ames, Henry H. iHinbar, John F. P. Raley, 
I trues Sunter, John Burns. 

'utHi'ttHtt 6'.— Cbiirles t.'ook, Joseph Cmwford, Charles Davis, Edward 
B. Leunapl.John Slilaii, Thomat <i. Fit/geruld, Il»ury Thompson, Jeliiel 
Thum|isun, Marcus M. Currier, Marcus M. Tnttte, Robert N. CoUey, 
Albert A. M. L. Young. 

f'lmpnny II. — George Dunham, Charh-M MyeiM, F. H. Conner, James 
Sullivan, Jamei lla/uird, Dennis Lane, John Witiahun, I'atrick Man- 
ning, John O'Brien, Sli'luiel Sullivan, James Lane, Charlert Meier, John 
Willetl, John WiIIium«, Daniel Nyhad, Isaac Allen, Augustu-* Brull, 
John H. Cumpbell, Josi<plt (^ninpbell, Thomas P. Crowley, John Crowley, 
Hunnel Kloris, Jiwepb Hamner, Jaiiu's Kelley, Patrick .McLaughlin, 
W'llliam Palmer, Philip Ray, William Stmng, William Towie, Solomon 
Vnulenburgh, Toltias C. Brummer, John Onnell, Frederick (Jaitna, Paul 
(imy, S<inniol Jones, Peter itlillor, Harris Stanley, John White, John 
Williams, George M. (iilnmn. 

O'liipnnif K'.— Dennis F. G. Lyons, Cornelius ^loriarty, Francis H. 
Conner, Timothy Rourko, John Kelhh.r, R<.bert Swiney, Michael 
O'Gnidy, Patrick Dowd, Jonathan Hartshorn, Bartholomew Moiiiiriy, 
Jaiiie« llik/ard, Kzra S. Riilleii. Palri' k Rrosnahaii, Palri. k Burke, 
Mil bftel Broderick, Thomas Preii nan, John Cii«ey, Piitrick f'ud'ly, Daniel 
Curnin, Michael (.'orcoran, Mauricu Duviiie, Thomas Doherty, Patrick 
DcHinond, Samuel K. Kmery, Thomas Fox, Michael Farmlngton, Michael 
Pinnean, Cliarles H. Gorman, John Gritlln, James Hennesey, John liar* 
rinian, Alfred J . HaiTinmn, Sylventer llarrlman, John Harwood, John 
Holland, Piiirlik Hearin. Willium Kiefe, Thomxi Kane, Michael Ken- 
ney, Tnuothy Kearin, John Lattimur, Jmeph Leafe, James I'dwanlK, 
George Hosted, George Martin, Thomas Robinson. Rowell T, Libl.y, 



Charles Williams, William Gushe, James Hill, .lames McCormick, J«thu 
Mulhtn, Patrick Looney, James Meagher, Thomius Murphy, Kdward 
Mettimus, Michael 3Ialioney, Michael Mullen, Dennis McCarty, Patrick 
Manning, Eugene Moriarty, Patrick 5IcKean, Cornelius Moriarty, Den- 
nis SIcCarty, William I). O'Connor, Dennis O'SuHivan, John O'Brien, 
Charles O'Conner, Richard Phelan, John F. Pettingall, Patrick Regan, 
William Rourke, Klbrldge Reed, William Smyth, James Sullivan, John 
SuUirau, Michael Sullivan, John Shea (flitit), John Shea (second), Patrick 
Shea, Philip Shugree, John Thornton. 
Company Unknmvn.— George M. Gilnian. 

NIKTH REGIMKXT. 

William A. Webster, surgeon. 

Company A. — Ira S. Abbott, James Murry, Lewis Meyers, Joseph T. 
Morrill, Henry F. Jefts, W'illiam A, McCJarnct, Lewis T. Mitchell, Na- 
thaniel Webster, Drew A. Sanborn, George W. Randall. 

f.'ouipany B. — Warron H. Edmundtt, Joseph H. Wallace, Joseph E, 
Ilartsliorn, Jeremiah Carroll, Loren/.o B. tJould, Henry N. Howe, Arthur . 
W. Caswell, James T. Prescolt, Mathew P. Tennant, Henry N. Willey, 
Freuto T. ICastman, James H. Shanley, William N. Ilarnden. 

Company C. — William Welpley. 

Company D — .John K. Mason, George G. Armstrong. 

Cfitnpany A'.— Heni->' O. Sargent, Cyrus B. Norris, Asa Brown, .-Vmos S. 
Bean, William C. Flanders, John B. Hoit, F. B. Hackett, JoBei)h E. 
Provencher, Enoch O. Shepherd. 

Coiupany F. — Charles P. Welsh, James Robston, James M. Lathe, 
William \. Canfield, Hiium S. Latiie, Oliver Buckminstor, Charles A. 
Ciimmings, Charles A. Carlton, Freeman L. I-athe, Sylvester J. Hill, 
William P. Mason, Augustine M. Westcott. 

Company G. — John Antlee, Henry Edwards, John Smith. 

Company H. — Mans L. Chase. 

Company I. — Jacol> Krnsa. 

Coinpauy K. — James fJordon. 

Compauij Viikiioirn. — Alonzo L. Day. 

TENTH REGIMENT. 

Michael T. Donohoe, colonel; John Coughlin, lieutenant-colonel; 
Jesse F. Augell, major. 

Compiiuy A. — Ichabod S. Bartlott, Andrew W. Doe, John B. Sargent, 
Hiram S. Barnes, Alfred G. Simons, William H. Allen, Orrin A. Clough, 
James 11. T. Baker, Warren A. Burrell, Fra/.er A. Wasley, Charles 
B. Cliai»man, Iwuic IJuint, Daniel Alvvood, I'liarles W. .VtwotKi, 
Miles y\ldri<h, Joseph W, Batchelder, Warren Batchelder, Joseph 
Bailey, Henry A. Bailey, Daniel S. Butler, Hiram II. Currier, Uimni 
O. Chase, John C. Crowley, Alfred A. Clough, John A. Cochrane, 
George W. Conner, George A. Claik, Ira P. Emery, Nelson C. Fish, 
Daniel S. Gilnuin, Elbridgo G. Gammon, Justin Hutchinson, James H. 
Harris, George II. Hall, Dexter L. Huntoon, Horace Holcomb, James S. 
Hutcliinsun, Henry Hartley, Kheue/er A. Johnson, Edwin R. Jones, 
Morseley W. Kendiicks, Charleti L. Mori'ison, George W. Newell, John 
Pondon, /ara .Sawyer, Se]itimurt Starks, Daniel F. Stiirk, Henry M. San- 
born, Acdrew J. Wentworth, Alfred Wheelei', John C. Wonslei, Charles 
('. Wohhter, Benjamin F. Knowltoii, TriMtram Cilloy, Royal Cheeley, 
Charles W. Smith, Michael Ilonberry, WHliam K. Stevens, Albruin P. 
Colby, Charles C. Balch, Charles Bonnor, Wilson A. Bartlelt, Stitlman 
P. Cannon, George Carlton, John Crosby, Jeremiah Connor, Isratd W. 
('base, .lose]di Demarse, Joi-eniiah C. Allen, Flunk Hutchinson, Thomas 
Trumbull, William A. Barrett. 

CompHinj C— Michael Doraii, John W. Davis, Charles E. Strain, 
William Doran, ('rrin F. Etneiwon, Henry S. ^lerii-, Patrick F. Fox, 
George W, Graves, William W. HuzeUon, William W. Hersey, William 
llutm, .^^aruuel L. Mitchell, William (>. Heath, David Kisby, George B. 
Lewis, Charles H. Mayliew, Josejdi I). .Mclie, Delano Prescott, .loseph 
Perkins, David A. (juimby, David L. Ridley, Edwin 0. Smith, Patrick 
Shegree, Charles E. Sargent, Owen Sidllvaii, Martin Toole, Bernard 
Inlret, William W". White, Henry Walley, Henry o. Merrill, Albert F. 
Nelson, Hanson Tipped, M'illiam F. Ordway, .Tolin Mtirphy, >Iarshall 
HutchiDs, Stillman B. Ha/elton, Joseph It. Ha/.elton, Charles Johnson, 
Jr., Charles H. Leonard, Cornelius W. Strain. 

C'lmpitiiy D. — A. O. Ambody, Daniel B. Abbott, Anrlrew Dunn, Michael 
Dalton, Francis Dnbin, Charles W. Fo»», RurnsB. Hall, Edwanl Loverly, 
John .\. Mason, George W. Madden, Joseph C. Osgtwd, Jos^'ph Peno, 
Zelotus L. Place, Henry L Qnimby, Moses E. ijnimhy, Tliomas B. Quint- 
by. M. E. Raymond, George II. Wyman, (Jeorge N. Wheeler, James J. 
Bjddwin, Iroutr Milrhell, James Robinson, John Murphy, .Mexandor 
Campb<dl, Charles H. Gardner, Michael F. Corcoran, John M. Caswell. 

Ciimii'mif A'.— John Martin. 



118 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Company >'.-Johi) Barj-, Kldttd Butler, Oliver Burns, James Boyle, 
Patrick Curnui, Wiggiu O.nnolly, Jeremiah Cochran, .Toseph Claytou, 
Michael Cochran, Kdmund Dnggan, Michael Donovan, James }.. Drov^•, 
Michael Early, Michael P. Klynn, James Flenimings, Thomas Gog.n, 
Patrick Gurrv, John Uorngan, Michael llandley, Timothy lledily, Ja.s. 
R Jenkins, Lavvre.ice Larkin, John San.lers, Hugh JIcManus, Thomas 
Murnhy, Michael Mara, Patrick Xavin, John OFlynn, David U'lirieu, 
John O'Brien, William W. Pinkl.am, John Parker, J..hu yuinn, John 
Ryerden, John Sullivan, Charles 11. Tho...|»!on, Kussell Town, Bernar.l 
White, William Wall, John Ward, Joshua Poiveni, Michael L. O. 
O'Brien, Joliu L. O'Brien. 

C.ymv.u,y fi.-William Higgins, Charles W. WiUey, Argus McG.nmss, 
William Johnson. 

Compa«y W.-George W. Chapn.an, Uriah H. loss, Charles II. Hall, 
Charles W. Drew. Washington I. Baker, Henry C. Dickey, David II. 
Dickey. Charles J. Esty, James P.Gould, David M. Glover, Clinton 0. 
Hill George T. Hastings, llenjamin F. Harrington, Albert Q. Perry, 
John Ray, Charles W. Wiley, George H. Hul.hard, Foster Kimball, John 
Ryan, William P. Williams, Stephen 51. Baker. 
'com.m.,j /.-William Ryan, Thomas Taylor, Charles Ward. 
Vompm»j A-.-John Ahem, Davi.l Allen, John Bryson, Fred Conway, 
Cornelius Cary, John Cole, James Combie, Patrick Devine, William De- 
van John Doherty, Patrick Fowler, Richanl Gallagher, John Garvey, 
Tinmthy Harrington, Daniel D. Ilealey, James Ilealey, Henry Hayes, 
Michael Slaliony, John Martin, Patrick O Brieu, Patrick Paine. William 
H Percival Charles Plunkett, Jeremiah D. Sheehan, Thomas Solon 
(second) Dennis Sullivan, Michael Sullivan, Timothy Tehaii, James 
Thomiison, Patrick Welsh, Roger Sheady, William Hastings. Jeremiah 
Deedy, James Duftee, Patrick Early, Dennis Feuton. Thomas Jones, 
Thomas Kelley, .Tames Kenuington, Patrick Lavan, Peter H. Lee, Daniel 
Loftis, Patrick McCarty, William Miller, William Mulligan, Thomas 
MuiTy, Hugh .Murphy, Charles H. Hodgdon, James Andereon, Francis 
Madden, John Driggs, John Kelley, Patrick Doyle, James JIadden. 

a,mp««y I-„t,.o»n.-William F. SlcPhereon, Sullivan B. Abbott, David 
Reed, John Connor, James Burns. 

ELE\'ENTH REGIMENT. 
Comf-my C-Jeremiah D. Lyford, Andrew J. Frye, John F. Clarke, 
Edward C. Emerson. Charles F. Johnson, F,/,n. B. Glines, Enoch T. 
Fnrnliaiu, Albert F. Sargent, Goi.ige K. Du.lley, Loanimi Searles, Lucien 
S Buckland, Charles W. Baker, William W. Fish. True O. Furnald, 
Lyman W. Griffin, Humphrey M. Glines, Alexander Hutchinson. Israel 
Henno James W. Ressler, Levi B. Lewis, .Tolin B. Marsh. Charles Mll- 
len John \. F Phelps, G. A. W. Barker, Moses Richardson, Benjamin 
Stevens, Luther M. Smith. Luther G. V. Smith, Oilman M. .Smith, 
Daniel R Woodburv, Ira Gardner Wilkins, Frank W. Page. Ira E. 
Wright, E.lward Adams, J..seph B. Clark, Ih.llis O. Dudley, Oliver 
Williams. 

Comii.mj) C— John White John Smith. 

Comrany £.- Caleb J. Kimball. William 0. Stevens. Daniel Whitney, 
Charles H Tufle, Joseph Cross, William Dickennan, Amos B. Shattuck. 
Cmvc'V r,*io.»...-Charle» I.eGranger, William Barton, Joseph Mar- 
tin. James Arnold. John White, Joseph Kerr. Michael Quinn. Westley 
Chester, Peter Robinson 



FOURTEENTH REGIMENT. 

Corajmnv '/.—John R. Green. 

Comimmi /J.-John N. Bruce, Silas R. Wallace, Stephen M. Wilson. 
Co,«}««><l r..)o.oi.-».-Palrick C ark, Alexander, Danvers, Lewis Nor- 
rop, Jlichael O'Brien, John Sliihbin, William Warren, James A. Buni- 

'"^''' FIFTEENTH KKGIMENT. 

Comp.my E.-Henry S. Perry. .Michael Abbotton. George W. Brown, 
Joseph K. Hazelton, Charles H. Martin, Ervin D. lobie. 



SIXTEENTH REGIMENT. 
Company G.—S. F. Mcguestion. 

EIGHTEENTH REGIMENT. 
Co<„pa„„ F.-Solomoii Towns, (;ustavu6 B. Wells. Charles 'Way, 
Peter Bnllv, Itenjainin Chandler, Matliew Burns, John Duffy, James 
Davis, Henry Morton, William Ferguson, J..hn Garrett, Joseph Jenno, 
Joseph Granther, Timothy Jacobs, Patrick Keller, John Johnson, Francis 
W. Kennisou, Joseph L.-sherville, Arvil Leniarche, Scott McGuire, John 
McOirty, Thomas Reynolds, Patrick Lower}-, James Lewis, William 
Masterson, .\lden Oliver. 

Company K. -Jackson C. Bickf..rd, John J. Ryan, Adilon E. Port, 
Edwin Mulligan, Michael P. Mulligan, Peter Locke. 

Compa„y /-Thomas H. McGnire, David Magoon, Edward W. Cowan, 
Nathaniel A. Tuttle, Albert T. Bowel>, i:harlcs W. Bills, Augustus B. 
Corev, Benjamin C. Cook, George B. Jackson, Thom.« S. KnowleN 
Rolwit J. McFarland, Charles H. Lee. Owen Evans. Barney flynn, 
George H. Howe, John McFee, Patrick Mack, James Smith, William H. 
Plummer, John F. Rounds, Zachariah B. Stewart. Amasa J. Purvier, 
Patrick Sullivan, Charles Wilson, George T. White. 

Com, „A-. -Horace Pickard, Miles J. Colby, Peter Robinson, John 

A. Lindsay, Walter A. Green, Patrick Prescott, Edwat»l N. Tuttle, Ed- 
ward K. White, John Copp, Jeremiah Sheehan, George C. Moore. 

NEW ENGLAND CAVALRY. 

David B. Nelson, major ; George T. Cram, adjutant ; Arnold Wyman, 
first lieutenant. 

Troop /v-.-Ji*eph Austin, John A. Jones, Henrj- G. Ayer, Thoma* 
Bougiige, Jonathan B. Chapman, Jason N. Childs, John G. Clinbhs, 
George E. Clark, Matthew N. Colby, Charles R. Dunham, Emei>on A. 
Dunham,J..niesD. Gage, George Hanchett, William H. Hart, William 
Holtoii, James W. Jenness, Philip Jones, CInirles S. Kidder, Blward A. 
Lawrence, Hugh Mills, Henry E. Newton, Charles L. Prescott, John G. 
Page William H. Palmer, Francis II. Phillips, Moody guimby, Hiram 
Stearns, Lewis E. Tuplin, Charles II. Wilson, David F. Wilsim. 

Troop M -George W. Herrv, Eugene Bowman, John Francis ( ',dby. 
Minor Hawks, Henry P. Hubbard. Nathan P. Kidder, Cyrus Litchfield, 



i 



RnsKoll, Albert P. Tasker, Ebelieier 



TWELFTH REGIMENT. 

t„„.,,.o.;, .l.-Marlin Davis, Joseph Sharp, Charles Bowers, Jacob 
Mclormick, John McGraw, Alexander ('..nclianl. 

Company ii.-Henry J. Lindner, John Smith, Henry Thomas, Albert 
Miiniford. 

C...,i;>.i,,!, C-James H. Oorih.n, Nathan E. Hopkins, Philip Levi, 
Raphel Reimann. 

Company D.-William Weldon. Robert Hill. Charles Mardinan, Hen- 
rick Fisher, James Agnew, Ira Tayh.r, Charles A. Heath. John McCon- 
nell, George Allan.l, Hans Anderson, Solomon Sweeney. 

Coa.pany F.— Robert Barnard, John IIowur.1, llibbard Nolan, Lorcnito 
D. Watson. 

Company (3.-Philip Warren, Andrew Floyd, William J. Wallace, 
Thomas Dalton, Edward Brown. 

ro...;.nn!, /.-Charles Lawrence, Henry Killan. Frank 'Wilson. .Tosepb 
Martin. Martin Oswald. Patrick McCarly. Thomas Hornsby, Cliarlce 
Williams. 

Company K -Henry Carr. 

Com/.a«l, Ci/iw.icn.-James Cooler, William Sutton, George Forrest, 
Julius Lyford, James C. Denipey. George Parker, James Lane. Victor 
Bauinan, Hiram C. Hohler. 



William C. Powers, Arthur W . 

Wilson. yiKsTNEW 11 \MPS1I1RE CAV.\LRY. 

Troop .1.— David A. Connor. 

Troop JS.— Benjamin F. Pliilbrick. 

7Vooj> c. — John Farrell. 

Troup D. — Joshua Voce. 

Tniop /■;.— Andrew J. Roberts. 

Troop f'. -William H. Griffin, Janus II. Robinson. John C. I'olbnrn, 
Charles F. Elliott. 

Troop <;.- Edward F. Brown, John Baiiil Emeiison A. Dunham, Henry 
H Aldlich, James N. Bean, Charles A. Brown. 

Troop //.-William A. Piper, William A. Kelley, Edwin R. Packard, 
Jewett W. Perry. 

Troop /.—William H. Palmer. 

7V,,..p A-. -James D. Gage, .lohn G. Page, .harbs L. Presiotl. Hugh 
Mills, Charles M. Jason, .lames II. French. Jonathan B. Chapman, War- 
renForsailb, William II. Hart, J.i8..n N. ChihU, Moody Quimby, D. F. 

Wilstin. ...J, 

'/Voop n -Henrv B. Ilnhl«ird, Eno.h Lovell, Charles S. Kidder, 
John F. Colby, James II. Parks, lins.avns II. Best, William C. PoW- 

""ttoop (■„i„„,c,..-Andrew Hill, Thomas Daley, Daniel LannigaD, 
John ..llara. Joseph Randolph, .;eorge E. S|»inlding, Thomas A Col- 
lins Hugh R. Bichar.l»on, Allen W. Bonney, Henry F. Hopkins, .\bboIt 
N. Clongh, Henry J. Webster, Daniel Doyle. Joseph Jackson, Richard 
Tobinc, Louis Rumaiin, George Atkins. 

HEAVY ARTILLERY. 
<;onpnny .l.-Jonah S. Kennis.m, Henry Porquet, Albert P. Young. 



MANCHESTER. 



119 



Oump'imi/ B. — JunK-8 Collins, Jr., Eilward A. Young. 
f.vKijMiN.v ('. — Churle** \V. WinKiite, George J. Hunt, HcIkt C. Griftiu, 
Wiltanl Ituckuiiiiater, C)iarK-d P. Orveii, Levi H. Sleeper, Jr., Wiltiain 

A. (iiliiiom, Albert F. Quiiitby, Alunxo Dity, Jaiiies M. Quiinb;, Williiiin 
S. ParN^'Hit, KdBun Sullivan, John S. Allen, Elbridge G. Baker, Janie^ A. 
Bukur^ Amlri'W 31. llucker, Janit-s o'Briuu, Charles D. Buntin, George 

B. Buuielle, William K. ^out^'^(■, Francis Brown, Mamlon L. Brown, 
Willanl S. Bilker, Chsirle-s Beun, George M*. Bruwn, George Conet, 
Charles H. CI.-, Sninfurd U. CIhl-*.-, John J. Crockett, David B. Dickey, 
JuuM 31. Dickey, Warren H. Day, John II. Day, Heubeu Do^lge, \\'il- 
liani K. Denney, John G. Dnrant, Charles F. Dorkum, Henry T. Fobs, 
William K. Forsailh. Warren Green, John S. Gamble, KIbridge Gerry, 
Madiiion Gerrj', K<lwin G. Howe, Sullivan D. Hill, Georgo HowanJ, 
William Murlin, Michael Harris, Charleti U. Hodgeman, Lowell S. 
Hftrtdhorn, Newton Hullis, Kzckicl Hall, Wt-sley E. Hult, Joshua K. 
HnittiiigH, Mauley W, Jenkins, Jfjaeph Kelly, George W. Knight, Or- 
niond D. Kimball, Owar K. Leniiis, (.'Imrlert H. Martin, Nutliauiel H. 
31clcair, George E. Mayliew, William F. Moore, Bmdiey 31errill, Henry 

C. Slorris, George W. Nichols, Hezekiah H. Morw-, Benjamin K. Barker, 
Cliristopher Barker, Orrin F. Pillsbury, Ilenry M. Pillsbury, Chester L. 
I*»ge, Frederick Payne, .Moses o. Poai-son, AH>ert B. Kobin^m, Horace 
L. Riclianltton, Kdwin J. Ross, Dennis W. Reardcau, Noah W. Randall, 
Krerett Stevens, \\'itliam W. Sweatt, David A. Wilson, George W. Saw- 
yer, Robert Stewart, Andrew W. Sloton, George W. Taylor, Kdward W. 
Tillotxin, Jo6e]ili E. Walker, James M. Wallace, Sullivan B. Wallace, 
Nahuni A. Welwtor, Charles F. Whittemore, Nathan B. White, Daniel 
A. Wtdls, John W, Willey, William ^. Young, Francis York, James 0. 
Chandler, James R. Carr, James G. Burn^. 

(yihtiHiiiy F. — James P. Gallison. 

Company K. — David P. Steveii«, George C. Houghton, Alfred Howard, 
*;eorge H. Ames, Franklin A. Brackeit, Herbert W. Churchill, William 
Kiik, AllM-rt F. Goodhue, Frank L. Gilman, Charles E. Green, John 
Grammo, Lcaniler K. Hall, Charles A. Hall, Charles II. Haddock, George 
A. Palmer, Lewin .!. Smith, Genrge E. Swain, Sylvester S. Walsh, 
Cfaarlvvi I,. Bailey, Edward J. Wing, John K. .lohuson. 

tjompauij L. — Waller Smith, Scdiey A. Loud, Peter Burns, Pierre 
Michou, Oliver Jopson, James Malonoy, Henry W. Twombly, Horace G. 
Ktmlmll. 

fJom{fat\y ,lf, — John W, Dickey, George K. Dakin, Ezra D. Cilley, 
El^nh E. French, John R. Bean, Kphraim Fisk, John L. Sargent, 
ChurleH W. Boyd, George T. Bean, Philander Hopkins, Alfred R. Ciwliy, 
William G. Cutler, Clark S. George, Albert T. Hambk-tt, James W. 
Learned, G^-orge A. SIiep«rd, Gustavus Soule, Nathan B. Tilton, Ira P. 
Twitchell, Thomas Welch, Charles E. Young, Henry W. Clark, Horace 
U. Bundy, Charles Clark, Charles M. l>insmore, Wa.«ihington L. (Jniy, 
Henry R. Noyes, Orrin S. Silluway, rharles L, Taylor, Asa P. Wright, 
Henr>- Bennett, Frank L. Edmunds, Edwarrl M. Dakin, George Apple- 
bco, Jtjtwph Comfort, Alfred Comfort, John ,>lcCaiiIey, Orlando Proctor, 
K«rm N. Norris, James llichards, John Kaling, Daniel Davis, Henry 
Blair, Geoi^o A. .Martin, Benjamin B. Bunker. 

VETERAN RESERVE CORPS. 
Albert B!<H)d, James Byles, Jeremiah Connor, James N. Cumntings, 
Patrick Dowell, Jontme C. Davis, F. E. DemeritI, Henry B. P^ostman, 
Ihivia Emerj', Harvey Hill, William H. Knowllon, Andrew Currier, 
Michael Powers, John L. rollins, John Brown, William W. Eastman, 
Stephen O. Gould, Thomas G, Gould, Patrick Haullihan, Josfiph R. 
Marble, William Murry, Ilonry C. Faye, William E. Robinstm, William 
Smith, John Smilh, Enoch E. Stevens, Charles Stewart, (icorgo W. Var- 
nnm, J. A. Sargent, Franklin R. Tucker, Patrick Welsh, Cyrus S. Bur- 
I»ee, Hiram G. Govu. 

>IARTIN OlARDS. 

Edwanl Wing, Kdwanl P. Kimiiitll, John C. Pennock, Sydney F. San- 
iKjrn, Wigglu T. Abbott, Howard P. Smith, Jnneph P. Frye, Charles P. 
Gilbert, Lewis J. Smith, George W. Davis, Charles H. Bradfonl, Dennis 
\. Burbank, Frank A. Brackeit, Charles W. Dimick, Henry Eaton, 

Willi Fisher, Austin G. French. George W. Farnliam, Alfred T. 

Guo<lhue, Charltw J. GtHjtlwin, Frank L. Gilman, Hontco P. Page, 
Cliarb-s W. Ganlner, Charles E. Green, Alfred HowanI, Charles Hadlock. 
Charl.H Hall, L. A. Ilynlt. U-ander Hall, Martin A. Hoff, riinton Jones, 
Frank r. J,. wett, Marshall Keith, -bdiu Leiglitou, Charles H. M"uIloii. ' 
Matih.w Morrow, Charles E. Moree, Ira S. ib^good, John II. Prescoit, | 
George A. Palmer, David P. Slovens, Myrick K. Smith, George E.Swain, 
Bervjamin T. Sherbnrn, Sylvester S. Walsh, (liarle?' We.inan, Elbridge 
Wawim. 

NATIONAL (Jl'ARDS. 

Edwanl A. Haf>man, John C. Hiinly, George K. Kentiison, William <K 



I Ladd, William H. Lord, AU>ert B. Morrison. Henry C. Norris, Charles 
I Putnam, John E. Ricker, Frank H. Redlield, George H. Itay, <'harles A. 
I Smith, Charles H. Stevens, George W. Swinborne, Nathaniel A. Tiittle, 
Alonzo F. W*arren, Charles F. Whittemorp, Fnink M. Boutclle, Aldauo 
Neal, E«lward M. Tillotstm, William E. Boutelle, Charles C. Hilton, 
George F. Kelley, George J. Hunt, William Buckminsler, charle« P. 
Green, Orrin N. B. St«»kes, Madison Gerry, George Canlield, Emorj' W\ 
Alexander, Andrew Armstrong, Leroy S. Batcliulder, Elihu B. Baker, 
George W. Ballon, James Buckminster, Charles B. Bradley, Andrew M. 
Bowker, George Boutelle, Albert F. Barr, Ji)hn S. Corlisn. Marcus M. 
Currier, Stanford U. Chase, Charles J. Chase, .\Iexunder Cooper, Benja- 
min Keally, John Carney, William E. Dunbar, Levi W. Dodge, Edward 
W. Dakin, Frank L. Edwanls, Frank W. Favour, Heber C. Gritltn, 
George A. Gordon, Daniel W. Gouhi, Charles Geiirge, Henry T. Goodhue, 
Kewton Hollis, Rhodes Hanson. 

FIRST LIGHT BATTERY. 
George A. Gerrish, John Wadleigh, Henry F. Coudict, Lyman W. 
Bean, Robert Burns, David Jllorg-an, Joseph T. Durgin, Ii-a P. Fellows, 
Howard M. F»rrar, John L. Fish, George E. Fairbanks, Jerry E. Glad- 
den, John H. Goodwin, William H. (loodwin, George W. Griswold, Clark 
S. Gordon, Ehen Gove, Adams Gowing, Simon B. Hill, John I*. Hall, 
Albert T. Hamlett, Wesley E. Holt, Cleaves W. Hopkins, Greely W. 
Hasting^*, James A. Johnston, William B. Kenney, Daniel P. Ladd, 
Dudley P. Ladd, Le Koy 3lc<Juesten, Thomas W. Morrill, Horace I*. 
Marshall, Charles \V. Oft'utt, Christopher ('. Perry, Henry C. Parker, 
Charles Peoples, George W. Parrott, William I>. Perkins, Henry C. Pat- 
rick, Daniel M. Peavey, Thomas Rjiudlett, Henry S. liowell, Francis 
Reeves, Charles H. Shephard, Alexander Simpson, Henry A. Sloan, Gus- 
tnvns Soule, John L.Sargent, Albert C. Stearns, Leander G. Sylvester, 
Frank Senter, Edwin U. Sias, Nathan B. Tilton, Frank W. Taber, Wil- 
liam B. rndcrhill, Samuel J. Whittier, George K. Dakin, Edwin H. 
Hobb;^, Kphraim Kisk, Gihnan Stearns, Ezra D. Cilley, .lohn K. Piper, 
Orrin Taber, William W. Roberts. Alonzo BI. Caswell. Samuel S. Piper, 
William N. Chamberlin, Henry A. Campbell, Samuel Cooper, Irving S. 
Palmer, Frank E. Denieritt, -\mbrose Ingham, Alexander A. Brown, 
Daniel Kelley, Charles E. French, John Carling, George W. Yarnnm, 
Hilliard L. Eaton, Philander Hopkins, George E. Glines. W'illiam L. 
Babbett, Marcus H. Bundy, Elisha H. Burrill, Charies W. Boyd, Le Ruy 
T. Bean, Edwin X. Baker, Jauu-s M. Huswoll, William H. Blackburn, 
Henry E. Bond, Henry Baker, Robert Crowther, .lames Carr, William 
Carr, William G. Cutler, Henry W. Clarke, Kittridge J. Collins, Homer 
Canfield, Thomas C. Cheney, Charles P. Cox, James P. Carpenter, Fred- 
erick J. (Pruning, Durrill S. Crockett, Chauncy C. Dickey, John W. 
Dickey, John Drown, Charles ,\. Doe, Martin V. It. Day, Thomas Welch, 

, Luther K. Wallace, Thonuis J. Whittle, Frederick S. Worthen, Morrill 
N. Young, Charles E. Young, I). Washieigton llrey, Albert R. Holbrook, 

] Charles Peareon, Charles J. Rand, Isaac L. Boberts, Orrin S. Silloway, 
Charles L. Taber, Sylvester F. Webster. Charles Wcnz, James F. Sar- 
gent, William G. <nster, Waller Cutler, Alfred R. Crosby. 

FIRST REGIMENT UNITED ."STATES SHARPSHOOTERS. 
Campniiy £.— Levi H. Loet. 

SECOND REGIMENT INITKD STATES SHARPSIDKtTERS. 
Cumpatitt li. — .\bncr D. Colby, Henry K. Colby, Kli^juli Hanson, Jona- 
than S. Johnson, Charles W. Stevt'us. 

NAVY. 

James Hayes, tieorge E. Ashton, John M. Custalow, Peter Dowd, 
Waller Lee, James Smith. 

MARINES. 
Michael Kane. 

liATTERY B, I'NITED STATES ARMY. 
Charles J. AnderMtn. 

FIIt.^T AltMY CORPS. 
Dennis F. G. Lyons. 

THIRTEENTH NKW YoIiK ARTILLKRY. 
Henry Bovfl. 

vwK^'v iu:gimi:nt cnitki) states army. 

JoM-pli II. Knoultou. 

RKGIMKNT I NKNoWN. 

