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Full text of "History of the Jesuits: from the foundation of their society to its suppression by Pope Clement XIV.; their missions throughout the world; their educational system and literature; with their revival and present state. By Andrew Steinmetz. Wood engravings by George Measom"

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HISTORY 



OF 



THE JESUITS 



FROM THE FOUNDATION OF THBEB SOCIGTY TO IT8 SUPPRESSION 
BY POPE CLEMENT XIV. ; 

TBBIR WaaiONfi T1TROUG1I0UX THB WOULD; 

THBIR BDUCATIONAL BYBTElf AND LITBRATUREi WITH TUBIR REVIVAL 

AND PRBSBNT BTATB. 



ANDREW STEINMETZ, 

JtrrBOR HP "THl M<IT]TT4TI," **THK JSaUt IK Till FAHILT." 




IN THREE VOLUMES. 
VOL II. 



LONDON: 
RICUARD BENTLEY, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 

PUBLI9RIK in aRPin^RT TO HEft HAJ>9(Tl\ 
1848. 







BIlJiDBLinV AID ItVAVH, PHrirTNM, If HfTM F Rl A U- 



'^ ^ .. 



o 



CONTKSTS TO VOL, II. 



Book VT.or RODfiR!CU.S 1 

ll*Nik VIL or BOBADILLA 320 



BOOK VI. OR, ROUEKICUS. 



The Jesuits have reason to laiucot, ajid Catholics in 
general, Iiave cause to feel surpriee at, tbe uucanoiiical 
death-bed of ''Saint Ignatius/' The disin- ip.itiiu pjtrr 
terested reader may lament the circumstaBce : ''"^^"' 
but, haWng attentively obaerved the career of the 
Touiider, he will perhaps consider its termination as 
perfectly consistent as it was natiu'al His ambition 
tuid made his religion a lever ; and when in that mortal 
cold bleak agony, ambition was palsied and dead within 
him, its lever became an object of disgust — as invari- 
ably to human nature become all the objects and 
instruments of passion in satiety, or in the momenta 
when the icy hand of Death grips the heart that can 
struggle no more. It is indeed pi'obahlc that the last 
moments of Ignatius were frightful to behold — frightful 
from lus self-generated terrors — for, be it observed, 
I impute no atrocious crimes to the man, Although 
1 do l>elieve that the results of his spiritual ambition 
cntaQed incalculable disasters on the human race and 
Christianity, as will be evident in the sequel. To me 
it would Iiave been a matter of suiT^rL^e, had Ignatius 
vol. iL a 



HISTOItY 0? THE JESriTS. 



(lied liku a simple chiU of tbe Church. Fortuuatolj f 
the cause of truth and the upright jutlgruent of history, 
circumstances hindered the invention of an edif^'ing 
deatli-hed, bj his disciples. Strangers knew all — a 
pliysician was present. But here I am wrong : one oF 
them, writing at the end of the ecvontconth century, ha^ 
contradicted all previous biographers, and actually asserts 
that Ignatius died '* with the sacraments " ! ^ Had his 
disciples been permitted to think of the thing, no doubt 
we should have had a glorious scene on paper, painted 
by the first biogi'apher for all succeethrig generations of 
the tribe. But this has been providentially forbidden, 
and we are permitted to know that Ignatius died in such 
a mauner^ that, bad he lived in the sacramental era of 
Jesuit-domination in France, the founder would have 
been by the law denied Christian burial. Comparing 
the accounta given by their respective disciples, Luther a 
death is far more respectable tlian that of '' Saint Igna- 
tius," and so consonant with the man's character through 
life, that we think it as truly described as that of Igna- 
tius, for the same reason precisely. Tho dominant 
thought of the Reformer accompanied him to the end — 
the thought of his mighty enterprise animated the la«t 
word ho uttered.^ His death was consistent with his 
catLu* : tliat of Ignatius was not ; and i/iere is the 
mighty thfference. No unqunliiied admirer of Luthor 
am I — nor unqualified disparager of Loyola ; hut the 

1 Frui^Mo Giijciii, Vid» de S*st Igiudo de LayoU- Ho wjs : " And I^Mly, 
fill] <rf meritH, hiTiug irpeivpd the blcwn; of the sovervign p<mti(f and the 
sacnunciilJf Invoking the luuno or Jffliis, ho gave up liia bltsaoi] ApiriL vjiU great 
poncp and InuiquilUly to UAm who crtuKil Itim for %o much good to iJib woriJ— 
J liiiabntJitc, llmo ilc in«Tci'iniivn(os^ ai'ieitilo retlbhl'j In LHrnc^iduii del Siuno 
PmitifitA, y InA SBcr&tnoDton, iuvorLnJfl f\ nomlire 'In Jiraatj did tii b&udlk<3 
eppjntu COD gran paz y Hoaif^o al i|iie pnm tnnto bica del mundo U Gtxo."^— 
//otfibnrf, ft-nwipflrfr, p, St8, edit MadriJ, IffTS. 

1 See HjiiLitt'i « Life of Luther," p. 330, ti ftq. 



mSATITJS AKD tFTHKR COMPARED. 

latter is forced upon ub as a saint, wliilst all admit the 
former to Iiave been only a man ; and I confess tliat I 
like (be man better than tbe saint. Botli arliieved 
■•great things*' by very uaturiil means, as we liavo 
dcen ; but the latter pretended to an etjuality witb 
JetniB Christr^Qnando el etei^no Padre me pusd cm su 
tiijo — *' When tbe eternal Father put nie beside his 
Son " — iiiid, therefore, I consider him an ambitious im- 
pcator — like Moharained and every other, past, present, 
and to come, for we may be sure that the race is not 
oxhauflted utterly. In Luther^s ■wnting^ and actions 
there is nuich to flisgust us : in Loyola's impostures 
there b much likewise to disgust us : the errors of both 
emanated tlire*^tly from that *' religious " st/sicm of 
Bome^ whence they emerged to their respective achieve- 
mente.' Antij>odes in mind — antagonists in natural 

■ For intUncet botJi of lUcm taltcd of incuniate Aq\\]r inceraiitilJ}' toi-m^iitin^ 
Ihcm- la HmcIitrH "Life of Luther'^ there art- rcrj' copious eKlnwIu from 
LaihcK* Ttscliredenor Tftblo-QJk on the subject— aIJ highly diiractemtic of tlie 

k^vf MS vvU H the mper&litimfl coflf of mind wLi!cb the rpforiiivr noc-r tijrcw 
fliT — AA rliffinili If ia to ^i Hil of eiu'ty mmiointioi^n, Thf rnul'^F rfnu'mbtTi tl)sf 

■b* CUDoticB reprcienteii LutluT u the mil <>f an incufiiu or devil. Tth* 
jiiiNUlU biuielf beJicrod Ibe thio^ poaatblef nay even elflt^ n crwe vrlikli he 
wMba for ! It is one of the |j»At iiUTDodcGl &ntl di^gusung ainong HailUr^ 
•xlRMtB : * t myeolf," aayi» Liithi-r^ " enw aitJ Wu^litjd it DessAu a child of tliin 
■OH, Vrfai^ haA nn htunui pAranU. bul hail pro«e<Nled fmrn th« dev!|, Hf^ wmA 
twidw JAT* old, andf id duCwaM fanii. exnclly rewraUted ordinATy cbildrou. 
ll« did DoJiiitg but cat, coiummJng as miiL'b every day u four beorty l&boiirers 

IV thwrtx f i could if uy one touched liim^ be yelled out like a mnd 

■"•iBm" - ... - It Ia [mriiivrly horrifying lo Ueur tbe reformer my ; *' I 
■AiJ to til* iffinflH of AnhaJl, widi wKom I vu it die tiino/ If ! bad the order 

Ins ^ Ihin^i ben I would have thai child tlu-»«ii into the Moldftu at tlie ri^k 
of being h«l(I lU murderer/ But the Elector of Sniony uid the princes wfre not 
of my opininn in the matter ..... Children like tlinl uv, in my opinion, n 
m>«i of 1)e^ and bone, withonE any Mul. The devil is quiLo cnpnlile of 
ilwnig tai^ Uiiog*," Ac. P. 318. The wbol* oh*pter is droadfuHy ^lipgn^finy 
htffuliatiiig : hat Mr. HaxKlt dewrrea pnuK for tbc> bonoui'Aiile inlegrily 
*idi tthidi Ilb fia* pivfeeled Michi>1el*s ^iiLrMed pcrfarmance. StilL Kinie of tlie 
JU^W matimJinulJ liHv^ irf^T) IpftftutMt too di"giiBtingfcnd iromod^U A>«it*nf^ 
lA iliKt BiTrn *4uJa hjtr« an«ivrr«d all ih^ purpnH of eonii^niioua fidelity. 

»2 



niBTORT OP THE JERXHTS, 



character — ilianictrically opposed in natural tli-spositioii 
or organisation, both lived according to tbo internal or 
Gxtoraal impulses to which they woi-o suhjectod ; and 
fi"ankly, the fi'ee-living of Lutlior. as represented by hia 
associates, and by no means criminal or excessive, waa 
0,8 consistent and necessary in Luther, as were the 
" mortification " ami " self-abnegation " anfl "chastity " 
of Loyola, as re]jresented by hia disciples.^ Ignatius 
could not certainly have succeeded by any other plan in 
tlie given circumstances ; and habit made the thing 
very easy, as any one may find on trial — with ^/ck 
views as imperatively required that Hie fi.jundcr ahuuld 
not be as *' other men/' Protestants have amuBcd or 
deceived themselves and their readera, by comjjaring 
the "regenerated" spirits of Luther and Loyola* In so 
doing, tliey deba«sc Luther, and pay a compliment to the 
clover inventions of the Jesuits. To my mind, at least* 

' Accordini? to the Jesuit Souhaura. ^mt]ng iu tlio ttgG uf Loula XIV^ tba 
ph^'BidanR w|m disBfti^UiJ l^^nl^uq thouglil liim of a '^plilr^gniatip Icmpcmnflnt," 
ftltbijugU DatEiTAlly ot llic most nrdcnt oomplfriiiDn : t. ii. p. 22n. Thin he JLtCri< 
tiuU's tG the efforti^ whicli Ignntiua uindo to rDetnilD fiis poBwons ; buL biicIi a 
result wuulJ hppuar m cnJit^l, not in Uic orjiinf laid opcjti \>y diesnrdDn, which 
ire modiliLHl hy diKaat, trnd ttot hy i-ntioual, virtooua rPBraaJat. Tn fact, it a 
exrvfl^ho indulgent or oKcit«mojit which lolallj altera tlieir nitunkl condition. 
Wore it not »o, morulity would bv man^a oxtcnoinAting uigcL Thiuik God wo 
U? nan-it-dnya beuLg enlightened on \hf^ge aubjucta of BUth vital impurtODi'e to 
BoaDljr and rclj^on. But Douhoun gwblofl \he Tsct to which ho mJludcv. M&f- 
t&OBt AD earticr Jomiit, givfs a diagnoeia of the eaint^fl di;)eftae» showing [t to bav« 
bMD alniply nn induni^OE of (he liver, with <* lliree stones found in tlie rena 
Portdf ftcconlini- to Reftldua ColumbuH ia hh book of Anatomy." Jgn. Vilfc 
p, BO, H« memit rather |^l-«lones in the gall-blaclcler, or solid idami^s in tho 
duc(« of the Urcr, both morbid concrollons fram tho ingrcdictita of tike bile. TIla 
wnfl P'iria cnltTft die liver at a furrow of its inferior Furf&ce, juaT wliero tbe bilp- 
ducL iwucdf fuid it ramifies; willi the duct llironghout thp sub^tfliicD of th^ orjnui. 
Hence nriginatwl ibo oM aJifltoojist'fl mistake: lint the diseawd liver itt manifest; 
uid when tpo rotiudcr hOA many dcepcnite nl^liclionA result from diaoftfe in thii 
organ^ vq nhould cxciiiie mwiy of the Baiiit'ii cxtravngaiii:leA. Auxioun, racking 
thoiighU will di-rvigD the liver; aiid diiti derangement onct- b^gun. eritoilm 
deru]gt>n]eiit in f^ery other (>rgnQ,~b1ood anil hrain mneu the disiflter, and 
ponstani miserj in ihe remiU— gloftm ani fanBllciim, 



IGSATiCa AND LUTHEU COMPARED. 6 

Loirota was perfectly iujiocenl of all the distiuetive 
apirituality ascribed to liim inliis ''Spiritual Exercises*' 
and Constitutions ; or, at the most, tiat apiiituality liaa 
■ catno iluwu to ua. filtereil aiirl clarified hy liU clever 
rdlowi^rs, who extracted from Loyola's ci-uJe notions of 
epintuality a cuiious essence, just as raoJerii cbymists 
have cxtractf^d fjuiniue from the bark cluchona, which 
tbey introduced iutu Europe, and made so lucrative at 
first.* The determined lA'ill of the Jesuits wjis the true 
k'gttcy of Igiiatias — like that of the Saracena bequeathed 
by Mohammed, On the contrary. Lnther was esaou- 
tially a Uioori^it ; his German nitnd aud fueling^ made 
him such; iuid the e&ieiitial characteristics of tliat 
ihc-ory prevail to the pi-eseut hour — most prominently 
vigorous where men enjoy the greatest fi'ecdom, press 
forward most intently in tlie march of hmnan fleatiny, 
c^'cr min<Iiul of God and their fellow-men — whilst duty 
18 the watclixvord of the great and the httlo. We have 
not derived all the advantages which Providence offered 
Vd mankind at the dawTi of the Protestant movement. 
We have not been blessed as we might liave been, 
atise since tlien we have modified every tiling : instead 
of pressing forward, wo have been urged back to tho 
tliinga of iiome — every step in wliich direction 13 an 
approach to mental darkness and ^eutimentid blindness. 
Wlicn there » hall be absulutely nothing in our religious 
and moi-al iuatitutious to suggest its Koman origin, then 
the hand of Providence be no longer shortened, 
fld its blessings will be commensurate with our coi^po- 
health and vigour, mental refinement, and moral 

' TtiB 1nlis>luttion of Uiis nwiliciu*! I»rk to Europp took |jlaw in IGJO, 
UailrT lli« iiAnir of Pultv J>mtiicH4 tlie Ji^ulU veoilal it, mid derived a laj-ge 
r iroai the Uwlct, IX ismiii Llmi Lhr JeuiitF^ wrn- tbc liral tg ducovvritt 
' la favPTfr ^uimiie in m |jul'ilii:d form *tt lli^< iliug. 



^ 







maToKy of the jesuitb. 



clarified. 



rectituJe — tlie tluee (Jtrfeulioiis tlestined for man. But 
this must be tlie result of enlightenment. By pei'secutiuu, 
by mtolerunce, you caimot efi'ect it. If a poor hypo- 
chondriac will have it that his head is made of lead, 
would you persecute and kill hiiu for his idea ? Persa- 
oution on accouiit of rehgion is pretty much aa rea£on- 
able aud as ClirietiaU'Iike- Enhghteii pubUc opinion, 
nourish the love of country, and human nature, witli the 
power of God, will do the rest 

Theu'fuuuderdied thus uiicanonically — without conso- 
Ution — without absolution — it is even doubtful whether 
the messongor was in time to get the pope 3 
indulgence or passport, by prusy : for wc are 
expressly tfdd that the Sou v? Obedience had 
"put off the matter to the follo\\ing day -/'^ and as 
Igiiatiufi expired one hour after suuriae, according to 
Mafieus, or two houi*b after, according to Bartoli, tho 
time, even with Bartoli'a provident enlargement, was 
doubtle^ much too early for a papal interview : tho very 
old pope, who was, from liis usual regimen^ probably a 
heavy sleeper, was not likely to be stirring at thai early 
hour of the di-owsy mom. But the Jesuits were resolved 
to make up for the disaster. Rome, we are loUl rang 
with the rumour — '' The Sauit is dead/' The body was 
exposed — deyotees iiislied in crowds^ kissing his feet and 
handif ; applying their rosarJea to his body, so ae to make 
them miraculoiis — and begging for louka of his Iiair or 
slireda of his garments imbued with the same quintes- 
sence.^ They gave out tliat " when he expired, hia 
glorious 8cul appeared to a lioly lady called Maigarita 
Gillo, in Bologna, who was a great benefactrefis of the 
Comjiany, and that he said to her: 'Margarita. I am 






AFUTKEUSia UF lUSATJUS. 7 

going to Heaven, behold I cumiitend the Company to 
vcMir care ; ' aial he appeared to auotber devotee who 
wUhed to approach the saujt, but the samt would not 
let him ; " and to many other persons lie appeared with 
Ins breast open, and tiisplayiug " hw heart, whereon were 
eugraved, m letters of gold, the sweet name of Jesus '^ 1 ' 
By all these proceedings the Jesuits motived or eticou- 
riiged a cniel, reckless mockery of the most sacred event 
Teoerated by Christiaos. They overshot the mark, 
however. The apotheosis of Ignatius was overdone. 
The pope resolved to put an extinguisher on the coiiHa- 
gmtitm — and there was enough to provoke any man 
who felt the least solicitude for the honour of religion. 
Tliey gave out tha.t Bohadilla, who was ill, no sooner 
entered tlie room where the corpse lay, than he was 
cured— which turns out to he contradicted by tho fact 
that he was for some time after an invalid at Tivoli, as 
ihe thoughtleaa biographera and historians depose ! 
They riiLJd that a girl diseased with *' King's Evil " was 
cured by Wing touched with a shred of the saint's 
garments — though other biographers tell us that tlje 
limthem would noi permit any to be taken I " The 
flowers and roses whiclj were on his body gave hcallh to 
many thseased ; and when Ids body was translatei 
tiiere was heard in his sepulchre, for the space of two 
days, celestial music — a harmony of sweet voices ; and 
within were seen lights, as it were resplendent stars. 
The devils published his death and great glory — God 



* " IM9^o que ofipiTD Sad IgiuLclc &e ftp^ricu pv atma gloriuaik h uaa kulU 

ila Im ConLiiuiukT ^ U >[Uid itjxo ; Mitrjitiryln no me royal Cielo,mirad que vt 

riJHMka* BrgW ol Swio, fee Lo ffitorbo ..... Hue BparevLiJo (uuoliu uefen, 
ttajMMlo «1 pfdhn AbjerLu, y cu rl cci'uon tM^ulpido con letnu de oro oJ dalt-tf 



6 



HISTOEY OF THE JESUITS. 



thua forcing them to magnify hiui whom thej abhorred ! " 
Nor was tliia all. *' A deniouiac womau being exorciaed 
at Trcpana, in Sicily, God forced the devil to say that 
liifi enemy Ignatius was dead, and waa in Heaven 
between the other founders of religious Orders, St. 
Dominic and St Francis."* This was the grand point 

' Gnxv]AfUbi iftiprh. He- aIbo telle ub Ihat Ignntiue rai^ M least a dozen dnd 
men to ILTc — fioi' Iq noun doie — otu in Mojircin, tno at Muiii^li, cuiatbvt at liikr- 
cclcma, &c. ; oooie jJtcr dcftUiTPkiid oUh-'Th during bid UfetiiDtr. Qt-i- the disgiututg 
nuTKtiTtv iu tlkiB Jp4iiit*B *^ Life of the FoundET.'* Even Bcohours given aomo 
tUo itiatMLceSp Aad yet Ribideueyrm, in hi^ jfr?f pditioD of tha " Life of I^na- 
tiua,'^ gave no lairules — uay, the Laat chapter cntera into a LoDg, wbdy, and 
most abfurd dififjuiiitioa, oa the aubjcot uf mirack-tt m goiit>nd, u^ndiug to their 
dctnilcd diaporagpnieDt — SnEBhiitg {rff as it dues cfiiL thest* werda ; " But niirK^fus 
tamy bo porfonned b^ a&uiLb, by guihy men, by wickod niu»n — ma i minfflli 
poffloQO ben ester fatti cod da Saud, como ila rei, e dft rafllvagi peccaleri/* 
P. 51)11, His intrcHluclion to iJie 6ubji?et at once conveys the corljunty tliat no 
moiJlion miLs na yet miide oT tho inrcuted miradee— kt nbno iho fact ihK thi^rt* 
verc now: perfornvd^ vliidi is, of ctiur&o, f Ar Ijhct. llo snya ; *' Butwhodoulirji 
tKoi thotv will bo B0Ln4> men wlio will woador, will bo oalotmcW, and iviU aak 
iriiy, these ^Inga beisg tme (aathey nre without doolt), still Lgnadm performed 
so mirack'3, dot hoa Gud vishv<l to display and exhibit die lioUneae of this Hta 
eervuit, with si^na aud Bupematural attestntjone, ss He has dune usually with 
TQADy oi^er saicta f To tmch men 1 luiHWcr trith the apoaiJc : ■ Who knows tlia 
moamta of God f orwhoja mBdohisftd'iaorl'" P, bGS, Thereupon bo Lmnchoi 
into a boiflteroiu ocean of frottiy bfunting Aheut the Company and Ita achieve- 
meats — and tlie moadacioua miraclcB of Iguatiiia'd «ow all over tlie world, con- 
«hidiiig thus J ''These tilings 1 hold for the grcfttest uid most atnpendom 
iniracJeM." T- 5^% Now tbis tame ItiLadeDcyi^ vaa ui inseparable companLoQ 
of Igrm^UB, An cyc-witnf4a of all Ids actionn : hiA tint tditioii wih« published En 
1573, jir^fenyoaTH clnpped — nomiraelcB ajiiioared in iIh* tdition of IAft7 — nor in 
the Italwi cditlou of 1586, whieb I qaotc, aldiou^h die chapter is impudeetly 
entitled " 0/ pie mir/Lclt« H'hkh Ovd opcraUd by hh mtam,'* refeiriitg tlie title to 
the iDBtilnte, Ac. Bat when Iho Jonjita bognn to thijik it iiecc-ftF^ary to hate a 
ttuDi (a compele with BciiDdict, iDomii^ia, Prhtit'iA, &.c.j ibcn thty iniluE'^d ihia 
iinncmpiElmiA Jptniil tn public tnirnilre in Itil^J, which be did Li wliat ho 
lillod, " Anulher shorter life, witli mAiiy and new minwlca ; ^ and he got 
rid of llie ioeongrwty by Baying that the miracles li&d not liecn txamtjicd and 
fippnved lefifn ht preriniviy wrott/ Tnilyf he would hnve nt loDst meolJoiied 
lluB fhctjC-^ jitt^atMi/f in lilo clahornte diopmagpnicnt ofmijikclta in gvnuml. AfttT 
thi«. miraplcn fdl Ihioh aa bnpR, bji }'oi] will find in oJl Jefitii(-lilAtiirie«. The 
crednlouf^ Albart Butler jrtres a nolo oo this Jemitical " iransac^tioD," And his 
n-marks are all [int iho moat billable dovotet' can ileairc cm the subject, 
•*Siunt«* LivoRj" July 31. Sec Hasivl de StWii, Hist, rte radmirable Dom Inigo, 
for wmn BeOBiblv reuuuktt on tbe BubJrcC, ii, f. 'JOCl. 



EXPANSION OF TllE SOCIBTT. 9 

ttl wliicb tlie Jtsiiits were aiming — ^the exaltation of 
tlieir founder to an equality witb the other grand 
fuuiiders after death ; whith wa«s after aU, somewliat 
ititiL than the founder's own ambition — for we remenibor 
tliat ha declared how the Eternal Father had plaeed 
Mm boeide His Son ! And now let us listen to Pope Paid 
IV,, reading these unreasonable Jesuits a lesson. 

It does not appe^ir that the brethren madtj great 
lamentation for their holy Father Ignatius. They 
rather corapHed with the founder's advice ., 
on all occasions when a Jesuit mierated. u'theSo- 
" For wliat can bo more glorious^ or more Jraii» ot 
pixvFitAblc," would he say, " than to have in ^^ *"" 
the blessed Jerusalem many freemen endowed witb the 
right of corporation, and there to retain the greater part 
of our body I " * This authenticated sentiment is exactly 
, what the witty Father Andrew Boulangor expressed so 
pleasantlj in an allegory of Ignatius applying fur a pro- 
nnce in Heaven,* "You should rather rejoice.' said 
Iguatiu^ "to find that the colleges and houses which 
Are b^iug bmit in Heaven, are filling with a multitude of 
veterans —gaiiderent potim collegia atguc domoSy yufs 
nrdi/ir^tbatititr in crelo, emeritormn 7HultUndine fre- 
t/uenlisn,"^ There was no time for the Company to 
think of lamentation amidst the strife and confiision of 
Ii^r auibitious members, struggling to decide who should 
seisEO ihe hehn uf the g:dlant bark of the Company, wliich, 
like the Flying Untchman, was ahno&t on every ocean, 
and almost hi every port — and all * at the same time," 
hke the Ajwalle of the Indies, accorcUng to tlie Jesuits, 



■ftlcm nmiiinpu ^lurimoB, vt <|iiiim tnauiiiiun tui pnrtctn luLm T " — &^rA, 
!», L M. < A»u*, p. i7«. ' inixhia. lib, i. M. 



10 



HISTORY OF TEE JBSOrrS, 



anil decidedly ao in point of fact. It was somotUng 
gi'eat and prospective — tLat monarchy left belilnd by 
Ignatius, with all its provmces, and wealth, and colleges, 
which, however, as he said, left him in the lurch at last 
— cold, desolate, despairing. No monarch ever left an 
achieved kingdom in so iloiiriahing a condition aa Igna- 
tius Loyola, the Emperor of the Jesoita. There were 
twelve provincea, with at least one hundred colleges. 
There were nine provinces in Europe, — Italy, Sicily, 
Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal ; and three in 
Asia, Alrica, and America, or iu Urazil. India, and 
Etliiopia. Thus, in less than sixteen years every pait 
of the world was penetrated by the JeBiiite. The his- 
torian tolls lis that thoir number did not much exceed 
one thousand ;^ but allowing the moat moderate average 
of fifteen Jesuits to each college, we tihall have 15Q0 
Jesuits engaged in tuition, and the trainmg of youth, 
Then allowing an average of 40U pupila to each college 
— there were more than 2000 in one of them subse- 
quently — we shall have 40,uuO youths uader the care 
of the Jesuits.^ The scheme was new — tuition was 
"gratuitous," or pai'euts thought it cost them nothing 
because they were not "obliged" to pay — aU were 
readily admitted — and the colleges of tlie Jesuits were 
filled — for the Jesuits were '* in fasliion." To the num- 
ber of Jesuits engaged in tuition we must add the 
important Item of the uiistdoncr» dispersed all over the 
worldj running from city to city in Europe, or wander- 
ing in the wilds of Africa, Asia, and America. At the 
death of Loyola, in 1356, there could not be less than 



> Soochin. lib. l ; Butoli, Dell' Jul lib. iii. 

* £ftcchmiifl sayii tlior« were more ihun a iIjcjubauiI pu^iJa instructed nt the 
Collego df Coimbm, hi \bGf\ Lib. tv. 6,». 



TUB rOFE DEK0UNCE3 LtjVOLA S BYtiTEM. 



11 



two thousand Jesuits in the Company, irith novices, 
iolafiucs, and lay-brotliei's of all traxlea and avoca- 
iom, carpenters, bricklayers, shoemakei^s, tailors, bakers, 
cooks, and /mJiters. Who was to govern this motley 
tribe of humanity 1 That was the question. Only five 
of the original Ton companions were alive. There wei^e 
under forty professed nicaibera in the Society, according 
to tlie historians : but there scarcely could have been bo 
many, seeing that there were only nine two years before 
the founder's death, according to the Ethiopian letter 
which I have given. We are expressly told that Ignatius 
ha^I the strongest objections to ptirmit many to bo raised 
to that dignity which constituted the Power of the Com- 
pAOy' — having tlie privilege of voting m the congrega- 
tion and thu election of a general. Whatever might 
ItQ their uuiobcr, it appears that the five vetei-ans of the 
foundation at once made it evident that only one oithcir 
idiosen band ^liould fUJ the vacant throne. Bobadilla 
[aspired to the dignity, but he wasillat Tivoli,^ and in the 
I absence of Uie redoubtable firebrand, Laiuez was chosen 
^Ticar-general. We ahall soon see the couse*iuences. 
Paul IV., the Pope of Home, bad treated Ignatius 
very kindly j he had even expressed a wish to unite 
\m ISodiely with that of the Thcatines, which TUt pope 
'Paul liad founded. This was no small coiu- t!" 
pUtnent for a pope to pay Ignatius ; but the ■'•**"■ 
deep old general declined the honourj — he could never 
think of such a thing — it would have been throwing all 
the products of a life's labour into the Gulph of Genoa, 
fthere an ancient pope had drowned some canliuals tied 
up in a sack. Ignatius had no notion of being '' tied 






12 



mSTUin' OF TUE JESUITS, 



up ; " he had hold of a helm, and he had atuixly rowers, 
and au uuivcrsc of oceans was before him for circum- 
navigation. And lie was right in Iiis calculation. Had 
he not prophesied ettrnUy to tho Company of Jesus, 
and is not that most strikingly boiisted of in the glorious 
linage of the first centuiy of the Company of Jesus ? 
It ia, decidedly.* And who ever hears a word about 
tho Theaiines or theii" founder CaralTa ? Echo says, 
Who ? and no more. But who has not heard of the 
Jesuits and Loyola \ And the universe scmla a history 
from every point of the compass. Ignatius knew what he 
M'as about, and declined the honour most handsomely; 
nor was " tho gi^ator glory of God " forgotten. Whether 
the generals refusal was ascribed to tho right motive 
by the pope, or that he was simply annoyed by it, as 
the Jesuits believed, whatever was the cause, one fact 
is certain, that the pope was heard to say, at the death 
of Ignatius, that the general had ruled the Society too 
despotically — nimio hnperio Soaefatem re^visaeL^ We 
remember the proceedings of the Jesuits at the death of 
IgjjatiuH ■ unqiictiLionably they were not likely to make 
the pope more favoui'able to the members than he waa, 
to judge fi-om that expression, to the liead of tho Com- 
pany. Laincz. the vicar-generaL thought proper to go 
and pay his respects to the holy father, in that (^apafity. 
According to the Jesuits, Paul, as I have stated, had 
wished to make a cardinal of Lainez. We rementbcr 
what ha]»puricd on that occasion, Tho Jesuit stuck to 
his Company, which, to him, with all the prospects 
before him, was wortli in hunour. [Xiwer, and estimation 
all the eardinal-hats in existence. As matters now 
turned out, Laincz being at the head uf jirtairs, with the 



S«e ImnffOf p. h2^ 



^ SiUtihxa lib i 31, 



TirE i'ope's address to LAiyEZ. 



13 



ingent geiiemlate at his fmgera ends, the deep olJ 
|)opt' saw the tiling clearly, and was resolved to strike 
homo at once. He began with a few common-places 
and the proofe of his regard for thi? Company. Tlien 
sitd'lenly clianging his tone and attitude, ho exclaimed : 
*" But know tlifit you must a^lopt no form of life, you 
must lake no fltops but those prescribed to you by this 
Holy See ; otherwise, you will suffer for it, and a stop 
will be ptit to the thing at once ; nor will the edictd 
[Bulls. Ac.] of our predecessors be of the least avail to 
jou. Because, whenever wo issue auy, our iutentiou is 
not thereby to hamper our successors, by depi-iving 
tljcm of the riglit to examine, to confirm, or destroy 
what preceding pontiffs have established. This being 
the case, you raust adopt, from this Holy See, your 
manner of life, and must not be governed by the dictates 
of tlie person whom flod lias called away, and who lias 

I goremod you till now - nor must you depend on any 
support hut God alone. Thug working, you will build— 

I Jii(p«' firmam pefrain — on a firm rock, and not on sand ; 
and, if you have comniencetl well, you must, in like 
manner, go on well, lest it be also said of you : ** ffic 
homo capit tBdiJimre, et non potuit conmmmare, — tliis 
man began to build and he could not finish." Beware 
of doing otherwise in the least point, and you will find 
ia u:s a good father Tell my children, your subjects, 
to ccaisole ihemaelvesr " And with these last words," 
says Lainez, giving the account, " with these last words 
he gave me the blessmg/' which was tantamount to 

' ahowing him the door.* We can easily imagine the 



' lUrudlsivvAtlMiJI^isbenyvfrQEnailMrnTnentlprtby Lunoz- Sbi^chinu* 
iB>ai oul dip difipBnigemcat of Sunt IgTiatlu^. Hnil «ild« n <|iir\]Llicaiii'n noL in 
ba durnioriil, UcGa^: "AlWotlior thin^ of thL> sort, kt knjflJi, Hhnkifi^ uff 



11 



HIST(JRT OK THE JE^UlTa. 



6C0pe of this thunderbolt. It rnurtt have bGcn long pre- 
paring. Its effects will be fiooii visible- But wliat a 
diaencliantment for Saint Ignatius to be called thr 
perso7i — la pf^rsoTia che Bio ha chiamato a sr; and the 
decided disapprobation of Loyola's principles, and the 
allusion to sand ! We have here much li^ht throv-n 
upon the Jesuit-method at that early period, and it 
should not leave us in the dark. A pf^pe finds fault 
with Loyola's principles or dictates ; then, surely, the 
University of France, the Archbishop Silicio, the monks 
of Salamanca, old Melchior Cano, -were not altogether 
vritbout justification in denouncing Ignatius and his 
Bystem. Justice requires this fact to be retneinhered, 
Sacchiiiua acted consistently in garbling the pope's 
address, even as Laines reported it ; Bartoli inipnidently 
let out the thing, and Pallaricino, his brother- Jesuit, 
■would have blamed him as he blamed good Pope 
Adriau VL, for admitting all that the heretics deuounced 
in the Church, On the other hand, observe the threat 
of supprc^siati, and see how the final suppression of the 
Society is juatifitjd in advance, by explaining the true 
nature of papal Bulls and apostolic Breves, BartoH 
enters into a long (hscussion against these papal aenti- 
menta ; but he leaves the matter just where lie found it, 
actually twisting the pope'a menace into an eKliortation, 
" for Lainez and the whole Company to keep in tho 
same patli, and never to leave it, — or to regain it, should 
they ever wander"!^ This conchision he founds on 
the words '* if you have well begun '' ; but he forgets 
that the dictatofi — detiaii — of the person Ignatius were 



hia fr<iva—jTtfntf e^?iffat4 — hs bad? Ihem la b« of garA cliopr," Thin h trn 
iDV«ntJon t M aJL cventci| the pnjie bftd not dniie wifh Ihpiu yi?T. 

■ Dtir }tiA. I. ill. r n.sff. 



COXTEMPOBANEOUS HISTORY, 



\5 



no longer to govern th(?n», and, consequentiy, the *"good 
:itniing," if uttered at all, IiikI reference to a period 
preceding the " despotic government" and present 
"dictates" of Loyola, 

The Jesuits were not the onJy nottfe in the side of 

^f aul IV» It ifi pofisiblo that the fiorco oM popo hated 
tbeiD for their Bpauiwb origin ; and tliat cir- co!itcnipcff»- 
cumstancea conspired to make him auspicious "^""i''-^^ 
of the essentiaUy Spanish Company- Notliing could 
esceed the pope's abhon'ence of the Spaniards ; he 
hated them from \m inm^tst Roul, says Panvinius, the 
papal historian ; according to others, — heaping upon 
them the bitterest intectives. calling them acliismatica, 
heretics, accursed oF God, seed of Jews and Moors, dregs 
of the world— nothing was too vile to represent his 
enemies, wlicthcr in Ids sober moments, or when charged 
with the thick black volcanic wine of Naples, which he 

lAwaltowod largely. He even liated and disgraced all 
who did not hate them enough, — Cardinal Commendone 
among the rest ; and now he had resolved on war^ 
determined to avenge himself and all belonghig to him, 
on the execrable Spaniards — lAithout the least chance 
of guccoodiitg.^ Charles V. had just abdicated in favour 
of PhiUp IL A comet had frightened him : — precisely 
the same comet wliich is now flaming athwart the 
firmanient. It blazed over the death of Ignatius Loyola 
— the akiication of Charles V. — and has now come to 
sommon Loui^ Philippe to drop the diatlem from his 
wrinkled brow. Curious coincidence : but ten thousand 
comets would not have frightened the intriguer into 
abdic-ation without the yells of exasperated Frenchmen, 



1 Fbht. PuI IV.; Gimtuuii, Vie de CooumdJ. p, 105 ; Ni^va^bto ; lUnk»> 



16 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



who eat fire and driuk bluud in tliyir fury.^ And tljc 
same comet wared its torch over SmithfieW, whose fires 
wei-e burning Protestantism out of England, Spain and 
England were now united, Mary had married Phihp IL 
— bigotry united to bigrftrj, begetting the monster 
"religious*' Poraecution. In vain a Spanish Friai% 
Alphonso di Castro, denounced the thing as contrary to 
the spirit and letter of the Gospel : his words had no 
blessing from Heaven : for he was Philip's confessor, 
and bis words wero only a decoy to conciliate the people 
to the Spaniard whom they hated intensely. Hooper, 
Saunders. Taylor, Rogers, Cmnrapr, Ei^lley, and Latimei- 
— the heads of Protoatantism, — fed with their bodies the 
flamea of the holocaust which CathoHcism, once more 
restored, ofiered to tlie God of Christiana ! A few 



^ At lU appejinuice m 1 556 thia comat U sud to hhje gwrni^d half tlic size of 
Uie moon. Its lounti wcro short uiil flickmnfr, iiiih n motion likf^ ihni i>f tlio 

i\aiat of & coTifljkffTfttioii, ot nt n lirpli wnved by tlic wind. It wan tl»m rliat 
CharUw i» iM-id in hnvc cxcliimftl : " Hw PTgo indJciiH mc mea fatn vorunt — Then 
hy tJuh sij^ F&t? flummous mo away." Scvernl i^otneta appeared diinng this 
(Century— IQ iSOti — in 1.^31 — tho prewnl in 1S5G — and naothtr in 155n, ftliich 
Uat vrtta^ of coDfso, to predict tlio dmatb of diarlBS V. B*!aid<» tbG CAtaatTophcn 
of kin^^P, i^niiielA iwre nuppostj (o i^tAucucc ihu Hcatwina nistonAny U^M as diAt 
for tliTvc yf^ATA Ivoforc (}ie AppcAraim* of the ono in 15]I1^ thi?ro wna a pf^rpetiml 
d(!rADg<!inf.tit in Uio BoaaxiBfOr i-atht^, Jiot fiummcr almofll la^tcrl throughout the 
whole yew ; so dial in five years there were qoI two Hnc<^e*wvj? days of Trost- 
Tho treei put forth flowers immediately after their fraitu wero ^thcred — com 
tvDuM not yield liicreiue — and from iJie nbrwnco of winter, tlien: vu mich a cjuan- 
t>(y of vermin proying on iho gprnii thjit tlie lurvcnt did not f^xe a r^>(u^^ autti- 
eiont for (he flowing of tbe foUowiiig yir&r. An uttivcreal fAmiuD wm tlie 
(Xinscquenee ; next came a diaoaiio caIIciI /roLUff-^o/cHrf — thc^ a fiirioDS peH^lenoH. 
The three calamitieft fiwept oJf a fautth of the French popuLatioii. A hright 
cornel, calli-d Uif? slAf of DcthldLem, upptttniil in 1 AT 5, and menaced CharlvH [X- 
for the DiAAOiope of St- BartholoTnew, an Be:ia and cithc<r IicfoFin?rs pulilicly 
declared. ChorlM, who had langnialied dreadfully aiueo ilie wholesale murclor, 
died in cfTeota few months Aftor, in 1574. Anotlier comet appeared in 1577 — 
the lurge^t oTer wen— and it sepmed tn pndiol the murdor of Henry Ul.fWhiPh 
htppvnt'dfio long after, in \&Q9. Wlintevgr maj hoUie phyhicoJ elTEetftond ukorol 
influencoe of oomct*^ the ptvaciit on^, in the abfcnoc of dl oihcr oKpUsationft, 



THE BULL IN C-BNA TOMTSr. 



17 



short years, in this century of mutation, had sufBced to 
make and unmake thrco different forms of Christianity 
ill England— to ''establiah" three universal churches. 
An embassy Lad been sent to Rome : the pope's supre- 
macy in England was aeknowleilged : abanhition was 
duly pronounced ; and an EngUsh ambassador tlicre- 
upon took up his abode Lii the papal city. Persecution 
followed and ratified Catholic ascendancy in England.' 
Glorious prospects were these — such a fool is humanity 
when drunk with selfishness. But Spanish power in 
lUiiy was not adequately compensated by papal power 
of England : ]>ope Paul IV, began the war with Pinlip 
in Spain and England, by puhhsliiiig the famous Bull 
/n roTtd Domfni, which swallows down all kings and 
countries as though they were a mess of pottage- It 
cxcommuuicntes all the occupiers of the popes posses- 
sions on land and sea — it excommunicates all of them, 
however eminent by dignity, even imperial ; and all 
their adrisers, abettora, and adherents, VigorouBly tho 
old pope buckled to the contest. He would crush his 
enemies. All men, without exception, were invited, urged 
to hold up his amis whilat Amalok was shivered into 
nought The King of France, the ambitious lords of the 
land, his accommodating ^'ife and iuiscru]5ulou3 mistress 
— aU with different motives— were solicited by Paid a 
messenger, his nephew Carlo CamflFa. Even the Protes- 
tant lea-kr. Margrave Albert of Brandenburg — even the 
Grand Turk Solyman L — the hopeless infidels who had 
BO long battered the Christians — even these were sohcited 
to light the battle of the poi>e. Father of the F-iitbfuI, 



ftW<iani for tbc thimdn-baU-likc ibbltering oi the OrlcuiA dyniBly — and 
diia nnMmlj mild uid flowOTy winttf. Ile»ven groat that noihing more i« 

TOt. n. 



18 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



St Peter's successor, ami Clirist's Vicar on earth.* How 
dill it end ? All liis undertakings coniplctoly failed ; 
and left him the will for the deed. His allies were 
beaten : the Spaniards ravaged his domains — niarcliod 
against Rome, once more menaced mth destruction — 
and tlioti the old man consented to peace, 

It waa during the consternation produced by this 
imminent siege, tliat the JesuitB showed Lite pope what 
they could do in a time of trouble. The priesthood 
and monkhood of Rome were summoned to throw up 
defences. Sixty Jesuits sallied forth with mattocks, 
pitciiforks nnd spades, mnrt^liing in a triple column led 
by SalTueron, whilst the affri^^hted Romans groaned and 
wailed around thezn, fancying that tlie day of judg- 
ment was come ; and that tliia triple troop of Jesuits, with 
mattocks, spades, and pitchforks, was going to dig them 
an uuiversal grave or pitfall — ad quaiidam quasi Supremi 
Judicti hiftaiites spedem cohori'csmitiftm, Vicar-Geoeral 
Lainez graced the works with his presence.^ 

To the Jesuits, by profession '* indifforont to oil 
things," the crash of arms — tho hubbub of himiaa 
passions — were an angel's whisper to be stirring — and 
they bestirred themselves accordingly. Tho year 155S 
closed with a magnificent tUsplay at the Roman College, 
It opened with theological, proceeded with pliilosophical 
disputations, and concluded with three orations in 
Latin* Greek, and Hebrew, inter&peraed with poems in 
the same. Theses ou ethics and the usual subtleties 
of theology were proposed and defended, ^ni printed at 
tho pi^ss of the Roman College. '' Sweet to the men 
of Rome, amidst the din of arms, were theee voices of 
wisdom " exclaims the historian : " whilst confusion 



^ Bottft, iii. ; RAbuEin, Mom. ; Brotanto, Viio Ui Paolo, Iv, ; Rimke ; Puiviuliu- 
* SoA^hin. Ub. i, 37. 



SCHOLARS or THB ROMAX COLLUQB. 



19 



Blled tlie citv with uproar, Uicre was a quiet little nook 
for tlic Muses — among the Jesuits.^" A tragedy waa 
perfomied by the scholai-s, with all the concomitants 
of former exhibitions ; for *' though Ignatius was dead, 
his frpirit animated all spirits ; and the master con- 
flidereil those arauaements of the stage useful to forni 
the hody and to deyelop the mind. Amongst the scho- 
lars were Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, Frenchmen, 
Greeks, Dlyriana, Belgians, Scotchmen, and Hungarians- 
United 6"om so many different quarters, these youths 
iblloved the same rule of life and routine of training, 
Someiiniea they spoke the language of their country, 
sometimes Latiii< Greek, and Hebrew, On Simdaja 
afid feetiTals, they visited the hospitals, the prUons, and 
the sjcfe of fiome. They begged alms for the House of 
tha Profeflsed. iKmng the holidays at Easter and in 
aatmnix their zeal aprca/1 over a larger field. They 
iDAdo exeursioDB into the Terra Sabitm aiid the ancient 
Latiiim* orangeUsing, hearing confessicnR, anil catechis- 
ing' — tJius fructifying their pleasures as well as their 
Miidir^ and practicing for a more glorious manifestation. 
As jet, we are told, there were no pnbhc ftmda, no 
endowments for the flupport of these establishments. 
All was maintained by CriARiTT : — but she would have 
been blind indeed if she had not seen whore to fling 
her superfluities, wldlat the Jesuits were oifering such 
enormous interest, such splendid equivalents for her 
" paltry gold." Benedict Palmio, the ardent and elo- 
quent Jesuit, was winning immense applause and 
creating vast sensation : in Latin or Italia^n, a renowned 
orator, equally fluent in both, he preached in the 



' " Hand injiUmDrln vulgo jkcpMotiant later ^rma aa^iir'ntim voc^a : n^r pani^l 
> dUB ante ublqac Urbem miscerput, opuJ Patron r^uieli Muunuu 
r^Id. lib, L 39, ' Cretinwwi> i- A4K 

2 



20 



HISTOUY OP THE JESUITS. 



pontifical chapel and '' wonderfully held captive the 
ears of the most distinguished princes/'* Emmanuel 

Sa, Polancus, Anllancda and Tolleto, the renowned of 
old, were at that time tlie Company *a teachers : Posse- 
vinus, Beliarmine, and Aquaviva, future luminaries, were 
amongst her scholars on the benches. 

Then, deapitu her troubles, in the face of her enemies, 
the Society was advancing. She had fought her way 
sumojary of clevorlj aud valiantly to renown. Wliat she 
acLisuflmoQti. pQggesssd shc had earned : it is impossible 
to deny her exertiony. Think of the items. Sworn 
champions of the Catholic faith, the Jesuits were its 
detcmnned supporters — the terror of Protestantism : 
their very life they exposed in opposition to "heresy/* 
ronirotcT- Wherever a "heretic" lurked, some "nimble- 
K1O1.W. witted Jesuit " was ready ajid eager '' to be- 

stow a few words on him." There was something 
inspiriting in the very thing itself. Excitement begat 
effort, and effort begat success. Another itera : — The 
schools of the Jesuits were biddinfi: defiance 
to all competitors, without exception, Fran- 
ciscans, Dominicans, Benedictines were freezing in dim 
eclipse, whilst the orb of Jesuitism rose to its me- 
ridian, or approached its perihelion, intercepting every 
ray of favoui' and renown. A third item : — The 
XftviDr^i famo of its ** apostle" Xavicr, the Jesuit- 
naowu. Thaumaturg of India, was a vast deposit in 
the bank of the Company's '* merits:" he died in the 
midst of his glory, but he left Jesuits beliind, to transmit 
to Europe " Curious and Edifying Letters'* concerning 



» ■ A . , in Biii^eUu potil^tii'iif clariHsimorum principum ourca nuriftce 

toilet : baud niiiiiu in ei litiguA ijiiud In vernwulA omturin adDjilus noroen.'*— 
^hNxAuL lib. I, 39. 



ESJaYttEJTTS OP THE MIS310SERS. 



21 



MhTlj™. 



the wonderful missious. Was that notliing to tlie 
purpose? Ami, lastly: — Already the Company had 
'* martyrs of the Faith/' Antonio Criminal 
in India, — Correa ami De Souza amongst the 
nragee of Brazil, Hundreds were eager to brave the 
Bune fate — gencroius noble hearts, eclf-dcvoted chiUlrcn 
of Obedience, to which they refused neither soul nor 
body. They died in striving to humanise tlie savage. 
You wll say, perhaps, they misled ihem. But that was 
not always the fault of these valiant men, and true 
heroes. Their hearts impelled tliem to tlie work, which 
Uiey did as was preacribod to them — responsible to 
Obedience, aa their superiora were responsible to the 
all-seeing God of Truth and Righteousness. You 
jofit, for a moment at least, forget the creed of 
^tliese men in tlie unequalled heroism they displayed. 
Not that they were cast into an uncongenial element. 
Far from it The missioners dearly lovod life 
in the wilderness ; preferred, in a 7ory short 
time, the savage to the ntau of Europe. One 
of these Jesuit-misaionevs had lived thirty years in the 
midst of the forests. He returned, and soon feU into a 
■■profound melancholy, for ever regretting his beluved 
[isaTages. " My friend," said he to Raynal, " you know 
not what it ib to be the king — almost even the God of 
a mmiber of men, who owe you the email portion of 
[>pUies6 they enjoy ; and who are ever assiduous in 
ring you of their gratitude. After they have been 
Flwiging through immense forests, they return overcome 
'with fatigue, and fiunting. If they have only killed 
one piece of game, for whom do you suppose it to he 
intended 1 It is for the Fatheb ; for it is thus they 
call us; and indeed they arc really our childi^n. Their 



□f tho 



22 



HiSTOEY UF THE JESUITS. 



disseuaiuns are suspended at our appearance. A Bove- 
reign does not ro«t in greater safety in tlie midst of bis 
guards, than we do, surrounded by our savages. It is 
amongst them that I will go and end mj days/'' Not 
tliat it cost these men no effort : far from it : but what 
has over been achieved witliout effort 1 Yot there was 
joy in their sorrow — ease in their hai'dsliipa— pride in 
their minds — and a most pardonable vanity in their 
hearts. These adventurous spirits themselves eclected 
the field of their exploits : all who were aent had 
expressed t/w wish fo tlie tjencrai^ Meauwbilo the men 
at home — the writing, the stirring Jesuita — made the 
mo8t of the distant missioncr for tbo eutcrtaiiimcnt of 
tho cuiioua and the ediliablo. If tho blood of the 
missioners did not fertilise distant lands into Chiistian 
fruit, their fatnc swept over land and sea, to fan, as a 
miglity breeze, their Company's renown.^ 



> Hist &c. of \he East and West InditOr it. 4ia. 

> « Qui mia^onem Indlcun oupiunti debont ^DcraJcm ndmoaere." — 

8iuehir\. IJb. li. Oil. 

* ** hy tho tniL' aod punFuEl i^niltaTfiuro of ThumfiA ^a^r "^^ Proaolicir of LJie 
Word of God At Acres iu the County of KcnC, Anno Dom, Ifi4fl," vc liavo pre- 
sented before uh ikDolher viow wliioh maj he t&ktii of tbc miaaiutieTB in ^^enJ^ 
UioLLgb noL of ibc JoeuitH in pu'ticuliLr. T\m moat omuaing old (mvdlor Uiua 
uufi^Jda hiH c^tfciivbcc : "Tnic it ib, i have knownc ainue tliat hftvc wriltctilLivir 
OMUefi [ho hnd ro«iJfld among tUu monkH^] in tlio ti.iL of /m^yan i\fitrio9tana^ 

mca of sober lift- and Conversalion, movtd odL> with a blind eo&Ig uf onGraaing 
the Popisb Rtli^ijn : yd 1 ckro tOKy and conltcLontly print Una truth without 
wrDDging the CLorch of HomL-, that of lliirt/ or foi-Cy vrhich in auch occbdaiiB 
arc Gomiauiilj' LrfUidporbid t^* tim ludka'ti) tJia tJiivc imltL!] of tliom ore Frjran of 
k'bd Xixe^t fteary cf tlii^ir retired Clointtfr Utcb, vho huve Ijuciit^ iintiiHliod oftpo 
hy tlirir Suporiourft for Ujoir wilfull biwksUdbig from that obudionco which they 
formerly vowod ; or fi>r the hreath oT iheir poverty lu cluwly rcCaming money 
by ihom to Cvd mod ULctf, of whii^li e»orL 1 could litre noiiii^ly iasctt a lon^ and 
ItdiouB catDlvguv ; 4jr l&Btly aucli, uliu liavt Ijt-tu uiipiiMjuod ftr vjulntiug iJiL-lr yvw 
lit chMtity wiiti &&,&?,, either hy w^pretfliglitfromdiuir Cloiators orI»y |iublilie 
AlMalAlituif; from tboir Ordor, and cloalliinjj llienifiidvia in Layracna App«vll, 
to run bbont tht! &afor witJ^ tlkir tvU'L<.'d^ &c- Of ivlijoh flort it wan my cluhn^o 
to ^KV oci^m^DEcd Willi one Fryt^ John Navatxo a Pranciecaa in tb? city of 



Tllli COMPANY IN ITS SEVEXTEENTII YEAH. 



23 



And now flhe atauda fortli, a faficiiiating maiden to 

Ltho world prcaeiital, with bcr leunue of a thousand 

varriors — men of intcUeet, polished manners^ ThrCummny 

and comeUness — each eacer, at her ™*'P"'^'"«'v 

bidding, to achieve some Iiigh feat of arms, as ^" ■«»**«»» 

tgalUnt kiiigbt, to wiu hia Wly'j* special praise aud 

ivour. Such %?as tlie Company iu her acvcntocnth 

r — her marriageable age. Two suitors appeare^L — 

both with high pretensions to her favour — the Pope of 

pltome. and the King of Spain* There was a difference 

'between them, however. The former was tottering on 

hia throne, bnt pretending quite the coutrarj^ and had 

menaced the Company : the latter waa certainly the 

richest king in Europe, and was therefore the most 

|>owerfuI ; and he was full of big, Spanish designs 

— the conquest of England will succeed to many — aud 

he vas just on Uie point of figuring in revolutions ^vhich 

would shake the thrones of Eui'ope. 

A gr^neral was to he elected — a successor to Loyola. 

G^fttomAlA^ ftrho ftft^ bt lichL in wculnr b[iparell enjoyed &c. &c, foi titc apriLCO 
•f a JMT, f«riug a( U^ he mtf^hi be fllficnwrvil, llattid hiniaelfo m a MiaaioD to 
GttMURby tbo jc*r tfr^ |h«rp lio|tm|^ to onjoj witb moru lilivrty ui^ Icioe 
fiam oC |wiLi^iaL-Q( &c., && Utwrt^, in & vrorJj uijf]i.-r cliv clunk uf Pietjr oiid 
CaUtvrwon of Soultfi, it iit, tluit dmwn bu many Fryorti (and commonly iivf 

/ongBr nrt) to iboee rciuute Amvriout pnrb ; whert ftfter they hMye lAornnl 
MM IJHlttdi ko^uft^, tlu>y uv ]ici.'acc<] with n rt>pii»|i Charge lo live vJone out 
of ttr dgbl of a vatdtJDg Trior ar ^up^^riur, out uf tJit' boimds uii] ccmpuu.' of 
CUMir w»n^ Bud uiliorizi.'d tu k^X']! Iiouw by tlitnnnelraB, and lu Tuigcr aa 
mnjr fipAnula PalftoofH*. ■« their wits devipff shoM leflcli tboni lo 6i|iiceie out of 
Ur Dwly-coDTcrted tadiaiu wo&ltii. This tibertj tliey cuulJ oeYet vajtty iu 
Spfti&a utd IbJb libcny ii tht' MJiIw'ifc of so many foullkUs of wicki^ Frjc-rit in 
IboM ittrtft-'* Thon foIlDwA ui occoLuit 4rf the sdrentutev of ibn nfoivuid Fr>cr 
JobD KftTarro, «nkiiig!y illi»tr»tivo of ihe Quo #ra«i crt I'ntfrWi* nrmi* 9erva^ 
•JarvM fdild cfi*t«p thoii thuugli a Dortlitri^ wiDU>r might untin^ ao Elhiop*« 
Aiil m ifaftde OF tVD, the txvpicoJ Bum hare just the coDtnry tifuct on n nioiii'a 
*aU A4i^* S^e Tbv IIIngiisli-ATocriaui, bin Travail by Svn uict Land ; or A 
Vtfli Sdnvf of Clie WfSl IniJii.-'^ AiA]K iil Lond. IGiR. I omitte<l Ut HlnUr, 
•Air ObrVi Ehal ^bAia yurKfrro wu & Doctor of Diviiiilj uiil cvLL-bn (pd |imchcr 
!■ hk* ivImUu." TUt< iI'l/b ja Gnfji-'a kikt ^h>vc brc unAt f^r iranacripiKia- 



24 



HISTOKY OF TH£ JESUITS. 



Lainez, the Ticar-general, had, for reairona not slated, 
put ofF, fi-om tho very first, tlie assembly of the general 
The Com- congregation which w-aa to elect a general 
PLpybcitfirt It seems tliat he wished to pave the way to 

tfio ihij-c and ■ ^ 

tiioKiDgof his own permanent esaltation. The "war 
c .puin. ijet^eei, the pope and the King of Spain inter- 
Toned- The King of i^^paiu forbade tho Jusuits in his 
dominions, even tho Jesuit-didLe Borgia, to proceed to 
Rome for the election, Philip would have the general 
congregation take place in Spain, hoping to transfer 
permanently the centre of the Order from Rome to one 
of Ilia own cities.' Brilliant idea, and teemiDg with 
prophecy — a forward glance into tho coming history of 
the Jesuits. To whatever extent the Jesuits might 
coutciujDlate this Spanish scheme, circumstances inter- 
vened to render it alx*rtive in form, although, virtually, 
they would never behe the origin of their Compajiy — 
ever eager to advance tho interests of Spain, to serve 
her Idiig among the many who/et-'d their services. But 
a most extraordinary intestine commotion supervened, 
menacing the very life of the Company, 

Hitherto the Company has appeared strong by union. 
It was a bundle of sticks, not to be broken, umlivideJ ; 
and to those who give the Jesuits credit for notliins hut 
spiritual and divine motives in all that they perform or 
undertake, it will bo somewhat startHng to hear that, 
according to their own statement, tho woret passions of 
human nature raised a tempest in the Cuutpauy hersdl^ 
such as was not surpassed in rancour by any storm 
roused by her most implacable enemies, Bobadilla — ■ 
the man of the Interim — who had braved Chai'les V. to 
the face, sounded the trumpet of revolt. Lainez and 



J CnliuoAU J. :]<*». 



EEVOLT OF BOBADILLA. 



25 



tli<? generalate ivere tlie bones of contention. Ignatius 
had left hia kingdom, like Alexander, " to the worthiest," 
That was a matter of opinion, and Bobadilla thought 
himself worthiest of all. As a preHininaTy to what is 
to follow, we must remember that in the cuiious Ethio- 
pian letter, before quoted, Tguatiu.% certainly dismissod 
both Lainez and Bobadilla without laudation. Pasquier 
Brouct ho praised most Uighlj ; and if the SgijU's 
opinion had been at all cared for, in reality, the 
** at^el of the Society " was. perhaps, the heaven- 
destined general of the Jesuits, The inference is that 
Lainez had a *' party" in the Company — had been 
*' stirring " in spite of his " illness,'' and vast '* humility/* 
conuncaJy called " sohd," and pointedly ascribed by the 
historians to their second general — in bis triumph over 
Droit The Jesuits have never spared tbcii' enemies, pub- 
licly or privately ; and they lash Bobadilla as one of their 
itest antagonists. Bartoli dissects this member most 
' tmmcrcifVxlly. Had Bobadilla triumphed in the contest 
— and ho was foiled by superior managomont only — 
Lainez would have been ''picked to pieces/' and the 
successful rebel would have merited the awarded 
i-Amount of his rivals laudation. It is evident that 
[BobadilUhad large claims on the Company's gratitude 
■and respect, lie felt that he had won her applause and 
renown ; he had carried out to the fullest extent 
her Dieudurcs and her schemes. Bishoprics ho had 
visite'l ; inona^steries he had rufurmed ; in the court of 
j^fcrdiuaud, in that of Charles V., he had figured as Con- 
or ; all Germany, Inspnick, Vienna, spires, Cologne, 
"Worms, Nuremberg, had heard bim preaching, had 
ftwn hini working in the cause of Catholicism ; and he 
had /trart- to attest his prowoss in the strife, having been 



26 



HISTORY OF THE JEStHTS. 



mobLoiI hy tlio " licrctica/* Was it not quito natural 
for tliijs Jesuit to tliiok Iiimficlf eupcrior to Laiucz, wiio, 
after all, had been only a skilful speechifior, and rum- 
mager of old tomes at tbo Council of Trent. At least, 
there is no doubt that Bobadilla took this view of his 
rival's merits, wliich, by the way. he had slurred on a 
former occasion in a luanner nio&t striking and cliarac- 
teristiG. Ignatius liad assembled the fathers to consult 
on a case of some importance. The secretai^ made a 
sign to Laiuez to begin the proceedings ; but Eubadilla 
stopped him at once, saying that his yeiirs and Lis works 
entitled him to the lead. All was ailunce^ whilst the 
FOterau went through his aehievements, summing up as 
follows. " lu fine, excepting St. Paul's cutend hdc cir- 
cumdaius sum — excepting imprisonment only, I can 
show that 1 have endured every kind of suifering for 
the aggrandisement of the Company, and in the senice 
of the Church.'*' It is thus e\'idcnt that Bubadilla per- 
fectly uaderfitood tlio duties of a Jesuit ; and it must 
be admitted that he deserved his " reward " fur having 
performed them so gallantly. Action was this Jesuit's 
*' one thing needful/' According to Bartoh, he termed 
all religious rules and observances mere childisli super- 
stitions, bonds and fetters, which tiid nothing but resti'ain 
and check the spirit. His constant cry was charity. 
which he said was the form and measure of holiness in 
QVfirj state : in possession of charity, no other law waa 
necessary ; charity iilonc was all the law in perfection. 
You will scarcely believe that Bobadilla was a man of 
the "Spiritual Exercises" and the ConstitutionB. In 



" " Cbt iratlonc U C/ftrt*d hdc drcnmdatiLt nnt di S. Paiilo, potwi mnelrfljo 

Bn-Tvigio JcUa Ch\crA."—2iiirloli, Dclf /tuf- lib. Ui. f, 3i;5, 



KEVOLT OF BUBADILLA. 



27 



effect, be had attempted to introduce liis law of charity 
at till? <*ullege at Najilos, where he was superintondant ; 
but he failed, appareutly from the opposite system being 
enforced at the same time by Oviedo. a hot-headed bigot, 
wiiom we shall find anon in Ethiopia. Confueiou 
ensued— tlio young Jesuits were disgusted, and returned 
to the world. Ignatius^ of course, cashiered fobadilla, 
and Oviedo remaincil These facts seem to prove tliat 
Uobadilla had all along thought himself called upon to 
resist many pointe of the Institute ; and that, on the 
prcaeut occasion, his ambition, and hia objection to 
Laluez, only gave point and animus to hia vigorous 
resistance. In justice to the rebel, on ^hom the foulest 
impututions iire heaped by Bartoli and Scxccluum, this 
foregone conduaion of the Jesuit must be remembered. 
Mereover, it ap[>ear3 that his object was merely to s/iare 
in the gyvernraent of the Company ; he objected to the 
ifome authority being vested in one only,* 
He had been ill at Tivoh, the Company's rural 
retreat. Ou his retiun, finding that Laiuez had put 
off the GJeneral Congregation ** to heaven knows when 
—Ji$io a JJio sa ijHundo/^ says Bartoli, he felt excess- 
ively iudiguaut at not having been invited to share the 
dignity and adiiiiuisti'ation of affairs : he maintained 
tluit diG Com|>any &lkOuld be governed by the survivors 
of the Un founders named in tlio papal Bull Four of 
the profcaaed immediately juined Dobadilla — among the 
roBt» uo other than the "" angel ef the tJociety/' Pasqnicr 
BmuH^ Kimou Rodj-igucz alao was among them. These 
strildtig acccsaioiis to tlie revolt are liarJ matters for 
Jesuit exphiuation. The first they attribute to simpficity, 
and the hitler to rancour from his lalo condemnation 

* ' StBUUm polcaUWm f fcucfl uquoi buiuineiu caw/'— SonAw^ lib. L Ti. 



2S 



HISTOBT OF TUE JESUITS, 



by Ignatius, It la curious how the Jesuits expose 
themselves by appcaliug to the paltriest motives iu their 
own great men, when tliey tliink it expedient to denounce 
their proceedings. What value, then, have their vitu- 
perations and imputations in the case of their enemies ? 
To the other two rebels similar motives are ascribed. 
Another niomlcr of great standing, Pontius Gogordauus, 
vrent fui'ther than Bobadilla and his associates. He 
presented to the pope a memorial, iu Avhich he distinctly 
charged Laiiicz and other Jesuits with the detennina- 
tion of proceeding to Spain for the election, and with the 
intention of modelling the Institute as they pleased, after 
removing it to a distance from papal autliority. Great 
was the popa'a indignation at this annoimccmont. Lainez 
was ordered to dehver np the Constitutions and other 
documents relating to the Institute, within three days, 
with the names of all the members, who were forbidden 
to loave tlie city. Bobadilla followed up the stroke vigor- 
ously. The vicar-general was soon the genera! object 
of snspiciou and blame, and the Institute itself was 
roughly iiandled by the sons of Obedience. Lainez 
met the storm with the laat resource of the Jesuit. 
This *" most humble " man called a council of his party : 
frequent meetings took place ; he made it clear that the 
thing was not to be neglected lest the Company sliould 
suffer damage — ?ie quid Sociefas drtr!menti capiat — 
says Saccliinus, after the manner of Titus Livius, when 
ho talks of a <lictator ; and it was resolved to make an 
impresaion, to create a aensatioa Pubhc prayers were 
announced. Public flagellations were self-inflicted three 
times a-day. Lainez iu the House of tlie Professed, 
Natalis in the College, presided over the verberation.' 



* SBCi;hiii, lib, i iK ■* Qhoniui/u ttuVH wctriMM^^uw tile mub wu moV' is 
Ihc murgiual titlh^ i>i \\\^ wctioii. 



VICTORY OF LAINEZ. 



29 



But this was not tho maiii method of success. Lainez 
got possession of all the papers ^^rittell by the rebels. 
These men wrote all they thought ; but Laiuez held hiH 
tongue, and committed nothing to writing. Bol^adilla 
and Pontius were either too honest or too imprudent to 
cope with the crafty vicar and hi.^ spies. Their papers 
were abstracted even from their rooms, and carried 
to iheir enemy. '' But it so liappened, by the Diviue 
counsel," says Saccliinua, though he relates the dislio- 
nest means by which tho end was effected — dimno 
iamrm conxilio fiehntf Bobadilla soon fmmd himself 
filmost deserted- A cardinal was appointed by the pope 
to decide the question. Both parties were to be heard. 
BuhadillH set to writing again, and agaiu were bis papers 
a^•st^actcd and carried to Laincz. ^ Meanwhile the 
greatest moderation appeared on the vicar's counte- 
nwice : no man could possibly seem more humble and 
resigned. He won over the cardinal : — nor were 
reboH however justified or justifiable, ever counto- 
iumcci.1 at Rome, except they were CafcboUcs resisting 
their heretic king. Laincz even made tlie rebels ridi- 
culous. On one of them ho imposed a penance. And 
what was it \ Why, to say one Our Father and one 
Hail Mary \ It was Gogordanus, the only one who had 
fitood firm in tho enterprise ; for BobadiUa took fiHght 
At last, withdrew his case, and was despatched to reform 
a monastery at Fuligno.^ Deserted by his Fj^Iades, 
Gogordanua stood firm to himself, and taxed Lainez 
with oppression in having penanced him for writing to 
the |>ope, ** What was the penance \ " asked the cardi- 
nal "An Our Father and a Hail Mary '' I He was 
forbidden to say another word ; and when the cardinal 



30 



HISTORTf OP THE .fEBUITS. 



related the whole aflaii- to tlie pope. Paid was filled witH 
wonder, and made a sign of tiie cross, aa at something 
strange iind prodigious.^ He reserved sentence ; but 
gave permission to the Jesuits to leave the city, and 
even gave them money to expetlite the deliverance, 
Lainez sent Gogordanus to AssiBium ; he reluctantly 
obeyed, though he would there be near his friend Boba- 
dilla. We are, however^ assured, that both of them set 
to work right vigorously in rofoi-ming or stimulating the 
monks of St. Francis.* Refomi was the cry of the 
Company against " other men ; *' but " fd mvt, anl noti 
xinf — as we are^ or nof at ali,'' was Ler motto for herself, 
aad The Greater Glory of God. Thus did the cool 
dexterity* the keen-eyed tact of Vicar-Gksneral Lainez 
"put down" this remarkable revolt. First, ho frightened 
the masses of his subjects with the terrors of his religion ; 
secondly, he refrained himself from committing himself 
by recrimination — above all he avoided " black and 
white," penned not a word, lest it should bo turned 
against him ; thir<Uy, he avoided all violence — ho per- 
mitted the rebels to give the only example of that 
invariable disparagement to every " party ; *' fourthly, 
he made them ridiculous ; fifthly, he won off as many 
as he could, then be friglitened the ringleader, and yet, 
not without the certainty of impimity — nay, witli the 
immediate appointment of him to a congenial ** mission," 

■ '*Quad viAgb Bolemua In rcbos moAmie ab opioione alihorrentiljUB.''— 

= "Uterquc tamencgrpgiioperampOHiiL^&c^/J.lib.i.ea. AMasuin orAseiw 
ia tlie liiiui?uQ cit/ uf St- Fraado, fouiicler oT Mw Fraii^iBcuns, hIiobc ^H^td Om- 
vrnif} it( tFiiH pTnep U dio miutor-pWr< or dio OH^r- lE Imn ihroc o]iun:lK« boilt 
ow on the top of the oljicr - Dinna office 1b perfornni-J in tho middle one ; Sl- 
fYftUcis \a buried id tlii3 loutxl, which ia never uficd ; [he higheflt Js fidilnrti fro- 
qaenltd. Theee diurchiia nud the cloister are docoi»ted with fine paintings by 
Ciowbu?, QLotto, Fewr CftVAUinOj GEotthio, BoitdccS, uiil vthore. 



CLEVER MANAOEHEST OF LAr?fEZ. 



31 



A better specimen of clever managenicnt was never 
gircn. CcrUiinly it was suggested by the cirriimstances 
in vhich tlie vicar-geiieraJ was placed, his uncertain 
poaiUon with the pope, and his limited authority; 
bni we must also remember, that it ts not always the 
consciousness of peril and weakness which makes men 
cautious, collected, and iurentive to achieve deliverance. 
Bobadflla, in bis manifesto, had stated that it was diffi- 
cult to relate how many blunders, absur^Uties. fooleriefi, 
and childish indiscretions Lainez and liia assistants had 
m ao short a time exhibited ; ' but Lainez seems to 
l^ve resolved to prove that his first step towards refor- 
mation m his conduct would be the management and 
Bubjtjjtration of the arch-rebel himself and his assisUnts> 
Bobadillfl ventured to attack the Constitutions of Igna- 
tius, which, Bartoh sarcastically says, he liad never read, 
nor understood, even had he read tliem. because he 
I read tlicm only to turn thorn into ridicule,^ — a strange 
accusation for a Jo^it to bring agJiiiist one of his foun- 
ders ; — but Lainez resolved to show the rebel how bo 
could imitate Ignatius in his astuteness, as well as 
uphold him in his Constitutions. This victory achieved 
by Lainez exhibits the character of the Jesuit as strilc- 
iogly as any " great " occasion of his life^unless it be 
the moment when lie gave out that " God harl revealed 
the "Spiritual Exercises" to our holy father — ^yea, that 
it was significl to some one by the Virgin Godbearer, 
Lhrough the Archangel Gabriel that she was the patroness 
of Che " Exercises/' their foundress, their assistant, and 
tliat she had taught Ignatius Ulus to conceive them/' ^ 

■ BmrUAif mhi ntprAt f. 348. ' ILiiL 

* * PiJA tR»iBtinno inde iiv|aB !k P. Judbn Litinia . . . b?»>plum liAUrri, 
Vntm Imc ' Enratia* auifio p«trL nutro f^TeU^sc : \mA per G&briclcm Arch- 
I noo neouoi ftume k Dcipiri Virgiiie wgnificatuia, k pntrotiun eomm, 



32 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



Thus sulisidecl, for a time, the lUteBtine commotions of 
the Jesuits. And the hostilities had ceased between the 
King of Spain and the Pope of Kome- The pope 
accepted gladly the proffered peace when he found 
himself at the conqueror's mercy, and dismissed the 
execrated foe with lus pardon and blessing. On the 
Tery same night Tiber overflowed his banks, and deluged 
the holy city. Up to tlie liighest steps of the Jt^suits' 
church the angry waters foamed and floated the College. 
Immense damage was done to tlie city by tho uxorious 
liver ; but he seems to have only unsettled the Jesuits, 
as though lie came, as in times of old, to pay a visit of 
inspection, after their late domestic convulsions — 

" Andiot drca vmiue remuil« 
Quo gravu8 PcrBK raeliui porireati 
Aiidioi pugiioB, viUa pikra^luni 

A rare, choice calamity was thia to be converted into 
a Divine judgment by ianatics : and so it was, and ever 
will be. The " heretics" cried Judgment, and over Ger- 
many it was told as a fact that many thousand Romans 
had been engulfed by the exterminating angel of a river 
— among the rest Revon cardinals—and that the pope 
himself had escaped ^vith difficulty.' Meanwhile, tho 
embargo being t^ikcn off the Jesuits of Spain, they come 
to the General Congregation. Qttem voctt dh-fim poputus 
rufuits Imjwri rebus f — whom of the professed Gods 
will tliey invoke to guide tlie helm in the storm, raging 
and still impending? To the holy conclave twenty 
electors — only twenty electors out of more tlian a 



quo nomine bo Luip operi dwliase inJlJmu."— £i6A Scnpt. fSoc^ J^nt. f- I. 
' SftCCbiilH lib. i. «0. Hanticorutn nindacia g^iura, &c. 



