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o 

THE 



HISTORY 



OF 



JAVA. 



BY THE LATE 



SIR THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES, F.R.S. 

rORMERLT LIEUTENANT-OOVERNOR OF THAT ISLAND AND ITS 

DEPENDENCIES, AND PRESIDENT OP THE SOCIETY OF 

ARTS AND SCIENCES AT BATAYIA. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. I. 



SECOND EDITION. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE-STREET. 

MDCCCXXX. 



Y-.;"' '■'-'' - ■■ ■ 'i 



BUilNL JAN 2 7 1910 



/^HARVARD^ 
UNIVERSITY 

V^libraryJ 






GILBERT AND RIVINOTON, PRINTERS 

ST. John's square, London. 



TO 



HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS 



THE PRINCE REGENT. 



SIR, 

The gracious permission which I have received 
to dedicate these volumes to your Royal High- 
ness, affords me an opportunity of interesting 
your Royal Highness in favour of the amiable 
and ingenuous people whose country they de- 
scribe. The high respect they entertain for 
British valour and justice, and the lively gra- 
titude they retain for the generous system of 
British Legislation, will, I am sure, give them a 
strong claim upon your Royal Highness's good 
opinion. 

A 2 



iv DEDICATION. 

To uphold the weak, to put down lawless 
force, to lighten the chain of the slave, to sus- 
tain the honour of the British arms and British 
good faith ; to promote the arts, sciences, and 
literature, to establish humane institutions, are 
duties of government which have been most 
conspicuously performed during your Royal 
Highnesses regency. For a period of nearly 
five years, in which I have had the honour, as 
a servant of the East India Company, to pre- 
side over a mild and simple people, it has been 
my pride and my ambition to make known to 
them the justice and benevolence of my Prince, 
whose intentions towards them I could only 
fiilfil by acting up to the principles of the Au- 
thority which I represented, and by doing every 
thing in my power to make them happy. 

To those who judge that the right to express 
their sentiments requires no more than sincerity, 
or that their praise is of a value to overbalance 
the disrespect of offering it, I shall leave the 
usual language of dedications. Conscious that 
the assurances of respect and of loyal attach- 



DEDICATION. V 

ment can never be offered to your Royal High- 
ness by the humblest British subject, without 
meeting a gracious reception, 

I have the honour to be. 

With profound veneration and respect, 

SIR, 

YOUR ROYAL HIOHNESS's 

Most faithful and most dutiful servant, 

THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES, 

London^ June 1, 1817. 



As it is possible that, in the many severe strictures 
passed, in the course of this work, upon the Dutch 
Administration in Java, some of the observations 
may, for want of a careful restriction in the words 
employed, appear to extend to the Dutch nation and 
character generally, I think it proper explicitly to 
declare, that such observations are intended exclu- 
sively to apply to the Colonial Government and its 
Officers. The orders of the Dutch Government in 
Holland to the Authorities at Batavia, as far as my 
information extends, breathe a spirit of liberality and 
benevolence ; and I have reason to believe, that the 
t)rranny and rapacity of its colonial officers, created 
no less indignation in Holland than in other countries 
of Europe. 

For such, and all other inaccuracies, as well as for 
the defects of style and arrangement which may appear 
in this work, an apology is necessary ; and in the 
circumstances under which it has been prepared, it is 
hoped that an admissible one will be found. While 
in the active discharge of the severe and responsible 
duties of an extensive government, it was not in my 
power to devote much time to the subject : the most 



Vll 



that I could do^ was to encourage the exertions of 
others^ and to collect in a crude state such new or 
interesting matter as fell under my personal observa- 
tion. I quitted Java in the month of March in 
last year : in the twelve months that have since 
elapsed^ illness during the voyage to Europe and sub- 
sequently^ added to the demands on my time arising 
out of my late office, and the duties of private fnendT 
ship after an absence of many years, have made great 
encroachments ; but engaged as I am in pubUc life, 
and about to proceed to a distant quarter of the globe, 
I have been induced, by the interest which the sub- 
ject of these volumes has excited, and the precarious 
state of my health, rather to rely on the indulgence 
of the public than on the attainment of leisure, for 
which I must wait certainly long and, possibly, in vain. 
Most sincerely and deeply do I regret, that this 
task did not fall into hands more able to do it justice. 
There was one *, dear to me in private friendship and 
esteem, who, had he lived, was of all men best cal- 
culated to have supplied those deficiencies which will 
be apparent in the very imperfect work now presented 
to the Public. From his profound acquaintance with 
eastern languages and Indian history, from the un- 
ceasing activity of his great talents, his other pro- 

* Dr. J. C. Lbyden, the bard of Tiviotdale, who accompanied the 
expedition to Batavia in 181 1, and expired in my arms a few days after the 
landing of the troops. 



VIU 



digious acquirements^ his extensive views, and his 
confident hope of illustrating national migrations firom 
the scenes which he was approaching, much might 
have been expected ; but just as he reached those 
shores on which he hoped to slake his ardent thirst 
for knowledge, he fell a victim to excessive exertion, 
deeply deplored by all, and by none more truly than 
myself. 

My acknowledgments are due to the Right Honour- 
able Sir Joseph Banks, Bart., the venerable President 
of the Royal Society, for his kindness luid encourage- 
ment ; and particularly so to Mr. Charles Wilkins, 
Librarian to the East-India Company, as well as to 

Mr. William M arsden, for many su^estions, of which 
I regret that I have not been enabled to avail myself 

so much as I could wish, in consequence of the haste 
with which the work has been got up. I am also 
indebted to Mr. Thomas Murdoch, not only for access 
to his valuable library, but for illustrations firom Por- 
tuguese authors, which the reader will find in the 
Introduction and Appendix. 

For all that relates to the Natural History of Java, 
I am indebted to the communications of Dr. Thomas 
HoRSFiELD. Though sufficient for my piupose, it 
forms but a scanty portion of the result of his long 
and diligent researches on this subject. Of this, how- 
ever, I am happy to say, that the Public will shortly 
be able to judge for themselves. 



In sketching the state of the Dutch East-India 
Company, and the measures adopted by the Dutch 
government respectmg Java, subsequently to the year 
1780, I have availed myself of much very valuable 
information communicated to me by Mr. H. W. Mun- 
Ti^oHEj President of the Supreme Court of Justice at 
Batavia ; and as, in the course of this work, I have 
often been obliged to condemn the principles and 
conduct of the Dutch colonists, I am anxious to 
acknowledge the distinguished merit of this excellent 
magistrate, and that of Mr. J. C. Cranssen, President 
of the Bench of Schepenen, both selected by the late 
Earl of Minto to be members of the British Council 

in Java. 

The English came to Java as friends. Holland had 
ceased to be an independent nation, and for the time 
there could be but two parties, the one English, the 
other French. The emissaries of the late ruler of 
France had perverted the minds of the majority : 
many were doubtful on which side they should rally. 
At this critical juncture these two gentlemen declared 
for England and the ancient order of things ; and to 
the influence of their decision and conduct is to be 
ascribed, not only the cordiality and good understand- 
ing which soon prevailed between the English and 

Dutch, but in a great measure also that general tran- 
quilUty of the country, without which the re-transfer 



of it to the rule of its former masters might have 
been impracticable. 

Of the wisdom and benevolence which determined 
the late Earl of Minto to place two members of the 
Dutch nation at the Board of the British Council in 
Java^ it is unnecessary to speak. The measure was in 
the same spirit which uniformly actuated that en- 
lightened and virtuous statesman, my revered patron 
and ever lamented friend. The selection of the two 
gentlemen whom I have mentioned, was no less 
advantageous. To their countrymen it was peculiarly 
so, and I am happy to have this opportunity of pub- 
licly expressing my acknowledgments to them for the 
good counsel, firm support, and unwearied exertions, 
by which they were distinguished while members of 
the Board. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 

The principles of Orthography, recommended by 
Sir William Jones, and adopted by the Asiatic Society 
at Calcutta, have been adopted in this work, with 
some slight modifications. The consonants preserve 
the same sounds generally as the same letters in the 
EngUsh alphabet : the vowels are used as in Italian. 
To avoid confusion, the emphatic syllables are alone 
accented, and the inherent vowel a has invariably 
been adopted. 



it 

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xvi INTRODUCTION. 

The first voyage made by the Dutch was in 1595, in which 
jrear their first fleet, under the command of Houtman (who 

" covered sea; and they think that whoever shall proceed beyond 
" those straits, will be hurried away by strong currents, so as never to be 
*' able to return, and for this reason they never attempt to navigate it, in 
" the same manner as the Moors on the eastern coast of Africa do not 
" venture to pass the Cape of Currents." 

The following is the substance of a note inserted in Jono de Barroe, 
Decadas, p. T^-'TT, vol. 4, part Ist, 8vo. Lisbon 1777* 

" The island of Java is divided into many kingdoms along the northern 
" coast; and beginning to the eastward, those of which we have any 
*' account are — Paneruea, OvaUe, Agasai, Paniao (whose king resides in 
the interior, and has a supremacy over those just mentioned), Beredam, 
Sodaio, JStbam, Cc^oum, Japara (the capital of this kingdom is called 
Ckertmkamay three leagues from the sea coast, near to which Japara is 
** mtuated), Damo, Maryam, and Matarem. 
"* In the mountainous interior live a numerous class of chiefs, called 
Gunos ; they are a savage race, and eat human flesh. The first inha- 
bitants were Siamese, who about the year 800 of the Christian era, on 
their passage from Siam to Macassar were driven by a great storm on 
" the island of BdU, Their junk being wrecked they escaped in their 
** boat, and arrived at Java, until that period undiscovered ; but which, 
on account of its sise and fertility was immediately peopled by Panara, 
son of the king of Siam : and the city of Passaraan, called after his 
" own name, was founded at a very good seaport, and this was the first 
" settlement on the island. - 
*'' The Javans are proud, brave, and treacherous, and so vindictive, 
that for any slight oflTence (and they consider as the most unpardonable 
the touching their forehead with your hand) they declare amok to 
revenge it. They navigate much to every part of the Eastern Archi- 
pelago, and say that formerly they used to navigate the ocean as fiEir as 
" the island of Madagascar (St. Laurence). 

" The city of Bintam, or Banta, which is in the middle of the opening 
" of the straits of Sunda, stands in the centre of a large bay, which 
*' from point to point may be about three leagues wide, the bottom good, 
" and the depth of water from two to six fathoms. A river of sufiicient 
depth for junks and galleys, falls into this bay, and divides the town 
into two parts. On one side of the town there is a fort, buih of sun* 
" dried bricks : the walls are about seven palms thick, the bulwarks of 
" wood, weU furnished with artillery. 

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INTRODUCTION. xvii 

had been previously employed by the Portuguese in the East 
India service), sailed direct to Bantam. At this period the 

" The 'island of Sunda is more mountainous than Ja\'a. It has six 
" good seaports : Ckiamo, at the extremity of the island ; Chwatara, or 
** Cartwam ; Tcmgaram, Cheginde, Pandang, and Bintam, which have a 
** great traffic, on account of the trade carried on, not only with Java, but 
" with Malacca and Sumatra. 

.*' The principal city of this kingdom is called Daro, situated a little 
** towards the interior, and we are assured that when Henriquez Leme 
" first visited it, this town had upwards of fifty thousand inhabitants, 
" and that the kingdom had upwanls of one hundred thousand fighting 



" men. • 



" The soil is very rich. An inferior gold, of six carats, is found. 

'* There is abundance of butcher's meat, game and provisions, and tama- 

** rinds which serve the natives for vinegar. 'The inhabitants are not 

'* very warlike, much addicted to their idolatries, and hate the Maho- 

*' medans, and particularly since they were conquered*by the Sangue Pdti 

%* Here four or five thousand slaves may be pxu'chased, on account of 
** the numerous popidation, and its being lawful for the father to sell the 
** children. The women are handsome, and those of the nobles chaste, 
** which is not the case with those of the lower classes, lliere are 
*' monasteries or convents for the women, into which the nobles put 
*' their daughters, when they cannot match them in marriage according 
*' to their wishes. The married women, when their husbands die, must, 

as a point of honour, die with them, and if they should be afraid of 

death they are put into the convents.'* 

>'* The kingdom descends from father to son,* and not from uncle to 
" nephew, (son of the sister), as among the Malabars and other infidels 

** in India. 

•* They are fond of rich arms, ornamented with gold and inlaid work. 
•• Their krises are gilt, and also the point of their lances. Many other 
•* partiailars might be added (but we reserve them for our geography ♦), 
" concerning the productions of this island, in which upwards of thirty 
" thousand quintals of pepper are collected annually." 

• Barros often alludes to his Treatise on (leography, in which he had 
described particularly all the countries mentioned in his Decadas ; but it 
never was published, having been left in an imperfect state at his death. 

VOL. I. a 



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xviii INTRODUCTION. 

Portuguese were at war with the king of Bantam, to whom 
Houtman offered assistance, in return for which he obtained 

Decad. iv. Chapter 13. 
In the year 1522, Jofge. Albuquerque, governor of Malacca, equipped 
a vessel to carry He nrique g Lerne, with a competent suite and certain 
presents, to the king Skmiam above mentioned, -for the purpose of 
establishing a commercial intercourse. Leme was weU received by the 
king, who was fully sensible of the importance of such a connection, in 
'* the war in which he was then engaged with the Moon <Mahomedans) ; 
and, therefore, he requested that, for the protection of the trade, the 
king of Portugal should erect a fortress, and that he would load as 
many ships as he chose with pepper, in return for such merchandize as 
the country required. * And further, he (the king) obliged himself, as a 
pledge of his friendship, to give him annually a thousand bags of 
pepper, from the day on which the building of the fortress should 

'* commence. 

• ••••• 

** These things being concluded and presents exchanged, Leme re- 
*' turned to Malacca, where he was well received by Albuquerque, who 
" immediately communicated the result to the king of Portugal, who 

*' approved of all that had been done. 

• ••••• 

" Francisco de*S4 was in consequence dispatched with six vessels^ (the 
names of which and of their conmianders are enumerated)/ with which 
he called at Malacca, and accompanied the expedition against Bintam 
(then in the possession of the expelled king of Malacca), on leaving 
<* which he was overtaken by a dreadful storm, and* one of his vessels, 
" commanded by Dironte Coelho, reached the port of Calapa (where the 
<' fort was to be built), where she was driven on shore, and*all the crew 
perished by the hands of the M<m>fb (Mahomedans), who were then 
masters of the country, having a few days before taken the town from 
the native king, who had concluded the treaty with the King of Por- 
tugal, and given him the site on which to erect the fortress.* 

• • • • • # *^ 

." But although the intended establishment on Java was thus frus^ 
** trated, the Portuguese continued to have intercourse with that island, 
** at which they frequently touched on their vo3rage to and from the 
" Moluccas."- 

Decad. iv. Book i. Chapter 14. 
«* In August, 1526, Antonio de Britto, on his return from Temati to 

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INTRODUCTION. xix 

permission to build a factory at Bantam, which was the first 
settlement formed by the Dutch in the East Indies. 

" Malacca, touched at the port of Paneruca, where he found his coun- 
" trymaDy Jono de Moreno, who had twenty AJalay jimks under his 
" command. From thence he proceeded to the town of Tagasam, whose 
" inhabitants were at war with the Portuguese, and had captiu^d a junk 
laden with cloves, which he had dispatched to Malacca, and they even 
attempted to take the vessel in which he himself was, which occa- 
sioned his quitting that place, having however first captured a junk 
" laden with provisions/' 

Decad. iv. Book i. Chapter 17. 
In July, 1528, Don Garcia Henriquez appears to have touched at 
the port of Paneruca, (Panarukan) for the purpose of taking in pro- 
visions on his way to Malacca ; and it also appears, that the king or 
chief of P^uieruca sent ambassadors to the Portuguese governor of 
*' Malacca in the same year 1528.'' 

The following is the substance of a description of Java from the De- 
cada of Diego de Couto. — Deca4- iv. Book iii. Chapter i. 

*Couto describes the wreck of a Portuguese vessel, and the destruction 
of her crew by the Moors, who had just become masters of the kingdom 
of Sunda, in nearly the same words as Barros. He then proceeds to 
state, that Francis de S4 ran before the storm along the coast of Java, and 
collected his scattered vessels in the port of Paneruca, and gives a general 
description of Java in nearly the following words.* 

'* But it will be proper to ^ve a concise description of this country, 
'* and to shew which were the Greater and the Lesser Java of Marco 
" P(do, and clear up the confusion which has prevailed among modem 
geographers on this subject. 

'/ The figiure of the island of Java resembles a hog couched on its fore 
legs,* with its snout to the channel of Balaberao, and its hind legs 
towards the mouth of the Straits of 8unda, which is much frequented 
by our ships. This island lies directly east and west ; its length about 
one hundred and sixty, and its breadth about seventy leagues. 
'/ The southern coast Xhog's back^is not frequented by us, and its bays 
and ports are not known \ but the northern coast (hog*s belly) is much 
frequented, and has many good ports : and although there are many 
shoals, yet the channels and the anchorages are so well known, that 
" but few disasters happen. 
• " There are many kingdoms along the maritime parts,* some of them 



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XX INTRODUCTION. 

Following the example of the Dutch, the English East 
India Company, immediately after their incorporation by 



" subordinate to the others ; and beginning at the east (head oi the hog), 

*' we will set down the names of such as are known : OvaUe, Paneruoa, 

" Agasai, Sodayo, Paniao (whose sovereign resides thirty leagues inland, 

" and is a kind of emperor over these and others hereafter mentioned). 
Taboo, Berdoao, Cajoao, Jap€ara (whose principal city or town is called 
Cerinhama, three leagues inland, while Japara is situated on the sea 

*' shore), Damo, Margao, Btmta, Sunda, Andreguir (where there is much 
pepper, which is exported by a river called Jande). * In the moun- 
tainoiis interior there are many kings, called Gtmos ; they live among 
rugged mountains, are savage and brutal, and many of them eat 

" human flesh." • 

* " These mountains are exceedingly high, and some of them emit flames 
like the island of Temati.* Every one of these kingdoms 'which we 

" have named'has a language of its own ; yet they mutually understand 
each other, as we do the Spaniards and Galicians.* 
" The kingdom of Sunda is thriving and abundant ; it lies between 
Java and Sumatra, having between it and the latter the Straits of 
Sunda, Many islands lie along the coast of this kingdom within the 
Straits, for nearly the space of forty leagues, which in the widest are 
about twenty-five, and in others only twelve leagues broad. Bamim m 

" about the middle distance. All the islands are well timbered, but have 
little water. A small one, called Macar, at the entrance of the Straits^ 
is said to have much gold. 

" The principal ports of the kingdom of Sunda are Banta, Achi, Chm- 
catara (or, by another name, Caravao), to which every year nsoit 
about twenty Sommas, which are a kind of vessel belonging to CMes- 

" hec (Cochin China), out of the maritime provinces of China, to load 
pepper. For this kingdom produces-eight thousand bakars, which m 
equal to thirty thousand quintals of pepper annually. 

Bantam is situated in six degrees of south latitude, in the middle of 
a fine bay, which is three leagues from point to point. The town in 
length, stretching landward, is eight hundred and fifty fathoms, and the 
seaport extends about four hundred. A river capable of admitting 
junks and gallies, flows through the middle of the town : a Mnall 

" branch of this river admits boats and small craft. 

** There is a brick fort, the walls of which are seven psJkns thick, with 

" wooden bulwarks, armed with two tiers of artillery. The anchonge is 



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INTRODUCTION. xxi 

Queen Elizabeth in 1601, fitted out a fleet of four ships, the 
command of which was entrusted to Captain Lancaster, who 

" good ; in some places a muddy, in others a sandy bottom, the depth 

" finom two to six fathoms. 

" Hie King, Don John, conceiving that if he had a fortress in this 

situation he should be master of the Straits, and of all the pepper of 

those kingdoms, recommended it strongly to the lord admiral to have a 

fort built by Francisco de Sa ; and even now it would be perhaps still 

more important as well for the purpose of defending the entrance against 

the English and the Turks, as for the general security of the trade and 

commerce of those parts, which is the principal value of India. And it 

was the opinion of our forefathers, that if the king possessed three 

fortresses, one in this situation, one on Acheen head, and one on the 

coast of Peffu, the navigation of the east would in a manner be locked 

by these keys, and the king would be lord of all its riches ; and they 

gave many reasons in support of their opinions, which we forbear to 

repeat, and return to Java. 

The island of Java is abundantly furnished with every thing necessary 

" to human life ; so much so, that from it Malacca, Acheen, and other 

neighbouring countries, derive their supplies. 

The natives, who are called Jom ^Javans), ''are so proud that they 
** think all mankind their inferiors ; so that, if a Javan were passing along 
the streetr and saw a native of any other country standing on any 
hillock or place raised higher than the ground on which he was walking, 
if such person did not immediately come down until he should have 
passed, the Javan would kill him, for he will permit no person to stand 
above him; nor would a Javan carry any weight or burthen on his 
head, even if they should threaten him with death. * 

They are a brave and determined race of men, and for any slight 
offence will run amok to be revenged ; and even if they are run through 
and through with a lance, they will advance until they close with their 
adversary. • 

• ** The men are expert navigators, in which they claim priority of all 
** others ; although many give the honour to the Chinese, insisting that 
" they preceded the Javans. But it is certain that the Javans have sailed 
" to the Cape of Good Hope, and have had intercourse with the island 
" of Madagascar on the off side, where there are many people of a brown 
" colour, and a mixed Javan race, who descend from them." * 
Then follows the refutation of a ridiculous story told by Nicolas 



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xxii INTRODUCTION. 

galled from London in 1602, first to Acheen (Ache) on Su- 
matra, where he procored part of his cargo, and entered into 
a treaty \\\\h the king, of which a copy is yet in existence. 
From Aclteen he went to Baniamj and settled a factory there, 
which was the first possession of the English in the East 
Indies. Captain Lancaster brought home a letter firom the 
king of Bantam to Queen Elizabeth in 1602, which is still in 
the state j)aper office. 

In 1610, the first Dutch governor general, Bolt, arrived at 
Bantam, and finding the situation of his countrymen in that 
province not favourable to the establishment of a permanent 
settlement, removed to Jdkatra. On the 4th of March, 1621, 
the name, of Batavia was conferred upon the new establish- 
ment of the Dutch in Jakatra^ which firom that period be- 
came the capital of their East Indian empire. 

In 1683, the English, who had hitherto maintained a suc- 
cessful rivalry with the Dutch, withdrew their establishment 
from Bantam, 
•Intlicyear 1811, Holland having become a province of 

Couti, the Venetian, about a tree that produced a rod of gold in its pith« 
at which some well informed Javans, of whom Couti inquired, laughed 
very heartilj. 

•" Marco Polo mentions the greater and the lesser Java. We an of 
" opinion, that the Java of which we are treating is the lesser, and that 
" the island of Sumatra is the greater Java'; for he says that the greater 
" Java is two thousand miles in circumference, and that the north star is • 
" not visible, and that it has eight kingdoms, Talek, BasfM, Camara^ 
Dragtyao, Lambri Farq/kr, from which it is very clear that he means 
Sumatra, for it has nearly the dimensions which he assigns it. TThe 
north pole is not visible, as this island lies under the equinoctial line, 
*• which is not the case with any of the islands situated to the northward, 
" on all of which the north star is seen : and it is still more evident 
•' from the names of the kingdoms, for there cannot be a doubt that 
Camara is the same as Camatra (the 9 being soft like s). Dragofao 
(which is pronounced Dragojcmg) or Andreguir, and Lambn, still reUin 
" their names on that island." 



<( 
<< 



«< 
<« 



INTRODUCTION. xxiii 

France, the French flag was hoisted at Batavia ; and' on the 
11th Septembery,in the same year, the British government 
was declared supreme on Java, by a proclamation of that 
date signed by the>£arl of Minto, ( Governor General of 
BengaL* On the 17th of (the same month, a capitulation was 
entered into, by which all the dependencies fell into the hands 
of Great Britain.* 

On the 13th 'August, 1814, a convention was entered into 
by viscount Ckstlereaghyi'on the part of his Britannic Majesty, 
restoring to the Dutch the whole of their former possessions 
in the Eastern Islands; and'on the 19thiAugust, 1816, the flag 
of the Netherlands was again hoisted at Batavia. * 

Without adverting to the political importance to Great Bri- 
tain of the conque'st of Java, or to the great commercial ad- 
vantages which both countries might eventually have derived 
from its remaining in our hands, I shall merely notice that the 
loss of it was no immediate or positive evil to the Dutch. For 
many years prior to the British expedition, Holland had 
derived little or no advantage firom the nominal sovereignty 
which she continued to exercise over its internal affairs. All 
trade and intercourse between Java and Europe was inter- 
rupted and nearly destroyed ; it added nothing to the commer- 
cial wealth or the naval means of the mother country : the 
eontroul of the latter over the agents she employed had pro- 
pcHlionally diminished ; she continued to send out governors, 
counsellors, and commissioners, but she gained firom their in- 
quiries little information on the causes of her failure, and no 
aid firom their exertions in improving her resources, or retard- 
ing the approach of ruin. The colony became a burden on the 
mother country instead of assisting her, and the Company 
which had so long governed it being ruined, threw the load of 
its debts and obligations on the rest of the nation. 

It might have been some consolation for the loss of imme- 
diate profit, or the contraction of immediate debt, to know, 
that such unfavourable circumstances were merely temporary ; 



xxiv INTRODUCTION. 

that they arose out of a state of political relations which 
affected internal improvement, and that the resources of the 
colony were progressively increasing, and would become 
available when peace or political changes should allow trade 
to flow in its former channels. Whether the Dutch could not 
indulge such prospects, or whether the system on which the 
internal government of their eastern dominion was conducted 
was in itself ruinous under any circumstances, a view of the 
financial and commercial state of Java before the conquest, 
and of the causes which led to the losses and dissolution of 
the Dutch East India Company, will assist the reader in de- 
termining. 

In tracing these causes, it is hardly necessary to go further 
back than the period of the Company^s history immediately 
preceding the war of 1780. The accidental calamities of that 
war brought it to the brink of ruin, and its importance in the 
past transactions of the country being borne in mind, a general 
concern existed in Holland for its preservation, and for the 
restoration and maintenance of its credit. With the view of 
affording it the most effective and beneficial assistance, in- 
quiries were set on foot, not only to discover some temporary 
means of relief, but to provide a more permanent remedy for 
threatened decline. It is impossible to ascertain what might 
have been the result of the measures which w.ere then in con- 
templation, as the convulsed state of Europe, and especially 
of Holland, subsequently to this period, left no room for their 
operation, and did not even admit of making the experiment of 
their efficiency. The fi'ee intercourse of the mother country 
with her colonies was interrupted ; the trade was thrown into 
the hands of neutrals ; several possessions were lost for the 
want of due protection, and those which remained were left to 
support or defend themselves in the best way they could, with- 
out any assistance or reinforcement firom home. 

For ten years preceding the year 1780, the average annual 
sales of tlie Company amounted to upwards of twenty millions 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXT 



of guilders, which was considerably more than in former years, 
and the prices of the different articles were nearly the same as 
they had been from the years 1648 to 1657, when the sales 
only amounted on an average to about eight millions a year; 
it was therefore clear, that the decline of the Company was 
not to be attributed to the decrease of trade. 

On an examination of the Indian books, it was found, that 
from the year 1613 to 1696, the profits in India, though mode- 
rate, had always kept equal pace with the profits in Europe. 



From 
1613 


To 
1653. 


To 
166a 


To 
1673. 


To 
1683. 


To 
1693. 


The total profiu were 


Guilde'ri. 
101,704,417 

76,177,755 


Guilders. 
142,663,776 

117,616,961 


Guilders. 
206,072,335 

161,271,745 


GuUders. Gulldersi 
259,250,969 322,735.812 

212,282,020 274,4]6,30r; 




Nett Profiu. ••• 


25,526,662 


25,046,815 


44,880,590 


46,968,949 


48,319,506 



Thus, on an average of forty years till 1653, the annual pro- 
fits were about 640,000 guilders a year ; 

Of fifty years to 1663....about 500,000 do. 

Of sixty do to 1673 750,000 do. 

Of seventy do to 1683 670,000 do. 

Of eighty do to 1693 600,000 do. 

In the year 1696, the nett profit from the same year (1613) 
amoimted to only 40,206,789 guilders, being fiill eight millions 
less than it had been in 1693, only three years preceding ; and 
the average nett annual profit fit)m 1613 was reduced to 
484,371 guilders. But from 1697 to 1779, comprehending a 
like period of eighty-three years, the losses were so exorbitant 
as to overbalance and absorb, not only the contemporary, but 
all the preceding profits in Europe, and even a large amount 



xxvi INTRODUCTION. 

of fictitious profit stimulated to screen the government in 

India. 

The nett amount of profits calculated firom 1613^ amounted 

Quilders. 
In 1697 to only 88,696,527 

In 1703 31,674,645 

In 1713 16,805,598 

In 1723 4,838,925 

In 1724 1,037,777 

In 1730 there was already a total loss of 7,737,610, and in 
the year 1779 this loss amounted to 84,985,425. 

The Company used to send yearly to India, before the com- 
mencement of the war of 1780, twenty ships of about nine 
hundred tons each, and eight or ten of about eight hun- 
dred tons each, which, to the number of twenty-two or 
twenty -three, returned with cargoes : four firom China, three 
from Ceylon, three firom Bengal, one fix)m Coromandel, and 
twelve or thirteen from Batavia. They annually exported 
to India provisions and other articles of trade to the amount of 
two millions six or eight thousand florins, and in cash from four 
to six millions, and sold yearly to an amount generally of 
twenty or twenty-one millions ; and it was estimated that the 
Indian trade maintained, directiy and indirectly, all the ex- 
ternal commerce of Holland, employing a capital of about two 
himdred and sixty millions of florins. 

From the inquiries of a commission appointed by the go- 
vernment of Holland, in the year 1780, to ascertain the real 
state of the Company's finances, and to report how far the na- 
tion would be warranted in giving its fiuther support to the 
credit of an institution which had so rapidly declined, it ap- 
peared that in 1789, the arrears of the Company amounted to 
seventy-four millions of florins, and that this amoimt had since 
increased to eighty-four or eighty-five millions, of which sum 
no less than 67,707,583 florins had been advanced by the 
nation. 



INTRODUCTION. xxvii 

The Commissioners, however, being of opinion, that the 
affairs of the Company were not irretrievable, recommended 
a further loan of seven millions of florins. 

A meritorious servant of the Company, Mr. C. Tetsingh, 
had offered to the Commissioners a memorial, in which he 
proposed that the Company should abandon the trade to 
private merchants under certain restrictions ; but on this pro- 
posal the Commissioners stated that they were not then pre- 
pared to offer an opinion. 

This Commission, in reporting upon the manner in which 
the Company^s affairs had been managed in India, declared 
that " they could not conceal the deep impression which the 
" same had made upon their minds, and that they could not 
'' fix their thoughts upon it, \^dthout being affected with sen- 

" timents of horror and detestation." " When," said they, 

" we take a view of our chief possession and establishment, 
^^ and when we attend to the real situation of the internal 
*^ trade of India, the still increasing and exorbitant rate of 
^ the expenses, the incessant want of cash, the mass of paper 
^' money in circulation, the unrestrained peculations and 
" faithlessness of many of the Company's sen^ants, the con- 
" sequent clandestine trade of foreign nations, the perfidy of 
" the native princes, the weakness and connivance of the 
" Indian government, the excessive expenses in the military 

department and for the public defence ; in a word, when 

we take a view of all this collectively, we should almost 
" despair of being able to fulfil our task, if some persons of 
" great talents and ability among tlie directors had not 
" stepped forward to devise means by which, if not to eradi- 
" cate, at least to stop the further progress of corruption, and 
" to prevent the total ruin of the Company." 

The improvements proposed by the directors extended to 
every branch of the administration abroad. They proposed, 
first, with regard to the Cape of Good Hope, the yearly 
arrears of which settlement had latterly amoimted to a million 
and a half of florins, that the same should be reduced to one 



it 



xxviii INTRODUCTION. 

half of that sum. With regard to the further eastern posses- 
sions, the measures proposed for consideration were chiefly 
the following. 

To confine the Company's future trade to opium, spices, 
pepper, Japan copper, tin, and sugar, as far as the European 
and Japan markets woidd require. To abandon the trade to 
Western India to the Company's sen ants and free merchants, 
imder payment of a certain recognition. To abandon several 
factories in that quarter, and to reduce the rest to mere resi- 
dencies. To make considerable reductions in the establish- 
ment on the coast of Malabar and in Bengal. To reduce the 
establishments on the coast of Coromandel to three factories. 
To abandon the establishments on the West coast of Sumatra, 
and to leave it open to a free trade. To diminish the ex- 
penses at Ceylon by a reduction of the military force, and by 
every other possible means to animate the cultivation and im- 
portation of rice into that settlement. To open a free trade 
and navigation to Bengal and Coromandel, under the superin- 
tendence of the Company, on paying a certain recognition. 
To encourage, by every means, the cultivation of rice in the 
easternmost possessions, and especially at Amboina and 
Banda, for the sake of preventing the inducements of a clan- 
destine trade, which the importation of rice to those places 
might afford. To abandon several small factories to the 
eastward. To adopt a plan for the trade of Malacca proposed 
by Governor De Bruem. To introduce a general reduction 
of establishment at Batavia and elsewhere. To introduce 
new regulations with regard to the sale of opium at Batavia. 
To improve the Company's revenue, by a tax upon salaries 
and a duty upon collateral successions. And finaUy, to send 
out commissioners to India, with full powers to introduce a 
general reform in the administration. 

In a memorial subsequently submitted by the Commis- 
rioners, which formed the basis of all the measures recom 
mended and adopted at this time, for tlie better administration 
of affairs in India, after shewing that, from the year 1770 to 



INTRODUCTION. xxix 

1780, the Company had on the whole of its trade and esta- 
blishments on the coast of Coromandel, Bengal, Malabar, 
Snrat, and the western coast of Sumatra, averaged a profit of 
only 119,554 florins a year, they recommended the introduc- 
tion at Batavia of a public sale of the spices, Japan copper, 
and sugar, wanted for the consumption of Western India, 
and the establishment of a recognition of ten per cent, on the 
piece goods from Bengal, and of fifteen per cent, on the piece 
goods £rom Coromandel. Under such a plan of firee trade, 
they calculated that, after the diminution of the Company^s 
establishments in Western India, and the abolition of several 
small forts and factories to the eastward, it was highly pro* 
bable that the administration in India would, in future, cover 
its own expenses, and thereby save the Company firom utter 

min. 

It was on these calculations that the Commissioners 

appointed by the States of Holland founded their hopes of 
the fiiture relief of the Company, and with these prospects 
they closed their report, the care and future fate of the Com- 
pany devolving firom that time chiefly on the Commissioners 
appointed at their recommendation to proceed to India, in 
order to carry into effect, on the spot, the reforms proposed. 
Of these new Commissioners, Mr. Nederburg, then first advo- 
cate to the Company, was appointed the chief. 

The Indian Commissioners sailed firom Europe in the year 
1791. At the Cape of Good Hope they made such changes 
and reforms as may be said to have fully efiected the object 
of their commission. The importance, however, of the Cape 
being comparatively small, it is not necessary to enter into 
any detail of the measures adopted there. The more momen- 
tous part of their trust was undoubtedly to be discharged in 
India, where they arrived in 1793. 

If the talents of these Commissioners were to be estimated 
by the benefits which resulted fi-om their labours, we may 
safely pronounce them to have been incompetent to the task 
they had undertaken ; but such a criterion cannot \rilh any 



r» 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

justice be applied. A continuance of peace with Great 
Britain was of course reckoned upon in all their calculations, 
and war with that power broke out almost immediately 
afterwards. 

With regard to the abandonment of several forts and fac- 
tories to the eastward, to which their attention had been par- 
ticularly directed, the result of their deliberation and inquiry 
was, that the continuance of the Company's establishment on 
Celebes was indispensable for the protection of the Moluccas; 
that at Timor reductions had been made, in consequence of 
which the revenues covered the expenses;^ that after mature 
investigation the Japan trade was shewn to yield a nett profit 
of 200,000 florins ; that with regard to the West Coast of 
Sumatra the revenues had been made to exceed the expenses, 
and the pepper collected in that neighbourhood left still some 
profit to the Company. 

With respect to the institution of public sales at Batavia 
for Japan copper, spices, and sugar, on the introduction of 
which it was supposed the establishments in Western India 
might be for the most part reduced, they were of opinion, 
after deliberating with the Council of India, and after a per- 
sonal inquiry into the actual state of the private trade at 
Batavia, that chiefly for the want of an adequate means 
among the purchasers such sales were entirely impracticable, 
and that it would therefore be preferable, after making some 
partial reductions in the expense, to continue the establish- 
ment in Bengal and the coast of Coromandel, but that Cochin 
on the Malabar coast might, perhaps, be advantageously 
abandoned *. 

To determine the mode in which the trade with India 
should in future be conducted, those Commissioners assumed 
a general calculation of the receipts and disbursements which 
would occur at home and abroad, on the supposition that the 
Company should, in future, navigate with hired vessels only, 

* This is the factory which by the recent convention has been ex- 
changed with England for the Island of Banka. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxi 

md that all marine establishments should be abolished. The 
result of this calculation was in abstract as follows. The 
estimate may be considered as affording an interesting view 
of the hopes and prospects which were at that time enter- 
tained of the resources of the Eastern Islands. 

The whole estimate was jGramed on the principles of mono- 
poly, and with a view to an increase of the trade on the one 
hand, and a reduction of expenses on the other. The quan- 
tity of coffee stated at eighteen million pounds, was calculated 
upon the produce which might be expected after two years. 
In the calculation of the quantity of pepper, an augmentation 
of 1,500,000 pounds beyond the produce of the preceding 
year was anticipated, from the encouragement given to the 
growth of that article in Bantam and other parts of Java. 
With regard to the sugar, calculated at 8,000,000 of pounds 
for the home cargoes, it is stated, that the actual deliveries 

From Batavia at that time amounted to ....6,000,000 lbs. 

From Ch6ribon 600,000 

From other ports in Java 1,000,000 

7,500,000 lbs. 

Supposing therefore the home cargoes 8,000,000 lbs. 

The demand for Surat 8,600,000 

For Japan 900,000 

For the consumption of the Company's o^^-n 
establishments 200,000 

The quantity required would be 12,600,000 lbs. 

Or 6,100,000 pounds more than the actual produce. Tlie 
whole of that quantity, however, the Commissioners felt con- 
fident might be produced in three years, by encouraging the 
manufacture in the Eastern Districts of Java. Among the 
retrenchments was a tax upon the salaries of all civil servants, 
which reduced the average salary of each to the sum of fifteen 
Spanish dollars per month. 



Si 



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xxxiu 





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xxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

These Commissioners seemed to entertain no very fitTOur- 
able ideas of the benefits which would arise to priyate tnde 
from the license it already enjoyed. As a measure much 
more beneficial to the general trade of Europe and to the 
Company, they proposed, in lieu of it, to throw open to indi- 
viduals, under certain restrictions, the trade and navigation 
firom Europe to Bengal and Coromandel. 

Thus we see these Commissioners sent out with the view 
of introducing something like free trade on Java, coming to a 
resolution to take away from it even the little private trade 
which it had previously been allowed to enjoy. 

The Company's trade with continental India had already 
been so much encroached upon by foreigners, that it was 
judged expedient no longer to exclude the Dutch free trader 
from his share in the spoil ; but it was hoped, by increased 
strictness, to preserve entire to the Company the excluuve 
trade in spices, Javan coffee, pepper as far as it was the pio- 
duce of her own possessions, Japan copper, the opium which 
was consumed in Java and in the Moluccas, and Javan sugar. 

The trade of the Dutch Company has thus been brought to 
the period, when its monopoly was proposed to be almost 
exclusively confined to Java and the Eastern Islands, includ- 
ing Japan. The causes which operated to destroy the Dutch 
influence on the continent of India, are too well known to re- 
quire any particular description. 

The Dutch had long maintained a decisive superiority, as 
well on the continent of Asia, as among the Indian i<f 1a ndg, 
imtil the active exertions of their competitors in trade suc- 
ceeded in undermining and overturning their monopoly ; and 
as it was natural their weak side should sufier first, it was on 
the continent, where their establishments were far removed 
from the chief seat of government, and where they had not 
been able to insure to themselves those exclusive privileges 
from the princes of the country which they had exacted from 
the weaker princes of the Eastern Islands, that other nations, 



INTRODUCTION. xxxr 

chiefly the French and English, first endeavoured to intro- 
duce themselves. 

After reciprocal jealousies had for some time prevented 
bofli nations finom making any considerable progress, a suc- 
cessful war at last turned the scale entirely in favour of the 
English, whose influence, from that period, has been para- 
mount in continental India, and the Dutch East India Com- 
pany was no longer able to enforce its system of exclusive 
trade there. 

Without inquiring into the practicability of realizing the 
flattering estimate made out by the Indian Commissioners, or 
the policy which dictated a still more rigorous monopoly of 
the produce of the Eastern Islands, it ought to be remarked, 
although it seems never to have been adverted to by the 
Commissioners, whose calculations and plans were exclu- 
nvely of a commercial nature, that the original situation of 
the Company as a mere mercantile body, looking out for trade 
and not dominion, had undergone a material alteration, by 
the acquisition it had made from the middle of the last cen- 
tury of considerable territorial possessions, especially on the 
island of Java. 

To use the words of one of the most enlightened men who 
now adorns his country, and is prepared to give energy to a 
better state of things*, ^^ these territorial acquiidtions became 

to the Company a soiurce of new relations. In consequence 

of them, new rights were acquired and obligations of a 
" novel kind were contracted, as well with regard to the 
^* territories themselves as the population upon them. The 
** nature of these rights and duties might have been deemed 
*^ worth inquiry ; and as all these territorial acquisitions were 
^^ made by a delegated authority derived from the government 
^^ at home, it was frurther worthy of investigation how far the 
^* government itself was entitled to a direct share in the 
^' acquisitions made, and how far it was bound to controul 

• Mr. Muntinghe. 

K O 






xxxvi INTRODUCTION. 

^^ and superintend the exercise of those duties which were 
^' newly contracted. A consideration of these points would 
*^ have led to the important question, how far, on a renewal 
** of the Company^s charter, it would be requisite to alter and 
^^ modify its conditions according to existing circumstances, 
^^ and especially how far it would have been expedient, in 
^^ future, to leave the Company the exclusive trade, and at 
** the same time the uncontrouled sovereignty over the same 
" country." 

But however natural it may be, at the present moment, to 
consider questions of this kind, it was perhaps at that tim^ 
beyond the common coiurse of human thought to entertaiii 
doubts on the subject From an honourable regard for an- 
cient institutions, the mercantile system of the Company was 
still considered with reverence and respect; it had been al 
all times the boast and pride of the nation ; the services which 
the Company had rendered to the state in its earlier days, and 
the immense benefits which the government had been enabled^ 
by its means, to spread among the community at large, had 
rendered the East India Company and all its privileges, ob» 
jects of peculiar care and tenderness. The rights of sove* 
reignty which the Company afterwards acquired, were ob- 
tained by degrees and almost imperceptibly. Every acqui- 
sition of the kind had been considered, at the time, merely as 
the means of increasing its mercantile profits, and all its terri- 
torial rights were looked upon as subservient to its mercantile 
system. 

In consequence of these ideas, after the whole of the 
northern and eastern coast of Java had been added to the 
Company^s territorial dominions, by a cession in the year 
1749, no step seems to have been taken for improving these 
acquisitions, by any direct use of the supremacy obtained. 
Some contracts were instituted with the native chiefs, for 
delivering gratis, or at the lowest possible price, such articles 
as would serve the Company's investments at home ; but 



INTRODUCTION. xxxrii 

taxation, the levy of produce, and the management of police 

and justice in the inferior courts, were left to the care and 

conscience of the natives themselves. 

Arguments in favour of this system may perhaps be drawn 
from the respect due to the native usages and institutions, 
and from a supposed want of power, on the part of the Com- 
pany, to assume any direct controul over the native popula- 
tion. But whatever influence these ideas may have had on 
the conduct of the Company, it may be affirmed that an 
European government, aiming only to see right and justice 
administered to every class of the population, might and 
ought to have maintained all the native usages and institu- 
tions, not inconsistent with those principles ; and that the 
power, for want of which it withheld its interference, would 
have been supphed and confirmed by the act of exercising 
the power which it possessed, and by the resources it might 
have been the means of drawing firom the coimtry. 

Considering, therefore, the propensity inherent in every 
native authority to abuse its influence, and to render it oppres- 
sive to the population at large ; the ascendancy of Europeans 
in general, even over the class of native chieftains ; the scan- 
tiness of many of the establishments proposed in the plan of 
the Indian Commissioners ; the manifest inadequacy of the 
remuneration of the civil servants which it recommended, 
and the narrow scale on which all expenses were calculated ; 
no very durable benefits could have been reasonably expected 
£rom it The discretionary power being left in the hands of 
the native chieftains, the whole of the lower class of the popu- 
lation would have remained at their disposal ; the ascendancy 
of the European servants would have subjected both to pecu- 
lations, which the insufficiency of their salaries would con- 
stantly have tempted them to practice ; the administration of 
justice not meeting with a proper remuneration would have 
been ineffectual, perhaps corrupt; the reduction of the 

9 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION. 

military establishment would have left the possessions an 
easy prey to the first invader; and the original sources of the 
Company^s revenues in India remaining the same, it seems 
probable, that in a short time, the same scenes which had 
hitherto met with so much reprobation, would have been 
acted over again, and to a still more disgraceful extent 

But of whatever merit might have been the plans suggested 
by the Commissioners in India on the 4th July, 1795, the 
calamities which had already befallen the mother country 
were followed by an event, which it seems the Commissionen 
had hardly dared to suspect, and which, in every case, would 
have frustrated all their designs. This was the dissolution of 
the Company, in consequence of a resolution taken to that 
effect on the 24th December, by the body then representing 
the government of the United States of Holland. 

New views of policy were of course suggested by this im- 
portant change. In the year 1800 there appeared a small 
volume, entitled ^' A Description of Java and of its principal 
** Productions, shewing the Advantages to be derived there* 
^* from under a better Administration, by Mr. Dirk Van 
" Hogendorp," in which the writer, after observing that the 
true state of Java and its importance to the mother country 
had hitherto been little known, or at least that no correct 
ideas had yet been formed in Holland with regard to its value, 
fertility, population, and advantageous situation for trade, 
establishes, 

^* 1. That the system on which the trade in India had 
'* hitherto been conducted and the possessions administered, 
** was no longer good under present circumstances, but con* 
*' tained in itself the seeds of decline and ruin. 

'^ 2. That the exclusive trade was in its nature injurious, 
** and naturally caused the ruin of die colonies. 

" 3. That under a different system, those colonies would 
•* flourish, and yield much greater advantages than ever. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxix 

** 4. That a revenue, founded on the principles of freedom 
'^ of trade, property in the soil, and equality of imposts, could 
^ be eaflily introduced. 

^ 5. And finally, that all the benefits which would thereby 
'* accrue to the mother country, firom the territorial revenue, 
^ the duties on trade, the industry and wealth for which that 
^ trade would fiimish employment, and the treasures which 
^ the distiibution of produce throughout Europe must bring 
'^ into the mother country, would greatly exceed the highest 
^ advantages tliat could be calculated upon, even under the 
^ most favourable prospects, by the means of the taUen Ckmi- 
*^ pany or a continuation of its former system." 

Many parts of this pamphlet abound in violence and 
invective, and others are too highly coloured ; but with these 
exceptions, it may be safely asserted that it contains a more 
correct view of the state of society, and of the resources of 
the country, than any paper which had preceded it, and the 
author is most justly entitled to all the credit of having 
chalked out to his countrymen the road to honour and pros- 
perity, in the future administration of the Dutch East-Indian 
colonies. 

Having, in the course of the foregoing sketch of the de- 
cline and fall of the Dutch East-India Company, exhibited a 
statement of these resources, under the mercantile system of 
the Company, it may be interesting also to state what, in the 
opinion of Mr. Hogendorp, the island of Java alone was 
capable of affording eventually, under a system founded on 
the principles of property in the soil, freedom of cultivation 
and trade, and the impartial administration of justice ac- 
cording to equal rights. " When the exclusive and oppres- 
" sive trade of the Company, the forced deliveries, the feudal 
" services, in short, the whole system of feudal government, 
" is done away with, and when the effects of this important 
" revolution are felt in the certain increase of cultivation and 
" trade, then," observes Mr. Hogendorp, " the limits of pro- 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

^*' bability will by no means be exceeded, in estimating the 
^ aggregate of the revenues of Java, in progress of time, at 
" twelve millions of rix-dollars, or twenty-four millions of 
** guilders, annually." 

This statement, calculated with reference to the com- 
parative produce of the West India Islands, has been gene- 
rally considered by the colonists as exhibiting a very exag- 
gerated view, of what the island could, under any circum- 
stances, afford, and by many as too wild a speculation to 
deserve attention ; but to this it should be added, that the 
plan on which it was founded, viz. an entire change in the 
internal management of the country, was considered as 
equally wild and romantic by those who declaimed the 
loudest against the possibility of these advantages accruing, 
and that notwithstanding the doubts then entertained of its 
practicability, that measure has been actually carried into 
effect, without producing any one of the consequences de- 
picted by the advocates of the old system, and as far as a 
judgment can yet be formed, with all the advantages anti- 
cipated by Mr. Hogendorp. 

It is not surprising to find, that the enlightened views of 
this \mter were never acted upon, when we find it asserted 
by a commission, who sat at the Hague in 1803, composed of 
the highest, and perhaps best qualified persons in the state of 
Holland, and of which he was himself a member (of course a 
dissenting one), that ^* it appeared to them to have been ad- 
** mitted generally, and without contradiction, that according 
*^ to ancient regulations, of which the first institution was lost 
^^ even among the Javans themselves, the manner in which 
" that people are used to live rests on principles, with which 
** a free and unlimited disposition of the ground and its pro- 
^^ ductions is absolutely inconsistent ; that they were, for 
^^ their parts, convinced that such a change could not be 
^^ effected, without causing a general fermentation among all 
** classes of people ; that though, in this case, violent mea- 



u 
u 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

^ smes might suppress an insoirqction, they would rather 
^ advise to bid an eternal farewell to Java, than to resort to 
^ sach means ; that if they adverted to the question in a com- 
^ mercial point of view, the same uncertainty, the same 
^ dangers presented themselves. These arose from the 
^' natural disinclination of the Javan to work, which has been 
" observed by many eminent persons ; the danger of new 
^monopolies, which would fall heavier upon the common 
^ people than the present forced deliveries ; the exorbitant 
^ charges to support a great number of native chiefs and 
^ priests, who are at present provided for and ought to be 
supported ; an undoubted deficiency in the revenues, and a 
considerable expenditure during the first years, without the 
probability of a remedy. All this,*' say they, " seems to 
*' forebode a neglect of the cultivation ; and after long and 
** laborious researches, we are compelled to lay it down as a 
" general principle, that property of the soil among the 
^ common Javans, and the abolition of public services, cannot 
^* be adopted as the basis of an improvement, of which the 
^^ internal management of Java would be susceptible. The 
" contingents and forced deliveries ought therefore to be con- 
** tinned and received on account of the state, which has suc- 
" ceeded to the prerogatives of the former Company *." 

Marshal Daendels, who was recalled firom the government 
of Java only a few months before the British conquest, and 
who was by far the most active and energetic governor who 
had for a long time been at the head of the colony, has written 
an account of his own administration, of the state in which he 
found the island, of the measures he proposed and executed, 
of the improvements which he projected or carred into effect, 
of the revenues that might be expected, and of the expendi- 

• Report of a Committee appointed to investigate East India afiairs 
made to the Government of the Batavian Repuhhc, dated 3l8t of August 
1803, consisting of Messrs. Murman, Sic, Ponloe, Verhuell, D. Van Ho- 
gendorp, Nederburgh, and Voute. 



xlii INTRODUCTION. 

lure that the public service required. Although he enters into 
gome free and bold strictures on the conduct of the Conunis* 
sionersy the estimates they formed, and the policy they recom- 
mended, he does not seem himself to have avoided many of 
the faults which rendered their policy objectionable, or io 
have entertained any hope of establishing a more liberal syfr* 
tem. Forced services and contingents, and all the tyranny 
which they render necessary, still constituted the greatest part 
of the ways and means of the colonial treasury, and the grand 
source of profits for the Company. 

The difficulties he had to struggle with, and the peculiar 
habits and character formed by his profession, seem to have 
determined his proceedings, more than any matured scheme 
of general administration, or any deliberate principles of go- 
vernment He thus describes the situation of the colony on 
his arrival : *^ A powerful enemy threatened us by sea, and the 
'' Javan princes, acquiring audacity in proportion as they saw 
^^ proofs of our weakness, thought the moment had arrived for 
*^ prescribing the law to their former superiors. The very ex- 
'^ istcnce of our dominions on Java was thus in the greatest 
^' danger. Our internal resources of finance were exhausted^ 
'^ while a stagnation of trade, caused by the blockade of our 
'^ shores, cut off all hopes of procuring assistance from with* 
^^ out In the midst of such disastrous circumstances, and the 
^^ failure of so many attempts to introduce reform, and to main- 
^^ tain the dignity of government, I found it necessary toplac€ 
^^ myself above the usual formalities, and to disregard every 
^* latVy but that which enjoined the preservation of the cdomy 
" entrusted to my management. The verbal order which I re- 
^^ ceived, at my departure from Holland, had tliis for its ob- 
^^ ject, and the approbation bestowed upon my attempts to 
" carry it into execution, encouraged me in the course of pro- 
" ceeding which I had began." 

The situation in which the Marshal found the colony is 

justly drawn ; but the result of liis operations, and the condi- 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

Am in which he left the gerenmieiit to his successor, are de- 
soibed in coloarg by far too flattering. His partiality for his 
own walk, and the conscionsness of haying made great exer- 
tions to accomplish it, seems to have influenced his mind too 
easily, in convincing him of the advantage and success of the 
aeasares he had adopted. '^ In spite,^ says he, ^^ of aU the 
^ obstacles I encountered, I obtained the following results. I 
^ made the general government the centre of authority, from 
^ which every inferiin: authority descended in a determined 
^ proportion, with a definite responsibility and a salutaiy con- 
^ trool. Into aU the local and subordinate administrations, 
^ clearness and simplicity were introduced ; agriculture was 
^ encouraged, protected, and extended ; general industry was 
'' promoted ; the administration of justice and of the police 
" was put on a sure footing ; the means of defence weje in- 
** creased as much as possible ; many works were undertaken, 
^ both for the service of government and other useftd ends ; 
^ new roads were made and old ones improved ; the condition 
^ of all the inhabitants, as well native as European, was ame- 
** liorated, and every cause of misunderstanding removed ; the 
*^ relations of the colonial government with the courts of the 
** native princes were regulated on principles, conformable to 
^ the dignity, and conducive to the interests of the former; 
^ and, in fine, the revenues of the colony were so augmented, 
'^ that after every deduction for internal expenditure, they will 
^* fiimish a surplus of five millions, free of all charge, as a nett 
** return to Holland.'' 

Marshal Daendels, in his memoir, sufficientiy showed the 
fallacy contained in the report of the Commissioners, con- 
cerning the estimated revenue and profits of the Company. 
Instead of the receipt of 1,250,000 florins, accruing from the 
profit of the sale of opium (as marked in the table which I 
have transcribed), he assures us that not one farthing was 
actually obtained. Many of the conclusions of the Com- 
missioners, concerning the temper of the inhabitants, the 

10 



xliv INTRODUCTION, 

nature of the soil of particular districts, and the general re- 
sources of the island, he satisfactorily proved to be founded 
on erroneous information or mistake ; and it is only to be 
regretted, that he did not carry the same spirit of impartiali^ 
into the formation of his own reports, which he requires in 
those of his predecessors, or anticipates from his successors^ an 
examination, equally rigorous, and a measure of justice equally 
strict as that to which they were subjected. Had this been 
the case, we should not have been offered such financial 
results as make the revenue of the island amount to 10,789,000 
rix-dollars, and its expenditure only 6,790,000, leaving t 
balance of five millions of profit. It may be interesting to 
compare his estimate with* the table already exhibited. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xIt 



ICATBD RSCKIPT8. 



Rix-donara. 

d 2,000,000 

land unfEurmed 500,000 

m« 1,120,000 

360,000 

fiOO pihdSt at 

Dan 4,500,000 

OOOpihds... 160,000 
OOOpihUs... 400,000 
per, 35,000 

250,000 

1,000,000 

250,000 

250,000 



10,790,000 



B8TIM ATXD XXPBNDITUEB. 



Riz-dollan. 

Civil appointments 1,000,000 

Land forces l,227»000 

Manufactory of powder, 

f oundery of balls, and 

arsenals 180,000 

Hospitals 80,000 

Marine 250,000 

Fortifications, &c 200,000 

New works 400,000 

Justice and police 150,000 

Transports and freights.. 300,000 
Transport of Company's 

servants, recruits, &c. 

from Europe 300,000 

Purchase of native articles 300,000 

Package 100,000 

Interest •. 400,000 

Unforeseen chaiges .... 903,000 

5,790,000 
Which being subtracted 
from 10,790,000 

Leaves a nett profit, 
Riz-doUars 5,000,000 



>te on this source of revenue. Marshal Daendels says that he is 
the evils arising from the use of this drug, but that the Javans 
ted tQ it, that no prospect of success could be entertained 
roject for reducing its consimiption. Yet even while he is 
obserA'ation, he tells us that the Commissioners fixed the sale 
;sts, and that he in his estimate has only taken it at 800. It 
rds reduced to less than 300 chests, without any fear of dis- 
any danger of illicit trade. 



CONTENTS 



OF 



VOLUME L 



TAGS 

.Tioif iii 



s ^.•., Vll 

vcnov • • • . •■«« ••■« «... xiii 

CHAPTER I. 

plucal Situation of Java — Name — Extent and Form — ^Divi- 
H— Harbours — Mountains and Yolcanos— Rivers and Lakes — 
Ttl sqjpearance of the Country — Mineralogical Constitution — 
ms and Climate — Metals — Minerals — Soil — ^Vegetable and 
lal Kingdoms 1 

CHAPTER n. 

of tbe Natives — Javans compared with the Mald]rus and 
JB— Comparative Progress of the three Races— Foreign In- 
ce — Persons of the Natives — Manners — Population — In- 
lity of it accoimted for — Population Tables — Increase of 
ihUion — Foreign Settlers — Chinese— Bdgis — ^Maldyuis — Moore 
rabfl — Slaves — Gradations of rank among the Javans — ^Their 
itations. Dress, and Food 62 

CHAPTER ni. 

ance of Agriculture to Java. — Soil — State of the Peasantry — 
J of Rice — Subsistence of the Peasantry — ^Dwellings — Agri- 
tral Stock — Implements of Farming — Seasons — ^Different kinds 
■and — Rice Cultivation — Maize, &c. — Sugar — Coffee — Pepper 
digo— Cotton — ^Tobacco— Tenure of landed Property 117 

CHAPTER IV. 

ictures — Handicrafts — ^Bricks — ^Thatch — Mats — Cotton Cloths 
yes — ^Tanning — Ropes — Metals — Boat and Ship-building — 
rr — Salt— Saltpetre Works — Gunpowder, &c. — Felling and 
iporting of Teak Timber — Fisheries • 182 



xlviii CONTENTS. 

PAOB 

CHAPTER V. 

Commerce — ^Advantageous Situation of Java for Commercial Inter- 
course — Importance of Batavia in particular— Native Trade- 
Roads and Inland Carriage — Markets — Influence of the Chinese- 
Coasting Trade— Exports and Imports — ^Trade with the Archi- 
pelago — China — Kamtschatka — Western India — Europe, &c. — 
Dutch Commercial Regulations — State of the Eastern Islands — 
Advantages which they possess — Causes of the Depression of the 
Nations and IVibes which inhabit them — Ji^>an Trade 210 

CHAPTER VI. 

Character of the Inhabitants of Java — ^Difference between the Stindas 
and the Javans — ^The Lower Orders — ^The Chiefs — Nature of the 
Native Government — ^Different Officers of State— Judicial Estab- 
lishments and Institutions — Laws, and how administered — ^Police 
Institutions and Regulations — Military Establishments — Revenue. 272 

CHAPTER VII. 

Ceremonies of the Court — ^Deference paid to superior Rank — Regalia 
— Processions — Pomp — Rank and Titles — Ambassadors — Cere- 
monies attending Births, Marriages, and Funerals — ^Account of the 
People called K41ang, and of the Inhabitants of the T^ng'ger 
Mountains — ^The Bedui — Festivals — ^Amusements — ^The Drama— 
Wiyangs — ^The Dance — ^Tournaments — ^The Chase — ^Tiger Fights 
— Combat of Criminals with Tigers — Bull Fights, &c. — Games of 
Skill and Chance— Other Customs and Usages ^«. . . . 343 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Lan^tuage — Little known to Europeans — Different Languages or 
Dialects — Those of Sdnda, Maddra, and B&li, compared with that 
of Java Proper — ^The polite Language, or Language of Honour — 
The Kawi, or Sacred and Classic Language — Numerals — Chandra 
Sangkala — Literature — Compositions in the Kawi Language, and 
in the modem Javan — Influence of Hindu Literature — Introduction 
of Arabic Literature — Poetry — ^The Brata Yud'ha, a Poem — Music 
— Painting — Sculpture — Architecture — Arithmetic — Astronomy. . 396 



AN ACCOUNT 



OF THE 



ISLAND OF JAVA, 



CHAPTER I. 

Gfognqtkieal Sttuation of Java — Name — Extent and Form — DivUions — 
Harbomn-^Mountains and Volcanos — Rivers and Lakes — General Ap- 
pearoMce of the Country — Mineralogical Constitution — Seasons and 
CUmate-^Metals — Minerals — Soil — Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms. 

The country known to Europeans under the name of Java, 
or Java Major, and to the natives under those of Tana 
(the land) JduHiy or NUsa (the island) Jaicuy is one of the 
largest of what modem geographers call the Sunda Islands. 
It is sometimes considered one of the Malayan Islands, and 
forms a part of that division of the Oriental Archipelago which 
it has been lately proposed to designate as the Asiatic Isles. 
It extends eastward, with a slight deviation to the south, 
from 105° 11' to \\4P 33' of longitude east of Greenn-ich, and 
lies between the latitudes 5° 52' and 8° 46' south. On the 
south and west it is washed by the Indian Ocean ; on the 
north-west by a channel called the Straits of Sunduy which 
separates it from Sumatra, at a distance in one point of only 
fourteen miles ; and on the south-east by the Straits of Bdlij 
only two miles wide, which divide it from the island of that 
name. These islands, and others stretching eastward, form 
with Java a gentle ciune of more than two tliousand geogra- 
phical miles, which with less regularity is continued from 
VOL. I. B 



2 SITUATION OF THE ISLAND.— NAME. 

Achccn to Pegu on one side, and from Timor to Pap^j or 
New Guinea, on the other : they constitute on the west and 
south, as do Bdnkay Biliton^ the great islands of Borneo and 
Celebes, and the Moluccas on the noith, the barriers of the 
Javan Seas and the Malayan Archipelago. From the eastern 
peninsula of India, Java is distant about one hundred and 
forty leagues, from Borneo about fifty-six, and from New 
Holland two hundred. 

To what cause the island is indebted for its present name 
of Java ^ {orJdwa as it is pronounced by the natives) is uncer- 
tain. Among the traditions of the country (which are moie 
particularly mentioned in another place) there is one, which 
relates, that it was so termed by the first colonists fix>m the 
continent of India, in consequence of the discovery of a 
certain grain, called ^rtira-M^wf,^ on which the inhabitants are 
supposed to have subsisted at that early period, and that it 
had been known pre>dously only under the term of Ntftsa hdra- 
hdra or N^a kindanffy meaning the island of wild unculti- 
vated waste, or in which the hiUs run in ridges. 

In the tenth chapter of Genesis we are told, that *^ the isles 
of the Gentiles were divided in their lands ; eveiy one afker 
his tongue, after their families, in the nations : '' and in the 
twenty-seventh chapter of Ezekiel we find among the rich 
merchants, those of Javan ** who traded the persons of men, 
and vessels of brass, to the market of Tyre, and who going to 
and fro, occupied in her fairs, brought bright iron, cassia, and 
calamus." But we shall leave it to others to trace the con* 
nection between the Javan of Holy Writ and the Java of 
modem times. It appears, that the Arabs, who had widelj 
extended their commercial intercourse, and established their 



* The primitive Athenians were called lones or laones cHerodotus, lib. L 
&c.) This name is thought to have been given to them from Javan, whidi 
bears a great resemblance to Idwv. This Javan was the fooiih son of 
Japheth, and is said to have come into Greece after the confusion of Babel* 
and seated himself in Attica ; and this report receives no small confirxnatioa 
from the divine writings, where the name of Javan is in several places put 
for Greece. See Daniel x. 20. xi. 2. where the vidgar translations render 
it not Javan, as in the original, but Gra^cia. The Athenians afterwards 
named Asia the less Ionia. — Potter's Archax)logia Gneca. 

* Panicum Italicum. 



NAME. 3 

religious faith over the greatest portion of the Indian Archi- 
pelagOy long before the Europeans had navigated round the 
Cape of Oood Hope, designate the whole of the nations and 
tribes which inhabit those regions by the general term of the 
people of Jawif as in the foUowing passage taken fix>m one of 
their religious tracts : — ** The people of Jawi do not observe 
with strictness the rule laid down for keeping the fast, inas- 
much as thej eat before the sun sets, while the Arabs continue 
the fsurt; until that luminary has sunk below the horizon.^ 
Jawa or Jawi is also the name by which Borneo, Java, Su- 
uuAniy the Malayan Peninsula, and the islands lying amongst 
them, are known among the nations of Celebes, who apply 
the BUgis dimioutive Jawa-Jawdka, or Java minor, to the 
Moluccas, Ambony Bdnda^ Timor ^ and EmJU, Jabadios In- 
sulsBy from t/oia, and diby div or dioy has been employed in 
the largest sense by Europeans, and it is probable this was 
once generally the case among the Asiatics, with the terms 
Ja^Hiy Jaway Jawiy and Jaha^ which, as the appellations of 

' Ths term Zapag^iss Zohtqa Mems also to have been t eomiptioii from 
Jama, and ta have been used with the same latitude, accordisg to the fol- 
lowing notices by Major Wilford. ** There was a constant intercourse^ 
both by sea and land, between the kingdom of MagatPhi and China, on 
the authority of Chinese history ; and they traded to an island and king- 
dom, called Founan, to the eastward of Siam, during the third and fourth 
eenturiea. This was probably a Malay kingdom ; but we cannot ascertain 
its sitioition. It seems that the Malay emperors and kmgs, as those of 
2s€ffaffi mad Fknmam, did what they could to introduce trade and te amin g 
into their dominions, but their exertions proved ineffectual ; at least they 
were not attended with much success ; and their subjects soon reb^)sed into 
their famer mode of life." .... "There are two countries called Maha* 
ntjm, which are often confounded together; the first, at the bottom of the 
Green Sea, including Bengal and all the countries on the bonks of the 
Ganges ; the second comprehended the peninsula of Malacca, and some of 
the adjacent islands in the seas of China. In these countries the emperor, 
or king, ahrays assumed the title of Maharaja, even imtil this day. Their 
cooDtry, in general, was called Zapagi or Zabaja, which is a corruption 
from Java or Jaboy as it was called in the west, and was also the name of 
Sumatra, according to Ptolemy, who calls it Jaba-diu, and to Marco Polo. 
In the peninsula of Malacca was the famous emporium of Zaba : Zubaja, 
in Sanscrit, would signify then Zaba. The empire of Zabaji was thus 
called, probably, from its metropolis, Zaba^ as well as the principal islands 
near it. 2Ma was a principal emporium even as eariy as the time of 
Ptolemy. It remained so till the time of the two MussiUman travellers of 



n e\ 



4 NAME. 

pe()])le inhabiting the countries beyond Uie continent or dis* 
tiint, some have derived from the word jaity of very general 
acceptation in eastern languages, and meaning beyond^ 
distant ^ 

Tt is, perhaps, in consequence of these names having em- 
braced the whole, or at least several of the islands collectively, 
that the accounts given by Marco Polo, and other early Euro- 
pean voyagers, of particular islands, as Java Major and Java 
Minor, are so inconsistent with one another. The countiy 
described by Marco Polo as Java Minor, seems, beyond doubt, 
to have been the eastern coast of Sumatra ; but that expression, 
" or Little Java," is now applied exclusively to Bdli^ as 
" Great Java " is to the island we are now describing. It is 
on the latter only, if we except what has been observed of the 
names given to the Archipelago generally by the natives of 
Celebes, that the islanders themselves apply the name of 
Jaway in any of its forms, to their own countiy. It has there 
even a still more confined application, being generally limited 
to the eastern districts of the island, which may be considered 
as Java proper, in contra-distinction to the western districtBy 
w hich are for the most part inhabited by a people called Si^nda^ 
from whom the Straits and Isles of Sunda have been named by 
Eiux)peans. 

"WTicther Sumatra, Java, or any other island of the Archi- 
pelago, or the whole or several of them collectively, may not 
have fonned the Taprohane of the ancients, is perhaps still an 
undecided question, notwithstanding the claims to this dis- 
tinction which have of late years been rather admitted than 
proved in favoiu: of Ceylon. The most striking fact detailed 
in the accoimts which have reached us of this ancient comitry, 
and one which, from its natiure, is least likely to hare been 

Renaudot, and probably much longer. It is now called Batu Sabar, upon 
the river Jehor, which is as large as the Euphrates, according to thete 
travellers ; who add, that the town of Calabar, on the coast of Coromandd, 
and ten days to the south of Madras, belonged to the Maharaja of Zabi^ 
llie wars of this Maharaja with the king of Alkoner or countries near Cape 
Comorin, are mentioned by the two IVfussulman travellers in the ninth cen- 
tury, and it seems that, at that time, the Malayan empire was in its 
greatest splendor." — Asiatic Researches, vol. ix. 

* Others again have derived the term Jawa from Yaca, which in Sanscrit 
means barley, whence Java has occasionally been termed the land of bailef • 



NAME— MAP. 6 

disfigured or perverted by the misrepresentations or prejudices 
of travellers, is, that it was bisected in nearly equal portions 
by the equinoctial line, and that to the southward of it the 
polar star was not visible. How can this statement be evaded, 
or in any way applied to Ceylon ? Major Wilford seems in- 
clined to consider Taprobane as derived from the Sanscrit 
words tapa (penance) and vana (forest or grove), a derivation 
equally £ivorable to the claims of the Javans, tapa and wana^ 
or wonOj having the like signification in their language ; and 
if^ as there is reason to believe, an extensive intercourse sub- 
sisted in very remote times between Western India and these 
islands, where was there a country that could more invite the 
retreat of holy men, than the evergreen islands which rise in 
endless clusters on the smooth seas of the Malayan Archi- 
pelago, where the elevation and tranquillity of devotion are 
fostered by all that is majestic and lovely in nature ? 

Although in Sumatra no traces of their residence have yet 
been discovered, except in the language and customs of the 
people ; on Java, which is almost contiguous to it, it is abun- 
dantly attested by monuments still existing in stone and brass. 
In few countries, with which we are yet acquainted, are more 
extensive ruins to be found of temples dedicated to an ancient 
worship. If tradition may be trusted, every mountain had its 
tapa^ or recluse, and the whole energies and resources of tlie 
country would appear to have been applied to the construction 
of those noble edifices, the ruins of which still strike the spec- 
tator with astonishment and veneration. 

That these splendid and magnificent piles were erected 
under the superintendance of a foreign people, more skilled 
in the arts than the rude and simple natives of the islands, 
can scarcely be doubted; and that they were sacred to the 
rites of the Hindu religion, according to some persuasion 
or other, is equally clear, from the numerous images of deities 
and attributes by which they are adorned, many of which are 
still preserved in their original state. Further investigation 
may perhaps establish Java and Sumatra, or rather the Ma- 
layan ports (in which general term we may include all the 
islands containing the Malayan Ports) as not only the Ta- 
probane or Tapavana of the ancients, but also Uie Sacred 
Isles of the Hindus. 



« MAP. 

The map of Java which accompanies this work has been 
drawn principally from actual surveys^ many of which weie 
made by order of the British Goyemmcnt on the island. The 
first map of Java which was presented to the public, and 
fix>m which nearly all those, which have subsequently been 
engraved, are copies, was published by Yalentyn,* and 
consists of seven sheets. As, at that period, little more was 
known of the island by the Dutch than some parts of the 
coast, the country in the immediate vicinity of their capital, 
with perhaps the province of Bantam^ the authcMr had no 
materials for making a map of the whole island, which coold 
pretend to much authority or value. Most of the land in the 
immediate vicinity of Bata^ia having been sold to Europeans^ 
was of necessity surveyed, in order to ascertain the difierent 
boundaries ; but it was only a short time before the arrival of 
Marshal Daendels, in 1808, that any steps appear to have 
been taken by the local authorities, to procure correct §t»r 
tistical and topographical information of the other man 
important districts of the island. Something to this efiect 
was done during the administration of Mr. Engelhard, late 
Governor of the North-east Coast, but it was only during the 
government of the Marshal that these objects were pursued 
with much energy or success. 

At the period of the arrival of the English, topographical 
surveys of Semdrang and several of the eastern districts bad 
been completed; and although somewhat deficient in ac- 
curacy of measurement and neatness of execution, yet as they 
appeared sufficiently correct for many valuable purposes, and 
as the Government was anxious to obtain, without loss tf 
time, a better acquaintance with the geography of the counliyi 
it was determined to make some sacrifice of accuracy to the 
considerations of economy and expedition, and to survey the 
other districts upon the same plan. While these surveys weie 
in progress, the territorial interest which the European govern- 
ment obtained in the central provinces, induced them to turn 
their attention to the improvements of which the Solo River 
might be susceptible. This river, the most considerable in 

* Bcschryving vau Groot Djawa of tc Jaca Major door F. Yalentyn.—* 
Amsterdam, 1726. 



MAP. 7 

the island, passes through S^ra-k^ia, the capital of the Susu- 
kAman^ or (as he is termed by Europeans) Emperor of Java, 
ami discharges itself into the sea near Gr^sik. An actual 
wrvey was accordingly made by a British officer of expe- 
lience, particulariy mstructed to ascertain how far it might be 
practicable to improve its navigation by the aid of artificial 
cuts and dams. 

A greater object soon called for more extensive measures. 
When it was determined to introduce an entirely new system 
ot internal management, by the abolition of feudal service, 
and the establishment of a more permanent property in the 
soil, it was deemed essential that a detailed survey should be 
made of the different districts successively, in which the new 
system was to be introduced. This was intended to form the 
basis of a general agricultural survey of the coimtry, then 
about to be made. In several of these districts this detailed 
survey has been completed; and, with the exception of the 
provinces still under native jurisdiction, and called Native 
Provinces, nearly the whole of the land on Java, not in a state 
of absolute forest, has been measured with more or less accu- 
racy. Of the native provinces but a very small part has been 
actually surveyed : with regard to the rest, the materials from 
which the present map is taken, were principally obtained 
fixmi observation made during occasional routes through them. 
The southern division of Bantam being principally forest, has 
not been actually surveyed y neither has the island of Madura 
been yet surveyed by Europeans : the eastern part of it was 
measured by the natives, and it was principally upon their 
authority that the map now presented of that island was 
drawn. The best charts of both the north and south coast 
have been consulted. The three harbours of Wyn Coops Bay, 
Cheldchapy and Pachitanj on the latter, are laid down from 
actual survey, as well as the entrance to the harbour of Sura- 
bdya. On the whole, therefore, although the map now 
engraved is far from perfect, and of course suffers from tiie 
reduction necessary to adapt it to the rest of the .work, it is 
presumed that it will aid the reader in most of the geographical 
objects to which this volume will refer, and that its superiority 
over those that have previously appeared is such as to justify 
its publication. 

in 



H EXTENT— FORM. 

• 

The length of Java, in a straight line drawn between its ex- 
treme points, (Java Head, and the south-east point of the island) 
is five hundred and seventy-five geographical, equal to six hun- 
dred and sixty-six statute miles : its breadth varies from one 
hundred and seventeen geographical, or one hundred and 
thirty-five and a half statute miles (between the south-west 
point o( Pachltan bay and the north ^omt o{ Japdra) tofort^* 
eight geographical or fifty-six statute miles, (between the 
mouth of the Senhju river and the MaraMyaj five degrees 
cast of Tegal) ;^ and it is estimated to contain an area (rf 
about fifty thousand statute miles. 

Numerous small islands are scattered in its immediate 
vicinity, particidarly along the northern coast, and contribute, 
with tlie projecting points and headlands inclosing the dif- 
ferent bays, to form harbours of various capacities. The most 
important of these islands is that of Madura^ which is sepa- 
rated from tlie main land of Java by a strait in one part not 
more than a mile broad, and senes to form the important 
harbour of Surabaya. This island has the appearance rf 
being a continuation of tlie main land of Java, and having 
been long subjected to the same political authority, has gene- 
rally formed one of the provinces of the Javan empire. In 
length Maihtra is about seventy -nine geographical, or ninety- 
one and a half statute miles ; and its narrowest part is about 
twenty-seven geographical, or thirty -one and a quarter statute 
miles. Tlie small islands lying to the east of it are considered 
as its dependencies. 

Tlie fonn of Java is chiefly remarkable for the rcctangularitj 
of its outline, which is such tliat the island might be divided 
into i\\c or six parts, each a rectangular parallelogram drawn 
bv an unsteadv hand. Its western and northern coasts abound 
with bays and inlets. Tlie outline of Maihira is more regular, 
especially on the nortlieni coast. 

The coast from Bantam to the river Cln'-manoky about two 
degrees in length on the north, is nearly ])arallel to Uiat which 
extends from Wvn Co<)j)s Bay to a point about twenty miles 

^ Tlie breadth is a few miles le8s between C*heribon and the south 
roast, occasioiiod by the deep bay of Cheldchap^ and also in the eastern 
tcriniiiation of ihe island lieyond .Surabaya, where it only averages forty. 
five ccoffraphical milc^. 



FORM— DIVISIONS. 

rest of Niisa kambdng^an^ the breadth throughout being 
boat serenty-eigbt geographical miles ; and from the same 
Knnt to the river Manchingan^ a distance of about one degree 
nd three-quarters, the coast is nearly paraUel to that which 
ies between Ch^ibon and Semdrangy the breadth throughout 
leing about fifty-seven geographical miles. From the west 
x»int of Japdra to point Pdngka on the north, distant from it 
iboat two degrees, and along the corresponding coast on the 
Kmth, the average breadth is seventy-three geographical miles ; 
ind from Suriibdya to the north-east point of the island, dis- 
ant about one degree and a half, and along the south coast 
yppoate to it, the avers^ breadth is forty-five geographical 
ailes. 

At the time when Europeans first visited Java, the whole of 
he island acknowledged the supremacy of one sovereign : but 
here was a period in its history when it was nearly equally 
livided under the independent administration of two powers, 
me established in the eastern, and the other in the western 
listricts ; and as there is a marked distinction between the 
lescendants of these two nations, the most general division of 
he country is still into the western and eastern districts, to 
he latter of which alone the term Java is applied by the 
latives. They are separated by the river Losdrty which forms 
he boundary between Ch&ribon and Bribes; and all the 
vestem, the northern, with a few of the inland districts and 
he Island of Maduray are under the immediate authority and 
idministration of the European government The rest of the 
sland remains subject to the native princes, and on that 
iccount is designated on the map and elsewhere, vriih more 
«gard to convenience than correctness of language, as the 
Sative Provinces. 

The provinces under Eiuopean authority have latterly been 
li^dded into fifteen residencies, or separate administrations, 
exclusive of the seat of government, which, as they will 
3e frequently referred to in the course of this work, it may be 
convenient to notice in this place. 

Commencing from the west, the province, or as it is usually 
ermed, the kingdom of Bantam (properly Bdntan) occupies 
he first place. This extensive province forms a large portion 
)f the island. It is washed on three sides by the sea. At the 



10 DIVISIONS. 

east it joins with tlie environs and highlands of Batavia and 
the district of Chi-dnjury and on the west it is bounded bj 
the Straits of Simda ; and in this quarter comprises depen- 
dant islands scattered along its shore, and the two harboanof 
Mew and Merdky which, with other bays, deeply indent the 
coast. Bantam, the native capital of this province, has been 
latterly deserted by the European establishment for Si r ai i§ 
(commonly called Ceram), an elevated and healthy atalian 
about seven miles further inland. 

Next in succession towards the east is the divinon of 
Batavia, which comprises what formerly constituted the 
native province of Jdkatra or Jokdrta. The northern part of 
this division, towards the coast, includes the city of Bataviai 
populous and important on account of its excellent roads 6r 
shipping, its advantageous position for European commeroe^ 
and sus being the long established seat of the Dutch govern" 
ment, but less fertile and healthy than the m(»re eaaten 
provinces of the island. 

South and east of the division of Bata\ia and its enviniBi 
lie what are termed by Europeans the Preanger (Pridn^em) 
Regencies,^ the central and southern districts of whichf 
stretching fix>m Bantam to Cheribon, are extremely moan- 
tainous. This extensive portion of the island, which nov 
includes a large part of Cheribon, consists of the diatricte 
of Krdwangy Chidsem, Paman^Jcan^ Kdndang*aAr^ and 
Dramdyu or IndramdyUy along the northern coast, and of the 
inland and southern districts of Chi-dnjur^ Bdndumg^ jStt* 
medang, Lim-bdng^any and SUka-pfira ; tlie southern eoait, 
firom the boundary of Bantam to that of Ch^bon, being 
included within the subdivisions of Chi-dnjury and S^kth 
piira. 

To the eastward of these districts, and crossing the idand 
from north to south, is the province of Cheribon^ divided 
into ten principal districts. To the south is the island of 
Nu^ui'kamhdnffan which fonns the harbour of Cheldchap* 

East of Cheribon, as before noticed, it is only the northern 
and some of the inland districts, that are immediately subject 

^ The term regencies is adopted from the title of Regent, given by ibi 
Dutch to the chief native authority in each district. 



DIVISIONS. 1 1 

to the Euitq>ean authority. These, during the British go- 
remxaent of the island, were comprised under the adminis- 
tralions of TegiUy PakalAng*anj Semdrangy Japdra^ and 
Retmbdmg^ which under the Dutch East-India Company con- 
stituted what was termed the goyermnent of the North-east 
Coast J the seat of which was at Semdrangy and of Gresikj 
SurabdffOj Pcufkruatiy BisAkij and Banyuwdngiy which, with 
Bankdlang and Sikmenap on Madiiray constituted, under the 
same authority, the division of the Oost Hooky or East Point 
of the island, of which Surabdya was the principal station. 
Inland of Semdrang and PakalUngany and bounded by those 
divisions, and by the provinces of the native princes, is si- 
tuated the rich and fertile district of KedHy which, with the 
mose eastern districts of Grobogatiy Wirosdriy BldrOy Jipangy 
Jdpat^ and Wirasabay stretching inland from Semdrang to 
SwrabdyOj were ceded to the British government in the year 
1812. 

The capitals of all the northern districts bear the same 
name with the districts themselves, and are generally situated 
on small rivers at no great distance from the sea. 

The Natite Pboyinces are divided between two native 
sovereigns : the Susuh^naUy or Emperor of Java, who resides 
at S^ra-k^rtay^ on the Solo River; and the Sultan, who 
resides at Yitg'^ya-k^rta^ near the south coast, in the province 
otMatdrem. These provinces comprise several of the richest 
districts of the island, among which are BdngumaSy Rdmo^ 
BagaleUy and Matdremy to the west ; and Mddiofiy Jagardga^ 
Sukawdtij Pranardgay K^rtasdnay Blitary and Kediriy to the 
east ; and with the exception of the small district of PachUany^ 
which has been recently ceded to the European government^ 
occupy the whole of the southern coast from Ch&ribon ta 

' Siira-k&ia or Sura-k^ta di ningWat, is the name given to the seat 
of empire ; but as the capital was only removed to its present site about 
the middle of the last century, it is still frequently called Soh, the name 
of the village in or near which this capital was established. 

• This capital is indifferently turned Yokya, Jokya, Juju, 'Ng^yug^ya, or 
Yug'ya-kerta, and is the Djojo-Carta, according to the Dutch ortho- 
graphy. The turn Yvg*ya has been selected, on account of its nearer 
ai^roximation to the supposed derivation of the word from the Na-ynd-ya 
of the Ramayan. 



12 HARBOURS. 

Mdlangy a distance of not less than two hundred and fiAjr 
miles, and form about a fourth part of the whole island. 

The districts near the coasts are generally separated firom 
each other by rivers ; those in the interior often by ranges of 
hills and moimtains. The districts are again divided, each 
subdivision including numerous villages. 

Tlie principal harbour of the island is that of Surabdjfa ia 
the eastern districts, fonned by the approaching extremities of 
Java and MadAra, It is broad and spacious, secure againflt 
the violence of the sea and wind, and may be rendered im- 
pregnable to any hostile attack. 

The next in importance is tliat of Batavia, more propeily, 
perhaps, called the roads of Batavia, which are sheltered hj 
several islands lying in the outer part of the bay. These 
roads, however, not admitting of any means of permanent 
defence from the attack of a superior naval force, the Dutch 
government, during tlie late war, were induced to fortify the 
small harbour oiMerak Bay, on tlie north-west coast of Bantam. 

Along tlie northern coast, there are perhaps other positiool 
which aduiit of being im})roved into convenient harbours ; hot 
where tlie whole coast affords excellent anchorage at neailj 
all seasons of the year, and where vessels of any burthen can 
approach all the principal stations, at a convenient distance 
for the barter of their merchandize, the purposes of commerce 
are in that respect already sufficiently provided for. The set 
being usually smooth, and tlie weather moderate, the natiTe 
vessels and small craft always fmd sufficient slielter at the 
change of the monsoon, by running mider some of the nu- 
merous islands scattered along this coast, or passing \xp the 
rivers, which, tliough in general difficult of entrance on ac- 
count of their bars, are for tlie most part navigable to such 
vessels, as far up as the maritime capitals, through which they 
run. 

The south coast, (m account of its exposure to tlie open 
ocean, tlie consequent high swell or surf which breaks on it, 
and its general want of good anchorage, is seldom visited by 
shipf)ing. But even here harbours may be found ; and those 
of CheUivhap and Pavhlian might, no doubt, be frequented 
with safety, wen* it considonMl desirable to attract conuufrcial 
a<lventurcrs to this side of tlic island. 



MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOS. 1;3 

issing from the coast to the interior of the country, the 
iger cannot fail to be struck with the bold outline and 
unent features of its scenery. An uninterrupted series or 
e of large mountains, varying in their elevation above the 
ioin five to eleven, and even twelve thousand feet,*^ and 
biting, by their round base or pointed tops, their volcanic 
in, extend through the whole length of the island. 
he first of this series, commencing from the westward, is 
bantam. This mountain ( CrUnung-kdrang ) ^ though of 
erate elevation compared with otliers on the island," 
sen at a considerable distance from sea, and is a well 
vn landmark to mariners. It lies due south of the town 
antam, at a considerable distance from the sea. 
he next mountain of the series is the Sal4ky the eastern 

of which is connected with tlie Ged^ or Panarang^o^ 
lied about fifty miles south of Batavia. These two mouii- 
\ are seen from the roads of Batavia, and, from the appear- 

they exhibit, are usually termed by mariners the Blue 
ntains. 
tim the eastern part of the Ged^y the volcanic series sepa- 

into two independent branches, one of which inclines to 
outh ; the other proceeds almost due east, slightly verging 
e north. The former breaks into an irregular transverse 
5, which extends across the island, till it approaches the 
lem branch, from whence the general series is continued 
I easterly direction as far as the mountain Sind&rOj the 
em of the two mountains known by mariners as the Two 
bers. The mountain SULmbing, or Sinddri (the second of 
Brothers), is somewhat further to the south. 
; a short distance from the eastern foot of the mountain 
hing are three large volcanos, in a direction almost north 
south, dividing the large series transversely ; these are 
Qountains Ung^drang^ Merbdbu, and Merdpi, The next 
mo, in an eastern direction, is that of Japdray which 

lie height of tbe mountain Arjunay in the eastern part of the island, 
den determined at 10,614 feet above the level of the sea; and this 
tain is by no means so lofty as those of Semiru and Tegdly the exact 
\ of which has not yet been ascertained. 

lie height of this mountain has been ascertained to be 5^263 EngUsh 
)ove the level of the sea. 



14 iMOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOS. 

deviates more than any other from the reg^ular series, and 
forms a peculiar peninsular appendage to the island. The 
series is then continued in an easterly course fiom the Mer^ 
as far as the mountain Teldgaw^rung, which is in contact 
with the ocean at the eastern end of the island. 

The several large mountains comprised in this series, and 
which are in number thirty-eight, though different finom eich 
other in external Agure, agree in the general attribute of tqI- 
canos, having a broad base gradually verging towards the 
summit in the form of a cone. 

They all rise from a plain but little elevated above the kvd 
of Uie sea, and each must, with very few exceptions, be con* 
sidercd as a separate mountain, raised by a cause independent 
of that which produced the others. Most of them have been 
formed at a very remote period, and are covered by the vege- 
tation of many ages ; but the indications and remains of their 
former irruptions are numerous and unequivocal. The craten 
of several are completely extinct; those of others contaiB 
small apertiu-cs, which continually discharge solphuieooi 
vapours or smoke. Many of them have had irruptions during 
late years.'* 

'* To the above general observations, which are made on the snthoritf 
of Dr. Horsfield, it may not be uninteresting to subjoin a more psrtkiir 
account of two or three of the volcanos which have been piraiwin^ }fj fhn 
gentleman; those of Tdnkubam-Prahu, Papanddyang, and (hbUmr MCt 
therefore, extracted from a paper published by Dr. Horifield in Ae 
fiatavian Transactions. 

" Tankuban-Prahu. — ^This mountain (which has derived its hm 
** from its appearance at a distance, resembling a praku, or boat^ tonal 
** u|Miide down) forms a vast truncated cone. Its base extends to a vciy 
" great distance, and it belongs to the largest mountains of the isbsi, 
'* forming one of its most interesting volcanos. Although it has had so 
'* violent eruption for many ages, as is evident from the progress of vcgc^ 
** tat ion, and from the dqrth of black mould which covers its sides, in 
** interior has continued in a state of uninterrupted activity. 

*' llie crater is one of the largest, perhaps the largest, of the island. It 
** has, in general, the sha]>e of a funnel ; but its sides are very imgukr. 
" Tlie brim, or margin, which bounds it at the top, has also diffiensi 
*' degrees of elevation, rising and descending along the whole coursssf 
** its circumference. The perpendicular depth at the side, where I ds- 
*' scended (in the south), is at least t^vo hundred and fifty feet: in dK 
** west the margin rises considerably higher. The regular circumfeRwe 



MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOS. 15 

the mountains of the larger series above described, 
extensive ranges of mountains of an inferior eleva- 

m crater I estimate one English mile and nearly an half. The south 

of the interior crater^ near the top, is very steep. I foimd it im- 
ible to descend, without the assistance of ropes tied to the shruhs 
M xnaigin. It consists here of small fragments of lava. About one- 
i of its depth it becomes more oblique or inclining, and the lower 

coBsists of large piles of rocks, through which the descending 
mis of water have excavated a winding channel. The east side de- 
ids gradually about one-half of the depth, where it is terminated 
ipUy by a perpendicular pile of large rocks, which continues to the 
om. The north side is more gradually shelving than the others^ 
is partly covered with v^etation. The west side is one peipen- 
ilar pile of rocks. The nucleus of the mountain consists of large 
068 of basaltes, in which the volcanic opening is situated ; and the 
s exhibit piles and strata of this stone in every possible variety of 
^oration. In some places the rocks have the appearance of a 
ikr wall, which is suddenly diversified by large fragments suspended 
■rently by a small base, and threatening to fall down every instant, 
aetimes they rise in an oblique manner, and appear to have been 
KMMd by art. But 1 shall not attempt a minute description of the 
KMition of the rocks and the strata which form the internal walls of 
crater^ which, without an accurate drawing, would be tedious and 
xely intelligible. The surface of the rocks which line the interior of 

crater is completely calcined, generally of a white colour, some* 
BB inclining to grey or yellow. In many places small fragments of 
I adhere to and cover the rocks of basalt : these are of different sizes, 
. of great variety of form and colour ; but the most are calcined or 
Dty or the surface like the rocks themselves. The different sides of 

internal crater are excavated in many places, by furrows made hj 
descending water, which penetrate to a considerable depth, and ex* 
e more completely the interior basaltic composition. The bottom 
the crater has a diameter of three hundred yards, but is not com* 
tely regular ; its form depends on the gradual meeting of the sidea 
9W. Its surface is much diversified : it is strewed, like the sides,. 
h immense blocks of basalt, the interstices between whkh are ex* 
ated, in a similar manner, by the streams of the descending water, 
ifear the centre, somewhat inclining to the west side, it contains an 
sgular oval lake, or collection of water, whose greatest diameter is 
rly one hundred yards : it dilates into several branches. The water 
diite, and exhibits truly the iippearance of a lake of milk, boiling 
h a perpetual discharge of large bubbles, which rise with greatest 
xfrom the eastern side. The heat is 112° of Fahrenheit's scale: 

apparent boiling arises from a constant development of fixed air. 
I water has a sulphureous odour ; its taste is astringent, somewhat 
ne. Shaken in a bottle it explodes ita fixed air with great violence. 



1(J MOUNTAINS AND VOIX^ANOS. 

tioii, sometimes comiected witli Uie larger series, and some- 
times independent of tliem, which are also for the most part 

" Tlie sides of the lake, to some distance, are lined by a white aluminoni 
" earth, most impalpably fine, and very loose, on which accoont it is 
" ver)' difficult to approach the water. In attempting to examine its 
" temperature, and to collect for analpis, I sunk into the earth to a 
" considerable distance, and found it necessary to dispose large fragmenli 
" of basaltes before I was able to pass over it. This earth consisti of the 
" clay (alumine) of the lavas dissolved by the sulphureous steams on the 
" bottom of the crater ; it is of the purest kind, and divided to a dtfpnt 
*' minute almost beyond conception. Laige quantities have been sevenl 
** times thrown out of the ancient craters of the island. One eruption of 
** this substance occurred in the year 1761 from the mountain Ged^r it 
" was considered as an eruption of ashes. 

'* I was witness to a similar eruption, which occurred from the moos- 

" tain of Klut, in the month of June last year. The earth very mock 

" resembled ashes, and was so impal])ably fine and light, that the commoo 

" breeze of the monsoon carried it from this mountain, situated in the 

" longitude of Surab&ya, to Batavia and farther westward. It posseseed 

'* the ])roperties of the purest clay, and being mixed with water becnw 

" viscid and ductile. It can easily be formed into vessels, and if proev- 

" able in large quantities, might usefully be employed in the arts. AH iti 

" properties indicated sufficiently that it was the alumine of the hm^ 

" divided in an extreme degree by the causes above-mentioned. The Jft- 

" vancsc are not wholly unacquainted with the properties of this cartL 

'* it is a custom amongst silversmiths to collect the ashes thrown out bj 

similar eruptions, for the puqiosc of making moulds for the finest woiIbi. 

" Towards the eastern extremity of the lake are the remaining ontktt 

of the subterraneous fires : they consist of several apertures, from whkh 

" an uninterrupted discharge of sulphiu^ous iTipours takes place. Two 

" of these are larger than the rest ; they are several feet distant from Mck 

other. The apertures are of an irregular oblong form, and covend 

with crystals of impure sulphur, which form from the discharged n- 

pours, and adhere to those incrustations of the aluminous earth wfaick 

" have formed themselves in a great variety of configurations (hollows, 

" tul>es, &c.) near the apertures. 'ITie ^'apours rush out with incredibk 

** force, with violent Kubtorrancous noises, resembling the boiling of u 

" immense cauldron in tlie bowels of the mountain : their colour is wfaitr, 

" like the concentrated vai)ours of boiling water. The apertures cannot 

*• be a])])roached without the greatest danger, as their true extent cannot 

•* be discovered : they are surrounded by incrustations of sulphur adhrr- 

" ing to fidicate lamiucr of the aluminous earth, which are extmwlr 

*' brittle, 'llie greatest diameter of the large opening is nearly ti|eh'f 

" inches. 

** To give an adequate description of the interior of this crater wooU 
" furnish matter for an able |>cn : the force of the impression is u 



<« 



t< 



<« 



MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOS. 17 

nic Numerous ridges of hills traverse the country in 
OS directions, and the surface of the idand in general, 

np8» by the recollection of the danger which has been overcome in 
Mnding to the bottom^ Every thing here contributes to fill the mind 
li the most awliil satis&ction. It doubtless is one of the most grand 
Icfiific scenes which nature affords ; and, in the present instance, 
CEKlent of the crater, as well as the remains of the former explosions, 
ided a view and enjoyment which is not in my power to describe. 
*APANDATANQ. — ^Thc Pspand&yang, situated on the western part of 
dbtrict of Cheribon, in the province of Suka^fmra, was formerly one 
die largest volcanos of the island ; but the greatest part of it was 
iDowed up in the earth, after a short but very severe combustion, in 
jear 1772. The account which has remained of this event asserts, 
t near midnight, between the 11th and 12th of August, there was 
erved about the mountain an uncommonly luminous cloud, by which 
ippeared to be completely enveloped. The inhabitants, as well 
at the foot as on the declivities of the mountain, alarmed by this ap- 
nmce, betook themselves to flight ; but before they could all save 
raaelves, the mountain began to give way, and the greatest part of it 
imXtffeU ta and disappeared in the earth. At the same time, a tre< 
ndons noise was heard, rcsemblmg the discharge of the heaviest 
noil. Immense quantities of volcanic substances, which were thrown 
; at the same time and spread in every direction, propagated the effects 
the explosion through the space of many miles. 
t is estimated, that an extent of groimd, of the mountain itself and 
hnmediate oivirons, fifteen miles long and full six broad, was by this 
amotion swallowed up in the bowels of the earth. Several persons, 
% to examine the conation of the neighbourhood, made report, that 
7 found it impossible to approach the mountain, on account of the 
t of the substances which covered its circumference, and which were 
9d on each other to the height of three feet ; although this was the 
h of September, and thus full six weeks after the catastrophe. It is 
9 mentioned, that forty villages, partly swallowed up by the ground 
1 partly covered by the substances thrown out, were destroyed on this 
asion, and that 2,957 of the inhabitants perished. A proportionate 
mber of cattle was also destroyed, and most of the plantations of cot- 
i, indigo, and coffee, in the adjacent districts, were buried under the 
icanic matter. The effects of this explosion are still very apparent on 
\ remains of this volcano ; but I defer an account of it, till I have had 
opportunity of making a more minute examination. 
SuNTua. — ^The whole of the eastern part of this mountain is com- 
tely naked, and exposes to view, in a striking manner, the course of 
t lavas of the latter eruptions : the top is a regular cone, and covered 
h loose fragments of la^a. I shall give a very concise abstract of the 
lervations on the mountain, and on the different streams of lava which 
'e lately flowed from its crater. I could distinctly trace, from the 

>L. I. C 



IH iMOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOS. 

iudepeiidcntly of these more stxikiug features, is iii most parts 
undulating and uneven, except on the sea coast 

" base of the conical top to the roots of the mountain, fire different emp- 
*' tions. The latest stream of la^'a which I examined (the mountain 
" has since had a later eruption) was thrown out in 1800. Its coone 
** along the top cannot be distinctly observed, being completely covered 
" with sand and small fragments of lava, which generally riae towards the 
*' end of an eruption. At the place where the stream first appeared dis- 
" tinctly, it was about five yards broad and completely even on the lur- 
" face : having proceeded about twenty yards further it gradually widened, 
" and was formed into a connected stream, higher in the middle, the ndei 
" tapering or inclining towards the top, forming a ridge with a pointed or 
" sharp back. As the stream arrived at the foot of the mountain, it apnid 
*' more and more, and pursued its course to the eastward, about mx hmi- 
" dred yards over the adjacent country. Its greatest breadth, firom unrdi 
" to south, is about one hundred and sixty yards, and it terminates abn^idj 
" by a rounded margin, consisting of large blocks of lava piled upon mA 
** other, nearly perpendicularly, to the height of fifteen to twenty feet. 

" This stream of Ioxvl, like all the others of later date which I have cx- 
" amined on the island, does not consist of a connected mass of fluid lava, 
'* united like a stream of melted metal ; at least on the surfoce where it it 
" exposed to ^-iew. It is made up of separate masses, which have an ir- 
" regular (generally oblong or cubical) shape, and lie upon each other si 
" ' loose disjointed clods,' in an immense >'ariety of disposition. In soiae 
" of these fragments I think I could observe a tendency to assume the re- 
'* gular basaltic figure. During its course down the steeps of the moon- 
" tain, the stream, as has been obser\'ed, forms the long connectsd ridge 
" (which has been described above, in the account of the volcanoSp as g^ 
*' nerally covering the sides) ; but hanng arrived at the foot and sproid 
" more at large, these lumps of lava dispose themselves, in some instUKei, 
** in plains, bounded by deep vallies : now they rise to a consideraUs hoght, 
" and form a steep perpendicular eminence ; then again they are piled upon 
'* each other more gradually, and appear rising by steps and divisioiit. 
** But to give an accurate description of the arrangement of these fiag- 
" ments of lava would be unncoeHsarily prolix, and would require^ to be 
** clearly understood, a ^ood drawinf(. In different places, the sulphureous 
" vapount have forced their way through the interstices of the blocks of 
** lava. The sides of their outlets (whose form is very irreiodar) is covered 
" with a white calcareous crust ; and the heat is so great, tliat small piecei 
" of pa])er thrown into them are immediately singed. 

*' lliis stream of lava is bounded on the north by another, of the same 
** nature and disportition, thrown out of the mountain (according to as 
** estimate made from the commencement and progress of vegetation upon 
"it) about thirty yean ago. In its coiuvc along the sides of the moun- 
" tain it forms the same pointed ridges above descril)ed. It affords a plain 
** demonstration of the manner in which the surface of lava is decompooed 



4t 



RIVERS AND LAKES. li) 

A countiy which abounds in mountains is seldom deficient 
in rivers ; accardin^y, no region is perhaps better watered. 
Java is singularly favoured in the number of its streams. The 
»ze of the island does not admit of the formation of large 
rivers, but there are probably fi%, that in the wet season, 
bear dofwn rafts charg^ with timber and other rough produce 
of the countiy, and not less than five or ox at all times 
navigable to the distance of some mDes firom the coast. It 

*' and rendered fit for vegetation. A third district of lava bounds the new 
" atream first described in the south : it is more extensive than the others, 
and oonrista of several distinct regions, probably thrown out during one 
emption (which appears to have been more violent than the others), bat 
in successive periods shortly following each other. It extends farther 
to the eastward than the others, and covers a great portion of the foot 
of the moimtain. V^etation has already made considerable progress 
iq>on it : in the vallies between the separate streams of lava are found 
" not only plants but also small shrubs. At one place, near the termina- 
" tion of this stream, the lava is piled up in two irregular ridges to the 
height of twenty feet ; and at a small distance from its eastern extremity, 
in a spot which has escaped the effects of the later eruptions, and is 
covered by pleasant wood, are three di^rent hot wells, within the cir- 
" cumference of a quarter of a mile. In the south, this district of lava is 
bounded by a recent stream, which appears to have been thrown out in 
ISOO, by die same eruption which produced the first mentioned stream. 
" It differs from the others only in the colour of its lava, which has a 
" reddish hue : it is less considerable in extent than any of the others, and 
" cannot be traced far from the foot of the mountain. The fifth stream 
" of lava which I examined is still farther towards the south, and is one 
of the oldest which have been discharged from the eastern part of the 
crater. Near the foot of the mountain, vegetation has made greater 
" progress than in any of the other districts of lava. 

'* The colour of the recent lava of this mountain is jet-black or grey : 
" one of the streams only has a reddish colour. Its texture is very loose, 
" and its fracture very porous. The smaller fr-agments have much the 
appearance of the scoriae of a blacksmith's forge : on being thrown 
against each other, they emit a sound tike two bricks coming into 
contact. The interior crater of this mountain, as it has remained after 
" the eruption of 1800, is less interesting than the others which I have 
" examined Its shape is somewhat oval, the greatest diameter being 
" about one hundred yards : its depth is not very considerable. Its stnic- 
" tare, in general, is similar to that of Tankuban-prahu. It has one re- 
" mainiTig aperture, which discharges with great force hot sulphureous 






<« 
<« 



ft 



€€ 
€€ 



" vapours." 



Bataoitm Transactions, vol. ix. 
C 2 



•20 RIVERS AND LAKES. 

would be vain to attempt numbering those which arc precious 
to the agriculturist ; they arc many hundreds, if not thousands. 

The largest, and most important river on the island, is thai 
of S6lOy or as it is termed by the natives, Beng*dwan (the great) 
Sdloy which takes its rise in the district of Kaddwang^ and 
after collecting the waters of the surrounding hills, becomes a 
stream of considerable depth and breadth at Sura-k^ia^ where 
it is fiurther increased by the waters collected from the adjap 
cent districts. Its general coiu'se from the capital is in an east- 
north-easterly direction, till it discharges itself by two principal 
outlets into tlie sea, near Gr^sik and Siddyu, After leaving 
Matdreniy it traverses the provinces of Sukawdiiy Jagardga^ 
MadioUy Jipangy Bl6ra^ TubaUy SiduyUy and Gr^sik, 

At Awiy near the boundary of Mddion and Jagardgay on the 
eastern side of the river, a large branch from the souUi-eastem 
provinces, commonly called the river of Mddion y unites itself 
with that of SolOy and from hence its course, which in various 
places has been rapid, and in a few places impeded with rocks, 
is calm, regular, and steady to its discharge. It has been esti- 
mated, that the extent of the windings of this river is not less 
than tlirce hundred and fifty-six English miles, from S^hra* 
k^rta to Gr^siky which in the chart only gives a straight line 
of one hundred and forty English miles, and during its whole 
course no serious impediment appears to its navigation. 

Tliis river is of great importance to the inland trade of many 
of tlio eastern provinces. During the rainy season, boats of 
considerable size convey the produce of an extensive tract of 
country to the sea ; and, except during the montlis of August, 
Se])teinber, and October, and in seasons uncommonly dry, it 
bears down boats of middling or small size during the whole 
vcar, from a considerable distance above Sftra-k^rta. The 
boats employed in tlie navigation of the river are of veiy 
difliTont sizes, and of a ])eculiar constniction : tlicy are veiy 
long in proportion to their breadth, have flat bottoms, and 
draw verj' little water, lliosc generally used in conveying 
tlie j)roduce from (me village to another in tlie vicinity of 
Sura-k^^riay corry only a few tons, and have a temporary 
covering of straw mats, or kdja/ig ; others, more carefully 
coiiKtructed, have a regular roof of planks and a chamber or 
cabin which can be closed, and convev from fifty to one 



RIVERS AND LAK£S. 21 

tons. These are generally used by individuals in 
ventures to Grisik and Surahdya, The largest, which 
property of the prince, load nearly two hundred tons, 
e employed in transporting the produce of several of 
rior provinces, consisting chiefly of pepper and coffee, 
\ky and return laden with salt and foreign merchandize 
ironsumption of the interior. They require a consider- 
fpth of water, and can only pass when the river is 
by continued rains. They mostly depart from Stkra- 
I the month of January. Their course down the river 
: they generally arrive at Gr^sik in eight days ; but 
Q perform but one voyage in a season, as they require 
bur months to work up the stream. 
river of Surabaya^ the second in magnitude of the 
dand, rises near BdtUy in the vicinity of the southern 

the mountain Arjdna. It is near its source called 
dntas. Near the capital of Mdlang it receives two 

from the eastward. There it first takes its course 

the most southern provinces of the island, when wind- 
nd the mountain Kdwi it returns again to the north, 
ig near its curvature niuncrous augmentations from the 
d ridge of mountains. The chief of these is the L^sti^ 
ierable river coming from the east, which joins it near 
ndary of Mdlang and Sering*at. Continuing its course 
ihem direction, it traverses the provinces of Rdwo and 

being joined on the way by the river Rdwo : here it 
its utmost magnitude, and is distinguished by the name 
fdwan Kediri. From the capital of this district to its 
p it is navigable for boats of very considerable size, and 
rse is steady and uninterrupted. Having crossed the 
of Wirasdba and Jdpariy it enters that of Surabdya, 
larges itself into the ocean by five outlets, which fonn 
Y separate rivers. The first of them, taking an easterly 

is called the river Piinang : then follow those of 
}ldng*ing, Sido-k^riy Keddng^ and lastly of Wdno-krdnOy 
igain subdividing sends ofl* the branch which passes 

ral smaller rivers, which fall into the sea between S^ 

f and Ldsemy are highly important for the conveyance 

timber from the central forests to the coast ; and the 



22 RIVERS AND LAKES. 

waters from some of tliem being directed into canals, particu- 
larly through the low district of Demdky tend considerably to 
increase the inland navigation of the coimtry. 

In the western districts, the principal rivers which discharge 
themselves into the sea on the northern coast are the CAi- 
kdndiy which forms the present boundary between Bantam 
and the environs of Batavia ; the Chi-ddniy which discharges 
itself below Tdng^ran ; the Chi-tdromy which fiedls into the 
sea below Krdwang ; and the Chi-mdtwky which forms the 
present boundary bot^'een Dramdyii and Ch&riban. The 
principal rivers which discharge themselves by the south coast 
are the Chi-mandiriy which falls into the sea at PaUbHan* 
rdiuy or Wyn Coops Bay ; the Chi-tdnduiy which diaembogoei 
near XiUa-kambdng^an ; and the SerdgUy which taking its 
rise in the moimtain Dieng or PrdhUy traverses the rich dis- 
tricts of Bdnyumasy and falls into the sea a short distance to 
the east of Cheldchap ; but these rivers, though of consider- 
able depth, are choked up at their mouths by heavy banks or 
bars, and in consequence of the heavy i^urf which constantly 
breaks on tlie southern coast, are dangerous at their en- 
trance. 

Along the northern coast, almost ever}' district has its prin- 
cipal river, and most of them are navigable up to the maritime 
ca])itals for native vessels of considerable burthen ; but they 
all have the disadvantage of being partially blocked up tt 
their discharge by extensive bars and mud-banks, an eril 
which is extending with the increase of agriculture, by reason 
of the quantity of soil necessarily washed down in the proceai 
of irrigating the land for the rice cultivation. Most of them 
require the application of jetties or piers to deepen the pas- 
siiigos at tlieir entrance. 