Albert Miller, John Ruilloy, Daniel Thornton, Alexander Frazier, 
John JolTermnn, Joseph Hart, John Riley, John Thompson. Amos R. 
Witluim, Kmile Keller, Jariiex Bi-owii, Timothy Ilallisey. James Ander- 



120 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



son, Albert Hurns, William R. Cleiueut, Geoige Carpenter, William H. 
Goodwin, John McPherson, Thomas Smith, Thomaa Whelston, Alfred 
MixBan, ("hHries Brockway, Jease F. Willijuns, James White, Henry 
Wood, Willium Komer, William U. Jackson, James Lynch, Thomas 
Powell, John Pender, Samuel Siegel, James Sullivan, James Smith, 
James S. Williams, John Murphy, James McCanney. William K. Stearns, 
James A. H. Grant, James M. Mayhew, John Kerin, John Smith, John 
Milauo, John Richards, Jerome Yates. Solomon Leaks, Joseph Bess, 
George H. Judson, ('harles Dorsey. John H. Johnson, Itiaac Williams, 
Samuel I'rbine, Thomaw JMeade. William H. Daggs, I'ruy (Jiheatt, Frank 
Thompson, James Caaley, James Sullivan, James W. Brown, James 
Boyles, George Branson, Paatjual Canard, John Brown, David Dudley, 
James Gonion, Frank L. Gilman, ('harles C. Webster, Charles L. Daven- 
port. 

FIELD, STAFF AND LINE OFFICERS. 

lirigadier-Gencrah.— Joseph C. Abbott, Michael T. Donohue. 

(.hlottels. — Thomas P. Pierce, Edward L. Bailey, James W. Carr, 
Hawkes Fearing, Jr., John Coughlin. 

Lieutenant-Coloneh.—S&rauelG. Langley, Francis W. Parker. 

Majors. — Thomas Connolly, Jesse F. Angell, David B. Nelson. 

A4}iiCant£. — Alvah IL Libby, Joseph J. Donohue. 

Cltaplaiits. — Henry IJill, Silas F. Dean. 

Snrgeoits. — William "W. Brown, Sylvanus Buntou, William A. Web- 
ster, John Ferguson. 

Amttatit Surgeons. — George W. Blanter, William G. Stark, James P. 
Walker. 

Quartermasters. — Richard N. BatcheMer, John R. Hynes, Charles A. 
Putney, Foster Kimball. 

Ca2>taing.^ John L. Kelly, Hollis O. Dudley, Varnum H. Hill, Rufus 
V. Clark, Ruthven W. Houghton, John Kirwin, Robert H. Allen, 
Roger W. Woodbury, William H. Maxwell, Charles A. White, Robert 
C. Dow, James A. Hubbard, James H. Plait, George W. Huckins, Thomp- 
pon S. Newell, William W. Mayne, Granville P. Mason, M'illiam C. 
Knowlton, George F. McCabe, Charles Cain, Frank Robie, Joseph 
Freschl, Warren E. F. Brown, William J. Gunnon, Cornelius Healey, 
Joseph J. Ladd, Nathan H. Pierce, James Kelliher, Asa T. Hutchinson, 
John E. Mason, John M. Carswell, Laurence F. Larkin, Thomas C. j 
Trumbull, Slichael F. Corcoran, John B. Sargent, Cornelius W. Strain, j 
John Ji. O'Brien, George H. Hubbard, Patrick Doyle, James Madden, j 
Joseph IJ. Clark, Amos B. Shattuck, Ira G. M'ilkins, John N. Bruce, j 
William E. Stearns, George T. Cram, George .\. Geirish, George K. I 
Dakin, James O. Cliandler, George C. Houghton, John E. Johnson, | 
Abiier D. Colby. ' 

Fimt LUtitenauts. — Martin V. B. Richardson, Dustin Marshall, Michael 
J. Connolly, Walter Colby, William E. Hamuett, Walter J. Richai*ds, 
Frank L. Morrill, Fi-ank C. Wasley, David M. Perkins, Charles A. Mc- 
Glaugblin, Alvah S. Wiggin, Oscar A. Moar, Patrick K. Dowd, Charles 
0. Jennison, Andrew J. Kdgerly, Benjamin F. Fogg, Daniel Gile, 
Charles M. Currier, Virgil H. Cate, Clement F. S. Anu'>, Lawrence 
Foley, William E. Huhhard, Henry G. Gushing, James Miles, Robert 
Swiney, Michael O'Grady, Willard N. Haradon, Andrew W. Doe, Slich- 
ael T. H. Slaguire, Charles Johnson, Charlejj II. Gardner, Alfred G. 
Simons, Jeremiah D. Lyford, Ira (i. Wilkins, Edwin II. Hobbs, Ezra D. 
CiUey, James R. Carr, James G. Burns, Charles L. Bailey, Ephraim 
Fisk, William N. Chamberlin. 

Second LieutenanOt. — Charles Vickery, Charles L. Brown, Robert A. 
Seavey, Frank B. Hutchinson, W'illiam Jones, James F. W. Fletcher, 
Cyrus S. Burpee, Cliarles K. Rowe, Henry 0. Sargent, Cornelius Dono- 
hue, Alonzo L. Day, Ichabod S. Bartlett, Thorndike P. Heath, Edward 
K. Whit«, John K. Pijwr, Orrin Taber, John R. Bean, Moses it. Pear- 
son, Reuben Dodge, H. A. Lawrence, Edward J. Wing, Thomas J. 
Whittle. 

Soldiers' Monument. — The soldiers' inouiuuent, 
which stands on Merrimack Sfjuare, was erected at a 
cost of about twenty-two thousand dollars, and was 
dedicated September 11, 1870. The corner-stone was 
laid May 30, 1878, under the auspices of Louis Hell 
Post, G. A. R. 

The style of the monument is modern Gothic, and 
the materials of whicli it is composed are New Hamp- 
shire granite and bronze. The design embodies the 
three-fold idea of a historical and a militarv monu- 



ment and a fountain ; and, in its cruciform base, 
includes a basin thirty feet iu width, inclosed in a 
parapet of ornamental character. In the centre of 
each of the four projecting arms of the basin is a 
pedestal, ou a line with the parapet, supporting each 
a bronze statue of heroic size, representing the prin- 
cipal divisions of service in the army and navy, name- 
ly, the infantry soldier, the cavalryman, artillery- 
man and sailor. Alternating in pairs between these 
figures are eight bronze posits for gas-lights, sur- 
mounted by our national emblem. 

The column, fifty feet in height, rising from the 
center of the basin, is supported on a circular pedes- 
tal four feet in diameter, and is crowned with a capi- 
tal richly carved with appropriate Gothic ornament; 
upon this is placed a colossal statue, in granite, eight 
feet in height, representing Victory with her mural 
crown, a shield lying at her feet, and holding a wreath 
and recumbent sword, — emblematic of triumph and 
peace. This figure, irrespective of the sentiment 
which it admirably conveys, is a fine work of art in 
its attitude, features and drapery. At the base of the 
column is placed a shield with the arms of the city; 
while above are displayed flags and weapons, the 
trophies of war. 

Surrounding the circular pedestal is a bronze bas- 
relief, four feet iu height, representing such inci- 
dents of recruiting, armiuir, parting from friends and 
marching, as tell, in a simple and eflective manner, 
the meaning of the memorial. 

The base of the pedestal is octagonal in form, and 
ou its west or front side, bears a bronze tablet, on 
which these words are inscribed, — 

*' IN IIONOB OF 

THE MEN OF MANrtlKSTER 

WnO GAVE THFIU SERVICES 

IN THE WAtt WHICH 

rRESERVKU THE UNION OK THE STATES 

AND 

SECVRED EQUAL KIUHTS TO ALL UNDER 

THE CONSTITUTION 

THIS UONUUENT 16 UUILT 

BV 

A UKATEIUL CITY." 

This inscription was prepared by Mr, H. W, Iler- 
rick, and was selected from the large number 
contributed by a committee of literary gentlemen 
appointed for that purpose. 

Above the bas-relief are twelve gargoyles attached 
to the cornice of the circular pedestal, and issuing 
from them are jets of water faling into the baiiin be- 
low. 

The lour principal figures in bronze are works of 
artistic merit, and were modeled and cast expressly for 
this structure. 




ra/v^yujO 



^ n^2ir(ryLJ 



MANCHESTER. 



121 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



IIOX. JAMES A. WESTOS. 



The Weston family came from Buckiiiirhainshire, 
England, and settled in Massachusetts. .Fohn Weston 
canic in 1622, but returned in a few yeai-s. His 
brotliiTS and kinspeople soon after his return emi- 
grated to this country, and in lt;44 his son, John 
Weston, Jr., came and settled in Readinjr. 

From him the subject of this sketch is descended in 
direct line, and represents the seventh generation. 

His grandfather, Amos Weston, moved from Read- 
ing to Derryticlil, X. H., in 1803, and settled in the 
southeast part of the town, known in later times as 
the Weston farm. He was a man of character and 
ability, and enjoyed the confidence and respect of his 
fellow-citizens. 

His son, .\mos Weston, .Fr., was born in Reading 
in 17'.tl, and came to Derryfield with his parents. His 
early life was passed in school and with his father 
upon the home farm, but at the proper age he began 
for himself, and by industry and perseverance gained 

'"om|)eten<'y in early life. He w.is highly esteemed 
his people and was frequently called to act for them 
local matters. He was also prominently i<lcntified 

ith the business interests and public affairs of 

I'" town, and may justly be regarded as one of 

■ '■ founders of its growth and prosperity. He mar- 

• d Betsy Wilson, of Londonderry, X. H., in 1814. 
-ic was the daughter of Ciilonel Robert Wilson and 
,;:inddaughter of James Wilson, one of those .sturdy 
and substantial men of Scotch-Irish descent .so well 
known in the history of the early settlements of this 
-ate. 

James Adams Weston was born August 27. 1827. 
He was the youngest of five i-hildrcn, and is the only 

irviving member of the family of Amos and Rct.sy 

'Vilson) We.ston. His early life was passed with his 
pirents, and in the usual i)ursuits of boys similarly j to a considerable extent. 
'I'uated, — attending school and laboring »\mn the farm 

' such seasons as circumstances requireil. Mr.Wcston 
was not a graduate of college, and his education ilid 
not partake of the character sometimes termed "lib- 
eral education," but he was pre-eminently a well- 
educated num. His constitution of mind led him in 
the direction of practical and useful pursuits from 
the first. He was inclined to scientific and mathe- 
matical studies, and distinguished in his early school- 
days lor habits of industry and perseverance in the 
faithful and patient investigation of every subject 
wilhiii his rcaih. 

After the district school he attended the Manches- 
ter and Piscataquog Acailemies, where he pursued his 
studies with earnp8tne.s.s and application. Subse- 



quently he studied those branches which were deemed 
the most important to fit him for civil engineering, 
to which he had decided to devote himself as an avo- 
cation for life. 

He taught school in LoMilon<lerry in l.S4o, and in 
Manchester in 1S46, with the best of success, and 
during the remainder of the time devoted himself to 
the study of his chosen profession. 

In this labor he proceeded with a well-considered 
system, and qualified himself thoroughly for a high 
position among the civil engineers of his time. 

In 1846 he was appointed assistant engineer of the 
Concord Railroad, and entered upon the work of lay- 
ing the second track of that corporation. 

In 1849 he was appointed to the position of chief 
engineer of the corporation, which he held lor many 
years. 

While chief engineer of the Concord Railroad he 
was master of transportation and road-master of the 
Manchester and Lawrence Railroad about seven years. 
In 18Gl-(]2 he superintended the construction of the 
Manchester and Candia Railroad and the Hooksett 
Branch Railroad. In 1S6!I he sujierintended the build- 
ing of the Suncook Valley Railroad, and, later, made 
the surveys of the Manchester and Keene Railroad. 
In all these and other business enterprises Mr. Weston 
has been the careful and far-seeing manager as well 
as the technical engineer, and has done the work with 
that well-known characteristic, "without mistake." 

During the time he was employed on these public 
works he was frc(iuently engaged in private matters 
of importance, both as a practical and advisory en- 
gineer, and in cases where controversy had arisen. 
Soon after being appointed chief engineer of the 
Concord Railroad he moved to Concord to live, on 
account of his jirincipal business, but in 1856 he 
returned to Manchester, where he now resides. 

Notwithstanding Governor Weston's life has been 
full of business interests and duties of an important 
character, growing out of his professional employment, 
he has been ilrawn into political and piiiilic positions 



' By .1. W. Follows. 



He has never been a partisan or a i)olitician in the 
common acceptation, but he has always been allied 
to the Democratic party and firmly devoted to the 
lirincijdcs of their i>olitical creed. He is of conserva- 
tive and still decideil views, reaching his conclusions 
in the same logical manner as in the discharge of any 
important trust. He believes the simple duties of 
citizenship are full of responsibilities, and that their 
jtroper observance requires the same careful study 
and faithful action as the highest offu ial i)osition. 

In 1862 h'' was placed in nomination for thcollice 
of mayor of Manchester by the Democratic party. 
.Mlhough very largely in the minority, and at a time 
when party strife was very great in this State, so 
universally acknowledged was Mr. Weston's fitness 
for the position, and so generally had he enjoyed the 
respect and esteem of his I'ellow-citizens, that he broke 



121' 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



down the party lines, run far ahead of his ticket and 
was defeated l>y only a small number of votes. 

In 1863 he was again induced to accept the nomi- 
nation for the same oflicc. and while the same in- 
tensely partisan campaign was made by his opi)onents 
and party spirit ran liigher than before, he gained on 
his adversary and lost the election by less than a 
score of votes. 

In 1867 he was again brought forward by his party, 
and, although their relative strength was about the 
same and a determined etlbrt was made by the Re- 
publican party to defeat him, lie was elected mayor 
by a handsome majority, and entered upon his official 
duties in January, 1868. In 1869 he was the candidate 
of the Democrats for the same position, and, although 
not successful, it took a carefully revised official count 
to determine the result. In 1870 he was re-elected 
mayor, and again in 1871. 

In 1874 he was a third time chosen mayor by an 
overwhelming majority, which office he held when 
elected Governor. It must be borne in mind that 
Manchester has been a strongly Republican city, the 
majority of that party often running from six to seven 
hundred. Nor have the o|)poneiits of Mayor Weston 
been unpopular or unfit candidates. On the contrary, 
they have been uniformly selected for their great 
popular strength and fitness for the position. The 
Republican leaders have not been novices, and it has 
not been their intention to sutler defeat ; but whenever 
victory has been wrung from their unwilling grasp, 
it has been done against great odds, and because the 
Democrats had unusual strength, one of its most 
important elements having been the superior qualifi- 
cations and fitness for the place which Mr. Weston 
was acknowledged on all sides to have possessed. 

During the period of his mayoralty a great advance- 
ment of the material interests of the city took place, 
and marked improvements were inaugurated and suc- 
cessfully carried on. An improved system of sewerage 
was established and, so far as practicable, completed, 
which proved of incalculable benefit. A general 
plan for establishing the grade of streets and side- 
walks was arranged, and steps taken to obviate many 
difficulties which liad arisen in connection with this 
important part of municipal government. Imjjrove- 
ment in the public commons was commenced and 
carried on as far as economy and fair expenditures of 
each year seemed to warrant, and tlie foundation was 
laid in public policy, adopted under his management, 
for permanent and systematic ornamentation of the 
parks and public grounds. The matter of concrete 
walks received its first encouragement from Mayor 
Weston. It was a subject about which much difJ'er- 
ence of opinion existed, and when the mayor author- 
ized the covering one of the walks across one of the 
commons at tiie public expense it received much 
severe criticism, Imt the poimlar view soon changed, 
and the experience of the city since that time shows 
the wisdom of the first step in that direction. 



In the matter of a water supply has Mr. Weston 
been of inestimable service to his fellow-citizens. 
In this important enterprise he took a leading part. 
No one realized more fully the great benefit whicli 
an adequate water sui)|ily would be. and few compre- 
hended as well the embarrassments connected with 
the undertaking. The question iiad been agitated 
considerably and various surveys had been made, and 
the people were divided upon different plans and 
theories. Popular notions fell far short of the full 
comprehension of the subject, and while he was sup- 
ported by many of the leading and most infiuential citi- 
zens it was a very difiicult matter to accomplish. Mr. 
Weston had made his own surveys and was thoroughly 
informed upon the whole subject, and engaged in 
the work with zeal and determination. The nece-- 
sary legislation having been obtained, he prepared 
and carried through the city government the appro- 
priate ordinances by which the enterprise took sha| e 
and the plan for placing the whole matter in the 
hands of a board of commissioners. 

To his foresight and intelligent view of this subject, 
and earnest devotion to carrying out and completing 
the scheme, the people of Manchester owe their most 
excellent water supply more than to any other infiu- 
euce, and it is a monument to his good name, more 
and more honorable as time proves the inestimable 
value of a pure and adequate supply of water to the 
people of our city. 

Mayor Weston was the first officer of the city to 
recommend the erecting of a .soldiers' m(mument, 
and, by his earnest advocacy, and finely-educated 
taste, was largely instrumental in deciding what style 
should be adopted, and bringing that worthy and 
patriotic enterprise to a successful completion. The 
noble shaft which now and ever will, we trust, com- 
memorate tlie glorious deeds and the fearful sacrifices 
of the soldiers from Mandiester in the War of the 
Rebellion, speaks a word as well for those who at- 
tempted, in a small measure, to show the high 
appreciation in which their gallant services are held. 

Frequent mention of Mr. Weston as a candidate 
for Governor had been made, and in 1871 he became 
the nominee of the Democratic party for that office. 
In the gubernatorial contest he was met by the de- 
termined effort of his opponents to defeat his election. 
He would have undoubtedly been elected by the peo- 
ple but tor the strategical movement of his adversary 
to iiave a third candidate in the fight. This scheme 
was partly successful, ])reventing an election by the 
people by only one hundred and thirteen votes, 
although Mr. Weston had a large plurality. He was 
elected Governor by the Legislature, and inaugurated 
on the 14th day of June, 1871. 

The Governor's administration was characterized by 
economy and the most conscientious observance of 
official honor and integrity. Even the most zealous 
partizan never questioned his faithful discharge of 
duty, and his official term closed with the highest 



MANCHESTER. 



123 



respect of the whole people. In 1872 the Republican 
party put in nuiuination their "great man," the Hon. 
E. A. Straw, agent of the Ainoskeiig Manufacturing 
Company, and placed their campaign upon the sup- 
posed issue between manufacturing interests and 
other branches of business in the country. Mr. 
Straw was elected, and again in 1873, but in 1874, Mr. 
Weston was the standard-bearer of the Democratic 
party and defeated the Republicans. Although he 
failed of election by the people, he received a large 
plurality, and was elected by the Legislature in June 
following. 

In every instance where Mr. Weston has been the 
candidate of his party for public office it lias been 
when his opponent started in the race with a major- 
ity and with numerous party advantages. Mr. Wes- 
ton has fought his campaigns against numbers and 
against i)restigc. He has contested the ground with 
opponents wlio were no mean adversaries, and his 
successes have been alike honoraljle to him and the 
party to which he belongs. 

During the years of his public life and since, Gover- 
nor Weston has kept apace with the times in the many 
enterprises and business projects of his vicinity and 
State, and has held many places of trust and impor- 
tance. In 1S71 he was appointed a memlier of the 
New Hampshire Centennial Commission, of which 
body he was chairman, and as such worked with great 
zeal and efficiency to promote the success of New 
Hampshire's exhibit. He was also made a member 
of the Centennial Board of Finance by Congress. 
He has been chairman of the Board of Water Com- 
missioners from its beginning. For several years he 
has been a member of the State Board of Health ; 
also treasurer of the Elliot Hospital cor|)oration, 
chairman of the "Trustees of tlie Cemetery Fund," 
treasurer of the Suncook Valley Railroad, treasurer 
of the Franklin Street Cliurch Society, one of the 
directors and clerk of the Manchester Horse Railroad 
corporation, president of the Locke Cattle Company; 
but his main business is the management of the Mer- 
chants' National Bank, of which he has been the 
president since its organization, and the (iuaranty 
SavingN-liank, of which he has been the treasurer 
aince its incorixiration. These two banks, altbongh 
not so old as their neighbors, are, nevertheUss, ci|Ually 
successful, and stand second to none in sound finan- 
cial reputation. Governor Weston is tlie president, 
and has actively been concerned in the management, 
of the New Hampshire Fire Insurance Company, 
devoting a large portion of his time to its ad'airs. 

(Jovernor Weston has been a member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity since ISO], and has taken a dee|) 
interest in its prosperity. He has received all the 
grades, including the orders of knighthcio<l, and has 
held many places of trust and responsibility, n(jtabiy 
amongtlieni that of treasurerof Trinity Conimandery 
for twenty-two years, — a fact wliicli shows lln> confi- 
dence and esteem wliiib bis brethren have for liim. 



In 1854 he married Miss Anna S. Gilmore, daughter 
of Mitchel S. (lilmore, Es(i., of Concord. They have 
five surviving children, — the eldest born, Herman, 
having deceased at the age of four and a half years; 
Grace Helen, born .Tuly 1, 1866; James Henry, July 
17, 18CS; Edwin Bell, March 15, 1871; Annie Mabel, 
September 26, 1876 ; and Charles Albert, November 
1, 1878. 

We find him surrounded by his family, living in his 
elegant and tastily-arranged home, blessed with all 
that life can afford. So far his journey has been suc- 
cessful and happy. Few shadows have crossed the 
way, and his course has been one of honor and dis- 
tinction. 

In the estimate of character the world is often led 
astray by looking at results and not observing the 
conditions under which they are gained. Accident 
often determines a whole life, — some unlooked-for and 
unmerited fortune builds castles for men, and, in 
spite of themselves, makes them noted. Not so with 
the subject of this sketch. His good fortune is the 
well-deserved result of sound business principles and 
their careful and systematic application to every 
undertaking. 

Governor Weston is not a man of impulse and sud- 
den conelusions. He is rather of the deliberate and 
cautious habits of thought and action, and inclined 
to the analysis and investigation of all matters in 
which he may be interested to an unusual degree. 
The natural counterpart of such characteristics — an 
abiding confidence and ilisposition to adhere tena- 
ciously to well-matured plans — is the leading feature 
of his mind. His achievements have been true suc- 
cesses, and he has never had occasion to take the 
"step backward " so common to men in public life. 
Better for the world and better for himself is he wlio 
builds slowly, but safely ! 



I'UINEHAS ADAMS. 

The first of the name of Adams to come to 
this country was Henry, who left Devonshire, 
England, about 1630, and settled in Braintree, 
Mass. He brought with him his eight sons, one 
of wIkuii, Joseph, was the ancestor of that branch of 
this illustrious family, which has been so |)ronii- 
nently connected with the civil and pcditical history 
of this country. The line of descent of the subject of 
this sketch was througli Ivlward'-, Jfdin'', Eleazer', 
John'', PhiiK'liiis", I'hinehas' to Phinehas", who was 
born in Meihvay, .Mass., .lime 20, 1S14. His grand- 
father and great-graiidfalln'r participated in the 
battle of Bunker Hill, and served through the Revo- 
lutionary War. He had three brothers and seven 
sisters. Three sisters only are now living, — Sarah 
.Vnn (born in 1816, the wii'e of E. B. Ilamniond, 
M.I)., of Na.sliua), Eliza P. (born in 1820, widow of 
the late Ira Stone) and Mary .lane (born in 1822, 
willow of the lat<' James Bnneber), — the others having 
dieij |iji(ir to Is.'ll. I'liineliiis" nnirried Sarah W. 



124 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Barber, of Holliston, Mass., iu 1811. Her father was 
an Kiiglishnian, and came to America during the 
Revohitionary War, and married a lady who came 
from Edinburgh. Phinehas' was a farmer and a 
mechanic, and became an extensive manufacturer. 
At an early date he manufactured lirind-kmms, and at 
Waltham, Mass., iu 1814, started up successfully the 
first ;^oice)--looni in this county. In 1827 he became 
agent of the Neponset Manufacturing Company, at 
Walpole, in which he was also one of the principal 
owners. 

Phinehas" passed his boyhood in Mcdway and Wal- 
pole and attended the common schools, but showed 
little fondness for books. At the earne-st request of 
liis father, however, he applied himself more closely 
to his studies, and, attending the academy at Wren- 
thara, Mass., for a year and a half, made rapid and 
successful progress in his studies. At this time, ow- 
ing to the failure of the company of which his father 
was agent, he was obliged to leave the academy, re- 
linquishing the hope of a thorough education, and 
commence work. Circumstances seemed to direct 
him to the manufacturing business, and, with the de- 
termination to master the business in all its details, 
he, at the age of fifteen years, entered the large mills 
of the Merrimack Company, at Lowell, Mass., as 
bobbin-boy. Mr. Adams was early possessed of an 
ambition to become an overseer, and to this end 
labored hard and faithfully, never thinking, however, 
that he would become agent of a large mill. By his 
intelligent performance of the duties of his humble 
position he drew the attention of his emjiloyers, and 
was promoted in a short time to the i)osition of second 
overseer in the weaving department, a position he 
filled until 1831, when he went to fill a similar posi- 
tion at the Methuen Company's mill, of which his 
uncle was agent. Here he rcniainetl two years, when 
he was called to take the ])osition of overseer in the 
mills of the Ilooksett Manufacturing Company, of 
which his father was then the agent. From Hook- 
sett he went to Pittsfield as overseer in the mills of 
the Pittsfield Manufacturing Company, where he re- 
mained uutil March 7, 183.5, when he returned to 
Lowell as overseer in the mills where he began his 
career as manufacturer, and there remained until 
1846, when he came to Manchester. ' 

In 1841, John Clark, the agent of the Merrimack 
Mills, in Lowell, proposed to Mr. Adams that he 
should enter the office as a clerk, in order to acciuaint 
himself with the book-keeping and general business 
of the mills preparatory to lilling a higher position, 
which Mr. Clark then predicted he would some day : 
be called upon to fill. After some hesitation he did 
so, and for a period of five years filled this respon.si- i 
ble position, which in those days was equivalent to 
tlie present jjosition of payma.ster. 

L'pon his arrival in Manchester he was given the 
position of agent of the Old Amoskeag Mills, then 
located on the present site of the P. C. Cheney Paper i 



Company. The building of the Amoskeag Mills 
was the beginning of Manchester's wonderful career 
of prosperity. Mr. Adams remained with the Amos- 
keag corporation until November 17, 1847, when he 
became the agent of the Stark Mills. Of the great 
manufactories of JManehester, that of the Stark Mills 
Company ranks third in magnitude and second in 
age, having been organized Sci>tember 26, 1838. 

Under the management of Mr. Adams, large suc- 
cess has been achieved by the Stark Mills, which suc- 
cess has been largely due to his sagacity and business 
integrity, and while, requiring faithful performance 
of duty on the part of each employe, he also had the 
confidence and esteem of each of them in an unusual 
degree. Mr. Adams traveled extensively through 
England, Scotland, Ireland and France, securing for 
the benefit of the Stark Mills information relating to 
the manufacture of linen goods and the securing of 
machinery necessary for that manufacture. 

In politics Mr. Adams was a Republican, but was 
not an active participant in political contests, nor was 
he from choice a candidate for political office, having 
only served as ward clerk, when a young man, in 
Lowell, and later as a Presidential elector for General 
Grant, and was also chief-of-statt' for Governor E. A. 
Straw. He was four years a director in the Concoril 
Railroad, was chosen one of the assistant engineers 
of the Manchester Fire Department, in which capac- 
ity he served with peculiar fidelity for twelve years, 
invariably acting for the best interests of the city. 
Mr. Adams was for many years closely identified with 
the financial institutions of Manchester, having 
served as a director in the Merrimack River Bank 
from 1857 to I860, and in the Manchester National 
Bank from I860 to 1883, and was also one of the 
board of trustees of the Manchester Savings-Bank, 
and one of its committee on loans. He was one of 
the directors of the Gas-Light Comi)any, a trustee of 
the Public Library, and in 1865 was elected one of 
the original directors of the New England Cotton 
Manufacturers' Association. In numismatics Mr. 
Adams was quite an authority, and made a fine and 
very com]ilete collection of coins and medals, some of 
which are of great value, being very rare. During 
the administration of Colonel Adams, which covered 
a long series of years, many changes took place. In 
what may be called, more particularly, the manufac- 
turing world, was this true. Hand-power and crude 
methods of business gave place to water and steam- 
power and progressive, wide-reaching business con- 
nections. Colonel .\dams was the oldest agent, and 
held that position for a longer period than did any 
man in the Merrimack Valley, and of those holding 
similar positions thirty-five years ago nearly all have 
jiassed away. 

Septend)er 24, 1839, Colonel Adams married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of the late Deacon Samuel Simpson, 
of Deerfield, a veteran in the War of 1812. From 
this Union there were two children, — Elizabeth", liorn 



i 




K,,^ 4^n„,. 



MANCHESTER. 



125 



June 15, 1842, and Phinehas", born December 26, 
1844, both in Lowell, Mass. 

September 10, 18(iS, Elizabeth'' was married to Col- 
onel Daniel C. Gould, of Manchester, X. H. Octo- 
ber 8, 1873, Pliinchas'-' married Anna P. Morrison, of 
Belfast, Me., and resides in Manchester, N. 11. 

In religion Colonel Adams was a Coiigregatioiialist, 
and a member of the First Congregational Church 
in Lowell, Mass., as was also his wife. On removing to 
Manchester, they transferred their church relations to 
the Franklin Street Cluirch of that city. Colonel 
Adams received many evidences of allectionate regard 
at the hands of the citizens of the places where he 
had lived, and enjoyed the confidence and esteem of 
his business associates to an extent rarely attained. 
On the thirty-second anniversary of his connection 
with the Stark Mills as agent he was presented by 
the directors of this corporation with an elegant gold 
watch, appropriately engraved, and a chain and seal, 
as an expression of great respect for his character 
and a high appreciation of the service rendered the 
corporation during a third of a century. Colonel 
Adams was a total abstinence man; he could truth- 
fully say that never in all his life bad lie made use 
of liquor or tobacco. Of a commanding presence and 
dignified bearing, he was at all times a gentleman. 
His life was a successful one and his example a good 
one. He died at his home in Manchester, July 25, 

1883, beloved and respected. His wife died June 23, 

1884. They had lived together nearly forty-five years. 



Jfl.SIAH CRO.SIiY, M.Il. 

In .\pril, 1753, from Tewksbury, Mass., there 
came with Colonel Fitch a millwright who had 
punliased seventy-seven acres of land upmi the 
Souhcgan River, in Motison (as then called), and 
afterwards Amherst, now Milford, N. II., the grand- 
father 111' .Josiah Crosby. These young people took 
posjtession of the lot "to subdue the forest, build a 
house and rear a family." They found their way to 
their wilderness lot on horsel>ack, guided by "s|iotted 
trees," and there built a rude liabitatioii. At this 
place was born, in 17IJ5, Asa Croslty, who for about 
fifty years practiced medicine in this State, and to 
whom, in Sandwich, wliere he then resided, was boru, 
in February, 1794, Josiaii Crosby, the subject of this 
skctcli, also Judge Nathan Crosby, of Lowell, and 
nixie, Tliomas and Alpheus Crosby, professors iit 
Dartmouth f'ollcge. .losiaii was handsome, genial 
and gentlemaidy. (piick to learn and early graceful in 
manners. He was started early for preparation for 
iiis father's profession. From the town school he 
was placed under the private instruction of Rev. Mr. 
Hidden, of Tamworth, and afterwards sent to Am- 
herst .\cademy. I [e took lessons in (tillbrd's system 
in pcnniansliip and became an elegant peiuiian, kept 
sihiiiil and taught private classes in peiiinanship, 
studiedhis j ro e-.-ii n with his lather, attended lec- 
tures three terms at Dartmouth College and spent a 



year's term of pupilage and riding with the distin- 
guished Dr. and Prolessor Nathan Smith, to learn 
his practice. He took his medical degree in 1810 
and immediately commenced practice in Sandwich, 
but the next year he moved to Meredith Bridge, and 
although he made very pleasant acquaintances and 
had S(nnc i)ractice, he moved to Dcerfield, and in 
December, 1819, he again changed his field to Epsom, 
where he remained till 1825, when he established 
himself in Concord. After three years of success- 
ful practice there, he was induced, upon solicita- 
tion of Mr. Batchelder, agent of mills in Lowell, ■ 
to remove there. 

Here, in 1829, he brought as his bride, Olive Light 
Avery, daughter of Daniel Avery, Esq., of Meredith 
Bridge (now Lacouia, N. H.), who was a wealthy 
merchant and manufacturer, a prominent and lead- 
ing citizen, unostentatious, but energetic and decisive 
in personal character and business habits. 

By this marriage were born three sons and two 
daughters, the only one now living being Dr. George 
A. Crosby, of Manchester. His letters make quite a 
history of the trials and disappointments of the 
young physician of those days, who was obliged to 
present youth and inexperience upon ground pre- 
occupied and tenaciously held by those who could 
claim possession, if not much else, in the way of title; 
but increasing years and experience, accompanied 
with efforts and study, carried the young man to a 
leading member of the profession in Lowell, in fifteen 
years from his starting-point in Sandwich. He was 
honored with public ofliccs in Lowell, and assisted in 
devising and organizing the various institutions of 
the town for its moral and intellectual prosperity. 

After about five years' successful practice in Lowell, 
having passed through the land speculations and 
becoming somewhat enamored with manufacturing, 
he left Lowell to take charge of the Avery cotton- 
mill, at Meredith Bridge, Mr. Avery having deceased 
and the property of the family seeming to require his 
personal stipervision. He enlarged the power of the 
w(irks, and was just ready to reap his anticipated 
reward, when the mercantile and manufacturing dis- 
asters of 1.S30 and 1837 broke down his business and 
turned him back to his profession. In 1838 his 
brother Dixie, who had been in ])ractice at Meredith 
Bridge several years, was appointed a professor in the 
medical college at HauDVcr ami removed there, leav- 
ing his practice to Josiah, who now devoted himself 
to the profession again with his early love, zeal and 
labor. In March, 1844, he removeil to Manchester, 
which had llieii liecome an interesting manuladuring 
town. 

