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1 From the Ewakl Fliigel Library 



Extra Seriu, XX. 

f.|)r ^listoni 

^golu O^niifT 

... j^ 

(tiUh a'lijjlifili ^M ^orifti?. 

Notice. Mr Artliar G. Siielgrove.i/B n<2w the Society's Hon. Sec. 


T/te Subseriptiofisfor 1874 became due Ofi Jqu.X ^'^ should be paid forth- 
with (not to the Treasurer, but) to the Hon. Sti.y Arthur G. Snelg^ove, 
X»q., London Hospital, London, E., bj^^ioitey Order on the Chief 
Office {eronst ^ Union Bank^\ or to the Society's,' 'a<icount at the Head 
Office of the Union Bank of London^ Princes St, Lo'nBosj JS.C. 

No books will be sent to any Member tintil'l^':|3ub8cription 
for 1874, and his arrears, if any, are paid. 

8 Texts for the Origimtl Series, and Ifor the Extra, will be ready on Peb. 10. 

• • • 

^arljr ^nglisl^ %t'£i Stftwtjr. 

Tenth Report of tl^e Committee, Januury, 1874. 





S 4. 

§ 6. 

n» Work 0/1873. 
!B^ Society's first Ten-Years^ 
Work (p. 4) 

a. Money spent, £8700. Payes 

issued, over 17,000. 

b. Texts arranged, 1. chronologi- 

cally, from the lOM Century 
to. the nth (p. 4); 2. ^ 
Dialects (p. 7) 

3. by Subjects: Bjomance ; 
Manners and Customs : So- 
cial and Political History ; 
Gramnutr ; Philosophy ; The- 
ology and Legends (p. 8) 
Summary of the Society s IFork, 
and its Effect (p. 9) 

a. Dttke of Mtttichestei's Com- 
memoration Fund (p. 12) 

/3. Urgent Need of more Money 
Sketch of Work for the Society's 
second Ten-Years (p. 13) 

Difficulty of meeting Subscribers* 
oppo,ung Wishes (p. 15) 
Texts for 1874 in the Ongirial 
Series : (p. 16) 

Geste Hjstoriale of the De- 
struction of Troy, II. 
Four-Text English Cursor 

Mundi, I. ' (p. 17) 

Blickling Homilies (a.d. 971), 
Part I. (p. 18) 

Bede's Day of Doom, &c. 

Palladius on Husbondrie, IT. 

MerUn, IV. 

? Thomas of Ercildoune (p.l9) 
§ 8. Texts for 1874 in the Extra 

Series: (p. 19) 

Lonelich's History of the Holy 
Grail, I. 

Barbour's Bruce, II.; Early 
Enfflish Pronunciation, IVT; 

(? Roaeryck Mors) (p. 20) 
§ 9, Peprints (p. 20) 

§ 10. Prizes Q). 21) 

§11. Work at English outside the 

Society (p. 23) 

§ 12. New Societies started by some of 

our Members in 1873 : 

1. The PaUeographieal Society. 

2. The English Dialect Society. 

3. The New Shakspere So- 
ciety (p. 25) 

§ 13. Miscellaneous: Change of Hon, 
Sec. &c. (p. 26^ 

List of Members (p. 29) 

Treasurer's Cash Account. 

§ 1. The New Year has comcyand with it the Committee's 
duty of reporting to Members what the Old 
wards lessening the burden that is on thei 


4 § 2. Tlie Socicti/sfirst Ten Yean' Work. 

§ 2. The Society's first Ten Years^ Worh Last year closed 
the Society's first Decade ; and it may therefore be well to 
look back over its work since, in February 1864, its Founder's 
first Circular went out, announcing that '^ A few of the mem- 
bers of the Philological Society, being anxious to continue 
the pubhcation of Early English Texts, which that Society 
lately commenced, but has now for a time resolved to discon- 
tinue, have formed a committee for the purpose of collecting 
subscriptions, and printing therewith Early English MSS/' 
1. To start with money. Our Early English Text Society 
has spent in its ten years £8700 in producing Texts. Here 
are the figures : — 

ISG^ Money spent in printing, &c. 


ft i> it ty 

j> » »» }> 

>* w )> n 

w »> » >» 

>> » j> >» 

» »» »» it 

»> » >» » 

yt a it i> 

n 9} it 































£8699 2 

With this money the Society has produced 16,100 pages of 
Texts, including Introductions, Notes, Glossaries, &c., besides 
1000 and more pages of Reprints, Reports, &c. 

Secondly, as to Language, — the point from which the 
Society started, the illustration of which has been, and must 
be, the justification for the publication of many Texts of little 
literary or historic merit ; — the Society has brought out, of the 

10th century. I King Alfred's West-Saxon version of Gregory's Pastoral 

Care, edited from 2 MSS. by Mr Henry Sweet. 
11th century.* Homily d^ Octo Viclia (in First Series of O.E. Homilies). 

ed. Dr R. Morris. Homily on the Discovery of the Cross (in 

No. 46), ed. Rev. Dr K. Morris. 
12th century (special Transitional period). Prose and Verse from the 

unique Lambeth MS, 187, in Dr R. Morris's Old English 

Homilies (Pirst Series). 
12th ccntur^^ Old English Homilies (from the unique Trinity MS.), 

Second Series, ed. Dr Richard >foms. 
13th century, First half: St Marharetc, the first Text (from the unique 

MS.), ed. Rev. T. 0. Cockayne. 

' The Blickling Homilies of 971 A,D. are nearly all printed. 
* For the 11th century, other Texts are preparing. 

§ 2. Chronological List of our first Ten Years' TeWfs. 5 

1230 ? Hall Mcidenhad, West-Midland version, cd. Rev. T. O. Cockayne. 
St Juliana, from 2 MSS., ed. Hev. T. O. Cockayne and Mr E. 
Poems, &c., in the latter part of the First Series of * Old English 
Homilies,' ed. Rev. Dr Morris, 
1246-50 The Moral Ode, later version, in * Old English Miscellany,' 
ed. Rev. Dr R. Morris. 
3 Hymns in O. E. Horn. II.(froni the unique MS.), cd. DrR. Morris. 
13th century, second half: 

Genesis and Exodus (fram the unique MS.), ed. Rev. Dr Richard 
Bestiary, Old Kentish Sermons (both from unique MSS.), Re- 
ligious Poems from the Jesus MS., in Dr R. Morris's ' Old Eng- 
lish Miscellany.* 
Havelok the Dane (from the unique MS.), ed. Rev. VV. W. Skeat. 
Alfred^s Proverbs, in'Dr R. Morrises * Old English MisceUany.' 
King Horn, &c., ed. Rev. J. R. Lumby. 
14th century.* St Margarete, 2nd Text, ed. Rev. T. O. Cockayne. 
1340 Dan Michel's Ayenbitc of Inwyt (from the unique MS.), ed. Rev. 

Dr Richard Morris. 
1340-90 Poems on the Cross (in 'Legends of the Holy Rood'), ed. 

Rev. Dr R. Morris. 
1340, ab. Hampole's English Prose Treatises, cd. Rev. G. G. Perry. 
1350? The Alliterative Romance of William of Paleme, or William and 

the Werwolf (from the imique MS.), ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 
1350 ? The Alliterative Romance of Joseph of Arimathic, or the Holy 

Grail ; from the unique MS., ab. 1390, ed. Rev. VV. W. Skeat. 
1360? Early English Alliterative Poems, and Sir Gawayne and the 
Green Knight (from the imique MS.), cd. Rev. Dr R. Morris. 
„ The Alliterative Mortc Arthure (from the unique (Thornton) 

MS., ab. 1440 a.d.), ed. Rev. G. G. Perry, re-ed. Mr E. Brock. 
„ ? Religious Pieces in Prose and Vei^se from the Thornton MS,, ab. 

1440 A.D., ed. Rev. G. G. Peny. 
„ ? The Alliterative Gest Hystoriale of the Destniction of Troy (from 
unique MS.), ed. late Rev. G. A. Panton, and D. Donaldson, Esq. 
1362 The Alliterative Vision of William concerning Piers the Plowman, 
first cast, or Text A, from the Vernon MS. ab. 1390-1400, ed. 
Rev. W. W. Skeat. 
1375 Barboui-'s Bnice, Part I. (from the only 2 MSS. and oldest printed 

editions), ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 
1377 WilHam's Vision of Piers Plowman, Text B, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 
1380? Chaucer's Boethius, ed. Re\'. Dr R. Morris. 
1389 English Gilds, their Statutes and Customs, &c. ; ed. Toulmin 

Smith, Esq., with Dr L. Brentano's History of Gilds, &c. 
1390? The Stacions of Rome, ed. F. J. Fumivall,'Esq. 
1391 Chaucer's Astrolabe, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 

* The earliest English v«M-sion of the Cursor Mttfuli, in the Edinburgh 
MS,, is believed to be about l.*i(X) A.D. The Cotton text is not much later. 

6' ^2. Chronological List of our first Ten Tears' Texts. 

1393 Wffliam*d Vision of Kers Plowman, Text C, ed. Eev. W. W. Skeat. 

1394 Pierce the Plowman's Crede, ed.Rev. W. W. Skeat. 

1899 Bicliard the Kedeles (in Piers Plowman, C), ed. Rev. W. W-Skeat, 

from the unique MS. 
1415 The Crowned King (in Piers Plowman, C), ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat, 

from the unique MS. 
1420 P Mirk's Duties of a Parish Priest, ed. E. Peacock, Esq. 
1420 1 Palladius on Husbondrie (from the unique MS.), ed. Rev. B. 

Lodge, Part I. (all the Text). 
1430 ? The Alliterative Chevelere Assigne, from the unique MS., ed. 

H. H. Gibbs, Esq. 
1430 ? PoUtioal. Religious, and Love Poems, ed. P. J. Purnivall, Esq. 
1430? Lydgate'sOrderof Fools, &c. (in No.VIII.),ed.F.J.Fumivall,Esq. 
1430 f Hymns to the Virgin and Christ, the Parliament of Devils, &c., 

ed. F. J. Fumivall, Esq. 
1430-50 Poems on the Cross (m ' L^nds of the Holy Rood '), ed. 

Rev. Dr R. Morris. 
1440 The Knight de la Tour Landry, from the uniqxie MS., ed. Thomas 

Wright, Esq. 
1440 P Arthur, fix)m the unique MS., ed. F. J. Fumivall, Esq. 
1440 P Merlin, ffom the unique MS., ed. H. B. Wheatley, Esq. 
1440 P Generydes, from the imique MS., ed. W. CAldis Wright, Esq., 

1460 P The Boke of Curtasye (from Sloane MS., 1986, in Babees Book), 

ed. F. J. PumivaD, Esq. 
1460 P Ratis Raving, and other pieces, Bemardus de Cura Rei Famuli- 

aris, Scotch Prophecies, &c., ed. Rev. J. R. Lumby. 
1460 P Urbanitatis, Sec. (in Babees Book), Stacions of Rome, &c., ed. 

F. J. Fumivall, Esq. • 
1460-70 John Russell's Boke of Nurture (in Babees Book), ed. F. J. 

.Fumivall, Esq. 
1460*70 For to Serve a Lord, from a copy of the unique MS. (in BabecS 

Book), ed. F. J. Fumivall, Esq. 
1460-70 The Good Wife, Stans Puer, &c (in 'Queene Elizabethes 

Achademy '), ed. F. J. Fumivall, Esq. 
1460-70 The Book of Quinte Essence, ed. F. J. Fumivall, Esq. 
1462 P The Wright's Chaste Wife, ed. F. J. Fumivall, Esq. 
1478 P Caxton's Book of Curtesye, 3 versions (two from MSS)., ed. F. 

J. Fumivall, Esq. 
1500 ? Lancelot of the Laik, from the unique MS., ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 
1500 P Romance of Partenay or Lusignen, from the unique MS., ed. B«v. 

W. W. Skeat. 
1500 P Scotch Poem on Heraldry (in No. VIIL), ed. F. J. Fumivall, Es<i. 
1513 The Boke of Kcraynge, from Wynkyn de Worde's text (in 

Babees Book), ed. F. J. Fumivall, Esq. 
1520-6 Lives of Joseph of Arimathsea, from Wynkyn de Worde's and 

Pynson*s copies (in No. 44), ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 
1528-53 A Supplycacyon of the Beggers, the Poore Commons, &c., ed. 

F. J. Fumivall and J. M. Cowper^ Esqs. 

§ 2. Our Ten Years^ Texts ctasBt by iiialecU. t 

1530 Oure Ladyes Myroure, ed. Rev. J. H. Blunt. 

1542-7 Andrew Boorde's Introduction and Dyetaiy, witli Barnes in the 

Defence of the Beide, ed. F. J. Fumivall, Esq. 
1549 The Complaynt of Scotlande, with 4 contemporary English Tracts, 

1542-48, ed. J. A. H. Murray, Esq. 
1550? Starkey's England in Henry VIII's time, a Dialogue between 

Pole and Lupset, from the unique MS., ed. J. M. Cowper, Esq. 
1550-1 Robert Crowley's 31 Epigrams, Way to Wealth, &c., ed. J. M. 

Cowper, Esq. 
1550-77 Hewe Rodes's Book of Nurture (in Babees Book), ed. F. J. 

Fumivall, Esq. 
1652 Sir David Lyndesay's Works, ed. F. Hall and J. 'A. H. Murray, 

Esqs., 5 Piuis. 
1556-68 William Lauder's Poems, ed. P. HaU and F. J. Fumivall, Esqs., 

2 Parts. 
1557 F. Seager's Schoole of Vertue (in Babees Book), ed. F. J. Fumi- 

vaU, Esq. 
1560? Sir Humfrey Gilbert's *Queene Elizabethes Achademy,' &c., 

ed. F. J. Fumivall, Esq. 
1565-92 Awdelay's Fratemitye of Vacabonds, Harman's Caveat, &c., 

ed. E. Viles and F. J. Fumivall, Esqs. 
1570 Levins's Manipulus VocabiUorum, ed. H. B. Wheatley, Esq. 
1599 Thynne's Animaduersions on Speght's Chaucer, ed. Dr G. H. 


1616 The Times' Whistle, and other Poems, by R. C. (from the unique 

MS.), ed. J. M. Cowper, Esq. 

1617 ? Hume's Orthographic and Congmitie of the Britan Tongue (from 

the unique MS.), ed. H. B. Wheatley, Esq. 
1619 The Booke of Demeanor (in Babees Book), ed. F. J. Fiunivall, Esq. 

Of these works the specially dialectal ones are the follow- 
ing :— 


1340 P Hampole's Prose Treatises. 

„ ReUgious Pieces horn the Thornton MS. 
1375 Barbour's Bmce. 

1460? Ratis Raving; Scotch Prophecies, &c. (Nos. 42, 43). ' 
1500 P Lancelot of the Laik. 
1500? Scotch Poem on Heraldry (in No. VIII). 
1530-50 Sir D. Lyndesay's Works. 
1549 The Complaynt of Scotlande. 
1566-68 Wm. Lauder's Works. 


A. East-Midland (a Northem ; 6 Southem) ; B. ^est Midland, 
A. East Midland ; 6 Southem Division. 

12th cent. Old English Homilies, Second Series (from the unique 
Trinity MS)., 6. 

8 § 2. Chtr Ten Years' Texts. cimst hy Duitects and Subjects. 

13th cent. Bestiary (in * Old English Miscellany '), b. 
1250? Genesis and Exodus, 6. 

Fragment onjp. 200 of Old English Miscellany, 6. 
1280 ? Havelolc the Dane. b. but originally a, North East Midland. 

B. JFesi Midland. 
1230 ? HaH Meidenhad. 

Wooing of our Lord, in First Series of Old English Homilies. 
1360 ? Early English Alliterative Poems (Lancashire). 

„ Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight (Lancashire). 
1400 ? * Cross * extract from the Bodleian MS. of the Cursor Muudi, in 

' Legends of the Holy Bood.' 
1340 ? William and the Werwolf. 
1360 ? Gest Hystoriale of the Destruction of Troy (Northern part of 

the West-Midland area). 


12th-cent. Lambeth Homilies, in Old English Homilies, First Series. 
1290 ? Old Kentish Sermons (in Old English Miscellany, No. 49). 
1300 ? Moral Ode, and Poems from the Jesus MS. (in Old Eng. Misc.). 
1340 Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt. 

The rest of our Texts are either uncertain,* or may be said to be in 
that mixt dialect, mainly Midland, slightly Southern, which became, with 
Chaucer, the standard language. 

Thirdly. Arranging the Society^s books by Subjects, we 
find in 

Rwnaiyce {for Legend see Theology). 

1250 ? King Horn, Floris and Blanche- 

1280 ? Havelok the Dane. 

1360 ? Gest Hys-toriale of the Destruc- 
tion of Troy (alliterative). 

1360 ? Morte Arthure (MS. 1440), al- 
Chevelere Assigne (alliterative). 

1360 Sir Oawayne and the Green 
„ William of Paleme. 

1375 ? Barbour's Bruce, Part I. 

1390 ? Joseph of Ariniathie, or the 
Holy Grail (alliterative). 

1440 Arthur. 

1440 Merlin. 

1440 Generydes. 

1500 Lancelot of the Laik. 

1500 Partenay or Lusigueu. ' 

Mamiers and Custmns. 

1440 Tlie Knight de la Tour Lau(b-y. 
1440-1503 Babees Book, Bokes of 

Norture, Kervyng, Coi'tasye, 

and Demeanor, &c. 
1460 ? Pilgrims* Sea Voyage (m ' Sta- 

cTonsof RomeO* 
1462 Wright's Chaste Wife. 
1478 Caxton's Book of Curtesye. 
1500 ? Bemardus de Ciira Rei Famu- 

Eatis Raving, and other Pieces. 
1540 ] Queene Elizabethes Achadeuiy, 

1265-1550 Accomits of Italian and Ger- 
man Books of Coiu1»sy, by W. 

M. Rossetti, and £. Oswald, 


* Mr Skeat feels certain that the original of the Alliterative * Joseph of 
Arimathea ' was Northern or Midland, but whioh he cannot say, on account of 
the Southern scribe's alterations of its language and form:;. 

2. Our Ten Yean^ Texts clusst by Subjects. § 3. Summary. 9 

Social and Political History. 

1389 English Gilds, their Statutes 

and Customs. &c. 
1399 Richard the Redeles. 
1416 The Crowned King. 
1420 Palladius on Husbondrie. 
1440? Political, Religious, and Love 

1500'? Early Scotch Prophecies (in 

1528-53 Supplycacyon of the Beggers, 

Poore Commons, &c. 
1535-50 Lyndesay's Monarche. 
1535-50 Lyndesay's Satirical Poems. 
1540? StarkeVs England in Henry 

VIIPs tune, XL 
1542-7 Andrew Boorde's Introduction 

1549 The Complaynt of Scotlande. 
1550-1 R. Crowley's 31 Epigrams, Way 

to Wealtn, &c. 
1556 Lauder on the Dewtie of Kings. 
1565-92 Awdelay's Yacabondes, and 

Harman's Vagabondes. 
1568 Lauder's Minor Poems. 
1616 Times Whistle, &c., by R. C. 

Philosophy and Science, 

1380 ? Chaucer's Boethius. 
1391 Chaucer on the Astrolabe. 
1465 ? Book of Quinte Essence. 

Morals, Theology and Legends, 

10th cent. K. Alfred's 'Gregory's Pas- 
toral Care '. 

1200 Hali Meidenhad. 

1200-1330 Seinte Marherete, &c. 

1230 Life of St. Juliana (l^endary). 

1250-1300 Early English Homilies, 2 

11-15 cent. Legends of the Holy Rood, 

13th cent. Old English Miscellany. 

1340 Hampole's English Prose Treat- 

1340 Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt. 

1350 Genesis and Exodus. 

1360 Early English Alliterative Poems. 

1362-1393 WaBam's Vision of Piers 
Plowman. 3 versions. 

1394 Pierce the Plowman's Crede. 

1420 Myrc's Duties of a Parish Priest. 

1430 Hymns to the Virginand Christ ; 
the Parliament of Devils, &c. 
Stacions of Rome, &c. 

1530 Oure Ladyes Myroure. 

Crratiimar, Criticism, dbc. 

1570 Levins's Manipulus Vocabulorum. 
1599 Thynne's Animadversions on 

Speghf s Chaucer. 
1617 Hume's Orthographic and Con- 

gruitie of the Britan Tongue. 
A.-Saxon to 1874. Mr A. J. Ellis's 

Early English Pronunciation. 

§ 3. Summary and Effect of the Society's Ten-Yea/rs' Work. 
For the History of our Language the Society has produced the 
most important 10th-century Text, in which Mr Sweet has for 
the first time pointed out the characteristics of Alfred^s Eng- 
lish. For the 11th century our Society has been prevented, for 
want of funds, from printing more than two Homilies. For 
the 12th century, in the latter half, it has produced the only 
Texts of the specially Transition Period of our Language, of 
unequalled value for the history of our inflexional formations, 
and for the first time brought to light by the skilled eye and 
hand of the Rev. Dr R. Morris. For the 13th and lith centuries 
the Society has produced a series of most valuable dialectal 
Texts which, under Dr R. Morris's editing, have made far 
clearer than ever before, the three great divisions of our 
dialects, and the subdivisions of each, but specially of the Mid- 
land, the most important of the three. For the 14th, and also 
the later centuries, from the 15th to the early part of the 17th, 


10 § 3. Summary and Effect of our Ten Years' Work. 

the Society has produced a very large number of excellent 
Texts in the standard language^ at and after the period of Its 
formation^ together with the earliest English ryming diction- 
ary, a Grammar of James I's time, and Mr Alexander J. Ellis's 
m^terlj treatise on the pronunciation of our language, from 
Anglo-Saxon to Victorian times, " Early English Pronuncia- 
tion, with especial reference to Chaucer and Shakespere/' It 
can be truly said that no other Society like ours has ever been 
able to do so much for the History of English, as our Early 
English Text Society has. 

If we turn to the Lives of our Forefathers, the Books they 
read, the Societies they belonged to, the Ways they had, the 
Beliefs they cherisht, the Superstitions they clung to, the 
Evils that beset them, the same fact stares one in the face ; 
the Early English Text Society have produced a set of Texts 
that can challenge comparison with those of any other Society'; 
they know that their own cannot be beaten. For Story, take 
Havelok, Arthur, Merlin, Lancelot, Gawayne, King Horn, 
Troy-book, William of Paleme, Partenay ; for Society, take 
our English Gilds, William's * Vision of Piers Plowman ' (in 
Mr Skeat^s noble edition). Political Poems, Lyndesay's scaUi- 
ing satires, Lauder^s Poems, Starkey's England, Andrew 
Boorde^s picture of the England and Europe of his time, 
Awdelay, Harman, Crowley, &c. : for Ways of Women and 
Men, the curious pictures of the Babees Book, John Russell, 
Hugh Bhodes, Batis Raving, Times^ Whistle, &c. ; for Faith 
and Superstition, the long series of theological Texts the 
Society has publisht ; and let us all be glad that we have 
had time and power to do so much. Not only has our So- 
ciety produced its own fine series of Texts ; but it has also 
given birth to other Societies, whose publications are carry- 
ing out its purpose in other directions ; to other books that 
bring its teaching within the reach of every student and boy 
in the British Empire, the United States, Germany, and 
Austria. From the Early English Text Society sprang, in 
1867, its own Extra Series; in 1868, the printing of the 
Percy Folio MS. ; the Chaucer Society, the Ballad Society, 
the Spenser Society, and the Roxburghe Library; in 1871 
the Hunterian Club; in 1873 the Pala90graphical Society, the 
English Dialect Society, and the New Shakspere Society. 
From the Early English Text Society, by members of it, 
have also gone forth, in 1 866, Dr Richard Morris's Aldine 
edition of ' Chaucer^s Poetical Works ^ ; in 1867 his Claren- 
don-Press 'Selections from Chaucer ' (now in its 3rd edition) ; 
in 1867 his 'Specimens of Early English^ (vol. 1 now in its 

§ 3. Summarij and Effect of our Ten Years' Work. 


2nd edition ; vol. 2 now in its 3rd) ; in 1860 his Globe edi- 
tion of 'Spenser's Works'; in 1872 his 'Historical Acci- 
dence of the English Langua^ ' ; in 1870 Mr Skeat's ' Vision 
of William concerning Piers the Plowman ' (for the Clarendon 
Press); in 1871 his ' Specimens of English Literature a.d. 
1394-1597'; in ]872Jii3 4-Texfc edition of St Mark (two 
■ texts Anglo-Saxon, two Early English, for the Cambridge 
Press); in 1871 Mr Ear le 'a ' Philology of the English Lan- 
guage ' ; in 1 873 Mr Kington Oliphant's ' Sources of Standard 
En^iah'; in 1871-3 Dr Stratmann's 'Old English Dic- 
tionary of the 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries'; in 
1871 his edition of 'Tho Owl and Nightingale'; in 1871 Dr 
Matzner'a 'Altengbsche Sprachproben ' ; and in 1873 hia 
' Worterbuch,' Part 1; in 1873 Dr Mall's edition of 'The 
Harrowing of Hell' ; Dr Znpitza'a ' Altenglischea Uebungs- 
bnch,' &c. Tmly tho effect of the Society's work iw a thing 
for every Engbsliman to rejoice over. As a ' Leader ' in the 
Bailij News, of Nov. 20, 1873, on the Director's appeal 
for money-help to the Early English Text Society, saya, 
our Society " has wiped away, aa Mr Fuenivall proudly 
boastSj'the old well-deserved reproach of indifference to the 
Bources of our own language ; it has stirred up the study of 
English historically ; it makes possible a knowledge of the 
language ; it makes accessible the most valuable documents 
of that history ; and it shows how, in tho teeth of ignorance, 
civil war, and obstacles of all kinds, literature, that ia, the 
power of expression, went on growing, now slowly, now 
quickly, putting forth in this direction and that, tiny tendrils 
which were destined to grow in time into groat branches, 
laden with the fruits of labour and geniua. No single form 
of [literaturo springs suddenly into existence, and the old 
familiar phrases, such as that which used to describe Chaucee 
as tho Father of English Poetry, have to bo abandoned alto- 
gether, or used in a modified sense. 

" Bnt tho Society has yet other claims upon us, in addition 
to those which appeal chiefly to students of literature. It 
is to Bucli works as are issued under its auspices that wo 
must look, far more than to the State records, for the social 
history of the country. In the ' Babees Boke,' the ' Boke of 
Nortnre,' the ' Boke of Carving,' the statutes of the English 
Guilds, and the ' Supplycacyon of the Beggars,' wo may 
the very mind of our forefathers, tho way in which thoy 
regarded the common duties and responsibilities which make 
up ovory-day life, their methods of making existence comfort- 
able, gentle, easy, and cultured, their way of dreaa, their pro. 


b I 


12 § 4. The Duke of Mancheatef^^s Commemoration Fund. 

tection and advancement of the arts ; hpw they ate^ drankj 
talked^ and slept. And if there linger among us any relics 
of that most ancient religion^ the worship of ancestors^ Mr 
FuBNiYALL^s appeal for help should touch us there. But, 
indeed, his Society is doing po great a work for all the English- 
speaking race on. both sides of the ^lanticj that its claims 
reach hij^er than mere pride or patriotism.^* 

§ 4. Why then has our Society, which has done so much, 
need to ask urgently for more money, for a continuous supply 
of fresh Members and Funds ? Simply because it has done so 
much, and wants to do much more. The material it has 
supplied to scholars has been quickly condensed and arranged 
for the use of all readers, by Dr Eichard Morris, Mr Skeat, 
Mr Murray, Mr A. J. Ellis, Mr Earle, and Mr Eangton 
Oliphant, here ; by Dr Stratmann, Dr Stiirzen Becker, Drs 
Matzner and Gt)ldbeck, Dr Mall, Dr Horstmann, Dr Zupitza, 
on the Continent ; by the late lamented Prof. Hadley, rrof. 
March, Prof. Whitney, Prof. Child, and others, in America. 
The Committee have always been ea^er to put in print the 
utmost amount of MS. every year. iMLSiring that eagerness^ 
and relying on the payment of arrears which ought to have 
come in, but did not, the Director authorized the issue of more 
Texts to the subscribers to the Original Series than those sub- 
scribers had paid for. He was therefore obliged to strive to 
make up the deficiency by an Extra Fund, which the Duke of 
Manchester was kind enough, with his unfailing good-will 
towards the Society, to head, and which was meant to raise 
£200, but had only brought-in the sum of £90, 17«. by the 31st 
of December, 1873. Still the balance is needed. We want 
all the money that can possibly be got. And the Committee 
trust that every Member will try to give or get a donation to 
the ^Duke of Manchester's Commemoration Fund,' in aid of 
the Society. Many people who are not Members of the So- 
ciety might be induced to subscribe to the Fund, if Members 
would but explain to their friends and acquaintances the pur- 
pose, nature, and extent of the Society's work. The following 
donations and promises have been received : — 

ATION FUND, TO 31sT December, 1873. 

His Grace the Duke of Manchester . . 
His Orace the Duke of Devonshire . . 
The Most Noble the Marquis of Ripon 
The Rev. W. H. Thompson, D.D., Master of 

Trinity Coll^, Cambridge 
Richard Johnson, Esq. 
A Friend . . 
t/< o** jy» »» •• •• •• •• 

Triibner & Co., Messrs 













§ 4, Comtnemoralion Fund. § 5. Second lO-yeara' Work, 13 

C. Chads, Esq. . . 

John Lister, Esq. . . 

Cornelius Payne, Esq. 

Professor Henry Morley 

Thos. Hughes, Esq., M.P. 

J. L. Traftbrd, Esq. 

F. J. Fumiv^ Esq. 

The Rev. E. Thring , 

F. Harris, Esq. . . 

A. MacmiJlan, Esq. 

Prof. A. W. Ward 

The Rev. E. A. Abbott, D.D 

Dr Ernest Adams 

Miss A. M. Richardson 

Prof. Joseph Payne 

Mr Bumpus 

The Rev. Wm. Williamson 

The Rev. Canon Toole 

H. Candler, Esq. 


Prof. F. J. Chil^ Harvard , . 
William Euin^g, Esq., Glasgow 
Other Subscriptions 










£115 17 



15 S 

£146 5 

§ 5. Sketch of tlie Society's Second Ten-Years' Work, We 
have, may be, done from a fourth to a third of our work. 
At any rate we give a sketch of that which lies at once before 
us, just to show what our Editors can and will produce if our 
Members will find them money enough, and what will, if 
printed, probably leave only a Third like Ten- Years' Work to 
finish the task the Society has set itself, the printing of the 
whole of the unprinted MSS. of Early English : ^ — 

Alliterative Troy-Boolc, Part II. Bede's Day of Doom, &c. 
Four-Text Cursor Mundi, Part I. Thomas of Ercildoun's Rymes and 

Geiierydes, Part II. 

Blickliiig Homilies, Pt I now ready. 
Palladius, Part II. 
Merlin, Part IV. 

Four-Text Cursor MmidL Pait II. The Pvstil of Swctc Susaiie. 
Blickliiig Homilies, Part II. Lyndesay, Part VI. 

Lay Folks' Mass-Book. Gospel of Nichodemus. 

Piers Plowman Notes, Part I. Maydenston*s Poems. 

* It would be difficult to estimate the value of the work in which the 
Early English Text Society has been engaged for several years past. . . . 
We rejoice to see that they have resolvea not to rest satisfied till Englisii- 
men will be able to say of their early literature what the Germans can now 
say of theirs : * Every work of it 's printed, and every word of it 's glossed.' 
It is a noble resolve, and one which it is the duty of every student of the 
language, and every one deriving pleasure from its^literature, to lend a help- 
ing hand to encourage.— W. W. Tulloch in Belgracia, March, 1871, p. 118. 

14 § 6. Sketch of our Second Ten- Tears' Work. 


^our-Text Cursor Mundi, Part III. Charlemagne Bomances^ I : Sir 

Piers Plowman Notes, Part II. Eenunbras. 

Old English Homilies, III. ^Ifric's Metrical Homilies. 
Cato's Morals. 

Four-Text Cursor Mundi, Part IV. Catholicon Anglicum. 
Charlemagne Eomances, Part II. Psalters, Anglo-Saxon and Early 
The Legend of Ypotis. English. 

The Bide of St Benet. (5 Texts). Grawaine Poems. 


Troy - Book (Bodleian Library), Meditacions on the Lord's Supper 
Part I. (perhaps by Bobert of Brunne). 

Awdelay's Poems. Barbour's Lives of Saints, I. 

Shoreham's Psalms. Anglo-Saxon Homilies, I. 


Troy-Book (Bodleian), Pai't II. Vernon M# Poems, I. 

Barbour's Lives of Saints, II. The Siege of Jerusalem. 

Guy of Warwick, I (Caius Coll., Anglo-Saxon Homilies, II. 

Cambr., and Auchinleck MSS,). Eleutherius (Mr Wynne's MS.). 


Guy of Warwick, II. Vernon MS. Poems, II. 

Jon the Gardener, Sec. William of Nassington. ' 

Northern Version of DeGuilevillc. Anglo-Saxon Homilies, III. 


Barbour's Troy-Book. Lives of Saints, Southern, I. 

Hampole's Psalms. Anglo-Saxon Orosius. 

Vernon MS. Treatises. Early English Psalters. 


Lives of Saints, II. Peter Idle's Poems. 

Adam Davie's Poems. Anglo-Saxon Homilies, IV. 

Siege of Jerusalem. Anonymous Poems. 


Lives of Saints, III. A Troy-Book, 

George Ashby's Active Policy of a Anglo-Saxon Miscellanies. 

Prince. , Bonaventure's Life of Christ eng- 
Vegecius of Knyghthood and Chyu- lisht. 

alrie. The Bale of the Moon, &c. 

Then Hampole's other version of his Prick of Conscience, Mr SmaU's 
• Metrical Homilies ' MS., Trevisa's Glanville, Myrc's Liber Festivalis, 
E. E. Homilies, MSS. on Cookery, Medicine, Alchemy, Astrology, and 
Superstitions ; Mandeville, Hoccleve, Lydgate, Verse DeGuileville, Lone- 

§ 5. Sketch of our Secotid Ten-Years' Work. 15 

lich's ' Merlin/ the unprinted Alexander Eomances (in MS. in Scotland), 
Lord Bath's Early English unprinted MSS. (if he will give us leave). 
Then we have two or four texts of the Jiicren Riwle to print, Wyclif s 
Testaments and unprinted works, so as to complete a uniform 8vo edition 
of the whole of Early English Literature to Caxton's time. 



Lonelich's History of the Holy Ellis's Early English Pronuncia- 

GraU, Part J. tion, IV. 

Barbour's Bruce, Part II. Brinklow's Tracts on London, Sec. 


Lonelich's History of the Holy Starkey's Description of England 

Graa, Part II. to Hen. VIII., Part U. 

Alexander Bomances, I. 


|x)nelich's History of the Holy Early English Pronunciation, V. 
. Grail, III. Alexander Bomances, II. 


Arthour and Merlin (from the Alexander Bomances, III. 
Affleck MS.). Early Holy-Land tracts. 


Le Morte Arthur, &c. The Duke of Orleans's Poems. 

The Douce Merlui, &c. 


Auchinleck MS. Bomances, I. : Gesta Bomanorum. 

Sir Bevis of Hamtoun, &c. 


Auchinleck MS. Bomances, II. : Book of Noblesse. 
Sire * Degarrc,* &c. 


Partenope of Blois ; with * Perti- Bokenam's Lyvys of Seyntys. 
nope.* Northumberland Household Book. 


Bitson's Bomances. Early Education and Granmiar tracts. 


Bomances from the Lincoln's Inn Caxton's Curial, and Book of Good 
MS. 150. Manners. 

§ 6. Difficult 1/ of meeting Suhscribers' opposing Wishes. 
Complaints of two opposite kinds as to our Texts have reacht 
the Committee^s ears. One comes from the workers, the 
students, who echo Mr Kington«01iphant's words in his Sources 

16 § 6. Members^ opposing WisJies. § 7.. Original Seties, 1874. 

of 8tanda/rd English, p. 820, note, '^ I wish they [the Com- 
mittee] would print more works written before 1400, and fewer 
works written after that year/^ With this wish the Committee 
heartily sympathize, and would be only too glad if they dared 
gratify it. Nothing would have pleased them better than to 
have begun at the earliest Anglo-Saxon MS., and printed 
everything steadily in order. But the other complaint has 
warned them that such a course would have halved or thirded 
the number of our subscribers ; and the late decrease in the 
Society^s list of members since the earliest Texts have in- 
creast in number, has shown the necessity of restoring, if 
possible, the original proportion between later and easier 
Texts — often more attractive in subject — and the earlier and 
harder ones, which are, with rare exceptions, theological and 
dull, though of extreme interest in point of language. The 
Committee live in hope that the feeKng of duty to the Society 
and to its purpose will more and more make members willing 
to help it, though they themselves happen to feel no special 
interest in any one yearns Texts ; meantime the Committee 
will try their best to meet the wishes and tastes of the bulk of 
the Society's Members, whose forbearance they crave in this 
difficult task, and whom they remind that interesting inedited 
MSS. of Eomance and Adventure, of social Life, and Fun, 
are rare indeed, and grow rarer year by year. But the one 
great fact remains, that till all our early MSS. are printed, 
the History of the English Language cannot be fully known, 
the Society^s work cannot come to an end. 

"^ § 7. Original-Series Texts for 1874, In this year 1874 the 
Texts for the Original Series will probably be, as noted in 
§ 5, the second Part of the ' Gest Hystoriale of the Destruc- 
tion of Troy ; ' the first Part of the Four-Text of the Early- 
English version of the Cursor Mundi; Hhe Blickling Hom- 
ilies,^ Part I (now ready) ; the second Part of ' Palladius on 
Husbondrie ; ^ and the fourth and concluding part of the 
prose Romance of ' Merlin.^ If either of these latter Texts 
cannot be ready in time, or if more money than will pay for 
the four Texts above-named comes in, one or more of ' the 
Lay-Folks' Mass-Book ^ (all the text in type), ' Generydes,^ 
Part IT, ^ Thomas of Ercildoune, his Rymes and Prophecies ' 
(at press), will be issued. 

Part II. of the Alliterative Troy-Book was to have been 
issued last year, had our funds sufficed for it. The Book was 
commented on in our last Report, p. 5 — 7, and the important 
difference in opinion aj3 to its dialect mentioned, between our 

§ 7. Original' Series Texts/or 1874. The Cursor Muiidi. 17 

best authorities on the one hand, and the Editors of the Text 
on the other. This Troy-Book is a gain both to literature 
and linguistics. Its poetic value is considerable, its language- 
problems most interesting. The premature death of one of 
its Editors, Mr Panton, who was also editing the Bannatyne 
MS. for the Hunterian Club, will be regretted by all our 

The first Part of the Four-Text Early-English Version of 
the Cursor Mundi, which is now ready for issue, marks an 
epoch in the Society^s career. For more than a hundred 
years has the Poem been quoted, and its printing desired, by 
scholars ; but no man or Club would take it up. Now, how- 
ever, our Society is printing it, not only in one version, but 
in four; not only in one dialect, but in three (with a 
portion in a fourth dialect), thus quadrupling the value of 
the text, not only as a subject for linguistic study, but 
also as an instance of how scribes dealt with their early 
originals. For the general reader, the text sparkles with 
quaintnesses of phrase and thought, as it tells of the Creation, 
the Fall, the stories of Cain, Abel, Noah, Abraham, Isaac^ 
&c. ; to the student of language, the Four-Texts give an 
opportunity for comparison of form and word such as no 
other existing English book aflFords, except perhaps some 
editions of parts of the Bible, such as the Gospels issued by 
the Syndics of the Cambridge-Press. The Society is greatly 
indebted to the Prussian Minister of Public Worship, Dr. 
Falck, for having (at the suggestion of Prof. Pauli) authorized 
the Gottingen IJniversity MS. of the Cursor to be lent to us 
for a year. We have also to express our thanks to the 
Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge, for the 
loan of their MS. of the Poem till its four Texts are printed. 
The oldest MS. of part of the Cursor, the early 14th-century 
one in the library of the Koyal College of Physicians, Edin- 
burgh, contains such small portions of the poem that it can 
only form an Appendix to the Society's edition. The second 
in age, the Cotton, of the 14th century, in the British Museum, 
is, luckily, complete, and stands first in Dr Morris's Four- 
Text edition for us. Second, stands the Fairfax copy in 
the Bodleian Library, the fourth in age, with large alterations 
in words, and, unluckily, a large gap in its leaves, which has 
to be filled up from the later Laud MS. of the other type. 
To this other type belong the Gottingen MS., the third in 
age, and the Trinity MS., the fifth in age (No. 4 in our 
edition) ; and of the same type is the MS. in the College of 
Arms, London, though it is rather later than the Trinity MS, 


18 § 7. OriginaUSeries Texts for 1874. BHckling Homilies, 8fc. 

The third Text for 1874, and which is now ready, is the 
Blickling Homilies, Anglo-Saxon of the 10th century. Part 
I. The chief point of interest in these Homilies is, that the 
MS. is a dated one. The writer has been dwelling on the 
evils abroad in his time, lamentation and weeping on all 
sides ; mourning everywhere, and breach of peace ; every- 
where evil and slaughter' {Horn, X, p. 114-15); has been 
saying that the world^s end on Doomsday must needs come 
soon, only the advent of ^ the accursed stranger Antichrist ' 
has yet to take place (Horn. XI,, p. 116-17); and then, he 
goes on, the world must come to an end in this present age, 
of which ^ the greatest portion has already elapsed, even nine 
hundred and seventy-one years {nigon liund ivintra Sf l-xxi), 
in this [very] year ^ (p. 118-119, 1. 2). Dates of this kind are 
but seldom found in MSB., and are proportionately valued 
when they do occur. To us the Blickling MS. is of special 
worth, for in it we have a man writing (that is, copying,) who 
might well have been bom when King Alfred died in 901, 
and his text therefore admirably follows our ' King Alfred's 
West-Saxon Version of Gregory's Pastoral ' which Mr Henry 
Sweet edited for the Society in 1871-2. As, too, the language 
of the Blickling writer* was probably fixt by the middle of the 
10th century, we are able to see what changes fifty (or seventy) 
years had wrought in that Alfredian English, whose charac- 
teristics Mr Henry Sweet was the first to sum up. That the 
change was but slight, and that the MS. also retains some 
older forms of the author of the Homilies, Dr Morris will 
show, in his Introduction to Part II. in 1875. 

(While on this subject the Committee note that, as two 
cheap and handy editions of Gregory's original Latin Rcgtila 
Pasforalls have been lately printed, — one with a modem 
English translation, by the Kev. H. R. Bramley (James 
Parker & Co., Oxford and London), the other at Leipsic, 
sumtibus Ernesti Bredti, — the Latin text promist on the title- 
page to the Society^s Anglo-Saxon text of Alfred^s transla- 
tion, will not be publisht.) 

The fourth Text for this year will probably be a short col- 
lection of Anglo-Saxon poems edited by the Rev. J. Rawson 
Lumby, of which the first. Be Dowcfi Df^ge, is an Anglo-Saxon 
version of Bede's Be Bio Judidl, — a poem of great beauty, 
describing the misery of the damned and the happiness of the 
blesst — while the second is Ldr, an Exhortation, teaching how 
this happiness may be won, and that misery kept out of. 

The second Part of Palladius on Husbondrie will contain 
its Editor's Preface, Notes, Glossary, and Index of Subjects 

§ 8. Extra-Series Te^rtsfor 1874. The Grail. Mr A. /. Ellis. 19 

and Rymes, all the text having been publisht last year. The 
long-delayed Fourth Part of Merlin will also contain the 
Editor's Preface, Notes, Glossary, and Indexes, thus com- 
pleting the book whose marvels and adventures its readers 
have long enjoyed. The Committee rely on members to 
provide them with money enough for the issue of both a 
seventh Text and even an eighth, to be chosen from the above- 
named ' Thomas of Ercildoune,' * The Lay-Folk's Mass-Book,' 
and ' Generydes,' Pai-t II. 

§ 8, Extra'Series Texts for 1874. First of these in time 
will come the first Part of the englishing of Sires Robiers de 
Borron's Histolre del Saint Gntal, by a prosy poetaster and 
skinner of Henry VI's time, Herry Lonelich by name, a 
unique MS. of whose poem is preserved in the Library of 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, from which it was edited 
by Mr Fumivall for the Roxburghe Club in 1 862-3. The glory 
of the Holy Grail renders radiant Arthur's com-t, spite of aU 
its crimes. May its rays give brilliance to Lonelich's lines, 
and make them shine with an efiulgence not their own ! But, 
though poor, Lonelich's poem is the only full English History 
of the coming of the Grail to White Britain, which is Eng- 
land. It is part of that series of English Arthur-Romances 
which the Committee from the first promist to print entire ; 
and its curious mixture of monkish superstitions, legends, and 
fights, vrill interest the student of Middle- Age romance and 

The second Text will be Part IV of Mr Alexander 
J. Ellis's great work on Early English Pronunciation, with 
special reference to Chaitcer and Shuhspere, This Part will 
contain, besides the matter previously announced, the sum- 
mary of Mr Ellis's investigations into our modem English 
dialects, carried on at great sacrifice of time and labour, with 
a classification of them into their four great divisions. North- 
em, Eastern, Southern and Western, with a full account of 
the subdivisions of each, illustrated by many examples and 
lists of words, and upwards of GO comparative versions of the 
same passage in the different existing dialects, especially 
written and collected for this work with the help of numerous 
competent contributors, for the purpose of illustrating the 
actual dialectal condition and pronunciation of Early English. . 
The Part will also contain a full reprint of the earliest phonetic 
account of English dialects, the short .sketch by Dr Gill in the 
sixth chapter of his Logonomia (a.d. 1621), p. 16 — 19. The 
Committee wish to express their thanks to Mr Ellis for the 
very great pains he has taken iu the preparation of this most 

20 § 8. Extra-Series Texts for 1874. § 9. Bepfnnts. 

troublesome collection of specimens, and in the classification 
of om* dialects. They recognize the importance of both to 
the history of English Pronunciation, and the value of the 
light which Mr Ellis's researches into our modem dialects 
throw on the nature of Early English sounds. 

The third Text will be Part II of Mr Skeat's edition of 
Barbour^s Bnice from the only two existing (and late) MSS., 
and the first printed editions, of this great work of Chaucer's 
Scotch contemporary. The Committee hoped for the issue of 
this Text in 1873, and commented on it in their last Report, 
p. 9. They have only now to mention that an Index of the 
Rymes in this edition will be added to the book by a friend 
of Mr J. A. H. Murray^s under the supervision of Mr Skeat. 

If we have money for a fourth Text, it will probably be 
Henry Brinklow's two Tracts, ' The Complaynt of Roderyck 
Mors, sometyme a Gray Fryre, vnto the Parliament Howse 
©f Ingland, his naturall Countrey, for the Redresse of certen 
wicked Lawes, euel Customs and cruel Decreys,' ab. 1536 a.d.; 
and ' The Lamentacion of a Christian against the Citie of 
London,^ a.d. 1542. These tracts are part of that most inter- 
esting set of Books to illustrate the Condition of England in 
Reformation and Tudor times, which the Society began in its 
Extra Series in 1869, and followed up in 1870, 1871, 1872, 
and 1873. This set will probably close with Brinklow^s 
Tracts — except for the completion of Starkey^s ' England in 
Henry VIIPs time, the Dialogue of Pole and Lupset ' — as 
the Neiv Shakspere Society will more appropriately print S&r- 
Tiaon's Description of Engla/iid, 1577, 1587 ; William Stafford's 
Complaint, &c., while Mr Arber prints Stubbes^s Aimtomie of 

§ 9. Reprints, To the Committee's regret, Mr Brock's 
engagements at Cambridge, prevented the appearance last 
year of the revised edition of The Story of Genesis and Exodits, 
with its new Index of Rymes. But as the whole book has 
been long in type, except its last half-sheet, its appearance 
cannot be long delayed. The cost of this Text will swallow- 
up all the Reprint-Funds at the Society's disposal ; but as the 
Cfhaucer Society will share with the Early English Text one, the 
expense of Mr Furnivairs revised edition of Francis Thynne's 
Animadversions y in 1599, on Speght's edition of Chancers 
Workes in 1598, the Committee will issue this second Reprint 
in 1874. They trust that money enough will come-in for 
back-sales during the year to justify the issue of the Reprint 
of the first Part of Merlin, which is now partly printed. As 

§ 10. The Society's Prizes. 21 

soon as the Commemoration Fund has reacht £150, the after 
subscriptions to it will be devoted to the Reprints. 

§ 10. Prizes, On this point the Committee can only repeat 
their often expresst conviction that these slight book-rewards 
have the happiest eflFect. It is not for their money- value that 
they are sought, but just as a witness that their winners^ 
study of the early stages of their mother- tongue has been 
faithful and accurate, as an earnest that the knowledge thus 
gained will remain with its possessors, for it must have become 
part of them, and will not be thrown aside as so many bits of 
information acquired at College or School, in after-life are.* 
The Committee are glad that more Professors abroad, more 
Head-masters at home, desire these Prizes for their pupils. 
The kindness of the Examiners for the Prizes, for all the 
trouble and interest they take in this matter, again calls forth 
the Committee's warm thanks. To prevent misunderstanding 
as to the books given, a clause from our last Report is repeated 
here. " The Committee have resolved to send as Prizes, till 
further notice, the eight Reprints already completed, with 
Genesis and Exodus, and the other Reprints of 1865, as soon as 
they are ready ^. But if any Professors or Secretaries have any 
incomplete Parts in hand, and will tell the Honorary Secretary 
what mey are, the completing Parts, when issued, shall be 
forwarded to them.^' The Winners of the Prizes last year, 
and the Examiners for them, were as follows : — 

Winners. Examiners. 

James George Scott, Fifcshire Prof. Masson, University, Edinburgh 

1 James Morrison, Glasgow \ 

n ( John Patrick, Lochwinnoch J l^rof. Nichol, University, Glasgow 

( David Hunter, Ayr ) 

James G. Petrie, Dundee ) i> r t» it • -i oi. a i » 

"wrir G ^ c*- 1- \ Prof. Bavues, University, St Andrew s 

VVilliam Svnion, Stu'ling ) - ' * ' 

Harold Littledale^ Prof. Dowden, Trin. Coll., Dublin 

A. A. Somerville Prof. Armstrong, Queen's College, Cork 

{Examination j)iU of) l^of. Moflatt, Queen's College, Galway 


( MacDermott } Prof. Yonge, Queen's College, Belfast 

I Wilson 

1 tt 

I entirely concur," says Prof. Moffatt, " in the remarks of your Com- 
mittee as to the good effect of these Prizes. Every student of the English 
lan^a^ is under large obligations to the Society's Editors for their unturing 
and dismtcrested labours." 

* Any Examiner who wishes for more Texts may have them on applying 
to the Director. 

' His answering was higher than that of any former candidate, and could 
hardly have been better.— E. D. 

22 § 10. 1}he Sockty's Prized. 

Thomas McKinnon Wood ) -n r nr i tt • u n ^^ t i u 
Charles Alfred Eussell j ^^^- **°'"^^y' University CoU., Londort 

Greorge Alfred Oakeshott The Lecturer, King's Coll. Evening Classes 

Sidney James Mark Low The Masters, King's College School 

Richard Francis Bell ^ Prof. Ward, Owens Coll., Manchester 

(^Not awarded)^ Dr E. Adams, Evening Class, ditto 

{Examination put off) Rev. Dr Abbott, City of London School * 

(1 Hamilton; 2 Marshall; | Eev. G. Perkins, Manchester Grammar 
3 Wainwright *) 4 Stevenson j School 

Arnold Home J. A. H. MuiTay, Esq., B.A., Mill Hill 


{No return) Kev. S. J. W. Sanders, Bedfordshire 

Middle-Class School 
Arnold Edwards Eev. A. Jessopp, D.D., Norwich School 

John E. Williams (examined Prof. March and Prof. Bloombergh, Lafey- 

in Caedmon) ette College, Easton, Pennsylvania. 

The Committee received with very great pleasure from Prof. 
March, the news that Mr " Barnes, last year's Prize-man, [9th 
Keport, p. 13 last lino,] has been called to a Professorship in 
Iowa College. The attention of the Trustees of that College 
was called to him by his winning your Prize.^' Mr J. A. H. 
Murray also writes that one of " our old Mill-Hill boys, H. 
M. Wood, who competed for your Prize two years ago, but 
did not reach the first place, yet came out at the very top of 

' Subjects : 1. Elements of the Grammar of the English Language before 
the Conquest. 

3. Rules of English Versification before Chaucer. 

3. The History of English Prepositions and Conjunctions. 

4. (fl.) King Alfred's Version of Gregory^s Pastoral Cars; Preface and 

chapter IX (Sweet's Edition, E, E. Text Soc., pp. 2—9; 54r-61). 
(If.) Joseph of Arimathea (Skeat's Edition, E. E. lext Soc.) Preface 
[Exclusive of §§ 9—11] and pp. 1—23. 

' Subjects : 1. T/ie Uflade of St Juliana ; Cockayne's Text (E B. Text 
Soc., No. 51). 

3. The Proclamation of Henry III. ; The Cuckoo-Song ; and The Prisoner's 
Prayer ; Ellis's Text (Trans. Philol. Soc, 1868). 

3. Chaucer, Prologue to the Canterhnrg Tales. 

Principal Greenwood says, " We determined to keep up the standard of 
the Examination, and, finding no man up to it, we did not award the Prize. 
This current year we have a very large Evcnin'j-Class of English, about 65, 
I think." In 1873 the subjects were very hard.— F. 

' These three were elected to scholarships ; so the Prize-books were given 
to Stevenson, whose Morris paper was second-best. The Class was exammed 
in Skeat's 'Specimens of English Literature 1394-1579,' pp. 1-125, and 
Morris's * English Accidence.'— G. P. 

^ The City of London School Examination will not be held till next 

§ 11. Work at Early English outside the Society, 23 

the English Honours list at the late First B. A. Examination 
at the University of London/^ 

During 1873 the Committee decided to send Prize-books to 
the Reading Grammar School; the Richmond Grammar School, 
Yorkshire; St John's College, Anapolis, Maryland (Prof. 
J. M. Garnett) ; the Western Reserve College, Hudson, Ohio, 
U.S.A. (Rev. L. S. Potwin, M.A., Professor of Latin and 
English) ; and to the class of Professor Julius Zupitza, Ph.D., 
at Vienna. 

§ 11. Work at Early Erifjlish outside the Society. In April, 
1873, appeared Mr J. A. H. Murray's Dialects of the South of 
Scotland, in the Historical Introduction to which ho gave the 
first real History of the Northern Dialect that has ever been 
\vritten; for the visionary theories of Pinkerton, Jamieson, 
and the like, about Pictish, Suio-Gothic, &c., have no claim 
to the title of History. Mr Murray also first divided the 
Northern dialect into its three periods of Early, to the middle 
or last quarter of the 14th century ; Middh, to the time of the 
Union with England, 1602 ; Modern, to the present time. 
He will fully illustrate these periods in his "Specimens of 
Lowland Scotch and Northern English^' which he is now 
preparing as one of the Clarendon-Press series of Text-Books. 
Also in 1873 an edition, which was practically a 3rd edition 
of the 2nd volume of Dr Morris's * Specimens of Early English 
to 1400 A.D., was produced by Mr Skeat. In 1873 also, a 
most useful and interesting account of ' The Sources of 
Standard English' by Mr T. L. Kington-Oliphant, M.A., 
Oxf., a Member of our Society who has workt our Texts well, 
was publisht. In a popular but yet scholarlike way, Mr Oli- 
phant has traced the gradual change of our language from 
An fflo- Saxon into Modern English, noting the losses of in- 
flemons and words, the changes of vowels and consonants, 
the incoming of Norse, Romance, and classical words, the 
descent of our standard speech from the Midland Dialect, &c. ; 
and in his Chapter VI has given an amusing account of 
* Good and bad English in 1873 \ A former Editor for our 
Society, Mr Fitzedward Hall, has also publisht a book en- 
titled "Modem English/' which, notwithstanding its tone, 
contains some valuable collections of quotations giving his- 
torical accounts or illustrations of English words and phrases. 
The great prominence given by Dr Appleton, the editor of The 
Academy (43, Wellington St., W.C.) to the English Department 

^ Dr E. Morris has in the press a small Historical Grammar for junior 

24 § li. Work outside the Socieiy. § 12. New Societies of 187iJ. 

in the new and enlarged form of his exceUent journal is matter 
for congratulation to English students. From abroad we have 
had 1. the completion of Dr F. H. Stratmann^s most carefully 
compiled " Old English Dictionary of the 12th, 13th, 14th and 
15th Centuries/^ containing every word (as he hopes) of 
Teutonic and Norse origin in the Texts of which the long list 
is given at the beginning of his book. Want of time pre- 
vented the inclusion of all the Romance words ; but many more 
are in it than the first edition of the Dictionary contained, and 
Dr Stratmann has been for many months at work on a Sup- 
plement to his second edition. Dr Stratmann has also printed 
in Notes and Queries some valuable corrections of words and 
meanings given in certain of the Society's texts and glossaries. 
These we shall reprint. 2. The Altem/li^clws Uebungsbuch of 
Dr Julius Zupitza of Vienna, containing a set of short speci- 
mens of Old and Early English from the 9th century to the 
15th, with an admirable Glossary, taking up nearly half the 
little book. 3. Dr Horstmann's prints, with critical notices, 
o{ King Horn from the Laud MS. 108, in the ArcJiiv fUr das 
Studium der neueren Spraclien iind lAteraturen, and of the 
Legend of St Miclmel from the same Laud MS. 108, in tfie 
Jahrbuchfur Romanische und Englische Sprax'Jie tind Literatur, 
From abroad has also come to us during 1873 a pleasing oflFer 
of help from Dr Richard Wiilcker of Leipzig, who has under- 
taken to edit for us in 1875 the Legend of Nicodemus, with 
a very full account of the forms and traces of that Legend 
in the different literatures of Europe. 

§ 12. New Societies started by some of oar Members in 1873. 
One of the happiest evidences of the Society's life is its power 
of giving birth to vigorous offspiing. We have before referred 
to its children of 1867, 1868, and 1870. We now name its 
sons of 1873. Full-armed they sprang from the brain of 
their parent, and are all now fighting their way in the world, 
alone, yet allied. 

1. The Pakeographical Socieiij will be. of peculiar help to 
our Editors and working Members. It has just produced 
its first grand Part of twelve Plates containing 13 auto- 
tjrpes of parts of MSS. ranging from a Greek papyrus of 
152 B.C., through the beautiful text and ornamentation of 
the Lindisfame Gospels of about 700 a.d., to a Charter of 
Werfuth, Bishop of Worcester, a.d. 934 ; with prints of the 
MS. texts, comments, and description, by Mr E. A. Bond, 
the Keeper of the MSS. at the British Museum, and Mr E. 
M. Thompson, the Assistant-Keeper, both men specially 
trained for the work, and than whom no better judges in 

§ l2. Nfew Socletm hf 1873 : English Dialect ; New S/iaJcsjjere. 25 

England probably exist. The Committee heartily con- 
gratulate Mr Bond on the foundation and success of his new 
Society, and on its first issue. They trust that its eflTect will 
be to train up a school of English palaeographers, worthy of 
our fine Collections and our nation, to introduce certainty 
into a study where guesses now too often prevail, and thus 
substitute science for empiricism. 

2. Further, the Committee witnessed with true pleasure the 
foundation in the summer of 1873 of The English Dialect 
Society by their honoured fellow-worker Mr Skeat. His 
generous and unceasing labours for our Society since he joined 
it in the middle of 1864, and at once made his mark on it by 
his edition of Lancelot of the Laik early in 1865, had won him 
the affectionate regard of us all ; but by the starting of his 
new Society he has establisht a fresh claim to our gratitude ; 
for its purpose is, to gather up the fragments that remain in 
our land, of those old words and forms that our own Early 
English Text Society has made its special study, which it has 
made known in part, and seeks to make known in full ; to show 
us how our three great Early Dialects have developt and 
divided, what they've lost and what theyVe gained, to follow 
Early English into its present peasant homes. The English 
Dialect Society has a special claim on all Members of the 
Early English Text Society, and the Committee trust that all 
our Members who can, will help Mr Skeat's brave attempt to 
do a much-needed part of our work.^ 

3. Yet another Society founded in the past year calls for 
notice at the Committee's hands. By its publication of texts 
stretching past the date of Shakspere's death, the Committee 
has always proclaimed that Elizabethan English lay within 
its domain. The Societies to which our own formerly gave 
birth, the Spenser Society, The Roxburghe Library, the 
Hunterian Club, all concern themselves with late Tudor and 
early Stuart Literature. The Committee have therefore hailed 
with gladness the foundation of The Ncio Slialcspere Society by 
their Director, in honour of the great Dramatist in whom 
English Poetry culminated. To Shakspere every student of 
Early English looks as to the mountain-top that he on the 
plain desires to climb. The mind and art of the men he deals 
with, often differ so much from Shakspere's in degree, that 
they seem to be of another kind. Bat nevertheless, from 
the same race as they sprang, sprang Shakspere; from the 

* The Kentish ArchaGological Society have already in type the whole of 
Dr Pegge's Kentish Glossary, written in 1735-6. This will be rcprintedi 
later on, for the English Dialect Society. 

26 Tluifik^ io Mr Joachim, Mr Siielgrove is'our New Iton. Sec* 

same English land and air as thej drank in their small wit^ 
drank he his wondrous humour^ sweetness and might. All 
Early English students must rejoice in a fresh attempt to 
bring new honour to his name^ to make him better under- 
stood of men^ to show more clearly the growth of the mind 
and art that are the great glory of our English speech. 

'All along the line ' our volunteers are engaged, and on 
the advance. The attack is weakest at the farthest point, 
Anglo-Saxon. Who will enable us to strengthen it ? 

§ 13. Mwcellaneotis. The Committee regret that the 
rapidly increasing business-engagements of Mr George 
Joachim have compelled him to resign the post that he so 
kindly undertook the labours of on Mr Wheatley's retire- 
ment at the end of 1871, the Honorary Secretaryship of our 
Society. During his two-years^ troublesobae hard work for 
us, Mr Joachim has rendered the Society most efficient service, 
and improved its financial position. The Committee hoped 
for many years of his watchful care ; but as necessity deprives 
them of it, they now desire, in the name of the Society, to . 
return their warmest thanks to Mr Joachim for the zeal he has 
shown in promoting the Society^s welfare, and the attention 
he has paid to its interests. 

The Committee being at a loss to fill Mr Joachim^s place, 
that gentleman suggested as the best possible successor to 
himself, the friend who had at first induced him to accept his 
post, namely, Mr Arthur G. Snelgrove, the well-known able 
Honorary Secretary to the Chaucer and the Ballad Societies, 
who had just taken on himself the additional duty of the 
Honorary Secretaryship to the New Shakspere Society. 
By these Societies each allowing a nominal annual payment to 
a clerk to help Mr Snelgrove occasionally, he was assured 
that he could do the business of four Societies as easily as that 
of one. With the greatest possible good humour and kind- 
ness he consented to try the plaii ; and consequently the 
Early English Text Society^s Honorary Secretary is now Mr 
Arthur G. Snelgrove. The Committee need not say how 
grateful they feel to him for taking on himself the additional 
burden of the Society's work. They are sure that every 
member of the Society shares that feeling, and will resolve 
never to add to Mr Snelgrove's burden by making him write 
a letter for a subscription in arrear. If all Members would 
but send an order on their bankers for the annual payment of 
their subscriptions, they' cU make their Honorary SccretcD'y's 
duties happy and honorary indeed. 
The Honorary Secretary asks 

§ 13. The Societf/s Incomey Members, ami Issues in 1873. 27 

1. That all complaints as to non-delivery of Texts may be 
sent to Messrs Triibner, who, as the Society's publishers, dis- 
patch all its parcels. Messrs Triibner have moved to their 
newly built house, 57 & 59 Ludgate Hill, London, E.C. 

2. That all pajrments of subscriptions may be made direct 
to the Hon. Sec, and not to provincial agents — except in the 
case of the customers of Messrs Triibner and the foreign 

The Director asks that any Members willing to help Editors 
in making Indexes, Glossaries, Ryme-lists, or looking-up 
subjects for them, will either write to him, or to the Editor 
they desire to help. 

The usual table of the Society^s members, income, and 
issues, follows : 

Original Series. 
J 1864 186.51 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 

Members 145 
Income £152 
Pages issued 481 

Members . . 

260 1 409 

£384' £681 

950 32034 

580 660 
£717 £761 
1207 1363 

Extra Series. 









Pages issned 

























To end, the Society wants more money and Members. 
And these are only to be got by the present Members making 
it their business, as it sho'uld be their pleasure, to ask every 
friend and acquaintance they meet, to join the Society. 

The Subscription to the Society is £1 Is. a year [and £1 Is, (Large 
Paper, £2 12s, 6c?.) additional for the Extra Series], due in advance on 
the Ist of January, and should be paid either to the Society's Account 
at the Head Office of the Union Bank, Princes St, London, E.G., or by 
Money Order (made payable at the Chief Office, Lapdon, and crosst 
* Union Bank ') to the Hon. Secretary, Arthur G. Snelgrove, Esq., 
London Hospital, London, E. All Members wlio subscribe through 
other channels than the Hon. Sec. are askt to send their names to him, 
in order to insure an early insertion of them in the List of Membci's.V; 

Those Members in the United States who want their Texts posted to them, 
must add to their prepaid subscriptions os. yearly for the Original Series, and 
Ss, for the Extra Series. 

* This was the first year under the new rule, of reckoning those men 
only as Members who paid their year's subscription within the year. 

'' This very large issue in IS 66 was due to the many sales of back Text^ 
in that year, and to the Philological Society's bearing part of the cost of the 

* £90 of this sum was from * the Duke of Manchester's Commemoration 

28 Other Societies and Folk deserving of Help, 

The Honorary Secretary of the Chaucer Society, the Ballad Socieii/, and 
the Niew SItakspere Society^ is Arthur G. Snelgrove, Esq., London Hospital, 
London, E. 

The Honorary Secretary of the English Dialect Society is the Rev. W. W. 
Skeat, 1, Gintra Terrace, Cambridge. Subscription half-a-guinea a year, in 
advance. Hnn, Treas,, Rev. J. W. Cartmell, Christ's College, Cambridge. 

Mr £. Arber's excellent English Mepriwts, which ought to be far more 
widely spread than they are in tl^e United States and Oreat Britain, are now 
publisht by him, at 87, St Augustine Road, Camden Square, London, N.W. 
He will send a Catalogue to any applicant. 

The Hunterian Club, Glasgow, which is reprinting in 4to the complete 
works of Samuel Rowlands the Satirist, and re-editing the great Bannatyne 
MS., besides reprinting Alexander Craige's Poetical worlvs, wants more mem- 
bers. The Club is limited to 200. Subscription 2 guineas a year, in advance. 
Hon, Tteas.y Mr John Alexander, 43, Campbell St. West, Glasgow. 

The Spenser Society, Manchester, also limited to 200 Members at 2 
guineas a year, •also wants Members. It is reprinting in handsome quartos 
the complete works of John Taylor the Water- Poet, Withers, and other 
authors of our middle time. Hon. Sec, care of Messrs Simms, printers, Man- 

€lit Ballab Sotietg 

was cstabUsht, on the completion of the print of the Percy Folio MS, to reprint 
the known collections of Ballads, like the Roxbarghe, Bagford, Rawlinson, Douce, 
&c., and to print Ballads fi'om MSS, and books iUustrating Ballad-History. The 
Subscription is One Guinea a year; or for large royal ribbed papers I%ree 
Guineas, The Subscriptions date from January 1, 1868, and should be paid 
either to the account of The Ballad Society at the Alliance Bank, Bartholomew 
Lane, London, E.G., or (by Money Order, payable at the Chief Office, £.0.) to— 

ARTHUR G. SNEL6R0YE, Esq., London Hospital, Zondoft, E. 

The Society's books are not on sale separately to the public. They are : — 

Nos. 1 and 2. Ballada and Poems firom Mannieripti. Vol. I, Part 1, on the 
Condition of England in the Reigns of Henry VIII. and Edw. VI. (including 
the State of the Clergy, Monks, and Friars). 1868. Part 2, containing 
Ballads on Wolsey, Anne Boleyn, Somerset, Lady Jane Grey, &c. Edited by 
F. J. FuBNivALL, M.A. 1872. 

No. 3. Ballads firAi Mannseripts. Yolnme II, Part 1 : The Poore Mans Pit- 
tance, by EiOHABD WiLUAMs. Edited by F. J. Fubmivall, M.A. 1868. 
{The Introductions, by W, R. Morfill, Esq,, M.A,, of Oriel Coll., Oxford, and 
the Index, wiU be issued shortly,) 

Nos. 4, 5, 6, 8. The Boxbnrghe Ballads, ParU I to V, 1869-1873, with short 
Notes by W. Chappell, Esq., and copies of the original Woodcuts by Mr 
Rudolf Bund and Mr W. H. Hoopbb. [Fart I is in the Press for 1874. 

No. 7. Captain Cos, his Ballads and Books, or, Robebt Laneham's Letter : 
Whearin part of the entertainment untoo the Queenz Majesty at Killingworth 
Castl, in Warwik Sheer in this Soomerz Progress .1676. is signified. By 
F. J. FUBNlVALL, M.A. 1871. 

Ballads from Mannseripts. Vol. II. Part 8, containing Ballads on Queen Elisabeth, 
Essex, Campion, Drake, etc. Edited by W. R. Mobfilt^ Esq., M.A., Oxford. 

[At press, for 1878. 






HOK. SEC. : ARTHUR G. SNELGROVE, ESQ., London Hospital, 

London, E. 




(With power to add Worker $ to their nvmher.) 



Princes Stj^eet, E.C. 

TRUBNER k CO., 57 k 59, Ludqate Hill, E.C. 

*^* A fttnr or dagger is prefixed to the names of those who suhseribe to the Extra Series 
a star [*} for the mnall paper, and a dagger (t) for tfie large peeper. 

Abraham, Robert T., Esq., Malvern College. 
*Adam, a. Mercer, Esq., M.D., Bargate Lodge, Boston, LiDcolnshire. 

Adams, Dr. Ernest, Anson Road, Victoria Park, Manchester. 
*Adamson, Edward, Esq., Church Street, Rye, Sussex. 
*Addis, John, jun., Esq., Rustington, Littiehampton, Sussex. 

Adte, Willett L., Esq., Puckpool House, Ryde. 

AiNS WORTH, Dr. R. F., Cliff Point, Lower Broughton, Manchester. 

Alexander, George Russell, Esq., II, Sardinia Terrace, Hillhead, Glasgow, 
f Alexander, John, Esq., Menstriebank, Dowanhill Gardens, Glasgow. 

Alexander, Walter, Esq., 29, St Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
♦Allen, Edw. G., Esq., 12, Tavistock Row, Coven t Garden. 
♦Allison, R. A., Esq., Scaleby Hall, Carlisle. 

♦Allon, Rev. Henry, JO, St. Mary's Road, Canonbury, N. (by Messrs, Triibner 
k Co.). 

Amert, J. Sparke, jun., Esq., Druid, near Ashburton, Devon. 
♦Amherst College Library, Amherst, Mass., U. S. 

Amuurst, Wm. A. Tyssen, Esq., Didlington Hall, Brandon, Norfolk. 

Angus, Rev. Joseph, D.D., Regent's Park College, N.W. 

Annandale, Charles, Esq., Messrs. Blaokie & Sons, Glasgow. 

Arnold, T., Esq., Laleham, Oxford. 

80 LUt of Members of the E. E. Text Soe., QUt Dec, 1873. 

*A8HBB ic Co., Messrs., 18, Bedford Street, Covent Garden, W.C. (7 sets). 
Extra Series, 4 sets. 

A8HDB9T, W. H., Ksq., General Post Office, E.G. 
*Ath£K£UM Club, Waterloo Plaoe, S.W. 
♦Atkinson, Rev. E., D.D., Master of Clare College, Cambridge. 
♦Atkinson, Rev. J. C, Danby Parsonage, Yarm, Yorkshire. 
♦Austin, Frederick Stephen, Esq., 39, Princess Street^ Manchester. 

Austin, Stephen, Hertford. 
♦Bain, J., Esq., 1, Haymarket. 

Baker, Charles, Esq., F.S.A., 11, Sackville Street, W. 
♦Baltimore Mebcantile Libbabt. 

Bannisteb, Saxe, Esq., M.A., Thornton Lodge, Croydon. 

Babon, Rev. J., Rectory, Upton Scadamore, Warminster, Wilts. 

Babrack, Rev. Wm., Dollar Institution, Dollar, N. B. 

Babbstt, Rev. Alfred, D.D., Carshalton House, Surrey. 
♦Babwell, Thomas, Esq., Cank Street, Leicester. 
♦Baynes, Prof. Thos. S., 19, Queen Street, St. Andrew's, Fife. 

Beambs, John, Esq., Bengal Civil Service, India (by Messrs. Tnlbner, k Co.). 

Beabd, James, Esq.. The Grange, Burnage Lane, near Manchester. 

Beaumont College, Old Windsor (Rev. T. Welsby, Rector). 

Belfast, The Libraby of Queen's College. 

Bell, T. L, G., Esq., The Broadway, Stratford, E. 

Bell, Rev. W. R., lAithkii'k Vicarage, Mickleton, near Darlington. 

Benecke, Dr., Berlin. 

Best, W., Esq., 39, Lyddon Terrace, Leeds. 

BiDDELL, Sidney, Esq., Farm-hill House, Stroud, Gloucestershire. 
♦BiNNS, Rev. William, Birkenhead. - 
♦BiBMiNOHAM Libbaby, Union Street, Birmingham. 
♦Birmingham Fbee Centbal Libbaby, Ratcliff Place, Birmingham. 

Blacklet, Rev. W. L., North Waltham Rectory, Micheldcver, Hants. 
♦Blackman, Frederick, Esq., 4, York Road, S.W. 
♦Bladon, James, Esq., Albion House, Pont y Pool. 
♦BocHEB, Prof. Ferdinand, Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 

Bond, E. A., Esq., British Museum, W.C. 
♦Boston Athenaeum Libbaby, U. S. 
♦BoswoBTH, Rev. Professor, D.D., 20, Beaumont Street, Oxford. 

Bottomley, Edward, Esq., Greenfield, Manchester (by Messrs. Trilbner k Co.). 
•fBowEN, Holdeii Bowen, Esq., Providence, Rhode Island, U. S. A. 

Braumilleb, H., Esq., Vienna (by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 
♦Bbooke, Col. Thomas, Armitage Bridge, Huddersfield. 
♦Bbooklyn Mebcantile Libbaby, New York. 

Bbown, a. H., Esq., Brentwood. 

Bbown, Chables Hebbebt, Esq., Leach House, New Colne, Lancashire. 

Bbown, Joseph, Esq., Grammar School, Kendal. 
♦Buckley, Rev. Wm, Edw., Rectory, Middleton Cheney, Banbury. 

Bubges, William, Esq., 16, Buckingham Street, Strand. 
♦BuBBA, James S., Esq., Ashford, Kent 
♦Bute, The Marquis of, 83, Eccleston Square, S.W. 
♦Cambbidge, Chbist's College. 

♦ „ St. Cathebine's College. 

♦ „ St. John's College. 
„ King's College. 

♦ „ Tbotity College Libbaby. 
Camfbkll, J. D., Esq., Mauritius. 

List of Members of the U. JE. Text Soc., Slst Dec, 1873. 31 

Candler, Howard, Esq., West Bank, Uppingham. 
♦Capabn, Rev. W. B., Drayoot Vicarage, Weston super Mare. 

Cape Town, South African Library, Cape of Good Hope. 
♦Carlyle, Dr., The HiU, Dumfries, N. B. 
♦Cablton (Junior) Club, Pall Mall. 

Cabr, Henry, Esq., 178, South Street, New York. 
♦Cazbnove, C. D., Esq., 16, Beauford Buildings, Strand, W.C. (by Messrs. 
Triibner & Co.). 

Chalmebs, James, 'Esq., Aberdeen. 
^Chalmers, Richard, Esq., 1, Claremont Terrace, Glasgow. 
^Chamberlain, Arthur, Esq., Elm House, Arthur Road, Edgbaston. 
*Chambeblain, Professor John Henry, Chrlstchuroh Buildings, Birmingham. 

Chappell, William, Esq., F.S.A., Heather Down, Asoot, Berks. 

Cheltenham College Libraby. 

„ LiBBARY, 5, Royal Cresoent, Cheltenham. 

•Chicago Libbaby, Chicago, U. 8. 

Chichester, Lord Bishop of, Chichester. 

Childs, Charles, Esq., Bungay. 
*Choblson, Thomas, Esq., 82, Brazenose Street, Manchester. 

Chbistian, Rev. George, Uppingham, Rutland. 

Chbistiania Univbbsity. 
♦Cincinnati Public and School Libbabt. 

Clabk, David R., Esq., M.A., Dumbreck House, Paisley Road, Glasgow. 

Clabk, Rev. Samuel, Eaton Bishop Rectory, Hereford. 

Cohen, Arthur, Esq., 6, King's Bench Walk, Temple, E.C. 

Colebbook, Sir T. Edward, Bart., 37, South Street, Piccadilly. 
fCoLEBiDGE, ITie Right Hon. Baron, 1, Sussex Square, Hyde Park, W. 

Coler[dge, Miss Edith, Hanwell Rectory, Middlesex. 
♦COMPTON, Rev. Lord Alwj^ne, Chadstone, Northamptonshire. 

Constable, Archibald, Esq., 11, Thistle Street, Edinburgh. 
♦Cook, J. William, Esq., Wentworth House, Snaresbrook, Essex. 

Cooper, John Forster, Esq., 175, Adelaide Road, N.W. 
♦Copenhagen Royal Libi{Ary (by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 

CoRNWELL, Dr., Purbrook, Sydenham Hill, S.E. 
fCosESS, Frederick, Esq., 27, Queen's Gate, Kensington, W. 
♦CowPER, Joseph Meadows, Esq., Lima (care of B. H. Cowper, Esq., 190, 
Richmond Road, N.E.). 

Cox, Rev. Thomas, The Heath, near Halifax. 
♦COXHEAD, Albert C, Esq., 47, Russell Square, W.C. 

Ckaig, Rev. John S., Maryport, Cumberland. 

Creak, A., Esq., The Wick, Brighton. 

Crossley, James, Esq., 2, Cavendish Place, Cavendish Street, Oxford Road, 

Croston, James, Esq., Tlie Grove, Halliwell Lane, Cheetham Hill, Manchester, 

Crowther, Joseph S., Esq., 28, Brazenose Street, Manchester. 
♦CULLEY, M. T., Esq., Coupland Castle, Wooler, Nortliumberland. 
♦Curtis, Major-General N. Martin, Ogdensburg, St Lawrence, Now York. 

CusHiNGS & Bailey, Messrs. 

CUTBILL, Alfred, E^i., 7, King's Bench Walk, Temple(by Messrs.Triibner k Co.). 

CuTHBEBT, A., E8<i., Glasgow (by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 
♦Dalton, Rev. J. N., Marlborough House, Pall Mall, S.W. 
♦Dames, M. L., Esq., C.S., Assistant Commissioner, Kamal, Punjab. 

Dabbishire, R. D., Esq., 26, George Street, Manchester (by Messrs. Triibner 
k Co.). 

32 List of Members of the E. E. Text Sac., 3Ut Dec, 1873. 

Davies, Bev. John, 14, BeUize Square, South Hampstead, N.W. 

DAYIE8, Bobert, Esq., The Mount, York. 

Davi£8, W. Carey, Esq., care of Messrs. Grindlay & Co., 65, Parliament Street, 

Dawes, Rev. J. S., Newton House, Surbiton, S.W. (by Messrs. Trilbner & Co.). 

Day, Miss Elsie, 12, Princess Terrace, Kilbum, N.W. 

Deiohton, Bell, Sc Co., Messrs., Cambridge. 
♦Denny, Hy G., Esq., 87, Court Square, Boston. 

Denton, Rev. W., 48, Finsbury Circus, E.C. 

Derby, Earl of, 23, St James's Square, S.W. 
fDEVONSHiBB, The Duke of, Devonshire House, Piccadilly. 
♦Dickinson, F. H., Esq., 119, St. George's Square, S.W. 

Dickson, Thomas, Esq., Register House, Edinburgh. 

Dickson, Frederick C, Esq., 18a, South Castle Street, Liverpool. 

Dillingham, John H., Esq., Haverford College, Montgomery, Co. Pa., U. S. 
♦DODDS, Rev. James, The Abbey, Paisley, N. B. 
♦Donaldson, David, Esq., Grammar School, Paisley. 
♦DowDEN, Prof. Edward, 50, Wellington Road, Dublin. 
♦Dublin, King's Inn Lxbraby, Henrietta Street 
„ Royal Irish Academy, Dawson Street 
♦ • „ Right Rev. Richard C. Trench, D.D., Archbishop of, Dublin. 

DULLEY, Rev. Morton, Barnby Rectory, near Beccles, Suffolk. 

Durham Cathedral, the Library of the Dean and Chapter. 

DuRiE, William, Esq., Circus Place School, Edinburgh. 

Du RiEU, Rev. W. M., St Barnabas College, Pimlico, S.W. 
♦Dykes, Frederick, Esq., Wakefield. 
♦Earle, Rev. J., Swanswick Rectory, Bath. 

Edinburgh University Library. 

Edis, Robert W., Esq., 14, Fitzroy Square, W. 
♦Edmonds, Mr. Charles, 11, Bull Street, Birmingham. 

EOGINTON, John, Esq., 13, Friar Street, Reading. 
•Ellis, A. J., Esq., 25, Arg3^11 Road, Kensington, W. 

Elliot, Sir Walter, Wolfelee, Hawick, N. B; 
♦Elt, C. H., Esq., 1, Noel Street, Islington. , 
fEuiNO, William, Esq., 209, West George Street, Glasgow. 
♦Evans, Sebastian, Esq., St. Ives, Highgate, near Birmingham. 

EVANSTON, Illinois, North Western University. 
♦Fairbairn, Rev. James, Newhaven, near Edinburgh. 

Fairbridge, Charles, Esq., Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope (by Messrs. 
Triibner & Co.). 
♦Falconer, J. J., Esq., 2, Upper Phillimore Gardens, Campden Hill, W. 
♦Falconer, Thomas, Esq., Usk, Monmouthshire. 

Faunthorpe, Rev. John P., Vice-Principal, Training College, Battersea. 

Ferris, O. A., Esq., 2, Union. Road, Tuffnell Park, N. 

Field, Hamilton, Esq., Thornton Lodge, Thornton Road, Clapham Park. 

Fishwick, Lieut Col. Henry, Carr Hill, Rochdale. 

Fitch, J. G., Esq., 6, Lancaster Terrace, Regent's Park, N.W. 

Fogo, David F. Laurie, Esq., 146, West George Street, Glasgow. 
•FoRSTER, John, Esq., Palace-gate House, Kensington, W. 

Frames, George C„ Esq., 65, Belsize Park, N.W. 
♦Fry, Dauby P., Esq., Local Government Board, Whitehall. 

Fry, Frederick, Esq., 110, Bunhill Row, E.C. 
♦FURNESS, Horace Howard, Esq., Philadelphia. 

♦FURNIVALL, F. J., Esq., 3, St. George's Square, Primrose Hill, London, N.W. 

List of Members of Hie E. JS. Text Soc., 3Ut De<i.y 1873. 33 

*Gee, William, Esq., High Street, Boston. 
*GiBB8, H. H^ Esq., St. Dunstan's, Begent's Park. 
GiBBS, William, Esq., Tyntesfield, near Bristol. 
^GiLMAN, Arthur, Esq., 11, Mason Street, Mass., U. S. 
^Glasgow Univiebsitt Libbaby (by Messrs. Triibner k, Co.). 
Glen, W. Cunningham, Esq., LocueiI Government Board, Whitehall. 
Glenkie, J. S. Stuart, Esq., 6, Stone Buildings, Lincoln*! Inn, W.C. 
Godwin, E. W., Esq., 197, Albany Street, N.W. 
^Gordon, (George J. R., Esq., Stuttgart 

Gordon, Rev. Robert, 6, Mayfield Street, Kewington, Edinburgh. 
GoTTiNQEN Universitt Libbabt (by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 
GOULBOUBN, Very Rev. Dr., Dean of Norwich, Norwich. 
Gbahame, W. F., Esq., Madras Civil Service, Chicacole, Madras. 
Gbeq, Louis, Esq., 17, Brown's Buildings, Liverpool. 
♦Gbippith, Robert W., Esq., Quay Street, Cardiff. 
Gboome, Archdeacon Robert, Monk Soham Rectory, Wickham Market, 

Guest, Edwin, Esq., LL.D., Master of Caius College, Cambridge. 
Guest, John, Esq., Moorgate Grange, Rotherham. 
•GmiiD, J. Wylie, Esq., 17, Park Terrace, Glasgaw. 
•Guildhall, Libbabt op the Cobpobation of London, E.C. 
•Hailstone, Edward, Esq., Walton Hall, Wakefield. 
♦Hales, J. W., Esq., 1, Oppidan's Road, Primrose Hill, N.W. 
Hamburg Stadtbibliothek (care of Asher U. Co.). 
Hanson, Reginald, Esq., 40, Boundary Road, N.W. 
Habben, Henry A., Esq., Seaford Lodge, Fellows' Road, N.W. 
♦H/LBBis, Frederick, Esq., Oakfield Terrace, Gateacre, near Liverpool. 
♦Habris, Mortimer, Esq., 10, Angell Park Gardens, Brixton, S.W. 
* Harris, William, Esq., Stratford Road, Camp Hill, Birmingham. 
Harrison, Wm., Esq., Samlesbury Hall, near Preston, Lancashire. 
*Habvabd College, Cambridge, Mass., U. S. 
*Hay, C. a., Esq., 127, Harley Street, W. 
Hates, J. T., Esq., 4, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, W.C. (by Messrs. 

Triibner & Co.). 
He ALES, Alfred, Esq., Doctors' Commons, E.C. 
Heath, Richard Child, Esq., New Street, Warwick. 
Hebfobd, Edward, Esq., Bonishall, Macclesfield. 
Hebtz, Dr. (by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 

Hibbard, Miss Mercy, Willow Bank, Whalley Range, Manchester. 
Hill, John William, Esq., Lynton Villa, Mount Preston, Leeds. 
Hilton, Wm. Hughes, Esq., Willow Bank, Stretford, near Manchester. 
•Hodgson, Shadworth H., Esq., 46, Conduit Street, Regent Street, W. 
HoETS, J. W. van Rees, Esq., 150, Adelaide Road, N.W. 
Holme, J. Wilson, Esq., 34, Old Jewry, E.C. 
HORTON, E. R., Esq., University College School, Gower Street 
♦HOBWOOD, Alfred J., Esq., New Court, Middle Temple, E.C, 
Houghton, Lord, 16, Upper Brook Street, W. 
HowABD, Henry, Esq., Stone House, near Kidderminster. 
Hugo, Rev. Thomas, The Rectory, West Hackney, Stoke Newington, N. 
Hull Subscbiftion Libbabt, Albion Street, Hull. 
Hutchinson, Edward, Esq., Darlington. 
*Hyde, James John, Esq., 11, Halley Street, Limehouse, E. 
1' Anson, James, jun., Esq., Fairfield House, Darlington. 
iNOLEBY, C. Mansfield, Esq., LL.D., Valentine's, Uford, £. 
iBViNS, William, Esq., Hawick, N. B. 

34 List of Members of the E. E. Text Soc, 5Ut Dec, 1873. 

Jackson, E. Steane, Esq., Ponland Grammar School, Portlftod Villas, riy- 

Jaoebon, George, Esq., Bed House, Winchester. 
'Jacksoh. John, Esq., ChancinT Place, Manchester. 
'Jambb, Colonel Edward C, Ogdenabms, St. lAwrecoe Cotlnty, New York 

'Jenkins, James, M.D., C.B., Bo;al Marine ArtiUory BorrAks, Eaetney, near 

Jennbb, Charles, Esq., Easter Duddingston Lodge, Edinburgh. 
'Joachim, George, Esq., St. Andrew House, Change Alley, B.C. 

JOHKBON, O. J., Esq., iit, Waterloo Street, Bimiingham. 
•t Johnson, HichanC Esq,, lAogloo Oaks, Fallowfield, Manoheater. (2 seU.) 

JONEB, C. W., Esq., 3, Childwall Boad, Wavertree, near Liverpool. 

Jones, Francis, Esq., 65, Granville Park, Lewisham, S.B. 

Jones, Bev. James, juq., 2S, Upper Leeson Street, Dublin (by Messrs. Trilbner 
ft Co.). 
•Jones, Joseph, Esq., Abberley Hall, Stourpott. 
'Jones,. Thomas, Esq., Chethiuu Library. Manchester. 

Jones, Sir Willoughby, Bart., Cranmer Hnll, Fakenliani, Norfolk. 

Kendall, John, Esq., 85, Kiimford Street, MaDchester. 

Kekrick, WilUam, Esq;, Uornitlands, Korfolk Bond, Birmiagham. 

Kkbs&AW, John, Esq., Cross Qate, Audensbaw, Manchester. 
'Kebslakb & Co., Messrs, Bristol (by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). (3 sets.) 
■Kebsley, Kor. Canon, LL.D., Cougham Itootory, King's Lyun. 

Kett, Kev. C. W., IB, Glonoeater Boad, Regent's Park, N.W. 
•KmoBBUKy, Bev. T. L., Cambridge, 
; KiTSON, James, Esq., Elmete Hall, Leeds. , 

Klinksieck, Fi, Esq., Paris (^y Messrs. Triibner k Co.), (3 sets.) 

Laidlav, a., Esq., Seaoliffe House, North Berwick, N. B, 
*Laino, ttavid, Eb(i., LL.D., Sigoet Library, Edinburgh. 
'LEATHE3, Frederick, Eitq., l), Tavislook Place, Tavistock Square, W.C. 

Leeds Old Libeary. 
•Lbioh, John, Esq,, Whalley Rood, Whalley Range, Manchealer, 

Leifziq University LmaABV (by Meflsrs. Triibner 4 Co.). 
■Lbvandee, H. C, Esq., Unitersity College School, Gower Street, W.C. 

Lewis, Bev. Henry, Secretary, Training Collefte, Battcrsea. 

Li&T&B, John, Esq., ShllMlen Hall, near HolifaK, 
•Little, E. D., Esq., The School, Uppingham. 

Lloyd, Edwin, Esq., Leominster. 

Lloyd. Bidgway B., Esq., London Boad, St Alban's. 
•LOCKWOOD St Co., Messrs., 7, SlaticBiers' Hall Court, E.C. (by Messrs. Triihner 

ft Co.). 
•LoiKJE, Bev. Barton, Colchester, 

London Institution, Finsbury Circus, E.C. 
'LonnON LlBBAJiT, 12, St James's Square, S.W. 
•Low, Messrs. S. a Co., 188, Fleet Street, B.C. (by Messrs. Trubner it Co.). 

(7 sets Ori^nal, 1 sot Extra.) 
'LUARD, Bev. Henry Bichards, 4, St Peter's Terrace, Cambridge. 
•LUKBT, B«v. J. SawBon, St. Mary's Gate, Cambridge. 

LUPTOK, Francis Martineau, Esq., Beechwood, Leeds. 

LcbhINOTON, E. L.. Esq., Park House, Maidstone, and Glasgow. 

LuBHlNGTON, Vomon, Ua\., Q.C., 87, Eccleston Si[U»re. S.W. 
•Mao Donald, George, Esq., The Retreat, Upper Mall, Hammersmith, W. 
•Mac Douall, Profcwor Charles. LL.D., Queen's College, Belfast, 

Mackenzie, John Whitefoord, Esq., 16, Boyal Circus, Edinbnigh. 



List of Members of the E. E. Text Sac., SUt Bee., 1873, 38 

Hackonochie, Bev. Alex. Heriot, St Albania Clergy House, Brooke Street, 

Maclabek, John Battray, Esq., Edinbargfa. 
♦Maomillan, a., Esq., Bedford Street, Covent Garden, W.O. 

Malleson, William T., Esq., Duppa's Hill, Croydon. 
*Manohb8TEB, The Duke of, Kimbolton Castle, St Neot*8. 

Manchesteb Pobtico Librabt. 
^Manchesteb Fbeb Library (Dr. Crestadoro). 
•March, Prof. F. A., Lafayette College, Pa. 

Mabkbt, Alfred, Esq., 9, New Square, Lincoln's Inn. 
•Marsh, His Excellency George P., Borne. 
•Mabshall, John, Esq., 20, Holyrood Crescent, Glasgow (by Messrs. Triibner 

& Co.). 
♦Mabtht, E., Esq. (by Messrs. Trubner & Co.). 
•Mabtineau, p. M., Esq., Littleworth, Esher, Surrey. 
•Mabtineau, Bussell, Esq., British Museum, W.C. 

Mason, C. P., Esq., 5, College Gardens, Dulwich Boad, S.E. 

Matzneb, Dr. (care of Messrs. Asher). 
•Matob, Bev. John E. B., St John's College, Cambridge. 
fMEDLicoTT, W. G., Esq., Longmeadow, Massachusetts, U. S. 
♦Melboubne Public Libbabt (care of Mr. Bain). 

Melboubne Univebsity, Victoria. 
•Micrlethwaixe, J. F., Esq., 8, Delahay Street, Great George Street, S.W. 

Mill Hill School, Hendon, N.W. 

Miller, Arthur W. E., Esq., British Museum, W.C. 

MoHB, E., Esq., Heidelbeig (by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 

MoNSON, The Lord, 40, Belgrave Square, S.W. 

MoBRis, John, Esq., 6, Old Jewry, E.C. 
^MoBBis, Bev. Dr Bichard, Kmg's College School, W.C. 
*MoBBis, William, Esq., 36, Queen's Square, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

MciB, John, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., 10, Merchiston Avenue, Edinbui^h. 

MiiLLEB, Professor Max, Park's End, Oxford (by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 

MuNBY, Arthur J., Esq., 6, Fig-tree Court, Temple, E.C. 

Munich Royal Libbary (by Messrs. Triibner ic Co.). 
•MuNTZ, George H. M., Esq., Albion Tube Work, Nile Street, Birmingham. 
♦Mtjbdoch, James Barclay, Esq., 20, Buchanan Street, Glasgow. ^ 

MUBBAY, Alex. D., Esq., Cresswell Terrace, Dumfries. 

MuBBAY, James A. H., Esq., Mill Hill School, Hendon, N.W. 

Murray, Professor John C, Queen's College, Kingston, Ontario. 
*Napier, George W., Esq., Alderley Edge, near Manchester. 

Neale, James, Esq., Beading. 
♦Neaves, Lord, 7, Charlotte Square, Edinburgh. 

Neumann, Edward, Esq., 7, Crescent Terrace, Pimlico, S.W. 
♦Newcastle-upon-Tyne Literary and Philosophical Society. 
♦New Jersey College Libbaby, New Jersey, U. S. A. 
♦New Univebsity Club, St. James's Street, S.W. 
♦Nicholl, G. W., Esq., The Ham, Cowbridge, Glamorganshire (by Messrs. 

Triibner k Co.). 
♦NicoL, Henry, Esq., 52, Thornhill Boad, Bamsbury, N. 
♦Nobman, J. Manship, Esq., Dencombe, Crawley, Sussex. 
♦Oakey, John, jun., Esq., 172, Blackfriars Boad, S.E. 
•Odell, a. J., Esq., New York. 

Oliphant, T. L. Kington, Esq., Charlton House, Wimbledon, S.W. 

Orell, Fusseli & Co., Messrs., Zurich (by Messrs. Trubner & Co.). 

♦Obmebod, Henry M., Esq., 5, Clarence Street, Manchester. 

36 List of Members of the E. E. Tesst 8oc., Slst Dec., 1^873. 

*0600TT, LiBBABT OF St. Mabt^s CoLhEQE, BJCTninghMn (Bev. Dr. Nortfaooie) 

(by Messr8.|Trubner & Co.)* 
*OuBBLET, Bev. Sir Frederiok Qoie, Bart., St ICiohael's CoVLeffi, Tdnlmry, 

^Owen's College Librabt, Manohester. 
'Oxford akd CAMBBmas Club, Fftll Mall. 

Oxford, Balliol College Libraby. 

Oxford, Univebsitt College. 
*OxFOBD, Exeter College. 
f Faike, Cornelius, Esq., Oak Hill, Surbiton, Surrey. 

Falmeb, Bev. A. Sm3rthe, Powerscourt, Enniskerry, Co. Wicklow. 

Palmxb & Howe, Messrs. 
*Panton, Bev. Geo. A., 12, Osborne Terrace, Edinburgh. 

Pabis, The National Librabt of Pabib. 
*Pabkeb & Co., Messrs. Jas., Broad Street, Oxford. 
^Pabker, Hon. A. X., Potsdam, St Lawrenoe County, New York. 

Pabker, James, Esq., Oxford. 

Parker, John Henry, Esq., Oxford. 
*Patter80N, John, Esq., Manchester and Liverpool District Bank, Manohester. 
*Patne, Joseph, Esq., 4, Eildare Qardens, Bayswater, W. 
•Peabody Institute, Baltimore, U. S. 
*Peace, Maskell Wm., Esq., Green Hill, Wigan, Lancashire. 

Pbacogic, Edward, Esq., Bottesford Blanor, Brigg, Lincolnshire. 

Peacock, William, Esq., 3, Sunniside, Sunderland. 
^Pearson, Charles H., Esq., Haverhill, South Australia (care of the Bev. 
A. W. Pearson, Warterperry Vicarage, near Oxford). 

Peel, George, Esq., Soho Lron Works, Manchester. 

Peile, John, Esq., Christ's College, Cambridge. 
*Penfold, Hugh, Esq., Library Chambers, Middle Temple. 

Pennsylvania, Historical Society of, Philadelphia. 
*Penzancb Public Libbaby. 

Philadelphia Libbaby Company. 
^Philadelphia Mercantile Library, U. S. 

PiCTON, James A., Esq., 11, Dale Street, Liverpool. 

PiKS, Warburton, Esq., 12, King's Bench Walk, Temple. 

Plummer, Bev. A., Trinity College, Oxford. 
^Porter, Bd. F., Esq., Boley Hill House, Bochester. 

Potts, C. Y., Esq., Ledbury, Herefordshire. 
♦Prululx, Osw. De Beauvoir, Esq., 8, Cavendish Square, W. 

Pbitchard, Wm. W., Esq., 9, Madeira Court, 257, Argylo Street, Glasgow. 

Procter, Bev. Francis, Wilton Vicarage, North Walsham, Norfolk. 
♦Public Bbcord Office (by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 

Radford, George, Esq., 2, Forres Street, Liverpool. 

Baine, Bev. Canon, York. 

Raven, Bev. J. J., D.D., School House, Great Yarmouth. 
♦Bea, Charles, Esq., Doddington, Wooler, Northumberland, 
f Bedfbrn, Bev. Robert S., Vicarage, Acton, Nantwich. 
JREEVE, Henry, Esq., 62, Rutland Gate, 8.W. 
*Reform Club, Pall Mall. 

*Rbid, James C, Esq., (care of John H. Reid, Esq., P. O. box 1455, New 

Reilly, Francis S., Esq., 19, Duke Street, Storejr's Gate, Westminster, S.W. 

Reynell, Charles W., Esq., Forde House, Richmond Boad, Putney. 

Bbynolds, Dr., Beech Lawn, Mossley Hill, Liverpool. 
*RlQO, Herbert A., Esq., t, Portman Street, Portman Square^ W. 

List of Metnbers of the U. E. Te^i Soc., SUt Dec, 18.73. 37 

^BIMMBL, E., Esq. (by Messra. Trubner & Co.). 

RlviNGTONS, Mesars., Oxford (by Messrs. Trubner k Co.). 
*R0BBBT8, Mr. Bobert» Boston. 

BoBSOV, William, Esq., care of Dr. Bobson, Broom Edge, Ljmm, near 

BocHOALB Fbeb Pubuo Libbabt. 

PROOFS, William, Esq., Craven Cottage, Merton Road, Wandsworth. 
♦Robe, Rev. W. F., 13, Keppel Terrace, Windsor. 
*Ross, Henry, Esq., The Manor House, Swansoombe, Kent 
•ROTTON, J. F., Esq., 3, Boltons, West Brompton, 8.W. 
^ROTUWBLL, Charles, Esq., 29, Park Hill, Bolton. 

ROWE, Rev. George, Training College, Lord Mayor's Walk, York. 
♦Royal Institutiok, Albemarle Street, W. 
♦ROTAL LiBBABY, Windsor Castle. 

♦Royal Society of Litebatube, The, 4, St. Martin's Place, Charing Cross, 

RUSKIN, Prof. John, LL.D., Corpus Christi College, Oxford. (10 seta.) 
♦Russell, Thomas, Esq., 14, India Street, Glasgow. 
♦St. Andbew's Uniyessity Libbaby. 

St. David's, Right Rev. Connop Thirlwall, Bishop of, Abergwili Palace, 

♦St. John's College, Ani4)oliSy Maryland, U. S. A. 

St. Petsbsbubgh Ukiyebsity Libbaby (by Messrs. Triibner k Co.). 

Salt, Samuel, Esq., TJlverston, Lancashire. 

♦Sandebs, Rev. S. J. W., Head-Master, Northampton Grammar School, 

SAUin>EBS, Edwin, Esq., 13a, George Street, Hanover Square, W. 

Saukdebs, G. Symes, Esq., M.B., Devon County Lunatic Asylum, Exminster. 

Scott, William B., Esq., BeUevue House, Battersea Bridge, Chelsea. 
♦Sewell, Rev. W. H., Yaxley Vicarage, Eye, Suffolk. 
♦Shabpe, Samuel, Esq., Huddersfield College. 
♦Signet, Society of the Wbitebs to the, Edinburgh. 
♦Simmons, Rev. Canon T. F., Dalton Holme, Beverley. 
♦SiMONTON, J. W., Esq., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, U. S. 
♦SiON College, President and Fellows of, London Wall, E.C. 
♦Skeat, Rev. Walter W., 1, Cintra Terrace, Cambridge. 

Slateb, D., Esq., Braidwood Villas, Plymouth. 

Slatteb, Rev. John, Streatley Vicarage, Reading. 

Slatteb k Ross, Messrs. Oxford (by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 

Smith, Charles, Esq., Faveraham. 

Smith, J. R., Esq., 67, Union Street, Aberdeen (by Messrs. Triibner k Co.). 
♦Snelgboye, Arthur G., Esq., London Hospital, E. {Hon. JSec) 

Snell, Rev. W. M., Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 

Solomon, Saul, Esq., Oi^ Town, Cape of Good Hope. 

SoMEBVELL, R., jun., Esq., Netherfield, Kendal. 

Stead, Richard, Esq., Christ's College, Brecon, S. Wales. 

Steinthal, Rev. S. Alfred, 107, Upper Brook Street, Manchester. 
♦Stephens, Professor George, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. 
♦Stevenson, Rev. Professor William, D.D., 37, Royal Terrace, Edinburgh. 

Stewabt, Alexander B., Esq., Glasgow. 

Stockholm Royal Libbaby (by Messrs. Triibner k Co.). 
♦Stonyhubst College, near Whalley, Lancashire. 

Stobb, Rayner, Esq., Bariki House, Beulah Hill, Upper Norwood. 

Stratmann, Dr F. H., Erefeld. 

Stubbs, Rev. Prof. William, Oxford. 

38 List of Members ofihe :E. E. Text Soc, SUt Dec, 1873. 

'Sullivan, Bight Hon. Edward, Master of tba RoIU In Ireland, S2, Fitz- 

William Place, Dublin. 
StTNDKtuAN'D SuB^BiPTIOH Lfboaby, High Straet, Sunderland. 
RuBTEse, Rev. Boott, gprotbro Rector}-, Doncaater. 
SWAMzr, Andrew, Esq., 12a. Cnnnon Street, B.C. 
Sweet, Henry,, HO, Moido VqIo, W. (by Meaars, Triibner k Co.). 
SWEETINO, Rev, W. D., Minater Precincts, Peterborough. 
".SVDNEY Fbee Libr.vbt, Sydney, N. S. W, (by Meaare. Triibner Sc Co.). 
♦SVMONDs, Kav. Henry, The Close, Norwich. 
Takcock, Rev. O. W., The KiQg'n School, Sherborne. 
'Taskhas, a., Esq., Rajkoomsr College, Rsjkote, India (care of Mr. Lewi», 
186, GowBT Street, W.C.}. 
Tatlob, John. Esq., Tonge Villa, Middleton, near Manchester. 
•Tatlob, Robert. E»i., B.G.S,, Abbey Foregate, Bbrewabury, 
fTAYLOB, Thoa. F., Esq., Highlleld Houae, Pembortoii, near Wlgan. 
TbS-Biunk, Profesaor Bernhard, Ph. Dr., Stmssburg (by Mesf-T*. Triibner 

fc Co). 
Tennyson, Alfred, Esq., D.O.L., Farringford, Isle of Wight. 
Tew, Bov. Edmund, Patching Rectory, near Arundel, Sussex. 
Thompbok, Rov. W. H., D.D., Maatcr of Trinity College, Cumbridge. 
I'HOMraos, E. Maunde, Esq., British Museum, W.C. 
Thompson, Frederio, Esq., South Parade, Wakelleld. 
TuoupaoH, H, Yates, Esq., 32, Enniamore Gardens, S.W., and Thingwnll, 

Thornkly, John, Esq., OB, Chancery Lane, W.C. 
TaOBP, Wm,, jun,, Eaq,, ^9, Sandriiigham Road, Eingsland, E. 
Thobpg. Rev. J. F., HemblU Vicarege, Faveraham. 
•TiCKKOK, B. H., Eaq., Boston. U. S. (by Mesars. Triibner & Co.). 
'TiuuiNB, Sbiddc!, Esq.. Elvslham Lodge, Eclgboaton, Birmingham. 
TOOLB, The Very Rev. Canon. Bedford House, Hulme, Manohedter. 
•TOBONTO, University of, Canada. 
Tbatfoed, J. L., Esq., Northwioh, Cheshire, 
Tbatmak, Fred. 8. Augustine, Esq. (care of Mossra. T. G. Mitthuwj & Co., 

Lewins Mead, Bristol). 
TuDLLOPB, Anthony, Esq., Waltham House, Waltham Cross, N. 
•Tbollope, T. A„ Esq., Vitlino TroUopc, Florence. 
•TRiiBlJEB & Co., Messrs. , 67, LudgaU) Hill, E.G. 
TiiBiNOEN UNIVBB9ITT Ltkbarv (by Messrs. Triibner k Co.). 
•Tdenbull, Brothers, Messrs., 8. North Charles Street, Baltimore, D. S. 
•TDKNBB, Eoljept S., Esq., 1, Park Square, Woat, Regent's Park, N.W, 
■Tybsen, John R. Daniel, Esq., 9, Lower Rook Gardens, Brighton. 
•Dboee, Professor, Christiania (by Messrs. TrUbner & Co.). 
UsryEEairy Collhob, London, W.C. 
■Ubhebwood, Rev. T. Edvrard, Glenoldln, Boamemouth. 
Ubhebwood, William, Esq., Whitby, Yorluhire. 
•Van Name, Addison, Esq,, New Haven, ConcBotiout. 
*Vebnon, George V., Esq., Old Trofferd, Manchester. 
ViorusaoN, GBbrandr, Oiford. 
•ViLCS, Edward, Esq., Pondryl Hall, Codsall Wood, near ■Wolverhampton. 
WAKEPrELD Book Society. 
•Wales. George W., Esq., Boston, 0. S, 

-fWALKEB, F. W., Esq., High Master, Free Grammar School. Manchester. 
Walmsley, O. G„ Esq., Liverpool (by Messrs. Triibner k Co.). 
Walton, Charles, Esq., 23, Newingtoa Butla, Sonthwark, S.E. 
Wabd, Professor A. W., Owen's College, MuKhester. 

I Wabd, I 

Inst pf Members of the E. E. Text Soc, Slst Dec, 1873. 39 

•Wabd, Harry, Esq., Britbh Museum, W.C. 

WABWidK, John, Esq., 25, Wobum Square, Russell Square, W.C. 
•Washinoton, Libbaby op Cokgress, U. S. 
♦Watkinson Libbabt, Hartford, Conn., U. S. 
*Watson, Robert Spence, Esq., Moss Croft, Gateshead-on-T^ne. 

Wayte, Rev. W., Eton College, Windsor. 

Websteb, S. M., Esq., 33, Bridge Street, Warrington. 

Webstbb, Thomas, Esq., 8, Lancaster Street, Lancaster Gate, W. 
♦Wedgwood, Hensleigh, Esq., 81, Queen Anne Street, W. 

Weir, J. Jenner, Esq., Haddo Villas, Blackheath, S.E. 

Welch, E. W., Esq., 3, Tressilean Road, Upper Lewisham Road, S.E. (by 

Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 
♦Welles, C. T., Esq., City National Bank, Hartford, Connecticut, U. 8. A. 

(by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 
♦Weymouth, Dr. R. P., Mill Hill School, Hendon, N.W. 
♦Wheatley, Henry B., Esq., 1, Chaloot Terrace, Regent's Park Road, N.W. 

Wheeler, D. H., Professor, North Western University, Evanston, niinois. 
•Whitaker, J., Esq., 11, Warwick Lane, E.C. (by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 

Whitaker, William Wijkinson, Esq., Combrook, Manchester. 
♦White, George H., Esq., 8, Bishopsgato Street Within, E.C. 
♦White, Robert, Esq., 11, Claremont Place, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Whitney, Henry Austin, Esq., Boston, Massachusetts. 

Whitney, Professor W. D., New Haven, Connecticut, U. S. A. (by Messrs. 
Triibner & Co.). 

Whtttard, Rev. T. Middlemore, The College, Cheltrahom. 

Whitwell, E. R., Esq., Barton Hall, near Darlington. 
•WiLCOCKS, Rev. Horace Stone, 7, Wyndham Square, Plymouth. 

Wiley & Son, Messrs. J., New York (by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 
•WiLKiE, Jas. M,, Esq., Egremont Academy, Cheshire. 

Wilkinson, Dr. M. Alexander Eason, 10, Lever Street, Piccadilly, Manchester. 

WiLKS, Rev. T. C, Woking Parsonage, Woking Station. 

Williams, Sydney, Esq., 14, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 
♦Williamson, Rev. William, Pairstowe, Bath. 

Wilson, Edmund, Esq., Red Hall, Leeds. 
♦Wilson, Edward J., Esq., 6, Whitefriars Gate, Hull. 

Wilson, Richard M., Esq., Fountain Street, Manchester. 
♦Wilson, Thomas, Esq., 8, Hilary Place, Leeds. 

WiMPERiB, J. P., Esq., St Andrew House, Change Alley, E.C. 
♦WiNSTONB, Benjamhi, Esq., 100, Shoe Lane, E.C. (by Messrs. Triibner k Co.). 

WiNWOOD, Rev. H. H., 11, Cavendish Crescent, Bath. 

Wisconsin University Library, Madison, Miss., U. S. A. (by Messrs. Triib- 
ner & Co.). 
♦Wood, Rev. J. S., Si John's College, Cambridge. 

♦WooDLEY, Frank, Esq., 82, South Terrace, Cork (by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 
♦Woollcombe, Rev. W. Walker, 1, St. Leonard's Place, Mount Radford, 

•Wren, Walter, Esq., 3, Powis Square, Westboume Park, W, 
•Wright, W. Aldis, Esq., Trinity College, Cambridge. 
♦Yale College Library, Newhaven, Conn., U. S. 

Yeats, John, Esq., LL.D., Upper and Middle Schools, Pcckham, S.E. 
•Young, John, jun., Esq., 35, King Street, Cheapside, E.C. 

Zupitza, Dr. Julius, University of Vienna (by Messrs. Triibner & Co.). 

40 SuhacriJbers to the Bepnnta^f the E. E. Text Society. 

Bain, T. G., Esq., 1, Haymarket. 

RoLFE, Robert A., Esq., CranworCh Cottage, Homchurch, Bomford, Essex. 
Slingluff, C. B., Esq. (Messrs. Stevens). 

Thbiko, Bev. Edward, Head Master, Uppingham Grammar School, Butland. 
Weston, G., Esq., 2, Gray*s Inn Square, W.C. 
fTouNG, Alex., Esq., 188, Hope Street, Glasgow. 

Allen, E. G. 
Babsett, Rev. Alfred, D.D. 
BocHEB, Prof. F. 
Bbown, a. H., Esq. 
Chambeblain, a., Esq. 
Cobnwell, Dr. 
Dames, M. L., Esq. 
Dayies, W. Carey, Esq. 
D&AKB, W. H., Esq. 
Freeman, D. A., Esq. 
Habben, Henry A., Esq. 
HowABD, Henry, Esq. 
Jenkins, James, Esq., M.D. 
Joachim, G., Esq. 
Mabtineau, Bussell, Esq. 


1865. — Member t who have paid. 

MuNBY, A. J., Esq. 
Muntz, G. H. M., Esq. 
Neumann, E., Esq. 
Nicx)L, H., Esq. 
NoBTHCOTB, Kev. Dr. 
Pabkeb, Jas., & Co. 
PococK, C. J., Esq. 
Readeb, Mr. 
Suabpe, Samuel, Esq. 
Sneloboye, a. G., Esq. 
Stevens, Brothers, Messrs. 
Sweet, H., Esq. 
Tatlob, B., Esq. 
Toole, Very Bev. Canon 
Univebsitt College, London. 

Adam, Dr. A. Mercer. 
Constable, A., Esq. 
Davis, H., Esq. 
FOGO, D. F. Laurie, Esq. 
Htde, J. J., Esq. 

1865. — Members who havepromiit. 

Peck Libbabt, Norwich County, U.S. 

Sgbibneb, Messrs., New Tork. 
Welfobd, Charles H., Esq. 
Wisconsin Univebsity Libbabt. 

IBVINE, Wm., Esq. 

1865 & 1866. — Members who J^ave paid. 

Babwell, Thomas, Esq. 
Beaumont College. 
BiNNS, Bev. W. 
BoTTOMLET, Edward, Esq. 
BUBBA, James S., Esq. 
Cox, Bev. Thomas. 
CuLLEYy M. T., Esq. 
CuBTis, General N. M. 
DiOKSON, Frederick C, Esq. 
^ Faunthobpe, Bev. J. P. 
FiSHWiCK, Lieut-Col. V 
Habbib, Mortuner, Esq. 
Hat, C. a,, Esq. 
Hunt, W. P., Esq. 
James, Col. Edward. 
Johnson, Blchard, Esq. 
Kenbick, William, Esq. 
Laidlat, a., Esq. 
Leathes, Frederick, Esq. 
Libteb, John, Esq. 
Llotd, Bidgway, Esq. 
Longman k Co., Messrs. 

LUPTON, F. M., Esq. 

Mabshall, John, Esq. 

MUBBAT, J. A. H., Esq. 

New Univebsitt Club. 

NiGOL, H., Esq. 

Oxfobd^Balliol College Libbabt. 

Pabkeb, Hon. A. X. 

Bavbn, Bev. J. J.^ 

Bea, Chas,, Esq. 

Betnolds, Dr. 

Bioo, Herbert, Esq. 

Bochdale Libbabt. 

Bowe, J. B., Esq. 

Simmons, Bev. Canon T. F. 

SuBTEES, Bev. Scott. 

Tatlob, B., Esq. 

Thobp, Wm., jun., Esq. 

UsHEBWOOD, Bev. T. E. 

Walker, T. W., Esq. 

Websteb, S. M., Esq. 

Welles, C. T., Esq. 

ZuPlTZA, Dr. Julius. 

Hubsmbers to the Beprints of the IB, K Tes^ Society. 4l 

1865 & 18CC. — Members who have promist. 

Adam, John, Esq. 
Adamson, E., Esq. 
ATKilfSOX, Rev. E., D.D. 
Baltimore Mbbcantile Library. 
Bell, Rev. W. R. 
Blackley, Rev. W. L. 
Bbidges, Charles, Esq. 
Cambridge, St. Catherine's College. 
Cambeidob, St. John's College. 
Cincinnati Public and School Li- 

COCKIN, J. G., Esq. 
Collier, Rev. C. 
COLTMAN, Rev. George. 
Cook, J. W., E^i. 
COMPTON, Rev. Lord Alwyne. 
Deighton, Bell, Sc Co., Messrs. 
Denny, H. G., Esq. 
Eggington, John, Esq. 
Ely Cathedral Library. 
EvANSTON, 111. North- West. Univ. 
Ferris, O. A., Esq. 
Fromman, Herr, Jena. 
GiLMAN, Arthur, Esq. 
GiNsnuRG, Dr. Chr. D. 
Goodlet, John, Esq. 
Gordon, George J. R., Esq. 
Gregg, J. C, Esq. 
Hailstone, Edward, Esq. 
Harris, Frederick, Esq. 
Harrison, J. H., Esq. 
Holme, J. Wilson, Esq. 
Houghton, Right Hon. Lord. 
Jackson, John, Esq. 
Jones, Rev. J., jun. 
Jones, Rev. R. C. 
Kingsbury, Rev. T. L. 
Lawrence, A. C, Esq. 
Levander, H. C, Esq. 
Macklaren, J. K., Es(i. 
Macmillan, Messrs., Cambridge. 

Mackonochie, Rev. A. H. 
Martineau, p. M., Esq. 
Micklethwaite, J. T., Esq. 
Mill Hill School. 
Murray, Professor John C. 
Neale, James, Esq. 
Neumann, Edward, Esq. 
NiCHOLL, G. W., Esq. 
Odell, a. J., Esq., New York. 
Ormerod, Henry M., Esq. 
Oxford and Cambridge Club. 
Oxford University College. 
Palmer, Rev. A. S. 
Parker, John Henry, Esq. 
Parker, James, Esq. 
Pearson, C. H., Esq. 
Procter, Rev. F. 
Rawlin^ John, Esq. 
Rose, Rev. W. F. 
Ross, Henry, Esq. 
Rothwell, Charles, Esq. 
RoWE, Rev. (Jeorge. 
Royal Institution. 
Royal Society of Literature. 
Sanders, Rev. S. J. W. 
Saunders, G. Syraes, Esq., M.B. 
Sims, Chas., Esq. 
Skeat, Rev. W. W. 
Stonyhurst College. 
Sweeting, Rev. W. D. 
Uttoxeter Library. 
Viles, Edward, Esq. 
Westhorp, C. Stirling, Esq. 
Wilcocks, Rev. H. P. 
Wilks, Rev. T. C. 
Williams and Norgate, Messrs. 
WiNSTONE, B., Esq. 
Wood, Rev. J. S. 
WoQDLEY, Fi-ank, E8<i. 
Woollcombe, Rev. W. W. 
Young, John, jun., Esq. 

1866. — Member $ rvlu> have paid, 
Manchester Free Library. | Oscott, Library op St. Mary's. 

1866. — Members who have promht. 

Caparn, Rev. W. B. 
Falconer, Thomas, Esq. 
Pennsylvania Historical Libr. 
Porter, Rd. F., Esq. 

SiMONTON, J. W., Esq. 
Brown, Arthur H., Eyq. 
Dillingham, John H., Esq. 

Eart^JEngtuh 2b^ <^.'« freaauret^t Cash Aceount/of Vil^. 

























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A-Ced. R. Uonil. VS*. 


The PiMlfationt for WU (3tjt.) arc .-— 
1. Eirir Sngluh AUitantiva Ywm*. *b. 136(1 
i. Art&r, sh. iUii. eil F. J. Fumitill. M. 
a Liud>rontbeDewtieoflC7ngl(,a:o.. F.Holl. W. 
4. BliDainyuudtlieOniaKiiickCab. 136(1. ed. B. Uorrii. lOi. 

The Publications far 1865 C2U) off .■— 
' t. &iiM*'a (MtuKiuU* uil OcBcnltw sf oa Britu Tsngnt, kb, 1B17. 
«. lModMofai«Lilk,Kb.lNH,«d.B<i*. W.W.Sk^. Si. 
._ _ ,___,.=_. J ■!). liM, Bd. E, Uorrif. {.RepriittiHg.) 

11. Lvnduur'i KsBftnlifl, Ac.. ISSa. t^ut 1,, ed. F. HnJI. 

U. Xbai^i(hfiChHtgVif(, Db. lU2.ed. F. J, Furnlnll. \t. 

Thf Piihlicntieni for ISCG, out of print, are: — 
13. B^M XUbtnte, ISOO-ISSO. oil. Bov. O. Cocknyno. 
14 XW Ham. Flais uil Bluohaftoni, J». , od. Biov. J. K. Lumby. 
IS. PaUtiinl, Haljfloiu, ud Iion Patmi. «1. F. 1, Funitr>ll. 
le. ThsBookofOi^uEuauw, lib. 14«0-TD,cd. F. J. Fumivall. 
II. FmlW Bibatta from IS KSS. of Pin* Uu PWwtaia, od. BdV. W. W. Skot. 
IS. Hdl Kaidnbad, ab. 1100, ed. Ecv. O. Cookvmi. 
ig. LrndeuT'i Koaanlia, &e.. Part II., cd. F. EIbI]. 
n. AmpoWt Engliih Fnw TnadHa. ed. Rov. O. G. Perr;- 
31. Karlu, Fnrtn., ed. H. B. Whrnler. 
31. Tmitmty or Luu^iian, ed. ReT. W. W. Sknt. 
gs. Saa Muhal'i AjanbiU of Invyti 1340, ed. E, Uorriii. 

ne Piihlicationifor 1867 (onrgvinea, Irn No. 24, 25, 3B, 
H. H*BnatatlMTiiiinafidClhiliti UuParilaBanttf Until, A«.,ab."" 

SI & BtaolHuafRaDW, tlia -"— ^-■■■-- — '■'- ™ — -~>— 

MBaUflou; ■ 

17. Ln£iril 

"/J"'' . 

F.J. FunilnU. », 

F. J.Furnivall. If. 

WlHHiUpy. ■ 1!*. 

i>. Put I. Tbe e*rll«it or Tenum Tmt; 

«, vlth Olane Xaj 

iajdenhod, e 

,■ FUpima' BetmrajH, « 
and TMM, fnon B. Thon 
_ . . . bulnn, ino. ed. H. F ' 
gf nara tLa Tlnniiaii, ISttl i 

by Eev. W. W. Bkeat. it. 

SB. SulT fiifliaB ^odllea (»b. ISSO-SO A.D.) ftvm tmiiiM USB. In tho Lambelh itid oUxar 

Libmries. Pirt I. Ediltdhy R. Morrii. 7*. 
30. Flow the Ptamnaii'i Crndt, ed. Rr>. W. W. Kkeat. £>, 

r/,^ P,il,!-,ealio«>for lfl68 (""« ^wincn) nfc— 
.11. «Trc'i Dutiea n( ■ Pariji Priert. in Verse, ih. l*a) A.l).. ed. E. Pi»rork. *i. 

Si. Tha BabtM Boke, UibanitaUiLtha Bakaa n Hntun at Jolm KoaaaU and Bosh BhodM, th«S( 

•f Kbohi, Curtaaje. and Samaannu, &o,, with aoiDo French and IMin Poema on Uka 
■Ub]«i(a.Bd. fromHailalui and other US8. by F.J. Fumlnll. laa. ' 

33. Tha^^V>t Da Ia Taiir iMtrj Unm Freneli of l.Ti. 13Tt), Bb. IHD A.D. A Fotbel'B Ui 
hit Daughun^ from Hui. H8. IIM and Cuton'it version, bjr Thomoa Wr^ht. 8i 
S4 Zailv ZuUah Hopiliaa (beFare ISOO k..Ti.) ttma unique USS. In the lAmbOth and 

Llbnuiei. Put U. Bdited by B. Horrl*. Si. 
as. ^ndaiBT'i VaAM, Fort Itl.t The HiatoriB uid Teatwnenc of Squirnr Uoldnim. ed. t. , 

Tkf PuhUeatinntfor 18(59 (««<■ jm,* 
M. XatUn, Fart UI. Kdited by B. B. Wheutlcy, Eaq.i vllh an Essay <"> ArthnriWl Locdltki, I 

by J. B. Sliiurt Oleiiolfl. Ban. 12j. 
37. Lynitaay'. Torka, Pari IV., containing Aiic SatjTB of tho Three 

P. HaU, Esq. -U. 
33. TfUlinn'i '■■'--' "' ■ "■ " . .. ~ -" " 

in sf Piara tka Plonun. Part I 
t, M.A. ■■- -■ 

Edited br 

B. Edited IMni tbe MBE. by Ibol 
if Tny, Innttnted ttmn Ouido de Colonna, 

i£l>r Lxijo Brentano. SI*. 

39. Tha AUttintin SgmaBn of tha Deitniotioii _ _ 

EditcdbyD. D[iiiaIdiou,EBq, andthcEev. G. A. I'anton. Parti. 
The pHblicatUnufiyr 1870 {one gninea) are; — 
W. Ba^ithOflda, Edited by thp lalo T< 

«id MIm Lncy Toulndn Smith, iHth» Prollintairy Essay, li- " ■ 

Dgvelopment of Gilds, and the Urlnn of Trades- Uiilona,' by I 
41. WlUlamludB'a Miner Pana, ESlcdby F. J. Fumlvall, W St. 
a. Barurdna Da Can B«l Famnlluia. with aonie Early Soottiih Prophecin, ke. From m 

KK. I.e. in the CanbrldmUnlTeraity Library, Edited by J. E. Lumby.M.A. U. 
n. Kati* Bannf, and other Hor*l and Beligioua Vttam in Proas and Vene. Edited titna tlM 

Camb. Vail. TAS. KK. 1. S, by J. B. Lumby, U.A. Sf. 
75(- PiiblifBtioB, fnr 1871 are {for one guiHen) .-— 
M. Tbt Allitsrativa Kamaiiiie ot Jnaanh of Arinuthia, or Tbs Holy Gtaili a fnwmimt from thn 

Vernon HS. ; irilh Wjnkyn de Wordu"* and Pymon'i {A,t>. \Sia and IMo) Lirea of Jowiph i 

editwl by the R«t. W. W. Skeat. M.A. Di. 
4B. die Alfrad'a Waat-Baian VnaiH af Oiet«r;'i Paatonl Can, edilol IWim S USS.. with in 

SDgliililnDSlatlon, by Henry ewe*l.E«i.,ur Ealliol College, OilUrd. Part L IM, 

LUt of Ihe Early EiujIUh Text Soewly'a Boolcs. 

■cdOitw. Pnenu inDlitEiicIlKhnrLI 

_.._ r Iter. R. Uorrii. LL.D. 1l«. 

lyndDHT'a Worki, I^rl V.. cniitiiliin^ liii Minor Voems. edited by Jmmn A. lI.Mum 
■*illi H criliml Ks-m.v hy FrofKHMiH- .\icliol of GUugow. 3*. 
It Timu' WhiaUo. itid olhin- Poems, I17 R. C, IflIB ; edited by J. 
ran Piihliraf wilt for IR:2 ffC? (/^r CUC gvUlea) : — 

" *"" ■ ■ — ■■ .... - - mi. ., . - ■jjn,]^ Smooi .. _ . 

3 MSB. by the Bev, R. Moni«, LH). 1 

_ „^ ,,'^wt, Esq., B»U 

Ths Llfg of Bt Julius, i vcrsiona, witb trniisliitic 
(). roeliBynp und Mr. Brock, ■ii. 
FiUvUni on EBibsndne, rrom the unique US., Db.lUai.i>..ed. Her. B.Lod^ Pui I. in>. 

Thf PuhVicatinmfiir 1873 oj-b (/nr iiiu guiiu-a.) :— 
OU SngUih Hamiliiit. Serin II., rroni the uniqua 13tl]-<!ontury US. in Trinity Coll. Can)' 
briilnp. Willi ■ pliololithosriph : Ihree Hymn* to the Vintin and God. ttom ■ nniquc ISih- 

111' by Dr. BmBiirtT, uid A. J, Ellii, Bmi., F.^8.1 Ihe whole 
n MoBr- '■ " °- 

la Onwud Kiii ^'edited liy the Rvv. W.'#. ai^AT, H.A . ' 

-* ■ -ninilbe i " '- ' ~ ' " " ■ 

a the Rer. Richard M 
Viitonof PionPlnra , , ,, ^ , , 

' Myprt and twn nniquc iiililenitiTe popnia : Sl^uid Ihs Keialo lb;' Willinm, the mithor 
.he S'lnoH' : and The Om-' "' — -.■■-"' ■ .■.--. >■■ "• - — ..- — . .". 

le VMaa of Fien Flonun, Tejt C loomjiletine Ihe S wrriona of this (nriit poem', with 

lit Ihe S wi 

a. Oenoyda, ■ Romann, edited fn>m tlie uniqiio US., lb. lltn ji.u.. in Tiin. Coll. Cunbridn, 
byW^ALDiB WBioiiT.EM|.,M.A.,l'riii. ColLCamhr. Pnn 1. St. 

EXTBA SEMES (,0,„- guinea a j,™r). 
The PMiratwit fm- \mi ere {,/,.,■ nnt guim-a) ;— 
L WUlim of P«tan»: or. Wniiun ud the Werwolf. Krirdlled from Hip unliiiip MS. in KWi 

Collin, Cunbrid^, by the Rev. W. W. Slienl, M.A, ISi. 
H. Xiriy Bo^ieh Pmumelalian, wllh eapedal retereDCU to ShakuicrD and Chauoer. by A. J. 
Ellla,Fll.S. Put I. lu>. 
The P»Miratinat/nr IMS are {for one gviiitia) .-— 
m. Cutn'i Book of Onrteiye, In 3 Versions: 1. from the nnique'priiit in Ihc Cinib. Unir. 

Libr.;; 3.tbeBt>lliolMS.S». Rd-by F. J. Fuiiivnll Bsq.. H..\. m. 
IT, Hsvelok Uu Dana. Bc^Uled ttota tbe unique MS. by ihe tUv. W. W. 6keM, W.A., with 

till' ssiii-Iion nnd aid of Ibe orlninnl edilnr. Sir Frederic UuUlen. lili. 
T OhtnueF*! Borthiu. Ediled froiii the twobest MRS. by R. IKarrie. LL.D. iit. 
VI. muTtlere Aulgsa. R^-edlled from the unique US. liy H. E, Gibbs, Bai]. 3t, 
n>' PtthUratieHx/Kr 18(50 are (far km ffwiWn) .- 

VH. Eady En^iih FmnnwilMltB, with eBimrial rel^reDtu: to Shilupere and Cbiuccr, by A. J, 

Ellim F.H.8r^Piirt U. l(l>. 
Tm. (taeeae Eliubethei Aobsdosy. ■ Bonk of Fre»den«. kt. Edited by P, J. Fumival], Est., 

wlUi Bniys on cwly Ituliui and German linoks of Courtesy, by W. M. RoeMiiti, £wi., wid 

E, (hwald, Bnq. Llf- 
IX. Awdaley"* Frataraitye of Taoabondea. Bumao'i CaTNLl^ fa. Edited by E. Vilc<i, Em).. and 

P J. P"niifMl,Esq. li.M. 
Thr P,,br<r,rtitmy /nr 1870 are (/(.,- »nr guiHra) :— 
Z. Andrew Boerde'i Intndsotiaa of Knoiriedca. 1S4T, and DyebR of Helth. lUl : with Bamei In 

tht Dtfenceflf tfa* Berde, IHS-B. Edited, with a Life of BOOROE. and an account of his Works, 

by F. J, FiiniivaU, M.A. 1S«. 
\t. Barbour'i BrwK. FiTt I. Edited from the US9. and early printed pdilinns, by tbe Itvv. 

W, W. Skt«t, MA, lit. 
Thr Pi-bikallnm/or 18"! are (/.u- one guiitra) :— 
Zn. Xariand in Suit Tin,'* Tfaiie: a IHalosne between Catdliml INilesnd Lupset, mainly nn 

Ibe Condition of BnKlaud, written by Thomas Slurkegr, Gh^ilain (o'Heiiry V11I. Edited by 

J, M. Cowpor. Esq. Part II. l±i. IPBTt L.^tanlrii'l £a/a siuf Xeferi, Igiil pre|Einitii>n.) 
Xm A Bupslycaeyon of (he Benen, by Simon FiKh, IStS^O j.D.. edited by P. J. FumlvnTl. )I.A.; 

Willi A SuppUcaiiDii loom Hesti Smwraicne Lordi; A Bomlicatiea of till Fooro CoauDODi : and 

Tho Deeaye of Eaflaiid by eta* Gnat KulcCudi of Bheep, lilitrd tijy J. M. Cowner, Esq. I>>. 
XIT. Early EngUdi Prsnunciation, with vipecial reft^rence to Shakxneio and Chauecr, by A. J. 

Ellis. K^^-H.S. Pnrtlll. li«. 
ne Piihlicafiontfor 1S72 are (J 
XT. Robert Ciewley'i Thiin-me Encnoia, T 

jLIi., edited by J. M. (Wper.Esq, Itf. 
ZTL Ohauier'i Treatise on the Aitml^, mi i.n. Ed. from MSS, by Rot W. Skrnt.M.A. Wi 
XTQ. Thi Complayit of Seotlud*, IMH xM., with an Appendix of four CuntunpoTary Enplltl 

'l'rm>i»,nliiwll>v J. A. H. Murray, Eiq. Parti. \ti$. 
Thi lUihUeufrntu fer 1873 art (.for one juiiM) : — 

I IT., n 1 — . J ».^i...j. ,:^ . _ _i^ ,^ Appendix of fonr contemporary Eniilisli 

Bmi. Part II. Bit. 

Sditor in Chief:— F. J. Furnivall, Esq., 3, St George's Square, Primrose Hill, N.W. 
ffon. Sec. : — A. G. Snelgrove, Esq., London Hospital, London, E. 

To do honour to Chaucer, and to let the lovers and students of him sec how far the 
best imprinted Manuscripts of his works differ from the printed texts, this Society is 
founded. There are many questions of metre, pronunciation, orthography, and ety- 
mology yet to be settled, for which more prints of Manuscripts are wanted, and it is 
hardly too much to say that every lino of Chaucer contains points that need recon- 
sideration. The founder's proposal is to begin with The Canterbury TaleSy and give 
of them (in parallel columns in Royal 4to) six of the best unprintod Manuscripts 
known. Inasmuch also as the parallel arrangem^it will necessitate the alteration of 
the places of certain tales in some of the MSS, a print of each MS will be issued se- 
parately, and will follow the order of its original. The first six MSS to be printed are 
the Ellesmere (by leave of the Earl of EUesmerc) ; the Hengwrt (by leave of W. W. 
E. Wynne, Esq.) ; the Cambridge Univ. Libr., MS Gg. 4. 27 ; the Corpus, Oxford ; 
the Petworth (by leave of Lord Leconficld) ; and the Lansdowne 8oI (Brit. Mus.). 