There arc no lakes of any considerable size on Java, for 
that name cannot be given to the rdirasy or swamps, wUck 
though swelled to a considerable size in the wet season, are 
for the rest of the year either dried up or choked by vegetation. 
Of tliis descri]>tion are two extensive tracts; one inland of 
Japdray usually termed by the Dutch the Binnen Zee^ at 
inland sea ; and another in the district of Semdrang. In 
IhUjhn alwi (one of the native provinces on the southern side 
*»!' the island) there is a lake which supplies the neighbouring 



RrVERS AND LAKE.S. 23 

Hmtiy with fish, and along the coast of which a traffic ift 
imed on in boats. 

Extensive swamps are also found in some parts of the native 
tovinces, and in the mountainous districts of the SUnda 
xmtry. Several very beautiful lakes, of small dimensions, 
re discovered among the hills, and some of them can evi- 
ently be shewn to have been formed of the craters of extinct 
idcanos. 

The general aspect of Java on the northern coast is low, in 
lany places swampy and overgrown with mangrove trees and 
DtheSy particularly towards the west The southern coast, 
Q the contrary, consists almost entirely of a series of rocks 
ad cli^ which rise perpendicularly to a considerable height, 
a the interior, stupendous mountains stretch longitudinally 
urongfaout the island, while others of an inferior elevation, 
nd innimierable ranges of hiUs rmming in various directions, 
srve to form and confine plains and valleys of various eleva- 
ons and extent On the northern side, the ascent is in 
eneral very gradual, from tlie sea-coast to the immediate 
ase of the mountains ; particularly in the western parts of the 
(land, where it has the greatest breadth, and where the 
lountains are situated far inland. In approaching the moun- 
lins, which lie at the back of Batavia, there is a gradual but 
hnoet imperceptible acclivity for about forty miles. In other 
arts, where the mountains and hills approach nearer to the 
oast, the ascent is of course more abrupt, as may be observed 
1 the vicinity of Semdrattg. 

Although the northern coast is in many parts flat and unin- 
siesting, the interior and southern provinces, fi-om the moim- 
linous character of the country, may be reckoned amongst the 
lost romantic and highly diversified in tlie world ; uniting all 
le rich and magnificent scenery, which waving forests, never- 
uling streams, and constant verdure can present, heightened 
y a pure atmosphere and the glowing tints of a tropical sun. 

The largest of the elevated plains are ; in the west, that of 
Idndungy formed between the two ranges of volcanos which 
»ranch off firom the foot of the mountain GetU ; and in the east, 
hose usually termed the plains of Sdlo and Kediriy which ex- 
end along the central districts fix>m the Merdpi to Kediri and 
he site of the ancient capital of Mejapdhit These are of con- 

10 



21 GENERAL APPEARANCE 

siderable magnitude^ and with the exception of the Talky 
of Ked'ti and the province of Bdnyumaitj througfa which the 
beautiful river of Serdyn bends its winding and romantic 
course, are perhaps the richest parts of the island. The law- 
landsy however, are not without their claims to that distinc- 
tion ; especially the flats of Demdk, once an extensive swamp, 
and the Delta of Surabdya. Large tracts, particularly in the 
mountainous ranges of the western districts, still remain in a 
state of nature, or where the ground has been once cleared of 
forest, are now overrun with long and rank grass. In the 
central and eastern districts, the country is comparatively wdl 
clothed with cultivation. 

Quitting the low coast of the north, in many parts unhealtfaj, 
the traveller can hardly advance five miles inland without 
feeling a sensible improvement in the atmosphere and climate. 
As he proceeds, at every step he breathes a purer air and 
sun-eys a brighter scene. At length he reaches the lii|^- 
lands. Here tlie boldest forms of nature are tempered by the 
niral arts of man : stupendous moimtains clothed with iJbim- 
dant hancst, impetuous cataracts tamed to the peasant's wiL 
Here is perpetual verdure; here are tints of the biigfateit 
hue. In the hottest season, the air retains iiB fireshness ; in 
the driest, the innumerable rills and rivulets preserve much of 
their water. This the mountain fisurmer directB in endlesi 
c(m(hiits and canals to irrigate the land, which he has laid 
out in terraces for its reception; it then descends to the 
plains, and spreads fertility wherever it flows, till at last, faj 
numerous outlets, it discharges itself into the sea. 

Almost all the mountains or volcanos, in the large 
before noticed, are found on examination to have the 
general constitution : they are striped vertically by sluop 
ridges, which, as they approach the foot of the mountain, take 
a more winding coiurse. These ridges alternate with valleys, 
whose sides are of a very various declivity. Large xocks of 
basaltes occasionally project, and in several instancea the 
valleys form the beds of rivers towards the tops of the 
volcanos ; in the rainy season they all convey large volmmet 
of water. 

Next in importance to this extensive series of piimaiy 
mountains, there are various ridges of smaller moimtaiiiSi 



OF THE COUNTRY. 25 

ills, extending in different directions, with nearly an equal 
«e of elevation ; sometimeft originating from or connected 
i the primary volcanos, sometimes forming independent 
pea, and arising separately and at a distance from the great 
*n. These, which have been termed secondary mountains, 
igh eridently of a volcanic nature, differ in many parti- 
n of their constitution from those of the larger series, 
y generally extend in long narrow ridges, with but a 
terate elevation, and their sides arc less regularly composed 
he vertical ridges above mentioned. In most cases, a 
tified structure and submarine origin may be discovered. 
(y are generally covered with large rocks of basaltes ; and 
wme instances they consist of wacken and hornblende, 
ch is found along their base in immense piles. 
[ills of calcareous constitution, with only a moderate de- 
i of elevation, occur in smaller ridges, often wiih a flat or 
dar top ; or in steep rocks and eminences. These are 
etimes found in the centre of the island, covering the 
anic districts, but much more frequently near the northern 
southern shores. 

[ills of a mixed nature, partly calcareous and partly vol- 
te, are also found. The southern coast of the island 
Bists almost entirely of them, rising in many places to the 
Mndicular height of eigh^ or one hundred feet, and some- 
» much higher. These, as they branch inward and ap- 
ich the central or higher districts, gradually disappear, 
give place to the volcanic series, or alternate with huge 
Bes of basaltic hornblende, that appears to assume a 
dar stratification. At the base of these, or in the beds of 
rivers which proceed from them, are frequently found 
0US silicious stones, as common flints, prase, homstone, 
«r, porphyry, agate, cornelian, &c. 

alluvial districts, evidently of recent origin, are noticed in 
sral parts of the island. These are formed from the sedi- 
It and near the discharge of large rivers, and at the borders 
lie calcareous ridges, which are in many instances partially 
*red by them : their boundary can easily be traced, and 
t of them are still in a state of constant progression. 
tmg other phenomena are mineral wells of various tem- 
ilure and impregnation ; weUs of naphtha^ or petroleum ; 



•2(i (lENERAL APPEARANCE 

and rivers arising, in a few instances, from the craters of vol 
canos, impregnated with sulphureous acid *. 

* Mineral wells, of ^'ariou8 qualities, are found in almost every part of 
the ialand. As an instance of the hot wells, the following account of those 
found in Cheribon is selected. " At the village of Bongos (situated about 
" ten miles to the north-east of Kartmff-Sambong) I directed my route to 
*' the large mountain, in order to examine part of the hills along its fooC, 
** called the hills of Pana-^angan, and several hot wells which are found 
" near their borders. On approaching these hills, after a very gentla 
** acclivity covered entirely by calcareous stones, I vtry soon came to the 
" spot of the hot wells, lliey are found on a gently inclining plain, about 
" one hundred yards in circumference. This plain b perifectly white; 
" and on approaching it, it is perceived at some distance by a sulphureooi 
'* vapour, arising from the whole neighboiu^ood. The water aprinfi 
" from several apertures, but their temperatures are not equal; tht 
*' hottest indicates the degree of one hundred and thirty of Fahrenheit'i 
*' scale. They all contain a very large quantity of calcareous earth in 
** solution and suspension, which coming into contact with the air^ im- 
*' mediately separates^ and adheres to the surrounding objects, or is pit- 
** cipitated to the ground. The branches of the shrubs in the vicinity an 
** all enveloped by a stalactical incrustation. The water from the diflfennl 
** wells gently descending the white calcareous plain, is collected in a 
*' rivulet below. A large number of calcareous rocks are found in ths 
** vicinity of the plains; some are covered with elegant crystals of cal- 
'* careous spar, others have a coralline appearance, and some have the 
** fracture of alabaster. On proceeding up the hills, immense irrqinbr 
** blocks of calcareous rocks are found strewed about in the vaDejs. 
'* About one hundred yards above this district are several wells of "•p^*^**, 
*' or petroleum. It rises in small plashes of water, about twelve or 
" eighteen inches in diameter, upon which it drives its black speckv, 
*' emitting the peculiar odour of the petroleum. The earth in the drcmn- 
" ference of these plashes is strongly impregnated with this oil : it is vcfy 
" tough, and from that immediately bounding apertures, the naphtha flows 
*' out on its being pressed ; some portions exactly resemble asplnilam. 
'* A considerable space of ground is occupied by these wells. The stonss 
** arc all calcareous. A few hundred yards above this spot, the borden 
** of the hills become very steep. I examined them to some extent, lliey 
" are composed exclusively of calcareous stones. Several extensive sta- 
** lactitic caves are found at no great distance above the wells; they 
'* exhibit the u<4iial appearances of calcareous caves and vaults. Tlw 
** process of incrustation is continually going on. In some places, deep 
" perforations extend into the heart of the hills." — Essay on ike Miat- 
mlfHjy of Java, bij Dr. IlnrsJieM. Bat. Trans, vol. ix. • 

Among other objects of curiosity, which can only be illustrated by par- 
tinilar deHcription, arc the exitlosions of mud, situated between the district 
of Grobugan on the west, and of Blora and Jipang on the east. By the 



OF THE COUNTRY. 27 

'"rom these, and all other investigations yet made, the con- 
ation of Java appears to be exclusively volcanic. From 

fn tfaey are termed Bl^d^, and are described by Dr. Honfield ae salt 
t. 

Hieee salt weDs/' he observes, " are dispersed through a district of 
miitrj several miles in circumference, the base of which, like that of 
tfaer parts of the island which furnish mineral and other saline waters, 
fimestofie. They are of considerable number, and force themselves 
pwsrdi, through apertures in the rocks, with some violence and ebul- 
tioii. The waters are strongly in^tregnated with sea-salt, and yield 
[KXi evaporation very good salt for culinary purposes. (In quantity 
3C less than two hundred tons in the year.) 

Abcmt the centre of this limestone district, is found an extraordinary 
itesBic phenomenon. On i^jproaching it from a distance, it is first 
scov e red by a large volume of smoke rising and disappearing at 
tervsls of a few seconds, resembling the vapours arising from a violent 
irf : a dull noise is heard, like that of distant thunder. Having 
hrBDced so near, that the vision was no longer impeded by the smoke, 
large hemispherical mass was observed, consisting of black earth, 
ued with water, about sixteen feet in diameter, rising to the height of 
pcnty or thirty feet in a perfectly regular manner, and as it were 
lahed up, by a force beneath ; which suddenly exploded with a duU 
nse, snd scattered about a volume of black mud in every direction. 
ftcr an interval of two or three, or sometimes four or five seconds, the 
snispherical body of mud or earth rose and exploded again. In the 
me manner this volcanic ebullition goes on without interruption, 
lowing up a globular body of mud, and dispersing it with violence 
Toof/tk the neighboming plain. The spot where the ebuUition occurs 
nearly circular and perfectly level, it is covered only with the earthy 
vtides impregnated with salt water, which are thrown up from below ; 
e circumference may be estimated at about half an English mile. In 
der to conduct the salt water to the circumference, small passages, or 
itterSy are made in the loose muddy earth, which lead it to the bor- 
fs, where it is collected in holes dug in the ground for the purpose of 
aporation. 

A strong, pungent, sulphureous smell, somewhat resembling that of 
rih-oil, is perceived on standing near the explosion ; and the mud 
cently thrown up possesses a degree of heat greater than that of the 
rrounding atmosphere. During the rainy season these explosions are 
ore violent, the mud is thrown up much higher, and the noise is 
ard at a greater distance. 

This volcanic phenomenon is situated near the centre of the large 
un which interrupts the large series of volcanos ; and owes its origin 
the general cause of the numerous volcanic eruptions which occur 
L the island." Bataman Trans, vol. ix. 
These salt wells, as Dr. Horsfield terms them, and other phenomena 



28 lillNERALOGICAL CONSTITUTION 

the vast Asiatic chain of mountains, one branch of which 
terminates in Ceylon, proceeds another, which traversing 
Arakan, Pegu, and the Malayan peninsula, extends to Su- 
matra, Bdnka^ and BHitoiiy where it may be said to disappear 
On Java no granite has been discovered. In its constitution, 
as in its direction, it may be considered as the first of a series 
of volcanic islands, which extend nearly eastward firom the 
Straits of Simda for about twenty-five degrees. 

At what period the island assumed its present shape, or 
whether it was once joined to Sumatra and J9a/i, is matter 
for conjecture. The violent convulsions which these islands 
have so often suffered, justify a conclusion that the face of the 
country has been firequently changed, and tradition mentions 
the periods when Java was separated fix>m those islands;* 



connected with them, appear to be precisely of the same description Mthe 
mud volcano at Macalouba, in Sicily, and the eniptions described by 
Pallas, at Tainan and Kercha (the boundary of Europe to the south-esrt 
of Little Tartar)') and no doubt owe their origin to similar causes thi 
extrication of gas, as well described by Dallas, in his Thmslatioii of the 
History of Volcanos, by the Abb^ Ordinaire," page 249* All the phs* 
nomenon described in this work, as well in Sicily as at Tainan sni 
Kercha, are to be found in Java, where, on the hypothesis of the Abb^ 
" the vitriolic acid liberating a great quantity of fixed air from the 
" with which this aigillaceous and limy mass is impregnated, is o1 
" escaping copiously, by a general bubbling on the surface of the plain, 
" when the substances are sufficiently diluted by rain/' &c. 

On the hypothesis of the Abb^, it may, therefore, be doubted wfacdiv 
the assertion " that the Bl^degs owe their origin to the general canae of ^ 
numerous volcanos on the island, is correct." Pallas conceivea thai ^ 
phenomenon at Kercha and Tainan may be explained by supposing a deep 
coal mine to have been for ages on fire, that the sea broke in upon it, thil 
the water was turned into steam, and that the expansion ooeMOoed 
thereby, and the struggle of the different gases to get free, force the upper 
surface, &c. but there seems no necessity for admitting the action of fin; 
the mud he describes is only luke-warm, this is precisely the case in Jar^ 

It is remarkable that in Java, as in Sicily, in the vicinity of thcM phe- 
nomena, '* the countr}" around is of calcareous earth ; briny springs and 
salt mines are found in the neighbourhood ; some beds of oil of petro- 
leum arc also obHer\'ed floating on adjacent stagnant waters." 

* llie tradition is as foUows : — " It is related, that in former timet the 
" islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali, and Sumbawa were united, and aftcnraidi 
*' separated into nine different parts ; and it is also said, that when three 
** thousand rainy seasons have passed away, they will be reunited.** 



OF THE COUNTRY. 29 

I essential difference which has been found in the 
logical consdtation of Java and Sumatra, would seem 
sate a different origin, and to support the opinion that 
two islands were never united. Whether, at a period 
emote, the whole Archipelago formed part of the 
mt of Asia, and was divided from it and shattered into 
; whether they were ori^nally distinct from the main 
nr whether they were formed at the same time, or sub- 
lly, are questions we cannot resolve. Yet, when we 
on the violence of those dreadfril phenomena* which 

epantion of the lands of Palembang (Sumatra) and Java 

tee in the Javan year 1 1 14 

qwradon of the lands of Bali and Balembangan on Java in 1204 
epeiation of the lands of Giling Trawang4n and Bali in. . . . 1260 
qwration of the island of Selo-Parang and Sumbawa in. . 1280 

See Chrtmoloffical Table, umier the head <* History of Java:' 
irder to give the reader some idea of the tremendous ^nolence with 
■tore sometimes distinguishes the operations of the volcano in 
poDBt and enable him to form some conjecture, from the occur- 
f recent experience, of the effects they may have produced in past 
alioit account of the extraordinary and wide-spread phenomena 
mipanied the eruption of the Tomboro mountain, in the island of 
«, in April 1815, may not be iminteresting. Almost every one is 
with the intermitting convulsions of Etna and Vesuvius, as 
in the descriptions of the poet and the authentic accoimta of 
xaliflt, but the most extraordinary of them can bear no comparison, 
; of duration and force, with that of Tomboro. This eruption 
I perceptible evidences of its existence over the whole of the Mo- 
ands, over Java, a considerable portion of Celebes, Sumatra, and 
to a circumference of a thousand statute miles from its centre, 
ulous motions, and the report of explosions; while within the 
; its more immediate activity, embracing a space of three hundred 
oond it, it produced the most astonishing effects, and excited the 
inning apprehensions. On Java, at the distance of three hundred 
. seemed to be awfully present Thejsky was overcast at noon-day 
>uds of ashes, the sun was enveloped in an atmosphere, whose 
lie " density he was imable to penetrate ; showers of ashes covered 
les, the streets, and the fields to the depth of several inches ; and 
b darkness explosions were heard at intervals, like the report of 
or the noise of distant thunder. So fully did the resemblance of 
es to the report of cannon impress the minds of some officers, that 
apprehension of pirates on the coast vessels were dispatched to 
lief. Superstition, on the other hand, on the minds of the na- 
BS busily at work, and attributed the reports to an artillery of a 



M) iMlNERALOGlCAI. CONSTITUTION 

have occurred in our own times in the smaller islands of the 
volcanic series, and view this range, as it is now presented to 

diiTerent description to that of pirates. All conceived tkst the efiecti ts- 
perienced might be caused by eruptions of some of the numerous vokmoi 
on the island ; but no one could have conjectured that the showen «f 
ashes which darkened the air, and covered the ground of the eaatem dii- 
tricts of Ja\*a, could have proceeded from a mountain in Sumbawa, at Ae 
distance of several himdred miles. Conceiving that it might be intenrtay 
and curious to preserve an authentic and detailed account of the iMdam^ 
tion that could be gained of this wonderful phenomenon, while the efol 
was still recent and fully remembered, I directed a circular to the diflcRBt 
Residents, requiring them to transmit to the Government a statement «f 
the facts and circumstances connected with it, which occurred within tUr 
own knowledge. From their replies, the narrative drawn up by Mr. 
Assey, and printed in the ninth volume of the Batavisn 
was collected ; the following is an extract from that paper :— 

" The first explosions were heard on this island (Java) in the 
** of the 5th of April : they were noticed in every quarter, and continoed 
*' at intervals until the following day. The noise was, in the fiml iutucf, 
'* universally attributed to distant cannon : so much so, that adetachaot 
*' of troops was marched from Djocjocarta, under the apprehension tlati 
** neighY)ounng post had been attacked ; and along the coast boats wwt 
*' in two instances dispatched in quest of supposed ships in distRSi. Oi 
" the following morning, however, a slight faJl of ashes removed all doilil 
'' as to the cause of the sound ; and it is worthy of remark^ that as tk 
" eniption continued, the sound appeared to be so dose, that in 
" district it seemed near at hand, and was generally attributed to 
*' tion either from the mountains Merapi, Klut, or Dnnno. From the fiA 
'* the sun became obscured ; it had every where the appearance of bo^g 
" enveloped in a fog. llie weather was sultry and the atmospbera dosi^ 
'* and still the sun seemed shorn of its rajrs, and the general itiDncii aai 
" pressure of the atmosphere seemed to forebode an earthquake. Tlii 
" lasted several days, llie explosions continued occasionalljp but Im 
** inolently, and less frequently than at first Volcanic ashes also 
" to fall, but in small quantities, and so slightly as to be hardly 
*' tihle in the western districts, lliis api)earance of the atmosphere con- 
tinued, with little ^'ariation, until the 10th of April; and till ther.it 
does not appear that the volcano attracted much observation, or wm 
*' considered of greater importance than those which have occasiona&y 
** burst forth in Java But on the evening of the 10th, the emptiona wcie 
" heard more loud and more frequent; from Cheribon eastward the air 
" }>orame darkened by the quantity of falling ashes ; the sun was neariy 
*' darkened; and in some sitiuitions, iMuticularly at Solo and RcmbsBf, 
many said that they felt a tremulous motion of the earth. It was 
ventally remarked in the more eastern districts, that the ezploflioiu 
tremendous, continuing frequently during the 1 1th, and of such viokaer 






4« 

«« 



OF THE COUNTRY. 31 

us on the map of the worid, a conjecture might perhaps be 
hazaidedy that the whole may have once formed but the 

* » to shake the houses perceptibly. An unusual thick darkness was re- 
' maiked all the following night, and the greater part of the next day. 

* At Solo candles were lighted at 4 p. m. of the 12th; at MUgelan in 
' K^du, objecU could not be seen at three hundred yards distance. At 
' Gr^sik, and other districts more eastward, it was dark as night in the 
' greater part of the 12th April, and this saturated state of the atmosphere 
' k awD id as the doud of ashes passed along and discharged itself on its 

* wmj. Thoa the ashes that were eight inches deep at B^yuw&ngi were 
' but two in depth at Siimenap, and less in Gresik, and the sun does not 

* teem to bare been actually obscured in any district west of Sem&rang. 
** All reports concur in stating, that so violent and eztensire an erup- 

" tion has not happened within the memory of the oldest inhabitant, nor 
" within tradition. They speak of similar effects, in a lesser degree, when 
** an eruption took place from the volcano of Karang Asam in Bali, about 
" seven yean ago, and it was at first supposed that this mountain was the 
" seat of the eruption, llie Balinese on Ja^'a attributed the event to a 
" recent dispute between the two Rajahs of Bali Baliling, which termi- 
" Dated in the death of the younger Rajah by order of his brother. 

" llie haziness and heat of the atmosphere, and occasional fall of vol- 
« cinic ashes, continued until the 14th, and in some parts of the island 

* until the 17th of April. They were cleared away universally by a heavy 
' bSL of rain, after which the atmosphere became clear and more cool ; 
' and it would seem that this seasoni^e relief prevented much injury to 
' the crops, and removed an appearance of epidemic disease which was 

* beginning to prevail, lliis was especially the case at Batavia, where, 
' for two or three days preceding the rain, many persons were attacked 

* with fever. As it was, however, no material injury was felt beyond the 
' diatricta of Banyuw&ogL llie culti^'ator8 every where took precaution 
*■ to shake off the ashes from the growing paddy as they fell, and the timely 
' rain removed an apprehension very generally entertained, that insects 

* would have been generated by the long continuance of the ashes at the 
' root of the plant. In Rembani^, where the rain did not fall till the I7th, 

* and the ashes had been considerable, the crops were somewhat injured ; 

* but in Banyuw4ngi, the \aji of the iBland on which the cloud of ashes 

* spent its force, the injury ii'as more extensive. A large quantity of 
' paddy was totally destroyed, and all the plantations more or less injured. 
' One hundred and twenty-six horses and eighty-six head of cattle also 
' perished, chiefly for want of forage, during a month from the time of 
' the eruption. 

" From Sumbawa to the part of Sumatra where the sound was noticed, 
' is about nine hundred and seventy geographical miles in a direct line. 
' From Sumbawa to Temate is a distance of about seven hundred and 
' twenty miles. The distance also to which the cloud of ashes was carried, 

* so quickly as to produce utter daikness, was clearly pointed out to have 



3> iMINERALOGICAL a)NSTITUTION OF THE a)UNTRY. 



southern side of one large island or continent, within which 
mu( h of the main land has fallen in, and subsequently dis- 
appeared on the influx of the sea. 






** been the island of Celebes and the districts of GMsik on J«fm : tlMfa- 
" mer is two hundred and seventeen nantical miles distant from tlia aeit 
** of the volcano ; the latter, in a direct line, more than three hundnd gwh 
" gn4>hical miles." 

The following is an extract from the reports al Lieotenut Ow«n FUU 
lips, dated at Dima on the island of Sumbawa. " On my trip towards ^ 

western part of the island, I passed through neariy the whole of Donpa 

and a considerable part of Dima. The extreme misery to which ^ 
** inhabitants have been reduced is shocking to behold. There were 813 
" on the road-side the remains of several corpses, and the mariu of wfasn 
*' many others had been interred : the villages almost entirely deserted sad 
" the houses (alien down, the surviving inhabitants having dispersed tk 
'* search of food. The Rajah of Sang'ir came to wait on me at Dompo^ 
" on the 3d instant The sufiering of the people there ^)pears, from Ik 
** account, to be still greater than in Dompo. The fJEunine has been so 
" severe that even one of his own daughters died from hanger. I pn- 
" sented him with three coyangs of rice in your name, for which he i^ 
" peared most truly thankfuL 

** As the Rajah was himself a spectator q£ the late eruption, the foD0V> 
•* ing account which he gave me is perhaps more to be depended iqMNi tkm 
" any other I can possibly obtain. About 7 p. m. on the 10th of April. 
" three distinct columns of flame burst forth near the top of the Tombom 
" mountain (aU of them apparently within the verge ol the crater), md 
" after ascending separately to a very great height, their tops mulsd 
" in the air in a troubled confused manner. In a short time, the wliob 
" mountain next Sang*ir appeared like a body of liquid fire, extendiiig il> 
" self in every direction. The fire and columns of flame continued toii^ 
" with unabated fury, until the darkness caused by the quantity of fUliqf 
** matter obscured it at about 8 p. m. Stones, at this time, fUl very thick 
" at Sang'ir ; some of them as large as two fists, but generally not kigcr 
" than walnuts. Between 9 and 10 p. m. ashes began to £di, and aooa 
" after a violent whirlwind ensued, which blew down nearly every house is 
** the village of Sang'ir, carrying the ataps, or roofs, and light parts awiy 
'* with it. In the part of Sang'ir adjoining Tomboro its effects were much 
" more violent, tearing up by the roots the largest trees and carrying thsn 
" into the air, together with men, horses, cattle, and whatever else cane 
" within its influence. (This will account for the immense number of 
'* floating treeft seen at sea), llie sea rose nearly twelve feet higher thaa 
" it had ever been known to do before, and completely spoiled the oaljr 
'* small spots of rice land in Sang'ir, sweeping away houses and evay 
'* thing within its reach. The whirlwind lasted about an hour. No ex* 
*' plosions were heard till the whirlwind had ceased, at about II a. m. 

Prom midnight till the evening of the 1 1th, they continued without m- 



«i 



METALS^ MINERALS^ AND SOIf.. 88 

lie constitiition of the island is tmlavourable to metals. 
the examinations hitherto made confirm this assertion, 
. it may be laid down as a general position, that no metals 
or, in such a quantity, or with such richness of ore, as to 
vid the operations of the miner. The only notice we have 
Sie existence of gold or silver is contained in the first vo- 
le of the Transactions of the Batavian Society ; and the 
mpts on the mountain of Parang j in 1728, and on the 
femindung^ in 1744, were soon abandoned. Iron pyrites 
Kmd in small quantity in several districts, as well as red- 
le ; which, however, often contains so little iron, as scarcely 
lenre for the common purpose of paint The existence of 
pcuiy in the low lands otD&maky where it is distributed in 
mte particles through the clay of the rice-grounds bound- 
one of the principal rivers of that district, has not been 
tsidered as an indication of a mine, or of the ores of that 
taL 

f o diamonds are found, nor other precious stones, but many 
lerals of the schorl, quartz, potstone, feldspar, and trap kind. 
By mostly exist in mountains of secondary elevation, towards 
aonthem shores of the island, sometimes in extensive veins ; 
separate Augments are carried down by the rivers, and 
od fiur firom their original deposition. Prase is foimd in very 
ensive veins ; homstone is also abundant in particular situa- 
is, as well as flint, chalcedony, hyalite, common jasper, jas- 
•agale, obsidian, and porphyry. 

lie soil in Java is for the most part rich, and remarkable for 
depth ; probably owing to the exclusively volcanic constitu- 

rmisnan ; after tbat time their violence moderated, and they were only 
said at intenralB« but the explosions did not cease entirely mitil the 
^th of July. Of the whole villages of Tomboro^ Tempo containing 
KHtt forty inhabitants is the only one remaining. In Pek4t^ no vestige 
' a house is left : twenty-six of the people, who were at Sumbawa at 
le time, are the whole of the population who have escaped. From the 
est particular inquiries I have been able to make, there were certainly 
It fewer than twelve thousand individuals in Tomboro and PelUit^ at 
m time of the eruption, of whom only five or six survive. The trees 
id herbage of every description, along the whole of the north and west 
les of the peninsida, have been completely destroyed, with the excep- 
m of a high point of land near the spot where the village of Tomboro 
ood." 
OL. I. I> 



i\ I SEASONS AND (LIMATE. 

lion ol* the country, aiid ilic constant accession of new mould, 
which is washed down the side of its uiunerous mountauw. It 
lias the character of being in a high degree richer than the or- 
dinary soil of the Malayan countries in general, particulariy of 
Siuiiatra and tlie Malayan peninsula. The best soil resembles 
the richest garden-mould of Europe ; and whenever it can be 
exposed to the inundation necessary for the rice crop, requirei 
no manure, and will bear without impoverishment, one heavy 
and one light crop in the year : the poorest, with this adrviF 
tage, will yield a liberal return to the husbandman. In anislawl 
of such extent and variety of surface, the soil is necessarily va* 
nous, but its general character is that of extraordinary ferdUtf. 
'File red and very light soil of the western districts is geneial^ 
considered inferior to the dark brown and stiffer soil which pn- 
vails in the eastern. The best soil is usually found near the 
beds of rivers, in tlie valleys, and on the slopes of the laigeit 
mountains : the worst on the ranges of low calcareous UDi^ 
which run through different paits of tlie island. 

The seasons, in all the countries situated within aboni tea 
degrees of the equator, agree in this : that as one eternal sua- 
mer prevails, they are not distinguished as hot and cold, bill as 
wet and dry. On Java the seasons depend upon the periodicd 
winds. The period of the setting in of these winds is not delH^ 
mined within a few weeks ; but generally the westerly windii 
which are always attended with rain, are felt in October,beeoae 
more steady in November and December, and gradually sidft- 
side, till in March or April they are succeeded by the eaileriy 
winds and fair weather, which continue for the remaining hilf 
year. The heaviest rains arc in the months of December and 
J anuary , and the driest weather is in July and August; at which 
latter period, also, the nights are coldest and the days hottHt 
'Die weather is most unsettled when the season is changing, 
particularly at the first setting in of the westerly winds : but 
those violent storms and hurricanes, which are so often felt in 
theWcKt ludics and in higher latitudes, are here unknown. ^I^th 
the exception of a few days at these periods, or when the wes- 
terly winds are at their height, vessels of any description may 
ride in safety in most of the bays along the northern coast of 
the island ; and on shore, the wind is never so violent as to do 
daniago. 'llninder-stomis are, however, frequent, and the 



SEASONS AND CLIMATE. 35 

ihtning is extxi ly vivid. In the Wcinity of the hills, 
ddlBewheie during the diy seascm, seldom a day passes with- 
i thunder and lightning ; and although these grand exhibi- 
tis of natme cause less consternation in general within the 
ipics than beyond them, it cannot be denied that they are de- 
veidwe of many lives. Earthquakes are to be expected in a 
Icanie country, and are frequent in the vicinity of the vol- 
DOS ; but the European towns have never sustained any se- 
ns injury from them. 

Dniiig the rainy season there are many days free from 
owers. The mornings are generally clear, and although the 
IBS sometimes c<mtinue without intermission for several days, 
id frequently fall in torrents, they are not marked on Java by 
at decided character, either of permanence or violence, which 
stinguishes the periodical rains of the continent of India ; 
itthesr is the dry season distinguished by that excessive aridity 
bieh attends the hot seasons of that country. Even in July 
id August, the atmosphere is refreshed by occasional showers, 
A the landscsqpe is at all times of the year covered vrith the 
il^blest verdure. The thermometer of Fahrenheit has been 
lown to rise along the northern coast as high as 90^ about three 
the afternoon, and even higher, particularly in the large and 
w capitals of Batavia, Semdranffy and SurabAffa ; but from 
iservations made during a course of some years at Batavia, and 
iblished. under the authority of t Dutch government, it has 
wbl found usually to range bel TO and 74f in the evenings 

tdmomingSy and to stand al: >ut8d** at noon. By similar ob- 
nratkms at Semdrang, ihe sai ae thermometer, placed in a spa- 
Diis BJoA open apartment, has averaged 87 ^^ at noon. 
At a distance inland of not more than thirty or forty miles, 
here the ascent is gradual^ and of fifteen or twenty or less 
bere it is rapid, the thermometer frdls from five to ten degrees 
wer. AtCAt'-^eftkf, situated about 40 miles inland of Batavia, 
id Chi-pdna9j about twelve miles further, on the opposite 
jpe of the mountain Ged^^ the thermometer ranges generally 
tween 60 and 70^. In the morning, at six o'clock, it is some- 
nes as low as 57® ; and in the afternoon, at three, its usual 
ight is firom 67 to 70% but seldom rising to 72". On some of 
e hills inland of Semdrangj on which Europeans frequently 
dde during the dry season, at an elevation of about four 

D 2 



30 SEASONS AND CLIMATE. 

tliousaiul feet, the Uiermometer is frequently seen as low u 
45^ and generally, in the clear season, ranges from 50 to W^ 
and on the summit of one of the mountains (Sind&ro) it has 
been obsen'ed as low as 27^ *. Ice, as thick as a Spaniih 
dollar, has been found; and hoar-frost, denominated h6km 
itpaJty or the poisonous dew, has been observed on the trees and 
vegetation of some of the higher regions. 

l)y its insular situation, the climate of Java enjoys the be- 
nefit of land and sea breezes, which in its least fiivouied paiti 
subdue the fierceness of the tropical rays, while the great de- 
ration of its interior affords tlie rare advantage, that from IIm 
sea-shore up to the tops of the mountains, there is, almost froH 
one end of the island to the other, a regular diminution of IIm 
temperature, at the rate of two or three degrees of Fahienhflit 
for every ten miles. 

The general inference which has been drawn by professioiiil 
men, fix)m the experience which the occupation of Java by IIm 
Britisli has afforded, is, that with the exception of the town of 
Batavia, and some parts of the northern coast, the idaad of 
Java stands on a level, in point of salubrity, with the healdueit 
parts of British India, or of any tropical country in fhe worid 

The principal stations of the British army, compoeed of 
Europeans and Sepoys, were at Weltevreden, within tlms 
miles of the tcnvn of Batavia, and at Semdrang and Surab^Kj^ 
spots certainly less favourable to health than the rest of the 
island taken generally ; but detachments firom it have cecap 
sionally done duty in every district of the island. 

Tlie tables included in the Appendix f, will shew, that not- 
withstanding the troops laboured under many disadvantages 
and privations, in point of accommodation, &c. to which thcj 
would not have been subjected in a more permanent aettle- 
inent, and that they were otherwise exposed to diseases oncon- 
nected with those of the climate, the average casualties wen 
not excessive. From the 1st November, 1813, to the saae 
month in 1814, Uie average number of troops is stated to hare 
been 7,470, the deaths 504, making a proportion of 1 to 14-8: 
the average number of sick in the same period was 862, making 

* Batavian Transaction!*, vol. viii. Introductory DiscourBe. 
f S«rc Appendix A. 



s£;ason8 and climate. 37 

a proportion of sick to well as 1 to 8. From the beginning of 
Norember 1814 to the same month in 1815, out of an average 
number of troops stationed in different parts of the island, in 
C(xps and detachments, amounting to 7,487, there were 252 
deadis, 63 of which were caused by fever, 123 by dysentery, 
and 65 by other diseases, making an average number of deaths 
of 21 per month, or in the proportion of one death to thirty men 
in the year, a proportion not exceeding that of some of the 
healthiest possessions in temperate climates. 

To this general result may be added the comparative casual- 
ties in his Majesty^s 78th regiment, during the period of its 
being stationed in India and Java. This regiment has occa- 
sionally been cantoned at each of the principal stations, and 
has remained on the island from the first conquest of Java. By 
the table will be seen the number of rank and file of which this 
regiment consisted at different periods^ since 1797 to 1815, and 
the number of casualties in the same periods. It might not be 
proper to select the years in which it landed on the continent of 
India or on Java ; but those in which it was stationed in either 
oountiy may be brought together, as fit subjects for comparison. 
By calculation, upon the data of the table, it will appear, that 
fiom December 1800 to December 1801, the deaths were to the 
mnnber of troops as 1 to about 20^ ; in 1801 -2, as 1 to 12 ; in 
1803-4, as 1 to 5i ; in 1804-5, as 1 to 8^ ; in 1805, as 1 to about 
20 ; in 1806-7, as 1 to 28 nearly; in 1807-8, as 1 to ^4^ ; in 
1809-10, as 1 to about 23; in 1811-12, as 1 to 3| ; in 1813-14, 
as 1 to 6 ; and in 1814-15, as 1 to about 20 nearly. The places 
at which the regiment was stationed at these different periods 
will be seen by the table ; and the cause of the unusual mortality 
that prevailed in 1811-12, and which exceeds any of the years 
cm the continent, will be found in an extract fi*om the letter of 
Dr. Currie, the sui^on, inclosing the return. The mortality in 
the last year was as 1 to 20 in the regiment, and among the whole 
troops, according to the data above, as 1 to about 30 ; a low 
estimate for climates, whose characters stand higher for salu- 
iirity than that of Java. 

That the climate of Java, in general, is congenial to the 
buman firame, at least to that of an Asiatic, is corroborated by 
he great extent of its native population, compared with that 
)f the surrounding islands, notw^ithstanding the checks which 



:)S SEASONS AND CLIMATE. 

it experienced both from the native princes and the E u ropean 
gm-eminent ; and the convincing proof which the records of 
the British anny now afford, are perhaps snfficieat to lenwrs 
the unfavourable impresrion which existed against the dimaie 
of the island, as affecting Europeans. 

At the same time, however, that Java has to boast tUi 
general character of high salnbritv, oompaimtively with odw 
tropical climates, it is not to be denied that ihm are sons 
spots upon it which are decidedly unhealthy. Tlieae are to be 
found along the low swampy marshes of the northern ooait, 
which are mostly recent encroachments upon the aea: the 
principal of these is Batavia, the long established cq>ital of 
the Dutch eastern empire. 

The climate of this city has ever been considered aa one of 
the most baneful in the world. It has even been designated 
the storehouse of disease ; with how much jnstice, is too woe- 
fully demonstrated by the writings of those visitors who hare 
sun'ived its perils, and the records of the Dutch East-Indis 
Company itself. If we may credit Raynal,* there perished 
between the years 1714 and 1776, in the hospitals of Bataris, 
alx>ve eighty-se>'en thousand sailors and soldiers. From the 
table, No. 1, imperfect as it is, on account of the loss of manj 
of the registers at the period of the British conquest, it wiD 
be seen what a large proportion the deaths bore to the whok 
)>c)pulation ; and ftom the table, No. 2, of the same Appendii, 
discovered among the Dutch records, it appean furiheri thit 
the total amount of deaths in this city, from the year 1790 
to the year 1753, was in twenty-two years more than a millkm 
of souls. 

To those who are acquainted with the manner in which the 
aflairs of the Dutch East-India Company were managed 
al)roa<l, tlicrc will perhaps be no difficulty in laying rather 
at the door of tlie colonists, than of the nation, the crime of 
maintaining a commercial monopoly, at such a dreadful ex- 
pence of lives as resulted from confining the European popu- 
lation witliin the narrow walls of this unhealthy city. Tliat 
the sacrifice was made for that object, or to speak more cor- 
roclly, under that ])rctext, for the private interests of the 

• Raynal. v^l i. |mgc 29 J. 



VEG£TABL£ KINGDOM. 39 

lonisls who w ;ie entrusted with its details, can scarcely be 
ibted. From the momeiit the walls of the city were de- 
the .draw-bridges let down, and free egress and 
to and from the country was permitted, the population 
pm to migiate to a more healthy spot, and they had not to 
aboFe one or two miles beyond the precincts before they 
ad themselyes in a different climate. But this indulgence, 
it gare the inhabitants a purer air, so it gave them a clearer 
igfat into the resources of the country, and notions of a freer 
amerce, which, oi all things, it was the object of the local 
renmoent and its oB&cets to limit or suppress. 
Sec&uaiy might have first determined the choice of the 
it £ar the European capital ; but a perseverance in the po- 
f of confining the European population within its walls, 
or so many direfiil warnings of its insalubrity, cannot but 
d to the inference, that either the monopoly of the trade 
s considered a greater object to the nation tlian the lives 
fhe inhabitants, or that the more liberal views of the go- 
nment were defeated by the weakness or corruption of its 
mta. 

>f the vegetable and animal kingdoms, as of the mineral, 
shall content ourselves with such an account as may be 
pessary to convey to the reader a general notion of tlie 
nre of the country and its resources, referring the man of 
BDce to the intended publication of Dr. Tliomas Horsfield, 
gentleman whose sole attention has, for the last seven years, 
m. directed to the natural history of Java. 
Fara is distinguished not only by the abundance of its 
fetation, but by its extraordinary variety. U])wards of a 
oaand plants are already contained in the herbarea of 
. Horsfield, of which a large proportion are new to tlie 
mralist. Between the tops of the mountains and tlie sea- 
irey Java may be considered as possessing at least six 
tinct climates, each furnishing a copious indigenous botany, 
ile the productions of evei^- region in the world may fmd a 
igenial spot somewhere in Uie island, 
i^egetable productions, which contribute to Uie food and 
tenance of man, are found in great variety. Of thesis tlie 
si important is rice, which forms the staple grain of the 
intry, and of which there aie upwards of a hundred 



40 VfiOETABLE KINGDOM. 

varieties. Maize, or Indian com, ranks next, and is prin- 
cipally cultivated in the higher regions, or in those tracts 
where the soil is unfavourable to the rice cultiration. Tlw 
bean, or kdchang^ of which there are many varietiesy is an im- 
portant article of food. Of the sugar-cane, which is used lij 
the natives only in its raw state, they distingnish ei|^ 
varieties, an account of which, as well as of the cnltiratiaii of 
coffee, pepper, indigo, tobacco, &c. will be fimnd in ths 
chapter on agriculture. Aniseed, mitngii, cnmmin-aeed, 
mdricha (black pepper), chdbi jdwa (long pepper), kmrnAkm 
(cubebs), socha dilichos, and mendeking^ plants of considerabk 
importance, may be considered as indigenous to the island, 
and are collected for various uses in diet and medicine. 

Besides the cocoa-nut and other productions more geneialljr 
known, there are many trees growing spontaneously, of which 
the seeds and kernels are used as food; the principal of these 
are the petifj^ngkol^ and kdfnlandingaHj several species of tke 
mimosa, and the pUcJuing and kamirL The biead-firnit tne 
grows on Java, and is of the same species (although inferior in 
quality) with that of the South Sea Islands: but the fruit it 
comparatively very little esteemed or employed as an article 
of food. 

Of tuberous roots, besides those furnished from the prindpal 
genera, convolvulus, dioscorea, and arum, are those from die 
biingkwang (dolichos bulbosus), the roots of which are mndi 
esteemed by tlie natives, and the k^tang jdwa (ocymma 
tuberosum) or Java potatoe. Most of the numerous rarietiet 
of the convolvulus and dioscorea, which furnish food fiir the 
natives, have been enumerated in one of the first volumes of 
tlie Batavian Transactions. The jatropha manihot, called 
uwi blnnda, or wAdoj has been propagated through all parts 
of Java, and is found growing in the hedges. 

The true sago of Amboina and Uie Eastern Islands, is found 
only solitary' in a few low and marshy situations, and the pre* 
paration of it from the pith of the tree is not known to the 
inhabitants of Java : the leaves only arc employed for covering 
houses; but from the are/f, or sagurus nunphii, which grows 
abundantly in even- part of the island, and on account of its 
\iirioiisly exttMisivo ust^s, ranks next in importance to the 
r<K.'oa-nut, u substance is prepared, similar in all respects 



VEGFTABLB KINGDOxM. 41 

I true sago of the Eastern Islands. The tops of various 
of the palm kind, which are sought after in other parts 
( East as food, are, on account of the abundance of rice 
idler esculent vegetables, but little regarded in Java ; but 
mng shoots of many varieties of the bambu are used in 
i^ of the natives. Wheat and potatoes, with almost every 
m of European v^^tables, are cultivated with success, 
le oil-giving plants a particular account will be given 
describing the agriculture of the country. 
mtf in common with the Malayan islands in general, 
ids in indigenous firuits. *^ No region' of the earth,*' 
res Mr. Marsden, ** can boast an equal abundance and 
iety of indigenous firuits.*' The mang^tinj which on 
ODt of its acknowledged pre-eminence amongst Indian 
» has been termed the pride of these countries; the 
m^ or d6renj to which the natives of these islands are so 
mately attached; the rdmbuiany the Idnseh or Idnsebj 
an extensive variety of the jack, the mango, the plan- 
the guava, the pine-apple, the papaw, the custard-apple, 
lomegranate, and almost every species of firuit which 
I within the tropics, are here found in the greatest variety, 
iamarind tree is general. The island also produces many 
i of oranges, citrons, lemons, and in particular the piun- 
XM (known in Bengal under the name of the Batavian 
X, ot lime, and in the West Indies as the shaddock), 
es the 9dumf kUdung^ p€u:hUan^ and a variety of others, 
enerally known to Europeans, but well calculated for the 
Of the mango, at least forty varieties are enumerated ; 
lid raspberry, which is found in the higher regions, is 
lestitute of flavour ; one kind, in particular, with dark 
/-coloured firuit, approaches in taste to the European 
es. In some of the mountainous tracts are to be found 
les, Chinese pears, and some other firuits imported from 
n, the Cape of Good Hope, and China. 
long innumerable flowers which bloom in perpetual suc- 
m throughout the year, and impregnate the air of these 
ries with their firagrance, those of the champdka^ tan- 
meldtif kandng*a and ndgasdriy hold the first rank ; 
ire used by the natives in the ornament of their persons, 
re remarkable for their firagrance. The myrtle and rose 

10 



42 VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 

arc found iu the gardens of Europeans. A great variety 
of ornamental trees and shrubs, many of them overlooked m 
the catalogues of Rhumphius and Van Rheede, hare been 
noticed, as deserving cultivation for their utility as wdl 
as beauty. 

The medicinal plants of Java have been described in m 
account published in the Batavian Transactions : among these 
are many which are employed in the daily practice of the 
natives, of which a large proportion have not been subjects of 
investigation or experiment by Europeans, and others wUch 
had not previously been botanically described or classed. 
In a country hitherto imperfectly explored, and abounding in 
profuse vegetation, it was natural to calculate on the discoveiy 
of many useful medicinal plants; and anumg upwards of 
sixty, described, for the first time, by Dr. Horsfield, he paiti- 
cularly notices several, as likely to become most vakuhk 
articles in general medicinal practice. 

Besides abundance of coir, termed sep^t by the natives, pie- 
pared from tlie fibres wliich surround the cocoa-nut, and gur 
muti (called diik)^ prepared firom those of the dren tree, both 
of which are well known, another species of palm, the geb&tig^ 
also yields valuable ropes, the fibre of wliich is obtained ficn 
tlie large petioles or stalks of the leaves by pounding and 
beating. Intelligent natives assert, that ropes prepared firon 
these are particularly valuable, exceeding in strength all other 
kinds of equal size. Tlie fibres and ropes are called &«. 
The cotton shrub (gossypium herbaceum) is universal; and 
hemp, though its uses are unknoim to the Javans, is found in 
the gardens of foreign settlers. Besides these, the island 
afTonls various kinds of vegetables, the fibrous bark of which 
is made into tliread, rope, cloth, &c. ; but they are never col- 
tivated, and when required for use arc collected in their wild 
state. Tlie general denomination, in the Ja\'an language, of 
the inti'nial bark of all vegetables which can be manuiactoFBd 
into cords, tliread, &c. is lulub. This being freed, by beating 
or maceration, from the adhering particles of tlie exterior baik, 
yields tlio fibrous substiiice, which is twisted by the most 
simple ]>p>cess, coiiimonly bv the liands alone. The trees 
which ailbrd the ifilnh an.' the Wfint, which is vcrv abimdaiit. 
and is niuniifactURHl into n»|)es lor sill i-ommon domestic pur- 



VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 43 

poses ; the melinfUy the baric of which is called bdgu ; and 
ihe bindoj which affi)rds ropes of superior strength and 
durability. 

Of the bambusa, the pring-dpusy the stem of which may be 
considered arborescent, furnishes the cheapest ropes. These 
are made with great expedition, being split into thin strips, 
which are twisted on the qx)t into cords fit for all common 
pmpoaes, although tfiey are serviceable only for a few days. 
lliej aie unifisxmly used, in travelling, for securing baggage, 
ftc. Among shrubs principally employed for these purposes 
are the werHngy urU-urisaUj daliimpangy che-pldkan and 
^tte^ ; among plants, the wid6ri and rami ; the fibres of the 
latter afford very strong and durable cords, which are chiefly 
employed lor nets or lines, and used in fishing : they greatly 
resemble the sunn of western India, and would probably 
be found to answer the same purpose, as well in fiimishing 
the bags called in India gunny -bags, for the transportation of 
goods, as for the manufacture of paper in Europe. This 
remark applies also to the Mub of several of the other shrubs 
mentioned. Several species of pisanff or plantain yield the 
materials for ropes and cords of various fineness, accord-^ 
nig to the methods employed in preparing them. In the 
Manilla Islands, cables are made firom these fibres ; and in 
the first volume of the Batavian Transactions a mode is 
described of preparing fi:t)m them a substance resembling 
cotton. The leaves of the ^nanasy or pine-apple, contain also 
abundance of usefiil fibres, which are easily separated in a 
bundle, after scraping off the coriaceous substance. It is very 
fine, and the separate fibres are employed by the natives 
in sewing without any preparation ; but it may also be spun, 
and is made into a kind of stulT resembling silk, gauze, &c. 

Mats are made from several species of pandanus, from 
a kind of grass called m^fidang, and from the leaves of various 
palms, particulariy the gebiing. The latter affords the most 
common kinds, coarser and less durable than the others, as 
well as bags (straw sacks) resembling very coarse mats. 

The paper in common use with the Javans is manufactured 
bom the glttgo^ (moms papyrifera.) 

A variety of vegetable substances aie used in dyeing : the 
principal of which, however, are the /ow, ot indigo, which is 



44 V£GE1^ABLE KINGDOM. 

extensively cultivated throughout the island ; and the wong* 
kAdUy which affords a lasting scarlet A black dye is obtained 
fix)m the bark of several exotic trees, united with the rind 
of the mang^tin firuit A yellow dye is also obtained finom 
an exotic wood, heightened by the addition of the baik of 
the ndngka tree, and a variety of the mango. 

Extensive forests of thejdtij or teak of India*, are firandin 
almost all the eastern provinces ; but the most valuable and 
important are in the central districts, situated inland, between 
Semdrang and Siddyu, and particularly in the durtricts of 
Bloray Jipang, and Paddnff*an, 

Of the teak tree there is but one species known, the ieciona 
grandis of Linnseus, the iekka of Van Rheede, and the jatos of 
Rhumphius. Its natural history has been already fiiUy de- 
tailed, and all the kinds generaUy enumerated are merely vap 
rieties. These are usually distinguished among the natives of 
Java by names derived from the quality and colour of the 
wood. The principal are thejdii kdpur^ the chall^ teak, and 
a kind varying in colour, and on account of its ezcellenoe 
termed ya/< sung*gu^ or the true teak. The former is the most 
common : its wood is of a whitish hue, and it sometimes con- 
tains calcareous concretions in nodules or streaks. This sort 

* It is remarkable that the teak tree, which, as far as oar informalioB 
yet eictends, is not to be found on the peninsula of Malacca, or on So* 
matra or the adjacent islands, should grow in abundance on Java and 
several of the islands which lie east of it : as on Madto and ita depen- 
dent islands, B41i, Sumbdwa, and others. Sumbdwa produces a conaldn'- 
able quantity. The whole of the hills on the north-east part of thil 
island under Bima are covered with it ; but from the constant dwnand fbr 
the timber* the trees are seldom allowed to grow to more than a foot m 
diameter, except in the forests exclusively appropriated to the use of the 
sovereign. In D6mpo, which occupies the central division of the 
island, the teak cannot be used by any but the sovereign, and the 
are in consequence allowed to attain their fuU size. The timber is here 
uncommonly fine, and by the natives considered superior to that of Java; 
but the forests being surrounded by steep hills, and the population but 
scanty, it cannot l>e transported to the sea-coast without great labour and 
expense. On Oelebes the teak tree is only known in a few spots. The 
princii>al forest is in the district uf Mario ; and this does not appear to be 
indigenous, as the natives assert tliat the seed from which the forest bat 
grown, waH brought from Java about eighty years ago by one of tbe 
sovereigns of Taiit-te. 



VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 45 

is chiefly employed for common domestic pmposes, and 
though inferior in quality to many others, fix)m its abundance 
and comparative cheapness, is perhaps the most generally use- 
foL The jdti 9ikng*gu is harder, closer, and more ponderous, 
and particularly selected for ship-building. The colour of 
the wood is of different shades, from light to intense brown, 
with a cast of violet verging sometimes to red or black. If the 
stem is covered vrith spines, or rather pointed scales, it is 
ctSleAjdti dUrij but in its texture and quality it agrees with 
the jdti gf^nge'ffu. Besides these the natives distinguish, as 
jdii g&mbol, those excrescences or protuberances which are 
produced from a variety of the jdtiy furnishing materials for 
handsome cabinet-work. 

The teak tree on Java grows at a moderate elevation above 
the level of the ocean. It is generally conceived, that the tim- 
ber afforded by forests growing on a soil of which the basis is 
limestone, and the surface uneven, gravelly, or rocky, is the 
hardest, the freest from chalky concretions, and in all respects 
the best ; but in laying out a teak plantation, a soil consisting in 
a great proportion of black vegetable mould, is always selected 
for the purpose of obtaining a rapid growth. The teak tree is 
dender and erect It shoots up with considerable vigour and 
rapidity, but its expansion is slow. Like all other trees afford- 
ing useful timber of a close grain, it is many years in arriving 
at maturity. Under favourable circumstances, a growth of 
from twenty to twenty-five years affords a tree having about 
twelve inches diameter at the base. It requires at least a cen- 
tury to attain its perfection, but for common purposes, it is 
usually felled when between thirty and fifty years old *. 

Notwithstanding the extent to which cultivation has been 

* The Dutch, apprehensive of a failure in the usual supply of teak 
ttmber, have long been in the habit of forming extensive plantations of 
this tree ; but whether from a sufficient period not having yet elapsed for 
the trial, or that the plantations are generally made in soils and situations 
iU calculated for the purpose, experience, as far as it has yet gone, has 
shown, that the trees which are left to the operations of nature, attain to 
greater perfection, even in a comparatively barren soil, unfit for any other 
cnldvation, than those which are with great care and trouble reared in a 
fertile land. Their wood is more firm, more durable, and of a less chalky 
tttbetance than that of the latter. 



40 VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 

carried in many districts of the island, large portions of iU 
surface are still covered with primeval forests, affording ezod- 
lent timber of various descriptions. Besides the teak, then 
arc several kinds of wood or timber employed finr various do- 
mestic purposes, as the siren (the tuna of Bcoigal), of which the 
wood is very light, stronger and more durable than all other 
kinds of similar weight produced on the island : as the gnin 
is not fine, it is not employed in making furniture, but it is use- 
ful for chests, trmiks, carriages, &c. ; its colour is red, and its 
odour somewhat resembling that of the cedar. Its weight is 
probably inferior to that of the larch. — ^The wAng^ or 
is often used instead of teak : the grain is somewhat 
when in full blossom it is perhaps the most beautiful tree 
isting. — ^The wtidang or bdyuVj a light and tolerably ducaUe 
wo(nI, is employed for masts and spars of small vesschi ; but 
the surface must be well covered with resinous substances to 
prevent its splitting. — ^The gintAngan is employed in the same 
manner, but grows to a larger size ; the colour of the wood and 
bark is red. — ^The lamp4an or Idban is light but durable, and 
affords materials for the handles of the spears or pikes borne bj 
the natives. — The nangka abounds in several districts when 
teak is not found, and is almost exclusively used in the oon- 
stniction of houses, and other domestic purposes : the wood is 
more close and ponderous than the siren, which it otherwise 
resembles ; it takes a tolerable polish, and is somctiines em- 
p1oye<l for furniture. The colour is yellow ; but it is made to 
receive a brownish hue, by the application of the young teik- 
heaves in polishing : its bark is used as a yellow dye^-The 
itirrn resembles the nangka, but is generally of rare occunenoe, 
though in some tracts it fiumishcs the only timber : its use in 
the neighbouring islands, particularly on Sumatra, is well 
known. — ^Thc kusumbi is uncommonly heavy, hard, and close : 
it supplies anchors for small vessels, blocks, pestles, and nume- 
rous similar utensils. — ^The stiwur is a very beautiful and use- 
ful wood ; the colour resembles that of mahogany, but the grain 
is closer, and it is more ponderous: its chief use is for handles 
of tools for carpenters and other artificers, for machinery, es- 
pecially for the teeth of the wheels of mills, and other pur- 
poses where a hard and durable wood is required. On ac- 
count of its scarcity, it is uniformly cut down on Ja%'a b^bie 



VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 47 

irriYeft at the necesBary size for cabinet-work. Forests of it 
m <m the hills of Bait, opposite the Javan shore^ whence it 
NHDiight over by boat-loads for sale. 

rbe pUang is a very hard wood, and employed in the 
tem districts, instead of lignum-vitae, for the construction 
liipsf «block8y &c. — ^The punff is equally hard, and unifonnly 
[doyed by the natives for pegs in constructing their proAti^. 
[lie wdli k^kun is equal to the kusdmbi in weight, and 
ieeda it in hardness : it is employed for anchors, naves of 
eels, machinery, &c. — ^The tang*gnlun \a a hard wood of a 
le grain, and employed by turners for various small works. — 
B kelimpit is a very large tree : sections are employed by 
natives for cart wheels. — Thejaran is a white wood taking 
tool easily : the natives prefer it to all others for the con- 
icticm of their saddles, which consist principally of wood. — 
e demdlo affords a light wood, which is made into planks, 
I employed where durability is not much required. — ^The 
od of the keddwung is whitish and moderately hard. — ^The 
oii is a yellowish and hard wood : it is employed for the 
idles of axes and various utensils. — ^The jdnglot is consi- 
ed by the natives as the ton^est wood produced in the 
ind, and is always employed for bows when procurable : 
t tree is of a moderate size. — The b^fulo is a light wood, 
ifiil for canoes. — The s^tnl is a light close-grained wood, 
1 easily worked: it resembles the s^ren, 
Por iMHisehold furniture, cabinet-ware, &c. are employed — 
t w6no kUng of the MaldpuSf the colour of which is a deep 
Kwn, inclining to black: — the sdno kombangy which has 
ae resemblance to the lingua wood of the Moluccas : — the 
1^9140^, dark brown ; andj^rono-^ocfo, resembling the walnut, 
ih scarce : — the wer'ny of a brown colour, of a close sub- 
nce and light, abundant in some districts : — the mentduis 
\j^mb€rity the wood of which is white and fine-grained, 
iformly used for inlaying: — the randu k^ningy yellowish 
i close-grained : — and the ing'asy of a brownish red colour, 
1 very brittle. 

Por the hilts and sheaths of knses, the natives make use of 
timdkoy of which the black and white variegated fragments 
called p^leL These are of various kinds. — The anAmatiy 



48 VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 

variegated white and black, is also employed for canes, han- 
dlesy and spears, &c. and is very heavy. — The Uk^y yeUowish, 
closed and marble, — the mdngu^ — the dti dii, — the krdmima$^ 
— ihe p&rwO'kiining and several others, are emplojred fiir the 
same purposes. — The kamdning is of a brownidi colonr and 
very fine grain : — the iayikman resembles the last and is veiy 
much esteemed : — the w6ni steldga affords a reddish wood. 

Among the most extensively useful productions ought not 
to be forgotten the bdmbu, or prfnffy which abounds on JavSy 
and seems, from the greater luxuriance and variety by which 
it is here distinguished, to find the soil and climate more oon- 
genial to its growth than those of any other country. It blos- 
soms in different parts of the island. The rattans frStanJ of 
Java arc on the whole inferior to those of Sumatra and Borneo: 
the improved state of cultivation is un&vouraUe to their 
growth and propagation. 

Many woods afford excellent fuel. The charcoal prepared 
from the kummbi is equal perhaps to that of any other wood 
VTiih which we are acquainted, and is universally preferred in 
cooking, and in the other branches of domestic economy. 
Charcoal, for gunpowder, is uniformly prepared from the eeUi 
oricntalis, called dnxfgrung. 

Among the useful trees must be noticed : the soi^-tree, of 
which the fruit is used to a very great extent in washing linen: 
— the kasdmaky ftom the bark of which is made a varnish ibr 
umbrellas : — the sdmpangy from the resin of which the natives 
prepare a shining varnish for the wooden sheaths of krises ^— 
the cotton-tree, from which a silky wool is obtained for stnfimg 
pillows and beds: — the wax -tree, which, though scarce on Javi, 
grows abundantly on some parts of Madura : (the kernel, bj 
expression, produces an oil, which some time after becmnes haid 
and l)ears a resemblance to wax ; it may be burnt in lamps or 
converted into candles, and affords an agreeable odour) : the ben* 
dud, a shrub producing the substance of which the elastic gum, 
connnonly called Indian-rubber, is prepared. The art of pre- 
paring it in this form is however unknown in Java. Torches 
are made of it, for the use of those who search for birds* nests 
in the rocks, and it serves for winding round the stick em- 
ployed to strike musical instruments, as the gomg^ &c. to soften 



V£G£TABLE KINGDOM. 49 

KNmd. The minyak kdwon or ntdtu is a veiy useful tree, 
:h grows solitary in all, and abundantly in some parts of 
sland, and produces a kind of tallow. 
dmary or resin, is distinguished by the inhabitants of these 
lines into two kinds : ddmar-batu or s^la, and ddmar-putiy 
piising numerous varieties obtained from different trees, 
e of these are, however, produced on Java. Besides the 
mala, which is very limited as to its place of growth, 
Candramj and a peculiar resin employed by the natives 
Famishing the wooden sheaths of their krises, called 
oan^j few odoriferous resins are found. The camphor- 
which abounds on Sumatra and Borneo, is unknown on 
L The wood oil, distinguished among the Malays by the 
e of krAunnff (which in Java is applied to all resinous or 
substances employed in the construction of vessels), is not 
itive of Java, but it grows abimdantly on Banka and 
latra. 

one of what are called the finer kinds of spices, namely, 
nutmeg, clove, and cinnamon, are indigenous to Java; but 
few trees which have been planted in the gardens of 
opeans have thriven well : and, from the nature of the soil 
climate, there seems little doubt that the nutmeg and clove, 
articular, might be extensively cultivated throughout the 
id, did it suit the policy of the European government to 
it of their general introduction. 

be vine was once extensively cultivated in some of the 
em provinces of the island, in which the soil and climate 
ear well calculated for its growth ; but an apprehension, on 
part of the Dutch East-India Company, that its cultivation 
Tava might interfere with the wine trade of the Cape of 
)d Hope, induced them to discourage it, and the prepara- 
. of wine from the grape was strictly prohibited. Lieutenant- 
onel Mackenzie, when noticing the vast quantities of ashes 
iwn up from the different volcanos, makes the following 
srvation on the eastern part of Java. " The soil of the 
ountry is evidently enriched by the ashes and earth 
mitted by these eruptions, and there is reason to conclude, 
^hat persons well acquainted with the south of Europe 
ssert, that the vines of Italy and tlie Cape would thrive in 
erfection, in a soil and climate so well adapted to them." 
OL. I. E 



50 VEGETABLE KlNODOiM. 

Among the vegetable productions of Java, none has excited 
more interest than the celebrated upaSy or poison-tree. Mr. 
Marsden, in his history of Sumatra *, has referred to rariou 
concurring authorities, in refutation of the veiy extramdinaiy 
tales told of this tree ; and, in this general account of the pro- 
ductions of Java, it may perhaps be sufficient to refer the reader 
to the particulars contained in the subjoined note f. 

• Page 176, third edit. 

t Although a serious refutation of the gross imposition prutised on the 
people of Europe, by the romance of Foersch on the subject of the upii^ 
or celebrated poison-tree of Java, may at this day be in a great meume 
superfluous, as the world has long ceased to be the dupe of bis story, and 
as regular series of experiments have been instituted, both in Fmoe and is 
England, to ascertain the nature and potency of the poison ; yet it mtf 
not be altogether displeasing to the reader to see in this place an ■^rtV"*^ 
accoimt of the poison, as drawn out by Dr. Horsiieldat my request, and pub- 
lished in the seventh volume of the Batavian Transactions. Almost every 
one has heard of its fabulous histor}', which, from its extravagant mtmv, 
its susceptibility of poetical ornament, its alliance with the cmeltiet of • 
despotic government, and the sparkling genius of Darwin, whuee prnpoei 
it answered to adopt and personify it as a malignant spirit (in bia Lives of 
the Plants), has obtained almost equal currency with the wonders of tk 
Lema Hydra, the Chimera, or any other of the classic fictions of antiquity. 

*' Although the account published by Foersch, in so far as relates to the 
" situation of the poison-tree, to its efiects on the anntnmding co un t r y, 
** and to the application said to have been made of the upas on 
*' in different parts of the island, as well as the description of the 
" ous substance itself, and its mode of collection, has been demonitnted 
" to be an extrax^agant forgery, — the existence of a tree on Java, firom the 
" sap of which a poison is prepared, equal in fatality, when thrown into the 

circulation, to the strongest animal poisons hitherto known, is a fart 

which is at present my object to establish and illustrate. Hie tree wliiA 
" produces this poison is the anchar, and grows in the eastern eati e m i t y 
'* of the island. The work of Rhumphius contains a long account of the 
" upas, under the denomination of arbor toxicaria. The tree does not 
'* grow on Ainboyna, and his description was made from the information 
" he obtained from Makasar. His figure H'as drawn from a branch of 
" what is called the male-tree, sent to him from the same place, and esta* 
" blishes the identity of the poison-tree of Makasar, and the other Eaalcn 
" Islands, vnih the anchar of Java. The simple sap of the arbor toxicaria 
" (according to Rhumphius) is harmless, and requires the addition of se- 
" vera! substances, of the afilinity of ginger, to render it active and mor- 
" tal. In so far it agrees with the anchar, which, in its simple state, ii 
" tuppoMed to l>e inert, and before being employed as a poison, is subjected 
'* to a prefMuration which will he described after the history of the tree. 



«c 
«c 



ANIMAL KINGDOM. 51 

Of the useful or domestic quadrupeds it may be obser\'ed, 
that neither the elephant nor the camel is a native of Java : 

" Betides the true poison-tree, the upas of the Eaetern IslaodB, and the 
" SBi^ar of the Javans, this island produces a shrub, which, as far as ob- 
" senrationa have hitherto been made, is peculiar to the same, and, by a 
" different mode of preparation, fiimiahes a poison far exceeding the upas 
*' in violenee. Its name is chetak, and its specific description will succeed 
" to that of the anchar : the genus has not yet been discovered or des- 
''cribed. 

" DaacaipnoN or the Amchar. — ^The anchar belongs to the twenty-first 

" daas of linnKus, the monoeda. The male and femak flowers are pro- 

** dooed in catkins (amenta) on the same branch, at no great distance 

"^ frosn cadh other : the female flowers are in general above the male. 

^ The chasacters of the genus are :— Maijb flower ; calix, consiBting of se- 

** wool scales, which are imbricate. Corol ; none. Stamens ; filaments 

" many, very short, covered with scales at the receptacle. The receptacle, 

*' on which the filaments are placed, has a conical form, abrupt, somewhat 

''foimded above. — Fsmalx flower; catkins, ovate. Calix; consisting 

'^ of a nmodber of scales (generally more than in the male), containing one 

" flower. Corol ; none. Pistil ; germ single, ovate. Styles ; two, long, 

slender, and qireading. Stigmas ; single and acute. Seed-vessel ; an 

obhmgdn^M, covered with the calix. Seed ; an ovate nut, with one cell. 

Srmpiwic DiBacRiPTioN.^The anchar is one of the laigest trees in the 

^* loreets of Java. Hie stem is cylindrical, perpendicular, and rises com- 

*' pisiely naked (o the height of sixty, seventy, or eighty feet. Near the 

sni£soe of thegnrand it spreads obliquely, dividing into numerous broad 

^ apprmdages or wings, much like the canariimi commune (the canary-tree), 

md aeveral other of our laxge forest treea It is covered with a whitish 

haricy shgfatly bursting in longitudinal furrows. Near the ground this 

baik is, in old trees, more than ludf an inch thick, and upon being 

.wofnnded yields plentifully the milky juice irom which the celebrated 

** poiaan is prepared. A puncture or incision being made into the tree, the 

joifie or aap aiq>ears ooiing out of a yellowish colour (somewhat frothy) 

** from oldy paler or nearly white from young trees ; exposed to the air, 

its snrfiKe becomes brown. The consistence very much resembles milk : 

it is more thick and viscid. This sap is contained in the tru^ bark (or 

cortex), which, when punctured, yields a considerable quantity, so that 

*' in a short time a cup-full may be collected from a large tree. The inner 

** htak (or liber) is of a dose fibrous texture, like that of the moms pa- 

pyrifera, and when separated from the other bark, and cleansed from 

the adhering particles, resembles a coarse piece of linen. It has been 

^ worked into ropes, which are very strong ; and the poorer class of peo- 

«' pie employ the inner bark of the younger trees, which is more easily 

*' prepared, for the purpose of making a coarse stuff which they wear in 

** working in the fields. But it requires mudi bruising, washing, and along 

** immersion, before it can be used, and when it appears completely puri- 

£ 2 



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6*i ANIMAL KINGDOiM. 

the former is rarely imported, the latter imknown. Neither 
the ass nor mule is found ; but the island has a fine breed of 

** fied» pereons wearing this dress being exposed to rain, are affected witli 
" an intolerable itching, which renders their flimsy covering inauppoitaUe. 
" It will appear from the account of the manner in which the poiaon is 
" prepared, that the deleterious quality exists in the gum ; a small portion 
" of which still adhering, produces, when exposed to wet, this imtating 
" effect : and it is singular, that this property of the prepared haik is known 
" to the Javans in all places where the tree grows, while the prepuition of 
" a poiaon from its juice, which produces a mortal effect when introdooed 
" into the body by pointed weapons, is an exclusive art of the inhalntinti 
" of the eastern extremity of the island. The stem of the ancfaar having 
" arrived at the above-mentioned height, sends off a few stout bnundies, 
" which spreading nearly horizontally with several irregular corveSy dividi 
" into smaller branches, and form a hemispherical, not very regulary crown. 
" Previous to the season of flowering, about the beginning of June, thi 
" tree sheds its leaves, which reappear when the male flowers have com- 
" pleted the office of fecundation. It delights in a fertile, not very ele- 
" vated, soil, and is only found in the largest forests. One of the ezpe- 
" riments to be related below was made with the upas prepared by myidf. 
" In the collection of the juice I had some difficulty in inducing the in* 
" habitants to assist me ; they feared a cutaneous eruption and iw^^imwa, 
" tion, resembling (according to the account they gave of it) that produced 
" by the ingas of this island, the rhus vemix of Japan; and the riini 
** radicans of North America. The anchar, like the trees in its neigli- 
** bourhood, is on all sides surrounded by shrubs and plants : in no ia- 
'* stance have I observed the ground naked or barren in its immediate dr- 
" cumference. llie largest tree I met with in Balambangan, was so dosdy 
" environed by the common trees and shrubs of the forest in which it 
" grew, that it was with difficulty I could approach it. Several vines sod 
" climbing shrubs, in complete health and vigour, adhered to it, and ai- 
" cended to nearly half its height ; and, at the time I visited the tree sod 
" collected the juice, I was forcibly struck with the egregions misrepie- 
*' sentation of Foersch. Several young trees spontaneonsly sprung from 
** seeds that had fallen from the parent, put me in mind of a line in Dar- 
•* win's Botanic (warden : — 

" * Chained at his root two scion-demons dwell ;" 

'* while in recalling his beautiful description of the upas, my vicinity to 
" the tree gave me reason to rejoice that it was founded in fiction. 

•' Descsiptiox of tub Chetik. — ^ITie fructification of the chetik it 
'' still unknown : after all possible research in the district where it grows, 
** I have not been able to find it in a flowering state. It is a laige 
" winding shrub. I'he root extends creeping a considerable dirtance 
*' parallel to the surface, sending off small fibres at different curves, while 
'* the main root strikes perpendicularly into the ground. The stem. 



ANIMAL KINGDOM. 53 

small horses (jdran)^ strong, fleet, and well made. A still 
finer breed is imported from Bima, on the neighbouring 

' iHiich in general is shrubby, sometimes acquires the size of a small tree. 
' The poison is prepared from the bark of the root. The chetik grows 
' onlj in dose, shady, almost inaccessible forests, in a deep, black, fertile 
' Tcgetable mould. It is very rarely met with even in the wildernesses 
' of Bakunbangan. 

" Prbpa&ation of thb Poison from thb Anchar. — ^This process 
' was perfonned for me by an old Javan, who was celebrated for his 
' wapmoT skill in preparing the poison : about eight ounces of the jUice 
' of the anchar, which had been collected the preceding evening in the 
' usual manner, and been preserved in the joint of a bambu, was care- 
' fany strained into a bowl. The sap of the following substances, which 
' bad been finely grated and bruised, was carefully expressed and poured 
' into it, viz. arum (nampu), kempferia galanga (kenchur), anomum 
' (boDigli) a variety of zerumbed, common onion and garlic, of each about 
' half a drachm. The same quantity of finely powdered black pepper was 
' then added, and the mixture stirred. The preparer now took an entire 
' froit of capsicum fructicosum or Guinea pepper, and having opened it, 
* he carefaBy separated a single seed, and placed it on the fluid in the 
' middle of the bowl. It immediately began to reel round rapidly, now 
' forming a regular circle, then darting towards the margin of the vessel, 
' with a perceptible commotion on the surface of the liquor, which con- 
' tinued about one minute. Being completely at rest, the same quantity 
' of pepper was again added, and another seed of the capsicuma laid on as 
' before. A similar commotion took place in the fluid, but in a less 
' degree, and the seed was carried round with diminished rapidity. The 
' addition of the same quantity of pepper was repeated a third time, 
' when a seed of the capsicum being carefully placed in the centre of the 
' fluid, remained quiet, forming a regular circle about itself in the fluid, 
' resembling the halo of the moon. This is considered as a sign that the 
' preparation of the poison is complete. 

'* Prxparation of the Poison from thb Chetik. — ^The baric of 
' the root is carefully separated and cleared of all the adherent earth, a 
' proportionate quantity of water is poured on, and it is boiled about an 
' hour, when the fluid is carefully filtered through a white cloth ; it 
' is then exposed to the fire again, and boiled down to nearly the consis- 
' tence of an extract ; in this state it much resembles a thick syrup. 
' The following spices, having been prepared as above described, are 
' added in the same proportion as to the anchar, viz. kempferia galanga 
(kenchiu*), (sunti), anomum zing^er (shai), common onion, garlic, and 
black pepper. The expressed juice of these is poured into the vessel, 
which is once more exposed to the fire for a few minutes, when 
the preparation is complete. The upas of both kinds must be pre- 
served in very close vessels." 
Dr. H. then details the particulars of twenty experiments made on dif- 



«< 

« 



54 ANIMAL KINGDOM. 

island of Sumbdway which by competent judges has been said 
tu resemble the Arab in every respect except size, lliey 

ferent anim&lB with these poiBons, as well in their simple state as pro- 
cured from the bark, powerfully prepared in the mamier as aboire staled, 
in which the violence of the poison was manifested i and eondndea with 
some general observationB, from which the following are eztncted : 

" The operation of the two difierent poisons on the animal system Is 
" essentially different. The first seventeen experiments were made with 
** the anchar. The rapidity of its effect depends in a great degree upon 

the size of the vessel wounded, and on the quantity of poiaofi earried 

into the circulation. In the first experiment, it indoced death m 
*' twenty-six minutes : in the second, which was made with the sap 
" collected at Pdigar, in thirteen minutes. The poison from dxf- 
" ferent parts of the island has been found nearly equal in activity. 
" The common tndn of s3rmptoms is; a trembling and shivering of 
** the extremities, restlessness, erection of the hair, dischsages from 
*' the bowels, drooping and fiEuntness, slight spasms and convolsioiis, 
** hasty breathing, an increased flow of saliva, spasmodic cmitractioiM of 
'* the pectoral and abdominal muscles, retching, vomiting, excremen- 
" tatious vomiting, frothy vomiting, great agony, laborious hreathmg, 
*' rei)eated convulsions, and death. The effects are nearly the same oa 
'* quadnipeds, in whatever part of the body the wound ia made. It some- 
*' times acts with so much force, that not all the sy m p t oms enumerated 
** are obser^'ed. In these cases, after the premonitory symptoms (tremon^ 
*« twitchings, faintness, an increased flow of saliva), the convulsiona come 
** on suddenly, and are quickly followed by death. The upas iqipcars to 
*' aflert qiuulnipeds with nearly equal force, proportionate in aome d fg tfff 
** to their size and disposition. To dogs it proved mortal in most czperi- 
** ments within an hour; a mouse died in ten minutes; a monkey in 
*' seven ; a cat in fifteen ; a buffalo, one of the largest quadmpeds of the 
'* island, died in two hours and ten minutes. 

'* If the Mimple or imprepared sap is mixed with the extract of tobacco, 
" instead of the spices mentioned, it is rendered equally, perhaps more, 
** active. Even the pure juice, unmixed and unprepared, appean to act 
** with a force equal to that which has undergone the prqiarative process. 
'* Birds are very differently aflfected by this iwison. Fowls have a peculiar 
** ca})acity to rettint its eflfects : a fowl died in twenty-four houre after the 
** wound ; others have recovered after being partially aflfected. 

*< The eighteenth and succeeding experiments were made with the 
*' {MiRon prepared from the chetik. Its operation is far more violent and 
** rapid than that of the anchar, and it aflfects the animal system in a dif- 
" ferent manner. While the anchar operates chiefly on the stomadi, all* 
** mentary canal, the respiration and circulation, the chetik is detemdned 
*' to the brain and ner\'0UH system : a relative comparison of the sppssr* 
** ancen on dissoction, demonstrates in a striking manner the psctdiar 
" n|)eration of each. A general view of the effects of the chetik on qua- 



ANIMAL KINGDOM. M 

leldom exceed thirteen hands, and in general are below this 
tandard. 

' dropedB is giyen in these expmments. After the previous symptoms 
ci feintness, drowsiness, and slight convulsions, it acts by a sudden 
bapaiae, which like a violent apoplexy prostrates at once the whole 
nerrous system. In two of these experiments this sudden effect took 
place in the sixth minute after the wound, in another in the seventh 
numile : the animals suddenly started, fell down head foremost, and 
eontiniied in convulsions until death ensued. This poison affects fowls 
in a much more violent manner than that of the anchar. They are first 
affected by a heat and itching of the breast and wings, which they shew 
by violently pecking those parts ; this is followed by a loose discharge 
from the bowels, when they are seized with tremors and fluttering of the 
wiiigs, whidi having continued a short time, they fall down head fore-, 
most, and continue convulsed till death. In some instances, particulaiiy 
young fowls, the poison acts with great rapidity ; death has frequently 
occurred within the space of a minute after a puncture with a poisoned 
dart. 

** Taken into the stomach of quadrupeds, the chetik acts as a most 
violent poison ; but it requires about thrice the period to produce the 
same effect which a wound produces. But the stomach of fowls can 
resist its operation. Having mixed about double the quantity generally 
adhering to a dart with the food of a fowl, it consmned it without 
shewing any marks of indisposition. The poison of the anchar does by 
no means act as violently on quadrupeds as that of the chetik. I have 
given it to a dog : it produced at first nearly the same symptoms as a 
poDcture; <4>pre8sion of the head, twitchings, faintness, laborious 
respiration, violent contraction of the pectoral and abdominal muscles, 
fee. which continued nearly two hours ; but after the complete evacua- 
tion of the stomach by vomiting, the animal gradually recovered. 
" I have but little to add concerning the operation of the anchar on the 
human system. The only credible information on this subject is con- 
tained in the woik of Rhumphius, who had an opportunity of person- 
ally observing the effect of the poisoned darts and arrows as they were 
used by the natives of Makasar, in their attack on Amboyna about the 
year 1650. They were also employed by the inhabitants of Celebes in 
their former wars with the Dutch. Speaking of their operation he says, 
' the poison touching the warm blood, it is instantly carried through 
' the whole body, so that it may be felt in all the veins, and causes an 
' excessive burning, particularly in the head, which is followed by 
* fiainiing and death.' This poison (according to the same author) 
possesses different degrees of virulence, according to its age and state 
of preservation. The most powerful is called upaa raja, and its effects 
ue considered as incurable ; the other kinds are distributed among the 
ioldiers on going to war. After having proved mortal to many of the 
Dutch soldiers in Amboyna and Makasar, they finally discovered an 

10 



5(i ANIMAL KINGDOM. 

The bull and cow (sdpi or Umbu) are general, bat much 
more so in the central and eastern districts than in the wes- 
teni. The breed has been greatly improved by the species 
introduced from continental India. But the animal of moit 
essential and general use in the agriculture of the countiy is 
the buffalo (kdbu, maisa^ or mending J^ a particular accoont 
of which will appear in the chapter on Agriculture. Groati 
(wed^H) arc numerous and of a small size : sheep (called here 
Eun)pcan goats) arc scarce and small. As in other suhiy 
climates, the latter have a coarse wooUen coat, which \% 
employed for stuffing saddles, pillows, &c. but it is in so little 
request that the inhabitants are rarely at the trouble of shearing 
for it. Tlic hog (ch^leitg) is reared principally among the 
Chinese. 

Of beasts of prey may be enumerated several species of the 
tiger, as tlie mdchan lOrcfig (felis tigris), mdchan gogor (a 
variety), mdchan iiUul (probably the small leopard of Pennant), 
mdchan komhang and kuicnk^ the smallest kind, called tiger- 
cats. Tlie jackal, and several varieties of the wild-dog; as 
the dan fcditar, dsu djag^ or dsn klki ; and among other wild 
quadrupeds, the rhinoceros, and bdufengy or wild Javan ox, 
tlie wild'hog and the stag : tlic last, as well as tlie rib-&ced 
and axis deer, is tamed and fattened for food. The aggregate 
number of mammalia on Java have been estimated at about 
fifty, llie habits and manners of the larger animals, the 
tiger, leopard, black tiger, rhinoceros and stag, and two species 
of deer, tlie varieties of the wild-hog, &c. are sufficiently known; 
but the hdnfengy or Javan ox, the Javan buffalo, the varieties 
of the wild-dog, those of the weasel and squirrel, and most of 
the other smaller quadnipeds, still present ciuious subjects fiir 
the study of the naturalist. Next to tlie rhinoceros, which 

" almost infallible remedy in the root of the radix toxicaria of Rhmn- 
•* j)hius, which, if timely applied, counteracted, by its riolent emetic 
'* effect, the force of the upas. An intelligent Javan of Banyuwangi 
'* informed me, that a number of years ago an inhabitant of that district 
'* waK wounded in n clandestine manner, by an arrow thrown from a Uow- 
'* ]>ipe, in the foro-ann, near the articulation of the elbow. In about 
'* fifteen minutoH he became drowsv ; after which he was seiied with 
** vomiting, became delirious, and in less than half an hour he died. From 
•• the exiHTiments above related, we may form an analogous estimate of 
** its probable effect* on man." Bnfnrinn Tranx/ictions, vol. vii. 



ANIMAL KINGDOM. 57 

etimes (though rarely at present) injures plantations, the 
1-hogs are the most destructive animals. They are often 
toned (or intoxicated, according to the quantity they con- 
e) by the kdldk kdmbingy or by the remains firom the 
Miration of brom. The practice of suspending rags im- 
pmted with urine, at small distances around the plan- 
-gOBj is universal over the whole island. These Aninrmlg are 
[ to have so violent an aversion to this odour, that even 

^.feeble barrier" is useful in preserving the plantations. . 
[ask, called dedesy is procured firom the r€u4. 
Itfaough the same qualities are ascribed to them here as in 
sr countries, bezoars are comparatively scarce in Java; 

those occasionally found in the maritime capitals are 
bnnly brought firom other countries. The hog-deer and 
obar pigeon are not natives ; and although wild-hogs, in 
ch bezoars are said to be found, are very abundant, they 

never examined or approached by the natives. Every 
nordinary concretion, calculus, ossification, &c. found in 

part of an animal, is called mustikay which corresponds to 
bezoar of the Arabs, Persians, &c. A concretion of feathers 
id in the stomach of a fowl is called mtistika dyamy and is 
^fully preserved. A stony concretion, discovered acci- 
tally by the rattling of a human skull exposed for many 
re to the action of the sun, has been denominated mustika 
ngj and the most salutary virtues ascribed to it Ana- 
ms to the bezoars, must be considered the horns of the 
loceros, whose virtues are highly prized. 
Lmong the domestic fowls, or poultry', are the turkey, which 
comparatively scarce, and chiefly raised for the tables of 
ropeans ; the goose, which is very common near all the 
tblishments of Europeans ; the b^heky or duck, abundant 
every part of the island; the common fowl and pigeons, 
ong the birds of prey, the eagle is not found ; but there 

several varieties of the falcon, of which the jdko wuru 
the largest ; also the carrion crow and the owl. Of tlie 
rot kind, two only, the b^tet and selindity are found on Java. 
J peacock (merdk)y is very common in large forests. Tlie 
ober of distinct species of birds has been estimated not 
Uly to exceed two hundred, of which upwards of one hun- 
i and seventy have been described, and are already con- 



58 ANIMAL KINGDOM. 

lained in the collections made on account of the English Eail 
India Company. 

The dorsal feathers of the white heron, and the vent fealhcn 
of the sdndang I4w4y are employed, as substitutes for ostiidi 
feathers, by the natives, for plumes, &c. It is very rarely that 
the feathers of geese, &c. are employed for beds or pillows, As 
silky cotton of the kdpok being preferred on account of its 
coolness. For ornamenting the arrows of the natives, At 
feathers of some of the falcon tribe are chiefly employed. 

Among the interesting subjects which still remain open tat 
search, are the habits and constitution of the hinindo eica- 
lenta, the small swallow which forms the edible nests, anm- 
ally exported in large quantities from Java and the Easten 
Islands for the Cliinese market These birds not only abomd 
among the cliffs and caverns of the south coast of the islandi 
but inhabit the fissiu^es and caverns of several of the mountains 
and hills in the interior of the coimtry. From every obwrra* 
tion which has been made on Java, it has been inferred, thil 
the mucilaginous substance, of which the nests are formed, is 
not, as has been generally supposed, obtained from the ocean. 
The birds, it is true, generally inhabit the caverns in the vi- 
cinity of the sea, as agreeing best witli their habits, and aflbid* 
ing them the most convenient retreats for attaching their nests 
to ; but several caverns are found inland, at a distance of fertf 
or fifty miles from the sea, containing nests similar to those on 
the shore. From many of their retreats along the southem 
coast, they have been observed to take their fli^tin an inland 
direction, towards the pools, lakes, and extensive marshes co- 
vered with stagnant water, as affording them abundance of 
their food, which consists of flies, musquitos, gnats, and small 
insects of every description. Tlie sea Uiat washes the foot of 
the clifTs, where they most abound, is ahnost always in a state 
of the most violent agitation, and aflords none of those sab- 
istances which have been supposed to constitute the food of the 
esculent swallow. Another species of swallow on this island 
forms a nest, in which grass or moss, &c. are merely aggla- 
tinatcd bv a substance, exactiv similar to that of which exclu- 
sivoly the edible nests consist. This substance, from what- 
ever part of these regions tlie nests be derived, is essentially 
uniform, differing only in the coloiu-, according to the relative 



ANIMAL KINGDOM. 59 

of the JnesU, It exhibits none of those diversities which 
t be expected, if it were collected casually (like the mud 
•■ployed by the martin, and the materials commonly employed 
fanesl-making), and appUed to the rocks. If it consisted of 

substances usually supposed, it would be putrescent and 



Dr. Horsfield thinks that it is an animal elaboration^ per- 
kqis a kind of secretion ; but to determine its nature accurately, 
il diooldbe caiefuUy analyzed, the anatomy of the bird should 
be investigated, and its character and habits watched. 

The kayman of the Dutch, the bodya of the Malays, and the 
Mjfo or bdpU of the Javans, which abounds along the shores 
sod in the principal rivers of the island, resembles more the 
cnoodile of Egypt than that of the Ganges, or the American 
affigalinr. The character of the lacerta crocodiles, as given in 
Ae SysEtema Naturae, applies to the Javan crocodile, with this 
difaen ce, that in the latter the two crests of the tail coalesce 
fowards the extremity, in which respect it agrees with that of 
fte Ganjges ; but its head and jaws are broad, and rounded, 
la its manners, habits, and destructive qualities, it resembles 
the largest animals of this genus. Next to the crocodile in size 
is the i^wak of tlie Malays, or menfdwak or selira of the 
Javana. It scnnetimes attains the length of six or seven feet, 
and lives near tibe banks of rivers and marshes. Its character 
agrees with those of the lacerta monitor. It is erroneously de- 
nominated the guana by Europeans. The eggs of this animal, 
as well as of the crocodile, are eaten by the natives, and the 
6t is collected for medical purposes. A small lizard, the 
Ompiom of the Javans, is erroneously called the chameleon, in 
consequence of the property of changing its colour. It has the 
specific characters of the guana, but is much smaller, seldom 
exceeding eighteen or twenty inches in length. There are 
various other lizards. 

Two varieties of the turtle, p4nyu and p^yu kombanyj are 
found in the seas surrounding Java. Both yield the substance 
called tortoise-shell, but they are seldom taken of sufficient 
size to render it valuable : the flesh is excellent Another 
kind, of which the species is unknown, renders a thicker shell. 
Kuro is the name of the common land-tortoise, which is found 
very abundantly in particular districts. 



60 ANIMAL KINGDOM. 

Besides the raiia esculenta, green fix>g (kddok ijk o( ihe '\ 
Javans) which is frequently eaten, and the kddok benjuy then *■ 
is the common toad, kodoky and the bdnkonffBJxd kintel. He ^ 
frog-fish (rana paradosa), or a variety of it, is also found on the ^ 
island, and has been exhibited in the same supposed metip ^' 
morphosis as in other countries. No noxious quality of aaj ^ 
of these animals is here known. ' 

It is uncertain whether the boa constrictor be found on Jam - 
The serpent usually called the ul<ir sdwa is a species of coluba^ f 
and has been described in one of the volumes of the BataTua ]f 
Transactions ; but several other species are found which anife > 
at a very large size. One of them, the ular Idnanffy is raj ' 
much dreaded by the natives, and said to be poisonous. Of Ae : 
ular sdwa there are several varieties, one of which, ulartAm 
mdchan^ is most beautifrdly variegated. Upwards of twenlf \ 
serpents are enumerated as poisonous. The ^lar IdmpeJtk 
found at or near the discharge of large rivers into the oceaip 
and is more abundant in some districts than in others. Hue 
is greatly dreaded by the natives ; its bite however is raidy 
mortal, and the effects are comparatively slow, death sddiMi 
occurring within twenty-four hours from the time of its in* 
fiiction. No remedies which desen'^e notice are known by Ae 
natives : charms and superstitious applications are genenDj 
resorted to. The most remarkable serpent is the Alar kdJai^ 
or kdrang, Tlie Ctlar Idnang^ and some of the varieties tffar 
sdita are slender, and possess considerable agility. According 
to the accomit of the natives, they frequently ascend trees, and 
suspending themselves by the extremity of their tail, seize 
upon small animals passing below ; but the true ^lar eotra of 
tlie K astern Javans is slow, tliick, and imwieldy. Nothing 
which could illustrate its supposed power of fascination hu 
been noticed. 

Of the fish most common] v used for food bv the natives, 
many of which are excellent and abundant, tliirty-foiu" species 
of river fish, seven foimd chiefly in pools or stagnant watere, 
and sixteen sea fish, are already enumerated by Dr. Horsfield. 
The classes of amphibia and pisces, doubtless, afford many 
new subjects for investigation. Valent\Ti enumerates five hun- 
dred and twenty -eij^ht uncommon kinds of fish found in the 
\*aterR of tht» Kastern Islands. 



ANIMAL KINGDOM. 01 

Honey and wax are produced by three species of bees, 
babiting the largest forests, but they are both collected in 
■7 inconsiderable quantities. Bees are occasionally domes- 
ated by the Arabs and Indians near the large settlements^ 
It nerer by the natives. Silk-worms were once introduced 
f Ac Dutch near Batavia, but attention to them did not 
ctend among the natives. The chrysalis of the large atlas 
fards a coarse silk, which is however not collected for use. 
b die fruit, several insects, and to the com while in the ear, 
peculiar species, generally known by the name of wdlang- 
imgU, are most destructive. The latter has in some years 
eitroyed the growth of whole districts, and occasioned partial 
mdty. The natives attempt, in some instances, to extirpate 
by burning chaff and brimstone in the fields. There are 
scxpioDS and centipedes, but their bite is considered of little 
nsequence : the natives generally apply a cataplasm of 
uons to the wound. The class of insects affords many new 
ijects ; specimens of most of the genus papilio, and many of 
lier genera have already been collected. 
Java does not afford the same opportunities for beautiful 
Oections of shells as the Moluccas, Papua, and other Islands. 
QDg the nortbem coast, few shells are found of beauty or 
(iehr, and the corallines have mostiy lost their integrity by at- 
iob; bat the extensive bays in the southern shore contain 
Dj of these objects in a state of beautjr and perfection. 



CHAPTER IT. 

Ori^n of the Nirftcef — JmMmt compared with Maldfim aad BigU^^Oi 
rative Progress of ike three Races — Foreigm h^taemes Ptrmms ^ 
Natives — Manners — Population — InequaUty qf it aeeosmted fo r ft 
tion Tables— Increase of PopulatuM— Foreign Settlers— Ckiuete Bi 
Mtddyus — Moors — Arabs — Slaves — GradatUms qf RcmJb among tke J 
— Their Habitations^ Dress, and Food, 

.The inhabitants of Java seem to owe thdr origiii to the i 
stock, from which most of the islands lying to the Boutkcl 
eastern Peninsula of Asia appear to have been first peo] 
This stock is evidently Taitar, and has, by its niHBamHi 
wide-spreading branches, not only extended itself ova 
Indian Archipelago, but over the neighbouring CoMtii 
*^ To judge from external appearance, that is to say, : 
^ shape, size, and feature,*' observes Dr. Francv BqgIm 
in his Notices on the Birman Empire *, ^ there is tmrn 
'* extensive nation that inhabits the east of Asia. It inel 
*^ the eastern and western Tartars of the Chinese antfaoora, 
'^ Calmucs, the Chinese, the Japanese, and other tribes i 
*^ biting what is called the Peninsula of India beyond 
" Ganges, and the islands to the south and east <^ tibi 
*^ far at least as New Guinea.** — ^' This nation,** adds the i 
author, ^ may be distinguished by a short, squat, id 
'' fleshy stature, and by features highly different from thoi 
" an European. The face is somewhat in shape of a lose 
*^ the forehead and chin being sharpened, whilst at the c1 
" bones it is very broad. The eyebrows; or superciliaiy lid 
**" in this nation, project very little, and the eyes are 
*^ narrow, and placed rather obliquely in the head, the 
** temal angles being the highest The nose is veiy si 
'^ but has not, like that of the negro, the appearance of h 
^^ flattened, and the apertures of the nostrils, which in 

* Asiatic Researches, vol. v. page 219» octavo edition. 



ORIGIN OF THE NATIVES. GS 

** European are linear and parallel, in them are nearly cir- 
** cnlar and divergent, for the $epium narium being much 
^ thickest towards the lace, places them entirely out of the 
^ parallel line. The mouths of this nation are in general well 
** shaped; their*hair is harsh, lank, and black. Those of 
^ them that live even in the highest climates do not obtain the 
** deep hue of the negro or Hindu ; nor do such of them as 
** fire in the coldest climates acquire the clear bloom of the 
^ European.''. 

• But althon^ the Javans are to be included* under this 
general description, it does not follow that they bear an exact, 
cr Teiy striking resemblance, in person and feature, to the 
Chinese or Japanese, nor even that they are liable to be con- 
fiRmded with the Birmans or Siamese.* From the former. 
Meed, they aie fiur removed by many obvious characteristics; 
Ihoo^ more nearly resembling the latter, they possess 
peculiarities, which mark them out to the most careless 
as a race distinct and s^>arate for ages, though still 
f^'"'"g general traces of a common origin. As we approach 
flie limits of savage life, and recur to that inartificial, unim- 
ftmred state of society^, in which the primitiv<e divergence may 
be siqipoeed to have taken place, we shall find the points of 
naemblance increased, and the proofs of a common descent 
■nltqplied. The less civilized of the tribes inhabiting the 
idands, approach so nearly, in physical appearance, to that 
portion of the inhabitants of the Peninsula, which has felt least 
of Ae Chinese influence on the one side, and of the Birman and 
on the other, and ^exhibit so striking an affinity in their 
and customs, as to warrant the hypothesis that the tide 
of popidation originally flowed towards die islands, firom that 
quarter of the Continent lying between Siam and China.* But 
at what era this migration commenced; whether, in the first 
inatance, it was purely accidental and subsequently gradual ; 
or whether, originally, it was undertaken from design, and 
accelerated, at any particular periods, by political convulsions 
en die Continent, we cannot at present determine with any 
certainty, as we have no data on which to rely with con- 
fidence. It is probable, however, that the islands were peo« 
pled at a very remote period, and long before the Birman 
and Siamese nations rose into notice. 



04 ORIGIN OF THE NATIVES. 

Whatever opinion may be formed on the identity of the 
tribes inhabiting these Islands and the neighbouring Penin- 
sula, the striking resemblance in person, feature, language^ 
and customs, which prevails throughout the whole Archipe- 
lago, justifies the conclusion, that its original population issued 
from the same source, and that the peculiarities which distin- 
guish the different nations and communities into which it is at 
present distributed, are the result of a long separation, Iocs! 
circumstances, and the intercourse of foreign traders, emi- 
grants, or settlers. 

Excluding the Philippines, as distant from the scene of 
our present obsen-ations, it may be noticed, that of the three 
chief nations in these islands, occupying respectively Jan, 
Siunatra, and Celebes, the first has, especially by its monl 
habits, by its superior civilization and improvements, obtained 
a broader and more marked characteristic than the othen 
Both the Malayan and Biigi^ nations are maritime and cam 
mercial, devoted to speculations of gain, animated by a spirit 
of adventure, and accustomed to distant and hazardous enter- 
prises ; while the Javans, on the contrary, are an agricultural 
race, attached to the soil, of quiet habits and contented diqNK 
sitions, almost entirely unacquainted with navigation and 
foreign trade, and little inclined to engage in either. Thb 
difference of character may perhaps be accounted for, by tibe 
great superiority of the soil of Java to that of the otlur 
two islands. 

It is to be regretted, that our information on the state and 
progress of society in these islands is scanty, as Europeani 
only became acquainted with them when they were on their 
decline. The Malayan empire, which once extended over aD 
Sumatra *, and the capital of which is still nominally at Me- 
ndng-kdbaU on that island, had long been dismembered ; but 
its colonies were found established on the coasts of the Penin- 
sula and throughout the Islands, as far east as the Moluccas. 
The Mahometan institutions had considerably obliterated their 
ancient character, and had not only obstructed their improve- 
ment, but had accelerated their decline. Traditional histocr 
concurs with existing moniunents, in proving tliem to have 

• »Sec Miu-sden> Sumatra. 



ORIGIN OF THE NATIVES. «;> 

faimeilj made considerable advances in those arts, to which 
their industry and ingenuity were particularly directed, and 
ibej still bear marks of that higher state of civilization which 
tbqr once enjoyed. 

What the Malayan empire was on Sumatra, in the western 
part of the Archipelago, that of Guah or Mengkasafj was on 
Cekbes in the east ; but the people of this latter nation, whom 
we may generaUy designate by the name of BUgis, had not 
been equally influenced by foreign settlers nor exposed to the 
inroads of the Arab missionaries, and they consequently main- 
tained their ancient worship and their native institutions for a 
kmger period. Like the Mal^yuSj they sent forth numerous 
colonies, and at one period extended the success of their arms 
as &r west as Acheen on Sumatra, and K^ddah on the Malayan 
peninsula, and in almost every part of the Archipelago, Ma- 
layan and Bdffis settlers and establishments are to be found. 

The Javans, on the contrary, being an agricultural people, 
are seldom met with out of their native island. At one period 
of their history, indeed, their power seems to have been ex- 
erted in acquiring or perpetuating foreign dominion, and they 
seem to have sent out colonies to Borneo, the Peninsula, Su- 
matra, and probably Celebes : but when Europeans became 
acquainted with them, their external influence appears to have 
been contracted, and their sovereignty nearly confined within 
the limits of Java itself. Their foreign establishments thus re- 
ceiving from them no protection, and deriving no advantage 
from nominal obedience, declared their independence : and, 
having but little communication with the mother-country, 
soon became assimilated to the character, and merged into the 
body of the Malayan nation. 

The comparative advancement of these three nations in the 
auts of civilized life, seems to be directly as the fertility of the 
soil they occupied, or the inducements they held out to foreign 
intercourse ; and inversely, as the indulgence of their own 
roving, adventurous spirit, and piratical habits. The arts 
never fix their roots but in a crowded population, and a 
crowded population is generally created only on a fertile terri- 
tory. Egypt, from the fertility of soil and the consequent 
density of its population, led the way in science and refine- 
ment among ancient nations ; while the sterile tracts conti- 

VOL. I. F 



iHi PERSONS OF THE NATIVES. 

guous to Uiat favoured land have been inhabited^ from prin 
times, by dispersed tribes of miimproved barbarians. In 
manner, Java having become populous from iU natural 
tility, and having, by its wealth and the salubrity ol 
climate, invited the visits of more enlightened strangers, 
made great progress in arts and knowledge ; while the B 
being more deficient in these advantages, have been left 
siderably behind in the race of improvement They maj 
claim, however, to the most originality of character. 

It will be the object of another part of this work, to i 
the source of that foreign influence, to which these t 
nations are principally indebted for their civilization: '. 
therefore, it may not be necessary to advert to the cun 
stance further, than by generally observing, that from we 
Asia they received the rudiments and impulse of improven 
an inference abundantly justified by the extensive remau 
the arts, institutions, and languages of that country, whicl 
still to be found throughout the Archipelago. 

< The inhabitants of Java and Madura are in stature n 
below the middle size, though not so short as the BUgii 
many of the other islanders. They are, upon the whole, 
shaped, though less remarkably so than the Maldyma^' 
erect in their figures. Their limbs aic slender, and the n 
and ankles particularly small. • In general, they aUow the 1 
to retain its natural shape. The only exceptions to this dl 
vation are, an attempt to prevent the growth, or to reduo< 
size of the waist, by compressing it into the narrowest lii 
and the practice still more injurious to female elegano 
drawing too tightly that part of the dress which coven 
bosom. Deformity is very rare among them. The fiyrehe 
high, the. eyebrows well marked and distant fiN)m the < 
which are somewhat Chinese^ or rather Tartar, in the fb 
tion of tlic iiuicr angle. Tlie colour of the eye is dark ; 
nose small and somewhat flat, but less so than that ol 
islanders in general. The mouth is well formed, but the 
are large, and their beauty generally injured by the practit 
filing and dyeing the teeth black, and by the use of loibi 
tiri, &c. Tlie cheek-bones are usually prominent; the b 
very scanty ; the hair of the head generally lank and b 
but sometimes waving in curls, and parti^y tinged wi 
deep reddish brown colour. The countenance is mild, ji 



PERSONS OF THE NATIVES. 07 

and thoughtfiil, and easily expresses respect, gaiety, earnest - 
UBUy iDdifference, bashfulness, or anxiety. 
• In complexion, the Javans, as well as the other eastern 
idandersy may be considered rather as a yellow than a copper- 
ecdoured or black race. Their standard of beauty, in this 
icqMCty is '^ a Tirgin-gold colour :*! except perhaps in some 
few districts in the mountainous parts of the country, where a 
nddy tinge is occasioned by the climate, they want the degree 
of r&d requisite to give them a copperish hue. It may be 
observed, however, that they are generally darker than the 
tribes of the neighbouring islands ; especially the inhabitants 
of the eastern districts, who may indeed be considered as 
having more delicate features, and bearing a more distinct 
impressian of Indian colonization, than those of the Western 
or SUnda districts. The Si^ndas exhibit many featiu^s of a 
mountainous race. They are shorter, stouter, hardier, and 
more active men, than the inhabitants of tlie coast and eastern 
districts. In some respects they resemble the Madurese, who 
display a more martial and independent air, and move with a 
bolder carriage than the natives of Java. A considerable dif- 
fifkence exists in person and features between the higher and 
kmrer classes ; more indeed than seems attributable to differ- 
ence of employment and treatment The featiu^s and limbs 
of the chiefs are more delicate, and approach more nearly to 
those of the inhabitants of Western India, while those of the 
common people retain more marked traces of the stock from 
which the idands were originally peopled. In colour there 
are many different shades in different families and different 
districts, some being much darker than others. Among many 
of the chiefs a strong mixture of the Chinese is clearly dis- 
cernible : the Arab features are seldom found, except among 
the priests, and some few families of the highest rank. 

The women, in general, are not so good-looking as the men ; 
and to Europeans many of them, particularly when advanced 
in years, appear hideously ugly. But among the lower orders, 
much of this deficiency of personal comeliness is doubtless to 
be attributed to the severe duties which they have to perform 
in the field, to the hardships they have to undergo in carrying 
oppressive btffdens, and to exposure in a sultry climate. On 
the neighbouring island of Bdli^ where the condition of the 

F 2 



(iM POPITI.ATJON TABI.KS. 

wnnicn among the peasaiitrv does not ap})ear by any means so 
oijpressed and de«p*aded, tliey exhibit considerable personal 
beauty ; and even on Java, the higher orders of tliem being kept 
within-doors, have a very decided superiority in this respect 

In manners the Javans are easy and courteous, and re- 
spectful even to timidity ; they have a great sense of propriety, 
and are never nide or abru])t. In their deportment they are 
pliant and graceful, the people of condition carrj-ing with 
them a considerable air of Fashion, and receiving the gaze 
of the curious without being at all disconcerted. In their 
delivery they are in general veiy circumspect and even slow, 
though not deficient in animaticm when necessarj'. 

• Here, as on Sumatra, there are certain mountainous dis- 
tricts, in which the peo])le are subject to those large wens 
in the throat, tenucd in Eurojie f/offres.* Tlie cause is gene- 
rally ascribed by tlie natives to the (juality of the water ; but 
there seems good ground for concluding, that it is rather to be 
traced to the atmosphere. In ])roof of this it may be men- 
tioned, that there, is a village near the foot of the Teng'gar 
mountains, in tlie eastern part of tlie island, where every 
family is afflicted by this malady, while in another viUagCi 
situated at a greater elevation, and tlm)ugh which the stream 
descends which serves for the use of botli, there exists no such 
deformity. These wens are considered hereditar}' in some &- 
milies,* and seem thus independent of situation. A branch of 
the family of the ])resent Adipdti of Bdnditng is subject to 
them, and it is remarkable that they prevail chiefly among the 
women in that family. Tliey neitlier produce positive sufieriDg 
nor occasion early death, and may be considered rather as de- 
fonnities tlian diseases. It is never attempted to remove them. 

'File population of Java is veryunequally distributed, whether 
we consider the fertility or the extent of the districts over which 
it is s})read. llie great ma.ss of it lies in the eastern and na- 
tive districts, as will be perceived from the annexed tables. 

llie table No. 1., is compiled from materials collected by a 
cimunittee appointed on the first establishment of the British 
govennnent, to enqum* and re])ort on the state of the countr}'. 
It will be foimd to illustrate, in some degree, the proportionate 
numbers of the different ranks and cla«ssi*s of sfKrietv in the 
island. Beyond this, however, it cannot be depended upon, 
a< the returns of which it is an abstract were made at a period 



POPULATION TABLl'S. 69 

when the Dutch system of administratiou provisionally re- 
mained in force ; and every new enquir}' into tlic state of the 
coontn' heing at that time considered by the people as a pre- 
lude to some new tax or oppression, it became an object with 
them to conceal the full extent of the population: accordingly 
it was found to differ essentially in amount from the results of 
information subsequently obtained on the introduction of the 
detailed land-revenue settlement, when an agreement witli each 
individual cultivator becoming necessary to the security of his 
possession, he seldom failed to satisfy tlie necessary enquiries. 
Tie table No. II., here exhibited, at least as far as regards the 
European provinces, may therefore be considered as faithful a 
riew of the population of the comitry as could be expected, and 
as such, notwitlistanding the inaccuracies to which all such 
accounts are liable, it is presented with some confidence to tlie 
public. 

It was formed in the following maimer. A detailed account 
of the peasantry of each village was first taken, containing the 
name of each male inhabitant, with other particulars, and from 
the aggregate of these village lists a generaJ statement was con- 
structed of the inhabitants of each subdivision and district. An 
abstract was again drawn up from these provincial accounts, 
exhibiting the state of each residency in which the districts 
were respectively included, and the totals of these last, col- 
lected into one tabular view, constitute the present abstract 
The labour of this detailed sun^ev was considerable, for as 
each individual cultivator was to receive a lease corresponding 
with the register taken, it was necessary that the land he rented 
should be carefidly measured and assessed *. 

• The Javan mode of taking account of population is by the number 
of chacha, or *' families." as it is usually rendered, though the word strictly 
means '* enumeration." When the sovereign assigns lands, it is not usual 
for him to express the extent of land, but the number of chacha attached 
to it. But as the population of the land so granted varies, the original 
ex])ression becomes inaccurate. In the native provinces, the number of 
chachas reckoned is almost invariably less than the number actuidly exist- 
ing, a clear proof, if the original census was correct, that in those pro- 
vinces population has increased. An account of the number of chachas 
was taken some few years back by the Sultan of Yugya-ke'rta, with a view 
to a new distribution of the lands ; but the measure wa.s very mipopular, 
and no accurate results were obtained. The Dutch relied, entirely upon 
this loose Hy><tem of enumeration. 



HI 

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ithS-M^-iW'- f I* 



ims^piiyiiii 5 '» 



6||3||llslfH^S?3 !.| SX 



UAmisammi «i n 






iiiiBSiiBap II II 






IIHIIllllIP B II 



IHIIiHIlffiili i II 



f H|j!!6p.|«ME|| Si IS 



M|ii.p.tm«}i»| K| 5* 



ill 

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iPl 
III 



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3ll. 