KLECriON OF A GENERAL^ 



33 



tliotisand men — proctjed to elect a geueml for the Com- 
ny uf Jeflus. Holy obedience in the vulgar JioinI — the 

f'^bpwbik Tutffus of the Company put their nocks into tho 
yoke, — why sliould we complain ? If the Evil One may 
lo as he likes with hia own, why should we interfere by 
ferco or argument between a Jesuit and his soul I But 
8CC, in th[; midst of tho assembled electois, a cardinal 
ent^jra, unexpectedly, in the name of the sovereign 
pontiff! Not exactly hke Cromwell into parliament, he 
comes : — but still in a significant attitude, saying to the 
startled Jesuits assembled : 

** Paul IV. does not pretend to influence a choice 
which should be made only according to the Institute. 
The pope desirea to be considered the Protector of the 
Order — not in a general sense, as he la of all the Faith- 
ful and all rehgious Orders — but in a sense altogether 
special and particular/'^ 

The pope's jealousy of Philip II was not dispelled, 
urgia had not left iSpain : this Jesuit, by reason of ill 

'Icalth, wo are told, and from "pohtical motives," could 
not abandon Spain. ^ lie remained witli the liitted Philip. 
Reformed or aot reformed, the pope would have the 

LCocapany entirely to himself, admitting least of all, such 
IiTal in his fond possession. Now, what if Borgia be 

P«lecWKl general? In that event the ix>pe would hare 
con£rniation strong for bis suspicion. Pacbeco, the car- 
dinfil, fiirther mmonnccd that he was chai^d by Paul 
IV. to act as eecretary, and teller of the ballot to the 
electing Congregation. The Jesuits were taken aback : 
but they soon trimmed sad to the ^-ind — eyer yielding 
to the storm when they cannot control it. There was 



' " pour ■!«■• niiufia de imvtd, tv Jcs lunUfi p<jLitit|uea."'— /J. ib, tl^ 
TOL. U. \' 



34 



HISTORY OV THE JESUITS. 



i,D. 155S. 



110 doubt of the vicar a election to the geiieralate ; ai 
lie bad a large majority^ Lmn^^z took tliii'tt^ii votes ciut 
of the twenty, — Nadal, Loyola a coadjutor and assistant, 
when lately disabled — took four,^Lannoy and Brouet, 
the angel of the Company, Lad only one each ; and 
Borgia, the duke-Jcsuit, bad a single vote. Lainez was 
proclaimed general wth immense applause 
and gratulation. Te Deum landainu^ was 
sung, three eermons were delivered, one on the Trinity^ 
A second by way of thanksgiving, and a third on the 
Virgm Mary. So great was the spirittial excitement on 
tlie occasion, tliat many said tbey had never been before 
so abundantly and sobdly enlivened by celestial delights.' 
The ghost of Reform came suddenly upon them in the 
midst of their celestial banquet. Paul IV. insisted that 
the choral offices of the moidu should bo porfonned in 
the Society of Jesus. This is one of the most important 
exemptions of the Jesuits. It gave them seven or eight 
hours daily for — work. To have boxed them up in 
cloisters, and to have made them sing **the praises of 
God," whilst they might promote the gloiy of the 
Society, by tlieir numerous avocations — the composition 
of books in particular — in a word, to have made moftkx 
of them, was neither the notion of Loyola, nor contem- 
plated by the Constitutions, nor in the least rchshed by 
the Jesuits In gencrah But this was not all. General 
Laiuez received the next blow from St. Peters Vicai\ 
The pope required that the generalate should be only 
for a determinate perioil, as for example, tlie space of 
tlwee yeara. This would at ouce make the Order A 
democracy — aristocratical more or less — but still its 
high monarchical elements would evaporate — fear and 

^ ** CDBlcBti dult-eilujc mque w) nfllaeDter (W soUdc rtMrcniOB,"— ito«*. Lii. 31. 



THE POPES ATTEMPTED INNOVATIONS, 



36 



anxiety woulJ hani^r the triennial uionarch, ajid open 
tlie way for furtlior democratical influence. It \^ouId 
be impossible for the general to adopt schemes of any 
fnagnitudo, requiring time for maturity and complete 
achievement : the work of the Jesuits was by its very 
DAture progressive — a sort of now creation, in veritable 
geological days, unto the glory aod rest of the Sabbatli. 

TheJesuits, ina respectful memorial, protested agfiinst 
these innovations* Lainez ami Salmeron went to pre- 
sent it to the pope. Paul IV. received them freezingly. 
In tliu presence of the Cardinal of Naples, his nephew, 
tlie pope let fall upon them the weight of his displeasure. 
The two Jcsuita attempted to explain tho motives of 
their persistence — ** You are rebels 1 " exclaimed his 
enraged Holiness ; " opiuiatora verging on heresy — and 
I very much fear to see some sectarian issuing from your 
Society. For the rest, we are well resolved no longer 
to tolerate such a disorder.*' 

Laiuez replied : 

" 1 have never sought nor desired to be general : and 
as for what concerua myself persoually, I am not only 
not repugnant to resign at the end of three years, even 
this very day would I esteem it a favour if your Holiness 
^vould free me from this burthen, for which I have 
lither iDclination nor fitness. Nevertheless, you know 
tiat the fathers, in proceeding to the election, have 
intended to elect a general in perpetuity, according to 
die CoDStitiitionsH Cardinal Pachecu announced to u» 
that your Holiness desired two things ; t. That the 
general should fix his residence at Komc; 2. That he be 
appointed for life. The fathers were of the same opi- 
nion. The election being made in that manner, we ai'e 
come to your Holiness, wlio has approved and eonfimied 



36 



HISTOKT OF THE .lEf^mTS, 



it. But I shall not hesitate ao inataiit — I yhaJl obey 
willingly, as I Lave said." 

"I do not wish you to resign," rejoined the pope, — " it 
would be to shun khour ; moreover, at the end of three 
years I shall bo able to prolong tlio term " 

How to deal with a furious old mart I Lainaz appealed 
to the bowela of his mercy- 

** Wo toach," said he, "we preach agmnst the heretics: 
on tliat account they hate us, and call us papists. Where- 
fore your Holiness ought to protect us, to show us the 
bowels of a father, and believe that God would bo to us 
propitious." 

All in vain ! Paul IV, waa inexorable. He ordered 
the choir to be instantly estabhshed, and that this article 
fihouIJ be a/ypended to the ConstUnimis as the expression 
of his sovereign will. ^ 

The Jesuits obeyed, for it was absolutely necessary. 
The pope's death, within tlie year, freed them from this 
ostensible obedience ; they threw up the hateful choir ; 
and tore off the epitehd aiticlo superadded to their 
Contilritutione. The pope's euccesaur, the " dexteious, 
prtident. good-humoured " Pius IV. was not hkely to 
look vrith more displeasure on this trivial disobedience 
to a maudate of his enemy Paul IV., than he had pro- 
bably felt at the flisplay of popular liatred wltcn Paul's 
statue was torn down from its j>edestal, broken in 
pieceSf and the head with tlie triple crown dragged 
thruugli the streets.^ 

All fu'cumstances favoured the Jesuits. The pope 
had died miserably.^ impopular, detested hy his subjects. 



^ Cretineui, vhi wtipra ; Saecbiniu, lib, ii. ; Barboli, Lib> iv, 

' See Raiiko, Hbt, cf ll»B T'upcs, p. BO. 

^ *' At but. vlien laid low Ijy ^n jIIdl-sh BuHiinoiit fo i4(jh- lliu Juath tren of a 



THEIR INC 



STItENGTF 



TtT, 



37 



Kcoction. 



idonced by the Tioicnt demonstratioua which followed 
fiis demise. His Inquisition waa pillaged and set on 
fire : an attempt was made to burn the Domi- 
nfcan convent Delia Minerva. All his raonu- 
aents were to bo dosti'oyed, as tho Ron^ans resolved in 

capitol : — they had suHcred so much under liini, 
"^ftiid his infamous nephews tho Caraflae — for '* he had 
been an ill-doer to the city and the whole earth/'* So 
did» and bo spake the masses, «tin*ed through the length 
and breadth of their storniy sea as it rolled with tho 
turning (ide. From the tempest the Society emerged, 
as the moon wimt time her horns are full, rejoicing, 
'' She wa« restored to her iiorm-il state, stronger than 
before the death of Loyola, She waa more united — 
because she had jiLst tested her unity. ''^ 

And not only that : she triumphantly stootl on the 
pinnacle of a splendid reaction. A year before, she was 
at the mercy of a capricious old man, wielding the holtq 
of the Vatican. There had boen a dread hour when 
all seemed lost — the gulf yawning beneath her. On 
the brink she stood luiterrifiei A strong man in her 
van battled with destruction. Ho bridged the chasm : 
she cnwsed : and sang the eong of tlianksgiving to the 
mnst^r-mind which had planned, and effected her 
ddivenince. The reaction was one of the most won- 
derful recorded in liiatory : — in the conclave for tho 
election of a successor to Paul IV., Lainez, the general 
of tlie Jesuits, was proposed, and wouhl have been Pope 
of Rome but for a prescriptive formality I Custom 



■ m*n, he izalled tlir mr-JliaaLH onw inorc tog*tlier, foninieTided lijfl ftoul to 
tliBJi p«jL-ra, and tlip H^\y S«<? and iIjd luquitiiliuu Cu UiiHr uuv : \\v sLrovti to 
■afcrtllAa fntrpoii oncre mtrn, mid Lo ruti^ himnclf ap -. lufAtreoglh faili^ bims 
he Ml bftck, ubd died;' (Aut;- If*, Ua^y^Rai\k€^ Ei$L nfthe Papa, p, 7f>. 



'^S 



HISTOBY OF THE JESUITS. 



required that the pope fihould be chosen from the college 
of cardiDals.' 

LaiaeK was a Spaniard : the most exalted membera 
of the Society, with the Jesuit-duke Borgia at their 
head, were Spaniards ; the Society was a Spaniard's — 
in Spaiu she was best established ; — and the interests 
of Spain ■were then paramount ; — Italy had suffered — 
Rome had been threatened by the indigaation of Spain's 
powerful king : he had designed to take the Society 
under his special superintendence : he was sure of its 
deTOtedness to his interests ; and now. how splendid 
the prospect if, by one great stroke, both the Society 
and the tiara should become his vassalB ! A mere 
formality {but in the city of inexorable formalitiea) 
defeated the splendid design, — and " the partisans of 
Lainez gave their votes to Cardinal Medici, who took 
the name of Hua IV/'* 

Simple facts aa the Jesuit-historians record them : 
but how significant when transfixed and onto- 
mologicolly oxaminod, by cool reflection, ^^'th 
memory at her side openiug the aixhives of 
antecedent and contemporaneous events. 

Bloody executions within two years avenged Pius IV. 
and the Jesuits for what both Medici and the Jesuitfl 
liad endured from the late pope and his nephews, the 
Caraffas ; and his relatives. Count Allifani and Cardini. 
Tlioy were condemned to death : it is not necessary 
to state the crimes of which they were accused, since 
the next infallible pope, St, Piua V. made restitution to 
their memory and their family, his appointed judges 

■ CreUnouj, i. 3G5 ; Sacchiitiu ind nuioli- 

- Thiiv Jf?fluit'rnrt is, hdftpvrr, mmcvliAt onsjiirious. It in scarcflj i^'olalile 
Uut tllC cardiDalii would docC any on? who A\A nathe}nng tn fhi>irbaHy. Sw 
Qucflnd, ii. 10. 



The Jrniim 
ill HiB Atld 
or hlood 



THE JESIITS m THE FIELD OF ELOOD. 



39 



declaring " lliat Pius IV. had boen led into error by 
tlie I'rocnratt^r-General/' who was duly put to deatli as 
a scJipc-goftt* 

Jesuit-fathers attended the condemned in their pre- 
paratioa for death. Silver crucifixes were kiaaed, the 
De profundi^ was gloomily muttered ; the TV Deum too, 
at the suggestion of one of the Jesuita, alternated the 
lament of death. The Cardinal Caraffa was resigned, for 
he had made his coiifession, and was absolved, and 
had recited the office of the Virgin. And the grim 
tormentors approacheti ready to strangle the anointed 
of the Church, The cardinal shi-utdc in honor from 
the flight, aud turning away he exclaimed with unspeak- 
able energy : ** O Pope Pius ! King Philip ! I did 
not expect this from you!" He rolled on the ground, 
a strangled corpse.^ 

The bodies were exposed to public -view : the effect 
did not correspond to tho expectation. The Romans 
haddtftestedthe late pope's nephews — they woidd tbem- 
Bclves hare torn them to pieces without remorse : but 
the revenge of another hand only found (as usual) 
indignant pity ia their breast : they bewailed the 
ricdms — the feeling was contagious — a tumult was immi- 
nent. The Jesuits were sent forth to restore tranquilhty 
in Borne ; and they succeeded.^ 

' flii Dime via Pullonliia^ tlie " Atlorncj-GcnPnvl " of the proBPcntion. 
rfn* V. d«elmfed Lhe Bcnteiire uajast ; and Palhvidiii, Uie CulbuLic hiirhtoruui, 
MBBita tlut tbe cvdJiubl'B guilt wna not mode out, to judge froiu XJie docuiUL^U 

' Crerincan pre* a long draeription of these pxccutionB, lu-tually wiih llie view 
uf ■ ftbowiBf ofP Ibe Jesuits In l]ie cc[Jb of (lie coutlcmned ! But tlic fbct ia tlinl 
dw <fiiHli>i «M d€tntd Ills uauiJ conf^aor-. " He wa^ luit fiLluved bU usu&L 
MafvBor I he lud much h> uy^ tA ma^ tte iiru^nQ^^^f to the conTvAor tent hiuif 
Mkd ilk- ^irift waflfiDDiewliikl ptvlractiHl. ' Fiainli, will you, MonngDore,' i^riiHl th^ 
■AmtoT fiolire, ■ we bavt other biuinOH in haod/ "— AuLtfTf HUt. of the Pi'J't^t 
p. •». " Cntinittu, p. 383 ; Thuwv lit. 23 ; CtMCon. Vita FoaUt- Paol IV. 



40 



EISTORY OF THE JE3CJTB. 



If the conduct of these Jesuits in the field of blooc 
was edifying, it compensated in some mea-sui-e fur that 
A .ti^gmrfiii "^f another Jesuit, in the confessional, a few 
traoHiiu"". months before these droa'lful scenes horrilicd 
and disgusted the hearts of Rome. There was at Gre- 
nada, in Spain, a repentant lady, who went to confess to 
a Jesuit, whoae name ia not mentioned by the Company's 
t]istorian> This lady accuHud hei"self, in confession, of a 
certain sin which requires an accomplice. Tlie Jesuit 
insisted upon haWug tbc name of the party revealed 
to him : the lady refused : the Jesuit withlield abac*- 
lution, until, overcome by Iiis importunities ami menaces, 
she revealed the name of hor accomphco. The Jesuit 
immediately imparted the crime, and named the criminal 
to the Archbishop of Greoada, M'ho, according to the 
Jesuits, Lad advised liis imhscretioii. Immense scandal 
ensued. The whole affair transpired : the Jesuits were 
denounced by the public voice as not only betrayers of 
confession, but also as intriguers, making every effort to 
get at the socrcta of those who tlid not uoafcfls to them, 
throut^h tiie instrumentality of theii' penitents. Certainly 
it was unfiiir, unjust to denounce the whole body for the 
fault of one member ; but, instead of respecting the 
sacred principle which aroused popular, nay. even royal, 
indignation^ instead of denouncing tlie conduct of their 
member, they permitted, if tliey did not command, one 
of their beat preachers to defend his conduct* lie did so 
puhUcly. Sacchinu^ givef* us his argument : it ia [>roper 
to know the Society^g doctrine on the subject, John 
Raminius, the preacher, admitted that " It is never 
lais'ful to break the sacred seal of confession, though the 
destruction of tlie imivei-se might ensiie : but, there may 
be occasions when a priest may lawfiillv insist upon 



A DISORACEFl^L TrtAJiSALTlOK 



41 



being informed by hia poniteat of a crmiinal accomplice, 
or a heretic, or any delinquent tainted witli some pestilen- 
tifll vice, if there be no other remedy at hand : that 
ho may in confession exact permission to use that know- 
ledge in the case of a fraternal admonition, or may 
exact it out of confeeGionj for the purpose of a judicial 
oceiisaticm. Sljould the penitent refiase, he ought uot to 
be absolved — ^just as no thief ought to be absolved, if he 
reftise to make restitution."' It is impossible to point 
out all the abuses to which this doctrine in\'itesa prying 
jBsuit. Accordingly, three ecclesiastics denounced it as 
" new, pernicious, impious, or rather monstrous," — whoso 
tendency was to aUeuate the people from the practice of 
confrWon, NevertheleMST thu Jeatiits fotmd supporters : 
disputes ran high : the archbishop put a stop to the 
Ittii^tion by undertaking to ilecido on the matter, 
enjoining silence to both parties. But so strong was 
public opinion sot against the Jesuits, on account of the 
transaction, that Borgia declared there had never before 
been such a storm raiserl against the Company. Through- 
out ^^pain and Bclgium^ — even at the court of Philip II. 
— the infamous transaction excited merited indignation. 
Jctiuit-confessor may have erre^I through indis- 
'^cretion : but Kaininius sceme'i to speak, or did speak, 
the doctrine, and declared the practice, of the ComiTany. 
It is thus tluit the Jesuits have almost Invariably, 
INibhcly or in secret, accumulated execration on thoir 
bcadB, by never arlniitting an en'or, and by defending 
lo the uttermost their simiing brothel's/ 

Fortunate coincidences often give an outlet from 



' Itewhin UIk It. lAU. Hiap&LiA AnutonA, ii. \\h. vl p. 70 : Hist, das IleU- 
Eiput do U 1'itiup, r IM. 

* IrL \h. lill . AIb4 ni'pn-uiik Anulori*» ii, liH, vf, y». 17 i U'lvX. <\cs RoUtfiPux 



42 



HISTORY OF TtlE JESUITS 



difficulties — like the 8iin-lU dawn after a night of tem- 
pest Frequently have the Jesuits experienced this aJle- 
A fortunftur viation of their toil and trouble. Ai the height 
outiEi. ^f ^YiG execration which has just been traced 

to its origin, Charles V, died, appointing by will one of 
their body, Francis Borgia, a co-executor of liis rnyal 
bchcate. Charles had never liked the Jesuits. Policy 
rather than esteem, seems to have motived his acqui- 
escence in their establishment throughout his dominions. 
Borgia paid him a visit in his retreat at St. Juste 'a 
They spent their time very agreeably together : it was a 
congenial amalgamation of ascetic feelings, hrought 
more closely in contact from the simihtude of their 
abnegations. There was even, perhaps, some little 
danger of Borgia's acquiescing in the ex-royal wish, 
that the Jesuit ehould leave his Society and take up his 
abode with penitent royalty. Charles '*had his doubts " 
about the Company : he expressed them to his beloved 
visitoi" : but the Jesuit was forewarned of the tempta- 
tion," and left the royal monk in his soUtude, after 
receinng " a small sum," by way of alnia from one 
poor man to another, as the king expressed the senti- 
mental charity.'' Tins had occurred the year before, 
whOst Melchior Cano was denouncing the Jesuits, public 
report declaring Charles to be hostile to the Com- 
pany. It waa on this account that Borgia risited 

1 Cn^inrau, L 375. 

^ Durgia knew bow to wid otct the roj«1 wa-tic- Ctivlea complnlued to tb« 
J^fftuiL tli^t he could pot *lcep «ith liia Uair-iJiirt on hia hiuli, in oitlcr tn maMMla 

himneir rlio moTC. T\w npcatoUcAl Jeaoit rcpli^^d : " Stnor, Uic night* wliioh yovr 
inbji?«ty paj«eii in nmiB are t(u> c«usc Uiat you cannot fJwp in Imir-clolli — bu^ 
lluukG be bo God thai yoa ha.-vc more luprit in liaving paued tlicm tlina io 
dcfimcv of juur fftitlif Ui&n miuij moiilcfl li&vp nlio nftmbcr tlicirB vnpfiod ap in 
hikir-alatli^" Thif *^ snitl} Ham " ^rcn to th<^ Jiwuil wah tn-it hiinilrpd dumts, niiil 

Ckarlcvukd il w (he bcdC favour Uc had cr«r i:rui(c4l in lib tifo— In xrm^'ot 
tncrpod qiM am hti*\io rn tm nd«. — Ik Trrnt Epi1ome« p^ 1J53, H itq. 



CHARLES V. AND THB JESUITS, 



43 



Cliarlea ; and tKe result of bis kind reception and the 
corrospontlence wiiicli ensue<l, was greatly beneficial to 
the Companv as soon as tbo inteniew, frieodahip or 
" patronage/' was givon to tlie winds of popular nimoiir 
hy the calculating Jesuits, who always knew the value 
of "great names'' among the vTiIgar in mind or condi- 
tion,' As a JcHuit, Borgia was unable to undertake the 
exeoitorship so honourable to the Company : such 
secular offices were expressly forbidden by the Constitu- 
tions ; but Lainez and six of the most influential 
JesuiU di?cided to Buperaede the "dictates" of Ignatius 
for the sake of policy, though thoy stubbornly refused to 
do 80 for the sake of Lhe pope, who ao wisely advised 
them not " to build on sand/' And they got the 
''reward" of expediency. "The Company, mean- 
while, made no small advancement — 7iec Icve wtmm 
Sftct4iits incremenium accepit"~s3LyE Sacchinua. Borgia 
performed his duty ns executor with honour and inte- 
grity. It was, however, an easy matter ; for Charles V. 
bad left notiiing either to the Jesuits, nor the monks, 
not even lo the Church, nor for Purgatorial prayers to 
be said for him, which last omission brought his ortho- 
doxy into doubt among the Inquisitors and the Jesuits, 
it is said, who quarrelled with the ex-king's memory, 
since he had not given them a chance for fighting over 
legacies,* 

Certainly the Jesuits did not spare a friead of the 
deceased monarch, Constantino Ponce, a Spanish bishop. 
Mid a learned doctor of the Church, but suspected of 
heresy and Lutheranism, He had been preaclicr to 

' *Dictil fAol« non at ijiiantiitD ho?? Cu-all bumuiUu Ya\^ oognltA ei vrr- 
BBooINu flpkbrau, r*bUB SocieUtia Mtulerit/'— finffAtn- lib, L 115. 

' Hlrt. il« riDfjiuBit. Lit- n- p, ^3^, ft teq. ; Anpcdnt Ui^uiait, Hupno- ji' £03 -, 
InkiL d« k Ccmp. Ac. Jems i. p. ?A7, 



44 



HI9T0RY OF T}fE JESUITS. 



Charles in Gerniany, anJ had accompanied Philip IL to 
Eiiglfind when he married Queen Mary. Constantino 
The jisiiii* Ponce applied for admission into tho Com- 
!^"nu* P^^y *^f Jesus. He had been one of her many 
inqiiisiiiftn, Gnemies in Spain. The wily Jesuits suspected 
some design upon their secrets, Tliej deliberated on 
the application ; consulted the Inquisitor Oarpina : PoDce 
was arrested and cast into the prisons of the dread 
tribunal, where he died^ but was subsequently burnt in 
effigy : ^ undoubtedly a severe return for his advance 
to the Company. Tnie, they might liave rancorous 
recollections of bis former hostility, and they might even 
liave grounds for doubting his orthodoxy, but perhaps 
a milder method should have been adopted by the 
Companions of Jesus f J revenge an injur}'^ and to reclaim 
a heretic. 

Although as yet not officially connected with the 
Inquisition, the Jesuits might be considered its jackalls, 
„, , as is evident from the last fact, and tbeir con- 

M'l Tbo fessional maxims, as recorded by tliemBolves. 

In 1555, a year before his deatli, Ignatius, 
with the opinion of a majority of the Fathers, had 
accepted the direction of the Inquisition at LisboD, 
offered to the Society by Kin^ John of Portugal, with 
the advice of his brother Louis and the Cardinal Henry, 
The death of Louis, and the illness of the Cardinal, 
prevented the aecomplishmeat ; but the Jesuits Henri- 
quez and Serrano filled the appointment of Deputies to 



* SocchiiL liL JL 12Q ^ Tliuou- lib. iKiiL Aim. 15^9. [n dm Ijitrtraritica lie 

silfered in llie pnuD, though lit> IulJ nn( yet tJuteil ihp. tnrtvren^ CaiiBlatitiiiD 
often excluimiid : " O my Grrd, were there no Sc^hiaiiH ia the worlds no cftiini' 
Imla more Rerec anil cnwl llion SpjtljihDH, ixilO wlicwe huids Thau rculd^t carry 
lUfr, BO tliai I ini^ht but ewape llio clttvfrB of tbciw wrotclir* ! '* — tfiaadfer, Bisi, 
of FerttOtt, p lfl<!. 



TI{E JESClTr* AND THE INQUISITION. 



45 



the General Council of the Inqiiiaition in Portugal,* 
Aud it was ill consequence of tbe urgent advice — 
gravibm Uteris — of the Jesuits in India that tlio Inqui- 
sition was established at Goa, with all its horrora^ against 
our •* false brotliers of the Circumcision congregated in 
India from all parts of the "world, pretending to be 
CkriAtiftna, hut fostering Judaism and other impieties 
privately, wid sowing them by etoaltL Therefore* if 
ill any pkct^ these Fathers thought the tribunal of the 
holy Im]uisition most necessary, both on account of the 
existing licejise and the multitudes of all nations and 
ftuperstitions there imited."* And it was established. 
The JeAiiits did not get the appointment ; for, from 
time immemoriaU it was the almost exclusive patrimony 
of the Doaiinicaiifl, whose cruel method of making con- 
Tcru to ihe faitJij the Jesuits copied, wheu their milk of 
kindness was soured by disappointment in proaelytiaing 
the Lei^etic and the savage. None surpassed the Jesuits 
in the arU* of persuasion whilst these could prevail ; 
buly also, none exceeded them in terrible rancour when 
tlie destruction was next in expediency to the conversion 
or condUation of their ^'ictims. And the flaming banner 
' Ooa's Iu((uiiution flap[«d aud expamled to the breeze, 
idfi spreading tlie motto : " Mevc^ and Justice ! " and 
ito a merciliil good God it said : ^^ Arise, O Lmi^ 
and judge thf Cnmr,^^ a cross in the middle, and a 
bald-lie»(kKl monk of St, Dominia with sword and olive- 



^ FruirT> (So^^ JcFiii) SjiiopS' Ann. Soo, Ji-«u in Litnit, p. 13. t DiLut bf^lv 
diBt OrUudinuB (lib. xt, ii. KHi) p[Hu^velj lu^n Itiat Iguatiun 'Ueli^d 
rtOTTvocdved it nuviUlgglj'/' Hd Uom mure: he prctc&d4 lo give jUI 
lb* ^m'a m«live> for m doing- Id tlic TMCf- of tbia invcntiuii, juiuthcr Jesuil, 
riMiiu, pab1iib«d Oio rouuder'i loLler to Miron, on llip trulijoiTl, in uliiuli \w 
»MilJety Uiobuin ihc kpiKPintiEi<.'Btfortht^Conipiuijr. Sy oapa, m^i «u^. 
I cnfotf fad provM bon litllc fnith vri> cnn plw^ in tlip J«ui(-e3(pcwliioii of 



46 



HISTORY OF THE JESLlTS. 



branch in his hsmd, mid a blood-houiid moiitliing a 
fire-brand, iiifiaiijiiig the world at his feet,^ Tht; views 
of the Jesuit-fathers were fully carried out ; the PaganSj 
the Jews, the Christians, whom thej could not conver 
were hauded over to tortui'es too horrible to detail, and 
then unto the death by fii'e, when their souls went upj 
to God, perhaps in their regenerated charity exclaiming : 
" Father, forgive them ; they know not what they do.^ 
The Inquisition was thus one of the blessings given 
India by the Jesuits, — one of the religious ceremonies' 
of the ancient faith.^ 

The musket had been long the cross of salvation to 
the Gentiles of India. Torrez, the Jesuit, procured 
royal lettera enjoining the viceroys and tha 
governors of India to lend their powers to 
the Jesuits for the purpose of converting tlia ■ 
infidels, and to punish their opponents. This excellent 
scheme abridged their labours wonderfully. All they 
had to do was to ferret out the places where the Indiana 
congregated to sacrifice to Brahma, Vishuu, and Shiva. 
Then a detachment of soldiers* headed by some Jesuits^! 
completed the success of the apostolatc. SacciunuB, the 
Jesuit'ldstorian, describes one of these cvangeUsuig ' 
forays. It happened in the island of Cyorano, close 
by Goa, where, says he, *' by a wonderful afflation, an 
immense nimiber rushed to Christianity — miro guodam] 
affiatu ingfjis mimerns ad Chrhtiana sacra conHu^iif!) 
Not far from the church of the Blessed Virgin about 
forty heathens were lurking in a grove of palnia. They- 
had been informed against as liaving indulged in certain 



" iniHion " 

in I5S<f. 



1 Sea CbkQtUcr, p. S7^i for &a Fugiuvuig of the buuier. 

' Fur iletikik iu<e Chandltr ; Gcdda ; DOIon, Relatimi; Badunu^ CUriat* 



THE INDIAN MISSION. 



47 



I 



mblicly, contrary to tJie royal cdicte, To these 
men Fathers Ahneida and Corrca were sent, together 
with a certain Juan Fernaniloz, a lawyer, and the lord 
of the grove of palms. This lawyer circumvented the 
pagans completely, we are told ; consequently, he must 
have had not a few muskets and men to ahoulder theiiK 
lie ordered some of them to bo acizodj whilst the rest 
took refuge in the bufih. They were frightened, and 
one of them, the oldest of the troop, cried out» '* What 's 
the use of binding us 1 lot u-s be made Christians/' 
*■ Notbiug more wtis needed," continues the chuckling 
Jesuit. '* Then a cry arose tlironghout the village that 
all wished to ho made Christians. Almeida and his com- 
paniou ran ap : antl, wliercos, previously tho conversion 
of only seven or eight of tho guilty men was hoped for, 
tlie Difiue Spirit in tconderful modes acatlering celestial 
Hrej all of them, some rushing from one side, others trom 
another, to the number of three hundred in a ehort 
Ume, shouted and declared that they would be made 
Christians I When Coasalvez mentioned the joyfid 
affair to the viceroy, he said *'it was tho festival of the 
day whon the Precursor of oiu- Lord wa;* beheaded ; " ' 
and, we may add, with less guilt in the king who caused 
Uie murder, than in those who advised and practised 
" religioufl" murder and violence to please the wrinkled 
ladj of Borne. There wore no BrahminB among these 
captives of the faith ; ''but the fathers, suspecting that 
they woidd escape beyond tho reach of Portuguese 
power, placed sentinels aiid guards round about, by 
whom tliirty were intercepted and added to the eate- 
cfaumena In fine, by constant accessions, the number 



* " Iftqvi? iJJcni Uptinni, qw> wudufl Domiiii Pncounor Qbtruncatus eat 



43 



aiSTUHT OF THE JESUITS, 



gradually increased so much, that ou an appointed 
day, when tlie viceroy visited the island, five hundi'ed 
postulants of baptism presented themselves, They 
marched m a long train, "with the Cliristiaii hanncr, and 
dnima, and various soimdiag instmments of the nation. 
When they came to the \'iceroy, their sahite w;m kindly 
returned, and all entered the chiu-ch of the Virgin, tlie 
viceroy bringing up the rear. There they were baptise<], 
and then, as the day was far spent, they were treated 
to a generous repast, and, Ijiatly, mth an appropriate 
exhortation. On the follc^viug day. they learnt how to 
make the sign of the cross."* Such is a specimen of 
the Indian " mission" in 1559 ; ahout five hunilred and 
thirty pagans, at one fell swoop, by the terror of the 
muskot and " the Divine Spirit in wonderful modes 
scattering celestial fire,'^ were flung into the Jordan of 
Rome, then feasted, and lectured, and taught the sign of 
the cross, and thereby became sterling Jesuit-Christiana 
of the Indian mission. In fact, it was nothing but a 
downright fox-hunting, boar-hunting, bear-bniting apos- 
tolate, when the Jesuits got tired of preaching to no 
purpose, with no resxJta to boast of in the annual letters 
which, with other proceeds, were the bills of exchange 
and assets of the missions ior the bank of devoteeisni, 
and passed to the credit of the modem '* apostles/' 
In the viceroy Constantino the Jesuits found ready 
patronage anrl support in their system of conversion. 
The Brahmins in India were like the Romish priests of 
Ireland to the people. By their authority and exhorta- 
tions the superstitions of the people resisted thcarguments 
of the Jesuits in their public disputation. What did the 
viceroy to make Ids Jesuits triumph in spite of their 

■ SaocJi. tib. liu 12M. 



SHBBP, fflTHoUT SHEPHERDS. KAtiV VEtTiMS, 49 

diacomfltiu'e i Wlij, he ordered furty of tlic chief 
Hmtimins to sell all thev had and to leave Goa ^th 
tbeir families, to make themselves comfortahle wliero 
they could find a resting-place secure from tyrannical 
Ticeroya And apostoliml Jesnits.' " Deprived of this 
flcfeaco, and terrified by this oxamplc." saya the un- 
scrupulous Jesuit SacchinuSj ^' the pagans of lu'^s note 
ga^*^ rea<licr ears and minds to the word of God 'M 
They actually banished the shepherds so as to rob the 
flock more easily ! Now. how could these Jesuits com- 
ptiun when Elizabeth soon after baniwhed the pi-iosta 
of Rome when she found that they " atirred'* her people 
to rebellion 1 Or» had she been a fanatic, and Gntling 
that arguments would not do witli the people in the 
pa^^oce of the pnests, and proceeded to banish the 
latteTt so as to ettrap the former, — I aek, what moral 
difference would there have been in the matter ? In 
troths Ijad England copied tliis Jesuit and Portuguese 
example in Ireland, in the time of Elizabeth, had every 
priest been sent furth, and the coabt guarded against 
their remm, we should long ere tliis have bebeld that 
country as Sourishing, as fi*ee, as hni^py, as honest, and 
honourable as any on the face of the earth. We have 
Lto thank tlie " roaring bellows of sedition and incen- 
"HiAfy PharUees" for the pi^e^ent degrailatiou of Ireland. 
The method did not succeed in India except in proilucing 
hypocritical pagans, becauj*e there was so much in their 
ritCB and ceremonies which it was impossible to tcear 

' "Pirat«9i vitm Tiderel BruhJnnnuni quonnndfun audontotfi ct auiiuoiubui 
Mif^MlUooan leDUiumnL fliare, oeiiuc A<IiniH]um multum diH|jutjitluiiibuj:L profioi, 
%Pi> pffOTtt vmo ilHtitUbk* doruj. — qimdrAgiriU portim pnc^ipun*, ilivflnilicit 
Wtknm 1UI& ram fualUU lUuka ubi qurcren? j«Jc8 jiuviL i^flc el muniinonto i^vuti, 

wrto iW*T» -— Siwim. lib. Iv. 245, 

tuL. EI. 




50 



HISTORY OP THE JESUITS. 



out without many yeai^a of advance to civilisatioii ; but 
in Irelaiul it was only the false hopes and incendiary 
hai'auguea of the priesthood that kept the Irishman a 
Bavage for the sake of '*liis" religion — the beggarly 
trjule of his Brah7Jiins. 

Following up this advantage gnined by the expulsion 
of their priustb, Aiitoiiio Quadrio.. the Provincial of Imlia, 
Anewinven- ^^"^^ forth Iiis Josults iiito the vlUages, Goa 
t^"/! " e™"" '^ ^^ island about two leagues in leiigtb, and 
in-iuLoa, one in breadth : itcontmns thirty -one villages, 
with a population of two thousand souls. There were 
now but few pagans after this year's conversion — as it 
were the stray bunches after the vintage — and it was 
Lopeil that in tlie following year there would be a com- 
plete gleaning of the grajjes. says '^ViZQ]ivmi^-—obsolutam 
racejiifttionem. The method of the vintage was as fol- 
lows : — QuaJrio sent out his missioners by twos ; they 
explained the gnapel to the neophytes briefly, and dia- 
courscd on the sum of the Christian law copiously ; then 
in the afternoon they perambulated the villages, made a 
gathering of ''the boys" — cofjerenl jnm'os^ with the 
sound of a bell, and gave them each a green bough to 
carry in their hands. These were inarched to the 
church singing the rudiments of the faith — -fith^ con- 
cinenfes initia. Lastly, they inquired into the w-ijits of 
the pagans, and either gave aasiatauce, or reported the 
case at liead-quarters. The result was that crowds of 
the pagans assembleil, either for tlie sake of the sight, or 
enticed (pellecfi) by their neophyte friends and ac- 
quaintances, and easily imbibed a love of baptism from 
that religious display of prayer and song, and the charity 
and exhortations of the brethren. It was sweet, con- 
tinues the historian, to see the congratulations inth 



SEW PLAN OF CONVERSION. 



51 



which the brethren returning home were received ; for 
nil eagerly M-ailcd for their return, that they might see 
how Lirge a troop e^ich would bring to the house of the 
catechumens to be baptised ; and might hear what par- 
ticular and special proof of mercy the celestial Father 
liaJ on that thiy vouchsafed to the apostles. Each led 
hb trotJp, and joyfullv to joyful listeners his glorious 
deeds related — et pr^chra l^th laii narrabani. This 
method of propagating the faith, says Sacchinus, seemed 
the moat adapted to change the superstition of all India 
into religion, and was now, for the first time, invented — 
ei nnnf. jn-imiif/t mtvnf'i- Six hundred were the first 
bat<!h of Cliristiana. Five days after, on the birth- 
fct^tiva] oi Jofm the liapUst^ it wiis impossible Co baptise 
all the converts — five hundred and seventy received the 
riie-'but more tlian two hundred had to be postponed I 
It is plea^^ant to behold how many candidates a name of 
80 little importance projiiced, ol^seiTea the Jestiit — 
ianitim^ue ca7tdida forum qudm Uvi momenio nomen 
JetUriL But was it the Jiavii; of Jolm the Baptist t 
Wm it not ratlier the anggcetion of poor persecuted 
humanity, crying out '^Quid opusesi his vinculuf efficia* 
mur Chrijitiani — * what need of these bonds ? let us be 
made Christians." since nothing but our receiving your 
whicii we know nothing of, aud care less for, is the 
Ay guarantoe of rest and pcaco, and comfort. Besides, 
you promise U> make ua comfortable, to attend to our 
wantfi. We can understand that, at least : wlien our 
Brahmins get the upper hand again, and come back with 
thctr femilie^ we 'II shout again for Brahma, Vishnu, and 
Sliiva.and beatourdrumsandcymbaRandothersounding 
UkBtnitnents for them, after the manner of our nation, just 
H we beat them now for you, great Christian Brahmins!" 

E 2 



52 



HISTORY OF THE JESPITO^ 



In the face of these facts, in spite of our knowledge 
of the most peculiarly social paganism of the Hindoos, 
we are expected to believe that the historian rcallj 
believed his pen, when it vrote these words: "The 
eagerness with which the Indians flew to the faith 
&eem€d not without a miracle " ' — verily, the miracle wa« 
that Christian nien should he &o hlindcd hy their rage 
for exhibiting boastful cataloguea of " conversions/* as 
to abuse the sacred rite of Christianity with such 
unscrupDloiis recklessness, thus making the poor pagans 
as despicable hypocrites as they ^ere before miserable 
victims of Portug\ieae tyranry and Jesuit persecutioii. 
Who can believe that such apostlea really carried oat 
the ideas of social organisation for the savage, which, in 
a former page, I heartily translated ? Beautiful was 
that theory j but the men adapted to carry it into 
practice honestly, and in the Christian spirit of Christ 
were not the Jesuits, Anon we shall see more than 
enough of these " apostles." The arms of Portugal 
flashed " faith" into the helpless hordes of India, It 
was the object of her viceroys to nmke the Hindoos 
totally dependent on their Portuguese masters. The 
rite of baptism was the infallible means to that end. It 
made thorn Pariahs, outcasts from their respective ranks, 
and compelled them to crowd the Christian temples, and 
cry Credo Pafn- f I believe, father,— so that their hungry 
stomaclm might be filled Thus were numbers actually 
demoralised, for they lost self-respect ; and became, in 
their turn, decoys to others as unfortunate as themselves. 
Conversion was the expediency of the Portuguese, and 
the rage of the Jesuits, their faithful humble servants. 



I «Akcrilu qnoque qui Indi kdvoUbuit ad fidem^ luad Tidebttor Cftrera 
Dlneulo."— SsfMiik iv. 2t>9. 



RPWCACT OP CEREMOinAL PAOEANTUV. 



53 



'Numbers" declared success forlioth respectively ; aaid 

V© reM tlint in the year 1553, by the authority of 

he viceroy, and his desiri? for the spread of Christianity, 

no lees than three thmifianJ three hundred and tliirty- 

Uiree pagans were bajitiaod in the church of St. Paul at 

kGoaP Yoti perceive that the JcHuit hahiuce-eheet of 

'conversion is as carefully **ca5t up," as the flum of 

our national revenue with its imposing pence and 

(arthings. The fact is, that flie very gorgeous display 

of these nmlliludinous baptisms — enough to tire a 

Icji^on of hundrod-liand*?d Titans, and drain a river 

— was just the thing to captivate the Hindoos, so 

f)a»4Joiiately fond of festivities, wliich their Brahma, 

Vishnu, and Sluva, and other tliousand gods most 

]ii?emlly vouchsafe to them, and which they found 

rcauly for them in tlie cities of the Christiana, djfteront 

in very few jxiiuts from their own outrageous " mya- 

torios.'* For the sake of " pomp and feast and reveh'j' " 

tlioy would submit to hare their foreheads washed by a 

Jesuit, instL^ad of dijipingtheni hi '^ Ganges, orHyfiaspes, 

'Indian streams/' The fact vim promt in the year 1561, 

•■Tliisj^ear, the College at Goa did not receive the 

iDcmBe of Christians it hoped for," says Saccliinus, 

]i]ing^ — "and liert; is the cause: the archbishop who 

rived at the end of the preceding year, just came 

^livn the produce of that most lucky harvest was unu- 

soally abundant, when iionieuse troopa of Indians were 

rdwly added to the congi-egation of the faithfiiL Whero- 

' upou, l>eiug prejudiced by the reports of certain persons 



' "Seamdam Deum Conetantini mnximir Prorcgjs DurtoriUte, &o. InGouia 
& ^mK tomjilo tvr tallk ct ituctiili triginU tTY3 baptiuti, pra^tcn^ue lios In pH- 

vma Hfid vtriking lot nf Iripl^ta for the gaping dcvi^tec (o convert into 4 



54 



UJSTOEY OF THE JESUITS. 



more intent on money than the gain of souls, saying 
that the Indians were compelled to recL^ive baptism^ he 
ordered that all who were to Ije l>aptised should receive 
the rite in their respective parishes ; and that if the rite 
was to be celehratfid with greater ceremony than usua|^| 
ho rcsorvod the case to himself. Tliis arrangemont, 
established with a pioua design, by the most excellent 
bish(>p, did not succeed as was intended," adds the 
clmckhiig Jesuit ; "ibr/* he continues, " as the UindDos 
were^ one by one, or certainly only a few together, 
ahnost in darkness, and in corners, spr'mkhd with ffie 
sacred watpr^ — to translate the bombaHtical expression 
— *' whilst that -splendour of Goan magnificence — of the 
number of the caiuliilates — of the new garments and 
decorations — of Portugal's nobility — the presence and 
eyes of the viceroy — and other attendant display — wfien 
all this was no more — then the estimation and desire of 
so great a mystery began to fall off and fi'eeze amongst 
the uncivilificd people who, in every part of the world, 
but tbei^ mo»t especialiy, arc h'd f/j/ the cr/cs — ocrtlU 
ducUurJ^^ Here is an admission I Can aiiytbiiig more 
be required to desolate the heart with the conviction 
that the Jesuitn^hristianity of India was altogether bnt 
a vilo, deceitful, lying phantasm, wliicli it '^ ont-Herods 
Herod" to tliitJc oil Yos, there is one thing more — 
and that is, the awfully debauched life of the Portuguese 
themselves in India— the '* true beUevers " of that Chri^H 
tianity which these sight-IoTing, miserable pagans were 



' **QQffirea piticouailin ab A niUtitc optima imliut&i ftc— Eienim cviin angnlii 

■Ut ccrl£ pnu^i, prnpe in tPDcbrl^, ct id angutin aacrA tJagi^i-ctitur Jh4|iiA ^ iUo 
itntem tfplcDilnri^jt Goiuii miL;^ifii.-?iiiLA, ex mimero miiclidatoruia, ^\ nova vc9- 
litu, ruttuquff e% nobililatc Lu&ilAfijl, nc ?roregih Jp»iiuB ptniicnlJA et oculia, 
cretermjut np^jnrttu ribeBdot ; cmpit twiti mystcrii upin^o H oupidiiAB ru'lein 
upud popaium, *\\\\ tiI)if|Uo ipmu-um, ewl Ibi mfcxinic, ocuiia dacitur, cftdoro et 
fi-igere."— &icfA*B. Jib, v. 21C. 



OPERATIONS IN ABYSSINIA, 



5S 



tccDptod to embmcu witli ttieir lips and their forolieada^ 
by an appeal to their wretchctl vanity, in tlio niidst of 

tgiHgoom flisplay, rank, aiid decoration ! The prohibition 
wa& taken off, and the Jesuits " went ahead '' as usual. 
Prom India, across that ocean which the Portugncae 
tecw 8o v-'oll, let us advanc<> into Abyssiuia, to see how 
He first bishop of the Jesuits, Andres ON^iedo, ™ , . 
* The JduiJj 

lias managed his apostolate. Doubtless we in Abyi- 
pemcmber the occasion of this promising 
iQJsfdon — resulting, if Mve are to believe the Jesuits, from 
an express inritation of Asnaf, the Aliyssinian king — the 
dese^>ni.lant of the famous Prester John.' The king of 
Portugal and Father Ignatius wrote letters to the king 
"Abyssiaia. These letters went through the hands of 
IP ludian viceroy, who sent them to Asnaf by " three 
otfjer persons, that they might sound the Kmperor's 
ioclinations before the patriarch's arrivaV'^ a precaution 
scarcely uecceaary if Asnaf was really a party to the 
visitAtion, 

Only two of the Jesuits (how cautiously they move) 
entered the country : but suspicion was there liefora 
tliem : king AsnaC tlie descendant of king 8olomon (as 



t Ttm tmtfcJionoared duqd b h uurioiin «pei:ime!D of IrAmcd hbsurdity , in 
• Irt nplaiii a iliflicultj before \erirjui;" iti cxffilciico. "' I'rMtcr Jobn " \» 
Phi to the ro^ iJiull at Rthiopm i liut it w>fl the n-im? of a NnbitiAA 
, Jtiha hy ntmc Uo wia tbo E^loliunuieU of Ute tvdfUi century ; htvl hia 
Ifa^ilaui mt* b Jii'ii, n«ar CfaJna. Actnrding Id Du Cangci, Witliom of Tri]ioU, 
wdotbrr «nWr»,A IScabirian pnP^l, about Uic middle oftli^^twflfili centiir>', a^ 
■fill n J 1rw|H of liUHKrt. iui<] pretcn^n^Ko be of Om v^cc of Ui« Ma^, lunrpei) 
lb* doniliiiuiiJi af ItU king. Chnncni-Riin, iif^rhinTlcnrli. Ho vanquifJinl aevonl^- 
|fln> Itingi ID nppfr AaLn^uid extended hie empii-e to tLic Indite M.nA Tnrtaiy- 
UauiwhiJr. 8c«ligiir. uid otUer gtniiueai have grubbed uut Qio Myiucilogy of tli« 
EBRitf in iJie IVrHUUi lunl Anblc ; and Crelinean rvonrde Lh? inIeUigi<nce thhl 
" /Vrtfrr Jw/ttt 14 Kllivt^-Mt for ^pT'^i ntid pttiotn" / Just lILe (flitrhwii froiti 
ItrrmLA Kitti^ - VMMnnMy derited tiius — Jon-y bini*, Ztft king. Gii<-rLiii. £ve 
fw Ifcv *b«TQ cKpluutioD of Prater John, Mco- sar TEUiinp, in UrLU-ra Edit. 
iLp.fSa. * AbrieTrurwunL .... ni»t. of £thi»]Mft ICTV. 



56 HISTOBY OF THE JESUITS- 

tlie race royal of Ethiopia claimed to be deemed) sua 

pected some sinister design in this expedition ; and even -j 
if he had appUed for a Eoman patriarch, there was -m 
surely no need of sending one in the shape of thirteen 
Jesuits. Asnaf argued verj natm^y that these Jesuits- 
were but the forerunners of an European invasion, I^" 
ho had Dot the liead of Solomon, he had the eyes of an 
observer, and could look around at his neighbours ia 
their exemplary misfortunes. It was, in iact, the com- 
mon opinion round about that ''he would become the 
tributary of the conquerors, and that the Catholic 
religion sanctioned all manner of spoliations ; " * so 
averse were the nobles to their admission that some of 
them openly affirmed that they would sooner "submit to 
the Turkish than the Roman yoke,"^ 

Asnaf gave them an audience: one of them explained 
the doctrines of the Roinan faith, Asnaf heard tlie 
Jesuita patiently, but dismissed them with a letter to the 
King of Portugal^ Avhich was as much as to say that " he 
had his doubts about the matter, and begged te dechne 
tlicir services." 

The spokcsmati was Rodriguez : his special mission 
liad been "to study the situation of the comitry/' say 
the Jesuits themselves.^ He returned to his eleven com- 
panions at Goa, for further orders — an unfortunate 
precaution, for tlie king was given to understand that 
" a great number more wore waiting at Goa to be trans- 
ported into liis kingdom/** He was frightened at the 
idea of this Jesuit invasion, — although in sending forth 
thirteen Jesuits, Father Ignatius, it is said, only intended 
to represent Clu'ist and the twelve apostles. ° 

■ Cretineftu, L 4Qtt. - HUt- of Etliiop,, bcTure quote*]. 

^ Cwtimraiiji.4B,>. ■ Prvf-Lcii^aDricf Acc.iu Gobflt*ii Journ. * Ibid. 




rEB&KCUTlOy OF CATHOLICS IN AUVSSINIAh 



r Rodriguez, the pioneer an J explorer, decamped; not 
so Oriedo the militant bishop. The sturdy Jesuit 
Tesolved ** not to yield his footing so easily." He chal- 
lenged discussion with the schismatic monks : the king 
joined in the controTersy, and *' very much foiled the 
bisliop " for " he knew more than his doctors/'' 

Then the Jcsuit-biahop came down with an escom* 
mimicacion of the whole church of Abyssinia!^ Aeuaf 
bad thrcatetied to put Oviedo to death, but contented 
himself with banishing him for ever from his presence.' 
Ac eaemy. two months after appeared on the frontier : 
Claudius went forth to give him battle : fortune was 
aguust him : the Turk prevailed : the king was elain ; 
And left his throne to Adamaa Ids brother, a sworn foe 
uf (he Boman Catholics. " upon whose account," he Kiiid, 
" !iis brother had not only lost lus life, but the whole 
empire of Ethiopia had been reduced nearly to ruin.''* 

Severe measures against the Roman Catliolics ensued. 
Oviiylo stood iK-forc the king. Adamjis ferliade him to 
preach Catholici&ni. The Jesuit replied : "''Tis better 
to obey God than men,'* At tliis bold reply, the king 
bnuidished his scimitar to cut off the Jesuit's head : but 
the Queen tJirew herself at his feet, the Jesuit stood 
uutcrrified, and the king withheld the blow.^ This is a 
fine Joenit-picture ; but another account says that Adamas 
only tore tlie gown from the Jesuit's back, which makes 
no picture at oil.* 

A pei'secutioii of the Catholics lutluwcd : " divers 
were imprisoned, tortured, and put to death." Oviedo 
uid bis oomjiauions were banished to a cold and desolate 

' OvtflHM, Brii^r Act., uid Lcl1r«fl Edif. L l p. G30. 

T BrWAcv. in i;ubM. ' Ibid. - Ibid. 




33 



UJSTUBY OF THE JESUITS. 



mountain, for tlie apace of eight mouths. A miracle set 
them freen " A princess of the blood royal, whom 
curiosity, or rather Providonce, had lod to tlie cavern of 
the banished Jesuits, beheld their persons surrounded 
by a miraculous light, and obtained fram Adarnaa the 
recal of the holy mi^aiouarics," Thoy set to work 
again ; made new conversions j and the persecution waa 
rcdoubltd ; and " the miracle of Daniel"* in tLe den of 
lions, **wa3 renewed," say the Jeauita *'Five Abys- 
Binians who had abjui^ed error, were exposed to famished 
lions : the ferocity of the lions was changed into tame- 
ness," Adamas chnnged not, however; and hia cruelty 
eventuated a splendid miracle, uuBurpasaod either in the 
Bible or the legends of tlie saints. '* lie condemned 
Oviedo, hie companions and Llisciples. to a more distant 
and horrible exile than the first. They were on the 
|X)iut of perisliing from hunger and thirst, — when God, 
touched by Oricdo'a prayer, caused to appear to thoir 
eye, a rif^er, which, opening asunder after r|iienching 
their thirst, presented to them a mtdtUude of fiskfs^ 
euough to feed them.'' 

Tho tyrant's severity was an admirable excuse for 
rebellion ; and accordingly a leader was soon found, 
who, Avitli " tliiily Portuguese " entered into a conspiracy 
against the king, " not without the concurrent in.^tigation 
of the Jesuits who led tho Portugal faction."^ 

Adamas tried to temporise with the Portuguese, and 
even invited the Jesuits into his camp: but the evil was 
done : battles ensued : Adama:^ was worsted ; and died 
soon after.^ 

Respecting his successor the accounts before mo are 
very conflicting : some making him a persecutor, others 



1 LatL ^M. I. Cl^l. '- HiuL of Ethiop. 13, ^ TUd. ; ud Uit EdiT. I 631. 



OVIBDO IN DIFFICULTIES- 



59 



eminent in glory and virtue/* and a great admirer of 
"tiie morals and holy life ottlie Jesuits." Nevertheless 
Oviodo was by no means comfortable, nor ^-as his 
cause triumphant — for the pope recalleil Iiiin from the 
nijs^ou, with orders to proceed to Clilna or Japan, 
which, however, he did not, or did not live to obey. 
la great privation at Fremona. a toMTi in the kingdom 
of Tigra, he had not even paper to write a letter to tlie 
pope, or to the Kmg of Portugal (as another account 
slatfis), and was forced to tear out the fly-leaves of Lis 
breviary nr an old commentary,' sticking them together 
for the purpose. One account states tliat he exprossod 
the wish to leave Ettilopia, '* charging the miscan'lage 
of his wiiole enterprise on the want of aids from 
Portugal :'^ — ethers assert that he stated the difficulties 
of his mission, but still aflfirmed his desire to remain on 
the ungrateful soil in spite of his tribulations. He was 
raftdy for mart^Tdom, "Yet'' (by another account 
quoting his letter) '^ he must be permitted to inform his 
Hfjliuess that, with the assistance of five or six hundred 
Portuguese soldici-a, he could at any time reduce the 
empire of Abyssinia to the obedience of the pontificate ; 
and, when he considered that it was a country sur- 
rounded by territories abounding with the finest gold, 
and promLsiTig a rich hai-vest of souls to the Church, ho 
tnistod his Ilohness would gire the matter further 
consideration.'^^ la effect what was wanting? Only 
Portuguese muskets and a viceroy. *' AU who have any 

' AOQrtn mjt "Don ptua digiEa]i irugnitqdinci e veroato (at videtur) Aliquo 
AlPiaAiat^n unrptA." — Hr. in Or. 3], 

1 fW. ftiT ibe conflii^ng atvaunta nr this miflufin, CreLinnD, i- ; Prof. Lee's 
nrief Arc- tn GoEjuc ; lIuL ot EtUii^p.,u Ufore ; Letlrea Edif. et Cur, ; Lutlolf. 
Iluit Ethinp. ; La Cn>M ; Goddca ; Teller ; AsMt^ Rrr. in Orient, p- 3 1 ; Vof - 
aC* AiU Iuij««* Ln. ; Lubo, Vo^> d^ KUilop. ; Sacchln. L iJL iv^ 



60 



HISTORY OF THE JESUTT8* 



experience of Etliiopia," says tlie Jesuit TcUcz, "know 
that without arms in iiaiid to defend and authorise the 
Catholic preachers ^'e shall never have the desired 
success among those schismatics/'" With these senti- 
ments, Oviedo could not bring his mind "to see the 
Holy Church of Rome lose the most glorious etiterpme 
under heaven — and this only for want of 500 or 600 
Portuguese soldiers.'*^ But the fact is, the promises of 
the Jesuits were mistrusted even in Portugal ; and 
whether the Court had no reliance on the word of the 
Jesuits, or was unable to lend them assistance, it was 
resolved to command a retreat to all tlie Portuguese in 
Ethiopia, who were ratLor numerous there, and as 
infamously debauched as elsewhere-^ Some make 
Ovieclo leave the country — others settle hjjn for fifteen 
or sixteen years at Frcmona, d\-iny a saint. ^Tith miracles 
after death as numerous as those which he performed 
in life, according to the Jesiiita. Such was tlie first 
expedition of the Jesuits into Ethiopia ; and such was 
its termination after all tlic efforts of Ignatiua, all the 
expenses of thy King of Portugal. It was attended 
with great sufiFering and persecution to the people — 
disgrace to religion — and good to none — not 
even to the Jesuits, whatever intorprctation 
they might give to the word. 

If the politiciil dosiguH of Portugal on Abyssinia 



4.P. ]£T7. 



I "Eatn Mnnpro fo^ a pmtiLU) don quo torn ORpcritiiinfL do EtJiiopIa, ^iio eeaUa 
hrmaA d& tuam, ijuc defi-'jidiuD et nnihorizein n oh PrognilortB C&tholJooa nua 
podomm minqaft ter o mcceiao dwiejurfo ouLtg iqiH^llca BchiHinatieoa," — P. 18*. 

■ '^ \ur pitnlt-r a Saata Tgreia cle Homn a qsajb glDrioHi Em])roifl, <|«e ha 
dehoyxD dcis ccuflf El iato §o por faJca de qumlieiiU)^, o seyceutOB Soldodos Purtu- 
gHoaiM."— 7".'^'=, p. ins. 

^ " Mna dJXDO unaao Setihor (a a qiio pnrew) qiifria com dtc? cn^lr^^ la 
liberdaJes et Bottuma do que ali^in* PiirttigxiczeB uzavam tm Etlaopift, ■saioi 
tAlubctn qtdl, que dUc imro (>nSNi(<ee H^ni vn;0}iU3.^—hi. p. ITS- 



THE JEariTS AM0KO.ST TOE CAFFRES. 



61 



Tilt Ji-aulti 



Euled by the precipitation of the Jesuits, and the 
promptitiiJe of the native sovGreigns, the eastern coast 
of Africa presented fewer obstacles to the 
reUgio-ptihticat advaiico of tlie Jesuits. Not 
content with their sovereignty in Arabia, Per- 
sia, the two Puninsula's of Iiuha, the Moluccas, Cejion, 
Isles of Siincta, and a settleiutsnt at Macao— which 
ensured tliorn the commerce of Cliina and Japan— 
the Portuguese invaded tiie opposite coast of Africa ; — 
aud in the beginning of the sixteenth century established 
an empirr* extending from Sofala to Mehnda^ fiom the 
Tropic of Capricorn to tho Equator, Mosambique was 
its contrCf well fortified and gariisoned, comman<.liQg the 
ocoAii and the AfricuJi continent. Gold, ivory, aud 
slaves, were its attractions. 

Cnder the shelter of this absorbing power three 
Jesuits were dispatched into the country between Sofala 
aTid MasamhiquG, in the year 1500 ;- — their leader was 
Gonsalvo Silveria, a Portuguese. Accor^Ungly, wo are 
assured that in a few dajs — htira paucm f/m, the native 
king, his wife, sister, chihlreii, relatives, nobles — in a 
word, almost the entire population, — with great joy and 
gmtul&tion l)ecaine Christians, or rather, (to tninslate 
the original), the Jesuits *■ cleansed them in ttie sacred 
fount — sacro Jo/lie lustranint ;'' and a church was dedi- 
cated to the Virgin Mary.* 

Andrew Femandez boldly advanced among the horrid 
of CaflTre-land. Tlu-eats and contumely dis- 

lyed him not :— inflamed with the zeal of a scriptural 
enthusiai^t, or strong in the terror by liis country's 
amiii inspired, he presented himself in the midst of a 
festirity celebrated by the savages, demolished with his 



1 AcosL lUr, LD Orient, p. 32. 



62 



RI8T0RT OP THE JESUITS. 



own liands the whole appai-atua of the pagan rites, and 
trampled thorn under foot with impiinity. The King of 
the Caffrea was present, — the Jesuit humbled him, 
covered him with confiision, hi the presence of his sub- 
jects,^ Still, the king had been l)aptised : liis presence 
at these pagan vites oxplaios the depth of his convorsioiL 

Meanwhile Gonsalvez left Moaamhique, with six Por- 
tuguese for his escort, proceeding to Quiloa on the coast, 
bj sea. A dreadful storm arose : all was over with 
them, as they thought : but tbe Jesuit ** raised his hantb 
and eyes to heaven in suppUcation :" — the winds ceased, 
and the waves were still. ^ 

Through the lands colonised by the Portuguese, Gon- 
salvea advanced, reformiug and baptising tlie slavea of 
the Portuguese, and was received everywhere with great 
demonstrations of respect by the native kin^, wljo were 
vastly edified by the Jesuit's disinterestedness. Think- 
ing all the Portugue'^e alike, one of these kings offered 
bini " as many women, as much gold, land, and as 
many cows as he pleased," The Jesuit replied that 
" he only wanted the king himself' Then the king 
ejaculated to the interpreter a moral universally useful : 
" Indeed," said he, " since he will receive none of these 
things, which are so vastly coveted by others, he must 
be immensely different from other mortals." The king 
diBuiissed hira with the kindest expressions of friend- 
ship, — the Jesuit devising a method to convert the sable 
king, constitutionally fond of the "fair sex," if the term 

' Tliin U Called hy AcoatA, AndriT iw^rAJ /rtcinjsif Anclcvw^i Ttvghtj exploit. 
It aeetHfl that llie ting lirt-t iMpfi^a/tutij tliough baptieeil, van i bit of q rogu« ; 

txiA the bdd J«Huit eompeUed him to iicknowli?il|re thut he hftd no jtntm- otrr tU 
raim pfTvii^vn (w ofltrul to tbo crop*), m waa pret*iidcd hy tbe CaflVo kiiigv— • 
port of Vattcan prerogatirB to Mjwle the people and mate thfrm snbmifisive, Tliifl 
bunuliAting conrejwou of the king woold at onco cast him far briow the wondtt- 
fcorlior* of JpHiitiim. ' AcdbI. ib, 32, &, 



THE QrERN OP HEAYEU VISITS A TAOAS KINO. 



63 



may, by courtesy, be applied to the ladies of Africa, 
it succeeded to admiration. Gonsalvez said mass next 
morning in an open spot, exposing on the altar a picture 
of the Virgin Mary, wliich he had brought from India. 
Some of the '* courtiers " passing by, fancied they saw 
a real woman of great heauty. They reported accord- 
ingly to the king, who instantly sent to the Jesuit, 
telling liini he had heard that he had a wife ; that he 
wished him exceedhigly to bring her to him. Gonsalvez 
covered the picture with a costly robe, and took it to 
the king. Before he exposed it to view, in order the 
more to sharpen the king's desire — desidei-ium t^nh ma^i^i 
AracuiU^ Gcnaalvez told him that it ''was the image of 
God's mother, iii whose power and dominiou were all 
the kiags and cnijierors of the wliole world." Then he 
uncovered the image. It received the king b veneration. 
He asked the Jesuit again and again to give it him : 
tliG Jesuit consented, and placed it iu the king's chamber, 
fitting upthe room as an oratory or chapel — re/nfi sacdlmn 
yuoJdam precandt catisd pcristromali.s ej-tyntaL Whilst 
die king slept Uiat night '' the Queen uf Heaven appeared 
Elding by his side> exactly as represented in the 
picture, surrounded with a divine hght, sliimng with a 
ffwoet splendour, with a most venerable and joyfiit 
a8pe«t" On the following day the king sent for Gon- 
salvez and told him that ho was ** wonderfully concerned 
that he could not understand the words of the Queen 
of Heaven, which she spoke to him every night.*" Gon- 
aaJvez was ready with his elucidation : he told the savage 
''tJiat her knguage was dinne, and not to he understood 
except by those who submitted to the laws of that 
Queen's sou, who was God and the Redeemer of the 
whole human race.'* In conclnsioiij the king and three 
hundred of liis *' nobles" were solemnly baptised with 



64 



BISTOBY GF THE .rE9UIT8. 



great pomp ami ceremony, — the king being veiy con- 
sistently named Sebastian, after tlie King of Portugal, 
and his mother received the name of Mary, after the 
Queen of Heaven.' If ycu remember "the trumpeters 
in the nave/' placed by the preacher of Navarre, you 
may easily guess the secret of tliis Teflecting and speaking 
picture, managed by the JcBuits, 

Subsequent success tallied with tliifl splendid begin- 
ning ; it seemed likely that the whole population would 
become Christiana, when some powerful and clever 
Mahometans, iji liigh favour witb the king, made senons 
reproaentatioris to his majesty respecting the Jesuit 
expedition, assuring Mm that he was endangcrmg his 
life and kingdom, that GonsalveK was au emissary of 
the riccroy of India and the chiefs of Sufala sent to 
explore liis condition, to excite the minds of his people 
to rehelhon, and ready with an army to follow up the 
movement ^ith a hostile invasion. We can only record 
such imputations, having no means of verification ; but 
it is remarkable that savages, as well as ci\'ilised men, 
came to the same opinion respecting the Jesuits. True 
or false, the represeatatious were deemed probable by 
the king ; Gonsalvez was doomed to destruction. He 
was killed, and his body was thrown into the river, 
" lest tlie corpse of such an evil-doer, if lefl on the 
ground, should kill them witli its poison ; " for he wm 
believed " to have brought with him various poisons 
and medicaments to work on the minds of tlie people 
and kill the king.*' Fifty Christians wlioni Gonsalvez 
ha*l baptised on hie last day, shared tlie same fate. 
The Portuguese interfered, and threatened the king witli 
the vengeance of war. This threat had due effect. The 
king expressed regret, threw the blame upon his advisers, 



ANCHIETA, THE ADAM OF THK SKW WORT.D, 



65 



D, with barbaric rccklesmic^ he put tu i^leaih 
witliout Jcia}", to propitiate the Juggernauts of Portugal. 
When tlit^ intelligence of these trausacti^jiia reaohod 
India, more Jesuits were despatched to tlie country, at 
the argent request of the viceioy — vekeJtiejder opiante 
Prore^e, in order *' to promote the begiuniags which 
promised altogether happy ]>rogresSH" ^ 

In Brazil, the Company of Jesua had produced a 
miracle-worker, such as the world had never seen 
before — whose hkc we shall never seo a^ain. The 
Jesuit Aucliiela far excelled even Xavier iu powers 
miraculiius. The Jesuits call him the Apostle of Brazil, 
and the Thaumatuvg of the agc.^ The wonders related 
of tliifl niau, by the Jesuits, 3urj>a3s in absurdity all that 
can possibly be iraa^ned Let the Jesuits describe 
him : " liis praise^) may be compnsed in one word if 
wo call him the Innocent Adam. It was only just for 
God \^> create an Adam for the mortals of the New 
World — Tfioriali&ffx Nor/ Orhh /wrirm d Dm creari 
Adamum par erat. I know not \vliich to call his terrea- 
triid Paiodise — the Cnuary lalauds, where he was bom, 
or Iho Company whicJi he entered ; for, in the former, 
he breathed the breath of life ; in the latter, the breath 
of grace. He shared the four endowments which Adam 
received in his state of innocence ; namely, dominion 
orer the animal creation, a right will, an enlightened 
UKtderstanding, an immortal body. His dominion over 
the animal creation w^is proved six hundred times by 
fi&hes, birds, wild beasts, aerp&nts, all which he would 
call in the Brazilian language : they obeyed and followed 
hiro^ by the privilege of Adam : ' Have dominion over 
the fiKli of the sea, and over the fowl of tlie air, and 



> Arat p. 59. 
TOL. U. 



I Bib. ^ripi, 3<Kh Jem, Ju»[>li An^liieiju 

r 



66 



HISTORY OP rHK JESQITS. 



over every linug thing that movetb upon tlie earth/ 
Wherever be wished, fishes were fuuuJ, ami Hufiereil 
themselves to be caught ; liencc he was called l>y the 
ignorant Bavages the father wlio gives us the fishes we 
want. And it sometimes happened that tlie people of 
a village heing reduced to want by being biiideied from 
fisliiug in stormy weather> he led tliem all to the beach 
and asked them what sort of fish they desired. By 
way of a joke, tbcy would ask for a sort not fouud at 
that season of the year ; and he would produce sucli a 
shoal of the fishes, that they caught with their nets, nay 
even with their bands, as many as they liked. He 
would call birds to praise Gfod, and they flew to him 
and perched on bis fingej' and chirped, A flock of 
crows had gathered round about some fishes laid out 
on the shore by the fishermen ; at liis command they 
moved off and waited for a promised part of the prev. 
Once on a voyage, when ill, and the sun's mericUaij rays 
were too hot to bear, he comraandcil a hii-d to go and 
call her companions to make bim a shade — a parasol. 
And sbo went and gathered a flock and rcturncil, and 
tliey shaded the ship with tlieir wings, to tlie length of 
three miles, until be dismissed them, and they flew off 
with a joyfiil croaldng. Often, whilst he was praying 
or prcacliing, little birds would perch on his head and 
his armfl ; so great was their beauty, that they seemed 
things of Heaven rather than of earth/' ^ The savage 
beasts of the forest — the ferocious jaguar be tamed; 
two of them fullowed him a>s guards when he went to 
the woods at night to say liis prayers, and wbeu he 
retunied he rewarded their fidelity with some fiTjit 
—fructilftis — which enhanced tlie miracle ; seeing tliat 

^ Sib. Script Sno.Joflu, Juscpli Ancliiet 



HIRACLRa AMONGST THE M0:?KEY9. 



67 



I 



llieir carnivoroua stomach accommodated itself to a!i 
licrWvoruiis iligcstiun^ — their iatestines wore elongated, 
as a matter of course. He even used the beasts of the 
t'oiuitry to instruct the savages, aud impress them with 
their barbarity : thus, the death of a large monkey, 
IdUc-d by n Brazilian, furnished him with matter for a 
eemiou and occasion for a miracle. *^ The uoise that this 
aiiimid imidc in falUiig," says Jouveuci, " haviug brought 
lo iJie spot all the other monkeys of the ncigUbourliood, 
Ancliieta spoko to them in his language, commanded 
them to go and Invite the Utile onets, the fatlier, the 
motlier, in fine all the relatives and fiiends of the 
defunct, to assist at his fiineral and celebrate hia obse- 
quies. AH tlicse animals assembled immediately, making 
groat lamentations, some striking their breasts with their 
pBva, others rolUng on the ground before the corpse, 
others tearing their beard and sprawhng in the dust. — 
all moaning and pulling frightful faces. After these 
pn?ludefl. many monkeys approached, and Ui'ted the 
defunct, and carried him on their shoulders, whilst the 
ro3t followed the funeral, leaping from tree to tree. 
Tliero were some," says the hhtarian, " which, imitatuig 
tiie ferocity of the barbarians, seemed to reproach them 
with it, by glaring on them with fuiioua and tlircatening 
looks. Thus the funeral advanced to a \iliage four miles 
ofil Then Anchieta, dreading lest the savages would 
0et upon these charitable animals, commanded them to 
ret4im into the woods, and they obeyed. Thereupon 
the Jesuit, turning to the Brazilians who weie ah-eady 
mulling to give chase lo the monkeys, exclaimed: *See 
Iiow these beasts bewail the death of one of their kind, 
wliiiirt you rejoice at tlie death of your fellow -creatures, 
and Bomeiimes devour them alive/ " Whether Father 

p 2 



OS 




HISTOUY Of THB JESUITS. 



louvenci perceived the absuiJity of this missionary 
Arabian Eutortainment, or really wished to give us an 
idea of the natural and most excusaljle incredulity of 
tliesc savages, lie adds that this adventure of the won- 
derful Ancbieta only made them laugh.* Nicrcmberg 
says that Ancbieta stopped a tompest which was im- 
pelling, in order that the Indians might enjoy a comedy 
which be bad composed for them. It lasted three hours 
in the representation, and the tempest frowned pregnant 
wjtli its catai'act ; " but the prayer of God's servant held 
them fast" until the people departed, and then tlic t^m- 
pest hurst with whirlwintls, floods, and dreadfiil thundei-a." 
Savage bulls he forced to the yoke by the sign of the 
cross ; and sontctimes, merely to amuse the Indians wlio 
happened to be with him, he would, for mere spoit, 
m( oft/ecfnt/icufum, command the monkeys of the wootls to 
gambol and to dance, and they did so, until he dismissed 
them, " Our Adam handled serpents witliout injury 
— .serprtitfis Adtinutt; nostte^' rnq^hastix fracfnlmt. So com- 
pletely did he rule over vipers, that when he trod on 
one with his naked feet, and tried to make it bite him, 
it licked his foot rcspoctfidly, nor did it dare to Iw in 
ambush for Im kedJ'^ We almost fancy thai these 
marvels were invented exprenisly to ridicule all that 
ChristijiiiHS read with awe and adoration. Kor is the 
budget exhausted, by very many items. All natiu^was 
subject unto him : he spoke, and all obeyed him. 
Tempests he tililled, desperate dise^ises he cured, showers 
he suspended in the air, language he gave to a dumb 
infant, life and vigour to a dying father, limbs to the 
maimed. Ue cured leprosy witli water, consumption 



■ Javi>iicL Ii>«t lib. uiii. p. 7SG, &pud <lu<«wl, i, I GO. 

' V»roDM UiUBtro, Uh &I ^k * DlbL &!Hpi, Sot Jcsu, «W tuprk. 



IfATUHES StBSERVTEKCT TO ANCHIBTA. 