Of Chaucer's Minor Poems, — the MSS of which are generally Liter than the best 
MSS of the Canterbury Tales, — all, or nearly all, the MSS will be printed, so as to 
secure all the existing evidence for the true text. 

To secure the fidelity and uniform treatment of the texts, Mr F. J. Fumivall will 
read all with their MSS. 

The Society's publications are issued in two Series, of which the first contains the 
different texts of Chaucer's works ; and the Second, such originals of, and essays on 
these as can be procured, with other illustrative treatises, and Supplementary Talcs. 

The Society's issue for 1868, in the First Series, is, 

I. The Prologue and Knight's Tale, of the Canterbury Talcs, in 6 parallel 
Texts (from the 6 MSS named below), together with Tables, shoeing the 
Groups of the Tales, and their varying order in 38 MSS of the Tales, and 
in 5 old printed editions, and abio Specimens from several MSS of the 
"Moveable Prologues" of the Canterbury Tales, — The Shipman's Prologue, 
and Franklin's Prologue, — when moved from their right places, and of the 
Substitutes for them. (The Six-Text, Part I.) 
II. The Prologue and Knight's Tale from the Ellesmero MS. 
III. M ,) „ „ „ „ „ Hengwrt „ 154 

^V. „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Cambridge „ Gg. 4. 27 

^' a it »» it jy 1, u Corpus „ Oxford 

VI. „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Petworth 

VII. „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Lansdowne „ 851 


(separate issues of the Texts forming Part I of the Six-Text edition.) 
The issue for 1889, in the First Series, is, 
VIII. The Miller's, Reeve's, and Cook's Tales: EUesmere MS. 
IX. „ „ „ „ „ „ Hengwrt „ 

X. „ „ „ „ „ „ Cambridge „ 

XI. jy ,y „ „ „ „ Corpus „ 

XII. „ „ „ „ „ „ Petworth „ 

XIII. „ „ „ „ „ „ Lansdowne,, 
(separate issues of the Texts fonning the Six-Text, Part II, No. XIV.) 

The issue for 1870, in the First Series, is, 

XIV. The Miller's, Reeve's, and Cook's Tales, with an Appendix of the Spurious 

Tale of Gamelyn, in 6 parallel Texts. (Six-Text, Part II.) 

with an 

Appendix of 


from six MSS. 

46 Ohcuucer Society : List of Books. 

The iMoe for 1871, in the Fint SeriM, is, 

XV. The Man of Law's, Shipman'a, and Prioress's Tales, with Chaucer's own 
Tale of Sir Thopas, in 6 parallel Texts from the MSS above named, and 10 
coloured drawings of Tellers of Tales, after the originals in the EUesmero MS. 
XVI. The Man of Law's Tale, from the EUesmere MS. 
XVn. „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Cambridge MS. 
XVIII. „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Corpus MS. 
XIX. The Shipman's, Prioress's, and Man of Law's Tales, from the Petworth MS. 
XX. The Man of Law's Tale, from the Lansdowne MS. 
(each with woodcuts of fourteen drawings of Tollers of Tales in the EUesmere MS.) 
XXI. A Parallel-Text edition of Chaucer's Minor Poems, Part I :— 'The Dethe 
of BUunohe the Duchesae,' from Thynne's ed. of 1532, the Fairfax MS 16, 
and Tanner MS 346; <the Compleynt to Pite,' 'the Parlament of Foules,' 
and * the Compleynt of Mars,' each from six MSS. 
XXII. Supplementary Parallel-Texts of Chaucer's Minor Poems, Part I, containing 

' The Parlament of Foules,' from three MSS. 
XXIII. Odd Texts of Chaucer's Minor Poems, Part I, containing 1. two MS fragments 
of ' The Parlament of Foules ; ' 2. the two differing versions of * The Prologue 
to the Legende of Qood Women,' arranged so as to show their differences ; 
3. an Appendix of Poems attributed to Chaucer, i. ' The Balade of Pitee 
by Chauciers ; ' ii. 'The Cronycle made by Chaucer,' both from MSS written 
by Shirley, Chaucer's contemporary. 
XXrV. A One-Text Print of Chaucer's Minor Poems, being the best Text from the 
Parallel-Text Edition, Part I, containing, I. The Dethe of Bhiunche the 
Duchesse, II. The Compleynt to Pite, III. The Parlament of Foules, IV. 
The Compleynt of Mars, V. The ABC, with its original from Do DeGuile- 
ville's Fileriftage de la Vie hunuiine (edited from the best Puns MSS by M. 
Paul Meyer). 

The issoe for 1872, in the First Series, is, 

XXV. Chaucer's Tale of Melibe, the Monk's, Nun's Priest's, Doctor's, Pardoner's, 
Wife of Bath's, Friar's, and Summoner*s Tales, in 6 parallel Texts from 
the MSS above named, with the remaining 13 coloured drawings of Tellers 
of Tales, after the originals in the EUesmere MS, and >vith Specimens of 
the Variations of 30 MSS in the Doctor-Pardoner Link. (6-Text, Pt IV.) 

XXVI. The Wife's, Friar's, and Summoner's Tales, from the EUesmere MS, with 
9 woodcuts of Tale-TeUers. (Part IV.) 

XXVII. The Wife's, Friar's, Summoner's, Monk's, and Nun's Priest's Tales, from 
the Hengwrt MS, with 23 woodcuts of the TeUers of the Tales. (Part III.) 
XXVIII. The Wife's, Friar's, and Summoner's Tales, from the Cambridge MS, 
with 9 woodcuts of Tale-TeUers. (Part IV.) 

XXIX. A Treatise on the Astrolabe, addressed to his son Lowys, in 1391 A.D., by 
Oeoffi«y Chaucer, edited by the Rev. Walter W. Skeat, M. A. 

The issue for 1873, in the First Series, is, 

XXX. The Six-Text Canterbury Tales, Part V, containing the Clerk's and 
Merchant's Tales. 

The issue for 1874, in the First Series (ready in June 1873), is, 
XXXI. The Six-Text, Part VI, containing the Squire's and FiunkUn's Tales. 
XXXII to XXXVI. Large Parts of the separate issues of five MSS. 

The issue for 1876, in the First Series (ready in September 1873), is, 
XXXVII. The Six-Text, Part VII, the Second Nun's, Canon's- Yeoman's, and 
Manciple's Tales, with the Blank-Parson Link, 

Ghaveer Boaeiy : List of Books. 


I XXXVIIItoXLIll. Largu Purls uf Uia sepurale issues uf the Six MS8, brineliii; 

L all up to the Pkjkiii'b Tale. 

■ XLJV. A deUiled Cotapariiion of the TrBtjtua eud Cryuifiie witti Boccaccio's 
I Pihilrato, with a TnumlatiDn of all Passages used by Cliaucor, and on 

■ Abstract of the Parts nut uaed, by W. Micliacl Bossetti, Baq., and with 
I a print of thD Ti-oyliu fnim tbo Hiuleian MS 3^3. Part I. 

I XLV. An alphabetical list ol ChaUDcr's rymes ia the Canterbury Tales, as 

ahown by tbo Ellesmere MS. (T/iU ici/i not be rtaili/ till im.) 
Of the Second Serlei, the issue for 1868 is, 

1. Early Knglish Pronunciation, with especial retaranco to Shakapero and Chauerr, 
by AJciaiuler J. Ellis, Esq., P.R.6. Part I. This work includoa an aiiialgaiiiatiim 
of Pruf. F, J. Child's two exreUent uid eihuustive Papcra on theoseof the Glial ~f by 
Chaucer (in T. Wright's od. of TAo CMlerlmry TaU>) and by Oowcr (in Dr Pauli's 
ed. of thu Caiifeaia AmaMii). 

2. Essays on Chauisr, bis Words and Works, Part I. : I. Prof- Eberf s Hoviow of 
Sandras's Etuili tar Chmuce^ tnmslalt^ by J. W, *ua Bees Hosts, U.A. ; 3. A 
13th-centur? Latin Trnitise on the Chilwiic (of the Shipman-t Tale), edited by 
Mr E. Brock. 

3. A Temporary Prefaoo to the Society's SiK-Teit odilion of Chancel's Cimttrtmy 
Tola, Part I, ntUimpCJng to show the right Order of the Tales, and tbs Days and 
Blages of the Pilgrimage, £c. ko., by F. J. Funuvall, lisq., M.A. 

Of [he Seoond Ssriei, tha issue for 1SS9 is, 
I i. Early English Pronunciation, wilhospoclalrefcrcnceto Bhakbporeond Chaucer, 

I by Ali^xundcr J. Ellis, Esq., F.R.8. Part II. 

I or the Seeond Bsriai, the issue fur ISTO is, 

,1 &. Early En(;lish PronunaistioD, with especial rofeience to Shnkspoie and Cbaucer, 

by Alexander J. Elba, Esq., F.B.S. Part III. 

, Of (be Second Series, the issue for 1S71 is, 

6. Trial -Foreivurii to my ParaUcl-Tcil edition of ChaooiyB Miuer Fcumt for tha 
Chsuccr Society (with a try to set Cliaucer'B Works in their rifiht order of Time), by 
Frcdk. J. Fumivalt. Purt I. (This Part brings-tiBt, (or the first tine, Cbauoer'l 
long esrly bat hopelcaa lure.) 

Of the Sooond Boriot, the iuuo (or 1878 ia, 

7. OriginolaanaAnalopiesof Bonieof ChBneur'sCanIorbnryT»1eii,PartI. 1, The 
original ot the Xm> of Zitw'i Tah of Constance, from the French Cbronielo u( 
Nichobu Trivet, Arundel MS fiS, ah. 1340 A.i)., collated with the later copy, ab. 1400, 
in the Naljonsl Library at Stockholm ; copied and edited, with ■ Iranslalion. by Mr 
Edinnnd Brock. 2. The Tale of " Merelaun the Eraperor," trum tbe Early-English 
vomlon ot tbe Getia Sernatiomm in Harl. MS 7333 ; and 3. Part of Matthew Paria'a 
FiCa Ofa Primi, both stories ill lutrating incidents in the JU-a o/Law't Talr. i. Tvo 
French Fabliaux like the Stertft Talt. 6. Two Latin Btorieg liks the Fricr't Tah, 

Of (he Seoood Seriu, the issue for 1ST3 is, 

8. Alburtono of Brescia's Libit Ceuiilii tt Ci)ntelali<mit, a.d. 1246 (the LaHn 
souroa uf the French original of Chaucer's ilelibt), (ditod frum the MBS, by Dr 
Thur Sundby. 

Of the Beoond Beriei, the issue for ISTl is, 

g. Essays on Ch.>ui:fr, hie Wonls and Works, Part II. : 3. John of Uuveden'i 
Frartica Chitindri. edited from the MS. with a translation, by Mr E. Brock. 4. 
ChancBr's nse of the final -s, by Joseph Payne, Em}. t>. Mrs E. Barrett- Browning 
on Chaucer r being thuw) ports ot her review of Iho Book of tht PocU, 1842, Which 
ri'lale to him ; here reprinted by leave of Mr Robert Browning. G, Frutcssvr 
Benihani[ Ten-Brink's critical ediliun of Chaucet'a fvnijilcj/ult to I'll!. 


48 Chavccr Soo'i'ly : List of Doolis, 

; Of th« Seoimd Sarisi, U>e issue far I8TS U, 

10. Orlginuls nnd AniJognes Qf ChauiMT'n Canlertury TaJe«, Part II. fl. Aljihu 
«u ut Lincoln, a Story like Iho iVfOrm.'t Tale. 7. Huw Rtynani canght C 
dew, the mm™ of the Xmi' i-Prirtf t Talt. 8. T»u lliJliui Sturieg, and u 
one, like t]te Paiifener'i Tale. S. Tbo TUe of tlie Friot'n BUddur, a ntcn? like tt 
Htiiamoiier' t Tale, boing 'LI dl« de Id Vt«cie a I'leBtrp,' |wr Jakes de BiuIh'. 
Pelnroh'a L«IJn Tale nf OriHddii (v-itli BuDcaceiu'it Slury fruui whii'ti it woe iv-tu 
the original ut the Clerk't Tulc. 11. Fivo VerxiuDH of ePmr-lroe Story like tha 
tlie MerchMit'a Tale. IS, Kuur Vursiuna ul The. Life uf Snint Ccoilin, tlio orlgiiifti>1 
of Iho Stroud A'nn't Talc. 

It. Early English FrunaaciiLtioD, willi cspocLnl rpfcrGnco to Shakijpci'c imd ClmiK J 
cm-, liy Alexander J. Elllo, £>q., P.R.S. Part IV (fo bi read;) by Maij, 1B74). 

Among the Texts and Essays preparioK are : — 

Supplemental? Canterbury Tnlea : 1. The Tula of Btrt/ii. witli a Frolo^^e of the 
lueny Advontuie of the Pardoner with u Tapster al Cani*rbary, iv-editod from the 
Duke nf Nurthmubcrbmd'!! unique MS, by Fredk. J. Fuiniviil]. (Ths text is all 
printed.) llii tlie Frnt. 

Prof. Bemhnrd Tcn-Urink's "CiiaucEH: Studies on tho History of bis Derel- 
npoment, and Iho Chronology of his Wrilings," Fart I, tnuulalod by Mias Oltiliu 
lllind, and revised by the Author. 

Liffr-llecoids of ICbaiicor, Part I, Tho HoUBOhold book of Isabells, n-lfo uf 
Prince Lionet, third Hon of Edn-ard III, in uhlch the name of Gedfi-uev CuaVleic 
first occurs ; edilod from tlic unique MS in the Brilinb Museum, by Edward A. Bund, 
Kp<q., EoeperoftbeMSS. 

Life-Records of Chnucor, Part II. Enrolments nnd Documeala from the Public 
Record Office, the City uf London Town-Clerk> Offlcc, &r., editrf by F. J. Fur- 
nivall, M.A. 

Easuys on Chancer, Pi.rt III, by F. J. Futniisll. E!*i|,. Dr. AKona Kisracr, Sc. 

Originals and Analogues uf Clutucor's Canterbury Tales, Part III. 

For IBTO, Part Vni of the Six-Text edition, containing tliu Parson's Tule, and 
cimiploliog the Cantirb^iry Talti, is cojaod for Iho First Series ; and for 1877, Part 2 
of CUttuccr's Minor PocniR. For the Second Series, 'A detailed Comparison of 
Chaucer's Eiiighl't Tale with the Ttiri^a of Boccacoio,' by HSSET WiUD, Esq., 
of the MS Department nf the British Museum, is preparing. 

Tbo fifth and eonclnding Part of Mr A. J. Ellis's gmat work on Earln Eiiglith 
Pi-OHHiirialmi mny be eitpeeled in 1H76. 

The third Franoh work will bu either Ouillauiae do Mauhault's Reiiiide di Fei'lmii 
and Hit lU In Fanlaine Aiaournue (tu eompara with Chaucer's Jhihe a/Bbimwhi tit 
Baekau), at Jean do Meim'a Xirrs dt MtUbfe tt di Ftudtitt (from Albertano of 
Bresebi's Lilier Caiisoliilimit, A.O. 1246), or Quillaume do Machanlt'a Sil do Zytrn, 
the possible origiiul of Chaucer's lost Booi of Ihi Lcn, edited from tho MSS, fur the 
first time, by Monsieur I'AtiL Mevku. This will be followed by such originals of 
Chauoor's other works as are known, but are not of easy acocm to subscribers. 

Messn TriiboDT k Co., lit 57 & SS, Lud^te Hill, London, E.C., are tho Gocicly's 
publishers, Messrs Childs of Bungay its printers, and Iho Alliance Bank. Bariho- 
liimow Lane, London, E.C., its bunkers. The yearly subscription is two guineas, 
due on OTory Ut January, beginning with Jan. 1, 1868. Mora Mtmbtn an vmi/rd, 
All Ikt Socifl/i Puilicalio'ii can •I'll is An* 

Pnif. ChUd, of Harvard Culloge, Ciuubrid(;c, Mussochnsetts, Is the Society's Honor- 
ary Secretary for America, Meiubers' names and subscriptions may be sent In tbs 
Publishers, or to the Hoimrary Secretary, 

[Jons ciriLDs aKD aos, puisiEnB.l tundoii Sotpital, Londo", B, 

((^aiig <l!FttgUst) €tj.i Societo. 


From the •' Daily JVm'i," A'or. 20, 1873. 

The issue of an appeal for funds by the Director of tlie Early 
English Text Society, Mr F. J. Fubntvall, serves to remind us of 
the valuable anil important work which this association of a few 
scholars has achieved during its short existence of ten yeais. Work- 
ing with the alenJereat sujiport in the way of annual subscribers, 
and dependent for its literary labonra on the gratuitous work of its 
editors, the Society has given to the world no fewer than seventy- 
four volumes, many of which contain the publication of more than 
one old manuscript. This average of seven volumes and a half a 
year represents the I'caoue from oblivion of a whole mass of mediseval 
literature. There are poems, romances, legends, scientthc treatises, 
satires political and religious, hymns, sermons, and books of be- 
haviour. These, together with a few, like " Piera Plowman," known 
and published before, have been edited, annotated, and prepared for 
the press with all that jealous care, comparison of originals, and 
accurate scholarship which we are accustomed to expect in the pro- 
duction of Latin and Greek classics. Indeed, the names of the 
editors, among whom are those of Messrs Fuhkivall, Skeat, and 
Morris, are by themselves a sufficient guarantee, not only for 
thorough and conscientious work, but for the enthusiasm which 
belongs to the preachers of a new creed and the pioneers of a new 
branch of learning. 

The Early EngEsh Text Society, which does not in any way 
clash with the Camden and the Hakluyt Societies, spreads its 
labours, roughly speaking, over the five centuries between the 
Norman conquest and the later years of Queen EuziBETe. There 
does not seem to bo any rigid rule laid down as to the limitation of 
the term Early English, for we fiud among the publications a trans- 
lation by King Alfred in the West Saxon dialect on the one hand, 
and a poem of tho seventeenth century on the other. But its work 
may fairly be considered to lie betiveen the twelfth and the sixteenth 
century, a long period, which oar old school-books taught us to 
picture as a great sterile Sahara over which the thirsty traveller 
would toil, finding but one oasis, Ihat marked with the name of 

That misconception is now finally put awny and done with, and 
though there is email chance that the ordinary Englishman will 
voluntarily take up the study of Early English any more than that 
of Hebrew, tho mass of fre,sh knowledge which students of medieval 
language and literature will acquire from these publications will 
gradually get diluted in arricles and essays, popularized by lively 
writers, reduced to formula in school manuals, and so at last will be 
brought in some form or other into that ever-increasing stock of 
facts without which no education is complete, and which ore 
supposed by every writer to be aa much in the possession of their 
readers as the Multiplication Table. To accumulate these facts, and 
help to tbeir assimilation, may m a. eetiaQ 'to (:Q>^iA£tv&. ^a '^ioft 

Etiltimalfl end of nil studenta" labour, their very raison d'etre. 
Perhaps the most important fact which the Early English Text 
Society cstahlLshes and illustrates is the continuity of the English 
mind. There is no great gulf, such as we used to believe, between 
CxDiEON iiud Cbauciir, or between Chaucer and Shakebfeabe ; all 
our authoM and poets are united as by some great high road where 
the scenery varies from place to place, but yet we are always under 
an English sky. The great lesson, that the history of literature is 
not a series of brilliant light effects, but a development according to 
natural laws, as yet perhapa imperfectly understood, can nowhere, 
except perhaps in France, be ao well illustrated as by the English 
writers, and specially those smaller links in a great chain whom the 
Early English Society has restored to life. But the uses of the 
Society extend far beyond the enforcement of this lesson. It has 
_ wiped away, as Mr Fubkivall proudly boasts, the old well-deserved 

^^^_ reproach of indifl'erence to the sources of our own language ; it has 
^^^K stirred up the study of English historically ; it makes possible a 
^^^H knowledge of t)ie language ; it makes accessible the most valuable 
^^^^^ documents of that history ; and it shows how, in the teeth of 
^^^^1 ^norance, civil war, and obstacles of all kinds, literature, that is, 
^^^H the power of expression, went on growing, now slowly, now quickly, 
^^^H putting forth in this direction and that tiny tendrUs which were 
^^^B^ destin^ to grow in time into great branches, laden with the fruits of 
U labour and genius. No single form of literature springs suddenly 

into existence, and the old familiar phrases, such as that which used 
L to describe Chaucer as the Father of English Poetry, have to be 

^^^_ abandoned altogether, or used in a modified sense. 
^^^L But the Society has yet other claims upon us, in addition to 

^^^H those which appeal chiefly to students of literature. It is to such 
^^^H works as are issued under its auspices that we must look, for mora 
^^^H than to the State records, for the social history of the country. In 
^^^H the " Babees Boke," the " Boke of Norture," the " Boko of Carving," 
^^^P the statutes of the Enghsh Guilds, and the " Supplycacyon of the 
j^^^f Seggars," we may read the very mind of our forefathers, the way in 
II wtich they regarded the common duties and respousibilitiea which 

make up every-day life, their methods of making existence comfort- 
able, gentle, easy, and cultured, their way of dross, their protection 
and advancement of the arts j how they ate, drank, talked, and slept- 
And if there linger among us any relics of tjiat most ancient religion, 
the worship of encestoos, Mr Furnivall's appeal for help should 
II touch us there. But, indeed, his Society is doing so great a work 

^^^H for all the English-speaking race on both sides of the Atlantic, that 
^^^ft its claims reach higher than mere pride or patriotism. ATith a 
^^^H modesty wliich seems to us oxceesive, he proposes to raise a Com- 
^^^H memoration Fund of 200/. We should liave pi«ferred a larger 
^^^K, ^ucst, first, because we too anxious to see the work which Mr 
^^^B ^RNiVALL now subdivides into a Chaucer Society, a Lydgate 
^^^^v Society, and so on, aU forming port of the Early English Text 
^^^H Society ; and secondly, because it is always well to oak, if you ask 
^^^V ht all, for a large amount. We fear that Mr Furnivall has not yet 
^^^K learned the great truth, well known to all charitable and benevolent 
^^^^B Msociations, not only that much is given to those that have much, 
^^^ bai also that much is given to those who ask for much. Whatever 
F fee the stun that this Society asks and gets, \« it lauch or little, we 

[ may be very ame that it will be well STfont. 

(!^arlg (^n^h\ ijtxt Somtg^ 


With the last day of 1873, the Early English Text Society closed 
the tenth year of its existence. During its short life it has done more 
and better work than any other Society of like kind. It has made 
possible, for the first time, a knowledge of the history of the English 
language ; it has made accessible to all, the most valuable documents 
of that history ; it has stirred-up the study of English historically in 
schools and colleges, and by students generally ; it has wiped away 
from England the old well-deserved reproach of indifference to, of 
ignorance of, the sources of its noble tongue, which for beauty and 
power stands level with, if it does not excel, the choicest languages of 
the world. 

The change that the Society's ten-years' life has wrought in the scien- 
tific study of English, is gladly acknowledged by the scholars of the Con- 
tinent and the United States, but has not yet met with due recognition 
in England, where the Society is insufficiently supported. Its work is 
continually hampered by lack of funds. It has now liabilities that it 
cannot discharge. 

The Duke of Manchester^ has therefore come forward to head a 
Commemoration Fund in help of the Early English Text Society, at 
this, the close of its first ten-years' work, and has proposed that — ^in the 
first instance at least — £200 should be raised by twenty donations of 
£10 each, and that any number of smaller donations should be received. 
The Duke has himself given a donation of £10 to the Fund. The Mar- 
quis of Eipon, the late head of the Educational Department of the 
country, has also contributed the sum of £10 expressly on account of 
the service done by the Society to the cause of the historical study of 
English. Mr Kichard Johnson of Langton Oaks, near Manchester, has 
given his donation of £10 mainly because the Society's publications 
have so remarkably illustrated the social condition and habits of our 
ancestors. A London *' Friend" has added his £10 because he thinks 
it the duty of Englishmen to show their appreciation of the generous 
sacrifice of time and brain made by the Society's editors to promote the 
study of Alfred's and Chaucer's tongue. 

* Tho Duke's £200 Fund (ten donations of £20 each), in aid of the Chaucer Society, has 
been already raised this year, and applied to tho purposes of the Chaucer Society. 

The Commemoration Fund is thus well started. I have only to 
appeal to you to contribute to it, either by giving or collecting a 
donation of Ten Pounds, or any smaller amount. All money should be 
paid either to the Society's Honorary Secretary, Abthxjb G. Sneloboye, 
Esq., London Hospital, London, E., or the Early English Text 
Society's account with the Union Bank, Prince's Street, London, E.C., 
or to mo, 

• ■ ■ > 


3, St Georqe's Squabe, 

Primbose Hill, London, N.W. 

Feb. i, 1874. (Ut dotty Nov, 3, 1873.) 

Ikmon of £10. 

The Dttke of Manchesteb. 
The Duke of Devonshibe. 
The Mabquis of Eipon. 
Rev. W. H. Thompson, D.D. 
Bichabd Johnson, Esq. 
A Fbibnd. 
J. S. B. 
Pbof. F. J. Child. 

Donon of anms under £10. 

N. Tbubneb, Esq., £o os. 
Chables Childs, Esq., £5. 
John Listeb, Esq., £5. 
Cornelius Payne, Esq., £5. 
William Exjino, Esq., £5. 
CoL. Thos. Bbooke, £5. 
Prof. Henry Morley, £3 3«. 
Thos. Hughes, Esq., M.P., £3. 
J. L. Trafford, Esq., £3. 

E. S. Turner, Esq., £2 2«. 
W. G. Stone, Esq., £2 25. 

F. J. FuRNiVALL, Esq., £2. 
Eev. E. Thrino (Head-Master 

of Uppingham), £2. 
F. Harris, Esq., £2. 
EoBT. White, Esq., £2. 
A. Macmillan, Esq., £1 U. 
Prof. A. W. W-vrd, £1 U. 
The Eev. E. A. Abbott, D.D., 

£1 Ifi. 

Dr Ernest Adams, £1 U, 

Miss A. M. Eichardson, £1 1«. 

Prof. Joseph Payne, £1 1«. 

Mr Bumpus, £1 U, 

The Eev. Wm. Wiluamson, 
£1 U. 

The Eev. Canon Toole, £1 la. 

J. W. Hales, Esq., £1 U. 

Edwin Lloyd, Esq., £1 U. 

J. Oakey, Jr., Esq., £1 U. 

Eev. H. S. Wilcocks, £1 U. 

11. Candler, Esq., £1. 

ORIGINAL SEBIEB (One gaiiiea a near). 

The PHblieationt for 1864 (21j.) arc ,-— 
I. KulT bclldi AUitntin Pogmi, ab. ISOO i..D., «d, E. UoitIs. 16;. 
t- ArthB^Tab. IMO, *d. F. J, KiiruivBll. it. 
i. Iwideran (tw Oawtla sf XriEii. Aa.> ll>£6,ed. F. Hal), ti. 
k Blr Bimjiw uid tlu OiMn lUiclit, ob. 1360, od. a. Honifl. I(W. 

Mb PiiUieation* for 1862 (21».) ai-F ,— 
S. Hcmt'i Oitboiiwhia ud ODsiioiti* of4]i* Britu Tanfiu, ftb. 1017, (id, E. B. Wiicatlif. 
B. ln«diNii(tluLiIk,al). UOa,«d. Bev. W. W. SliDiLt;. gi. 
1. QmKJM and Bndm. lb. IIW. ed. a. Morria. (KejiHiitiiv,) 

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[7%tf Englhh MS at Corpus hanng loaf its hrginning^ one is 
supplied from the rernion of the French original in MS 
Bibl, lieg, xic E 3, in the JJrifinh Museum.'] 


The Salutation, and the Three Reasons why the "Writer has not 
told his name at the beginning of the book. 

^ 'Chil ki la hautecbe & la signoiirie do si haute [• leaf s] 

. The writer of ihlf 

estoire cojnme est chelc dii graal met en sent par le hi^ju irutory 

commandeiiient du g/'rtiit maistre, Mandetout prniii(a-o- lu the Xriniiy, 

me?/t salus a tons cheus & a toiites clieles ki out lor 

creancho en la sainte glorieuse trinito, Cli'est el pero, & 

el til, tt el saint esperit. El pcre, pc/r qui tout^is choscs Father, 

sont establies & cries, et rechoiuc7it co>wmencliement de 

vie. El fil, prtr qui tout cliil & toutes cli'^.les qui en son, and 

lui ont creanche, sont deliure des p/^rdurables dolors, <fe 

ramene a le haute ioie ki dura sains fin. El saint HoiyChoet. 

* As a specimen of the language of Addit MS 10,292, Pint. 
CLXXXV. G, and its variations from the MS Bibl. Reg. XI v. E 
III. riut. IX. H, printed in the text, the Prologue of MS 10,202 
is put in the following note. Ilnrdly any of the subsequent 
variations are given ; though ]L0,202 is much shorter than the 
Royal MS. [MS Add. 10.292 is genorally caUed B in the notes.] 

fChil ki se tient Sc iuge au plus i>etit & au ])lus peceor du [fleaf i] 
monde, ^lande salus au r/'mmeuchement de coste estoire A 
toa cheaux ki lor cuers ont & lor cawic*^ en la sainte trinitc. 
Che est el pftire, ce est el til. ce est ol saint esperit. El p^z-e par 
qui toutes coses sont establies & rechoiuent r/)wmencement do 
vie. El fil par qui toutes coses sont deliur<?c.'*de8 paines d'infcr 
etfamene a la ioie qui dure sans fin. El saint espcrit par qui 
-- ORAAL. 1 


esperit, par qui toutes les boines choses sent mondees 
Hewuinotteiihi* & sauitefiees. Li nons de cliclui qui cheste estoiremet 

name at flrst,— 

en escrit n*est pas nomes ne esclairies en chest com- 
though it will menchement. Mais par les paroles qui chi apries soront 

appear in ills ,., , -i • o • . t 

after word*,— oites, porra on grant masse apercJieuoir & counoistre le 

non de lui, & sa uie, & son anchiestre. Mais en chest 

cowimenchement ne le veut il descourir. Et si i a trois 

[•leaf 3, col. 2] raisous par quoi : premierement, powr chou ke se *il le 

1. The envious noiuast, & il dcsist ke diex eust par lui dcscouuert si 
bragged, haute cstoire co7n est celo du graal, qui est estoire de 

toutes les estoires, li felon & li enuieus ne li atoumais- 

2. His acquaint- scut a uautauche. L'autre raisons est pour chou, ke 

ance might value . . . 

the Hitftory less, ceus peust oir SOU uou qui le couneust, SI emp^isait 
mains I'estoire pour chou qiie par si pouro persone oust 
este mise en escrit. Car il se tient pour la plus poure 
p<?rsone & pour la plus despite ki onqwes fust formee. 
tt.pUhUUwdi -^ tierche raisons est powr chou, ke s'il eust en 
be*biamed^ "^^^^ I'estoire aucune chose desauenant, ou par eflachement, 
ou par le nice des escriuens qwi aprcs le translataissent 
d'un lieu en autre, tous li blasmes en fust sour son 
non. Car il est ore on nos tans plus des touches qiii 
dient mal ke de cheles ki hien dient. Et plus est vns 

toutes coses so fit hors miscs des mains au maligne esperit, & 
raemplies de ioie par renluminement de lui que est vrais 
enlumineres ic vrais confors. Li nons de celui qui ceste estoire 
escrist n'est pas noumcs ne esclairies el ^<'/?/mencement. Mais 
par les paroles qui chi apres seront ditcs porres grant masse 
ap^'7'ccuoir del non de celui & le pais ou il fu nes & vne grant 
partie de son lignage. Mais al ^m/tmencement ne se veut pas 
descourir; & se i a .iij. raisons por quoi. La premiere si est 
por ce que se il se noumast & deist que diex eust descouert par 
lui si haute estoire commQ est cele du saint graal qui est la 
plus haute estoire qui soit, Li felon & li enuieus le tomer- 
oient en vielte. L*autrd raison si est por ce que tels poroit oir 
son non qui le r^/inistroit, si enpriseroit mains Testoire por ce 
que si poure p^rsone eust mis en escrit ceste estoire. L'autre 
f = la tiercej raison si est por ce (lue s'il eust mis son non en 
Tcstoiro & on i trouast aucune cose mesauenant ou par visse de 
maluais escriuain qui apres le translatast d'un liure en autre, 
tous li blasmes en fust sor son non. Car il sont ore en no tana 
plus de beaches qui mal dient que bien. £t plus est vns horns 


boms "blasmes de faire vn seul mal, ke il n'est loes do 

faire cent bens. Pour ches .iij. cboscs, no ueut ko ses ButthouKhho 

. conoealfl his n.inic 

nons soit de tout en tout descouuiers. Car la soit cbo 
ke il le voelle mowlt couurir et chelcr, si sera il plus 
ap<?rclieus qM*il no uauroit. ^lais il descouuorra & dira he*u ten plainly 
tout en ayei't comment la liaute estoire del saint graal li nutorjofthe 

n 1 pi.'11'p iA • o •!• Holy Orall waa 

fu r^mniandee & baillie, & en quel t^/inme, & qui li deUveredtohim. 

bla.smcs d*un scul mal, qu*il ne seroit Ices de .C. biens. Et 
por die ne veut il pa8 que hcs nons soit del tot descouers. Cur 
ia soit ce qu'il s'en volsist courir, si sera il plus dcscoucrs qu'il 
ne voldroit. Mais il dira tot en apcrt coinmcnt Testoiro del 
fkiint graal li fu t'^mmandee a manifestier. 


How in the year 717 A.D. in WTiite Britain, which is England, 
Christ, as a beautiful man, appears in a vision to a 
Trinit}'-doubting monk, and promises to clear his doubts ; 
and (p. 7) gives him a little Book ; and how in the book 
there are four treatises, with these titles : * I. Here be- 
ginneth thy lineage, n. Here beginneth the book of the 
Holy Grail, ill. Here begin the terrors. IV. Here begin 
the marvels ' (p. 9). How a ray as of fire descends from 
heaven, and great darkness comes, and then sweet odours, 
and sweet voices singing hymns to God (p. 10). How 
on Good Friday an Angel appears to the monk, and 
takes him up to the third Heaven (p. 12), and reveals the 
mystery of the Trinity to him (p. 13). How the monk locks 
the Book up in a box (p. 14). How on Easter Day the 
monk says his service, and then finds the Book gone. How 
he has a vision, telling him to go to Norway, and there 
find the Book (p. 15). How he goes after the Book, a 
wonderful Beast guiding him (p. 16) ; how he is lodged by 
a hermit the first night (p. 17) ; how on the second day 
he comes to the Pine of Adventures and its miraculous 
Fountain (p. 18), and how a lady's servant feeds him 
there, and how he is lodged by a knight (p. 19) ; how on 
the third day he finds the Book in a little chapel, and cures 
a devil -possesst man with it (p. 21). How food for this 
man is sent miraculously (p. 22) ; how on the ninth day 
the monk starts for home with the Book, and the Beast 
reappears (p. 23) ; how the monk reaches home. How he 
is told in a vision to copy out the Book (p. 24). 

In the year of our II aulnt apres la passion ihe^u crist .vij. cens & 

Lord 717» 

.xvij. ans ke ie, li plus pechieres des autres pecneours, 

me gisoie en .j. petit habitacle endroit icliele eure ki 

the writer Uee, est aplclee la tleiche viffile de le nuit. Ichil lieus ou 

in tiie third watch . . ° . , . , 

of the Might, in iou lue gisoie en tel maniere, — com dieus seit, ki tons lea 
penses counoist,— estoit lontieus et destornes de toutes 
gens. Et tant en puis iou hien dire ke il estoit en .j. 

in one of the des plus sauuages lieus ki fust en toute la hloie ber- 

wildest placet in , ■!-»*-. ii •ii-ii 

White Briuin; taigue.^ Mais ne pour q?/ant m^wlt m estoit delitables 

' The other MS, 10,292, says nothing about *bloie ber- 
taigne/ having only after * peceors,' * estoie en .j. lieu le pl«# 


& plaisans. Car quant nostres sires veut ouurer en son 

crestien, il 1' a tantost mis en tel 'corage ke toutes les [•leafs.coi.s] 

clioses ki li siecles prise li annuient. Iclielo nuis ke ie and then 

. . . . . /» 1 " • 1 • . on the night 

me gisoie en-si codi tous aues oi, si fu la nuis ki est before ckwd 

entre le ioesdi absolut & lo vendredi beneoit. Et se 

Tiostre signoMr plot ke il recheust en gre, Ie auoie fait 

le seniiclie des matiiies ke on apiele tcnebres. Et lors 

si me prist moult grans volcntes de dormir, si coinmen' he (% monk) has 

cliai a soumillicr en mon lit ou iou m*estoie a-coutes. 

Ensi C0771 i'oi cownnenchie a soumellicr, no demoura 

puis gaires ke iou oi vne vois ki m'apiela ^ .iij. fois par 

mon non, et si me dist, "esueille toi & si ascoute.^ a voice c«ii« wm 

and proclaims 

De trois coses vne, & d'une cose trois ; & autrestant the doctrine of 

, . ,^-r 1 • the Trinity to 

puet rune cowme les trois. *Ae les trois naturelment him. 

ne sont autre cose ke vne."^ A chel mot m'esueillai, 

si esgardai entour moi, et ui si grant clarte ke nule si 

grcrns no peust issir de nule te>Tiene lumiere. Apres ui 

vn howime ester deiiant moi, si biel & si delitable ke sa chrfet appean 

to Iiim. 

biautes ne porroit estre contee ne descrite par lange de 

nul ho77ime mortel. Et quant ie le vi, si fui si esbahis 

que ie ne seucli sous siel ke dire ne que faire. Et il 

m'esgarda, & si me dist : ** As tu entendu ne taut ne 

q7/«nt la parole ke ie t'ai dito 1 " Et io li respondi en 

tranlant, " Sire, io n*cn sui mie encore b/en certains." 

Et il mo redist, " che est la counissanche de la trinitei 

que ie t*ai raportoe." Et che dist il pour chou que The monk has 

Tauoie esto *en doutanche comment che pooit estre ke la the Trinity. 

[* leafs, back] 

Bouage que iou ne voel faire connoxBire & eslongies de toutes 
crestiens. Mais itant vous puis ie bien dire que li lieus est moult 
ealuages, Mais mp?<it estoit delitables 8c plaisans. Car home qui 
est del tout en dieu il a a coutrarie toutes les seculers coses. 
Ensi comme ie me gisoie en eel lieu dont vos m*aues oi 
parler, si fu au ieudi absolu. £t quant vint au vendredi 
beneoit, si auoie dit (sc a n^jt^re scignor pI:iisoit,) Ie seruice que 
on apele tenebres.* Add. 10,292, leaf 1, col. 3. 

' & il ne demora pas grantment que vno vois m*apcla. — B. 

' An illustration, with the rubric * Ensi que dieus en uue 
nue p^irole a i hermitc qui est deuant son autel.' — A. 

^— ' Omitted in B. 


trinites auoit trois persones & si n'auoit c'une seulo 
deite et vne seule poissancho. Ne onqwes n'auoie en 
nuUe riens cose doutce de ma creanche, que seulement 
en chestui point. Apres me dist, "pues tu encore 
counoistre ne apercheuoir ki ie sui 1 " Et ie dis : 
He cannot see the " Sire, mi ocl sont mortcl, si n'ont pas pooir d'esganler 

briKhtiies9 nbove 

au brightnebsee. entiiement la clarte do toutes les autres clartes, no la 
bouclio ne puet encore auoir la forche de dire chou dont 
toutes les pekeresses langues serroient encombrees." 

Christ breathes Et il s'abaissa vois moi, si me soufHa en mi Ie vis. Et 

His eyes clear, lors me fu auis qjw i'oi les iex a cent doubles plus 
clers ke onqw^s mais n'auoie eus, et ke ie sentoie dedens 
ma boucho vne grant meruelle de langues. Et il me 
redist, " pues tu encore counoistre qui ie sui ? " Et 

a flame as of Are qw^nt io ouri la bouche poz^r rcspondre, si vi qiis vns 

itarta flrom his 

mouth, and he is brandons me saloit hors du cors autresteus com de fu 


ardawt. Si en euch si grant paour quant ie li vi, q?/e 
onq?/es n'oi pooir de dire mot. Et quant il me vit si 

ciirisi comforta espoente, si me dist, " N'aies mie paour : car la fon- 
taine de toute seurte est chi deuant toi. Et hien 
sachies que ie sui chi uenus pour toi aprcndre & ensen- 
gier de toute te doutanclie. Car ie sui de toutes 
doutanchcs ^vrais ensengieres. Ie sui chil par qui 

The Great Master tout^ les boiues scienses sont apn'ses. Car ie sui li 
grans maistres par qui tout li terien maistre seuent 
tant de bien com il ont apris. Ne maistre ne sont il 
mie. Car maistres ne puet estre, se chil non qui seit 
toutes les sciences. Ie sui chil maistres a qui nicho- 
medcs dist : * Maistre, nous sauons que vous estes venus 
de dieu.' Ie sui chil de qui Tescriture dist, * Toute 
sapiense vient de dieu nostre signeur,' & si est auoec 

* — ' certains. Ie sui fontaine de sapieDce. Ie sui chil a 
qai nicodemus dist, * Maistres, nos conniBSonti qui yos estes.' Ie 
Bui oil de qui Tesscripture dist, * toute sapience vient de nostre 
seignor.' lou sui li parfais maistres. si sui venus a toi por ce 
que ie voeil que tu rechoiues enseignement de toutes les choses 
dont tu as este en doutance & Ven ferai chertain. Et par toi 
sera ouuerte a tos chiaus qui I'oroot conter." — B (MS 10,292). 


lui & tous iours i a este deuant tous *les eages. Et pour [• ieaf3,uck, 

cliou qrie ie sui li parfais maLstrcs comme chil qui sui 

fontaine de toute sapiense, pour chou sui iou uenus a m the fonntain of 

. . . all wJudom. aiid 

toi. Car le voel qite tu reclioiues par moi enseignement ha» therefor© 

de toutes iclielcs choses dont tu seras on doulancho. aii the monk'a 

Et si te ferai certain & sage d*une cose dont onq?/cs nus 

liom mortcus ne fu certains. Et par toi sera ele des- 

couu^e et esclairie a tous chiaus qui iamais Torront 

conter no deuiser." * A chest mot me prist par lo 

main destro, et si me mist dedens j. petit liuret qiu He givea the 

, • 1 1 111 monk a liitlo 

n estoit pas on nule mamere plus Ions ne plus les ke est book, 

la paume d'un home. Et quant ie ting le liuret, si me 

dist, " veus tu sauoir ke ie t*ai haiUiet ? " Et ie dis ke 

ie le sauroie mo?/lt volentiers : et il me dist, " Ch*est li 

liures v ({uel tu trouucras si gmns mr melles que nus in which are 

. . '^'^ • 1 1 • ffreat«r wondera 

cuers morteus nes porroit penser. rs c la de nule iiens than morui heart 

ne seras en doutancho dont tu ne solos auoios ^ par chest °*" co^c^^^** 

liuret. Et si i sont mi secro, ke ie moisinos oscris de ma 

main, ke nus hom ne doit veoir se il n'ost auant 

espurgies par confession ^& par icunc de trois iours en 

pain & en iauo.' Et ap?Ys che los doit il en tel maniero 

dire, ki los die de la lange du cuer, si ke ia cliele do la 

bouche n*i paraut.* Car il n*i puent estre noumo par The elements 

nule languo mortel, qwc tout li quatre element n*en wiien the Book's 

.1 Ti* ^ A_ I* ± aecreta are 

soiont commew, car li emeus en plouuera et fera autres ,poken by mortal 

signos. Li airs en tourbelora apiertement. Li terre en '^*^' 

crolora, et Tiaue* en cangera sa couleur. Tout chou 

auenra par la forche des paroles qui en chest liuret sont 

escrites. Et si i a autre chose, que ia nus hom n'esgar* 

dera souuent en chest liuret ensi comme on i doit 

regardor, qw'il n'i conq?//re les .ij. grignours ioiea. qui 

Boient. Ch'est la ioie de Tame & la ioie du cors. Car The joy of the 

il n'est nus hom morteus tant durement 'courchies, se [•leafs.back, 


* n'e« Boies adrecies. — B. ' — ' not in B. 

* £t en tel manicre le dois dire comiae par langue de cuer, 
8i que ia chele de la bouce n'l parolt. — B. * Taigue. — B. 




The monk hears 
A voice like a 
trumpet, and a 
great crash, 

and falls to the 
ground ; 


and finds the 
Book in his luind. 

The first title in 
the Book, * Here 
is the beginning 
of thy lineage.' 

[• leaf 4] 

il puet dedens veoir ententieiunent ensi comme veoir i 
deuera^ que ia maintenant ne soit ses cuers deliures de 
toutes ires et plains de toutes les ioies ke cuers morteus 
puct auoir, tant sant plaisant & delitable les paroles qui 
i sont. Ch'est la ioie du cors. Et d*autre paH il 
esprendera si duremerit petit & petit si durement del 
esperituel amour, que se il baans est as terrienes coses, si 
sera chou powr metre & powr despendre en Tueure & en la 
besoigne a son creatour. Ne ia par pechie qw*il ait fait 
en chest siecle ne morra do mort soubite qui chest liuret 
ara vne fois veu ou tenu. Ch'est la ioie de Tame." 
Et q?^ant il ot che dit, si cria vne vois autresi co7/ime 
vne buisine. Et qziani ele ot crie, si vint vns si grans 
escrois de haut, ke il me fu auis que tous li firmamens 
feust keus, & ke la t^rre fust fondue iusk'en abisnje. 
Et so clartes eut este grans deuant, lors fu graindte a 
chent doubles. Car i*en fui si esbahis ke bten en 
quidai avoir pierdu la veue, & si cai a terre autresi 
comme pasmes. Et qwant vint au chief de grant pieche 
ke la vanites du chief me fu tresalee, si ouuri les iex. 
Mais ie no ui onquea as iex nule riens vivant. Ne 
onqwes no me soi a q?«oi tenir de quan que ie auoie veu ; 
anchois tenoie tout a songe, q^^ant ie trouuai en ma main 
Ie liuret ensi com li grans maistres Ie mi auoit mis. A 
tant me leuai moult lies & mo?dt ioieus, et ting toutes 
uoies Ie liuret entre mes .ij. maiws. Et si fui si en 
orisons & en proieres tant ke dieus enuoia Ie iour qwi 
mo?^lt durement me tardoit. Et q?/ant li iours fu si 
clers ke ie peuch la lotrc. counoistre, si cowmenchai a 
lire ; & si trouuai el commenchement .i. title qui disoit, 
* Chi est li co7nmenchemens do ton linaige.' Et qwant 
ie vi chou, si en fui mowlt lies. Car il n'estoit nule rien 
t^ri'ene^ que ie tant desiraisse a oir comme la counis- 
sancho de mon linaige. Et quant ie oi garde tant ke 
ia estoit pn'me passee, si me fut* auis ke ie n'i auoie 
» MS terrieene. * MS fui. 


rien leu, tant i auoit encore a lire. Car ie i ni tant de 
lettrc ke ie en fui tous csbahis comment si grans plentes 
de paroles pooit estre amoncbelee en si petit liuret qui 
n'estoit pas au mien ensient plus Ions ne plus les en 
nule guise que est vne paume. Si m'en merueillai tant 
qi(e ie en mcscrisse moi meisme qui Ie veoie, se chil no 
Ie m'eust baillie qui grant plente de choses puet metre 
en petit de lieu, & ki grant lieu puet aemplir do pen 
do choses. Ensi gardai el liuret iusqy/es viers tierche, 
tant que i*oi counut grant pa^-tie de mon lignage. Si 
i ui les nons & la vie do tant preudo7nmeSy ke a paincs (in which i saw 

J J. . . . /. • tlie names and 

osaisse lo ne deusso dire ne counoistre que le fuisse UTMofsomany 

d'aus descendus. Car qwant ie veoie lor boine vie, & anSftort.) 

les grans gries k'il auoient soufi&ert en terre powr lor 

creatour, si ne pooie pas penser comment ie peusse tant 

amendcr ma vie qwVle fust digne d'estre amenteue 

aueuc les lour. Ne il ne m*estoit pas auis que ie fuisse 

horn enuiers aus, mais fainture d'omme & reproches. 

En cbe penso demourai moMlt longement, mais toutes 

uoies retouma au liure, & commenchai a lire tant ke ie 

oi leu iusk'en la fin de mon linaige. Et lors trouuai vn 

title qui disoit, * Chi cowmenche li liures du saint Title t. 

Here begins the 

graal.' Et qua7?t ie oi leu tant que miedis fu passes, <& book of the Holy 
ke il pooit estre bien pres de none, si en trouuai .i. 
autre q?/i disoit : * Chi est li commenchemens des 
paours.* Et quant ie oi che title passe, si commenchai Title s. 

'^ ^ . Here Is the 

a lire, & vi tens choses qui mot/It estoient peureuses & betcinningofthe 

espoentables a ueoir. Et sache diex ke a si grant dou- 

tanche les veoie, Ke ia enuair ne Tosaise,' se chil ne 

le m'eust commando, par 'qui commandement toutes [•leafi.coi.s] 

choses uiuans sont meues.* Et quant ie oi asses veus [ms io,2w 

, .11 . . .« , ...i .J. .J omlte 4th title.] 

de coses mcrueilleuses, si trouuai le quart title qui disoit : Tuie i. 
* Chi commenchent les meruelles.' Et lors commenchai mS^dlf ° 

' ne ia veoir ne les osaisse. — B. 

* [trtr qui toutes coses sont ro/zimandees & gouemees. — B, 
leaf I, back, col. 3. 


[1 MS ft tms] 

Lightning and 
thunder come ; 

the monk falls to 
the ground. 

A Bweet odour 

And a eweet 
aong of praise 

[•leaf 4^001.3] 

(Honour and 
glory and poirer 
and dominion 
be for ever to 
tbe destroyer of 

moult durement a penser. ensi com ie pensoie achestecose, 
vns^ rais autresteus comme de fu ardant descend! de 
uers le chiel & vint tres par deuant mes iex autresi 
bmians comme foudres. Et moult durement sambloit es- 
pars de tounoire, fors tant q?^ la clartes endura plus, & fu 
graindres & plus espoentables. et si descend! par deuant 
mo! si soudainement ke tout 1! oel m'estinchelerent en 
la teste, che me fu a-uis que ie eusse la ceruele espandue, 
si que !o ka! a te7Te tous pasmes. Mais ne me dura 
gaires 1! estourdissemens. anchois mo trcsala si conzme 
TiostiQ signour plot. Et lors redi*echai la tieste, si ouuri 
Ics iex, & ui ke tous 1! firmamens noircissoit, & ko 1! 
solar^^ pierdoit de tout en tout sa clarte si ke il faisoit 
autresi grans tenebres com il sent faire es espesses nuis 
d*iuer. Et quant ches tenebres orent dure tant ke on 
peust b/en auoir ale chent pas, si plot a dieu q?^ elcs 
trespasserent. & lors commencha a esclarchir petit & 
petit, si ke 1! solans reuint tous en sa propre clai-te. Et 
maintenant descend! el lieu ou ion estoie, vne odours si 
douche & si soues ke se toutes les espices qui sont 
ou monde fuissent encontre, eles ne rondissent pas la 
miMsme pars de douchour ne de souautume, si com ie 
quit. Apries o! entour mo! .j. si douch chant & vne 
si grant loenge, ke tout 1! estrument & toutes les 
melodies que on porroit oir en terre serroient fins niens 
a escouter, enuers chelu! chant ke ie oi. Car ta7?t i 
auoit vois que nule riens morteus an mien quidier n*en 
porroit le nombre dire. Et si estoient au 'mien ensiant 
si pries de mo! ke se che fuissent coses veables ie les 
peusse atouchier a ma main. Mais onques tant esgarder 
n'i so! que onques .j. de tous chieus qui cantoient 
peusse veoir. Et tant entend! ge bten qu'il looient en 
lor chant no^fre seignour. & si disoient tous iours en la 
fin de lor canchon : " Hounours & gloire <& poestes & 
empires soit par-durablement au destruseour de la mort 
& au restoreour de la vie pardurable." Icheste loenge 

THE writer's vision. HIS GOOD-FRIDAY WORK. 11 

entendoie io hien, Mais de tout Tautre chant ne pooie death and tiie 

rwtorer of 

ie pas entendre que il voloit dire ; mais sour toutes riens eternal ufe); 

estoit dous & plaisans a oir. Et quani il auoient chou andaoandaasof 

chant e, si sounoient en ha at vne grant meruelle, ne sai 

de ques estrumens, qiii resambloient escheletes^ au 

souner. Et quant eles laissoient a soner, si recommen- 

choiont a canter Ics uois. En cheste maniere canterent 

hicn iusk' a .vij. fois. Et quant vint a la sietisme^ fois, 

si rompirent lor chant si soudainement qu^il me fu auis 

que il fuissent tout keu en abisme. Et lore me sam- 

bloit que toutes les cles des oisiaus ki sowt en Tair s'en- and aonnd* as of 

flying birds. 

uolaissent par deuant moi. Et maintenant que les vois 
laissierent a canter, si remest la grans odours ke i'auoie 
si longemewt sentue, qui si durement m'auoit pleu qus 
iamais a nul iour ne quesiae estre en autre maniere que 
ie estoie mais c*au plaisier nostre signeur fust. Ensi 
remes,^ si co7wmenchai moMlt durement a penser a cheste The end or the 

, vision. 

merueille que ie auoie oie. Et lors vint vne vois d'en 
haut ki me dist : " Laisse a penser, si lieue sus, & si ua 
rendre a dieu che qus tu li dois. Car hien est huimais 
tans & eure." A chest mot me leuai ; si gardai entour On oood PHdaj 

. , morning the 

moi, & vi qjie ia estoit nonne passe. Et qwant le vi monk rises. 

che, si m*esm<?ruellai trop du iour qui si tost s'en estoit 

ales. Car io quidoie qu'ii fust encore ma* tins, tant [•ic«f4,back] 

durement m'auoit pleu li lires du liuret.* Et quant ie 

fui leues, si le mis en tel lieu ke il fu tons iours deuant 

mes iex. Aprcs cantai mes eures ensi com eles sont* a Herfngshii 


dire a chel iour. Et qz^ant ie les oi dites, si com- 

menchai le seruiche si douch & si piteus comme de la »"* W«n« th« 


iport ihe^u crist. Car a chel iour fu il uraiement mors. 
Et pour chou ne sacrefi on mie son cors a chel iour. 
Car la ou la uerites vicnt avant, la figure doit estre 

* MS 10,292, vaea champeneles. 
« witisme, MS 10,202 (or B). 

' remest 11 chanters, 10,292, leaf 3, col. 1. 

* matin, por ce que iou auoie esgardet el lioret qui tant me 
plaisoit,— B. • MS font. 


An angel comes 
to him and 
raiaea him in 
spirit to the third 
heaven (his hody 
being left behind), 

where secrets 
are revealed to 

[* leaf i, back, 

The angel takes 
him to another 

ariere mise.^ Mais a tous les autres iours le sacrefie on,' 
en senefianche ke 11 fu sacrefies pour nous. Et a cliel 
iour ke il fu vraiement sacrefies, ch'est li venredis 
beneois, ne le sacrefi on pas,^ car il n*i a mais point de 
senefianche, puis ke li iours est venus que il fu vraie- 
meni sacrefies. Et quant ie oich fait le seruiche a Taie* 
de dieu, lusqw^s la ou li prestres fait les .iij. parties del 
sacrement, & ie vauch recheuoir nion sauueour, si vint 
vns angeles deuant moi, qui me py'^ist par andeus mes 
mains, & me dist, " Ches .iij. parties te sont deuees a 
recheuoir deuant ke ie t'ai demoustre apiertement pour 
quoi tu les as faites d*une seule cose, & ke ie t'arai de 
toutes tes doutances chertifijet" A chest mot me leua 
en haut, non mie en cors, mais en esperit. Et si 
m'enporta el plus delitable lieu ke onques how eust ueu 
a mon ensient. Car nus cuers ne porroit tant penser de 
ioie, ne langue n'en porroit tant dire, ne oreille escouter, 
ke la n'e72 eust encore cent mil tans. Et se ie disoie ke 
che fust el tierch chiel, la ou satn^ paus fu port^s par 
le Baint esperit : espoir ie diroie uoir. Mais tost seroit 
tenu a uantanche & a menchoiwgne. Et ne pour q?/ant 
tant en dirai ge, ke la me furcnt moustre & descouuert 
li secre dont aains paus dist que nule langue d'o7wme 
mortel ne doit descouurir. Et quant Toi longe'ment 
esgarde les merueUes dont ie veoie tant q?/e nule bouche 
no porroit conter, si m'apiela li angeles, & me dist : 
"As tu chi grans merueilles veues 1 " Et ie respond!, 
ke ie ne pensoie mie ke nules si grans peussent estre. 
Et il me dist que il me mousterroit gringnours encore. 
Lors me prist, & si me mena en vn autre estage qui 
estoit a chent doubles plus clers que voirres. Et pre- 
cieusement estoit couloures, si que nus hom certaine- 
ment ne deuisast la coulour, tant par estoit soutieus & 

* & por ce nel sacre on mie. Car la figure doit estre 
ariere roise dusques al diemence. — B. 

' Mais on le sacre tous les autres iors. — B. 

' ne le sacre on pas. — B. * a Taide. — B. 


esbaissans. Illuec me monstra apiertement la forche do 

la trinite. Car io i ui deuiseement le pere & le fil & le He seet the 

. . ... . , . i. i» Father, Son, 

Banit espent, si q?/e le peucli counoistre rune persone «id Hoiy ohoet 

et rautro. Et si vi tout apertement comment ches .iij. 

pcrsones repairoiewt apertement a vne sustanche & vne 

deitei & a vne poissanche. Et ne por q!/«nt se i*ai dit 

q?ie i'aio veu les .iij. persones et deuisees Tune de Tautre, 

la powr chou ne m'encourent sua 11 enuieus & li felon : 

qwi ne seruewt fors q«c des antres reprendre & remordre. 

Ke pa/fr chou ne dient il mie qwe i'aie parle conixQ Andtwtisnot 

•gftinst St John's 

rauctorite sa/n^ iehan le haut euwangeliste. Car 11 dist Mying. That no 

1 . « . , man can let tlM 

q?^ nus hom ne vit onqw^s le pere, ne veoir ne le puet. Father; 
Et ie m'acort b/en a luL Ne tout chil qui Tout oi ne 
seuent pas ke il i entendi. Car il vaut dire des homes 
morteus. Car tant com li ame est el cors, tant est il 
morteus, ne il ne muert en Tomme ke la chars. Mais 
puis c]ue li hom est desuestus du cors, puis est il 
espe?itueus. Et des-ke il est espe?itueus, hien puet 
esperitol cose veoir. Par che poes counoistre ke li for that meane 

mortal man, uid 

sains lehans vaut dire des hommes morteus, ke nus ne not apirituai. 

pooit veoir la maieste del pere. Endementiers ke ie 

estoie ententieus & curieus de remirer chele grant 

me?nielle, si souna autresi com vns escrois de tounoire, a dap of thunder 

la heard. 

& si trambla, che me fu auis, trestous li firmamens. 

Et main tenant uint illuq^^s tant de *celestiens virtus [•ieaf4,hwk, 

ke li nombres n*e/i porroit estre sens ne dis. Et qt/ant 

ie me regardai, si se laissiorent tout chaoir souin tout 

enuiron la maicstei ausi com s'il fuissent cheu de pami- 

sons. Et q?/ant ie vi chou, si fui trop durement esbahis 

& pcureus. Et li angeles me prist, & si me remena la The angei ukei 

ou il m'auoit pris prcmierement. Mais anchois ke il 

remesist en mow cors Tesperit, me dist : " As tu veu 

graws mcrueilles 1 " Et ie dis ke eles estoiewt si grans ke 

ki aroit congict del dire as gens t^rrijens, H n'est nus 

hom si sains ne si bzen de dieu qid pas en fust creus. 

Et ensourketout nus cuers morteus ne porroit auoir la 



bean that be'i 
convinced aboat 
tb« Trinity, 

and then pati 
hit epirit back 
Into his body. 

The monk endi 
hie eenrice, and 
pate the Book 
into a box, and 

[•leaf 6] 

On Easter day, 
after service, 

\} Pybr ooorui] 

forche del retenir ne lange del dire. Et il me redist : 
"£s tu encore hien certains de che dont tu as tant 
doute V* Et ie li dis ke il n*cstoit el siecle nus horn si 
mescreans, se il me voloit deboinairement escouter, ke 
ie ne li fesisse apiertement entendre les poins de la 
trinite, par che ke ie en auoie veu & aprins. £1 il me 
dist lors : " Or te mettrai dont la ou ie te pris. Et 
lore si recheuras ton sauueour ]phi8 certainement ke tu 
ne fesis deuant. Car tu ne dois pas herbergier oste ke 
tu ne counoisses. Et se tu as veues grans merueilles, 
tu en trouueras el liuret de teles ke tu ne tenras mie a 
mcnours. Mais tu n'i gardcras, mais deuant ke tu aras 
celebree la surrection ihesu. crist." A tant remist mon 
espcrit dedens Ie cors. Et ie m'esperi autresi com cliil 
ki a dormi qui s'esueille, si quidai Tangele veoir, mais 
11 s'en estoit ia ales. Et ie esgardai, si ui mon sauueour 
deuant moi, tout en tel maniere com il i estoit q?^ant li 
angeles m'enporta. Et ie Ie pris, si Ie rechui, & vsai 
a boine creanche & a grant deuotion. Et qt/ant li 
seruiches fu fenis, si pris Ie liuret, & si I'ostoiai en vne 
petite casse ou la boiste estoit en lequele corpus domim 
reposoit. Et quant ie Toi mis dedens, si frema la casse 
moult hien. a une clef. Car ie me voloie jiu perdre 
garder. *l^e ie ne Ie sauoie ou metre plus honestement, 
Car moult i auoit biel lieu & net. Et q7/ant ie issi de la 
capiele, si vi ke il estoit ia si basse cure qii^ii anuitoit. 
Et lors entrai en ma maisonncte, & mangai tel viande 
ke nostrea sires m'auoit pr^stee. Ensi passai cheli iour 
& Tendemain, ta7?t ke uint au iour de la surrection au 
sauueur. Et q?/ant il li plot ke ie oi fait Ie seruiche 
dol iour qui si est Laus coni de nostro sauueour, chelui 
meisme qui Ie iour saintefia, entrai a garawt que ie couuri^ 
anchois au liure pour les saintcs paroles veoir que ie ne 
fesisse a la viande prendre. Tant estoient douches & 
plaisans a oir, ke eles me faisoient oublier la fin du cors. 
Et quant ie ving a la casse ou ie Tauoie mis, & ie Ie 


desfremai, si n'en trouuai point. Et qwant ie vi che, he nniockt iiis 

.«..,! , . . , , . , box and find* the 

61 fill 81 dolans ko le ne sauoie prendre nul conroi do Bookgon«. 

moi ; Anchois quidoio b^^n que io ne fuisse iainais lies 

a nul iour. si co7;eme/2chai a penser cornment 11 pooit 

estre ietes hers de chol lieu ; Car io Tauoie troue ferine 

en tel maniero com ie I'auoie laissie. Endementiores 

que ie pensoie a cheste cose, si oi vne vois qui me dist : 

"Pour quoi cs tu esbaliis, & de quoi te meruelles tul Aroiceteiuhim 

he ehall have the 

T*esmeruelles tu de che que li liures est ietes hors do Book aKain when 

he has euflered 

son lieu sans dosfreiner? Tout en tel maniero issi for it. 
ili€^ru« oris du sepulcre sans la pierre remuer. Mais or 
to conforte, & si va mangier; ke anchois te couenra paine 
Bouilrir ke tu Ic tienes mais." Et quant io oi ko ie 
encore le porroie auoir par paine soulfrir, si m*en ting 
a hien paies. Lors alai mangier. Et quant ie oi 
mangie, si m*en retournai en la capiele, & priai nosfiQ 
Bignour ke 11 par sa pitie mo dounast auoiemcnt de che 
^que ie tant desiroio. Et maintcnant reuint vne vols qui 
me dist : " Che te mande li grans maistres : quant tu He u to go on a 
aras le matin cclebreio la messe, si te dcsiuneras, & si 
t'en Iras maintcnant en sa besoi'gne la ou ie te dirai. [*ieaf5,co.2] 
Et quant tu seras issus de chaiens, ^ si entcrras el senticr 
qui va au grant chemin. Ichil chemins te menra tant ko 
tu venras au pierron de la prise. Et lors lairas le che- 
min, si entc^Tas en .j. sentier a diestre q7a maine au 
quarrefour do vij. voies es plains do walescog.^ Et to the piaine of 
quant tu venras a la fontaine del plour, illuec ou la 
grans occisions fu iadis, Si trouueras vne beste c^onquea 
tele no ueis.^ Et si garde ke tu le sieucs la u ele to 
menra. Et quant tu Taras perdue, si enterras en la andfonowa 

wonderful beast 

ierre de nor^vcghe ; & illuec achieueras de ta queste. ' to Norway, and 

A tant laissa la vois a parler. Et quant vint a Tende- Book. 

main, Io mo leuai matin. & quant ie oi la messe cantee, 

— * Sl t'cn iras tot .1. sentier qui te menra al quarefor dea 
,y)j. uoies el plain de ual csconc. Add. 10,292, If 2, bk, col. 1. 

• que on(i//rs mais ne via autre tele. — B. 

• perdue en la t^rro de negue, illuec acheuiras ton oirre. — B, 

16 THB writer's search FOR THE ORAIL-BOOK, LED BY A BEAST. 

si me desiimai. Et qi^ant ie fui issus hors, si fis le 

signe (ie le crois sour moi et sour mon habitacle. A 

He starts on his tant m'en alai ensi com la uois m'auoit noumee la uoie. 


£t qt^ant i'oi passe le pierron, si alai tant com ie ving 
comes to the Vale on .1. val ke on apiele le val des mors. Chelui ual 

of the Dead, •* ^ ... 

deuoie ie hien sauoir : car ie i auoie veu iadis vne 
bataille des ij. milleurs chiwalers du monde. ^Et qt^aht 
ie fui issus du ual, si alai b^'^n encontre demie lieue 
gale^ke,^ tant que ie ving de-sous le quarrefour.^ Si 
and then tiie esgardai auant mi, si vi vne crois sour la riue de la 
sheep's head and fontaine, & desous chcle crois so gisoit la beste ke la 

neek white * 

dog's legs, black; uois m'auoit dit. Et maintenant ke ele me vit, si se 

woire body and •* • i io*i*-*r' ±. 

Uon's tail. l^y^SLy SI me cowmencha a regarder, & le IL Mais quant 

plus le regardoie et mains pooie sauoir quele beste 
e'estoit. Et si sachies k'ele estoit diu^*se en toutes 
coses. Car ele auoit teste & col de brebis, <& blanc 
comme noif negie.^ Et si auoit pies de chien, & gam- 
bes, & quisses, & tout cbou estoit noir comme carbon. 
Et si auoit le pis & le cors & la crupe de woupil, & la 
keue de lyon. Et si estoit la beste de diue7'ses sem- 
[• leaf 5, col. 3] blaTiches. Et quant ie Toi mowlt esgardee, *et ele moi, 
si leuai ma main & li fis signe qu'ele alast auant. Et 
ele s'en ala tout droit el quarrefour, si s'en entra en la 

The monk follows premiere voie k'ele coisi a destre. Et ie alai apres si 

the Beast. 

tost comme ie poi, mais cbe fu lentement ; Car uieUecbe 
&, flebetes me destourboient. Et quant nous eumes ale 
iuske a eure de uespres, si issi la beste bors du chemin, 
et entra en vne moult espesse caurroie. Et tant ala 
At even he comes auant, & ie apres, qu'il commencha a anuitier. Et lors 

to a thick-wooded . . , , , • o . /» j 

vale, issimes hors de la caurroie, & entrames en vne proionde 

valee plaine de moult haute forest espesse. Et quant 
ie fui el fons de la valee, si vi deua^it moi vne loge, & 

and sees an old deuaut Tuis cstoit vns vies bom uestus de reube de 


' — * Lore alai tant que iou ving al quarrefor. — B. * Welsh. 
' Car ele estoit blanche comioiQ noif, k auoit teste k col de 
berbis. — B. 


releigioiL Et quant ie le vi, si en fui moult lies : & 

rendi grasces a no*/re signonr de che qu'il m'auoit com- 

paignie dounee. £t tantost com il me vit, si osta son who asks hit 

caperon, & me cnai as pies, si me requeroit beneichon. 

£t ie li priai qu'il se leuast, car i'cstoie yns hom 

pechieres, si ne deuoie pas beneichon doner, ke yous 

diroi ie? Onqties tant ne li soi prier k'il se yausist 

leuer, deuant que ie li oi beneichon dounee, dont mowlt 

durement me pesa. Car diex le seit que ie n'en fuisse 

mie dijmes. Et q?/rtnt il fut^ leues, si me mena par la andukMhim 

o ^ ' r into hit dwelling. 

main en sa loge. Et quant nous eumes cantees toutes 

nos eures, si mangames tele viande com diex auoit au They mp and 

saint hommo preste. Et quant nous eomes soupe, si 

m'enquist moult li hoins hom de mon estre, Ss de ma 

uoie. Et ie Ten respondi au mieus ke ie soi, Tant, 

diex le seit, ke il quida asses plus hien en moi qu^il nl 

auoit. Car il est coustume des boins houmes ke il ne 

seuent quidier es autres gens se hien non, Pour che ke 

il lor eat auis que cascuns ait lor volente & lor talent. 

Jiloult me fist grant ioie & grant compaignie la nuit. Xe 

onqz^s en ma vie ne vi homme qui grignour samblant 

eust d*estre 'durement preudom & boins hom. Sans [•ie«f5,back] 

che qite il n'en moustroit le samblant : se au mains non 

ke il pooit. Au matin me pria li sains hom ke ie can- The second day 

... of the journey. 

taisse. Et quant nous eumes cantei, si pns congie. 
Et il dist que il me conuoieroit. Et quant nous fumes 
hors du postis, si vi la besto qui me conduisoit : & si The newt 
ne Tauoie mais veue des la nuit qt^nt ie trouuai le boin 
homme. Ensi me conuoisk li hoins hom iusc'au chemin. 
*Et lors departimes, si me pria mo£^lt qu'il me membrast* 
de lui en mes orisons & en mes biens-fais, que diex en 
cheste religion li dounast demourer iusc'a la fin. 
Ichest don otriaumes li vns a I'autre.' A tant nous 

* MS fu. • that it would bethink me. 

' — ' * Sc au deprtrtir, me pria il que ie priasse poT li ; & iou 
li otriai, si li priai qu*il priast por moi. Sc il me diat quo ei 
feroit il.*— B., leaf 2, back, col. 2, 3. 



At midday the 
monk gets to the 
Pine of Ad- 
ventures and a 
Wondrous Fount- 
ain, whose sand 
is blood-red 
and fire-hot, and 
whose water la 
ice-cold, and 
becomes green 
and bitter three 
times a-day. 

A serrant on 
comes to him, 
and brings him 

[•leaf 5, back, 
col. 2] 

He goes on his 

entrcbaisames, si lo commandai a dien, & il moL Si 
errames eiitro moi & la beste toute la [majtinee tres par 
mi la forest c^onquea n'encontrames ne homme ne feme, 
Tant qw*il fu hien miedi^. Lors si entrames en une 
mowlt biele lande. En mi chele lande auoit .i. pin qui 
auoit non li pins des auewtiires. Desous chel pin auoit 
vno fontaine la plus biele ke nus peust onqt^^ veoir, au 
mien quidier. Et si auoit vne coustume que onques 
autre fontaine n*ot dont i'oisse parler. Car la grauele 
estoit vcrmelle coimao sans, & caude comme fus. Et Tiaue 
cfitoit autresi froide commo glache. * Et si estoit autresi 
verde comme esmeraude .iij. fois le iour, & ausi amere 
cojnviQ la mers tant comme la verdeurs duroit.^ Quant 
la beste vint au pin, si se coucha desous, & fist sam- 
blant de reposer. Et quant ie me voil asseoir, si vi 
venir par mi la lande .L vallet^ sour .i. cheval tout suant, 
& si venoit tout droit a moi. Et quant il fu yenus a 
la fontaine, si descendi du cheual, & traist de son col 
vne touaile, & s'agenoilla deuant moi, & si me dist: 
** Sire, ma dame vous salue : chele qui li chiualera au 
cbercle d*or rescoust de sa terre perdre, le iour ke la 
grans merueille fu veue de chelui que vous saues. Et 
*si vous envoie a mangier itel viande com ele a." Lors 
desuolepa la touaile, si en traist oes & .i. ^ wastel mout 
blanc, tout caut. Et si traist auant .i. bareil plain de 
ceruoise, & .i. petit hanap.' Et ie mangai volentiers, 
car Testoie tons familleus pour la voie qui m*auoit 
greue. Et qi^ant i'oie mengie & but, si quelli le 
remenant, & dis au vallet qu*il en rendist a sa dame les 
merchis : & diex Ten rendist le guerdon. A tant s'en 
ala li valles, & ie m*en alai mon chemin entre moi & la 
besto. Et alames toute iour, tant qn'il commencha a 

» — « ic canjroit sa color .iij. fois le ior. Car ele deuenoit 
uerde, & estoit amere comme la grande mer. 10,292, leaf 2, 
buck, col. 3. ' .j. uarlet. 

3 — 5 gastel mult hel et mult boin. et 11 me bailla plain pot 
de ceruoise. MS 10,292. 


auesprir que onqMcs uissimes hors de bos ; Tant qiie now* At even h« stopt 

•t ft CtOUf 

uenimes a .i. quafrefour ou il auoit vne crois de fust. 
Et lors 8*arestut la beste, si commcnchai a escout^r. Et 
io oi maintcnant yenir cheuaus moult grant aleure, 
Tant que ie vi vn chiualer^ venir sour vn palefroi & .y. *nd a knight 

comas to him, 

autres auoec lui Et tantost com il me vit en reube de 
relegion, si sailli ius de son cheual, & li autres apres. 
Si me dist ke hien fuisse iou venus. Q,u<int ie oi rendu 
au chitialer son salu, si me prist par Ic main, & dist 
qu'il me menroit en sa maison pour herbergier. Et ie 
li dis qjie diex li guerredounaist. Et il apiela tout 
maintenant son escuier, si commanda qu^il en-menast les 
cheuaus & que il fesist Ie plus biel ostel ke il porroit. 
Li escuiers s'en tourna, & li autrea remest auoec nous, 
qui estoit fiex au signeur & chiwa/crs.^ Ensi nous en and take* him 

home, and treats 

alamcs tout troi, si ne yi onq?/6S gngnour hounour a him nobly. 

home faire que il me fist, & il & sa maisnie que il auoit 

moMlt biele. ^lais d*une chose mo meschai plus que ie 

ne yausisse, que il mo counu^ a .i. saing ke ie auoie sour 

moi, & dist qw'il m*auoit autre fois veu, & nouma en 

quel lieu. Mais comment qw'il m*en-qucsist, ie ne li 

counui onqM€s riens. Et quant il vit qM*il ne me plaisoit 

mie che qu'il m*ew-queroit, Si laissa la chose ester. 

Mais *toutes les ioies & toutes les hounours ke on [•leafs, back, 


porroit faire a cors d'omme, me fist il la nuit. Au 
matin m'en parti, si les cammandai tous a dieu. Et 
quant ie ving hors de la porte, si retrouai la bieste. , Et The third day'i 

, ' journey. 

quant li sires m'eut yne pieche cowuoie. Si li priai qu'il 
s'en retournast. A tarzt me omimanda a dieu, & ie lui. 
si nous en alamcs toute la forest entre moi Ss la beste, 
tant ke il fu pres de tierche. Et lors si retomames yne 
yoie qui menoit hors de la forest, & tant que ie yi .i. 
moult biel moustier & moult riche herbergage selonc yne 
Grant praierie qui estoit sour yne riuiere. Chil mous- He comee to the 

^ *^ ^ Queen'iLake 

tiers estoit sour .i lac qui a a non li las a la roine. 
' MS chrr. • MS chrW. 


and a Convent 
of Nuns, 

who feed him. 

Ha goes oo 

and finds a 

« At night thoo 
ahalt achiere 

[•leaf 61 

Sees a little 

At Its entrance 
he ilnds a man 
a devil. 

Quant ie ving au moustier, si trouuai .i. couuent de 
nounains, moult boines dames, qwi cantoient Teure de 
tierche moult biel & mout hautement Et quant eles 
sorent qiie Testoie p'estres, si me requisent de canter. 
Et ie caiitai. Et quant nous eumes fait le scroiche, si 
me fisent les dames desiuner. Apres me pnerent moult 
que ie remansise iusc*a Tendemain, & ie di^ qu*il ne 
porroit estre. Lors pris congie as dames, si m*en 
partL^ Si m'ew alai, & la beste auant moi, tant que nous 
rentrames en la forest. Et quant nous fumes ens, si 
errames au lone du iour c*onq?i€s n*encontrames riens 
terriene. Et quant il C077imencha a auesprir, si gaidai 
hors de la voie sour vne pierre plate, si vi vnes lettres 
ploies. Ie toumai cbele part, si les pris. Et qttant ie 
les oi desploies, si trouuai el rommenchement escrit : 
' Che te mande li grans maistres : ko a nuit achieuras 
de ta queste.' Et ie regardai ke la bieste faisoit, si 
n*en vi point, anchois s'en fu ia alee. Et quant ie vi 
che, si regardai es lettres, si i ui ke eles m'ensignoient 
de quankea ie auoie a faire. A tant m'en toumai toute 
ma uoie, & qiiant ie oi grant pieche ale, si trouai *vn 
sentier hien batu qui aloit a destre parmi la plus bielo 
forest que ie onqiies eusse ueu, au mien quidier. Et 
q7^nt ie oi grant pieche ale par chel sentier, si corrir 
mencha la fores a esclairier. Et ie resgardai, si ui en 
.i tiertre sour vne roche vne moult biele capcle petite, 
b?en. encontre demi-lieue loing. Et qt^nt ie com- 
menchai a aprochier, si oi chele part .i. cri si hideus qt«6 
powr noient demanderoit on plus hideus ne plus espoen- 
table. Mais ie ne m'en espoentai onques. Car les lettres 
m'en auoient hien acointie. Et quant ie ving deuant 
la capielo, si vi Tuis ouuert. Et en I'entree del huis 
gisoit vns hom tous pasmes autresi coin se il fust mors. 
Et quant ie le vi, si courui a grant fianche de dieu qui 
m'auoit ensengiet ke ie deuoie faire. Si trouai qu'il 
auoit tous les iex toumes en la teste, si seu hien ke il 


auoit le dyable ou cors. Si li fis le eigne de la crois en 

mi le vis. £t il se drecha en seant, si commencha 

meruelles a dire. Et ie coniurai le dyable de par ihejoi 

crist ko il s'en issist. Et il me lespondi que par ihejoi 

crist i estoit il entres, & par lui s'en istroit. Et ie dis 

qw'il m*i auoit enuoie pour lui metre hors. Et il dist 

qu'il ne veoit pas encore le message par qui il s'en issist. 

Et ie soi hien qu'il disoit voir, si m'en entrai en la 

capiele, & trouuai sour Tautcl le liurct que ie qt/eroie. Onth«aiurit 

Lors si m'agcnoullai, & le pns. Et ie ving hors, a tout 

si n'oistes onquea rien si crier com li anemis crioit. Et 

disoit " ne vien plus auant ; hien voi ke issir me con- tim deru mji 

J. XT •! » • X J* -u A* • f The Book will 

uient. Ke 11 na nen en tcrre fors chcsti qui men force him out, 
ietaist." Et qt^ant il s'en vaut issir par la bouche, si ^ oomeoutup- 
ne paut "pour le signe de la crois ke ie i auoie fait. Et JJ|J^Sii?I°^ui 
il rccommencha a dire en criant : " Se tu ueus ke ie T^ ^****^» 


m*en isso, si me destoupe la voie.'' Et ie li demandai, 

co7/2ment. Et il dist qti^il n'en istroit mie tant com li 

liures serroit si pries. Et io dis *qM*il n*en istroit mie [•leafe.ooLi] 

par la bouche anchois com uenroit, qu'il s'en issist par 

desous. Et quant il oi chou, si commench& si hideuse- 

ment a crier ke il me fu auis que on le deust oir par 

tout le pais. Et tantost vint illuec vne si grans com^ 

paignio de dyables que ie no quidai mie qu'en tout le 

mont on eust tant. Et quant il virent les paroles du 

liuret que ie tenoie ouuert, Si ne veistes onqt^s nul »fterroatimta 

troop of other 

estourbillon si tost ne si hideusement aler com il s'en deTiie, 

alerent. Et ie me \nia pres del foursene, si li mia le 

liure deuant la bouche, & tantost s'en issi li dyables par drfree thti deru 

out of the nan 

desous. Si s'en ala faisant si grant tempeste ke il estoit downwudt. 

auis que il esrachast tons les bos par la ou il aloit. Et 

lors remest li hom tous autrcsi comme mors. Et ie le 

pris entre mes bras, si le portai a I'aie de dieu deuant The monk 

*^ . . wrtdietbythe 

Tautel, si le gardai toute nuit illuec iusc'au iour. Et vun au night, 
qf^nt il fu aioume, si ving deuant lui & dcmandai se il 
mougeroit. Et il me demanda qiii iou estoie. Et ie dis 


man is % hermit, 
aiid will not eat 


Th« monk has a 
▼ision, ahowing 
him where to 
get fruit for the 

he gets ity 

and feeds tha 

and starta home 
On the ninth day. 

ke n'eust pas paour : car i*estoie venus 'pour son preu.^ 
Et il (list qw'il mangeroit tel viande com il auoit acous- 
tumee. Et il iura sacrefianche qw'il auoit xxxiij. ans 
& demi ko il estoit hermites, & si auoit passe ix. ans & 
.iij. mois & demi k*il n*auoit mangiet se herbes non Ss 
fruit & rachines. Ne iamais pcmr tant qw'il auoit a 
uiure ne gousteroit d*autre viande so diex proprement 
ne li envoioit. A tant le laissai gisant tout vain comme 
chelui q2^i n'auoit mangiet de nule viande puis que 11 
anemis le commencha premierement a traueillier. Et io 
dis mes eures, & puis me reuesti, si cantai la messe. 
Et qwant elo fut cantee, & ie fui reuenus au boin 
homme, si le trouai dormant mowlt duremcnt. Et ie qui 
onqw€S de tout la nuit n*auoie dormi so moult pau non, 
m'acoutai deiouste lui sour .i. *escamel, si commenchai 
a soumellier. Et lors me vint en avision que restoie au 
pie du tertre desous' vne fontaine, si passoit par illuec 
vns vies hom qui portait en son geron pumes & poires 
a grant plentei, & si les versoit el mien. A tant me 
leuai, si alai aual le tertre & si trouuai qi^nkes ie auoie 
veu en m'avision. Et qwant li preudom eut mis le 
fruit en mon g[e]ron, si me dist : " Chascun ior troueras 
chi ta viande appareUie par le grant maistre." Lore 
me retoumai, si trouuai le frere esuillie, si li baillai du 
fruit, & il en manga moult uolentiers comme chil qui 
tant auoit iune qi^'il ne se soustenist sour ses pies pour 
tout le monde. Tant demourai en sa compaignie que il 
fu tous garis & respasses. Et chascun iour trouuiens 
nostre viande apparellie a la fontaine ensi comme 11 
sains esperis le nous amenistroit. Et qt^ant vint au 
neuuisme iour, che fu au ioesdi apres le witaules,* si 
m'en partL Et qt^ant ie pris congie du boin homme, si 
commencha a plourer, et dist, ke ore estoit il mot^lt 

' et iou 11 demandai quel viande 11 mangeroit. — B. 
' Et quant ce uint as octanes de la paske, si nous de- 
partlmes. 10,292, leaf 3, ool. 8. ' MS dosous. 


csmaies qwant ie ni'en aloie. Aprcs me conta coument 

c'estoit auenu que li dyables Taubit ensi trauillie. Et why the devil 


cho auoit este par .i. pechie ke il auoit fait. Ne ne se hermit. 

recordoit pas qu*il eust fait pechie do/it chars morteus 

se peust garder, ke seulement chelui, puis q^^'il auoit 

recheu abit de relegion. Et quant il so fu rendus 

cowfes, si me requist ke ie priaiso nostro signour ke il 

par sa pitie Ie gardast de faire pechie: par quoi il 

iamais conqw^ist sow mautalent. A tant nous entre- 

baisames, si nous departimes andui a grans plours & a 

grant destrcche. Et se on peust iugier home par veoir, 

Ie ne quit pas q7/*cn nul howme peust auoir plus do 

bonte que ie vi en lui. Or esgardes com diex est aspres How Ood is » 

lugicrcs & larges gucrredoneres. Car ki t^us lours 1 ara [• leaf c, buck'j 

. * ft bounteous 

serui, se il fenist en vn mcsfait, tous les seruiches ara nw«rder. 

pierdus, & en che mesfait sera iugies. Et qui tous 

lours li ara mesfait, s'il se raert en son seruiche, tuit si 

mesfait sont estaint, & ses seruiches li est a cent doubles 

guerredounes. Ensi dut cil auoir perdue Tamour de 

son signour par .i. mesfait qui auoit este en son seruiche 

Ie plus de son cage. Et chil Ie dut auoir gaignie par 

vne seule oeuro, qwi Tauoit tous iours fui & eskieue. 

Chiertes, moult boin Ie fait seruir & mauuais courechier. 

A tant pr/s congiet. Et qwant il m'eut canuoie ii^c*a 

son peustis,* si ueismes la beste q?/i m*auoit amene. Et TheBewtre- 

il demanda ke che pooit estre. Et ie li dis ke ie n'auoio 

eu autre contredit : ^ & k*ele estoit de par dieu. Et il 

dist, ke hi en faisoit li sires a seruir qui si hi en sauoit 

conduiro ses sergans en sa besoinge. Xe onqi/es ne poi 

ajpercheuoir ke nus en toute la voie veise la beste, que 

il seulement. Lors me departi du boin home, si m'cn The monk 

reuing tout autresi corn ie i estoie ales ; tant ke ie uing on Saturday 

au samedi au soir a mon hermitage.' Mais Ie liuret ne ®^"^' 

* postis. — B. 

' ? conduit. ' Sc iou li dis que ion n'auoie autre ^^yndui^or 
en la voie.* 10,292, leaf 3, back, col. 1. ' habitacle.— B. 


The writer*! 

Christ appeaM, 
and oommands 
him to copy The 
Book into 

[•leaf 6, back, 

On Monday he 
begins to copy 
The Book of the 
Holy Grail. 

laissai ie mie, anchois Ten aportaL Car trop desiroie 
le coTTipaignie des saintes paroles qui i estoient. Et 
quant ie Toi ostoie la u io Tauoie mis premieFement, si 
fis le seruiche de uespres & de complie. Aprea mangai 
che que nostre signour plot, & si m'alai couchier, car 
i'estoie m^z^lt las. Ichele nuit m'auint yne auisions, ke 
li grans maistres uenoit deuant moi en autel habit com 
il auoit fait a Tautre fois. Et si me disoit " au premier 
ionr ouuraule de la semaine qui enterra demain, te 
connont a commenchier a escrire en autre lieu le liuret 
qjie'ie te baillai, si ke tu Taies escrit *ains Tascention. 
Car il n'iert ia veus en terre puis que Teure uenxa que 
ie montai el chiel a chiel eure meisme. Et toutes les 
coses qui te conuerront a Tescrire, trouueras en Faumaire 
qui est el mur derrier ton autel. Et ne t'esmaie pas de 
che ke tu ne fesis onqt^es tel mestier. Car nule oeure 
ne puet estre maufaite qui par moi soit commenchie." 
A tant s'en partL Et au matin quant ie fui leues, si 
alai a I'aumaire pour esprouer se m'avisions estoit uraie ; 
Si trouuai toutes les coses qui cowuenoient a escriuont.^ 
Et quant li dimenches fu passes, & ie oi au lundi la 
messe chantee, si pris le liuret & le parchemin, & com- 
menchai a escrire tout droit au lundi de la quixisaine de 
pasq2/es. Et li commenchemens de Tescripture si fu 
pris del crucefiemewt ihe^u crist ensi comme vous orres.* 

' Au matin me leuai ensi comme il m*aaoit roue, et trouai 
tot oe qu'il couenoit a escriuain, pene, encre, parcemin, Sc 
coutcl. (MS 10,292.) 

' An illustration. 




Of Christ on the Cross. Of the character of Joseph of Arima- 
thea (p. 26). How he got the dish out of which Christ eat 
the Last Supper with his Disciples (p. 27). How he was one 
of Pilate*s knights, and begged Christ's body from him (p. 
28), and put it in his own sepulchre, and then collected 
the drops of Christ's blood in the dish of the Last Supper 
(p. 29). How, while Joseph slept, some Jews seized him, 
and carried him away to a prison of Caiaphas*s (p. 29). 
How he lived forty-two years in the prison (p. 31), and how 
he was delivered out of it on this wise : — ^Vespasian, Titus's 
son, was a leper ,* a knight from Capernaum tells him that 
a touch from anything Christ has touched will cure him 
(p. 32) ; the knight returns to Judea, and gets the Veronica 
kerchief from Mary the Phenician (p. 33), and cures 
Vespasian with it (p. 84). Vespasian goes to Jerusalem 
and seizes all who were concerned in Christ's death. 
Joseph's wife tells him of her husband (p. 35) ; Caiaphas 
takes him to the prison, and Vespasian goes down into it 
(p. 36). He releases Joseph (p. 37), bums the abettors 
of Christ's death (p. 38), discusses what shall be done with 
Caiaphas (p. 39), and has him put into a boat by himself, 
and pushed out to sea (p. 40). 

AY iour que li sauueres du mondo souf&i mort, 'par 
la qui mort nostre ^mors qui a nous estoit con- 
dompnable fu racatee p^rdurablement,^ a chel iour estoit 
encore moult peu de gent qui creissent en lui; "Ne mais ke How frw Mitvtd 

11* • t*i ji D j-i on Chrlat ftt his 

la gloneuse yirge pucniele sa douche mere & ses desciples cnictfliioo. 

qui a chel iour estoient apiele si frere. £t s'il en i auoit 

des autres qui creissent, moult [peu] en i auoit a cler. 

Car Tescripture dist que quant il diet : '' Biaus pere, se 

il puet estre que ie ne sustienge cheste passion," que il 

n'en estoit^ pas si courrechies pour Tan'goisse des cors L*i«af<kbMkt 

ool. S] 

' — * fu mors destruite, et m^ftre uie restoree. — ^B. 
'«-' oyer an erasure in A. ' MS estois. 


comme ^our chou ke il veoifc ke e'amours n*auoifc encore 
nului rachate. Ne il ne veoit nului qui il eust cofiqixia 
par sa mort, ke eeulement lo larron qui li cria le merchi 
en la crois. Et pour cheste cose dist Tescriture ; " ^le 
sui autresi commo cliil qui conkeut Testeule en le 
maison^." Et ch'est a dire qu*il n*auoit encore nului 
rachate par sa mort, que le larron qui estoit noiens 
enuers Tautre gent, autresi com li esteule est noiens 
enuers le grain. Et ne pour q?/ant il estoit mout de 
cheus qui auoient le commenchement de croire, niais il 
ne Tosoient mie faire apiertement, car il doutoient les 
HowJo»ephof juis. Mais de deseure tous les couuiers creans, parole 

Arimatliea was a .... 

•eerat believer li sainte escriture du graal du gen til home d*un 
cntt^kr qui estoit a che tans, qui auoit non Joseph de 
Arimathie. Arimathie estoit vne chites en la terro 
^de ramathe outre le flun iordain. & si dist la letre 

and came from que ele fu elchane, le pere samueL De chele chite fu 

Eikanah.the nes joseph.' Mais il s'en estoit venus en iherw^alem .vij. 
ans devant che que ihe^u^ cris fu mis en la crois. Et moult 

How good he was. estoit piteus et dous & de grant rclegion, & si auoit rechcu 
la creancho ihesu crist. Mais il n*en osoit faire sam- 
blaT^t, ke li iuif ne I'ochesissent. De toutes les bontcs 
ki en homo mortel pooient estre, estoit ioseph gamis. 
Car il amoit dieu & doutoit. II estoit piteus & deboin- 
aires vers son proisme. 11 estoit de grant houneur & 
de grant reuerence ve?*s les 'plus haus de luL II estoit 
paisiules & concordans vers ses parens. II estoit sans 
damage & sans nuisement as plus has de lui. II estoit 
de grant misericorde plains vers les souf&aiteus. Toutes 
ches bontes estoient en lui. Et de lui parole li pre- 

The flnt Piaim miere saume du sautier qui dist : " Li hom e^^ boineieus 

apeakfl of him. 

qui ne s acorde pas ne consenti au conseil des felons, 

* — ' ausi confine cil qui cuelle T esteule el tans de 
meisson. — B, leaf 3, back, col. 2. 

' — ' d*arrimathie qui moult estoit bele. Ed cele t^re k 
en cele cyte estoit ioseph ues. — B. 


Et qwi ne vaut aler par la voie ad pe'cheours." Ichis [•leaf 7] 

ioseph estoit en ihemsalem, et sa feme, & Yns siens fiex s<mph (of 

qui ot non iosephes. Et sachies que che ne £u mie chil 

iosephes qin rescriture trait si souuent a tesmoing, an- hMmtonJoMpbes 

chois fu yns autres qui ne fa mie mains lettres de chelui. 

Ichist iosephes passa le lignage ioseph son pere outre (who comet to 

mer iusqw'cn la bloie bertaigne, qui ore a a non engle- or England over 

terre. 'Et si les passa sans auiron & sans gouuemal, front or hUaUrt 

& onqz^s n'i ot uoile ke le geron de sa chemise, sans 

plus, ensi com Testoire le dira cha en auant.* Et quunt 

vint au ior ke ihe^s fu mis en crois, Ioseph, qui toute 

s'amour auoit en lui mise, en eut mowlt grant duel Et 

si se pensa ke toutes Ics coses qui a lui apartenroient 

essaucheroit moult volewtiers & honerroit. Car il ne 

Teust pas ame a la vie se il ne Tamast a la mort. Et 

poi/r chou dist la letre que ' nule auersites no puet do- 

partir loial amour.' Quant ioseph vit chelui en la crois when Joeeph 

sees the Saviour 

qui il creoit a fil dieu & a sauueour du monde, si ne fu dead, 
pas eshahis ne mescreans jpour chou que il le vit mourir. 
Anchois atendoit, & creoit certainement sa sainte resur- 
rection. Et pour chou qu^il ne le pooit auoir uif, si 
pensa que il feroit tant qu*ii aroit de ches coses a quoi 
il auoit touchie corporelmcnt en sa vie. Lors en vint he froee to the 

, . ., ... •!_ • 1 •! house where 

en la maison ou ihf^us auoit tenue sa cnaine, la u il jemueatthe 

manga Taigniel de pasqt^es auoec ses desciples. Et ^*^^"pp"» 

qt^nt il vint en la maison, si demanda a ueoir le lieu 

ou il auoit mangie. Et on li moustra yn lieu qui estoit 

establis pour mangier : si estoit li plus haus estages de 

la maison. Bluec trouua ioseph Tescuele en quoi li finds the diah in 

ficx dieu auoit mangie, soi tresime, deuant che qu'il aaten, 

dounast as onse sa char & son sane a vser. Et quant 

il le tint, si en fu moult lies, si Tenporta en sa maison and oarriea it 


& si I'ostoia en moult honeste lieu & en moult bieL Et 

quant il *seut que li sauueres du monde estoit mors, & [•ieaf7,ooLti 

ke chil Tauoient trouue mort qui li voloient brisier les 

I — * Et le passa sans auiron al pan de sa chemise. — 6. 

28 JOSEPH BEOS Christ's bodt of pilate, and buries it. 

Joseph it ona of 
PiUte't knighU 
CMldoien, B.], 

and hog» a cheap 
gift of him. 

Chriet'i body. 

How great the 
gift really was. 

Toeeph weeps at 
the Cross; 

[•leaf 7, col. 8] 
takes down the 
body, and puts it 
in his sepulchre. 

quisses autresi com as autres larrons, II ne vaut mie 
tant atendre ke 11 felon 11 desloial qui le mescreoient le 
despendissent ne le mesissent ius de la crois a lor ordes 
mains cunchijes. Anchois vint 11 a pilate, qui chiitalera 
terriens il estoit ; Car il auoit este ses saudoiers .vij. 
ans tous plains. Et quant il vint deuant lui, si li pria 
en guerredon de tous les seniickes qu*il li auoit fait, 
li otriast .i. don qui de mowlt petit coustement li serroit. 
Et pilates, qui moult^ anioit & lui «& son seruiche, li re- 
spondi ke il Taroit; Car il le deuoit hien auoir plus 
riche qu'il n'auoit dit. Et ioseph. li demanda le«cors 
ihesu, et pilates li dona coinme chil qui ne sauoit ke il 
li dounoit. Car il li quidoit douner le cors d'un poure 
pecheour : & il li dounoit le pardon des pecheours & 
le pain de vie. II li quida doner vne poure caronge 
pour don : & il li douna le douneour de tous les grans 
& le resuscitement de toutes les karoignes qui en fonne 
humaine sont fourmees. Che fu li plus riches dons 
que nus horn morteus donast onques. Mais pour chou 
que la consciense pilate fu tele kc il ne sauoit qu'il li 
douna, pour chou le doit on mieus apieler despit ke don. 
Car se il creist la grant hautece & la puissanche dont 
chil estoit qui cors il auoit done, il n*en presist pas 
toute la rikeche & la signourie du monde. Et ioseph 
qui la grant hautecho du don counissoit Lien, en fu 
mot^lt ioians q?^nt il li fu otroics. Et si s'en tint beVn 
apaiet moult j^lus que pylates ne s*en tint a hien paiawt. 
Et quant il vint a la crois ou il pendoit encore, si com- 
mencha a plourer moult tenremont pour les grans dolours 
ke il veoit qu^il auoit soufifertes. Et qt^ant il Teut de- 
spendu a *grans souspirs & a grans plours, si le coucha 
en vn sepulcre qi/il auoit fait trenchier en la roche, ou 
il meismes deuoit estre mis a sa mort. Puis ala querre 
Tescuelo en sa maison.^ 

' 'qui mauW is repeated twice in the MS. 

* Here follows (in A) an illustration with a different version 



t qtiant il vint au core, si cowquelli le degout du Ctota tha ««h, 
sane tant com il en puet auoir & si le mist en 1 ea- Uood in il 
cuele. Puis reporta Tescuele en sa maison, par qui diex 
fist & moustra puis maintes virtue & en terre de promis- 
sion & en maintes autres terres. Et quant il Teut mise 
cl plus net lieu ke il sauoit, si prist de ses plus riches Wnp« the bodj 
dras, & B'en touma an sepulchre, si enseueli le cors de ' 

son signour si richemewt & a grant hounour com il pent 
plus. Et qi^ant il Teut enseueli, si le coucha el sepul- »«»*■ • ««** 

. . . itoneatthe 

clirc. et si mist a Tentree vno pierre moult grant & moult •ntrance of the 


pesant, pour chou qu il ne voloit qu^ nus entrast el lieu 

ou si haute cose gisoit cow estoit li cors del fil dieu. 

^lais quant li iuif virent ke ioseph auoit despendn de The Jewa* anger. 

la crois chelui qui il auoient iugiet a mort & dampne, 

& qu'il Tauoit si hautement enseueli, si en furent moult 

courchie & moult le ti/erent a grant orguel. Si pn'sent 

consel ensamble, & disent ke hien estoit drois ke ioseph 

co7»parast che ko il auoit fait, & contre dien & encon- 

tre le loy. Si pourparlerent ke il le prenderoient la 

nuit del premier so/wme, & si Tenmenroient* en tel 

lieu ke iamais n'oroit on dQ lui enseignies. A che con- 

seil se *tinrent tout; si murent la nuit del premier ['leaf?, back] 

somme & fori Tuns d'aus a Tuis. Et quant il fu ouuers, 

si entrerent tuit ens a vnc bruie, et pn'sent ioseph tout The Jewe seize 

1 ..<•. i-i* I'l -I 1* Joseph and carrj 

endormi, si lenmenerewt lomg de iheni^alem men .v. him off oat of 
lieues en vne rort maison qui estoit Teueske chayphas. '•'"■•*•"• 

of the blood-gathering. The heading is — " Ensi que iosephs re- 
coilli le degout du sane qui issoit des plages noitn seigneur qui 
puis fu apeles li sains graalz." The illustration figures Joseph 
sitting under the cross, and collecting the drops of blood from 
the chest and feet in a basin. Mary wringing her hands stands 
on Christ's rights and John, pointing to him, on the left The 
cross-bars of the thieves* crosses pass under their arms behind 
their backs, their hands are folded on their bellies in front, and 
crosses of blood are on their folded hands, as if nails had been 
driven right through the hands and bellies. In MS 10,292, an 
angel is carrying off the child-soul of the repentant thief on 
the right ; while a devil pounces on that of the unrepentant 
one on the left. 

' The MS repeats, ** la nuit del premier somme : et si Ten- 


Ichele maisons estoit en vne wlouU grant mareschi^re : 
si i auoit .i. piler tout crues qui sambloit estre massis. 
Dedens che piler auoit la plus hideuse chartre qui 
onqt^s fust veue, et la plus orde. Ne nus ne s'en 
apcrchust se il ne li fust dit auant, tant soutiement 
«nd gire idm np estoit ouuree. Qz/aut il orent ioseph mis hors de 
who pat him in iherusalemy si le liurerent a deiil seulement qu; auoient 

piisoiu and order . , . , , ^, ., , 

him to be fed on lUT© ke la nus par aus n en saroit nouueles. Chil le 
menerent en la chartre, & deffendirent au chartrier ke 
il n'eust a manger ke vne pieche de pain le iour, & 
plain hanap d'iaue.^ Et maintenant s'en retomerent 
en iheru^alem, si qti'il i furent anchois qw'il aioumast. 
Et loTS si oirent le tumulte & la grant plainte, de 
ioseph qui pendus^ est.* Et quant pilates le sent, si 
en fu moult dolens, mais il n'en seut que faire. car il 
pensoit hien. que che auoient fait li iuif par le conseil 
des maistres de la I07; si n'en sauoit que faire. Et 

When chriet q want uint au diemenche ke ihc^us f u resussites, & les 

rieee, Caiaphas 

teUs the Jailer to gardes oreut dit as iuis comment il auoient pierdu ihe^u : 

let Joseph itarref 

si manda chajphas a son chartrier qu*il ne li dounast 
iamais a manger, anchois le laissast monr de faim. Mais 
li sires powr qui seruiche li iuif powr-cachoient sa mort, 
ne le yaut pas werpir en sa meschanche ; Anchois li 
gueiiedouna a chent doubles son seruiche. Car main- 
but Christ bring! tenant ke ses cors fu issus du sepulchre, vint il a lui 

him the Dish with ^ 

the Blood into the en la chartre ou il estoit, & si li porta por compaignie 


& 'pour comfort la sainte escuele que ioseph auoit ostoie 
[•leaf 7, back, en sa maisou a tot *le sane qw'il auoit requelli. Et 
quant ioseph le vit, si en fu motdt lies ; et lors seut il 
vraiement ke ch'estoit diex. si ne s'en repentoit mie 
de son seruiche, Anchois auoit tel ioie ke il ne li 
chaloit de la prison puis qu*il auoit le co/^fort et la 
compaignie de son signour. Ensi aparut li sauueres 

* ic vne banapee d^aigue. 10|2d2, leaf 4, col. 1. 

• 7 for perdos. 

' Et midnteiiant fu la nouvele eepandue qve ioseph estoit 
p^rdus. — B. 


du monde a ioseph anchois ke a autrui. Et si le con- Christ oomforu 

forta moult, & dist que ^hien fust il seurs qu'il ne a^m^he 

morroit pas en la pnson, ains en istroit tous sains & ****" ^*** 

tout saus, ne ia mal no doleur n'i auroit, & si seroit tous 

lours en sa compaignie. £t qfiant il en istroit, il tour- 

neroit a merueille tout le mont qui le uerroit. Et apres 

serroit ses nons portes eiiestrainges lieus, & par lui & "* cwry Hif 

name to foreign 

par 8CS oirs. Mais encore ne estoit pas li termes que il landiu 

en issist, ains demourroit grant pieche tant que tous li 

siecles quiderait qu'il fust mors. Et quant il Ten 

uerroient issir, si en serroit ses nons glorefies et loes, & 

maintcs gens en kerroient.' Ensi remest ioseph en la 

p/ison tant que tous estoit oublies Ss ke nus ne tenoit 

mais parole de lui. Si remest sa feme moult esgaree, Joseph's wub 

qui encore estoit iouene feme; Et ses fiex iosephe[s] josephesare 

qui n*auoit k'an & demi quant ses peres fu mis en 

prison. Si fu la dame maintes fois amoncstee dc marier. 

^lais ele dit k*ele n'aroit iamais camel co7/2paignie But she win not 

marry again, 

deuant k*ele seust certaine nouuele de son mari ; Car 
el Tamoit sour toute creature. Et quant li enfes uint 
a age de marier, si li enorterent si parent que il se 
mariast. Mais il estoit si espris de Tamour ihc^u crist 
par Tamonestemewt de sa mere, qw'il dist qu*il no feroit *nd her son irtn 

only many Holy 

ia mariage de soi que a sainte eglise seulement. Car il choreh. 

creoient andoi, & auoient recheu baptesme en la main 

Bciiut lakcme le menor, qi^i fu eucskes de jhevusolem 

graut tans puis la mort ihe^u crist. Et ioseph fu en la How Joseph Hved 

. . . • vi . J 42 years in prison, 

prison, ensi com vous aues oi, tant quil i demoura C*ie*f7,ha<:k, 
.xlij. ans, & lors Ten geta vaspasiens li empereres de and how he was 

<r«. . < •! 1 I*' 1 delivered out 

rome. Et si orres comment il demoura .xlij. ans. Au of it. 

iour que ihesus fu crucefies, tenoit tyberius cesar Tern- 5SmliJl*E'nperor« 

pire de rome, et apres clie le tint il .x. ans. Apres •ft«»" Christ. 

regna gjius ses nies, qui ne vesqui ke .i. an. Et apres 

tegna claudiens, qui tint Tempire de rome .xiiij. ans. 

Apr^s claudien regna noiror^s, sous qui sains picrres fu 

crucefies et Bains pans dccoles. Et si ne tint Tcmpire 


After Nero, qus .xliij. ODS. Apr68 noiron rogna tytus & vaspasi- 

overRome^ jens 868 fiex, qui fu inesiau8. £t au tierch an que titus 

rechut Tenipire, fu ioseph ieie8 de prison. £ 8i poe8 

conter .xlij. ans del cruchefiement ihe^ crist iusc'au 

deliorement de ioseph. Et si ores comment il fu de- 

liures. II anint le premier an ke titus fu empereres 

tnd hit Mm que ses filex vaspasijens deuint mesiaus si tres durement 

becomes a leper, que nus ue le pooit sounnr. De cneste cose eut titus 

Tittti offtrt gifte gi cnrant dueL qM*il n'en pooit estre confortes. Et fist 

toanjODewho ^ ^ ^ ^ 

wiu cure hie eon. sauoir par toutes terres ke q^i porroit son fil garir de la 
meselerie, il li donroit si riclie don com il oseroit^ dire 
de bouche. Et quant il eut par tout fait sauoir, si no 
trouua home qui Ten seust garir. Tant qu'il auint 

A knight of cose c'un chiualerQ de uers caphamaum vint a rome, qui 

Capenuuim uks , , 

touucwith en oi la parole. Et quant il vint deuant rempei-eour, 


si dist qu*il parleroit uolentiers a son fil pour son preu. 
Et il le fist mener a la fenestre d'une cambre ou il 
estoit tons sens, si parloit on a lui par chele fenestre. 
Car on ne peust autrement souffrir le grant puasine qui 
de lui issoit. Et quant il eut son chief mis hors par 
la fenestre, si le regarda li chiualerSy & vit qu'il estoit 

and telU him how plus mesiaUS QU£ UUS UO peUSt peUSCr. Et Chil li de- 
he himself was a *^ . . 

leper, and was mauda tautost SO il sauoit aucune cose qui li peust auoii 

eured hj Jeeos, 

mestier. Et li chiualers li dist ; " Sire, certes ie uous 
y avoie, pour che ke ie fui ia mesiaus en m'enffanche." 
[• leaf 8] " Ha, biaus sire, dist chil, comment en ga'ristes vous 
donquas 1 " " Chertes, dit cil, par .i. prophete qui fu 
en iudee ke li iuif ochisent a grant tort.'' ^* Et par quoi 
who touched him yous en gari il 1" che dist uaspasiens. " Chertes, dist 

and made him 

whole, chil, il ne fist ke touchier a moi et tantost fui tous 

garis." " Coimient, dist il, si estoit de si grant pooir 
qu'il garissoit de meseleriel" "Certes, sire, dist li 
chtualers, encore faisait il plus ; Car il resuscitoit les 
mors." Et il demanda pour quoi il auoit este ochis. 
" Certes, sire, dist il, por chou k'il prechoit ueritei, & 

* MS osoroit. 


ke il reprennoit les iuis de lor felounies. Et ie croi ke ud that anything 

. * ^^ ^ ^ -,' that Chriat haa 

se Yous tenies cose a quoi il eust toucnie, que yous toached would 

gariries maintenant." Qziant chil I'oi, si en eut trop ^^"^^ 

grant leeche, & si fist enuoier quere son pere. Et si li 

fist conter la parole, car il ne pooit mais gaires parler. 

Et titus dist qz/'il enuoieroit sauoir se on porroit riens Titm sayi he 

trouuer ki a lui eust touchie. ** Sire, dist uaspasiens, something. 

pries ent chest chindleT qui est de la terre. Et si li 

dounes tant du nostre ke il fache chest message. Car 

li cucrs me dist que ie garirai Et se g*en puis garir, 

ie promech hien au prophete qu^ ie prendrai uenianche 

de la honte ke li iuif li fisent." Tant pria titus Ie Titue asks the 

knight to under- 

cYitualer ke il li otria a faire son message. Et il li take the task, 
bailla moult riche hamois, & si li bailla son seel, ke tout 
chil a qui ches letres venroient fesissent quanqi/6 il 
cowmanderoit. Lors en uint li ch^'wal^rs en iudee, si The knight unds 

Felix, governor 

trouua en ihentsalem vn romain qui auoit non felis, qui of Jerusalem, 
a chel iour estoit garde de iudee & de sulie ensi, com li 
romain metoiewt lor gardes par les terres ke il auoient 
conquises. A chelui bailla li chiitaleTS Ie seel Tem- 
pereour. Et qwant chil ot leu les letres, si dist qw'il 
commandast son plaisir, & il seroit fais. Et li chiualers "•i ^^^^ *>*™ '<> 

*■ ^ have proclamation 

dist, ke il fesist crier par toute la terro, ke qui aroit m»de ft>r any- 

thing Christ has 

nule cose ke ihe^us eust tenue, aportast Ie auant ; Et toached. 

qui en cheleroit riens, *et il peust estre ap^xjheu, il n'en [•leafs, ooi. t] 

poTToit escaper ke il n*en mourust. Ensi com il Ie comr 

manda, ensi fu crie, & en iheru^alem tout premierement. 

Mais onquca ne vint auant qui riens en reconeust, Fors 

que vne feme de moult grant aage qui auoit nom marie 

la uenissiene.^ Chele vint a felis, <fe si li porta vne Mary the pheni- 

picche de toille k'ele auoit garde moult honorement puis veronica cioth, 

Ie cruchefiemewt de ihesu ; Et si Ie dist : " Sire, au takes it to Home. 

lour que li sains prophetes fu menes cruchefiiier, si 

passoie ie deuant lui, si portoie vne pieche de toille 

uendre. Et il m'apiela, si me pria ke ie li pr^'staisse 

* qui auoit non uerone. — B. leaf 4, back, col. 1, at foot 



[•Uaf 8,001.8] 

On NMinff the 
cloth, VespMtian 
ia healed. 

and declar«^ that 
he will take 
revenge for 
Christ's dMth. 

He goes to 

chele toille pour son vis essuer qui li degoutoit tous de 
/9uour. £t qt^nt ie Ten oi essue, si Tenuolepai & Ven- 
porta[i] en maison. Et quant ie le desuolepai, si trouuai 
la figt^re ihe^ autresi parant ke se on Teust painte en 
vne paroit. Des la en clia Tai gardee, si ne fui onqu^s 
puis si malade, se ie le poi veoir ke mai/ztenaut ne 
fuisse toute garie/' Et ele dosploia la toile, si sambla 
k'ele fust toute nouelement tissue, & la figure i paroit 
autresi bien com s'ele i eust este lors emprientee. Chele 
toille en aporta li chiualers a rome. Et la nuit deuant 
Che qu*il i uenist, si songoit vespasijens ke vns horn 
venoit de uers le chiel, si le prcnoit as ongles, si Tescor- 
choit tout. Et qz^ant il estoit escorcliies, si gardoit en 
.i. miroir s'il se pooit counoistre. Et tous li siecles 
couroit apres lui & disoient " venes veoir Torwrne mort 
qui est reuescus I " Au matin quant il fu leues, si uint 
ses peres deuant lui com cbil qui Tamoit sour toute 
liens. Et qz^nt vaspasiens le vit, si li dist : *' Sire, 
faites vous lie, car ie sai de uoir que ie garirai," & lors 
si li dist son songe. A ches pa^'oles vint li chituileTa. 
Et quant vaspasijens le vit, qui encore estoit a la 
fenestre, si senti que tout li membre li alegoient. Si 
commencha a hucbier de si loing co7n il le *vit : " Vous 
Boyes li hien venus, car yous aportes ma sante." Et li 
chiualera desploia tantost la toille sans plus dire. Et 
maintenant que vaspasijens vit Tempriente de la figz^re, 
si fu plus biaus & plus sains ke il n*auoit onqufs este 
nul iour. Et qi^nt ses peres le vit, & les autres gens, 
fii f u la ioie si grans que nus ne le kerroit qui veue ne 
Teust. Et lors pn'st vaspasiens la visiere, si Tostoia 
au plus houneraulement que il pent. Et si dist qu*il 
ne fineroit iamais deuant che qi/'il eust ucTzgiet la bonte 
au signeur qui sante li auoit rcndue. Maintenant fist 
atoumer son oirre, et mut pour aler en iudee, & si 
enmena le chiualei auoec lui, & si le fist signour de 
toute sa maison. Et quant il fu uenus en iberusale??}, 


si fist venir deuant lui marie la iienissieno. Et chelo 

li nouma tous chiaus qui enchore viuoient -par qui Mary names the 

traitors against 

forche & par qui cojiseil ih^6-«^ auoit rechou mort. Et Christ, and they 

vaspasiens los fist tous prendre, & si fist faire .i. grant 

fu, & dist que la les ardroit tous. Et q?/ant la feme Joseph's wife 

begs f«)r her 

ioseph oi ches nouueles, si vint auant entre li <fe son fil. husband. 

Et si 86 clama de son singnowr que il li auoient tolu, no 

onqz/es puis ensenges n'en auoit oies. Et on li demanda 

pour quoi il auoit ihesu. despendu do la crois & mis en .i. 

sien sepulcre. Et qi^ant il oi chou, si iura qu'il les arderoit 

tous se il ne li ensoignoient ou il estoit. Et chil li respon- The traitors 

cannot tell where 

dircnt ke ardoir les porroit : car il ne li porroient rendro, he i«, 

ne il ne sauoient qu^il estoit deuenus. Et il disoient uoir 

ke il n'en sauoient nule uerito. "Ne des .ij. qui le mencrent 

en la pr/son n'i auoit il mais c'lin seul vif. Car li 

autres eut la teste caupee dcdens la scmaine ke il Torcnt 

enprisoune. Et li cartriers chai des fenestres de la tour 

a tcrre Tendemain ke il li laissa a douner a manger. 

Ensi ne remest que li vns vis, che fu chayphas qui though caiaphas 

estoit euesq?^s des iuis Tan ke ihesus oris morut. Et [♦ leaf 8, back] 

quant il virent ke mourir les conuerroit, si dirent que 

d'aus porroit il faire sa uolente & son coynmandcment, 

car il estoit uoirs qri'il avoient pris ioseph. Mais il 

Tauoient bailliet a deus d*aus, pour chou qw^il ne voloient 

pas ke il seussent tuit ou il serroit en prison. Do ches 

.ij. estoit chayphas li vns. Et se chil ne V sauoit, dont 

n*en orroit il iamais nouuieles par nule howime. Lors 

demanda chayphas a veoir. Et quant il fu venus Caiaphasts 

brought up, 

deuant lui, si le fist hien garder, & tous les autres fist and the others 
ardoir. Et qvant il furent ars, si dist a chayphas ke il 
feroit de lui la grignour iustiche qui onqwes fust faite 
d*omo se il ne li rendoit ioseplu Et chayphas respon- Caiaphaa agree* 
doit que ' dont en pooit il faire la iustice tele com lui Joseph was 
plairoit, ke se tout chil du mondo Tauoicnt iure, ne V it not to be'bumi 
porroient il rendre vif, se diex mcismes non. Mais il 
li enseigneroit le lieu ou il auoit este en prison mis : 


He takes them to 
th j prison. 

bnt reAues to 
enter it himself, 
[•tears, tMck, 
Col. 2] 

Vespfttian goe« 
down into U. 

YespMian tells 
Joseph who he is. 

and that he has 
oome to deliver 

Car de sa uie ne sauoit il riens. Mais ke che fust par 
tel conuent qu'il ne fust ars ne ocliis.' Et vaspasiens 
respondi que tous seurs fust, car il li creantoit loiaument 
ke il ne le feroit ne ardoir ne ochirre. Et lors le mena 
cbayphas a sa tour, au piler ou il estoit. Et si dist, 
" Sire, en chest piler fu il mis des que ihe^us fu cruche- 
fijes que ie n*auoie mie .xxxiij. ans qui ore sui si vieus 
con vous poes veoir." Et vaspasijens li dist, " Ne t*es- 
maie, car chil pour qui il i f u mis, est tous poisans de 
lui garder sain & sauf, & tant & plus. Car moi qui on- 
ques serui ne Tauoie, a il gari de plus vil mal qui soit." 
Lors commanda a cbayphas ke il entrast en la chartre, 
et se il ne le trouoit vif, si en aportast les os. Et 
chayphas respondi ke il n*i entreroit s'il le deuoit tous 
desme/ribrer. Et uaspasiens respondi ke il n'auoit 'pas 
tort, car il n' estoit pas raisoTis que si desloiaus pecbieres 
entrast en lieu ou si preudom fust com chil estoit qui 
de la crois auoit despe^idu le sauueour du monde. Lors 
dist qu'il meismes i entreroit Si le fist aualer ens a 
cheus ou il plus se creoit. Et q?^ant il vint a ualf si 
vit entour lui si grant clarte, ke s'il i eust .c. cbierges 
alumes ele n'i fust pas si grans. Et U se tint a vne part 
tous cois, si fu tous esbabis de la grant clarte qu*il ueoit. 
Et qwant il ot este grant pieche, si apiela iosepb. & 
iosepb respondi : ** Biaus sire diex, qui est che qui 
m'apiele 1 " " le sui, dist il, uaspasijews li fiex Fempe- 
?'eour." Et iosepb s'esmerueilla, car il ne quidoit auoir 
demoure en la prison com tant com il auoit du uenredi 
iusc'au dime/jche. Et au dimenche li apparut ibe^« 
cris, si ne quidoit pas ke en si peu de tans i eust empe- 
reour cangie. Car la clartes ke ibesus cris i aporta 
q?/ant il li apparut, ne estoit onqw^s puis falie, si ne qui- 
doit pas qu*il li fust onqwcs puis anujtie. Lors demanda 
a uaspasijen, qu'il uoloit faire de lui Et uaspasijens li 
dist, ke il Festoit uenus deliurer, et uengicr son signowr 
des grans bontes c*ow li auoit faites. Et qt^ant iosepli 


Toi, si en eut moult grant ioie. Lore se fist traire nas- 
pasijens a mont tout pr^mierement pour dire la sus la 
grant mcruelle de la ioie qui ert a ual. Endementiers 
vint vne vois a ioseph qui li dist : " Ne t*esmaie mie, a hwveniy voio* 

,. . . . t«Il« Jowph noi to 

mais soics tous seurs, car li t^rnens vengieres est uenus. fear. 

Ghil te uengera de tcs anemia corporelment. Mais 

I'espc'ritueus uenianche serra asses plus gries. Et quant 

tu arasveu quel uenianche il en aura prise, si te mous- 

terrai cojii grans paines il te co?menra souffrir pour mon 

non porter par les estranges tcrres." Et ioseph li re- He wkt after the 

spondi : " Sire, vos sergans est apparellies a "souffrir [• leaf 8, back, 

toutcs les coses ke yoiftre boucho li daignera co7>imander. 

mais que ferai ie de uo sainte escuele 1 Car ie vauroie 

mowlt qu*ele peust estre celee, & ke ia nus ne Ie veist." 

Et la vois li respondi, " Xe t*esmaie de Tescuelo. Car 

q?/ant tu uenras en ta maison, tu lo trouueras en cheli t^^ roioe aay* it 

will be iu lus 

lieu ou tu I'auoies miae quant ie Ie te aportai chaiens. home. 

Or t*en va, car ie te pren en garde et en co^^duit vers 

tous homes." A tant s'en teut la vois, & vaspasijens Joeeph it drawn 

qui ia estoit en haut, Ie refist truire a mont. Et quant prison. 

chayphas Ie vit, qui estoit illueq?fcs, si no li fu mie auis 

ke il fust enuicllis ne tant ne qz/c/nt; Anchois dist 

qu'il ne Tauoit onqwes veu plus biel qu'il estoit ore. Et 

ioseph, q?/ant il Ie uit, ne Ie peust counoistre, tant Hedoeenot 

estoit enuiellies & dcbrisies. Ke son fil meisme qtiant or hta own eon. 

il Ie vint baisier, ne 1' counut il mie : anchois demanda 

qui il estoit. Et chil qui entour estoient, li disent qw'il 

estoit ses fieus : & il ne T crei mie. Apres Ie courut sa 

feme acoler & baisier, & il Ie co/wmencha a regarder pour 

che que trop estoit cangie. Et ele li dist, " Sire, dont 

ne me counissies you>8 1 Je sui elyab \osfTe femme, & 

chis est iosephefs] yostre fiex." Et il li dist ke il ne Joeeph doewi't 

know his Witt, 

Ten kerra ia, se ele ne Fen desist uraies ensegnes pnuees. 
Et vaspasijens li dist : " ioseph, co7?i-bien quidies vous 
auoir este en cheste prison] " Et ioseph li dist, " Sire, «nd thinks he ha» 

* * \ ^ boen only two 

ie i quit auoir demoure des uenredi iusch'a huj, & ie dv^iupriwnj 


but Vespasifin 
tolls liira he has 

[• loaf 0] 
been there 42 

Joseph returns to 

points out the 
abettors of 
Christ's death ; 
and Vespasian 
boms them. 

What is to be 
done with 

quit qw'il soit hui diemenches. Et uenredi despendi iou 
le urai prophete de la crois, pour qui ie fui en prison 
mis." Et qwant il eut che dit, Si commencliierent a 
lire tout cliil qui estoient entour lui. Car il quidoient 
que il fust ensi estourdis. Mais plus s'esmeruella 
cayphas de che qu'il auoit tant uescu saws boire & sans 
mangier. Et vaspasijens li dist, " Par foi, il me font 
entendant ke il a .xlij. ans ke li p?-o'phetes fu mis en 
crois, & ke yous aues este .xlij. ans en prison. Et quant 
Yous fustes enprisounes tyberius cesar estoit empererea 
de rome, & puis en i a eu trois. Ore est mes pores li 
quars." Q^ant iosepb che oi, si s'esmeruella trop. Et 
uaspasijens li amena cayphas deuant li, si li demanda so 
il le counissoit. Et il ne le counut mie : si demanda 
qui il estoit. ^Et il respondi ke il estoit cayphas qui 
Tauoit mis eu la priso/i entre lui & vn autre. Et si li 
dist ces enseignes, que quant il Torent amene iusc'au 
pie de la tour, si le laissierent si durement chaoir a 
terre, ke il eut vne plaie sour le sourchil. Iches enseg- 
nes conut hien ioseph, si lor moustra la plaie. & quant 
il vint en iheTvsalem, si li coururent si ami encontre, & 
les autres gens ensamblo. Mais moult en i eut pen qui 
il peuflt counoistre, ne des siens ne des estranges. Et 
vaspasijens fist prendre tons chiaus q?^*on pent trouuer, 
si les fist amcner deuant iosoph. Et tons cheus ke 
ioseph disoit qui auoient este en aide & en consewte- 
ment de ihe^u crucifijer, si les fasoit tous axdoir sans 
raenchon p7*cndre. Et quant il eut tout ars cheus qui 
estoient vif ke ioseph peust cownoistre, si fu tenus li 
plais de cayphas. Et uaspasijens apiela ioseph et chiaus 
de sa maison, si lor demanda commoit il esploiteroit 
sauf son creant. Car il li auoit creante qu'il ne seroit 

* & il ii dist: *Me fui cajrphas qui \ous fis metre en 
prison; a cheles ensenges que yous nos laissames si chafoir 
que YOUS en eustes vne plaie en mi Ip front** 10,292, leaf 5, 
col. 2, middle. 


ars ne ochis. Si i eut do tens q?d ingierent ke il le 

fesist m^tre en la p?^oii ou ioseph auoit este, si mounist 

illuec (le faim. Et li autre dirent ke il le pooit hien Hire him 

faire inorir sans fauser son creant. Car il ne V deuoit then uv^it urtthtr 

garaiidir que d'ardoir & d'ochiro. Et s*il le faisoit noier, auun. 

il ne serroit ne ochis ne ars. Et iosoph li dist : " Sire, 

la forcho & la signorie est en vous de lui faire morir. 

Mais, ^our dicu, ne V faitcs pas ensi. Car espoir encore JoMph Min thai 

J •«•! ii'-'i . he may be fciurcd. 

aniendera sa vie, & si kerra en chelui qui si longement 

m'a gar'de sain & sauf, & iete liors de ses mains & de [•ieaf«,coi.2] 

mes autres anemis. Et par auenture encore le fera 

liosfm sires tel que il ne vauroit mie qw'il fast mors en 

chesti point." Et uaspasijens li respondi: "Des ke vespwian'* 

vous Ic Iocs, il sera g?'ant masse fait par Yostre conseil ; 

Car ie ne le ferai pas morir. Mais en aucune maniere 

C07iment il ke io prenge ucnianche de la mort an signeur 

qu*il fist crucefijcr a tort, & se il plaist au signot^r ke il 

vine, il viucra. Mais qu^nt ic mui en chest pais ie creantai 

au signour que ie ne retourneroie deuant que ie I'eusse 

nengie a mon pooir del tort & de la honte qui en cheste he had vowed 

vile li f u faite. Et ie Ten doi moult hien uengier ; Car il revenge chriifi 

me gari de la grignowr meselerie que onqucs cors d'o7/ime ' 

soustenist au mien espoir. Mais quant ie fui venus en 

cheste vile, & ie fis ardoir les premiers iuis par le con- *nd had burnt 

the first seiof 

soil marie la venissieno qui m'enuoia la visiere dont ie Jews; 

gari, si vint la clamours a moi des iuis qui vous auoient 

mis en prison. Et cayphas me dist qu'il m'eTiseigneroit 

le lieu ou yous auies este mis, par couuent ke ie li 

creantaisse loiaumeTzt qu'H ne serroit ars ne ochis. £t 

ie, qwi vous desirroie a ueoir plus ke nul home, li otriai *»* ^•^ promtoed 

, , CaUphasnotto 

Car i'esperoie hien que li sires j)Our qui yous esties en bum or iiaj him, 

prison ne yous auoit pas si manuals guerredon rendn 

qu'il Yotis eust laissie morir en Tordure de chele chartre. 

Et pot^r chou que ie li otriai, connient il ke ie li tiengo 

son couuent, ne ie ne le ferai pas mourir. Mais pour 

chou que i'en doi le haut signour en ancnne maniere 


and would there- uengier, V0U8 diiai qve i'en ferai. Je le ferai metre en 

fore send him oat •■••it-. •!»•/»• 

to lea in a boat, mer en .1. Datiel. £t qt^ant le 1 arai fait eslongier de 
t^rre as autres nes, si le laissera on aler ensi comme il 

toUve,ordroini. plaira a dieu qw'il aut. Se diex veut qw'il vine, il 
viuera ; et se il veut qu*il mnire, il n'en escapera ia. 
Ensi porrai mon creant sauuer: & s'il plaist auhaut 
Bignour ke il muire en chest tounnewt ou ie le ferai 
[♦ieaf9,ooL8] metre, dont en sera il hien uewgies. *Et se il li plaist 
qw'il en escape, il ne sera pas escapes par moi, mais par 

caiaphas is pot ga manage." A tant feni li conseus. Et uaspasiiens le 

into a boat, and ^ , ^ "^ 

pushed out to sea. fist maintcnant metre en .i. batel, & si le fist as 
maroimiers eslongier des riuages, Tant qw*il le laissie- 
rent aler la ou auenture le menroit.* 

Ensi yaspasiiens uenga ihe^u crist corporelment de 
ses* anemis. & non pas il tant seulement : anchois 
The contrast 8*en uenga ihesus cris par lui Et che fu pour example 

between the 

Pagans and Jews, moustrcr de la desloiaute des iuis. Car chil qui il auoit 
apiele kiens, che furent li paijon, ki li fisent plw* d*oun- 
eur qui il apieloit ses fiex, che furent li iui£ Car li 
iuis Tauoient cruchefijet, & li paien le vengoient. 


How Joseph was oommandA*! by Christ in a vision to go and 
preach the Gospel in foreign lands, taking the road to 
Ephrata, but carrying nothing with him but the Holy 
Dish, as God would provide for him. How Joseph is 
baptized by St Philip (p. 41) ; and also Vespasian and all 
his company ; and how Vespasian keeps it secret from his 
father Titus, till it is known by a clerk's reproaching him 
at the siege of Jerusalem (p. 42). 


pres s*en dut vaspasijens retoumer a rome. Et la 
nuitdeuant qw'il s*en dut repairier, estoit ioseph en 

' Here follows an illustration, representing Caiaphas in a 
smaller boat being pushed off by a sailor, who, with two other 
men (Vespasian and Joseph), standa in a larger boat. 


son lit. Si li vint vne auisions, que ihesus cris uenoit chriat appears to 

deuant lui, si li disoit : " Joseph, li tcrmes est venus que vuion, 

tu t'en iras prechier mon non. Et si te conuenra 

laissier pour moi toute la terriene rikeche. Ke iamais 

en cheste terre ne retomcras ; anchois sera ta semencho 

espandue en si lontaignes terres ke tu ne le porroies 

penser ne quidior. Car i'ai esleu aemplir les estranges and saja He haa 

. , . , . 1 1 !• 1 1 choaen him to fill 

terres de ta semencne ; ne mie de cncli ke tu engonras, foreign umds «rith 

rii* i.xr>i fi.* * j» ' r^ hia tpiritual seed : 

Car de losephe^ ton nl n istra lamais cameus fruis ; Car 
il m*a promise pa7*durable chaaste. Or si garde ke tu joMphiatobe 
te f aches demain baptisijer. £t si *t'en iras mainten- [•ieaf9,iMck] 
ant hors de iherusalem en tel maniere ke iamais n'i 
entreras. £t si t'en iras sans or & sans argent & sans 
mounoie & sans cauchcuro; ne ia ne porteras de tous and go forth 

without inotiej, 

auoirs que m'escuele seulement. Itant porteras auoec or anything but 

toi, & SI recheueras en mainie et en compaignie tous 

chiaus & toutes cheles ki te vauront sieuir, & ki vauront 

baptesme recheuoir. Mais io ne veul ke nus port 

pecune en ta compaignie. Car tu & chil qui loiaument 

me seruiront auoec toi aront toutes les coses que lor but au that they 

want thej shall 

cuer pcnseront & desirront. Et quant tu t en vauras hare, 
aler, si manderas tes parens, & tes amis, & les parens 
ta feme. Si lor ano^^che ma creanche, & lors si uerras 
ti quel vauroi[en]t croire & aler apres toi. Et quant 
tu istras de iheTusalem, si t'en iras toute la uoie qui ua 
a efi&ate. Et ie t'ensengnerai lors que tu deuras faire, 
& comment tu deueras aler." 

u matin hien main se leua ioseph, & rechut crcsti- Joaeph is 

baptized 1^ 8t 

ente de la main saint phelippe, ki dont estoit PhiUp. 
euesq2^s de iherusalem. Et qt^xnt vaspasijcns Toi dire, si 
I'enuoia querre, & demanda qus che senefioit qu*il auoit 
fait. Et ioseph li respond! ke ch'estoit li sauuemcTis ihe^u 
crist, & sans che ne pooit nus hom estre sains. Et q?^ant 
vaspasy ens Toi, si dist que cheste creanche prcnderoit ▼«•!»•»"» is 
il ; si se fist baptisijer, & si fu ioseph ses maistres parins. 
Mais il fist iurer tous cheus de sa maisnie ke ia ses 




and aU his 
company ; bnt It 
ia kept Mcret. 