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ii 



til 
i 



POPULATION. 71 

By the last table, it appears that m some districts the popu- 
lilioD is in the ratio of two hundred and eighty-one to a square 
oile, while in others it is not more than twenty-four and three 
quarters : in the districts of Bcmyuwdngi it is even as low as 
leren. Hie soil in the eastern districts b generaUy considered 
WKpmat to that in the western, and this circumstance, added 
to the superior facilities which they affoid to commerce, may 
tore to account for their original selection as the chief seat of 
the native government, and consequently for their denser po- 
pulation at an early period. 

This diiproportion was also promoted by the policy of the 
Dutch Company. The Dutch first established themselves in 
the western division, and having no confidence in the natives, 
cndeaTOured to drive them firom the vicinity of Batavia, with 
die view of establishing round their metropolis an extensive 
nd desert barrier. The forced services and forced deliveries, 
lUch extended wherever Dutch influence could be felt, and 
of which more will be said hereafter, contributed to impoverish, 
md thereby to depopulate the country. The drain also of the 
ionounding districts, to supply the place of the multitudes 
idu) perished by the unhealthy climate of Batavia, must have 
wen enormous ; and if to these we add the checks to popula- 
ion, which were created over Bantam, the Pridng*en Regen- 
ries, and Ch^ribon, in the pepper and cofiee cultivation, of the 
lature of which an account will be given when treating of the 
igricultuie of the country, we need go no fiirther to account for 
he existing disproportion. It was only about sixty years ago 
hat the Dutch government first obtained a decided influence in 
he eastern districts, and firom that moment, the provinces sub- 
ected to its authority ceased to improve, and extensive emigra- 
ions took place into the dominions of the native princes. Such 
vere the effects of this desolating system, that the population 
if the province oi Banyuwdngi^ which in 1750 is said to have 
(mounted to upwards of eighty thousand souls, was in 1811 
educed to eight thousand. 

The Pridng*en Regencies, firom their inland situation and 
Qountainous character, may probably have at all times been 
ess closely peopled than other parts of the island, and their 
Dsufficient population would fiumish no proofs of the oppres- 
icms of government, did we not observe extensive tracts, nay 

10 



72 POPULATION. 

whole districts, exhibiting the traces of fonner cultivation, now 
lying waste and overgrown witli long rank grass. Cheribon 
and Bantam have shared the same fate. These provinces, ac- 
cording to autlientic accounts, were at Uie period of the first 
establishment of the Eun>pean government, among the richest 
and most populous of the island. In 1811 tliey were found in 
a state of extreme poverty, affording little or no revenue, aud 
distracted by all tlie aggravated miseries of continued insur- 
rections. 

If we look at Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, the capitals 
of the British government in India: if we look at the great 
cities of everj' nation in Europe ; nay, if we even confine our- 
selves to the capitals of the native princes on Java, we shall 
ihid that po])ulation has always accumulated in their vicinity. 
And why was not this the case with tlie Dutch cai)ital ? The 
climate alone will not ex])lain it. Bad government was the 
principal cause; a system of policy which secured neither 
person nor property — selfish, jealous, vexatious, and tyranni- 
cal. It is no less true tlian remarkable, that wherever the 
Dutch influence has prevailed in the Eastern Seas, depopula- 
tion has followed. The Moluccas particidarly have suffered at 
least as much as any part of Java, and the population of those 
Islands, reduced as it is, has been equally oppressed and de- 
gi'aded. 

It was fortunate for the interests of humanity, and for the 
ini])()rtance of Java, that tlie native governments were less 
op])rossive than the sway of tlieir European conquerors, and 
that tlicir states aflbrded a retreat from a more desolating 
tvrannv. It has been ascertained, tliat, on the first establish- 
iiu*nt of the Dutch in the eastern part of the Island, the inha- 
bitants of whole districts at once migrated into the native 
provinces. Ever}- new act of rigour, every unexpected exac- 
tion, (K'c-asioni'd a further migration, and cultivation was 
transferred to tracts which had previously scarcely a family on 
them. 'Jliis state of things continued down to the latest date 
of tlie Dutch government. During the administration of 
Marshal Daendels, in the years 1808, 1809, and 1810, nearly 
all the inhabitants of the province of Dewak^ one of the richest 
in the eastern districts, fled into the native provinces ; and 
M hen an order was given for the rigid enforcement of the cofiee 



P()PUI^\TION. 7:3 

mooopolyy eveiy district suffered in its population, in propor- 
tioD to the extent of service levied upon it Of the sacrifice of 
fires by thousands and tens of thousands, to fill the ranks of the 
Dutch native army, and to construct roads and public works, 
we shall speak more at large hereafter. 
•Hie total population of Java and Madiira appears^firom the 
Table No. 11./ to amount to^ 4,615,270, of which about foui* 
minions and a half may be considered as the indigenous popu- 
htiiHi of the country, and the rest as foreign settlers.* Itine- 
lants, who are principally found along the coast in the different 
maritime and commercial capitals, are not included ; neither is 
the nautical population, which cannot be estimated at less than 
9D,000 souls; so that the whole population of these two 
idands may, perhaps, be taken in round numbers at not much 
less than five millions. Of these.not less than three millions 
are in the provinces immediately subject to European autho- 
rity, and upwards of a million and a half in the provinces of 
the native princes. ' 

While the British were in possession of Java, there is reason 
to believe that the population of the Island was rapidly increas- 
ing ; that of the provinces immediately under the European 
authority was certainly augmented by the return of nionerous 
families firom emigration : but previously to that period, no such 
authentic registers were kept as might enable us to ascertain 
with precision the variations in the number of the inhabitants 
during the Dutoh government 

Nothing can more completely shew the vague and defective 
information formerly attainable on this subject, than the loose 
and contradictory statements published by those who took 
most pains to be well informed, and who felt it their duty to 
collect all the light that could be attained. In some accounts 
which have met the public eye, the population of Java is placed 
on a level with that of the most powerftil European states, and 
assumed as high as thirty millions, while in others, where one 
would expect more accuracy *, it is rated at only a million. 
The most respectable authorities t state tlic population about 
a century ago at three millions; but the slightest reflection will 
convince us, that such an estimate must have proceeded upon 

• Colquhown'8 Statistical Account of Great Britain. f Valentyn. 



74 POPULATION. 

data merely coDJectural, for from our knowledge of the Dutch 
maxims of administration we may safely say, that until reiy 
lately, they never thought it an object to prosecute statiatic 
enquiries, and that if ever they had done so, under the M 
system, they could have obtain^ no results deserving of con- 
fidence or credit 

About the year 1750, a certain number of families wm 
assigned by the stipulations of a treaty to one of the native 
princes * ; and on his death, about thirty years afterwards^ 
when an account was taken of this population, it appeared 
that the number of families had nearly doubled. But this in- 
crease cannot be taken as the average increase of the Island, 
for at this period the native provinces received a considerable 
accession to their numbers, in consequence of the emigrations 
from the Dutch territories. 

If any inference can be drawn from this and other corres- 
ponding circumstances, it would seem, that notwithstanding 
tlic drains on the existing race, and the preventive checks to 
an increase, which were experienced during the latter years of 
the Dutch administration, the island was actually more popu- 
lous in 1811, when it was surrendered to the British, than in 
1750, when at the termination of a destructive war, the Dutch 
acquired the greatest portion of it from the natives. 

To support the opinion of an increase within the last half 
century (which is every where asserted) we have the assurance, 
that during that period the greatest internal tranquillity pie- 
vailed in the provinces subject to native administration ; that 
no years of scarcity and fieunine were experienced, and that the 
island was blessed with genial seasons and abundance of sub- 
sistence. But to place in the opposite scale, we have the 
government oppressions to which wc formerly alluded, and 
which one would suppose sufficient to coimteract the natuiml 
tendency of these advantages. As demonstrative of the strength 
of tliat principle of ]>opulation, which could even maintain its 
stationary amoiuit in conflict with political drains and discou- 
ragements, it may be proper to mention cursorily a few of them. 
Great demands were, at all times, made on the peasantry of the 
island, to recruit the ranks of the Dutch army, and to supply 

* Tlie grandfather of the present Prince Prang HetAwe. 



POPULATION. 75 

the many other wants of the public sendee ; the severities and 
coBiequent mortalitj to which the troops were liable, may be 
cakolaled, from the reluctance of the unfortunate wretches, 
idected as victims of military conscription, to engage in the 
duties of a militaiy life. Confined in unhealthy garrisons, 
eqKMed to unnecessary hardships and privations, extraordinaiy 
ctioalties took place among them, and frequent new levies be- 
came necessaiy , while the anticipation of danger and suffering 
produced an aversion to the senice, which was only aggravated 
Ij the subsequent measures of cruelty and oppression. The 
CQOScripts raised in the provinces were usually sent to the me- 
tropolis by water; and though the distance be but short between 
any two points of the island, a mortality, similar to that of aslave- 
diipin the middle passage, took place on board these recepta- 
cles of reluctant recruits. They were generally confined in the 
stocks till their arrival at Batavia, and it is calculated that for 
every man that entered the army and performed the duties of a 
soldier, several lives were lost Besides the supply of the army, 
one half of the male population of the country was constantly 
held in readiness for other public services ; and thus a great 
portion of the effective hands were taken fix>m their families, 
and detained at a distance from home, in labours which broke 
their spirit and exhausted their strength. During the adminis* 
tralion of Marshal Daendels, it has been calculated that the 
construction of public roads alone, destroyed the lives of at 
least ten thousand workmen. The transport of government 
stores, and the capricious requisitions of government agents of 
all classes, perpetually harassed, and firequently carried off 
numbers of the people. If to these drains we add the waste of 
life occasioned by insurrections, which tyranny and impolicy 
excited and fomented in Ch^ribon, the blighting effects of the 
coffee monopoly, and forced services in the Pridng^en Regen-^ 
cies, and the still more desolating operation of the policy pur- 
sued and consequent anarchy produced in the province of 
Bantam, we shall have some idea of the depopulating causes 
that existed imder the Dutch administration, and the force of 
that tendency to increase, which could overcome obstacles so 
powerful. 

Most of these drains and checks were removed during the 
short period of British administration ; but it is to be regretted 



7(; POPULATION. 

(so far as accurate data on Uiis subject would be desirable) that 
there was not time to leani satisfactorily the result of a dif- 
ferent system, or to institute tlie proper registers, by which 
alone questions of population can be determined. The only 
document of that kind, to which I can venture to refer as au- 
thentic, is a statement of the births and deaths that occuired in 
the given general population of tlie Pridntfen Regencies fiir 
one year. From this account it would appear, that even in 
these Regencies, where, if we except Batavia, the checks to 
})02)iLlution are allowed to be greater than elsewhere, the births 
were to the total existing population as 1 to 39, and the deaths 
as 1 to 40 very nearly ; that the births exceed the deaths by 
618, or about 1 in 40, in a population of 232,0009 and tliat, at 
that rate, the population woidd double itself in three hundred 
and seventy-five years. A slow increase, certainly, compared 
with England, where tlie births, in tlie three years ending 
1800, were to the persons alive as 1 in 30, and the deaths as 
1 to 49, and where, consequently, the nation would double 
itself in one hundred and sixty years (or taking the enumera- 
tion of 1811 as more correct, where the population would be 
doubled in eighty years) : but not much slower than that uf 
France, wliere, according to the statements of numbers in 1700 
and 1790, about tlu*oe hundred years would l>e required to 
double the uihabitants. It has been estimated that the popu- 
lation in some more favourable districts woidd double itself in 
iil'tv vcars. One inference cannot fail to be drawn from the 
register to which I have referred ; that the births and deaths, 
though they nearly a])proach each otlier, are low, compared 
with the existing numbers ; and that, consequently, the cli- 
mate is healthy, and the marriages not ver}' prolific, as far as 
this district is c<mcemed. 

In the absence of authentic documents, which would have 
t'nabltMl us to resolve many interesting (piestions regarding the ^ 
population, such as the number of children to a marriage, the 
ordinary length of life, the projxirtion of children that die in 
infancy and at the other stages of life, tlie ratio between the 
births and deaths, and the consequent ratt» of increase, the 
dl'ect of ]u)lvganiy and nHilti])lied divorces, the comparative 
licallhiness ofthr timiis and the villages, and several others, — 
1 shall stale a few observations on scmie of these heads, and a 



POPULATION. 77 

few bets tending to shew, that under a l)etter system, of 
goremment, or by the removal of a few of the checks that pre- 
fioiisly existed, Java might, in a short time, be expected to be 
better peopled. 

The soil is in general extremely fertile, and can be brought 
to yield its produce wiih little labour. Many of the best spots 
idll remain uncultivated, and several districts are almost desert 
and neglected, which might be the seats of a crowded and 
happy peasantry. In many places, tlie land does not require 
to be cleared, as in America, from the overgrown vegetation of 
primeval forests, but offers its ser\'ices to the husbandman, 
ahnost free from every obstruction to his immediate lal>ours. 
The agricultural life in which the mass of tlie people arc 
engaged, is on Java, as in every other country', the most 
favourable to health. It not only favours the longevity of the 
existing race, but conduces to its more rapid renewal, by 
leading to early marriages and a numerous progeny. Tlic 
terai of life is not much shorter than in the best climates of 
Europe. A very considerable number of persons of both 
sexes attain the advanced age of seventy or eighty, and some 
even live to one hundred and upwards ; nearly tlie same pro- 
portion survive forty and fifty, as in other genial climates. 

\l1iile life is thus healtliy and prolonged, there are no 
restraints upon the formation of family connexions, by the 
scarcity of subsistence or the labour of supporting children. 
Both sexes arrive at maturity ver}- early, and the customs of 
the country, as well as the nature of the climate, impel them 
to marry yoimg; the males at sixteen, and the females at 
thirteen or fourteen years of age : though frequently the women 
form connexions at nine or ten, and, as Montesquieu expresses 
it, " infancy and marriage go together." Tlie conveniences 
which the married couple require are few and easily procured. 
The impulse of nature is seldom checked by the experience of 
present deficiencies, or the fear of future poverty. Subsistence 
is procured witliout difficulty, and comforts are not wanting. 
Children, who are for a very short period a burden to their 
parents, become early the means of assistance and the source 
of wealth. To the peasant who labours his field witli his own 
hand, and who has more land than he can bring into cultiva- 
tion, they grow up into a species of valuable property, a real 



78 POPULATION. 

treasure ; while, during their ixkfSsmcy and the season of help- 
lessness, they take little firom the firuits of hisindustxybnt bam 
subsistence. 

Their education costs him little or nothing ; scarcely any 
clothing is required, his hut needs very little enlargement, and 
no beds are used. Many of them die in in&ncy from the 
small-pox and other distempers, but never from scanty food or 
criminal neglect of parents. The women of all classes sucUe 
their children, till we ascend to the wives of the regents and 
of the sovereign, who employ nurses. 

Though women soon arrive at maturity, and enter early into 
the married state, they continue to bear children to an ad- 
vanced age, and it is no uncommon thing to see a grandmother 
still making addition to her family. Great families are how- 
ever rare. Though there arc some women who have borne 
thirteen or fourteen children, the average is rather low than 
otlicmisc. A chdchaj or family, is generally less numeroos 
than in Europe, both from the circumstance that the young 
men and women more early leave the houses of their parents 
to form establishments for themselves, and from an injudicious 
mode of labouring among women of the lower ranks. Mis- 
carriages among the latter are frequently caused by over- 
straining themselves in canning excessive burdens, and 
performing oppressive field-work, during pregnancy. Tlie 
average number of persons in a family does not exoeed fimr, 
or four and a half. As the labour of the women is almost 
equally productive with that of the men, female children 
become as much objects of solicitude with their parents as 
male : they are nursed with the same care, and viewed with 
the same pride and tenderness. • In no class of society are 
children of cither sex considered as an incumbrance, or the 
addition to a family as a misfortune ; marriage is thereibre 
almost universal. An unmarried man past twenty is seldom 
to l)e met with, and an old maid is considered a curiosity. 
Ncnther custom, law, or religion, enjoins celibacy on the priest- 
hood, or anv other order of the communitv, and bv none of 
them is it ])ractised. Although no strictness of principle, nor 
strong sense of moral restraint, prevails in the intercotirse of 
the sexes, prostitution is not common, except in the capitals.* 

As the Javans are a quiet domestic people, little given to 



POPULATION. 79 

adventure, dismclined to foreign enteiprize, not easily roused 
to violence or bloodshed, and little disposed to irregularities 
of any kind, there are but few families left destitute in con- 
sequence of hazards incurred or crimes committed by their 
natnral protectors. The character of blood-thirsty revenge, 
which has been attributed to all the inhabitants of the Indian 
Archipelago, by no means applies to the people of Java ; and 
thougji, in all cases where justice is badly administered or 
absolutely perverted, people may be expected to enforce their 
rights or redress their grievances, rather by their own passions 
than by an appeal to the magistrate, comparatively few lives 
aie lost on the island by personal affirays or private feuds. 

Such aie a few of the circumstances that would appear to 
have encouraged an increase of population on Java. They 
furnish no precise data on which to estimate its rapidity, or 
to calculate the period within which it would be doubled, but 
they allow us, if tranquillity and good government were en- 
joyed, to anticipate a gradual progress in the augmentation 
of inhabitants, and the improvements of the soil for a long 
course of time. Suppose the quantity of land in cultivation 
to be to the land still in a state of nature as one to seven, 
which is probably near the truth, and that, in the ordinary 
circumstances of the country, the population would double 
itself in a century, it might go on increasing for three himdred 
years to come. Afterwards the immense tracts of unoccupied 
or thinly peopled territories on Sumatra, Borneo, and the nu- 
merous islands scattered over the Archipelago, may be ready 
to receive colonies, arts, and civilization from the metropolis 
of the Indian seas. Commercial intercourse, friendly rela- 
tions, or political institutions, may bind these dispersed com- 
munities in one great insular commonwealth. Its trade and 
navigation might connect the centre of this great empire with 
Japan, China, and the south-western countries of Asia. New 
Holland, which the adventurous BUgis already frequent, and 
which is not so fax distant from Java as Russia is from 
England, might be included in the circle, and colonies of 
Javans settled on the north, might meet with the British 
spreading from the south, over that immense and now imcul- 
tivated region. If we could indulge ourselves in such reveries 
with propriety, we might contemplate the present semi-bar- 



yo POPULATION. 

barons condition, ignorance, and poverty of these innomerable 
islands, exchanged for a state of refinement, prosperity, and 
happiness. 

I formerly alluded to the oppressions of government, as the 
principal checks to the increase of population on Java. Thae 
are many otliers, such &s the small-pox, and other diseases, 
which are common to tliat country with the rest of the woild. 
From the scattered state of the population, any contagioui 
distemper, such as the small-jiox, was formerly less destruc- 
tive on Java, than in coimtries where the inhabitants are 
more crowded into large toA^Tis, and it is hoped that, from 
the establishment for vaccine inoculation which the British 
govcnmient erected, and endeavoiured to render permanent, its 
ravages may, in time, be entirely arrested. The diseases most 
peculiar to the coiuitry, and most dangerous at all ages, are 
fevers and dysenteries : epidemics are rare. There are two 
moral causes which, on their first mention, will strike eveiv 
one as powerfully calculated to counteract the principle of 
poi)ulation : I mean tlie facility of obtaining divorces, and the 
practice of j)olygamy. A greater weight should not, however, 
be given them than they deserve after a consideration of all 
the circumstances. It is true, tliat separations often take place 
on the slightest grounds, and new connexions are formed mth 
equal frivolity and caprice ; but in whatever light morality 
would view this practice, and however detrimental it would be 
to i)opulation in a different state of society, by leaving the 
children of the marriage so dissolved to neglect and want, 
it has no such consequences on Java. Considering the age at 
which marriages are usually contracted, the choice of the 
partiis cannot be always expected to be considerate or judi- 
cious. It may be obsi^n-cd also tliat the women, although they 
do not appear old at twenty, as Montescjuieu remarks, certainly 
sooner lose tliiit influence over their husbands, which depends 
U])on their beauty and personal attractions, than they do in 
colder climates. In a<Uliti()n to this, there is little moral 
restraint among many classes of the community, and the 
religious maxims and indulg(*nces acted u]>on by the priest- 
hood, in regulating matrimonial sanctions, have no tendency 
to ])n>duce constancy, or to n*])ress inclination. Dissolutions 
of marriage are, therefore, verj* frequent, and obtained upon the 



MARRIAGES. 81 

slightest pretences ; but, as children are always valuable, and 
as there is very little trouble in rearing or providing for them, no 
change of mate, in either party, leads to their abandonment or 
neglect. Indeed, the ease of supporting children, which renders 
the practice less detrimental to the increase of population, may 
be one of the principal causes why it is generally followed and 
so little checked. No professed prostitution or promiscuous 
intercourse is the consequence of this weakness of the nuptial 
tie. It is rather brittle than loose ; it is easily dissolved, but 
while it remains it generally insures fidelity. 

Polygamy, though in all cases it must be injurious to popula- 
tion and happiness, so far as it goes, is permitted on Java, as in 
other Mahomedan countries, by religion and law, but not prac- 
ticed to any great extent. Perhaps the ease of obtaining 
matrimonial separations, by admitting of successive changes of 
wives, diminishes the desire of possessing more than one at a 
time. 

It is plain, likewise, that whatever be the law, the great 
body of the people must have only one wife ; and that, where 
there is nearly an equality of number between the sexes, in- 
equality of wealth or power alone can create an unequal distri- 
bution of women. On Java, accordingly, only the chiefs and 
the sovereign many more than one wife. All tlie chiefs, from 
the regents do^nawards, can only, by the custom of the country, 
have two; the sovereign alone has four. The regents, however, 
have generally three or four concubines, and the sovereign 
eight or ten. Some of the chiefs have an extraordinary 
number of children ; the late Regent of Tuhan is reputed to 
have been the father of no fewer than sixty -eight Such 
appropriations of numerous women as wives or concubines, 
were owing to the political power of native authorities over tlie 
inferior classes ; and as, by the new system, that power is 
destroyed, the evil may to a certain extent be checked. If we 
were to depend upon the statement of a \%Titer whom Mon- 
tesquieu refers to, that in Bantam there were ten women to one 
man, we should be led to conclude with him, that here was a 
case particularly favourable to polygamy, and that such an 
institution was here an appointment of natiure, intended for the 
multiplication of the species, ratlier than an abuse contributing 
to check it. There is not the least foimdation, however, for the 

VOL. I. <' 



H'2 FOREKiN SETILHRS. 

report Tlie })roportiuii of males an<l females bom in Baiitam, 
and over the whole of Java, is nearly the same as in Europe, and 
as we fmd generally to exist, wherever accurate statt*ments can 
be oljUiined. From the information collected in a ven* careful 
suney of one part of the verj- province in question, the prepon- 
dtrrance seemed to be on the side of male children to an extra- 
ordinary degr(»c; the male children being about forty-two 
thousand, and the females only tliirty-five tliousand five hun* 
dred. Tliere were formerly, it is true, great drains on the male 
po])ulation, to which I have before alluded, and which, in the 
advanced stages of life, might turn the balance on the other 
side ; but as they were never so destructive as to render poly- 
gamy a })olitical institution, so that institution was not carried to 
such an extent, as to render it a peculiar obstacle to the progrev 
of population. Upon the \^'hole, we may conclude that in Java, 
under a mild government, there is a great tendency to an in- 
crease in tlie number of inhabitants, and to the consequent im- 
provement and importance of the island. 

besides the natives, whose numbers, circumstances, and cha- 
racter I have slightly mentioned, there is on Java a rapidly 
increasing race of foreigners, who have emigrated finom the 
different surrounding coimtries. The most numerous and im- 
portant class of tliese is the Chinese, who already do not fiJl 
far short of a hundred thousand ; and who, with a system of free 
trade and free cultivation, would soon accumulate tenfold, by 
natiual increase within the island, and gradual accessions of 
new settlers from home. They reside principally in the three 
ca])iUils of Batavia, Samdrang^ and Surabaya^ but they are to 
be found in all the smaller capitals, and scattered over most 
])arts of the country. A great pn)])ortion of them are descended 
from families who have been many generations on the island. 
Additions iu'e gradually making to their numbers. They arrive 
at Hatavia from China, to the amoimt of a thousand and more 
annually, in Chinese junks, carrying three, four, and five hun- 
dre<l each, without money or nisoiu-ces ; but, by dint of their in- 
dustry, soon ac(|uire com])arative opulence. . There are no 
women on Java wlio come directly from China; but as the Chi- 
nese often marr}' the daughters of their countn'raeii by Javan 
women, there results a numemus mixed race, which is often 
scarrrlv distinguishable from the native Chinese. TlieChinerc 



FOREIGN SFTTLERS. s:3 

on their arrival generally marry a Javan woman, or purchase 
a slave from the other islands. The progeny from tliis con- 
nexion, or what may be termed the cross breed between 
the Chinese and Javans, are called in the Dutch accounts 
femAkans. Many return to China annually in the junks, but 
by no means in the same numbers as they arrive. 

The Chinese, in all matters of inheritance and minor affairs, 
tie governed by their ovra laws, administered by their own 
chieft, a captain and several lieutenants being appointed 
by government for each society of them. They are distinct 
from the natives, and are in a high degree more intelligent, 
more laborious, and more luxurious. They are the life and 
soul of the commerce of the countiy. In the native provinces 
they are still farmers of the revenue, having formerly been so 
throughout the island. 

Although still numerous, they are considered to have much 
decreased since the ci\dl war in 1742, during which not only 
a large proportion of the Chinese population was massacred 
by the Dutch in the town of Batavia, but a decree of extermi- 
nation was proclaimed s^ainst them throughout tlie island. 

The natives of the Coromandel and Malabar coast, who 
reside on Java, are usually termed Moors. They appear to be 
the renmant of a once extensive class of settlers ; but their 
numbers have considerably decreased, since the establishment 
of the Dutch monopoly, and the absolute extinction of the 
native trade with India, which we have reason to believe was 
once very extensive. Trading vessels, in considerable numbers, 
still continne to proceed from the Coromandel coast to Su- 
matra, Penang, and Malacca, but they no longer frequent 
Java. 

B4igi8 and Maldyus are established in ail the maritime 
capitals of Java. They have their own quarter of the town 
allotted to them, in the same manner as the Chinese, and are 
subject to the immediate authority of their respective captains. 

Among the Arabs are many merchants, but the majority arc 
priests. Their principal resort is Gr^sik^ the spot where 
Mahomedanism was first extensively planted on Java. They 
are seldom of genuine Arab birth, but mostly a mixed race, 
between the Arabs and the natives of the islands. 

There is another class of inhabitants, either foreigners them- 

(i -2 



^4 SLAVICS. 

selves, or the immediate descendants of foreigners, whose 
peculiar situation and considerable numbers entitle them to 
some notice in the general sketch of the population : I mean 
the class of slaves. The native Javans are never reduced to 
this condition ; or if they should happen to be seized and sold 
by pirates, a satisfactory proof of their origin would be suffi- 
cient to procure their enfranchisement. The slave merchants 
have therefore been under the necessity of resorting to the 
neighbouring islands for a supply, and the greatest number 
have been procured from Bali and Celebes. The total amoimt 
may be estimated at about thirty thousand. According to the 
returns obtained in 1814, it appeared that the follon-ing weie 
the numbers in the principal divisions of the island. 

At Batavia and its environs 18,972 

In the Semarang division 4,488 

In the Surabava division 3,682 



ToUl 27,142 



Tliese slaves are the property of the Europeans and Chinese 
alone : the native chiefs never require the sen'ices of slaves, or 
engage in the trafhc of slaveiy. The Mahomedan laws, which 
regulate their civil condition, and permit this abomination in 
all its extent, arc modified by the milder prejudices and more 
humane temper of the country'. The Dutch, who, like us, 
valued themselves on tlieir political liberty, are here the great 
pn)moters of civil servitude, and carried witli them into their 
(^astern empire, the lloman law regarding slavery' in all its 
extent and rigour. But although they adopted principles that 
adniitti'd of the most cniel and wanton treatment of slaves, I 
woulil nc»t be underst(H)d to say, that they carried these prin- 
ri])les into comiiion practice, llie contraiy was almost uni- 
versally the case, and the condition of slaves on Java, where 
the y were employed principally in domestic offices, formed a 
complete contrast to tlie state of those employed in the West 
India ])Iantations. It is remarked by Montesquieu, that "in 
'^ despotic countries, the condition of a slave is hardly moie 
" burdensome than that of a subject," and such has been the 
case in Ja\a. 'llie grounds on which the Dutch justified the 



SLAVES. 85 

practice of making slaves, was not that they could not com- 
mand the services of the natives with a sway sufficiently ab- 
solute^ and that they were compelled to seek, beyond the 
fimits of the island, for unfortunate agents to perform what 
{he natives shewed a reluctance to undertake, but that they 
fimnd the class of foreigners more adroit and docile than the 
Javans in the conduct of household affairs, and that having 
reduced them to the state of property, they remained in the 
fimiily for life, and saved the trouble of a new training. 

Upon the conquest of the island by the British in 1811, the 
condition of this class of its subjects excited the attention of 
government; and though we could not, consistently with those 
rights of property which were admitted by the laws that we 
professsed to administer, emancipate them at once from servi- 
tude, we enacted regulations, as far as we were authorized, to 
ameliorate their present lot, and lead to their ultimate freedom. 
Steps were immediately taken to check frurther importation, 
and as soon as it was known that the horrid traffic in slaves 
was declared a felony by the British parliament, it was not 
pennitted for an instant to disgrace a region to which the 
British authority extended. The folly and perfect uselessness 
of slavery on Java has been often pointed out by Dutch com- 
missioners and Dutch authors ^. 

* It is remaiked in the text, that the condition of the slaves on Java 
is very different from that of the same class in the West Indies. The 
fonner are employed rather as administering to the luxuries than the ne- 
of their proprietors ; and, with few exceptions, exclusively for 
purposes. There are some who having taught their slaves when 
yooDg to embroider, or exercise some useful handicraft or trade, obtain 
a Uvelihood by means of their services, and some few employ their slaves 
on their estates, or let them out to hire ; but the general condition of the 
slaves is that of domestic servants. 

The regulations and colonial statutes respecting slavery seems to have 
been framed on the principles of humanity, and with attention to the 
genius of the Christian religion ; yet, in consequence of the supplemen- 
tary force of the Roman law in the Dutch system of legislature, there 
appeared to be one capital defect in the code, viz. that a slave was con- 
fliiiered as a real property, incapable of personal rights, from which con- 
sideration the ill-treatment of a master towards his slave was not so much 
estimated on the principle of personal injury, as that of a proprietor 
abusing his own property ; and although a slave, under such a system, 
might obtain a portion of property for himself with the consent of his 



8(5 SLAVES. 



Having thu» attempted a brief description of the diflfereut 
classes of the Asiatic population of tlie island^ 1 shaU proceed 



maiitcr, his possession was alwa)^ precarious, and depended on the 
cretiun of his propnetor (in the saine manner as a ptadimm adceuiUimm 
with the Romans), becoming only the unlimited property of the dave* if 
the master allowed him to keep it after his emancipation. 

It ^Tis conceived, that considering the cii'il law only m a supplemcnl 
to the positive law, continued in force on Java under the proflamation 
of the Earl of Minto of 11th September 1811, the code respecting dareiy 
mijrht, together with the other i>arts of legislation, be amended and «!»• 
blishcd, on principles more consistent with humanity and good sense, by 
a declaration, that slaves in future should not be considered as objects of 
real profierty, but as objects possessing personal rights, and bound only 
to unlimited sendee ; and that, in consequence thereof, slaves shodld 
never be transferred from one master to another, without their own con- 
sent given before witnesses or a notary, lliat a master should possev 
no other power over his slave, than to exact service in an equitable 
manner ; that he should inflict no corporal chastisement on him after he 
had attained a certain age, nor beyond such a degree as would be given 
to his children or common apprentices ; that all personal wrongs done to 
a sLave, either by his master or by others, should be estimated by the 
common rules of personal injuries, and not by the principle of a pro- 
prietor abusing his own property ; tliat the punishment for murder com- 
mitted by a master on his slave, should be the same as that of murder 
committed on a free person ; that every slave should have a right to 
acfjuire property of his o^ti, by his private industry or labour, or by the 
bounty of others ; that this property should never be removesble at the 
discretion of the master ; that by this property the slave should always 
have a right to redeem his liberty, after having continued with his niMter 
for the term of seven years, and on paying the sum which, on estimatioa, 
sul)jcct to the approval of the magistrate, should at the time be thonglit 
an adequate eqmvalent for his personal services. 

These fumUimental alterations in the code were submitted by the locd 
government to a higher authority, at a period when the principal pn^ 
priotors evinced a concurrence in the measure ; but the provisional tenure 
of the government, and the expectation of the early transfer of the island 
to the crowTi, induced a delay, until the re-establishment of HoUand as a 
kingdom precluded the adojition of so essential a change. 

The excuse oflTered by the colonists for the origin and continuance of 
slavery on Ja\'a is, tliat on the first establishment of the Dutch in the 
Eastern Islands, there did not exist, as in Western India, a class of peopis 
calculated for domestic service ; that they had, in consequence, to create a 
class of domestic serA'ants, in doing which they adopted the plan of rearing 
children in their families from other countries, in preference to those in 
tluir immediate noighb<mrhiM)d, who. from their connexions and the ^^Kita 
nf ilieir relatives, could never lie de|>cnded u|ion. \\*hether neccnity die- 



«< 
If 



TITLES. 87 

to a short detail of the habitations, dress, food, and domestic 
economy of the natives ; but, in order to enable the reader to 

tated this STstem in the earlier periods of the Dutch establishment, or not, 
is at least doubtful ; but it is certain that this necessity no longer exists, 
nor is there the shadow of an excuse for continuing on Java this odious 
traffic and condition. The Javans, during the residence of the British on 
Java* have been found perfectly trustworthy, faithful, and industrious ; 
and the demand was alone wanting in this, as in most cases, to create a 
mffident 8iq>ply of competent domestics. The continuance of the traffic 
Cor one day longer serves but to lower the European in the eyes of tlie 
natxre, who, gratified with the measures adopted by the British govern- 
ment in its suppression, stands himself pure of the foul sin. To the cre- 
£t of the Javan character, and the honour of the individual, it should be 
known, that when the proclamation of the British government was pub- 
lished, requiring the registration of all slaves, and declaring that such as 
were not registered by a certain day should be entitled to their emancipa- 
tion, the Pan&mbahan of Sdmenap, who had inherited in his family do- 
mestic slaves to the number of not less than fifty, proudly said, " Then 
" I win not register my slaves — they shall be free : hitherto they have 
" been kept such, because it was the custom, and the Dutch liked to be 

attended by slaves when they visited the palace ; but as that is not the 

ease with the British, they shall cease to be slaves : for long have I 
** Celt shame, and my blood has run cold, when I have reflected on what I 
" once saw at Batavia and Sem^rang, where human beings were exposed 
** for public sale, placed on a table, and examined like sheep and oxen." 

The short administration of the British government on Java has fortu- 
nately given rise to another class of domestic servants. The numerous offi- 
ceiB of the army, and others whose funds did not admit, or whose temporary 
Rsidence did not require a permanent establishment of servants, for the 
ZDost part usually took Javans into their service ; and though these might 
in the first instance, not be so well acquainted with European habits, as 
daves who had been brought up from their infancy in Dutch families, yet 
they gpradually improved, and were, in the end, for the most part very ge- 
Dcislly prefeired. Let not, therefore, necessity be again urged as a plea 
for continuing the traffic. 

The measures actually adopted by the British government may be 
summed up in a few words, llie importation was, in the first instance, 
restricted within a limited age, and the duty on importation doubled. An 
annual registry of all slaves above a certain age was taken, and slaves not 
registered within a certain time declared free. A fee of one Spanish dollar 
was demanded for the registry of each slave, the amount of which consti- 
tuted a fund for the relief of widows and orphans. On the promulgation 
of the act of the British legislature, declaring the further traffic in slaves 
to be felony, that act, with all its provisions, was at once made a colonial 
law. Masters were precluded from sending their slaves to be confined in 
jail at their pleasure, as had hitherto been the case, and all committals 

10 



SS DWELLINGS. 

understand some of tlie tenns in the tables, and likewise in the 
subsequent observations, it may not be improper simply to 
state the names and titles expressive of tlie diflcrcnt grailations 
of rank, leaving a more particular account of the power and 
autliority with wliich tlicy are connected to another opportu- 
nity. 'Ilie sovereign, who is either called SuJtuhuHaH^ Su- 
siinan, or Sultan y is tlie fountain of honour and the source of 
all distinction. His family are called Piimf^ann^ his queen 
RdtUy the heir apparent Pmuj^ran adipdtij and the prime 
minister Rdden adipati. Governors of provinces, called by 
tlie Dutch Ret/entSy are styled by the natives Bopdtis^ Tm- 
munyungs^ or Atiy\ih^iH ; and are ranked among the chief 
nobility of the country. All the inferior chiefs, including those 
termed Rddettx^ Mdnfris, Defttdnt/Sy lAraa^ and others, except 
tlie heads of villages, termed Kiiwus, Biikula^ Pating^giSy &c., 
who are elected by the common people out of their own num- 
ber ibr the performance of specific duties, may be considered 
as pfftt'te ttobles/ie. 

Tlie cottage or hut of the i>easant, called thnnh IhndsaHj 
may be eslimatod to cost, in its first construction, from two to 
four ni])ocs, or from five to ton shillings English money. It 
is invariably built on the ground, as on continental India, and 
in this respect differs fnim similar stnictures in the surround- 
ing islands. The sle(»ping places, however, are generally a 
little elevated ab(»ve the level of the floor, and accord in sim- 
l)lieily with the otlier parts of the dwelling. Tlie sides or walls 
are generally fonned of hdmbas^ flattened and plaited together: 
partitions, if any, are constructed of tlie same materials, and 
the roof is either thati^hed with long grass, with the leaves of 
the Nfpfty or with a kind of bdmht sirap, Tlie form and size 
of these cottages, as well as the materials employed in their 

were recjuired to be made through the magistrates, in the same w*^""^^ as 
in the case of other otfcnders. 

'Iliese general re^ilationn, with the more rigid enforcement of the pro- 
hil)ition of further importations* , and of such iNurts of the code of regula- 
tions for nmi'li orating the condition of the slaves as had become obeolete, 
were all to which the local f^ovomment felt itself competent ; but it gave 
its sanction to an institution Net on foot by the EngliHli, and joined in by 
many of the Dutch inhaliitants, which took for its basis the principles of 
thr African ln*(titution. and directed its immediate care to a prorition for 
the numerous slave* restored to libertv. 



DWELLINGS. 89 

construction, vary in the difierent districts of the island, and 
with the different circumstances of the individuals. In the 
eastern districts, where the population is most dense and the 
land most highly cultivated, a greater scarcity is felt of the 
requisite materials Uian in the western, and the dwellings of 
the peasantxy are consequently smaller and slighter. In the 
latter, the frame-work of the cottages is generally made of 
timber, instead of bdmbus, and the interior of them, as well as 
the front veranda, is raised about two feet from the ground. 
The accommodations consist of a room partitioned off* for the 
heads of the family, and an open apartment on the opposite 
side for the children : there is no window either made or re- 
quisite. The light is admitted through the door alone ; nor is 
this deficiency productive of any inconvenience in a climate, 
where all domestic operations can be carried on in the open 
air, and where shade from the sun, rather than shelter from 
the weather, is required. The women perform their usual oc- 
cupations of spinning or weaving on an elevated veranda in 
front, where they are protected from the rays of a vertical sun 
by an extended projection of the pitch of the roof. In some 
of the mountainous districts, where the rains descend with 
most violence, the inhabitants provide against their effects, by 
constnicting their roofs of bdmbus split into halves, and ap- 
plied to each other by their alternate concave and convex sur- 
faces, all along the pitch of the roof, from the top down to the 
walls. On the whole, it may be affirmed that the habitations 
of the peasantt}' of Java, even those constructed in the most 
mifiivourable situations and inhabited by the lowest of the 
poople, admit of a considerable degree of comfort and conve- 
nience, and far exceed, in those respects, what falls to the lot 
of the peasant in most parts of continental India. 

The class of dwellings inhabited by the petty chiefs are 
termed umah chMuk or Amah joglo. These are distinguished 
by having eight sloi>es or roofs, four superior and four se- 
condary. Their value is from seven to eight dollars, or from 
thirty-five to forty shillings. 

The largest class of houses, or those in which the chiefs and 
nobles reside, are termed umah tiimpang^ and arc of the same 
form as the preceding ; they are generally distinguished from 
them by their greater size, which varies with the means and 



J)0 DWELLINGS. 

rauk of tlie possessor, and usually contain five or six rooms. 
llio supports and bcaiits are of wood. The value of such a 
habitation, calculated to answer tlic circumstances of an ordi- 
nary chief of the rank of a Pdtehy or assistant to the governor 
of a province, may be about fifty or sixty dollars, or firom ten 
to fifteen pounds sterling. 

In tlie European provuices, the size and comfort of these 
dwelliugs have of late been very essentiaUy contracted, by the 
rigid enforcement of the monopoly of tlie teak forests, which 
were formerly open to the natives of all classes. 

Brick dwellings, which are sometimes, though rarely, occu- 
pied by tlie natives, are teniied umah gedong. This kind of 
building is for tlie most part occupied by the Chinese, who 
invariably construct a building of brick and mortar whenever 
they possess tlie means. Tlie Chinese kdmpongs may always 
be til us distinguished from those of the natives. 

The cottages, which I have already described, are never 
found detached or solitary : they always unite to form villages 
of greater or less extent, according to the fertility of the nei^» 
boui'ing plain, abundance of a stream, or other accidental cir- 
cuinstaiices. In some provinces, tlie usual number of inhabi- 
tants ill a village is about two hundred, in others less than 
fifty. In the first establishment or formation of a village on 
new ground, tlie intended settlers take care to provide them- 
selves with sufficient garden ground round their huts for their 
stock, and to supply the ordinal}' wants of their families. The 
produce of this plantation is the exclusive property of the 
peasant, and exempted from contribution or burden ; and soch 
is tlieir number and extent in some regencies (as in KedA kn 
inslauce), tliat they constitute perhaps a tenth part of the area 
of the whole district. The sjiot surrounding his simple habi- 
tation, the cottager considers his peculiar patrimony, and culti- 
vates with peculiar care. He labours to plant and to rear in it 
those vegetables tliat may be most useful to his family, and 
thosi* shrubs and trees which uiav at once yield him their fruit 
and thrir sliade : nor does lie waste his efforts on a thankless 
soil. Tlie cottages, or the assemblage of huts, that compose 
till' village, become thus coinpletiriy screened from the rays of 
a scorching sun, and are so 1)uried amid tlie foliage of a lux- 
uriant vegetation, that at a small distance no a))|>earaiicc of a 



DWELLINGS. J>1 

human dwelling can be discovered, and the residence of a nu- 
merous socie^ appears only a verdant grove or a clump of ever- 
greens. Nothing can exceed the beauty or the interest, which 
inch detached masses of verdure, scattered over the face of the 
country, and indicating each the abode of a collection of 
happy peasantry, add to scenery otherwise rich, whether 
viewed on the sides of the mountains, in the narrow vales, or 
OD the extensive plains. In the last case, before the grain is 
planted, and during the season of irrigation, when the rice fields 
are inundated, they appear like so many small Islands, rising 
out of the water. As the young plant advances, their deep rich 
iidiage contrasts pleasingly with its lighter tints ; and when 
die fiill-eared grain, with a luxuriance that exceeds an Euro- 
pean harvest, invests the earth with its richest yellow, they 
give a variety to the prospect, and afford a most refreshing 
leUef to the eye. The clumps of trees, with which art attempts 
to diversify and adorn the most skilfully arranged park, can 
bear no comparison with them in rural beauty or picturesque 
effect 

As the population increases, the extent of individual appro- 
priations is sometimes contracted ; but when there is sufficient 
untenanted groimd in the neighbourhood, a new village is 
throvi'n out at some distance, which during its infancy remains 
under the charge, and on the responsibiUty of the parent vil* 
lage. In time, however, it obtains a constitution of its own, 
and in its turn becomes the parent of others. These depen-> 
dent villages are in the eastern districts termed dbUku^ and in 
the western or SUtnda districts chdntilan. 

Eveiy village forms a community within itself, having each 
its village officers and priest, whose habitations are as supe* 
nor to those of others as their functions are more exalted. To 
complete the establishment in most large villages, a temple is 
appropriated for religious worship. Here is found that simple 
form of patriarchal administration, which so forcibly strikes 
the imagination of the civilized inhabitants of this quarter of 
the world, and which has so long been the theme of interest 
and curiosity of those who have visited the Indian continent. 

In the larger villages, or chief tov^Tis of the subdivisions, in 
which the Kdpala chtHa^/y or division-officer, resides, a square 
j)lacc, corresponding with the dlun dlvn of the capital, is re- 



l)-2 DWELLlNiiS. 

sencd ; and, in like manner, the mosque is found to occupj 
one side, and the dwelling of the chief another. The villages, 
whether large or small, are fenced in by strong hedges of 
bdmbuy and other quick growing plants. All the large towns 
and capitals are fonned on the same principle, each hut and 
dwelling being sunrounded by a garden exclusively attached to 
it. In this respect, they are but large villages, although usually 
divided into separate jurisdictions. A newly-formed village 
contains but a few families, while in the capitals the popuk- 
tion often amoimts to several thousand souls. SAra-k^rta^iht 
ca])ital of the chief native govenunent, though its population 
is estimated to exceed one hundred thousand, mav be termed 
an assemblage or gnnip of numerous villages, rather than what 
in fiUroi)eau countries would be called a town or city. 

In the larger towns, however, and in the capitals, consider- 
able attenticm is paid to the due presen'ati(m of broad streets 
or roads crossing in different directions. Tlie inland capitals 
in the Siitida districts are distinguished by an extreme neat- 
ness and rogidarity in this respect ; and although both these, 
and the greater native capitals at Soio and Yftgy^ii-k^rta^ may 
have been laid out principally at the suggestion of Eun)peans, 
it may be obsened, that the same ccmveniences are also to be 
found in the extensive capital of BaHyAviatt^ the planning of 
which must be ascribed entirelv to the natives. 

The dwelling or ])alace of the prince is distinguiHhed by the 
tenns kadiiton or krdtitn^ being contracticms, the former pn>- 
bably from ka-iUitu-miu^ and the latttT from kti-ratu-Ham^ the 
j)lac'e olthe Ddtti or Rata (jmnce). lliose of the Regents or 
Bopdtis (nol)les entrusted with tlie government of provinces), 
are styled ddlam ; a tenn which is ap])lied to the inmost hall 
or chamber of both buildings ; and by which also, particularly 
in the St'tnda districts, the chiefs themselves are oflen dis- 
tinguished. 

The krdlnft^ <»rj)alace of the prince, is an extensive square, 
surr<)un<led by a high wall, without which there is geueradly a 
moat or ditch. In the front, and also s(mietimesin the rear, au 
extensive ojk'u square is reserved, surrounded by a railing, 
wliifh is tcTined the dlnn dliut. On the wall of the krdton^ 
whieli may be considered as the rampart of a citadel, arv 
usually |)lant4'd cannon ; and within it, the space is di\ideil 



DWELLINGS. 93 

by rarious smaller walls, which intersect each other, and fonn 
squares and compartments, each having a particular designa- 
tion, and answering a specific purpose ; separate quarters 
bemg assigned within the walls to all the families who may 
be considered as attached to the person of the sovereign, or 
fliat of the princes. The circumference of the wall of the 
krdiam of Y^igy^a-kMa is not less than three miles ; and it was 
estimated that, at the period of the assault in 1812, it did not 
contain fewer than from ten to fifteen thousand people. That 
of Sihra-k^ta is neither so extensive, nor so well built. After 
crossing the dlun dlun, or square in front of the kratatt^ tlie 
principal entrance is by a flight of steps, at the top of which it 
is usual for the new sovereign to be invested with his authority, 
and on which he is seated on those occasions in which he 
shews himself in public. This is termed the setingely from 
teti'ingely the high ground. On these occasions, the Panged- 
ran$ and nobles are ranged below. Proceeding into the inte- 
rior of the building, and after descending a flight of steps, we 
find the next principal gateway or entrance is called the brojo 
ndlo. After passing another court, the next gateway is termed 
kamandungan ; and beyond this again is the last passage, dis- 
tinguished by the term s'rimendnti. Still farther on, in the 
centre of a square, is the hall, mend^po or hAngxaly of the 
prince. On one side of the square are two small mend&pos^ or 
open sheds, called bdn^sal peng^dpity where the Pang^^ans 
assemble to wait the appearance of the sovereign in the prin- 
cipal mendopo ; and on the opposite side is the dwelling, or 
imah tumpang^ of the prince, termed prdbo yOkso. The 
hangsalj or mendopoj is a large open hall, supported by a 
double row of pillars, and covered with shingles, the interior 
being richly decorated with paint and gilding. The ceiling of 
the menddpo of Yugy'a'k&rta is remarkable for its splendour 
and richness, being composed according to that peculiar style 
of architecture frequently observed throughout Java, in which 
several squares, of gradually decreasing sizes, are arranged one 
above and within the other ; a style which is general among 
the Hindus, and strongly marks the architecture of the Burmans 
and Siamese. 

In the centre of the dlun dlun^ and in front of the setingel^ 
are two tcdringen trees (the Indian fig or bavynn)y called 



!»l FtRNITlRE. 

n^arivifen kiiruntf^ which have l)cen considered as the sign or 
mark of the royal residence from the earliest date of Javan 
historw 

In the dwellings of the nobles and governors of pro\'ince8| 
the same fonn and order, with some slight modifications, are 
obscned. Tliesc have likewise the alun dlun in front The 
outer entrance corresponding with the selingel of the krAifm 
is however with them denominated the iatranff sekHing^ the 
second pamdomjy and the tliird reg<tl^ within which is the 
mendopo, or dalam. Tlie mosque forms one side of the Mnn 
til fin. 

The furniture of the houses or huts of the lower orden 
is very simple, and consists of but few articles. Their bed, 
as with the Sumatrans, is a fine mat with a number of pil- 
lows, having some party-coloured cloths generally extended 
over the head, in the fonn of a canopy or valance. They nei- 
ther use tables nor chairs, but their meals are brought on large 
brass or wooden waiters, with smaller vessels of brass or china- 
ware for the different articles 8er\-ed up. They sit crocs* 
legged, and, in common with other Mahomedans, only lue 
the right hand at their meals. Tliey usually take up their food 
between the finger and thumb, and throw it into their mouth. 
Spoons are used only for liquids, and knives and forks veir 
rarelv, if at all. 

In tlie dwellings of the higher classes, the articles of furni- 
ture are more numerous and expensive. Raised beds, with 
many pillows piled one above the other, and mats and carpets, 
are connnon in all ;but, in Uie Eiux)i)ean provinces, many of the 
rooms of the chiefs are furnished with looking-glasses, chairs, 
tables, &c. Most of these were at first introduced for the ac- 
connnodation of Euro])ean visitors, but are now gradually bo- 
coming luxuries, in which the chiefs t.ike delight. 

Tliev an* i)arti:i] tr) illuminations, and, on davs of festivily, 
oniauuMit the grounds adjacent to their dwellings with much 
taste and design, by working the young shoots of the cocoa- 
nut, the hfirnhft, an<l various fh>wers, in festoons and other con- 
trivan<*es. The cano])v or valance over the table, l>ed, or other 
I)lace selec-ti'd for any j>articular ])uri)ose, is universal. This 
< anc»])y is generally of chintz, from Western India. 

In all the ])r(»vinces under the Kun)pean government, the 



DRES5>. 95 

chiefs have seTeral rooms fitted up in the European style, for 
the accommodation of the officers of government, and none of 
them hesitate to sit down at table with their visitors, and join 
in the entertainment 

The natives of Java are in general better clothed than those 
of Western India. In many provinces of the interior, and in the 
elevated parts of the island, warm clothing is indispensable. 
They are for the most part clothed from the produce of their 
own soil and labour ; but there are parts of their dress which 
they willingly derive from foreign countries. Blue cloths and 
chintzes, in particular, have always formed an extensive article 
of importation from Western India ; and the chiefs consume 
considerable quantities of broadcloths, velvet, and other fabrics, 
in the jackets, pantaloons, and other articles of dress, in imita- 
tion of Europeans. Persons of condition are particular in 
being what they conceive well-dressed. A sloven is an object 
of ridicule ; and, in point of expensive attire, they may be con- 
sidered as restricted only by their means. Although the general 
character of the native costume is preserved, they seemed in- 
clined to adopt many of the more convenient parts of the 
European dress ; and, in proof of their having but few preju- 
dices on this score, it may be observed, that, on occasions 
when the population of the country has been called out in the 
Native Provinces, the assemblage of the proyincials presented 
themselves habited, many of them in cocked hats and stockings 
of Europeans, forming a most grotesque appearance. By the 
institutions of the country, a particular kind of dress is assigned 
to each different rank ; and there are some patterns of cloth, the 
use of which is prohibited, except to the royal family : but 
these sumptuary laws are for the most part obsolete in the 
European provinces, and gradually becoming so in those of 
the native princes, particularly since those princes have en- 
gaged by treaty to discontinue their enforcement. There are 
also distinctions of rank expressed by the different modes of 
wearing the kris, which will be treated of hereafter. 

It is part of the domestic economy, that the women of the 
£unily should provide the men with the cloths necessary for 
their apparel, and from the first consort of the sovereign to the 
wife of the lowest peasant, the same rule is observed. In 
every cottage there is a spinning-wheel and loom, and in all 



!M« DRKSS. 

ranks a man is accustomed to pride himself on the beauty of a 
cloth woven either by his wife, mistress, or daughter. 

The ])rincipal article of dress, common to all classes in the 
Archipelago, is the cloth or sarong^ which has been described 
by Mr. Marsden to be ^^ not unlike a Scots highlandcr^s plaid 
" in a])pearance, being a piece of party-coloured cloth, about 
" six or eight feet long and three or four feet wide, sewed 
" together at the ends, ibnning, as some writers have descrilied 
" it, a wide sack without a bottom." With tlie Malat^Mx^ the 
sdrony is either worn slmig over the shoulders as a sash, or 
tucked round the waist and descending to the ankles, so as to 
enclose the legs like a petticoat, llie patterns in use among 
the MnUiyufi or Btitfis are universally Tartan ; but besides 
these, the Javans pride themselves in a great variety of uthen, 
the common people only wearing the Tartan pattern, while 
others prefer the Javan hdtek or painted cloths. On occasions 
of state they wear, in lieu of the sdrotfg or jdrif * (the ordinary' 
cl<»th of the country, which diflers from the xtfr/>//// in not being 
united at tlie ends), a cloth tenned dodoly which is made either 
of cott(m or silk and much larger. Tins is worn in the same 
way ; but from its size, and the maimer of its being tucked up, 
it falls in a kind of drapery, which is ])eculiar to Java. 

The men of the lowest class generally wear a pair of coarse 
short drawers, reaching towards the kn(»e, with the jdrit or 
cloth folded round the waist, and descending below the knees 
like a short petticoat. This clotli is always tucked up close 
round the waist, while the labourer is at work or moving 
abroa<l, but loosened, and allowed to descend to its full length. 
when in the i>resence of a superior. It is fastened round the 
waist by a narrow waistband or belt (sdhttk). In general, the 
Javans are also jirovided with a jacket /^Av////w//>/V, having short 
skM'ves reaching U\ the elbows. This is either white, or miire 
frecpiently of light and dark blue stripes. A handkerchief 
or the (ikat) is alwavs folded romid the head. With the Ma- 
Idtjiis this handkercliief is generally of the Tartan pattern, but 
among the Javans it is of the hdlvk cloth, and put on more in tlie 
manner of a turlian than the handkerchief of a Maldyu\%: the 
rrown (»f the head is covered with it, and the ends are tucked 

• railed by I he .^1aIAyu!i lain pthjanif or ka'^n Irpris, 



DRESS. 97 

in. While abroad, they generally wear over it a large hat of 
leayes or of the split and plaited bambti, which shelters them 
like an umbrella from the sun and rain. A coarse handker- 
chief is usually tucked into the waistband, or a smdl bag is 
siiiq>ended from it, containing tobacco, siriy &c. The kris or 
dagger, which is uniTersally worn by all classes, completes 
the dzess. To that of ike labourer, according to the work he 
may be employed upon, is superadded a large knife or hatchet 
finr catting wood, brushwood, or grass. 

The women, in like manner, wear the cloth tucked round 
their loins, and descending in the form of a petticoat as low as 
the ankles. It is folded somewhat differently from the cloth 
worn by the men, and never tucked up as with them. The 
waistband or girdle by which they fasten it, is termed iUlat 
Roimd the body, pafssed above the bosom and close under the 
arms, descending to the waistband, is rolled a body cloth called 
kimi^m. They also commonly wear a loose gown reaching to 
the knees, with long sleeves buttoning at the wrists. This 
gown is almost invariably blue, never being of any variegated 
pattern, and ais well as the jacket of the men is usually termed 
kaldmbi. The women do not wear any handkerchief on their 
head, which is ornamented by their hair fastened up in a 
^ung or knot, and by an appendage of large studs, either of 
bofiklo horn or brass, which they use for ear-rings. Both men 
and women, even of the lowest class, wear rings on their 
fingers. Those worn by the men are either of iron, brass, or 
copper; those of the women of brass or copper only. The 
value of a man's dress, as above described, may be estimated 
at about five rupees, twelve and sixpence ; and that of the wo- 
men at about six rupees, or fifteen shillings. 

The children of the lower orders go naked, from the age of 
fifteen or eighteen months to six or seven years ; but the chil- 
dren of persons of condition always wear the jar it round their 
loins, together with a jacket. 

The higher orders wear dijdrit^ of about seven or eight cubits 
long and about three cubits wide, which with the men is folded 
once round the loins, and allowed to descend to the ankles in 
Ae form of a petticoat, but so as to admit of the leg being oc- 
casionally exposed when set forward in the act of walking. 
VOL. I. H 



98 DRESS. 

The part which is folded in front commonly hangs aomewhat 
lower than the rest of the garment. The sdbuk or waistband 
is generally of silk of the chindi or patdl^ pattern. When at 
leisure within-doors, the men usually wear a loose cotton gown 
descending as low as the knees ; but when abroad, or in at- 
tendance on public service, they for the most part wear a 
jacket of broad cloth, silk, or velvet if procurable, frequently 
edged with lace and ornamented with filagree buttons. This 
jacket is called sikapan (from $ikap ready) as it intimates, 
when worn, that the party is ready for duty. The jacket used 
by the Regents or chiefs of provinces, and other officers of 
distinction, closely resembles the old Friesland jacket, as 
worn about two centuries ago, and is probably modified, if 
not entirely taken bam it Under the jacket the men always 
wear a vest, usually of fine white cloth, with a single tow of 
filagree buttons, buttoning close to the body ajid at the neck 
like a shirt If the party is upon a journey or without doors 
in the sun, the Mdang or shade, which is usually of broad cloth 
or velvet, is fixed over the face, having much the appearance 
of a large jockey cap. The petty chiefs, particularly in the 
western districts, instead of this shade wear a large hat, in the 
form of a wash-hand bason reversed, made of split bambu of 
various colours, and highly varnished to throw off the tain. 
This is fastened by a string under the chin, in the same man* 
uer as the hat of the common people. 

The dress of the women of the higher classes does not in 
fashion difier essentially firom that of the lower orders, but the 
articles are of finer texture and better quality, and gold sUids 
and rings, ornamented with coloured and precious stones, are 
substituted for those of copper and brass. Both men and wo- 
men of condition wear sandals, shoes, or slippers in the house ; 
and in the European districts, the Regent and other chiefs, 
when in attendance on the public officers, on journeys or 
otherwise, usually superadd to the native dress tight cloth or 
nankeen pantaloons, with boots and spurs, according to the 
European fashion. 

It is difficult to estimate with precision the value of the 
dress of tlie higher orders. That of an ordinary petty chief 
and his wife costs about fifty Spanish dollars, or between 



DRESS. 99 

tprelf^e and thirteen pounds sterling, including the iiri box, 
which is a necessary appendage. The siri box of the man is 
termed ep^^ that of the woman chepHri. 

Neither men nor women cut their hair, but allow it to grow 
to its natural length : in this they differ from the MiUAyus and 
B^git^ who always wear it short The men, except on par- 
tieolar occasions, gather it up on the crown of the head, twist 
it round, and fasten it by means of a semicircular tortoise-shell 
comb fixed in front ; but among the higher classes, it is con- 
lidered a mark of the greatest respect to let it flow in curls in 
the presence of a superior. The princes and chiefs at the na- 
tiTc courts usually confine it on the neck, and allow it to de- 
scend down the back in large curls ; but in Cheribon and the 
S^nda districts, the chie&, on occasions of ceremony, let their 
locks flow in curls and ringlets loose over their shoulders. The 
women confine their hair by gathering and twisting it into one 
large gkkng or knot at the back of the head, in the manner of 
perfinnning which there are several modes, distinguished by as 
many names. The short down encircling the forehead is 
lometimes cut or shaved, to give the brow a better defined 
appearance, when the hair is combed back, and on particular 
occasions the fine hair in the same place, which is too short to 
be combed back and gathered in the knot, is turned in small 
curis like a fiinge. All classes, both of men and women, apply 
oils to their hair. The women firequently use scents in dress- 
ing it, and on state days ornament it with a great variely of 
flowers, diamond-headed pins, and other jewellery. Both sexes 
perfume their persons with different species of fin^ant oils, as 
the ldng*a chanddna (sandal-wood oil), Idn^a kandng^Oj 
Idm^a ffdruy Idng^a gandapuray and Idng^a jeruj and adorn 
the skin with a variety of powders called bdr^ ; as the b6ri 
kuning (yellow powder), b&ri ^ang (black), bor^ sdri, and 
bor^ k^lambak. To these may be added the general use of 
musk, termed by them d^dea. In the houses of the higher 
orders, dupa or incense of benjamin, and other odoriferous 
gums, is generally burnt 

The priests generally dress in white, and imitate the tur- 
bans of the Arabs. 

Such is the ordinary costume of the bulk of the population, 
as it is usually seen in all that part of the island peculiarly 

H 2 



100 DRESS. 

called Java. In the western or Sunda districtSy the common 
people are by no means so well supplied with articles of dress 
as in the eastern. They are often seen with little or no cover- 
ing, beyond a piece of very coarse cloth tied round the waist 
The Regents or chiefs of provinces in these districts generally 
wear, when on public duty with the officers of the European 
:govemment, a velvet cap ornamented with gold lace, differ- 
ing in fashion in each province, but usually calculated to 
shade the face from the direct rays of the sun. In the eastern 
districts the chiefs, on similar occasions, wear the cap called 
Jcuiiiky which will be more particularly mentioned as part ci 
the court dress. 

Besides what may be thus termed the ordinary dress, two 
grand distinctions are noticed in the costume of the Javans : 
these arc the war dress and the court dress. The former con- 
sists of cheldna or pantaloons, buttoned from the hip down to 
the ankles ; the kdtok, short kilt or petticoat of coloured siU 
or fine cotton, descending just below the knee ; and the dmien 
or girth, rolled tightly round the body seven or eight timet. 
like a military sash, and securing the whole body from behm 
the arms to the hips : this is made either of silk or veiy fine 
cotton. Over this is drawn a tight vest without buttons 
termed sangsangy and over this again the ordinary vest oo 
kOtan ynih buttons, buttoning close round the body and neck 
the sikapan or jacket being worn over the whole. The iHdung 
or shade for the face, is usually worn on this occasion, as wd. 
as shoes or sandals. The ang^ger or sword belt, which goa 
round the waist, also forms an essential part of the war dreai 
in which the peddng or sword is suspended on the left udc 
Three krUes arc usually worn in the waist on these occasions 
one on each side and the other behind. These consist of tht 
krU which tlie wearer particularly calls his own, the krU whicl 
has descended to him from his ancestors, and the krU whicl 
he may have received on his marriage from his wife's fathei 
Tlie latter is often placed on the left side for inunediate use 
Tliis dress is worn in going into the field of battle, on whicl 
occasion it is the custom to appear in the richest attire thei 
means admit, and to wear the rings and the other valuaUn 
jewels or trinkets which they possess. 

In the court or full dress, the shoulders, arms, and body 



DRESS. 101 

down to the waist, are entirely bare ; the drapery descending 
fron& the loins downwards, cheldna^ and what may be worn on 
the head, being the only covering. When a subject, whatever 
be his rank or family, approaches his prince, he must wear 
ckeldna or pantaloons of coloured silk or of fine cotton, widi- 
out buttons ; and instead of the jdHt or ordinary cloth, he 
must wear the dddoty a cloth which is of nearly double the 
dimensions. This is put on, however, nearly in the same 
manner as the jdritj but so as not to descend on the right 
side further than just below the knee, while on the left it falls 
m a rich drapery, imtil it touches the ground in a point. The 
9abuk or waistband must be of gold lace, the firinged ends of 
which usually hang down a few inches, and the party must 
only wear one kris^ which is tucked in the waistband on the 
right side behind, while on the left he wears a weapon, or 
rather implement, called a w^dungy in the shape of a chopper, 
together with a small knife, indicative of his readiness to cut 
down trees and grass at the order of his sovereign. On his 
head he must wear a peculiar kind of cap (kulukjj said to have 
been introduced by the Sultan Pdjang in imitation of the scull- 
cap of the Arabs ; it is made of cloth, and either white or light 
blue, stiffened with rich starch : on more ordinary occasions, 
and generally, except in fiill dress, the chiefs prefer a cap of 
the same form made of black velvet, ornamented with gold, 
and sometimes a diamond on the crown. The part of the body 
which is left uncovered is generally rubbed over with white 
or yellow powder. The sovereign Umself is usuaUy habited 
in the same manner on state occasions, his body and arms 
being covered with a bright yellow powder. When women 
approach the sovereign, besides having their hair ornamented 
with diamonds and flowers, they must wear a s^mhong or sash 
round the waist, which generally is of yellow silk with red at 
the two ends. It is brought once roimd the body firom behind, 
and the long ends are allowed to descend towards the groimd, 
one over each hip. 

Since the loss of the makdtaj or golden crown of Majapdhity 
which disappeared on the banishment of Susiinan ^angkH- 
raty both the Susiinan and Sultan, on public occasions, when 
they have to meet the European authorities, wear a velvet hat 
or cap of a particular fashion, somewhat different, at each 



102 DRESS. 

court ; that of the Susiknan resembling what \% distinguished 
by the term of the Madiira hat in consequence of its being still 
worn by the Maddra family, and that of the Sultan having a 
golden ffofikla affixed at the back, and two wings of gold ex* 
tending firom behind the ears. They both wear breeches, 
stockings, and buckles, after the European fashion. 

Thejdmang or golden plate, which was worn over the fore- 
head, as well as a variety of golden ornaments round the neck 
and arms, and which formerly formed the most splendid part 
of the costume, are now disused ; except at marriages, or in 
dramatic or other entertainments, when the ancient costume of 
the coimtry is exhibited in all its rich and gorgeous variety. 

*The following picture of a Javan beauty, taken from one of 
the most popular poems of the country, will serve better than 
any description of mine, to place before the reader the standard 
of female elegance and perfection in the island, and to convey 
an accurate idea of the personal decorations on nuptial occa- 
sions, in dances and dramatic exhibitions ; it will at the same 
time afford a representation of what may be considered to have 
formed the full dress of a female ofdistinction, before the inno- 
vations of Mahometanism and the partial introduction of the 
European fashions. The extravagant genius of eastern poetxy 
may perhaps be best employed in pourtraying such fantastic 
images, or celebrating such extraordinar}' tastes. 

^ Her face was fair and bright as the moon, and it ex presse d 
" all that was lovely. The beauty of BtidenPatri fiur ex- 
** celled even that of the widad^fri D^wi Rdti : she 'shone bri^t 
^' even in the dark,* and she was mthout defect or blemish. 

** So clear and striking was her brightness, that it^ashed to 
*^ the sky as she was gazed at : the lustre of the sun was even 
" dimmed in her presence, for she seemed to have stolen from 

him his refulgence.- So much did she excel in beauty, that 

it is impossible to describe it. 

" Her shape and form were nothing wanting, and«her hair 
" when loosened hung dovm to her feet, waving in dark curis: 
" the short front hairs were turned with regularity as a fringe, 
" her forehead resembling the r^^W/Jira stone. Her eyebrows 
" were like two leaves of tlie hnho tree ; the outer angle of the 
" eye acute' and slightly extended; the ball of the eye frill, and 
" the ui>per eyelash slightly curling upwards. 






DRESS. 103 

"• Tears seined floatiiig in her eye, but started not Her 

^ nose was sharp and pointed ; her teeth black as the kSni' 

^ bang; her lips the colour of the newly cut mangitstin shell. 

** Her teeth regular and brilliant ; her cheeks in shape like the 

** fruit of the d^ren ; the lower part of the cheek slightly pro- 

^ tmding. Her ears in beauty like the ^i^n/f flowers, and her 

^ neck like unto the young and graceful gddung leaf. * 

*** Her shoulders even, like the balance of golden scales; her 

" chest open and full ; her breasts like ivory, perfectly round 

^ and inclining to each other. Her arms ductile as a bow ; her 

'* fingers long and pliant, and tapering like thorns of the 

" forest. Her nails like pearls ; her skin bright yellow ; her 

^ waist formed like the pdtram when drawn from its sheath ; 

'^ her hips as the reversed limcts leaf. • 

•^ like unto ihepidak flower when hanging down its head, 
*^ was the^ shape of her leg ; her foot flat with the ground; her 
^ gait gentle and majestic like that of the elephant Thus 
" beautiful in person, she was clothed with a* chindi pat6la/oi 
" a green colour, fastened round the waist with a golden liUut 
^ or ^^^estus : her outer garment being of- the miga mendAng 
^ (dark clouded) pattern. Her k&mban (upper garment) 
*^ was of the pattern yin^'^omanV^^g^cl with lace of gold ; on 
^ her finger she wore a ring, the production of the sea, and her 
^ ear-rings were of the pattem-nd/o brdngto. 

^ On the front of the ear-studs were displayed the beauties 

^ of the segdra miiitcAar pattern (emeralds encircled by rubies 

^ and diamonds) y and ^she bound up her hair in the first 

^ fisushion, frustening it with the glUng (knot) bobokdran/ and 

^ decorating it with the green chdmptMca flower,' and also with 

^ ihegdmbirf meldti, and minor flowers; and in the centre 

^ of it she fixed a golden pin, with a red jewel on the top, and 

'^ a golden flower ornamented with emeralds. Her necklace 

^ was composed of seven kinds of precious stones, and most 

^ brilliant to behold ; and she was highly perfiuned, without 

^ it being possible to discover from whence the scent was 

** produced. 

" Herjdmang (tiara or head ornament J was of the fashion 
** s&do sdler and richly chased; her bracelets were of the 
^ pattern glang-kdna^ and suited ihejdmang. Thus was the 

10 



104 DRESS. 

" beauty of her person heightened and adorned by the splen* 
" dour of her dress." 

. To this we may add, from one of the popular versions of the 
work called Jdya Langkdra the notions which the Javans 
have of the virtues, beauties, and dress, that should adorn a 
yoimg man of family. * 

* '^ In a youth of noble birth tliere are seven points which 
^ should strike the observer, and these are indispensable. " In 
^^ the first place,* he should be of good descent r in the second, 
^^ he should -possess imdcrstanding^; in the third, he should 
^^' know how to conduct himself.* In the fourth place, he 
^^recollccti what he learns in the sdstrasi in the fifth, his 
'^. views must be enlarged; in the sixth,- he must be religious; • 
*^ in the seventh, he must exert the qualifications he possesses 
^^ imhcsitatingly. These are the seven points which must 
** strike the immediate attention of the observer. 

- " In his heart and mind he must be quiet and iranqiul. He 
*^ should be able to repress his inclinations, and to be nlent 
^^ when necessary: never should he on any acconnt tell a 
^^ falsehood. He should not think long concerning propertf, 
^' neither should he fear death : in his devotions he shoukl be 
'^ free from pride, and he should relieve the distressed. • 

'^ It should be observed by all, that whatever he nndertakes 
*' is quickly executed. He should quietly penetrate other 
" men's thoughts and intentions ; his inquiries should be dis- 
'^ creet, intelligent, and active. Whenever he meets with an 
^^ able man, he should attach himself to him as a fiiend, and 
'' never leave him till he has dra^^n all his knowledge from 
^' him ; and in whatever he does, his actions should be rather 
" what is generally approved, than the result of his mere wilL 
^' As long as he lives he must continue to thirst after more 
^' knowledge ; and he must constantly guard his own conduct, 
that men may not say it is bad. His recollection should be 
clear and distinct, his speech mild and gentle; so that peo- 
pled hearts may be softened, and possessing these qualifica- 
** tions his dependants may praise him. 

^' His appearance and stiiture should not be deficient The 
^' light of his countenance should be sweet, like that alBaidra 






DRESS. 105 

•* Atmdra (the god of love) when he descends to the earth.- 
^ When men look upon hun, they should be struck with the 
•* idea, * how great would he not be in war ! * In the form of 
^ his bodj no part should be ill shaped. • His skin should be 
^ like unto virgin gold before it has undergone the process of 
** fire ; his head rather large ; his hair straight and long. His 
** eyes wateiy and ready to overflow ; his brows like the imbo 
^ leaf; his eyelash like the tdnjung flower ; his nose sharp 
* and prominent, with but little hair above the upper lip ; his 
'lips like the newly cut mangiistin shell; his teeth as if 
^painted, shining and black like the k&mbang ; his breast 
'^ shoulders wide. • 

^ A bright circle shoidd irradiate his face and breast, and 
**' he should stand unrivalled. • Whatever he says should make 
**' an impression on all who hear him, and his speech should be 
** playful and agreeable.* 

^ He should wear the cheldna chfndiy with a dark green 
^ dddot of the pattern gddong-eng'iikup /-his sash of golden 
^ lace. His kris should have the sheath o^fthe sdtrian fieusliion, 
** and the handle should be that of tihhg*gdksmi. The sttrnp- 
** ing (an imitation of flowers or leaves which hang over the 
^ ear) should be of gold, and of the fashion sHrengpdti (brave 
*^ to death J ; -and on his right thumbs (palginaj.he should at 
^ the same time wear a golden ring." • 

•In common with the Sumatrans, and other inhabitants of 
the Archipelago and southern part of the peninsula, both sexes 
of all ranks have the custom of filing and blackening the teeth, 
it being considered as disgraceful to allow them to remain 
" white like a dog's." The operation is performed when the 
children are about eight or nine years of age, and is a very 
painful one. The object is to make the fix)nt teeth concave, 
and by filing away the enamel, to render them better adapted 
for receiving the black dye. This extraordinary and barba- 
rous custom tends to destroy the teeth at an early age, and 
with the use of tobacco, siri, and lime, which are continually 
chewed, generally greatly disfigures the mouth. The Javans, 
however, do not file away the teeth so much as is usual with 
some of the other islanders ; nor do they set them in gold, as 
is the case with the Sumatrans. Neither do they distend the 



100 FOOD. 

lobe of the ear, to that enormous extent practised on Bali and 
elsewhere; and which is observed in the representations of 
Biidh. This has been discontinued since the introduction of 
Mahomedanism. 

Compared with the western Asiatics, the Jarans have but 
few prejudices regarding food. They are Mahomedans, and 
consequently abstain rigidly from swine's flesh, and commoolj 
from inebriating liquors ; and some few families, from the re- 
mains of a superstition which has descended to them fion 
their Hindu ancestors, will not eat of the flesh of the bull or 
cow ; but yfiih these exceptions, there are few articles which 
come amiss to them. Tliey live principally upon yegetabia 
food, and rice is on Java, what it is throughout Aua, the chief 
article of subsistence ; but fish, flesh, and fowl are likewise 
daily scncd up at their meals, according to the circumstances 
of tlic parties. With fish they arc abundantly supplied ; and 
what cannot be consumed while fresh, is salted, or dried, and 
conveyed into the inland provinces. They do not eat of the 
turtle or other amphibious animals, but none of the fish 
kno^-n to Europeans are objected to by them. The flesh of 
tlie buflalo, the ox, tlie deer, the goat, and various kinds of 
poultr}', are daily exposed for sale in Uieir markets, and axe of 
vcT}' general consumption. The flesh of the horse is also 
highly esteemed by the common ])eoplc ; but the killing of 
horses for food is generally prohibited, except when maimed 
or diseased. The hide of the buflalo is cut into slices, soaked, 
and fried as a favourite dish. Tlie flesh of the deer, dried and 
smoked, is well known Uiroughout the Malayan Archipelago^ 
under the term dindingj and is an article in high request on 
Java. 

I1ic dairy forms no part of domestic economy of Java, neither 
milk itself, nor any preparation from it, being prized or used 
l)y the natives : a circumstance wry remarkable, considering 
that they w(nre imdoiibtedly Hindus at one period of their his- 
tory ; and tliat, if so essential an article of food had once been 
intnxluced, it is probable it woidd always have been cherished. 
No goo<l reas(m seems to be assigned for their indifieience to 
milk ; except perhaps the essential one, that the cows of Java 
afiord but a \cTy scanty supply of that secretion. The udder 
of a Javan cow is sometimes not larger than that of a sheep, 



FOOD. 107 

d fleems to ai tl bat a baie subristence for the calf; yet the 
dUo giTes a larger qoantityy and butter mghee might equally 
\ prepared from it The cows of the Indian breed are dis- 
Bguiahed by a hump between the shoulders and a larger 
Her ; and it has been found that the secretion of milk can 
I acreaaed, as it is observed that where particular care has 
taken by Europeans even of the Javan cows, they have in 
time afforded double the usual quantity. It has been 
BBJectured, that on the introduction of the Indian breed by 
le Hmda colonists, the use of milk was forbidden, in order 
Mt the number of cattle might more rapidly increase ; but 
he Javans have no tradition to this effect. It is however re- 
mkable, that an absolute aversion to this aliment exists on 
lial part of the continent of Asia, in which many popular 
Higes are found similar to those of the east insular nations. 
B a recent publication it is stated of the people between Siam 
Bid China, who are not, by the bye, very nice in what they eat, 
' quMls ne se permettent pas le lait des animaux, et quUls ont 
' poor cette boisson la repugnance que pent inspirer la boisson 
' da sang. Cette repugnance va meme jusqu'a exclure du 
' nombre de ses alimens le beurre et le fromage *y 

Salt is obtained in abundance throughout eveiy part of the 
dand, but being manufactured on the coast, is proportionally 
d^ier in price in the inland districts. The sugar used by the 
latives is not prepared from the sugar-cane, but from the aren 
ad other palms. It is manufactured by the simple process 
f boiling down the tari^ or liquor which^exudes from these 
lees, which are tapped for the purpose. 

None of the palms of Java ftimish the worms which are 
nployed for food in other eastern countries, but similar 
onns are found in various kinds of rdiaUy sdlaky &c. which 
e considered as dainties, not only by the natives, but by the 
hinese and by some Europeans : they are called g^don, 
^anns of various species, but all equally esteemed as articles 
food, are found in the teak and otiier trees. White ants, in 
eir different states, are one of the most common articles of 
3d in particular districts : they are collected in different 
lys, and sold generaUy in the public markets. Their exten- 

* Ezp08^ Statistique du Tonquin, Sec. voL i. p. 126. 



108 COOKING. 

sive nests are opened to take out the chiysalis ; or thej 
watched, and swarms of the perfect insect are conducted i 
basins or trays containing a little water, where the^ • 
perish : they are called Idron, 

The cooking utensils are, as might be supposed, of the n 
simple kind, and either of coarse pottery or copper. B 
after several poundings in a trough or mortar, is genen 
dressed by steam, though not un&equently boiled in a n 
quantity of water. In the former case, it is remarkable fin 
whiteness and consistency when dressed ; and in this stal 
is publicly exposed for sale in the markets and along the h 
roads. Indian com is usually roasted in the ear, and oflie 
for sale in the same manner. Other aliments are for the n 
part prepared in the manner of curry, termed by the MalA 
gulai: of these they have almost an endless variety, ( 
tinguished according to the principal ingredients. Bedi 
what may be considered as the principal dishes, they exoe 
a variety of preparations of pastry and sweetmeats (particnL 
of the k^ianjf of which many are by no means unpleasaa 
an European palate. They are fond of colouring their pas 
as well as other articles of their food. They occasion 
make their rice yellow and broi^n, and even turn their boi 
eggs red for variety. 

Black pepper, as among the MaldyuSy is scarcely ever iv 
on account of its supposed heating quality. The n 
common seasoning employed to give a relish to their insi 
food, is the lombok ; triturated \\\ih salt, it is called jrfM 
botli by the Malay u^ and Javans, and this condiment is in 
pcnsable and universal. It is of different kinds, accordinj 
Uie substances added to increase or diversify its strengtl 
pungency ; the most common addition is trdsif denomini 
by the MahhjuSy blachattg, Tlie name Mlab is given 
various leaves and kernels, mostlv eaten raw with rice 
sdmbel : many of tliese substances possess a pungency 
(Hlour intolerable to Europeans. If several vegetables 
mixed together, and prepared by boiling, they constitutes 
is called yV/;^yV//7, or greens for the table, of which there 
several distinctions. The various legumes are of great 
portaiice in the diet of tlie natives. Padom&ro^ pin^dang^ 
semiiTy are dishes to which the flesh of the buffido or fowl 



COOKING. 109 

iddedy and which resemble the Indian cuny. R4jak is pre- 
|Ked firom unripe mangos and other finiits^ which, being 
fHiledy receive the addition of capsicum and other spices, and 
flna constitntes a favourite dish with the natives, though very 
teigreeable to Europeans. 

The Chinese prepare firom the g^deU a species of soy, some- 
lint infisrior to that brought firom Japan. The kdchang-iju 
k M^j usefiil as a general article of diet, and is a good 
■bstitole for various legumes, which form the common 
aomishment of the continental Indians : it contains much 
idnaceous matter. TVdsi or bldchang is prepared in many 
■toatiofis along the northern coast, but is mostly required for 
fte Gonsamption of the interior. It is prepared firom prawns 
or shrimps, and extensive fisheries for the purpose are esta- 
blished in many parts of the coast The shrimps being taken, 
■e strewed with salt, and exposed to the sun tiU dry ; they 
ne then pounded in wooden mortars, dressed, and formed into 
msflses resembling large cheeses : in this state they constitute 
•B article of trade, and are distributed through tfie country. 
Hie putrescent fluid remaining afler the expression strongly 
iiqiregnated with the odoiu* of the shrimps, is evaporated 
to the consistence of a jelly, and affords a favourite sauce 
caDed/^iff. An inferior kind of irdsi is prepared firom small 
fiah, and, when made into the form of small balls, is called 
Uinyek. Trdsi blUro is of a reddish coloiu*, and much 
esteemed at the native capitals. Another kind of p^tis is 
prepared firom the flesh of the buffalo, chiefly in the interior 
disticts. 

Salted eggs are also an important article in the diet of the 
Javans. The eggs of ducks being most abundant, are chiefly 
preserved in this way. The eggs are enveloped in a thick 
covering made of a mixture of salt and ashes in equal parts, 
or salt and pounded bricks, and being wrapped each in 
a large leaf, they are placed on one another in a tub, or large 
earthen vessel. In ten days they are fit for use; but they 
are generally kept longer in the mixture, and, being thoroughly 
impregnated with salt, can be kept many months. In some 
districts, the eggs of the Muscovy duck are particularly 
employed for the purpose. 

In preparing their food, the Javans may be considered 



110 MEALS. 

to observe the same degree of cleanliness which is usual with 
Asiatics iu general ; and in point of indulgence of appetite^ 
tlicy may be, perhaps, placed about midway between tibe 
abstemious Hindu and the unscrupulous Chinese. In a 
coimtry where vegetation is luxuriant, and cultivation is 
already considerably advanced, it follows that there moil 
be an abundant supply for a people who subsist principally cm 
vegetable productions; and it may be asserted, that, except 
where the manifest oppressions of government, or the eflGecta 
of civil discord, for the moment deprive the labourer of Us 
just reward, there are few countries where the mass of dw 
population are so Well fed as on Java. There are few of the 
natives who cannot obtain their kdtiy or pound and a quarter 
of rice a day, witli fish, greens, and salt, if not other articles^ 
to season their meal. Where rice is less abundant, its place 
is supplied by maize or Indian com, or the variety of beaai 
which are cultivated ; and even should a family be driven 
into the woods, they would still be able to obtain a bare sob* 
sistence from the numerous nutritious roots, shoots, andleaves^ 
with which the forests abound. Famine is unknoift-n; and 
although partial failures of the crop may occur, they ara 
seldom so extensive as to be generally felt by the whole com* 
munity. Thus abundantly supplied, the Javans seem by no 
means inclined to reject the bounties of Providence : they are 
always willing to partake of a hearty meal, and seldom hare 
occasion to make a scanty one. Yet among them a glutton is 
a term of reproach, and to be notoriously fond of good living 
is sufRcient to attach this epithet to any one. 

The Javans, except where respect to Europeans dictates a 
different practice, cat their meals off the ground. A mat kept for 
tlio puri>()Re is laid on the floor, which, when the meal is over, 
is again carefully n)lle<l up, with the same regularity as the 
table-cloth in Kunipe ; and a plate of rice being served up lo 
each person pn^sent, the whole family or party sit dovin to par- 
take of the meal in a social manner. A principal dish, con- 
taining the sdmMy jdttfjany or oUier more highly seasoned 
pn^paration, is then handed round, or placed in the centre of 
the company, from which each ]>erson adds what he thinks 
proper to the allowance of rice before him. 

Water is the ])rincipal and almost exclusive beverage^ and, 



MBALS. Ill 

people of condition^ it is invariably boiled firsts and 
fmenHj drunk warm. Some are in the habit of flayouring 
fte water with cinnamon and other spices ; but tea, when it 
can be procured, is drunk by all classes at intervals during 
flieday. 

On occasions of festivals and parties, when many of the chiefs 
tee assembled, the dishes are extremely numerous and crowded ; 
isd hospitality being a virtue which the Javans cany almost 
to an excess, due care is taken that the dependants and re- 
tainers are also duly provided for. These, particularly in the 
Uf^Uands of the Sunda districts, where the people are Airthest 
Rmoved firom foreign intercourse, and the native manners are 
eonsequently better preserved, are arranged in rows at inter- 
vals, according to their respective ranks; the first in order 
fitting at the bottom of the hall, and the lowest at some dis- 
tance without, where each is carefully supplied with a bounti- 
fid proportion of the feast : thus exhibiting, in the mountainous 
districts of Java, an example of rude hospitality, and union of 
the different gradations of society in the same company, similar 
to that which prevailed in the Highlands of Scotland some 
ceaturies ago, where, it is said, ^^ those of inferior description 
^ were, nevertheless, considered as guests, and had their share, 
*^ both of the entertainment and of the good cheer of the day.'' 
It is at these parties that the chiefs sometimes indulge in 
intoxicating liquors, but the practice is not general ; and the 
use of wine, which has been introduced among them by the 
Dutch, is in most instances rather resorted to firom respect to 
Europeans, than firom any attachment to the bottle. 

The Javans have universally two meals in the day ; one 
just before noon, and one between seven and eight o'clock in 
the evening : the former, which is the principal meal, corres- 
ponding with the European dinner, and distinguished by the 
term mdngdn-dwany or the day meal; the latter, termed 
mdngdn w€ng4y or evening meal. They have no regular meal 
corresponding with the Eiuropean breakfast ; but those who 
go abroad early in the morning, usually partake of a basin of 
coffee and some rice cakes before they quit their homes, or 
purchase something of the kind at one of the numerous wd- 
ranys^ or stalls, which line the public roads, and are to the 
common people as so many cofke or eating-houses would be 



11-2 FERMENTED LIQUORS. 

to the European ; rice, coffee, cakes, boiled rice, soupB, leadj 
dressed meats and vegetables, being at all times exposed in 
them. Wliat is thus taken bv the Javans in the morning to 
break the fast, is consideted as a whet, and termed aarap, 

Bv the custom of the countrv, good food and lodging ara 
ordered to be provided for all strangers and travellers arriving 
at a village ; and in no countr}' are the rights of hospitalitjr 
more strictly enjoined by institutions, or more conscientiondj 
and religiously observed by custom and practice. '^ It is not 
'^ sufficient,^' say the Javan institutions, ^* that a man should 
^^ place good food before his guest; he is bound to do more: 
^ he should render the meal palatable by kind words anA 
^' treatment, to soothe him after his journey, and to make his 
'* heart glad while he partakes of the refreshment.** This is 
called bojo krdmo, or real hospitality. 

The chewing of betel-leaf (^irij^ and the areka-nut (plnang)^ 
as well as of tobacco (tambdko)^ and gdmbir^ is common to 
all classes. Tlic ttiri and phiang are used much in the same 
manner as by the natives of India in general. These stimu- 
lants are considered nearly as essential to their comfort, at 
salt is among Europeans. The commonest labourer contrives 
to procure at least tobacco, and generally iffri ; and if he can- 
not afford a Kiri box, a small supply will be usnally found in 
the comer of his handkerchief. Cardamums and cloves com- 
pose part of the articles in the nlri box of a person of am- 
dition. 

Tlie inhabitants of Java, as a nation, must be accounted 
sober ; although Euro]>eans, in onler to .serve their own pur- 
poses, by inducing some of the chiefs to drink wine to excess, 
have succeeded, to a certain extent, in corrupting the habits of 
sf)me individuals in this respect. Two kinds of fermented 
liquor are however ])repan»d by the Javans, called hddek and 

hrom : the foniier fn)ui rice ; the latter almost exclusivelv 

• 

from k/^tan or glutinous rice. In making Mdek^ the rice pre- 
viously boiled is stowed with a ferment called ragi^ consisting 
of onions, black pepper, and ca])sicum, and mixed up into 
small cakes, which are daily sold in tlie markets. After fre- 
quent stirring, the mixture is rolled into balls, which are piled 
upon each other in a high earthen vessel, and when fermenta- 
tion has commenced the htidek exudes and is collected at th( 



OPIUM. 113 

faottom. The remaining rice, strongly impregnated with the 
odour of fermentation^ has a sweetish taste, and is daily offered 
fersale in the markets as a dainty, imder the name of tapi^, 
Bidek is, in comparison with br&my a simple liquor, produc- 
ing <mty slight intoxication: it is often administered to chil- 
dbon to dislodge worms from the intestines. In making brdm, 
^ kitan is boiled in large quantities, and being stewed with 
n(y», remains exposed in open tubs till fermentation takes 
flace, when the liquor is poured off into close earthen vessels. 
It is generally buried in the earth for several months, by which 
the process of fermentation is checked and the strength of the 
Kqaor increased: sometimes it is concentrated by boiling. 
The colour is brown, red, or yellow, according to the kind of 
kHan employed. Br&m^ which has been preserved for several 
years, is highly esteemed among the natives, constituting a 
powerful spirit, which causes violent intoxication followed by 
^erere head-ache in persons not €u;customed to its use. The 
substance that remains after separation is a deadly poison to 
iWls, dogs, and various other animals. Arrack is prepared by 
distillation : an inferior kind, made in a more simple and eco- 
Domical manner, is called chiu. Both are prepared by the 
Chinese, and a particular account of the method employed will 
be found under another head *. A kind of small beer is made 
at Sura^k&rta in a mode similar to the European process of 
brewing, by exciting fermentation in a solution of Javan sugar, 
with several spices and the leaves of the pdri instead of hops. 
When fresh, the liquor is sprightly, and not unpleasant to 
the taste; but it cannot be preserved longer than four or 
five days. 

The use of opium, it must be confessed and lamented, has 
struck deep into the habits, and extended its malignant in- 
fluence to the morals of the people, and is likely to perpetuate 
its power in degrading their character and enen ating their 
energies, as long as the European government, overiooking 
every consideration of policy and humanity, shall allow a paltry 
addition to their finances to outweigh all regard to the ultimate 
happiness and prosperity of the coimtry. It is either eaten in 
its crude state as mania, or smoked as madat or chdndu. In 
the preparation of mddat, the crude opium is boiled down 

♦ Chapter IV. Wanufactiires. 
VOL. I. I 



114 OPIUM. 

with the leaves of toliocco, siriy or Uie like, and used in a Bticliy 
or somewhat liquid state. In chdndUy the opium is meielj 
boiled down witliout any admixture, to a stiU thicker consis- 
tency, and rolled into small balls or pills, in which stale, when 
dr}', they are inserted into bdmbusj and thus smoked. The 
cnide opium is eaten principally by the people in the interior 
of the country, in the provinces of the native princes : the 
opium prepared for smoking is used along the coast, and gene- 
rally in the other islands of the Archipelago ; it is prepared 
by the Chinese. The use of opium, however, though earned 
to a considerable extent, is still reckoned disgraceful, and per- 
sons addicted to it are looked upon as abandoned characten, 
and despised accordingly. The effects of this poison on the 
human frame are so well described by the Dutch commis- 
sioners who sat at the Hague in 1803, and who much to thdr 
honoiu" declared, ** that no consideration of pecimiary advan- 
^^ tage ought to weigh with the European government in alloir- 
^^ ingits use,'' that together with the o])inionof Mr.Hogendoip, 
who concurred with them, I shall insert their statement here. 
Tlie wish to do justice to authorities, whose views were so 
creditable to their country and their own character, and the 
importance of their opinion to an extensive population, will 
plead an apology for the length of the extract which I now 
present. 

^^ The opium trade,*' obsen-e the Commissioners, " requires 
'* likewise attention. The English in Bengal have assumed an 
'^ exclusive right to collect the same, and they dispose of a 
considerable number of chests containing that article an- 
nually at Calcutta by public auction. It is much in demand 
'^ on the Malay coast, at Sumatra, Java, and all the islands 
^' towards tiie east and north, and particularly in China, 
'^ although the use thereof is conAned to tiie lower classes. 
'^ llie effect which it produces on the constitution is different, 
'' and depends on tiie quantity that is taken, or on other cir- 
'* cumstances. If used >vith moderation, it causes a pleasant, 
** yet always somewhat intoxicating sensation, which absoriM 
*' all care and anxiety. If a large quantity is taken, it pro- 
" duces a kind of madness, of which the effects are dreadful, 
" eK])ecially when the mind is troubled by jealousj, or in- 
*^ flamed wiUi a desire of vengeance or other violent passions. 
At all times it leaves a slow poison, which imderminea the 






k( 



OPHJM. 115 

^fiiculty of the soul and the constitution of the body, and 
'^ xenders a person unfit for all kind of labour and an imago 
^ of the brute creation. The use of opium is so much more 
^ dangerous, because a person who is once addicted to it can 
^ never leave it off. To satisfy that inclination, he will sacri- 
*^ fice every thing, hi^ own welfare, the subsistence of his 
** wife and children, and neglect his work. Poverty is the 
** nataral consequence, and .then jt .becomes indifferent to him 
" by what means he may coi^^nt his insatiable desire after 
''opium; 90 that, at last, he ^o longer xespects either the 
** {poperty or life of his fellow-creature. 

^ If heare we were to follow the dictates of our own heart 

*^ only, and what moral doctrine and humanity prescribe, no 

" law, however severe, could be contrived, which we would 

^not propose, to prevent at least that in future, xio subjects 

" cf this Republic, or a( the Asiatic possessions of the state, 

** should be disgraced by trading in that abominable poison. 

** Yet we consider this as absolutely impracticable at present 

" with respect to those places not s^lgect to the state. O^um 

** is one of the most profitable articles of eastern copuneice : 

** as such it is considered by our merchants ; and if the navi- 

" gation to those parts is opened to them (which the interest 

^ of the state forcibly urges), it is impossible to oppose trading 

^' in the same. In this situation of affairs, therefore, we are 

^ rather to advise, that general leave be given to import opium 

'' at Malacca, and to allow the exportation from thence to 

^ Borneo and all the eastern parts not in the possession of 

" the state." 

" Opium," says Mr. Hogendorp, " is a slow though certain 
'' poison, which the Company, in order to gain money, sells 
** to the poor Javans. Any one who is once enslaved to it, 
** cannot, it is true, give it up without great difficulty ; and if 
" its use were entirely prohibited, some few persons would 
" probably die for want of it, who would otherwise languish 
" on a little longer : but how many would by that means be 
" saved for the fixture. Most of the crimes, particularly mur- 
" ders, that are now committed, may be imputed to opium as 
^' the original cause. 

" Large sums of money are every year carried out of the 
" country in exchange for it, and enrich our competitors, the 

12 



u 
it 
u 



116 OPIUM. 

" English. Much of it is smuggled into the interior, which 
^' adds to the evil. In short, the trade in opium is one of the 
^^ most injurious and most shameful things which disgrace the 
present government of India. It is therefore necessary at 
once, and entirely, to abolish the trade and importation of 
opium, and to prohibit the same, under the severest pe- 
*^ nalties that the law permits, since it is a poison. The 
*^ smuggling of it will then become almost impracticable, and 
'* the health, and even the lives of thousands, will be pre* 
** served. The money alone which will remain in the countiy 
'^ in lieu of it, is more valuable as being in circulation, than 
'* the profit which the Company now derives firom the sale 
" of it 

*^ This measure will excite no discontent among the Javans, 
'* for the princes and regents, with very few exceptions, do 
^* not consume any opium, but, as well as the most respectable 
'' of their subjects, look upon it as disgraceful. The use of 
'* opium is even adduced as an accusation of bad conduct, 
*^ and considered as sufficient cause for the removal or banish- 
" ment of a petty chief." 



CHAPTER III. 



bforUmee ofAgricuUurt to Java — SoU — State of the Peataniry — Price of 
Bice — Sulmsience qf the Peasantry — DweUinff — Agricultural Stock — 
b^lememts of FarmiHg — Seasons — Different Kinds of Land — Rice Culti- 
vstion — Maize, ^e. — Sugar — Coffee — Pepper — ItuHgo^^Cotton^-^Tobacco 
— TeMire qf Landed Property. 



The island of Java is a great agricultural country ; its soil is 
the grand source of its wealth. In its cultivation the inhabi- 
tants exert their chief industry, and upon its produce they 
rely, not only for their subsistence, but the few articles of fo- 
reign luxury or convenience which they purchase. The Ja- 
Tans are a nation of husbandmen, and exhibit that simple 
structure of society incident to such a stage of its progress. 
To the crop the mechanic looks immediately for his wages, 
the soldier for his pay, the magistrate for his salary, the priest 
for his stipend (or jdkat)^ and the govermnent for its tribute. 
The wealth of a province or village is measured by the extent 
and fertility of its land, its facilities for rice irrigation, and the 
number of its buffaloes. 

When government wishes to raise supplies firom particular 
districts, it does not enquire how many rupees or dollars it 
can yield in taxes, but what contribution of rice or maize it 
can fiunish, and the impost is assessed accordingly : the officer 
of revenue becomes a siureyor of land or a measiurer of pro- 
duce, and the fruits of the harvest are brought immediately 
into the ways and means of the treasury. When a chief gives 
his a.ssistance in the police or the magistracy, he is paid by 
so much village land, or the rent of so much land realized in 
produce ; and a native prince has no other means of pension- 
ing a favourite or rewarding a useAil servant. " Be it knoiiini 
" to the high officers of my palace, to my Bopdtis (regents), 



118 IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE. 

" and to my Mdntris {petite ftoblesse)^^ says a Jaran patent 
of nobility granted by Sultan Hamdngka BfAana^ " that I 
^^ have given this letter to my sen-ant to raise him from the 
'^ earthy bestowing upon him, for his subsistence, lands to 
'^ the amount of eleven hundred chdcfiaSy the labour of eleven 
" hundred men.'' By the population returns, and by the 
number of leases granted under the late settlement, it appeaiSi 
that sometimes there is not more than a tenth part of the in- 
habitants employed in any other branch of industry. Out of 
a population of 243,268 in the Pridng*en regencies, 209,125 
are stated as employed in agriculture. In Surabaya^ the 
proportion of householders who are cultivators, is to the rest 
of the inhabitants as 32,618 to 634 ; in Semdrang^ as 58,206 
to 21,404; in Rembang ii is as 103,230 to 55,300; and in 
other districts there are considerable variations : but it rarely 
happens, that the people employed in trade, in manufactures, 
in handicrafts, or other avocations, amount to a half of those 
engaged in agriculture, or a third of the whole population. 
The proportion, on an average, may bo stated as three and a 
half or foiu- to one. In England, it is well kno^ii, the ratio 
is reversed, its agricultural population being to its general 
population as one to three or two and a half. By the surveys 
lately made under the orders of the British government, we 
are enabled to describe the processes of Javan agriculture, 
and to state its results witii more acciuacy and in greater de- 
tail, than can be attained on many subjects of superior public 
interest. If we avail ourselves of these means pretty largely, 
it is not so much in tlie hope of increasing the stock of agri- 
cultural knowledge, as of assisting the reader to form an esti- 
mate of the character, habits, \%'ants, qpd resources of the 
Javan. 

llie soil of Java, though in many parts much neglected, is 
remarkable for the abundance and variety of its productions. 
With very little care or exertion on tlie part of the cultivator, 
it ^-iolds all that the wants of the island demand, and is 
capable of sui>pl\-ing resources far above any thing that the 
indolence or ij^orance of the people, either oppressed under 
the despotism of their own sovereigns, or harassed by the 
rai>acit y of stran^'ers, have yet permitted them to enjoy. Ly- 
iii;^ under a troj»ical sun, it pnMluces, as before obscrred, all 



SOIL. 119 

the froiU of tropical climate ; while, in many districts, its 
moantains and eminences make up for the difference of lati- 
tude, and give it, though only a few degrees from the line, all 
tlie adrantages of temperate regions. The bdmbuj the cocoa- 
not tree, the sugar-cane, the cotton tree, and the coffee plant, 
bere flouririi in the greatest luxuriance, and yield products of 
Ae best quaKty. Bice, the great stiq>le of subsistence, covers 
die slopes €d mountains and the low fields, and gives a return 
of thirty, fcNT^, or fiffy fold ; while maize, or even wheat and 
lye, and the other plants of Europe, may be cultivated to ad- 
rantage on high and inland situations. Such is the fertility 
of the soil, that in some places after yielding two, and some- 
times three crops in the year, it is not necessary even to 
ehange the culture. Water, which is so much wanted, and 
which is seldom found in requisite abundance in tropical re- 
gions, here flows in the greatest plenty. The cultivator who 
has prepared his sdwahy or rice field, within its reach, diverts 
part of it firom its channel, spreads it out into numerous canals 
of irrigation, and thus procures firom it, under a scorching sun, 
the verdure of the rainy season, and in duo time a plentiful 
harvest. Nothing can be conceived more beautiful to the eye, 
or more gratifying to the imagination, than the prospect of the 
rich variety of hill and dale, of rich plantations and firuit trees 
or forests, of natural streams and artificial currents, which pre- 
sents itself to the eye in several of the eastern and middle pro- 
vinces, at some distance firom the coast. In some parts of 
Ked&j Banyumdsy Semdranffy PasHruany and Mdlangy it is 
difiScult to say whether the admirer of landscape, or the cul- 
tivator of the ground, wQl be most gratified by the view. The 
whole country, as seen firom mountains of considerable eleva- 
tion, appears a rich, diversified, and well watered, garden, 
animated with villages, interspersed with the most luxuriant 
fields, and covered with the freshest verdure. 

Over far the greater part, seven-eighths of the island, the 
soil is either entirely neglected or badly cultivated, and the 
population scanty. It is by the produce of the remaining 
eighth that the whole of the nation is supported ; and it is 
probable that, if it were all under cultivation, no area of land 
of the same extent, in any other quarter of the globe, could 
exceed it, either in quantity, variety, or value of its vegetable 

10 



1-20 SOIL—STATE OF 'mE PEASANTRY. 

productions. The kind of husbandr}* in diflerent districtft (; 
shall be mentioned afterwards more particularly) depends upon 
tlie nature and elevation of the ground, and the facilities for 
natural or artificial irrigation. The best lands are those si- 
tuated in the vallies of the higher districts, or on the slopes of 
mountains, and on the plains stretching from them, as such 
lands are continually enriched ^nih accessions of new earth 
washed down from the hills by tlie periodical rains. The 
poorest soil is that foimd on the ranges of low hills, termed 
k^ndangj extending along many districts, and particularly in 
tlic southern division of the island ; but in no part is it no 
sterile or ungrateful, as not to afford a liberal return for the 
laboiu: bestowed ui)on its cultivation, especially if a supply 
of water can be by any means directed upon it 

But when nature does much for a countr>', its inhabitants 
are sometimes contented to do little, and, satisfied with its 
common gifts, neglect to improve them into the means of dig- 
nity or comfort. Tlic peasantry of Java, easily procuring the 
uecessaries of life, seldom aim at improvement of their condi- 
tion, llicc is tlie principal food of all classes of the peo]>le, 
and the great staple of Uieir agriculture. Of this necessary 
article, it is calculated tliat a labourer can, in ordinal}* cir^ 
cuinstanccs, earn from four to five katiH a day ; and a kuti 
l)(.'ing equivalent to one poimd and a quarter avoirdupois, is 
reckoned a sufTieieiit allowance for tlie dculy subsistence of an 
adult in these regions. The labour of the women on Java is 
estimated almost as highly as Uiat of Uie men, and tlius a mar- 
ried e()U])le can maintain eight or ten persons; and as a family 
seldom exceeds half that number, tliey have commonly half 
of their earnings applicable for tlie purchase of little comforts, 
for implements of agricidture, for clotliing and lodging. The 
two last articles cannot be expensive in a comitry where the 
children generally go naked, and where the simplest structure 
possible is suflieiuiit to afford the requisite protection against 
the elements. 

'Ilie price of rice, which thus becomes of importance to the 
labourer, varies in different parts of the island, according to the 
fertility of the district where it is produced, its situation with 
regard to a market, or its disUinee from one of tlie numerous 
provineial capitals. As the means of transport, by which the 



SUBSISTENCB-AGRICULTURAL STOCK. 121 

ttNmdanceofone district might be conveyed to supply the de- 
kiencies of another y and to equalize the distribution of the ge- 
Mxal stocky are few and laborious, this variation of price is 
maetiiiies very considerable : even in the same district there 
ire great variations, according to the nature of the crop. In the 
Native Provinces, apikul (weighing 133^ lbs. English) some- 
tmies sells below the fourth part of a Spanish dollar, and at 
other times for more than two Spani^ dollars ; but in com- 
9um years, and at an average over the whole island, including 
the capital, the estimate may be taken at thirty Spani^ dol- 
ing the k&yan of thirty pikulsy or three thousand kdtis. A 
km of rice, according to this estimate, may be sold to the 
coDsomer, after allowing a sufficient profit to the retail mer- 
clumt, for much less than a penny. 

But though the price of this common article of subsistence 
may be of some consequence to the Javan labourer, when he 
wants to make any purchase with his surplus portion, he is 
rendered independent of the fluctuations of the market for his 
necessary food, by the mode in which he procures it. He is 
generally the cultivator of the soil ; and while he admits that 
law of custom, which assigns to the superior a certain share 
of the produce, he claims an equal right himself to the re- 
mainder, which is generally sufficient to support himself and 
his family : and he sometimes finds in this law of custom, 
sanctioned by the interest of both parties, a security in the 
possession of his lands, and a barrier against the arbitrary 
exactions of his chief, which could scarcely be expected 
mder the capricious despotism of a Mahomedan government. 
Ln addition to this reserved share, he raises on his own ac- 
X)unt, if he is industrious, within what may he termed the 
cottage farm, all the vegetables, firuit, and poultry requisite 
or his own consumption. His wife invariably manufactures 
he slight articles of clothing, which, in such a climate, the 
common people are in the habit of wearing. What can be 
»pared of the fiiiits of their joint industry firom the supply 
)f their immediate wants, is carried to market, and exchanged 
or a little salt fish, dried meat, or for other trifling com- 
brts, hoarded as a store for the purchase of an ox or a 
3uflalo, or expended in procuring materials for repairing the 
but and mending the implements of husbandry. 



122 AGRlCULTUItcU. STOCK. 

The fanning stock of the cultivator is as limited as his 
wants are few and his cottage inartificial: it usually consists 
of a pair of buffaloes or oxen, and a few rude implements 
of husbandry. There is a small proportion of sheep and 
goats on the island ; but, with the exception of pooltiy, no 
kind of live stock is reared exclusively either for the but- 
cher or the dairy. By the returns made in 1813 of the 
stock and cattle of the provinces under the British govem- 
ment, containing a population of nearly two millions and s 
half, it was found that there were only about five thoossnd 
sheep and twenty-four thousand goats. The number of buf- 
faloes, by the same return, and in the same space, was 
stated at 402,054, and of oxen at 122,691. Horses aboimd 
in the island, but are principally employed about the capitals, 
and not in husbandry, further than in the transport of produce 
from one district to another. 

The buffalo and ox are used for ploughing. The former is 
of a smaller size than the buffalo of Sumatra and the Penin- 
siila, though larger tlian that of Bengal and of the islands 
lying eastward of Java. It is a strong tractable animal, ca- 
pable of long and continued exertion, but it cannot bear the 
heat of the mid-day sun. It is shy of Europeans, but submits 
to be managed by the smallest child of the family in which it 
is domesticated. Tlie buffalo is cither black or wliite: the 
fonner is larger and generally considered superior. In the 
Sunday or western and mountainous districts, nine out of ten 
arc white, which is not at all tlie case in the low countries ; no 
essential difference in the breed has been discovered to be 
connected with this remarkable distinction of colour. The 
usual ]mce of a buffalo in the western districts is about 
Iwenty-foiu" rupees for the black, and twenty rupees for the 
white ; in the eastern districts the price varies fix)m twelve to 
si\t(H'n rupees. The Siinda tenu for a buffalo is miUkding; 
the Javan, mtiifta and k^ho: and in compliment to Lal^n, 
tlie prince who is 8U])posed to have introduced cultivation into 
the Siinda districts, that prince and his successors on the 
Siinda throne are distinguished by the appellation M^ndittg 
ox Miiha, The name of the individual sovereigns enters into s 
compoiuid with these general terms for the dynasty, and thev 
are called Mdisa-faU*api, Miinding-sari^ and so of others. 



AGRICULTURAL STOCK. 123 

The ox of Jffra derives ifs origin from the Indian breed. 
Tiro varieties are common : that which is called the Javan ox 
hm cmisiderably degenerated ; the other, which is termed the 
Rsngftl or Sonet ox, is ^tingoished by a lump on the 
Aoridery and retains in his superior strength other traces of 
fe origiaL The hull aAttr castration is used as a beast of 
bnden, for the drstught, and sometimes for the stall. Cows 
nt dttedy employed in husbandry, and are pardcidarly useful 
t(^lhe|MK)rer class ; but in the $dwah and the extensive inun- 
liied pkmtalions of the low districts of the island, the superior 
bulk imd strength of the bufBado is indispensable. E^astward 
of PoMtrtfan, however, the lands are ploughed by oxen and 
e9irs exclusively. The wild breed, termed bdni^ffj is found 
principally in the forests of that quarter and in Bdlij although 
it occurs also in other parts ; a remarkable change takes place 
b the appearance of this animal after castration, the colour in 
a few months invariably becoming Ted. 