His profession.'d life-wnrk now assumed great use- 
fulness, great skill and inventive progress. Here for 
thirty years he was the unrivaled head of the [irofcs- 
sion. Here he originated and introduced the method 
of nniking extensions of fractured limbs by the use of 
adhesive strips, which gave him a high reputation 



126 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



with surgeons in Europe as well iis at home, and later 
he invented the "invalid bed," which has so tenderly 
held the patient without a strain or jar while the bed- 
clothes could be changed or wounds cared for, or, by 
dropping a belt or two, [irevent painful local pressure 
and irritation. The skillful |ihysician, the Christian 
gentleman and sympathi/.ing friend were combina- 
tions of character in him rarely excelled. "His 
religious life," said Professor Tucker, of Andover, 
"was simple, real, true; with him there w^as no pre- 
tense; he had no beliefs except those which were 
thorough; no little questions vexed him; he loved 
God, trusted his Saviour and worked for the welfare 
of his fellow-men. Such was his record from first 
to last. He looked with a calm, clear eye into the 
ftiture, and, so far as we know, was troubled with no 
doubts." 

He was one of the founders of the Ap])leton Street 
Church in Lowell in 1830, and of the Franklin Street 
Church in Manchester in 1844. He held city offices, 
was several times in the Legislature and was a member 
of the convention for revision of the constitution. 

In early manhood, from cough and feebleness, he 
had not much promise of long life, but after a severe 
typhoid fever during his residence in Concord, he had 
great general good health to the hist two years of his 
life, when paralytic tendencies appeared. On Satur- 
day, the 2d day of January, 1875, after setting a 
broken arm in the morning, and after sitting in his 
own parlor for the finishing touches of the i>ortrait- 
paiiiter in his usual cheerfulness of spirits, in fifteen 
minutes after the artist had left him, at three o'clock 
P.M., he was stricken with paralysis, from which he 
did not rally, but passed away on the Tth, at four 
o'clock in the morning, almost eighty-one years of 
age. 



WILLIAM D. BUCK, M.D. 

William D. Buck was born in Williarastown, Vt., 
Marcli 2o, 1812, where his early boyhood was pitssed. 
In 1818 his parents moved to Lebanon, N. H., and he 
here enjoyed the advantages of the common schools 
of the time, and by the exercise of will-power and 
aided by his vigorous intellect he made rapid pro- 
gress in his studies. Not being able to take a col- 
legiate course, he, at an early period, went to Concord 
and engaged in the occupation of carriage-i)ainter 
with Downing <& Sons. 

While at work here he became interested in the 
science of music, and was for many succeeding years 
instructor, conductor and organist in the South 
Congregational Church, at Concord, and afterwards at 
the Hanover Street Church, at Manchester. He 
familiarized himself with standard writers and re- 
tained tlirough life his love for Handel, Beethoven 
and Mozart. His attention becoming drawn to the 
medical profession, he determined to fit himself for its 
practice, and by teaching music was enabled to de- 
fray the greater part of the expense of the study of 



medicine. He went into it with great enthusiasm, 
and his subsequent career showed his natural fitness 
fi r this profession. 

He commenced the study of medicine with Timothy 
Haines, M. D., of Concord; attended a course of 
lectures at Woodstock, Vt., and also took the course 
at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in New 
York, where he graduated in 1842. He commenced 
the practice of his profession with the late Dr. Chad- 
bourne, in Concord, in 1842, and there remained for 
four years, when, desiring greater advantages of per- 
fecting his medical knowledge, he visited London and 
Paris, where he became acquainted with many dis- 
tinguished men in the profession and spent much 
time in the hospitals of those cities. He also visited 
Rome and Italy, gaining much information and 
making a favorable impression upon those with whom 
he came in contact. After an absence of one year In 
returned and made Manchester, N. H., his home, ami 
here, with the exception of one year spent in Cali- 
fornia, he lived until his death. 

Dr. Buck sustained an enviable reputation as :i 
physician and surgeon, and possessed the confideiu i 
of the community in which he lived, and was early 
regarded as one of the leading medical men of the 
State. He reached this high position in his profes- 
sion without the aid of wealth or social position. His 
success was due to hard study and close applica- 
tion to his business, accompanied by a zeal and devo- 
tion rarely surpassed. He was unmindful of riches, 
public honor or anything which he thought might 
interfere with the one great pursuit of his life. Dr. 
Buck possessed an active mind and the rare gift of a 
retentive memory, and was a thorough scholar. He 
seemed to know his own powers, and this gave him 
great influence over students in medicine. In his in- 
tercourse with his professional brethren Dr. Buck was 
always courteous and obliging, religiously regarding 
the rules of medical etiquette, and in his consultations 
he always gave the patient the benefit of his best skill 
and extensive practice. He made it a point of honor 
to be prompt to his engagements, and never was for 
one minute behind the api)ointed time. In his ex- 
ample and practice he honored the profession to which 
he had devoted the best years of his life, and did much 
to dignify and elevate the standard of medical edu- 
cation. 

Dr. Buck was a prominent member of the New 
Hampshire Medical Society, and was elected its pres- 
ident in 1800. His papers read before this society 
were always listened to with nuirked attention. 

For twenty years he had a large experience in 
teaching medicine, proving himself devoted and faith- 
ful as an instructor. His office or the dissecting- 
room were uncomfortable places for lazy students, and 
he had little i)aticnce with a young man who would 
not work his brains. During the winter months his 
daily recitations were at eight o'clock x.ii., and woe 
to the young man who was not on time. 




/hu^X?3^^y^ 




m, 



■^|n. W-" 



^yCt^ ^^/h^^ 



MANCHESTER. 



127 



Dr. Buck was frequently called as a medical expert 
in many •>(' the most imp<irtanl civil and criminal 
cases in the .State. A distinguished advocate at the 
liar in New Hainpslilre said of Dr. Buck; " i5y his 
clearness of description of all im|)ortant facts to which 
he W!is called in legal investigations, he had the con- 
fidence of courts, thejury and the legal profession to an 
extent e«|Ual to, if not ahove, that of any physician and 
surgeon in New England, lie made no display of learn- 
ing, hut used plain English, so that a jury might com- 
prehend." 

Bleeding, calomel and antimony, the three most po- 
tent remedies of the fathers, he rarely used. An experi- 
ence of thirty years only strengthened his convictions 
against their use, and he had independence of mind 
enough to ri-sist a mode of treatment which tlie med- 
ical world lia<l made ftushionable, if not imperative. 
In the surgical department of his profession Dr. 
Buck excelled in his treatment of fractures, and in it 
his mechanical ingenuity was of great service. He 
took pride in putting u|) a fractured limb. The glue 
bandage, which he described in an address before the 
society in 186t>, was original with him, and a favorite 
rennirk of his was that "a man should carry his 
splint-sin his head rather than under his arm." 

Jn his success in medicine and surgery very much 
was undoubtedly due to his conservative treatment. 
He was never rash or inconsiderate in his practice, 
and the community where his busy life was passed 
owe him a debt of gratitude, not only for his skill, but 
for his careful use of drug.s, and his influence in this 
particular over his professional brethren will not be 
forgotten. He was positive and firm in his judgment, 
and was not readily swayeil by those holding dillirent 
0|>inions. Yet he was genial, comjianionable and 
very fond of society. To those most intimate with 
him Dr. Buck had endeared himself by strong ties of 
friendship. In politics he was a Republican. 

Dr. Buck lived a consistent Christian life, and had 
that ho|ie of a happy immortality and that trust in 
his Saviour wlilch served as an anchor to the s(ml 
sure and steadfast. He died January 9, 1872, sud- 
denly, and in the midst of an active i)ractice. 

Dr. Buck was twice married, — first, to Grace Low, of 
Concord, who died in ISotJ. In 1860 ho married, sec- 
ond, Mary \V. Nichols, of Manchester, who is now 
liviuL'. He left no cliildren. 



I'll. CIIAHI.KS WKI.I.S.' 



The subject of this sketch was born at West- 
minster, Vt., on the 22d day of June, 1817. His 
lather, Horace Wells, a prosperous, intelligent and 
iiigbly respected farmer, was born in Wind.sor, 
' "un., .Tunc 22, 177<). Alter his marriage to Miss 
Betsy Heath, of Warehouse Point, Conn., he removed 



> Kv Hon. Ilinrlos H. Bartlolt. 



to Vermont, and died at Bellows Falls, in that State, 
April 5, 1829. His mother afterwards remarried, and 
died at Westmoreland, N. H., February 21, 1879. 

His grandfather. Captain Hezekiah Wells, was born 
in Windsor, Conn., June 25. 1730. He served with 
distinction in the Revolutionary War and was a man 
of much influence and widely esteemed. He died 
March S, 1817. The homestead, which he erected 
nearly a century and a half ago, is still in the posses- 
sion of his descendants. 

His grandmother's maiden-name was Sarah Trum- 
bull. His more remote ancestors were Lamsou Wells, 
born November 7, 1706; Joshua Wells, born April 10, 
1672 ; and .Joshua, Sr., born in 1647. They were 
all natives of Windsor, and no tem]>tation could ever 
lure them from their ancestral home. It will thus be 
seen that Dr. Wells traced his lineage through the best 
of New England ancestry, and no purer blood has 
descended from the Pilgrim Fathers to ennoble a 
people than that which flowed in his veins. 

Dirt'erent branches of the Wells family, in this 
country and in Europe, have varied the orthography 
of the name to suit their individual tastes or circum- 
stances, and few of the old colonial family names 
show such varied orthography, but the consanguinity 
is easily traced, and few men could claim kinship 
with a brighter gala.xy of names, distinguished in law, 
in politics, in science, in theology and in all the fields 
of literature and art, than he. Dr. Wells had but one 
brother, the late Dr. Horace Wells, of Hartford, Conn., 
widely and justly celebrated its the author of modern 
ana'sthesia, to whose memory a beautiful statue has 
been erected in the public i)ark of that city. He died 
in the city of New York, on the 24th day of January, 
1848, at the early age of thirty-three, while pros- 
ecuting the introduction of his discovery into 
general use in surgery, as well as in dentistry, 
in which he made its first application. His early 
and untimely death, while his wonderful discov- 
ery was yet a matter of uncertain and undeter- 
mined im])Ortance, deprived him and his family of 
the fruits which might otherwise have flowed from 
what is now universally conceded to be the greatest 
boon conferred upon suflering humanity in all the 
course of time. 

His only sister, Mary E. W. Cole, widow of the 
late Captain .John Cole, a mitive of Westmoreland, 
N. 11., but many years a resident of Medway, Mass., 
now resides in Chicago, III., with her only son, Arthur 
W. Cole, a promising young architect of that city. 

Dr. Wells received, in his early ytnith, all the edu- 
cational advantages aflbrded by the public schools at 
liellows Falls, Vt.. to which place his father removed 
during his infancy, and here he died .Vjiril !'), 1829. 
After his fiithcr's death he received not only the ten- 
der and watchful care of one of the best of mothers, 
but also the liberal and intelligent training of a 
woman as remarkable for her intelligence and large- 
mindedness as for herdoniestiiand maternal i|ualitie8. 



128 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



He further prosecuted his studies under the private 
tuition of a most excellent teacher, Mr. Ballard, of 
Hopkinton, N. H., and at the academies in Walpole, 
N. H., and Amherst, Mass. 

After the coniplotion of his academic course he en- 
tered with cnthusiiism upon the study '<{ medicine, a 
profession for which by nature he was most admirably 
fitted. 

He commenced his professional studies with Dr. 
Josiah ( iiavcs, of Nashua, X. H., January 22, IS.')?, and 
graduated at the Jclferson Medical College, in Phila- 
delphia, Jlarch 0, 1S4(J, at the early age of twenty-one. 
He immediately commenced his professional career 
at Chili, N. Y., in copartnership with Dr. Lucius 
Clark ; but the field of practice proving unsatisfactory 
to him, he removed to Manchester, N. H., in 1842, 
where he continued his residence till his death. 

His professional career was highly honorable and 
eminently successful. Xever a bold and aggressive 
practitioner, but always content with the share of 
patronage that fell to his lot, he enjoyed, in a high 
degree, the confidence and respect of his professional 
brethren, and never had reason to complain of any 
want of recognition of his merits by the people among 
whom he lived, and who early honoretl him with their 
confidence and their patronage. Such was his pro- 
fessional success, and such his rare financial skill 
and judgment, that while in the prime and vigor of 
his manhood he found himself so fortunately circum- \ 
stanccd, financially, as to be relieved of the burden of 
further professional labor, and several years prior to 
his decease he quietly withdrew from active practice, 
and devoted the last years of his life to the manage- 
ment of his estate, and to those social enjoyments and 
domestic duties and responsibilities which to him 
were ever the source of his highest enjoyment and 
his greatest hap])iness. 

Dr. Wells was married to Miss Mary M. Smith, 
December 21, 1847, — a union which proved remarkably 
felicitous to both parties. The widow survives her 
lamented husband, who made most generous pro- 
vision for her future wants. No children blessed 
their union. 

For more than forty years Dr. AVells was an earnest 
and enthusiastic member of the Hillsborough Lodge 
of Odd-Fellows, being one of the charter members 
of the lodge and the last survivor of that little band 
who introduced the order in this State. He received 
all the honors the order could bestow upon him, 
and ever gave a willing hand and a generous and sym- 
pathetic heart to its benevolent and charitable work. 
Utterly devoid of all political ambition, he took 
but little part in public afl'airs, never seeking, but 
always declining, official preferment. His only service 
in this direction was as a member of the Common 
Council in 1847— is, and as an alderman in 1848-49. 
He assisted in making the first city report, and the 
plan suggested and matured by him has been in use 
ever since. He was a member of Grace Church 



(Episcopal), and many years a vestryman and trea- 
surer. 

Dr. Wells was not an ambitious man. He neither 
sought nor desired public applause. Self-ghirification 
and aggrandizement were utterly abhorrent to every 
element of his nature. The ostentatious show of 
wealth not only had no attractions for him, but for 
it he had the most supreme contempt, and the seeker 
after transient notoriety and ephemeral applau><- 
found no favor in his sight. Solid merit and wonli 
alone weighed with him, and no man was ijuicker ii. 
discover the true and the genuine or more pr<jm|.i 
and earnest in his denunciation of the false, the sham 
and the counterfeit. As a citizen, no man w.is esteem c 
above him. As a neighbor and friend, he filled tl. 
measure of every expectation, and it is no extrav:.- 
gance to say that no citizen of Manchester ever de- 
parted this life more universally esteemed or mon 
widely and deeply lamented. A man of fine physiqui . 
of strikingly prepossessing personal appearance and 
bearing, gentle, courtly, dignified, but affable in his 
demeanor and intercourse with all with whom he 
came in contact, he gave ofi'ense to none, but won 
the affectionate regard, respect and confidence of all. 

Dr. Wells died at his family residence in Manchesti i . 
December 28, 1884, very suddenly, of heart-disease. 
The first intimation received by his friends and the 
public that he was not in his usual apparent health 
was the startling announcement of his sudden demise. 



JOHN FERGUSON, M.l). 

The ancestors of Dr. Ferguson were Scotch, who 
settled in the North of Ireland, and were gener- 
ally engaged in the celebrated linen manufacture 
of that part of the country. His grandfather, David, 
settled in the South of Ireland, and was a mercliaii; 
in the town of Rathkeale, County of Limerick, which 
is watered by the ''Lordly Shannon," one of tiie 
noblest rivers of the LTnited Kingdom. Here he 
was married, and here reared his family of five 
sons and two daughters, giving them good educa- 
tions. The professions of the law, divinity and medi- 
cine claimed one each oftlio boys, only one of whom 
is at this date living, and he is the judge of the Cir- 
cuit Court for the Southern District in Ireland. The 
remaining sou, named for his father, chose also his 
father's business, which he carried on in his native 
town successfully, and married adaughter of Councilor 
Fitz-Gerald, of the city of Limerick, known in history 
as thecity of the ''broken treaty." 

From this union there were eight children, the eldc.'-i 
of whom was John (the subject of this sketch), who wa- 
born October 28, 1829, in Rathkeale. He was earl\ 
placed underthe careand instructi(m of a private tutor 
where he remained for several years, and eomplcti'i 
his collegiate course with the .Jesuits. Iininediately 
after he was placed underthe instructions of his uncle, 
Philip O'Hanlon, M.D., of Rathkeale, who had a larL'e 
city and country practice. In due time Dr. Ferguson 








^/^ 








VW^MUl 



MANCHESTER. 



129 



graduated at the Hall of Apothecaries, in Dublin, 
and still associated with Dr. O'Hanlou, actpiired a 
practical knowledge of medicine, surgery, pharmacy 
and dispensatory practice. 

His uncle emigrated to .Vmerica, and soon after- 
wards became justly cclcl)rated in its metropolis. 
Dr. Ferguson followed him to .Vmerica in 1851, 
an<l that he might practice his profession here he 
otlered himself for examination to the faculty of the 
Medical College of Castleton, Vt., and received from 
thcin their diploma. The following spring he piissed 
the examination of the College of Physicians an<l Sur- 
geons of New York City, and received their diploma. 
At this time he accepted the position of surgeon on a 
line of mail steamships plying between New York, 
Liverpool, Bremen and Havre, where for a period of 
three years he a.ssociated witli many literary people 
among the traveling public and made many valual)lc 
friends. Leaving the service of the steamship com- 
pany, Dr. Ferguson was appointed one of the j)ost- 
mortem examining surgeons for the coroners of New 
York City, also assistant anatomical demonstrator and 
assistant clinical examiner at the Medical University, 
in Fourteenth Street, a college chiofiy patronized by 
the sons of Southern planters, who were a liberal and 
chivalrous class of gentlemen. 

After practicing some years in New York City, he re- 
moved to Manchester, N. H., in 18G1, being the first 
Irish physi(-ian to settle here. Dr. Ferguson, shortly 
after, was appointed by fiovernor Berry surgeon of the 
Tenth Regiment of New JIampsbire Volunteers, anil 
left for the I'ront, with bis regiment, in the fall of 
1862. Dr. Fergu.son, during his residence in New 
York, was surgeon on the stall' of Colonel Corcoran, 
of the famous Si.xty-Nintb New York State Militia, 
and saw service in the i|uanintiMe riots on Staten 
Island. This service fitted blni all the better to fill 
the position of brigade surgeon during the Civil War, 
near the close of which he returned to Manchester, 
where he has since been successfully engaged in his 
private practice, which has become large and lucra- 
tive, l^rior to removal to Mancbcster, Dr. Ferguson 
married I'leanor, only surviving daughter of Michael 
and Lienor Hughes, who were of an old and wealthy 
family of New York City, where she was born June 
24, 1888. From this union there have been four 
children, — Eleanora, Mary ('., .lohn D. and Alfred W. 

Among his pmlVssional brctbrcn Dr. Ferguson is 
known to be a skillful and thorougbly educated prac- 
titioner, and in social life is an atlalilf and courteous 
gentleman. 



NATIl.\N'li:i. WENTWOKTII Cl'MNER.' 

The ancestors of tlie (Aimiicr family were of Eng- 
lish origin. The name is first discovered in the period 
following the supremacy of the Norman rule, — the 
return from the dynasty of (he Conqueror to the as- 



' By J. W. feUows. 



cendeiicy of the English-Sa.\on line. It was first 
spelled Comnor, and later Cumnor, meaning "hospi- 
tality to strangers," or a " place of hospitality," and 
comes through the Saxon branch. To this jieriod may 
be referred the formation of many English family 
names, — often derived from some unimjiortant cir- 
cumstance, or suggested by jiersonal characteristics. 
These became marks of distinction, new.titlcs to man- 
hood, and were proudly bequeathed by father to son, 
— "inherited surnames." 

During the century following the loss of Normandy, 
the Anglo-Saxon, as a written language, having been 
banished from courts and superseded in all legal 
papers by the Latin, became dearer to the common 
people as a spoken language, preserving their cher- 
ished objects and transmitting leading sentiments. It 
increased its power and volume by building new terms 
and means of expression, and particularly by multi- 
plying its patronymics. In a comparatively short si)ace 
of time the language had become vernacular, and 
fairly entitled to be styled English, rich in the idioms 
and pro]K>r names of its own creation and outgrowth. 

"The history of words," says Trench, "is the his- 
tory of ideas," and he might have said of people and 
nations. They are not only the " vehicle of thought," 
but they tell anew the story of their times and enrich 
the great body of history with countless incidents of 
value and importance. In studying their genealogy, 
the English-speaking people find the starting-point of 
many an illustrious name in the peculiar circum- 
stances of those media'val times, — the natural product 
of the mingling of ditierent tongues, and the constant 
struggle between feudalism and servitude. 

The famous old manor-house, Cumnor Castle, so 
celebrated in romance, once enjoyed the rent-fee and 
service of a large body of retainers, and carried for 
many a year, by reason of its feudal allotments, a 
numerous vassalage. Its walls have long since fallen 
into shapeless ruins, but the lands of its tenantry now 
embrace the beautiful village of Cumner. The 
fanulies bearing this name have not been numerous 
in England, but have maintained their lineage with 
remarkable directness The earliest trace of these 
people shows that they belonged to the industrial 
clas-ses, — the guilds-peo|ile, who, in the latter part of 
the seventeenth century, had attained such prominence 
Its to nearly control the business interests of the great 
inetro|)olis, and to whom the Lord Mayor of London 
was pleased to say, on a memorable occasion, " While 
our gracious nobility arc the leaf and (lower of (he 
kingdom, ye are the sturdy trunk and branclus." 

The subject of this sketch belongs to the third gene- 
ration in America. His grandfather, Robert Francis 
Cumner, came to this country when about fifteen 
years of age, under circumstaiues of a very interesting 
character. In .lune, 1774, while walking in thestreets 
of London, he was seized by a " gang of pressmen " 
from the ship "Somerset," sent out to recruit hig 
Majesty's marine He was carried directly on board, 



130 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



forceii to become one of the crew, mikI do the duty of 
il common sailor. He was not allowed the privilege 
of communicatinj; with his friends, and no tidings 
from him or knowledge of his situation were received 
during the long cruise of the '■ Somerset " in distant 
waters, until she appeared in Boston Harbor and took 
part in the battle of Bunker Hill. Her position and 
the service she rendered the British troops on that 
memorable day are well-known in history. From her 
decks came the first fatal shot, and under the fii'e of her 
guns the broken and retreating ranks of Royalists 
found protection. 

The scenes of that bloody struggle made a deep 
impression upon the mind of young Cumner, and 
fixed his determination to take no part in the work of 
subjugation. Circumstances fortunately soon favored 
his settled purj)ose. The " Somerset " not long after the 
battle "got aground," probably somewhere in the 
lower part of Massachusetts Bay. During their efforts 
to get afloat, some of the crew went ashore, among 
them the Cumner boy, who immediately availed him- 
self of the opportunity to escape from his unwilling 
Service. While following the highway into which he 
first came, near the shore where lay the stranded 
" Somerset," he was overtaken by a Quaker on horse- 
back, who, learning his situation and purpose to obtain 
his freedom from the " British yoke," invited ouryoung 
hero to " get up behind," and, throwing his gray cloak 
over the lad, soon carried him beyond the King's power. 

He settled in Wareham, Mass., learned the tailor's 
trade and began the permanent business of his life. 
October 20, 1785, he married Miss Sylvia Sturtevant, 
whose family connections were very worthy and highly 
respected. Her father was a soldier in the War of the 
Revolution, and fell on the battle-field fighting for 
independence. The Sturtevant people have received 
honorable mention in the annals of history, and their 
name is written among those who deserve well of their 
country. Not long after his marriage he moved to 
Sandwich, Ma.ss., from that i)Lice to Wayne, in the 
State of Maine, where he resided during the remainder 
of his life. He was successful in business and became 
a prominent and highly respected citizen. He was a 
man of modest and retiring habits and e.^emplary 
character, but of indomitable will and inflexible ad- 
herence to what he believed to be right. If his wife 
were the subject of our sketch, we could fill it with 
incidents showing his remarkable tenacity of purpose. 
Robert Francis and Sylvia Cumner had two children, 
— John, born January 19, 1788, and Polly, a few years 
younger. He died February 5, 1825, and his wife, 
March 26, 1826, and their remains were interred in the 
Evergreen Cemetery, in Wayne. 

John Cuniner was but a few months old when the 
family moved from Sandwich, Mass., to Wayne. He 
was of a sanguine, active nature and early evinced 
the character of a sincere and zealous worker in reli- 
gious matters. He obtained a fair education, and 
although to a certain extent compelled to work on the 



farm and devote himself to that kind of employment, 
his thoughts ran u]ion matters more congenial to his 
nature. When about eighteen years of age he was 
employed by General I^andsell to take charge of his 
farm in Bridgewater, Mass., where he remained several 
summer seiisons. During this time he became ac- 
quainted with Miss Hannah Thomas Bartlett, of 
Bridgewater, whom he married July 11, 1813. He 
settled in Wayne, upon the farm which became the 
homestead, and was so occupied by the family dur- 
ing his many years of labor and life in the ministry. 

He was associated with the society of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, and interested in the afTairs of 
that denomination at the early age of nineteen years, 
and soon after appointed a class* leader and licensed 
to preach. His labons were attended with marked 
success, and at the annual meeting of the General Con- 
ference for Maine, in 1833, he was admitted to mem- 
bership and received his first appointment. He con- 
tinued in the active ministry until 1852, when failing 
health obliged him to cease labor; but his love for 
the church and his zeal in the cause of its established 
creeds continued unabatedduring his remaining years. 
He died February 5, 1861, closing a life of industry 
and devotion, in which he had accomplished more 
good than usually falls to the lot of man. His wife 
died December 5, 1852. She was very beautiful when 
young, and was much beloved and admired by her 
wide circle of friends. Possessed of an earnest and 
devotional nature, she entered with ardent sympathy 
into the plans and labors of her husband, faithfully 
bearing her share of life's varied duties, — firmly in the 
hour of trial, and with amiable companion.ship when 
prosperity filled the moasureof their ambition. They 
had eleven children, two of whom died in infancy. 
Three others, have deceased, — Maryetta in 1871, and 
Francis and James in 1881. The remaining members 
of the family are Cathamander, William B., John T., 
Nathaniel W., Charles W. and Benjamin G. Cumner. 

N.athaniel Wentworth, the youngest but two of the 
children of John and Hannah T. Cumner, was born 
at Wayne, November 28, 1829. His early life was 
devoted to obtaining an education in the vicinity of 
his home, passing from the district to the private 
school in the town of Wayne, and to other schools 
and seminaries in the circuit where his father's ap- 
pointments were made. During some portion of the 
sea.son, for a few years, he assisted the older brothers 
in cultivating the homestead farm, but at the age of 
sixteen he went to Wilton, Me., and engaged in learn- 
ing the tailor's trade. He remained thereabout three 
years; then went to Waltham, Miiss., staying there 
about one year and a half; then to Lowell, Mass., 
where he remained until 1851, when he came to Man- 
chester, N. H., and entered the employ of B. F. Man- 
ning, then doing business in the store occupied in 
later years by the firm of Cumner & Co. 

In January, 1854, Mr. Cumner became a partner 
in the business of merchant tailors and clothiers, the 



MANCHESTER. 



131 



firm-name being Manning & Cumner. This arrange- 
ment continued until August, 1857. Mr. Cumner 
then withdrew and went to Washington, D. C, as a 
member of the firm of F. Tenney & Co., proprietors 
of tlie National Hotel. In August, 185i), he returned 
to Manchester and pureliased the stoclv and " good 
will " of the Manning store, and entered at once into 
business, in which lie continued as the sole pro- 
prietor until 1865, when his brother, Benjamin G. 
Cumner, became associated with him, forming the 
copartnership of Cumner & Co. At this time Mr. 
Cumner became also a member of the well-known 
wholesale bouse of Sibley, Cumner & Co., in Boston, 
having purchased an interest in the old house of 
Foster & Sibley, and devoted his attention largely to 
the wholesale trade. In 1868, Lyman E. Sibley re- 
tired, and Mr. Cumner hecanie the senior member, the 
name of the firm remaining tlie same. 

In the great fire of November 9, 1872, their estab- 
lishment was among the first to be burned, and the 
firm suffered a total loss of their immense stock ; but 
their credit was so strong, and their energy and ability 
80 widely recognized, that their business received no 
check, and the transactions of the house proceeded 
even upon a more extensive scale than before. In 
1879 the firm became Cumner, Jones & Co., which is 
the present style of the business. In 1881 he sold 
his interest in the business of Cumner & Co. in Man- 
chester, which had enjoyed unvarying success and 
great jirosperity from the beginning, and from that 
time devoted himself entirely to the Boston house. 
The business had so largely increased that it became 
necessary to give it his constant personal attention. 
The reputation of Cumner, Jones & Co. in commer- 
cial circles hits become widely known, and its 
remarkable success an acknowledged fact. He was 
one of the founders of tlie Boston Merchants' Asso- 
ciation in 1880, and has for some time been one of its 
board of directors. Tlie importance of this organi- 
zation to the great commercial interests of Boston is 
widely known. 

Mr. Cumner has been eminently successful asabusi- 
ness man. Possessing in a large degree self-reliance 
and confirleiice in his own judgment, he selected an 
honorable calling and devoted himself to its duties 
and demands. He believed that industry and perse- 
verance, with well-matured plans, were certain to 
produce the most desirable results. He knew the 
energy and fidelity of his own character, and trusted 
to the safety of sound principle, and lie has proved 
that his plans were wisely laid and his ways well 
chosen. At a comparatively early age hehas acquired 
a competence, and in his position of senior member of 
one of tlie soundest and most prosperous, an<l at tlie 
same time conservative, wholesale houses in New 
England, his inlliience is always in favor of that 
healthy and rcliabU' condition of trade which estab- 
lishes i)ublic confidence and guarantees general pros- 
I'crity. 



And not only in connection with his partnership 
associations is Mr. Cumner known as a business man. 
In the circles wdiere the leading merchants and im- 
porters of our New England metropolis are accus- 
tomed to meet and discuss the laws of trade and can- 
vass the ])rospects of the future his judgment is greatly 
respected, and the intelligence and foresight with 
which he is able to advise are highly regarded. He 
bears an unblemished reputation as a man of honor 
and fairness, in all ways commanding universal re- 
spect and esteem, — a gentleman in the true signifi- 
cance of the term. In the wide range of personal dis- 
tinction, among all the marks of honor and renown 
which the world aftbrds, the title of a true gentleman 
stands first, and he who bears it worthily need en\-)' 
neither prince nor potentate. 

As a citizen, Mr. Cumner has taken an earnest and 
unvarying interest in i)ublic aHiiirs. P<ditically, his 
associations have been with the Democratic party ; 
but his views have been conservative, looking to the 
real purposes of the government rather than the aims 
and desires of party politicians. While residing in 
Manchester he held important offices in the municipal 
government, was a faithful public servant, working 
zealously to promote the general interests and the 
common good of his constituents, of whom he deserved 
well. 

Mr. Cumner became a member of the celebrated 
military organization, tlie Amoskeag Veterans, in the 
days of its origin, and has continued to do active 
duty through the entire term of its existence. He 
held the office of captain in 1870, and commander of 
the battalion, with the rank of major, in 1879 and 
1880. During his membership he has served in 
countless capacities incident to the general manage- 
ment of the organization, and while commander did 
very efl'ective service in promoting harmony and 
unity of purpose and increased in a great degree the 
interest and efficiency of the corps. 

Mr. Cumner's connection with the Masonic frater- 
nity has been a very prominent feature of his life. 
He became a Ma.son in Lafayette Lodge, Manchester, 
May, 1856, and was one of the petitioners and charter 
members of Washington Lodge in 1857. He held 
many subordinate offices, and was the Worshipful 
Master in 1862 and 1863, and has been treasurer 
nearly all the time since. His keen scrutiny of its 
business affairs and careful management of its 
accounts liave done nuich to keep his lodge in sound 
financial condition. In ISoli be received the capitu- 
lar degrees in Mt. Iloreb Royal Arch Chapter, and 
after serving at almost every post in that body, be- 
came its High Priest from 1862 to 1864. He took the 
cryptic degrees in Adoniram Council, in May, 1857, 
and soon after the orders of kriiglitliiii>d were con- 
ferred upon him in Trinity Conimandery, Knights 
Templar. In all these subordinate bodies he sus- 
taineil an ardent and zealous membership, contribut- 
ing freely to their support and aiding materially in 



132 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



their prosperity. In 1862 he was admitted to the 
degree of High Priesthood, and in 1863 received the 
degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Kite to the 
thirty-second, inclusive, in Boston, and in September, 
1881, was elected to the thirty- third and last grade 
in Masonry. In the Grand Masonic bodies of New 
Ham])shire he has been equally prominent, and his 
earnest labors and sincere devotion to their inter- 
ests have been recognized and appreciated. After 
holding several offices in the M. E. Grand Eoyal Arch 
Chapter of New Hampshire, he was elected Grand 
High Priest in 1867 and 1808, and gave eminent 
satisfaction by his management of afl'airs. In the 
(xrand Lodge of New Hampshire he held nearly all 
the subordinate positions, and was elected Most 
Worshipful Grand Master in 1872, 1873 and 1874. 
As the presiding officer in these grand bodies, whose 
duties are mostly legislative, he commanded the 
respect of the fraternity for fairness and impartiality, 
and was highly esteemed for his graceful and courte- 
ous bearing. His addresses and official jiapers were 
regarded as sound and creditable documents by the 
fraternity in other jurisdictions. 