I 



with the touch of his sleeve, heatl-ache with the slirede 
of his garments, and the sound of hig voice dispelled 
uiguish of mind .md put to Hight temptations. The 
elomeDts tbemselvcs rcBpcctod him a-s their master — ipsa 
ttntit'nUi obscrviJj'int nt ^omimnn. Often when aahowor 
came on during a jonrney, whilst his companionB were 
wet to tlie flfcirj — ptrmaffeniilftfs — he appeared quite dry 
— sit'cuft apparit'U. The sea respected him as well as the 
ftliowers. When iu prayer kneeling on the beacli, the 
flowing tide wonld pass beside him, leaving a \acant 
tiytu-G vfhere he was enclosed within a double wall of the 
heaped up billowa — velitl in gemhium parkiau imdu 
ej'fjffga'atis — ajid leaving him a dry path to the shore in 
ihe midst of the waters. *^ But what need of many 
iiwtajices," exclaims the Jesuit, '* since he mled nature 
not as a master but as a tyr^int — avv/ fpiid muUis opus est, 

vn fion fam dominatUy tjuam h/ra7imde nnttn'fim tenuity 

sometimea forced her to produce what she did not 

cvqerrt infvrdnm i/uod no/t haf^/mt erhibvre. In 

great scarcity of oil he produced some from an empty 
cnakt and though diy witldn, it afforded for two years 
as much oil as was wanted for two colleges, for the use 
of the church, the table, and the poor," He changed 
water into wiae, to revive some one on a journey ; and 
to humour the longing of a sick man, he changed a fish 
into an oyster — piscem in pe}*imm Tttr/tavit^ A j^agan, 
■who falsely thought himself a Christian, had died. 
Joeeph called back bis soul, and led it back to his body, 
ba|)tisodhim,and sent him /'ffrfr to Heaven — ahttsGentilU-, 
^ui St Chr'ntinnum faUd credideyat^olAerat ; eju^ onitnam 
Joff^hu4 r^ocarit, reduxltque ad cojprt.^, baptismo tiru^t, 
«C C^io remuit. He knew what happened in his absence, 



< Dibl. Srript. Son. J«au» ^y njirA. 



70 



JBSFITB, 



secrets, aiid things about to happen ; and he foretold them 
as distiuctly as though his miud was the mirror of the 
Divine Wisdom to which all thinj^s arc present — qvmn si 
Diririfp Snplcnti^e. rui prrpsejit/a srtoii omnia^ spcaihtm 
e»sei i^us inteUectus, InBpiratioDG, revelations, the pecu- 
liar endowments of beatified bodies heenjojed, ''for we 
know on good authority that whilst in prayer his body 
was often raised from the ground, suiTOunded ^i-ith the 
most brilliant light, with heavenly music somiding the 
while," They say he once forgot his breviary, leaving 
itbohind, twenty-four miles off; an intfft'l brought it to 
him ! * In the twinkling of an eyo ho performed long 
journeys — mmncnto temporU longa itinera fk'crtrrisse; yea, 
was in two places at one and the same time ; and when 
you liked he would make himself invisible, sometimes 
vanishing, then returning to astonish and stupify the 
spectators. It is scarcely credible that God created a 
man of sucli wonders for one world only — mrurn hune 
ttmtw admirabilitatk via' ctedibilc sit a Deo fnissc vni 
mtftido condition.'* Surely there was cuough in idl these 
wonders and portents to make a sainl for the glory on 
earth of the Company of Jesus ; but though the Jesuits 
expected that result,^ they wero disappointed, and 
Joseph Anchieta remains the ailly, stupid thing of their 
biogi-aphies, though he may have been, for all we know 
to the contrary, a laborious niiasioner, and author of a 
few bookst rendered curiosities by the ** solid falselioods " 
of his brethren respecting their author.* 

' Tftbluux, p. 23L 3 3itl, ScripL Soc. Jcea^ nbi tupriL 

1 ■* Ex ap^BMi ilhun propediom &bunc(a Mbtrc Eccli-uA %itxo muudoftd vcne- 
mtionemi imitatittneinqnc (!) propoBitum in," &?. — Hid. 

■ Amoijg tliG rtflt, lie wrole a. Dtitnui for Uio extirpation of Iha ricca of 
Umzll—Bramit ad firirpamia BrtLAtlitc Fiiia. Ibid, One wuuld suppose iJmt Iub 
luirvvLDU |HjHen ongbL tu luve given tbtnn " « tvritlj" u Si. Pntrick tcrvod 



THE JESUirS IN 8W1TZERLAJJD. 



71 



These angels of ilisturbaiice und invenlora of fables — 
with tlie best possihlo intentions, if we are lo believe 
tlienisckcs — were not less active in Europe 
lliaii in India, Abyssinia, Caffreland, and Brazil, in s^titicc- 
In 1560, the Jesuits penetrated into Switzer- 
land : the VuJtelinc, in the land of the Griaona, booamo 
the scene of contention. The invading furco consisted 
of three priests and tlirce other Jesuits not in ordera. 
Thoj insinuated thoinsclves into the good graces of 
a certain Antonius Quadrius, a simple old gentleman of 
the Valt^-iinc. belon^ng to one of tliG firet familie-s of the 
country. How it Lappeaed, who can tell 1 — but the 
old gentleman gare the Jesuits all his wealth to build a 
college — re tfud familiari coUegio e'l'truf-ndo donatd. The 
Jesuits took possGs.sion ; but it appeal's they were too 
prccij)itate. A mandate of tbe Canton fell upon their 
dreams like a nightmare. They were ordered to leave 
the country forthwith. The messenger' adde(l that ** lie 
was a Catholic, and on that account ho was unwilling to 
proceed to foix;c ; he rather would give them a fricmlly 
hint, to return to their people^ and not to wait for com- 
pulsion/' But it would never do to resign so easily a 
boon so proDiisbg : the Jesuits held out, and their 
patron, the old gentleman, protested against the man- 
date. There was a gathering of the people — men and 
women : the nobility joined in the fray. The old gen- 
tleman's relatives were naturally excited. He had no 
chilih'en, and they were his heirs at law. They tried 
I»ersuasion with the Jesuit-principal, Tarquinius Ray- 
naldua. Thoy begged that ho would not rob them of all 



tfai frog! >nd (o&da of Erin, ind " lintiifllicJ ihrm for ctrr." BcKidefl his life in 
of t^ Compviy, ili^rc arc ivo Hrivt uf Ancliietn liy tliti Jcmitd BtretAriiu 

Ui4 Ruterigius, oil hon-ibl^ riiliculou?. 



72 



HISTORY OF THE JE3UITS. 



their inheritance, contrary to the rights and customs of 
men. The Jesuit's reply was handsome^ whether it be 
the composition of Sacclunus or Raynaldus, '' It is ouly 
a few days since I have become acquainted mth Quadrius 
[the old gentleman aforesaid] : reUgions men who have 
given up their own patrimony do not come into this 
valley in quest of another Wc are here by command 
of those whom we have taken as the rulers of our life, 
in the place of ChiTst the Lord : wo are ready, should 
occasion require, to give our hfc and blood for the sal- 
vation of souls, not only to the family of Quadrius. but 
all the world. But if Quadrius will listen to me, I will 
see that he bequeaths to you a groat part of tho inhe- 
ritance. For, although it were better for him to con- 
secrate the work to God, as he had resolved, still, 
in order to preserve peace with all men, I shall suggest 
what you demand. A few rehgious meu will not be 
suffered to want sustenance, by the bounty of the other 
citizens, and the providence of the heavenly Father.'** 
This fine adilrcss was really all they could desire : and 
ao they went their way, rejoicing; but the Jesuits at 
once began to teach a multitude of boya, whom they 
divided into three classes ; and vast was the daily con- 
flux of accessiona to tho benches. They had sent Qua- 
drius to appeal : they wct'o working away joyously, 
when down came a final decree from the authontieB 
abolishing the college. Resistance waa vain : the deter- 
mination to dislodge them was evident. The Jesuits 
yielded to the storm for the present, and took their 
departure, treasuring the remembrance of what they left 
behind — " drawing at each remove a lengthened chain." 
In the following year, the agitation was vigorously 

1 S»(*chiu. lib. iv. bX 



T3CKIR MACHINATIONS. 



73 



roncwecL Bacoliiiuis puts all the motives and eipe- 
rliorits to the account of the people: but their source is 
too euileut to be tlius mistaken : they are as follows ; — 
tliat Qiiatirius was a man of great authority, ami would 
ho respected by the princes of Germany, and the Emperor 
himself: that recumnicnJationB from all the princes of 
Cliristcmlom woidd preyail : that the cour^eut and agita- 
tion of all the people of tho ValtoHne would gain the 
day : tliat nothing was certainly imjfregnabh to money — 
permtift certe nihil inexpngnahile esse. The relatives of 
Quadrius could l)e wen over by the hope of getting a great 
part of the inheritance — tho Governor of the Valteline, 
being a Catliolic, would undertake the business, and bring 
it to a happy isAue.^ Letters of recommendation were 
forthwith obtained frora the King of France, the Emperor 
of Germany, the King of Bohemia, the Marquis of Pie- 
caria, the Governor of Milan, the Duke of Bavaria, the 
Catholic Cantons, and other authorities, addressed to the 
Grisous in favour of tho scheme. Is not this dotemiinod 
nian<BUiTe woiihy of admiration ? Is it eaay to get 
rid of tlic Jesuits when they have once had a footing? 
Nor was this all They chose two of the citizens — 
flharp and sturdy men — acres ac strenuos riros — as 
their commissioners. These went about among the 
neighbouring people^ praying and conjuring the Catlio- 
Mcs to favour the common cause ; and others they 
fiUcd with promises — cteteroft ivqJent promtJi^fis. Their 
old patron was stimulated almost to frenzy : he was 
ready to resign all he had — even the shirt on his 
back — nay, he would even give up himself, with apoa- 
tolical charity — apostollcd caritate SHj^erimpende^^e seip- 
$Hm- Ueanwhile, the '^ heretics" were no less active 



74 



HISTORT OF THE JESUITS. 



on tbo other side, agitating witli equal determination, 
perfectly conviucetl that thore was nut a greater 
peatilcnce against the Gospel than the Jesuits — nuUam 
cifse EnangcUo suo capitaliorem pestan quam Jesnitas. 
In the midst of this fermentation, the cause was triod 
befbi'C the authorities. The Jeauit-commiBfiionei'S doli- 
verod a speecli, carefully prej^ared — uccuratS prtejinrald 
orafioHc — which you will find in Uocchinus, much too 
long and elaborate for translation, but duly eloquent 
and diffuse on the good qualities and pious intentions 
of the founder of the college winch had been tnken 
from the Jesuits, imputing the worst motives to lus 
heirs at law, ascribing the banishment of the Jesuits 
to their avariue — the whulo concluding with the follow- 
ing glorioua peroration : — ^' Therefore, most excellent 
gentlemen^ preserve far and wide the reputation of your 
firmness and gravity, with our safety and dignity. The 
mo-st Christian King of France begs this of yon,'* (saying 
this, they exhibited the letters) : "the Emperor Ferdi- 
nand bega it : Maximihan, the Khig of Bohemia, Albert, 
Duke of Bavaria, the Kepublic of the y\\iss, tlie Gover- 
nor of Milan, our whole country, suppliant at your feet, 
onr children, our grandchildren, our whole posterity, all 
join in the petition. If they could come hither, you 
might sec the hoys, the mothers of families, the whole 
population of tho valley and all the vicinity, prostrate at 
your feet, uphfliag their hands in supphcation. For, 
loost kind gentlemen, we have experienced the powers of 
this right Institution : we know the learning and talent 
of these men. They were only a few months among us, 
and already oui" boys are different to what they were : 
tliey are much more modest than before, more quiet at 
home and out of doors, more respectful to thoU' elders, 



A SPEECH CAREFULLY PREPARED. 



75 



more obiigiuf; to their relatives, and far more desirous 
of praise an<i learning. Confiding in the justice of our 
cause, ia the wisdom of Quadrius. in the glory of his 
Jet^d, and in your justice and Idndness, we deem all the 
anjiojancea. or expenses which we have incuiTcd iu the 
uiatlcr^ rightly placeil in order that the memory of so 
great a beDofit, fli"5t conferred by Quadrius, and by yon, 
who will restore it, shall live for ever iu our mind, and 
that of our posterity/' The address was delivered with 
vehemence and with tears, says Sacchinus.' 

This glorious speech might have boon a prixe-essay 
of Bome pup3 among the Jesiuts, You wiD find other 
fipecimens in Joiiveuci's Oratiuns, on a variety of topics 
or conimon-placcs.^ But the speech shows its origin — 
and what the Jesuits say of themselves and their 
niiniculous transformations amongst '^ the boys" and 
the mothers of famihes. As such it would have been a 
pity not to give an extract. The address of the Jesnit- 
commissioners overshot the mark» and was hoard with 
ajiatiiy. The relatives of the old gentleman were skilful 
lawyers and spoke for themselves, and were heard with 
immense applause aud success. They said that their 
rclativo was extremely old and without children : they 
were consequently the lawful heh*s to his property : 
that it was unjust to permit his wealth to paas into 
the hands of adventurers, who, under the pretence of 
instructing youth, were only seeking to enrich them- 
selves with the spoils of individuals, and to alter in 
their favour the maxima and fundamental laws of 
imtious — that the great age of their relative had 
vfo-akened his minil, and that these Jesuits had taken 

■ JurPDCTT OmlkinoA. Svc obio Slrwltf Ehfmitliii J^partiiOy which Ja huIkt 




76 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS, 



advaDtnge of his imbccilitj to induce ijim to give them 
liis money, tliiis robbing hia relativee and his country, 
and pampering a act of vagabond and turbulent monks 
with the wealth of the Valtelinc' Tliis appears to have 
beon the general opinion of tlie audience ; for a decree 
wm pHBBod banisliing forthwith the Jesuits from the 
country of the Orisons, as the enemies of the GoapeL 
The old gentleman's donation was cancelled ; and the 
adminstration of his affairs was given over to his 
relatives, though he was undisturbed in tiie possession 
and use of Iub property during life, but all was to descend 
to his relatives after his death. The Jesuits say there 
was immense lamentation at this decree, and that the 
latliei's had not got five miles from the city before a 
severe earthquake shook the country, ** so that the vulgar 
feared lost the earth should open and hell should 
swallow down all the people on account of tlie crime of 
those who had expelled the fathers.^ I ejjtected to read 
of some such portent at the end of the affair ; and 
would have l>cen much surprised had I not Tonnd it 
recorded. In truth, it is hard to maintain the requisite 
impartiality of the historian when we have to do with 
such desperate partymen, such unreasonable and reck- 
less inventors as the Jesuits. There is, however, an 
unintentional equivocation in the words " secitfs ejectorvm 
patrtim : " — which may be interpreted into — " the crime of 
the ejcck'd fathers" which crhiie may have had as much 
to do with the *' earthquake " as anything else ie/iw. 
Disturbances and monaciugs among the Jesuit-party 
were left in fermentation : but it was thought useless to 

1 SAcchin. Ub. V, 102. 

■ *• ViK itb ponfB /juinqiip millin [■imsuitni ivi^c^jj^i^irr, c^uui Iaqi gr^vi motu ilia 
oinniflOra™ncuitMBSt,ut^'uli?us linicrcnl,h^ <1obbccntel(frr*oli Bcelusojecucnin 
pAlrum C"f iateqirotabutnr) omtiesTftrtAnu HbwirbcrGt."— SfiocAftt. Ub^ v, 106. 



THE JESUITS IN TLISCANT. 



t I 



make uny further ctTiirt^ iv regain tlie college. Still 
S»ccliiiiiis assures us tlia,t the oM gGnUetikait* Quadriiig, 
ftgain ratified tlic grant before his death, which followed 
close upon Iho edict — apparontlj to justify the stub- 
bom pertinacity of the Jesuits in still clinging to the 
property : for Raynaldi again went to the city, and 
lauaged to make an imprecision on one of the hoirs- — 
it all to no further purpose, although the Jesuit tells 
of various calaniitieii falling upon the '* peculators of 
the sacred money."' Whatever view wc take of this 
expedition into tlic Valtelinc, it is impossible to make 
it reflect credit on the Coroi)aiiy, An imbecile old 
man — the disturbances that ensued — the endent hand 
or toil of the Jesuits throughout the a^tation — their 
Huhsecjucnl hankering after the money, — all must declare 
that grasping spirit of possession Avhich tbe Jesuits soon 
began to display — and the sort of victims they selected. 
Whilst the Jesuits were thus expelled from Switzer- 
land for the reasons above stated — the inliubitaots of 
Monte I'ulciano in the Duchy of Tuscany were 
enJeavouring to get ri<l of them as the cor- 
ruplerH of tlu-ir wives and daughtti-s. It certainly does 
appear, from their ovsii version of the affair, that the ac- 
cusations were not without foundation. Saechiiius treats 
tJjem as populiir niiuoui's : but the very facts which he 
does admit loiid us to infer the contrary : — at all events, 
as in the Swiss afiair, the Jesuits invariably appeal to 
popular demonstrations in their favour ; they should, 
therefore, be ihc laat to shield the guilt of their men by 
depreciating the credit of the popular voice. The fju-ls 



Ttif Jimiit 
ID TuB<?iinT. 



' lb- lOti. \b toi iimtiuire of Jrauitm^filpry, like the fuMowijig ptiroA^ wLu« 
wttBinf \6, that Fitiher Tirquiuim ma/ie ■ reltgioua impivsAina od odd dI Uw 
b*t>B : *' Citm Paler Turiiuiixiua . - . , , ponti^n htijiiH^ti Nnnni hfiniftm rtHf^ 
trnftiU "-—rtUffion vmt int" tht Piind of <me a/ tft^ heirt f 



78 



nT8T0RY OF THE JESUITS. 



arc as follows. One of the Jesuits was accused of 
Lading offered violence to a respectable lady, who, 
trying to escape from his brutal passion, was, by the 
savage, fiercely pm-aued. One of their lay-brotliers had 
also committed himself in a manner utibeconiing a 
religiomi man, or any man, though Saccliinus sayj* he 
waa imprudent and too simple, and only asked a woman 
whither alio waa going- In addition to this, a Jesuit 
had been seen leaving the college, and entering a 
disreputable home, where he remained all night. The 
Jesuits — mighty men of disguises as they were — easily 
get rid of tliis, by stating that Bome rogue had dia- 
gitised liimaolf aa a father, in order to increase the had 
odour of the Jesuits — a method of exculpation, or rather 
a recrimination, which requires us to heheve a double 
or a triple crime in another man rather than the simple 
one in a Jesuits Certain it is, aa SaccMnus admits, 
that the Jesuits wore extremely familiar and diffuse 
witli the ladies of Monte Pulciano. and confessed almost 
all the women and gli'ls of tho eity.^ It is even said 
that the very walls of the Company's church breathed 
and begat devotion — ipsos tetnpli Soeietatis partdes 
ftpirare et ingenerare in adetn/fi/tm anhnis piciatem. 
Accordinf^Iy the number of tho women who fi^equently 
went to coiifefiaion and tlie sacrament, was immense, 
and their devotion remarkable. This sacred tribunal 
was always the shoal of frail miuisters ; and muat ever 
be the bitter sourcu of never-ending tempt^ition to tho 
moat Tutuous. Tho close contact of beauty, the warm 



' Howuter he reasserlfl the fact BubseqTK'nlly, nii'l saja that he mw k d«cu- 
rncnt in whJch tlie man is atAto^l to Jiavc i^nfcTf^ud Uh ilisguba on bifl death- 
bed I — Sacoliin. lilf. rii. r. '2T> 

tiuiu uiuni'nuB ct picUu erat liiii^ tia."— Jt/, lib v, 10?. 



8U8PECTBD PKUCADILLOS OF FATHEK UOMB.iK. 



79 



breatliiijgs of the sanguine, the soft acoeuta of blushing 
modesty, nnist nalurally ruffle, and stir, and agitate the 
feelings of the confessor ; but when to tliis gentle 
attraction of human sympathy Is superadded by the 
bur penitent, the more or less protracted Ust of her 
temptations, her troublesome thoughts, hor frailues, 
how horrihlc must he the intensity of that stnjgglo with 
the clinging fiuggcstions of nature in the coufessor, who 
finds that his penitent is inclined to be as frail as himself! 
Against the Jesuits of Monte Pulciano suspicion suc- 
ceeded to suspicion : the people shunned them, and one 
of the principal citizens felt himself called upon to pro- 
tect tho honour of his family. This gentleman liadtxm 
swtors, very amiable both of them : tlicy were the 
fviritual daughlen of Father Gombar, Jesuit, and rector 
■ the college at Monte Pulciano. They were accustomed 
to wijoy long conversations, on pious matters, with the 
Janiit, apparently contrary to the stringent rules and 
regulations on the anbject of female intercoarse, wliieh 
1 have already laid before tho roaJor. Rules and rcgu- 
IjUioiui are gooil things, hut they are notliiiig if nut 
observed. Public rumours frightened Gombar, and he 
bethought him of the I'ulcn and i^giilatious, and^ of 
cotitw, offended his spiiitual daughters, though very 
much given to piety — ■plurhimm dedittB pieiati. But 
he had not the strength to do more than half his duty, 
for he only threw off or cut short one sister, and retained 
the other, who wa-s a matron, and had a son in the 
Company. The dismissed lady imparted a bad sus- 
picion to her brother, actuated hy jealousy, according 
to the insinuation of Sacchinus : but can we be even 
»npe of the alleged cause of jealousy ? It is so easy to 
invent the obvious crimination, — though it is impc^asible 



so 



HrSTOUY UF TUB JESUITS. 



til say wlmt a jcaloua or slijy;htcJ WLHnan will not Jo for 
revenge. Be that as it Tiiay; the ruault wns a liict 
wliich spoke at least a strong conviction of the Jesuits 
Kuilt or ujrliscretions. The brother of the kilica forba^le 
both of them to confess to the iathers, and even to visit 
tlie rector. A gi'eat aeiiaatioii ensued : all tlic nohle 
ladica of Moate Puloiano were scared from the church 
of the Jesuits. A good-natured Capuchin monk, with 
bratherly aynipatliy, lent assistance to the Jesuit's repu- 
tation, and gave him a stave from the jiulpit ; but, what- 
ever was the intention of tho monk, his eennon became 
a trumpet to the scandal, and everybody " took the thing 
in hand/' determined to '^sift it to the bottom/' 

A number of love-letters, either written to, or by 
Goinbaj-, wa-^ found. It was also discovered tliat he had 
inveigled a largo sum of money fi'om a lady, which tlie 
grand vicar of the place compelled him to restore, 
Sacchiniis says that the vicar treated lum in a most 
honourable manner — when he proved that he had made 
ri^titutioii — pi'ohatd satisfadione : but it was a very bad 
case altogether, arid Gombar, tho Jesuit rector, took to 
flight, and nobody knew what had become of him, until 
it was made known to the offended world of Monte 
Puloiano that General Laiuez had expelled luin from 
the Company, sayiug, *^He sboiUd have done anything 
rather tlran permit himself to appear guilty by such a 
flight, and cause the name of the Society and of so 
honest and holy a lady to be contaminated. If he had 
not the courage to die, he might have avoided the 
danger of death by hiding himself at home. Why did 
he not fly to Perusia, or to Eome, if he fled at all?" 
The penalty was ex|Julsion ; — though Gombar begged 
to the last to be sol t^> any work, ei'ea to the tuition of 



THE JESUITS EXPELTXB FROM MOSTE PUIX'lANO. 81 



fe 



I 



youUi all the clays of his life I — ac ?tominatm ad puet^ox 
4mn rliam fio'\'?idos pm'ai'iJ/i'—heixcQ wg may hqg the 
jmation in which this department of the Company'fl 
functions was held hy the Tnembera — tiie offer pohiting 
to it either as an humiliation, or a labour of Hercules. But 
this wise proejiution did not servo the purpose of General 
Lainez. Tho expulsion of a guilty or imprudent mem- 
ber was not permitted by Providence to restore the 
credit of the "wholo body at Monte Palciano. The 
Jesuits Trho remained, or were sent to retrieve the Com- 
pany's honour were nsited with tho public: find private 
inflictions of general detestation. Their church and 
Uieir schools were utterly deserted. The city revoked 
the stipend of the public teacher. The college itself 
irafl taken from them by the parties who had originally 
given them the use of Lhe building, They were reduced 
to the greatest necessity — actually starved out — as far 
IL8 the Monte Pulcians were concerned. They suffered 
so mucli that the Jesuit Natalia facetiously said it was 
not a college but a house of probation, Lainez put a 
Blop to the sufferings, bodily and mental, of his men, by 
dimolring the college in 1563, after seven years' dura- 
tion.^ Thus were the Jesuits quietly expelled from 
MoDte Pulciano — by a most effectual method, it must be 
admilted, since neither great alms nor small alms — the 
tithes of tho Jesuits — ^jnabled them to proselytise the 

* SaCifhip. lib, w. IIOh For UiB TlalioD reader, lUrtoli ie quoAiikll j CODciW 
in tkia ftffkjF al Mdntfl Pulpiono- lfe> molly tmjH, " ll would bo rLntidiaiLB 1t> 
rdM* ibe pftrticolAA.'* ActuAlly thu nuuv oF Gi>mbiLr is not evpn TiK^lLonr^l 
in llw whole dupUr ; and %U Uiat wt< liAve jtut road from tlie lexrned anil oFu-n 
»f«trricjun Lm^Q of SiwtrhinuA is AiHtlv '^ ]«a out," Lko tho part vt tlbmlct, >^ hy 
|«rUruUi- JiWtt,** trotii iht tm^i-cunnHlj, And ihvnr la rcdAOti for the Jeeuin 
!• W BBhafiibd nf tli« Ir&nitfLrlion f>p4?urrihg in (liDir l>eHt diys, and Tipforp (h« 
JfOttfela SktHo, or Secret InsEructionB were pven to the pvhht- — Sw Bari'dif 
I>t^riaL lib. iv. c, 19, ' Sjwch. rii, 30. 



83 



TTLSTORY O? THE JKSUITft, 



tentiiin mid 
lodililift of 



heretics, to lead the women captivcj to train *' the boys," 
grafh, 

Thifl affair at Monte Piilciaiio opens an inquiry into 
the domestic arrangements of the Jesuits, llie result of 
wliich Avas their immeTise influence with the 
people — as oxhibitod on more than one public 
occasion. I allude to their confraternities and 
sodalities. Sufficiently striking and impressive 'were 
their bands of self-scourging laymen, who congregated 
at their houses every Friday to bare their backs and 
inflict the propitious castigatioii ; or who on festivals 
were led forth through the streets in procession, in the 
same predicament. It appears that Xavier invented the 
method among the people of Japan ; and iu the hLstorical 
romances of the Jesuits, vre read tliat besides arresting 
temptations of the flesh in the ardent islamlers, the 
whips actually cured diseases by contact, and by the 
same process, alleviated the pains of child-birtli_^ 

We remember the efficacy of processional flagellation 
in Portugal, when the good naojc of the Company was 
Thr efflrnr* to fac restoFcd, The question is, how could 
c-f fhg^ikUaiL pypj^ means produce the result which va stated I 

Simply by appealing to the superstitious associations of 
the people, who considered corporeal austJEsrities the 
guarantees of holiness. Hence the method failfd when 
the Jesuits tried it in Germany for the conversion of tho 
heretics. These pubHc and private " antidotes of chaste 
rehgion/' as the Jesuit calls them, availed little or 
nothing against what he also terms '* tlie venom of Uie 
impious." * 

In other places they estabhshed what they called soda- 
lities — phihs or reunionn, cliques and conventicles, where 



' Orland. X. \^\H$tq. 



» M. tr. 10, W- 



rOiriffCTL OR OFFICE UF CHARITY. 83 

the secrets of families were collected, and pious frauds 
concocted. These WgaJi in Sidly in 1535, the year befoi'e 
the death of t!ic Founder. The institution 

Tbn Coilnril 

was called the Council or Office of Cliarity— viQanxot 
a captivating name for the multitude. The ^' 

duties of the members consisted in distributing the 
collections nwde for the poor, b espousing the cause of 
widows and wards engngcd in la^-siiit3 ; and they had 
to see to the proper a* Iminist rations of the dmrchos, 
convents, chapels and hospitals; the administration of 
wills and bequests was no less a apeci^d duty of the 
brethren.* A more cheering prospectus could nerer be 
demised— except audi a one as would announce an 
infaUible method for preventing the abosefl likely to 
result These sodalities were g.?iierally filled vnth per- 
sons devoted to the Jesuits, in whose houses the asaeni- 
hlie^ took place. For a lime resulta were satisfactory ; 
hiii soon it became evident that the guar*.han3 

_ 1111 ... ... Abiup*. 

Against fraud had become victimisers in trieir 
tuni ; and the sodahries were abolished.* The Company 
ftlwajB fniitfit in inventions adapted to promote their 
dfifligDB, supplied their place with other confraternities 
which they devised^ destined to enjoy a longer duration. 
TIjeso were called the Congregations of the p-j^f.^^ 
Holv Virpin. On Sundays and Festivals the Bnnoniirfib* 

■ " Virgin Mu7. 

members assembled with the Jesuits to recite 
the Office of the Virgin — a set form of extravagant 
adulation in which the Song of Solomon, the Prophets, 
and other books of the Bible are made to do strange 
sonri^e to Mary. A Jesuit presided, heard their con- 
leerionB, said mass to tliem, and aLhninistered the sacra- 
ment. These sodalities were very comprehensive. Their 

■ OH>Ad.lib. «v. 17. ' lJuLat:«K«l]^x,a(L,i.lli- 

«i 2 





84 



mSTORT or THB JBPIT1T&. 



Odvctnniait, 



organisation seems to have been modelled on that of 
ThPir organ- ^^^ cEstes of India. They were divided into 
iaiioD, clasacs. The first was the sodality of tlio 

nobles aud the highest raiika ; the second coni]>riscd 
the merchauts aud simple citizens ; the third consisted 
of workmen and servants. To make the castes moi'e 
distinct — and in deference to tlie gradations of human 
vanity- — each class had its particular assembly and 
chapel-^ The whole sodaUty waa governed 
by one of the Jesuits, a prefect elected by ihc 
con^res:ation, two assistants and a council. There was 
a seLTctary, with twelve consultors, whose office it was 
to watch over those members who were committed to 
their care by the Jesuit father-president, or by the 
prefect, and to report on their conduct accordingly.^ 
The greatest deference aud obedience were inculcated 
by rule towards the father of the sodality, aud otlier 
oiEcials.^ No member waa to leave the town of the 
sodality without apprising the father and prefect of 
the same ; and letters patent were given to him to 
insure his admission into another branch of the soc^lality. 
wherever lie might be travelhng. Peace, concoH, 
and brotherly love were to reign throughout the lucra- 
WajBiud bers of the association ; and in order to pro- 
■DcuiB, mote their advance in " true and Christian 

virtues" frequent assembhes of the membei"a were to 
take place, aud there wouUl be frequent intercourse with 
tliose who could assist them in their progress. As 
each member, even in his absence, shared '' the merits 
of the sodality'* it would be only fair for him to give 
information respecting liini^ielf and his concenin to the 



> HiaU dcB lUJi^enx, «tc. L 115. 

• l.*H««t Slatutii, &o^ C^ngrpg. B, V. M«r. part I | vtH ' tb. part L 5 l_ 



OOVEKNlUiNT UF THE .SODALmBS, 



85 



prefect, commeiKiiiig himself to tlie prajers of the soda- 
lity : — always striving to show liimaelf a true son of the 
sodality by his moral integrity, and eiideayouring to edify 
all and entice them to the practice of rirtue and piety.' 
It was the duty of the prefect to watch careftilly over 
all the members, and their conduct. Any notable fault 
waa to be by him reported to the lather of the soda- 
lity, for admonition and emendation. Penances were 
enjoined for certain faults, or according to the devotion 
of postulants ; and an official was appointed by the 
fiither to enjoin and direct the inflictions. The mles 
were plaiidy written on a board, or prirktcd, and the 
greatest diligence was enjoined to promote their observ- 
ance. There was a book in which were inscribed the 
names of those who frequented or were remiss in frequentr 
ing the assemblies.^ When a member became scandalous, 
he was summoned before the whole congregation, the 
charges were made against him, and his name was 
erased from the list of the sodality : but the father 
always had the power of summary dismissal " in mattt-rs 
of moment — in relni^ gravtbits."^ Strict secrecy was 
enjoined to the secretary of the association : "* when it 
[AaU be necessary to ohsei've secrecy, he must strive 
iK>t to divulge nor hint at tlie resolutions or under- 
takings of the sodality, and he must not sliow any papers 
to any one without the express command of the father 
and prefect of the sodality,* He must have a book in 
which he will enter the names of the menibci's> their 
entrance, country, and other particulars, according to 



' L««H«tStftKAc,pimi. |L 13. ' lb. I t.5. 3|U St.1L 



n. I TIL I. 



86 



HISTORY or TUB JI13UCT3, 




All fl>|>lutiu> 



i 



the custom of eact sodality. He will also make account 
of those who die, or marry, or be dismissed from the 
sodality : but he is not to state the caiisc of dismiBsal^ ^ , 
Such are the peculicir rulfs or statutes of this sub-Je^uit^| 
Order. It must bo allowed that it had something Uke^^ 
an organisation, and was worthy of the Jesuits. 0. 
coarse we cannot see what mo^t of these rcji;utation3 co 
have to do with piety and the advance in Christian pe 
fection : but we can see how the sodahtios niultiphed t 
Jesuits, ffd infiniinm^ whciovor they oxi&tod ; and wc tOtf 
now account for the demonstrations of their 
" friends '' whenever they got into difficulties. 
Wliat the " resolutions and imdertakiags" of the con- 
gregations might be, it is little to the purpose to inquire 
but the certainty of Jesuit-leverage by means of these 
sodalities, must be evident at a glance. By these they 
could always time the popidar voice, command the 
asBiatance of the middle ranks, and influence the great, 
or their wives and children, wliich, in the long-run, 
answers the purpose equally as well. To entice devotees 
to enter these sodahties numcrDua graces and 
indulgences wore proclaimed by the Jesuits. 
On the day of his entrance the member gained 
"a plenary indulgence" — tliiit is, a total remission of, 
the penalties due to his siiia, absolved in confessi' 
according to Catholic doctrine. At the day of hie doa 
the same is awarded, besides other days consecrated 
the festivals of Christ and the \'ii-gin Mary. Nor was 
this all. All who *'in a state of grace" followed the 
corpse of a sodalis to the grave, gained an indulgence 
a year,— that is, tliey satisfied by that act just as if the; 
miderwenL the ancient canonical pcuaiicea for the b 



Culir<;LLii<nt> 
lu join \\ic 



i 




PIKNAUV INUCaoKNCES. 



87 



UoUHf of 

rrireat for 



of a year. Innumerable other iudulgeuces blessed the 
HOiialis. and enticed the devotee to enter the congrega- 
tion of the blessed. So indulgent were the Jesuits that 
tiiey procured an iudnlgencc for all the world on con- 
dition that they should on certain days visit the churchea 
of tho Company, on all days when Catholics must go to 
[oasa — a plenary indidgeiice in return for a Mi'^crerey a 
Pater Ao-tter, or an -4pp Maria^ rehearsed in behalf of 
the pope ! ' Does not all this prove that the Jesuits 
knew the secret of influence, and set to work accordingly ^ 
Waft not this a right gf)od means '* to bring water to tlieir 
mill," as the French would say ^ Moanwldle the women 
were not neglected ; there was something 
specially for them, under the name of retreats. 
Those were houses contiguous to their own 
residcinces, and built expressly for the purpose, to which 
ladies ukiglit retire from the tumult of the world and the 
ilb<^{iation*t of fashionable hfe, for a few days, in order 
to spend the time "with God,'* and their father-con- 
fesaor^ the whole to conclude with commimion on some 
id ft'StivaL In thase cLU'iona and interesting coteries 
devout ladies under Jesuit- influence, the same dis- 
tinctiom were observed as to rank, as in the great 
sodalities. They classified the ladies ; bo that there 
wn» no fear of tho ahop-ke(>per's wife coming into con- 
tact with tlie magistrate's lady, nor of tho servant- 
maid's falling in with her miatress. Tho object of theae 
pious inventions — which thej even attempted to intro- 
duce subsequently into regiments of soldiers — is pretty 
OTident. At Louvain, where these congregations began, 
it was perceived that the object of the Jesuits was 
tlureby to entii^ the faithRd to tlieu- churches, from 



Ukh oI Slbluu^ atc^ imrt r. \ i. et *«/. 



8S 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



were 



tlieir respective parisliea. With regard to tlio retrents 
for women, we may observe that it was a very boM and 
presumptuous undertaking. It is written that those 
who seek the danger shall perish iu it ; and we ftit 
know that this is one of the greatest dangers to wliich 
the sons of Adam can expose their thoiigtitleas frailty. 
The Jesuits ahould have been the last men to meddle 
with the thing- Their rulea and regulations were clar 
moroufl against female conversation. They iniiinged, 
and scandal ensued. Strange and disgracefhl reports got 
TtoJwnii, afloat — nor was it the least remarkable fact, 
whip dio tjj^^ *' some of these pious women were 
n-ii-^-eU. whipped once a-woeh by their father-con 

fesaoi-s" — and the fact is admitted by Orlandini 
nee falsa na'n'abantnr} Clamours actually rose against 
the Jesuits ; but they were strong in their sodalities ; 
and they went on as usual in conscious triumph ; so 
glorious indeed was the result of their operations, that- 
on the Christmas following, one single Jesuit gave the 
sacrament to more tlian two thousand commmiicfujts I * 
Such a thing had never before been lieiird of, says 
OrianrUnns. 

The women gave them trouble in Venice as well 
The Jesuits could not dispense with their influence ii 
^, , . aocietv : they strove to insiire it, and suffered^ 

Tilt JfBUitt J ' J ^™ 

atid iii« liLdiei accordingly. There was in the city of tho^ 

Doge a convent of female penitents, who 
passed for saiuLs according to the itproiseutations of 
their fatlier-coiifessor ; but it subsequently turned out 
to be quite the contrary. Their piiest was convicted of 
grave misdemeanors, and suffered the penalty of deat 
It appears, too, that the fair penitents were condemnc 



tys 



' Lib. iiii, Ifl. 



■ n,a 




THE JESUITS AKD THE LADIES OF VENICE, 89 

to strict seclusion. There were more than a hundred 
women tlius shut up togetlier, which, it seems, proved a 
liard matter in the given circumstances. Tliey resolved 
to starve themselves to death, if not permitted to leave 
their convent. 

Ao unfortunate Jesuit, Father Palraio, undertook to 
reduce tlu^ fair rebeb, Palmio had the gift of per- 
vasion. Vie are expressly told, and succeeded in quelling 
tliLS female insurrection, 

Tliis success proved a sorry boon to the Jesuits. 
Their method was incomprehensible, and therefore Hablo 
lo *' mii*repre*entatioD/' Now the fact was eWdont, that 
they were the confessors or directors of most of the women 
in the repubhc- It was therefore concluded tliat by 
thij* " subterraneous medium " they got at tho secreta of 
tlic state. The senate took the matter in Iiand, and ono 
of the members declared that **t}ie Jesuits ti.,, «i,»iof. 
fuoddlcd with an infinity of civil matters, even """">ti»ii!. 
tJice^ of tlie republic ; that they made use of the most 
respectable and holy things to seduce women ; that not 
content with yery long conversations with them in tlie 
oooSBBional. they enticed them to their residences for 
the same purpose ; that it was the ladies of the highest 
rank who were the particular object of the advanced 
Jesuits. Tho abuse wns to be remedied \rithout delay, 
either by orpclling them from the country, op by 
appointing some poi'aon of aulhcrity and merits such 
u the Patriarch of Venice, to watch over their 
conduct'* 

Sucli were the charges and the remedies proposed. 
Tho patriarch was their sworn enemy, and tujmr 

l^_ , , , »i 1 1 >-ri - - • t^ia^ll kut§ 

^B he hiul railoil tliern C/iinpputi, a very con- iiiDj«uita, 
^ftjtaDptuotts co;^nonien in Italy^ to bo modestly tranalated 



I 




90 



HISTORY OF rUL JtlttUlTS, 



iuto " bird-catchers " peripbraatically ; but n word wliic 
a patriarch ought to have *' ignored/' 

The i<Iea of auperviaion was too galling to be endured 
A fiiend of the Jesuits defended them in the senat 
and an appeal was made to the doge Priuli, At the 
same time tlie pope. Pins IV,. himself ^Tote to the seriate 
and the dogo, guaranteeing the good morals and doc- 
trines of the Society, This, of coiiraej was conclusive, 
and the patriarch hid his diminished head. Kevertheless, 
the do^e sent for Palmio, and tlius addressed 

T!i8 doge ° 

pi^M ihtm the Jesuit : " If you have calumniators, bear 
thom with patience j it is the property of 
virtue to have to fight The Society has amongst uff 
hot defenders ; but I am required to draw your attention 
to one or two points ; they are the only ones which 
have been entertained in the heap of fictions debited by 
your enenuea. In the fii-st place, we see with pain that 
you, who are the best confessor in existence, avoid t 
duty ; and, to the great regret of the whole city, y 
impose that function, mth regard to several battalio 
of women, on young men scarcely twenty-five or twenty- 
BiK years of age t " Palmio atRrmed the contrary : 
confessors were more than thirty-two years of ago ; aui 
Conatitutions in hand, be pointed to the precautions, 
the curious details of watchfulness enforced in 
Society to preclude all suspicion in so delicate a 
tion. There the matter rested.^ 

This is a specimen of Jesuit-escapes from trouble, 
according to the statement of the Jesuitfi themselves, 
TIteir misdemeanors were, of course, still certain in the 
estimation of many ; but^ for this time, they triumphed 



i&t 

3ns, 

i th^ 



' Thb wtiok U III Mv^rfr BtAlcniQiil uf ihu Jcnuit Pahuio in a leUer, wli 
Crotinofcu cxlnurtini ihc hcu lu aIjoviv Tome I p. SWft, et »tq. 



LAINEZ KJ:8ULVB6 TU SOUND THE TOPS. 



91 



and went on confiding, reckless in tlielr lufLcMualioua. 
A less fortunate hour will surpiiae them anon in t!ie 
same Venice, Stitl, they were doomed to feel the eflecta 
of Gombar's guilt or indiscretions at Monte Folciano. 
The Venetian Benators being apprised of that affair, 
forbade their wives to confess to the Jesuits, which was 
probably as painful a proliibLtioo to tlie ladies of Venice 
as it wad to the Jesaita.^ 

At Rome, the affab-a of the Society had received 

great development. Freed from the haunting ghost of 

Paul JV., the Je^^uits had breathed freely once i^^^ ^ 

more, and at the exaltation of the old man's ^J^^j IL 

enemy, Pius IV.. to the chair of St, Peter, new pope. 

they made every effort to win liis good graces. It was 

at first uncertain what they bad to expect on their 

own account, although, inasmuch as the pope's enemy, 

Tanl IV., had treated them with considerable riguur, it 

was probable enough that they would be befriended, 

^ore it only to cast a hImt on Caraffa^ whom the Romans 

iKs^raced BO horribly at liis death. But the Jesuits had 

aliirked tlie papal mandate respecting the pubhc choir. 

This was disobedience to the Holy See. And the third 

year of the temi prescribed to the genei^alate of Lainez 

*a3 approacliing. The general bethought bini of the 

"loom right anxiously ; but there waa little reason to fear, 

**cveuts declared, that success was to attend him, aud 

*ben all would be certain, he would make a show, like 

Hther Ignatius, of resigning t!ie generalate,— a delicate 

P^^ of superfluous magnanimity. As a cardinal, 

"^^ IV. had shown no favour to the Company, he had 

M "nothing to do" witlj the Jesuits. Laiuez began 

^ operations round about tlic papal throne by inducing 



92 



HISTOBY OF THE JESUITS, 



four cardinals lo recommend to his Holiness tbe vcliole 
Society iu general and himself in particular — et nomhia- 
tim Lohiium. Laincz then presented himaelf in person, 
and after the solemn kias of the holy toe — ^osi oscufum 
so/ejiiie pedis — lie proceeded to deposit the Company iu 
the pontifical lap, protesting that all were 
tjnn> tp ibe rcady^ without tergiversation, without a word 
^'^'^' about travelling expenses, at once to be sent 

by hia Holiness to any part of the world, to barbarians 
or heretics ; in a word, that his Holiness might use 
them as h/'s own cornmodity^tmiu^ue sud re uti pmset — 
and he hoped to be iisefu! in very many respects — 
sicubi sperdrei usui fore fjuatn mulih noTnmibiu} It 
must hare been evident to the Jesuit that his point was 
gained by the matter and manner of this esordiura. 
I say it must have been so evident to him ; for, accord- 
ing to his historian, he at once proceeded to ask a favour 
fi'om his lord and master. The words ascribed to him 
constitute Jeanit-matter, and they are worth recording. 
Lalnoz hoped that his Holiness would patronise llio 
Society, and particularly the Eoman College, lie said 
Throws in " there was now in that college an immense 
■^^°^" number of youjig Jesuits, about a hnndi'cd 

and sixty, all of them most select, almost all of them 
endowed witli genius, excellent dispositions, gathered 
together from all the nations of Christendom ; and now 
being trained moat learnedly and piously, and wera 
artlontly piogressing, iu order to be despatched all over 
the world to preserve, to restore, lo infuse, to propagate 
the Christian religion ; that the Roman College was the 
source whence the colleges of all Italy and Sicily liad 
arisen and were supplied ; thence had colonies been 



£iice1un. lib- iv, 1, fj ffq. 



SPEECH OF LAINEZ TO THE PuPE. 



J*3 



sent into Fracce, Belgium, and Germanj^ with constant 
accessions, to be ramparts against tlie assaults of the 
heretics ; thence went forth colonies bearing the light 
of the faith eren into India and the uttermost bounds 
of the East, to nations unknown from time immemorial ; 
tlienco, in fine, had Spain and Portugal received sub- 
sidies. But the house is too email. We are packed 
together, dreadfully incouTenienced, in want of every 
tliitig. Health suffers, sickness blasts om* fairest liopes, 
our brightest geniuses wither and die. We have neither 
fo(>d iKir chithing- May your Holinefts ca^t a kind look 
on this your progenVi your laitbful and ready cohort — 
Jidam nc jrromptam tohortt^n ; and let us feel a particle 
of tJiat [mlri^mal care which is over all. It is a deed 
worthy of the piety of the Roman bishop, ^^^^fi^,!,^ 
the guardian of all natious, presiding over the i»i* ^^ 
Queen-city of the earth, tlie sole oracle of the 
world, the eternal palace of religion and piety, to preserve 
and perpetiuitc this refuge and rampart of all nations 
fUie Roman College], and thus, by oue deed, to bestow 
meritorious favour on all the nations of the universe.'*' 
After this speech it will surely be ridiculous to talk 
of Jesuit-modesty : — and we may be permitted to think 
that men who could thus boast of their "spirituar^ deeds 
were scarcely aetnated by spii'itusl motives. I allude 
to the leaders, the enterprisers of the Company — the 
"men in authority" — the Jesuit-/*nWe* : for undoubt- 
edly there were amongst the body some hearty, honest, 
truly conscientious men, who labom*ed as God seemed to 
direct them, by the lips of thcii" superiors. The latter I 
stiall gladly cheer as I find them ; and the former shall 
portray themselves as above — to my mind they are 




94 



HISTORY fiy THE jasuiTS. 



despicable Uiroughout. The drift of the foregoing address, 
or its equivalent— not Ukely to be less to tlic purpose 
from the lips of Lainez — wns nothing less than the coTet- 
ous nsnrpation of a building which he thought admirably 
suited for a '-* refuge and rampart of all nations," and 
more calculated to keep his " fairest hopes " from being 
blasted, and hia " brightest geniuses " from ^ itiiering 
wuibB™ ^^^ death. In truth it was a desperately keen 
driving %t. device of this wily Jesuit. There was at 
Rome a large convent of nuns, which had been founded 
by tlie MarcliionesB de' Ursini, the niece of the late 
Pope Paul JV, This convent was very extensive, and 
with its agreeable and commodious situation had for a 
long time tempted the cupidity of the Jesuits. Now, aa 
they knew that the present pope was the mortal enemy 
of the Caraffas, whom he tliea kept in priBon, and whose 
trial was proceeding, the Jesuits took advantage of the 
pope'a temper to solicit the grant of this convent, with 
tho design of making it the Roman CoIIego. The pre- 
ceding interview, addreaa, and its disgusting sentiments, 
were the beginnhigs of the perpetration, Tlie skilful 
mixture of presumption, falsehood, and flattery, produced 

the effect which Lainez had promised himself 
dn pope*, by " Popcs, says Qufisnel, *'hke other men, have 

always been open to tho most extravagant 
Battery. It is one effect of the corruption of their 
nature, and of eelf-love, which is always alive in thera. 
Pius IV. who soon sent the whole faniily of his predc- 
cessor to execution, waa so intoxicated with the fulsome 
laudation Lainez bestowed upon him, that without any 
formality of justice, he expelled the nuns from the 
convent, which he gave to the exulting Jesuit^."' Their 

^ Quewkcl, iL $A«diin. lib. it. 5. 




I 

I 



SPOLIATIONS OF THE JEflLnTS. 

storiaii lina the heart to be somewliat merry on the 
picifu-l subject : — he actually saya that the Marchioness 
de Or^ini, its foundress, was by degrees conciliated to 
lie transfer of the convent, and bo far approved the 
pope s action, tliat " she confeased herself deeply obliged 
t^ the most Ifoly Father for giving her so many sons in 
lieu of a few daughters ! " ' I am no advocate nor 
admirer of the system whicli dehvers up a number of 
women to the horrors of seclusion, or the temptations of 
luxurious slotlu to become bearded and hideous from 
physical causes — pining, corrupted, withering, raving in 
a harem infinitely more disgusting to think of than aJiy 
wlucli Turks can dGvis3 : — but this is not the qucption. 
It is a question of right and possession superseded by 
covetousness and tyranny. Be it so : lot the Jesuits 
exult : — but let them beware : retribution will come 
betiaies : they shall be done to as they have done by 
others : Providence wilt chmnicle their spoUations, to be 
accounted for LercaiTter — in f/rls world be it understood 
— a crushing but merited retribution. Not content 
with flinging them this stolen property, tlio 
pope tdded a revenue of 600 ducats for the 
support of his "faithful and ready cohort/' 
whose commander he was just declared, thus putting 
tht'ir bandit-[^os8Cssion on a footing for operations. 
Was there no voice raised against their spoliations, ten 
times worse than any which Henry VIII. ever per- 
petrated ? Worse, becjiuse perpetrated by Thoipnii*- 
the very men who held themselves up as the j^^^^jt' 
patterns of morality^the guardians of the 'i°«°'^- 
Christian faith — the oracles of relirion. Was there no 



TKr pop" 
enhniircBhil 






9(j 



HISTOBY OF THE JESUITS. 



voice raised against these spoliatioQs ? There Avas — ami 
in Rome^ Their claim to the college of Coimbra was 
disputed. One Gomiua Abreus showed himself *' a verj 
troublesome adversary " to the Jesuit, as they call him 
— advei'sariiui erai permolesifis. " It was a law-suit of 
great taoment," snya Sacchinus. *^ and on its issue 
depended that noble safeguard, not only of Portugal, 
but especially of tbe Indies." Abreus advanced against 
the Jesuits — held consultations with the judges, pubhcly 
and in private, denouncing the Jesuits as robbers of 
benefices and spoliators of tlie clergy, and commenced 
an action against them, with no small chance of success 
if the case was tobe tried lefor9 a just tribunal. And the 
Jesuits evidently wcro of the same opinion : for their 
bifitorian say& : *'So far had Gomiua proceedetl, that in 
so serious a losa which iraa imminent, the Company was 
less anxious about their wealth than their reputation ;"* 
— and well they might be — for their factitious repu- 
tation or ** credit/' would soon be the basis of ulterior 
speculation. The most unprincipled rogue on 'Change 
will, in a predicament, postpone his "purse" to his 
"Tcputafion" — the infamous lago tells you this, as well 
as the *' Company of Jesus/' What followed? Inter- 
views, a speech, and a supplication, doubtless from 
General Lainez to the fatuous pontiff. And the most 
Holy Father took the thing in hand — reserved tlio 
case to hiniaol£ Abreus insisted. What availed it ? 
Notliinfr The pope ^ave bis cohort the rer- 
j«i.i« iD diet. He did more : he remitted them the 
'"" feen of the "Apostohc diploma," or letters 
patent, which confirmed their '* right" to the property. 

^ " £o irm idiliuent, ut iu Utn gnvi qiue jmrnineLat jacturm, minor SocieiAli 
rei i]ajun funtc cum e»fp|." — Saaehin. lib. W. G. 



PAPAL RETETTCEB BEFORE THE REFORMATION. !)7 



H.m llir 
hurl llic 



I 



" By this Ijenefaction/' says Sacchinua, *'he gave us more 
llinn a /^oir\'a/td (fttrtifs. ^vliicli we would otherwise have 
had to paj,"^ A thousand ducats — about £500, for a 
verdict in the papal chancer^' ! English law must cer- 
toinlv be cheap in our estimation, since at the vory 
oracle of heaven the "costs" arc so ruiuoua. But let 
that pass, — ainrl compute or conceivo, if you 
can^ Ujo immense revenues that the sovereign 
pontiff lost by the Reformation — when so 
many "cases" and '* appeals" were decided without 
'■ apoat^liofll diplomas " — and their thousand ducata. 
Was it not perfectly natural tliat the popes sliouhl go 
nia^l on the subject of abstract orthodoxy— all that wiia 
rcMjnisite to maintain the formalities whence they derived 
their enormous revenues— and was it not also quite 
natural that the popo shoukl foster the Jesuits who 
jwmtd so likely — and wlio certainly flattered themselves 
witli the notion — to reduce all the world to papal suh- 
jection* Accordingly, poasesecd with this irrational, 
mad idea, the pope thought he could not do too much 
his faithful and ready cohort ; and wlien Lainea 
it to timnk his holiness for all his hcneFac- 
the pontiff exclaimed : " There *s no 
of thanks — I'll shod my very blood to 
foeter the Company 1 "* Wliat could be more glorious 
for the Jesuits? And they "prospered'* accordingly. 

' " Qno (wrolljtna plun mllle Hurc^nun nutmnilnii qno^ in id tmpmdcndain 
4lIoqai IhiiiN^t, diTiavit." — f^nf^fiin. lib- iv. *i. 

* ' }Uu(lD|iiifl ^ntiis eve; SorittlACi ecuHque it! nnf^incm fMJlunim,"-'^Sn/'- 
<ilM lllx IT. 7, ^iT Eirlj in the nost j'onr tlir pope incriywed Ihc revpoue of 
iba maaa c«lli>go of Cwmbrn, bv ttie donalicn of sik fHrrofl imd thu tJivnahip of 
Hont'Afn^vk' All tlhc^o wciv nn miut/ ^•oliAtiotiB fn^m ihi^ AivbbialiDp of 

ftlao gKTft them the rvveiinrfl of luiiLher pariah, tthich nerp ibaimch*'] from 
» dignitary ut nfi^cial of tli« rftUiedrU^ Tho Jcmit ttyi lliAt ibfr lall«r 
Tou II. n 



Thp popeS 
doiiotnlncfli 
ti> hii land. 



98 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



cmiLglit fn 

Rome. 



Honours and appointments fell upon them like the 
debauching shower of gold wherein Jupiter descended 
to beget Perseus, who with the head of the Gorgon 
Medusa turned all his enemies into stone, if not other- 
wise defeated — a fit emblem of the Jesuit, Jesuits were 
^pointed to examine the candidates for orders. Jesuits 
wero made iuspeclora of churchcHj an<l directors of uuns, 
Lainez was in his glory — with more work than he could 
A poor Co.}- possibly perform, and yet he undertook to con- 
vert a poor Calviiiist whom ihcy had caught 
in Rome and condemned to he burnt. He 
intended to cajole him out of iiis faith — Uande mulcere: 
but when he went to the prison and aaw a multitude of 
cardinals, bishops, nobles, and the pope's relatives, sitting 
around to witness the discussion, the vain boaster of 
Trent thought it a fine occasion for display, and *'felt 
compelled to proceed in a manner more glorious to 
Catholic tnith, thougli leas adapted to the proud mind 
of the heretic."' From his CollcctionB of the Fathers, 
the Jesuit of Trent flung a volloy at the heretic. All 
to no purpose. The man told him he did not L^are a 
straw for the fathers^in which he was quite right — 
and that he *' stood by Calvin alone, whom he preferred 
to all tlie fathere/^* 

He stood firm in spite of impending fire. A decided 
failure for the Jesuit. Had ho been truly auxious to 
rid tlie man of what was thought '' heresy/* he would 



" GiiUBan(«d" Id tli« truufpr: but he doce not flUkietbe Mine reepccUDg the Arch^ 
histiap of Kvon — Hicc omnia Pundfox f^opai-avit arrdiluEbcrcmuaArt^liiepucttpi 
— jmd there be Ilmivpa Hhe apoliHtioD.— Franc. SynoinL ad Ann. I5GI, 1 4. 

> '* Tnire coai^tuii eal pugufe vLvn gli>rio9iomtn CathoUi^ie veritnti, Bed flupertxi 
herctiiH ingemo miuua idoneftm.'^ — S^i^f^hln. lib. iv. \% 

' " E^dunAl uno bc aUre Calvma 4j,mdquiJ ccnlri obJiivrBH, hoc ImcbM 
■aiiiiTa, lUiter icntin CalTiDum .... CaJv-Jniitn oiallo : iusUu' inuiuum habcto 
CalTiiiiiin '* — 76. 



I 



"THE BLIND STirBBORNNESS OP A HERETIC/' 9S 

not hare ^jieMed to the impulse of vaoily wliich sug- 
r JPHtod a gmad di^plcij — a glorious cuniutation of the 
vwHnist Huud nihil tamen profectttm — "but 
rt was not altogether a failure ; eays his his- to wuvai 
torian, **for the audience (bishops, cardinalsv 
Doblefl, anJ the pope's relatives) admired the >visdom of 
the Catholic doctor, and detested the Mind stubbornness 
of the heretic, " ' Verily he had his rovrard, tliis " CathoUc 
doctor'* — and when the soul of this poor heretic took 
flight, sped to our merciful good God for judgment — 
whilst the hnrd heails. the cruel men of Rome were 
howling and exulting around their judgment, his body 
roasting in the flames — at that dreadful moment, oh, 
say, ye men of orthodoxy — di*l his God send his sup- 
pliant soul to Hell ? . . . . And yet 3'ou call hia 
constancy " the blind atubbomneas of a heretic ! " In 
the midst of these events truly so disgusting, but so 
glorious for the Jesuits, their historian, with the usual 
modesty, coolly observes : " I kno^v not how it was, but 
really, at Konie especially, and far and wide over the 
north, this opinion increased, namely, that there was no 
other more avfulable remedy for the reformation of 
morals and the restoration of religion, than to employ. 
to the utmoRt extent, the men of the Company."^ 

Firm, efilAblishcd in papal fiivour at Rome, the Com- 
pRDT of Jesus flapped her sprcadmg winga over all Eiu'ope 
hesidee. The sons of Calviu in Savoy shuddered a^ 

* *Qm dupuUtioiu iiit«rRierftiii, con iBplcntmm mtgia CtlhoUd Doclom 
■Jairmi, qwm esoun detc«Uti Uurvikl [Wrdiucuni, liDii, Ac, nevrntre'' — 

' " Ac &e«cio qno pulo Itomn; lii>c potiHtmUTD uuio, lat^que p«r Svptentrioiiu 
nTMjhigtf opfnid perarcbult, &<l torHgcudo» nx^rcHf rvatitaeudamcjue n^M^oneni. 
hwrt >fi«il rnwniiua om n?m»1ium ^aim liominiim SodeTalU i\nnJn \y\antnnm 
aptri Dti/'— JtaocAim. )Sb. iv. 7, 

n 2 



100 



H13T0RY OP THE JEflUTTB. 



tlie soan^l iKJotned athwart tbeir moiinlains. "Coming! 
Coming ! " it seemed to Diutter, '' Comiug ! " and 
she came> A young man — a mere novice — Antoniia 
PoHPviniis Posscvinus was her angel He had heon a 
in s»Toy. student at Padua, destmed for Uie priesthood, 
with a benefice in commcudam. The Jesuit Pahnio, so 
powerful with tlio nuns at Venice, t/tesmerhed Mm Uiio 
the Company ; for wc can apply no other term to the 
method as described by the Jesuit, Sacchinus.' IIo was 
admitted by Lainez in 155!>, in the month of September, 
At the end of the month he began hia novitiate. In 
the hoginning of November ho was sent to resume his 
studies at the Roman College.'' Thus the important 
two years of probation, as appointed by the Constitu- 
tions, were dispensed with by tlic general. A single 
month was sulHcient to easure sucii an accession to the 
Company, and he took the vows accordingly. He was 
in his twenty-seventh year, and not in orders. He had 
" private buaineas " to transact in Savoy : Lainoz inveetod 
him with a comniisBion to Emmanuel Pliilibcrt, the Duke 
of Savoy, and Prince of Piedmont He left Rome with 
the dress and title of a beneficiary in eommendnvi — dis- 
simufatd Sodefate — [jrctending not to be a Jesuit, says 
Saecliinus, in order the more freely to transact his pri- 
vate business. On his departure, Lainez summed up all 
hb iustructioiie to the emissary in these words : " In 



^ SocchinuA AlatfiA ihal ho wui iuDi]i(B(ing !□ jmu Uie rompAu^. " Wilh lL«e 
rlioughtb in his riinrl,'* condnuca tlie Jofiiiit, " wjtli wliic^li PubniA wnfl fuf 
fti^quainted, tho Father held forth iho lioBt to PoBSevums, (at Uie Saframontl, 
nnd juid, Id a nliidpcr, * Lord, givo (o this miui l}iy Spint V - . . . SuJclonl^ 
I'oucviDiiB WHS oiritnl, uid sirAToely able to contain liimself . . - hUmg on liis 
ItiMTo bnfwn? tht* FatliiT, bo criud ou(, ' FqUhTj be mj wiuii-fla in iliv ^navncv 
(tf G<w| — I vow and |ii-oiDifli> to tbc Divino Mnji-nty, knnwingly and willingly, 
to eiiler Uhj Codjioui}', U)d never to accq^t anj bRiK^Hi:^ or dignity,' " — Satd^m, 
lib, iii. 43. - Kblio, Scrip . Soa. Jnu. Ant Pcrfl^ 



posflEVTwrs rN SAi 



201 



your actious atiJ deliberatioiifi think you see me before 
you/' * This was iii 1560, It proved an eveutftil — a 
bitter year for the Calv^Ilists of Savoy. And dread 
j>n*giio8Ucs seemed to predict tho moustrous births of 
the prcgnaut fiiture. Lights in the skicSj troops of 
lioraerueu in the clouds, myaterious souuds of invisible 
chariot^*, carlliquakes, a comet, a conflagration in the 
iinoamcutf a shower of blood, were among the 8U[^er- 
natural terrors which agitated poor humanity in those 
dnys of *' religious" warfare.^ Where was the God of 
Christians ? Where was his Cliriet ? 

Einmaixuel Philibcrt gave IVsscvinus an audience* 
Wo have the Jesuit's speech In Sacchinus. It is a por- 
trait. Ho began with telling the duke that ^ ^^^.^ 
OS God had given him the country, so ought °^°^f^ *^ 
ue to give the souls m the countrr to God. try md 
Eternal happiness in Heaven, and a steady 
reign on earth, would be the result. Those who had 
fitUcD off from the Roman Church, that is fi'om God, 
— Aoc est d Deo^ were also continually unsteady in their 
allegiance to human potentates. What wa^ to be done i 
eagcriy asked Pliilibert, according to the Jesuits. Look 
to Uie monlts. rephed Possevio — see how miserably they 
have gone astray — unwortliy <*f their holy fazuilies, 
unworthy of the holy gaib whereby they are concealed 
and recoumiended ; hurrying the people down a preci- 
pice with their corrupt morals and doctrine. Write to 
the generals of orders, and the cardinals who are their 

> "Oii dticodcintitpoat &]i&, lii>c iostar omnium pnccepU d^iUt. In rebus ayendis 

' " OUuiriUktrA tani r|iuc Luic Sul.h-A}[)inie irgii^ni iitc^ubuonuitj qiumi r^uA 
Qftfliuu tiOBttlin poMM per lot uuuw wL rvU^^nid nkuaani (JivQK&nmfT laulia 
laar«oili irigna [itvmcirTuiit j uuin ct CLu-idciet Tr^TUkc igius in Ai^ru," ^t. 
«<;— TlaM. urii. Ana. \bW. 



I 



102 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS, 



patrons, and ask for proper leaders of the multitude unlo 
good action and right feeling. Proper and zealous 
priesta are required- King Pliilip Is convinced of tins, 
and has acted on the conviction. The consequence is, 
that Spain is in a fine condition, because the clei^y are 
not disoaacd with ignorance — inscilid non la/foreft ©ays 
the classic Saccliiiins. " Your advice is good," replied 
Emmanuel, with a sigh, "but in the midst of such dark- 
ness, and so barren an age, whence can I get the proper 
supply of virtuous and learned priests ? " That was the 
point of the uail which the Jesuit wanted to see, and he 
clinched it at once. '^ The Emperor Ferdinand,'' said 
Posaevin, ^ has two methods for producing such proper 
men. First, he aenda from Germany youths of good 
hope to the Gcnnan college at Rome to be educated^ 
where they have the best masters in monds and learning, 
from whoso training they come forth imbued with hatred 
against the heretics — concepto m fiesi'esett odio — and 
having thoroughly seen the majesty and hohneas of the 
Roman Church, and hoing, moreover, armed with learning. 
defended hy iniiocanco of life, when they return to their 
country they are a great safeguard. Secondly, knowing 
the vii-tue of the Company of Jesus — xuider whoaa 
training the German youths are educated — the emperor 
confesses that ho can find no aid more seasonable in 
these most wretched times, than to get as many men aa 
he can of this family into his dominions. Accordingly 
he is constantly founding colleges for them. By these 
colleges the young are religiously educated, and the 
Catholics are made steadfast in the faith ; nor is the 
poison of the heretics only prevented from spreading, 
but many of them are converted from error, so that this 
I'eault alone, or for the most part^ preserves Germany 



JEaUiT-fiFFBONTERT AND 2BAL, 



lOS 



from utter ruin/* Then he alluded to King John III,, 
Xavier, Rodriguez, and the mightj results of the Jesuit- 
proceedings in Portugal, all in the samo strain as above- 
" I think your highness has heard of the college at 
Coimbra," continued Possevin. " More than a thousand 
pupils are there educated with equal ardour in learning 
antl piety ; fur the seeds of piety are sowu together with 
learning. They have appointed times to confess their 
sins ; they all attend mass together every day ; they 
often go to communion. Nohle youths frequent the 
hospitals, &nd perform with alacrity all the functions and 
B©rvicea of the lowest domestics for the sick. Par from 
those youtlu» are impious and lustful actions and exprea- 
nona. Far from Lbem are disturbance and quarrels, 
ijeeing these things and others — of which, next to God, 
the lathers of the Society are the authors — the people 
of Portugal call them by no other name tlian that of 
Apostles." ' It is difficult to say whether falsehood or 
effrontery most predominates in these aSHertions, The 
result, however, was, that PhiHbert wrote to Laiiiez for 
men to take the charge of two colleges. Meanwhile, 
PoaBevinus scoured tlio country, insinuated himself 
amongst the unsuspecting Calvinists, and when he had 
satisfied himself on all the points suggested hy his 
villainous zeal, he sent in his report to the Duke of 
Sft^roy : the result will soon bo apparent*' 

Calrinism waa extensively prevalent in Savoy. Its 
diief atrongholda were the valleys of Mont-Cenis, 
Luzerne, Angrogne. Perouse, and Fressinifires. ^1,^ j^^^, 
As long as this country belonged to Prance '"* ^"'- 
after it£ conquest, the people enjoyed religious tolera- 
tion ; but after its restoration to the duke, and the 



* Sftcdiln. Bb. iv. 62,Hfr7> 



* Id lib, it. tfA. 



104 



illSTOKY OF THE JESUITS. 



viitiit of the Jesuit Possevimia, tliu tiL-ud of religiom 
pci-secutiou was let louae upon the wrctcUeU CalvinisU. 
A great uimiber i>eri8liccl by fire aiid torture ; many 
were cundonined to the galleys ; aud tUoae who were 
spared seemed to owe their pardon to a Jreod in the niind 
of its ruler^ lest the country should becuino a dusert. 
But long before the fiinga of pei-accutiou were blunted, 
di'eadful deeds were perpetrated by its cruel iDiuiatei"8. 
Philibert fell ill, and the bloody executions languished ; 
but no sooner bad lie recovered, thau, urged by the 
pope, ad\'i3iug the tiial of arma, since tortures had tailed 
with the heretics, he promptly raised an army, resolved 
on war.' The Calviaista held a consultation, audit waa 
dctennincd not to take arms against their prince, how- 
ever unjust the vmr might be : tliyy wauld retire to 
their mountains witli all they could transport of tlieir 
goods and chattels. Some retired to the Grisous, others 
took refuge among the Swiss, and some clung to their 
huts, resolving to defend their hvea, hut not before 
declaring by manifeeto that war waa forced upon thciu 
by despair, and that they would lay dg^vn their arn^s if 
the Duke of SaToy wonld permit them to live in peace. 
But that was not the maxim of kings in tho^c days. It 
seemed tbat some infernal Fm-y had sent them to 
sconi'ge maukinJ. The reply to the manifesto waa aii 
army of two thousand men, under the Count of tho 
Trinity and the Jesuit Po8sc\'in. The fortune of war 
favoured both sides alternately : then followed negotia- 
tions towards reconcilement, and demands for indem- 
nities and war expenses far beyond the means 
of the miserable childi'en of the mountains. 
Poor as virtue can jjossibly be, the innuntaiiieers in 

' QuoMul, ii II- Sarpj, V. ^1, 



AuucidBL 



THE EXPEDITION IN SAVOY A FAILURE. 



105 



their dilemma Lioi rowed niouej to pay their oppressors, 
ami were forced to sell tbeir Bucks to meet tlieir engage- 
ineot^ with niiiioua interest. Tlicy paid, ami still were 
persecuted. Tliey were disarmed : more money was 
demanded. Their ministers were banished : their houses 
were searched aiiJ [jiUaged : their wives and daughters 
weru outraged ; and, by way of a bonfire to celebrate 
the achievements of orthodoxy, their village was set on 
fire' lu the midst of these horrors, the intriguing 
crafty, mendacious Possevinus — if Sacchinus TheJemit 
haft not belied him iu the speech — was seen '■i''*°'1''"L 
ruKhiiig from place to place, posting preac^hers of Uie true 
faith everywhere, searching for the books of the heretics 
and hauJicg them to be burnt by the pope's inquisitor, 
whi^m he Iiad by his side, scattering pious tracts, and 
reconmiendiug tliu catechism of the Jesuit Canisius^ to 
the persecuted, pillaged, maltreated men of the moun- 
tains, and their outraged wives and daughtei^. It is 
very ridiculous, bnt» at the same time, bitterly humi- 
liating. And Saccliinus tell^ us that, in reward for all 
ihe dexterity of Posseviu in brmging about these very 
sad proceedings, widch he calls ^' an immense good of 
the Cathohc rehgion," some " principal men — yrina'pes 
riri " — thought of getting the pope to make Posscvinus 
a bifihop,^ 

But this Jesnit-expetlitioD into Savoy, clever as Sac- 
chinus represents the scheme, wns a total failure ; — 
And after entailing miacry on the C;d>imstej rLeeipc- 
it was followed by one of those bt'outiful re- ^*i||l'Vtw- 
iributious recorded in history, which compels ^'"^^■ 
u» tu believe in a supcrijiteuding Providence. Beau- 
tiful iu the abstract, however {lainfiil in the concrete, 



Qutaiv!, iL p. 1^ ftf «y. 



Snudiiii. ir. 71- 



lUd. 



lUtj 



HISTOEY OF TUB JESUITS^ 



ftetribulion. 



an all the woes of hainanitv must be. wLetlier io thf 
calamities of Catholics or Protestants, fellow-citizens or 
strangers, private foes or public enemies — the tyrants 
of eartL No sooner hai tlie Coimt of the Trinity 
retired from the scene of the war, than the people made 
alhanoe \nth the ValdenscB or Vaudois, their neigh- 
bours, ^ho promised thorn assistance. Smboldouod 
by support, anil goaded by the memory of the past, 
they resolved on revenge. They sacked the 
churches of the Catholica, overturned their 
altai^s, and bi-oke their images. War blazed fortli on all 
Bides, and various were its fortunes : but the Valdenses 
gained a signal victory over the Count of the Trinity, 
and their victory suggested a better Uno of policy to 
Emmanuel Pliilibert, uutwith&tanding liis " head of iron " 
— Ti-fe de Fei\ as was his surname. In spite of the 
pope'w gold and exhortations for the continuance of the 
war and utter extermination of the poor heretics, Phili- 
bert, who was not so stupid as the Jesuit represents 
him, proposed an accommodation — when he saw that 
his troops [lad been often routed, and, in the laat battle, 
completely defeated by the heretics, who nevertheleeBi 
and notwithstanding their vantage-ground, were inclined 
to peace ^ith their sovereign — and of this he was per- 
T»iemii«a suaded. Complete toleration ensued — their 
rorf*d» pastors returned — restorations and restitu- 

tions were mado to the heretics — the prisons gave up 
their confessors of the faith, and thogoUoys surrcndorcd 
their martyrs. Was it not glorious ? And why did 
Christian charity, human kindness, refuse these blessings 
which the hideous sword of war so lavishly bestowed ? 
I have answered and shall answer the question in every 
page of this history : — but a reflection of Quesnel is 



USUAL ISSUE OF RELIGIOUS WARS, 



U*7 



mucli ta the pur|>ose. '* Witli all deference to the popeu 
of these times, and our Christian priuces^ but really it 
iras not very necessary to aacritice to their xh^ ^^^ 
pious ftiry, as they did in those days, so many «"^^i"^„,- 
thousands of men, only to be Bubaequently ^^ 
compelled to accept such acconnnodations as these sons 
of the mouiitama acluovcdp And such has been invari- 
ably tlio issue of ' rehgious' wars^ which the inordinate 
zeal of poi)efi, the imbecility of kings, the fanaticism of the 
people have occasioned, and into which the interests of 
the true God ui no wise entered."' In utter contradiction 
of the numerous convei^ions so mendaciously boaJitted of 
by Sacchinus aa resulting from the terrors of wai-fare 
Bud theroguery of the Jesuit PoBScvinua^ — in testimony 
of the futihty of perseeutioL, the Cardinal dc Lorraine, 
one of the religious spitfires of those days, found the 
heretics swarming in Savoy ; in the very court of the 
duko many openly professed their heresy ; and although 
it was only a month since the duke had pubhahed an 
evhct commanding all the sectnrians to leave 
lujs dominions within eight days, he now pro- 
hibited itfi execution — and even pardoned many who 
had been condemned by the Inquisition, stopped and 
rcadaded all proceetUnj:^ in Iiand, and permitted all 
who had fled from persecution to return to the arms of 
toleration. Nor was it difficult for the duko to convince 
the cardinal that the interest of the Catholics them- 
selrea required him to adopt that Uno of conduct.^ This 

* tCit. ii. )H. 