The cows on Java, as well as throughout the Archipelago, 
remarkably degenerate from those properties, for which, in a 
state of domestication, they are chiefly prized in other quarters 
of the world, and afford little or no milk beyond what is 
barely sufficient for the nourishment of the calf: but the 
draught ox does not partake of a similar change, and in the 
central and eastern districts, particularly where the pasture is 
good, becomes a strong active animal. The degenerate do- 
mestic cows are sometimes driven into the forests, to couple 
with the wild bdnt^ffy for the sake of improving the breed. 
A single pair of oxen, or buffaloes, is found sufficient for the 
joke both of the plough and harrow ; and these form by far 
the most expensive part of the cultivator*s stock. The price 
of a draught ox, in the central and eastern districts, in which 
they are more generally used in agriculture, varies from eight 
to sixteen rupees, or from twenty to forty shillings English, 
and a cow may be piurchased for about the same price. 
Either from the luxiuiance of the pasture, the greater care of 
the husbandmen, or a more equal climate, both tlie buffalo and 
the ox are usually in better condition on Java than in many 
parts of India: indeed, those miserable half-starved looking 
animals, with which some of the provinces of Bengal abound, 
are never seen in this island, except, perhaps, occasionally, in 



124 IMPLEMExNTS OF FARMING. 

some of the few herds belonging to Europeans, in the vicinity 
of Batavia. 

IhifTaloes, however, more than other domestic animals, are 
subject to an epidemic disease, the S3rmptoms and nature of 
which have not been hitherto carefully noted, or salisfisictorily 
explained. It prevails throughout the whole island, and 
generally re-appears after an interval of three, four, or five 
years : it makes great ravages in the stock of the peasantay, 
and is checked in its progress by no remedies which have 
hitherto been discovered or applied: it is of an infections 
nature, and excites great alarm when it appears : it bears dif- 
ferent names in different parts of the island. As the bull and 
cow are not liable to this disease ; and as, in addition to thia 
advantage, they are less expensive in their original purchaaey 
tliey are preferred by many of the natives. 

For draught, the buffalo and cow are employed; and for 
burden, tlie horse (particularly mares) and the ox. In level 
districts, and in good roads, the use of the latter is preferred. 
The usual burden of a horse is ratlier less than three hundred 
wciglil, and that of an ox ratlier more than four ; but in 
mountainous districts, and where the roads are neglected, one 
half of this weight is considered as a sufficient, if not an ex- 
cessive load. 

The comparatively higher price of cattle on Java than in 
Bengal has been accounted for from the demand for them 
as food, and the absence of extensive commons on which to 
feed them. 

When implements of husbandr}' are mentioned in British 
agricidture, many expensive instnnnents, and complicated 
umehiiicr}' suggest tliemselves to those acquainted with its 
practical details. From the preparation of the ground for 
receiving the seed, till the grain comes into the hands of the 
miller, labour is economized and produce increased, by many 
ingenioiLs processes and artful contrivances, of which a Javan 
could form no conception. He could form no idea of the 
fabrication or advantages of our different kinds of ploughs ; of 
our swing ]>lougliK, our wheel ploughs, and our two-furrow 
ploughs ; {){' our grubbers, cultivators, and other instruments 
for ])ulverizing the soil ; of our threshing and winnoming 
machines, and other inventions. A plough of tlie simplest 



IMPLEMENTS OF FARMING. 125 

construction^ a harrow, or rather rake, and sometimes a roller, 
with 2Lpdchuly or hoe, which answers the purpose of a spade ; 
an drity which serves as a knife or small hachet ; and the and 
atdj a peculiar instrument used by the reapers, are all the im- 
plements employed by him in husbandry ; and the total cost 
of the whole does not exceed three or four rupees, or from 
Krea to ten shillings. 

The plough fwalukuj^ in general use for the irrigated 

land, consists of three parts, the body, beam, and handle. It 

is generally made of teak wood, where that material can be 

prorided, or otherwise of the most durable that can be found : 

the yoke only is of hdmbu. Simple as it is, it appears, both 

in its construction and durability, superior to the plough of 

Bengal, as described by Mr. Colebrooke, from which it differs, 

in having a board cut out of the piece which forms the body, 

for throwing the earth aside. The point of the body, or sock, 

is tipped with iron, which in some districts is cast for the 

pnipose. There is another kind, of more simple construction, 

in use for dry and mountain cultivation : this is termed brujuly 

and consists of but two parts. Both kinds are so light, that 

when the ploughman has performed his moming^s work, he 

throws the plough over his shoulder, and without feeling any 

inconvenience or fatigue, returns with it to his cottage. For 

gardens, and for small fields adjoining the villages, the small 

l{Jcu china or Chinese plough, is used with one buffalo : the 

cost for a good plough seldom exceeds a rupee and a half. 

The harrow (gdru)y which is rather a large rake having only 

a single rough row of teeth, costs about the same sum, and is 

in like manner made of teak where procurable ; except the 

handle, beam, and yoke, which are of hdmhu. When used, 

the person who guides it generally sits upon it, to give it the 

necessary pressure for levelling or pulverizing the soil. 

The pdchul is a large hoe, which in Java serves every pur- 
pose of the spade in Europe, and is consequently, next to the 
plough, the most important implement in Javan husbandry. 
The head is of wood tipped with iron ; and the handle, which 
is about two feet and a half long, frequently has a slight curve, 
which renders it more convenient for use : its price is about 
half a rupee. The drit, or weeding knife, costs about eight 
pence ; and the dm dni, with which the grain is reaped. 



1*2G SEASONS. 

about three pence. The latter is a small instrument of peculiar 
shape. The reaper holds it in a particular manner, and crops 
off with it each separate ear, along with a few incites of the 
straw. This mode of reaping has been immemoriaIly|»actiMd 
and is universally followed. 8ome of the most intelligent peo* 
pie being questioned respecting the origin of this operose pnh 
cess, answered, that it was reported to have been .establidwd 
in ancient times as a s'ldmatj or gratefiil acknowledgment for 
an abundant harvest ; that when his field was covered wiA 
tlie bounty of Ceres, no reaper could refuse her ithis acknow- 
ledgment ; and that the religious discharge of this obligatioD 
was guarded by the belief, that if he ceased to offer this tribole 
of his labour at the season of harvest, the field would not con* 
tinue to yield him the same abundant return. 

The lands are ploughed, harrowed, and weeded by the men, 
who also conduct the whole process of irrigation ; but the 
laboiu" of transplanting, reaping, and (where cattle axe not 
used for the purjiose) of transporting the different crops fion 
the field to the village, or from the village to the market, de- 
volves upon the women. 

Besides the two general divisions of the year, marked out 
by nature in the great changes of the earth and the atmoo- 
pliere, tiiere are other periodical distinctions, depending on lesi 
obvious or more irregular phenomena. These variations haT« 
been ascertained by a reference to tiie course of the heavenly 
bodies, or the calculations of the wtiku^ which are described 
in another part of this work. It is the office of the village 
priest to keep this reckoning, and to apprize the cultivatoa 
when the term approaches for the commencement of the dif- 
ferent operations of husbandry. Of these minor seasons of 
the year, the first, commencing after the rice harvest which 
falls in August or September, lasts forty-one days. During 
this season the leaves fall from the trees, vegetation is inter- 
ni])ted, and the only field labour performed is the burning of 
grass and vegetables, as a preparation of the Ugal or gdgatt. 
In the second season, which lasts twentj'-five days, vegetation 
again resumes its vigour. The tiiird, which lasts twenty-four 
days, is considered the most proper for planting sweet po- 
tatoes, yams, and such other vegetables as usually fonn the 
second crop ; tiie wild flowers of the forest are now in bloaaom, 



SEASONS. 127 

and the period of what is tonned dry cultivation comm^ices. 
The fourdi, which lasts also twenty-four days, is the natural 
aeascm for the pairing of wild animals : high winds now ppe- 
fwlf the rains descend, and the rivers begin to rise. During 
Ae fifUl, which lasts twenty-six days, the implements o{ 
hnsbaiidiy are prepared, and the water-courses examined and 
iBDewed : this is the commencement of the wet cultivation. 
In the sixth season the ploughing of the adtcahs and sowing 
of the bibU for the great rice crop takes place : this season 
lasts fi>rfy-one days. In the seventh, which also lasts fcnrty- 
one dajrs, pdri is transplanted into fields, and the courses of 
the water properly directed. In the eighth, which lasts 
ttrenty-six days, the plants shoot above the water and begin 
to blossom. In the ninth season, which consists of twenty- 
fiye days, the ears of the grain form. In the tenth, also con- 
sisting of twenty-five days, they ripen and turn yellow. The 
eleventh, which lasts twenty-six days, is the period for reap- 
ing; and in the twelfth, which consists of forty-one days, the 
Iiarvest is completed, the produce gathered in, and that dry 
clear weather prevails, in which the days are the hottest and 
the nights the coldest of the whole year. The accurate as- 
sigmnent of the number of days by the natives themselves to 
the different operations of husbandry, affords such complete 
infcmnation on this interesting subject, that any finlher ac- 
count would be superfluous. It may, however, be proper to 
observe, that the periods above described chiefly refer to the 
progress of the principal rice crop, as influenced by the annual 
lains ; but there are many lands rendered quite independent 
of these rains, by the vicinity of streams which afford a plan- 
tifiil supply of water at all times of the year. In many favoured 
situations, it is even common to observe at one view the rice 
fields in almost every stage of their cultivation ; in one, wo- 
men engaged in planting the newly prepared soil, and in 
another, the reapers employed in collecting the firuits of the 
harvest 

Lands in Java axe classed under two general divisions ; 
lands which are capable of being inundated directly firom 
streams or rivers, and lands which are not so. The former 
are termed sdwahy the latter tigal or gdga. It is on the 
sdwihs that the great rice cultivation is carried on ; and these 



128 DIFFERENT KINDS OF LAND. 

admit of a subdivision, according to tlie manner in which the 
land is irrigated. Those which can be irrigated at plea- 
sure from adjacent springs or rivers, are considered as the 
proper sdwah ; those which depend on the periodical rains 
for the whole or principal part of the water by which they are 
fertilized, are termed sawah tudahan. The former are by far 
the most valuable, and lands of this description admit of two 
heavy crops annually, wiUiout regard to any particular time of 
the year: the fields seldom exceed forty or sixty feet in 
breadth, and the water is retained in them by means of a 
small embankment of about a foot in height. On the slopes 
of the mountains, where this mode of cultivation is chieflr 
found, these fields arc carried gradually above each other in 
so many terraces, for the piupose of irrigation, the water ad- 
mitted in the upper terrace inundating each of them in its 
descent. The t^gal lands are appropriated to the culture of 
less important crops, such as the moimtain rice, Indian 
com, &c. 

Tlie vast superiority of the siiwah^ or wet ciiltivation, ovei 
that of legale or drv', is shewn in their relative pro<luce, and 
may be still fiurtlier illustrated by a comparison of the renta 
which the two descriptions of land are calculated to afford 
The quantity of U*gal land, or land fit for maize, as compared 
with tliat of xawah land, varies in different districts. In Cft^- 
ribofif the U*gal land, by the late sur\-ey, amounted only tc 
2,511, while the sdwan exceeded 16,000. In T^i the pro- 
portions were even more widely varied, the nimaber a 
jftngs of the former to the latter being as 891 to 11,445. Ii 
Surabaya they were as 1,356 to 17,397 ; in KedA and BexAk 
tliey were nearly equal, being respectively as 8,295 to 10,757 
and as 6,369 to 7,862. 

llie succession of crops, next to the facility of irrigation 
depends upon the quality of the soil, which in the native pro 
vinces is divided by the cultivators into three principal kindu 
tana Uidu^ tana Unchad^ and tana piiftir, Tlie first is the best 
consisting of rich vegetable mould, and a certain proportion t 
sand, and exists chiefly near the banks of large rivers ; the sc 
ecmd is ahnost pure clay, and is found in the central plains ; an< 
tlie third is alluvial, and covers the maritime districts. Thi 
term pada^ p^r^ng is applied to the obli(|ue tracts enriches 



RICE CULTn^ATIOxN. 1'20 

with a fertile mouldy which form the accUvities of hills, and 
fiom which the water readily disappears. Tana Iddu will 
bear a constant succession of crops. Tana linchad yields 
only a single annual crop of rice : during the rainy season the 
soil constitutes a stiff mud, in which the plants find the re- 
quisite moisture and display all their luxuriance ; when it is 
afterwards exposed to the rays of the sun, it bursts into ex- 
tcnsiTe fissures, which admitting the scorching heat by which 
tkey were produced, become detrimental to every species of 
vegetation. 

Besides the annual crop of rice which is raised on the 
9aiwah lands, a variety of plants are raised upon them as a se- 
cond or light crop within the same year. Among these are 
sereral species of kdchang or bean, the cotton plant, the in- 
digOy and a variety of cucumbers, &c. But the more gene- 
rally useful and profitable vegetables require nearly the same 
period as the rice, and only yield their increase once in a 
season : they mostly grow in situations, on which the supply 
of water can be regulated, and a continued inundation pre- 
vented. Among the most important are the gUd^^ kdchang 
p^nden^ or kdchang chinu^ kdchang ijuy k^d^le, jdgung or In- 
dian com, jdgung chdntel^ jdwa-tvilty jdliy wijen^ jdrak or 
palma christi, t&rongy and k&ntang jdtoa. 

In f€g(d lands of high situations a particular method of 
planting is sometimes practiced, which produces a result si- 
milar to a succession of crops. Together with the rice are 
deposited the seeds of other vegetables, which arrive at ma- 
turity at different periods, chiefly after the rice harvest. The 
most common and useful among these is cotton ; and, in some 
tracts, great quantities of this valuable product is thus ob- 
tained, without any exclusive allotment of the soil. Next to 
this are various leguminous and other plants, which do not 
interfere with the rice. No less than six or eight kinds of 
vegetables are sometimes in this manner seen to shoot up pro- 
miscuously in a single field. 

Rice, however, as has been repeatedly observed, is the 
grand staple of Javan, as well as Indian cultivation, and to 
this every other species of husbandry is subordinate. The 
adjacent islands and states of Sumatra, Malacca, Borneo, 
Celebes, and the Moluccas, have always in a great measure 

VOL. r. K 



1 30 RICE CULTIVATION. 

depended on the Javan cultivator for thdur supply, and the 
Dutch were in the habit of transporting an annual quantity of 
between six and eight thousand tons to Ceylon, to Coroman- 
dely to the Cape, and their other settlements. Even at the 
low rate at which it generally sells, a rerenue of near four 
million of rupees, or about half a million sterling, has been 
estimated as the government portion of its annual produce. 

According to the modes of ciiltivation by which it has been 
reared, this grain is called pAri sdwahy or pdri gdga ; cones* 
ponding, with some exceptions, to the pddi sdttahj and p&M 
Iddang of Sumatra. In the western, and particulariy the 
Sdnda districts, the term gaga is changed for Hpar^ the term 
gdgay in tlicsc districts, being only occasionally applied to the 
grain which is cultivated on newly cleared mountainous spots. 

The lowland and the mountain rice, or more correctly 
speaking, the rice raised in dry lands and the rice raised in 
lands subjected to inundation, are varieties of the same species 
(the oriza sativa of Linnaeus) alUiough both of them are per- 
manent : but tlie rice planted on the mountainous or diy 
ground does not thrive on irrigated lands ; nor, on the con- 
trary, does the sawah rice succeed on lands beyond the reach 
of irrigation. The mountain rice is supposed to contain in 
the same bulk more nourishment than Uie other, and is more 
palatable ; but its use is limited to the less ]>o])uIous districlB 
of the island, Uie greater proportion of the inlmbitants depend- 
ing exclusively on the produce of the sdwahs^ or wet ctdttva- 
tion, f(ir their support. 

Stavorinus asserts, that tlie mountain rice is not so good as 
tliat of the low lands. Mr. Marsdeu informs us, on the con- 
trary, that the former brings the higher price, and is consi- 
dered of superior quality, being whiter, heartier, and better 
flavoured grain, keeping better, and increasing more in 
boiling. " The rice of the low lands," he sa}'8, ** is more 
^^ prolific from the seed, and subject to less risk in the cul- 
^^ ture ; and on tliese accounts, rather than from its superior 
^^ quality, is in more common use than the former.^ In 
general, th(* weighti(?st and whitest grain is preferred; a pre- 
ference mentioned by Bontius, who includes in the character 
of the best rice its whiteness, its clearness of colour, and its 
]ireponderating weight, bulk for bidk. Dr. Horsfield con- 



RICE CULTIVATION. 181 

ceires that Stavoriiius formed his opinion in the low northern 
maritime districts of Java, and Mr. Marsden from a more 
extensiTe observation. Many intelligent natives state^ that 
ihey prefer the mountain rice whep they can procure it, on 
account of its whiteness, strength, and flavour ; and that they 
are cmly limited in its use, by the impossibility of raising as 
much of it as can satisfy the general demand, all the moun- 
tain or dry rice not being sufficient to feed one*tenth of the 
population. In less populous countries, as in many parts of 
Sumatra, the inhabitants can easily subrist the whole of their 
Bombers exclusively on moimtain rice, or that produced on 
Iddang^f which are fields reclaimed from ancient forests for 
the first time, and from which only one crop is demanded. 
Tbe grain here, as in the mountain rice of Java, is highly 
flavoured and nutritious ; but in countries where the popu- 
lation is crowded, where a scanty crop will not suffice, and 
where a continued supply of new land cannot be obtained, 
the peasantry must apply their labour to such grounds as 
admit of imintemipted cultivation, and renew their annual 
fertiUty by periodical inundations, even although the produce 
is not so highly prized. 

In the sdwahs of Java the fidids ard previously ploughed, 
inundated, and laboured by animals and hoeing, until the 
mould is converted into a semifluid mire : they then are con* 
sidered fit to receive the young plants. No manure is ever 
used. Oil-cakes (hUngkil)^ which are by some writers sup- 
posed to be used for this piurpose generally, are only employed 
in the gardens about Batavia. One of the chief charac- 
teristics of the soil on Java, is an exemption from the neces- 
sity of requiring manure : on the sdwah lands, the annual 
inundation of the land is sufficient to renovate its vigour, and 
to permit constant cropping for a succession of years, without 
any observable impoverishment. 

In the cultivation of the sdwahs^ the plants are uniformly 
transplanted or removed from their first situation. In those 
of tegal or gaga^ they grow to maturity on the same spot 
where the seed was originally deposited, whether this be on 
high mountainous districts, or on low lands, the distinction of 
sdtcah and gdga depending exclusively not upon the situa* 

K 2 



132 RICE CULTIVATION, 

tion of the field, but in the mode of culture, whether wet 
or dry. 

In raising rice in the sdwahs^ inundation is indispensable 
till it is nearly ripe. The seed is first sown on a bed pie- 
pared for the purpose, about one month before the season for 
transplanting it, and tlie plant is during that time termed 
libit . Two methods are in use. According to the first, 
called Urity the ears of pari arc careiully disposed on the soft 
mud of the seed bed ; in the second, called ng^^bevj the sepftp 
rated seeds are thrown after the manner of broadcast in 
Europe. In by far the greatest portions of the idand, the 
ground is prcpare<l, the scc<l sown, and tlie plant removed, 
diuing the course of the rainy season, or between the months 
of November and March. In situations where a constant 
supply of water can be obtained from springs, rivulets, or 
rivers, two crops arc produced in the course of twelve or 
fourteen months; but tlie advantage of double cropping, 
which exhausts the soil without allowing it time to recover, 
has been considered as very questionable. If in some situs- 
ations commanding a su])ply of water, the earth is aUowed to 
rest after the preceding harvest, during the latter end of the 
rainy seascm, and the transplantation made in the months of 
June and July, it generally yields more profitable crops than 
the common method of working tlie sdwah. This, which is 
tenned f/ddu by tlie natives, has been recommended by the 
cx))eriencc of European planters. 

Irrigation is exclusively effected by conducting the water 
of rivers and rivulets from the more or less elevated spots 
in tlie vicinity, and in this respect, differs materially in its 
])rocess from that of Bengal, for although considerable labour 
and ingenuity are exercised in detaining, regulating, and dis- 
tributing the supply, liy means of dams, called banddn^amM^ 
no machiner}' whatever is employed in raising water for agri- 
cultural puq)oses in any part of tlie island. 

The ricc^ grown on sdwahSy is of two kinds, pari ginja and 
pari ddlam. In the fonner, the har\*est takes place four 
months after the transplantation ; in the latter, six months. 
Pari (j^nja having the advantage of a qiucker growth, is 
(hen*rore often planted when the rainy season is far advanced. 



RICE CULTIVATION. 133 

Pari ddlam is more prolific, and ^rields a grain of superior 
qoali^, comprising those Tarieties in which the ears are 
longer and more compound. The varieties of each kind are 
fttinct and permanent 

The subvarieties are verj numerous, amounting, wiih those 
of k&tany to more than a hundred. KHan is a distinct variety, 
with very glutinous seeds, seldom employed as an article of 
fiiod, except in confections, cakes, and tiie like. Of the 
fvieties of the pari g&n»ha^ mentik and anchar bdntap are 
preferred* Of the pdri ddlam^ those of krentiklan and sUka 
nAuU are most esteemed, being remarkably well flavoured 
and fit for keeping. S*ldmat jdwa yields also rice of good 
qoality. The bearded kinds of pdri are always preferred for 
keeping, as the grains do not readily fall off. Near SULra- 
iMa, the principal native capital, close to tiie site of the 
feraier capital K^ta-^roj there is a peculiar tract inundated 
by water firom a fountain at Ping^ging^ which is said to 
produce a grain of very superior flavour, from which the table 
of the Susuhunan is supplied. Suka ndndi is the kind uni* 
formly preferred for these plantations. 

For pdri gdga^ whether in high or low situations, the 
ground is prepared by ploughing and harrowing, and the 
seed is planted after the manner called setting in some parts 
of England. The holes are made by pointed sticks, called 
p&nchoSf and into each hole two seeds are thrown. Only 
careless husbandmen, or those who cannot procure the 
requisite assistance in their labour, sow by broadcast. In 
high situations the earth is prepared before the rains com* 
mence : the seed is sown in the months of September or 
October, and the harvest takes place in January and February 
foUowing. Gdgas of low situations are planted about a 
month after tiie harvest of the sdwah is got in, and frequentiy 
receive temporary supplies of water from a neighboiuing 
rivulet In high situations, to which water cannot be carried, 
they are sufficientiy moistened by tiie first rains of the season. 
During their growth, tiiey receive several hoeings firom the 
carefiil husbandman. 

As the grain ripens, an elevated shed is frequentiy erected 
in the centre of a plantation, within which a child on the 
watch touches, from time to time, a series of cords extending 



134 RICE CULTIVATION. 

from the shed to the extremiticB of the field, like the radii ol 
a circle, aiid by this cheap contrivance, and an occasiona] 
shout, prevents the ravages of birds, which would otherwise 
prove highly injurious to the crops. These little elevated shedi 
in the mterior, and particularly in the district of Bdnjfumdt^ 
are very neatly constructed of matting. 

The reapers are tmiformly paid, by receiving a portion ol 
the crop which tliey have reaped : this varies in different paiti 
of the island, from the sixth to the eighth part, depending on 
the abundance or scarcity of hands ; when the bar^-est is ge- 
neral through a district, one^fifth or one-fourth is demanded bj 
the reaper. In opposition to so exorbitant a claim, the infln- 
encc of the great is sometimes exerted, and the labourer if 
obliged to be content with a tenth or a twelfth. 

The grain is separated from the husk by pounding seven] 
times repeated. The first operation is generally performed in 
wooden troughs, in the villages near which it grows, and be- 
fore it is brought to market The pari being thus converted 
into hras or rice, afltenvards receives repeated poundings, ac- 
cording to the condition or taste of the consumer. 

With the exception of the rice raised in 8t\wah9y all othei 
produce is cultivated on dry grounds, either on the sawaik 
fields during tlie Ary season, or on i^gal land, at all times ex- 
clusively approjiriated to dry cultivation. The principal ar- 
ticle next to rice, as affording food to man, is maize or Indian 
com, tenned jagung. It is general in every district of Java 
but is more particidarly an object of attention on AfaiUtra 
where, for want of mountain streams, the lands do not in ge* 
niTul admit of irrigation. In the more populous parts of Java 
likewise, where the sdtrahs do not afford a sufficient supply o: 
rice, tlie inhabitants have lately had recourse to the cultiva* 
tioii of mni/e. It is now rapidly increasing in those Ion 
ranges of hills, which, on account of tlie poverty of the soil 
had hitherto been neglected, and is becoming more and mon 
a (iivourite article of food. In the more eastern districts, itii 
procured from the ]nha))itantsof 3/nr/i/raiu exchange for rice 
It is grnerally roasted in the ear, and in that state is cxposec 
while hot for public sale ; but it is never reduced to flour, o: 
stored for anv considerable time. 

'Ilie zea waiz^f or comuion jagung^ is a hardy plant, am 



MAIZE CULTIVATION. 135 

grows on any soil. In common with every other production 
of Jara it thriyes there most luxuriantly; nor is there any 
reason to believe, that the Javan soil is less adapted to it than 
that of Spanish America, where Humboldt estimates its pro- 
duce at a hundred and &fty fold. It is planted in fertile low 
hnds in rotation with rice, and in high situations without in- 
tennission, often forming in the latter the chief, if not the only, 
inppoirt of the inhabitants. There are three dififerent kinds, 
Astinguished £rom each other by their respective periods of 
ripening. The first kind requires seven months, and is a 
luge rich grain ; the second takes only three, and is of inferior 
quaH^; and the third, which seems valuable only on account 
of its rapid growth, ripens in forty days, but has a poor small 
grain. They may be planted at all seasons of the year ; and of 
the two inferior kinds, several crops axe often raised firom the 
woe ground within the year. 

Of other cerealia, ihejdgung chdntel is raised very partially 
in particular districts, at no great distance from the capitals of 
the interior, and mostly for the purpose of preparing from it, 
by fermentation, a liquor sometimes drunk by the natives ; as 
& general article of food it cannot be eniunerated. The jdiva- 
tM and jdli are still more confined in their use ; although the 
natives have a traditicm, that on the first arrival of the Indian 
colonists on Java, the former was the only grain fotmd on the 
island : it yields a pleasant pulp, and is made into several arti- 
cles of confectionary. As a principal article of food, or a sub- 
stitute for rice, Indian com can alone be considered. 

In times of scarcity, the natives make use of various kinds 
of the plaintain (musajj also the yam (vbioUhe Malays, and 
uwi of the Javans), the sweet potatoe, kaiilo (convolvidus ba- 
tatas), the varieties of which are described in one of the early 
volmnes of the Batavian Transactions, and a number of legu- 
minous vegetables, the various kinds of beans (kdchanyjj 
together with a species of grass with minute yellow seeds, 
called iiiton, which in ancient times is said to have formed a 
principal article of food, and the dried leaves of some other 
plants ; but, happily, these times seldom occur, and the use of 
the jdgung chdntel and jduki-unU, as well as of the various 
roots and leguminous vegetables to which I have alluded, is 
too limited to produce any sensible effects on the inhabitants. 

9 



136 COCOA-NUT. 

lliose natives who make use of the Indian com exclusivelv, 
inhabit the highest districts, where the purity of the atmo- 
sphere contcracts any injury which their health might other- 
wise sustain from die want of rice. 

From the dren (sagurus rumphii), which grows abundantly in 
many parts of Java, a substance is prepared, similar in all re- 
spects to the true sago of the Eastern Islands. Itisparticulariy 
useful in times of scarcity, when large numbers of these valuable 
trees are felled, for the purpose of collecting the pith. The 
sap yields an excellent sugar of a dark colour, in common use 
with the natives. The wine or ftiwak (toddy) prepared fiom 
it is superior to that obtained from most other palms. 

A very agreeable pulp is prepared fix>m the pith of this tzeey 
pounded with water, and exposed one night to spontaneouf 
evaporation : it is eaten with palm sugar, and found by no 
means unpleasant by Europeans. The tuberous roots of a 
species of cucurma, t^mu Idwak^ grated and inftised in water, 
yields a similar pulp. Both are denominated pdti, and daily 
oiFered for sale along the roads and in the interior. 

All the varieties of tlie cocoa-tree, noticed on Sumatra, are 
to be foimd on Java, were its quicker and more luxuriant 
growth is accotmted for by the superiority of soil. The prin- 
cipal varieties of the cocoa-nut are enumerated in one of the 
early volumes of tlie Batavian Transactions. 

Of the oil-giving plants there are many. The kdckoMg 
fforinf/ of the Malay countries, or, as it is indifferently termed 
by Uie Javans, kdchang chUm^ p^nden^ oxtdna, is cultivated 
almost exclusively for the purpose of obtaining its oil, near the 
capitals of the principal districts, both central and maritime. 
It requires a ver}' strong soil for its support, and as the culti- 
vation is profitable, the lands which produce it yield hi^ 
rents. It is never employed as an article of food by itself; but 
what remains of it aller the oil is expressed, forms an ingre- 
dient for the seasoning of rice, in one of the common dishes of 
the natives. The oil is obtaine<l by grinding the seeds be- 
tween two grooved cylinders, and then separating it cither by 
expression or boiling. The former is chiefly used by the 
Cliinesc, and yields as a refuse the oil-cakes, which I formeriy 
observed were employed as manure in some of the gardens 
near llatavia. Where these cylinders are not in use, the fol- 



SUGAR-CANE. 187 

kming mode is adopted : the nut having been taken from the 

ground, is dried by exposure to the sun for a few days ; after 

irldcb the kernel is extracted, and reduced, by successive 

beatings in the Javan U^ung or mortar, to a grain sufficiently 

nan to pass through a sieve ; it is then boiled by steam, and 

luning been allowed to cool for twenty-four hours, is put into 

a basket, and in that state placed between two oblong planks, 

nUdi, being joined together at one extremity, are forced to 

meet at the other, on the principle of a lemon-squeezer. The 

oil exuding from the interstices of the basket is caught on an 

ox's hide, placed below to convey it to an earthen receiver. 

Hie jdrcJCf or palma christi, is cultivated in nearly the 
same manner as maize, and thrives on similar soils: from 
tUs plant is obtained most of the oil for burning in lamps. 
In extracting the oil from this as well as from the cocoa-nut, 
TarioQS processes are employed, most of which tend to acce- 
loate the rancidity of the oil. A pure cold drawn oil is not 
bown. In the cocoa-nut, if the oil is obtained by expres- 
sion, the broken nuts from which it is made are exposed till 
putrefaction commences. In other cases they are grated, and 
water being poured upon them, the parts mixed with it form 
fdntetif a white milky fluid, which is evaporated till the oil 
alone remains. As this process requires much time and fuel, 
a more economical method is often resorted to : the milky 
floid is left exposed for a night, when the oily parts rise to the 
top, and being separated from the water are purified by a very 
short boiling. 

Of the sugar-cane, or according to the native term, t^bu 
(the name by which it is designated, not only on Java, but 
throughout the Archipelago), there are several varieties. The 
lark purple cane, which displays the greatest luxuriance, 
uid shoots to the length of ten feet, is the most highly prized. 
3y the Javans the sugar-cane is only cultivated to be eaten 
Q an unprepared state, as a nourishing sweetmeat. They 
re imacquainted with any artificial method of expressing 
rom'it the saccharine juice, and, consequently, with the first 
laterial part of the process by which it is manufactured into 
ugar. Satisfied with the nourishment or gratification which 
tiey procure from the plant as nature presents it, they leave 



138 COFFEE. 

the complicated process to be conducted exclusively by tho 
Chinese. 

The cane, as in tlie West Indies, is propagated by cuttings 
of about a foot and a half long, which are inserted in the 
grouiul in an upright direction, previously to the setting in of 
the rains. The Chinese occasionally use oil-cake for enrich- 
ing tlie lands; but where the plant is only raised for con- 
sumption in its fresh state, no manure whatever is thought 
n^qiiisite; and a good soil, without such preparation, will 
yield three or four crops in succession. 

The cane is extensively cultivated for the juice in the vici- 
nity of Batavia, where there are numerous manufactories, 
principally owned by the Chinese. It is also cultivated for 
tliis purpose in considerable tracts at Jdpara and PatArwM^ 
and partially in other districts of the eastern provinces, whoe 
mills are established for expressing it Previous to the dis- 
turbances in Chdribotiy sugar likewise was manufactured in 
that district in considerable quantities, and furnished an im- 
portiint article of export. 

llie coffee-plant, which is only known on Java by its 
European appellation, and its intimate connexion with Euio- 
ro])ean despotism, was first introduced by the Dutch early in 
the eighteenth centur}', and has since formed one of the arti- 
cles of their exclusive monopoly. The labour by which it is 
planted, and its produce collected, is included among tho 
op})ressions or forced scr\'iccs of the natives, and the delivery 
ojf it into the government stores, among the forced deliveries 
at inadecjuate rates. Previously to the year 1808, the cultiva- 
tion of cofiee was principally confined to the S^nda districts. 
Tlierc were but comparatively few plantations in the eastern 
districts, and the produce which they were capable of yield- 
ing did not amount to one-tenth part of the whole; but, 
under the administration of Marshal Daendels, this shrub 
usuq)ed tlic soil destined for yielding the subsistence of the 
peo])le ; aycry other kind of cultivation was made subservient 
to it, and the withering effects of a government monopoly ex- 
tended their influence indiscriminately throughout 6\'exy pro- 
vince of the island. 

in the Sitnda districts, each family was obliged to take 



COFFEE. 139 

eaxe of one thoafiand coffee plants ; and in the eastern districts, 

vbete new and extensive plantations were now to be formed, 

on soils and in situations in many instances by no means fa* 

iromable to the cultivation, five hundred plants was the pre* 

Mribed allotment No negligence could be practised in the 

execution of this duty: the whole operations of planting, 

cleaning, and collecting, continued to be conducted under the 

Immediate sujierintendance of European officers, who selected 

the spot on which new gardens were to be laid out, took care 

that they were preserved from weeds and rank grass, and re* 

eeived die produce into store when gathered. 

A black mould intermixed with sand, is considered the best 
mxl tot the coffee plant In selecting a situation for the gar- 
dens, the steep declivities of mountains, where the plant would 
be ettdangered either by the too powerful heat of the stm or 
an entire want of it, or where torrents in the rainy season 
might wash away the rich earth necessary for its growth, are 
avoided. The best situation for them is usually considered to 
be in the vales along the foot of the high mountains, or on the 
gmtle declivities of the low range of hills, with which the 
{nincipal mountains are usually skirted ; and it is found that, 
cmteris paribus j the greater is the elevation of the garden, the 
longer is the period of its productiveness, and the finer is the 
berry. 

Having selected a proper spot for the garden, the first ope- 
ration is to clear the ground of trees, shrubs, and the rank 
grass or reeds, the latter of which, termed galdga^ are often 
found in these situations, and generally indicate a rich soil. 
In clearing the ground, it is the practise to collect together 
into heaps, and bum the trees, roots, and other rubbish found 
on it, the ashes of which serve to enrich the soil : when the 
trees are very large, the heavy labour of tooting them up is 
avoided, and the trunks being cut about five feet from the 
groimd, are left in that state to rot, and in their gradual, de^ 
cay still further to enrich the land. As soon as the ground is 
thus cleared, it is levelled by three or four ploughings at short 
intervals, and laid out to receive the plants. A fence is 
planted round them, about twelve feet from their outer row, 
generally ofihejdrakj or palma christi, intermixed with either 
the dddapy or the silk cotton tree ; and, in low situations, out- 



140 COFFEE. 

side of this a ditch is dug to carry off the water. These opi 
rations commence in August or September, and by the tioD 
the ground is in perfect readiness for planting, the heayy rain 
are nearly over. It then only remains to select the youn 
plants, and prepare the dddap which is intended to shad 
them. 

Of the dddap tree there are three kinds ; the serdp^ ddr^ 
and wdru : but the first is preferred on account of the greatc 
shade it affords. It is propagated by cuttings, and in selecl 
ing them for the coffee plantations, care is had that they ax 
taken from trees at least two or three years old, and that the 
be three or four feet long, of which one foot at least must b 
buried in the ground. After the dddaps are planted, holes ar 
dug, from a foot and a half to two feet deep, for the receptioa 
of the coffee plant, which is then removed from the seed plac 
or nursery, and transplanted into the gardens. 

In coffee gardens of four or five years old, are found quaa 
tities of young plants, tliat have sprung up spontaneously frtm 
the ripe berries dropping off the trees, and when these can b 
obtained about fourteen inches long, of a strong healthy stem 
large leaves, and without branches, they are prefexred ti 
others : but as the plants thus procured are seldom found ii 
sufficient quantities, nurseries for rearing them are formed m 
follows : When the berries are allowed to remain on the shnil 
aflcr maturity, they become black and dry : in this state the] 
are plucked, and sown in seed beds lightly covered witl 
earth: as soon as two small leaves appear, the plants an 
taken from the bed, and transplanted, about a foot asunder 
imdcr the cover of sheds prepared for that purpose ; in about 
eighteen months, these plants are fit for removing into the 
garden or plantation where they arc destined to yield theii 
fniit In taking the young plant up, the greatest care is ne< 
cessary not to iujiue the roots, esj)ecially the tap root, anc 
with this view it is generally removed with as much earti 
attached to it as possible. This precaution has the additional 
advantage of not too suddenly bringing the plant in contact 
with a now soil. 

Tlie plantations are generally laid out in squares. The dis< 
tance between each plant varies according to the fertility ol 
the soil : in a soil not considered fertile, a distance of six feel 



COFFEE. 141 

ispres^redy and in each interval is a dddap tree for the pur- 
pose <^ affording shade ; but in a rich soil, where the plant 
grows more luxuriantly, fewer dddaps are necessary, and the 
fixats are placed at a greater distance from each other. 

On Java a certain degree of shade seems necessary to the 
health of the coffee-plant, especially in low situations and 
during its early age ; and the dddap is found better calculated 
for affording this protection than any other shrub in the coun- 
tij. It is a common sajdng, that where the dddap flourishes, 
there also will flourish the coffee : but they are not always 
constant or necessary companions ; for in high lands many of 
(he most floiuishing gardens are to be observed with very few 
ddd^qfs. The coffee tree yields fruit for a period of twenty 
years, yet in the low lands it seldom attains a greater age than 
nme or ten years (during six or seven of which only it may 
be said to bear), and the fruit is comparatively large and 
tasteless. 

About the end of the rainy season, such coffee plants and 

dddaps as have not thriven are replaced by others, and the 

plantations cleaned: this latter operation, in gardens well 

kept, is generally performed three or four times in the year : 

but the tree is never cut or pruned, and is universally allowed 

to grow in all its native luxuriance. In this state, it often in 

favoured situations attains the height of sixteen feet, and 

<\ plants of not less than eight inches broad have frequently 

been procured from the trunk. The general average produce 

of a coffee-tree is not estimated at much more than a kdii^ or 

a poimd and a quarter English, notwithstanding some yield 

from twenty to thirty kdtis. 

There does not appear to be any fixed or certain season 
for the coffee to arrive at maturity. In the Sunda districts 
the gathering usually commences in June or July, and it is 
not till April that the whole crop is delivered into store. The 
season, however, generally gives what is termed three crops ; 
of which the first is but small, the second the most abundant, 
and the third, being what is left to ripen, may be considered 
rather as a gleaning. When the berries become of a dark 
crimson colour, they are plucked one by one, with the assist- 
ance of a light bdmbu ladder or stage, great care being taken 
not to shake off the blossoms which are still on the tree, or to 



142 COFFEE. 

pluck the unripe fruit The women and children usually col- 
lect the crop, while the husband is elsewhere engaged in 
harder labour. Attached to every principal Tillage, near 
which there are coffee plantations of any extent, there is a 
drying-house, to which the newly gathered coffee is broaght : 
it is Uicre placed on hurdles, about four feet from the floor, 
imdcr which a slow wood fire is kept up during the night 
The roof oftlie drying-house is opened in the mornings and 
evenings, to admit the air, and the berries are frequently 
stirred to prevent 'fermentation. As the heat of the sun is 
considered prejudicial, the roof of die house is closed during 
the day. This operation is repeated till the husk is quite dry. 
The berries dried in this way are small, and of a sea green or 
greyisli colour, and are supposed to acquire a peculiar flavour 
from the smoke, although it does not appear that any parti- 
cular kind of wood is used for fuel. When dried in the sun, 
the bean becomes of a pale bleached colour, is larger, speci- 
fically lighter, and more insipid to the taste than the former. 
llie most common mode of freeing the bean from the husk 
is, to ponnd tlie berries when dry in a bag of buffalo's hide, 
great care being taken not to bruise the bean. A mill of sim- 
ple constniction is sometimes used, but is not found to answer 
so well. The coffee being tlien separated from the husk, is 
put into bags or baskets, and kept on raised platforms till 
the season of deliver\\ when it is carried down to the store- 
house, sometimes by men, but generally on the backs of buf- 
faloes and mares, in strings of fifteen hundred or two thousand 
at a time. 

In iho Sihida districts there have been, for many yean 
past, three principal depots for receiving the coffee from the 
cultivators ; nz, at Buitenzorg^ Chikan^ and Karang-^dmbang. 
From Bnitemorg it is either sent direct to Batavia by land 
in carts, or by the way of Linkong^ whence it is forwarded in 
boats bv the river Chi-ddfff. From Chikdn the cofTcG is sent 
in boats dcm-n the river Chi-idram^ and tlience along the sea- 
coast to Butavia. From Karang-ndmhang it is sent down the 
river Chi^rndtiok to Indra-mdyUy where it is received into ex- 
tensive warehouses, and whence it is now generally exported 
for the European market. 

Under this svstem, the Sunda districts were estimated to 



COFFEE. 143 

dkoA an ax gQ produce of one hundred thousand pikuls of 
cue hundred and thir^-three pounds and a quarter each, and 
Hwaa calculated that the young plantations in the eastern 
distiicta, when they should come into bearings would produce 
an equal quantity ; but in this latter quarter, many of the 
gardens had been fixed on ill-judged spots, and the inhabit- 
ants were averse to the new and additional burden which this 
GoUiiYation imposed upon their labour. Had the system, 
dievrfore, even been persevered in, and enforced by a despotic 
anthority, it is questionable, whether the quantity anticipated 
in the above estimate, or even one half of it, would have been 
obtained fix>m the eastern districts. The SUndas living in an 
inland and mountainous country, and having been long ac- 
customed to the hardship of the coffee culture, are less sen- 
sible of its pressure than the rest of their countrymen : time 
and habit have reconciled them to what was at first revolting, 
and what must always be considered as unjust ; their modes of 
life, their arts, their domestic economy, and other social habits, 
have all adapted themselves to a species of labour, which 
was at first forced upon them ; and a state of servitude, which 
the philosopher would lament as a degradation, is scarcely 
felt to be a grievance by them. Instances, however, are not 
wanting, in which the usual measure of exaction having been 
surpassed, they have been awakened to a sense of their wretch- 
edness. A government of colonial monopolists, eager only for 
profit, and heedless of the sources fi-om which it was derived, 
sometimes subjected its native subjects to distresses and priva- 
tions, the recital of which would shock the ear of humanity. 
Suffice it to say, that the coffee culture in the Sunda districts 
has sometimes been so severely exacted, that together with 
the other constant and heavy demands made by the European 
authority on the labour of the country, they deprived the un- 
fortunate peasants of the time necessary to rear food for their 
support. Many have thus perished by famine, while others 
have fled to the crags of the mountains, where raising a scanty 
subsistence in patches of gdnga^ or oflener dependent for it 
upon the roots of the forest, they congratulated themselves 
on Uieir escape firom the reach of their oppressors. Many of 
these people, with their descendants, remain in these haunts 
to the present time : in their annual migrations from hill to 



144 COFFEE. 

hill, they frequently pass over the richest lands, which slill 
remain uncultivated and invite their return ; but they prefer 
their wild independence and precarious subsistence, to the 
horrors of being again subjected to forced services and forced 
deliveries at inadequate rates. 

It is difficult to say what was the recompense received by 
the cultivator previous to the year 1808. The complicated 
system of accounts which then prevailed, seemed only calcu- 
lated to blind the government, and to allow the European 
commissar}' to derive an income of from eighty to one hundred 
thousand dollars (25,000/. per annum), at the expence of the 
authorities by whom he was employed, and the natives whom 
he 0})presscd. This, in common with most of the establish- 
ments on the island, imdcrwent a revision in the time of Mar- 
shal Daendels ; and it was then directed, that the cultivators 
should receive on delivery at the storehouses, three rixdollan 
copper for each mountain pikul of two hundred and twenty- 
five pounds Dutch, being little more than one dollar per hun- 
dred weight, or one half-penny per pound. Tliis same coffee 
was sometimes sold at Batavia, within fifty miles of the spot 
where it was raised, at twenty Spanish dollars the hundred 
weight, and has seldom been known to bring in the European 
market less than eleven pence the pound. Tliis, however, 
was deemed a liberal pa}nnent by the Dutch, though in some 
cases it had been transported over sixty miles of an almost im- 
passable countr}% where two men are required to cany a hun- 
drt'd-weiglit of coffee, on their shoulders, at an expence of la- 
bour which one would suppose at least equal to this remune- 
ration. 

lender the administration of the British government, the free 
cultivation of cofiee, in common with that of all other articles, 
was ]>cnnitted to the inhabitants of Bantam, Chdrilnmy and all 
the eastern districts ; and at the time when the island was 
again coded to the Dutch, arrangements were in progress for 
cxt(*nding the same provision Uiroughout the S^nda districts, 
under a conviction, that the quantity produced would not be 
less under a system of free cidtivaticm and free trade, than un- 
der a system in which it was found necessan^, as one of the 
first acts of European authority, to compel the native princes to 
direct '^ the total annihilation of the coffee culture within their 



. PEPPER. 145 

" dominionSy" and to secure by treaty with Uiem the destruc- 
tion and confiscation of all coffee found in the hands of the 
natives *. A considerable portion of the peasantry , as already 
obsenred, have long been accustomed to the cultivation, and it 
18 owing to their skill and experience, as much as to any direct 
siq)enntendence or interference of the European officers (who 
geoerally derive their information from the native chiefs, and 
have little more to do, than occasionally to ride through the 
garden with a pompous suite, keep the accounts, and examine 
the coffee as it is received), that the coffee has so long been 
fiffnished for the European market ; the experience obtained 
in the eastern districts, during the last three years, proves at 
least that coercive measures are unnecessary. There are many 
parts of Java, particularly the Priang*en regencies, where the 
soil is peculiarly and eminently adapted to the cultivation ; 
and although it is difficult yet awhile to fix the exact rate at 
which the coffee might be produced under a free system, 
it may be calculated to be raised for exportation at about forty 
shillings per hundred weight. 

Of the quality of the Javan coffee, in comparison with that 
of other countries, it may be observed, that during the last 
years, it has invariably maintained its price in the European 
market in competition with that of Bourbon, and rather ex- 
ceeded it, both of them being higher than the produce of the 
West Indies. During the last years of the British administra- 
tion on Java, and after the opening of the European market 
agadn afforded a demand, about eleven millions of young 
coffee shrubs were planted out in new gardens. 

Pepper, which at one time formed the principal export from 
Java, has for some time ceased to be cultivated to any con- 
siderable extent. It was principally raised in Bantam, and 
the dependencies of that province in the southern part of 
Sumatra ; and in the flourishing state of the monopoly, these 
districts furnished the Dutch with the chief supply for the 
European market 

But the system by which it was procured was too oppres- 
sive and unprincipled in its natinre, and too impolitic in its 
provisions, to admit of long duration. It was calculated to 

♦ Sec Treaties of the Dutch with the Native Princes. 
VOL. I. L 



140 INDIGO. 

• 

destroy Uie energies of Uie country, and with them, the source 
from whence tlie fruits of this monopoly proceeded. In the 
year 1811, accordingly, neither Bantam nor its dependencies 
furnished the European government with one pound of this 
article. 

That pepper may be produced on Java, and supplied at a 
rate equally moderate with that at which other productions 
requiring similar care are furnished, cannot admit of a doubt, 
and this reasonable price may be estimated at about six or 
seven Spanish dollars (thirty to thirty-five shillings) ihepikmL 
The plant grows luxuriantly in most soils, and when once 
reared requires infinitely less care and labour than coflTee. 
The cultivation of it on Sumatra and Prince of Wales* Island 
having been so accurately and minutely described by Mr. 
Marsden and Dr. Hunter, it would be unnecessary here to de- 
tail the system followed on Java, as it is in most points the 
same. Tlie only peculiarity regarding it which may deserve 
notice is, that on this island the plant is allowed to grow to a 
much greater size, entwining itself round the cotton trees, fine- 
quentiy to the height of fifly and sixty feet 

Indigo, called torn by the Javans, and by the Sil^mdoi 
idrunij is general, and raised in most parts of the island. 
The indigo prepared by the natives is of an indifferent quality, 
and in a semi-fluid state, and contains much quick-lime ; but 
that prepared by Europeans is of very superior quality. 

An inferior variety, denominated fom-mentr, having gffinllCT 
seeds, and being of quicker growth, is usually planted as a 
second crop in s&tcahsy on which one rice crop has been 
raised. In these situations, the plant rises to the height of 
about three feet and a half. It is then cut, and the cuttings 
are repeated three, or even foiu* times, till the ground is again 
required for the annual rice crop. But the superior plant, 
when cultivated on Ufffal lands, and on a naturally rich soil, 
not impoverished by a previous heavy crop, rises in height 
above five feet, and grows with the greatest luxuriance. The 
plants intended for seeds are raised in favoured spots on the 
ridges of the rice fields in the neighboiurhood of the villages, 
and the seed of one district is frequentiy exchanged for that 
of another. That of the rich mountainous districts being 
esteemed of l>est quality, is occasionally introduced into the 



INDIOf). ' 147 

low lands, and is thought necessary to prevent that degene- 
r^ion, which wonld be the consequence of cultivating for a 
kmgtinie the same plant upon the same soil. In the province 
of Maiiaremy where indigo is most extensively cultivated, it 
is sold in the market in bundles, as low as eight-pence the 
fUaU weight; but in the vicinity of Semaran^^ and in dis- 
tricts where it is not produced in great abundance, it bears 
an advance upon this price of fifty per cent 

The climate, soil, and state of society on Java, seem to 
ofkx peculiar advantages to the extensive cultivation of this 
plant; and under the direction of skilful manufacturers, the 
dye stuff might form a most valuable and important export 
for the European market. The periodical draughts and inun- 
dations, which confine the cultivation and manufacture in the 
Bengal provinces to a few months in the year, are unknown 
in Java, where the plant might, in favoured situations, be 
cnltirated nearly throughout the whole year, and where at 
least it wonld be secure of a prolonged period of that kind of 
weather, necessary for the cutting. The soil is superior, and 
a conunand of water affords facilities seldom to be met with 
elsewhere ; while, firom the tenure on which the cultivators 
bold their land, and the state of society among them, advances 
on account of the ensuing crop, which in Bengal form so 
nnnoos a part of an indigo concern, are here unnecessary, 
and would be uncalled for. 

The dye (nUa blue) is prepared by the natives in a liquid 
state, by infusing the leaves with a quantity of lime : in this 
state it forms by far the principal dye of the country. Besides 
the quantity of it consumed within the island, it is sometimes 
exported to neighbouring countries by native traders, and 
sold at the rate of firom a dollar and a half to three dollars 
the pikuly according as the plant may be in abundance or 
otherwise. 

It is impossible to form any idea of the rate at which this 
species of dye can reasonably be manufactured for the Eu- 
ropean market, firom the prices paid by the Dutch, both 
because the article was one of those classed by them imder 
the head of forced deliveries, and because the regents, who 
were entrusted with its exclusive management, not fully under- ^ 

l2 



I IS COTTON. 

standing the process of making it, conducted it always in a very 
expensive way, and were frequently exposed to entire failures. 

llie cotton of tlie country, distinguished by the name of 
kapas jdicay is a variety of the gossypium hcrbaceum; but it 
is inferior to that generally cultivated on the Indian continent, 
which is also found on Java, and called by the Javans kdpag 
miiri. The plant of the former differs from the latter, in 
having a smaller stem, and in yielding a material, both of 
coarser fibre and in less quantity. There is a third variety, 
with a subarborescent stem, called kapas t&hon^ which is 
very scarce. Trials remain to be made, to determine how 
far the cidtiux; of the Indian cotton might be extended, so as 
to supersede the Javan cotton. The inferior kind, which 
forms the principal, and indeed with the mass of the people 
the only material for clothing, is cultivated in almost eveiy 
part of the island. The soil, however, is not considered as 
universally favourable to its growth : many of the low lands, 
consisting of a clay, which bursts in the dry season, are unfit 
for it ; and on several of the more fertile districts, where the 
plant itself flourishes, littie cotton is obtained from it : the 
declivities of the hills, in which the mountain rice is raised, 
yield in general the best and most abimdant supply. At 
])resent, scarcely a suflficient quantity is produced on the 
island to employ the female part of the inhabitants; and one 
district often depends upon another for the principal part of 
what it uses. The cotton of Banyumas is exported to Bar 
galcHy to Tegaly and the western parts of Maidrem, where 
it is manufactured ; the environs of Wong^go^ Adi4angA^ and 
other places towards the southern hills, supply both the 
capitals in tiie interior; Kediri^ PrandrdgOj and the vici- 
nity, likewise furnish considerable quantities for other 
parts of the island. In Uie Siitida districts, the principal 
sup])ly is received from the east and west Jdmpang. TTie 
culture of cotton, and Uie manufactiure of yam, are in some 
dt'gree promoted hy an ancient custom, which imposes on 
over}' householder or village a certmn contingent of cotton 
yam for the sovereign, or for the person who holds Uie land 
on his account : this custom is called pangumpleng. The 
chiefs on Java, and particularly on Bdiij frequently wear a 



TOBACCO. U9 

skein of cotton yam entwined round the handle of die kris ; 
a custom which sufficiently indicates the respect paid to this 
species of cultivation. 

The Jaran cotton is a hardy plant, which grows to about 
the height of a foot and a half. It is generally planted on the 
Mowahs after the reaping of the rice crop, and yields the 
cotton in less than three months. The Indian cotton grows 
to a larger size, and produces a material of an infinitely supe- 
rior quality ; but it is more delicate in its nature, must be 
watched with greater care, and requires a month longer to 
attain to maturity. Cotton cultivated on tegaly or dry land, 
is considered as generally better than that raised as a second 
crop on sdwah ; and this mode of cultivation has been ad- 
duced as the cause of the superiority ascribed to the cotton 
of Bdliy and other more eastern islands. 

Tobacco,* termed by the natives tombdkuy or sdtay is an 
article of very general cultivation, but is only extensively 
raised for exportation in the central districts of Kedu and 
Bdnyumds : as it requires a soil of the richest mould, but at 
the same time not subject to inundations, these districts hold 
out peculiar advantages to the tobacco -planter, not to be 
found on the low lands. For internal consumption, small 
quantities are raised in convenient spots every where ; but 
the most eastern districts and Madura are principally sup- 
plied from Pugar, Bantam receives its supply from Bdnyu- 
fndsj by means of native traders from Pakalungan visiting 
that port in small craft. The produce of Ked^ is conveyed 
by men to Sevndrang^ the great port of exportation. 

In Kedu it forms, after rice, by far the most important 
article of cultivation ; and, in consequence of the fitness of 
the soil, the plant grows to the height of from eight to ten feet, 
on lands not previously dressed or manured, with a luxuriance 

• This article has never been a contingent or forced delivery with the 
Dutch ; and its extensive cultivation in the district of Kedu gives a proof 
of what the natives will do if not interfered with by European monopoly. 
The Kedu is, in consequence of this cultivation, by far the richest pro- 
\nnce in the island, giving an annual revenue to the government, in money, 
of half a million of rupees. This important district was never subjected 
to the Dutch government : it was transferred to the British in 1812, and 
immediately fell under the Revenue System. 



150 WHEAT, POTATOES, &c. 

seldom \vntnessed in India. Cultivated here alternately with 
rice, only one crop of either is obtained within the year ; but 
after the harvest of the rice, or the gathering of the tobacco- 
leaves, the land is allowed to remain fallow, till the season 
again arrives for preparing it to receive the other. The yoimg 
plant is not raised within the district, but procured firom Uie 
high lands in the vicinity ; principally from fhe district i)t 
Kdli-bebeVy on the slope of the mountain Dieng or Prdku^ 
where it is raised and sold by the hundred to the cultiyators 
of the adjoining districts. The transplantation takes place 
in tiie montii of June, and the plant is at its full growth in 
October. 

Wheat has been introduced by the Europeans, and cul- 
tivated with success to tiie extent required by the European 
population. It thrives in many parts of the interior of the 
country: it is sown in May, and reaped in October; and, 
where the cultivation has been left to the Javans, the grain 
has been sold at tiie rate of about seven rupees tiie pikuL 

Potatoes have been cultivated during the last forty years, 
in elevated situations, near all tiie principal European 
ments, and are reckoned of a quality superior to those 
narily procured in Bengal or China. Few 06 the natives, 
however, have as yet adopted them as a common article of 
food. Besides potatoes, most of tiie common culinary vege- 
tables of Europe are raised in the gardens of tiie Europeans 
and Chinese, It must be confessed, however, that they dege- 
nerate, if perpetuated on the soil without change ; and that 
tiicir abundance and quality depends, in a great measure, on 
the supplies of fresh seed imported from Europe, the Cape, 
or otiier quarters. 

Having now given an account of the different lands of 
produce raised within the island, and the arts of husbandry 
practised by the natives, I shall conclude this short sketch of 
Javan agriculture by an account of the tenure of landed pro- 
perty, tiie rights of the proprietor and tenant, tiie proportion 
of the produce paid for rent, the division of farms among the 
inhabitants of nllages, and the causes that have obstructed 
or promoted agricultural improvements. 

Tlie relative situaticm, rank, and privileges of the village 
fanner and tlie native cliief in Java, correspond in most in- 



TENURE OF LANDS. 161 

stances, with those of the Ryot and Zemindar of Bengal ; but 
the more frequent and more immediate interference of the 
sorereigny in the former case, with any tendency to established 
usage or prescriptive claim, has left no room for that difference 
c^ opinion, concerning proprietary right, which exercised the 
ingenuity of the highest authorities in the latter. In Bengal, 
before the introduction of the permanent revenue settlement, 
there were usages, institutions, and estabUshed modes of pro- 
ceeding with regard to landed estates, that rendered it doubt- 
fbl in which of the three parties more immediately interested, 
the proprietary right should finally and lawfully be settled. 
The claim of the Ryot to retain the land which he cultivated, 
so long as he paid the stipulated contribution, seemed to raise 
his character above that of an ordinary tenant rcmoveable at 
pleasure, or at the conclusion of a stipulated term. The 
situation of the Zemindar, as the actual receiver of the rents, 
standing between the sovereign and the cultivator, although 
merely for the purpose of paying them over with certain de- 
ductions to the sovereign, and his frequently transmitting the 
office with its emoluments to his children, although held only 
during pleasure, gave his character some affinity to that of an 
European landholder. And lastly, the sovereign himself, who 
ultimately received the rents, and regulated them at his plea- 
sure, and removed both Zemindar and Ryot, in case of negli- 
gence or disobedience, was arrayed with the most essential 
attributes of proprietary right, or at least exercised a power 
that could render any opposite claims nugatory. Thus the 
Ryot, the Zemindar, and the Sovereign, had each his preten- 
sions to the character of landholder. After much cautious in- 
quiry and deliberate discussion on the part of our Indian 
government, the claims of the Zemindars, rather perhaps from 
considerations of poUcy than a clear conviction of their supe- 
rior right, were preferred. In Java, however, except in the 
cases of a few alienated lands and in the SUnda districts, of 
which more will be said hereafter, no such pretensions are 
heard of, as those which were advocated on the part of the 
Zemindars of western India ; although inquiries to ascertain 
the equitable and legitimate rights of all classes of the people, 
were known to be in progress, and a plan was declared to be 
in contemplation for their permanent adjustment. From every 



152 TEiXURE OF LANDS. 

inquiry that was instituted under the British goTemmeiit, and 
every fact that was presented to Uie view of its officers, it ap- 
peared that, in the greatest part of the island, in the eastern 
and middle districts, and in short in those provinces where 
rent to any considerable amount was attainable, there existed 
no proprietary right between that of the sovereign and that of 
the cultivator, that the government was -the only landholder. 

There are lands, indeed, which contribute nothing to the 
state, some on which the cultivator pays no rent whatever, 
and others of which the rent remains in the hands of his im- 
mediate superior; but the manner in which individuals ac- 
quire, and the tenure by which they hold such lands, form 
illustrations and proofs of the proprietary right of the sove- 
reign. As his resources arise almost entirely from the share 
of produce which he exacts, and as he considers himself in- 
vested with an absolute dominion over that share, he burthens 
certain villages or estates with the salaries of particular offi- 
cers, allots others for the support of his relatives or favourites, 
or grants tliem for the benefit of particular charitable or reli- 
gious institutions ; in tlie same manner as, before the Conso- 
lidation Act in this country, the interest of particular loans 
were fixed upon the produce of specific imposts. Here the 
alienation shews the original right : the sovereign renounces 
the demand to which he was entitled ; he makes no claim 
upon the farmer for a share of the crop himself, but orders it 
to be paid over to those whom he thus appoints in his place, 
so far as the gift extends. With the exception of the Sinda 
districts, as already stated, and a comparatively inconsider- 
able portion of land thus alienated on different conditions, 
the proprietary right to the soil in Java vests universally in 
the government, whether exercised by native princes or by 
cohmial authority, and that permanent and hereditary interest 
in it so necessary to its improvement, those individual rights 
f)f pn>]>erty which are created by the laws and protected by 
tlic govenmient, are unknown. Witli these exceptions, nei- 
tlier law nor usage autliorizes tlie oldest occupant of land in 
Java to consider the gnmnd which he has reclaimed from 
waste, or the farm on which he has exerted all his industry, 
as his own, by such a tenure as will enable him, and his suc- 
rcsisors for c\ cr, to reap the fniits of his labour. He can have 



TENURE OF LANDS. 153 

no tide, even to a definite term of occupancy, but from 
the capricious servant of a capricious despot, who himself is 
not legaUy bound by his engagement, and whose successor is 
not eren moraUy bound by it 

As a matter of conyenience, the same cultivator may con- 
^Boe to occupy tiie same portion of land for life, and his 
diildren, after his decease, may inherit the ground which he 
cultivated, paying the dues to which he was liable. The 
head of a villa^, whether called Bukuly Peting*giy or Luraky 
may be continued in the collection of the village rents for 
life, and may be succeeded in ofiice by his heirs ; the supe- 
rior officer, or Demdng^ with whom he accounts, may likewise 
hold his situation for a long period, and transmit it to his 
fiaumily ; but none of them can stand in the possession against 
the will of their immediate superior, or of the sovereign, by 
any claim of law or custom. 

Little of the revenue collected from the occupants is trans- 
mitted to the government treasury ; the greatest part of that 
which is raised, and which, in other countries, would come 
into the hands of government, for subsequent distribution 
among its servants and the support of its various establish- 
ments, is intercepted in its progress by those to whom the 
sovereign immediately assigns it The officers of police, of 
justice, of the prince's household, and, in short, public ser- 
vants of all classes, from the prime minister down to the 
lowest menial, are paid with appropriations of the rent of 
land. 

To this general principle of Javan law and usage, that tiie 
govenmient is the only landholder, there are exceptions, as I 
mentioned before, in som'e districts of the island. These are 
chiefly in the districts inhabited by the SUndaSy who occupy 
the mountainous and woody coimtry in the western division 
of the island. Among tiiem, private property in tiie soil is 
generally established; the cultivator can transmit his pos- 
session to his children : among them, it can be subdivided, 
without any interference on the part of a superior ; the pos- 
sessor can sell his interest in it to otiiers, and transfer it by 
gift or covenant He pays to his chief a certain proportion 
of the produce, in the same manner as the other inhabitants 
of Java; because, in a country without trade or manufactures. 



154 TENURE OF LANDS. 

labour or produce is the only shape in which he can con* 
tribute to support the necessary establishments of the com- 
munity. So long as he advances this tribute, which is one- 
tentli or one-fiflh of the gross produce, he has an independent 
right to the occupancy of his land, and the enjoyment of the 
remainder. The reason why the landed tenure of these 
districts differs, in so important a particular, from that of the 
most extensive and valuable part of the island, may periuqps 
be explained from their nature, without resorting to any 
original difference in the laws of property, or the maxims of 
government Where the population is small in proportion to 
the extent of soil, and much land remains unoccupied, the 
best only \^ill become the subject of demand and appro- 
priation, ^rhe latter alone is valuable, because it jrields grest 
returns for little labour, and therefore offers inducements to 
engage in its cultivation, in spite of many artificial disad* 
vantages : it alone can afford a desirable surplus, after main- 
taining the hands that call for its fertility, and consequently 
tempts power to reserve unalienated the right to this surplus. 
On the other hand, when waste ground is to be reclaimed, 
when forests or jungle are to be cleared, or when a sterile and 
ungrateful spot is to be cultivated, the government have less 
interest in resen'ing the surplus, and must offer superior 
inducements of immunity, permanency, or exemption, to lead 
to cultivation. On tliis principle, the tenure of land in the 
Siinda districts, and on some parts of the coast, may be 
accoimted for. It may be concluded, that many of these 
lands were reclaimed from waste by the present occupiers or 
their immediate predecessors, and their rights to possess them, 
which is similar to that which the discoverer of an miap- 
])ropriated field, forest, or mine would have, by nature, to as 
many of their products as he could realize by his labours, has 
not been crushed or interfered with by the sovereign ; a for- 
bearance, probably, more to be attributed to motives of pru- 
dence than to the restraint of law. Nearly coincident with 
this conclusion is the su])]K)sition which assumes, that before 
the introduction of the Mahomedan system, and the encroach- 
ments of (les]>otic sovereigns, all the lands on the island were 
oonsidert'd as the proi)erty of those who cultivated tliem ; but 
that, as the value of the most fertile spots became more appa- 



TENURE OF LANDS. 155 

rent, while the labour which had been originally expended in 
ckazing them, and constituted the title to their original occu- 
puicyy was gradually forgotten, the government found induce- 
ments and fiunlities to increase its demands, and thus became 
possessed of the rights of some by violence, while it rendered 
tibose of all unworthy of being preserved. The land tenures 
of the Swnda districts, according to this hypothesis, are only 
wrecks of the general system, which have been protected 
against encroachment, because they did not so powerfuUy 
invite rapacity. Whatever truth there may be in this opinion, 
the fact is undoubted, that in the mountainous and less fertile 
districts of Java, and in the island of Bdliy where the Maho- 
medan sway has not yet extended, individual proprietary right 
in the soil is Ailly established, while in that portion of Java 
where the Mahomedan rule has been most felt, and where 
proprietary right amounts to the greatest value, it vests 
almost exclusively in the sovereign. 

The situation, however, of the cultivator in the Sunda 
districts, who is a proprietor, is not much more eligible than 
that of the tenant of the government : he may, it is Irae, 
alienate or transfer his lands, but while he retains them, he is 
liable to imposts almost as great as they can bear ; and when 
he transfers them, he can therefore expect little for surren- 
dering to another the privilege of reaping from his own soil, 
what is only the average recompense of labour expended on 
the estate of another. The Revenue Instructions, therefore, 
hearing date the 11th February 1814, and transmitted from 
the local government to the officers intrusted with the charge 
of the several provinces subject to its authority, lay down the 
following general position : ^^ The nature of the landed 
'^ tenure throughout the island is now thoroughly understood. 
'^ Generally speaking, no proprietary right in the soil is 
^' vested, in any between the actual cultivator and the sove- 
'^ reign ; the intermediate classes, who may have at any time 
" enjoyed the revenues of villages or districts, being deemed 
" merely the executive officers of government, who received 
" these revenues from the gift of their lord, and who depended 
" on his will alone for their tenure. Of this actual proprietary 
" right there can be no doubt that the investiture rested 
" solely in the sovereign ; but it is equally certain, that the 



it 



15(> TENURE OF LANDS. 

^^ first clearers of the land entitled themselves, as a just 
'^ reward, to such a real property in the ground they thus in a 
'^ manner created, that while a due tribute of a certain share of 
" its produce was granted to the sovereign power for the pro- 
^^ tection it extended, the government, in retom, was equaUy 
'^ bound not to disturb them or their heirs in its j>ossessioiL 
^^ Tliis disposal of the government share was thus, therefore, 
'^ all tliat could justly depend on tlie will of the ruling 
'^ authority ; and consequently, the numerous gifts of land 
'^ made in various periods by the several sovereigns, have in 
*' no way affected tlio rights of the actual cultivators. All 
" tliat government could alienate was merely its own revenue 
or share of the produce. This subject has come fiilly under 
discussion, and the above result, as regarding this island, 
" has been quite satisfactorily established.^ It is remarked, 
in a subsequent paragraph of the same instructions, '* that 
" there have been, it is known, in many parts of the countiy, 
'^ grants from tlie sovereign of lands in perpetuity, which are 
'^ regularly inheritable, and relative to which the original 
*' documents still exist Of these, some have been made for 
" religious purposes, others as rewards or provision for rela- 
^' tives or the higher nobility. These dienations, as far 
^^ as it was justly in the power of the sovereign to make, must 
'^ certainly be held sacred ; but their extent should be clearly 
^' defined, that the rights of others be not compromised by 
" them. Tlie government share, when granted, will not be 
" reclaimed ; but tlie rights of the cultivator must not be 
" affected by tliese grants. Such proprietors of revenue, as 
'' they may be termed, shall in .short be allowed to act, with 
^^ regard to the cultivators on their estates, as government acts 
*^ towards those on its own lands, that is, they shall receive a 
" fixed share of the produce, but whilst that is duly delivered, 
" diey shall neither exact more nor remove any individual 
'* from his land." It is remarked by Major Yule, the British 
resident, in his Rc^port on Bantam, that there, ** aU property 
" in the soil is vested exclusively in the hands of the sovereign 
*' power ; but in consequence of its having been long cus- 
" toniary to confer grants of land upon the different branches 
" of the royal family, and other chiefs and favourites about 
*' court, a very small ]K>rtion was loft without some claimant 






TENURE OF LANDS. 157 

"" or other. The pusdkas granted to the relations of the 

** Sultan were considered as real property, and sometimes 

** descended to the heirs of the family, and at others were 

^ alienated from it by private sale. To effect a transfer of 

*^ tkis nature, the previous sanction of the Sultan was neces- 

''my, after which the party waited on the high priest, 

''or Mangku-bumij who made the necessary inquiries, 

*^uA deUvered the title deeds to the purchaser, in which 

^ were specified the situation, extent, boimdaries, and price 

" of the land sold. A register of sales was kept by the 

** priests, the purchaser paying the fees; and it rarely oc- 

^ cimed that lands sold in this manner were ever resumed by 

" the crown, without some adequate compensation being made 

"to the purchaser. Pusdkas given to chiefs for services 

" performed, were recoverable again at pleasure, and always 

" reverted to the crown on the demise of the chief to whom 

" they had been granted : in all other respects, the same pri- 

"lileges were annexed to them as to the former. The 

" holders of pUsdka lands were very seldom the occupants ; 

^'they generally remained about the court, and on the 

"approach of the rice harvest deputed agents to collect 

" their share of the crop. They do not let their lands for 

^ specific periods. The cultivators are liable to be turned out 

''at pleasure, and when ejected, have no claims to com- 

'' pensation for improvements made while in possession, such 

'' as water-courses, or plantations of firuit trees made by 

" themselves or their parents." 

^^ We must make a distinction^* say the Dutch Com- 
missioners appointed to investigate this subject in 1811, 
" between the Priang^ regencies, the province of Cheribany 
" and the eastern districts. Throughout the whole extent of 
" the Priangen regencies exists a pretended property on 
" uncultivated lands, on which no person can settle without 
" the consent of the inhabitants of that d^sa^ or village. In 
" the sdwah fields, or cultivated lands, every inhabitant, from 
" the Regent down to the lowest rank, has a share, and may 
" act with it in what manner he pleases, either sell, let, or 
otherwise dispose of it, and loses that right only by leaving 
the village in a clandestine manner. 

In the province of Cheribofiy according to the ancient 



u 



it 






158 TENURE OF LANDS. 

^^ constitution^ each district and desOylike thePrian^iiregen- 
*^ cies, has its own lands ; with tlie difference, howeveT, that 
^^ whilst those regencies are considered as belonging to viOagei 
^' and individuals, here the villages and lands are altogether tbe 
^^ pretended property of the chiefs, or of the relations or 
'' favourites of the Sultans, who even might dispose of the 
^^ same, with one exception, however, of that part aUotted to 
*^ the common people. Sometimes the Sultans themselTcs 
*^ were owners of desas and chiefs of the same ; in which 
^^ case the inhabitants were better treated than in the former 
*^ instances. If an individual thought himself wronged by the 
*^ chief, who citlier sold, hired out, or otherwise disposed 
of his lands, he took his revenge, not on that chief, but on 
the person who held possession of the property. To cono- 
^' borate this statement it may be mentioned, that the lands in 
^^ the district of Cheribon were for the most part farmed out 
'^ to Chinese, who increased their extortions in proportion as 
the chief raised his farm or rent, and thus almost deprived 
the common people of all their means. 
^' On the north-east coast of the eastern districts, no person 
^' can be called a proprietor of rice fields or other lands : the 
*'*' whole country belongs to government, and in this light do 
^' all the Aegents consider it The rice fields of a regency 
^^ are divided among the whole of the population : in the 
'^ division the chiefs have a share, according to their rank, 
" occupations, or taxes they are paying. 

'^ The chief enjoys his lands as long as he holds his station; 
the common people fj^r a year only, when it fidls to the 
share of another inhabitant of the </e«a, or \'illage, that all 
^' may reap a benefit from it in turn. The ideas of the Javans 
^^ concerning tenures, thus appear to be of three kinds : in 
'^ the Sufid/i division they consist in allotting to the villages 
*^ of imcultivated, and to individual persons of certain portions 
*^ in the cultivated or siiwah fields : in Cheribon^ the sultans 
^' and chiefs, as well as the common people, assert pretensions 
**' to similar allotments : in tlie eastern districts, on the con- 
" trar}', nol>ody pretends to the possession of land ; every 
*' one is satisfied with the regulation laid down, but if a man^s 
'^ share is withlu^ld, he is apt to emigrate. No person con- 
siders himself boimd to ser\'itude. The Javans, however. 






«k 



TENURE OF LANDS. 169 

** in the Prian^en regencies, in Cheribony and in the eastern 
** districts, pretend to have an unquestionable right to all 
" the firuit trees and Hri plants, at or near their kdmpung 

^ There is not,*^ says Mr. Enops, another of the Dutch 

Conmiissioners, ^' a single Javan, who supposes that the soil 

" is the property of the Regent, but they all seem to be sen- 

^ nble that it belongs to goyemment, usually called the so- 

^Tereign among them ; considering the Regent as a subject 

^ like themsdves, who holds his district and authority from 

'^tfae soTereign. His idea of property is modified by the 

^ three kinds of subjects to which it is applied : rice fields, 

"ffdjias, and fruit trees. A Javan has no rice fields he can 

^ call his own ; those of which he had the use last year will 

^ be exchanged next year for others. They circulate (as in 

'^ the regency of SemdrangJ from one person to another, and 

^ if any one were excluded, he would infallibly emigrate. It 

" is different with the ffdgaSy or lands where dry rice is culti- 

" rat^ : the cultivator who clears such lands from trees or 

^ bnishwood, and reclaims them from a wilderness, considers 

^ himself as proprietor of the same, and expects to reap its 

^ fruits without diminution or deduction. With regard to fruit 

** trees, the Javan cultivator claims those he has planted as his 

" legal property, without any imposts : if a chief were to tres- 

^ pass against this right, the village would soon be deserted. 

'^ The Javan, however, has not, in my opinion, any real idea 

^* of property even in his firuit trees, but usage passes with him 

^ for a law. All dispositions made by the chief, not contrary 

^^ to custom or the ddat^ are considered as legal, and likewise 

** all that would contribute to ease the people, by lessening or 

^ reducing the capitation tax, the contingent, the feudal ser- 

^ vices, in short all the charges imposed upon them. A dif- 

" ferent system would be contrary to custom. Whatever fa- 

" vours the people is legal, whatever oppresses them is an 

" infraction of the custom." 

The tenure of land in the native provinces is the same ge- 
nerally as in the eastern districts. Thus stands the question 
with regard to the proprietary right to the soil in Java ; but 
it is of more consequence in an agricultural point of view, and 
consequently more to my present piu^ose, to inquire how that 

10 



KiO TENURE OF LANDS. 

right is generally exercised, than in whom it resides. Though 
the cultivator had no legal title to his lands, there might still 
be such a prevalent usage in favour of his perpetual occupancv; 
as would secure him in the enjoyment of his possession, and 
enable him to reap the fruits of his industry equally with the 
protection of his positive law. 

But unfortunately for the prosperity of the people, this wif 
far from being generally the case. The cultivator had little 
security for continued occupancy, but the power, on his put, 
of enduring unlimited oppression without removing from un- 
der it, or the interest of his immediate superior in retaining a 
useful slave ; and as he could not expect to reap in safety the 
fruits of his industry, beyond the bare supply of his necessi- 
ties, he carried that industry no farther than his necessities 
demanded. The sovereign Imew little about the state of his 
tenantry' or the conduct of his agents, and viewed the fonncr 
only as instruments to create the resources, which the latter 
were employed to collect or administer. All his care was to 
procure as much from the produce of the soil and industry of 
his subjects as possible, and the complaints of the people, who 
suffered under the exactions of these chiefs, were intercepted 
on tlicir way to the throne, and pehaps would have been dis- 
regarded had they reached it The sovereign delegates lus 
authority over a province of greater or less extent, to a hifjtk 
officer csdlcd Adipdtiy Turning* gung^ or Ang*ebdi, who is him- 
self paid by the rent of certain portions of land, and is respon- 
sible for the revenues of the districts over which he is ap- 
pointed, lie, in his turn, elects an officer, called Demdmg or 
Mdntridesay to administer the sub-divisions or districts of the 
])rovince, to appoint the chiefs, and to collect the rents of sere* 
ral villages. The village chief, Bukul^ Lurahj or whatever 
desi^aticm he bears in the different parts of the island, thus 
appointed by his immediate superior, is placed in the adminis- 
tration of the village, required to collect the government share 
of the crop from the cultivator, and to account for it to the De- 
vuing. In some provinces, tlie village elects its own chief, 
ciilk'd Pvi\ng\ji^ who exercises similar functions with the 
Ih'ikul appointed by government, as will be aflerwards more 
]>artieularly obser^'ed in tlie accoimt of the native administra- 
tion. As all the officers of government, of whatever rank, are 



TENURE OF LANDS. 161 

paid their a aries in the produce of the land, the Bukuls and 
die Demdngs become responsible for the share of the appro- 
priations of villages to this account, as much as if it went into 
the goTemment treasury. They are themselves paid by the 
leseiration of a certain share of what they collect, and of 
course are always ready to please their employers, and to in- 
crease their own emoluments, by enforcing every practicable 
exaction. Everjr officer has unlimited power over those be- 
low him, and is himself subject to the capricious will of the 
torereign or his minister. When the Regent maJces any new 
or exorbitant demand upon those whom he immediately su- 
perintends, they must exact it with an increased degree of 
rigor over the chiefs of villages, who are thus, in their turn, 
I forced to press upon the cultivator, with the accumulated 
weight of various gradations of despotism. 

The Bukuly or the Peting^gi is the immediate head of the 
rillage, and however much his authority is modified in par- 
ticular districts, has always extensive powers. To the culti- 
vators, he appears in the character of the real landholder, as 
thej have no occasion to look beyond him to the superior, by 
whom he is controlled. He distributes the lands to the dif- 
ferent cultivators on such shares, and in such conditions, as 
lie pleases, or as custom warrants, assesses the rents they have 
to pay, allots them their village duties, measures the produce 
of their fields, and receives the government proportion. He 
sometimes himself cultivates a small portion of land, and in so 
far is regarded only as a tenant, like the rest of the villagers. 
He is accountable for all the collections he realizes, with the 
reservation of a fifth paH for his trouble, which share must be 
viewed merely as the emoluments of office, and not as the 
rent of the landlord, or the profits of a farmer. He sometimes 
holds his situation immediately of the sovereign, or by the 
election of the cultivators ; but more generally firom the in- 
termediate agent of government, whom I have mentioned 
above, to whom he is accountable for his receipts. By his 
superior he may be removed at pleasure ; although the local 
knowledge and accumulated means, which are the conse- 
quence of the possession of office, generally insure its dura- 
tion to his person for a considerable period, or as long as his 
superior himself retains his power. 
VOL. I. M 



162 TENURE OF LANDS. 

The lands which he superintends and apportions rang 
six or seven to double that number o( jungs^ or firom f 
fifty to an hundred acres English, and these are < 
among the inhabitants of his village, generally varyin 
about two acres to half an acre each. That this minuf 
sion of land takes place, may be she^n firom the surveyi 
under the British government in the eastern provinces, 
nearly resemble those under the dominion of the native p 
and consequently may be taken as indicating the genen 
of the island. Ihe inhabitants in the agricultural dist 
the residency of Surabaya amount in all to 129,938 : 
compose 33,141 families, of which 32,618 belong to th 
of cultivators, and 523 belonging to other professions pa 
a ground rent for their houses. The area of the provinc 
tains about twelve hundred square miles, or 34,955 
about 20,000 only of which are cultivated, so as to bee 
any consequence in the division of lands among the vi 
the nmnber of which amount to 2,770. By a calci 
founded on tliese data, it would appear, that each 
averages about twelve families, that a family falls consic 
short of the average of four, and that a little more than 
Jungs are allotted to a village. In Kedu the popi 
amounts to 197,310, the number of villages to 3879, a 
quantity of cultivated land to 19,052 jungs; so that 
province there are about hvejungs attached to a villagi 
a village is inhabited by fifty-one souls, or about tw( 
thirteen families. In Gresik, the number of villages a 
to 1396, the quantity of cultivated land to 17,018 jun^ 
the population to 115,442 souls. In Proboling*o and i 
the numbers are — of inhabitants, 104,359 ; of villages 
of cultivated land, 13,432 jungs. In these two last tl 
portions varv', the number o( jungs to a village in the 
being more tlian twelve, and of inhabitants more than < 
or about twenty families ; and in the latter, the propor 
more than <me hundred and twenty souls to a villag 
sessed of more tlian sixteen jungs of land. It would 
iwrfluous to state any more examples. In different p 
the island, there are variations within certain limits ; I 
quantity of land occupied by one cultivator seldom exc 
bdhuy (or tlie quarter otajung)^ altliough the quantity oc< 



TENURE OF LANDS. 1G3 

il hj a Tillage, as will be seen by the above instances, varies from 
il fire to sixteen, according to the extent of the population. 
si The land allotted to each separate cultivator is managed by 
■| himself exclusively ; and the practice of labouring in com- 
immi which is usual among the inhabitants of the same vil- 
lage on continental India, is here unknown. Every one, 
generally spealdng, has his own field, his own plough, his 
oim buffaloes or oxen ; prepares his farm with his own hand, 
or the assistance of his family at seed-time, and reaps it by 
the same means at harvest. By the recent surveys, when 
ereij thing concerning the wealth and the resources of the 
country became the subject of inquiry, and means were em- 
ployed to obtain the most accurate information, it was ascer- 
tained, that the number of buffaloes on that part of the island 
to which these sturveys extended, was nearly in the proportion 
of one to a fomily, or a pair to two families ; and that, includ- 
ing the yokes of oxen, which are to those of buffaloes as one 
to three, this proportion would be very much exceeded. In 
8ome provinces, more exclusively devoted to grain cultiva- 
tion, the number of ploughs, and of course oxen or buffaloes, 
oeariy amounts to one to a family. In other cases, where 
they fall much short of this proportion, a considerable part of 
the inhabitants must be engaged in labours unconnected with 
agriculture, or the cultivators must be engaged in rearing 
produce, where the assistance of those animals is not required. 
Thus in Japdra and Jawdna^ where^the number of inhabitants 
is 103,290, or about twenty-six thousand families, the number 
of ploughs amount to 20,730, and of buffaloes to 43,511; 
while in the Batavian Regencies, where the coffee culture 
employs a considerable part of the inhabitants, the number of 
families is about sixty thousand, and of ploughs only 17,366. 
The lands on Java are so minutely divided among the inha- 
bitants of the villages, that each receives just as much as can 
maintain his family and employ his individual industry. 

** A time there was, ere England's griefs began, 
** When ev'ry rood of ground maintain'd its man ; 
'* For him light labour spread her wholesome store, 
'* Just gave what life requir'd, and gave no more : 
"His best companions, innocence and health ; 
*' And his best riches, ignorance of wealth." 

M 2 



164 TENURE OF LANDS. 

But sitoated as the Javan peasantry are, there is but liU 
inducement to invest capital in agriculture, and much labo 
must be unprofitably wasted : as property is insecure, the 
can be no desire of accumulation ; as food is easily procure 
tliere can be no necessity for vigorous labour. There exisi 
as a consequence of this state of nature and of the laws, fc 
examples of great affluence or abject distress among the pe 
santry; no rich men, and no common beggars. Under tl 
native governments and the Regents of the Dutch Compan 
there were no \^Titten leases or engagements binding for 
term of years ; nor could such contracts well be expected 
be formed with an officer, who held his own place by so u 
stable a teniu-e as the will of a despot The cultivator ba 
gained with the BAkul or Peting*gi for a season or for t^ 
crops, had his land measured off by the latter, and paid 
stipulated portion of the produce either in money or in Ids 
WTicn the crop had arrived at maturity, the cultivator, if li 
engagement was for so much of the produce in kind, c 
down his own share, and left that of tlie landlord on tl 
groimd. 

Hie proportion of the crop paid as rent varied with tl 
kind of land, or produce, and the labour employed by tl 
cultivator. In the sdwah lands, tlie share demanded by tl 
landlord rarely exceeded one-half, and might fall as low ; 
one-fourth, according as the (juality of the soil was good > 
bad, or the laboiur employed in irrigating or otherwise pr 
paring it was greater or less. In tet/al lands, the rent pa 
varied from one-tliird to one-fifth of tlie produce ; a dimin 
tion to be attributed to the imcertainty of the crop, and tl 
necessity of employing more labour to realize an equal pr 
cluce than on Uie other s[)ecies of cultivation. In cases whc 
there was a second crop of less value tlian Uie principal rii 
or maize cro]), no additional demand was made upon tl 
additional grain roajwd by the farmer. 

If such rates had been equitably fixed, after a delibeni 
estimate of the pro])ortion between the labour of the cultivat 
and his produce, and if fnmi the best kind of sdwah no mo 
than the half had been required, with a scale of rents din 
nishing as labour increased or tlie soil deteriorated, the )>e. 
sant coidd have had no reason to conqilain of tlie exactioi 



TENURE OF LANDS. 165 

of gOYemment A Jung of the best sdwah lands will produce 
between forty and fifty dmats of pdriy each dmat weighing 
about one thousand pounds. Suppose a cultivator occupied a 
tpiarter of a jung of such land, he would reap ten dmatSy or 
ten thousand pounds of pdri^ and allowing a half for the go- 
Tenunent deduction, would still retain five thousand pounds, 
which is equal to about eight quarters of wheat The best 
iiwah lands return about forty-fold ; sdwah lands of the se- 
cond quality yield from thirty to forty dmats the jung ; and 
they are considered of inferior quality when they yield less 
than thirty. From these last, two-fifths or one-third was re- 
qniied as the landlord's share. Tegal lands were assessed at 
one-third, one fourth, or one-fifth of their produce, according 
to their quality, and their produce in value is about a fourth 
of gdttah lands of the same relative degree in the scale. In 
Bengal, according to Mr. Colebrooke's excellent account of 
its husbandly, " the landlord's proportion of the crop was 
" one-half, two-fifths, and a third, according to the difference 
" of circumstances." The value in money of a crop of rice 
grown on a jung of the best land under the wet cultivation, 
may amount to one hundred and sixty Spanish dollars ; and 
on a hdhu (the space occupied by an individual cultivator), 
forty dollars. I formerly stated the price of the implements 
of husbandry, the price of buffaloes or oxen, the expence of 
building a house, and providing it with the necessary ftimi- 
tnie. The whole farming stock of a villager may be purchased 
for about fifteen or sixteen dollars, or for little more than a 
third part of the produce of his land in one year. The price 
of labour, the price of cattle and of grain, as well as the fer- 
tflity of the soil, varies in different parts of the island ; but, 
in general, it may be laid down as an indisputable proposi- 
tion, that from the natural bounty of the soil, the peasantry 
might derive all the means of subsistence and comfort, with- 
out any great exertion of ingenuity, or any severity of toil, if 
their government made no greater demand than the shares 
stated above. 

But besides the rent which the cultivator paid for his land, 
he was liable to many more grievous burdens. The great 
objection to a tax levied on land, and consisting in a certain 
share of its produce, arises firom the effect that it has in ob- 



106 TENURE OF LANDS. 

structing improvements ; but there were other imposts ai 
contributions exacted from the peasantry, which were poi 
tively and immediately oppressive. A ground-rent for houM 
called pachumplanffy was prevalent over many parts of tl 
island, amounting in the provinces subject to the natii 
princes, to one-sixth or seventh of a dollar for each dwellix 
or cottage. The cultivator, in some parts of the country, ii 
stead of paying this tax, was obliged to pay for his fruit tzec 
In some districts tliere was a capitation tax ; arbitrary fini 
were levied in others, and contributions on the birth or ma 
riage of the children of the superior, regent, or the princ 
There were several charges made on the villages, that had 
more immediate reference to their own advantage, but whic 
nevertheless were felt as burdens ; such as contributions f 
the repair of roads, of bridges, for the maldng or repair 
water-courses, dams, and other works necessary for irrigatio 
Demands on the inhabitants for charitable and religious ol 
jects or institutions are universal, though not very oppressiv 
Every village has its priest, who depends upon the contrib 
tions of the peasantry for his support, receiving so much rii 
or pari as his salary. The taxes on the internal trade of tl 
country extended to every article of manufacture, produce, 
consiunption, and being invariably farmed out to Chinei 
who employed every mode of extortion that their ingenui 
could invent, or the passive disposition of the people woa 
allow them to practice, constituted an inexhaustible source 
oppression: to these we may add the feudal 8er\ice8 ai 
forced deliveries required under the Dutch government. 

Tlie following observations extracted fit>m two reports, d 
one on Bant am y at the western side of the island, and tl 
other on PaHuruan^ almost at its other extremity, were ni 
hap]iily by no means inapplicable to the greatest part of tl 
inti^miediate space, and contain by no means an exaggerati 
re])resentation. ^' The holders of punaka lands in Banta 
" were very seldom the occupants ; tlicy generally remain< 
'' about court, and on the a])proach of Uie pari harvest d 

puted agents to collect tlicir share of the crop. But wh 
" proportion their share woidd bear to the whole produi 

doi'K not appear to be well defined: it is by one stati 

at a fiOh, and bv some (which I suspect to bo nearest tl 



cc 



cc 

(4 



TENURE i)F LANDS. 167 

^ truth) at as mnch as the cultivator could afford to pay, the 
" agents of the proprietors being the judges of the quantity. 
" The proprietors of the pusakas have also a claim to the 
" services of the cultivators : a certain number of them are 
^ always in attendance at the houses of their chiefs, and on 
" joumies are employed in carrying their persons and bag- 
** gage. The lands not pusaka used to pay the same propor- 
" tion of produce to the Sultan as the others did to the pro- 
" prietors ; but the cultivators of the royal dominions laboured 
^ under greater disadvantages than the others. Every chief 
" or favourite about court had authority to employ them in 
^ the most menial offices ; and chiefs possessing pusakas, 
" often spared their own people and employed the others. 
" The Sultan always had a right to enforce the culture of any 
^ article which he thought proper to direct ; and, in such 
^ cases, a price was paid upon the produce, which was 
" generally very inadequate to the expences." 

" It may be very desirable," says Mr. Jourdan, in his re- 
port on the completion of the settlement of Pasuruan, ^* that 
" I should mention a few of the oppressions from which it is 
" the object of the present system to relieve the people. I 
*^ cannot but consider the greatest of these, the extent of the 
" personal service demanded, not only by the Tumung^^ung 
^ and his family, but the Mdntris and all the petty chiefs, 
" who had trains of followers that received no stipendiary re- 
^ compence. These added to the individuals employed in the 
" cofiee plantations (to which they appear peculiarly averse), 
" in beating out the rice for the contingent, in cutting grass 
^ for and attending ihejdyang aekdrs^ post carriage and letter- 
** carriers, may be calculated to have employed one-fifth of 
"the male population of the working men. Another great 
" source of exaction was the large unwieldy establishment of 
^jdyang sekdrs^ and police officers : the former were liberally 
"paid, the latter had no regular emoluments. Both these 
classes, however, quartered themselves freely in whatever 
" part of the country their functions demanded their attend - 
" ance. This was equally the case with any of the Regent's 
^ family or petty chiefs who travelled for pleasure or on duty. 
" Whatever was required for themselves and their followers, 
" was taken from the poor inhabitants, who have now been so 



u 



168 TENURE OF LANDS. 

*^ long accustomed to suck practices, that they never dare i 
'^ complain or to remonstrate. The European authority d 
*^ not escape the taint of corruption. Monopolies, nnpai 
^' services, licences, forced or at least expected presents, wea 
^' but too common even in the best times, and must have coi 
^' tributed to estrange the affections and respect of the natiT^ 
^^ from that power which should have afforded them protei 
^' lion. From this faint sketch it will be deduced, that whil 
^^ the men of rank were living in pampered luxury, the poi 
^^ provincials were suffering penury and distress." 

The Dutch Company, actuated solely by the spirit of gah 
and viewing their Javan subjects with less regard or coniddf 
ration than a West-India planter formerly viewed the gan 
upon his estate, because the latter had paid the purchai 
money of human property which the other had not, employe 
all the pre-existing machinery of despotism, to sqoeez 
from the people their utmost mite of contribution, the lai 
dregs of their labour, and thus aggravated the evils of a capri 
cious and semi-barbarous government, by working it with a 
Uie practised ingenuity of politicians, and all the monopolizin 
selfishness of traders. 

Can it therefore be a subject of siurprize, that the arts c 
agriculture and the improvement of society, have made n 
greater advances in Java ? Need it excite wonder, that th 
implements of husbandry are simple ; that the cultivation i 
imskilful and inartificial ; that the state of the roads, whcr 
European convenience is not consulted, is bad ; that the na 
tiu-al advantages of the country are neglected ; that so littl 
cnteq)rize is displayed or capital employed ; that the pea 
sant^s cottage is mean, and that so little wealth and know 
ledge are among the agricultural population ; when it is con 
sidered, that the occupant of land enjoys no security fo 
rea])ii)g tlic fruits of his industry; when his possession i 
liable to be taken away from him eveiy season, or to suffe 
such an enhancement of rent as will drive him from it ; whei 
such a small quantity of land only is allowed him as nill yicli 
him bare subsistence, and every ear of grain that can b 
spared from the supply of his immediate wants, is extorter 
fn)m him in the shape of tribute ; when his personal service 
are rec^uired impaid for, in the train of luxury or in the cul 



TENURE OF LANDS. 169 

tore of articles of monopoly ; and when, in addition to all 
these disconragementSy he is subject to other heavy unposts 
Hid impolitic restraints ? No man will exert himself, when 
actinir for another, with so much zeal as when stimulated by 
Us own immediate interest ; and under a system of govem- 
laent, where every thing but the bare means of subsistence is 
KaUe to be seized, nothing but the means of subsistence will 
be sought to be attained. The Dutch accuse the Javans of 
indolent habits and frandulent dispositions; but surely the 
qypiessor has no right to be surprized, that the oppressed 
appear reluctant in his service, that they meet his exactions 
with evasion, and answer his call to labour with sluggish in- 
difference. 

The mode of dividing land into minute portions is decidedly 
fiiToarable to population, and nothing but those checks to the 
progress of agriculture, to which I have referred, could have 
limited the population of Java to numbers so disproportioned 
to its fertility, or confined the labours of the peasantry to so 
small a space of what would reward their industry with abund- 
ance. The cultivated ground on the Island has already been 
estimated at an eigth part of the whole area. In Probollng^o 
ftnd Bes4kiy the total number oi jungs of land amount to 
775,483, the total of land capable of superior cultivation 
I7ifi75jung8f while the space actually cultivated amounts 
only to 13,432 jungs. In Rembdng^ the land belonging to 
Tillages is about ^OfiOO jungs^ and not the half of that quan- 
tity is under cultivation. In Pasuruan, the same appearances 
are exhibited. From this last district the Resident's report on 
the settlement states, as a reason for his assessing the same 
rent on all the land, ^^ that the cultivated part bearing so 
*^ small a proportion to the imcultivated, the inhabitants have 
" been enabled to select the most fruitful spots exclusively : 
** hence arises the little variety I have discovered in the pro- 
" duce." Cheribofiy Bantam, the Priang^en regencies, the 
eastern comer of the Island, the provinces under the native 
governments, and in short the greatest and most fertile dis- 
tricts, furnish striking illustrations of this disproportion be- 
tween the bounty of nature and the inefficient exertions of 
man to render her gifts available, to extend population, and to 
promote human happiness ; or rather they supply an example 



170 TENURE OF LANDS. 

of unwise institutions and despotic goyenunent, counteracting 
the natural progress of both. 

AVhen the British arms prevailed in 1811, the attention of 
government was immediately turned to the state and intercstt 
of its new subjects. It saw at once the natural advantages of 
the Island and the causes which obstructed its prosperitv, 
and it determined to effect those changes which, having suc- 
ceeded in Western India, and being sanctioned by justice and 
expediency, were likely to improve those advantages and to 
remove those obstructions. In consequence of the instructions 
of Lord Minto, the Governor-General, w*ho was present at the 
conquest, and took a great interest in the settlement of the 
Island, no time was lost to institute inquiries and to collect 
information on the state of the peasantry, and the other points, 
the knowledge of which was necessary, before any attempt to 
legislate could be vidsely or rationally made. The following 
principles, laid down by his Lordship, were those on which 
the local government acted. 

^' Contingents of rice, and indeed of other productions, have 
^^ been hitherto required of the cultivators by government at 
^^ an arbitrary rate : this also is a vicious system, to be aban- 
^' doned as soon as possible. The system of contingents did 
" not arise from the mere solicitude for the supply of the peo- 
*^ pie, but was a measure alone of finance and control, to 

enable government to derive a revenue irom a high price 

imposed on the consumer, and to keep the whole body of 
*' the people dependent on its pleasure for subsistence. I le- 
^' commend a radical reform in this branch to the serious and 
*^ early attention of government. The principle of encomBg- 
*^ ing industiy in the cidtivation and improvements of lands, 
^* by creating an interest in the effort and firuits of that indus- 
^' iTVy can be expected in Java only by a fundamental change 
" of the whole system of landed property and tenure. A wide 
" field, but a somewhat distant one, is open to this great and 
*^ interesting im])r()vement ; the discussion of the snbiect, 
" however, must necessarily be delayed till the investigation 
" it requires is more complete. I shall transmit such thoughts 
** as I licive entertained, and such hopes as I have indulged 
*' in this grand object of amelioration ; but I am to request 
^ the aid of all the infonnation, and all the lights, that this 






TENURE OF LANDS. 171 

^ Island can afford. On this branchy nothing must be done 
*^ that is not mature, because the exchange is too extensive 
^ to be suddenly or ignorantly attempted. But fixed and im- 
^ mutable principles of the human character and of human 
^ association^ assure me of ultimate, and I hope not remote 
^ success, in views that are consonant with every motive of 
^ action that operate on man, and are justified by the practice 
** and experience of every flourishing country of the world." 

In compliance with these instructions, the object of which 
was embraced with zeal by the local government, to whom his 
lordship entrusted the administration of the Island, a commis- 
aon was appointed, under the able direction of Colonel 
Mackenzie, to prosecute statistic inquiries; the results of 
idiich, as corrected and extended by subsequent surveys, wiU 
frequently appear in the tables and statistic accounts of this 
work. The nature of the landed tenure, and the demand 
made upon agriculture, in all the shapes of rent and taxes, 
were ascertained ; the extortions practised by the Dutch 
officers, the native princes, the regents, and the Chinese, were 
disclosed ; the rights of all classes, by law or usage, investi- 
gated ; the state of the population, the quantity and value of 
cultivated land, of forests, of plantations of cotton and coffee, 
the quantity of live stock, and other resources of the country 
sabject to colonial administration, inquired into and made 
known. The result of these inquiries, with regard to landed 
tenure, I have given above ; and, as it will be seen, it was 
such as opposed the rights of no intermediate class between 
the local government and the beneficial changes it contem- 
plated in behalf of the great body of the people. After attain- 
ing the requisite information, the course which expediency, 
justice, and political wisdom pointed out was not doubtfiil, 
and coincided (as in most cases it will be found to do) with 
the track which enlightened benevolence, and a zealous desire 
to promote the happiness of the people would dictate. 

The peasant was subject to gross oppression and undefined 
exaction : our object was to remove his oppressor, and to limit 
demand to a fixed and reasonable rate of contribution. He 
was liable to restraints on the fireedom of inland trade, to per- 
sonal services and forced contingents : our object was to com- 
mute them all for a fixed and well-known contribution. The 

9 



172 TENURE OF LANDS. 

exertions of his industry were reluctant and languid, becf 
he had little or no interest in its fruits : our object was to 
courage that industry, by connecting its exertions with 
promotion of his own individual welfare and prosperity, 
pital could not be immediately created, nor agricultural f 
acquired ; but by giving the cultivator a security, that wl 
ever he accumulated would be for his own benefit, and wl 
ever improvement he made, he or his family might enjoy i 
motive was held out to him to exert himself in the roai 
attain boUi. Leases, or contracts for fixed rents for term 
years, in the commencement, and eventuaUy in perpetc 
seemed to be the only mode of satisfying the cultivator, i 
he would not be liable, as formerly, to yearly undefined 
mands ; while fi-eedom fi-om all taxes but an assessment on 
crop, or rather a fixed sum in commutation thereof, w< 
leave him at full libertv to devote the whole of his atten 
and labour to render his land as productive as possible. 

In conformity with these views, an entire revolution wai 
fected in the mode of levying the revenue, and assessing 
taxes upon agriculture. The foundation of the amended i 
tem was, 1st. The entire abolition of forced deUverie 
inadequate rates, and of all feudal services, with the e 
blishmcnt of a perfect firecdom in cultivation and trade : 
The assumption, on the part of government, of the immed 
superintendance of the lands, with the coUection of the 
sources and rents thereof: dd. The renting out of the land 
assumed to the actual occupants, in large or small estates, 
cording to local circumstances, on leases for a moderate tc 
In the course of the following years (1814 and 1815) it 
measures were carried into execution in most of the distr 
luider our government, with a view to the eventual establi 
meiit of a peri)etual settlement, on the principle of the ryoltc 
or as it has been tenncdon Java, the iidng-dlit system. 

The principles of land rental and detailed settlemcmt w 
few and simple*. After matiure in([uir}', no obstable.appea 

* These principles were contemplated as just and practicable by m Di 
authority (Van Ilogendorp) who resided on Java, and criticiaed fr 
the measures of administration, as will appear from the following eztr 
from a work, which only came into my possession subeequently to the 
troduction of the new system by the British government. '* IV opg rt; 



TENURE OF LANDS. 178 

to exist, either in law or usage, to the interference of govern- 
ment, in regulating the condition of the peasantry ; and it was 

the soil must be introduced by granting all the cultivated lands to those 
who have hitherto cultivated them, or, in other words, to the common 
Javans. AU the rice fields belonging to each d^ should be distributed 
among its inhabitants, and the gardens or spots of ground in which 
their cottages stand, should also, in future, be their personal property. 
Correct registers hereof should be kept, and certificates given to the 

difoent owners. Who can produce a better and nearer right to the 
' personal possession of the land, than he who has cultivated and made 
' it productive ? And is there a country in the world where the natives 

are happy, free, and well settled, without having a property in the soil ? 

Our own country, and all the kingdoms of Europe, afford the most di- 
' rect proofs of this : they flourish in proportion as property is more or 
' less secure and equaUy divided among the inhabitants of each. AU 
' Europe groaned under the feudal system of government : all Europe 
' has freed itself from it ; but by various means and in different degrees 
' Why, therefore, can similar changes not be brought about on Java ? 
' Every thing urges us to make them, and the results must be important 
' aod most advantageous to us. Java is alone able to relieve our com- 
' monwealth from all its difficulties. 

" In order to collect a land-tax properly, a general and correct survey 
' should, in the first instance, be effected in all the districts belonging to 

OS, according to an established land measure, to be introduced generally 

* throughout Java ; for this is, at present, very irregular. All the lands 

* should then be divided into three classes, first, second, and third class, 
' according to the proportionate fertility of the soil, and according to the 
' same proportion the land-tax should be established. I am very ready 
' to admit, that this will naturally be difficult and troublesome ; but what 

system of government is exempt from these inconveniences ? and par- 
ticularly in this country, where it is necessary to effect a radical change 
and reform, in order to produce any beneficial results? But with dili- 
gence, zeal, and deliberation, all difficulties may be overcome ; and even 
should the survey not be exactly correct in the first instance, it might 
be improved from year to year. The word^im^ is now used by the 
Javans for a certain measure of land ; but this differs so much in different 
districts, that it is impossible to ascertain how many square roods of 
land ajung ought to contain. The name might be retained, however, 
after having found by experience how many square roods, in general or 
on an average, are contained in ^jtmg, the proportion might be once for 
all established, introduced throughout the island, and fixed as the regu- 
lar land measure of the country. It would be difficult, and as yet un- 
Decessary, to calculate how mBnyjungs of land our territories on Java 
contain, and how much might be collected as a land-tax from each jtm^, 
in order to ascertain what this tax would amount to. I think it should 
be taken as a principle, that the land-tax can and ought to produce as 



174 TENURE OF LANDS. 

resolved, therefore, that it should take into its own hands the 
management of that share of the land produce which was al- 
lowed to be its due, and protect the cidtivator in the enjoy- 
ment and free disposal of the remainder. The undue power 
of the chiefs was to he removed, and so far as they had a 
claim for support, founded either on former sen'ices or depri- 
vation of ex])ected employment, they were to be remunerated 
in another way. llie lands, after being sun-eyed and esti- 
mated, were to be parcelled out among the inhabitants of the 
villages, in the proportions established by custom or recom- 
mended by expediency. Contracts were to be entered into 
with each individual cultivator, who was to become the tenant 
of government, and leases specifpng the extent and situation 
of tlieir land, with the conditions of their tenure, were to be 
granted for one or more years, with a view to permanency, if 
at tlie end of the stipulated tenn, tlie arrangement should be 
foimd to combine the interest of the public revenue with the 
welfare and increasing prosperity of the occupant. If that 
was not the case, room was thus left for a new adjustment, 
for a reduction of rate, or for any change in the system which 
might adapt it more to the uiterests and wishes of the people, 
witliout jjrt^udice to the rights of government. 

1*his exi)eriment hazarded nothing, and held out every 
prf)spect of success ; it committed no injustice, and compro- 
mised no claim. Tlie peasantr}' could not sufTer, because an 
ass('ssment less in amoimt, and levied in a less oppressive 
manner tlian formerly (all rents, taxes, and sen'ices included), 

" much as the head-money, (namely, a rix-dollar per bead) : the hnd-ttz 
*' would then yield an annual and certain income of at least two miUioni 
*' and a half of rix-dollars. I'^ver)' spot of ciiltivated ground being mea- 
sured and nettled to which clasM it Mongn, every owner will correctly 
know, how much he must ])ay for land-tax annually, and be completely 
at liberty to plant his land with whatever he may prefer, and may con- 
«< ceive most conducive to his advanta«;e. I am of opinion, that during 
the first years it would he difficult, on account of the scarcity of specie, 
or rather its absence from cirnihition, to collect the land-tax; but, in 
the same way as with the head-money, it would be expedient, in the fint 
years, to be somewhat indulgent in the collection, or else to receive 
produce in lieu of money, which might lie done in this tax better than 
the capitation. But after five years of good administration, I am cer- 
tain that the land-tax woulil 1>e fully and without difficulty collected. 



<4 
4< 



<< 
<< 
4< 
4( 
«< 
4f 
t* 



TBNURE OF LANDS. 175 

ins required of them: the chiefs could not complain^ because 
ihey were allowed the fair emoluments of office, and only re- 
strained firom oppressions which did not so much benefit 
Qiemselves as injure their inferiors. Most of the latter were 
not only allowed an equivalent for their former income, but 
employed in services allied to their former duties, — thecollec- 
tiofD of the revenue, and the superintendance of the police. 
As the cultivator had acquired rights which the chief could 
not violate, as the former held in his possession a lease with 
flie conditions on which he cultivated his farm, no infringe- 
ment of which could be attempted on the part of the latter 
with impunity, no evil could result from employing the chiefs 
incoUectingthe revenue of districts, while, from their practical 
knowledge of the habits and individual concerns of the pea- 
ttntiy, of the nature of the seasons and the crops, they were 
the fittest persons for the office. For these services it seemed 
most expedient to pay them, either by allowing them a certain 
per-centage on their collections, or by allotting them portions 
of land rent free. The village constitution (which will be 
more particularly noticed in treating of the institutions of the 
country) was preserved inviolate ; and the chiefs or head men 
of the villages, in many instances elected by the free will of 
the yillagers, were invariably continued in office as the inmie- 
diate collectors of the rents, and with sufficient authority to 
preserve the police, and adjust the petty disputes that might 
arise within them ; the government scrupulously avoiding all 
unnecessary interference in the customs, usages, and detcdls of 
these societies. 

In looking at the condition of the peasantry, and in esti- 
mating the fertility of the soil, the wants of the people, and the 
proportion of produce and industry that they formerly were 
accustomed to pay for supporting the establishments of go- 
remment, it was thought reasonable to commute all former 
^nrdens into a land rent on a fixed principle ; all sdwah lands 
)eing estimated by the pdriy or unhusked rice, they could 
)roduce, and all legal lands by their produce in maize. The 
bllowing (as stated in the eighty -third article of the Revenue 
ustructions) was considered as the fairest scale for fixing the 
pvemment share, and directed to be referred to, as much as 
ossible, as the general standard: 



170 TENURE OF LANDS. 

For Sdwah Lands. 

1st sort One-half of the estimated produce. 

2d do Two-fifths ditto. 

dd do One-third. ditto. 

For Teffal Lands. 

1st sort Two-fifths of the estimated produce. 

2d do One-third ditto. 

dd do One-fourth ditto. 