If Mr. Cumner has been prosperous and successful 
in other departments of life, he has been remarkably 
happy and fortunate in his family and social relations. 
He married Miss Harriet Elizal)eth Wadley, daughter 
of Moses D. Wadley. of Bradford, N. IL, January 24, 
1856. They have two sons, — Harry Wadley Cumner, 
born July 18, 1860, and Arthur Bartlett Cumner, born 
July 30, 1871. Harry Wadley graduated from the 
Manchester High School in 1870, with high standing 
in his class and the rejHitation of a faithful and efficient 
student. He entered the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, in Boston, in 1879, as a special student, 
remaining two years. In 1881 he engaged in mercan- 
tile life, and having integrity and the capacity to 
make the best use of his privileges and attainments, 
he has certainly the earnest of a prosperous and hon- 
orable life. In October, 1884, he married Miss Nellie 
B. Pope, daughter of Edwin Pope, Esq., of Boston, 
where he has permanently located in business. 
Arthur Bartlett, a bright and beautiful boy of uncom- 
mon intelligence, ha.s yet to climb the nathwav of 
youth; but if aught can be predicted from such tender 
years, he is not likely to disappoint the fond hopes of 
parents and friends. 

In the common judgment of mankind, woman re- 
ceives very little credit for the success of man in the 
struggles and achievements of this life. The intuitive 
judgment and unfaltering support with which the 
faithful and devoted wife aids her husband are unseen 
influences, the force and importance of which never 
have been and probably never will be understood or 
appreciated; and although the remarkable success 
which the subject of this sketch ha.s gained may be 
attributed to his ability and integrity, still the high 
social position to wliich the family have attained and 
the important and very creditable purposes which they 



have accomplished are equally due to the clear and 
well-traine<l judgment, the watchful care and over- 
sight of domestic afl'airs, and the amiable companion- 
ship of his estimable and accomplished wife. While 
in their relative spheres, either in the busy marts of 
trade or the domestic departmentsof life, "on 'change" 
or in the drawing-room, each, to a certain extent, 
must be judged independently, in all the economy of 
life her imlividuality and influence will be seen to 
have done their full share in moulding the fortunes 
of the family. 

The future may not be forecast, but in the early 
achievement.s of men may be discovered the earnest 
of still greater success. 

In the character and attainments of the subject of 
this sketch may be seen the promise of the full 
measure of life's joys and the realization of a noble 
and worthv ambition. 



ALLEN X. CL.VPP. 

Allen N. Clapp, one of the leading business men 
of Manchester, traces his ancestry on the j)aternal 
side to Thomas Clapp, who was born in England 
in 1597, and came to this country in 1633. The 
line is as follows: Thomas, Thomas, Joshua, Joshua, 
Joshua, Asa, Allen, Allen N. His father, Allen 
Clajjp, was born in Walpole, N. H., April 28, 1794, 
and died in Marlborough, N. H., February 9, 1838. 
He married, February 10, 1819, Hannah Newcomb, 
and their family consisted of seven children, Allen N. 
being the youngest. 

He traces his ancestry on the maternal side to 
Francis Newcomb, who was born in England about 
1605, and came to America in April, 1635, and settled 
in Boston. The line is as follows : Francis, Peter, 
Jonathan, Benjamin, John, Hannah, born February 
25, 1793, died Fel>ruary 9, 1838. 

Allen N. Olapp was born in Marlborough, N. H., 
January 2, 1837. His father having died soon atlcr, 
his mother removed to Nashua, and here young Clapp 
received the rudiments of his education. He also 
attended the High School, and .subsequently passed one 
year at the Mctiaw Institute, in Merrimack. When 
about nineteen years of age he came to Manchester 
as clerk in the employ of Ira I'arr, with whom he re- 
mained in that position until 1860. He then formed 
a copartnership with Mr. Barr, under the firm-name 
of Barr & Clapp, in the mercantile business. This 
business was continue<l under the same firm-name 
until 1881, when Mr. Clapp [lurchased ."Mr. Barr's in- 
terest, and has since con<luctcd the business as sole pro- 
prietor. The large and elegant brick l)lock now owned 
and occupied by Mr. Clapj), located at the corner ol 
Granite and Main Streets, was completed in January, 
1871. It is the largest block in West Manchester. 
In addition to dealing in groceries, flour, grain, etc., 
Mr. Clai>p is the New Ilampsliire agent for the Stand- 
ard Oil Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, and his sales 
are extensive. Mr. Clajip was elected alderman in 




^/Z^. It. (V.vc 



i 





fj^yi^ <^^^< 




MANCHESTEK. 



133 



ISOl and 18G2, and represented Ward Seven in the 
Legislature in 1874 and 1875. At his first election an 
flf'ort was made to unseat him, but without success. 
I'olitically, he is a Rei>ul)licaii, and attends Hanover 
.Street Congregational Ciiurcii. Jlr. t'lapp is one of 
Maneiiester's UKtst active and inHiiential business 
men, and has done niucli to advance the interests of 
tiiis section (West Manchester) of the city. 

May 20, 18G3, Mr. Clapp united in marriage with 
.losie M. Mason, a native of Sullivan, N. H., and their 
family has consisted of two children, .\nnie M. and 
Freildie. The latter died in infancy. 



.lOHX C. FREXCH. 

John t". French, one of the leading business men 
of Manchester, was born in Pittsfield, N. H., March 
1, 1S32. He came of sturdy New England stock, his 
grandfather being .Vbram Krciich, a carpenter and 
builder, who completed the interior of the first 
meeting-house in Pittsiield, and also the iiarsonage 
iiiiilding for Kev. Christopher Paige, steptather of the 
"beautiful Crace Fletcher," the first wife of Daniel 
Webster. Abram French bought the farm of Kev. 
Christopher Paige, known as the French homestead. 

Enoch, the eldest son of Abram French, wiio mar- 
ried, in 1823, Eliza Cate, of Epsom, a most estimable 
woman, was the father of five children, the subject of 
this sketch being the only survivor. His boyhood 
was passed upon one of the rocky farms of Pittsfield, 
where his oiiportunities for obtaining an education 
were very limited. He attended the common schools 
of bis native town, and by teaching winters and 
working on a farm summers he secured means which 
enabled him to attend several terms at the academies 
at I'ittsfield, (Jilmaiiton and Pembroke. Here be 
succeeded in ac(iuiring an education which well 
qualified iiim for his subsequent successful business 
career. 

At the age of twenty-one hi' entered the employ of 
J. H. Colton & Co., the well-known jjublishers, jia 
salesman for their mnunted m;tps. He soon developed 
a remarkable al)ility as a solicitor, and his executive 
ability, combined with his rare tact in dealing with 
such a variety of persons, attracted the attention of 
his employers, who rewarded him by giving him, a 
year later, the Boston agency for "Colton's .\tlas of 
the World." The success which he attained with the 
nnips liiljowed him in this also, selling, as he did, 
more than twelve hundred copies of this expensive 
wtirk. In l.S.'j.J ho wa.s appointcil by this house their 
general agent for New England, and subscipiently 
gave considerable attention to tile introduction of 
Colton's series of geographies into the public schools. 
He was also subseiiucntly a.ssociated with Itrown, 
Taggarl i^- Co. and ( 'liarles Scribner & Co. in bring- 
ing out their scliool publications. 

In May, l.Sti."), he was appointed Stale agent for the 
Connecticut Miilnal Life Insurance Com|iaiiy. He 
then located in Manchester, where he has since ' 



resided, although he still retains possession of the 
delightful old homestead in Pittsfield, where he first 
saw the light of day. 

Three years later, having become interested in the 
insurance interests of the State, he conceived the idea 
of establishing a stock fire insurance company, and 
by untiring persistency and a zeal characteristic of the 
man, he succeeded in overcoming the almost uni- 
versal prejudice existing against such an organization, 
enlisted in its support some of Manchester's most 
prominent citizens, secured a charter- and a capital 
stock and began the business, which under his ener- 
getic and prudent management has since grown to 
great proportions, its cajjital having been increased 
from one hundred thousand dollars to five hundred 
thousand dollars, and its ciish assets to over one 
million dollars, while it enjoys a national re|)Utation 
for e.xcellent management and financial success. 

Notwithstanding he has been engrossed in the 
management of a large business in Manchester, he 
has ever manifested a lively interest in his native 
town, and when the project fi)r building a railroad 
which would promote its growth and pros])erity took 
shape, he gave himself heartily to the support of the 
enterprise, and it wa-; largely through his etibrts that 
the three hundred and fifty thousand dollars neces- 
sary to build the Suncook Valley road was secured 
by subscriptions to the capital stock and gratuities 
from the towns along the line. As one method of 
helping this work to a successful com|)letion, he estab- 
lished the SiiiK-iiiiL- Valleij Timrx at Pittsfield, and for 
two years contributed regularly to its columns a series 
of historical and biographical articles which attracted 
much attention in the locality and were widely copied 
and read elsewhere. He also at one time published 
and edited at Manchester a journal devoted to insur- 
ance interests, and has established a reputation as a 
vigorous, versatile and popular writer. He is deeply 
interested in the literature of his native State, and 
probably no man has so thorough a knowledge of its 
resources, industries and local history. He is a mem- 
ber of Trinity Comniandery, Knights Templar, and 
a director in the Merchants' National Hank. He 
attcnils the Franklin Street Church. In 18o8 he 
united in marriage with Annie M., daughter of L. B. 
Philbrick, Esq., of Deerfield, and their family consists 
of three children, — Lizzie \., Susie P. and George 
.\bram. 

Mr. French is a genial companion, a stanch friend 
and a man who wins and holils the good opinion of 
his fellow-citizuus. 



CHAlll.HS i:. it.vi.cn. 
There is no prouiler or more enduring personal 
recor<l than the story of a self-reliant, manly and 
successful i-arcer. It dei lares that the individual iiol 
only understood his duty and mi.'^sion, but fnllillrd 
them. The following memoir is highly snggi-»iivc .■(' 
these facts : 



134 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Charles E. Balch was born in Francestown, N. H., 
March 17, 1834, and here his boyhood days were 
spent. He was a son of well-to-do parents, and was 
educated at Francestown Academy, and at the age of 
eighteen years began his active l)usincss carter as book- 
Iceeper in tlie mercantile establishment of Barton & 
Co., in this city. Here lie remained about two years, 
and then accepted a clerkship in the Manchester 
Savings-Bank. He brought to the discharge of his new 
duties a peculiar fitness, which soon attracted tiio atten- 
tion of the oflirtTs of the Manchester Bank, and upon 
the reorganization of this institution as a national bank, 
in 1885, Mr. Balch was chosen its cashier, a position 
which he held until January, 1884. He was also 
trustee of the Manchester Savings-Bank, the largest 
in the State ; from 1862 was a member of its invest- 
ment committee, and treasurer till within a few 
months before his death. He was treasurer of the 
Manchester Gas-Light Company, a director and mem- 
ber of the finance committee of the New Hamjishire 
Fire Insurance Company, and a trustee of many large 
estates. And in all the various positions of responsibil- 
ity and trust which Cohmel Balch was called upon to 
fill, he discharged his duties with eminent ability, and 
proved himself a most sagacious, careful and safe 
financier. He was interested in a number of vessels, 
one of which, a four-masted schooner, the " C. E. 
Balch," of eight hundred and forty-three tons, was 
launched at Bath, Me., July 15, 1882. Colonel Balch 
was thoroughly alive to all interests looking to the 
welfare of his adopted city, and rejoiced to see it pros- 
per, always responding to personal calls looking to 
this end. 

He did not seek political preferment, but was a 
stanch supporter of Republican principles. In na- 
tional. State and municipal affairs he was deeply in- 
terested and had firm convictions in regard to them. 
The purity and uprightness of his life were con- 
spicuous. Not a breath of evil was ever raised against 
him. His personal bearing to everybody was most 
cordial. For each of the vast number of persons who 
were brought into business and social relation with him 
he lia<l always a pleasant greeting, impressing nil with 
his affability and marked courtesy. The unHagging 
work which he put into his life's calling enabled him 
to become one of Manchester's most successful men, 
acquiring a handsome property. Colonel Balch was a 
gentleman of refined taste, high ideas of morality, and 
devoted to his home-life. During 188^^ he completed 
one of the most elegant residences in the city, in a de- 
lightful location, and having reached that point in 
his career where he could sensibly lessen his business 
cares, he was in a position to enjoy the fruits of an 
honorable and successful life. Although his death 
had been in a measure expected, it brought a siiock to 
his host of friends in the city and State, wlio mourned 
Death's selection of one of the most prosperous, re- 
spected and best-known individuals in the ])rime of 
manhood. With only one secret organization was he 



connected, the Washington Lodge of Masons, Colonel 
Balch received his military title by serving two years 
on the staflT of Governor Head. He was an accom- 
plished equestrian. He was a member of the Frank- 
lin Street Society and contributed liberally to its 
advancement. 

Mr. Balch's architectural taste, which was some- 
thing unusual in a person not a professional, is shown 
in his fitting up of the interior of the Manchester 
banking-rooms ; his plan for his own residence, which 
is of classical style of architecture, and during the 
last year of his life, the building of Cilley Block, one 
of the finest business blocks on Elm Street, in Man- 
chester. He was one of the building committee of 
the Manchester Opera-House. 

In July, 1867, he united in marriage with Miss 
Emeline R., daughter of Rev. Nahum Brooks, who 
survives him. He died October 18, 1884. 

At a meeting of the officers of Manchester Bank, 
October 20, 1884, the following resolutions were pre- 
sented by Hon. Daniel Clark, and adopted : 

** Resoh-fd, That by tbe death of Cohinel diaries E. Balcti we have 
lost a pleasant associate, ft courteous gelttleriian, a pruJent, skilled ami 
efficient officer, an able financier, cautious and considerate in his judp- 
nient, prompt in action, straightforward and direct in his methods anil 
faithful to his trusts, a man of great moral worth and Christian virtue, 
free from reproach, fjuiet in his deportment, gentle and unassuming in 
his manoere and exemplary in all the relations of life ; a citizen of large 
and healthful influence, respected and beloved, 

" Res'/tvfd, That while we deplore his death in the prime of his man- 
hood, when, rich in experience he was becoming even more nsefiil, yet 
our grief is somewhat moderative, and we are thankful that no shadow 
rests upon the record of his life, and that tbe Itrightness of his example 
shines up from the * valley ' of his peaceful rest. 

" Hugoired^ That a c<ipy of tliese restdutions be presented to Sirs. Balch 
asan expression of our appreciation of her husband's diameter and «tf our 
heartfelt sympathy in her bereavement, and that they be entered upon the 
records of the Manchester Savings Bank, whose treasurer he was." 

The funeral services were conducted by Rev. George 
B. Spalding, D.D., who spoke with great tenderness 
and fine appreciation, as follows : 

" In the stir and noise of our great communities death fails to make 
its due impression. Day by day one falls out of the ranks, and in the 
swift onward march of the living he seems soon to be forgotten. The 
surface of the ever-flowing stream is broken only for the niomenl. The 
current of human ambitions and strifes, of fierce competition and activi- 
ties, bears no truce of disturbance as one disappears beneath the waves 
and is lost to view forever, so iutensoand hurried and irrepressible is this 
tide of life which surges as never before in our cities. And yet, now and 
then, death comes in such unusual form, or bears away one of such pecii - 
liar character, or such marked relations to the community, that all he«rta 
are arrested and the sense of loss seems deep and universal. It is so to- 
day. 

'•The announcement of the death of Charles K. Balch brought a prti- 
found hush to this community. His sickness has been watched with an 
unusual solicitude. Hopes and fears had attended the varying phasesof 
his disease. Its sudden fatjil ending was a shock to very many hearts. 
The prt>8eiice here to-tlay of S4» great a number and of such varied repre- 
sentAtivos of all classes manifests the depth and tenderness of tbe sor- 
row which this death hjis caused. There must have been something in 
this man, in his nature and his ways with bis fellow-men, that accounts 
for this profound feeling, which, to such an unusual degree has come 
to this city. Doubtless there is that in the outwani history of this man 
which has strtuigly moved us. Here was one who, as a young man of 
eighteen years of age, came into this place, putting his best life into the 
young, vigorous city, growing up through its successive stages of growth, 
sharing at last, as the fruits of his keen foresight and splendid industry, 
in its great pros|)erity, — and yet in the fulness of his malurwi strength, 





'[rPnyu ^-^ -^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



MANCHESTER. 



135 



aoil ill the fulfillt>4l promise or hin iinleut hopes iind (uruful plunuiug, 
■il<ltleiily btkcn tiway fruin ttiiti ticcnu uf Ilia liiburs »iitl succet«<es. Tlie 
gudtlvnni-tM aoU complctonesj of tliia work of ili-Atli slurtlcH and aitpalls 
all hfurtn. Wy can scareo witliliold uur pity an we look upon liis 
■igDn) (riuiiiplis, ai> vvo Itxik arouD<i tliiit lioiiie into whieti he bent liis 
careful tti<Hi};lit» unil liis refined ta^te, and think of him lu rnthleitsly sev- 
ered liy death from it all. Only a rhri»tian faith, only the thoughts of 
the tuanaions in the Father's house, can turn our feelings of conipaaition 
iDto better ways. 

"But loniething more than pity for one swept thus suddenly away 
fn>ni his brave activities and keen enjoynienls in the very prime of his 
life mtist account for this wide and tender interest whieli his death has 
awakenetl. There ia a resi>ect, an adinimtion, a strong afTertion surging 
In our heails which only certain most noble i|ualities in Mr. Italch could 
call out from us. lie was a man who, through moretha[i thirty years, 
has be«n conspicnotis in the business life of this community. He carried 
Into all the many activities which had engiiged him some <)uite remarka. 
bl« powers which were the conditions of hia sncceaj. He was industri- 
ona, patient, foreseeing, wise in judgment, swift in e.xecution, tireless in 
application, faithful in every business service. But, far lietter than this, 
to these splenilidly-i-t|uipped pfiwers he Joined a most sjigaeious and con- 
acietitious regard for true principles which utiderlie all tilialuial success. 
He won prosjwrity for the iustilutions he served and for himself by a 
pereistent conformance to those ways of doing business which all the ex- 
perience of the iM«t and the sadder experience of the present show to 
be alone sound in principle and truly enduring in results. He has been, 
and will continue to be, a fine example, to the young men of this city, 
of an honorable, successful man. And in all the prosi-cution of his 
liusinefls enterprises, and in all the perfi^ruuince of his private and pub- 
lic trusts, he has always shown himself to be honest and trutliful in 
every respect. No word has ever reached my ear, and I doubt if any 
other's, which, oven out of malice or uncharitJib]ones.s, could nuir the 
character of this man, as one most just and upright in all his business 
life. But the circle of business enterprise, however filled by his time and 
fnergiiw, did not completely hold him. 

".Mr. Balch was a man of public spirit. He was deeply interested in 
>tl that lierlaiucd to the prosi>erity an<l well-being of this city. He rc- 
■icwl in its growth and contributed of his refined tastes and his large 
- (({acity to add to its beauty. He was a man of purest moral tone, free 
from every debaHing habit, clean in thought and in speech, far from 
every low, mean thing. He was reverent in eipirit, respecting with 
utm<wt sincerity the very foniis ot religion, and sharing, I doubt not, its 
hidden life He was retiring in disposition, not seeking office or publicity, 
li'ving most hia boliii', and warm and loyal to his chosi'n friends, lleyond 
vInKjstany man I have ever known, he was a gentleman, always courteous, 
il ways cheerful, always greeting us and everybody else with a smiling face 
Mid kuid woni, that maile all the world brighter for having met him. No 
imiueswcare or is-rplexity, no pain or exhaustion of sickness, seemed to 
ruflle the serenity «>r take from him inspiringcheer. The loss of such a 
man's preai-nre among us is very great. How great it is to ihishouse- 
ti'dd, where all the dearest qualities which we have reoillcd found their 
'illesl expretwion, no one outside can know. But the liiss to this city, 
111 the splenditi business caliacities ami liigli, noble career and chanic- 
tar which have hero closed, ia very great. A city's real greatness and 
finest renown must always be found in lla liesl citizens. Better than 
Iti material pros|)erity and the liiiilliform products of its mightiest 
Industry and the charms of its oiitwanl adornment and natural beau- 
ties are the high-minded and good men and women who are found 
within It." 



.llJll.S 11. .MAV.VAlil). 

Jiiliri II. Maynurd, son of Asa and Marv (Linlield) 
Mayiiard, wa.s born in Coniord, Mass., .laniiary 23, 
180.J. Jlis lather moved to Ldudoii, N. II., when lie 
was but five years of ago, and reintiiiied lure a few 
years and moved to East Cimeord. 

The subject of this sketeh attended ihe distriet 
schddl in winter and worked at eiirpentiring in sum- 
mer ; coiiiiiieiued to Iciirii his trade, when eleven 
years old, wilh .Moses Kimball, of East (Joneord, with 
whom he reiiiaineil five vears, or iiiilil Ihe dialh of 
Mr. Kimball. 



Ho subsequently was in the employ of John 
Putney, and, still later, of John Leaeh, of Concord. 
He remained with Mr. Leach about four years, then 
stjirted out on his own account, tind his career has 
been a successful one. He built Nathaniel Upham's 
house, now standing north of the h'latc-House, and 
afterwards built the Baptist meeting-house in New- 
Boston. He returned to Concord and built Call's Block, 
rear of the State-House. Wius in Amoskeag about 
the year 1832, and built the old tavern which is now 
a tenement block. He built the Unitarian meeting- 
house in Concord, and then returned to Amoskeag 
and erected the first tenement-house at Amoskeag 
Falls, on the east side of the river. This was built 
for the workmen who were to build the guard-gate for 
the Amoskeag Company. From this time Mr. May- 
nard worked continuously for the Amoskeag Company 
for thirty years, during which lime he did the car- 
penter-work on No. 3, 4, .3 and H Mills and most of 
the large tenement blocks. Mr. Maynard married, for 
his first wife, Jane Kimball, of East Concord, N. H., 
March, 23 1832; they had no children. He lived 
with her about thirty years. He married for his 
second wife Apha Kimball, of Hopkinton, N. H., 
about the year 1871. Mr. Maynard was chief of the 
old Fire Department, and was connected with it for 
twenty-five years. He has been alderman and a mem- 
ber of the City Council, and has also been a representa- 
tive from Manchester three terms in the Legislature. 
He was the first assessor in the city of Manchester. 
Mr. Maynard has resided in Maneliester since its iii- 
faiuy, and relates that he planted beans and corn in 
front of where the Stark Block now stands, on Elm 
Street. He is a director in the Manchester Bank, 
and hits been for thirty-five years. He is in jiolitics 
a Heiiulilican. 

Mr. Maynard is a liuilder ami contractor, and is an 
.letive business men of to-day, although eighty -one 
years of age. His father was in the Uevolutionary 
War, and died at the age of ninety-seven years. 



HON, ,11 ill N IlKSl.KY. 

.lolin llosley was born May 12, lS2t>, at the old 
llosley homestead, in Hancock, N. If., and is the son 
of Samuel and Sophia (Wilson) llosley, being one of 
a family of nine, of whom also survive Martha E., 
wife of George O. Wadsworth, of Chelsea, Mass., and 
Lucretia J., wife of Oliver Dearborn, of Denver, Col. 
Mr. Hosley comes from a Iwirdy, thrifty, intelligent 
ancestry, which traces its lineage back through the 
centuries to Merrie England, where the family had iu 
origin. His ancestors were numbered among the 
indomitable Puritans who sought an asylum from 
persecution in America, and were of such a heroic 
mould that their descendants were found battling for 
freedom in tlii! War of Ihe Revohition. 

In tracing the genealogy of Ihe family we find that 
there was a .lames Hosley born .May 1, l(!4'.t, married 
Martha Parker, and died July it, l(i77. He was sur- 



136 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



vived by a sdn, James, born September 4, 1675, and 
died February 18, 1728, leaving a son also bearing 
the name of James, who was born May 19, 1702, and 
mairied Ennie Jorvett. A son was born to them at 
Townscnd, Mass., Jaiuiarv 10, 17;i4, wlio was called 
Janus, at'ler his fathor. This son was the groat-grand- 
father of tlic subject of this sketch, and was a man of 
cons|)icuous ability. From the published history of 
Townscnd, Mass., it is learned tliat he was lionored 
by being elected to all the offices within the gift of 
his fellow-cili/.ens, including an election to the 
General Court, but declined the latter distinction. 
He was neither an office-seeker nor a demagogue, but 
a man whose worth everywhere commanded respect. 
In 1775 he was moderator at the annual town-meet- 
ing, town clerk, chairman of the Board of Select- 
men, and captain of the ahirni list, or Minute-Men, 
who, iifly-three strong, marched to the defense of 
Camluidgc. In 1777 the General Court passed a res- 
olution calling for volunteers to go to the assistance 
of General Gates, who was confronting Burgoyne, at 
Saratoga. The call met with an enthusiastic response, 
and .lames Hosley was unanimously elected captain 
of a company of seventy men, which included within 
its ranks such military men of ability and notoriety 
as Colonel William Prescott (the hero of Bunker 
Hill), Major Henry Wood, Major Samuel Stone and 
others nearly as well-known. These men would 
never have been subordinate to any man unless he 
honored the office to which he had been elevated. 
After the close of the Revolutionary War he moved 
to Hancock, N. H., where he purchased a farm and 
donated a portion of it to the town for public use. 
He left a son, Samuel, who was born July 8, 1767, 
and died December 20, 1826. A merchant and farmer 
by occupation, he wius noted for his piety and benevo- 
lence, leaving a character worthy of lasting and affec- 
tionate remembrance. He married Polly Dodge, and 
the i'ruit of their union was a son, Samuel, who was 
born on the old homestead in Hancock, September 
28, 1802, and this son was the father of tlie Hon. 
John Hosley, whose name appears at the head of 
this sketch. He obtained an education in the com- 
mon schools and the academy at Hancock, was a 
farmer by occupation, and died .lanuary 10, 1871, his 
e.stimable wife surviving him but si.x days. He was 
an honorable man and an e.\emi)lary Christian. 

This brings us down to Mr. Hosley ( f to-day, who 
was brought up on his father's farm, and gained 
what edu<ation the common schools of Hancock 
afforded until he was twenty years of age. In 1846 
he removed to Manchester, which at that time gave 
little indication of its coming importance. Mr. 
Hosley engaged in nninufacturing, and was an over- 
seer in the weaving deiiartnicnt of the Ainoskeag 
Manufacturing Company. He also engaged in the 
grocery and real estate business, and in farming, and 
was successful in all. He seems to have inherited 
the even judgment and pronounced ability of his an- 



cestors, and luis been called to many important posi- 
tions of trust and honor by his fellow-citizens, never 
failing to receive more than his party's strength at 
the polls whenever a camiidate. He rei)rcsentcd his 
ward in the Legislature. Common Council two years, 
Board of Aldermen five years, and on the Board of 
Education for two years. He was city tax collector 
for two years and has been twice elected mayor, be- 
sides holding various minor city offices. He was :i 
member of tlie National Union Convention, which 
met at Philadelphia in 1865, is a iM-oniincnt Free- 
mason, and has held the highest officein Hillsborough 
Lodge of Odd-Fellows. In religion Mr. Hosley is a 
Unitarian. He married, in 1854, Miss Dorotha 11. 
Jones, of Weare, N. IL, by whom he has had one 
child, who is married to William M. Parsons, M.D. 
They have one child, Martha S., born April .30, 1884. 
It is readily seen that Mr. Hosley is a man of un 
common abilities, and his ])erformance of tlie dutii > 
of the various offices which he has been called upmi 
to fill has ever been eminently satisfactory. He has 
grown up with Manchester, as town and city, and has 
done his full share in moulding its policy in goveru- 
mcnt.Tl affairs. 



COLONEL CHANDLER EASTMAN I'OTTi:!!.' 

Colonel Chandler Eastman Potter was a native 
of East Concord, N. H., born March 7, 1807, son of 
Joseph and Anna (Drake) Potter. He graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 18.31, taught high schools in 
Concord and Poitsmouth several years, read law, 
and was admitted to the bar and practiced in Con- 
cord. In 1844 he moved to Jlanchester, where he 
owned anil edited the Manchester Democrat until the 
fall of 1848, when he sold the paper. From 1852 to 
1856 he was editor of the Month/)/ Visitor and Gran- i 
it c Farmer. In .lune, 1S48, he was appointed justice 
of the Manchester Police Court, succeeding Hon. 
Samuel D. Bell, which oftice he filled seven years, 
with honor and credit to himself. He was an able ' 
and efficient member of the Historical Society in 
New Hampshire and other societies, and author of 
a very elaborate and correct history of Manchester. 
His ennobling views of man and nature, and of 
sound, true principles, were always heard with i>ro- 
found attention and delight. He had copiousness of 
ideas, and bis writings were always filled with the 
thought.s of a comprehensive mind, instructing all 
who read what he wrote with a ready pen. He was 
interested in the study of the Indian languiige, and 
has written many sketches of Indian character, and 
was a contributor to Schoolcraft's Indian work. 
"Colonel Potter was probably the best informe<I man 
and antiquarian in the State on all topics that re- 
lated to the early settlement of New Ilanijishire." 
He was genial and social, with a keen relish for 
huMi"!' and anecdote, Iriendly with all chisses. The 



1 From Clarke^B " Successful New Uampahiro Men." 





^^?--(/^ 




Ibg^ 








^ 




^^\//o. (J1?^yJ>^it^ 



.MANt'HESTEll. 



137 



rich and the poor found in him a true friend in time 
of need. He was a devoted friend of the militia 
organizations of the State, and second commander of 
the Araoskeag Vetenns, a company that adopted the 
uniform of the Continentals. They visited Washing- 
ton during the administration of President Pierce, 
commanded l>y Colonel Potter, who entertained the 
veterans at his home, the JIcN'eil (X. H.) mansion 
and birth-place of Franklin Pierce, in 1865. A grand 
entertainment was given them in a large tent upon 
the grounds. 

Colonel Potter's last able work, "The Militarj' 
History of New Hampshire," publislied in 186(3, con- 
sists of two volumes, from the settlement in 1623 
to the close of the War of 1812, with valuable bio- 
graphical sketches. 

Judge Potter married, November 1, 1832, Clara 
A., daughter of John Underwood, of Portsmouth, by 
whom he had four children. She died March lU. 
18o4, and November 11, 1856, he married Frances 
Maria, daughter of General John McNeil, of Hills- 
borough. After this marriage lie resided at the 
Governor Pierce homestead in Hillsborough during 
the remainder of his life. 

Colonel Potter loved the societj- of intelligent and 
worthy peoi)le, and welcomed all without distinction. 
His domestic relations gave a great charm to his ex- 
istence. He died at Flint, Mich., whither he had 
pone with his wife on business, August 3, 1868. 



Wll.l.IAM MOODY PAHSOXS, M.I). 

An early ancestor of Dr. Parsons was Joseph, 
who was born in England, married Mary Bliss 
and came to this country in July, 1626, settling 
in Northampton, Mass., and died March 26, 1684. 
Their children were Jowph, Jr., .John, Samuel. 
Ebenczer, .lonathan, David, Mary, Hannah, Abigail 
and Hester. 

Joseph .Ir., was born in 1647, married Klizabeth 
.Strong, and died in 1729. Their children were 
Jnteph, John, Ebenezer, Elizabeth, David, .Tosiah, 
Daniel, Moses, .Vbigail and Noah. 

.Joseph was born in 1671, graduated at Harvard 
Cnllege in 16117, entered the ministry, settled in Leb- 
.■mon, Conn., and moved to Salisbury, Mass. He 
married Elizabeth Thompson, and died in 1739. 
Their children were Joseph, Samuel, William, Eliza- 
beth and .Tohn, the three elder of whom became 
clergymen, John died while a sophomore in Har- 
vard Cnllege. 

Rev. William wils Imrn Ajiril 21, 1716, married 
"-urali nurnhani, and moved to Gilmanton, N. H., in 
1763, and clicd .January 31, 1791). His wife dicdFebru- 
iry 28, 1707. Their children were Sarah, ^Villiam, 
l.lizabeth, Jnhn, .Joseph and Ebenezer. 

William was born April ], 1745. married Hannah 
Meserve, and hail William, ,/o/in, Joseph and Sarah. 

John was born November 10, 1751, niarriefl Lyilie 



Folsom, October 16, 1783, and died May 31, 1838. 
His wife died March 17, 1828. Their children were 
William, Judith, John, Sarah, Hannah, Lydie, Eliza 
and Juteph. 

Joseph Parsons, Esq., was born August 29, 1753, 
married Ruth Pearson, and died August 10, 1806. 
Their children were Kuth, Joseph, Sarah, Hannah. 
Thomas and Mary. 