* IJb.W. 71. wbowiltif [a,'' Jlfu^fi JUntfhConM jneon ^Woni,"— " Many of 

* S*rplt I. VLi]> G. The events which 1 bftve deficribed, and the rqtreieal^ 
Uoflt of th« Jeiuiu, wn calcalatcd to ^w on incorrucc chorACLor u Eiiinifuia«l 
Philibcrt, The ch&r>jrt«ri«tic TjutU of hin oarr*cr an aa ToIIowb :^ Tn (lie JUmiefi 
oC Chftrk* V, b« acquired gr«ftl miliUry reaown ; and ha euntiaucd to iteFvehw 






108 



HI6TURY OF THE JSSl'lTS. 



Lreatj — so favoumble tu tliu Protestants, and honourable 
to the sensible duUe, profiting by experience— utterly 
disappointed the Jesuits, and the pope, who denoimccd 
it in full consiBtory, The disappointment was natural. 
The Jesuits counted ou solid foundations, establishments, 
colleges, all the peculiar thntyjf of the Company — r^s 
Socletath JesUf as likely to result from an expedition 
suggested, promoted, and belaboui-cd by their Father 
I'ossevin, whom Pope Pius IV. had sent express to the 
Court of Savoy, In effect, the duke, as I have stated, 
ha^l written to tlie general, begging a large comignmeut 
of the apostles according to the samples described by 
Posacviiij as truly miraculous in touchicg for mental 
ignorance and moral depravity-^to say nothing of 
Am CiPKir orthodox allegiance. T^vo collcgea were ready 
I.UCIIUUU-. >^^ ^^g ^1^^^ comfortable. You doubtless 

expect to hear that the Jesuit Lainez gladly seized the 
oiiportunity. But then, I must state that the duke, 
whose head had sense as well as iron in it, wisely 



wm, Philip \\., for whom he won the battle of St. QaonUn, ao ■Itsaati'ouit t> tho 
FrtiiL'h, in 1557. Jle haU nci-omiHiiiifd Thilip, in 1553, to Euylaud, whera he 
rtcoivod the Gai'lor. After iho JecUratioD of puacc^ In !SSf*| he niftmc4 the 
daughter uf the Kiuf; ^f Fhuu^h, Xty wUii:h ulhuictf ho rvcovtrvd all tlie domi- 
riioufl ivhii^b hi^ father liod ]u«t, and uuL^e'iucntlj' ^nhu^d them \ty his vilonr 
uid pmJcnce. lie fixed his n^Jeuw ai Turin, anJ ajjplipd LimBcIf ti reaton 
onler in es^ry bumch of the uhniui&tTBtlou, niiJ may \x couaidored u the ral 
fouDdcr of ;Iic House of Slvo^. He clieJ ui 1 5ril», Ic&vipg oulj one It^UuWlB 
KiUf buL eix uiitumJ childEvn ; foT hla iiiisiroaaea wot? aamberlo^ Dolwiifa- 
■timdtfi^ hu ** pic-t^," wliLfih is cuiumeiiilcd hy htn liiiKrrBCtlici. l-lu ili^a surnuned 
Tiu (fe F^, truuh^ikd ; luid wau uici^vt'dod by hia son, CLtarlefl KnuiLanuel, nus 
Diuued the Graii, of coUtbo ou acctiuot of W\n military opcTtttionfl, for it it 
iQi[iosAJ]yEe to diH^ovor luiy oJici- oUJm in him to the title. AU Philibert't 
uutural childreu lud gluriuua furtuuCB in church uicl Btate^ ftod soeoi to have 
dctfrvffi tho i>blii'iui] of their ntuD^if royiJ blood bo not iho hyoiwp Id 
epriakl« uid dewiso nil anch delUemout, Pope Clcmmi VII. ia said to have 
»ppc*leJ to tho hiitli of thv fiodeetiior, when people talked of bia illegitiauwy ! 
See OuiLhoiionj Hiil. lit •'kivoi/t: . and Brublf dL Moiit|JftiiiidiifciQp, I'k d'iW- 
iiHtl PAUitcrt , juid all tbi; Uiograpbicfll Dii-Uonnritt, 



THE JEfltrrTS AJfD THEIR INDIAN OONVKRTft- 



103 



reJ to liAvc some control over GRtablii-hments which, 

hy tlio late liraty. wouIJ bo likely to infringe on t)io 

rights of Lis heretic suhjccts. The colleges were net to 

be endowed : but the stipends were to he paid to the 

Jc?siiits, jiiat aa to the other nifiBtors of the people. 

Liiinez threw up the tiling at once— as not adapted to 

tlic Company — the operations of his men would he 

hampered by these '' lialf-and-half *" colleges — quoff in 

miHilis hisce dimidioth(jU4' vn/h'f/fis fieri non «7,' So, 

after giving occasion to vast annoyance, great suffering, 

confiisiou, bloodshed, torture, rapo and rapine among the 

poor Siavoyartls, — tlie Jesuits decamped, PoRsevin was 

not nmdc a bishop, no colleges were founded, the r€s 

SocifMh was at a discount — and all was quiet as before, 

Tliankif. howevon to the Jesuit-expedition for teaching 

Philil>ert a lesson, by which ho profited for the good of 

his subjects. Would to Heaven that it were my pens 

sweet office Ui state the same result of all Jesuit- 

viaitations. Nothing is so pleasant as to see good coming 

out of evil — particularly when tlie parturition promised 

A monRler. 

A more disastrous consequence to themselves attended 

a scheme of the Jesuits in India, during the same year, 

!560» The southern coa^t of India, inhabited ^ , . 

Dj the Paravas, or the pearl iishomien, had iimDnK«ihrir 
111 p ■ \ ' °^^ ** ™'*- 

long neon the scene oi rapine and oxtortton «tiB"in 

by the Portuguese against the natives. King 

John of P(»rtngal had received complaints on the 

gubject, during Xaviers apostolal^. The Portuguese 

oppressed the pearl fishers in every possible way. They 

insi<iied upon having all the pearls sold to tliemselves 

only, and on the most ilisadvantagoous terms for the 



Sml^IiId. lib> \y. T4. Q^innc], u. I f>. 



no 



HISTORY OF THE JESEJITS. 



natives. The "converts" were treated as tlie very wont 
of men — expelled from their bouaca by their friends, 
relatives, and parents, for thus losing caste ; and the 
Porttiguese aggravated their calamities by rapine, cruelty, 
and extortion.' The Jeauita had retained possession of 
the rosidoiices fouiided by Xavier. The Viceroy Con- 
stantino planned a acbeme to transport the inhabitant 
of the pearl coast to an island opposite to Jafuapatam, 
in the island of Ceyloa. The alleged motive was to 
protect them from certain pirates who annoyed and 
plundered them, — at least, so say tlie Jesuits : but as 
they add that Xavier himself bad Buggested the enter- 
prise, this apparent anxiety to exhibit a motive for thd 
transaction, docs not prevent us from believing that it 
was not thf object of the scheme. Cut JaHuipatam did 
not belong to Portugal. It was still a free kingdom. It 
was therefore necessary to invade and conquer the 
country before the pearl fishers could be transported. 
The Jesuits lent themsolve-s to the scheme, and its 
prehniinary wickedness. They had at their college a 
child of eight years, who tbcy say bad been a fiigitive, 
expelled from hia paternal kingdom by the king of Jaf- 
napatam. This boy was to be re-eatablished in his 
kingdom by the expedition — with Jesuits for his regents 
and prime ministers, or the Portuguese for his masters^ 
undoubtedly, "The expedition," says Sacchinus, "was 
altogether \A great importance for the Chrifltian name, 
of great importance for increasing the wealth of Por- 
tugal. Therefore Coustantine equips a strofig fleet for 
the purpose ; and in the meantime ho commands the 
fethers of the Company, to whose care the neoph^'tes 
of the Para\'as were committed, to prepare them for the 



■ M^. rndic. f. 34!>. 



TRANSTOBTATINN UF PAIUVAS TO MANAAB. Ill 

tmnaportatiou," ' It seems to roe that the true motive 
is now declared — the expedition was of great importance 
for increasing tlie wealth of PortugaJ — mngni ad Lmt- 
Umns qtiofffie nuge^idas opet^ mornenti ej-pcditio emt. In 
effect, the kingdom of Jftfnapatam. which was the real 
pect of tlio Portuguese viceroy, is, or was, one of the 
lest countries in tlie world, — abounding in most 
delicious fmits and aromatic gmus, precious stones of all 
kinds — nihics^ hyacinths, sapphires, emeralds. pearlSn and 
the purest gold : in fine, all that the imagination of man 
pictures for his desires, has there been placed, with a 
profusion worthy of the Creator alone. Accordingly, it ia 
tlio Ophir of Solomon, — in the interpretations of certain 
commentatora ;" nay, men of that clasa have even 
afflnoed it likely to be the Pamdlse of Adam — which 
might serve to account for the existence of Jews or some- 
thing like them, amongst the pagans of India, as was duly 
discovered by the Jesuits, according to one of their *' Cu- 
rious and Edifying Letters."^ To the Portuguese viceroy, 
however, Jafnapatam was Eden, — and no flaming angel 
withheld his entrance: — it was Ophir, — and he might 

1 " tbUiiB Pitra SoddAtia, quomm CommoriivuvQ nfiOphjTl eune ctimmivi 
«mil prvparmre ecM mA trx^evi^'incxa ]iib('t.''^.^^m-Ai'H. Uh iv. DGA, t>GI. 

' BovtATt, Qasifl], its. 

* Cajloa u almost jfliaed tc India by the isUiid of MftUAor, Iwro dratined 
ftr the PjumTMH, &nd tbeLr new fishing opcratioDS for their mmCfrt, tlie Por- 
twgiKuj. TlwTv 11 ft t\A^ of safLdUuikn cuuiK^ning tbai Ealuid [o BnoUn^r, luiil 
ttJIcd Aiatu'm brttfffff UiA tltctv n % ino<]nt4Lin in llic iHlnnfl, caLlcil Atlitrin'R 
pHik, vhcin he vihs sajii to liavo hwn oreALeil anil uudcr wliicli ho ih snid to be 
Iwied. An ihMc ftbnirditiFa tn Attributed lo t2ic natives ; boL it b evjdcnt 
ttMlheyoHginMed with tlii?ir " OirJEEiui " iDTuIcn, As ev\y u 15^0, ihe 
IWvagu«*v bad ^ued a footing iii diL' inlajid, And had fnrtiliv<l tbcniHlvoi m 
CUoenba. Tho Ontr^h expHlod th«ra fmnJIy in 1656. Tbo Fnni^li gaiacA n 

■rttfcmnil odurqiieiilly ; bnt it dow Irflonw ta Great Drifjun, U U ^"0 mil«i 
long, hy lis broad, with v,u area of 2*,€tii iiquan milct, with a pt^ulatinn nf 
wil/ 1,127,000-^001 fifty iiihiibjLinla to tliep"|unrp mile, TiLlltctf a wurpluf* pnpulv 
li«B in Burvpe «1^ nicha field Hpcn fot a truly Chmtltn niid induairiouawlooj', 



112 



HISTOBT OF THE JESPlTS. 



rcacli it Tvitli liia ships. First, however, ho sent soiuo 
harquea to transpoifc Lhe Paravas. Tlie pirates came 
down upon them on a Ruddeu, in the midst of the 
embarkation. They put to sea : the enemy attacked 
and suuk their barques— few escaped by swimming — 
and among tliem was the Jeaiiit Herinqiiez. His hrotber- 
Jesuit Mesquita was captured by the barbanans, and 
retained aa a hostage. Jlcanwhilo the viceroy sailod 
with all his fleet against Jafnapatani, and utormed tlie 
royal city. The king had fled to the mountains ; tlie 
viceroy had it all Iiis own way : the " conquest " vtba 
made : a triliute was imposed, and he returned, with 
disease in his fleet, to Goa, to attend to other matters of 
"great importance/'* The yoimg fugitive king was 
forgotten, if he was ever tliought of ; antl a guard waa 
placed over the few pearl fishere wlio escaped by 
swimming, in the island of Manaar : but few as they 
wore they were usefiil to fish the waters of Jaftiapatam 
in order "to increase the wealth of Portugal," wluch 
seems to have been the true object of their removal: for 
is it not absurd to suppose that the Portuguese would 
tranaj>ort a tribe In order to enable them to live in 
peace ? Besides, why not more effectually defend them 
by a strong garrison '{ But, in the face of the alleged 
motive, wo may ask. How tliose Paravfis were really 
more protected from the pirates at Manaar than on their 
original coast ? In tnitli, their masters wanted their 
services clBcwhere : the scaeon was advancing ; that 
fishery proniif>ed to I>e more lucrative : the refnolutioa 
was taken ; and the Jesuits lent their assistance, as 
in duty bound, to fhelr masters. They disgustingly 
deceived the poor fisliermen. with their usual ^"Ad 



* Snevhm. lib. iy, SCfl 



PAKOBAMA OF JESUIT OCCITPATIONS. 



113 



majorem," but were most sincere in "leading a hand" 
to increase the wealth of Portugalj and tlius promote — 
T€s Societatis — the wealth or thing — for tlio word moaiia 
an\-thiiig »nd everytliing — of the Company. And yet, 
how quietly the Jesuit narrates the transaction — ae if no 
readier woidd know enough of the Portuguese in India, 
lo aee through the tiling— -as if aU would henj in 
admiratiou of the Company's motto, totally ohlivioud of 
Uieir aim. 

The various occupations of the Jesuits in any giv^en 
year, month, day, at any hour of their career, if repre- 
aentod in miniature by thcii' artiat, ToUcnarius, 
would be the most curious sight imaginable JeiuUoccu- 
— a veritablo "phantasmagoria of fun" — to '* "*"' 
ihemselves and the thoughtless or careless : but " no 
joke*' to the victims. A case of spoliation of nuns, 
cajoling a rich old gentleman, fiighteiiing the Venetian 
aeaators and husbands, under punishment at Monte 
Puldano, stirring up persecution in Savoy, apoatles, 
after the manner of Judas, amongst tlie wrett;hed 
Paravas-and a thousand other avocations pui'sued at the 
same time in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. And 
now we must accompany a Jesuit-expedition into Ire- 
land and Scotland. 

Mary died in 1558, "to the inestimable damage of 
religion," says Sacchinus, on the bame day that Cardinal 
Pule breathed his last, *' which clearly showed 
that God was angry with Britain/' ' says the ^^p^^""^ 
sune oracular Jesuit, alludiii<»: to the exitiQlia ^«"'^*'|''< tirr 
dogmaitu the "pernicious doctrines*' which 
were about to reascend after violent depression, like 
ft pole hurled into the depths of the sea, to remount with 

vuL, n. I 



114 



HiSTonr or thh jestxits. 



Rliiiilictli ii 
rivil lu ibcj 



tlic force of the reacting waters. Consequently, tlio" 
death of Mary ami the cardinal seemed, to tlie party 
depressed, a certain sign tliat God vfbs hecoming p/M^ed 
with Britain ; — and it ia curious to note the different 
opimons on the subject, the various interpretations of 
an event hy which nothing at all was shown, except that 
thej were Jcad, or, in the beautiful words of the ancient 
sufferer, " Man that is bom of a woman ia of few dajs, 
and full oF trouble. He comcth forth like a flower, and 
ia cut down : ho fleeth also as a shadow, and continnelb 
not.'* Elizabeth mounted the throne of Bri- 
tain. To the Protestant eovereigns of Europe 
sho declared her attachment to the reformed 
faith, and her vnsii to cement an union amongst all its 
pi'ofeMsory, To the Popo of Rome^ by the " ambas^ 
sador'' Came, sho protested that ahc had detemiined to 
offer no Tiolence to the conBciences of her subjects, 
whatever might be their religious creed.' Paul TV. 
p^iij n -I received the announcement with contempL 
bruin^ rppi> Ho ravcd at the queen as though she had 
been a Spaniard, or he waa *'iii hia cups" 
He Baid ^' ahe was a bastard, and therefore liad no right 
to the crown.'* He added thai he could not revoke the 
Bulls of his predecessors, who had invaliditted Henry's 
marriage with Anne Boleyn, the queens motlicr. This 
was little to the purpose : for he told the Jesuits what 
he thought of his pre'Ieces^ors' Bulla and mandatea 
He said the queen was '' very bold and insolent ia 
daring lo mount the throne without asking /lis consent : 
this audacity alone made hor unworthy of favour ; — 
but, however, if she woiJd renounce her pretensions, 
and submit the decision to him and the Holy See, he 



1 Lingftrd, tl CarndBO, L 28. 



k 



I 



I 



Tra CHITRCH OP ROME AND THE REPUDLlCANa. 115 

vould try to give her proofe of Iiis affection ; but he 
could not ponnit any attack on tho authority of Cbrist's 
vicar who alone is authorised to regulate tho rights of 
iliosc who pretend to I'egal t-rowns.^ According to tho 
Jesuit Pallavictno, ho also said, that Mary Queen of 
ScoLs claimed the crown as the nearest legitimate 
d«con<lant of Hctiry VIL^ There is notlung to wonder 
at in this insolent resistance to the voice of a nation. 
The "Church of Rome" liad not as yet been 
■^ taught to forget " her unreasonable, incou- iJmD^i 
*iHt«ul prerogatives. Three hundred years of iJ^^i *ua 
Profe-stafti lECulcatiou have been required to ^^^^J^ **" 
t^^ach lier Uie lesson, which she has learnt at 
IaBt> tliat all her prerogatives were founded on the 
superstitions of the people, and that in the present 
stage of this eventful planet s progress, her very exist- 
ence depends on her strict neutrality in the politics 
ofmon. So delightfully has she imbibed so expedient 
and necessarj' a lesson, that slic has eyen enthusiastically 
frat^jmised with the Republicans of France, consigning 
royalty, with its '* rights/' to the tombs of its ancestors, 

' to which, as far as *' the Church" is concerned, it may 
lake its departure as soon as possible, the voice of the 
people being the voice of God, whose very e.riftfence 
was proved, in the* estimation uf tho famous Parisian 
preacher, Lacordaire, Ay ffw hiw liemlntion ! ^ A more 

I 

* Qabbo*!* LetirL t\5 i C*m4cD, Rftpin, &c. Linganl jwcriba tliccc aea- 
lAnaBb lo lh» flnggeMioo of tho FreauJi tunboesiulaL-, vi, '2li'A, - Lingnrd, ib. 

* * Lo llw «Uhedi»i of Noire U&mp., tlie Abbo ljwtird:ure coinmeQced iiis 
m%i^ of flenncuw. An imnnmae crowd wm prefloni. The rox. gtnilenuin first 
rmd ihtr ftrrJUiuiicip's letter. On ihcUemai^d of Ihe fovfrnnicui^ llio ikrchbuhop 
^Tv *rfAen to have tlic * Donuue, wkJvuin fnc Fopliuh ' bcuccfurvanl Hiug 
n til die divnbn- rhv bbtcj m^ldrcHiing ilio wUlfialiop, sibiJ. ' Moiucigiicitr, 
ifat eovnliy, b^r mj vokif* Ibuiks you (or lIig courigcuuB exuaplu vbicJi j«u 
Wtv ^fvn I it tluuJu yott for havus^ known haw Xa coquLaK Ibe tmnutiiilrittig 

I 2 



116 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 




Stinging sarcasm could never have been uttered against 
prostrate royalty : Ijut it rebounds on "the Church :'^^ 
Higfori/ snatclies and pins it on the back of '^ the^ 
Church/* as a moral, an asdom^ a piinciple for univ ersal 
edilicatioD. 

The pope 3 insulting notification to Elizabeth produced 
such an effect as would have followed the same conduct 
Etfccfi of ^t t^^ present day in the Church of France. 
il^'uholVut Settinf^ aside the queen's natural resentmeut 
qii«n. oj, f^}ie occasion, it became evident at once to 

the queen's ministera and supporters that it was only 
by strengthening her ''party" that she could hop 
for security on the throne ; and they resolved, by all 
means in their power, to promote Protestantism and 
suppress Catholicism, It was tlie selfish suggestion 

whMiihc ^^ P^^y — ^ li"^ of poHcy at all times, and 

qtitrn thnuM even now ag much as possible, prevalent in 

all **partic8j whotnor " rcugious, political, 

social, and literary. The better part to be chosen by 



ei^ du Chttrch and tho n&nctity of onUia with the change* vlilcb Ood v9MTim \a 
Uio worltl b^- tho hojida of men.* llw prt^chor, kb if ta give jiroufn of ihu 
iminutnliiLityt wiebed lo coDtiaus the devebpmoiit uf (lie ductrinv which he hmd 
Kl forth ao eJ^juonUj f(JF neveral ytira. lie nppcarort to d^rc to enlTeacb 
hmiBtlf beliind divino tradition, and to preficpve it from the inTasion of higtvrif ; 
bat tlio fire burat one, bdU the Domitiii^Au uf the [Hiuple, arriving nt Oie pnrafi 
of the cnisli^nflc of Go^j prid nut, * Prove to ytm God I Were I to ultvmpl to 
di> Ko, yon wflnld Jkita a right to oaU me jtfirritide and Barrilegioufl- If I dirvd 
to uuderUiko to demoiiBtrKte to you God, tlio gpAen of thia caihedral would open 
of themaelvea, and show you Uiw Teo^lk. anptrb "* ift ait^er, carrying Qod to 
hit ttitar ill (bi- midbt of ivipeot niid lidomtinn.' The whol? aoditory^ verv ao 
nnwh mqvedj HwX tbcy teatifiBd Loud tippJiuBo, wlucfa th« nmcitit^ qf lbs plaov 
ctfuM Qot roflLrain. The D^hats, AlLudiog lo the stTDe, eayi, *1t k well : Jvttha 
Cliiirrh tike ita plneo like m nil. l^t It thov Hsfli, the pi?r>p1c wid recogain 
It. Lvt it not Havo uiy drejul of ilie IWvohitiotif in order tljat ih»- Reioludan 
nay not be Afr&iJ of it. God lias clelivored the worN to diwusaiou : Tradidil 
fnufiiVufji ditpnlati"ri. Let the Church use ild umiij tliD ^'orJ ruul vlwrity, 
iDfitmction and actioo. Let it ud ilBoM, God tvill ^d It'"— Daily Nevt^ 
Marflb I, 1S4U, 



?IVA IV", SEND3 A >'U>"CIO TO ELEZABETH- 117 



i 



Elizabeth and her " party *' would have been to conciliate 

her Catholic peojile by keeping her original resolution, 

and following it up with perfect equality to the complete 

exclusion of "religious " teats and declarations : but, of 

what avail would so Chrixtinn, and, tlierefore, moat 

expedient, a rcsolvo have bceu, whilst the pope 

*^ _ ' . ' . Btn 11 would 

hft^l luB mouks, aud his priests, and bis Jesititfi, Ih'^ t«B 
to " stir " the people to dissatisfaction and 
rebellion? What a blessed thing for humanity, had 
there been either no pope, priests, monks, and Jesuits at 
nil, or that these leaders of the multitude bad merged 
their selfishness in the olivine cause of human happi- 
neaa, peace, and proaperity. Elizabeth was angered r 
her party was anxious: the pope aud hia party wero 
equally angered and anxious — and we shall soou see the 
con8ei}ueuce. Meanwhile Pius IV, had succeeded to the 
papal Uirone, and sent a nuncio to Elizabeth, requt^sting 
ber to send her bishops to the Council of Trent. Her 
reply was, that slio had been treated iust as if ^ 

* -^ J The qaem • 

phe was not a Christian: that she did not rtpijinPi^po 
think the Council a free and holy assembly, 
bot only a conventicle gathered at the soUcitation of 
certain princes, for their particular interests : and. 
lastly, she was conrincei.1 tliat the intention of the 
Court of Rome, in seiidiiig tlie nuncio, was leaa to 
tavite the English bishops than to inspire the Catholics 
of her kingilom with still more aversion than they 
alr<'a*ly exhibited towards the Protestant^.' The whole 
reign of Elizabeth proved that her sagacity was not at 
fiiult in tliis last surmise. Pius IV., perceiving by thia 
rejJy the error of his predecessor's conduct towards 
Elisabelh. did not at once acknowledge the queen, aa 




118 



HiSTORV OF THE JESUITS- 



he ought to lia^e done for tlie welfare and peace am 
happiness of Iiis Catholic children, but resolved t^ send 
into Ireland one of his " roaring bellows of sedition,"— 
" incendiary phariseca " — to spring a mine, destined ere 
long to explode, witli fearful damage to the wretched 
people, who, without the priests to bliglit their generoua 
hearts, would have been tlio admirei's of a queen who 
kuew 80 well how to reward and promote gaDaut loj- 
alty, when once convinced of its existence in her sub- 
jects. Loi}g had the Jesuits panted for a settlement ii 
Britain. Ignatius and his troop had thought 
much of the matter, and it was even said they 
made proposals to Cardinal Pole on the su 
joct ; but Oiey wt^e decUn^d, Their proposal was similar 
to tlio spoliation of the nuus at Rome ; fur they coveted 
the monasteries of the Benedictines, to convert them into 
colleges, promising, in return, to promote the restoration 
of XJkuTch pvoperhi — on the principle of setting a 
to catch a thief.' Perhaps the cardinal saw through tb 



DviLgm of 





^ " One remAjkablo tbiug of him was, hie aot LiBtcmnr; lo die prDpoailion lbs 
Jflsuitfl m^e liim, of bringing them into EngUiiil .... Tliey Buggested to I'oli 
dibt vhereuithe Quhu [Mv^] wm rcntoring Lhe goods of th? Chnrcb 
won ID her hAndSj tt wjis hut to Lttle purpotn t« raioc up Ibo aU fDuiid»tkiina | 
for tliD BcucdJctiufl order wiu become! ralhor a dog thui » help to tlio Chanha 
They thercrore fliwirej th&C tlioae houhta might bo aHSij^cd in therHr fur muTi- 
tahiiug eci^D]? futd ecmia&rios, nbicL tlicy hUouIiI stt on quickly : mdU tbL'y did 
nirt doubt, but, by Uitir dtalJag with l!io coawi^ccB of those wbo wtra dying, 
tbpy rtboulil soou recover the grealesl iurl of dit* gijods of ihe Cbui'ch. Tile 
JoHuIts WDTC out of mtojurc DETjiiJtd with huu fm^ nut i.'nIurLiuulDg thctr propo- 
vitinn ; which 1 ^nthtr frcm au ItAliziu mitmiHcript wliicb mjr mo^t wortiiy fritiud 
Mr Crawford found W Venice, when he wns cbniilaiQ there to Sir Thomnii Hig- 
giiu, lus maJMty'B envoy to that republic* : bnt haw it come tliAl thia motion wtt 
Iftid aalAe 1 am not ahlu to juclgo." — BT^i'nd, Hoforni. ii- 309. Bnriali «Ut«a itw 
offbr by Ignatiua to Polo, of dio Gcrnt&n ColJ*?^ for the cduCJLtian of Englidi 
yooth \ but BayB no more reapwiint' the nppUcalion to the curdiual, Dy bis 
ftccoiini Philip IT,, tlic buebiuid of Quocii Mary^ wm soliciitJ on tlH subject by 
the JcBuil Araon, a par^cukr favouiiti: uf tliu kijig« >>y EiurgiA uid Leoiiotm 
MucarcynuFir a ^Mcudcr modior" vf tlie Ciumptuij. ^* Uul Jl le (rue/ 




A JESCIT SETT TO ritElAND. 



119 



"cohort," though he is said to have complimented its 
founder, aiid answered hia letters, aa well as those of 

Glad of the j)resent opix^rtunity, as on a former occa- 
noQ, the JesuitM at once ofForod a man for the Irisli 
expedition. He waa an Irishman — David > jefnitii-Ht 
Woulfe by name. The pope, aays the Jesuit- '" ^''^'^^' 
hhftonao, wished to make a bishop of him, and despatch 
him with the title and <lisplay of an apostoLc nuncio : 
but to credit tliis proud anecdote, we must give tlie 
pope credit for extreme impinidence, or exceeding igno- 
ranco of Ireland';* position at that time, respecting tha 
Catholic cause. He would never have been admitted, 
Lainez thought a more iucouspicuous method more 
applicable to * religious humility/' and *' the freedom of 
action — nf (ikrius ipse agire posseC — loss calculated to 
offend the heretics, and hinder him from doing his work 
covertly and quiatly — guo tecihiH ac quietim agcret — and 
the jKipo yielded to the Jesuit, accorcUng to Sacchinus, 
luv^stcd with his powers of apostoUc nuncio, without 
the Attendant paraphei'naha, this Woulfe ile|mrtevi, carry- 
mg with him a great quantity of expiatory chapleta 
and such Uke Itoman amulets for Ireland,' „, ^ . 
Passing through France, he was arrested and «""*"'*"«- 
impriBOned at Nantes, heing suspected for a Lutheran* 



OvBolir ** Ua Tonotii nuAona, on itj/lkA it U luddn f? enlarge al aii,ih& retail 
M not (jorreep'UKi vrith lliu Jtsirc,'' T\m C*« *w>n rdttra panto U /ertHomn 
MDtfM U nRwwlia.1 nrniArbftble in so tctj diffuse a vriler u Uic J<*uit Butoli. 
I tbAuM niMtm thjtt Ribihlniejn mu Hot b; VUiWy II. lo cunaolfl wukI okvoI 
Marj la het ilropay— d eo^utohtrv fit aautert in nui namr n/ta Rfinn Mtirlut 
«^rWiH ddtr idf&piria.--I>ftr Fng/viL t T2, Bui oveo hfn presfnco m Engtnnd 
bthM DiAliiDg, a Jdi Ihrtoli. AfleT ^1, U doftwemihttl C^nlijial ?ol« wwi no 
pUnm of ilie Jtaiujl«. 

* ^ Boiio-fuo pLb"iUnuiD KrtomDi, iblUraiaqiic bii flbailhim Txrma diidiptio 



120 



HISTORY OF THE JBSUITS, 



He was probablv dtsqitued, and went along s^^ggering : 
otbei-^rise it is difficult to account for such an error, sup- 
posing he said and did nothing to excite suspicion. 
After four days' confinement, he reached St. Malo, 
embarked his luggage for Bordeaux, but preferred to 
walk to that place, which, says Hacchinus, was a Divine 
instinct, — dwinus instinctux, — because the vessel foun- 
dered on her passage ; but this depends, perhaps, npon 
what he did in his journey, and, ia the uncertainty, the 
instinct might just aa vrell have been from Beelzehub. 
But surely the large collection of expiatory chaplets, 
Agnus Deis, and miraculous medala, ought to have 
saved the ship from foundering. After spending five 
months on the journey^ he reached Cork ; and his 
description of the state of Catholic matters, in 1561, 
is both curious in itself and curiously worded. He 
states that he was engaged, amidst the anarea of the 
Hi, i„d heretics, in consoling and inspiring confidence 
thT^iriV'^ to the Catholics, and in regulating the affairs 
Ciihaiici. of the Irish Church ; that he was received 
with wonderful joy by the Catholics of Cork, where he 
spent a few daya. With the greatest secrecy he got the 
Catholics informed of hia presence and its object, and 
describes that he saw, throughout the space of sixty 
miles from Cork, crowds of men and women, with 
naked feet, and covered with a shirt only, coming la 
confess their sins and beg absolution for their infrestuoua 
marriagoSj more than a thousand of which he ratified hy 
apostolic authority, in the space of a few months. He 
hirthcr stales, that the Irish were very much entangled 
in this vice : but free from heresy, which corresponds 
with another Catholics remark, that "they sin hks 
devils, but believe like saints;' as I have elsewhere 



BAD ACCOUNT OF THE IRISH CATHOLICS. 



121 



quotefl. He goes on to say : — " That all the priests and 
niouks everywliere kept mistresses/'" "The penptc" 
says he, ''wonder tliat I don't charge them hi. ™«i 
anything, and receive no presents : " which "mnpie, 
eeonis a sort of reflection on the old inveterate " begging 
box " of Irehind, and the wages of the ftanctuary. 

■' Uui'f food in Enrth'n bnaoTn is ruttiu)^-— 
But Cliaritjr'B doX*- ib allotting— 
To vhom 1 At Gnd'fl donr, thL< pfunpcred unc« mnro 
To pluuder ilte Piiu[H:r in |r1i>LLui^,"^ 

The Jesuit David, however, would do nothing of the 
kiufl^ a£ he assures us. " although/' he adds, ** I loat all 
tny hii^age bj the wreck of the French vessel from 
St, MaJo. and I am desperately pinched — vehemenlei' 
inopid confiidariy It was then he probably felt the 
loss of his cbaplets, Agnus Deis and miraculous medals : 
for he might have sold these for tlie good of the apos- 
toiic treasury, and supplied his pinching want \vitbout 
scruple, after posting the amount to tlie pope s credit 
with Rt'ft So^iefnfU nt tlie top of the folio. David says 
tli&t ''beescheM'edfdl their conviviahtica — declined their 
invitations.^/!^ /ocKw tfratlfp aperird, lest ho should put 
himself under any obligation," if tliat be the meaning 
of the strange expresaioti. ** I find it by no means 
ea&y to Ix-g/' ho continues, " for here you can scarcely 
find bread in any bouse diu"iug the day, because the 
people seldom eat tlinner, and at their supper cat new 
bread, which, for the most part, they do not bake before 

I 4 Kadi* pediboi, mo ttuitum indiuio Inrtos, pecc&lB ponfetnirov, et wbcmlii- 
aMiiiu mxyer Incati* mfttrimat^ii^ rDgaCnros. TLub mille cunjiigum ptriAtioB 
■Mttllk* uuHHibiaa ei iftjiuCu Duj^diB^ huctoritat? Apoat4jlLc4 legltiiaia frb h joDcfn. 
Iloe Da»inic imi^liciktuni vtuo popuJam : cjctcrum «b ha^rc^ pumm cam: 
CWrktt* oEncliiUwine pusim dmnsH cinn tnulierciiLis eiiia.*'— Sc»eI^hm. tib. 
v> 149. s Ui$ n/ Lfuuriu^ in^^ Frtcl# itid Figum frum ItjJ//' p. IT, 



122 



HISTORY OP THE JEStTlTS. 



evening. Some of the priests, taking offence at my 
abstinence, make a jest of my poverty: but continuing 
my practice of abstinence^ I abound in the fmits of holy 
rie ]■ Ti.H- poverty, and I joyfully endure theii' mocken^ 
prtcrtsforiiia Accounting it an increase of ray gains/' So 
abitiDcuce, far David Woulfe, Jes^iit. and Apostohc Nuncio 
in Ireland, His account of himself is very Hattering ; 
but by no means so to the prieats and monks, and 
people of Ireland — excepting their orthodoxy. Mean- 
wliile, however, temptation overpovrered him : the man 
who went to reform, added himself to the number of 
Uic fallen. ** Happy would he have been." oxelaims 
Sacchinus,at the conclusion of his letter, '' Happy, if he 
bad continued such good beglimiuga ! For, at length, 
from being left to himself, and without a check, he 
ne uiu Bi became gradually remiss, more useful to others 
iTpiuf tf.*B ^Ijs^ t^ himself, aud the man behaved in such 
c«itp«ny- ^ manner that it was necessary to expel luni 
from the Company." Such was the second Irish expe- 
dition of the Jesuits. It scarcely corresponded with the 
popo'aujtpectAtious. About tliree years after, thi*eemore 
Jesuits were dispatched to Ireland with an archbishop 
to erect colleges, and academies, having been invested 
with papal i>ower to transfer ecclesiastical revenues to 
the purjiose. Into England also a Jesuit wa£ sent at 



■ " FcliL^vm Bi uHbiia MLardiU conTciiientift nitoxDie&eL ND^in denmin pot 
siilitudinom bt impuiiiEiileni. nniiflU puiilitim curu «iii, ut!Ii«r mulCtt i^tiam lifai, 
IlA ne Lumci gcfiBU, ill ^cgrc^iidi-ia aii Soi:ittFite (vcrit"- — Lili, v. 14!'. Ttia 
Jv4uU hita biwa ooufouDd^ hy CrtitJncBu wkh 4 Father Davitf^ mctiliauad bjp 
S^cliinu^, lib. ?iu. 98 -, and Dr. OlLveT, ia bia c^izFanivcly pftrlinJ jind meftgtv 
" CbUoction^,'^ uiTH jutt iialhing of Dflvid WoulTo, pxrppt that '* lie liad been 
clmjklaiji lo Jaiii<^a Maurice Dt^iiiGnd de GenOJinia, aa 1 fin^l from Uiat nabl^ 
□lajtV ii^tict, daLui), &c. TliE uu-1 VAprrBOi^a biDiat-ll' muil gmtcfnl to ihc Soi^ivlj 
foE liATuig ftilmitlQc] him tc n portJcipatiaii of its ^'rayirfl anrl grxxl i«^crk< al ihs 

TvquGflt knil rccoiumcndniioii of ibo Rev. Fatlic^ William tiood"— v^Uich b a 
nu-bu>; application of tli« Compaa^-'v mcrita.— CUEfC. p. 970. 



THE ttEFORHATIOX IN SCOTLAim. 



123 



mfilitni ^n 
Scullutd. 



thosame time — an EnglishmAii, Thomas Chinge by name 
— " for the good of" his hcaltb," says fSacchinus, "and for 
the consolatioD aud aid of the Cathoiics. He is said to 
hAre made somo "conversions" among the Aj«i,iiin 
uobility. and the year after *' changed his ^^"^^ 
earthly country for the celestial/'^ In 1562, Pius IV, 
SGQt the Jesuit Nichohts Gaudan to Marj' Queen of Scots 
to console and exhort — to no i^urpose, as events declared. 
It is admitted by all parties that excessive abuses 
prevailed in the Scottish Church before the Iteformation 
lATia introduced into Scotland ; and Dr, Lingard 
expressly wys that of all European Churches 
tliat of ScoUaod was amongst those which 
were best ** prepared to receive the seed of the new 
ffmpel"sB he slyly calls the Reformation. The highest 
dignities of the ChuJ'ch were, witli few exceptions, 
lavished on the illegitimate or the younger sons of the 
most powerful families.^ Merely as such they certainly 
had as good a right to these dignities as to any other — 
provided tijey were competent by nature and by grace. 
But whatever might have been their other quahlica- 
Uoits, they failed in the essential characteristics of 
honest and competent churchmeu. Ignorant and im- 
moral iheuisclves. they cared little for tlie instruction 
or moral conduct of their inferiors.^ As eveiywhere 
oko the clergy were proud. They consulted their case. 
Tlicy neglected their duties without ecniplc : but exacted 
ihcir " dues " T^ith rigour. And the people lashed them 
accordingly ^"ith their tongues,* — which they will always 
do — until a rod is put into their hauda, and they are 
taught how to use it. The new preacher appeared. 
They preached to willing ears respecting iLose doctrines 



' fiMvUu. \ih. TiiL 93, 



Umgard, vi. 269. 



Jbid, 



< Jlid. 



124 



RISTURT OF THE JESCim 



which promoted exieting abuses ; and if to suit the 
times, to season their discourses, thej bitterly inveighed 
against the Wees of the churclimen, they oalj took a 
natural and infallible course to the favour of the 
neglected, despised, and oppressed people. In order to 
bo felt, things must be made tangible ; and fto when 
Poasevinua would recommend his Company to Philibert, 
he inveighed, as we have read, against the ricea of the 
monks in Savoy. In the matter of the Scottish defgyj 
as elsewhere, the obvious course to be followed by the 
churchmen was reform: — an awful, day-of-juilgnient- 
contemplation, doubtless ; but that was the uecessilj 
upon them. Wliat was done \ The usual tiling. A 
" convocation" enacted ** canons** — to regulate the 
morals of the clergy — to enforce the duty of public 
instruction — to repress abuses in tlie collection of clerical 
dues.^ It was too late, as usual: and besides, the enact- 
ments of " convocations " are not the things to produce 
the results so desirable. Meanwhile, the preachers 
were not neglected. Old statutes were revived against 
them as teachei-a of herelical doctrines, and new penalties 
were superadded to show how the chxm;hmcn tJiought 
they could "put down" the spirit of transition." It 
was a mistake as well as a crime ; and they suffered 
the ponalty for both. Earls, barons, gentlemen, honest 
burgesses, and craftsmen, phghted hearts and hands in 
the congregation — and finally John Knox fell as a 
,^ ^ thunderbolt on*' the Church" of Scotland. This 

John Khax- 

ternble reformer was the son of obscure 
parents : Haddington and Gifford in East Lothian dis- 
pute the honour of his birth : the University of St 
Andrews made him a Master of Arts. In his thirtieth 



IJneKr<]j tI 1i6D. 



: \\U, 




OOX CONDEUKliD AS A 11ERET3C, 



125 



jear lie reiiouuced the religion of Home : ami seveu 
ycare afterwards, in 1542, he declared himself a Pro- 
testant The heart of a Scot — firm, tenacious, immovable 
from its purpose — qualified him for hie appointed work: 
the enthusiasm of a Scot — which is infinitely more 
til ought fill, more calculating, move to the jiurpose than 
that of any other nation — made him terrible in hia 
dfinunciatioiLs of what he abomiuated ; and the philo- 
Bophy of Aristotle, scholastic theology, civil and canon 
law, biiUt in his mind that rampart of controversy, so 
indispensable at a time when, to confute a heretic, was 
o»Iy secoud in glory and merit to roa^iting him on 
the spit^ of the? Inquisition. This man was condemned 
«5 a heretic for denouncing the prcTalcnt corruptions 
of the churchmen : he was degraded from tlie priest- 
hood — for he had been ordained — and was compelled 
fly from the presence of the fierce, cruel, and venge- 
ful Cardinal Beaton, who. it is said, employed assassins, 
thus to '■ get rid*' of a determined opponent. Perse- 
cutioD envenomed his heart — nerved liis onthusiasm — 
and of his oiiud made a deadly dart to trausfiA Ids 
constituted foes — who were the foes of his cause — and 
thus a sacred impulse, *' with solemn protestation/' urged 
him " to attempt the extremity/' Events checked his 
eSbrt^ for a time. A i>arty of Reformers, led by Norman 
lie, a personal enemy of the Cardinal, murdered 
Beaton in 1546, to the uttrcr consternation of the cathoUc 
cause, which the relentless Cardinal hai.1 laboured to 
, jwomole by imprisoning, banishing, hanging and drown- 
ihe heretics. Open war followed the murder. T)ie 
confipiiators were besieged in St. Andrew s : French 
[troops aided the besiegers : the place was surreiidered. 
and amongst the prisoners was Knox. Nineteen months" 



/ 



126 



HISTOBT OF THE JESCTTa 



close imprieoiiTnout was his fate — he was then hbcrated 
with Ilia health grcatlj impaired hy tlie rigour he 
endured — biting his hpa and biding his time. He came 
forth to '* attempt the extremity/' ludcfatigably lie 
proclaimed his peculiar doctrines — intemperate in ■words 
— obstinate in mind — austere, stem, vehement — a hem 
fashioiioil by poi-socution and the requirementa of the 
ago, and hia conntrj. Against the exaltation of women 
to the government of men he bitterly inveighed. The 
key-note of his trumpet was undoubtedly given by the 
specimens he found iu power— the Queen-dowager Mary 
of Guise, in Scotland — and Queen Mary in England. 
All his doctrines were more or less tinged with Calvinism. 
All sacrifices for sin he deemed blasphemoud ; all 
idolatry, superstition — all that was not authorised by 
Scripture he denounccd^he was altogether ojjposcd to 
episcopacy or the governmcDt of bishops. If in strictness^ 
in austerity, Scotland's Protestants exceed those of 
England, John Knox lays claim to the initiative — the 
solid fuundatiou. In 155G he went to Geneva to minister 
to the English congregation who appointed him their 
preacher.^ In 1559 he returned to Scotland, where ho 
remained to his death in 1572. Inti'epidity, independ- 
eiice^ elevation of mind, mdeiatigable activity and con- 
stancy which no disappointments could shake, eminently 
qualified him for the post wliich he occupied : and 
whilst ho wae a terror to every opponent — an uncom- 
promising inflicter of castigatioii on all ^nthout exception 
of rank or sex, when he thought they deserved it — still, 

^ Dr. Lingard m wmcwhjil mcrrj oc Uiifi fftct, which ho describes u fullows ; 
'^ PruTprHog tLv duty of walchin^ over the tufiuil church lo tin? ^]ory of 
WMtjrdom, ho liMiencil hack to Geneva, whence bj lettora ho aupfilieil ihc 
tiQQpli)'tci with ^ht«tly caiuiac'l, I'eaolvuiy tli«ir doubw, chMliamg their tioiidiiv, 
nnJ tafluuilig Ittiir tcaA," vl 270, 



RSUOIOH T1I£ PBETEXT OF HUUAN PAasiOr^S, 127 

La privato life, be was lovod and reverctl by liis friends 
ojitl domestics. Persecution and tj'iamij had roused 
liini to his enterprise : throughout his Ufe he inflicted 
vengeance on the principles of their supporters — and 
unhe-^itatiugly directed the indignation of his followers 
against the oppressors of the " brethren/' whom they 
were " bound lo defend from persecution and tyranny, 
be it against princea or omjiorors, to tho uttermost of 
their power."' 

At the height of this agitation the Jesuit Nicholas 
GauiUu wormed his way into Scotland. It was a 
hazardous undertaking. The Catholic religion TLeJtuun 
was proscribed; its public worsliip was pro- II^qJ^""' 
hibited, Puritans, Presbyterians, and Epis- ^"rr- 
copalians wcro beginning those torrible contests amongst 
each other^ whose remcujbraiice gives maAims to the 
wise and a pang to the Christian. Human passions 
made i-eiigion their pretence or excuse — like Koraes 
infernal Int|uisition — and men slaughtered each other 
with swords ronaecratod by a text perverted. Was it 
not in prophetic \'isiou that It was said : '' Suppose yo 
that I am come to give peace on earth \ I tell you nay ; 
Init rather tliviaion." Sad and gloomy was that fore- 
knowledge to Him who pitcously said : '' Come to me 
all ye who labour and arc heanly burtbened/' He 
Foresaw Low the pnssious of men would abuse His 
OCHning — and tuni bis peace into cruel di^'ision, and 
call it "orthodoxy" — with fire biUTiing and sword 
unsheathed. 

The Jesuit Gaudau entered Scotland disguised as a 



■ Sw U-Cm'a Life of Knox. U^icw of Ibe buhq i& Briliali Critic 0f iBia; 
Elidinlntf^li Rcticir, ul 1 -, QuarWily Review, U. 4lK ; RtAmtUoii, HiM* of 
S^vliaod ; Bafio^ Diet; uui Penny Cj-t^luprciliAj niiL; Ling. vi. 270. 



12a 



HISTORY OF THE Jiy^UlTS. 



kawkei-} It was a clever JeTice— since it admitted him to 
the homes of Scotland without reserve — iuto places where 
DiiEDitcdu ^^ might observe without being noticed — soimd 
m pedlar, (^j^g natioii's heart throughout the land of con- 
tention — find numberless opportuniues to blow the *'fire" 
and spread the " division'* so mournfully predicted — these 
things might he do — and yet seem an honest pcdlax 
"withal But how many falsehoods must uot that disguise 
have compelled hiDi to tell, for the sake of his mission \ 
Access to the Queen of Scots was most difficult to 
the Jesuit. Who could envy the lot of Mary ? A 
widow in her eightaentli year.^ — torn from the gorgeous 
gaiety of the French court, whore she was educated 
— with a diead preaentimeat ou her mind, she had 
reached the throne of her ancestors, and saw herself sur- 
rounded by advisera in whom filie could not confide, — 
wliilst without, throughout the length and breadth of the 
land, the Scottish Reformer's trumpet roused congenial 
hearts and minds unto deeds and desires which neither 
by nature, nor by grace, could she bo induced to relish 
AMcret or approve. The Jesuit managed to notify 
initfvii-11', iiig an'ival and mission. The queen contrived 
a secret interview. She dismissed lier attendants and 
her guards to the '' congregation of their brawler," saj's 
Sacxhinus, and admitted the Jesuit by a postern.* 
Gaudan met the Queen thrice. His steps were traced 
by the enemies of his cause : he was pursued : a price 
was set on his head : death impends — but his orders 
were stringent — he may not depart until his end is gained. 
He was to impart to the Queen the pope's advice in her 
predicament — as if her doom was not pronoimced by 

' Cratinuu, L p 463. 

* " Vcr pfisiiiruTn (vJiiiiHrt, ^um ca anuin frftUvin i«liqiJOM[il£ ouqrAdoi dff 
mdustrii «ummovim-L lul foiiduiicm rabulie i^duioim climiHRim/*— I^'. ti ID'- 



OADDAN IN SCOTLAKD. 



129 



I 
I 



tJie diameter of Mary Stuart- What was tlie pope's 
Advice ? \S'c are not toKI, excepting tliat she protected 
to the pope lier determination to defend the holj faith 
to the utinosL of her power* and v/aa ready to endure for 
it every calamity^ But this was an act of faith that 
ercrj Catholic should fervently make, without any 
adviee, ^Sniatcver was the pope's advice, however, 
we arc told that "the queen's voluptuous impnidencea 
will not permit her to follow it in the hour of revo- 

The Jesuit left Scotland aud her queen to their 
troubles, bearing away with him several youths of Scot- 
laud's best families to he educated in Flanders — "hos- 
tSigOB whom he delivers to the Chm-cli, Bubsequeiitly to 
return to their country^ as Apostles of the Faith."' 
Au anecdote curiously illustiative of Jesuitism 
is told respecting this expedition. Gaui^lan's 
diitgurse as a hawker brought a French pedlar into 
trouble. They seized him for the tlisguised nuncio, and 
gave Lini a severe whipping, though lie protested that he 
wafl no DUDcio. and tliey would have dispatched hini had 
bo Dot lieen recognised by some acquaintance. " And 
then," observes Sacchinus, ** he was diamissed, richer for 
the strokes he had received,— wares indeed not a httle 
more useful than those whicli he carried */ titi /tovisaef, 
— if he liad only known how to use them " — which is a 
nre consolatioDf and applicable to all the calamities 
which the Jesuits have directly or indirectly brought on 
huraam'tj", themselves included. 

Proscribed in Scotland, the Jesuits luid the misfortune 



Ah nticnloEp. 



■ Stcdiiii. lib. vi. 100. 

■ " I>Ei VHoeiLs que mn volnprnciiftOB impniiJtnwR ne lui pennfticat pus dp 
■■In* k iTi^ure d« ptvflUTioUft "—O-Hir'faUj i. J63. ' [bid 

rot n. K 



130 



UISTOEY OF THE JESUITS. 



to be under the difipleasure of Philip II in the Calhulic 

(lominionB of Spain : but here? the mandate was tliat 

thev shonlti not leai'e the country- An 

The Jcswil* '^ _ 1 c ■ 1 rt 

dfKcnwted express order was sent to the iSpanish Conipany 
' ' "^ ■ enjoining tiiem to keep the laws of the land : 
forhidding thorn to exi^orf money to oth^r kingdoms, and 
prohibiting them from leaving ypniii^ either for the pur- 
pose of giving or receiving instruction. It was also 
intimated to them that they had given offence at court 
in many ways ; aiid an official visitation of their houses 
waa ordered by the king/ The facta on which diis 
royal displeaRure was based, are not stated by Saccbirma 
Wc are therefore loft to imagine in ^hat ways the Com- 
pany of Jcsiis infiinged the laws of Spain, and con- 
descended to export money from the Spanish domiDions. 
The historian of the Jesnils dismisaeG the Bubject with a 
few words only, and strives to impute motives or suspi- 
cions as the causes of the calamity — among the rest, the 
sudden and secret departure of Borgia from Spain, the 
frequent remittaiices of money to Rome — c.r pvcttniis s^pe 
Romam translaffxj and the king's displeasure with Lainex 
on account of his intimacy with his majesty's enemy, tbo 
Cardinal Ferraia, whom he accompanied into France.' 
This peculiar Jesuit-method of dismissing grave charges 
is by no means satisfactory : particularly when we find 
that, even in the most fi'ivolous cases, their historians 
enter into tedious details, when they believe they cum 
i:onfiite an accusation, or extenuate the fault of a member. 
Whilst the court of Madrid was striving to reprosa tho 
cupithty and pious avai-ice of the Jesuits, the latter 
v^Gve making determined ctForts to achieve an establish- 
ment in France — a le^al establislimcut — for there were 



SK^cliia. Lib. v, 3?. 



» Hid. 37. 



THEra TENTH ATPRMM m TIUNCB. 



131 



» 



JctfiiiU in France at all times. The Promnce of France 
existed by fact, if aot by legal fiction. Wc remember 
Uie first attempt, and its disgraceful conso- Tcniim- 
quenccs, on botb eidos of tho battle. This^rne F^^^**b'" 
the tmtk. Nine times had tbe indefatigable i""^" 
Jemits scaled the ^^alla, and were repulsed ; but defeat 
to the will of Ignatius within them, only redoubled their 
resolve to acliieve victory at last. They had patrons at 
the court of France ; they were befriended by the 
Guiscfl — <iiat restless family of ambitious leaders, now 
more powerful ftud active than ever. Francis II., the 
hu!tband of Mary Queen of Scots, was sleeping with hia 
fathers^ neither too good iior too bad for this world ; 
and Charles IX., his younger brother, had succeeded, 
vith Catherine de' MediiM as queen-regent of the king- 
dom : Iwlli are destined to become Tamous for the 
general massaci-e of the French Protestants — a rehgious 
ceremonial dedicated to St. Bartholomew, Times of 
trouble were at hand: the fearful *' religious" wars 
vere about to break out ; and the " lights and ramparts 
of the Galilean Church, the cardinals de Lori^aino and 
Toranon,'* gladl^' patronised tho foxes to wliose tails 
they conld append flaming firebrands to "set all on 
fire" as they listed. And so the Jesuits said that 
the cardinals thus addressed them when thcv craved 
their co-operation. ** Oh how fortimate is mankind to 
vhom the Divine Majesty has vouchsafed to give such 
men m these times ! Would that bj His mercy every 
province in this kingdom might receive eo great a good ! 
Ve who have it, keep it. Embrace this sodality of Jcsuh 
Christ — walk in their footsteps — cling to their advice. 
In your name, and in duty bound, we will strive so that 
France may not l>e deprived, in any way, of so great a 

K 2 



192 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



gift of God." ' This was tlie opinion which the Jesuits 
wished mankind to entertain — the fatua SocictafU- — -the 
^ood name of the Company — their '* credit ;" but, on 
the present occasion, in spite of all I have said respecting 
their unflinching pertinacity, perseverance, and resolu- 
tion to tfct hito France legally — in apitc of these noble 
energies, I must unfortunately declare that the rc^ 
Socfefatis — the purae of the Company, was a stirriug 
motive for the present penetration. WilUara Du Prat, 
we remember, left them a legacy of 120,000 livres.^ 
The executors of the bishop's will, seeing that tlie 
Jesuits could not make use of tho donation, einco their 
Order was not legally acknowledged in France, proposed 
to rescind the bequest. The grant specified the building 
and maintenance of a college ;^ so, as this was impos- 
sible without legal admission in France, the money, 
though inactive itself, was actually stirring desires in a 
variety of hearts. The benevolent bishop had given all 
his property to the poor, the monks, and the Jesuitfi : 
the latter had not forgotten their share, and the former 
were not, as usual, satisfied with theini ; and coveted 
la part du diahle — the Jesuit-slice as well, — tho poor, 
the monks, the mendicant friars, even the directors of 
the hospitals, heggcd that tlie money miglit be distri- 
buted to tho poor, alleging that it would be much more 
usefully employc<l than hj the Jesuits ; an opinion 
which the latter by no means entertaiued. The chance 



' *■ yofl bcjitos, <|no(i dJvint Mjij^etafl LemjKjribns liia hDmui viroruni dona 
dignntA eel 1 titinnm i*jiifl miacHcarfli>L ficTrt ut t*ingt»W hujiie re;;ni prarindie 
CAnto potiTentur boni 1 Toneta vrw, cjuibua rnD-^Fwwin ML Amjilp-cimini So- 
(Uitatom liATif^ Ji^mi CUriattf et vestigiia fjuB u moniiii iiUucivie. F^os qi 
xty^Ur- nnminc^ el pro ollicio noaCro daLImufl opcrnm, nt GalUa tanto Dri nmnerv 
uequAquaai privptur/* — Sitc^iin, lib. T, 19&. 

3 " Or 1 511,000^ widi bine nr ten thfloaitfxd IhTca rovi'mu- beeidcfi, an iiuoieiiBD 
anm in thqw d»y*i/' — C'ttnli-et/f, J. l.V!, ^ CmidniErc. iv ST. 



THEIfi rSSim ATTEMIT IN TOATrCE, 133 

or the danger of losing the beqiieet goaded the fathers 
to redoubled efforts for legal admission iuto France. On 
the occasions of tlieir former disappointment, one of the 
motives against their admismou vraa their abiisc of their 
excessive " piivileges," which trenched on the " lilertiea 
of the Gallicjm Cbiirch/' The objection still remained. 
The parliament ivas inexorable. In vain the Jesuits 
induced their friends the Cardinals de Bourbon, Lorraine, 
uid Tournon— even the qaetn-regent, to write in tlieir 
(hvour : tlie parliament cared no more for these soft 
impeachmenti*, than it had cared for those of Francis IL 
Dosohted by the hideous fact, the Jesuits compromised 
the nmtter, and consented tosacrilicc somewhat of their 
*' privileges," which, as it chanced, happened to be nicely 
balftnced by just 35,000 livres. They kicked the beam, 
:ind tho monry came down ; but it was a hard stniggle 
on both sides, and the presence of General Lainez was 
r^uireA The fiend of controversy beckoned him to 
France, as well as Mammon. 

In 1561, when the qnanels of "religion" began to 
nin high, the colloquy or conference of Poissy was 
open*>d, like all the other diets on religious |^^„ j, 
fiiatt«fs, without offering anything palatable Fmn», 
^^^^ digestible to the barkiug stomachs^ into which they 
^^^TOiiId force Iiard stoues, on both a/t/^.v. Conciliation waa 
I the object of tliis coTiforence. It met mth great opposi- 
I tion from Rome : Pius IV., in his papal pride, thought 
I it an infringement on his authority, and sent Lainez to 
put a stop to it/ on to make bad worse, as the Josuit's 
ri<Jent orthodoxy was sure to do. The Cardinal de 
Fcrrara was also sent bvhia Ilohiiess to watch over the 

' Suvhin IlK T. H3 ; Qu«ti&l,ii. 33 ■. VioclBColiBBy,335 ; Browiung, p. 2S ; 
UumbfnirSf KaL rlu €&Jvmi«D«, lim ill. 



134 



HI3T0EY OF THE JESUITS- 



Tlic nnfer- 
enca bt 

Puuty. 



interests of the Holy See ; — biace Catherine hold to the 
resolution, alleging her deaire to sliow aouie favoui" to 
the Calvinists aud to reconcile the " parties " which was 
simply impossible. Catholic bishops and Protestant 
miimters were assembleil. The king and his 
court, the princee of the bloody and the great 
ofEcei;* of atale, were there — nor was thy 
queeii-regeut absent. Five cardinals, forty bishops, a 
va3t number of doctoi's, were arrayed against a micro- 
scopical knot of iicelcc reformers. But Theodore Beia, 
au<l Peter Martyr, were each a host, and they failed not 
ou that occasion. Laiuoz would put in a word- — a very 
elaborate speech, the urigiual of which, we are told* la 
still preserved in the arcliives uf the Gesa at Itotue, He 
began with saying that, *" all his constant reading had 
convinced liim how very dangerous it was to treat, or 
eveu to listen, to the heretics. For," said he, '* as it is 
written in Ecclesiasticus, * Who will pity the charmor 
wounded by his seipont, and all who go nigh unto the 
beast l ' Those M'ho desert the Cliuix-b arc called 
wolves in sheep's clothing and foxes, by Scripture, so 
that we may know wc should be greatly ou our guard 
against them on account of their hypocrisy aud deceit, 
which arc the charai^teristics of the heretics of all ages."' 
He boldly turned to the quoeu, and told her that 
'* she niubt understand that neither she, noi' any humfui 
pnucc, had n right to treat of matters uf the faith . , , . 
Every mau Lo his trade^" said the Jesxxit — "/a/tntia/airi 
tmctent. This is the ti'ade of the priests— Av/tYrrfo/ttin 
est ftor rm/otimnS^ Peter Martyr had mi that '^the 
mass being an image and representation of the bloody 
sacrifice on the cms6. Christ himself could uot ho pro- 



^ Sftcchin. lib, X. 201, 



? Ill Uh. v. 20S. 



THE CONFKUKNL'K AT fOlSSy, 



135 



sent, becHust^ the ima^e ^f a tliiug must ceaae to be 
where tbe tliiiig itself U present :" which is a fair apeci- 
mcD of the controversial ocumeu tliaplayed in the dia- 
cosaion. Laiucz wasa match forhim. "ijup- _ 
pOBe," said he, '^ a kiug has won a gloiiotis bi^mcuur 
nctory over tlie enemy ; and suppose ho 
wialics to celebrate the event by a yeailj cumiueiiiora- 
tiuu. Three methods present themselves for ths 
purpose. He may simply order the narrative of the 
eiploit to be repeated. ISccondly, he maj have the war 
rei)reseiited by actors. Thirdly, be may enact a part 
Uitoself— may perform in person the part he took iu the 
war- This is what takes place in the most divine and 
unbloody sacrifice of the mass/' " " Without examining 
whether this comparison be apposite/' obserA-es QnesneL 
" it evidently smells very miich of the coUeqes^ on which, 
it seemed, that Uic fancy of the general and liis brethren 
VTBB runnings full to overflowing/' The conference was 
agitated beyond endurance by au exelEuuation of Boza. 
Concerning the Lord^s Supper, lie cried out : ' Aa far 
as tbe highest heaven is distant &oin tbe lowest eaith, 
so &r is the body of Christ distant from the bread and 
wine of the Eucliarist," ^ 

* Ow tmntarBd Laluet for thifi aomparison^ reumiUing thai ili? Ji-ftult lud 
n»A«»oo«iiO(ljof ibv SaeAUiiflDt, And * ciimcUiuioF Jt-flUAClarut '^Qoe oe Pcfb 
•nil bJl cle « Sftcrement ane curoi^dje, el Jesus Cbml va comifihtix."^Du 
rK >1«L du Coixdie, i. 4!I9. 

* lUcUor Adun. Vitm Gemua. Theul. £44 ; Bajrlc, t. 68fl ; Be Ift 
Hm*, CixamcaL lib.ii. Ann. l&til. By this ADtboriLy, w<^ Leun ihjit Bcu 
wivN 10 tlL9 qiHMD noKt ^y, aaBuring h«r tJi&t " b^ rcitfioo of tlio uutcrj that 

conchuion vnu not underFitood u be wihbed find had propiin^." 
ft long «ud tedioiu DxpUnfttion, he 8»yB : " Here am die words *hioh I 
tmd nhicJi li*vo given ofltncc to ibc breiiopft. ■ If any ene ihore- 
u if HG toakt Jms Christ abaeui from ihe Lords finppcr^vo uiswer 
BlA if «r« look m tiio ^oU&rc cf pla<>ps (nb wf^ must do when thor* it ■ 
tohiBmqtAm] pr«pnw, and hia hiiniatjit> Jintinctly oonsiderod), 
«■ ny ihM hit boly u u Gir from tlir brvad and vfim; u the highp^t lMBri!ii is 



jBSTrrTs. 



The Parliament had referred the Jesuits to the con- 
ference, oil tlie subject of their admission. Cai-dinal de 
ThcJotdc- Tonrnon, their friend, presided at the sittings. 
*dmiit*d on ^p^ j^jj^ Lainoz, covered with hia controversial 

hard opb- ' 

.titipn>. glory, applied in behalf of his Company — pre- 

senting their bulls, statutes, and privileges — and protest- 
ing that the Jesuits would submit to every restriction and 
proviso deemed necessary by the Bishop of Paris, in their 
admission. These conditions were neverthelesa very 
onerous — if complied with, — which was decidedly not 
the intention of the Jesuits. They were to take some 
other name than that of Jesus or Jesuits. The diocesati 
bishop was to have an entire jurisdiction, superintend- 
ence, and a right of correction over the said Society 
and their college — all malefactors and bad livers (these 
are the very terms of the act) ho might expcL even 
from the Company : — the Jesuits were to undertake 
nothing, cither in spiritual or temporal matters^ to the 
prejudice of the bishops, cures, chapters, [jarishes, uiu- 
versities, and other religious orders — l.*ut aU were held 
to observe the common law, without possessing any 
jurisdiction whatever — and, finally, the Jesuits were to 
renounce, previously and expressly, all the privileges 
granted them by their bulls, and must promise for the 
future neither to solicit nor obtain any othei-s contrary 



from Ltao ouih, couiaclBrmg that, na fcr onredrcfl, wc hm on the enttli, Aud tbe 
BUrraniuiitB al4» ; mid V for lliinii {ha fii:nb a in hca^m ao glorified, that hiA 
pLory^ BB Sl Aognstmc biitb, LikH noT deiiriwrd Jiim of n liin- body, but only of 
thcinfirnii^csof tLeUtU^r."' Hellion goes on aflimiinjf tlie ^^flpiriWalpreatnce"" 
of C'liiifll in fa taincU C^. In iltm nld cJiroaicler, La Plnco, ihcn ia a ftiU 
Acci>imt of tlio allAir ; u ^so in ihe JoBuit Kl^ury £do( tlie Clturvl)'liiAlomii)j 
Sitloirt Ju CitriliniU cJ* T^uur-Hoq, Afl Drowning olflervfP, lli'ia Jniut Bp|>«?aLn 
iinAtdu lo n'linun his IndigmUou in ilt^oribing Lhu cmff^nntv- lleialaviili 
\riU; Abuse &nd ndumnuniA innTiualktn, p. 367^ The Jesuit MaimTutiirg ia, m 
iivuaI witb liim, mon> tempevMo aitJ nenwbli^, ffitt. dn Calnttamfj Urrt ill 



THB THHM9 ACCEPTED BY THB JESUTTS. 



137 



I 



I 



to "these presents" — iu which case the present appro- 
batioD and admission would be null and void.* Sac- 
chiuus is struck dumb on this transaction. He ignores 
the whole of it — giving merely the result in these 
words : — "Lainez reachctl Paris to complete the joy of 
the brethren and his ho&ts, being the glad messenger of 
the Company's admissions at the Conference of Poiasy."^ 
Doubtless their joy was not diminished by the know- 
ledge of the hard conditions* Lainez would easily 
grant a dispensation to his *'mo8t sweet children" — 
dukissimos filios — as Sacchinus calls them : — ho who 
liad swallowed the pope's camel of a mandate toucliinj; 
the choir, would certainly not strain at the gnat of a 
bishop. To the glorious Jesuite who feared no man, 
tiie restrictions, supervisions, and juristhctions, were 
mere cobwebs which hold together until they are 
bifiken, — which is an easy matter to anything, flies only 
excepted. 

Certainly the reader is fixirprisBd at this silence of the 
Jesuit-historian on this transaction — so elaborate and 
^ifiuso on the most trifling occurrences in the 
Indies and other lauds unknown- One woidd 
tlilnk that the determination with which the Jesuits 
urged their admission into France — the grand occasion 
— the pregnant hopes of the fact — should have merited 
»>mc httle minuteness of detail : — but you have read 
all that Sacchinus says on the subject. The fact is, 
the circumstances were hy no moans honourable to tho 
Company ; and secondly, it was impossible to tell Indian 
<ir Arabian tales to the French, on that subject. This 



' Qfleoiel, iL SB ; Ftlib. HiBl. cle Parifi, livro xxi. ; Pwquier, Plaii. McTiMiro 
iStechin. lib. V. im 



138 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



ia another waruing to put us oo our guard against Uie 
" facts " of the Jesuit-historians, when tbey are interested 
iu the circiuustances. 

Nothing could exceed the glorification which General 

Lainez received for his achievements at the conference 

of Poiasy. The poi>e was lavish with his 

TmiTipl^ 1.11- . ,T- 

*ud iK>D'iDi>t holy laudaLion : he compared Lauicz to tbe 
""' aticieut saints, because, i^id tiis Holiness, he 
had maintained the canse of God without caring either 
for the king or the priuccs, and had resisted the queen 
to her iace.^ In effect, be had deeply wounded the 
lady by bis severe animadversion and bitter advice : he 
had brought tc^'S to tho eyes of humiliated royalty. 
Two days afterwards, the Prince de Cond6 obaerved to 
Lainez : " i)o you know, mo?i p^re, that the queen is 
very much incensei.1 against you, and that ahc slied 
tears?'* Laiuez smQed and replied: ''I know Catherine 
de' Medici of old. She 's a great actress : but- Prince, 
fear nothing — she won't deceive m^J"^ Aflmirable 
words — bravo words for a long-headed Jesuit — but 
scarcely to be calle^l the pious ^^pirations of au ancient 
saint, by favour of his Holiness. 

Troubles balanced tliis apparent glorification of General 
Lainez. His vicar at Uome. Salnieron, was accused at 
Naples, where ho had been working — tlie 
foulest cbargo8 were confidently uttered against 
him : priest, noblc:^ gentry, talki^d the scandal 
uver^aud children sang his lufaniy in the streets of Naples. 
IJxtprtiflg money for absolution from a rich lady was 



Ctiuv« 
Saltncfnii, 



■ '* Ch £jift*quc molto il zelo delGcaaiUfc; iliccvji, loterfti coini»rjir*i » gli 
mitLohi S&nii, Aveiido nonu ripp«(U> JH Vm o t'rt^tic^ifi aoetoDute In cauw di 
Dio, e rinlkFrUlA la Regime iu propri* pwBenao-" — Sarpi, il 1 13, 

■ Cnrlnnu, L -121. 



THE JBSriTS l> EGYPT. 



m 



Iho lca»t of the (jbarges — ^the greatest bciag, of coui'set 
irmy — for they evoo said that he liad tunietl Lutheran I 
ffhat€Ver foundatiou there may have been for these 
clfcftTg^s — and there was probably very little — the pope, 
who seemed inclined to cauom^e Laiues, defended Sal- 
moron, and the * iufamy '* was at roat.^ The poutifico] 
murder of Pope Paul IV/s nephews followed aj>iice, and 
in tho midst of that " legal " iniquity a Jesuit figui'ed as 
the Uiiuif^tcr of consolation to tlie uufortunate convict. 
I have described the scene elsewlicre, as a tail-piece to 
the death of Paul IV. 

The inexhaustible activity of the Jesuits had tempted 
them to try another field for their labours. The popo 
wad luisioua to couipeasate in "* other worlds" The Jowit* 
for the kingdoms which he had lost in Europe. ''^ ^^p"- 
Gg}'pt took his fancy m 15G1. Two Jesuits were 
despatched to the Coplits, with the view of 
reducing i/t^ir church to that of Rom9. The 
Copht^ are the dest-eudants of the ancient Egyptians ; 
but the race cuu boi^t little of the blood that flowisd in 
the veins of die Pliaraoh:^. Greeks, Aby^siuiauy, and 
iiubians, in the earliest days of Christianity, grafted 
Uteir pedigi^e and tlieir religion on tlie children of the 
Kile, ihe worshippei's of doga, cats, onions, croc&Ules, 
and an cxtraonhnary fine bull, as sacrcLl to the Egyptiaim 
Vtf tb« cow is to the Hindoos. The Christianity of the 
Copbtfi is, and waa at the time in question, very similar 
to thai of Uome — oiUy it did not acknowledge tlic pope 
uf Borne : — it Inul its own [mtriarch and liierarcby ; and 
tta* Very conUbrtabtc on all points uf faitli — never 
giving a thoiight lo Rome — nor would Rome have 
tJiuuglit uf this stray ChrL^tinuity, had nut so many of 

* ducvIuEL iili. V. 156. 



140 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



her own ChristiaDs strayed from her pale, and diminisicd 
the map of lier dominions. By a list of the Cophtic 
peculiarities in the matter of religion, you will perceive 
tliat there was very little necessity for a " mission " — 
except the last named consideration. They held the 
real presence ; — only they gave tho sacrament, as of old, 
under both forms — but only to the men. Women 
received only the *■ body," moistened vrith the '* blood," 
and it was earned to them out of tlie sanctuary, which 
they were not allowed to enter They practised confession. 
They differed respecting the succession of the Holy Ghost> 
like tho Greek Christians ; and admitted but one will, one 
natui'c, one opei"ation, in Chriefc. They baptised by immer- 
sion, and practised circumcision; marriage, confirmation, 
extreme unction^ were not recognised as sacraments. They 
were not forbidden to many after a divorce and tlnring 
the life-time of the wife put away. Their patriarchs 
traced their line of succession up to the apostle St. Mark} 
Tho pope sent presents with the Jesuits, to the 
patriarch. They were both very civilly received- The 
Jesuits set to work with argument ; and after a very 
Theespedi- short discussiou coolly required the Cophtic 



UdD 



patriarch to write a letter to the pope in testi- 
mony of his ** obedience." This was positively refused, 
to the horror of the Jesuit, who was thoroughly deceived 
in all his expectations : in fact, it turned out that both 
the pope and the Jesuits had been tricked by anj 
impostor, pretending to be an envoy from the patriarch 
to the pope, offering an union of the churches ! Thua 
the expedition failed : tho Jesuits remained, making 
fruitless efforts towards the point at issue : but appa^j 
rently to very little purpose ; and ihoy rctuniod 



^ Swohin. Ub. ii. 132, and others. 



ingloriously — oue of them being compelled to disguise 
himself as a merchaot. and to keep his handkerchief to 
Lis face, pretending to blow his nose, in order to get safely 
oil board a ship sailing for Europe. A dreadful storm at 
sea completed hia horror aud disgust at the e:cpedition ; 
but Sacchinua consoles hi» memory by comparing the 
Jesuit to yt. Paul in the same predicament.* 

A very unpleasant disappointment for the pope and 
the Jesuits it was : but they could console themselves 
with puhliahine; to the world their success in , . 
India. Imngino the sum total of conversions "ctiiot^m 
for the preceding year : " In the space of one 
year," says Saccbinus, *' ten thousand men were baptised 
— anni spatio ad decern liominum miUia sacro bapfuviate 
espiantnt /'* Tlie Jesuits also pretend that the water 
of baptism, when swallowed with faith, cured various 
diseases — such is the piety of the people, he adds; and 
then quietly tells us of a cose of fever brought on 
two neoi>hyteB by the craft aud envy of the devil., but 
cured by holy water. ** Give holy water," said the 
miasioner, " and when they had done so, in the same 
nwHnout the fever left both of them/'^ But terror still 

< ^'Hfrc&I'ynv smopto h&bitu, viini bmiprr oJ obC£g«Ddua fiwiemt emangendn 
nim »ppiiflrn luJarioIu nM^aailat-^m HiiuuLirct, in navjn) , . . imfioiuiiir." — 
AmAhl lib. rL UtK ' Sact:hln. lib. vL J 72. 