" Government," it is said in the eighty-fifth section, 
" tliink it necessary" to declare explicitly, that they wiD be 
*' satisfied when the land revenue shall be productive to them 
'' in these proportions, determining at no fiiture period to 
^' raise the scale ; so that the inhabitants, being thus exactly 
acquainted with what will form the utmost demand on 
them, and resting in fiill confidence that government will 
^^ not exact any thing fiirther, may in that security enjoy their 
possessions in undisturbed happiness, and apply their ut- 
most industr}' to tlie improvement of their lands ; assured 
that, while they conduct themselves well, that land will 
^* never be taken from them, and that the more productive they 
^' can render it, tlie more beneficial it will be for themselves.** 
Tlie government share might either be received in money or 
in kind from tlie sdicah lands ; but the tegal produce, though 
estimated in maize, was always, if possible, to be commuted 
into numey at the lowest price in the market ; and as coltiya- 
tors generally held portions of both, this rule, it was con- 
ceivi'd, could not be considered generally as a hardship. 

In the first settlement, leases were only granted for a year, 
or at the utmost three years, and were given to intermediate 
renters ; but in the more detailed settlement of 1814, after 
sufficient information liad been collected on the state of the 
country, government detennined to act directly with the indi- 
vidual cultivator, and to lay tlie foundation of a pcnrmanent 
system. By this latter period, the experiments have been 
tried to a certain extent, and had succeeded beyond the most 
sanguine expectation. Difficulties met us in the way, but 
thev were bv no means insunnountable ; there were at first 
imperfections in the system, but they did not affect its prin- 



ce 






TENURE OF LANDS. 177 

ciple, and were easily removed. By the zeal, the ability, and 
industry of the yarious officers entrusted with the execution 
of the dufy, whatever was practicable in furtherance of the 
object in which they felt deeply interested, was accomplished. 
In the course of the years 1814 and 1815, the new system 
was introduced into Bantam^ Cheribotiy and the eastern 
districts, over a population of a million and a half of culti- 
vators, not only without disturbance and opposition, but to 
the satisfaction of all classes of the natives, and to the 
manifest increase of the public revenue derivable from land. 
In several joumies which I undertook into the different 
proTinces, for the purposes of examining in person the effect 
of the progressive system of reform which I had the hap- 
piness to introduce, and of lending the sanction of official 
aathority to such modifications of it as local circumstances 
might render advisable, I was a pleased spectator of its bene- 
ficial tendency, and of the security and satisfaction it univer- 
saQj diffiised. The cultivator, protected against all vexatious 
exactions, and no longer at the beck of a tyrannical chief 
who made unlimited demands upon his personal services, was 
beginning to feel additional stimulants to his industry, to 
acquire a superior relish for property, and to acknowledge 
that government and power were not always the enemies of 
the lower ranks of society, or as they modestly call them- 
selves, the little people ftiang-halitj. The British adminis- 
tration of Java, with all its agents, having watched the 
progress of the amended system at first with vigilant anxiety, 
at last saw it nearly completed with success, and rejoiced in 
its beneficial operation on the prosperity, improvement, and 
happiness of the people. During the two years that we 
retained possession of the island, after the greatest part of its 
arrangements were carried into effect, we had daily proofs of 
the amelioration they were producing. The cultivation was 
extending, the influence of the chiefs appeared to be pro- 
gressively weakening, and the number of crimes, both from 
the superior industry of the people now become interested in 
the result of their labours, and from the contented tranquillity 
produced by an increase of the means of subsistence, as well 
as from the amended system of police (mentioned in another 
part of this work), was gradually diminishing. Without 

VOL. I. N 



178 TENURE OF LANDS. 

troubling the reader with further details, I may mention that, 
in the beginning of Deeember 1815, a few months before I 
left tlie island, not satisfied witli my o\ra obsen^ation or the 
vague report of otliers, I circulated specific queries to the 
different residents, on tlie comparative state of cultivaUon in 
tlie different provinces, before the introduction of the detailed 
settlement, and at tlie latest date to which an answer could 
be returned, and on the comparative number of crimes at the 
same two periods, and the return was as gratifying to huma^ 
nity and benevolence as it was corroborative of the opinions 
previously formed. I shall quote a few extracts firom these 
reports. The Resident at Cherihon ^^ cannot, from certain 
*' data, tell what progress has been made in extending the 
'^ cultivation of that province, but thinks it has been con- 
'^ siderable ;*' and adds, ^* I have no doubt but that a few 
" years of the aniende<l system of govermnent would render 
^' tlie district of Cherihon^ so notorious for crimes, one of the 
^' most ilomishing and valuable in any jiart of the island.** 
Tlie Resident of Tegal is nearly in similar circumstances 
witli regard to autlientic dociunents, but gives a very favour- 
able opinion, both with regard to the increase of industi}' and 
the reduction of crimes. Tlie return from KedA is more 
definite : it states a positive increase of tegal land to the 
aiuoimt of tliirty-six jttttgs, but a much greater increase of 
produce from improved cidture. The revenue afforded a 
siifiicieiit proof of the latter fact. The same favourable 
account is given of tlie state of i)olice and the diminution of 
crime. No data are given in the report from PakaldHy*aH to 
ascertain tlie additional quantity of rice lands brought into 
cultivati(m; but an opinion is expressed, tliat it has in- 
creased; and an assurance is afforded, tliat tlie culture of 
indigo and tobacco has sensibly extended. As an evidence 
that the means of subsistence are raised in greater abundance 
than formerly, their price has ver\' considerably diminished. 

A commission wliicli was appointed to inquire into the 
state of tlie revenue, report from Japdra the great facility 
there was in collecting the revenue mider the amended 
system, and certify its beneficial effects in extending cul- 
tivation, securing tranquillity, pnimoting iudiistrb*, and 
dimuiishing crimes, llie same commission conclude their 



TENURE OF LANDS. 179 

repOTt of Grisik with aimilar assurances of the happy results 
of the levenua, and judicial arrangements for the prosperity 
of that province. The Resident of Rembdng gives an in- 
crease of cultivation of fifly-two jungs of sdwah and about 
thirteen of Ugal land, and accounts for the smallness of this 
increase firmn the comparative sterility of the soil, and the 
precarious supply of water. Indigo had not increased, but 
tobacco had to a great degree. The vigilance of the police, 
and the ameliorating effects of the revenue settlement, are 
seen, it is said, in the improved state of morals. In Surabdya 
it is stated, that during the time the amended system had 
been in action, there had been an increase of three hundred 
and twenty government jungsy making upwards of two thou- 
sand English acres. In the residency of Passman there is 
an increase of cultivation to the amount of three hundred and 
six jungs : this, however, does not comprehend the whole 
advantage that the new system produced in that province, for 
mdostiy had been so much promoted by it, as to obtain two 
crops within the year, on many of the lands where the 
cultivator was formerly content with one. It is needless to 
enter into any further particulars, to shew the advantages of 
the regulations adopted with regard to the settlement of the 
landed revenue. 

By a steady adherence to a system w^hich, even in its 
origin, was productive of such fruits, by continuing to the 
peasant the protection of laws made for his benefit, by 
allowing fidl scope to his industry, and encouraging his 
natural propensity to accumulate, agriculture on Java would 
soon acquire a different character: it would soon become 
active and enterprizing ; there would soon be created a dif- 
ference in farms and in the circumstances of individuals; 
capital would be fixed and augmented in the hands of the 
skilful and the industrious among the cultivators ; the idle 
and the indifferent would relinquish their possessions in their 
favour ; roads, intercourse, and markets would be increased, 
the organization of society would be changed, and an im- 
proved race would shew themselves, in some measure, worthy 
of the most fertile region of the globe. What Egj^t and 
Sicily were in different ages to the south of Europe, Java 



180 TENURE OF LANDS. 

might become to the south of Asia and the Indian 
pelago. From the exertion with which the British gorem- 
ment endeavoured to lay the foundation of such improro- 
ments, at first amid the embarrassments of a recent conqnesl, 
and latterly with the prospect of only an intennediate pos- 
session ; firom the attachment it cherished for a people whoie 
gratitude it deserved and acquired, and from the interest that 
every fiiend of himianity must feel in the anticipation of 
seeing this highly favoured island, the metropolis^ the granaiy, 
and the centre of civilization to the vast regions between the 
coast of China and the Bay of Bengal, it might have been 
expected, that those who were instrumental in introducing 
the late arrangements, should watch with peculiar anxiety the 
first movements of the power to which the colony was trans- 
ferred, and should look into the regulations for ^ts Indian 
empire for the support, or the death-blow, of the most ani- 
mating hopes. It must therefore be with peculiar satisfSaMrtion 
that we see, with regard to the fireedom of cultivation, the 
Dutch government sanctions what we had done, and gives 
our regulations permanency by embodying them in its colonial 
policy. In articles seventy-eight and seventy-nine of the 
fundamental laws for the civil, judicial, and mercantile admi- 
nistration of India*, we find the following enactments. " The 
firce cultivation of all articles of produce which may be 
raised in the possessions of the state in India, is granted to 
the inhabitants of these possessions ; with the exception of 
cloves, nutmegs, and opium, and without prejudice to the 
regulations which might be adopted concerning the con- 
tingents and forced deliveries, which on a resumption of 
these possessions out of the hands of the English, wiU be 
found to be continued in force. All the firuits of cultivation 
raised within the possessions of the states beyond the 
forced deliveries, and every kind of produce not com- 
prehended under the exceptions mentioned above, are to be 
the la^\'ful property of the cultivator. The firee unrestrained 
disposal thereof belongs to him of right, as soon as the land 
rent assessed thereon, either in kind or money, shall be 

• Dated 1815. 



TENURE OF LANDS. 181 

It is the duty of the Indian administration to 
^mamtain him in these rights/* Let him be maintained 
IB those rights, and the Dutch government will realize a 
lerenue tax beyond the amount of their former assessments, 
without, as formerly, disgracing the Europeans m the eyes of 
&e Asiatic, by their weakness, corruption, and injustice. 



CHAPTER IV. 



Manufactures — Handicrafts^Bricks — Tkatck — Afa/#— Gt>lto»— Clof A#- 
Dyes — Tannin ff — Ropes— Metals — Road and SAtp-Mldm^ — Piq^r — Si 
— Saltpetre IVorks — Gunpowder, ^. — FelHng and TnauporHmg qf TVi 
Timber — Fisheries. 

It is here proposed to state the progress made by the Jarai] 
in a few of the common arts and handicrafts, and in one c 
two of the more extensive manufactures; (heir docility i 
working under European direction, and some other obsern 
tions, which could not be so appropriately placed in any othc 
part of tliis work. I have already had occasion to notice th 
limited skill and simple contrivances with which they cair 
on the labours of agriculture, and prepare (he produce of th 
soil for consiunption, in the various ways that their taste o 
their habits require. In a country like Java, where the struc 
ture of society is simple, and the wants of the people are fen 
wlicre there is no accumulation of capital and little divisioi 
of professions, it cannot be expected that manufacturing ski] 
should be acquired, or manufacturing enterprize encouraged 
to any great extent. 'The family of a Javan peasant is almos 
inil(»|)endent of any labour but that of its own members. Th 
funiiture, the clothing, and almost every article required fori 
family, being prepared within its own precincts, no extensin 
market of manufactured commodities is necessary for the sop 
j)ly of the island itself ; and for foreign trade, the produce o 
their soil is more in demand than the fruits of their skill or in 
dustry. In a countr\' where nature is bountifid, and where u 
nuich of her bounty can be collected with so little labour U 
pay for manufactures from abroad, there is but little encoa 
ragement to withdraw the natives from the rice field, ihi 
forest, or llie coffee-garden, to the loom, the forge, or tlM 
worksliop ; and it is not in tliis respect, certainly, that i 
rliange of their habits would be beneficial. Tliis short noticf 



MANUFACTURES— HANDICRAFTS. 183 

of Javan manufactures^ therefore, must be very limited, both 
in the number of the articles that it embraces, and in the im- 
portance that Europeans may attach to them : for Java can 
neither send us porcelain, like China ; nor silks, shawls, and 
cottons, like Western India. To a nation, however, so much 
accustomed as we are to the exertions of manufacturing skill 
and perfection of manufacturing machinery, it may not be un- 
interesting to see the simple means, by which a half-civilized 
people accomplish the objects which we attain by such expe- 
ditious and ingenious processes. The most experienced naval 
architect may be interested by the manner in which a savage 
scoops his canoe. 

The Javans have names in their language for most of the 
handicrafts. The following enumeration of terms applied to 
trades and professions will shew the extent to which the di- 
vision of labour is sometimes carried, while the foreign extrac- 
tion of some of them may, perhaps, serve to point out the 
source whence they were derived. 

1. Pdndi or Smpu Iron-smith and cutler. 

2. Tiikang-kdyUy or mergdngso ....Carpenter. 

3. Merdng^giortukang-werdngko Kris-sheath maker. 

4. Tukang^kir Carver. 

5. ■ ■ deder Spear-shafl maker, 

6. ■ » Idmpet Mat maker. 

7. . hMot Turner. 

8. n, b^to Brush maker. 

9. ' fi>dtii or jelog^ro -..Stone-cutter. 

10. ■ ■ ■ — Idbur Lime maker. 

11. ' ndtah wdyang Wayang maker. 

12. gending Musical instrument maker. 

13. keming^an Brazier. 

14. Saydng, or tukung'tambdgo ....Coppersmith. 

15. Kemdsany or tukdng-mas Goldsmith. 

\%. Kundi Potter. 

17. Tukang 6rd Distiller. 

18. — jiUd Bookbinder. 

19. tenun Weaver. 

20. — — — bdtik Cotton printer. 

ai. — medal ..Dyer. 



1 84 HANDICRAFTS— STRUCTURES. 

22. Tukang Ung*o Oil maker. 

23. ni&ro-wedi Diamond cutter. 

24. deluwang Paper manufacturer. 

25. pdndom or girji Tailor. 

26. sulam Embroiderer. 

27. jdit Sempstress. 

28. 8ung*ging Draftsman. 

29. chat Painter. 

30. pdsah Tooth filer. 

I shall proceed to describe a few of the manufactures of t 
island, without attending much to the order in which it mi( 
be proper to arrange them. The construction of a habitat 
is among the first and most necessary arts of uncivilized m 
as the perfection of architecture is one of the most conyinc: 
proofs and striking illustrations of a high state of refinemi 
I have already described the hut of the peasant, and h 
mentioned tliat it is generally constructed of wood. Such sir 
tiires suit the climate of the country, and save the labour of 
people ; but they are not rendered necessary by an igncnrau 
of more durable materials. 

Bricks are manufactured in almost every part of the isla 
being generally employed in the better sort of buildings, 
only by Europeans and Chinese, but by the natives of ra 
Tlic quality of the clay varies greatly in different districts, 
is all obtained firom the decomposition of the basaltic stoi 
and possesses different degrees of purity, according to the ] 
portion and nature of the other earths which are adventitim 
mixed with it In some parts of the island it is very p 
and might be advantageously employed in the manufacttun 
porcelain ; but the natives arc imacquainted with the p 
ciples of this art : some instruction in the glazing of tl 
pottery would be of ver}' general benefit They are m 
quainted with tlie process of making glass. 

Cut stones arc, at present, but rarely used by the Javj 
and stone-cutting is almost exclusively performed by 
Chinese. But altliougli the Javans do not, at present, post 
or ])riietice any considerable skill in this art, the extensive 
mains of ediiiccs constructed in stone, and of idols carved f 
the same materials, afford abundant testimony that the art 



THATCH— MATS. IM 

arcbitectaie, sculptmrey and statuary in stone, at one period 
reached to a reiy high pitch on Java. As, howeyer, these 
arts hare long been lost to the Javans, the consideration of 
them rather falls within the department of antiquities than that 
which we are now upon. 

In the vicinity of Gresik there are several hills composed of 
a soft white stone, which hardens on exposure to the air. 
Stones are here cut in the quarry into regular squares of va- 
rious sizes, from that of a brick to the largest tomb-stone. 
They are principally required for the latter purpose, and in 
the cemeteries of Gresik and Madura the inscriptions upon 
them are very neatly executed. Beyond this, the skill of the 
natives in stone-cutting does not at present pretend. 

The covering of the native houses is generally of thatch. 
In the maritime districts, dtap^ or thatch, is made almost ex- 
clnsively firom the leaves of the nipa or buyu. In the prepara- 
tion, the leaflets separated from the common petiol are em- 
ployed. Being doubled, they are attached close to each other 
on a stick of three feet in length, and when thus arranged 
are placed on the roof, like shingles or tiles. The leaves of 
the gebauffy on account of their fan-like form, are differently 
airanged : they constitute large mats, which are chiefly em- 
ployed for sides of houses or for composing temporaiy sheds, 
but they are too large and brittle to form durable dtap. In the 
interior districts, where nipa does not grow, the houses are al- 
most uniformily thatched with a species of long grass called 
alang-alang (the Idlang of the Malay countries). Near large 
forests, where bdmbu abounds, the natives cover their houses 
with this reed. The leaflets of the cocoa-nut cannot be made 
mto thatch, but wherever the sago and nipa grow, it is made 
from their leaflets. 

An article of household furniture in use among all classes, 
and displaying in some cases considerable beauty and deli- 
cacy of execution, is matting. Mats are made from several 
species of pandanus, from a kind of grass called mandongy 
and from the leaves of various palms. A species of the latter 
affords the most common kinds, coarser and less durable than 
others, as well as bags (straw sacks) resembling coarse mats : 
the leaves being divided into laminae, about one line in breadth^ 
are woven in the same manner and on the same frames as 



186 MATS— COTTON. 

coarse linen. These fibres, called dgelj are iometimes mana- 
facturcd into twine, which possesses but little strength. Hie 
mats or bags, called karong^ are much inferior to the gonny- 
bags of India. 

llie coarsest kinds of mats, employed chiefly by the lower 
class, arc called in the central districts kl690 bdngko; those 
prepared firom grass, kldtio mdfidong; and the others, kl690 
psdntrem (from the place where they are made). The mate- 
rials of all these are plaited by hand. The kl&so psdnirem 
are of superior quality, and in use through the central and 
eastern parts of the island ; especially among the natives of 
the first class, with whom they constitute the principal fiimi- 
turc of tlie dwelling-house. A person of the highest rank 
aspires to no luxury, more delicate or expensive in this way, 
than the possession of a bed composed of mats from psdntrem, 

A kind of umbrella hat worn by the common people, and 
imiversal in the Sunda districts denominated ckdpeng, is also 
manufactured in this manner, principally fit>m bdmbu^ dyed 
of various colours, which being shaped in the form and of the 
size of a large wash-hand basin worn reversed, is rendered 
impervious to the wet by one or more coverings of varnish. 

A great part of the manufacturing ingenuity of every people 
must be displayed in collecting the materials, or arranging 
the fabrics of those articles of clothing, required for protec- 
tion, decency, or ornament Whether these materials are de- 
rived from the fleece, the finr, or the feathers of the laign 
animals, from the covering of an insect, the bark of a tree, or 
the down of a shrub, they have to undergo several laborioua 
and expensive processes before they are fit for nse ; and in 
conducting these processes, or forming machinery for render- 
ing them more expeditious, complete, and easy, the superior 
manufacturing skill of one nation over another is chiefly 
evinced. Tlie sheep on Java, as in all tropical climates, loses 
its fleece before it can be used with advantage. The silk- 
worm has never succeeded, although no reason can be given 
why it should not, and therefore the chief material of Javaa 
clothing is cotton. 

Cotton, in itn rough state, is called kdpas^ and when cleaned 
kapok. Tlie process of separating the seeds is performed by 
means of a giii/tg^an^ which is a roller, consisting of two 



COTTON CLOTHS. 187 

urooden cylinder rerolving in opposite directionsy between 
which the fibre is made to pass. This operation is very te- 
dionsy two days being necessary for one person to clean a kdtif 
equiralent to a pound and a quarter English. After the se- 
paration of the seed, it is geblek^ or beaten with a rattan, and 
jNMt or picked. The finer sort is then bowed after the Indian 
manner; this operation is called wus&nu The cotton thus 
prepared is afterwards pulled out and drawn round a stick, 
when it is called pusuh. To perform the process upon a 
angle kdti will employ one person about two days. The 
cotton is now ready for spinning Cngantijy and requires ten 
additional days' labour of one person, to conyert the small 
quantity aboye mentioned into yam, when the result is found 
to be three tukal^ at hanks, of the ordinary kind. 

Preyious to the operation of weaving, the yam is boiled, 
and afterwards dressed and combed wiUi rice-water. When 
diy, it is wound round a sort of reel, termed Hngan^ and pre- 
pared for weaving. These are the last operations it undergoes 
till it is put into the hands of the weaver, and requires, in 
ordinary circumstances, three days for its completion. Four 
days are required even by an expert weaver, and five or six 
by an ordinary one, to manu£au;ture a sdrang, or piece of cloth, 
a fathom and a half long and five spans broad (equal to three 
square handkerchiefs of the ordinary size worn on the head). 
Ilie cloths thus prepared, while uncoloured, are distinguished 
by the term Idwan, 

The spinning-wheel is termed jdntroy and the spindle k(si. 
The loom, with all its apparatus, is called dhah dbah ten&n^ 
the shuttle ir&pong^ the woof vfwm^ and the warp pdkan^ 
Both machines resemble those described on the continent of 
India, but are neater and much better made : the loom espe-» 
ciaUy is more perfect : the weaver, instead of sitting in holes 
dug in the ground, invariably sits on a raised flooring, gene- 
rally in fi-ont of the house, her legs being stretched out hori- 
zontally under the loom. The price of the spinning-wheel 
varies from less than half a rupee to a rupee, and that of the 
loom firom a rupee to a Spanish dollar. The operations of 
spinning and weaving are confined exclusively to the women, 
who firom the highest to the lowest rank, prepare the cloth» 
of their husbands and their families. 



188 COLOURED CLOTHS— BATIK. 

Coloiired cottons (jdrit) are distmguished into Uri or Uri 
ging'gangy those in which the yam is djed previously to 
weaving; and bdtiky those which are dyed subsequently. 
The process of weaving the former is similar to that of the 
gingham, which it resembles, and need not therefore be de» 
tailed ; but the latter, being peculiar to Java, may desenre a 
more particular description. 

The cloths termed batik are distinguished into bdtik idtmr 
puiiy bdtik Idtur irangy or bdtik Idtur bang^ as the ground 
may be either white, black, or red. The white cloth is jfirst 
steeped in rice water, in order to prevent the colour with 
which the patterns are intended to be drawn, firom running, 
and when they are dried and smoothed (calendered), com- 
mences the process of the bdtik j which gives its name. This 
is performed with hot wax in a liquid state, contained in a 
small and light vessel, either of copper or silver, called ckdni* 
iftgy* holding about an ounce, and having a small tube of 
about two inches long, through which the liquid wax runs 
out in a small stream. This tube, with the vessel to which it 
is attached, being fixed on a stick about five inches long, is 
held in the hand, and answers the purpose of a pencil, the 
different patterns being traced out on both sides of the doth 
with the running wax. When the outline of the pattern is 
thus finished, such parts of the cloth as are intended to be 
preserved white, or to receive any other colour than the 
general field or ground, are carefully covered in like «miwig« 
vrith the liquid wax, and then the piece is immersed in what- 
ever coloured dye may be intended for the ground of the pat- 
tern. To render the colour deeper, cloths are occaaoniBn} 
twice dipped. The parts covered with wax resist the opera- 
tion of the dye, and when the wax is removed, by being 
steeped in hot water till it melts, are found to remain in theii 
original condition. If the pattern is only intended to conaisi 
of one colour besides white, the operation is here completed; 
if anotlicr colour is to be added, the whole of the first ground 
which is not intended to receive an additional shade, ii 
covered with wax, and a similar process is repeated. 

• These vessels for large patterns are sometimes made of the cocoa-noi 
shell, and then hold a proportionally larger quantity. 



DYES. 189 

in order to render the dye fixed and permanent for the 
scarlet or blood-red colour, the cloth is previously steeped in 
(hI, and after five days washed in hot water, and prepared in 
the usual way for the bdtik. In the ordinary course, the pro- 
cess of. the bdtik occupies about ten days for common pat- 
terns, and jQrom fifteen to seventeen for the finer and more 
Taiiegated. 

A very coarse kind of cloth, which serves for curtains or 
hangings, is variously clouded, and covered sometimes with 
rode figures, by the art of colouring the yam, so as to produce 
this effect when woven. For this purpose, the strands of the 
yam being distributed in lengths equal to the intended size 
of the cloth, are folded into a bundle, and the parts intended 
to remain white are so tightly twisted round and round, that 
the dye cannot penetrate or afiect them. From this party- 
coloured yam the designed pattern appears on weaving. The 
cloths so dyed are called geber. 

The sashes of silk, called chindiy are dyed in this manner, 
as well as an imitation of them in cotton, ceiled jdng^ffrang. 

Of the several kinds of coloured cottons and silks there is 
a Tery great diversity of patterns, particularly of the batik j of 
which not less than a hundred are distinguished by their 
appropriate names. Among these are the patterns exclusively 
wom by the sovereign, termed bdtik pdrang rusay and bdtik 
tdwaty and others which designate the wearer, and are more 
or less esteemed, as well on this account as their comparative 
beauty of design and execution. 

With the exception of blue and scarlet or blood-red, all the 
dyes of the inhabitants are liable to fade, and the processes 
offer nothing worthy of investigation or remark. 

In dying blue, indigo, the palm wine of the dreuy and va- 
rious vegetable acids are employed. 

Black is obtained fi*om an exotic bark called tingH, and the 
rind of the mangustin fiiiit. In making the inferior infiision 
for this and for various other dyes, the chaff of rice, called 
merdngy is employed. 

In dying green, a light blue is first induced, which is after- 
wards converted into the requisite hue, by infiision in a de- 
coction of tegrdng (an exotic wood), to which blue vitriol is 
added. 



100 DYEti, 

Teg^rdng alone affords a yellow colour, and generally i 
qualified by receiving the addition of some bark of the ndngh 
and pleni'doddL 

A beautiful and lasting scarlet and blood-red is obtainei 
from the roots of tiie wdng-kudu. The yam or cloth is fin 
boiled in the oil of wijen or kamiri: being washed in \ 
decoction of merdng or burnt pari chaff, it is dried, and sub 
sequently immersed in an infusion of tiie roots of w&nffJcudm 
the strength of which is increased by the addition of the bajri 
jiraky a variety of the fruit kepundung. In the preparatioi 
of this dye, the roots of the wdng-kudu are bruised and wd 
mixed with water, which is then boiled until it is reduced tn 
one third, when it is fit for use. No light red or rose colou 
of durability is produced by the Javans : they employ for thi 
puipose the kaaomha kling. 

In several of the maritime districts, the Maldgus impart i 
beautiful crimson colour to silk, by means of the gumlak tern 
bdlu or emhdluy but with this Javans are unacquainted. 

The kdpas jdwa^ or Java cotton, in its raw and unclcanci 
state costs from about three halfpence to three pence the kdii 
according to its quality, and the kdpas m^ri from six to eigfa 
pence. The price of each advances sometimes fifty per cent 
beyond this, when the production is scarce or out of season. 

A kdii of unclcancd Java cotton is calculated to produce 
two and a half tukul or hanks of coarse, and three and a hal 
hanks of fine yam ; and a kdii of kdpa^ miri^ five hanks o 
the latter. Tlie value of tiie former is from three to fbui 
pence, and of the latter from seven to ten. 

lliree hanks and a half of coarse yam, and from five U 
nine of fine, make one sdrong^ or three head handkerchiefr 
the price of which, undyed, is from half a rupee to foui 
Spanish dollars ; it* dyed, tiie ging'*ams bring from one rupee 
to four Spanish dollars, and the batik from a rupee and a hal 
to six Si)aiiish dollars for the same quantity. 

Anotiier kind of coloured cottons, in imitation of the Indiar 
chintz, is also prejiared ; but it is not held in much estima* 
tion, on account of the superiority of tiie foreign chintzei 
imported, and the uncertainty of tiie colours, which lh< 
natives allege will not stand in tiie same manner as those 
which have undergone the process of tiie batik^ frcquentl} 








TANNING. - 191 

frding in the sec< i waabing. In these cloths, the patterns 
bemg carved on small wooden blocks are stamped as m India. 
Thej serve as coverlids, and are employed as a substitute for 
the Indian palempore, whe the latter is not procurable. The 
pice is about four rupees. 

The natives of Java, like those of every other country, 
must have been, firom the earliest times, in the habit of manu- 
fictming various articles of leather ; but the art of rendering 
it more compact, more tough, and more durable, by the appli- 
cation of the tanning principle, has been acquired only by 
their connexion with Europeans. They now practice it with 
considerable success, and prepare tolerable leather in several 
districts. There are two trees of which the bark is parti- 
cularly preferred for tanning ; one in the maritime districts, 
the oUier in the intericnr. These, with some others which are 
occasionally added, contain very large quantities of the 
tamiing principle, which makes excellent leather in a short 
space of time. Of this native article, boots, shoes, saddles, 
harness, &c. are made in several parts of the island ; but 
in the greatest perfection at Sura-kerta^ where the prices are 
moderate, and the manufacture extensive and improving. 
Neither the leather nor the workmanship of these articles 
is considered much inferior to what is procured at Madras 
and Bengal. The prices are moderate : for a pair of shoes 
blf a crown, for boots ten shillings, for a saddle firom thirty 
to forty shillings, and for a set of harness for four horses firom 
ten to twelve pounds. 

Neither flax nor hemp is cultivated for the purposes of 
manufeu^ture. The latter is sometimes found in the gardens 
of the natives of continental India, particularly at Batavia, 
who employ it only to excite intoxication ; but the island 
affords various productions, the fibrous bark of which is made 
into thread, ropes, and other similar articles. These are, with 
one or two exceptions, never cultivated, and when required 
for use, may be collected in sufficient quantity on spots where 
they are of spontaneous growth. A particular account of 
these has already been given in the first chapter, when de- 
scribing the vegetable productions of the island. 

To enable rope or cord which is often exposed to water or 
moistiu-e, as fishing-nets, cables, and the like, to resist its 
influence, the sap exuding from various trees is employed. 



192 METALLURGY. 

No manufactures are calculated to show more cleailj 
extent to which the arts of life are carried in a country, t 
those in which the metals are used. Without the knowie 
of iron, our dominion over nature would be veiy limited j 

may be seen in the case of the Americans at the discorer 

• ■ 

the western hemisphere. The manufacture and use of i 
and steel has been known over the Eastern Islands, as wel 
in the western world, from time immemorial. The rari 
iron implements of husbandry, the common implements i 
tools, the instruments and miUtary weapons now in use ami 
the natives of these regions, are fabricated by themseh 
The importance and difficulty of the art may be gathe 
from the distinction which the knowledge and practice o: 
conferred. 

The profession of a smith is still considered honoura 
among the Javans, and in the early parts of their histc 
such artizans held a high rank, and were largely endo¥ 
with lands. The first mention made of them is during * 
reign of the chiefs of Pajajdran^ in the eleventh century, 
the decline of that empire they went over, to the numbei 
eight hundred families, to Majapdhity where they were kin< 
received, and a record is presened of the names of the he 
master-smitlis. On the destruction of that empire in t 
fifteenth centur}-, they were dispersed, and settled in diffem 
districts of the island, where their descendants are still d 
coverable. They arc distinguished by the term Pdndi. 

Iron is cast in small quantities of a few ounces, and us 
occasionally for the point of the ploughshare. The metal 
rendered fluid in about half an hour : charcoal is invarial 
used, and the operation is termed sing^i or chitak. 

Tlie bellows, wliich is peculiar, and believed to have be 
in use at the time of Pajajdran and Majapdhity and of whi 
a representation scidptured in stone was found in the recent 
discovered ruins at Suku (whicli l)ear date in the fourteen 
century of the Javan aTa), appears to be the same as tli 
described by Dam])ier *, in liis account of Majirnddnao ai 
the neighbouring islands. ^^ Their bellows,** says this fait 
ful and intelligent traveUer, ^' are much different from oui 
^' lliey are made of a wooden cylinder, the trunk of a trc 

• Dampier*A Voyage, vol. ii. 



METALLURGY. 193 

** about three feet long, bored hollow like a pump, and set 
** D^ght on the ground, on which the fire itself is made. 
** Near the lower end there is a small hole in the side of the 
** tronk next the fire, made to receive a pipe, through which 
" the wind is driven by a great bunch of fine feathers fas- 
" tened to one end of the stick, which closing up the inside 
" of the cylinder, drives the air out of the cylinder through 
** the pipe. Two of these trunks or cylinders are placed 
" 80 nigh together, that a man standing between them may 
" work them both at once, alternately, one with each hand." 
This account so exactly corresponds with the Javan bellows, 
that no further description is necessary. The Chinese bellows 
aie partially used. The wages of a man skilled in iron-work 
are sometimes as high as a rup^e a day. 

Cuflery of every description is made by the smith. The 
most important manufacture of this kind is the kris^ or dag- 
ger, of the peculiar form well known to be worn by all the 
more civilized inhabitants of the Eastern Islands. 

The price of a kris blade, newly manufactured, varies firom 
half a rupee to fifty dollars; but the same krisy if it is of good 
character, and if its descent can be traced for three or four 
generations, is firequently prized at ten times that sum. A 
pdndi employed to manufacture a good kris blade, if the ma- 
terials are furnished, is paid three dollars for the job. 

The manufacture of sheaths or scabbards (sarong) for the 
kris constitute an exclusive profession; and the manufac- 
torers are called tukang merdng*gi^ or mergdngso. These men 
attend at the public market, where they occupy a parti- 
cular quarter, in which may be seen people employed in the 
finishing or repair of every part of the mounting necessary for 
this instrument; some upon the handle, others upon the 
sheath ; some in applying the paint and lacquer, others 
attending with a prepaiation of acids and arsenic for cleaning 
the blade, and bringing out the appearance of the pdmury a 
white metal obtained firom Biliton and Celebes, which is 
worked up \vith the iron, in order to produce the damasked 
appearance of the blade. 

Copper is manufactured into the kettles and pots employed 
by the natives for cooking ; most of the other domestic vessels 
VOL. I. o 



194 CARPENTRY. 

are of brass, which is manufactured into various other artick 
from the smallest, such as buttons, ear-studs, and other om 
ments, in imitation of the gold patterns, to braBS guns of coi 
siderable calibre, employed for the defence of smaU ressdi 
A very extensive foundery of this kind is established at Cfriml 
From the specimen of the casts in brass, copper, &c. whichir 
occasionally dug up near many of the ruinous temples sacred ft 
the ancient worship of the country, we may assert, that gm 
proficiency was once attained in this art : like that, howefd 
of stone-cutting, it has very much declined. 

Gold and silver, as is well knoi^vn, are wrought by the in 
lives of the Eastern Islands into exquisite ornaments ; and tb 
Javans arc by no means behind their neighbours, the Snos 
trans, in tlic knowledge of this manufacture. They do not 
however, usually work the gold into those beautiful filigre 
patterns, described as common among the Malayui on So 
matra, nor is their work generally so fine. 

Diamond-cutters, and persons skilled in the knowledge ( 
cutting precious stones, arc also to be found in the principi 
capitals. 

Car\'ing in wood is followed as a particular profession, an 
tlie Javans may be considered as expert in all kinds of ca 
penter's work, but more particularly in cabinet-work. The 
imitate any pattern, and tlie furniture used by the Europcai 
in the eastern part of the Island is almost exclusively of the 
workmanship. Carriages and other vehicles are also mannf ^i^ 
tared by the natives afler tlie European fashion. 

Boat and sliip-building is an art in which the Javans ai 
tolerably well versed, particularly the former. The latter 
confined principally to those districts in which the Europeai 
have built ships, for the Javans have seldom attempted tl 
constniclion of square-rigged vessels on their own accoun 
'llio best cari)ontcrs for ship-building are found in tlie distric 
oi Rnnhdttg diixA Gresiky but small native vessels and boa 
are continually constnicted by the natives in almost erei 
district along tlic north coast. 

When the quantity of teak timber, and tlie advantages i 
Java in resi)ect of ]>orts and harbours, are considered, ll 
most Haltering ])ros]>rcts are held out, that this Islan 



PAPER. 105 

y, in time, be able to supply shipping to an increasing 
ctmmerce of its own, and perhaps aid the dock-yards of other 
Hales. 

Among the articles, the making of which may be interesting 
Id Emropeans, from the difference of the materials used or the 
yrocess employed, is that of paper. The paper in common 
mB with the Javans is prepared from the (j^luga (moms papy- 
lAna) which is cultivated for this purpose, and generally 
eaDed the deluwangj or paper tree. Having arrived at the 
age of two or three years, the young trees are cut while the 
btik easily peels off, and the fragments are portioned about 
twdve or eighteen inches in length, according to the intended 
ttze of the paper. These fragments are first immersed in 
water about twenty-four hours, in order that the epidermes 
may be separated ; this being effected, the fibrous tissue of 
ihe inner bark is rendered soft and tractable by soaking in 
water, and by long and repeated beating with apiece of wood. 
Doling the intervals of this process, the firagments of the bark 
are piled in heaps in wooden troughs, and the affusion of fresh 
water is repeated till all impurities are carried off. The sepa- 
Tate portions, which are about two or three inches broad, are 
flien attached to each other on a plane surface, generally 
formed by the trunk of a plantain tree, and the union of the 
fibres is finally effected by continued beating. The quality 
of the paper depends upon the care employed in the prepara- 
tion, and on the frequent affusion of fresh water. By apply- 
ing successive layers to the spots which are bare firom the 
defect of the fibres, and beating them tiU they unite, an uni- 
hrm thickness is attained. The paper which is intended for 
writing is momentarily immersed in a decoction of rice, and 
lendered smooth and equal, by being rubbed to a polish on a 
plane surface. Such paper as is intended for common do- 
mestic purposes, for packing goods, &c. does not require this 
operation : in this the fibrous contexture of the bark is quite 
obvious ; it much resembles a species of paper brought from 
Japan, and manufactured from the same tree, and was for- 
merly employed instead of cloth by the poorer inhabitants. The 
process of manufacturing is strikingly like that in use among 
the inhabitants of the South Sea Islands, for the preparation 
of their cloth. The cultiu^e of this plant, as well as the manu- 

o 2 



196 2iUGAIU-ARRACK. 

facture of paper, is chiefly confined to particular distri* 
where it forms tlie principal occupation of the priests, n 
gain a livelihood by it. 

Large quantities of a coarse and homely sugar, dist 
guislied by the name of Javan sugar, are prepared from t 
cocoa-nuty dreiiy and other palms. The average quantity 
liquor extracted from one of these trees during a day a 
nighty is about two quarts, and this is estimated to give fn 
three to four ounces of sugar. The trees begin to yidd 
at about six or seven years of age, and continue to do so 1 
ten or twelve years. The process of preparing the sugar 
extremely simple : it consists merely in boiling the liquor 
an earthen pot for a few hours, and afterwards pouring it ii 
smaU cases made of leaves and prepared for the purpose, 
which, when cool, it attains a due consistence. 

Sugar from the cane is manufactured by the Chinese alon 
the process followed resembles that of the West Indies. T 
juice is cxpfessed between two rollers, sometimes turned bj 
water-wheel ; but in all cases the machinery is rude and i 
perfect The quality of the sugar made on Java is considei 
to be equal to that of Manilla and the West Indies : it cc 
tains as much of the saccharine principle as the latter, and 
brought to a drier state. It difiers from the sugar of Beng 
as much in its quality as in the mode of preparing it, but c 
be brought to market at about the same price. Considera] 
quantities are sent to the Malabar coast, but the principal < 
portation is to Japan and Europe. 

The manufactory' of Batavian arrack, the superior quality 
which is well known, is also conducted by the Chinese : 1 
])roccss is as foUows : About seventy pounds of ketan (glv 
nous rice) is heaped up in a small vat ; round this heap 
I)i1e one hundred cans of water are poured, and on the 1 
twenty cans of molasses. After remaining two days in tl 
vat, the in^cdicnts are shifted to a larger vat adjoining, wb 
they receive the addition of four hundred cans of water a 
one hundred cans of molasses. 

'llius far tlic ]nocess is carried on in tlie open air. Ii 
se])urate vat witliin doors, forty cans of palm wine or tod 
from the cocoa-nut tree, lure immediately mixed iiith ni 
hundred cans of water and one hundred and fifty cans of n 



SALT. 197 

Both preparations being allowed to remain in this 
tiate for two days, the former of these preparations is carried 
to a still larger vat within doors, and the latter being in a vat 
placed above, is poured upon it, through a hole bored for the 
pnpose near the bottom. In this state the preparation is 
iBowed to ferment for two days, when it is poured into small 
Mrthen jars, containing about twenty cans each, in which 
it remains for the further period of two days : it is then 
Alined. 

The liquor drops into a tin vessel under ground, from whence 
it is ladled into receiving vessels. This is the third or com- 
mon sort of arrack, which by a second distillation in a smaller 
stiQ, with the addition of a small quantity of water, becomesi 
ike second sort, and by a third distillation, what is called the 
first sort The third or common sort is called by the Chinese 
nchewy the second tdnpOy and the first kiji^ the two latter 
being distinguished as aixack dpi. When cooled, it is poured 
into large vats in the store-houses, where it remains till it is 
convenient to put it into casks. 

Hie whole process, therefore, to the completion of the first 
lort, does not require more than ten days, six hours being 
sufficient for the original preparation to pass through the first 
ttilL The receivers of the stills are of copper, and the worm 
consists of about nine turns of Banka tin. 

The proof of sufficient fermentation is obtained by placing 
ft lighted taper about six inches above the surface of the liquor 
in the fermenting vat ; if the process is sufficiently advanced, 
the fixed air rises and extinguishes the light. 

To ascertain the strength of the spirit, a small quantity of 
it is burnt in a saucer, and the residuum measured. The dif- 
ference between the original quantity and the residuum gives 
the measure of the alcohol lost. 

Among the most important manufactures of Java, both 
viewed in its relation to the comforts of the inhabitants and 
the interests of the revenue, is that of salt. In almost every 
comitry it is an indispensable commodity, but particularly 
where the people subsist on a vegetable diet, as in India and 
the Eastern Islands; and wherever government has seen it 
necessary, it has been converted into a source of taxation. 

Nearly the whole of the north-east coast of Java and Md- 



198 SALT. 

dura abounds with places well calculated for its man 
lure, and unfit for any other useful purpose. The quanti 
ready manufactured has for many years exceeded the den 
both for home consumption and exportation, and might I 
creased ahnost ad libitum. 

On Java the principal salt-pans are situated at PdkiSy h 
ncinity of Batavia ; at Bavtamy CheriboUy Tegal; at Wi 
and Brdhang^ in the Semdrang districts; at Parades 
Renihung ; 'dt Seddgu, Gresiky andSimdmi; on Madm 
Sdmpangy Pamdkasan^ and Simenap. Salt is also mani 
tured at several places along the south-coast, but of ini 
quality, and by a dilTerent process. About two hundred 
are annually procured in the interior, from the BlidegSj a 
ready described. The principal supply, however, is firoD 
north-coast, where the quality of the salt, and the facility 
which it can be manufactured, give it a decided advanta| 
demand and cheapness. 

The process of manufacturing the salt on the norih-coi 
very simple, and depending on evaporation by the heat o 
sun alone, may be favourably contrasted with the com] 
tivcly expensive process adopted in the Bengal provii 
Resen^oirs are filled firom the sea at high tide, and in 1 
the water is allowed to remain for several days ; this l 
found ncccssan' to prevent the salt firom being bitter. 
tlion conveyed by means of canals and sluices to the j 
wliich are distributed in compartments and banked in, s 
to contain the sea- water, much in the same manner as the 
fields. If tlie weather be dry and the sun clear, five dayi 
found sufficient for the process of evaporation in the p 
after which the salt is collected together in heaps, wbc 
usually remains five days longer before it is brought into s 

Under the Dutch government, tlie manufacture of salt 
fanned out to Chinese as an exclusive privilege ; and to t 
farms, under tlie plea of enabling tlie farmer to comma 
sufficient number of hands for conducting his undertal 
an<l enabling him to make his advances to government, en 
sive tracts of rice land were attached, over tlie popidatio 
which the farmer was allowed unlimited authority. By a 
tinned extension of these tracts, a population far more m 
rous than the work at Uie salt-pans required was wrested ] 



SALT. 199 

the administration of the regents and transferred to the 
Clunese : as they found their advantage in renting out the rice- 
fields, and employing the people in the transport of goods and 
oOier laborious offices of the country , the farms of course sold 
Sx more money. Under this system, it is difficult to say what 
was the actual cost of the salt to the farmer: the manufacturers 
were partly remunerated in land and partly in money, and the 
mode varied in every district ; but this remuneration seldom 
UBOimded to more than a bare subsistence. 

It was the practice of these farmers-general to underlet to 
other Chinese the privilege of selling salt, supplying them with 
the article at a certain rate, and these under-farmers sold the 
salt again to the petty retailers in the public markets at an ad- 
TSDced price. The price of the salt, after passing through the 
hands of the farmers, varied not only according to the distance 
from the place of manufacture, but according to the capital 
and q)eculation of the under-farmer ; if he adopted the liberal 
sjstem of obtaining small profits upon a large sale, the market 
wag abundantly supplied at a low rate ; but if, on the contrary, 
he traded on a small capital, and enhanced the price by in- 
^ciently answering the demand, the price became propor- 
tionaDy exorbitant. In some places, as at Saldtiga and 
Vn^arangy through which the salt was transported by inland 
carnage to the poptdous districts of the interior, the price was 
Bometunes as high as one hundred and twenty, and even one 
( bondred and forty Spanish dollars per kOyanj while along the 
coast, as at Cheribon and Stirabdya, it was as low as thirty, 
and at GrSsik twenty-five. The average in the year 1818, 
when the farming system was abolished, may be taken, one 
district with another, at about fifty-seven Spanish dollars the 
kdganj or rather less than thirty dollars per ton. 

The quantity usually calculated for the annual consump- 
tion of Java and Madura^ including about one thousand 
kdyang estimated to be manufactured in the native provinces, 
is sixteen thousand k&yans^ or thirty-two thousand tons. Un- 
der the arrmigements now adopted for the manufacture and 
sale of this article, the average rate at which the manufac- 
turers are paid is about six rupees the kdyan^ including the 
charges of transport to the dep6ts, and the sale price varies 
from twenty -five to thirty-five Spanish dollars, according to 



200 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY. 

the distance from the principal depots ; an adequate 
by means of smaUcr depots is insured in every part 
country. 

The salt of Java exported to the other islands of the 
pelago, competes with that of Siam and the Coromande 
and generally supersedes it, both on account of its qua] 
cheapness. 'Die exportation is free to all places excej 
gal, where, on account of its interference with the mc 
there established, it has, since the conquest of Java, bee 
necessary to prohibit its importation under penalty of 
cation. 

The salt of the south coast being maniactured by a ; 
which is much more expensive than that employed 
north, and at the same time being inferior in quality, it 
consumed in places which tlie latter is prevented from 
ing by the difficulty of conveyance or inland tolls and 
bitions ; and it has consequently been calculated, t] 
north coast salt, if allowed to pass toll free through the c 
would in a short time supersede that from the south 
ther. The inferior quality of tlie latter is caused by th< 
tity of the sulphate of magnesia it contains, which rei 
by its bitterness unpleasant for culinary purposes. 

Of late years, the value of the manufacturing industr 
country' may be in some degree appreciated from the ase 
it has afforded to the European government, when, in 
quence of the war, tlie importation of European artic 
become insufficient for the public service. Broad el 
being procurable for tlie army, a kind of coarse cottoi 
was manufactured by the Javans, with which the who] 
was clotlied. At Semdrang were established five o 
manufactories, having seventy or eighty looms each, 
two of them made cotton lace, and supplied the army 
with epaulets, shoulder-knots, tassels, &c. There we 
wise manufactures of cotton stockings, tape, fringes, cai 
boxes, sword-belts, saddles, bridles, &c. and in shor 
thing that coidd be required for the dress and accoutr 
of both cavalry and infantry. 

Under (European superintendants were established « 
works, powder-mills, foundries for shells, shot, anvi 
and manufactories of swords and small arms ; and wli 



SALTPETRE. 201 

added, that the French goTemment found means, within the 
the resources of Java alone, to equip an army of not less than 
fifteen thousand effective men, besides a numerous mihtia in 
ereiy district, and that, with the exception of a few European 
sapenntendants in the more scientific works, all the articles 
were manufactured and supplied by the natives, it is not ne- 
cessary to adduce any further proof of the manufacturing ability 
(^the country. 

Saltpetre is obtained in many parts of the island, and gun- 
powder has long been manufactured by the native inhabitants. 
A sal^>etre manufactory was established near Gresiky under 
the superintendance of European officers, which it was calcu- 
lated would furnish annually two thousand pikuls of that ar- 
ticle to government, at the rate of eight rix-dollars per pikuly 
of one hundred and thirty-three pounds English. The im- 
portance of this estabUshment is manifest in the following ob- 
Sf^ations of Colonel Mackenzie. 

" I considered that one day would be usefiilly employed in 

" viewing the saltpetre works, which a very few years back 

^ had been established here, at the risk, and by the zeal and 

** ingenuity of private individuals,with the view of supplying 

^ this colony with that necessary ingredient for gunpowder. 

*'The best sulphur is supplied from a mountain near the 

^ straits of Bali. For further details of these mines ; of the 

^ manner in which the nitre is obtained, by an ingenious ap- 

^ pUcation of the latest European improvements in chemistry ; 

^ of the sulphureous crater of the mountain, whence the sul- 

^* phur, in its utmost purity, is supplied ; of the reports of the 

" French engineers, last year, on the improvement of the gun- 

*' powder of Java ; of the wood selected for the best charcoal, 

'* and of the present state of the manufactory and powders-mills 

" at Semdrangj I must refer, at present, to several papers col- 

" lected by me on this subject, which may be usefully appli- 

'* cable to our manufactures of gunpowder in India. Passing 

*' over these and other considerations, I shall only observe, that 

*' of these mines, one of them is cut in caverns into the soft 

^^ white calcareous rock ; and another, more regularly designed, 

" supported by pillars or masses of the native rock, covers re- 

" gularly formed beds of the native earth, which being impreg- 

" nated with the native nitre, saturated with the evacuation of 



QO-2 TEAK TIMBER. 

^' tlie numerous bats that haunt these cavezns, and mixed with 
" a compoimd of wood ashes, supplies the liquid that ifi boiled 
^* in largo kettles, and aflerwanls left to cool and ciystaUizc. 
'' 'J he whole process is carried on, in a regular mamiery under 
^^ the direction of the first executor of this really grand woric, 
" who now resides at Surabaya *." 

The labour of felling the teak trees and transporting the tim- 
ber from the forests, gives cm])loyment to a veij- considerable 
population, who are distinguished from those employed in other 
avocations, by the term of bldndang people, or foresters. The 
teak timber was formerly delivered to the government as a con- 
tingent, by the regents of those districts in which the principal 
forests were situated, the quantit}' being regulated according to 
the sup]>osed extent of the different forests, and the means of 
cutting and transporting the wood. Previously to the year 
1808, the amount of this annual contingent was eight thousand 
eight hundred beams of different sizes, according to the wants 
of tlie public sen-ice, of which more than three thousand were 
delivered from the central forests o( Remhang, 

Tlie cutting and dragging of tlie timber delivered in contin- 
gent was performed by the inhabitants of the villages adjacent 
to the forests,and tlie buffaloes required were left to be provided 
by the regents. For this scn-ice, in the Rembing districts, 
four hundred cutters and labourers, and four hundred and 
twelve pair of buffaloes, were appropriated for the supply of 
three thousand one hundred beams annually, a p roportion 
which varied in the other districts, only according to the dis- 
tance of the forest from the timber yard on the coast, where 
payment was made for timber on deliver}', at the rate of sixteen 
pence for cutting and conve^nng a beam of from eighteen to 
twenty feet long and from nine to ten inches brood, forty-eight 
stivers for a beam of from thirty-one to thirty-six feet long and 
from thirteen to fifleen inches broad, and for others in propor- 
tion. Ill is was the regular and only payment made for the 
contingent timber ; but when the demands of government ex- 
ceeded the fixed contingent, which was generally tlie case, the 
rxcesK was paid for at an advance of fifty per cent, on these 
})rices. Crooked and other timber for ship-building was paid 

* Journal of Colonel Mackeniie» 1812. 



TEAK TIMBER. 20S 

tf at about the same rate, but calculated according to a fixed 
taUe by the weight 

Under this system, the regents rented out many of the vil- 
lages adjoining the forests to individuals, and sold, on their own 
iccount, such timber as was not of proper quality to be deli-^ 
reied to government. As the demands of government increased, 
as well as those of the European residents, who were many of 
tiiem coDcemed in ship-building and in the sale of timber, the 
forests near the coast were soon exhausted of their best timber, 
and as it became necessary for the cutters to go further into the 
interior, the labour and expense increased, but without any 
corresponding recompense to them, for the government never 
nised the price. Individuals, however, did so ; and the conse- 
quence was, that government finding no regulations they could 
Bake for the internal management of the forests sufficient to 
ensure them an adequate supply, were contented to believe that 
a greater quantity than was actually fiimished could not be cut 
without injury to the forests ; although, at that very time, the 
delireries to individuals in the eastern districts were estimated 
at not less than fifty or sixty thousand beams per annum, the 
coast was lined with Java-built trading vessels of every de- 
scription, and these, as well as the rough timber, were fre- 
quently sent for sale to a distant market. 

In the year 1808, however, in common with all the other 
departments on the island, this important one was newly orga- 
liized by Marshal Daendels, who placing the highest value on 
the forests, and determining to prevent the abuses which had 
previously existed, removed all the population which had for- 
merly been engaged in the forests in the different parts of the 
idand from the controul of the native regent, as well as the 
local European authority, and placed them, with the villages 
and lands to which they were attached, imder a separate 
board or administration for the forest department This change 
effectually secured government in the monopoly, and suc- 
ceeded in the prevention of the abuses which had formerly 
existed : but in the degree that it had this effect, it also 
operated to the serious injury of general commerce and the 
domestic comfort of the inhabitants ; for every one was now 
obliged to buy the timber from government, at a high mono- 
poly rate fixed by general regulation, and the timber could 

9 



204 TEAK TIMBER. 

only be obtained in comparatively small quantities, seldom of 
the dimensions required, and only at the fixed staples. Ship- 
building, and even boat-building, which had before been car- 
rie<l to the greatest extent along the whole coast, was discon- 
tinued, and the cottage of the native, which had formerly co»t 
a few rupees, now cost ten times the amount if built of de- 
sirable materials. 

Under the administration of the Board of Forest, whose re- 
sidence was fixed at Semdranffy and who were altogether 
independent of the local authorities, was now placed a popu- 
lation of nearly one hundred thousand souls, exclusively de- 
voted to the labours of the forests ; and as no revenue had 
been given up by the arrangement, and a small annual deliveiy 
of iron, salt, and gimpowder, to the foresters, was the only 
payment made, considerable profit was expected to result 
from it to the government. It was found, however, after the 
establishment of the British government, that the timber which 
had been cut, and of which there was an immense quantity on 
hand, was not of a description required for the building 
of coasting vessels, and could not compete in Bengal with that 
of Pegu, without such a reduction in the monopoly price, as 
added to the loss occasioned by so large a proportion of the 
population, who were set apart for this duty and contributed 
notliiug else to the revenue, the extent of the establishment 
necessary to enable the government to be the sole timber 
merchant, and the abuses connected with it, would amount to 
more tlian all the profits that had been calculated on. The 
coasting trade was perishing for want of vessels, and the forest 
department was a losing concern. Under these circumstances, 
it was judged expedient to include the population of the Blan^ 
do/ff/s in the general arrangements for the release of the 
])easantr>' from feudal bondage, and the establishment of a 
fixed rent from the land, in lieu of all ser^'ices and paj-ment 
fonnerlv rendered. 

The poo])le who lived near tlie forests, and had long been 
in the habit of cutting and dragging Uie timber, still however 
continued in this employment, an annual contract being made 
with tliem for their services in the forests, in remuneration for 
which a remissi(m of rent was granted. The largest and most 
valuable forests are, under this system, resen-ed for the exclu- 



TEAK TIMBER. 205 

sire use of goyernment ; others of less value, and the limits of 
wliich can oe easily defined, have, in consideration of a recog- 
nition of ten per cent, ad valorem on the timber when worked 
vp^ been thrown open to individuals engaged in ship-building, 
who generally contract with the people of the adjoining vil- 
lages, to cut and deliver the timber at fixed prices : a mode 
which has also been occasionaUy resorted to by government, 
especially for the inferior and small kinds of timber, shingles, 
pipe staves, &c. which are allowed to be cut iu particular 
fiirests. 

The industry which has been excited by opening these faci- 
lities in procuring timber, and the impetus which it has 
afforded to trade, may be estimated by this fact, that within 
the last few years have been launched no less than ten to 
twelve square-rigged vessels, of firom one hundred and fifty to 
four hundred tons, and that many more of larger dimensions 
were about to be built, when the restoration of the colony was 
announced* 

It need hardly be observed, that due precautions have been 
taken for the preservation and renovation of the valuable 
forests, which so far firom being exhausted, are capable of 
supplying besides crooked and compass timber for ship-build- 
ing, forty or fifty thousand beams in the year without injury. 
European overseers are appointed, and one general superin- 
tendent is placed over the whole. 

As illustrative of the importance attached to these forests 
by the Dutch, and of the capabilities of the island for ship- 
building, it may not be uninteresting to annex an extract firom 
Mr. Hogendorp's appeal to the authorities in Holland on this 
subject.* 

* *' fiatavians ! be amazed ! hear with wonder what I have to com- 
** municate. Our fleets are destroyed, our trade languishes, our naviga- 
'* tion is going to ruin — ^we purchase with immense treasures, timber and 
** other materials for ship-building from the northern powers, and on Java 
" we leave warlike and mercantile squadrons standing with their roots in 
" the ground. Yes, the forests of Java have timber enough to build a 
** respectable navy in a short time, besides as many merchant ships as we 
** require. Hemp would grow as well as in Bengal, and as labour is as 
" cheap in Java, we may consequently presume that it would require little 
" trouble to establish manufactures of canvas and cordage there in a 
*• short time. But, at any rate, Java already produces at a very low price 



QOi} ThMBER. 

The Blandofig people or foresters are generally employei 
ill cutting or in dragging timber during eight months out c 
the twelve, but they are obliged to watch the forests the whol 
year through : they are regularly relieved, and half the work 
iiig men are at all times left disposeable for the lice fieldi 
llie Blandoftg people have always been accustomed to tfa 
work, and generally have their viUages near the princip^ 
forests. It is one of the advantages of the system of contract 
iiig with the people for land payments, that in emcrgcncic 
tlicy are ^villing to lend tlieir o^^-n buffaloes to assist those c 
government in dragging heavy timber, which could not b 
removed othcmise without great expence, while their childiei 
at other times watch and attend the cattle belonging to gc 

« cayar and gamuti cordage, which answers very well for cablen, bawten 
" and rigging. To build ships at Java for the mother countr)% it is on! 
** necessar}' to send out skilful and complete master-builders with a fr 
" ship carpenters ; for common workmen are to be had on Java in nun 
** l)er8, and at a very low rate, as a good Ja^-a carpenter may be hired i 
" five stivers a day. The princi])al objection that could be made is, thi 
" the shores of Java being very flat and level, are not well adapted fc 
" building, and still less for launching ships of heai'y burthens, but thi 
** difficulty may be easily overcome : on the islands before Bata\na, an 
particularly Brunt and Cooke's Island, wharfs, or even docks, may I 
constructed at little exi)ence. The same may be obser\'ed of one of th 
islands off Jaimra and at (iR'sik, besides many other places in the caster 
division, in the harbour which is formed by the isluid of Madeira, an 
which is sheltered from ever)' wind. 

*' llie resident of Remb&ng, and sometimes of Jawina, are almost th 
only I'2uroi)eans who build 6hi})s, for it is too difficult and dangerous fc 
others to undertake it, under the arbitrar}' government at present exis) 
ing in Ja\'a, imder which nothing can flourish or succeed. But tfa 
< 'hincse, who are favoured in every thing, are well an'are how to tor 
" this also to their own advantage, and to build a great number of vessel 
all along the coast, from fifteen to two hundred tons burthen, forwhic 
they get the timlMT almost for nothing, by means of renting the forei 
villages. It is easy to imagine, how these avaricious bloodsuckers us! 
the forests, and manage to get all they can out of them. In spite < 
all this, however, the forests of Jai-a grow as fast as they are cut, an 
would be inexhaustible under good care and management 
"At Uonibay, Surat, and Demaun, and other places along the cotit c 
Malabar, at Dengal, and at Pegu, the I'^nglish build many large and fin 
'* shipK, which last a length of time. es))ecially those of Bombay and Mi 
'* labar built, although 1 believe the wood produced there, however gooi 
•* is not e(|ual to the teak of Ja^*a.** 



4( 
<( 

• « 

• < 
C« 

<( 
<l 

• « 



<i 
«< 
<< 
«< 
<« 
<« 

«< 



TIMBER— FLSH£R1£S. 207 

▼emment. In short, the resources of the village are at the 

disposal of government, for a land payment considerably less 

than one-third of the expence of hired labourers, whom it 

Would be difficult to procure, and still more difficult, firom the 

character of the people, to retain in constant and unremitting 

cmplojrment. 

Under the system of granting remissions of rent, it has been 
calculated that in the districts ofSemdrangy where the assess- 
ment is comparatively high, on account of the vicinity to a 
large capital, a remission of eight rupees and a half, or about 
twenty shillings, being the average amount paid annually by 
each cultivator, government obtains a man's hard labour for 
mx, months of the year. But as the inhabitants of the same 
^village are generally accustomed to labour in the fields alter- 
nately, and thus to assist each other, it has been found ad- 
^risable to make the remissions of rent for the Blandongs to 
the village as a community^ in order to avoid the delay and 
endless vexation which would ensue, in adjusting the petty 
claims of each individual. 

In the maritime districts on the north-east side of the 
island, a very large proportion of the population is employed 
in the fisheries, and so moderate are the seasons, that except 
peifaaps for a few days at the change of the monsoon, they are 
^dom interrupted by the weather. 

The sea fish is taken either by the net, in stakes (undijy 
cr with the hook and line : the most considerable quantity is 
of course procured by means of the two former, generally dis- 
tinguished by the term mdyang^ whence prdhu mdyangy fish- 
ing boat. The whole apparatus of the hook and line is called 
fdnchinffy the usual term for angling among the Maldyus,, 
The fishing-boats quit the shore at about three or four o'clock 
in the morning, and are driven out by the land breeze beyond 
right before day-light. At about noon they are seen return- 
ing with the sea-breeze, and generally reach the shore by two 
in the afternoon. The stakes along the whole of the northern 
coast, wherever the banks and projecting land admit, are very 
extensive : they are often fixed in several fathom water, and 
constitute a very important property. They are usually closed 
in the night. 
Nets are principally made of rami, though sometimes of 



208 FISHERIES. 

gaddny^anj and even of cotton. They are steeped in an in- 
fusion, which not only darkens their colour, but is considered 
essentially to contribute to their strength. Fish that is not 
eaten or disposed of while fresh, is salted and dried in the 
sun, or smoke-dried at a short distance from a fire, and in 
that state forms an extensive article of internal commerce. 
Besides the abundance of fish thus obtained from the sea, ex- 
tensive tracts of countr}', salt marshes, and inlets of the sea, 
have in several parts of the island been converted into fish- 
ponds (tdmbaj. These ponds are to be found in most of the 
low maritime districts : those at Gresiky which are the most 
extensive, appear to have been first estabhshed during the 
visit of one of the early Mahomedan princes of the island in 
the fifteenth centmy. - The bdndeng is generally considered as 
the richest and highest-flavoured fish known in these seas: 
the young fry are taken in the sea, and transferred to these 
ponds, where they grow and fatten for seven months, when 
they are fit for the table. An annual supply of young fish 
from tlic sea is found necessar}' to keep up the stock in the 
tanks ; and, whether from a desire to raise the value of the 
fish so obtained in tliem, or othen^ise, the natives generaDy 
affinn, that the fish rarely attains its full size in the sea. The 
extent and value of these nurseries for the fish may be esti- 
mated from the rent paid for those at Gresikj which arc the 
proj)erty of government. 

The river fish are taken by a variety of methods : one is to 
tlirow a number of branches of trees into a deep part of the 
river ; here the fish collect : tliey are then surrounded by 
stakes, or tlie branches are taken out, and the fish easily 
caught ; tliis metliod is tenned rumpon. Bdmbu fences are 
sometimes tllro^\ll across the rivers at night, and so con- 
stniclcd that tlie fish are easily entrapped as they pass down 
the stream : this method is called pdsang ttdd&tig. The rivers 
and jH)ii(ls are frequently dragged by nets of dificrent sizes. 
Tlie cocttliis i/idiciis, and otlier intoxicating drugs, are some- 
times thrown into the river, after which tlie fish are foimd 
floating on the surface and easily taken ; this method, tenned 
////»f/, is prohibited on large rivers : when the fish are after- 
wards driven down the river by a number of men into a snaro 
laid below, the usual tenn is jdmprong. In the western dis- 



FISHERIES— PEARLS. 209 



y hictSy a fishing party of this description affords a very favour- 
r ite amusement on great occasions. A time is selected when 
the river is moderately low ; temporary stands made of the 
tranks of small trees or stout bdmbus are then thrown across, 
each consisting of three piles, fastened together at the top and 
expanding below, the bottoms being pointed so as to fix in 
the ground. On a small stage on each, just above the surface 
of the water, are piled a few stones, by which they are steadied 
while the current is allowed a firee course below. The piers 
' or stages thus formed, answer well for the construction of a 
temporary bridge over the rocky or stony bed of the most 
irregular river. A coarse matting, made of bdmbu or some 
other material, is then carried from one to the other, so as to 
shut the current in within a narrow space, across which a 
temporary platform and shed is thrown, with a sloping floor 
rising above the surface of the water, to where the party is 
assembled. The drug having been thrown into the river, a 
cxmsiderable distance higher up several hundred people now 
enter the river, and driving the half-intoxicated fish before 
them, they come floundering one after the other on the bdmbu 
stage, to the no small amusement of the party collected, fish 
of a considerable size Uterally jumping into their laps. On 
these occasions, when the entertainment is given to Europeans, 
a great concourse of people attend, a feast is prepared, and 
the wild and antic music and dance of the mountaineers, per- 
forming on the dnklang and rude drum, give great peculiarity 
and zest to the amusement Fish are sometimes struck at 
night by torch light, both at sea and in the rivers ; but this 
method is not very general. 

Pearls are obtained in the vicinity of BdnyuwdngHj where 
the privilege of fishing for them is farmed out by the year, as 
well as in the vicinity of Nusakanibdng'*any on the south side of 
the island ; but they are generally of the description called 
seed pearls, and of little value. 



VOL. I. 



CHAPTER V. 



Commerce — Advantageous Situation of Java for Commerci^ hUe r e omrm " 
Importance of Batavia in particular — Native 1\rade-^Roadg and bUamd 
Carriage — Markets — Influence of the Chinese — Coasting 'Drade'—Baports 
and Imports— Trade with the Archipelago— China^^Kamtsekatka — Wetterm 
India — Europe, Sfc. — Dutch Commercial Regulations — State qftheEmsUm 
Islands — Advantages which they possess — Causes of the XXpremcMi ^ tk§ 
Nations and Tribes which inhabit them — Japan Thade, 

From the importance which the Dutch, in the days of their 
greatness, attached to their East-India commerce, of which 
Batavia was the emporium, and the importance which this 
commerce conferred upon them, fix)m the desire excited in the 
other nations to obtain a share in its advantages, and the crimes 
committed to maintain its undivided monopoly, some idea may 
be formed of its magnitude and value. When the French 
troops, in the summer of 1672, under Liouis XIY. had OTemm 
the territory of Holland, with the rapidity and irresbtible jforce 
of the sea after bursting the dykes, the Republic formed the 
magnanimous resolution of transporting its wealth, its enter- 
prise, and its subjects to another hemisphere, rather than sub* 
mit to the terms of the conqueror, and fixed upon Batavia, 
already the seat of its eastern commerce, as the capital of its 
new empire. They could have found shipping in their own 
ports for the transport of fifty thousand families ; their countiy 
was inundated with the ocean, or in possession of the invader; 
their power and political importance consisted in their fleets 
and colonies ; and having been accustomed to maintain their 
naval superiority by the fruits of their eastern trade, and to 
buy tlie com of Europe with the spices of the Moluccas, they 
would have felt less from a removal of their seat of empire 
from tlie north of Europe to the south of Asia, than any people 
who ever contemplated a similar change ; while, at the same 
time, the very project of such an extraordinary emigration, and 



COMMERCE. 211 

the means they had of carrying it into effect, give us the highest 
ideas of the independent spirit inspired by their free govem- 
ment, and of their commercial prosperity, derived, in a great 
degree, fix)m their eastern establishments and connexions. 

The same advantages which the Europeans derived from 
the navigation of the Mediterranean, the inhabitants of the 
Malayan Archipelago enjoyed in a higher degree; and it can- 
not be doubted, that among islands lying in smooth and un- 
ruffled seas, inviting the sail or oar of the most timid and in- 
e]q)erienced mariner, an intercourse subsisted at a very early 
period. To this intercourse, and to the fertility of the soil of 
Java, which soon rendered it an agricultural country, must be 
attributed the high degree of civilization and of advancement 
m the arts, which, from the monuments of its progress which 
still exist, there is every reason to believe it once attained. 
In short, to adopt the expressions of Dr. Adam Smith, when 
speaking of a very different country *, Java, ^^ on account of 
" the natural fertility of its soil, of the great extent of its sea- 
^ coast in proportion to the whole of the country, and of the 
" number of its navigable rivers, affording the conveniency of 
** water carriage to some of its most inland parts, is conve- 
^ niently fitted by nature to be the seat of foreign commerce, 
^ of manufactures for sale to the neighbouring countries, and 
*^ of all the improvements which these can occasion.^' 

But thou^ there can be little doubt that Java very early 
emerged from barbarism, and rose to great commercial prospe- 
li^, to determine the precise time at which these events took 
place is perhaps impossible ; and to approach the solution of 
the question would involve an inquiry that will be better re- 
served till we come to treat of its languages, institutions, and 
antiquities. If, in the consideration of these topics, it should 
be made to appear, that, in very remote ages, these regions 
were civilized firom Western India, and that an extensive 
Hindu empire once existed on Java, it will be reasonable to 
infer a commercial intercourse still earlier than the communi- 
cation of laws and improvement. 

In the remarkable account of the rich commodities conveyed 
to ancient Tyre, it would appear that there were many articles 

* Great Britain. 

r-2 



212 COMMERCE. 

the peculiar produce of the Malayan States ; and in that g^ven 
by Strabo of the importations into Egypt, cloves, which we 
know to be the exclusive produce of the Moluccas, are ex- 
pressly mentioned. The same taste for the fine kinds of spices, 
and the same desire to obtain them, which prompted Euro- 
pean nations successively to make themselves masters of these 
islands, must in all probability have operated, in a very re- 
mote period, on the merchants of Hindustan, and even of 
coimtries lying farther to the westward, who had already 
found their way into tlic gold regions ; and if the hypotheas, 
which places Mount Ophir on Sumatra or the peninsula of 
Malacca, cannot be maintained, it will at any rate be ad- 
mitted, that previously to the discovery of America, no country 
was known more rich in gold than the Malayan Islands, and 
that, on tliat account, they were peculiarly attractive to fo- 
reigners, who could not be supplied from any other quarter. 

ITie Arabs, it is known, had in the ninth century, if not 
long previously, made themselves acquainted uiith these 
countries; and the Chinese, if we may trust the Javan 
aimals, had visited Java at the same period. According to 
Kempfer, the Maldyus in former times had by far the greatest 
trade in tiie Indies, and frequented, with their vessels, not 
only all the coasts of Asia, but even ventured to the shores of 
Africa, and particularly to the great island of Madagascar; 
" for," adds this autlior, " John de Barros in his Decades, 
^^ and Flaccourt in his History of Madagascar, assures us, 
that the language spoken by the inhabitants of that large 
African island is full of Javan and Malayan words: sub- 
sisting proofs of the commerce with these two nations, 
about two thousand years ago the richest and most pow- 
" crful of Asia, had carried on with Madagascar, where they 
'* had settled in great numbers." 

Wliatever credit we may attach to tliesc statements and 
inferences, rcsj)ccting the commerce of these islands before 
they were visited by Europeans in the fifleenth century, it is 
certiiin that, at this j)eriod, an extensive trade was estabUshcd 
at Malacca, Acheen, and Bantam, then the great emporiums 
of the Eastern Archipelago. Hitlier the rich produce of 
Sumatra, Borneo, and the Moluccas, was conveyed in the 
small trading craft of the country, and exchanged for the 



« 



€C 



COMM£RC£. 213 

produce of India and China. These ports were then filled 
with Fessels from every maritime state of Asia, firom the Red 
Sea to Japan. The Portuguese, who preceded the Dutch in 
India, and who had fixed upon Goa^ on the coast of Malabar, 
as the capital of their eastern settlements, selected Malacca 
as the most convenient station for conducting and protecting 
their trade with the islands, and erected it into a secondary 
capital. The Dutch finding this desirable station pre- 
occupied, and being foiled in their attempts to dislodge their 
rirals, first established a commercial settlement at Bantam, 
and subsequently subdued by force of arms the neighbouring 
province of JakatrUy (or Jokdrta)^ on which, as will be after- 
wards mentioned, they built the fortress, the city, and the 
port of Batavia. 

Nor was it without reason that they selected this spot for 
fte capital of their new empire. " What the Cape of Good 
Hope is,*' says Adam Smith, " between Europe and every 
part of the East Indies, Batavia is between the principal 
countries in the East Indies. It lies upon the most fre- 
quented road firom Hindustan to China and Japan, and 
is nearly about midway on that road. Almost all the ships, 
too, that sail between Europe and China, touch at Batavia ; 
and it is, over and above all this, the centre and principal 
mart of what is called the country trade of the East Indies, 
** not only of that part of it which is carried on by Europeans, 
** but of that which is carried on by the native Indians, and 
** vessels navigated by the inhabitants of China and Japan, 
** of Tonquin, of Malacca, of Cochin China, and the Island 
** of Celebes, are frequently to be seen in its port. Such ad- 
** vantageous situations have enabled these two colonies to 
** surmount all the obstacles which the oppressive genius of 
** an exclusive company may have occasionally opposed to 
** their growth : they have enabled Batavia to surmount the 
** additional disadvantage, of perhaps the most unwholesome 
** cUmate in the world." 

It would be as diflScult to describe in detail the extent of 
the commerce enjoyed by Java*, at the period of the esta- 

♦ It is said that when the Dutch first established themselves in Java, 
three hundred vessels of not less than two hundred tons each, were accus- 
tomed to sail to and from the port of Jap&ra, in Java, if not belonging to 
that port. 



214 COMMERCIAL STATE. 

blishment of the Dutch in the eastern seas^as itwould be painful 
to point out how far, or to show in what manner, that com- 
merce was interfered with, checked, changed in its character, 
and reduced in its importance, by the influence of a withering 
monopoly, the rapacity of avarice armed with power, and the 
short-sighted tyranny of a mercantile administration. To 
convey an idea of the maritime strength of the native princes 
anterior to this date, as giving a criterion by which to judge 
of the trade of their subjects, it may be sufficient to state that 
warlike expeditions, consisting of many hundred vessels, are 
often reported to have been fitted out against Borneo, Su- 
matra, and the peninsida. In the art of ship-building, how- 
ever, they do not appear to have advanced beyond the con- 
struction of that sort of vessel adapted to the navigation 
of their own smooth seas, and now to be met with in all their 
ports and harbours ; nor do they seem to have had any know- 
ledge of maritime geography beyond the shores of their own 
Archipelago, and the information which they gained from the 
reports of the Arabs, or the traditions of their own more 
adventurous ancestors. This circumstance would lead us to 
infer that the trade of Java was carried on chiefly in foreign 
vessels, and through the enterprize of foreign adventurers. 
The habits of the people had become agricultural ; they had 
nearly deserted an element which they had no powerftil 
temptation to traverse, and on which they could reap little, 
compared with what they could draw firom the fertility of their 
own territory'. Leaving therefore their ports to be filled, and 
their commodities to be carried away by the MaldjfU9, the 
BUgifty the Indians, the Chinese, and the Arabs, they for the 
most part contented themselves with enjoying the advantages 
of a trade, in which they inciured no chance of loss; and 
thus, though their o>\'n country yielded neither gold nor 
jewels, they are said to have been plentifully supplied with 
these and otlier valuable articles on their own shores, in 
cxchtuigc for tlie produce of their tranquil industry and their 
fertile soil. Tliis kind of traffic was almost entirely anni- 
hilated, or at least verj- much diverted fix)m its ancient course, 
by the restrictive system of Dutch colonial policy. Some 
branches of it were, it must be allowed, partially encouraged 
by the influx of European capital and the demand for par- 
*cular articles which bear a high price in the European 



COMMERCIAL STATE. 215 

market ; but this was an inadequate compensation for the loss 
of that commerce, which may be said to be as much the 
growth of the country as any of its indigenous plants. In 
Older to show to what insignificance it was reduced under 
Dutch oppression, and what tendency it has to improve under 
a better sjrstem, it is only necessary to compare its state 
during the latter years of the Dutch government, before the 
blockade, and afterwards during the short interval of British 
administration. For the first of these purposes, I have drawn, 
in the introduction to this woik, a short sketch of the condition 
of the Dutch East India Company, for a considerable period 
previous to our arrival; and I now proceed to give some 
account of the external and internal trade of Java, as it 
existed at tlie time when we restored it to its former 
masters. 

The extent of this commerce, since the 'establishment of 
the British government, and since a greater freedom of trade 
has been allowed, may, for a want of a better criterion, 
be estimated fi'om the amount of tonnage employed since the 
beginning of the year 1812, at which period the operations 
of the military expedition had ceased, and the transports were 
discharged. 

In the year 1812, the number of square-rigged vessels 
which entered the port of Batavia amounted to 239, and their 
aggregate tonnage to 48,290 tons, and in the same year the 
native craft amounted to 455 vessels, or 7,472 tons, or together 
55,762 tons. The quantity cleared out during the same year 
was 44,613 tons of shipping, and 7,762 of native craft, 
making together 52,375. 

In the year 1813, the number of square-rigged vessels was 
288, and the tonnage 51,092, the native craft amounting to 
796 vessels, or 13,214 tons, or together 64,306 tons. 

In 1814, three hundred and twenty-one ships, or 63,564 
tons, cleared out with 568 native vessels, or 9,154 tons, 
shewing the total tonnage of Batavia during this year to 
have amounted to 72,718 tons. 

The returns for the following year have not been received, 
but they are estimated to exceed either of the two former 
years, and not to have fSsdlen much short of one hundred 
thousand tons ; and it may be noticed, that during one year 
after the first accounts were received of the successes of the 



216 COMMERCIAL STATE. 

allied armies against France, no less than thirty-two ships, 
measuring fifteen thousand tons, cleared out, and earned 
cargoes, Uie produce of Java, to the London market. 

The average annual tonnage which cleared out firom the 
port of Surabdyay for the three last years, amounted to about 
thirty thousand tons, and the native tonnage trading to the 
neighboiuing port of Gr^sik is estimated to have even ex- 
ceeded that quantity. 

At the small port of S'&menap, situated at the east end uf 
Madtiray which is a principal resort for the native trade, the 
tonnage which cleared out was 

Small prahus and vessels. Tmmage. 

For 1812 3,705 15,230 

1813 4,752 33,769 

And the estimated value of the same, 

Imports. Exports. 

For 1812 Rupees 625,628 Rupees 396,820 

1813 740,080 492,020*. 

The value of the imports and exports of Semdrang, on 
which duties were actually collected at that port, were 

Imports, Exports, 

For 1812 Rupees 555,044 Rupees 167,101 

1813 1,530,716 985,709 

1814 686,330 549,038 

Tlie native tonnage which cleared from Rembdng was as 

follows : 

In 1812 862 vessels or 8,058 tons. 

1813 1,095 ditto 8,657 

1814 1,455 ditto 12,935 

The trade from the other minor ports was inconsiderablci 
the efl'cct of the regulations passed in 1813 being yet hardly 
felt. From Pakalungan the tonnage which cleared was for 
1812, 5,962 tons, and for 1813, 4,679 tons, the imports being 
about 150,000 nipees, and the exports 300,000 rupees in each 
year; from Te(jal for 1812, 2,445 tons, and for 1813, 1,926 

• Tlie greatest part, or rather nearly the whole of theec exports and 
imports, consisted of colonial produce, of articles of subsistence, or native 
nianufacturcfl, mutually exchanged between the two islands of Maddra and 
Java. Not a tenth i)art of the imports came from beyond Java. 



\ 



!^ 3 



COMMERCIAL STATE. 217 

Ions, the imports being about IH),000, and the exports about 
60,000 rupees in each year. 

The amount of tonnage which touched at Anyer^ on the 
way through the Straits of Sunday to and from Europe, Africa, 
aad America, was 

In 1812 ^ 73 ships 29,460 

1813 73 87,546 

1814.; 125 56,942 

By an official return made in March 1816, it appears that 
the total quantity of tonnage in vessels boarded on their pas- 
sage through the Straits of Siinday amounted in 1812 to 
45,000 tons; in 1813, to 56,000 tons; in 1814, to 64,000 
tons; and in 1815, to 130,000 tons; to which, adding a third 
for vessels which passed without being boarded, the whole 
amount of tonnage for these four years, would be 390,000, the 
quantity in the fourth of these years being nearly triple that 
of the first 

The commerce of Java may be considered under the two 
general divisions of the native and the European, the former 
including the internal and coasting trade, with that of the 
Malayan Archipelago in general; the latter comprehending 
that carried on by Europeans and Americans with India, 
China and Japan, Africa, America, and Europe. 

Java has already been described as a great agricultural 
country. It has long been considered as the granary of the 
Eastern Islands. 

The southern coast is for the most part inaccessible, and 

seldom visited by traders ; but along the north coast there axe 

no less than thirteen principal ports, besides numerous other 

mtermediate and less considerable ones, frequented by native 

vessels at all seasons of the year. Many of these are sheltered, 

and form safe harbours in all weather, as Bantam, Batama, 

Rembdng, Gresik, and Surabaya, Even where the vessels 

lie in an open roadstead, the wind is seldom sufficiently strong 

to render the anchorage unsafe. Several of the rivers are 

navigable for many miles into the interior, and most of them 

are capable of receiving native vessels into the heart of the 

\oyfTk, through which they generally run; but the rivers of 

Java, as well as those of the eastern coast of Sumatra and the 

western coast of Borneo, are for the most part obstructed at 



218 NATIVE TRADE. 

their entrance by extensive bars, which preclude the admission 
of vessels of any very considerable burthen. Hers have been 
run out in many places, to remedy this inconvenience ; bat in 
consequence of the quantity of soil annually carried down, 
the bars or banks are continually increasing, and in some 
places, as at Tegalj have nearly blocked up the communica- 
tion between the rivers and the sea. 

The produce and manufactures of the country are conveyed 
firom one district to another and to these maritime capitals, 
either by water or land carriage. The principal navigable 
rivers to the westward, are those which disembogue them- 
selves below Tdng^ran^ Krdwangj and Indramdyu^ and the 
produce brought down by them is usually conveyed to Batavia. 
To the eastward, the great S6lo river, which is navigable firon 
Sura-k^rta, affords, with the Kedlrij the principal and only 
outlets from the native provinces by water towards the northern 
coast. Down the former, which empties itself by several 
mouths, near Gr^sikj into the great harbour of Surabdya^ 
during the rains, large quantities of the produce of the richest 
provinces of the interior are conveyed. The boats employed, 
which are of considerable burthen, return with cargoes of salt 
This river runs through many valuable teak forests, and con- 
sequently affords the means of easy transport for the timber; 
an advantage which is also derived from several smaller rivers 
on the northern coast, particularly in the neighbourhood of 
the principal building yards. Facilities of the same kind are 
also found at most of the sea ports, which are generally seated 
on rivers passing through forests in the interior, down which 
timber required for house-building and the construction of 
small crail is floated with ease. An inland navigation is 
carried on to a considerable extent, by means of small canals, 
in Demdk and some of the neighbouring districts, where it is 
common, even during the harvest, at the driest season of the 
year, to obsen-e innumerable boats mth their light sails cross- 
ing an extensive, flat, and highly cultivated country and tra- 
versing the corn-fields in various directions. In the rich and 
fertile delta of Siirabdga, the whole produce of the adjacent 
country is conveyed by water carriage, generally on light 
rafls constructed of a few stems of the plantain tree. 

Goods not conveyed by water carriage, are usually 



ROADS AND LAND CARRIAGE. 219 

OD the backs of oxen or horses, or on the shoulders of men and 
wmnen, carts not being generally used, except in the western 
distzicts, where the population is thin, or in some of the 
moie eastern districts, particidarly those recently under 
Ciimese direction. The cart of the western districts, termed 
pedaiif is of clumsy construction, running on two large solid 
wheels, from five to six feet in diameter, and from one to two 
inehes faroad, on a rerolying axle, and drawn by two buffaloes. 
It is the ordinary conveyance of goods to the capital, within a 
range of about sixty miles from Batavia. 

Few countries can boast of roads, either of a better descrip- 
tion, or of a greater extent, than some of those in Java. A 
hig^ post road, passable for carriages at all seasons of the 
year, runs from Anyer^ on the western side of Bantam, to 
within twenty miles of Bdnyuwdngiy the eastern extremity of 
the Island, being a distance of not less than eight hundred 
Kngl^ft^ miles. Along this road, at intervals of less than five 
miles, are regular post stations and relays of carriage horses. 
A portion of it towards the west, which proceeded into the in- 
terior, and passed over some high and mountainous tracts, 
was found to occasion great delay and inconvenience to pas- 
sengers, and to impose an oppressive duty upon those inha- 
bitants, who, residing in the neighbourhood, were obliged to 
lend the use of their cattle, or the assistance of their personal 
labour, to aid carriages in ascending the steeps ; this part of 
the line has therefore been abandoned, and a new road has re- 
cently been constructed along the low lands, fix^m Batavia to 
ChSribonj by which not only the former inequalities are 
avoided, but a distance of fifty miles is saved. This route is 
now so level, that a canal might easily be cut along its side, 
and carried on nearly through all the maritime districts of the 
eastward, by which the convenience of inland navigation 
might be afforded them, for conveying the commodities con- 
tinuaUy required for the consumption and exportation of the 
capital. Besides this main road firom one extreme to the 
other, there is also a high military road, equally well con- 
structed, which crosses the Island fix)m north to south, leading 
to the two native capitals of SHra-k^ta and Yug^ya-keriay 
and consequentiy to within a few miles of the South Sea. 
Cross roads have also been formed wherever the convenience 



2-20 PUBLIC MARKETS. 

or advantage of Europeans required them ; and tbere is no 
part of the Island to which the access is less difficult But it 
is not to be concluded, that these communications contribute 
that assistance to agriculture or trade on Java, which such 
roads would afford in Europe : their construction has, on the 
contrary, in many instances, been destructive to whole dis- 
tricts, and when completed by his own labour, or the sacrifice 
of the lives of his neighbours, the peasant was debarred fiom 
their use, and not permitted to drive his cattle along them, 
while he saw the advantages they were capable of yielding re- 
ser\'ed for his European masters, that they might be enabled 
to hold a more secure possession of his country. They were 
principally formed during the blockade of the Island, and 
were intended to facilitate the conveyance of stores, or the 
passage of troops necessary for its military defence. The in- 
habitants, however, felt the exclusion the less, as good inferior 
roads were often made by the side of these military roads, and 
bye-roads branched off tlirough all parts of the counti}', so that 
the internal commerce met ^dth no impediment for the want 
of direct or convenient lines of communication. 

Nor is it discouraged by the want of understood or estab- 
lished ]>laces of exchange. Bazars or public markets (here 
called i){*kau) are established in every part of the country, and 
usiiallv held twice a-wcek, if not oftener. The market davs 
ore in general regulated by what arc called pdsar days, being 
a week of five days, similar to that by which the markets in 
South America appear to be regulated. At these markets are 
assembled frequently some thousands of people, chiefly women, 
on whom the duty devolves of carrying the various productions 
of the country' to these places of traffic. In some districts, ex- 
tensive sheds are erected for the accommodation of the people; 
but, in general, a temporary covering of thatch, to shelter them 
from the rays of the sun, is made for tlie occasion, and thought 
suflicient. Where the market is not held \Wtliin a toivn of 
considerable size, the assemblage usually takes place under a 
large tree, in a spot occu])ied from immemorial usage for that 
])uq)osi\ In these markets tliere are regular quarters appro- 
priated for the grain merchant, the cloUi merchant, venders of 
iron, brass, an<l co]»per ware, and dealers in the various small 
manufactures of the country', as well as those of India, China, 



PUBLIC MARKETS. 221 

and Europe. Prepared eatables of every kind, as well as all 
die firoits and yegetables in request, occupy a considerable 
ipace in the £eut, and find a rapid sale. In the more exten- 
dve bazars, as at SdlOy the kris handle makers have their par- 
ticalar quarter, and in an adjoining square, horses and oxen 
are exposed for sale. 

Small duties are generally levied in these bazars, the col- 
lection of which was formerly farmed out to Chinese ; but it 
being found that they exacted more than the settled or au- 
thorized rate, and that they contrived, by means of the in- 
fluence which their office conferred, to create a monopoly in 
their own favour, not only of the articles of trade but of many 
of the necessaries of life, that system has latterly been re- 
linquished wherever practicable, and government has taken 
the management of that portion of the public revenue into its 
own hands. In the bazars, accordingly, regulated under the 
immediate superintendence of its officers, extensive sheds are 
built, and a small compensation only is required for the use of 
them by those who there intend to expose their goods for sale. 
This duty is collected at the entrance into the market-place, 
and is taken in lieu of all other taxes or customs whatever, 
formerly levied on the transit or sale of native commodities. 
It is to be regretted, that this improvement had not been ex- 
tended to the native provinces, where every article of produce 
and manufacture is still impeded in its progress through the 
country to the place of consumption or export, by toll duties 
and other impoUtic exactions, and charged on its arrival there 
with heavy bazar duties, to the discouragement of industry 
and enterprize, and the depression of agriculture and trade, 
in a degree not compensated by a proportionate benefit to the 
revenue *. 



• " The bazars," observes Mr. Hogendorp, ** now produce a large, and 
" even an incredible amount, which however is melted away in the hands 
of the native regents and also some European authorities ; but the 
Chinese, to whom they are mostly farmed out, derive the greatest profits 
" from them, both by the money which they extort from the Javans, 
and by the monopolies in all kinds of produce, and particularly of rice, 
which by these means they are enabled to secure to themselves. The 
abuses on this point are horrible, and almost induce me to recommend 
** that the markets should be made free and open." 



« 



Cf 

« 



22i> COASllNG TRADE. 

Almost all the inland commerce, beyond what is thus caxried ^ 
on though the medium of bazars, is under the direction of the 
Chinese, who, possessing considerable capital, and frequently 
speculating on a very extensive scale, engross the greater part 
of the wholesale trade, buy up the principal articles of export 
from the native grower, convey them to the maritime capitals, 
and in retiun supply the interior with salt, and with the prin- 
cipal articles imported from the neighbouring islands, or fion 
foreign countru^s. The industry of the Javans being directed ■■ 
almost exclusively to the cultivation of the soil, they are satii- * 
fied if they can find an immediate market for their smpliu 
produce ; and Uie Chinese, fit>m their superior wealth and en- 
tcrprizc, offering them this advantage without inteiferingwith 
their habits, have obtained almost a monopoly of their pro- 
duce, and an uncontrolled command of their market for foreign 
commodities. 

The trade carried on by native vessels along the coast, with 
tlie neighbouring islands, and with the peninsula of Malacca, 
has been even more shackled than that placed under the im- 
politic restraints of interior regulation ; and if it exists now to 
any considerable extent, it is owing only to the great natural 
advantages that attend it. Independently of the dangers to 
which the peaceable unprotected trader has so long been ex- 
posed, from the numerous pirates who infest the Eastern Seas, 
and who for many years have been in the habit of annually 
sweeping the coast of Java, the various restrictions, penalties, 
and prohibitions established by the Dutch government, in 
order to insure their own monopoly, closed all the minor ports 
against him. 

Among these restrictions, none operated more forcibly to 
prejudice the native trade than the rigid and enforced monopoly 
of the teak timber; an article of produce mth which Java 
aboimds, and of which the shipping of the Archipelago had, 
from time immemorial, been principally constructed. Tlie 
facilities for building and repairing vessels along the coast, 
while the sale of timber was unrestricted, not only allowed a 
more abundant supply of 8hi])ping at a cheap rate for the con- 
venience of the native trader, but attracted the beneficial visits 
and the intercourse of foreigners, and encouraged a species of 
trade, which under the recent system has been lost The 



I 



COMMERCE. 223 

B^gis and Arabs of the different eastern ports, narigating in 
large yessels, were induced to give them an annual repair on 
Java; and ratlier than depart in ballast, frequently carried out 
cargoes, the profits of which alone, independently of their 
lefit, would not hare been sufficient to tempt them to the 
qiecolation. These adyenturers not only imported consider- 
able quantities of gold-dust to defray the expence of their re- 
pairs, but many other articles the produce of the Malayan 
islands ; for which they in return exported large quantities of 
salt and other bulky commodities, which would otherwise 
hardly repay their freight In consequence of the stop put to 
this kind of intercourse, the Malayan States were principally 
supplied with salt from Siam and the Coromandel coast, or 
manufactured the article for themselves, while an accumulat- 
mg undemanded surplus for many years remained on Java un- 
saleable. Of the nature of the restrictions under which the 
mtemal commerce and the native trade in general were placed 
until lately, some idea may be formed from the amount of the 
duties which were exacted at Ch&ribon prior to the introduc- 
tion of the land revenue settiement *. 

These, with still heavier and more vexatious duties and ex- 
actions, were levied on trade in other districts of the island. 
Constant requisitions were made by the Dutch government 
for the services of native vessels, at rates far below a just com- 
pensation to the owner, and the native traders were forbidden 
to traffic in any of the articles of Dutch monopoly ; considera- 
tions which incline us rather to express our surprize, that 
there shotild have been any native trade at all, than that there 
should be so littie as now exists. 

The coasting trade is carried on in vessels belonging chiefly 
to Chinese, Arabs, and Bugis (natives of Celebes), and in 
smaller Malayan prdhtisf. The enterprize of the Arabs, 

* See account of Ch^ribon. 

t Although but few of the natives of Java venture their property in 
foreign speculations, the natives of Java form the crews of all coasting 
Tenels belonging to Chinese, Arabs, or Europeans, and it is of them almost 
exclusively that the class of common sailors, known in the east under the 
general denomination of Malays, is composed. Here it may not be im- 
proper to notice the manner in which European vessels have hitherto been 
rapplied with such crews, and to point out the probable causes of that 

10 



224 COMMERCE. 

Chinese, and Btigis is very conspicuous. They are in general 
fair traders, and Europeans acquainted with their several 

atrocious conduct with which the Malayan sailor is so genendly re- 
proached. 

A reference to the maritime customs of the Maldytu will shew the mui- 
ner in which the outfit of a native vessel in the Eastern Seas is effected *. 
Each individual on board has a share and interest in the concern, ind 
among themselves the maritime population is distinguished for good futh 
and attachment. In the vessels either commanded or owned by Chinese or 
Arabs, the same principle is attended to ; and although the common sailon 
in these generally receive wages, the petty officers, who are also g^enenDj 
Javans, have some trifling interest in the cargo, the conmion men are pro- 
tected by them, and the policy of the commanders induces every possible 
attention to the usages, prejudices, and comforts of the crews. They ire 
able to assimilate more nearly with them, and to enter more immediatdj 
into their feeling and their wants, than it is possible for Europeans to do, 
and as they do not possess the authority to obtain crews by force, it is only 
by a character for good treatment that they can insure an adequate supply 
of hands. These vessels na\'igate throughout the whole extent of the 
Archipelago, to Malacca and Acheen on one side, and to the Moluccas 
and New Guinea on the other. They are manned exclusively by Javans, 
usually called Malays, and no instances occur of the crews rising either 
ui)on the Arab or Chinese conunander : they are, on the contrary, found 
to be faithful, hanl working, and extremely docile. How is it when 
Malays are employed in vessels belonging to Europeans ? The Javans are 
originally not a seafaring people ; they have an aversion for distant voyages, 
and retpiire the strongest inducements to quit the land, even for a coasttni; 
expedition in the smooth seas of their oiivn ^\rchi()clago, beyond which, if 
they ever engage themselves on board a colonial vessel, they make an ex- 
press agreement, not to be carried : Euro()ean vessels in want of hands for 
mori' distant voyages to Euro|)e, India, and China, have been compelled 
therefore to resort to force or fraud, as the means of obtuning crews. 
The Duti'h government were in the liabit of employing people, known among 
the Javans by the term «e7o/i^, as kidnapi)crs, who prowled about at night, 
pounce<l upon the unwary peasant who might l)e (>assing along, and hurried 
him on ship>boar(L When the direct influence of government was not used, 
the native regents or chiefs were employed to obtain ])eople for the crews of 
vessfls : this they did sometimes in the same manner, though more frequently 
condemning to sea as many as were required, by an indiscriminate diraft on 
the neighbouring ])opulation. The native chiefs were perhaps paid a cer- 
tain head-money, on what may have been considered by the European 
commanders as nothing more tlian crimpage. The people who were leiied 



* See a paper on the Maritime Institutions of the Malayan Nation, in 
the twelfth vohune of the Asiatic Researches. 



COMMERCE. 225 

characters can rely on their engagements, and command 
tbdr confidence. Many of them, particularly the BUgis^ are 
possessed of veiy large capital. 

By means of the coasting trade, the produce of the maritime 
and inland districts is conveyed to Batavia^ Semdran^y and 
Surabaya^ the principal ports of consumption and exportation; 
and in return those districts receive iron, steel, and other ar- 
ticles of foreign produce and manufacture from abroad. The 
western districts being but thinly inhabited, do not yield a 
sufficient supply for the consiunption of Batavia ; and on this 
account, as well as its being the principal mart of foreign 
commerce, the trade of the ea^em districts is attracted to it, 
in a higher degree than to any of the other great towns in their 
own immediate neighbourhood : but owing to the unhealthi- 

were addom of a seafaring class, but almost entirely landsmen, in many 
inttK&ces perhaps opium smokers, or persons obtained from the lowest and 
most worthless part of the conmiunity. Once embarked, their fate was 
sealed for ever, and due care was taken that they never landed again on 
Java, as long as their services as sailors were required. 

In this manner are obtained that extensive class of sailors, denominated 
Malays, who are foimd on board almost every coimtry ship in India, and 
inhabit the sea-ports in considerable numbers, particularly Calcutta, where 
tbey have a distinct quarter allotted them. They are taken from their home 
against their will, and in violation of all their views and habits. In general, 
neither their language or customs are in the least understood by their new 
master, for though most of the commanders in the eastern trade may speak 
the Malayan language, and be accustomed to the Malayan character, they 
know nothing of the Javan language, and but little of the manners, habits, 
and prejudices of the Javan people. 

That numerous instances have occurred, in which they have appeared 
the foremost in mutiny and in the massacre of their officers, will not be 
denied ; but it is well known, that many instances of ships being cut o£f 
by the Malay crews, have been occasioned by the tyrannical and inhuman 
character of the conunanders ; and however dreadful the massacre, some 
excuse may be made on the score of provocation, for a people low in the 
scale of moral restraint and intellectual improvement. In some cases they 
have been made the instruments and dupes of the villany of others, and 
have merely followed in the track of cruelty. In general, so httle care 
seems to be devoted to the comforts of these people, and so much violence 
offered to their habits, that a person accustomed to observe the course of 
human action, and to calculate the force of excited passions, is almost 
surprized to find the instances of mutiny and retaliation are so few. 

VOL. I. Q 



2'2G COMMERCE. 

ncss of tiic climate, the loss occasioned by the paper money, 
which the native traders of other islands could never under- 
stand, and the various vexations and impositions to which they 
were subjected, these latter invariably prefer the more eastern 
ports of Senuirantj and Surabaya^ or rather Gr^ftik^ in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the latter, which has always been tlie prin- 
cij)al establishment and residence of the Arabs. 

Tlie Btff/is im})ort into Java from the other islands, Malayan 
camjdior, tortoise-shell, edible birds'-nests, bees'-wax, cloth 
called sdroft(/s, ol' a veiy strong texture, their own manufacture, 
and-gold dust, which they lay out in the purchase of opium, 
iron, steel, Europe chintzes and broad cloth, and IniUan piece- 
goods, l>csides tobacco, rice, salt, and otlier productions and 
manufactures of Java, with which they return eastward during 
the favourable monsoon. 

The Arabs navigate square-rigged vessels, from fifty to five 
hundred tons burden. The Chinese also have many brigs, 
besides tlieir j)eculiju' description of vessels called junks, as 
well as native-built praJnts, lliey extend their voyages to 
Sumatra, the Straits of Malacca, and eastward as far as the 
Moluccas and Timor, collecting birds'-nests, camphor, bich de 
i/mr, and other articles, making Java a grand depot for the 
produce of all the countries to which they resort. Through- 
out the whole of Java, trade is usually conducted bv the 
(.'hinese : many of them are ver\' rich, and tlieir means are 
increased by their knowledge of business, their spirit of en- 
ter] )rize, and their mutual confidence. 

If a cargo airives too exten.sive for the finances of one 
individual, several Chinese club together, and ]mrchase the 
goods, each dividing according to his capital. In tliis manner 
a ready market is alwa} s o})en at Java, without the assistance 
of Kuro]K*an merchants, and strangers arc enabled to transact 
their business with little trouble or risk. 

The obj(H-tions which have been made to the political 
influence of the Chinese and Arabs in the KiUitem Islands, 
do not ecpially ai)])ly to them as traders. In this last capacity, 
and subject to regulations which ])revent them from uniting 
the ])owcr of a chief with the tem])t*r of a merchant, and 
despotism with avarice, their value cannot be too highly rated. 



COMMERCE. 227 

The perseyering industry and speculative turn of the Cliinese 
is too well known to need description ; and the Arab traders 
w here what they are all over the world, keen, intelligent, 
lid adventurous. The Bugis have long been distinguished 
mong the Eastern Islands for the extent of their speculations 
od the fairness of their dealing. 

Java exports, for the consumption and use of the other 
lands of the Archipelago, including the Malayan ports on 
e peninsula, rice, a variety of vetches, salt, oil, tobacco, 
nber, Java cloths, brass ware, and a variety of minor articles, 
e produce of her agricultiu'e and manufactures, besides oc- 
sionally, as the market admits, a considerable quantity of 
iropean, Indian, and Chinese goods. Almost the only ar- 
les for which Java is at present dependent on its neighbours 
3 gdmbiry imported from Lingen (Ling'^ya) and Rhio, 
lere it is produced to the annual amount of from twenty to 
irty thousand pikuls^ — and pdmur^ the metal used for 
masking the Javan kris^ of which a small quantity is im- 
rted from Billion and • C^lebes^ where alone it is found, 
le following articles, the exclusive produce of the Eastern 
ands, are collected at its principal ports, for re-exportation 
India, China, and Europe : tin, from iBdnka ; gold-dust, 
ijnonds, camphor, benjamin and other drugs, edible birds'- 
sts, bich de mar^ rattans, bees'-wax, tortoise-shell, and 
eing woods, from Borneo and Sumatra; sandal and other 
e woods, nutmegs, cloves and mace, coarse, wild and 
maged spices, kdyu-pieti and other pungent oils, from the 
>luccas ; horses and sapan wood, from Sumbdwa ; BUgis 
>ths, and many collections for the Chinese market, from 
lebes. Cloths are also sometimes imported from Bdliy and 
pper is collected at Bdnjermdsin^ on Borneo, and from 
eral of the Malayan states. 

rhe tin brought to Java is almost exclusively from the 
lies of Bdnka, This metal is also exported from several 
the other islands, and from the peninsula of Malacca, 
ence these countries have been considered the Temala of 
demy, timdh being the Malayan word for tin; but the 
intity obtained from all other sources falls far short of 
at is procured on Bdnka^ which exports to the annual 

Q 2 



228 COMMERCE. 

amount of thirty thousand pikuis, or nearly forty thousand 
cwt. of this metal. The mines on Bdfika are worked by 
Chinese, who deliver the metal into the government stores id 
slabs, at the rate of about eight Spanish dollars tlie pikuly of 
one hundred and thirty-three pounds and a quarter. 

A very extensive branch of trade is carried on by a direct 
communication between Java and China, entirely upon Chi- 
nese capital, in a description of vessels called junks. From 
eight to ten of these vessels arrive annually from Canton and 
Amoi, with cargoes of teas, raw silk, silk piece goods, var- 
nished umbrellas, iron pots, coarse china-ware, sweetmeats, 
nankeen, paper, and innumerable minor articles, particulaily 
calculated for the Chinese settlers. Tliey arc from three to 
eight hundred tons burthen, and sail at stated periods, gene- 
rally reaching Batavia with the north-east monsoon, about 
the month of Januar}'. Of all the imports from China, that 
which produces the most extensive effects on the commercial 
and political interests of the country is the native himself: 
besides their cargoes, these jimks bring a valuable import of 
from two to five hundred industrious natives in each vessel. 
Tliesc emigrants are usually employed as coolies or labourers 
on their fu'st anival ; but, by frugal habits and persevering 
industry, they soon become possessed of a little property, 
which they employ in trade, and increase by their prudence 
and enteq)rize. Many of them, in course of time, attain 
sufficient wealth to render themselves indei>endent, and to 
enable them to remit considerable accmnulations yearly to 
their relations in China. As these remittances are generally 
made in the valuable articles, such as birds^-nesls, Malayan 
cam])h()r, />/V// de mar^ tin, opium, pepper, timber, leather 
hides, indigo, gold and silver, tlie return cargoes of these 
vessels amount to iui almost incredible value. 

The quantity of (»dible birds'-nests alone, annually exported 
from Java to China on vessels of this description, is estimated 
at not less than two hundred pfkuhj of which bv far the 
largest proportion is the i)r()duce of the Javan rocks and hills. 
It is well known that tlu se are the nests of a species of 
swallow (Inrundo esculonta) common in the Malayan islands, 
and in great demand for the China table. Tlieir value as a 



COMMERCE. 2^29 

hamyy in that empire, has been estimated on importation to 
be weight for weight equal with silver. The price which 
these nests of the best quality have of late years brought in 
the Canton and Amoi market, has been forty Spanish dollars 
per kdti^ of rather more than a pound and a quarter English. 
They are usually classed into first, second, and third sorts, 
differing in price from forty to fifteen Spanish dollars, and 
eren to ten and less for the most ordinary. The price in the 
Batavian market rises as the period for the departure of the 
jnnks approaches ; but as the principal produce of Java is 
still a monopoly in the hands of government, it is difficult to 
fix the price at which they might be sold under other circum- 
stances. Generally speaking, however, they sell throughout 
the Eastern Islands considerably lower than they are calcu- 
lated to do in China, which may be accounted for by the 
perishable nature of the commodity, and the great care neces- 
sary to preserve them from the damp, as well as from breakage. 
On this account, they are seldom bought by European traders. 
Birds'-nests consigned by the Javan government to the Can-^ 
ton factory in 1813, sold to the amount of about 6Ay pikuls^ 
at an average rate of about twenty dollars per kati : but this 
was at a period when the China markets were unusually low. 

The quantity of birds' nests obtained from the rocks called 
Kdrang bdlangy on the southern coast of Java, and within the 
provinces of the native princes, is estimated, one year with 
another, at a hundred pikuls, and is calculated to afford an 
A^nmial revenue to the government of two hundred thousand 
Spanish dollars. The quantity gathered besides by indi- 
viduals, on rocks and hills belonging to them, either in private 
property or held by farm fi^m the government^ in other parts 
of the island, may amount to fifty pikuls; making the extent 
of this export not less than one hundred and fifty pikuls^ 
besides the amount of the collections from the other islands 
of the Archipelago. 

In the Malayan islands in general, but little care is taken of 
the rocks and caverns which produce this dainty, and the nests 
procured are neither so numerous nor so good as they otherwise 
would be. On Java, where perhaps the birds are fewer, and 
the nests in general less fine than Ihosc to be met with in 
some of the more Eastern Islands, both the quantity and 



230 COMMERCE. 

quality have been considerably improved by European manage 
ment. To effect this improvement, the caverns which th 
birds are found to frequent are cleansed by smoking and th 
burning of sulphur, and the destniction of all the old nest 
The cavern is then carefully secured from the approach c 
man, the birds are left undisturbed to form their nests, an 
the gathering takes place as soon as it is calculated that th 
young are fledged. If they are allowed to remain until egg 
are again laid in them, they lose Uieir pure colour and tram 
parency, and are no longer of what are termed the first sor 
They are sometimes collected so recently after their formatini 
that time has not been given for tlie bird to lay or hatch he 
e{rp:s in them, and these nests arc considered as the mo« 
superior ; but as the practice, if carried to any extent, wool 
prevent the number of tlie birds from increasing, it is seldoi 
resorted to, where the caverns are in tlie possession of thos 
who have a permanent interest in their produce. ^luch c 
their excellence and peculiar properties, however, de])end a 
the situation of the place in wliich they are formed. It ha 
often been ascertained, for instance, tliat the same bird form 
a nostof somewhat different quality, according as it construci 
it in the deep recesses of an unventilated and damp caven 
or attaclies it to a i)lace where the atmosphere is drj-, and th 
air circulates freely. Tlie nature of the different substance 
also to which they are fixed, seems to have some inHuenc 
on their properties. Tlie best are procured in tlie decpet 
cavonis, (the favourite retreat of Uie birds), where a nitrou 
dain])ness continually prevails, and where being forme 
against the sides of the cavern, they imbibe a nitrous tasU 
\\'ilhout which they are little esteemed by the Chinese. Th 
principal object of the proprietor of a birds' -nest n)ck is i 
presene suflicient numbers of the swallows, by not gatherin] 
the lU'sts too often, or abstracting those of the finer kinds ii 
tof) great numbers, hst tlie birds should (piit their habitation 
and eniigrate to a more secure and inaccessible retreat. It i 
not unusual i'or a Kuropean, when he takes a rock under hi 
su])erinteiHleiK'e, after ridding it of the old nests and fumi 
gating i\w caverns, to allow the birds to remain undisturbed 
two, three, or even more* v(»ars, in order that lliey niav mill 
tiply for his future advantage. ^V^len a binls'-nest rock ii 



COMMERCE. 231 

once brought into proper order, it will bear two gatherings 

in the year : this is the case with the rocks under the care of 

tbe officers of government at Kdrang hdlang. 
In the Ticinity of the rocks are usually foimd a few persons 

accustomed from their infancy to descend into these caverns, 
in order to gather the nests ; an office of the greatest risk 
and danger, the best nests being sometimes many hundred 
feet within the damp and slippery opening of the rock. The 
gatherers are sometimes obUged to lower themselves by ropes 
(as at Kdrang hdlang J over immense chasms, in which the 
8urf of a turbulent sea dashes with the greatest violence, 
threatening instant destruction in the event of a false step or 
an insecure hold. The people employed by government for 
this purpose were formerly slaves, in the domestic service of 
the minister or resident at the native court. To them the 
distribution of a few dollars, and the preparation of a buffalo 
feast after each gathering, was thought sufficient pay, and 
the sum thus expended constituted all the disbursements 
attending the gathering and packing, which is conducted by 
the same persons. This last operation is however carefiilly 
superintended by the resident, as the slightest neglect would 
essentially deteriorate the value of the commodity *. 