Ebenezer Parsons was born January 21, 1756, and 
married Eunice Potter, November 18, 1784, and had 
Ebenezer, Eunice, William, Samuel, Sally and Lucy. 

Abraham Parsons, son of Abraham, of New Mar- 
ket, and grandson of Josiah, of Cape Ann, was born 
November 2, 1754, married Abigail Burleigh, May 30, 
1780, and had four children, — Josiah, Sarah, Abra- 
ham and James. 

Josiah Parsons, Esq., was born September 26, 1781 ; 
married Judith Badger, daughter of Joseph and 
Sarah (Weeks) Badger. He died December 9, 1842. 
Their children were Joseph B., Emily P., Sarah B., 
Mary E., Lewis N., Dr. Joseph Badger, Daniel Jacobs, 
Esq., Sarah Jane Rogers, William Moody and Han- 
nah Cogswell. 

Among the ancestors of Dr. Parsons were those 
who were very ]>roniinent in the religious, educational, 
military and civil history of the town wherein they 
lived ; notably is this true of Itev. William Parsons, 
son of Kev. Joseph Parsons, both of whom were 
graduates of Harvard College. 

Rev. William became one of the proprietors of 
Gilmanton, and was employed by the corporation to 
preach to the settlers, which he did for ten years. He 
was also the first schoolniiister in the town, and con- 
tinued his teaching even after he had closed his 
ministry. He was a very useful citizen, an exem- 
plary minister of the gospel and did much to give 
a right direction to the early movements in regard to 
religious institutions in the town. 

The mother of Dr. William M. Parsons Wits .Judith 
Badger, a superior woman, and a descendant of that 
family so illustrious in the early history of New 
Ham])shire, of whom were General .Jo.seph Badger, 
of Revolutionary fame ; his son, Hon. Joseph Badger; 
and his grandson, Hon. William I?adger, ex-Governor 
of New Hampshire. Of the lirothersof Dr. Parsons, 
Dr. .Joseph Badger became a successful physician and 
Daniel J., who read law in the oltice of Hon. Ira A. 
Eastman, is a successful practitioner. Each of the 
children of this family, except the youngest, Hannah 
C, were noted teachers in their time, and two of the 
daughters became the wives of clergymen. 

Dr. Mlllidiii Mnixlfi /'(ovton.t was burn intiilman- 
ton December 30, 1826; his boyhood was pa.ssed with 
his briithers and sisters at the old home. His educa 
tional advantages were those of the district schools of 
the time, supplemented by a ela.ssical course at the 
celebrated Gilmanton .\cademy. .\t the clnse of the 
academic course, having a ta.ste for the study of 
medicine, he commenced under the tuition of Dr. 



138 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Nahum Wight, a celebrated practitioner of Gilman- 
ton, where he remained three years, during which 
time Dr. Parsons attended a course of lectures at 
the Dartmouth -Medical College, and then went into 
the office with his brother, Dr. Joseph B., at Ben- 
nington, N. H., where he commenced the practice of 
his profession, remaining about one year ; he then at- 
tended his final course of lectures at the Vermont 
Medical College, where he graduated in June, I80I, 
and returned to Bennington, practicing in company 
with brother until IS.io, when his brother sold his 
interest to Dr. William M., and moved to Haverhill, 
]\Iass. 

Dr. Parsons, with a large practice, desiring a more 
favorable location, moved to Antrim, N. H., and 
there, for a period of fifteen years, attended faithfully 
to the increasing demands made upon him until 1870, 
when he returned to Bennington. The practice of 
Dr. Parsons had become so extensive and the rides so 
long and laborious that he found it necessary in the 
interest of his health to make some change, that his 
duties might not be so exacting, and to this end, in 
April, 1S73, he moved to Manchester, X. H., where 
he at once established himself in his profession, and 
where he has since resided. 

During his long practice in the country Dr. Par- 
sons had many calls for consultation with his brother 
physicians in the adjoining towns, which, together 
with his own practice, made the change to an easier 
field imperative. As a surgeon, Dr. Parsons early 
took prominent place, and he has performed in these 
years many capital operations with notable success. 

In 1861, Dr. Parsons was appointed by the Gov- 
ernor as chairman of a commission for the extirpa- 
tion of pleuro-pneumonia among cattle, which was 
prevalent at that time, which disease was thoroughly 
eradicated in a comparatively short time, and with 
small expense to the State in comparison with that 



of some neighboring States in which this (lise;i>e 
prevailed. 

In 1883, Dr. Parsons was commissioned assistant 
surgeon First Regiment New Hampshire National 
Guard, and in 1884 was promoted to the office of 
surgeon of the same regiment, with rank of major. 

Dr. Parsons is a member of the Masonic fraternity, 
an Odd-Fellow and Knight of Honor. In religion 
Dr. Parsons is a Quaker. In politics he is a Demo- 
crat, and in 1871-72 represented the town of Ben- 
nington in the General Court. 

Dr. Parsons has, by his lively interest in public 
schools and educational matters in general, main- 
tained the family trait, which, from his first ancestor, 
has stood out prominently in each of the generations, 
having been superintending school committee sev- 
eral years. 

In November, 1882, Dr. Parsons married Marion J., 
only daughter of Hon. John and Dorothy (Jones) 
Hosley, of Manchester. From this union there was 
born Martha S., April 30, 1884. 

For a period of about thirty-five years Dr. Parsons 
has been in active practice, ever ready to respond to 
the calls of suffering humanity, to afford relief; 
prompt in his appointments for consultations, cour- 
teous and liberal while maintaining professional 
etiquette, he has attained a prominent position in the 
community where he lives. 

Dr. Parsons has taken a warm interest in the wel- 
fere and progress of young men who had entered 
upon the study of medicine, and bis office has ever 
been a place where all such could find counsel and 
advice, and many have begun their study under his 
direction. A good citizen, a genial friend, a kind hus- 
band and father, a faithful and trusted family physi- 
cian. Dr. Parsons enjoys the confidence and respect of 
those he has served so many years, and is a credit to 
his native State. 



HISTORY OF NASHUA. 



BY JOHN H. GOODALE. 



CHAPTER I. 

TOPOGRAPHY— NATURAL FEATURES. 

Boundarjee — Area— Rivera, ni\>okfi aod Ponds — Intervales and Plains — 
Forest-Treofi — Wild Animals— Fish — Climate— Meteorology. 

The city of Na.shua lies in the .southern part of 
Hillsborough County, on the boundary line of Massa- 
chusetts. It is boundcil on the north by the town of 
Merrimack, on the east by the Merrimack River, which 
separates it from Hudson and Litchfield, on the 
south by Tyngsborough and Dunstable, Mass., and 
on the west by Hollis. It*" length is about six and 
one-half miles from north to south, and its width a 
little more than four and a half miles from east to 
we.st. Ita area is about eighteen thousand eight hun- 
dred and ninety-eight acres, or nearly thirty square 
miles. The surface in the eastern section is generally 
level, consistino; of plain and intervale; in the western 
it is rolling ; while in the southern section are several 
ridges of moderate height. The highest summit in 
Nashua is Long Hill, near the Massachusetts line, 
which is four hundred and thirty-nine feet above the 
ocean level. 

The city is well watered. The Merrimack River 
flows along its eastern boundary. The Xashua River, 
from which the city takes its name, comes from the 
southwest, furnishing the water-power for the cotton- 
mills and other manufactories of the city, while 
Salmon Brook, coming from the south, and the Penni- 
chuck, on the north, are attractive and beautiful 
streams. 

Therearctlircc small natural ponds in the township, 
Jyovewell, in the southwest; Round, in the northwest; 
and SaiKly, in the southwest margin of the city proper. 
Of these, the Sandy is the more noticeable. It lies 
in a circular basin of six acres, has no visible inlet or 
outlet and is fed by subterranean springs. Its sur- 
face height varies about three feet, usually the high- 
est in April and the lowest in October. The water is 
unusually clear, and furnishes the mo.st of the ice used 
in the city. 

In agricultural resources Na.sliua is below the aver- 
age of the adjoining towns. The intervale of the 
Merrimack and Nashua Rivers, lindted in extent, is 
10 



easily cultivated, and excellent for the growth of corn 
and vegetables. The higher lands of the southern 
part have fine hay-fields and orchards, but the plain 
and the most of the rolling lands which cover the 
larger portion of Nashua arc comparatively unpro- 
ductive. The soil is a deposit of the Glacial Drift 
period, — a sandy deposit worn from the northern hills 
during that geological epoch, when glaciers or ice- 
bergs were drifting across New England. More than 
two centuries ago the early explorers named these 
plains the "pine barrens." 

The bow'lders of granite so abundant in the north- 
ern and western towns of Hillsborough County are 
much fewer and smaller in Nashua. Ledges crop out 
about Mine Falls, and one ledge a mile west of the 
city proper furnishes a large amount of rough mate- 
rial for cellar walls and other stone-work about the 
city. 

Almost every forest-tree common in Southern New 
Hain|ishirc was originally found in this township. 
The lofty white-pine grew on the rich alluvial soil of 
the two rivers, often having a height of one hundred 
feet and a diameter of three feet. There was also, on 
some portions of the intervale, and upon the higher 
grounds on the north side of the Nashua River, a 
heavy growth of sturdy hard pine, which was used by 
the early settlers for the manufacture of tur[>entine. 
The thin soil of the plains was covered by a scrub 
pine growth. The pine growth has, to some extent, 
been superseded by the birch and oak. The prevail- 
ing forest-trees at the present time are the pine, oak 
and birch, with a s|>ririkling of maple, ash, elm, bass- 
wood, spruce anil walnut. The oak is largely of the 
red and the birch of the white species. Very few 
trees which had reached the average growth a century 
ago are now standing. Very few acres of woodland 
have been cleared of late in Nashua, and the percen- 
tage of land covere<l by a natural forest growlh is 
increiusing. 

The early settlers of Nashua found fewer wild 
animals here than in most other localities. The con- 
stant presence of the Indians in the Merrimack 
Valley, and the absence of sheltering ravines and 
ledges, largely account for this. While in some of 

139 



140 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



the earliest settlements the pioneers found wild 
meats of great service, the scanty records of " Old 
Dunstable" makes little mention of any aid from 
this source. The bear and deer, never numerous in 
this vicinity, soon disappeared. The moose, panther 
and wolf seldom came below Lake Winnipesaukee. 
The beaver, a former occupant of Salmon Brook, 
had already disappeared. The raccoon, fox, rabbit, 
woodchuck and squirrel were still numerous and 
annoying. 

But the scarcity of wild aninuils as a source of 
food was compensated by the abundance of fish. 
Especially was this true in the spring. The Merri- 
mack and its branches were the favorite resort of the 
salmon, shad and alewife. Migratory in their habits, 
they arrived early in May, and not only the larger 
streams but the tributary brooks were full of them. 
At the foot of every cascade the pools were crowded 
with the agile salmon. The pioneers had no need to 
resort to the Merrimack, since it was far easier to 
catch them in the smaller streams. Salmon Brook 
was so named from the multitude of salmon taken 
every May between the Main Street bridge and its 
entrance into the Merrimack. 

The I'ennichuck was equally famous for the facility 
with which this delicious fish could be taken from its 
waters. They varied in weight from three to sixteen 
pounds. The early settlers in the adjacent towns re- 
lied upon "Pennichuck beef" as the greatest delicacy 
of the year. For half a century shad and alewives 
were used as dressing for the corn-fields, and were 
rarely cooked till salmon became scarce. After the 
building of the Pawtucket (Lowell) dam, both salmon 
and shad disappeared from the waters of the Merri- 
mack and its branches. 

From a topographical examination, it is very 
evident that Nashua owes its origin and growth as a 
city from the river fnmi which it derives its name. 
It is a small river, but the water-power it furnishes 
has been sufficient to found a city of fifteen thousand 
inhabitants. Its sources are in the northern part of 
Worcester County. The small streams flowing from 
the base of Mount Wachusett unite in the Lancaster 
meadows, forming the Nashua Kiver. Thence it 
flow^ in a northern and northeasterly direction for 
thirty miles, entering New Hampshire about seven 
miles from its mouth. Its fall of water between Mine 
Falls and its mouth is about fifty-four feet. 

The climate of Na.-ihua is healthy. It is exempt 
from malaria and fogs, and in the warm season is free 
from annoying insects. The average temperature is 
forty-eight degrees above zero. Its highest tempera- 
ture within the past thirty years was ninety-nine de- 
grees above, and its lowest thirty-two degrees below 
zero. The degree of temperature varies with differ- 
ent localities in and about the city. In ordinary 
weather the ditference is small, but at dawn on 
severely cold winter mornings the mercury is usually 
six, and sometimes ten, degrees lower at the Concord 



Railroad Station than at Mount Pleasant and the 
South Common. There is less fall of snow here than 
in any other town of New Hampshire not bordering 
on the Atlantic Coast. Exceptional winters occur, 
but ordinarily the number of weeks of good sleighing 
in this city is lew, often not exceeding four. The 
average rainfall is thirty-nine inches. 

Nashua is the third city in the State in population, 
the third in valuation and the second in the value of 
its manufactures. It is thirty -five miles from Con- 
cord, forty miles from Boston, two hundred and sixty- 
two from New York and four hundred and ninety-two 
from Washington. No extensive view of scenery is 
visible from anj' part of the city ; but from the towers 
of the High School and the Mount Pleasant School 
buildings there is not only an attractive view of 
Nashua itself, but on a fair day there can be clearly 
seen the twin summits of Uncanoonuc, in Gofistown, 
the precipitous side of Joe English, in New Boston, 
the Crotched Mountain, in Francestown, the Grand 
Monadnoc, in JafiVey, the Pack Monadnoc, in Peter- 
borough, and Mount Wachusett, in Central Massa- 
chusetts. 



CHAPTER II. 

NASHUA— (Co/id'niicrf.) 

THE ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS. 
Indian Tribert— The "Nasliawaya" — Corn-Raieing — Stone Iniplemeuta 
— Ilnuting — MuilpB of Cooking — Salmon iinii Shad — Wigwams — 
Treatment of Sqiiawa — Ware — The Bircli Canoe — Clothing — Stone 
Relies. 

Nashua was the first settled of the inland towns 
of New Hampshire. It is not certainly known in 
what year the first white inhabitant built his cabin 
within its limits, but it could hardly have been earlier 
than 16G5 or later than 1(170. Fifty years before the 
Scotch settlers came to Londonderry, and seventy 
years before any other town of Hillsborough County, 
outside of "Old Dunstable," had a white resident, 
there wore log cabins on the banks of Salmon Brook, 
a little above its junction with the Merrimack. 
Longer than any other towns in the State, except 
Dover and Portsmouth, this settlement occupied a 
frontier position, exposed to all the perils and terrible 
disasters of savage hostility, and none did more heroic 
service in rescuing the colonies from the barbarities 
of Indian warfare. 

It is now more than two-thirds of a century since 
the last Indian remaining in the State died in a re- 
mote cabin in Coos County. The prophecy of Passa- 
conaway has been fulfilled. The race of New 
Hampshire Indians is extinct. To the generation of 
today the Indian is a myth. To our forefathers 
they were a terrible reality, — an untiring, ever-present, 
merciless foe. 

The history of Nashua would be incomplete without 
a description of its original inhabitants. Of the 



NASHUA. 



141 



twenty thousand Indians in New England on the 
landing of the Pilgrims, two thousand were in New 
Hampshire. More tliaii tliree-l'ourtlis of these lived 
in the Merrimack Valley. The rapid growth of the 
Massachusetts Bay colony led the more adventurous 
emigrants to seek for advantageous and fertile lands | 
on which to find a home. From the natives they 
learned of the attractive valley of the Merrimack 
River, and were awaiting a favorable opportunity to 
explore it. I 

In the summer of 1652 the colonial government of 
Massachusetts, desirous of ascertaining the northern 
extent of their territory, appointed an exploring 
commission, consisting of Cajitain Kdward .Johnson 
and Captain Simon Willard, accompanied by .Jona- 
than Ince and John Shearman as surveyors. They 
were instructed to follow up the Merrimack River to 
its head and there establish a " bound.'' At Pawtucket 
Falls they secured Indian guides, and, proceeding up 
the west bank of the river, were the first white men 
known to have crossed Salmon Brook and Nashua 
River, and explored the intervale lands of the vicinity. 
Having been told by their Indian guides that the 
head of the Merrimack River was at the outlet 
of the lake, they proceeded to that point, and upon 
a rock having a surface just above the water, at the 
outlet of the Winnipesaukee, they cut the following 
inscription : 

'•EI SW 

W I' lOHS 

KNDICVT 

GOV •• 

which, modernized, and substituting the full names 
for the initials, reads, — j 

" Edwani Juhnson. Simon Willitrd. 

Wor^liilifiil Jolin 

Endiciit 

Governor." 

The coiiiiiiissioners made a report to the Massachu- 
setts government on their return, and stated that they 
were treated kimlly, not only by the tribes on the 
Nashua and Souhegan Rivers, but by those of the 
upper ciuutry. From their description it is probable 
that about forty Indian families were living near the 
mouths of Salmon Brook and the Nashua River, and 
as many more at the month of the Souhegan and on 
the Litihlield intervale, opposite. 

Tlie Indians of the Merrimack Valley were divided 
into small tribes, and wire designated by the name of 
the locality they occupied. The Pawtuckcts had 
their headi|uarters at Pawtucket Falls, just above the 
present city of Lowell ; the Nashaways lived in the 
Nashua River valley and about its mouth ; t!ie Souhe- 
gans.on the stream of the same name; the Penacooks 
occupied Penacook, (now Concord,) and a part «( Bos- 
cawen. The last-named tribe was far the most numer- 
ous, warlike and powerful, and its sachem, Passacon- 
away, was the actual ruler of all the tribes of the 
Merrimack Valley. He was the most sagacious and 
discreet chieftain of his time. 



These tribes, while relying largely on fishing and 
hunting for their livelihood, depended to no trifling 
extent upon the tillage of the soil to secure them from 
starvation during the long winter. In common with 
all the North American tribes, these Indian warriors, 
when not idle, devoted themselves to war, fishing and 
hunting, and imposed upon the women the labor of 
tilling the ground, securing the crops, gathering the 
firewood, and all the drudgery of the wigwam. 

Many of the meadows, or the "intervales," as they 
are often called, on the Merrimack and Nashua Rivers 
are basins having a surface of alluvial and vegetable 
deposits. No doubt they were once covered with 
water, which, by the deepening of the channel, h.as 
gradually passed away. In i)roof of this, we know- 
that logs, leaves, nuts and other vegetation are often 
found buried under the surface at various depths, 
sometimes as low as twenty feet. Mr. Fox, in his 
" History of Dunstable," relates that when the exca- 
vation for the foundation of the locks near the junc- 
tion of the Nashua and Merrimack Rivers was nnide, 
in 1825, at a spot about one hundred feet from the 
Niishua River, and at a deinh of many feet below the 
surface, the workmen found logs and a quantity of 
charred coals, evidently the remains of a fire. Such 
discoveries are not infrequent in all alluvial lands. 
The time of deposit, geologically considered, was re- 
cent; chronologically estimated it wius exceedingly 
remote. The soil thus formed is free from stone, 
easy of cultivation and for a time very productive. 

After girdling the tree.s and piling the brushwood, 
the ground was carefully burned over in autumn. 
With the coming of spring each squaw began to pre- 
l)are her patch for planting. The Indian apostle, 
.John Elliot, writing from observation, describes these 
patches as usually containing about half an acre 
each, though occasionally he saw one of a whole acre. 
Often a dozen or more of them were contiguous, thus 
insuring a better protection from the coons, crows and 
squirrels. 

The implements of the Indians were rude and sim- 
ple. The student of to-day will bear in mind that 
the aboriginal race in North America three centuries 
ago were living in primitive barbarism, entirely igno- 
rant of the use of the metals, or of any of the arts 
and discoveries of civilization. They were "the un- 
tutored children of nature." The bow and arrow, 
spear and club were their warlike weap()ns ; the birch 
canoe was their highest idea of navigation ; the stone 
hammer, wedge and gouge, and bone needle made up 
their mechanical outfit; the stone pe.ntle, earthen pot, 
flint knife, the ladle and spoon of horn consliluted 
their cooking utensils ; while the stone axe and hoe 
were the inij)lements of tillagi'. 

The impression that the Indian axe was ever used 
OS a cutting instrument is an error. It was an imple- 
ment for pounding rather than for cutting. No vari- 
ety of stone, whether granite, greenstone, trap or 
jasper can furnish an edge of suflicient firmness and 



142 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



tenacity to successfullv penetrate wood. The red man 
rarel.v felled a tree, and when he did, it was by the aid of 
pitch and fire. He used the axe for splitting wood, peel- 
ing bark and pounding the ash for basket materials. 
To the squaw it was of service in digging up hushes 
and roots, and mellowing the soil ; l)ut after the 
ground was i)rcpared for planting, the hoe was the 
main implement used by the women, on whom de- 
volved the toil of cultivating the land. It was made 
of granite, or oftener of hard slate, having the shape 
of the carpenter's adze, and with a deep groove 
cut around the head to secure it to the handle. The 
handle was a withe, so pliant as to be twisted tightly 
in the groove around the head of the hoe ; it was then 
fiistened with a strip of raw-hide. Both the withe 
and the raw-hide were made firm by drying before the 
handle would he serviceable. Such an implement 
would lie of little use in hard, stony ground, but in 
the mellow loam of the intervale it sufficed to form 
the hills and remove the intruding weeds. The corn 
was of several colors, smaller of kernel and quicker 
in maturing than we are now accustomed to plant. 
The tribes of the Merrimack Valley began to plant 
" when the leaves of the white oak were as large as 
the ear of the mouse." From this habit was derived 
the adage of the first white settlers, — 

"When the oak trees look gosling gray 
Plant then — be it June or May." 

The squaws attended diligently to the growing 
coru, planting it in rows and hilling in much the 
same way we do. Some of the abandoned corn-fields 
on the intervales of Hudson retained tor years tlie 
shape of the hills of corn as they were left bj- the 
natives. After several seasons, when the grounds be- 
came exhausted, they dressed the soil with shad and 
alewives. These fish luckily arrived in immense num- 
bers just before planting-time, and were easily caught 
in every brook or rivulet tributary to the river. Put- 
ting a single fish in each hill was enough to secure a 
good yield. 

To the red men corn, the especial product of the 
western continent, was a rich gift. It springs luxuri- 
antly from a rich, fresh soil, and in the warm loam, 
with little aid from cultivation, soon outstrips the 
weeds. It bears not ten, nor twenty, but three hun- 
dred-fold. If once dry, it is hurt neither by heat nor 
cold, may be i)reserved in a pit or cave for years and 
even centuries, is gathered from the field by hand 
without knife or pruning-hook, and becomes nutri- 
tious food by a simple roasting or parching liefore a 
fire. 

Besides corn, beans, .squashes, pumpkins, melons 
and gourds, all of them indigenous, were more or less 
grown. Before ripening, the corn was often roa.stcd 
for immediate use. When boiled in kernels it was 
called samp. When pounded in a mortar and boiled 
it was called hominy. When boiled with an equal 
quantity of beans it was called succotash. The squash 



and pumpkin were cooked by boiling or steam- 
ing, and used with other food. In summer the rasp- 
berry and blackberry were freely eaten, and in 
autumn the squaws, aided by the children, searched 
the forests for nuts, gathering chestnuts, beech-nuts, 
walnuts and acorns tor food in winter. The acorns 
were parched and ground and mixed with corn-meal. 

The huntiug of wild animals was something more 
than an occupation to the red man. It was an amuse- 
ment, and sometimes an inspiration. The forests 
thickly covering the numerous hills of this county 
abounded with foxes, raccoons, rabbits, woodchucks 
and squirrels. In the fall the bear was sometimes 
caught, and in the early winter venison often hung 
from the rafters of the wigwam. These animals were 
timid and wary, and could be approached only by 
stealth. To get within bow-shot required much skill, 
as well as patience, and was ot^en unsuccessful at 
last. Hence other contrivances were resorted to. 
Traps and snares of various kinds, adapted to the size 
and habits of the animal sought after, were extensively 
used. For deer a driving-yard was built, forming a 
figure like the letter V, at some place known to be a 
resort of this animal. Placing the best marksmen at 
the apex, the rest of the party, forming a line, beat 
the outlying woods .so as to drive the deer within the 
inclosure, from which they could escape only through 
the opening at the apex. Here they were usually 
snared or shot. 

The wild pigeon is said to have been surprisingly 
numerous before, and for a time after, the advent of 
the white jiopulation. Thousands, in August and 
September, would at twilight alight upon two or three 
adjacent forest-trees, many bushels of them to be 
taken before dawn by the natives. The Indians 
rarely eat raw meat. Usually it was roasted upon 
split sticks or wooden forks, or broiled upon live 
coals. When meat was boiled, it was with corn or 
beans, and if the earthen pot was wanting, a wooden 
trough was used to cook the food by throwing heated 
stones into the water. In eating, they used neither 
knife nor fork, and drank from a gourd or birch-bark 
cup. 

The tribes of the Merrimack Valley were attracted 
by the great number and superior quality of the fish 
which annually ascended the river in the early part 
of May. The announcement of their arrival was re- 
ceived with shouts, yells and every evidence of satis- 
faction. It wiis the jubilant event of the year. All 
the tribes gathered at the fishing haunts. Canoes, 
seines, torches and spears were in demand. There 
was usually such an abundance of the'fish that salmon 
only were selected as palatable. Many were taken 
with the stone-pointed spear. More were caught 
with the seines made of wild hemp and the inner 
bark of the elm and spruce. But in the height of the 
"run," in the small streams the club was often the 
more effective, and heaps of salmon were thrown upon 
the banks, where the s<juaws with their flint knives 



NASHUA. 



143 



stood ready to dress them, splitting them and laying 
them upon the turf to dry. At night tliey were taken 
to the wigwam and hung around the eentre-pole to be 
cured by tlie smoke. Each niglit \va.s passed in danc- 
ing and Iciisting, — a kind of jubilee for the success of 
the day. 

The wigwams were built by the squaws. They 
were rude structures made of eight or ten poles set 
round in the form of a cone, having a stout centre- 
pole, to which all the others were bent and fastened 
with a strong rope of bark. This rude frame was cov- 
ered with bark or mats, leaving an opening at the top 
for the smoke to escape. There was rather a low 
opening in the side of the wigwam left for the purpose 
of a doorway, over which a bear or a deerskin was 
suspended to answer the purpose of a door. This was 
pu6he<l a^iide when any one wished to enter or go out. 
A large pin was driven into the centre-pole upon 
which to hang the kettle. At the base of this pole, 
under the pin, was placed edgewise a large flat stone, 
against which the tire was made, and which protected 
the pole from burning. Rude mats were placed on the 
ground, on which they sat, took their meals and slept. 

The conditionof the wigwam was habitually untidy. 
Often in the summer season the contents and sur- 
roundings became so offensive as to compel a removal 
to a new location. This required but a few hours' 
labor, and was wholly done by the women. It is a 
trait of savage character to degrade womanhood. 
With the red man this was universal. The fenmlcs 
bore the burden of unconditional and unremitting 
servitude. Under the most cruel treatment they had 
no redress. Their utmost eflbrts and severest toil had 
no other reward than neglect, if not indignity. It is 
not strange that mothers of female infants were some- 
times driven to infanticide. 

The tribes of the Merriinai'k Valley, though less 
ferixious than the .Mohawks of New York and the 
Tarentines of Maine, were addicted to strife and 
bloodshed. Wars were as incessant and relentless 
l)efore the advent of Europeans as afterwards. Ex- 
tinction had l)ecn the lot of many a tribe in the long 
periinl which preceded the discovery of the continent. 
It iei|uire(l no tedious ellbrt for a chief to fire the 
heart of every warrior in his clan, and once enlisted, 
there was no risk of desertion. The red men were not 
wanting in courage and pcrsii^tancc. Their wars were 
terril)le, not from their numliers, for on any one ex- 
prilitidh they rarely exceeded a hundred men; it was 
the parties of six or seven wliieh were most to be 
dreaded, especially in a war of retaliation. Skill con- 
sisted in surprising the enemy urniwares. They fol- 
lowed his trail to kill him when he slept, or they laid 
in ainbiisli near his wigwam, and waU-hed for an op- 



portunity of suddenly attacking and destroying him, 
antl usually his squaw and children atler him, and 
taking their scalps, hastened back in triumph to their 
tribe with their tro])hies dangling from their belts. 
It was the danger of just such strategy and barbarity 
that for two-thirds of a century made every white 
family in Dunstable feel insecure. 

The earliest explorers spoke of the birch canoe as 
the possession of every Indian fomily. Its construc- 
tion required skill rather than strength. A light 
frame-work of ash or white-oak was first made, and 
this was tightly covered with white bireh-bark, care- 
fully selected, with the several pieces neatly sewed 
together with the sinews of some animal or the twine 
of wild hemp. The seams were made tight with 
pitch. These canoes were from twelve to fifteen feet 
in length, were propelled by paddles not unlike thos-e 
now in use, and would carry from three to five persons, 
who sat on the bottom of the canoe. It floated gracefully, 
and both sexes acquired great facility in using it. 
The occasions for using the canoe on the Merrimack 
were frequent, inasmuch as the land on both sides of 
the river was more or less occupied. " At almost any 
hour," wrote Captain Willard. " one could see at the 
mouths of the Nashua and Souhegan the natives 
going to and fro in their canoes." 

The clothing of the natives in summer was an apron 
made of skin, fastened around the waist ; in winter a 
bear-ukin, or a jacket made of smaller skins. They 
wore skin moccasins on their feet, and to these, when 
traveling upon the deep and soft snow, the oval- 
shaped show-shoes were bound, on which, though 
cumbersome to the novice, the Indian hunter could 
well-nigh outstrip the wind. 

The natives of the eastern continent have enduring 
monuments of their ancestors. The savage red men 
who for ages occu|iied the Jferrimack Valley left no 
obelisk or pyramid, no ruin of walle<l town or temple. 
The stone implements buried in the soil they occupied 
are the only visible evidence of their having existed. 
These are most abundant around the water-falls at 
Anioskeag, the Weirs, Suncook and Pawtueket, but 
they have also been found on almost every acre of 
intervale between Lake Winnipesaukee and Ncw- 
buryport. Around the Anioskeag Falls anli<iuarians 
have picked up thousands of the stone arrow and 
spear-heads with which they pointed their weapons. 
In excavations at Sanbornton Hay have been found 
stone axes, steatite pipes, eoai-se fragments of pottery 
and rude ornaments. On the alluvial plough-lands 
of Nashua have been dug up stone pestles, hatchets, 
gouges, knives, sinkers an<l arrow-points, — the sole 
relics of a race who were unable to survive the ap- 
proach of civilization. 



144 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



CHAPTER III. 

NASHUA— (Confitliierf.) 

FROM THK FIRST SETTLEMENT TO 1702. 
Making of Liuici Grunts— Chiirter (inintcd to DunstaWii— Narnen of 
GmiiteeH — BoundarieB of the Township — Withdrawal of the Indians — 
Laying (lilt House-Lots— Uncertain Date of Settlement— King Philip's 
War— King William's War— Death of the Ilassell Faniilj— Garrison 
Ilouses — Poverty and Hardships. 

"Gone are those great and good 
Who here in peril stood, 

.\nd raised their hymn. 
Peace to the reverend dead ! 
The light that on their head 
Two hundred yeal"s have shed 

Shall ne'er trow rlini." — John liir^ont. 

After the earliest settlements in New Hampshire, at 
Dover and Portsmouth, in 1628, the growth of popu- 
lation was, for some years, slow. The first settlers of 
the-se two towns were speculators, rather than farmers, 
anil this circumstance did not strongly attract new- 
comers. 

Meanwhile, the settlements of the Massachusetts 
colony grew rapidly. From 1650 to 1665 was a 
period of unwonted activity and prosperity. In 1655 
the settlements had e.xtonded northward to Chelms- 
ford and (Jroton. The Massachusetts colonial govern- 
ment, disregarding the Masonian claim, and consider- 
ing all that part of New Hampshire south of Lake 
Wiunipesaukce within her own limits, began to dis- 
tribute grants of land in the Merrimack Valley as 
far north as the present towns of Merrimack and 
Litchfield. Four hundred acres of land were granted 
to John Whiting, lying on the south side of Salmon 
Brook and extending up the brook one mile. In 1673 
a grant of one thousand acres, on the north side of 
Nashua River, was made to the Ancient and Honor- 
able -Vrtillery Company of Boston. It was bounded 
on the east by the Merrimack River and on the 
south by the Nashua. It included that part of the 
present city north of the river, and was called the 
"Artillery Farm." From this circumstance the little 
pond, which a few years ago occupied the cen- 
tral part of North Common, was called Artillery 
I'ond. After owning this tract for seventy years the 
company sold it to Colonel Joseph Blanchard, a man 
of note in the early history of Dunstable. 