' • A(lu*TV inquit «ur&(HJii patem dare ; quod cum ftciaHcnt codom momarto 
Cafaru iiiniini]De iteftvruiT." — Su^ihin. lib. \\. 174. 1 w&a t^tld by i Jeaiit, in ths 
RDrifiatc at Uodikr, the rollobm^ mri<>tis fact, iVuHtmtiTe of thir EaperstitiouA 
»UU iirv^nlenl in En^tawJ. One of the btlierr^ tin llio miBsioD iu Lan^tuhirtt viui 
lip|JiFiJ bh 1i^ a pc-a^uit for wn^ hoJ; wat<7r, 'Vht f&Ther iiiL|ipc(ied Lo be cml of 
Ikr ikuifej OBpirLj' i »D liT prud-'cJcid to Liteon aome then &Jid dian^ iu die |d-cBCQC« 
of ilw pfAsuit. During Ihf^ rrhraKftl of \\\e |irayei^ appnin(«d id llie HtiijJ,tJi« 
ptaoDt cxcUioml, iwiM or thrir'P, " Maki> it Htrnng, Meg \Ajv>rf»l iU—xtaMa it 
vm^ ! " Wbcu tUe \\o\y walcr wu givon lo ihtj man, Wk Jesuit uJumI bim 
«lu| b* UMltrJ i1 for, aud ho replied/' to give it lo iJic rtw/" Uiv «dw «-«< 
"twmthd UI." Tliiait m> Prolestmit *' raiitoclicwiV' tiLtwrFP, but a »rriublo f«c| 
Wktcd Ut rne tv n JoiuiB in Ihi.- Er^livb novitwle. Truly. tliJ« knd ii Mill 



142 



mSTORY OF THE JE9U1T3. 



A modern 



continued tlie gi-and precursor to the Jesiiit-baptlsin. 
In the exi>e<l3tion of the Portuguese governor Heurifjuez 
against the Celebes, the Jesuit MagaUianes baptiaed one 
thousand five hundred natives in a fortnight. Thus it 
was that — to quote the wortls of Sax^cliinus — "the 
salutary ray of the Christian rehgion penetrated int* 
the kingdom of the Celebes."' Tlie modem niissioners 

cannot propagate the faith by gunpowder; 

but they are not less inventive in de\isiugthe 
expedients of craft, eo as to be able to contribute their 
tlmusanJ and ton thousand "converts" to the Annals 
of the Propagation. To read their triinipery l&tters, 
one must believe that all India ought to have been 
made Christian within the last ten yearfl. liut only 
fency the cool "reUgioufl" roguery of the following 
resolution, pcnne<l only /fn- yeai-s ago by one Dr. Bcsy, 
" Vicar-ApORtolic of Xan-torig " in China : " We have 
amongat our refiohitions taken that of opening Kchoolsin 
all the villages, and of selecting in each locality a conran 
number of pious widows, somewhat acquainted witli 
medicine, who, utufn* thr prefvj'f of 'uhnimHterhit) ^Tm*^ 
di^ji to the dying infants of the pagans, will be able to 
confer on them haptismS^ What do you think of that 
for the nineteenth century ? We denounce the tricks of 
** trade/* but those of " religion " deserve approbation ! * 



beni j;ht(*d> and n fewtJinaMkiidpoiindtfLof Foreij^i Miminn fuitdfi Dii£lir bruiir^lff 
Bpent in b-^tteriag \hc miuilfl and bndSea of the i^orfuit p'Kir at A/ha?'^ nhere w« 
mu incurp </u'i/ uithoui rcqiiiriug tlie unml clap-Ir&p of muaiaruu-y [eUfTii 
Auimla uf Ilia l'rr>piii;Biion, &r, ' PfcccHu, Ub, vii. 133, 

3 ADiudn nf tlic Prcipaj^tiun, &c., v. ^ISfi. Eaoli of iIicaq dyinfi iufjuitii, wnt 
nunwrouft in C^»rKj, will be oiio of llie iJioaBjmdA ^' pocTcrtert." 

' Tliifl bi.shop sIlowh hliasclf sau-cly honest by llio folloHin^ AilditJon M hla 
method borrowed from the Br»j.iliAii Jenmlfl. He snu. " Aa |o tbo apemm 
occiJdfjncd bv tliis good work, T btive wlllinnlj chfiTficd iny«lf wHli ilicin ;l 
\\KVC cngBgnl (o clover nU llip LTpr^Ta, like fhow p<v>r |wn]ib nbo liavo nal H |vnny 
to pav liivtr debtiif and wli^i generously olTer to tlieir fneIld^ tzuid^ aiiil inoneya 



THB MIWIOWS IF JAPAK ATTB BBAZTL. 



U9 



I 



I 



In Japan the success of tiie Jesuits continued to 
sorpaas their cxpectationa, if that Avas possible. As 
these new apostles ahvayg went in the rear of Pfoermin 
the FortugTieae fleets, the kings of the country, ^^"i™'- 
d«irous of promoting commerce in their dominions, and 
therefore anxious to attract the Europeans, vied with 
each othi^T in recei^-ing baptiHnn, and permitted their 
aabject^ to do as they pleaded in the matter. The king 
of Oiunra not only penuitted tlie Jesuita to preach, but 
even ffcve to "the ChurcV' that is, to the Jesuits, a 
maritime city, by name Vocoxiura ; and to entice tlie 
Portugiieee into his kingdom, he promised them tliat not 
only tleir merchandise, hut even tliat of the JapaneHe 
who should tra-le w-ith them, would be exempt from all 
iiii)>ost^ for the fipaco of six years.* 

It was precisely the same tunc, with a few more 
fleurishing variations, in the tlienie of the Brazilian 
nuBsitni- One Jesuit boffan his march by bap- 
tnnig one hundred and twenty idolaters in a ^cmom in 
single village ; in another, firo hundred and 
forty-nine; in a third, four hundred and over; in a 
foartli, two huDtlred and forty — all these in a single 
year " with magnificent i^mp and display, as usual, be 
generated to the Church by the vital waten," says the 
Jemni Saccliinus,^ This professional Baptists name is 
Louis Grana : it were a pity to consign it to oblivion. 
One thousand three hundred and nine Christians made 
i& one year by one Jesuit ! But his companion. Father 

jklihouxh ih^ ut clothed in nhgi/* And dim foltowH the tiorse behind the out. 
* AAcT GuH mj hirpe a tn you, montben of tbe AasfjciMEon. Let tir>t my hope 
be lUippfiinlril f Ue m; aoi^uxit), ftaci yoar nlms *ill ppoplo bravcn with titw 
ta^ioaACif vgdjL" I Bupprcflstlis r«n»rk ^khwh UUs ward'* Ic^oiu" bu^iwIi 

• SfWchin, Ub. *il mn ; Qa««iir>1, ii Cl 

* "CvkbriUfo tii[4i-Atuniw, ut ^citcbAr, iEut4-aifi«o, viuUibua ru|iii« EmJvAua 



144 



HlflTOET OF THE JESUITS. 



Antonio Rodriguez, utterly left, liim behind in his 
evangelicnl expeditious. On one single occasion — f*nrf 
lusfratione — he baptised eleven hundred and fifty 
Christiana — MiUe centum f/uitiquaf/inta du^ animtE axt 
ecclesiam appmit<B ed lustratioTW sunt At another pla^e 
Ite baptised one hundred and ciglit Indians ; at. a third, 
eight hundred and seventeen ; in a fourth, one thousand 
and ninety. On his return, at one time, ho haptieeJ 
one hundred and seventy ; then one hundred and 
thirty-eight ; then one hun(b'ed and fifty-three ; then 
two hundred and two ; and, finally, three hundred 
and twelve : making in all (errors excepted) five 
thousand five hundred and thirty-nine Christians in one 
ycar.^ The idea is frightful But the Jesuits must 
have hehed themselves. It is, may I nut say, inipos- 
siMo for men of common respectful deference to the 
religious sentiment, thus to trample under foot the 
sacred rite which they believed to have made them- 
selves brothers of Christ and heirs of salvation. Hea- 
vens I was it hut to send glorious accounts of the mis- 
sions that these Jesuits actually did this ^^ckcdneas ) 
Nay, let us rather believe that they were infatuated 
with the idea of '*convei"sion,"' and in their blindness of 
mind and heart, considered mere baptism its exponent 
and its guarantee. For, alaa ! what was tlie hideous 
consequence 1-— the consequence that makes us, even at 
this distance of time, gnash the teeth in unaTaiUag 
indignatioD, or wring the liands in tbe bitter 
memory of the past, asking. Why was light 
given to the wretched, and life to them who 
were in bitterness of heart ? Sacchinue tells us that 
consequence — in his infatuation he docs tell aJI — 



Chlifilian 
virigr in 



■ SkcIilo. lib. tL 197, rt teq. 



RESULTS OF " CHfiJSTlASlTY ?X BUAZIL. 



145 



and here it is in its horrible monstrosity : — the title of 
the section is " The virtue of a Man of" Brazil — a convert 
Chieftain." '*By this man's persuasion and example, 
the Christians and Brazilian oateclmmens dared to join 
the Europeans, and fought against tlieir own country- 
men, which, berorc thjit daj, had scarcely ever occuired. 
So that not only aci^uainUtnces fougljt against acquaint- 
ances, friends against friends, but even children against 
their parents, brothel's against brothers — all ties were 
broken, Tkm ma^ you reco<)nhe the sduiar}/ Jivixion 
whieh the Pritwe of Peace enrife.s.sf'd ffe was Itrhtg'mg fo 
the f*arth. A piteous sight, truly, unless the defence of 
the holy faitli made the former as worthy of praiao as 
the barbarous cruelty of tlie latter was worthy of hatred, 
rather tlrnn comniiaeration."^ Need I add a single 
reflection on these dreadful facts, and as dreadful a sen- 
timent ? What a disappointment — what a falling off, 
wjw that! When the Jesuits arrived in Brazil, they 
found the savages maltreated, persecuted by the Euro- 
peans, The "men of God " camo with the men of the 
devil, hand in hand, apparently heart in heart* 
They Btrore to conciliate the savage. He 
mistrusted them. Wliat good could possibly come with 
mich infernal ftvil as that of Portugal ? Yet the Jesuits. 
by dint of perseverance, contrived to fascinate the simple 
people, lived -with them, seemed to take their part, 
seemed resolved to do so forever. Thus they befriended 

1 " tfijo* 9i Buim et ex^mplo noai sunt ChFUtiniii «t uleclinmeiu BndU, 
I qMJ iDt^ ami dirm ntinqiiAm fvri ^^eDentt, ronsnciAii Europfeis, fcrrfl contra 

^BidftDi coDtm puentM, frat»*qiie »dvor5U« fratrM {ul aguowtrca wilubra dtuE- 
4kuB ipaU rriiHTpB TjiFia profifebatur an l^r™ iofomt) alii ivntra alios I'urni 
«MiJwiO|o« biT^cwIudiiuboii diniJcjuiiDt. mlsoraxidd «*» tpei^ncvli^, niii qiiBm 

ko« BDrto fidci propugiALio Uoile, tain iUoa iMurtMn cndeliUu o4io f>'^«Tf li 
qura miMr«tkin« dignjorpft."— SffiyAiik lib. ri. 203. 
VOL. 11. L 



146 



HISTORY OF THE JESITllB. 



tbe savages ; thus the Jesuits at first were, ia some sort, 
a blessing to tlie persecuted, oppressed, deceived Indians. 
And what was the result ? The Indians flocked around 
tbein, listened to tliem, eubniitted to their ceremonial 
aspersion — in a word, joined those who seemed to be 
their friendB. And then, again, what was the result } 
They were induced to become the enemies of their 
country : to take a part in its subjection to the stranger, 
in its utter ruin. Their Christian teachers sowed divi- 
sion amongst them, and tlius made them an easier con- 
quest to tlieir enemies. They separated fathers from 
their chihlren, sons from their parents, friends from 
friends^ — all who had been united by any tie whatever 
— and they put arms into the bands of those whom they 
thus depraved, to slaughter their own kindred, and thus 
to ilisplay tlieir " virtue " ! A Uiing that had never hap- 
pened before, or scarcely ever, as the Jesuits admit — 
(/nod ante etim diem nimrpiam feri evenerat So the 
savages were better men, infinitely more moral before 
they became *' ChriBtiana," or, rather, before they weid 
fooled, deceived, decoyed by the Jesuits into the service 
of the Portuguese, under pretence of making th«n 
"heirs to salvatiom" Jesuit-Christians and despicable 
traitors— nay, rather, nuseraiily-fooled children of nature 
— perverted, debased by those who sliould liave enlight- 
ened them unto righteousness, and cursed with tho name 
of '* Christian,'' which they thought they honoured by 
the foulest infamy that clings to the name of man. 
And how they were punished by the very men for 
wliom they turned traitors 1 Very soon afterwards, in 
1564. pestilence and famine reduced the poor Indians 
to the lasj extremity. The Portuguese seized the oppor- 
tunity, took advantage of their wretched condition, laid 



LAmBZ AT THE COFNClh OF TRENT. 



147 



I 

I 



I 



I 



oa 8orae as their own property, bought others 
from those who had no right to sell them : thp rest took 
flight, in a panic, back to theii' woods once more, leaving 
tlic Jesuits to devise plans for *' converting" and *' re- 
ducing" th&m again.' 

Prom the Conference of Poissy Lainez had proceeded 
to the Council of Trout, which resumed its sittings in 
1562- Doubtless he was well remembered at 

, , , Lticiex at 

nia rtappearance ; and he was not to be thv coundi 
(bfgotten or bt^ made inconspicuous, after " "" " 
arlueving siich deeds as imperatively gave renown 
amongst the men of orthodoxy — not without stining 
enry, however, Alre-ady were the achierementa of the 
Jesmts in all their "missions' blazed to the world by 
oral tradition, at leaAt ; and if there were afloat on that 
matter some ** soUd talsehoods," as Pallavicino should 
c*U them — fitill they made the Company famous — and 
the end jiwtifiod the moans : — all would be ma^le to pro- 
mot* the exaltation of the Church and the downfell of 
the heretics- A dispute arose as to the place that the 
general ahonld occupy in the Christian council Lainez 
GTidcntly thought himself entitled to a place above 
the gcneralfl of the monristic onlers — for to the master 
of the ceremomes he announced himself as general of a 
rfrricft/ order, well knnwinj^ that etiquette placed the 
riergy above the monks. The result gave mortal offence 
to the monkish generals, and they protested against 
hift exAltAtion. Lainez bowed t^ the pride of the monks 
with the prouder pride of the -lesnit. and proceeded to 
tlio rear. I/ffe minima nostra Socitfas, this our least 
Company — did rot insist on the privilege. Ef^se qttam 
tid&i — to br the 6r»t rather than to neem so— is all that 



■ Sfecchm. lib. Tiii, \^l. 
L 2 



148 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



ia necessary for Uie present. Thus, doubtless, argued 
the Jesuit to himself, bitiDg his netlier hp. His friends 
supported him, the cardinals backed his iilea ; but the 
monkish generals were in a ferment — declaring that 
they would instantly vacate their seats altogether should 
Lainez bo placed above them, Lairiez was requested to 
absent himself for a day or two, until the matter could 
be adjusted ; — and then he was assigned an €,rlraordi- 
nary place among the hhUops^ AJready had the seeds 
of jealousy or envy been sown in the hearts of the monks 
against the Jesuits : — this flattering gale of favour to the 
Society did not bhgbt the crop now vigorously rising 
'^'ith the promise of luxuriant poison. A pulpit was 
asaignetl the general of the Company of Jesua — conspi- 
cuous to all — that the prelates and doctors might lose 
notliing of his harangues ; for, according to the Jesuits, 
there was a mira ctfpido, a devouring desire — *^ to hear 
the man himself." Hia high forehead^ brUUant eyes, 
sweet look, and smihng lips, were his captivating exor- 
dium, if wc may bcUcvc the Jesuits, though Father 
Ignatius positively slurred his personal appearajice — hq 
tenga persona. His placid countenance, they continue^ 
his pale complexion, delicate appearance, and remark- 
ably aquiline nose, lent to his person an air of suflFering 
which liis multitudinous labours of every description^ his 



* PilliiT. p. 45, t, ui, ; Snjehin. 1. ti. 77, el ttq. Spp hIoo S*rpi Mid Cotn«yfr> 
Dftte, p. l^fiO, t ii. ; Itai, fn\. p. 237* t- Ji, French imnii- Some say that Lalnea 
himaolf rtliprf imli^antly, by iraj of uicrtifjing die pouecLI by Ida ahMiiw for 
oomp days- It must be reiii<.'mber<?il he waft the Papt'i Jogate— Seo QufttirffW. 
65, mill bifl aiLthuritico. Of cdutiv ihc J«aiiite lunke Louif'ji ihe very puticru cif 
Chnfllian IiimiiUiy cm this oopa»iion ; hui wiroly nil ihn nltrrcntion wouliL hpve 
b«Bn obviated by his gning at once to ihe tatt plaw, iilhcml icllirie hifl p^pal 
T^ok, aa Oentral of Clerif, bid be bwn wi humbfe maa. Not that I blame tbff 
/ffurf ; U iH only the c^iuduct pursued by a mmjMHion of Jtfu« thai seem* aa 
p^tnordiiiary aq the place mnigntfd to iho JenU. 



r 



THE DISCUSSION OX PAPAL POWER, 



149 



watcliings, his jourDeySj could attest* On the other hand, 
the presence of the Jesuit at the Council of Trent was 
precisely the same as elsewhere — the cause of strife or 
unrest, if we may believe an eremy s account. The 
Jesuits — for Sahneron and others were with Laineis — 
opposed every opinion that eecincd likely to gain a ma- 
jority. They could not be silenced: they encroached on 
the time allotted for each speaker ; and boldly insisted 
on their *'pririlege" as pontifical legates. Nevertheless, 
the Jesuits call them the oracles of the Council of Trent : 
— ^ so that this most august assembly of holy dignitaries, 
which, with tlie most insatiate ears, drank in the golden 
stream of eloquence mahing from his eloquent Ups like 
A torrent, could not believe it was a mortal who addressed 
them from hia pulpit, but a Seer descaided from J/eaven^ 
pouring Jhrib oracles from his tripod^ speaking mys- 
teries, pronouncing decrees ... Lainez, how vast and 
nnparolleled was tliy reputation throughout the mii- 
verse I " Thus boast tho Jesuits in tlieir famous Jmo^o^ 
Certain it ia that Laincs and Sahneron took a con- 
spicuous part in every discussion^ not \\'ithout broaching 
what were deemed heretical opinions concern- 3uj«irioi« 
log grace and free will; and Lainez was ofUnij, 
accused of Pelatfinnum — one of the bugbears which from 
time to time, the proud, luxurious, and useless Church 
mngled out to set people by the ears, and uphold autho- 
ri^. It is not worth the while to explain the nature of 
Pelapanism, or any other Um^ excepting Jesuitism — 

' CntitBu, I- S6f>. 

* Ul ■dfiuluBmm ilia uw-rornni Proranun corona. ijuEe aarvum claqootitiie 
Bl»Tif ^nod «x fkciUilQ ore, Tvlut c turrenle, fuodcbiliiTt aridLnimie auribui 
hltifcribai, puiuvt noa homJQcm aJiqucm i pulpilo wrba profenc*, «ed Vateoi 
csfa drivpsnn e tripodd oraciila rundeiv, m^sienn eloquli, dccrea pmnuittiuv 

— /fld^.p. L39,re43S. 



150 



HISTORY OF THE JESLMTS. 



Vapal povrr. 



which deserves the deepest inquiry in evcrj depart- 
ment. It blazed forth intensely on the occasion, that 
celebrftted occasion, when the power of the 
pope and of the bishops was discussed. Who 
had been more hampered, harassed, tormented, than the 
Jesuits — by tlie bishops ? It was therefore a question 
pecuharly their own. Now we remember on hovr many 
occasions the papal Bulls and privileges exhibited hy the 
Jesuits in tlicir own defence, were positively slighted 
and made nothing of, by various bishops — ^in France 
particularly — and even in Spain, where it veas certainly 
a curious demonstration- But it was a vital necessity 
for the pope to have his unlimited autliority declared in 
a council of all Christendom — as rejJi'escnted — at a time 
when so many thousands and millions had utterly casi 
away the authority of Rome. All doctrine, ail disciphne, 
depended upon thedecisioih The monarch y^the abso- 
lutism of Christendom was to be ratified or annulled. 
See you not herein that antagonism to the democratic 
opinions beginning to be prevalent ? A time when, as 
always, the misdeeds of governor's do not escape punish- 
ment, merely by their shrewdness, and ci-aft. and power : 
but, on the contrary, oidy until the governed are enlight- 
ened to a knowledge of their I'ights. and the God of 
jiiaticc decrees a stunning retribution. 

At the time in question there were three dominant 
*" religious'' acctions in the Roman Church — the monks 
' — the Jesuits — thobishupe. The monks were essentially 
democratic in their institutions. Their generals, the 
rectors of convents, their provincials, were appointed by 
election. Thus each province, each convent had, so to 
speak, a set of interests peculiar to itself : in wealth and 
comfort ovorflowing — wlioro tlio Lutherans made no 



THE DOMINANT SECTJOKrt OP THE tHLRCH. 161 



iucuraiuu — these moults slept their lives away without 
caring much for aught but the continuance of theii' 
bJefisiiigs. On the other band, tho Jesuits jb* thr« 
vere strictly, essentially, monarchical. The ^"°'„""„ 
masses ojoong^t them had no voice whatever theChnrcL 
—except to denounce what they could " spy" amiss in a 
brother aa debased as themselves. Every house, every pro- 
vince, however distant, was under the eye of the general, 
elected by an mlstocracy, and aided, if necessary, by tho 
same. The general was as absolute in his Company as 
the pope wish/'d to be in Ida Church- Now, the men 
vho proposed to practise obedience to such authority 
among themselves urere just the teachers required to 
embic the pope to enjoy that high emiitcnce, by their 
inculiracions^ over the nations: — and the Jesuits cer- 
tainly, on every occasion, .strove to propagate the theory 
of pontifical ahsolutenesa. It is this reasoning wliich may 
hidiK^ Ufl to think that the wily Paul III. had a larger 
hand in tho Institute of Ignatius than the Jesuits will 
admit. I suspect that " the linger of GoJ'' which they 
&ay he discovered in the affair, was only his oreii, seen 
through the microscope of conceit. The bishops, lastly, 
were so many popes in their sees, — differing more or 
less in their powers and *' privileges" — but» very httle 
obnoxious to papal revision, and not vitaUy dependent 
an papal existence. Hence the pope could not depend 
upon them : ihey were even anxious to achieve more 
freedom ihau they enjoyed, in an ago when all were 
striving lo be free — to the detriment of the papal auto- 
Cnt — and of the Jesuits whom he caressed, defended, and 
supported, in order to bo himself supported in return.' 



' Ttw n*J«r will Ibd vnac vory &ppowic mitteir oti ibu tubjeot in BoUti, 



152 



HISTUKY 0¥ THE JEaUlTS. 



Laiuez dashed into tLe battle witli desperate energy — 
as though liis very salvatiou was at stake,* There was 
a fixed, deteiinmed purpose in the opinion which he was 
resolved to deUver. He spoke Imi, as usual vitb the 
man who ia determined to measure iiis argument with 
that of every opponeut — and to triumph in debate by 
demolishing ail that is arrayed against him — Lading 
dissected all, and vigorouirfy created tlie new portent of 
whelming coufutation or defence. The question was^ 
whether the power of hiahops was immediately from 
God, The French bishops, as a matter of course, \rith 
their high GalUcan notions, held the proposition as 
almost an aiiide of iaith : — but Loinez knew that h^ 
need not try to deprecate /Act'r indignation. The Spauiah 
biahops, also. — even King Fhilip II. upheld the inde- 
pendent doctiine ; — but tlie king had averteti Ida royal 
countenance from the Company, and tliere st'cmed no pro- 
bability of his turning it R£:ain. The unirersal 
forpapmi monarchy was the Jesuits fortified port, his 
preroga tc» gnibattlcd rampart : there ho planted hi& 
»jiear and flung defiance to all the world beside, " I 
expect neither a red hat from the pope, nor a green one 
from Philip'' — was his signihcaut exordium, and then he 
advanced, affirming boldly the paramount autbonty of 
the pope over all bishopa — deducing tlie authority of 
bishops from the pope, and not directly from heavon, as 
was contended.^ The effect of these opinions, and many 
others touching the iuuiiuiiities of the popedom, was 
a sensation. According to tlio Jesuit, the Court of 
Rome bad a right to reform all the churches of Chris- 

I Saxpi, viii. iJi, 

> Cndneaiii L 374. " L>iQiai> indc enorskut : nev a I'daUUce «c rubnuri, dm 
w>idoin ^ Phitippo gKlerum e^pcdorE," — Stun;hin. lib. tl S5. 



LAUTEZ ADTOCATES IT l^' ITS PLENITUDE, 



153 



tendom — but none had a right to reform the pope's 
particular cliurch at Rome, simply because '' the disciple 
is not above the master, nor the slave above his lord." 
ilencc it was evident that the Onirt of Rome was not 
to be obnoxious to the reforming energies of the Chris- 
tian council. He said that those ^^~bo pretended that 
the Cliurch ought tu be reduced to the same footing on 
which sJie stood at the time of the apostles, did not 
diatiiignish the difference of tiuie^, and what was befit- 
tiDg according to their mutation — alluding of course to 
the wealth of tlie Churclu which he called God's prfivi- 
denc^ and bounty, and termed it impertinent to say that 
God gave her riches without permitting her to use them 
— aa if it is incoutestaUy evident that God did give her 
the riches ahe enjoyed. The Jesuit flung Right Divine 
over every corner of the pope's prerogatives : tithes, 
annates, from the people — similar dues from the clergy, 
all were appointed by Right Divine — which was quite 
true if he eiiuivocatod, moaning the Divine right of 
Hammou, whose blessings to the popedom turned ciu^ses 
to Christendom.^ Of tliis Jesuit's spoech on this glorious 
occasion, the Cardinal de Lorraine said : "It is the tinoj^t 
»hot fired in favour of the popes ; '* and the legates in 
fiill council exclaimed ; '* Tlio Holy See owes much to 
ottr man for all he has done in one day,"* This Avas a 
boM Btroke of the Jesuit — even if he was only the ospo- 
ueuL of the pupe'f* party iu the councU. Ho exposed 
himself to the aggravated enmity of the bishops, and 
consequently endangered the extension of the Society : 
but tlie pojie was his friend, and indebted to liim on that 
occasion, as well as on many others, and we ftliall soon 

* 5ir|»i *iu- U. l^iutficl eviCcn Urgely into ih^ wbolc duHrunion, ii. 71, 
«f«T. ' Cre^pwtl^i. 274- 



IM 



HISTOBT OF THE JEStOTS. 



UonourB 
LaiiHB. 



see that tbo Jesuits were made, bj papal privilege, inde- 
pendeut of bishops iu their rights aiid pride. Gi"eat was 
the Jesuit s glory — an enviable lot in the midat of the 
congregation where vanity, pride, selfishness, sycophancy, 
and bigotry swayed the destinies of faith, raised the 
phantoiufl of hope^ and always pointed to tho 
golden ohjccta of theii' charity. Lainez had all 
he could desire. No honour was denied him by 
the pope's party. Others must stand to speak : he, in 
bis conspicuous pulpit, might sit on his tripod, divinofue 
qffiante sptritu^ — and under the inspirations aforesaid, 
deUver liis orados. He was the ai'biter of the conncirfl 
time — spoke as long tis he liked — was hetencd to wiili 
applause ; whilst his antagonists, however concise, were 
always loo prolix for his " party '* — the legaiea* Vain 
was the indignation of the Spanish and French bishops, 
who were convinced of the collusion whereof the Jesuit 
was tlie mouthpiece. His insolence and presumption cut 
dfiGp into their pride and vanity, Lainez resolved t^ 
keep the wonud open, and printed hi-s speech, which he 
distributei It was one of the copies^, doubtless, whiclij 
reaching the Cardinal de Lorraine, suggested his excJa- 
raation so boastfully recorded by the Jesuits,— for the 
cardinal was absent from that session. In a subsequent 
address, when the episcopal party was strengtliened by 
Dobgiuid the arrival of the carilinal in debate, Laincs 
So'lSiMn Diuderatcd his opiuious on papal authority ; 
coiiegp. i,yt ill tj|(j lUimaii College of the Company, 
public theses wero maintained that year, at the opening 
of the classes, and papal authority was the all- 
absorbing proposition : his absolute dominion over all 



^ A [iliiikM? apiiUcd liy SjicolLiiiiu to Luncz, vi, 82. 



- SiTpi, »( anl**. 



THE POPES OBJECTION TO HEPOHH. 



195 



— councils included — his infallibility in matters of faith 
aiiJ morality — every pn:>rogative Wiis mooted, and, as a 
matter of coureu, triumphantly estahlished on the Scrip- 
tures, on the fathers, and — on reason — these beiug the 
three everlasting highways of controversial froebooters. ' 
Tht7 f^ocrct of this papal exaltation waa the simple fact 
that the ciy fi>r reform iu the Roman Court was 
tmiversal in Catholic Christendom, and tlie abuses — tho 
pecuniary abuses which the Jesuits defended — wore 
amongst the most prominent. Pius IV". was as ^.^^ ^ ^^ 
iutractal>Io in the matter as any of his prode- "^w™- 
cessors. To the reformation of abuses in the universal 
Church he H-as happy to consent : but as for those of 
his Homaii department and his Roman Court — these 
were his own affair. Deformities there might be in that 
queen of all Churches^jut she pleased him notwitli- 
Btaoding — like the mistress of the ancient lloman, with 
her nose so unsightly, and yet. for some reason or other, 
most dear to her lord. Pius IV. was of opinion that if 
they wished so iirdeutly for reform^ they bad only to 
begin with Hie courts of the other Chiistian princes, 
whicb, he thouglit, required it quite as much as his own, 
and the opittion is worth knowing to the reader of this 
history — but as for himself, as his authority was supe- 
rior to that of the council, and as inferiors had no right 
to reform their aupenors, he would, if he thought 
proper, labour to reform whatever he found amiss in 
Ids Church and his court. Thus the successor of a 
poor fisherman raised himself to an equality with the 
Idnga of Uie earth, in pomp and magnificence, and pre- 
tended to justify by their example tliat luxury and 
oxtravagaiice which his title as Potors successor, and 



<^UMnd» li. HJ' 



156 



1113T0BY OF THE JESUITS. 



Christ's vicar vn eartli, eiioulJ alone have induced him 
to condtmn.^ 

The Jesuits — the self-appointed reformers of sinners 
— the eyangeliaing Jesuits — the apoatlea in Portugal — 
The j«qu the thaumaturgs in the East and in the West — 
Sr^m/'' ^^^ '^t ^**^P*^ ^^ '^^ sinking Church— the pure, 
lubj-n- tiic honest Jo8uita lent tlicir tough consciences 

to the pope — for a consideration. What Pius IV, said 
at Rome was repealed in GermanVj to the Emperor 
Ferdinand, one of the princes who desired and ardently 
demanded the reform of the Roman Court- Representa- 
tions were being expedited, ringing that awful peal to 
the holy city. The Jesuit Caniaius was sent to expoetu- 
latts mtU the Emperor. We hare the Jesuit-speech in 
SacchiniLs. After an appropriate exordium he proceeds 
to observe ; — 

"It does not become your majesty to deal severely 
with the vicar of Christ, a pope most devoted to 
you. You may offend hiin, and check his inclination 
to proceed with tho reform. As he has promised to 
apply himself to the busiiicBs, you must not mistrust the 
promises of the Supreme Bishop and of such a raan ; 
but you ought rather to cheer and assist him in his 
endeavours. Besides, can there be a doubt that thia 
book [of representations] will fall into the hands of 
learned men^ and will create new altercations and 
disturbances, and will rather aggravate than alleviate 
the matter in the council, which is, in oth/r reAjmis^ 
sufficiently afflicted — satis aliotjtd (tjl/ctam. According 
as the dispositions and desires of each j>arty are consti- 
tuted, these will snatch at motives for new contention. 
Who will then liindcr the minds and tongues of men 



Qutaiid, ii- 78- 



THE JESUITS ITPHOLD THB POPE. 



IW 



from thinking and saying that tlie emperor is afflicted 
with the prevalent epidemic of tliose who oppose the 
Church. ^Tho continually declaim against the depravity 
of morals, who prefer to impose laws rather than receive 
thera ; and whilst they pretend not to see their own 
great vices, speak against ecclesiastical rulers without 
meAsuro and luoJesty. Moreover, there is danger lest 
tills anxiety, the result of inimodemtc zeal, should not 
only be unsuccessfiil and useless, but may rather exas- 
perate to a worse degree the diseased minds in the 
Roman Court, which you wish to cure — as soon as they 
percoive that they and tlie morals of their court are so 
roughly handled, that laws are prescribed to oardinala, 
that the (KJpe la submitted to the council for correction, 
the authority of the legates diniinLshed ; — demanding 
the formation of private cliques and the separation of 
the debates into conventicles of the different nations 
there represented:^ rendering the secretary of the 
council an object of suspicion— in fine, furnishing arms 
to turbulent men for raising greater outcries and dis- 
turbance in ihe council. Therefore, again and again, 
there is every reason to fear, lest, whilst we wish to 

kiieal the diseases of Rome or Trent, wo produce worse 
listempers. especially in this, as it were, rage of the 

(nations rushing info impious acliism. You see what 

' Tlda m%» vhht tLc Court of Rone and Lhe pf^pe'a bgales dreDicd nbcve i^ll, 
«nd «D WF K« in the counril nil t)ie ititrigueB \nd cabalH wt dji foot to ctvifcW 
L fwilE. The reuoD vli; they «o fltrongly oppoaed It wu, ihai ulntMi &U llic 
fciitifff f>f Chrifllciidoi&f if no cxfc\ft (lie IdUianfii Toudl^ cnllcd f«ir « rufoirv, 
rhirh dit' pop? wu unhiniij^ ihftt they eh'^uld tdvIcJI^. ntiil whi<^h wootd 
*» bem c&rri«d in the counoU if the deoJiiont hftd bwn ma^e st^oHiDg to the 
I there repmented. But the l^gftttv refusiug their roneent to the KguU^ 
V, the IrAli*& bivliope whom Pius IV. had wat to Treat in great numben, 
over ihmt " *rtirU^»*' ik* well as ecm^' other*, by th<-iP rnuUiturte- 
lltDCl Ihf PioteAUnta s&id Ihat the council ^vu llie CDuncil of the pope, ud rtoi 
iha of die Chnr«h^See QtianfU "■ SO, rt m^ 



158 



HISTORY OF THE JB3U1T9. 



times we have fallen on : — how low the majesty of the 
most holy A postolic See ib reduced : — liow in every tUrec- 
tion they rush to secession, to contumacy, to defection, 
from the obedience due to the Eupreme pastor and vicar 
of Chriflt If good men do not oppoBa this disastrotia 
onelanght, as it wore, of a hoUieh torrent~/'7r//;rm 
lortejdh — if those who possess power and en pr erne 
authority do not bring their wealth to the rescue, but 
father if they seem to incline in the same direction [aa 
the " hellish torrent/'] then it is all over with religion — 
actum dfi rdiflione — all over with probity — all over with 
peace — -all over with the empire itself' In these cir- 
cumstances, the easiest and most advantageous measures 
you can adopt are those which will result from your ' 
firm and intimate connection with the pope himself 
Such ii* the present imcertain, doubtful, troubled state of! 
affairs, that we can scarcely hope for the continuance of] 
the council ! When matters are inclined to move in a 
certain direction I would ^t^t drive them headlong. Wgi 
must, thGrefore, conBidet the circumstances of the time. 
To conclude, if wc desire the good of the Church, if we 
wish the welfare of the empire, O most exceUent prince* ' 
and if to that end it be of use to listen to the opinions I 
of all wise men w}io are exempt from national prejudices. 
free from private considerations, — not one will be found 

' QiicHnd, ft Homfln rtitliolic', npiHXiJa a nole (a lliin iitwa^ b hU v w dl of ^ 
the JcBuit'B flpetuh [r> Ferdinand :^** Onotuiifll be oa IjIijiiI auiI ab iinrrMOTuHo ' 
U a JcsnU in hifl Bf^ndiDciils, to proBfribc, as ui lirmlilc astAuLt. Ulg K|;lit which 
Gcueral Comidh have Alftaja lutd to poform abases, ev^n Ihosp of ihe Ronuu 
Church. Wc mtiuot fay Of- much i>r wlut C»pisiuB lien ^^y^r ^i^t it trnA all 
over with fnith Hid n^liginn If mpn wishod to refomi ihp exc*ft«ve tljuBiv of the 
RoniUi Courts On the cofiLrary, ovi>t7 ono kiujWE^ tliat it wu tliDSO wry bbnscH 
which vliiefly ocourioncd (lie titakat here^ea^ which, hl^q iIig oi^odax Queenel, 
hare cffecIiuiU/ uinibilntecl thf fftitli ami the Cfltholi*; religion in tuo thinJiA of 
Europe- Gee Father Fabtr'n //itCf/irc EcclltiawliqtLr^ which ■oi-rea lu n i^oi|< 
tiDtutioD (o diAl of M. I'Ahhd FIPuH/'^ni. 93- 



/^ 



A CtJBroUB DOCUMEWT. 



159 



who will Dot exclaim that ^^e are not to care so mucli 
fur tti€ conduct of strangers at Rcme, as Tor that of 
our own folks hero at Rome — whom we behc»kl daily 
more luid more roUing in a headlong course of all 
impiety/'* 

This wisest of men — a Daniel— a Solomon- Jesuit, was 
nothing It^&s than a apy at the German court, to report 
to Lis general, Lainez, all the emperor's measures and 
resolves on the snhjcct of papal reformation.^ His 
speech, which is a very curious specimen of JoBuitiam, 
had no effect on tlie emperor : he continued to press for 
reform; whereupon Lainez, in another sossion. advanced 
with the pope's legates, a.s determined as ever in uphold- 
ing his Holiness in his bad eminence and inveterate 
perversity. Ilis address gave great offence* and tlie 
Spanial) and French bishops very naturally, if not truly, 
pronounced him & sycophant retained hy the ijiin«« 
court of Rome, very worthy of the title which »«»'^ -'^^"- 
was already generally given "to the Jesuit styling him 
the advocate and apologist of all that is bad.^ No man 
can qu&rrel with the Jesuit, however, for upholding the 
(>ope in hia prerogatives, however liable to corruption, 
the mo?^t distinctive operations of the Jesuits 
^depended upon certain "pri^^]ege9"— hereinafter to be 
given — which were the immediate application of these 
prerogativas. But if we permit Lainez to be thus far 
cons^tent, a curious document, inconsiderately a curi<-u* 
given to their luatorian, by the Jesuits, for hm«°|,"Eo 
publication, compels us to think that some- '■«'•*- 
what less energy in fighting for the pope and his im- 
roimity from reform would have been advisable. Tlie 



* Stefiaiu Ub. rii. 46, > Sarj], vij. ^. 

> QacKicI, V. P^I&Ticino hl» m«Dtionft their nutpiciona, lib. 3cii>&n- la. 



160 



HISTORY OF TFTE JESUITS. 



Jesuit PallaYicino admits tliat Lainez contended for 
leav'^ing the reformation of the pope to the pope himself 
— that he placed the pope aboTs all councils — and that 
he lashed the opponents of that doctrine mthout reserve 
— nee sibi iemp^ravit quin iitos perstringei'et qui earn 
nefjahQjti} Sarpi ftirther reproduces those remarkable 
words, ^'hich Pallavicico, who strives to demolish all 
that Sarpi advances, Joes not deny to have been uttered 
by Lainez : ** Many have attributed matters to abuses : 
but when these matters are well examined and sifted to 
the bottom, they Tv-ili be found either necessary, or at 
least useful."^ The analysis of the Trhole speech 'which 
I have given, leaves no doubt on the mind that Lainez 
was no adTocatc for papal reform. Now, in the face of 
this, we find a leiter written by him to the Prince de 
Cond6 — the leailer of the Hiiguenota — only a very few 
months before, when in France, at the Conference of 
Poissy. It muat be premised, as ive are assured by tlie 
Jesuits, that Lainez was very intimate with Cond<^, with 
whom ho frotjuently corresponded. The letter replies to 
the difficulties which Cond^ had raised against the 
reunion of the two Churches ; and proceeds to say : — 

" The prmcipal cause of this separation is the conduct 
of the ecclesiastics who, to begin with the supreme head 
[the pope] and the prelates, do^m to the inferior mem- 
bers of the clergy, are in great need of refm'm as to 
mm'ola and the G^rerctuG of their fttncflons. Their had 
ea-aniple has produced ao many scandals that their cioc- 
triue has become an object of contempt as well as their 
life-" 

Nettling can be tnier than this sentiment : but at 
the same time, nothing can be more opposed to the 



PaIUv, ib. 



' Ubi snpti. 



LAINEZ OS CLANDESTINE MARFIAOK. 



161 



sentiments of the Jesuit as expressed in the couucil, in 
tilt* capacity of papal legate. Tlie letter concludes with 
another sentinieut. and witli a curious substitute for tlie 
^Titer's signature : 

" Id order to see this union so much desired. I woidd 
rificc A handled lives, if I had a^ many to offer- 
lua, from the misfortune of these divisions, the Divine 
bounty would bring forth, besides union, the blessing of 
the reform of the Cliurch in her Head and her members, 
"Your Excellency's verj- humble servant, in 
Jesus Chnsl. — The person who apoke to your 
Excellency in the King of Navarre's chamber, 
and whom you commanded to address you 
in writing what he had spoken/'' 
This substitute for Ids name is not so remarkable as 
the opinion that the Divine boimty might bring forth the 
blessing of reform in the Catholic Church, and all the 
hierarchy, by means of the Reformation or the Protestant 
movemetit — which is an opinion I have advanced, 
doubtless not witliout Imrting tlje pride of Catholics. 
On the other liand, the conclusion to be drawn from 
these conti'adictory sentiments of Lainez on different 
occasionfl, is, that pdky was the nile of his conduct ; 
and he soon gave another instnnce of Ins calculation. 
To serve the pope was a general rule of prudence, but 
policy made exceptions to it in particulars, aa appeared 
on the occasion when the topic of CtandesHve Marria^je 
was discussed in the council. 

By clandestine marriage is meant a secret union con- 
trmcted without any other formality than the mutual 
consent of the parties. The Court of Rome declared 
its illegality, insisting on priestly intervention. We 



r4»L tL 



It 



162 




HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



would give that Court full credit for moral molivea iu 
this prohibition if we never heard or read of costly 
L«^ *' dispensations '* and other celestial devioee 

S^d^'ne for rendering the passions lucrative, if they 
naam»gff. could not be made moral. If interest — and the 
topic of marriage involved very many profitable invest- 
ments — induced the Couii- of Rome to cry againfit 
clandestine marriage, the Courts of France and Sp^i 
supported the pope on this occasion, in order to counter- 
act the misalliances of their royal families and nobility. 
Lainez opposed the pope and the bishops;^ and he was 
perhaps wiser in his generation than either the pope or 
the biflhopa in that detemtination. The love of ^oman 
had often ma^e wise men mad, and robbed the Church 
of an iDiportant son or two. The royal, the noble, the 
ricli penitent, might and would again hesitate between 
priestJy power and love's fierce clamour. In fact, there 
was much to be said on both sides of the question — 
as in all matters where private interests get hold of a 
religious question. Can we imagine that the Jesmtd 
were ignorant of the tendencies of the age ? The licen- 
tiousness which characterised the preceding century wab 
not 80 threatening lo "reUgious'" influence as that of 
the sixteenth, — since the latter was accompanied by 
a powerful reaction againat all ecclesiastical authority- 
Now, when the mountain would not go to Mohammed, 
he wisely said, *' Then let us go to the mountain '' — eo 
tlie precarious tenure of priestly power depended on its 
levelling, and smoothing, and beflowering the path of 
orthodoxy. Hence this matter of love-marriage waa 
important in a Ucentious and rebellious generation, and 
very htely to give some trouble to the confessont of 



CrptibMu,!. 973. 



LAINEZ ON Cl-ANDESTiyR MAHRTAQE. 



1*53 



kings, and nobles, and the great in general, who, it is 
erident^ were the principal objects of the contemplated 
enactment. The "masses'' — the poor — the ''people" 
could alwa^'s be managed by a burly priest or Jesuit ; 
bnt kings, and nobleB, the rich and the great, must 
always be managed by a gontlo consideration directed 
to '' the rank of the iudividual/' and so forth — which is 
at least verj^ ridiculous in the ministers of Him who 
is " no respecter of pei'aons/' On the other hand, if 
" clandestine marriage '' were legahsed, it was impossible 
U» say how many abuses might not be safely tolerated 
under the wings of expedience. Neverthelesa Laiiiez 
espoused the thing, and generated ailment accordingly. 
He alleged the marriagG» of the patriarchal times. He 
pointed to the abuses of parental authority in proliibiting 
marriage, and tints promoting Ucentiousness in their 
children, whilst clandestine marriages were declared 
illegal. He went further : he asserted that the regula- 
tion would not be adopted by hereti<^, and might be 
rejected even in many Catholic countries. Hence, be 
FroDcluded. rather significantly, that "an infinite number 
of aditUrries, and a deplorable confiision in the order of 
inheritance, would result." 

" It seems to me very doubtful" he exclaimed, " that 
the Church can enact anch a law, and this for a reason 
which others have declared, namely, that the Church 
flhall never have the power to alter the Divine right, 
nor prohibit what the Gospel allows. Marriage is 
offered as a remedy against incontinence to those who 
cannot otherwise live chastely : — therefore, as all are 
bound to take the means to insure their salvation, tlie 
Church has not the power to hinder marriage, either aa far 
AB A certain age, or in fixing certain solemn formalitiea" 



lU 



HTflTORT OF THR JRRUTTS. 



In conclusiou, he admitted the dangers of " clan- 
Jestine marriages:" but he thought them more than 
overbalanced by " the return to the principles of the 
Gospel^ and consequently to social Gqualityy^ If these 
were hia real sentiments Lalnez would have been a 
philosophcT-, iiad be not been a Jesuit, It vras decided 
agairst hini, tliough he again printed and disperaeti his 
argument. The " formahties '' were enjoined : but the 
decree began with the following words : '' Although it 
is not to be doubted that clandestine man-iages, with 
the free ronaent of the contra<*ting parties, are ratified 
and true marriagos^as long as the Holy Church has 
not annulleil them," &c.^ Thus Laiuez lost the points 
but gained the handle : — clandestine marriages were 
declared ratified and true marriages. It must however 
be admitted that tiis arguments ^rere more specious 
than valid. Marriage without attested formalities im- 
plying a bond of imion, must pre^upposG more con- 
stancy in the human heart than has lutherto become 
pix>verbiaJ-^ 

J Cntincau, i. 270, et itq. 

' " Tunetm dubitanduni uoix est, <^LuicIeatiiLJh mnti'imonia, libGro ootilraliontJuin 
^ronwoeu ficla, raUt et vera t^eoo matrimonu, qunnidiu EccleEia uk irriu fion 
focit," Slc-^Dec. de Ibif. itatnm^ Soffi. akiv-o. 1. lin-aa m Uie Council of rrent 
(5ts». xJdv c. \} tliaCtho ptibLicalioa of boans for t]ir«e Suudft^a voa Ant en jcniud 
^onil it IB DUO ctf the li^oat objoctinuable of Ibe many tliibga of Rcrmi- whidi did 
Chnrch of Bn^uid ban retdjaed — to the ^of and regr^I of all who High fur th* 
piuiliCAEiaD of ChristiJinilj', in doi'trinc and in diaci|iliiifi, 

' The propowd intration wftH fi'rt><1, and ainibr tiy llut of hU brothpr-JeBnh, 
Salmeron, wbo ponniUod a still more objectioDtble abuse : '* Quor. X An ps^ 
miCti poaHiDl mcrerricvf Pi-imn oonUm^A ;«ra&4t^i7i> afHrmnt, romqnf- (on?fit 
Sidm. de G- pneccpl. q, '2, punct. -1. o, 84* cum S. Thoitv. Gir. Trull Ixd., Aci 
huicqutf clan adiixerel 3, Auy. 1, 2 d^ ord. c. i. Ratio, quia dt'iupLia meretria- 
bus, prj"ra ptctxUa cvtnirmt (!)..,_. priet^r prajvaricahoooni muliBrom 
bnpeBtnruin <!) Ilwj S, Aug- loc, c. ut ; Aufer aientrict* iff rr&M hHiwi-nit, tw^ 
fiavei if oiiitiii /ihidiHif,wi. (!) On tL« other huicl, Li^ori qiioles A ronlnuY 

opinion of other divineBt but isiucludea with a fafoun-hLd opinioo, disdnguiUiitig 
aa to tiie locatUtf: "Unt in nuiu urhihvi mprelrices ptmiUi poMfitU^ nnllo 



OF LAIHEZ 



165 



nil HiBJuitj'- 



Tbe sagacity of General Laiue:^ was not less conspi- 
cuous in the last, or twenty-fiftli, session of the famous 
Council. Amongst tlie various abuses wliich 
hfu! crept into t)iu Church, was monkish 
vagrancy, mendicity^ or beggary. Under pretence of 
their pious intentions, the mendicant or vagiant monks 
were a pest to communities, and a shame to religion, 
from the practices to which they were compelled, as 
Uiey argued, to rcaort for their livelihood. The pope 
wilHiigly consented to reform every abuse in which he 
was not himself intoroeted : so a reforming remedy 
vrafl applied to this monkish ulcer, by pennittiiig most 
of the Orders to possess funded property. The pennis- 
fiiotj gave general satisfaction to the mooks themselves ; 
for, though they liad been always individually poor and 
collectively rich, it was absolutely necessary to grant the 
pre^nt statute, at a time when the monks were become 
BO despicable, on account of their clamorous poverty, 
ami the practices to which their alleged necessities com- 
pelled them to resort Zamora, the General of the 
Minor Obser^'an tines, begged, in the deuhc of St. Francis, 
whose rule his people followed, to be excluded fram the 
privilege : the Genei-al of tlie Caput^hina followed his 
example : the exemption waa duly granted. Wliy did 
the General of the Jesuits — thuae men ol" traneceu- 
dental poverty — uot put in a claim in the name of 
Father Ignatius ? Ho did : nor could he consislently 
do otherwise on so trying an occasion ; and his demand 
waa granteti But behold, next day, he requested to 
have hiB Company excluded from the exemption, saying, 



toiKMi mo^o iti diifl |{Kn« pcrmitlencLi? nut." — tiyorit\ Thocil Moinl '.ill. lib, 4 ; 
TncL i. *M, p. 16,1; Ed, Mechl. 1615. Suoh u Uie C*lhi*lk lheot7, wliidi 
•tldmUT would auppreu the 5oW<f# for rAc S^/'pratiim tff Vkr, Bat twh m 
I imlilifihe^ Id Uv jr««r of uur Lord Lni5 ! 



166 



mSTOtty OF THE JESUITS. 



doubllesHj with one of his boldest faces, that " the Com*] 
pany was indeed inclined always to practise mendicitj 
in the houses of the professed : but, slie did not care tol 
have that hojtour in the eyes of men, and that it waa 
enough to have the merit before God — a merit which 
would be greater in proportion to the fact of being ahU 
to avail herself of the Council's penmaaiou, and jet . 
oever proceeding to thy practice.' His object wa^ taj 
be free to use the permission or not, according to cir-| 
cnmstancea ; ^ and, like a true Jesuit, he expressed hisl 
mind in tbat neat metaphorical fashion, which never 1 
leaves the Almighty or His glory exempt from 
oeeaulte of Jesuit-profanation, 

It wafi in the same session that the Company 
called a '*pioiia Institute." That little word "pious' 
has been amphfied into mountains of approbation, turned 
The -JH014* ftnd twisted into every possible sort of lauda* 
rmtimt." tj^^Q by y^^ Jesuits, Nobody will gainsay 
them the fullL>fit use of the word, when it is known that» 
in the same sontcuce, the Council of Trent — with all it 
admitted cabals and cuateDtious, uot to say browbeating 
sycophancy, and corruption — is called the ho(t/ synod- 
sancta synodns. The simple fact is, that having mac 
some regulations reepecting the novices of the moc 
the decree pioceeds to say, that^ " By these regulatior 
however, the holy Synod does not intend to innovat 
or prohibit the clerical Order of the Company 
Jesus, to serve the Lord jind his Church according 
to their pious Institute, approved by the Holy See/'*- 



1 Sftrpi, viii. 73. > Id. ib, 

^ " Per hnc (Amon sutcu Syaodua Don intcndit otlquid innovArc, ruit pi'ohv 
b«m, quin roUgio Clericnrum Sodotatis Jomi Juxu pinni corum laAiitutntiif i 
UDdi Sede ApDfttnlicB Rppirthaiun^ Domino v\ ejuK EcdltfliMi ineorTirp pitMnt'L 
— Art. mv. r. le. 



THE END OF THE COrWCIL. 



167 



It waa only quoting tlie words of Paul III., when he 
accepted the Order-' Such is the friToloua circuiustaiice 
on which the Jesuits have rung incessant and intermin- 
sblj varied changes in all their apologies for the Companj 
cf Jesus ; but it is excusable in comparison to the fact, 
that tliey have not scrupled to appeal to the so-called, 
self-boasting " enemies of the Christian religion *' for what 
they think an approbation. More anon on the subject 
But surely the Jesuits, who boast of this little word pro- 
nounced in the ** holy Synod " of Trent, could never have 
read or cousidered the extravagant epithets applied to 
the members of the Council on the day of its closing — 
the day of "Acclamations." 

It is ono of the most ridiculous documents that Rome 
has bequeathed to a posterity which will at laat Bhak« 
off all the cobwebs she has heaped upon humanity. 
I mU endeavour to give you an idea of that 
glorious day. Eighteen long years had the l^:"!*^™^ 
Babel-Council battled with confusion worse *) ^^ *='''*,*' 

the CouuciL 

confounded. Infatuated — all the world Imows 
how — there wore calls for mortar, and bricks were pre- 
sented — calls for water^ and sand was given — calls for a 
plummet, and a brickbat was brought. And then they 
"' gave it up/' As nothing could bo done, aU was dona 
Every old dogma remained exactly as it was before — 
only with additional anathemas. Certain reforms respect- 
ing the diacipUne of the hierarchy were certainly *' de- 
creed : " but — and the fact must be well impressed on 
our minds — these would never have changed the old 
order of things, had it not been for the world's ealighteu- 
ment, mainly promoted by tlie Protestant movement. 
Similar regulations had been made in other ** holy 



* In Mnini pio Tirendi pmpowto."— 05>»/rni, InMtiL t\t. AjMfL 



168 



HISTORY OF THE JESU1T6. 



Synods," or Councils, many a time before, and to V 
purpose, dui'iug tlie undisputed reign of proud Ortho- 
doxy, bastioned by Iier bristling prerogative ? ' I repeat 
it-^if the Roman Catholic be now gratified with the 
pleasant sight of a more moral clergy, he has to thant 
Luther s "Heresy" for this most deflirable consumma- 
tion, and he may grant the fact without sacrificing hia 
orthodoxy, though his religious pride may be somew hat 
himibled. ^^^H 

And now for the " acclamations of the fathers at ffi^^ 
end of the Council — acrlamationes patrum in Jinf Con- 
ciUi '' — such being the title of the chapter. It was the 
4th of December, 1563. A voice exclaimed, '^ Most 
revei-end fathers, depart in peace/' All cried, ** Amen." 
And then followed the ''acclamations." It was a sue 
ccBsiou of toasts, without wine tt» moisten their parched 
tongues witlml. The Cardinal de Lorraine proposed 
the toasts. I shall give them literally- ** To the moA 
blessed Pope Piiia our lord, pontiff of the Holy ITnivcraal 
Church, many veal's and eternal momoryp" The Others 
responded : •- Lord God, presei-ve for many years, 
jind a very long time, the moat Holy Father for th; 
Church." The '* Peace of the Lord, eternal glory, am 



I 



' Tha genonl reader will find enongh to convinoo him nf dils, in % Freii' 
work entitLed, " Diction tiJii re portatif dea CondJos,'* Parii> 1764- The btwfc 
flliaoU he traiiH]ati?d inio Englidi for ibe enli^ileamcnt or our Cuiholicst who 

rontly kiiuw lUlJo of Oieee nutttcra. Tho work wfto compilod Xty tbo eafhotie 
J /Zrfr— auliior of many useful imd religious publicationu. Hya reforerjce Ut that 
nork, ji. 701, It uill he found th^t one of the cominoDCst infmnouA cnmea ilarisg 
the 6dib of Pa|teA Juliu^i, Alexnnder VI., Lea X-, and the r«l, was dedand 
pun labile by toUl sequeHtnvrion from the rwt of tlic Clirblions dariiig Ihe Ufo 
of Ihe fiQTicr, nflpr receiving one Immlrcil atroLeii of 4 whip, bfing aliAVed and 
tAntnhcd for ever, witiioat rereiving Uio Barniaient exeepting mi hia death b^. 
See Ortiwfi? o/ Tttt/do, in the year of our Lord SflS — eight or iiirp hundred yeara 
Ifefoiv- I have before iilloded In the drcifiioDfi of coimciU in th* nititcr of diad- 
phiir^— fiock I, 



I 



ACCLAMATIONS AT THE END OK THE COUNCfL. 169 



felicity in the light of the saiiita," were cried to Paul III. 
and Julius III, who began the Council *' To the 
memory of Charles V., and of the most serene kings who 
promoted the Council/' Benedictioti was shouted, 
walking the unnatural echo, '' Araen, Amen." " To the 
mofff serene Emperor Ferdinand, always august, oi'tkodojr 
and peacefid, and to all our kings, republics, and princes* 
many years/* And the holy synod shouted : " Preserve, 

Lord, the pious and Christian emperor : celestial 
Emperor — Iviperatm' vtplestis — guard the kings of the 
cATth, the pre^servers of tlie right faith/' To the legates 
of the apostclic see, and the presidents of the Council, 
" Many thanks with many years," were imprecated : to 
tlje cardinals a[id "' illujitTiom '' orators, the same : to 
the " inoiit hol;if " bishops, '* life and a happy return to 
their sees" : to the heralds of truth, *' perpetual me- 
mory " : to the orthodox Senate, " Many years/' " The 
most holy Council of Trent, may we confess her faith, 
may wo always observe her decrees/' And they Ufted 
up their voices, crying '' May we always confess — may 
wc always observe/' Confess what 1 Observe what ? 

1 do not know, for it is not stated, and cannot possibly 
be imagined — .temper €07ifiteam/ir, semper sen^emu^. 
" Thus we all believe ; all feel alike ; all subscribe, con- 
minting and embracing. Thia is the faith of Saint Peter 
ftod the Aixjstlcs : this is the faitli of the fathers : this 
is the faith of the orthodox/' " So we believe, so we 
feel, BO we subscribe/' was the roar of the confessors in 
cungrcgation. '* Ailhering to these decrees, may we be 
uuide worthy of the mercies and grace of the fii-st, great, 
and supreme priest, Jesus Christ of God, with the inter- 
covBifjii of our inviolate mistress, the holy (rod-bearer. 
and of all the saints/' '^ So be it so be it; Amen, Amen," 



170 



HISTOEY Of THE JMU1T6. 



— and at laat, ttore was one final toast. And here lel 
me ask, have you not often with horror imagined the 
dreadful sound of that howl, when the cruel Jews cried, 
" Crucify him— Crucify him ? " Then you may fancy 
the sound, when the cardinal cried : " Anathema to all 
ffereiics'* — and their parched tongues gasped the final 
acclamatioE : " Anathema^ anathema I " ^ I trust that 
we have found more than mere epithets to interest us in 
this aatonishing affair. It is, however, most curious for 
the Jesuits (with their ** pioua " picking) to observe, that 



' At the coDpliisioo erf the acclMnfttioaB, « lb© legatei ud presidoDla enjoino* 
ill the fnthera^ amfcrfctiii^ 0/ f'irfvrimMiicaiHyH, lo subscribe with their owm 
handfl, before ikey Jcfl 'Preplj tJie docreua of tho Counril, or to ftpprovc ihrai b; 
h public inntr^EaviiU" There vtevo ^hh id bU, cdiupdhmJ of 4 pvnliflctkl legmtM, 
1 cftrdindbr 3 piUriikiMbHr 25 lurhbiihops, 166 biehopa, 7 &bboU» procuratots 
lawfully ibseut SflfgenenJaof orders 7. For the whole of the ^flkir, «ee if 
Sacm Ofiiciliodi Ttxnlo (Latin mid Italian)* Vencila, IS22, p^ ^S^ a ttq., ad 
of 3&tb Sesaioa The popo midu a batch of nineteen cardinals, aLI Bclcrted fro/m 
blfi porliaaDH in die Cdunrilf md he admitted and cooHnncd Uic dcurnuM by a 
bull dated 2Gth Jaauary, 150-1. They were immoduitely pubUflhed mid r«Tiv«A 
io (be churchen of Italy ua M Kome, Spain and Poland also recoived them : 
but die GcrmiLna and the PmteHtafiC princes would uul heur of tlie Couaeil, and 
■tUfk to thp ConfeuioiJ of Au^burg- The tlmp^ror Ferdinand, who had taA 
fine epitbeta in tho aL-uIamatiunBf tliB Dnkc of Davaria, and Ute otijer CibtlioUc 
priimea demaniled communinn in botli Linda far iho luty, HJid the marriage of 
priesta. In France tbu doctrijte of thu Council was receiTed ** UcttUK it na lfa« 
ondcnf di>rtrun> of the Churcli of RoniPt" saya DuptD, a dorLor i>f the SorboniML 
Bui the de?TG« about discipline, which are not according la tht^ coDuniia-Uw, 
wore nerer received thcro, either by tbtf king's or the clergy 'a autliorityf whab- 
•T^ «iarti ware niad« to gH them rooeircd and published in that oooDtry- — 

DiMfdn, fTuL ^ tJu ChurcK, Wh, p, 116, Such waa the very douhiful Kttlennt 
of the fnitli by tlie uaiversal Council of the Christiui Chnrcli^th? moBt holy 
aynod of Trent ll« immediale effect bim redoublod rancour a^iist the 
'* harelics," gl^'iug all the BvLBsh feelings fierce motives for ptrwctitioo, ending 
iu the horHble " roligioUH '^ war* of Fnuiec Ono thiiiE may bo giud in r&TDuF af 
thi? Counril ; it enriclied Ihe city of Tretil, hy the coucoume of m many wcaJthy 
and nunptuous biehopa, amhaBHadorB, and othem ; and ni&de it *' Uhi«tnaai ** cb 
Ihe map of riortheni Italy — ilhi^trious to the devotee, Che fani^iicr and the eii- 
cul»LiDg PhariftcB ; but to ihe righvmii;de'l, ic liim w]io thinks aa lie readii, lo 
Lhu C'tfiatian, that oity is b mnnument of humau infativtian, a irue conn^dy of 

''Much Ado ahouL Nothing/' 



OPPOSITION TU THE JE8UlTa AT ROME, 



171 



the uaiues least provided iivith laudatory adjectifes, are 
those of Chrisl, the Virgin Mary, and the saints. 

From Trent to Eome the progress of General Lainez 
was a triumph, minutely described by his historians, as 
the result of his exploits in France and in the i^j„„ ^^ 
Council his sustained credit, the celestial ""p^' ^™ 

IreTLl ID 

tDiaaiou for which he was appointctl, and the ft™»- 
immense authority of his fewest words — dida ejus vet 
ftauca vim in/faifent kabebant — but, unfortunately, in the 
midst of his triumph, his mule took fright, dashed him 
to the ground, and ran over him. He escaped unhurt, 
which deliverance all confidently ascribed, says SaccHnus, 
to the special patronage of God and the God-bearer 
Mary — shtt/u/ari Dei ac Deipar^ patrocinio hattd dubie 
factum. One of his first official acts was the appoint- 
ment of Francis Borgia to the post of assistant, in the 
place of another, who was discharged ; and one of the 
first hopes and expectations of the Jesuits was the quiet 
pOaseeBion of a seminary in contemplation by the pope ; 
but the result wa^ not as agreeablo as the hours of 
hope. Admitting the grasping spirit of the Jesuits, we 
must still take into account the selfish passions of their 
opponents : immense opposition was made to the pro- 
posed appointment, by the Roman clergy.* 
The Roman professors, like all other profes- <^ J«mit* 
aors, hated all monopoly, exceptmg theu* own ; 
and they acrardingly sent to the pope their protestation, 
fdiowiug — "that it was neither for the honour nor the 
interest of the Church to confide the education of young 
eccleaiaatica to ^trantjm'f : mothers who nurse their own 
children are most esteemed on that account, and the 
children are better brought up, Rome was not deficient 



> Sfrocihin. lib. iul4, irt. 



172 



UISTOUY OF THE JESUITS. 



of men of yery great morit, more capable than the 
Jesuits to fashion young clergj-men in science and piety. 
The instruction which these Jesuits give to their pupils 
is not solid ; and they will carry ofi' the best pupils of 
the seminary to turn them into Jesuits ; all they want 
is to add revenues to their colleges— in fine^ the rights of 
the clergy of Eome are tlireatened." ' 

About the same time, Father Ribera and all the 
Jesuits of the colleges of Milan were attainted of 
foul crimes and misdemeanours. This Ribera 
was father-confessor to Cliarlea Borromeo, 
archbishop of Milan — a famous saint in the calendar. 
His uncle, Pop Plus IV"., made him an archbishop in his 
twenty-second year, which was, perhaps, rather worse 
than Paul lll/a creation of a cardinal out of a boy, not 
yet out of liis teens. Howevei', both were papal relatives. 
ctariM Boi^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ papal ahuscs ; and Charles wa« 
roin«. intended for a saint ; and thus tlie fact must 

be pa^ed over, if it cannot be excused/* The young 
archbishop suddenly assumed a life of great rigidity, and^ 



' CpplinpAu. i. J70 : Sowliin. lib. viii. 13, 

- Chttrlus Borrora^o U rtpresanted m the moriel of oharvhm^ in gmcnl, 
and hinhqis in ]iarticu1&r. " All Lhe fftvour be ciijnyeJ^ and nil tlie p&pBl 
Authority he roulcl cominanUi (til tht? <.'uti<vnientfi of the pZcmurca which nr- 
ruuudLil liiiiir mill which might hate conupLf*! mt-ii of « more aUvfenced a^, 
oiily «!rvAc1 tn gill.' thiH yoatig i-aniiaxi tlift o^cuion for ^nrlising virttie w! 
eJtfyinff tli^ Church. In cflect. he van ao exempt (rom IdKUry, Braricet uiil sit 
kiada of intctnprraiirif', thai he bIwuvh foaBeil fcr a mo<i«| of iiiTHHwne^ modmQ'f 
mad reLigiL»n. Au a iMHliopf he gloriouHEy acj^uilted hintaelf of all the dutiM of ■ 
hoiy rimphvTd- He animalpit ihe TniLlifu] by ^}lv boliueut uf hJH life, uiJ die 
julmimhlc purity with wliich he Jjiily «pplii?jl him^olf la tho pm/<tiiM^B nf pi^^ 
He restored llio ruiiiwl diurcb™ ; ho built upw one*. Ho corrected irT*fu- 
IftrJtirf ; Lq abolLahfd iJi* prT>ffliw nuitoma wliich the comiplion of the h^ bid 
iatrcKlQccd, and which thenegligeiKfofthehiHliopB had fincourn;jpd, Mebibnured 
lit reitiiiM.- thp inaiala uf tJie cjiut' lu Ihti rukv uf pHinitiv? f1idi;L]dkuF ; ujd by l|i« 
vigiUjirc Mid PTinfinplit. he reformed ihc grrat city of Mikn, iwhich xtan bcfon 
fto dcbaudicd, w little used to the ptsctivm of rctigioo, %od au abBudoued to 
luvury, lufll, andidl sorU of riaeA.* '-^OrtUtimit Lat'icde Commendon, i. ii- P. 



OHAMB AOAIKST PATHBR RTBP.HA, 



173 



with niOBt oominenJable zeal, looked after the conduct 
of his clergymen, the monks, and professors of his see. 
All this was attributed by the Jesaits to the unction of 
Father Ribei-n, and the " Spiritual Exercises*' of Loyola, 
and the hara^sinents consequent to the reforma set on 
foot by the zealous artthbishop, suggested, according to 
the Jesnits, one of the foukst charges imaginable against 
the confessor Ribera,' Frankly, there is some proba- 
bility that the chaise was false. It is easy to concoct 
charges and to utter iniputationa against any man, and 
the world is but too eager to spread and believe them : 
in the present case, as in many others, relating to other 
men, the accasation proves nothing excepting the asper- 
Ht'oH on the reputation of the Jesuits. I need not say 
that the hostile histories of the Jesuits broadly and 
boldly assert the charges. a*5 though they were facts," 
though Charles Borromeo himself is stated to have 
rocogniaed Rjbera'a innocence, and continued to honour 
him "With his confidence.^ Meanwhile the fate of this 
Jesuit tended to bewilder the judgment which men might 
form in Ms favour Lainez sent hira off to thefm^etgn 
mimojis. The proximate occasion was as follows : — 
Tlie excessive fer\'our of his nephew, Charles Borromeo, 
iuduced Pope Pius IV» to believe other rumours, which 
affirmed that the Jesuits were striving to get hira into 
the Society* The pojie had largt? ecclesiastical views 
rcBpecting hia nephew, and this announcement roused 
him from the indifference in which the fouler charges 
the Jesuits had left his HoUness. He frowned 
he aspiring Society. Lainez was ill. The brethren 
raoort^ to propitiation. They scourged theraselvos fivo 

1 Sa«ahin, UK viji. U ; Ji^y, i- 4ti£, - liiiwund, ii, 

* OnMuw, ft cAnt«ni|«ani7 ; D« VIA S. Cat. Boirom,, »'l oth««^ 



174 




HiarORV UP THE JESUITa. 



ihd Ounlian 
knoi. 



times, fasted three times ; the priests offered ten masaes, 
and the laity prayed ten times, whilst all joined together 
in the erenings to rehearse the litany.' Scarcely reco- 
vered, lie proceeded to tlie Vatican, and protested that 
he had always advised the archbishop to fnoderate hii 
fervour. Still the pope feared Ribera s influence on hi* 
penitent'a mind. Laincz cut the Gordian knot at once, 
promising to despatch Ribera to the Indies.' 
The pope was satisfied, for Uis Holiness had 
insisted on that condition — enij^e conteiidernt ; ' 
— but it still remainfi uncertain whether the restoration 
of papal favour was owing to the proof of innocence oa 
both heads of accusation respecting the Jesuits, or to 
the ready compromise tendered by Lainez, who sacrificed 
the Jesuit-confessor. Ribera's reputation was likely 
to suffer by the sort of banishment, as the world would 
deem the Jesuit's disappearance ; but tlie good of the 
Society was paramount to the interests of the mem' 
ber : every Jesuit sm-renders his reputation, as well as 
hia life, into the hands of his superior. Ho is ■■ iodif- \ 
ferent*" to his reputation. We might pause here lo^ 
inquire how such indifference reacts on his conscience— ^H 
making it as soft wax that takes every form, as an old 
man^s stick used at pleasure, as a corpse tliat has no 
voluntary motion, according to the letter nf the JeKuit- i 
law — the dying words of Ignatius, Self-rospect is the _ 
mini.-^terino; angel of God vouchsafed to console us f^i^^f^l 
every losa, excepting thai of reputation. Succeed m" 
depriving a man of that, and make him /eel the fact, 
and you will have made him desperate in heart, though^ 
imperative circumstances may compel him to be and 

■ SAcr^hin. lib. viji 1A. f (JretinaMi, ii. iflfi, 




REFLECTIONS ON RIBBRA 3 BXILS, 



178 



Rdlntigbt. 



remain in your haDds, aa plastic wax, an old man's 
stick, melting carrion. The imputations cast on the 
Jesuit-coUeges and Ribera were not Batiafac- 
torily shaken off. They remain positively 
affirmed, and have an air of probability, enhanced by 
the consideration forced upon ua, as often aa wo think of 
Roman celibacy, and teat it ^^-ith the principles of phy- 
Biology. And certain fa^tSt too, which we may have 
heard positively asserted — not by strangers, not by Fro 
testauts, — with names and places well known — such facts 
throw a hideous discredit on Roman celibacy. Vitjilurn 
ctinnm irUfes excnhiiP — the drowsy watch-dogs of the 
"rules'* would nod at laat : nrc munierani satis—^ey 
fell asleep. To throw thl» consideration into the ques- 
tion bewihiera the caae still more ; and we would 
willingly cling to the defence put forth by the Jesuits in 
the motive thev allege for Ribera's exile, namely, to 
appease the pope in the matter of his nephew ; and we 
would even believe tliat the pope honestly and heartily 
exonerated them from the charges, by his subsequent 
conduct towards them : but, to explain this, it were 
sufficient to consider that he had no reason to believe a^ 
the Jesuits guilty ; and, moreover, that a general and 
thorough reformation in this matter would have been a 
labour similar to tliat of Hercules in the stables of 
Augeas. The Jesuits were useful to him and hie cause. 
With alt their faults he loved them stilL If it may be 
said that the charges were not proved, it may also 
be added that the defence and concomitants were sus- 
picious. There we will leave the matter. As a further 
proof of the pope's good-will and gratitude for finding 
himself Ro obflequiously humoured, the Roman Seminary 
was imperatively put into the hands of the Jesuits, in 



176 



HISTORY OF TfiE JEStHW. 



J man 



Hon the 

Ubto Wf re 



ofessurs," T)um, by the dexterous 
management of Lainez in humouring the pope by sacri- 
ficing liis subject, Ribera, tlie tables were 
turned against the enemies of the Companv, 
ami tlie veiy cliarge which was thought surest 
to penetrate the worldly-minded pope, to the injury of 
the Jesuits, actually opened the speetiiest outlet to their 
deliverance, with honour and profit in addition. On 
the other iiand, there can be no doubt nor wonder thai 
the simple, uninitiated ones amongst the Jesuits, trem* 
bling in the growl of Vatican thunder, ascribed Uie 
thing to theii^ sconrgings. fastings, masses, prayei-Sj and 
Htanica— their "propitiations to God — pfacamina Dei^" 
— just as the " cures" by vegetable pill, jalap, rhubarb, 
and calomel, are tlie tiviphieK of quacks and the 
faculty. 