Although the Malayan camphor, which is the exclusive 
produce of Sumatra and Borneo, is much stronger than the 
camphor from China, it has not yet been considered an 
article of extensive export for the European market. It is 
always, however, in the greatest demand in China, where it 
is either consumed, or as has been supposed by some, it un- 
dergoes a certain process previous to its re-exportation under 
a different appearance. It is not known in what manner the 
China camphor for the European market is prepared ; and 
unless the Malayan camphor is used in the composition, it 
seems difficult to account for the constant demand for it in 
China, whence it is never re-exported in its original state. 
Whatever value may be set on the Chinese camphor, that 

• From a course of experiments recently undertaken, and a careful 
examination of the bird, by Sir Everard Home, Bart., there is every 
reason to believe that the nature of the substance of which the edible 
birds'-nests are composed will be satisfactorily explained. . 



232 COMMERCE. 

ex})orted from Japan is of a Ktill superior quality, and more 
ill demand for the European market. 

Bich de mar is well known to be a dried sea slug used in 
the dishes of tlie Chinese : it is known among the Malayan 
Islands by the name of Mpang, and collected on the shores 
of nearly all the islands of the Archipelago. It usually sells 
in China at from ten to fifty dollars per pikul^ according to its 
quality, but being an article still more perishable than the 
birds'-nests, and very bulky and offensiye, it seldom composes 
the cargoes of European yessels. It would be very difficult 
to ascertain the average price, as it yaries according to the 
difficulties experienced in collecting it, and the immediate 
demand in the market, for its perishable nature will not 
admit of the excess of one season being laid by to meet the 
deficiency of another. It requires constant care on the 
voyage, and a leaky vessel frequently loses a whole cargo. 

Stic-lac, used in dying, is procured in many parts of Java, 
and can easily be obtained in a quantity' sufficient to meet the 
demand. The insect which yields it abounds in the Bantam 
districts, and the lac prepared is considered of good quality; 
but it is not an article wliich appears to have attracted much 
attentitm. 

The trade between Java and China in vessels belonging to 
Enroj)eans, at present consists principally in carrj-ing out tin, 
pepi)er, s])ices, rattans, and betel -nut, for the China market, 
and receiving in return a few articles of China produce in de- 
mand for the European market, a balance of cash, and a supply 
of manufactures re([uired annually at Batavia ; but it is calcu- 
lated that cottcm, rice, and timber, which may be considered as 
the sta])le produce of Java, might be exported to China mith 
advantage. 

A small ([uantity of Javan cotton lately sent to China, was 
sold *at a higher rate than the ordinary' prices of the cotton 
from Western India *. Cotton-yani is an article sometimes 

• Mr. Ilo^cnrlorp mnkes the following? observations on the cotton of 
Java. ** This article of produce, which now, in order to provide the Com- 
** pany with a few hun(lre<l pikuls of cotton-yam at a low rate, is only 
** pr(»(hictive of vexation ami oppression to the poor natives^ might be 
** made of the grcatesst vahie, both to Java itself and to the mother coun- 



COMMERCE. 233 

exported to China, but in the exi.«ting state of society on Java, 
the exportation of the raw material is likely to be attended with 
the greatest advantages. Some writers have estimated the ca- 
pability, of Java to export raw cotton almost incredibly high, 
but it must be admitted, that although the soil is not univer- 
adly favourable, yet few countries afford greater general 
advantages for the cotton cultivation, it being practicable to 
raise it to a great extent, without interfering with the general 
grain produce of the country. It could be grown as a second 
crop on the rice fields, being planted shortly after the harvest, 
and attaining maturity before the season again comes round for 
irrigating the lands. Nothing can convey a higher idea of the 
richness of the soil of Java, and of the advantages of its cli- 
mate, than the fact, that during one half the year the lands 
yield a rich and abundant crop of grain, more than sufficient 
for the ordinary food of the population, and during the other 
half a valuable staple, which affords the material for clothing 
them, and opens in its manufacture a soiu'ce of wealth and of 
continual domestic industry through the year. 

Enterprising individuals, merchants of Batavia, have not 
heen wanting to engage in the valuable fur trade, hitherto car- 

" try. The plant grows in abundance and of good quality, especially if 
the best kinds of seeds are procured from the Coromandel Coast and 
the Isle of France. The oiltivation of cotton is not at all injurious to 
any other branch, for after the rice harvest is the best season for plant- 
the cotton, and before the rains, when the fields are again ploughed for 
rice, the cotton is ripe and gathered. 

" Little of it is comparatively planted at present ; indeed only the ne- 

** cessary quantity, after providing the natives with coarse cloths, for the 

** government contingent. In rough cotton there is no trade at all : but^ 

** in fact, what trade is there on Java^ except the monopoly trade of the 

Chinese ? 

" Let us but suppose the cultivator to have a property in the soil, Ind 

* that he, as well as the trader, were at liberty to buy and sell, how soon 

** should we see the Javan planting cotton directly after his rice was 

** reaped. After being cleaned by machinery and screwed into bales, it 

** might be exported to China and Europe. 

" There is no doubt that the Javan cotton would be as good at least, if 

*• not better, than the cotton of the English, whether from Bombay, Ma- 

** dras, and Bengal, and it might certainly be produced cheaper ; but even 

*' suppose that, when cleaned and picked, it cost ten rix-dollars a p^kul, 

** the Javans would stiU be well paid." 



234 COMMERCE. 

ried on principally by the Americans, between Kamtschatluk 
and China. Mr. Timmcrman Thyssen, an enlightened Dutch 
gentleman, whose name for honourable dealing and extensire 
business has always stood high among the merchants of Ba- 
tavia, has entered into more tlian one speculation of this kind. 
Vessels fitted out from Batavia took in furs at Kamtschatka, 
which were intended to be exchanged in China for dollan; 
but the dangers of tlie passage in one instance, and the infor- 
mality of tlie papers in another, rendered tliis bold and pro- 
mising enterprize productive of but little pecuniary advantage. 
Nothing, however, has occurred, to prove that the adventure 
woidd not have fuUy answered its intention in time of peace, 
the principal difficulties which attended and frustrated it 
ceasing with the war. 

Since the conquest a very extensive trade has been carried 
on by the English country' ships importing from Calcutta, 
Madras, and Bombay, all kinds of piece goods, opium, and 
other articles, the returns for which have been usually made 
by bills, gold-dust, bees' -wax, tin, Japan camphor, sago, and 
teak timber. 

Tlie piece goods of Western India have always formed an 
extensive article of import into Java, and the annual value of 
those latterly imported cannot well be estimated at less than a 
million of dollars. Those generally meet a ready sale, at an 
advance of from thirty to forty i>er cent, upon the prime costin 
India, and much more when the sujiply is scanty. 

In consequence of these heavy and valuable importations, 
the returns to Bengid were till lately made principally by bills, 
obtainable either from government, or individuals desirous of 
purchasing colonial pnnluce for tlie Eiuropean market by 
means of funds in Western India. But there are also several 
articles, which experience has proved well calcidated for 
making their returns direct to Bengal, particularly Japan cop- 
per and teak timber. Java is known to abound ^nth valuable 
teak forests, jind the (piality of the wood has been considered 
as suj)erior to that of IVgu or the Malabar coast. The restric- 
tions under which this exi)()rt was formerly jdaced as a go- 
vernment monopoly, i»re vented its finding its way beyond the 
]nnne<liate Dutch dependencies ; but the extent to which it 
was even then si^nt to the Moluccas, to Malacca, and to the Capo 



COMMERCE. 235 

jood Hope, where all the public buildiogs are constructed 
^EFan teals, sufficiently attests the value and extent of the 
sts, as well as the good quality and durability of the 
lA This valuable, but bulky article of export, is always 
emand for ship-building in Bengal, and has afforded to 
oaerchant a very liberal profit on exportation, after paying 
present government prices, which are calculated at some- 
g above ten per cent, upon the actual expence of cutting 
dragging the timber from the forests to the port of export- 
1. During the last two years, large ships have taken car- 
te Bengal, and afforded very handsome profits. From the 
hbourhood otR^mbdng^ where permission has been given 
idividuals to cut the timber, on paying a duty of ten per 
. on the estimated value when worked up, it has not only 
1 exported at a cheap rate to Bengal, but several ships 
5 been constructed of it, while along the whole line of coast, 
I Semdrang io' CrT^siky small vessels and country craft are 
iched every month. 

ut although the direct trade with Bengal has thus been 
lys against Java, the demand for sugar in the Bombay 
ket always affords the means of a circuitous return of 
itaL Large quantities of Javan sugar have been exported 
Bombay during the last four years, principally on the 
ming ships in ballast touching at Batavia on their way 
1 China, and these cargoes have afforded considerable 
it A lucrative trade in this article is also sometimes 
ied on by the Arabs to the Red Sea, and particularly to 
;ha; but Arab traders, of sufficient capital for these 
jnsive speculations, have, by the effects of the former 
lopoly on Java, long been driven out of the market, and 
cient time has not been given for them to retiun. 
he extensive produce of this fine island in sugar and 
ee of superior quality, and the pepper and various other 
lies, either yielded by it or collected from the ntigh- 
ring countries, such as sago, tin, Japan copper, spices, 
hants' teeth, sticlac, long pepper, cubebs, tortoiseshell, 
I, diamonds, Japan wood, ebony, rattans, indigo, &c. 
ent fine subjects for commercial speculation to all parts of 
ope and America, the Cape of Good Hope, and the Mau- 
.s; and the more so, as from the extensive native and 



236 COMMERCE. 

European population, a very considerable and constant de- 
mand exists for the produce and manfactures of Europe, not 
only for the consumption and use of the island itself, but to 
supply the neighbouring Malayan states by way of barter. 

llie quantity of sugar seems to depend almost entirely 
upon the demand, and is likely * at all times to equal it, few 
coimtries affording equal advantages for its manu&ctoie. 
Owing to the want of a demand for this kind of produce, for 
several years antecedent to the conquest, many of the manu- 
factories were discontinued; but since the trade has been 
opened, and the demand renewed, many of them have again 
commenced working, and the quantity produced in the year 
1815 was not less tlian twenty thousand ^^/ri/Z^. 

The manufacturers being no longer compelled to deliver 
their produce to government, can afford to sell the sugar at 
Batavia at from four to six Spanish dollars (or from twenty to 
thirty shillings) per /?«A m/, the quality being distinguished into 
first, second, and third sorts, of which the first may be bought 
in the market for exportation at six Spanish dollars per /^fX'v/, 
or about twenty-five shillings the himdred-weight The 
quality of this sugar is altogether different fix)m the sugar in 
Bengal, and is said to be equal to that of Jamaica, being 
manufactured in a great measure according to the same 
pro(!ess. While the European market is open for coffee and 
other light articles, the sugar of Java is always in demand for 
dead weight, and large quantities have recently been sold in 
the liondon market as high as ninety and one hundred shil- 
lings per hundred-weight *. 

* By an official statement of the quantity of sugar manufactured it 
Batavia and the various residencies of the island of Java, from the year 
1779 to the year 1808, it appears that 

In the year 1779 it was 30,131 pikuU. 

In the year 1800 106,513 

In the year 1801 107,498 

In the year 1808 94,903 

that during the first fourteen of these years, the quantity made and deli- 
vered over to the Company for export to Holland, Persia, &c. amounted 
to 642,234 jnkuls, or to an average of 47,874 annually, two of these )-ean 
l>ein^ almost entirely un])roductive, on account of the non-payment to 
the manufacturers of money, to enable them to carry on their bosinest. 
During the latter half of the period, or from 1794 to 1808, the quantity 



COMMERCE. 237 

The quantity of coffee deliveied to government in the year 
1815, exceeded seventy thousand pikuls ; about thirty thou- 
sand pikuls more may have been exported by individuals, and 
the produce is greatly on the increase *, 

manufactured and delivered over to the Company amounted to 917,598 
fOmUy averaging 65,542 annually. All the sugar for export, during this 
period, as stated in the text, was delivered over at fixed rates to the 
government, and was placed under laws of the strictest monopoly. To 
shew the great practicability of an increase to almost any extent, we may 
idduce the sudden start in the supply occasioned by the American de- 
mand in 1800. In. no preceding year had this article of produce been 
ddiver^ over to the Company to a greater amount than 67>552 pikuls, 
and in that year the quantity sold at Batavia to Americans alone, 
amounted to 91»554, and for the subsequent years averaged 100,000 
p{kuls, and sold for 900,000 Java rupees, or 11,000/. sterling. The prin- 
cipal part of this was manufactured at Batavia> the quantity supplied by 
Jamana, Japdra, Ch&ibon, Surabdya, and Semdrang, being but propor- 
tionally small till 1803, when Japdra contributed to the exports of the 
island in this article 12,219. In 1804, the same province supplied 21,175 
pikuU. The disadvantage under which the manufacturer laboured, by 
forced deliveries at inadequate rates, need not be here insisted on, though 
it must be taken into the account in any estimate of the attainable in- 
crease of the manufacture. 

* Mr. Hogendorp makes the following observations on the coffee and 
pepper of Java : — '* In comparing the produce of the West Indian islands, 
according to their proportionate extent, population, and expenses of 
cultivation, I have frequently left off in the middle of my calculations ; 
** but I am sure that Java, on a very moderate calculation, can without 
difficulty yield fifty millions of pounds of coffee annually. 

For a long period, the planting of coffee was confined to the Batavian 
«' high and Pridng'en lands, and to Ch&ibofiy on the principles of that 
** short-sighted and self-destroying policy and spirit of monopoly, by 
" which the company and the government of Batavia have ever been 
** characterized. It is only of late years that it has been permitted to 
*' extend and revive the cultivation in the eastern districts. But the Com- 
** missioners, in May 1796, ordered that the cultivation should be abo- 
** lished ; and in the month of September in the same year, this order was 
'* countermanded, and the planting of coffee ordered to be promoted in 
" the most rigorous manner possible. But what is to be expected from a 
" country, where the natives are so treated, so oppressed ? To-day the 
" Javan is ordered to plant his garden with coffee trees : he does so, and 
" although well aware how little he will get for the fruit, he sees them 
** grow up with pleasure, considering their produce as a tribute which he 
*' must pay to his master for enjoyment of protection ; but now, when 
they are about to bear fruit, he is ordered to root them out ; he does 



« 

4* 

€€ 



€t 



238 COMMERCE. 

The Batavian arrack is well known in the European market, 
and was at one time imported in considerable quantities into 

'' so, and four months afterwards he is again ordered to plant othen! 
** Can a more infamoius t)Tanny be imagined? Can it be credited, thatanj 
" government should act so madly, so inconsistently ? And yet this i«the 
** plain and real truth. But how can stupid ignorance, which by tbe 
** vilest means, by base meanness, mercenary marriages, and every kind 
** of low trick, rises into ])ower and importance, and then becomes by 
*' wealth luxurious, and by flattery intoxicated, act otherwise? And will 
" you, Batavians, continue to trust in such hands as these, your \'aluaUe 
** possessions and interests in India ? 

" Pejiper grows but slowly on any soil, and is so nice with regard to it, 
" that in some places, where to all appearance there would be an abund- 
** ant produce of the plant, it will not grow at all. The vine requires 
** four or five years to produce fniit. The improvident Javan, who under 
** the i)resent despotic administration, can and will scarcely provide for 
" his daily subsistence, finds this too long a delay bet^'een his labour and 
" its reward : having, therefore, no suflScient motive to pursue the culti- 
** vation cheerfully or actively, he can only be driven to it by force ; but 
" let him once experience the advantage of property in land ; let him see 
** the trader ready with ])lenty of money to purchase the fruits of his 
** labour ; let him, if he should still be idle, obsen'e his more industrious 
** neij^hbour Jicquire wealth, by the sale of those articles which he sloth- 
** fully declines to cultivate, and with it procure the necessaries or conve- 
** niences of life, and he will soon be induced, by emulation and the desire 
" of ameliorating his condition, to plough and plant bis ground. The 
** Island of .Java will then produce a considerable quantity of pepper, for 
" which, if the cultivator obtains twelve rix-dollars perpfhtl, he will be 
** amply j)aid. 

** Althon^rh every thing goes on with difficulty at first, and it cannot be 
" denied that it will require time and trouble to stimulate the Ja\*ans, 
'* who are now confounded, as it were, Mith tjTanny and oppression, to 
*' iiidustr)' and emulation, it is notwithstanding equally certain, that an 
** improved system of administration, founded on property -of the soil, 
*• frct'dom of j)erson and trade, would by degrees, though i)erhaps much 
•' (piicker than may be imagined, bring about such a change, and that 
" .lava might and would produce as much pepper for exportation annually 
*' as coftee, or about two hundred thousand />i'A:m/!j, which will bring three 
*' thousand six hundred rix-doUars into the coimtr)'." 

In the year isoi, it was estimated by one of the first commercial houses 
in Ihirope, that the following quantities of i>epper might l)C obtained from 
diiferent j>orts of the ArchijH'higo. 

" PoKTs and V LAV EH where V EWER is (o be had: — estimated in Marek 1801. 

•• At Bmcoolen, belonging to the English, may be had about twelve 
** hundred tons of i>epper per annum. 



COMMERCE. 239 

e continent of Europe. It is distilled in a great measure 
m molasses, in which respect, as well as in the process em- 
ojed, it differs so materially from the arrack of continental 
dia, that it cannot with propriety be considered as the same 
iiit : it is in fact vastly superior to it, and capable of com- 
ting in the European market with the rum of the West 
dies. Its price at Batavia, where any quantity can at all 
les be procured, is for the first sort about sixty Spanish dol- 
«, for Qie second sort fifty, and for the third thirty Spanish 
Dars the leaguer ; the first sort, which is abore proof, thus 
ling by the leaguer of one himdred and sixty gallons, at the 
e of about twenty-pence the gallon. In consequence of the 
ihibitory duties against the importation of this article into 
eat Britain or British India, this branch of commerce has 
terly declined, and many of the distilleries hav^e been dis- 
itinued. 

rhe Dutch possessions of Ceylon, the Cape of Good Hope, 
i the Moluccas, dependent on the government of Batavia, 
rays received their principal supplies of rice firom Java, and 

' At Priuce of Wales Island^ belonging to the English, may be had at 

^resent only one hundred tons per annum : in a few years it will be five 

lundred tons. 

' At Susu, on the west coast of Sumatra, belonging to the King of 

Vcheen, may be had one thousand tons per annimi. 

' At Acheen and its ports, belonging to the King of Acheen, may be had 

bout one thousand tons per annum : the Danes often go to tbese two 

K>rts. 

' At Tringano and Kalanton, belonging to a Malayan prince, may be 

lad about two thousand tons per annum : the Eiu'ope Portuguese ships 

iften call at these ports on their way to China. 

' At Palembang : the Dutch have a small fort here, and oblige the king 

send all his pepper to Batavia ; it may be about seven himdred tons 

ter anniun. 

'' At Lampung, on the south point of Sumatra : the Dutch have a small 

ort here, and they send all their pepper to Batavia ; it may be about five 

lundred tons. 

' At Bantam may be had five hundred tons : this belongs to the Dutch. 

' At Bdnjer-mdsin, on the south-west of Borneo : the Dutch have a 

ort here, and the rajah sends all his pepper to Batavia : it may be about 

welve to fifteen hundred tons per annum. 

' At Chintabun, near Siam, belonging to the King of Siam, may be had 

)ne thousand tons per annum : this goes to China in the king's junks.' 



» 



240 COMMERCE. 

considerable quantities have of late been occasionally ex- 
ported to those places, as well as the Coromandel coast, with . 
great advantage. During a scarcity of grain in England, the -= 
Java rice has also found its way to that market *. 

From Europe the most important imports, and those in con- ^ 
stant demand for the native population, arc iron, steel, copper, « 
printed cottons of a peculiar pattern, and woollens. Of iion,.^ 
not less tlian from one thousand to fifteen hundred tons aie-m 
annually imported, which is worked up into the implements oS 
husbandr}% and into the various instruments, engines, and uten — 
sils, required in the to^^s and agricultural districts. The prices 
has varied, during tlie last four years, from six to twelve Spanish^ 
dollars : the average has been about eight dollars per hun- 
dred weight for the English, and about nine per hundred weight:, 
for the Swedish iron. The small bar iron is always in demands 

* ** Ceylon^ it may be obsen'ed, will coiuiume two thousand ktiyans 
annually (four thousand tons). There is also a ready market at the 
Ca])e of Good Hoi>e, for one thousand koj'ans a year. A scarcity of this 
** grain frequently happens on the coast of Coromandel, when the impoit 
*' of it from Java wiU yield great profit, if the traders are permitted to 
" ex])ort it. The general freedom of commerce and navigation, and the 
encouragement such freedom holds out to the merchant, will establish 
and extend a ready communication and friendly relation betweed Bataria 
'' and the trading places of India. In the article of rice, Java poasenet 
'* advantages KU|)enor to Bengal ; for although this grain ia generally very 
** cheap there, yet the navigation from and to Bengal is always more 
" difficult than that from and to Java, from whence, at all seasons of the 
year, the {lassage may be made to most (Nuts of India : and in Bengal 
it often happens, that the rice is very scarce and dear, and even that a 
famine rages there. On the island of Java, on the contnryp ahhoogh 
** the cToim may sometimes partially fail in a few places, a genenl and 
** total failure never liap|)ens : at least there is no instance of it on reooid. 
** U may also be considered, whether the exportation of rice from Java 
to Eurofie mif^ht not become an object of speculation. The caigo of 
a Hhip of five hundred lasts, or kOyans, would only cost fifteen thtrntan^ 
rix-<lollarA, which cannot be reckoned at more than thirty thooaand 
guilders ; and the k6)'an l>eiiig calculated at three thousand 6ve hon- 
" dred pounds, the only question would be, what wouKi be the value of 
" one million seven hundred and fifty thousand |>ounds of rice in Europe, 
antl if tlu' utidi'rtakin^ would ufiord a reasonable ^n ? Even Cliina is 
soiiiot lines much in \v:iiit of rico, and the cx])ort of it to that country 
would (jften, if not ahvay;*, turn out very advantaf^eous." — Hogndorp. 
Rico wa.M exported 1>oth to Kn^land and China, during the proTisional 
adiii'mistration of the Urittsh K^nxnuncnt on Java. 



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COMMERCE. 241 

in the market, in consequence of its convenience for working 
up into the different implements required. Steel is also 
in demand, to the extent of two or three hundred tons 
annually. 

English printed cottons, of peculiar patterns adapted to the 
taste of the natives and Chinese, and white cotton sheeting 
cloth, always meet a ready and extensive sale ; but the great 
objection to the former is the want of permanency in the 
colours, a disadvantage which all the English printed cottons 
labour under. A very extensive and valuable assortment of 
these cottons, imitated after the Javan and Malayan patterns, 
was recently imported into Java by the East India Company, 
and on the first sale produced \ery good prices ; but before a 
second trial could be made, the natives had discovered that 
the colours would not stand, and the remainder were no 
longer in any demand. Would it not tend greatly to the im- 
provement of the British manufacture, and consequently 
greatly extend the export, if the enquiries of scientific men in 
India were directed, in a particular manner, to an observation 
of the different dye-stuffs used in Asia, and to the manner fol- 
lowed by the natives in different parts, for fixing the colours 
and rendering them permanent ? 

Broad-cloths, velvets, glass ware, wines, and in short all 
articles of consumption and use among Europeans, may on 
Java be considered also, in a great measure, in demand by the 
native population, who firee from those prejudices which pre- 
clude an expectation of the introduction of European manu- 
facture into Western India, generally indulge in them accord- 
ing to their means. The climate of many parts of the Island 
renders the broad-cloth, particularly at some seasons of the 
year, an article of great comfort, and among the higher orders 
it is usually, as with Europeans, worn as a jacket : sometimes 
this is of velvet. A constant demand, limited only by the means 
of the purchaser, is also daily increasing for gold-lace and the 
other European manufactures used in dress, fiumiture, sad- 
lery, &c. ; it may therefore be easily conceived, to what an 
extent the demand for these articles is likely to be carried, 
among a native population of more than foiu: millions and a 
half of souls, advancing in wealth and intelligence. 

It is unnecessary to notice the extent of the articles re- 

VOL. I. R 



242 COMMERCE. 

quired from Europe by the European population, as they are 
the same in all parts of India. The demand is, of course, 
partially affected by the extent of the military force, and by 
the wants of the officers ; but where there is a permanent re- 
sident European population, of not less than a thousand souls, 
generally in good circumstances, it may be inferred that the 
demand is always great 

A continual traffic is carried on between Batavia, the Isle of 
France, and the Cape of Good Hope, by which the latter in 
particular is supplied with timber, rice, oil, and a variety of 
articles of consumption, the voyage being frequently effected 
in five weeks. While the Bourbon coffee bore a higher price 
in the European market, considerable quantities of coffee 
were sent from Java to that island, and from thence re-ex- 
ported as Bourbon coffee. 

Tlie American trade was carried to the greatest extent 
during the existence of the anti-commercial system of the 
late French ruler, when American traders purchased the Java 
coffee at the rate of eighteen Spanish dollars the pikul at 
Batavia, and by a circuitous route imported it into France, 
at an advance of one hundred per cent During this period, 
Uie 23urchases of the Americans in the market of Batavia 
amomited in some years to nearly a million sterling, for which 
they obtained principally sugar, coffee, and spices* 

Having thus given some account of the internal and ex- 
ternal trade of Java as it at present exists, of the adrantages 
for an extensive commerce which it enjoys, of the articles 
which it can supply for the consumption of other countries, 
and those which it receives in return for its own consumption, 
and of the places with which its dealings are or might be most 
profitably conducted on both sides, I might now be expected 
to enter into the history of that trade since the subjection of 
tlie Island to tlie Dutch, the regulations enacted and enforced 
by them, for restraining or directing it, and the fluctuations it 
has undergone diuing two centuries of a rigid monopoly ; but 
this inquiry would lead me to swell tliis part of the worii: to a 
disproportionate size. I shall now merely present my readers 
with a few extracts from the orders made in 1767, and strictly 
enforced throughout the Archipelago, for regidating the trade 
and nangation of the dominions subject to Batavia, and with 



COMMERCE. 243 

abstract of the amount of exports and imports during 

f the subsequent years. 

1 persons whatever,'' says the first article of those 

^ are prohibited, under pain of deaths fix)m trading 
e four fine kinds of spices, unless such spices shall be 
bought of the Company/' Opium was placed under 
me restrictions, and enforced by the same penalty, 
portation of pepper, tin, and Japan copper was pro- 
, unless bought for the Company ; and the importation 
I not permitted, except for sale to the Company, under 
lalty of confiscation, and a fine of four times the value 
urticle. The import and export of Surat silks and of 
loihs, were strictly prohibited under the same penalty, 
cotton yam and all other sorts of it, Semdrang arrack, 
stamped gold, were prohibited firom being exported 
he penalty of confiscation. No port was open to any 
^ming from the northward or firom the Moluccas, ex- 
itavia. No prdku or vessel was to carry any greater 
Y of gunpowder and shot, than might be permitted, . 
;alarly entered in the pass given to the party, under 

of confiscation of the vessel, and the infliction of a 
I punishment similar to that inflicted for theft. All 

belonging to the coast of Java were strictly prohibited 
iling firom any part of the coast where there was not a 
ay's Resident No navigation was allowed to be ear- 
by the vessels of Bdnka and Bilitony except to PaJ^m- 
AR navigation firom Celebes and Sumhdwa was pro- 

under pain of confiscation of the vessel and cargo, 
lel firom the latter place could pass Malacca, and the 
ly's pass to proceed to Siak was given only once in a 
three vessels firom Batavia, two firom the coast of Java, 

firom Cheribon. The China junks were only permitted 
at Batavia and Bdnjer-rndsin. No trade or navigation 
jr was permitted beyond the west point of Bantam, 

a pass from Batavia. Such are the most important 
^•►one articles of restriction, serving to shackle every 
nt of commerce, and to extinguish every spirit of en- 
, for the narrow selfish purposes of what may be called 
ticism of gain. After perusing them, the reader will 

r2 



244 COMMERCE. 

rather be inclined to think the following amount of the trades^ 
too highly stated, than be surprised that it is so low. 

The precious metals have always been a great article oS 
import into Java, as well as into the other regions of the East — 
In 1770 there was imported into Java from Holland, cash andJ 
bullion to the amount of 2,862,176 Java rupees*, and the sumss- 
iraported from other quarters in the same year, and raised by — 
bills of exchange on Holland, amounted to 1,419,565 rupees^ 
making in all 4,281,742, or more than half a million sterling. 
The amount imj^ortcd in that year was almost as great as that 
in any subsequent year till 1803, when the importation of 
precious metals was estimated at 7,617,122 rupees, or nearly 
a million sterling. This period corresponds with that of the 
greatest exportation of sugar by the Americans, who, no 
doubt, imported the precious metals in exchange for their 
cargoes, as the quantity brought from Holland in the same 
year amoimted only to 448,370 rupees. In the following year 
(1804) the quantity imported was 6,499,001 rupees, of which 
none at all came from the mother-country. In forty years, 
from 1770 to 1810, the total of the imported precious metals 
amounted to 118,607,472 Java rupees, or nearly three millions 
annually upon an average. A great portion of this was re- 
exported to India, China, and the Dutch possessions in the 
Archipelago, to pay for tlie articles brought to Batavia for the 
sui:)ply of the European demand. The quantity of goods im- 
ported from all quarters of the globe, exclusive of cash and 
bullion, amounted in the year 1770 to the value in Spanish 
dollars of 2,350,316, and Uie exports to 3,318,161, leaving a 
balance in favour of the exports of 867,845 Spanish dollars. 
A great part of the exports was destined for Holland, and a 
great part of tlie imports came from Holland. The imports 
from Holland were again re-exported to China, Japan, the 
Spice Islands, &c. from which, and from Bengal, Ceylon, the 
coasts of Coromandel and of Malabar, and the Cape of Good 
Hope and other eastern countries, tlie otlier shipments came, 
and to which the other exports proceeded. The profits on 
the sale of that portion of the imports of 1770, disposed of in 
the market of Batavia for the consumption of Java, are stated 

• The rupees are throughout calculated at thirty stivera each. 



COMMERCE. 



345 



at 7,895 Spanish dollars, so that, so far as the import trade 
'^as concerned, Batavia only became the entrepdt between 
the mother-country and her other possessions or stations of 
commercial resort in the Indian seas. The exports of Java 
almost every year exceeded the imports, as will appear from 
official returns which follow. 



Tears. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Excess of Exports. 


Excess of Imports. 


1771 
1772 
1773 
1774 
1775 
1776 

1777 

1778 

1779 

1783 
1784 
1785 
1786 

1787 
1788 

1789 
1790 

1791 
1792 


Spanish DoDars. 

3,122,197 
2.909,371 
3,193,912 
3,184,641 
3,083,773 
3,319,070 
3,139,678 
2,440,042 
2,274,308 

2,788,702 
2,921,274 
2,670,468 
2,495,038 
2,634,049 
3,700,209 
2,956,240 
3,011,040 
3,771,263 
1,172,670 


S^NUiish DoUan. 

3,116,374 

2,170,741 

2,789,869 
2,941,011 

2,692,420 
2,305,228 
2,006,561 
1,776,674 
2,075,022 

1,914,202 
2,781,833 

2,654,687 
2,639,663 

2,506,267 
3,017,853 

2,840,127 
3,073,801 

3,098,849 
1,295,959 


Spanish Dollars. 

5,823 

738,630 

404,043 

. 243,630 

391,353 

1,013,842 

1,133,117 

663,368 


Spanish DoDars. 
















430,714 


874,500 

139,441 

15,781 






144,624 


127,782 
682,356 
116,113 

672,414 




62,761 


123,289 



There was, of course, a lamentable falling off in the foreign 
trade of Java after the commencement of the war of the French 
revolution : some of the best markets were almost entirely 
closed to it, and the intercourse with the mother-coimtry was 
nearly destroyed. The total of exports to Holland and her 
eastern possessions, from the year 1796 till 1806, amounted 
in value to only 7,097,963 Spanish dollars ; the imports to 
3,073,894 Spanish dollars; leaving a surplus of exports of 
4,024,069 Spanish dollars. The Americans began to frequent 
the market of Batavia in 1798,* and through them principally 
was the trade carried on till the conquest of the Island by the 
British, except during the short interval of the peace of 
Amiens. No specie (with which Holland chiefly paid for her 
eastern commodities) was imported from the mother-country 



246 STATE OF THE EASTERN ISLANDS. 

from 1795 downwards, except during 1802-3 and 1808-4, 
during which there was only the very inconsiderable sum of 
about half a million of nipees imported. 

It is impossible to convey a just idea of the native or foreign 
trade of Java, without adverting to the commercial and poli- 
tical state of the other islands of the Archipelago. Of these it 
may be stated generally, that the interior is possessed by the 
natives, collected imder leaders who have taken advantage of 
the great extent of the coimtr}% in proportion to its popula- 
tion, to render themselves independent of tlie lawful sovereign; 
that the coast is occupied, in many places, either by pirates, 
by some of the ruder tribes whom it is dangerous to invade, 
or by adventurous traders, chiefly Mal4yu8 and B^gis. These 
traders arrive in well-armed vessels, which some of them re- 
main to protect ; others travel up the countr}', not unfrequently 
to the distance of a hundred miles, and at the change of the 
monsoon return to their companions, charged either with plun- 
der, or with the fruits of a commerce carried on "wiih the na- 
tives at an exorbitant profit. Tlie pirates, as they drive the 
peaceable and honest trader from the coast, recruit their num- 
bers from among the seafaring men to whom he used to give 
employment, llie decay of commerce is accelerated; and 
the natives retreat into the interior, where, for want of a 
market, they cease to collect the rich productions of their 
country, and rapidly sink into poverty and barbarism. The 
sea and the coast remain a scene of violence, rapine, and 
cruelty. The moutlis of the rivers are held by lawless ban- 
ditti, who interrupt the trade of tliose who inhabit their banks, 
and capture the vessels destined for the inland towns: the 
bays and harbours are entirely within tlieir power ; and in 
these smooth seas they are never driven a moment from their 
stations, or diverted by danger from tlieir predatory vigilance. 
'riie sovereigns of the coimtr}' have too little authority over 
their nominal subjects ; and tlieir resources are too confmed 
for them to oppose any eflectual resistance to these outrages. 
All restraints are witlidi*awii by the divisions and weakness of 
the native goveninients ; and men, rendered des]>erate by the 
experience of lawless violence, are induced to join in the sys- 
tem of plunder against which they can fuid no protection. 

This extensive, rich, and beautiful clustre of islands is thus 



STATE OF THE EASTERN ISLANDS. 247 

deprived of all the adrantages which it might derive from the 
sea with which it is surrounded; its harbours become the 
letreats of marauders^ instead of the resort of peaceful com- 
merce ; its seafaring people are reduced to a state of nature. 
Where force decides right, no sovereign is possessed of para- 
mount authority to sweep this pest from his shores ; no vessel 
is safe, no flag is respected. The trade is thus confined to 
desperate adventurers only, to whom the existence of piracy is 
more advantageous than the unmolested security of naviga- 
tion, as the danger which it creates drives away all compe- 
titors of a less daring character, and gives them a monopoly 
of these ports. It is too true, also, that European traders have 
materially contributed to the strength of the pirates, by the 
supply of arms and ammunition. At the port of Sambas^ 
European vessels had not dared to touch openly for twenty 
years ; but such means of resistance as the pirates were found 
to possess in two recent attacks upon it, could never have been 
collected without large supplies from British traders. 

The small colonial craft, so necessary for the prosperity of 
these regions, cannot without great risk venture beyond the 
coast ; while armed Malayan and Bugis prdhus^ and a few 
European speculators, engross most of the trade. 

The above observations apply more particularly to the coasts 
of Borneo and the adjacent islands ; but they are, in a great 
measure, applicable to many parts of Sumatra. The imfor- 
tonate king of Acheen, who has long been intimately con- 
nected with the British establishments, is a young man of 
estimable qualities, with a title ancient and undisputed, though 
perhaps a weak prince. All his chiefs acknowledge his autho- 
rity, though none submit to his control. Native traders from 
the coast of Coromandel, and Europeans from Pinang, fre- 
quent every river ; and the profit derived from their dealings 
furnishes the inhabitants with inducements and means to 
throw off their allegiance. The king, too feeble to reduce the 
revolters, is only able to keep up a state of continual alarm 
and warfare, to which the mutual jealousies among the petty 
usurpers themselves mainly contribute. The trade of his do- 
minions is in a great measure carried on like smuggling, by 
armed boats running out at a favourable moment, hiding them- 
selves from danger, or fighting their way through opposition. 



248 STATE OF THE EASTERN ISLANDS. 

as occasion may require, and la>nng their account with mak- 
ing up for frequent losses by exorbitant profits. In some 
places, these almost independent bands are commanded by 
Malabar chuliahs; and, in most instances, the petty chiefs 
whom they eleyate to authority are foreign yagrants. Those 
places which, firom their vicinity to the residence of the king, 
are least able to resist his power, are supported in their 
opposition by the interests of the English traders; and it 
is not to be forgotten, tliat when he made a partial attempt 
to regain his authority over all the neighbouring country, they 
petitioned the European authority to prevent, by its inter- 
ference, his levying a duty upon his own subjects. The 
petition was attended to ; and the king was compelled, by the 
command of strangers, to forego the only means by which he 
could have prescned his dominions from anarchy and confii- 
sion. At the period, therefore, when the resources of his 
kingdom would have been unfolding themselves, by the im- 
proving industr}*- of a well-regulated population, it is falling 
into decay, through the personal imbecility and political 
weakness of the monarch ; and, breaking into detached firag- 
ments, is about to form as many separate principalities, as 
foniierly there were independent governments throughout all 
the Archipelago*. 

Tliat there has been, at some time, a more extensive com- 
merce on the shores of the Archipelago is highly probable, 
and that tliere might be cannot be doubted. Tlie great 
resources, vegetable and mineral, with which they abomid, 
such as spices, cam])hor, gold, and diamonds, and the faci- 
lities which they enjoy for navigation, offer means and 
inducements of tlie highest nature. Tlie general character of 
the people, also, as far as it can be ascertained, appears 

* If current report is to be credited, the fate of this unfortunate prince 
has l>een at last sealed ; and the undiHputed successor of " that great and 
'* puissant kinf(," to whom Queen li)liza1)eth gave an assiuance, ** thai 
*' far from ever having cause to re])ent an intercourse with the English, he 
" should have a most real and just cause to rejoice at it ; " and to whom, 
on the part of the English nation, she gave a pledge, " that her promitet 
** were faithful, because the conduct of her subjects woM be prmdtmi mi 
** sincere'* — has been obliged to abdicate his throne in favour of the ton of • 
Pinanff merchant ! 



STATE OF THE EASTERN ISLANDS. 249 

equally favourable to commercial intercourse. They are 
represented as mild, inoffensive, not indisposed to industry, 
free from any obstinate prejudices of superstition, and 
altogether of a different temper from that of the few who 
remain in a constant state of warfare on the coast. 

Another favourable circumstance is the existence of sove- 
reigns, whose rights, however infringed, are in principle 
aicknowledged, and who have never been known to favour, 
what must be considered the chief misfortune of these 
countries, and the source of almost all the rest, the horrible 
system of piracy. The evil is manifest, and the remedy 
is not of difficult discovery. Were legitimate and acknow- 
ledged sovereigns assisted in resuming their due authority, 
piracy and rebellion might be destroyed, these shores would 
be peopled with their native inhabitants, whose industry, 
awakened and invited by the opening of a safe navigation to 
the capitals, would in fleets of small vessels, so essential to 
the prosperity of the Eastern settlements, bring the produce 
of the interior down the innumerable rivers, and commu- 
nicate to countries, beyond the reach of foreign adventurers 
the comforts of civilised life. 

A few years of repose to these islands, and of safe uninter- 
rupted commerce, with its attendant blessingps, would repay 
with gain incalculable, what they now claim from the bene- 
volence and philanthropy, if not from the justice of Euro- 
peans, who have so essentially contributed to their degra- 
dation. If left neglected, without capital, \^4thout a safe 
navigation, almost without laws, the government disunited, 
the people groaning under vassalage and slavery, these races 
must descend still fiurther in the scale of degradation, until 
scarcely a vestige will remain to vindicate the records of their 
history ; and their political existence will only be testified by 
acts of piracy perpetrated on defenceless vessels, which from 
accident or ignorance may visit their inhospitable shores. 

In all their Eastern settlements, the favourite policy of the 
Dutch seems to have been to depress the native inhabitants, 
and give every encouragement to the Chinese, who, generally 
speaking, are only itinerants and not children of the soil, and 
who follow the almost universal practice of remitting the 
fruits of their industry to China, instead of spending them 



250 STATE OF THE EASTERN ISLANDS. 

where they were acquired. The Chinesei in all ages equally 
supple, venal, and crafty, failed not, at a very early period, to 
recommend themselves to the speculating Hollanders. They 
have, almost firom the first, been their agents; and in the 
island of Java, in particular, they acquired firom them the 
entire monopoly of the revenue farms and government con- 
tracts. Many of the most respectable Dutch lEamilies were 
intimatclv connected with the Chinese in their contTacts and 
specidations, and whole provinces had been sold in perpe- 
tuity to some of tiiem, the extensive population of which were 
thus assigned over to their unfeeling oppression, for the pur- 
pose of raising temporary supplies of money. 

On Java, the Chinese have been generally left to their own 
laws and the regulations of their OH-n chiefs ; and being, for 
the most part, merely temporary residents in the country, they 
devote themselves to the accumidation of wealth, without 
being \cr\ scni])ulous about the means of obtaining it : when, 
therefore, they acquire grants of land, they generally contrive 
to reduce the peasants speedily to the condition of slaves. 
Tlie improvement of the people, which was never much 
attended to by the Dutch, was still less so by the Chinese, 
and the oppression which they exercised in the vicinity of 
Batavia had opened the eyes of the Dutch themselves. A 
report of the Council of Batavia, a short time prior to the 
landing of tlie English, accordingly states, that *' although 
" tlie Chinese, as being the most industrious settlers, should 
^' be the most useful, they on the contrary have become a 
^' very dangerous ])eople, and are to be considered as a pest 
** to the country ; for which evil,** they add, " there appears 
^* to be no radical cure but their expulsion from the interior.** 
Wherever the Chinese formed extensive settlements in Java, 
the native inhabitants had no alternative but that of aban- 
doning the district or becoming slaves of the soil. The mo- 
no])()lisiiig s])irit of the Chinese was often very pernicious to 
the ])r()(liice of the soil, as may l>e seen even at this day in 
the innnediate vicinity of Batavia, where all the public 
inark(*ts are farmed by them, and the degeneracy and poverty 
of the lower orders are i»n)verbial. 

The C/hinese of Batavia are a very numerous body, and 
possess considerable wealth. They are active and u 



STATE OF THE EASTERN ISLANDS. 251 

enterprising and Bpecnlative in the highest degree in the 
smallest or most extensive concerns, and equally well adapted 
for trade or agriculture; but, at the same time, they are 
cunning, deceitful, covetous, and restless, and exceedingly 
unwarlike in their habits and dispositions. This is the cha- 
racter given of them by Mr. Hogendorp, who, in considering 
the injurious consequences of their extensive influence on 
Java, has drawn a very just and able representation of it*. 

* '' We, the Batavians/' says Mr. Hogendorp, *' or rather our good 
" and heroic ancestors, conquered these countries by force of arms. The 
*' Javans, who are immediately under our jurisdiction, acknowledge the 
** Batavian nation or the East India Company as their lord or sovereign ; 
but by so doing, although they resigned their political rights, they still 
retained their civil and personal liberty, at least their right thereto. 
'* But what relation do the Chinese bear to us, and what are the rights 
they can require from us ? As foreigners and itinerant traders, this 
may be easily defined, but as inhabitants and settlers a further inquiry 
becomes necessary. To political rights, or to a share in the government 
and revenues of the countf^, they have not the slightest claim, and as 
inhabitants, they cannot even claim the enjoyment of the same civil or 
personal privileges as the Javans : in the first place, because they are 
not natives of the country ; secondly, because they take no interest in 
the welfare or preservation of the country ; thirdly, because they only 
endeavour to derive their gain at the expense of the Europeans as well 
as the Javans, in order to return to China with the profits they make, 
" or at least to send as much of it as possible to their fEuoiilies there ; 
** fourthly, because they have no regard whatever to the welfare of our 
*^ country, and would be quite indifferent to the English, or any other 
nation, driving us from Java. For these reasons, I conceive that the 
Chinese have not the same right as the Javans to the freedom or pri^ 
vUege of citizens. The basis of all civil communities is incontrovertibly 
the sacrifice of a part of the liberty, rights, and even property of each 
individual, for the enjoyment and security of the remainder ; and this 
remainder, when fixed, forms the civil freedom and privileges of such a 
community. Not only are the Chinese quite exempt from this sacrifice, 
" but they are also, by the corruption of the Batavian government, much 
" less burthened than all the other inhabitants, even the Europeans, and 
" are besides favoured with considerable privileges and exclusive means of 
" gaining wealth. These are facts, which no one who is acquainted with 
" Batavia can or will contradict 

" Were impartial justice to be adhered to, the Chinese would be looked 
upon and treated only as foreigners, who are suffered and admitted, as 
long as it is not injurious to our interest and safety, to settle in our 
coimtry and imder our protection, seeking in trade or agriculture their 
' means of subsistence and emolument, and to whom, on account of their 



4* 



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252 STATE OF THE EASTERN ISLANDS. 

In all the Malayan states, the Chinese have made the 
greatest efforts to get into their hands the farming of the port 

numbers, it is allowed by our indulgence, as long as thtj conduct 
themselves well and peaceably, to preserve and practise their own 
manners and customs, and even in particular places, to dwell together 
under their own chiefs. 

** All the Chinese who come to Jai^a every year in such vast nomben, 
in the junks from China, or in other vessels from neighboiuiDg placet, 
are the refuse of their nation, and principally from a province, the natives 
of which are considered by their o\ni countrj'men the worst of the 
whole empire. These peo])le come half naked and poor in the extreme : 
they add, therefore, so many more to the population, which must be 
supported by the countr)', to which however they contribute nothing. 
It must be acknowledged, they are, particularly at first, very active, in- 
dustrious, inventive, and frugal. At Batavia they exercise almost every 
useful art, trade, and handicraft, they cultivate and produce the best ve- 
getables, they work the stigar-m'dls, and appear therefore to be uncom- 
monly useful and perhaps indlspensible. 

" llie trade in the interior, wholesale and retail : the trade to sea, to the 
oi)p()site shores, and elsewhere in the Straits, is entirely in their hands, 
and is almost wholly carried on by them. In all considerable places on 
the coast, as well as in the interior of Ja^'a, they have distinct towns, 
called kampongs, where they live imder their own chiefs, and follow 
their own customs and manners. Finally, they have exclusively all the 
farms of the government taxes and revenues, both in the Companv's 
districts and in the dominions of the native princes: by which means 
they are complete ma.sters of aU trade, internal and foreign ; and are en- 
al)led to make monopolies in every thing, which they do accordingly in 
the most extensive manner. The burthens they have to bear are, on the 
contrar)', ver>' trifling ; in fact, almost nothing : especially because they 
arc cxem])t from all feudal and personal sen'ices, which are so op- 
j)ressive to the Javans. 

** To what can this imi)ropriety and injustice be ascribed but to the go- 
vernment of Batavia ? 'Vhe Chinese have obtained all these favours and 
j)rivile;;es })y making con**iderable presents, and thus ^acrificin^ the in- 
teie>ts of the Company and the naticm to their selfishness and ai'arice. 
'I'hese ar})itrary governors of the Kast Indies have marie the Chines 
])ossessors of .lava: for I undertake to prove, that the wealth of the 
Chinese on that island amounts to ten times as much as the property 
of <dl the Europeans added together, and tliat their profits every year 
]>ear the same proj)ortion. 

*• With reference to their numbers and character, I am of opinion that the 
following resoluticms regarding them might l>c adoptcii : That the Chi- 
nese on .lava should be allowed to remain, and even tliat further arrivals 
of them should l)e |)ennitted ; care being taken, however, to keep them 
in good order, that they shoidd be prevented from injuring the Javans. 



I- 



STATE OF THE EASTERN ISLANDS. 253 

duties, and this has generally proved the ruin of the trade. 
In addition to these circumstances it should be recollected, 
that the Chinese, from their peculiar language and manners, 
form a kind of separate society in every place where they 
iettle, which gives them a great advantage over every com- 
petitor in arranging monopolies of trade. The ascendancy of 
the Chinese requires to be cautiously guarded against and 
restrained ; and this, perhaps, cannot be better done, than by 
bringing forward the native population, and encouraging them 
in useful and industrious habits. 

Some of these observations regarding the Chinese are, in a 
bigh degree, applicable to the Arabs who frequent the Ma- 
layan countries, and under the specious mask of religion 
prey on the simple unsuspicious natives. The Chinese must, 
at all events, be admitted to be industrious ; but by far the 
greater part of the Arabs are mere useless drones, and idle 
consumers of the produce of the ground : affecting to be 
descended from the Prophet and the most eminent of his fol- 
lowers, when in reality they are commonly nothing better 



'' either by force or fraud : that they be not more favoured than others : 
** that they should contribute a proportionate and equitable share towards 
" the revenues of the state for their enjoyment of the rights of 
citizenship, in the same manner as other inhabitants, which can best be 
effected by means of a capitation tax. Uncultivated and uninhabited 
lands might then be granted or sold to the Chinese, as well as to the na- 
tives, to establish sugar-mills or plantations. By these means, every 
practicable use and advantage would be derived from them, as an indus- 
trious and active people, without doing any injury to the other inhabi- 
tants, and especially the Javans as natives of the country : and because 
" they have no interest in our national welfare, they should be made, as 
an equitable compensation, to pay a higher rate to the state. In other 
respects, they may be completely subjected to our laws, and may be 
" treated with kindness as well as justice. 

" The niunber of Chinese on Java is much greater than is generally 
" imagined, and annually more of them arrive by thousands. . By con- 
** nexions with the native women, their families increase in inconceivable 
numbers. These half-Chinese retain the language, religion, manners, 
customs, and even the dress of their fathers ; and are generally called 
** Pemakans, although that name is also frequently applied exclusively to 
" those Chinese who embrace the Mahometan religion ; and these, as a 
'' separate class of people, have their own chiefs, or sometimes confound 
" themselves with the Javans, and can only be distinguished by their 
" lighter complexion." 



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2 j4 state of the EASTERN ISLANDS. 

than manumitted slaves, they worm themselves into the 
favour of the Malayan chiefs, and often procuie the hi^est 
offices under them. They hold like robbers the offices which 
they have obtained as sycophants, and cover all with the 
sanctimonious veil of religious hypocrisy. 

Under the pretext of instructing the Maldyus in the prin- 
ciples of the Mahometan religion, they inculcate the most 
intolerant bigotry, and render them incapable of receiving 
any species of useful knowledge. It is seldom that the East 
is visited by Arabian merchants of large capital, but there an 
numerous adventurers who carry on a coasting trade firom port 
to port, and by asserting the religious claims of Sheikh, gene- 
rally obtain an exemption from all port duties in the Malayan 
states. They are also not unfrequently concerned in piracies, 
and arc the principal promoters of the slave-trade. 

This may serve, in some degree, to iUustrate the necessity 
of establishing an equal and uniform system of port rega- 
lations throughout the whole of the Malayan countries ; for if 
the Chinese, on the one hand, are permitted to farm import 
and export duties in different ports, they have every facility 
allowed them to form combinations, in order to secmne a 
monopoly to Chinese traders ; and on the other hand, if the 
Arabs, under religious pretexts, are entirely exempted from 
duties, they may baffle all competition, and engross the trade 
of the Malayan countries to the exclusion of European 
traders altogether. 

Let the Chinese and Arabs still trade to the eastward. 
Without them, the trade would be reduced to less than one- 
Uiird of even what it is at present, for it is only throogh the 
stimulus which they give to the industry of the country that 
its resources arc to be developed : but let their trade be rega- 
lated ; and above all, let tlicm not be lefl in the enjoyment of 
iiuumnitics and advantages, which are neither possessed by 
Europeans, nor tlie indigenous inhabitants of the country. 
Since tlie reduction of tlic Dutch influence in the East, several 
of the ports formerly dependant on them have almost become 
Arab colonies. Tlie evil is obviously increasing every day, 
and can only be checked by encouraging the native popula- 
tion, and regulating on equal terms the duties of the Malayan 
ami other Eastern jmrts. 



STATE OF THE EASTERN ISLANDS. 255 

In many other respects besides those which we have stated, 
he commercial policy adopted by the Dutch, with regard to 
be £astem islands and the Malayan states in general, was 
ontraxy to. all principles of natural justice, and unworthy of 
ny enlightened and civilized nation *. 

^ Among the exports from Java for the Emt>pe market, no particular 
odce has been taken in the text of the extent of the spice tnule, the pro- 
noe of the Moluccas having, during the provisional aihninistration of the 
Iritish government, been conveyed direct from Amboina to the port of 
london, without being landed and re-assorted at Batavia, as was formerly 
tie case under the Dutch government. 

The sovereign Prince of the Netherlands has, by a solemn act, abandoned 

k right to the feudal services of his native subjects in the Eastern Archi- 

eli^o, but has at the same time reserved to the state the exclusive mono- 

oly of the spices. It may perhaps have been deemed expedient, in aid of 

be finances of Great Britain, that this odious monopoly should have been 

ermitted to remain for upwards of five years imder her uncontrolled do- 

linion ; and that, while the cloves on Amboina were raised by forced ser- 

ices, the nutmeg gardens on Banda should have been cultivated by slaves. 

liere may have been reasons also which induced her to continue the system 

f extirpation in the neighbouring islands, and to act up to those stipula- 

ions for depressing these unhappy countries, for which the Dutch have in 

Q ages been so justly reprobated. But now that the sovereign, to whom 

bey are again ceded, has recommenced the Dutch administration in the 

Saatera seas, with an appearance of something more like justice, humanity, 

nd aoimd policy than we have been in the habit of witnessing for the last 

wro centuries, it is to be hoped that the profits of two annual cargoes of 

pices, whatever they may amount to, will never be considered of sufiicient 

mportance to tempt a great and magnanimous nation longer to trample On 

be hallowed rights of humanity, and to persevere in a system, which, while 

t may have afforded a temporary profit, has tended to degrade, depopulate, 

nd destroy the fairest countries in creation. If the nutmeg and dove 

reea were allowed to grow where Providence would seem to have ordained 

bat in their natural course they should, and this trade were opened to a 

:te commerce, nutmegs might perhaps be procured as cheap as betel-nut, 

nd cloves as cheap as pepper. 

*' In the Spice Islands," observes Adam Smith, " the Dutch are said to 

' bum all the spiceries which a fertile season produces beyond what they 

' expect to dispose of in Europe, with such a profit as they think sufiicient. 

In the islands where they have no settlements they give a premium to 

those who collect the blossoms and green leaves of the clove and nutmeg 

trees which naturally grow there, but which this savage policy has now, 

it is said, completely exterminated. Even in the islands where they 

have settlements, they have very much reduced, it is said, the number 

of those trees. If the produce even of their own islands was much 



256 STATE OF THE EASTERN ISLANDS. 

From authentic accounts it appears, that they attempted to 
destroy and eradicate from a vast range of countries the most p 
advantageous produce of the land, in order to favour their own 
petty traffic, and burnt a large proportion of the residue, in 
order to keep up their monopoly price in Europe on a small 
proportion of this j)roduce. Against errors of this kind, it is 
to be hoped the more enlightened policy of the present en 
will be an effectual preventive ; but there are others, so in- 
terwoven vrith the interests of these islands, and so local in 
their nature, that they may not so easily attract the attention 
of Uie governing power. 

One feature of the Dutch policy in the Eastern Isles seenu 
to have been the exclusion of aU foreign trade, whether Eu- 
ropean or native ; excepting at certain specified ports under 
their own immediate control. This policy was as much con- 
nected with the general government of the country', as with 
the commercial profits of the Company ; for in an Archipelago 
of such unparalleled extent, inhabited by tribes of such va- 
rious characters, formidable in a high degree from their veiy 
want of civilization, it was necessary to bring forward some of 
the most powerful and most favourably situated of these nu- 
merous states, and to hold them answerable for the proceed- 
ings of the several dist^cts under their influence. Sach viewi 
gave rise to the establishment of certain regular and deter- 
mined trading ports, and led to the Wgilant suppression of all 



** greater than what suited their market, the natives, they tiupect» nught 
" find means to convey some part of it to other nations ; and the bert way, 
" they imagine, to secure their own monopoly, is to take care that no mon 
*' shall grow than what they themselves cany to market. By diflmnt 
" acta of oppression, they have reduced the population of the Mokxcat 
*' nearly to the number which is sufficient to supply with fresh pfforiaioas 
" and other necessaries of life, their own insignificant garriaona, and such 
" of their ships as occasionally come there for a cargo of apicea. Under 
" the government of the Portuguese, however, these islanda are said to 
** have been tolerably well jieopled." 

Had Dr. Smith written at the present day he might have heightened the 
picture by obHen'ing, that so far from even being able to supply the ganiaons, 
these islands have long l>cen considered incapable of rusing sufficient aap- 
plics for their own subsistence ; they have for many years depended almost 
entirely on Java for rice and the common necessaries of life, and latterly 
supplies have been sent to them from Bengal. 



STATE OF THE EASTERN ISLANDS. 257 

)Utempt8 at competition and independence on the part of the 
inferior states. 

Had this measure been combined with a liberal encourage- 
ment of the home trade, as it may be denominated, between 
these privileged ports established by the Dutch, and the va- 
rious countries under their influence, little doubt can be enter- 
tained that it would have tended materially to promote the 
civilization and general improvement of all the neighbouring 
nations. Very difierent, however, was the object of the Dutch 
agreements with the difierent rajas of the Eastern Archipe- 
lago. In some cases it was to secure a monopoly of all the 
tin, pepper, camphor, and other saleable articles produced in 
their dominions ; in others it was to bind the chiefs them- 
selves to destroy the only saleable articles that their country 
could furnish, lest the monopoly price of the Dutch should be 
injured by a greater quantity of such produce being brought 
to market The Dutch genius, though exclusively devoted to 
commerce, has never yet been able to discover the truth of 
the maxim, that in the long run it may be as gainful ** to make 
*^ small profits on large sales as large profits on smaller sales ;" 
their policy, on the contrary, has not been inaptly compared 
to a man putting out one of his eyes to strengthen the sight of 
the other. 

It must be admitted, that the line of conduct pursued by 
the English towards the Malayan nations, had by no means 
been of a conciliatory or prepossessing character. Our inter- 
course with them had been carried on almost exclusively 
through the medium of adventurers Uttle acquainted with 
either the country or people, who have been frequently more 
reniarkable for boldness than principle *. Indeed, the want 
of any settled basis of traffic, and the long indifierence of 
the British government to the complaints of either party, 
had produced so many impositions, reprisals, piracies, and 

* This general remark is not intended to apply to the traders of Pinang 
(Prince of Wales' Island), who are in general well-informed and most ho- 
nourable in their dealings, possessing great experience in the trade, and 
acquaintance with the habits and character of the natives : but this esta- 
blishment is comparatively of recent date, and the very general view here 
taken has reference to the intercourse which has subsisted during the last 
century. 

VOL. I. s 



258 STATE OF THE EASTERN ISLANDSl. 

murders, that any eastern trader must have felt himself verj 
much in the situation of a dealer in spirits, tobacco, and 
blankets, among the Indians of North America. It was the 
remark of Mr. Farquhar, than whom no man is more exten- 
sively acquainted with the interests and resources of East in- 
sular India, that the indifference of the British government 
must have originated solely in the want of information or in- 
correctness of knowledge ; since it is not improbable, that the 
riches of Sumatra and Borneo are equal to those either of 
Brazil or New Spain ; and it is only from the disadvantage! 
under which we had hitherto entered into the competitioii, 
that these great sources of wealth had so long been engrossed 
bv other nations *. 

The doctrine, that a colony should always be considered ft 
distant province of the mother-country, has been foreign to 
the political creed of the Dutch ; and at any rate the radical 
want of strength in the government of Batavia may have pre- 
vented them firom venturing to act upon it. Of course, they 
must always have contemplated the prosperity of the eastern 
tribes with the invidious regret of a rival shopkeeper, and r^ 
gardcd Uieir progress in ciWlization with the jealousy of ft 
timid despot. 'Flie fact sufficiently establishes the truth of 
this remark. 

Indopendently of the effects of the European influence just 
described, the causes which have tended most to the depres- 
sion of the Malayan tribes, and the deterioration of their cha- 
racter, are the civil commotions to which every state is liable, 
from the radical want of strength in the sovereign ; the con- 
stant wars between the petty cliieflains and heads of villages; 
the ill-drfined succession to the throne, from the doctrine of 
l)rinio^eniture being imperfectly recognized; the prevalence 
of i>iracy in all the Eastern Seas ; the system of domestic da- 
vm', and all its concomitant evils, as wars for the purpose of 
j)r()curing slaves, and the want of confidence between family 
and family, man and man ; the want of a generally-established 
and rccofj^iized system of laws, civil and criminal ; the want 
of a similar system of commercial regiUations respecting 

» See an able report on the Eastern Islands, by R. T. Fan|iihar» Eiq. 
late Lieutenant.(invcrnnr of Prince of Wales' Island. 



DEPRESvSION OF THE MALAYAN TRIBES.— PIRACY. 269 

t duties, anchorage, and other charges, to prevent arbi- 
y exactions and impositions in the yarious Malayan ports ; 
1, finally, the monopoly of the trade assumed by the Ma- 
an rajad. Had Java remained permanentiy annexed to 

British crown, the redress of these evils would have been, 
% great measure, in the power of the English nation : the 
lertaJdng would have been worthy of their general charac- 
, and there was no other nation that could have possessed 

means in an equal degree, even if it had indeed possessed 

inclination. 

rhe prevalence of piracy on the Malayan coasts, and the 
lit in which it was viewed as an honourable occupation, 
rthy of being followed by young princes and nobles, is an 
1 of ancient date, and intimately connected with the Ma- 
an habits. The old Malayan romances, and the fragments 
their traditional history, constantly refer with pride to pira- 
il cruizes. 

[n addition to other causes, which I shall not stop to specify, 
t state of the eastern population, and the intolerant spirit of 
I religion of Islanij have eminentiy tended to increase the 
ictice. The Arab Sheikhs and Sayeds, whatever doc- 
les they failed to inculcate, never neglected to enforce 
( meril of plundering and massacreing the infidels ; an abo- 
nable tenet, which has tended more than any other doctrine 
the K&ran to the propagation of this religion. Numerous 
i various are the tribes of the Eastern Isles which have not 
braced the religion of Islam to this day, and consequentiy 
! reckoned infidels: cruizes against such were, and are, 
istantiy certain of receiving the approbation of all the Arab 
x^hers settied in the Malayan countries. The practice of 
acy is now an evil so extensive and formidable, that it can 
put down by the strong hand alone ; though precautions 
unst its recurrence might be taken, by rendering, under the 
item of acknowledged ports, every chieftain answerable for 
. owntemtoiy. 

Connected with this evil, though of much wider extent, is 
J system of slaver}- in the Malayan countries, which, to ap- 
r the energetic language of Mr. Pitt to this subject, has been 
Qe of the least efficient causes of keeping down these re- 
ins " in a state of bondage, ignorance, and blood." In the 

s -2 



^200 PIRACY.— SLAVERY. 

boj^inning of the year 1805, the Marquis Welledey alx)- 
lishcd slavery throughout India ; and, on the 4th of June, 
1811, the Earl of Minto, by an order to emancipate all the 
government slaves at Malacca, and to direct that hereafter no 
slaves should be purchased or received on account of govcm- 
lucnt, gave to the Malayan nations an earnest of his senti- 
ments on the subject. It is certainly to the credit of ow 
countrymen in tlie East, that they have ever opposed all at- 
tempts to introduce the abominable slave traffic into our set- 
tlements there. It was prohibited at Madras by an act of the 
Governor and Council, of so early a date as 1682. 

Tlie sources of slaveiy in tlie Malayan countries are chieflv 
piracy at sea, captivity in war, man-stealing along the coast, 
and the penalties enacted in the Malayan law respecting deMs 
and sundiy misdemeanors. Tlie siuiiving crews of vesseU 
which fall into tlie hands of the pirates are generally dis]K)sed 
of by sale at the first ^narket. llie captives taken in the con- 
stant wars which the Malayan chieftains carry' on against each 
other, are generally employed in domestic occupations, tend- 
ing cattle, and cultivating the ground, where there is no oppor- 
tunity of bringing them to market This, however, is seldom the 
case, since such numbers are constantly required by the Arabs 
and Chinese traders, and heretofore by tlie Dutch. Many of 
the Arab trading vessels are almost exclusively navigated by 
the slaves of the owner; and in Uieir progress from island to 
island, they find little difficulty in recruiting their crew, by 
ri'ceiving ])resents of slaves, or if that should fail, by kidnapping 
the unfortunate natives. This fonus a strong argument against 
admitting the unrestricted range of the islands to either Chinese 
or Arab traders ; fur while this is permitted, the abolition of 
the system of kidnapping would be absolutely impossible, 
'llie i)agan tribes in the vicinity of tlie Mahometans, such as 
those on IJdiiy and some of tlie tribes of Celebes, the /linro/dnM, 
the black Papuan or oriental negroes, the original inhabitants 
oi' Ildiamtihiniy Coram ^ and other easterly nations, are in a 
gr(>at measure the victims of the kidnapping system, and being 
infidels are considered as fair booty. 

Nothing has tended more decidedly to the deterioration of 
the Malayan character, than the want of a well defined and 
generally ackiiow ledged svsteiu of law and commercial regn- 



MAHOMETANISM. 261 

ation. The Malayan nations had, in general, made consider- 
ible progress in civilization, before the introduction of the 
if ahometan religion among them : they had, accordingly, 
egolar institutions of their own, some of which were probably 
f considerable antiquity, derived firom the continent of 
ndia, and consequently radically different firom those of the 
Liabs. 

Some difficulty appears to have occurred in adapting these 
ostitutions to the general tenor of the Mahometan law, and 
Qany anomalous ones appear accordingly to have sprung up 
Q different states. These occur in every part of jurisprudence, 
rhether commercial, civil, or criminal, and are recited in the 
7ndang undang and Adat Maldyu^ which are the systems of 
iational law among the Maldyus. They vary considerably 
nom each other in different states, and still more firom the 
eneraUy acknowledged principle of Mahometan law, as 
Bceived by the Arabs. Hence there is, in almost every state, 

constant struggle between the adherents of the old Malayan 
sages and the Hdjis, together with other religious persons, 
rho are desirous of introducing the laws of the Arabs, in 
rder to increase their own importance. 

Among the numerous and important evils which result firom 
iia complex and ill-defined system, may be reckoned its 
ffbrding an opening for the caprice and iyroimy of the 
ilers, and producing a general insecurity both of person and 
roperty. 

The state of the Moslem religion is very different here firom 
^hat it is in the old Mahomedan states, such as Persia, Turkey, 
r Arabia. In many of the Eastern Islands paganism still 
nnains : in some districts there are many Christians, and the 
hinese swarm in every Malayan country, and live inter- 
lingled with the Mahomedans. This mixture of religion and 
ibes has tended, in some degree, to soften the intolerance of 
le Mahomedan system among the Malayan nations, and 
either tlie positive authority of Islam y nor the persuasions 
r their Arab teachers, have hitherto been able to induce 
lem to abandon entirely their own peculiar usages and cus- 
•ms. With some of these usages, especiaUy those which 
late to wrecks on the Malayan shores, and the commercial 
gulations of the different ports, it becomes incumbent on 



202 PROCmESS OF CHRISTIANITY. 

the supreme European authority to interfere. In revising 
these, the opportunity might perhaps be taken to procure the 
abandonment of some of those maxims and usages, which 
have the strongest tendency to prevent their improvement, and 
counteract Uic habits of civilized life. 

A circumstance highly injurious to the commerce of the 
Malayan nations is the trading monopoly, which in most of 
tlie Malayan ports is actually assumed by the chiefs. Of this 
monopoly there is no trace in the Undang lindnng of th^" 
Maldy^iSy or in the fragments of their history which have wt 
come to light, and it is a question whetlier this pemiciniu 
practice has not been copied from the monopoly regulations 
of the Dutch. Where this svstem has been fiiUv carried into 
effect, it has generally succeeded eifectually in repressing 
industry- and counnercial cnterprize ; and where it has been 
for some time established, its e^'ils have been felt so deeply, 
that it may be presumed the Malayan chiefs might be induced 
to relinquish it in favour of a regulated commerce, whenever 
they might regain the power of collecting regular duties in 
lieu of it. The Malavan laws and customs arc fortunatelv of 
a very diflbrcnt kind from tliose adopted among the great 
nations of the continent in their vicinity. Tlicse nations 
especially the Siamese and Cochin Chinese, have long been 
accustomed to look up to the Chinese, uith whom they coin- 
cide in religion and manners, and from whom they liavo 
adopted their exclusive maxims of foreign intercourse. The 
Mdiiii/us, on the other hand, though accustomed to look up 
to the Arabs as their religious instructors, seldom hesitate to 
admit the superiority of both the Europeans and Chines* 
both to tliemselves and to the Arabs, in the arts of life and 
general science ; and it is certainly our interest to encourage 
them in this mode of thinking, and to prevent the increase of 
the Arab iniluence among them. 

'llie Dutch nation a])pears to have piuisued, as a principle 
of p()li(*v, the ])ropagation of C-hristianity among the Eastern 
Islands. The same object had been previously followed by 
the Portuguese with great success, and there arc now several 
small islands in the Malayan Archipelago, inhabited almost 
exehisivrly bv Christians of the Catholic persuasion. In 
iiitniy other islands the IVotestant j^ersuasion has made con- 



BORNEO. 263 

siderable progress, and teachers, in the flourishing times of 
the Batavian Regency, were dispersed over all the low chain 
of islands which extend from Bali and Lumbok (SdsakJ to 
the great island Timor. The islands in which the Christian 
fidth has been most extensively difiused are the great island 
End^ or Meng* ardiy the great island of Timor, and the several 
small islands in the vicinity, and Amboina. In many of these 
islands the natives having no written character of their own, 
have been instructed in the Roman character, and taught to 
read Malayan and other dialects in it There have also been 
various formularies printed for their use, and translations have 
been executed for them in some of their languages, which 
have little or no affinity to the Malayan. The propagation of 
Christianity among these islands is obviously liable to none 
of those objections which have been urged against its mis- 
rionaries on continental possessions. A great proportion of 
the natives are still pagans, under the influence of a wild and 
almost unintelligible superstition, the principles of which are 
not recorded in books, but are handed down, like stories of 
ghosts, fairies, and witches, with all the uncertainty of tradi- 
tion. In most instances, the people, though they stand in 
great awe of the priests or enchanters, or dealers with invisible 
spirits, are very little attached to the superstition in which 
they are educated. Many of them are said to be very desi- 
rous of procuring instruction, and in some places they look 
up with a degree of veneration to the Mahomedans, as a 
people who have received something which they still want. 

These observations on tlie Malayan Islands in general, 
apply to no part of the Archipelago more than to the im- 
portant and great island of Borneo. 

Borneo is not only one of the most fertile countries in the 
world, but one of the most productive in gold and diamonds*. 

* Gold. — From a calculation recently made, it appears that the nmnber 
of Chinese employed in the gold mines at Mentrada and other places on 
the western side of Borneo, amounts to not less than thirty-two thousand 
working men. When amine affords no more than foiur hengkdls (weighing 
about two dollars each, or something less than a tahit) per man in the year, 
it is reckoned a losing concern, and abandoned accordingly. Valuing the 
henghal at eighteen Spanish dollars, which is a low rate of estimation, and 
supposing only four hmgkals produced in the year by the labour of each 

10 



26'4 BORNEO. 

Its camphor is the finest known, and it is thought capable of 
producing every kind of spice. Its eastern coasts, which 

man, the total produce is 128,000 bengkaU, worth 2,224,000 Spanish 
dollars, equal to 556,000/., at the rate of five shiUings the dollar. But it 
is asserted, that upon the general run of the mines, seldom less than lix 
bengkals per head has heen obtained, and in very rainy seasons seven. 
Taking the medium at six and a half bengkals, the 32,000 Chinese will 
procure 208,000 bengkals, which at eighteen Spanish dollars the bengkalis 
3, 744, 000 Spanish dollars, equal to 936,000/. Such is the result of a very 
moderate calculation of the produce of these mines. According to an citi- 
mate made in the year 1812, the annual produce of the mines on the west 
coast of Borneo was estimated at 4,744,000 Spanish dollars, being an ex- 
cess of a million sterling. The quantity of gold procured on Sumatra, the 
supposed golden Chersonesus of the ancients, is according to Mr. Marsden 
about 30,800 ounces, which, at 4/. sterling the ounce, is worth 123,200/., 
equal to 492,800 Spanish dollars. 

With respect to the disposal of the gold from the mines of Borneo, it 
may be obsen^ed, that every native Chinese, whether employed in the 
mines, in agriculture, as merchant or artificer, manages every year to remit 
at least the value of one tahil, more or less, of gold to his relations in 
China. These remittances are generally made by the junks in gold, as it 
saves freight, is more easily smuggled on shore without the notice of the 
rapacious Mandarin, and remitted over-land to the residence of their fami- 
lies. Taking the Chinese male population who can thus remit at doubk 
the numl)er employed in the mines, and supposing one half to be bom in 
the countr}', most of whom may not remit to China, this remittance would 
amount to 34,000 bengkals or tahils, which at eighteen Spanish dollars is 
612,000 dollars, or 153,000/. 

It is calculated that, one year with another, at least five hundred Chinese 
return in the junks to their native country with a competency. Se^'eral 
have been kno\\'n to take away one thousand bengkals of gold, many from 
three to five hundred, but ver)* few return before they have cleared a com- 
petency of two thousand dollars, or from one hundred to one himdred and 
twenty tnhil of gold. This goes partly in gold ; though they prefer invest- 
ing a part of it in tin from Banka, opium, and other articles. Say, how- 
ever, that they remit one half in gold, five hundred men, at one thousand 
dollars each, will give five hundred thousand dollars, which added to the 
small family remittances, accounts for an amount exceeding one million of 
dollars, or 2r)(),()00/. Tliis calculation, however, seems to be far within 
the mark, and gives less by one h<df than what is usually stated to be re- 
mitted to China from the Dornean mines, which has been estimated att 
loose guess at two millioiw of dollars, or 500,000/. 

A further ainoiuit of not less than the value of n million of dollars 
(2.")O,0O()/.) is suppofc^ed to find its way annually to Western India, and 
principally to Bengal, riV Batavia, lilalacca, and Pinang, for the pur- 



B(JRN£0. 265 

d in sago, also furnish a greater quantity of birds' -nests, 
igy and other commodities in great demand in the 

r opium and piece goods. The surplus enriches Java and some of 
sr idands, in exchange for salt, tobacco, coarse cloths, &c. 
e mines are worked with so little ezpence of machinery^ the funds 
ty for commencing an undertaking of the kind are small ; and as 
perty of the soil belongs to the first occupant, almost every Chinese 
become a proprietor, but from the mode by which their services are, 
Irtt instance, secured by the council of proprietors or kongsis. A 
f half-starved Chinese, enchanted with the prospect of wealth on 
len shores of Borneo, readily find a passage in the annual junks 
i firom the mother-country to Borneo, at ten dollars a head. On their 
being unable to pay the passage money, and the tax of a dollar per 
(tabhshed by the native authority, while their inunediate wants of 
sthing, and habitation, are urgent and imperious, the proprietors of 
68 find it easy to engage their services for three or four years. In 
[&er cases, agents are employed to obtain men from China, on stipu- 
reements, to work for a number of years ; the usual rate of payment 
liners so engaged is not considered to average less than five Spanish 
I month. No sooner, however, are these engagements concluded 
iir masters, than a number of them club together with the funds 
re been able to save, and commence a new mine upon their joint 
, in a few years acquiring a competency to return to their native 

ONDS — ^There appears to be no just foundation for the idea, that 
aonds of Borneo are inferior to those of Golconda. Many of an 
quality have no doubt foimd their way into the market, because 
18 perhaps less skiU and judgment in the selection ; but the value of 
Is here, as well as every where else, depends upon their shape, size, 
sr, and in this respect the diamonds of Borneo will bear a com- 
with those of any country yet known. Indeed, as far as we may 
om the present state of our information, the L&ndak mines alone 
"oductive, and its diamonds as precious, as any other in the world, 
rincipal mines where diamonds are regularly dug for on Borneo, 
id in any considerable quantities, are those of hkadak, S^mgau, on 
t river Lawi, and the districts of Banjer-m4sin. Diamonds have 
asionally found within the limits of Borneo Proper, at Mdtan and 
a. The mines of Landak are as ancient as the Malayan dominion 
lands, those of Sangau are of more recent date, and those of Banjer- 
e said to have been first discovered in the reign of Sultan Sepoh, 
[>m the present sultan is the fourth in descent, 
inds are not only found in the bottom of rivers when dry, but at 
Df craggy hills and mountains. The pdrits, or mines, are dug to 
I of from one to five fathoms only ; but experience has invariably 
hat the deeper they are dug, not only are the diamonds more abun- 
t superior in size, shape, and water. The soil which produces 



:i66 BORNEO. 

Chinese market^ than the other islands of the East ; but the 
interior has never been explored by Europeans. It may be 

diamonds is known from a species of earth called by the natiTes Mor or 
Idbor-gig^gi, This is sometimes black, sometimes white, red, onmgey and 
green : it is a species of earth which stains the dothet of the labourer, and 
is distinguished by many names. 

At L4ndak there are ten pdritM worked by Chinese, and in each firam 
twenty to thirty labourers employed As a general average, eight Chincss 
are supposed to find about eight bau^kals of diamonds in a year. From two 
to three hundred of the smallest sort are supposed to go to a bmffktd, va- 
lued at from twenty to twenty-four rupees. This is independent of the 
larger ones, which are casual. So far back as the year 1738, the Dutch 
annually exported from the produce of these mines, diamonds to the vifaie 
of from two to three hundred thousand dollars. 

Few courts of Europe could perhaps boast of a more brilliant display of 
diamonds than, in the prosperous times of the Dutch, was exhibited by 
the ladies of Batavia, the principal and only mart yet opened for the Bor« 
nean diamond mines, and whence those known in the European world hare 
been procured. With the decline of the Dutch government, however, the 
demand has decreased, and the mines are now almost neglected, the nn- 
merous diamond-cutters not being able to obtain a livelihood. Formeriy, 
when more Chinese were employed in the mines of L6ndak, <ii»moiiil« 
from ten to thirteen carats were common in the public markets. The 
Pang^ran of L&ndak now wears one of eighteen, and another of fourteen 
carats and a half. SSince Java has been in the posaesrion of the English, 
rough diamonds from Borneo have been sent to England, and, even in a 
very unfavourable state of the market, turned out an advantageous remit- 
tance. 

Among the larger diamonds which these mines have produced, it may 
not be uninteresting to mention, that the great diamond now in the pos- 
session of the Sultan of M4tan, which has been seen and ezanuned by 
Europeans, weighs three himdred and sixty-seven carats : it is of the shape 
of an egg indented on one side. It is, however, uncut; and, on this 
accoimt, it may be difficult to say, whether it will become the largest cat 
diamond ever known ; for the famous diamond of Aurung Zebe, called 
the Mogul, in its rough state weighed seven hundred and ninety-five 
carats, and vnis then valued at 600,000/., but when cut was reduced to 
two hundred and seventy-nine carats. This celebrated diamond, known 
by the name of the Matan diamond, was discovered by a dayak, and 
claimed as a droit of royalty by the Sultan of the country, G<!iru-Lf&ya ; 
but was handed over to the Pang^ran of Tiandak, whose brother having 
got possession of it, gave it as a bribe to the Sultan of Sdkad&na, in order 
that he might 1>e placed on the throne of L&ndak : the lawful prince, how- 
ever, having fled to Ikmtam, by the aid of the prince of that country and 
the Dutch, succeeded in regaining possession of his district, and nearly 
destroyed Sukadana. It has remained as an heir-loom in the fiunily ol 



BORNEO. 2(57 

conjectured, that the ignorance of the state of the country is 
one of the principal causes that no European settlement on it 
has hitherto proved advantageous, but has generally been 
abandoned after a short trial. The only exception to this 
observation is the Dutch settlement of JBdnjer-mdsiny which 
continued from 1747 to 1810, when it was formally aban- 
dcmed by Marshal Daendals to the Sultan, by agreement, for 
the sum of fifty thousand Spaaish dollars. The Sultan soon 
after sent an embassy, inviting the English to settle; and 
previous to the conquest of Java, the Earl of Minto received 
the ambassadors at Malacca, and accepted their invitation. 

The only territory to which the Dutch had any claim on 
the island of Borneo, was the coast from Sukaddna to Mem- 
pdwa ; this territory they acquired by virtue of a cession from 
the Sultan of Bantam in 1778. They destroyed Sukaddna, 
and established factories at Pontidna and Mempdwa, which 
however they abandoned as unproductive after a period of 
fourteen years. 

In no other part of the island of Borneo has there been 
any European settlement. The English, in 1772, intended to 
have estabUshed a factory at PdsiVy but they abandoned the 
design on some commotions taking place in that state. Its 
object was to make Pdsir a depot for opium and India piece 
goods, and for the contraband trade in spices. In 1774, a 
short time after the first settling of Balambdngan, Mr. Jesse 
was deputed as Resident to Borneo proper, and concluded a 
treaty with that state, by which he acquired for the settlement 
of Balambdngan the exclusive trade in pepper, stipulating in 
return to protect Borneo from the piratical incursi(His of the 
Siilu and Mendandwi men. Neither of the parties, however, 
fidfilled its agreement, though the Residency at Borneo was 
continued for some years after the first breaking up of the 
settlement of Balambdngan in 1775. 

On the north-east of Borneo proper lies a very considerable 
territor\% the sovereignty of which has been long claimed by 
the Sulu government ; a very considerable part of this, together 
with the islands off the coast, have been for upwards of forty 

these princes for four descents, and is almost the only appendage of ro3ralty 
now remaining. 



208 BORNEO. 

years regularly ceded to the English by the SAlujf^ and han 
also at different periods been assumed by them, without any 
objection on the part of the government of Borneo proper- 
This ceded district, extending from the river Ki-manis on the 
north-west, which forms the boundary of Borneo proper^ to 
the great bay on the north-east, is undoubtedly a rich and 
fertile country, though in a rude and uncultivated state, and it 
is admirably situated for commerce, notwithstanding the dif- 
ferent failures of Balambangan may seem to indicate the con* 
trary. Balnmbdngan is one of the small islands off the 
northern extremity of the island of Borneo, and incladed in 
the Siilu grant to the English. It would be foreign to the 
present object to enter into any details concerning the histoiy 
of the settlement of Balumbdngan^ but it may be proper to 
mention, that all the gentlemen who were engaged in the last 
attempt were convinced that the bottom of the great Maludtt 
Bay would have been infinitely preferable as a settlement on 
every account. Balamhdngan is exactly analogous, in every 
rcsj)ect, to Pinang ; it does not admit of territorial extension, 
and must exist, if at all, by commerce solely. Maluduy on tlie 
other hand, is a dependi'ncy on the island of Borneo, which 
admits of any degree of territorial extension, may always sub- 
sist any imniber of inhabitants by its own produce, and is said 
to communicate, by a land carriage of little more than forty 
miles, vnih the central lakes in tlie vicinity of the gold coun- 
tries. 

From every inquir}% however, and the result of some expe- 
rience, and much reflection, it may be stated, that no settlement 
whicli is founded on a commercial, instead of a territoria] 
basis, is likely to succeed in that quarter. We have already 
acquired territorial rights, and therefore the only question 
seems to be, whether these cannot be turned to advantage, as 
well by cultivation as by commerce. The Ddgakn^ or original 
inhabitants of Borneo, are said to be not only industrious, but 
j)arliciilarly disj>()sod to agriculliu'e, and so manageable, that 
a li and ill] of Malagus have, in numerous places, reduced many 
tliousan<ls of tlieni to the condition of peaceful cidtivators of 
tlie ground. Indeed nothing seems wanting but a govern- 
nient stnmg enough to afloril efficient protection to ]>erson and 
])ropcrty. In the cas<» of the DdyakHy it must be considered as 



BORN£(). -269 

an adTantagCy that they have not hitherto adopted the religion 
of Islam, and would consequently be more ready from the 
first to regard us as their friends. It ought to be calculated 
among the inducements to form a settlement on Borneo, that 
in that quarter our territorial arrangement would interfere 
with the claims or the rights of no European nation. To recom- 
mend, however, the immediate establishment of a settlement 
at this particular spot, and on a basis so new, would obviously 
be premature, as notwithstanding the length of time we oc- 
cupied BalambdngaUy not only the interior of Borneo was 
almost unknown, but until lately, even a great part of its 
coasts. This supineness in the government of Balambdngan 
is perhaps not unexampled. The want of local information 
has, indeed, often proved fatal to the infant settlements of the 
English. " Colonies and settlements of every kind," says the 
author of the Letter on the Nagrais Expedition, " must at 
" first be attended with many difficulties, which however a 
" judicious perseverance will surmount, if there be not some 
original fault in the establishment. It must be obvious to 
every one, that the English never made a settlement, in 
" which they were not impeded by some unforeseen difficul- 
^^ ties, so as at least frequently to make abandoning the infant 
** establishment appear the most prudent step, without even 
" hoping any return for the prodigious expense which may have 
" been incurred by the undertaking." — "Various reasons," adds 
that author, " may be ascribed for this event ; but incapacity 
" in the person entrusted with the management, and the 
" want of previous examination of the place, seem to me the 
" most common and the most considerable." Without stop- 
ping to inquire how far the want of success in our several at- 
tempts to settle Balambdngan may have been fairly attributable 
to either of these causes, it may be confidently asserted, that 
the last establishment failed chiefly from its being solely of a 
military nature, without either professional merchants or mer- 
cantile adventurers being attached to it. 

These observations respecting Balambdngan apply to it 
chiefly as a territorial estabUshment ; but there is no doubt 
that it would speedily attain commercial importance. Many 
of the commercial advantages which recommended its selec- 
tion still exist, to an equal or greater extent ; especially those 



u 



270 JAPAN TRADE. 

which related to Cochin China, Champa, and Cambodia. But 
this digression has ahready exceeded its reasonable limits, and 
it is necessary to revert to the more immediate pcnnt vmAer 
consideration, the commerce of Java. Any account of this 
commerce would be imperfect, which after stating the extent 
to which it is carried, and the mode in which it is conducted 
with the adjacent islands in the same Archipelago, sbcmld 
omit to mention the advantages of an intercourse with Japan, 
and some notices on the Japan trade. 

The history of the Dutch connexion with that countiy is 
well known, and can never be forgotten. Perhaps there is not 
such an instance in the annals of commerce, of the disgrace- 
ful arts to which mercantile cupidity will resort, and the de- 
gradation to which it wi\l submit for the attainment of its 
object, as in the Dutch proceedings at Japan ; nor is there, 
perhaps, a more remarkable example of the triumphant sue* 
cess, and complete disappointment of commercial cntcrprize. 
As it may be interesting to many readers to see an authentic 
histor}*^ of the origin, fluctuations, and decline of the Dutch 
Japan trade, and as even a veiy succinct statement of it would 
swell this chapter to a disproportioncd size, I have placed a 
short history of it in the Appendix to this work, to which I 
beg leave to refer those who have any curiosity for such de- 
tails*. From the year 1611, when the Dutch established 
commercial relations with Japan, till 1671 (a period of sixty 
years), their speculations were unrestricted and their profitB 
were enormous. This was the golden age of their trade : they 
opened a mine of wealth, and they fondly thought it in- 
exhaustible, as well as rich and easily wrought In 1640, the 
Company obtained a return in gold, that yielded a profit of 
upwards of a million of guilders, lliey had been accustomed 
to j>r()cure, for some time previous to 1663, a return of silver 
to the extent of two hundred chests of one hundred pounds 
eacli, and it was suggested that it would be desirable for as 
iiiaiiy chests of gold of tlic same weight to be sent in future. 
Tlie golden and silver ages of Japan commerce being juist, 
th(* latter half of the seventeentli century began with what the 
Dutch called its brazen age, that is its export of copper, which 

* See Appendix B. 



JAPAN TRADE. 271 

has ever since continued the staple of the Japan market The 
trade was on the decline during the whole of the last cen- 
tury, and had become of so little importance about 1740, that 
the Company deliberated upon the expediency of its total 
abandonment. From employing, as at one time, eight or nine 
ships, and exporting copper alone to the amount of more than 
thirty thousand plkuls, of one hundred and twenty-five pounds 
each, it diminished to the use of two vessels, and the purchase 
of cargoes of five or six thousand pikuls. The Appendix con- 
tains an account of the nature of the trade, and the result of the 
Dutch adventures of 1804-5 and 1806, and of our own in 1813. 



CHAPTER VI. 



Character qf the inhabitants of Java — Difference between the Suntku md Ik 
Javans—The Lower Orders— The Chiefs— Natwre qf the NoHm Gown- 
ment— Different Officers of the State— Jndidal EstabUskmemU and iuli- 
tutiofis — Laws, and how administered — PoHee JnttOuHons and Regnktkmt 
— Military Establishments — Revenue. 

Having, in the foregoing pages, attempted to introduce the 
inhabitants of Java to the reader, by an account of their per- 
son, their manners, and emplo}inent in the principal depart* 
mcnts of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, I shall 
now endeavoiu: to make him, in some degree, acquainted with 
their intellectual and moral character, their institutions, go- 
vernment, and such otlier particulars as may contribute to 
enable him to form some estimate of their relative rank in the 
scale of civilized society. 

From what has been stated of their progress in the manu- 
facturing and agricultiu'al arts, their general advancement in 
knowledge may be easily estimated. Tliere are no establish- 
ments for teaching tlie sciences, and there is little spirit of 
scientific research among them. The common people have 
little leisure or inclination for impronng their minds or ac- 
quiring information, but they are far from being deficient in 
natiural sagacity or docility. Their organs are acute and deli- 
cate, their obsenation is ready, and tlieir judgment of cha- 
racter is generally correct. Like most Eastern nations, they 
are enthusiastic admirers of poetry, and possess a delicate ear 
for music. ITiough deficient in energj-, and excited to action 
with difliculty, the eflect probably of an enervating climate 
and a still more enenatiiig government, they are capable of 
great occasional exertion, and sometimes display a remarkable 
])ersevrrance in surmounting obstacles or enduring labours. 
'Iliough ignorant and unimproved, they arc far from wanting 
intelligence in the general objects of their pursuit, and fre* 



CHARACTER OF THE JAVANS. 273 

quently astonish Europeans by the ingenuity of their expe- 
dientSy and the facility with which they accomplish difficult 
operations by apparently inadequate means. 

People in a rude state of society are not always prepared 
to admit their inferiority, or inclined to adopt manifest im- 
proTements : what is much beyond their skill or their power, 
may excite their wonder, but does not always tempt their 
imitation. This is more peculiarly the case, where national 
pride or religious prejudice stand in the way ; and the con- 
tempt of imbelievers, with which the Mahomedan system in- 
spires its votaries, leads them usually to undervalue the arts 
in which others excel, or the instruction which they com- 
municate. The Javans, though far from deficient in national 
pride, and though Mahomedans, are free from this senseless 
and pernicious prejudice, and are ready to acknowledge the 
superiority of the Europeans, as well as disposed to imitate 
their arts and to obey their direction. No people can be more 
tractable ; and although their external appearance indicates 
listlessness and sometimes stupidity, none possess a quicker 
apprehension of what is clearly stated, or attain a more rapid 
proficiency in what they have a desire to learn. The restraints 
under which conversation labours by the necessity of using 
different dialects in addressing different orders of society, as 
well as the respect paid to superiority of rank, prevents them 
from such a frequent intercourse of thought and opinion as 
might otherwise be expected, and often renders them, to ap- 
pearance, reserved and taciturn, although in fact, they are 
social, cheerful, and good humoured. 

An uninstructcd people are often credulous, and the Javans 
are remarkable for their unsuspecting and almost infantine 
credulity. Susceptible of every impression that artifice may 
attempt to make upon them, and liable to every delusion propa- 
gated by the prejudiced or the designing, they not inaptly 
compare themselves to a piece of pure white cloth, on which 
any dye or shade of colour may be laid. They lend an easy 
credence to omens, to prognostics, to prophets, and to quacks. 
They easily become the dupes of any religious fanatic, and 
creddt, without scruple or examination, his claim to super- 
natural powers. Their profession of Mahomedanism has not 
relieved them from the superstitious prejudices and observ- 

VOL. I. T 



274 CHARACTER OF THE JAYANS. 

ancea of an anterior worship : they are thus open to the ac- 
cumulated delusion of two religious systems. 

They are great observers of lucky or unlucky days, or na- 
tural phenomena, and undertake no journey or enleiprize 
without attending to them. It is unlucky to go any where 
on the day that you hear of the death of a firiend : the si^ 
of two crows fighting in the air is unlucky : two small birds 
(called prenjak) fighting near a house, afford a prognostic of 
the arrival of a firiend firom a distance. Explosions or noises 
heard from the mountains not only excite terror for their im- 
mediate consequences, but are thought to forebode some great 
calamity, unconnected with the convulsions of nature, of 
which they are the symptoms, such as a sanguinary war, a 
general famine, or an epidemic sickness. The eclipses of die 
sun and moon powerfully excite this superstitious spirit, and 
induce many absurd notions and observations. Earthquakes 
fiimish certain prognostics, according to the day of the month 
on which they happen. In none of their superstitions^ how- 
ever, is there any thing of that gloomy, dark, or malignant 
cast, which distinguishes those of less fieivonred ftlimi^^ or of 
more savage tribes. 

Although, on many occasions, listless and unenterprising, 
their religious enthusiasm is no sooner excited, than they 
become at once adventurous and persevering, esteeming no 
labour arduous, no result impossible, and no privation painfiiL 
We \i'itnessed an instance, both of their simplicity and of their 
energy, connected with this part of their character, which ex- 
cited our astonishment. The population of some of the dis- 
tricts of Bdnyumds contributed their voluntary labour, in 
1814, to the construction of a broad high road, from the base 
to the summit of one of the loftiest mountains on the island 
(ilic mountain S€imbing\ and this extraordinary public woik 
was almost completed, before intelligence of its commence- 
ment reached the government It was in consequence ex- 
amined, and foimd to bo a work of immense labour and care, 
but without the least appearance of object or utility. Upon 
enquiring into the motive of such a singular undertaking, it 
was Icamt that a general belief prevailed, that there was a 
very holy man at tlie top of the mountain, who would not 
come Acmn till there should be a good road made for 



CHARACTER OF THE JAVANS. 275 

The MaMrese are said to believe, that the spirits of the dead 
revisit the earth; but this does not appear to be a Javan 
8iq>erstition. 

Their prejudices are neither very numerous nor unjdelding, 
and seem generally to have originated in some laudable feel- 
ing or amiable weakness. Their nationality, which is very 
strong, although it deUghts in the traditionary narratives of 
ancient Javan exploits, and supports a hope of future indepen- 
dence, which they are not backward to express, does not lead 
them to despise the character, or to undervalue the acts of 
strangers. They have a contempt for trade, and those of 
higher rank esteem it disgraceful to be engaged in it ; but the 
common people are ever ready to engage in the labours of 
agriculture, and the chiefs to honour and encourage agricui- 
toral industry. Those of the highest rank and greatest autho- 
rity, generally attend at the opening of new sdwdh fields, 
p^orming part of the work with their own hands, and lead- 
ing their inferiors or dependents, as they express it, to pay 
respect to the earth, in whose honour they also observe an- 
nually the sedSka bUmiy or feast to the earth. It is in the 
same spirit that the buffalo, as the chief assistant of the hus- 
bandman, is viewed with such pecuHar regard, that in some 
of the interior districts, new-bom infants are sometimes car- 
ried to be breathed upon by them, firom a superstitious belief 
that such a ceremony will render them fortunate. 

Notwithstanding the despotic nature of their government, 
and the feudal principles on which it rests, the Javan must 
be conddered as a patriarchial people, still retaining many of 
the virtues, and all the simplicity, which distinguish that 
state of society. Their village settlements constitute detached 
societies, under their local chief and priest, and the same in- 
ternal concord prevails in these littie associations which cha- 
racterises patriarchial tribes. Vicinity and daily intercourse 
afford opportunities of conferring real assistance and acts of 
kindness : injustice and even violence may sometimes be com- 
mitted against the inhabitants of other villages, but very sel- 
dom by the inhabitants of the same village against each other. 
The patriarchial spirit of the Javans may be further traced, in 
the veneration which they pay to age, the respect and acqui- 
escence with which they receive the maxims or the counsels 

T 2 



276 CHARACTER OF THE JAVANS. 

of experience, the ready contented submission which they 
shew to the commands of their immediate superiors, the 
warmth of their domestic attachments, and the affectionate 
reverence with which they regard and protect the tombs and 
the ashes of their fathers. To the same description of feel- 
ings may be referred that consideration for ancestry, that 
attention to tlie Kne of descent, and that regard to the histoiy 
and merits of distant kindred, which in the meanest people 
appears often to assume the character of family pride. 

These observations apply principally to the inhabitants of 
villages, at some distance from the seats of the princes or 
regents, and the contagion of the larger capitals, and more 
particularly to the people of the SUndu districts. Those of 
higher rank, those employed about court, or in administering 
to the pleasures or luxuries of the great, those collected into 
the caj)itals or engaged in the public service, are frequently 
profligate and comij)t, exhibiting many of the vices of civiliz- 
ation without its refinement, and the ignorance and deficien- 
cies of a rude state without its simplicity. The people in the 
neighbourhood of Batavia are the worst in the Island, and 
the long intercourse >vitli strangers has been almost equally 
fatal to tlie morals of the lower part of Bantam. The popu- 
lation collected at Oie native capitals is naturally influenced, 
to a certain extent, by the vices of the court ; but the further 
they are n^moved from European influence and foreign inter- 
course, Uie better are their morals and the happier are the 
people. 

In attempting to exhibit some of the more striking features 
of the Javan character, it becomes necessary to distinguish 
between the privileged classes of society and the mass of the 
people. liong continued oppression may have injured the 
character of the latter, and obliterated some of its brighter 
traits ; but to the fonner, the constant exercise of absolute 
dominion has done a more serious injur}', by removing every 
salutary restraint on the passions, and encouraging the growth 
of rank and odious vices. In the peasantry we observe all 
that is simple, natural, and ingenuous : in the higher orders 
we sometimes discover violence, deceit, and gross sensuality. 

Where not comipted by indulgence on the one hand, or 
stupified by oppression on the other, the Javans appear to be 



CHARACTER OF THE JAVANS. 277 

a generous and warm-heaxted people. In their domestic re- 
lations they are kind, affectionate, gentle, and contented ; in 
their public, they are obedient, honest, and faithful. In their 
intercourse with society, they display, in a high degree, the 
virtues of honesty, plain dealing, and candour. Their inge- 
nuousness is such, that as the first Dutch authorities have 
acknowledged, prisoners brought to the bar on criminal 
charges, if really guilty, nine times out of ten confess, without 
disguise or equivocation, the fiill extent and exact circum- 
stances of their offences, and communicate, when required, 
more information on the matter at issue than all the rest of 
the evidence. Although this may, in some degree, be the 
result of the former use of torture, it cannot be wholly so. 

Though not much addicted to excess, and of rather a slow 
temperament, they are in general liberal and expensive, 
according to their means, seldom hoarding their wealth, or 
betraying a penurious disposition. Fond of show and pomp, 
they lay out all their money, as soon as it is acquired, in the 
purchase of articles of dress, horses, splendid trappings, &c. : 
but they possess a quality which is not always joined with a 
love of splendour, either in nations or individuals ; they are 
cleanly in their persons, and pay the greatest attention to 
neatness, as well as to glare and finery. 

Hospitality is universal among them ; it is enjoined by 
their most ancient institutions, and practised with readiness 
and zeal. The Javans are exceedingly sensible to praise or 
shame *, and ambitious of power and distinction ; but their 

• The inhabitants of these Islands are strikingly alive to a sense of 
shame ; a feeling, which is heightened by the influence of a tradition 
among the Maliyus, that, on the first establishment of the Malayan nation, 
the islanders stipulated, that neither they nor their descendants should 
ever be put to shame. The tradition runs as follows : 

*' Then Ampu and Moling made obeisance to Sangsapurha (a prince 
*' who had arrived in Sumatra from Western India, and who is supposed 
** to have founded the Malayan empire) and represented to him that De- 
" mang Lebar Daon (chieftain broad leaf of Palembang), had a daughter. 
*' Sangsapurba accordingly sent to ask her in marriage ; but he excused 
" himself, alleging, that she would probably be struck with sickness, and 
'^ that he would only resign her to him as a wife on certain conditions. 
** These conditions were, that, on Sangsapurba marrying his daughter, all 
" the family of Demang Lebar Daon should submit themselves to him ; 



278 CHARACTER OF THE JAVANS. 

national oppressions or agricultural habits hare rendered 
them somewhat indifferent to military glory, and depnTcd 
them of a great portion of their ancient warlike energy. TTicy 
are more remarkable for passive fortitude than actiTe courage, 
and endure privations with patience, rather than make exer- 
tions with spirit and enterprize. 

Though living under a government where justice was sel- 
dom administered with purity or impartiality, and where, of 
course, we might expect to see the hand of private violence 
stretched out to pimish private wrong, or a general spirit of 
retaliation and insidious cruelty prevailing, the Javans are, 
in a great degree, strangers to unrelenting hatred and blood- 
thirsty revenge. Almost the only passion that can urge them 
to deeds of vengeance or assassination, is jealousy. The 
wound given to a husband's honour by seducing his wife, is 
seldom healed, the crime seldom forgiven ; and what is re- 
markable, the very people who break the marriage tie on the 
slightest caprice, or the most vague pretence, are yet un- 
commonly watchful over it while it remains entire. They are 
little liable to those fits and starts of anger, or those sudden 
explosions of fuiy, which appear among northern nations. 
To this remark have been brought forward as exceptions, 

" but that Sangsapurba should engage, both for himself and his pocterity, 
*' that they should receive a liberal treatment ; and, in particular, that 
" when they committed a fault, they should never be exposed to shame 
" nor o})probrious language, but if their fault was great, that they should 
** be put to death according to the law. San ff sapurha ngreed to these con- 
** (litions ; but he requested, in his turn, that the descendants of Demtmg 
" Ijehar Daon should never move any treasonable practices against his 
" descendants, even though they shoidd become tyrannicaL * Very well,' 
*' said Danang Ijebar Daon ; * but if your descendants break your agree- 
*' 'ments, probably mine will do the same.' lliese conditions were mu- 
*' tually agreed to, and the })arties swore to perform them, imprecating the 
" divine vengeance to turn their authority upside doHn who should in- 
** fringe these agreements. From this condition it is, that none of the 
*' Malayan rajas ever expose their Malayan subjects to disgrace or shame : 
** they never bind them, nor hang them, nor give them opprobrious 
*' lan^a^e ; and whenever a raja exposes his subjects to disgrace, it is the 
** certain token of the destruction of his country. Hence also it is, that 
** none of the Malayan race ever engage in re)>ellion, or turn their faces 
** from their o^^'n rajahs, even though their conduct be bad, and their pro- 
*' ceedings tyrannical." — Malayan Annals. 



CHARACTER OF THE JAVANS. 279 

those acts of yengeance, proceeding from an irresistible 
phrenzy, called mucksy where the unhappy sufferer aims at 
indiscriminate destruction, till he himself is killed like a wild' 
beast, whom it is impossible to take alive. It is a mistake, 
however, to attribute these acts of desperation to the Javans. 

That such have occurred on Java, even during the British 
administration, is true, but not among the Javans : they have 
happened exclusively in the large towns of Batavia, Semd- 
ramgy and Surabdyay and have been confined almost entirely 
to the class of slaves. This phrenzy, as a crime against 
sociely, seems, if not to have originated under the Dutch, 
certainly at least to have been increased during their admi- 
nistration, by the great severity of their punishments. For 
the slightest fault, a slave was punished with a severity which 
he dreaded as much as death; and with torture in all its 
honid forms before his eyes, he often pieferred to rush on 
death and vengeance. 

Atrocious crimes are extremely rare, and have been prin- 
cipaUy owing to misgovemment when they have occurred. 
In answer to what has been asserted concerning robberies, 
assassinations, and thefts, it may be stated, that during the 
residence of the English, an entire confidence was reposed in 
the people, and that confidence was never found misplaced. 
The English never used bars or bolts to their houses, never 
travelled with arms, and no instance occurred of their being 
ill used. The Dutch, on the contrary, placed no confidence : 
all their windows were barred, and all their doors locked, to 
keep out the treacherous natives (as they called them), and 
Ifaey never moved five miles abroad without pistols and 
swords. What could be expected by a government that 
derived a principal part of its revenue by the encouragement 
of vice, by the farms of gaming, cock-fighting, and opium 
shops ? After the two former were abolished by the English, 
and the local government had done all in its power to dis- 
courage the latter, a visible amelioration took place in the 
morals of the lower ranks. 

Hordes of banditti, formidable for their numbers and au- 
dacity, formerly infested some parts of the country, particularly 
the provinces of Bantam and Ch6ribon ; but since they have 
been dispersed by the strong hand of government, the roads 



280 CHAILVCTER OF THE JAVANS. 

of Java may be travelled in as much security as those of 
England. 

Much has been said of the indolence of the Javans, by 
those who deprived tliem of all motives for industry. I shall 
not again repeat what I have formerly on several occasions 
stated on tliis subject, but shall only enter a broad denial of 
the charge. They are as industrious and laborious as any 
people could be expected to be, in their circumstances of 
insecurity and oppression, or as any people would be required 
to be, with their advantages of soil and climate. If they do 
not labour during the whole day, it is because such perse- 
vering toil is imnecessar}% or would bring them no additional 
enjo}Tiients. The best refutation of the charge of indolence 
is to be found in the extent of their cultivation, the well 
dressed appearance of tlieir rice fields, and the abundant 
supplies of their hanxsts. They generally rise by daylight : 
at half-past six they go out to the rice fields, where they 
employ their buffaloes till ten, when they return home, bathe, 
and refresh themselves with a meal. During the violent heat 
of the noon tliey remain under the shade of their houses or 
village trees, making baskets, mending their implements of 
husbandr}', or engaged in otlier necessary avocations, and at 
about four return to the sdwahs to labour them, without 
buffaloes or other cattle. At six they retiun to tlieir homes, 
sup, and spend the remainder of their time till the hour 
of rest (which is generally between eight and nine) in Uttle 
parties for amusement or conversation, when the whole village 
becomes a scene of quiet content and pleasure. The same 
round of toil and relaxation is observed during the season for 
giu*dcn culture, dry field labour, or otlier employments. 

Under this system, the villagers seem to enjoy a greater 
degree of happiness than they could derive firom tliose in- 
creased means tliat would result from increased exertion. I 
can bear testimony to tlieir general cheerfulness, contented- 
ncss, and good humour, for having visited their villages at all 
seasons, and often when least expected or entirely unknown, 
I have always found them either pleased and satisfied with 
their lot when engaged at their work, or social and festive in 
their hours of ])leasure. One observation generally made and 
admitted, would seem to militate against this part of the 



CHARACTER OE THE JAVANS. 281 

in character ; they are remarked to be envious and jealous 
ne another's success : but if this trait of character be with 
culty reconciled to their general reputation for contented- 
i and benevolence, it is surely still more inconsistent with 
indolent apathy with which they are often charged. 
, will appear tluroughout their history, that when strongly 
ted by the animosities of the constant wars in which they 
J engaged, they were frequently guilty of acts of great 
»arity : such as decapitating a vanquished enemy, and 
faig his head about Uke a football. In war and politics, 
h id not to be said in their favour, stratagem and intrigue 
g relied upon in preference to discipline, courage, or good 
i: even 'the Chinese, during what is called the Chinese 
on Java (A.D. 1750), would appear to deserve a higher 
lacter for bravery and good faith than the Javans. But it 
sasonable to attribute this, in some measure, to the de- 
ling influence of European despotism. A great disregard 
he little people is shewn throughout their poUtical his- 
, as is particularly exemplified in the instance of a mock 
le that was fought between the Chinese and Javans, near 
rdranffy in order to impose upon the Dutch. The Chinese 
led to know how they should act upon the occasion, 
ttack the whole army of the Javans by surprize," said the 
m negociators, ^' but be careful not to kill any of the 
defs or great people, and it will be a sham fighf 
f their nationality it may be observed, that ever since the 
arrival of Europeans, they have neglected no opportunity 
ttempting to regain their independence. A reference to 
chapters on history will be sufficient to illustrate this, as 
as to shew the national feeling on the encroachments 
assumptions of their European rulers. In the great 
\e of national independence all would unite, but they 
1 hardly to be sufficiently advanced in civilization to effect 
I an object, without the risk of relapsing into many bar- 
ties, from the practice of which they have been weaned, 
. long continuance of established government and general 
quiUity. Quiet and peaceable as the Javans now are, 
J they once roused to insurrection, their blood would 
lily boil, and they would no doubt be guilty of many 
isses. 



282 CHARACTER OF THE JAVANS. 

I might illostrate the Javan character atill farther bj a 
comparison of it with the Malayaiii hj ahewing, fipom the 
remains of those customs that are to be referred to an anterior 
and milder sjrstem, how much it has been altered bj the 
introduction of Mahomedanism, and by giving an estimate of 
the effects produced upon it by the goremment of the Dutch ; 
but this would anticipate some observations which will be 
more appropriate in other parts of this work. 