Numerous other grants were made on both sides of 
the river until their aggregate was fourteen thousand 
acres. It became desirable, therefore, to consolidate 
these grants into an incorporation, so as to secure to 
the inhabitants all the privileges of an organized 
township. Accordingly, in 1673, the proprietors of 
the farms already laid out, and others who were dis- 
posed to settle here, presented a petition to the gov- 
ernment of Massachusetts, of which the following is 
a verbatim copy : 

** To the Honored Gowenirn-, Veimttj Governor, leilh thu MatjinlrateJ^ noiv as- 
Minliled in the tfeiirra/ Court at Bonton, Sfpteinlier l!l, 1073. 
" The Petition of the Proprietors of the farms that are laid out upon 
the Merrimack River and places atljacent, with others who desire to joyn 
with them in the settlement of a plantation there : 



"Humbly Sheweth 

" That whereas, there is a considerahle tract of the t 'imntry's land that 
is invironed with the proprieties of particular persons and towns, viz. : 
By the line of the town of Chelinsfunl, and hy the Grotou line, and by 
Mr. lirenton's farm, hy Souhegan farms, and heyond Merrimack River 
by the outermost line of Henry Kiniltall's farm, and so to Chelmsford 
line again. All is in little capacity of doing the country any service ex- 
cept the farms bordering upon it be ai^juined to said land, to make a 
plantation there ; and there being a consideralde number of ]>eraone who 
are of sober and orderly conversation, who do stand in need of great ac- 
commodations, who are willing to make improvement of the sjiid vacant 
lauds: And the proprietors of the said farms are willing to aid those 
that shall improve the said lands : the farms of those that are within 
the tract of laml before described, being about 14,(100 acresat the least : — 

"Your Petitionei'S, therefore, humbly request the favor of the Honor- 
aide Court that they w ill gnint the sjiid tract of land to your Petitioners 
and to such as will join with them in the settlement of the lands before 
mentioned, so those who ha^e iiiijiroved their farms, and those who in- 
tend to do so, may be in a way to support the ordinances ol God, without 
which they will be mostly deprived, the farms lying so remote from any 
towns : .\n(l farther, that the Honorable (_'ourt will please grant the like 
imnuililties to this plantation as they have formerly granted to other 
plantations : So shall your Petitioners be ever engaged to pray ; — 



"1. Thomas Rrattlc, 
2. Jonathan Tyiig, 
'■i. Joseph Wheeler, 
4. James Parkeson, 
6. Robert Gibbs, 

6. John Turner, 

7. Sampson Sbeafe, 

8. Samuel Scarlet, 

9. William Lakin, 

10. Abraham Parker, 

11. James Knapp, 

12. Robert Proctor, 

13. Simon Willard, Jr., 



14. Thomas Edwanle, 
1.^. Thomas Wheeler, 
K;. Peter Bulkley, 
17. Joseph Parker, 
1.1. John Morse, 
lii. Samuel Combe, 

20. James Parker, Jr., 

21. John Parker, 

22. Josiab Parker, 

23. Nathaniel lilood, 

24. Robert Parris, 
2r,. John Joliffe, 

2G. Zachariah Long.'* 



On the 26th of October this petition was granted, 
and the township of Dunstable chartered. It was 
granted with tlie condition universally required, viz., 
that "at least twenty actujil settlers shall be in the 
township within three years, that a meeting-house 
shall be built and an able and orthodox minister shall 
be obtained." These rctiuirements were complied 
with by the specified time. 

The townshi]) of Dunstable, thus organized, was a 
tract of about two hundred square miles, or one hun- 
dred and twenty-eight thousand acres. It had long 
been the favorite home of the savages, though their 
number, some years previous, had been greatly 
diminished by a raid of their hereditary enemy, the 
bloodthirsty Mohawks. It included the present city 
of Nashua, the towns of Hudson, Hollis, Dunstable 
and Tyngsborough, besides portions of the towns of 
Amherst, Milford, Jlerrimack, Litchfield, London- 
derry, Pelham, Dracut, Rrookline, (iroton and Pep- 
percll. It extended ten to twelve miles west of the 
Merrimack, and three to five miles east of it, and its 
average length, from north to soutii, was from twelve 
to fourteen miles. The [iresent city of Nashua is 
very nearly the centre of the original township of 
Dunstalile, — the name that Nashua continued to bear 
till within the recollection of many citizens now liv- 
ing. The name Dunstable is said to have been given 
in compliment to Mrs. Mary, wife of Edward Tyug 
and mother of Jonathan Tyng, one of the grantees 
and one of the most iiromiiieiit of the first settlers. 



I 
I 



NASHUA. 



145 



She was a native of a town of that name in the south 
of England. 

By the granting of this charter the twenty-six pe- 
titionee became the owners of all the ungranted 
lands within the boundaries of Dunstable, which, if 
e<iually shared, would have given to each of them not 
les.s than four thousand acres. What recompense 
the Indians received for their lands is not known. 
Some ten years after the granting of the charter it is 
said that seventy dollars in silver was paid to the 
Wamesits, of Chelmsford, and the same sum to the 
sachem at Souhcgan, for their claims ; but there is no 
evidence that the Na^'llaways received any considera- 
tion. As the most of the tribe and the chief sachem 
lived at Lancaster, Mass., it is probable the few 
families remaining here went northward with the 
majority of their tribe, and received little or no 
recompense. 

The little Indian settlement at the mouths of 
Nashua River and Salmon Brook, when visited by 
Captain Simon Willard in 16.")2, had only forty war- 
riors. It is known that, in 1669, they joined the 
Penacooks in an expedition against the Mohawks, in 
which the most of them perished. The remnant, 
dispirited and ])owerle.ss. are said to have united with 
the Wamesits, and soon after migrated with them 
northward. Afterwards nothing was distinctively 
known of them. 

The twenty-six grantees, and the settlers uniting 
with them, before taking ])Ossession of their ample 
domain, made a compact for the equitable division 
and disposal of their lands. It was evident that, for 
their mutual protection, the occupied lands must be 
contiguous. The most desirable locality for safety, 
convenience and favorable soil appeared to be the 
land bordering on theMerrimack River, below Salmon 
Brook. It was agreed that each actual settler, as a 
personal right, should have a " house- lott" of eligible 
land, not to exceed thirty acres. .Jonathan Danforth, 
an experienced surveyor, wiis employed to establish 
boundaries. These house-lots were laid out with a 
base on the Merrimack River, and reaching, .side by 
side, southward as far us the ])resent State line. These 
lots, having a narrow base, extended westward toward 
Salmon Drook. 

It is evident that settlements had been commenced 
on some of these lots several years before 1673, as we 
find im the town records that at a meeting of the 
proprietors and the settlers in the fall of that year it 
was voted that "the first meeting-house should be 
built between Salmon Brook and the house of Lieut. 
Wheeler, iis convenient as may be, for the accom- 
modation of the settlers." In 1675 orchards are in- 
lidcntally spoken of a-s already having some growth. 
Tlierefore, while the exact date of the first settlement 
within the present limits of Nashua cannot be defi- 
nitely established, it is certain that the first pioneers 
built their cabins near Salmon Brook between 16(15 
and 1670. It was, in truth, a frontier hamlet, having 



no white settlement on the north nearer than Canada, 
on the east nearer than Exeter, on the west nearer 
than Albany. 

Two years later, in the summer of 1675, the bloody 
war begun by the crafty and cruel King Philip, 
chief of the Wanipaiioags, burst upon the New Eng- 
land colonies. It meant the extermination of the 
whites. 

The new towns of Lancaster and Groton were 
burned, the inhabitants killed, carried away captives 
or driven from their homes. Chelmsford was at- 
tacked, and but for the intervention of Wanolancet, 
chief of the Penacooks, Dunstable would have been 
overwhelmed. So alarming was their situation that, 
at the approach of winter, the settlers of Dunstable, 
with the exception of Jonathan Tyng, Hed to the older 
settlements. Tyng had a strongly fortified house, two 
miles below the present State line, in what is now 
Tyngsborough, Mass., and he resolved to defend it to 
the last. A small guard was sent to him from Boston, 
and with this little band he held the fort till the end 
of the war. 

Peace came again in the spring of 1678. The 
fugitive settlers at Salmon Brook returned, and it is 
said that the first meeting-house was built during 
the same year. It was made of logs, with rude ap- 
pointments, but well represented the ability of the 
congregation. The ensuing year, 1679, the planta- 
tion, as it was called, secured and settled Rev. Thomas 
Weld, as the first "learned and orthodox minister," 
among them. lie settled in the south part of the 
town, on land now included in the " Highland Farm," 
and then known as the "ministerial lot." t)ther events 
worthy of note occurred the same year. Among them 
was the building of the first saw-mill in Southern New 
Hampshire, located on Salmon Brook, at -VUd's bridge, 
southeast of the Harbor. There was an old beaver- 
dam at that i)lace, and it required little labor to pre- 
pare the site for the mill. The first bridge over 
Salmon Brook v.'as built this year by John Sollendine, 
a carpenter, whose marriage, the next year (1680), was 
the first which took place in the town. 

In 1679, by the royal decree of Charles 11., the 
"merry monarch" of England, New Hampshire was 
erected into a "royal i)rovinee," independent of Mas- 
sachusetts, of which she had been an appendage since 
1641. Dunstable, however, still remained under the 
jurisdiction of Massachusetts, and continued t<i be 
governed by Massachusetts laws till the settlement of 
the boundary line, sixty-two years later, in 1741. It 
was better for the early settlers of Dunstable (hat the 
authority of the Massachusetts colony should con- 
tinue to exist. All of them had been residents of 
that colony. All of their business interests and social 
relations were centred there. An untravcrsed forest 
of forty miles separated them from the nearest New 
Hampshire settlement, at Exeter, and in the terrible 
ex|>osure of Dunstable to savage attacks her reliance 
for aid was entirely upon Mass;iiliii>eits In adilition 



146 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



to inaccessibility, the population of New Hampshire 
in 1()78 dill not cxi-ccd four thousand. 

King William's Ten Years' War.— War, in its 
best aspects, is a terrible calamity. When a people 
few in number, and almost defenseless, are a.ssailed 
by a merciless foe, it becomes the most terrible scourge 
that can befall a people. After an unquiet peace of 
nine years, in 1688 the war known in history as King 
William's, one of the fierce conflicts between the 
English and French nations, was, in its beginning, 
signalized in the New England colonies by the mas- 
sacre of Major Waldron and twenty others at Dover, 
by the Penacook and Eastern Indians, and the, carry- 
ing off of a larger number as captives to Canada. 

The power of the native warriors left to themselves 
would have been supi)ressed after a few skirmishes. 
But the French possessions stretching all along the 
northern frontier were strongly garrisoned by French 
soldiers, and as a fierce war was raging between Eng- 
land and France, the Canadian forces of the latter 
were commanded to use all direct and indirect means 
to a.ssail and weaken the English colonics. 

The French government saw the advantage of se- 
curing the Indians as allies. All of the New England 
as well as the Canadian tribes had been conciliated by 
being treated as allies, and not subjected dependants, 
by the French officials. They were taught the use of 
the musket, and were .supplied with an abundance of 
firearms, blankets and provisions for border warfare. 
They had already been taught by the Jesuit mission- 
aries that they were a wronged race, and that English 
supremacy meant the extinction of the red man. The 
Penacooks, who had now largely removed to Canada, 
had felt the truth of this. The desire for vengeance 
W!i8 intensely stimulated, and they hitstened to attack 
the frontier New England settlements. 

The same party of Indians which had desolated 
Dover had planned an attack on Dunstable, but its 
execution was prevented by a timely discovery of the 
plot. The government sent a mounted patrol to pro- 
tect the settlement. For a time it did good service, 
but on the evening of September 2, 11)91, the savages 
suddenly attacked the house of Joseph Hassell, Sr., 
which stood on the north side of Salmon Brook, on a 
knoll just in the rear of the brick cottage on the 
Allds road, a few rods north of the bridge. The as- 
sault was unexpected. Hassell and his wife, A nna, their 
son, Benjamin, and .Mary Marks, a kinswoman, were 
killed. They were all buried on the knoll, near the 
house, and for many years a rough stone marked the 
spot. The only record of the massacre is the follow- 
ing brief note, probably written by Kev. Mr. Weld at 
the time : 



"Anno Domini 1691, 
Joseph Hofisel, Sonior, '^ wore slain by our lodiau 
Anna Hasaell, his wife, > enemies on Sept. 2d, in 
BenJ. Hassell, their sou, J the evening. 
Mary Marks, the daughter of Patrick Marks, was slain by the In- 
dians, also oil Sept. 2d, in the evening." 

On the morning of Se|)teniber 28th a party of In- 
dians attacked and killed, on the south bank of the 
Nashua River, Obadiah Perry and Christopher Temple, 
two active and useful citizens who were among the 
original settlers of the town. 

The protracted and incessant peril of the settlers at 
Salmon Brook was so great that no new-comers ar- 
rived, and in 1696 half of the families had left for the 
lower towns. There is no authentic record of any 
further attack upon Dunstable after the slaughter of 
Perry and Temple, but the growth of the town was 
paralyzed, and the seventeenth century closed with a 
gloomy prospect for the settlers of Dunstable. 

There were at this time at Salmon Brook four gar- 
rison-houses, as they were called, and the Massachu- 
setts colonial government stationed about twenty sol- 
diers at these outposts, as a protection against any 
savage or French raids. These fortified houses con- 
sisted of a strongly-built log house, about twenty-four 
feet square, surrounded by a wooden stockade, built 
of timbers standing upright, twelve feet high, with 
the gates as well as the house-doors secured by iron 
bolts and bars. King William's War lasted ten years. 
Cotton Mather wrote of it as "the decade of sorrows." 
The number of families in Upper Dunstable (now 
Nashua) was reduced to twenty. The following is 
the list of the heads of families in 1699. The number 
of inhabitants did not jirobably exceed one hundred 
and tweutv. 



5Ir. Thomas Wold. 
Mr. Samuel Searle. 
Nathaniel Rlanchard. 
Joseph Blunchard. 
Thomas Hlanchard. 
Thomai Cummings. 
Robert I'arris. 
Samuel French. 
Thomas Lunn (Lund). 
Isxiac Whiting. 



.John Sollondine. 
.Mr. Samuel Whiting. 
Abraham Cummings. 
Kobert I 'slier. 
John Cummings. 
John Lovewell. 
Joseph Hassell. 
William Ilarwood. 
Nathuiiiel Cuniniiugs. 
])aiiit>l Galusha. 



In 1701 the selectmen of the town petitioned the 
General Court for aid in the support of the ministry, 
and at some length set forth their condition and suf- 
ferings. It appeared that one-half of the residents, 
being new settlers, had not rai.sed enough corn and 
grain for their own families, and none of the citizens 
were much, if any, above need. This petition was 
signed by Joseph Farwell, Robert Parris and William 
Tyng, as selectmen. In answer to this i)etition the 
sum of twelve jiounds was allowed the town from the 
treasury. 



NASHUA. 



147 



C H A 1' T K R IX . 

NASHUA— (Condnuerf.) 

INDIAN WABS FKOM 1702 TO iriS. 

Wautniick Fort — Queen Auoe'a War — Slutighter of the Parris Kamily — 
Weld's Fort — Careless Scouts — Fate of the Galusha Family — Ju*i Eng- 
lish—Sad Condition of Dunstable— Iniliau TactiM aud Cruelty — A 
Brii-r Pea4-'e — Capture of Cross and Blanchard — Fate of Lieutenant 
French and Party — Escape of Farwell — Indian Ilead, 

Late in the autumn of 1702 the General Court of 
Massachusetts authorized the building of a fort, not 
to exceed forty feet stjuare, at " Watauuck," the Indian 
name for Salmon Brook. It was fortified with a stock- 
ade of hewn timber, and stood about sixty rods north 
of .Salmon Brook, and about the same distance east of 
Main Street, on the premises now owned by Elbridge 
G. Reed. Tlie cellar, which was deep, has been 
filled, and a thrifty walnut-tree planted by Mr. 
Reed now marks the spot. Tliis fort was occupied by 
a small garrison, consisting of eleven men, namely: 
William Tyng, lieutenant; John Bowers, sergeant; 
Joseph Butterfield, drummer; John .Spalding, John 
Cummings, Joseph llasscll, Ebenezer Cunimings, 
Daniel Galusha, Paul Fletcher, Samuel French and 
Thomas Lund, privates. Most of thtsie men were 
residents, and in the day-time the presenrc of only 
four soldiers was required at the fort. 

In 1703 war was renewed between England and 
France. It lasted ten years, and is known in history 
as Queen Ann's War. The Indians, instigated by 
Jesuit priests, and equipped by the French Governor, 
made a general attack on all the frontier settle- 
ments. Within six weeks two hundred whites along 
the northern frontier were killed or carried into cap- 
tivity. The Ma.ssachusetts colonial government, 
alarmed by these massacres, oliered a bounty of I'ortj- 
pounds lone hundreil and forty dollars) for every 
Indian scalji. 

It was soon after the beginning of this war that the 
garrison of Robert Parris was surprised, and himself 
and family massacred. He lived in the south part of 
the town, on the main road to C'lielmsford, just south 
of the site now occupied by the " Highland Farm" 
buildings. He wa.s a large land projjrietor, and had 
been selectman and representative of the town. Just 
at the close of twilight the savages attacked the 
house. Unfortunately, the door was unfiLstene<l, and, 
having gained an entrance, they killed Mr. Parris, 
his wife and oldest daughter. Two small girls, who 
composed tlie rest of the family, ran down into the 
cellar, and crept under an empty hogshead. The 
savages plundered the house, struck with their toma- 
hawks upon the hogslicad, but in the dark failed to 
examine closely. They left, leaving the house un- 
liurm-d, probably fearing the flames would alarm the 
neighbors. The orphan girls were sent to their rela- 
tives in C'harlestown, Ma.ss., where they were rai.sed 
and cducateiL 

In the summer of 1701! a party of Mohawks, two 



hundred and seventy in number, came East to attack 
the New Hampshire settlements. For centuries they 
had been accustomed to make mid-summer raids to the 
^lerrimack Valley, and sometimes to the sea-coast be- 
yond for )ilunder. Vermont and Western New Hamp- 
shire had been depopulated by them, for they spared 
I none. The red men having departed, they now fell 
I upon the white settlers. Their first descent was uiwn 
' Dunstable, on July 3d, where they entered the " Weld 
fort," a garrison-house so named for theRev. Mr. Weld, 
who died in 17(12. Strangely, there were twenty 
troopers in it. These men, who were mounted scouts, 
had been ranging the wood, and toward night reached 
the garrison. Apprehending no danger, they turned 
their horses loose upon the intervale, and without a 
sentry began a night carousal. A detachment of Mo- 
I hawks, lurking in the vicinity, had intended to attack 
both Weld's and (Jalusha's garrisons on the same 
night. Spies had been set to watch these garrLsons to 
see that no assistance arrived, and no alarm was 
given. A short time before the approach of the cav- 
alry the spy stationed at Weld's, seeing no move- 
ment, retired to his party, and reported that all was 
safe. 

Just after sunset Mr. John Cummings and his wife 
went out to milk the cows, and left the gate open. 
The Indians, who had advanced undiscovered, rushing 
' forward, shot Mrs. Cummings dead upon the spot 
and wounded Mr. Cummings. They then rushed 
through the open gate into the house with the horri- 
ble yells of conquering savages, but halted with 
amazement on finding the room filled with soldiers 
merrily feasting. Both parties were astonished, and 
neither showed much self-possession. The soldiers, 
suildcnly interrujited in their jovial entertainment, 
found themselves compelled to fight for life, without 
arms, and incapable of obtaining them. Most of them 
were panic-struck, and unable to fight or fiy. For- 
tunately, six or seven coijrageous souls, with chairs, 
benches or whatever else they could seize, fiiriously 
attacked the advancing foe. The savages, surprised 
and disconcerted, rushed from the house without any 
loss, save a few sore heads. 

There are conflicting accounts as to the loss of the 
troopers. Penhallow, who wrote a history of the 
Indian wars, and was a contemporary author, says 
that about one-half of the troopers were killed by the 
Indians, who ha<l loaded guns on entering tiie fort; 
while another and probably less reliable account 
says that no one save the trumpeter, who was blow- 
ing his horn in the attic when he saw the Indians en- 
tering, was shot fatally at the head of the stairway. 
The carelessness of the soldiers was very deservedly 
censured. Cummings, who was wounded outside, 
fled with a broken arm to the woods while tlie sav- 
ages were engaged in the house. That night he lay 
in a swamp a few rods south of the State line, and the 
next morning reached the garrison just above the 
present Tyngsborough village. 



148 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



The same night the Indians attarkiil tlie fortified 
house of Danii 1 Gahisha, two milf-s westward, and 
near the jiresent residence of WiUard Cuniniings. 
The inmates were three men, one woman and one l)oy. 
They fought bravely, but finding tliat the Indians 
were kindling a fire outside, endeavored to escape. 
One aceount says that one man and the boy escaped, 
but Penliallow writes that only the woman escaped. 
Wlien tlie assault grew dangerous she sought con- 
cealment in the cellar. Hastily plundering the 
house, and thinking they had killed all the inmates, 
tlie savages set fire to the house and immediately 
left. The woman, finding the house in flames, tried 
to escape by the cellar window, but found it too 
small. By effort she removed a stone, forced a pass- 
age, and crawling over burning cindei's, reached the 
nearest bushes, from whence in the morning she fled 
to a neighboring garrison. 

On the same night of the attack on the Weld and 
Galusha garrisons, the Indians, at a later hour, prob- 
ably past midnight, assaulted the house of Nathaniel 
Blanchard, three miles lielow Salmon Brook, and near 
the old cemetery in the south part of the town. It 
apjiears from the ancient town records that Nathaniel 
Blanchard, his wife, Susannah, his daughter, Susannah, 
and his brother's wife, Hannah, all four "died" by the 
hands of the savages on the night of the 3d of July, 
1706. Captain Samuel Whiting was taken prisoner 
on Long Hill, and carried to Canada. He returned 
after several years of captivity, but for many years 
after was an invalid on account of his wounds and 
sufierings. 

Three weeks later, on the 27th of July, Captain 
Hutterfield and wife, mounted on the same horse, 
started to ride from I)unstal)le to Clielmsford. They 
were accompanied by the well-known friendly Indian, 
Joe English, and another soldier as a guard, English 
going before and the soldier in the rear of the mounted 
couple. They had just crossed the present State line, 
and reached Ilolden's Brook, when a party of Indians 
in ambush fired and killed the horse. Captain But- 
terfield and the soldier escaped, but his wife was taken 
prisoner. Joe English, however, was the chief object 
of pursuit, and they at once ran toward him. With 
his loaded musket he made all possil)le haste to reach 
the nearest thicket, when a l)all struck the arm hold- 
ing the gun, which compelled him to drop it. .lust as 
he reached the thicket another ball broke his thigh. 
Undaunted by tortures, he bravely met his death. 

Joe English was an Agawam Indian, born in Ips- 
wich, Mass., the son of a noted sachem. He possessed 
unusual sagacity and on several occasions had noti- 
fied the white settlers of the terrific attacks about to 
be made on them. For this the nortliern savages had 
sworn a terrible revenge. Many traditional stories 
have been told of his ingenuity and prowess. Of his 
fidelity, courage, adventures and hairbreadth escapes 
there is no doubt. His death was lamented as a pub- 
lic loss. The General Assemblv of Miussachusetts 



made a grant to his widow and two children " because 
he died in the service of the country." His memory 
was long cherished as one who fell by the hands of 
his own race on account of his friendship for the 
whites. A noted hill in New Boston, easy of ascent 
on the north and terminating in a precipice on the 
south side, perpetuates his name. 

Queen Anne's War bore heavily on all the New- 
Hampshire settlements, then numbering only five, — 
Portsmouth, Dover, Exeter, Hanifiton and Dunstable. 
The scholarly Penhallow, who was an actor in this 
war anil wrote a history of it, inscribed the title-page 
of his book with these sad words, — 

" Xi'scio tu ([uibus t'S, Lector, lecturUB ocilIiB 

Hoc scit), quod siccis, scrilitre non pottii. 
(With wliiit eyes, O reader, yoii will rend tliis tale 1 know not — 

This I do know, mine were not dry when writing it)." 

Feeble and suffering had been the condition of the 
settlers of Dunstable from its earliest years. Fear and 
desolation reigned everywhere. Compelled to dwell 
in garrisons, to labor at the constant peril of life, how 
could the settlers thrive? Dunstable was scarcely 
more advanced in 1714 than in 1680, so disastrous had 
been the effect of the long and bloody wars. Many of 
the most useful inhabitants had been slain or taken 
captive, especially heads of families. Some had re- 
moved to places more secure from Indian depredation. 
Very few would emigrate to what might be well termed 
" the dark and bloody ground." It was no time for 
marriage feasts when the bridal procession might at 
every step become a funeral one, and the merry laugh 
be drowned by the crack of the riHe and the savage 
war-whoop. 

The historian Bancroft says; '" The war on the part 
of the Indians was one of ambushes and surprises." 
They were secret as beasts of prey, skillful marksmen, 
swift of foot, patient of fatigue, familiar with every 
path and nook of the forest, and frantic with the pas- 
sion for vengeance and destruction. The laborer in 
the field and the woodman felling trees were shot 
down by skulking foes who were invisible. The 
mother left alone in the house was in constant fear of 
the tomahawk for herself and her children. There was 
no hour of freedfim from peril. The dusky red men 
hung upon the skirts of the colonial villages "like the 
liglitning on the edge of the cloud." 

In 1713 the " peace of Utrecht " closed the war be- 
tween England and France. The Indians, getting no 
supplies from their Canadian allies, were quiet. 
There was ati increase of emigration from England, 
and ])ernianent homes now for the first time began 
to extend beyond the long-exposed frontier settle- 
ment below the junction of the Nashua with the Mer- 
rimack River. As early as 1710 settlements were 
made in Hudson ; Londonderry was settled in 1719 ; 
Litchfield and Chester in 1720; Merrimack and Pel- 
ham in 1722. In 1722 the Maine Indians, instigated, 
it was said, by the Jesuit missionary. Father Rasle, 
began depredations at Portsmouth, Dover and the 



NASHUA. 



149 



irininw SL'ttleiiiciits in the vicinity, the Peijuawkets, 
uiidiT the lead ol'Paiigus, joifiing them in phmdering 
corn-fields and destroying cattle. 

Early in the spring of 1724, Lieutenant .laliez Fair- 
banks, ofGroton, took command of a scouting-party 
organized to protect the frontier settlers. Sixofthe 
scouts — Joseph Blauchard, Thomas Lund, Isaac Far- 
well, Ebenezer Cummings, John Usher and Jonathan 
Combs — belonged to Dunstable. They reported that 
no trace of a lurking foe could be discovered in the 
forests north and west of Dunstable. This news was 
encouraging, ami several men at the Harbor went to 
work during the day on the north side of the Nashua 
River, planting corn and collecting turpentine. Dur- 
ing the summer they were not disturbed. This tran- 
quillity, however, was brief. On the morning of Sep- 
tember 4, 1724, Nathan Cross and Thomas lilamhard 
started from the Harbor and cnxssed the Nashua River 
to do a day's work in the pine forest growing on the 
northern bank, on land not far from the present 
Nashua Cemetery. The day was wet and drizzly. 
Reaching their destination, they placed their arms 
and ammunition, ;is well as their lunch and accom- 
panying jug, in a hollow log to keep them dry. Dur- 
ing the day they were surrounded by a party of In- 
dians from Canada, who hurried them into captivity. 

Their protracted absence aroused the anxiety of 
their friends and neighbors, and a relief party of ten 
was organized Ibe ne.xt morning to make a search for 
the absentees. Lieutenant Ebenezer French was 
chosen leader. When the ))arty arrived at the spot 
where these men had been laboring they found the 
hoojjs of the barrels cut and the turpentine spread 
upon the ground. From certain marks upon the 
trees they inferred that the two men were cajitured 
and carried oil' alive. 

Wliile examining the premises, Josiah Farwell, 
who was an experienced ranger, noticed that the 
turpentine had not ceased spreading, and called the 
attention of the party to the circumstance. They 
decided that the Indians had been gone but a short 
time and must be near by. So they determined <m 
immediate pursuit. Farwell advised the party to 
take a circuitous route to avoid an ambush; but, 
unfortunately, he and the commander were person- 
ally at variance. Lieutenant French imputed this 
advice to cowardice, and called out, "I am going to 
take the direct path; if any of you are not afraid, let 
him follow me." French led the way and the whole 
party followed, Farwell taking his position in the 
rear. 

Their route was up the Merrimack, and at the 
» brook just above Thornton's Ferry they were waylaid. 
The Indians fired and killed the larger part instantly. 
The rest tied, but were overtaken. Lieutenant French 
wiuH killed unclir an oak a mile from the ambush. 
Farwell in the rear sprang behind a tree, fired and 
fled. The Indians pursued him. The chase was 
close and doubtful till Farwell reaih.il a (liicket, 



where, changing his course, he eluded his foes. He 
wiis the only one of the party who escaped. It is 
probable that Lieutenant French and his men were 
not aware of the strength of the enemy, but supposed 
it to be an ordinary foraging-party of eight or ten 
warriors, when in reality the Indians numbered 
^ seventy well-armed men. The next day a larger 
company was mustered, and proceeding to the fatal 
spot, found the dead bodies. Coffins were prepared 
for them, and eight were interred in one capacious 
grave at the ancient burial-ground near the present 
State line. The following epitaph, "spelt by the 
unlettered muse," tells the bloody tale. The inscri|i- 
tioii reads thus : 

"Memento Mori. 

*'Here lies tlie iKxJy of Mr. Thomas Lunh, 

who departed tliis life Sept. otli, 1724, iu the 

42cl year of his age. 

" This uiaii with seven more that lies in 

this gmve was slew all in a day by 

The Indians." 

Some of the fallen were leading and active citizens, 
whose loss was deeply felt. Among them were Oliver 
Farwell, Thomas Lund, Ebenezer French, Ebenezer 
Cummings and Benjamin Carter. The two captives, 
Cross and Blaiieluiid, were taken to Canada, .\tter a 
year's captivity they obtained a ransom and returned 
to Dunstable. The gun, jug and lunch-basket were 
found in the hollow log where they had been con- 
cealed the year before. The gun has been carefully 
preserved by the desceiulants of Mr. Cross; and 
recently one of them, Mr. Levi S. Cross, of this city, 
has presented it to the Nashua Natural History 
Society to be kept among their antiquarian relics. 

It is related by Penhallow that another fight at this 
time took place somewhat above the mouth of the 
Nashua River, and that one white man was killed 
and four wounded. Tradition reports that it was the 
same Indians who captured Cross and Blaiuliard, 
and who had just vanquisbed Lieutenant French's 
party. They occupied the north and the whites the 
south bank of the river. The savages grew weary 
and retired. When the white .s(ddiers went over the 
next ilay to the north side, they found conspicuously 
carved on the trunk of a pine-tree an Indian head, 
from which was derived the name afterwards given to 
that loealitv. 



(11 A I'TKK V. 
NASHUA— t CoiiliiiiiiJ.) 
CAPTAIN JOHN LOVEWELL'S CAMPAIGNS. 

The Ili'i-uitf I'e>|uawket— Karly Trainin)r— I'elitlon tJninted— Trip to the 
Lake — \ SMi-cessfiil Raid — March tu Ossipee— Ileach "Lovewell's 
I'lMul"— Kail Into an Amhiisli— .^ llliioily Kiglil— Deaths of I-ovewell 
and I'angua — Terrlhle Suffering — Deaths of Farwell and l"rye — Noah 
Johnson — Uesidt« of the C'anii»algn. 

LiNfiERlxo amimg us are a few aged persons who 
well remember that in their carlv childhood, while 



150 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



the family were gathered for a winter night around 
the ample hearths of that |)eriod, some old man told I 
the story of the brave Captain Lovewell and his com- 
pany, their successes and their misfortunes, till an 
intense interest was awakened in the breast of every 
youthful listener. With the exception of General 
John Stark, no other name in the colonial annals of 
New England is so well known as that of Captain 
John Lovewell. Born and raised witliiii the limits of 
Nashua, whatever relates to his history and achieve- 
ments deserves the especial attention of the jieople of 
this city. 

Captain John Lovewell was born in that part of old 
Dunstable wliich allerward fell witliin the limits of 
Na.sliua, in a cabin, near Salmon lirook. He was the 
oldest son of John Lovewell, who came over from 
England about lii70. His grandfather served in the 
army of Oliver Cromwell. His father appears to have 
fought under the famous Captain Church during King 
Philip's War. He was a man of unusual courage and 
physical vigor. At the time of his death, in 1752, he 
was probably a centenarian, but not, as erroneously 
reported, one hundred and twenty years old. 

Captain John Lovewell, Jr., was, like his father, a 
man of great courage and ready to engage in daring 
enterprises. During his boyhood Dunstable was con- 
stantly assailed l)y merciless savages, and at a very 
early age he began to engage in scouts, which required 
the exercise of the utmost caution, promptitude and 
bravery. At eighteen years of age he was actively 
engaged in exploring the wilderness, to find the lurk- 
ing-places of the Indians. Having the (lualities of 
leadership, his ability was early recognized, and at 
the age of twenty-five he ranked as thebest-equipived, 
most daring and versatile scout in the frontier settle- 
ments. This was no trivial compliment, for no town- 
ship in New England had, in the first half of the 
eighteenth century, a more experienced, adroit and 
courageous corps of Lidian fighters than Dunstable. 