So complete was the return of the popes foatering 
angel to the Company, that lie amiounced hia intentioii 
Tbcpopc'i ^** P^J t'l® Jesuit-houaes a risit on the follow- 
Runiiin ^^ "*8 ^^y* "^ order to a^ure General Lainez 
Cqii«gB. f,f iii^ I'cgards iu jjarticular, and the whole 

Company of his esteem in general Surrounded by mx 
cardinals and a mob of minor dignitaries, the holy 
father commenced his atoning progress. In the church 
of the professed he said prayers — post f mm pypcpfi. then 
their house he explored, which he praised for its cleanli- 
ness and appropriate conrcnience ; and then he went 
OnDd to the college, to be struck with wonder and 

te«ption. a^imiration- On entering the great hall of the 
students he beheld the walls all covered on one side, with 
written poems. "What means thatT* asked the pope. 



' " Drrlib«rftlum pontitici omaino eiao Semiiuuii procurMionvai PaQibo* 



THK POPE VISITS THK ROI«.VN COLLEGE. 



177 



* Extemporaneous poems un the adveut of jour Holineas, 
in the sixteen languages spoken by our pupils from as 
many diflerent nations,' said the Jesuits. The pope 
expressed his gratification, and the Jesuits proceeded 
with their adulation. A aeat — call it a throne — waa 
phiced for Iiis Holiness, aud one of their orators addroased 
him iH the name of his " cohort/' ** in that oration 
which waj* published, and gave universal satisfaction," 
sayB Sacchinus. At the conclusion of the oration, there 
issued forth a pracession of select boys, in appropriate 
costumes emblematical of the various languages, arts, 
and sciences profesaed in the college ; and besides their 
emblems and decorations, each had on hia breast a label 
iuAcribed with tlie name of the art or science, and its 
professor, whose representative he was — a considerate 
precaution in the Jcsuita, for the enlightenment of the 
ignorant in the mystery of the emblems — rttdi&t^ibu^ 
lofUfAn/ur — which wa-s scarcely a compliment to the 
and hif^ company, though probably very necessary 
for the emblems were devised to typify Latin, Greek, 
Hebrew,Arabic, Rhetoric, Dialectics, Mathematics, Arith- 
metic, Greometry, Mnxic, Astronomy, Moral Philosophy, 
XaCnral Philosophy, and lastly, the king and queen of 
all. Theology — princ/'ps ac reginn rmtifinm, T/ieo/otjia. 
Koch typical boy advanced to the pope, and dedicated 
his respective science to the pontiif, in a short and 
graceful poem. So pleased was the pope with this ladt 
contrivance, that he said he would do much more Tor 
the College and for the Company than he had hitherto 
done — dicetui niultoaeplurapro Col!effu\proqHe Snctrfate, 
quam /erissrf ndhuc factitrum. Thence Pope Pius IV, 
procee/led round the mclosures of the college, exprei^Ring 
a particular wish to see the house which had belonged 



ioyne 

I 



178 



HISTORY OF THK JESUITS. 



to Paul IV.. Bia implacable foeman : it is to be hoped 
that he said nothing hitter, after raurdering liiB nephews, 
and contented himself with a De Profundis^ in the 
bottomless gulf of his vengeance. Thence the pope 
advanced to the German College of the Jesuits : but as 
it was getting lato, he declined hearing tlie verses they 
had manufactured for his reception- — eersm ad ej^cipien- 
duvi jmratos: but he tpook a glance at the companj 
awaiting his arrival, and the supper-table ai! laid and 
ready ; and after the ngual questions and answers in 
similar visitations, respecting the organisation and pro- 
fessional course of the college, the holy father went 
home. Saechinus says the pope'a domestics rojKirted 
that the Company entirely ongrossod his attention on 
that day — whidi we need not be told^that lie greatly 
praised her institutions and labours, and seTerely lashed 
those who had blamed her so unjustly "^and lie 
reader must decide whether the pope had seen enough 
on that occasion, to jnstily his judgment. Saechinus, 
wiBcr than the uninitiated simple on«a before 
alluded to, propounds the true cause of the 
pope's pacification, as he calls it — namely, the bauinhmeat 
of Ribera to the Indian raiesion — the Constitutional sink 
of offensive Jesuits;' and the pope was aohcitous, or 
solicited, to make amends for tliat admitted disgi-ace of 
the Jesuit, by the visit of patronage, as Ribera's departure 
might cast a slur on the inuoeenee of the otlior fathers.^ 



ExplnnatiErn^ 



' CoQat. p. u-i e. iL, D. ** Quniida nan Um propter r^tianem vol uugaitodiacni 
T>pcrati,quftm t>b temoroiLcliim ofTt^ndiculuin, *|Urjrl oliia pnvhuit, dnukti aJiqiiFm 
eflwl ; HI iklio^ui aptiu CBfiCt, pxpenilut prur1oDti« Hupenoria lui «ipediat fM<ql- 
t&lon pi dikre,ul id looiim aliuia Sac^ii^UtU v^da reinotumi CAJidoni aon egn- 
dicDiloi pix>tic]S4:nmr." TIub bos lirfn i|iiiiit-il liefiirv in iut propter place wIvd 
trvfttrng of ih'' CanHtilutinnm. 

■ " Kmc ixitor pTof»tio poDlificHD ioUcitudin« Ub«rMtttn hand nipdiocnur 



THEdt EMBLEMATU ILLrsTRATlONS- 



179 



So that AvIiiUt tbia writer l&ys it ilowii tlmt Goil and 
St Ignatius were the authora of the pope's pacification 
— lie fails not wisely to eshibit the liuman means era- 
ployed for the purpose — means which be may be per- 
mitte^i to couple with the name of Ignatius, but wliieh 
ffcarrely comport with that cf God — though the Jeeuit 
quotes Scripture for the fact, aayiug ; ** since tlie ways 
of the Loni are ways of pleasantness, I will add the 
means whereby I think the result waa a^oraplished."* 
All things considered, the whole affair of pacification 
was a sort of " dust in the eyes " of the public in behalf 
6f a set of men whom the public believed somewhat 
mfamoiu, but who were useful aerrantB to the pope 
notwitbstaiidiiig, and therefore to be aci^reditcd by a 
display of pontifical approliatioTL 

We must not forget the di8i)lay, however. It 13 
reaiarkal>Ie in many respects. Already it appears that 
the Jesuits were directinij their wite to the 
contrivance of ejnhhfnatw illustrations which, onii»di»- 
by the middle of the next century, they ex- ' 
hibited in perfection. If Alciati gave them the idea, 
their owB inventive laculties carried it out with admirable 
^irit and eflect. Ifothing can eiceed the aptness^ 
point, and in maiij' cases, most exquisite delicacy of 
Bome of their emblems, in their illiBtrated works. Their 
ImagOt cf which specimens have been given in thia 
hutory, 10 not the best of their productions in this 
departmeni, though decidedly the most extravagant, 
simply because the vanity of the Company made her 

■ ttt PBtnim ctttcr^min lUiinudverten iiiDCicfntiiin poaAct." — ^aocbw. 
1 1», 

^ * Equidero pUoti pontifici*, tamels aurlonna Di-uid, oc B. Iipintiufn hruid 
fro dotno pMio. quik ttinen mfillea tub Domini soat, iiuibiu id vffiKMni »iliiuai- 

M 2 



ISO 



HTHTUKV OF THK JfciariTS, 



members mad on the subject of their '^ exploits."^ We 
must alsu remark, in this displfiv. the admirable metliod 
of their adulation. How difficult but splendid in its 
power in tlie art of flattery ! Even to administer merited 
praise requires some tact to make it pleasant : but to 
flatter grossly, and yet to seem hont^st withal, requires 
some training, considerable taste, great judgment — and 
a deep knowledge of the human heart, resulting from 
mental dissection, which few have the patience to pursue, 
either mth regard to others or themselves — and a 
knowledge of both is indispensable. On this occasion 
the modm ofjer/u/di of the Jesuits is a model of flatterr, 
deUcate in its grossnesa. And in that dedication of all 
the arts and sciences to the popo^ tlioy reached the 
chmax of flattery — an^l perhaps the fact reminds \ou 
of that metaphorical description I gave of Loyola's 
interview with Pope Paul III., about to establish the 
Company.^ Lastly, I would draw attention to the 
rapidity of Jesuit-execution on that occasion; — all was 
planned and achieved in tmf day and night^^and yet 
thoy could devise and exhibit fourteen emblematic 
costumes to represent the shape of that which had no 
shape *' distinguishable in member, joint, or limb" — in 
concrete solidifyinji; abstract ** vain wisdom all and false 
philosophy'' — and lastly composing sixteen poems in 
sixteen languages, singing flattery to the pope — flattery 
wljose greatest fulsomeness was but " a pleasing sorcery " 
to charm the sense and captivate the soul.* 



■ Th? Bubjoct will be farther developeil whirn |}ie littrfiliirv uf tlip J^ol^ h 
disLiiBseil. > S*o vol. 1. p. I3fl. 

3 <* Eo die Miliortis impc^imentjii nmi venit. iiuo<|iienti nitt^tm,^ 4i*, — Soedtitk 

' What 4 L'niitnst U tlic Je^t meihod of compJim^ixUl exhibiUonn to our 
modem affUm of the kind ! In ihrve ihr i/grdnrr a ta ^«ircAf«', or (he Uiun*r 



A DBSI-BHATK AeSAlTLT OF FOES. 



181 



This "memorable day" of the Company of Jeaus 
m^bt "* charm pain for aw!iik\ or anguisK and escite 
fallacious hope;" — -its glorious sim was destined how- 
ever to suffer horrible uf?hpse. It was by no means 
clear to the men at Rome that tho pipat visit to the 
JeBuits was not a visittftion — one of thowe uncomfortable 
things which ought always to be notified in advance, 
as is ctmsiderately done amongst those who stand on 
prerogatives. But if the pope really intended a search- 
ing visitation, the Jesuits t<^ok right good care to keep 
him intent on the most ploaeing sounds imaginable, and 
after tiriiig Iiim out with their eights and flattery, sent 
him liome with the right impression ou his heart. Let 
it therefore ho jfi'O /fenif/jt/fatis artfumcnto^^ token of his 
love and ita ** considerations/' The pope seemed pacified 
with ihe Jesuits : these relainetl the Roman seminary — 
and yet, after his visit or visitation, the pope did not 
think proper to justify the Jesuita respecting the late 
most hideous accusations. Out of tho smothered cinders 
the conHagration burst fortli anew and with Aii«tL*r 
CeniV»ld energy. The foes of tlie Jesuits aii- "^'™r- 
%*anced ^vith ruinous assault. A bukoji led them on. 
This looks imposing : but whatever impression that 
majestic name should make, the Jesuits totally erase it 
by handing down to posterity, tlmt this Catholic bishop 
was a bajstard, a bhnkard — one of those who had no 
See — of cracked reputation^ — a disappointed niajp.' Here 

«i<h mtaj ** iTtiTon/' « Uih oa\y remnrkiible Envenlioii to pliwa^ the kdw uid 

JHbRDl HrCiom of hiuii&mEv. carh ''fmyin; rvajiKl " b> lJirc*e itifTeifiU wn^iIoia 
of tti» liumiui lio'iy, the heal, tliu itr^machi Juid Lhe foal : EliaB Uid uvufFe 
ludADsdADcv hoDuur uj tbu bmvc ; tJio Jcvuiu lulmmiat^r tUe tiane in umUttu* 
md io Tonr ; ih« EngUsh <?bi liuI dnnk ii nin»in — whicli -uhmJi* Kiim-wlul uf 



182 




HISTORT OF THE JCaUlTS. 



you have a Hpeuimen of the sort of " characters" the 
Jesuits give tlieii- opponents — even in their own church 
and religion, thus indirectly dishonoured; — but all 
through a natural instinct, aiinilar to that which would 
mdke a drowning man grip and diag down to the depths 
below, oven the mother that bore him. 

This feature is one of the moat objectionable in the 
Jesuits. Their rancorous, crushing, revengeful hatred 
lias been frightful. Whoever once offended them irag 
visited in a thousand ways daring life, and their books 
exhibit the same fury lashing the dead. This i£ scarcely 
Thi- i«»ic-i nf consistent ivith the conduct espected from 
ihpjc-ui<*. (jjQ Companions of Jeaus ; but it reooncilos 
us to the disappointing fact, that Jesuitism waa only 
a si^tion of hnraanity, with all the passions, as usuaJ. 
duTcteJ into diiierent channels, but not a whit the belt^ 
for that, since^ with the best possible intentions pro- 
IKJsed in theory, they imitated the worst possible men in 
practico. And they managed this bishop, so unfortTinate 
in his birth, hia person, and fortunes. He seems to hape 
set to work iu riglit good eanieat iiotwiLhstandbig. He 
wrote two small hooks — lUfjUm. ntruuique famosum rt 
impmhntium rffe^'hoHpf'ohrm'um — both of them touching 
*' the inimechate jewel of their sonla," as lago woold say, 
and fail of " nn::Ieau!y apprehensions/* He distribnteil 
copies amongat the cardinals in Rome, and Bit and ^vide 



irhi, vi Iuhpub, neff 0|rlim4 funA VeroliiB iliu vtrsaftim; quein pmpriaa etiom 
urebftt Jolor, qubd ciim opati cjiu CBrdiualJ^ SnlvUuB ul viaenda^ utenrtiif 
UrtnA Cf-deniui jam poafJiabilo iILo/' &c. — &rcf^rV ib, 20. A» ft spocuDtti <tf 
J<?fl1li^\a^iaDfmH on tiio VAine diroie, uke Bvioli^s k(!<oaDt of Uie biihop. 
'* Pvr dij^Hiia Vc*covo, ma tii ^'^iftioi ; per uftAcanvafo, LoaU dime cbe di iutl4L 
runL^lIn, nu n^iR Quntto <Jn' auoi piu cho bc lira avn «i ■tt4>ncBBC, ktifaa U lua 

IpKittmui Li-iiiliiMiEiF del nasc^ere : prcto duL Cvdinjik Sardli hi uulo a rifomwr 
to panK-1ii- rluwiiti^ll piy* hUr^jtttto kU rtfornatioa ru' co6ty^mi pg1i» die V^VgB 



THEY GET OUT UF A TERRIBLE 3CKAPE. 



183 



Tlic bllnd- 
nct* of thflir 



out of Italy, amongst the noble and the great ; but, 
according to yacchiuus. he proved too rnvch, and tkis 
beems to have ruined his caue. '' As a certain 
poet tella," observes Hacchinus, " of a certain 
woman, who gave a cup of poi^n to her 
Imted husband^ and, not content ^vith that, niixcd up 
another, but which turned out to be the antidote aud 
cure of the former^ — so tlds bishop, carried away by 
a too great desire to do harm, and heaping up many 
things so enormous and contrary to fact, the whole mass 
destroyed itsel£ and one poison was ma<le harmless 
by the other,' '^a comparison wluch shows that the 
Jesuits consider moderate charges poisons, and immo- 
derate ODea antidotes of the former. The philosophic 
Bayle said the same thing, and I have liad very often to 
regret, in ploughing througli tlic materials of tliis history, 
that neither tlie Jesuits nor their opponents have profited 
by the warning. But the bishop, with the utmost con- 
fidence, said he had written nothing which he was not 
prepared to prove befort* a just tribunal, with proper 
witnesses. A cardinal, the patfon of their Serffhiary, 
was appointed to investigate the case between the 
Jefitiits and the bishop. The latter brought his wit- 
neaseB : they were px-students of the German College, 
and ex-Joauits. That was enough to damage the cage ; 
their K-^itimony was pronounced defective on that account 
at once, and their statements were rejected-^ These aie 
thv simple facts of the case and the judgment. The 
alleged proofs of groat private disorders were unsatisFac- 
lory, by an error in turm, tiuch as any lawyer would turn 
to account. The accused were acquitted. The accuser was 
impTiHOncd. And he would havo been more severely dealt 



> aM«hin Lit. Yiil :iL 



*' Sttin^bin. iXh viw, a? ; Bw^i. t 4»a. 



184 



HlSTuKY up- THE JESUITS. 



with, had tht; Jesuits not iut^rceded for him, as they tell 
us. This is all tli^it history has to do with. To say 
that it was easy and prudent, by way of precaution, to 
expel those who might give evidence against them, 
would, perhiipa, be an injustice to the Jesuits, similar lo 
their owu uaual disparagement of those who have ven- 
tured to queatiou their method, unfold their real motives^ 
and dissect their exploits.' Aa an additional favour, the 
pope, who from the first Lad promised to be their 
patron and protector,^ wrote a letter to the Emperor 
Maximilian. Ferdinand's successor, and other j}riHccs. 
exonerating the Jeynits, as they assui^e us. fiom the late 
a^pereiou^, which, it »eems, had penetrated into Ger- 
many, to the great scandal of the Catliulicfi and contempt 
of the heretics.^ It was certainly kind of Ida llohne^ 
fully to reward so perfect a coocurrence as he found ia 
the general of Ids cohort ; and it would have been 
scarcely fair to continue to acqiiieBce in the outrages 
visited on " thoBo whom. In a monterd of weakncsn," we 
arc actually tuld by the Jesuit liiatoriau, "ho abandoned 
to the studied injustice of the enemies of religion,*'* 

Their public agitations interfered but little Mith the 
educational arrangements of tie Jesuits, Hariug mca 
>»deido f'Jr all work, tlieir pnbhc athletes wTestled 
dit^ay. ^^j^jj ^[j^ f^Q whilst their patient teachei-s were 

engaged in a scarcely less al^iuoua undertaking — the 
battle with ignorance hi the young and the old. To 



> QuuBTitJ Hiyi : *' In nne, \iy ilhir i»f Ti^IkIiuoiI ttuiL niundH ihey aucceolDd m> 
Wei] in ijnpnhirig nn tliu'ir judgt>fl. ihflt tlii-v f^"t out o! tlio lorriblo e^rapie, vhieh 
wu a sourre o! eui'h ((rief lo St. Cluirk* BfHrumeo. Uial ho lell llic cgurt of 
Rome, uid retiivd to bi» ikrcUbubo|irio of Milui." — T, u. lit', ivferriiLg toui 
lUkiian Life of Lbe SutLt ' SArcbia. lib, viii. 7- 

' SiKchiuus givn luo Ipiwn m (be on^DHlft on the HubjwL 
* ** Cqux. *n\t, (lv» im rooment Av foiblcqsv, il m nbuiiloan^A nu^ iajivfiHs 
''dEtil^ dcA enncmifi ric In Religion,*' — CixtiH^attt p- i^^. 



UC DISPl 



185 



stiniulate the love uf praise or approbation so natui'al lo 
all, the Jesuits now began to distribute rewards of 
raerit to their pupils. The first distnhution, in 1564, 
was attended with great pomp and circumstance, and 
graced by a conoourso of Rome's nobles and cardinals. 
A tragetly was performed ; and at ita conclusion a 
table covcreJ with the prizes was deposited ; — the prizes 
were select works of the ancients, elegantly and sump- 
tuously printed and bound When the judges who had 
awarded the prizes were seated, a boy, acting as herald, 
proclaimed yiwW hotium ac fellw erenireU — a good and 
happy iaiiue to the pr^jceedings. He then announced 
the names of the succeasful competitors. As cadi was 
l^iUed ho proceeded to the stage, where he wafi received 
I bj two other boys : one gave him the prize, repeating 
kfrdiatich of congratulation, the other bestowing in like 
^fanner upon him a solemn axiom against vain glory. 
Most of tlie prizes were won by the students of the 
German College, whicb was in a flourisbing condition. 
There were two hundred and fifteen students fi'ora 
various nations — many of them uobles, and intimately 
acquainted with the cardinals and uobiUty of Rome. 
Few were Gennans, but there were two Turks, aud one 
' Armenian, of excellent wit ; all of whom were main- 
tained! by the pope, and civilised by the Jesuits.* 
At tlie isanie time tie Jesuits wore engaged uii a traus- 
' lation of the Council of Trent into Arabic. 

nn , 1 np C'ominl 

They erected an Arabic press, at the popes t^fTremjn 
I expense, and the Jesuit of the uiifurtunate 
L'X]>t'dition to Egypt, John Baptist liHan, executed the 
traniilation. It ij* difficult to discover the object of 
ibb extraordiuftrv translation, unless the Jesuits were 



< Suvhin. Ub. viiL 34, it tffj. 



186 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



prepariug for another expedition. The measure proposed 
and carried by Canisius was more immediately to the pur- 
pose. To prevent Protestauts fi'om furtively 
flharing the adrantages of Catholic edtication, 
he proposed a religious test or formula of faith which 
the candidatEts for academic honours and professorships 
should accept— and the pope sanctioned and ratified 
the measure ;' a measure cxcxisable, and coiisiBtent with 
the aims, means, and ends of the "religious" people 
in those times : — but perhaps — in the absence of more 
sensible, religious, consistent and honourable motives — 
the very fact of this teat being a Jesuit-invention should 
induce our modern '^rehgious" people to abolish this 
oath of mockeiy devised to defend Protestantism, which 
needs no human defence but perfect fi-eedom of dis- 
cussion, and real, determined efforts on the part of 
God's paid servants, to promote education among the 
people. In addition to their test we shall constantly 
find that the Jesuits mode every effort to educate the 
people : if the same could be said of our nioderiLS, who 
cling most fiercely to their test, they would at lca*l 
merit some amall portion of the praise which is due to 
the Jesuits — for carumff their bread in their vocation. 

And now. as the vegetable world, what time the 
spring sets free tlie sap, bursts the seeds, puts forth her 
Thfl JctuiiB opening buds^ soon with leafy energies to 
.L pMi.. usurp the plains, the valleys, an*! the moujj- 
tain-sides — tlma tlie Company of Jesus, under the first 
suns of a])pn,rent favour, rushed into life, and showed 
how she bad been gathering nsap, during her seeming 
winter-flleep in France, the Gallic province of iho 
Company, as yet only in her Catalogue. In tho year 



* bmoahm. Ifb. niL, 4l. 



THE JE3LTTTS AJTD 



EHSITT OP PABIS. 18? 



the Jesuits entered into tJie tislB mth the Uni- 

^of Paris. Following up the very peciiliar 
tion " wliich had been granted them at the 
I Conference of Poissy, prowled with the wealth of Ckre- 
Inwnt, the strong veterans of the Company resolved 
[boldly to throw themselves upon Paris and astonish the 
inatives. In the me St.. JaquGs they bought a huge 

Pion called tlie Cotir de Lanijrcfi, and turned it into 
cge. Over the portals they clapped an inscription, 
ColUffium Socirfatis ntyminu Jesti., the CtiUege of the 
Ccmpftni/ of the name of Jesus. They had been expressly 
forbidden to uac their former title ; they hail agreed 
to tlje terras ; and now *- by this subtlety they lioped 
to neutralise the opposition of the parUament aud the 
university : but they were disappointed/'' A reflection 
on this trick is forced from their modem historian.^ 
He admits that ** such an assault of tjuirks was as little 
worthy of the great bodies which sustained it, os of the 
r^fiigious Company agaiust which it was directed. It is 
not with ttTCtcheil amis that those who goTem others 
ehould be attacked or deTendeil The parliament and 
the imiversity began the war, the Jesuits followed their 
eiArnpIe. Tliey were placed on the ground of ehir/in^y, 
they *(howod themselves as clever as they exhibited 
tbemseh e.^i otoqnent in the rhiirch aud professorHhipa " 
— an extraordinary combination of inalitiea, decidedly. 
Ab the new teachers of Paris, the Company resolved to 
be roiiresented by men whose science even .^ „ 
li©r rivals were the first to admire. Father Vnti^Rw. 
Ualdrmat, the most celebrated ititorprotor of 

Scnpturca, expounded Aristotle's philosophy; ami 



1 Cr«t<n»LL I- t:47; l^'Aihaoiil, i. 5U ; Pjuquinr, 2r> ; QiiF«ml« ii. \-i^-, Lou. 
,'\. mil- - OHjniwir ib. 



188 



inSTOHY OP THE JE3U1T8. 



Michael Vanegas delivered coninientaries on the " Kni- 
blema " of Andrew Alciati, — a famous professor of iLe 
sixteenth ceutiiry, and one of the first, after the revival 
of letters, who embellished the topics which his pre- 
decessors had sunk in barbarous obscurity. In his 
" Emblems '* ho treats of morality : but according to a 
Jesuit^ he eudeavoui's to wreathe roses round about the 
bristling thorns ; — a pleasant epicurean treat ; — speciouB 
—fantastic — but comfortable as a robe of gauze in the 
warm days of summer. '^ No better subject could 
possibly he selected for the times when men, being 
strong partisans of ** religion/' honestly desired that 
their pa^ions should be allowed for, and indulged aa 
much as possible. Orthodox in faith, they wished to 
be consistent in morals ; it was necessary, in order to 
ensure orthodoxyj that morality should be ejisy and 
comfortable. Ve shall soon see tliat the Jesuits jer- 
fectly knew the world they liad to deal with in this 
ticklish matter. 

Other JeauitST equally renowned, taught the Greek 
and Latin languages. They collected an audience of 
sereral thoiLsands at their lectures,* 

Emboldened by success, the Jesuits resolved '' to 
penetrate into the enemy's camp :'* tliey induced Juhen 
de Saint- Germain, Rector of the University of 
«iLc.i.|.i tL.; Pans, in 1562, to grant them letters of in- 
duction, and all the pri\iltgea enjoyed by Uie 
members of the university. In 1564, di|)lomaB in band, 
the Jesuits began their academical course, announcing 

^ lU' lUvd m iSfin (ml Vav'm} uf plcihcrim, ttajt FelleTi Trum (^KCctt, Uke ftlnw 

|t|iiliPi4>ipfiiil — F.fwitii ttf ijiv-tt patvHi- MJinK.', honDvi*r, rciufSDHLfl him in n 



A TICKLISH QUESTION ADROITLY ANSWERED. 189 



themselves as forming an 'integral part'* of tlie uni- 
versitj, This manccuvre gave the cro\vning stroke/ 

The new rector, Marchand, convoked the nrpadfui 
faculties in a flight. Privilege ^aa astounded — rtm^motmn, 

for never wnw crau^ nun 
Mel furh embodJecl force, u, nrunfil wifli Uu?bb, 
Could tfl«rit luore Uum (hat aaa}] infuitr^ 
WMT'd on by crwioft. 

A consultation ensued. Were the Jesuits to be ad- 
mitted into tlie bosom of theunivei-sity? The prnjjoflition 
\va8 scouted iiidignantlv — negatived unanimously — away 
with the Jeauita ! 

But the Jesuits would not go. They persisted and 
wore cited to an interrogatory, 

" Who are you V they were asked. 

*■ Taf'^t ffmhs, 9uc!i as the paiiiaraent called uy," they 
replied. And in vain the rector Pr^vot put tho question 
in four rhfferent forms :' the Jesuits were a match for 



* SOBk/r* Arejmi Secnlftn, or Rf gn- 
bx^nrUdDbtt 

Jtwvutt^ Wd &iv Id France Hiich n* 
liiff Phriiumitit r*JlMl ua. lumely, ihc 

Company of thcCol]e«:e which is caUod 
of CUrrnvoil- 

/i ktv yan in f«l Mnnki of Seen- 

J^ Tlic b^Hmilily XoM no Hglit lo ■*!> 
at ihsi quMtioa- 

B, Ar« you rmUy R«tru1ar Monha, 

J. We hik'c nlrvftdy aevrrAl tinea 

Oftt1f>J 111 I w %t^ iiof bonnil 

J£ Yoa five nci roply fu to your 
ounr, «ii4 yt>u lAy juu «!■> uot dioone 
to ■OrvM bi b> llii> FjiitL T]i# d«H?iw 



]jti¥ar hn Monachi T 

niH onniiTi)i.i~it ^tipniTiia (^urin, uLinpe 
SupiftJui Coll^i qaod CUnmoiitMBe 
AppelUtiir. 

IL An reip84 atU MiUmchi, Ki Sc- 

L-ullVCfl 1 

/. Kon «>t ptrnwiitia congregktiouia 
iUad a nobia expoFK^crv. 

/L E-Mioic rctt^ru Moiiiu:]ii, Hegu- 
UrcAf All St-ouUrcfl { 

/, Jjbni |ihij-it^B resytmiTiBiw ', 3u$ti-hM 

iPnemiir peapi-ndfire. 

H. Pe nntnlni^* nullum rj«pontLiiii ; 
de re diuiiiA iiaii tclLa reapoiidere. tie- 
mtUK-rmuiultiiiiL prnhibuit do utvniim 



130 



HISTORY UF THE JESUITS- 



him : they T'ere not to be caught by the trap. If they 
acknowledged themselves of the Soriety of J^e^ins^ they 
would render tliemseives obnoxious to the Act of Par- 
liament forbidding them to use the title. So they 
abdicated the sacred name for the nonce^ and assumed 
Iti/ps f/itaJfs — ridiculous enough — but in its most awful 
morpciita it h hard to avoid laughing at Jesuitism, 

Then the famoua "law-suit" ensued between the 
Jesuits and the Umversitr of Paris, destined to he ren- 
dered remarkable in t)ie liistarj of humau 
nature for every extravagance and malignit)^ 
on both sides of the disgraccfiil contest. Stephen Paa- 
quier with his ''Catechism of the Jesuits," and the 
Jesuits with their " Chaco of the fox Paaquin," vn]l soon 
tenr charity to pieces, and maJvc a scare-crow of her 
remnants, to defend their ripening fnUts, We shall see 
them anon ; the vintage is deferred.' 



RffiulL 



oT Lht Parliament liui forbiditea you to 
xkop thp iiAiTneuf Jcauiia or Societj' vT 
file iiams nf JnniL 

/, Ws dn QDt t^italc toiii^hiQj* tim 
qucfltiim of tbt lume ; yoa can an^gn 
uft in Itnr if vq asEomci auy oHier ovae 
Agonal the regulnl^QJi of llic dpcmr. i 



wflnnti JimUm 



J. Kdei immnniinm- circi qbefttkaiaii 
civ nomfiie; potc«tis □)>« vixsreiji jnarf 
aluid iiomPTk BfiBumunufi mntra dettf^ 
itiiniitiDneni armtl.— Zhi Boutay^ Bid* 

■ All the autlioi'iiiefl btfon refc^ircd t«, bi^ginnio^ nitb Cretmenu &nd en£u 
Willi CouilreI(t>, Thu Jomiils itrHenlcd a MemoriELl tn the Pu-luuD4^t, la whUh 
Ibere ire certain ftdmia*ionfi which di?*«rve attmlufli, "As the name id 
lU'ligimiB l9 giren odIt io monks who IcaU ui PXtrPinplj' ptrfcct life, tir w« nol 
R^li^ovn in tli&L ten«ii, ftir kp i!r not think oursi-lvea ttortb/ lo profe^ (h> holy 
uid perfect ft Kfe ; the oi^cnpation of the fonner beinp only l4i irply thenwelTf* 
to worla of picly. wlicn«* all oora fonaiat^ in aiher IhiDgii^ nrifl ^iefly in tli« 
study of lliDiw Hrtfi which mny mndttce lo llip apxritoftl good of the puhlic"-*- 
B moBL luilwikcd-ri-r aroirU— Tor if there he a rhurwtcr which iJiev sErivv nkOA 
In pLiii rrifA\t Tnr ill thpir hi^toriFn uit bio^nLphivs, it U Jiat of BBJictitt ^^^ 
raonJ ptrfcctitm— whinh vui an e;ia}- matter, for they lAid that God h&d gtvitnl 
Ihe hoon lo iRn^tias that no Jesxut ahould commit a luortjj inn dimng the firtt 
hundred years of Ihr Cooipacy, and Ibat Xavier had got the priviltge eiclciid«l 
oTor two hundred yeani more — whEch imfortuiuitfly clnpsod before lh« pop* 



lUVAI. MONOPOLIES. 



191 



ncflc^Llonm. 



D'Alembert's rcHectiorid on both parties, at the pre- 
sent Bcene of tie tragi-comedy, me apposite. " Scarcely 
had the Society ot^ Jesus begun to appear in 
France, when it met witli numberless ^bffi- 
culties in gaining an establishment. The universities 
^^pecially made the greatest eflbrts to espel thess new 
comers. It i^ difficult to decide whether this opposition 
does honour or discredit to tlie Jcf^uits who experienced 
itp They gave themselves out for the instructors of 
youth gratuitously ; they counted already amoagst 
them some learned and famous men, superior, perhaps, 
to those whom the universities could boast : interest and 
vanity might therefore be sufficient motives to their 
adversaries, at least in these first momenta^ to eeek to 
exclude them. We may recuUect the like opposition 
which the Mendicant Ordera underwent from these very 
universities, when they wanted to introduce themselves: 
opposition founded on pretty neai'ly the same motives, 
and which ceased not hut hy the state into wliich these 
orders are fallen, now become incapable of exciting envj.^ 



Ibpin. olliem-iso h Compntiy nf SnintB would hnvp pcrifthcd. The 
I funher ayii: ^ Willi rpgnrd to the qiicnliona irhi^h jnu hftvepnt to 
Wv •* t»riool ppply to iJiem in a clearer, more iitrinsc, or diwiiiict mjiT»i*T th»a 
wB h>t* flout- We ihertfnrT beppti'h j-nu to conai'Ier all llit« tliingw, and to 
Mrt tu ihift *tr*ir with /oar aPiinl mo<l«nitioD, prurli>DPo, ind kin^lneu- Tf jnu 
viYI ^niil UB tile hoDOur of odiiuttinp uH unong you, ajiJ |#naiaaioii to loach, 
wHlinnt nljHj^Lng ub to resort to o 1aw-»ait, yoa will ktwajfi ^iid u» ubedicnt to 
Ow Iatb of jtmr Vnivoraity in nil thitifis/' Ac—QutPt^i, Pa Bftitay, Mcrcwt 
•hrail. Ml, ft alibi. 

To explKiD ihe dcnUritj of iheir aniLi^aua PVply, tatei qualttt wv irnut 
mncmbcr tlukt no other juifiwer could httre till tbem ^m tha ombuTaiBinenL 
tf ttiFv fwl nUlfyl IhrmHlvtfl Sccnlir PricBtJi, n.\\ fbtilr " PrivOe^" ui rcgiikrfl 
fTCPuM fifcH>— »M-!udefl, Mipir vowf wtrc well kno^Ti. Secondly, thry ftOuU Iutb 

I Uieir claini to the rich If'gwy of iho Bislwip of Owemoot, glTon to 
lltflgnlan. Had they i^allvd tliCTDBelveq MonUe tli^y n'ould hVB tw*D 

•t qhcv ficluded ^m pubGc tuition— ft privibge TLPier conceded Co Hooka hy 
the Vta^tenaty. 
■ 1 hftTft A<tvn my tfrncarr^mee in \hn «piniou rMfiwtiiig the maiivM af 



192 



HlflTORY OF THE JESUITfl. 



" On the other hand, it is very prohable that the 
Society, proud of that support wliich it foiuid amidst so 
many storms, fiarnished arms to its adversaries by 
braving them. It seemed to exhibit, from this lime, that 
spirit of invasion which it has but too much displayed 
subsequently* but which it has carefully corered at all 
times with the mafik of religion, and zea! for the salvation 
offlouls."^ 

The University of Louvain, the most celebrated after 
that of Paris, made the same oppoaitiuii to the Jesuits. 
Thej«ui[i The Jesuits could wiu over, and won over, 
tc^if/of "' l^i'^g^ ^"^^ t^'^'*" people ; but their rivals in the 
LoDTwn. public raind, their rivals in tlie "interests" of 
tuition, wcro inexorable. Antagonism fixed as fate was 
between tbcin, — for it was the battle of two nionopoUes. 
There was another reason. The Jesuits were innovators; 
their system was considered a novelty; and they promised 
to " keep pace witli the age," accommodating themselva 
right cleverly to the wants of the times, like any clever 

oppoflitiuM : etill, He must listen to the pipr^^^ nuitivpri of the univsrHilArivM' 
A fler iMuding to tho poiHlewrijii nature of llit Compfln^, and the coiui>qi]«Bl 
DijatlJlratitin, llii\v prrK't-ed tn vny fftirlj Piir^ugh, timi »* tJiis btnly a nM 
Fwivabk', but thai ihe mcinbera [h few &ro lumt-d] u<n retwl^-nbli? ; for tlw 
Univpraty reci-ivcd All indiviJuiilfl, uid preparea Uttfai for plnreB vnouf lier 
meitibeTH, cai^li ap?nnling to hiA Hlalc And quiJificiitLoiiP,^-ta the Seoulhr in iht 
FhcuUj nf Artfl, &r,, to tho Rcpilnr in Tlieologj', Ac, The UniverBit_v doe* jM 
uhjeci H> thpn- btiig a poUegf ni ClarvmuHt^ api'rirdiiig Ui llw decree uf ihf murt, 
nor to tlioro l:«ing JcquiF-buru-iv in tho L^niverfiUj. Tlie lTnive™ty, nny 
Cliristendom, canofit *nd oupht not to rept-lve &nd tolrrate n house or college 
entirliiig itaelf the Houw or CoHt-go of (he Joanila, m>r cullinp; itwlf thp CoU^g© 
of llie ClirijitiiLrB ; foruf thfu* tuo names of our Siiviour, Chriat is oommoii b* hivi 
with the iwtrinrcliB, prn[>h^[», [>ric3t9, nn-l kiAgin ; &iid Jmua in liifl |iropeT uuDd, 
whiph vhm ^vpii to liim at tliD Cftviins^'fAton, noooTiliitg in th# ^niHlnm of hi* 
people. And let the Je^jta Ro and poll tliemselveH no, if they Uke, nmonn llw 
uiibelioving inlidela, fi>r lo prwuili ro whom tliey wore firel iiiHtiluiPi TV 
[f^nnfrnty admitt tfir cminiit ninrr *Ar p"pf, wherefore jt cadhoI reoeiv* *njr com- 
pbtij' oi- coUe^ vvlibti^vvr, which plarn ihr pnp^ vhow ihf Offiitcfl." — Dh B^f^itoy^ 
t. ^. p. 587 : Ah^'iUm ilt /a S'iWjW, i. ^2- 

' Sur U Denlructirpii den jHuitsv, p, \9, rt ivif. 



THE JESUITS COMP.VREl* TU THEIB urPONENTS, 193 



Jeauita u 
compand 

lo thfllr 
opponcDlip 



artist, trader, Ixwkseller, and authcrr ; wliereas the 
universities libnited in their apogee, for ever the same, 
from the beginning even until now, '' quenched . 

in a boggy Syrtis, neither sea nor good dry- »"'" "f 
land," inextricably confined in the region of 
^aable-vestcd night, ehlcst of tilings/' An univorsity 
no more change its skin than an Ethiop, But the 
niitB were 'Megioii*' — ready for everything, provided 
it could bo made useful in their vocation — glory to the 
Company and glory to the Church, with comfortable 
colleges and eiidowmeuts, not e-rcepteil No lazy drones 
were the Jesuits : no bibbers of iviiie, beyond 
the stomach's comfort : no runuers after 
women unto madness ; but aWaya on the 
watch — always ready for work, work, work, and no 
respite, *' Legion " they were, and would rather be 
sent into swine than remain idle. If they could not 
walk on two legs, fow would he their locomotives ; and 
they had no paiticuiar objection to fins. Again I say 
that, in labouring for their hire, the Jesuits have utterly 
Aliaiueil all their competitors, much as it may pleaw 
their rivals of the mnrersities, ancient and modem, to 
them ravenously *'cut up," and hear them savagely 
ed Who would not prefer to join the *^ party" of 
the Jesuits, rather than condescend to aj^pear in the 
ranks of those who fatten on the emoluments of *^ faith^" 
without a reaaonable, honest, or honourable motive for 
" liope»" and confining ' chanty " within the precincts of 
their own cuirassed egotism — coot, calculating, harsh, 
and exclusive. 

A stirring time ensued for the Jesuits. Religious 
" — wliat a mockery I Religious war was raging in 
nee. Denied the preceptorate, they had still an ample 

VOL. u, 



■aunsi 



194 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



The relijifu" 

■RLTJn 



field in the coiiUtsioii of lieresj, Tlieir superabuncIaDt^ 
energies hail a tlioiisaiid outlets. Scattered over France, 
unrecognised b}' the law of the land, buti 
sanctioned by the law of obedience, and im-'j 
polled hj the fury of " religion/' they danced 
around the boiling cauldi-on of diacoivl, each dropping in 
some infernal ingrodieut *■ for a charm of powerful 
trouble," whilst their Hecate at Rome criefl " Well done I 
I commend your pains." ' For, let us look back and 
scan results. Charles IX. had given the Huguenots a 
" pacification," an edict which permitted them to serve 
Grod as they pl&^ed. This was in 1561, immediately 
aftor the conference of Poiasy. It was a grant even- 
tuated by expediency ; but the principle of enlightened 
toleration was nobly asserted by the old Marshal St 
Andre, and his wisdom prevailed over the bhuduees of] 
the age. In truth. Providence left not the men of the 
times without counsel ; but the inveterate selfishness of 
kings, nobles, and priests, and ministers, palsied every 
effort which God so often dii'ects for the good of 
humanity. All that France could talk or tliink of. was thoj 
conference of Poissy and its results. The Protestant*^i 
proud of their rights, thought that all doubts were ended, 
and sang victory to tlieir ministers. Edict iu hand, 
they transgressed its boundaries, would share the. 
churches with the priests, wJio ^neldetl in ignorance oi 
in terror, or with a secret inclination to change theif 
skins by joining the Huguenots.^ Troubles soon er 
—skirmishes, assaults, bloodshed, open hostiUty- 

^ " And cverj nnc nhull aliaiv V ihc ^mor 
And now almat thv caiitdron aitig, 
Lilkt> tlvce and biLi-im m ik rin^, 
KucluuitiEg ilII thnt jou jiul in," 
* D'Anhigii^, Mem. eoL cWxxil, 



RET-IOTOUS WAR IN KRAlTrF. 



Pmi'errilhfl* 



In the [>arty of Rome there was diWsion^eflti'aiige- 
meut — hostility nmongst each other. Seven French 
Ibishop the pope exromimiiiicated for granting 
loleration. or for ailopting tmmo of the new 
doctrines. The Queen of Navarre had em- 
braced Calvinism : she aunounced her convictions by 
fbroaldng down the Catholic images, seizing the chnrches^ 
lexpollin^ the priests: Pope Pius IV. came down with 
[his prerogatives and excomnianicated the Queen of 
iNararre, if in six months she did not appear liefnre him 
Ao givo an account "f herself — under penalty of lieing 
dcprircd of all her dignities and dominions — her 
fmarriage declared null and voiti— her children bastards 
^ — menacing the queen witli all the penalties awarded to 
(heretics by Christ's vicar upon earths' The King of 
iFrance interposed in behalf of his relative, and the 
Vatican Ixjt wa=5 suspended mid-heavon : but the spirit 
pbicb prompted the meai^ure was encouraged. It was 
mcouraged by the violence of the Calvinists, and by the 
unequivocal resistance of the French bishops to the 
Exorbitant prerogatives of the [wpes — the ultramontane 
pretensions decreed by the Coun<'il of Trent, Mmineas 
iheti dictated the condurt of the ultramonlanes — and 
^le people — Rcape-goatG for ever — wore dragged into 
e rcTJioifeless gulf of " *."ivil '' warfare — tho warforc of 
eimntry's people fighting for its destruction. The 
'b cohort fanned ihe fiame of discord — nepope'i 
the coidlagration through the length ''*'^°'^ 
d breadth of the land. When LaincK was expressly 
dered by (he pope to leave France for tlie last 
itting!^ of the Council' after the conference of Poissy — 

**Jun du^um rdO^fcx MAXimun Ijauh maniUtftt ui jd iHiiiL?ilIan; «« 

o 2 



196 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



where he expressed such uncoiuproniiaing, insulting 
BeatiDienta to the Calvinists — " he enjoined,'* says Lib 
own historian, " he enjoined his companions to pursue 
heresy in every direction. Some battled with it in 
Paris, others fronted it in the remotest proviocea"' 
Verily ai nation wont up upon the land, strong and 
without munber, whoae teetli were the teeth of a lion — 
the cheek teeth of a great lion. Was it to do evil that 
they went 1 Was that their intention ^ Fanatics aa 
culpable as tliemselves may say bo : — but let justice be 
done to the infatuated organs of papal ambition, and 
the dread spirit of sacerdotal influence. They thought 
they had a good conscience. They felt confident that 
they were fighting as God Milled them to fight : the 
evil that ensued was sanctioned and sanctified by a teit 
of Scripture. Beware how you lash those Jesuits, 
forgetting yourselves. Look around — read— and think 
of all that humanity has suffered from the 
religious sentiment perverted. In truth, God 
was above and earth was beneath, with man i' the midst 
— but who had stuck themselves between man and liis 
God 'i Popes, monks, priests, Jesuits, and all who were 
like them— stuck betwixt God and the souls of men, 
which must go tlirough them in order to go to God. 
Therein was the very gulf of human ruin — the Babet- 
mandeb of misery, wails, pangs, gnashing of teeth — or 
the desert whence swarms the multitude of ravening 
insects to prey on humanity. And in those dreadfiii 



Look around. 



Tridenihfciun ooufcrrtt." — f^acchi^^ lib. «. 7*. The pope's own qj^jinwcre tobe 
diM^OSftcfl, &fl you rcrapmbar, imd L»mm wu to uphold the vBry &1jubob which 
he had deaonaced to tho Pnoce dc Conil^ ! 

' " Pendint ce temps, Lalnca paiLi pour lo Condle Ae- Treiile, kvuL enjaiot k 
■CT compignotiB de pooreuirre partout I'hifnf&ip, Lei iiua la combfttlAieiit 
A Parifl, les nutrei lui temuetH I^if nu fond der, provinoe*-" — OrfMioni, i. 
44?, 



MASSACRE OP THE HITOUENOTS. 



1*^7 



tim€6 of religious barbarism, kingdoms and tlie poor 
mail's home were made desolate by the spirit it gene- 
rated — and the wretctied people ruehed beneath the 
wheels of the cmsliing Juggernaut, as tlieir " religioufl*' 
advisers impelled them : — what the palmer^worm left, 
the locust devoured — what the locust left, the canker- 
ttorm corroded, leading remnants still for the caterpillar, 
whose royai 'ft-ings, so beautifully bedecked, waved as 
the insect sucked the sap of a nation. Ton must have 
specimens of how they managed matters in France* in 
tho«^ reli^nous times. In 15C2, the Bishop of 
Chalons flattered hirasclf that ho could con- uugueuoi- 
vert a congregation of Huguenots at Vasai, 
He tried, was baffled, and retired with shame, confusion, 
and mockery. Thereupon he intlamed the zeal of the 
Cardinal de Guise, who summoned two companies of 
soldiers, soimded a charge — the conventicle was furiously 
encored — all who did not escape by the windows wore 
slaughtered^ whilst the priests busied themselves with 
pointing out the wretches who were trying to escape 
over the roofe of the houses. The princes and ladies 
who witnessed the foray, are said to have dispUyed the 
ftune edifying zeal. On a subsequent occasion three 
hundred wretches were shut up in a church and starved 
for three d^ys. Then they were tied together in couples, 
and led off to slaughter — on the sands of the river 
tliey were murdered after a variety of toi"uienta. Little 
children were sold for a crown, A woman of great 
beauty excited pity in the heart of him who was going 
to kill her, — another undertook the deed, and to show 
the firmness of his murage, he stripped hf?r naked, and 
took pleasure, with others around hini, " in seeing that 
beauty perish and fade in death — d voir perir et funer 



198 



HISTORY or THE JEHU1T8, 



Otbci 
twrbtrilLrV' 



vcde bcauie par In miftl ! Duiiug tiie aluiightcr of their 
motlicrs babes were bora, Lo be tbroim into tbe river by 
the riiurduious Sends ; aud they say tliat oiio poor babe 
held up it^s little hand ae the piteous waters bore it up 
and swept it aloug — aud they watched it out of sight I — 
h maiti droicte lei'Sc en htnii, autnnt qite les reues U 
peuceni amduire.^ The Bishop of Orange negotiated « 
subaidy {tvva Italy : seven thousand men marched uuder 
Fabrice Ccrbellou to execute a butchery. Babes at the 
breaat were pricked to death with ])oignardfi ; 
some were impaled, others were roasted ahre; 
an<l aonie were sawed asundiir. Women were 
Iiangod at the windowa aud door-pot^ts ; childreu were 
torn from their breasts aad daahud agaioHt the walla; 
girls were ravished, aud still more liideous and brutal 
crimes were committod by the Italimis. The slaught^^r 
was indiscriiuicate — for even some CathoUcs perilled; 
and thode who had sworn the oath required, by way of 
capitulation, in tlie caHtle, wei'c hurled over the precipice- 
Then a fire broke out, eousumed three hundred houses 
— among which was that of the bishop, the cauae of tho 
whole calamity — came de tout (e mai^ 

Turn to the other side. TLe brutal Baron des Adreta 
liad changed sides. From the Catiiolics he wont over 
to the Huguenoty. He* took with him his 
infernal passions to disgraco the cause wluch 
ho eepoused, from resentment or other bafle 
He iullictcd a reprisal for the eUughter at 
At Sl Marcelliu he surprised lluec hundred 
CathoUcs, cut them to pieces or made them leap a 
precipice. Montbrison was besieged, and was capitu- 
kling. The baron came up, cut all to pieces, ejcc^ 



Dc9 AdreU- 

mtJtivcs, 
Orange, 



1 U'Aubifct>i!f !?□]. clKKlUJl 



■ D'Aubt(;iitf, IliBi. Univ, rol, ecul. 



PRIVALEITT PBISCIPLfiS, 



199 



thirty, whom he conipeDtd to leap a precipice by way 
of amusing himself after <linner> Oue of them hung 
back at the hrink : ■* What !'* exdaimei:! the baron; 
"you require twtj atti!mpts tor the leap!'* "Sir, 111 
give you leti to do it in/* was the man a reply — and the 
baron pardoned him for his wit.* 

And now you would like to know the prevalent prin- 
ciples of human conduct in those times. The Protestaut 
D'Aubism^ will tell us tliis baron's septiments 

The ^'princi- 

ou the subject — ajid as he brought them fi'om pW"^™- 
the Bide which he left and stUl imitated or 
surpaffseil in cruelty, the avowal is worth a hundred ia€t». 
however horrible. " I aaked liini thi^ce questions/' says 
IXAubign^ — '' Why he had perpetrated cruelties so ill 
becoming his great valour 1 Why he had left bis party 
by which he was so much accredited f and. Why he had 
succeeded in nothing after deserting his party, although 
he fought against tbem ? To the first he replied : 
'That in retahating cruelty no cruelty ia perpetrated — 
the first is callefl cruelty, the second isjti^tice.^ Thereupon 
he gave me a horrible account of more than four thousand 
murders in cold blood, and with torments such as I had 
npTcr heard tell of — and particularly of the precipice- 
leaping At Maacon, where the governor made murder his 
pastime, to teach the women and children to see the 
Iluguenotd die, without showing tbem pity. 'I hare 
repaid them something of the kind,' said he, 'but in 
smaller quantity — having I'egard to the past and the 
future : — to the paat becranse I cannot endure, without 
great cowardice, to witness the slaughter of my faithful 
companions : — but for the future, there are two reasons 
which no captain can reject : one is, that the only way 



200 



HlffTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



to put a Btup to the baibaritiea of the enemy is to inflict 
retaliatioiu' Tliereupoc be told me of three hundred 
horsemen wljora he had sent back to the enemy on 
chariots, each man with a foot and a hand cut off : 'In 
order/ aaid he, ' to change a warfare Ti-ithout mercy, int^^ 
one of cortrtcsy, and the thing succeeded — j^ourfaire, 
comme cela fii^ changer une guerre ^ana mora, en eour- 

ioisie In a word/ he continued, * jou cannot 

teach a soldier to put his hand to hia sword and his hal 
at the same time/ With mighty and unflinching reso- 
lutions in his hearty the idea of retreat was out of the 
question — * in dcpriring my soldiers of all hope of pardon, 
they were forced to see no njfiige but the shadow of their 
flags ; no life but in rictory/ And lastly, touching bis 
ill success personally, lie replied ^ith a sigh : 'My son, 
nothing is too hot for a captain who has no longer more 
interest than his soldier in victory. When I Ita^ 
Huguenots I liad soldiers, since then I have only had 
traders who think only of money. Tlio former wore 
bound together by di"ea<l without feai" — de vraiute sans 
peur-j — whose pay was vengeance, rage, and honour, I 
had not bridles enough for them. But now my spurs 
are used up — ces dinmiers ont usS mes eperom.* " ^ *' The 
hoiTors perpetrated by the Baron dea Adrets/' quotes 
the Jesuit Feller, with approbation, "the horrors perpe- 
trated by the Baron dcs Adreta alone suffice to jtistify 
the aevcroat measures wldch are taken in some countries 
against the IntTOduction of anti-Catholic sects and dog- 
matisers. What horrible scenes would France have been 
spared had she been on tlie watch hke Italy and Spain, 
to expel, or extinguish in its birth, a scourge which was 
destined to produce so many othei-s, and whicli, in 



THE JESUIT AUOBR. 



201 



eHtablifcliiug the reign of errors by fire and aword, has 
placed the monarchy within two iiicbes of its destnw- 
tiou!"' Aud who, may we ask, eventuated these 
calamities ? Who roused destruction to swallow up 
thofiO whom argument could not poison 1 Who di'ore 
tJie heretic to vengeance 1 In whose ranka was Dea 
Adrcts trained to slaughter 1 And to talk of Spain and 
Italy ! It had been indeed a blessing for these coimtries 
bad " heresy '* been vouchsafed to them by heaven for 
eulightennient. They would not be now amongst the 
lowest, if not the moat degraded of nations. 

In the midst of thcrnc dreadful doings the Jesuits 
tramped over France, ferreting out heresy — worming for 
the pope. Montluc, the bishop of Valence, was no 
Procrustes of a bishop : he temporised a little with the 
heretics. This was enough for the Jesuits, who would 
temporise with none but the orthodox.^ Emond Auger 
nished to ba,ttle. Suddenly he appeared on the banks of 
the Rhone, Uko Ch4toaubriand'a "ancient bison ^^^ j^^^ 
amidst the high grass of an islo in the Misais- ^''S"^- 
sippip" The Jesuit preached, and he taught, and doubtless 
he converted : but in the heyday of orthodoxy— whilst 
he hugged that Dalilali — the Pliihatines were upon him f 
The Huguenots, under the ferocious Baron des Adreta. 
took him prisoner. Tiiey raised a gibbet to hang the 
Jesuit, A JcBuit can brave giim death better than 
men : because, aa he has more motives to Iwe for, 
BO has he more to die for— and all are condensed into 
two words, Ol^e Ordek, Emond held tbrtli. hke the 



* OMtacov caJU IliU biihop "« ikHfii] polilicUn mnA itiU noro kliitAiL 
iWBliir* dwiuloding hb Hock fo the L^Ui of Ilie wolv« "^1 n. 4<?. The 
Jayjll nude wohen of tht^ uiIcWaI »lieep ; bul thcu l\wy weir orAi>^oj: voliov, 
•ad IhAl \ thv dilTcrcQce 



202 



HISTOKV OV THE JESITITS. 



ewao, melodious iii death ; lie captivated the coarse- 
grained Huguenots: the heretics relented: they sent 
hiui to prison. One of them actually fancied lie could 
convert the Jesuit 1 And they tried — and left him in 
liis dungoon tiiinking " Wliat iiej^if^' On the following 
day he was set free by the interposition of the Catholics. 
Hifl brother-Jesuit Pelletier underwent tlie same fato, 
but was liberated by the Pailiameiit of Toidouse. The 
Jesuits left the scene of their atmgglcs. 'where their 
presence only exposed the CathoUcs to more certain 
perils, not liaving as pet the energy to repel ff^cf Av 
forco." says the historian of the Jesuits.' Thenoe to 
Anvergne Auger departed ; and Boon the towns of Oler- 
tnoQtT Riom, Mont-Ferrand, and lasoiro cxpcrionoed the 
effects of his zeal : "he preBorved them from the inraaon 
of heresy," 

The dvil war raged fiercely on all sides — the battle 
of Dreui gave victory to the Catholics — the leader of 
the HugueBOtq, Coud^ was a prisoner, and Beza narrowly 
escaped. The Duke do Guise, die royal fire- 
brand, had won the victory ; about a month 
after, he was murdered by an assaasin — 
who was arreatai, injplicating the leaders of the oppo- 
site party in the cowardly crime — but it was by violent 
torfnre that they wrung from the wi-etch what they 
wanted to hear — the names of La Eochefoucault, Sonbise^ 
Aubeterre, Beza, and Coligny — the great ilugnenol 
leader.^ A death-bod suggested merci fill wisdom to the 



o\ the Duke 



- TUia uhargi.' Urm Lwoouiu a ixjhit uf couLrovei^y. CtrUbly a!! erimn 1 
libo^jr 10 1w uokQtuitiod uid counleiuuic«d oa both biclea of Uint '^rcli^ous^ 
wArru^e; Lul Drawning oiAk^B out Q gooit rnjn In Tavour of Coligijjr, Tin 
AMMABirif v,\\v\i {Imwn nntt qubrlcroiTr a btirBi> pulliog nt mrh luiuil uid l^g* 



_LJ 



WUHDER OF THE DUKE DE OUISE. 



203 



dying Guise. The honiUe massacre of Vasai at wiiich 
lie presided, he uow lamented, and strove to extonuate^ 
He coujui'ed tlie queen to make peace. Those who 
ji'lviseii the contrary, he called the enemies of the State,' 
But it was a "religious" question. An angel from 
heaven would have been unable to check the restless 
fury — much less a dying leader — murdered in the cause 
— and proclaimed a French Moses — a modern Jehu — 
wiiich, however, was neither comfort nor hope to the 
loan hurrying to judgment. The loss of this great 
leader was 5i blow to the cause : spirits drooped : the 
" men of (Jod " wore in requisition ; and the Jesuits 
wen? not wanting. Wherever zeal for " the feith " was 
to be reanimated, the Jesuit Auger bore through every 
obstacle — drove in bis spike, which he clenched. Then 
he publi^iied his famous catechism in French, which was 
subsequently translated into Latin and Greek "for tlieuse 
of schools." It is said that thirty-eight thousand copies 
were sold or issued in eight years — ovcry copy of which 
must have converted its man, for we are assured that 
Auger converted 40,000 heretics to tlie faith.* Together 
with PossevJn he accepted the challenge of the eloquent 
CaN'tnist Pierre Viret, formerly a Franciscan. It is 
well said that "the conference prominently exhibited the 
extent of their theological acquirements, and ended in 
nothing/^ 

To ^gravate the sufferings of humanity torn by civil 
war and social disunion, a pestilence broke out in France. 



vjin-|rtr<i iIjv Hliuct^ ; but buuu bfur Iil' wlLitt^'red m tlit car uf ibt rresjiltol 
D* TlkKi^ eiuticrBdiig Cali;ni>' b« wpII i nitil hu puUiclj MAid^ ilfbpitp tlio linrroTv 

•f tfaM drobdful itealli, "* ihat if tUc Uow waa Atpau lo be struck, be would ^tnke 
h Afpni ;~ wliii^h bec^m» la bh-iv* Uui tlu- wrtlcli aeedeJ Doabctuir- -D'Aubi^piij 
%. i «L 'J.tL Set Bti^ttuiu'j, p 13, <f irj. for Coligny'h t-xiruljAluiti. 
' D'AuUf^. iU ' Bbbo. Snipl. S. J. 



204 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



and swept o£F sixty thomsanJ pei-suiif* in the city of Lyons 
alone. Auger exerted himself to the utmost for the 
Tho Fiap.6 reUef of the patients, visiting, consoling them, 
■( LjDiii, distributing alms which he collected. And 
then he induced the magistrates to bind themselves by 
a vow» to propitiate the cessation of the plague : it was 
made ; and when the plague ceaaed theJeauit ^rascom- 
niisaioned to pay or perform it in the church ofOur Lady 
du Puy. On his return the magiHtratea rewarded the 
Jesuit by presenting his Company with a college. It 
was a municipal building, common to all the inhabitants ; 
and the Calvinists complained of the transfer. Auger 
told them, and had it stipulated in the document, that 
the Calvinists should have an equal right with the 
Catholics, to the education of the Company' — a poor 
consolation for the Calvinists, if the Latin and Greek 
catechism of the Jesuit was to teach the language of 
ilomer and Virgil to their cliildren — with the mythology 
of the popedom included, conjugated with every verUand 
not declined with every noun. It was cleverly managed ; 
for, of course, there was no chance of any i:hdd of Calvin 
remahiing long in theirhandswithoutljeing transformed 
into a son of Ignatius. Thus the Jesuits had reason to 
bless the plague, and their veteran's devoledness to the 
pest-stricken, for a splendid proapei;t at Lyons. Charity 
does not always nieet its reward here helow^ — in the 
generahiy of mortals — but the Jesuits, somehow or 
other, seldom, if ever, failed to turn their devoteiUiew 
to account. Still, wlmt they gained, they worked for — 
earned by some equivalent — which cannot always he said 
of those whoso brilliant '" rewards " puzzle us when we 
strive to account for them, or compute their advantages. 

' CrclJurau, ii, 147. 



TRE JESUITS IN GERMANY. 



205 



It eridences the unscrupulous or unflinching boldness 
of the Jesuits, that in spite of the opposition made to 
their admission into France-— in spite of the „ ., 
sirjiigciit couditions of the decree by which ti"!J«uiw. 
they were n<^ tolerated in their tme capadty, they 
preeaod forward reckless of consequences- Already they 
divided France iutu two provinces of the Order, — tlie 
Province of France, and the Province of Aquitaine or 
GuiouneJ 

Over all parts of the country they wandered in pursuit 
of heresy, winning a few, hut exasperating many, and 
stirring the fermenting mass of discord. 

The active and eventiul life of General Laiuez was 
drawing to a close : but he could aflbrd to die, behold- 
ing the fruit of his labours in the ever enlarging bounds 
' of his Company. In whatever directioa he tiu'nei his 
eyes — ihere was ardent liope in his men, if not imme- 
diate prospect in its objects : — there was always some 
onsolation — some tangible solace for their pangs. And 
nowhere weic greater efforts made for the Company's 
supremacy, than in Germany. 

In the year 1551 the Jesuitsj had no fixed position 
in Germany. In the year 1556 they had overspread 
Franconia, Swabia, Rhineland, Austria, Hun- y^^, j,,^^, 
gary. Bohemia and Bavaria, The professors >"G™"r 
of the University of DilUngcn — Dominican monks among 
the rest — were dismisBed to make room for the Jesuits^ 
who took possession in 1 563. It was a sort of compact 
between the Canlinal Truchsess and the Company of 
Jesus. In the sprea^Iing novelty of their adventures — in 
the fame which their every movement achieved — in the 
minds of the orthodox sticklers for papal prerogatives, 

1 C^ctiiicMit ii. U7. 



/ 



206 



insTOHY UP THE JBSurra. 



the Jesuits everywhere met with a cheer and a hanr 
and a useful purse. Thoy " were wijining many souls 
and doing great service to the Holy See" — where- 
ever they flung their shadows heresy grew pale and 
orthodoxy brandisiicd the spear of defiance. They 
suited their method to the German mind : — what failed 
with the Protestant, was a nostrum, a holy dram to the 
Catliolic ; and they laid it on thickly and broadly and 
with infinite variety — so that every one found his 
peculiar taste consulted, and opened his heart accord- 
ingly. The public exhibitions of the Jesuits were the 
most brilliant ever witnessed, conducted with dignity 
and decorum, and full of matter — "patroniaed" by 
royalty and nobility and the uaual concomitants,' Fol- 
ToQchrng lowiug oiit a maxim of Lainez^ propounded 
tducauoa. ^|,g^ ijg ordered pubUc tlianksgiring for the 
Company's increase, the Company required that all 
who would undertake the difficult taflk of tuition should 
devote their whole lives to the undertaking — so that 
every year's exporionce might Ix) as many steps to per- 
fection in that ai"t which may so easily be made sabser- 
yient to any given acheme-^but which, for complete 
success, iniperativeiy demands unflinching industry, in- 
ventive self-possession, simplicity of character, a heart 
of magnetism to attract, and a thorough perception of 
human character in all its varieties. First impressions 
are with difBeulty craved: life's beginnings are the 
prophets of its endings.^ The Jesuits had a care of the 
foundations when European heretics were likely to be 
their hostile sappei-s. Dust and sand they threw in the 



' Agricol lliBt. f fiB; Ranke, ma, 

' '*<itift prima IncHonviil animo, difficillime nbalewilar^ ol ut tHk poiU 



SUCCESS OF THEIR EDUCATIONAL SCHEMES, 207 

ejCG of the savage, because merely " cou^ersiun" or 
mther ''baptism" was the object — induciDg minoue 
degradation in the loss of caste, or separation as b j a 
contract, from father, mother, fiiend, and acquaintance 
— and consequently utter dependence on tho conquerors 
of their country. These served — these fought willingly 
enough by their brutal instmcts : — but principle ie re- 
quired in the European — a principle of some s[X3cified 
kind, whether it centres in gold — in part^'ism political or 
'* religious" — or in CJod. the unerring guide to all who 
heaitily ask, and seek, and knock. And it was necessary 
for the Jesuits to sow and to water, to trim and keop 
rigorous the principle of antagomsm — the Catholic 
antagonism of the sixtoenth and following ccBtury. A 
manV skin may t>e easily toni and diachylon will heal 
it: but tear out his heart — and you may do as you 
please with the carcass. A dreadliil comparison : — but 
k it not precisely thus with tlioso whom men have won, 
ftnd bound to themselves by bonds they cannot describe 
— and yet caimot resist— nay, rather bless them — and 
would not be free— for freedom from such bewitching 
tyranny would entail death in desolation 1 To that result 
the Jesuits cleverly applied. And they licgau with 
childhood, — -primitive education.^ The men selected for 
these commonly despised lieginnings were such as woidd 
devote their whole exL*«teuco to the training of this 
moat important stage of human existence. E?cperimeut 
experience build up a teachers art. A given object 
to be gained: — ten thons^and psychological facts 
must auggeat the method. And so the Jesuits vrisely 



■ Voa immnhcf whAt Vijpl wj> : *■ Adro A imcrit tutvacrrf mkltttm «vL" 
And OiP diddtJi of TvTt-nee : *• Si ^ hij naf/\jitrnnv ad earn imi <:irperit itujirtttftim. 



308 



HTSTOBr OF THE JESUITa 






would have a man devote his whole life to the undertaking. 
They were successful, as a matter of course : — for, Id spit^ 
of all that is said of chance, and luck, and ijood 
•ludi," fortune, rest assured that all success depends 
entirely upon the selection of the appropriate 
means of achieveraGnt, If men would but 
inveBtigate, and test this fact by cxporiencc, wc shonld 
not so often bear God's provideTice hidirectly blained 
by pretended submissions to " His wise decrees." God 
wills the accompUshment of every law He lias framed 
for succCRS or happiness to the intellect, the moral 
sentiment, and the instincts of man. Each in its depart- 
ment, has its rights and its laws — and in proportion to 
its endowmcnta and loyalty to God, will be its success — 
which we call "good luck*' and "good fortune."' Good 
luck it nmy be called — but certainly it was found that 
the pupils of the Jesuits in Germany learnt more under 
them, in half a year, than with others in two whole 
years. Even Protestants recalled their children from 
distant schools and gave them to the Jesuits, Be not 
surprised : — people look to results. Results are pounds 
shillings and pence in their eloquence to the mass of 
mankind* Everybody can, or fancies he can count 
them uiimistakeably. Then, Jesuit-results ^ave "'t/enerol 
satufaction. *' ^ Schools for the poor were opened. 
Methods of instruction were adapted for the youngest 
DidisiumiHi capacities. And then was printed a right 
ii.»FMf^h»Qi. orthodox Catechism^^a^ its plain questions and 
unanswerable answers, composed by the " Austrian dog," 
Canisius, as the Protestants called liim^ — the *' scourge of 
the heretics" as the CatlioUcs proclaimed him — and unm 
6 Soeiefale Jt'.m — one of the Company of Jesuits, as he 



lUnke, vt atUf&. 



FIRST ROOK PUBLISHED DY THK COMPANY, 209 



was in reality> neither more nor less— aini quite sufRcient. 
He was the fii"st provincial of Upper Germany— lie 
enlarged the houmls of his province by his eloquence — 
held the heretics in check by his disputations — and 
fortified the orthoilox. His pi'otractod residence in 
AiLstria, anH his incessant clamour for tlic faith, pro- 
cured him the title of Austrian dotf : "but he was no 
dumb dog," says Rihadeneira, tlie glorious Jesuit : " and 
hift hark was no whimper : his hark and his hite defended 
the flock in the fold from the wolves on all sides hirking"* 
OAnisina was the first atfthyr among tlie -Fosuit^, after 
' Eoly Father Ignatius, if the Spiritual Exercises were 
really the products of his pen — and not a joint- 
stock concern, Wth the founder for a stalking-hoi"se. " 
Thas the first book published by the Jesuit-Company, 
waj* A Snm of Clirisiian Docfrinp. — Stmima Dnctrinrp 
Chrisfianff, by Canisiiis, but mfont/mamly — a curious 
om^ti decidedly, for f^ne of the Cojnpnm/ of Jefnui not 
to acknowledge /i srmi of Christian Dortriyte. Subse- 
quently enlarged and translated into Greek and Latin 
from tlie original Gennan. it became a classic in fhe 
Jesuit-schools, so as to enable " the hoys" to " take in" 
what the Jesuits called " piety,' 



together with their 



"^jnl lUDd r^Ltina mnloin, not n<iii Talenltm tbtrare, aed qui Ifttntu et 
1 \a\ym [HLuim grAAumtefl ab ovili Cht-isti ATCorrt^' 4V Am«iig dielr-innU' 
IhMe ]iL4>uii TnvenlioiLB^ tli(> J^HiiN ^ajr lliiwt iif/'irr. fAe JmkiuiatittH uf tli9 
CmnpAny, » wruun wanuan "'Im |iAafted Uiv a Miiril, b^lMioai^liML Uic mutliL-r nf 
nmimusito "edni-ate him witli great i'ait, beiAuite actrtaln ordi^rof dcriMWoold 
•uun \tt touniEpd. wUich would bo of JoiniPiide uQlity U> (lie Clniivtj, ajiJ uit/) 
inbkli CouipAiaj- licr pod would bo eurolkd, biid Thj consJcTcti ik moflL ivtiaJbrkal'lo 
faaB,** "Thf evpnr," aiJila die Jofliiit, " vti-ihf><t iJie propliPt^ or |jrvH^diiiFiit 
of llw ^nftD^a^'—Bih. Scriftl. S. J The ohj««t of ttif!fte prophecies, Vkd tlitra 
m aMBjr, «M probably to Muntt^nn't Jie othrr prophecit^ kiku thai fif Arch- 
UAop Bnwn »ln*dy givmi, ha a iLitMul fuivwnmtng of tUi- awhil ilomgH nf (lj« 
JtfidtB- — It IB itate PAiiiraL 

> ^Priinun fwnniain Sntfiftiilik |4rtii«, p^l S^ PhtruirliH- iiMLn Ele]*eitift 
Svmtiwfi&."~£i'£if. Srripi. S. J. 

YOL. n. F 



210 



illSTOIfY OF THK JESUITS. 



Latin anil Greek — ttf adok-scaitittm ph'Man .... 
cum ipsla literarwiu demetUis , , > . uiilhrem Trddert'- 
if/fis,^ " lucrettiWe/' says Ribadeoeira, " were the fniilaj 
of this Catechism in the Church of Christ — and 
mention onlj one testimony tliereof, namely, that hy] 
its peruKal tlie most Serene Duke Wolfgang Wilhelm 
Ncuborg admits that he became a Catholic"^ — as i£ to] 
a Chriatiaij mind, the conversion of a Duke in hi*^ 
wealth and glory, were really more estimable than that 
of a peasant m his rags and degradation. And now 
yoa shall have a few specimens of the tree whose fruit . 
was so incredible in the Church of Chnst — piety to th«] 
yomig — and conversion to a duke. 

After estabhehing. in the usual way, all the defensive 
points of controversy, Canisius tlashea headlong into the 
offensive, snarling to admiiation. Catholic unity has 
been established; he proceeds to question and answer] 
a5 follows : 

"Is the same unity found aniongst Protestants — | 
ttcatholicos ? '* 

'* Not the least in the world — minimi vera — for thiaj 
is most clearly evident from tbeir continual schisms in] 
the principal points of faith/' 

*' Have you an example in point ? '* 

*' Luther bimself, for instance, who, whilst in hii 
Catech/jim, he recognises only one saerament institut 
by Christ, ehpwkere propounds two. three, four, yea, and 
even seven sacrament^.'' 