Of tha deatruc- 
tionaof Jeruaa- 

[•leaf 8, back, 

How YespHsiiin 
was repro iched 
by a cleric for 
warring a{,'aiu«t 

peies n'eh saroit riens par aus. Car il ne voloit pas que 
ses peres le seust deuant qu'il eust enquis de lui meismes 
si li plairoit la creanche a recheuoir ou non. Et ne powr 
qt^ant il fist toute sa compaignie baptisijer auoec lui 
Ne onques ne fa descouuert ke il fust baptisies deuant 
ke il vinrent entre lui & son pere destruire ih^i^alem 
de la grant destruction qwi fu anchois ke li crestijen 
s'en fuissent en la t^rre agrippe le fil herode agrippe. 
Car dont fu *la grans destructions. Mais a cheste de- 
struction que tytus & yaspasijens firent, ne fu ele pas si 
destruite com a I'autre fois. Car dont fu ele si destruite 
qw*il n'i remest pierre sour autre. Ne li contes n'en 
parole en auant fors que tant que tytus & vaspasijens 
ses fiex orent assis ihen/^alem, ke il assirent dedens Fan 
ke ioseppi] fu mis hors de prison, si auint cose que 
vaspasiens assaloit moult durement. Car il estoit plains 
de moult grant proueche & de grant hardement. Et uns 
clers qui auoit estc a lui baptisier, le counut, si li com- 
mencha a crier : ' Ahi uaspasiens, desloiaus sarrasins & 
puis crestiens renoies, pour quoi guerroies tu celui qui 
te gari de la meselerie, & qui baptesme tu rechus ) ' A 
che mot laissa vaspasiens a assalir qn'il li reprc>choit 
che que li clers auoit dit, & si le cacha hors de son lieu 
grant pieche. Mais che ne content pas les estoires des 
empereours. Or repaire li contes la u vaspasijens se 
part de ioseph & de iherusalem, ou il a la creanche 



Of Joseph. How he converts his relatives and induces them 
to go with him. How they come to Bethany, and the 
Wood of Ambush (p. 44). How he tells them not to care 
for lodging. How our Lord speaks to him (p. 44). How 
the people are miraculously fed. How they come to the 
city of Sarras, whence the Saracens take their name. How 
those are not to be believed who say that * Saracen ' is 
derived from Sara, Abraham's wife (p. 45). Of the 
worship of the Saracens. How Qod conmiands Joseph to 
preach to, and baptize, the inhabitants of Sarras (p. 46). 

tant se taist 11 contcs de vaspasijen, ke il n'en 


parole plus ; & si commenchQ de ioseph. £t dist Jouph preaches 

to hU relatives 

ke ioseph enuoie quevre tous ses parens & ses amis, & si aud friends, 
lor anoncha la creanche ensi com nostre sires Fauoit 
eommande. Si lor preecha tant do ihesxi crist qt^'il en 
conuerti .Ix. & xv. ; dont il i auoit de tens qui estoient andeonTerurs 


baptisie, Mais il estoient refroidie de la creanche. £t 

li autre qiti baptisie n*auoicnt este, Se fisent *mainte- [•leaf 9, back, 

nant baptisijer. Lors s'en issi ioseph de la chite entre Tbey leave 

lui & sa compaignie, si estoit ia nonne passee. Et quant ®"* °* ' 


il fu issus hors de la vile, si touma la uoie qui aloit 
a efirate ensi com nostiQ sires Fauoit commando. Et 
Quani il vint a betlianie, si commencha a auesprir. Et and reach 


lors si li disent ses gens : " Biaus sire, ou lierbergerons 

nous ? se nous passons chesto uile nous ne trouuerons where they want 

to lodge. 

humais ou herbcrgier." Et ioseph lor respondi : 

" Signowr frere & serors, or ne yous esmaies mie. Car 

diex li tous poissans pour qui amour nous somes issu Joseph tdis them 

de nostTQ naite,^ nous eo72seillera en tel maniere ke il ne wiu prorids for 

nous faudra ne osteus ne viande. Mais gardes ke Youa 

ne Y0U8 desesperes do sa grant misericorde. Car se yous 

le voles loiaument seruir comme si crestyon, Yoshe cuer 

' An illustration of Joseph preaching to sixteen of his 
friendSi heads this chapter. 

' native land : * car li sires por qui nos someB men de no 
pais.' — B, leaf 5, back, ool. 2. 



They go on to 
the Wood of 

Ood's ipeech to 

H's mercy to 
the Jews ; 
[•leaf 10] 

their ingratitade 
to him. 

ne penseront riens au matin que vous n'aies ains la nuit. 
^e onqz^^ ne moustia tant d*amour a nos peres el 
desert coin il moustra a nous se nous le seruons ensi 
comme peres doit estre sends de ses enfans. Mais se 
nous le seruons comme fillastre, ausi comme nostre pere 
le seruirent el desert, il ne nous fera mie conime peres, 
mais co77ime parrastres. Car il ne nous aidera pas, 
anchois nous faura qwant nous arons grignour Lesoing 
de s'aide." 

A tant laissa ioseph a parler, si alerent tant ke il 
vinrent a .i. petit bos qui estoit a demie lieue de 
bethanie, si auoit non li bos des agais. £t si estoit 
apieles par chel non powr chou que en che bos fu 
agaities herodes thetrarclies q^^nt li iuis le liurcrent a 
rethe le roi de damas poz^r sa fille ke il auoit laissie 
quant il prist la feme philippe son frere. Quant il 
furent venu a che bos, si apiela nosties sires ioseph, si li 
dist : " Joseph, ie sui tes diex, tes sauueres, tes defen- 
deres, chil qui ieta tes peres de la main pHaraon a grant 
signes & a grant demoustranches. Ie lor passai la mer 
rouge a sech, & les menai el desert *ou lor cuer auoient 
qua/ike il voloient desii-er. lUuec me courechierent il 
en mainte maniere, a I'iaue de cowtredit, & au ueel 
qu'il firent powr aurer. Et ie toutes voies lor aidai & 
defendi^ viers toutes gens, tant ke ie mis tons lor 
anemis desous lor pies. Onques powr chou ne se re- 
corderewt ke ie lor eusse b/cn fait, ne plus uolentiors ne 
m*en seruirent. Anchois me rendirent en la fin si felon 
loiier qw*il me dampnerent el fust. Et se li pere m'ont 
mau serui, powr che ne harrai pas les fiex. Car ie veul 
penitanche des pechies, & si n*ai cure de mort. Et pour 
chou ke ie ne voel espandre ma misericorde sour les fiex 
as felons peres, pour chou t*ai eslou a porter mon non 
& ma creanche par les estmnges terres. Et si seras 
guieres de grignour pide ke tu ne quides. & par toi 
' MS aidrai et defondrai : * & iou li aidai.* — B. 



aront il m'amour & m'aide se il me veulent tenir a pere 
& a siguoz/r. Or va a to?^ pule, & si le fai herbergier Jowphiitoteu 
en che bos, & il aront toutes les viandes ke il vauront theyuTb© 
auoir, cascuns en son habitacle. Et anchois que tu isses i^ [hewlwdf 
do ceat bos, feras a m'escuele que tu as vne petite arche He u to make an 

ark of wood Tor 

do fust en quoi tu le porteras. Et cnascun iour feres the Grau-Diah. 
uos afflictions de double genoil deuant chele arche, & 
dires vos orisons ^our auoir Tamour de dieu VLOstiQ 
seignr/Mr. Et qwant tu vauras a moi parler, si ouuerras 
I'arche en quel lieu que tu soies, si ke tu sens uoies 
I'escuele ape^-tement. Mais ie ne voel ke nus touche a 
Tescuele ke tu sans plus, & iosephes tea fiex. Or t*en 
va, si atoume ton pule, & si fai ensi com ie t'ai com- 

tant s'en parti ioseph, & vint a son pule, si le fist The people camp 

in the wood 

herbcrgier par le bos, es ramees & es fuellies. Et 
q//ant il orcnt lor oateus fais, si alerent a orisons. Et 
q?/ant il reuinrent d'orisons, si trouua cbascuns en sa loge 
cliou qw'il desiroit a menrier. Tant manrierewt & burent •n^ •»« fed 

^ ° *^ , , miraculously. 

coin eus plot, & furent si a *aise. Au matin fist ioseph [•ieafio,coi.«] 
faire I'arche, Si Ofm nostre sires li auoit commando, & Joeeph has the 

.^ . . ark made. 

mist dedens Tescuele au sauueour. Et qwant tons li 
pules cut este a orisons deuant Tarche, Si com nostre ^^_^ p tj,,g ^ 
sires li auoit commande, si uint deuant Tescuele au J^ir.]" * *^**'' 
sauueour. tEt quant tons li pules eut este a orisons They eurt from 

the wood, and on 

deuant rarche,t si s*en pa?-tirent du bos, & entrerent en the nth day gH 


lor chemin. Si errerent tant par lor ioumees ke il vin- 

rent a vne chite aui auoit non sarras : ^Si estoit entre sarraa. whenee 

^ ... theSaracena 

babilone & salauandre.^ De chele chite issirent pre- come; 

mierement sarrasin, & de sarras furent il premierement 

sarrasin apiele. . Ne ne sont^ pas a croire chil qui dient for they are not 

* * called after Sara, 

que sarrasin furent apiele de sarra la feme abraham. Abraham's wife. 
'Car che fu controuuaille, ne raisons ne samble che pas 
a estre.' Ne che n'est pas chose mescouneue, ke sarra 
ne fust iuise, et ses fiex ysaac fu iuis ; & ims furent chil 
_i, 3_8 not in B, leaf 5, back, col. 3. * font A, B. 


How Mahomet 
was sent to save 
the Saracens, but 
damned himself 
and them. 

Tlie oljects of 
worship of the 
men ofSarras. 


Ood tells Joseph 
to baptize the 
people of Sarraf, 

blm words to 

•lid do miradet 
by liifl hands. 

and keep and 
defend him 
wherever he ia. 

ki de ysaac descendirent. Car par la grignoor partie 
prent on le tout. Et puis k'il descendirent iuif de sarra, 
dont ne samble il pas raisons ke li sarrasin presissent 
lor non de li. Mais de chele chite qui auoit non sanas 
furent apiele sarrasin, -pour che que che fu la premiere 
chites ou iches gens p^'^'sent certainete de sauoir ke il 
aouroient. Et la fu controuuee & establie la secte ke 
sarrasin maintinrent puis iusc*a la uenue de mahoumet, 
qui fu enuoies pour aus sauuer. Mais il daTTzpna soi 
auant, & aus aprcs, pour sa gloutemie. Car deuant che 
ke la secte fust qui establie fu en sarras, n'auoient ches 
gens nule certainete d'aourer. Anchois aourerent toutes 
les choses qui lor plaisoient, si ke che qu'il aouroient .i. 
iour n'auroient il pas a I'autre. Mais lors establirent il 
a aourer le soleil & la lune & les autres planetes. En 
chele citei vint ioseph & sa compaignie a Tonsime iour 
qM*il issi de iherusalem, Et quant il vint a Ten'tree 
de la vile, si Tapiela nostrea sires, & si li dist : " Joseph, 
tu t'en iras en chele chite, si prechcras mon non. Et 
tons chiaus qui la crcanche recheueront, si les baptiseras 
el non del pero & del fil et del saint esperit." Et lors 
respondi ioseph : ** Sire, comment saurai ie si hien 
preechierl ia ne m'e[n]tremi8 ie onqncs de tel cose." 
Et Jiosfre sires li dist : " Ne t*esmaie mie de che. Car 
tu ne feras ke la bouche ouurir, & ie metrai dedens 
grant plente de paroles. Ne ia ne troueras home de si 
grant scienche plain qui puisse durer as paroles ke ie 
geterai hors de ta bouche. Et si te ferai pareil a mes 
apostles par les miracles & par les uirtus ke ie ferai par 
tes mains. Mais garde ke tu ne refroides de creanche. 
Car tant com tu serras vrais creans, ne m'oseras tu riens 
reqtierre ke tu n*aies a ton besoing. Ore t*en ua, & si 
pense de ma besoinge si bicn faire ke tu en soijes paies 
comme loiaus seigans. Ne ia de manaches que tu oies, 
ne soies peuereus. Car ie te garderai et defifenderai en 
qt^l lieu ke tu soies." 



How Joseph and his seventy-five disciples enter Sarras, and go 
to the Temple of the Sun, to the seat of judgment, where 
the wise men and Evalach the Lord of the- city were 
assembled to consult how to revenge themselves on the 
£g>'ptians who had overcome them in battle. How 
Joseph thanks God that he has come at a favourable time 
(p. 48). How King Evalach's counsellors advise that he 
cannot oppose the Egyptians, but must make peace with 
them. How Joseph promises the King victory and ever- 
lasting joy, and tells him of the Saviour (p. 49). How 
the King cannot understand that one who suffered death 
can save him from death (p. 50). 

Atant s'en parti ioseph, si entra en la chitei, entre 
lui et sa com^aignie, £t quant U cytoien les 
virent uenir tant ensamble — car il estoient .Ixxv. — & il 
les virent cder tons nus pies, si se merucUent ques gens 
che pooient estre. £t ioseph ne fina onques dealer par Jo!>eph nof to 

tbe temple of 

la vile ent7'e lui & ses desciples tant qw'il vint dcuant uie son, 

le temple an soloil. Et che estoit li plus haus temples 

qui fust en la chite : & si lo tenoient li sarrasin en 

grignottr honour & en grignour reuerense ke tons les 

autres, pour chou qw'il estoit temples qui esi li pliw 

haus do tous les planetes. £n Tentree de chel temple 

si auoit vnes leges moult riches & moult bieles qui 

estoient faites & establies a che ke li per de la chite 1 

tenoient lor plais & lor afaires. Et ches loges *eS' [•ieario,back] 

toicnt apielees li siege des iugemens. En ches loges totiieseatof 

J udginent, 

entra ioseph, & li .Ixxv. ke ie vous ai dit qui estoient 
en sa compaignie. Et vne moult grant tmnulte da pule 
sarrasinois les sieuoient, pour che que a grant meruelle 
Tcsambloient hien estrange gent, ne onques mais si 
diue}*se n'auoient vcuc. Quant ioseph fa entres es tnd finds « 
loges, si trouua moult grant assamblee de sarrasins, & le of saraoemand 

J,,.. . •i.'x'T 11, their lord, 

signour de la chite meismes, qui estoit apieles eualacn Evaiach th« 

n-T-«. • A 'i •! 1* Unknown, 

mescouneus. £t si estoit apieles li mescouneus pour 

chou ke nus horn de toute sa terre ne sauoit de quel 


or EtaImVi 

But, as he was 

the Egyptians 
had taken awaj 
most of hiR land, 
and beaten his 
arm J ; and so he 
ha«l assembled 
his Council to 
devise Tengeanee 
on his enemy. 

Jof eph is glad 
that he has oome 
at the time of 
the king's need. 

[* leaf 10, back, 
col. 2] 

The Connsellora 
ad vine that peace 
be made with 
tlie Egyptians, 

t«7Te il estoit nes, ne de quel lieu il estoit venus, ne 
onqi/cs par nului n'e7i auoient oi enseignes en la te/'re. 
Mais il auoit este de si grant proeche ke il auoit par sa 
cheualerie conquiso toute la tcrre iusk'en Tentree de 
egypte. Et encore estoit il moult preus & -moult corageus, 
mais il estoit ia si vieus ke ses aages ne pooit mais 
soullrir q?^*il soustenist le trauail de porter armes. Si 
n*estoit mais tant redoutes ne tant cremus com il auoit 
este en sa iouenche. Anchois le guerrioient li egyptijen, 
si li auoient grant partie tolue de sa terre qui marchis- 
soit a aus. Et il Tauoient descowfit en bataille, & 
cachie de plache, n'auoit mie encore .vij. iours passes. 
Et pour cheste cose auoit il mande tons les sages homes 
& tons les anchijens qui estoient en son pooir. Car il 
leur en uoloit demander corwel, comment il se porroit 
vengier de la grant honte ke li egyptijen li auoient 

Aches paroles vint ioseph, si entendi hien & oi ke 
par laie/is tenoient lor paroles de la desconfiture le 
roi, & de sa mescheanche. Et qwant il oi la uerite de la 
cose, si en eut mo^^lt grant ioie. Car il se pensoit ke 
ore estoit venue I'eure & li tans ke sa parole porroit 
estre oie & mise a oeure par le grant besoing *ke li 
rois eualach a do I'aide nosfre signour. Si encom- 
mencha a rendre grasces a son creatour de che qw'il 
auoit fait uenir laiens a si boin point. Et qwant li rois 
eut parle a tous ses barons, si ni puet trouer point de 
conseiL anchois li estoient fali tot en trauers, Et 
disoient ke as egyptijens ne assambleroiewt il mais. 
Car il auoient trop grignowr forche ke il n*auoient, si 
ne lor porroit se meskeoir non. Et hien i paroit, che 
disoient, qwVne fois lor en estoit il ia mes-auenu si 
laidement ke il ne quidoient mie que iamAis peust estre 
amende. Ensi com uous poes oir, li falirent tout, & 
dirent, ke tel pais coi7i il peust, qwesist vers les egypt- 
ijens : car do la guerre ne s'oseroient il mie entremetre. 


De cbeste chose fu li rois moult esbahis et moult at which the king 

espocntcs, lant ke il no seut que diro no que fairo. 

Lors vint iosepli deuant lui. <fe qwant il le vit si 

tristre* & si pension, si dist: "Hois eualacb, no soies Jo^ph promite* 

him Tictory, and 

tu pas esbahis. Car so tn vous croire mon conscil, tu aiM>endiaMjoy. 

aras ioie & uictoire do tons tos anemis, & conqz/erras 

auooc chou vne ioie antre, q?/i iamais no prendra fin." 

Quant eualacb Toi ensi parler, si le regarda moult fiere- 

ment, & si li dist : " Qui es tu, ua, qui uictoire me EnUach aska 

, J • o 1 whoJoaephii. 

porroics douncr de mes ancmis, & la loio qui lamais no 
me fauroitl" A chest mot respondi ioseph & si li 
dist : "Par foi, rois, chou no to promet ie mie ke ie to 
doinso la victoiro no la ioie perdurable. Mais tant to Joaeph aaya that 

the king's virtory 

di go btcn, que so tu uoloies croire mon cowscl, tu wiiibethegia 

of the Almighty. 

auroics & la victoiro & la ioie sans fin, pour le don & 
pour le grasco de cbelui qid de toutes coses est pois- 
sans." Et eualacb li respondi, "Ie cscoutorai moult 
nolo7itiers ques tes cowsaus porra estre. ^lais so tu me 
dis consol qui no fache a otroijer, li damages en re- 
toumera sour ton cors." Et ioseph li respondi : " Eois, 
che sera tcs consaus qui to sera a bounour de cors & a 
*pourfit de Tame. Car tu on seras boneres a ton [• leaf lo, back, 

ool. 8] 

viuant, & t*ame en sera sauuee apres ta mort." " Par 
foi," che dist li rois, " Ichis consiius ne fait mie a refuser. 
Or pues dont deuiser ques il sera. Car s*il est tens 
com tu m'as dit, ie n*aurai ia home en ma maison qui 
ie croie auant toi ; anchois seras creus de toutes coses ko 
tu lae vauras consillier." " Rois," die dist ioseph, " or Joaeph teiia 

Evalach to 

entcn donqr/es comment tu seras (ro/tscillies. II to con- deatroyhia 
uc72ra tot premiereme7it destrurre & depecbier les can neither help 

. >->• jj'^i i i.A»i* nor hurt any out, 

ymages que tu aoures. Car tu dis ke che sont ti dieu, 
et si lor demandes coTzseil & aie : et eles n'ont nul pooir 
de toi aidier ne de nuire a autrui. Et tant sacbes tu 
bi'en de voir que ti ancbisour en ont tot este engingnie 
& decbeu. Car tout cbil qwi croient quo ches ymages 

* trittre is a known form, tbough the r is iuorganic. 

50 evalach doubts Christ's power to save him. 

lor peuissent aidier, sont perdu pc^'dura'blement pour 
and no nun n ?e'il i soieiit pHs au iouT dc la mort. Ne bus hom ne 

should believe , ^ 

inawtofwood doit en chou metre sa creanche, ke vne pieche de fust 

or itone, bat in 

Him who died on ne de piene ouuree par main d*ome le puisse cjarandir 

theCroMtoMve . . . . 

the world. de mort ne de maL Mais celui doit on aourer, qui 

eouflri angoisse de le mort en la crois de son boin gre 
& de sa boine volente, pour sauuer le monde & pour 
deliurer des perdurables paines d'infer." " Coument," 

ETftiMh*! doubtt. che dist li rois, ** me ueus tu dire ke chil est poissans de 
moi sauuer ap7*es la mort, & de moi douner hounour 
terriene, qui souflfri angoisse de mort ensi com tu 
meismes li tesmoignes 1 U ne me samble mie ke chil 
soit vrais diex, qui angoisse puet tant iustichier k'ele le 

How am one maine iusc'a la mort ; ne il n'est mie auis qu'il puist 

hinueif tave estre uoirs, ne raisons ne samble che mie. Ne ie ne 


puis mie veoir comment chil me garandisse de mort, qui 
sol mcisme n'en puet garandir. Car mauuaisement 
sauuera autrui, chil qui soi ne puet aidier." Lors li 

joeeph expiaine. respondi ioseph : "Hois, li sauueres du mont souffri si 
r^icafii] deboinairement la mort, ke qw^nt li fans tcs'moing des 
felons iuis I'acusoient deuant pylate, & pylates meismes 
li demandoit se ch'estoit uoirs ke il disoient, il ne 
uoloit nul mot respondre encontre che que il disoient, 
si que pylates s'enmerueilloit moult durement de che ke 

Eraiaeh'a further il ne li uoloit respond re." A chest mot respondi li 

qneetiona and 

joaeph'i anewen. rois, & si li dist : " Or me di, biaus amis, vieus tu dire 
a chertes et a uoir ke il soit diex pour che qu'il souffri 
la mort en cheste manicre ? " Et ioseph li respondi : 
" ^ Naie, dist il, powr che ne di ge mie qu'il fust diex, 
ne par che ne co/iquist il mie sa deite, anchois estoit 
diex deuant tons les orages,^ & tous iours sera diex que 
ia ses regnes no prendra fin^." Et li rois respondi: 
" Coment me veus tu prouer, powr chou se il morut, ke 
li mondes fust par sa mort sauues ] " " Che te con- 

* — ^ 11 est diex deuant ic apres tous les autres. MS 10.292, 
leaf 6, col. 3. * ? aages. 


terai ie hien, (list ioseph, comme cliil qui hien lo sai. 
Ne ia, cbe saches tu de voir, ne to ferai ricns entendant 
ke ie ne sache uraiement. Mais or escoute, si oras 
comment il auint." 


Joseph tells Evalach the story of Christ's Birth, Life, Death, 
Descent into Hell, Resurrection, and Ascension, and hia 
sending the Holy Qhost to his disciples. 

*" A V tans auguste chesar Ie boin empereour de 
jljL romo q?/i tint TempiTe .xlij. ans, et garda la terra 
si longement en ferme pais, au chief de xxvij. ans aprcs 
che qu^il eut este corones, auint que diex enuoia son 
angole on vne chite de galylee qui est apielee nazaretb, How ood s«nt 

, . , . .. . -r-i. i. V Ws angel to lh« 

a vne pucniele qui auoit non mane. ±^t quant h virgin lUry, 

angeles Yint dcuant li, si li diet, ** Diex te saut, marie, 

plaine de grasce, diex soit en ta compaignie. Tu cs 

benoito deseu're toutes autres femes, & li fruis de ton [•ie»fii,coi.«] 

uentro est beneois." Qz^ant la puchele oi la parole, si 

en fu motilt esbabie, & commencha a pot/rpenser de quel 

maniere obis salus pooit estre. Et li angeles li dist : 

" ^larie, ne sois de riens esbabie. Car li sires du chiel 

t'a regardee et dounee sa grasce. Et si sacbes de uoir, who told her 

she should 

ke tu encbainteras, & si enfanteras .j. fil qz^i sera conceive and 
apieles ihefnui^ Cliil enfes sera de moult grant pois- who should b« 

called Jeeua 

sancbe : Car il sera fiex dieu." Et la pucbiele re- chrirt. 
spondi : " Biaus sire, comment porra cbou auenir 1 la 
ne conui iou onquca home camelment." Et li angeles 
li dist : '* Mario, li sains esperis descendera en toi, & la 
virtus dieu Ie baut en-umbrcra dedens ton cors." Et 
la pucbiele respondi al angele ; " Diex nostre sire facbe 

' An illustration of Joseph discoursing to Evalach heads 
this chapter. 'MS iho. 



How the Spirit 
dMcended iuto 
her, and sli« 
brought forth « 
vaUH who WM 

How S kings of 
the East come to 
worship Christ, 
led by a star. 

How Herod 
kills 140,000 
yoong children. 


How the Yirgla 
goes into Egypt, 

and at Christ's 
approach all the 
images in the 
temples fell 
down and were 

How at SO he is 
baptised, and 
works great 

son plaisir de mi comme de s'ancliiele, car ie sui ap- 
parillie a son plaisir & a sa volenie." £t maintenant 
k'ele ot che dit, si descendi li sains esperis dedens li, & 
si enchainta. Et quant ele ot le fruit porte iusc'a son 
droit terme, si enfanta .L vallet qui fu apieles ihesus, 
ensi com li angeles I'auoit dit. Cbil enfes fu de 
si grant hauteche & de si grant pooir ke troi roi 
d'orient le vinrent aourer au tresime iour de sa natiuite. 
£t si aporta cascuns del plus chier auoir qu'il puet 
trouuor en toute sa terre. Ne onqwes n'i orent conduit 
ne auoiement ke seulement vne estoile, qui apa/iit si 
tost com il fu nes, ne onqi^s mais n'auoit este veue. 
Et quant herodes (qui estoit roi de iudee) sent ke vns 
tens enfes estoit nes qui serroit loia des iuis, si en eut 
paour ke il ne le desiretast; si fist ochire tons les 
enfans de la t^rre de bethleem de .ij. ans & demi en 
aual, Tant qu'il en i eut ocliis .c. mille, & .xL mile ; Ss 
en cheste maniere se qtdda, herodes uengier del enfant. 
Mais K liaus sires qui de tout est poissans sauoit hien 
son mauuais pense, Si garda li soi meisme des mains as 
felons qu'H ne porent a'uoir de lui bailie. Anchois 
Tenporta la vierge puchiele sa mere en egyp[te], <fc si i 
demoura iusc* aprcs la mort herode par Tamonestement 
d'un angele. Et qi^nt il fu poi-tes en egypte, & il 
commenclia a entrer en la terre, si fist si grant de- 
moustranche de sa venue ke il n'eut temple en toute le 
terre de egypte dont aucune ymage ne chaist a terre, & 
debrisoient toutes de tcus en i auoit. Iteus sinefianches 
faisoit li urais dieus en sa petitcche. Et quant il fu 
raportes de egypte, & il crut tant q?^'il vint en aage 
de .XXX. ans, si rechut baptesme, & lors commencha il 
a faire les grans miracles en apiert. Car il re^idoit as 
auules lor veue. II garissoit les maladcs de toutes 
enfermetes. II faisoit les contrais redrcchier & aler 
tous sains. II garissoit de si vil enfermete com de 
meselerie. II fasoit les sours oir cler. II faisoit 

Christ's death, visit to hell, besurrection, and aboension. 53 

les mors reuenir en vie. Iteus miracles faisoit trntbaJewi 

11 vrais dicx en ape^t, uoiant toutes les gens. £t diMipiM, 

qiiaiit il eut ensi oure en maint Ileus & par maintes 

fois, 81 en oient enule 11 luls. 81 parlerent'a .1. de ses 

desciples ke 11 prist d'aus .xxx. deniers, si le vendL 

Et chil le prisent, si le crucefierent el fust. Et quant »4 crodftr Wm. 

Tame fu issue de son clorieus cors, si ala en infer, & si He goes into 

^ ' hell and-'" 

en ieta hors tons chiaus qui son seruiche auoient fait hiflMmuiu, 

en tere puis.le commenchement da monde. Et quant 

vint au tierch iour apres che qt/*il eut este mis el 

sepulchre— car iou meismes Ti mis, & le despendi de la 

crois — Si resuscita, & s'en issi del sepulchre tous en »nd rieee tfjmin 

* . . the third daj. 

cors & en esperit. Ke onqt^^ les gardes qui estoient 
mises pour lui garder, ne le peurent si b/cn gaitier qw'il 
ne s*en issiet. & si remest li sepuchres autresi fermes 
com li iuif Tauoient laissie quant il Teurent fait garder. 
Car il Tauoient mis desous vne moult grant pierre & 
moult grosse : si fa trouuee en tout autrestel maniere 
com ele i auoit este mise. Et qwant il fu resu'scites, [•ietfii.b»ck] 

.. 'rr- ii.x'j. How Christ 

SI apparut puis mamtes fois a ses amis qui moult estoient appetred after 

dole/it & esbahi de la mort de lui Et puis fist il *^^ 

deuant aus plusieurs miracles, par quoi il sauoient de 

uoir ke il estoit vrais dicx. Et quant il eut este .xL 

iours en terre apre* sa resurrection, si monta au quaran- »nd amended 

, , . , T • 1 -n. Into heaven, 

tisme lour el chiel, voiant ses disciples. Et quant vint 
a Tonsime iour apres chou ke il i fu montes, si lor 
enuoia le satn^ esp^rit de la destre a son grant pere and sent the 
glorieus, de ks qui il siet & sera perdurablement." hit disdpiee. 


Evalach uln, 
'Had your God 
ft father and 
mother P 

' Then he muet 
have been born 
of man and 

Joseph ezplalnf: 

'God aaw evila 
increase on 


Evalach's objections to, and questions on, Christ's story. 
Joseph answers, explaining why God sent Christ on earth 
(pp. 54-5) ; in what sense he had a father and mother 
(p. 50) ; how there is also the Holy Ghost (p. 67) ; and 
how the three persons are yet one God (p. 57). He tells, 
too, of the creation of men to replace the Tenth Legion of 
Angels, and of the Temptation and Fall (p. 58) ; of 
Christ's taking flesh (p. 59), and how he went into and 
came out of his mother's womb without hurt to her 
Tirginity (p. 59) ; how he was baptized and crucified, and 
went into hell (p. 60) ; and how he took out of hell all 
who had done his works during their lives (p. 60). 

^ A chest mot respond! eualach, & si li dist: 
jl\. " Coment diua, tesmoignes tu donqu^s ke chil 
diex qui tu tiens a si poissant ke tu Tapieles signour de 
toutes choscs, eut pere & mere 1 " " voirement, che dist 
ioseph, testmoi[n]g iou, & di pour voir, ke il eut & Tun 
& Tautre." "Et puis ke il eut, che dist eualach, & 
pere Ss mere, dont ne oascui il mie sans assamblement 
d'ome & de feme. Car de feme ne puot enfes naistre 
se il n'est engenres dedens par ac(?mpaignem(9nt d*ome. 
Et se enfes estoit en autre maniei*e cowcheus, che seroit 
contie nature & contre acoustumanche." " Rois, dist 
ioseph, ie te mousterrai apertement & te ferai cou- 
noistrd comment il fu concheus sans nulle carnel 
co77ipaignie. Et commejit il nascui de la puchiele sans 
le puchelaige maumetre ne empirier." "Cheste pro- 
uanche, dist li rois, escouterai iou moult volentiers." 
" II auint chose, dist * Ioseph, ke li sauueres du monde 
vit les maus qui mouteplioient en t«rre, & si vit ke li 
bten & li mal estoient tout vn de guerredon. Car 
autresi hien aloit chU en infer qui tons iours auoit fait 
bi^n, comme chil qui tous les maus auoit fais. Et li 

* At the head of this chapter is an illumination, with the 
title, *' Ensi que iosephus & scs peres desputent de le foi au roi 


dous sires se pensa ke che n'estoit pas raisons ke 11 mal 
fuissent parel as bions, ne li preudom cowtparast la folie 
au mauuais. Si dist qu'il raiemberroit home de ftnd,toreMme 

men from hell, 

doleurs d'infer. Si prist son fil & si Tenuoia en ieno tent hu son to 

,. . . , i • 1 flilfll all belong- 

pour acoT/zpbr toutes les coses qui apartenoient a ing to man's 

nature d'ome, fors ({ue pecliiet seulement. Et q//ant ' 

il fu uestus de mortel char, pour chou ne laissa il mle bat he remained 


a estre dicx si com il auoit ious iours este. Mais il 
prist chou qw'il n'auoit onquea eu, che fu mortalites. 
Et pour chou que li pere uit qw'il ne pooit raiembre The world eouid 

not be redeemed 

tout le monde par .i. homo qui fust samblans as autres, by a einner, 

pour chou i enuoia il son fil qui estoit quitcs & nes des 

pechies dont tout li autre estoieut entcchiet et maumis. 

Car il n'estoit pas raisons no drois ke nus pechieres 

rachataLst les autres pecheours. Ke puis qM*il estoient 

tout entechie, cowiment pooit ne deuoit garandir li vns 

Tautro, ne deliurer ] Mais pour chou ke li fieus dieu but as Christ 

was dean from 

fu nes & mondes de tous pechies & de toutes uilenies, sin, he cooid re- 
deem men from 
pour chou eut il le pooir de racater le perdurable mort eternal death.* 

del home par le mort de son prfcieus cors." " Pour 

chou, dist eualach, ke ie ne te tiwg pour jure^, Car EraUchdoea 

^ . , p • • 1 . not see it. 

qz^nt tu m as vne cose recounue & puis si le menoies 

apres. Car encore tesmoignes tu de ton dieu, ke il a 

pere, & si dis ke il ne fu pas engenres de camel com- 

paignie. & che ne puet auenir, ne raisons ne verites ne 

samble che mie." ** Bois, dist ioseph, tu m'as en con- Joseph teiis him 

uent ke tu m'escouteras a prouer comment il puet hear his pnwc 

naistre de char de feme sans assam*blement de char [*ifii,bk,ooi.s] 

d'ome, & sans maumetre le puchelaige de sa mere qui 

tous iours fu puchiole, & apres & deuant, & comment 

il puet auoir pcre sans estre engenres camelmenf 

''Tout chou, dit le rois, doi iou escouter sans faille. 

Et ie Tescouterai uolentiers, Se tu le me sauoies faire Evaiaeh thinks 

... Joseph hardly 

entendre. Mais tu ne sambles pas horn qui soit si leamed enough 

- niiii-i- X *o prove his 

durement fondes de haute clergie que tu peusses point, 
prouuer cose qui si grant meruelle est a dire que elo est 



Joseph Bays he 
will first explain 
how Christ had a 

God Is called 
Christ's Father, 

for he begat him 
befSore the aices, 
bat spbritoally. 

For Christ 
not made, but 
begotten of 
spiritual b^pet- 

His birth by Ms 
mother was of 
flesh ; but that 
by hU Father, of 
spirit, and im- 

Orthe Virgin's 

encontre nature et encoiitre acoustumanche, ne onquea 
mais oie ne fu." " Rois, fait ioseph, ore m'escoute, & 
ie te mousterrai comment il nascui de la puchiele sans 
camel C07Mpaignie. Iche te mousterrai, mais tu oras 
auant comment 11 eut pere, qiii fiex il fu sans camel 
engewrure. II est uoirs ke il est vns sens diex, chil 
qui toutes choses fist de noient. Chil fu tous iours 
diex, & diex sera tous iours. Car il n'eut onqt/cs conir 
menchement, ne fin ne puet auoir a nul tans. Chil est 
apieles peres, & ensi Tapielent chil qwi sont urai creant. 
Et ne pour qwant so il Tapielent pere, pot/r chou ne 
sont il urai creant, Se il ne le croient de cuer ensi com 
la Louche le dist. Car comment que la bouche paraut, 
del cuer muet la boine creanche & la mauuaise. Ichil 
diex si est apieles peres, pour chou ke chil de qui ie te 
parole est ses fieus, car il Tengenra desdeuant le com- 
menchement de tous les aages. Et si ne Tengenra il 
mie camelment, mais esp/?rituelmcnt. Ne li peres ne 
fu onquea fais no cries ne engenres, ne onquea ne 
nascui. Ne li fiex meismes ne fu onquea fais ne cries, 
mais il fu engenres si com yous aues oi ke i'ai dit, de 
Tespentel engenrure. Et si fu puis nes de la v/rgene. 
Mais chele natiuites ne fu mie selonc la deite, mais 
selonc rumanite. Ensi poes entendre, & deues, ke la 
natiuites de par sa mere fu faite camelment, mais 'la 
natiuites ke il eut de par son pere .fu esperitelment. 
Chele de par la mere fu morteus. Car chele humanites 
morut ke il pr/st dede^is les flans a le virge marie, de 
qui il fist sa mere. Mais chele de par le pere fu per- 
durable. Car chou ke il eut de par le pere no souffri 
onq?^cs mort, che est la deites qui ia ne li faura, anchois 
durra tous iours sans prendre fin. Ore aues oi com- 
ment li fiex dieu fu engenres & nes del pere esperitel- 
ment, & comment il fa nes camelment de la mere. 
Apres oras comment li puchelages de la glorieuse 
puchiele qui fu sa mere remest autresi sains apres 


comraQ dcuant, & autresi entirs eans maoiDetre & sans 

cntamer. Mais ie votis dirai auant d'une persone qui Bat first of tb« 

de ches deus issi & qui est parelle et ingaus as autres 

deus pfTsones. Che est li sains espcris. Ichil sains 

espe^ia ne fu onquea fais, ne cries, ne engenres par le 

pere ne par lo fil. Mais il est issus & de Tun & de 

Tautre. Chil sains esperis est conforteres, & cowsillieres, who is the com- 

& espurgcmens dcs cucrs & des pensees. Chil sains Purifier, 

esperis faisoit as prophctcs^ parler che ke il disrent de who made the 

dieu, & si ne sauoient ke il disoient, nient plus ke li 

liom forsenes porroit faire estables les paroles qui li 

uolcnt hors de la bouche. Toutes ches coses ouuroit li 

sains esperis en aus. & qui urais creans est, il croit & 

aoure le saint esperit autresi com le pere & le fil. Li «nd who is wor- 
shipped like the 
pcres est parfais diex par soi, & si a parfaite deite en- Father and son. 

terine & perdurable sans fin et sans commonchement^ & perfect ood, 

j.,-1 .. T'^ A'i *"* ^® Son too, 

de toutes cnoses est poissans. Li neus autresi est par- tiiough beiow th« 

M«i«D ii_io*j. 1 Father as to 

fais diex & perdurablcs, & si est paraus au pere ; sclonc his manhood; 

Tumanite est il j)lii8 bas ke li peres. Mais li fiex 

sclonc Tumanite est morteus. Li sains esperis est par- and the Holy 

Ghost is perfect 

fais diex en soi mcisme, & selonc la dcite est tons ooJ; 

pai'aus au pere & au fil. Ensi est li peres diex, & li 

ficx dieus, & li sains espens diex. Et ne pour quant il but they are 

, ...•!. /-, , ., , , ' not three Gods, 

ne sont mie troi dieu. Car pour chou se il sont trois [•uafia.ooi.t] 

clioses en pey-sones, pour chou ne sont il pas troi dieu, 

mais vns tons sens. Car soit che que li peres & li fiex bat one God, 

& li sains espens soient trois persones, ne pour qz^ant 

si ne sont il ke vne scule chose en nature et en deite & 

en poissanche. Car autresi poissans est li peres com oneinnatare, 

godhead, and 

est li fieus & li sains esperis. Et autresi grans est li power, 
ficus en dcite com est li peres & li sains esperis. £t aii eqoaiiy great. 
d*autrestel grandeche est li sains esperis com est li peres 
& li fiex. Ensi uienent ches trois persones d'un seul 
dieu, & a vn seul dieu repairent ches trois persones. & 
autrestant puet li une comme les trois, ne les trois ne 
' faisoit les apostles parler. — B, leaf 6, ba«k, col. 3. 



The three art 
called the 
Trinity, and 
the one Unity. 

How God aaid, 
' Let oa make 
man in oar 
imaire, after 
our lUceneis/ 

and called the 
8on to malce ao 
high a thing aa 

now, when man 
was cast oat of 
paradise, a hard 
saying wns 
spoken to him. 

sent autre chose naturelment ke vne. Ches trois per- 
sones apielent 11 yral creant, tiinlte ; & le seiil dieu 
aplelent 11 unite ; & si aourent les trois persones. Ches 
trois persones furent moult hien ramenteus au com- 
menchement du monde qt^nt 11 peres crla toutes 
choseSy car 11 dist ^Falsons homo a nostre ymage, a 
nostre samblanche.' Cheste parole dist 11 peres a son 
chler fil. Car 11 sauoit hien, commQ chil qui toutes 
choses a deuant ses lex, ke 11 fiex soustenrolt encore 
angolsse de mort 'pour ho7nme rachater des grans 
dolours ou 11 calrolt par son niesfalt. Pour che aplela 
11 peres la persone del fil a falre si haute chose comme 

man to replace 

the tenth legion . 11 hom dcuoit cstre, qul 11 nc Yoloit fourmer ne esttfbllr 
ke seulement pour restorer la dislme legion des angeles 
qui estoit cheu du chiel par son orguel. Et quant li 
hom eut trespasse le co^nmandement de son creatour 
del fruit que 11 manga par ramonest[em]ent de la feme 
qui 11 dyables dechut, si fu maintenant jetes hors de 
paradis, & si 11 fu dite vne moult felenesse parole. Car 
ses sires qui Tauolt fait a sa samblanche, 11 reproua la 
grant aalse ke 11 auolt perdue par son mesfait, & 11 
nouma le grant damaige q?^'il en auroit. car U 11 dist : 

[•leaf 11, col. 8] * Pour cliou kc tu as *plus obei a ta feme ke le t'auoie 

God's carse *>•»__ , _ 

Adam and men donee, ko a uiol qul t'auoio fait, pour chou souiferras 
tous lours mais tel paine, & tu i^ ti oir, ke \ou^ man- 
geres YostvQ pain en trauail & en suour.' * Et tu,' dist 
11 a la feme, * enfanteras ta porteure en tristeche & en 
doleur.' Cheste promesso a moult hien rcndue a tons 
cheus qui d'owmo sont puis issu.^ Car nus n'enterra ia 
en chest siecle, taut soit de grant poissanche, qui la 
soit deliures de traual & de palne des ichele euro ke U 
s'en 1st "Ne la feme n'l enfantera a si petit de dolour 
k'ele n*en soustionge plus ke ses cuers ne porroit pensep 
ne sa lange dire. Et tant duremeiit ont achate le 
pechiet au premier home, si olr qui de lul sont issu, ke 
oeste promesse a 11 biVn maiotenue a tous ceaus qui el monde Bont, — B. 

and on Eve and 

How really the 
curse has been 


il n'i eut onquea chelui, tant fesist bt^fait en sa vie, 

ke Fame de lui n'en alast en infer si tost comme ele 

partoit du cors. Tant que li fiex dieu ne vaut plus To imcm mm 

souffrir chaste grant doleur, si descend! en terre poor Christ Hft^^ndrf 

chou ke il voloit romo metre liors de la grant male 

auenture qtie il soustenoit pour son mesfait. Si uit qfie 

ore auoit il asses compare son outrage, & ke hien estoit 

de[s] ore mais tans & eure ke il le rapelast en pite & 

en misericorde. Et quant il fu en terre descendus, il »^ ^i>«» »!»•» 

ne le uoloit pas maintenant aler queire en infer, & 

traire hors a forche, sans raison nioustrer. Anchois. 

entra pour lui en vne chartre qui mot/It estoit escarse & entered a etndt 

. . , , »»>'l narrow 

estroite a nerb^rgier si haut home & si riche comme prijwn. 
chelui qui estoit sires de toutes choses. Che fu li thevirgin'e 
uentres de la puchele ou il se herherga. Apres, quant 
il eut este en chelo chartre .ix. mois en prison, si s'en and wma there 

nine months, and 

issi a droite eure de naistre, ensi comme Tumanites le then came out; 

reqwcroit. Et ne pour quant de tout en tout ne fu il 

mie concheuB ne nes si com humanites requicrt. 

Humanites requiert sans faille, ke hom naissc, & ke 

il soit cowcheus. & en chcste maniere acompli 'il [•»«*'!«. b«*3 

humanite, d'estre conchcus & de naistre. Mais hu- humanity needs, 

manitcs requiert plus. Ele requiert ke hom naisse en sorrow and 

doleur & en tristeche, & ke il soit camelment concheus »»«™>v» 

d'omme & de feme. En cheste maniere n'acompli il 

mie humanite. Car il ne fu mie concheus par assam- hot hy the of«r- 

sbadowing of 

blement d'ome & de feme, Mais par Taumbrement del the Holy ohoet, 

through the ear 

saint esparit qui desce/zdi par Torelle de la puchele of the virgin. 

dedens le glorieus vaissiel de son beneoit uentre. En 

chelui vaissiel ke li saiws espens vint purefijer, se HowChrWa 

birth li^nred 

herberga li ficx dieu. & si nascui si sagemc/tt ke onq;<es not the virginiti 

of His mother, 

Il pucnelages de sa gloneuse mere n en fu maumis, ne a as a sunbeam 

hurts nut the 

Tentrer ne a Tissir. Mais tout autrcsi com li rais du dear water, 
soleil luist parmi la clere iaue si qu*il est ueus iusc'au 
fons, sans che qu*il ne desoiure mie les ondes de Tiaue 
ne ne depart, anchois remaint autresi clere & autresi 


biele com ele a deuant este, Tout autresi entra li fiex 

dieu dedens le uentre de la puchiele sans son puchelage 

The three differ- maumetre ne empirier. Et en son concheuement si eut 

enoev between 

the cunoeption .iij. nianieies qui onques inais oies n'auoient este en 

of ChrUt and , 

men. concheuement d'o7wme & de feme. Car il fu tout 

1. It was with- p7'emierement concheus sans pechie. Che est la pre- 
t. without carnal miere maniere. L*autre maniere si est, qw'il fu con- 

aesembllng. •• <, . . i. i '^^ 

<ineus sans camel compaignie, ne cne n auoit onqties 
8. Hie mother este oi. La tierclie maniere fu do chou ke sa mere ki 

did not loee bet 

▼iiKinitj, puchiele estoit, ne pierdi onqw^s son puchelage, ne au 

concheuoir ne au naist7*e. Anchois le laissa chil qt/i 
Teslut a estre sa mere autresi saine & autresi entt^rre 

or suffer Eve'i com il I'auoit trouce. Et a son naistre fu depichie la 


inaleichons qui fu faite a la premiere feme qt/ant il 11 

fu dit * tu enfanteras ta porteure en doleur.* Car il 

for the birth nascui si saintement ke onqi^^s sa mere n'en eut ne 

was palnleee. . ., _ . 

doleur ne angoisse. Iches manieres meruilleuses aporta 

li fiex dieu, & a son concheuoir & a son naistre. Et 

[•ifi2,bk,ooi.8] quant il fu nes, pour chou ne 'vaut il mie tantost 

How Christ uved lachater Tomme ke il estoit uenus qz^erre, anchois 

W years on earUi. , •• a p vi i. 

demoura xxxij. ans en terre, & conuersa en samblanche 

d'ome auoec les autres homes, Et q?^ant vint au chief 

and at so was de XXX. aiis, si Tcchut tous premiers no^fre sauuement. 


Che fu baptesme. Car il se fist baptisier a vne home 

qui il porta tesmoi/zg ke il estoit li plus haus vers dieu 

qt/i onqwes nasqwist de feme desflourie. Che fu sains 

by 8t John the Jehans baptlstcs. Et Quani vint au tierch an apres 

Baptist, and three 

years after, died, SOU baptisement, si soufiH angoisse de mort. Car il 
uoloit aeomplir toutes les coses q?a apa^-tenoient a 
humanite, fors seulement pechie. Et qt/ant il eut 
souffiert si grant angoisse comme de mort po«r Tamour 

and went down de ho7nme, si en ala en infer il meismes, & si en traist 

intoheU. i • o 

How Christ trestous clnaus & trestoutes cheles qui ses oeures 

reecued the doers . . ^ .. i • n* j. x 

of his works auoicnt faites en lor vies. »Si grant amour moustra 
diex a Tomme : car il ne le vaut onqties rachater dee 
doleurs ko il soufiEroit par autrui mort ke par la soie 


Ore pees auoir entondu comment il eut pere sans camel Joseph mimt 
engqnrement, & comment il nasqui de feme sans cotrir 
paignie d'omc, & comment il nasqui de la puchiele sans 
son puchelage maumetre ne empirier." 


Part 1. How Evalach remarks that Joseph has been say- 
ing just what he likes, and nothing which looks like 
truth. Joseph answers and confounds the doctors of the 
city (p. 02). How Evalach sends for Joseph's compan- 
ions, and how Joseph's son tells the king why they go 
barefooted (p. 62-3). How Evalach lodges Joseph and his 
company (p. 63). 

Part 2, p. 63. How Evalach in his bed thinks about the 
defence of his country, and the Trinity and the Virgin's 
virginity (p. 64). How he sees a vision of three trees, of 
which the middle one, with an ugly bark, bleeds when cut, 
and jumps out of its bark, and then into it again (p. 65) ; 
and how washing in its blood changes men's forms (p. 
65) ; and how some of the tree's roots and leaves are 
pluckt and burnt (p. 65). How Evalach tells his vision 
to a chamberlain ; and they se*s three writings on the trees, 
* This creates,' * This saves,' ' This purifies ' (p. 66) ; how 
the three trees are truly one (p. 67). How the king and 
his chamberlain see a child pass and repass through a 
lockt door in a wall (p. 67) ; and a voice tells the king — 
this is a typo of the Miraculous Conception of Christ (p. 68). 

LOrs parla eualacli & si dist : " Tu me fais ontend- ET»i«ch thinkt 
ant vnes coses ke nus ne porroit metre en uoir, ne en nctuier tm* nor 
nule manlere ne samble raisons. Car tu dis ke il ne fu 
pas engcnres en la feme dont il nascui, & ke ele estoit 
pucbiele, ne onq?^cs ses puchelages n'en empira. Aprcs 
me dis, ke li percs & li fiex & li sains eaperia ne sont 
ke vns sens diex, & si est chascuns d*aiis .iij. diex par 
soi." " Lors, dist ioseph, tu Tas hien recorde ensi com 
ie le t*ai dit, & ensi le tesmoigne iou hien encore." 
"Par foi, dist li rois, tu tcsmoignes cliou ke tu ueus. he h«» Mdd wUat 
Maitf t^i ne dis nule cose qui par samblant puisse estre 
uoire." A tant fist li rois enuoier queue tons les clers 



C* leaf 12, back, 
col. 8] 

Tlie learned of 
the city come, 
and Joseph con- 
founds tliem. 

Kvalach asks 
Why he Is 
named Joseph of 

Evalach pro- 
mises to house 
Joseph, and to 
hear him next 

Joseph tells him 
he lias 75 com- 
panions who for 
the iove of Christ 
have gii'en up all 
earthly wealth. 

Ev^alach deairea 
to see these 

and asks them 
why they suflTer 
such hardships. 
Josephea (Jo- 
seph's son) says, 
' for the love of 

C* leaf 18] 

*do la chite. & quant il furent tout uenu, si commencha 
ioseph a parler a aus si durement, & traioit si auant 
tons les fors mos des escriptures, ke chil s'en esba- ' 
hissoient tout, et disrent en la fin ke il. ne li respon- 
deroient mais deuant Tendemain. Ensi se departi 
Tassamblee, & li rois apiela iosepb, & si li demanda 
comment il estoit apieles ioseph de arimathie. Et 
li rois esgarda lea pies qu'il auoit nus, si les vit 
moult bians et niout blans, si li ^mbla meruelles hien 
horn qui eust este a grant aaise, & soupechoonoit 
dedens son cuer ke il fust de haute gent nes, si Ten 
prist mowlt grant pites. Lors Tapiela, & si li dist ; 
" Ioseph, ie te ferai herbergier anuit mais, & si aras 
pour toi aaisier tout quanke deuiseras de bouche. Et 
demain parleras a moL Car ie t'ai anuit moult 
uolentiers escoute, & plus volentiers t'escouterai iou 
demain, car ie serai de grignour loisir qiie i« n'ai hui 
este." " Sire, che dist ioseph, ie ne sui mie sens en 
cheste vile, anchois i a en ma co7wpaignie en-chore .Ixxv. 
ke hommes ke femes. Et si sachies de voir, ke il n'en 
i a vn ne vne qui pour I'amour ihe^u crist n'ait laissies 
toutes les terrienes richoises. Si me vont siewant sans 
or & sans argent, ensi pourement com vous me poes 
veoir. Mais ne pour qwant se il vont ensi pourement, 
pour chou ne meurent il mie de faim ; ains sowt il assase 
de la rikeche au glorieus signour en qwi il croient, ke 
lor cuer ne desirroie?it nule viande tcrriene dont il 
n*aient a lor volente." Lors dist li rois ke il les voloit 
veoir, & ioseph les apiela de hors la ou il estoient 
areste, si les fist venir deuant lui. Et quant li rois les 
vit venir tons nus pics & si pourement vestus, si en eiit 
moult grant pite selonc sa creanche. Si les apiela, & 
lor demanda pour quoi il souffroient si grant peiii- 
tanche, d'aler nus pies & d'estre vieument vestu <fe 
pourement. Lors li respondi li fiex ioseph, qui estoit 
apieles iosephcs, *et si li dist: "Rois, nous soufErons 

josEPHES, Joseph's son, speaks to evalach of christ. 63 

clieste petite penitanche powr ramour del glorieiis fil 
dieu, qui si grant & si angoisseuse le soufiri pour nous, 
ke il en eut trespc/'cliiet le cors & lea membres si 
uieument & a si grant honte comme chil qui fu de- 
trachies & mesames et crucliefijes en mi lieu de deus who was cmd- 
larrons. & tout chou soufTri il pour nous de son boin twotWevM, 
gre & de boine volente. En quel seruiche li porrie/is 
nous mieus rendre qui peust che seruiche guerredouner. 
Se nous no?^^ soufiriemes a crucefijer autresi com il fist 
soi, ne Tauriemes nous pas guerredone asses, car il com- 
meucha. La bontes commenche du plus haut au plus 
bas, ch'est de dieu a home. II est b^'en drois k'ele li for whom we 
soit guerredonee a double. Ensi nous conuenroit morir twice over.* 
deus fois pour lui se nous li voliens sa bonte guerre- 
douner. Chertes, mowlt seroit de boine cure nes qui 
cent fois porroit morii*, & cent fois morroit, par con- 
uent ke sa mors fust au plaisir & a la uolento del 
glorieus sigiiowr, & ke il tenist sa boute a hien guerre- 
donee." Quant li rois oi chelui si hien parler, si Ermiach Mkt who 
demanda a ioseph qui il estoit, & comment il auoit non. 
Et ioseph li dist, " sire, il est mes fiex, et si est apieles 
iosephes." Et il demanda se il sauoit de letres. Et 
ioseph li respondi ke il en sauoit tant que nus clers de 
son eage n'en pooit plus sauoir, & si parloit si hien. et 
si bcel coin H auoit oi. Lors apiela li rois vn sien The king he* 

. Joeeph and hU 

sergant, & si li commonaA que il herbergast ioseph el oompwiions noU/ 

plus aaisie ostel de la uile, et si gardast ke il ne li fausist nigiit, 

nule ricns, ne a lui ne a sa compaignie. Ensi depar- 

tirent chelui iour, si en fu menes ioseph & sa con^ 

paignie a .i. moult riche ostel & moult aaisie, si oren( a 

chele nuit a grant plente de inoult boines viandes, & si and the beds 

orent mot/It boins lis ke il auoient tant longement 

desirres. Car il n'auoient geu en lit onqwes puis ke il 

auoient este meu de lor osteus. 

fii.l 'chi laisserons de ioseph d? de sa compaignie, [♦leafis.coi.s] 

*■ ■* 1 -1 . Evalach In bed 

& si Y0U8 dirons del roi eualach qui gist en sa cambre i* troubled with 

two thoughts : 


1, how to defend 
bit land ; 

t, of what Joseph 
had told him, 

and how the 
Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost 
were tliree, and 
yet one ; 
and how the 
Virgin had 
borne a child 
without losing 
her virginity. 

Eralach's vision. 
He sees the stock 
or a tree, wlience 
spring three equal 

the middle one 
baring an ugly 

Under the first 
trunk are many 
people; two go 
to a ditch 

[• Ieafl8,coL8] 
and Jump into it; 

most of the others 
follow them and 
Jumpm too; 

moult pensieus, & moult entrepris de deus pensees. Li 
premiers est, de sa terre desfendre encontre les ^gyp- 
tijens qui moult durement li auoient gastee sa terre, et 
lui meisme desconfit & cachie de la plache. De chesti 
pense estoit il si entrepris que en nule maniere il n'en 
sauoit ke faire. Anchois auoit moult grant peur ke il 
ne pcrdist & sa terre et toute s'ounour t€;mene, par clie 
ke si baron li estoient tout failli. D'autre part estoit 
si pensis de che que ioseph li auoit dit, que il le feroit 
venir au deseure de tous ses anemis, & ke il li feroit 
gaaignier la grant ioie qui ia ne prcnderoit fin, se il 
voloit son consel croire. Mais nule riens, tant i pensast 
durement, ne li pooit faire entewdre comment li peres 
& li fiex & li sains esperis estoient trois persones, & si 
n'estoit c'une seule cose. Et si no pooit croire ke la 
virge eust cowcheu & enfawte sans son puchelage 
maumetre. Iches deus seules choses ne li pooit nus 
faire entendre ne counoistre. Endementiers ke il pen- 
soit a ches deus choses counoistre & apercheuoir, pnmes 
a Tune & puis a Tautre, si li auint vne auisions, ke il 
veoit en mi lieu de sa maison la choke d'un grant 
arbre. Mais il ne pooit apcrcheuoir ques arbres c'estoit, 
ne de qwel nature. De chele choke naissoient .iij. 
ieton moult grant & moult droit & moult haut. & si 
estoient tout .iij. d*un grant & d'un gros & d'une 
maniere, Ne mais itant ke li moiens estoit couuers 
d'une laide escorche oscure, & li autre doi Fauoient 
autresi clero comme cristaus. Desous le premier ieton 
a destre si auoit gens de toutes manieres. & de ches 
gens s*ew departoient doi de la cowpaignie, si s'en 
aloient iusc'a vne fosse qui estoit vn peu loing. Et 
quant il venoicnt a la * fosse, si saloicnt dedens. La 
fosse estoit si laide & si noire que nus n'en porroit tant 
dire qw'il n'en y eust encore plus. Quant cliil doi 
estoie72t dedens, si connenoit a fine forche que tout li 
autre alaissent apres, & il i aloient tout & saloient ens, 

KVALAOH'S vision op the TRINITY-TRBE8. 65 

li vns aprcs Tautre, sans chou ke nus n*en repairoit. 

Et quant il en i eut tant sali ke la menre partie fu 

remese, Si uinrent li vn de cheus qui remes furent, Si 

coururent a I'arbre qui auoit la laide escorclie, si le but •ome nm to 

C07nmencnierent a decauper tout enuiron ; & quant il tne and chop it 

eurent chou fait, il ne s'en vaurent pas a tant sou£frir, 

anchois le perchoient a tareles en .iiij. brankes qui i 

estoient. Et q^^ant il I'orent ensi mehaignie ke des 

plaies ke il li eurent faites enuiron, ke des pcrtuis^ 

qus il li orent fais as tareles, si en issi vns si grans a great atnam of 

J ixj.1-*! ••j.'j.f X blood llowa out, 

ruissiaus de sane, ke tot cnil qui i estoient si peussent 

baignier ; Tant ke il pechoia. & quant il fu cbeus^ si 

n'i reniest onques riens de lui en la plache, fors ke andieavMtho 

seulement rescorclie de bors, qui remest illuec tout en fruit jumpa into 

.L moncbiel. Mais li fruis dedens qui estoit plus biat^ 

& plus clers ke ie ne vous sauroie conter, fist si grant 

saut au kaoir que il se lancba iusques dedens la fosse 

ou les gens estoient cheues. Et quant li rois se regarda, the tree jumpa 

out of the ditch, 

si uit Taibre lancliier hors de la fosse, & si entrainnoit dn^fring much 
apres lui moult grant paz-tie de la gent qui dedens la 
fosse estoient, & se tenoient as rains & as brankes 
enuiron. Apres chou reuenoit li arbres en son lieu, & »«<' ««*• into ita 

bark again, and 

si se reuestoit de Tescorche ke il auoit deuant eue, mais become* bright 

and shining. 

ele uiuoit toute, & dcuenoit si clcre & si resplendissans 
que nus horn qui deuant Teust esgardee ne peust 
qwidier ne croire ke che fust ele. Aprcs esgarda li The king aeea 

some <^ the peo- 

rois, si uit ke vne partie des gens qui estoient remes de pie wash their 

. . . bodU'S with tha 

salir en la fosse, prenoient le sane qui estoit a terre Mood in the 
coules, si en lauoient le cors. Et main tenant q?i'il s'en u»em;' ^ *** 
estoient laue, si cangoient tout leur samblanches 'et lor [• ie«f is, backi 
figures. Et Tautre partie prenoient les rains de Tarbre the others cut off 

branches and 

& les fuelles, si en decaupoient vne partie & en leaves from the 


ardoient. Cheste meruelle esgarda li rois moult longe- 

ment, & de la grant meruelle que il en auoit fu si and bum them. 

esbahis, que il quidoit tout uraicmeut dormir, & ke che 

' MS p^rtrufl. 


H< thinkB it most 
iM a dream, 

bQt flndi bfb is 





and tellf hSm not 

and takes the 
candles I7 his 
bed to look at ths 

, He sees there are 
tliree» and that 
the ngly-barked 
one springs out 
of the first, and 
the third from 
the other two ; 
and tliat on the 
first is»*This 
creates/ on the 
second, 'This 
saves,' on the 


fust songes ke 11 veoit. Et quant il ent moult longe- 
metit este en chest quidier, si se touma & letouma, & 
aperchut, & seut nraiement que il ueilloit, & que il ne 
Bongoit mie. Et lors fa il asses plus esbahis qtte il 
n'auoit deuant este, & plus s'esni(9rueilla asses quel 
marueille che pooit estre. Et quant il i eut grant 
pieche pense, si esueilla .i. sien camberlenc qui gisoit 
deuant lui, en qui il se fioit moult. Si se pensa ke a 
chesti seul mousterroit s'ayision, & ke ia autres ne le 
uerroit que il peust. Et quant il Teut esuillie moult 
coiement, que li autre ne Toissent qui gisoient entour, 
si le traist d'une part, & si le mena iusques pres des 
arbres. Et chil, quant il les vit, si durement fa 
esbahis que il ne peut onques parler d*une moult grant 
piecbe. Quant li rois eualach le vit si durement 
esbahi, si le prist par le main, & si le commencha 
moult a conforter, & dist ke il n'eust mie paour, car de 
chou ne li pooit nus maus uenir. Lors se traist il 
meismes vers sa coucbe, & pn'st les chierges qui 
ardoient deuant son lit, & si les aporta par deuant les 
.iij. arbres pour esgarder & pour counoistre de quel 
maniere il pooient estre. Mais tant counut il bien que 
il estoient troi, & que li moiens, qui auoit eu le laide 
escorebe, naissoit del premier. Et li tiers si issoit & de 
Tun et do Tautre. Et li rois esgarda en baut,jsi uit en 
cascun des arbres letres escrites, les vnes d'or, & les 
autres d'asur. Et si disoiont les letres del premier 
arbre : " Chiat forme." Et li arbres secons auoit letres 
qui disoient : " cbist sauue." Et les letres del tierch 
arbre disoient : " Cbist purofie." Et quant li rois se 
regarda, si tut que tout li 'troi arbre uenoient a vne tige, 
& ke ele estoit si soutieus, que nus n'e/i peust dcuiser 
le commencbement, tant durement i auisast. Et si 
estoit la tige si haute que nus hom, tant eust clere 
esgardeure, n'en peust mie la fin veoir pour nule paine 
qu'il i mesist. Mais tant estoient soutil li enlachement 

etalach's vision of a likeness of Christ's conception. 67 

dcs trois arbres que quant il estoit au roi auis ke il eust 
deuises tous trois uraime;it, & cojinen Tun del Tautre, 
Apres 11 estoit auis qu'il n*i veoit ke une seule maniere 
de fuelles, & de fust, & de fruit, & ke 11 troi arbre 
q M*il auoit auant deuises en trois coses n'estoient c'une The three treee 

are truly one* 

seule chose ore en droit. Ensi desdisoit cbou qu'il 
auoit deuant iugie, Si en estoit si esbahis qu*il no se 
sauoit a quo! tenir. Endementieis qu*il pensoit a The king u con- 


clieste meruelle qw*il ne pooit cownoistre du tout en 

tout. Si regarda vers vn mur d'une siewe cambre dout He looks at a 

li buis estoit de marbre, seeles dedens le mur si soutieu- marble, 

ment qu*& paines peust estre apercbeu ke 11 i eust bms 

ne entree, tant i seust on esgarder ententieument. Ne 

11 meismes ne quldoit mie ke nus de sa maison le seust 

ke il tout seulement. Et quant il regarda vers Tuis, si 

vit ke vns petis enfes estoit dedens, qui moult estoit & Md eeee a uttie 

^ ^ cliUdwhohas 

biaus & blons. Et si entroit en tel maniere ke 11 buis «>nie through \t 

^ . , without its opeu- 

n ouuroit ne tant ne quant, Ancnois remanoit autresi ing, 

seres & autresi clos com il estoit deuant chou qz^'il i 

entrast. Et quant il eut vn peu demoure, si reuint and goes back 

^ ^ ' through It al»o. 

bors isnel le pas tout autresi com il i estoit entres sans 
Tuis ouurir, ne onques n*i pa rut eu nule maniere qu'il 
i fust entres ne issus. Et quant li rois vit cbeste 
cbose, sifu asses plus esbabis de cbeste meruelle qu'il The king wooden 

•till nkore. 

n'auoit este de toutes les autres. Car il ne quldoit ke 
diex ne autres peust dedens si fort mur entrer qu'en 
aucune maniere n'i parust. Lors eommencba moult 
dure'ment a penser li rois, & ses camberlens qui estoit [•»'is,bk.coi.«] 

. i«i I • "^^'^ chamberlain 

auoec lui estoit si esbahis & si peureus quil nosoit iiee on the ground 

mot dire de la boucho, anchois gisoit tous estendus a 

terre autresi que se il fust tous mors. Et li rois vint a 

lui & si le leua par la main destre en baut, & si li diat 

se il auoit toutes ches meruelles veues, & ke il Yen 

estoit auis. Et cbil regarda le roi si coyn il pent. Et 

quant il eut le pooir de parler, si li dist : " A, sire, but at last speaka 

to the king* 

merchi, ne me metes plus en parole de nule cbose. 

68 SVALACH's wonders over the MIRAOULOUS conception of CHRIST. 

mais menes moi en tel lieu que ie ne voie autresteus 
memelles comme iou ai veues. Car ie ne porroie viure 
en nule maniere poor que ie les veisse." A tant Ie 
pnst li ToiSy si renmenoit en vne cambre pour faire 
Th« king keeps couchier. £t toutes uoies aloit pensant a la meruelle 

thinking of Um ... 

wonder of tba ke il auoit Yeue del enfant qui ensi estoit entres en la 
cambre^ & issus. Ensi com il aloit pensant & meruel- 
lant dedens son cuer comment cbe pooit estre auenu, si 

AToioeteiubim oi vne vois Qui dist : "Eualach, de quoi te meruelles 

that it ie A type 

of the Mirmcoiotts tu ? sutiesl comme li enfes est entres dedens ta cambre 

Coooeptlon of • • • ±_ •! ^ • . -n • 

Chriet. uoians tes leXy et com il en est issus ariere sansf luis 

ouurir ne depichiery autresi ent7*a li salueres du monde 
dedens Ie uentre de la uirge sans son pucbelage enpirier 

The people in the HO maumetrey & autresi s'en issi." Quant li camber- 

palace ere terrified . . , 

■tthenoieeofthe leus 01 la Yois parler, lors parent si grant paour qu'il 
ne se pent onqt<es sousteniry anchois chai tons pasmes 
a terre, & quida hien de uoir que tons li palais chaist 
sour lui, si grans effrois fist la voLs quant ele parla. 
Et li rois meismes en auoit si grant paour que nus n'en 
porroit dire la maniere. Ne onqt/es en tout Ie palais 
n'eut bome ne cbeualier ne sergant qui ne s'en 
esmllasty tel noise & tel effrois oirent par Ie palais. 
Et quant il eurent demande au roi, qui il trouuerent 

The king tens leue, quel cose che peust estre, Si rcspondi li rois que 

[• leaf u] che auoit este vns eff*rois de tounoirc. Et che dist il, 

' pour chou qw'il ne uoloit mie que nus d'aus seust s'a- 

vision, se cil non qui il Tauoit moustrce. A tant s'en 

Tala couchier li rois, & tout li autre se recouchierent. 

heoennotdeep^ MaiB li rois n'i dormi onqv€S del oel, anchois li tardoit 


Joeeph hie Tieioo. motdt que li iours fust uenus. Car il parlast moult 
uolentiers a ioseph prmeement de chele vision qui li 
estoit aparue. 



;0f Joseph. How he cannot sleep, and kneels on the floor and 
prays for counsel and comfort, for king Evalach and his 
distracted city (p. 69-71). How a yoice tells him that his 
prayer is heard, and that Evalach has seen wonders which 
he shall send for Joseph to explain ; and that Josephes 
shall be consecrate to Christ, and take charge of His flesh 
and blood (p. 71-2). How Joseph is glad, and goes to bed 
with his wife Helyab, but not with carnal intent (p. 72) ; 
and how they had no carnal commerce till they begot 
Galahad their youngest son, and then not for desire of 
pleasure, but by the command of God (p. 72). And how 
holy men of White Britain, now called England, descended 
from Galahad (p. 72). 

OE vous lairons a tant ester del Toi» Si yous par- JoMph Um in 
, , . , . . ,. , . bed, and sorrowm 

lero/2S de loseph qui se gist en son lit moult pensis onr Ung Eta- 

& moult angoissens del roi eualach, comment il le porroit 

tourner a la creanche ihe^u crist. Car il se pense ke 

8*11 ore n*est mis el point de croire, il n*i sera iamais 

mis. Car il a or en droit trop grant mestier & de I'aie 

de dicu & del conscl as sages gens, 'pour chou ke il ne 

garde Tcure qu*il ait pierdu ou la millour partie de sa 

terre ou touto, par che que tous li mieus de son bamage 

li est faillis a son grant hesoing. Do cheste cose estoit 

ioseph en si grant quisencon, qu*il ne pooit dormir del 

oel, no no faisoit se penser non. Et qTuant il eut geu 

vne urant piecbe en tel maniere ke il n*i eut ne dormi Jowph 1mi» on* 

. . , , ofbdd,«ndknMli 

ne repose, si sail hors de son lit, & si se couena a la iMn-kneod on um 

terre a nus keustes & a nus genous, & commenchtL moult 

piteuscment a souspirer del cuer & a plorer des lex. £t 

si commencha en ses plours & en ses soupirs vne orison 

en tel maniere com \ous porres oir. "Biaus sire diex, ■ndotibooGod, 

*tous poissans peres, fontaine de confort, habundans de CT iMfHooLti 

miscricorde, q;/i desis a pule d'israel par la bouebe 

moysi ton saint ministre cheste parole : * Ysaibel,* se 17 h^ vnmiam 

. . to tlM bnttUM* 

tu veus faire cbe que ie te commanderai, tu n'establiras 
* Ulustration here, of Joseph praying. ' ? for TsraheL 


mie dieu nouiel, ne n*avras dieu estrange. Car ie sui li 
tiens dieus qui tu dois aourer, qui te ieta de la signourie 
pharaon qui te tenoit en seruage.* Biai^^ sire, ensi com 
il est uoirs qu'il n*est autres diex que tu, & ke on nei 
to §howhi« power doit autrui aourer, ensi uoirement demoustres tu ta grant 

And mercy on 

Evaiaoh and the poissanche & ta grant misericorde sour chel roi pecheour, 
& sour les autres de cheste chite, qui si sont desuoiet de 
la uoie de uerite, ke il ne counoissent lor creatour, 

who wowhip anchois aourewt les ymages de picrre & de fust qui ne lor 

and stone. poent aidier ; & il i ont mise lor creanche ke eles les 

defifendent de lor maus, & eles les mainent a lor per- 

joeeph coi\jares durable mort. Biaus sire, glorieus rois de toutes choses, 

God,— by His 

death on the qui, pour sauuer le mont qui perissoit, daignas angoisse 

de mort souflfrir en la crois ou iou te vi claufichie. Sire, 

by His deliver- qui par ta poissanche me ietas sain & sauf de la prison 

Anoe of Joeeph .. .... , ,. . » :* t 

himself tkom ou le demourai .xlij. ans ke onqt/^s ni goustai de nule 
^ "' terriene viande. Glorieus sire, plaiws de toutes pites, 

I7 Hu saving qui sauuas le roy dauid ton sergant contre goulias le 
Goliath, grant ^ qui tant maus auoit fait a ton pule. Sire diex 

pe7'durables, sans cowimenchement & sans fin, qui 
by His protecting garaudis dauiel ton j^rophete en la fosse ou il fu mis 

Daniel in the , t 1 /-^ • 1 1 • i_ 

uons'den, eutre les lyons; Qui a la gloneuse pecneresse mane 

by His forgive- 1 1 • 1 1 • 1 • 

nessofMary magdalaino perdounas ses pechies en la maason symon 
by^His deuVer- 1© licpreus. Sire, qui susanne la feme ioachim deliuraa 
anceofSa«umah, ^^j £^^ tesmoiug ke H doi vieUart portoient encontre 

by His rescue li. Sire, glorieus peres esperitueus, qui ietas les fiex 

of the children , , , 1 « t i 1 

of Israel from ysro^l del seruage pharaon, & les passas outre la mer 

' rouge a secli, & qui les menas el desiert ou tu fesis plus 

[• ieafu,coL8] pour *aus qu'il ne deseruirent vers toi; car tu le 

raemplisoies de toutes iches cboses que lor cuer desir- 

oient, & il ne se gardoient mie de toutes lor desloiautes 

I7 His deUvering faire uoiant toi, anchois te courchierent pluseur[s] fies, & 

troubles and pat- tu toutes voics Ics dcHuras dc toutes lor tribulations, & 

miee nndeMTeir mcsis tous lor ancmis desous lor pies. Sire, plai/is de 

'^"' misericorde, ensi com nous creons ke tu iches choses 

■ . ' fgeant (not in B, leaf 8, col. 1). 

Joseph's prater for evalacu. he hears from heaven. 71 

fesis, & qt/'il n*est autres dicx que tu seus: Ensi 

uoirement enuoies tu hastieu co/isoil au roi eualach, to Mnd ooonad lo 

King ETftlAch* 

qui iant est dcsconsillies pechieres qu^il ne puet estre 

ramcncs a la uoie de uerite, se tu par ta grant 

poissancbe ne Ten enuoies le corage & la uolente par 

le raemplissement de ton saint esperit qui est confors 

& consaus as desconsillies. Sire, ia desis tu a moi 

q?/i sui tes sergans qt^ant ie issi de ma naete par ton 

co7?imandeme72t, que tu ne m'c^condiroies de rien que ie 

te reqwesisse do boin cuer & de boine uolente pour ke 

ie vausisse seruir loiaumcnt a ton commandement. 

Orre, enten[d] donqu(?s la proiere que tes sergans qui 'Hear thy wrr* 

cbi est, fait a toi, & si i met consel selonc ta grant 

misericorde & selonc ta grando poissancbe. Ne pour not for bimMir, 

moi, biaus sire diex, ne le facbes tu mie, mais pour ton nama, 

non essaucbier & aleuer, & pour demoustrer as gens ke 

tu scus ies li tres baus dieus qui as pooir & signourio 

descur toutes Ies creatures. Glorious sire dies, cbe est 

drois que tu rendes a sainte eglise cbe ke tu 11 as 

promis. Car tu le dois essaucbier & acroistre par tout 

le monde, & il est ore endroit bien tans & lieus ke ele and increase 

. Thy charch In 

soit essaucbie & acreue, & tes sams nons soit aoures en thu fine bat 

mitguided city/ 

cbcste biele cbite dcsconsillie, qui si grant mestier a de 
ton coTzsel & de t'aie." Ensi fu iosepb grant piecbe de 
la nuit en plours et en larmes et en orisons & en 
proieres, a keustes nus, & a genous. £t quant il eut 

proiere finee. Si oi vne vois qui li dist : " Iosepb, lieue a Toice teiia 

o t t Joaephthat 

sus, car tes proieres sont oies & recbeues de ton 

crcatour. £t *hieji sacbies tu de uoir ke li rois mandra [* leaf k back] 

toi procbainement. Car il a anuit veue vne grant the king wiUaend 

for bHi i toeinrfaln 

partie de mes demoustrancbes & de mes merueilles. hu dreamt 
£t il t*enuoiera le matin quene, pour espondre & poor 
deuiser cbe ke il a anuit veu & oL £t tu vien le 
matin tantost com Taube aparistra, & tu & ta compaignie, 
si me rendra orisons & proieres cbascim endroit sol, & 
8i verres .L nouiel establissement ke ie ne yous ai pas 


tnd that Jose- encore done. Car ie sacrcrai ton fil iosephe, & le ferai 

phes shall be con- 
secrated to God 81 haut menistre comrae prouoire. Car ie li ballerai ma 

ofHisfleehand char & mon sanc en garde & en bailie, tout autrestant 
com tu en despondis de la crois quani tu m'enportas el 
sepulcre entre tea bras. Et cheste signourie donrai ion 
a ton fil iosephe. Et tout chil qui aut?-estel ordene 
aront des ore en auant la recheueront de lui par toutes 
les terres ou ie menrai & toi & ta semewche." A tant 

Joeeph arises and laissa la uois a parler, si se teut. et iosepli remest moult 

goes to bed with ^ - 

his wife Heiyab, lics & moult ioians de che q?i'il auoit oi, si s*en rala 

but not ftt>m 

carnal desire. coucbier quaiit vint au chief de pieche auoec sa feme 
helyab. Mais il ne gisoient mie ensamble a guise de 
gent luxurieuse, Mais gens comme plains de religion. 

How Joseph and Car il ne iurent onq?^es tant ensamble entre aus deus, 

i^Qzeiy together, puls chele eure ke il issirent hors de lor pais par le 
cowimandement ihc^u crist, que onqwes chele fragilites 
dont tons li humains lignages est concheus les escaufast 
tant ke ele les peust vne fois a chou mener ke il 
soufFrissent les caitis de cors auoir camel compaignie 
ensamble ensi coinmQ nature le requiert d'ichele ma- 
niere. Ancliois estoient ambedoi si espris de la sou- 
uraine amour au sauueour ke de chele partie ne lor pooit 

and had no Inst corages vcnir. Ne lors n'en orent il mie corage quant 

when they begat ., i. i j i i • r i. i 

Galahad, their il cngenrerent galaad lor darrain enfant par lo co7n- 

yonnges son, mandement nostre signo?^r, qui le co7nmawda qu'il li 

[•ifi4,bk,coL2] apparillast de sa semen'che .i. nouiel fruit de quoi il 

empliroit en auant la tc;Te ou il les uoloit mener. Par 

le commandement chelui fu engenres galaad. Et qwant 

il fu engenres, n'assemblerent il mie par couuoitise 

qu'il eurent de nule luxure, mais pai/r acowiplir le 

co7?imandement de son signour, qui semenche auoit 

the ancestor of demande a ioseph. De chestui galaad descendi la 

the holy men 

haute lignie dont tout li plusour furent saint home & 
whohonoaredthe religieus en loi vies, & essauchierent le noTZ nostre 

land of White . - . ^ • a. • i. i. i 

Britain, now BigueuT me^u cnst a lor pooirs, & si hounererent la 

called Sngland. ^«^^.^ •! ^ 

iem de b bloie bertaigne qui ore est apielee englctere, 


& les autres contrees en uirow, de lors sains cors 
pr^'cieus : qui i roposent ensi com cheste estoire le 
contera es paroles qui chi apres vienent. Or pnfrlerons 
de ioseph, si laisserons a tout de ses oirs iusc'a tant ke 
il en soit lieus & tans ke on redoie cowter d'aus. 


How Joseph and his company worship before the Ark of the 

Orail in the Palace of the Spirit, when a noise is heard, 

and the Palace trembles. (How the Palace came to be 

called The Palace Spiritual, p. 74.) How the Holy Ghost 

descends on them like a ray of fire, and how a sweet wind 

comes, and how Christ speaks to them, and urges them to 

love him (p. 74-6). He tells Josephes to draw near and 

take charge of his flesh and blood (p. 76). Josephes 

opens the door of the Ark, and sees a man in a red robe, 

and five angels clad like him, with six wings each, and a 

bloody sword in their left hands, and severally in their 

rights, a cross, nails, lance, sponge, and scourge, with a 

roll * These are the arms by which our Judge destroyed 

Death* (p. 77-8). How the Crucifixion is represented over 

again before Josephes in the Grail- Ark (p. 78), and how 

he is stopped from entering it (p. 79). How Joseph looks 

into the Ark, and sees angels there with the instruments of 

consecration (p. 79^80), and Jesus clad in sacramental 

robes (p. 81). How the company of angels go over the 

house purifying it \i^ith holy water, because it used to be 

the dwelling-place of devils (p. 81-2). How Christ tells 

Josephes that he is to receive the Sacrament of His flesh 

and blood (p. 82). How the proper episcopal garments 

are brought out of the Ark (p. 83) ; and how the Chair of 

Consecration makes a Saracen king's eyes fly out of his 

head (p. 83). How Josephes is consecrated (p. 84), and 

how the angel preserves the holy oil with which all the 

kings of Britain till Uther Pendragon, Arthur's father, nire 

anointed. How Christ tells Josephes the meaning of the 

Bishop's vestments, — the shoes (a Guide from Evil, p. 84), 

the upper and under garments (Chastity and Virginity), the 

head-covering (Humility), and herein of the Pharisee and 

the Publican (p. 85), the green garment (Suffering), that 

above it (Justice), the band on the left arm (Abstinence), 

the necklet (Obedience), the uppermost (Love, p. 86), the 

staflf (Vengeance and Mercy), the ring (Marriage to Holy 

Churchy p. 87), and the homed hat (Confession, 1. Re- 

> Illustration, the worshippers of the Grail, with the Holy Ghost's 
head in the top right corner, sending red lines (of fire) to the worshippers' 


Joseph and his 
company wor- 
ship before the 

(How their 
was named The 
Palace of the 
Spirit, by the 
Prophet Daniel ; 

[* leaf 14, back, 
col. 8] 

but why, the 
citizens knew 

The Holy 
Ghost descends 
like a ray of Are 

into each man's 

pentance, 2. Satisfaction, and what they are, p. 88). And 
how Christ tells Joscphcs his duties as a Bisliop, and pro- 
mises him a rich reward if he serves Him loyally (p. 89). 

AV matin si tost co7n ioseph vit Taubo apparoir, si 
se leua, 11 & sa coT/ipaignie, Si uinrent tout orer 
deuant Tarche. Et quant il furent tout agenoillie deuant, 
si oirent vn mout grant escrois qui vint do haut. Et 
quant il orent oi I'escrois, si sentirent la terre, qui 
trambloit desous aus moult durement. Ichil lieus ou il 
estoient herbergie & ou il ouroient, si estoit vns palais 
qui estoit apieles li palais espcriteus. Et chest non U 
auoit mis dauyel li pr<9phetes qwant il repairoit de la 
baillie nabugodonosor le roi, *qui Tauoit pris entre les 
autres iuis quant il lo mena en babyloino. En che 
repaire passa danyel par chele chite. Et qwant il vit 
le palais, si oscr/t en la porte lettres de carbon en 
ebrieu, & si disoient les lettres, ke chil palais seroit 
apieles * li palais esperiteus.* Chis nons fu acoustumes 
a dire ke onqwcs n'en chai, & tant com li palais sera en 
estant sera il apieles esperiteuls. Mais deuant che que 
ioseph i fust herbergies n'auoient oi chil de la vile 
onqiic3y ne seu, pour quoi il estoit ensi apieles. & lors 
le sorent il, si ores comment. Quant la t^re eut 
tramble desous les crestiens qui el palais estoient a 
orisons ensi com uous aues oi, Si descendi li saiws 
esperis tantost laiens, ^ & vint en samblanche d'espa?*t 
vns rais de fu par deuawt chascun d'aus. Et li uns 
regardoit Tautre a grant merueille, si veoit li vns que li 
rais du fu entroit a Tautre dedens la bouche;^ ne ne 
disoient mot nus d*aus, Anchois quidoient estre tout 
cnfantosme pour le fu qu'il veoiewt qui lor entroit es 
cors. Ensi furent vne g?*ant pieche que onq?^cs nus 
d*aus ne dit mot de la bouche, tant durement estoient 
esbahi ; Tant qw'il vint par laiens autresi comme vns 

* — * tc uint en samblance de fu : si fu auis a chascun qus 
yns rais de feu li entroit el cors par mi la bouce. MS Add. 
10,292, leaf 8, col. 3. 


soufflemens de vent douch & souwef, qui rendoit si Atofitwett 
g7'«nt odour ke lI lor fu auis q^'il fuissent entre toutes **' 

les boines espisces du monde. Apres la venue de cliele 
boine oudour, si oirent vne vois qui parla a aus ensi *ndftvoic«,— 
co7n \oii8 pores oir. " Escoutes, mi nouiel fil. le sui chri«t wyn tiuu 

. . as he bought 

diex nostro sires, yostre pcres esperitculs, qui \ou8 ai oiemwithhi* 

calengies & gaaignies encontre tout le monde par 

ma char qtie ie soufiEri a desrompre & a perchier 

pour \ou8 racater, & par mon sane que ie vauch es- 

pandre. Et pour clie que ie uous ai si grant amour 

moustree ke ie vous racatai de ma char & de mon 

sawc, cho ke nus peres t^rriens ne fesist a son fil, theyihouid 

' ^ ' love Him with 

pour chou me deues yous bien samblant moustrer more than fluai 


ke YOUS m*ames de grignour amour ke nus fiex terriens 

n*aime son pcre. *0R escoutes donq?/es que iou, [•loafisj 

diex nostro sires, Mostro percs, youh dirai Enten cha He has given 

^ them his Holy 

crest ientes, tu qui es nouuiaus pules, au urai cruchefije, spiiit* 

ie [t'ai] tant ame & tenu chier ke i*ai mis en toi 

mon saint espent, qui i*ai enuoie en t<?rre pour Tamour 

de toi de la sus ou il estoit en la haute gloire de mon 

chier pere. Je t*ai mis en grignour hounour & en and put them 

grignour signourie ke ti anchiseur ne fure/^t el desert, honour than 

ou ie lor dounai .xl. ans tout chou ke lor cuer desiroient. lu the Desert; 

Mais encor to ^ tien iou a plus aaise ke il n*estoient. 

Car ie t'ai dounei mon saint eaperit, dont ie ne lor fis they must not 

' then fall into 

onq^^/'s don ne baillie. Ore gardes donqwes ke tu ne the Jews* sins, 

retraies a loi felounies. Car ie lor fis tons les biens, & 

il me firent tons les msLUS. Car s*il me faisoient honour 

de la bouche, il ne m'amerent onqwes del cuer. Et si 

le me moustrerent bi^n en la fin. Car ie les uenoie who were called 

to the Marriage- 

semonre & apieler a ma haute feste, a ma grant ioie de *"«"* 

mes nueches que ie uoloie faire de moi & de sainte 

eglise. Et il n'i daignierent * [uen]ir, ne onqwes ne me *nd would nd 


vauront connoistre que tons les bz^ns lor auoie fais. 

Et pour chou que ie ving poureme7?t entr* aus. Si dis- 

> MB le. ' a hole in the MS. 


who said Ho was 
not their Ghxl, 

who took Him 
Uk« a thief and 
scourged Him, 

mocked Him and 
gave Him bitter 
drink and Uien 

[•Ieafl5,ool. 2] 
Beware that ye 
be not like 
them j 

if ye will be my 
sons, I will be 
your Father, 

you shall have 
my Spirit, 

and 1 will dwell 
bodily with you. 

though you see 
me not. 
Come then, 
Jo8ephes, my 
senant, thou 
art worthy to 
take charge of 
thy Saviour's 
flesh and blood. 

for (hou art fl^ 
flrom covetottsness 
and all evil, and 
Aill of all parity. 

rent ke lor diex n'estoie iou mie. Et si eurent si grant 
despit de che que ie osai dire, que io estoie lor diex, 
qM'il me pr/sent co?nme laron en repost, & si me desrom- 
pirent ma char & perchierent mes mewbrens ^ & mon 
cor8.V*Et ^our les grans honeurs ke ie lor auoie faites, 
me rendirent il guerredon d*escopir & de bufoier. 
Et pour les dous^ boire ke ie lor auoie dones el desert, 
me donerent il en la crois Ie plus vil boire & plus 
angoisseus ke il peurent trouer. Et ap7*es me dounerent 
il la mort, qui lor auoie donee la t^mene vie, & la per- 
durable lor prometoie. Ensi trouap] cheus de tout en 
tout crueus fillastres, a qui iou auoie tons iours este 
dous peres. Mais gar'des you^ moult hien ke vous ne 
soies samblant a la felenesse lignie. Car b/en deues 
auoir cangie la maniere de cheus de qui vous aues cangio 
la vie. Se yous vous contenes vers moi comme mi 
loial fil, Jo me conterrai vers vous c^?nme Yostrea 
deboinaires peres. Et si ferai plus po?^r uous ke ie 
n'ai fait ^our mes prophetes qwi si m*ont serui cha en 
ariere de boin cuer & de boine volente. Car se il 
orent mon saint esperit auoec aus, autresi Taueres vous. 
Et si aures encore autre chose. Car ie morrai corporel- 
ment chascun iour en MostrQ compaignio, tout autresi 
co;h iou estoie corporelment en terre. Mais tant i ara 
de differenche, ke ie estoie vcus en terre : " mais ore ne 
me ue?Tes yoiis mie en chele samblanche. Vien aua/it, 
iosepho, li miens sergans, car tu ies digues d'estre 
miuistres de si haute chose auoir en baillie comme est 
li chars & li sans de ton sauueour. Car ie t'ai esproue, 
& cowneu plus net & plus monde de tons natureus 
pechies ke nide morteus chars ne porroit penser. Et 
jiOHr chou ke iou couoite & sai q^a tu ies mieus ke tu 
meismes ne fais — Car ie te sai unit de couoitise, et 
monde d'enuie, & quite d'orguel, & net de toute felenie, 
& sans pa7'tie de toute luxure, & plain de toute chaestc, 
' 7 membres. ' ' MS dons. 


— pour chou voel iou ke tu rechoiues do la moie main 

la ^lus grant hautheche que nus horn morteus puist 

auoir. Ko nus de to;^« les autres ne Tauera de ma 

maiw ke tu sculemewt, anchois Taront de toi chil qui 

des ore mais rarout." A tant se traist iosepbes auant, Josephes draws 

moult trawiblans & mowlt peureus, & co7wmencha a plourer 

mowlt dureme//t, & a re/idre grasces a son creatour qui weeps and 

Tapieloit a si grant honeur, recbeuoir de quoi nus bom 

morteus ne pooit ostrc dignes par deserte qu*il onqwes 

eust faite selonc son auis, se diex seulement par la 

sieue grasce ne li otrioit. Et qwant il fu *uenus iusc'a [• ieafi5,ooi.8] 

I'arcbe,^ * si ne soies mie esbabis de cbou ke tu uerras.* p ? u vols dist] 

Lors ouuri iosepbes I'uis de Tarche a laoult grant paour He opens the 

& a moult grant doutancbe. Et q^^antil eut ouuert, si aud sees a man' 

vit vn bomme vestu d'une reube plus rouge & plus '^ "^ 

bideuse a cewt doubles que n*est foudres ardans. Et si 

piet estoient tout autreatel, & ses mains, & ses viaires. 

Et en tour cbel bome si estoient .v. angele tout vestu and Are angeis 

d*autrestel reube & d*autrestel samblancbe. Et si auoit " 

cbascun d'aus .vi. eles qui sambloient ke eles fuissent each with six 

de fu ardant. Et cbascuns d'aus tcnoit en la senestre and a bloody 

. , , ■ -r., T . . •. Bwurd In his left 

mam vne espee toute sanglente. Et li premiers tenoit hand, 

en la main destre vne grant crois tout sanglente, ^lais 

que ebose fust a counoistre de quel fust la crois estoit. and in his right 

. 1 • 1 theflrtt angel held 

Et li angeles secons tenoit en sa main destre trois claus a bloody cross, 

, o- »•! T 1 -i. -IT the second three 

tons sanglens, Si qu il li estoit auis ke li sans en woody naiis, 
degoutast en-cbore tons vermaus. Et li tiers angeles the third a long 

_ , , - . J, bloody lance, 

tenoit en la main destre vne grant lanclie dont li tiers 
estoit tons sanglens, & la banste estoit toute sanglente 
ausi iusq?/e par la ou li angeles le tenoit empoignie. Et 
li quars anpjeles tenoit par deuant le uiaire al bome, the fourth a 

. sponge stalnad 

vne esponge touto droite, qui restoit autresi tainte de with Mood, 
sane de Tun cbief iusk'en Tautre. Et li quins angeles the fifth a bloody 

J • X 1 •courge, 

tenoit en sa destre mam vne maniere de corgie toute 
sanglente qui sambloit estre faite de verges torses loies 
ensamble. Et cbascuns de cbes .v. angeles tenoit en and each had a 



roll, 'TheM art 
the arma by 
which our Judge 
oonqaered death.' 
The writing on 
Christ'* fore- 

[• (dl-^dlsoient) 
leaf 15. back] 
His feet and 
bands run blood. 

How the Ark 
immense size. 

D MS U ne] 

[> MS ft Ui] 
How Josephes 
sees Christ 
nailed to the 
cross, and the 
sponge put to 

and the lance 
pierce His side, 
and a stream of 
blood and water 
pour out; and 
the Grail-Dish 
ai)der his feet. 

and blood 
dropping in and 
filling it 

How Christ 
seems as if He'd 
ftdl ftt>m the 

and Josephes 
runs to the 
door of the 
Ark to catch 

vn relet, escrites letres qui disoicnt : " Che 8oni les 
armes par quoi li iugieres q^ui chi est, uencni la mort 
& destniist." Et cliil horn entour qui li angele estoient, 
si auoit escrit en mi le front en ebrieu de letres 
blanches: ''En cheste samblanche uenrai iou iugier 
toutes choses au felon iour espoentable." Ensi di'soient 
les lettres. Et si estoit auis ke de ses pies & de ses 
mains couroit sangle[7i]te ronsee contreual, si que la 
iervQ en sambloit ©stre toute vermelle. Et si estoit 
auis a iosephe ke Tarche estoit hien a quatre doubles 
plus grans & plus lee k'elo ne soloit estre. Car li horn 
que il^ veoit estoit dedens, & li .v. angele; si en fu 
si durement esbahis de la meruelle ke il veoit, ke il ne 
sauoit ke dire ne que faire. Anchois s'enclina vers 
terre, si commencha moult durement a penser. Ensi 
com il pensoit tons enclins, ^ la vois le rapiela. Et il 
esgarda, si vit chcl home crucefije en la crois ke li 
angeles tenoit, & les cleus qu*il auoit veu tenir a Tautre 
angele vit es pies & es mains del home. & si uit ke 
Tespongo si estoit apoie au menton, & il sambloit 
jaoult hien home qui a chele eure fust en angoisso de 
mort. Apres esgarda iosephes, si vit ke la lancho qu*il 
auoit veue en la main au tierch angele estoit fichie tres 
parmi le coste del home crucefijet. Si en degoutoit tout 
contreual la hanste vns ruisselcs qui n*estoit ne tons sans 
ne toute iaue, & nepourq?^ant il sambloit estre de sane 
& d*iaue. Et dosous les pies au cruchefis vit ichele 
escuolo ke ioseph ses peres auoit fait aporter en I'arche. 
Si li estoit auis ke li sans des pies au crucefije degoutoit 
en chele escuele que ele estoit ia pr^ plaine, si 8a7Mbloit 
a iosephe ko ele vausist verser, & ke li sans en deust 
espandre. Apres li estoit auis ke li hom voloit chaoir 
a t^rre, & que li doi brach li estoient ia escape des 
cleus si que li cors s'en ueiioit a terre, la teste desous. 
Qi^nt il vit chou, si uaut courre auant powr lui redre- 
chier. Et q?//mt il dut metre le premier pie dedens 


Tarche, si vit les .v. angeles a tout lor espees en Tentree but three uigeu 
du Tuis. Si tendoient li troi encontre lul les pointes ewords at him, 
de lor espees, & li 'autre doi leuoient les lor en haut [• leaf 15, back, 
& faisoient samblant de lui ferir. Et il ne laissa on- J^^ ^aise thei™ 
qtiea pour chou qw'il ne vausist outre passer, tant {Je'luu^trief to 
desiroit a redrechier chelui qui il creoit qui estoit ses •"**'• 
diex et ses sauueres. Et quani il vaut metre Tauti-e but nnnot, 
pie dedens, si ne peut, anchois li couuint arestor. Car 
on le tenoit si forment deriero par les .ij. bras, ke il for two tngcu 

^ . . hold him by 

n'auoit pooir d'aler en auant. & il se regarda, si vit qti€ the«rm»; and 

oDe ha» ajar, 

doi angelc le tenoient chascuns a vne mam, & en and the other a 

I'autre maiw tenoit li vns vne ampule, & li autres .i. 

enchensier & vne boiste. Et ioseph ses peres, qwant 

il le vit csgarder arriere si durement, si s*emeruilla 

moult de clie ke il eut tant longement este al huis de 

Tarclie sans plus faire & dire, & qiiel cose il pooit tant Joseph wonden 

auoir esgarde. Lors se leua ioseph de la ou il estoit a trance. 

orisons, si ala vera son fil. Et quant iosephe[s] le vit 

si pres de lui, si mist sa main encontre, & li commencha 

a crier : " Ila, biaus pere ioseph, ne touclio pas a moi, Joucphee teiis 

him not to touch 

ke tu no me toilles la grant gloire ou ie sui. Car ie him, aa he u la 

sui si ellumines des esperituous demonstranches, que 

ie no sui mais en terre." Quant ioseph oi cheste parole, Jo«fph kneeia 

before the Ark, 

si fu si angoisseus & si espris de ches nKJ/oielles veoir, and looks in, 

and seee an 

ke il n*i garda onqu^s defifonso, ancliois so laissa cliaoir aitar covered 
deuant I'uis de Tarche a genous. Et il esganla, si vit dothe, and 
dedens I'arche .i. petit autel tout couucrt de blans dras, one*uke tamite, 
& par desus tou^^ les blans drassi i auoit .i. moult riche JhrwndUand 
drap, & vermeil & moult biel autrestel comme samit. 2inSk«dy***' 
Dosour cho drap esgarda ioseph, si vit qu'il auoit .iij. 
clous tons degoutans de sauc, & .i. fer de lanche tout 
sanglant a Tun des chics de Tautol, & a Tautre chief 
estoit Toscuele qu*il auoit aportce. Et en mi lieu del 
autel si auoit .i. moult riche vaissiol d*or en samblanchc »nd the Grau- 
d'un hanap, & .i. couuercle deseure qui estoit d'or 
au'tresi. Ne le couuercle ne peut il mie veoir a [•i^fi^back. 


and above the 

altar a hand 

holding a red 


and before the 

altar two hands 

holding candlea. 

He hears a door 
open, and there 

two angels with 
water and a 

two others with 
two gold basins 
and two towels. 

three more with 
three gold 

and boxes ftiU 
of inoense, and 
moet sweet 

[•leaf 16] 

Another angel 
with letters on 
his forehead. 

carrying the 
another carrying 

on the left 
another angel 
with a sword. 

deliure, ne quunqiiea il auoit desus. Car il estoit 
couuers d'un blanc drap ke on ne le pooit veoir ke par 
deuant. Et tout outre Tautel si vit vne main qui tenoit 
vne croLs moult biele, toute vcrmelle. Mais chelui dont 
la mains estoit, ne vit il mie.^ Et si uit deuant Tautel 
.ij. mains qui tenoient chierges. Mais il ne vit mie 
les cors dont les mains estoient. Endementiers ke il 
gardoit ensi laiens, si escouta, si oi I'uis d'une cambre 
m[oMlt dujrement flatir. & il toume ses iex vers la 
cambre, si en uit issir .ij. angcles, dont li vns tenoit 
.L orcbuel tout plain d'iaue, & li autres tenoit 
.i. jetoir en sa main destre. Et apres ches .ij. en 
uenoient doi autre qui portoient en lor mains .ij. grans 
vaissiaus d*or autresteus commQ .ij. bachins, & a lor 
cans 2 auoit .ij. touailles qui estoient de si grant biaute 
comme cheles qui onq?ws hom morteus n*auoit baillies. 
Qwant chil doi furent hors de la cambre, si en issirent 
troi autre apres qui portoient '.iij. enchensiers d*or, en- 
lumines de si riches pierres precieuses qw*il sambloit 
de uoir ke il fuissent tout espris de fu ardant. Et en 
Tautre main tenoit cliascuns d'aus vne boiste plaine 
d'enchens, & de niierre, & de maintes autres precieuses 
espises qui rendoient laiens si douche odour & si grant 
suatume q?/*il estoit tres bten auis ke la mai'sons en 
fust toute plaine. Apres en vit issir .j. autre, qui auoit 
letres el front escrites, & si disoiont, * ie sui apieles 
forche del tres haut signowr.* Ichil portoit sour ses 
.ij. mains .i. drap autresi vcrdoiant co7n esmeraude, & 
sour che drap estoit mise la sainte escuele. En coste 
de chelui drap, & .i. augele deuers destre, en auoit .i. 
qwi portoit vn teste, com ques si riches ne si biaus ne 
fu veus par iex de nul home terrien se chil meismes ne. 
Et deuers senestre en i auoit .i. qui portoit vne espee 
dont li poins estoit d*or, & li heudure d*argent. Et 
toute Talumele estoit autresi vermeille co7?ime vns rais 

' Here an illustration, of a band holding a cross ; and below, 
three bloody nails, the Grail vessel, &c. ' L. collum^ neck 


de fu en brases. Et quant chil troi estoient issu hors, Three other 
si venoient dcuant aus troi autre qui portoient trois three ooioared 
chierges de toutes les couleurs que morteus langue j,2aij* 
porroit noumer. Apres csgardoit ioseph, si ueoit issir 
hors ilie^u crist, en autrestel samblanche com 11 li ap- 
parut en la chartre ou il estoit enprisones, qi^ant il fu 
issue del sepulcre, & en cors & en esp^rit, au lour de sa 
resurrection. En cheste sambla/zche le vit ioscph venir 
hors, fors tant seulemcnt ke il auoit ore vestus tous les 
vestemeus ke prcstres doit uestir qi^ant il veut faire le cUui in taen- 

mental robee. 

sacremcnt nostre signeur. Et u angeles pn'miers qui 
portoit le ietoir, puchoit en I'iaue, & si aloit ietant par The ansei 

■1 1 ... ' A • A. 1 • -ftr • sprinkleithe 

desus les crestijens qui estoient laiens. Mais nus people with 
d'aus tons ne ueoit chelui qui Tiaue ietoit, fors q?ie ^°^^'^' 
ioseph seulement & iosephes ses fiex; ichil doi le 
yeoient tout apertement. Lors prist iosepb boh fil par Joeeph uke 

Joiephee if he 

la main, & si li dist, " biaus fiex, counois tu encore ne know* chriet. 

aperchois qui chist horn est, qui si bielo maisnie maine 

en sa compaignie, & va si hounoureement V Et iosephe 

li dist : " liar foi, biaus pere, ie sai de uoir ke cb'est He antwen^ 

chil de qui dauid dist el sautier en vn vers ' ke diex 

commande as angeles qu*il le gardent par tous les Ileus 

ou 11 Ira.' Ke nus horn ne porroit estre si semis ne si 

honeres 'par angeles que 11 seuleme/zt." A tant passa [* leafie, ool t] 

toute la compaignie par deuant aus, si alcrent auirounant mngOMKo^ ^ 

tout le palais dedens, & par tout leu 11 aloient ietoit 11 "**" ****** 

angeles Tiaue au letolr. Et quant 11 venolent deuant tprinkiing hoi7 


Tarche, si n'i aloit nus d'aus q7ii n'encllnast a iiieinx 
crist auant, & puis aprcs a Tarcbe. Et quant 11 orent 
auirounee toute la malson par dedens, si reuinrent 
tout deuant I'arcbe. Lors apiela nosties sires Iosephe. 
Et iosephes 11 respondl : ** Sire, vees chl uo^re sergant chrittoaiia 


tout apparilliet a yostre uolento faire.*' Et nostre sires 

11 dist : '* Ses tu ke cheste laue senefie, ke tu as veu and teus him 

espandre par chalens ? Che est netolemens des Ileus eprinkiing or 

^ , . the water was 

OU manuals espens a conuerse. Car cheste maisons a to parity the 



hooM, which 
had been the 
habitotion of 

Chrift expUdns 
how holy water 

and telle 
Joeephee that 
he ie to reoelTe 
the Sacrameuty 

C*leafl«,ool. S] 

and be made 
Sorraln Bishop 
of hU new 
fihrlftf iKy^i P 

Joeephee by 
the hand and 
draw* blm to 

este tons iouis habitacles des dyables, Si doit estre 
aiumt mondees & netoies ke mes seruiches i Boit fais. 
£t nepourqt/ant ele est toute mondee & espurgie des ke 
li sains espen's i descendi qui iou i enuoiai, mais ie 
Tai arousee de cheste iaue por che que ie Toel que tu 
faches autresi par tous les lieus ou mes nons doit estre 
apieles & mes seruiches fais." Et iosephes li dist: 
** sire, en quel maniere puet Tiauo espurgier si ele n'est 
auant espurgie?" ''Tout autrestel beneichon, dist 
nostie siieSy en Tiaue del purefijement cotnme en Tiaue 
del baptesme. Car tu i feras Ie signe de la grant 
raencbon, che est li signes de la crois sainte, & si diraa 
ke che soit el non du pere & du fil & du saint espmt. 
£t qui aura creanche enterine en la forche de cheste 
beneichon, ja mauuais espms n'abitera en liu ou cheste 
iaue soit espandue. Car tous li peurs & la paine an 
dyable si est en oir Ie coniurement de la sainte trinite, 
& en ueoir Ie signe de la sainte crois, par qui sa poestes 
fu destruite. Des ore mais Toel ke tu rechoiues la 
hauteche ke ie t'ai pronuse a doner. Che est li sacre- 
mens de ma char & de mon sane, & si Ie verra tous mes 
pules apcrtement. Car *ie voel qu'il te soient tesmoing 
deuant rois et deuant contes, ke il out veu la sainte 
enunction ke ie t'ai mise sour toi pot^r toi establir 
souuraiw pasteur apres moi de mes nouuieles berbis, 
Ch'est souurain eueske de ma nouuiole crestiente. £t 
tout autresi com moyses mes loiaus sergaTis estoit 
meneres & conduisieres des fiex Israel par la poeste qus 
ie Ten auoie dounee, Tout autresi seras tu garderes de 
chest mien pule. Car il aprenderont de la toie bouche 
comment il me deuront seruir, & comment il tenront la 
nouiele loy, & garderont la creanche." Lors Ie prist 
no^^res sires par la destre main, si Ie traist prcs de lui^ 
si ke tous li pules des crestiens qui laiens estoient 
yirent a{>c?*tement la samblanche de luL £t si ueoient 
tout comment iosephes estoit en estant deuant lui, et 


comment il faisoit le eigne sour lui de la ciois. Et 

qiiaut 11 eut este vne pieche dcuant lui, a tant es nous a grey-haind 

man oomM 

q//6 vns horn vint hors de Tarche tous kenus, si aportoit out of the Ark 

sour son col les plus ijches uestemens, & lea plus biaus garments, 

ke nus horn terriens eust onqtiea veus ne baillies. £t 

apres chelui issi yns autres q?a cstoit biaus a meruelle, 

& de moult biel cage, si portoit en son poing vne croche, *nd ayoung one 

& en I'autre vne mittre toute blanche, & la croche n»itre, 

estoit toute blanche ausi, & la hanste toute vermelle. 

Quant chil doi furent venu hors, si uestirent iosephe *nd they dothe 

_ . o • Joeepheeina 

tous les uestemens ; les sandales pr^miereinent, & puis bishop's vest- 

les aut7*es choses qui conuienent a eueske. £t qtiant 11 h^ioTchiUr 

fu tous reuestus, si Tassirent en vne kaiere qui estoit 

illuec, toute appaiellie par la uolente noaire aigaour, 

qui de toutes chose le voloit aaisler. Chele kaiere 

estoit de si grant rikeche ke onquea nus horn qui le ofgrejitrich^ti^" 

ueist ne sent a dire certalnete de quo! ele peust estre. 

£t tout cil qui faisoient les riches oeures, dont 11 le 

uinrent puis veolr maint, dlsoicnt ke en tout le mondo 

n'auoit 'maniere de si rlche pirre^ dont 11 n'eust en Id i>iesfie,back] 

kaiere. Et che dient encore tout chil kl le voient. 

Car ele ne fii onq?^^s puis letee hors de la chlte, anchols •tin kept in the 

fu tous lours tenue pour saintewaire puis ke iosephes 

en fu partis. Ke onqixes puis horn ne s'i assist que n'en 

fust leues tous mors, ou qui nl mehaignast de son cors 

anchols qw'll en fust leues. Et puis en aulnt U moult ofuiesubee- 

... qnent miracle 

biaus miracles quant la chites fu prise par vn roi des wrought by the 
sarraslns qui guerrlolt la terre. Car, quant U eut madeasacrue- 
jbrouuee la kaiere, & 11 le ylt si rlche, si dlst ke il le ung's eyes fly 
prlsolt plus ke toute la chlte, & dlst qu'il Temporteroit °"'** 
en egypte dont 11 estoit rois, & si serrolt dedens tous . .. . 

les lours ke 11 porterolt corouno. Et quant 11 Ten quida 
porter, si ne le pent onquea nus hom remuer de son lieu 
ou ele estoit. Et 11 dlst ke toutes voles serrolt 11 
dedens, puis ke 11 porter ne Ten pooit Et malntenant 
* piere, ^ierrg, jterct piene, pierrene, — Burgny. 


mointi 1*4 

pat bj Um aaftl 
into th* Ark. 



▲rthar*! fcUMTa 
wf anoinHd 
with It. 

-ring on Jo- 
^tphM* flDgtr. 


ttttnloff of 


ke il s*i fu assis, si en prist noshe sires si grant uen- 
ianche que ambedoi 11 oel 11 uolerent hora de la teste. 
Ensi dexnoustra ixoette sires que che n'estoit pas sieges 
a home mortel, se a ohell non pour qui il I'auoit ap* 
pariUie. Et maintes autres uirtus i demoustra il, dont 
li contes ne parlera mie chi orendroit, Mais qtiont li 
lieus venra, & li tans. Quant iosephes fu assis en la 
kaiere, si uinient tout li angele deuant lui, A nostra 
sires Tenoinst & sacra en chele maniere ke on doit 
eueske sacrer & enoindre, si ke tous li pules le yit 
apertemeni £t chele onctions dont il fu enoinsr si fii 
prise en Tampule ke li angeles portoit, qui le prist & 
traist a soi par Tespaule quant il yaut entrer dedens 
Tarche si com aues oi cha en arriere. £t de chele 
onction meisme furent enoint tout li roi deske la 
ciestientes Tint en engletere iusqu'a uter pandragon, 
qui fu peres le roi artu, de qui tout chil qui 0O9)tentle8 
auentures ne seuent mie tres bien pour quoi il fu apieles 
pandragons *en son soumon. Car che set on bien, ke 
il eut a non vters en baptesme. Mais Testoire de chest 
liure lor dira cha en auant tout esclairiement p^mr quoi 
il fu apieles ensi, & comment ichele unctions fu perdue 
quant il dut premierement estre courones. Quant 
iosephes fu enoins & sacres ensi com vous aues oi, si li 
assist nostre sires la croche en la main & sa mitt[r]6 en 
la teste, & si li mist el doit vn anel dont nus horn 
morteus ne porroit Teuure contrefaire, ne la forche de la 
piene deuiser. Et quant il eut de toutes choses ensi 
atoume com tous auea oi, si Tapiela, & si li dist: 
** Josephe, le t'ai sacre & enoint a eueske si hautement 
ke tu as yen, & mes autres pules ke chi est. Or te 
dirai ke chist yestement senefient ke tu as yestus. 
Car nus ne les doit porter s*il ne fidt chou ke la sene* 
fianche requiert Chil sauler que tu as cauchies, 
lenefie ke ti> doit tes piee tenir si nes ke il ne yoisent 
en nule oeuure de malisse, mais en orison, et en yre^ 


chement^ & en conael douner as desconsillies. En tel 
maniere dois tu tiaoillier tes pies. Car ie voel que ta 
aies part en rescriptore qui dist : * li horn est boineu- ^^im \,i,u 
reus qui ne vaut estre oonsenteres del consel as felons, 
& qui ne uaut porter ses pies en la uoie par on U 
pecheour A li desloial aloient^ & qui ne sist mie en la 
kaiere de destruisement. Mais il mist sa uolente & sa 
poissanche toute a porfaire lee eommandemens de la 
ley nostre signoiir, & en cheste chose furent tout st 
pense, & par nuit & pcir lour/ £n tel maniere doiuent 
aler ti pie. Car il ne doiuent ia fiure nul pas sans 
pourfit. Apr6s te dirai des autres uestem^ns. Chil ke* 
tu as vestu desus ta cote^ si senefie chaeste. Car ch'est tu 


yne virtus par qui Tame qiiant ele depcirt del cors s en chaiiiiar. 

na blanche & nete, & si s'aoorde a tons les btens de 

Tame, che est» a toutes les virtus. £nsi dois *tu pre- C* iMrM^tedc» 

•oL 9} 

mierement chaaste dedens toi auoir, pour £Edre de li 
fondement as autres uirtus ede^jer. li autres ueste* 
metis desour chelui est autresi blans, & si senefie Tii«iipiMr 


virginitei. Et tout autresi com uirginites ne puet 
estre en nul lieu ke caaestes ne soit en sa (xmipaigniey 
Tout autresi ne puet nus prestres ne ne doit uestir 
chelui desus ke il n'ait auant uestu chelui desous. 
Chil autres uestemens dont li chies est couuers, si tu 

1^ www 

senefie humelite, qui est contndre a orgueL Car H«muitgr« 
orgieus veut tous iours aler fierement, teste leuee. 
Mais humilites va douchement, tout souef, le chief PriarttMgiitw 
enclin* Autresi doit aler li prestres a grant humilite, le not iik« tu 

PUritM to tu 

chief endin. Non pas autresi com lipharisgens el temple Ttnpit^ 
quant il oroit| qui dist, ' biaus sire diex, ie te rench 
grasces & m^rclus de che ke ie ne sui mie autresi 
desloiaus com sont mi autre voisin ! ' Mais ausi com 
li publicans qui n'osoit mie nis regarder vers le chiel, ui lOie tu 
tel paour auoit il ko diez ne se courechast de che qu'il 
estoit si pechieres; anchois estoit repuns loing de 
> Gbel iMitiiDenI ke, MS Addit 10^292, leaf 10, coL U 


The sreen gar- 
ment means 

The one abore 
it mean* Jastice 
or Righteooa- 

[♦ leaf 173 
The qualities of 

The band on the 
left arm means 

Why Is it on the 
left arm rather 
than the right? 

The necklet . 

means Ol)edi- 


For we onf^ht to 

bear the yoke 

like the ox. 

The uppermost 
garment means 
Love, or Charity. 

Tautel, & batoit son pis de son poing, & disoit, 
* Diex, sire, aies pitie de chest pecheour.' En tel 
maniere se doit contenir, qui vent acomplir les oeured 
d'umilite. Or to dirai ke chil apres senefie qui est tons 
vers, & si ne r doit nus prestres vestir, ne lui ne chel 
autre desus, se il n'est eueskes. Et chil qui est si XLer^ 
senefie souf&aiiche, qui ia ne sera vencue, tons lours 
«st verdoians, tons iours est en vne forche, ne nus nd 
ua encontre qui ele n'emport la victoire & Tonour. Cm 
nus niB puet si bten vaincre so;i anemi comme par 
Boufifrir. Chil autres uestemens desus chestui, qtxi est 
si blans, senefie droiture. Car tout chil qui uoelent 
droiture de sainte eglise garder loiaument maintienent 
droiture. Droiture est vne virtus de si grant haute'che 
ke par li sont toutes choses tenues en lor droit point, 
ne ia nule fois ne se cangera, a chascun rendra chott 
qu'il ara deserui. Droiture ne doune a nului pour 
ftmour, ne ne taut a nului pour haine. Ensi se doit 
mener qui ueut m^dntenir d[r]oitiire. Chil loijens qui 
te pent el brach senestre, si senefie abstinencLe. ^Car 
li cors doit estre loijes a abstinenche autriesi com li bras 
est de chel loijen, & che est ^ vne des grans virtus d'estfe 
en abstinenche en grant plente de hien, & cheste uirtus 
si est vns des membres de droiture. Et se tu ueus 
sauoir pour quo! chil loiens est plus el brach senestre 
ke el destre, Je le te dirai : pour ke la destre ne doit 
seruir se d'espandre non, ne la senestre se de retenir 
non. Or t*ai dit del loien del brach. Apres te dirai 
de chelui qui est entour le col, si senefie obedienchoi 
Car autresi com li hues porte le gieu au gaignour, 
autresi deues vous porter le gieu de nostie signour dam« 
dieu, & deues estre obeissant a son commandement) 
autresi com li hues obeist au gaaignour pa[r] la forche 
du gieu» Chil daarrains uestemens qui est desus tous 
les autres, si senefie carite. Car ele est tout vermelle ^ 
..i_^» o'est^ Its Addit. 10^92, leaf X0,-col..2, middle. ' 


& qui a cariie en soi, il est cans autresi com li carbons 
ardans est vermaus, & si est volentieus & corieus de 
tenir chier chou qtt'il doit. Che est, d*amer dien son The qnaiitiM of 

^ ' Charltgr. 

signour de tout son cuer & de toute s'ame & de tout 
son pense, & apres d'amer son proisme autresi com soi 
meisme. ^Charites met toutes choses en vn pris, Ss 
aime toutes choses ouniement, nule chose ne tient a 
estrange, autant aime la chose a son uoism comme la 
soie.^ Ensi vit, qui garder veut carite. Chil bastons 
ke tu tiens en ta main senefie .ij. choses, venianche & TiMtuffm«ms 

TnngwincMi and 

misericorde ; venianche, potir chou ke il est poignans Men^. 

par desou^, & misericorde, pour chou qu'il est cour*bes [•iMfn.ooLti 

par deseure. Car li chies deseure doit premierement Men^.MUis 

erooked s-top ; 

apieler. Che est a dire, ke li eueskes doit tout auant th« BUhop ought 

apieler le pecheour, & somonre de confession, & mener wotdi 

tant par douches paroles ke il li ait fait son pechiet 

regehier a honeur de dieu & a honte del dyable. £t 

quant il a oint de ses douches paroles tant qu'il ait 

mene a misericorde, lors si le doit poindre du chief da 

baston deso»«. Che est a dire, ke quant li prestres a umi thtn th« 

tant adouchie le pecheour ke il li a fait recounoistre son BapMitMwe. 

ereatour & renoijer le dyable, lors si le doit poindre, car il 

li doit encargier le fais de la grant penitanche par quoi il 

soit poins & aguillounes pour espanir en tnsteche chou 

k'il ara fourfait en ioie. Ensi siert li chies deseure 

d'apieler a misericorde, et chil desous sert de prendre 

yenianche. Or te dirai ke senefie li afnliaus ke tu as TheBtngoohto 

finger nMUM 

en ton doit II senefie mariage. Car li eueskes est sacres, MMiiage, 

and the Bishop 

slest ioins a sainte eglise par maiiage. Car, qtiont li u married to 
eueskes est sacres, si est ioins a dieu, & des lors en auant la ^'^'^^ 

doit il garder saine & enferme comme sa loial espouse. Et 

la u il rechoit le manage, ne le doit il put« werpir,^ ne and mnet keep 

.to her through 

en prosperite ne en aduersite ; Ch'est a dire, ne en bien good and had 

' — * Car carite met toutes coses en .L point & aime toatet 
coses ouniement ; si aime autant les coses son uoisin e<nnme la 
soie. MS Add. 10,292, leaf 10> col. 3, at top. 

* puis ne IMoit oo degoerpir. MS Add. 10,292, leaf 1 0, col. 3. 


and share her 

The horned hat 
means Ck)nfiM- 

I* leaflTtOoLS] 

Why there are 
two horns. 
The first is 
Repentance ; 
the second 

What SatlsHso- 
tion is. 

The head and 
two limbs of 

no en mal. £t se sainto eglise suefire tribulations ne 
mescheanches, il en doit estre parcliouniers. Car 
Tewangile dist ^ ke chil sont boineure qui soustienent 
les paines & lea anuis pour droiture. £n tel maniere 
80 doit contenir qui veut estre loiaus espous en sainte 
eglise. £t qui autrement 8*i contient, il n'est mie loiaus 
espous, mais auoutres, car il fause son manage ke il 
deust loiaument garder. Apres, dois sauoir ke chil 
chapiaus comus senefie qui est en ton chief. II senefie 
confession, & pour chou est il bla/is ; car confessions est 
la plus blanche chose qui soit, & la plus note. Car ia 
nus horn n'iert si ors do pechie, *ne si enuenimos, se il 
a vraie confession veut repairier, ke ele ne le fache tout 
blanch & tout net. Et ses tu pour quoi il i a .ij. comes I 
Pour chou qw*il i a .ij. menbres en confession. li 
premiers do ches .ij. menbres est repent^oiche, & li 
autres est satisfasions. Eepentanche est, qt^nt yds 
vient au prouoire, & il li regehist son pechie, & le 
partist du tout si ke il n'i repairo plus. Ichil vient a 
repentanche, mais pour chou n'est il mie vrais confes ; 
Anchois li conuient faire auant satisfaision. Satisfai- 
sions est, q?^ant vns pechieres a son pechie recounu, do 
faire la penitanche itele com li prestres li encarche, & 
do souffrir la paine de boin cuer, de boine volente. 
Ensi pues entendre ke nus ne puet estre coniea se il n'a 
coTifession le chief, & les deus mewbres. Li chies est 
de son pechie regehir. Li vns des membres est de tenir 
soi de pechie. Li autres est de mener a chief la peni- 
tanche encarchie. Ke ia nus horn ne sera urais cojifea 
'pour ke il defaille en qt^l ke soit de ches trois. Et 
pour chou ke confessions [est] la plus haute chose qwi 
Boit, comme chele qui restore a vn caup tons les 
damages & toutes les piertes, powr chou est ele senefije 
par cho chapiel qui est li plus haus de tons les ueste- 
mens. Or ies tu enoins & sacros, & ie t*ai doune 
* MS repeats car Z^^rvan^Utf iiif. 


Tordcne & la hauteche d'eueske, a men pule enaegnier Now that 

& cofiiermeir en ma [no]uiel[e]^ loy. Et ie voel ke tu oonflMnud, 

soies garde des ames d'aus, & quaTiqtie ie i perderai par ^a oonflrm 

defaute de toi, ie te demanderai tout| & a toi m'enpien- gaud^S^^ 

derai au grant ionr espoentable quant ie nenrai IJ^^J^^^^i^ 

prendre venianche & iustiche de tons les mefiais, qtumt ^JJ^^^* 

toutes les respoistailes des cuers seront descounertes. 

£t 80 ie te tnds loial sergant de chest petit pole noniel Hit nwud if bt 

dont ie te commant les ames, ie te donrai a chent 

doubles grignour baillie, ensi com Ie ewangile Ie promet 

a chiaus ki laissent lor propriete pour amour de moL 

Et pour chou te commajich. iou *les ames, & si t'en fai [•iwfir.i)**] 

pastour, ke ie ne voel ke il soit' pourueres & despen^ 

siers de ches choses qui as cors besoigneront. Or, yien 

auant, & si feras Ie sacrement de ma char et de mon 

sane, si ke tons ^ mes pules les vena apiertement." 


Joeephea goes into the Ark and celebrates the Sacrament 
He uses only Christ's words of Consecration, and forth* 
with the bread and wine become flesh and blood (p. 90). 
Christ makes him diTide the bread into three parts, whicli 
nevertheless appear, and are eaten by him, as one body, 
most sweet (p. 89-90). He receives the wine. The angels 
take the vessels oat of the ark (p. 91). Christ teUs the 
people he sends them his flesh and blood (p. 91). Joseph 
and his company receive the body of Christ, like a small 
child. Christ tells Josephes to celebrate the Sacrament 
daily, and how to ordain priests and bishops in every city 
(p. 92) ; and that Evalach*s messengers are coming for 
him to expound the king*s dream, and that he is to be of 
good courage, as he sliall beat the false prophets (p. 92-3). 
How Josephes appoints his cousin-german Leucam to goard 
the Ark, as Treasurers do now Churches* treasures (p. 93). 


tant enmena nostie sires losephe iusc'a Tarchey JoMphMfow 

lolo Um Ark, 

si ke ious li pules Ie uit entrer dedens. Et si uirent 

* nouele. MS Add. 10,292, leaf 10, back, col. 1, 
* MS ke tu tous. ' ? for ' tu sois.' 


which growa 

and oelebratei 
th« SaonuDtnt* 

Christ'! words 

and forthwith 
becomes flesh, 
and the wine 
blood, as of a 

Christ Ulto 
Josephes to 
divide the bread 
into three parts. 
Josephes remon- 

C* leaf 17, back, 

Dot does it. 

tout ke ele crut tant & eslargi, ke il estoient tout 
largement dedens, & veoient les angeles venir & alei 
pardeuant ruis. Laiens fist iosephes le premier sacre- 
ment qui onquea fodt fais en chelui pule. Mais il Tot 
moult tost aeompli. Car il n'i diet ke ches paroles 
senlement ke ihesiia oris dist a ses disciples en la 
cliaine,^ Qiuint il lor dist, " tenes, si mangies, che est 
li miens cors qid pour vous & pour maintes gens sera 
liures a tourment." £t autresi lor dist il du Vin, 
" tenes tout, & si buues ; car che est li sans de le 
nouiele I07, li miens sans meismes qui pour vous sera 
espandus en remission des pecliies." Ches pa^'oles 
dist iosephes sour le pain ke il trouua tout aparilliet 
Boiir la platine du calice, ensi coin li contes a dit la a 
il parla del autel qui estoit en Tarche. £t qi^ant il les 
eut dites sour le pain & sour le vin qui el calisce 
estoit, si deuint tantost li pains chars & li vins sans. 
& lor vit iosephes tout apiertement ke il tenoit 
vn enfant, & li sanloit ke chil sans qui uenoit el 
calisce fust cheus del cors a Tenfant. Et qe^ant il le 
uit ensi, si en fu moult durement esbahis, si ke il 
ne sauoit sous chiel ke il peust faire. Anchois se tint 
tons cois, & commencha moult angoisseusement a sous- 
pirer du cuer & a plourer des iex, pour la grant paour 
ke lL auoit. Ijors li dist no^fre sires : '* Josephe, il te 
conuient desmenbrer chou ke tu tiens, si ke il i ait trois 
pieches." |Et iosephe li respondi : " Ha, sire, aies 
pitie de nostre serf. Car mes cuers ne porroit soufifrir 
a desmenbrer si biele figure." Et nosties sires li dist, 
'' se tu ne fais mes commandemens, tu n'aras point de 
part en mon hyretage." Ijors prist iosephes le cors, se 
mist la teste a vne part, & desseura del bu tout autresi 
legierement comme se la chars de Tenfant fust toute 
quite 6n tel maniere com on quist char ke on a oublie 
sour le fu. Aprea chou, fist .\j. parties du remenant a 

* Fr. eh^e^ L. eoena. 


moult grant paour comme chil qui moult durement sous- 
piroit & plooroit. Ensi com il commenchsL a faire les 
parties, Si chairent tout li angele qui laiens estoient tim angiit mu 

knoal down. 

deuant Tautel a terre, & furent tout acoutes & a genous 

tant ke nostre sires dist a iosephe : " Quel chose atens Chrkt uui 

tul rechoif chou qui est deuant toi, & si Tuse, car ohe iwiri?«whati» 

est tes sauuemens." £t iosephes se mist a genous, A 

bati son pis, & cria mercbi, en plorant de tons ses 

pechies. Et quant il fu redrechies, si ne vi deuant 

soi sour la platine ke vne piecho a samblancbe de pain, Im taint th* 


& si le pnst, si le leua en baut. Et quant il eut rendu 

grasces a son creatour, si ouuri la boucbe & yaut metre andonpiittiiiir 

it Into his mootli 

cledens. Et il regarde, si uoit ke cbe restoit vns coib fladaitoMbodj, 

tous entiers. & quant il le vaut traire arriere, si ne paui^ 

airas sentoit c*on li metoit tout dedens la boucbe 

ancbois qu'il le peust clore. Et quant il Tent use, si li 

fu auis ke toutes les doucbours & les suautumes ke on- iwMiartiMamB 

b« told Iqr tongue 

porroit nomer de langhe li fuissent entrees el cors. of man. 
Apres rechut yne partie del saint boire sacre qui estoit JoMpbat netirm 

. thewiiM. 

<el caHsce. Et quant il eut^ cbe fait, si uit ke una 
angelcs prist la platine & le calisce, si les mist am- 
bedeus en la sainte escuele, Tun sour Tautre. Et sour 
cbele platine si vit plusours piecbes en samblancbe de 
pain. Et quant 11 angeles eut prise Tescuele, si yint ab taiga psu 

tha plata and 

Tns autres, si leua la platine en baut & cbe qui estoit rap into th* 
BUS auoec, si Tenportoit entre ses .ij. maiiis liors de [•laafir, 
Tarcbo. & li tiers angeles prist le calisce, si le porta apres Anothar 

cbelui en autrestel maniere. et cbil qui portoit la sainte 2S? «»* o'th* . 

escuele, fu tous li daarrains. Et qtiant il furent bora de 

Tarcbe tout troi, si ke tout li pules les veoit^ si parla 

vne Yois qui dist : '' Mes petis pules nouielement tenes ' chriattaiia^a 

paopla that |ia 

de Tespentel naissencbe, ie t'enuoi ton sauuement. Cbe a«nda them . 

. . . «j. - . i_ o tlialr salvation, . 

est mes cors qui pour toi sounri corporel naissencbe & his body and 
corporel mort Or garde dont ke tu aies vraie creancbe ^*^ 

' MS repeats Ft quant il eut. 
* nes. MS Add. 10,292, leaf 11, ool. 1. . 


and that th«j 
who reoeiv* it 
worthily ihaU 
be saved, and 
th^ who 
receive it 

Joaaph and hia 
aompany raoaiva; 

child has gone 
Into hia moQtlu 

The angels ra-' 
filace the Teasala 

C* leaf 181 

Christ tella 
•eiabrate the 8a» 
ermmant daily* 

him how to 

ordain prleata^ 
who shall hava 
the apoetles' 
power to bind 
C* MSsorront] 

and tells him to 
make a bishop in 

and anoint them* 
and all oonrerted 
kings, with the 
holy anointing. 

Christ tells him 
that Bvalach's 


a une si liaute chose recheuoir & vser. Car se ta crois 
parfitement ke che soit tes sauueres, dont le lecheueraa 
tu an p^oiable sauuement de Tame. £t se ta ne ciois 
enteiinemeuty tu le recbeueras an perdurable dampne- 
ment del cora & de Tame.^ Car qui usera mon cors, et 
buuera mon sane, & il jx*en sera dignes, il mangera son 
destruisement & buuera, ne nus n*en puet estre dignes 
se il n'est nraiB creans. Or garde donques ke tu le 
croies." , Lors Tint li angeles qui portoit la platine 
deuant iosepb. & iosepb s'agenoilla, si recbut^ iointes 
mains, son sauueour, tout isnelement^ & cbascuns des 
autres autresi. £t si estoit a cascun auis quant on li 
metoit en la boucbe la piecbe en samblancbe de pain, 
ke il veist entrer en sa boucbe vn enfant tout en forme. 
Et q«iant il eurent tout eu del sacrement, si s'en 
letoumerent li troi angele en Tarcbe, & misrent sour 
I'autel les *yaissieus ke il portoient. Lors apiela 
noetrea sires iosepbe, & si li dist, *' Josepbe, ensi me 
seruiras cbascun iour des ore en auant, & tu & tout 
cbil ke tu establiras a ordene de prouoire & d'eueske» 
£t se tu ordenes prouoire, tu li metras ta main 
sour le cbief, & li feras le signs de la crois el non 
de la trinite. Mais a Teueske sacrer conuient tout 
ebou que iou ai fait sour toL Car eueskes doit etre 
sour prouoire. £t tout cbil qui a cbeste bounour 
serront* establi, aront ausi grant pooir de lo\jer & de 
desloijer comme mi apostle eurent en terre. DesormaiB 
establiras vn eueske en cbascune cbite ou mes nons 
sera recbeus par ta parole. & si serra enoins de cbeste 
sainte onction, & tout li roi qui par toi venront a ma 
creancbe. Ore aprocbe Teure ke li rois eualacb laira le 
desuoiement des ydoles, & se toumera a la creancbe 
de la glorieuse trinite. Car li chlualer sont pries qui 
vienent querre iosepb pour lui cbertefijer d'une grant 
meruelle ke ie li ai anuit movstree en auision. Or 
> Blustration of Joseph and six others taking the eacrament^ 

cs. zl] joespHis APPonns lvuoam to guabd thk gsail-ark. 93 

08te C68 ^ uestem^nSy si iias a lai enire toi & ioseph, & ■aatiiatiMMid 
Tous les feies certain de toat[e8] les choses qu'il youa with ttm, '^ 
demandera. Et si ne soies pas esmayet se yous vees ■adiMtiMaftvid 

-_..__ of tin htithoQ 

vemr enconire yous tous les boma clers de sa loy ; car dtrki, mIm 
tu les uainteras tons. Si que la a tes paroles ne porront ^^^''^^'^"^ 
contrester. £t si te donrai si biele grasce es iex le roi •ad And gne* in 
eualachy ke tu li diias vne partie de che qn'il li sena a 
anenir par la forche de mon esperit. Et tout chil qtd And an who 

fM0lT9 Um Holy 

mon esperit ont rechen, on qui le recheueront, aront oho^shaubo 
pooir de cachier hors lee ma[uua]is esperis par tons les tru tpirita. 
liens on il venront." A tant s'ala iosephes dcihiestir, si JoMpho* nnrobt^ 

sod toCt Looo M n 

lalBsa tous les uestemens en I'arche sour I'auteL Apres to watch the Ark 

. , . . . • ^ •!. 1. 1 night and daj. 

apiela x sien cousin germain qui estoit en cnele com- 
paignie, si estoit apieles leucans. Chelui establi 
iosepbes a garder I'arcbe de iour & de nuit. & encore And thia eoatom 

itW oxUta In 

est ore a nos tans cheste coustume maintenue es bautes grmi ehorehat 

whldb haTo a 

eglises. Car li vns garde tout le tresor del egli'se : si [• uaf i8,col Q 

est apieles tresoriers. Ne onques a cbel tans n'auoit 

este fait Mais lore establi iosepbes cbelui leucam, 

ensi com vous aues oi de cbelui, ne mie pour cbou ke 

il fust ses cousins, 'mais pour cbou ke il se* tenoit plus P ms 'Aa* 


religieus ke nul des autres.' 