The fate of Lieutenant French and his party, in 
September, 1724, had a dispiriting effect on the in- 
habitants of Dunstable. But Captain John Lovewell, 
Jr., then thirty years old, Wiis determined to carry the 
war to tlie strongholds of the savages and destroy 
them, as Captain Church had destroyed the followers 
of King Philip. "These barbarous outrages must be 
9toi)ped, and I am ready to lead the men who will do 
it," was his declaration to his comrades. Joined by 
Josiah Farwell and Jonathan Robbins, a petition was 
sent to the General Court of JIassachusetts for leave 
to raise a company to scout against the Indians. Tlie 
original petition, signed by them, is on file in the office 
of the Secretary of State in Boston, and is as follows: 

*' The humble meuiorial of John Lovewell, Josiiih Fnrwell, .Tunathan 
I^}be^ts, all of DuliBtAMo, shuweth : 

•' That your i>otitiouorK, with near forty or fifty others, are inclinable 
t» luuge and to keep out in the woods for several months together, in 
order to kill and destroy tileir enemy Indians, })rovidetI they can uieet 
with Incouragement suitable. And your Petitionei^ are Imployed and 
desired by many others liumbly to propose and submit to your Honors' 
consideration, that if stich soldiers may be allowed five shillings pur day, 



in case they kill any enemy Indian, and possess his scalp, they will Im- 
ploy themselves in Indian huntipg one whole year ; and if within that 
time they do not kill any, they are content to be allowed nothing for 
their wages, time and trouble. 

"John Lovewell, 
"Josiah Farwell, 
"Jonathan Robbins. 
"Dunstable, Nov., 1724." 

This petition was granted, with the change of tlie 
com])cnsation to a bounty of one hundred pounds per 
seal]). Volunteers came forward with alacrity, the 
company was organized and the commission of cap- 
tain given to Lovewell. 

With this picked company Captain Lovewell smarted 
on an excursion northward to Lake Winnii)esaukee. 
On the 10th of December, 1724, the party came upon 
a wigwam, in which were two Indians, — a man and a 
boy. They killed and scalped the man and brought 
the boy alive to Boston, where they received the prom- 
i.sed bounty and two shillings and sixpence per day. 

This success was small, but it gave courage, and 
the company grew from thirty to eighty-seven. They 
started the second time on January 27, 172o. Cross- 
ing the Merrimack at Nashua, they followed tlie 
river route on the east side to the southeast corner of 
Lake Winnipesaukee, where they arrived on the 
9th of February. Provisions falling short, thirty of 
them were dismissed by lot, and returned home. The 
company went on to Bear Camp River, in Tain- 
worth, where, discovering Indian tracks, they changed 
their course and followed them in a southeast direc- 
tion till, just before sunset on the 20th, they saw 
smoke, by which they judged the enemy were en- 
camped for the night. Keeping concealed till after 
midnight, they then silently advanced, and discovered 
ten Indians asleep round a fire by the side of a frozen 
pond. Lovewell now resolved to make sure work, 
and placing his men conveniently, ordered them to 
fire, five at once, as quickly after each other as pos- 
sible, and another ]>art to reserve their fire. He 
gave the signal by firing his own gun, which killeil 
two of them ; the men, firing as directed, killed five 
more on the spot ; the other three, starting up from 
their sleep, two were shot dead on the s|)ot by the 
reserve. The other, wounded, attempted to escape 
across the pond, was seized by a dog and held fast 
till they killed him. In a few minutes the whole 
party was killed, and a raid on some settlement pre- 
vented. These Indians were coming from Canada 
with new guns and plenty of ammunition. They 
had also some spare blankets, moccasins and snow- 
shoes for the use of the prisoners they expected to 
take. The pond where this success was jichieved is 
in the town of Wakefield, and lias ever since borne 
the name of Lovewell's Pond. The company then*^ 
went to Boston through Dover, where they displayed 
the scalps and guns taken from the savages. In 
Boston they received the bounty of one thousand 
pounds from the imlilic treasury. 

Cajitain Lovewell now ]ilanncd the bold design of 
attacking the Pe(|iiawkets in their chief village, on 



NASHUA. 



151 



tlieSaco River, in Fryeburg, Maine. This tribe was 
powerful and ferocious. Its chief was Paugus, a 
mited warrior, whose name ins[>ired terror wlierever 
he was known. To reach Peiiuawlcet was a task in- 
volving harilships and danger. Tliere is no doubt 
that Captain Lovewell underestimated the j)erils of 
the march and the risk from ambuscades. One hun- ', 
dred and thirty miles in early spring, through a I 
wilderness not marked by a trail, to a locality never 
visited by the invaders, but every rod familiar to the 
wily foe, were serious disadvantages. Besides this, 
the company at the start only consisted of forty-six 
men. They left Salmon Brook on the 16th of April, 
1725. They had traveled but a few miles when 
Toby, an Indian, falling sick, was obliged to return, 
which he did with great reluctance. 

At Contoocook (now Boscawen), William Cuin- 
mings, of Dunstable, became so disabled by a wound 
received from the enemy years before that the cap- 
tain sent him back with a kinsman to accompany 
him. They proceeded on to the west shore of Ossipee 
Lake, where Benjamin Kidder, of Nuttield (now Lon- 
donderry), falling sick, the captain halted and built 
a rude fort, having the lake shore to the ea.st and 
Ossipee River on the north side. This was intended 
as a refuge in case of disaster. Here Captain Love- 
well left with Kidder the surgeon, a sergeant and 
seven other men as a guard. He also left a quantity 
of provisions to lighten the loads of the men, and 
which would be a needed supply on their return. 

With only thirty-four men, Captain Lovewell, not 
disheartened, proceeded on his march from Ossipee 
Lake to Pequawket village, a distance of nearly forty 
miles through a rough forest. None of the ])artv 
were acquainted with the route. Of the thirty-four 
in the company, only eight were from that i)ortion of 
Dunstable now included in Nashua. The others were 
from neighboring towns, largely from Groton, Bil- 
ierica and Woburn. Dunstable furnished the cap- 
tain, lieutenants and nearly all the minor officers of 
the expediti(m. The eight men from Dunstable were 
Captain .Folin Lovewell, Lieutenant .Tosiali Farwell, 
Lieutenant .lonathaii Robbins, En.sign .rohn Har- 
wood. Sergeant Noah Johnson, Corporal Benjamin 
llassell, Robert Usher and Samuel Whiting, privates. 

On Thursday, two days before the fight, the com- 
pany were apjirehensive that they were discovered 
and watched by the enemy, and on Friday night the 
watch heard the Indians rustling in the underbrush, 
and alarmed the company, but the darkness was such 
they made no discovery. Very early in the morning 
of Saturday, May 8th, while they were at f)rayers, 
they heard the report of a gun. Soon after they 
discovered an Indian on a point running out into 
Saco Pond. The company deciiled that the pur|)ose 
of the Indian was to draw them into an ambush con- 
cealed between himself ancl the soldiers. The infer- 
ence was a mistake, and a fatal one to a majority of 
the party. Kx|iecting :in iniinediate atta<'k, a con- 



sultation was held to determine whether it was better 
to venture an engagement with the enemy, or to make 
a speedy retreat. The men boldly answered: " Wc 
have prayed all along that we might find the foe; 
and we had rather trust Providence with our lives, 
yea, die lor our country, than try to return without 
seeing them, and be called cowards for our con- 
duct." 

Captain Lovewell readily complied, and led them 
on, though not without n:anilesting some appre- 
hensions. Su]>posing the enemy to be in front, 
he ordered the men to lay down their packs, and 
march with the greatest caution, and in the utmost 
readiness. In this way they advanced a mile and a 
half, when Ensign Wyman spied an Indian approach- 
ing among the trees. Giving a signal, all the men 
concealed themselves, and as the Imlian came nearer 
several guns were fired at him. He at once fired at 
Captain Lovewell with beaver shot, wounding him 
severely, though he made little complaint, and was 
still able to travel. Ensign Wyman then fired and 
killed the Indian, and Chaplain Frye scalped him. 
They then returned toward their i)acks,wliich had al- 
ready been found and seized by the savages, who, in 
reality, were lurking in their rear, and who were elated 
by discovering from the number of the packs that their 
own force was more than double that of the whites. 
It was now ten oclock, and just before reaching the 
place, on a plain of scattered pines about thirty rods 
from the pond, the Indians rose up in front and rear 
in two parties, and ran toward the whites with their 
guns presented. The whites instantly presented their 
guns, and rushed to meet them. 

When both parties came williin twenty yards of 
each other they fired. The Indians suffered fiir the 
more heavily, and hastily retreated a few rods into a 
low pine thicket, where it was hardly possible to see 
one of them. Three or four rounds followed from 
each side. The savages had more than twice the 
number of our men and greatly the advantage in their 
concealeil jjosition, and their shots began to tell fear- 
fully. -Uready nine of the whites were killeil and 
three were fatally wounded. This was more than one- 
third of their number. Among the dead were Cap- 
tain Lovewell and Ensign Harwood, and both Lieu- 
tenant Farwell and Lieutenant Robbins were injured 
beyond recovery. Ensign Wyman ordered a retreat 
to the pond, and probably saved the company from 
entire destruction, as the pond protected their rear. 

The fight continued obstinately till sunset, the 
savages howling, yelling and barking and making all 
sorts of hideous noises, the whites fre(|uently shout- 
ing and huzzaing. Some of the Indians, holding up 
ropes, asked the English if they would take ipiarter, 
but were promptly told that they would have no 
quarter save at the muzzles of their guns. 

About the middle of the afternoon the chaplain, 
Jonathan Frye, of Andover, who graduated at Har- 
vard in 172:1, and who had fought bravely, fell terri- 



152 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



bly wounded. When he could fight no longer he 
prayed audibly for the preservation of tlie rest of 
the company. 

The fight had lasted nearly eight hours, and at 
intervals was furious. The reader will understand 
that it was very unlike a battle between two parties 
of civilized infantry. In fijrliting these savages, who 
concealed themselves bcliiiid trees, logs, bushes and 
rocks, the whites were compelled to adopt similar 
tactics. In such a fight, while obeying general 
orders, each soldier fires at the foe when he can dis- 
cern an e.\po.sed head or body. This Pequawket con- 
test lasted from ten in the morning till night, but it 
was not continuous. There were intervals of nearly 
or quite half an hour, which were hardly disturbed by 
the crack of a single musket. But in these intervals 
the savages were skulking antl creeping to get a near 
view and sure aim at some white soldier, while our 
men were desperately on the alert to detect their 
a|)proach and slay them. Noticing a lull among the 
warriors, Ensign Wyman crept up behind a bush and 
discovered a group apparently in council, and bv a 
careful shot brought down their leader. 

It was in the latter part of the fight that Paugu ;. 
the Indian chief, met his fate. He was well-knowii 
by most of LoveweU's men, and several times he 
called aloud to John Chamberlain, a stalwart soldier 
from Groton. Jlean while the guns of both these 
combatants became too foul for use, and both went 
down to the pond to clean thera. Standing but a 
few yards apart, with a small brook between them, 
both began to load together, and with mutual threats 
thrust powder and ball into their weapons. Chamber- 
lain primed his gun l)y striking the breach heavily 
on the ground. This enabled him to fire a second 
before his foe, whose erring aim failed to hit Cham- 
berlain. 

At twilight the savages withdrew, disheartened by 
the loss of their chief. From information afterwards 
obtained, it is believed that not more than twenty of 
the Indians escaped unhurt, and, thus weakened, they 
did not hazard a renewal of the struggle. But our 
men, not knowing their condition, expected a speedy 
return. About midnight, tlie moon having arisen, 
they collected together, hungry and very faint, all 
their food having been snatched by the Indians with 
their packs. On examining the situation, they found 
Jacob Farrar just expiring, and Lieutenant Robbins 
and Robert Usher unable to rise ; four others — viz. : 
Lieutenant Farwell, Frye, Jones and Davis — very 
dangerously wounded, seven badly wounded and 
nine unhurt. 

A sjieedy return to the fort at Ossijiee was the only 
course left them. Lieutenant Robbins told his com- 
panions to load his gun and leave it with him, saying : 
"As the Indians will come in the morning to scalp 
nie, I will kill one more if I can." Uis home was on 
Long Hill, in the south part of Nashua, and he was 
a favorite with his comrades. One man, Soloman 



Keyes, of Billerica, was missing. When he had 
fought till he had received three wounds, and had 
become so weak tliat he could not stand, he crawled 
up to Ensign Wyman and said: " I am a dead man, 
but if possible I will get out of the way so that the 
Indians shall not have my scalp." He then crept 
away to some rushes on the beach, where discovering 
a canoe, he rolled over into it. There was a gentle 
north wind, and drifting southward three miles, he 
was landed on the shore nearest the fort. Gaining 
strength, he was able to reach the fort and join his 
comrades. 

Leaving the dead unburied, and faint from hunger 
and fatigue, the survivors started before dawn for 
Ossipec. A sad prospect was before them. The 
Indians, knowing their destitution, were expected at 
every moment to fall upon them. Their homes were 
a hundred aud thirty miles distant, ten of their uun.- 
ber had fallen and eight were groaning with the 
agony of terrible wounds. After walking a mile 
and a half, four of the wounded men — Lieutenant 
Farwell, Captain Frye and Privates Davis aud 
Jones — were unable to go farther, and urged the 
othere to hiusteu to the fort and send a fresh re- 
cruit to their rescue. The party hurried on as fast 
as strength would permit to the Ossipee fort. To 
their dismay they found it deserted. One of their 
number, in the first hour of the battle, terrified by the 
death of the commander and others, sneakingly had 
fled to the fort and gave the men posted there so 
frightful an account that they all fled hastily toward 
Duustable. Fortunately, some of the coarse i^rovi- 
sions were left, but not a tithe of what were needed. 
Resting briefly, they continued their travels in de- 
tached parties to Duustable, the majority reaching 
there on the night of the 13lh of May, and the others 
two days later. They suftered severely from want of 
food. From Saturday morning till Wednesday — 
four days — they were entirely without any kind of 
food, when they caught some squirrels and partridges, 
which were roasted whole and greatly improved their 
strength. 

Eleazer D.avis and Josiah Jones, two of the wound- 
ed, who were left near the battle-ground, survived, and 
alter great suftering reached Berwick, Me. Finding, 
after several days, no aid from the fort, they all went 
several miles together. Chaplain Frye laid down 
aud probably survived only a few hours. Lieutenant 
Farwell reached within a few miles of the fort, and 
was not heard of afterwards. He was deservedly 
lamented as a man in wlnjm was combined unusual 
bravery with timely discretion. There is little doubt 
but he and several others of the wounded would have 
recovered if they could have had food and medical 
care. Their surterings must have been terrible. 

The news of this disaster caused deep grief and 
consternation at Dunstable. A company, under 
Colonel Tyng, went to the \>lace of action and buried 
the bodies of Captain Lovewell and ten of his men at 



NASHUA. 



153 



the toot of a tall pine-tree. A nionuinent now marks 
ilies])ot. The General Court of Massachusett.s reave 
ii'teeii huiiilred pouiuls to the widows and orphans 
and a handsome bounty of lamls to tiie survivors. 

Of the men from Dunstable who participated in 
the " Great Fight," all were killed or wounded. Only 
line, Xoah Johnson, survived and returned home. 
His farm was on the south side of the Nashua River, 
at its mouth, and extended southward a little beyond 
the i)resint road leading over the iron l)ridge to 
Hudson. He received a |)ension and a grant of land 
111 Pembroke, to which he removed and passed his 
later years. He was the last survivor of the Pequaw- 
ket fight, and died at Pembroke in 1798, in his one 
hundredth year. Quite a number of his deseendants 
reside in this part of the State. 

In the fight which re-^ulted so fatally to Captain 
Lovewell and a majority of his command the numbers 
irigaged were inconsiderable. But while temjjorarily 
disastrous, the results proved of incalculable advan- 
tage to the border settlenients. From that day the 
!■ lurageand the power of the red men were destroyed. 
They soon withdrew from their ancient haunts and 
hunting-grounds in New Hampshire to the French 
■■I'ttlements in Cana<la. No subsequent attacks by an 
■ ■rganized force of Indians were made upon Dunstable, 
and their raids made subsequently at Concord, Hills- 
liorough and Charlestown were merely si)asmodic 
• tforts instigated, and in some instances led, by French 
olHcers. Yet such had been the experience of the 
past that for years the i)ioueer settlers listened in the 
still watches of the night for the foot-fall of the 
stealthy savage, the musket was the companion of his 
pillow and in his sleep he dreamed of the fierce yells 
of the merciless foe. 

The expedition of Captain Lovewell was no doubt 
hazardous in view of the diflicultiesof the march and 
the small nundier of his men. One-fifth of his force 
beside the surgeon, was left at the fort at Ossipee. 
Captain Lovewell intended to surprise Paugus by 
attacking him in his camp. Unfortunately, the reverse 
hai)pened. Paugus and his eighty warriors were re- 
turning from a journey down the Saco, when they 
discovered the track of the invaders. For forty hours 
they stealthily followed and saw the soldiers dispose 
of their packs, .so that all the provisions and blankets 
fell into their own hanrls, with the knowledge of tlieir 
small force. Thus pre|iarcd, they expected from their 
chosen ambush to annihilate nr to capture the entire 
party. 

Thus ended the memorable campaign against the 
I'eqnawket.s. Deep and universal was the gratitude 
of the peojile of l)unstal)le at the prospect of peace. 
For fifty years had the war been raging with lillh' 
cessation and with a series of surprises, devastations 
and massacres that seemed to threaten annihilation. 
The scene of this desperate and bloody action at Fryc- 
burg is often visited, and in song and eulogy are 
commemi)rate<l the lienies of Lovewell's fight. 



CHAPTER VI. 

NASUUA— { Contimird.) 

l-KOSTIEK HARDSHIPS AND STKUGGLES. 

Dunstable ia 1730— Poverty of the Settlors— Beara ttuil Raccoons— New 
Towns Organized- RetUonieut of Boundarj' Line — DunstaMe under 
New IIiUtij>9hire Laws — l{eIJ;^ioiis l)is8eU!.iun8 — \ Tramp tbruugb 
the Wilderness — Lust in tbe \Vuods— Niglit on Lovuwell's Muiintuiu — 
A Safe Return. 

The close of the Indian war in 172") found the 
peo])le of Dunstable few in number and extremely 
poor. AVar taxes were heavy, ransoms had been 
paid for captive relations from dire necessity; the de- 
struction of houses, cattle and crops, and the destruc- 
tion of all regular employment had been ruinous. 
Thegenenil poverty had been such that from 1G93 to 
17.3.'i the voters declined to send a representative to 
the Massachusetts Assembly. When necessity re- 
quired, a special messenger was employed. 

Money was so scarce that the Assembly is.sued bills 
of credit to the amount of fifty thousand pounds, to 
be distributed among the several towns. Lieutenant 
Henry Farwell and .Joseph Blanchard were trustees 
to distribute among the residents of Dunstable, in 
such sums that " no man should have more than five 
or less than three pounds, paying five percent, yearly 
for interest." Had the issue been limited to this 
amount, it might have been of service; but larger 
issues followed, with subsequentdepreciation and much 
loss and distress. 

Voting by ballot became an established rule in all 
important matters, and in 1723 jurymen were first 
chosen in this manner. Bridges began to be built, 
roads extended and better houses built. It was a 
favoralde event that a saw-mill was built soon after 
the first settlement on Salmon Brook, at the little 
bridge on the road running east from the Harbor, and 
which for nut ny years was owned by John Lovewell, 
the father of the hero of Pequawket. The first cabins 
h.'id the ground for a Hoor and logs chinked with 
clay for walls. Plank and boards now came into use, 
and framed houses began to be built by the older set- 
tlers. The selectmen were allowed five shillings per 
day for services. There were no lawyers, and the cases 
of litigation that occurred were settled by a justice, 
wlio was not governed by rule or |>rece<lents, but by a 
common-sense view of what was right. If important, 
an appeal could be made to liie General Assembly. 

The amount of taxes from 172ti to 17.S.3 varied from 
two hundred and fifty dollars to four hundred dollars, 
including the snp|iort ofihe minister. In March, 1727, 
the town raised twenty dollars to build a ferry-boat 
to cross the Merrimack at lilanchard's farm (near the 
old Little stand), as Hudson was then iin-luded in 
Dunstable, and settlers were locating on that side of 
the river. In the fall of that year Josejdi Blanchard, 
Sr., the only and earliest inn-keeper in the town, 
died, and Henry Farwell, .Tr., petitioned for and ob- 



154 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMrSHIRE. 



tained a license for the same business. During Octo- 
ber, 1727, several severe shocks of an earthquake 
occurred, overturning chimneys and attended by 
unusual noises. At this time corn was the most im- 
portant field product of the farmer. It was the staple 
article for food for man, if not for beast. In early 
autumn it was exposed to depredations from raccoons 
and bears. 

The farmers, aided by their dogs, were able at night 
to follow the coons, many of whom were " treed " and 
killed, adding largely to the contents of the family 
larder. The bears were more wary, and sometimes 
were destructive. It is said that a settler by the name 
of Whiting, who lived at the base of Long Hill, began 
to find his sheep an uiiprolitable investment, for the 
reason that so many of them were killed by some 
black-coated visitor. They had to be yarded every 
night, and were not entirely safe during the day. One 
afternoon he found a half-eaten sheep on the hill- 
side, and, determined on revenge, he placed the re- 
mains at the end of a hollow pine log near by. In- 
side the log he placed his gun in such a position that 
when the bear should disturb the mutton he would 
discharge the gun and receive the contents in his own 
head. He heai-d the report of his old Queen's arm in 
the night, and rising early the next morning, went to 
learn the result. He found a very large bear lying 
dead a short distance from a heap of half-roasted 
mutton, while the log was a heap of burning coals. 
Among these was the gun, minus the entire wooden 
fixtures, with the barrel, lock and ramrod assentially 
ruined. This was a great loss to him, but he was 
often wont to relate with glee the way in which he 
swapi)ed liis gun for a bear. 

According to tradition, which may not very safely 
be relied on in matters of importance, though it may 
assist in delineating the usages of daily life, it was 
about 172() that potatoes were first introduced into 
Dunstable. A Mr. Cummings obtained two or three, 
which he planted. When he dug the croji, some of 
them were roasted and eaten merely from curiosity, 
and the rest were put into a gourd-shell and hung up 
in the cellar. The next year he planted all the seed, 
and had enough to fill a two-bushel basket. Think- 
ing he had no use for so many, he gave some of them 
to his neighbors. Soon after, one of them said to him, 
" I have found that potatoes are good for something. 
I have boiled some of them, and eat them with meat, 
and they relished well." It was some years later, 
however, before potatoes came into general use. At 
this time tea was rarely used, and tea-kettles were 
unknown. The water was boiled in a skillet. When 
the women went to an afternoon visiting party each 
one carried her tea-cup, saucer and spoon. The tea- 
cups were of the best china and very small, containing 
about as much as a common wine-glass. Coftee was 
unknown till more than half a century later. 

Under the colonial laws of Massachusetts the public- 
school system was first established with the provision 



that " every child should be taught to read and 
write." Every town having fifty householders was to 
employ a teacher for twenty weeks of the year. But 
deeply as the people of Dunstable felt the importance 
of education, it was not safe nor practicable in a 
frontier town where a fierce Indian war was raging, 
when the inhabitants dwelt in garrisons, and were 
everj" day liable to an attack, to establish a common 
school. The dense adjacent forest, from whence the 
quiet of the schoid-room might be broken at any hour 
by the yell of the savage, was no fitting place for 
children. Still, home education was not neglected, as 
the ancient records of the town clearly show. There 
w'as no school in the town till 173(1. That year, by 
reckoning in the settlers within the present limits of 
Hudson, Hollis and Tyngsborough, the required "fifty 
householders " were obtiiined, and ten pounds were 
granted for the support of a teacher. But the school 
was not successful, and after a brief existence was 
neglected for some years. 

There is no data for iiscertaining the numlier of in- 
habitants in "Old Dunstable," or in that part now 
included in Nashua, in 1730. In the latter territory 
there may have been forty families and two hundred 
persons. They were scattered over a wide area, and 
the new-comers were largely settling in Hollis, Hud- 
son and other outlying localities. Already they were 
demanding that, for schools, tor convenience to public 
worship and local improvements, they should be set 
apart from Dunstable, and erected into separate town- 
ships. The General Court of Massachusetts was dis- 
posed to grant their petitions. 

Accordingly, in 1732, the inhabitants on the east 
side of the Merrimack Kiver were authorized to es- 
tablish a new township, with the name of Nottingham. 
When the settlement of the border-line brought it 
within New Hampshire, the name was changed to 
Nottingham West, as there was already a Notting- 
ham in the eastern part of the State. In 1830, the 
town assumed the more appropriate name of IlixUon. 

In 1733 the inhabitants on the north side of the 
Nashua River and west of Merrimack River peti- 
tioned for an act of incorporation ; but as nearly all 
the petitionera lived on the Souhegan and the inter- 
vale at its mouth, the (ieneral (,'ourt made the Penni- 
chuck Brook the southern boundary to the new town- 
ship, with the name of Rumford. It was called 
Rumford only a short time, for the settlei-s, annoyed 
by the insinuation that the first syllable of the name 
indicated the favorite beverage of the inhabitiints, 
hastened to change it to the name of the beautiftil 
river that flows along its eastern border — ^fl'rrimack. 

In 1734 the settlement across the river from Merri- 
mack, then known as " Brenton's Farm," was incor- 
porated, because, Jis the petitioners claimed, they 
" had supported a minister for some time." It was 
called Litchfield. 

In 1736 the fertile lands in the west part of Dun- 
stable were being rapidly occupied by an enterprising 



NASH r A. 



1J5 



people, and were incorporated under the name of 
West Dunstable. The Indian name was N'issitissit. 
After the establishment of the boundary line the 
Legislature, by request, gave to the town the name of 
Hollft*. For fifty years the name of the town was 
spelled Holies; but after the colonies became the Amer- 
ican Rei>ublic the orthography was changed to Hollis. 

In the mean time settlements were extending rap- 
idly all around, and the Ibrest was bowing before the 
onward march of civilization. Township after towu- 
sliip was parceled out from the original body of 
" OKI Dunstable," until, in 1T40, the broad and 
goodly plantation was reduced to that portion which 
is now embraced witliiii the limits of Nashua, Tyngs- 
borough an<l Diiiistalilc. 

Settlement of Boundary Line. — For many years 
prior to 1740 the boundary line lietween the ])rovinces 
of New Hampshire and JIassachusetts had been a 
subject of bitter controversy. Jlore than seventy 
years ago Governor Endicott, of Massachusetts, said 
he had caused a monument to be fixed three miles 
northward of the junction of the two rivers forming 
the Merrimack, in the town of Sanbornton, and 
Mas.^achusetts claimed all the territory in the present 
State of New Hampshire south of an east and west 
line passing through that point, and lying west of the 
Merrinuick River. 

On the other hand. New Hampshire claimed all 
the territory lying north of a line running due east 
and west through a point three miles north of the 
Merrinuick Kiver, measureil from the north bank of 
that river just above its mouth. At length a royal 
commission was appointed to settle the controversy. 
It met at Hampton Falls, in this State, in 1737, the 
General Court of each province attending the sittings 
of the commission. 

The commission at Ham|)ton Falls did not agree, 
and the question was reserved for the King in Coun- 
cil. The decision was finally made in 1740, fixing 
the province line where the State line now is. This 
decision took from Massachusetts her claim, and gave 
to New Hampshire not only all that New Hampshire 
claimed, but also a tract of territory south of that in 
controversy, fourteen miles in width and extending 
from the Merrimack to the Connecticut Kiver, to 
which New Hampshire had made no pretensions. It 
included all that part of "Old Dunstable" north of 
the present State line. 

This new line, which proved to be the permanent 
boundary between the two States, was run in 1741, 
leaving in Massachusetts that part of the old town- 
ship now in Tyngsburough and in Dunstable, in that 
State, and adding to New Hampshire the present 
territory of Nashua, Hudson, Hollis and all the other 
portions of " OI<l Dunstable" north of the designateil 
line. The name />iiii.-</<ib/i; however, was still re- 
tained by the territory which now constitutes the city 
of Nashua till the New Hampshire Legislature of 
18lit) changed the name to Nashua. 
11 



This decision came upon the settlers in Dunstable 
north of the new line with mingled surprise and con- 
] sternation. Dunstable wiis eminently and wholly a 
I JIassachusetts settlement. The settlers were nearly 
all from the neighboring towns in that province, with 
who.se people they were connected in sympathy, iu 
business and by the ties of marriage and blood. 
Their town and parish charters and the titles to their 
lands and improvements were all Miussachusetts' 
grants, and their civil and ecclesiastical organizations 
were under Massachusetts' laws. This decision of 
the King in Council left them wholly out of the juris- 
ilictiou of that province, and in legal effect made all 
their charters, the titles to their lands and imi)rove- 
ments, and all statute laws regulating their civil and 
church polity wholly void. The decision of the King 
was final, and there was no appeal. Though dis- 
appointed, embarrassed and indignant, there was no 
alternative but submission. 

Hitherto the history of Nashua has been associated 
with that of the extended territory of " Old Dun- 
stable," an appendage of Massachusetts. Henceforth 
it is to be a distinct, independent town in New 
Hampshire, comprised within the same limits as the 
Nashua of to-clay. 

Dunstable under New Hampshire Laws.— For- 
tunately for the people of Dunstable, the colonial 
government of New Hampshire was not in condition 
to extend its authority immediately, and the Dun- 
stable people remained sulistantially under the 
Massachusetts charter till April, 174ii, when the town 
was incorporated by the General Court of New 
Hampshire. In the mean lime a compromise was 
made with the adverse claimants of their lands and 
improvements, and their titles to their possessions 
being .secured, they gradually became reconciled to 
their new political status. 

In 174C the main road through Dunstable was 
greatly improved. From the surveyor's record there 
would seem to have been only a few houses on the 
road at that time. The following are all that are 
mentioned: Captain Joseph French's house was eight 
rods north of the State line; Colonel Joseph Blanch- 
ard's house, three hundred rods north of the State 
line and twenty-nine rods south of Cummings' Brook; 
Cyrus Baldwin's, near Colonel Blanchard's ; John 
Searles' house, sixty-six rods north of Cummings' 
Brook; Henry Adams', eighty rods north of Searles' 
house (the old ditch which led to the fort was ninety 
rods north of Adams' house); Thomas Harwood's 
house W!is ninety rods north of the old ditch; no 
other house mentioned between Harwood's and 
Nashua River exce))ting Jonathan Lovewell's, which 
was two huij<lred and eighty-three rods south of the 
river, or at the Harbor, south of Salmon Brook. Per- 
haps the above schedule included only the larger 
land-linlders aiul ta.x-payers. 

M this time there were neither schools nor school- 
houses in town. On SeiilembiT 'I'.K 17l(i, it was voted 



156 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



« 



tliat ''Jonathan Lovcwell be desired to hire a school- 
mastor until next March for tliis town, upon the cost 
and charge of tlie town." Two dwelling-houses, one 
in the northern and one in the southern part of the 
town, were designated in which the school should be 
kept, if they could be obtained. Ouly one teacher 
was employed, and he was to keep school half of the 
time at eaeii place. The number of inhabitants was 
probaljly about three hundred. 

During this year (1746) the Indians from Canada 
came in small parties to the new settlements in the 
western and northern parts of Hillsborough County. 
Their defenseless condition compelled the few families 
in Peterborough, Lyndeborough, Hillsborough and 
New Boston to retire to the older towus, chiefly to 
Xorthern Massachusetts. In their haste they buried 
their cooking utensils and farming tools, taking their 
cattle and lighter goods with them. The only persons 
taken from Dunstable were Jonathan Farwell and a 
IMr. Taylor, who were taken by surjirise while hunt- 
ing. They were takeu to Canada, sold to the French 
and remained in captivity three years, but finally 
succeeded in obtaining a release and returned to their 
friends. Many of the descendants of Mr. Farwell, 
under several surnames, reside in this vicinity. 

For fifty years the meeting-kouse of Dunstable had 
been located near the State line. But in Dunstable 
reconstructed it was desirable that the house for wor- 
ship should be centrally located. There was a divided 
opinion as to the new site and a worse dissension as 
to the minister. Rev. Samuel Bird, who was installed 
August 31, 1747, was an Arminian, and accused of 
being a follower of Whitcfield. His friends, at the 
head of whom was Jonathan Lovewell, stood by him 
and built a meeting-house, in the autumn of that year, 
on a spot of rising ground about six rods west of the 
main road, or just south of the old cemetery, opposite 
the residence of J. L. H. Mai-shall. It was about 
twenty-eight feet by forty, had a small gallery and, 
like most church edifices of the time, was divided into 
the "men's side" and the "women's side." Mean- 
while Colonel Josej)!! Blanchard, the leader of the 
opposing faction, continued to hold services in the old 
house, near the Tyngsborough line. 