Imagine the ■' fruit " of this clinching "argument' 



> Fntm titf- Prefboe to the rran«L&doaa printed in llie Jesuit CaUege &t \ 
ijL 1709, *^inv the U4B of Uiu Latin JLnd Crock echoDlH of tlio CDtD|>ftiay of Jfl 
ihi'Ltughoul iht proviiH^c of BtiltcmiA, n new oditiou— iti usum sclialarunt hnti 
n!oram SocielAtU JeaUt per pmviiiciani Bolifiaia, d«uuD rwu*w.'^ 

^ Bib, Script, a J. Ptt. CanU. 



ffPFANQR QUBSTT0N8 AlH) STRANGE ANSWERS. 211 

boldly repeated by the young propagandist of the 
Jesuit sd»ools» as a *' fact ; " and also imagine tlie tliffi- 
culty into which he would he thrown by the question, 
H'/tf^re^ to that chcw/ttTe of the catcchist, who pre- 
tended not to know the '* broad ground-work " for which 
Luther contended.* Kext a^ to morals, 

Tliesauctitj of the Church" has been eatabhshedin 
the nsual way : Canisius proceeds indoctrinating the 
young for controversy in the social cii'cle : — 

" But are there not many wicked people amongst 
Catholics?'* 

" AlaA ! there arc, to our &hame ; but ouly as Judaa 
amongst tl»e aposilcR, in the sacred college of Clirist ; 
only ns the tare** among tl»o wlieat" 

" How stands the matter amongst Protestants 1 " 

" Their doctrine is alienated from all the means of 
W!4}uinng sanctity — so far are they from teaching it/' 

" How ifl tliis i Don't they boast that tltcy are 
reformed, and evangelical, and think themselves much 
purer tlian Catholics 1 *' 

" Tiie reason is» thoy teacli that good works are of 
no avail for salvation ; that these are only 61th, which 
render us more and more hateful in the sight of God," ^ 

" What *8 their <litty on good works 1 '' 

> "TIh< BKnmciit lUetfr vn(e« Luth«r tn die Moravian bndirra, 'Ms Dot 
k lMDifmwc«iii->at to Tftider Buji«TfluoaB fuOi und oli&ntj^ It ia mere fall^ 
■a Mqittbbk about «u.-h triflEti bb tliotc which, for the no^L part, otgage cmr 
attnuSon, *fWe we ut^lecl ihingH inJy prei*ioiui and eaJuiary -, where^or we 
4ad faidi uid i^haritj'r dii mnnol i>^, wlu'thcr Eii<- nn of a^Joriu^, itf the att ot 
not minting. (^D tlir? other liiuiil, whcTP cluu-Uy fUkJ faitli arc not, ihvtrt n sin, 
•iu U)it«r«aU sia elcmai ! If dieae cavilJerfi will not speak oniu^omitanll/ 
{i.«. ft» wt* speak], [et them tpeak othcrvue, anJ ceuvt aJL UiIb diapuUtiou, 
Al«0 WB nrr agreed B4 to the brnail j^r^nnul- wrV."^/Iazlitt, Li/t o/ Luther^ 

' Lulb. R<*oL Contr- E*L Aawrt, Art. xxis, xjtxi, «3tiL ; Ub. de Libert 
Oiriat. Senu. in Dom. 4 po*t VMsck. ; Calv. I. lii. IniiL c. xU. ■. 4 ; c viv. «. B. 

r2 



212 



OP Tail JKSITITS. 



'' They daily aing these v^erses : 

' All ftur work* *re rftin : ihey bring 
Nought but bolts fttrta Heti^eii's King,' ** 

" Vliat do they say of the evangelical counsels, per- 
petual chaatity, and the rest ? " 

'* Thfiy say it is impossible for iiB to live chaately : 
that it ieimpioiaB to TOW chastity; and — tani cutyue necet- 
■sarirtm t^Jise cai'nis opff^, r/uam cdert^, i/ibere^ fformire.^'* 

Very strange matter to come out of the mouths of 
babes and sucklings, decidedly. 

" What do they say of the Ten Commandments 1 " 

" They aay tliat it is not in the power of man to keep 
them ; that they no more pei'tain to ns than the old 
coromomes of tlio circumcision, and the likcn" " 

'* Did Luther ever teach that sin is not anything con- 
trary to the commandmonta of GJod V 

" Yes, he did expressly, in his PostiUn of 'Wittemberg^ 
published during his life-time, and in the sermon already 
quoted, the fourth Sunilay after Easter/' 

'* What follows from that doctrin© of Luther \ " 

" That to adore idols, to blaspheme Gtxl, to rob, to 
commit murder, fornication, and other deeds against the 
Commandments, are not sins/' 

*' Do you think tliat this doctrine, so detestable, tb 
taught even by the disciples of Luther ? '' 

" The more lionest amongst them are asliamcd to own 
it. The rest follow their master boldly — cn'tei'i tntiffitftrnm 
ie<juitntur intrepid*'." 

" How is tliis reconciled with what they say. namely, 
that all our works are mere sins ? " 



1 Lutl». Je VitA Conjup. 

^ T^lh. in c. \x. nd Gal. ; in o. %]. E'tni]. ; CrUv, 1. iL Imit. r, vii. i 
i. iii- c. IT, s, 2S. 



e. nu 



REFLECTIONS OW THEIR KItUST PUBLICATION. 213 



Let them see to that ; / certainly <loii't see it — hoc 



rideo. 



RcflectlonH 



9pf9i ridermf, pqo cerff non 

** What do the Protestaata teach respecting the 
sacramentE \ " 

'* Nothing for certain : what they assert in one place, 
they deny in another." 

'* Hon} do tfOti knott) this f " 

" From ilmr books, asbiis been already saiJ respecting 
Luther" » 

We will not stop to consider how strange these bold 
assertions sounded from the lipa of chihiren : how they 
were made to say that what they " knew/ 
they knew " from the books *' of the Roforraers, 
— hut we cannot fail to note, as something remarkable, 
I that the very first Jesuit-author gave an example to all 
the rancorous enemies of the Company, in imputing the 
foulest inculcations to the body, from isolated passage** 
of their casuists ; which, however objectionable, might 
' be justified by an appeal to the Constitutions of the 
] Company, positively forbidding the publication of any 
work not approved by appointed oxanuiiers- Let the 
I fact be remembered, with every other to which your 
attention is called : for the history of the Jesuits is a 
history of Retributios^ in every sense of the awful word. 
I offer no excuse for Luther. He committed himself by 
word and deed on many occasions. But this is not the 
question. The question is, how fearfully those imputa- 
tions were adapted to embitter the socifd cii"cle of Ger- 
^^^^^J ; to aggravate that rancour which a thousand 
other causes already lashed far beyond the control of 
Christian charity, or )}olitical wis^lom. In effect, the 
stream wns poisoned at its source. The very fountain 



214 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



of life, whose gusliing s^xct waters should remain for 
ever sweet aiul clear, were made bitter aiiJ foul bj tbe 
wand of the Jesuit, to spurt aud to flow on. bitter and 
foul for ever. For, this Jesuit-book waa intended 
*' briefly, clearly, and accurately to iuBtnict tender youth 
— t^nerfB ji/vettt/fft\ and the wliole Christian peo}»le — 
nniverm poptdo Cltristiano, in the orihodo^v doctrine of 
salration—in doctrind salntis m^tltodn^d.^^ It may be 
said tliat it was only natural for one party to strive to 
build up itself on the ruiu of the other, I subscribe to 
the explanation : truly, that was one of the most |>ro- 
minent methods pursued by the Jesuits, and their 
opponents, in gcaeral. 

The method was succesaftd in Gfirmany. Soon the 
childrcu who frequented the schools of the Jcsuita at 
Vienna shamed their pai'euts by their resolute orthodoxy 
and discipline. They refused to partake of forbidden 
meats on days of abstinence. In Cologne, the rosary 
(a string of consecrated beads) was worn with honour. 
At Treves, relics became in fashion where before no one 

had ventured to show tbcm. At Ingolstadt. 

the pu[)ils went in procession, two and two, 
from the Jesuit-school to Eichstadt, in order to be 
strengthened at their confirmation ** with the dew that 
distilled fi'om the tomb uf St» Walpurgi/'^ These mani- 
fest proofs of orthodoxy attested the success of the 
Jesuit-method with the young : constant preaching and 
Hclorioua discussions captiTated the older portion of the 
community : — Germany wjus forgetting Luther and his 
companions, as they listened to the Syrens of Jesuitism, 
anging melodious measures. The ilis-sensione among 
the German diviaea* gave additional vigour to the firm 



Roaulth 



■ Tid^'pAge of tbe book, Ed. LMdii, leao, ^ Ruikc, \\. \ ^^. • Ranke, 1bi<l. 




I 



RESULT OF A CONTROVERSIAL C0NTB3T. 

shaft of controversy as it s])ed and was driven home and 
cleijcheil. A Luthi^raii nobleman challenged Bobatlilla 
lu a controversial contest Ferdinand, the p^^^f^i 
|)acroD of tlie Jesuits, was to appoint the ■■■^mitdj.w 
umpii-es- The Jesuit accepted the challenge and the 
terms. The Liithcmn added tliat he Mould joia the 
Catholics if the umpires pronounced him vanquished — 
which shows how people thought themselves justified in 
changing sides, during those times of religions madness. 
Ferdinand and his whole court were present, and the 
discussion began : " but," says the Jesuit^ exulting and 
clasflical, " the petulont fencer soon discovered what a 
powerful n^i-man ho encountered in the arena," ^ The 
Jesuit flung his net over his antagonist, " who was so 
tied and stretched that he could not get out," according 
to the same authority^ '' Then all the umpires, all the 
audience proclaimed CathoUc truth triumphant, Boba- 
dilla the victor, and the meddler defeated/' The termi- 
nation was tragical enough. " Though ho bit the dust," 
MJB Agricola, '~ the foaming heretic stood up alone 
against the decision, and with the usual obstinacy and 
impudence, denied that he was vanquished, and pro- 
tested that his judges were partial and knew nothing of 
the matter in del)ate." Ferdinand sent him to prison, 

■ ThiB UfTtti, ReiiafiUA. applied bj the Jeeuit AgricuU Ui the Jeauit Boli^diUft, 
h TUlhcr iinforUuiAto. The figure refers to tlic ikocieal glidmtun ■( Itoiai^, And 
the Riptnriu^ or Dcrvniau, boro in hia left liojid a ihrw-pointed luice, &nil In hl« 
figbt* 4 iwt, vbr^iAi hid r»mv Cruiu (lib Liuiu rr/c With thin nir't lie attcuptal 
t» *iit»iig1i> Iti* Ailvn^AF^ hv OBAting il avor hia Ikoftd uid fliirlt)f4^ly tiruvmjr it 
Uigipthcr. and tJicn, witlx hi3 tnilcnt. Iio uauftUy filcw him. Bat if he QiiRsed his 
aim, bjr «jther tlirowing the net loobkiort, or too ttr^ he uiatAntly betook liimoelf 
to lli^ht, uid cD(lv0voun>l to prepare bla u^i Tur ■ bmodJ cut ; wItUe hiA 
MiLB^nnut ju Bwirtl^ purHUE-d. to prevent liia iltnigiii by d«ppuUUng hitu." — 
Ad^iri't Antiq. AlU. A vory apt rcpnMfLitslioiL of all coutroTaniiJ oncounl^n ; 

nd d>e pvi ffiveu to Bobadilk nuy be Jcwrved, but it i> doL Tery hoaounble 
twUlifltoodlug. 




216 



HliiTUltY or TIIK JBsnTB, 



Ui a uiouaatery, for tluee ilajs, ^Uliougli '^tbc impudciiL 
man merited worse treatment : but the emperor, for 
utiier reasona, preferred niilduesb/' adds the Jesuit The 
poor fellow went mad ; and wounded himself mortally — 
idi mtsei\ ird in rabiejn versd, hthak »eipsi vtdntia tutulit 
-^and died. And to console humanity for the wi-ett'heJ 
affair, thcj tell ua that ho was converted at last ! ' la 
it not tou bad \ But for the JesuitJs it waji glorious. 
Children, women, and men surrendered — and then a 
famous leader of Protestantism, the diseiple and friend 
of MclaQctbon, Stephen Agricola, fell a prej : CanLsius 
was his hunter. 

By tJieir success, by their vietorios in the battle of 
orthodoxy, the Jeouits won patrunage from all in power 
who were intei^eated in the suppression of the Protestant 
movement. Ferdinand, Emperor of Austria, availed 
himself of tlieir services, — establishing thirteen Jesuits in 
Vienna, whom he housed, provided with a chapeh and a 
pension, in 1551. By the recommendation of the prior 
of the Carthusian monks and the provincial of the Car- 
^. , nielitts, an endowed school which had beec 

1 aC 1 uiT L' 

jnuitKuuH ffuverued by a Protestant regent, was handed 
over to the Jesuits m 1556. In the same 
year eighteen Jesuits entered Ingolstadt, invited to 
countenicl the effects of the lai-gc conce&dons which 
had been forced from the government iu favour 
of the Protestanta. Vienna, Cologne^ Ingolstadt, these 
wt^re the three mctn:»politan centres wlience the Jesuits 
radiated over the length and breadth of Germany. From 
Vienna they commanded the Austrian dominions ; from 
Cologne they overran the territory of tJie Rhine ; from 
Ingolstadt they overspi'ead Bavaria. 

* UiiL PruF. Genii. Sup. «d Ann. 1544, D. i. o. 60, Aug. U27. 



THEfR EMINENCE IN SC'lENt'E AND TllEt»LOGY- 317 



Bufrkuiled by tLe eniperur and the cuurtiei's, aud by 
the bishops, wliu hcM to Rome witUoiU reserve, thoy 
foTQoi their dificulties aud htbours : it was a ^ 
time to 8warm anJ scour the laud in <|ue8t of "gctbry 
new Lives in the midst of honied flowers. 
Smiles they found where smiles were moat desirable ; 
and wlieucvcr or wherever they were vouchsafed them, 
they took care that the world should know how it fared 
with the men whom " the king would honour " Wheti 
Cardinal Truchses returned to DiCengeu after giving 
them the university, they went out to meet their patron. 
He entered Dillengeii iu at:tte ; aud froni amougst the 
crowds assembled around liim, he singled out with 
marked preference the Jesuits, giving tlicm hia hand to 
kiss, greeting them a^ his brethren ; visited their house, 
aud dined at tljcir table, Tliesc facts alone were e^jual 
lo tea years' labour for the a(ivancement of the Com- 
inny ; and the Jesuits invariably dweU upon them with 
undisguised complacency. 

Hot were they unworthy of reward for thch' inde- 
fatigable industry. To science they were devoted as 
well as to orthodoxy. They were determined xhdr 
to rival their Proteataiit competitors of the "^'^^"'J' 
universities, if not to surpa^ss them ; and auch was their 
tmccees that they were awarded a place amongst the 
r(^torci-& of classical learning. In those days the ancient 
lan^ua^es constituted education^ — as they do in the 
eHiimation of many at the present day. The Jesuits 
cultivated them with vigour : but they did not neglect 
sciences. At Cologne the Jesuit Franz 
r, a Belgian, lectured on the book of 

and astronomy, to the great tlelight and ad- 
3n of his audience. He was despatched to that 




218 



aiSTURY OF TUE JESUITS. 



maoifestatioi] hj Ignatius himself; and hia youthfulness 
— his age was only twcutv-five-^^scited wonder, whilst 
the extent ol' his learning, the variety of the languages 
he had mastered, the elegance of Lis diction showed that 
Nature had not endowed him in vain, and proved that 
he laboured to evince his gratitude for her endowments. 
And yet the man was never ill in his life, until death 
whisiiered him away in the eighty-eighth yuar of his 
age — a life passed in constant labour> but totally free 
from the usual effects of anxiety and care. 

Theology was, of course, the prominent feature of 
those times : it consequently was the main concern of 
the Jesuitic. In public lectures they sowed the seeds of 
theological intelligenco ; and in public disputations — 
which they considered indispensable — they exhibited the 
fidl-gi'own tree vnth enticing fruit on its branches. 

Enthusiasm m electric to the German — it insures Jiia 
admiration, and tempts his imitation. The first rector 
of the Jesuit college at Vienna was Vittoria, a Spaniard, 
who had rendered his ailmissioii into the Society memo- 
rable by running about the Corso tluring the Carnival, 
™ , ^ . clad in sackcloth, antl scourging liimself till 
iinnn, uct, the blood ran down in streams from his lacer- 
ated shoulders. No ivonder, then, in those 
fervid pilgrimages of which you have read, or that 
enthusiastic zeal of their pupils in shaming their un- 
scrupulous parents, when their masters hid within thorn 
the volcanic elements of such fleimiug devotion. PrincGB 
and the great they honoured with poems and emblems 
in infinite variety', f^arii generis carmiuibm el etiiidcmaiis 
sahddrimt; — and the sons of the most disthiquvAed 
nvbh'mvii, amongst their sndahs—hr their sodalities were 
not less indispensable than their disputations — washed 



SUMMARY OF THFJR VIRTHE!^- 



219 



I 



and kissed the Teet of poor schulars on M^iuuday Thurs- 
day,* The Jesuits^ by their own accouut, published 
books of piety, introduced the Scicranients, catechised 
incessantly, and gave public exhortations. They dived 
into the dwelhnga of the people, with every possible 
effort and assiduity — rarid itiJitstna ef lahore — battled 
with the popidar superstitions — magic amouget the 
reet— checked the {juarrels t»f wives aJid husbands — 
reconciled the differences of the citizene from whatever 
cause resultmg. The Spiritual Exercises were taught 
and practised. Night and day they visited the sick in 
the hospitals and in their dwellings. They were cot 
deterred by the most disgusting ulcers, the filthiest 
cabins of the poor, nor contagious pestilence itscll 
They were the companions of the convicts in And 
their cells. They consoled and cheered them '*w»^b- 
on the scaffold of death. In short, says their histo- 
rian, ** We bestow our care on the sick and the hospitals 
— WG give assistance to asylums for orphans, and other 
pubhc dweUiugs of the wretched, so that we may be 
useful to all and every one, Ou bolidays, wlien others 
are taking their rest, wc labour more assiduously than 
ever in the holy undertaking.''^ 

Thus was the aeal of the Jesuits manifest, their 

^ A^lro1J^ p. I. D. v^ n. 314. c/ ^tq. 

' "Openun impendiiaiu viJctui^afiiB M XenodoflhUd, Operun orplkuiaEKk- 
plnw, aUiaqoe publiria TniflerDnun ilomii?iliia, ut otutiibua proalniiia et HUigvUa. 
QlloiU £« {«sti iDfidanl, turn eninivera^ oiim aliia quipt, nobia pnc oliu tern- 
para Mnott Uborudi onus bdrenit.'* — P, L P. ui. -- A« if codscIoub of tlis 
ifiiuipeciiig In Ktilcli he boa bvco mdutgiDg id ttic preceding eamcnary of the 

nkvlh'xl^ Areola |inyD a va^ui- compLiment lo tbc " icucmblo tlL-iYJ*, &C-''' for 
rAnr UbouriL uid buldlj appeala to Ihp example of St. Paul. ^' Who will ucribe 
Ihia to ftialjLtloD/' ho uk«, ^ratbor Ihan tu holy emdntion uid imiiatioii ! 
Wito t^^T OiLTcd ncciue Paul of bconting ia ouraUug wh^L be did OLad cnduivd 
at Connih for Ihe Gospvl f ife Ji&d no BlightrcftsooA Tor mnkiog the dt'tUratioD : 
iv Omfamy a£« ktu heiv ' hnhuit ille caH»rn\ cu'' itl t^potier-rt fu"! tof^ lnr4t^ 



220 



HISTORY OF TUE JESUITS. 



ttuajtuur* 



learuing evident, thcii" industry beyond question, tlieir 
devotedness to CatliuUtiain rellected in their pujuls and 
the tliousauda of citizens whom they garnered 
in their sodalities — al! bound heai-t and soul 
to the Jesuit^ and the Jesuits to their pafrontt, the 
pope aud the Cfitholic paity in Germauy^iuciuding 
emperoj', dukes, princes, and all the ramifications of 
Germauic nobility.* Ranke shall conclude this sum- 
mary ; he says: "Sucli a combination of conipeteut 
knowledge and indefatigable zeal, of study and per- 
Kuasivencss, of pomp and asceticism, of world-wide iii- 
tlueucej and of unity in the governing principle, wah 



' " Amnngfit t}ieir moM inflaeDdd rrienJa WM Hoe fuuily of tho FufipBi^ ft 
verjr UrbbHc pnlroti^io, but oil gnldeii to the Jermit«, The (aniilj gijtanlj 
foUotvvil diD trade ill flaji urtineD; but tta itcsL'cnilzuita clrTcrly embftrLed ur 
■pFFiilAtian, opened a trade ^iih America, bjirtiTLDg tlielr [jaherdaaJioty for llbc 
precious mutolB uii) Indiaji mcrclmntlii^'^ Tlicj^ Letiauc w woaltby^ Ui*4 tbej 
purcliiuwd a great many Gbnuiut lorJhhlpa fruiu CUorlc^ V., wtro created harona 
and conuts, investpd with verj ample pnyilegea, roameil into Ihe noblest l>milie« 
of U^muuiy and Belgium, poe«e»ed tlie htgliesL ItiJlucnce at court, lUii], finaJljr, 
roee to the higbvst miik iu uliurch aod ataUs, Chirks V. did not lm<nr iho 
vnlut vT hio Am^'ricikD niiiuw and slnvi^B ; hiii nubjecrB worked IxitU to Untofane 
advanlago, if nicb it wba in the «nd ; but Philip II, anon fcnind oat the ■eccA 
and tilled hi« bagfl, wliioh be eini>tied to ^ utjr" all Kuropc, milling hi« kiugdom 
in tltc bargUD^ by way of attc^^tiug ttio old nc){)«oted jiroverb about *' iU-gDtini 
wealth/^ For Ihe aci^ouni uf the Fu^^cr-f&iiUly, we ore ind^bttid to Uie Jcvut 
Agricola. vho noiya, " that he would be luiuivil uid migmlcrul if his pen did ihM 
remember them/' — P. i. D. ili. J3. A mumbcr of ilii:i wealthy fbiurly, Ulric 
^f^i*! '"^^ vhambcrbun Co Paul HI,, but be RubH>quttitly l1I^T»i^l ProtuAot. 
He wafl a j^roat coLlucLor of mauimcripta of ancient autliora, and ^pent «o mudi 
mooey iu Ilio iiiariia, that bia family Lhov^ht prnpi^r to deprive him of the 
aJmiiiiBtrntiEjik of hia property- lie rctiruJ al HuiJclberg, where lie died in 
L5Q4, Icavini? hiH Hplfndiil library (o ibe elector. Ho nu Ihe only Pn>tMtanl 
oi iho family ; but, sayB the JcBuit Feller, " It bajipeDed Aguiiiflt his mtenti«i 
that ho tendered j^reat ecrTioo to cur reJigion^ by U-ijueathing IDQO flortm to 
beappUed to & pii>un purpoBc. roqneettng bk reLatiTev to Duvkc tlir applLcfctioii ; 
for the Huuijulueh vai» ^ivatLy iuer«afledT eubacr|kH'nl1y Bcrvod fur the fDundatiao 
of tlio lUA^iliceiLt coltt^e at Augabcrg, one of thosu ^hicli vaa moat uscfiil lo 
tlie Cinholii- Church lo Gerumny. The Jcauila occupied it even after thwr w\^ 
prvBsioJi, in 1791''* — Bioff. rnU: In otUer fforde, die JeauLl* got liojd of dib 
Ft-Dltifltaut trequcflt, and Utelr moderu lui-mbcr approTes of the rgguery. 



THKIR aKUFUL TAmCS. 



fiSl 



never beheld before or since. The Jefliiits wei'e assiduous 
ami visionary^ worldly-wise and filled ^itK entliusiasm ; 
well-comported men, wIiorg society was gladly courted ; 
devoid of personal interests— eacli labouring for the 
advancement of the rest, Ifo wonder that they were 
miccessful." 

What bad the Protestant movement to oppose to the 
tactics of Jesuitism ? Remember that the latter was 
based on untiring perseveraiiceT unity of fhu Jouiu 
purpose, endless expedients to meet every "JD^f^"* 
emergency, strict disoipUno in personal con- <»p[»nflnr». 
duct, unilevtatitig method in tuition, and, above all» 
unity of will to wliich no achievement seemed impossible 
— the will bequeathed to them by Loyola. Remember 
all thLs, and you know the secret of their success, par- 
ticularly if you believe what Ranko tells yon, as if he 
were speaking of Enijlaud at the piTsent mrfment. with 
respect to the world of I'eligion. He says : '* The Jesuits 
conquered the Germans on tlicir own soil, in their very 
home, and wrested from them a part of their native 
land. Undoubtedly the cause of this was that the 
_Gerraan theologians were neither agreed among tbem- 
Ives, nor were magnanimous enough mutually to 
r»Jerate minor HifTcrences of doctrine. Extiisme points 
of opinion wore seized upon ; opponents attacked each 
other with reckless fierceness, so that tliosc who were 
not yet fully convinced were perplexed, and a path was 
opened to those foreigners, who now seized on men's 
minds witli a shrewdly constructed doctrine, finished to 
its most trivial detads, and leaving not a shadow oi 
cause for doubt."* 

Yet, lot the mighty fact of the political utility of the 

> RftAk^.p. 137 ; Asrii^HbttHpfj.' Bib! Snip. S, J.;SMohin. P. \\.\.\. 



222 



HISTORY OF THE Jfi8lHT3, 



AlWrt V. 
of Quviiri». 



Jesuits be borne in mh\d incessantlj^ Tl»eir patrons 
speculated on their influence with the masses. An«i tlie 
pope, so interested in the return to Catholic 
iiJutiiiijtft unity, held out succour to needy kiiigB and 
other p.t- princes, provided they ppomotod his accredited 
^^ measures tending to that desirahle fulfil- 

mcnt* Kings and princes talked of the Sjuritual and 
intellectual benefits they pretended to derive personally 
from Jesuit-indoctnnation ; but kings and princes care 
a vast deal more for their authority and exchequer, 
Albei't V. of Bavaria, for instflnce^ was in a 
desperate Btruggle with his subjects. He w9B 
loaded with debt, and continn<'illy in want of money. 
He laid on taxes, but the nobles and the people, who 
are naturally entitled to some little return for sweat and 
blood represcuted by gold, demanded concessions, chiefly 
religious, aa a set-off to the loyal inconvenience of paying 
royalty, without a royal equivalent in return "■ graciously 
conceded." Well, the Jesuits came in : Albert took 
them by the liand : he dechired hunself their friend ; 
he seemed to le impressed witli their preaching — nay, 
he even declared, that whatever he knew of Gods law, 
he had learnt from Hofiaus and Cauisius, two Jesuits. 
Such being the case, it was a matter of ''prinripio" in 
AlbeH to patronise the Jesuits. And a nobler motive tlian 
the knowledge of Gods law can acaixely he imagined. 
But, unfortunately for all this very fine talk, tlicre was 
another case brouglil in with tiie Jesuits, sent ns a pre- 
sent by Pope PiuB IV., with whom we are so welt 
acquainted ; and t)ua case was nothing leas tlian a f^rti/i 
oftjif! projwrfy of the. Baratian rJergy. We must add 
this to Ilia knowledge of Go^Ps law, subtract his debts 
from the simi total, and pass tlie renjainder to the 



KING ALBERT AND HELIt;T0tJ3 CONCE39lOIf. 



223 



credit of liis independence, at one holy awoop moat 
^gloriously acfiievod- For lie saw the advantages wbich 
'would vem\t from lug intimate connection with Kome ; 
and BOW that liis coffers were made heavy and his heart 
was niat^le light, his conseiencG was prepared to adopt 
the popes warning when he sent him the grant, that 
'* the religious concession demanded by tlie people would 
diminish the obechence of his subjects ;" it was a sort 
of motto inscribed on the Simoniacal grant of what he 
had no right to give, and the king no right to use for 
[wiying his dehLs, ^nd still less for making himself inde- 
porul<Mil of his subjects. Then the Je&uits set to work, 
penetrated in every direction^ insinuated themselves into 
erery circle, and the result was that demands for reli- 
gious concessions ceased amain, and the supplies rolled 
in without stipulations for equivalent privileges, a right 
royal benevolence of tlie wretchedly gulled poor people. 
Til is Jesuit-achievement totally undermined the nobles. 
Tbeir mouthpiece (the people) was lockjawed, and they 
had to bark for themselycs. They barked, and they 
Stirred, and they gave si^ns of biting. This was just 
the thing wanting : the king, now independent remem- 
ber, came down upon thera, excluded all the individuals 
compromised from the Bavarian diet, and, without fur- 
tlier opposition, became complete master of his estates, 
which from that time forth never stirred any question 
of religion. So absorbing was his power, no complete 
Iiis domination, so contemptuous his consciousness of 
independence, that when the pope granted permisaion 
for the Bavarian laity to partake of the cup in 1564,' 



^ to 1561 the FKDi^h LUIii>[i« requoaled the king to demand from Iho pope 
pcrmiasion farpHiwtaui nuiny, and cummankin under imih bjiidh apecullj', Tlie 
hoaa, Ikwy B^d, ttoutd Tftciliute the return nf the heretia to th« church. Five 



224 



HISTORY OP THE JESUITS. 



the king disdaiiied to effectuate the boon, he did not 
even divulge the fact, tliougli he liad formerly, in his 
difficidties, represented the concession as the very safe- 
guard and guarantee of hia throne.' Circumstancea 
had altered this case ; and now *' the eoucession would 
diminish the obedience of his subjects," his present object 
was to sliow himself a right orthodox Catholic king. 

To the JesuitFi, aJid the tyranny they suggested and 
enabled him to practise, the king of Bavaria owed this 
alteration in his royal fortunes. They roused his cupi- 
iiuw it ^'ty» ^^^ ''*^ became *' most anxious lr> po.ssesA 

ouneabom. dig Bavatia entire/^ by the means of ortho- 
doxy.^ Vigilance and exhortation were the contribution 
of the Jesuits ; if these failed, rigour and severity were 
forthcoming. He made the Jesuits inspectors and 
examiners of his books, leaving it to them to decide on 
tlieir opthodcxy and morality. All the hymns and 
psalms of the Lutherans which his subjects used to 
sing in the street^ and public placos, he proscribed, pro- 
hibited by an edict. He compelled his bishops to submit 
their candidates for priest's orders to the Jesuits for 



bifihopfl were of r^inion that tfif* king bid an LhaHty enough to cetAMiHh the 
iiBQ uf tbe L-up >vithaiit furtlior ecrernoay. It wm proprHcd luiil ncitatcd, in 
the pftpuL ronKktoT>\ aiiJ bitterly np]>rtfi«d by a xnAt mm.jnrity- The CjiT^ibkl de 
Sl An^ ALiJ, " thnt lie v/oM anvcr cnneoiir to five ra pv^l n poirrrn to dw 
flubjww of liU miiftt Chrieliiui Majesty by way of tnedii-ine : beffrr Ut ihfm tiif 
_rfr«.""- Sotf fhipin. Hint. dH U-mH^^ i- 50^1, et «7- fnf ihc whole UEgufi&bnn ; it 
in v-ortti muling- 

^ Fonliiumif of Auptria had loue Mjlicitod the popo to pnmt thU piirili^i^ to 
hih tiubjtw(«, Aiul ut^i-d it ofi hiH lut coniTort in tlio linffcnii^' {Uk^mi: of wliuh he 
diEil. Il was pranled nt Iflet, And the comfoit wbb uoivenal : " hnl,*' ^dde the 
JemuE Agrlpol!w "H wns la acrnichmg to the itoU,-^Mo>/r?tra/iVi ei< jfriiri^iii," 
ftiid eIicd ppooeed* to qhrm l»i>w dttritii<?nUi] tUf cuiicvmion prvv^d to llw ouue 
of o^Ih'>d^l^y.— P. i. D, iil, 1 1 7. 

" " Prini'cpB hio andiwimuB in'im piucn Bftvariam Imhmdi, vidi?<ndi<iB« 
Orlhodfjxiun, non vigiliii^ uon hort*tibiis imrcehat, rigors cCiun, ai ]«nia uvn 
iulfii*eT¥i". »c wverittttr uww," — P. i. D, Viu 4, 



A WORD TO KUIER3. 



225 



examination- All public functionaries weru requireil to 
swear the CatlioHc with ; certain senators dtimuiTetl — 
he sent Uien] to prison. Two membcra of an illustrioua 
family he drove from their domains and banished them 
from Munich, for refusing or demiu'ring to take tlie same 
oath. A thirfl, who was wealthy, who Imd enjoyed 
great favour aud authority at court, wa« suspected of 
Ijeresy for demanding llie use of the cup : Albert 
degraded and disgraced him. Others, whom he found 
were meditating resistance, he coiitectod himself \i'ith 
humhling in a more pointed manner, ordering them to 
appear before him, and causiog their gems and ancestral 
signet to be smashed on an anvil in their presence, to 
show tliem how he thought they had disgnwecl their 
nobility. ^' By this act alone/' says the Jesuit Agricola, 
" he obtained the title of Magnanimous, for havingi with- 
out arms, subdued the proud and spared the vanquished 
— -ahs^jue armis et de/te//arc sup&rbm et parccre »uffjec(is*^ ' 
In fact, fts Hankc cjbscrvcfij the Jean its could never 
auffidently extol the king — that second Josiuft, as they 
eaid — that Theodtmns f 

Study this sample, and you will understand much of 
Jesuit-method, royal gratitude, and the people's gulli- 
bility, till they arc enlightened or roused to 
uiadiie^S ^nd become worse tlian tho most 
ruthless of tyrante. Let the rulers of earth bear the 
blame. They will not regulate their measures by the 
strict principles of justice to all, aud moral rectitude. 
They succeed for a while notwithstanding. Then their 
circumstances change : they get involved somehow : 
events in neighbouring kingdoms set their subjects in 
a ferment. Terror tlien chills their hearts ; thoy are 



A n-qj^ in 



roi. ri. 



4 



226 



ni8TORY or THE JC8U1T8h 



tbv hcnlirg. 



ready to mnko ^* conceflsions " — in otiier words, they 
now fear tlic people. Aod the people find tliat out. 
and the "glorious" fact niakea tbeui drunk witli vanity 
and their evil passions. Outbreaks ensue, God only 
knows where tliey will end. And then perchance some 
partiHan-historian will say that there was im excuse for 
the people, hecanse the government wore ready to vxak^ 
"concessions I"* 

The Bavaiiau Protestants in the provinces clamoured 
for tlio cup, notwithstanding ; and Nostri, Our Men, 
were seat to quell the rehels — ad redncendos 
errank's mittimtitr nodri. A supply of Jesuita 
was demanded from Canisiiia. Ho offered to 
go hitnsoir : but the king thought him too necoasary to 
the Church to send him on so perilous a mission, where 
his life would be endangered. His substitutes were pro- 
vided with the most ample powers and authority, to 
inflict a visitation not only on the rustics, but even flie 
churches, and tlie very monasteries thenisolves, if neces- 
sary. They set to work bravely and in earnest, and 
with greater vigour, when they found how widely and 
honidly the evils had increased ; ' for the rustics consi- 
<lerod Luther a saint, pronounced the ma^ idolatry, and 
with great ahuse and execrations celebrated the pope as 
Antichrist.^ Schorich was the name of the Jesuit leader 
on this occasion.^ According to the method stated to 
liave been invented by Canisius and Faber, he begoa 

> " AgRTMu aunt opue rortiioi aimul ot soAviter, idqiic UDl6 nugJa, quoto 
latiLia horricliuftque mak invidutrimt."'— Jjrfc. wfti Bfupr^, \ 1 9- 

J « Lulhcrum pro Swicto hnberc, SacrificJimi Mieuir pro idolttrld, r»pwti mo 
AiiticlirlBlo, SiiLDinnia initr uoEivituv vt vxccraiioiieB prodamarc edopti eranu" 

* Thifl J«niit hiul been origiruillj ono nf tlio domatift at the Cfjmpnjiy'a (^MAhliah- 
nwntinRomr, J^atiuadlMOVOwd Hignsof laJcnt in Ui» ri-llDw.notlntrLtdMvd/, 
utifl III? 1>ecarn€ out of the nio^l oEHpit.-jit mcmficrs of dm OuntAiiv, to Msociato 
nith blfiho|iBhnLlalMkclkAi]da with kings. |irineefl, and noUes.— /&. aod ^iKvAriiu. 



CATHOLIi: Aim PROTESTANT PROSCltlPTlONS. 



227 



with the mild nicasurea of '* cJiarity and good works.** 
lie was particularly nioJest with the ecclesiastics, very 
sparitij;Iy resortinj^ to threats and authority — uhi fmte 
— ujdess> [wradventurc, severity evidently promised 
advantage — cum sevffriins wificnier .vpemr^tur pro/it~ 
turn. The result was, that, within seven months, 3000 
rufitics »uhmjtt6i.l to the king and the pope ; aiid the 
fcu% whom neither flattery nor threats could subdue, 
wero Imnifihctl from their coimtry — -pafrid efectis. And 
moreo^'er, lest the gathered harvest should be Jigain 
seiitt^red, their teachers were also Imnished, under 
penalty of death : their ^'horoticiJ books " were taken 
from til E^m ; "orthodox'' works were forced into their 
houses : and those unfortunates whom thej despaired 
to reclaim were, by the [irincc and bishops, compelled to 
leave the country.' All this is calmly, complacently 
related by tlio Jesuit. He even calls the forcible absti-ac- 
tiou of their books a clercr provision — xolerter provismn ; 
— and finishes off with a prayer to God for the continu- 
ance of the harvest an<i proj^pecta as they were after 
thofic acts of deception and tyranny. And yet, to the 
present hour, the Jesuits and their party denounce their 
own proscription by Queen Elizabeth ; although there 
bap]>cned to bo one shade of difference in their case, 
which was beyond doubt, (hroctly or indirectly its 
treasonable intentions, — whilst these poor Bavarians 
were n^maining quiet in their remote misery, and 



■ ■ Cl ae poTT^ eolk-etA miwB minuiQ diBpcrgcrotur, ■olerter pFovisuni ovt, 
«| poUa wb ptHiA cftpilbJi, ermrum seuiinnt'jribus, Pu-ol-Iiie qauruni sjuinn- 
4aram ipce mi, mbtrftherentur Ubri hjvrctid, CotholicoruiD vpro Librorum 
TlUPtflt* ■ ■ . - tstcri dp rjuorum tmcuiUtioao ileeircntuiii fuemt, ocyus jubhu 
PriudpU H ADtiptiitua, totliu Baveltie Hdch doiwrerc cmcti sauL * PrrKuri 
MMMM /HRf,' " h* h» tho h*nrt to add— " "e niual ^my to God that u l» Hm 
htlkano Kiren grvtl increoae lo the pUntotion ud tho watering, w he may 
iBftke th^ maat mort^ uid mme fmitful mid pverluting "-^-jIpH^. IW. 



228 



HISTOEY OF THE JERULTS. 



Aciulte. 



requiriLg to be ferreted out ami liuiiteil ere they gave 
an excuse to Jesuit-proscription and tyranny. Again. 
therefore, rememl)er that the history of the Jesuits, 
more strikingly than all others, is a history of Refribn- 
tion. And we shall find it so in Bavaria, when the 
whole Catholic cause, in the heyday of its exulting 
tyranny, aliall crumtle ainaiTi, and be punished, in spite 
of Jesuit-preaching, Jesuit-charity, Jesuit-sodalities/ 

TheJesuita had cleverly contrived tlieir means: they 
were therefore successful to the utmost possible exl^nL 
Numerous establishments arose in all parts of 
Germany. Colloges wore erected ai»d filled. 
Housca were foiuidod : roaidoncca were planted : and at 
length, in 1564, so flourishing were the prospects, that 
the German legion of Loyola was divided into two 
provinces, enlarging in length and breadth.'^ 

In the same year the Plague, which decimated France, 
swept over Europe, It reached the Rhine. Scattering 
dismay, despair in every home, the extenni- 
nating angel sped apace — wailioga in his rear, 
and shivering terror in his van. Men shunned 
each other ; the ties of affection — the bonds of love, 
plighted or swoni, broke asunder : all fled from the beii 
of pestilence — except the Jesuits. At the call of their 



'Hir Jpii;il« 
during i)ia 



' In L57Ei Oie Sodality of tiie Virgin Mary in Upper Gprmany, uiil in ili« 
lioiueA of iho Jc-fuit-[)roTm» nionc, never aaiiibcrocl Xem timti jU^UOO t>f dl 
»gM» wiihuQt couiitiiig ilie memlfenj among tht- jieop|i> — **ftll flgliliiig for titr 
who i» tumble u jm *nnv drami up iu hatlk MTfty," nays Ag;riml4ik. lln dn- 
tinetly »tate« th&t these Conrrnternitin*, onirg bi tlicir malEJtudBfi, WkMv tlitickd 
into Tftriou^ cJhPflCfl according to tJie different raoka of Uie incuilwra ; bul tliU 
fJl ackuowledgod the consre^^tkn fit Romp, "aven nt (ui fM.'ttoi whence Uiey 
flut-ed Bfl riv(?r*": il niii«t iuL-ongruoHe mctophorj hut Tprj expressive nolwith- 
■tnnding. Subsequently Pf>p* G«goty XllI, united nil tii«r SwUlitiw int>i -im 
body, wilh tho i-oiigresnlion ai Rome for ila head, unU plaeed iU entire govem- 
loent in UieiuuiOsof the Jesuits, iheir Goiwrkl Aquniim nad his riuc^Bsors — 
AgHc. P. i. 0- iv, 20S, 2<I4. ? SftCchiLua. 



I 



THE JE^CTTS DURrSO THE PLAODE. 229 

provincial, they came together ; aud at the same bidding 
tlu-y dispersed, and fronted tlie augel of de^itli. In the 
Ijest-hoiLse knecliug — in the grave-yard digging — in the 
tlioronghfarea hogging — the Jesuits consoled the dying, 
htiricd the dead, aiid gathered ahns for the living. 
Blessed be the hearths of these solf-dcvoted men ! They 
knew no peril but in ahunnittjf the awftd danger. For 
humanity — and, through humanity, for Gfod — be that 
the stirring trumpet, whose echoes are ileeds too great to 
be estimated, too great to be rewarded by the gold of 
Mammon or the voice of Fame. And yet Cretineau- 
Joly, the last Jesuit-historian, professing to copy "unpub- 
lished and authentic documents," bitterly tells us that 
" tills charity of the Jesuits, by day and by night, gave 
to their Order a popular mnction^ which dispensed with 
many others/' — and that '* the people^ having seen the 
Jesuits at their work, called for thoni, to reward them 
for the presoiit^ and solicited their presence, provident of 
the fiiture,"' Was tt then for the OrJef^s glorification 
that, in obedience to the superior's command, such self- 
ilevotedaefis was diaplaj'Cfl ? Was it only to gain a 
"popiiar sanction?" Goii only knows! but the doubt 
once miggestfid, and that too by a strong partisan, trou- 
bles the heart. Wo woiUd not willingly deprive these 
obedient visitors of the pest-stricken, buriera of the 
dead, and feeders of the living, of that hearty admira- 
tion which gushes fortli, aud scorns to think of motives 



* Bift. LL p. 4JM. "Cettedivittf ilu jonr et dv b anlt di>uiuit ^ Icnr Ordn 
biw ■■tvtkvi papnbura ijul ditpenBait d*.- IktAucoap *l'anlr»L Jja priiplp vptiKit 
4« mir W Jntutwi a roeuvre - il en rwlnmn pour Uif ru?ompCTiaf^ <tu iireiwDt, U 
■n HiUTFitB rluiB BP4 pi^v kiofi ft d^HTonir." SficchinnH wha not t|iLiUii to enplicA 
^ M* h]- L'rcliaeiui. ** Dru9 libemlil^tem expoBitciruiii ptirinilo rratrum tA ebUD 
B Htm^dp rnmuHskv vkI, juchI TrevtrcuKv cximiiun L^HlAttMn aduiiritij nun 
^L «sliifti |iltiru iHlunr* Sf>nplHt«TU cwpi^nuit, fin) nitilti etlvn «Bin vehsnwnlfP 

^^ 




230 



HISTORY OF THE JBSriTS, 



when noble deetls are done. At least to the Bubordinaie 
Cliildren of Obedience be tbat ai-buiratiou awanlod, if we 
must doubt tbo existence of exalted motives in the 
Jesuit-automaton ; if we mttKt romember that at Lyons 
the Plague gave tbem a college, and in Germany **a 
popular sanction." 

Amidst tbia inigbty promise of pennanontresteratioD 
to Catholicism in Germany, Lutheranism along the 
soutlioni shores of the Baltic had achieved 
complete preponderance, — at least amongst 
the population which spoke the language of Luther. 
Prussia led the way, and was its bridge into Poland, 
whose great cities connected with Prussia had tks 
exercise of the Protestant ritujd confirmed to ihem by 
express charters in 15QS, Even in Poland Proper, 
numbers of the uobOity bad embraced Protestant 
opinions, as more in accordance with their love of 
independence. It was a common saying: ''A Polish 
nobleman is not subject to the king ; ie he to be so to 
tho pope ? " Protestants had penetratetl into the episcopal 
sees, and even constituted the majority of the senate 
under Sigismuud Augustus,' whose passion for wom^ 
seemed at one time likely to sever Poland, like England, 
from obedience to tlie See of Rome. That craftiest of 
papal emissaries, Cardinal Commendone, exhausted all 
liia wits in forefcnding the eutastrophe. Sigismund'fl 
clandestine marriage with the widow Radziril, strongly 
opposed hy the nobles and his motlier, had set the 
kijigdom in commotion : but love or passion triumphed 
over opposition, and the threats of deposition : Si^ismimd 
continued to reign, and death snatched away his beantifid 
Rad^ivil (supposed to have been poisoned by his mother). 



LITTHEBANIS« rK POLAND. 



231 



leaving him in utter anguiab oad ready for another 
alliance. His first wife, or queeu, was tLe daughter of 
the Austriau Ferdinand, who had still eleven daughters 
disposable. Sigismund sent for another ; and Ferdinand 
was " too glad " to accommodate his son-indaw with a 
second holpmato from his stock so numerous, A positive 
law, civil, religious, aiid ecclesiastical proliiUtcd th<j 
marriage with a wife's sister : — but '' it waa so important 
for their interests and the good of the state " that the 
two kings induced the pope* Julius III,, to grant a 
" dispensation/' iJoth kings were gratified by the 
fulfilment of their desires — and both were bitterly 
difiappointod m the isaue. Sigidmund was disguatcd 
with Ilia quecu very soon after miu'riagc — hatred 
ensued — and separation, whilst the king elsewhere 
indulged his illicit passions wliich ha^i rioted before* lie 
resolved ou a divorce — a new Kadzivil having engaged 
his attentions. The [»ope refused to annul the marriage, 
whilst his reformed subjects woro willing enough to 
t the king in liia desire, which would thus burst 
ider the Lies that bound tlic realm to the Sec of 
Itome/ Then it was that the wily Commeudone was 
sent by Pius IV. to cajole^ and to browbeat the King of 
Poland^ PnidencG and timidity withJield the king — 
now rendered infirm by his excesses — fi'oni the decisive 
plungo : but to reward his Protestant subjects for up- 
holding their king in his desires, Sigismund showed them 
more favour than ever ; and in revenge for the pope's 
inconsistent obstinacy, he opened them the way to the 
dignities of state — to the utter indignation of the Catholic 
party. He died without issue — the ia^^t of the Jaggelos." 

> inn of PoUnd (liird. Cjc.\ uid ihe anthoHttofl, p, 147. 

* Gntirai, 1. 1, c ] 7, ff teq.—Tk full Ovitiolk ncroonl of the MgiUtlon^ 



232 



HISTOBV OF THE JESUITS. 



Long ere that event, however, the Piotestant move- 
ment ha.ll heen gaining groimj in Poland. The cele- 
brated llcrnai'iliii Ochino had lent the cause 
Ma eloquence and mfluential name. This 
ItaHau had been Urbino'a partner in reforming the 
FianciBcanSj and founding the Order of the Capuchin& 
Ochino'fl inHu^uce and popularity, as Capuchin, are 
described in mast glowing terms by those who only do 
so to prepare us fur their opinion that his disappointed 
eccleaiastical ambition made liim a reformer, in tho 
ofJier sense of the wori' Be that as it may, he became 
heretical, and the pope suumioncd him to Rome : — he 
act out with tho intention of obeying the mandate ; but 
certain appearances couvincud him that he was going 
into the jaws of the tiger, with evident danger of being 
made a martyr : lie pix^feixed to remain a licretic : so 
he threw oft' hia cowl, joined the Pi-otestants, and was 
the first apostate from the Order which he had founded 
Com men done found him iu Poland doing desperate 
work at the foundations of RomanimuT 'ind resolved to 
dislodge the tapper. He induced Sigismunds Senate to 
pass a decree banishing all foreign heretics, Ochino 
being a foreigner, waa tlius compelled to decamp by the 



ex.pMi»ion, by iho Pml^itJini movHTienl ooly, w© moj inBtBnM Ltihuuib, which 
roiiuLiutil Pfl^aJi U.) Ihe litfginniug or mUJIe nf diu fiftiMruili wuiury. K*cu W 
t1m( poi-ioit diii RoiiiHii lu-aT permit iLo Litlmiuii&ni 1^ Hifmlilp all muinvr <# 
aaiinuLtu nnuk<H indudcd- TUey wito &i ImrbiUN^iu that Uiey consiJcre'l it bo 
honiiiir l'> Hacrilira! tbe cbiudty uf Uioir dimgtilers ; htid it ilishonoiiratlo Ut 
amiry i cliaal* woniiQ, anil rtapected their vmnien in pro|iorcl<in to iIjc grmlPT 
uuutlivr ^f ilji'ir ^nllojim. And jvt wi- ai^e iwHur^d Lliut bucli a aU'aia^i.' sLote of 
thingH caQtiDUod aiter tboy weroiii5truoti>J or " ponvflrUnl," — Gnuianit U ii- }M. 
Hvary of VaJou, brother of Chiu4ed EX- of Fmci^-v, wu clivted la ^ixt-ttjei 
Sigiuixuiiil ; but a few montliB after Tiis arrwzkl, llt'iir^ BiiHhIi-iily unJ HP'rt-tlj' 
di>c*miwd rti order to iKwome Ihp unfortunate Hcnr^ 111, <if Fmuce,htUni 
dead! uT Ctuulca IX, S« a cuinical aocouiLt of Iua tlight la Gratlaui, i. au4. 
rtiP t'Wlni^U) was, oii» of tfae cnu&efl wlii^li prQjtnrod |}ie futal anil iireT^eable 
jiUD of PoUud, ' Gt^EiAui, i c, !>. 



T«B JBSinTe ENTBE POLAND. 



233 



wily lUlian cardinal aud he retired to Moravia, wlicre 
llie riiigiie carried liim off at a very advaucxHl year of 
\m age.^ But thia was no eradication of the Protestant 
pkgue which infected Poland, The pope sent Canisius 
to tho Diet at Petiikaw, to prevent any decree prejudicial 
to the Catholic religion. The Jesuit showed himself 
worthy of the mission, spoke frequently at the meeting, 
and, according to the Jesuits, made an impression on 
the Poles and their king ;^ but tins is a mere flourish, 
if SigLsmund had lived long enough it is probable that 
Protestantism would have become the religion of Poland- 
Hia principle or policy was not to interfere with the 
religioij of his subjects, whom he permitted to worship 
God as Uiey pleased Protestants were returned to the 
national Diet ; and it was even pro[K)sed to abolish 
clerical ceUlacy, to decree the use of the cup for the 
laity, tlie celebration of niass in the vulgar tongue, and 
tilt; abolition of papal amiates or first-fruits^- which last 
was the probable atimulant to the po]>e'3 anxiety,^ Two 
yeara after, however, in 1564, the Jesuits jbeJauiti 
I>enctrated into Poland, and commenced ope- ^""^'P"!*'^- 
rations at Pultowa — the beginning of some little trouble 
for Poland ; as if their pohtical feuds, which began with 
the death of 8igismund, were not enough to agitate that 
rcstle.ss nation, without a single element of duration in 
iU social or moral diaracter — as bereft of unity of 
dea^ aud conduct as the traojjs that welcozued Henry 
of Valois wem deficient in unity of fashion as to aims 
aud accoutrement. On that occasion all their horses 
were of a dijferent colour. Their riders were as motley. 
Some were dressed after the manner of tlie Hungarians, 
or the Turks, others after that of French or It^ians. Some 



' GaUwu, u r. 



' Cnuutftu, 1. 1.1^ 



' ab^.uiJMi4id,p. 115, 



234 



HISTORY OF THE JESmTfl. 



had bows, othei-s lances and shields ; and some mounted 
the helmet and cuirass. Sonic wore loug hair, others 
short, and some were shaved to tho scalp. There were 
hearda, and there wore no boards. There was a blue 
company, and a rod company, and one squath^n was 
green.' Since timt event and Lhatccco^on the councils 
of the nation have partaken of the same fautastic 
variety, entailing the usual misery of a kingdom divided 
against itself 

Tlte introduction of the Company into Poland was 
tlje last espedition set on foot by General Lainez. He 
expired on the 19th of January 15'J5, in the fifty-third 
year of his age. He had ailed ever since tho closing of 
the Council of Trent ; but he continued the business of 
tho Company notwithstanding, and dispensed with a 
vicar — clinging to autliority to the last. He received 
the viaticum, extreme unction, and the pope's 
benediction, which last he sent for, like 
Ignatitia in the same eiroumstancea, and which wos 
granted by the pope with '* a plcnaiy indulgence." To 
the fatheiy he commcndctl tho Company — exhorting 
them to beware of ambition — to cherish union — to 
extirpate all national prejudices against each other. 
They requested him to name a vicar-general : hut he 
refused. Then the heaviness of death — apparently 
apoplectic — camo upon him — and ho painfully hngered 
through an agony of four-and-forty hoiu^ when daath 
put an end to his auffcnngs — seeming in his last moment 
to glance on Borgia, who was present, as if to designate 
Ilia successor.* 

It was a saying of Lainez thnt it was a sign of a good 
general if he was like Moses, who brought forth his 






GrAtiui, ii. 49'J. 



> Saodiia. L irfii, ?on j CtviiDNUi, L <7l. 



THE coMrAirr at the pbath of lainkz. 235 



Ha amvem. 



Company out of Egypt into the wilderness, tlirougli 
which he led it into the laiid of promise:^ — such was 
his aim, 5uch was hia ambition through life ; 
and the means he employe*! eventuated com- 
pleto sucecBB. Tho nine years of his genemlate were 
joara of inccs.^aDt struggle and continual haraasniouta ; — 
his Company was constantly attacking or attacked. 
At the death of Loyola it was in danger of eupprcasion, 
liAinpcred by a pope most diflScult to deal with, agitated 
by iutestine broils and commotion, Lainez managed 
the pope, cmot^f.'d with triumpli from humiliation — 
jifler having with considerable tact, craft, and depth 
of design, completely palsied his spasmodic oppo- 
nents, who were never heard of aftonvards — quiet as 
lambs every man of them, not excepting the volcanic 
Uoladilla. 

Iij nino years his ncai'ly quadrupled the number of 
hiB men, — and the Company's houses, — and added six 
provinces to those he received from Loyola. 
The Comimny now consisted of 130 houses, 
IS provinces, and upwards of 30UO men" — 
which laiT^e figure — if wo roundly compute the members 
of their sodaJitica of all ranks, aud their pupils — most 
be raised to some thirty or forty thousand souls at 
least, under the influence of the Jesuits. Well might 
Kclancthon exclaim on his death-bed in 1560, '* Good 
God I what is Uiis ? I see that all the world is filled 
with Jesuits I"* 

And how was all this effected ? Simply by finiti^ of 



Ttifl CoTp- 

Ml it. 



' Sftcdiin- ib> 1214. ' SMcblniu uid CretinCAa- 

ni^nWi . t- r. ^. n. Thift vnrl is wppnncd to have been Avritt^n by tho firroo 
Jonil RichauRf^ bnUior of Lji Chn«ac clu Rcrmrd Fuqnin, a wuitiJoub libel 
j^pilnal pMrifuior* Oii^ Aunooa nflvoc&to of the nnitcrvit}^ of Pkrin. 



236 



HlfeTOftT OF THE JESUITS. 



purpose^ whatever was tlie object, strict mefkod, careful 
selection of imtrumvnh, during times \\\\^\\ kings and 
princes were eager to culist every talent into tbeir 
service, — ^whilst the *' religious" battle i-aged on all sides^ 
invoKing every peril or every deliverance, as the issne 
of defeat or victory. 

Gfreat facility of cxprcssioo, self-possession^ a tena- 
cious memory, vast boldness, perhaps effrontery, and 
Hi.quiiiii- *he tmscrupnlom zeal of a partisan seem Ki 
fitiuu. \\QM^ been the public recommendations of 

Lainez to those for whom he battled ; and their rewards 
to his Company amply testified tlieir estimation of his 
acbievcmcnts. Vast must have been tho solf-gratulation 
of Llie man, In tho possession of such unbounded influence 
over the destinies, the desli'es, the deeds of mankind. 
Meseems, I hear some gi-ovelUug spiiit ask — was he 
very rickf Was he well paid for his services? W"e 
are taught ii'om our earliest youth upwards^ we are so 
much accustomed to value everything by its production 
of monejf, that we cannot unileratand how infinitely that 
vile motive is surpassed by the cousciouanesa of swaying 
man's more exalted nature — that soul which God him- 
self complacently calls from its earthy integuments left 
behind where they lio, in the cold hard eaith, with the 
gold bo despises. Oij the other hand, the general of 
the Jesuits was the treasui'er of the Company s increas- 
ing wealth, which ho distiibuteJ with a sovereign will, 
unaccountable in bis cunstitutional independence- All 
that he desired for himself, he possessed — but that was 
infinitely less than what the pettiest of kings or repub- 
Ucan presidents require. It is gratifying to many who 
judge by cost, thus to bihold a cheaj^ ruler — a cheap 
government. In the Jcauit-systom it was corpomt© 



CHABACTKU AND QUALIFIUATIONS OF LAINEZ. 237 



avarice, corporate aiiiLitiou, cf which each raemher, in 
his ceaseleas eBbits, was the exponent. Those pnasions 
gained iii mteDsit^ by Uijs expnnsioD ; for they lost all 
those moral checks — tlioso qualms of conscience which 
uidividual avarice, in^lividual ambition must ever expe- 
rience. Our Comj^m/ and its ends easily satisfied the 
Jesuit that all the passions he indulged in enriching, in 
eXcdting tlie Company, ajid promoting those I'tid-s which 
answered both purposes — were as many virtues, and his 
wnscience siud Amen. 

In private life, Lainez is represented by the Jesuits as 
being exceedingly fascinating and amiable — pouring forth 
from Lis treasury of tnowled|j;e hU axioms of wisdom, 
original and aclected.' He was considerate to those 
whom he expelled from the Company, giving them their 
dinner and Miierewitlial to return to their ui^pri-mm 
homes.' lie used to say tliat any one niiglit f^"™^'- 
impofie upon him^ — but ttiis will scarcely go down after 
having heard him say that Cafker?»f de Medici could 
not deceive him, and tliat he knew her cf old. 

His sifter's husband fatigued him with sohcitations to 
promote his advancement, since he possessed sucli 
influence amongst kings and the great Lainez x*Dn*j!t. 
wrote him word that every man must live by ^^^^^^^ 
\m profession, — a soldier by war, a merchant by trade, 
a monk by religion — and ilcclined to step beyond his 
bowids. Some relatives wished him to procure an 
" opening *' to the holy orders and a iiring for a boy — a 
species of corruption common in those times ; — Lainez 
sternly refiised, saying, ** You know not what you ask "* 
The man was unquestionably eonsistent according to cir- 
cumstances, and his example on this occasion is truly 



SacrLJDiu 



> Ibid, 



J Tl^ 



MbU. 



238 



HJSrOItY OF THE JBSUJTS. 



flis wtiiingit 



worthy of imitation bj those to whom the highest officer 
in church and state, paptiaUarly the Former, are niado 
a stumbliug-block by importunaLo and unscrupulous 
rcIatireB- 

He left behind numerous unfinished treatises in ma- 
nuscript. Their titles will throw jid^IItiond light on the 
man, hia thoughts, and pursiiita. Twelve booka 
on Promdmce ; a coninieutary on the whole 
Bible, one book ; thiee books on the Trinity ; a col- 
lection of sentences selected from the *' Fathers i" 
treatises on exchange, usury, plurafUics, the disguises 
and finely of women, the kingdom of God, the uae of 
the cup, and a tract against tho concession of churches 
to heretics.' 

Laincz was diminutive in etature, of fair complexion, 
eomewhat pale, with a checrfiil expression, but intense — 
wide nostrils, indicating his fiery soul ; nose 
aquiline, largo eyes, exceedingly bright and 
lively : ao far the elements of Sacchini's portrait of the 
general ; but Father Ignatius, you remember, dnguor- 
reotyped him in three words — no i-en^a }icr60fta — Ac rs 
not' good lookvig or imposing. His hand-writing was 
execrable,^ 

In accordance with the last glance of the dying 
Bot^ttcV-^tcJ Laiucz, or ou account of Ihe rank which 
f"^™^' ho had occupied in the world, Borgia was 

elected general, by a large majority in the congrega- 
tion. It is said that the seven votes which he did not 



> BiLh Script- 3. J. Uc also wrote treatises on the DootHne of the OM&dl 
wt Trent, die SvruncaM, Gmet wiJ JuBtifimtion, InstfucdoHfl for Pracbcn, 
AH EpiallQ la tbo MiBBlouni'Lca in nicUa> which Utt ia ij] that wb Iuto Mc«n to, 
boMidefl Ilia Kpocchce in SnctsUinuB, A tribute of j*ruso {» ite«erved by Uiis iiule- 

fitig*tlo Jesuit for hia iniJuatry^ hin cmmlfliil Inbonr. 



BOROFA THE KBW UKHBHAL, 



23;> 



receive wore given by those Jcauils who kiicwlum most 
intimately ; and when he took leave of tlie retiring con- 
gregation, he requested the father, all tlie proftsaed 
aristocrats of the Company, to treat him as a beast of 
burdeiL *' I am your beast of burden," said Borgia : 
" you have placed the load on my slioulders : treat mc 
as a boast of burden, iii order tliat I may say, with tlie 
Psalmist, ' I am as a beast before jou, berei'tlicless, I am 
coutinually with you.' " * Under very different auspices, 
and m very different circumstancea, had the bold, astute, 
determined Laiiiez sciaed the sceptre of Loyola. If he 
quoted Scripture on that occasion, the text must have 
been, " Take us tlie foxes, the little foxes that spoil the 
vines ; " for there was inHninent peril from without and 
within the Company. Times were altered ; and if a 
rigorous head waa still necessary to govern the body, a 
niau of influence was imperatively so at a time when the 
Company had peuetrated iiito every kingdom of Europe, 
and oiily required *^ patronage " to insure boundless 
increase and eniUess duration, Francis Borgia was more 
or less conuccted with most of the kings and princes of 
Europe, tlien reigning. True, the bar-slniater bluahed 
hi his escutcheon : hut that was no time for men to care 
whetlicr a great lord was a descendant of the Vanoccia 
Julia Fameae on one side of his primitive ancestry, and 
Pope Alexander VL on the othen Francis Borgia 
aed intended to show that " good fi-uit" might come 
am a " bad tree," A lover of contemplation was 
Burgiiu The world disgusted liini : he left it witli all 
its honours, pomps, and vanitiet^, and gave himself to the 
Jesiiitfi, at the very Lime when they lacked a great name 
)iig8t them, to catch the vulgar, 

^ SMoebin. P. iu.Li. d. 23; OotimAn, il IS: 



240 



HISTOHY OF THE JESUlTe, 



A man of strituge notions anJ stranger j.>erpctrationfl 
was Fnincis Borgia. Ho \vTote a book entitled Tht 
iiiacorwtai spiritual Eye-salve^ and another Oii SciJ- 
BuiirriiiM. Confusion ;^ and never was man (not intended 
for a saint) given to more flagrant atrocities against his 
own poor body. We are assured that he considered liis 
body his " mortal enemy," with which he should never 
declare a truce : he never ceaeed evincing to the same 
unfortunate body that "holy hatred" which he bore it, 
tormenting and persecuting it in every way that Ins 
" ingenious cruelty " could devise. He used to say that 
life would have been iiisupportahle to him, if he had 
passed a single day without inflieting on his body some 
extraordinary pang. Ho did not conEidcr fasting a 
" mortification/' but a *' delight ; " aud, in fact, hke all 
other abused delights, it ruined his consLitmion and 
made him a human wreck : the roost liopeless and 
pitiable of all wrecks imaginable. Savagely he lashed 
hia body. Some one coimted 8O0 strokes on one occa- 
sion ; and ho tore his shoulJei-8 to such a degree that 
tlierc was danger of real mortification or gangrene in tho 
ulcerous imposthumes which resulted from the wounds. 
He would lie prostrate with hia mouth ghied to tho 
ground, until he brought on fluxions in his mouth- and 
lost several teeth, and was in imminent danger of death 
from a cajieer in the same organ, Tn a clieet he kept 
hair-shirts, whips, and other instruments of torture, anJ 
cloths to wipe away tho blood which lie drew abumlantly 
from all parts of hia body.'" It is said that these excessive 
delights produced qualms of conscience, or scruples in the 
man, before he died : and, doubtless, when '*all was over," 
he must have discovered their fiitihty, nay, their positive 



* CoUyrium Spirllnitle,'" aiid *■ De CanfuBloTw mi." > Vrrj^a, Vi?, li- lib. i*. 



DECRBES OF THE SEfuND CUNGRfiOATlOK. 



241 



C'plltgPBu 



guilt iiJ tlie sight of Ilim who is offeinlerl ^ty the infringe- 
ment of aW Ilis laws: those of health, therefore, are not 
excepted One would almost fancy that Ihis Borgia 
wishe^^l to atone, in his own person, for all the atrocities 
which the other Borgia, Pope Alexander VL, mflicted 
on maiikiiuL His age, at his election, was sixty-five. 

Important decrees were passed in the congregation, 
after the election of the general. They throw light on 
existing abuses in the Company, but show importuni 
tliat these were met at least with legislative ^*^^*- 
prohibitions. The general was required to look to the 
colleges of the Company, Some moderation 
was to be had in taking chai'go of them ; their 
multiplicity was to be checked ; and the general was 
enjoined to strengthen and improve thase wliich existed 
rather than undertake others. It was expressly stipu- 
lated that no colleges were to be undertaken imless 
they were sufficiently endowed and well pro^idod wilii 
the means of subsistence — a wise precaution, and it had 
been well if the Jesuit missioners had brought some 
Himilar wisdom to bear on their " conversion " and 
baptism of the savages, wlien they undertook to make 
them "temples of the Holy Ghost." It was even resolved 
in the congregation to consider what colleges, so unfur- 
nished, shouM be thrown overboard — rlissolved by those 
who began to discover that ^rffZ/j-irstruction in all very 
woU in a prospectus, but excessively inconvenient ia 
practice — and by no means expedient in the present 
scope of the Company. It appears that there wa» 
another enactment on this interesting subject ; but it in 
omitted in the list as "private business — prirai^ negotto'*^ 



' Dec. 11. Congr. Dee> viii. In MS. D«. li. The nexL Hmtm ih MS. Tiw. liiL 
S*« Ibu prcwm work, tci|. i. p, 277, for rwnfcrta on then oraiBnioTw. 



243 



HISTOKT O? THE JE30TT3. 



ItvQiOYIkJk 



Complaints were made on another score. Tlie Jesuit* 
began to fed the iiicoiivcnieuce of frequent I'emoval* 
at the word of command, Tbe aristocratieal 
digaitarios liked permanencv as well as their 
constitutional general : but it was decide^i against tbe 
reniunstrants : — tbe mutations were pronounced Uf^fitl 
to the removed member and the Company, an<l cvfU 
absolutely necesBary : — hut the sujierifirs were en- 
joined to exercise their prudence in the matter; and 
all royal mandates v-orc to be respectedT princes w'ere 
not to be offended ; an<l in case the removal \Tas ahso- 
Int^ty necf'ssaiy the conRent and watisfaetion of prineea 
must be obtained.* We remember the trouble whiek 
Philip IL gave tlio Jcf^uita for having Ijeen acat^totnod 
to abstract money fi^om bia dominions. Borgia liimself 
proposed tlio question Avhethor tlie royal edicts in liiis 
matter should be obeyed, for tbe greater edification of 
princes ; and the congregation apjiroved his opinion, 
and deelaretl that such edicts against the exportation of 
moneys should be oboycd^ — but we may ask w)iy tlie 
*' edification of princes" waa necesaary to prevent tho 
men who vowed poverty from meddling with tho ex- 
portation of gold.^ Tho difBcidties whicli had arisen na 
, ^ to the distribution of the wealth ^iven to tbe 
oftirtj Company by its members, was a serious ques- 

tion. It nppcars that the Sons of Obedience 
sometimes iviehed to have their peculiar fancies and 
predilections consulted in its appropriation to tlm or 
that locality, notwithstanding the nde of the Constitu- 
tions and that moat glorious '' indifference to all things," 
which prescriptively results from the ''Spiritual Exercises/* 
It was now enacted that all must be left to the disjKisal 



* irUi aapti, !>««. xii^ 



' Dee. \i. 



REES or THE S?,COND CONOSEOATIOS, 



243 



I 
I 
I 



* 



of tlie geneitil — dhjmstHioni propositi gmemlis rdhiquimt 
Tlius the fathers ciiactal, saying ; We venerate the 
holy memory of our fathers — vetiemmuT enim mndavt 
metfiorinm patrttm nostrorujn} 

It wftfl positively enacted in this Second Congregation, 
Anoo Domini 15(»^, tliat no Jesuit was to be assigned 
to princes or lords, secular or ecclesiastic, to r„,„i 
foUow or to live at their court, as conlcssor or """"J****'* 
theologian, or in any other capacity, *^ except perhaps 
for a very short time, such as one or two montha — nisi 
fori*' fit! jwrhrvrp It'mpm nnim vp/ dum'ttm mtm'^ium'^'^ 

In tlio same congregation diificultios wore proposed 
fu« to Uie simple vows, i>arLicularly as to 
chastity — prtrserfim cmtitatis. The qnestion <\i^\\xy w 
wna rt^ferred to previous enactments; and p"^'^""- 
there occurs a hiatus of two dea^ees in the document ; 
— but by way of compensation the next that follows 
is fui enactment touching tho ^^ rfmovaifon of the vows/*^ 

And a prohibition was enacted againat *^ all manner 
of worldly bu?^ines9, audi as agriculture, the Hide of 
prr)duce in the markets and the like, cai'ried wnruiy 
on by Our men" — wliich we ahould have i-™"" 
ly thought necessary so soon,'* 

No jf)ot'-i*fi.rrs were to he seen in the churches of 
tlio J*»su!ts— " aa it is eo necessary for ua that they 
should not be placed, not eo much to avoitl the thing 
whicli is forbidden us, but all appearance of it — sed ret 
iliiux rmucm speneftL^ 

All law-suits were prohibited, particularly for temporal 
nmtters : if they could not by any means Ite 
avoided, no JeRuit should undertake them 
without special permission from the general or bis 




lAir-lnili- 



' D>e. »fiL 



'U«.tl 



' t>ec. kill, 
R 2 



' D«, Ui, 



>DMj»tiii. 



244 



HISTOnY OF T[TE JESDtTrt. 



Mcfldicily- 



delegatpQp The Jesuits were lo yield witli loss ratber 
than contend with jiiatice.' 

Tho Spanish title, Don, waa to be utterly banished 
from the Company.^ 

Lastly, the Constitutions, as translated from the ori- 
ginal Spanish into Latin, wore to be ont^e more collated 
Tbo Ccrasti- ^^^ amended — showing that they had not a» 
i*ti-ui. ygj received the "* last hand," though five- 

and-twenty years had elapsed since the foundation of 
the Company.^ 

Nor did the aristocrats of the now most respectable 
Company of Jeans fail to liint that circum- 
stances permitted some modiScation in the 
matter of beqging for alms mid dnnaiioiis. Alms, they 
saidj were good things in themselves, good for the Com- 
pany ; and it M-as a good deed — opus bonum — to induce 
all men as much as possible to do good things ; hut for 
greater " cfUficatiou " for the *' sincerity and purity of our 
poverty, our men must be ordered not to persuade any 
extemc to give alms to us rather than to other poor 
people ; but let ns be content to begsinjply and plaiidy 
for the love of God when wo beg alms. However, for 
DontiUcTi^a^d the purpose of getting donations or legadea* 
icpnea, ^,^ j^^y explain our wants simply and plainly, 
leaving the manner and matter {dejimiiovtm) to the 
devotion of the person from whom we l>eg these kioda 
of alms also — a ^uo feiimus htu etiam cleemos^nas — 
and we can oiJy suggest to him to have recourse lo 
prayer and the other means, whereby he can resolve on 
the donation or legacy, according to what the Lord ehall 
inspire unto him, and right reason shall suggest/'* 
Such are the prominent and characteristic enactments 



* Dflc, Iv. 



- Dm. UxKr, 



» J>M, tii. 



* Declri, 



LAW-SUIT WITH THE UNIVERSlTr OF PARIS. 245 



of the Secoud Congregation. The characteristic man- 
dates of tho first, under Lainez, were those relating to 
the perpetuity of the generalate/ and the non-admission 
of the choir,* which last was mysteriously veiled under 
the name of common prayer, or prayers in common 
— orare »hmtl — points whicli Pope Paul IV. contested ; 
and the point;* now mooted happen to be precisely those 
which form the burthen of the world's accusations in 
this period of Jesuitrhistory. 

Scarcely was the decree against law-suits passed in 
the congregation, when the Jesuits at Paris prepared to 
t'ontost the right of the University in refosing tkc jciqIu 
to permit their academical pursuits. Nor was *^ ^"' 
Uiat corporation their only opponent. The bishop, the 
cur^, the Cardinal-Bishop of Beauvais, the administra- 
tor of tlio hospitaJfl, the men'hcaut friars, in a word, the 
most respectable and distinguished personages of the 
French metropolis, united in demanding the expulsion 
of the Jesuits, not oidy from Paris, but from France- 
All had presented petitions to that effect, and had 
appoiiil^Ll advocates to plead their cause,' This deter- 
mined opposition would have been sufficient to strike 
ethers with dismay ; but it only roused the Jesuits to 
more vigorous efforts than ever. They knew that favour 
iind patronage were their only hope of sncceaa. Accord- 
ingly they dispatched Poascrin to King Charles IX., 
with an humble petition. Tliis dexterous and 
crafty Jesnit was passing his prolmtion in 
important expeditions. A clever speaker, and copious 
linguist, with a prodigious memory, and all the boldness 
that a Jesuit requires, with just enough modesty to show 



PoMninui. 