Of the causes which have tended to lower the character of 
the Asiatics in comparison with Europeans, none has had a 
more decided influence than polygamy. To all those noUe 
and generous feelings, all that delicacy of sentiment, that 
romantic and poetical spirit, which virtuous love inspires in 
the breast of an European, the Javan is a stranger, and in the 
communication between the sexes he seeks only convenience, 
and little more than the gratification of an appetite. But the 
evil does not stop here : education is neglected and fuuly 
attachments are weakened. Among the privileged oiden, 
the first wife is generally selected by the Mends of the party, 
fix)m motives of interest, and to strengthen family MlliJiiM^ 
and tiie second is rather to be considered as the object of the 
husband's choice. But if his circumstances admit of it, he 
has no scniple to entertain other women as concubines, who 
hold an honourable rank in his household. The progeny 
firom these connections is often immense. It has already 
been stated, that a Javan chief has been known to have 
upwards of sixty acknowledged children; and it too oAm 
happens, that in such cases sons having been neglected in 
Uieir infancy, become dissipated, idle and worthless, and 
spring up like rank grass and overrun the country, or serve 
but to fill up a long and useless retinue. Fortunately fi>r the 
peasantry', who are the mass of the population, they have 
escaped Uiis deteriorating institution ; and perhaps much of 
the comparative superiority of the character of the peasantry 
over that of tlic higher orders is to be attributed to this 
advantage. Tlie higher orders have also been move exposed 
to the influence of Mahomedanism and European innovation ; 
and if the former has removed firom their usages some traits 
of barbarism, and tended to the do'elopement of their intel- 
lectual qualities, it has introduced Mahomedan rices ; and 

9 



CHARACTER OF THE JAVANS. 983 

the European power having gradually obtained its supremacy 
OTer the island, rather by stratagem and intrigue than by open 
conquest, it is probable that the necessity under which the 
natives found themselves to resist its encroachments by 
similar means, has poweifully contributed to corrupt their 
natural ingenuousness. It is not at the court of the sovereign, 
penned up as he now is, and kept like a bird in a cage by 
the intrigues and power of the European authority, that we 
are to look for the genuine character of the people ; neither 
is it among those numerous chiefs and petty chiefs attendant 
on the European authorities, who by continual association 
have, in a great degree, assimilated with them. What we 
have said of the Javans must therefore be considered, as 
more particularly applicable to the peasantry or cultivators, 
who compose three-fourths of the whole population, and is 
to be received with some reserve in its application to the 
higher classes. 

Thus far I have given a faithful representation of the people 
as they appeared to me ; but it may be amusing to the reader 
to read the Javan character, as transcribed fix>m the impres- 
sions of the Dutch. The following is an official account* of 
this people given by a subject of that nation, which has contri- 
buted so much to depress and degrade them. 

If the Javan is a person of rank, or in affluent circum- 
stances, he will be foimd superstitious, proud, jealous, 
vindictive, mean, and slavish towards his superiors, haughty 
and despotic towards his . inferiors and those un£)rtunate 
beings that are subject to his orders, lazy and slothful. 
The lower class is indolent and insensible beyond con- 
** ception, and although certain persons, who presume to be 
** perfectly acquainted with the characterof the Javan, maintain 
*^ the contrary, still I am convinced by daily experience, that the 
*^ Javan in general is most shockingly lazy, and that nothing 
^* but fear of his superior, and apprehension of being punished, 
** or momentary distress or want, can compel him to labour. If 
^* left to himself, he will do no more than what is absolutely 
** requisite to furnish the necessaries of life, and as he needs 

* See Report on the Districts of Jap4ra, by the Resident Domick, ia 
the year 1812. 









284 CHARACTER OF THE JAVANS. 

'' but little, his labour is proportionate : yet as soon as he 1 
" a sufficiency for foiu: days, or for the next day only, nothi 
" will put him in motion again but force or fear. 

" Cowardly, vindictive, treacherous, inclined to rob and 
" murder rather than work, cunning in evil practices, and i 
" accoimtably stupid (supposed intentionally,) if any good 
" required of him. These are the principal traits of the Ja^ 
" character. 

" The MaldyUy speaking of him as an inhabitant of t] 
^^ island, because I am unacquainted with the character 
'^ those living at a distance, is possessed of a little more a 
^' rage and activity, fond of small trade and travelling, a 
" but seldom a robber like the Javan, whom in other respe^ 
" he veiy much resembles. A MaldyUj who is a little ci 
" ning, vniWy as soon as an opportunity offers, commit a firai 
" especially when he has had some loss which he wishes 
" retrieve." 

Others of the colonists, and some particularly who are lik< 
to have greater influence with the restored government, ent 
tiiined more correct, because more favourable opinions oft 
Javans, coinciding nearly with those which I have stated 
my own. 

llie following extracts are intended to convey some noti 
of Javan ethics. The first is from a popular work, call 
Raja Kapa-kapa *. 

" It is incumbent upon every man of condition to be w 
" versed in the history of former times, and to have read 
" the chirlla (written compositions) of the country: first, 1 
" different Rdmay the Rrata yHdhay Arjuna wijaya^ Bh 
" suchi ; secondly, the different accoimts of Prtw/i ; third 
" the Jugfil viuday Praldmbangy and Jdya langkdra ; aJ 
" to know their different times, as well as the mode of striki 
" the gdmelau ; he must know how to count the yea 
" months, and days, and comprehend the Sangkala^ undt 
" stand the Kdwi language, and also must be clever in all 

Niuiig^ging Painting ; 

Ukir ukir Caning in wood; 

Pdndi Iron-work; 

* See a further account of this work under the head Literature. 






JAVAN ETHICS. 285 

" Kemdsan Gold-work ; 

** Arg^nding Musical instrument maMng; 

" MWdng*gi Kris-sheath making; 

" N^gapus Compositions (literary) ; 

^ GA di' f Sewing with the needle ; 

^ \ working; 

" Anydra-wedi retna Jewellery; 

« Any&dur^am f In gildmg ai»d the applica- 

I tion of quicksilver. 

" And he must also be skilled in horsemanship, and in the 
^ management of an elephant, and have courage to destroy 
^ all bad men, and drive away all women of loose cha- 
** racter." 

The'iVl/t sdsira is a work of the greatest celebrity on Java : 
the original is in the Kdwi language, but there are many ver- 
sions. The following is translated from a modem version in 
the present language of Java. * 

" I^raise be to Batdra GurUy who is all powerful ! to Batdra 
" VishnuX^Jf^i^nuJ J who purifieth the minds of men! and 
" to Batdra Surtax who enlighteneth the world ! May they 
" render their divine assistance to the author who com- 
^^ poseth this work, Niti Sdstra^ which contains an account 
" of the truths to be foimd in the sacred writings, and 
" which are highly necessary to be known by all public 
" officers.' 
'* 'A man who cannot regulate his conduct according to cir- 
^ cumstances, and to the situation in which he may be 
** placed, is like unto a man who has lost the senses of 
** taste, and*enjoyeth not the advantage of sirtf for such a 
^ man doth not shine in the world, however fair may be his 



u 



appearance. 



**• A man who is ignorant of the sacred writings, is as one who 
" has lost his speech ; for when these become the conversa- 
" tion of other men, he will be under the necessity of re- 
" maining silent.- 

** 'It is an abomination to the Divinity to worship him in an 
'* unclean place*; and the man who does so may be com- 
" pared to one who eats another man's bread without his 
" consent. The food is im wholesome to him, even as if he 
" ate of his own bread with aversion, in which case he re- 



ii 
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286 JAVAN ETHICS. 

^^ sembles the poor man who overeats himself and after 

" wards suffers from hmiger. 

^^ .A woman who takes not a husband imtil her hair become 

grey and her teeth fall out, is despicable in her own eyes 

because men will no longer feel any inclination to her.- 

^^ A man, to be accounted able, must Imow how to adapt hi 

'^ words to his actions and his actions to his words, so tha 

he may give offence to no one, but render himself agree 

able to his companions : he must also know how to com 

mand in war, and to inspire his followers with cou 

rage. 

In order to obtain this distinction, a man must conduc 

'' himself towards his equals even as a lover conducts htm 

^^ self towards his mistress ; for as the lover cannot obtaii 

^' his object without flattery and indulgence, so most w* 

^^ strive to obtain the good will of mankind by flatterin] 

^^ them occasionally, and by indulging them in those thing 

^' to which they are most inclined, and which consists, i 

^* we are in company with religious men, in treating of reli 

^^ gious matters, and if in company with warriors, in treat 

^^ ing about war. This will not only make them like us th 

'^ better, but at the same time, excite them to excel in thei 

" profession. 

The subtle nature of the snake, and the venom of its poison 
*^ as well as the ferocious disposition of the tiger, may b 
*^ removed by sympathetic remedies; the wild etepdiaD 
^' may also be tamed by means of the well-known smal 
^' iron hook : but the fierceness of the warrior, when one 
'^ in close engagement, is not to be tamed, unless his enem; 
^' surrender ; and even then not entirely, for although th* 
^^ vanquished surrender, it is to be inferred that he still haz 
^^ hours resentment for the loss of his freedom, and the ccm 
" queror must keep a lively watch over the vanquishecl 
" lest he still oppose him. 

It is well known that waters, however deep, may be fa 

^' thomed ; but the thoughts of men cannot be soundec 

^^ In order to know the nature of another, we must atten 

tively obscr^'c his appearance, his manner of speaking 

and his judgment ; and if a man gives himself out as 

holy man, it must be proved by his observance of the sei 






JAVAN ETHICS. 287 

^ vice of the Deitj and his knowledge of the sacred writ- 
" ings. 

^ Such a man is distinguished, who is able to expound all 
^ abstract expressions. 

^ A rich man, who maketh not use of his riches in procuring 
^ fer himself good food and clothing, is an abomination, 
^ and ought not to be admitted into the society of the 
" learned or men of rank ; neither ought a man, who has 
^ leamt a profession or studied religion, but who still con- 
^ tinues attached to his idle and vicious propensities. 

^ (The man who adyances in jears, and he who is too lazj to 
^ labour, and does nothing but eat and sleep, is like a sheep, 
^ which is useless except on accoimt of its flesh. • 

''It is said, that neither the ravens nor the gaddrho birds, 
^ are good for man ; but much less are such men who hav- 
^ ing once embraced a holy life, return to worldly pursuits, 
^ or such as can find it in their hearts to seduce the wives 
*^ and daughters of their friends to commit adultery. 

^ The water in a vessel which is only partly fiill will by the 
^' least agitation splash on the sides: -experience also 
'^ proves, that the cow which has the loudest voice gives 
^ the least milk. So it is with men : those who have 
^' least understanding or wealth make the greatet noise and 
^ show*; but in reality they are inferior, and all they say 
^ and do vanisheth like smoke. 

''^Friends must be faithful and forbearing towards each 
^ other, otherwise the consequences will be &tal to both. 
'^ Of this we have an example in the &ble of the tiger and 
" the forest * 

^ The forest and the tiger lived together in close friendship, 
^ so that no one could approach the forest, for the tiger was 
'* always in the way ; nor the tiger, for the forest always 
'^ afforded him shelter. Thus they remained both undis- 
^ turbed, on account of the mutual security they afforded 
'* to each other ; but when the tiger abandoned the forest 
'' and roamed abroad, the people seeing that the tiger had 
'' quitted it, immediately cut down the forest and converted 
'^ it into plantations: the tiger, in the meantime, taking 
" shelter in a village, was seen by the people, who soon 
" found means to kiU him. In this manner, both parties. 



ii 



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288 JAVAN ETHICS. 

^* by abandoning their mutual duties to each other, were 
" lost- 
" A child ought, in every respect, to follow in the footsteps of 
*^ its father ; but this is seldom the case; either among men 
^' or animals in general. Among the latter, however, there 
*^ are three sorts which follow their parents in eveiy le- 
^^ spect : all kinds of fish, firogs, and tortoises. The first 
and second spawn in water, which is carried away until 
the yoimg are produced, when they again join their pa- 
rents : the last lay their eggs in holes, and as soon as 
^^ the young are hatched they follow the old ones into the 
" water. 
*^ Man, although he is borne in his mother's womb a long 
^^ time, and after his birth is taken care of and nourished, 
*' still seldom follows in the footsteps of his parents. If his 
father is a holy man, he ought to follow the same profes- 
sion ; but instead of this, children do not generally attend 
" to the advice of their parents, nor to the lessons of the 
" sacred writings, or those given by holy or good men. 
" That men of rank should do every thing in their power to 
" attach the lower class of people to them, is not only pro- 
" per but necessar}', in order to keep them faithfullv tO 
" tlieir duty. To this end, therefore, men of rank ought KP 
" be indulgent and liberal towards their inferiors, like ^ 
'* woman who implores the assistance of man to brin^ 
^' forth children and support her ; but not like a tigress tha^ 
^^ brings forth its cubs, nor the snake which brings forth sc^ 
" many young, that sometimes having no food for them aC 
for herself, she devours them. 
^' Man is pleased with the dddot cloth (apparel), and womeik^ 
are proud of their bosom ; but a good man prefers the- 
sacred writings, which may lead him to the life to come. 
Proi)erty obtained by man's o\^ti labour is valuable,- but 
more valuable is that which is obtained by a man^s blood 
" in time of war : of less value is property inherited fix)m 
a man's parents. Of little value is the property taken 
" from a man's parents or his \*'ife, but still less valuable is 
" that which comes to a man from his children. 
" It is the duty of the chief of the nation to inquire into every 
*' thing which can affect his subjects; to know whether 



c< 
(( 
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JAVAN ETHICS. 289 

" they are prosperous or not, if every one attends to his 
'^ duty, if they are skilfiil in the execution of it or not, and 
^ in all cases to taJce measures accordingly, never losing 
^ sight of justice. He must, as far as possible, be lenient 
^ in the punishment of the guilty, and liberal in the reward 
" of the deserving ; particularly in the field of battle, when 
** in sight of the enemy, when presents ought then to be 
" distributed to the soldiers (praj^ritjy in order to animate 
** them ; for if ever so justly treated, they will not, except 
** they have been obliged by their commander, either be 

so fidthflil, or risk so much in an attack against the 

enemy. 

Highly prejudicial is it for the chiefs to discover fear before 
^ their enemies, for in that case the men will also be afiraid ; 
'^ but when the chiefs conduct themselves in such a manner 
^ as to shew they do not fear the enemy, then the men are 
" animated by their example. 

A*chief should keep his plan of attack as secret as possible, 
" because the knowledge of it may enable the enemy to be 
^^ on his guard, and turn the measures taken to his own 
'' advantage. He ought not to challenge his enemy to give 
^ battle, as in that case the enemy will have an opportunity 
^* of preparing himself for the same : but he should attempt 
^ to surprize him, and rush upon him like a fire, that quickly 
'^ and without much noise consumeth all with which it 
^^ comes in contact. 

The most formidable enemy of a man is his own conscience, 
" which always brings his crimes before his eyes, without 
^* leaving him the means of avoiding it 
The most valuable and lasting firiendship is that which 
" exists between persons of the same rank. 
The severest misfortime which a man can suffer, is to be de- 
** prived by force, of the land upon which he lives and 
*' which he has cultivated, or to have his wife and children 
" taken from him by force. 

Man loveth nothing more than his own children, and he 
" always esteems his own feelings in preference to those of 
" others. 
Of all birds the chiong (miner) is the most highly prized, 

VOL. I. u 



(( 






jyn JAVAN ETHICS. 

^' because it has a beautiful appearance and can imitate 
" the speech of man. 
^' 'A woman who loves her husband so tenderly, that at his 
'^ death she wishes to die with him, or surviving never 
'^ marries again, but lives as if she were dead to the world, 
" is valued above all others of her sex. 
'* ''Die lessons of our parents arc like the lessons of the ten 
^' wise masters. No master can be called wise, unless he 
attends to what is written, as well on sacred as on worldly 
subjects.* Such a master may be justly called a superior 
'^ mortal ; for it is a difficult task to learn and to attend to 
'' the same, even as difficult as to catch and tame a wild 
" elephant on the edge of a precipice without injury. 
Melancholy is it to see a yoimg man of condition miac- 
" qiiainted with the sacred writings ; for, be he ev<»r so 
*^ gracefidly formed or elegant in his manners, he remains 
" defective ; like the wurawdri flower, which, notwith- 
^^ standing its fme appearance and bright red colour, emits 
'' no fragrance whatever. 

No man can be called good or bad, until his actions prove 
*'*' him so. Tims if a man declares that he has never taken 
^^ any but delicious food, it will be shewn in his appearance. 
^^ If he is stout and well looking, then may he be credited ; 
'' but if, on the contrar}', he is poor and lean, then it is im- 

]iossible that he should have lived on good food. 
In like maimer, when a man pretends to be the friend of 
mankind, it must be proved by his behaviour when he 
receives the visits of others. If he receives his guests 
w ilh kindness and hospitality, then is he the friend of 
mankind, otherwise he is not so. And further, if a man 
pretends to have fasted and i>raycd, and to have become 
a holy man, it will be known whether he is really so, 
by the success which attends the prayers which he puts 
u]) for auoUier : if tlie Deity hears tliem not, then is he a 
'' deceiver. 

A cali'qiillar has its poison in its head, a scorpion in its 
tail, and a snake in its teeth, but it is unknown in what 
part ol' the body the poison of man is concealed: a bad 
man is tlierefore considered poisonous in his whole frame. 

10 



(4 









Ci 
€( 



JAVAN ETHICS. 291 

** • A child which is indulged by its parents in every thing, is 
^* like a young fish in a clear and pure stream, in which 
^^ it grows and sports, unconscious whither it may lead. ' 
^^ • As the strength of a bird is in its wings, so does the power 
^* of a prince consist in his subjects* ; but then only through 
** the means of persons properly informed on the following 
** points. First, how a country ought to be properly ad- 
ministered; secondly, how to please a prince; thirdly, 
how to prepare all delicacies for him ; and fourthly, 
how to preserve discipline and direct the conduct of an 
army. 
The dread of the subject should be such, that the orders of 
the prince should be to him like a clap of thunder, that 
may be heard far and wide.- 
A man who does evil to his companions acts against the 
sacred writings and the lessons of his instructor : he can 
*^ never enjoy prosperity, but will meet with misfortunes in 
^* all his proceedings. Such a man is like a piece of por- 
** celain, which when it falls to the groimd breaks into many 
" pieces and can never be rendered perfect. 
** <A field without pasture is not firequented by cattle, neither 
'^ does a river without water contain fish. An instructor 
^* who knoweth not how to perform the duties of his situa- 
^* tion can have but few disciples, and a prince who pays 
little regard to his country and subjects, will in time not 
^* only lose his fame and glory, but his authority also. 
It is well known that a man cannot take the goods of this 
world with him to the grave, and that/man after this life 
** is punished with heaven or hell, according to the merits 
^^ of his actions in this life : a man's duty, therefore, re- 
'^ quires of him to remember that he must die ; and if he 
" has been merciful and liberal in this life to the poor, he 
" will be fewarded hereafter.* Happy is the man who 
" divides his property equally between himself and the in- 
'^ digent, who feeds the poor and clothes the naked, and 
^* relieves all who are in distress ; he has hereafter to expect 
" nothing but good. 
" "The following animals, as being injurious to the health of 
" man, are not proper to be used by him as food : rats, 
*^ dogs, firogs, snakes, worms, monkeys, lizards, and the like 

u 2 



u 



29-2 JAVAN ETHICS. 









A handsome man is an ornament to the community^ and 

one that has good manners besides, is an ornament to his 

'^ prince ; but he who understands the sacred writings is 

*^ the pride of the community and a delight to his prince.* 

A prince who wishes to know his subjects well, ought to 

^^ be attentive to their manners, actions, and courage ; and 

'' as gold is known by the touchstone, or broken into pieces 

^' in order to ascertain its intrinsic value, so ought a prince 

" to try his subjects, before he intrust them with the charge 

" of his women or treasure, and make himself acquainted 

" wiUi their valour and knowledge : for a person who does 

^' not possess the qualifications required for this purpose, 

is unworthy to associate with people of condition, and 

much less to be the servant of a prince. 

t' If a man violates the law, he may for the first offence be 

^^ punished by a pecuniary fine, for the second by punish- 

'^ ment affecting his person, but for the third offence he may 

" be punished with death. 

" A joy generally followed by sorrow is that which we feel in 

" borrowing money. We feel happy in having obtained what 

'^ we wished, but as soon as our creditors come for their mo- 

'^ ney, our joy is converted into grief; and that is the gpreatest 

^* when the money is spent, and we have not wherewith to 

^^ satisfy our creditors : then arise quarrels and iU wiU, and 

^^ yet no sooner are these settled than we again have re- 

^^ course to the old habit of lending and borrowing. 

^' * Laughing and joking at our companions is also a bad cus- 

'^ tom, for it generally begets quarrels, and is thus the cause 

of grief.. 
Should medicine be mixed with poison, we would naturally 
separate the poisonous parts before we swallowed it, and 
'^ we would also clean rusty metal in time before it becomes 
^^ rusty and corroded. In the same manner i^c should dis- 
tinguish between the good and bad actions of man, re- 
warding knowledge and opposing evil : and be it recol- 
" lectcd, that a woman, however low her birth, if her man- 
ners are amiable and her person good, may without im- 
propriety be made tlie wife of a great man. 
'^ ' Riches only tend to torment the mind of man, and some- 
times even to death ; they are therefore, with justice, dis- 









It 



u 



JAVAN ETHICS. 298 






regarded and despised by the wise. They are collected 
with pain and troubles in afterwards administering them ; 
for if we neglect to watch them properly, thieyes will 
^' come and steal them, and the loss occasions as much 
^ grief as the point of death. 

** Therefore is it adviseable to give part of our property to 
'^ the poor and indigent, who will thence naturally become 
^' under obligations to us, and not only assist in guarding 
** our property against all accidents, but pray that our pro- 
** perty may increase, being themselres interested in our 
^ success, and our names will be blessed by our children 
** and grand-children. 

*' "As dykes cannot long resist the force of water, unless the 
^^ water is allowed a free current and a place to pass 
^^ through, so riches cannot long be enjoyed, unless em- 
*' ployed for charitable purposes ; but, on the contrary, 
** they will turn to the injury of the possessor, both here 
^* and hereafter, who will be exposed to the wrath of all the 
** nine deities. • 

'^ JBatdra guru is cool, still colder is the moon ; but the cool- 
'* ness of neither is to be compared to that which is instilled 
'^ by the voice of a holy man. Fire is hot, still hotter is the 
** sun ; but neither is to be compared to the heat of a man's 
** heart 

'^ Like those flies and birds, which fly in the air to procure 
'^ food, and still continue to feed on filth and dirt, is the 
^^ man of bad character ; for although he may have the 
^' means of procuring an honest subsistence, still will he 
*^ continue to take what he should not, by unlawftd means, 
^^ to the prejudice of others. But a good man wishes the 
^' success of another, and is happy when his brother pros- 
" pers. 

'^ As the .moon and stars enlighten the night, and the sun en- 
" lighteneth the day, so do the Holy Scriptures enlighten 
^' the hearts of men ; and a son who is superior in know- 
" ledge to his father, is a light to his family. 

" A child accustomed to nothing but amusement, neglects 
" the lessons of its parents. The child on this account, 
" often abandoned to its fate, becomes a dangerous subject; 
" it is therefore essential that a child should be kept under 






294 JAVAN ETHICS. 

" subjection while it is yet time to prevent its committiD^ 
^* any bad acts. For this purpose these rules should bt 
" attended to : 
" • A child under five years of age may be indulged in mani 
" things ; but afterwards it must be kept under strict subjec 
" tion, and instructed in the knowledge of the Holy Writ 
^' ings until its tenth year, when a commencement may b 
" made to instil that sort of knowledge which will form th< 
" intellects for the benefit of society. After the sixteentl 
" year further instruction must be given in the higher an< 
** more important branches of knowledge.- 
Man should always bo on his guard against the commis 
sion of wicked acts, for the end of them is always paii 
and misery. 

" *A man must, on no account, listen to the advice of a woman 
" be she ever so good ; for the end of it will be death an< 
'* shame : but he must always consult his own mind ii 
" what he has to do or not to do, never losing sight of th 
" lessons of his instructors.* Thus, not only will he obtaii 

knowledge, but his actions will be good. 
Riches, beauty, knowledge, youth, and greatness often leat 
" a man into error ; he, therefore, who is blessed with an; 
^' of them ought to be, at the same time, humble and ge 
" ncrous, for then he will excel ; otherwise, his virtues \*t] 
" be hidden. 
" As the man who advances by fair means fix>m poverty t 
riches, OT from insignificance to greatness, is rewarded i 
this world, so will he who is generous and kind-hearte 
" be rewarded hereafter in heaven. So will the warrio 
'^ killed in battle, who is like a conqueror, enjoy all the de 
lights imaginable; while a deserter is despised by al 
" men, and covered with shame and disgrace, because h 

deserted his comrades in the moment of danger. 
No man ought to be termed a hero but he who has ahread 
concjuered a hundred heroes ; nor should any man b 
tenned a holy man until he can boast of surpassing I 
virtue a hundred holy men : for as long as a hera has nc 
c()n(iuered a hundred heroes, or a holy man has not sui 
])assed a lumcbed other holy men in virtue, he can neitiR' 
'' hv considcTcd as a real hero or holv man. 









n 
li 



JAVAN ETHICS 295 

^ Hie signs of the approaching end of this world will be all 

^ kinds of deprayity among mankind ; that is to say, the 

** wise will turn foolish, the holy men will become worldly, 

** children will abandon their parents, princes will lose 

^' their empires, the little will become great, and commit 

'* depredations ; in short, every thing will be in confusion, 

^^ and an entire revolution take place. 

In the beginning every thing was at rest and quiet. During 

** the first thousand years princes began to start up, and 

** wars arose about a woman named Dewi Daruki : at this 

** period writing was first introduced. One thousand five 

** hundred years after this another war began, about a wo- 

** man named D&wi Slnta, Two thousand years after this 

** a third war broke out, about a woman named Detm Dm- 

** pddi : and two thousand five hundred years afterwards 

*^ another war took place, about the daughter of a holy man 

" not named in history. 

** Every man can thus see what has been the first cause of 
" war. 'Even as the roots of trees and the course of rivers 
*^ cannot run straight, but wind here and there, so cannot 
*^ a woman be upright : for the saying is, that a raven can 
" sooner turn white, and the* ^aw/aw^-plant (a^water lily) 
" grow from a rock, than a woman can be upright - 

^ A perfect man should be, in firmness and ability, equal to 
^^ eight women ; and to satisfy a woman, a man must be 
" able to please her in nine difierent manners.* 

'^ A bad man is like a fire, which inflames every thing which 
" approaches it; we, therefore, ought n ver to go near it 
'' with an intention to extinguish it A good man, on the 
" contrary, is like a sweet-scented tree, which continues to 
^^ produce flowers and firuit, pleasant to the taste and smell 
" of every one, and the fragrance of which remains in the 
" wood even after the tree is cut down and rooted out 

" When a harlot begins to feel shame, then is her improve- 
" ment approaching; but when a holy man begins to 
" meddle with worldly afiairs, then is he about to become 
" a worldly man himself. 

" When a prince allows encroachments to be made on his 
" territories, it is a sign that the loss of both his court and 
^^ lands is nigh at hand. 



296 GOVERNxMENT. 

^'' A man may receive instruction from his g^u (instnictur) 
'^ until his twentieth year : after which he should apply 
'^ himself to study until his thirtieth year ; at which time 
^' he ought to know every thing necessary, as well for this 
'' world as for tliat to come. ' 
" The art of elocution may properly be reckoned superior to 
^' all others, because happiness and misery, fortune or mis- 
*' fortune, very often depend upon it : it is, therefore, ne- 
^' cessary to use prudence in speech. 
'*- A man who does not eat siri (betel) does not shine. 
'* Married people who have no children ought to lead a re- 
" tired life, and people without fortune should not attem);! 
^' to make a shining appearance : they should look pale 
'^ and melancholy, like unto the dullness and quiet of a 
" country without a prince.* 
^' These are the qualities necessary to constitute a good 
" housewife : — She must be weU-made and well-mannered, 
^' gentle, industrious, rich, liberal, charming, of good birth, 
'' upright, and humble. A stingy, curious, dirty, foul- 
^' mouthed, vulgar, false, intriguing, lazy, or stupid woman, 
'' is not only entirely unfit for a housewife, but will never 
" be beloved by a husband." 

Intimately connected vnUti the character, moral and intel- 
lectual, of a people, are its civil and political institutions. In 
a coimtry like Java, the frame of society is so simple, the 
hand of power is so universally felt or seen ; rank, wealth, 
and authority are so identified, and the different classes of the 
commmiity are so referable to each other, by contrast or re- 
ci])rocal influence, that it was impossible to give any account 
of the state* of the peasantr}*, or of the tenure and distribution 
of the land, Tiithout introducing some notices conceming 
g.>vemment and revenue. As Uiero is little division of labour 
among a rude people, so there is no division of power in a 
des]>otism : the des])ot is proprietor, all the rest is property. 

The Island of Java appears at different times to have been 
divided into states of greater or smaller extent. History in- 
forms us, that it was at one period under the sway of one 
])rinci])al chief, and at otiiors subject to two or more. In the 
fonner case, the provinces into which it was divided were ad- 
ministered, as they are stiU, by subordinate and delegated 



GOVERNMENT. 297 

governors ; and in the latter, many of them composed inde- 
pendent sovereignties. In all these cases, the form of govern- 
ment and the privileges of the people were the same ; the 
only difference between a state co-extensive with the Island, 
and one limited to a few districts, consisting in the different 
extent of territory or number of subjects at command. In 
looking at the map, the divisions of the Island now under 
European dominion, and those under the native princes, 
can easily be traced. Bantam (the sultan of which surren- 
dered his rights to the British government for a pension of a 
few thousand dollars), and Cheribon, an extensive province 
to the eastward of Batavia, enjoyed till lately a nominal inde- 
pendence ; but the only great native power on Java, till the 
establishment of Yug^ya-kerta about sixty years ago, was that 
of the Susuhunan^ or as he is termed, the Emperor of Java; 
and a slight sketch of his government, of the maxims by 
which it is regulated, and the officers it employs, will be suffi- 
cient for my present purpose. 

The sovereign is termed either SusuhAiian or Sultan, both 
demoninations adopted since the establishment of Mahome- 
danism: the titles previously employed were Kiai Oede^ 
Prdbu, Bromijdyaj &c. as will be perceived on reference to 
the list of Hindu princes in the historical details. The line 
of succession to the throne is from father to son, but the 
rights of primogeniture are not always allowed or observed. 
If there is no direct descent, the claims of collateral branches 
of the reigning dynasty are settled by no law or uniform cus- 
tom. Females have sometimes held offices of power, but 
have never occupied the throne since the establishment of 
Mahomedanism. The chiefs of districts and the heads of 
villages are sometimes women ; in that case widows continued 
in the office of their deceased husbands. 

The government is in principle a pure unmixed despotism ; 
but there are customs of the country of which the people are 
very tenacious, and which the sovereign seldom invades. 
His subjects have no rights of liberty of person or property : 
his breath can raise the humblest individual from the dust to 
the highest distinction, or wither the honoiurs of the most 
exalted. There is no hereditary rank, nothing to oppose his 
will. Not only honours, posts, and distinctions, depend upon 



2U8 (iOVERiNMENT. 

his pleasure, but all the landed property of his dominions re- 
mains at his disposiily and may, together with its cultivators, 
be parccUed out by his order among the officers of his house- 
hold, the members of his family, the ministers of his pleasures, 
or the useful servants of the state. Every officer is paid by 
grants of land, or by a power to receive from the peasantry t 
certain proportion of the produce of certain villages or dis- 
tricts. 

When a sovereign enjoys unlimited power, he generally 
in eastern countries siurendcrs it for ease and pleasure, 
and his servant, luider tlie name of Vizier or some other 
title, becomes tlie despot. Tlie highest executive officer or 
]>rime minister in tlie Javan government is called Rdden Adi' 
pdli : he usually rules the country while his master is satis- 
fied with flattery, ^^'itli pomp, and the seraglio. lie is in- 
tnisted yyiih power so great, as even, in particular cases, to 
extend to the royal family. All communications to and from 
the sovereign are made through him : he receives all reports 
from different parts of the coimtry, and issues all orders. The 
2)<)\ver and imj^ortance of tliis office has, however, nataiully 
lessened of late years, since the European government has 
assumed the right of nominatuig the person who shall fill it: 
tlie sovereign naturally reposes less confidence in a prime 
nunister so nominated than in one of his o^'n choice ; and if 
he does not take an active p<irt himself in the politics of his 
couil, he is generally under Uie influence of an ambitious 
member of his own family, by which means the Rdden Adipafiy 
or pii me minister, Uiough lefl to conduct th^ details ofgovem- 
ment, is oflen ignorant of many of the intrigues carried an in 
the place. 

'Tlie gradations of power and rank arc as follow. 

Alter the royal family, which includes tlie prince or sove- 
reign, called Susuhihian or Sultany and the sons and daughters 
of llie sovereign, called Paiujeriuks^ tlie heir apparent being 
called PdfHjeran Adipdtiy come tlie nobility, and at their head 
tlie Rdden AdipdlL 

The nobility or privileged orders may be classed under the 
two general divisi(»ns oi Bopdlin^ <ind their immediate assistants 
or PdlrliSy and Mdnfrh or public officers. Boputi is tlie ge- 
neral term given t<» the governors of proviuces, l>eing tlic 



GOVERNMENT. 299 

plural of AdipAti. This, however, is rather a title of office 
than of mere rank, as these governors are sometimes Tumung*- 
gvmgSj AfCgehdis^ and of still inferior rank. Adipdti appears 
to be the highest title below royalty. The dignity of this 
title, as weU as that of others, is again raised, by prefixing 
the epithet iiTtaf (venerable) or Mas (golden), as Ktai-adipatiy 
Kiai'tumufMfgungj Mas-adtpdtiy Mas-tumung^gung, Rdden- 
iumung*gung is also occasionally used, to express a rank 
above an ordinary TumUng^gungy in the same manner as 
Rdden Adipdti. 

These officers, when appointed to the administration of 
provinces, are called Regents by the Dutch. Since the inno- 
vations of Europeans, the distinctions above referred to have 
been a good deal confounded. In the Siinda districts, where 
the absolute sway of the native sovereign has long ceased to 
be felt, and in the eastern provinces, which are subject to 
Europeans, the Regent assumes the state of a petty sovereign, 
and is the fountain of honour. The power and rank attached 
to particular titles, especially those of inferior importance, 
differs in some degree in almost every province. 

The sons of the Regents, or of those who may be properly 
termed the nobles of the country, are usually called RddenSy 
and in the Sundu districts invariably so ; but there is properly 
no hereditary nobility, no hereditary titles, although few people 
have a greater respect for family descent than the Javans ; 
custom and consideration, in this as in other cases, generalTy 
supplying the place of law. 

Nearly the sa^^e form of government is followed in the 
administration of each particular province as is observed in 
the general administration of the country, every Adipdti^ or 
governor of a province, having a Pdtehj or assistant, who acts 
as his minister. In general there is a Pdteh-luary and a 
Pdteh'dalam ; one for conducting afiairs abroad or pubUc 
business, the other for the superintendence of the household. 

The same union of the judicial, revenual, and executive 
authority, which exists in the sovereign, descends to the 
governor of a province ; and if there are subdivisions of the 
province, it descends to each head of the subdivision. This 
is also the case with each village ; the consequence of which 
is, that every chief, of whatever rank, has an almost absolute 



300 GOVERNMENT. 

power over those below him. The only exception to this, and 
the only part of the Javan constitution which wean th^ 
appearance of liberty, is the mode of appointing the heads oif 
villages ; these are elected by the people, as will be hereafter 
more particularly described. 

In every considerable province or district there are seveiml 
subdivisions over which an inferior chief presides : the dis- 
trict of Semarangy for instance, has several. Although this 
absolute authority is vested in the diflTerent chiefs, according 
to their ranks, it is dangerous for a public functionaiyy what- 
ever be his rank, and even for the Susuhiinan himself, to violate 
what is called the custom of the country ; and the ancient Hindu 
institutions are revered and generally followed by all classes. 
The priests also exercise a considerable influence; and 
although the power of the Jdksa^ or law officer, is essentially 
reduced since the establishment of Mahomedanism, and t 
great part of his authority transferred to the Panghilu or 
Mahomedan priest, he is still efficient, as fiu: as concerns the 
police and minor transactions. The observations which 
follow on the administration of justice and the judicial in- 
structions established by the British government, wiU explain 
the present nature of his duties. 

In the suite of every governor of a province, of his Pdiek, 
or assistant, and of every public functionary of importance, 
are numerous petty chiefs, generally classed as Maniris^ bnt 
having various titles, as DemdngSj Liras^ Kliwangf &c. 
varying in authority and relative rank in different districts. 

'rhree-foiurths of the island having been long subjected to 
tlic European authority, and the provinces which still remain 
under native administration having been divided under two 
distinct authorities, and their original constitution otherwise 
departed from, it would be impossible to lay down a scale of 
rank for the different titles of honour, which should be appli- 
cable to every part of the island, but the subject wiU be 
resumed in a future chapter. 

llie following obser\'ations of Mr. Hogendorp, who resided 
on Java not many years before the arrival of the English, and 
was employed in a commission of inquiry into the state of 
the island, are extracted from a report or memoir which he 
drew up for the use of the Dutch government, recommending 



€€ 
€1 



GOVERNMENT. 301 

a poKcy similar to that which we subsequently pursued. They 
ccmtain a just account of the principles of the Jayan govem- 
nent, and of the state of the Regents under the Dutch 
Company. After remarking, in perhaps too broad and unqua- 
lified terms, that the structure of the government is feudal, he 
proceeds to state : 

1 he first principles of the feudal sjrstem, which form the 
basis of the whole edifice, are : that the land is the pro- 
perty of the sovereign ; that the inhabitants are his slaves, 
and can therefore possess no property, all that they have 
*^ and an that they can obtain belonging to the sovereign, 
*^ who aUows them to keep it no longer than he chooses ; 
and that the will of the prince is the supreme law. 
^' These are the real fimdamental principles of the feudal 
system : 'for though the English and French kings could 
not always maintain their despotic sway, but were some- 
'^ times opposed, hostilely attacked, and even forced by arms 
^' to treat for terms with their subjects, this was only the 
^* natural consequence of the acknowledged rule, that 
" tyranny destroys itself; and it is only necessaiy to revert to 
^' what James and Charles of England, in so late a period, 
^ thought their divine rights of royalty, to ascertain what 
^^ were the rudiments of the feudal form of government : and 
^^ even now, notwithstanding the numerous changes and 



it 



revolutions which have happened in England, the most 
surprizing traces of that system are to be found, since 
in that country^ so fi^e, no individual soever possesses a 
foot of land in absolute property (allodium), but merely 
firom the king (feodum), to whom only belongs the d&minum 



u 
u 
u 
u 
u 

^* absolutum et directum^ although subsequent laws and 

'^ regulations have rendered this title more imaginary than 

** real. 

*^ The same system of government has been continued 

" in the Company's districts, under the pretext of allowing 
the natives to retain their own laws and customs, but in 
reality from ignorance and self-interest. Although they 

" were too ignorant to effect any improvement, they knew 
perfectly weU that this plan was the best adapted to pro- 
mote their own interest and advantage. 

The princes of Java, as well as those of Europe in 



u 
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ii 
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30-2 GOVERNMENT. 

'' fonncr timcR, and as a natural effect of the same cause, 
^' were also almost continually at war with their chief vassak, 
^' until the Dutch power and influence re-established and 
^^ maintained the general tranquillity. This, however, has 
^' never had any effect on the system of government itselff 
'^ and the subject who dethroned his sovereign and then snc- 
^' ccedcd him, thought that he had thereby obtained the same 
^' divine right of property in the lands and persons of his 
^^ subjects, as his predecessor had possessed. 

" The princes allotted the lands to their chiefs and imme- 
^' diate dependents, as rewards for military and other services. 
^' 'lliese chiefs (termed by the Dutch regents) again sab- 
^' divided the lands among others of inferior ranky on the 
^' same conditions, and so on, down to the poor labourer who 
^' cultivated the land, but to whom a very small proportion 
^^ of the fruits of his labour was left for his own support 

'^ The exclusive administration of the country was con- 
^' ferred on the regents, an appellation given to the native 
^' chiefs, who had acquired their lands from the Dutch, by 
'^ contract or agreement, binding them annually to deliver 
^' partly for payment and partly not, a quantity, in some cases 
^' fixed, in others uncertain, of the produce of such lands, 
^' obliging them also to the performance of feudal senrices, 
'' both of a militar}' and other nature. 

'^ The titles of these regents are either Adipdii^ Humtn^" 
*• (/iififfy or Antfebdi, The Prince of Maduray styled Pamam' 
*' hdltaUy and the Prince of S&menapy who is called Pamgi' 
^^ rdfiy are however only regents as well as the rest. Tlw 
'^ IVince o{ Madura enjoys that title as being of the imperial 
family, and the Prince of Simetmp purchased his hy t 
" large payment to a Governor-General. 

Tliese regents are only ofRcers of government, and possess 
not the smallest right to hereditar}' possession or successioiL 
^'et when one of them dies, he is in general replaced by one 
of liis sons, considered most fit for the office, provided he 
can afionl to ])ay the customary present to the govemor of 
(lie north-east coast of Java; for if he is unable to do thiSf 
(»i* if anv other person offers a more considerable simii s 
^'frtence is easily found to exclude the children in faTonr 
of thi> more liberal purchaser. 






GOVERNMENT. 303 

" These presents form a principal part of the emoluments 
" of the governor of the north-east coast, and consequently 
^ all new appointments of regents are for his advantage. 
The present chief regent of Samarang paid 50,000 dollars 
for his promotion, and all the children of his predecessor 
were superseded. The others pay in proportion to the 
value of their regencies ; and as this is arbitraiy and un- 
certain, it is easily to be conceived, that they find means 
to recover the amount of their place-money *. 
** These Regents although very proud, are, with very few 
exceptions, ignorant and idle persons, who give themselves 
little concern about their lands and their people ; of whom, 
indeed, they frequently know nothing, but only endeavour to 
squeeze and extort firom them as much as possible, both for 
their own subsistence and pleasure, and to satisfy the cupi- 
dity of government and of their immediate superiors. They 
leave the administration of affairs entirely to their PatehSj 
who are also appointed by the Dutch, and are held account- 
able for every thing f, 

* This payment is regularly termed by the Dutch, ampt-geld, or place- 
noney, being money paid for the purchase of an office. By the Javana 
it is termed soroh, which, in its more general acceptation, means a bribe. 

\ With whatever fidelity this character of the Javan regents may have 
i>een drawn by Mr. Hogendorp, in the year 1800, it most certainly did not 
ipply to them in the year 1811, nor in the subsequent years of the British 
government on Java ; for, however negligent and corrupt many of them 
may have been rendered, by the system of government which prevailed 
mder the Dutch East India Company, the changes effected during the 
idministration of Marshal Daendals soon induced a character for energy 
ind activity. His government was military and despotic in the extreme, 
md the regents were considered to hold a military rank, and required to 
szert themselves in proportion to its importance. They did so, and works 
of the greatest magnitude were constructed by their exertions. The chiefs 
were found active and intelligent, the common people willing and obedient. 
With regard to their character under the British Government, it would be 
ui act of injustice, if not ingratitude, were I to neglect this opportunity 
of stating, that, as public officers, the Regents of Java were almost uni- 
eersaUy distinguished by an anxiety to act in conformity with the wishes 
of the government, by honesty, correctness, and good faith ; and as noble- 
men, by gentlemanly manners, good breeding, cheerfulness, and hospitality. 
[n the observations made upon the Javan character in the text, I have 
spoken of the Javans as a nation generally j but I might select instances 
where the character of the individual would rise very far above the general 



304 (iOVERNMENT. 






^*' To their brothers, wives, children, and other near rela- 
tions, they assign villages or d^saSy sufficient for their main- 
tenance, for all these consider themselves bom not to work, 



standard which I have assumed. I might, for instance, notice the intellec- 
tual endowments and moral character of the present Panambdkan of 5im«- 
nup, Ndta Kasuma. This chief is well read, not only in the ancient history 
of his own country, hut has a general knowledge of Arabic literature, is 
conversant with the Arabic treatises on astronomy, and is well acquainted 
with geography. He is curious in mechanic^, attentive to the powers of 
mechanism, and possesses a fund of knowledge which has foirpriaed and 
delighted all who have had an opportunity of conversing with him and of 
appreciating his talents. Of his moral character I have given an instance, 
in the manner in which he liberated his slaves. He is revered, not only for 
his superior qualifications and talents, but also for the consideration and 
attention he pays to the happiness and comfort of the people committed to 
his charge. 

Of the capacity of the Javans to improve, of their anxiety to ad^TUice in 
civilization, and of the rapidity with which they receive knouiedge and 
instruction, an instance might be given in the case of the two sons of the 
Recent of Semdrang, Kidi Adipdti Sura Adimangdla. 'Riis Regent, who, 
next to the Panambdhan of Sumenap, is the first in rank as well as character, 
shortly after the establishment of the British government on Ja^'a, sent his 
sons to Bengal, in order that they might there receive an education supe- 
rior to what they could have had at home. They remained there for about 
two years under the immediate protection and patronage of the late Earl of 
Minto, and on their return not only conversed and wrote in the English 
language with facility and correctness, but evinced considerable proficiency 
in every branch of knowledge to which their attention has been directed. 
The eldest, in partinilar, had made such progress in mathematics before he 
quitted Calcutta, as to obtain a prize at a public examination, and had 
acquired a general knowledge of the ancient and modem history of Europe, 
{particularly in that of (ireece and Rome. He is remarked for his gracefnl 
and polite manners, for the propriety of his conduct, and for the qmcknesi 
and correctness of his observation and judgment. As this is the first 
instance that has been afforded of the capacity of the Javan character to 
improve under an European education, it may enable the reader to forai 
some CHtimate of wliat that character was formerly in more propitious 
times, and of what it may attain to hereafter under a more beneficent 
government. Among aU the English on Jovb., who have had an oppor- 
tunity of conversing with this young nobleman, there has not been one 
who has hesitated to admit, that his mind, his qualifications, and conduct, 
would be conscjicuous among their own countrymen at the same age, and 
tl'at, a«» an accomplished gentleman, he was fitted for the first societies of 
ICurope. This young man, Rdden Sdleh, is now about sixteen years of 
age, and when the British left Java was an assistant to his father as Regent 
ol Sem-trnng. 



GOVERNMENT. 305 

^' and look upon the peasantry as only made for the purpose 
** of providing for their support 

^* In order to collect the rice and other kinds of produce , 

** which they are by contract obliged to deliver to the Com- 

** pany as contingents, they compel the inhabitants of the 

^^ district to furnish as much of it as is at all possible, with- 

*^ out any fixed ratio or calculation, and without any kind of 

^ payment, leaving them scarcely what is absolutely neces- 

** sary for their own support and that of their families, and 

** even sometimes not nearly so much, especially in the event 

^^ of failure in the crops ; on which occasions the miserable 

*^ inhabitants desert by hundreds to other districts, where, at 

** least in the first instance, they may expect a less rigorous 

" treatment Several regents also, when distressed for money, 

** are compelled by want, to let out many of their best desas 

** to the Chinese : these blood-suckers then extort firom such 

" villages as much as they can possibly contrive, while the 

*^ inhabitants of the other desas are alone obliged to deliver 

** the contingent required firom the whole aggregate. It may 

" easily be conceived, how oppressively this demand must fall 

^^ upon those unhappy individuals ; and how greatly these 

*^ and other acts of injustice, which are the natural conse- 

^' quences of the present faulty administration, must tend to 

** the ruin of the country, it would be superfluous reasoning 

" to prove," 

The only restraint upon the will of the head of the govern- 
ment is the custom of the country, and the regard which he 
has for his character among his subjects. To shew what that 
character ought to be, what is expected of a good prince, and 
what are the reciprocal duties of a prince, prime minister, and 
people, I may here quote a few sentences out of the Niti 
Prdjay a work in very high esteem, and constantly referred to 
by the Javans. 

^^ A good prince must protect his subjects against all un- 
^^ just persecutions and oppressions, and should be the light 
" of his subjects, even as the sun is the light of the world. 
^' His goodness must flow clear and fiill, like the mountain 
" stream, which in its course towards the sea enriches and 
" fertilizes the land as it descends. He must consider that 
" as the withered foliage of the trees awaiteth the coming of 

VOL. I. X 



3()() GOVERNMENT. 



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rain to flourish anew, so are his subjects waiting for his 
benevolence, to be provided with food, with raiment, and 
with beautiful women. If, on the contrary, a prince neg- 
lect.s to extend his benevolence and protection towards his 
subjects, he exposes himself to be abandoned by them, or 
at any rate to lose their confidence ; for it is an imdeniable 
truth, that no one will be faitliful or attached to a man upon 
wliom no dependence can be placed. 

" When a prince gives audience to the public his conduct 
must be dignified. He must sit upright and not in a bend- 
ing postiu-e, and say little, neither looking on one side or 
the other, because, in this case, the people would not have 
a proper sight of him. He must assume a pleasing appear- 
ance, \\ hich will enable him to observe his subjects who 
siuTound him, and then enqmre if any one has any thing to 
say to him ; and if there is, he must animate him to speak 
openly. 

" In his discourse he must not speak loud, but low, and with 
dignity, and not more than is necessarj' for the purpose; for 
it does not become a prince to witlidraw his words if once 
given, and much less to give them another turn. 
" It is, above all, the duty of a prince to take notice of 
every thing going on in his country and among his subjects, 
and, if possible, to tuni every tiling to a good end : if he 
])asses over unnoticed the least crime, he may create nu- 
merous enemies. It is further the duty of a prince, besides 
knowing the merits of his subjects and the state of his 
country, to explain all abstract and difficult expressioiis, 
particularly such as occur in \\Titings. 
^^ It is a disgrace to a prime minister for any hostile attack 
to be made on the country intnisted to his charge without 
his knowledge, or that he should be careless or inattentive 
to the same, rather thinking how to obtain the favour of his 
prince than to secure tlie safety of the country. So it is 
wlien he does not understand how to administer the couatnr 

• 

properly, or fails to invent what is useful ; when he makes 
many promises, but fulfils few ; when he is careless with 
regard to public affairs, and talks much about what is of no 
consequence, seeking to be admired by the people, and 
putting on fair appearances when his intentions do not cor- 



GOVERNMENT. 307 

respond ; when he cares nothing about the misfortunes of 
his inferiors, provided he gets money himself; when, finally, 
be is not faithful, but deceitful. Such a prime minister is 
like the hawk, which soars high in the air, but descends 
low on the earth to seize and steal its food. 
** But a good prime minister is he who is upright in his 
heart, moderate in his fear of the prince, faithftdly obedient 
to all his orders, kind-hearted, not oppressive to the people, 
and always exerting himself to the utmost for the happiness 
of the people and the welfare of the country. 
^^ And a prime minister is good beyond measure who can 
always please his prince in every thing that is good ; who 
knows every thing that is going on in the country, and 
takes proper measures accordingly ; who always exerts 
himself to avert whatever is likely to be injurious ; who 
considers nothing too trifling to merit his attention ; who 
accumulates not wealth, but offers to his prince whatever 
comes in his way that is curious ; who heeds not his own 
life in effecting what is right ; who considers neither Mends, 
fiunily, nor enemies, but does justice alike to all ; who caies 
not when he is praised or reviled, but trusts to the dispen- 
sations of Providence; who possesses much experience; 
who can bear poverty, and cares not for the enjoyment of 
pleasures ; who is polite to every one ; who with good will 
gives alms to the poor and helpless ; who consults much 
with his brother officers, with whom he ought always to 
advise on affsdrs of business. Against such a prime mi- 
nister it is impossible for any one to speak, for he will be 
feared at the same time that the people will become attached 
to him : the people will then live quiet and happy, perform 
their labours with cheerfulness, and wish that his adminis- 
tration may be lasting. 

" A prime minister ought, nevertheless, not to be too con- 
fident in this, but always remain on his guard against the 
designs of bad men. 

" There are many examples of such prime ministers: 
among which is Bdja Jajahan^ (prime minister of Mesir 
Egypt,) to whom all the people of the country, great and 
small, were much attached. 

" Whenever his brother officers intended to visit the prmce 

X 2 



30ft GOVERNMKNT. 






for the purpose of papng their respects, they always as- 
sembled at the prime minister's house, where they generally 
partook of a meal : after this they proceeded to the court, 
followed by the prime minister on foot, dressed in white, 
\^'ith only three attendants,' carrying a spear and other ar- 
" tides of state before him. By this conduct he supposed 
" that he was screened from reproach, and that he was freed 
" from enemies; but at the very time there were enemies 
" conspiring against his life, as was afterwards discovered : 
" therefore ought a prime minister not only to be virtuous, 
'^ but cautious also, and always armed against his enemies, in 
" the same manner as a sportsman arms himself against wild 
" beasts. 

" A subject going into the presence of his prince must be 
clean and well-dressed, wearing proper chelana (panta- 
loons.) He must have a good girdle and a sharp Xrr^, and 
" be anointed with aromatic oils. He must range himself 
with his equals, and convince them of his abilities and 
good breeding ; because from this it is that he has to ex- 
pect favour or disgrace, grief or joy, happiness or misery; 
for a prince can either exalt or humble him. 

A prince is like a dalang (wdyang player,) his subjects 
like wmjangsy and the law is as the wick of the lamp used 
" in these entertainments : for a prince can do with his sub- 
jects what he pleases, in the same manner as the ddkmg 
acts \vitli his icayangs^ according to his own fancy ; the 
prince having the law, and the dalang the lamp, to prerent 
'* tliem from going out of the right way. 

In like manner, as it is incumbent on the dalang to make 
magnanimity and justice the principal subjects of his repre- 
sentation, in order tliat the spectators may be instructed 
and animated thereby, so shoidd a prince, a prime minister, 
" and chief officers of the court, direct the administration of 
th(^ country' with such propriety, that the people may at- 
tach themselves to them ; they must see that the guilty are 
punishe<l, that the innocent be not persecuted, and that aU 
** ])i'rs()ns falsely accused be immediately released, and re- 
** niuneratcd for tlie sufferings they may have endured." 

'llie judicial and executive powers are generally exercisen 
by the same individual. The written law of the island* ac- 



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ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 809 

cording to which justice is administered and the courts are 
regulated, is that of the KoraUy as modified by custom and 
usage. The Javans have now been converted to the Maho- 
medan religion about three centuries and a half, dating from 
the destruction of the Hindu kingdom of Majapdhit, in the 
year 1400 of the Javan aera. Of all the nations who have 
adopted that creed, they are among the most recent converts ; 
and it may be safely added, that few others are so little ac- 
quainted with its doctrines, and partake so little of its zeal 
and intolerance. The consequence is, that although the Ma- 
homedan law be in some instances followed, and it be consi- 
dered a point of honour to profess an adherence to it, it has 
not entirely superseded the ancient superstitions and local 
customs of the country. 

The courts of justice are of two descriptions: those of the 
PanghAlu or high priest, and those of the Jdksa. In the 
former the Mahomedan law is more strictly followed ; in the 
latter it is blended with the customs and usages of the 
country. The former take cognisance of capital offences, of 
suits of divorce, of contracts and inheritance; they are also, 
in some respects, courts of appeal from the authority of the 
Jdksa. The latter take cognisance of thefts, robberies, and 
all inferior offences ; its officers are employed in taking down 
depositions, examining evidence, inspecting the general police 
of the country, and in some measure acting as public prose- 
cutors : these last functions are implied in the title of the 
office iX&fMj jdksa meaning to guard or watch *. 

* The following description of the office of a Jdksa, and of the qualifi- 
cations requisite for fulfilling bis important duties^ is taken from the Niti 
Prdfa, a work already referred to. 

** A Jdksa must, in all cases, be impartial, to enable him to weigh all 
*' causes which come before him with the same exactness as merchandize 
" is weighed in a scale, and nicely balance the equilibrium, nothing add- 
•* ing or taking from either side. 

" He must be above all bribery, either by words or money, and never 
" allow himself to be induced to commit an act of injustice; for were a 
" Jdksa to commit an act of this kind, the consequences could not but be 

highly injurious to the country. 

•* He must not accept presents of any kind from the parties whose cause 

comes before him, not only because he cannot expect to derive advantage 
•* therefrom, but also because the public vrill hold discourse concerning 
** him highly injurious to his reputation. 



a 



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310 ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 

At the seat of government are supreme courts of the Pan*;- 
hulu and Jdksa: to these there is an appeal from similar but 
inferior tribunals, established mthin each proTince. Petty 
tribunals, under like names, are even established under the 
jurisdiction of a Demdngy or chief of a subdivision, and some- 
times of a Bdkoly or head of a village ; but in these the au- 
tliority of the Panghulu and Jdksa extend no further than to 
take down evidence to be transmitted to some higher autho- 
rity, to settle petty disputes, and perform the ordinar)' cere- 
monies of religion, inseparable among the Javans, as well as 
all otlier Mahomedans, from the administration of justice. 

Such however is the nature of the native government, th;;t 
tliesc officers are considered rather as the law assessors or 
council of the immediate superior officer of the executive go- 
vernment, than as independent ministers of justice. In such 
cases as come before them, tliey examine the evidence, and 
point out tlie law and custom to the executive officer, who is 
himself generally too ignorant and indolent to undertake it 
When the evidence is gone through, and the point of law as- 

" All causes in dispute must be decided upon by him with the least pos- 
sible delay, according to law, and not kept long in suspense, to the in- 
jury of the parties concerned, lest he be considered like a holy man, who, 
for the sake of money, sacrifices his good name. 
" A Jdksa must inquire into every circumstance relating to the eanses 
brought before him, and duly investigate the evidence ; after whkh be 
must take the cause into consideration. He must not, in the least, listeo 
to what is false, and on all occasions must decide according to tntth. 
*' A Jnksa who attends to all these points is of high repute. Of less re- 
pute is a Jdksa who, in the decision of causes which come before him, 
listens to the advice of others : such a one is like that kind of bird, 
which in order to procure for itself the necessary food, dives under 
water, without thinking of the danger to which it is exposed of losmg 
its life from the want of air. But entirely unfit for employment is s 
Jdksa wlio is haughty in his demeanour, and at the same time low 
enough to take advantage of persons who come before him : such s 
one is like a bat, that in the dark steals the fruit from the trees; or like 
a sportsman, who though destined to chase what is useful only, indis- 
criminately destroys whatever comes in his ifv'ay, whether useful or not 
In the same manner is it with a priest who every day attends at the 
temple, for no other puq)ose but to make profit by* it: or with a writer, 
who knows not how to make any thing but by the prostitution of hi« 
writings ; or with the head man of a village, who imposes upon the vil- 
lagtr^ ; or a dcvntcr, who gains his livelihood by necromancy.'* 






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ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 311 

certained, the whole is brought before him, at whose discre- 
tion it rests to pass judgment. It is however admitted, that 
in matters of little moment, where his passions and interests 
are not concerned, the division is frequently left to the law offi- 
cers ; but in all matters of importance he will not fail to exer- 
cise his privileges of interference. 

The court of justice in which the Panghulu or high priest 
presides, is always held in the serdmbiy or portico of the 
mosque ; a practice, which, as it inspires the people with a 
considerable share of awe, appears judicious. It is also con- 
yenient for the administration of oaths, which among the 
Javans are always administered within the mosque, and usu- 
ally with much solemnity. The forms of the court are re- 
gular, orderly, and tedious; all evidence is taken down in 
writing, and apparently with much accuracy. 

The court, at least at the seat of government, consists of the 
Pan^hulu^ the officiating priest of the mosque, and four indi- 
viduals, also of the religious order, called Pdteh nagdriy 
meaning literally the pillars or supports of the country, to 
whom, after the examination of evidence in capital offences, 
the point of law and decision is referred. At the seat of go- 
vernment the sovereign or his minister passes judgment 

The court of the Jaksa at the seat of government consists of 
the head Jaksa^ who may be styled the law officer of the 
prime minister, and the Jdksas of his Klfwons or assistants, 
for they too have their law councils. The fimctions of this 
court being of less importance, of a more mixed nature, and 
less solemn because less connected with religion, are still 
more subject than that of the Panghulu to the rude interfer- 
ence of the executive authority *. 



* The following was the usual course of proceeding in Jdpara, and ge- 
nerally in the provinces subjected to European authority, previous to the 
interference of the British government. The plaintiff went to the Jdksa 
and made his complaint. If the case was important, the Jdksa took down 
the deposition in writing in the presence of witnesses, summoned the ac- 
cused, and communicated the deposition to him. The latter then either 
acknowledged or denied the facts, witnesses were examined, and the pro- 
ceedings of the smt laid before the Regent, who after perusal transmitted 
the same to the Panghulu for his advice, with which the latter complied, 
referring at the same time for a sentence to some of the collections on 

10 



312 ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 

The Javan code of law is divided into two departments^ that 
of the Mahomedan law and that of custom and tradition. The 
former is distinguished by the appellation of Atictfin dU^dk^the 
commands of God, from the Arabic ; the latter by the Jaran 
words yudha nagdra^ meaning consideration for the countiy, 
or in other words, allowance for the state of society. 

The decisions in Mahomedan law are chiefly goided by se- 
veral works in the Arabic language. In all the coials of 
Java these works are said to be consulted in the Arabic lan- 
guage, but reference is more frequently made to a collec- 
tion of opinions extracted from them, and translated into the 
language of the country. 

The law of custom is chiefly handed down by oral tradition, 
but has in part been committed to writing in the following 
performances. 

The earliest work relating to jurisprudence which is now 
referred to, is that of Jugul Muda Pdtehy or minister of Sri 
Ma Pung^gung {o{ Mendang Kami'ilan)^ now Wirosdri: it is 
computed to be about six hundred years old. The second 
bears the name of Raja Kdpay said to have been the son of 
Jugul Muda, and like him minister of his sovereign Kandid- 
nan, also prince oi Mendang KamUlan, 

By the authority of the Sultan of Demdky the first Maho- 
medan prince, a compilation of the Javan laws was made, in 
which they were in some measure blended with the Mahome- 
dan jurisprudence. Probably this was intended to pave the 
way to an entire introduction of Mahomedan law. The body 
of regulations, &c. compressed in these codes is curious, from 
the laborious refinement of their distinctions, fit>mthe mixture 
of moral maxims and illustrations vriih positive law, from the 
most incongruous combinations, and from their casuistical 
spirit. In the Appendix will be found the translation of a 
ino(l(^m version of the Suria Aleniy a work of this description 
in high repute, as well an abstract of the laws and regulations 
said to have been in force in the earliest periods to which 
Java tradition refers*. 

Mahomedan law. The Regent ha\'ing compared the sentence with the law 
and with equity, and finding? the same correspondent with both, judgment 
was pronounced by the Jdksa. 
' Sec Appendix ('. 



ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 313 

The proclamations (indang-ikndang)y and the laws and 
regulations (anger dngeran) of the sovereign, form another 
source of deviation from the Mahomedan law. Collections 
of these have been committed to writing. 

The prince, by himself or his officers, is always supposed 
vested with a discretionary power of adapting the Mahomedan 
law to the circumstances of society, a prerogative liberally 
exercised. This power, which sanctions every deviation from 
the letter of Musselman law, the Javans also express by the 
term of yudha nagdra. The krising of criminals instead of 
beheading them, the combat of criminals with tigers, the 
severe penalties for infractions of the sumptuary laws of the 
Javans, the constant commutation of corporeal punishment 
for a pecuniary fine, and in the case of persons of rank found 
guilty of murder, the commutation of the strict law of retalia- 
tion for a fine, without regard to the wishes of the relations of 
the deceased, if the latter be of no consideration, were among 
the deviations from the Mahomedan law sanctioned by the 
Yudha nagdra. 

Such was the composition of the courts, and the code of 
laws that existed on Java before the arrival of the Dutch, and 
remained unchanged at the conquest of the island by the 
British. The Dutch legislated for the colonists, but took 
little interest in the system by which the judicial proceedings 
of their native subjects were guided, excepting in so far as 
their own advantage or security was concerned in them. The 
following statement contains the changes introduced by the 
Dutch. 

Besides the colonial laws and regulations, enacted from time 
to time by the Governors and Council at Batavia ; besides 
some standing orders of the Court of Directors, and some 
rules and provisions contained in the successive charters of 
the Company, and in what was called the article brief; the 
Dutch law, which was always considered the foundation of 
the colonial law, was of authority, as far as it remained unaf- 
fected by these institutions. 

A collection of the colonial statutes and regulations, called 
the Pla^cart Book of Batavia, and an abstract of them, en- 
titled the Statutes of Bataviay were made under the authority 
of the colonial government; but as the latter never underwent 



314 /VDMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 

a regular promulgation, the rules contained in it were not con- 
sidered as possessing the force of law, except in so far as they 
might be foimd to be conformable to the orders, proclamations, 
and regulations of tlie Indian government, or of the Directors 
of the East India Company. 

The power of the Directors and of the Council of Batavia 
to enact local laws and regulations, seems not to have been 
very circumspectly defined in the first charters of the Company, 
those charters conferring on them, in general terms only, 
authority to provide for the administration of justice and esta- 
blishment of police. 

But from the nature of the occasion it seems evident, that 
this power of making colonial laws, as far at least as related 
to the Council of Batavia, coidd only have been a limited 
one, to be exercised with considerable discretion, and only 
upon points requiring an immediate provision, subject always 
to the approbation of the authorities at home ; and even the 
Directors could hardly be considered to have possessed a 
greater extent of legislative power, than was necessary for the 
sccimty of their new territories, and of their rights and pri- 
vileges, or to have been authorised to deviate wantonly from 
the established law of the coimtry, or neglect the dictates of 
justice and equity. 

In the great variety of matter comprehended in the colonial 
statutes, no subject seems to have occupied more attention 
than the laws respecting slavery. These, as already observed, 
appear to have been formed in general upon principles of 
humanity and consideration for tlie condition of the unfortu- 
nate beings to whom they related. 

In consequence of a resolution of the year 1760, the Council 
of India ordered that the customs of the Mahomedans, in mat- 
ters of inlieritance and successions ab intestate &c. should be 
sanctioned and published. 

In civil matters, natives and Chinese in tlie districts iif 
Batavia seem to have been governed by the same laws as the 
luin)])ean inhabitants. 

Crimes connnittcd bv natives or Chinese in tlie citv of 
Batavia and its environs, had, from the first settlement <if tlie 
Dutch on tliu island, always been tried by European judges, 
and according to Euro])ean law. 



ADMINISTIL\T10N OF JUSTICE. 315 

In Bantam the criminal jurisdiction over the natives was 
left to the Sultan, and that over the Chinese resident there, 
was exercised as at Batavia according to the European law. 

The Jakatra and Pridn^en Regencies seem formerly to 
have enjoyed a peculiar and fortunate state of tranquillity. 
Almost entirely removed from every commimication and in- 
tercourse with Europeans, Chinese, and other foreign settlers 
found in the neighbourhood of Batavia, engaged in agricul- 
ture, and ruled by their own native chiefs, these districts seem 
to have been in a high degree free from crime ; but whenever 
enormities did happen, the offenders were sent down to Ba- 
tavia, and tried according to Einx)pean law. It is to be ob- 
served, however, that on the first submission of those districts 
to the Company, their chiefs or regents reserved to themselves 
the jurisdiction over the inhabitants of their respective dis- 
tricts ; but this stipulation appears to have been disregarded 
in the latter times of the Dutch Company, and under the late 
administration of Marshal Daendals, a court was established 
for these districts, the rule of which was European law. 

From Ch^ribon the Chinese were amenable, as from Bantam 
and Batavia ; but the natives were subject to a landraad (or 
local court), of which the Resident was president, and the 
Sultans members ; and this court was, partly at least, directed 
by a papdkam, or native code, compiled under the sanction of 
the government. 

In the Eastern districts of the island, the Javans seem 
always, in criminal matters, to have enjoyed their own laws, 
founded on ancient custom and the precepts of the Koran. 
Of these laws the Council of Batavia caused abstracts to be 
printed, for the guidance of the great landraad or high court 
at Semdrangy to which all the Javans in the European pro- 
vinces, from Losdri to Banyuwdngi were amenable. 

Under the native government, the prime minister (Rdden 
Adipdti) is the head of the police, as well as every other de- 
partment of authority. The higher class of ftmctionaries is 
most frequently to be found in those parts of the country most 
remote from the seat of government, where, as governors of 
provinces, they possess some extension of powers. The great 
and fertile provinces near the capital, on the other hand, are 
divided into small appropriations, of from two hundred to one 



316 ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 

thousand chdchas, or families, placed under the administration 
of dinsion officers, whose authority is limited to the duties of 
police. 

Each village is possessed of a distinct organization within 
itself, has its chief, its Kabdyan or assistant, and if of any 
considerable size, its priest, whose advice is frequently had 
recoiu^c to, and who generally decides petty disputes, espe- 
cially respecting divorces and matters of inheritance. The 
chief of the village is not without his share of judicial au- 
thority, and often takes upon himself to punish by fine and 
imprisonment In each village the inhabitants keep regular 
nightly watches and patroles. 

The manner in which these little societies have been le- 
cently formed in the districts to the east of Sarabdyu, where 
the European authority had not interfered, and where the in- 
fluence of the Mahomedan government was scarcely felt,'will 
tend to illustrate their nature and constitution. 

The frequent wars, in which the people had been engaged 
with the inhabitants of Bali and Madura^ as well as with the 
Dutch, had reduced those provinces to a state of wilderness 
towards the middle of the last century. The encouragement 
held out to the people of the neighbouring island of Madura 
brought over several adventurers, who were allowed to occupv 
the land they cleared ; first rent-free, and afterwards at a fixed 
assessment. If several persons came together, their leader 
was invested with the authority of Peting*gi over the new 
village which they formed. When individuals associated to 
constnict a >nllage, the chief was elected by themselves, sub- 
ject to the approval of the landlord ; and they possessed the 
privilege, common in all the districts east of Surabdgaj of 
annusilly electing their chief, or Feting* gi. 

'Die nature of the duties rendered by this person was so 
essential to the well-being of a village, tliat tliis privilege was 
in<»st intimately connected with its existence. Whenever a 
new assessment was imposed on the lands, it was the business 
of the 7V//////V//, if the amount was too high, to represent the 
mailer to the su])erior, and to state tlie inability of the people 
to make good the demand : the consequence was, either a 
redurtion of assessment cm tlie part of tlie principal, or 
ilesertion on that of the people. But when the amount of the 



ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 817 

assessment was considered reasonable (and any amount less 
khan three-fifths seems to have been so considered), the 
Peiing*gi had to assemble all the people, and to distribute to 
each, in the common presence of all, his individual propor- 
tion of land, with a statement of the produce to be paid. He 
had to keep a roster of all duties required of the people, and 
to see that every man took his proper turn. When the harvest 
ripened, he had to watch the collectors, that they exacted no 
more from each man than his proportion ; and the cultivator, 
that he did not embezzle any part of the due of government. 
In large villages he had an assistant, called a Kabdyan^ who 
represented him during his absence, and with the Kamituah 
and Mudin (priest), formed a court for settling petty village 
disputes; subject, however, to a reference, if the parties 
should be dissatisfied. 

It was customary for the people of the village to cultivate 
the lands of their Peting*gi without payment. This and the 
honour of chiefship rendered the office an object of village 
ambition; while an annual election, and the fear, if turned 
out, of being called upon to justify his conduct, rendered this 
officer generally a steady and carefiil representative of his 
constituents. 

All strangers passing through the country were expected to 
apply to the Peting*^ for the assistance they required ; and 
if payment was tendered, all procurable necessaries were 
furnished. The Petlng^gi also took charge of the strangers* 
property, examined the same in the presence of the other 
head-man, and was bound to return the whole undiminished 
the next morning, or to pay the value. If, however, the 
stranger preferred keeping his property under his own charge, 
and rested himself for the night under some of the pubUc 
sheds, the loss he might sustain fell on himself alone, and all 
he could procure from the village was assistance. to trace the 
offenders. 

It was customary, as well to deter beasts of prey as thieves, 
for a part of the men of each village to keep a night watch 
round it, and to perform this duty in successive rotation. 

Such appears to have been the internal regulation of these 
villages ; and it seems to have been framed according to the 
ancient usage of the island, the similarity of which to that of 



318 ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 

Western India has been adduced as a strong instance of one 
conimon origin *. 



* With the exception, perhaps, of the right of election, which I hire 
not seen noticed in any account of (Continental India, the constitution of 
the Javan \nllage has a striking resemhlance to that of the Hindui, 
according to the following statement in the Fifth Report of the Houte of 
Commons on Indian Affairs. *' A village, geographically considered, is a 
tract of country comprising some hundreds or thousands of acres of 
arable and waste lands ; poUtically viewed, it resembles a corporatioi 
or township. Its proper establishment of officers and servants consists 
of the following descriptions : the Potail or head inhabitant, who has 
generally the sui)erintendance of the affairs of the village, settles the 
disputes of the inhabitants, attends to the police, and perfonns the 
duty of collecting the revenues within his village, a duty which his 
personal influence and minute acquaintance with the situation and con- 
cerns of the people render him the best qualified to discharge. The 
'* Kumum, who keeps the accounts of culti\^tion, and registers every 
thing connected with it. The Tallier and Totie, the duty of the former 
appearing to consist in a wider and more enlarged sphere of action, in 
gaining information of crimes and offences, and in escorting and pro- 
'* tecting persons travelling from one village to another; the province of 
the latter appearing to be more immediately confined to the village, 
consisting among other duties in guarding the crops and assisting in 
measuring them. The boundary man, who preserves the limits of the 
village, or gives e\'idence respecting them in cases of dispute. The 
superintendant of tanks and iivater-courses, distributes the water there- 
from for the purposes of agriculture. The Bramin, who performs the 
village worship. The schoolmaster, who is seen teaching the children 
in a Wllage to read and write in the sand The calendar Brttmm or 
astrologer, &c. 

These oflicers and servants generally constitute the establishment of 
a village ; but in some parts of the country it is of less extent, some 
of the duties and functions above described being united in the same 
person : in others it exceeds the number of individuals which have been 
described. 

Under this simple form of municipal government, the inhahitants of 
the country have lived from time immemorial. The boundaries of the 
villages have been but seldom altered ; and though the \'illage8 them- 
selves have been sometimes injured, and even desolated by war, famine. 
and disease, the same name, the same limits, the same interests, and 
" vvvn the same families, have continued for ages. The inhabitants give 
'* themselves no trouble aliout the breaking up and division of kingdoms; 
while the village remains entire, they care not to what power it is 
tran«iferred, or to what sovereign it devolves; its internal economy 
I cinains unchanged. 'Vhe Potail is still the head inhabitant, and still 



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ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 319 

It follows from the above, that each village has in itself the 
naterials of a good police, and that a right of choosing their 
chiefs gives to the people a considerable share of real liberty*. 
This right of election in the inhabitants of the village, as 
Wore observed, would appear at one time to have been 
general throughout the island. It is still respected in the 
districts of Surabaya^ where the office of Peting^gi was 
always elective, for although the same person might hold it 
for many years, a ballot for the situation was regularly held 
at specified periods, varying from one to three years f. 

The right of election is also clearly acknowledged in the 
listricts of Japdra and Jawdna. ^* That the Peting^gi is 
^ elected by the inhabitants of a village," observes the officer 
rlo introduced the settlement into those districts X^ ^^ there 
cannot be a doubt ; and even the right of election is 
foregone by the people, though I have not met with a 
single instance of the kind, it may be taken for granted, 
that it is so only, in consequence of the influence of the 
Regent, to serve some particular purpose. While the 
Peting^gi continues in office, he is looked up to and obeyed 
by the people of the village to which he belongs as the im- 
^ mediate chief. He generally occupies the paseban usually 
^ to be found in villages of consequence, and has two or 
' more men, inhabitants of the village, appointed to attend 
* him wherever he goes. A Petin^gi was usually elected for 
^ one year, during which time he could not, according to the 
^^ ancient usage, be removed, except in consequence of some 

** acts as the petty judge and magistrate, and collector or renter of the 
" village." 

In examining the interior of a village on Java, we find that, in common 
with the Hindu usage, it possesses a constitution within itself, indepen- 
dent of the supreme governing power. Here, as in Western India, it will 
be fotmd that each village possesses its Peting*g% or chief; its Kabayan, 
who is the deputy or assistant to the head of the village ; its Kamitwih or 
elders, generally men who have formerly heen chiefs of the village ; its 
Mudin or priest ; its Ulu-ulu or Kapala Bandang^an, or superintendent of 
water-courses ; its Jent-tulis or writer, &c. 

* See Report of IMr. Hopkins on the districts of Surabdya. 

t See Report of Colonel Adams on Surabdya. 

X Mr. Mc. Quoid. See his Report on the Districts of Japdra and 
Jawdna. 



3-20 ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 

^^ gross misconduct, but if his conduct was such as to gire 
** satisfaction to the inhabitants, they continued him ftr 
*^ several years. As far as I could leanii** continues the same 
officer, ^^ the Regent, or other superior native authoritr, 
^^ seldom interfered in the election of a Petin^gi; but it wu 
^^ generally understood, that although he could not force a 
^* Petlng*gi upon them who was dishked by the people, his 
^^ confirmation was required before the person elected coald 
" act with effect" 

In the Stinda districts of CheriboH and Tegdlj the appoint- 
ment to this office is invariably made, if not by the election 
of the villagers, generally from among themselves, and always 
with their concurrence. It is a common practice for the 
people of a village, even where the right of election is not in 
use, to represent in a body the conduct of their chief, if incor- 
rect ; and it has always been necessary for the chief native 
autliority to remove him, if the complaints were justly 
founded. 

A reference to the judicial regulations in the Appendix* 
will show how desirous the British government on the island 
has been to protect the privileges of these societies, and in 
particular the right of electing their chief. 

Wlien the British authority was established on the island, 
it was immediately seen that something must be done to 
supply the deficiencies, and to correct the imperfections of 
the native code. All the other changes in contemplation for 
the encouragement of industry and for the abolition of oppres- 
sive and impolitic exactions, would have been nugatoiy, 
witliout such an improvement in the judicial and police regu- 
lations, as would secure, by a full and impartial adixninislxation 
of justice, the rights and privileges about to be conferred. It 
would have been in vain to define the limits of power, to issue 
directions for guiding the conduct of public ser^^ants in their 
transactions with the people, or to have abrogated the oppres- 
sive privileges of the chiefs, and to have assured the people 
of the intention of government to protect them against all 
invasion of their rights, either by open ^dolcnce, by the 
exaction of senices, or by oppressive contributions, without 

* Ap))endix D. 



ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 321 

establishing effective means of obtaining redress when 
aggrieved. The system acted upon was at once barbarous 
and revolting. Practices prevailed under the sanction of 
native law, which were abhorrent to the criminal jurisdiction 
of any enlightened nation, witiiout being at all necessary to 
the due administiation of justice *. I allude particularly to 
torture and mutilation. These the Earl of Minto immediately 
abolished, by his proclamation of the 11th September 1811, 
in which, besides this beneficial and humane enactment, he 
laid down clearly and distinctiy the Uberal and enlightened 
principles which should guide the local government in the 
subsequent revision of the civil and criminal code of the 
colony. The result was the enactment of the code of judicial 
and police regulations which will be found in the Appendix 
to this work f. The outlines of these regulations, and the 
principles which dictated them, are contained in a Minute 
which I recorded on the 11th February 1814, when they were 

* AmoDg many others, the following enactments, which were in force 
in some of the Eastern districts when the English arrived, will serve to 
shew the barbarities of the law then existing, in its operation on the 
people, and its leniency towards the great. 

" Any person murdering his superior shall be beheaded, his body quar- 
** tered and given to the wild beasts, and his head stuck upon a bambu. 

** Any person disobeying his superior and attempting to murder him, 
" may be killed by the superior, without giving any intimation thereof to 
** the chief town. 

Any person daring to destroy any public advertisement promulgated 

by government shall forfeit his right hand. 

A Demdng, or other chief of a d^a, being acquainted with any con- 
spiracy tending to the injury of the state, and not giving intimation 

thereof, shall be punished by losing one ear, his head shall be shaved^ 
** and he shall be banished. 

" Any person- daring to offer violence to a priest in the mosque or 
" among the tombs shall forfeit one hand. 

*< If a woman kills a man she shall be fined 500 reals batH, 
If a superior kills an inferior he shall be fined 1000 doits. 
If a person puts out the eyes of another he shall be fined 500 reals 

batu ; if one eye only 50 reals." 

There were also different fines for maiming different parts of the body. 
For cutting out the tongue, 500 reals ; for knocking out the teeth, 25 ; 
** for breaking the thimib, 500 ; for breaking the finger, 100 ; and the 
like. See CoUection of Native Laws at Banyvwangi. 

f Appendix D. 

VOL. I. Y 



•• b 



<< 



32-2 ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 

completed and promulgated; and the following qnotatioiu 
from that document may be sufficient to put the reader ^id 
possession of the change which was effected. 

*^ It was essential, in conducting the revenue axrangemenU, 
^^ that the measures taken for the establishment of a good 
^^ and efficient police, and the full and impartial adnunit- 
** tration of justice throughout the island, should presenre an 
" equal pace. 

^' Rights were not to be bestowed and defined, without 
^* a suitable provision for their being effectually guarded 
** against any invasion ; and it became an object of the fint 
^* moment, to form such an adequate and consistent code of 
^^ regulations, as should serve, in every instance, to guide the 
^^ executive officers of government in the performance of their 
^^ duty, and to make known, and secure to the people, the 
^^ means of obtaining redress, whenever they felt themselTei 
" in any way aggrieved. 

^^ The system found existing on our first arrival was at once 
^^ complicated and confused. In the principal towns there 
*^ were established courts, but these were constituted in all 
^^ the troublesome formalities of the Roman law ; and in the 
^^ different residencies were provincial courts, styled laud- 
*^ raadsy where the native form and law was left to iaike its 
^^ course, with all its barbarities and tortures. 

" The Dutch government, proceeding entirely on the sys- 
" tern of commercial monopoly, paid vcrj- inferior attention to 
'^ their internal administration. They h&d little other con- 
^^ nexion with tlicir best subjects, the cultivators of the soil, 
^^ tlian in calling on them, fi*om time to time, for arbitraiy and 
*^ o])prcssive contributions and sen'iccs ; and for the rest, gave 
^' them up to be vassals to tlie various intermediate antho- 
'* ritics, the Regents, DemanySy and other native officers. 
" Tliose eitlior at first purchased tlieir situations, or stipu- 
" latod fur a certain tribute, in sen'ice or money, in conside- 
" ration of which all the inferior classes of inhabitants were 
'* made over, to be (h'ult with by them as most pleasing to 
" themselves. Policy, and the common attention to their own 
" good, suggested to these a certain equity of procedure, and 
" it was generally tlie custom to leave each village to its own 
" nmnrtgoment, ^ith respect to police and settling the petty 



ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE- 823 

" quarrels that occurred within its limits ; but for the con- 
** tinuance of what was good in such a system, there was no 
^ security whatsoever, and oppression and injustice must have 
" constantly occurred. Where the will of the lord was the 
" paramoimt law, his vassals could only have depended on 
^' his natural goodness of disposition for being equitably 
** treated. No remedy was afforded where the reverse was 
** the case, and they possessed, in short, no security, no firee- 
•* dom whatsoever. 

** On the propriety of the measures to be adopted by us to 
** remedy such evils, no doubt could exist. 

" The first proclamation of the enlightened founder of the 
•* present government adverted immediately to this subject 
'^ As a step that could not, consistently with British ideas, 
*^ admit of a moments delay, it instantly ordained, th^at torture 
*^ and mutilation should no longer make part of any sentence 
** to be pronounced against criminals ; and it then proceeded 
" to define clearly the relative situation of the English and 
** Dutch inhabitants, laying down rules for the future gui- 
** dance of government concerning them. This proclamation, 
** dated 11th September, 1811, has long been before the world, 
" and it would be superfluous, in this place, to dwell on that 
** love of justice and benevolence of disposition, which is to 
" be traced through every part of it It forms the basis of the 
" present respective European rights in this colony *. 

" As a continuation of the measures so ably sketched out by 
^^ my predecessor, I issued the proclamation, dated the 21st 
" January, 1812. . 

" In this I attempted to simplify the clumsy and unwieldy 
" structure of the former courts, by abolishing some, lessening 
" the number of the judges in the remaining ones, and by de- 
" fining, as accurately as I could, the limits of their respective 
" jurisdictions. 

" It was found that, formerly, there were separate courts 
" for investigating the conduct of the immediate European 
" sen^ants of the Dutch Company, and of Europeans not in- 
" eluded in that service. This distinction, as Lord Minto 
" observed, never could have been grounded on any sound 

♦ See Appendix D. 



3-24 ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 

" principle, and it being resolved, that justice, under the 
" Britisli government, should be administered equal and alike 
" to all classes and denominations, tlie judicial power of the 
" College of Schepenen was abolished, and transferred to the 
" jurisdiction of tlie courts of justice. 

" Tlie great number of judges who, under the Dutch ad- 
" ministration, formed a coiut, was reduced in each to a pre- 
'* sidcnt and three members. 

*' One court was established in each of the three principal 
" towns, Batavia, Semarang, and Surabaya, the jurisdiction 
" of which extended over its European inhabitants ; proceed- 
" ing, in civil cases, in the mode before established, but in 
" criminal ones, so as to conform as much as possible to that 
" established in Great Britain ; in all cases confronting the 
" prisoner with the evidence, and a jury being called to judge 
" of the fact on tlie evidence so adduced. 

" To relieve these courts from numerous inconsiderable 
" causes, courts, of the nature of Courts of Requests, were 
" also established in these three tornis, for the recovery of 
** small debts. 

** For matters of police within the towns, magistrates were 
" apj)(>iiited ; but they were ordered to confine themselves 
" entirelv to tliis branch. 

*' An abuse which had been discovered to be usual, the 
'* compounding crimes and offences, in consideration of a sum 
" of money paid to the Fiscal or otlier oflBicer, had also met 
** with Lord Minto's most severe reprehension, as being one 
'' of an abominable nature, and to be suppressed \iithout 
" (U'lay. llie practice was accordingly strictly prohibited, 
" and consonantly with British ideas was termed scandalous. 

'* '111 us much had been done with regard to Europeans, 
'* and it has been foimd fullv sufficient 

" But with respect to the native inhabitants of the Island, 

it was to be expected that much greater changes would be 

necessarv. 

" In the first instance, it was ordered that coiuts should he 
*' (Established in the difierent districts, in which the chief 
'' civil authorities should ])resi(le, aided by the Regents and 

olluT native officers, for the puq)ose of hearing and tr)'inf^ 

all causes in which natives only were concerned; the 






n, 



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ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE 325 



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amount of their civil decisions, when exceeding fifty dollars, 
*• being submitted for confirmation to the courts of justice ; 
** and all criminal cases, of a capital nature, being made over 
** by them to judges of circuit, who were ordered to be sent 
" on this duty twice a year, firom among the members of the 
** superior courts. 

" Thus much was known not to militate either against the 
** principles of universal and natural justice, or against the 
** particular laws and usages of the country ; and thus much 
" was only, at first, done, because it was resolved to obtain 
the ftdlest knowledge of the subject, with regard to the 
manners, habits, and institutions of our native subjects, 
** before we established one general code of regulations for 
** the internal administration of the country. 

" In effecting this grand object, it was ratiier my wish to 
** have it maturely and well done, than by accelerating it too 
" much, to run the risk of taking up a crude system, which 
" would require to be afterwards re-considered, and perhaps 
entirely new modelled. 

" On the principle, however, which would eventually guide 
me, there was no doubt, nor is it necessary for me to dilate 
on the impolicy, the inconvenience, or the injustice, of sub- 
jecting the natives of Java to any other laws, than those of 
their ancient government and established faith. 
" The tranquillity of the country and the duties of police 
** have been provided for, by preserving the original consti- 
tution of the villages, and continuing the superintendence 
and responsibiUty in the hands of those, whose rank enables 
them to exert a due influence, and to command respect. 
For the administration of justice, the duties of the Resident, 
" as judge and magistrate, have been considerably extended. 
In civil cases, the mode of proceeding, and the establish- 
ment of petty courts, axe founded on the practice of the 
country; in criminal, the jurisdiction and authority of the 
Resident has been considerably extended. Hitherto, his 
" duties had been strictiy confined to police ; but considerable 
" delay and injury to the parties accused, as well as to the 
" witnesses, had been occasioned by allowing all causes of a 
" higher nature to lie over for the Court of Circuit : and as 
" the separation of the collection of the Revenue would afford 



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326 ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTIGB. 

^^ more time to the Resident, it was resolved to extend the 
" criminal jurisdiction of the Provincial Courts to all cases, in 
^^ which the punishment for the crime alleged does not amount 
^^ to death. In these courts, which instead of being termed 
" Landraady as heretofore, are now styled the Residenfs 
" Courts, the Panghidiiy or chief priest, and the superior, 
" JdksGy or native fiscal, attend to expound the law. Tie 
" Bopdtis, or Regents, with their Pdteh/ty are prescmt, to aid 
^' and assist tlie Resident with their opinion in the course 
" of the investigation, but they have no vote in the decision* 
"If the opinion of the law officers appears to the Resident to 
" be according to substantial justice, and is in accordance 
" with his own opinion, the sentence is immediately carried 
" into effect, j)rovided the punishment does not extend to 
" transportation or imprisonment for life. 

" In cases where the punishment adjudged is more con- 
" sidtTa])le, or wherein tlie opinion of the law officers may be 
" at variance witli that of the Resident, a reference is to be 
" made to the Lieutenant Governor ; and in all cases where 
the punishment for the crimes charged is of a capital nature, 
the ])risoner is committed to jail, to take his trial before the 
" Circuit Judge. 

" On the first establishment of the Courts of Circuit, it was 
" directed that the President and one other member of the 
Courts of Justice, should proceed once in six months, or as 
much of\ener as circumstances might require, to the difTerent 
Residencies in their several jiuisdictions, for the trial of 
oilenders. Much inconvenience, however, was foimd to 
" arise from the absence of tliose members of the courts from 
" the towns in which thev were established, as it necessarilr 
'^ followed, that all civil business was at a stand while ther 
*' were Jiway. On the other hand, to prevent delay on the 
** trial of criminals, it was necessary that they should Wsit the 
Residencies more frequently than once in six months. 
" To remedy this in future, and to provide for the prompt 
and due administration of justice among the native inhabit- 
ants, in a manner that is not repugnant to their notions of 
" right and wrong, one member of each of the courts of justice 
** lias b(H»n appointed a Judg«* of Circuit, who will be present 
''in each of the Residencies at least once in every three 



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ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 327 

** montliSy and as much oftener as necessary. In the mode 
of proceeding, they are to avoid the formalities of the Roman 
law. A native jury, consisting of an intelligent foreman 
" and four others *, decide upon the fact : the law is then 
** taken down, as expounded by the native law ojQBcers, and 
** the sentence, with the opinion of the Judge of Circuit, and 
" on the application of the Dutch and Colonial law on the 
** cases, is forwarded for the modification or confirmation of 
** the Lieutenant Governor. 

" Hitherto the jury required by the Court of Circuit did 
" not exceed five in number, and these, as justly observed, 
" * were chosen firom a class of men (Europeans) who had no 
** * conmion feelings, no common rights ; who were, in no 

* shape or consideration, the equals of the person tried. 

* The law was the law of Europe. The jury, under their 

* best prejudices, were influenced by that law ; and its 

* meanings and penalties were applied to people who reason 

* in a different manner, and who often never knew any thing 

* of the laws of Europe, before they found themselves its 
** * convicted victims.' 

" The general jurisdiction of the Courts of Justice at Ba- 
tavia, Semarang, and Surabaya, is now confined to Euro- 
peans and foreigners and to the inhabitants of those towns 
*^ and their suburbs ; and a line has been drawn, which dis* 
^* tinctly separates the police of the country from that of the 
** towns. 

*^ Collections of the different law-books and institutions of 
** the country are now making, and a native establishment 
^* has been formed at Buitenzorg, imder my immediate super- 
** intendence, for examining and revising the judicial pro- 
^^ ceedings, and for affording to the native inhabitants that 
" facility of appeal, which the remoteness of the Government, 
^^ and the rules of Dutch administration, did not formerly ad- 
" mit of, but which is so consonant to the principles on which 
" the new system of internal economy has been established." 
Under the native government, the whole of the male popu- 

* The number required to compose the jxaj was fixed in conformity with 
the ancient usages of the country, in which five persons are considered 
necessary to assist in the deliberation upon any matter of importance. 






328 MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT. 

lation capable of bearing arms was liable to militarjr service ; 
but the number of people required to cultivate the land, and 
to perform other pubUc services, did not admit of more than 
one-tliird being spared for military purposes, except in cases 
of extraordinary emergency. The extent of the force perma* 
nently kept up by the sovereign in time of peace Taried, of 
course, wiih the probability of approaching hostilities : when 
this was smallest, the number seldom exceeded what was 
required for the state and pomp of the court, and might have 
amounted to four or five thousand men. Until within the last 
sixty years, when the Dutch first obtained a supremacy over 
the whole island, the provinces under the native administra- 
tion had for several centuries been in a continual state of war- 
fare ; but since that period the military spirit has been gra- 
dually subsiding, and, by the existing treaties with the native 
princes, they are restricted in the number of troops which they 
may maintain. Those of the Susuhunan are limited to a body 
guard of one thousand men : such fiurther number as may be 
required for the tranquillity of the countiy, the European go- 
vernment undertakes to fiimish. 

Before the native sovereign was under tiiis restriction, he 
used to raise the requisite force by a demand upon the go- 
vernor of each province for a specified number, to be furnished 
at a certain time, varying according to circumstances. The 
governor or chief of tiie pro\dnce apportioned this demand 
among the subdivisions, and the village chiefs selected from 
among the villagers as many as were required of them ; and 
thus, in a country where every man wears a kria or dagger, 
and the spear or pike is tlie principal military weapon, an 
aniiy, or rather a numerous armed mob, was easily collected 
in a few days. The men furnished from the villaiges, and of 
whom the mass of every large army necessarily consisted, 
were distinguished from the soldiers by profession fprajmrit)^ 
by the term drahafij or prajurit draJian, During their ab- 
sence from home, tliey were provisioned by tiic sovereign, and 
their wives and families were maintained by the head of the 
village, who required of tlic remaining cultivators to assist in 
working their fields or gardens. 

The sovereign, as the head of the military and the founUuu 
of military honour, assumes among his tides that of Semapdii^ 



MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT. 828 

or lord of war. When an army is to be raised, he appoints a 
certain number of his chiefs to be ividdfuiSj or commanders of 
corps of three hundred and twenty men. Under each widdna 
are four lurahs or tindihsy who command companies of eighty 
men, and have each two subaltern ojfficers, called babdkals or 
sesdbaiSy each having the command of forty men. The unddncLS 
were remunerated for their services by grants of land, to the 
amount of a thousand chdchaSy from which they had again to 
make assignments for the maintenance of the inferior ojfficers, 
who were always nominated by them. 

When troops march through the country, or supplies are 
required, a demand is made upon the neighbouring districts, 
which are obliged to contribute according to their means, 
without payment. When in an enemy's country, the troops, 
of course, subsist by plunder, the disbursement of money for 
provisions or supplies being unknown. 

The native armies of Java consisted chiefly of in&ntry, but 
the officers were invariably mounted, and when cavalry was 
required, each province furnished its quota : the troops, 
whether on foot or mounted, joined the army properly equipped 
for action. It was thus imnecessary for the sovereign to keep 
up a store of arms. Each village has its provision of spears, 
and sometimes of fire-arms ; the officer of subdivision keeps a 
further reserve for contingencies; and as the chief of the 
province is responsible for the proper equipment of the men, 
he generally has also a further store to supply any deficiency. 

Of the different weapons used in Java, the most im- 
portant and the most peculiar to the Eastern Islands is the 
kriSy which is now worn by all classes, and as an article of 
dress has already been noticed. 

The Javan kris differs from the Malayan, in being much 
more plain, as well in the blade as in the handle and sheath : 
it differs also in the handle and sheath from the kris of Ma- 
dura and Bdliy as may be seen in the plate. The varieties of 
the blade are said to exceed an hundred ; and as a knowledge 
of the kris is considered highly important by the Javans, I 
have, in a separate plate, offered specimens of the most 
common. 

In the plates are also exhibited the different kind of spears, 
darts, and other weapons, either said to have been in use for- 



330 MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT. 

merly, or actually used at the present daj. These are tba 
bow and arrow (gendeita, panaj which are seldom used in 
modem days, except on state occasions. The arrows^ termed 
chdkray paspdiiy irisula, wardyang, diwdlj rdda deddli^ and 
others of a similar form, as well as the clubs called inddn^ 
gdduy and dSuda^ are represented as the weapons used by the 
gods, demigods, and heroes of antiquity, and are constantly 
referred to in the mythological and historical romances of 
the Javans, and exhibited in their scenic and dramatic enter- 
tainments. The tulup and pdser represent the tube and the 
small arrows which are rendered poisonous by the lipas : these 
have not been used on Java for centuries, but they are comnMm 
in less civilized islands of the Archipelago, and particulaily 
on Borneo. Tlie ganjing is an iron bar, formerly used by the 
Javans. The bandrinyy or sling, is still used with consider- 
able effect, and was employed in resisting the British tnx)pf 
in 181*2. The peddng^ banddly badik^ goldkj mentdk^ Idmang 
or klewdngy and chundrikj are varieties of the sword. The 
k(idUtrdnchang is a weapon which was formerly general on 
Java, but not now much used. The wedAng is a peculiar 
weapon, in the shape of a chopper, worn on occasions of stale 
by all chiefs when in presence of the sovereign. Of spears 
and darts, there are several varieties distinguished by different 
names. Small round shields are still in use ; the long shield 
is not. Tlie matchlock exhibited in the plate is arepresenta^ 
tion of a piece maimfactured on Bdli, 

Besides these instruments of war, the Javans have long been 
acquainted with the use of cannon, muskets, and piBtoIs. 
Previous to the reduction of Yugga^kertaj in 1812, by the 
British forces, the Sultan cast brass guns of considcssble 
calibre, and at Gresik they are still manufactured for export- 
ation. Round the krdton of Sura-kerta are mounted several 
ver>' large pieces of artillery, and great veneration is paid to 
some of them supposed to have been the first introduced on 
the island : two, in particular, are considered to be part of the 
regalia. For nuiskets and pistols they arc principally indebted 
to Europeans. Gunpowder they manufacture, but to no con- 
siderable extent, and the quality is not esteemed. 

From an army raised only on emergency, and composed of 
people who do not make the military life a profession, much 



MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT. 881 

discipline cannot be expected. The veneration, however, 
which the common people pay to their chiefs, the well de- 
fined gradations of rank, and the devotion with which all 
classes are willing to sacrifice themselves in support of their 
ancient institutions and independence, seem to render the 
Javan troops, while acting under their own chiefs, orderly 
and tractable. In their tactics and conduct they endeavour 
to emulate the examples given in their ancient romances ; and 
in the plans for their pitched battles, the march of their armies, 
and the individual heroism of their chiefs, they strive to imi- 
tate the romantic exhibitions contained in the poems of an- 
tiquity. In the great Matdrem war, for instance, the result 
of which was the establishment of the present family on 
the throne, the disposition of the army is said to have been 
in the form of a shrimp or prawn, as represented in the 
plate. This form is termed mangkdra^ or the shrimp which 
hides its soul, alluding to the sovereign who is in the centre 
and not to be approached. The plan of this order of battle 
is said to have been taken from the poem of the Brdta YHdhay 
and was adopted by Bimdnyti^ the son of ArjUna. The dirdda 
mdta is another form, said to have been used by the army 
otAstinay and has likewise been adopted by the modem 
Javans *. 

Of the bravery and heroism required of a soldier, some no- 
tion has been given in the account of the Javan ethics ; and 
a reference to their history, for the last three centuries, wiD 
abundantly prove, that although unacquainted with those 
evolutions and tactics which contribute so largely to the 
power of an European army, the Javans, as soldiers, have 
not been deficient, either in personal courage, or in such mi- 
litary principles as might be expected from the general state 
of society among them, and as are well suited to the nature 
of the coimtry and the weapons they are accustomed to carry t» 

* In joining the battle it is usual for the warriors to shout, and for the 
trumpets (sarenen), gongs, and drums used in the martial music of the 
country to be sounded. 

t The following verse from the N^ti Sdslra Kdwi may be adduced, uk 
further illustration of the notions entertained by the Javans regarding the 
bravery of a soldier : 
" The brave man who has been successful in war obtains his heart's desire. 



332 MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT. 

It is the national boast, that it was not so much by force of 
anns as by intri^e and stratagem, that the Dutch obtained 
the superiority iii the country. The histoiy of the Dutch ad- 
ministration on Java ^^lll abundantly testify this, and at the 
same time prove, that among Asiatics there are few nations 
who have fought more obstinately in support of their inde- 
pendence than tlie Javans. It was by corrupting and bribing 
the chiefs, and so\^'ing disunion among them, that the Dutch 
succeeded in dismembering an empire, already shaken, at the 
period of their arrival, by tlie constant wars which attended 
the establishment of Mahomedanism. Tlie comparison which 
has been drawn bv tlie Javans tliemselves of their own cha- 
racter, in contrast with that of the Dutch, may serve to illus- 
trate tlie nature of the military feeling still existing in the 
country. " The Dutch," say they, " are superior to the 
^' Javans, inasmuch as they have good heads; they can cal- 
^^ culate, and they understand policy better, but then thej 
'^ have cold hearts : tlie Javans are poor simple beings, but 
" tlicy love tlieir country and will never quit it ; their hearf 
" glows and often bums." 

Tlie phrenzy generally knoira by the term muck or dmok/u 
only another fonn of that fit of desperation which bears the 
same name aincmg the military', and under the influence of 
which they rush upon the enemy, or attack a battery, in the 
manner of a forlorn hope. The accounts of the wars of the 
Javans, as well as of tlie MaUiyuSj abound with instances of 
warriors running amok ; of combatants, giving up all idea of pre- 
sening their own lives, rushing on the enemy, committing indis- 
criminate slaughter, and never suirendering themselves alive*. 
I^von at present, there are to be found among the Javans men 
who profess to be and are considered invulnerable ; and there 
are some who, by a dextrous manner of receiving the spear, 

" Tlie >)rave man who dies in war is received into heaven and cheriihedby 

tho Widadaris. 
'* If a man in cowanlly in war and die, the keeiiers of hell Kiie upon hid 

in a ni^o : 
" Slioukl he not die, he is reprobated and despised by all good men, eren 

to his face." 

* It is on those oocaxions that the parties frequently increaM their dat- 
piTatioii )>y the use f>f opium. 



MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT. 838 

lier such artifices, completely impose upon the too cre- 
( people. Nothing is so easy as for an artful man to 
ide the common Javans that he possesses supernatural 
At the present day this pretension, and the artifices 
dch it is supported, are more generally of a religious 
5, but diuing the wars, every fortunate chief was consi- 
as partially vested with it. 

B general term for a soldier is prajurit : the guards of 
Dvereign are distinguished by the term tant&mo. Sara 
s the name given to those who carry fire-arms. Gdndek 
le couriers or messengers who convey the orders of the 
danders. In every army there is a certain number called 
hela^ whose duty it is to prevent the body of the troops 
deserting, and to see that every man does his duty. Pdna 
m is the term by which the youths who accompany their 
rrs and relations to battle are distinguished. Semut g4tat 
e general term for attendants, retainers, and followers of 
rmy. But besides distinctions of office, there are others 
ly of merit and honour : those are called niutra who are 
;ted as superior to their comrades in person and strength : 
pratcireng are those who have once distinguished them- 
38 in battle : magdtishy those who sacrifice all other pros- 
s in Ufe in order to pursue the love of arms : truna-l&yangj 
mt youths : jdga mra, those whose courage is undisputed, 
who keep a good look out : judi pdti, those who hazard 
r lives in battle, as they would hazard a die in any com- 
i game of chance ; literally, who play with death : nir- 
ly those who are above a sense of pain or fear : jdyeng 
r, flowers of victory *. This latter term was chosen by 
'shal Daendels for the native militia raised for the service 
le Dutch government during his administration. 
1 the Dutch armies the Javans were considered as inferior 
le other islanders as soldiers, and fi-om the faciUties offered 

" As to their military character, it is certain," says Plutarch, " they 
ere able commanders, both by sea and land. But as the champions, 
bo in one day gain the garland, not only in wrestling, but in the pan-' 
ation, are not simply called victors, but by the custom of the games, 
.e flowers of victory j so Cymon, having crowned Greece with two vic- 
ries gained in one day, the one at land, the other at sea, deserves some 
•eference in the list of generals." — Langhome's Plutarch : Cimon and 
Ulus compared. 



834 REVENUE. 

for desertion while serving on Java, it waswith great difficulty 
that they could be disciplined. The men were invariably 
raised by conscription, and instances have occurred of their 
deserting by companies. Under the British a corps of about 
twelve hundred men was raised, with little prospect of ad- 
vantage for the first two years ; but, by the perseverance and 
ability of the ojfficcr who commanded Ihem, they afterwards 
became a well-disciplined corps, and on all occasions behaved 
themselves with fidelity and courage when called into action. 
As individuals, they are, for the most part, physically weaker 
than the Mal/iyus and other islanders ; and as a nation, their 
agricultural habits have considerably obliterated the militaiy 
character which they once possessed. Their country, how- 
ever, particularly in the interior, is naturally very strong, full 
of ravines and fastnesses, and their mode of warfare is per- 
haps the best adapted for its defence. Were the whole 
energies of the nation united under one chief, with the expe- 
rience which they now have of European tactics, it may be 
assumed that they would render it impregnable to any open 
attack, either of an European or an Asiatic force ; but, unfisr- 
tunatcly for their independence, it has been their lot, as their 
history vfill shew, to be continually disunited, either by re- 
ligious or political feuds. Their greatest resistance appean 
to have been made against European influence. They main- 
tain \iith pride, that although virtually conquered, they still, 
as a nation and as individuals, pertinaciously adhere to their 
ancient institutions, and have a national feeling, very different 
from that which is usually to be found among a conquered 
people. 

llic subject of revenue, for the support of the various es- 
tablislunents under tlie native government, has been so re- 
peatedly touched upon, and came so much into view in the 
account given of Javan agriculture, that many further details 
hero would ai)pear tedious and unnecessar}'. All public ofli- 
ccTs, it has been often observed, from tlie highest chief to the 
lowest menial, are remunerated by grants of land revokable at 
])leaKiure, and all expences of tlie courts of justice, all police 
and niilitarv senices, defraved out of the same fund. There 
IS no public treasury. AVlien public works arc to be executed, 
or supplies are to be furnished, each village is called upon tn 

9 



REVENUE. 886 

famish its quota of men, of provisions, &c. ; and on the equit- 
able regulation of these services and contributions depends 
the reputation of the native chief. The land constitutes the 
mdy treasury of the prince, and this is valuable according to 
its fertility, and the extent and number of its cultivators. 
There are, to be sure, certain general taxes and imposts levied 
throughout the country : but these appear to have been of 
comparatively modem introduction, and unconnected with the 
genuine principles of the Javan government The nature of 
several of these imposts and taxes has been explained in treat- 
ing of the landed tenure and the condition of the peasantry. 
The following statement, extracted from the Report of a Dutch 
commissioner *, appointed to inquire into the subject of taxa- 
tion in the year 1812, though it refers to the particular pro- 
vince of Surabaya^ may be considered as applicable to the 
greater part of the island ; and I here produce it in preference 
to any more general or more concise account of my own, be- 
cause it will shew that the opinions I have so often expressed, 
concerning the oppressions of the Dutch authorities, the pa- 
tient submission, the industry, and other good qualities of the 
lower classes of Java, are not peculiar to the EngUsh, but en- 
tertained by some of the subjects of a government \^hich pro- 
fited by the abuses complained of, and must have been anxious 
to conceal their enormity. 

^^ The ordinary taxes annually levied in the district of Sti- 
" rabdya are as follow : 

^^ i. The grabdg ot peUkj or as it is sometimes called, the 
^^ chdcha or capitation tax, is generally levied at the rat& of 
*' four rupees for each chdcha a year ; that is to say, for such 
" a quantity of profitable land as may be cultivated by one 
" family. 

" 2. The contingent or contribution of rice to government, 
" being from fifteen to nineteen pikHU of clean rice fix>m each 
^^ jiingy according to its situation and fertility. 

*^ 3. Pari pdnajung (from which, however, are excused 
" the distant districts), consisting generally of three dmais of 
" pdriy equal to from eight to ten kdti of rice, from each^un^. 
'^ This is destined for the maintenance of those Mdntris and 

* Mr. RothenbuUer. 






336 REVEiNUB. 

*^ chicfft who were not at all or insufElciently provided with 
" rice fields of their own. 

'^ 4. Pari pagondikan^ levied only in the districts near the 
^' capital, consisting generally of two goings or double heaps 

of pari. This was destined for the extraordinary expences 

of the districts ; as the maintenance of the govemment, state 

prisoners, native ambassadors from the opposite coast, and 
" the like. 

^' 5. Pari pakdnak^ consisted of three gedings from each 
^^jvfgy destined for the maintenance of those who sufierintend 
^' the direction of the water-coutses, &c. 

^' 6. Pari zakat^ consisted of one dmai of pdri from each 
^^ j^*^f/j ^nd was destined for the maintenance of the church 
" and chief priests. 

" 7. Pitrahy consisted in the payment of twenty kdii of rice 
'^ from each jungy also destined for the maintenance of the 
" priests. 

'^ 8. Mdidman. This consisted of a payment made to the 
^^ Regent or chiefs of the districts, at each of the three festivals 
^^ of Mulut Puasa^ and Besdr^ of ten kdii of rice, and three 
'^ and a quarter stivers in money from each jtfff^, one large 
'^ fowl, five eggs, four cocoa-nuts, one bunch of plantains: 
'^ and from those who held three or fonrjungn^ was fuithiT 
'^ required a bottle of oil, to add to the solemnity of the cerc- 
^' mony, to which persons of this condition were universally 
" invited. 

'' It is easy to conceive, that the common Javan was not 
^' able to make any money after paying these taxes and con- 
^' tributions, at least not so much as he wanted for himself and 
'* family ; particularly if we take into consideration, that it is 
^' very seldom one man is the sole proprietor of AJmng alone, 
" but that it is often divided between three and four persons, 
'^ and that, witli the most successful han-est, such a jtrng 
" (Iocs not pnuluce more than tliirty to thirty-five dmais of 
" pdri. With all tliis, however, the common Javan would 
" feel himself satisfied, if he had no other taxes to pay, having 
'' generally a good many fruit trees, and a little cottage farm, 
'^ in which he cultivates siri^ &c. and sometimes a small fish- 
" pond in the vicinity of his dwelling, which is usually free 
'^ of tax. But this is not the case ; he must submit to other 



REVENUE. 337 



it 



oppressions, which not being regulated, are for that reason 
the heavier, because they are called for in an arbitrary way, 
^* and because self-interest does not fail to seize eveiy pos- 
" sible opportunity of extortion. 