Jottepb and his loii go before the king. Evalaeb's donbtB. A 
heathen clerk's objeotions to the doctrine of the Trinity (p. 
94-5). Jowphes answers, — ^Bralaoh ahall be given np to 
his enemy for three days and nights (p. 95), and the 
heathen clerk is strook dumb and blind (p. 97). Evalaoh 
adu if he can escape (p. 98). Tes ; by believing in Chriit 
(p. 98). All go to the heathen temple (p. 98). The devil 
in the image of Mars smashes all the images (p. 99). 
Evalach adu the devil why it has done this ( — ^beoanse 

* MScest 

* — * mais por oe qa*il estoit pins religiena qtte nos des 
•utres. MS Add 10,292, leaf 11, col. 2, near foot. 


Joseph's two angels oompelled it — ), and whether the 
clerk' struck dumb and blind will recover, and whether he 
shall prevail against the Egyptians (p. 100). The devil 
confesses he knows nothing about it (p. 101). 

meMenger ooniM, 

JoMph to proT« 
tint, how th« 
Trinity can be 

8. of th* Virgin'! 
withoat ottiud 
JoMph r0p«ata 
hit former 
A derk ol^ecte. 

that if all three 
are only one 

then each can- 
not be perfect 

and if each hae 
entire Gk)dhead( 
then there are 
three Ooda. 

[• leaf 18, col. S] 

If the Holy 
Ohoat ia perfect 

Atant yint li messages le roi, si dist a ioseph ke li 
rois le mandoit ke il alast a lui parler. Lors en 
alerent deuant lui entre ioseph & son fil, & quant il 
issirent hors da palais si firent sour aus le si^e de la 
crois, & commanderent as autres ke il fuissent en 
orisons et en proieres pour le roi eualach, que diex, qui 
estoit auoiemens des desuoies, li dounast venir a la voie 
de uerite. Et quant il furent venu deuant le roi, si les 
commanda li rois a seoir, & si dist a ioseph qu*il li 
prouast che ke il auoit ier dit del pere & del fil & del 
satn^ esperit^ comment il pooient estre trois persones Si 
yne seule deites ; & comment la puchiele auoit enfante 
sans son puchelage malmetre ; Et comment li fiex pooit 
estre concheus sans carnal couuine d'ome'& de feme. 
Quant li rois eut che dit, si se drecha ioseph, & li dist 
ichele meisme raison que il li auoit dite a I'autre fois, 
& en chele meisme manieere^ li prouua. Et quant il 
eut che dit, si se drecha vns clers. Chil estoit te^us a 
plus sages & a plus fondes de la loy. Chil patla en- 
contre ioseph, & dist ke il ne disoit riens. Car se 11 
peres & li fiex & li sains espcns n'auoie?tt c'une deite, 
dont n'estoit mie cascujis d'aus trois par soi entiers 
diex ne parfais. Et se il voloit dire ke li peres ftist 
entiers diex & parfais, dont n'i pj'cndroit noient la per- 
sone du fil & du sains esperit. Et se eles auoient am- 
bedeus cascune sa deite enterine, dont serroient chou trois 
deites, che ne porroit nus horn contredire raisnablement. 
Car nus horn qui che contredit, ne porroit apertement 
prouer ne metre en uoir, ke nule des 'trois persones n'eust 
entire deite en lui, ou nule des autres fust amenteue. 
Car la ou on dit ke li sains esperis est parfais dies ^ & 

> So in MS. * diex, MS Addit 10,292, leaf 11, col. 3. 


entiers, ne [que H li troi n'ont c'une seule deite en lui on Ood and om, 

rarely th* oChtr 

nule des auties, par chou moustre on que li vns vaut twoaranobodiM. 
autrestant comme li troL £t se ch'est voirs ke li vns 

[1 qua, MS Add.] 

vaille antrestant commQ li troi, dont est il voirs qua li 

troi soTit noiens en lieu ou li tiers est amentens. Et 

puis ke les .ij. persones pierdent ensi lor forche par la ^^f'JJ**^ 

tierche, dont puet tons li mons veoir et counoistre uwnaachcan. 

apiertement ke chascune de les trois n'a mie deite par> ood. 

faite ne entiere." Qt^ant chil eut si durement parle 

encontre la trinite, si fu ioseph moult esbahis de fiauses Joa4pii laeon- 


proeues ke chil li a auant traites, si ne seut mie main- 
tenant respondre a fiauser^ chou k'il auoit dit» car 
nostiQ signour ne plot mie. Lors se drecha iosephes, & *>^ Joaepnea 

, Mm a addreaaaa ETa^ 

SI parla haut si ke de tous fa clerement ois, & si dist ueh, 
au roi premierement : ''Eois, escoute ke ie te diraL 
Che te mande par moi le dies de isra«l, li crieres de 
toutes choseSy & si dist a toi : ' Pour chou que tu as andtenahim 

that baoauaa ha 

amenes tes fans plaideors encontre ma creanche, pour haa brought ua 
chou ai iou establi a prendre si grant venianche de ton agaiiut Hia 

.t !• !•*•• •! troth Ha will 

cors que tu cherras anchois qua u tiers lonrs soit bring aore dia- 

passes en vne si grant mesauenture que tu ne quideras JJJJJi^^i^ 

que nule riens viuans te puisse garandir de perdere touts ^^ 

tarriene hauteche premierement, & ton cors apres.' Et 

si prendra diex cheste iustiche de toi, pour chou que tu 

ne yens recheuoir la creanche de son glorieus non, 

Anchois as despite A mise auers la demonstranche que Andbaeaoaaiia 

^ ^ haa daapiaad tha 

il te fist anuit de ses secres & de ses miracles que il te raraiauon or 

, God'a aaerata to 

descouuri en auisioiL Pour chou te mande li diex des him in hiidraam, 

crcst^'ens par la bouche de son sejrgant qui parole a hia mortal anamy 

toi, qu'il donra a ton anemi mortel gloire et honour & ^Xm daja ^ 

essauchement sour toi trois iours A trois nuis. Car ta ""* ^'^^ "******" 

for*che ne porra contresi;er, ne tes cors n'osera atendre C* iiafi8,ha«k] 
celui qui onkes forche ne pent auoir mais encontre toi, 
ne mals de cheste fois qu*il t'a desconfit, par le traison 
de tes cotisilleurs qui se sont a lui toume par les dons. 
* sauBer, MS Beg. ; fausser, MS Addii 10,292, If 11, ooL 3, at foot 


And to TtriQr it 
JoMphM MJi^ 

that Thdomtt, 
King of Baby- 
km, hat nude 
nadjr his foreea 
and will attack 

and put him in 

tells the ol^ect- 
inf heathen 


that, as he has 
God's creed 
and dishoQonred 
His name. 



and haa been 

dumb and blind 

in spirftnal 


God will strike 
him damb and 

Ensi te mousten^ li diex des crestiens ke nule creature 
ne puet durer qui n'est apparillie a son commandement. 
Ne ia ne recouuerras la grant hauteche ke tu com- 
menches a perdere, se par Taido de chelui ne le 
requieres. Et se tu de cheste chose me tiens a men- 
coingeur, tu orras par tans teles nouieles par quoi tu 
porras sauoir que nostrea sires m'a demoustre aucune 
chose de tes auentures. Et si saches hien de uoir, ke 
tholomes li fuitis, qui est rois de babyloines, a tout son 
effort apparelliet, & vient sour toi inoult ireement. 
Et si dist li rois des crestijens : ' En la main au felon 
egyptijen liucrrai ioa le roi mescouneu, par chou ke il 
me fuit & mescounpist. Et chil qui tous iours a este 
fuitis, encachera chelui qt^i tous iours I'a cachie, & si le 
menra iusc'a paour de mort. Car ie li voel faire esprou- 
uer ke ie sens sui li rois des rois & la forteche de tous les 
pules."* Apres se touma iosephes vers chelui qui 
auoit si durement parle encontre la trinite, & si li dist : 
** Escoute, tu qui as parle encontre la sainte creanche 
au dieu des crestijens. Or enten ke il te demande par 
la bouche de son^ serf qui a toi parole. 'Tu, fait il, qui 
ies ma creature, & qui en tous lieus deusses obeir a mon 
commandement, tu as ma creanche blasmee & mon non 
deshonre. Et powr chou ke ie voel ke tu saches ke tu 
as parle encontre chelui qui a pooir & sour toi & sour 
toutes choses autres, pour chou te ferai iou sentir uns 
desbatemens de ma iustiche terriene ; Si ke tu le 30uf- 
ferras, & li autre se castieront par toi. Car tu as en 
tous iours la terriene scienche, ne onquea Tesperitel ne 
*vausi8 counoistre, ne goute n*i pooies veoir ; et se tu 
en uausisses parler, tu n'en sens onquea dire uoir. Et 
pour chou ke tu as este mus & awles en Tesperitel 
science, qui tu deusses cler veoir, & de qui tu deusses 
tenir toute la parole, pour chou te mousterrai iou ke la 
terriene scienche ne puet riens encontre Tesperitel. 
Car ie te taurai, voiant tous chiaus qui sont chaiens, la 

en. xlJ thb disbelievixo clerk is struck dumb and bund. 97 

teniene parole & la veue. Car mes esperis est de tel 

forche, ke il fera les hien emparles a muir, & lea der 

yeans awlir ; si fera les mus hi^n parler, & les awles clcr 

yeoir.'" Tantost ke ioseph[es] eut che dit, si p^rdi cliil 

la parole, & qi^nt il yaut parler, si senti deuant sa The cierk b». 

bouche yne main qui li lioit la langho ; Mais il ne le 

pooit yeoir. Et il se drecha pour plus efiforcliier de and bUod. 

parler; Mais si tost com il fu leues, Si ne yit nule 

goute des ieux. £t quant il senti chou, si commencha 

si duremeTzt a muir que on Tooit tout clerement d'ausi 

loing com on porroit traire yne saiete. £t si estoit auis 

a tons chiaus qui Tooient, ke che fust yns toriaus. Et 

qziont li autre yirent cheste meruelle, si en furent moult Th« peopit an 

courechiet, & coururent tout sus iosephe, si Teussent IJjS^as?**' 

tout depechie a lor pooirs. Mais li rois eualach sailli svaiach mIxm 

• o • . .. ..« . ..a tword and 

en pies, & prist yne espee toute nue, si lura la poissancne .waan he'u pat 

jouis qw'il feroit tous cbiaus destruire & liurer a mort u/hand«o7^ 

qui en lui meteroient la main. Car dont Taroit il trai, •^^^^p**^' 

se il I'auoit mande en sa maison, & il ne le garandissoit. 

Ensi leua le tumulte par la sale. & li rois apiela iosepho, He asks Joeepbet 

& li demanda qui il estoit. Et ioseph se traist auant, 

si dist qu'il estoit ses fiex. Et li rois resporadi ke moult 

parloit hien, & qu*il estoit yoir disans en maintes 

cboses. Apres li demanda comment il auoit tolue la and ho* he took 

parole & la yeue a chelui qui auoit parle encontre luL from hit op- 

Et *iosephes respondi qu'il ne Ten auoit rien tolu; [MH^ig^iMck, 

Mais li diex des crestie^ contiQ qui il auoit parle, ' 

Icliil li auoit tolu & parole & yeue. Car che estoit 11 

diez de qui la parole ne seroit la fausee pour nului ; 

Ensi com il commandoit, couuenoit toutes choses a 

estre. ** Coument, dist eualach, est il dont yoirs ke and whether it 

. JO i^troethat 

tholomes li fuitis menmerra lusca paour de mort, & Thoiomeoihan 

pot hi™ In Ciar 

ara sour moi pooir & forche .iij. iours & iy. nuisT' or death, and 
" Chertes, dist iosephes, il est uoirs qu'il n'est nus bom ©w w^Sm 
yiuans par qui il puist estre feuses." Et li rois li J^JiT* ****** 
demanda comment il pooit cbou sauoir. '' Dont, n'as 




BTmUob Mnnol 

bat Mks if h« 
can escape It. 

Tes» hf feeslTing 
the belief of 

not only In word^ 


The clerk struck 
damb and blind 
Is taken to the 
heathen temple^ 
to the imago of 

tu oi, dist iosephes, que li cspen's au dieu des crestijenfl 
est de si grant forche, ke il fait les mus parler & lea 
awles veoir cler 1 Ch*est a dire, ke chil qui n'ont rien 
fieu de clergie counistront toute la forche des escriptuies 
-par le grasce de son saint esperit." " Par foi, dist li 
rois, s'il anient ensi com tu as chi conte, le vauroie 
asses miex estre mors ke vis. Mais il n'est nule riens 
ke iou en peusse croire. Ke pour qwant, si ai iou veu 
vne de tes paroles auenir." " Hois, dist iosephes, quant 
tu verras qu'il serra auenu, dont m'en croi." " Et en 
porrai iou, dist il, escaper?" "Chertes, dist il, oil, 
par me seule chose." " Et quele sera ele 1 " dist li 
rois. '' Je le te dirai, dist iosephes. Se tu rechois !& 
creanche ihem crist, que tu le croies parfitement, do 
quele eure que tu le rechoiucs, tu aras secours & de« 
liuranche. Mais hien saches de uoir, que ia pour chose 
ke la bouche die, se li cuers n'i est, ne sera deliures. 
Gar diex n'est pas horn qu'on puisse engingnier ne 
decheuoir par samblant; Anchois est de si paffaite 
sapiense qu'il counoist tons les pcnses des gens, & uoit 
pormi les cuers toutes le^ repostailos qui i sont." Lora 
li demanda li rois comment il estoit apieles. & li dist 
qu'il estoit apieles iosephes. Et li rois li redist : *^ Ore 
me di, iosephe, de che'lui qui a perdue la parole & la 
veue, se il recouuerra iamais." "Eois, dist iosephes. 
Ore le fai porter deuant tons les diex ke tu aoures ; et 
si orra[8] ke il te rcaponderont et de sa garison & de ta 
bataille." Lors le fist porter el temple, si i ala il 
meismes, Ss iosephes, & ses peros. Et quant li prouoire 
de la loy Teurent offert al autel appolin qui il apielent 
le dieu de sapiense, si demanderent al ymage qui estoit 
sour Tautel comment chil gariroit iamais. Mais onques 
tant ne seurent demander a chcle ymage ke il onques 
en peussent parole trairo. Et li rois vint auant, si li 
demanda qu'il li dist a quel fin il uenroit de cheste 
guerre. Mais il n'en puet onqu^TS auoir respons ne ke 

CH. XL] a devil out OV mass DBBTBOTS THJi HBATHKN DCAOES. 99 

li autre. Et vns dyables qui estoit en Tymage martis^ ▲ dcru in th« 

ke il claiment le dieu de bataille, commencha. a crier : cHm ont thaTa 

" Foles gens, ke ales vous atendant 1 il a en nostte com- hw boMd"**" 

paignie vn crestijen ki a si loie apoL'n par le canixu^ tf^^t^i. 

ment de ihe^n cnst son dieu, qu'il n*a nul pooir de 

Yous respondre. Ne ia nns diex en lieu ou il soit 

n'osera douner respons, ne ne porra, puis ke il ara 

eoniuie," & maintenant que li djables eut che dit, si 

commencha si durement a crier ke il fu auis a toua 

chiaus qui estoient el temple qu'il fust en vn fu ardant. 

Ensi disoity ''ba, Josepbe, eueske ihe^u crist, laisse TiMd«vfloflbn 

to go oofey who^ 

cbou ester ke tu dis, car tu me faia ardoir, & ie m'en- trer JoMphM 
fuirai de si la u tu cormnanderas." Ensi crioit li djables 
qui estoit en Tymage martis par le coniurement qua 
iosephes li auoit fait. Car il le destraingoit si dure- 
ment, & tant le iusticha, ke il issi hors de Tymage, &, itgoMoat^ 
uoiant tons cbiaus qui estoient el temple, abati Tymage um inuc* of 
a t€rre, & si le debrisa toute par menues pieches. Et Jfta^puSit^T*'^ 
q7^nt il eut cbou fait, si pnst vn aigle d'or moidt grant, thmtiM d«TU 
qui estoit sour I'autel au ccmsel, si en feri si durement ApoOo on um 
Tymage appolin en mi le *vis, ke il li pecboia le nes "pTJ^ig^ ^ol «] 
& le brach destre. Aprcs s'en ala par toutes les i^iSd d?* 
ymages del temple, si n'i remest onquea ymage qwi il ne Jj^i!*** *****' 
ferist de cbel aigle tant qu'il li pecbeoit aucun de« 
membres. De cbeste chose furent les gens moult TiMpM|d«wt 
espoente qui estoient el temple ; Car il veoient les 
meruelles que ichele aigle faisoit, Mais il ne pooient 
yeoir chelui qui la tenoit. Et ch'estoit la chose pour 
quoi il estoient plus espoente & plus esbahL Lors 

apiela li rois Joeephe, & si li demanda que che pooit Braiadi 
estre qui ensi depechoit ches ymages. & iosephes U bM brokMi Um 
respondi qu'il I'alaiBt demander al autel martis. £t il ^***^ 
j ala, si vaut sacrefier, mais josephes ne li laiBsa ; ains JoMpbat tdk 

hifp to Mk At tlM 

dist que s'il faisoit tel sacrefisse, il morroit de mort aitarofiian. 
soubite. Et quant li rois eut demande respons a H«doM,uidt]M 
I'auteli Si dist li dyables qu'il n'osoit a lui porler pour Mfhm^Hos^hiuu 


iosephe. Et li rois 11 demanda s'il auolt si grant pooir 
sour les dleus. Et 11 d jables 11 dist que nus dlex ne 
poolt parler deuant lul se 11 ne Ten dounolt congie. 
Et 11 rols pria Iosephe que 11 11 dounolt congie de 
joMphMgiTM parler. & losephes 11 douna. Et 11 dyables dlst au rol : 

the derll IwTe 

tosp«iUc;andit " Kols, veus tu sauolr pour quol 11 a si trrant poolrl 

teUiEralMh . sr ^ or 

that joMphM II a .ij. angeles auoec lui qui le conduisent & gardent 

hM always two . i !• -i • x- . i- 

angeii with him, p^r tous les lieus ou il Y% si tient li vns yne espee 
vwoni. the^oiher toute nue, & 11 autres vne crols. Et 11 dol m'ont tena 
anTthey hara ^ ^^ destrolt par son commandement qw'll m'ont fait 
^uoIm^ *" depechler toutes ches ymages ensl com tu voi& Ne 
iamals nus dlex n'ara poolr de doner reapons ou Ilea 
ou chis hom solt, tel poeste 11 a done ' ihesxis crls ses 
The king aaka dlex." Apres 11 demanda 11 rols se chll qui auolt 

the derU whether ^ ^. 

the man ttrack pierdu la parole & les lex recouuerrolt iamals sante. 

dnmh and Ulnd 

wiu reoorer. Et 11 dyables 11 dlst, '* rols, se U garist, che ne sera mle 

The devil says, a_ -.x 9 

' Not by my par TLOstre uutu ; ^ 


COotvosXB, leaf '* For that power haven not we' 
I ha^nooe to Him hol to Maken In non degre ; 

make him whole.' ^^^ j^^j^^ ^^^^ j.^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

Be him that him it leide yppon ; 4 

And elles but he wele him hele sende, 
Be V8 get he non In non Ende." 
Braiach asks, Thaime Axede him the king Anon tho 
on if I light the ' Howgh A^ens the Egipciens he scholde do ; 8 


* MS dona, altered. 

■ The Boyal MS xiv. E 3 oontinues — " Et nous n'en i peons 
point auoir : anchois cimuenra ke chil lo garisse par qui com^ 
mandemtf At il a ea le mal, ou Be che non, il n*en garira iamais.** 
[* leaf 19^ ool. 8] Lon li demanda li ^rois, 'a qv^l fin il uenroit se il se conbatoit 
as egyptyens/ Et li dyables dist, ' (]ue il n'auoit nul pooir 
del* dire tant com li hom dieu i serroit.* ( Et iosephes salli 
auant, k, si li dist : *Me te coniur de par la forche de la sainte 
trinite, ke tu li dies uoir.'* Et respond! li dyables, *qtie il n*en 
sauoit rien de che qu*il li estoit a auenir. Ne nus ne le puet 
sauoir, se par ib^ra crist non.* An illustration follows, for the 
next chapter, of the messenger coming to Evalach. 

' The pages containing the English lines 1 — 492, are bound 
at the end of the Corpus MS, but there is a pencil foot-note 
saying that they belong to the oommenoement 

J . • • 

3if with hem heeld he Onj bataille. 

In what Manerd it mjhte him Availle.' 

Thanne the devel him Answeiid ful sone, 

" J)ere-Offen Answere mown we jeve^i y none : 

Tyl that goddis Man be Owt past. 

Of Ys An Answere non thow hast." 

Thanne spak Josephes there Anon Rjht, 

" I Conioure the be the vertu of Grod Almyht, 

And be the myht Also Of the Trenite, 

That the sothe here thou schewe to me." 

And the devel him Answerid Agein 

" That he ne Cowde not In Certein ; 

Of thing that was to Come, he Cowde not telle. 

What Ayentore so that him Euere befelle." 

/ Tb« Devil Mji, 
• , •'WI'.eMi't aniwer 
12 .100.01] God'i 
nun Jliu gone.* 

16 JoetphM eoqjftx^ 
tlM dtril to tall 
bim tlM trnth. 

20 kBowi nothliv of 
thing! to MOM. 


Tlie InvaBion by Tholomes and the Egyptians of Eralach^s land ; 
£valach*8 summons to his vassals (p. 103) ; Joeephe8*8 
counsel to him, — Josephes tells him his history, that he was 
a oobbler*s son at Meaux, in France (p. 104), was sent to 
Rome as part of the hostage demanded by Augustus (p. 
105), then on to Erl Felis of Svlie, whose son he slew (p. 
106), and fled to Tholomes King of Babyloyne, for whom 
he conquered all the land of Sarras (p. 106-7), that therefore 
he must be humble, and remember Gk>d, as he will be three 
days and three nights in Tholomes*s power (p. 107-8, 110) ; 
Evalach asks for the means of victory (p. 108-9) ; Josephes 
tacks a cross of red cloth on to his shield (p. 109), and tella 
him to look on it in his need, and pray to Qod, and he 
shall be saved (p. 110). Evalach marches to Tarabel and 
Yalachim (p. 111). The Castle Yalachim described (p. 
112). Evalach's army enter a forest, and send out a q>y 
(p. 113) ; they attack Tholomes, but lose men, and flee to 
Castle Comes (p. 114). Tholomes pursues (p. 114) ; while 
Evalach*s men plunder his tents (p. 115). A q>y next 
day tells Tholomes that Evalach is in Comes with a very 
few men (p. 116), and so Tholomes marches after him 
with half his force, leaving tHe other half with Yabus his 
steward to watch Castle Yalachim (p. 117). 


▲ mMMOgW 

romM to King 


that IPIioloiiMt 


• • • 

and irulad it ip 





h«11 b« crowned 
King in Sarraa. 

Evalach la east 
down in heart. 


• • • . *• 

-.jiXu In the mene while Of this talking 
CeiK^^h A messenger tho to the king, 
, Xud knelid to-fom him vppon kis kne: 

• *' Sire kyng, newe tydinges I bringe to J>* 4 
That ben bothe Evel and perylous, 

Of Tholomes king so dispetous ; 

Into thi lond now Entred he Is, 

And witA him gret strengthe wtt^-owten Mis ; 8 

•And Oriable thi Cite they han take, 

And Abowtes In-virown thei don wrake, 

That so the Contre distroied is be him 

Into the Castel Of valachim. 12 

For On hors-bak with him don Kide 

Twenty thousend be his side, 

And On foote Also there ben 

Fourti thowsend Men hameysed Glen ;^ 16 

And jif that Castel he mown haue, 

Nothing Of thi lond wil he save ; 

Ke thens wil he non fote gon 

Til they ben jolden Euerichon ; 20 

[Fo]r that Is now the stre gest hold 

pn] thi lond be Manye a fold. 

And :pi his Avow Made he there 

(That AUe his Meyne gan it to here) 24 

That Owt Of that Contre wold he not pas 

Tyl he were Crowned king In sarras," — 

Whiche that was the Chef Cite 

Of king Eualach his lond, I telle the.— 28 

And whanne the king herde him thus sein, 
Sore he him Abaschte In Certein ; 
And jit the more Abascht was he pleinli 
For the wordis that loscphes spak Openli, 32 

* That thre dayes & thie Nyht 

In hia Enemyos daunger to be Owtriht, 

' MS Reg. xlv E 3 reads * a. zxx. xnllle homes a pie.' [MS 
Add. \^ ohiualers, et a J!. hommes a pie ' : 90,000 in all.] 



And that to the prikke Of deth he schold be biowht ; ' 

And this Euere was In Eualache thowht ; 36 

But for ])at ho was A man Of so gret prowease. 

He made non semblaunt Of non distiesse. 

But A^ens hcrte he made good Chere, 

[SJeenge Alle tho that there were, 40 

[A]nd swor Anon be his Creaunce, 

' That what so him Euere happede be chaunce, 

3if At that sege he myhte him fynde, 

He wold don him Eemeve be som kynde.' 44 

Anon his sonde he dide to sonde 
Ouer Al tho, Into Euerich ende. 
To AUe tho that Of him took Ony fe, 

* Anon with him that thei scholden be, 48 
And On the Morwe to ben Gadering 

Atto Castel Of Tarabe* wtt^wten Taryenge/ 

Tliat twenly Miles from sanas Is, 

And fro valachim Sixtene, More ne Mis, 52 

Where As Tholomes Atte Sege was. 

Thus Abowten sent Eualach Into Eyeri plas ; 

Thus Abowtes be his sel he sente, 

* That Echo man scholde don his Ente[nte], 56 
That weren weldy Armes to here, 

A^ens here Enemyes to fensen hem there. 

And ho that Ajens his Comandementi!^ were. 

What so lie be that it doth there, 60 

His lordschepe from him wil he take, 

And but Eyht A poyre Man him Make.' 

And On the Morwe the king gan to remere. 
And losephes to him Cam to taken his leve ; 
" Sire kyng, hennos thou gynnest to Go, 
But thow ne woet what forto do ; 
For thou ne Art seker to Comen Agein, 
But there forto dyen In Certein. 68 

' MS Beg. 'tarabiel'; Add. 'carabel* (leaf 12, ool. 3 at 

tat makw DO 

H« •wwn he*U 
[leaf 197, ool. 2] 

andth«n wikIs to 

atCMtlo TMftbal. 

•T«7 maa able to 

midar pain of 
loaing hla land. 

^4 gotof to mafdv 
64 JoaopbaataUaUa 

ha doaan't know 
what tha and wiU 


God bids him 

nmember whence 
he sprang ; 

he was born in 

But thus My God sente Onto the 
Be me his ServauTzt, As thou myht se, 
^ That thow scholdest Eemembren the wel 
Of whom thow Come Everydel, 
And of what Maner kynde & of lynage 
Thow Art I-Come to this high parage. 
But thou supposist that noman it knowe ; 
But I Can the tellen Al be Eowe. 
Be the grace Of my God Ahnyht 
I schal the telle, I the A-plyht ; 
For Conceil may pere non heled be 
From him that Sit In Maieste. 
Thow were bom In fravnce lond, 
As the holi gost me doth yndirstond. 
In A Old Cite Of firaunce, As I wene, 
at Meanx. a poor That Miaux Is Called there bedene ; 

sboemaker's bod. aii .1 a ■««- 

And there thow were A pore Mannes sone, 

That to Maken schon was thanne his wone ; 

And this Owghtest thow to knowen ful wel. 

For thow it hast Sein this EverydeL 

For whanne Augustus Cesar Emperour was 

Of Eome xxxij 3er ; In that plas 

He wende king Of Alle kinges haue ben ; 

And so it him thowhte that it was sen ; 

But Crist of Marie was born 

In his tyme, that I Eehersed befom, 

That tho king Of Alle kynges was 

Thorwgh the world In Every plas. 

And whanne here-Ofifen herde Augustt/^ Cesar 

Be hise Clerkis that weren bothe wis & war, 

Thanne he gan to wexen Gretly In dowte 

Lest Of his Empire to putten him Owte, 

And that Al the Centre Of Rome Abowte, 

To that lord scholden worschepew & dowte. 

Thanne Niste he Not what forto don, 

But Abowtes Al Eome he sente Anon ; 

For when Aa- 
gostac was 

and Cbrlsl was 

ahoold lose liis 











Thorwgh Owt Al that Centre pr m,bk,coL i] 

Anon his Messcngeres sonte he, 

* That Euery man &, wowman Also s® ^ <»rt«»»d an 

folk to paj him % 

To him A peny scholde 3elden tho, 108 p«>q7 •> tribau. 

As In Manere Of A knowelechingo. 

As In weye Of Soiettis to here kynge. 

And, benchcson^ that Fraunce was thanne BntorFnaoeii* 

Of Anothir Maner kende Of Manne, 112 

To hem he sente In this Manere 

As, Sire, I the schal now tellen here : 

An hundred kuyhtes he trews Aitir he sente, loo knigbta, and 

And Aftir An hundred knyhtes dowghtren presente, dII!iiStSh*TiP- 

That Maidems scholde hen Everichon, — 117 '^ 

And thus his Messages Gonne forth to gon, — 

And An hundred knave children Al In fere, aadioob^Tanot 

_ _ . .1 A .1 <% A ,^^ ©far llTf yaara 

Kot passeng the Ago tha7ine of fyve jere, 120 old. 

But Bathere lasse thanne Ony More ; 

That time this was his Comaundement there. 

And whanne these tydinges weren Comcn Into fraunce, Than in erary 


Mochel they Merveilled thanne Of this ChauTtce; 124 

And thanne Chosen they In Eucry Cite 

Be lot, As that time here hap myhte he. lotawaracaatj 

So thanne it happed, As I telle now the, 

I'hat Owt Of MLaux that Cite, 128 andootorxaanz 

That tweyne ^laydenes Chosen weren for sothe^ mautana, tha Earl 

And that An ErHs dowghtren weren thei bothe daogb^' 

Hos Name was Erl Of Siuayn, 

That lord of Miaux was, &, Of the Centre Certain. 132 

And whanne the lot on hem |)us gan falle, 

Thanne mosten thei forth nedis with Alle ; 

And yppen the,' the, fyl the tether lot, tad joopEraiaeh, 

Where \ou myhtest ben Excused not, 136 

For thew were At the Age Of fyve jer. 

And Also these Maidenis bothe briht & Cler ; 

* ' be encheson,' by oocasion, beoauae. 
< < thee * is often written ' the.* See 1. 114, 140, 149, 167, fro. 




and all three of 
yon were eent to 

ToQ were rvrj 

At fO, both 
maidens died. 

Then Tiberini 

■ent yoa to Eaxl 
Fella of Syrli, 

who held yoa 

Bat yoa dew his 
eldeit aon in n 

and then went to 



Df 197, bk, ooL t] 

who knighted 

That 80 wit these Maydenes forth were pon led. 

As to-fore I haue here now to the Seid. 140 

And whanne that to Eome ^e weren I-Come, 

The peple Abowtes 30W Cam On A throme, 

And 30W gOTznen faste to beholde : 

^e hadden tho Of Bewte so Manifolde. 144 

And whanne thow were comen to twenty^ jere, 

Thanne bothe Maidenos deydcn Eyht there ; 

For the ton ne lyved After the tothir 

But thre Monthes, It was non Othir. 148 

Thanne Aftyr, the took Tiberius Sesar, 
That Aftir Augustus was empprour thar, 
And the hadde tho Eyht In gret Cherte, 
And to An Erl the sente for thi bewte — 152 

Erl Felys he hyghte Of Svlie,— 
To him were thow lad In hie : 
And whanne that thow to him were browht, 
Ful mochel thow were Euere In his thowht, 156 

For the fill dere to him he held ; 
And After ful Evele didest thou him ^eld. 
For it befil that vppon A day 

His Eldest sone & thou wenten to play, 160 

That so In Anger ^e fillen tho bothe, 
That there thow slowe his sone forsothe. 
And whanne thou haddes thus him slo, 
Thanne to Tholomes^ gonne thou go, 164 

That Of babiloyne thilko time king was, 
And werre he held A^ens Olifemus ; 
For Olifemus king was riht tho wat^uten d[owte] 
There As now thow Art Of Al the Contre Abowte. 168 
And Anon As thow to him were gon. 
There A knyht he made the Anon ; 
And so moche love thanne he Caste to the, 
That Amonge Al his Ost he ^af the powste ; 172 

« MS Reg., «.xx/ ; MS Add. *.xii.' 

' MS Beg. < tholome oerastre ' ; MS Add. < tholomes oe iastro.' 


And Aboven Alle Otbere he ^af the powers, 

Oner Alle his Ost to Gonemeti there, wt yon over an 

For that thow were Of so gret prowesse 70a beat uafoea. 

Of Manhod, & ful Of hardinesse, 176 

So that On his Enemys Avenged he was, 

And hem distroiede In that plas. 

And thanne to the ^af lie that lond, pot bis land 

And there holich put it Into thin hond. 180 cure. 

Now myhtest [thou] knowen & vndyistonde, T<m see tbat i 

That I knowe whennes & of what londe are. 

That thou were bothen bigeten & bom,— 
Lik As I haue the Rehersed befom, — 184 

And from so gret povert to hy dignete ; 
Eemembro the wel what I telle the ; 
And therfore the sente to sein be me 
The grete God of Al Cristiente, 188 And God baa 

therefore aant me 

That Of thi self thow schost han Minde ; to remind 

And thowgh fat vnder, jKm hast men of gret kynde. 

And Moche peple In bataille y Abowte, 

In herte scholdest thou not be prowte : 192 y<m not to be 

proud in heart. 

For thi lyges, they^ nothing ben, P thine. Pr.eie 

But As A wardein hem to besen ; uge; ne to n'ea 

And therfore haue thou this In Mende, laike garde.] 

For but As On Man thow Art Of kende, 196 

And As sone* deyen thow schal ftw yoa ahau die 

*' aaaoonaathe 

As the porest Man doth Ouer-al ; pooreetj 

Therfore scholdest thow be powre & Mek, ^ ^^ Aaeooc] 

And yppon thi Creatour beleven £k, 200 

That Into this world y made forth go, 

For with-Owten him thow myht not do ; 

And tif thou like not him for thi kyng to holde, «>* ^J^ "^ 

^ •'^* ' not take God aa 

Owt Of thi regne Ioxl gost Ryht Mani-folde : 204 yo" «»». ««t of 

your throne yoa 

For wel may he be Clepid A kyng, go. 


That Endeles lasteth eu6re his Beyneng ; 

This ia Crist Go<ldiB sone Of hevene. 

That Into y Maide Alyhte be thaui^gelis stovene. 208 


For Alle Mennes liertes lie doth knowe. 
And Alle here ihowghtes vppon A rowe ; 
Hftihaiipntyoo & bat the schal putten Into thin Enemy es hond, 

into yoar foM* 

hands, and then And Aftir the deliueren, thou vndirstond ; 212 

For that ther njs non lord nefer God but he 
To whom Ony honour longeth to be. 
Wherfore, as Only On god & Almyhty, 
Thow Owest him to worschepyn al Only ; 216 

For bothe this torment & this Noysance 
He the now sendeth, for his Creaunce 

beoMueyoa Thow hast Refused, & £k his lore 

imftmiti to iMlicva 

hiidoetrint That he in Avicion hath schewed before." 220 

yu^ ^^ * Thanne seide king Eualach Anon Agein, 

** Maister losephes, I preie ]>* telle me plein 

What that Avisioun was forto Mene, 

That thou it woldest declaren me Clene.*' 224 

wbieh m « Certes," quod losephes,. " nay how so befalle, 

«x|»latai whoi 

yoa'T« brakm Tyl thow haue broken thy Mawmettis alia, 

your idols* and 

bdtoTtinOod.' And that in theke high lord to hauen ful Creann42e 

That the May deliueren &om Alle Noysaunce. 228 

And Alle lyveng thing enstablisched Is, 

Wheche that Jj* heyest king is of blys." 

Deafige, ooL 1] " FBle my Creance," qi^d Eualach tho, 

said that if rd *^ This Bataylle myn herte goth sore vnto ; 232 

yoa'd g?^ mj* And bothe ^oure fadyr & Ek 50 
^cto^and saTs ^^ j^^^ ^^^ Conceyl behygton me ; 

3yf that I wolde On 90W beleve, 

je seiden Ryht wel that I scholde preve 236 

Be wheche victorie of myne Enemys to have, 

And Aftir my deth my sowle to save." 

" Certein, Sire," qt«?d losephes tho, 
•SoGod wiu. " That Conceil I the jaf, & ^it Mo, 240 

3if thow wilt On him beleven stedfastly. 

And him worschepen As Almyhty. 
And if yoa don't And jif thow wilt not don As I the teche. 

Be war lest god wele taken wreche ; 244 


And but thow him worschepe As me fou seest, 

In body & sowle distroyed thou beest 

Of him that Of AUe thingcs Is domes man ; 

The helpen & socoure ful wel he Can." 248 

" Now Certein," quod this Eualach Jj* king, 
" And 30 wolden ^even me swich conseilling 
That Of Myn Enemyes victorie to haue, 
And therto my lif that he wolde save, — 252 

On him Onliche I wolde beleve,^ 
And Al my Creaunce I wele Kepreve." 

Thanne spak Anon losephes to the kyng : 
"Now herkeneth, Sire, to my.talkyng. 
Do bringe now thi scheld to-fore me, 
And Anothir Maner thing schalt thow se." 
And whanne this scheld to-fore losephes was. 
Anon he Comanded In that plas 260 

A lytel pece thanne Of cloth so red 
To-fore him be browht Into that sted. 
And the kyng Anon with pat biddinge 
A pece Of Bed Silk he dyde him bringe, 264 

And kutte there^ffe two peces Anon 
In the sihte of hem Echon, — 
Eche pece A Fote of lengthe was, — 
Wher-offen A Crois ho made In that plas, 
And takked it vppon the kynges scheld, 
Wherwith he Rod thanne Into J>* feld. 
And whanne thus he hadde don. 
To kyng Eualach thanne spak he Anon : 
** Syzt thow now this signs that I haue Mad I " 
'* 30 forsothe,*' thanne kyng Eualach Said. 
" Certes," quod losepAe*,* " I telle it the, 
What Manere Of Man so Eveie he be, 276 

And he wele stedfastli belevene On this, 
Were ho neuere in so moche sorwe Oper distres, 

yoall b« d«- 
■troj«d, boij and 

BM beat my fiiMa 
and God 11 lava 

baUara on Um.' 

Joaaphaa taOa 
Eraladi to bring 
256 hiaahiald. 


268 Ofthls,JoaaiilMa 
makaa a eroaa« 



MS belelcve. 



That he ne schal Anon deliuered j^e 

Of Alle Manere deseisse And Aduersite. 280 

And therfore, honoure thou this, I Charge the^ 

In worsche[pe] Of him that deyde On tre ; 

wb«n be It in And whanne that thou Art In sret Nede. 

pnqrtochxtrtt Loke Of helpe & aocour that thow him bede, 284 

And that thow sej In this Manere 
As I the Schal now Eehersen here, 
* thow god that deydest vppon the Crois, 
Of me, Synnere, here thow my vois ; ^ 288 

begging mm, bj And On the signe Of this thow sofixedest ded 

croM. tognmt Vppon the tre In thin Manhed, 

bim Tiotoiyt uid 

time to beUere; So graont me Of victorie the grace, 

And to thi beleve therto hauen space, 292 

And that thy man that I Moot be 
DMif 196, ooL 2} £r that this world departe from Me.' 

And 3if thow this falliche wilt beleve, 

Thanne A trewe man schalt fon me preve ; 296 

andtbtnbeibau For thanne In bataille schalt thow not dye, 

But bothe to geten Worschepe & victorie. 

And now that thus I haue the told, 

To gon to bataille thow niyht be bold, 300 

Tbe CroM ibaU For from deth thi waraunt this schal be, 

keep h<i p firom 

dMttb, And from Alle prasonementis, I telle it the. 

^it not-withstonding, not forthan 
thoagb Tboiomee That Tholomes, this Crwel Man, 304 


bim tbree days In distrcsse schal he putten the 

Ukd time nigbte* 

Thre dayes and thre Niht Sekerle, 
For so be me sente the to seye 

That Myhtful god & verraye. 308 

And wete thow wel, ^if thow beleve On this^ 
Thow Schalt neuere tha/me don Amys ; 
For to the schal it ben Eedempcioun, 
And to the devel sorwe & distruccioun." 312 

Eraiaeh promiaae Thanne seide he to losephes Agein 
These wordes tho In Certein^ 

CH. XIl] EVALACH promises to be a CIIRISTIANy IF HB WINS. Ill 

" losephes, that thou woldost now preyen for me 

To kyng of Cristene In Eche degre, 316 

Mo to helpe, and Euere me to save; 

And trewly his Croaunce wil I have, 

jif it be As now thow bchotest Me, 

Trewe Cristen Man thanne wil I be, 320 

Of thyn hond to Resceyven In this plas 

jif Euero I Come Ajen Into Sarras.'' 

And thanne An Old Serjannt he gan to Call^, 
And there him Comau/zded Amonges hem AII0, 324 
* The Cristene to kepen vriih ful grot honour, 
"With-Owte/i Ony Angwysch Other labour ; 
And that losephes haue his Comaundement, 
Of AJile Manere thinges wit good Entent. 328 

Thanne took the kyng his leve Byht there 

Of losephes & Of his Compenie In fere, 

With Ryht A gret Compenye Of knyhtes 

And Mochel Other peple tho Anon Byhtes, 332 

And Evene to the Cite Of Tarabel 

They token the Ryht weie Eueridel, 

And there Abod he fuUy yj dayes. 

As the Storie Of this book vs sayes. 336 

And be the tyme the Sixe dayes were gon,^ 

So moche peple Of his Owne hadde he sein non, 

What Of So manie knyhtes & barown 

Iladde he not Sein At Anof In his town ; 340 

But be the tyme that heyghte dayes were gon,^ 

Mochel peple to him Cam Anon. 

Thanne Owt Of Tarabel thei gowne Ride 

To-ward valachin At that same Tyde, 344 

Where that Tholomes beseged the Castel 

That kyng Eoalach tho lovede ful wel, 

For him Self there-Offen Fowndur* he was, 

And there it let Setten In that plas. 348 

' k quant nint ao Bietisme ior. MS Beg. 
' Aa witisme lour mut li rois de tarabiel, m^# Aatin, a 
toatoe 868 OS. MS Beg. leaf 20, ool 8. 



Chiiatiana to b« 
held in booour. 

ETtlxdi BuunohM 

and ttajt there 

without hie 
herona coming^ 

bat th^ come hf 
the 8th day, and 
tofrarda Cutle 
Valafhim, whidi 
Tholomea la be* 

Sralaeh-in. See 
p. UM, note^ L II] 


Thii catti« if For it was On of the Strengest pyl 

Tory •troiiff. 

That Euere Man Sawgh in Ony Exyl ; 
For it Myhte neuere I-wonne be 
But Only thorwgh Enfamyne, I telle it the. 352 

with a gate a Where-vppon A late on bat Castel was thore, 

•tone*! tiiroir xrr ? r f 

bigh. From the plein Erthe A stones Cast & More ; 

And vndir whcche ^ate Ean there 
oTw a river Ryht A wondir dyspetous Eyvere ; 366 

And that Eever, As brod it was 
•n arrow-flight As the schot Of An Arwe In eche A plas, 


So that ^ate Asailled ne Myhte not ben 

Of hem with-Owte, As men Myht sen, 360 

Df iM, bk, ooL 1] But It were Only be An Navye, 

Thane Coude that neuere hem stroye 

For schot. And Cast Owt of that Castel, 

It was devised so wondirly wel. 364 

And no Mo 3at[e8] woren there-vppon 

Where that [Ma]n Mihte Owht owt gon, 

Only one oUmt But A litel gfatel In A Comer 

litttegateiithnt. _- 

That there-vppon was devised ther. 368 

And Of plein Erthe to-fom fat gate was, 
For two Chariettcs to Meten On In ])at plas, 
Tlie whiche but xxx pas was Of lengthe ; 
It wae a pile of For it was A pyl Of ful riht gret strengthe. 372 

preat strength. 

But Alle the strengthis Of this to discryve, 
It were to long, be my ly ve ; ^ 

' MS Reg. ziv E 8, says — " Et U chastians en haut estoit 
Buirounes de tdlouM riches mi/rs tous quareles de marbre v^rt 
et Vermel & bis & blano. Et se li mur seoient bi«n et haat^ 
encor estoit la tours plus haut assise a quatre doubles, k si seoit 
C* leaf to^ back] 80ur vne roche * tele qt^ onqu^s si bi«n seaos, ne si desfensaule, 
ne fii veue. Desour chele roche seoit la tours marbrine f si 
tres durement haute, ke on en reoit blanchoier les mars de 
baudas, k. ondoier Tiaue del vil, qui est en egypte ;t De tel 
forche estoit li chastiaus, k de tel biaute. ne la si grant chant 
ne fesist en nul este, ke chil du chastel n'eussent iaue doucho 
& froide d'une fontaine, si couroit li ruissiaus en .1. plain miwlt 

t— t MS Add.— si ettoit si baut com en pooit neoir Tene del nil. qui ■! 
eatoit bele et rioe, et oele aigue que ie voub di, oouroit mult puiont en 


Therfore to passen Over In schoi-t Matere 
Of declareng Of this Castel I wile now here : 376 

And In this place king Eualach this Castel made 
For the strongest plot In J)* world fat he hadde. 
Now whanne kyng Eualach thus Eedy was, 
Forth Took he his lorne In that plas, 
And Entrede Into A ful fair Forest ; 
Thus he Comandcde bothe lest & Mest, 
And Comanded Alle his Men there Ano7» rilit 
Hem Redy to Armen forto fyht, 384 

For he hadde Sent forth A spye 
In that Morweni/ig thawne ful Erlye, 
To Aspien Tholomes & his Ost 

There that they lien with so gret host. 388 

And whanne the Spie Cam Agein, 
He tolde kyng Eualach than7;e In certcin 
* That In the Ost It was dynewg tyme, 
Fore it was ny noon. And passed )>• pryme.' 392 

Thawne weren this Meyne Al Redy Anow, 
And Owt Of that Forest gonne they gow, 
And Entrede thanne In-to A grct valey. 
Thanne whanne vppon the hil Come/i they, 396 

They Syen Alle the Ost Of Tholome, 
How that they leyen In Al Manere degro ; 
And Also Al the Castel Of valachin 
Where that his Meyne vreiQn wit/i-In. 400 

Eralach marchM 
his men Into a 
380 foi-Mt, and bids 

Finding from • 
•pj UiatTbo* 
lomts's liost is at 

Eralach ad- 
Taaoes, and 

eamn in sight of 
Tholomes's amy 

biel qui estoit entre les murs del chastiel, k la tour ; si chaoit 
en chel plain par J. tuel de coiure qui cheoit en vne caue de 
marbre, en quoi chil du chastiel prendoient iaue a lorbesoignes. 
Cbil plaiits en quol Tiaue chaoit par le tuel, si estoit li abuu- 
roirs as cheuaus du chastel, si estoit tous paues de marbre, 
k. clos enuiron hien le baut de deus ooutes Sc demi, Sc desour 
tout Tautre pauement. Ensi estoit li ehastiaus aaisies, Sc si 
richement fermes eom vous aues oi, tant qu'il ne doutoit nul 
home viuant par forche d'assaut £t pour ohou Tauoit ferme 
li rois eualach que il n*auoit onqn/^s si forte pleohe de t^rre 
yeue. Et pour chou li auoit il mis non eualachin ; ke il voloit 
ke tout chil ki iamais le noumeroient, i ramenteussent le noa 
de lui en ramembranohe de che qu*il i auoit fait*' 


But wlianne this Ost Gan hem Aspye, 
ThdoroWi men « Tresown ! tresown ! " thei conno to Crye : 
and ann. And Anon to Armes they ronne ful faste, 

For Of here ly ves they were;* Agaste ; 404 

But fewe of hem there ne ben 

That they werew Redy Armed Clen, 

For Evere they hadden A supposenge 

That kyng Eualach wolde for Ony thinge 408 

That Sege Remeven 3if he myhte ; 

And that ho it wolde don lie susposid ful rihte. 
Kraiaoit'ainiKhto Thanne kyng Eualach his men In that tyde 

Attack thtoif 

To-ward this Ost Faste gowne they Ride, — 412 

More vigeryousely neucre Reden Men 
Into non place thanne they diden then, — 
bat get their And Tholomes men that On foote were, 

boma alain by 

ThoiouMa'amen. Euslach his men here hors Slowen there ; 416 

So thanne, bothe parties On foote thei be ; 

There u great There greto Manslawghtre Men Miht se, 

How that Eualache men Tholomes men slowe, 

For ther was Sorwe & grynteng of teth Inowe, 420 

So that Of bothe party es ded there been 

15,000 men are Bet than Fiftcue thowsend,* As men miht seen : 


And there manye Of his men lost Eualach : 
ETaiach and his And whanuo this he sawgh, he torned his bak ; 424 

men flee to 

Thanne he & his Meyne that On lyve were, 
Toward A Castel fledden tho there, 
Wheche Name Of that Castel was, 
[If iM, bk, «)i. i] IClepid was * Comes *' In Every plas. — 428 

Caatle Com«a, ^ jt ^ 

And thedir ful faste gownen they hye. 
He & his Meine ful Sckcrlye ; 
That from theke bataille no more it Xas 
twomiiMoT. But As twey Miles In that plas, 432 

Tholomea pur- 

suee them, So that Tholomes Chased him so faste 

That it wax nyht thanne Attc lasto ; 

' The Royal MS says '.xv. milliers,* but the Additional 
only *.v. M.' * MS Reg. • laoines.' 

CH. XII.] evalach's valaohin hen spoil tholomb8*b tents. 115 

Wherthorwgh Manye Of hise Men 

I^ste this Tholome In the Chas then ; 

For tho that fledden knewen ful wel 

The next weye to Comes Castel, 

Wherthorwgh Eualach his men goten 80C07/r sons, 

And Tholome In that Chas lost Manione ; 

So that Tholomes, bencheson Of the Nyht, 

From that Chas departid Anon Ryht, 

And to his loggeng homward he wente. 

And whanwe that he Cam fere present. 
There Al his hameis beleft per was, 
It was Clene I-spoilled Owt of that plas 
Be the while Of Eualach men 
That^ In the Castel of valachin weren then. 
That, wliiles the bataille & p* Chas dyde laste, 
Eualach his men the hameys browht In faste j 
For they that In y Castel were, 
WiUi Tholomes men so fowhten Jere, 
And put hem Alle to discomftture 
That pere the hameys kepte pat Owre. 
And whanne this Tholomes Resorted A^en, 
And Alio his hameys dispoilled Clen, 
His t^ntis and his pavylons to-broke. 
And whanne this Tholome per-onne gan loke, 
Ful mochel deseisse he took In herte 
For theke dispit, It was so smerte ; 
And thanne A gret 0th swor he there Anon, 
' That he scholde neuere from pat Castel gon, 
Thowgh he scholde lesen half his Meyne, 
Tyl that they wyth-ynne Enfamyned be.* 

And there Abod he Al that Nyht 
In sweche loggeng As he geten Myht 

And whanne the spring Of day was Comen, 
To him there Cam A spie Anon 

436 i^d 1<>*M many 
of hiimeu 

440 intlMcliaM. 

444 Honor w, on 
rataming, h« 
And* that all his 
carried off hj 
Evalach'* man . 

^|g Yalaehim, 



and bit tenta and 
paviUona amaiht. 


Tholomaa fwtan 
hall never leaTe 
the castle tiU he's 
Btanred it out. 




1 MS Tlihat. 


That him tolde tho newe tydinge, 
Al Of kyng Eualache beenge, 

• ■pyMiaTbdio- " Syre Tholome," seide this Spie tho, 

" So good tydinges Cam neuere maw vnto 472 

As now Sire Tholomes Is Comewge to tho, 
^ ^ But 3if it thorwgh Binne distroied be." 

jt .^/ " "Now sey me, Be\\r(i'8," quod Tholome, 

" What maner Of tydinges mown tho be." 476 

" Sire Tholome," Seyde the spie Anon, 

EraUefa u in « Kyng Eualach Is Into A castel gon^ 

Comw with bat '^ ^ '^ 

fow man, and oui But with A fewe Of his Meyne, 

There schalt thow him haue?!, Sire, sekerlc, 480 

And thanne, Ended thi bataille it is ; 

That I seye, it is trewe witA-owtew Mis." 

" Sey me," quod Tholomes, " thou belamy, 

How knowest thou this so Certeinly 1 " 484 

ThaipyMw " For On him Only I liadde A spie 

Eralach enter tlM ^ , 

oMtie. That sawh him entren )>* Castel sekerlye ; 

For At the 3ates so longo Abod he there, 
Er he myht Entren In Oni Manere, 488 

The space Of Ryht A long ^lile. 
So Abod perowte A grct while." 
Quod Tholomes " In peine of thi lif lesinge 
Loke thou bringe me now fals tydinge ;' 492 

peari,cdi.i] And yf thou do, with-Owtcn More 

[Delay,^] deth schalt thow Suffrew therfore." 
" [Sir]e, 3if it bo not so As I haue the told, 
[D]es-mombre thow me, Sii'c, Manifold." 496 

ThoioraeereMivet Anon Tholomcs his knyhtcs gan callo, 
And told hem what A venture gan be-falle. 
And how that Eualach In A Castel was 
But with A litol Mcine In that plas ; 600 

' li rois eualach est entre en * lacoine,' MS Reg. MS Add. 

' End of MS on the sheets misplaced. 
' The letters are quite invisible. 

CH. xil] tholomes stabts to take evalach in comes. 117 

TVhorfore to besegen that Castel lie wolde be-gywne 

With half his Mejme, neper more ne Mynne ; 

And the tother halvendel schold levon stille 

At valachin, for the drodo Of More ille, 504 

That was him left to kepen there 

A litel bettoro thanne they diden Ere. 

That so this Ordcnaunce thus he Made, 

Where-Offen his Moyne werew ful glade. 508 

Thanne his styward to Clepo/i gan he fonde, 
That hyghte vabus As I vndirstonde, 
And Comaunded him there Ano;* Ryht, 
* As that he was A gentyl knyht, 512 

The Eemenaunt Of his Men to kepe/i stille, 
Lest that ElUs to hem Miht Comen som ille ; * 
" So schalt thow kepen there with the 
Of knyhtes and Seriauwtes half my Mene." 516 

Thanne his Steward vabus Anon 
His Comaundement was Redy to don, 
And kept there Stille half his !Mc3mc, 
As wel Footmen As there there to be j 520 

And Tholomes the Ee77mau/;t with him ladde 
Into that place As the Spie him badde ; 
And So Rod he forth Al the Xyhte, 
For he wolde have ben Aforn day-lyhte 524 

At the Castel that hyht Comes,^ 
There he Supposid kyng Eualach was. 

tobetlcge EralAch 
with half bit 
force, while the 
other half etayi 
at Valaohim, 

ander the com- 
mand of hia 
•teward Vaboa. 

So Vaboire- 
maina with half 

and Tholomea 
with the other 
half marchea all 
night fi)r Cornea. 

* lacoine. MS Reg. 



Evalach sends out a spy to see after Tholomes, and the 
Valachin man reports success ; Evalach is cheered up, and 
marches (p. 119). He meets the queen's messenger, reads 
her letter, and asks explanations (p. 120). The man says 
Josephes has told the queen of his defeat ; another man 
comes and tells Evalach that Tholomes has besieged 
Comes (p. 121) ; Evalach goes towards Sarras ; a host 
meets him, that of his brother-in-law Seraphe, who comes 
and greets him (p. 122), and says he is come to help 
him; Evalach^s answer (p. 123); Seraphe's advice to 
p Evalach to go to his city Orkauz, Evalach goes to Orkavz, 

and summons more knights (p. 124) ; he wants to go 
and fight lliolomes, but is counselled to wait (p. 125) ; he 
is besieged by Tholomes, and orders a sortie (p. 125) ; he 
gives the city in charge to an old knight, and attacks 
Tholomes successfully, for Tholomes's men had ridden all 
night (p. 126). Of Seraphe*s deeds, and the pursuit of 
Tholomes's men to a narrow passage by a Rock of stone 
(p. 127), from the slaughter called The Bloody Book; 
Tholomes comes to the rescue (p. 129), asks his men what 
is the matter, and encourages them (p. 130). Evalach 
halts his men, and puts them in four divisions : 1. Seraphe^ 
2. the Steward, 3. Archemede* (p. 130), 4. Evalach, He 
charges Jeconias to guard the passage, and to keep the 
city too (p. 131). Tholomes ordains eight divisions, two 
against each one of Evalach's (p. 132). The fight begins. 
Number of men on each side (p. 132-3). Evalach's speech 
to his knights (p. 133-4). Seraphe's division fights; 
£valach*s feelings, — his prayer, and the result of it 
(p. 135). The dire slaughter (p. 13G). Seraphe*s deeds ; 
his axe ; and his appearance (p. 137). Tholomes calls 
up his second division (p. 138) ; Seraphe's men flee, but 
he fights on (p. 130) ; Evalach's Steward goes to his help, 
and resolves to slay King Tholomes (p. 140). £va1ach*8 
steward breaks Tholomes's line, and throws Tholomes to 
the ground (p. 141). The Steward is struck down by a 
knight ; Evalach's nephew and Evalach go to the rescue 
(p. 142). Archemedes drives in Tholomes's men (p. 143) ; 
but Evalach's Steward is cruelly beaten (p. 143) ; and 
killed by Tholomes (p. 144) ; Tholomes and Evalach 
fight ; but Evalach cannot recover his Steward's body 
(p. 144). Tholomes rallies his men, who shoot poisoned 
arrows, and get the best of the fight (p. 145). 

Now leven we Alle Of Tholomes, 
And that At this tyme Of him we sea ; 
Braiach wnds And Of kyng Eualach let vs now speke, 

That On his Enemyes wold him Awreke, 4 



And that Into the Castel Of Come was gon ^ 

Hym forto socouro from his Fon ; 

So that An Old Seriau7«t he Callid Anon, 

And had that he Anon Bcholde gon 8 

Owt Of that Castel Eiden, forto Aspie 

Where ^ that Tholomes were there Nye, 

Other to valachin A^cn that he was gon 

With his Mejmo thedir Euerichon. 1 2 

Thanne this Seriaunt tho forth gan Hyde, 
And sewed Tholomes In that tyde 
Evene to valachin Castel tho, 

There As. newe tydinges herde he Mo, 16 

* That the Moynie Of valachyn Castel 
Hadde horn hem ful wondirly wel. 
That In the tyme Of the chas 
Alle Tholomes hameis Itrised was.' 
And Anon To Eualach he Eetomed Agein, 
And of these tydinges tolde him ful plein. 
And Of tho pray his Men hadden take ; 
Where-of Eualach gret loye gan Make, 24 

And swoor thanne he his Creaunce, 
' That, what so behapped him in Oni Chaunce, 
With him hond ho hond wolde he fyhte, 
And vppon him to preven his Myhte ; 28 

That, ryht Anon As his men sembled were, 
From that Sege he scholde him Here, 
That so hastely neuero kyng I-Rered was 
From non sege I non maner plas.' 32 

Owt Of that Castel thanne gan he gon 
From thens thre Miles Ryht Anon, 
And with him sevens hundred knyhtes & seriauns 
That Alle worthy men weren & vaylauns ; 36 

And On foote Kyne hundred ther were^ 
Of Ryht bolde men & hardy there ; 

' Whether. 
' et bien .x. et ix. ohena d^ geot a piet MS Reg. 

to find oat whert 

Tlie npy ridM to 

and heum how 
th« men tliare 
haT« carried oflT 


20 Tliolomee** arms. 
He reports thie to 

who \% ffreatljr 
■wear* that 

he 11 make 
Tholomes raiao 
the siege in no 

mardies out With 




He it met by a 
menenger from 

witb letters 

begging him 

to leave Comes, 

M Tholomet ie 
about to besiege 

Evalach can't 
uiiilerfttand how 
his wife know he 
M'aa in Cumes. 

y Mcter told hor. 

So that from the Castel weron they gon 

Fyve I^Iiles^ er that day Cam hem vppon. 40 

And In the Mene while that thei thus gowno gon, 

On A palfrey Cam prekyngo A messengere Anon 

Al^ so Swiftly As the hors myht him here ; 

Kyng Eualach he sowhte Everi-where ; 44 

And thanne with the kyng mette he Anow, 

Thanne thus his Arende he gan to don : 

" Sire," he seide, " my lady the qweene gr[e]teth y wel. 

And thus the' sente to seyne Eche del 48 

As this lettre doth Spesephie, 

Where- with sche bad me fasto to hye." 

Anon king Eualach this lettres took, 

And hem Eadde, & not forsook, 52 

And there In his lettre tho he radde 

' That his Qweene On him faste gradde, 

And, As Euere sche his Soiet myhte be, 

Owt Of the Castel Of Come fat he wolde Te, 66 

For Tholomes that Crwel kyng 

There- Abo wtes wil leyn his Seieng.' 

And whanne this lettre thus he hadde rad, 

To him forto Come the ^lessenger he bad, 60 

& of these tydinges Abassched was he, 

How that tliis knowlechinge to hire myhte be ; 

And to that Messenger he seide Anon 

" How wyste sche that I Into Come was gon ] " 64 

" Sire," quod the Messenger witterly, 

'* I ne Can not 30W tellen Certeinly ; 

But An Old Man In Sarras is there 

That Of Certein thingos doth here lere, 68 

That Maister Of Cristene Called Is he ; 

A wondirful Man he semeth to bo ; 

And whanne sche hath with him spoke, 

Sche wepeth As thow hire lierte were broke ; 72 

' bien .v. lieues. MS Reg. 

• MS As. See * Also faste,' 1. 76, p. 121. But see 1. 885, 
p. 129 ; 1. 642, p. 134. » they (? sche). 


And thaTzne Cleped scho me forth Anon, 

That this Message were sone don, 

And that A palfrey I scholde be-stride 

Also faste As I Myhte preken Other Ryde." 76 

Thanne kyng Eualach clepid his knyhtes Anonc, 
And there told hem Of this Merveil sone, 
* That losephes Cowde tellen of his discomfittire 
The wheche be-fil In that same Oiire ; 80 

And that he his qweeno these tydjmges schold telle. 
How that thike day it him befelle ; 
And how Into the Castel Of Come he was fiedde, 

and tlifn aha nent 
me off to joa/ 

Evalach tell* hb 
knight* how 
Jo«eph«i knew all 
that had hap- 

And tholomes Me to besegen In that stede.' 

And thus As they gownen forto talke, 
Aftyr theke Rowte Cam A seriaunt walke, 
Faste preking vppon A destrero 
Also hastely As he myhte Ryden there, 
Prek}Tige with A bowe In his hond, — 
And thus he seide. As I vndirstond, — 
" And [they] be me Sente to 30W gretynge 
That in 3oure Castel of Come be72 dwellenge, 
* That 3e scholden Goveme 30W wel & wysly, 
And Owt Of Tholomes weye to kepe/? 30W pleinly ; 
For he is now At Comes Castel, 
& hath beseged it now Every del, 
For he hopeth 30 w with-Inne to take, 
And there 30W to don bothe tene & wrake ; 
And there with him Is half his Meyne ; 
Al the Remnaunt, At valachin they be.' " 

And whan/ze king Eualach herd this word. 
Thus thanne dide he be his Owne Acord ; 
There Cleped he bothe knyhtes & bachelere. 
And told hem Of that Merveil there ; 
' For there nas non thing Seid ne don 
That theke loscphcs ne wiste it Anon, 
For ther nas neuere tonge So Certein 
That Of his dedis Cowde tellen it plein 3 ' 

84 Deaf 1, bk, ooL 1] 






A horseman from 
Conoea ridm ap 

and telle Evaladi 

to keep oat of the 
way of Tholomea, 
who hae Just 
beaieged Cornea. 

Evalaeh tells hia 

how Joaephea 
knowa txwytblag 



and had foretold 
all that'* Iiap> 
pened to them. 

Svolsich turns off 

and lUU in with 
a body of 4000 

under the rom- 
nundof hie 


who, hj his 
Qoeen'a euireatj. 

'' And Alle thing As he to me gan telle. 

What Aventure Me be-Felle ; 

And now mown 30 knowe the sothe here, 

That Tholomes Come besegeth there, 112 

Lik As my.Qwene dide me to vndirstonde 

Be A lettre I-wreten Of hire honde." 

Thanne kyng Eualach torned his way 
Strejht to Sarras that like same day. 116 

And whanne he "with his Eowte hadde Hiden two Mile, 
His Meyne gan to beholden with-Inne A wMle, 
They Sawen Comen Isswe Owt Of A forest 
A fair Meyne, And Armed wit^ the best, 120 

What On hors And Of Footmen 
Fowre thousend werew I-Eekened then. 
And whanne this pcple that gan Aspie, 
To here lord they it tolde In hye ; 1 24 

And whanne he that Meyne loked vppon, 
His Meyne he Comaunded to Armes Anon ; 
And As king Eualach In Ordenaunce was there, 
Owt of y oper Ost Cam On A destrer, 128 

Also faste As the hors Myht Gon 
Toward kyng Eualach he prekede Anon, 
And yp his helm there he Caste, 
And toward him Eualach prekid wel faste ; 132 

And whanne that Eualach this knyht beheld 
Bothe yndir his helm & vndir his scheld, 
Thanne was it his Owne wyves brothir 
That of Men he lovede passing Al Othir, — 1 36 

" Sire Eualach, it was Certefied to me 
That Al discomfyt scholdest thou be, 
And that Tholomes, Of Babilojnie kyng, 
Abowtes Come hiith there Icid Asegeng ; 140 

Thus me sente to seine my soster y qweene 
That ful mochel sorwe hath. As I wene. 
And preide me, for Alio loves that euere were 
Be-twene soster And brothir dere, 144 



30W to Avengen vppon 301116 foon 

Bo Alio tho power tliat I myht don. 

And this Is now my Comenge, 

I sey 30 w, Sire, with^Owte/i lesynge, 

That So As hastely As I Myhte Eide 

To 30W Am I Come;i At this Tide ; 

But it is better tha7me I wc/ide it hadde be, 

For I wende In Come to han sein the." 

Thanne kyng Eualach him thanked sone 
Of the grete kcndenesse that he hadde done ; 
But 3it he him preide ful hertly, 
* That he wolde Abyden him by 
Forto Avenge/i him Of his foon, 
And til that his lome were doon ; ' 
" For there may no man fully knowe 
What Frendes he hath In Ony Howe, 
But Eucre At Nede A man May se 
What men that welen his Frendes be ; 
But he that doth In this grct nede 
Me forto helpen hym so to spedo, 
Me thinketh Amonge* Al erthly thing 
It is A trewe brothoris doyng ; 
For 30 knowe^z wel that I hauo be 
I-Chaced from places two Of er thre, 
Where-Offen I preie 30W, In my gret nede. 
Me to helpen wit^ wit & dede, 
And helpe to dofenden 3oure sostres lond 
That I haue longe kept In l^fyn hond, 
And Of My scliame Avenged to be, 
Now goode brother I preye to the ; 
And dowblo Amendis I schal 30W Make, 
Aftyr that the Angwisch that 30 for my sako 
Scholen soffren with-inne these viij dayes, 
I schal it 30 w 3olden be Mani wayes ; 
And 3if Euero 1 Mowe rekeuere to sarras, 
I schal 30W hyglily qwyten Er that 30 pas, 






haa coma to help 

[l«4r 1, bk, ooL S] 




Eralach thinks 
Seraplie, Mid 
prajrs him 

to be a fritnd ia 

and help hfro 
with wit and 

for whldi hla 

180 nhanbehigh. 


And that In 30wre howsliold it schal be sene, 
And Amonge* AUe 3oure baronage be-dene." 
8«rmph6 mdrtaw " je, I schal 50W tellsn what ie scholen do, 


orkMu, To 30wre Cite Of Arkauz scholen we go, 184 

And there we scholen Abiden A stownde 
Tyl Mo Of ^oure peple to 30 w Com en sownde ; 

hisftrongMtdtj, For it is the beste Cite Of 30ure lond, 

And best vitailled, As I vndirstond ; 188 

and abide there And there ;oure Meine Abyden scholen ^e 

till all bU men ^ y 

Join bim. Til that to 30W Alle Comen they be, 

And Also there scholen we sonnere knowe 

Alle the tydinges vppon A rowe 192 

Thanne And we weren At Sarras Cite : 

Sire, this is best. As thinketh to Me." 

80 ttmj au ride to Kyng Eualach held wel with this Conseille, 


And to Orkauz they Reden with-Owtew fSaille, 196 
And Alle here Meine wiVi hem wente 
Into that Cyte there presente ; 
But It was fer passed the Noon 
Er they weren Entred Everichoon. 200 

Evaiacb then Thanne kyng Eualach Abo^Hes gan sende 

aende for his 

barona, AftyT his barowns Into Eu^Ty Ende, 

* That ho that howglite him Ony worldly honoM?' 
Scholde Comen to helpen him In that stour.' 204 

And the Messengeres diden wol here Arende fat tyme ; 
and next morning For Ou the MoFwe, Er it was pryme, 
eome to him. To Orkauz Comen Of the kynges Retenw 

Ful xvij thowsend, As I telle it 30W, 208 

What On hors-bak and On foote, 
So manie fer were wel I woote, 
Wit/i-Owten tho that king Eualach hadde, 
And w/t/i-owten ))° that Seraphe with him ladde. 212 
neaft,eoi.i] And whannc that kyng Eualach this Meine hadde, 

Eralaeb wants to _^ i-iiTrtiAi>^iii 

march against Thanne was he bothe loyful And Gladde, 

And thanne to Come he Covey ted Forto gon, 

There forto han Met with Tholome Anon 216 


Tbanne to him Answerid his knyhtes sone, 

" It were non >visdoom 3it thedir forto gone, 

For to Meten with kyng Tholome, 

Sire, tyl that thow haue here more Meyne ; 220 

But let vs here Ahydo thre dayes Or fowre, 

And be that tymo Getest thow More socowre ; 

And thus tyl thow thi power have, 

TV/t^ him Mihtest po\i not fyhten. And be save." 224 

And 80 be the Conseil Of his barouns Certein 

Anow to that Cite ho tornede Agein. 

And be the tyme that it was lyht Of day, 
" Treson ! treson ! " thei go/men Crien in fay. 228 

Thanne wente the kyng In-to the towr An hy, 
And there sawgh he Tholomes host pleinly ; 
And Anon, " As Armez " they gonnen to Crie, 
That Every man to hameys wente hastelye. 
And whanno he say that )>* Cite beseged was 
Oueral Abowtes In Euerich A plas, 
Mochel was the Mono tliat there he Made, 
And Also gret Anger & thowht he hade 236 

For his Men that to him scholden gon. 
Lest they were taken there 'Eueiichon 
Presoneres vriih hem that were» w/tA-Owte ; 
And here-Offen Eualach hadde gret dowto. 240 

Thanne kyng Eualach Comanded Ano;» 
His Men to Armure thanne Euerichon, 
' And that Owt Of that Cite they scholdei^^ 
Also vigorowsly As Evere Men Myhten do, 
That Neuere so vigerous issw Myhte bo 
Nevere Owt Of Castel ne Of Cite.' 

Thanne Clepid he forth An Old knyht there 
That to him was bothe ful leef & dere, 248 

And 3af him charge with that Cite 
' It wisly to kepen In Alle degre, 
That aftyr whanne he were Owt gon, 
And with him his Meine Everichon, 252 

but la penoaded 
to wAit tlU mora 
help arrives. 

Bj dajlight 

Tholomes'i hoti 

232 Eralach'imeo 

and he ordera 
them to sally oat 
244 on the foe. 

He pots an old 
kiilght In chargt 
of the dtj. 


evalach's horse rout tholomes's men. [ch. xul 

Eralach's hora^ 

tod hj Serapba 
and him. 

mah on Tholo> 
dim's men 

and roat tlicm, 

(thnngh they 
made tan ot 

Clear i, col. i] 

as tbf y had ridden 
all night, and 
taken no rest. 

That no Man In thedir scholde Entre;i Agoiu — 

Were it Erl, knyht, baroun, Other swejTi, — 

For non kende ne for non En tent, 

But 3if it be thorwgh niyn Comandement.* 256 

And thus thanne Owt gonne they pase 
Owt Of that Cyte A fol wHde Ease,— 
For so wildo Rasyng was neuere lyown 
Aj8 they thanne Isswed Owt of that town,— 260 

So that to-Fore Owt Of that town wewte 
Seraphe and the kyng presento, 
The wheche the ferste bataille hadde, 
And On Tholomes Me7^ ful lowde thei gradde, 264 
And vppon hem they gonne;i so faste to Hide 
For with hem was non Abide Abyde ; \8ic\ 
But with speris faste to-gederis they schoke, 
That scheldes & hawberkis Al to-broke, 268 

That they fillen down In the feld, 
So wel they Gonne there hem beweld ; 
And Also here highe hors that here sadeles here, 
Down On the grownde weren thro we Jere ; 272 

So that thanne king Tholomes Men 
The wers hadden, Er they wenten then. 
For whanne they Comew Owt of Jat Cite 
Swich A gret And lusty Meyne, — 276 

For they not wist that be the Fourthe del 
Hadde not there ben, they supposed wel, — 
Where-OflRf Abascht wondir sore they were 
Of that Rowte that isswede there, 280 

And the surere they wendo han be ful sekerly. 
For twies discomfited him hadden they. 
But there. At the Ferste Assemble, 
Mochel peple lost this kyng Tholome : 284 

Ful al the Nyht to-Fore I-Reden they hadde, 
And Non Restii non Of hem Nadde, 
Where[with] alle distempred they were. 
And that was Sene vppon hem there. 288 


And Eualach Men Allc Resto took, 

For Alle Nyht they sleptew, & not ne wook ; 

Wherfore On liem It was tho Sene, 

For they werew bothe^fers and kene. 292 

Man! Merveilles wrowhten Eualache Men ; 
But As for On Man, he dyde sweche ten ; 
For was there neuere Man Of his Old Age 
That half so ful was tho Of Corage. 296 

And Also was Sire Seraphe, 
That A worthi werrowr hath Euere be ; 
For he there bar him so wel that day, 
That so Moche worschepe he bar Away, 300 

That Of his lyve, In Alle his dayes, 
So Mochel worschepe men Of him sayes ; 
And Also Aftir whanne he was ded. 
Of him Men bothe spoken & Bed. 304 

But Mochel deseisse suf&ede Tholomes Men,-*- 
And 3it, A3ens Eualachd On Ma;2 hadden thei ten, — 
So that they Tomede here bak Anon, 
And from hem ward faste gOTine to gon ; 308 

Thanne Sewede faste Euelach the kyng, 
And so dyde Seraphe In that Chasing ; 
And there they Sewed hem thanne so fieiste 
Into A ful streit passage Atte laste, 
Whiche was An hy Eoche Of ston. 
The moste pcrilows pat man Mihte bi gon :— 
For the Hoche In him self was so hy. 
More than fowro bowschote trewely, 316 

And Into the Eyht side it laste Evene lyht 
Pown to the water Of Orkauz, I the plyht ; 
And the lefbe partie it Ban Evene west, 
Into Babyloigne that Eiuere wente ful prest. 320 

And [by] Alle that Eoche passage was non 
But On, that ful streit was there-vppon, 
Whiche was non largere In non wise 
Thanne As ten Men, As I Cowde devise, 324 


Seraphe flgbt 
wonUerfyilljr welL 

Though Tbolo- 
mea'a men are 
10 to 1 aKaiiwt 
Evalach's, thcj 

Evalftcli and 
Seraplie parsM 

312 toanarrair 

4-boirahoto' higI^ 

throogh whkh 
only 10 men ooold 


There Afront myht passen therby, 

So streyt was that passage trewly ; — 

And Into that passage the men Of Eualach 

Sewed tholomes Men that Torned the bak ; 328 

Here so mnch And there was sched so inochel blood 

That On bothe Sydes it Ran Into the flood, 
And so Mochel blood vppon that Roche lay 

that the rock is That ^it the Colour is sene Into this day, 332 

stained red, and is 

stui called 'The And foF slawhtre Of peple pero so manifold 

Book of Blood.' , rj.^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^j^^^ , j^^^ ^^^ ^^y .^ ^j^ , 

For At that Entre they fowhtew so sore 
That men weren there slain Mani A score ; 336 

And As they mihte, they biden that stour 
Til that hem Cam Ony more socour, 
So that the grettere partie werew forth paste 
Thorw gret distresse Atte laste ; 340 

So that Mochel peple was there slayn 
Of bothe parties there In Certain. 
And for that bataille fere so sore was Of distres, 
** The blody Roche " Evere is cleped yrtihrOViien les. 344 
Two miles b^ond And be^onde tliis Chas Chased thei were 

this rock do _^ 

EvaUch's men Be-3onde that passage two miles there ; 

Onhorsed werew Manie Of tholomes Men tho, 

And faste On Foote there gonne they to go, 348 

And Eualache Men hem Sewede ful faste 

On horsbak whiles that Chas wolde laste. 

Thanne here Eyen vpe they Caste, 

Bnt then they & sien there Tholome Comen Atte laste^ 352 

meet Tholomes mi i ^ t i 

Deaf t, bk, col. 1] That Comeng was tho to the scgeward. 

his force. ^ Now he bcgynneth bataille strong & hard ; 

begins anew. * ^^T he scnte liLs Men there forth to-forn, 

Weneng to him non of hem to ban lorn, — 356 

For he wende that Of Mew so gret plente 
Wit^-Inne the Cite Of Orkauz hadden not be. 
And whanne Tholome his mes-men he sawh so fle, 
And Also Men vn-Armed with him hadde he, 360 



Anon Comanded lie In hye, 

* The Armure Of the hurt men hastelye 
Of hem to taken, and hem f er-with dyhte. 

That they myhten ben Eedy forto fyhte.' 364 

Thanne this Tholomes ferst gan owt Ryde 

Afore Al the pres At that Tyde, 

And Axede his mew that fled tho were, 

* What Manere Of thing that thei sien there ; ' 368 
And they him Answerid tho sone Anon, 

And tolde him Al how it gan gon, 

* That In Orkaiiz they fownden Eualach king, 

And there with him A gret gadering,' 372 

" That So Manie werrours we wenden not han be 

In Al his lond. Sire kyng, Certeinle ; 

And there, At A ryht streit passage. 

On thi men dide he mochel Damage, 

For so Manie men ther ben ded 

That no man kan nombre In pat sted." 

" What, how goth this 1 " tha/me qiiod Tholome, 

** Is EuaLich isswed owt Of that Cite 1 " 380 

" Je sire," qiiod they, " — be Owre lewte, 

And that Ryht sone scholen ^e se, — 

Prekyng vppon his destrer, 

And with him Al his power ; 384 

As^ so fasto As he may hye, 

Here he foleweth vs faste bye." 

And wlianne Tholome herde Al this, 

Fol sore Abaisched he was I-wys, 388 

And his Meyne Comanded to stondyn stille, 

For to herkenen what was tho his wille, — 

He preyde hem holy Alio in this degre 

'That Neuere non Of hem ne scholden fle, 392 

What Aventure that henge Oner here hed, 

Tyl that to-Fom hem they sien him ded.' 

" Sire," quod they, " thanne were late to fle. 

And thow to-fom vs slayn there be." 396 


He rides oat^ 

and ftske what 

They tell him 
that Eralach 
aitaekt them. 

376 andelew manyof 

and that he 11 
•oMi eeeEvalach 

l1?A1: aeep.1», 
panuin; the reet. 

Tliolomct rallies 
his luen. 

pivrt t)iem not 
to flee 

till they lee hira 



Ha win help' 

let them be of 
good heart. 


seeing that Tho- 
loinea's men hold 

tells his barons 
that Tholomes is 

and they march 
up to him. 

Clear I, bk, col. 2] 

Evalaoli divides 
liis force into 
4 batUUons, 

1. Seraphe, 

t. vnderthe 

S. Archjmedes, 
(his nephew) 

" Lordynges," qwod Tholorac, " I schal this day 

jow helpen & Socoure what that I May ; 

l^ot-withstonding myn hy parage, 

And perio two & thrytty winter of ago, 400 

^it stormes and batailles haiie I seen 

As IVIanyo As 8oni??ie that here now been ; 

And therfore, As that ^q loxen 3oure bodily honof/r. 

So beth Of goode herte now In this stoure." 404 

And whanue Eualach this gan to beholde. 
Ho him bethowhte In !Manifolde 
What was the Cawse Of the Restreyneng 
Of the Meyne of Tholoines the kyug. 408 

Thanne thowhte ho As A wis werrour 
That Abyden haddo !Mani An hard stour, 
* That Sum gret Strengthe Of peplo fere was 
A^ens him Comeng Into that plas.' 412 

That king Eualach his barons dido Callo, 
And hem toldo what Avontures my lit befalle, 
' And how that kyng Tholomes was there ny, 
With Ryht a strong Moyne fere fasto by.' 416 

So thanne hoi to gedoris thanne we7?to they tho, 
Tyl that they ny Tholomes Ost were Come/* to : 
Into tweyne bowe-drawhtes leiigthe, 
So For Assembled Eualach & Al liis strengthe. 420 

And thanne there Eualach devised Anon 
His Meyne Into fowre batailles to bo don, 
Of the wheche the ferste bataille be-took he 
To that ful worthy werrour Sire Seraphe, 424 

That So worthily hadde him ferst born, 
Lyk As I haue jow rehei-sed hcre-beforn. 
And his Steward, that An hardy man was, 
The secondo bataille haddo In that plas ; 428 

And to Anothir Old worthi werrour 
f * thridde bataille ho betook In that strowr, 
Hos Kame was Clepcd Archymedes, 
As I 30W hero telle w/t/i-Owton les ; 432 


And him Self the Foortho bataillo hadde, 
That In theke tyme so wel koundoed & ladde. 

And whanne thus his batailles diuysed weren Alle, 
An Old knyht to him thanno gan he Calle, 436 

Tliat was bothe ful trewe & hanly, 
That leconyas was Clepcd trewly ; 
And to him thanne for riht gret trost 
The passage ho be-tok, As ncdis he most, 440 

In keping it to deliue;-e to On Man, 
So moche Of werre wel Cowde he than, 
That non Of Tholomes men pere paste, 
Ne non Other, for non haste. 444 

And Also there Charged him he 
That he scholde taken kepe to tliat Cite, 
" For there-Inne I lefte but fewe Meyne 
It forto kepen, As I telle the, — *448 

Xot passeng Of ]Men Six score 
Be y grete hundred, lasse ne more, — 
And An Old knyht here wardein to be. 
Sire Ickonyas, As I telle it the ; 452 

And therfore that non passe be thin bond, 
That Cyte to don Schame 0\>er schond." 
That lekonyas tho forth him wente, 
His lord is Comaundement to don jyreaente. 456 

And whanne Tholome Al this beheld, 
Tliat Eualach Enbataillcd him In the feeld, 
Thanne Anon he Ordeyned viij batailles 
Of his Meyne with-Owten Failles, 460 

Of the wheche tweyn f* ferst Ordeyned were 
Vppon the steward to Assemblcn there ; 
And the Secund bataille devised he 
Vppon Eualachfl Nevev forto be, — 464 

The wheche hyht Archemedes 
A worthy Man In stour & pres. 
For the thridde bataille hadde he In honde 
Of Eualach, As I yndirstondc ; — 468 

4. EralAeh him- 

Kvaladi tlien pats 
an olii kuight^ 

in char]^ of ib« 
pauaK«b7 the 
Rock of Blood, t« 

■top TholoniM'i 
men fromatudc- 

Tholomet fbmu 
hiamen Into 

2 to attack Eta* 
fash's steward. 

t to attack 


1 (ondM- himMif) And I my self In the vijthe^ bataille wil be 

Vppon Eualach that Is so fre ; 
l^^^^y And the Eoreward schal bo the viijthe bataille, 

Vppon Seraphe with-Owten Faille, 472 

That worthy ConqweroMr Evero he was, 

Therfore he dred him In that plos. 
t to form ft And 2it kepte Tholome to his AvaiUes, 


In his Eefrescheng, twey batailles, 476 

That vppon Eualach Scholdc/i Come 
Afbyr that the gret storm were done. 
TiManniM And SO to-gedere Faste they Ilon72e, 


And this storm tho they be-gonne, 480 

twoof ThdiomM'a Vppon Ech of Eualachd. bataylles two, 

■gaiiift Mch of ^ ^ ' 

STftiaoh'i; And thus to-gedere they gonne/t go. 

Thanne sawgh Tholomes In that plase 

That more Mcyne Of his ther was 484 

That In that feld gan there gon, 

10 in«n (that to. 8 Ten Men of his A^ens Eualache On. 

ft onvtenth) of 

n«i^«. ooL I] Thus bothe batailles devised weren there 

Tholomet't to 

ETftiacfa't 1, In Maner As I 30W haue Eehcrced Ere, 488 

Bothe On the ton Sydo An vppon the tothir, 
So that vnder hem bothe 'vvas there fair fothir ; 

Xvaiftch having ^So that Eualach hadde in eche bataille, I wene, 

10.300 In each of 

htoibattaiioua Ten thowsend and thre hundred mew bedene, 492 

What On hors and Ek On Footo, 
So Manye he hadde I wel woote ; 

■ The 6th, this should be ; and Wiethe* in 1. 471 should 
be 6th. See lines 476, 481, on Lonelich's wrong arrangement of 
keeping two battalions for the Reserve. The French text does 
it better. " Et si dist ke les .ij. premieres assambleroient a la 
battaille ke li serourges eualach conduisoit, et les autres deus 
assambleroient a la bataille le senescal. Et les .ij. comanda, 
ke eles assalmblaissent au ncueu eualach qui auoit la ticrche 
bataille. Et 11 dist, que 11 seroit en la sietisme bataille, et si 
assambleroit a eualach ; et le witisme bataille feroit Tariere 
garde, si uenroit sour eus quant 11 aroient grant pieche souffiert 

' — * Si eut bien en chascune des batailles eualach .ij. mil 
et iy. chens, que a pie, que a cheual. Et a chascune des 
tholomes en eut bien .v. mile, ou plus. 


en. XIII.] gvalach's speech to his men before the fight. 133 

And In Eche Of Tholomes batailles were 

Sixtene thowsend, As it Relierseth here ; * 496 

And 3it ^Manie Of his ]Men weien lost to-Fore 

At theko streite passage, As I tolde 30W Ore. 

Kow Eualach his knyhtes Calleth, 
Of what manere Aventure that him befallith ; 600 
He Clepeth forth lord, dwk, Erl, and bachelerc, 
And Al his peple that was there : 
" Lo, sires ! " he seide, " worthi men ^e be, 
And Mochel han knowew Of Chyvalre ; 504 

3onder Tholome hath Ten Ajews Oure On, 
And [3it] hope;* we Ryht wel to don, 
<& therfore Of good Comfort let vs now be ; 
And thenketh what wrong he doth 30W & me ; 508 
Into My lond to Entren with-Owten leve, 
Me thinketh he doth me gret Eepreve ; 
Therfore, And 3e ben goode men this day, 
Ful wel his Mede Qwyten me^ May, 512 

And the victorie Of the bataille this day to have. 
And therto More worschepe thanne we cowne krave ; 
& perto the Egipcien neucre schal 30W Abyde 
In bataylle, neper In feld, At non Tyde. 616 

And this I preie 30W Enterly, 
That 3e wolden strong & Myhtly 
Tweyne the ferste schowres Oper thre ; ' 
And be that tyme here haste schal past be, 520 

And thartne fresch scholen 3e be to fyht 
Whanne they han lost Al here Myht, 
And thus discomfite hem Schole we 
In this Manere, As 3e mown Se. 524 

Now behold what worschepe it were 
Hem to discomfite In this Manere I 


Eraladi Mieoar- 

'Tbo* ThokmiM 
ha« (en againtt 

M he hu wTOogad 

be good men, and 


The Egyptians 
can't itettd 

Bear their flrat 
Sattaeks; then 

4leeooiftl ttacflb 

' le Yous pri et requier que yovlb souffres moult au com* 
inenchement; et si vous les poes Bouffrir .y. caus ou troii^ 
bien sachies Yraiement ke la si tost ne lor courres soBf com 
vous les verres d'autre maniere ke il n*an>nt este aa com- 
menohier. — ^A. 


Feur not death or 
imprisonment I * 

draw near. 

Serapha and 


attack them. 

King Rralach 
fear» fur hia 



And beholdeth now, As ^o Mown se, 

"What Meyne that ho hath more thanne we. 628 

I not what I schal sein More trewelye ; 

je knowen bothe worschopo & velonyo ; 

And therfore I Conceille 30 w Echon, 

That for drede Of deth nothing 30 don, 532 

Kethir for presonement In no woye. 

That 30W Myht Tome to velonye, 

Ne that Aftir be vs Oure Children reproved be, 

Whanne Owt Of this world passed ben we." 636 

And whanne that he thus haddo told his tale, 
He Sawgh twey batailles comen In A vale, 
That weren Redy to the Assemblyng. 
Anon Seraphe was ware Of fat thing, 640 

And A3eiis hem faste gan he to Eydo 
As^ so faste As the hors Myht gon fat tyde ; 
And Owt he sprang As fyr Offe brond, 
With a boystous Tool In his bond, 644 

Tyl that Aproched they weren so Ker 
As the Mo'svntauTzce Of A bowedrawht fer. 
To-gederis Faste tho they Ronne, 
And there they newe game be-gonne ; 648 

Eche, Other down there threw wel faste, 
An Many On bothe sides to therthe wore casto. 
And Eualach kyng bc-held Al this. 
That In the Rere-warde was I- wis, 552 

And hadde ful grot Rowtho & pyte 
That for him his brother distroied schold be, 
Other be slayii, Other taken presonor ; 
Ful mocho Sorwe In herte hadde he ther, 656 

And with his herte he sighed wel sore, 
And with his Eyen wepto he thore ; 
Thanne his helm vp he Caste tho, 
& bothe scheld & spere gan from him do, 560 

And down he Enclynede Of his destrere, 
& In this Maner seide As 30 mown here : 

' 7 Al. See note 2, p. 120 ; and 1. 385, p. 129. 


" Alas, that I so Cursed A kaytyf, 
That for me my brofcr scholde leson his lyf I 
Alas, how schold it I qwyten to the, 
Thowh my lyf thy gwerdon scholde bo ! 
For tliis kendenesse that pon dost for ^fe, 
I ne hadde nexiero good to qwiien it to the ; 
Therfore it is seid ful trewelyo 
That la trewe herto was neu^ro trecherve. 
Now mote tlie kepe;i, Soraphe, Evcry-where, 
lliat Lord that I the Sigiie here Of here ! 
And 3if he he verray god, As they tellcn mo, 
Into his Govemau?ice holich I betake the, 
Thy body from peryl & schame to kepen 
In Alio places where-so je ben. 
And fat to y heyest worschepe 30W bringe. 
That Evere hadde Man On Erthe Icvynge." 

Now beholde here and se 
How ful Of Mercy & Of pyte 
That is the blisful king of hevene. 
How sone he horde the Synful stevenc ! 
Lo ! for that so hertely he made his preiere, 
How sone that the goodo lord gan him hero, 
And grau72tid him Al his hoi Entent ; 
The wheche was pere Anon sone voremoyit ; 
For Aftir tyme that Eualach hadde thus preid, — 
As that to-Fore 30 han herd me Seid, — 
Aftirward, dureng that bataille. 
Alio Maner Of men that him gonne Asaille, 
To grownde wonten thci Everichon, 
And his Enemyes Of him hadde power non, 
Ne non dedly wownde pat day Cam him to. 
For Owht fat his Enemyes Cowden do ; 
For that day gat he So mochel worldly hono ur. 
That Alle fat him beheld In that stour 
Sien neuere swich Anothir worldly man 
To smyten the strokes that he smot than, 

and eaxtm him* 
lelf for eiuUngtr- 
Ooi ing Senphtl li/lk 




He commita 
Seraphe to t]i« 

to kaep his bodj 
from peril. 

and bring him to 
high honQur. 

See hovr fhll of 
_ men^ that King 
OoU of Heaven is! 


For, after Bt»" 
Roo »«*•• prajrer to 
588 him. 


hecnables Serapha 
to groond all Us 

and take do 
daadljr wound. 



•o that men M7 So that they seide Al In fere, 

Beraphe has aaved 

Evaiach aud hu * That Eualach were scomfyt lif he ne were, 600 


And hothe his worechepe & his lond 
That day hadde he Reft Owt Of his hond.' 
But Go we now to the Ryhte weye, 

ifmrhowSerapiM And hcrkcue how Seraph es gan to pleye : 604 

Whawne the tweye hatailles On him were set, 

Tiietwobatuiiona They wcnden han put him to crct thrct, 

think they'll take . , ° ' 

him; For 80 many speris broken there was, 

That It semed to Alle y in theke plas 608 

thej break a That Al A forcst hadde horsten In sunder, 

forest of spears 

about It, So hidous was the Noise, & so ful of wonder ; 

And whanwe here speris thus to-broken were, 
tiMnpaU oat their Here swcrdis they pulden Owt Al in fere, 612 

swords, knlres, i /^ 

aud MX99, Here kny ves and here Gesarmes bothe, 

And grete Axes Also forsothe, 

And Otlur wepenis Maiii On Mo. 
ffoaffainst And thus A3ens Seraphe gonne they to go, 616 

Serapbe, ini « i -»r • 

There forto preven here Maistrye 
[leaf 8, bk, ooi. 1] Vp-Ou Scraphe with-Owten lye ; 
and make such That SO gret Occision Of Men there was 

slaogbtcr >•«>% 

Ifcld to Grounde Annon In that plas 620 

With the hydous wepenis that were/i there, 
For so wondirful strokes were neuer sein Ere^ 
What vppon helmes, & vi»pon scheldes, 
that the bodice And vppon liawberkcs that ilowew into feldea, 624 

look like a moan- ^ , . , , , , . -» r a 

uinofmen, So that it scmed thei*e A grot Mowntejii 
Of hors & Men that there weren Slayn, 
And Of hero wepenis that lyen hem by ; 
So wonderful sihte it was tho trewly 628 

ood alone can That no tonce ne Myhte it thanwe telle, 

describe the sight ^ '' 

ppcanj But Only he that Allc thing gan^ spelle, 
Of whom that Cometh Alle Connenge 
From begynncng Into the Endengo. 632 

And now scholen ^e hereu ^fore In £che degre 
How that Aftir it fyl Of this Semble : 



Ful wondirfulli wel diden Scraphes Men 

Whanne luto that Semble they entred thew ; 636 

But Of the prowesse and the worthi dede, 

Of the hardynesse And Of the Manhede 

That Serapho dide with his Owne hond, 

It IB ful hard to Ony man forto ^iidirstond ; 640 

And Of the Merveilles that be him wrowht was, 

"Weren jieu^re Of Man Sein In non plas ; 

For A gret Ax took he betwene/i both his honde, 

Where- with he wrowghte ful Mochel schonde, 644 

"Whiche that was trenchaiujt Scharpc & Merveillous, 

Riht A mcrvcillous tool & an hidous, 

And therto him self was A large Man, 

"With grcte thyes, As I discryvew kan, 648 

And in the Sclioldres bothe strong & large. 

Where- vppon he scholde beren his targe, 

W/t/* grete stepc^ Eyen In his hed Also, 

And strongliche boned he was therto, 

With smale handes And fyngres longe. 

And therto gret strcngthe Eucre Amonge ; 

So that A me?Teillous siht it was to so 

Him thus On horsbak, As thinkcth Me, 656 

And A good hors that him bar, 

Whanne Into that semble he prekid thar. 

So that he Fcrde lik A man fid Of prowesse 

Whanne that his scheld he threw down in that presse, 

And his hors bridel he fastened Ful wel, 661 

And gan to sterin him with his Ax Of Stcl, 

So that theke day no Failled he nowht 

That Alle tho to Grownde he browht 664 

That to-fom him stoden In his weye, 

Wherforc Of him they hadden gret Eye ; 

Somme, the hed from the body he smot ; 

Somme, the Armes ; somme f * scholdres, foot-hot ; 668 

' There is no French for this word or line, to help to settle 
the meaning of this much-discusst ' stepe * (? prominent) eyes. 

B«rmphe*i mm 
fooffht wondtr- 

but ht wroagUt 

■nch manrels m 
man otver mw. 

He lutd a Ug au. 

a hldeooa tool, 

and h« wa« a big 

with ttrong 

652 andbonaa. 

bona ; and vrban 

he charged lnU> 

be felled aU that 
eiood in hia in^» 

and aniii^ 


dcATing men in And QominQ the leggcs, And soiny;ie b* body On sondir, 
And 8oni7;ie he so Claf As Strok Of thondir ; 
And ^lanie hors Slowgh he dod lu the feld, 

■lajing kniffhta And be him Many knylit ded vndir his scheld. 672 

and foot-menf 

And Many A footman he slowh that stownde. 
And Manie Of here hors he browhte to Gro\ynde, 
That so Manie M^'rveilles wrowhto he tliat day 
•o that yet hia That Into this tyme 2it of him speken we May : 676 

Manhood is talkt ^ , • ^, 

ot Of his Manhod & his Chevalrye 

It were I-nowgh An herowde to discrye/ 
Yet he (Seraphe) But To him self It was vnknowenge 

knew not 

Of his Owne Merveillous werkynge, 680 

For he supposed not withlnne him selve 
That he hadde the Myht Of ten Mew Oper twelve ; 
oftheproweaa FoF b* prowcsse that he dyde, ne knew he nowht 

that be did, 

Lo what for him ho wrowht that him bowht ! 684 

Deaf 3, bk, ooi. 2] And he thowht fid litel that be Eualache preyer 
from Evaiach'i Was tho piowcsse that he hadde there, 


The wheche was A man bothe loyful & Glad, 

Eraiarii and hii And Alle his kuyhtos thawue beholden he bad 688 

knights r^olce at ^ - c i 

seraphe's deeds. The prowcssc Of this Soraphi', 

And Of tho ^rerveilles that did he, 

And of the world ho was the worthiest knyht 

As that day tho semcde be his fylit ; 692 

For Tholomos Men he made to lie, 

And of hem Slowgh fill grot i)lente. 

ButThoiomes And whanno Tholomos behold this Cas, 

And how \>at his Men lostou here plas, 696 

Thanne grot sorwe & schame ho hadde ; 

Bcnds np his 2nd Anon the sociind bataille he goti forth badde.* 

pair of battalions. 

And wha/mo Soraphes Sawgh hem Gomen !Ny, 
Wa/t hem ho thowhte to Moten Sadly ; 700 

senph* bidii his Anon lie soido to his knyhtiis bolde, 

mon await the 

'That stedfasto to-Gederis scholde they hem holde ; 

* MS driscrj'c. or dri5*trye./(/r *de8crye/ de8cril>e. 
' Bi lor euvoia les autrcd .ij. batailles. — A. 

cii. XIII.] beraphe's hen give way. he fights on. 


And that A good stert they scholden Abyde, 

And leten hem Como vppon hem Ride.' 704 

So that they Come» In gret haste A-down 

Abowtes Seraphes Men In-virown, 

And On hem broken they here lawnces faste, 

And 3it removed not Seraphes "Men til At f • laste ; 708 

And here scheldos they leiden faste vppon, 

And ^it stooden they stille As Ony ston. 

And rested hem stille In that place 

Til they Sien the tymo wha/ine nede was ; 712 

And thanne Atte the laste they torned Again, 

So that Many A man was there slayn, 

"WTiore-Oifen was gret ^breth Of hors men, 

But scars On Of Seraphes A3e;^ of Tholomes ten, 716 

The wheche that discomfited were. 

And In that feeld lyew still there. 

But Atte laste f * two fresch batailles 

Seraphes Mew ful sore Asaylles, 720 

And strokes On hem leide ful sore, 

So that they myht Suffrcn no More, 

But torned here bak And go?men to fle, 

And forsoke/t the grownd of Seraphe. 

And whanno Seraphe gan this beholde, 
Seraphe gan hem Ascrie Mani-folde ; 
^it Seraphe left not for tlian, 

But Torned A3en As A worthi Man, 728 

And liis Ax in his hondys he bar, 
And Manie Of hem per-wiih. slowghe tliar ; 
He to-Clef bothe habiriown & hawberk, 
And Amonge^ hem Made A sory werk : 732 

Here helmes he to-Clef A-two, 
Here Scheldis he Alto-schatered Also, 
Here hedis he Clef Into the teth, — 
Thus hem he serveth that A3en8 him beth, — 736 

So that non Man his dyntes Myhte Abyde 
They weren so Merveillous At that tyde. 

Thej stand firm 
as « stone. 

then torn on their 
foes, and slaj 

[1 ?dethl 

But at last 
Serapbe's men 

gire way and flet. 

724 , 


however turns on 
the enemy. 

and splits tlieir 

and heads; 

no man can abide 
hia blows. 


EVALACH's steward reinforces EVALACH. [cH. XIII. 

Also King Era- 
ladi't Steward 

rides xxpta 

hslp Soraphs, 

and his men (the 
2nd battalion, p. 
ISO) foUow him. 

[1 one, p. 1S2, 1. 1] 

Tholomes's two 
battalions attack 
that of Evalacfa's 

The Steward bids 
his men keep 

as he hopes to 
break through to 
Tholomes, and 
alajr him. 

And whanne kyng Eualach steward this beheld, 
That to seraphe were Come/i two batailles In f • feeld. 
And how freschly they fowhten him Agein, 741 

Where-OfTen he was A-drad Certein — 
For non Er sawgh Eualache Steward 
Ony Nede To gon to him ward, 744 

And Seraphe to socoure?* In that plas — 
To him ward Rod he A ful gret pas. 
" Now Certein," quod this Steward, 
" With Seraphe it stond so hard 748 

That Al the world him helpe ne may. 
So mochel peple vppon him lay ; 
And 3if I Ony lengore Abyde, 

He nis but ded At this Tyde ; " 752 

And Anon with that word there 
He prekede forth On his destrere. 
And Al his Meyne holyche with him ; 
There began Anon bataille ful Grym ; 756 

And to the tweyne batailles^ Comen they Anon^ 
That vppon kyng Eualach scholde hauen gon. 
And whanne they sy f* steward thus Comenge, 
A3ens hem tho batailles Comew prekynge 760 

Lik As the tothore diden before 


To Seraphe, whereby thei ban lore 

Mochel Of Tholomes Meyne, 

That be Seraphe Sla^ii there be, 764 

" Now," quod Eualach, " God, for thy Myht, 

So spede Seraphe that Gentyl knyht ! " 

Thanne this Steward, to his lordis seid he, 

" Loke)> stedfastly that to-Gederis ^e be ; 768 

For 3if we these two batailles mown breke, 

I hope Of Tholome kyng to ben Awreke ; 

For I ne thenke neuere Er to bl}Tine 

Til that I kyng Tholomes bataille be wM-Inne ; 772 

And there I thenke him forto sle, 

Ryht Among Al his Owne Meyne." 


So wonten thei forth be that Ordeuau7?ce 

To knowen how that myht ben here ChauTzce, 776 

And fulfilden his Comauwdement, 

And Eedin forth wiHi riht good Entent. 

But that schowT was As scharpe As A dart, 

For there many Mo weren On Tholomes part 

Thanne On the Stewardis Serly ; 

Therfore was that stour ful Stordy ; 

But 3it Comew they neuere so faste vppon, 

That the stewardis 'Men A^ens hern go/zne gon, 784 

Til that to-gederis they weren Met 

The lengthe of A Gloyve with-owtew let ; 

but Euere the Steward let hem pase 

Ty! that with CCC knyhtes Entred he wase— 788 

And somwhat Mo Of lus Meyne — 

TTith-Inne Tholomes bataiUe Entred he, 

That Fyre thowsend hadde he with him 

Of noble knyhtes both stowt & Grym. 792 

And whan/ie thus to-Gederis were?i they Met, 

^lany A steme st[r]ok there was Set 

Be-twene7i bothe partyes there, 

So that Of Tholomes lost ^lanie per were 796 

As thowh they hadden falle In-to the se, 

So mani Of Tholomes Mew lost there be. 

So that forth prekyd the steward In fat pres 
Evene Ryht to Tholome ; er wolde he not ses. 800 
And Amonge^ his Men him smot he so, 
That down to the erthe he gan to Go, 
This kyng Tholome, both hors & ]Man, 
Thus to therthe the steward smot him than ; 804 

And there he Trosted him forto han Slayn, 
Where-Oflfen the Steward was ful favn. 
And At the Erthe tho stille him held. 
And wend han slayn him vndir his scheld. 808 

Thanne Cam fere On Of Tholomes knyhtes, 
That Myhti & strong was In fyhtes, 

The shock of the 

7oU as TholoniM htm 

bat the Stewud 
with 800 knigbU 

brnka throngh 
^6 Egyptian 
line* 5U0U strong. 

right np to 

harla him to th« 
ground, both 
horse and man. 

and hop« to alay 

Bat one of Tholo- 
mes's knights 



[OH. xin. 

Steward between 
hii shoulders. 

This knivht the 
Steward knocks 
ou to Tholomes, 

whoee men nuh 
to reacuehlm. 

Klnf Eralach 

seeing the ttrag^ 
gle, and the 

Steward's danger 

orders his nephew 
(p. ISO, 1. 481) to 
go with him and 
snoconr his 
Steward's men, 
while he helps 
the Steward 

And smot this Steward, there lie lay 

Vppon Tholonie his lord In fay. 812 

Betwene bothe scholdres he him thorwh smot, 

Ab^ he On Tholome lay tho foot-hot ; 

So pat Anon this steward Tomed Agein, 

And so that knyht smot In Certein, 816 

And vppon Tholome he made him to fallo, 

That Anon tho Creaunt he Gan to Calle ; 

And that Sawgh the stewardes Meyne, 

And faste to him there gon72e they He, 820 

This Tholome to han kept Oper han Slayn ; 

This was here purpos thanne In CertajTi. 

And Tholomes Men that gowncn Aspie, 

And to here lord they gonue faste hie, 824 

Him forto deliueren from his Fon, 

Also Faste As they ^lihten gon. 

And whajine king eualach this Melle gan beholde, 
Ful sone his herte be-gan to Colde > 828 

And whanne that he Sawgh this Mello 
In tlire diuers places thus than?ie to be, 
How that the peple Of Seraph (;o 

"With fourre bataylles fowghtcu hee, 832 

And Of tho Meyne Of his Stewarde 
That with twevne bat^illes fowhtew wel harde. 
And Also for his Stewardis body, 
He was ful of Sorwc?i Sekerly, 836 

That A3ens Tholomcres bataillo 
AVhiche that he gan so sore to Asaille ; 
So Eualach Comanded his nevew tho 
The stewardis 'Men Socour forto do, 840 

*^ And I his Body now wele Socoure, 
Of cr with liim to deyen In that schowre.** 

Anon bothe these batailles go/men Owt Glide 
As Sparkles owt Of fyr doth Ony tyde, 844 

And vppon here Enemyes they go/me to go, 
Kyng Eualach and Archemedes Also ; 



"Wheche Archemedes tho 8eml)le/4 be-gan 
Forto Eefreschen there the stewarclis Men. 
Thanne wolden fese batailles noii longere Abyde, 
But to here lord Tholome tho go/men thei Glydo ; 
For thei flowen to him tho ful faste, 
So Archymedes Men On hem gonne;* thraste ; 
So fleddo they to here lord for socour, 
For the gretc Angwich Of that stour. 

And Eualach — that to Tholome was gone, 
His Steward forto don socour sone, — 
He saugh, & stood, & there beheld, 
How, wit/t as grete Mases As they myht weld. 
On his Steward [they] leiden strokes Mani-folde, 
That pite & Rowthe it was to be-bolde, 
With here Mases Coronaled -vvith Stel, — 
And Al this beheld Eualach ful wel, — 
And Thre wowndes On his body were. 
That Tholomes Foot-mew hadde 30ve7i hem there ; 
For so 'Nvith Arwes was he hyrt, 
Wheche hyrt tho Millie he not AstjTt. 
And whanne Eualach^ thus Saugh him be-stad. 
And Amonges hem thanwe forth 80 there lad. 
And therto his Me}Tie So wownded were. 
That Sore Agresyd was he there, 
So that Anon he gan forth to Ryde, 
And Alle his knyhtes be his syde ; 
And Er that he to his Steward !Myht wynne. 
Fowl betrapped so was he hem w/tA-Inne, 
They him hadde taken As presonere, 
And with hem forth gonne leden there. 
And whanne that he Cam In-to the plase 
There As his Steward so Taken wase, 
His helm Of taken they hadde, 
And to-fom Tholomes they him ladde, 








On Archimedes's 

Tholomen's bat- 
Ulioat give waj. 

and flee to their 


nin Steward 
beaten with 

headed with tteel. 

and wounded 


But before he 
reach him, the 

isledi^, aaa 
010 prisoner. 

880 toTholOTMe 

* Tho MS has Tholome, 


[1 Phiio] 

Tfaolomes draws 
his sword to cut 
off the Steward's 

bat, not having 
time, as Evalaeh 
comes op. 

throats the 
Steward throogh 
the body. 

Tholomee then 
charges at 

their shields and 
lances break; 

and they fight on 

Their men fight 
fiercely too. 

Eralaeh cannot 
break through to 
his Steward. 

And to the Erthe there they hem^ Caste. 

And thanne Cam forth Tholome Atte laste ; 

Anow he drowgh his Sword So Feer, 

The stewardis hed to han smetew Of ther ; 884 

For Erthly Man was non leveng In londe 

That so moche he hated, ne wolde schonde. [hed 

And whanne that Tholomez scholde han smeten Of his 

And he myht han had leyser In that sted, 888 

He Sawgh kyng Eualach So faste Comenge 

That he was let Of his purposinge ; 

And whanne he Sawh fat it niyht not be so, 

Thanne Otherwise he gan forto do, 892 

Vnder his hawbcrk In-lawnced he 

Thorwgh the body. And that was p}'ie. 

And whanne he hadde So I-do, 
Anon to his hors tho gan he to go ; 896 

And A3ens kyng Eualach gan he Ryde, 
And Eualach A3ens liim with gret pryde ; 
And so sore there to-gederis they Mett€, 
& There so sore strokes Ech On Other sette, 900 

That bothe here scheldes [Howt] Into y fold. 
And Ech Of hem bad Other 3eld. 
And whanne to-broken were?? here lawnces, 
Thanne Aftyr beliappid many harde Chau;/ecs ; 904 
Thanne On foote gonne they Alyghte, 
And there began A wondir strong Fyghte ; 
Thanne go/znen they there A scharp Schowr 
That was Anffwvschschows & ful Of dolowr, 908 

So that ^lochel peple was there ded, 
Of Men And Ek hors In that sted. 
And Evere kyng Eualach enforsed him faste 
Thorwgh Tholomes pres Forto han paste 912 

Into the place there that his Steward lay, 
jif he myhte it Recovere that day ; 
But Euere they puttew him of w/tA gret strengthe 
That Entren he ne Myhte In brede ne lengthe, 916 


Tyl bothe batailles weren discomfit that tyde, 

Tliat Ferst Archemedes [a3ens]^ gan to Hyde. 

And whanne this Bataille discomfit was 

Thorwgh Eualach« Meyne In that plas, 920 

And flowen to here lord Tholome, 

And After Of Eualache Meyne gret plente, 

& whsLune that Tholome Sawgh thus his Ost 

Ouer-throwen & Slayn with gret host, 924 

And Eualache Men After hem purswen tho, — 

Ful Mochel sorwe In his herte gan to go ; 

Thanne Tholomes his Men gan to Ascrye 

With A lowd voys, And Eyht An hye, 928 

" On Eualache Men tometh je Ajen, 

And vppon him proveth that je men ben ! " 

And So Tomed they the hedes Of here hors 

Thanne A^ens here Enemyes with gret fors ; 932 

And they On foots schotten faste 

Wit venymed Arwes whiles they wolde lasts, 

So that Manye hors there they Slowe, 

And moche Othir peple In that Eowe ; 936 

Ful hard & strong was tho Melle, 

& Mochel peple lost In Eche degre, 

Of bothe partyes there Mani On 

To the deth on bothe sides were they don, 940 

But Only Of Eualache Meyne 

There was persched gret plente. 

Thanne whanne Tholome gan beholde 
That he hadde the bettero be manifolde, 944 

Ai^on A Massage tho he Owt sente 
To him that the viijthe bataille kepte presents, 
' That In non wise Asemblen Scholde he, 
Tyl that Comaundemewt he hadde Of Me,* 948 

Thus to him he sente Anon ful Eyf, 
Non Other wyse to don, In peyne Of his [l]if. 

■ See p. 143, 1. 849-851. French, 'Tant ke lea .ij. bataiUes 
a qai archimades aaoit asaamble, furent deflconfiteiw* — A. 
OBAAL. 10 

TholooMs, Meinf 
hit m«n roofewi 
bj Archimedti^ 


■hooU to Uiem 

to torn on 
Xralaofa't mtn. 


■hoot pobond 

and aiaj nuny ol 
XTftlaeh's meu. 

Tholomeo it thus 

and tendtordara 
to hit RoMrve not 

to attack tUI ho 
bids it. 



sebaphb's dkkds> and thb end op the battle. 

Of Soraphe ; the valour of him and his men (p. 147) ; his deeds 
with his axe (p. 147-8) ; how he did not tire, uid all fled 
from him (p. 148) ; so a messenger tells Tholomes, who 
sends him to his brother Manarcut with orders for 
Manarous to fight Seraphe (p. 149) ; Manareus comes 
with 55,000 men, and routs Seraphe^s 20,000 (p. 150); 
Seraphe weeps ; cannot rally his men (p. 150) ; but he 
and rieven knights still fight on, and he kills Manarcua^ 
whose men make a great cry (p. 151) ; Seraphe kills 
on, but Manarcu8*s men kill seven of Seraphe*s eleven 
knights and his horse (p. 152) ; and then the other four 
knights (p. 152); Seraphe kills a knight who throwi 
q)ears (p. 153) ; takes his horse, and kills away (p. 
153-4) ; Seraphe's second horse is killed, and he ridden 
over (p. 154). He awakes from his swoon, mounts 
again (p. 154), cuts one knight*s left arm ofif, and cleaves 
another knight in two (p. 155). He rides into the field, 
kills a knight, is shot through the shoulder by an arrow 
(p. 155), and thrown to the ground, his horse being 
killed under him ; but he mounts again, and tries to get 
to Evalach*s cross (p. 156). There is great slaughter (p. 
156). Sixty knights rescue Evalach from 500, and mount 
him again, but he is surrounded by 2,000 of his enemies 
(p. 157). Seraphe rides to his rescue, but cannot reach 
him (p. 157-8). Evalach is taken prisoner, beaten (p. 158), 
and carried to a wood ; he looks on his shield and the 
cross on it; sees Christ crucified (p. 159), and prays to 
God (p. 160) ; a White Knight with a cross on his shield 
comes out of the forest (p. IGO) ; Seraphe fights on, he 
sees Evalach*s standard, and shouts (p. 161). The White 
Knight leads Tholomes to the Rock of Blood (p. 161) ; 
charges at him, and unhorses him. Evalach^s knights 
take all Tholomes^s knights but eleven (p. 1 62) ; Tholomes 
surrenders to Evalach ; Jekonias takes him to Orkauz ; 
and Evalach takes the rest of Tholomes^s division 
(p. 163). The White Knight helps Seraphe (p. 163) ; 
8eraphe*s danger; the White Knight kills two of his 
opponents (p. 164) ; Seraphe swoons ; Evalach and the 
White Knight help him (p. 165) ; Evalach unhorses a 
knight, and gives Uie horse to Seraphe ; Seraphe mounts, 
and is as fresh as ever ; the White Knight gives him an 
axe from Gk>d (p. 164) ; Evalach, on Tholomes^s horse, re- 
assembles his men and makes two divisions of them ; they 
renew the fight (p. 167) ; Tholomes's men are in distress for 
their master (p. 168) ; they are slain, maimd, and taken. 
How well Evalach, Seraphe, and the White Knight 
fought (p. 168-9). Tholomes's men draw near the Rock, 
thinking it is not guarded (p. 169) ; but it is, and Evalaoh'a 
men pursue and slay them (p. 170) ; Narbus, Tholomes*8 


OF serafhe's deeds with his axe. 


steward, surrenders to Evalach, who wants to kill him 
(p. 170) ; hut Seraphe intercedes for him. The end of the 
day and the hattle (p. 171) ; Evalach and his army go 
hack to Orkauz, wliere there are so many prisoners, that 
the king tents outside the city (p. 172). 

Now lete vs Speken Of Seraphe, 

Of his wortliinesse, & Of his ^leyne 

That- jit with fowre hataillcs don fyhte, 

And kepen here Owne As mew Of Myhte ; 4 

For As it is put Into Memorye 

For On Of the most wondir Storye 

That Euere was Ead In Ony hook, 

Owther In Storye, As Men Cowden look, 8 

For so lytel A peple & so vigerous 

Ajens so Manye & so therto dispetous ; 

For ther myhte neuere Man hem wttAnstonde 

Whiles they hadden Ony wepone On honde, 12 

So that Seraphes Men On hoise Se Foote 

Heeldon Tholomes Men wondir hote. 

But that storm ne dured neuer han Myhte, 
Ne hadde ben thorgwh Seraphes Fyhte ; 16 

For So mochel prowesse was neuere In Man — 
As for the Meyne that he hadde than — 
As was In him Seyn that day there, 
For so they seiden that At J)* stowr were. 20 

For so worthy A knyht In non plase 
Keuere to-forn there sein wase ; 
For his plase wolde he not forgo, 
That he and his Feleschepe hadde taken hem to ; 24 
Alle Made he here bakkes forto bende. 
And Of here lyves browht hem to Ende 
That In his weye Gonne?! forto stonde. 
With his Ax he wrowhte hem Mochel schonde ; 28 
For here hedes he smot Of Faste, 
Here scheldis & hawberkes Alto-braste, 
And leyd hem ded there In the feeld, 
Many A knyht there yudir his Scheld ; 32 

Seraphe and his 
meu hold tlieir 
oini asaiiMt 4 

So flm never 

eonld hare 
withstood eo 

hat fbr Seraphe'i 

he made all hia 
foes bend their 

emote off their 


Ugt, and taxM, 

Ku in blood to 
the hilt. 

And yti h« ntrtr 


thoofh hia men 

•o that all 
TholooMa's host 
flad from him. 

Helmes, bawberkes, & ventaylles Also, 

Alle to the Grownde he dyde hem go ; 

Legges & Armes Of smot he there, 

And thus mochel peple slowgh In dinars Manere, 36 

That his Ax he bathede In Mennes blood 

From the point to the hylt, there As he stood ; 

And Al this Of him Suffred this Meyne 

fat Ajens him fowhten, & weren with Tholome. 40 

For pat day ne myhten they distroyen his powcre 
For non thing that they Cowden don there ; 
But Al that day heeld him In On degre ; 
And not wery[er] thanne Semed he 44 

Thanne he was whanne he gan ferst to fyht, 
Nether no More he lakked his Myhte, — 
Of wheche him self vndirstonding he took, 
As tellith the storye Of this book ; — 48 

[For] wery Of his Armure was he not there, 
[N]o more thanne he was In the Momewg before, 
[A]nd As fresch he was Evere Forto fyhte 
As In the Morwneng he was, I the plyhte, 52 

And As vigerows he was Onne forto se 
As thowgh non thing to-forn him hadde be. 
And there As his Men ful wery they were, 
& Al forfowghten In that place there, 66 

He hem Comforted with Al his Myht, 
And Of Al that stowr he ne took but lyht. 
And hem Reqwered ful vegerously 
That be him they scholden Abyden by, 60 

For As mochel grace In him was Alone 
As In Alle here bodyes Every-Chone ; 
For, ne hadde Only the myht Of him ne be, 
Clene hadde ben lost Al his Meyne ; 64 

For Elles myhten they neucre han kept pat plase. 
For the Multitude Of [tho] that A3ens hem wase ; 
But firom Seraphe they fledden Euerichon — 
Alle Tholomes Meyne be On And be On, — 68 



And thus dured Seraplie Al that day 
Til it was past fer noon tho In fay. 

Thanne gan there A Messenger forth to gon 
To kyng Tholome, there he was Anon, 
And seide to him In tliis Manere, 
" Sire, A wondirful knyht Is now there, 
That Al this day hath kept the lorme 
A^ens thy fowre batailles, Sire Tholome ; 
And 3it discomfit Neuere they been 
In non thing that we Conne seen, 
And Eucre A3ens On Of his knyhtes 
There ben tweyne Of Owre Owtryhtes 
And Mo Sire, 3if I Scholde Say, 
Thanne I Cowde Certeinly Eekene parfay ; 
And, Sire Tholome, As I the now seye. 
They ne doren not Comew In Seraphes weye." 

Whanne Tholome herde here-Oflfen tho telle, 
Wei Mochel wonder In his herte tho Felle, 
What Merveillous knyht that it scholde be 
That so Mochel haddo Of powste : 
" Go Faste now," qiiod thanne Tholome, 
" To ^fanarcus. My brothir so fre, 
And Seye that I sent liim gretyng, 
Him Forto hyen Ouer Alle thing 
With Al the bataille that is wit/i him, 
That he Come Adown Also steme & Grim, 
And that Of his bataille [he] ne leve not On, 
But with him bringew thedir Euerichon, 
And, as vigorously & with As gret prowesse 
As Euere Entred men Into Ony presse. 
That he On that Entren Anon, 
And As moche distroccioun As he may don, 
That he ne spare for non thing. 
But with that knyht to haue Meting." 

And whanne Manarcus hero-Offen herde telle. 
That with that worth knyht he scholde Melle, 

72 TholooiM Is told 
how ScnplM 
stands aictfnsi 
four batUliona, 


80 though thfj 
outnuinbtr hit 
OMn, two to one. 



TholomM send* 


96 to»ltftck8««ph«. 





and his man 

ftttack Senpha'a 
tired OMi^ 

40,000 flrssh men 
(with 15,000 in 

■gmlnet 20,000 

8eraphe*s men 

Seraphe weepe 
at their flight* 

hat then takes 
hold of hb axc^ 

[I]n herte he was botho glad & blithe, 
And Tholome thanked fill Mani A sithe. 

That tyme Anon was Manarcus Redy, 
And Alle his Meyne that weren him by ; 108 

And so faste they Comen vppon, 
With dyvers wepems Manion, 
And there Maden they here Assembling 
[V]ppon Seraphe, that wery was Of Fyhting. 112 

Now be-gan there A myscheflful stour 
That was Angwisschous And Ful Of dolowr ; 
For Seraphe, Scars there he hadde 
Twenty thowsend* Men that he with him ladde, 116 
And Manarcus browhte with him 
Fowrty thowsend bothe Stowte & Grym, 
And In his Eerewarde thowsendes fiftene 
Of faire hamcissed Men, wel piked & Clene ; 120 

And Seraphes Meyne, So wery they were, 
And so forfowhten toforetymes there. 
That non lengere ne Myhten they fyhte, 
But Torned here bakkes fere Anon Ryhte. 124 

And whanne Serapho that beheeld. 

His Meyne As-scomfited In the feld, 

Ful tendirly thanne there wepte he tho, 

And mochel Momeng & sorwe he Made perto : 128 

" Alas ! '* quod he, " what is now myn Aventure, 

For nedis I most Abyden this schowre. 

And my Meyne thus from Me go ! 

Now what Is best for me to do 1 132 

For non Other belpe here Nys Certein, 

But be taken, Oper ded, vppon this ployn ! " 

And At that word his Ax he took In honde, 

His Meyne to Rescrye, ^if he myhte fonde ; 136 

But so Fer weren they I-fled than. 

That tomen A^n wolde they for non Man ; 

* Car lea gens seraphe n'estoient mie plas de .viy, mile, et 
H autre estoient plus de .xxx. mile. Car en la darraine 
bataille aaoit bien .xr. mil homes ct plus. — A. 



And so for wente/i they Evene streyht Anon 
To the passage Of the blody Eoch Of ston. 

And whanne Alle this beheld tho Seiaphe 
And that it thanne Myhte non Othirwise be, 
His hors hed he tomed tho Ageyn, 
And with him but Enlevenc knyhtes Certein. 
And there As was the thykkest pres, 
He witA his knyhtes Entrede, & wolde not ses. 
And so it happede, As he gan forth Kyde, 
He mctte Manarkiis At that Tyde ; 
In the Midde weye As he gan go, 
To-Gederes they mette/i bothe two ; 
And there left [ho] vp^ his Ax tho Anon, 
And to this Manarcus he gan to gon ; 
There his hed he Clef down Ryht 
Evene to the Scholdres, I the plyht, 
That ded he fyl down there Anon, 
That Alle his Meyne It Syen Echon. 
And Alle that Evere Cam in his weya, 
Of hem spared he non tho Certeinlye, 
But Other to the deth he wownded was, 
there Elles dismembred In that plas ; 
For nethir hors ne man ne scaped him non, 
That Alle to therthe they wenten Anon. 

And whanne Manarcus men this behold,-** 
That here Cheventein was slayn In the feld, 
And Of Jiere felawes ded Also, — 
Ful l^lochel Momeng thanne Maden they tho, 
And Setten vp tho An huge Cry 
That Into Eualaohe Ost was herd Clerly, 
There As he fawght with Tholome. 
Ful wel Al this Cry tho herde he ; 
But ^it ne knew tho not Seraphe 
Whom he hadde slayn, ne what was he. 
And whanne so Mochel soiwe they gan to Mike, 
Thanne gan his herte tho foito Awake, 


144 andvithll 




8«nph« dMTM 
Manarcus to Um 



and slaja many 





172 wlMuatekM 


And forth he prekede Into that prcs, 
And with him his knyhtes, & wolde not ses ; 176 

And there here grownd he made hem forsake, 
And Manye Of hem Slowgh, and dyde moche wrake. 
When vanareni'a And whanne Manarcus bataiUe say 

m0Q gee thst 

only It oppose That but twelve Of hem weren parfay, 180 

For ful sore thanne Aschamed they were 
That they Of so fewe scholden han fere, 

Deaf 5. Uok, And Anon vppon him Eetorned A3en, 

That bothe doel and gret pete it was to sen^; 184 

they set vigor* And fill vegorously On him they sette, 

oasyon "P ^ g^ ^j^^ ^|.j^ stronge Strokes they Mette 

and slay his That hls hors vndir him was Slayn, 
his 11 knighto, ^d therto vij Of his knyhtcs In Certayn. 188 

, Thanne weren there left but fowre & he, 

Whiche was gret doel thanne forto se. 

seraphe flghu Kow Is seraphe In the place On foot€ Alone, 

*° But foure of his knyhtes, him self J)* fy[ft]he pcrsone. 

And manye Merveilles there wrowht Seraphe, 193 

As here-Aftyr Me heren tellen schole ^e : 
- . He slowgh down Ryht bothe hors & Men, 

Heilmes and hawberkis to-kraked he then ; 196 

and stays knighu Bothe kuyhtes and bacheleris vppon A rowo, 

and bachelors. 

In that Feld he gan hem down tlirowe ; 
Bothe palettes & scheldes he to-Craked Asondir, 
That Among So moche Multitude it was gret wondir 
Re and his 4 That he And his fowre knyhtes dy den there, 201 

knights make r>, ■, t ^n t t -^r ,^ 

gr«u heaps of- So that grete hepes Of dcde Men there were, 
***^***' Of dede hors and wepene that there lay. 

Bo Mochel Moordre Of peple was that day. 204 

And whanne hia Fowre knyhtes this beheld. 

That he was so Manful In the feld. 

On they leyden, & Fowliten ful faste, 


At laakthe 4 Til alle foure weren slayn Atte laste ; 208 

Knights are. > -_,, , ^11 

•latiK Thanne was there non Other boote 

But that Nedys Seraphe besteren him Mote ; 


And whanno that his felawes he sawgh (led, 

Thanne Cowde he non Other Red, 212 

But vppon bother his feet stood ther. 

And beheld the hepes that Abowten him were ; 

Ek Also he loked 3it ferthere Abowte, 

And Al Abowtes him was A ful gret Rowte. 216 

Ano/i his Ax the[n] took he On honde, Senph* 

Ryht forth Into the pres tho gan he fonde, 
And to A knyht there gan he to clyde v^cv* out a 

•^ . ® ^ '' Knight who hM 

That Many spcris hadde Cast In that tyde, 220 cMt nuuy ipMr^ 

But 3it Manie mo hadde he forto Caste ; 

But Seraphe him lette tho Atte laste ; 

Seraphe Anon there Alette him "with his Ax, 

But Neuere, Aftir that, ful litel he wax, 224 

For the Ryht Arm he smot Of Clene 

Thorwffh hawberk and haberiown, ber was it sene, clears htm to 

° ,/ thebrewt. 

That down to the brest the strok tho wente, 

And the Arm Into the Feel[de] fere fley presente ; 228 

His scheld from him Also smot he there ; 

As thowgh that the body Asondir were, 

Ilis herte O wt Of his body ther fyl, •« that h\* heart 

, , , , , IklUoutofhta 

And he In the Fceld ded there-tvL 232 bodji 

And whanne the Re;?mau;at beholden him tho, 

That sweche Merveilles he gan to do, 

Non Of hem ne was So hardy 

To Entrew his place, ne Comen him Xy ; 236 

And that ded ma/mes hors he took Anon, 

And lyhtly Into the sadel he gan to gon, thenjiimp««i 

As thowgh him hadde Eylyd non thing, 

Ne non point Of Al his Armeng. 240 

And whanne On hors that he was set, 

Thanne hadde he gret lust to Fyhtew bet, 

And there Ins body putte In bawndouw. 

To the tothere peple ful mochel distroccioun ; 244 

And forth Into the pros ho wente ; chanrei anew 

into Um khroBd 

There Nas non that he myhte hente, 


■liiys right 
and left. 

[leafs, back, 
col. 2] 

and drives hU 
foes to Hie 
narrow passage 
hj the Bock of 
where they 
are all taken 

But others of 
Manarcns's men 
torn on Serapbe^ 

kill his horse, 

and trample 
over him till 
he is nigh dead. 

Bnt Seraphe 
awakes ttom 
hia swoon. 

springs into a 

That here Amies from the hody he smot tho, 

Here hedes Offe, here lemes Also ; 248 

Here helmes, here harbcrions, he barst On sondir, 

He[re] Scheldes, here speris, that it was wondir, 

So that he drof hem forth In his weye 

Til to the Roch they Come, As this doth seye, 252 

"Where As was the streyte passage ; 

ThaTine werew there take, bothe bacheler & page, 

And As fele As the keperes wolde have 

Of that Roch, and wolde hem save. 256 

And whanne tho that behindew were 

At the Roch [sien] here felaws slayn there, 

And the Remnant prisoners take, 

Thanne Amonges hem was moche wrake. 260 

And whanne they Seyen Al this fare, 
That Eualach swich knyhtes hadde thare, 
Ful Irowsly tomed they Into that pres, 
And for nothing ne wolden they ses 264 

Tyl that to Seraphe the Comeji Agayn, 
And vndir him his hors has * Slayn ; 
& Er that he Myht Relevyn A3en tho, 
Two hundred hors Ouer him go^me go, 268 

Ouer his Body there In that plase. 
So that Ny ded forsothe he was, 
So that he lay Stille In swownyng 
The Spas Of tweyne bowe-drawhtes schetyng ; 272 
And thanne wenden they he hadde be ded. 
For whom they Moornede In that sted. 
For that he was So worthi A knyht. 
And there so wel hadde bom him In fyht, 276 

That they ne hadde taken him presonere 
3if that his lif Myht have be saved there. 

Alle this while lay Seraphe In Swownewg 
Whiles these knyhtes weren thus In talkyng ; 280 

And whanne Of his Swownewg tho lie Awook, 
Anon there Into A Sadel he Schook ; 



His Ax Anon On hondo took he, 

Swich merveilles werkyng fat wondir was to se. 284 

Ho Mette A knyht Anori hastely there, 

Of whom he ne hadde but lytol fere ; 

With his Ax he Rewardid him tho, 

That his left Arm Into the feld gan go. 288 

Thanne Anothir there him Mette Redily, 

And Seraphe to him was ful hasty, 

& there so him hitte vppon the hed 

That his body ho toclaf In that sted, 

Evene to his Sadelis Arsown, 

That he In the Feld fyl ded Adown. 

Thanne theke hors be the bridcl he took. 

And his ferst hors tho he forsook ; 

His Foot In the stcrope Anon he sette, 

& sprang Into y sadcl, & not ne lette ; 

3it, As forbrosed As he was, 

He prekyd forth Into that plas. 

And whanne tho knyhtcs beheldcn, Echone 

That beforu tymes for him Made Mone, 

That he was On horsbak Ageyn, 

Thanne Amonge^ hem gormen they seyn, 304 

And Ech Of hem to Othir gan Schewe 

That wondirful Merveille On A rowe, 

For they wenden tho In Certein 

Owt Of that place neucre to recoueren Agein. 308 

Anon forth he gan him dresse 
To the grettcst maister of pat presse ; 
And with his Ax to him he Kan ; 
Vppon the helm he smot him than 312 

That he fyl down there In the plas, 
So Of that strok Astoned he was. 

Thanne Arwes to him gonne they schetSi 
4.nd Manye Speris that weren grete, 316 

So that with An Arwe they him tho smot. 
That Evene thorw the Scholdcre it hot, 

ch->p« offOM 
knight's aim* 

292 Middle-bow, 

296 takes UiU 

kntghf s horsey 

3Q0 and charges sgato 

who wonder 
that he has 

Seraphe kills 
the strongest 
to him. 

He is woandsd 
bj an arrow. 




and with tpmni 

hat not mortally. 
80 be starts op. 

mounts another 
hOTse, and rides 
off towards king 

bat his fbes 
bar his waj. 

Seraphe's men 
rush towards 

there's a fierce 
fight; many, 
are slain. 

and Evalach 
Is lost. 