Twenty-two years had now passed since the loss by 
Dunstable of some of her prominent citizens in Love- 
well's fight, at Fryeburg, Me. Since then the popula- 
tion had doubled and a new generation were coming 
into active service. Among the leading families were 
the Lovewells, Blauchards, Farwells, Cummingses, 
Frenches and Lunds. The number of young persons 
between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five had 
largely increased, and the young men, after the gath- 
ering of the fall crops, made frequent explorations 
and hunting-trips. These excursions were still haz- 
ardous, for the unbroken forests on the west and north 
wereoccasionally traversed by savages, usually in small 
parties of from six to eight, who were stimulated by 
the rewards paid in Canada by the French govern- 



ment for the delivery of prisoners. Usually their ob- 
jective jwint was to surpri.se and make prisoners of 
the solitary fur-hunters who, late in autumn, found it 
profitable to set traps for the beaver, mink, musk-rat 
and otter, to be found on the banks of the Souhegan, 
Piscataquog, Contoocook or in the more northern 
waters of the lakes in Grafton and Belknap Counties. 
An illustration of the habits and daring enterprise of 
the young men of that time will be seen iu the fol- 
lowing sketch of 

A Tramp through the Wilderness. — In the fall 
of 1747 two explorers Irom Duustable, Nehemiah 
Lovewell and John Gilsou, started from the present 
site of Nashua for the purpose of examining the slope 
of the Merrinuick Valley and of crossing the teight 
of land to Number Four (now Charlestown), which 
was then known as the most northern settlement in 
the Connecticut Valley. Knowing the difficulties in 
traversing hills and valleys covered with underbrush 
and rough with fallen timber and huge bowlders, they 
carried as light an outfit as possible, — a musket and 
camp-blanket each, with five days' provisions. Fol- 
lowing the Souhegan through Milford to Wilton, they 
then turned northward, and, crossing the height of 
land in the limits of the present town of Stoddard, 
had, on the afternoon of the third day, their first view 
of the broad valley westward, with a dim outline of 
the mountains beyond. The weather was clear and 
pleasant, the journey laborious, but invigorating. On 
their fourth afternoon they reached and camped for 
the night on the banks of the Connecticut, some ten 
miles below Charlestown. At noon of the next day 
they were welcomed at the rude fort, which had 
already won renown by the heroic valor of its little 
garrison. At this time the fort was commanded by 
Captain Phineas Stevens, a man of great energy and 
bravery. Lovewell and Gilson were the first visitors 
from the valley of the Merrimack, and their arrival 
was a novelty. That night — as in later years they 
used to relate — they sat up till midnight, listening to 
a recital of the fierce struggles which the inmates of 
this rude fortress, far up in the woods, had encoun- 
tered within the previous eight months. 

Tarrying several days at the fort, during which the 
weather continued clear and mild, the two explorers 
were ready to return homeward. In a direct line 
Dunstable was about ninety miles distant. With the 
needed supply of salt pork and corn bread, Lovewell 
and Gilson left Number Four at sunrise on the 16th of 
November. The fallen leaves were crisp with frost as 
they entered the deep maple forests which skirt the 
hills lying east of the Connecticut intervales. The 
days being short, it was necessary to lose no time be- 
tween sunrise and sunset. The air was cool and 
stimulated them to vigorously hurry forward. Coming 
to a clear spring soon after midday, Gilson struck a 
fire, and resting for half an hour, they sat down to a 
marvelously good feast of boiled salt pork and brown 
bread. One who has never eaten a dinner under like 



NASHUA. 



157 



riinditions can have no idea of its keen relish and 
appreeiation. 

It was now evident that a change of the weather 
was at liand. The air was growing colder and the sky 
was overcast with a thick haze. In returning, it had 
lieen their purpose to cross the water-shed between 
the two valleys at a more northern point, so as to 
reiicli the Jlerriniack near the mouth of the Piscata- 
'piog. Their course was to be only a few degrees .south 
..feast. Before night the sleet began to fall, which 
was soon changed to a cold, cheerless rain. Darkness 
came on early, and the two men hurried to secure the 
l)est .shelter possible. With an axe this might have 
lieen made comfortable; at least fuel could have been 
procureil for a comfortable tire. As it was, no retreat 
lould be found from the chilling rain, which now be- 
iran tip fall in torrents. It was with diihculty that a 
-mouldering tire, more prolific of smoke than heat> 
I lulil be kindled. India-rubber blankets, sucli as now 
keep the scout and tlie sentry dry in the fiercest 
-inrm, would liave been a rich luxury to these solitary 
I'ioneers. The owls, attracted by the dim light, 
perched themselves overhead and hooted incessantly. 
ISefore midnight the tire was extinguished, and the 
two men could only keep from a thorough drenching 
Ky sitting ujiright with their backs against a large 
tree, and with their half-saturated blankets drawn 
closely around them. 

Daylight brought no relief, as tlie rain and cold 
rather increased, and the sleet and ice began to en- 
crust.the ground. After ineffectual attempts to build 
a fire they ate a cold lunch of bread. A dark mist 
•succeeded the heavy rain and continueil through the 
day. 15oth felt uncertain of tlie direction they were 
traveling, and every hour the uncertainty became 
more perplexing. .VU day long they hurried forward 
through the dripping underbrush, which was wetting 
them to the skin. Night again set in, and although 
the rain and wind had .somewhat abated, still it was 
inipor-sible to build and keep a fire sufficient to dry 
I heir clothing, which was now saturated with water. 

The third morning came with a dense fog still 
shrouding the hillsides and settling into the valley, 
.■^lilf with the effects of cold and fatigue, Lovewell and 
his companion felt that with their scanty sujiply of 
fuoil, now mainly salt pork, they dared not await a 
change of weather. Yet there was a vague feeling 
that their journeying might be worse than useless. 
Deciding on what they believed a course due east, 
they again hurried forward over a broken region, — an 
alternation of sharp hills, ledges, low valleys and 
sometimes swamiis, — until a little past midday, when, 
descending a hill, they came upon the very brook 
whcie they had camped forty hours before! One fact 
was now established, — they had been traversing in a 
circle. Thinking it useless to go further till the sun 
and sky should appear, they set to work to build a fire 
sutlicieiit to dry their clothing and to cook their raw 
pork. Ily dark they had thrown uji a light frame-work, 



and by a diligent use of their knives had procured a 
covering of birch bark. Piling the huge broken 
limbs in front, they lay down and fell asleep. 

Scouts in the olden time were proverbial for 
awakening on the slightest provocation. Lovewell 
wiis aroused by what he thought the rustling of a bear. 
Reaching for his gun, he saw the outline of an animal 
climbing an oak just across the brook. The first shot 
was Ibllowed by a tumble from the tree. It proved a 
veritable raccoon, which, fattened on beech-nuts, was 
" as heavy as a small sheep." 

The fourth morning was not unlike that of the day 
previous. The fog was still dense, but it soon became 
evident that the storm was past and that the sun 
would soon disperse the mists. Dressing the raccoon, 
whose meat was security .against famine, they anx- 
iously watched the clearing up of the atmosphere. 
Suddenly the mists dissolved and the sunlight 
touched the toi)s of the trees. The pioneers hastened 
up a long slope eastward, and toward noon gained the 
crest of a high ridge. The sky was now clear, audi 
climbing to tlie top of a tree, (iilson announced that 
he could see, some miles to the east, a high and naked 
summit which must mark the height of laud they 
were so anxiously seeking. 

With this solution of their difliculties came the 
sense of hunger. Notwithstanding the hardships of 
the three jiast days they had eaten sjiaringly. The 
remnant of their bread had been accidently lost the 
day previous, but this was far more than compensated 
by the rich, tender meat of the raccoon. Luckily, a 
supply of fat spruce knots was near at hand. Gilson 
set himself to the work of furnishing fuel and water, 
while Lovewell attended to the culinary duties. The 
uten.sils of the modern hunter — frying-pan, coffee- 
I)ot, plate, spoon and fork— were wanting. The only 
implement in their outfit which could be of use was 
the jack-knife. The meat was cut into pieces two- 
thirds of an inch thick, and half the size of one's 
hand. Cutting several sticks, two feet long, and 
sharpening them at each end, a piece of the salt pork 
and then a piece of the coon's meat were thrust upon 
the stick alternately in successive layers, so that in 
roasting, the fat of the latter, as it drojipcd down, 
basted and furnished an excellent gravy to the for- 
mer. One end of each stick was thrust into the 
ground so as to lean over the glowing coals. With 
occasional turning, the dinner was in half an hour 
ready to be served. Seating themselves on the bowlder 
by the side of which they had built the fire, they fell 
to with sharp appetites. Rarely was a feast more 
heartily enjoyed. 

NlOHT ox LoVEWKI.r.'.S MoiTNTAIN. — It was past 
midday when the dinner was linisheil. Walking with 
renewed strength, they reached the base of the moun- 
tain. The ground was wet and slippery and the 
climbing at times difficult, but while the sun was yet 
an hour above the horizon the two men emerged 
from the low thicket which lies above the heavy 



158 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



growth, and stood upon the bald summit. Like all 
New Hampshire peaks whose altitude approaches 
three thousand feet, the crest of the mountain wiis of 
solid granite. The air had now grown quiet, and the 
clear sunlight illuminated the landscape. The two 
explorers had never looked upon so wide and magnili- 
cent a panorama. Westward w;is the far-dislant out- 
line of a range now known as the Green Mountains. 
To the northwest were the bald crests of Aseutney 
and Cardigan. On the north, Kearsarge was seen 
struggling to raise it.s head above the shoulders of an 
intervening range, and through the frosty atmosphere 
were revealed the sharp, snow-white peaks of Fran- 
conia. Eastward, the highlands of Chester and Nott- 
ingham hounded the vision, while nearer by reposed 
in quiet beauty the Uncanoonucks, at that time a well- 
known landmark to every explorer. 

Warned by the frosty atmosphere, they hastened 
down to a dense spi'uee growth on the northeast side 
of the mountain, and built their camp for the night. 
For some cause, perhaps because it was a sheltered 
nook, the tenants of the forest gathered around. The 
grove seemed alive with the squirrel, rabbit and part- 
ridge. But the hunters were weary, and as their sacks 
were still laden with coon's meat, these new visitors 
were left unharmed. The curiosity with which these 
wild tenants of the mountain lingered around led the 
two men to believe that they had never before ap- 
proached a camp-fire or seen a human form. 

Just before daybreak Lovewcll awoke, and, telling 
his companion to prepare for breakfast, returned to 
the summit of the mountain. It was important to 
reach the Merrimack by the nearest route, and he 
could better judge by reviewing the landscape at 
early dawn. In after-years he was wont to say that 
the stars never seemed so near as when he had gained 
the summit. The loneliness of the hour suggested to 
him what was [jrobably the truth, that he aud his 
companion were the first white men who had set foot 
on this mountain peak. It is situated in the eastern 
part of the present town of \Vashington, and its sym- 
metrical, cone-like form is familiar to the eye of 
many a resident of this city. With the exception of 
Monadnock and Kearsarge, it is tlie highest summit 
in Southern New Hampshire, and to-day it bears the 
well-known name of Lovewell's Mountain. 

Before Lovewell left the summit the adjacent 
woodlands became visible, and, looking eastward 
down into the valley, he saw, only a few miles away, a 
smoke curling up from the depths of the forest. It 
revealed the proximity either of a party of savages or 
a stray hunter. Returning to camp, breakfast was 
taken hurriedly, and, descending into the valley, they 
proceeded with the utmo.it caution. Reaching the 
vicinity of the smoke, they heard voices and soon 
after the rustling of Ibotsteps. I5oth dropped upon 
the griiund, and Ibrtnnately were screened by a thick 
underbrush. A party of six Indians passed within a 
hundred yards. They were armed, and evidently on 



their way to the Connecticut Valley. As soon as they 
were beyond hearing the two men proceeded cau- 
tiously to the spot where the savages passed the 
night. They had breakfasted on parched acorns and 
the meat of some small animal, probably the rabbit. 

Congratulating themselves on their lucky escape 
from a winter's captivity in Canada, Lovewell and 
his comi)anion continued their route over the rolling 
lands now comprised in the towns of Hillsborough, 
Deering, Weare and Gotfstown to the MeiTimack. 
From thence they readily reached their home in 
Dunstable. It may be well to add that Lovewell was 
a son of the famous Captain John Lovewell, whose 
history we have narrated in the i>receding chapter. 



CHAPTER ^M I . 

NASHUA— ( Continued). 

COLONIAL HOMES ANO HABITS. 

Earliest Schools in Dunstable — New Meeting-House — Horseback Hiding 
— Deep Snows and Suow-Shoes — Longevity— Last French and Indian 
War, 17.^5 — Paper Currency — Effects of Kuni-Drinkiug — Era of Peace 
aud Prosperity — Improved Dwellings— Bannocks and Bean Porridge — 
Hard Labor— Fording Streams — Roads and Bridges — Growth of Farms 
— Scarcity of Books, Newspapers and Luxuries. 

In 1750, the middle of the eighteenth century, the 
English colonies of North America, unknown to 
themselves, were preparing to enter upon a career of 
political, intellectual and social development of which 
the indications were not as yet apparent. The two 
historic events, the discovery of the western conti- 
nent and the invention of movable types, which Mr. 
Carlyle said would reconstruct human society, had 
for two and a half centuries been quietly doing their 
work, but had not yet acquired the momentum of 
later years. The colonies were still few in numbers, 
feeble in resources and mere appendages of the 
mother-country. Instead of the fifty-five millions of 
to-day, the colonial ])opulation at that time was one 
million eight hundred thousand. Printing had 
achieved much, for almost every man and woman 
could read the printid page, l)ut there were lew |)ages 
to be read. 

Dunstable, where, in our time, more than two thou- 
sand daily newspapers are every day circulated, had 
at that time only a weekly circulation of three news- 
jjapers. But colonial thought wtis always in advance 
of the printed page. In the fiill of 1749 the town 
voted to begin the coming year with a school for eight 
months ; one teacher only was to be employed, and 
the school was to be kept in difierent parts of the town 
alternately. The only studies taught were the three 
" R's" and spelling. There was very little classifica- 
tion. Almost all the instruction was given to each 
scholar individually. No arithmetic was used, but 
the master wrote all the "sums "on the slate. The 
reading-books were the I'salms aiul the New Testa- 



NASHUA. 



159 



luent, and on Saturday inoriiing the Wastmiiister 
CatOL'hism. Xo spelliug-book was used except the 
reailing-books. The slates were rough, and when 
wanting, as they sometimes were, birch bark was used 
as a substitute. The remoteness of a part of the 
scholars oceiusioned irregularity of attemlanee. With 
no aids, not even a map or black-board, the imi)rove- 
ment was slow and unsatisfactory. Schools existed, 
liowever, till the beginning of the French War, in 
17oo, when they were discontinued till 1761. 

The strife between the old and new schools of reli- 
gious thinkers still continued. Rev. Samuel Bird 
continued to oppose the doctrine of " forcordiuatiou" 
and the harsh declarations of the Westminster Cate- 
chism. Having a call from Connecticut, he left in 
17.51 ; but the dissensions in the church continued. 
It is creditable to the town that at that early period 
there were those among its citizens who boldly avowed 
their disbelief of the absurdities of a traditional creed. 
Subsequently milder counsels prevailed, and the bel- 
ligerents agreed to disagree. The Bird meeting- 
house was taken down and its materials made into a 
dwelling-hou.se, long known jls the "Bowers place," 
at the Harbor. On December 21, 17a.3,the town voted 
to build a new meeting-house " at the crotch of the 
roads, as near a-s can be with convenience to the 
house of Jonathan Lovewell." Mr. Lovewell's house 
still exists, and is now the residence of Mrs. Alfred 
Godfrey, two miles .south of the city hall. The 
meeting-house was built on the little triangular 
"green" which is nearly in front of Mrs. (iodl'rcy's 
house. It Wiis an improvement upon the previous struc- 
tures, having square pews, a spacious soundiug-board, 
seats for deacons and tythingmen, two painted doors 
in front, with a suitable number of horse blocks at 
convenient distances for the accommodation of those 
women and children of the congregation who rode to 
meeting upon a side-saddle or a pillion. This meet- 
ing-house had a long occupation, not having been 
abandoned till 1812. Several of the older citizens of 
Nashua remember to have attended services within 
its walls. 

For a century after the first settlement of Dunstable 
no carriages were used, and journeys were i>er- 
formed on horseback. The only wheeled vehicles 
used were the cumbersome lumber-wagon and the 
two-wheeled cart. The good man and his wife were 
accustomed to ride to <'hurch on the same horse, she 
sitting on a pillion behind him, and not iinfrequently 
carrying a child in her arms, while another and older 
child was mounted on the pommel of the saddle be- 
fore him. No person thought of buying or exchang- 
ing a horse without jtseertaining whether the animal 
Would "carry double," as some otherwise valuable 
horses were in the habit of elevating their heels when 
"doubly loadeil." In winter, when the snow was 
deep, a pair ol oxen were attached to a sled, and the 
whole family rode to meeting on an ox-sled. Some- 
times an entire lionsehold, scati-d ujion an ox-sled, 



would start in the morning to spend the day with a 
friend five or six miles distant. In the eighteenth 
century greater quantites of snow fell in winter in 
Southern New Ham])shire than now, and snow- 
shoes were in general use. The invention originated 
with the Indians. The snow-shoe was elliptical in 
sha|)e, with its rim made of ash, and the space within 
the rim interwoven with strips of raw-hide, so that the 
large breadth of surface resting upon the snow would 
sink but slightly below the surface. The feet were 
attached to the snow-shoes by fastening a common 
shoe at the toe, leaving the heel loose, to the central 
part of the snow-shoe. The Indians and early settlers 
made constant use of them during the deep snows of 
the long winters. The snowfall usually reached the 
depth of five feet and continued from ten to twelve 
weeks. 

In 1752 the elder John Lovewell, father of the 
hero of Pcquawket, died at an advanced age. The 
current rumor of his extreme longevity (one hundred 
and twenty years) is a mistake. The error arose from 
confounding the events of his life with those of his 
father, who was a soldier under Cromwell, and whose 
bravery the son inherited. Born in England, and 
fighting under Church, in King Philip's War, he was 
among the earliest settlers of Dunstable. During the 
Indian attack.s, about 1700, he was, on one occasion, 
s])ared by them on account of his kindness in time of 
peace. In his later years he lived on the north side 
of Salmon Brook, just below the Main Street bridge. 
He live<l to be a centenarian, and was so vigorous at 
that age as to be a terror to the boys who attempted 
to steal his apijles. The family name has now disap- 
peared from Nashua. 

The longevity of many ofthe early settlers is worthy 
of notice. In Judge Worcester's " History of Hollis," 
Widow Lydia I'lrich is authentically recorded as 
having died in that town in her one hundred amlfifth, 
and Lieutenant Caleb Farley in his one hundred and 
third year. This great longevity and good health of 
the early settlers was no doid)t due to the regularity 
of their liabils and llir simplicity of their diet. 

The Last French War, 1755.— Near the close of 
1748 a treaty of peace had been made between Eng- 
land and France. By this treaty, no question in 
dispute was settled. England yielded up Louisburg, 
whose conquest had shed such glory on the colonial 
arms, and received in return Madras. The English 
government had shown neither skill nor energy in the 
management of the war, but had left the colonies to 
protect themselves. King George the Third and his 
ministry had allowed a dangerous enemy to harass 
the colonies, that they might feel more keenly their 
dependence on the mother-country. They were already 
enforcing that restrictive policy in traile which subse- 
(piently led to the Bevoliition. The fruit of this war 
to the colonies was only debt and disgrace. They felt 
that it was an inglorious surreruler of their interests. 

The peace was only nominal. In the spring of 



160 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



1755 it was manifest tliat the French were aiming at 
the control of the Lakes and the Mississippi Valley, and, 
if successful in these designs, ofthe sulijugation of the 
colonies. War was openly declared, and New Hami)- 
shire raised a regiment of five hundred men to join 
an expedition, under Sir William Johnson, for the 
capture of Crown Point. The command was given to 
Colonel Joseph Blancliard, of Dunstable. One of the 
comjianies of this regiment was the famous " Rangers," 
of which Robert Rogers, of Dunbarton, was captain 
and John Stark lieutenant. Several members of the 
company were from this town. 

This regiment was disbanded at the end of the 
year. After the failure ofthe campaign of IT-w, and 
the death of (leneral liraddock, Lord Loudon was ap- 
pointed to the chief command. Another New Hamp- 
shire regiment was called for and raised. But the 
campaigns of 1756, 1757 and 1758 were disastrous 
from the incapacity of the British commanders. No- 
thing saved Lord Loudon from an utter defeat but the 
brilliant and persistent eflorts of the Rangers, under 
Rogers and Stark. 

The war still continuing, New Hampshire was or- 
dered to furnish another regiment of a thousand 
soldiers, which, on the death of Colonel Blanchard, 
was commanded by Colonel Zaccheus Lovewell, 
brother ofthe famous John Lovew'cll. It did good 
service at the capture of Ticonderaga and Crown Point. 
The next year (17i)0) a regiment of eight hundred 
was raised by this State, under the command of Col- 
onel John Goiffe, of Bedford. Dunstable furnished her 
full quota of soldiers, who were at the surrender of 
Montreal and tiuebec, which wrested all Canada from 
France and closed the war. 

This result, due to the statesmanship of the new 
British premier, William Pitt, decided whether Cath- 
olicism or Protestantism should prevail in North 
America. A different result would have changed the 
whole current of civilization on the western continent. 
It was a conflict of ideas, and not the mere encounter 
of brute forces. The New England colonies rang 
with exultation ; the hills were lighted with bonfires ; 
Legislatures, the pulpit and the people echoed the 
general joy. They felt it to be the triumph of truth 
over error. In this last of the French and Indian 
colonial wars, the men of Dunstable bore well their 
part in field and forest engagements. Besides the two 
colonels, Blanchard and Lovewell, and the commissary, 
Jonathan Lovewell, it is known that the sons of Noah 
Johnson, the last survivor of Lovewell's fight, were 
in the war, both of whom were killed. In all, about 
thirty Dunstable men served in the war, and the sur- 
vivors returned at its close to their farms. 

War is attended with evils which are often felt long 
after its close. The colonics had very little of gold or 
silver coin, and issued paper currency to meet the ex- 
penses of the i)rotracted struggle. Its deterioration 
caused much embarrassment and loss. During 
the active operations of the war the harvests were 



bountiful, and there waslittlesuffering forfoodat home 
or in the army. But during the years I7G1 and 1762 
asevere drought cut otf the crops, so that corn was im- 
ported from Virginia, and the Dunstable farmers cut 
the wild, coarse grass which grew in the swamps to 
save their live-stock from starvation. The scarcity of 
feed compelled the slaughter of many sheep and 
cattle. 

Another harmful etlect to the colonies was the in- 
creasing use of intoxicating drinks. The soldiers, 
accustomed to camp-life and the daily use of liquors, 
carried their loose habits into rural life, and added to 
the growing tendency to drunkenness. Public senti- 
ment was not at that time awake to the terrible eftects 
of the use of intoxicating drinks. Not only did the 
town officers of Dunstable, in their charge for services, 
make a separate bill for " new rhum " for daily use, 
but on all public occasions — all meetings, whether of 
joy or sorrow — it was customary for all to drink freely. 
No wedding could be appro])riately celebrated with- 
out a liberal distribution of stimulating drinks. Even 
at funerals it was thought necessary "to keep the 
spirits up by pouring spirits down." The evils of 
poverty, then severely felt, were greatly increased by 
the debased appetite for intoxicating liquors. 

Two years before the close of the war, on April 7, 
1758, Colonel Joseph Blanchard died at the age of 
fifty-three. His grandfather. Deacon John Blanchard, 
was one of the first settlers of the town. His father 
was an active, useful citizen, holding positions of trust 
and dying in 1727. On the death of his father, though 
young, Joseph Blanchard succeeded to his father's 
business. He became widely known as a surveyor of 
land, and in that cajiaiity traversed the almost un- 
broken forests which now constitute the western and 
northern towns of Hillsborough County. He sketched 
the first published maps of New Hampshire, a work 
of great labor and mui'h value to new emigrants. He 
was in command of the first regiment raised for the 
campaign of 17.").") at the time of his death. His 
moss-stained monument in the old cemetery in the 
south part ofthe town reads thus, — 

"Tlie Hon. .lot^fpli Itlanchartt, Keq., 
decease'l .Kpril Till, IToS, agt?il '»3." 

The capture of Quebec and the surrender of Canada 
to the British, in 1760, was followed by a longer inter- 
val of i)eace than Dunstable had ever enjoyed, — fifteen 
years. It Wiis a period of needed tranquillity, for on 
them, more than elsewhere, had the Indian wars told 
fearfully. For sixty years there had been no sea.son 
when danger might not be imminent. There was no 
safety for the ordinary dwelling. Every occupied 
house was of necessity a garrison. No field labor 
could be performed with safety. Harvests were de- 
stroyed, dwellings burned, cattle killed and men, 
women and children brutally massacred or dragged 
through the wilderness to Canada. No man walked 
abroad unarmed, and on Sunday even the minister 
preaclu'(l with his musket at his side. 



NASHUA. 



161 



But the entire overthrow of the French dominion 
brouglit safety as well as peace. When, in 1774, the 
tyranny of the British (roverument began to pro- 
voke .colonial resistance, Dunstable, with its seven 
hundred inlialiitants, had beconie an establislicd, self- 
reliant community. It is a fitting <)])|iortiniity, there- 
fore, to brieHy glance at the condition, habits, customs 
and peculiarities of our forefathers while yet the sub- 
jects of a European monarch. 

The settlers of Dunstable were of Puritan origin. 
The earliest comers were, as a class, distinctly marked 
characters, men of intelligence, energy and some prop- 
erty. They had two objects in view: to obtain per- 
manent homes for themselves and their posterity, and 
to acquire wealth by the rise of their lands. They 
brought with them domestic aninials^'attle, swine 
and sheep, — and had they been spared the savage out- 
rages, which destroyed their property, and oftentimes 
their livcj*, in a few years they would have had large 
and profitable farms and convenient houses. The 
constant danger of Indian attacks compelled the 
building of timbered dwellings — logs hewn on opposite 
sides so that no musket bullet could penetrate, save at 
some crevice. There were no windows, except nar- 
row openings to admit light and air; while the doors 
were built with the most careful regard to resistance 
against outward attacks. They were made of white 
oak or ash plank, with iron hinges, and with a wooden 
latch on the inside, having a raw-hi<le string to lift 
the latch from the outside. When the string was 
pulled in and the heavy crossbars ])Ut up, it was no 
easy" matter to force an entrance. Many of the houses 
from the first settlement till 17o0 had a rude and 
strong stockade built anjund them, consisting of tim- 
bers ten inche-s thick set upright in the ground to the 
height often to twelve feet. .Such a Ijuilding, if pro- 
tected by several good marksmen, had all the security 
of a fort, and was never attacked by the savages unless 
they discovered the entrance open and unguarded. 
The house it.self consisted of a single room, from 
sixteen to eighteen feet sijuare, with seats, table and 
bedsteails, hewn by the broad a.\c, constituting the 
furniture. 

But with the peace which followed the capture of 
Quebec came an era of growth and prosperity. The 
primitive dark and dingy log house gave way to the 
framed house, usually of one story, and consisting of 
a si/.calile room, wliirh answered the three-fold pur- 
pose of kitchen, living-room and parlor, with a small 
sleeping-room and panlry. A few of the more wealthy 
built a "double house," furrdshing more abundant ac- 
commodations. All of them had in view shelter and 
comfort rather than elegance. The windows were 
small, without blinds or shutters. The fire-place was 
spacious cnougii to receive " liack-logs" of two feet in 
diameter and five feet in length, in front of which was 
placed the smaller wood, resting on andirons. The 
stone hearth had the most liberal dimensions and the 
fine of the chimnev a diameter of three feet. It was 



hardly an exaggeration to say that one could sit in 
the chimney corner and study astronomy. All the 
cooking was done by this fire, the kettles being sus- 
l)ended from an iron crane over it, while the bannocks 
were i)aked and the meat roasted in frontof it. .Vround 
it gathered the family at night, often numliering from 
six to twelve children, and the cricket on the hearth 
kept company with their prattle. Thus with the 
hardships came the comforts of pioneer life. Dunsta- 
ble had now a local cabinet-maker, whose busy lathe 
greatly improved the style of household furniture. 

Kverything was made of native forest wood — pine, 
cherry, birch and birds-eye maple. Now and then a 
bureau or a desk was seen which was made in Bostonj 
and more rarely an article brought across the water 
from England. Vessels of iron, copper and tin were 
used in cooking. The dressers, extending from floor 
to ceiling in the kitchen, contained the mugs, basins 
and varicms-sized plates of pewter, which shone upon 
the farmer's board at time of meals. Farmers hired 
their help for seven dollars a month. Carpenters had 
seventy-five cents a day, or twelve dollars per month. 
Apprentices served five years, and for the first two 
years were only fed and clothed. 

The food in those days was simple and healthy. 
There were no dyspeptics. Breakfast generally con- 
sisted of potatoes, roasted in the ashes, with a little 
cold meat and a hot " bannock," made of meal and 
water, and baked on a '' m:i|de chip " before the fire. 
In summer salt pork and greens, with an occasional 
strawberry or blackberry jmdding, formed the stajile 
for dinner; in autumn the raccoon, partridge and gray 
squirrel furnished wild meat for the same meal, while 
late in spring and early summer salmon and siiad af- 
forde<l material for a i)rincely re|>ast. During the 
long winters farm-boys, apprentices and children lived 
chiefly on bean porridge. .\t dinner l)rown bread was 
added, or snapped corn was sifted into the boiling 
porridge, making the dish called " pop robbin." There 
was no tea or cofi'ee, but all drank from a common 
mug, which at dinner contained cider. David .Vllds, 
who lived just north nf Salmon Brook, near the bridge 
which still retains his name, used to say that during 
the winter months his fiimily"used up" two hogs- 
heads of bean porridge each month. 

There were no periods of leisure to the early set- 
tlers of any i)art of Xew England; least of all was 
there to the people of Dunstalde.' During the win- 
ter, when the farmer of to-day does little beside tak- 
ing care of his stock, the new-comer to Dunstalde, 
finding his narrow clearing insufficient to sujtport his 
family, set himself to felling trees for a new field. .Ml 
through the early winter he was in the woods from 
early dawn till the stars appeared in the sky, and 
sometimes by moonlight or firelight in the evening. 
But he had a strong frame, and labor was not irk- 
some; every blow struck was for himself, his chililrcn 
and his homestead. Stripjiing ofl'his coat, with arms 
bare to the elbow, and the perspiration stan<ling in 



I 



162 



HISTORY OF HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



drops on his forehead, the blows fell fast and heavy 
till the huge trunk, tottering for a moment, fell to the 
ground. Hinging the broken branehcs high in the air, 
and with a noise like distant thunder. When the 
deep snows came he hired himself till spring to an 
older and wealthier settler, to earn the corn and meat 
to feed his family. The lalwis of the housewife were 
no less arduous. Aside from the care of her children, 
she had sole charge of the dairy and kitchen, besides 
si)iuning and weaving, sewing and knitting, washing 
and mending for the " men folks," and in case of sick- 
ness, taking care of the surtering. The people were 
generally healthy. Consumption, neuralgia and dis- 
eases of the heart were rarely known. 

Dunstal)le hail less of harmony in church atfairs 
than most of the early settled towns of New England. 
Yet, the people, with rare unanimity, gathered on 
Sunday at the " Old South Meeting-House." Sunday 
developed the social as well as the religious feelings. 
During the hour of intermission the men gathered 
around some trader, or person who had just returned 
from Boston, whose means of information exceeded 
their own, to learn the important news of the week. 
Newspapers and letters were seldom seen at any coun- 
try fireside. News from England did not reach the 
inland towns till four months after the events oc- 
curred. Intelligence from New York was traveling 
ten to twelve days before it reached New Hampshire. 
In the means of general information it is difficult to 
comprehend the great change which has occurred in 
the civilized world between 17o0 and the present 
time. 

Between 17()0 and the l)eginning of the Revolution, 
in 1775, the "up-country," above Dunstable, — what 
now comi)rises the northern and western towns of 
Hillsborough County, — was rapidly settled. Dunstable 
had ceased to be a frontier town, and in spring and 
autumn the river road from Chelmsford to Nashua 
River, and thence to Amherst, became a thoroughfare 
for ox-teams, horse-teams and " foot people." Dr. 
Whiton, the early historian of Antrim, said that not a 
small portion of the immigrants possessed little beside 
the axe on their shoulders and the needy children by 
their side. The taverns of a few years later were infre- 
quent, and the farmers of this town displayed a ready 
and generous hospitality in iissisting the wayfarers on 
their journey. 

The building of 'bridges over large .streams taxes 
severely the pioneers of a new region. The bridge 
over the Nashua River was for many years a source of 
much expen.se and trouble to the people of Dunsta- 
ble. The first serviceable bridge was built in 1742, not 
far trom the i)resent one on Main Street, and more 
than twenty feet lower. This was carried away by a 
freshet in 1753, and rebuilt the same year at an ex- 
pense of one hundred and fifty pounds. Before 1759 
it was in a ruinous condition, and the town ))etitioned 
the Ueneral Court for liberty to establish a lottery to 
build a new one. The lottery was not granted, but a 



new bridge was built a few years later, partly by sub- 
scription and partly by the town. It stood a little be- 
low the present one.