" When a chief has occasion to travel, when a marriage, 
** birth, circumcision, recovery from illness, or any such sub- 
** ject of festivity, occurs in his family, it is advertized imme- 
" diately to the subordinate towns and villages, the inhabit- 
** ants of which feel themselves obliged, each in proportion to 
*^ his means, to carry him fruits, rice, fowls, and even buffaloes 
^' and money. These are called free presents, but in fact, are 
** as much an obligatory contribution as any of the others ; to 
'^ say nothing of the many demands for fowls, eggs, ducks, 
" fruits, &c. for which payment is made, but always at a rate 
** fax below their value : or of the numerous fines Which are 
^^ continually exacted frx)m the people, in compensation, or as 
** hush money for disputes and offences of every description ; 
'^ the taking away of bdmbuSy and sometimes of fiuit trees, 
" when wood is required, either for government or the chief; 
^* to which must yet be added, that for the execution of the 
" duties of government, and on the conveyance of orders, 
^^ MdntriSj and other subordinate chiefs, were continually, in 
^* the neighbourhood of the villages, just like so many vora- 
** cious birds, who think themselves entitled not only to take 
^^ something for their trouble, but to be provided during their 
** stay with every thing gratis, even opium, if they require it 
'^ This custom, adopted on Java, extends to every other chief, 
^* although not in employment, and even to the Regents, their 
'^ relations, &c. None of these persons will pass through a 
'^ town or village, without demanding what be wants for his 
^^ maintenance or jouiTiey ; and very often he asks what he 
** does not want, to the great oppression of the common Javan. 
Much is wasted by this practice, and no particular advan- 
tage appears to resiQt from it. 

We must, indeed, be astonished to sec all the oppres- 
sions, &c. to which the common Javan must submit It 
is usually said, indeed, that the Javan is not accustomed 
^^ to an easy life, and ought not to have more than barely 
^^ enough to keep him alive, with many more such expres- 
^' sions; but this is not the manner of reasoning of any well- 
TOL. I. z 






833 REVENUE. 

'^ thinking man, who, though he sees very well the imperfec- 
'^ tions and weak nature of the Javan, yet bears in mind that 
^' he is a man like himself; who, although he has been con* 
^' quered, it is true, by the greater valour and knowledge of 
'^ the European, has still an equal right to be treated like 



^^ a man. 



'^ But, alas ! these are not all the vexations and oppressions 
^' which fall to the lot of the common people, who bear all 
^^ ^-itliout murmuring. The feudal service was as grievous as 
^^ almost all the other charges imited. The origin of those 
^^ ser\'ices must be sought for in the feudal system of the native 
" government, long ago adopted tliroughout Java. It was 
^^ considered that all the land was the property of the prince, 
^' who only made provisional assignments thereof to his sub- 
^^ jects, in remimeration for military and other services len- 
'^ dcred. This was the cause of all the lands being divided 
'' into as many allotments as coiQd be cultivated, called 
*^ chdchaSy each of a size to be cultivated by one -man. A cer- 
^^ tain number of these was assigned to the different chiefs, 
^^ according to their rank ; the custom of the countiy fixing not 
^^ only the amount of contributions to be paid from the pro- 
^' duce, but the number of men to be constantly kept in 
^^ attendance upon them. The lands thus assigned to chie& 
^^ were exempt from service to them, and the inhabitants 
" were only expected to watch the villages, to make and re- 
'^ pair tlie roads, and to perform other general sen^ices of the 
^' state. Tliis was the situation of the people with regaid to 
^' sen ice, when tlie coast districts were first ceded to the 
'^ Eiuropeau government. The system of trade and fixed con- 
'' tributions did not admit of any change, and the 
" were at that time of very little consequence, and such 
^^ could be performed without oppression to the inhabitants; 
'^ but the case is now quite different Successively and par- 
" ticularly of late years, much heavier sendees have been dc- 
" mandcd than were ever before known, and it naturallv 
'' follows, that the Javan must be kept more at work than 
'^ before. Besides, it is not possible to apportion those ser- 
'^ vices equally, on account of the situation of the places 
*^ where the senices are required, and because the chiefs, who 
'' have the direction of the works, from indifference and lazi- 



REVENUE. 339 



u 



u 
u 



ness, generally make a requisition on the nearest village ; 
** and it not unfrequently happens, that many people are thus 
** taken for the public ser\'ice, who have no lands whatever 
** allotted to them. ^ 

" Were the requisitions made for the public service alone, 
** it would still be comparatively nothing, it being admitted 
** that the state has a right to the labour of its subjects ; but 
** the Regents, their relations, their Pdtehs, and ihe subor- 
** dinate chiefs of every description, assume the right of dis- 
posing of the services of the comman people as they think 
proper, and themselves employ many of them in menial 
" labour of all descriptions *, from which it arises, that the 
** number of people employed away from their homes, on what 
** is called public services, is almost incredible. 

" It is therefore more than time, and highly necessary, that 
" an end be put to this monstrous system of government 
** Humanity looks forward with pleasure to this step. Govem- 
" ment, who are essentially interested, have the most perfect 
** right to take it ; but the change must be entire and radical. 
** Where the machine is entirely bad, it would be vain to 
" attempt the repair of a few of the parts of which it is com- 
posed : the whole woiQd still remain worthless, and it would 
only result that the main defects being hidden by a specious 
covering, the whole labour would be worse than thrown 
" away." 

The British government did accordingly alter the whole 
system of revenue. TTie subject was {orced upon its atten- 
tion, not only by the desire which every humane and liberal 
administration must feel, to promote the happiness of its 
subjects, but by considerations of a prudential nature. The 
resources of the country had sunk under a capricious and 
tyrannical system of exaction ; industry was paralyzed, and 
confidence was destroyed. The opportunity for effecting a 
reformation was favourable, our means ample, and we had 
nothing to dread from the opposition of those interested in 
supporting abuses : it was, therefore, resolved to abolish all 
oppressive taxes, and to come immediately upon the soil for 
support of our establishments, by appropriating a fixed portion 

* This was the practice of the Europeans also. 

z2 



a 

u 



340 REVENUE. 

of its produce, leaving the full enjojuient of the remainder to 
the cultivator, with every facility for turning his industry to 
account. WTiat was done in consequence, by the land re- 
venue arrangements, has been seen in the account given of 
landed teniu'e. 

The subjects of the colony were freed from the sway of their 
chiefs, who were no longer permitted to demand at pleasure 
their services or their property. These chiefs were compen- 
sated for the loss of their former influence by salaries in money 
or allotments of land, which they either held on condition of 
performing the police duties, or collecting the revenue. When 
paid by the rent of land, they were permitted to exact no 
more than the assessment settled by government. No arbi- 
trary' power was allowed them to disturb the peasant in the 
enjopnent of the remainder, or to drag him from his home 
and his duties to his family, for the purpose of swelling their 
idle pomp, or performing sen-ices about their person or house- 
hold. The Chinese farmers of the revenue in Cheribon and 
other districts, having oppressed the people by every rapa- 
cious and tyrannical expedient, were, by the discontinuance 
of the farms, deprived of the power they had exercised over 
the persons and property of the natives. Forced services and 
all deliveries of produce at inadequate rates on government 
account were abolished ; and for whatever colonial produce 
or supplies might be required for the public service, the iair 
market price was ordered to be paid. Duties on the transport 
of goods from one part of the country* to another, and on the 
sale of commodities at markets or bazars, were, for the most 
part, abolished, as injurious to trade and discouraging to 
agricultiu^ industry. The system of farming the import and 
export duties, which existed under the Dutch, was likewise 
annulled, and collectors were appointed to receive the duties 
immediately for government. Internal duties, of the nature 
of tolls and market dues, had been universally, though secretly, 
levied by the Chinese, in Ch&ribon and other places, in direct 
oj>})()silion to the orders of government and the terms of their 
engagement. This abuse, engrafted on the fanning system, 
incalculably aggravated its enls and called loudly for redress. 
The fanner thnist his rapacious hand into every place where 
there was the least prospect of gain, and limited his demand 



REVENUE. 341 

only by the capacity of the merchant to satisfy it, or by an ill- 
defined custom, which might be perverted almost at pleasure, 
so as to accommodate itself to any exaction. The evils re- 
salting firom this mode of raising a revenue may easily be 
calculated, when it is stated, that, for a very trifling contri- 
bution to government by the farmer, duties were levied upon 
internal transport amounting to nearly fifty per cent, on the 
value of the commodities transported. Rice, on its transport 
firom one part of the island to another, had been liable to 
duties of about forty-six per cent. Regulations were made 
for fixing the amount of import duties, and equalizing them 
over the island. 

The restoration of the Dutch Indian empire to the sovereign 
of the Netherlands, at a period when these important changes 
were only in progress, may have perhaps prevented the fiill 
accomplishment by the English of the details in some dis- 
tricts, but the principles of the new system were not only 
introduced and thoroughly understood in all the more popu- 
lous districts under the European government, but an expe- 
rience of three years fiilly demonstrated the advantages re- 
sulting firom it to the public revenue. It would have been 
attended with great immediate loss, without any correspond- 
ing fiiture gain, to have abolished at once all the former 
sources of revenue ; but the thorough change of system was 
declared, and the principles of it were acted tipon, as far as 
was consistent with the security of public tranquillity and 
the realization of the current resources of the country ; and 
the results of these arrangements, as fax as they went, proved 
that a land rent might, even with the existing taxes in the 
capitals, &c. be realized at the rate of at least six rupees 
annually firom each cultivator, or after the abolition of the 
taxes bearing on agriculture, at the average rate of four Spa-^ 
nish dollars fi-om each cultivator, giving in the one case a 
rental for the whole island of about six milUons of rupees, 
and in the other of four millions of Spanish dollars, or at five 
shillings the dollar, a million sterling. Of this one-fourth 
would accrue to the native princes, and the remainder to the 
European government. The particulars of the land revenue 
settlement effected in each district, and the detailed resources 
of the different parts of the island, will be particularly noticed 



34-2 REVENUE. 

iu tlie statistical accounts which will appear in a Bubaequent 
part of this volume, when the subject of revenue will be again 
adverted to ; and, in the mean time, it may be sufficient, for 
the purpose of shewing the general resourcesy to refer to the 
annexed table, exhibiting the revenues and expenses of the 
Javan government for a period of three favourable years under 
the old Dutch Company, for three years under the administn- 
tion of Marshal Dacndels, when its real resources were first 
called forth and the revenue was higher than before known, 
and for the first three years under the British goremment, of 
which alone, Uie accounts are yet closed. The dependencies 
included in this table do not include the Moluccas or Spice 
Islands, the administration of which under the British govern- 
ment was kept distinct from tliat of Java. 

By this statement it will appear, that the revenues actually 
realized in cash, on Java, in tlie year 1814-15, and before the 
land revenue arrangements had become fully efiectual, amounted 
to upwards of six millions and a half of rupees : to this maj 
be added one-third more for die revenue of the native pro- 
vinces, making a total revenue of the island exceeding eight 
millions and a half of rupees, or above a million sterling. 

P'roni a colony which was able to furnish at such a moment 
so extensive a revenue from its own internal resources, afWr 
the drains, checks, and restrictions to which it had been sub- 
j( cted during the last two centuries, what might not have been 
expected, had confidence been once established in the per- 
manency of the government, and the tide of British capital 
been once fairly turned into it ? 



ABSTRACT STiW'U^fliWlJiiWtJ't^. ''^'W " Period qfNine Yem. r 



UNDER THE BHITISH GOVKrNUBNT. 



I [Af Iilan. 

Land EUn 

Sutoidin froio the Hi 
Do. In Oil, Rice, 

ScTcnl Formt .... 

OpiQDi do 

Cnilom-Hoiue. • • . 

On Batan, Sic. ... 

Port Dudes 

Sump do 

Dolies on Legdcie* 
Do. on Transfer! 

Reei<tryofV»i«eli 

Toll 00 Rosd) and _ 

Orphan Chamber . . 

Vendue Depanment 

Lombard Bank 

Town Doliei .••••< 

Printing Office , . . . . 

Taiei on SlaTM 

Do. Houus ai<( 
Do. Horset ■ ■ • 
Do. Cocoa- nn( t 

Head Money 

SsltOepartmcnl. ■ ■ 

Cobe 

FineiandFMi ... 

Birdi' NesU rolleetei 

Teak Timber felled • 

Licenie for a China i 
Do. culling T 

Tax on ci^il Emploj 

iiceilaneoui 




Reienuei colled 



^•:....".j:w n.m 

Do Kev« 13,131 



Do Maril ".San 



n Ike DtptndtMiet- 
Al Bsrijennuln .. 

Palembsng and 



ii;.«; 



i7.3o6 



mt,3aa ; 

1,518,319 ' 

I 614,086 : 

I lie3,S«6 I 

S3,l» 

23,806 I 

j 30,4») : 

4S,[M« I 

I 70,843 i 

i 66,«83 ; 

3,233 : 



14.475 67 
173,234 
368,391 36 



1 26/", ■ 



409,866 42 

1.096.040 13 

610,350 SG 

627,333 
34,038 

3R,4<f7 61 

26,61 » 27 

40.323 "" 

I25fi.11 

48 140 7» 

4.860 92 



62,251 32 
313.440 

132,402 80 

17.630 84 

376.334 40 



103,4; 



4,440 



139,602 33 
S64,IS6 



5,413,209 G3 

102,422 23 

141,259 12 

420,809 84 

9, 107,700 71 



13.927 
.0»U,S»8 
376,318 



20,706 . 

24,643 

87.108 



64,142 

23,817 
13,037 
20,864 
29,091 
6,150 



84 



B.418.723 49 

107,764 
363,140 



r7,20.1 30 
2,745.908 
79.640 68 



7,269,346 23 

97.903 94 

I26.S13 79 

607,967 40 



I. n. RAIIRR. . 



344 D£F£RENC£ TO SUPERIOR RANK. 

confined to the royal family alone, it might perhaps find a 
parallel in other eastern countries, where it is usual for the sub- 
ject to prostrate himself before the sovereign, but in Java the 
nature of the government is such, that each delegated authoritjr 
exacts the same marks of obeisance ; so that, firom the common 
labourer upward, no one dares to stand in the presence of a 
superior. Thus, when a native chief moves abroad, it is usual 
for all the people of inferior rank among whom he passes, to 
lower their bodies to the ground till they actually sit on their 
heels, and to remain in this posture until he is gone by. The 
same rule is observed within doors ; and instead of an assem- 
bly rising on the entrance of a great man, as in Europe, it 
sinks to the ground, and remains so during his presence.* 
- This humiliating posture is called dddoky and may be ren- 
dered into English by the term squatting,- The practice is 
submitted to with the utmost cheerfulness by the people : it is 
considered an ancient custom, and respected accordingly. It 
was, however, in a great measure discontinued in the Euro- 
pean provinces during the administration of the British go- 
vernment, who endeavoured to raise the lower orders, as much 
as was prudent, from the state of degradation to which their 
chiefs, aided by the Dutch authority, had subjected them; 
but it continued in force in the native provinces, in MaAtrUf 
and to a certain extent in most of the districts at a distance 
from the seats of European government 

* In travelling myself through some of the native provinces, 
and particularly in Madura, where the forms of the native 
govcnimcnt are particularly observed, I have often seen some 
hundreds drop on my approach, the cultivator quitting his 
plough, and the porter his load, on the sight of the Titm 
ftcsdr's carriage. At the coiul of Sura-kMa, I recollect that 
once, when holding a private conference with the Stuinan at 
tlic residency, it became necessary for the Radenadipdii. to 
be dispatched to the palace for the royal seat : the poor old 
man was as usual squatting, and as the Susunan happened to 
be seated witli his face towards the door, it was full ten mi- 
nutes before his minister, after repeated inefTcctual attempts, 
criuM obtain an opportunity of rising sufficiently to reach the 
latrh without being seen by his royal master.* The missioii 
i>ii which lie was dispatched was urgent, and the Sm9muin 



DEFERENCE TO SUPERIOR RANK. 345 

himself inconvenienced by the delay ; but these inconve- 
niences were insignificant, compared with the indecorum of 
being seen out of the dddok posture. When it is necessary 
for an inferior to move, he must still retain that position, and 
walk with his hams upon his heels until he is out of his supe- 
rior's sight 

Besides this deference in the posture of the body, a defer- 
ence, equally striking and still more defined, is shewn in the 
language used to a superior. The vernacular language of the 
country is never allowed to be used on such occasions, but 
only an arbitrary language, distinguished by the term bdsay 
the language, or bdsa krdmaj the polite language, or language 
of honour. The conmion people are thus not permitted to 
use the same language as the great, or in other words, are by 
the political institutions of the country, in a great degree, de- 
prived of the use of their mother tongue. This subject will 
however be more particularly treated of in another chapter. 
That a set of people who have received some mental culture 
will necessarily discover it in their language, and that a line of 
distinction will be thus drawn between the well informed and 
the ignorant, is natural ; and of the employment of a different 
number of persons in the verbs and pronouns, according as 
supremacy, respect, or familiarity is to be expressed, the mo- 
dem European languages afford abundant example : but that 
one class of words should be exacted from the lower orders 
as a homage to the powerfiil, and another class given in ex- 
change, serving to remind them of their inferiority, is a 
refinement in arbitrary power, which it would be difficult 
to parallel. 

Having thus seen the nature and extent of the general de- 
ference paid to a superior on Java, the reader will be pre- 
pared, in some degree, for the still further humiliations which 
are expected fi-om a subject on public occasions. No one 
approaches his sovereign or immediate chief, no child ap- 
proaches his father, without (^m&aA,thatis, obeisance) closing 
his hands and raising them to his forehead, in token of re- 
spect. On public or festival days, it is usual for the inferior 
chiefs, not as in Europe, to kiss the hand, but to Tdss the 
knee, the instep, or the sole of the foot, according to the relative 
distance of rank between the parties. 



34(> REGALIA— PROCESSIONS— POMP. 

The royal seat is a large stool or bench of gold or silver 
with a velvet cushion : it is called ddmpar^ and attends the 
sovereign wherever he may go. 

Among the regalia fupachdrajf which are always carried 
in procession when the sovereign moves abroad, and are 
arranged beliind him while seated on the ddmpar^ are the 
following golden figures : — the hdsti or gdja^ that of an ele- 
phant ; the hdrda waJika or nandgoHy that of a serpent ; the 
jajdwen sdnting^ that of a bull ; the sdngnanij that of a deer; 
and the sdwnng gdliiig^ that of a cock fowl ; each of a size 
to be borne in the hand, These, with the kuiuk and chapiri 
for tobacco and fnri^ tlie pakachohdn or golden spitting-pot, 
and a variety of golden salvers, bowls, &c. distinguished by 
the respective names applicable to their different purposes, 
have descended as pusdkasj or heir-looms, in the royal 
family, and are esteemed with tlie highest degree of vene- 
ration. 

AVlien tlic sovereign moves abroad, he is attended by 
numerous spear-incu (woIiok)^ the duty of eight of whom is 
to attend the iigures of tlie sacred elephant and bull, near 
which are also led four horses richly caparisoned. The royal 
pdyung^ or state umbrella, is carried in front of the pnr 
cession on these occasiims, in which are also invariably 
carried four tnuiks or boxes fbrokoh)^ each borne by two 
men, and conUiining the clotlies of the sovereign, caparison 
for his horses, his personal arms, implements, provisions, and 
in short ever}' thing required for an establishment : this role 
is observed whenever die sovereign moves out of the palace. 
lli^m^i (Idnt^J is likewise borne in procession, together with 
two saddle horses for his use when necessary. 

Hie ceremonies and state of the native courts have lost 
much of their genuine character, from the admission of Eu- 
ropean customs, introduced by the Dutch afler the last Javan 
war. Salutes are regulated afler the European order, and the 
Javaus have availed themselves of many of the customs of 
Euro])eans, to render the ceremonies of state more striking. 
Thus both the Sttsthntft and Sultan are furnished with larj^e 
gilt carria«^rs, atler the fashion of those used by the Li^ 
Mayor of lionddu. When the foniier drinks wine with the 
govriiior, the n'st of iht» company are offered white wine* 

10 



RANK AND TITLES. 347 

while they alone drink red, and a flourish of trumpets sounds 
as the glass approaches their lips. 

It may be obsen^ed, that few people are more attached to 
state and show than the Javans ; that, in general, the deco- 
rations employed and the forms observed are chaste, and at 
the same time imposing, calculated to impress a stranger with 
a high idea of their taste, their correctness and yet love 
of splendour. The ornaments of state, or regaUa, are well 
wrought in gold ; the royal shield is richly inlaid with precious 
stones, and the royal kris is hung in a belt, which, with 
its sheath, is one blaze of diamonds. In processions, when 
the European authority is to be received, each side of the 
road, for miles, is lined with spear-men in diflerent dresses, 
and standing in various warlike attitudes ; streamers flying, 
and the music of the gdmeldn striking up on every side. 
PdyiingSy or umbrellas of three tiers, of silk richly £ringed 
and ornamented with gold, are placed at intervals, and nothing 
is omitted which can add to the appearance of state and 
pomp. Among the ensigns displayed on these occasions are 
the Monkey flag of ArjvLna^ and a variety of other devices 
taken from the poems of antiquity, as well as the double- 
bladed sword, and a variety of inscriptions from the Arabs. 

The chiefs of provinces, and the petty chiefs in their gra- 
dation below them, keep up as much of the form and ceremony 
of the chief court as is consistent with their relative rank and 
means ; and, in their turn, exact from their vassals the same 
degree of respect which the sovereign exacts from them. 

On occasions when the Regents are anxious to shew par- 
ticular respect to Europeans, as on the entrance of tlie 
Governor, or other high officer travelling, it is the custom, 
particularly in the Sanda districts, to erect triumphal arches 
of bdmbu at the entrance of the principal villages ; and the 
taste and variety displayed on these occasions have been 
often noticed, as evincing a refinement beyond what the 
general results of their present state of civilization might 
justify. 

In a former place I noticed, that the gradations of rank 
among the Javans were, in some instances, marked by the 
dress they wore, and by the manner of putting on the kris ; 
but a more defmed line is drawn by the pdytmg, or umbrella. 



348 RANK AND TITLES. 

which is subject to the following regulation from immemorial 
custom : 

1. The Sovereign alone is entitled to the golden pdfumg*, 

2. The Rdtu^ or Queen^ and the membeiB of the la^al 
family, to the yoMow pdyung. 

3. The family of the Rdtu, and the fimiily of the Soverrign 
by his concubines, to the white pdyung, 

4. The Bopdtis and Tum^ng*gung$ to the green pdgmng, 
edged and mounted with gold. 

5. The Ang^ebdisj Rdny^gaSj MdntriSf &g. to the red 
pdyung. 

6. The heads of Ullages, and other petty officers, to -Uie 
dark pdyung. 

In order to convey an idea of the different titles and the 
gradations of rank among the Javans, it becomes necessaiy, 
in consequence of the confusion which has arisen among them 
of late years, to revert to what they were supposed to be 
in the days of Mdjapdhii and previously, when the Hindu 
faith and institutions exclusively prevailed. 

The usual term for the sovereign was then R&tUj and in the 
literary compositions wliich have descended to us, he was 
either distinguished by such epithets as Ndra-ndta^ Ndra" 
(iipdy Ndra-patiy Narindra^ Nardria^ Aji^ Prabuy Kitong^ 
AjunQy or Maharaja. The queen was called Pramtstrdri. 
Tlic children uf tlic sovereign were called, the princess Rdden^ 
and the princesses D^ttiy which titles were hereditary in their 
families. Tlie brothers of the sovereign had the title of 
Rdden aria. 

^Vllen a sovereign was advanced in age, and quitted his 
government to become a devotee, he was called Begdwam. 

llie minister who administered the countiy in the name of 
the sovereign, and issued his orders to the govemon of 
provinces, &c. was always termed Pdfeh ; and the chieft 
eiii])l()ved in administering the govenmient of the provinces, 
or otherwise in the government of the coimtT}', were entitled 
eitlier Pratntnty Puffffydway Nidkuy or Bopdii. The chieft 
bdow tliese, and subject to their orders, such as Rdttg^ga^ 

* The same \% assiiincd by the European <ffO%'cmor, or his rrpre^cn- 

tativr. 



RANK AND TITLES. 349 

inge^di^ Demdngy Pramea^ MSnak, Klitton^ and others 
nrere included in the class oi Mantris, 

The heads of villages were called either Umbulj Paiing*giy 
Babdkalj BabdhUy LUra, or Kuttm. 

The commanders-in-chief in war had the title of Senapdti, 
rhe general term for soldiers was prajurit; and those 
jmployed in guarding the coimtry from the approach of an 
3nemy were called either Pechdt tdnday Tdmpingj or Ulu- 
^dlang. 

In judicial affairs the Jaksa was the chief. .His assistant 
>r deputy was Paliwdray and the officers of his court KSrta. 

Waddna gedang was the title given to the officer entrusted 
sidth the charge of the sovereign's purse and personal pro- 
perty, and with the collection of his revenues : the secretary 
jT writer was called Chdrik, Tdnda and Sabdndar was the 
title of the officers who collected the duties in the markets 
uid along the high roads. 

When it was necessary for the sovereign to move from one 
part of the country to another, there was always a class of 
Mdntris in attendance, to whom the title of Pang^alasan or 
Kajineman was given. 

On the estabUshment of the Mahomedan religion, in the 
Javan year 1400, a new gradation of rank and order of titles 
was introduced by the sultan of Demdky as follows. 

The sovereign, instead of being called RdtUy took the name 
of Su^uhunan *, or Sultan^ and the queen was called Rdtu, 
The title of Pandmbahdn was conferred as the highest in 
rank next to the sovereign, and above the princes of the 
blood, who were now termed Pan^&ran or Pan^€ran dria; 
the princesses bom of the queen were termed RdtUy and the 
daughters by concubines Rdden dyu. The sons of the 
princes were called Rdden maSy until they were married, when 
they were termed Rdden only ; their daughters before mar- 
riage were called Rdden aj&ngy and after marriage Raden dyu. 
The Susuhunan's great grandchildren by his wife were 
allowed to assume the title of Rddeny and those by his concu- 
bines bore the title of Mas, the latter title continuing to 

* The titles at present assumed by the Sutihtan are SutuhAum Pdku 
Budna Sena-pati heng Aldga Abdud Rdhmen Sdyedin Fdnatagdma. 



3/)0 RANK AND TITLES. 

descend in the family to the offspring by a wife, those bv 
a concubine taking tlie title of Bagus^ which is considered as 
the lowest title appertaining to royalty. It would be tediouti, 
in this i)lace, to detail the minor titles common in the Siinda 
districts; they \\411 be more particularly noticed in the statis- 
tical accounts of those districts. 

AVlien a Bopdti, or governor of a province, is appointed, he 
is furnished with a pidf/am or fiatrdla^ or letter patent. Axing 
his rank, and the extent of assignment of lands conferred 
upon him * ; also uith a bdwat, or stick, similar to that of 
the pdi/ung^ or umbrella, measiuing about eight feet long, with 
which it is his duty to measure the sdwah or rice fields. 

When a chief of the rank of Mdntri is appointed, he 
is furnished with a krls handle and \^'ith a mat, which is car- 

* Form of a Pifigam, or Patent of Javan NolnUty. 

Let it be obsen^ed, this is the wTiting of me, the Sultan, &c. &c. &c. 

Be it known to the Naydka (hicfh officers of the palace), Bopdtis (the 
class of Tumung^gungs or Rejjfents), and Mantris (the petty noblesse) of 

Yugya-kerta and Mdnchanagdra, that I have invested with 

this letter, to raise him from the earth, and |)ermit him to bear the title of 

. . , and wear the dress appointed for the • • 

bestowing upon him for his subsistence lands to the amount of eleven 
hundred chdchaSy the labour of eleven hundred men (families). 

'Jliese are the names of the land bestowed. • ♦ ♦ 
Translation of a Nawdiafor the Mdnchanagdra, or distant Districts. 

Let all persons obser\'e this, the royal letter of us, the exalted Sultan, 
&c., which we give in charge to 

Be it known to you, our sen-ants, chiefs of Yugya-kerta Adin{ngrat, 
whether Bopdtis or MdnfriSf and to you our Bopdtis and Mdntris, chiefs 

of Mdnchanagdra^ that our royal letter is given in charge to , 

in order to exalt him. Moreover we prefer our servant to the rank of a 
Bopdtiy to be chief of the Bopdtis of Mdnchanagdra, bearing as heretofore 

the name of We also entitle him to wear such 

dress as is appointed for the IViddna of Mdnchanagdra, and we give for 

his estate (seat\ our own royal lands , amounting to two 

tliousaiul chachns : thousand productive (living), of which laL*t 

thousand are assigned for a maintenance and thousand 

are charjjed with rents, to the amount of doUars annually, payable 

tw ice a year, viz. at the festival Mulud and at the festival «»f 

Punsa , each dollar to crmsist of thirty tcangs, and the whole to 

hv subjtTt to an oflice fee of one tcang in each dollar. Moreover we direct, 
that each year an accoimt be rendered to us of the increase or decrease of 
the sdirah (rice lands). The date of giving the royal order is the 



AMBASSADORS. 361 

ried behind him when he moves about, as well for use as to 
shew his rank. 

The Javans include in the general term of Priayi all 
persons above the rank of common people, a term which in its 
general appUcation on Java is not very imlike that of gen- 
tlemen, or latterly of esquires, in England. 

Among the forms of an eastern coiul, few are more par- 
ticularly observed than those relating to ambassadors. The 
Javans have long ceased to send or receive ambassadors, 
but the following extracts from the Niti Prdja^ will shew 
what they conceive ought to be the qualifications and conduct 
of such an officer. 

" A person entrusted with a message from his prince, must 
" never abuse the trust placed in him, but always keep in 
" sight that on such occasions he is the representative of the 
" prince. And chiefly, if he is sent with a letter from the 
" prince to a foreign country, in this case he must be less sub- 
" missive than before his own prince. According to circum- 
'^ stances he must conduct himself with dissimulation, and 
" before he enters any foreign country, by some secret means 
" or other, occasion his own name, and that of the prince his 
" master, to be spread over the coimtry, at the same time that 
" he obtains every possible information regarding the state of 
" the country and people. On entering the country, he must 
" assume a dignified appearance, and not speak or look about 
" him more than is necessary. Such conduct will inspire the 
people with respect for him. 

" The letter must be carried on the shoulder, and in his 
gait and speech he must conduct himself with propriety. In 
delivering the letter he must present himself with dignity, 
approach first, and then retire fix)m the person to whom the 
" letter is directed, speak with him at a distance, and not too 
" familiarly. 

" In all cases he must be carefiil not to go beyond his 
" orders. His deportment must be unassuming yet dignified ; 
" and ha\4ng received an answer for his prince, it is his duty 
" to depart immediately, and to proceed with it direct to the 
prince, without even going to his own house first. If the 
letter is from some person lower in rank than his master, he 
" must not immediately shew it, but conceal it for a time ; but 



a 
u 



u 



352 BIRTHS. 



u 
i( 
<i 



if it is from a prince of equal rank, then must he cany the 
letter before him. When a letter is from a prince to one of 
his subjects, it must be carried high. Coming in the pre- 
sence of his prince, he must carefully watch his eye, that 
" he may deliver Uie letter on the first intimation given by 
" tlie prince tliat he is ready to receive it 

" Whoever dictates a letter must be careful that a letter to 
" a superior is not couched in the same terms as a letter to 
" an inferior." 

The three most remarkable events in the history of the in- 
dividual are his birth, his marriage, and his death ; to these 
accordingly have tlie greatest number of forms and ceremo- 
nies been attached. 

As soon as it is observed that a Javan woman is in the third 
month of pregnancy, the event is communicated to all the 
nearest relations, to whom, at the same time, presents are 
made, consisting of yellow rice, sweet-scented oils, and wax 
candles. People of condition add some cloths, gold, silver, 
or brass cups, as also needles, either of those metals or of 
iron. 

Afler seven months' pregnancy, a festival is given to the 
relations and friends, at which yellow rice forms invariably 
a part of the entertainment 

Tlie pregnant woman must afterwards wash her body with 
the milk of a green cocoa-nut, on the shell of which has been 
previously canned two handsome figures, one of each sex, bv 
which the parents intend to represent a standard of beantj 
for their expected offspring, and to engrave on the imagina- 
tion of the mother, impressions which may extend to the linea- 
ments of her infant. The nut must be opened by the hosband. 
She is next to bathe in water, into which many sweet-scented 
flowers have been throAvn, and to dress herself with a new 
cloth, making a present of the old one, together with money, 
raw rice, sirf, and cocoa-nuts, to the midwife, who assists in 
her lustrations. On the night of these ceremonies there must 
be a wdyattg or scenic shadow performed, the object of which 
is to represent the life and adventures of a certain prince in 
tlie line of D^wa Batdra Brdma, 

Tf the woman is delivered of a son, the ailer-birth is inune- 
diat<ly cut off with a verj' sharp knife of bdmbUf wrapped in 



MARRIAGES. 353 

a piece of paper on which is written the Javan alphabet, tlien 
laid in a new pot, and buried in the ground, at which place a 
lamp, covered with a basket of bdmbu, and adorned with 
leaves of the pandanriy is put, and kept burning till the um- 
bilical cord of the child falls off. When tliis takes place, the 
child is watched the whole night, by persons who read the 
history of the D^was^ or of famous princes, or amuse them- 
selves with a wdyang. 

As soon as the child is nine months old, the parents enter- 
tain their relatives and friends with a wdyang and festival. 

Marriages are invariably contracted, not by the parties 
themselves, but by their parents or relations on their behalf. 
Such interference (which was common among the Greeks, 
without the same apology) is rendered necessary by the early 
age at which the matrimonial imion is formed, and the incom- 
petence of either of the intended couple to form a discreet and 
prudent choice. During the period that intervenes between 
the appUcation of the friends of the boy to the parents or 
guardians of the girl for their concurrence in the match, and 
the obtainment of it, her condition is distinguished by the 
term t^tdkan (enquired for) : when the consent of her parents 
is obtained, it is termed Idmar (solicited). According to 
ancient custom, after matters proceeded thus far, a present 
of different valuables, termed /?awiw^'«a< is sent by the intended 
bridegroom to the bride, and her acceptance of it, implying 
that she concurs in the previous steps taken towards her set- 
tlement, renders the contract binding. The general prevalence 
of similar customs cannot fail to strike those who are ac- 
quainted with the nature of the sponsalia dotia of the Romans, 
and the marriage ceremonies detailed in various passages of 
Scripture (Genesis, ch. xv. 2 ; xxiv. 5, &c.) A present of this 
kind is described as being sent by Pdnji K&rta Pdti to the 
Princess Chandra Kirdna of Dahd *, and we are told that it 
thence became a custom among the Javans. 

♦ " Thereupon Kldna Jdyang Sari (another name for Fdnji K&ta Pdti), 
** called his sister, and the Princesses of Bdli and Balem-bdng^an, and 
" directed them to proceed to the Prince of Dahd, and to present to him 
** a handsome present, composed of the most beautiful and rich ornaments 
** and articles of dress for adorning a princess, placing the same in a kenddga 
** (or box), in order that if the prince was pleased to allow it to be delivered 

VOL. I. A a 



354 MARRIAGE CONTRACTS. 

By any reluctance to complete his engagement, the bride- 
prroom forfeits to his betrothed these earnest gifts (as they may 
be called) ; while, on the other hand, if the obstacles to the 
completion of tlie marriage originate Tv-ith her, she is bound 
to return tliem. This present is also called patiba sdmpir. 

lliis custom, however, is now not so common as formerly : 
it is in a great measiure discontinued or confounded with the 
next ceremony, termed sdrahan (delivered up.) This consists 
in making various presents to the bride a short time before the 
day fixed for the marriage, after the delivery of which, the bride 
and bridegroom are confined to the house, until the ceremony 
takes place. Tlie period varies ; but with people of distinction 
there generally elapses an inten^al of forty days between the 
sdrahan and the marriage. 

On the day of the marriage (for which one that is consi- 
dered fortimate* is previously selected) the father of the bride 
proceeds to the mosque, accompanied by the bridegroom, and 
informing the Panghuhi that the lad whom he presents has 
agreed to give the sri kdwin (generally about two dollars), 
recpcsts him to marry him to his daughter : on which the 
Vanghulu inquires of the bridegroom whether he has paid 
the amount, or is willing to do so ? and upon the affirmative 
being declared, he sanctifies the marriage by words to the 
following eflect : 

" I join you, rnden mas (bridegroom), in wedlock with 
" satin (the bride), with a pledge of two reals weight in gold 
" or silver f. You take [sdtia) to be your wife for this world. 

** to his daughter Devci Chdndra Kirdna, it might be a proof that lie 
" confirmed the contract with Ktdna Jdyang Sdri, and that his dauffhter» 
** Deui Chdndra Kirdna, would be accepted by Kldna Jdyang Sdri, in which 
** case he was ready to attack the enemies of the prince." — Sec the Adven- 
tures of the celebrated Pdnji. 

• Fortune was so much considered in the making of these matchet 
amon^ the Romans, that the augurs were always called along with the 
witnesses to a marriage contract, to pronounce upon the happy resulti of 
the settlement which the latter attested : 

** Veniet cum signatoribua Auspex.'* — JuvenoL 

f The Jews marry in nearly the same way, the husband delirerinff a 
sum of money as a jdedj^e. The Greeks were in the habit of pretentinfr 

Rifts on similar occasions. 



MARRIAGE CONTRACTS. 355 

** You are obliged to pay the pledge of your marriage {sri 
" kdimn)y or to remain debtor for the same. You are respon- 
** sible for your wife in all and every thing. If you should 
** happen to be absent from her for the space of seven months 
** on shore, or one year at sea, without giving her any sub- 
** sistence, and artf remiss in the performance of the. duties 
** which you owe to your sovereign, your marriage shall be 
** dissolved, if your wife requires it, without any further form 
** or process ; and you will be, besides, subject to the punish- 
** ment which the Mahomedan law dictates." 

Should any circumstance occur to prevent the bridegroom 
jfrom attending at the mosque on the day selected for the 
marriage, he follows the singular custom of sending his kris* 
to the ceremony, which is deemed sufficient by the Panghulu ; 
and afterwards he may appoint a proxy to represent him in 
the processions which follow. But this is seldom done when 
a man marries for the first time. 

After the ceremony, the bridegroom pays the priest the 
marriage fees [saldwat)^ which ought, according to strict 
Mahomedans, not to exceed fifteen stivers. In most instances, 
the fees are raised to five times that sum in money, besides 
in many places a fqwl, a hank of cotton-yam, four kdtU of 
rice, two cocoa-nuts, sirij and fruit. 

On the wedding day, or sometimes the day following, the 
bridegroom dressed in his best clothes, moimted on horseback, 
accompanied by all his firiends, and attended with music in 
the front and rear, proceeds at noon to the dwelling of the 
bride, who, on his approach, comes out to meet him at the 
door. In some districts, before their nearer approach, the 
bride and bridegroom throw simultaneously a bundle of «frt 
at each other with considerable force, with the intention, it is 
said, of learning, from the dexterity with which the parties 
respectively perform this singtdar feat, and the success that 
attends it, which of them will be able best to maintain their 
privileges, or gain an ascendancy during the continuance of 
their luiion. They prognosticate that, if the bundle of the 

* A description of this instrument, on account of the importance 
attached to it among the Javans, the constancy with which it is worn, and 
the care with which it is preserved through different generations, will be 
found in another place. 

A a 2 



35G MARRIAGE CONTRACTS. 

bridegroom touch the head of the bride, it is an infallible 
sign that he must rule ; otherwise, the reverse. 

Tlic bride, after this, receives the bridegroom ^*ith a low 
obeisance, in testimony of her regard for him, extending 
similar marks of respect to his parents, who attend him. The 
married couple are then placed in a situation elevated above 
the rest of the company ; and in token of their afterwards 
living together, and sharing the same sustenance, commence 
eating siri from tlie same «fri-box. 

In some districts, after leaving the mosque, the bridegrocxn 
and his father proceed to the house of the bride's parents, 
where they obtain her company in a procession through the 
village or town. On tlicse occasions, the bride is carried on 
a litter, which is generally fashioned in the form of a garida^ 
and the bridegroom is momited on horseback. All the rela- 
tions and friends of tlic parties attend, carrying flowers and 
refreshments, together witli the presents made to the bride- 
groom on his marriage. The procession moves on to the 
sound of the national music, and the occasional firing of 
cannon. A feast is given in the evening at the house of the 
bride's parents, at which the new married couple remain for 
the niglit. The tenn giv<*n to the bride and bridegroom is 
pen (f ant en y and the marriage ceremony is called Idki rdbi. 

Ou tlie next day in some districts, and on the fifth in 
others, tlie bridegroom (or peng*unien hinangjj and bride 
{penganien M7Wow^,togetlier with the whole train of relations 
and ii'iends, visit in like manner the house of the bridegroom*s 
father. Tliis ceremony is called undnh mdnfu (accepting 
the daughter-in-law.) Tliere they both again sit down to eat 
sin in some place of distinction ; similar entertainments are 
ropeattMl, aii<l on the following day they return with the same 
pomp and fonii to the bride's dwelling, the ceremony being 
now c()ni])l(»ti'd. 

With the excc])tion of the delivery of the sri kdwin^ and 
the jirocession to the mosque, there is very little in tlic*se 
cereinonirs confonnable to the Mahomedan precepts. 

Marriag(»s are frequently contracted between children, and 
then tt*niu'd tjdntnny kdtn'n (lianging-on marriages) ; but in 
tins case tlie ])arties are kept separate, and the principal 
ccrrnionies are rosened till they attain the age of puberty. 



DIVORCE, 367 

Such contracts proceed from a laudable solicitude, on the 
part of parents, to provide a suitable and advantageous 
match for their children as early as possible ; and to the 
same cause, as much, perhaps, as from the influence of 
climate and intemperance of manners, may be attributed the 
early age, at which matrimonial engagements are sometimes 
consummated. 

Whatever may be the reasons for such early marriages, 
one of the most serious consequences is the facility with 
which they are dissolved. The multiplication of divorces is 
mentioned by the poets, the moralists, and the historians of 
the Roman empire, as one of the greatest causes and symp- 
toms of the corruption and degeneracy of the period in which 
they lived ; and certainly it had proceeded to great lengths, 
nrhen Seneca could say that a woman computed her age, not 
by the annual succession of consuls, but of husbands*. The 
Javans, tliough a simple people, are in this respect too like 
the profligate and dissolute Romans. 

In no part of the world are divorces more frequent than on 
Java; for besides the facilities afibrded by the Mahomedan 
ordinances, a woman may at any time, when dissatisfied with 
her husband, demand a dissolution of the marriage contract, 
by paying him a sum established by custom, according to the 
rank of the parties : about twenty dollars for a person of the 
lower orders, and fifty dollars for those of the degree of 
Demdng or Mdntri. The husband is not bound to accept it ; 
but he is generally induced to do so, from a consideration, 
that the opinions and custom of the country require it ; that 
his domestic happiness would be sacrificed in a contest with 
his reluctant companion ; and that, by continuing his attach- 
ment, he would incur the shame of supporting one who 
treated him with aversion or contempt. This kind of divorce 
is termed mdnchal. The husband may at any time divorce 
his wife, on making a settlement upon her sufficient to support 
her according to her condition in life. 



a 



* ** Non consulum sed maritorum numero annos suos computant. 
Seneca, de Benef. — But this is short of Juvenal's account : ** Fiunt octo 
" mariti, quinque per autumnos." 



358 INTERMENT. 

A widow may mam' again at the expiration of three months 
and ten days after her husband^s death. 

•AMien a person of rank or property dies, all his relatioDS, 
male and female, meet at the house of the deceased, to testify 
their grief at the death and their respect for the memoir of 
the departed. On that occasion, what is termed teiamai 
money is distributed among all according to circimistances. 
The priests, who are to perform the service at the place of 
interment, receive a Spanish dollar, a piece of cloth, and a 
small mat each.* 

• When tlie corpse is washed * and wrapped in a white cloth, 
it is carried out of the house on a bier covered with coloured 
chintz, on which garlands of flowers are hung as drapeir. 
On this occasion, no means of costly pomp or impressive 
solemnity are neglected in the use of umbrellas (y ciyim^ K 
pikes, and other insignia of honour. All the relations and 
friends accompany the corpse to the grave, where the priest 
addresses a prayer to heaven and delivers an exhortation to 
the soul of the deceased ; of which the substance commonly 
is, " that it should be conscious of being the work of the 
" Creator of the miiverse, and after leaving its earthly 
" dwelling, should speed its way to the source whence it 
" issued." After this ceremony the corpse is interred, and 
the other priests continue their prayers and benedictions.- 

• For seven successive nights, the same priests meet and 
pray at the house of the deceased, in the presence of his 
relations. 

On the third, seventh, fourteenth, hundredth, and thou- 
sandth (lay or night after tlie death of a person, are observed 
j)arlicular festivals or solemn feasts in his commemoration, on 

* Hic Romans likewise were in the habit of washing the detd body 
several times before interment witli water, which in their case was 



** Pars calidos latices et ahena undantia flammis 

** Lxpediunt : corjiusque lavant frigentis ct ungunt." 

Virgil : jEneidos, Ub. vi. fia. 218. 

liy referring? to the Old and New Testament, the same practice will b^ 
found to bave prevailed among the Jews : indeed, it seems to have been 

very general. 



INTERMENT. 359 

which occasions prayers are offered up for the happiness of 
his soul. 

The bodj is interred after the usual manner of the Maho- 
medans, and a samhdja tree is usually planted by its side. 
It is the imiversal practice of the relatives of the deceased to 
strew the graves several times in the year with the sweet- 
scented flowers of the suldsi (the iulsi of Bengal), which are 
raised exclusively for this purpose. The burial-grounds are, 
in general, well chosen. In Keduj where the most beautiful 
eminences have been selected for this purpose, and where the 
camboja tree grows with the greatest luxuriance, they form 
very interesting objects in the landscape. The burial-places 
of the royal family and of the nobles of the country are 
usually called dstdna ; they are surrounded by one or more 
high walls, and in general by stately waring'en trees. The 
tombs are sometimes ornamented with sculptural devices and 
well-executed inscriptions, either in the Javan or Arabic 
character. They are kept clean and repaired by contributions 
from all parts of the country, under the superintendence of 
priests appointed to that particular duty, and are respected 
and guarded with religious veneration and zeal. The burial- 
place of the family now on the throne is at Megiriy in the 
province of Matdrem^ a few miles distant from the modem 
capital of Yugya-keria. 

As the Javans are still devotedly attached to their ancient 
customs and ceremonies (few of which they have sacrificed to 
their new faith), I shall, in order to give a better idea of those 
still observed on the most remarkable occasions, present a 
short account of their state anterior to the introduction of 
Mahomedanism, as far as it can be ascertained. Though, as 
Mahomedans, they are averse to an open avowal of Pagan 
practices, they still preserve them more or less, according as 
the parties happen to be less or more under the influence of 
Arab priests. 

When a woman was pregnant with her first child, at the 
expiration of four months a feast was given, at which yellow 
rice was served up. This entertainment was insignificant 
compared with that which was observed at the expiration of 
seven months, when the guests were presented with cloth, 
gold, silver, and steel, according to the means of the parties, 



IU)0 ANCIENT CUSTOMS IlELATING TO 

a piece of steel never failing to be one of the gifts, though it 
(lid not exceed the size of a needle. On this occasion a new 
bath was prepan^l in the evenmg, and watched during the 
night bv the light of a lamp. At the side of the bath were 
laid two stalks of the dark coloured sugar cane, as an offering 
to Bdtih'a Kala^ a i)ainted cloth of tlic pattern tuivuh wdtUj 
and a young cocoa-nut (chenkir (jaduuj)^ on which was en- 
graved the resemblance of Pdnji Kerta Pdti and his ^ifc 
Chandra Kirdna of Ddha. In the morning the Tiife, after 
putting on the cloth, entered \\\v bath, when the water firom 
the young cocoa-nut was poiu-ed over her : during the day 
it ^^'as also incumbent on her to change her dress seven times. 
At the least given on this occasion, (ish, flesh, and fowl were 
invariably sened up, and performances of the wdyang were 
exhibited. 

Immediately on the birth of the cliild it was placed in a 
kind of basket made o^ hdmhu (in form similar to the sieve or 
fanning basket used for separating the chaff from the rice), 
the relations were assembled, and the remains of the umbilical 
cord were carefidly cut olfby means of a jnece of sharpened 
hd nihil. The ])art abstracted by this o])eration was depasited 
in the interior of a cocoa-nut, with a lump of tiumerick placed 
under it. lliis cocoa-nut was ornamented on the outside i^ith 
the tw(*nty letters of the .Javan alphabet. It was aflem'ards 
])ut into an earthen pot, and either buried luider groimd or 
thrown into the sea. A stone rolling-pin, dressed up like a 
l)aby, was ])laced in the basket in its stead. The female rela- 
tions reHeved each other thnmgh the day and night, in con- 
stantly su])])orting the child in their arms, till the navel was 
healed ; the mnle relations all the while reading and reciting 
th(* history of lldtna^ and other mythologicid and historical 
romances. As soon as the child was recovered, a grand feast 
was observ(»(l, with perlbnnances of the wdyamj. Near tlie 
Ddlamj (director of the ndijatuj) was placed a bowl of pure 
water, into uliieh Ihsh and sweet-scented flowers were cast, 
two black sugar-canes, a cloth of the iuwnh wain pattern, 
and a picM'e of white elotli, together with a bundle of /win" and 
dillrniit kinds ot* eatables, (hi this occasion was exhibited 
the (IrauM of Ihitdra hnnja and Samj Yang Jdgai Ndta (one 
«»f tlir (Icsii^niations iAiiihii ', at that ])assage where, diuing 



BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS. 361 

the first two quailers of the moon, the former appeared m her 
amiable character of Uma *, and where, m the city of Kuru 
Setra Gdndamdyu^ she is delivered of a son, Batdra Kdlay 
having the form of a Rdsdksa^ " greedy to destroy and devour 
mankind/' At that part of the performance when Sang Yang 
Jdgat Ndta takes the child on his lap, the Ddlang did the 
same with the infant, repeating the invocation, " hong ! ila- 
heng r'' several times, and afterwards returning it into the 
hands of the father. On this occasion the wdyang was per- 
formed from seven o'clock in the evening till eight o'clock in 
the morning. 

When the child was forty days old, its head was shaved, 
as directed by the parent, and the ceremony took place of 
giving it whatever name should be determined on by the 
father and the elders. 

The jyikun (midwife) who attended at the delivery, was 
entitled to receive for her trouble fourteen wang (about a 
rupee) if it was an ordinary birth, but in difficult cases her 
allowance was proportionately increased. Her attendance 
continued for the mornings and evening of forty days, at the 
expiration of which she was further entitled to receive a pre- 
sent of two pieces of cloth, one small and one large, four kdtis 
of rice, two cocoa-nuts, and some siri. If required to attend 
beyond that period, she was paid accordingly. A DUkun once 
employed, could not be exchanged on any account during the 
forty days. Women invariably acted as midwives ; in other 
cases the medical art was practised exclusively by the men. 

On the child's attaining its seventh month, a feast was given, 
when it was for the first time placed with its feet on the ground. 
At this entertainment rice cakes and sweetmeats of different 
colours and kinds wer^ served up ; and if it happened that the 
child had come into the world either as the sun was just rising 
or settings a bundle of grass or rubbish was thrown into the 
basket, upon the top of which it was placed for a few minutes ; 
afler which one of the elders taking the child into his arms 
repeated the following words : " Hong I ^amilam mast6na 



* During the two latter quarters of the moon she is considered as 
appearing in the form of a Rasdksa, and is then more properly called 
Durga. 



362 ANCIENT CUSTOMS RELATING TO 

^^ masidam ! suming'gdha yewang Kala^ing w*ru Ofol amUa- 
^^ nira ana-nira^ Sang-yang Saba Ian Batdri Durga :" which 
after an invocation to the Deity would express, " Begone, 
" oh God Kdluy for I am not ignorant of thy nature, nor of 
^^ thy being descended from Sang Yang Saba (Guru J and 
" Batdra Durga *." 

When the child attained the age of one year, another feast 
was given in commemoration of its nativity, and this univer- 
sally among all classes of people ; those who possessed the 
means kept the anniversary of their birth-day until their death. 

Marriages were invariably contracted by the relations of 
the parties, by the paternal grandfather or grandmother if 
living, if not by the parents, and in case of their demise, by 
the natural guardian. Thus the brother, on the death of his 
parents, was permitted to dispose of the hand of his sister; 
and a deviation from this course was deprecs^ted, as lajdng a 
foimdation for quarrels and dissensions. 

The consent of the relations being obtained, the bridegroom 
was bound to ser\'e the parents of the bride for a year f. 

For forty days previous to the celebration of the marriage, 
the parties were not allowed to go to a distance from tlieir 
liomes, or to be employed in any severe labour. 

At sunset on the w-edding day, the bridegroom went in pro- 
cession to visit the parents of the bride, after which she was 

* A custom somewhat similar to this is said to be practiced in South 
America. 

** They lighted a great number of torches, and the midwife taking up 
" the child carried it through the 3rard of the house, and placed it upon t 
" heap of leaves of sword-grass, close by a basin of water, which waa pie- 
** pared in the middle of the yard, and then undrensing it said, ' my child ! 
'* * the gods Ometeuctti and Omicihautl, Lords of Heaven, have eent thee 
** * U) thiH dismal and calamitous world : receive this water, which is to 
** * give thee life :' and after wetting its mouth, head, and breast, with forms 
** similar to the first b<ithing, she bathed its whole body, and nihl>inf? 
" every one of its limbs said, ' where art thou, ill fortune ? in what limb 
" art thou hid ? go far from this child !' *' — History o/Meaneoby CloKigtfO, 
translated by Cullen, vol. i. 

t It is curious to obser\'e how exactly this corresponds with the patri- 
archid history of Scripture, and the early accoimts of the manners of an- 
cient nations, llie daughter was always considered the proiierty of the 
partMit, the nife as the purchase of the husband, and the marriage con- 
tract as the deed of transfer. 



BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS. ^6S 

visited by his parents, who on these occssions gave the mar- 
ried couple their blessing, wishing ihem happiness as lasting 
as that enjoyed by the god Kdmajdya with his consort Kd- 
tnardti. 

One of the elders, or an Ajar, then repeated the following 
benediction : 

" Hong ! Gdng^ga-trigdng'ga ? pindyung hana kala chdkra 
^ kindsih hdna pra-dewdta hipdiaHng sapudetuki tulusa 
" amdndan waring'en?'^ " Hail ! holy water, thrice holy 
** water ! be it as a covering to shield you from harm : may 
" the gods be merciful unto you : henceforth be flourishing as 
** the pdndan and waring'' en trees." 

In these processions the bridegroom was obliged to prepare 
-whatcTer ornaments, trinkets, or gifts, the mother of the bride 
had fixed her fancy upon, either at the birth of her daughter 
or on any other occasion, whether they consisted in the re- 
presentation of a white elephant, a white tiger, or the like. 

Five days after the consecration of the marriage, the parents 
of the bride, with whom she staid for that period, prepared a 
feast, at which was invariably served up among other things 
yellow rice. This entertainment was given to mark the period 
of the consummation ; and after celebrating such an event, 
it was thought proper that the bride should be on a visit to 
the parents of her husband, remain under their roof, share 
their protection, and subsist at their expense for forty days 
without going abroad, at the expkation of which the new 
married couple were at liberty to go to their own house and 
pursue their own plans of life, becoming liable to contribute 
their share to the revenues and d^ands of the state. 

The dresses worn on the nuptial day are thus described in 
the romance of Pdnji, 

" It being arranged that at the same time when Rddin Pdnji 
" was to receive the princess Dewi Chdndra Kirdna in mar- 
^^ riage, Retna Jindliy his sister, should also be married to 
" Gvnung Sdriy son of the Prince of Ddha^ the Prince of 
" Ddha departed with a joyftd heart, and gave the necessary 
^^ directions to prepare the clothing and ornaments necessary 
" for the two brides. 

" Kldna Jdyang Sdri *, accompanied by his sister, Retna 

* One of the names of Pingi. 



364 ANCIENT CUSTOMS. 

" Jhidlly and his numerous followers then entered the ddlam 
" of the prince. Kldna Jdyang Sdri wore on the occasion a 
" dddot of silk stamped with flowers of gold ; his ckeldma 
" were of the green chindi ornamented with golden lace round 
" the bottom, and studded with kunang-kdnang (golden or- 
" naments made to represent the fire-fly) ; his mumping (oma- 
" ments at the back of the ear) were of golden flowers studded 
" with diamonds. On the third finger of each hand he wore 
" two diamond rings. His waistband or belt was a painted 
" cloth, of the pattern gringsing sang'*u-pdti ; his kris of the 
" kaprdhon ; his jdmavgy or head ornament, of gold set with 
" diamonds, and scented wdth all kinds of sweet-scented oils. 
" He appeared more beautiful than a deity descended from 
" heaven, all looking upon him v^-ith delight and astonishment 
" His sister, Retna Jinoiiy was dressed nearly after the same 
" faslii(m as the Princess Ang^r^ni, 

*' The dress of Dewi Ang'rdiiiy when married, was as fol- 
'' lo\v.<: her dodot was of a pink colour stamped with flowers; 
" her kendif (zone, of which the ends hang in front) was 
" vianddla giri (yellow with red at each end) ; her jdmangot 
" golden flowers ; her golden ear-rings of the bapang fashion, 
'^ with a diamond in the centre ; her hair according to the 
" (jlung mdlang (a particular kind of knot), in which were 
" placed bcautifiU and sweet-scented flowers ; the fine hair 
" round her forehead fashioned into small curls, iiiitha sprink- 
" lin^ of powder ; her eyebrows shaped like the imba leaf. 
*' 81i(» wore golden armlets of the kdlnng pattern, ornamented 
" with drops. Her kdiujig, or necklace, was of the m^ng'gah 
" fashion. She wore two rings on tlie little and third finger of 
*' cculi liand, like unto a nidaddri,^^ 

1 here were three modes of disposing of the bofly of a de- 
ceased ])erson : by fire, termed ohong ; by water, termed 
Idru.uj ; or by ex])osing it u])right against a troe in a forest, 
where it was left to decav, tenned sHra, AMien the bodv of a 
chief or person of conseciuence was burnt, it was usual to pre- 
serve the ashes, and to dejiosit them in a chdndi or tomb. 

It was the custom witli all classes of j)eople on Java to 
j;ive an entertainment or feast on the decease of their firiends 
and relations *. The first feast was given on the day of the 

• Tlif pr('\ aU'iicr of this practice m\iHt ntrike every one. 



CUSTOMS OF THE KALANGS. J?e&. 

death, a second on the third day after, a third on the aeiieafli 
day, a fourth on the fortieth day, a fifth on the hundredth 
day, and a sixth on the thousandth day after the decease of 
the party ; after which an annual feast was observed, with 
more or less pomp, according to the respect in which the de- 
ceased was held, or the circumstances of the fiiends and rela- 
tives who celebrated his memory. 

Besides these regular feasts and ceremonies, others pre- 
scribed by the wuku * were religiously observed. When the 
day ang*gdra fell on the pdncha kliwauj it was considered a 
propitious time for preferring petitions to the gods. On the 
seventh day of the umku galingdrij sacred to Batdra Kdma- 
jdya^ they relaxed firom all worldly pursuits, and ofiered 
praises and prayers to the gods collectively, it being supposed 
that they were assembled on that day. On the w&ku gUmregy 
sacred to Batdra Sdhra, every villager joined in a feast sacred 
to the earth (puja humi) ; and this ttmku was particularly 
observed by tlie people termed Kdlangy who, during the seven 
days performed no work, but employed themselves in visiting 
the tombs of their deceased ftiends and relations, or in feasting 
with their living relatives. During the whole of that period 
they kept in their houses a lighted lamp, which they care- 
fiilly preserved from extinction. 

It may not be inappropriate to introduce in this place a 
short digression, containing an account of some of the cus- 
toms peculiar to the people termed Kdlang^ and to the in- 
habitants of the Teng^ger mountains. The former are said to 
have been at one time numerous in various parts of Java, 
leading a wandering life, practising religious rites different 
firom those of the great body of the people, and avoiding inter- 
course with them ; but most of them are now reduced to sub- 
jection, are become stationary in their residence, and have 
embraced tlie Mahomedan faith. A few villages in which 
their particular customs are still preserved, occur in the pro- 
vinces of Kendal, Kdliwung*Uj and Demak, and although the 
tradition of the country regarding their descent firom an un- 
natural connection between a princess of Mendang Kamtilan 
and a chief, who had been transformed into a dog, would 

♦ See Astronomy 



366 CUSTOMS OF THE KALANOS. 

mark them out as a strange race, they have claims to be con- 
sidered as the actual descendants of the aborigines of the 
Island *. They are represented as having a high veneratioQ 
for a red dog^ one of which is generally kept by each family, 
and which they \vill, on no account, allow to be struck or ill- 
used by any one. When a young man asks a girl in marriage, 
he must prove his descent from their peculiar stock. A pre- 
sent of rice and cotton-yam, among other articles, must be 
offered by him, and carried to the intended bride, by an elderly 
man or woman of his own race, which offering must, in like 
manner, be received by an elderly relation of the girl : from 
this moment until the marriage is duly solemnized, nothing 
whatever is allowed to be taken out of either hut. On the 
marriage day, a buffalo's head, covered with white, red, or 
})lack rice-powder, is placed on the ground near the place in- 
tended for the bride to sleep upon, and the elderly people and 
relations being assembled, tliey dance by pairs, at tlie end of 
each dance presenting the bride to tlie bridegroom, and 
making such offerings as they think proper. The bridegroom 
is, on this occasion, accompanied to tlie house of the bride's 
father by as many friends as he can procure, and is bound to 
bring with liim not less tlian a pair of buffaloes, a plough, 
harrow, lioc fpachulj, and whip, %vitli a bundle of pari. 
Those who are in good circumstances are further bound to add 
a cart fpeddtij to the above-mentioned stock. Prior to the 
equipment of the bride and bridegroom for the entertainment, 
it is essential that their bodies be rubbed over with the ashes 
of a rvd dog\H bones. At sunset they botli eat rice together 
off the same leaf On the following night they jointly partake 
of the buffalo's head, which is previously laid by tlie side of 
the place where tliey sleej). On tlie tliird day they proceed 
to the house of the bridegroom's father, making as much show 
as i)()ssible, and go round tlie extent of the village confines, 
j)receded by p(M)ple carrying a bed, cooking utensils, a spin- 
ning-wheel and loom. On the death of a Kdlang^ tlie body 
is carried in j)rocession to the dwellings of tlie relations, who 
join in the ceremony, and ])r()ceed with it to the place of in- 
tcrnient : they then pass romid the corpse tliree times before 

• See Historical (^haptcrw. 



INHABITANTS OF THE TENG'GER MOUNTAINS. ^67 

it is lowered into the grave, the women crying aloud. A 
young cocoa-nut is then split in two, and the water firom it 
poured into the grave, one-half of the shell being placed at 
the head, the other at the feet of the deceased. On their 
return home, the feasts and ceremonies are the same as those 
noticed in the practice of the other inhabitants of Java. 
Whenever the Kdlangs move from one place to another, they 
are conveyed in carts, having two solid wheels with a revolv- 
ing axle, and drawn by two or more pairs of buffaloes, accord- 
ing to the circumstances of the party. In these they place 
the materials of which their huts are constructed, their im- 
plements of husbandry, and other articles of necessity or value. 
In this manner, until of late years, since they have been sub- 
jected to the regulations of the Javan chiefs, they were con- 
tinuaUy moving from one part of the island to another. They 
have still their separate chiefs, and preserve many of their pe- 
culiar customs. Those who are M ahomedans employ in their 
religious frmctions priests who differ from others in being less 
scrupulous. They have always been treated with so much 
contempt by the Javans, that Kdlang is an epithet of reproach 
and disgrace. 

To the eastward of Surahdyay and on the range of hills 
connected with Gunung DdsaVy and lying partly in the dis- 
trict oi Pasuruan and partly in that o( ProbolingOy known by 
the name of the Teng^ger mountains, we find the remnant of 
a people still following the Hindu worship, who merit atten- 
tion, not only on account of their being, (if we except the 
Bedui of Bantam, who will be hereafter noticed) the sole de- 
positaries of the rites and doctrines of that religion existing 
at this day on Java, but as exhibiting an interesting singu- 
larity and simplicity of character. 

These people occupy about forty villages, scattered along 
this range of hills in the neighbourhood of what is termed the 
sandy sea. The site of their villages, as well as the construc- 
tion of their houses, are peculiar, and differ entirely from what 
is elsewhere observed on Java. They are not shaded by trees, 
but built on spacious open terraces, rising one above the 
other, each house occupying a terrace, and being in length 
from thirty to seventy, and even eighty feet The door is in- 
variably in one comer, at the end of the building, opposite to 



:3ti8 INIIABITAiNTS OF TUE TRNOr.ER MOUNTAINS. 

tliat in which the fire-place is built. Ilie building apiH*axsu» 
be constnicted with the ordinan' roof, having along the fn)ul 
an enclosed veranda or galler}', about eight feet broad. The 
iire-place is built of brick, and is so highly venerated, lliat it 
is considered a sacrilege for any stranger to touch it. Across 
the upper ])art of the building rafters are run, so as to form a 
kind of attic story, in which are deposited the most valuable 
pro])erty and ini])lenients of husbandry'. 

The liead of the village takes the title of Peihfg*gi, as in 
the low-lands, and is generally assisted by a Kahdyan^ both 
elected by the people from their o\\ii village. Tlierc are four 
priests, who are here tenned Dukuns (a term elsewhere only 
aj)plied to doctors and mid wives), having charge of the stale 
records and the sacred books. 

These Duktnis^ who iure m general intelligent men, can 
give no accoiuit of tlie era when they were first established 
on these hills ; they can j)roduce no traditional historj* of 
their origin, whence they came, or who entrusted them with 
the sacred b»)oks, to the faith contained in which thev still 
adhere. Hiese, they conciu- in stating, were handed down to 
them by their fathers, to whost» hereditary office f>f prt^ser^ing 
them tliey hav(» succeeded. The S(>le duty required of them 
is again to hand them down in safety to their ehildrt*n, and 
to j>err(>nii the piijn (prais(»givin^) according to the directions 
they contain. These records consist of three eompositii»ii>. 
written on the lu/ifarAcul) detiiiling the origin of the world. 
disclosing the attributes of the deity, and prescribing the 
foniis of worshi]) to be obsened on diffenmt occasions. 

When a woman is delivered of her lirst child, the D'tutt 
takes a leaf of the (Uatnj alatuj grass, and scraping the skin of 
the hands of the mother and her infant, as well as the gnnuid. 
j>ronounces a short benedicticm. 

When a marriage is agreed upon, the bride and bridegrf>«n« 
being brought before the Ditkmt within the house, in the tlrM 
j)laee bow with respect towards th(» south, then to the lire- 
place, then t«> the earth, and lastly, on looking up to the 
upper story of tlu* h'»iise, where the imph^ments of husbandn' 
are ])laee(l. 1 he ])arlies tlieii submissively bowing to the 
/>///////, he re])eats a jnayer, commencing with the i\<»rdN 



INHABITANTS OF THE TENG'GER MOUNTAINS. 869 

^' tangyang g*m sira kang * ", &c. ; while the bride washes 
the feet of the bridegroom. At the conclusion of this cere- 
mony, the firiends and family pf the parties make presents to 
each of krisesy buffaloes, implements of husbandry, &c. ; in 
return for which the bride and bridegroom respectfully present 
them with betel-leaf. 

At the marriage feast which ensues, the Dukun repeats two 
pijci. The marriage is not, however, consummated till the 
fifth day after the above ceremony. This interval between the 
solemnities and the consummation of marriage is termed by 
ihem 6ndang mdntUy and is in some cases still observed by 
the Javans in other parts of the island, under the mme^nduh 
mdntu. 

At the interment of an inhabitant of Teng^ger^ the corpse is 
loweied into the grave with the head placed towards the 
south (contrary to the direction observed by the Mahomedans), 
and is guarded from the immediate contact of the earth by a 
covering of bdmbus and planks. When the grave is closed, 
two posts are planted over the body ; one erected perpendi- 
cularly on the breast, the other on the lower part of the beUy ; 
and between them is placed a hollowed hdmbu in an inverted 
position, into which, during seven successive days, they daily 
pour a vessel of pure water, laying beside the hdmbu two 
dishes, also daily replenished with eatables. At the expira- 
tion of the seventh day, the feast of the dead is announced, 
and the relations and friends of the deceased assemble to be 
present at the ceremony, and to partake of entertainments 
conducted in the following manner. 

A figure of about half a cubit high, representing the human 
form, made of leaves and ornamented with variegated flowers, 
is prepared and placed in a conspicuous situation, supported 
round the body by the clothes of the deceased. The D&kun 
then places in front of the garland an incense-pot with biun- 
ing ashes, together with a vessel containing water, and repeats 
the two pUja to fire and water ; the former commencing with 

Hang! Kenddga Brdma gangst wang*ga ya nama Hwdhay^ 



it 



* These prayers will be found at length in the Transactions of the Ba- 
tavian Society, vol. iz. The word hong ! used by the Javans at the com- 
mencement of their invocations to the deity, is doubtless the mystical 001/ 
of the Hindus. 

VOL. I. B b 



370 INHABITANTS OF THE TENG'GER MOUNTAINS. 

&c. ; the latter with " Hong ! hong gang^ga mdha iirta rdta 
" jnejil Silking hdtl^'' &c. ; burning dupa or incense at stated 
periods (luring the former, and occasionally sprinkling the 
water over tlie feast during the repetition of the latter. 

The clothes of the deceased arc then divided among the re- 
latives and friends; the garland is burned; another /tr/Vi, 
commencing %\itli ^^ Hong! dwigna mtistuna ma sidam, 
hong ! ardning^'' &c. is repeated, while the remains of the 
sacred water are sprinkled over the feast The parties now 
sit AowvL to tlie enjoyment of it, invoking a blessing from the 
Almighty on themselves, their houses, and their lands. No 
more solemnities are observed till tlie expiration of a thousand 
days, when, if the memory of the deceased is beloved and 
cherished, the ceremony and feast are repeated; if otherwise, 
no fiurther notice is taken of him : and having thus obtained 
what the Ilomans would call his justa^ he is allowed to be 
forgotten. 

Being questioned regarding the tenets of their religion, they 
replied that tliey beUeved in a d6wa^ who was all-powerful; 
that the name by which the d^wa was designated was Bumi 
Truka Sang'' gang Dewdta Batufy and that the particulars of 
their worship were contained in a book called PdngldwUy 
which they presented to me. 

On being questioned regarding the ddat against adultery, 
theft, and other crimes, tlieir reply was unanimous and ready, 
that crimes of this kind were unkno\ni to them, and that con- 
sec^uently no punishment was fixed, either by law or custom; 
that if a man did \\Tong, the head of the village chid him for 
il, ihc reproach of which was always sufficient punishment for 
a man of Teng\jer, This account of their moral character is 
fully confinued by the Regents of tlie districts under whose 
authority they are j)laced, and also by tlie Residents. Tlioy, 
in fact, seem to be almost without crime, and are universally 
])eiiceable, orderly, honest, industrious, and happy. They are 
unatMiuainted with tlie vice of gambling and the use of opium. 

'I'lie aggregate j)()pulation is about twelve hundred souls; 
aiul they occu])y, without exception, the most beautifully 
rich and rom«antic spots on Java ; a region, in which the 
thc^nnonu^ter is frequently as low as forty-two. The suiu- 
inits and slopes of the hills are covered ^ith Alpine fire, and 



4€ 



INHABITANTS OF THE TENG'GER MOUNTAINS. 371 

plants common to an European climate flourish in luxu- 
riance. 

Their language does not difTer much from the Javan of the 
present day, though more gutturally pronounced. Upon a 
comparison of about a hundred words with the vernacular 
Jaran, two only were found to differ. They do not marry or 
intermix with the people of the low-lands, priding themselves 
on their independence and purity in this respect *. 

* The following are the only traditions respecting these people which 
arc current in the eastern provinces. " The people of the Teng'ger moun- 
tains say, that they received that name from a person from Maidram, of 
an inquisitive and travelling turn (wong maldnaj, who having ascended 
** the highest of them, and being struck with astonishment at the view of 
** all around, gave them the above-mentioned name of Teng'ffer, from the 
** Javan word angeng^ger, which signifies wonder or astonishment. 

Before Gunung Brhma had received that name, or had become a vol- 
cano, there lived a man called Kiai G^de Dddap PuHh, who had no chil- 
dren. He petitioned of his deity to grant that he might have children, 
to the number of twenty-five, promising, in that event, that he would 
cast away one of them into the sea. In the course of a short time chil- 
dren began to be bom unto him. As soon as he had the number he 
bad prayed for, the people of Teng'ger were inflicted with a pestilence, so 
dreadful in its. effects, that those who were attacked by it in the morning 
never failed to die before the evening. Dddc^ PiUih was so distressed 
and afflicted at the lamentable situation of the Teng'ger people, that he 
** loathed his food and neglected his rest, till it was conmiunicated to him 
'' in a vision, that the pestilence had been sent in consequence of his 
** having omitted to perform his vow, of casting into the sea one of the 
** twenty-five children whom the deity had granted him, Dddtq} Piitih 
<' then assembled all his children, and inquired which of them was willing 
** to be sacrificed, in order to appease the angry deity. All of them sig- 
** nified their im willingness to become the victim except the youngest 
child, who voluntarily came forward and agreed to suffer, in which ever 
way its father thought proper. Dddap PHtih, however, reflecting that ^*^ 
the sea was at a very great distance, carried this child only to that exten- 
sive sand plain at the foot of GUnung Brdma, which bears the name of 
Sagdra w4di or Lout Pdsir, and there abandoned it. No sooner had he 
done so, than Gunung Brbma began to send forth hollow sounds, and 
immediately burst forth into a volcano. Sagdra wSdi is so called from 
*' the resemblance of its sandy surface, to a sea when surveyed from Brd- 
** ma's heights : its original name is Dassar. 

** Bima being asked by Kresna if he was able, in the course of one night, 
** to make an inland sea below the Teng'ger mountains, and having an- 
'* swered in the afilirmative, Kresna challenged him to do it, telling him at 
'' the same time, that it must be done before the cocks were heard to crow, 

Bb2 



€€ 
44 

44 
44 



44 
(« 
44 
€4 
44 
« 
44 



372 THE BEDUI. 

The Bedui are in numbers inconsiderable, and found in the 
interior of Bantam : they are the descendants of those who 
escaped into the woods after the fall of the western capital <rf 
Pajajdran * in the fifteenth century, and would not change 
their religion, remaining firmly attached to that of Prdbu 
Seda. There is a tomb of one of them which they hold 
sacred, and will not allow any one but themselves to approach 
even to this day. When the Bedui subsequently sidmiitled 
to the Sultan of Bantam, and shewed no disposition to oppose 
the Mahomedans,they were not compelled to become converts; 
but it was agreed, at the same time they admitted, that the 
number of the Rowd-ian (the name given to their little socie- 
ties) should be limited to three or four. 

The B^dui attend to all orders they receive through the 
medium of the village chief. They subsist by cultivating 
rice : all they raise beyond what is required for their own 
consumption tliey sell to the hill people, who are in the habit 
of going to tlicm for it once a year, on account of the superior 
quality of the rice, or rather superior estimation in which it 
is held. It is an established rule among them to allot but one 
day for each of the different successive operations of hus- 
bandry' : one day for cutting down the trees and underwood, 
one day for clearing what has been so cut down, one day for 
sowing the grain, one for weeding the field, and one for 
reaping, one for binding up the grain and one for carrying it 
home. If any part of what has been reaped cannot be carried 
home in one day, it is left and neglected. The Girang pdkcm 

" or the people of the villages began to weave or beat out rice. By three 
" o'clock in the morning his work was so £eur advanced, as to coDvince 
" Kresna that it would be completed in the prescribed time. To prevent 
" this, therefore, Kresna inmiediately went, and rousing all the cocks and 
** people of the villages, caused the former to crow and the hitter to bq^in 
" to weave and beat out rice. By this manoeuvre, Bmmi wu obliged to 
" leave off the work, which otherwise would have been completed within 
" the fixed time; and so incensed was he against the people, who had so 
" untimely began to weave and beat our their rice (whereby he fiuledto 
" perform the task which was given to him to prove his power) that be 
*' cursed them, and swore that they should never again perform either the 
* ' one act or tlie other, and to this day the Tenff*ger people neither weave 
** cotton nor beat out rice." 
' See Historv. 



FESTIVALS. 373 

(which is the title of the chief) is the first who commences 
the work of the field, and many of the hill people follow him 
in regard to the period for sowing iheii pdri. 

Their dress consists of white and black cloths. They 
wear rings and silver scabbards to their krises, but gold and 
suHisa they dislike. Spanish dollars are the only coin they 
prize. 

The festivals or feasts of the Javans are of three kinds : the 
grUheg^ or religious festivals ; the banchdki or nealamdtij so 
called bom the Arabic saldmat (a blessing), held on the cele- 
bration of marriages, births, and circumcision ; and the 
sed^kahy appointed in honour of the dead, and for the cele- 
bration of their memory. 

The principal and most important of these are the national 
entertainments corresponding with the Mahomedan festivals of 
mulutf pdsaj and b^sar ; the two first answering to the half- 
yearly festivals of the Arabs of mohdram and ramdzan, and 
the latter with that of khdji, in the month of dulkhija. On 
these occasions the sovereign appears in public, and the dlun 
dlun is crowded with an assemblage of people from all 
quarters, every one being dressed in his most splendid attire, 
and accompanied by all his armed followers. The same is 
observed in the more distant provinces of the country, where 
the petty chiefs, in like manner, assemble in the dlun dlun of 
the Regent. Presents of firuit, poultry, and other kinds of 
provisions, are brought firom every part of the country: 
ofiferings are made by the chiefs to the mosques, and a public 
festival is given by the chief authorities. The men only par- 
take of these public feasts ; but the female part of the &inily 
of the chiefs assemble together, and enjoy corresponding 
entertainments within their chambers. The festival seldom 
lasts above one day. 

Of the banchdki and nealamdti it may be only necessary 
to observe, that those given during the ceremonies consequent 
upon the birth of the first child are most important. 

The sed^kah are solemnities observed on the occasion of 
the fimeral, or in honour of the memory of a departed relative, 
on the seventh, fortieth, one hundredth, or thousandth day 
after his decease: they are distinguished firom the feasts 
of gr^beg and nealamdti by the absence of music. Those 



374 NATIONAL DRAMA. 

who intend to observe them, assemble on the precedinij 
evening m order to read some portion of the Koran, Befon? 
the guests partake of the meaJ, the principal person present 
generally addresses the Almighty in a prayer, which aUudcs 
to the occasion, and expresses gratitude for the repast which 
his boimty has provided. ThankMncss to the earthly donor 
of the entertainment often mingles itself with gratitude to 
heaven, and the praises of botli are celebrated at the same 
time. Tliis grace before meals is called djttng^a. 

Reser\ ing for a subsequent chapter a sketch of the music 
and poetry of the Javans, I shall in this place endeavour to 
give some account of their national drama and dances, as 
constituting, next to music and poetry, the most conspicuous 
and refined of their amusements. 

Tlic dramatic entertainments are of two kinds ; the tdpeng^ 
wherein the characters are represented by men, who except 
when perfonning before the Sovereign wear masks ; and the 
wdtjnng, in which they are represented by shadows. 

Tlie suliject of the topeng is invariably taken firom the 
adventiues of Pdnji^ the favourite hero of Javan story. In 
the i)(Tf()rmances before the Sovereign, where masks are not 
used, the several characters tliemselves rehearse their parts ; 
but, in general, the Ddlang, or manager of the entertainment, 
recites the speeches, while the performers have only to " suit 
" the action to the word." The music of the gdmelan accom- 
panies the piece, and varies in expression, according to tlie 
nature of the action or tlie kind of emotion to be excited. 
Tlie actors are splendidly dressed after the ancient costume, 
and })erf(>nii their i)arts with grace, elegance, and precisiou; 
but the whole jKTfonnance has more the character of a ballet 
than that of a regular dramatic exhibition, eitlier of the tragic 
or coiniiijj; kind, in which human passions, human follies 
or suireriiigs, are represented in such appropriate language 
and just action, as to seem only a reflection of nature. Love 
and war are the constant themes, and the combats of con- 
tcndiiijj: chiefs generally close the scene. Those who perform 
before the sovereign and repeat their parts, previously study 
tluir characters from writt(*n eoni]>ositions expressly prepared 
for the pur|)ose ; but in other cases, the Ddlang^ well vcrsetl 
ill the princi|)al iin'idents, descriptions, and speeches of the 



NATIONAL DRAMA. 875 

history, furnishes the dialogue between the actors extempore. 
A party of tdpeng generally consists of ten persons, besides 
the Dalang^ of whom four play the gdmelan and six perform 
the characters. They are engaged to play by the night, for 
about ten rupees (twenty -five shillings) and a supper. 

Buffoonery is sometimes introduced, to increase the zest of 
these entertainments with the multitude, but it does not 
interfere with the regular course ofthe performance, the actors 
being only disturbed occasionally by the actions of an extra- 
neous character, who whether representing a dog, a monkey, 
or an idiot, seldom fails to excite considerable mirth, and 
not unfrequently in the most interesting part of the per- 
formance. 

There is also a kind of pantomime, or rather an assemblage 
of wild beasts called Barung^an ; in this entertainment men 
dressed up to represent various animals are made to appear 
in procession and combats. This is generally p||^ormed for 
the amusement of children, and is only accompanied by the 
beat of the g&ng and drum. 

In the wdyangSy or scenic shadows, the subject of the per- 
formances is taken from the earliest period of history and 
fable, down to the destruction of the Hindu empire of Maja- 
pahit. These are distinguished according to the periods of 
the history which they represent, by the terms wdyang pdrwa^ 
ujdyang gedog^ and wdyang klitik. 

The different characters in the history are in these wdyangs 
represented by figures, about eighteen inches or two feet 
high, stamped or cut out of pieces of thick leather, generally 
of buffalo's hide, which are painted and gilt with great care 
and at considerable expense, so as to form some supposed 
resemblance of the character to the individual intended to be 
personified. The whole figure is, however, strangely distorted 
and grotesque, the nose in particular being unnaturally pro- 
minent. There is a tradition, that the figures were first 
so distorted by the SusHnan MdriUy one of the early Maho- 
medan teachers, in order to render the preservation of the 
ancient amusements of the country compatible with a due 
obedience to the Mahomedan precept, which forbids any 
exhibition or dramatic representation of the human form. 






37G NATIONAL DRAMA. 

^' By these means/* said the SiMunan with much ingemuty, 
'^ while the world in general will not imagine the figures to 
^' be human, the Javans, from recollecting their history, will 
'^ yet be able to comprehend the characters they are intended 

to represent, and enjoy in secret their national amusements. 

Or if, in time, they should forget the originals, and confound 
^^ them with the distorted resemblance, they will be impressed 
'^ with the idea, that it was only after conyersion to the ikith 
'^ of the Prophet that their ancestors assumed the present 
'^ shape of man.*' But the comparatively recent alteratiuo 
in the figures is rendered doubtful from the circumstance of 
similar figures being found on many of the more ancient 
coins, thus affording ground for an opinion, that they existed 
nearly in their present form before the introduction of Maho- 
medanism. Their antiquity is further confirmed, by the 
existence of similar figures in the Hindu island of BdU^ 
where, thoyh not so much distorted, they are stiU far from 
natural. I^ese figures are fastened upon a horn spike, and 
have a piece of thin horn hanging from each hand, by means 
of which the arms, which are jointed at the elbow and 
shoulder, can be moved at the discretion of the manager. A 
white cloth or curtain is then drawn tight over an oblong 
frame of ten or twelve feet long and five feet high, and being 
])laccd in front of tlie spectators, is rendered transparent by 
means of a hanging lamp behind it. The several figures are 
made in turn to appear and act Uieir parts. Previous to the 
commencement of this performance, the Ddlangy who is 
seated beliind the curtain, arranges the difierent characters on 
eaeh side of tlie ciutain, by sticking them into a long plantain 
stem which is laid along the bottom. The gdmelan then 
commences, and as the several characters present themselves, 
extracts of the history- are repeated, and the dialogue is car- 
ried on, generally at the discretion and by the invention of 
the Ddlaug. Without this personage nothing can be done ; 
for he not only puts the puppets in motion, but repeats their 
parts, interspersing tliem with detached verses firom the 
romance illustrative of the storv', and descriptive of the qua- 
lities of the different heroes. lie is the soul which directs 
and animates the whole order and machinery of the piece. 



NATIONAL DRAMA. 377 

regulating the time of the music with a small hammer which 
he holds in his hand, while he recites the speeches suited to 
the occasion. 

In the wdyang purwa, or wdyang of the most ancient times, 
the subject is taken from the earliest periods of fabulous his- 
tory, down to the reign of Parikesit inclusive. This is the 
age of interesting stoiy and marvellous fiction, the reign of 
the gods, demigods, and heroes of the Hindu and Javan 
mythology, who in these representations are exhibited with 
the attributes, and in the situations with which their names 
are connected in the most popular poems and romances. The 
iables thus turned to account, are generally taken from the 
poem oiRdmay the poem oiMintardga containing the penance 
of Arjuna on the mountain Indra, and the celebrated epic of 
the Brdta Yiidhay or the war of the Panddwa. These poems 
are all written in what are termed the high measures, and are 
accompanied in their recital by the gdmelan sal^ndro. In the 
performance of this wdyang, the Ddlang first recites a few 
verses in the Kdtm language, chaunting afterwards an mter- 
pretation of the passage in Javan, for the use of the unlearned. 
As the several characters are brought forward, he himself sup- 
plies the minor dialogue between the dramatis personsB, keep- 
ing in general close to the original story, when there is any 
person present who could detect his deviations : if he is per- 
forming before the ignorant, however, he firequently digresses 
from the main story, in any way which he thinks may most 
readily amuse his audience ; and on this account, the practice 
of rendering the Kdtm into Javan, which fiumishes an oppor- 
tunity for such deviations, is termed chardngan, literally a 
branch from a tree. In the course of the entertainment, all 
the varieties of ancient weapons named in these poems are 
represented behind the transparent curtain. The interest ex- 
cited by such spectacles, connected with national recollections, 
is almost inconceivable. The eager multitude will sit listen- 
ing with rapturous delight and profound attention for whole 
nights to these rude dramas. By means of them, the lower 
class have an opportunity of picking up a few Kdwi terms, 
and of becoming acquainted with the ancient legends of the 
country. 



378 NATIONAL DRAMA. 

The subject of the wdyang gedog is taken from the period 
of histor}' subsequent to Parik^sitj commencing with the reign 
of Gandra-ydna and including the adventures and reign of 
the celebrated Pdnji, and that of his successor IjdUan^ mitil 
he established himself at Pajajdran, These poems being 
composed in a different measure, the gdmelan p^log is em- 
ployed as the accompaniment ; and although the histoiy of 
the early part of tliis period is i^Titten in the Kdwi, the Da- 
lang always employs the Javan translation. The adventures 
of Pdnji compose the most popular portion of it The cha- 
racters are numerous, and the figures in general more highly 
coloured and better finished than those of the wdyang punta. 
In bringing any hero on the stage, the Ddlang recites those 
verses of the history which relate to him, and introduces such 
dialogue as may give a dramatic effect to the exhibition, to- 
gether wdth such explanations as may make it intelligible to 
common capacities. 

In the wdyang klitik the figures exhibited are more pro- 
perly puppets than shadows: they are of wood, about ten 
inches high, and made to peribrm their parts without the in- 
ten cntion of a curtain. In these are represented that portion 
of the history commencing with the establishment of the 
western empire of Pajajdran and ending with the destruction 
of the eastern empire of Majapdhit. Of this, by far the most 
favourite scenes are found in the popular story of the adven- 
tures between the M^nak Jing'ga, a chief of Balambdng'an, 
and Ddmar Wulun (the light of the moon), on account of the 
Princess of Majapdhit, 

Tlie compositions which thus 8er\'e as the basis of these 
popular and interesting entertainments, comprise the legends 
from which the account of the earlier periods of Javan stoi}*, 
dc^tailed in another part of this work, is principally derived 
'llie most ]>()])ular and interesting events and adventures arv 
preserved and related in various compositions, whilst mon' 
recent actions and events, which possessed less interest, have 
fallen into oblivion. Tlic constant exhibition of these plays 
in every part of the country', but more particularly in the 
east(»ni districts, has served to keep alive the recollections of 
" days long since gone by," and to disseminate a general 



THE DANCE. 879 

knowledge of native legendary history among many, with 
whom, from the ignorance of letters, the stories might other- 
wise have been irretrievably lost or more grossly distorted. 

The DdlangSy who manage and conduct these amusements, 
are treated with considerable respect. In many points, their 
office strongly resembles that of the ancient bards. The cere- 
jnony of giving his blessing to the first bom infant, in the re- 
petition of some particular passages of the ancient legends, 
gives this part of his office a very peculiar interest The usual 
payment to the Ddlang who owns a set oiwdyangSy and brings 
his own gdmelan players, is from two to three dollars for the 
night ; but the nobles and chiefs generally have several sets 
of wdyangs of their own, and keep a Ddlang in their service. 

Another representation of this nature is that of the adven- 
tures of M&nak Jing'ga and Ddmar JVulafiy which are ex- 
hibited, but not very commonly, by means of drawings on 
folded leaves of strong paper, while the Ddlang repeats the 
story and furnishes dialogue to the characters. This is termed 
fcdyang beber. An entertainment of a similar description, 
though not accompanied by the exhibition of figures, is termed 
tr^bang : it was invented in the time of the kingdom of D^- 
mak. The story is taken from the Arabic account of Beginda 
Ambiay which being rendered into Javan, is repeated by the 
Ddlang f who with a small drum before him, and accompanied 
by the music of the gdmeltmy gives spirit to the different parts, 
by beating time with his hand, and varying the strength of 
the sound or quickness of time according to ^e subject These 
two latter are of comparatively modem invention, and not 
much esteemed. 

The dance with the Javans, as with Asiatics in general, 
consists in gracefril attitudes of the body, and in the slow 
movement of the arms and legs, particularly of the former, even 
to the distinct motion of the hand and fingers. 

Of the dancing girls who exhibit at public entertainments, 
the first in rank and the most skilfril in their profession are 
the concubines of the sovereign and of the hereditary prince. 
They alone are allowed to perform the s*rimpiy a figure dance 
by four persons, distinguished by an unusual degree of grace 
and decorum. 

The dancers are decorated according to the ancient cos- 

10 



380 THE DANCE. 

tumc of the country ^ and nearly in the same manner as a mo- 
dem bride. The tdpihy or petticoat, is of silk of different 
colours, often green stamped with golden flowers, and hang- 
ing in the most graceful manner, a part of it falling between 
the feet and serving as a short train, which in the course of 
the dance is frequently thrown aside by a quicker motion of 
the foot than ordinary. The Adat^ or waistband, is of the 
chindi pattern ; and on these occasions is worn the m^er^ or 
cestus, composed of plates of gold highly ornamented with 
diamonds at the clasp in front. The body is enclosed in a 
kind of corset (pemdkak) passing above the bosom and under 
the arms, and confining the waist in the narrowest posmble 
limits. The ends of the sembong^ or sash. Ml gracefully on 
each side on the back of the hip and reach the ground. Some- 
times, indeed, this gracefiil appendage to the dress is brought 
from the back to a point between the breasts, whence being 
fastened in a rosette, the ends flow towards the ground in 
front of the person, the usual bending attitude during the 
dance causing them to hang distinct from the rest of the ^>- 
parcl. The triple necklace, richly chased armlets, bracelets, 
and tiara, are of gold, studded with precious stones ; and the 
hair is gracefully ornamented with buds of white and sweet- 
scented flowers. On their fingers they generally display bril- 
liant rings, and the face, neck, shoulders, and arms, which 
remain uncovered, are tinged by a delicate shade of yellow 
powder. The music is slow and solemn, and the performance 
is on the gdmeUin salertdro; verses from the romances of 
Pdftji, descriptive of the attire and beauty of the wives and 
concubines of tliat hero, being chaunted as a prelude to the 
entertainment and during its continuance. On occasions 
when tlie s'rimpi are exhibited before Europeans at the Re- 
sidency house, tliey arc brought with great care, and under a 
giuird, from the krdton^ in a large enclosed palanquin, or 
rather box, borne on men's shoulders. When they reach the 
door of the residency, they glide beliind the prince into the 
chamber appropriated for his accommodation, and when they 
come forth for the dance, seat themselves on the ground in 
front of liim. On his intimating that they should commence, 
they slowly, and to the sound of music, close their hands, 
and raising them to the forehead, bend in reverential awe, 



THE DANCE. 881 

and gradually extending their arms and swaying in unison 
with each other from side to side, assume an erect posture. 
The dancers seldom exceed the age of fourteen or fifteen. 
The birth of a child generally puts an end to their perform- 
ances, and removes them firom the profession. They are the 
choicest beauties of the country, selected for the royal bed. 
Throughout the whole performance their eyes are directed 
modestly to the ground, and their body and limbs are by slow 
movements thrown into every graceful attitude that the most 
flexible form is capable of exhibiting. In the figure of the 
dance they occasionally approach and recede firom each other, 
and sometimes cross to the opposite side. It firequently hap- 
pens, that the delicate corset by falling too low, exposes more 
of the body than is considered correct. On such occasions, 
one of the trusty matrons always in attendance raises it again, 
without interrupting the dance or embarrassing the movements 
of the dancer. At the conclusion of the dance they gradually 
place themselves on the ground, in the same manner as before 
its commencement, and after closing their hands, and raising 
them to the forehead in token of respect, remain seated with 
a downcast look and captivating modesty, until the signal is 
given to the matrons to relieve them by others, when they 
again glide into the same apartment 

The beddyay who perform a figure dance of eight persons, 
are in some respect to the nobles what the 8*rimpi are to the 
sovereign : but, at present, few of the nobles can afford to 
maintain a sufficient number of youthful concubines to com- 
pose this dance ; . it is firequently therefore performed by boys 
trained for the purpose. They are dressed nearly in the same 
manner as the s*rimptf though not so expensively. The 
action moves to the same music and song. 

But the common dancing girls of the country, who appear 
to approach more nearly to the usual dancing girls of Western 
India, are called rdng'gengy and are generally of easy virtue. 
They make a profession of their art, and hire themselves to 
perform on particular occasions, for the amusement of the 
chiefs and of the public. Though to be found in every prin- 
cipal town, their performance is most highly esteemed in the 
western, and particularly among the rude mountaineers of the 
Sunda districts, where the superior graces of the hedaya axe 



382 THE DANCE. 

unknown. Here they are constantly engaged on every occa- 
sion of festivity, and the regents frequently keep the most 
accomplished in their service for years. Their conduct is 
generally so incorrect, as to render the title of r&ng^geng and 
prostitute synonymous ; but it not unfrequently happens, that 
after amassing considerable wealth in the profession, they 
obtain, on account of their fortune, the hand of some petty 
chief. In this case, they generally, after a few years retire- 
ment and domestic quiet, avail themselves of the facility of 
a divorce, and repudiating their husbands, return to their 
former habits. The rdng'gengs accompany the dance with 
singing, the words being generally extempore to the music of 
the gdmelan sal^ndro and pelog. Their dress is coarse, but 
in other respects resembles that of the more select dancers. 
They do not, however, wear any tiara on the head, nor armlets ; 
bracelets arc only worn occasionally. Their hair is dressed 
after a peculiar fashion, abundantly oiled, and ornamented 
with flowers of various kinds. They sometimes exhibit singly 
and sometimes in groups, following and approaching each 
other, or receding at pleasure. They perform at any time of 
tlio day, but chiefly in the evening, and endeavour to exhibit 
tlicir best attitudes round a lamp which hangs suspended 
Generally speaking, both their action and their song are rude 
and awkward, and on that account often disgusting to Eu- 
ropeans, altliough there are some among them whose per- 
formance does not desen-e to be so considered. Their action 
is usually distorted, their greatest excellence seeming to con- 
sist in bending tlie arms and hands back in an unnatural 
manner, and giving one or two of the fingers a tremulous 
motion. The voice, tliough sometimes harmonious, is oftra 
loud, dissonant, and harsh to an European ear. They generally 
have a handkerchief thrown over tlie slioidder, and usually a 
fan in their hand, wliicli occasionally ser\'es to conceal one 
lialf of the face, not so much out of any affectation of bash- 
fulness, as, in the manner of a huntsman, to assist the louder 
tones of the voice. At otlier times it is employed to strike 
against the back of the ann, so as to give a greater effect to 
different ])arts of Uie action and music. Generally speaking, 
(lie rthH/gnnjH do not descend to the performance of those 
disgusting and disgraceful postures and motions, which an* 



THE DANCE. 383 

Stated to be so frequent on the continent of India, but they are 
not free from the charge of impropriety in this respect. Their 
song, though little esteemed and less understood by Europeiuis, 
sometimes possesses much hiunour and drollery; and in 
adapting their motions to the language, they frequently excite 
loud bursts of laughter, and obtain great applause from the 
native audience. 

The nobles of the highest rank are accustomed, on par- 
ticular occasions of festivity, to join in the dance with a 
rdng^geng. To dance gracefully, is an accomplishment ex- 
pected in every Javan of rank ; and in the western districts, 
particularly, all the chiefs are, on days of festivity, accustomed 
to join in the exercise, one after the other, commencing with 
the youngest. On these occasions, the nobles of the highest 
class vie with each other in pointing the toe with grace, in 
exhibiting elegance of movement, in displaying adroitness by 
intricate evolutions, or beauty of person by an ingenious 
management of attitude. So devoted are they to this exercise, 
that although their wives and daughters never dance, the 
happiness of a festive occasion is considered incomplete, 
where an opportunity is not afforded to the chiefs themselves 
of introducing their favourite amusement. In the Sinda 
districts, there are some individuals distinguished as regular 
posture or dancing-masters. 

It is not unusual for the performances of the r&ng^g€ng$ 
to be varied by the action of a fool or buffoon. Mimicry is 
a favourite amusement, and beside imitating, in a ludicrous 
manner, the actions of the r6ng*gengsj there are not wanting 
performers of this description, who occasionally direct their 
wit against all classes of society, and evince a considerable 
degree of low humour. 

These are the only public exhibitions of the female sex ; 
but the posture dances by the men are niunerous, and contri- 
bute to the state of the sovereigns and chiefs. Among these, 
the Gdmbiih, with a shield on one arm, gracefrilly raises the 
dddot (or petticoat) with the other hand ; the Niutra^ having 
a bow and arrow in the hand, goes through the motion of its 
exercise, stringing and unstringing it to the sound of the 
gdmelan. Both throw their limbs and body into the most 
graceful postiures, as they slowly move in procesdon before 



384 THE DANCE. 

the chiefs, or arc arranged on the side of the passage through 
which he is to pass. Both the Gdnibuh and Niutra are 
naked from the waist upwards, while the d6d4>t hangs to the 
ground on one side in the manner of full dress, shewing the 
knee on the other. Their bodies are generally covered with 
yellow powder, and from round their ears hang suspended in 
front, strings of the young meldti flowers. 

The Gdmbuh are occasionally employed to exhibit before 
the prince, when with a kris in their right hand and a shield 
on their left arm, they go through all their evolutions to the 
sound of music. 

But the chief description of male performers are the BSksa 
kembang or B^ksa rong'geng^ who have flowers, shields, or 
serpents in their hands, and in dancing seem to resemble the 
South Sea Islanders, though more elegant in their attire, and 
perhaps more graceful in their motions. Neither have any 
covering above the waist; but the yellow, and sometimes 
green powder which is upon the body, gives it an appearance 
very like dress. The term Beksa Idwung is applied to the 
petty chiefs, who on public days dismount from their horses, 
and go through the exercise of the spear for the amusement 
of the prince. Another description of performers are termed 
Unchelang ; their art consists in thronging the spear into the 
air, and catching it again as it falls with great dexterity. 
Similar exhibitions of these persons combating with sticks, 
called ujung, were formerly common. 

In the domestic circle, the women and elderly people are 
partial to a peculiar amusement termed sinireny wUch paints 
very forcibly the notions they possess of the power of music. 
A boy or girl, properly attired and skilled in the dance, 'is 
placed imder a reversed basket which is carefrilly covered 
with cloth. Round it music and song are struck up by all 
present; those who do not play on any instrument, or who do 
not sing, joining in beating time by clapping their hands. 
When the excitement has continued sufliciently long to be 
supposed to have effected the charm, the basket is seen to 
move, and the boy or girl rising from under it, apparently 
imconscious of what is doing, moves and dances gracefullv 
but wildly, in unison with tlie music. At length tired out, 
the dancer falls and seems to sink into sleep, and when 



TILTS AND TOURNAMENTS. 385 

awakened pretends not to recollect any thing that has passed. 
The perfection of this amusement consists in the performer's 
giving himself up so completely to the power of music as to 
be charmed by it, and perfectly unconscious of every other 
sense. 

For the amusement, principally however of children, a 
cocoa-nut shell is carved with the features of a man, and 
affixed to tlie top of a reversed basket, covered with cloth. 
This basket, after being for some time exposed by the side of 
a river, or mider a large tree, in order, as is supposed, that 
some supernatural spirit may enter into it, is brought again 
into the house, and rocked according to the swaying motion 
of the Javan dance by two children, to the music of the game- 
Ian. An amusement of this kind is termed brindung. 

Tilts and tournaments (wdtang) form a favourite and con- 
stant diversion with the Javans : they are exhibited princi- 
pally in the dlun dlurij or great square in front of the krdtonj 
or palace, and compose an essential part of the ceremony of 
the pdsar senen, or the day in which the sovereign and re- 
gents appear in public. This, with the sovereign, is Satur- 
day ; with the chiefs, Monday. On the afternoon of this day, 
all the princes, nobles, and public officers assemble, and ar- 
ranging themselves in the places assigned to their respective 
ranks, await the coming out of the sovereign, who, as soon as 
he descends from the setingely mounts a horse richly capa- 
risoned, and rides round the waringen trees, the several chiefs 
joining in his suite as he passes the circle. Several of the 
chiefs, and particularly their sons and youthfrd relations, then 
join in pairs, tilting and striking their long and blunted spears 
as they pass the sovereign. The same thing is observed on 
the afternoon of every Monday, at the capitals of the diflferent 
provinces throughout the island, where the native government 
and institutions are at all preserved. The assemblage of 
people on these occasions is frequently very great. The trap- 
pings and housings of the horses are extremely rich, and the 
riders perform their feats with some dexterity, being seldom 
imhorsed *. At the conclusion of the exhibition on horse- 

* It has already been noticed that the island is plentifully supplied with 
a fine breed of small horses. Almost every petty chief and public officer ia 
moiinted, and those who possess the means pride themselves upon a re« 

VOL. I. C C 



380 THE CHACE— TIGER FIGHTS. 

back, it is not unusual for the youths and petty chiefs who 
have contended in the saddle to dismount and practice the 
attiick and defence of the spear on foot : they are then termed 
Beksa Idwmig, Tilts are likewise exhibited in the 6lun 
dlnn on the days of pnbUc festival, when the chiefs appear. 

The Javans have long advanced beyond that state in which 
the chaco was considered as connected with their subsistence. 

Tlic stag is hunted chiefly in tlie eastern and western ex- 
tremities of the island, by the descendants of the Bali and 
Siinda races : tlic Javans inhabiting the central districts are 
not practised m the diversion, nor much acquainted mith 
it. 'riicy imiformly pursue the animal on horseback. In the 
eastern districts he is killed \vith a spear : in the western he 
is cut down \\\\h a klewang or cutlass ; here the chace is con- 
ductod with more regularity and method, and many of the 
inhabitants, particiUarly the chiefs, are passionately addicted 
to it, employing the best and swiftest horses and dogs they 
can i)rociu*c for tlie purpose. 

A favourite and national spectacle is the combat between 
the buffalo and the tiger. A large cage of bdmbu or wood is 
erected, the ends of which are fixed into the groimd, in which 
the buffalo is first and the tiger aften^'ards admitted, through 
oi)oniiigs rcsen ed for the purpose. It seldom fails that the 
buffalo is tiiuniphant, and one buffalo has been known to de- 
stroy several full grown tigers in succession. In these com- 
bats the buffalo is stimulated by the constant application of 

s{)ecta])lc establishment. They have an aversion to some colourt, and 
there are particular marks, the possession of which renders a hont valu- 
able to the natives ; if a few hairs on the neck curl, or have the appearance 
uf a star, tlic horse m highly prized. Previously to the ceaaion of Kedm to 
the Kuropean government in 1812, the native princes maintained a very 
respectable stud in that province. Horses are never shod on Java* nor 
are they secured in the stable, as is usual in Europe and Western India. A 
separate enclosure is appropriated for each horse, within which the animal 
is allowed to move and turn at pleasure, being otherwise unconfined. 
These enclosures are erected at a short distance from each other, and with 
separate roofs, 'lliey are generally raised above the ground, and bare a 
boarded floor. 

'I'he Javans use an extremely severe bit, and in consequence bav« the 
borso ahvays \mder command. The saddle, bridle, &c. are extremely 
lu'nvy, and disproportioned to the size of the animal 



TIGER FIGHTS. 387 

boiling water, which is poured over him from the upper part 
of the cage, and of nettles, which are fastened to the end of a 
stick, and applied by persons seated in the same quarter. The 
tiger sometimes springs upon the buffalo at once ; he very ge- 
nerally, however, avoids the combat, until goaded by sticks and 
roused by the application of burning straw, when he moves 
round the cage, and being gored by the buffalo, seizes him by 
the neck, head, or leg. The buffalo is often dreadfully torn, 
and seldom survives the combat many days. In these enter- 
tainments the Javans are accustomed to compai'e the buffalo 
to the Javan and the tiger to the European, and it may be 
readily imagined with what eagerness they look to the success 
of the former. The combat generally lasts from twenty mi- 
nutes to half an hour, when, if neither of them is destroyed, 
the animals are changed, and the tiger, if he survives, is re- 
moved to be destroyed in the manner called rdmpogj which is 
as follows. 

On receiving information of the retreat of a tiger the male 
inhabitants are sometimes called out in a body, by the order 
of a chief, each man being obliged to be provided with a 
spear, the common weapon of the country. The place where 
the animal is concealed is surroimded : a double or triple 
range being formed, according to the number of himters, and 
he is roused by shouts, by the beating of gongSj or by fire. 
The place where he is expected to attempt his escape is care- 
fully guarded, and he is generally speaxed on the spot. 

In many districts, where the population is not deficient, the 
appearance of a single tiger rouses the neighbourhood, and he 
is infallibly destroyed by the method described *. 

When the rdmpog is resorted to by way of amusement at 
the capital of the sovereign, a hollow square of spearmen, four 
deep, is formed on the dlun dluUj in the centre of which are 
placed the tigers in small separate cages, or rather traps, with 
a sliding door, in the manner of a rat-trap. Two or three 
men, accustomed to the practice, at the command of the so- 

* " The fruit of a species of contorta, called kdlak kdmbing, has a 
deadly effect on tigers. It is prepared by the admixture of other 
vegetables, and exposed on a piece of rag at the places frequented by 
them. In some districts their nimiber has been sensibly diminished by 
this poison." — Horsfield. 

c c 2 



«« 
<< 

t€ 
ti 



388 TIGER FIGHTS. 

vereign, proceed into the centre' of the square, and placing 
plaited leaves in front of the cage, to supply the place of the 
wooden door, set it on fire, and drawing tlie wocKlen door up, 
throwing it on one side, themselves retreating from the spot at 
a slow pace, to the sound of music. As soon as the tiger feels 
the fire he starts, and in endeavoiuing to make his way through 
the speannen is generally received upon their weapons. In- 
stances, however, have occuiTcd, in which the animal has 
made good his retreat, but he was soon afterwards killed; 
sometimes the tiger, particularly if he has been opposed to the 
buffalo, will not move from the centre of the square ; in which 
case the sovereign generally directs six or eight of his choice 
men ((jdndek) to advance towards him vAUlx spears. This 
they do with sur})rizing coolness and intrepidity, never failing 
to pierce the animal, by fixing their spears into him at once. 
Tlie smaller species of the tiger is generally selected for this 
amusement. 

The exposure of criminals in combat with tigers was for- 
merly practised, and it is said to have been common on tlie first 
establishment of the Maiarem empire ; but of late years, such 
a method of derivmg amusement from the infliction of judicial 
punishment had almost become obsolete, and is now, as well 
as mutilation and tortiure, altogether abolished by treaty. Se- 
veral instances are said to have occiured during the reign of 
the sultan of YiKjija-kMa who was deposed by the British 
(joveniment in 1812. In an exhibition of tliis kind, which 
took j)lace about ten years ago, two criminals were exposed 
for having set fire to a dwelling. Tliey were provided each 
\\ illi a Am, which was long, but broken off or blunted at the 
])()iiit, and the tiger was let in upon them separately in a large 
cii^n' constructed for the i)iui)ose. The first was soon de- 
sire )v eel, but the second, after a combat of nearly two hours, 
succeeded in killing the tiger, by repeated cuts about the 
head and under the ears and eyes. On this a smaller tiger, 
or rather le()j)ard, was let in upon him, and the criminal being 
ecjually successl'iil in this eombat was released. His success, 
as in the judicial ordeals of the dark ages, was taken for a 
iiianifestation by luavrn of his innocence, and n(»t only secimtl 
his j);»r<lon, but ])rocure<l for him the rank of a Mdtiiriy as a 
nronijKiisi' for llir danger to which lie w«is cx|H)sod in its 



BULL FIGHTING, &c. 389 

vindication. Although this barbarous practice appears so 
recently to have been resorted to, it is not to be inferred tliat, 
as a spectacle, it is held in any estimation by the Javans in 
general. It seems to have been of comparatively late intro- 
duction, and adopted only in the policy of a known and avowed 
tyrant. The concourse of spectators to witness the combat 
can no more stamp the general character of the people with 
barbarity, than the crowds which are always present at public 
executions in Europe. The bare relation of the fact excites 
feelings of horror in the mind of the ordinary chief. 

•Bull-fighting is common on Madura and in the eastern 
parts of the island; but it is perfectly different from any 
species of sport derived from the courage or ferocity of that 
animal in Europe. Here, neither dogs are employed as in 
England, nor men and horses as in Spain, but the bulls them- 
selves are directed against each other. The population form 
an extensive ring 'round the dlun a/«/w,^within which the ani- 
mals are first led up to a cow, imtil they are sufficiently ex- 
cited, when the cow being withdrawn they are set at liberty 
and contend w ith each other, imtil one of them gives way, and 
is driven from witliin the ring by the victor.' The small well 
formed bulls of Sumendp afford considerable amusement in 
this way, while considerable bets are laid on the result of the 
combat. 

•The combat between the ram and wild hog, which gene- 
rally terminates by several dogs being let in to complete the 
destruction of the latter, is an exhibition which frimishes 
frequent amusement ; a small stand is raised for the ram, to 
which he can retreat when in danger, and from whence he 
can take advantage of a favourable moment of attack upon his 
antagonist.- 

Quail-fighting (dduh genidr) and cock-fighting fdduh 
jdgu) were formerly very prevalent, the latter particularly, 
among the common people, but by no means to the same 
extent as practised in the other islands of the Archipelago, in 
many parts of which, particularly among the Maldyus^ it 
forms almost the whole source of diversion and interest. On 
the establishment of the British power, cock-fighti