That the schaft thorwgh him gan go 

Ful halfendel the Schaft & Mo. 320 

And whanne he Felto fat so hurt he was, 

Fill [vrjsably he Kod Into that plas, 

And him Sterede As he ferst began ; 

But he was hurt Of Mani A man ; 324 

Bothe with Arwes and with Speris 

They diden hym ful many gret deris, 

And to the Erthe there down him threwe, 

And his hors vndir him they Slewo. 328 

And whanne that he Sawgh he myht not Abide, 

Vp In that pros he Recouerid that Tyde, 

And Felte that he hadde non dedly wounde ; 

Anon vp he Stirte In that Stownde, 332 

And Anothir hors he sawh where stood ; 

There Anon vp into the Sadel he jood, — 

Wheche hors was bothe Fre and kende, — 

Evene streyht toward Eualache f® wey gaw wende, 336 

That him Ofte he bemente ful sore, 

In his herte neuere Man leveng More, 

That so lefte he Neucre with-0>vten les 

Til that he Cam Into the grettest pres, 340 

Eualaches Signe there Forto have sein ; 

But Aftyr him they gonnew preken Certain, 

And him forbarred they the weye there 

That he Eualach Mihte not Come?i Kere, 344 

And that Sien tho the Men of Seraphe ; 

Anon towardc him they gonne faste fle ; 

Towardis Tholomes Ost gonne they gon, 

And there Merveilles they wrowhtew Anon ; 348 

And so hardelich they fowhtew, & so sure. 

That On bothe sides was gret discomfiture 

Bothe Of Tholomes ^len & Eualaclis pe kyng ; 

Many werew there dede, bothe Old & ^ing, 352 

But Amonge« hem kyng Eualach was lost. 

That they ne wiste Into what Cost ; — 


For Tholome kepte him Owt Of that rowte 

More thanne tweyne boweschotes w/t/i-Owte. 356 

And whaime Seraphe there-Offen herde, 
Into that gret pres tho forth he Ferde, 
And there Sawgh he where Eualach lay, 
And his swerd On honde drawee parfay ; 360 

For his hors vndir him was there ded, 
Whiche was to Eualach A sorweful Red. 
And Sixty knyhtes hym gonne Reskewe, 
There A3enst .v. himdrid they fowhten Al newe, 364 
So that they kyng Eualach Rescwed Agein 
With here grete Escryes tho In Certein ; 
And On horsbak sone was he Set ; 
Thanne there Anon wit/t his Enemyes he Met. 368 
And whanne they that him to-foren took, 
On him behelden, & Connen to look, 
Thanne On Eualach they sormownted A3ene 
Ful Irowsleche there Alle be-dene ; 372 

And Eualach^ his Ax there took On honde, 
And departed vrlth hem pai Abowtes him gon 8to?2de, 
So that anon there he was betrapped 
Amonge* two thowsend, As it tho happed, 376 

That so the Syht Of him his !Meyne lost there, 
And ne kowde not weten In what place no whore. 

And wha?me Seraphe Saw he myht him [not] finde,^ 

Seraphe rides 

to necne EraUeh 

whose hone has 

60 to 500 they 

Dut they 

and remoont 

Eralach fights, 

Jeafa, ool. 2] 
bat gets sur- 
rounded l^ tOOO 
of his foes. 

Al his Meyne he lefte him there behinde, 

There prekyng forth Into that pres 

That for non Of hem woldo he not Ses, 

For ded Ra there wolde he han be 

Thanne owt of that bataille forto Fie ; 

Tyl king Eualach hadde he Fownde, 

He nolde neuere parten from that Grownde ; 


When Seraphe 
cannot find 

he tnms on 


' The French makes Seraphe do this : " Quant II [Seraphe] 
les vit venir, si fu mult iries, et laisse eualach, si prent la 
hache a deus mains, si lor keurt seure. . . . £t quant il quida 
retoumer a eualach, si 11 orcnt la fourclos." — A. 

* et quaot il vit que 11 ne Ic troueroit. — A. 



•o strong and 

bfMk through 

On thtotliM 
Is ETalach, 

run throogh th« 



and taken 
priaontr by 


the blood mno 
ning out of his 
month, ear*, 
and wounds. 

so that he Is 
nigh dead. 

For him to lesen In that Mauere tho 

He ne wolde, And Othirwise Myht it go ; 388 

But the Btrengthe Abowtes him was 

So Merveilloiis there In Many A plaa, 

That him Neghen not he ne Myhte, 

Kethir Of him to haue;^ non Syhte, 392 

For the Melle & the peple there was so strong, 

That Endurcn Seraphe ne myht not long. 

And thus As Seraphe was Evere Abowte 

To han broken the scheltrom Of that Rowte, 396 

And Eucre they liim withstoden than, 

3it Neueretheles Slowgh Seraphe Mani A man ; 

But Eualach was vppon the tothir Syde 

Betrapped ful sore In that Tyde, 400 

For hvrt he was thorw his body 

With thre Gleyves Sekerly ; 

And him prisoner hadde taken Tholome, 

And be the brydel forth him ladde he ; — 404 

jit what with strif, & what with Othir, 

Eucre Eualachs men fowgliten A gret fothir ; — 

So that At the laste this Tholome, 

With XV knyhtes Of his Meyne, 408 

So Ferden they with kyng Eualach 

That they tobrosed him bothe body & bak. 

So wery that they weren forfowghte, 

That no more defenden hem no Mowglite ; 412 

And so Eualach tho forth they ladde 

As that kyng Tholome hem badde, 

That so was he forbrosed and forbete 

That Of his lif he nowht ne lecte. 416 

So that the blood Ran Owt At his Mowth 

& At his Eren, that was Selcowth ; 

For so Mochel blood he hadde there loste 

That In what plase he was he ne woste ; 420 

His woundes tho hadden So Sore I-bled, 

That In that place he was Ny ded. 

He and hit 
are led into 
a wood 




And so from his Meyne they him drowe 

Ful fer thcns Into A lowe,^ 424 

And him tliere ladden Into A woode 

That there besides tho hem Stoode, 

And Ek his felawes him beside, 

That with him were taken In that Tyde ; 428 

And to this woode hem ladde Eue?ichon 

There Forto Onannew hem Alle Anon ; 

For ^it Armed weren they Alle, 

That So Manye Men they dyden down falle. 432 

And whanne Eualach Sawgh pia grete Mischef, 
That he was fallen Into so gret Repref, 
And Euere with-oute Eecoueringe to be, 
Thanne Moche Sorwe & Mone Made he. 436 

Whanne Eualach to the woode Aproche be-gan, 
Thanne wax he A wondir Sory Man, 
And Caste his Eyen vppon his Scheld, 
And the vigowr Of the Cros pare he beheld, 440 

That In his Scheld ther6 was it set ; 
And Euere f* holy Signe he beheld bet, 
That so longo there he be-held 

Vppon the Rede Crois In his Scheld ; 444 

So longe beheld he that Crois thanne, 
That In theke Crois he Sawgh |)^ forme of A Manne 
Vppon that same Crois Crucified to be, — 
Thus In that Crois him thowghte Sawgh he, — 448 
And Feet & hondis him thowghte Also, 
That vppon A Red blood Ronne they tho. 

And whanne Eualach this Sawgh In his Scheld, 
And these Merveilles there ho beheld, 452 

Thanne gan he Forto Syghen wel Sore, 
And 3it to wepen wel Mochel More ; 
& bothe "with Mowth & herte tho he thowghte. 
But for febilte myhte he speke nowghte, 456 

' et 11 rauoient ia eslongie de la bataille bien demie lieue. 

■orrow and 

He casta hie eyea 

on hia thiald, 

and loolcs so long 
on Josephee's 
Bed Cross 

that he sees in 
it the form of 
a num crudfied. 



He sighs and 



and prajsto 
God, ThrM in 

to enable him 
to receive tra^ 

and proclaim 

aa the onlj God.] 

death 1" 

At once a 
Knight oomea 
oat of the foreat, 

bearing a white 
ahleld with a 

riding a white 

Thli knight 
tumi Tholomee 
towards Orkauz. 

" verray God that Sittest In Maiesto, 

As it is told, — On God & persones tlire — 

Of whiche I bere the Signe Of his passiouw ! 

So, Goodo lord, take me to savacioun, 460 

That I Moot Kesceyven 30wre Creaunce, 

And In Stedfast beleve, w/t/i-Owte» variawnce, 

Thin holy name Forto proclame, 

That thow Art most Sothfast God Of Name, 46i 

And Most Mihtful god In Alle degre, 

And now god ne lord but Only Euere je ! 

So Save me, Goode lord. In this grete schowr, 

From Angwich, deth, and Alle dolowr ! " 468 

And whanne this woord he hadde I-seyd, 
Abowtes him he lokede In A breyd ; 
And he Sawgh Comew Owt Of that forest 
A semly knyht there, araied -with the best, 472 

And Clene Armed from Tope to the too. 
There thus Kyaly gan he Owt Go, 
And Abowto his Nekke heng A whyt scheld 
Whiche that was seyn Ouer Al that Feeld — 476 

In whiche Scheld was A Crois so Eed, 
In Signe Of him that Suflrede ded ; 
Therto his hors As whit As the Lylye Flowr, 
And he A worthy knyht and of gret valowr ; 480 

In his Scheld a spere ful Eedylich leyd, 
"WtHi Alle hem to Meten, As it Is Seyd. 
And whanne y knyht his hors v^iih liis Spores he took, 
On hym Tholomes Meyne gayme forto look, 484 

And to Tholome kyng he Cam ful sone. 
And him Torned Agein there Anone^ ; 
Toward the Cite Of Orkauz tho 

This white knyht ladde Tholome tho, 488 

And towardis tholomes Ost they wewte ; 
But Tholome knew not here Entente. 

^ bI iete les mains, si prent tholome par le frain, et s'oi* 
toume a tout ariere vers la chite tout droit — A. 


And Euere Saraphes fawht strong & hardo s&npu flghte' 

on sffftliMt 

A3ens Tholomes kyng his Eerewarde, 492 ThoiomM't 
So pai Alle that Evere A3ens him fowghte "*^ 

Wondred that he So duren fere Mowghte ; 
And Atte laste Eualachs sipnie he gan to Ascrye He ihonu at 

"WiUt A wondirful voys & Kyht * An hye, 496 anHoioudiy 

that Tholonm 

That bo the Eualach & Tholome it herde iMan it. 

Into that plase how that it y Ferde. 

And thanne Seide kyng Tholome Anon, 

" Let vs Ordeyne oure Meyne, & fast he/ines gon, 600 

For discryed now alle we been 

Thorgwh this Chasing, As I kan seen." 

Thanne destrens with spores g07{ne they prikke, and ipon off. 

And Amongis that Chasing Eedyn ful thykke, 504 

And the white knyht Eood Anon Bnt the whit« 

Aiz-'ii Knlffht leads 

To Tholome As flE^te As he Cowde gon ; Thoiome«'ihorM 

And this white knyht Tholome be p* bridel ladde, 

That non Of his Meyne no powere ne hadde 508 

Hjrm A^en forto Restreyne. 

But Evere wende Tholome In Certeine 

That the Forest Al day to-Fom hym was, 511 

Tyl that to the streyt of the Roch hee Comen be Cas ; — tin they «m»e 

to the narrowa 

But there say no ma7i that white knyht, or the Bock 

Saufe Only Eualach, In his Syht. — 

And whanne they come?^ to that Streit passage [iMf«»baeic, 

eoL t1 

There As to-Fom was don So Moche Eage, 516 

Tho that theke time the passage kcpte, 

Ful sore For Eualach han they wepte ; 

And whan they him In this Maner sy him gon, where Kraiaeh'a 

men let them ];mu% 

They letew hym thorwgh passe riht Anon, 620 

But it was wondirful Im^here syht. 

The werkyng Of this white knyht ; 

And [whanne] this passage weren they past, • when they kh 

inlo tbeouea. 

In the Middis Of that Feld Anon In hast 624 

' and Ryht, repeated in the MS by mistake. 



tlM White Knighi 
Itte TholoinM go, 

diaii^ at him, 



EvabfOh, seeing 
this, draws his 
sword, and goes 

STilacih't men 

duMe Tholomes'a, 



whom ihtf 

Emlnch keeps 
T1io!omes down 
on the ground^ 

There this white knjht lefte Tholome, 

That but fewe Of his Heine him Miht se, 

And gan wel fast Alowd To Crye, 

" Goth to now, Goth to, And fat In hye." 528 

And whanne this Cry herde Tholome, 
He gan to baschen, and al his Meyne, 
And to him he Ean A ful gret Cowrs, 
& that knyht Tholome gan vn-hors, 532 

And down to therthe there him Caste 
Bothe hors & Man, Er he thens paste. 

Whanne that Eualach tho this beheld, 
How that Tholome was feld In the feld, 536 

Tho Owt his swerd he drowgh Anon, 
And to-ward this Tholome gonne to gon. 
And whanne they that the passage kepte 
Syen this, thanne Anon forth they lepte 540 

To king Eualach here Owne Lord, 
There AUe Anon Kedy At On word, 
4jid after with lawnces goTznen they Chase 
xo tholomes Men tho In that plase, 544 

And Anon with here Speris down hem Caste, 
Tholomes Men in fat plase fere Atte laste, 
Everichon, Sauf Only Enlevene, — 
Which was the moste wondir vndir f hevene 5 i8 
How that they In theke feld Come 
That To-fortyme Atte forest weren Al some. — 
And wha^me they seyen thei scholde thus be take, 
Thanne AmongM hem there was mochel wrake ; 552 
Not-withstondyng ^it A3en they fowhte 
Also longe As that they there Mowhte ; 
But here defens here Angwisch Miht not Slake, 
For it was Goddis wille they scholden be take. 556 

And Eualach vppon this king Tholome 
There lay. As alle his Men Mihte Se, 
Wheche the white knyht hadde down throwc ; 
Kyng Eualach him kepte tho ful lowe ; 560 



And therto I-Maymed Manye Of his Men, 
And 3it A3ens Eualachs On hadde he ten. 
Thanne this Tholome heeld vpc his swerd Anon, 
And to kyng Eualach homage gan he don, 564 

And there he be-Cam his presonere. 
And therto Al his Meyne In fere. 

"Whanne Tholome to Eualach hadde mad fiaunce, 
Thanne lekonias Clepid he, with-Owien variaunce, 568 
That the blody Eoche hadde In keping ; 
And him he Comaur^dcd Oner Alle thinge, 
* To taken Anon this kyng Tholome, 
Hym forto leden to Orkaus Cyte,* 672 

" And worschepfuUy that thow him kepe there 
As A worthi kyng In Alle Manere." 
That thus thanne be leconyas 
Kyng Tholome Into this Cite I-lai he waau 
And king eualach Abod stille In the feld 
Til Alle tholomes gonne hem ^eld ; 
And euere As he took his Meyne, 
He dide hem leden to Orcaus Cite. bi'9 

And whanne that Alle Itaken they were 
[T]hat Of Tholomes Men weren there, 
He gan to Eesorte to that bataylle 
[T]here Seraphe fawht with-Owten Faille ; 584 

And with him ^it ladde he there Mo, 
Alle that the passage kepte tho, 
Sauf Only An hundred Of his Men 
That Ful Fresch to Fyhten were they then. 688 

And whanne they weren past that passage. 
Anon the whyte knyht was to-fom here viBage, 
And In his hond that knyht bar A banere 
Of Eualachs Armes, Evene Eiht there. 692 

And Anon As they sien Sire Seraphe, 
To that bataille thanne faste prekid he. 
There As Seraphe manie Merveilles wrowhte. 
That In-possible swiche Memeilles don Mowhte, 098 


Mid beeomM hii 


takM TholooMl 

576 toOrkau^ 

whither hit 
men are led 
eepliTe too. 


ETaleeh goee t# 







Knli^t cluurgM 
up to Seraphe, 

b7 MTtn kuighta, 

and sorely man- 
gled by iron 

The White 
Knight ipMirs 
one of Seraphe't 

•econd's head 

and kill! three 

One knight 
Serapbe UiroQgh 
the ejre-holee of 
his helmet. 

That Euere the body Of On Ma;2ne 
Scholde don that he dide thanne. 

Anon this white knyht prckid Into pat pres, 
And for non thing ne woldo he Ses 600 

Til that To Seraphe he gan gon, 
Where as he Sawh sevene knyhtes Anon 
That Abowtes Seraphe there stoode, 
And On him leyden as they weren wode ; 604 

Tweyne be the brydel hym fere heeld, 
Tweyne be the helm to maken him 3eeld ; * 
And tweyne A3ens the herte leide hym vppon 
Wit hevy Maces Of Ime As hard As ston, 608 

So that his Flesch they Alto-Rente 
With here Mases there presente. 
And whanne the white knyht J)is beheld, 
Ful sore he prekyde In that Feeld 612 

To On Of hem that Seraphe heeld ; 
And him thorwgh the body ho bar vndir his scheld, 
That ded he was Anon ryht thare ; 
And thus sone to Anoper gan he fare, 616 

& with his swerd smot Of his hed 


fat of it fley, and he lay ded, 

Amyddes the Feld there it lay. 

And thanne to the tothere he wente In fay, 620 

And Made hem to dyen vppon his poynt. 

And Made here bodyes In Evele loynt. 

So that they forsoken this Seraphe 

That from here lyves gonnen they fle. 624 

And whanne these Other two pat him held 
Be his helm there In the Feeld, 
On Of hem drowgh Owt A lite knyf. 
And wolde ban be-Reved Seraphe his lif, 628 

Forto ban smeten him Al^Iiddes the Fase 
Thorwh the Oylettes of his helm In that plase. 
But Ouercomen so was tho Seraphe 
That Comfort with him Myhte non be, 632 


For he was Oucrcomen so with his blood 

So it was Merveille that [he] vpc stood, 

For, On hors, power hadde ho non to sitte, 

Ne Of that stede there Onys to flytte ; 636 

But for febelte that he Inne was. 

Oner the hors nekke he bowede In tliat plas. 

That power vp to Sitte non hadde he, 

So that Of his purpos Failled his Eneme. 640 

And thus gan In Swownewge seraphe to falle 
Amonges his Enemyes bothe grct & smalle ; 
So that they faillede, his Enemyes, tho, 
Of the harm that they him wolde han do. 614 

And Anon As that this kyng Eualach 
Sawgh Sire Seraphe In Al this wrak. 
To him ward ful faste he gan to Rido 
Forto supporter him at that Tydo ; 
For sekir he wende that he ded hadde been. 
And Neuere On lyve him forto have seen. 
Thanno wit A sonveful herte he gan to Crye 
Ful Petowsly, and that Rylit hye, 652 

" A wrechche ! to longe now have I bo, 
That thus have lost now Sire Seraphe ! " 

And thanne Anon there with this word 
Prekyd the white knyht be his Ownc A cord, 
And Susteyned Seraphe from fallynge. 
That theke tyme there was In Swownenge. 
And whanne Of his swownenge that he Awook, 
Thanne ful mochel Mone to him he took, 
For he ne wiste where that ho was. 
In what stede, ne In what plas ; 
For wende he tho ful Sekerly 
To han ben In the hondis Of his Enemy. 664 

And Eualach bar him ful worthily tho. 
For Into the pres forth gan he go. 
And Mette there with A worthi knyht 
Wich that was Scomfit Anon In fyht, 668 

Seraphe Is eo 
weak firomloM 
of blood. 

that he swooiu. 

Eraladi rides 

648 tOBopport 

Deaf 7,coLt] 

656 The White 
Knight keeps 
Seraphe trma 


^ « 



gronndi ft knight, 

and n^lfca hit 
hone to Serftphe, 

who ftt onoe 
jamps on It, 
M ft«ah at trer. 

Knight givM 
Seraphe a fresh 
axe fromOod 

handler than 
hit old one. 

And kyng Eualach to the Erthe him Caste, 

Awd hym from his hors Anon he wraste, 

And Cawht it In his hond there Anon ; 

Therewith toward Seraphe he gan to gon : 672 

" Haue now here, my dere Freend," seide he, 

" This litel present now Of Me, 

For thow bowhtest Neuere so dere A thing * 

From hegy?me[n]g In-to the Endyng." 676 

Whanne that Seraphe this gan beholde, 
In his herte he loyede ful Mani-folde, 
That Alle his Sorwes for3at he there 
Whiche that his Enemy es dyden him Ere ; 680 

And yp Into the sadel he sprang Anon, 
As Fresch & As lusty In flesch & In bon, 
And As lusty was there forto fyhte. 
And therto him thowhte As of Strong Mihte, 684 

As that he was Ony tyme be-Fom ; 
But thanne his Ax hadde he lorn. 
Thanne seide he, " Certes, And I hadde my Ax On honde. 
There scholde no man A3ens Me stonde." 688 

Tha?2ne Anon Cam forth the white knyht^ 
And seide, " here is On, Al Kedy dyht ; 
And lo, Sere, by me it Is the sent 
From that God Lord Omnipotent." 692 

And whanne Seraphe this felt In his hond, 
Thanne gan he wel Forto vndirstond 
That lyhgtere and more hondsom it was 
Thanne his Owen to-foren In that plas ; 696 

There-by wyst he, whanne he Cam Owt Of swowne. 
That theke Ax Ferst was not his Owne. 
So thanne Ryden they In-to that pres, 
And for non Men ne wolden they ses ; 700 

And Eualach On Tholomes hors Rod, 
So that with him was there non Abod. 

* onques mais n'eustes don qui si chierement fust achatos. 


And whanne Al this beheld Tholomos Meyne, 
Amongc? hem was sorwe ful gret ple/ite, 704 

Be Encheson that Eualach ferst they sye, 
W/tA Tholome In warde, hem faste bye, 
And now Eualach On Tholomes hore doth Hyde ; 
Wherfore they maden sorwe that Tyde ; 708 

And therto Nabure, Tholomes Steward, 
Kyng Eualach hadde take?! In ward. 
3 it More, this Eualach, with-I/me A throwe, 
With An horn ho gan to bio we, 712 

And Made his Meyne to Resemble A3en ; 
And tho that werew left, Retomede ful Cleen. 

Thanne Aftir, whanne Assembled werew they AUe, 
His signe he hem Schewed as gan befalle, 716 

Whiche was fastenid vppon his scheld — 
To his Meyne he it Schewede In that Feeld. 
Thanne his Meyne On two batailles he setto. 
And with Tholomes Meyne sone they IMette ; 720 

And Comanded and prcide tho to Seraphb 
" That wliawne he hym Sawgh in f* Mosto Melle, 
That Soraphe In the Rere-ward scbolde Fallo 
On tholomes Men, And On hem there Calle, 724 

And with his Bataille to preven his Myht, 
As he was bothe worthi and gentil knyht." 

Thanne Gonnew they to preken here destreris 
As vaylau/^t knyhtes, bothe worthi & Ferss, 728 

And Evere the white kiiyht to-forn hem was 
With tho baner On honde In that plas. 
And his swerd with the tothir bond I-drawe, 
With wheche Manyo A man was Slawe. 
Thanne gan kyng Eualach lowde forto Crie 
" As Armes ! knyht bacheler, and belamye ! 
For now hath kyng Tholome lost his Men Alle, 
Swich Aventure Is now to him befalle ! 736 

For Of hem Schal Skapyn not On, 
For Al tho Myht that they kowno don/' 

ThoIoraM'i men 
•orrow at seeing 
bim a prisoner. 

and hie steward 
Narbos [p. 170>1] 

recalls his host. 


to fiillon 

while Seraphe 
takes them 
in rear. 

The White 
Knight is 
always in 

732 slajingmm. 



TholomM't men 

f«ar for their 

Svakdi't mm 

nearly all of 

with Seraphe'e 

Whore tlie 
head it gone, 
the limbe fidl. 

Seraphe doea 






And whanne this herden Tholomes T^feyne, 
They Niste what to done In non degre, 
But hem thowhte hit scholde be trewe, 
For Eualach hadde Chongid his hors newe, 
For On Tholomes hors thanne Kod he, 
As Alle his Men there Myhte thanne se ; 
Thanne the drede that they hadde 
Was, lest Tholome to prcsoun hadden be ladde, 
Owther ellis In the Fold there Slayn ; 
Of wheche Of these they were7i no Certayn. 
Kyng Eualachs Men Amonge^ hem thraste. 
That Of theke pres but fewe there paste — 
Whiche that weren kyng Tholomes Men — 
Ofer taken Of er Slayn Er they wente then ; 
And lik As Men that Amased were, 
In tliat plase So stooden they there. 

And whanne Seraphe beheld this bekering, 
Non lengere he ne Abod For non thing, 
And Tliolomes Men Closed Al with-Inne, 
So fat from hem myhten they not twynne ; 
So that Angwisschously Ascryed they were, 
And slayn, takyn, & May mod. Many were?i there ; 760 
For In distresse & Sore we were?? they Alle tho, 
For here lord & Govemoz/?*s were?i Alle Ago, 
And they ne wiste whedir to Springe, 
For In theke Contre knew they non thinge ; 
And wel Askapen Myht they not there. 
For On Eche Syde here Eneniyes were ;-^ 
So that it semeth * there the hed is Gou, 
The Membres Fayllen tharine Evcrichon,* — 
For there say neuere Man So fayr A begy/meyzg 
As hadde kyng Tholome, ne so fow[l] An Eudyiig ; 
For vj dowble Meyne hadde kyng Tholome 
Tha7me kjnag Eualach In Every degre. '^^'^ 

There wondirly wel dyde Sire Seraphe, 
And so dide king Eualach with his Meyne, 



I i'J 



Tliat Neuere Man that was Of his Age 

I trowe hadde neuere So Mochel Corago; 776 

And the white knyht there bar him so 

That Xeuero Erthly man mo Merveilles myht do ; 

For In that Feeld Schekles he schatered, 

And Speris & hehnes Alto-Claterid, 780 

Knyhtes & hors he slowh down riht, 

Hedis, Annes, and legges In that fyht, 

That no/j man hym there Askapen no Myhtc, 

So vigerows and fel lie was In fyhte, 784 

That thus l)e his Chevalrie & knyhthod 

He hem In-gaderede As he Rod, 

And browhte hem to Eualach y kyng, 

And to-ward the passage, w/t/i-Owtew lettyng. 788 

Whanne kyng Tholomes men had Aspied 

That thns Sore they weren Anoyed, 

To that atreit passage go?me they drawe 

"Where-Otfcn that worew ful fuwe, 

And wende/j that now Maw hadde pere be, 

The passage to han kept In non degre, 

And wewden forto A Recoiicrod fat passage, 

That Eualach, for Al his Owtrage, 796 

Ne scholde not lian past be theke weye, — 

This was here Entent tlio Sekerlye, — 

"Where-thorg^vh J)* Cite lie Scliold not liave, 

"Where tholome <fc hia Meyne were?? ful save ; 800 

For An Imndred mew myht han kept f'.?t pas 

From Al the world, so strong it was ; 

For now mo On front mvhte Entre/i ther 

But t^n mew At Ones, As I seyde Er ; 804 

For tliey wendew tho ful wol 

J)at there Eualache koperis hadde left non del ; 

And so As mew that wcrcw wery for-fowhte, 

Vp3 to the Koche wewten As they mowhte, 808 

For there Supposed they forto han Keste. 

But it fil not hem for the beste, 


The Wlilta 

slays men and 

no one can 
escape him. 

Tholomet's mm 

drawback to 
the narrow ^ 
792 of the Rock 
of Blood, 

thinking that 
left no guards 

But they And 
at the Pass, 
Evalach's men, 

who chase, 

slay, and take 

the bloodshed 
is terrible. 


For whanne they that kei)ten the pas 

Syew to that Roche so manye gownew tras, 812 

Hem thowlite Mo tha/nic ^11 there were, 

And At y Roch hut .C. that it kepte there ; 

And wha?mo they sien ^[e/i kepe/t the pas, 

Thawne newe sorwe to hem Come7^ was ; 816 

And A3enward they wokle han gon, 

But there-Inne Socour was there non. 

For tho that On hem folwed so faste, 

And they Atto pas schottew Atte lasto, 820 

So that they slowe?* & token Of that Rowte 

As Manie As werew hem Abowte ; 

Thanne was tliero Mad so gret dolowr 

That neuero was sein swich A stowr ; 824 

For so moche blood was In that plas 

More thawne Owher Euc/'o seyn was ; 

For Me;?, hors, and scheldLs, that In )>• blood lye, 

For multitude of blood no man hem sye. 828 

And there was be tew On Narbus, 
pat steward was to king Tholemus, 
And there to Eualach him 3aLl Anon, 
So he him wolde/i save/i body & bon ; 832 

And ther^^ his swerd vp gon to 3elde 
To kyng Eualach In that felde. 
But Eualach him ne wolde not save 
For no;? thing that he Cowde Grave ; 836 

But his hors disme7?ibred he Anon, 
And also him he wolde han slon. 
Ami he tho knelid Ano/^ pcre do\vn 
That he myhte be taken to liau/zsown ; 840 

" Xai," quod Eualach, " that schal not be ; 
Swich M^rcy g»»tist thow i\on Of me ; 
For my steward havew 3e Slayn, 

«fc so schal I the here In Certeyn ; 844 

Therefore the Chonge it is ful hard. 
For I wele haven steward for steward." 




yields up his 
■word to 

and prays that 
he may he 

Evalach says 
No : he 

must die. 

Steward for 


And his Armure he dide Of Caste, 

lliti hed to han smetew Of atto lasto. 848 

And thanno Cam forth Sire Seraphe : 

** A, Sire ! ^vhat tliinkew to done 30 1 

3 if 3oure stowaixi ded now be, 

Tholome hath lost, Sire, swich thre ; 852 

And his Owno brother so dere. 

That ho loved As niochel there 

As 3e 30wrtf Steward trewly ; 

Tlierefore, Sire^, On f/s maw haveth Mercy ; 

Fo[r] I him Slowgh w/t/< Myn bond, 

Sire, I do 30 w to vndirstond ; 

Therfore, sire, I preie to f * 

That Of tliis Man thow have pite." 860 

80 fat there gentil Sire Seraphd 

This man Savede, As 30 mown se. 

Ful Mochel & gret was the discomfiture 
As that tyme be-happed be A venture ; 864 

And the Nyht drowgh On ful faste. 
For the day It was Ny paste ; 
'WHuche was ful deseysy to Eualachs Iklen, 
But 3it Atte hardest not for then, 
For so Manye thei slowen And tokew that tyde 
Atte passage Of the * Roche Of blood * beside. 
That Of hem ne pasten not fere Away 
Two thousend, what hurt & hoi that day. 
That Tholoines^ Me^^ ne -tlistroied Echon — 
So fat tyme wiVi Eualach the grace gan gon, — 
Of wheche at the bcgynneng were 
Sixty thowsend wel hameised there. 
And thus the Egipcian, be goddis Myht, 
At theke tyme were« distroyed be fyht 

Thanne to Orcaus ward wente Eualach, — 
A He the Egipciens to Mochel wrak, — 880 

And with liim AUe his Meyne 
That At theke tyme hadde he, 

[leafs, col. I] 
Scmphe be^jpt 

856 to hAv« mere J 
on Narbtu, 

and so save* 
his life. 

Night draws on. 

868 So manj of 

TholoHMs*! men 
are tlain at tlie 
Pasa of the 
Rock of Blood, 

872 that not tOOO 
get off 
[i P Rralach'*! 

876 oatofeo,ooo. 

Evalach marehet 
back to Orkaoz. 


All Kvalacli't 
men ^t plunder 
fh>ni the Egyp- 

■0 many of 
whom are 
imprisoned in 

that ETalach 
ii obliged to 
pitch hit tents 
outside the 

For fere nas no Man Of Non degre 

That tliorwgh thekc Lataille holpe^i was he ; 884 

Bothe diik, knylit, and bachelere, 

AUe were?i Encresid that weren there, 

^e, And also Lothe 3omew and page ; 

For AUe liere ly ves hadde/i they Gage. 888 

And whanne Eualacli Into the Cite Entred waa^ 
So Manie prisoners he fond In that plas, 
And Of here Maistres that with hem were, 
Tliat no7^ Spas was to walken In there, 89S 

Nether On liors, nothir On Foote ; 
But Owt A3en Nedys lie Moote ; 
And afom the Cite he let pichchew Anon 
Alle his pavilou7?s there than/ze Everichon, 896 

In A fair plase that was so })leyn 
To-fom that Cite tho In Cei-tein ; 
And tliere al that Niht herberwed he, 
And with him al his Meyne. 900 


Of Evalach'8 Queen (Sarracynte) in Sarras. She aenda for 
Joseph, and asks how Evalach has got on (p. 178) ;- 
Joseph's answer (p. 174) ; the heathen kings, ico, are to 
be cast down, and the ])oor exalted (p. 175). Sarracynte 
cries ; siie asks Joseph to pra}' for Evalach (p. 175) ; snd 
to expound Christianity to her (p. 176). Sarracynte is a 
Christian, and tells Josephes of her Christian mother, and 
her father, who was a brute (p. 1 7G-7) ; also, how her mother 
was ill of a bloody flux, and went to a good hermit, and 
askt help (p. 177). Tlie Hennit tells her that Christ alone 
can cure her (p. i78) ; she says, *Ask God for me, I will 
give you gold.' He says, ' Believe in Christy and ha 
will heal you' (p. 178). She does, and he prays to Qod 
and proclaims her whole ; she is (p. 179) ; thanks God ; 
and is baptized (p. 180). She takes Sarrac}nite to the 
hermit. Sarracynte says she cannot worsliip him on 
account of his beard, but she will worship Christ if he 
is fairer than her brother (p. 181). A glorious man — 
Christ — appears ; Sarracynte is christened (p. 182), and the 
hermit tells her of Christ (p. 1 83). Her mother receivet 
the sacrament and Sarracynte docs so too (p. 184) P both go 

■ / 

.^. m.U 

O^nrln (I'liiilinh ffvl ^m-iftn. 

arlg (Kitglish Ui^t ^ociftg. 

£xtn Sema, XXIV. 


BMkWnT, Alt. I4M A I' . 


Blntl fll"« TUt L.VilJl !. i'MTlt Vr. IS L'lWls 'III). 


■mix. IIAU, i'AtlllHMKIK. 

I'AUT li, 

(giirljj OJnjlisIt i;«t ^oriftj. 


CommittaB of SDutasemcat: 

Hon. Seo : ^ 

J. MKAli".' 

n.vsiiy !■. 1 .... ...v- 

II. IIL'CKe tilUUS. i.Kj. I ...u. 

hbv. BABntx loiuje, 

Bsr. J. KAWI'is Mj'MBV, >. ; -). 

liVia ,u./tir ti. a/Ill J\)>rtc,, 
Bankers : 
itiispEs STRi;Kr, K(". 

», d- ■ !■. t:ni(hl. «b. IMO, 


II Huni'a Orlbuc«l>bla uA Ouacnilila of O* 
Ihiu Tanru, sb, UnT.iid. Il-ll. Wli>>MlKy. 

e. Liticilgl at Ott Uik. aU. IWUI. wl. Il:>. V. 

Thynn. . 

n Ctuu»t 


77,,, /■., 


/■,.r ; 

», Hi ■ ■ ■ 

EntU^ Pr«H n(aUH«. pi. V 

' ^> Ah 11 Etns <in Artltiirian U 
.1 u ioi n C.lili«IfruDt)i(iM3S.hrlli 

Kn*OHjHi'ni\ /.'' .hiiiunnj^ AC'. 

Dk VK SiK, 

Being unable at present to prepare the Report 
of the FMrhj Englimh Tvrt Socieft/s Committee, I beg to 
infonn vou that the first issue of the Society's books will 
take place early in February. 

It will consist of a thick Part IT of the Cttrsor Jftnidi, 
edited by ^he Rev. Dr R. Morris, for the Orujtnai. 
Series ; and Part II of T/te Hisfonj of the Hohj Gvail, 
edited by myself, for the Extra Series. 

The other 1875 books for the Original Series will be 
chosen from 

Tliownfi of Ff'ciMottHC, a print of all the JfSS in parallel 
columns, edited by Dr Janie-i A II. !M array (rt/l the ferf 
in type). 

The Ltnf Folks Mass Boohy edited bv the Rev. Canon 
Simmons {an the toA in tt/pe). 

PonntUus on Afjnviiltarv, Part II, cflited by the Rov. 
Barton Ii^d^e (//// //* ////v' huf th- jRinnr-indf), 


Bede'it Day of Doom, Sfc, edited by the Rev J. ^. 
Lumby, B.D. (all the text in type). 

The BUckling Homilies, Part II, edited by the Rev. 
Dr R. Morris {all the text in type). 

Sir Generydes, Part II, edited by W. Aldis Wright, 
Esq., M.A. 

MeditaHona on the Supper of our Lord, perhaps by 
Robert of Brunne; edited by J, M. Cowper, Esq. {at 

The Oawayne Poems, edited by the Rev. Dr R. Morris* 

The other 1875 books for the Extba Series will be 
chosen from 

The Bruce, Part III, edited by the Rev. W. W. Skeat, 

An Alliterative Romance of Alexander, edited by the 
Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 

Early English Pronunciation, Part V, by Alexander J. 
Ellis, Esq., F.R.S. 

Ouy of Waricick, from the Cambridge University MS, 
edited by Prof. J. Zupitza, Ph.D. (the first of the Series of 
Guy-of-Warwick Texts). 

Owing to the other engagements and over- work of Mr 
Skeat and Mr VlUs during the autmnn of 1874, they were 
not able to finish, Mr Skeat The Bruce, and Mr Elli^j 
Part IV of Early Entjlish Pronunciation as originally 
plannd. I therefore sent to press in the autumn Henry 
Brinklow*8 two most interesting tracts on the condition of 
England and London in or about 1545 which Mr J. M. 
Cowper had left with me ready for press when he started 
for Lima above 3 years ago. By the time the tracts were 


in proof, Mr Gowper had luckily returud to £ngland, and 
most kindly took-up again his old work. These tracts — The 
Complaynt of Rodetyek Mors, and The Lamentacyon of a 
Christen Agaynst the Cytye of London — ^are now nearly 
through the press, enricht with details about Brink- 
low's family by Col. Chester, — and wfti be ready early in 
February, with 

The Brucey Part II, and 

Early English Pronunciation^ Part IV, 
thus completing the Society's issue in the Extra Series 
for 1874. 

At the same time will be issued for the Reprints, 

Merlin^ Part I, re-edited from the imique MS in the 
Camb. Univ. Lib. by H. B. Wheatley, Esq. 

Dui'ing 1873 will probably be issued these other 

Thynne's Animadversions (1597) on Speghfs Chancery 
re-edited from Lord EUesmere's unique MS by myself 
(Mr Childs has had the copy since October). 

Merlin, Part II, edited by H. B. Wheatley, Esq. 

I have to ask you for- prompt payment of your sub- 
scription to our lion. Sec, Mr Snelgrovc, London Hospital, 
E., and if you have not already sent him a standing order 
on your bankers, will you now send him the enclosd, duly 
signd ? (The Banker's Order does save so much trouble.) 

Will you also try to get us some new Members ? We 
want fresh ones badly. Tlie competition of new Societies, 
and the slacking of interest among some of our old 
Members, need continual eflbrt on the part of our real 

workers to counteract. The Early English Text Society is 
the parent of all the late increase in the study of English, 
and has supplied almost all the material for that study. 
The Society must not then be neglected, whatever else is 
supported. Important work is calling to it on every side 
for publication. Money alone is wanted to enable the 
Society's editors to produce the work, and Members 
should make it their business to see that the needful 
funds are not wanting. 

Truly yours, 


€Mh €n^\U\ Ce^t Sacietj. 







( With poierr to add 1 

'nrfaifi to their numSar.) 


Fhwcbs .Stkeet, E.C. 
FUBLISHEB3 : TRCRNER i CO., 57 & 69, Ll-doatb Hill, E.C. 

TuE Eartj Ejidisli Trxt Socici; was started in 1SC4 for llje purpose of 
bringijig wiiliin ihe reacli of Ihe mfvnj ibe hilherto inaccesaible Ircnsures of 
Old Eneliah litcraturo, and of cleariug Euglaud from tbe reproncli under 
wliii:!i sue lias so lonfrrested of caring litlle For the monuments of her catl; 
language and life. During the ten jeara of its ciisteuee llie Sociel.T bna 
Wtn successfal in iasaiog to its subscribers a lar^ nuinbrr of Texts illus- 
tmting the Isngunge, the historj, the belief, and the habits of our anccslora. 
The publications of the Society appeal to thoJie iirtercsted in the histor; of 
their native laugua^ and land; to men who can trace in these records 
the intimate coimcclioa vhich exists between the present and the put, and 
vho can see in such records the dead past become a living rcalitj. 

The publications of The Early Englitk Text Steieiv are divided into Four .; 
Classes. I. Arthur and other Komaoces. II. Works illustrating our Dialects i 
and the Histor; of our I^aneniBge, ineluding a Series of re-editions of our 
earl; Dictionaries. III. pibUcal Traaslalions and Reli^oua Treatises. - 
IV. Miscellaneous. ■ (The Eilra Series, which couiuienced in 1SG7, is in- 
tended for re-editions.) 

The Publications for ISfiG arc out of prbt, but a separate sabscription 
bna been ojiened for their imniediatc reprint. The Texts for 1864, odII alt 
but three tor IS05, bnve been reprinted, Subscribers who desire the Texts 
of all or an; of these jears should send their names at Oince to the Hon. 
Sccrctarf, as man; admtioual names are required before the Texts for 1866 
can be sent to presa. 

The Subscription is £1 li. a ;car [and £1 1>. (Large Paper, £3 \%>. 6if.) 
ndditional for tne Exiiu Series], due in advance on the 1st of Jahoart, 
and should be paid cither to tbe Society's Account at the Head Office of the 
Union fianli, Princes Street, London, E.G., or by Moncv Order (niiide paj- 
able nt the Chief Office, London, and erosst ' Union Bank ') to the Hon. 
Beeretarj, Arthuk G. Sselgkovk, 'Est\., London Hospital, London, E. 

I Dxti 

I aftei 

k Tl 

(United- States Subscribers, who wish their Texts posted to them, mtiat paj 
lor postage 5(. a vear extra '■•'■■■''■■ ■ " » .■ 

Extra Series.) The Societj' 
after them in the List iit tht 

extra tor the Original Series, and 3r. a vear for the 
--'-'-*s Texts are also sold separate!; at tlie prices put 

Tbe following Summary of the Socieljs first Teu.ycars' work is taken 
fiom I he .Commit tee's Tcuth Report, January, 1374: — 

§ 2. ITie SocictyUJint Ten Yean' Worh. 

/ear rInnArt ^^^* 

§ 2. The Society's Jirst Ti-ii Years' Worh Last year cloaea ' 
the Society's first Decadu ; and it mey therefore be well to 
look back over its work aince, in February 18l34, its Founder's 
first Circnlar went out, announcing that " A few of the mem- 
bera of the Philological Society, being anxious to continue 
the publication of Early English Tests, which that Society 
lately commenced, but has now for a time resolved to discon- 
tinue, have formed a committee for the purpose of collecting 
subscription 8, and printing tberowith Early English MSS." 
1. To start with money. Our Early EngUsh Text Society 
has spent in its ten years £87C0 in producing Texts, Here 
are the figm-es : — 


1864 MoncT spent ] 

n printing, &c. Vii 5 


1866 „ 

„ 6*y 10 


818 11 






flOU 10 





1871 „ 

1154 11 



967 3 


1873 „ 

1117 4 




"With this money the Society has produced 10,100 pages of 
Texts, including Introductions, Notes, Olossarios, &c., besides 
1000 and more pages of Reprints, Reports, &c. 

Secondly, as to Language, — the point from which 
Sociftty started, the illustration of which has been, and mi 
be, the justiticatiou for the pubhcation of many Texts of lit 
literary or historic merit ; — the Society has brought out, of 
lOtb century." King Alfreil's West-Saxon veraion of firegory's I'nstonl' 

Care. editeJ from 2 MSS. by Mr Henry Sweut. 
lltU century.' Homily tie Octo Viciii (in First Scries of O.E. Homilies). 

ed. Dr E, Morris. Homilv on the Uisoovery of llio Cross (in 

No. 46), ed. E«v. Dr R. Morris, 
ISth century (special Transitional period). Prose and Terse from tlie 

unique Lninbeth MS. 187, in V)x E. Morris'a Old English 

Homilies (First Series). 
laih century. Old English Homilies (from the imiquc Trinity MS.), 

Second Series, ed. Dr Richard Morris. 
ISth century, First half: St Marharete, llie first Text (fiom the unique 

MS.), ed. Hev. T. 0. Cockayne. 

idea ^^- 

■ Tbe BlickliDg £ 
' For the lltbce 

IK nearly ftll printed, 
« prepariiiK. 

g 2. Chronohgical List of mr first Ten Yearn* Texts. 8 

1230 ? Hali Meidenbad, West-Midland version, ed. Bev. T. 0. Cockayne. 

St Juliana, from 2 MSS., ed. Bev. T. 0. Cockayne and Mr E. 


Poems, 8w., in the latter part of the First Series of * Old English 

Homilies,' ed. Bev. Dr Morris. 
1216-50 The Moral Ode, later veraion, in *01d English Miscellany,' 

ed. Bev. Dr B. Morris. 

3 Hymns in O. E. Horn. II. (from the unique MS.), ed.DrB. Morris. 
13 th century, second half : 

Genesis and Exodus (from the unique MS.), ed. Bev. Dr Bichjird 


Bestiary, Old Kentish Sermons (both from nnique MSS.), Be» 

ligious Poems from the Jesus MS., in Dr B. Morris's ' Old Eng- 
lish Miscellany.' 

Havelok the Dane (from the unique MS.), ed. Bev. W. W. Skeat. 

AlfredV Proverbs, in Dr B. Morris's *'01d English Miscellany.' j 

King Horn, &c., ed. Bev. J. B. Lumby. 
14th century.* St Margarete, 2nd Text, ed. Bev. T. 0. Cockayne, 
1340 Dan MicheFs Ayenbite of Inwyt (from the unique MS.), ed. Bev. 

Dr Bichard Morris. 
1340-90 Poems on the Ci-oss (in 'Legends of the Holy Bood'), ed. 

Bev. Dr B. Morris. 
1840, ub. Hampole's English Prose Treatises, ed. Bev. G. G. Perry. - 
1350 P The Alliterative Bomancc of William of Paleme, or William and 

the Werwolf (from the nnique MS.), ed. Bev. W. W. Skeat. 
1350 ? The Alliterative Bomaace of Joseph of Arimathie, or the Holy 

Grail ; from the unique MS., ab. 1390, ed. Bev. W. W. Skeat. 
I860,? Early English Alliterative Poems, and Sir Gawayne and the 
Green Knight (from the unique MS.), ed. Bev. Dr B. Morris. 

The Alliterative Morte Arthure (from the unique (Thornton) 

MS., ab. 1440 a.d.), ed. Bev. G. G. Perry, re-ed. IkLr E. BrocL 
P Beligious Pieces in Prose and Verse from the Thornton MS., ab. 

1440 A.D., ed. Bev. G. G. Perry. 
„ ? The Allitei'ativc Gest Hystoriale of the Destniction of Troy (from 

nnique MS.), ed. late Bev. G. A. Pan ton, and D. Donaldson, Esq. 
1362 The Alliterative Vision of William concerning Piers the Plowman, 

first cast, or Text A, from the Vernon MS. ab. 1390-1400, ed. 

Bev. W. AV. Skeat. 
1375 Barbour's Bruce, Part I. (from the only 2 MSS. and oldest printed 

editions), ed. Bev. W. AV. Skeat. 
1 377 William's Vision of Piers Plowman, Text B, ed. Bev. W. W. Skeat. 
1380 P Chaucer's Boethius, ed. Bev. Dr B. Morris. 
1389 English Gilds, their Statutes and Customs, &c.; ed. Toulmiu 

Smith, Esq., with Dr L. Breutano's History of Gfldsr, &c. 
1300 ? The Stacions of Home, ed. P. J. Fumivall, Esq. 
1391 Chaucer's Astrolabe, ed.Bev. W. W. Skeat. 



' The earliest EnglUh version of tho Cursor Miindi, in the Edinburgh 
MS,^ is belioved to be about 1300 a.d. The Cotton text is not much later. 

4 § 2. Chmnological LUt of oiirjinl Ten Years' Tfxtt. 

1393 William's Vision of Piera Plowman, Text C. ed. Eev. W. W. Skei 

1394 Pierce the Plon-man'fl Credo. eil.RoT. W. W. Skcat. 
1399 RicliflTd the Redeles {in Piers Plowman, C), ed. Rev. W. W. Skea 

from the unique MS. -. 

141 B The Crowned Kinff [in Piers Plowman, C), ed. lUv. W.W. Skea 

from the unique MS. 
1120? Mirk's Duties of n Parish Priest, ed. E. Peacock, Esq. 
1420? Palladius on Husbondrie {from the unique MS.), ed. Hcv. ! 

Lodge, Port I. (all the Text). 
1430 F The Alliterative Chevelere Asaigne, from tlie unique MS., 

H. H. Gtbbs, Esq. 
1430? Political, Eeligioua, ami Love Poama, ed. P. J. Furnivall, Ea _ 
1430? I^dfratc'sOrderof Fools, &e. (in No.VlII.),ed.F.J.FurnivalI,Esq. 
1430 t Hymns to the Tirp;in and Christ, the Pnrliumeut of Devils, &c., 

ed, F. J. Fimiivall, Esq. 
1430-60 Poema on the Cross {in 'Legends of the Holy Root! '), tA. 

Uev. Dr E. Morris. 
1440 The Knij;ht de la Touv Landry, from the unique 3>[S., ed. ThiMi 

Wright, Esq. 
1440 P Arthur, from the uniiiue MS., eiL F. J. Furnivall, Esq. 
1440 ? Merlin, from the imique MS., ed. H. B. Wheatley, Esq. 
1440 P Generj'des, from the unique MS., ed. W, Aldia Wiight, Eaa 

Port I. \ 

14G0? The Bote of Curtasye (from SloaueMS., 1986, in Balwes Book| 

ed. F. J. Funiivall, Esq. 
1460 ? Ratis Raving, and other pieces, Bernardua de Ciira Hci Pama] 

aria, Scotch Prophecies, &c., ed. Euv. J, B. Lumby. 
14G0? Urhanitatis, &c. {in liabces Book), Stacioua of Itome, &c., 

F. J. Fmuivall, Esq. 
1460-70 John Eussoll's Boke of Nurture (in Babees Book), ed. P. i 

Furnivall, Esq. _ 

1460-70 For to Serve a Lord, from a copy'of the unique MS. (in Babees 

Book), eJ. F. J. Eumivall, Esq. 
1460-70 The Good Wife, Stnns Puer, &c {in 'Queoue Eliiabetlies , 

Achademy "), cd. F. J. Fumivall, Esq. 
1400-70 The Book of Quinte Essence, ed. V. J. FnmivBll, Eaq. 
1462? The Wright's Chaste Wife, ed. F, J. Fumivall, Esq. 
1478 ? Cflxton'a Book of Curtesye, 3 versions (two fiTrm MSS)., ed. ] 

J. Fumivall, Eaq. 

1600 ? Lancelot of tlie Loil. '-om the nuiqiie MS., ed. Rev. W. W. Ske* 
1500? Homnnceof ranenayorLusijineu, from theuBione MS., i ' " ' 

W. W. Skcat. 

1500 P Scotch Poem on Heraldry (in No. VIII.), ed. F. J. Fumivall. Esq." 
1513 The Boke of Kentynge, from Wynkyn de Worde'a text (in 

Babees Book), ed. F'. J, Funiivall, Esq. 
1520-6 Lives of Joseph of Arimathses, from Wyukvn Je Worde'a and 

Pynwn's copies (in No. 44), ed, Rev. W. W" Skeat. - ~ 

1528-53 A Supplycacyon of the Beggers, the Poore Commons, &c., a 

r. J. Fumivall and J. M. Cowper, Esqs. 

§ 2. Our Tfn Yeart' Texis clmtt hj Dialecla. 6 

1530 Oure Ladyes Myroure, etl. Bev. J. H. Blunt, 

1G43-7 Andrew Boorde's lutroduction nnil Dyetaty, with Barnes in tha 

Defence of the Berde, c<i. F. J. Furaivall. Esq. 
1549 The Comphiviil of Scotlande, with 4 conlemporarv English Traela, 

15+2-48,6(1 J. A. H. Murray, Esq. 
1550? SUirkey's England in Henry VIIl's time, n Dialogue between 

Pole and Lupset, from ihc unique MS., ed. J. M, Cowpcr, Esq. 
1550-1 Robert Crowley'r 31 Epigrama. Wny to Wcaltii. &c., ed. J. M. 

Cowper, Esq. 
1550-77 Hewc Bodes'a Book of Nurture (in Babees Book), ed. F. J. 

PumiTall, Egq. 
1553 Sir David Lyndesay's Works, ed. F. Hull and J. A. H. Murmy, 

Esqs., 5 Parts. 
1536-69 William Lauder's Poeras, ed. P. Hall and P. J. Fumivall, Eaqs., 

2 Parts. 
1557 F. Seager's Schoole of Verlue (in Babeea Book), ed. F. J. Fumi- 

Tali, Esq. 
1560 P Sir Humfrey Gilbert's 'Qoeene EliMbethea Actaderay," &c., 

ed. P. J. Furnivall, Esq. 
1565-92 Awdelay'fl Frateniiiye of Vncnbonda, Horman'a Cnreat, Sic., 

ed. E. Viles and F. J. Furnivnll, Esqs. 
1570 Lerins'a Uaitipulus Vocabiilorum, fd. H. B. Wbeatley, Esq. 
1500 Thynne's Animadiiersions on Spegbt's Cliaucer, ed. Dr O. H. 


1616 The Times' \Miistle, and other Poems, by B, C. (from tbc unique 

MS.), cd. J. M. Cowper, Esq. 

1617 ? Hume's Orthographic and Conpriiitie of the Britan Tongue (from 

the unique MS.), ed. H. U. Whcatlev, Esq. 
1619 TheBooke of Demeanor {in Babees Book), ed. F. J. Furnivall, Esq, 

Of these works tho specially ditdectal ones are the follow- 
iiig: — 

1340? Harapole's Prose Treatises. 

„ Religious Pieces from the Thornton MS. 
1375 Barbour's Bruce, 

1460 ? Ratis Ravine ; Scotch Prophecies, Sie. (Nos. 42, 43). 
1300 ? Lancelot of the Lnik. 
ISOO? Scotch Poem on Heraldrv (in No. VII I) 
1530-50 Sir D. Lj-udesaj's Works. 
1549 The Complavnt of Si'otlandi;. "■*' 

IS 56-6 

Wm. Lauder's 


A. Enil-Mullaiid (o Northern ; & Southern) ; B. ff'eil MiJlaiuI. 
A. East Midland ; 6 Southern Division. 
12lh cent. Old Eng'lish Homilies, Second Series (from the unique 
Trinity MS.), *. 

6 § 2. Oar Ten yeai-a' Tejia clasit by BiaUdt and Sv^jedtA 

13th cent. Bestiai^' (in ' Old English Miscellany '), b. 
1S50 ? Genesis and Exodus, b. 

rragment on p. 200 of Old Engliali Miscellany, b. 
.13S0 F Hnvelok the JUsne, b. but originally a, North East Ifldlioid. 

B, JFeH Midlaiui. 
1S30 ? HaU Meidenliad. 

Wooing of our Lord, in First Series of Old Englialt HomiliehJ 
1300? Early English AlLtemtive Poems (Lancashii-e). 

„ Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight (Lancaslure), 
1400 ? ' Cross ' extract from the Bodleian MS. of the Cursor Mundi, 

■ Lycgenda of the Holy Hood." 
1340? William and Ihc Werivolf. 
•1360 ? Gest Hystoriide of the Destruction of Troy (Northern jinrt 

the West-Midland an;a). 

IZth-cent. Lamlielh Homilies, in Old English Homilies, Eirsl 8 
1 290 ? Old Kentish Sermons (in Old Engliali Miscellanv, No. 49). 
1300 ? Moral Ode, and Poems from the Jesus MS. (in 6!d Eug. & " 
1340 Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt. 

The rest of our Texts are either uncertain,' or may be said to I 
that mixt dialect, mainly Midland, alighlly Southern, which became, v 
Chaucer, the standard language. 

Thirdly. Arranging tlie Society's books by Subjects, 
find in 

Som^iM {for Legeud tte Theology). 
12501 EbgH(Kii,FloriBuidSlaticbG- 

13801 Bavebk tlie Dnuc' 

1360 ? Gest Hyhtoriide of the Destruc- 
tion of Troy (alliterative). 

1360 I Morte Arthure (MS. 1440), al- 
Cbovelore Assigno (allit«mtjve). 

ISflO Sir Qawayne and the Qreen 
„ WiUiam o£ Paleme. 

1373 ) Barbour's Bruce, Part I. 

1390 T Joseph of Arimathie, oi the 
Holy Orail (allit«iative). 

1440 Arthur. 

1440 Merlin. 

1440 Qeneryden. 

1500 Lancelot of tlie Lailc 

1500 Partenny or Lusigneu. 

Manneri aiid CuMamM. 
1440 The Knight de la Tour L 
144U-1503 Bftbwis Book, Bo — 
Norture, Kervyng, Corti 
and Deme&nor, &c. . 

1500 1 Bemardus de Cum Bti Fan 

Ratis Kaving. and otlier Pieces, 
1540 I Queeae EliznWthes Achjidemy, 

:. Rosaelti, and B. Oim 

' Mr Skeat fecla oertain Hint the original of Iho Allitemtlve 
Atimathea' woa Ifortbcra or Midlaud, but nhiali he cannot say, ot 
tha tjouthem scribe's allerntions of its lansnago and forms, 

§ 2. Oar Ten Tears' Texts classt hy Subjects, § 3. Summary. 7 

SodaH and Pcliiical History, ' 

1389 English Gilds, their Statutes 

and Customs, &c. 
1399 Richard the Redeles. 
1415 The Crowned King. 
1420 Palladius on Uusbondrie. 
1440? PoUtical, Religious, and Love 

1500 ? Early Scotch Prophecies (in 

1528-53 Supplycacyon of the Beggers, 

Poore Commons, &c. 
1535-50 Lyndesa/s Monarche. 
153.5-50 Lyndesa/s Satirical Poems. 
1540? StarkeVs England in Henry 

Vllfs time, II. 
1542-7 Andrew Boorde's Introduction 

and Dyetary. 
1549 The Complaynt of Scotlande. 
1550-1 R.Crowlers 31 Epigrams, Way 

to Wealth, &c. 
1556 Lauder on the Dewtie of Kings. 
1565-92 Awdelay's Yacahondes, and 

Ilarman's Ya^bondes. 
1568 Lauder's Minor Poems. 
1616 Times Whistle, &c., by.R. 0. 

Philosophy and Science, 

1380 ? Chaucer's Boethius. 
1391 Chaucer on the Astrolabe. 
1465 / Book of Quinte Essence. 

Morals^ Theology and Legends* 

10th cent. K. Alfred's 'Gregory's Pas- 
toral Care'. 

1200 Hall Meidenhad. 

1200-1330 Seinte Marherete, &c. 

1230 Life of St. Juliana (Wendary). 

1250-1300 Early English Homilies, 2 

11-15 cent. Legends of the Holy Rood^ 
&c. / 

13th cent. Old Endish Miscellany. 

1340 Hampole's English Prose Treat' 

1340 Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt. 

1350 Genesis and Exodus. 

1360 Early English AUiterativePoenuk 

1362-1393 WUBam's Yision of Piers 
Plowman. 3 versions. 

1394 Pierce the Plowman's Crede. * 

1420 Myrc's Duties of a Parish Prieet 

1430 Hymns to the Yirgin and Cluist; 
the Parliament of Devils, &c. 
Stacions of Rome, &c. 

1530 Oure Ladyes Myroure. 

Grammar^ CrUtctsnij die. 

1.570 Levins'sManipulusYocabulorum. 
1599 Thynne's Animadversions on 

Speghf s Chaucer. 
1617 Hume's Orthographie and Con- 

gruitie of ^e ^ritan Tonxiie. 
A.-Saxon to 1874. Mr A. J. Ellis's 

Early English Pronunciation. 

§ 3. Summary and Effect oftlie Society's Ten-Years' Work. 
For the History of our Language the Society has produced the 
most important 10th-century lext, in which Mr Sweet has for 
the first time pointed out the characteristics of Alfred's Eng- 
lish. For the 1 1th century our Society has been prevented, for 
want of funds, from printing more than two Homilies. For 
the 12th century, in the latter half, it has produced the only 
Texts of the specially Transition Period of our Language, of 
unequalled value for the history of our inflexional formations, 
and for the first time brought to light by the skilled eye and 
hand of the Rev. Dr R. Morris. For the 13th and 14th centuries 
the Society has produced a series of most valuable dialectal 
Texts which, under Dr R. Morris's editing, have made far 
clearer than ever before, the three great divisions of our 
dialects, and the subdivisions of each, but specially of the Mid- 
land, the most important of the three. For the 14th, and also 
the later centuries, from the 15th to the early part of the 17th, 

8 § 3. Summartj and Effect of our Ten Years' Work. 

tlie Society haa pvodoced^ a very large nambpr of excelli 
Texts in the standard language, at and after tliG period of 
formation, together with the earliest English ryming diction- 
ary, a Granimarof James I's time, and Mr Alexander J. Ellis'^ 
masterly treatise on the pronunciation of our language, from 
Anglo-Saxon to Victorian times, " Early English Fronuncia< 
tiou, with especial reference to Chaucer and Shakeapere." It 
can be truly said that no other Society like ours has ever been 
able to do so much for the History of English, as our Early 
English Text Society has. 

If we turn to the Lives of our Forefather, the Books the] 
read, the Societies they belonged to, the Waya they had, 
Beliefs they cherisht, the Superstitions they cluug to, 
Evils that beset them, the aamo fact stares one in the face 
the Early English Text Society have produced a set of Tc] 
that can challenge comparison with thoseofany other Society 
they know that their own cannot be beaten. For Story, taki, 
Havelok, Arthur, Merlin, Lancelot, Gawayno, King Honi| 
Troy-book, William of Palerno, Partenay; for Society, takd 
our Knghsh Gilds, William's ' Vision of Piers Tlowman ' {ia^ 
Mr Skeat'a noble edition), Political Pocma, Lyndesay'e scath- 
ing satires, Lauder's Poems, Starkey'a England, Andrew 
Boorde's picture of the England and Europe of his time, 
Awdelay, Harman, Croivley, &c. : for Ways of Women anq 
Men, the curious pictures of the Baboes Book, John Ruaselt, 
Hugh Rhodes, Batia Having, Times' Whistle, &c. ; for Faitl 
and Superstition, the long aoriea of theological Texts the 
Society has publisht ; and let us all be glad that we have 
had time and power to do so much. Not only lias our So- 
ciety produced its own fine series of Texts ; but it has also 
given birth to other Societies, whose publications are carry- 
ing out its purpose in other diroctiona ; to other books that 
bring its teaching within the reach of eveiy student and boy 
in the British Empire, the TJnit«d States, Germany, and 
Austria. From the Early English Text Society sprang, in 
1867, its own Extra Soriea; in 1868, the printing of the 
Percy Folio MS. ; tho Chaucer Society, the Ballad Society, 
the Spenaer Society, and the Roxburghe Libraiy; in 187^ 
the Hanterian Club; in 1873 the Palffiographical Society, tl 
English Dialect Society, and tho New Shakspere Societ^» 
From the Early English Text Society, by members of it, 
have also gone forth, iu 1866, Dr Richard Jlorris'a Aldine 
edition of ' Chaucer's Poetical Worka';in 1867 his Claren- 
don-Press ' Selections from Chaucer ' {now in its 3rd edition) ^ 
in 1867 his 'Specimens of Early English' (vol. 1 now in 
2nd edition ; vol. 2 now in its 3rd) ; in 1860 his Globe 


g 3. Summary and Effect of our Ten Yeara' tVark. 

tion of 'Spenaers Works'; in 1872 hia 'Historical Acci- 
dence of the Engliflli Language ' ; in 1870 Mr Skeat'a ' Vision 
of William concerning Piora the Plowman ' {for the Clarendon 
Proas); in 1871 his ' Specimona of English Ijiteraturo A.D. 
ia94-ly97'; in 1872 his 4-Text edition of St Mark (two 
texts Anglo-Saxon, two Early EngliBh, for the Cambridge 
Press); in 1871 Mr Earle'a ' Philology of the Enghah Lan- 
gnago ' ; in 1873 Mr Kington Ohphant's ' Soiircea of Standard 
English'; in 1871-3 Dr Stratmanu'a 'Old Enghsh Dic- 
tionary of the 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, and loth centuries'; in 
1871 his edition of 'The Owl and Nightingale'; in 1871 Dr 
Matzner'a ' Alteughache Sprachprobon ' ; and in 1873 his 
' Wiirterbnch,' Part 1; in 1873 Dr Mall's edition of 'ITie 
Harrowing of Hell ' ; Dr Zupitza'a ' Altenglischos Uebunga- 
buch,' &c. Tmly the effect of the Society's work i» a thing 
for every Englishman to rojoice over. As a ' Leader ' in the 
Daily News, of Nov. 20, 1873, on the Director's appeal 
for money-help to the Early English Text Society, says, 
onr Society "has \viped away, as Mr Etjrnivali, prondly 
boasts, the old well-deserved reproach of indifference to the 
sources of oui- uivn language ; it has sLin'ed up the study of 
English hiat-orically ; it makes possible o knowledge of the 
lungnage ; it makes accessible the cuoat valuable documents 
of tliat history ; and it ehows how, in the teeth of ignoranco, 
civil war, and obstacles of all kinds, literature, that is, the 
power of expression, went on growing, now slowly, now 
quickly, putting forth in this direction and that, tiny tendrils 
which were destined to giow in time into great branches, 
laden with the Jruits of labour and genius. No single form 
of literature springs suddenly into existence, and the old 
familiar phrases, such as that which used to describe Chauceb 
as the Father of Engliah Poetry, have to bo abandoned alto- 
gether, or nsed in a modi&ed sense. 

" But the Society has yet other claims upon us, in addition 
to those which appeal cluefly to students of literature. It 
is to such works as are issued under its anspiccs that wo 
must look, far more than to the State records, for the social 
history of the country. In the ' Biibees Boke,' the ' Boko of 
Nortnre,' the ' Boke of Carving,' the statutes of the English 
Guilds, and the ' Snpplycacyon of the Beggars,' we may read 
the very mind of onr forefathers, the way in which they 
regarded the common duties and responsibilities which make 
up evciy-day life, thoir methods of making existence comfort- 
able, gentle, easy, and cultured, their way of dress, then- pro- 
tection and advancement of the arts ; how they ate, drunk, 
talked, and stopt. And if there linger among us any relics 


10 § 4. Tlie Ditke of Manchestet'^s Comnwrntxttion Fund. 

of«tliat most ancient religion^ the worship of ancestors^ Mr 
Furntvall'b appeal for help should touch us there. But, 
indeed^ his Society is doing so great a work for all the English- 
speaking race on both sides of the Atlantic^ that its claiuis 
reach higher than mere pride or patriotism.*' 

§ 4. Why then has our Society, which has done so much, . 
need to ask urgently for more money, for a continuous supply 
of fresh Members and Funds ? Simply because it has done so 
much, and wants to do much more. The material it has 
supplied to scholars has been quickly condensed and arranged 
for the use of all readers, by Dr Richard Morris, Mr Skeat» 
Mr Murray, Mr A. J. Ellis, Mr Earle, and Mr Kingtoa 
Oliphant, here ; by Dr Stratmann, Dr Stiirzen Becker, Drs 
Matzner and Goldbeck, Dr Mall, Dr Horstmann, Dr Znpitza, 
on the Continent ; by the late lamented Prof. Hadley, Prof. 
March, Prof. Whitney, Prof. Child, and others, in America. 
The Committee have always been eager to put in print the 
utmost amount of MS. every year. Sharing that eagerness, 
and relying on the payment of arrears which ought to have 
come in, but did not, the Director authorized the issue of more 
Texts to the subscribers to the Original Series than those sub- 
scribers had paid for. He was therefore obliged to strive to 
make up the deficiency by an Extra Fund, which the Duke of 
Manchester was kind enough, with his unfailing good-will 
towards the Society, to head, and which was meant to raise 
£200, but had only brought-iu the sum of £90, 17^. by the Slst 
of December, 1873. Still the balance is needed. We want 
all the money that can possibly be got. And the Committee 
trust that every Member will try to give or get a donation to 
the ^Duke of Manchester's Commemoration Fund,' in aid of 
the Society. Many peoplo who are not Members of the So- 
ciety might be induced to subscribe to the Fund, if Members 
would but explain to their friends and acquaintances the pur- 
pose, nature, and extent of the Society^s work. The foUowingf 
donations and promises have been received : — 


ATION FUND, TO 3l3T Jasuary, 1874. ? 

£ 8. if. 

His Grace the Diikc of Manchester . . 
His Grace tlie Duke of Devonshire . . 
The Most Noble the Marquis of Ripon 
The Rev. W. H. Thompson, D.D., blaster of 

Trinity College, Cambriilge 
Richard Jolmson, }W[. ^ . . 
A Friend . . . . ' . . 

Prof. F. J. Cliild, Harvard . . 

Trilbner & Co., Messi's 

C. Childs, Esq. 

John Lister, Esq. . . • # . . • • 

Cornelius Payne, Esq. 

• • 














§ 4 Commemoration Fuiuf. § 6. Second lO-t/ears* Work, ll 


William Euing, Esq., Glasgow' 

Col. Tlios. Brooke . . « . . 

Professor Henry Morley' • • . 

Thos. Hughes, Esq., M.P. . . 

J. L. Trattbrd, Esq. 

W. G. Stone, Esq. 

R. S. Turner, Esq. 

Robert White. Esq. 

F. J. Furnivall, Esq. 

The Rev. £. Thring 

F. Harris, Esq. . . 

A. Macmillan, Esq. 

Prof. A. W. Ward 

The Rev. E. A. Abbott, D.D. 

Dr Ernest Adams 

Miss A. M. Richardson 

lYof. Joseph Payne 

Mr Bumpus 

The Rev. Wm. Williamson 

The Rev. Canon Toole 

Edwin Lloyd, Esq. 

J. Oakey, Jry Esq. 

Rev. H. o. WilcocKS 

J. W. Hales, Esq. 

H. Candler, Esq. . 

§ 5. SJidch of the Socieiifs Second Ten-Years' Work. We 
have, may be, done from a fourth to a third of our work. 
At any rate wo give a sketch of that which lies at once before 
us, just to show what our Editors can and will produce if our 
Members will find them money enough, and what will, if 
printed, probably leave only a Third like Ten- Years' Work to 
finish the task the Society has sot itself, the printing of the 
whole of the unprinted MSS. of Early English : * — 

AUitei-ative Troy-Booic, Part II. Bede's Day of Doom, &c. 
Four-Text Cifntor Jltutdi^ Part I. Thomas of Ercildoun's R}inc8 and 






















1 0. 








Generj'dcs, Part It. 

BlickKng Homilies^ Pt I now ready, 
Palkidius, Part II. 
Merlin, Part IV. 

Four-Text Cursor Minidly Part II. The Pystil of Swetc Susaue. 
Blicklinj? Homilies, Part II. Lyudcsay, Part VI. 

Lay Folks* Mass-Book. Gospel of Nichodemus. 

Piers PloT^Tnnn Notes, Part I. Maydenstou*s Poems. 

* It would he difficult to estimate the value o^ the work in which the 
Early English Text Society has been cneagcd for several years past. . . • 
We rejoice to see that they have resolvea not to rest satisfied till English- 
men will be able to say of their early literature what the Germans can now 
say of theirs : ' Every work of it 's printed, and every word of it 's glossed.* 
It is a noble resolve, and one which it is the duty of every student of the 
language, and every one deriving pleasiire from its literature, to lend a help- 
ing hand to encourage.— W; W. Tulloch in Belgravia, March, 1871« i^. Il&« 

12 I 5. Sketch o/oHr Second Ten-Yean' Work. 

Four-Teit CHf'jor J/i(ije/(, Pari 1]J, CharkmogDe Boiuances, I: SieJ 
Piera Plowman Notes, Part II. Femmbras. 

Old English Homilies. III. .aafric's Metrical Homilies. 

Cato's Momla. 

Pcrar-Teit Cursor MtauJi, Part IV. Cotholicon Aiiglicuni. 
Charlemagne Bomanixs, Part II, Psalters, Anglo-Saxon and Eady J 
The Legend of Ypolis. English. 

The Rule of St Benet (5 Texts). Gawaiue Poems. 

Troy -Book (Bodleian Librarj-), Meditacions on the Loni's Supper I 

Part I. (perhaps by Robert of Brunne). ■ 

Awdelay's Poems. Barbour's Lites of Saints, T. 

Sboreham's PsoLns. Anglo-Saxon Hoiniiies, I. 


Troy-Book (Bodleian), Part TI. Vernon M8. Poems, I. 

Barbour's Lives of Saints, II. The Siege of Jenisalem. 

Guy of Warwick, I (Cains Coll., Anglo-Saion Homilies, II- 

Cambr., and Auchinlcek MSS.). Elutherius (Mr Wynne's MS.). 

Guy of Warwick, II. 
Jon the Gardener, &c. 
Northern Version of DeGuileville. 

Vernon MS. Poems, II. 
Williain of Nosaington. 
Anglo-Saxon Homilies, III. 

Barbour's Troy -Book. 
Hampole's Psalms. 
Vernon MS. Treatises. 

Lives D? Saints, II. 
Adam Davie's Poenls. 
Siege of Jerusalem. 

Lives of Saints, Southern, I. 
Anglo-Saxon Orosius. 
Enrly English Psalters. 


Peter Idle'a Poems. 
Anglo-Saxon Homilies, IV. | 
AuouymouB Poems. 


A Troy-Book. 

Anglo-Saxon Mii^cellauies. 
Bouaventutc's Life of Christ c 

The Eole of the Moon, Sec. 

Lives of Saints, III. 

George Ashby's Active Policy of a 

Vegecins of Knyghthood and Chyu- 

Then Uampole's other version of his Prick of Conscience, Mr Small's 
■ Metrical Homilies' MS., Trevisa's Gianvillc, Myrc's Liber Ecativalis, 
E. E. Homilies, MSS. on Cookcrv, Medicine, Alchemy. Astrology, aut^ 
Superstitions; Mandeville, Hocclcve, Lydgate, Verse DeGuileville, Lono- 

g 5. Sketch of our Second Ten-Teart' Work. 13 

lich'a ' Merlin,' Ihe unprinted Alexander Eomances (in M3. iii Scotlnnd I, 
LortI Bath's Early English unprinleil MSS. (if he will give ua leave). 
Then we have two or four texts of tho jfncren Riwk to print, Wyclif* 
Testaments and unprinlfd worlis, so as to complete a uniform 3ro edition 
of tho whole of Early Engliali Literature to Caxton's time. 


Lonelich's History of the Holy Ellis's Early English Pronuncia- 
" *■ ~ ' tion, IV. 

Brinklow's Trocts on London, &c. 
Lonelich's History of the Holy Starlej's Description of England 

Grail, Tart H. to Hen. VUL. Part 11. 

Alexander ItomaikCes, I. 

Lonelieh's History of the Holy Early Eugltsh Pronunciation, V. 
GraD, III. Alexander Bomances, TL 

Arthour and Merlin (from the Alexander Romances, III. 
Affleck MS.). Early Holy-Land tracU. 

Le Morte Arthur, &c. The Ttake of Orleans's Poema, 

The Douce Merlin, &c. 

Auchinleek MS. Romances, I. : Gesta Romanorum. 

Sir Bevis of Homtoun, &c. 

Auchinleek MS. Romances, IL : Book of Noblesse. 
Sire * Degarr^,' &c, 


Partenope of Bloia ; with ' Perti- Bokennin's Lyrys of Seyntys. 

nope, Northumberland Household Boole 


Ritaon'a Romances. Enrly Education and Granuoar tracts. 

Itomancea from the Lincoln's Inn Cnxton's Curial, and Book of Good 
MS. 150. Manners. 

$ 6. Difficiilti/ of meettny Siihscnbera' opposing Wielu-K, 
Complaints of two opposite kinds as to our Testa havo reacht 
the Committee's ears. One cornea from tho workers, the 
students, who echo Mr Kingtoii-OIiphant'a words ia Lis Sourcci 

14 § 6. Members^ oppoBing Wishes. § 7. Origitial Series, 1874. 

of Standard English^ p. 820„note, ^' I wish they [the Com- 
mittee] would print more works written before 1400, and fewer 
works written after that year/' With this wish the Committee 
heartily sympathize^ and would be only too glad if they dared 
gratify it. Nothing would have pleased them better than to 
have begun at the earliest Anglo-Saxon MS.^ and printed 
everything steadily in order. But the other complaint has 
warned them that such a course would have halved or thirded 
the number of our subscribers ; and the late deci*ease in the 
Society's list of members since the earliest Texts have in- 
crcast in number, has shown the necessity of restoring, if 
possible, the original proportion between later and ettsier 
Texts — often more atti-active in subject — and the earlier and 
harder ones, which are, with rare exceptions, theological and 
dull, though of extreme interest in point of language. The 
Committee live in hope that the feeling of duty to the Society 
and to its purpose will more and more make members willing 
to'^help it, though they themselves happen to feel no speciid 
interest in any one year's Texts ; meantime the Committee 
will try their best to meet the wishes and tastes of the bulk of 
the Society's Members, whoso forbearance they crave in this 
diflScult task, and whom they remind that interesting inedited 
MSS. of Bomanco and Adventure, of social Life, and Fan^ 
are rai'o indeed, and grow rarer year by year. But the one 
great fact remains, that till all our early MSS. are printed, 
the History of the English Language cannot be fully known, 
the Society's work cannot come to an end. 

57<e PuU leaf 10118 for 1874 will he chosen from: — 

66. The 0«it E^itoriale of the Destruction of Troy, translated fh>m GuiDO l>B CoioaiirA, 
in allitemtive verso ; edited from the unique MS. in the Hunterian Museum, Glaa- 
guw, by D. DoxALDSOX, Esq., aud the late Kev. G. A. Pahton. Part II. 10«. &i. 

67. The Early English Version oi the ** Cursor Mimdi" ; in four Texts, from MS. Cotton. 

69. The Bliokling Homilies, edited from the 3Tarquis of Lothian's AnglO'Saxon MS. of 
071 A.D., by the Rev. R. Morris. LL.D. (With a-photolithograph.) Part 1. Hs. 

Fslladius on ELusbondrie, engli:>ht v^b. U20 a.d.), I'ditetl Arom the unique MS. in Col- 
chester Castle, by the Kev. Barton Lodos, M. A. Part II. [In th4 Pr€M8. 

Be Domes Dbco, to., short Anplo-Saxon Poems ; cd. Rev. J. R. LuiUT. iln the Pregg, 

The Lay FoUTs Mass-Book, four texts, edited fh>m the MSS. by the Rev. T. F. Sim mors. 
Canon of York. {In the Prett, 

Generydes, a Romance, edited from the unique MS., ab. RIO aj)., in Tnn. Coll. Cam* 
bridge, by W. Aldis Wriqiit. Emv, M.A., Trin. Coll. Cambr. I'art II. [In the Pregf. 

Thomas of Enuldoun, his Rypies aud rrophccies ; editi'd trom all the extant MSS. }aj 
James A. II. Murray, Esq. [/n the Press. 

Merlin, Port IV., containhig Pi-efiicc, Index, and Glossary. Ed. by U. B. Wjieatlst, Esq. 

The Puhlicai lorn fur 1874 (Kvira Series) mil prohahhj le : — 

XX. Lonelich's Histoi7 of the Holy GraO (ab. 1460 ▲.D.), translated from the Fronch 
prone of Sires Robiers de Borron, re-edited from the unique MS. in Corpus Chriati 
Coll. Cambridge, by F. J. Fubnitaxl. Esq.. M.A. Part I. 8*. 

Early English Pronuneiation, with especial reicrence to Shakspere and Chaucer, by A. J. 
Ellis. Esq., F.R.S. Part IV. iAt Preee, 

Balfour's Bmoa, Part II., edit«d from the MSS. and etrly printed editiouB by the R«v. M\ 

Jfist rf i^e «ntls ««tglis& S,ni Surirfs's Soohs. 

(0M fntH«a a year). 
Tht Phblieatumt/ar 186i (21».) are.'— 
- ■ - ----*— "—It jib.l3«)i.i>.,»d. B-Moni*. Hi. 

We Publicalieni/er ]86fi (21j.) a7-«.-— 
H Euaa'iOrtWiwUaudOaainiltuaftbiSriluTeBtu.ab. ISlT.ul. H. B. Wlieallry. 4l. 
«: LuiH<l(it(>/thaL«ik,).b.ifi(«,(id.Kcv. W.-W.EkaL. «i. 

7. OeuHU ud Eudui, ab, 1230, «d. B. Morrii. (SfpriM^iNf.) 

8. KKttAithim. ab. IMO. ed. B. Brock, 7t- 

9. Thyiuu on ChuHr'i Wuki, ab. ICM, ed. Dr KingilCT' 

10. KirUn, lb. IMO, Put I., e<l. II. B. Whiatlty. 

11. LjndHn'i Xounh*. *«., 1U3. Pitrl I., ed. F. HalL 

II. ni l^iilit- ■ Ohut* Wilt, ti). list, ed. P. J. Funlnn. 1(. 
Tlic Piihlicalii'iif/or U(,i\ out of print, are .— 
M. BiAite Mufa«nta, U(W-1330, ed. Bkv. O. Cocksjno. 
14 »i-r Bod, tiadi lad Ulim-ht*"—, b., ed. Kev. J. B. Lumbj'. 
IL Pa^kA TiHgl— T aad Lan Vooi*, wt. F. J. FunifTall. 

IS. Th» »»A afSihf fcwa w, ab. l«S-7a,«d. P. J. Purnivall^ 

M. ?anitMXitnrtaftBtlMH,«friantbePlinnBaa,(>t. 

18. HaU »-"—'—■ ab. IttO, ed. Hev. O. Cockarne. 

IS. lyalaaar-aXaaandH. fts.. Part II., ed,F. Hull. 

W. Hun^lBudUhrnaittHtiaH, hL Bev. 0. G. Fcny. 

n. HnUa. Fart fl., ed. B. B. Vb«MI«y. 

a. PaiM(w>rlail|Ba,ed. Rot.V. W. 8knt. 

n. ]>nU^-aATabfH«tIn>ft.UW,ed.B.lC<irrU. 

;ae PH(ti«dtu>)M/er 1867 (one ?«iii«<i, /ew Jt'b. 24, 2E, £6, rat of print) are:— 
H. H]FMMlath*Tln|lB*BdOliiiM: tlwPailiaiiiBilari>nil*,ta.,ab.14M,Fd.P.i. PumlialL St. 
tS.X&BlHiiiBatfBtnt.thaPllanBa'BH.nnfa.wittiOlinuKagtdHlud.HLF. J.Puniinll. It. 
W.I*lifl«uHHBalBPnaa*BdT«iM,rnim&TboriitDn'>Uai*b.lMO|,ed.&eT.Q.a.F(nT. £l 
tl. InlBi'aVHAnliuTtMbnknm, lSTI),ed.II. B. Vbrnky. IZt. 
M. iniUaM'a TUoB sf Pin tha PkrWaiu, 1301 I.D. Part I. The cwUcat or Tenuo Tnti 

Text A. Bdltcd by Ber. W. W. Skeat. fli. 
M. X(%r bfllA Hamllla (ab. um-30 i.i>.) rrom uuique USB. In the I^mbelh aod other 

Ubrarin. Parti. Edited by B. Uorria. Ti. 
SO. Ptotet tha Plawmaa'a Cnda, «£ Bcv. W. W. gkcet, !«. 

Z^a Publieationt far 1868 (one ^uitii-a) are .■ — 
11. Kji^iDaliHo(aPuuhPn«at.iii \>ne. ab, ItiO l.Ii.,cd.E.}>aaei>d[. 41. 
U. Tm TlabMi Bck*. nrbaallatlajba Baku sf Xntnn af Jalu Baiaall aad Hash BkadM, tka Sakai 

of Xar^iw. Oiirtana, aid DeBuaninir, Ae,. with lomB French aud Latin Foema on Uka 

tubjMt*. ed. rrom Harleian and other MSS. by F. J. Fuminill. Kt. 
ATUXaJ^tlMLaTnirLMidrTirrrimPrrnchof A.i>. 13n).ab.14WA.D. A Pather'i Book for 

hla Daiigfaten^. (Mm Uu'l. MK. ITM and Ctutou'i lertion, bj Thomai Wright, it. 
H. lariy baliih BgDiUea (before 1300 A.c] rrom unique US8. In tbe lambcth aud other 

Libruiu. Part II. Edited by B. Morris, it. 
IS. bndaau-a IIqAm, Fart 111.: The Ulxtorie and Teatatnent ot Squjer Heldnm, td. F. 

The Publieationt for IStiQ (one guinea) are; — 
U. aolfB. Part HI. BdltedbjU. B. Wbotley, Biq.i with an Euayon ArthoriNi Looililief, 

by JTe. Bluart Glennio. Esq. li.. 
ST. iTBAHay'a WoAm, Fart lY., eontabung Ane Batrie of the Three Eitalli. Edited by 

F. Hall, Eh. U. 
IS. WIUbM'iTaeaof nantkaPleVBUui, Partll. Text B. Edited from (be USS. by the BeT. 

■W. W. aknt, M.A. 10». Od. 
St. Tha AOttmufn Kaauac* sf thi Baatnotlon of Troy, tranalated thm Quids de Colonoa. 

Bdttedb;Q. DDualdTCn, Esq., andtheBer. O.A. Fanton. FaitL Ida. Id. 
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ce. XV.] 



home, and hear of a great beast (p. 185). Sarraoynte's 
brother goes to hunt it, and is lost in the forest (p. 185). 
Her mother says the hermit is a true prophet (p. 185). 
Thej rejoice in their faith (p. 180). Her mother sends 
the attendants out, and tells Sarracjnte to get a box (p. 
186) ; Christ comes out as bread (p. 187). She charges 
Sarracjmte to keep the box, and think on Christ (p. 
187-8) ; and go and tell the hermit of her mother's death 
(p. 188) ; and get him to put bread in the box, and look 
at it every day (p. 189). Christ appears over the mother's 
bed. Her mother dies, and Sarracynte goes to the hermit 
(p. 190), who gives her Christ (p. 191). She goes away, 
and meets a man, who tells her the hermit is dead 
(p. 191), and asks her to ride back to his cell (p. 192) ; they 
go back ; the man mourns ; then digs a grave (p. 193) ; 
takes the head of the corpse, and tells her to take the feet ; 
she excuses herself (p. 193) ; they bury the body. He 
scolds her servants, and then baptizes them (p. 194) ; and 
remains in the cell. The end of Sarracynte*s answer 
(p. 195). Josephes says, 'WTiy don't you worship Christ 
now 7 ' she answers, * My husband is so angry ; convert 
him * (p. 195). She asks how her husband has sped in the 
battle, and Joseph tells her (p. 196). 

Now let vs beleven Of kyng Eualach^ 
And Firtliere Into this Mator now let vs walk, 
And Of these Cristene Speke wo bedene 
That In Sarras ben, Sixty & Fyftene, 4 

Lik As vs tellith the Storye 
Of Eualaclis wif here Sekerlye, 
That A wondir fair woni?^ian sche was, 
And fill worschepfiil In Every plas, 8 

And * Sarracynte ' was that qwenes Name, 
A worschepful lady, and Of Noble Fame. 
And whanne that Eualach with his Ost forth wente, 
So moche Mono sche Made, sche was Ny Schente, 12 
For Eualach, that was Most In hire Mynde 
Of al Erthly thing, and that was kynde. 
Therfore sche sente For losep/^e Anon, 
To weten how that the Cause scholde gon, 16 

In As Mochel As that Er he seide 
* That hire lord scholde han Abreide, 
And ferto thre dayes & thre Nyhtes to be 
Yndii his Enemyes powste, 20 

13 ♦ 

Let '■ leare 
King Evalacfa, 
And ipeak of 
the 75 ChristUns 



went to bfttUeb 

■he lent for 
Joseph, to 
know how her 
hoebuid would 


ETsUcb has iptd. 

Ha aniwtn that^ 

tlMMnrth win 

Ha win hara 
them BUiii, 
and their Unds 
given to 

that they maj 
know Him aa 
their Loni. 

And that to the Prikkejof deth thorwgh Tholome 
He scholde ben browht/ — thus seyde he — 
' And jif it scholde Ony lengere laste 
Thafine thre dayes & thre Nyhtes were?^ paste^' 24 

And this was the Cawse Certeinle 
That sche for losep^e sente, I telle it the. 
Thanne Iosep/2« to-Fore hire Gan gon. 
And with him his sone Hyht Anon ; 28 

Thanne sche him Axed there In haste, 
" Whether the lome wit^ hire lord were paste ; 
And how he spedde In the bataille/' 
Hire forto telle sche preydo not Faille. 32 

Thanne to Sarracinte spak losep/te Certeinle 
'' Thus sente the lo seine the kyng Of Ciistene (be Me,) 
That Of Alle thing knoweth the begynneng. 
And demen schal Atte laste Endyng, 36 

And Of Al this world SavioMr Is he 
Sekerly, As I teUe it the. 
And For As Mochol as these Erthly kynges 
Ne welen non knowen In here werkynges, 40 

Nethir Resceyven My Creaunce, 
I schal hem sende ful hard chaunse ; 
For Into bataille I wele hem do, 
And there here Encmyes scholen hem slo ; 44 

And here londis ^eyen wile I 
In-to the hondes of strawngeris soth&stly. 
For I wele that they knower* Me 
As fore here Souereyn lord god In Al d[eg]ie,^ 48 

Nethir Of non Othir kyng to holde, 
But Only Of Me, In Manye Folde ; 
For bothe to prowde and Ek to Felowns, 
I schal hem sende Manie distrucciouns ; 52 

Thus be my Spyrit I schal hem sende, 
And In this degre I wele hem schende ; 

> MS. dre. 


And therfore the Grete I wyle down take ; 

And b* Feble & poww, loidis wil I Make : 56 Th«wwkMid 

More-Over, kyngee flesch ^oven achal be uuOwLortib 

To Fowlee Of Kave jne, that Abowten fle 

Forto Finden Sum Gareyne : 

Thus schal it ben In Certeine. 60 

And the bodyei that Of pore Men scolen be 

Worthily I-byried In £che degre ; ind bary tiitm 


For the Hyhte weyoa alle they knowe. 

And my GomandementiB they welen bowe 04 bMsoM tuy 

jWit good herte And good Entenciowntf^ mimtfmwS"* 

This welon they Beeceyren with good deyoelown." 

And whanne losepAd this tale hadde told* 
Sarracinte gan to wepen Mani-fbld, 68 Qo^^ flumejnu 

weqMy and bcgt 

And preyde bothe loeepA^ & his sone^ JoMph to pr^ 

to God to MT6 

For Eualach to here god to bydden som bone, pe^ 8k bMk^ 

ooL 1] 

* That Eualach with worechepe Myhte retomefi Ajen, Kraiwdi, 

That sche with hire Eyen it Myhte Ones Sen, 72 

And forto be turned to the Ryhtful Gretanoe, ■»» ««»*• w» . 

That the god Of Grystene wolde eendan him 

" And I hope thanne Tomen wold he, 
Aftir, A good Man for Euere to be." 76 

Thanne losephes Ganne hire Answere, • 

' How there-Offen the Gerteyn knew sche there;* 
And sche Answerid losephes Agein : 
*' Of that Surawfice Am I, In Gertein." SO which ih* holds. 

JoMphM Mka 

^ How there-offen, dame. Sure Mihtest thow be, h«r hoir that 

am bSf tut sh^ 

Whanne thou beleyes on ymages of ston & tie ; mimm is iMik 

For they mowett nethir meren ne stonde, 

Nq hem to helpen haven thei nethir leg ne honds^ 04 

And In lesu Grist lie wil not belevey-o— 

How Myhtest thow thanne this preve-^ 

That is lord Of AUe Gristiente, 

As I schal here-After dedaien to the." 88 



JoMphes tells 
ChristUn tMliet 

her attendantf 
oat, tolls 
the dootrine of 

that her mother 
WM a ChrieUan, 

and was Duchess 
of Orberj. 

Thanne Axede sclie him Eyht Anon 
The pointes Of Cristendom forto Ondon. 
Thanne losephes began Anon forto telle 
The Creavnse of y Trenite, and f ereof gan spelle ; 92 
And the qweene behel[de] him faste, 
And Axede * what he hyhte ' Atte laste. 
Thanne Answerid he * that he Cristened was 
And I-Clepid " losephes " In that plas ; 96 

And there-Offen Is there non Man 
That Me that Name berevew kan.' 

Thanne Comanded the qweene Anon 
Alle hire Owne Meyiie from hire to gon. 100 

And Anon Alle the poyntes Of the Trenite 
To losephes sche gan to declaren Certeinle, 
So that there was non Clerk levynge 
That there-Inne scholde han sche wed more konnenge ; 
So ferforth that losephes Merveillen began 105 

That so moche wit myht ben In womman. 
And where sche hadde this konnenge Cawht, 
Ofer what Maner Of Man that it here tawht. 108 

Thanne Answered this Qweene Agein, 
" Fill ten 3er My Modir In Certein 
Fulliche & hoi was In tliis Creauwce, — 
As I the telle losephes — wlth-Owten variaunce, 112 
And 3it My Fadir there-offcTi Neuere wiste, 
Ne non Of his lync, thow Mihtest wel Tryste, 
Saufe Onliche Mine Owne Modir and I ; 
I Sey the losephes ful Certeinly, 116 

My Modir, duchesse Of Orbery was, 
As In thike tyme happed be Cas, 
Whiche that good wo/?iman was, & trewe, 
And therto worschepful & Of good thewe ; 120 

My Fadyr was Crwel and dispetows, 
And therto Angry & Kiht Malicious ; 
And So it behappede with-Owten Mo, 
That Ouer hens Sevene & twenti winter Ago, 124 


In Orberj wm a 


and to him, 



who wu 

and had watted 

That In Owre Contre An holy man there was 

In An Ermytage, As god ^af him gras, 

That Moche dide for goddis Sake, 

And God for him Manie MerveiUes gan Make, 128 

And his Name ' Salustine * Gonne they Callo ; 

In him Manie vertwes gonne there &lle. 

So thanne My Modir hadde An Infirmite — 

Certeinly losephes as I telle the — 132 

That theke tyme xix Monthcs hadde holde, 

Sche was In sorwe and wo Manie-Folde, 

That hire Colowr and blood was Al ago, 

So Ful sche was Of peyne and wo, 136 

And Alle hire Membres weren wasted Eke, 

And ^erto sche was ful feble & syko. 

So heide sche tellen Of this good Man, 
What Mdrveilles that God wrowht In him than, 140 
And thowhte with him sche wolde Gon speke,^ 
And somwhat Of hire herte to him broke, 
^To tellen him Of hire Infirmite, 
Jif Ony Socour there-ofifen Mihte be ; 144 

For sonnere sche hopede to ben ded 
Thanne to live to tomen In that sted. 

Whanne ))at tofore this good man sche gan to gon, sha goat to him, 
Down On hire knees sche Fyl Anon, 148 

And there down sche fil to his feet, 
And preide him Of Socour Also skeet. 
Tho this good Man On here there loked faste, 
And Seide, " womman, worn man, Atte laste 
Wherto Of helpe Axest thow Me, 
That hast Swich An Infirmyte ? 
Certes thou Art," quod this good Man, 
"Dedlich, and fcrto Sinful womman ; 156 

And I dedlich Am Also, 
And therto Sinful witA-Owten Mo ; 


fbr help of her 

and prajB him 
for inoooar. 

152 Hat«Uah«r 

ha it mortal and 


* MS. spkeke. 


Christ alone 
saves thoM who 
love hiin. 

molher htgn the 
hermit to prajr 

P So MS, for 

him lilver aud 

Ha waata only 
Repentance and 

She promises 
anything for the 
cure of her 

For seker I non power ne have, 
Nethir Man ne wo7?iman forto save. 
But Onliche it is Crist & god Above 
That hem doth Save that him welen love." 

Thanne Answerid my modir " Certeinle, 
Good sire, so preye thy lord for me 
That he wolde taken Me to his grace. 
And helthe to scnde me In this place." 
Thus thanne scheide ^ sche in alle thing 
To this goode man ful sore weping, 
" For I hope thi God ne wile not weme y 
Ony thing that thow Axest Certeinle." 
'^ Dame, til to Morwe this Llay not be, 
Certeinli I telle it the." 
" Sire, thanne schal I Comen Agein, 
And tresowT I-nowh to bringen Certein, 
3if that he me now helpen wolde, 
Tresowr I-nowh Of Silucr & Golde." 
Thanne answerid this good man tho : 
" Of thin Tresowr wile he non, Lo, 
But Only Of trewe herte Repentance, 
And stedfast beleve & ful Creaunce." 

And tho spak sche with good semblawnt 
To him that was goddis seriawnt, 
" What thing On Erthe thow bidde me do, 
I schal it fulfille for peyne Other wo, 
And he wele me helpen Of thys Maledye 
That doth me now so gret Anoye." 
Thanne Answerid this goodman agein, 
" And thow wilt fulliche beleven Certein 
In lesu Crist, that verray lord, 
I schal behoten the hele at On word ; 
Er that thow Owt of this plase wende, 
Thow schalt ben helid with-Owten Ende." 

Thanne to hLs Feet sche knelid A-down^ 










CH. XV.] sarracynte's mother beueves, and [s cubed. 179 

And hem kiste with good devociown, 

** Siro ! 3 if that hele ho wel me sende, 

On him wile I beleven w/t/i-Owten Ende." 196 

Thanne seide to hire this good Man, 

" ^if stedfastli wilt fou beleve," q?/od he fan, 

" iVnon Riht helyd schalt thow be 

Of thin Maladie Certeinle ; 200 

For hele Is there uon so sone 

As In god beleve, hos wil it done." 

Thaune seide my modir Anon Ageyn, 

" Sire ! I beleve it fully In Certein, 

That Onliche verray God Is he 

That me schal helpcn Of myn Infirmite." 

And Anon this Goode Man took 
In liis hond Anon A litel book, 208 

And there-'vppon ful faste gan Eede 
[Al so faste as he cowde spede,] 
In A Corner al be him Selve ; 
There preide he God and thapostelis twelve, 
* That God wolde sende his Mercy & Grase 
To that Synful womman In that plase. 
And to keveren here Of that Maladye 
That xviij jer Contenwelye 216 

Here haddo holden In that degre, 
Goode lord, fat koverid myhte sche now be.* 

And whanne his preyere thus hadde he do, 
Anon to My Modir he Cam sone tho, 220 

Thus Seyenge to hire, " Aryse vp here 
Also hoi As Evere thow Er were. 
In the Name of the Fadir^ Sone, & holigoet, 
Wiche that Is Of Myhtes Evere Most ! " 224 

Thanne felte My Moder there Anon, 
That As hoi sche was In flesch and bon 
As Evere Ony tyme sche was before, 
iSethen sche was Of hire Modir I-bore ; 228 

mother kiMM the 
ImitoU'b fwt, 

204 anddMUrethMT 
beUtf in Um Ood 

[iMf ff, eol. 1] 

212 The Htrmlt prays 
to God, 

bi<b 8amcjiiic*fe 



in the mma of 





mother oonfd 
Ckxl'i might 

8he*f ipent over 
15,000 beunU on 

hat only Ood hM 

The Hermit 



She brings 
Sarracynte to 
the Hermit 

And the strengthe Of hire Membres Anon 
Sche hadde A3en there tho Everichon. 

Anon whanne sche felte this riht tho, 
That helthe A3en was Comen hire to, 
" Now May I sen," sche seide, " verrailly. 
That thi lord Is Strong & ful Myhti 
That me hath helyd of My gret Maladye. 
For it hath me Cost Certeinlye 
More thanne xy thowsend besaunz, 
This Maladie wit-Owten variaunz, 
& 3it neuere be non Of hem hele myhte I have ; 






But J?ou, blessed lord, now dost me Save." 
Thanne seide to hire this Good man Anoft, 

" Baptesme to Kesceiuen er 30 hens now gon." 

And thanne sche Azede him ful sone, 

' What that baptesme Mihte done.' 

And pie] hire Answered Sone Agein, 

" It Is thyn hoi Savacioun In Certein." 

Thanne Answend sche with good wille, 

" I wile it Resceyven bothe Mekly & stille.** 

Thanne the Goode Man hire Cristened Anon there 

In his Name that was Of Most powere, 

Whiche Is Fadir, and sone, And holy gost, 

On God and thre persones. Of myhtes Most ; 

And thus My Modyr there he Cristened Anon. 
Thanne Owt Of the Chambre sche com gon 

There As I Abod with-Owtcn the dore. 

And Al Owre Meyne In the Flore ; 

So my Modir took me be the bond. 

And wit^ hire to gon I myhte not withstond, 

And thus me to-fom the good man browhte. 

That I ne wiste what I seyn Mowhte ; 

" My swete dowghter, Com now hider to Me, 

Now koverid I am Of Myn Infirmite ; 

Jjerfore, swete dowhter, I wolde that f ou wost don 

As I schal the here Comaunden Anon.'' 264 






Thanne Answerid I wit^ herte qwakynge, 

" Modir, I wele don Alle jowre biddinge ; " 

So that I hadde gret wondir tho 

What my Modir wolde vriih me do. 268 

" Faire swete dowghter, I wolde that 30 

"Wolde worschepen him that myn Infirmite 

Me hoi hath Mad, and taken clene Away ; 

So, swete dowgliter, so worschepe fat man f ts day." 

And I wende sche hadde ment that Old Man, 273 

And therfore I no dorste not Sekerly than; 

And My Modir Axede me " wherfore 1 " 

" For Certein he hath A long herd, & An hore ; 276 

And Euere whanne I lokede vppon his herd, 

Sekir, Modir, I scholde ben Aferd." 

Thanne Anon lowgh this good Old Man 
For that I Seyde Of him than, 280 

" Nay, faire dowghter, it Xam not I 
That thi Modir Speketh Of trewely ; 
But Anofer it Is, that is ^ ful Of Bewte 
And Of Alle goodnesse In Eche degre." 284 

And I axed him, " where that he was, 
3if I myht Owht sen him In this plas ; 
And, 3if he fairere thanne my brofer be. 
Him I wele loven In Alle degre ; 288 

For my brothir, so fair he Is, 
That of bewte hath he now pere I- wis." 

And whanne to him thus hadde I told, 
To speken to Me he was ful bold : 292 

" With-Inne A litel while here schalt poxx Se 
Him Of whom pat I speke to the, 
"Whiche is Fairere thanne thi brothir Is 
In Alle degres, and In More blis 2 96 

Oper thanne thy brothir Evere thow sye, 
Owther Eucre thow schalt with thin Eye." 

worship Him who 

Daaf 9, aoL f] 

brotbtr, thon 
■boll loTi Him. 

* MS that if that is. 




cleanieH aiid 

and amidat them 
the fUreit penon 
that ever eye 

with a red croaa 
in hie hand. 

She (alU to 
tlie ground. 

The Hermit lifts 
her np. 

She Affrecx to 
riN'eive thli Man's 
Itelicf, ami 
the Hermit 
rhrifitene her. 

And Aiion As this wortl haddo he Seid, 

A wondir Clerte tof<^rn me was leyd 300 

Sodeynly there In that Chapel ; 

Many wondirful swetnesso Afom me fyl, 

And the hows So ful thcre-Offcw was, 

And therto swich delicasie In that plas. 304 

Amyddis put liht & swetnesse ^er gan forth gon 
The fairest Creature Of flesch & bon, 
The Clerest and the fiiirest pe/'sone 
That Evere Ony erthly Eye myhte loken vppone. 308 
This ^lan gan holden In his Eyht hond 
The Signe Of A red Cross, I vndirstond, 
And hot he his Eyen Me thowhte ferden there 
Also Cleer brennewgo As Ony Fere. 312 

And thus A whille Stood he thore ; 
Where-Ofifen I was Ahiisched wel sore, 
Of the wondris that I On liim gan beholde ; 
Wherfore myn herte wax wondir Colde, 316 

For On him now More tliaune Mihte I loke, 
So that for drede myn hertij qwoko, 
l>ut to the Ertho I fil plat Adown 
As thowh I hiuldo bon In A swon; 320 

Thannc the Ermyt took me be f* honde, 
And Made mo vp be him stonde ; 
Of wht'clie Sihte haddc I gret M^rvoillong ; 
And saiif my Modir i^ thermit Saw I now thing. 324 

Thanne this good man Scide to Me, 
" Now, my faire dowhter, liow thinkoth the ] " 
And thanne I Answerid so Agoyn, 
** This ^lawncs Creau/icc I wolc rcsr^ewe;* fayn." 323 
And Anon there he Cristenedo ^le 
In tlie holii ' Name Of the Troiiiti.* ; 
So ffft aftir ho told vs, but not bp-foru, 
*IIow J)</t loans Crist was Coiiceyved & born 332 

' Rt il ino baptisa mnintcnant cl non de la sainte trinite. — A. 


Of An holy virgino, Modir & Maide, 

As be Old tyme the prophetis saide ; 

And how fat On y Cros he gan to dye, 

Man To beien from endles felonye ; 336 

And how p* thridde day he Ro8 Ageyne, 

And deliuered his frendis from Endeles peyne ; 

Thanne Aftir, with the xlthe day, 

Streyht to hevene he wente his way ; 340 

And the zj day Aftir, with-Owten fantem. 

He sente to his dissiples, Into lemsalem, 

His holy gost. Anon there Eyht, 

In liknesse of flawmes of fir so briht ; 

& told hem Also how that they scholde 

His bodi sacren to ^ong and Olde, 

As he hem tawhte At his sene, 

The[r] Alle his apostelis weren Clene 848 

The Niht to-fore he sufifrede passiown ; ' 

And thus tolde vs thermyt, Al & som. 

Thanne whanne this to vs hadde he told, 
To that Awter he wente fill bold, 
And there made he pat holy Sacrament 
With hy devocioun and good Entent ; 
And to my Modir there it tho took, 
And sche it Hesceyvede, & not forsook. 
Thanne After to me he Cam Anon, 
And In My Mowth he wold han it don ; 
Thanne thus to me he gan to seyn : 
' That I scholde beleven Certein, 
That theke same body it was 
The wheche In the yirgine took his plas.' 
Where that thanne I taried Anon Eyht, 
That to beleven hadde I non Myht ; 364 

So thanne thowhte me Anon In My siht, 
That it was theke Selve Faire wyht 
Wheche In the Chapel I sawgh to-fore, 
That I was OfTen Abascht ful sore. 368 

Th« Hermit tails 
her motb«r about 
Christ*! daath. 


•Dd gift of th« 
Ho^ abort to 
344 hUapoitiM, 




352 ThtHmnHtbtii 

CiTes It to 
356 motbOT, 


360 tdtlnglMrto 

Sh* tbinkf It's 
■be law tai tho 


SamcTnto and 
h«r mothtr 

promlM not to 
Mterlflot to Idoli, 

bat to beltore 
on Ood. 

When th^ reach 
Orbery, their 
home, they hear 
a wild Beart 
baa broken out> 

ao fierce that 

he eate sheep, 
children, men, 
and horeee. 

and that 
Surracynte'e fair 
brother has gone 

Thanne seide I to him Anon there, 

" Sire, I beleve As thow seidest Ere." 

So that from him we departed Anon, 

Homward In Ourc weye forto gon. 372 

Tha77ne charged he vs In Alle wise, 

' That we scholde don no;i More S[a]crifi8e : * 

" To f 'se fals ymages of tre ne ston, 

Be no weye Sacrifise Make ^e non." 376 

And thawne we Answerid him Ageyn, 

* That On God wolde we beleve?* Certeyn, 

And Comfort and loye Of him to have. 

And that At Owra Endeng he wele vs save.' 380 

In this Maner Ferst Of lesu Cristes lawe 

Thus lemed we, & there-Offen weren fawe. 

And whanne that we wercn comen to Orbery, 
Thanne herden we A wondir Noise, & a gret Cry, 384 
Of A savage wilde beste 
That was broken Owt of a foreste ; 
And Al the Contre it gan to chase, 
It Forto distroyen In som plase ; 388 

For it was so dyvers A beste of kynde, 
That Jjere hadde non iMan wit ne Mynde 
To tellen what thike beste was 

That they Chaced In theke plas ; 392 

For that beste was so dispetous, 
So feers And so Angwischous, 
That he distroiede theke Contre, 

An Ete schepe & Children In Eche degre ; 396 

Men <& hors he gan to distroye, 
And to wommen vfiih Childe he dyde gret Anoye. 

The same tynie f «t we fix)m )>/s good man gonne gon, 
Theke tyme fel this Chawnce Anon, 400 

That the peple Gonnew to gaderen faste, 
And my brothir In that pres forth paste, — 
That so fair and so hardy he was, — 
With hem he forth wente In that plas, 404 

CH. xv.l sarracynte's brother is lost in a bsast-fiqht. 


And A good bors there he be-strody 

And wel Armed he was, & non lengere Abod, — 

As behoved A 3ong knyht Forto were, 

For A litel to-fore knyht was he mad J>ere, — 408 

For there dorste non Man that beste Chase, 

But he were Armed In that plase ; 

For the beste was wondirful In that stede. 

For thre homes hadde [he] In his hede, 412 

That So trenchaunt An scharp^ were, 

Scharpcre than swerd, knyf. Of er spere, — 

For they wolden perschen bothe Ime & steel 

Thow it were wrowht neuere so wel, — 416 

Wheche beste mi brother gan to chase 

Afom Alle the men ))at weren In that plase. 

So that In tweyne plases he it smot 

With A scharp^ swerd that wel hot ; 420 

And fowre hors he Slowgh vndir hym. 

The beste, it was so spetous & grym. 

And whanne this beste Chased was So sore, 

To the Forest he wente Alle hem before, 

As it was Sekerely thus Me told, — 

For I was not there it to behold, — 

And my brothir Aftir him prekede faste. 

To the Forest he Entrede atte laste : 428 

And sethen that to theke Forest he wente. 

And Folewede the beste there presente, 

Sethen was there JN'euere Man ne womman 

That Of him Ony tydinges teUen kan, 432 

Ne Neuere Sethen In-to this day 

We ne herder* neuere Of him tydinges In fay. 

Thanne seide my Modir Anon to Me, 
" Behold, dowhter, here now and se 436 

How that J)* Ermyt, this holy Man, 
That schal befallen, tellcn he Can." 
So that I held him with Crist preve, 
For that he Seide I scholde neuere se 440 


wondsrftil thTM- 

rieat 9. iMU-k, 

He nnitM th« 
in two 

424 lotliakitflfw 

punoM it. 

and he U never 
heard of SfpUn. 

think* the 
Hermit privy 
with Christ, 



M he toM hM* fba My brothir, as it ill be Cas, 

hwr brothtr So fair as him as in the Chapel was ; 

And therfore ful soth seide he, 

For aftir that day I mihte him nenere ae. 444 

And we so with Cristes passioun enspired were. 

That Al his deth foigoten we there, 
intiMji^ofUMir For the grete love, And Oure Greawnce 
swnMqmtoaad That we hadde Besceyved to his plesauTice ; 448 

hM* brotiMr't Whiche Creaunce my Modir kepte ful wel. 

And Neuere aspied was non del 

Into the day and tyme Of hire deth, 

That sche scholde dyen, & ^even up^ the bieth. 452 
Thanne Comaunded sche there Eyht Anon 

That Alle the peple Owt Of y cliambre schold gon, 

Sauf Onliche Alone sche and I ; 

This was hire Comandement trewly. 45d 

And wha/ine they weren al Owte I-gon, 

Sche bad me Schette the dore Anon ; 

And whanne to hire that I was Corner Agein, 

Thanne seide sche to me In Certein, 460 

* That owt Of this world that Nyht scholde sche go ; * 

Thus sche me tolde with-Owtew Mo, 
and ud« her " Now, fdire dowhtcr, go 30 now Into tho wones 

(laughter go to 

her Jewel •toree, There As lyu Alle myn precious stones, 

and bring her a »,», « -i.-r* ± s»-r» 

White Box and a And Also A whit Booyst and A iCyng, 

And that loke ^e bringen me Ouer alle thyng." 

mother order* 
all h«r people 
oat of her room. 


She prays, 
weepe, ilghe, 
and tliompe her 

Whanne that this to hire I hadde I-browht, 

Than^ze vpe sche bird dressid As sche Mowht, 468 

And On hire knees sche dressid hire down 

To-forn hire bed In Orisown, 

And there gan sche to wepen ful sore, 

In Sighenges, and bunching On brest wel more.^ 472 

And whan^ie In this Contonau/tce longe hadde sche bo^ 

Aftir the boist Anon sche Axede Of Me ; 

' £t batoit son pis de son poing, mult angoiBseuBement. — A« 



Thanne Axcde sche water to hiie hond, 

Hem to waschen, Aa I Cowde yndiratondo. 476 

And whan/ze hire hondia I-waschen were^ 

The boist Anon sche Opened there ; 

Owt of tliat boist there Isswed Anon 

Owve holy Saviour bothe In flesch and bon, 480 

Tn forme Of bred there In hire Syht, — 

For so was the wil Of god Almyht, — 

And with Manie teres and sore sighenge 

There Kesceived sche that holy thinge. 484 

And wbanne that thus hadde sche doon, 

Thanne seide sche to Me Anon, 

** Now that I have Resceived my saviowr, 

I am sekir From Alle deseises & dolour — 488 

From the devel and Alle My Fon, — 

And I am Seker to hevena to gon, 

For I have Resceived of Alle Siknesse p* boote, 

And helthe of aUe Angwicsch, bo))* Crop & Roote. 492 

Lo ! dowhter, this boist kepen thow schal 

In A ful preve plase with-al, 

And that It Come In non Mannes bond 

But In thin, I do the to vndirstond. 496 

For this that I have Resceyved here, 

Is * Oure Sa\do{ir here & elles- where ; 

For On Grod In thre parsones it is, 

And til re persones In On God I-wis ; 600 

And loke ^e that this je kepen riht wel, 

And loke fat 30 wraththe;» fat God neuere A del ; 

Loke that ^e taken this holy In Remembraunse, 

And thinketh Algate vppon this Chau/ise ; 504 

Thcnke 3e how he Cam Into this word, 

And In ^larmes kende here dweld be his owntf Acord, 

And alle thing sufifrede as dyde ^lan, 

Sauf Only Of synne neuc?*e knewe he )>an, 608 


Cl«aflO,ool. 1] 
SftTioar In Ibrm 

mothtr rw»lvw 
It, tlM Saonment* 

•art to goto 

danghttr to kmp 
tho Box McrtClj, 

■nd takt Chritt't 



* MS lis. 


babractnte's mother's dying gharob to hxb. [gb. xy. 


hart Chrlft trtry 



MtiM iMTMlf 

And whtn tht 
is dMd, 

H«rr«rjnt« is to 
fro and UU th« 

and inlnd to 
ir*t Christ from 

Where-offen that he was Ever^ klene, 

& neu^re J^erwith spottid, with-Owten wene. 

Loke that ^e have Eoere this In Mynde, 

How good that lord was, & how kynde, 612 

That for vs he suffrede ded, 

Mannes sowle to beyen from f • qwed ; 

And loke that Al this In Memorie ^e haue 

In 9owr6 herte. And 30 wil be save, 516 

And that Every day In 3owre Compeni he be. 

Now, goode swete dowhter, so thinketh On me ! 

For, sethen that I Crestened was, 

Everiday I him worschepid In this plas, 520 

& Euery day in my Compenie mi saviozir I hadde, 

Therwhilles was I of non man Adradde ; 

But, swete dowhter, this wot I wel, 

That here-OIFen knew ^e nevere A del ; 524 

For I it kepte In previte, — 

The Cawse why I schal telle f •, — 

For jif thow haddest deid In this world er I, 

Thow schost it han Resceyved trewly ; 528 

But sethen I deien schal to-Forn the, 

I have it Resceyved, As thow myht se. 

And therfore, Anon As I am ded. 

To the holy man pon go, Into that sted 532 

Where wo resceyved Oure holy Creauwce, 

And telleth him Of Al this chavnce. 

And preieth that holy blcssid Man, 

My sowle In Como/Hlacion to have/i than, 536 

That Only Goddis Seriawwt Is, 

For me to preyen to the kyng [of] blis. 

And, swete dowhter, thow to him go. 

And for Ony thing that thow this do, 540 

Loke that 30 taken Of him jourc savioi/r 

Tliat 30W schal saven In Everi stowr. 

So that Owt Of this world ncucre 30 passe 

But 3e him han to-forn 3owre fase, 544 

CH. XV.] sarracyn'te's mother*s dying charge to her. 





To Hesceiue?! 3our€ euere-lasting savement ; 
For I wot wel J?at he wcle, w*tA good Eiitent, 
30W it taken In this degrc, 
And 36 it him Axen for Cliarite. 

" And whanno that to 30 w lie hath it take, 
Loke 3e that An Onest place ^erfore 30 make, 
3owre Saviour to kepcn Inne deyntele, 
In A worschepful place & A preve, 
So that from Alle leveng Creatiu'e 
3e mown it kcpc/i bothe sauf & sure ; 
And this white hoist take with the, — 
For he him self 3af it to Me, — 
And Into this hoist tha/ine putteth Anon 
Swich thing as he wele there-Inne don. 
And whanne 30 haven it In 3owre keping, 
Loketh that Everi day, Oner Alle thing, 
That to this holy Boyst J?at 3e go, 
And 30ure devocions doth therto 
Wit/i weping & with sore syghenge, 
With honching On hrest, and Repentinge 
Of alle the sinnes that 30 haueT? I-do, 
With high Contriciou;*, dowhter, Euere-Mo ; 
And he wolde sende 30W swich grace & powere, 
Neucre Oper God to worschepen here, 
But Only him that Is 3owre saviour, 
Wheche schal 30 w kepen In Every stowr." 

Lo, Sire, thus My Modir tawhte tho Me 
How I scholde me govenie in eche degre, 
lik as this storie doth me now telle, 
And as 30 me heren to 30W now spelle : 
Swich thing as to my sowle profitable scholde be, 
AUe sweche Manere thinges my Moder told me ; 576 
And &]le thing fat scholde don me Noysaunce, 
Hem scholde I flen for Ony Chawfice. 

And whanne these wordis weren spoken Echon, 
Sche bad me Opene the chambre dore Anon ; 580 

aud so raeelvt 



548 D«rio,eoLi] 

ftiMl pot Christ 
In btr White Box, 

and dailj do b«r 
dtroliooa to it 
with wMping 


■ad oontrilion. 



CTiitc't mothtr 



hMd h«r mothcr't 

Htr molhtr 

Cl«af 10, bMk, 
col. 1] 
klHM h«r. 

bids h«r do M 
•h« hM Uught 

Thaiute Comen In the gentil wommen Alio, 

As to A dwehesse gan to befalle ; 

And thanne Kowned sche In Myn £re, 

And Axed me, *' whom I sawgh there, 584 

Abowtes hire bed Ony Man stondynge ;*' 

Where-Offen I Menreylled Oner sUe thinge. 

Thanne saw I there the same Man 

That to-fom tyme In the Chapel saw I than ; 588 

And my Modir he held be the hond, 

And to-fom hire bed there gan he stond. 

And whsTine the same I sawh there 

That the Ermyt In y Chapel schewed me Ere, 592 

^eue7*e so sore abasched I was 

As I was tho In that same plas. 

And thanne my Modir Axed me tho, 

" What that I sawh to-Fom me go T' 596 

Thanne I hire tolde it was Owre Saviour ; 

And sche him dide ful gret honour : 

More-Oucr sche seide, ** blessid mot he be 

That Into this Erthe wil discende to me ; 600 

Now wot I wel that I schal go 

With liim to blisse for Euc?*e Mo. 

Now, goode swete dowghter, Er that I go, 

Kysseth me er tliat we now departen Atwo, 604 

For to god I schal Comau?Klen 30W here ; 

And therforo, dowhter, loko pat In Alle Manero 

That 30 don lik As I have jow tawht, 

And pleynly that je for^ete/i it nowht ; 608 

For this lord wi'tA him wile leden Me 

Into A plase \fat is ful Of prosperite. 

And perio fid of loye and delicasie.** 

Thus told me Diy Motlir Sekerlye ; 612 

And with this word, Sire, Certeinly 
IVpartid the Spcrit Owt Of hire body. 
& anon I fultillod liiie Comaundemeut^ 
And to that holy man I wente wi tA good entent ; 616 

with eooBMl hov 


There he me tho took My saviour Anon Riht, Hermit sainstiiM, 

receive* ChritI 

My God, my Lord, & ferto man most Of !Miht from kim on her 

And whanne he to me hadde longe I-spoke, 

And wcl of this world to me his herte I-broke, 620 

Thanuo schewed he me y knoweng of )>* trenite, 

And how ]Kit In this world I schold GU)veme Me, 

^ Comaunded me to Fadir & Sone & holigost, 

Whiche that Is lord Of Mihtes Most, 624 

And preide me that I scholde Ketoumen tho 

Into the plase A3en that I Cam fro ; 

For noH lengere ne speken to Me he Myhte, aad leaTec him 

veiy fbeble. 

So feble he was tho as to My Syhte. 628 

And whanne Owt Of his Ermytago I was gon, 
A wondirful swete Koise thanne herde I Anon. 8he hmn a 


And my white boyst I held In Myn bond : 

To here/i this Noise ful stille gan I stond ; 632 

And Mo thowghte tho As In My Syht «* "^ Three 

^ "^ ^ Beinge Alight In 

In that song, thre On that Chapel gonnen A-liht. the Hen&K'e 

And whanne from that Chapel that I was gon 

The spase of half A myle, thanne Mette I Anon 636 HeifamOe 


A man that was Clothed In a Robe Of blak, in biaok meeu 


That was bothe Megre and pale wttA-Owten lak ; 

Ful whit and long was his herd and her — 

Of the man that I tho Mette thanne ther, — 640 

& swich Abit me thowhte he hadde 

As the man In Chapel was In Cladde, — 

So sone was torned his Clothing 

That me Merveillcd In AUe thing ; — 644 

And so faste and Sore tho gan he to gon 

That he was Al On Swot ^ere Anon. 

And Anon As he loked On Me 

He wepte ful sore wtt^ gret pite, 648 

And thus he seide Anon to Me thore, 

'' A ! Cristene womman, thow hastest Sore ; 

For bou wer6 neuere so sone past from bat sood Man, andteiuber 

r r o ' thftt SeloeUue Is 

That his Sperit Owt Of his body wente than." 652 deed. 



[CH. XV. 

The Man in 
Black tolla 

he it Mnt to 
htr by th« 
Holj Ghott, 


and that thrM 
angels bort 
Saloitine't iool 
to God. 

She and the 
Man go back 
to Salnetine'i 

And whanne that Cristene he gan me to Calle, 
Ano7i Of my palfrey I gan down falle, 
And Mekliche I axede him Anon, 
' Whens he Cam, and whedir he echolde gon.' 656 
Thanne lie me Answerid there Anon Ryht : 
Quod he, " I Am the Seriawnt Of god Almyht ; 
For jow fill sore I desire now to se, 
For bothe to-gederis Ajen scholen we — 660 

As be the Schewyug Of the holy gost — 
Bothe A3en to-gederis gon we Most ; 
For Owt of this world his sowle is past ; 
Therfore thedyr Go we In hast." 664 

And I him Answerid, " Sire, For Certein 
From him Ryht now Cam I ful pleyn. 
And On lyve Sire lefte I him there. 
But ]Kit with siknesse he was Charged sore." 668 

** How may this ben, faire dowhter," seide he, 
** Whanne thow herdest pat Melodie and Aungeles tbro, 
How In that Chapel they gonnen to A-lihte, 
And boren his Sowle to-fom God AlMihte : " 672 

And whanne this he tolde to Me, 
Tha72ne wepte I ful gret plente. 
And Cleped I My men ^ to Me Anon, 
"Wheche J?at with me J?*dir gonne gon, — 676 

For In hem bothe I trosted ful wel, 
For Of myn Xorture weren they Eueridel, 
And therto On Of hem My Cosin was, 
And A Clene !Maiden, and ful of Gras, — 680 

That so Alle thre we Retomed Agein 
A^en to thermitage tho In Certein. 
And whanne that thedir we Comen Agein, 
The good man was to god past In Certein : 684 

' et apielai .ij. do mes sers qui auoec moi estoient uenu, 
qui ie me fioie mult. Car ie les auoie acates peti8 enfaoa, et 
nourris lea auoie tant qu'il estoient grant et rage, et bieo cod- 
oenable a seruir en vne haute mait<on. Cbil doi eatoient en ma 
compaignie, et vne moie cousine sans plus, qui estoit puchiele, 
et est enchore. — A. 


And whanne this goode Man saw him pere Ije, 

Anon he wepte tho ful tendirlie, 

And vppon that dedo body fil a-down. 

And there lay he ful longe In swown. 688 

Thus whawnc there longe hadde he leyn, 
Vp he Ros thanne In Certein, 
And beliinde the Awter gan he gon, 
And thens with him browhte he Anon G92 

Sweche maner Of Instrumens, As thowht mo, 
That A pyt with, Mad scholde be. 
Thanne tofore the Awtcr gan he stonde ; 
A pit fere forto Maken tha/me gan he fonde. 
That the ded body there-Inne Moot Keste : 
Thus this pyt Made he with the beste. 
Whanne this pit thus Ended was, 
He lift vp his hand Ano7i In that plas, 
And with the signe of f • Cros f* body blessed he, 
Er Into the pit It pvt schold be, 
And ^at body took be the hed anon, 
Into that pit for to have don, 704 

And Me the Feet he bad taken tho, 
Into the pyt forto have do ; 
" A ! Sire ! " qwod I, and to him Seide, 
^* It were not worthi On him hond fat 1 leide, 
For I am Synful womman. 
And On this Craft non thing I ne kan, 
Nethir to towchen So holy A body ; 
Trewly, Sire, I nam not worthy." 712 

" A ! leve soster, whi sey ^e so here ? 
A more holy thing with jow je here 
Thanne Evere was this holy body ; 
Therfore taketh the feet ful softly." 716 

Thanne wiste I wel that he was an holy man. 
That So prevy thinges Cowde tcUe/i tlian. 
Thanne took I tho body be the Feet, 
And he be the hed, and down it leet 720 

GBAAL. 13 

The Man in 
Bkck WMps, 

696 dlff«arrmv« 
before tlie 
AlUr In the 


takes Salnstine'e 
oorpM bj the 
head, and bide 
Sarraejmte take 
lis feel. 

708 Atflratsbesays 
she is too sinfti^ 

bat then takea 
the feet, and 
leta the eorpM 


SABIIAOTNTB's two servants ARB BAPTinED. [CBm XT. 

ioto tlM grar*. 

Th« Man In BUdc 

^nU's tiro 
hMthmi Mrnuitay 

ftn* wonbipinf 


Tb«y phqr 
blm to laiptlai 

which )m dcMi* 

Into that pyt there thanne Anon, — 

That holy body, bothe flesch and bon ; — 

And thanne with Erthe he keuered it sone, 

And seid there Ouer what was to done. 72i 

Thanne of lesu Crist spak he to Me 
In Mani Maners & In dyvers degre, 
And Aposed me Of my saviour. 
And Of my two seriawntes In fat stour, 728 

Thanne seide [he] to vs f ul wondirfnily, 
[" How dore] 96 ben so bold, Other So hardy, 
Swiche tweyne Seriawntes with jow to bringe. 
That with-Inne this holy plase Scholden haven non 
Entringe ? 733 

For 3e Scholden not Entren here wit^-Inne, 
That liven In wrechednesse and In synne, 
And worschepen the devel bothe day & Kyht, 
And him je Serven, that fowle wyht" 736 

There sweche wordis to vs Spak he Anon, 
That to his Feet we fillen Echon. 
Thanne preyde iche him wtt^ riht good wille, 
The Kyht Creaunco On hem to fulfille, 740 

And Cristendom that they myhten take 
In worschepe Of that Goode lordis sake, 
For non lenger« that they myhten dwelle 
In Servise Of the dovel Of helle. 744 

And whanne that he hem herde fere speken 

Biht Anon water than fette he tho. 
And Anon hem Cristeneden witA-Owten host 
In the Name Of the fadir & sone & holi goat ; 748 
And he hem preide ful tcntifly 
That Creaunce to kepe fid worthily, 
And that ymages so fals Evere to dispise, 
That So fals ben In Al Manere wise. 753 

And he me preide hem forto kenne, 
That they myhten becomen good Cristene Menne ; 


And there to God he Comanded V8, 

And we him to swete lesus, 

For thens owt of J?at plase wolde he Neiwre go, 

But there wolde dwellen for Evere Mo. 

And God for him wrowhte In that plase 
Mani Faire Miracles In litel spase ; 
But I ne Cowde weten 3it what was his Name, 
Of him that was so good Of fame ; 
And ^it Grod graunted me that faire grase, 
That I At his Owno beryeng wase 
In the same Manor As I at the tothir was £r, 
Riht so [I] beried him bothe Faire & Cler ; 
And from that day ^it hider-to 
I have belevid In God ^it Eucre Mo." 

And losephes Abod Alle hire Answera 
Evene to the Ende that sche seide )?ere. 
And hire Answerid ful sone tlio, 
" Sey me, dame, how myhtest f ou don so, 
A Cristene woman fat thow schost be, 
And dost not ^ere-eStir In non degre, 
And that thow him worschepest nowht, 
That so dere In this worLl the bowht 1 " 
" Sertes, sire," thanne Answerid sche, 
** My lord Is so spetows and so Angre, 
That Everi day I moste Awaitew IkFyn Owr 
Whanne I May worschepew my saviowr ; 
For, And Ony thing he Mihte Aspie^ with me 
That him scholde misplese In Ony degre, 
Anon he wolde me Confowndo, 
And distroyen me Into the harde grownde ; 
But now I hope Oure lord wil to him se, 
In the Kybt beleve that he mot be ; 
And I the preie, that Art Goddis Seriawnt, 
Him from bodily deth that he wolde grawnt. 
And him hom In worschepe forto bringe. 
And [in] bis Creawnce to Maken his Endenge ; 


Black tUyt 
In Sftlnstint's 
working mtiUBlM, 


76 4 andSemejnte 
afterward* barlee 
him there. 


When Joeephee 
haa heard all 

i I 


he aska her why 

•he doesn't 
worahlp Christ. 

t t 


hiuband la eo 



and if I were 
to displeaiie him, 
he'd kiU me. 

I pray Ood 

788 to keep him 

and eoorert hfan. 


Idreftdyoar « 
worda thnt he 
(Evalach) shall 
in hit enemy's 

how Evalach 

& ^i£ this Ones I Mihte knowe, 

There nis now Creature, neper hy ne lowe, 

In this world schold me disseise, 

So mochel myn herte it scholde plese ; 

But Evere, losephes, I drede me sore 

Of y wordis that je han seide before, 

That thre dayes & thre Nyht 

His Enemy Of him scholde han Myht." 

" That is ful soth," quod losephes thanne, 

" For there nys non Erthly Manne 

That his word ne may with-seye, 

Ke his Comandement, In non weye." 

" Sire ! jit je Mown don this for me, 

To preien to that God In Maieste, 

That he wolde schewen 30W wit^-Owten faiUe 

How my lord hath sped In his bataille." 

So longe that lady preide losephes tho, 
That Everi point he told hire to ; 
And how he hadde I-sped from day to day. 
There Al the sothe he gan here Say. 







Josephes tells Sarracynte of the White Knight, whom 
Evalach and Seraphe cannot make out (p. 197). Evalach 
goes to see Tholomes (p. 198), and then returns to Sarra% 
taking Seraphe with him (p. 198). His Queen reoeiys 
them with great delight, and he at once asks after the 
Christians (p. 199). Joseph comes (p. 199) ; he tells 
Seraphe tliat it was Evalach's prayer that gave him 
his great strength (p. 200). Joseph orders Evalach^s 
shield to be uncovcrd (p. 201). A crucified maa is 
seen on it (p. 201). A man with a wounded arm is 
heald by it; and then the cross vanishes (p. 201). 
Seraphe declares that he will turn Christian, and Joeeph 
baptizes him, and changes his name to Natciem (p. 202) ; 
he is heald at once, and so preaches to Evalach, that he 
and the wounded man are baptizd too, and £valaoh*8 
name changd to Mordraynes, or " Slow-of-Belief " (p. 
203). The rest of the people are baptizd; and Joseph 
destroys the images, and converts all Sarras (p. 204). 

en. xvl] evalagh and seraphs wonder who the white knight is. 197 

He leaves three of his friends in Sairas in charge of the 
Grail-Ark, and goes with the rest to Orcauz (p. 205), 
where he turns out of an image the devil Aselahas, and 
makes him explain why he had killd Tholomes (p. 206-7), 
Mordraynes orders his people to he baptized or to leave 
the country (p. 208) ; some are killd by the Devil (p. 209), 
and a spear-head is driven into Joseph's hip for his nt^- 
lect, and left there (p. 209-10). The whole land is con- 
verted (p. 210), bishops are ordaind (p. 211-12), and the 
bodies of the two Hermit-Saints, Salustes and Ermonies^ 
procurd for the Churches in Sarras and Orbery (p. 213). 

Thus losephes and his Compenie, 
In Sarras weren they Sekerlye, 
Worthily I-served Of that Qweene 
That Sarracinte was Clepid be-dene. 4 

And As thus In talkinge they were. 
To Sarracinte goode tydinges told he \ere^ 
' That to Orcauz hire lord was Come, 
And with him A ful gret throme ; ' 8 

And tolde hire of the white knyht, 
How graciously he bar him In fyht ; 
But Ko man Cowde tellen what he was, 
Of AVLe hem that weren In that plas ; 1 2 

And jit the king wolde han wist ful fayn 
What he haddo ben In Certain, 
And Merveilled Sore Alle that Nyht, 
& lay and thowhte Of that white knyht; 
And so dide Also Sire Seraphe, 
For he ne wiste where becomen was he, 
And seiden ' that Glad scholden thei neuere be, ^ 

Til of him they knewen som Certeinte.' 20 

And thus Al that Niht Spoken they two 
Of the white knyht, and Of no Mo, 
Wheche ho lovede Ouer Alle thing, 
And be him gat he Conqwering ; 24 

And thus leften they not Of talkyng 
Til bothe weren Fallen in sloping. 
For Wery of fyhteng Alle they Were, 
And Al here Compeni pat vriik hem was there. 28 

JoMphM and hla 
flrlMidt are ireU 
lookt after bj 

He tolls her 
of the Wblto 

about whom 
Evaladi and 
16 Seraphe are 
both wondering 
outside Orcauz. 

198 KVAL&CU VmiTtt TlluLOMl!», AND QOE8 TO 8AERA8. [cH. XVI. 

Evalach goes 
into Orcauz to 
■M Tholomeo, 

who fkllt down 
before him, 

and bide hie 
kuighu do eo too. 

EveUch rldee 
toMrarde Same, 

mid aske Serapbe 
to come too, 
and see Joseph. 

Seraphe agreee. 

Erly on the Morwe, wlianne fe kyng A1O0, 
Streyht Into Orcauz thanno he Gos 
For to speken With tholome the kyng, 
And to knowen & sen of his governy;7g. 
And whanne Tholome Eualach Say Com, 
To his Feet he Fil Anon fere A-down, 
For ful gret drede hadde Tholome 
That kyng Eualach Wolde don him sle. 
Thanne king Eualach took him be the honde, 
And made him vp-Eiht forto stonde. 
Be Encheson that A kyng he was, 
And Most Of worschepo In that plas. 
Thanne Anon kyng Tholome 
Clepid forth pils] knihtes ^ & his Meyne, 
And bad hem down fallen to here lord, 
And him Worschepe?i with on Acord. 

Whanne they hadden thus AUe I-do, 
Kyng Eualach from hem gan to go, 
And toward Sarras gan forto Ryde, 
lie & his M(*yne be liis Side, 
And with hym Sire Seraphe he ladde, 
Tliat Manye A gret wou7Kle there hadde ; 
And thanno seiJe Sire Seraphe, 

* That horn Into his Owne Contre wolde he, 
Where that he Scholde more Esod ben 
Thanno In Sarras, As he tho Cowde sen/ 
Than7ie seido king Eualach to him tho, 

" Sire, with me to Sarras Scholen je go, 
And there greto Merveilles scholen 30 se, 
Of the moste wondirful Man that may be, 
That toldo me how that it schold be-falle 
Of my bataille, begynne7?g and Alio.*' 
And thanne Answerid Sire Seraphe, 

* That gladlicho theke Man wold he se.' 









knihteft in the MS. 


So that botho Siitf Seraphe is pe kyng, 
To Sarras Comen with Owten lettjng ] 
And Alle the tothere Meyne, 
Echo tomede to his ContrOi 
As the king hem jaf license 
Forto gon from his precense. 

And whanne the king to Sarras was Gone, 
V^tth gret loy* fe Qweene him Mette AnonOi 
And Also hire dere brother Sir6 Seraphe, 
Of hym gret loje Made tho sche, 
And so dide Al that Cite tho, 
Gret loje Made Of hem two ; 
For they Supposed In Certein, 
To that Cite Keuere to have Comen Ageyn. 
And Anon As the kyng On-hoised was, 
After the Cristenmen he Axede In ^t plas ; 
And the qwene, that wolde not yndirstonde ; 
But 3it Anon the kyng Sente his sonde 
To Seken thanne losep^e & his Meyne, 
'* For, dame, it Is Al trewe that he tolde me." 
And whanne the qweene him herde so sayn, 
Thanne In herte was sche botho loyful & fayn, 
And sente to seken Iosep/<0 anon 
Also faste As they myhteu gon. 
And Anon As Evere the king saw losep^, 
Ryht Anon to him he gan forto lepe,^ 
And seide ' that he was the beste welcomed Man 
Thanne Evere was Oni prophete,' he seide than. 
And be him he made him to sittin A-down ; 
And thanne to Seraphe seide he this Kesown,— 
That Sik vppon A Cowche he lay, 
As was hurt yppon the Formere day, — 

Senphe rMch 

64 tJATTBa. 







with Joj. 


afttr Um 


' The marks of contraction over the p of losep and lejf are 
the same, and, though this letep* has been printed laafiphe 
elsewhere in the text — as loiteph oocars in the MS so often*-* 
yet here it is printed losepe on account of the ryme. 


that God, not h«, 
gate EraUdi 
the Tiotoiy. 

He tdla Senpb* 

that God 
delirerd him 
from Mven 
KnfghU who'd 
brought him 
to the point 
of death; 

and Uiis, becanae 
Eralach prayd 
to Him. 

" I sey to 30W now, brother Sire Seraphe, 

That bo this Man I have Conqwest & mj degre, 9G 

Whiche that I wele that 30 knowe, 

And Al my peple vppon A rowe." 

" Nay, sire," quod losep^ thanne, 

" It ^fiht neuere Come;* be Erthly Manne, 100 

But be him In whom thow hast CrcauTice ; 

He hath the sent Al tliis good Chaunce." 

Thanne Axede Sire Seraphe Anon thanne, 

** What Manere of powere hath that Mamie 10-4 

That he is of so gret powste ; 

I preie the, Belamy, telle thow me." 

Thanne Answerid tho losepAe Ageyn : 
" I Schal y Sein, Seraphe, In Certeyn ; 108 

And what he sente the to seyne by me, 
I schal the now tellen. Sire Seraphe. 
This lord that kyng Of Cristene Is, 
Be his Mowth he seide to Me I-wis, 112 

That he was tho Same Man 
That from Sevene knyhtos deliuered f* than 
Whanwe atte the prikko of deth Jjou were I-browht : 
Seraphe, thorwh thy Myht wos it Nowht. 116 

And jif thow Supposist that Al thi Chevalrye 
Come of thy self, — Nay, Certeinlye. 
And 3if thow beleve now so, 

Al it is Folye fat thow dost do. 1 20 

But knowe thow wel, Sire, for Certeine, 
That whanwe Eualach the saw In sorwe and peine. 
And there he Made his preiere Anon 
To Jjat lord of whom he bar signe vppon, 124 

" That, as his dere brof er, the In bataille scholde defends 
From peril of deth, & to Jj* victorie to sende." 
And whanne losephes thus tho hadde I-seid, 
Thanne Seraphe, that vppon A Cowche was leid, 1 28 
Of his word is ful sore Abasched he was. 
Of wheche no man know tho in that plas. 


And Seido thanne Anon king Eualach tho, 

" Certes, dere brother, It was Ryht So." 132 

Thanne Axede losephes the Siime Anon Joi«ph««edta 

Of ])* Cros ])at he hadde In his scheld doon ; •uaid; 

And whanne this scheld was vndon, 
The signe of the Crois they behelden Ano7i ; 136 •aj«i»ntii« 

rra CroM oo it 

And there anon it semed there In Al here siht 
A wondirful Red Cros, & Merveillously dyht ; 
And vppon that Crois hem thowhte they sie tii^y ■••» 

oradAtd nun. 

A man In manere on J^at cros was Cmcifie. 140 

In the Mene whille ])at this Sihte was, 

happed A man to comen Into that plas ; 

And losephes him Clopide there Anon,^ 

For his Arm Ny from his body was gon ; 1 44 a diMMd nwa 

" Certes," qitod losephe, " this lord is of bo gret powere, 

That thin sore putte to him here. 

As heil & sownd thanne schalt thow be 

As euer is Oni Man In Cristiente." 1 48 

And this Man dide Anon As he him bad, p"** ^^^ 

' arm to th« Cro««, 

And Riht Anon there his hele he had. and it u at one. 


Thanne alle the hurte men \>at weren present 
Seiden it was don be Enchauntement ; 152 

And Ids Arm be-Cam As hoi Anon 
As was fisch that bar A bon. 

3it a grcttcre Merveille was in that plas, 
Of the Cros that In the Scheld tho was : 156 

It vansched Awey there tho sodeinly 5?v!l?^''°" 

That neuere man ne wiste whedir ne whi, 
So that it was neuere More Sein 
In that Scheld Aftir Certein. 160 

Of this thing Alio Sore abasched they were 
That in theke plase )>at tyme weren there. 

And whanne Seraphe this gan beholde, 
Non lengere thanne Abidcn he wolde, 164 

' The French makes Seraphes propo/ie to Josephes the care 
of the wounded man as a test. If he can be cured, Seraphes 
will believe in God as the true one. 




fklli at JoMph'* 
feet and begt 
to bt blotted. 

Joseph bapttxei 
him and calls 
him Naicxsvi. 

A bnrnlng fire- 
brand Meme to 
enter his mouth, 
a Voioe eays he 
U parifled. 

and flltd with 
the Holj Ghoet ; 

But Anon Cristened he wolde be, 

& On him to beleve, In £che degie. 

That hath so moche strengthe Ss power, 

Sike Men Forto keveren there. 168 

And he him there dressed vppe al so skeet, 

And fyl adown Anon to losephes Feet ; 

There Axede he Joseph, for charite, 

Anon A Cristene man that he Mihte be. 173 

'' In the name of y Fadir, sone, & holigost^ 

Whiche that Is lord of Mihtes Most, 

I the cristene/' quod Joseph thanne, 

"And loke pat thou be true cristenne Maone.'^ 176 

In his Cnstendom, his Xame chonched he, 

And Clepid him * Kasciens/ that men myhte ae. 

And Anon As he tho Cristened was, 
Swich A Clerte On him fil In )>at plaa, 180 

Seenge to hem that stood Abowte, 
Of diners meine a ful gret Eowte, 
And hem besemede ful verrayly 
That alle his Clothes weren taken Awey ; 184 

Hem thowhte they sien A brennenge brond of fer 
Into his Mowth how it Entrede ther. 
Thanno herden they there A wondir vois anon, 
That thus to hem seide J?ere Everichon : 188 

" Tho last of y ferst hath taken Away 
Alle filthhedis this ilke day. 
Be his Owne etedfaste Creavnce 

Him is be-happcd this ilke Chaunce." 192 

And whanne this vois tho was past, 
Thanne vp/>e him Stirte Seraphe In hast ; 
And Felt him Self As heyl & qwerte, 
And as hoi A man In body & herte. 196 

And Anon fulfillid there he was 
With the holi gost tho In that plas ; 
And than«e be-spak sire Nasciens : 
"The holi gost ia in my prescna, 200 



That Me Certefyeth Of Myn Creavnce, 

& how that I schal levea with-o\vte;» yariaonce ; 

That to Owre mote ne gon not we 

With hondes vnwaschen In non degre ; 204 

And him there worschepen scholen we thanjie, 

That Most Worthy Lord that becam Manne.*' 

And behold what God Schewed to £ualach iho 
For the grete Affiaiince he hadde him vntOy 208 

That Tholome theko same Owr 
Owt of this world was past with dolowi. 
And thus him Schewed the holy gost 
That Evere Is lord Of Myhtes Most. 215 

So longe thanne there Spak Sire Kasciens, . 
Of goddis Myht and of his presens, 
That king Eualach Ban Cristened to be ; 
And Also that Man In the same degre 216 

Whiche that his Arm was ny Offe go. 
To Cristendom faste Ran he tho. 
And Anon As that they Cristened were, 
Hero Karnes In here Forehed were ^yretera ^ere ; 220 
Eualach to * Mordraynes * Torned was, 
And the hurt Man to ' Clamacides ; ' 
Thus bothe here Names I-tomed they were 
Be strengthe and vertw Of baptism there, 224 

As banarers Of that hye kyng 
The wheche hem browhte to baptising. 

Thanne seide Sire Mordrains to his qwene, 
' That sche scholde Comen, Cristened to bene ; ' 228 
Thanne Answerid [sche] to hire lord Anon, 
" That it Were Nethir Skele ne Reson : 
For on body, twyes baptised forto be. 
Sire, it were non Resoun, So thiuketh Me.'* 232 

Thanne Axede hire the kyng Anon 
How that this Cause Mihte thus gon. 
" Sire," sche seide thanne, " Certeinlye 
xxv\j wynter Agon it is fuUye 236 



By God't I 
too, TholooiM 
thmdiM In pain 

Ktadrnl eoovwta 

ftlUl tJl« iMtld 


who we bftptiid, 


toUs hi* wife 
terrecjrnte to 

Imt the Mjt 


tttlU Evalach 
tiM story of btr 

Her BMM meaiui 

J<Me|>h« baptixea 


over MO.OOO 

nnd refiites to 
leave llie plncc 
tin lie'i broken 
all the iduU 

which be duei. 

That I Crcstened womman haue be. 

Sire kyng, forsothe As I telle the." 

And the kyng Axede here how it was. 

Anon sche him tolde Al the Cas : 240 

Evene As sche to losephe tolde, 

Sche him Rehersid ])ere Manifolde, 

And seid the holy man that hire Cnstened ^re. 

Here Kame Kolde chonge In non Manere, 244 

" But seid to Me In his talkyng, 

' Thy Name ' ful of faith ' Is signefieng.' " 

And whanne that they thus Cristened were, 

Alle the 'Remuauni that weren there 248 

Comen Alle ful faste Ee;znenge 

Forto Resceyven there baptisenge ; 

And losephes took A basyn with water Anon, 

And Amongs hem Faste he gan to gon ; 252 

There Anon he Made hem Alle knelynge, 

And there jaf he to hem Baptisenge, 

And vppon here hedis water threw he Abowte, 

Vppon that Meyne In theke grete Eowte, 256 

Where As was v hundred thowsend & Mo,i 

In that same plaae Cristened be^ tho 

In the Name of the fadir & Sone & holigost, 

Wheche that Is lord of Myhtes Most. 

Thanne On the Morwe Nasciens wolde gon 
Into Furthere Contres Anon, 
And loseph with him wolde he have, 
The Contre to saunctefie & to save. 
But loseph him tho Answerid Anon, 
" That Owt of Sarras wold he not gon 
Til the ymages weren broken Echone, 
And the temples Sanctified er he pens wold c?oii<» o 
As Oure lord him Comauwd^d be his mowfh 

sente ; " 
& so he dide, Er he thens wente. 

* .T. mile et .iij. cens. — MS Reg. • ? cut out « 1 




And whanne Alle this peple thus hadde he wonne, 
And Goddis ful Creaonce there begonne, 272 

Thanna Abowtes In Yirown Al that Centre 
The peple to tome, thanno so labowred he. 
Whanne that Sarras to Cristendom was browht, 
Ful mochel loje was In his thowht 276 

Thanne Alle tho gan ho with him take 
That Owt of lerusalem weren his Make, 
Except Only persones thanne thre — 
That he lefte with the Arche forto be, 280 

And that holy disch that was there-Inne, 
It savely to kopen from More Ofer Mynne ; — 
Whiche On of hem * Enacore ' gonne they Calle, 
The tother ' Manasses/ As tho gan falle ; 284 

The thridde was clepid * Lwcan/ 
Thiko same Tyme of Every man, 
That loseph took the Arch In kepinge 
To his purpos, As to A man of best levenge. 288 

And thus these thre leften there 
To kepen this holy Arch In this Manere ; 
And Alle the tothere gonrten forth to gon, 
Cristes Kame to sanctefien Anon, 292 

And tho peple to jeven baptiseng ; 
And this was alle hero labowreng. 
But of hem At theke time was non there 
But that the holigost in hem spak Every where, 296 
And Alio Maner of langage thanne dido hem have ; 
Wherc-thorwh the peple that they myhten save. 
And with-owten loaephe and his sone 
Weren Ixxij that to-gederis dido wone. 

Thanne losephe to Orcauz gan to gon, 
And there Into the temple he Entred Anon, 
And In ful grot thowht there was he. 
But Evero his herte was vppon the Trenito. 304 

And his letheme Gyrdel tho took he anori, 
And to An ymage there Gan he to gon. 

three men In 

Man wee, 


[••e p. BS] 

to look after 
the Ark of the 

300 [xUz. Freneli] 

Joeeph retcbee 
and foee into 
tlie Temple. 


JoMph coi\|arm 
a Devil ( AaelabM 
1. S76)oatofaD 

and drags him 
before Na»ciena. 

J«Meph asks the 
Devil whj he 
made Tliolomea 
f.iM out of the 

and h\<U liim 

Tlie DeTil wajn : 

That stood In the temple vppon the chief Awter, 

And him Anon Coniowred there. 308 

And the devel there Anon forth Eyht 

Owt of the ymage isswed In Al here siht. 

And whanne that Owt of the ymage he was gon, 

loseph thanne took his Girdel Anon, 312 

And Abowte his Nekke he Made it fast^ 

And it drowgh to-Fore the king In hast ; 

So In fat Manere he drow it thorwgh the Cite 

That Al the peple there him Mihte thanne se. 316 

Than Tie Axede him Nasciens Anon Eiht there, 
"Whi that so sore lustefyed he were*!*' 
Thanne losephe to him Sone Agein : 
" In time Come7?g thow schalt weten Certein." 320 
Thanne Axed losephe of y devel A-fom hem Alle \>eref 

* Why he hadde so ferd with kyng Tholomere,' 

'^ And whi thow Madist him so to fallen A-down 

Atte the wyndowe Of f" towr to his Confuciount" 324 

Thanne spak the devel to loseph tho Certeinle : 

** Goddes Seriawnt, A while that pon wost lesen* Me, 

And I schal to the tellen Anon Eyht 

Of kyng Tbolomer, frit ]>o\\ clepist A knyht." 328 

Thanne Ioscj)he his Ginlil tho gan to vndon 

From the schrewes Kekke there Anon, 

And so wente he forth there Al Abowte. 

And loseph liim Comanded Among Al that Rowte, 

* That Openly the sothe to tellen there, 333 
How it So happed Of kyng Tholomere.' 

Thanwe Answerid that schrewe sone him Ageyn, 

And seide, " loseph, I knowe it wel for Certeyn 336 

What Merveilles that God hath for the wrowht ; 

[ vo gap in the MSJ] 

For In Sarras there God wrowhte fore the, 

The ^fan that was Mayned,^ fere hoi forto be ; 340 

* * pour quoi il le iustichoit si, et ke il li auoit fourfait* — A. 
' loosen, free. ' Tome qui auoit le brach caupe. — A. 



Thorwh Signe of the Crois tliat he towched t}iere, 

Anon was he Mad bothe hoi & Fere ; 

Also there Cristenodest thow kyng Eualach, 

That Alle Ouro lawe there gan he Foisak ; 344 

And so I supposed thow wost han don here, 

To Cristendom han browht kyng Tholomere. 

And for I suppesid that tliow wost don so, 

In liknesse of Man I gan to hym go, 348 

And told him there a newe tyding, 

' That on the Morwe, Sire Eualach the kyng 

Wolde him don bothe hangen & drawe, 

And him to bnnge Owt of his lif dawe.' 352 

Thanne whanne thus I hadde hym told, 

Anon his herte gan to wexen fid cold. 

And he me preide him forto helpe. 

There thus Of My Self I gan to ^elpe, 356 

For I tolde him, ' Certeinle 

I Cowde him helpe in Al degre ; 

And Owt of )>at Castel Forto gon, 

I him Wolde helpe Hiht Anon.' 360 

Thanne tomed I Me In semblaunce of a Grifown, 

Owt of that towr him to helpen A-down ; 

And Yppon my bak I Made him Sitten there, 

Til that he Owt of that Cite were ; 364 

And whanTze On My bak I-set was ho, 

I let him falle, & to-breste on pecis thre." 

Thanne loseph A^cn took pat schrewe Anon Hiht, 

* I thought yoa'd 



•o I t<rid film 
Eralarh moutt to 
liang him next 

and then f oflbrd 
to help him 

I tnrnd m jaalf 
into a Griflin, 

and whm 
Tliolomen got oa 
my hark, I 
dropt him ; and 
he broke into S 

And bond him A^en In Alle Mennes Siht, 
And him so ladde thorwgh Al the Cite 
That al the pcple him Mihte there Se, 
And seide, " 30 Caytives, now, Everichon, 
Here Is jouro god that 30 beleven vppon." 
Thanne Axcde him losepli In that plas, 
In what Manere that he Clepid was. 
Thanne the schrewe Answerid him Ageyn, 
** Aselabas, My name is Clepid In Certein ; 




My nam* la 


»m\ my work Is, 
by Culoo taies to 
corrupt and 
destroy men ? 

Mniiy folk of 
Impilsd by 

orders all who 
W(in*t turn 
ClirUtians to 
quit bis bind. 

Hany do so^ 

who won't change 
their fiUth ; 

hut several die as 
they leave the 

And, loseph, I telle the what is Myn Oflfis : 
Men thorwgh false tales to bringen In to yis ; 
And thorwh my fals tydynge 

Thus bringe I hem to schort Endengo." 380 

And whanne the peple herdon Al this Ado^ 
On him there wondrede Maui-ow tho ; 
To Cristeneng Alle ronyjen they Riht faste. 
As longe as that It Myhte laste ; 384 

And losepAe was Euere Eedy Anon, 
And there hem Baptised Everichon. 
Thanne loseph e Cowiowred the devel Anon, 
And Owt Of his bondes let him gon^ 388 

That he Scholde Neuere Noyen Man ne womwian 
That the signe Of the holy Cros hadde vppon. 
Thanne Anon the kyng let the banes Crye 
Thorwhe Al his lond ful Certeinlye, 302 

That Al his lond Cristcndom Scholde take, 
Only For lesus Cristes Sake ; 
And alle tho that wolde not Cristened ben, 
Anon Owt his lond that [they] Scholde fleen, 396 

And neuere thedir Inne to Retomen Agein ; 
This was this Comandeme?it Certein. 
And whan7ie tliis cry was thus don, 
To Cristeneng wento there Mani On ; 400 

But Mochel peplo jit tho there were 
That Owt of theko Cite fledden there ; 
For th^ ne wolden not Chongen here lay, 
Mochel of that peple thcns wente that day. 404 

And whanwe loscph beheld al this, 
Ful mochel mone he Made I-wis. 
Than?ie spak the devel to loseph tho, 
" Behold what Vewyauwce I wil now do, 408 

For tho that Cristened wold not han had, 
Owt At the jates the devel hem lad. 
Of whom deyden sodeinly Manion 
[As Owt of fe jates they wolde han gon ;] 412 



And somme the devel hurte wondir sore, 

And Owt of here wittes 3it Mani More. 

Alle the Hemnaunt that Asckapen Mihte, 

Konnen to Joseph there Anon Hyhte, 416 

There that the Miscreawwtes Cristened be. 

And whanne this Merveille losephe sawh he, 

Thedirward faste wente he Anon — 

Also Faste he hyede As he myht gon. — 420 

And aboven the dede bodyes saw he ])ere Sitte 

The devel that Owt of )>• Cite Made hem flytte. 

** A ! thow CuTsid gost/* quod Joseph tho, 

^* Whi hast thow this veniaunce thus do ? 424 

And to this, ho that Comanded the, 

Telle me, thow devel, er thow hens fle." 

Thanne the devel Answerid him Agein, 

" Be Cristes Comaundement In Certein." 428 

" Tho[u] lyest Falsly," quod Joseph tho, 

** His Comau7idcme72t was it Nevere so." 

And Joseph to him ward faste gan gon, 

Him forto han taken & bownden Anon ; 432 

In his Girdel, as he to-foren was, 

Forto han bownden him In that plas. 

And as Joseph loked him tho Abowte, 

In his herte he hadde gret dowte ; 436 

An Aungel to-Fom him Sawh he there 

With a merveillews contenaunce In ]»s manerey 

For his vesage As brenneng Fyr it was 

To him there semeng, ne])6r more ne las. 440 

Ful sore abascht was he \fer-oSen tho. 

That he ne wiste what he myhte do, 

And wondred what it schold signefie, 

Thaungel that loked so vegerowslye. 444 

And in this Mene whille of thinkenge, 

Thaungel with a spere he dide him stinge ; 

In tho to the hipe, to the harde bon, 

This Angel him stang there Anon, 448 

TIm rest to bark 

ftod 1m twptlut 


•UUng over the 

He it solnfr to 
bind thin Devil, 

when be I 

Angal befiwe hia. 

who drive* ■ 
•pear Into hie 
hip up to the 




and iMVM the And there lefte he the spere and M hed 

■pflftT and head ~^ 

there, Stille In his hype In that^ Sted : 

beeuaeJoeeph " Lo, losepi^, thifl IS to Siffnefie 

didn't iMiptiie the [ 

dead Oroaoi men. For hem thou leftest Oncristened Sekerlye ; 452 

Therfore this thy mark Schal be, 

& it Contenuwe schal with the." 

ThanTie thaungel thens gan to gon, 
Joeeph drawa oat And loseph drowffh owftl b* spere schaft anon : 456 

theahaftofthe ^ o l J r r i 

apear; batita But the hed In his hype lefte here stille, 

head atopa in hia 

hip, For that was only goddis wille ; 

But it Greved him but litel thing, 
For it was only Goddis wameng ; 460 

But the blood Cowdo he staunchen In non wise, 

which bieeda But every day newe it gan forto Reprise, 
As longe as with-Inne was the hed, 
Thus it bledde In Every sted. 464 

But thaungel bad him non Merveille have : 
** That God wold han saved, wile he save," 
As in tyme Comeng je scholen here 
In this same storie, and ^e welen lere. 468 

Joeeph waiica oat, Thamte loseph walked forth Anon, 
And his Menie with him Everichon ; 
And of his wounde hadde he non gret dolowr. 
But he was in gret drede of Oure saviour. 472 

Tharme here-Offen MerveUled gretly the kyng. 
What that this be In to Signefieng. 

and aaya hia Thauno scide losephe to him Anon there, 

bring people oat *' Of this, Merveillo 30 not In non Manere ; 476 

might. Sire, it is, I telle the now Ryht, 

The peple to bringe Owt of the develes Miht." 
Tlianne whanne f* peple him so herde speken fere, 
Ful loyful they werew that Cristened were ; 480 

And alle that vncristened weren to, 
To Cristendom faste gonne they go. 
Thus loseph wrowhte at Orcau[z] Cite ; 

Sekerlych there baptised he gret Meyne ; 484 

" MS. thasi 


And bis felawes there weren with hem, 

That they browhtei* owt of lenisalem. 

So that Crist there so faire for him wrowhte, Jo*^** *«"» ■^ 

' the Orautt folk 

That alle the peple of Orcaus to Cristendom he browhte, chiiitiui. 

And with-Inne thre dayes Everichon. 489 

Thus Goddis wille fulfild he Anon, 

So that lefte there nethir gret ne smal 

That to goddis lawe [ne] weren tomed al. 492 

And what be the holy wordis that he pere spak, 

And be the holi gost with-Owte» lak, 

Mochel peple of the Contre tomede he, 

Goode Men & Cristened Forto be : 496 

And alle the ymages that In the temples Were, tmnu nd 

He dide brenne & to-brast Every where : tdob, 

Al thus wrowhte Joseph In that Contre, 

In the temples and to the peiple,^ where-so weitl he ; and then oonrtrti 

And Into the Contre of Nascien, 501 people. 

He made hem alle tho Cristene Men. 

And thanne A3en to sarras loseph gan to go. 
And Nasciens with him tho Cam Also ; 504 

For loiful In herte was he thanne. 
For he Converted there Manie A manne. 
And fulfilled goddis Comandement, 
The wheche was holy his Entent. 508 

Thanne loseph of his feleschcpe here ches ful sone, Joeeph diooMi 
And bisschopee^ hem Ordred there Anone, ordenUMat* 

And sente hem Abowte Into Eche Contre, wb«j*^*^' 

Goddis lawe forto prechen ful openle. 512 

Somme of hem dwelde In Nasciens lond. 
And somme In Mordrayns, As I vndirstond, 
Whiche was a lord of gret Seignourie, 


And Mochel peple hadde In his baillye ; 516 

So that loseph ches Owt thre & thiytty, imtiMnniM 


And Sixtene with him left pleynly. 

' MS.ple!ple. 

* si lor dona l*ordene et la hauteohe de proooire. — ^A. 


Joseph sends hia 
16 bishops to 
preach About the 

He and hie 
people then fo 
to seek for the 
two Hermit- 
Saints' bodies. 

He finds a litUe 

saying, 'Here 
lies Salnstes who 

86 years, and eat 

only herbs and 

The whecHe xx^ij, biscliopes gan he to Make 
In forme lik As god him Ordre Gan take ; 520 

And Also the xvj that with him were, 
Bisschopes he Made anon Biht there ; 
And Al Abowtes the Contre they wente, 
Only to fulfillen goddis Entente. 524 

And whanne Alle the Contre was Cristened abowte. 
And in Euery Cite A bisschope with-Owte» dowte, 
And deliuered hem from the develis chaunce, 
And hem fullich browhte Into Goddis Creawnce, 528 
Be supportacion Of these goode Men, 
Kyng Mordrayns And Of Sire Nascien, 
Thens wente thanne losephe Eyht Anon, 
And his Meyne with him gan to gon 532 

To seken where these holy Ermytes lyen, 
And Of here good lyvenge forto Aspien, 
Where-Oflfen they preiden Oure lord, of grace, 
Therto forto haven bothe lif and spase, 536 

And that here Names he Mihte knowe 
Er he thens paste Ony throwe. 
Thanne fonde he there A lytel lyveret^ 
Where-Inne that these names weren set ; 540 

And the Meritez that god gan for hem do. 
In that litel leveret ho fond Eyht tho. 
The Ferste liueret thus gan it sein : 

* Here lith Salustes In certein, 544 
Wheche that was Goddis trewe Seriawnt, 

Of whom the lif Of him Make)> semblaw/tt, 

That xxxvi wynter hermyt hadde he be, 

And that neuere worldly viaunde sawh he 548 

That Euere was mad with manwis bond,*" — 

Thus this liueret doth vs to vndirstond — 

* But Erbes & Rotes that In Erthe were ; 

Thus lyved ho xxxvi ful jero.' 552 

' et 81 trouua en chascune fosse vn 1iuret» ou la vie del boin 
home estoit escrite, et li nons de lui el commenchement, — A. 


And furthermore I-wreten )>ere was : 
' Here lith Ermonies In this plas ; ' 'And lur* iim 

Smonl69( who 

And thus his lif gan for to telle, wu a h«rmit for 

so j9ttn and 8 

'That XXX wynter & yiij Monthes snelle 556 montha, 

Sethen that ferst Ermyt hecam he* — 

As In this liueret here mown je se — 

' That Neuere Othir clothing he hadde wdhadsomora 

oloChM than h# 

But swich as ferst to his Ermitage he ladde^ 560 at Ant won.* 

Kethir In hosinge, nethir I schon, 

Ke non Othir thing On him to doon. 

Othir yiaunde hadde he non verament. 

But Everiday swich As God him Sente;'^ 564 

And of Tasse he was horn ;^ 

The tofer In hedlem, ^at 1 Eehersed befom. 

And whaiuie losephe gan this to yndirstonde, Jomfh mn\m 

Um two aalnta* 

Ype hem took he with his honde, 568 bodiMtoSamas 

Ajid bar hem Into the Cite of Sarras, 

Where-offen Many a man Glad fere was. 

Thanxie Nascien preide loseph tho, wd Ma Naadena 

have Ennonica'a 

That with him to Orbery wolde he Go, 572 bodyatoitory 

And that On Of hem that he myhte have, — 

Holy hermoine thermit he gan to Crave, — 

Where that worthily his Body beried he, 

And a Eyal Chirche Mad there be ; 576 

And In Sarras Cite ful Certcinly kaving Saioatca'a 

at Sama chondu 

He let Keren a Chirche ful solempnely^ 

And In eche of these Chirches two Haappointait 

Priaata for aooh 

Twelfe prestes he dide there do, 580 choroh. 

For the bisschope Of nethir plase there 

Mihte not Sufi&sen, so moche peple were. 

The Ermyt At Sarras, the Eldest^ they gonite Calle, 

And the 3ongest at Orbery, thus seiden thei Alle. 584 

* et Bi difloit encbore sa vie, * ke il estoit de tarsenes : et 
saluBtes estoit de la ohite de bethleem.* — A. 

* Et li eueskes qui fu establis en earras si fu apieles ' aoa- 
tifltee.* Et ohil d'orberike fa apieles ' iuueaaus.* — A. 


Thos Joseph 
honourd both 
CiiiM with 

Thus thanne Joseph worscheped there 
Bothe Citez vriHi holy bodyes in fere, 
Where as they grete Myracles do 
Even day dureng 3it hidirto.^ 
Thus the Contre Of Sarras & Nascien 
Weren Clene becomen Cristene metu 


Xordreins and 
NMdens want to 
•60 where the 
ChrUUans pray. 


How Joseph shows Mordreins (Evalach) and Nasciens (Seraphe) 
the Ark and the holj things in it (p. 215). On seeing the 
Holy Grail, Nasciens is filld with joy, and tells them how 
a vision of his youth is now fulfilled (p. 216). He then 
lifts .up the *plateyne' over the dish, for which he is 
struck blind (p. 216). Mordreins asks Nasciens what he 
saw, but can only get a vague answer (p. 217). An angel 
appears with the lance whose head is in Jo8eph*8 thigh, 
and draws out the head by putting the lance to it (p. 218). 
IVith the blood from the wound he restores Nasciens*^ 
sight (p. 218). Joseph says that when the lance drope 
blood, the secrets of the Sank JRyal, or Seint Oraal, shall 
be known (p. 219), and predicts that the last of Nasciens'a 
line shall be the only man thereafter wounded by the 
lance, and who shall see the wonders of the Holy Qrail (p. 
220). Mordreins asks Joseph to interpret his dream of 
the Three Trees [Chapter vii. p. 64-7], and Joseph does 
so (p. 221-224). The ugly-barkt tree was Christ ; the other 
two trees, the Father and the Holy Ghost ; the two people 
that left the others wore Adam and Eve ; those who hewd 
the branches were the Jews who crucified Christ (p^ 222). 
Christ descended into Hell, and brought the Saints out of 
it (p. 222). The Trinity and their names, Ihrmer^ 8a- 
r'wur, Cleatuter (p. 223). The Immaculate Conception and 
Birth of Christ (p. 224). Joseph orders Mordreins to bum 
the image of the woman that he has secretly lain with 
(p. 225). Mordreins shows the hidden chamber where be 
kept the image, and then bums it (p. 226). Joseph departs 
from ISarras, and 207 Saracens with him (p. 227). His 
last charge to King Mordreins (p. 227). 

Thanne seide the kyng and Nascien the, 
* That with Joseph thanne wolde they go, 
To seen where that they made herp preier^ : 
Thus seidon the king & Nascien there. 4 

' Car li glorieus fiex dieu i fait ct fera insk'en la fin da 
nionde grans virtus et grans miracles pour Tamour d'aus. — A. 


Anon thanne loseph with-Owten lettenge JoMph uket 

tbwoa to tlM 

To the Arch hem browhte, & made non tarienge, Onu-Ark, 

And schewede there to the kyng 

In the Arcli there ful precious thing : 8 

And there the king beheld In that plas 

The vesteme/its that loseph Sacred w/t/t was •»<> •h<*^ **>«>» 

^ hit Bbhop's 

Bisschop of Cristes Owne bond ; TMtnMnts And 

And Also the Chayere he Say there stond, 12 

Whiche Chaier he preisede wondirly faste, 
And there-olTen he seide thanne atte last, 

* That It was of Alle the Ryalest Sittyng than 

That Evere Ordeyned was for Ertlily man.' 16 

Thanne loseph schewed hem the holy disch Anon. ■"<* **>• ^^ 
Where-Inne that Sank Eyal was I-don. 
And whanne that Nasciens loked ther vppon, 
Fill passewg gret loye hadde [he] Anon, 20 NMcteni is 

And seide, ' Of Alle the sihtes pat Euere 3it he say. 
Liked him neei^re non so moche In-to fat day ; ' 
Ne neuere so loyful was he of siht, 
As that tymo was Nascien, I the plylit. 24 

Now hadde he holy his Entent : 
That he desired to son, was fere present. 

" Now wot I wel that fulfild it is in me, and una how. 

Sire, A thing that I now schal tellen the : 28 

For whanne I was A 2ong Sqwyer, when he wm • 

yoong tqalra^ 

An gret hert I chasede wilde wher. <»» honttng, 

Whanne I hadde lost th.Q Noyse of myn howndes, he loct Ua dngt 

And Also Alle my men w/t//-Inno fewe stowndes, 32 

Thanne In gret thowht there I stod ; 

And pere was non man that wiVi me bod, 

Ne Abowhtes me no/i Man Saw I tho 

That Ony word I myhte speken vnto. 36 

And as thus I In this thowht was. 

To me a vois Cam In that plas, md then bewd 

a ToloeteUliic 

* Seraphe ! merveiUe thow not so, him 
For 3it thi thowht ne may comen the to, 40 


he ihoold mo th« 

He reoofiUue it» 

and Ufte np the 
cover of the QndL 

Then be quakee 
for dreadf 

■aye he has 

and baa loet his 
sight, not to 
recover it till the 
spearhead is 
drawn out of 
Joeeph's hip. 

Tyl tliow mo Merveilles schalt se with-al. 

And Also thing that is Clepid seint GiaaL' 

And therfore now wot I ful well 

That this [is] Scint Graal Everidel ; 44 

Kow know I wel that my pensifnesse 

Is fulfilled with Alle Goodnesse." 

3it thowht More Sire Xasciens than. 
And that tyme wrowhte As non wis man, 48 

But there lefte he yp the plateyne Anon 
That yppon this glorious vessel was don ; 
And whanne with-Inne he gan to looke, 
He him withdrowh, & for drede he qwooke. 52 

And thanne the kyng Axede him Anon, 
** Sire Nascien, what han ^e at the Arch doni " 
" Sire," quod he there Anon Ryht tho, 
'' He is a fool that don wele as I have do, 56 

To knowew the Secrees of his Saviour, 
Him forto Greven In ony Owr." 
" Why," quod thanne kyng Mordreins tho, 
** Haven je now lesu Crist I-Groved so ?" 60 

" Be my foyth, Sire," q^tuA Sire Nasciens, 
" I knowo wel I have offendid jit Goddis presens, 
For tliat I have sein so moche be Owtraye 
That non Erthly Man no Owhte to have saye." 64 

Thanwe Axedo the kyng, loseph Anon, 
How that this Cawso Mihte Gon ; 
And thanne Answerid Xasciens Agein, 
" Come thens, loseph, now In Certein ; 68 

Beholde it Not, I preie now to the, 
That semblawnce that was scliewed to Me, 
Whcre-thonvgh that I have now lost my sight 
Be the Ordenau/zco of God Aliiiyht, 72 

Wliiche that I sclial neuere Kecoveren Ajen 
Til the spere-hed Owt of thin hype be clen, 
Where-with tho Au/igel At Orcauz Cite 
With that Spere there smot the." 76 



Thanne Joseph tho him heeld ful stille, 
Al holy to fulfillen tho Goddis wille. 

Thanne Anon Gan kyng Mordrejns 
There faste Enqwerew Of Sire Nasciens, 80 

* What 'M&nere of thing that he had Seye ; ' 
Hyra it to schewe/i he preide Openlye. 
Quod Nasciens, ** I haue sein so moche thing 

That ]>ere-Offen to telle?} it is non Endyng, 84 

Ne no7i tonge kan It now discrie, 

I sey to the, Sire Kyng, Certeinlie. 

I have sein/' quod tho sire Nasciens, 

** Of Alle Manere of wykkednesse the defens ; 88 

[Of alio Boldnesse^] I have Seyn the begynneng. 

Of Alle wittes the Fowndyng, 

I have sein the begynneng of Religeown 

And Of Alle Bowntes, bothe Al & sbm, i2 

And the poyntes of Alle Gentrye, 

And a Merveil Of alle Merveilles Certeinlye." 

Aftir this word thanne Anon 
They weren Abaschet thanne Everichon. 96 

The kyng of him thanne Enqwered there 

* How his siht was lost, And In what Manere.' 
And Sire Nasciens Answerid him Agein, 

** I wot Xeuere, Sire, for Certein, 100 

But for that I lokede on fat swete thing 

That but fewe owhten to don lyvyng, 

The wheche a merveille of alle MerveiUes is, 

Sire king, I the Seye with-owten Mys.** 104 

Thanne Enqwered [he] Of Nasciens Ageyn 

What that Merveille scholde ben pleyn : 

'* Sire," quod Nasciens, " thow gest non other Of Me, 

Siker, Sire, An Also In Certeinte, 108 

llonlnins mIci 
Nudcnt what 
h« Mw in Um 

Natdeiu Mjt, 

the Founding of 
Knowledg*, and 
tiM Beginning of 

Xordreln^ aaks 
how he loet liie 

Naedene eajra, 
becaoae he lookl 

* ** Tai," dUt il, ** veu la oommenohaille defl grans harde- 
mens, L'oooison dee grans proueches, ronquerrement des grans 
sauoirs.** — A. Mardiment, m. Hardinesse, boldnesse, aadacitie, 
stoutnesse (an old word). — Cotgrave. 


A Toica flrom th« 
Gimll-Ark fptaki. 

An Aogeloomet 

with the Lanot 
that woandMl 

and with it 
draws the spear- 
head oat of 
Joseph's thigh. 

He anoints 
Joseph's wound ; 




and with Joseph's 
bloiMl unointa 
Nasciens's eyes. 

and restores his 

For Erthlj tonge Is there non On lyve 
That Cowde tho Merveilles wel discryve." 

And whanne thus to-fore the Arch hadde ^i ben, 
loseph In gret thowht was, as they niyhten sen ; 112 
And thus sone A vols there gan to Crye, 
That Al the peple it herde Sekerlye, — 
With in that Arch the vois it was, 
That thus there Sownede In that plas, — 
'* My grete veniaunce & my gret discipline, 
With my strengthe to 30W it schal propine." * 

And thus sone as this vois was gon, 
An Aungel Owt Of the Arch fere isswed Anon, 
And Al In whit I-Clothed was he, 
In A fill fayr Robe Certeinle ; 
And In his hond he heeld that lawnce ^ 
Where-with that losep was smeten Er. 
That lawnce, In sihte of Kyng and qwene. 
The Awngel to loseph it bar bedene. 
And there put it Into the same plase 
There As to Fore tymes I-hurt he wase. 
And whanwe the Awngel drow owt y lawnce Agein, 
The hed thanne folwede In Certein ; 
And the Awngel took A boist yriUi Oynement Anon, 
And to that wownde gan he gon, 132 

And it Anoynt ful Softely 
With that Ojnement ful tendirly ; 
And thanne the hed on the lawnce he putte Ajen, 
Where-from Ran down blood ful Clen ; 136 

Wheche blood the Awngel In the boist putte. 
And there-Inne ful worthily ho it schytte, 
And with the same blood Anoynted losephs wonitde 
And Sire Nasciens Eyen, In that stownde. 1 40 

Thus sone as Cleer his Eyen M'cre 
As Evere Ony tyme weren they Ere. 


I u 

' Aprea ma grant veoiaDcbe, ma grant medicine ; et apret 
ma foureenerie, mon apaiement." — A 


Thanne Axede Nasciens to loseph In hye 
* What that lawnce Mihte Signefye.' 144 

Thanne loseph him Answerid Ageyn : 
" It signefieth, Nasciens, In Certein, 
Of the grete merveilles that scholen befalle 
Openly to jowro Syhtes Alle ; 148 

For sweche merveilles as ^e scholen sen, 
And sweche Merveilles as to 30W schol schewed ben. 
To Cristcs verray knyhtes discouered schal be ; 
Whanne that tyme Cometh, this scholen 30 se ; 152 
For Erthly knyhtes, hevenly scholen been, 
That with jowrc Eyen this scholen je seen ; 
Of wheche schal Neuere Man tellen j>* Certeinte 
Tyl it be fallen In £che degre. 156 

And jif thow wilt here-Offen haven som knowyng, 
Tak kepe of this lawnce atte begynnewg, 
And whanne this lawnce gynneth to blede 
Dropes Of Blood In Ony stede, 160 

Thanne Aftir Sone scholen ^e sen there 
Of the Merveilles that I Kehersed 30 we Ere ; 
And iSStli that Merveille Is Agon, 
Blood on the lawnce Schole ^e neuere sen no7» ; 164 
Thanne Scholen 30 sen of diners Aventure 
Hiht Merveillous, I the Ensure, 
Be the signeficacioun Of this lawnce, 
That Al the Contre schal ben In dowtawnce ; 168 

And thanne scholen 30 haven knowleching 
Of Sank Eyal, & Many An Othir thinge. 
For the Seci'etis of Seint Graal, 

That Somme men it Clepin * sane Eyal,' 172 

There may non dedlych l^Ian there So 
But I alone, As I telle the ; 
For so Mochel Of Bownte it is, 

And there-Inne so mochel worthyncs, 176 

That it is likyng wondirly wel. 
And to the world schal ben Every del. 


the French 'U 

Naaciena what 
theLanct meansy 

and that when 

rieaf 14] 

manrela wiU 

Grail or * Sane 



Hereftlter a 
Kniffht, ftiU of 
choritj and 
chastity, thall 
be nnittan with 
Joseph was. 

And this Knight 
shall be the last 
who shall see the 
llairels of the 

The Angti (h)m 
the Qrail-Ark 

As thike that is ful Of Bownte, 

And of prowesses ful gret plente ; 180 

For he moste ben ful of Charite, 

Of Eeligiown, & also of Chastite, 

That wit the lawnce Smetyn schal be 

As thow me here Sye to-Fore the, 184 

And that schal there Neuere Man be non 

But the Kyng, I telle it the Alon ; 

For he Schal be the laste Man 

That there-with schal be smeten than, 188 

Ryht In A wondir-ful Manere, 

As Afterward 30 scholen here ; 

But a Merveillous lawnce it schal be 

Where-with he schal be smeten, as i telle the. 192 

" For these Merveilles schal no Man se 
But he be Ful of Alle Bownte ; 
Wheche schal ben the laste man 
That Evere of this ligne schal be than. 196 

And lik as to Kascicns ferst publisched was. 
So schal he be the laste In Ony plas 
That the Merveilles of the Sank Rial schal se. 
Thus be y Crwcified kyng it is certe^ed Me : 200 

* Therefore bothe begynnewg And Endeng 
Of My Merveilles they scholew haven knowleching ; 
And on hem to, my veniau/jce shal I Caste, 
That they two scholew knowe^i Me Atte lasto, 204 

And Of My strok Me -witnesso to here, 
That I to the herte w^asae stonge yvitJi A spere, 
Thoi'w wlieche strok & ofero, f^ fala lewes certeinli 
On the Crois Me Slowen, hangeng On hy.* 208 

& knowe thow wel, loseph, w/t/i-owtew dowtaunce. 
That as louge as thow hast bom this lawnce, 
So long scholen the Merveillez duren to thende 
Into that londe where I schal the sende." 212 

Thanne the Au72gel tomed Ajen Anon ; 
But Abasched weren they Everichon, 


For they ne hadden not non Cler knowlichengey 

Sauf Only of Nasciens Certifienge. 216 

Thanne loseph Eekened tho riht Anon 

How longe seth y lawnce was In him don, 

So that it was xii dayes fully 

That the lawnce haddo he bom Certeinly. 220 

Thanne Anon wcnte kyng Mordreyns, 
And to his paleys laddo alle Cristiens, 
Sauf Only thre that leften Of that hep, 
The wheche Abyde there with Joseph. 224 

Thanne clepid the kyng, Joseph anon, 
Or Ony Fote Furthere wolde he gon, 
* That of theke A-visiowns he wolde him Schewe, 
That In his chambre he saw Al on Eewe,' 228 

" The Nyht to-Fore I wente to Bataille, 
What whing it was that Me Gan so to saille, 
Neuertheles 3it wot I of som what how it ferde, 
But I wolde that Nascien of 30WT6 mowth it heide.*' 

Thanne of these Merveillcs loseph gan telle ; 233 
Afom Mordreyns and Nasciens he gan to spelle : 
** Sire king ! ferst In thi Chombre there poxx Sye 

JoMph hmd the 
La&M-haad in his 

Mordrains asks 
JoMph to 
intarprtt th* 
Yidon h« mw 
the night befor* 
(Chap. Tii, pp. 

Joseph doM so: 

Thre Trees that were?* wondirly hye, 

Alle iij of on gretnesse. And of on lengthe. 

And of on heythe, & of on strengthe ; 

And thike that hadde the Fowle bark yppon, 

That signefied verray Goddis sone ; 

The tothere tweyne Signefied, I tellet the. 

The Fadir And the holigost In Trenite ; 

And the peple that vndir the Tre was. 

The begynnewg of J)* world it was ; 

The tweyne that partid from hem thannei 

Was Adam & Eve the ferste Manne, 

That to helle wenten down Ryht 

After here deth, I the plyht. 

And Alle the Kemnawnt ]>at fillen In tho : 

So dyden they Tyl God on the Cros was do. 


of the Three 


one was Christ; 

the other two, 
the Father and 
Holy Ghost. 



The two folk 
who Jampt into 
the ditch, 
were Adam and 
STe going to 


Th« (blk who 
hewd th« 
bruobM (p. 86) 
were the Jtwt. 

Ttm that fell into 
the ditch. 

uid then jnmiit 
out into its berk 

wee Chriet'e 
■oul leering ite 
body in the 

while it, the Soul, 
herrowd Hell. 

Tlien the eoal 
went into the 
Sepuldire again. 

bringing with it 
the eoole of 
Chriet's well- 
beloved out of 

''And the that the brawnches gonneii forto hewa. 
It were?} the Fals lewes vppon A rewe, 252 

That persched bothe his hondes & Feet, 
And non hoi stiche On him they leet. 
And whanne the Tre Fyl A-down, 
Alle the Bark there lefbe In yirown ; 256 

The body that was the Bark with-Inne, 
In-to y dich it fil, and nold not blynne^ 
Where alle the peple fil In be-fore, 
And Files hadden Al the peple be lore ; 260 

And whanne A while there hadde he been^ 
Owt of that diche he Cam A3en, 
And Into his bark A^en tomede he sone. 
For wel he wiste what was to done ; 264 

And so Cler be-Cam that Tre withal, 
As Evere dyde ony berylle Othir CristaL 

'^ Of Alle this thing the Signefiawnce 
I schal 30W declaren with-Owten variauifce : 268 

Whanne the holigost from the Body was gon. 
The Body In the Sepulcre was leid Anon ; 
As A thing that ded tho was, 

So lay the Body in that plas ; 272 

And therwhiles was the Sowle In helle, 
The Fendes host al forto felle ; 
And his beloved thanne Everichon, 
Owt thens with him he browhte Anon ; 276 

And thanne whanwe thus hadde he I-do, 
Into the Sepulcre the spirit gan go, 
Al so Clere And Al so Bryht 
As Evere the Godhede was In Syht. 280 

" And the peple that heng vppon the brawnches, 
Signefied the sowles where-oflTen he wolde not 8tawnc1i% 
But hem forth Browhte Everichon, 
And Of his welbeloved he left non On ; 284 

And the leves of that Tre don Signefie 
The Membres of God, I sey the Certeynlye. 


'' And be these thre trees Yndirstonde thow wel 



The blessed Trenite Everidel, 

Fadir & Sone & holy gost, 

iij. persones, & but Ou god Of Mihtes Most. 

But on Godhed & but on deyete 

Signeiien tho personcs thre ; 

So Is On god I thre persones, 

And but on deyete In tho wones ; 

Nq nethir Of hem More thanne othere Is, 

Kethir strengere ne feblere with-Owten Mys." 

"Joseph," seyde thanne tho kyng Anon, 
" These yndirstonde Ich wel Everichon ; 
But now Riht fain wolde I wete of the, 
What y Signifiaunce of theke thre wordis mown be." 

TbtThrM Trees 



Three Penona, 





Ful gladly Sire,** quod Joseph tho, 
" Theke thre wordis I schal the undo ; — 
The Ferste that * Formere ' wreten Is there, 
Betokeneth the Fadir In this Manere, 
For he Formed Ferst Alle thing 
From begynneng Into the Endyng. 
And, For the persons of the sone Into Erthe Alyhte, 
To saven Mankende thorwgh his Owns Mihte, 308 
There-fore to ]>* sone belongeth the savacion of Man, 
Thus Ecdely is it, As I the tellen Can ; 
And for the Cause that it is so, * 

He Calleth him * Saviour ' wit^-owtew Mo. 
And, fur the holigost discendid Adown 
At pentecost to the disciples In virown. 
For to Clensen, And forto Maken Clene, 
And hem Forto Enflawmen Al bedene ; 
And, for alle pvrifiments bo-longen to y holigost, 
Therfore as ' CloTisere * it signefiet. As it nedis Most. 
]N'ow the lettrure of these persones thre, 
I haue declared, As je Mown se, 320 

That but On deyete And On pysaunce 
Haue/i they thre with-Owte;» yariaunce.*' 

Of the Thre* 


1. 'Former,' 
meant God Um 
Father and 
Creator of all 

meant God the 
Son who aard 


meant the Ho^ 


who pariflea all 


" Now vndirstonde I thia Riht wel, 
From gynneng to Endeng Everidel ; 324 

But of More," quod the kyng, 
At to th« room " Thow most don me yndirstonding ; 

that Mordreini ___ 11. » • 

Mw (p. 67), What that chambre doth signene, 

That wiUi Min Eycn I saw so verralie, 328 

That I wende Neu^e to-fom theke day 

Into Swich An hows no;i Man ne entren May." 

" A ! Sir<'," quod loseph thanne Anon, 

'' ]>at wele I declaren Er I hens gon ; 332 

For that I wolde with Al my myht 

In stedfast belevo to bringen the ryht. 

andthoChUd Thike Child that In the Chambre was, 

who oun0 Into it 

without braaking And to-fom the Isswede In that plas 336 

^^ With-Owtew Ony wal oJ)er dore brekynge, 

Thus it is to thin & to our6 Alther vndiistondinge ; 
this meant It signefieth only Goddis Sone, 

That In the Maydeins wombe dide wone, 340 

Where as he In alihte, & Owt he cam 

Be his 0^vne Miht as God & Man ; 

And lik as he owt of fat Chambre isswed to fore )>•, 
who came oat of So dide he owt of the virgenite, 344 

the Virgin 

without breaking Aiid ueuerc hire Maidenliot was put Away, 
(eeep.68). Kethci to-fom ne After, As I the say." 

" Thanne telle me, loseph," quod the kyng tho, 
" What was that child that Into y Chambre entred so t *• 
*' Sire kyng, that Child was the holigost, 349 

On God of Mihtes Most, 
That Into that chambre Entred thanne, 
In the savaciouw of Alle kynde of Manne. 352 

"Now.eayiGod " There-foro sendeth the to Sein bo Me 

Mordreins, That highc lord God fat is In Maieste, 

* That thow schost Anon putten Away 
Thike fals simylitude pat thow hast kept Mani day, 
tmm that faine And tliat thow do hem bremieu Auou Riht 357 


Openly In Al the peplis siht ; 


That semblawnce that so longe pou hast had In kepiiige, 

Thow Schalt it don brenne Ower Alle thingc* 360 

Where thow hast don fowl dedly Synne, 

In tho pointes that thow hast Trespaced Inne, 

The holigost wele fat it be declared Openly, 

Thi Falsnesse And thin fowle foly, 364 

That Alle the world it Mowen knowe, 

Of thi meyne, bothe hyghe and lowe." 

This Semblaunce that I have spoken of here, 
Lesteneth to Me, and 30 Mown lere ; 368 

What Mancr of semblaunce that worschepe lie, 
30 scholen Mown^ bothe hercn and se. 
He hadde don him Mad A fair ymage 
In forme Of a womaw of high parage, — 372 

And A fairere jrmagc ne Mihte non ben 
Of tre ne ston I-Mad, As mew Mihten sen, — 
And with hire the king lay Euery oper nyht ; 
And thereto In Ryal Robes sche was diht, 376 

And In al so Riche & worthi Aray 
As ony man Cowde dcvyne ofer say ; 
And a chambre for hire he let Ordeyne, 
The most Mcrveillous that men herd of seyne, 380 
That non Man Cowde knowen the openinge, 
Kethir thentre ne Owt-Goyng. 

Thanne Anon Clepid he forth Sire Nascien 
And his qwene, to-Foren him to Comen then, 384 

And seide * that he wolde hem Alle Sche we 
His fals leveng, with-Inne A threwe. 
That so longe he hadde kept And lad.' 

Anon his Meyne he Comanded, & bad, 388 

' A gret Feer Forto Maken Anon 
In his paleys, Amongis hem Echon ; ' 
And whanne pat feer was brennenge briht, 
Anon he Comaunded hem Owt of his Siht 392 

And Owt of the Paleys Forto gon, 
AUe his Meyne Everichon, 

ORAAL. 15 

that thoa hMt to 
long kept and 

■innd with. 

ConfoM thy Coal 


n PNow] 

Mordreliit bad 
a lov^ ttattte of 
a woman. 

wliieh b« slept 
with ereiy other 

and kept it In a 
mort wimderM 

Monlreins calle 
furth Naacieiia, 

and bide hie folk 
make a great Are. 


So that In liis Compenyo ne left not there 
But loseph, & Nasciens, & hia qweene in fere. 396 
MordreiM takes Thanne the kyng ladde hem forth Anon 

Joseph and « •» r 

Nasciena into Wa To a sotjl hows was mad of Marbre stbn, 

marble hontes 

And AUe of divers Colowres it was, 

Ful seteli I-wrowht In that plas, 400 

And the Schettynge was Mad so previly 

That no7i Man Miht it knowen Apertly, 

With a sotil harre with-Inne I-wrowht, 

That now man thentre ne knewe nowht. 404 

And whanne the kyng it Opene scholde, 

with an iron key, A sotyl Emen keye In his hond gan holde, 
The wheche the lointours he gan vnschitte, 
So wel of that For-knew he itte. 408 

And thus thei Entredew Everichon 
There that ymage was Kiht Anon, 
Where that disloyalte & synne he hadde I-do 
With that ymage pat In the hows was so. 412 

takes ont hia And that vmaffe Took he there Anow Kyht, 

beautinil statae, J o J ' 

And Into that Fyr he let it to hen dyht, 
And alle the Eiche Eobes Also 

That vppon tliike ymage werew I-do, 416 

and throws It Evene thus dide he In alle men?ies Siht 

and its rich robes 

Into the fire, Thike Ymage to don brenne?i ful briht. 

"0," quod the kyng, *'goode lord God, moche is J)* Miht, 

That me Send est grace no we In thi Siht 420 

"My fals levenge forto Forsake, 

And Only to thi servise me take ! " 
and there And there alle his Synne he forsook, 

forsakes tiis sin. 

And Onlyche to goddis servise him took. 424 

Thanne merveilled Alle that Meyne 
[leaf 15] What theke semblawnce myht be. 

For there-offen herden they Neuere speken be-fore 
Of non Man that Evere 3it was I-bore. 428 

Alle this was tliorwgh losephes techinge. 
Him self and Al his Bern In good llf to bringe, 



Thorwgli the Comandement of Oure lord ; 

Thus was the semblaunce brend at on word. 432 

And whanne loseph hadde Alle this I-do, 
And thike ymage dide brenne f<?re Also, 
And al the lond browht In good beleve, 
From Sarras ward he gan to meve, 436 

And took his leve at kyng and knyht, 
At Xasciens, and Of that qweene so briht. 
Thanne the kyng, the qweno, & Sire Nascien, 
Cowndied loseph A gret weye then, 440 

And Alle that were/* In his Compenye 
Forth with loseph thei gonnen hem Gye, 
Wheche that A gret Meine it was, 
That to Iosep7<e Seiden In thike plas, 444 

* That 3 if loseph wolde In here Compenie go, 
From him departen^ wolde they neuere mo.' 

And loseph Eesceived hem Everichon 
That In his Compenye gonnen to gon, 448 

So As be nombre it was I-Eckened to me 
Two hundred & Sevene of theko ^feyne. 
And so of the kyng his leve there he took, 
And Alle the Compenie that he not forsook, 452 

& Charged fe kyng, * holi chircho to sosteyue, 
And Neuere to his faLs levenge to tome« Ageyne ; 
More-Ouer, to kepen Cristes lawes, 
My techeng, And J)erto Alle my sawes.' 456 

Thus departed the kyng and they tho 
With wepinges, sygheuges, & Manion mo ; 
For hem thowghte forlorew they were, 
Whanne losepAe departed from hem there, 460 

As 36 scholen heren here Aftirward, 
\Vliat happes & Chaunses befiUen hem hard. 
And whanne that loseph forth wente. 
Into what Contre he no wiste veramcwte, 464 

But As be Goddis Comandeme/?t 
He it FulfiUede tho verayment. 

Jofieph prepftTM 
to leave Sarnw. 

He takes leare of 
Mordreint and 

[1 MS departnt 

t07 men of 
Sarraa go with 

He charges 
Mordrriiis to 
keep ChrUt's 

Mordreint and 
htfl people weep 
at Joseph's 



Of Mordreins (or Evalach). How he has a wonderful dream, 
which sorely troubles him, to the distress of his qaeen 
(p. 229-32), viz. : ' that he is holding his Court iu Sarras, 
and as he sits at meat a thunderbolt knocks the first mor- 
sel out of his mouth, and his crown o£E his head (p. 229) ; 
that a wind carries him away to a place where a lion brings 
him food, which a lioness carries off, till he hits her with 
his fist (p. 230) ; that he finds his crown, but with splen- 
did stones in it ; that an eagle carries his nephew, Naaclen8*8 
son, to a strange region, where the people kneel to him 
(p. 230) ; and then a river flows out of Nasciens's son's 
belly, and divides into nine streams, of which the ninth 
is troublous and foul at its rise, clear in the middle, 
and glorious at the end (p. 231) ; and that a man from 
heaven washes in a lake, and in three of the streams that 
sepu) ated from the ninth ' (p. 231 ). Sarracynte, sad at Mor- 
dreins's trouble, goes to her brother Nasciens (or Seraphe), 
(p. 232), and begs him to ask Mordreins a boon, that he 
will tell his dream. Nasciens goes to the king, and asks 
him (p. 233). Mordreins tells him the dream (p. 234), and 
says that it came for his, Mordreins's, ingratitude to Nas- 
ciens (p. 235). To have the dream interpreted, they go to 
the Church that Joseph establisht, and hear service, but 
none of the pastors can interpret it (p. 23G). They return to 
the palace, and feel and hear and see wonderful shakings, 
noises, and lightnings (p. 237) ; then a horn sounds, and a 
voice proclaims Tlie Beginning of Dread (p. 238). Mor- 
dreins and Nasciens fall swooning on their bed, and 
Mordreins is borne away by the Holy Ghost (p. 238). 

Joseph and hu Now goth forth loseph & his Compenye 

company go 

forth. Be Goddis Comandeme?it Certeinlye, 

But Alio here Tomes devisen I ne kan, — 

It were to moche for Ony On Man — 4 

Ketliir here herebegage, ne here vyau7<de ; 

But nothing hem lakked, I vndirstonde. 

We'll leave them, Now from loscph A wliilc let vs twynno 

and take up 

Kiiig Mordreins. And of kyng Mordrcius we Moste be-gynne, 8 

And of the Compenie that Is in Sarras Cite, 

That loseph there lefte of his Meyne. 

Thus begynneth this storie forto telle 

What Aventure king Mordreins Aftir befelle. 12 

One night in bed In bedde as he lay vppon A Xyht, 

In his slepe was there wondirly afryht ; 




And there A gret drome Cam him vppon, 

As after scholeii 30 hereu Everichon. 16 

In this wonderful dreme riht longo he lay, 

Til that it was ny liht of the day, 

And with his Eyen So sore he wepte, 

And Evere ho lay & fasto Slopte, 20 

In Sighenges and In Storbelings sore, 

Al Evere thus he fordo More & More ; 

So that ))• qwene, that by him lay. 

To hire herte it was a ful gret fray ; 24 

But Sche myhto not Enqwerow for non thing 

Of him what Amownted this Metyng, 

For sche dorste not Ajons his wille 

Hym there-OfTon freyne, for good no ylle ; 28 

For he was bo the feers & Crwel, 

Therfore sche no dorste him A^en neucre a del. 

Thus Abod the kyng Tn this trowble Owt riht 
Til it was passed middcs of the nyht ; 32 

And thanne In a softo Sleeps ^ fil he. 
For werinesso of travaille he hadde Inne be ; 
And thus In dreme7?g thowhto he, 
* That he was In Sarras, fat fairo Cite, 36 

And there In his Cowrt that was so Riche 
And so worth i, that non was liche. 
To that Cowrt him thowghte come?* there 
Manye lordis & ladyes Of gret powere, 40 

That werew Arayed & Itialy dyht, — 
So Ryal Saw he Neuere In his siht ; 
And to Mete Seten they Alio, 

As to kyng, lordes, & ladyes, don bofalle. 44 

Ilim thowhto At his mete fere that he sat ; 
His mowht he opened, A morsel putty r?g In J)ere-at ; 
Ilim thowghte A thondir blast gan gon. 
That Morsel owt of his hand it smot Anon ; 48 

An the Crowne that was vppon his bed. 
To the Erthe it Caste In that sted ; 

If ordrelns dreamt 
a wonderful 

thai makes him 
weep and sigh. 

and frightone 
hie Queen, 

who daren't 
ask him what 
hia trouble ia. 


Hit dream la, 



with many 
Lords snd Ladies 
at his Court. 

At a meal, 
a thunder blast 
knodcs a bit of 
food out of his 

and throws hIa 
crown on the 



'A ttrong wind 
carriM him to 
a ttninge place. 

n MS Mre] 
A Lion brings 
hlin food. 
A LioncM take* 
half of It away. 

till he punches 

He finds his 
lost Crown, 

imi> with far 
more precious 
stones in it than 

An ehgte bears 
Nasciens's son 
into a far 

the people of 
which kneel to 

And whanne ho stowpede the Crowne to take» 

A boistous wynd there gan to wake ; 52 

Hym thowghte he was bom Into A straunge place 

A fer wey thennes, & pere was a lo»g space. 

And 3it him thowhte there wel More, 

That A liown & A lioness to him Comen thore ; 56 

Everi day the lyown mete to him^ browghte, 

And the lionesse Awey it Cawhte, 

Sauf scarsly half liis lyvenge 

That the liown dide him bringe. 60 

And Atte laste him thowghte Agein, 

That now lengere he wolde it soffrew in sertein ; 

And with his fist smot so the lyonesse 

That sche dide him no More distresse. 64 

* Thanne him thowghte his Crowne he fond ; 
And vp he took it fere In his hond, 

And set it A^en vppon his hed ; 

Thus thowghte him there In that sted. 68 

But it was Chonged thanne wondirly, 

The stones of that Crowne Certeinly ; 

For the stones were72 so preciowse to his eye, 

That neuere noii So precious stones he sye. 72 

* And whanne on his hed it was set A3ein, 
Thanne Cam his Xevew, Nasciens sono, Certein ; 
Him thowhte tliat An Egle him there bar 

Ryht Fi^r with-Tnno the Se thar ; 76 

Ful fer Into a stravnge contre 

His Xevew him thowghte \}ere bar he ; 

And there the Egle lefte him a-down 

Ryht fer Into a strawngo Eegiown. 80 

And whanne he was there set In fr/t plase, 

The peple that In tlie Contre wase, 

To him alle they knelid a down 

In tliat plase Abowtes In-virown ; 84 

And whanne thus alle they hatlden don, 

To liiin so Enclyr.ed Evericlion, 


And gret loie of him they made, 

And of him werew they wondir glade. 88 

* Thanne thowghte him that veraillye / 

That he Sawgh with his bodilich Eye OutofN«tden«'« 

'' son's body flow 

A gret Flood Owt of his body Gon ; »riyer«. 

Of whecho flood becomes there Xyne Anon, 92 

Where-Offen the viij Reveres were 

Of on clemesse, of on depthe & bred, him fowghte f/?re; 

But the laste flood that there was, of which th« iwt 

it mo«t foal and 

^lost deppest, 5kIost Trowblest, semed In that plas; 96 noisy «tiu 

The water was as fowl As Ony chanel, 

Riht hydows Therto, & ful stordy Ech del ; 

Thus Evene ferd it A tie the bcgynne7ig : 

But In the Middis was thanne Anothir thing, 100 

For the water Also Cler was there «****' ■» ■ «•"* 

in iu middle, 

As ony preciouse stones Owghere, 

Not-with-stonding it was boys tows t^ scharp^ 

As here to-Foren 3e herden ^le Carpe ; 104 

And ^it In the Ende was it in A-nothir Manere, — and at lu mouth 

^if ^e welen lestene 3e scholen here ; — 

For it was More Cleer An hundred fold loo-foid ciear«»r 

Thanne here to-fore ^e han herd me told, 108 

And More Fairere than/ie In the Middcs it was, than in lu 

' midst. 

And as swete to drinken In ony plas ; 

And so delicious it was to drinke, »"<J n*"" 

delicious than 

That More delicious Cowde non Man thenke; 112 can be thoupht. 

In wheche Ende the Co>rrs was so softe, 

Jj*'(t there-offen was now Xoise on loflo. 

3it more him thowghte fat he Sawgh tho 

A Fair Man that From the hevene gan go ; 116 AfWrman 

And as he lokede, him thowghte. An hy 

In his hondis he Sawgh the verray Crucyfi ; 

And to a lake he Gan to Gon : washes his feet 

and haiids in a 

II is hondes & Feet he woesch there-In??e Anon; 120 ukeandsoftbt 

other strnami 

And thre of the floodis wheche fat were 
Departid from the Nynthe there ; 


Mordreiiis wakes. 


Hit Qaeen, 
is troabld. 

ffOM toher 
brolher Nasetons, 

tolls him how 
Mordrcinv has 
m<iurnd ull 

and nskw him to 
find out the 
cause or it. 

Into Alle thre he Entrede, wete pou, wel, 

Hondes, feet, and body he weesch Eche deL* 1 24 

This Aviciouw i^ this dremenge 
Sawgh the kyng In his Slepinge, 
Wheche that lasted Xy to the day, 
Lik As this Stor}e vs now doth say. 128 

Thanne A-wook this kyng Anon, • 
And Eemembred him of these yieiouns Echon, 
Where-offcn Abasched ful sore he was. 
Of that wonderful A[nd] merveillous Cas. 132 

And the qweene that beheeld his fare, 
In hire herte hadde sche ful gret Care, 
IIow sche Myhte Owght knowen of the lif 
"Why that hire loixl was so thanne pensyf. 136 

Anon As sche myhte parceyven the day, 
Vpe sche Eos, And to hire brother took the way. 
Sore wcpinge & sore Syghenge, 

"With gret sorwe & lawmentinge, 1 40 

And so Cam to Nasciens hire brotheris bed. 
And down be him sat In thike sted. 
Anon Ryht vpe this Kasciens Rawghte, 
His Soster there In his armes he Cawghte, 144 

And hire A-Freyned with Al his herte, 
* Why that sche haddo So manye peynes sraerte.' 
Thanne tolde sche him of hire lord the kyng 
That Al Niht hadde ben In sweche Momeng, 148 

And the Cause for why sche ne wiste, 
" Therfore, dere brothir, as I the tryste, 
Lest he myhte falle In som dispeireng, 
Now, 8 wete dere brothir, for Ony thing 152 

That 30 woldcn of him Enqwero 
For what Cawse he hadde Al his fere, 
And for lesus love hevene kyng, 

For whom we liauc/? taken Cristenez/g, 156 

Tliat 3e wolden streyht to him gon, 
And a boone Axen Of hym pere Anon, 


* That he wolde graunten 30W ^owre Askyng, 

What 80 Evere it be, of Alls thing,' 160 

And whanne pat he hath graunted to 30W pai boone, 

Thanne that ^e wolden Axcn him ful sone 

' Why that he Ferde So that Nyht, 

& why In his sleepe he was so afryht ;* 164 

For I ne desire so sore non thing 

As there Offen to haven som knowewg.** 

Thanne Eos him vpe this Nasciens Anon^ NmcImu goM 

to Mordrvlns, 

And to the kynges chambre gan to gon ; 168 

And be that tyme ho come?i thedir was, 

The kyng was Kesen in that plas ; 

And Nasciens him grette pere Anon riht, 

And seide, *' Sire ! as thow art bothe kyng & knyht, 172 •*• w« *« 

, grant him a booQ, 

One bone, sire kyng, pat thow grawnte me 

With-Owten lettjmge Owthir Adversite." 

Thanne J)* king Answerid him Agein, 

"Dere brothe[r], 30 knowew wel In Certein, 176 

That nothing wheche Is In Myn bandown 

That Al Redy schal been at ^owre peticiown." 

And whanne Naciens vndirstood al this, 

That be his Creawnse he wolde not Mis, 180 

But fulfillen his bone Al hoi & pleyii, 

Thanne to him thus seide he In Certein, 

* Xo more for his boone wolde he Crave, wid that !•, 

to t«U him what 

But knowliching of his pensifnesse to have; 184 hUnighft 

Why Al that Nyht he ferde tho so. 

This wolde I wete Er that I go.' 

And whanne the kyng herde him thns seye, 

Thanne wiste he wel his qweene gan him be-wreye, 188 

So that Anon Eyht to Sire Nasciens Mordreiiu at 

onot tells hia 

He tokle his trowblynge vrtth-owten OfTens, drMm to 

And told him clone his Aviciowun, 

And of his Nevew Al & som ; ^ 192 

** But 3 it neuertheles not for than 

I ne have not jow told how it began ; 



MordrriiM Mjt 
bit trouble has 
conM on him 

becanw he didn't 
ItaUU hii promiM 
to reward 
Naaciena for 

canaeof hia 

[leaf 16] 

At TarabeU 

at Custle Comea* 

NaadenB helpt 

For of this jifte that 30 han Axed me, 

Riht fill vntrewe to 30 w have I be ; 196 

For I swor to jow wttA-Inne y viij day, 

Whanne ^e token for me that iomay, 

I scholde 30W so worthily qwiten Ageyn 

Thai al joure baronage scholde it knowen Certein. 200 

Where-offew vntrewe to 30W I am, 

And thus this pensifhesse On me it Cam. 

Fortheremore, As by my qweene I lay, 

T bethowghte me how Mani A day 204 

That I hadde leyn In fowl sinne. 

The fowlest fat Man Myhte leven Inne ; 

And myn Consciense me gan to Repr(jve 

Of myn fals levenge & Of myn beleve. 208 

And as I lay thus, & me be-thowghto 

3if to Ony Man I hadde behyght Owghte ; 

And I ne Cowde not thenken, sauf Only to ]>% 

To whom that I haue so longe vntrewe be ; 212 

And for wheche thing is most myn hevynesse 

That bringeth myn herte In al tliis distresse. 

For there nis now no man lyvenge 

That I am so moclie bownden to In Alle thinge, 216 

Ne that so moche that I haue trespaced vnto. 

As to 30wre pcrsone now that I have I-do. 

And what this vntrowtho it is to mene, 

I schal 30W tcllen ful wel & Clone. 220 

It is ful trewe, As 36 don vndirstonde, 
Whanwe I was discomfyt be myn Enemyes honde 
At Tarabel, As 30 wel knowe, 

^Vlle^o as 36 Conie7i w/tA-Inne A thro we 224 

A3ens Myn Enemyes to socowren there, 
Of whom fat I ha<lde Riht grct Fere, 
Whanne to the Castel of Come fr/t I was gon, — 
That tymo Ofer Socoiir hadde I non ; — 228 

Thanno Come?? 30 prekyngo w/t7i 30wre ^leyne 
In Socowringe, fortheringe, & hel])inge of me ; 


Thanyje bchyghte I jow tho In Certein, 

* That 3if eucro to Sarras I Myhte Bekeu^ren Agein 232 

In worschepe & In prosperite ; 

With-Inwen .viij. dayes aftir Certeinle, 

I scholde 30W 80 worthily Gwerdonc thanne. 

That bettere gwerdoned nas neuere Manrze ;' 236 

Where-ofl'en the schame is Fallen On Me 

Only, Sire, & not vi)pon the. 

And for Cawse of this grete thowglit, 

Into this Avicioun thus was I bi*owght, 240 

As I have told 30W, bothe Grope & Roote ; 

But the signefiawnce, how to knowen, I ne woote ; 

Now sethen tliat loseph is hcnnes gon, 

Man mo to declaren now know I non ; 244' 

For, And he were here now present, 

He cowde me declaren Al the hole Entent ;" 

And for this Cause was he in gret thowht, 

To what Ende this viciown scholde be browht. 248 

And thanne be-spak tho Sire Nasciens, 
That thike t}Tne was In the kyngcs prpsens, 
** For, sire, this viciown May Siguefie 
That ^e scholen In-to Anothir Seignorio ; 252 

But 30 neten whanne, ne what day, 
That this sodeynly behappen 30W ^lay. 
For, lik As je han chonged 30ure lif, 
80 scholen 30 30wre Regne w/t/<-owte/i strif ; 256 

For Every Evel wil & wikkcd Cownsaille, 
Echo man Owghto Forsaken Sawn faille , 
And Ellis diden we Contrariously 
To Owro newe feith ful Sekerly, 260 

Into hos Creaunse we han vs bowndo 
Bothe body and Sowle In this stownde. 
Where-fore, As of 30ure Aviciown, now semeth me, 
To non Evel may it tome In non degre. 264 

But I redo 30W that 30 now do, 
Cou/zseil Of holy Chii'che to Clcpen 30W to, 

axMl he promlit 

to reward him 
within 8 daye. 

Bat he, Mor- 
dreins, didn't do 

Htfiice hie 
troiibluiiM Drenin, 

which he knows 
not how to |»«t 

Naeciens says 
Dream may 
Wtoken his being 
rarrteJ away. 

tho* this m»j 
kad to no iiarm. 


Hordrtiiii had Wheche that losepli left In his stede, 

counsel of Good CouTiseil there-Otfeii 20w now to hede. 268 

Holy Church. 

For 36 knowe?i wel be vudirstondyng, 
That loseph Comandcd 30W Ovier Alio thing 

* Holy Chirche to kepen an Susteyne, 

And In Every nede to hem scholde 36 Compleyne, 272 
That Nedy were to sowle o\>er to body ;' 
Thus Comanded ho 30W, 30 weten wel sothly." 

H« and NascUnt And whanne Nasciens this wordis had seid p^. 

Anon botho to-Gederis thanne gon7ien they go 276 

To the paleys Anon Of Spiritwelte — 

As to-fom Rehersid lian 30 herd Me — 

That Enstablyscht & Ordeyned weron Echon^ 

Holy Goddis Servise there-Inne to done ; 280 

go and hear So that there herden they eoddis Servise, 

theC?hrUtian . ^ 

Servioe and Maaa. And Afterward that Glorious Sacrifise, 
As loscph hem Comau/^ded before, 
In what maner to Swen Cristes lore, 284 

And Every day for the More part Comowned to be ; 
Thus Comanded loseph tho Certeynle. 
And whanne this Servise was Al I-don, 
To-fom him he Comanded to Come?i Anon 288 

Mordreine teiu Alle the provostis of liol v Chifclie, 

the Cliurch-pro* 

voeu hie dream. And of hem took Cou;/sclL how he scholde wirche, 
And told hem Clerly Al his Aviciouw, 
I low that he dremede, Al and som. 292 

but none of them But Of hem was there not On tho 

can explain it. 

That thcke Avisiown Cowde him vndo ; 
For they Seyden him Certeinly, 

* That tliere no Cowde now Man but God Only 296 
That Avicioon to declare/i In Ony place, 

Sawfe Only God thorgh liis grete grace.' 

And whanne the kyng <fe Xascicns hei-den of this, 

Anow thens they wente/? with Owten Mys. 300 

Thanne wente the kyng Sc Nasciens forth botho 
More hevyere thanwe Er they were^z forsothe, 


And [seide] that liQnere In Ese they scholdc bene 

Tyl here-OlTen they liadden vndirstonding clene ; 304 

And tlius pcnsif to the paleys A3en gonne they gone, Mordreiiw and 

They two togederis, right Alle alone ; p«i«ivt, to SarrJ 

And there they Rested hem bothe that stownde 

To-Gederis On A Cowche vppon the growndo, 308 

And no7j More Feleschepe but tliey two. 

Thanne felten they Anon Merveilles Mo, Thtn begin 


How that Al the paleys Clene Alto-schook, 

Sawfe y Sovereyn vo^vtis, As they Oonne look ; 312 

And thanne loked they furthermore ; tim Paiac* 


Hem thowghte Al to-scheverid it was thore. 

And In Every Chcne hem thowghte they sye *» •▼«! c^ink 

burning temndu 

Ful of brenneng brondis ful wittirlye. 316 *pp«ri 

Thanwe so hydows A noise there be-gan, » hid«oni hoIm 

U heard. 

As it was scmeng to hem bothe than 

That the Endeng of p* world hadde be come, 

And that it hadde ben the day of dome ; 320 ■■ if DoonwUj 

'^ hadcooM; 

So that Alle the wyndowes & walles to-brook, 

So Merveillously tho this Noise Ontook. 

Also hem thowghte the paleis schold han down falle, 

And th<»ro Sonken Into the Ottrest walle. 324 

And Amongs Alle this Merveillous tiling, 

There Cam On hem the wondrest dirkenong, »»<* '*»• 


That hem thowghte here sighte was gon Certein, darknaee oue 

orer thtm. 

And that it neuere to Recouerin Ageyn. 328 

And non Men Of that Cite Certeinly 
Theke Merveilles sien, neber herden, but they Butonijwithto 

' ^ ' '^ the Palace. 

That with-Inne the paleis were ; 

And herdcTz they, ne sien, no more there 332 

But Onliche Of that gret thondringe, 

Where-Offen they hadden gret Merveillenge. 

And Othir thinges syen they nowht ; 

But, As hem semede In here thowht, 336 

A fewe sparkelis At the Opcnynge 

Of the Paleys wyndowes, they Syen Comewge ; 



ICordnliu and 
a trcmetidoiu 
bia«t <tf a Horn, 

and a vole* eriaa 

Beginning of 

Th«r tail flat 

anil Monlrolns 
daji' Journey 
out of hli bod. 

And jit they Abaschten ful sore of this, 

What it Myhte Amow[n]ten, wit^-Owten ^lis. 340 

And As the k jng & Xasciens lien In this tiawuiicey 
3it herden they A more wondirfol Chawnce. 
Hem thowghte they herde the Sown of An horn 
That neu^re they herden there befom ; 344 

And the sown was so wondirful & so hy, 
That outfr al the world they supposed trewly 
The Noise Of that horn myht hauen ben herde, 
So wondirfully that noise tho pere Ferde. 348 

Thanne Anon A vois there Gan to Crie, 
" Here is begynneng of drede Certeinlye.** 
And whanne this Nois they herde thus seyn, 
Evene plat A down they fillen ful pleyn, 352 

Lik bothe dede As they hadde pere been ; 
No- lif In hem non Mihte Seen. 
Thanne was the prophecie fulfild tho 
That be Olde dayes was knowen to Mo^ 356 

Wheche pat seith, * Two scholen liggen In a bed, 
On be taken, y toper hven stille In that sted.' 

Thus sone the kyug Owt of his bed was bore 
Seventone loraes, be Goddis Myht thore. 360 

And it was wei the tliridde Oirre of the day 
Whanne to the kyng was Al this AflEray ; 
And whanne the holy goat hym left ful sone, 
It was the hy Owre Of None. 364 

But of him talketh now non lengerd this storie ; 
But to the qweene & Nascien Mosten we hye. 
That bothe weren beleft In sarras. 
As woful peplo In that same plas. 368 

!• boriM awajr, 




Nasciens (formerly Seraphe) lies swooniDg in bed. His sister, 
Queen Sarracynte, on coming back to the palace from see- 
ing a Church that is building for the Virgin, finds all the 
attendants aswoon (p. 239). In the chamber she sees 
Nasciens weeping, and asks him why, and where her hus- 
band Mordreius (or Evalach) has gone. She swoons 
(p. 240), and mourns. Nasciens assures her that Mordreins 
is safe (p. 242). The barons consult about Mordreins's 
absence (p. 242-3). Calafier, a traitor, suggests that Nas- 
ciens killd him (p. 243). The others adopt this notion ; 
go to Nasciens, question him (p. 243), and then cast him 
into prison (p. 244). The queen is gn'catly grievd, but 
cannot help her brother (p. 245) ; who holds to his faith, 
and will not reproach God, but asks mercy for his sins 
(p. 245-6). 

Lo thus tellith this Story now here, 

How Nasciens And the kyng, In A bed they wore, 

And how that the kyng was born Away, 

And stillo In Swowneng this Xasciens lay ; 4 

And swich A Moreyne As In that paleis was, 

"Was Neucre Sein In non plas ; 

And In the Cite "Was herd no More 

But the thondir & \>* sown of the trompe thore. 8 

Thanne it happed In this Mene tyme — 
The tyde Of y day Was Owr Of pryme — 
That the qwene gan forto gou, 

A faire Chirche Werk to beholden Anon, 12 

Tliat In Worschepe Of Oure lady begonnen was there ; 
And that chirche to sen wcnte sche In this Maiiere. 
And whanne thorwgh that paleys sche gan to goon, 
A wondirful Syhte Sawgh sche pere Anon, — 16 

Alle the Scriawntes lycn there plat adown 
Ful dedlich & pale Al In virown ; 
And sche wende On Slepe pat alle hadde ben tho, 
So that Furthermore sche gan to Go ; 20 

Thanne Fonde sche Alle the knyhtes &; Sqwiere, 
In that Same 2^Ianere they lyen tho there. 
Thanne Merveilled the qwene mochel of this, 
"What it scholde Amownten with-Owten Mis ; 24 

QuMn Samcjnt* 
romes back firom 
Mcinv a church. 

aud flo<b nil tbt 
Mrvanti flat on 
tlie floor. 

and knights and 
■quirea so too. 


TIm Qtwen edla 

bat they are 

She f^oes to the 
King** chamber. 




Anon Somme of hem sche gan to Calle, 

But thei mihten neper here/i ne sen, so gan it fal. 

For nethir hadden fei wit ne Memorye 

Of now worldly thing thanne Certeynlye. 28 

And whan;ie sche say, that not sche Myhte 

Of hein nethir haven word ne syhte, 

Thanne with A gret Cowrs tomed sche Anon, 

And to the kynges Chambro gan to gon. 32 

And whanne sche was InTze Atte Chambre dore. 
There, Merveylles Gran sche beholden More ; 
Naacieoa gche beheld hire brother sire Nascien 

Sat In his bed wepinge than, 36 

Owt of wheche bed Mordreins the kyng 
"VVas vp6 lefte with Owten lesing ; 
And pere Kasciens Made gret sorwe & Mone, 
As him thowhte nedis he most done 40 

For the Koise and ))• voys that he herde, 
That he ne wiste In what maner it Ferde. 
And whanne the qweene pis began beholde, 
Her h«art growB Anon hire herte gan wexen Colde ; 44 

cold J ^^ 

And sore tremeling & qwakyng than, 

To sire Xasciens bed Anon sche Ran, 

And wend that som wikked Sperit be chawnse 

Hadd hem put Owt Of here Ryhtful Creaunce ; 48 

And to hire brother sclie Ran In haste, 

And him Embracen sche gan ful faste, 

& the Cawse of him Axede, why it was 

That ho So wepe there In that plas. 52 

Thanne gan be wepe wondirly Sore, 

Fastere and hardere than he dide before. 

Thanne J)° qweene gan lowde to Crye 

'With a lowd vois ful petowslye, 56 

And Swo'WTie7/g to the Erthe fyl sche there. 

Thanne sire Nasciens Gan hire to Chere, 

And brased hire In his Amies two, 

And hire there kyste & Cherede tho • 60 

•he crie* aloud, 

and fklls swoon> 
Ing to the earth. 


" A, swete soster !" he gan to Say, 

" What may 30 w be to Maken this fray 1" 

And whanne ache Aros Of hire Swowneng ; 

Tlianne Axede scho of pat Merveilleng ; 64 

With Sorewful herte & hovy Chere 

Sche gan Axcn whew hire lord were. 

And whanne Nasciens this vndirstood, 
Ful Clone thanno Kasciens Chonged his mood, 68 

That he ne Mihte non word tho spoke, 
So him thowhto his herte wolde breke ; 
As faate the water Ean from his Eeyen Adown, 
As it hadde ben pored vppon his Crown. 72 

Whanne the qweene Say him so taken vppon, 
Sche Axede what he hadde with hire lord doon; 
Thanne gan sche forto Swownew ageyn 
In that place there Certoin Certoin, 
And weude Owt of hire wit sche scholde han gon, 
Swich Sorwe sche Made, & so grot Mon. 
Whanne Of hire Swowneng sche A-wook, bat 

Sche qwaked, sche trembled, scho wepe, sche schook, 80 
And with a deolful voia sche gan to Crye, 
" Swete Brother Nasciens ! " Certeinlye 
Evene thus As A wood womman 
In this Gyse took sche vppon, 84 

And euere Aftir hire lord gan to Crie 
With deolful vols, & wonderli hye. 

And whanne Kasciens hire tolde Al the verite, 
Thanne weping & momcng myhton men pere se. 
And how the kyng from him was taken there. 
And forth bom, & In what Manero ; 
But Into what place pat he was I-bore, 
Kasciens no Cowdo not tollcn there. 92 

Whan/ie Xasciens this word hadde I-seyd, 
Thanne was there manie A deolful breid. 
And Owthes & Cry was In that halle, 
That bothe Men & wommen In s wowne^ig gonne falle. 96 

QBAAL. 16 


and mIu whcr* 
her lord, 
Uordrtins, la. 

Nandens can 
onl J weep. 

•frooua again, 

ami eriee after 
King Mordreiits. 

Naeciene telle 
her how the 
88 King waa 

A great erjr 


And swicli Sorwe ))• qweeno there Made, 

That Erthly thing myhte hue non Glade. 
KMcteiiBoomforu Thanne Cam Nasciens to hire Airain. 

And In his Armes he hire embraced ful pleyn, 100 

And hire Comforted In this degre, 
[Wtf 17] " Now, goode dero Soster, lesteneth to Me ; 
tad aararet her The kyng ho is bothe Sawf & Sownde 

As we ben here In this Stownde, 104 

Mordrdn* !• And bothew heyl In Sowle and In body, 

Mfo and loond, "^ 

I Sey jow, Sostir, now, Certeynly. 
This knowe I wel be that tydynge 
That the voys to vs gan briuge." 108 

Thanne Axede Sche Kasciens wtt^-Owten lak, 
' Ho it myhte be that to him tho spak.' 
beeanA it wai Thanne Nasciens hire Answerid Aireyn, 
MOffer who cpok* And scide it was Cristes Messenger Certein. 112 

to them. 

So gret Sorwe & Mone Made y qweene, 
That for non Erthly man Seced myhte bene. 
Thus sone this tydinge Gan forto springe 
Ouer Al tlie Centre w/t^-Owten lettynge, 116 

How that the kyng thus was I-lore, 
And how sodeynly he was A-Wey I-bore. 
Mordreint'e Thanne tho baronage to-gederis Comen Anon, 

Barons consult 

about the King*i And of this Conseillcdcn what they myht don, 120 
ppearance. ^^^ ^^^^ ^j^^ kyng Awey thus Scholde fare; 

Where-Offen they hadde ful gret Care. 

So Amonges Alle Othere there was On 

That longe v^ith the kpig hadde Igon, — 1 24 

A cursed knight, A malicious knyht In Alle Manere, 
Sir caiaphere, His uame "Was clepid Sire? Calapliere — 

For he was so Crwel, & so Felowns, 

So fals, so CvTsid, so wikkcd of CondiciounSy 128 

That in dedly hcrte ne !Myhte Synke 

So moche Tretoryo forto thenke, 

As that Cursed Caiaphere 

In his herte Imagyned there : 132 


For there he seide ful Openlye the, 

* That he treson Nasciens the king dide slo, 
For he wolde hauen J)* Rem In goueminge/ — 

This was Openly his talkynge— 136 

* For In that place weren there no Mo 
Sauf Only the kyng & sire Kasciens tho ; 
How myht it thanne Otherwise he, 

But that Sire Nascicns dide him sle V 140 

Thanne Answerid the haronage A^en, 

* That it is ful lyk thus forto ben.* 
Thanne tookcn they here Conscyl Anon, 

That Into Strong warde he scholde be don, 144 

Til that they knewen In word & dede tho 

Whethir the kyng lyvedc, oper how it myhte go. 

And to this Conseil thanne Everychon 

Sworen alle to holden there Anon ; 

And thus Of Nasciens demed they there, 

That ))• kyng hadde Mordred, but J)ei niste where. 

And thus to Cowrt they Comen Anon, 
Alle these barowns Everichon, 
And fo\vTiden Sire Xasciens & the qweene 
Makenge gret sorwe Al bedene. 
That Neuere 'Man that was l^nrenge 
Herde neuere half so moche weymewtinge; 156 

And this was the thridde day 
Aftyr the kyng was Kavischt Away. 
Thanne thus to y qweene gon7/en they gone. 
And of this Aventure Enqwcrid Anone. 1 60 

Thanne Anon Nasciens gan forto telle 
Alio the Mater, how it tho befelle ; 
Bothe lik as he hadde herd & sein, 
lie gan hem tcllen In Gertein ; 164 

And Also of the kynges Swevcnywge, 
What he Mette In his dremewge. 
Thus to Nasciens they weren Enqweringe, 
& of Al thing he 3af hem Answeringe, 168 

kilia Mordrvins 
to Ktt kla 

put Nasdras ia 

148 and MTMr UMjm 

152 TheBarona 

tha Srd day after 
Mordralna waa 




And scide to liem ful Sekcrliche tho, 
' That In the Chamhro Keren but they two 
Whanne this Chaunce there gan to fialle ;' 
And thus he tolde Amongs hem Alle. 172 

Tht Baroni mIm Thanne Anon there they him tooke, 

And Grevously On him gonrzen to loke. 
And sire Nasciens hem Axede tho, 

* Why wit/i him they Ferden so.' 176 
Thanne they Answerede, & forth him laddo, 

* That suspecion to him Of the kyng they hadde.* 
And thus In preson thanne they him Caste, 
& Sesid Alle his londis Atte laste. 180 
Thanne senten they Abowtes here & there. 
To don seken the kyng Every Where. 

Thus Nasciens In preson suffrede mani hard schowr. 

and out him 

by the eoanael 
of CuUphere^ 

who hfttad all 

Be conceil of Calapher, pat fals Tretowr. — 

This Calafer made good semblaunce 

As a man Of good Creawnce, 

But fals he was In dede & thowght, 

For Cristene manne was he nowht ; 

For whanne Cristened he schold han be, 

Ful faste Awey ho gan to fle, 

For he no hatcth non Creature 

So moche As Cristene, I the Enswre ; — 

So that he Cam to y barouns Agcin, 

And hem thus Conceilled In Certein, 

* Tliat Into the tyme that they myhte;* knowe 

Begynne7/g And Endeng Vppon A rowe, 

Nasciens In presown scliolde Abyde :* 

Swich Conseil ^af that iTeioiir this tyde. 

And thus be the Counseil Of fals Calaphere, 

Nasciens In presown kepten thei there, 

That him & his londis bothc, they hadde 

In here Award, botlie good <fe badde. 

And whanne y qweene beheeld Al this, 
jhe thowhte In hire herte it wente Aroys, 








That hire lord thus was Agon, 

And ferto hire broker In prcsoun don. 

It is non ncde to tellen the Mone 

That ))• qweene ^ere made ful sone, 208 

For there nas non Erthly thing — 

Aftir hire lord that was the kyng — 

Tliat so moche was In hire herte, 

As of hire brothir his peynes smerte. 212 

Ful fain wolde thanne this gode qwene, 

Tliat hire brothir Owt Of preson hadde bene ; 

But sche was tho A lone womman. 

And ful litel Eeed of this sche kan; 216 

To stryven A3ens hire Baronye, 

Sche ne hadde non strengthe Certeinlie. 

And Evere was Nasciens In preson strong, 
And tempted he was with the devel Among 
Forto forsaken there his trewe Creawnse ; 
But he ne wolde, for non Maner Of Chawnse, 
Forsaken his god for now peyne ; 
But Euere to his God he gan Compleyne, 224 

And Cride Mcrci For his greto Synne, 
Of )>• wikkcdnesse that he hadde lyved Inne : 
" For moche more than^ie this deservid I have ; 
Where-fore, goodo lord lesus, thow me save ! 228 

For A gret Fool trcwly I was, 
Thy secrees to sen In that holy plas, 
AVich that non Man scholde han seyn there, 
But ^if Clene Of Synne I-clensid he were ; 232 

And so, goode lord, ne was not I ; 
Where-fore, lesus, I crie the Mercy ! " 
And in this holy Entenciown 

Stille belefte Nascicn In presown, 236 

In gret Angwisch & gret Anoye, 
Thus lyvede Nasciens, As I 30W seye ; 
Bothe be nyht and Ek be day 
In this Angwisch thus Nasciens lay ; 240 


gritTM gTflftUj, 

bat etiiBOt iMlp 
her brotiMT 

tempted by 
220 thtDrril, 

bat win not 
forsake GkxL 

for hia sina, 

he waaagreat 
fool to try to 
pry Into the 
aecreta of the 




And Evere Cried Gk)d Of Mercy 
That lie hadde leved so Folilj. 
The Story iMTM And now tometh this Stone Ageyn 

NaaeitiM, . " 

and tarns to King To kjng Mordxeins now In Certein^ 
The wheche lest ]>at he ded hadde be ; 
And thus is he In A Eoch wit^Inize the se. 


Hordreins la on 
a Rock in the 

pnt there by the 
Holy Ghoit. 


The description and history of the Island to which King Morrl- 
reins was carrid; and herein of the Emperor Pompey** 
daring deeds. How the Isle was on the waj from Soot* 
land and Ireland to Babylon ; and Wales and Spain oould 
be seen from it (p. 247) ; and how it was all bare rook, 
and was calld Th^ Roche Perilovct (p. 248) ; and on it 
was formerly a house built by a pirate, Fowcaira, who 
en tied ships ashore, and destroyd them and their erewa 
(p. 248-9) ; till Pompey heard of him, and prepard a ship 
(p. 249) ; and attackt him (p. 250). The account of the 
fight' (p. 250-5) ; — how the pirates let down a quarter of 
a ship on Pompey *s knights (p. 251) ; and the attack is 
put off (p. 252). Pompey then determins to light a fire 
at the foot of the rock and bum them out (p. 252). The 
pirates try to put the fire out, but can*t, and the knigbta 
icill four of them (p. 253) ; the rest nearly succeed in 
extinguishing the fire, but Pompey drives them back and 
kills five of them (p. 254). He is then attackt and swoona, 
but is rescued. Fowcairs is taken (p. 254) ; his men are 
thrown into the sea, and then he too (p. 255). How 
Pompey did a still more daring deed, stabid his horses in 
the Temple at Jerusalem (p. 255) ; and how he was rebukt 
by Peter for it (p. 255). 

Now here be-gynnoth kyng Mordreins Storie, 

that vppon a Roche In the se is Certeinlye ; 

that Owt of his Regiown xvii. lornees was, 

With-Inne the so In A perilous plas. 4 

Abowtes the Owt of Noon it was tho 
whanne the holigoost In fat Roche put him tho ; 
And there tho holigost Schewed him thanne 
Al so mochel richesso as evere Sawgh Manne ; 8 

* The French account for lines 244-334 differs considerably 
from the English one : it gives more detail and incidenta. 


And whanne vppon this Eoche he was alyht, 

In his herte he was wondirly Afiyght. 

"WTianne Ahowtes vppon the Roche he lookede tho, 

And beheld how Into A strauz/ge Contre he was I-do, 

Where-0£fen he thowghte tho In his herte 13 

Neu^re that deseisse forto Asterte ; 

And there-fore but litel wondir it were 

Thowgh Sore Abasched were he there, 16 

For 3it hadde he non ful knoweng 

That In the paleys ho hadde of his sw^venywge ; 

And Evere he Merveilled In his ^ thowht 

How that he thedir was tho browht, 20 

And In him Self hadde gret Marveillinge 

Ho that thedir dide him tho bringe. 

And thus longe he gan to beholde, 

That Al his herte gan wexen Colde, 24 

For non thing he ne Sawh abowtes hym 

But the wilde Se, bothe Stowt & Grym, 

And no more lond there ne was 

Than;ie \>e)'e the Eoche stood In that spas. 28 

This Eoche stent A-Middes the se, 
Al this Storie now telleth to Me, 
Evene from Scotlond the Eyhte weye 
Into Babilo}'no, As I the Seye, 32 

And from Erlond the weye Also 
Streyht to babyloyne it doth go. 
And So hygh the Eoche is there, 
That Ouer the Se I[s] sei» Every where ; 36 

And to Wales there Mihte he se, 
And Into Spayne Into that partee ; 
So hygh is the Eoche In that stounde 
That kyng Mordreins there ha]) I-fownde, 40 

For it is On of the most heyest plase 
That In Ony Se Evere 3it sein wase ; 
And this yl So wastful Is, 
That of non Mauer viaunde there-Inne fere nys, 44 

he U wt on th« 

[* MS till*] 

His heart vmwf 
eold at iic«ing 
nolhlitir but th« 
wild MA round 

The Rock utaade 
between Seodand, 
Ireland, and 

can eee into 
Walea and 8|»in, 


Bnt it b aU 


all para rock. 

and no arabia 

It ia ealld 

Tk« Rock 

Fnrmerly a 


built thera 

a big bouse that 

held 20 man ; 

bat they livd 
In a galley on 
the sea, 

and were pirates. 

They'd light a 
great fire on the 

iNTe non Erthe that is Mevable, 

But Al Clene Roche hard & stable ; 

Except y space Of A mannes hond. 

In fat place Is there non Erable lond ; 

And EUes Into the harde Se, 

Clene Roche As it May ba 

And for that Roche Is so penlows, 

So hygh, so straunge, & so Merveilloua, 

That " the Roche perilows " is the Name, 

For it is of So perilous A fame. 

Yppon wheche roche sumtyme was diht 
A Certein habitacle with gret Miht, 
That A lerrers of the Se hyt Made,^ 
And Fowcairs to his name he hade. 
This lerrers was of so passing Mesuro, 
And of so gret strengthe, I the Ensure, 
That non Man his gretnesse Cowde discrie, 
Ke his strengthe to haven In Memorie ; 
So that In this Roche, for certein, 
His habitacle he made ful pleyn ; 
Tliat So with Verray strengthe & Myht, 
In that Roche his hows gan he dyht ; 
A largo hostel for twenty Men, 
Thus he gan Areyened than ; 
But In that Roche lay not he, 
But In A galeye In the Se, — 
He, & hise felawes Also, — 
Vppon the Se felonie to do. 
And Ofer whiles In Certoiii^ 
Vppon that Roche they wolden ful plein, 
A ful gret feer wolden they make. 
Here pray thore-with forto take ; 









' Et si li froma vns leres de mer qui estoit apieles fou- 
caires. — A. French * L<?rre : tn. A theefe.* — Cotgrave. 

' Et quant il faisoit la nuit bien oscur, si metoient sur la 
roohe .i. grant braudon du fu ardant. — A. 





So that it semede to Ony Marchawnt 

That theke plas dide Owht hawnt, 

That Som Restewg place it hadde be ; 

But here distroction it was, As 30 mown Se ; 80 

For A^cns that Eoch they hurtclid so sore, 

That Alle to-borsten were?* they thore ; 

Thanne 0,wt of here galeyes gonne they go — 

These thevis that this falshed hadden do, — 84 

And tooken bothe fere ^fan & gopd 

That persched was there In theke flood : 

And In this Manure distroied this lerrers 

Mani A Marchau/^t & Mariners. 88 

Thanne be-fil A wondir Cas, 
That On, Grcte Pompees, that Emperowr was 
Of Eomeyns, As happed that day, 
Of Alle these Merveilles herde he say, 92 

As Owt of grece he seilede tho, 
Toward Cecyle he gan to go. 
And thus As he seillede Abowte, 
And took many Garisou;is, bothe strong & stowte, 96 
That Abowtes be the Se stoode 
In Ony place be y salt Floodc ; 
Tlius Cam he toward babyloyne, 
And thidirward of this thef herde he seyne. 100 

Thanne seide this pompee with-Owten faille, 
* That theke strong theef 30 scholen asaille.* 
And thus to his peplo gan he Seyn, 
" We scholen him Asayen In Cei-teyn." 104 

Anon there Eedily dide he dyhte 
A riht strong galeie, & Of grot Myhte, 
And put it ful of good vitaille. 
And Of goode knyhtes, that thef to Asaille. 108 

Anon whanne this was Redely dyht, 
The Se he took Anon there Riht. 
And fowrty goode knyhtes be^ ordcynod there, P ?h«] 
And twenty grete grapelis of Erne );ere were, 112 

to ttmpl mer* 
chintnufn Uiere. 

The shipt fot 
daaht to placM, 


tlitovM pliuidcrd 


white tht mao 

Then Pomper, 
Emp«t>r of Um 

•ailing from 

towards Babjlon 

naolrd to attae'^ 

80 ha flttad oat 
a food galley. 

took 40 knighta 
and to iron 




and Mild to tlM 

Deaf 18] 

OMt anchor. 

Their Ci^tain 
wouldn't go 
whtre tht flro 

bat on another 

Then, a pirate 
galley attackt 

bat Pompey'i 
ahip drove It 
back to the 

The Galeyes to the Schipe forto holde, — 

Of yrne weren Mad bothe strong & bolde ; — 

And thus they gonncn to seylen Anon 

As faste to the Eoche as they myhte gon, 116 

Bothe be day & Eke be Kyht, 

Tyl of a hard roche they hadden a syght. 

And whanne the Eoche they gonne to Aspie, 
It to Aprochen they Seiled ful Nye ; 120 

And whanne faste by they weren gon, 
Heren Ancres thoy Casten fet'Q Anon, 
Forto Abyden there that Nyht, 

Til of the Eoche they myhte ban better Syht. 124 

And whanne y Nyht was wel Apast, 
To-ward the Eoche they Comen In hast ; 
As Ny As a man Mihte Casten A ston. 
Thus Ny to the Eoche Gonne they gon. 128 

And whanne these thevis gonnen Aspie, 
Eedeliche they Eaped hem, & In hye. 
But y maister Mariner that was vrlVi pompee. 
Of that Eoch knew Al the Sotelte ; 1 32 

And \>ere As the feer the thevis gonne Make, 
That partie of the Eoche wolde he not take, 
But be Anothir side they wente, 

pere As they fownden presente 136 

A strong galeye, that there lay 
Be-twene )>• Eoch & hem, f • sothe to say ; 
And they Comen with so gret A wille 
That there maiii men gonnen to spille, 140 

And fillen do^^^l Into y Se, 
Of Men & good, ful gret plente. 

Thanno they that In y tojiere galeyes were, 
"Wenden the grete schipe hadde pe^'sched fere ; 14-4 
So was there tho A ful hard stowr 
Bctwene these Felowns and the Emperoi/r. 
And wanne they sien it gan so to go, 
Tho Emperowr to withstonde nun power hadden tho. 


Be litel and litel they Gonne to gon, 
Til that f ' Eoche they Entred Anon. 

And whante pompee gan this to Aspie, 
Ful lowde he gan hem to discrye, 
And swoor that he wolde don his Miht, 
Of tho theves to ben Avenged Ariht. 
And whanne the thevis this yndirstood, 
Non lengere there they ne Abood, 
But to the heithe of the Koche Sekerlye, 
Ful faste these thevis gonnen hem hye ; 
And After hem xxx knyhtes goode. 
That departed Owt of that floode ; 
So with-Owtew, thritty there were, 
And with-Inne, xix theves In fere ; 
For alle the Kemnaunt of )>ese theves tho 
Werew slayn, And In-to the Se I-do. 

And whanne this Sawt began to gynne. 
These theves wrowhten A corsid gynne ; 
They KoUed down I that plas 
A qwarter Of a galeye fat broken was, 
That hevy & boistous it was to be-holde ; 
And down it Cam with strengthe manifolde, 
And til Anon down Into the Se, 
Where-with xL of Pompees knyhtes slow he, 
Where-offen pompee hadde so gret Care, 
Anon him Self to the Roche gan fare, 
And swoor * that he hadde levere to dye, 
But avenged he Were there Otterlye, 
That there so falsly hadde slain his knyhtes 
At thike same tyme with here fyhtes.' 

Thanne On of his knythes there Anon, 
That say In what peryl that he wolde gon. 
And Conseilled him " forto Abyde 
Til it were more to the day tyde. 
And I schal 30 w Certefien Everidcl 
How On these theves to ben Avenged wel ; 



152 thtPintot. 



the top of Uie 

160 Knigbtt. 


TIm Thf erw 
itrfld down 
1 68 it quarter of 

172 and kind 11 of 




adrto'd him to 
pot off his attack. 




Pomp^ WM 
ashun'd to lose 
■o many knIghU. 

Kext morning 

h« OAMOlted 

hU Knights. 

They thought the 
Pirates mast be 
staryd out. 

[* MS in] 

But Pompey 
had a great 
Are lighted, 

to eraoVe the 
Pirntei out of 
their Ciive, 

Thamie scholen 36 non men lese, 

Ne putten 30wr6 self Into non gret deseisse." 

Tkanne Pompee Axede him Anon, 

In What Manero that it Mihte gon. 188 

** Sire, of this sawt 3e scholen A while reste ; 

I hope it schal he for 301116 heste." 

But Evere they^ maden sorwe & wo, 
For hise goode knyhtcs weren slayn so. 192 

He forto lescn so mani goode knihtes 
For A fewe theves In tho fyhtes, 
Ful gret schame to him he thowhte it was. 
His knyhtes so to lesen In theke Cas. 196 

And On the Morwe whanne it was day lyht, 
And Pompee of that Eoch hadde A syht, 
So strong A thing say he neuere non 
As thike Eoche that he loked vppon ; 200 

' And no72 wondir it hadde hen/ seide he Anon, 
* Thowgh his knyhtes hadde ben slayn Echon.' 

Thanne of his knyhtes he Axede Counsaille, 
3if to that Roche they Cowden Owght Availle; 204 
But non Of hem that was there 
Cowde him Counseillcn In now Manere ; 
For they seiden to him Certeinle 
But 3if be Enfamyne it*-* wolde not be.* 208 

Whanne y kyng of hem hadde non Ofer chere, 
Ho be-thowghte him In Another Manere, 
That hem he wolde distroyen Anon 
Be Aiigwisch Of fyr fere Euerjxhon. 212 

Anon A gret fere he lot there dyhte 
Of Oldo sehepes And Galeyes, fat brenden so bryhte, 
That At theke Roche persched hadde been, 
As all the peplo there Myhte it seen ; 216 

So that tliis fcer there brende so louge tho, 
That Alle the smolder Into fat kave gan go ; 

* Car il ne quidoient pas ke ele peust estre prue 
afamer. — A. 

CH. XX.] 



For that feer to stawnche72 hadden they non miht, 

But Euero this feer brende ful lyht. 220 

And they benetho gonne hem defende 

With Arwes & stones that they gonnen vp sende ; 

And they Aboven defensed hem thore 

With speris & cleyves wondirly Sore. 224 

And whanne this feer gan brennen so briht, 
The the vis tooken fresch water Anon riht — 
Where-OlFen they hadden Som plente tho— 
And In- to that Feer they gonne w it do ; 228 

Thanne Alle the smoke & p* flawme, I )>• plyht, 
Into that Cave wente there Anon Ryht, 
And they benethe schetten ful sore, 
And stones vp threw w/t/t Engynes thore, 232 

So that they slowen fowre of the felowns 
That hadden don sweche distroctiouws. 
And whanne these thevis Syen this, 
A3en to y Cave fey wen ten wztA-Owten Mys ; 236 
But fere weren they not wel at Ese, 
Si» Evel this Feer it dide hem plese. 
And whanne they seyen it Miht not be, 
Alle Anon Owt of that kave gonnen they fle. 
And wit/i Alio here myht And strengthe ther 
They purposed to stawnchen this feer. 
And thanne these knyhtes to hem Eonne, 
And there sore bogeringe they begonne ; ^ 
And the Felowns hem defendid sore. 
As they that Maymed & Grcved wore. 

And whanne this pompee gan this beholde. 
For deol his herte gan wexen ful Colde ; 248 

And to that Rooch he hentred Anon, 
To-ward f* feer, As faste As he Cowde Gk)n. 
Anon A3en to the Cave they gonnen to Eonne, 
For non lengere nolden they blynne ; 252 

' £t 11 chiualer lor laissent courre : si se oombatoieDt moult 
durement a aos.— A 

while his men 
■hot at tiMm. 

threw water oa 
the fire. 

Thla made the 
■moke in their 
eare worae. 

PompeT'e men 
Umoi slew four 

240 The reet came 
oat of the Cmve 
to pat Um fli-e 


bot Pompey 

drore them 
back into it. 




Porapoy slew 5 

The othen 
wuuiideU him. 

Dot he and hit 
Knights drove 

the Thieve* 
hack into their 

Tliey ioon 
•alU'd out, 

M\i\ Fi>wcalrt 
trie.l U) thrust 
Pompey into 
the Are. 

Pompey stroond. 

Fowctiirs's arms 
b; like, 

aii'l he traa taken 

And Pompe After hem tho sewede £ast< 

For to hem hadde he ful gret haste — 

Where that ho of hem Slow there fyve ; 

Tlianne lefteri there hut xiiii On lyve^ ; 256 

To whoche they henethen^ schotten ful sore, 

& Manie of hem horten thore, 

So that Pompe him-self hurt wiiJi hem was 

In thre stedis In that Same plas. 260 

And whanno that this heheld Pompees knyghtes. 

That he was so vegorous In fyhtes, 

Vppe to the Eoche they gonnen to wynne,* 

To sosteine here Lord A^ens hem with-Inne ; 264 

So that pompce ful Sore gan fyhte, 

And drof these Felou/w Into the Cave Anon Byfat, 

And putten hem A lie to Mischef, 

Thike lerrers, that Errawwt thef. 268 

And whanne tliis lerrers hcthowhte him tho 
That they xiiy Of On Man dispised werew so, 
Owt they Comeu Al On Abrest ; 

And this lerrers On pompees Paste threst, 272 

And took pompees be bothc scholdres tho, 
There In that Fer him forto hauew do ; 
T»ut he myhte not Allyng for his knyhtes, 
I>at down Fillen they bothe Anow Ryhtes. 276 

r>ut Pompee there in Swowne7?g lay, 
And bo then Armes of lerrcrs borstew, in fay. 
Than;?e they benethe Gon7?en this beholde. 
And to here Lord Ronne !Manifolde, 280 

And to the Schip they him gan bere. 
And In a Cowche they leyden hem there. 

Thanne token they thys fals lerrers. 
And him kepte As A thef So fers. 28-4 

And Alle this whille fowgliten the knyhtes 
Vppon the Koche, and slowgli down Ryhtes. 

And In this mene wliille Of fyhgteng, 

Awook Pompee Owt Of his swowneng, 288 

* So that 19 - 4 - 5 = 14 (!). « ? aboven. • MS wynee. 



Where-offen his Meyne ful glad they were, 

Whanne that he was Rocouered there. 

Thanne Merveilled Pompe wondir sore 

How that In the Schipa he Cam thore ; 292 

Thanne his Meyne gan him to telle, 

In what Maner and how pat he felle. 

Thanne this pompee vp Eos Anon, 
And A^en to that Boche gan he to gon 
With a ful good strong Spere In honde, 
Whero-with he wrowhte J?* theves schonde 
And to that Cave he Entred Again, 
And there with-Inne ho hath hem Slayn, 300 

And there threw hem Into the Sc, 
The Fyschcs Mete Al forto be. 

Thanne Cam he to the Schipa Again, 
Whore-Oflfen his Meyne was ful fajii. 304 

Thanne Comandcd he to taken this Icrrers, 
That was a theef So strong and fers, 
To bersten bothe/^ his thyos and £k his bak, 
And Into the se Casten him with-Owten lak, 
Thus deliu<?red thanne Sire pompee 
That Roche Of felowns, As I telle the. 

And to Home seilled he strcyht Agcin, 
As I telle 30W now for certein ; 312 

And from Rome to Jerusalem he wente, 
Where that he stablede his hors pr^sente 
In the holy temple Of Owre lord. 

Thanne to him Cam scint Petir At On word, 316 
And seide to hym In this Manere : 
** Pompee, thow forsakest thi manures here. 
And dost moche wers tlian^ze dide lerrers, — 
That was a felown hot he strong and fers, — 320 

Thy stable thus here forto Make 
The heyest hows, that for goddis Sake 
Was mad to don Inne his Servise. 
Now thow )>at hows gynnest to dispise, 324 

Pompej rtrivd 
oabtMird hia 

296 ^mitft^nto 
the Bock, 

and thrtw all tlia 
riratm Into Um 

Then he had 
Fowcain'a tlii^'ha 
and hb back 

308 and his body east 
into the 

Pompej then 
SAild to Boiue I 

and then 
where he stabld 
his liorses In the 

St Peter 

rebak't him 

for It, 

and laid he was 






Prtrapey then 
l»(t Jeruulem, 

and bade his 
men not talk 
of his Teng«anoe 
on th« Pirate 

Wherfore I may wel liknen the 

To Forcaus, that felown sire, perde." 

Thanne from Jerusalem pis pompe wente. 
And cliarged AI his Men i;vit goode £nte[nte], 
' They scholden neuere Of this forcaus speke. 
In what maner On him he was A-wreke ; 
For to him hadde it ben gret velonie, 
Vppon A thef to han set his hoi Navye ; ' 
For it was On of the grettest prowesse 
That Evero dide )>• Emj)erowr In Ony distresse. 




King Mordrelns 

sits, minerable, 
on his Rock, 


Of Mordrelns (Evalach) on "The Rook Perilous,** and the 
wonders he saw there (p. 256). How Mordrelns is in 
great sorrow (p. 257), and while he is weeping he sees a 
silver ship approach, with a fair man on board (p. 257X 
who lands, and talks to him ; says he is a crafty man 
(p. 258) ; and his name is < On. & Al. Only.' (p. 259). He 
comforts the King (p. 259) ; and tells him that God has 
not forgotten him, but will give him all he asks for (p. 
260). The King is so joyful that he is almost in a trance 
till the ship and the good man vanish (p. 261). Mordrelns 
concludes that the man came from God (p. 261). He then 
sees another gorgeously coverd ship arrive (p. 262), from 
which a lovely woman lands (p. 262), who talks with him, 
and asks him to be lord of herself and her lands (p. 263), 
and tempts him to forsake his new faith, telling him of 
the danger Nasciens (Seraphe) is in (p. 264), and of the 
evils that will befal him — Mordreins — if he stops iu the 
island (p. 265). 

Now Of this EmpcroMr let we now he, 

And A3en to this kyng now tome we, 

That into this Roche Is now I-hrowht, 

And In what ]Miiner no Wot he nowht. 4 

And there sit ho In pensifnesso & In deseise, 

& With him non thing fat may him plese ; 

And faste Abowtes he loked him there, 

%\y and sea alone But licveno & the SO lic ne sawh nowhere ; 

about lilra. 

- Ke non su8tena7ice there ne was, 
But Al disolat In that same plas ; 



Also, dwelling was there non, 

But hydows & steme that Koch of ston ; 12 

And On pat Kock was there non weye 

But A path that to )>• Cave wenten sothlye. 

Thanne loked he vppon the tothir side ; 

He ne sawh non Comfort In that tyde, 16 

But dirkenesse & hard Eoche there. 

Thanne set he him down wit/i hevy Chere, 

And be-gan to sighen ful sore, 

To wepen & wringen ^it wel more. 20 

Thanne Anon thowghte he In his herte — 

Whiche thowght him myhte not Asterte — 

That Owr6 lord him hadde forgeten Clene, 

That he there so Was browht In tene. 24 

And thus as he was In this momeng, 
The water Of his Eyen Cam renneng : 
Him thowghte pat the wawes of fe se, 
A wondirful Noise Maden hee ; 28 

And as he lokede tho him Abowte, 
He saw Come seilling A schip^ wel stowte ; 
The wheche schipe was ful of Bewte, 
And A wondir fair Man there-Inne to be, 
That to-forn In the schipe him thowhte he was, 
Sitteng Al-gate In that same plas ; 
And toward that Roche he drow ful faste. 
Til that to the Roche he Cam Atte laste. 36 

The schipe, Al Of Silver it was, 
The Naylles Of gold In that plas ; 
And In ]Middis Of that schipe was there 
A fair Crois In that Manere. 40 

And whanne this schip to y Roche gan Aplye, 

Alle the swete savours him thowhte sekerly 

That Evere weren groweng In Oni plas, 

Him thowhte that In theke schip^ tho was. 44 

And whanne the Crois he gan to Aspie, 

Anon In his herte he thowhte In hye, 
OIUAL. 17 


Mordrdnt sighs 

olean forgotun 

Then he 
beMtiAil ship, 

32 withamoet 
Ikir inanon 

eome to the Bock. 

Amid Uie ship 



The fair man 

welcomet him. 

and askt him 
who he it. 


who can make 
foal, fair; 

fools, wise I 
poor, rich ; 

Tliat non wikked thing ne myhte be 

In plas pere the Cros was Certeinle. 48 

Owt of the schip<; Cam this faire man tho. 

And the kyng A3ens him gan go : 

" Sire" he seide, " welcome 30 be 

Into this plase now Certeinle ! " 52 

And with that he knelid a-down, 

" Welcome Sire, hidir, Of Renown ! " 

Thanne Axede this fair Man Certeinle, 

" Sire, Of what Contre now be 30 1" 56 

Thanne Answerid the kyng, & seide tho, 

" A Cristen Man, Sire, I am here, lo." 

Thanne Axede him this goode man tho, 

' In what Mamer he gan thedir to go.' 60 

Thanne Answerid the kyng Ageyn, 

" Sire, I wot Neuere now In Certein." 

Thanne the king Axede him ful snelle, 
TN^ens jfat he was, he Wold him telle. 64 

Thanne Answerid the goodman him Agein, 
" Sire, A Crafty Man I am Certein, 
That nowher non swich Is, in non Centre, 
So sotel A man As 3e here now Se ; 68 

For sweche Craftes As I kan do. 
Of Alle mew In Erthe konnen it no mo." 
Thanne Axede the kyng Of him there, 
'What Maner thinges tho Craftes were.' 72 

He seide, " that Owther fowl man Oper fowl womman, 
Into Grete bewte he cowde tome than ; 
Also A fool, A Wis man kan I Make ; 
A pore Man, gret Rich esse to take ; 76 

And a low Man kan I Maken hye, 
I seie the. Sire, Certeinlie." 
*' Now Certes, Sire," tho quod the kyng, 
" This may wel be^ A Wondirful werkyng : 80 

Now, wortlii Sire, And it 3o^vr6 plesing wolde be, 
30wre Name that 3e wolden tellen me." 





** Sire, Gladly, Er I hennes wil gon, 
My name to tellen the Anon, — 
* • On • & • Al • Only •' it is Mi Name, 
Sire, I the seie with-owien blame." 

Thanne quod the king, " sire, Certeinly 
That is a Fair Name, and A ful hy. 
Sire,*' quod the king -with mylde vois, 
" Me semeth, as be the signe Of y Crois 
That 3e haven In 30wre Compenie here, 
That to Jesus Crist Affiawnce 3e here." 
" That is soth," quod this good man tho, 
" For with-Owten him non goodnesse May be do ; 
And ho pat the signe Of the Crois In his Compeni haye. 
From Alle perilles he may ben Save. 96 

Therfore be war, I rede now to the, 
That what peple so Evere thou se. 
But 3if the signe of f* Cros be hem Among, 
With hem thow talke, I Rede, not long." 100 

Ful Mochel spak this goodman tho 
To the kyng that In the Eoche was I-do ; 
Sweche wordis Of Comfort to him he spak. 
That Alle his heyynesse he gan to forsak ; 104 

Nethir Of Mete ne drinke he ne thowhte ; 
In so mochel Joye this good man him browhte. 

Thanne Axede him the kyng tho, 
' In what Planer ho scholde do, 108 

And whethir he scholde fere long Abyde, 
Owther thens to Gon witA-In schort tyde.' 
" Ne scist thow," q?*od this good man Ageyn, 
" That thow belevest In God Certeyn T ' 112 

" 3e forsothe, Sire," quod the Kyng, 
" And that I do Ouer Alle thing. 
Only & Al In him I beleve. 
Of wheche schal non man me Hepreve." 116 

" Sethen thanne that thow dost so," 
Quod the good man A3en to him tho, 

34 an^ ID7 nmoM te 
"Om and All 

talk to no folk 
who haren't the 
■ifrn of the CroM 

And aa joo 
bclleye in God, 



be tare that 
He will not 
forget you. 

Whoerer pnts his 
truft in God, 

•hall have 
whatever he 
prays for. 

Let hhn not 
be anxious, 

or he'll fall into 

as you hare 

But chnnj^e 
your nuKJil, 

set your heart on 
the Trinity. 

^* Ful Sekir thanne Mihtest pou. be, 
That he ne wel Not For^eten the, 120 

Ne non that In him hath Eemc&braunce, 
In what degre he be, Other In what stawnse. 
In sekir, sere king, I telle it to the, 
That God ne^ wil not foi^eten the ; 124 

And therto, what thing J?at thow wilt Crave, 
Sekir to be, thow myht it have. 
Sire, tak thow al this for verite, 

Al that Euere now I haue told to the ; 128 

For who that In God doth puttew his Creaonce, 
Him may not faille with-Owten variance. 
That he ne schal haue, At his nede, 
Of Alle thing that he wele him bede ; 132 

For man hath he In so gret Cherte, 
Of non thing so moche, I telle it the. 
Therefore man, On him to taken non thing I rede. 
But swich thing As God him bede ; 136 

And 3if A man In him Self to Moche thenke. 
And with distorbilons Maketh his herte to swenke. 
So iiiyhto ho fallen l[n] disperaunce; 
Swich a thing myhto ben his Chau;ice." 140 

" Now, good sire," quod the King tho, 
" May I thanne Only to God trosten vnto. 
Of alle thing that me nedith to have, 
Other what thing that I wele krave ; 144 

And that God wele thenken On Me, 
Trowo 30, sere, that this wil be ? " 
" A, sire," quod this goode man tho, 
" Lo, now In disperaunce fou Art I-do, 148 

That thenkest & seist As thow dost here, 
In-to A fowl dispe^a^vnco f ou fallest there. 
Therefore I redo the, Oner Alle thing, 
That Into bettere Conseille fin herte J?ou bring, 162 
And Oner Alle thing I rede the. 
Thin mynde thou sette vppon f • Trenite ; 

'MS we 


And have Miiide how Salamon the kyng 

To his Sone Evere ^af teching, 156 

* That Evere God to worschepo scholde he, 

In what maner place that so Evere he be : 

Thanne dar the dredyn Of non thing : * 

Thus 3af Sampson to liis son lerneng." 160 

In the mene whille that this good Man 
Of the Schip<? to tlie k jng Spak than, 
The kyng so loyful Of his worrdis was, 
As he hem herkenid In that plas, 164 

So that he fyl In a gret stodye tho. 
And ^lerveilled how this thing myhte go. 
And whethir It were In A dremenge, 
Owther where that lie was slepinge. 168 

And thus A long tyme he him thowhte 
In what maner that he thedir was browhte. 
Of wheche he Cowde knowe/i non Certeinte 
Of this Mater 3it In non manure degre. 172 

And whanno Owt of this thowht he gan to gon, 
To his kende Memorie he Gam Anon, 
And abowtes liim he lokede wel faste, 
But he ne Cowde we tew how he Awey paste, 176 

For Nethir Of Schipc ne Man he Say, 
Whech that to him Aperid that day. 

And whanne bothe Schipe & man was Agon, 
Into A gret Momeng he fyl Anon ; 180 

But In his herte he thowghte ful Gcrteinlye 
That thike man From God kam An hye ; 
For he wiste wel be the Signe of the Crois 
That it was Only be goddis voys ; 184 

For And he hadde been A dedly man, 
He Cowde not han Spoken As he dide than. 
And Also ho wiste Ful Sekcrly, 

He Cowde not han gon Awey so previly 188 

3yf Erthlich Man he hadde I-ben, 
Other wise he scholde han him seen ; 

Solomon's words, 

"Worship God 
everywhere ; 

and 70a need 
Ciar nothing.*" 

Mordrelns is so 
r^oiet that he 
fells into a bmwD 

And when be 
wakee np^ 

he can't tcU how 
the Good Man hae 
passt away. 

Bat he thinks 
the Han came 

and was not 


KojaUy adornd. 

but no one 
able on board. 

Howerer, when 
It gets 10 the 

the loveliest 
woman on feet 
steps out of It, 




Wherfore Ms herte was moche the more 

On god In Al his werkis thore. 
Mdrdrsina Ful longe In this thowght |)* kyng Abod ; 

Other whiles he sat, & Oper whiles he stood. 

He gan to loken vppon the lefte partye, 
then sees another And thus Sone he gan to Aspie, 

Ship coming to ° *^ 

his Bock, He Sawh where Cam a schip Anon 

Toward the Roche Forto gon ; 
That Schipe was wondirly faire A-dyht, 
As him thowhte to his Syht ; 200 

And fer nas non thing Abowte, 
But Eialy keuered with-Inne & w/tA-Owte ; 
Into the harde wawes Of the Se 

That Schipe was keucred ful Certeinle ; 204 

But nethir Man ne womr/zan Cowde he se, 
That Schip to Goveme In now degre. 
And At the Roche it Aryved Anon 
Also swithe as it Myhte gon. 208 

And whanne the king gan this beholde, 
He merueilled f cr-offen Mani folde, 
\VTiat thike Schipe ]Miht signefie, 

That to the Roche so faste gan hie, 212 

And what man<?r of thing it sowhte there. 
That thedir Cam In swich Manere ; 
And Evere this Schipc he beheld there, 
And of the Aray Alle the manere. 216 

Thanne sawh he there issAvew Anon 
The fairest womy/^an that of feet myht gon : 
Thanne the kyng Abaisched he was 
Of thike M^Tveille In that plas ; 220 

Neuertheles 3it he seide, " Welcome ^e be. 
Faire wom7?ian, Into this Centre." 
Thanne Answerid sche Agein, 

" And 3e ben welcome, Sirp, Certein, 224 

As man that I most desire to se 
Of Alle men levenge, I telle it the. 



Eualach," seide this lady tlio, 

" Al my lyve ^it hider-to, 228 

So gret lust I haue to speken with the. 

And now Am I glad I may the se ; 

And now thow Art in this plase here, 

With the to speken I schal haue leysere ; 232 

I schal the ledo, and thow wilt gon with me, 

Into ))• fairest place that euer man May so." 

" Now Certes, dame," quod the kyng, 

" I mcrveille me mochel Of myn hider Comeng, 236 

For I not ho that hedir me browhte, 

Ne nethir sen him neuere I ne mowhte, 

Ne neucre hcnncs ne wil I go, 

That til A3en he me wil Comen to, 240 

That me In to this place browhte ; 

Ofer wise cam It not In to !My thowhte." 

** Be my trowthe, sire," qttod sche thanne, 

" 3it spekist thow As A trewe Manne, 244 

For I the browhte Into this plase, 

To speken with the, for I wolde han space ; 

And be mo hens schalt thow go, 

And be non Other, troste wel therto. 248 

And 3if thow wilt not forsaken my Compenye, 

I schal the bringeu to hygh seignowrie, 

And make/i the Lord Ouer Al my lond, 

Which that I holde In Min honde." 252 

" Dame," quod the Kyng to hire Agayn, 
*' Of this wolde I wetew ful fayn, 
What myht 36 han forto do 

Az now 36 sein me vnto." 256 

" Be my feith," qiiod sche, " Sire," Again, 
" Of that power I Am Certein, 
To bere/i A body where fat my liking Is, 
And thens him to fetten w/t/i-Owten Mis." 260 

" Dame, I vndirstond thy talkyng ; 
But a man of a more wondirful werkyng 

Tbt Fair Woman 


to tak* Mordnins 
away with h«r. 

'8h« laja tha 
broo^t him to 
th« Bock to talk 
to him; 

and if ban 
hold to bar, 
aba'll brinff him 

body whara aha 



[1 MS qaod 
She Mjra 
Mordreina la a 
fool to be a 

Hell nerer be 
in peace while 
he la one. 

cUuferoaal/ iU. 

Bhe knows it 
an well as that 
Mordreiiis was 
oarrid away 
from him. 

Mordreins nearly 
£»ll8 into despair. 

Have I herd Sein Certein there is, 

That kan don moche more than this, 264 

For he kan Maken of Fowle men faire ; 

Of Foils, wise men & debonaire ; 

And Pore Men, to ben Eiche In Ech degre : 

This Man A Maister, me thinketh, is he ; 268 

And this May non Man don, Ccrteinle, 

But 3if y signe of f* holy Cros with him bo." 

** A ! Eualach,'* quod* this womman thanne, 

** Thow Art A fool, <fe non wis Manne ! 272 

Thow Art desceiued In thy beleve ; 

And that Anon I wele the preve. 

For As longe As thou boldest this Creaunce 

Of wheche thow hast Mad variawnce, 276 

In pes ne Eeste Schat thow neuere be 

Whiles that beleve Is In the ; 

For thou knowest not jit the Endyng 

Of thi Sorewe, nether the begynneng ; 280 

For thi Brothir, Sire Seraphe, 

In thi paleis lith in ful hard degre, 

That it Asckapen neu^re schal he. 

But 3if it the more wondir be.** 284 

" A ! dame," quod the kyng Anon, 

" How mown 30 knowew swich thing be don 1 " 

" For," quod sche, " I knowe this As wel 

As thi selven Everidel, 288 

How thow were left Owt of thi bed, 

& he A-bod stille In that sted." 

Thanne the kyng Abasched him sore 
For ))• wordes he herdo thore, 292 

And was Aferd lest his brother scholde die, 
For tokenis that sche seide so Ccrteinlye. 
Thanne King Eualaeh Anon Avith-Alle 
Nygh In wanhope hadde I-fallc, 296 

And wende that God liad him forgotc, 
So this womman ^lade him tho dote. 


Thanne seide this womman to him tho : 
" Eualach, and thow my wille wilt do, 
I schal the setten A3en In-to thi lond, 
And Al welthes bringen Into thin hond. 
For wete thow, Eualach, In Certein, 
Owt of this plase gost fou not heyn. 
But ^if it be Onlich by me, 
Owt of this plase schalt J?ou neuere fle ; 
And here schalt thow Enfamyned be, 
And many mo wondris jit schalt J)ou se ; 
For 3if thow longe here Abyde, 
Thy wittes schalt pon lesen pis tyde. 
And jif that thou wilt gon with me, 
A gret lord schal I Maken the ; 
And jif thow wilt here lengere dwelle, 
Thow schalt be lost, bothe flesch & felle." 

300 Th« Fair Wonuui 
offtn MordrtiiM 
•af« rvfnrn horn* 
and wealth. 







Still of the woDders King Mordreins (or EvaUoh) saw on the 
Rock Perilous (p. 2GG-276). How he asks the Fair Woman 
out of the ship, where he is, aud how far oft from his land 
(p. 266) ; but he will not go with her ; and how she sails 
away. How he sees a great tempest rise (p. 267) ; and 
how he thinks over the woman's prophecy of his misery, 
and over his former greatness (p. 268). How he looks 
about for a place to sleep in, and finds the Cave ; but, on 
trying to enter it, is struck down (p. 268). How he sees 
a great tempest ; and then a great darkness comes, and he 
lies all night in a swoon. In the morning he is awoke by 
the rays of the sun ; he makes the sign of the cross (p. 
269), recovers his senses, and prays to Ckxi. He then sees 
again the first ship (p. 270) ; and the Good Man lands 
from it, greets him, and preaches to him about his want 
of faith (p. 271) ; of how Ood helps his servants (p. 271- 
272) ; of the difference between the flesh and tho spirit (p. 
273) ; and of the members of the soul (p. 274). Mordreins 
then asks him about the Fair Woman (p. 275) ; and he 
snys that she strove to become lonl over him, and sa he 
cast her out of his house, for w^hich nhe tries to enrage him 
by evil doing (p. 275). [The fall of Lucifer.] The good 
man exhorts Monlreins to hold to his Saviour, and then 
no good thing shall be wanting to him (p. 276). 




with tiM Fair 



off jonr kingdom. 

And I alono 
aw takt joo 

Do mj blddinsr* 
and I'll briug 
Tou to a 
delightful place.' 

Thanne sat this kyizg in giet stodying, 

And thowhte what to don of al this thing ; 

Whethir with that lady he scholde go. 

That sche aeide so wel him louede tho, 4 

And therto so ful of Sapiense, 

Lyk As sche wede In his presense.^ 

Thanne Eualach Clepid this womman the, 
And Axede hire * ^if sche Cowde Owht do 8 

To tellen him In what plase pat he were ; 
And how fer from his londis there.' 
" ^e/' quod this womman tho Anon Riht, 
" Al this schal I the tellen Astyht 12 

Of port peryl this Boche bereth the name, 
A perilows Hoch, And Of gret Fame ; 
And Owt of thy kyngdom Art thow here 
xviL dayes lomees, Al In fere ; 16 

For A gret lome for A schipe it were, 
In a Monthe & .ix. dayes from thens to ben here. 
So that there schalt thow neu^*e haue dwellynge 
But ^if so be that I thedyr f* bringe." 20 

Thanne Abasched was he mochel more 
Thanne he was Ony tym be-fore, 
That he was so fer from his kingdom 
I-browht In-to A straunge Regiown : 24 

Thanne In gret thowht sat this kyng, 
And pere made mochel Morneng. 

Thanne scide this womznan to him tho, 

" Sire Eualach, wherto tlienken ^e so ? 28 

3if ^e wilen don Aftir My biddiuge, 

Into a ful delitable plase I schal the bringe ; 

And ^if thow wilt not don as I the seye. 

Many wondir happes schalt f ou han In feye ; 32 

And so Manie Combrawnces scholon Comen to ]>•, 

That with-Inne ful scliort tyme schalt fou se, 

' et qui de si grant Bapienche estoit plaine, ke ele li diaoit 
chou qui 11 estoit aueuu, et cbou qui li deuoit enchozv 
auenlr. — A, ? wede, 1. 6, /or seznede or ^ede. 


So pat pon wost ben hid in )>* most Caytifes plase 
That Evere On Erthe 3it Mad wase." 36 

Thanne the kyng Abasched him sore. 
That to hiie wordis mihte he speke no moie. 
And whanne sche say pat it wolde not be, 
That Answere mihte non Gotten sche, iO 

Sche torned hire Schip^, and (xan to go 
Streyht A3en Into the highe se tho. 
Thanne Anon the king Cast vp his hed, 
And saw where sche seillede In that sted 4i 

Fer Amyddis the grete throwenge se, 
Where that grete Merveilles Anon say he ; — 
The grettest tempest him thowte was there. 
And the Moste wondirful that was o-where ; 48 

So that him thowghte pat Al the Se 
Oner Al the world schold han be ; 
And In Middis Of that tempest, 
There was the Schipe Althermest. 52 

Thus Sone there Cam A wyndes blast, 
And that Schipe there Oucr Cast. 
And As the kyng On p* Eoch there sat. 
With his Eyen he beheld Al that, 56 

And wondred mochel In his thowht 
What schipe it was that the womman browht. 

Thanne this kyng bethowhte bim tho. 
That Of him self it was Evel Wo 60 

That he ne hadde Enqwered what sche hadde be, 
& what hire Name was, & Of what Contre ; 
For he here supposed neuere to se, 
Therfore here Name haven knowen wolde he. 6i 

Thanne of hire wordes sore he thowghte. 
How that In Heste he scholde be nowhte 
As long as he held that Creaunsc ; 
Ful Often he thowghte vppow this Chaunce ; 68 

And For sorwe of this tydinge 
He ne wiste to don non thing. 

aiMwtr the FUr 



and QpMts htr 


thtnka owm 
h«r words, 
that as long aa 
h«'s a Christian, 
ha'll narar ba In 


Mordreiiu thinks 
ortr bit foruMT 

and his >aflin1n(i 
•inc« ha't been 

tbe Cave oo 
the Bock, 

and At the flmt 
Btep it smitten 
to the ground. 

where he lies 

Thanne gan he to Eemembren liim Anon 

How worthily he was wont to Gon, 72 

Of his Bichessey & Of his honouie, 

And On his lonlschepis In that stownr ; 

And sethen he thowhte thanne A)en 

In what p^rsecucioun he hadde ben 76 

Sethen Cristen Man that he was, 

What he hadde Suffired In diners plas ; 

And thus In disperawnce he gan to falle 

Tjl A3ens the Niht Sore wtU AUe. 80 

Thanne he bethowhte him Anon, 
How that Ony wyse he myhte don ; 
For the Eoche was A wastable plase, 
And non Eesteng there-Inne Nas. 8i 

Thanne fond the king the grees there riht 
That to thike Cave wente ful streiht, 
Whiche was bothe fid dirk & blak, 
& hidows On to looken with many A lak ; 88 

For long tyme was it past be-fore 
That Evere Ony levyng man was thore. 
And to hym self he gan to seye, 

" Sekerly, witb-Owtew wile I not lye, 92 

But entren I wiele Into this Cave, 
There-Inne Min herberwe forto have." 
And the ferste foot that mth-Inne he sette, 
Plat to the Gro'Nvnd he was smette ; 96 

For him thowhte that On with two hondis him took, 
And Evene to therthe there him schook. 
And thus lay the king In swowne/ig In pis Manure 

Thorwgh the Fal that he hadde there. 
When he reviret And whanue of his swownewg he A-wook, 

Vppon the Entre Of the Cave he gan to look ; 
And thus As he In this thowht gan dwelle, 
A wondirful tempest there befelle, 
That him thowglite the wawes of y se 
Into the hevene wolden fle, 


he tees a wonder 
tal tempest. 



And Al to-berste botlie lond & ston : 

Thus him thowghte there Ryht Anon. 108 

Thanne Cam there so grete A dirknesse ^^ then a thick 


That browhte him in moche distresse, 

That him self he ne myhte not se 

Ko more than/ie In A pit he hadde I-be. 112 

And whanue Of alle thinge he hadde lost y siht, 

And pat non thing he sen ne myht, 

More Abasched thanne he tho was, H«ist«rribij 


Was neucre Man 3it In non plas ; 116 

But Aftir this gret drede Anon, 

Good Comfort to him was sent ful son. 

And whanne In this dirknesse he hadde longe be, 

And for drede lost bothe wit & Memore, 120 

He ne wiste for drede what to do, 

And In this thowht longe Abod he so. 

And al the nyht lay this kyng ■n ^^t^ 

As In Maner he hadde ben In Sowneng, 124 

That from him Self he was ful Clene, 

For On him non Otherwise ne was it sene. 

And whsoine that it was goddis wille. But in um 


The Clemesse Of day there to fulfille, 128 

And the hemes of the sonne Bryht 

Into^ Alle the £rthe it schon ful lyht, 

The kyng that vppon the Grees lay 

To-fore the Cave dore, As I the Say, 132 

Vppon his Face the sonne fere schon, 

Where- with he A-wook Ryht Anon, ^^"k* w»» 

And his Eyen Open he gan to Caste, 

And Abowtes him he loked ful faste ; 136 

And whanne that the Se he loked vppon. 

And £k the Eoch that he lay There on, 

He lefte vpe his Kiht bond An by, 

And the Siene of the Crois made devoutly. 140 ■ndh«iMk«t 

Thanne Cam he to his Mynde Agein ctom. 

As he to-fom was Al In Certein, 

I MS into to. 


Than If otdnina 
pray* to God 

to keep and 
deflnid him tram 
the temptationa 

He ieei the 

ehip coining 

to the Bock. 

And kneling, to God made his prejeie 

In this Maner Ab 30 scholen heie : 144 

** thow swete lord God Almyhty, 

That Comfort And Ese dost to Alle S017, 

And me hast deliuered of Manie giet distieasey 

Of Mani Aventnres, & Of Mani heyeynfease ; 148 

And Of Mani hevynesses which ^ were^i Comengey 

Thow me deliueredest^ thow GlorioiiB kynge ! 

goode lord god, I am thi Creatine 

To whom thow hast ben ful deboneore, 152 

And to me hast Schewed gret Mercy, 

To Me, lord, that ne Am no thing worthi ; 

And my Sowle to helle Scholde han went, 

Ne hadde ben thy M^cy, God lord Omnipotent ; 156 

And thy Mercy from helle it gan to withdrawe, 

And browhtest it Into the Cnstene lawe ; 

So, goode lord, me kepe & defende. 

And Euere thy Grace that thow me Sende ; 160 

And that the devel ne tempte not me, 

Whom I haue forsaken, & Only taken me to the ; 

Whose werkis & him I have forsake. 

And to thy mercy Onlich, lord, I me betake.*' 164 

Whanne he thus his preyere hadde I-do, 
Fill faste Abowte him loked he tho. 
Owt Of the Est he Saw Comen there 
The fair Schip that he say J)* day before, 168 

Where-Inne that was the goode man 
That of so mochel goodnesse to him spak than. 
And whanne he Saw that it was he, 
Ful glad and blithe he gan forto be, 172 

And alle his Sorewes for3at he thanne. 
For Joye to speken with this good Manne. 
Thanne ful faste he gan to Crie 

Of Alle his trespas there to god Mercye. 176 

And whanne he Say the Schipe to the Eoche gon, 
Evere to the foot of the Koch he Cam Anon, 

* MS we. 



And Into that Schipe he lokede there, 

And Say there-Inne thinges of diuers Manere, 180 

Bothe Kichesse, Jowelles, & vitaille Also, 

That to Ony lyveng Man belonged to. 

And whan;2e the Same good man he Say, 
That to him hadde spoken the form^re day, 184 

And seide, ** Sire, Eyht welcome 39 be 
Into this Eoche ful Certeinle ! " 
Than;ie this goodman Owt of))* schip^ wente 
Vp to the Roche tho, veramente, 188 

And Axed the kyng how he dide fS&re 
Sithen y tyme that he was thare. 
" Forsothe, sire," quod the king tho, 
*' I Was neuere so ful of Sorwe & "Wo 192 

As that, Goode sire, I have I-be, 
Sothen the tyme 30 partid from me." 

Thanne gan he him forto telle 
What Aventures that him befelle. 
And Of that Fairre wommans Comeng, 
And of mani Anothir Aventures thing. 
Thanne Answerid him tho this good Man 
With a smyleng Chere Anon than : 200 

" thow Man ful litel of beleve, 
Ful litel thing May the Greve. 
And thou stedfast In beleve wost be, 
per nys non thing that myhte Greven the ; 204 

For And thow wost thenken on hem pat the bowht, 
Troste thow wel, he forgeteth the nowht ; 
And 3if thow Attenden wilt to his Servise, 
He nele the forgeten In non wise ; 208 

As dauid seith In the Sawter book — 
Hos wele there aftir there-Inne look — 
* Owre lord is Redy In Alle wise 
To hem that hym Clepen In his Servise.' 212 

In this loke thow have stedfast Creaunce, 
And thanne schalt thow, with-Owten variaoncey 




and tdb him of 

196 and advenftiirM. 









The Good Man 
tolls Mordraina 
that God will 
take him from 
the Rock. 

Ctod looset ihoM 
that an bound. 

Sin eomei from 
the fleah. 





not from the 


which is spiritual. 

[Have al] where yppon thin herte wil thenke, 

Redy to the, whethir pon wake Ofer wynke. 

And thowgh A whille that here thow be 

Here In preson, As thow Miht Se, 

Abasche the not for thy beyng ; 

Ful wel hens he wyl the bringey 

And qwiten the A hundred fold More 

Thanne for him dist thow Owht fore ; 

And more Gwerdoun schalt thow have 

Thanne Evere thin herte kan thenken oper kraye, 224 

As witnesseth david the prophete, 

Where As he Seith these wordes swete, 

* God vnbindeth that is I-bownde, 

& of here peynes hem loseth In a stownde ; 

For God, the hurte men he keuereth sone, 

And y wikked to goodnesse tometh Anone, 

Ourfl God, p" Ryhtwos loveth Ryht Wel, 

The Orphanees he gouemeth Ech del.* 

" This Owhtest thow to have In knowenge. 
And holych In thy sperit Hemembringe : 
^And thow In thyn herte that po\i Synne, 
It Cometh on of him self More ne mynne, 
But On Of thy flesches frelte ; 
Here-offen Sekyr Myhtest pon be ; 
For the Flesch, dedlich it is, 
And 80 thin herte sekerly It Nis ; 
For thin herte, it is speritwel, 

1 — * Et nepourquant^ se il auient aucune fie que li cuen 
peche, pour chou ne dois tu mie quidier que che aoit de la cure 
de lui. Mais che 11 auient par ]a grant fragilitei de la char 
dont il est cargies. Car la char est morteus, si ne puet naturel- 
ment a nule chose penser qui ne soit morteus. Maia li cuera 
est esperiteus ; si doit as esperiteus choses entendre. Biais or 
dois donques sauoir ke est li cuers, pour che ke ie te fai en- 
tendant ke il est esperiteus. Li cuers n'est nule autre chose ke 
la connissanche de bien et de mal. Et pour chou ke il est con- 
nissans de Tun et de Tautre, pour ohou doit il estre apielea *la 
yeuo de Tame/ Ensi rent li tres haus rois * la veue du cuer * a 
oheus qui es morteus choses sont awles, quant il voeleot 
querre sa medicine et ion consel. — A. 




And speritwel thing to don Ech del ] 

For thine herte is thing of speritwelte 

The goode from Evel to knowe/e, I telle the. 244 

And this is Only hise Mesteere, 

ferfore * the Sihte of f* sowle* ho is cleped there ; 

Thus sendeth the goode lord Above, 

* Sihte of sowle' to hem that him love, 248 

That dedly thinges wile forsake, 

& Only to his Conseil hem take ;^ 

Fill seker of welthe mown they be, 

And Owt of al Maner Aduersite ; 252 

For thus witnesseth the profecie 

Of holy prophetis that don not lye.* 

[It is ful trewe] with-owten lesing, 

[He that] In Synne is dwellyng, 256 

In ful strong preson he is I-Caste 

Whiles that he In Synne doth laste, 

For thanne he is bownden In strong peine 

With the develis Combrau/w, in Certcine. 260 

And 3if Owt Of preson he wil ben vnbownde. 

To the wello of Cownseil he moste In a stownde, 

The wheche is openly now Confessiown, 

That is to the devel Riht fowl Confuciown ; 264 

Anon Of presown he is vnbownde 

Thorwgh Confesciown that ilke stownde ; 

Thanne the dovclis Cownseil forsaketh he, 

And alio p* wcrkes that to him longen to be. 268 

*• And In this Manere wele oure Saviour 
His Servauwtes bringew owt of dolowr, 
And Owt of preso^vn thus hem bringe 
That to-fore the devel liadde In Chalenginge ; 
And thus the Brosed, hoi doth he Make, 
That Ony thing wele don for his sake. 
For Manie Men In this world ^ there be, 
That Maymed In here Membres ben Sekerle, 276 



TIm SfaUMT !■ 


boand with th« 
DevU'a hin- 

Oonlbnion aloM 
ean noUnd him. 

Chrift bring* Hit 


' End of a Chapter in the English MS. 

' MS wolrd 


And 80 liarde here Membres ben hurt Echon, 
Sinners hav* That On non foote ne mowen they Gon ; 

And sweche Men forsothe they be, 
lorttiieUmUor That the Membres of the sowle hon loBt Sikerle, 280 

their fgnlfi 

And pe Swetnesse of y herte with-niiawe 
Be worldly lustes they they han hem slawe ; 
But Otherwise scholden they do, 

As I sclial the seye^ now herkene me to, 284 

What the swetnesse of the sowle it is, 
Ful deUtable thing, & ful Of blis. 
The Lirabe of " The membrcs of the sowle these bene : ^ 

the Soul Mre r>t m t* ^ -r r^ t* -» ■* 

iweotnees, owetncsse of herte Is On ful schene^ 288 

religion, Good Rcligiows, with pyte, 

revemioe, Lowliche reucrence to God, & divinite^ 

Innocence, men^. Innocense, & ful thcrto of Mtfrcye : 

These ben the Membres of J)' sawle sekerlye ; 292 

For the sowle, sosteined here-bi ct is. 

** And what sowle that of these Membres don Mis^ 

It may not wel Governed thanne be, 
Thwe are the For thcse ben the hondes & feet sekcrle 296 

humU uiid feet ri-iii -r-ii 

ormeir«»ouu. Ihat to Mannas Sowle belongen £chon, 
And elles May it nothir Meven ne gon ; 
For Anon As the sowle fese membres hath gcte, 
Thanne to tlie body it is dressed ful swete ; 300 

Ful wel is that body At Reste & Ese 
That with tlie membres of y sowle can him plese 

p ? Rodresoeth] Lo thu8 IledestetK- God of hevene* 

llein that him loven woth Milde stevene.'* 304 

TinwthoOood Sw(K'he wordis, & Other Mo, 

Han oomrorts ,,r « i.ii i 

Mordreiiia. Tlic goodc ^lau of ^ sclupe the kyng spak vnto, 

And Comfoi-ted the king moche In this Manti*o 
With tho wortles f(/t he to him Spak thei-e. 308 

' Che Hont led lM)incs tokes del cuer. Si coinine relegionx, 
l)iteB, reuereiiche, concorde, Innocense, misericorde. — A. 

' EiKHi redreche li tous poissans, et garist, chiaus qui jwr 
I'ordure de lor core sont contrail et mehaignie en aue. — A. 


ThauTze the kyng this good man gan to refieine,^ 
And Axcde hiin of that faire wominan Certaine, 
That with him was the fonuere day, 
And with hire him wolde han had Away. 312 

Anon the goode man him Answerid thanne : 
** Ful wel know I that ilke wommanne 
That to the Somede so fair and Kiche, 
And In alle the workl the thowhte non swich ; 316 
3it, whanne sche was In ^lyn howshold, 
Fairore scbe was be an hundre<l fold, 
And bettore At Ese, thanne sche now Is, 
And moche more In welthe, w/t^-Owte» mis. 320 

And whanne sche An-hawnsed so was 
In that ilke dclitable plas, 
And whanne Myn hows thus was I-Mad, 
And sche alle delicasics thcre-Inne sche had, 324 

A now In herto took sche gret pryde-— 
So ful of welthe sche was that tyde — 
And Anon thowhte that sche lady wolde han be, 
As I was Lord In myn Owne Sovereinte, 328 

And that of hire I scholde haven no?^ powste. 
But hey ere than I sche thowhte f er to be ; 
For so mochel bewte was hire tho vppon, 
That Erthly man was there neuere non 332 

That Into hire face myglit have?} a siht ; 
So fair sche was, so Cler, & so briht. 

" And whanne that I knew Al hire thowht — 
As that from me is hid ryht nowht — 336 

And that to me sche thowhte swiche felonye. 
That in thike plaso non lengere myht I hire drye ; 
But threw hire owt of myn hows Anon, 
Into A wers plaso that sche scholde gon, 340 

Where that now thing so wel At Ese 
Sche ne Is not, ne noiper that doth hire plese, 
Xe so grot bewt« hath sche now non 
As that tyme was hire vppon. 344 

' £t li roia 11 demanda. — ^A. E. E./reyndf ask. 

TIm Good Man 
Mil Morditlui 

that the lUr 


iraa onoa In his 


and 100 tlmaa 

Ihirarthan aba 


Baft iha wait 

and wanted to ba 

ao great iraa 
har beauty that 
no mortal ooald 
look at bar— 

and po the Good 
Man threw her 
oot of bin honia 
Into a wursa 



Since then, 
■he'i striven to 
anger him. 

And the only 
dreins to do her 
wicked vill oo 

" And from that tyme 3it hidirto, 
Alle hire Miht and power hath sche do, 
Mo to wraththon what sche May ; 
The wheche is hirf? labour bothe i Nyht & day. 348 
And for that sche sawh that I Cam to the. 
The to visite & Comforte In this degre, 
It was the Cawse Of hire Comenge, 
Owt of this plase the forto brenge, 352 

And Al hire wyl thanne to fiilhlle, — 
Thus ful of wikkednesse sche is, & iUe, — 
And to don the forsaken thi Creatour 
That the Supported & holpera In Mani a stowr. 356 
Therfore As longe As to thi Saviour thow kepist p\ 
And from him ne Flechcst in noTi Manere degre. 
There ne schal non Manere thing the faille 
That to thi body Or Sowle May Availle, 360 

That to the it sclial Anon I-grawntid be 
Ful Sekerley, Sere, As I tellet the." 


Still of Mordrcins (Evalach) on the Rock Perilous, and bis 
Temptations there (p. 277-298). How the Good Man 
comforts him, and a*^kd him if he is hungry ; then takes 
him to the ship (p. 1.'77), and offers him delicious meat^ 
the sight of which so Nitinfics him that his hunger goes 
(p. 278). He desires to know Rl>out Nasciena, and the 
Vision of tlie Streams [Chap. XVIII. p. 231] that he saw 
(p. 279) ; but the Good Man will not tell him yet, and 
exhorts him not to foar any marvels that he may see (p. 
280) : and tells him how to know good counsel from bod 
(p. 281). Mordreins asks how long he is to stop on the 
rock ; and is told, 'till the devil tikes him off by the left 
hand ' (p. 282). He is distresst at hearing this, and the 
Good Man disappears (p. 282). Mordreins sees the Fair 
Woman's ship coming, and prays to God for grace to resist 
her (p. 283). She ttjnipts him by telling him that his 
l?rother-in-hiw and Queen are dead (p. 284), and by ofFer- 
iiig him the precious stones, etc. in h«r ship (p. 285) ; but 
h«; will not yield to her, and will not answer to his devil- 
name Kvalaoh (p. 28r»). She reproaches him, but in vain, 
aud then departs (p. 28G). A great tempest rage» (p. 


286) ; a wonderful noise is heard, and a clap of thander 
which knocks off the top of the rock (p. 287). Mordreina 
prays to Qod to comfort him. He getd wonderfully sleepy 
and hungry (p. 288), and sees a black loaf, which he takes 
hold of, and is trying to eat, when a marvellous bird swoops 
down on him (p. 289), and knocks it out of his hand 
(p. 293). — The description of this bird Scipilionty or the 
Phcenix, a type of Christ (p. 289-293). — The king swoons, 
and the bird hits him with its right wing, and then flies 
away (p. 293). The king recovers, and thanks God (p. 
294). The Good Man and the Tempting Woman come 
to him daily, and the Good Man comforts him (p. 296). 
He sees another ship, sailorless ; a great tempest rages 
(p. 29G); then fierce heat comes ; but he will not leave 
the rock (p. 297). The weather clears, and he ponders 
over his adventures (p. 298). 

Thus In this Manere spak this good Manne 

Ful long witli the king In y Eoche thanne, 

And with so Manie wordes swote 

Thus tawhte him the develes lore to lete. 4 

And the kyng Alle his tales wel Abod, 

Sc ful wel hem likede, ^ stillo l)e stcnl, 

For so Wel him liked his Talkynj;, 

That it was ful Toyful to the kyng. 8 

Than/ie this Goodman took him be the hond. 
And be his Name him Cleped, I vndirstond. 
That he took be his Crestenenge, 
Sire ^lordreins, that was ferst Eualach f* kynge. 12 

Than we Axede this goode Man there Anon^ 

* 3if he hadde Ony honger liim vppon.' 
Thanne the kyng Answerid Anon there 

With faire wonles In this Manere, 16 

* That 3if In his Compenie he wolde Abyde, 
And not from him gon At that tyde, 

Al his hevynesse he Scholde Forgete, 

And bothe hunger & thurst scholde he lete.' 20 

Anon be the hond he gan him lede 
Down to the Schipe In that stede, 
And there him schewed Alle Maner Of Richesse^ 

' et si li moustra la grant rikeche dcs bieles viandes dont 11 
i auoit a moult grant plente, de toutes les manierea dont cuers 
porroit penser et langue parler. — A. 

TIm Good Man 
haTing ungbt 
lMT« tb« Derirt 

asks him whether 
he's boBfiy, 

takes him down 
to the Ship, 



■howi him plenty 
of food and drink. 

and puts it all at 
hit difpoaal. 

If ordreina talla 
the Good Man 

that hie iweet 
and the sight 
of the food 

have taken away 
all desire in him 
to eat and drink. 

The Good Man 
knows that 
Mordreins is 
thinlcing of 

and his Vision 
about him. 

Of Mete, & Of drink gret pletevonsnessey 24 

That Ony herte On kowde bethenke, 

In that Schip^ was Of mete & drinke. 

Thanne seide to p* king this good man Anon, 

" Lo ! Alle these deintes In thi wil wile I don, 28 

To taken there-Oflfen what Euere thou liste. 

To Eten & drinken Al Of the beste ; 

And At thi wille Al this Schal be 

In this Manere, as I telle it the.*' 32 

And whanne f • kyng Al this Merveille beheld. 

With AUe deyntes Anon he was ful fyld,^ 

That hunger ne thorst ne felte he Non, 

Thanne streyht from his Mete he hadde gon. 36 

3it More seide the kyng to this good man tho, 
" Sire, I wele ^e wete that it be So, — 
That with 30wre wordis that ben so swete, 
& Of ))• Sihte of this drinke & Mete 40 

Wheche that ben In this present plase, 
That In this Schipe Schewed pon me has, — 
That Sihte So fulfilleth Me, 

And maketh me ful Of delicase, 44 

That to Eten ne drinken have I now lust ; 
For so Mochel In thy wordis I trust. 
And sethen ^e sein that 30 knowe 

Alle Mennes thowhtes vppon A rowe, 48 

Thanne knowew 30 Myn with-Owten faille ; 
Wherfore I preye 30 w Of good Gownsaille." 

Than Answerid this good Man Anon, 
" Thy thowhtes I knowe Wei Echon ; 52 

Thow thenkest On Nascien, thy brother dere, 
That the Womman toldo the of here. 
For him wele I not Forgete, neper vpe ne down ; 
Thow schalt him Seen In A-visiown 56 

Decende from the hovene Adown ful Bathe, 

' (1* 36, Thanne » than if.) si fu si socles seulement del 
veoir, ke il ne sentoit mais nul faim, iiient plus ke se 11 eust lues 
droit mengie. — A. 


And In the Nyntho Flood he schal him bathe. 

That largere and deppere it is to Seye, 

Thanne the iopere viij. ben In feye." 60 

And whanne the kyng herd him Sein so, 
Ful sore Abasched was he than72e tho, 
And MeT^eilled mochel what this Man were 
That sweche wordes Spak to him there, 64 

How that he Scholde havew knowcnge 
Of Sweche A Maner Strawnge t hinge. 
There-by he thowghte Certeinly 

That he was non Man to ben dedly ; 68 

But so bold dors to he not thanne ben thore 
Of him to Enqweren there Ony More. 

And whanne he haddc Avised him In this Manere, 
Anon him preide, And gan to Enqwere, 72 

" That he wolde tellen him AUe & Som 
The Signefiawnce Of his Avisiown, 
And that ^e Wolden, for god Almyht, 
It me declaren now Anon Riht ; 76 

For I have Ful longe In gret thowht be, 
AVhat signefiaunce it Mihte ben to Me.*' 
Thanne Answerid this good Man Agein, 
" That schal t thow neu<?re wet en In Certein 80 

Into the tyme & Into that day 
That this viande owt Of this plaso the bringe away.' 
And thanne Schalt thow knowen [the certeinte] 
AVhat that thy vicioun doth signefe, 84 

Al from begynne/ig to the Ende ; 
Thanne schalt thow knowe/i how it schal wende. 

** And be this I Chastise the wel,^ 
But from hens-forward, neuere Adcl, 88 


how the Gooil 

ran know bl« 

He askt tli« 
Good Man 
to UU him the 
meaning of 
his Viiion. 

Bat he la not 
to know it till U« 
beata the Lion 
wlio'U take awaj 

* Che ne trouueras tu ia qui te die deuant a chele eore ke 
tu aras vaincu et cachie ensus de toi le leu ki ta boine Tiande 
te vaura tolir. £t lors saras tu chertainement qui ohia leus est, 
et pour quoi il te vaura tolir ta viande. — A. 

' Mais de tant te castie iou bien, ke ia de nule ohose ke tu 
uoiea^ ne soies esmaies ne eq[>oente8. — ^A. 


ThfikwdHjoi What MaiiCT* Meireilles that Euere thow 86, 


M.M-fear. Loke that abasched no more thow be. 

).« mjT Me. ^it ^lerveilles here-Aftir schalt thou se. 

As the vols In thy paleys told to the 93 

Whamie Xasciens and thow On bedde were, 

Vppon on Cowche liggeng there, 

"VTheie that je fillen In Swownenge 

For gret drede of that Xoise herenge ; 96 

Where As the vois Seide In this manure. 

An thow fore. « Of moTC diedes & Merveilles scholen ae here 

toU by the Voir* ' 

in sanm» Paiac* Thaune Euere ae diden to-fore this day : * 

And thus the vois to 30 w gan Say. 1(M) 

Wheche is the wille of goddis sone, 

•han happen. That Alle these thinges scholen ben done. 
And that here- After he wele Schewe 
Swiche Merveilles vppon A rewe, — 104 

To hem that him liketh ful wel. 
They scholen hem sen Every del, — 
The wheche, Alle Othere Merveille scholen pase 
That Eue/'e ^it to forn tyme of 30W sein wase ; 108 

ButifMordreina And nf bou wilt lu trewe Creaunce the holde. 

wiU hold Ann ^ '^ * 

in his beUef, And In herto stedfast stable and bolde ; 

Wliat so enere hens-forward that thow se, 
heoi iceep himself Ful wel from b^ dcvel bou myht kepen the, 112 

from the DevU. '^ r J tr -^ *x^ 

And more Stedfast to be In thi Creauwce, 
"What so befalle the In Ony Chawuwce. 
And hens-forward 3if Oni Aventure Come to the 
Be man Other womwian, what so he be, Hg 

That faire Casten the forto deceyve, 
Loke In Alle weye from hem thow weyve, 
Tliat nethir for 3iftes no for beheste, 
Loke J)ou ne troste to lesto ne meste; 120 

He's never to !Nethir foi fair speche, no Closing, 
Creator. Fiom thi CrcatouT Make \ow. non parting. 

" And loke that thow have Evere In thy Mynde 
The dedo of Adam f* form fadir be kynde, 124 


How that be the devel deceyred he was, 

And owt of paradis Cast, pat blessid plas ; 

For he fulfilled the devellis wylle 

Be Counsell of his wif, wheche was ylle. 128 

"And loke that thow have this In Eememhiawnce, 
What so the behappe In Oni Chaunce ; 
And therby myhtest thow knowen ful wel 
Alle Manere of Cownseilles Everidel, 132 

Whethir it be for good Oper for ille, 
Oper the forto save, Owther forto spille. 

'' And for thow scholdest knowen Alle thing 
That scholde ben to thi lordes plesing, * 136 

Therfore schalt thow leven non Cownsaille 
That to his wille scholde dis-Availle ; 
And thowh they the behoten 3ifbes & Eichesse, 
Be war, putte not p* in distresse 140 

Forto don A3ens his plesinge ; 
Be war fere-offen Oner Alle thinge. 
And bethenke the Alwey In thy Mynde, 
That Erthly 3iftes ben not so kynde 
As ben the ^ifbes Of hevenly good, 
Hos that it wel vndirstood ; 
For Erthely 3ifte6 ben freel & Mevable, 
& hevenely ben stcdfast & Euere durable. 148 

And loke thow that now hens-forward, 
Of these 3iftes that thow take good Award, 
And thow take not On 3ifte for Anothir, 
Be war ther-Offen for Ony Othir ; 162 

Sethen thow knowest whiche ther be, 
The goode thou take, the Evele thow fle. 
And be this, Alle wikked temptaciouns 
From the Scholen passen, and trebulaciouns ; 156 

And to Evere lastyng Consail pou schalt be take. 
And be browht from wo & wrake." 

And there Eyht thus In this Manere 
This goode Man of the schipe to hym spak there ; 160 

The Good Man 
teUt Mordnins 

•dTiee that'll 

tho' he's promlal 
gifts and rieh« 

144 KarUOy gifts 



and Acs ttM stIL 



Mordreins !• 
to ■tay on the 
Rock till the 
Devil takes him 
off by hU left 


The Oood Man 
goea to hla ship, 

and vanishes. 

wonders wlio 
tlie Qood Man is. 

Ful Mochel his wordis liked him tho, 
And to gret prophit tomed hym Also. 

Thanne Atte laste Axede hym the kyng, 
' How long In that Eoche scholde ben his dwellyiig.' 
Thanne Answerid the good man A-gayn, 165 

" In this Roche Schalt thow byden Certain 
Tyl that the devel Owt the take be y left bond. 
And the Roche to forsake, thou it vndirstond ; 168 
For Erst Owt Of this Roche shalt fou not fle ; 
And of Al this, Sekir Mihtest now thow be." 
Thanne was the kyng Abasched ful sore. 
Of the wordis that he thanne spak thore : 172 

That the devel Owt Of the Roche him scholde brywge ; 
It was to him tho An bevy tydynge ; 
Than7*ece to the Erthe he fil Anow/ 
And ful gret Momeng him fil vppon. 176 

And In this Mene whille tho 
This good man to tho schip^ gan go. 

Anon As he Owt of his thowht Awook. 
Vp gan he stonde, and Abowtes him look, 180 

And Nethir Man ne Schip^ Sawh he, 
As fer As he loked Into the Se ; 
For In the same ^lan^ As he to-fore wente, 
Riht 80 dide he tho to his Entente. 184 

Thanne this kyng Mcrveilled wondir sore 
What Manere Of Man tliat this were 
That so him Certefyed Of Alle thing, 
As wel Of begyn7eewg As Of the End}Tig. 188 

Thanne ful sore him self he gan to blame, 
That he ne hadde Enqwered his Kame, 
And Enserched what he hadde be, 
Owther God, Owther Man In Ony degre; 192 

Evere vppon this point ful sore he thowhte, 
That theke Man to knowo/i !Myhte he Xowhte. 
jit Anothir thing him Rewede sore tho, 
Whanne that this good man was Ago, 196 

' liOrs s'enbronka vers terre. — A. Thannece ^ thence. 


That he ne hadde Enqwerid of him there, 
' 3if he scholde han lyved In that Manere, 
Tyl that to him he hadde Comen Ageine,' 
And this of him forgat ho to Ecfreine. 200 

Al thus the kyng longe to him Self spak, 
Til Atte lasto he horde A grot Koise wtt^-owten lak, 
Cryeng of wawes Of the so ; 

But ful gretly ho Mervcilled what it myhte be. 204 
Thanne he gan him to dressen Anone 
Vpward, & Into the So he loked ful sone, 
And westward him thowhte Cam seilyng Jere 
The same schip«, & In the selve Manere, 
That the faire wommaw Cam In to-fore, 
Where-Offen Abasched he was ful sore ; 
For he him dradde sore, as ho stoode, 
That sche ne Cam for non« Goode. 212 

Thanne to God preyde he ful faste. 
His sowle forto kepon, so was he Agaste ; 
What so Evere become Of his flesch 
He ne Rowhte, whef^r hard Oper Nesch. 216 

And thus In his preieres was he stedfast 
Al the while thar It Myht last, 
That of his goode purpos not left schold he be ; 
Thus preide ho to God In Maieste. 220 

And whanne his Orisown thus was I-do, 
Into the Est Anon he tomed him tho. 
And there Anon Made he his devociown — 
In Minde of lerusalom, that worthy town 224 

Where-Inne thei gonnen Crist Crucifye, 
That blessid body, the Sone Of Marye, — 
Owt Of his Caytyvite him forto bringe, 
& deliueraunce of the womrnan that was Comenge. 228 

With this Cam y Schipe to })• Eoche Anon 
Also faste As it Myhte gon. 
Also & as Eiche As it was Ere ; 
Thus there him thowhte In Alle ^lanere. 232 

Mordnini hmn 
agTMt nolle 

and MM the Fair 
Woman's ablp 
208 eomlng. 

He prajs to God 
to prMerre hia 

deroUons to 
the East. 

28 i 


Th« Fair Woman 

Mordraina won't 
apaak to her. 

She lauKha, 
and bid* him 
ramember what 

gnat aorrow and 
tribulation he's 
had since he waa 

and Queen 
8arraoynte are 
both dead. 

And wlianne to the Eoche Aryved sche was, 

Owt of p* schipfi sche Cometh a ful gret pas ; 

But the king jaf hire ^ere non Greting, 

Ne non Word to hire spak At here Comeng. 236 

And whanne sche Sawh ]pat he wolde not speke. 

Anon there sche gan to him^ Eeke, 

And gan him Axen * how he hadde fare 

Sethen the tyme sche was last thare.' 240 

Anon he seide, ' sche ne hadde not to do 

Of no thing him to Refreinen so ; * 

And Oper Answere tho hadde sche non ; 

Ches whethir sche wolde Abyden Oper gon. 244 

And whanne sche him herde thus Answere, 
Anon to lawhen bo-gan sche there : 
" Kyng Eualach," sche seide, " I se by the, 
Thow hast lost bothe mynde & Memore ; 248 

For sethen that thou took this CreAunce, 
The hath behapped ful Mochel Noisaunce, 
Ful Mochel sorwe and trebulaciown, 
And 3it Mochel More is the forto Com , 252 

And 3 it there-offen 3evest jjou neuere Adel, 
But, As me Semeth, it liketh the wel 
As Ony worschepe pat Evere haddest jjou, 
And as moche it were for thy prow. 256 

Neuertheles thanne, I kan the telle 
Tydinges newe, bothe fresch & snelle, 
That I have seiil with bothe M}ti Eyen ; 
For it is ful soth I schal the seyen. 260 

Streyht from sarras I come to the ; 
That I schal Sein, thow myht leven me ; 
For wete thow wel Ful Certeinle, 

That ded Is tlii goode frend Seraphe ; 264 

For Neuere schalt thow him se with Eye, 
J^aper Saracynte thy qwene, Certeinlie." 

Whan?2e that the kyng thus horde here seyn, 
Anon fowle Astoned was he tho Certein ; 268 

* MS to him to hvm. 


But 31 1 Keuertheles he ne leved it Nowht, 

So Mochel On Jesus Crist was his thowht ; 

But for the grete love pat he hadde to his wif 

And to his brothir, with-Owten Strif, 272 

That Cawsed him moche more mone to Make 

For his Qweene & sire Xasciens Sake. 

But for Owht that sche Cowdo sein him to, 

Owt [from] that Roche Nolde he not Go. 276 

And whanne sche Saw that wiUi non falsnesse 
Him Ouercome ne hringe/i In distresse, 
Sche bad him ' Come sen the Eiche thinge 
That In that schipe sche dide him ])ringe.' 
Thanne to hire seide the kyng Ageyn, 
Jat " In the Schipe I ne wele not Comen Certein, 
Ke for non thing that thow kanst do, 
Owt from this Roch I wele nowht go." 284 

Thanne Onkeuered sche the scliipe In haste^ 
And preide him loken Atte laste. 
Thanne the kjng loked In for the Nones, 
Where-Inne he sawh many prcciows stones. 
As that him thowhte there to his Eye, 
And mochel Other Kichesse Sekerlye. 
" Lo, kyng Eualach, thow wenest that I be 
For non goodnesse I-comen to the ; 292 

But ful wel mystest^ thow weten & knowe, 
That Al this Ilichesse pat here Is On A rowe 
May Not Comen from non Evel plase, — 
For ful mochel loie there is, there this wase, — 296 
And 3if thow wQt with me now go, 
Owther My Cownseil Assentyn vnto, 
Al this Kichesse schalt thow have. 
And ^it ^lochel more 3if pon wilt Crave." 300 

Lo Al this Counseil 3af this wommanne 
To this kyng Eualach there thanne ; 
But for alle hir^ wordis & hirs fairc promyse, 
Thens wold he not Gon In non wyse ; 304 


bat wou't iMTt 
the Buck. 

The Fair Woman 
a»ki him to look 
280 mt the rich thinge 


288 udMordreine 

predoue etonee. 

She oBkn 'em all 


to him if hell 

But he'll iMi 


not an«irer to 
his hMthan 

all the Fair 

Uordreins refuiies 

to turn from 

8«» the Fair 

nn<l a t«ni|>CHt 
ri-eti a» bel'uit) 
(p. «67j. 

And jit ful moche distorbeled be was 
For his qweene & Seraphe In that plas. 

And whanne sche beheld him Atte laste. 
That In his Creaunce be was so stedfaste, 308 

So whanne that Eualach sche Cald him there. 
For that Name he wolde not Answere ; 
For, he seide, the devel he hadde forsake. 
And Onlych to God be baptem him take ; 312 

Thanne Gan sche to lawghen Eft sone. 
And seide, " Eualach, litel hast thou to done ; 
For be that Name, I the now Say, 
Worschepe and Conqwest hast pou geten mani day ; 
But be that whiche now thow hast to Name, 317 

Ne Gote thow neuere but thowht, sorewe, & schame." 

Ful longe it lasted, this temptacioun 
Toward this kyng with gret tribulaciown, 320 

That so sche him Eeproved of his distresses 
Of his Angwisch, & of his porenesse. 
And Euere Answerid this kyng Agein, 
Onlich Of goddis myht tho In Certein, 324 

And Also of Goddis Eihtful Creaunce, 
" Whiche that I wil holde/i witJi-Owien vaiiaunce ; 
And for iVlle the jiftes & the beheste, 
"Neper for Alio the Richesse, lest ne ^leste, 328 

Ke schal mo tornen Owt Of my thowht 
From him that me dero hath bowht." 
^Yban7^c fat sche sawgh that in non degre 
Owt Of that Eoche to don him fle, 332 

Nethir for jiftcs ne non qweintise, 
Ne for non thing fat sche Cowde devise, 
Thanne Anon to pe Scliipe sche tomed Agein, 
As to fore tymea sche dide ful pleyn. 336 

Anon Eiht thanne As sche was Gon, 
A fowl strong tempest there Eos Anon, 
Eiht As fowl & hidows it was there 
As it was the tother day there before. 340 


Thanne here-Oifen Merveilled J* kyng Anon 
How tliat this vrommon was so gon. 
And that Al the Kichcsse hadde him browht^ 
"Wliethir that it were Owht Oper nowht, 344 

And that In schort while sche hadde I-be 
At Sarras, & to him I-comcn thedir A^e, 
" The whecho xvij dayes ioi^rne scholde be 
As to forn tymos sche told it to Me." 348 

And whan/^ this tempest he Sawh thus fare, 
In his hcrte he hadde ful Mochel care ; 
And so gret dirknesse fil him vpon, 
That sihte there myhte he sen non, 352 

But 3if it were tyme of lyghtenewg 
That to him Cam beforn the thondring ; 
And Evere this tempest trowbled faste, 
That scker, Euere he wende it wold han iaste. 356 

And whiles he was In this thenkyng. 
Him thowhte he herde A wondir sowneng 
Wheche that scholde Comen from An hy. 
As tho him thowhte ful trewely ; 360 

So, what for ferd & for that sown 
Streiht to the Erthe he fyl Adown, 
That he ne myht stercn foot ne bond, 
Nothir non lyme where-Onne to stonde, 364 

But that Oiine this,^ with his hondis two, 
To the Greces of the Roche he Cleved tho. 

And whiles that he lay In this degre, 
Anon A thondir Clapc Cam there fle, 368 

That Al the heyest partye of that Hoche Anon 
Into the se-botme gan forto gon. 
So that there lofte but a litel spase 
The kyng Onne to Keste )7at there wase ; 372 

And the Bernnau/zt that was smeten Away, 
"Was neuere more sein Into this day. 
Anon the kyng for drede fil there A-down, 

' Fon itant seulement ke il s'ahert a deus mains si com 11 
peat— A. 

wonders over the 
Fftir Woman, 

Mid her coming 
•o Niriftlj froia 


V ordreins heart 
a wondrous 

and fiOlt to tba 

A thnnderhnit 
knocks off the 
top of hb Rock. 



[ca. xxuL 


Ibe Umptft 


Bays hU prayers, 

and goes to sleep. 

When he wakes, 
he's so hunftry 
that he thinks 
he shall die if 
[leaf 28] 
he doesn't get 

Ful longe there liggeng In a swown. S76 

Whanne Owt of his swowneTtg Awaked was he 
ThoTgwh the Comforteng Of the Maiestie, 
Al the tempest was Ouer gon, 

That noise ne thondring herde he non ; 380 

Therto the See, In pesible stat it was. 
That to fore tyme was hidows in fat plas. 
So that of tempest herd he neuere A del, 
Wheche to fom times he herde ful wel. 384 

Thanne Abowtes him loked he ful faste. 
And the Eoche he Missede atte laste, 
"NVhiche fat was the heyest partye ; 
Thanne In his herte hadde he gret Anoye^ 388 

And In his Mynde was gretly Ahascht, 
How that Eoche was so de-dascht. 

Thanne Anon gan he forto Make 
The signe Of the Crois, for Owre lordiB sake ; 392 

Bothe yppon his hed and vppon his body 
He mode the Signe of Grod Almyghty, 
And besowhte God, for his special grace, 
Him to Comforte & kepen, In that place, 396 

In Riht wit, Mynde, & Memorye ; 
Thus this kyng tho to God gan Crye. 

And wlianue thus his prcieres he hadde I-do, 
A wonJiiful lust thanne Cam him to, 400 

That ho moste slepen Nedelye, 
As hero vs tolleth tliis story e ; 
So that On tho ItO(;he there he slepte, 
Vppon swich A spas As him was lefte ; 404 

And whanne Of his slope pat he A-wook, 
Swich An hungor there him took, 
That him thowghto dod forto be. 

But 3if of Mete ho hadde plonte. 408 

And whanne thus longe ne bad mad his Mone 
To him Self there Al Alone 
Of his Misaise and hunger ful strong, 
So ])at lyven him thowghto niyhte he not long : 412 


And as Abowtes him he lokcdo there, 

He say, him thowghte. In a qwey?it Manere, 

Ligeng vppon A grees Of ston, 

A wondir blak lof there Anon ; 416 

And whanno this lof beheld he the, 

A wondir strong pas ho gan forlo go 

To-ward thike lof, [it] for to take, 

Lik As gret hunger it gan to Make. 420 

And whanne he hadde it In his hond, 
It forto brcken tho gan he fond ; 
But therto hadde he no Miht ; 

But al hoi to his Mowth Ano7< riht 424 

lie it there putte, to hau biten vppon ; 
And therto his Mowth he Openede Anon. 

And In the Mene whille him thowghte he lierdo 
A wondirful noise, and qwcyntely Fertle, 428 

As thowgh Alle the fowles of the Eyr 
To him ward they gonnen liepeire ; 
For wheche gret drede In that Manere 
Anon his lied he lefte vp there ; 432 

And to him there Cam discending^ Adown 
A mc^Teillous fowl yvitli a wondirful sown ; 
For 80 wondirful he was, & so divers. 
That neu^re to forn tyme tonge Cowde Itehers ; 436 
The hed of him Wiis as bluk As pich, 
Ne non Othir Colowr was it lich ; 
And therto, bothc his Eyen & his teeth, 
As brenwenge Fir forsothe they beth ; 
But the schape Of his hed, it was 
Lik An Orible dragon In that plas, 
And therto two horfaes In his hed ; 
It was A wondirful sihte In that sted : 444 

Also A ful long nekke like to a dragown ; 
A wondirful brid, & of a qweynte faciown ; 
His brest lik a lyown Schapen was there ; 
His feet like an Egle In A qweynte Manere ; 448 

' MS didteoding. 

QBAAL. 19 


a bUck loaf on a 


He pots it t'% 
his moiitli to 
bite It. 

A wonderftil Mrd 
•woopa down. 

Its heail'a m 
black aa pitch ; 

440 lU cjrm Uke fli«. 

lU hMd's Uke a 


with t Imnu aiul 

• Umt( neck. 

It Itaa a lion's 


and aneaiflv't 


And from y Jo jntes Of his feet to y acholdres Tpiihk 

with nrift Winn Wondirful wynges, & swyft to flyht, — 

As swift they weren In alle thing 

As to-fom the thondir is the lyhgtenyitg — 452 

u hard and •harp And therto As hard As Ony steel. 

at a FBXor. "^ 

As scharpe As A Basowr bytjng fol wel ; 
Therto his fetheris white wereii Also, 
As scharp6 as storm Of hail therto ; 456 

And whanne that scharplj he fyl A-dowiiy 
This ilke brid made A wondirful sown, 
lu beak ia aa And therto the bek of his hed that was tiiiere, 

ahaip aa a apear. ^ , . ^ 

It was as scharp^ As Onj spere, 460 

And Also brcnnengC; vppon forto se, 

As ljghtene;?g that to-fore p* thondir doth fle. 

Uppon this Maner, lik As ^e here. 
Was this brid On this Manere, 464 

As Kecordeth here the devyn stoiye 
That to Ys hath put In Memorye ; 
▲u wrda draad So that this Brvd ne fleeth be now weye, 

thiaBlrd.— '^ ^ ' 

the Phamix Uiat But that alle briddis & bestes of hym haven Eye : 468 

typifies oar -r* , i ^m ^ ' 

satioar,- Be whom,* y Saviowr Of al this world 

In this brid scheweth, be his Owen Acord, 

Botha his milit & Ek his drede ; 

And alle Creatures of hym took hede ; 472 

For that brid is so do w ted, I telle it the, 

That be what woye that Evere he fle, 

and flee firom It Bothe brid & beste tliey don him fle, 

Lik as be figiuro I schal Schewen to y : 476 

Behold, how fat derknesse to fom y aonne doth fle, 

Biht so Alle briddes & bestes, I telle it the, 

So fleen the sihto Of this brid, lo. 

That to forn tymes I declared 30W so. 480 

And tf swich kynde this brid it is, 

That As thre to-gederes^ wttA-Owten Mis — 

' en qui U sauueres de monde vieut sa crieme et aoo pMHir 
espandre. — A. 

' £t si eat de tel nature ke il n*en puet estre ke .i^. enaam* 


As the Scripture Eecordith now here — 

That As thro Oueral he liikth In fere, 484 

Lik as ho that of a womman was bom 

'With-OwUin compeine of Man, As I have rehersed 

beforn ; 
And whanne Redy to ben bom they be. 
Of A wondirful kynde this storie scheweth to 
For so Cold they been In Alio thing there, 
That non wiht dureri it May In non Manere, 
Sawfe Only the modir of the same, 
Wihche is a brid of a McrveiUous fame ; 492 

For whanne this long suffred hath schc, 
And non lengere with that Cold may sche be, 
Hire Eyren sche levcth, & takcth hire flyht 
Into a fer Contre there Anon Eyht, 496 

Where that sche hopeth forto fynde 
A precious ston of Merveillous kynde, 
Whecho In the vale of Ebron is at alle dayes, 
Of a wondirful kynde, as the storye sayes ; 5C0 

For Of his owne kynde he is so hot. 
That non man therwith him self dar^ frot 
Til it gynne Chawfe Of his Owne kynde,* 
Thus fareth theke ston So good & hende. 604 

For there as Cold is, it loketh pale. 
As kynde telle th vs be Olde tale ; 
And whanne Cold thing A-chawfed is Owht, 
Anon to Rod Colowr it is I-browht ; 608 

This Phomtx 
always bear* 
trins f Uir«e ait a 

and when the 
Aoa jounff art nradjr 
me; 4oo to be born. 

they're ao eold 

that their mother 
hat to (1/ to 

atone in the Vale 
of Ebron, 


whieh, whan 
nabd, turns red. 

ble. Car che (list 11 yerites de rescripture, ' ke il Daitfsent de 
fumiele sans compaig^ie de marie/ — A. Trins are always bora : 
two males and one female. 8ee 1. 549-553. 

' Chele pierre si est de si caude nature, ke ele ne puet a 
nule chose froiier, ke tantost ne s*eprenge la chose a quo! ele 
froiera. Mais tous iours le porroit on tenir en sa main, anchois 
que la mains en esoaufast sans f roller. Mais tantost com on U 
froie a aucune chose, si mue sa coulour de chele part ou on le 
froie. Car ele est naturelment toute blanche ; £t tantost com 
ele froie, si deuint toute vermelle oomme sans, deuers la froiure. 
Et lors esprent sans estaindre toute la chose a quol ele touche, 
ne ia la flambe n*i parra. — A« 


With this stone 
the Phoenix- 

warmi henelf 

till she 

and daren't go too 
near her eggs 
for fear of 
homing them. 

Then she hatches 

and is humt to 
powder herself. 

The young birds 

eat their mother's 

And thus be frotyng Of that ston, 

It be-Cometh Eed as Ony Blood Anon. 

And whanne this brid this ston hath fownd^ 
Therwit/t sche hire Chafeth In that stownde ; 512 

And litel & litel sche schawfeth hire so. 
Til that hire Cold be ful njgh Ago. 
And 3it In hire beek sche taketh it thore. 
And hire self doth chawfe 3it wel more ; 516 

And 3it sche thinketh ful litel there 
For the greto Cold fat sche sofiEred Ere ; 
And whanne that hete sche feleth plente, 
A3en to hire Eyren thanne doth sche fle. 520 

Whanne that In place sche cometh there 
As to fom tymes hire Eyren were, 
So hot sche semeth to been with-Inne, 
That Al hire body on fyr doth brenne, 524 

That hire Self helpen sche ne May, 
So hot sche is with-Inne, y sothe to say ; 
And therfore thanne weneth sche 

That hire Eyren Alle I-brend scholde be, 528 

So that sche withdraweth hire there fro. 
And with hire body not neigheth hem tho. 
But pat A good spas from hire nest, 
As hire self it liketh hire best ; 532 

So fat be the hete of hire body so for fro. 
Hire briddes sche bringeth forth Alle p% 
That for Cold scholden Ellis dye : 
This is here kynde ful Certeinlie. 536 

And thus, thorwgh Chawfyng of this ston. 
The Modir to powdir is brend Anon. 

And whanne hire briddes thus browht forth be, 
Abowtes the Asches of hire Modir gonne they fle, 540 
And there-Offen taken here sustenawnce 
That was theke tyme to here plesaunce, 
Tyl that they haven bothe lif & membres : 
Thus Eten they of here Moder Syndres. 544 


And whanne Alle they ben Eton Eclion, 
The Syndres Of here Modir, & not fcroffen left on, 
Anon So prowde they wexen Alle thre, 
That prowdere briddes ne Mown neuere be ; 548 

Thanne Comen the tweyno that males be, 
That neither Other may suffre In non degre ; 
And whanne hero ful strengthe fully they have, 
Eche of hem Of )?• thridde, Maistrie doth Crave, 
To ban the femelo At his owne wille ; 
Thus to Othir forseth him vntille, 
So that Anon, thorwgli gret pride, 
The ton the tothir Sleth that tyde. 656 

Scipilions, is Clepid this brid,* 
As thus In this stone it is red. 

Swich was the brid that decendid fere 
Down to the kyng In this Manere, 660 

And smot the lof Owt Of his bond. 
That to his mowth to putten gan he fond ; 
And Into the see he threw it there, 
Riht fer In a Mcrveillows Manere. 564 

And whanne he hadde so I-do, 
He took his flyht, & fleygh him fro ; 
And Aftirwardis he tomed Ageyn, 
And the kyng to the Erthe was fallew pleyn ; 568 

And with his Ryht wyngo he smot him so 
That his Clothes & his Skyn he barst vnto, 
And from the haterel In to the foot,* 
Into the harde flesh that strok it bot ; 572 

And thanne this brid took forth his flyht 
From that kyng Anon Tho Ryht 


552 that the two 

fight for tho 

tin one kilU tho 

Thi« Urd'i DMso 

It knodu oat of 
moath the bbck 
going to bitib 

htm with iU 
rtght wing. 

catting him ttom 
■hottldor to foot. 

* Tant quMl s^entrecombatent, et ke 11 uos ochUt Tautre. 
Easi 8*entrochient li doi malle ; si n*en remaint ke la femiele, 
qui est apielee ' serpolions.* £t la pierre de quel ele 8*art, est 
apielee * piratistc.* — A. 

' Et il lait la desire ele aler deuant, si le feri si qu^il li rompi 
toute la crigne res a res du haterel, £t li trencha toute sa ues- 
ture iuso'a la char. — A. 



Mordrelm U« 
■11 night In a 


H« wakm In the 

thanks Ood 
for delireiing 
him from his 

and says he has 
lust his bodily 

He will rather 
die tlian eat 
any bread but 
what Qod sends. 

And y kjng In swowneng at the Erthe lay. 
For drede & sorwe of that grete Afray, 576 

Tyl that the day was Nygh Agon, 
And the l^yht faste Entrede v})pon. 

And whanne he was waked of his awownengy 
Fill feint & fehle he was In alle thing, 580 

That of the grete hunger he hadde to fore, 
Whiche that him Greved so sore, 
Thowgh Alle worldly mete thanne had he seiny 
There-Offen to Ete ho ne myhte Certein. 584 

And thus Abod ho Al that Nyht 
Tyl on the Morwe it was day lyht ; 
And whanne the day be-gan to dawe, 
Thanne peroSeu was this kyng ful fa we. 588 

Thanne he bethowghte him In liis mynde 
Of that brid so Merveillous of kynde, 
That his lof so hadde Casten Away. 
Many thankynges to God he ^af that day, 593 

And seide, " lord God, I-worscheped thow be. 
That from Alio those sorwes hast deliu^red me, 
& wilt that I do bigge my synne 

Ere than I Owt Of this world twynne ; 596 

For swiche wordis Of solace 30 han me sent. 
That Of hunger have I lost myn talent, 
Sowfo Only hunger Of sowle to susteyne ; 
Therfore, lord, I me to the Compleyne. 600 

Now knowe I wel that this Maner thing 
To nic hidir Cam for non forthering, 
But mo to decoy ven bo weye of Eichesse, 
I>o 3irtos, Owthor be fayr promesse ; $()4 

And ]perfoTe schal I ncu^re, In tymo comenge. 
My Mowth to Opene for non Swich thing, 
Tliowgh the body Seholde suffren ded 
Rathere thanno to Eton Ony bred, $08 

But 3if it bo, lord, thorwgh thy sonde, 
Ony to handelyn with Myn honde ; 


No neuere Owt of this Roch wele I gone, 

But evere here dwcllen Alone, 612 

Tyl that, lord, thy wille It be, 

Owt of this Hoche to taken Me." 

And thus vi dayes beleft the kyng ifonirtiiu ii 

In that Roche, with-Owte/i lesyng; 616 Um Ckwd Man, 

And £che Of these dayes Cam this good man, 
And him comforted As he wcl kan : 
Thanne swed the wom7wan After, £che day, wdtiiwitti* 

"^ ' Fair Woouuu 

Of him to fonde to geten hire pray. 620 

This Man Euere him tolde wordis Of Comfort 
As Often As to him he gan Resort, 
And Eucre spak the womman of Noysaunce 
To hym. And Euere Of distorbaunce. 624 

And whanne it was Comen to y seventhe day, On Um nb di^ 

This good man to him Cam w/tA-Owten delay, 
And thus to him seide there in haste, 

**Thin Owr of deliuerannce Aprocheth faste. 628 htohoorof 

jif thow wilt hennes-forward annoonat. 

The kepen from temptaciou[n]s hard 
Of the devel, whiche he wil Asaye 
In many weyes the to be-traye." 632 

Thanne Axede him the kyng * In what Manure 
From him he myhte defenden him there.* 
Thanne seide A^en this good man tho, 
" Wratli-the not thy God, what so thow do, 636 

And Owt Of this Roch delinked schalt ^u be 
"NVith-Inne schort tyme Certeinle ; 
But 3it ^lanye dredes schalt thou se 
Er that owt of jj/s Roche taken thow be." 640 

Thanne thus partid this good man Away; andtbaOood 

Man laavca bin* 

The kyng there lefte, sothe to say. 

Ful glad & Joyful he was In herte. 

That no;t thing ne myhte him smerte, 644 

And thowhte, ' thowgh that he schold dye, 

Owt Of that Roche wolde he not hye, 



oomlng a »hip 

with no Mamen. 

terapesis rise. 

But Rathere ded there he wolde be, 

Thanne Owt of that Roche forto fle.' 648 

Thus longe In this thowht gan he dwelle. 
That Aftir tyrae So it be-felle 
He loked ful fer Into the See : 

A fair Schipe Cam pere seylleng, thowht he ; 652 

hothe gret & Eicho hun thowghte it was ; 
bote neper man ne wom/^ian In that plas 
that Schipe to Governe, nethir to Gye, 
thus him thowhte ful Certeinlye. 656 

and whan;/e longe it hadde so go 
In the hyghe See bothe to & fro, 
atte laste towardis the Eoche he drowgh 
A ful gret speed, & faste I-nowgh. 660 

and thus sone began there In the see 
wondirful tempestes pere Anon to be. 
So hidous & so Angwischous in eche Manure, 
that so hidows tempest saw he neuere eie. 66 i 

this tempest this Schipc to the Roche browlitey 
that it scholde Alto-breken him thowghte ; 
It sncw, & haillede, & thondrede faste. 
So that pere was manie A bitter blaste, 6GS 

So that it Semede that Al the firmamewt 
On peces hadden borsten verament ; 
For he wende the Ende Of p* world fat day had be ; 
thus thowghte the kyiig thanne ful sekerlc. 672 

imd Mor.ii«in» Aud thc kyug 111 pat Roche had non stod 

hide hu iicuU in. AVhere that he Myhtc hyde/i In his hed, 

For the part Of the Cave was bloweii Away 

Into the See, As ^e ban herd me Say. 676 

And this faire Schipe beheld ho thanne; 

but he say nethir Man ne wom??ianne. 

and so thikke Abowtcs him Cam the thoiidring, 

and ^lany A wondirful lyghteneng, Gi-'O 

that Xeu6re he wende to asckapen thenne, 

so wondirfully p'' lyghteny//g gan to brenwe ; 

■now, hail, and 

[leaf HI J 


thus Suffrode the kyng Al that tempest, 

whiche After it torned him for the best ; 684 

Al this was disscisse to his herte, 

for ho softred peynes Many & smerte ; 

but for alle the peynes he suffrede tlio, 

to the Schipe from the Roche wolde he not go. 688 

And whanne this tempest hadde longe be, At Ust um itomi 

than Tie Atte laste gan stillen the See, 
and the wedir to Cleren faire^ 

and the sonno to Schewe/) vppon the Ayre ; 692 and then tii« 

and whan/ie ho sawgh the wedir thus slake, 
Ful gret loye he gan tho to Make. 

thanne the Sonwe there vppon him Schon, 
and thanne the kyng lokid vp Anon, 696 

and sawh his Clothes Al to-Kent, 
where-Oflfen he Merveilled verament. 

and thanne so sore the Son/te chawfed him pere, m flwreiy thut 
that he wende Al the Roche hadde ben on fere, 700 on flr«. 
and that the son7ie scholde han brend Alle thing, 
Of this world to han Mad An Endeng. 
and al was don for this Skele tho, 
^if y kyng Into the Schipe wolde han go, 704 Bat neither for 

^_, _ , /.I ■torm nor )ieat 

Ferst for Cold, and sethen for hete ; . win Mordrein* 

but for nethir the kyng f* Roch wolde not lete ; in the ship. 

for Rathere ded there wolde he han bo, 

tlianne his lord to wraththen In Ony degre ; 708 

Oper that from \>' Roche he wolde gon, 

liathere the deth to suffren Anon. 

and thus In this Angwisch longe bod he there, 
and In swownewg fyl In hard niancre ; 712 Hetwoooe, 

and so longe lay he Stille As A ston. 
That wit, syghte, ne Mynde, badde non. 
And whanne that he of swowneng A-wook, woken. 

For drede & sore we ful sore he qwook, 716 and quakes for 


and lift vpe his hed, and beheld ful faste 
jif that strong hete ^it dide Owht laste. 




wonden mt bit 

and donbU 
whether they 
were dreams 

and Whanne he sawh the day ^(xt mesmable was, 
and but Mesurable hete In that phM, 720 

As betwenes noon & hevesong scholde be, 
bothe glad & loyful thanne was he ; 
thanne Asaied he Anon vpe forto stonde. 
For the vanite In his bed that hadde ben longe ; 724 
And whanne pat he gan vpe forto dresse. 
In bed, body, ne Membres, felt he non Siknesse. 

thanne stood he vp On his feet, 
and there abowtes him loked fal skei, 728 

and Merveilled Of the grete Aventours 
That he hadde there suf&ed Of dolours ; 
and Of Alle this thanne felte he Ryht nowht, 
Where-Offe/i he Merveillede In his thowht ; 732 

and Otherwhille he thowghte A dremenge to be, 
and Otherwhilles he thowhte it for Certeiiite, 
and Otherwhilles he Cowde Remembren him wel 
Of the Aventures thanne EverideL 735 


Still of Mordreins on 77ie Roche Perilous, How he 

ship approach the Rock with his own and Xasciens's shields 
on board, and the horse he won from Tholomes at Oroaus 
(p. 299). A knight lands, and tells him that Nasciens is 
dead (p. 300). He goes on board, sees a corpse like 
Nascieus's, swoons, and on waking finds himdulf far from 
the Rock (p. 301). He makes the sign of the Cross; 
and man, horse, and corpse vanish. He praTs to God. 
The Good Man comes to him again (p. 302), and tells 
him that he shall not be deliverd till Nasciens comes to 
him alive (p. 303) ; and explains that it was the Devil 
who had tempted him as the Knight, the Lioness, and 
the Fair Woman, who had appeared to him (p. 303). The 
Good Man exhorts him to be wiser and warier than he had 
been, and then vanishes (p. 303). The ship drives on (p. 
304) ; the King sees a man coming on the sea, home up by 
two birds under his feet, who sprinkles the ship with 
water, and announces himself as Salustes, in whose honour 
Mordreins had built the church in Sarras (p. 304). He 
explains the vision of the Lioness (p. 304), and that of 


the Streams flowing out of Monlreins's Nephew (p. 805) ; 
and that he had sprinkled the ship because it was the 
Devil's and needed purifying (p. 806). He instraots Mor- 
dreins how to eject Devils by Holy Water (p. 306), and 
then goes, leaving the King on the ship (p. 307). 

Thanne thowghte the kyng al In liia herte Kiac Kordnins 

Of Manie trebulacions & of peyncs smerte ; 
that the day was past, & wax to Eve, 
ihanne the kyng ful sore gan him Meve. 4 

Anon thanne lokede he fer Into the See ; 

A fair schip« fast seillyng Comen sawgh he, wm a ridi ihip 


therto so Kichcly arayed him thowhte it was, 
but he nyste Of his Comeng what was p* cas, 8 

for so Riche A schipe,him thowghte, sawgh he neu^renon 
To fore tymes On now water ncthir Seylen ne gon. 

and whanne the Schip6 A])roched him ny, 
Anon Into bat Schipe he lokede An hy 12 in fu fore-«Mti« 

hang 2 Shtoldn, 

and Sawgh where tliat hcngen scheldes two ; 

In J)* forcastel Of the Schip« they werew I-do, 

Where-Inne was A towr ful Rialy I-dyht, 

As semed pat tynie to tlio kyng In Syht ; 16 

On wheche towr. As I vndirstpnde, 

botlie scheldes to-gederis diden they honge ; 

Of wheche the ton scheld was his, on«hi»; th« 

othtr, Naactons's. 

the totlier Nasciens wit-Owten Mys : 20 

thus liim thowghte wondirly Sore, 

but Evere he Merveilled how they Come?» thore. 

And wliiles that he stood In this thowght, 
to y Eoche this Schip Anon was browght : 24 

and as it was to that liocho Comenge, 
Of An hors he herde A wonderful Neyenge, On it u a \ton», 

which Dtlghsand 

and so bonchede & fcrde with his feet •umpa. 

that it thowghte the schip^ to bersten In pat fleet 28 

Anon tlie kyng gan to herkene this Xeyeng, 

and Merveilled ful Mochel of that thing ; 

For that liors he knew there Anon 

whanne he him herd so taken vppon, 32 

fijeh Marin 

3*>!> 2SxacsES^a cobpsb is &ud to be cr thb ship. [ch. xxit. 

And wiste wel that it was the same hora 

that from kyng Tholome he gat At Orcaos, 

Whiche that In the bataille he wan there ; 

And the same hois he wende it were, 36 

what be Nevenge and Other fare. 

The same hors he wende hadde ben thaie. 

And thus wondied he mochel In his thowght^ 

how hors & scheldes thedir weren browght. 40 

thanne to the Roche it Aplyede Anon ; 
and tho to the schipward the kyng gan gon. 
To beholden what peple and what Meyne 
In that Schipe that he Cowde se. 44 

and whanne that he gan tbeie-Inne to bebolde, 
he Sawgh ^lochel peple, & Mani-folde. 
From the thip And Owt Of that scbipe there isswed Anon 

land*^ Knight, 

As In Maner Of a knjht, and to him gan gon ; 48 

and whamte that he gan the kyng to Aprochen Ny, 
the kyng him beheld ful witterly ; 
hym thowghte that be his persone & figare 
like the brother an hvgh Old knyght of his, I the Ensure, 52 

of Monlreizui'a 

Steward, that Brotliir to his steward schold han be, 

that Slayn was at Orcaws ful sekerle. 

and wlianne this knyht to the kyng gan gon, 

he liiin grette with liev}' Chere Anon ; 55 

and the kyiig Rau to him ful faste, 

and than//e him Axede atte laste, 

* Why that so Sore Abasched he was ; 

he scholde liini tellen Al the Cas.* qq 

** A, sire," Anon quod this kniht tho, 

" For tlie hevy tydinges 30W Come;i vnto I " 

*' Sey me," quod tlie kyng, " what May it be, 

Belamy, I preie the that thow telle it to me." G4 

who nays that ** Certes, Sire," quod this knyht Anon, 

" the beste friend fat 30 liaddcn is now Agon,'ii corpse tlio wheche is Xascieus, 3o\vre brother dere, 

In in tlie »hlp, 

that In this Schip<? he lith ded hero. 53 


and whanne the kyng hcrde him thus telle, 
Ano7i In swowneng to the Erthe he felle ; 
and Whanne fat he of his swowneng a-Wook, 
Abowtes him faste he gan to look, 72 

and axede his brothir forto Se, 
if that Sekerly he ded tliere be ; 
And Evero Criede lik a wood man ; 
So for his brother ferde he tlian. 76 

The knyht to the k3mg gan him dresse, 
that him hadde browht In this distresse, 
and the kyng took pere be the left hond, 
to ))•, schipward to leden he gan to fond ; 
8o that the kyng Niste what he dede, 
So ful of sorewe he was In that stede. 

and whanne the kyng p* scliip^ was wit/t-Inne, 
he Ran to the here, & nolde not blyune, 84 

and the Cloth anon vp he Caste, — 
to beholden that body hadde he gret haste ; — 
Tliere Ano/t thanne Sawgh he there 
his brother Nasciens, As that it were, 
be face, semblawnce, & body Also, 
as whanne on lyve fat he dide go. 
thanne Anon fyl he down In swowneng there, 
hardere thanne eucre to- fore dide he Ere, 92 

that Neuere to Asckapen wende fan he, 
but Certein ded forto han be. 

Whanne he was waked of his Swowneng, 
Of this hadde he gret Merveilleng, 96 

And thowhte to axen of this knyht there 
how this myhte happen, & In what Manere. 
and whanne he loked Abowtes him tho ; 
Ful fer from the Eoche tlianne was he tho ; 
thanne for sorwe he fyl down Anon 
In swowneng, ded as Ony ston ; 
to-fore that here so lay he there 
ded In swowneng In this Manere. 104 

MordreiiM aaks 
to see Nascittiu't 

Tht Knight l«uU 

him by tha toft 
^ . hand Into tiia 
oO ship. 

Mordralns thinkt 
the corpM Is 
88 NaacUu't, 

and swoons. 


100 be to flu* from 
the Rock. 


and whinne of his swowneng fat he Wok, 
MkM Anon Tp hu Biht hond he took. 

And the Signe oi the Crois he Made Anoii ; 
thanne thus sone Alle weren thej A^n, 108 

aaiorpH^ktinik that nethir here, hers, ne ^lan, 
%amitk. In that schiptf cowde he Se than. 

an 1 thanne gan he to wepen ful sore. 

And Momeng & wringeng he made 'irel More, 113 

'* A ! Men:ifal God In Maiestie, 

Xow Wot I wel that I have Graved the." 

and Whanne he hadde thus I-Spoke, 
Forth Into the See he gan to loke ; 116 

there sawgh he to-fom hjm Comen Anon 
The Good Man the goode man that In the Schipe gan son* 

fonm ou ImmjJ 

vheche that him Comforted Often Sithe, 

and with his goode wonlis Made him blithe. 120 

and whanne he sawgh him In that ^laoere, 

Wei ful he was Of Sorwe & Fere : 

" A, sire ! " quod he, " I am deserved Sekerly 

Of that je boden me to kepen trewly ; 124 

For ful Certeiidy 30 tolden ^le Ere, 

that the devel In this Manere 

Me scholde Owt taken be f* left hond. 

As thow didst me to vndirstond." 128 

anon gan he for to wepen tho : 
And whanne this good man say him do so, 
he seide, " Sire k^Tig, wepe tliow no ^lore ; 
he hath tho tempted Often tymes sore, 132 

ana warni Mor- but here-Aftir the bohoveth Eft-sone 

dreini totak^care 

what he dom. To taken good keepe tliat Is to done." 

Thanne seide the kyng to this good mau tho^ 
** Xow, goode sire, telle me what I schal do ; 136 

and as thow k no west Alle thing. 
So wisse me Of begynneng & Endeng, 
And liow that I schal Governen Me ; 
For Goddis love, Sire, this preie I the." 140 



thanue this good [man] seido to him Aje, 
" 3it manie spitful Me^rveilles schalt pan so ; 
aud £ten Ne drynkeu schalt fou. neu^re Moi 
til thy brothir Xosciens Come the before, 
As Cristen Man, and qwyk levenge ; 
Kow take fou this for newe tydynge. 
And whanne thou sixt him In that degre, 
thanne After, thy leverauwco Sone schal be. 

" For wete f ou wel ful Ccrteiide, 
It was the devel that was with the, 
that told the how that Nasciens was ded, 
and that ^af the Swich Conceyl & Hed ; 
For he is Redy, In feld & In town, 
Goddis schep to don distrocciown. 

" and the devel it was Also 
that In thin Avisiown Cam )>* to ; 
the Mete that )>• lyown f* browghte, 
he it Awey bar, & lefte the Nowghte. 
and 3it I wele that |)ou knowe More Also, 
that it was the devel that Cam the to 
In liknesse Of A womman, 
and swcche wordes to y spak than ; 
Also the devel ful Sekir was he 
that Owt of the Roche he browhte f*. 

" Therfore hens forward I wame the, 
that bothe wisero & warere pat thou be ; 
For swich thinges here-After schalt fon se, 
that to Endeles deth wolden bringen the, 
jif ^ thou the bettir wit ne have, 
thy body [&] thi sowle forto save.'' 

and now More to hym he gan to Say, 
but with that word he partid A-way, 
that he ne wiste where he becom 
Owt of his syhte, bothe Al & som. 
and thus in the Schipe Alone lefte he, 
Floteringe Amyddes the hye Se. 

144 TUlNuclrat 
eomM to hiin, 


Mordretni shall 
not be dallrerd. 

It WM tb« DevU 
who told him 



and who took 
away hU (bod 
(p. tSO, M), 

160 t«mpt«l him aa 
the Fair Woman, 

164 ttd brought him 
off the Rock. 



172 ThaCkndMan 



M .rdrein«'i ihip the wynd him blew, now here, & now there : 

in blown about -*,ri iii ■•▼' 

tha MA. thus Nyht and day he ferde In fere, 

that Kesting plase ne fond he non, 

til On the Morwo it was passed noon. 180 

thanne the kynge ype him dressed tho. 

And to-ward the forschipe he gan to go, 

and loke ful fer Into the See ; 
He ten a Man A man there Comeng him thowghte say he, 184 

that Of leveng Schold he be botho good and hye,' 
The Man i« borne ^souT Tiaue ausi coTU tout a pie. £t qt/ant 11 fu 

upbytwoblnU • • •. j •• • j 

under hi* feet, pncs, 81 vit Qesous ses .ij. pies, deu8 oisiaus qm le 

soustenoient et le portoient si tost et si isnelement com 

comes on board nul olsiel peussent plus tost uoler. Et quant il Tint a 

Murdreins's ship, , ^ . , i « . 

inake« the i^ian of la uef, SI s aresta, et co7;imencha a faire le sigue de la 

thecro»s, and • . • i ^ -j. •■ 

takes up water iu saiute crois souT la mer, et prenoit a ses deus mains 
I'iaue de la mer, sans dire mot. Et li rois Pesgardoit, 
si se meruilloit moult durement qui il pooit estre, et 

•prinkieithe pour quoi il faisoit chel arousemerat par la nef. Et 
quant li hom eut toute la nef arousee, si parla an roi, 
et si li dist, " Mogdanis ! " Et li rois se meruilla m<n/lt 

and teiiii the Kins q?/ant il s'oi apiclcr par son non de baptesme : Si rc- 

that he is htN de- . »i -r* i • i • i t • i 

fender suiubtes, spondi, " Sire I Et 11 uoms hom u dist, " Je sui tes 

deirenderes, tes garans, aprcs ihc^u crist. Je sui sa- 

whoMf c'mrch he lute5, chll en qui non et en qui honeur tu as establie la 

built in Surras, 

riclie eglise en la ciiite de sarras ; si te sui venus con- 
sillier et coiiforter. Et si te mande li aigniaus par moi 
and that the Wolf chil qui cu^ t'auision t'aportoit les boines viandes ke 

who took hb food i ^ i -i 

away il Icus te toloit, chil te Inande par moi, pour chou 

ko il veut ke tu le saclies niieua ke tu as le leu uencu. 
Et cbe fu par le signe de la crois ke tu fesis sour toi 
quant tu te veis si cslongie de la roche. Lors te laissa 

' There is no break in the English MS, but it goen straight 
on with the new subject of Celidoyne in prison, p. 309. ITie 
copier of it must have left out a column or pa^ of his 

* MS XIV. K. iii. leaf 41, back, col. 2, at foot. 

• MS chil en qui est 


11 leus ; chc fu 11 dyables qui s'onful, qui deuant wm um Devti, 
t'auoit tolues toutes les boines viandes ke 11 alngnlaus 
t'aportolt ; Ch'estolent les bulnes paroles ke 11 horn de . 
la nef te disolt toute lour. Cliil home estoit 11 algniaus, *nd that tb« 

Lamb who 

qui en tavision t'aportolt les boines viandes. £t brought him 

, 1 » . 1 • • • i> . ,. . meat wa« Jatwa 

86u;hes qtte oh est chis aiguiaus qui pour lumain lignaige chriat. 

fu crucelijes, et ch*est ihe^u* crlst, 11 fiex do la uirge. 

chll qui chascun lour te uenolt conforter, Chil m'a chl 

enuolet a toi, pour descouurlr t'auision, ensl com 11 le 

to demoustra, SI ke tu saches ke ele sonefie. Tu uels 8ain»t«a expiaina 

de ton neueu Isslr .i grant. lac, et de che lach si nals- vuionofthe 

... rt i«i^» ••• ii» AM Lake and Nine 

soicnt .IX. ilun. si estoient li .viij. parel, d un grant et streama (ch. ir, 

d'une samblanche. £t 11 nueulsnies, qui tout daerraius ^' 

sourdolt, estoit ausl grans et aussi blaus coin tout 11 

autre ensanible. LI las estoit moult clers et mult 

blaus. Et tu esgardes en haut, si vels .j. homme venlr The Laka maam 

a Son of M or- 

qui auoit le samblanclie del urai cruchefi. Et qteant 11 dreina'a nephew. 

fu descend us a t^rre, si entra el lac, tons nus pies, et 

ses gambes el lac, Et 'en tout les .viij. fluns ausl. Et [•i«f4«] 

quant 11 auoit en tout les .viij. fluns fait ensl com uous 

aues oi, si uenolt au nuefuismc ; Lors se despollloit 

tou8 nus, et si se balgnoit trestous desdeus. Chil las 

kl de ton neueu naissolt, senefle vn fil qui de lui 

istra; Et en lui baignera ihe^u^ crlst ses pies et ses 

gambes. Che est a dire, ke 11 sera soustenemens urals, 

et fine colombe de la salute creanche au sauueour. De 

chelul Istront 11 .ix. flun : che seront .ix. persones andthe9streama, 

d'omes qui de lui descenderont. Et si ne seront il mle hu, 

tout .ix. si Rl, anchois descendront par droite engen- 

reure, 11 vns del autre. Et tout 11 .vlii. seront auques 

parel de boine vie ; Mais 11 nueulsmes sera asses de to the 9th of 


grlgnour hauteche et de grlgnour me rite. Et pour 
chou qu*il valntra tons les autres de toutes bontes, pour 
chou se baignera en lui ihf7«u« crls trestous. Et si n'i 
baignera pas uestus, mais to us nus; Car 11 se despoil- Chrut shaii dii- 

cloee hit hidden 

lera deuant lui en tel maniere ke 11 li descouo^ra ses aecnu. 

QRAAL. 20 



or tliif nephcw't 
(l9«fen(l«nt, the 
An^el who ptolH 
Joiei>h •pokth 

and hU bo4f 
•hall work 

BalmtM Dfxt 
•xplains why be 
•prinkld the 

to parity it from 
tlie Devil. 

For DexHi feir 
the sign of the 

At any bad place, 
Mordreins it to 
blees water, 

and wlterever it 

is eprinkld, 

no Devil will go. 

gmna secres, cheus ke il n'ara onques descoao^yB a nnl 
homme morteL Chil sera plains de tontes icheles 
bontes ke cors d'ome ne cuers doinent souatenir ; Et si 
en passera tooa chians qui denant lui aiont este^ £t tout 
chiaus qui aprss lui seront, qui de porter armes s'eii- 
tremetroni. Che sera chil de qui 11 angeles paHa a 
sarras, qziant il feri iosophe de la lancbe uengeresse. 
Quant il dist ' ke iamais lea ni«?raelles del graal ne 
seroient descouuertes a homme mortel fors ch'a .i toot 
aeul.' Chil sera 11 nueuismes des oirs q^i descendront 
del fil a ton neueu; Et si sera tens com tu m*as oi 
deuiser. Mais les gmns miracles ei lea bieles uirtos 
qui par lui auenront en la te/re on sea core gimk, no 
seront pas seues qu'il auiegnent par lui; Car a chel 
tans sera moult peu de cheus ki sachent uiaiee nouieles 
ne ens^nes de sa sepulture. Or t^ai auqoes porle de 
t'auision. Ore te parlerai de cheste ne^ poor quoi ion 
I'ai arousee ensi com tu as veu. La nef si fa au d jable, 
qui la sainte crois encacha quant td en fesis le signe. 
£t pour chou que ele estoit soie, ne pooit H estre q»i 
n'i reuenist aucune fie, se ele ne fust mondee. mais ore 
est ele toute purefijee des ordures et des malices qiu 
conucrso i ont, par Tarousemcwt de I'iaue, qwi par le 
signe de la sainto crois est saintefije, et par le coniure- 
ment de la sainte tiiuito. Xe iamais nus mais espens 
n*i enterra ; Car il uo doutent tant nule riens com il 
font le signe de la crois et le coniurement de la sainte 
creanche. Et so tu iiiens en lieu ki soit doutables a 
entrer, si pron de I'iaue, et si le purifie tout aaant prir 
le signe de la sainte crois, et en apres par le coniure- 
raont du pero ei du fil et du afu'nf esperit. Et par 
cheste beneichon sent Tiaue toute uetoio et uiondee de 
toutes orduros. Et en quelcowq?/es li«u ke ele soit 
espandue p^ir boine creanche, ia dyables ne sera si oses 
que il aille, anchois fuira tous iours le lieu, et esloDgt^ia. 
En cheste maniere fai ; si porras estre sears ke ia, en 


lieu ou tu le faches, dyablos n*ara pooir de faire nole 
chose a ton cors pour quoi Tame do toi soit da?Mpnee." 
A tant se teut li saias horn, si s'en pa^-ti. Et li rois MordrBiM vuy 

, in th« thip. 

remest en la nef ensi com vous Taues oL si se taist Th«uiegoMto 


atant li conies do lui^ et parole dc nascien. 


Of Nasciens. How, when he was imprisond, the cursed 
Calafere had charge of his lands and him and put him in 
a dark dungeon (p. 307), bound him hand and foot, and 
also confind his young son Celidoine, whose name means 
* given to heaven ' (p. 308), and at whose birth at mid- 
day the sun disappeard, and the moon and the stars shone 
clear (p. 308). On the 17th night of their imprisonment, 
Nasciens dreams that a hand strikes off his chains. He 
feels that he is free (p. 309). A light shines, and a fair 
white hand lifts him out of prison (p. 310), and leads him 
out of the castle of C-alafcre (p. 310), who pursues him 
(p. 311). Nasciens is protected by the Hand (p. 812). 
Calafere falls from his horse (p. 313) and is found, 
stampt on the right cheek with an angel's hand, and on 
the left with his foot (p. 314). Calafere orders water to 
be thrown on his right cheek (p. 315), and is then carrid 
up to the battlements of his castle, from which he orders 
Celidoine to be thrown (p. 317). When Celidoine is in 
mid-air, nine hands catch him and bear him off (p. 318). 
Vengeance on Calafere is proclaimd from Heaven. A 
thunderbolt strikes the castle, and Calafere*s body flies in 
pieces (p. 319). The reports of his death, and of Nas- 
ciens*s deliverance, get abroad ; the barons go to Queen 
Sarracynte to ask pardon for imprisoning her brother 
(p. 320) ; and she sends five messengers out to seek him 
(p. 321). 

Ill endroit dist li contes, ke nasciens fu iniSy en 
tel maniere corn yous aues oi, en la prison. Et 
si le prist en garde chil chiuaierB mescreans HowOtUfenhM 

chmrg* o( Nm- 

qoi estoit apieles calafier, Et ki tant estoit desloians et dma io priaon 

traitres comme li contes a deuise cha en arriere. Et 

par le consel de chestui fu il pris, plus ke par tons les 

autres. Chis chittaleTs le prist en garde sour toute so 

tern auant, et sour la vie apres. Et qii&nt il Teut en 

sa baillie, si fu moult orguilleus vers lui^ et loi fist dArkdangMo, 


and diftliM him 
hand and 0WC, 

and also puts In 
priaon with him 
hia jFomig MNi, 

wliona nama was 

that is. ' given 
to heaven ; ' 

and at whose 

at mid-ilnj hi 

the snn became 
as at dawn, 

and the mo<m 
and stars shone 

moult dare prison et moult felenesae. H fa mis el 
fons d'one fosse noire et tenebiouse. H fu deBtoomes 
de toute la compaignie et del solas as gena. H manga 
pea, et but II ne se pooit aidier de nul menbre que 
il eust, Car il auoit les mains ausi enchaineeB comme 
les pies. Toutes eures estoit d'une aenle contenanche^ 
sans estre desuestos ne descauchies ; anchois gisoit par 
nuit en sa reube et en sa caucheuie. £t qtoint il ot 
mis en si angoisseose prison, encor ne li fu il pas asses 
de lui tourmenter. Anchois fist ke il ot .i. -aien fil 
ensamble o lui qui moult estoit de iouene eage. Car il 
n'auoit encbore ke .vij. ans et .v. mois . Chil estoit 
moult biaus, et moult sambloit estre de gentil lignage 
estrais ; Si estoit apieles el baptesme * celidoinea.* £t 
chil nons fu moult bien co/tuenables a Tenfant, seloiic 
la vie ke il mena puis ; Car ' celidoines ' vaut auireatant 
a dire et a senefijer en latin co;»me ' dounes au cbiel ; ' 
Car il eut toute sa uie son cuer et s'entente miae en 
celestiaus oeures, Et scut d'astreuomie tant com nns en 
peut plus sauoir en boino en tension et en droite. Et a 
sou naissement auint en la chite d'orberike une moult 
grant meruello qui n'estoit mio acoustumee a auenir. 
Car il nascui en .i. moult caut iour d*este, et mult biel, 
en droit miedi. £t si fu el secont iour dea kalendes en 
iunget (sic), Et q//ant il fu nes a tel eure com yous 
aues oi, Si auint chose tout maintenanty ke li solans, 
qui en sa grignour calour deuoit estre, a chel eure 
s'aparut ausi apertement com il fait au matin quant il 
lieue ; Et la luno fu ausi clerement veue com me s'il fust 
nuis, et les cstoiles tout ensement. En che fu chertaiue 
senefiancho ko il serroit de toutes les celestienes uirtus 
curieus et ciicherkieiv^s ot urais couuissieres. Par 
icheles deinoustranchos fu la uatiuites a Te/ifant sene- 
fije. Et il fu raisous ; Car sa vie fu puis tele com la 
senefianche demoustra. Et les paroles qui chi aprcs 
venront en esclairont la vcrite. 



and this Child, had'^Calofere In prwown f«re 
Ful xvii dayes In that Manere.* 

So it be-happed, that the Sevententhe Nyht 
As he thero eat, I telle the Ryht, 4 

Vppon his Cowche to Slombren hym list, — 
he was so hevy, what to don he Nyst, — 
and as he was In his Slombrenge, 
hym thowghte he hadde a wondir Metenge, 8 

So that hym ^ouhte An hond there was, 
that be bothen Armes him held In that plas ; 
and, As A man that Slepte ful sore, 
the hond he wolde han put Awey thore ; 12 

and the Same hond him Cawht Agejrn, 
And A3en In his Slepe he it voided ful pleyn. 

thanne thowghte him that the hond tho 
alle his Chenes to-barst vnto, 
Mochcl mawgre Of him that there lay, 
Where-Offon he hadde A ful gret fray. 

and whanne he felte that it was so, 
Nethir Cryen ne spoke ne myhte he tho ; 20 

thanne Abasched was he ful sore 
Of the noyse that he herde thore. 
and whanne that vp^ he gan him dresse, 
and fclte him Self Owt of distresse, 24 

hyse hondes & Feet he gan drawen him to, 
and Felte vnbownde that he was tho, 
and that Alle his Chenes to-fom him lye ; 
thanne thanked he god ful Solempnie. 28 

Whanne he was Comen to the presown dore, 
That ful blak and dirk it was to fore, 
there Cam Owt tho A schyneng lyht, 
as thowh it were of A lyghtenyitg so briht ; 32 

thanne loked he Aboven his hed. 
And him thowghte he sawgh In f^/t sted, 

* Chelui enfant eiit calafier en prison auoeo aoti pera 
naacien. Si demoura naisciens bien .xvij. iduns en tel priaon cow^ 
Youa auci* oi. — A. 

TMt OeHdotnt, 
Cdafer* kaepa in 
inriaon with Na*- 
olmt for 17 dajra. 

On tlM ITth nlyht 
Naici«ttt drMuaa 

16 borate hit ehnlna. 

thia he's Ave. 

and rooiM to ttM 


Owt of the hovene there Aperid An hy 
Awbitoiuuid A fair whit hond, hym thowhte Trewly, 36 

Whiche that him har, as him thowhte, 

and Owt of that preson there him browhte 
wtthartd ann, Sowfe : the arm, Red as feer it was, 

as thike tyme him thowhte In that plas, 40 

Bflp^HueitiwMft Whiche hond him took by his her, 

ofttMprisoiibj '' ' 

UtiMir, and Owt of that prcsown bar him ther; 

and the sieve lokede as be semblaunse 
As Had as fir vrith-Owten variaunce ; 44 

but nonthing Ellis ne Myhte he Se^ 
but Onlycho the hond there Sekerle, 
Sowf be tlie Arm, him thowghte, I-voluped was 
the semblannce of a body In that plas ; 48 

bat the body Openly ne was not sein. 
As I sey ^ow In Certein ; 
and In this manere sawh Nasciens tho 
hond and body to-Gederis bothe two. 52 

iBdbtwtbfm And whanne that Aboven the Erthe he was there, 

that the Erthe he felte in non Manere, 
Wondirly Abasched he was Certeinlye, 
that what to done he Ne wiste trewlye. 56 

and thus the hand On lofte it bar him thar, 
that he ne wiste whedir-ward ne whar, 
Wheche that greved him Nothing, 
Nethir hire ne there In non thing ; 60 

Nethir be the beryng Of his her, 
It Greved him ryht nowher. 

and whanne In the Eir he was so hye, 
that Onne-the to y preson he myhte sen trwlye, 64 
^ane lad him forth this hond In hye — 
lik as this storie doth vs to vndirstond fallye — 

to odaftn't tyl he Cam to-fore Calafer, 

In his bed as he lay Sleping ther. 68 

and whanne to the dore that he gan gon, 
Ajens him it Opened there Anon^ 


bothe (lore posterne, and Ek the gate, 

and Owt this hond lad him there- Ate ; 72 Tbt Hand iMuia 

and Euero to fore the hond wente, 

& he it folwede with good Entente 

til the Maister Gate that he was past, Kmci«m ttironxk 

^ Cdatev't gate. 

Whiche gate gan to Chirken In hast, 76 

as though A man hadde ben there 
That Owt hadde stalked for drede & Fere. 
Whanne Nasciens was thens A stones cast, 
A3eu he lokcde Anon In hast ; 80 

anon him thowghte there In his Mynde 
that Al On fyre It was him behinde. 
and whanne the pcple Of the plase 
Aspiden that it On Fire wase, 84 

Gret Noise they maden, and deolfol Ciy, 
Wherwith Calafer A wook Sekerly, ooafcii^ Undinff 

thit IfMdtnn has 

and Open he fond bothe dore & Gate, Moapi, 

As Nasciens was gon Owt there-Ate, 88 

anon thanne to the presown dore he wente, 

that Al Open there was veramente ; 

Wondirly abasched thanne was he tho, 

that vndir hevene he Niste what to do. 92 

On Of his Seriawntes he Cleped Anon, 

and bad him Into )>• presown to Gon ; 

and whanne y presown he was with-Inne, 

Of Nasciens ne sawh he nef er more ne Mynne ; 96 

and wlianwe Calafer herde tellen Of this, 

Owt Of his wit he was with-Owten Mis, 

and 80 gret Sorwe he gan to Make, 

that Neue?'e Man gan so On take. 100 

thanne was browght to him An hois ther0, 
and Into the Sadel sprang Calafere, 
With a scharpe Swerd On honde ; 
and Al his Meyne that there gonno stonde, 104 

hem he Charged Aftir to hye, 
Euery Man be his weys sekerlye ; 





bat the Hand 
hide* and proteoU 

The Hand is 
brighter Uian 
ilie Ban. 

C.ilafere cannot 
find XtuicienB. 

So that a path there fond lie Anon, 

And In-to that path gan he to gon, 106 

& Evero was the hond Schineng to-fore, — 

a Wondirful liht As him thouhte there ; — 

the nyht, Pesible and fair it was, 

Ke A softere Nyht noncre ther« Naa, 115 

his hors he prekid wondirly faste, 
& loked forth to fom hem atte laste, 
and saugh where that Nasciens wente, 
for him he knew ful wel veramente, 116 

as he him Often to fome hadde sein, 
him thouhte it was he In Certein. 

and whanne Nasciens Say him come thanne. 

Anon wax Xasciens A ful sor^ Manne ; 130 

but Everc the hond him held ful faste. 

And him Ouer spradde there In liaste, 

that Openly thowght tho Nascien 

the body to the hond Sawh he then ; 124 

and so faste him thowhte it took him ther, 

that Neuere Ertbly tonge Cowde telle Er ; 

For it Was Of so Merveillous Clarte tho, 

so ful of brihgtcnesse, & hot Schiue/ig therto, 128 

that In the hattest day Of the ^er 

J)« son we not so briht is as the body was ther. 

Not be An hundred part Of Clernesse ; 

this putte Nasciens In Cloche sekemesse. 1S2 

but Natheles ful wondirfulli sore Adrad he was 

that he fyl In Swowneng In that plas. 

So that nethir he ne saw ne folte non thing. 

So sore was this Xascicns In Swowneng, 155 

thanno i)rekid ful ftiste this Calafere, 

and loked Abowtes bo the here and there, 

and In plase where f «t he say Nasciens ; 

But tho was not he In his presens ; ^40 

and Evere Abowtes he loked fasto, 

and Nothing he ne Say til at the laste, 



that Alio the weye & al the plas 

there As him thowhte that Nasciens was, 144 

him thowhte it was On flawmeTzg fer, — 

As him thouhte that tymes Calafer ; — 

And the Arm that was voluped In Cloth so Red, 

him thowhte it hronnc;2g fer In that sted, 148 

that so wondirlj Sore Abasched he was, 

that for Alle the world he ne dorste In that plas 

Not Ones Owt of his Sadil Alyhte, 

but down I swowneng he fyl ano» Ryht. 

For Of this Merveille so Sore Abascht he was, 

That ded I swowne/ig lay he In that plas. 

thus lay Calafer long In Swownewge, 
and homward his hors ful faste Rennenge 
From the place that he Cam fro, 
A gret pas homward gan he to go. 
And whanne that the peple of the howshold 
this hors thus Comenge Gonne beholde, 160 

And here lord was left behinde ; 
this was gret wondir In here Mynde, 
and Siker wenden here lord hadde ben ded, 
be Comeng Of the hors In that Sted. 164 

and whanne it Was On the Morwe lyht of day, 
Eche man Of his Meyne wente his way 
For to seken hem with here powere, 
^if Ony Of hem myhte him fynden there ; 168 

but they ne Cowde weten In non Manere 
"What weye that took this Calafere. 

but it happed. As they sowhten bo^* to & fro, 
that somme of hem there gonne to go 172 

Into the weye there that he lay ; 
Whiche was to hem A gret Afray, 
Whanne they syen here Lord ])ere ded. 
To Alle here syghtes In that sted ; 176 

There they gonnen him yp dressen Anon, 
brt foot On to stonde hadde he neu«re On ; 

GftUim thinks 
th« Arm Is barn- 
inf ftrs. 

152 H. 


156 Tbt hocw gallops 

CslsArt's BMO 

and And him 


MunpC, on llM 
right with ahftiid. 

and on the l«ft 
with a foot : 

the hand-mark 
ndas ftrt^ 

the ft>oi-markaa 
hiack as pitch. 

Calafere's men 
bear him home- 

bat he neither 
moves a limb, 
nor ipealie. 

thow A man scholde han smeten Of his hed, 

he ne myhte meven no» lyme In that stecL 180 

and than hehelden thej In his face^ 
And On the Eiht side fere was a spaoe^ 
As it were the forme Of An hond 
that him hadde towched, I yndirstond ; 184 

And On the lefte side hem )K>ahte they sje 
the forme Of A foot wel Sekerly, 
that loyned to the hond it was, 

WondirfuUy Bed In that plas, 188 

As Owt Of the Forneys Comen flawmes of fire ; 
So thowht hem the Markes of Calafere ; 
^hnt Only the Mark that Of the foot waa, 
As hlak As pich was In that plas : 193 

and his Nose, as ys it was Cold ; ^ 
Al thus his Maine On him gonne behold. 
For whanne he was Comen to his Ostel, 
and Adawed he was £che del, 196 

he cowde wel tellen Of Al tiling, 
Where-Offen he hodde gret MerveiDyng, 

and whanno they him fownde In thia Manere, 
they gon72o him dresse hom forto here, 200 

but In gret drede they weren Echon 
that membre no Meven Myhte he non — 
Nether Eye to Opene, ne mowth to speke ; 
lo ! thus god On him Nasciens gan wreke ; — > 204 

but Sekir they wende he hadde ben ded, 
For Of him ne Cowden they non Ofer Bed* 
And thus they boren him In this Manere 
hom to his plase with drede & fere, 208 

that neuere spak word be Al the weye, 
neper Eye ne Opened Certeinlye, 
Ne Nethir foot ne hond myhte to him drawe ; 
this was to hem A wonderful Sawo. 212 

'— ' Et 1i sains del pie estoit tout ausi noirt com «0t poiib 
Et si estoit li noirs ausi frois oom est glaohe ; et li Yermaua eii 
ausi oaus oomme fus. — A. 


and whaime to his hows with him they Come, 
Wif, Child, & his Meyne Al & some, 
Abowtes him ganne/» to drawen wel fasten 
and Alle Of him weren sore Agaste, 216 

that ded In the plase he hadde I-be, 
Nq no7i Othir thing Of him ne Cowde they se ; 
So that In A bod they dyden him leye 
Al 80 Eselye As they Cowde Certeinlye ; 220 

and alle, gret Mone Abowtes him they made. 
For there nas non that Oper cowde glade. 

And whanne it was abowtes the l^ooiiy 
Wondirly to Cryen he gan pere Anon ; 
and his wif to him Ean ful faste, 
as a womman that hadde gret haste, 
and wondirly Sore Afrayed 3he was 
Of his noise sche horde In that plas. 228 

And whanne he of his swown^/tg Awook, 
he Opened his Eyen, & gan yp6 to look ; 
and abowtes him thanne he loked pure faste, 
and water bad bringen At the laste, 232 

Forto qwenchen that fer so strongs 
that In his fase hadde brend so longe. 
thanne Eonnen forth his Seriawntes Anon, 
And Aftir water they gonne to gon, 236 

And Casten it On bothe Sides Of his &ce 
To quenchyn f • fyr in ^t place, 
thanne it semed to hem Eumchon 
that thike side was brent In to y bon ; 
And the bon, As whit it lay 
Lik as doth Chalk In y Clay ; > 
And the flesch that was pere Abowte, 
It semed ful Hosted with Owte;i dowte. 244 

' i. e. Boulder-drift clay ; saoh, for example, as is well seen 
near BIy, where, by a great down-throw fault, the chalk having 
been brought to the surftuse, subsequent denudation cut away 
the great cliff so formed, and a new depodt, in which the pieces 
of chalk are scattered about like suet in a badly made plum* 
pudding, filled the hollow.— -H. Seeley. 



224 wakM,tDdcrtes 

water to quMidi 
tht barniaf of 
tht handHnark 

240 but It te bant tc 
tht bona, 




Calaflm't toft- 
ebeek mark Is 
black and odd. 

When watarto 
thrown on it, 


Ha la wroth at 
hia coming death. 

Ha aaka abont 

And, on finding 
tliat he is not 

orders Celidoyne 
to be brought 
before him, 

And thanne the lefte Side they gonne beholden 
wheche fat was bothe blak & Colde, 
Of wheche he xnyhte sufEren non towcheng 
For non good Of Erthly thing ; 24S 

and whanne y water On that side they gonite to caste, 
A wondirfiil Cry he made atte laste, 
& with that he fyl In Swowneng, 
So that Of lif of him liadde non man supposing, 253 
but that fully ded he hadde I-be 
Euere w/t/z-Owten Ony Reconcre. 

and whanne Of swowneng he Cam Agayn, 
his Eyen Opened he thanne Certein, 256 

and seide, & pleynede him wel More, 
and seide that deth negheden him wel sore. 
thanne gan he to wrathen Anon, 

And seide, '' schal I deyen thus son, 260 

that thus am fallen In Maledye, 
and neuere In better poynt I was trewlye 
to han ly ved be 3eres and be day ; 
and now I trowe I passe my way ; " 264 

than7?e Cursed he the tyme that he was bore, 
that In Swich manere Scholde deyen thore. 

thanne whanne he was Awaked wondirly wel, 
after Nasciens Enqwered he Every deL 268 

thanne they Of his howshold ful Snelle 
Of him non tydinges ne Cowden they telle, 
Nethir tokene ne Signe In non degre ; 
and thus him they toldo thanwe Certeinlie. 272 

and whanne that he honle this tyding. 
Anon he til A^en there tho In swowneng. 

and whan wo Of his swownewg Awook he ]j<»re. 

he Coniauwded Anon fat In Alle Manere 
Anon Nasciens sone to-foren him bringe, 
and he scholde tellen him newe tydinge. 
And whanne to forn liim this Child gan gon, 
Thanne seide this Calafer to him Anon, 




* That On hiiu he wolde Avenged be, 

For his fader from him wente In that degre ; 

and for his dcseisse he Sufifred therfore, 

On hym Avenged he woldo ben thore.' 284 

thanne Comanded Sire Calafere 
that Child Anon forto Slen there, 
thanne fil down Calaferes wif Anon, 
and prcyde him this thing not forto don ; . 288 

*' and ^if Algates ^e welcn him Sle, 
In presoun stille so let him be, 
and Kathere hym Enfamyne there, 
thanne him to slen In this Manere." 292 

And he that was ful Of Coruptioun 
as Ony tigre, Other wille lyown, 
Owther Ony Other Savage beste 
that han non Kesou/t, neper lest ne meste, 296 

* but algates On him Avenged wolde he be, 
thowh that hira self there scholde [him] Sle.' 

thanne Cleped he his Seriawntes Anon fere, 
And Comau/ided f cit In to f towr they scholde him here 
In his be 1 ; Al so sik as that he was, 301 

he wolde be born In to that hyo plas ; 
and he Comanded Aftir him to bringe 
Xasciens Sone with-Owten tarienge. 304 

and they fulfilden his Comandement ; 
him they vpe boren verament ; 
and Afbyr hym, Celidoyne, Kasciens sone, 
For hym they maden ful gret Mone. 308 

and whanne this Celydoine was vpe I-browht, 
Calafer, this Terant, for-gat it nowht 
there that Child forto spille. 

Wit venamous herte & Evel wille. 312 

thanne Anon his seriawntes he gan to Calle, 
And Comanded the Child to throwen ouer the walle, 
that with his £yen ho myhte it sen. 
For sekir non Othirwise ne scholde it ben* 316 

and gwmn liell 
Uke vengeance 

on him. 

Chlaflnv't wife 
prays him not to 
klU CeUdoyne, 


Calafere hat 

op the tower uf 

and ordrn hie 
men to throw 
Celidoyne off it. 



Giditea^t men 

ttirofr OelidojnM 
ortr Um Iwttto- 

Wlien he !• in 

hands catch him, 

and hear Iiim 

Wherfoie deol & Soiwe thej maden Echon 
For that dede that they Beholden don ; 
but they ne dorste not Offenden his Comanitdemeiiti 
but Anon it fulfilde there present. 320 

ihej token vpe this Child Anon, 
And leften him Above AUe y werk Of ston ; 
and whanne Calafer him Sawh so h ye, 
down him to Caste he bad hem hje ; 334 

Anon his biddeug fulfil they there, 
and threweii him down In here Manei6 ; 
thanne this tyraunt gan vp to Rise 
To sen this Child taken his I-wise, — 328 

So ful he was Of Crwelte 
As Evere Ony tyraunt myht be ; — 
And whanne y Child was Middis his fallynge, 
AUe Aftir him loked with-Owten tarienge, 332 

and wende that to y Erthe he schold haue gon, 
and his lemes to-borsten Everichon ; 
but Anon As that they lokeden Owte, 
they sien ix. hondes that child Comen Abowte, 336 
that lik As Snow they weren so whit — 
Whiche to soim7;ie Of hem was gret delyt ; — 
and this Child they henten Anon 

In this Maner the Everichon, 340 

two hondes to the Ryht Arm they wente, 
and tweyne to J)* left Arm veramente, 
tweyne to the left leg, & tweyne to J' Rylite, 
and On to hed Openly In here syhte ; 344 

And In this Manere these Nyne hondia 
browhto Celidoyne Ow[t] Of Califeris bondis 
With-0wte7i Ony Of the Erthe towching : 
tliis was to Calafer gret Merveillyng ; 343 

and Evere he lay and beheld ful faste 
tyl that the Child was fer from him paste ; 
and whanne this beheld Sire Calafere, 
that this Child was boren so fer, 359 



For sorwe he fil In swowneng Anon. 

thanne Owt Of that towr Gan per gou, 
of wondirful dirknesse gret plente, 
that non Of hem Mihte Oper there se ; 356 

and aftir this dirknesse there spak A voysse, 
that AUe they herden A wondirful Noisse, 
that ' to him whiche was Groddis Enemy, 
veniawnce to him scholde Neyhen ful ny.' 360 

and Anon As this word was seide there, 
Ful wondirfol Noise, & In dredful Manera. 
It Gan to thondren & lyhtene ful faste, 
that semed Al the £yr scholde to-berste^ 364 

and that it were ful domesday ; 
thus weren thoy Alle In gret Afray, 
So that Alle the Meyne that weren there 
Forsoken here lord Calafere 368 

that stille lay swo^vne;}g In that tour ; 
hym they forsoken with mochel dolour. 

And Anon As from him they weren I-went, 
A Fyr from hevene Com there present, 
and Of that towr hit smot the left partie 
down Into the Middes ful Sekerlye, 
In whiche partie that lay Sire Calafere. 
So veniablely was he Slayn there, 376 

that £r to the Erthe he Cam A-down, 
the pecis of his body fledden In-virown, 
and non of his Other Meyne 

hadden non harm In non degre, 380 

Sawf Only for drede In here syht, 
that In here hertes they weren Afryht ; 
for Cristened thei were;* Everichon, 
and Chosen his plesaunse to don, 
and to the Trenite they hadden hem take. 
And forsaken Alle the develis so blake. 

behold what God wile for his man do I 
him kepen from Evel for Evercf Mo ! 388 

Thick ilarknMs 


A Toiet prooUlmt 

T«ngt«iioe agmintt 
God's eiMtny. 

Thunder and 

A fli%*bolt fttm 
372 toftoftlMTowtr, 

CaUfert't bodj 

384 not hart. 



elanamnd CMi- 
doyiM ftl about. 

r^oioM at It. 

The Barona haar 

and come to 
excuse to Sarra- 

their connent to 
(.'uIm fere's couusel 
U* iiuprison 

And thus, now As je ban herd here told, 
paste this Calafer, that was So hold. 
From worldly lif to Evere-lastyng pejne. 
As this storie thus doth vs to seyne. 39i3 

and thus sone thorw al the Contre 
this word gan Springe Certcinle, 
how that Nasciens Owt of preson was gon — 
Where-Oflfen weren glad ful Manion, — 39$ 

And Of his Sone Also there, 
how that he Aschaped, Sc in what ^lan^re. 

And whanne Saracynte herde Of this tydyng, 
Ful loyful sclie was In Alle thing, 400 

And beleved it ful Certeinlye 
that it was tborwh goddis Mercye, 
and tborwh him they weren vnbow7tde 
Where so Evere they were?! that ilke stovmde ; 404 
Wol wiste sche be Crist it Was I-don^ 
Alle these poyntes tbanne Everichon. 

thanne Alle the Barowns that Of p* Hem. were 
To Sarras to qwene Saracynte Comen there, 408 

Whanne they wisteu the trewthe Of deli 11 emu nee 
That Xasciens was hiij)pcJ Swich A chau/^ce, 
and Of the veniau/ice Of Cahifere 

That Grod Sodeinly On him took there ; 412 

thanne thus they dowted hem Everychon, 
lest God veniau/ice hem Wolde senden vppoii, 
For here fals Wil and Concentyng, 
Of Nasciens & his sones presoueng. 415 

thanne Come/i Alle to the qweene Anon, 
and Criden hire Mercy Everichon, 
that hire Brother En-prisoned so was 
be here Consentyn In that plas ; 420 

And seyden * J) it it was Only Al & som, 
Only be Calafcris ymaginacioun ; 
Wherfor, God hath veniau/ice on him take 
Openly, As we kuowcw, for Xascicns sake.* 404 



and for they Syen that God Of his Myht 

hadde schewcd swich miracle to Alls Mennes siht, 

there-fore Mercy they gonne to Crye 

To qwene Saracynte ful lowlye : 428 

" Now, goode laily, ^oure brother don seken je, 

In what Contre that So Evere he be, 

And we scholen putten vs In his Mercy — 

bothe Owre bodyes, & Owre Good pleynly, — 432 

With vs to done At his plesaunce, 

To what presown, or to what Noisaunce." 

and whannc qwene Saracinte herde hem thus s<^ye, 
Wei glided hire herte was Certeinlye. 436 

Anon sent sche Messangeris fyve, 
And Chained hem AUe vppon here lyve, 
And took hem I-nowh of gold & Fee, 
& Charged hem to Serche;* In Eche Contre, 440 

Al 80 longe As Good & hors wolde Endure, 
To sechen hire Brothir sche made hem Ensure ; 
And for non man Schold han hem In Suspesciou/i, 
lettres Enseled with Good Entenciouw, 
Enseled vndir hire Owne Sel, 
the bettere men hem to knowe?i & leven wel ; 
And In that lettre dide sche don wryte 
As wel as that sche Cowde Endyte, 448 

Of hire lordis Avicion Certefyengo, 
pat he hadde the Niht to-foren his^ goynge. 

thus the Messengcris here leve took, 
that lorue to done, & it not forsook ; 452 

Forto fulfillen hire Comauwdement, 
Alle forth they wente/t with good enteut. 

Now Moste/t we leven A while this storye. 
And to Anothir Storye We ^losten hye, 456 

Whiche that Certefieth Of Nasciena Wif, 
That leveth In Wo, bothe Sorwe & stryf. 

in«rc7 for tb«ir 
erueltj to Nm- 

and oAer to nuikt 
ft(on«iD«Dt for it. 


■endi &▼• Ifat- 
Mugen toMek 

for h«r iMOtlMr 

444 withktt«ra 

dMcrfMnff If or- 
dreiiM'a Viakxi 

(p. tf9— SSS). 

The Story tarns 









Of Nasciens's wife, Ficgcnfync. How beautiful and good she 
is (p. 322), and bow she loves her bunlmnd. She ie 
dispossesst of her lands (p. 323), and takes refuge with 
an old trusty knight, Carsopines, to whom she has been 
kind. He puts his goo<lri and life at her disposal ; 
but she sorrows for her lord and her son. Queen 8ar- 
racynte a»ks her to come to her, that they may comfort 
one another (p. J524) ; hut she refufies, so Sarracynte goes 
to fetch hor. WhtMi they meet, their grief bursts out 
afresh (p. 325) ; but Sarracynte recovers first, and en- 
treats FIctTcntyno to return with her (p. 326). Flegen- 
tyne again refuses, saying she must stop with her old 
knight She still sorrows (p. 326), till she hears that 
her lord, Nai*ciens, and her son, have escapt out of prison 
(p. 327). She dreams that a voice says they are in the 
West ; and asks a provost of the church what her dream 
means (p. 328) ; then she asks the old knight (p. 829) ; 
and he advises tiiat they set out, with his son Helycaors 
as their yeoman, to seek Nasciens and his son (p. 330). 
Flegentync agrees (p. 331) ; the knight gets money, kc ; 
and the three start (p. 382), with four horses, towards 
Barras, journeying westwards (p. 333) : they come to the 
river Arecuse, lotlge near the Castle of Emeliani (p. 834), 
and enter Calam}nie (p. 335).' 

Thus this Stone forthero gynnoth precede, 

that whanne Xascicns to proson gou they lede, 

and his sone thcrc-Iiine with him I-do, 

Whioho was to him botho peyne & wo, 4 

And al his lond I-sesid it was tho ; 

and his wif Owt put Of Eu^ry plas also, 

that an hy bom worn/?? an Avas, & of good lyvenge, 

and therto here fadir was a k}Tige. 8 

this lady was So fiil Of bewte, 
For a fairere womman !Myhte non man se, 
for thus Of hire telleth the Storye, 
woman that erer that more be wte hadde sche Sckcrlye 12 


thanne Alle the wom7nen Erthly bom 
that Evere Ony !Man Sawh leveng befom ; 

» In the Additional MS. 10202, this chapter— or rather, the 
illustration at the hoad of it — is howled ** Ensi que J. cheualier 
amaine j enfant a la duchoiso Ic femme nascien ; " and Hely- 
caors is represcnte<l as a small hoy. 

Vtadioa's wUb 

moat Uautiftil 



And to these bewtes sche hadde bownte, 
Corteys and gentil In Alio Man^r degre ; 
lowlich to Every Creature, 
and large to God, I tlie Ensure ; 
and A3ens hire lord & Soverein 
debonewre & ful trowe Certein, 
and Cliaste Evero In his Absence, 
bothe humble & Mek In his p^-esence ; 
therto sche him loucdo above/i al erthly thyng ; 
Non wondir thowh this lady made Momeng ; 
For so gret sorwe & mome7?g sche Mode, 
that non ^lan ne Myhte hire hcrte glade. 

thus was the Condisciown Of this lady fre, 
as 30 han herde Rehersed here be me ; 
and this ladyes Name was Flegentyne, 
A ful worthy lady, and A benyngne. 
Wetes wel, whanne sche haddo knowenge y* 
that hire lord was In presown IhIo, 
Ful gret sorwe sche took to herto. 
And Manie peynes sche hadde, & smerte. 

and In the moste Sorwe that sche was In;ie, 
This false Calafer ne wolde not blynne, 
but putten hire Owi Of alle hire londis, 
and be-Refte Clone Ow[t] of hire hondis. 

thanne was this lady At Orbory tho, 
In ful mochel deseisso sche was do ; 
and thedir here lome tho sche Mad, 
Wenewg hire lord Owt Of prison han had ; 
but Euere Calaferis Conseyl was presente, 
and for nothing thereto wolde assento, 
As this Storie here After doth tolle 
Al to-gedores how it be-felle. 

and whanne pis goodo lady say it was ^, 
That' husbonde Child & lond was argo, 
thanne was sche In passinge Mornyng 
>Vlianne sche herde teUen Al this tydyng ; 

16 SlMb 

20 trot, and duuto. 

24 Sli* moonu for 


HeriuuiM b 


36 (Mmtfinrm 
her out of all 


and preranU her 
getting Naarlena 


48 [1 MS Than] 


Thanne wiste sche neu^;'o "what forte do ; 
Fiigwtynt but to An hvgh good levere sche drowh hew vnto, 52 

cmicalU an old 

TAvMoor (undei^ An old vauasouF, A fid gentil knyht 
(,i.s58), that Inne sche trostcd with Alio hire Myht, 

For norro he was to hire sone so dere,* 

that him tauht bothe nortnre & Manere, 56 

and scho hadde him Encresed Also, 

From poverte In to worschepe I-do 

And him joven to-fom that Owr 

Manie lowelis of gret honoure ; 60 

whom siM inuto Wherfore In him gan sche hire AfTye 


Aboven AUe Other tho Sekerlye. 

thanne flegentyne to thys vauasonr wente, 

A sorweful womman, and ful dolente. 64 

and whanno this vauasour gan hire Aspie, 
that it was his lady Certeinlye, 
Anon with herte, body, & thowht, 
he thanked God fcit thedir hire browht, 68 

And Rescey\'ed hire ful worthily, 
As his lady Ss sovercin ful debonerly, 
HopaiihiinMif With hertc, Body, & Al his good tho, 

mmI hii goods at f-g^ 

hw wnrto*. At hire Comandemont to ben I-do. 72 

but Evere this Lidy hadde In herte 

hire lorde, hire sono, that dide here smerte, 

"VVhecho scho lovedo Ouer Alle thing. 

So that to hire mylito Comen non Comforteng. 76 

Qncen Sarreqrnu Thanno tho qwccno Sarmcynte, hire soster dere, 

praj* Flegentjmo 

To flegentyne sento In this Manero, 
and preide here, * for Alio Gentelnesse, 
For sostcrhed, & for Alio kendenesse, ' 80 

and In slakyng Of hire peyno & wo. 
Deaf 27] that sclio woldo Comen hire vnto, 

to come and tov 

row with htr. that Ech of hem Other myhte Comforte, 

and Ech In here Angwisch to Other Eesorte/ 84 

* et chil auoit estc tous iours maistres a son fil. — A. See 
p. 332, 1. 336. 



tlianne Flogentyne thanked here of hire message, 
as womman that was of high parage, 
and hire preide *J)at schc sholde not with hire mysplcse, 
Por to hero it no were nethir Comfort no Eso ; 88 

Sethen fat with hire lord sche hadde loye & honour, 
It is worthi be hire selves to sutfro peyne & dolour ; 
For I ne Am not to good therto. 
For my lord to suffren bof^ sorwo & wo ;' 92 

and In this Manere sche sente to Say 
To qwene Saracynte this ilke day. 

and whanne the qwene herde of this tydynge, 
that Flegentyne wold Comew for non thinge, 96 

Sche wente hire Self, In hire peysone, 
that lady to bringe/i Owt of hire Mone, 
So that this Sarracynte weute forto seke 
this duchesse Flegentyne that was so meke. 100 

and whanne to-Gederis ]Metten these ladyes trewo, 
thanne gan AUe here sorwes Kenewe ; 
to Grownde bothe In Swowncng fille, 
that non Of hem Myhte speken Other vntille ; 104 
For so gret sorewe they Maden bothe, 
that to y peple xVbowtes it was ful lothe ; 
For Grettere Sorwe Sawgh neiiere ^lanyio 
than^ be-twene the two ladyes was than/io ; 108 

Fill mochel was the Cry & the Aveping, 
that be-twene hem two was, & y ^Monieng ; 
And longe it was Er they myhten Speke, 
Ofer Ony word Eifer myhte Owt-13reke. 112 

^it Atte laste this qweene Sarracynte 
Of hire Morneng Som what gan to stynte. 
And, As a wis AVDm/wan and a Redy, 
To this dwchesse sche spak ful gentelly, 116 

And hire sche peyned In ^Ule thing 
To Restreynen hire from weping. 
And spak ful goodly to this dwchesse, 
hire to bringen Owt Of hire distresse ; 120 

thunks Sam- 

tmt declines to 
come to her. 

So Queen Sam- 
cynte f^toi to 


P If S that] 
erjt tnd moarn. 

Then the Qncen 
comfurte Flo- 


BvneTBtttRaia and In the Ende scbe preide Ynre So 

bega FlagantjM <■ i i i 

to go homo with that sche wold With hire Go, 


<' And swich Comfort I wolde }ow make. 

For my dere brothir ^oure lordis sake 124 

that we ben so mochel bownden to : 

jif ony Comfort to jow Cowde I do." 

but this duchesse, this lady &e, 
Nolde therto Assente In non degre, 128 

btAt weu t M and Excused here ful ladyly, 

MdHunaiwii 'Hhat In non Othir felischipe trewly 

■taj with 

OuMptiMti thanne In that vauasour, that Olde knyht, 

Bche nolde not Comen be day ne be nyht ; 132 

and Ek to hire were it worschepe non 

From that vauasour forto goon, 

For my Compenye he Nele forsake, 

Ne I ne may his, Anothir to take ; 136 

For In his Compenye have I be 

Sethen myn Exil was put to Me, 

and In his Compenie I wele Abide 

Tjl to my duchorie A^en I Come som tyde. 140 

FoTj goods lady, moche lasse deseisse Sufire I here, 
wm iht with ihanne In jowre Compenye jif I were, 

For nether Of vs Other Myhte se 

tiMMR0v«fboch But Owre sorwe Aten renewed scholde be, 144 

of thm would 

biwkthairhMrti. Ne nethir Of vs Of Our^ lordis to spake, 

the Sorwe wolde maken Owre hertes broke ; 

to heren Ony thing Of here deseisse. 

In Alle thinges it scholde vs Misplese ; 148 

and therfore, Myn Owne lady & Soster so dere» 

haueth me Excused In this Manere." 

Ful Mochel hevynesse & sorwe mode this qweenne 
Whanne that sche Sawh it wold not bene, 152 

and that the vauasour sche nolde forsake, 
Ful mochel sorewe sche gan to Make, 
and that sche nolde for non preyere 
With hire forth gon In non Manere. 156 


And whanne non Other wise thannc Myhte it go, Qne«» SMtM/mt 

lioiuwardos a^cn thauno torucd sche ilio ; 

and to hire Self sche Made gret Moue 

that J)* duchesse non Otherwise wohle done. ICO 

And Every day thus fenle this qweene, 
that sorwen & Weping made hedene ; 
and thus ferde sche ful ^laiiye A day, 
that Man ne womwian hire Comforton may; 164 

And Evere beleft this duchesse stille Piagwi^yne 

remains irlth 

With the vauasour, As it was hire wille, CanopUMt. 

And Evere hire Sorwo was lich newe ; 

So good sche was, & Of love so trewe, 1C8 

that Xeuere man ne iKm wommsLU. 

In that digre myhte ComfurteTi hire tlian, 

til that it fyl vppon A day Then tbt imn or 

NasolcDs's Mflipf) 

that tydynges to hire Come/t verray, 173 

that Nasciens, hire lord So fro, 

Owt of prisouw was skapcd Certeinlie. 

and whanne Of this tydinges herdo scho telle, 
Somme Comfort In hire herte hefidle, 176 

and better Semblaunce sche gan to Make, 
that hire lord Owt of preson was take ; 
And also that hire Bone so dere and CeUdojriM'a 


"Was Asckaped In that Manerc. 180 

So it be-fyl that the seventhe Nyht oii the 7th night 

After that Xasciens owt of presown was dyht, 

And as In hire bed that Xiht sche lay, — 

and hadde not slept ful mani A day, 184 

What For grot Mono & for Weping, — 

at the Last sche fyl In A slombering, 

So, what for weping & werynesse, 

hire herte hadde longe ben In distrcsso. 188 

And as sche lay In hire Slombering, 
Sche thowghte echo hadde A ^lerveiUous Metyng ;^ •hadmnw 

' Ensi com ele aoumilloit si 11 auint vue auisious. — A. 


thM tht MM Sche thouhte sche Say In hire Avisiown 

bv. Xasciens hire loid, bothe hoi & sown, 193 

stonding to fore hire hed there, 
toOiaf iHrthat that to hire Seide In this Manere : 

** Swete soeter, sixt thow not Me 

that thus here stonde to fore the 1 196 

Into a for Contre I am I-browht, 

thorw him that vs alle hath bowht, 
be to In A ter Into a placB fer be weste, 

euttuuy to Um 

veil. there that goode lord liketh beste ; 200 

wheche plase & weche Contre 

he hath me Ordeyned In forto be, 

and there my seed forth forto bringe, 

hym to worschepe & honotfrenge." 204 

N«zt moraine and On the ^lorwen whanne sche Awook, 

Gret merveil Of this Arisioun sche Took ; 

and In as moche As sche hadde non ful knoweng 

Of that Avisions Signefieng, 208 

the firste werke sche dide tho, 
■hegoMtocfaoroh, To hoU chirche sche gan to go, 

there forto horen Goddis Servise, 

As Everi day it was hire Gyse. 212 

nnd then beg» And whaune -iVlle the Scr\'ise was I-do. 

A doan (r) to 

Anon to A provost sche gan to Go, 
And told him Of hire A-visiown, 

how fat it was, Al & sown,^ 216 

And preido that provost, for Charite, 
pray God to For hire to preyen to the Trenite, 

toll her the '' . 

meaning of her ' that ho woldc scuden hire som Tokeneno^ 


Of that Avisiou??8 Signefieng.* 220 

And thus sone sche tomed Ageyn 
To [the] vauasours hows In Cortein, 
that biro Comforteth As he Can, 
For to hire he was A ful trewe man. 224 

' For * al & Bom ; * see 1. 396. 



tliauno this ladi this vauasour In Cownseil Gan to ritKfntjmuiu 

CanopioM hu 
Calle, tMoo, 

and him tolde how that hire it gan be-falle 

In hire Avisiown this Othir Niht ; 

Al him sche tolde Euene Owtriht. 228 

thanne Answered tliis vauasour to hir^ Agejn, 

" that theke Avisiown in Certein — 

be the helpe of God and the holy Eoode — 

Scholde here tome to worschepe & goode ; 232 

Neuertheles, lady, vndirstonde je Me, 

that I wele ben Redy in Eche degre 

to fulfillen ^oure ComauTzdement 

In alle degrees. And joure Entent." 236 

and whanne the lady horde of his benyngnete, 
In Alle things that so profred he. 
For loye In herte sche gan to wepe, 
that of hire he took so gret kepe ; 240 

thanne iinswerid sche, " with herte & wills, 
And m}Ti preceptis thow wilt fulfille, 
the behoveth with me forto^ go 
Into what plase that I preie 30W to." 244 

thanne Answerid this vauasowr Ageyn 
to that worschepful duchesse : " Certein, 
^e ne Connew not Seyn, ne Comauwdon me, 
that I nel fuliille In eche degre 248 

Evere As ^owre Owne pore Beileman." 
And thus to liire the vauasour Seide than, 
" And what Compenye that sche wele have, 
I schal 30 w gete to bringen 30 w Save." 252 

thanne Answered the lady tho, 
'* that Compenye wele I no mo 
but Only ^oure Owne Sengle persone ; 
"We tweyne to gederis to gon Alone ; 256 

For I wolde kepen it So pi-evyle 
That non lyveng man wiste but I & je." 

* M6 forto to 

and Mkt him 

to go with her 
whiUMT ih* wiU. 

He promiaM to 
do to. 

8h« wUhet to 
Uk« no on* elM. 





with them M 
thflir yeooiAa. 

8h« ought to 
have A MiTMity 

M lie, Canoplnes, 
is old. 

and his son can 
help them both. 

TLanne Answerid this vanasowr : 
" lady, I desire jowre Grete honour ; 2W 

I wele 30W telle now my Cownsaille, 
^if Owht to jowre wit it May Avaylie, 
Myn Eldest Sone with vs scha] go, 
3if 3e thinken best that it be so, 264 

and stondcn vs In ^omannes Servise, 
In what dcgre that ^e welen him devise. 
And wete ^e wel, that In Certeyne 
he wolde Suffren As moche peyne 268 

As Ony man here myhte Endure, 
30W to plese, I jow Ensure ; 

but, lady, take 30 this speche in noy> swich degre. 
In Ony thing that I scholde wcaththen the, 273 

but that I wele ben Redy bothe Nyht & daj 
To don thing that 30W plesen May, 
And for 30W to suiTren peynes & Owtrage 
As Ony man May don Of My Age. 276 

But, worschepful lady, vndirstonde je me, 
that it Fallet nouht for 30wr6 d^re, 
"With-Owten A 8ervau77t forto gone 
Into Ony plase, 30 & I Alone. 280 

and 3 if with-Owtew Servauwt Jwt we go, 
And Ony uiysaventure Come 30W to, 
Goode lady, how scholde I 3owe be-weldo, 
that Am an Old man, & smeteft Into Elde ? 284 

and whanwe we Couion Into Ony straunge Centre, 
and Ony mys-Aveuture befalle to Me, 
tban/ie my Sone May don vs bothe Ese, 
lady, botlien 30W & Me to plese. 288 

and how so it stonde In Ony Other degre, 
^oMTQ Man & Servauwt I wil ben sekerle ; 
And my sone schal ben Owre Servaunt, 
lady, 3if 3ourc herte Mowe perto grawnt ; 292 

and I as non knyht ne wil not be, 
but as 30ure Servau/it In Eche degre ; 


Por what deseisse that I Suffre maj^ 

for 30 w I wele don Every day. 206 

Xow that JO han herd myn Entent, 

Of 30W now wolde I weten present 

how that 30 thinken be this CownsaiUe, 

jif it Ony tiling to 30W may Availle ; 300 

for, lady, ful fain weten I wolde, 

jif that to this Cownseil 30 wolde w holds," 

thanne Consented that lady ful wel 
To this knyhtes Cownsail EveridcL 

Thanne bespak this^ lady Anon, 
" Sire knyht, I wold that wo weren gon ; 
For In loye schal I neuere ben Sekerlye 
tyl that my lord I se with bodily Eye, 308 

therfore this viage now wele I go, 
jif God his wills with me wile do ; 
but I ne wolde for non worldly good 
that Non Creature it vndirstood, 312 

but Onliche thi self, thi sone, and I, 
Of this purposeng now trewely." 
** lady," Seide this vauasour thanne, 
" that ther nys leveng non Erthly Manne 316 

that more gladly this viage wil vndirtake 
thauTie I wele, for my lordis Sake ; 
and this Cownseil to 30 w I wolde han seid be-fore, 
but that Of on thing me dredde ful sore, 320 

that me je wolde not haven In Compenye, 
And this I dredde ful Sekerlye." 

thanne preide Anon this lady so fre, 
' that Anon Redy ho wold be. 
And him Silver & Gold to Ordeyne, 
And what scho myhte sche wolde hire peyne, 
For bothen pore & Naked was sche Mad ; 
that Of Al hu« good but litel sche had.' 328 

Neuertheles this Olde gen tyl knyht, 
To his power dide Al his Miht, 

^ MS thi« this 

Flcftntyn* agreet 
304 pioM't Mm. 

81m begt him to 
■Urt at onc« to 

and provide 
ID0IMI7 for ibdr 
324 joanuj. 



CnrwiptaiM gctt 
moiwy and 

and t«llt his wifii 
that Flef^entTiu 
it going to I 

(.'anopinea, and 
bU aon Haljcaon 

tUrt on their 


and purveied him Of Gold & Of tresowr, 
and of Mani A lewel of gret valowr ; 
For At that tyme more hadde he 
Thanite Xasciens and flegeut^^ne Certeinle. 
Of this the vauasowr dide Moche things 
be Encheson Of hire sones Xorscheng.* 

And On the Morwe whanne it gan dawe, 
this goode lady was f ul fawe ; 
anon to Chirche sche gan to Gon, 
As hire Olde Custom was to don ; 
And whiles that sche At Chirche was, 
this vanasour to his wif told the Cas, — 
how that his lady wolde go 
to visits qweene sarracynte tho, — 
So that here Sadelys he did Owt take, 
and here hors Eedy forto make ; 
and as sone as sche from Chirche gan gon, 
to here hors they wenten Anon, 
bothe the lady and the yaoasotir, 
And £k his sone In that stowr — 
hos Name Avas Clepj'd helycaors,^ 
A semly pcrsone Of Membris & Cora ; — 
and his Fadir Cursopines hyhte ; 
An Awnciel Man, and A vaillau/it knyhte. 

Thus this lady took leve tho 
At tho vauasours wif, & forth gan go ; 
So dide hire howsbonde & hire sone In fere, 
and wenten forth with Meri Chere ; 
But this vauiisour wolde not In non wise 
to his wif discoueren his Scrv'ise, 
and that ho Scholde non ferthere Go 
but to Sarras, to the qweene tho, 









' Car na^ciens et la douchoise Pauoient moult enriohi, poor 
Tamour de lor fil ke il nourrissoit. — A. 

' Et Bes iit^x li aisn&s qui estoit apieles helicoras^ ohe d»t li 
conies. Et ses peret' auoit noni cordapias. — A. 


For Flegentyne hire woldo Se, 

What Planer of Comfort with liiro myht be ; 364 

For non Othirwiso ne dorste he do, 

For his lady Comauwded him so. 

thus sone iiij hors we^e7^ browght forth there, 

And Anon they thre weren horsid In fere, 368 

and the fourthe hors the Somer bar,^ 

the weche whcrto was Ordeined thar, 

that was Charched with diue/-s ^lone, 

With hem to have In Eche Contre. 372 

And whanne Owt Of that toww they paste, 
Streiht to Sari-as they tonied Atte laste ; — 
and thus dide the vauasour tho, 

For they scholdew Sew hem toward sarras go ; — 376 
and that weye hchlen they ful Ryht 
til they weren A M'de Owt of y peples Siht. 
thanne bespak this vauasowr tho, 
and seide, " lady, how wele je now go 380 

For to Seken My lonl & jourc, 
Whiche that is Man Of honoure ; 
For I suppose In Min ^fynde, 

36 no weten in what Contre him to fyndo ; 384 

and Sethen tliat 30 knowe/i non Certeinto 
In what Contre that he Scholde be, 
So Mosten we Seken be Aventuro 
In what Contre to fyndon him Sure." 388 

" For sothe," quod the lady Ageyn, 

" I n' wot neuere Into what Contre Certein 

Sikerly him forto fynde — 

My worthy lord So Goode & kynde ; — 392 

but In As Moche As that ho tolde Me 

* that westward Algates Scholde he be,* 

(thus thowhto me In Myn Avisiown 

that he Seide Al & Som ;) 396 

' et li quars fu vns soumieB, qui ious estoit caries de 
deniers mounees, et d*or et d*nrgcnt en plate, et de TaisBele- 
mente moult riche et moult biele. — A. 

with 4 boniOT, 
the 4th b««rliD| 
their loggairt. 

Thej flnt take 
Uie Sarrms road. 

and then Cnrvn* 
plnefi asks whither 
thfj shall tnni. 

Weetward, ■ \y% 



80 they turn 

and erott the 
river Arecuae, 

that rone totrards 

At night they 
fctop at a house 
next the Cattle 
of Emeliani, 

and In the 
morning Journey 

(on Booonnt of 
the Saracens) 

Wherfore westward, I telle it the. 

My herte falleth Most he Scholde be." 

thanne torned they Aweye On J)* Rjht hond. 

And thus sone a water there they fond ; 4<)0 

Anon fill sone that water they paste. 

That toward Orbery Ran In gret haste, 

Whiche water * Arecuse ' was Cleped tho, 

that to Orbery warJis wente tho. 404 

So longe they Reden til it was Eve, 

For the sonne hire lyht began to leve, 

thanne was scho At hire owne londis £nde, 

thike gcntil lady so good & hende. 403 

And there here In they token Anon,^ 

In a Rial plase of lym Ss of ston 

that next the Castel of Eroelianz stood, 

that marched^ next to })• dwehie On fat flood. 412 

And On the Morewe ful Erly sche Kos, 
And In hire weye forth sche gos. 
For that Aparceyved sche ne wolde not be, 
for scho was there at Swich poverto ; 416 

and sche dide it be good Resoun, 
^For Al that Contre there In-virown, 
they werc/i Sarad^'nes Evericlion, 

and hatede alle Cristene be On & On ; 420 

and Ek hem Of Orbori & Of Sarras 
these Saradiues hatede In Every plas. 

' Si prisent ost«>l do mult haut cure. — A. 

^ borderd : * qui marchisoit a la duchee qui estoit apieles 
emoliftns.' — A. 

*— ^ Car cbil de chel chastiel, et de tout le pais enuiron, 
estoient sarrasin; si haoieiit cliiaua de sarras et d'orbcrike 
pour ohou quMl s'estoient crestione. Et quant il orent chel 
chastiel eslongle Terrure de .v. lieues. Si entrerent es vaus de 
calamine, en vne lerre qui mult e^t plentieueuso de nart et de 
cynamome et de basme. Tant esrerent ke il vinrent ao tierch 
iour a vne chite mult ricbc, qui auoit noa Mussane.* Si estoit 
maistres sieges del roiaume le roi de meocide. — A. The names 
are ' luisance ' and ' mcotide ' in Addit. MS 10,292, leaf 2a, 
col. 3. 


thanno past they forth owt of that contre tho, 
And Into Calamyne they gonne to go.* 424 tooy«njnt. 

Now Of this dwchesso here leveth this stone : Thwe w imv 


And to the Messageres we Mostcn hye, 

that Sire Nasciens Sowghten Every wliere, 

In Eche Contre, both fer & Xere ; 428 

^but fill longe it is, I vndirstonde, 

£r that these Messengcres Sire Xasciens fonde ; 

And how Xasciens fond his ton<?e sone »«<* *o™ ^ 

-^ ° h«r hothftiMl 

that with him in presown was done ; 432 n^mWii*. 

wherfore, of Al Erthly thing, 

For his wif & him was his Momeng.^ 


Of NAsaENS on the " 17 Tornearcnt/* IIow the hand bore 
Nasoiens to a Turning Island, the name and nature of 
which it is the duty of the History to expound (p. 337). 

[The exposition accordingly in the French MS. only. 
At the beginning of all things, when Qod separated the 
four elements, he set the heavens above the earth and sea 
as a covering (p. 337), as they were contrary to one an- 
other, the heavens being hot and light, the earth cold 
and heavy. And because the foul earth toucht heaven and 
dirtid it, God divided them, making the heavens clear and 
warm, and the earth cold and heavy. The dross of the 
elements, the rust of the earth, and the sediment of the sea, 
could not mix with earth and water, nor with the heavens, 
for they were foul, and the heuvens pure (p. 338) ; and the 
flame from heaven could not return to it, as being cor- 
rupted. (So little from the air was in the mass, that it 
need not be noticd.) Therefore, as the mass could not go 
to any one of its element-sources, fire or heaven, earth or 
water, it stopt in two, earth and water. For God willd it 
should be in the t<ea ; and because one part was from 
heaven, it swam lightly (p. 339), and floated into the 
Western Sea, between Ovagrive [MS. oh a grive] and Ti- 
ger*8 Harbour, where was great store of Adamant or Load- 

Et ne-pourquant anchois ke il die des messages, oonteni 
il coument nasciens vint el lieu ou li message le trouerent, et 
comment il trouuerent celidone son fil, ke il anoit laiftiiet en la 
maison calafier ; dont ses cuers estoit plus a malaise ke de nule 
riens viuant 


stone, which loves iron above all thiDgs, and will notkne 
it when it onoe gets hold of it, unless it i« obligd to. S& 
when this mass of shakings came to the place of the 
Adamant, it stopt And its heavenly heat made the whole 
mass light, and the mass remaind in the sea, and wss etOd 
an island. But no herb or tree or beast or bird wsi oo tt 
Also the isle tnmd every time that the firmsnmt « 
heaven turnd ; and this is why it was calld Tl IknuamX 
(p. 340).] 

How, when Nasciens awakes from his swoon, he ii 
much abasht, but still stedfast in his belief, like Job (pc 
d41). How he bears all his troubles as patiently s« Jolv 
and thanks God (p. 342). How the Turning Ifle ii 
barren and very hot, and Nasciens is weary and braiii 
and so lies down to sleep, making the sign of the crcM 
(p. 843). He sees in a vision white birds (p. 843), ind 
two come to him, and tell him to fly. He perceive thst 
he has wings. The birds come again, and ask him 
for his heart to eat He givs it them, and they rejoiee 
(p. 344), and speak to him. On awaking, he feeU the 
isle trembling, and hears a marvellous battle in the fcs 
(p. 345) ; the Adamant and the Firmament trying whidi 
will turn the isle, and the Firmament winning (p. 346). 
One end of tlie isle turns down, and the other sp^ 
though it is eighty miles round and fifty. seven kN^ 
(p. 347) ; which is no lie, for this Holy Story was written 
by Christ with his own hand (p. 848) ; and He nerer 
wrote anything else but the Law for Moses, and the 
Judgment on the Adulterous Woman (p. 848); which 
latter is explaind (p. 348-9). Then «' what clerk is there 
so hardye that dur sein . . oi>enl3*e that God sethen his 
uprysinge . . made oiiy wrjtynge sauf . . this blessid storye 
of Seint Graal?" If any allege the contrary, ••thiy 
lyenfulpleyn*'(p. n.->0). 

Xow this Storye ginnoth forth to telle. 

Of Xasciens how that tho befeUe, 

that how the hond^ him had Jo I-boro 

thens As Calafer was foiioro. 4 

Tiie hand bore thanne the bond Sire Nascions Bar 

u\m ill the West Intx) A ful straiuige Contre tnar ; 

AMiicho Contre was A Mtrveillous plas ; 

For An yl In tho west Se it was, 8 

> A cloud, in tho French : * Ore dist Ii contes chi endroit 
ke quant la nuc en eut porte nascion iueca la v calafier IVut 
aconftieui — ensi com uous Taues oi deuiser cha arriereel conte, — 
Et que calafier fu chcus papmes pour la paour de la nue ver- 
melle, et ke Ii cors qui dodens la nue estoit eut calafier signie 
cs .ij. ioues del scing mortel, Apres che enporta la nue &c'— A. 



that xiij lornes it was of lengthe ' 

theirs As Xasciens was In y pr^sown of strengthe. 

that yl was Of sweche a fame, 

For * yl Tomeawnt * was the name ; 12 

For be Ryht Resown it is So, 

for Ofer whiles it Torneth bothe to & fro ; 

but In As moche as that the Cause why 

Of his Tomeng nis not knowen verayly — 16 

Of Alle tho ))fft there of don speken, Other Hede, 

thc»y ne knowew it not In wonl ne In dcde, — 

therfore Kesoun & sckele it were 

that this Storye Heherscd [it] here ; 20 

for, Of £che thing that is Of dowte, 

he it Keherseth £r he passe Owte, 

and bringeth it to Clero vndirstondyng 

to Every Manr^es wit, bothe Old & jong, 24 

As )e Scholen here In tyme Comeng 

how this storie declareth Every thing. 

'Orre repaire la parole, ei raconte la droite maniere 
del isle ou uascieus fu portes, ke li paisant, si com ie 
Yous ai dit, apieleut ' Tisle touruoiant* II est ucrites 
prouuee, ke au commeucheme/it de toutes choses, q?(ant 
li establissieres del moude deuisa et departi .iiij. 
elemens, qui deuant estoient tout en .j. monchelement, 
et en vne masse; et il ot le chiel, qt/i li escripture 
claime le fu, deseure des autres trois^ qui de toutes 
clartes est plains, et de toutes netetes ; il Testabli el 
plus haut lieu, Car il en fist couueKure a tons les 
autres, et closture. Et pour chou ke li chieus, et li 
airs, et la terre, et Tiaue, auoient este en vne masse, Ja 
fust chou ke li vns fust contraires a Tautre, si ne pooit 
mie estre ke li vns ne fust euuolepes de Tautre, et en- 
loes des diuerses manieres qui en chascun lieu estoient. 

* qui estoit bien .xiij. iournees loins del lieu ou naaeieiu 
muoit este en prison. — A. 

* MS XIV E iii, leaf 45, ool. 2, middle. 

QKAAL. 22 

The iBle It 17 
dajs* jouriMj 
fhna CaUUinra'i 

beott— It turns 

turning aliall be 
told at once. 
{But Tkt 
Bmglitktr <tf tlM 
Storg Imm* U 

tlie niVirM- 

At the beiriunliif 
when Ood aepar* 


■bore tlM earth 

M a ooverlof . 

a* they were 


to one auotlier. 


•nd the earth 
ooid and }imtj. 

tb« hMTeiM being Gat li chieus estoit T)ar nature cans it le^ners : et la 

hoc and U«ht, ^ « • i ^ * 

terre estoit par nature froido et pesans, Et par che 
puet chascuns counoistre, ke en aucune maniere se 
sentoit li chieus de la froidour de la t^rre, et de Tiaue 
autresi. Et cliil doi s*entresentoient en aucune guise 
de la grant calour del chiel. Ensi poes entendre lea 
contmrites des vns et des autres qui s'entrenuisoient, et 
ne se pooient souffrir. Et de clie que la terre qui 
pesans^ est^ et froide, et amassemens d*ordure, touchoit 
au chiel qui est legiers, et cans, et fontaino de toutes 
netetes ; de che auint que il en quelli ordure, Si eomme 
amassement de torriene ferrume et de la rieule' de 
riaue autresi. Et q/mnt li souuerains peres, qui est 
fontaine de toute sapiense, eut Tun departi de Tautre, 
et desioint, si mist le chiel en sa droite hounour, et 
amena en sa droite^ honour, et amena en sa droite pure 
nete[t]e; Car il le fist cler, et luisant, et legier, de 
toutes calours plain ; Et la terre laissa froide, et pesa^it, 
et en fist amassement de toutes choses pesans. Et 
qiiont il eut le chiel netie et monde de la temene fer- 
rume, et de la rieule de Tiaue ; et il ot escousse la te^Te, 
etlene de Tarsin du chiel; Chele ferrnme terriene et 
chele rieule euage ne peurent mie naturelment conioin- 
dre a la terre, et a Tieue, dont eles estoient issues. Ne 
chele celestiene ardure, et chil rieulemons qui de la 
terre et de Tiaue furent escous, ne peussent mie honeste- 
ment repairier a si haute chose, et a si nete, com est li 
chieus; Car il auoicnt aucune take co?ncuellie de la 
terre et de Tiaue, qui sent amassement de toutes ordures ; 
Et li chieus, che aues yous hien oi, est de toutes netetes 

the fool 
earth toQcht 

and dlrtid It, 
(being a maae of 
rust of earth 


making the 


elear and warm, 

and the earth 
eold and heary. 

Having porgd 
the heaTene of 
their droea, 

the met of the 
earth and the 
no* mix with 
earth and water, 
nor with the 

for they were 

and the heavena 



MS pensans 

" It is obvious that rieule here must mean either * scum ' 
or * sediment.' I have no doubt that it is the latter, from re^ 
gtiluif Fr. regule^ the chemical term for ' metals separated from 
other substances by fusion.' — Worcester. 'The pure metal 
which in the melting of ores falls to the bottom of the crucible.' 
— Webster. Trevoux gives rieule as the Fr. form of the proj^r 
name Regnlut.'' — Hensleigh Wedc.wood. ' MS droise 


plains. £b pour chou, par droito raison, ne deuoit uus 

d'aus repairier la dont il estoit issus; Ke la teiTiene 

ferrume a la t^rre ; ne la rieulti euage a Tiaue ; par 

cliou ke aucune legierotc, et aucune calour^ auoient con- 

chcue del chiel. £t pour chou ke Tarsina del chiel ne and th« lUme 

pent au chiel repairier — comme chele qui estoit entechie ooaid uut raturn 

des vilenies de la t^rre et de Tiaue, — poM?* chou couuint 

qiie ches .iij. choses repairaisscnt a une masse. £t «• being 


pour chou ke aucuns ne desist, 'ausi estoit li airs anion- 
chcles com chil troi ; po?(r quoi n'en parole dont chis 
contes 1 ' W ^l uoirs proucs ke auoec ches trois escous- (So luue tvwn 

Um air wan ill Iht 

sures ot aucune chose de 1 nir ; et a che s acorde b/Vn mass, 

li contes. Mais il dist, ke si petit en i eut, ke ia pour Umt it nf«*i not 

chel mestier n'en deust estre ])arolo tenue. Ensi com 

vous aues oi, repaire7it les .iiij. parties a vue masse qui 

des .iiij. elemcns furent escousses. Et \^ur chou q?/^ Titerefore, as 

tliia nuiMS, 

chele masse ne puet naturelment ^repairier a nul de 

ches .iiij. elemens, par le raison ko li contes en a shskenoutor 

deuisee, si conmnt ke ele fust en coutenchon. Et si fu 

ele sans faille. Car, tant com il i auoit de fu, che est couid not xo to 

del chiel, fu ele legiere, et eutendi a monter en haut ; eiement-sourres 

£t taut com il i auoit de la t^rre, apesanti ; Et de tant earth o/wiitor; 

com ele se senti de Tiaue, si fu moiste et crollans, Et 

pau puisa. Mais de Fair i eut si |)etit, ke ele n'en quelli 

nule forche. Et pour chou ke toute la pensantume* 

des .iiij. elemcus est en la terre et en Tiaue, et ke chil 

doi recuellent ton tea les pensantes^ coses, par che it stopt in two. 

, , , . , earth and water. 

reme^t ele a dies deus, en tel mam ere com yous ores. 

II fu vcrites prouuee ke par la unlente ei par le plaisir PorOodwiiid 

, it sttould be in 

de chelui a qui toutes choses sout obeissans, chei chele the sea; 
masse en la mer. Et pour chou ke ele traioit en vne 
pa/'tie a legierete, selonc che ke olc se sentoit du chiel, and because one 
qui est tres legiors, pour chou noa ele legierement, ne bean n it svam 
n*eut pooir d'aler au fons.* En cliesto maniere noa ele 
grant pieche par la mer, ke onques en nule partie ne 
■ leaf 45, back. * So in Ma 


And floated Into peut prendre arestement, Tant ke ele vint en la mcr 

the Wectern Set, ,, . , ,,. , 

between oragriYt d occident, entre 1 isle ouagnue et le port as tigies, Es 

[MS. ou a ffriu0 ^' j i_ i • j 

f for ouaffHiie^ vne partic de chele mer qui est entre chel isle ei chd 

HartoJS?" port* a g^nt plente d'aimant el fons^ auaL Et vom 

rtilTorAdlSSJt aues oi clia arriere, ke li contes dist ke tant com il oi 

or Loadstone. ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ masse, Si estoit terrine^ ferrume. Et 

which chele pierre qwi a a non aymans, si est de tel nature, 

love iron above i i . « 

au thing*, Ke ele aime ner sour toute nens, Et uoleutiers le tiuit a 

and will not leare H. Et 86 11 fiers 11 est prochains, et ele i puet sa foiche 

it when it once ..... . 

geuhoidofit ioindre, il n*en est mie legiers a departir; anchois tire 

le forche de la pierre tant le fier a li, ke ele le fait a li 

unieee it la touchier, Se grignour plente n*i a del fier ke de la niem; 

obligd to. r -» 

OU autre ostacle par quoi la forche de TaTinant soit 
So, when this vaiiicue. Quant la masse dont ie vous ai ixzrle Tint 

mass of shakings n . , i. 

came to the place flotant 1U8C au lieu OU Taynians estoit, si s'arestat. Gar 

of the Adamant, i /. i j i , . 

It siopt. la forche del aymant le retint, pour ebon ke ele estoit 

ferrouse, ensi cam noits aues oi. Mais onq?/«s la forche 

And iu heavenly del ajmant ne seut ta;2t tirer ke ele le peust a li faire 

heat made . 

the whole mass ioindre ; Non mie pour chou ke il i east grignour plente 

^ "' de fier ke d'aimant, Mais tant cofn il i aiioit de la celes- 

tieiie calour, le tenoit plus legiere ; et si le faisoit par 

and the maw sa forche teudre en haut. Eii clieste nianiere remest 

reniaind in the 

sea, chele masse en chel lieu de mer, Et fu apielee puis par 

and was caiid an les paisans " islc ", pouF chou kc toutes les masses de 


ierre qui perent en mer, et es autres iaues, par on ke 
But no herb or clie soit, sout apiclecs par chest now. £t pour chou 

tree or beast . , * 

or bird was kc clc sc scnti cu grant pa^-tie de la nature del chiel • 

pour die auint il ke onqwps point n'i cnit d'erbe ne 
arbrcs ne bcste n'i porroit durer, ne oisiaus. Et auoec 

Also the Isle chcstc maiiicre a ele enchoro vne autre, ke ele tient en 

turnd every time 

that tiie finna- chclc natuFc kc clo a du chiel, ke toutes les fies ke li 
or heaven turnd. firmamcns toumc, et I'isle tourne ausi tout com li 
And thu in why firmameus, die est li chie^^. En tel nianiere toumoie 

It was callcl 17 ^ 

TornrawHt. Tislc com \ous aucs oi : Or nous a li contes deuise la 
raison pour quoi li paisant Tapielent * Tislo toumoiant.* 

• So in MS. 


Into this yl Sire Nasciens the bond bar, 

& him In Swowneng be-left thar, 

As man that hadde lost bo the wit & Memorie, 

For ' J)* Avondirful sightes tliat ho to fore sye ; 

For ho no wiste Certeinlye 

Where he was, ne in what partye. 

Anon the bond thens departid thanne, 
And Nasciens there lay as a ded ^lanne ; 
And whanne Of his Swowneng fere Awook, 
he lift vp his Eyen, and Abowtes gan to look ; 
it Nas non node him to Refrcyne 
Whethir he were Abascht Certeino, 
but Evere his lierte stedfast was 
In hid Creaunce, swich was his gras. 
For Al the drede he hadde Suffred be-fore, 
3it God him wolde Asayen wel more ; 
For him were/i Comeng Many tormensse, 
jit woldo he neuere to his God Olfensse, 
Kethor for loye neper for ille, 
but Euero In his Creawnce belefte Stille, 
And Evere In his torment stedfast was 
As was lob In Every plas, 
that In his lif hadde So moche Kichesse, 
So Moche welthe & worthyncsse, 
and 3it suffred he with lierto & Minde, — 
As A Man that was to God ful kynde, — 
poverte, Misseise, and Ek distresse, 
Angwich, temptacions, & Siknesse, 
And in poverte vppon a dong hil lay ; 
3it horde pare neuere Iklan Into this day 
that neuere with his ^lowth he seide Amys, 
Ne Grochched Ajens liis Creatowr I-wis. 
And lik In the samo Manere tho 
Suffreilo Xascions bothe Angwisch & wo ; 
With goode wille & debonowre herte 

' par les meruelles ke il auoit veues. — A. 

The Hand 
Nttdou to tb« 
28 Torningkl*, 


and then goaa, 

iMving bim in a 
daad swoon. 

36 HawakM, 

and It abaaht, 
bat keep* firm 







and ia aa atad- 
fkat aa Job^ who 

auflbfd wiUingtjT 





Saffn^le he nianj AngwLgches smerte, 

and new. re to his G*A made he grochchenge, 

Xethir f<jr tormentis ne non Othir thinge. 64 

And thus to liim Self he gan to Speke, 

And to him self his herte gan breke, 

Mij thniH H n And seide, *' lord I thanket to the 

iMMMBt. Of alle the de^eisae tliow sendest Me, 68 

For moche more, worthy I am to have, 
My Sowle 3if I scholde Ony wise save." 

And whanne to this vl he was I-browht 
he loked Abowtcs him, & Say Ryht nowht 72 

but the Eir, the yl, and the See ; 
In ful gret ^lerveyl than/?e was he ; 
for how that thedir he was I-gon« 
In what Manere ne wiste he non ; 76 

And Abowtes him he loked pure faste, 

Tb* Torniof uu & Al that yl was barein & ful waste, 

■nd Ttrjr hot. and so stronge passeng hete there, 

that he ne myht it Endure In non Manere. 80 

thanue wiste he neuere In what partye 

Of that yl how he myht this hete drie ; 

but Euere hadde In EemcmbrauTice 

Of his thedir Comewg, & Of that Chamice, 84 

and of Celidoine his ^ongest sone 

pat with him In prcson was done, 

Which that was mochel In his Mynde, 

That Gentyl Child, that was so kynde. 88 

Hud«iu't«nnt For-broscd worew his honden & Armes to ; 

andhitUmbt his leggcs, liis fcct, wrowhtew him moche wo; 
his Reynes Oken, his Ribbes they gnowe, 
So that Of tormentis he hadde I-nowe ; 92 

To the Erthe Anon he leide him thanne, 
As A ful wery and A-brosed Manne 
that a passing lust hadde forto Slepe, 
hof that to his Angwisch took kepe. 

thanno down he him leide, As it is told, 



In A partie Of the yl that was most Cold ; 

For fill hot somer it was w/t/i-Owten let, 

the Nynthe day Off* kalendes of Juigaet* 100 

thaiine his Ryht hond he left ym there, NmcIww makM 

and ^fade the signe of the Grois In good Manure, . Cro», 

In the Xame Of the treuite, 

On God & p^rsones thre, 104 

That it scholde ben his protectour 

In alle degrees a^ens the fals deceyvour, 

\Vliiche is the devel, In Alle wise, 

Man to deseyven In d}'vcrs Gyse, 108 

that to goddis Leleve hath Ony lust, 

him forto tempten he desireth most. 

thanne thus this Nasciens to slej^OM bo-gan, 
as for Angwichs & a wery Man, 112 

that to Slepen he hadde gret lust, 
and there him down lay As he durst ; u« down to 


and the Mone Schon bothe fair & Cler 

vppon Nasciens that Alone lay there, 116 

that 80 ful wel & longe slept he tho 

as A man that gret Nede hadde therto. 

Thus slept Xasciens Al that Nyht 

Til on the Morwen it was day lyht, 120 

Where that In A visioun him thowhte he syo md !»• • Tkion 

Mwveillous thinges ful Sekerlye : 

him thowhte he sawh gret plcnte 
White briddes Abowtes him to be. 124 ofnumy whiu 

And whanne that these briddes he gan beholde, about. 

In his hei-te he 3klerveilled Manifolde, 
for somwe Of hem flowen wondir hye, 
and somme wondir lowe Ccrteinlye, 128 

and the tothir party e Of hem tho 
From the Erthe ne myhte not go, 
ne flen nowher from the grounde ; 

' Car ch*e8toit en este au nueaisme ioor des kalendes en 
iungnet. — A. 


Where offen he Meryeilled that stownde. 131 

Two of um wbito thanne Comen there twejne of f^ grottest of Alle^ 

and down to the Erthe Gonne they falle ; 

At his two feet they descendyd Adown there, 
lift NMdtM into And Into the £yr they him gonnen bere. lU 

thanne whanTie he was In the £ir An hy, 
and bid him 47* they seidcn, "Nasciens, fle forth boldly." 

thanne Nasciens him self be-gan to beh<Me ; 
He AndJi bt hm tho hadde he wenges that lyhtiy ^wolde folde 140 

and Aplyen to his flyht thanne therto ; 

him tliowhte he was ftil loly tho ; 

Al whit him thowhte his wenges ^rere, 
and Ktm. aud that lightliche he myht fleen there. 144 

tlianne thus Sone him thowhte Anon 
The Birda leave that those grete briddes weren Agon ; 

tho tliat Maden him forto fle so liht, 

from him weren past Owt Of his siht. 148 

and then rome thanuo to Xasciens A3en thei gonne Kestore, 

And to him these briddes Seiden thore. 

And boden him ' 3even licm Som ^lete, 

Swiche good As he Cowde Gete.* 152 

thanne Answerid this Nasciens A3en tho, 

** What Mete Welen ^e that I gete jow to. 

And I Wele fulfillen it to my power 

Wliat So Evero it bo, Oper fer other nere." 156 

thanne Answerid the briddis Ageyn, 
and ask him " that ncutre fill tilled scholen wo ben Certein, 

No Xeucre Replet with non Mote 

that thow myht joven vs forto Ete, 160 

for his heart biit tlilno Owiio horto Only 

to eat. T-» 1 /-< • 1 tt 

V8 on to Fe<le now Oertemly. 
He pulls It ont, Anon he drowgh Owt his Owue herte, 

and the brid it 3a f, and noKl it not Astorte. 164 

and one lUrd flies Anon the Biid K^'sccvvod it lovfully, 

off joyously *^ * Jf 

with it, <fc therwith flow ful fer An by 

With ful grot loye & meloilye ;^ 

' This line in tho MS has the pen drawn orer it. 


And thus he Seide In his langage, 168 

As A brid for his kynde singeth In a kage : 

" Now Am I fulfild," seide this brid, 

" Of this herte As it is bo-tyd ; 

For now I have browht this thing wtt^ me 172 

That non Wiht knoweth Ccrteinle ; 

For it is but A litel thing 

that the grete lyown hath Offe knoweng^ 

Wheche alle Erthlj bestes With Membre St body 176 

Yndir him ther kepeth he Certeinly. 

and Whanne he hath Ouercomen hem Everichon, 

— thus thowghte Nasciens that he gan don — 

And Alle vndir his feet put hem tho, 180 

jit him thowhte he ne hadde not do, 

but In to the hevene he wolde than fle 

With that he hadde thanne Sekerle. 

thanno him thowhte that his flyht took he, 184 

and that Abouen Alle Mownteynes gan to fle, 

Ek the wawes of the 8e, and the depnesse. 

And the hevene Entred w/t^-Owten distresse." 

And thus him thowhte thanne Nascien, 188 

That to him the Brid Seide Certein. 
Thus sone his Avisiown gan to Enden tho. 
And Al Anon wakenge he Abreide Also. 

Thanne wonderfully In his wakynge 192 

he Felte the yl Anon Tremblynge 
Aftyr the towr of the firmament ; 
thus him thowhte that tyme present, 
thanne Merveilled Nasciens full wondirfully 196 

Of Meving Of p* yl ful trewely ; 
and Ek Abascht Sore he was 
Of that Merveil In that plas. 

thanne gan he to lifben vpf3 his bed, 200 

and loked Abowtes In that sted ; 
And As he gan loken bothe two and fro, 
A wondirful bataille than herde he tho ; 

Mjing that he 
U riilfllld with 
Nascivrn't liMrt. 

It U the little 




Aad Jit whew tlw 

done Dothhig 
UU be can fly to 

Winga come to 
him (the Lion), 
and he (Ilea iulo 
beeven by the 
chief gmte. 

Naadena wakes 
from his Vision. 

He fteb the lale 
after the turning 
of the flnnamenu 


The Loaditoiw 
•nd Air struggle 
tar maiftMy ortr 

Every bit of the 
lele tremblee like 
a leaf on a tree. 

The Loadstone 

hai no power 
against the Air 

tu kee|) llie Isle 
from turning ; 

su il (li[>8 into 
the sea. 

As Lim Semedy In the botme Of the Se 2(H 

That ilke Batajle scholde be 

So wondirful & so gret it was, 

that him thowhte the yl In that plas 

Scholde han Sonken In to the nethere8[tj pyt SOS 

that Evere was Ordoyneil, Ofer Mad jit ; 

For so Angwisclihous was that stour. 

So ful of tempest And Of doloure, 

that for the grettest hcrted Erthlj Man SIS 

In his herte scholde had drede than ; 

For there ^ nas non partie Of that yl tho, 

that It ne qwakede and schok Also 

As dide Ony lef vppon A tre SI 6 

that with the wynd Mevede sekerle : 

be the depthe of the see and strenkthe it was. 

And be strengtlie of ))* Ademawnt In ^t plas ; 

For be Comandi/ig Of the firmamoTit SSO 

that yl thanne tumede it verament. 

Of whecho One partye he was witholde,* 

it vnknowenge to alio men vndjrr molde ; 

but the Ademawnt hadde but litol degre 224 

Ajens the Eyr, ful Sekerle ; 

For tlie Ademauwt liath no More strengthe 

A3ens the Eyr, In brede ne lengthe, 

Thanne A lytel pnity fownteyne 228 

A3ens Al the gi-eto See In Certeyne. 

So that be strengthe of f* Ademauwt Certciule 

llestreynewg of Mcvyng of the yl ne Miht not be ; 

but of the iirmamc7?t it hadde Alio his Myht, 23S 

The Mevyng Of the yl, I sey 30W Rylit. 

Kow So gret was this Melle 
betwene the Ademau?it & J)' Eir sekerle, 
that ther^' the yl Into the Se gan lawnce, 236 

• MSthev 

' Et il conuenoit par estouoir que Tisle tornoiast a] con* 
iimiHlemcnt del firmament, de qui ele auoit la natoiv retenoi 
en vne partie. — A, 



Whiche thowhte Lym thanne A wondir ChsLxmae, 

So that the water Encresid so hye 

Into the heyglithe of the yl Sekerlye, 

So that him tbowhte he hadde grettere Cold 240 

thanne hete before tymes, be Manifold. 

and whanne the yl thus Bemeved was 
Ferre Into the See be this Cas, 

Ful litel and litel it with-drowgh tho 244 

Tyl the strengthe of the Ademant was Ago, 
And til he was In his Owne stede Ageyn 
bothe of heyghthe & brede In Certein. 
Whanne Xasciens Felt & Sy al this thing, 248 

Ful ^lochel he hadde ther-off Merveillyng ; 
But he ne Cowde Aperceyven why 
that the yl So mevede tho trewly. 

thanne Anon Nasciens vp-dressed him tho, 252 
And the yl Ajen gan tremblen Also ; 
Anon he beheld A-bowtes wel faste, 
& y ton hed of the yl down bowed Atte laste, 
and the io^er hed gan to Kysen fere An hy ; 256 

thus thowhte him to his sihte Certeinly. 
and 3it this yl not ful litel it was, 
For with-Inne it Self it hadde A gret spas, 
For foureskore Miles it was Abowte, 260 

and Sevene & fyfty in length with-Owten dowte ; 
but Rathere More that yl was there 
thanne lasse In Ony other Manere ; 
For it is the Gyse Of this Storye, 264 

In non Manere Of wyse forto lye. 

Ful plein this Storye putteth In Mynde, 
that Al the Certeinte of Sank Eyal is hard to fynde 
for ony Man that Evere of womwian was bom, 268 
As I haue ^ow Often Rehersed beforn ; 
For that holy storye that to therthe Anexed was, 
as Scheweth the Mowth Of trow^* In this plas. 
Which is Jesus Crist, Goddis sone, 272 

The wattr gets 

till at hut th« 
lele is length* 
wise on the water 

Then the Iel« 

Ite one end turns 


and the other 

turns np. 

And yei the Isle 
Mmmv] roand, 
and 67 long. 

The 5/orr eftks 
Htdp Qraal aeul 
down oo eanh 



iraa written by 
Chrirt blmself 
with hl« own 

Before HU 
passion he wrote 
only twice: 

1. The Old Law 
for Moses; 

t. His judgment 
on the Woman 
taken in Adultery, 

written on tlie 
ground with his 

' Let dim who 
is guiltless, 
throw the first 
stone at her.' 

that for V8 on the Eoode was done ; 

For In him Neuere falsnesse was fownde, 

Ke neuere non Errour In non stownde. 

For ther Keuere was Creatine so hardy 276 

that doTste with-sein this holy story, 

Whiche Crist him self wit^ his Owne hond 

It wrot vs forto don to vndirstond. 

And therfore to more worschepe it scholde be take 
thanne for Ony Othir Mannes Sake, 281 

For we ne Eadden neuere In non storye 
that Crist him Self wrot Sekerly 

to fom his passiown In Ony stede S84 

but In two, As we don Rede, 
Whanne to Moises he wrot the lawe,* 
and him it be-took be J)* Olde dawe. 

the Secund was whanne )>• Jewcs certeinly 288 

a womman haddcn take In Avowtry ; 

For to proven On liire his dom Ano??, 

With hire to-fore Jesus Gonne they gon ; 

him forto tempten In this wise, 292 

to him they hire browhte to haven I-wise. 

thanne Crist to the Erthe Enclyned presente, 

and wrot In the Erthe Er lie furthere wente 

With his fynger Evene Ryht there, 296 

As Recordetli the Story thus here ; 

For Crist that tymo ful wel it wiste, 

al hero Entent, and Al here liste ; 

Only to Asayen what ho wolde do, 300 

the lewcs this woiu/»an browht him vnto. 

thanne Crist to hem tho seide Ageyn, 

" be-lioldeth now liere wliat this doth seyn ; 

Whiche that is Giltles Of 30W Alle, 30i 

the Fei'ste ston on hire let fallo." 

* Li premiers csoris ke il fesist, si fu ]a haute oritoos qui 
I'cscripture claiiiie Torison notre signour, Ch'est le patre noeter. 
Cheli escrist il de son paiich en la pierre, quant il enseiffiia a 
ses desciples comment il deuoient orer. — A. 


CH. XXVII.] Christ's judouent on tue adulterous woiiak. 349 

and In this Manure Crist told hem here Sawe 

Forto fulfillen here Olde lawe 

that Mobes hem tawhte bo tho dayes, — 308 

As this holy Story e to vs here Seyes, — 

* 3if tliat a womwan do Ony Avowtrj'O 

And with Ony Other man ligge Onlye 

thanne be hire Owne husbonde, — 312 

thus was the lawe In that londe, — 

that Anon I-stoned scholde sche be, 

Alle swiche that weren taken In Avowtre. 

ferfore Crist wbte thanne ful wel 316 

Alle here thowhtes Every del, 
That to hym Comen they For temptcug, 
and Elles Seker for non Other thing ; 
Therfore Schewed Crbt hem In that degre 320 

Alle here Owne Siynnes there Openle, 
And £k Schewed hem there In that Scripture 
Alle the lignage Of man, I the Ensure ; 
how that of so gret fowlnesso & vilete 324 

that Man was of ^lad, there gon/ien they se ; 
For tho wordis hadden this Mevynge 
holiche as heire to Owre vndirstondynge. 
For thus be-began this Scripture to Seye 
Al Openly there to the Jewes Eye, 
*' har, Erthe ! why Art thow so hardye & so f re 
The Erthe to Acvsen In Ony degre 1 " * 
thb is so mochel here forto seyne, 332 

' thow Man that of filthc art Mad Corteine, 
As of so foul dong & Slym of Clay, 
that darst Owther be nyht Oper day ; 
Why darst thow ben of sweche mevynge — 336 

Whanne thi self hast forfeted in Alle thinge — 
For to susteyne & to holde these dedis ille 
Wheche In alio degrees thow dost f ulfille 1 ' 

' ^* He, terre I pour quoi ies tu si bardie ke ta aocoaen, oa 
OSes accuser, la terre ? " — A. 

Thus Christ bad* 
th«m fiilfU Um 
Old Law, 

to aUmm a wcmiaii 
taken in adultery. 

and showd them 
their own tint. 

328 HU writing Mid 
to the Jewib 

'Earth, why 
darst thoQ accoat 


how dnret thoo 
call lU In other* 
thoee deeds that 


lo, in these two places ful sekerlye 340 

We fynden that the sone of Marye — 
To fom that he wente to his passion, 
and that he vppon the Crois was don — 
thus Wrot Al this storie doth Rede, 344 

and now here In non Other stedo. 
iranymm d«m >biit what Clerk is there So hardye, 

nj that Christ, '^ ' 

that dar sein, Other proven Openlye, 
■IUO0 hit ridng. That God, Sethen his vp-Rysinge, 348 

wrote Miyttitng Jn Qny plase Made Ony wrytynpe 

■are thia btoiMd '^ '^ J J J o 

Beimtarwa gauf Only this blessid Storye 

■toiy (or Sank r\ r>» 

Btfoi) Of Seint Graal ful Sekerlye, 

Whiche that is Clepid * the Sank Ryal ' 352 

Of kyng, lord, bacheler, bof* gret & small ; 

bo dar Sein the Contrarie Of this 1 — 

Non Erthly man forsothe I-wis, — 

Ncthir be non devyn Awtorit^ 356 

the Contrarie proven In non degre. 

And jif he Conne Aleggen Ony Oper wyse 

In Ony degre As for his Repryse, 
he lice. For A leseng it moste be taken Certeine, 360 

Of AUe Swich tliat it don Sosteyne. 
All who believe thanne thus Mav I ful boldly Seyn : 

otherwise, • -, -, ^ 

lie too. that Of^^-wise belcven, they lyen ful pleyn, 

but that God with his Owne hond 364 

this Storye doth vs forto vndirstond, 

Sethen that he lefte the dedlich flesch here, 

and In hevenly ^laieste was Clothed w/t/towten pere.^ 

*— * Mais comment ke il esploitast endementiere que il 
estoit enuolepes de la roortel char, ia ne troueres si hardi clero 
qui die ke il onques fesist escripture puis la resurrection ne 
roais ke seulement la haut escripture del saint graal ; Et que 
vauroit dire que il, puis la resurrection, eust autre escriture 
faite de sa propre main, il n*en porroit auaut traire nule de- 
uine auctorite, Et pour chou seroit il tenus a menteonr. Don- 
ques di iou bien que chil seroit de trop fol hardement espris. 
qui menchoigne oseroit a croistre a si tres haut chose oomnie 
estcheste estoire, que li urais fiex dicu escrist de la soie main 
propre, puis ke il Tot ius mis le mortel cors et reuestue la 
celestiene maieste. — A. 



Still of Naaciens on the Yl Tarneamnt. He prajrs to Qcd for 
comfort (p. 852). The day dawns, and he sees on the 
Bea a little thing like a swan. It proves to be a Ship, 
which comes to the island (p. 353) ; he walks to it as 
fast as, in his disabled state, he can (p. 354) ; and is 
going on board of it, but sees words warning him not to 
enter unless he is full of faith (p. 355). He hesitates, hut 
prays to God, makes the sign of the cross, and enters the 
ship (p. 35G). He looks about every where, and in the 
hold sees a white cloth, which he lifts u|1{ and finds a 
Bed, with a Crown of Gold at its head, and a Sword at 
its feet (p. 357) ; a wonderful Sword, with two beasts' 
scales in its handle, 1. of the Serpent Pajragastj a bone 
of which will always keep a man warm (p. 358) ; 2. of 
the Fish Tortenauty whose bones are so strong, that if 
a man holds them, he forgets every thing but the bone, 
till he lays it down again (p. 358). The handle and 
scales are coverd with a red cloth, and on it is declard 
that no one shall draw the sword but the one worthiest of 
all men (p. 359). The letters on the sword-blade say it is 
only to be drawn by the boldest of men ; any other will be 
killed by it Nasciens then looks at the scabbard, which 
is rose-red (p. 360), with gold and azure letters on it; 
and out of it issue a thousand filthy branches, or hang- 
ings. The letters say that he who bears the sword, and 
is girt with the branches, shall ever be safe (p. 3G1). 
Nasciens turns the sword ; the bed quakes (p. 362) ; the 
other side of the sword (1. 392) is blood-red, with coal- 
black letters, saying that he who praises it most here will 
blame it most in his need, ke. (p. 362-3). Nasciens cannot 
make out what the scabbard is made oif (p. 363), nor does 
the Story here tell us; but *al this schal ben declared 
sauns delay * when the right time and place come (p. 364). 
Now for another myater}' : — How, from the bed where the 
Sword and Sheath were, Three Spindles came, joind to- 
gether (p. 364-5) ; of which one was white as snow, the 
second blood-red, and the third emerald-green (p. 865). 
And because these things must be explaiiid, therefore the 
Story proceeds to expound them (p. 365), beginning with 
Eve and Adam in I^&radise, and going on with the Fall, 
the death of Abel, the building of this Ship by caq)enters 
for Solomon and his wife, who look on, and then put the 
Sword, &c on board the Ship. (^See Chajftert 29 and 30.) 

Now bothe Hesown & Ryht it is 

A3en to the Storye to tornen wit/t-Owten Mis, 

And to this yl to tornen AnoTi Agein, 

That so brood & so longe Is In Certein ; 4 


Aud jit it to V8 Scheweth Apressly, 
' the declarengo Of this holy Storye, 

That Nasciens was In the laste Ende, 
NMdMMisoiitiM that Gentyl dwk so good & kende. 8 

Towardis the west partye of the see 

This ful trewe dwk thaune was he ; 

but yi the see not So nygh he was, 

that be-twene hem was a ful gret spas, 1 2 

•bom ri miki the Mowntawnce Of Sevene Miles bedene, 

and An half Mile, with-Owtew wene. 

"Whanne Nasciens the day Gan to dawe,* 

thanne Of that Sihte he was ful fawe, 16 

And that he myhte haven Ony knowenge 

Of what paHie of the see he was, wit7/-0wte» varienge ; 

And for As Mochel as the day is more Comfortable 

thanne is the Nyht, with-Owten Ony fable, 20 

For Evere hadde he In ful hopinge, 

Be the day to hauen had som Comfortynge. 
H«kiiMUtotiM and with this, Nasciens, In-to the Est he knelid 



and there Anon to God Made his Orisown, 2-4 

and pr«y« to Preyeng to Jesus that was Maryes sone, 

(As Other God than him ne knew he none) 

' that he Wolde of his gret Mercye, — 

— ^lik As he was On Only god verraylye, 28 

And that non Other god neuere Xas but he, 

Most Myhtful god In Maieste, 

In wliiche On Only god beleved he, 

thre persones, but on God in vnite, — 32 

to Mud hini that S wich Counseil he wolde him sende, 

oounwl to MIMUd 

hit UA. helthe to his Sowle, his lif to Amende.' 

And whanne thus his preyere he hadde I-do, 

The Signe Of the holy Cros On him made he tho, 36 

and Also he ^lade it In his face, 

the strengere to be thorwh goddis grace. 

' Kt quant il vit au matin aiourner. — A. 



and whanne he hadde thus I-do, 
to the nexto party of y Se wento he tho ; 
& whanne he hadde gon the spas of half a Myle, 
Into the See he gan loken with-Inne A while ; 
A lytel thing him thowhte he say ComcTi there, 
No More thanne A swan Aa thowh it were, 
That stroyht to the yl it gan Aplye — 
' As this Storye vs schewetli ful sekerlye ; — 
to the same Ende that he Inne was, 
thedir it Appliede, As happed he Cas. 

and whanne he Saw it So faste Comenge, 
Euere the grettere it wax, to his semenge ; 
but thanne mihte he not ful wel go ; 
For so forbrosed his feet werew tho 
with the Chenes Of his presownenge, 
that to Walken hadde he non likynge : 
and Anothir Skele there was also, 
that he nas neuere Mochel wont forto go. 
jit wente he forth with ful gret peyne. 
And Aftir that thing he loked A-geyne 
AVlieche that he beheld In the Morweny/ig, 
that to- ward the yl Cam floterijig ; 
and thanne parceyved he Sone In haste. 
That A fair Schipe it was Atte laste, 
the whecho was [so] wondirly fair & Eiche, 
That In Al this world him thowhte now swiche. 

And whanne this Schip^ he gan be-holde, 
In his herte ho loyede ful Manyfolde, 
And peyned him faste thanne forto go 
To wardis the See, As he myhte tho ; 
So that With gret peyne & Angwisch Also 
Atte laste to this Scliipe Cam ho to. 
And whanne thedir he was Come?} ful Ryht, 
Ful wery he was, and hadde non Myht. 
Thanne sawh he that bothe his feet In fere, 
Alle for hete for-sckorchid were, 

40 Naideiu walks 
towards Um Mas 

andssas oomiag 



Ikst towmrds him 




a Ship, 

rfchar than any 
oUisr in tha 
64 world. 


He walks, 
with great pain. 

to this Ship. 




354 THB SHIP (sOLOXON's) and its LETTEBS of gold. [oO. XXYllL 

and Ek for-Rent they weren Also, 

For the ly tel weye that he hadde go ; 76 

So that £r thike vij miles hadde he gon, 

It was Of the day the tyde Of Noon ; 

thanne was he hothe feynt^ wery, & fastynge, 

and Al distrowbled for his Travaillynge. 80 

Anon thanne lokcd he A lytel beside 
Vppon the Ryht half of hiin In that tyde, 

KurimtMM tiM tlianne Sawh he A Schipe A-Ryde 

Evene fast by him Also blyve ; 84 

thaniie thowhte him it was the same thing 

that Al day hadde he Scin to his Supposing ; 

So to-wardis that Schip^ he tomod Anon 

Also faste As that he Cowde Gron. 88 

itiftoriob tiMi the Schipe, So Riche & So fair it was, 

And M/?rveillede how that It Cam In to pat plaa. 
And whanne he be-gan thus it longe to beholdo, 
In his herte he Menreilled Many folde ; 92 

CiMf <o] And Mochel More Merveil thanne hadde ho, 
For Nethir Man ne womman ne cowde he se 
that Schip with-Inne to warde Ofer Gye : 
thus tolleth this Storio fid Openlye. 96 

thanne gan ho him drawen Neer & Neere, 
Til that to the Schipc ho was Come there ; 
and In ban Entred ful fayn wold ho, 

HeeniMeDooo« jif Ony Mon thcrc-Inno mihte he So, 100 

and forto proven the trewthe there 
Of that Bewte In Alle Manere, 
3if with-Inne it were As fayre Owt Ryht, 
As with-Owten it was there to his syht. 104 

Anon As In-to the Schip Entren Wold he, 

Bat In the fim- In that for-schip he Sawh ful Sekorle 

ship be MM 

chaidaMi tetttra lettres Of Gold, I vndirstondo, 

that As "Writeng it was of CtUdee londe, 108 

that As pitous word they gonne to Speke. 
thanne Nasciens Ner to the Schip gan Reko ; 


For that Word there so do w table was 

To Ony man that Entren wolde Into pat plas. 112 

Lo, these wordis seide the Scripture These letten sayi 

OS I the schal Schewe, I the Ensure, 

" thow that wilt with-Inno me^ Entren here, "Tinm that wiu 

loke thou be stedfast In alle manere, 116 ' *^ 

And that thou ful of fcyth algates be ; beftoioffkith. 

For with-Innes me nis thing non but feith sekerle ; 

therfore I Redo, devise the ful wel 

that thow be Cleno Everydol, 120 p«". "«»* itedCMt 

and stedfast In feith & In Crcaunce, 

Oper cUes the be-happeth Som Meschaunce. 

For stedfast feith, Creaunee it is ; 

and Anon As thow thy Creauwce dost mis 124 ifttoafiuieitin 

one point, 

In Ony partie Or In Ony degre, 

I the forsaken Schal ful Sekerle, 

that Of me SostenauTzce shalt J^c^u non have, 

Nefer non helpe, thowh thou Crye and Crave, 128 

but I schal the faillen In thyn most nede, i wm (ui thee in 

and leten the fallen with-Owten drede, 

So that thou schalt I-lost thaiine be •»<! *»>«> "i**!* 


For fawt of beleve, And thow it fle." 132 

thanne with-stood this Nasciens In that stede, 
and these lettres of gold he gan forto Rede ; > 
and whan/ze he hadde longe him bcthowht 
how that Schipc thedir was 1-browht, 136 

Into the Schipe he wolde han gon, At ant, 

iheee words stop 

but that word him Stoned Anon Nasdens^nffon 

that was so dowtful & Charchable, 
For they Weren Wordis Of non fable. 140 

and whanne In this thowht he hadde longe I-be, 
Other wyse he gan tho him be-so, 
and him bethowht In Other Manere 
Uow that he Scholde Goveme him there. 144 

Thanne In this manere thus gan he Seyn : 

' MS with Inne ne 

board the ship. 


KaMiens u^h " goode lord God, of Alle thinges Sovereign, 

"Lord God, 

the wordis Of this Schipe Seith here, 
that but feyth nys there-Inne in non manere ; 148 

and 3 if those lettres now trewe here be, 
1 know this Ship thanne wot I wel ftd certain le 

li Milt bj ThM, 

that this Schipe he 30W hedir Is I-sent ; 

this knowe I wel thanne verament. 152 

And }if only it be Come?z from 30W, 

thanne In My Creaunce knowe I now 

that non Evel thing there-Inne May be, 

Ne Contrariowsness In non degre 156 

that scholde Ajens ^oiire glorious Name 
I biUart In ThM^ ben Reprof, velenie, Oper elles schame. 

but, lord, I beleve In 30W ful feithf ully ; 

wheche Creawnce I took ful devoutly 160 

Of thin One Seriaw[n]t so dere, 

That ])ou wost ben worschepid & beleved In alle 
and In ttodihrt And In Stedfast beleve, the Ay worschepinge, 

beliftf I Bhall t^ ^ 

tntor tht Ship." I schal In Entrcn for Ony thinge. 16-4 

For who that Is In thi stedfast beleve, 
From Alle Misaventures it doth liim Meve, ' 
and Saueth him, and £k Alle tho 
tliat In thy beleve stedfast go ; 168 

In what Maner peryl that so he be, 
thi beleve him saveth Sekerle." 

KMdcna eroMM thus sone Sire Nasciens left vp his hond, 

bimaelf, ^ 

and made the signe of Holy Cros, I vndirstond, 172 
andgoeaoabovd And Eutred In to the Schip Anon 

tiMShip. ^ 

Also Faste As he myhte Gon. 

And whanne that Eutred he was with-Inne, 

Fast loked he Abowtes, and nolde not blynne ; 176 

In Alle parties loked he ful faste ; 

And so faste he loked Atte laste. 

So that him thowhte In noTi Planer of Se 

A faiiere Schipe ne Myhte be ; 180 

ou. zxviil] nasoiens finds a bed, grown of gold, and sword. 357 

And thus to him Selve he gan to seyn, 

' That So fair a schip he Sawh neuere Certein,' 

Ne 80 fill of Bewte nej^er of Richesse 

Sawh he neuere to fore As that, I Gesse, 184 

Aa that Same was to his Avis, 

for of Alle Schepis it bar the pris. 

And whanne Alle the Corners he hadde Serched NudeiwpokM 

. . ^ about thft 8hi|i, 

Aboven and benethen, with-Owten dowte, 188 

thanne to fe bowk of f* schipe gan he gon, «»■ into tiM 

and there atte laste he fond Anon ; 

he beheld Where heng A Cloth of Whit ; ■•••» whit, doth 

it was ful plesaunt to his delyt ; 192 

and lik A Cowrtjn him thowhte it was, lUMaouuin, 

that Avos hanged In that plas. 

thanne Anon lefte he vp this Coiirtyn In haste ; 
there-vndir, a faire bed he fond atte laste, 196 and finds andor 

it tho rIdMot Btd 

the Wheche the fairest & y Eichcst bed it was h« trtr mw, 

that eucre to fore he Saw In Ony plas ; 

and at the hed of the Same bed 

was A Crowne of gold In that sted ; 200 with a Crown of 

^ goldfttiUhMd, 

and at the beddis feet Sekerliche 

A swerd there Avas, bothe faire & Riche, ■»>* » Swotd at 

Wheche vppon the bed it lay Ouerthwert, 

Al this, Sire Xasciens, it Sawh Apert — 204 

Whiche that Owt of b* Skawberk was drawe dimwn w ineh^ 

half A fote & an handful, thus seith this Sawe. iMbbwd. 

this sword was of diners faciou/i Sekerlye, 

as here Witnesseth this holy Storye, 208 

For the pomel was of swich A ston Thopomeioftht 

Sword is a stono 

That Colours it hadde Manyon, of taanj oohmrf. 

As Manye As on the Erthe myhte be 

To his Sihte there weren vpon, sikerle ; 212 

and £ch Of the Colours hadde a Clerte, 

and £ch Clerte A vertu, as pat storie scheweth me, 

Where As this Storie doth declare 


The handle of Um 
Sword is made 

the Irt of a Ser- 
pent of Chaldaa 

calld Papesait,— 

a bone of whidi 

wtn keep a man 
alwi^a In moder* 

the tnd of a fish 
of (he Euphrates 

calld Tortenaoa, 

a bone of which 
when held in the 
hand suspends a 
man's memory. 

Of Mani mo^ thinges wLan;2e lie Cometb thare. 216 

thanne to the handyl Of this swerd, 
there nas non swich In Middillcrd ; 
For tweyne Skales it hadde, wtt^-Inne the bond. 
Of two diuers bestes, as I yndirstond ; 220 

the ton sckale was In Maner of A Serpent, 
that In Caldiens lond was most present 
thanne In Ony O^er lond Certein ; 
there was his hawntyng I telle 30 w pleyn. 224 

and * papagast * was this Serpentis Name, 
Whiche was a Serpent of A wondirful fame. 
For this is the kynde of that Serpent, 
What man that A bone of his hath verament, 228 

him Nedeth neu^re non Other bete, 
Nethir of sonne, ne of travaille, to don him swete ; 
but that Evere In Mesurable bete he schal be ; 
this vertw hath his bon ful Sekerle, 232 

Wbereoffen the ton sckale of the handele it is, 
As I haue 30 w told with-Owten Mys,^ 

The tothir Skale is Of A fysch of the Se, 
That In Ewfrate most wont is forto be ; 236 

And In Othir water Is it non, 
but only In Ewfrate Al Alon. 
* Tortenavs ' ^ is the Name Of this fysch. 
As we it MoAvn Sownen In Englysch. 240 

And his bones of these strongthe ben, 
As Me declaren here schole 30 sen ; 
For As long As Ony man it hath On honde — 
I do 30W ful wel forto vndirstonde — 244 

that nethir of ioyo ne of sorwe schal ho have In Mende, 
but onlich Of that bon, swich is the kende ; 
and whanne Owt his bond it is I-don, 
To his kende Memorie Cometh he Anon 248 

As Owhte forto ben In A kendly man. 
Lo, swich A vertu this bon hath than ! 

» MS no ' MS Nya ' Cortnaus— A. Ortenax— B. 


behold what vortw Is In these bones tweyne, 

Where offen the handele is Mad In Certeine I 252 

Wheche handele & sckales, I-keu0;'ed it was tii« handk and 

tf Um Mn ooverd 

With A Kiche Red Cloth In that plas, with and doth 

I-eet wel ful of lettres Of Gold, *" 

(As he myhte there plejnlj behold,) 256 

Wheche that Spoken In this degre 

ful Openly, As he myht wel Se ; 

" I am Merveillous to beholde On A rowe, 

And 3it moche more Merveillous I Am to knowe ; 260 

For me Schal neuere man taken On honde — 'Nomanthau 

As I do the Forto vndirstonde, — 

be his hand neuere So large & gret, 

Me echal he not drawen, I the behet ; 264 •rtit draw ma 

Ke non Man that is Erthly levenge, 

but Onlich On Man with-Ovte» varienge. 

And he Schal ben the most worthiest, •xeept tha abiaat 

andbatt that 

the Most Able, & the Most best, 268 •▼« uvd.* 

that Euere was him before, 

And schal passe;i Alle ]>at is bore. 

Of prowesse and of konnenge. 

Of alle tho that to-forn him weren levenge, 272 

Ofer Evere^ Scholen ben In tyme Oomenge; piiSBwiarej 

Swich Schal his strengthe ben & his konnenge." 

and thus the lettres of the handelyng spak 

To this Sire Nasciens with-Owten lak. 276 

and Avhanne Sire Nasciens beheld al this, 
Ful S(»re ho was Astoned wit^-Owten Mis ; 
and M^rveilled ful Mochol In his thowht 
In what Manere these lettres weren wrowht ; 280 

And Avhat they weren forto Mene, 
In his herte he Merveilled be-dene. 
thanne beheld he the blad of b* swerd Ha looka at tha 


that SO drawe/t lay, As to-fore 30 ban herd; 284 biadaoftba 


And there-vppon loked ho wonder faste. 

And Rede lettre he Aspide ]>at Onne atte laste^ 



Naademi raids on 
the SirorU-blmd^ 

'Let no man 
draw me bat Um 
boldest of an, 

Then h« looSu at 
the Scabbard, 

which ia aa red 
as a rose. 

Wheche weren As Red as Any Blood ; 

thus lum thowhte fere As he stood. 288 

thanne took^ he this swerd A Ijtel Ner, 
And gan to Reden tho lettres In this Maner ; 
thanne Rad he how this Resown Mente 
As I schal 30W declarcn here presente : 292 

It seide that " I^euere man Scholde ben hardy 
Me Owt forto drawen ful Sekerly, 
but better thanne Anothir he Mowe fyhte, 
and more hardiero, & more Of mihte ; 296 

And hos Otherwise drawe it In ony sted, 
he schal ben the ferst that schal be ded." 
(and this proved wcl Schal ben, 

As aftir In this Storie here schole/z 30 sen.) 300 

and whanne Nasciens these lettres hadde Red, 
he M^nreilled him Mochel In that Sted, 
Most Of Ony Othir thinge 

that he Sawh sethen the begynneng. 304 

'And It was on of y thinges most In his talent^ 
that Swerd owt to drawen verament, 
and Owt of the Sckavberk it forto se, 
to knowen what Meneng It Mylite be ; 308 

For the lettres that it seide with-Owte, 
^af Nasciens Most Talent with-Owtew dowte.* 

thanne Nasciens beheld the Sckawberk tho, 
that for Merveille he Niste Avhat to do ; 312 

And for Al that he Cowde be-holde, 
Benethen, Ofer Aboven, In Ony folde, 
and 3 it Nethir In herte, Mynde, ne thowht, 
he ne CoAvde not weten where-olfen it was wrowht ; 316 
but wel he wiste it was Al so Red, 
and As Ony Red Rose In that sted ; 

* Lors 80 traist vn peu auant, si les commencha a lire. — A. 

*— * Car ch'estoit vne chose dont il auoit trop grant talent, 
ke de Tespee traire bora del fuerre, et de ueoir quele ele estoit. 
Car les meruelles ke lea letres disoieot de dehors^ Ten faisoieut 
plus entalente. — A. 


Where-aboven weren lettres of gold, 

As he gan there to be-hold ; 320 

Euere On Of Gold, Anothir Of Asure ; 

thus weren they set, I the Ensure. 

And A thowsend brauwches^ on this schawberk were, 

(Wliiche was so Riche, As I Eehersed 30W Ere,) 324 

that issweden Owt from that Onle, 

that Most Merveillous thing it was to se ; 

For Of so foAvl Mater they were, 

and therto So powre In pat plase there, 328 

And as of spittynges and Cayty vetes, 

Of febelnesses, of filthes, in many degres, 

that bothe be Semblau/it & Countenaunce 

It was to hym gret dowtaunce : 332 

For An Our the swerd it myhte not Sosteine, 

So feble it was, him thowhte Certeine. 

And the lettres that On sckawberke were, 
In this Maner Seidcn they there ; 336 

'' hos that Mo yppon him doth bero, 
Ful SewT he Schal ben Euery where ; 
And more hardy therto schal he be 
thanne Ony Oper man In his degre. 340 

jif he here me In that Manere 
as the lettres Of y swerd Eehersed Ere. 
For what man that Abowtes him bereth Me, 
he ne schal neuere ben schamed In non degre 344 

as longe as with these braw[n]ches he is gert, 
and that On his body I hange Ouerthwert. 
but that neuere non be so hardy 
that the Hau/tges that here ben to don Awey ; 348 
for him schal happen Manie Misaventure 
And Manye Evel dedes, I the Ensure, 
that he, ne non Man levenge, 
Of him schal tellen non Amendynge ; 352 

' Bt bI n*i auoit nules renges ki aueniflsent a si riche 
faerre com chil estoit. -*A. 

TIm SeablMrd hM 
1000 hangings. 


On tlM Seabbud 
Is written, 

' Whoso bnrs m« 
on him shall bs 

and MTsr sham'd 
as long as hs's 
girt with thsss 

which no man 
most trtr talcs 



'Ne behoten neuere schal be to Man 

So bard as to bim Scbal be tban 

tbat now Is, ne tbat Neuere scbal be, 

bat 3if In nuif Ostag he be Sekerle ; 356 

And jit bim be-hovetb to ben Osteyed 
BnttiMiMiiiiiigt In ibe Manerc as bere Is scide, 
1^ tiM dangiitar Wbeche sbolde ben be A womrTiannes bond, 

of ft Kiagftud 

botbe kynges dowbter & qweene, I vndirstond.^ 360 
ibis woin;?tan be p* Ribt name scbal clepen tliis swerd, 
and Me by my Name Openly & Apert ; 
For neuere to-forew In-to tbat day 
Kon Creature be oure ribt name Clepe?t ne may/' 364 
Ful longe this Nasciens tbis Skawberk gan bebolde, 
and in bis berte he Merveilled ful Manifolde. 
& whanne thus In the Schip be badde loked Abowte 
On Alle party es with-Inne & with-Owte ; 368 

but neuere so soft ne Cowde be gon, 
tbt B«d qMkM. that Al the bed be-gan to qwaken Anon 

from the ton £nde to y tofer. In that plas ; 
In this Manere this bed So qwakyng it was. 373 

And whanne he tomede, & it be-held, 
D«»f «] For discomfort he ne Myhte hym weld ; 

TIm oUmt rid> of 

the Sword is For to him it semcde tho As Bed As blood ; 

and fervppon wondirful lettres there stood, 376 

with oofti-biMk that As Ony Cole so blak they were, 

latUrton it, 

the Kesouii that was I-weten there ; 
Muring* Wbeche lettres Seiden In that Stede, 

As that tyme I Cowde hem Redo : 380 

•wbopnOiMnM " hos that Me preiseth most here, 

Most Schal I him fyndo In Oper Manere, 
■hall blame UM So that In gret Nede blamed schal he not be 

moat in his need. * ▼ n • i oo ^ 

In non wise, As I telle it the. oo4 

'— ' Ne il n'est otroie a nul home qui ore aoit, De auenir 8oi<; 
ke il en soit osteres. Auchois en doiuent estre ostes par main 
de feme, fille de roi et de roine. Et si i metera tel esoange 
pour ohes, ke ele en fera vnes autres de la chose qui sour li 
soit ke ele ara plus chiere, et si le metra en lieu de ches.— A« 





and to hym to whom I scholde ben Most debonAyre, 

To him vritJi most Angor I wele Hepeire : 

Which schal be-happe but Ony[8], Sekerly,* 

As I the telle here now Openly : 

For with-Owten faille so moste it be 

At that tyme Onys ful Sikerle." 

Swiche AYordis seide the lettrurc there 

that on J>* sAverd weren wretei* In that manure. 

and the Skavberk he be-held Agcin : 
than merveilled he gretly In Certein, 
For that partye was non Othir I-liche, 
but to his Sihte As blak As Ony pich ; 
thanne Abasched he was ful Sore, 
that he ne wiste what to sein no More, 
For he ne Cowde demen of what kynde, 
No nether to purposen In his Mynde ; 
but As him thowhte there be Eesou/i| 
Aftir A maner of tre was the facioun ; 
and oyer whillo him thowhte ]>at it was 
Of lether I-mad In that plas, 
but he ne Cowde devise In non degre 
Of what Mancr Of Beste it Myhte be ; 
Anotliir tyme him thouhte Of yrne it was, 
Owthir of sum Ofer Metal In i^hat plas : 
Thus wolde he han declared it be him selve ; 
but ^it Cowde he not putten the Ex In y helve. 

^Thus doth Nasciens with gret Entcncioan ; 
but Ay he is In ful gret Trebulacioun, 412 

For the Skawberk to haven Offe knowenge, 
but he ne Cowde for non manere thinge, 
oyer Whille to On thing In Certeinte, 
And OperwhiHe to Anothir ; but it wolde not be.' 416 

* Et ohe n*atienra o'une fois. — ^A. 

^-* EnBi estoit naadens en teDohon poor le feorre vers sol 
meisme ; Si ke 11 en affermoit a le fie vne choee, et a le fie 
deadisoit, ke a nale ohertalne parole ne aauoit aaener a quel 11 
86 peufit tenir. — A. 

And to blm I 
•hoald b« moat 



388 Botonl7 

The otbir lidt of 

396 M biMk M pUch. 

ITnetau oan't 
think wbetiMT If ■ 

tDMd» of wood. 

404 iMthtr, 


iron, ormttalt 

hot he eant pat 




thus netbir the swerd hondel, ne pomel, 
HaNdeiis eu't Ne Cowde he declaren Neuere A del : 

And out wImts 

Where-Offen the swerd I-forged was, 
tiM Sword or And whens it Cam, & from what plas, 420 

fihiatti cionn fWwn. 

Ne ho that the Swerd schold thedir bringe, 
he ne cowde not weten for non thinge ; 
Nether the strengthe of that schethe fere 
he ne Cowde dechtren it In non Manere, 424 

Ne not devisen of what kynd it was 
he ne Cowde for non Maner of Cas, 
Nor an th* Neper of the grete Merveilles that ben comenge 
tn OTMt Britain In diu^TS Reawmes wit^-Owten varyenge ; 428 

And of the grete Breteyne Also, 
What Merveilles that schal Comen hire to : 
Of Alle these thingos that to fom Hehersed be, 
ioktjot. this Storye jit declareth not Sekerle. 432 

Bntwhrn tho but whanne that tyme Cometh therto, 

right tiaMooniii^ 

That declarcng of J>* swerd we scholen gon to; 
Thanne schal that swerd be knowe^i ful wel. 
And the propre Name there Oifen Everidel, 436 

And the lettres tliat vppon the schethe be, 
thon ahaii arery- thanne scholou they ben knowen Openle. 

thine ba known. "^ 03 

For whanne that Cometh bothe tyme & day, 
Al this schal ben declared sau7is delay, 440 

the kynde of the Swerd, and schethe also. 
And Alle the vertwes that longen therto. 
thanne Openly I-schewed scholen they be, 
lik as this holy Storie telleth Certeinle.* 444 

Nowwa laaratha Now belcveth this Storye here 

Sword w«»d Soab> 

bard. Of the Swerd and the schethe, In this Mancre ; 

and Speketh here of Anothir Entent 

that Oppon the Bed was verament : 448 

Ona spindia A spvndele was there schoten forth Ryht 


Bad; thorwh the bordb Of the bed, I the plyht ; 

* End of a chapter in the English MS. The French 
runs on. 



and Anothir Spyndele Ouerthwert was fero do, 

that bothen to-Gederis metten they tho ; 452 

and bo the Spindelis, As long they were 

As lengthe & brede of )>• bed Everywhere. 

And to the hed Of the two spyndelis certein 

Anofer spyndele was loyned, I sey 30 w pleyn ; 456 

Of these thre, ful Mochol there is to schewe, 

Of manie diuc?*s poyntes vppon A Re we. 

but now this Story e telleth here, 
that the ferste spyndle was In Alle Manere, 460 

was Also whit As ony snow snewenge ; 
And the laste was as Hed as blood bledenge ; 
And the ouerth-wert that Aboven was, 
lik to An Emerawde In that plas ; 
As Grcne As An Emeraude it was there 
To his Syhte In Al Manere : 
Of these thre Colowres Sekerlye 
Weren these iij spindelis trewelye, 468 

that with-owte« Naturel peyntjTig were, 
but Ofife here Owne kynde Alle there ; 
For nether be Erthly man ne wommane 
thedyr ne weren they now browht thanne. 472 

And for As mochel as to the peple it is dowtaunce, 
but declareng fere-onne be witA-owten variaunce, 
And but ])ere-offe/i they knewen more vndirstondeng, 
Elles wolden they holden it for A gabby ng, 476 

There-fore here turneth this Storye, 
and of Anothir thing Maketh Memorye 
that is ful swete forto here, 

bothe forto lestene & ek to lere ; 480 

And In tyme Comeng, this Storye 
the thre spyndelis schal doclaren Openlye, 
And Of the Schipe Al tho knowlechinge, 
Alle this Scholon 30 knowen In tyme Comenge.^ 484 

' Sir Thomas Ma1eor*8 account of Galahad^s finding the Ship, 
and of the Mysteries and their history, is in Chapters 83 — 88, 

a Moond SplndU 
nint aerot* it ; 

and a thini 'a 
Joind to tha top 

Th« Itt Spindla 
la whIU i 

tliaSrd red; 

464 tlia tnd amarald- 

And baeanaa folk 
would think all 
thia nonB«nM 
ttitleaa mora were 
iaid aboat it» 

thia Story HI teU 
'em all about tha 
Khip. Spiiidla«, 



The Episode of Adam and Eve in Paradise, the Tree of Life, 
the Death of Abel, and the building of a Ship for Solo- 
mon and his wife. How Eve, the first sinner, is 
tempted by the Devil to eat of the forbidden Tree, and 
pulls off a branch of it (p. 368), and gets Adam to eat an 
apple too (p. 368). How they know that they are naked, 
and are ashamd * each of others members * (p. 369). God 
comes to them and pronounces their doom (p. 369), and 
turns them out of Paradise, Eve carrying the branch 
of the Forbidden Tree in her hand (p. 370). She thinks 
she will always keep the branch in sight, to remind 
her of her sin ; but., as she has no hutch to put it in, 
' for at that tyme was no swich in makyng,* she plants it 
(p. 370), and by Go<r8 grace it takes root, and signifies 
much gladness (p. 370) ; for, as by woman Paradise was 
lost, so by woman (the blessed virgiue Maree) it shall be 
restored to man (p. 371). How the branch grows into a 
great tree, which is wholly white, signifying Virginity 
(p. 371). Of the difference between maidenhood, purity 
of body, and virginity, purity of soul and body (p. 372). 
How Eve is a Virgin when she plants the branch of 
the Tree of Life, and till Adam lies with her at Christ's 
command (p. 372). She and Adam sit grieving under the 
Tree ; and Eve says it is the cause of their grief, and may 

pp. 293—304, vol. ii. of the 1816 reprint of the 1634 edition of 
* The History of the renowned Prince Arthur, King of Britain.' 


LXXXin. How Sir Galahad rode with a Damtel^ and came 
into a Ship whereas Sir Bars and Sir Percivale were in. 

LXXXTV. How Sir Galahad entered into the Ship, and of 
a fair Bed that was therein, with other viarcellous things 
{the Serpent and fish Ortenar'], and of a Snofd. 

LXXXV. Cf the Marvels of the Snord, and of the Si-ahhard 
[and of Nacien on tlie Isle of Turnancey <)!v.]. 

LXXXVI. Horn Jung Pelles was smittt^ through both the 
Thighs f hecavse he drew the S/rord, and of maiTcllous 
Histories [namely , the Three Spindles : Fee's planting 
the white tree^ its change to green ; AhcVs death; SoU" 
^non and his wife"], 

LXXXV IL How Solomon took I)aHd*s Sword hy the Counsel 
of his Wife^ and of other m-arvellous matters [making 
the Bedy Ship, and Girdles for the Sword']. 

LXXXVIII. Cf the wonderful Tale of King Solomon and his 
Wife [and how Sir Percirale's sister pvt a new girdle 
of her own hair to the swordy and girded Sir GaUthad 
with it ; and how they came on the morrow to a castle 
that men called Carteloise, that was in the marshes of 


be called the Tree of Death (p. 373). A voice tells them 
to comfort one another, as Life is much nearer them 
than Death. They do this, and call the tree The Tree 
of Life (p. 373), and plant branches of it (p. 374). 
One Friday, as they sit under it, a voice commands Adnm 
to know his wife fleshly (p. 374). They are greatly 
ashamd. So Christ pities them (p. 374), and ordams that 
men shall restore the Tenth Legion of Angels that were 
oast into Hell, and sends Adam and Eve darkness, in 
which they copulate, and beget Abel the Just The 
darkness disappears (p. 375), and, in consequence of the 
copulation, the white Tree of Life, and all other trees, turn 
from white to green (p. 376) ; and the Tree of Life, which 
before was barren, bears flowers and fruit (p. 376) : signi- 
fying Abel's good life. How Abel gives tithes and his best 
things to Ood (p. 376), but Cain gives his worst (p. 877). 
And when they sacrifice, the sweet smoke of AbePs offer- 
ing goes straight to heaven, but the stinking smoke of 
Cain's spreads over the fields ; on which Cain resolves to 
kill Abel (p. 377). One day Abel goes after his sheep, and 
lies down and sleeps under the Tree of Life (p. 378). Cain 
follows him, thinking to kill him uoperoeivd, but Abel 
sees him and welcomes him. Cain runs at him with an 
* op-courbed knyf ,' smites him * vndir the pappe * (p. 378), 
and, — * vntrewe brother,' — kills him (p. 379), on a Friday, 
under the tree under which he was begotten (p. 379). 
How Abel's death signifies Christ's, and Cain tyinfies 
Judas; * for it is the condisciown of a cursed man to 
haten a good man what that he can* (p. 379). How 
Christ condemns Cain *be kyng Davy in the Sawter 
book' (p. 880). God asks Cain where Abel is. Cain 
covers the body up with leaves, and says ' with him 
have I not for to done '. Gk>d curses Cain and the earth 
(p. 880), but not the Tree of Life, which turns from 
green to red directly after Abel's death ; and grows very 
large, but bears no flower or fruit (p. 381). How the 
tree is held in great reverence by Eve's descendants (p. 
381) ; and how they come to it in times of trouble, and 
call it the Tree of Counsel and of Comfort (p. 882). How 
it and its saplings continue beautiful till, and after, the 
Deluge, and are calld * Trees of Life ' by all who see them 
(p. 882.3).» 

Thus be Aventure As gan be-falle, 

that Eve the ferst wom/Jian of Alle, 

that the ferst Synne Evere wrowhte, 

wherthorwh mankynde was browht to Nowhte 4 

' The Additional MS 10,292, If. 31, b. 3, heads this chapter, 
" Ensi que cue et adam sunt pardevant Tarbre, et adam se preut 
par le geule." 



Tbe D«vU ratolTi 

to tompt Et« to 
ForUddra Tree. 

He gete her to 
pull offabnuioh, 


give it to Adam, 

and he eatt of 
it too. 

When they've 

tliey become 

be the Cownseyl Of the moste dedly Enemy, 

wheche was the devel, ful Sekerly, 

that Envie hadde to ^lankynde Anon 

For he In paradis was So I-don. 8 

Thanne bethowhte him the devel In haste 
how he myhte hem of paradis Owt Caste, 
that dide he Al hys fowl konnewge, 
Adam & Eve Owt of paradis to bringe, 12 

And fondede to Eve there forto gon, 
To Maken here to Eten of that tre Anon 
which sche was forboden Oner all* thing 
Only of that tre the Neygheng, 16 

Wheche sche was forboden of hire Creatoure, 
that tre forto Xoyghen In non Oure. 
to wheche tre the devel hire tempted faste, 
tyl that Eve A branch kawhte Atte laste, 20 

and there-Ofifen An Apelle Anon sche took, 
and there-Onne sche gan ful faste to look ; 
thanne there Offen sche hot anon, 
and faste to hir& spowse ward sche gan to gon, 24 

and Conccilled him thcre-Oilen to Ete, 
& that for non thing he scholJe it lete. 
So Adam Ete that Appel Auoii, 

To his grete peyno, and Owre distroccioun. 28 

Whanne Eve had him takew this appel, I vndirstond, 
3it lefte^ the brauwch Stille In hire bond ; 
but it was A3ens Lire knowenge 
that the brau7/ch In hire bond was Abydinge. 32 

tbau/ie whanne they hadilen Eten of this tre — 
Wlieche dedly froyt Avel clcpid May be, 
For there thorwgh dcdlich becam he tho, 
and alle t)>at Euere Aftir from him gonwen go ; — 36 

» MS Ouerth 

* Si auint vne chose ke li rainsiaus remest en la main sa 
ferae. Si com il auient asses souuent ke on tient aucunc choM 
en sa main, et si n'i quide on riens tenir.- 


and know that 
Uiay an naked. 

They eorer their 
with their bandi. 

thanne knew they wel that Naked they were ; 
to-fom hem thowhte Spiritwel In Alio Manere, 
For they wercn formed to Everelasting lif ; 
but that fowle Synne browhte vs Alle In Strif. 40 

And whanno hem Self they gonne beholde, 
Aschamed they weren ful Many folde ; 
For Al Naked knewen they pat they were, 
And Aschamed Ech Of Oj)<?r Membres was there ; 44 
& with here hondis they kouerided hem tho ; 
So dyde there Eve thanno Also, 
And the brau/2ch Euere stille In hire hond, 
but that Cowde sche not tho vndirstond. 48 

Thanwe he whiche Alle thowhtes doth knowe, Tbm Ood 

To hem Cam there In A throwe, 
and kneAV here Synweng Everydel, 
Wheche was to hem A sory Mel. 62 

There ferst Adam he gan to Calle, «"• a^*". 

that him thowhte most Kesoun of Alle^ 
that Ferst Chalanged that he were, 
thanne the womman In Ouy Manere ; 56 

For tho wom??ian is of so feblo Complexioun 
that of Manwes Rib was mad, As Axeth Hesoun, 
and that Obeischawnt scholdc be to Man ; 
Wheifore Crist ferst clepid Adam than. 60 

And whanne god hadde Reproved him of his synite, 
thanne to him he seide, & nolde not Idynne, 
" thy bred In Swetyng shalt thow Ete ; 
thy liflode w/t/e travaille shalt thou gete ; 64 

And for thi Avif In feleschepe wiUi the was tho, 
With the, compenie to be, schal she go ; " 
and Seide to hire, ** that In Sorwe & gret drede 
hire lif in Erthe Scholdc sche lede, 68 

And In gret peyne to beren hire pariture ;' 

rcprovei hinif 

and layi he sliall 
gti hie living by 
work and iweat. 

Chriet telle 
■he ehall bear 
children with 
great pain. 

* Et il estoit bien raisons ke il en fust plus ooooisouneus 
que la feme. — A. 

' et en doulour enfanteras ta porteure. — A. 
ORAAL. 21 


Of this Eve thow scbalt ben Seure." 
Adam and Wf thanne Owt of paradys were/* they bothe CastOy 

of Paradiae^ And be An Au/7gel owt dreven Atte laste, 72 

Wheche is clopid * paradys of delyt,' 

there-offen weren they sono bothe qwyt ; 

And Evere, As fat I vndirstond, 
Eva holding tha held stiUe Eve b* brauwch In liire bond, 76 

brandi of tha ' 

Tiraaof lift, and ne left it neucre for non thing ; 

And jit was it not be hire wetyiig. 
thanne Atte laste sche gan beholde 

Vppon this Braunch fill Manifolde, 80 

whichiaasgraan and Eveie lich Greiie it was, 

aa when It waa 

firaft paiid oc As ferst sche it p<.)lde Owt of y plas. 
Anon wiste sche thaune certeinly 
that they hadden Syn7?ed tho dedly, 84 

and that it was caAvse of here disheritatince ; 
Wherfore that brauTich kept sche In remembraniice, 
and that she wolde it piittcn In swich A plase 
Often tymes to sen it, In hire fase, 88 

there-offen forto haven ful Remembrywg 
that sche was Cause of here dishorytyng. 

thanne bethoAvhte sche hire on this Manure, 
that nothing had sche to putten it In there, 92 

Nethir huchche ne non Ofer thing, 
For that tyme w^a-s non swich In Makyng ; 

Eve then pianta So than/io this brau/ich took sche Anon Hyhte, 

this branch * 

And there In the Erthe Anon sche it pyhte. 96 

than77e seido sche ' ^t often scholde sche it sen, 
For In hire face Ay scholde it ben.' 
and it taices root And whanne this Braunch In the Erthe don was, 

and srowa. ^^ 

Anon it wax, & Roted be goddis gras. 100 

This brawnch that Eve the ferste Synnerc 

Owt of parad}'8 browht with here there, 

Signcfied ful Mochul gladiiesso 

In tyme Conieng, And Ek lyhlncssc. 104 

And jit al llii« tyme Avas Eve 


A Clene Maide, As this storio doth preve ; £r« is a Tiifia 

And thanne sche seide ** dismaie 30W nouht ; 

for they out of Oure Eritage we ben browht, 108 

^it for Evere han we it not lost, 

but therto A^en Eestorc/i wo most." 

And jif je welen E[n]qweren of this storie 
What the Cause was, & the Skele * whye 112 

that Man the Braunche Owt of paradis not bar, 
As wel as the womman dide tho thar, 
Sethen that man is Of heighere degre 
than is the Woman ful Sekerle ;* 116 

To this answerith this Storye, 
and seith ' that to ])* Man It ' belongeth not trewlye, 
but Al only to the womman Htr bringing um 

that Owt of paradis brouht it than : 120 ParaxUM, 

It sii?nefieth that b* womman Owt it browhte, "»••»« n>*t »>>• 

^ f » world ahall to 

that be womr/tan the world was brouht to nowhte ; nuoni by 

and be A womman Restored schal it be ; 

wheche signefiet be y blessed virgine Maree.'* 124 th« virgin luiy. 

Lo Now tometh the Storye here ful pleyn [k*f«] 

to groweng of this braunch Anon here ageyn ; 
and how it Molteplyed 80 hugely 
that a gret tre it wax trewly, 128 xbebrmchgroiri 

a gml tree, 

and gan to brawnchen & schadAven ful fere ; 

and this was with-Inne riht fewe 3ere. 

botho braunches, leves, and bark, as I telle aow. with whiu bark. 

Was Also whit As ony snow ; 132 

Whiche that signefyeth virgenite, 

that this vertu hath ful Sekerle, 

a man7ies body it kepeth Clene, 

and the sowle whit al be-dene. 136 

For In as moche as that y tre whit was. 

It signefieth viiginite in that plas ; dgniiyinc 


* ke 11 porters de che raim n^apartenoit de noient a 
home. — A. 

* End of a chapter in the English MS. The French 
runs 00. 


Ere WM a rirgin For virgine sche was whanwe scLe it sette ; 

when tbo planted 

UMTrMofLifo. thus Kecordeth the Storye with-Owten lette; 140 

for jit At that tyme clene virgine sche was 

from Alle thowhtes of lecherie In that plas. 
M*w«hood but Maydenhod and vin^inite 

Ne ben not bothe In on degre ; 1 44 

but gret defferense betwene hem Is, 

as je scholen heren with-Owtew l^Iis. 

For Maydenhod In non degre 
Yii^inity Kis not lik to virginite ; 148 

and I schal 30W telle the Resown why ; 
In being bodily For Maydenhod is In this maner trewly, 


that felte neuere nian fleschly, 
or freedom from ne])6r In weye of lecherie lay hire by.^ 162 

but virginite is An heighere thing, 
wher«u Virginity And More vertwos to thin vndirstondyng : 

belongs to both 

For bothe Man & Wonunan that virgines be, 


thoee who've Ne thowhte neuere Amys In non degro 156 

never thought of «-»,.,, , 

Ucbeiy. of Bodily lust to ony luxure : 

this is virginite bothe good & pure. 

and thus was Eve In Clene virginite 
Whanne Owt Of paradis Cast was sche ; ICO 

and 3it the same Our sche plaunted this brauwch, 
Virginite w/t/f-Inne here was ful stau//cli. 

Christ bids Adam but Aftir Crist Comanded to Adam Anon 

'know 'bU wile. 

that * to his wif there scholde he gon, 1 64 

and here to knowew there fleschly, 

As Man And Wommau Scholde trewely*; 

thanne loste sche Anon virginite 

thorw desireng of lust, sekerle. 168 

He doee so, and and whanne Adam & Eve thus haddcn I-do, 

and fleschly to-Gedcris knewe;/ they tho, 
th^moom under thenne Maden they bothe ful Mochel Mornewge 

' Puchclages est vne virtus ki tout chil et toutes chelc» ont 
en aus, qui oiniues n'orent coropaigQie ne atoucbeinent de car- 
nelle luxure. — A. 



Vndir this tre, bothe leme/itacion & wepinge. 172 

and wlianne that Adam In his hcrte gan deviso 

his Exyleng Owt of paradise, 

Ful hevy Chere Ech other gan to Make, 

And Eche was Sory for Otheris Sake. 176 

thanne Seide Eve to Adam tho, 

'* Sirtf, ne mcrveille ^q not so gretly so ; 

For non wondir it nys In non Manere 

thovvh Owre trespas [we] Hemembren here ; 180 

For ther may now Abiden vndir this tre — 

thowh glad & Joyful that he be, — 

but 3if In Moroneng he parte Away ; — 

Sire, it were wondir, I jow Say ; — 1 84 

For the tre of dcth this May wel be, 

as Myn herte liemembreth now me, 

whiche tre that we resten vndir, 

Vs Maketh so hevy, it nis non wondire." 188 

Anon As sche hadde this word I-spoke^ 

Abowtes hem faste they gowie to loke ; 

A vois than herden they with here Ere, 

That In this Manere to hem Seide there ; 192 

" Sey, 3e Caytives, why demen 30 so 

Ech Otheris deth, as 3e now do 1 

Ne deme 36 no more in swich degre 

Of disperauwce, I warne 30 w Certeinle; 196 

but Comforte 30 w In All wise 

Ech oper, As 3e best Connen devise ; 

For the lif Is to 30W moche Nerre lastly 

thanne Ony deth Certeinly." 200 

Thus Spak the vois to hem riht tho ; 

thanne mochel Comfort they token hem to. 
thanne Aftirward Clepid they that tre 

' the tre of lyf,» ful Sikerle ; 204 

For the goode Comforte fat f e;*e-ondir hadde/i they there, 

' the tre of lif* they clepid it Every where. 

and for the loye they hadden of this tre, 

the Tree of Life. 

Adam and Eve 
Rrlere ander the 

8he nyt It may 
be caUd the Tree 
of Death. 

A Tolee bide them 


Ibr Life la much 
nearer them than 

Tliejr fall the 
of Life.' 



They pUnt 
branehMof Um 
Tree of Lift, 

vhidi Uk« root. 

Adam and Ere, 


art fiatlng andtr 

•nd A toIm Udii 
hit wlto. 

Mluuned todo 
it there. 

So Jeetu pltlee 

Many brawnches they plaantid fere-offen Sekerlye ; 

and As sone As it was Set In the growndey 209 

bothe it took & Koted with-Inne A stownde ; 

and In Alle degre it kepte the Colowr, 

As it was the wyl Of Oure Savyowr. 212 

than^ often tymes it be-happed So, 
that vndir theke tre gonnen they go, 
hem forto Eesten ful often Sithe, 
whiche Mad hem bothe glad & blythe. 216 

So that it happid vppon a day, 
that Adam with Eve wM-Owten delay 
Seten to-gederis bothe tweyne, — 
thus pia holy Storie Reporteth Certeine, 220 

that vppon A fryday it happede so 
that vndir theke tre bothe gonnen they go,-— 
and longe there gonne they hem Eeste 
til A vois there Cam pat Sowned be Este, 224 

Whiche vois Seide to hem verraily, 
' that Adam his wif Scholde knowen fleschly.' 

thanne So Achamed bothe they were, 
Swich Manere of tiling forto don there, 228 

that Nethir of hem On Othir dorst loke 
that dede to don, so seith this boke ; 
For as sore Aschamed f * Man was there 
As the womTTzan In Alle Manere, 232 

For they Nesten thanne In non degre 
how he7'e Lordis ComauTidement sckapen scholden hee ; 
and for be encheson of f • ferst trespas, 
they dradden hem of here lordis Gras ; 236 

and so Rewfully Ech on Oper loked than 
For gret schame, bothe man & womTwan. 

tlianne beheld lesus, Owre worthy lord, 
here SchamefuUest* & drede be here Owun Acord, 240 
that God In hem Anon hadde gret pite 
For here Schamfastnesse In that degre ; 

* MS that ' For * SchamfRstnesse,* see K 242. 



And, for his wiUe distorbeled ne schold not be. 

For hem he disposede ful worthile, 244 

that be hem two the lygne of Man 

the tenthe Ord^r of Awngelis Eestore scholde than^ 

that Owt of hevene weren Cast Adown 

for pride Into belle, that lowe doniown* 248 

And therfore A3ens here achame Comfort he^ sent 

to hem bothe there Anon presente ; 

and, Al here Schame-fjetstnesse forto hyde. 

In Man^r of A Nyht God sent hem that tyde, 252 

that So Mirk it was with hem there 

that non myhte Other sen In nou Manere. 

thanne Abasched weren they wondir Sore 
how fat 80 sodeinty that dirknesse Cam thore. 256 
thus sone the ton the tother gan to CaUen tho, 
and to-Gyderis they felten thanne bothe two 
there with-Owten sighte Of Ony day, 
thus to-gederis knewen they witA-ovrten delay. 260 
For it behoveth that Alle thing be do . 
Aftir goddis wille ; he wele )>at it be So ; 
and that tyme Ech Other fleschly gon to knowe. 
Only goddys Comandemeivt forto Avowe ; 264 

So that there, thorwh here Comowuenge, 
Seed forth browhte to here SyMues Aleggynge. 
For there thoruhe hem bothe was oonceyved than 
Wliiche that me Clepid Abel, tliat Ilihtwis man, 268 
and the ferste man that to his god dide worthy SerYine^ 
him to worschepen & plesen In Alle wyae. 
In this Manure was Abel vnder the tre of lyf 
be-geten of Adam, Conecyved of his wif ^ 272 

Wheche was don vppon a fryday, 
As this Storye thus doth here Say. 

thanne there behelden they bothe Anon 
that thus sone this dirknesse was gon ; 276 

thanne knewen they wel ful Terraylly, 

> MSIm 

that they shall 
restore the luth 
Legion of An^^n. 

darkneee to hid* 
their shame. 

Under its eover 
tbey copulate^ 

■ad beget Abd 

vader the Tret 
of Life. 

Tlie darkness 



the Tree oTLifo 

and all Ita adooa 

turn Anom white 
to green, 

and bear flowere 

that Grod it dyde ful specyaly 

Forto hyden here Schame-fastnesse, 

Where-thorwgh they weren bothe In distresse. 280 

and Anon A gret Merveille to hem ^ere was, 
that God there schewede In that plas ; 
For As grene be-Cam f • tre In that stede 
As Evere dyde Gras In ony ^lede ; 284 

And so diden Alle that Out of ))at tre gonize gon, 
Aftyr that Adam and Eve so hadden I-don ; 
bothen bark, bowh, £k lef, and tre, 
From whit to Grene I-tomed they be. 288 

thanne Anon Aftyr Evene Ryht There 
This tre flowres & froyt began to here ; 
and whiles )>at Tre & braunches weren white Echon, 

thanne nethir flowres ne froyt ne bar it non ; 

but Aitir that it was woxen Grene, 

It bar bothe flowres & froyt Alle be-dene. 

For the whitnesse of theke tre 

Only betokeneth virginite ; 

but whanne Virginite was Agon, 

thanne be-Cam f/s tre Grene Anon ; 
■ignirying that Whechc that signofieth )>* seed of Manwe 

that vnder thike tre was Conserved thanne, 
Abel was ehanto, that Chast and trewe was to his Creatour, 

and In Alle tymes dyde him honour ; 

and the froyt of that ire doth Signefio 
andreiigioas. that Evere he was Reli^ous Sothfastlve. 

Thus Contenued ful longe tliis Tre there, 

So that Evere was grene, <fe In on Manere, 
Abdgrowi, tyl that Abel was woxen wel of Age, 

and to his god did moche Servage ; 

And Euere deboneuie to his Creato?/?' he was, 

9eldenge him that liis was In Every plas. 

As wel of tithes, As of Offrenge ; 
and worehipa Ood thus to his i:jod dide he worschepinge : 

with Us beat. 

and of the best thing that his were, 








he offrede to God In Ech Manere. 

but Cayn his brothir ne dide not so ; 

For Evere of his werste took he tho,- 316 

and to God there-Oflfen made his Oflfring, 

Swich as that to Cayn was fowlcst thing. 

Lo, and God to hym sente As gret plente 

As to his brother Abel ; thus y stone scheweth me. 

So whanne they comen bothe In-to the plase 321 
that for Sacrefyenge be God Ordeyned was ; 
and for to maken there here offrenge, 
bothe Cayn & Abel weren thedyr Comenge, 324 

lyk as it was be Goddis Comandement 
Thedir Comen they bothe verament. 

and whanne Abel his Sacrefyse gan to do, 
Streyht vp-ward to hevene thanne gan it go ; 328 

but Cayines Oflfreng In that Stede, 
the fwme spred Abowtes al the Mede, 
Which was bothe blak, fowl, & stynkkenge ; 
thus was the Maner of Cayines Oflfrenge. 332 

and thike that of abelis offring was, 
was Cler Ss swete smellyng In that plas. 

and whanne Cay in beheld this Manere, 
that abelis Offreng Resceived was so there 336 

passinge his In alle degre, 
therto gret Envye Anon had ho, 
and gret wrath the A3ens his brothir took, 
that God Abelis Kesceyvede, and his forsook. 340 

thanne Cayin bethouhte him sone Anon 
In what wyse Abel he myht vengen him on : 
thanne to him Self he seide tho, 

' that Sekerly his brothir wolde he slo, 344 

So best on Abel avenged Myhte he be ; * 
thus thowhte Cayin In his Memore. 

Thus bar longe Cayin this fowl Envye 
to his brothir abel Gyltleslye ; 348 

3it percey ved abel neue;'e Chere ne Contenannce 


his wont thing* 

Abd'i Meriflr* 



bat the lUnking 
smoke of Cain't 
•preada over tli« 

Cain Is angry, 

tbat God receiT* 
Abel't Mcriflce 
and reftiaeehla. 

He reeoire to 
•lay Abel. 


that Cajin bim thonhte Onj GreTamiGe. 

80 longe Cayin helede this haterede 

In his herte, that ilke fowle stede, 
OMdny, tyl that it happed vppon a day 

that Abel gan to walken, as I ^w say ; 

For Owt of his fiKlris Syhte tho 

Gan this abel thanite forto go, 356 

iPM lotiM Tut tyl that he Cam to the tre of lif. 

For there wenten his 8chep« witA-owten striil 

the day gan wexen hot fal faste, 

and of the sonne strong bete In haste, 360 

So that strong [bete] not snffren myhte be, 

bnt wente to schadwen bim vndir that tre ; 

So that gret lost Cam bim fere Tppon 

that Nedis moste he Slepen anon, 364 

nii4tf«m and so vndir this tre he gan him leye*- 

as now that me je beren Seye, — 

and to slomberen be gan there Anon. 

thanne Gan Cayin forth to gon, 368 

that longe hadde thowlit )>t9 felonye : 

there abel his brotbir he gan aspye. 
Oda MM Abti, thanne belield Cayin pat selve day 


•ndgoMtokiu Where abel his bro))€7' vndir y tre lay, 372 

and faste hin byede forte sle, 

So wende Aparceyved it scbold not ban be. 

but Abel fill wel sawh him comofi tho, 

Sc vp bim dressed, and A3en8 liim gan go, — 376 

For he bim lovede wondirly wel 

as it was fere sene Everidel ; — 
AbHwtiMmM and seide, *^ welcome, my brother dere, 
^^^ I am f ul glad we ben In fere : " 380 

and Evene In this manere of gretyng 

spak Abel to Cayin At here Metyng. 

__ him Anon this Cayin there to bim Ean, 

and A op-Courbed knyf he drowh out than, 384 

t the pappe smot him Anon 



Also for as the knyf wolde gon. 

and thus abel Anon ded was there 
Of his vntrewe brotheris hond In ^'s maneie. 388 

lo, In the same stede that he Conceyved was 
Of his ^lodu*, In that plas 
Suffrede he his deth with vnriht, 
As was be the Suffrau/ice of god Almyht. 392 

And Evene lik In the same Manere 
as on the Fryday he was begeten there, 
Lik So vppon a fryday be Cayin was he ded, 
as this holy stoiye Recordith In this sted. 396 

LOf whanne j^at abel suflrede deth be trasown, 
In Al thys World ne weren but thre men In-virown ! 
behold how that the deth of Rihtwas Abel 
Is likned to Cristes deth Everydel t 400 

Be Cayin signefyed was Iwdas, 
the falsest Tretour that Evere was. 
For lik As Cayin his brothir gan to heylle. 
So dide ludas to Crist Sawn faille ; 404 

So that these tweyne dethes Acorden wel 
As be fals tresown Everydel ; 
and As Abel vppon A fryday was slayn. 
So be tresown was lesus In Certayn. 408 

So that ludas In alle Manere 
To Cayin Is likned Everywhere ; 
For ludas hadde non Maner Enchesown 
To don his lord to )>at distroctiovm, 412 

For to him myhte he han non haterede 
For Owht that Jesus dyde In Ony dede ; 
and for he say neuere In him but goodnesse, 
ther-fore was he ful Of Irfulnesse ; 416 

For it is ))" Condisciown Of A cursed Man 
To haten A good Man, what that he Can. 
and Of the tresown ^at Cayin to his brothir hath do, 
Spekith Jesus Cnst, and of Many Mo, 420 

be kyng davy In the Sawter book — 

That AM it 
•lain by Cain 



eoooelTd In, 

and on Um Uk« 
daj, Fridaj. 


and Cain typlflM 

Both AM and 
Chritt wen dain 

alwaya hate a 





Cala'i tnmthnrj 
U spokes of in 
DAvld't Pnlms. 

God MkR Gain 
whin Abel U. 

Cain eorera the 

and sayt, 

< 1 don't know.' 

God eunet Cain, 

and tl)« earth, 
for his mice. 

ho that tliere-after wile there-Inne look ; — 

That A (Irodful word now speketh there 

that thu8 Seith^ and In this Manere, 424 

* thow purposist, & seist fals felonye 

to thy brothir, & seist al trechorye; 

and to thin Owne Modris sone 

swich tretories thou dost As is thy wone ; 428 

Wherfore I schal the Chastise, 

and the pvnschen In hard wise.* 

and thus In t]ie Sawter schole 36 it fynde 

of dauid his enditenge, kyng good & kynde. 432 

thanne ourc lord, Cay in gan to Calls 
Aftir this dede thus was befalle, 
and seide, " Kayin, where is thy brother Abel, 
that to the tres])ased neuere A del ] " 436 

Whanne that kayin vndirstood Al this, 
that he haddo So fowle don Aniys, 
and that so gret tresoun he hadde I-wrowht, 
Anon it tomede than In his thowht, 440 

and koucred Abel with the leves of f* tre 
That Aspyd ne schold not than bo. 
thanne Axede him Owre lord Ageyn, 
" Cay in, where is thy brothir, sey me pleyn." 444 

thanne Kayin Answcrid A^en Anone, 
** With him have I not for to done ; 
For I ne hauc hym not In kopiuge, 
Neftfr of him I ne Can tellon non tydyiige." 448 

thanne Answcrid Cure lord to hym ful sono, 
" that fowle dede that thow hast done, 
and slayn thyn Brothir So falslye, 
Aforn Me veniau;ice his blood doth Crye. 452 

therfore Acursed schal t thow be 
thorwh-Owt Alle the Ertlie ful sikerle, 
and the Erthe, A-corsed I wol it be do, 
that thy brotheris blood hath Resceyved so." 456 

thus Crist the Erthe Cursed there ; 


e la nou Manere 
I that Abel was dad, 

Ltle In now flted. 460 

idir MItirveille of that tra Aft*rAiMi'i 

f befel, lios mj'lite it se : 
1 Ab Abel thure-vndir was Slaju, 

t it torned Anon Certayn, 464 UMTTHarun 

^m As Ked as ony blood, to ™d, *^ 

a tre, thure as it stood, 
mbrau^e Of hyiu that ded was there, 
1 lu swich A llanere. 463 

ehis plawates that Abowt«s him were, ud Ju Kimi uo, 

1 111 ^hort Maoere; 
i bte Grew ao Merveillously, 
e fiiyrest tre it be-Cam trewly 473 

a Myhte beholde with Eye ; 
p ful of £tiwte this tre was Sekerlye, 
ft Keuere clionged ne peyred nowht there 
•(theu Abci was )ter-vndir ded. In non Manere, 476 
*aufo lliat flowT ne fkiyt ne bar it nenere non but n mrw mm 

k*i<itheu there-vndir that fowle dede was don. fmii, 

but tlio that of him weren I-set to-forn, 
, bntho flowrea and froit of hem ben bom ; 480 «»' luiHoni do. 

and 30 thi'se Trees gonnen to Multiplye, 
Bud the world Encresid ful plentevouslye. 

So alle thnt of Ailam & Eve Comen tho, Ad«nM»iE.»-» 

To that tre ftd Moche Iteue/cnce they do; 484 mmnotiH 

and Eche of hem Other doth telle 
\ In what Miinere that it befelle, 
' That how here fente Modir it plaw[n]ted there, 
■nd how thedir it cam, & In what Manere ; 488 

and they Scholdea Kestoren agayn 
hrae ferete Eritage In Certoyn, 
Wliere-Owt here ferste Modir was Cast, 
bnt A^«n we scholen it liarcn Atte laste.' 493 

and whasHe they wercu Id Ony disseise, 


[CB. XXtX. 


ho that lliere-after wile there-Inne look ; — 
That A drpJful wonl now upekt-th there 
that thus Seith, and In this Muncre, 
' tliow purposist, & aeist fula fulonye 
HiiTu. to thy brottiir, & ecist al truchorye; 
ami to thin Owne Modris done 
swich ttetories tlioii dost As is thy wone ; 
\Vherroru I schal the Cliastise, 
ami the pvnfichen In hard wise.' 
Btid thufl In the Sawt*r achole je it fynde 
of dauid hia enditeoge, kjng guod & kynde. 

thaniie oate Jord, Cayin gaii to CbIIk 
Aftir this dede thua waa hefallu, 
and aeide, " Kayin, wliere ia thy brother Abul, 
that to the trespased neucre A del 1 " 
Whanne that kayin vndirstood Al this, 
that he hadde So fowie iloa Amys, 
and that so gtat tresoun he haddu I-ivrowht, 
Anon it tornede than In his ihowht, 
and kouered Abel witli the levea of ft* tro 
That Aapyd ne sehold not than bo. 
thanne Axede him Owre lord Ageyn, 
" Cayin, ivhere ifl thy brothir, aey mo iilepi." 
thanne Kayin Anawerid Ajyn Anoue, 
" With him have I not for 1^ 
For I ne haue liym not In Ij 
Ne>ei-ofhimI ni 
thniine An s we rid 
" that fowlo dedt 
and slnyn thyt Di 
Aforn Me 

thorfore A cursed sq.* 
thorwh-'livt AUe ' 
and the Killii-, 

They call it 'TlM 
Tree of Couiu>«l 
■lid of Comfort.* 

Its leioni keep 
their beanty tiU 
Mooh'i flood; 


That Ony thing here hertes dide Misplese, 

and Anon to Jat blessed tre they wente, 

here Conceil to taken veramente ; 496 

whanne that to theke tre they Comen Anon, 

Comforted they weren thanne Everichon ; 

and Sethen tUey Clepeden it * y tre of Consaild 

And the Tre of Comfort ' with-Owten fail(?. 500 

This tre Grew & wex fnl faste, 

and alle that Euere of him Comen Atte laste, 

bothe that werew of f • Grene tre, 

and Also of the white Certeinle, 504 

So that the peple Sore Merveilleden tho 

how that they Endured & woxen so ; 

and Evere keptenthey that Same Bewte 

Tyl that God sente the flood of Xoe, 508 

Where-thorwgh Alle wikkyd peple than 

"Weren distroied, As I tellen 30W kan, 

So that on ly ve lefte non sikerle 

but Noe & his wif & here Compene. 513 

For it was Goddis wille tho 

that the world distroyed scholde be so, 

Sauf only hem that god trewe fond 

Afom Alle there, I vndirstond ; 516 

and be hem tho world Restored Schold be, 

that to-forn tyme was lost In swiche degre. 

but wete ^q wel for Certeyn, 
thowh tho trees to here kynde comen Ageyn, 520 

after which they ^it boren they neuero Aftyr so kendly 
As to fore tyraes they dyden vtterly, 
that they ne losten Clene y Savoure 
Of here ferst froit, & the Odowr^, 524 

thorw^h the water that so bitter was, 
that ouei'keuered the world In Every plas ; 
Sauf Only thike Selve tre of lyf 

and ))* brau/^ches fat fere-of comen, whiche sette 
Adams wif, 528 

loee their laroor 
and mnell, 
thro' the bitter 
water that coverd 
tlte world. 

But the Tree 
of Life, 

and its branches 
planted by Eve, 


of Bewte, froit» ne of Colour, 

ne weren not Chonged In non Our^; n^rer change ti,«ir 

fruit or colour. 

For witnesseth they that hem Sjre — 

these trees ful openly to here Eyei — 532 

For trees of lif I-cleped they were 

of hem that hem Sien In all Manere ; ^ 

For of deth dredden they In non degre 

whiles there-ofifen they hadden In here compene. 536 


The Episode of [the Fall, Abel's death, and] Solomon's build- 
ing the Ship, continued. How the Tree of Life continues 
till the time of Solomon, who is wonderfully wise (p. 
884), but is deceivd by a woman, and, when much 
troubid by her, speaks his Book of Parables (p. 885), and 
says that not one good woman can be found in the world 
(p. 386). One night he declaims against women (p. 
386), and a voice reproaches him, and says that a woman 
of his race shall bring men to greater joy than Eve lost 
(p. 38^-7). Solomon thinks that he was a fool to blame 
women so, and searches the Scriptures till he knows of the 
Virgin Mary and her Son (p. 387). A voice tells him that 
this Son shall come of his line, and be a knight jiassing all 
others (p. 388). He is greatly rejoict, though the Son is 
not to come for 2,000 years (p. 389). His wife asks him 
to tell her what he has been tliinking of (p. 889). He 
tells her ; and on the third night she says riie can certify 
him of the Ck>ming Knight of his line (p. 890). She bids 
him send for all the carpenters in his realm, and order 
them to make a Ship that will last for 4,000 years, which 
she will fit up (p. 890). Solomon sends for the carpen- 
ters, and orders them to make the Ship (p. 891). Thsy 
say they will do their best, and then they set to work and 
finish it in half a year (p. 391). Solomon's Queen then 
tells him that he ought to provide a precious piece of 
armour for his descendant, namely, King David's Sword 
(p. 392), to which he is to make a point of precious 
stones, and then a pomel and a sheath ; and she will 
add the hangings (p. 393). Solomon does as his wife 
tells him, and makes the point, handle, and sheath (p. 
394). He then looks at them, and wishes that no one 
but the man the sword was made for may draw it 

' par quoi chil qui che uirent, disent, 'que noirement estott 
chil arbres de oie et non de mort.' - A. 

*Z9 SiICilJi:^ ASZt EZ5 SEIF. [< 

cue z «Eia^ '3« io r. SJe.. He vrhes lenen ob the 
wakiihmrL vi»i SLakcaf ±bi» ^^i-rr^ fcr h : Int hit 
vtH 3«jc sat* ism. a»i f^zit fas! aad vemk 
bMoemi z. ^-r' . v33». sbe m?-i a fmir maViffn (lUkit her 
wao vH Ufic £t«'* vin vilL cfaABce iaio gkirioosofiet 
(p. JM.. A 2i^i j« stiii^ ia t&i> shipw mad the Swotd pat 
■c ia £kc ftati Z«T-jr» ^^wa ms iii» bead (pc 39C). Sok>- 
wmm'i vtf» si^L.-^ -arp^sutn u> the Tree <if Life snd iti 
medlhuR. aai -:riR» tb'^ so e^ cfF three tprigir red, 
viuae, aaii zt^ksi p. 3;.C Bjood i{MTiigi out of the 
Tne of LLf«. u«i ihe vinmen feftre their vork» hot the 
Qtaeen. mskJLfi* zhnast ±a-^ it. She pat» the Bcmnchei oa 
the B>!«i p. 3*i^ . &»! &cr5 So&^oKn that no one ihmll aee 
the Bed Tnlttm he tfe-TC^ of Abel's d-emth (p. 399). Solo- 
■ua wrifiKAi a Iem*r to ih« Kzii^t of his tine vho is to 
dimw the Sv^rl. varafiur him ai$m:iut the wfles of womeu. 
Thm his pofii iaso tfa« :^hip (p. 399^ Then he writes an 
•eeonns oi the bcflpiisx of tlhe Skip* of the Bed, Spindlea, 
Joe^ asi pofis it as the k^Tt head, under the crovn ; mnd 
then Tnnm^hBa the Ship (p. 4^JX His wife tells him to 
hnw hoi pavilfoos set up on the sea-shore, that he and she 
BST sssT there and see what bceomes of the Ship (p. 401). 
Th^ is <hiae. aoi oa»* ai^t in a dream Sokxnon sees a man 
and an^^eLi jprinkL? th« Ship with water, and ssj that it is 
a t¥pe of GtxTs *-Xew Hoose** (p. 402). The man has 
a warning writsen to fsithleas people not to enter the 
Ship (p. 402). SoLomoo wakes snd seeks the man and 
angdsw bat cannot speak or go to them (p. 402). A roioe 
tells him that Im d^sre b falfilki, snd the Isst of his line 
shall enter the Ship and g?t the Swonl (p. 403). The men 
aoil ani;«I« vaaLsh : Sxomoo is going on board the Ship. 
bat the To:ce wams him. that if he does, he shall periith 
(p. 4<^3). He dnws back. anJ look^ at the writing on the 
Ship, charging no man to enter it who has not faith and 
full b*fli«ff (p. 4<.>3-4). Then he orders his men to put the 
Ship out to a«a, and it is soon carrid out of their sight 
(p. 404). 

Thus longe durede this ilke tre. 

Of Colour, of Savour, and of Bewte, 
ToSoiomoQ Tyl that Salamun Kegnede than 

Aftir king david his fadir, fat holy Man. 4 

Christ ttnd* more To wlieclie Salamon Onlv Crist Sente 

Manie passing kon;ienges aftir hese Entente ; 
wit than man can he scntc him niorc wit & discressiown In his lyve 


Thanwe ony wit of Erthly man cowde discrive ; 8 

For of Allc Scienscs he was konnenge, 
Where-olfen the peple hadd merveillynge. 



For ho was konncnge In precious stones, 

and knew al here yertwes for the nones ; 12 

and the strengthe of herbes he knew also, 

And what ther-with he myhte wel do. 

he knew the Cors of the firmament, 

And of alle the sterres ferQ-onne, verament, 16 

So that there nas neuere non Erthly man 

That non discressiovn to him ne kan ; 

3it Neucrtheles, be bewte of a womman 

Ou^rtaken and disceyved was he than, 20 

So that he wrowhte Ajens Goddis wills, 

that of Sum thinges he dide ful Ille. 

This wom77ian that with Salamon was, 

be-thowhte hire in Many diners Cas 24 

hym to disccyve, and be^ondis him go, 

with Alle the deceites sche Cowde do. 

Where-offen ful lytel wondir it is ; 

For there nys non Man that lyveth I-wys 28 

that offen Owhten forto Merveille, 

a^ens A womrnans wile with-Owten faille ; 

For there sche putteth hire Engyn & hire Entent, 

that wit of no/2 liveng Man verament 32 

Schal hire withstonde of hire Concettyng : 

tak kepe of y ferst wom7)ian that Evere was lyyeng. 

Whanne Salamon Sawh that in non degre 
To withstonden hire Engyn It nolde not be— 36 

Where-offen he gan to Merveillen Anon, 
and wax Right wroth, and forth gan gon^- 
thanne Anon his book he spak 

'that to him was with-Owten lak, 40 

Wheche that 'parables' he Calde the Name, 
To him A book of ful gret fame : 
'* With this Book I have Sircvit )>• world Abowte, 
that there is non Erthly Man with-Owten dowte 44 
that to serchen Abowtes the woerld In-virown, 
Oiinethes there-Iime to fynde, be good Resowiiy 

Solomott knowi 


Aad BO wonder, 

llrlngeaa stand 
igaintt a womaa'i 


Book of Fuablaiv 

tajt ha*i warcbt 






and not flnmd 
<MM good wonnBi 

8o1oiiion« ono 
idgfatk Moldt 

botharlng abonl 
hit wlte'i wile 
omooming hliB* 

Eve never left off 
•cbeming till 
■he'd got Adam 
and herself ont 

A voiee rebaket 
liim, and eajra 

On good womTnan to his Supposing." 

And thus Seide he for A wondii thing, 48 

Foi he ne Cowde In non Manere 
From wyles of his wif to kepen him there ; 
So that he Merveilled In Alle degre 
That so Manie wyles In A womman scholde be^ 52 
so that he gan dispiaen hem ful faste, 
and of hem [seide] mochel Evel Atte laste. 
And of Speritwel thinges neuere they Come^ 
but Of Enmyte Al & some. 56 

As vppon A nyht In his bed he lay, 
thvs to him self he gan to say, — 
Ful thowhtful he was & ful Momenge, 
that thus to him self he made pleynenge, — 60 

** thow man Cayty^ ful of disseise, 
why nisse ther non thing that the May plese t 
Why Merveillest thow so Moche of womTTUtns wile, 
that the hass distorbled with-Inne A while, 64 

and In Soiwe and Enour hath put thel 
Tak An Ensample, and here now se ; 
For Oure ferste Moder lefte neuere hire Engyn, 
For owht that Adam cowde devyne, 68 

Tyl that owt of Paradis sche was cast, 
Thike delitable place thanne atte last, 
bothe Into Sorwe and In-to distresse. 
From loye, Mirthe, and gladsomnesse ; 72 

So that alle whiche of hire Owt gonwen gon, 
In peyne And Sorwe they leven Echon, 
and here bred they Etcn >nth swot & peyn, 
And In Caytyvete they lyven certeine." 76 

And whanne longe In this thowht salamon lay, 
A voys to him spak that he herde verray ; 
" Why hast thow thus womMan dispised here 
In Manie wises & In riht fowl Manere 1 80 

for thouhe be wom7?ian Cam ferst to Man disseise, 
Of here Anothir Schal come, this world to plese, 


and bothe love & mirthe bringen mochel more that a woman of 

hit Un« shall 

than Euere Mankynde was grevid before ; 84 bring wn mora 

and thus be woman Amendid schal be, hMt. 

that to foreii tymes to woniTTian was put to velone ; 
and this womman schal Comon Of thy kynde." 

Anon thanne Salamon Cast In his Mynde, 88 soiomoa thinka 

, hawaaafoolto 

that A fool & ynWlS that ho was, Uama woman SOI 

wommen to blamen In Ony plas. 

thanne anon he bethowhte him of Sotylte, 

and Sowhte the scriptures In Eche degre, 92 

And Also Alle the devyn Secres 

that he Cowde fynde In Ony degres ; 

and Atte laste so loi!ge he Sowhte 

Til to his wit that it was browhte, 96 

So that he fond and knew Riht wel »nd than ba anda 

oat the coming 

the Comeng of the virgine Eumdel, or tba viiigin, 

and that the Sone of god Almyht Md chriat't urth 

flrom bar. 

Into fat blessed vessel scholde Alyht. 100 

And thus that Scripture put him In Mende 
Of that blessid yirgine so good & kende, 
that the froit pat of hire Owt scholde gon, 
So gret blessednesse with him scholde come/i anon, 104 
and Mani More double of swetnesse 
thauTie be ovue ferst Modir cam bittemesse ; 
Wherefore the ton, * Modyr,' Cleped scholde be, 
and the tothir Clepid scholde be the ' See.'^ 108 

than^ie stodyed Salamon from day to day, Ha atndiaa thia, 

Of this blessed Maiden to knowen more yenay, 
3if that A Modir that Maide scholde be, 
and Comen of his lyne, thus menreilled he. 112 

thanne was he glad In Alle Manere md b glad thai 

tha Ylfgln ia to 

that of his Awncestris swich A spring scholde comeit oomaftw&bia 

. Una. 


' t A mistaken translatioQ of the Hebrew word for Mary, 
makes it " Star of the Sea." It either means <* bitter/* like 
Marah, or "The rehel" or «' reTjellion,** like Miriam.—B. 


And thus longe be thowhte on this things 
tyl Atte laste on A Xjht, In his Metjng, 116 

To him from An hj Cam the devyne Answere 
A niMMct eoiDM Into his Chambre, In bedde as he lay there : 

tftna bMf tn to 

Boiomon, " Salamon, On thing I telle now the, 

that allynges of thy schal sche not be, 120 

Ne not fully the £nde of y lignage, 

but the £nde of Anothir knyhtes of heieie parage^ 

ttiottiMkitor that schal passen of bownte A of lif 

hb liiw ■hall bt "^ 

• Knight AHe Othere Knyhtes, with-owten stii^ 124 

that Evere to-fom him jit were, 
Oper after hym scholen comen, oper griues' bere. 

wboahaUpMSftii So mochel schal ho hem passen In'alle desae 

dowUMiBoon. Asse the sone the Mone doth, Sikerle; 128 

For whanne the Mone schinetii moet briht^ 
jit passith it, the Sonne, be Many fold lyht; 
lik so this knyht al othcre schal pase ; 
and as dide loewe In Ony place, 132 

that past alle other In Chevalrye, 
So schal pi8 knyht passen loswe Al o^er sekerlej, 
and jit loswe was told the beste knyht 
that of al y world was, & most of Myht." 136 

and whanne he this thor vndirstod, 
that of his ligne schold Comen a knyht so good, 

Soiomoa r^oioM, Ful Mochel loye was in his herte tho. 

And A3en to lus bookis thanne gan he go, 140 

And knew wel, & sawh be vndirstonding, 
pat him scholde he not sen, ne Abyden his comenge ; 
Umtu} For it was ful long tyme therto, 

lik as that his bookcs Schcwed him tho : 1 44 

and irondan that ** Now, Certcs, this A wondir thing to me, 

|i§ thus kiiowB of « « . . 

this Knight* ■ that So long tyme to-foni his pcrturite 
how I scholde knowcn of his birthe, 
that to this world Schal bringew bothe loye & Mirthe, 
As I haue here In vndirstondyng ; 149 

* et qui a chel tans porteront armes.— A 






but jit is to me A fill sttaunge thing, 
for from this day jit thedir to. 
It is two thowsende jer & mo." 

Ful longe thowhte Solamon of this thing, 
T7I his wif it Aspyde, Atte last Endyng, 
how that he was fallen In his thowht, 
Where-offen Comfort fond he Byht nowht, 
So that he was wondirly Evel at Ese, 
ho Niste non thing that myht him plese ; 
thanne hadde his wif gret drede Anon 
that som Manere Evel he wolde hire don ; 
So that it happed vppon An Niht tho 
that In bedde they lyen bothe two ; 
and whanne hy^ tyme sche sawh forto speke, 
thanne to hym sche gan Owt-breke, 
And Anon sche gan hym forto Conioure tho, 
For alle the loves betwexen hem two, 
that he hire would trewly telle 
how of his pensifhesse it be-felle. 

'and Salamon, that knew passingly wel 
Of hire Coniettyng Every del, 
Wyste wel that ther Nas non herte levenge 
that Cowde So Mochel of Coniettynge, 
that, And sche knew of his Menynge, 
Anon to the Ende Sche wolde it bringe ;^ 
therfore than Anon thouhte Salamon 
how that best this Grame myhte Gk>n, 
For Al the Certeinte tellen he Nolde, 
What After there Offen fallen scholde. 

thanne discouered he his pensifhesse 
To his wif, & al his hertes distresse. 
Of that he' hadde So longe I-thowht, 
To what Ende it scholde be browht 








to tea he 







* — ' Et salemonsy qoi le vit plus soutil en mal et en engiea 
ke nos horn ne peust eetre, pensa ke, ae cuers mortens pooit 
metre oooael a ohou ke il peneoit, ele en vearoit a ohiel — A« 

* MS bo 

livi- JA 

zi± liisEs: =: '^c _ ;3t-7 &■ - IM 

— --!.?■ 

#'*iffi * - 

if -SI. .13: . .niitJin, 

mr mLt Tmmi' IM 

-i-2ii -^^ -r^- :i:r~ '^=11 ^i»lc X'-^ttfTg^ 

TliiS r: iL:"*- lLr*4 5;«iz« iriLnZiSf Jki jar. 

V$1at^, v. Ysitrrt i3 zr. 0)er fer C^r rsai^ 212 

Aid Li •.L* Tin* lii* Schipf iL«t auLke^ 

To AiLO*L.-ir pTirpjc I wcle me uke. 

For to ApacaLille Other thingea tbeitOy 

^^ qa^ Tons £acheDt me nef de tel fost qQ*0 ne pniaBO 
poQirir, IM poor iaae ne poor aatre choee^ dedift iiq. Mfl 


Swich Ab behovefch there-Inno to do, 216 

As je scholon Afterward botlie heren & knowe 
Al myn hoi pnrpos vppon A rowe." 

And Salomon it levede tho fal wel. 
And there A^ens spak Neuere Adel ; 220 

but Soffirede hire wille Al that nyht, 
Tyl on the Morwe it was day lyht. 

On the Morwe Anon as the day gan Byse, K^ztdaySoiomoo 

Mndi tot ctrpgn* 

he Comaoraded his Messengeris In Alle wise 224 ten. 

Into Every partye forto gon, 

Carponters him to bryngen Anon. 

So that with-Inne a fewe dayes 

these Messengeris Sowhten Many wayes, 228 

and Carponters to the kyng Anon they browhte, 

to weten ^i£ that with hem he wolde Owhte. 

and whanne these Carpenteris weren semblid ThagreooMb 
To hem the kyng Aperede wel sone^ 232 

& hem Comanded there riht Anon mmI h« uds 'tm 

build ftthipUuu*n 

* a schip forto maken they Scholde gon. 

So Strong, so Myhty, In Alle manere of gyse, 

of swich tre As they Cowde dovyse, 23t 

that for water ne Eokkes ne person scholde 

Wtt^-Inne ii\j x* jeres/ thus the kyng wolde. kMtt>r40M7«n. 

thanne Answered the Carponters Agayn, 

' his wille to fulfulle they wolde ben fayn, 240 

To alle here powere & to Alle here Myht 

they wolden don that Schip« to dyht' 

So that to werke they wenten Al In fere, Thagr Mitoirorit^ 

that the Schipa was Mad wttA-Inne half A ^ere. 244 half* jmt. 

And whanne it was fulliche I-browhte to An ende^ 
Thanne that lady to Salamon gan wende, 
That thike Schip first dide begynne 
thoigh hir6 qweyntise and hire Jenne ; 248 

*' Sire," sche seide, '' and it be so As 30 me telle, 
that In tyme Comeng swich A Cas be-felle, 

392 Solomon's wifb bats dayib's sword 's to oo in the ship, 

and that swich A tliiiig scholde there be. 
So worthy A knyht, and Of so ny degre 252 

that In bowunte alio knyhtes scholde passen Echone 
- As don hemes of y sorme passith liht of the Mone, 
And Alle hem that Euere to forn him were, 

soiomoD't wift Ober after hym scholen Comen Armes to here, 256 
It were bothe my Cownseille & my wit, — 
And 3e wolden Owht concentyn to It, 
and as be good Eesown As thenkith Me, 
Sethen this worthy knyht Of 30ure ligne schal be, — 

to pr«i»re MOM that 2e som Manere Of precious Armure 261 

pradooB umour '^ 

forhiadaMendant Whiche is bothen passing good & sure, 

(So that 30W he may haven In remembraunce. 

What so Evere Aftir happe be chau7?ce,) 264 

Scholen 30 Ordeyne & Arayen A3en8 his Cometige 

Of hym that 3e hauen^ so gret Merveillynge, 

and that the Armure be passinge Marveillous In all 

As he schal passen Alle Oyer knyhtes In dignete." 268 
" Sey," quod Salamon, " what Armure it schal be ; 
and 3if it be Covenable that I may se, 
I schal it ordeiue thanne Anon Riht, 

to be pot in th« And Into that Schipe it schal be diht." 272 

thanne Seide this lady Anon Agejm, 
" Sire, I schal 30W tellen now In Certain 
On Of the Most Sufficiauwt Armure 
that I knowe, as I 30 w Ensure. 276 

the holy temple wheche 30 han don Mad 
In the worschepe of oure lord In this sted. 
In wheche temple the baste Armure is on 
that Euere On knyht here was I-don ; 280 

namely, j^ is the swerd of thy fadir, kyng davy, 

the fword of hu 

&ther David, that there-Inne hangeth f ul Sekerly ; 
For it is On the Eichest thing 

That Evere Abowtes heng ony kyng, 281 

the most Mt'rveillous that Evere forged was. 


the Most disgiest^ In Ony plas, 

the Scharpest & the Moste trenchaund 

that Evere Ony Knyht took on hand ; — 288 

taketh that, & Maketh Ordenauizce 

For that swerd with-owten ony yariAonce, 

And Ordeyneth bothe for hondele & point, 

To Setten Every thing In his loynt ; 

And Aitir for the blad je ordeynen Also 

As 30W thinketh best forto do. 

and 30 that han of Alle herbes the knoweng, 

and of Alle precyous stones the konnenge, 296 

And the kynde of Alle thinges therto 

that be-longeth ony konnenge to, 

Ordeyneth, for the point, of precious stones, 

And that they ben Sotely loyned for y Nones, 300 

So that non Erthly Man Aftir this day 

In non wise hem departen ne May, 

but pat they Supposen In Alle thing 

that it Kis but On ston In beenge. 304 

and thanne to the pomel Ordeynen 30 

As precious A ston & Merveillous As it may be. 

That non so yertwos, so meryeillo[u]s, ne so liche. 

Of Alle Other stones be non him liche : 308 

and thanne A schetho that 36 ordeyne, 

tha merveillous blad forto susteyne. 

and whanne Alle this 30 han I-wrowht, 

thanne wile I werken As cometh In My thowht^ 312 

and Eanges I wele Maken therto, 

Sweche As me liketh there-Inne to do.** 

thanne he that was wisest of Al degre, 

And most vertwes In herbis & stones Knew he, — 316 

passing Ony of ei* Creature 

Most Comienge he was, I the Ensure, — 

Owt of that temple the swerd they browhte, 

the wheche kyng davy his fadyr owhte, 320 

^ ' f disgnies^ or dingniest, worthint. 

woodarftil handlt 
292 and polM toil) 

tlM point of 

mnA Uif pond of 


but Um iMuifflaci 
■bt wOl auiki. 

Dsfld'a tword is 

HtMight oat of 



BftlftflWMl dBcks 



bat pnta od« only 

fiir tiM fOOMl. 

Sheath fiMT It, 

pate the Sword 
in the theeth, 

and laye that no 
knight ever had 
sach a aword 
made for him. 

and tliat they helden as Riclie and As worthy 
As Ony thing pat In y temple was Sekerly. 

and thanne wrowhte he Al Aftir hire Arys 
With precious stones of gret delys ; 324 

but Onliche to the pomel An hy 
he putte but on ston Sekerly, 
Whiche of AUe Manure Colowrs it was 
that Ony Man Cowde thenken In Ony plas. 328 

And thanne Al his hoi Entent 
the schethe to Maken, ho dide verament, 
Where Inne that this swerd schold be ; 
Ful Coriously his wittes than?te Cast he. 332 

but whore offen the schethe pat he made there, 
declaret not ^it this storie here ; 
For it schal ben non gret Mestiei 
the schethe ^it to declaren In non Manere ; 336 

but the pomel Made he so Byaly 
As here ys doth telle this Story. 

And whfiuino this swerd thus gamysched was, 
and be his devis wrowht In that plas, 340 

thanne the Swerd Into the Schethe he pytte, 
and ful fast be gan to beholden Itte, 
bothe the schethe and Ek the swerd ; 
Swich anothir nas there In Middlelerd. 344 

and whanne he Sawh it Aparaylled So Richely, 
In Al the world hym thowhte non So worthy 
That for Erthly man Euere was Mad ; 
thus In his herte to him Self he seid, 348 

" that there nas Neuere non knyht bom 
In Al this world here be-fom 
that for hym swich a Swerd was diht, 
Ne non So Eiche to non Manxes siht, 352 

ne non so vertwos In Al degre 
As that is this swerd, as semeth me.'* 

Thanne of on thing desired he ful sore, 
Of AUe his desir not mocheHs More, 356 


' that Neuere Man theke swerd scholde dxuwei 

For lust, for drede, nether for Awe, 

but him Eepentyn Scholde Eyht Sore, 

Sauf only he that it was Mad Fore, 360 

What Manere of Enyht So Evere it be^ 

that non it drawe, but jif it be he.' 

thanne to hym Cam A vois wit^Owten lak — 

the Same vois that to fore tymes to him spak — 364 

" Salamon, Of this that pon hast Axed before, 

Schal non man it drawe, but hym Bepente soroi 

but 3if it be the Sam6 persone 

for whom this Mater thou hast I-done, 368 

and for whom this swerd is dyht ; 

It non Man to draweii schal hanen non myht." 

And whanne that Salamon herde this, 
thanne was his herte In loye & blys } 372 

and Anon let wiyten with bis bond 
dyrers lettres, as I vndirstond ; 
and, as this Stoiye doth devyse, 
be^ let Ordeyne Eawnges In his Gyse, 376 

And to the schethe he gan hem Ordeyne 
Also Eyaly as he Cowde Certeyne : 
but so wolde not his wif 

In non wyse be here lyf ; 380 

*but so fowle Eaonges, & so Spytablo,— 
that to so Eyal A thing ne weren not able-— 
bis wif Ordeynede forto do, 

that non thing weren Able therto, 384 

As fer forth as Salamon Cowde seyne, 
Not An Owr thike swerd to susteyne.* 
* Whatr* quod Salamon to bis wyf tho, 
*' how thenke )e now here forto do, 388 

To putten So fowl A thing In Abydoiui 

' MS bet 

' — * flins en aporta mes si laides et ti ponret 
oanore, et si febles par aamblant ke eles ne peuasent 
■ooateiiir. — ^A. 

tltftt no oiM thall 
df«ir the Sword 

but tho Kniffht 



Solomon then hM 
letters written on 

and wants to pnt 
fine Haaglnca oo 

ea pottlBf Ibttl 
Hangings to it. 


396 THK BWOBD's foul hangings ABE TO BE OHANOD. [oB. 

Solomoo'i wUb 
UUt him that 

ft dunttl thall 
Sirord't flkml 
hangings Into 
gloriooa OMB. 

■t har worda. 

A woodan Bad is 
nuda In tha Ship, 

and tha Sword 
hdd at lU foot, 

whila at iU haad 
la a Crown of 
Gold which Darid 
had worn. 


To So Eiche A thing wtt/i-Owten Comparison ! " 

" je, forsotho/' thanne quod sche, 

** At this tyme it schal non Operwjse he, 392 

Sowf onliche, and it be goddis plesyng, 

That so May happen In tyme Comeng, 

That A damysele it Chaungen Schal there. 

And Tomen hem Into Anothir Manere, 396 

So Faire and so Eiche, that wondir schal be 

Ony Erthly Man to beholden Certeinle. 

and so be this swerd there scholen 30 knowe 

the werkys of two wommen wtt^-Inne A thiowe ; 400 

For lik as je don me to vndirstonde 

That A Mayden schal comen In to this londe 

Forto A-Mendyn Al the grete wronge 

That oure form Modir dyde A fom ful longe, 404 

Ryht So schal the Same Maiden Certeynlye 

Amendyn In tyme Comeng Al my folye, 

the fowle Baunges that I have the swerd put to, 

Fvl Riche & worthy for hem wele sche fere do." 408 

Of these wordis thanne hadde Salamon 

In his herte gret wondir Anon, 

"Where sche hadde that wit An diacresciown 

him forto telleu So straunge A resown. 412 

Whanne the Schipe was Mad In this manere, 
And I-Couered, as the Storye telleth here, 
In the Schipe was mad a bed of Tre, 
Wondirfully devised, I telle the ; 416 

and Ouerthwert ouer the beddis feet 
lay this Ryal swerd, I the be-heet : 
And Aboven, vppon the beddes hed, 
A Crowne of Gold stood In that sted, 420 

that Manie ^eris to-fore his fadir kyng davy 
that Crowne hadde wend ful worschepfully ; 
wiche Crowne Salamon put In to that plase, 
Sethen that knyht neucre non So worthy wase 424 
As he of whos ligne scholde Comen that mayde, 



As to fom tymes his Bokys had hjm Sayde ; 
And on non Man So wel, hym thowht, levenge, 
Myht ben be-stowed So worthy A' thynge. 428 

And whanne the lady thus haddo Seyn him do, 
" ^it," sche Seide, " vs behoueth now thinges mo : 
For 3it to this Schip there faiUeth Somthing