' Dec I- Cong, xlvii < It, Dec xtrm- 



246 



HISTORY or THE JESUITS* 



that there la such a virtue in existence, determined 
ill heart, and proud of Ids vocation, wiiich raised hini 
from nothing to the companionship of kings, lie was just 
tlie man for th<se timea, when kingy and noblcf^ ueedcil 
tjutorprising emissaries — just the man for the rising 
Company of Jesus, prc]^ring to move the uuivorse. 
Charles IX. vmn then at Bayonne* with Ida mother, 
Catheruic dc' Medici, where tliey were having an inter- 
view with the Queen of Spain, the king's sister, and 
wife of Philip II. This meeting was a sort of J/oit/ 
X tioiy AUiam-e, tor mutual defence, or, rather, offence, 
AUiuore- agjyiist the lierctics driven to rchollion. It 
was in this interview that tlie famous fila^^sacre of 
St. Bartholomew, or something sirailai", was proponed by 
the Duke of Aha, who represented the cruel 8jKiuiard on 
that occasion.^ A htting occasion it was for Jesuit 



' Dnvkla, i. I6fi. Dr. Lingnrd, Yiii. p. G% gives a myfttfying nole 
tlibi ^'DcnU belief nt tlic lima in qviesUon ; uuJ Uie Duclor appeals to lUdncr, 
%vhD,l^f k'Lla hjjs rvoJrrEi, liofi puLlislicJ ** out liiimttvd |i«gi»" ou the cai]f«r«K« 
at Hayonru^, ^ium\ yai tJii-rti \a uot a pjuiHA^ in thi^jn to njiiub'iivm the mi^ 
picion that sui^h a lej^uo wua cvi:^r iti die caritcmplatiun of Llie portjea »t Uiri 
interview,** lu tlie Rrst place, »c inQsl read (en pn^ae InBtvorl of * fi ktrndrtJ^ 
romorkiag, at the Hame time, timt (he " miBtuke " in intG of tJie roost cuiioiit ; 
nnd bow dm Doctur could wi-itc *^ ona liuiiitrci]," tliouf-h Uo brock&tB the pa y 
[1 1-2 — 1-2], IB uiiJU'nimilBblp. St-'condiy, iUltv u a {mxvkgv iii RaiiniCT^ doo- 
mvnta tocountcnonce ttiBaR9ertion,ULJ buivit ia^jLiuuiigtbccuuditioD^fttpulAtfd 
aa '* till: mniu obji.'et!^,' ni^ro " tlic security af Chrij^teadom ogaio^l th^? !nft'Ti»U^ 
ruid the ^'UitiUfttfiitfr. of llu Vatholic ixlijion, uid i'tii<eGiAll> to (ircvciit the doily 
ivL-aki?iiing i>f tbi9 r'ryii\ puirer iii Fnui^^e ;** uid iurtliiu-, t1ioii;^b tho Ducto' sij* 
tliAt ** PhiLr|} iuM.<vili?cl [ii tlie rvii^i^at witli rt^luctAnce," ^ot ItAikiDor's documento 
otota tlmtt tliuti^h liu- ht^ilnted at firt^t. from nnlural ImleciaiuD or ftunjoly, lett 
otbpr ttiil*a rthoiiM §'iiijf.-t tfic dfjftg of ttif intnrxciOj **hi> wu treD faimMlf 
inclined lo botnku hinisolf f > Uic ncighbuiirhixxl ai Bayonne." FiOAlIyi ihvr* b 
■LfiDr/ifi- poeflo^ «flill moro to die |iom(. AIth ^' Adviaod oud odiortod btr 
[Cudierinv ilv' ^f^-dit:!] ta inaiaf, id eiidi fuhion, apoa obodEonco mnd tUiH 
uKf cutJuu of lUn taw, ihftt Done bliaultJ presume, on aiiy pretpKt, to tnutsgnai it, 
without being to 2*>"if^tat fAii' ht stt'mid ui'tv tt^ an f^Tcraj/iZe o/ditad to o^.**— 
P, r*0, it BPeuLi, tturerurt', thai RauTDcr'n documents loud in slrengthiA Iho 
nwrizitiou ; if there aba ud " K-ogiie ~ Agiecd upou, there uaa ctrtauily th« acti- 



/ 



LAW-SUIT WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF PARIS. 247 

intervention, and for this same Posseviriua to deliver 
himself of a muiisLor opinion, as lie did aftonvards, 
lauding the Spanish bigot for liis atrocious cruelties 
inflicted on Jews and heretics.' The Jesuit's mis^ioo 
was to induce the king "to terminate the chicanery of 
the French Parliament and University," ^ says Crcti- 
neau-Ji^ly, wlio, wc remember, paid the Jesuits them- 
selves the compliment of possessiug craft equal to any. 
The law-suit came on in 1564. Stephen Pas- 
quior was the advocate of the Univei'sity, and 
I'ot^^r Vcrsoris, another famous pleader, championed the 
Company, or rather, says Queanel, he dehvcrcd an 

limcnF oT naeh n loiigiiti ^nggi^Fed mnd iccvptAl b^ Cikfli^nD, {>. \'2(i ; fuiil (lii^ 
**frEuiipl« of ilmcl U all" (luoa Ivok vr^ry much Lika the Musairrc uf St. B«r- 
p ; bowerer, mudi vaa to Le done bcrotv it <mil<L be fttieniptcd. Hee 
r p^ 376 of Itaumcr, firr furtlii^r atu.-dU»livn of tho S]itu)i&rd*a ftrrociuua poJii^y. 
^iD curi<H»i topic IB a ^Tnnd {MFntrovcr&ia] aflhir bttwi!cn pu-tLis, nail tljb ta 
IIh T^mtOa why tbc doct^u:' trioa U> ucmJicn ite oufposU boFarc liu cxploiiu it olT' 

M iU Dcvurrencc. Mauiwhile Capctigue, a Catliolio writer, but nat Ices coQ' 
■rvntlouB thaa Hk dootor, atid qmU- as laborioufl, opens a iromtrntloua oivera of 
* AWfU diacIflfureB." He diows, tltal during Uie pro^rcw of the French blag 
bdurr be reuhvc] DiL/onne, he coiuiAndy p^vc a mumti: occnurji uf hu alTiiIrs 
ihnd |>r4>coodiji^ lo Philip. ** I'liilip II ,'* paja Cnpcfigiio, " cuol-! utl cflme to 

np. but »cn( tho Ihiki* of Alvn^ ilic; idom iuiinuLtc uf hja cot)tii1niit«> tlio 
ivhatDt^reil muat perfect I j into hJa idea. Tho quoon-iDodiur [CalhcriDC 
6^' MoiticL] wratp (o ibc King of Sfaiii, thanking bim Tur pcmiittLJig bis wife to 
TiWi her ldJ her hou tJii? ting. * I cannot fail u> tell ^'ou tlit happmuu I fn:J 
pjf & tluDg approach nliJcli 1 hivv« no niui^ jcahvil, uiJ 1 liopd vn\t give 

L odIj groAt tttwfaetion to llic Liiig^ my t^oD, »tid to mt' ; but gooti ami Mtctirit^ 
to Twpe*tf and praerpaiion to iiH CftrUrianitr/J' III the midat of foetivitJao, 
lMniunnita,fnitBofanii9aDd balls, tln-y Ulkcd of noticing; in lliccaufeivncc of 
Uftyoonc but tbe cxpodhnta to get rid of the CalviaidiA, who wcro ucu-ied uf 
bctjog alano ibc «a«ce of ihc ti-ociblca wLiicL bjimcDtcd Fruit.>fl,'* Alva njeetoil 
the idea of a new nc^tiation — traiunttion. "Tlicy dj3ruiBi?rl Ibc meana ot 
dartmjring H«garaotry for t^vt^r, tmd llio DiBpUchea of t}w Duke of Alva att«fit 
(hit even at tlukt time the iifta of a ^rru/W nuuraorc 0/ fAf A<7YfiV>r vol ruti 
f^POtat'*— ia Rifo^tht ct la Li^ff pp. 2U^i — 3^7. From Catherine's letter it u 
vndoat tlv roGcilng «iu lutcuded fur otijcr purpoAca beaid^An ftiatdiif lacttti^, 
pa tingard iuii>«rU- 

^ Sh- blft Jiutidum iU PvlU. a Mint p, 8G, aim p. {)3, «d. IfilKE, 

> Cl«aDcau,i. iin. 



248 



HISTOKY OP TEE JESUITS, 



oration whose materials were furnislied by the Jesuit 
Caigord of Auvergae — a method aot unusual with the 
apologists of the Comjf/iny of Jesits. It would tire the 
most patient of men to enter into the arguments on hoth 
sides. Suffice it to say, that no efforts were spared on 
either side to insure the victory. Elsewhere may be 
found tiie long speeches on that occa^iiou : ^ but not in 
jcBurt-ifl' Sacchinfis, for the Jesuit has inrented ha- 
yeniion. mngueSj with his usual deep-mouthed rhetoric: 
— this trick adds to the discredit which is certainly 
attached to his Hi^torj' — a^^ curious a piece of invention 
as any that the Jesuits ever produced. Patronage 
defended the Jesuits where their eloquence wae of no 
avail, Possevin returned from Bayoniie with letters from 
the Chancellor de rilopital^ to the Parliament, with 
recommendations from the queen-mother, and many 
lords, to the bishop and the governor of Paris. The 
Jesuits had induced the pope to write to tlie bishop, 
TiiPEUPiL^ hogging his lordship to favour his "cohort." 
ofiu<x«>i. Ijj ^ word, they Htirred all the powers, secular 
and eccleaiaatical, to obtain what they foresaw would be 
refused on technical, if no other grounds, at the ordi- 
nary tribunals of justice. Still, with all this machination, 
witli all this credit, and patronage, the result iell short 
of their desires. All they obtained was the suspension 
of the suit i and that in the meantime matters 
would remain as they were before, namely, 
that without being aggregated to the University, and 
without judgment being passed on the rights of the 
parties respeciively. the Jesuits might continue to teach 
publicly till further orders.^ Fiercely did bitter hearts 
pour leprous distilmeut into the cars of Chi'istians during 

' Ammlcft dcfi Jt^uiitea, l 28, el kq. ; Quesael, U- -, Coudrttte*, ti alibi ' lb. 



The mult. 




PASQUIER AXD 7ATHKR HIOHEOMB. 249 

that agitation. A more rancorous enoniy than Stephen 
Pasquicr the Jesuits never had ; and no man did the 
Jesuits ever abuse so hideously and disgust- 
ingly as they bespattered Stephen Pasquier. *ni F^xha 
The latter published hia celebrated Caiechism 
f^tAe J^tJtttitff, denouncing the Company with the utmost 
wveritVK This might be excusable in an ambitious lawyer, 
seeking hid advancement to fame and wealth over the 
destruction of his enemies : but there was no excuse for 
"the men of God/* — the poor, the humble, the chaste 
inemhci-s of the Company of Jesus, to retaUate with 
ten-fgld atrocity of insult the moat disgusting, as they 
did by their muuth-piew? the Jesuit Kicheome. The 
very year after the appearance of Tasquiers Ctrtec/iimi, 
this Jesuit, under the name of Felid' de la Grace, put 
forth his famous I/mtf of the Fo.r Pasf/tiiTi, in which 
lie seems to oxhaust rancour unto gaspiug ; no fierce 
and foul are the epithets and metaphors he pours on 
the devoted head of the enemy, ^ *' Pascjuier raves," 
id another Jesuit, Father La Font^ " until some one 

^ Hcrv uan extrmct frviu iliu wurk ^ il wt:re nEHttitd tuUUriupl a tniDHl&don : 
•■ P>«qu!«r 1^ on partf-jiiuuerriui aiumut Av Pario, |»t!i giJuit, faouTon, plusui- 
taor, |i*tit comTWgnODt Tradeor dc BODDeites, simple rvgBge^ qui oe meriU pv 
d'dn Ifl vkImol de* UqaaiB, belitte, ci>4U[d qui ri>iu:, ptattQ, ^t rcuiL «a gorge ; 
U/r% M^eet d'hereutr, du bitn hcnfciqiut, ou biuu pire ; uu Bale vt vjImq saiyr^ 
lUi wchl'ioiitre nut, |>ar u&iurVf |iikr b«-quiu'i?, |iiu 1h;-jiiuI> nut k la ptuji buiM 
^■lamii _ lot A triple kouelli-, 4Qt ■ dooble teinture, ct ttmt em i-rH-inoiAi, vjt en 
loiMn mrin de Mltiew, uu gnte-papior^ im b&billardf udc grcaouUle du iwIaU^ 
u ekboDt At cohutj lut aoapLnul d'caft-r^ an rieox rtnnn], uu ioHigne h^pomtf, 
■■OMd vdUf tvnArd chmu^ reniml ^'isou, reuard piunC, vl qui compiHOt' tout de 

H pvaiile u e- Fitr-A-bniB, U\nu[wHc d"i?ufer, ourbtiu du [UhlaiB, liibou da 

^u*|i^Q* knTeniftJd conti^p - - - Catholique de boucUv, bt^ivtique ^ b«ur», d^te, 
«t pov Vea l&Dt Ktb^uU do cu-ur . . . O 1 qa« si do tuutes Ie4 t«te» Li^r^tliuei 
MQ TCMMl que U lUuuc, qaVllc Bci&ii tiiculut coupi^e [ Aaue qui chuitc iricloire, 
Meommc un biuidDl qui p«mjul i^rair »ltcuit ton Lnuij uutkDu H bnil hvH 
mm Imbi, pBUicn, vl diuUiv,^' &.c. — La Chtue dn Iknatd foMqaiti, tUctut^ri rt 



250 



mSTOHY OF THE JllSUITS. 



of our Company, or aouie irtLer person, for the good 
thfi public^ makes a collectiou of Lis ignorance, ranngs, 
P.tinT u etupidities, malignities, heresies, for to raise 
P™^ Mm a tomb where he may be coffiued alive ; 

wliitlier the camoii-iirowa and the vultures may come 
from a huntb'ed leagues off, attracted by the sm^U of 
his carcass, which men will not be able to approach 
neai'er tJian a hundred ateps witliout stopping their 
noses on accomit of the gtoDch — where briars and netUes 
grow — where vipers and basilisks nestle — where the 
screech-owl and the bittern hoot, in order that, by such 
a inonuinent, those who live at present, and tlioae who 
shall live in future agos, may learn that the Josutte 
haye had him for a notable persecutor, calumniaton 
liar, and a mortal enemy of virtue and good people, and 
that all calumuiatoi's may learu not to scandalise, bj 
their defamatory writing, the Holy Church of God." ^ 
The men who ^vTote thus of an opponent were 
highly esteemed for tlieli" piety and ze^il, and 
Bichoomo, i>ai'ticularly, produced many pious Iract*^, 
among t!ie rest, ** T/ti: Sf'g/i^ and Cou/tsels of a CJoi^tran 
Soul," just as the foul Aretino wrote a Ufe of St. Cathe- 
rina And the Jesuit tells ua, moreover, that the author of 
that foul, disgusting abuse, so urtranslateable, ''received 
this reward for bis most excellent virtue, namely, that liis 
head was seen surrounded with rays — God thus render- 
ing illustrious that obscui'jty wliich he cem-ted ;" — in hie 
oigbtiutb year when laid up by gout, he amused biutHelf 
with washing pots in the kitchen.^ Doubtless some will 
say that such abuse was usual in those days. Let the 
excuse liare its weight : but whose duty was it to give a 



Reflections. 



^ B\h, Scripl. S, J. Ludov- Ricboom. 



r^ 



P1U8 V. BEWMEft POPE, 



251 



better example, tt» teach h bt'tter method of reMardiiig 
evil, to imitate Him wtio ouly tlenouuced the robbers of 
tlie widow, the vamiures whoauckod the blood of orphans, 
the liypocritical Pharisees? Sm'cly the "Compaiiioiisof 
Jcsufl " have no right to exaise themselves hy appealhig 
to abuses which thoir title rcquii-ed thorn to correct. It 
is indeed paiiLful to liear the rcstorera of religion, the 
i"C-e*itabli8her8 of virtue, the apostles of India and Por- 
tugal, pouring forth abuse too foul to be translated, and 
such as would diagivice the worst of simierg. Those 
were indeed dreadful times wheu fJod's representatives 
on earth couformed tljcmselves unto the image of the 
worst oF men. Such a sample aa I have given ia uecea- 
sary to pn?i»arc your miJid for the "religioua'* hon'ors 
ahout to follow With such fire-brantla (llicheome was 
twice provinciiU in France), with such ''beliows'^aniongBt 
them, ou a mission from Rome. '' God b oracle," sanctify- 
ing all tliat is worst in tho devil, the jnen of those times 
may tndy he excused for most of their atrocities, since 
" Lhf priests of the Lord *' inllamed their hearts with 
cruelty and maile theii' swords more ravenous with a 
beneiliction. Anotlier bad element in that lowering 
pohtical and religious firmament was the Pope of Rome. 
Pius IV, died in the same year of Borgia s election, 
And was succeeded by Pius V., a pope after the fiuilnou 
of Paul IV., in the moments of liia intcnscet 
ngidjty. One of tliose gruu bigots who tmnk 
tliey honoLU' God whilst they gratify the deviL *' We 
forbid/' sayfl he in one of his Bulls, ** every physician 
who sluilt be called to attend a bedridden patient, 
to risit the sflid patient for a longer space of time 
tlian tlirec days, unless he receive a certificate within 
that time, that the patient has confessed his sins 



252 



MtSTORY OP THE JESUITS. 



afresh." ' Oue of tliose infatuated Pharisees who irritate 
men to the very sins they denounce, he would " put 
down" blasphemy and sabbath-breaking. Howl Why, he 
imposed Jities of monej; on the rich. A rich man who did 
theae things — who broke God*8 sabbath or blasphemed 
his name, had to pay money into tho papal exchequer ; 
but — and is it not always thus 1 — the poor man — '* the 
commou man who cannot pay shall, for tlie fliBt offence, 
stand a whole day before the church doors with his 
hands bound behind his back ; for the second he shall 
be whipped through the city ; for the third, /ih ttmgue 
shall be bored, and he shall be seat to the galleys/'^ A 
fiend of the Inquisition waa Pius V., and a rancorous 
hater of the heretics. He sent troops to aid the French 
Catholics iji theu" '*rehgious'' war, and he gave the 
leader of these troops, Coiuit Santafiore, tlie monstrous 
order to take no Huguenot prisoner, but to kill forthwith 
every Protestant who should fall into his hands ; — and 
the ruthless religionist "was grieved to find that his 
command was not obeyed!"' To the ferocious Alva^ 
after hiu bloody massacres, he sent with praises a 
consecrated hat and sword. His own party lauded this 
pope for what seemed in the raan, singleness of purpose, 

^ Sujira Gregcm Domiulcum, Bull. iv. ii, p. 281 ] RMjlct, 9^, 
' Ibid. Flugluh Law, id cliLa |io](it hi iG&Kt, ib ca^lotlE^y jLut Mid eiiuitable. 
B^ ttb Act of L9 Geo. IL, c. 'Jl, it it clforocJ, cliat If nay p»»aii sh&ll prQ- 
ftiaeXy corao or awnu-, uil bo couriclfid tliereof, A.c. &c,, lie fihjU] forfeit, if » 
diLy-Ubourvr, oonmion FwldJer, sailor, or seamui, one bhUIing ; if my oth«r 
peraoD uDdor Uic dcf^reK of a gPiiHenuui, (ivo slitlliiiga ; for crety set^ond gop- 
rictioD doublcp auJ fgr twrj third uid 4ubH]qui}DL coDvicLiOLi, Uvblc- The 
pdiwlties are to go lo tlie poor of tlip pnrisli. Of course all <iueh mothodaof 
Feform ftTO uaelesB, becmse diey do not reiwh the root of Uie nbaw orevil ; md, 
cerUunly, in die cmc of the jolly tar, tlic waoe act ought to b&ve uicr«Med bi* 
wages to meet his tm^renaed oxpundilure an die itenn of Ijji oalhs. 

' *" Pitj si i1a!» del coqto, chu uon havcBBo il comuiandameDLo di lui tMtembo 
d'lmuUF mbito qaUdnr]iiP heretit?? gli foeEA vr-auto Uto muiV^Calma, fita 
<^ Pk V. p. 85. 



DISGRACES IX AUSTRIA. 



253 



loftiness of soul, personal austerity, and entire devotioD 
to his religion : but all humanitj ehould execrate hia 
memory, because under these cloaks, eo easily put on, 
his nature was grim bigotry, rancorous hatred, sangtiinary 
"«ea!" for his religion.^ He was afterwards canonised 
— made a saint by Rome ; although the Indiau savage 
might say, as in the case of the cmel Spaniards, that he 
jvould ratlier not go to heaven, if he had to meet there 
Bch a thing as this sainted Pope Pius. He will give 
the Jesuits some little trouble, but will command their 
servires to the utTnost. 

In apite of the decree against the prcacnco of Jesuits 
at the courts of princeH, we find ihcm striving with 
more ardour than ever to penetrate within the 
dangerous precmcts of royal favour. The 
Emperor Ferdinand had married two of his daughters, 
one to the Duke of Ferrara, the other to Francis de" 
Medici. The Jesuits had been the spiritual directors of 
those princesses before marriage ; and the devoted 
penitents clung to the fathers mth foud endearment- 
The fathers went with them into their new state of 
life : but they had the misfortune to excite the disgust 
and rcflentment of the ladies at court, who strongly 
denounced the tyranny of the Jesuits. General Borgia 
did not remove them according to the decree ; but 
wrote tbcro a letter of advice.' 

Femiiuuid's successor, Maximilian, was no great patron 
of the Jesuits. The deputies who met in 1565 earnestly 
demanded the expulsion of the Jesuits from 
Austria. Tbe ti<ie of popular opinion almost 
Awept them from Vienna. In connection with the 



* Sm Ruik* for u fnll account of IhU pope, p. 90 ; tad Mendham^B " Lifp nf 
Pfii> K." 3 Qiir«n(<L, W. U9 ; S»Hhm, Puv ill. lib. i. 



254 



HISTOHY OP THE JESlTlT^t. 



strange and carious inquiries pi'0}josej in tixe congrega- 
tion, touching: til** vow of '^cbastity especially/' a foul 
chaise raged against the Jesuits in Bfivaria : a etiidcnt 
of their college at MunicL was tlie accuser : t!ie proai- 
rator of the college wsis the accused. The King of 
Bavaria undertook to iiivestigato the matter, which was 
one of the most cxtraordiiiarv cases that ever puzzlod 
a lawyer or rayatified a surgeon. It is impossible to 
enter into the details which Saechinus gives at ftili 
leno;th : but if the Jesuits had no other proof of the 
procurator a innoceure than the " fart'* alleged in excul- 
l>ation, the guilt of mutilation is not removed— and if 
the expedient suggested to convict the youth of impos- 
ture was exceedingly clever, it seems to point to some 
experience in similar cases, which, consequently, only 
renilcra the present move prnhahle/ Nevcrlhclcss. the 
event points to the rancour that the Jesuits everywhere 
excited by their ferocious zeal and intemperate religion- 
ism, — which induced Maximilian to tliscountonance the 
Company. That Catholic king complaineil 
to Cardinal Commeuilone that the Jesuits, 
whom the pope had given the cardinal as advisers, were 
carried away with too gre^t a zeal for religion, and that 



MAJfimiliaji, 



' "Exi>rinir ir BavAt^iL . . - iiif(»luH rumor ^ - . Jc^uittB, ut pucr<« aJ emOi- 
UEcDi sanctani CDinpelUuit, COS euiiucho» tiVKn - - ■ lfwmet,n^l Hilotii fncieniluii 
cum nliHigiintifl tliiiurguruiu, qui ifv^pox^mnf, testimoniia, (;ircohi4]iirel«Iiir 
puRn"^ SACcliinun iiien atAtoa dmt ihc^onUi li^ Iilyii cxpL-lkd from tliucnlli^ 
for indiffi^rmt mnntlq — nb vuyrrt hiwrf ho-n'iSi^and then mnk^ Ilir> moat o4ti&- 
onlinary Mficrdon, UiAt "cA einl natxird, ul, tiuoiica libercl, mtroreiim |rat» 
revoat^W apporer^ ntm tmcrcl Indo iioqiinin ppopud joro, . . . tRf.'iso* ciLi * 
Godeftido HuiatB . , . , offimuvit.*' The phyBiciane of Wolfgnntr, a " lifWic 
prince," (layaSntchiauBj "|ironuiiii»ni eviraiuui jiiierum." Wliiii tliu boy »*• 
brought before Albert and hia pliygeinnn, '^ RiHtniTiir piiPT in medio nuilnfl - _ . 
nl HOC ^iriliUa cerntbnhir , . , cum ab Dpcia cliinuTjo, «j7aciJ i^tgciin AmuW. 
coiitiiuTO t^piriUtm, ni^ v^lrem iaHare juwM^i id (juixl i!&]u)nnt(Ltore« qurrc^uuitur 
eteni^tum, iialam jn otnupHtum dodii/V-£aefAipf- L 100,101 ; A^rri^^ U ui. IM>- 



THE WHIPPING ABUBB TN SPAIN. 



2&d 



iaj dnX not possess that iiiO(leratti*ii which the present 
circumstances required — altLougli ho tliouglit them 
learned and upright. He paiticularly objected to Ca- 
nbius on account of his obstinate pertinacity ; and even 
when requested by tlie Jesuit party at Augaherg to 
pi-omote the est^iblishment of a Jesuit college, bis letter, 
without giving the Jesuit'^ any commendation, iiiei-ely 
alludes to tlie request, by stating that the people of 
Augsbcrg my the restoration of tho Catholic faitli 
raiinot be more easily effected than by a college of the 
Company of Jesiis, &c.. quoting tlie petition of ll»e 
Jesuit-party, ■with which he leaves the merits of the 
ca^c though, for ]>olitica1 rcfLSona^ he requested hia 
miiitfiter at I^^me to use his endeavours for tl»e fulfil- 
ment.' It wafi not in his nature to side with the 
Jesuits : though he made a pubhc profession of the 
Catholic faith, and maintained the ostallishment of the 
diurch, he never swerved from the moat liberal tolera- 
tion, and in Germany ma*:lo the religious peacOi which 
he had so great a shai'c in promoting, tlie grand rule of 
hia conduct.^ 

In Spain other troubles, of their own making, harassed 
the Je^ts, Under the specious pretext of rloiug 
penance, they had established in several towns Tii*j*..«itt 
confi-atornitiea offlagellanls, who, not content '" ^i"'"'- 
with whipping themselves in tho churches of the Jesuits, 
performed the vorhcration publicly and in solemn pro- 
cession. They had even introiluced the practice amongst 
women, as elsewhere. The bishops of Spain were indig- 
nant at the abuses; they prohibited them; and proceeded 
to examine the book of the '* Spiritual Exorcises," so well 
adapt<"»d to prorluce that Mild devotion, which manifests 



* Agrit. nU i-prA, I5ft, IB3. 



^ Coxfr, AuAno. U U^ 



226 



HISTORY OF THK JESUITS, 



itself through all the passions. The Jcsuita wct© 
alarmed : but credit aet them at rest. Their Jesuit 
courtier, Araoz, was high iii faroiir with Philip IL, who 
now began to find out the utility of the Jesuits in hia 
senseless and atrocious machinations, schemes, and per- 
petrations. Tho affair passed off without effects.' Philip 
had ulterior views respecting tho Jesuits, 

In India matters were more disastroua. There the 
Jesiiita were trying the impossible problem of serving 
Tiie Jciiiiu *^'*^ masters at one and the same time- They 
\ti it.ai.1, 1^^ |^tj(^,| received, together with tho Portu- 
guese, by the chieftain of Tercate, the most important 
of the Moluccas. The barbarian introduced the Portu- 
guese for the sake of commerce ; and the PortuguBBe 
brought in the Jesuitfi to serve their own purposes ' I ueed 
not state that the Jesuits made conversions : but it wm 
painliiUy discovered that their converts gatliered around 



1 Sftochia, lib. 1. 117 ; Quenno], ii. Mii. 

- The Jp4uiU) suppljr ciiriouH JDfarnialLon ou ihifl tujn'i^, Th?y lell ua lJi»t io 
rorhinirliiiiB (lie vn-y worils^ in tlio nulivp Iruigungp, pmpli^^od ta luL' tli^ r'^P''' 
^' if ihey vouM become Cht^tiant" mcaoi noUuDg else bat *'if they irouM 
become Portv^u!tr." This wna Lhe genpniL notian among tbe jwfpuis. Tbr 
iJoRuit nnEoiiie aaya be Ban* a coniedy performed in the pablic place, aad, bj 
way of mi inlcrlnile, tbejr introduced a imui JretUKd liltLi n I'ortu^CHr, v^Ui ui 
artifieiAl paanth ha (*f^Htnii>t'>i), ihnl a child Pbnld bp cciiio«nl«] v-itffTn- In Eh# 
«]ght of tlic multitude the ictor pulled out ttiecbilil, and naked liitoir he vriaM 
lo go into lhe paunch nf the PorlHgueae, namely, *' Little one, niU y<nt gn mio 
the paimdt of the roringiicae i>r not T " The chili Mid " yen," and the arior 
put him in accordingly. Tl^a ncenc wa« ii-peaied over and over n^ain, lo tbv 
tuniiEompnt of the mptvtatafB • and if vrh ofrtAJnIy ■ niniit nppivipriate hbUmb 
of die faet^ Now the Jceuit iuiy» iJmt these identical words were used liy the 
intrqirflnrs when they ivilfed the natives if they wouM boeome CTiriBtiazB ^* 
Uukt lo bocome a Clirintinn wts nothing elae Uiaik to cease t') be a CocbineliiiH« 
And become a Pottugucfle ; in point of fad, swallowcJ into ihi' piuncb of llie 
inniler ! The Jcniiit flaym h*» made vBcrfa to con-ect " bo pnmieioaH mi eiT«r," 
Imttlie remits did not eventually attest hia auecesa, if tiie"etTor" could po>> 
f<ibly be dir^pelled in the face nf tT^nta bo admirably tjpificfd by the «p«d<ia* 
paimeh and the mmple child- — Rfiatimr ddla ntinra ,Viifloru iC-r.f al /fr^vu) tUH^ 
Cocincina, |>. 1117. Ed. Knme, llt3l. 



THE JESUITS IN BRA2IL AND FLORIDA. 



257 



I 

I 



the Portuguest;, ae in Brazil, leaving tlieir king in a piti- 
able plight. By these accessions, under Jesuit-influence, 
the Portuguese became masters of several towns, until at 
last the poor king found himaeli' a mere tributary vassal 
of the strangerB, whom he had invited to trade, but who 
had come accompanied by Jesuits. The savage looked 
out for friendly a^ifiiatance in his ruined fortunes. The 
Mohammedans of the adjacent isles espoused his cause ; 
harassed the Portuguese for some time ; and effected a 
descent ou Attiva, the head-quarters of the Portuguese, 
and the residence of the Jesuit Emmanuel Lopez. The 
Portuguese were absent on other conquests : their settle- 
ment was pillaged, all their stations were retaken by the 
king of Ternate. The Jesuits took to flight, abandoning 
to the vengeance of the conqueror 72,000 " converts," 
whom they deserted, apparently as easily as they had 
made themChiistians.' 

In Brazil the Jesuits had succeeded in establishing 
numerous houses and residences : but their prospeiity 
became, aa usual the source of discord and ^ic Jc*di* 
division. The usual causes of atrife among ''° ^"^^ 
mortalB, avarice and ambition, produced a schism among 
tfacBe religious missioners ; and Boigia deemed it neces- 
saiT to send out a visitor to remedy the evils as well ad 
he could.^ 

The savages of Florida next became the objects of 
their zeal- Three Jesuita set out on the expedition. 
One of them, Father Martinez* left the ship 
in a boat with some of the Spaniards : a storm 
overtook them : they were driven to the coast. Wan- 
dering into the interior they were attacked by the 



In Plon^lft. 



* QonDdtii. 173 ; Sacctun. lib. iii. 13A. «Im;.,- Obaerr. Hut. i 2S6h 

* Qiu<Dd, il ; CrelioeAUr n, 137. 
VOL. tU S 



2S8 



HIBTCIRT OF THE J^UTTS. 



natives, -who bad so much reason to hate the Spaniards 
for their cruelties, and mariy of the party x^^ere mas- 
sacred, among the rest, the Jesuit. The other two 
tniseioners. after much suffering inflicted upon them by 
the saTagea of Florida, managed to do httle or nothing 
in the shape of conversion, but nevertheless " founded '* 
two establishments in the country, and wrote to their 
general for more companions,^ 

On the continent of India the glorious InquisitioD, 
which they had advised and proved to be so necessary, 
was doing its work, and they -were making 
wholesale conquests worthy ot their xeal- It 
they did not convert the infidels, they at least domo- 
liahed their temples, burned their idols, and caused their 
Brahniins to be imprisoned and slaughtered — in other 
words, did, or were a party in doing, what the Catbohcs 
and Protestants were doing against each other in Europe 
at the same time. If the vilest pa.ssions of human nature 
he not sufficient to account for all those contemporaneoa*! 
atrocities, wo must ascribe them to a sort of monU 
cholera sweeping over the eartli and making cruel soula 
instead of putrid bodies.^ 

In Portugal the Jesuits were high in favour. Father 
Torrezwas confessor to the queen-regent, Gonzalez to 
TL<jo.uito the young king, Henriqitez to the Cardinal 
ID Poriuifii. j)^^ Henry, the monarch's great uncle. All 
the lords of the court followed the royal example^ and 
placed their souls into the hands of the Jesuits, who 
thus acquired unlimited influence in the kingdom and 
its colonial possessions. Between the queen-regent and 
the Cardinal Dom Henry the Jesuits interfered, gave 



■ Quesnel, a. 190 ; S4echin. Ub, HI 262, tt acq, 

* QoMiwI, ib, ; Sanhlii. lib. iL 101, lib. iii. 129, el teq. 



INVASION OF MOROCCO BY flEBASTUN. 



25S 



ScUttiin. 



their hands to the latttar, and intrigued to dispossess the 
queen of her authority, in favour of the cardinal. Torrez 
wasdenounced as the leader of the machination, and the 
queeo-regent discharged the Jesuit. The result did not 
correspond with her wishes. The Jesuits had a party, 
and the king's confessor was a Jesuit j and the cardinal 
was their [matron for the noace. The king was induced 
to discharge the queen, and the cardinal became regent ; 
but only to be soon supplanted by the Jesuits, whom it 
was impossible to dislodge.' Under Jesuit-tuition, the 
young king Sebastian grew up a royal mad- 
man — fierce T\ith the right orthodox hatred 
of all that was not Christianity according to the interpre- 
tation of Rome. He conceived the design, if it was not 
suggested, of invading the Moors of Morocco. Headlong 
he rushed to destruction ; all advice to the contrary only 
stimulated his madness. On the plains of Alcazarqnivir 
his whole army was cut to pieces or captured by the 
Moors. The king and kingdom of Portugal perished 
together. Fifteen Jesuits accompanied the expedition. 
The calamity is laid to the charge of the Jesuits^ in 
perverting the royal mind by their fanatical exhorta- 
tiona : the Jesuits deny the allegation, and insist that 
their member, the king's confessor, was opposed to the 
invasion ; ' which asseilion, however, may have been 
caused by the unfortunate result. The Jesuits would 
have been happy to vindicate to themselves the glory of 
the invasion, had it proved successful. Cardinal Henry 
succeeded : his short reign was the agony of Portugal s 
independence : for Pliihp 11. worried her to death. 
Amongst the numerous candidates who aspired to 



> Qnmiivl, u. lOV: HbL Abr^gtfe dn Port.. P. lii.c. 17, [h 730. 
S2 



260 



mSTOHT OP THE JBSTnTa. 



succeed, Philip was the moat determined ; ' and the 
Jesuits lent liim their assistance. Henriquez, the royal 
confessor, confirmed the Tacillating mind of the priestr 
ridden king, who gave his vote to the Spaniard,^ and 
died soon after, when Philip sent into Portugal the 
Duke of Alva, with thu'ty thousand men, and quietly 
grasped the sceptre, Hurrendcred almost without a blow, 
and with that sceptre> the American, Indian, and African 
possessions of Portugal — aU destined to furnish the 
royal bigot with gold, which he would lavishly spend 
" to stir'* all Europe in his senseless schemes.^ At the 
time of the ovont. the common opinion, in Coimbra, at 
least, was, that tho Jesuits were a party to the betrayal 
of the idngdom into the hands of the Spaniards. Their 
college was stormed by the people ; they were denounced 
as traitors to their country, as robbers, and devote^l to 
destruction * The Jesuit-rector canie forth and pacified 
the mob : and, hy the interoesaion of two other Jesuits, 
the Spanish general spared the city, which would hare 
been otherwise given up to the horrors of S|>aQish 
waiiare.* Such was the beginning and end of Jesui^ 



' Tlio Tope of lUme ftctiutlly presented himielT u cATiditUti? Tor ttie CKiwa af 

PorlugoJ ! II? reaN^d hi» claim to t}u- kuigilatii as Hie praperTy nf a carrZffn^ to 
wham by Pr<^lHiiuCiciLl Inv he wna hw^^^ffiti- of S^nnnamd Po*4» 

« RiiLbe,i- 231, 

' Hut. ofSpiunand Port. I^fl.ff *'j,; Rabbe, r. 1l^9,ft teq. 

* Franco, nbi a^tpra. \2rt. " Pleba rumopc iiuuii pemnjtfl dJrutgavit, WHtnOB 
callc^um enc pLenum tdiUM CaatfillanD kI nnuia, uL repenl^ cipUMIi MrtNVP 
troderemuB Regi Pliili[»[>o .... i^ecurihYiii lnoennt bcholanim vblvu, klii 
Bakn-lcro per miinim, iuqUi nrj oiiliuni poslicum, multi mI conunimr ; K« 
liUthonmciB, prodilorea pfltria, IfltroceB focant, nectindoH nntne*.*' 

1^ ThLH Joauit tells % curioiu ttUe, how (Jio Fcrtu^cw women coonlUd 
^<ut.-o4"Oar Men," ondmt dinm*! Ofciifliup^Batiug die FftlhtrH " wlicUuW rt w»i 
lawful for Uiam, in ordtr to swapMhi* lunlful ImUlity nf thp gpiuiiantn, to cfimnil 
suicide, to throw theniBeh'cs info the rirtir, or rmh to plftcea inf«|*d with pc«li- 
lenee/'— fra«ra,l26, Philip'aooly opponenC^rriuce Antonio^oipeJledtheJeanlli 
from Goimbra for hwbouriTig n Spimbli spy ; lie inpl Iheni u they vram dirpui- 



r 



SlFgPBCTED BETRAYAL Of PORTUGAL, 261 

influence in the councils of Portugal from 1556 to 
1581. History accuses the Jesuits of these two pro- 
minent transactions — the invasion of Morocco, 
and tbe usurpation of rhihp — aa bomg pro- 
moted hy membera of the Company. The amount of 
their guilt caa never be ascertained : but their inno- 
cence \vouI(l have been certain, liad their generals enforced 
the decree prohibiting the Jesuits from being confessors 
to kings, or liraig at comts ; and had not the Jesuits 
themselves olsewliere mingled with pohtica during that 
eventful peiiod. It was certainly eomewhafc auepicious 
that Philip showed them ui^jked and distinguished 
honour immediately aftenivardwj vrben he \isitcd his 
usurped idogdom. He paid their House liis first visit, 
and increased its allowance : and his partisans joined 
in the benevolence, so that the Houmo wjls never richer 
than immediately after the usurpation of the Spaniard, 
The Jesuit Franco attributes tliis result to"Our servicos " 
— minista'ia nontra. How far they were honourable to 
the " men of God '' is the question/ 

liig> knil releutod, onlering them to rctom : but th« Spanish gcaeral came up 
" wIiIj liu rcLeraa armj anO cjtfLlj routcU Jio lumultuouB ittixa of AjkLouio," 
B^ tile Jiwiit Fmoro. Prknco, VIG, 

■ '^TooU ivrnm fmblica muUtions, crediJfro qtii g«rebADt adluios SouiuDiti 
lliriuo bcit«voliM, cbin fun.' I'lViotU ludibrio^ »hI egr^^c docepd auuL N^ia 
Ble CAUid smulAtionin, i]Uiu fucrat Rcgum fiLTor, TDmJ«terui noaira, wl 
AEttlalu, Dubid ii mn i inn amorCIU priwiirAmnL J4uDquiua Dumiw 
Pmfcnk nugi« uljun ebemmijpis, uoo majoribufl fraqnanala efincufHibun."— 
Ak. 1518,2. CrcliDeau-Joly, thesfHrlDgiat of ibcJc^ita, t»ate the cjucerion 
•DBttvnnUJIj, Jf [he J«iiib( ikTc vCi«£ed with his d«feacc» we \^^te qd 
mMm to tluDlc tJukt Uc liaa duue hu best to make the amtwr worae. One flight 
blundcTj if fuch only it aa bo tailed, I will '* eignnlise." He nys Uint 
" \Xfaa\'\wz, Ihe eonfrieor of the old king. rccciTrd lui order from Uid gciui^ 
cf die compiiny not to rQe<3iHu with any political nJTiir ; " and for thin fwi he 
li<W*IUto FnMK^o,alUIL> I57fi. WeU, there u no nich faci in FraiiM ror that 
7«UV oat tuty oUier in (he SyaoptU. la I6ru He giini^nl tvqucflbed '* f/i<: tfid 
i-w*y" Huorj "not to spplj bia wnletftor to the idmiuiattnlion of Beculw 
twiacw,'' to whicli the king eoiuenled ; but thi» ia WTi-laDdy nol Cretinaau^a 



262 



HISTORY OF THB JESUITS. 



In 1567, Pope Pius V- wished the Jesuits to do 
more " service " than they tlioiight expedient, and they 

demurred and memorialised him accordingly. 
i4Tnpi«! ^iih However favourable to the Jesuits, Pius V. 

did not approve of tlieir dispensing with the 
monastic choir. Another objection was the constitu- 
tional rule by which tlie Jesuits bound thomselves to 
the Company, whilst the Company entered into no 
contract with the members in like manner ; and, thirdly, 
the usual abuse in the Company of making priests of 
their men almost as soon as they became Jesuits, These 
reformers, of everybody and everj'thing, particularly 
objected to being reformed themselves. Their memorial 
to the pope's delegates contains nineteen arguments 
against the proposed reform. Sacchinns enters into the 
details at full length, and Cretineau exhibits tbc docu- 
Tbdrmeinc '"ent. It is astonishing what eloquence is 
■'■^' expended in proving that the Company of 

Jesua waa not instituted for the purpose of praising GoA 
Here is a sample or two : Action is the end of the 
Company^ the reformation of morals^ the extirpation of 
heresy. *' And what ! do not tliese causes exist ? The 
conflagration devours France. A great paj't of Ger- 
many 19 consumed, England is entirely reduced to 
ashes, Belgium is a prey to the devastation, Poland 
smokes on all sides. The flame already attacks the 
frontiers of Italy ; and, without speaking of the innu- 
memL»le nations of the East Indies, the West Indies, the 
New World, all begging us to break to them the bread 
of the word : witliout speaking of the daily progress of 

f>^ u AboTP. If 1 vtapp^ ta BuriAliae «uc?b rererenwa on both stdra of iIm 
Jeauit-qnoHlirHi, I shoiiPd bo almoht continuaHj strikinst some en^raj or •omc 
frifTi'lof Ihe Jmnli^ ;ii Ip jtlwayn liffttnqut trr /(rribVM iUxtris,totidnaqut tvtisttit, 
*i« fat onof h4]f-n-ila£«ji Fur ih.iy olliefi 



TEIEIR UEHORIAL AOAIKST REFORM. 



263 



Turkish impiety, how many persons are there buried in 
ignorance in Spain, Italy, Sicily, SartUnia, and other 
regions of the Christian world infected with error, not 
only in the villages and conntry places, not only amongst 
the Uiity, but oven in the ranks of the clergy, in the 
midst of the most populous cities." ^ In the estimation 
of the Jesuits all their "services" in these variona and 
equivocal departments compensated for the choir. The 
choir TTOuld interfere with their studies as well. " We 
are> howevei', ready/ they said, ** to respect, os we hope, 
by tlie aiil of divine grace, the will of God in the least 
sign of the pope's vnll in the matter ; but you must 
take iuto consideration the seutuneiits which would 
agitate the other religious bodies if a change in their 
rules were mooted. We, too, are me7t, and it cannot be 
doubted that thei'e are in our Company members who 
would [levor have joined it, had they foreseen that the 
choir would bo eatabUehed in it ; " a moat estraoi'dinary 
declaration by men who are prescript] vely " indifferent 
to ail things " dead to their own will, resigned to every 
fote as holy Obedience shall appoint " And now, 
moreover, the members have very little inclination for 
the choir, because they say it does not enter hito our 
profession ; and bad it been the will of God, He would 
have mamfvstcd it to Ignatius our fouudfr" The 
memorial proceeds to menace the total diaoi^uisation 
of the Company as likely to result from this reform, 
and the Jesuits conjure tlie pope to take into coDsidera- 
tion tljeir weaknesses, as men, in their prejudice against 
the choir ; but the last argument is as chaT^acteristic as 
any. '* Look U> the heretics," they exclaimed- '* Do 
you not see how they strive to prove that there is a 



2li4 



lIIffrORY OF THE JESl'lTS. 



ra^U inconsiderateneBb, or eveu error, boUi in liie judg- 
ments of the pope and his predecessors, and those of 
the council 'i Thej will publish this doctrine in their 
books — they will howl it from their pulpits, and, after 
that, they will strive by degreas to undermine every- 
thing else. They will pretend that tho other orders 
have abo been rashly confirmed, and that the holy 
council has also given a thousand other proofe of its 
temerity, In their insolent joy they will proclaim that 
discord has crept between the pope and the Jesuits — 
those papists so cruelly bent against us. Truly, what- 
ever may bo the orderK of the holy Fatlier, even if we 
hod to sacrifice our Uves a thousand times, we hope 
ut^rer to give so disastrous au example. Eut with all 
the respect and zeal of wliich we are capable, we 
beseech tho common protector of the Chm^ch, and still 
more our protector and father, not to offer to the 
enemies of God, and our own, so favourable an oppor- 
tunity for insulting ajid blaspheming against the holy 
Chm'ch/' ' Tims they put tho question to tlic pope. 
Wo cannot fail to obaerre what boldness tho Jesuits 
have acquired in about ten years. They talked not 
thus to Paul IV. on a similai' occasion. Borgia and 
A™ri»:.. Polancus had an inten-iew with the pope, 
i'uminLriioa. TivB V. wos strotigly inclined to the choir: 
but he would dispense with slow singing ; the Jeauita 
might only pronounce the words of the divine office 
distinctly: "it is however only just," said the pope, 
"' that in the midst of your affairs, you should reserve a 
short time to attend to your own spiritual wants/' And 
then he smiled, significantly doubtless, saying: •'Yoa 
ought rot to be like chimney-sweopsT who, whih^ they jl 

■ Crctiasmi, ii, ^2^ cl ang.-t S>ccliiD. Uli, iiL 25. 




THfilB OPPOSITION TO KEFORM. 



265 



clumiieya, cover themselves with all the soot they 
remove ; " ' — a com|>arLson as expressive as could possibly 
be applied to the Jesuits in every department of their 
labours- Nevertheless^ Borgia, who was '^the beast of 
burthen" according to order, held out against the pope, 
and. by his importunity, induced the poi>o to give io, or 
to defer the matter until the publication of the new 
Brcviaiy, — such was the submissiou of the Jesuits aad 
their *' beast of burthen" to the will of the holy Father. 
But if the article toucliing the choir was not to be 
swallowed by the Jefiuits, the proposed aboUliou of the 
fiimple vows, and the prohibition of their ["O- 
ceiving the priesthood until they took the nvotmi 
four VDW8 of solemn profession, roused them *"™^ 
to desperate op|K)aitioiL The latter would at once 
cliango the whole nature of the Institute, It would 
throw the Company into a most embarrassing dilemma. 
They must cither relax the rule respecting the select 
number of the Company's ai-iatocracy — the professed, 
OT at once resign theii' numerous emissaries in all parts 
of the worM in every court aad city— emissaries whose 
functions as priests were their excuse in the most 
difficult machinations. It would have spared the world 
much suffering, and the J&^uits themseWes much humi- 
liation i but these were not the questions then : the 
prido of place — the priilo of the Ji-miL^, the giTateat 
tJiat ever existed — the strong, unconquerable desire to 
extend, to enrich the Company, — a thousand motives 
ruflhod to the rescue of this constitutional right and 
privilege- On the other hand, if in order to have duly 
quniiliod emiHSaries. they relaxed the rule, and admitted 
a "multitude" to the profession of the four vows, — in 



> CrutiouD, U, J5 



366 



HISTORY OF THE JE8UIT8. 



Other words, to the ariatocracy of tLe Company, then 
would tlie monarcliy be insensibly changed into the old 
monkish democracy, and this was not to be endured by 
the aristocrats in plaeCj who induced their "beast of 
burthen" to avert the calamity by a crafty expedient. 

Pius V. issued a positive order to his grand vicar not 
to permit any Jesuit to be ordained before ho took the 
TheiubiBT- solemn vows, or was made a profeasei This 
^i"- was a thunderbolt to the Jesuits. With bulk, 

breves, and privileges on his back, away went the '* beast 
of burthen " to the cardiniils to remonstrate : but the 
pope was inflexible. To all the arguments of Borgia's 
riders, the pontiff replied that at least as much virtue 
and talent was requisite for the priesthood aa they 
exacted for profession in the Company ; consequently, 
those whom they thought worthy of the priesthood, 
" ought to be worthy — d fortiori — to take the four vows." 
Nothing could be more reasonable ; but Sacchinus 
thinks othei'wise. He exliibits all his sophistical elo- 
quence to prove that it is easier to make a thousand 
priests than one good and veritable Jesuit ; which, after 
all, is perhaps too true.' What was to be done ? The 
aristocrats deliberated whether the pope was to be 
obeyed. Opinions were divided. The privileges of the 
Company were to be defended. Borgias expedient met 
the difficulty most admirably. His advice was that the 
Jesuits should present themselves for ordination, not a3 
Jesuits, but as beneficiaries or secular occlesiafitics. It 
follows, from this suggestion, that the Jesuits must have 
had very many benefices in the rea Societfitis, the 
capital of the Company, in order to derive titles for 
their numerous ordinations ; and it throws some light 

' Sflrcbin, lib, ili. 36, et teq. ; QucwieLt it. 210, 



A EUSE DE RBLIGTOV. 




of truth on the cliarge against the Jesuits, ou a former 
ocoision. that tliej vroiM clutch all the benefices and 
parishes of Rome. The modern historian of the Jesuits 
does not mention this ruxp de rdifjion auggeated by 
Borgia ; but lie says that the matter was accommodated 
" by a ti'anaaction wliich neither prejudiced the sub- 

ICC of the Institute, nor the authority of the Holy 
Nor had the Jesuits less cogent f.^ ^ 
reasons for not abolishing the simple vows, f™*""' 
that is, the vows which bind a Jesuit to the Company, 
ediatfily after his probation, whether that be two 

►rs, according to the Couatitutious, or one year, or one 
moQtb, according to expediency. By a corrective rule 
of the Constitutions, the Jesuits are allowed to retain 
their claims to property, and, conaequently, their 
revenues, for a certain time dependent on the will of 
the superior, notwithstanding the vow of poverty ; * a 
strange piece of inconsistency, but perfectly justifiable 
to a conscience mlod by holy obedience. This enjoy- 
ment of their hereditary rights, which this peculiar dis- 
pensation permitted to all Jesuits who had not taken 
the solemn vows — and consequently the vast majority 
of the Company — this power which they retained of 
mAeriif'nq from their relatives, and even of profiting by 
^wcidations, were the resources which guaranteed the 
Company from the inconveniences of holy poverty and 
degrading mendicity, alluded to in one of the late 
decroee, as I have stated, " Certain it is " says Sacchinus, 
" that this formula of the vows is very convenient for 
tranquilhsing the mind, for enforcing the authority of the 
Company, for its own profit and that of others"' — which 

< Ortin«iui, ii. 1^. ' Coiwt. P. \f. e. 4,(E) {, 

■ ■ Ortum csl Totopum ilium formulkm Soeietflti percotDin'>d*ro pbmb ad 



268 



HISTORY OF THE JHSUITS. 






word "profit" is somewliat ambiguous — p^haps the 
Jesuits mean spiiitual profit, like Leo X/s indulgenoefl» 
which served two purposes^ as we remember. 

The whole affair passed over as sweetly as any other 
contest of the Jesuits with the pope. Now, more than 
ever, they were in position to demand respect- 
ful consideration ; and though, by the advice 
of the more prudent provincials, it- was resolved to 
obey purely aiid simply, yet there was no doubt what- 
ever ill the minds of the aristocrats, that they would 
have their o^-n way in that matter, as in every other, 
provided they did ^* good serWce to the Holy See.^ 
PiuB V. was the last man in the world to hamper 
the Jesuits, or to *' throw cold water upon them;" 
you might just as well expect an incendiary to dip 
his matches in water- Soou he showed how he lovt4 
them, " This hghtning without a tempest," says their 
historian, " lefl no traces between Pius V, and the 
Company of Jesus/' 

Pope Pius demanded a detachment of Jeeuita from 
the Roman College, whom he dispersed all over Italy to 
A pouB propagate the faith and morality. Numerous 
uMqucmdo, woi'e thc coiiversioDs, vast the harvest of 
virtue, if we are to believe the roniancist of the Com- 
pany ; but, aftfir all, thfy left the Italians had caougK 
if those who fought the pope's battles were specimens 
Still, thc Jesuits did their best — stoi'med aud coaxed — 
blazed and chilled — soothed and frightened after the 
usual manner : but the close of one of their missions is 
too curious to he omitted, ft was nothing less than a 
pious masquerade for the edification of the faithfiil ; ajnd 
it came to paas at Palermo in Spicily. The subject was, 
The Triumph of Death. The affair came off on Ash 



A PIOUS MASQUERADE. 



269 



"Wednesday, SLtty men, selected from tleii sodality, 
covered with a blue sack, and each of them hulding a 
lighted taper, marched in two lines before a troop of 
miistcians. playing on divers instnimentfl. In tlie rear 
of the latter, there appeared a huge figure of Christ on 
the cross, which was carried in a coffin, escorted by four 
an^eh and many persons, each of them carrying a torch 
in one hand, and in the other, one of the instruments 
used in the passion of the Redeemer — such as a nail, 
scourge, crown of thorns, hammer, and so forth- Imme- 
diately behind tho coffin marched two himdred ftagellants, 
dressed in black, and scourging tliomaelvcs with all their 
might, and aalODJdhiug and fnghteniiig the spectators, 
both with the clatter of the numorons strokes thoy gave 
themselves, and with their blood, which, says the edifying 
historian, streamed in the streets. They were inflamed 
to this pious cruelty by a troop of choristers dis^iised 
«B hermits, by their beard and bristling hair rendered 
frightful and unrecognisable. They sang, in the moum- 
fnl tone of lamentation, hymns on the vanities of this 
world. Next came twelve men» emaciatc<l, pale, all skin 
and bone, naoimted on sorry hacks, precisely in the same 
Bad predicament as to bone and skin. They marched 
in a line, whilst the leader of the troop sounded a 
trumpet whose note was frightful. This tmmpet/^r was 
followed by an ensign who carried a banner on which 
Dkath was painted. All who followed this personage 
carried, each of them, some attribute of death, according 
to the inventive genius of these inoxliaustible Jesuits 
In the rear of this awful procession was a very high 
chajnot, after the fashion of Jnggemnnt, drawn by four 
oxen, all black, and driven by a coachman, who repre- 
sented old Time. Tins chariot was adorned with divers 



270 



HiaiORY OF THE JESUITS. 



paintings, representing the tropluea of death. It was 
lighted up at the foiir comers with four huge lantema, 
which gave a light as red as blood, and by a prodigious 
number oF torches made of black resin. From the 
middle of this chariot there issued a skeleton of colossal 
magnitude, holding in his hand a tremendous ecytho, 
and carrjiiiig ou his back a quiver full of poisoned 
arrows, with spades, hoes, and other grave-instruments. 
at his feet. Kound about this skeleton appeared fifteen 
slaves, repreeenting the different ranks and conditions 
of men- Death held them all enchained ; and they sang 
hymns adapted to the fiituation which they represented. 
This frightful skeleton was so tall that it rose as high as 
the roofs of tlte housea, and chilled with affright all who 
beheld it. Through all the principal streets of Palermi> 
the procession wended, and made a great impression oti 
the natives, says the historian, even on those who were 
accustomed to approve of notliing that was done by the 
Jesuits,^ 

Nor was the inventive genius of Jesuitism confined to 
the horrible. In the same year, 1567, at Vienna, they 
performed the usual procession on the festival of 
Corpus Christi, with striking magnificence, and 
glorified themselves as much as the wafer they elevated to 
the adoring midtitude. Their Austrian provincial. Father 
Lourenzo M«^o, presided, and was assisted by no leas a 
personage than the pope s nuncio, and the most diatin- 
gnished of Vienna *b gentry and nobility. A troop of musi- 
cians, followed by numerous children representing angels, 
opened the proce.'^sion. A band of Jesuits went next 
in two lines, each behig escorted by two of the principal 
inhahitantfl with tapers in their hands. Another troop 

> SihcchiD. uhi mpta, 1D6, oi ttq. i Qarand, \l 21 1 1 tf Mf, 



Anotlicf' 



/BSU IT-APOST ATB3- 



2n 



of angels followed the Jesuits, and sounded little bells 
as they walked ; and all tho rest of the Jesuits brought 
up the rear immediately before Father Magic. This 
personage carried tho wafer under a superb caJiopy, 
borne by the pope's nuncio, and the most distinguished 
inhabitfLnts of tho city. Magio not only received the 
incense from young ecclesiasticsi but what was most edify- 
ing, says Sacchinus, one of the principal noblemen of the 
land scattered flowers before the holy sacrament, during 
the procession. It pa£sed under a magnificent triumphal 
arch built for the occasion ; — and what inspired more 
devotion, according to the Ramo authority, was the 
Appearance of twelve young Jesmt-BchoIarB, drossod as 
angels, but representing twelve different nations. These 
angels met the procession, and one after the other, 
addressed a complimentary speech to tho wafer, each in 
the language of the nation he represented. It was 
MiM, Bays Sacchinus, that the Company succeeded in 
triumphing over heresy in Germany.^ If there was 
then, 3S at tho present day amongst us, a poor-hearted 
race of sentimental heretics who looked For a god where 
benightei pagans find one — then these Brahminic pro- 
cessions served the Jesuits a turn : but it unfortunately 
happened in the very year 1567, that two of their 
principal ppofeasors apostatised and abjured the religion 
of Homo. Tho first was Edward ThorUj and J„^J^. 
the second Belthasar Zuger. Both were pro- »pMtii«, 
feesors in their college at Dillingen. In these men the 
Jesuits lost two excellent members, and the loss was 
the more afflicting inasmuch as they foresaw that the 
detectable heretics would ring a triumphant peat on the 
occasion: — nor were they wrong in the eKpeetation, 

> SMCfain. lib. ili, ISO, tfir^.; Qnrsnel^ ii. aiS> 



272 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS, 



The apostacy was duly celebrated throughout Germany, 
and nujiierous peus iiiflicti^d pliigiics on the Curapanv.' 
but the Jesuits were, oq this occasion, wise enough to 
hold their peace, and not make bad worse, by those 
petulant recriminations with which they subsequently 
disgraced themselves find their Company: — I allude to 
the time ^vhen their PitiDB overtopped Lucifers, juet 
before he vraa seen falling from heaveu. 

In the same year, 1567, Pius V. despatched the Jesuit 
Edmund Hay to Mary Queen of Scots. A nuncio vtbe 
„ „, , added to the uiission, and the Jesuit had his 
An Quwo of sociiia : but he proceeded alono to the scen^ 
of peril^ It was the critical year in tho des- 
tiniea of Mary. She had notified her marriage with 
Damley, and the pope sent this miasiou to congi'atulat« 
ihu queen, and to regulate her conduct, cliiefly, however, 
aa to the restoration of papal supremacy in Scothmd 
The zealous pope sent her a letter written with his own 
hand, assuring her of his paternal affection for herself 
and her Idugdom, and his desire eo ardent to see the 
Catholic religion re-estabhshed, thnt he would Bell, Baid 
he, the ^t ckalive of the chm'ck in the cause — a Benti- 
ment which shows tbi? mistatec notions of theae timea, 
— as if any church can be really defended or established 
by mtmey. The Jesuit was to follow up this devoled- 
ness of the pope, by holding forth flattering hopes to 
the queen, flattering indeed, but cruelly fallacious. 
Elizabeth being apoatobcally deprived of her right to 
the throne of England, pruscrihed, excommuuicated — 
nothing woul<l be easier than to place Mary on the tlironc 
— as soon as it was made vacant — which was to become 



■ (^oevoet, iL 207 ; SKcbin. vfrt tup-4, 126, tt tr^ ' 



the " stirring" problem for tlie Catholic party with the 
Jesuits at their head.' But that waa no time for distant 
hope**: misery, such as few womt^n should endure or 
deser^'e, now began to make despair tho ci'uol prompter 
of every act performed or permitted by the unfortunate 
Queen of Scota. Was ever woman more beloved or 
desrred— was ever woman more humiliated or j^j„^ q^^^^ 
debused tlian Mary Queen of Scots? The ^^^^"^ 
first calamity that hefel her was her education at the 
diasohite court of France : the next was her marriage 
with a fragile thing evidently destined to be prcmatui'cly 
rut down : let a veil be tlirown over bur short vndow- 
hood in the dissolute court of Fmnce, — for it is not 
necessar)" to believe that she did anything more {as is 
asserted) than write sonnets on her lord deceased. 
Thus prepared — an ardent, self-willed creature, accus- 
tomed to the display of woman's omnipotence — with 
that aen&ualism impressed on her features, which con- 
stitutes the most unfortunate " destiny" of woman, Mary 
became Queen of Scotland. It was necessary that she 
should take a husband. She chose Dandey, her first 
cousin — almost a brother — the pope gave a dispensa- 
tion : but the union did not prosper. Damley disgusted 
ber. The young queen lavished her affections on an 
accorapliahed Italian. It is possible tliat Rizzio waa a 
Jceuit in disguise, sent to the queen by the pope, just 
like the Jesuit Nicholai", who was sent in disguise txj the 
Queen of Sweden to '* wait upon her."* Damley got 
Rizzio murdered. Then Damley was murdered ; and 
within three months the queen is the " wife" of Both- 
woll, who was acrusod of her husband's murder — and a 



■ ThiUD. 1. Hi : Safcliin. lib. r; Quccnel, ii. 2\9. 
' Sju*chm, lib. v.; MuTnUmrg, iL ?49. 



vot. n. 



274 



HISTtlHY OF THE JESUITS. 



married man withal. These events took place bet^reen 
15G5 and 1567 — within two years. And in tlie next 
year ahe began that protracted captivity in England — 
rendered so disa-strous to the Catholics and herself hy 
tho machinations of her ^Guds, which she must be 
CNCuacd for promoting — and fiTially, by her cruel dcatK 
destined to enlist those sympathies of the human heart 
in her favour, which bewilder the judgments of history, 
and will for ever procure the unfortunate Queen of 
Scots admirers and defenders. Her purer sonnets and 
her lettera I admire: they are literally hcautifiil : hiit 
they only attest certain fine states of her finer feoUngQ : 
tliey caunot wash away facts, thonjjh we add to them 
the tribute of tears, I lament her fate : btit I do not 
believG her guiltless.' Aud yet pity wrings the hands 
when wo reflect that afler all her impindeuces or levities 
or sins, if you please — she was made the pretext of so 
many designing machinators who speculfited on her 
misfortune, Philip of Spain and tho Jesuits fed on her 
calamity like the vultures uf the desert. 

And now that most Christian king, from a suspiciotis 
disturber of the Jesuits, has become their hearty friend. 
V^j;tnii l^i^ distinguishing visit and ahnfi to their 
"' ^*'^- house in Portugal, immediately after his usur- 
pation of the throne, was followed up with a more 
glorious reward : — verily had Philip discovered that the 
Jesuits were useful eervauts. With gushing houuty he 
acceded to their requests— and flung open to tlie enter- 
prising JefluitB the gates of Pern, Kingdom of the 



^ 



' See Rftomcr'* adrarrtiblp Contriliutionti, Ellz. and Mjirj- ; also P*ilitic. Wat. 
nf iCiicland, i,; and HjF^t. if tlio i^ixtwnlU aud Sovciitwiilh Ctnturiefi. It aemu 
tn mr lluit llaumcL'^ indiiHtrv biu <'OiU|]lcLt]l^ tialAljIiAli^ dip nb^n upuiioa , 
KnA thf qucsliolJ shmild 1» nnw nl n?Hl, learing tlia Qneeo^B vuliiuiinoua Ivttcn 

to nt*nd b/ their owu mi?riTii] wbidi ih*-y will ^■>rt4iiily do 



THE flPANIARDS IN I'ERU, 



270 



tinlbrtumte Incos — too rich in guld and pi-ccious gems — 
the only excuse for the unutterable crimes that Chris- 
tians committed against their God, to the destruction of its 
inhabitants I A hundred i>ens have celebrated the Eden 
of PeiTi ; — its incalculable wealth, its wise government, 
the contentment of its people : and all remember Kow 
the kingdom of the lucas was swept away by the 
Spaniard:^ under Pizarro — the cruel free-ljooter, whose 
atrocities were countenanced, promoted, exhorted by the 
Dominican Bishop Valverde. Spain's king was enriched : 
enormous fortunes were made by his subjects: God's 
skies above did not rain thunderbolts: the dreadfiil 
rriminals enjoyed the fruits of iniquity ; and recklessly 
adde<l crime to crime — as though there was no God — 
no avenger in this world as well as the next. What a 
jjicture is that which Las Caaas mifolds, describing the 
destniction of tin? Indies by the Spaniards. The natives 
slaughtered for sport. An Indian cleft in twain to 
prove dexterity. Pregnant women torn asunder. Babes 
at ihc bi'eafit cut in pieces to feed wild bcasta and 
hungry dogs. iSome tliey burnt alive ; others they 
drowned ; and some they hurled headlong down a pre- 
cipico. The Indians whom they compelled to fight 
against their own countrymen, they also compelled to 
feed on the flesh of their prisoners, wliom they slaugh- 
tered and roasted. And those whom they made tlieir 
lYCS, perished in such nimibcrs by starvation and ill 
^treatment, that Las Casas a.S6ures us, their dead bodies 
floating on the waves answered the purpose of a cora- 
pafis to a mariner saihug to the Aceldama of Peru. In 
forty years eighteen millions of Indians were the victims 
oiTured up liy Spain in thanksgiving for the New World 
which tlie pope conceded to her king. And yet it is 



T J 



276 



HISTORY OF THE JKSriTS. 



admitted that these poor pagans were the most docile, 
the most peaceful creatures in the world. But what a 
sample of Christianity had they experienced! They 
hated it accordingly ; and when for refusing to receive 
" the faith." some of them were condemned to death, 
and the monks still tried to '' convert them," they asked 
'' ffhithor do Spaniards go after death V " The good 
go to Heaven," was the reply. '' Then," they exclaimed, 
" we would ratlier not go to Heaven to meet with 
Spaniards/' They evidently could not distinguish the 
men from the religion they professed — poor miserahle 
pagans — but tlieir hettera were as blind in their hatred 
of the Jew and the heretic.^ It is woil known that 
to supply tho place of the slaughtered Indiani?, or to 
have more work pcrforuicd, the Spaniards transported 
negroes from Africa; and the dreadful crimes of tho 
conquestadores found defenders in 8pain, who argu- 
mented on the justice and equiU/ of the war cm^ied on 
hjf the Kinff of Spain agaimt the Indians — wonk wliich 
are the title of a booh by Spain^s historiographer, the 
Canon Scpulveda, The Universities of Alcala 
and Salamanca decided against the publicatioa 
of the work : but the canon sent the manuscript to 
Rome, where it was printed without censure. It is 
creditable to Charles V. that he forbade its publication 
in his dominiona, and caused the suppression of all tlie 
copies he Rould find,^ 

To this depopulated country the Jesuits were dis- 
patched, imder the most favourable auspices, like their 
glorious beginning. Very different was this mission 



Sepiiltedn. 



> Fop the wh^le acfoiint, fwo Las Caaas'a boofc Oi\ tJic Datrnctim of the fndm 
bv the ^pcminrds, 1 quote fn«n the French, ZV ia Lkftrwiiort tUt Indft jar la 
Bspa^nU^—Jtattn, linf". ' Thu*n. I. •;< ; Du Pih^ Dibfint ; Qunael, U. tM. 



ESTABLISHMENT OF JESUITS AT LIMA. 



277 



T1>D Jfltgila 



to alJ othei's. It was a gusbiiig. a h^rty gift to the 
Company of Jesus, from King Philip IL of SjKiiii and 
Portugal At the king 'a expense a house was n^ii;^*. 
to be built for thorn at Lima, the capital of Pgi-u. ''"'^" 
A general muster of Jesuits war* made from the three 
provinces of the Company in Spain, to found a colony 
in the wealthy Icingdom of the Incaa — destined to be- 
come one of the richest strongholds of the Jesuits in 
the day of their glory.^ Philip's idea was that "to 
eternise his domination in a country whose very name 
luid become s^Tionymoua with riches, it waa necessary 
to teach the natives to love the Gospel/' aud ■* with 
tlie hope of insuring a triumph to liia new system of 
wnquest, he demanded Jesuits from Francis Borgia/'^ 
There were eight Jesuits in the expedition. 
A cordial reception welcomed the Peruvian 
Apostles. A magnificent college and a splendid chui'ch 
arooe a£ by the lamp of Aladdin. And the Jesuits did 
good aenice to the king— did their best to carry out 
fajfi idea by making the gospel subservient in *' eternising 
his (iominaticn " in Peru. Indefatigably they catechised 
the Indians, and preached to the Spaniards. One of 
tiiem evangelised the negroes — " taught them patiently 
to endure tlie toils of slavery/' Much better would 
it have been — much more consistent, had the Jesuits 
Caught the king to obviate those toils by proving, as they 
ccml<l that slavery was incompatible witli Christianity 
— but that was not the way to carry out the kings 
"idea** — so they endeavourt^d to make iisefid, willing, 

* " Philippe IL HSDtJl iiuc, pour vtrrni^ei ah itviminntion aur mt pt^yn daiU V* 
MMD taiant ^lAil itcvmu ejnon^ lue do xlciHutKn, il FaIIiviI i-ppicuJre duk uidf^i-DrB 
i feizufr rEvHhgilp. Diu» rcnpoir d« tain [nnniplifi' HOti »<juvflk» flyBtfiUtf 



278 



THE raSUlTS, 



Pm^FU. 



docUe slavea for the master whom they also served. 
Tliey established schools for the young, ami a congre- 
gation of young Spanish nol>les. In a single year their 
success was so great, that twelve more Jesuits were 
imported. With that astonishing rapidity in acquiring 
languages, which is constantly asserted by 
their letters^ these Jesuits astonished the na- 
tives by addresaing them in their own vernacular Soon 
they dispersed all over the kingdom — radiating fl-oin 
the cjipital, which was a certain conquest. Three years 
scarcely elapsed when a college arose in Cusoo, the 
ancient capital of the Incas : but that was already built: 
it was a Peruvian palace, and its name was Amarocaiia, 
or the House of the Se^'pejifs. Another college had 
arisen in the city of Paz. To supply labourers for these 
mmierous vineyards an estmordinary effort was neces- 
sary or expedient. The Jesiut-provincial of Peru was 
abo counsollor to tho riceroy — in direct con- 
travention of the Cuiistitutious of the Com- 
pany, and a decree <jf the late congregation — but that 
mattered little : — the thing was expedient. The pro* 
viucial looked to the end : the menn^s were " indiffereuu" 
He introduced native recniits into the Company, and 
dispatched them to the work of conversion without suffi- 
cient ia^tniction. He even admitted the half-caates into 
the Company. Hia Jesuit-aubordinates were indignant 
at these and other misdemeanors in his administration^ 
matle representations at Rome, and the first provincial of 
Peru had the honour to he recalled, after beholding the 
glorious advance of his work in the nudst of iutem&l 
division. 

This 18 one of the peculiar features of the Jesuit 
system : however thvided amongst themselves, the Jcsniift 



' Alillir.i 



AVIGNON ASfD THE INQUISITION. 



279 



wuiv alwttjrs ituiled in tlieir uuiward latxiiirs : if they 
retained ihc weaknesses and vices of Iiumanity a^ indivi- 
duala thev Diaua^ed sonieliow to tuake the rest 
Of uiorUus *' periect — in ether words, as the tii« of 
pope said, "they cleaned chiranpya though Uiey 
covered ^R'nisolvea with tho SDOt." This resulted from 
" system " — from rigid obaervance of appointed routine 
— mechanical means eftectiiating moLhanical ends. But 
hence also, tlie want of duralility in all their achicFe- 
meiits. PluUp was satisfied with the results; and in 
1372 he sent thirteen Jesuits to Mexico, to carry out 
the same ideaJ It is some consolation tl^at tlie reign 
of blood was abolished by Uiia " new system of con- 
quest'* — and it was a bleeaing for the poor reoumuts of 
the Peruvian Israel, that the Jesuits were ready to serve 
Uie kio|^ according to his *' idea/' 

But this was neither Philip^s nor the pope's " idea " 
with regard to tlie heretics of Europe. Pius V. had 
long resolved to catabligh tho Inquisition in all ita rigour 
throughout Italy, and in every place wliere his p„,.,,^„y. 
authority might prevail. In spite of all Jiis '''-^*^«"-- 
edbrte. Avignon shrank with horror from the "idea" of 
the terrible tribunal Pius, on the contrary, esteemed it 
exceedingly, because there was no chance of his own 
limbs being dislocated by the tortvu^es, and because he 
lielieTed it the most effectual method of promotiug 
orthodoxy — so despicable was his opimoa of human 
lutgre — or so ulterly blind he was to the fact that 
compulsion is the least successful of all human expedients. 
The kingdom of heaven sufiers violence in a certain 
sense* but man invariably kicks against the pricks in 
every possible scn^ : it is his nature. Pius V. asked 




' CraUnwu, ii. i&&,rt teq. 



280 



EllSTUltY UF THE JEaLlTS. 



Boi'gia fur a man capable of pixfvijiiig the Avignoniaiu 
with the machinery of tlie iDquisitioQ. Ed ahtnamo 
martiri — '' and ire have maitjTs tor maitjrdom if 
required," said a Jesuit gczieral on one occasion, enume- 
rating the classes of his heroes — and on this occaaion, 
Borgia had a man whom he deemed capable of makiny 
martjrs " if required." Tliiawae the isjoioMB PoxsG^irt — 
of Savoj and Bajonne notoriety, Pussevin set to work 
with sermons, gently to entice the people to embrace the 
horrible monster of the luquiflition. Their taate was 
too rough to appreciate the delicacy. Tliey were not 
'' perfect " enough to be zealots. So Posseviii undertook 
by sermons to Uck the young cubs into shape — oxcuae 
the metaphor, for it is the veritable figui-e invented hj 
the Jesuits to typify the fimction of their preachers — ■ 
coHcimtGtontm muuiis. In the IntfUjO you will see the 
great bear at work — -fashioning minds wifh her tongue — 
vos vientes fntjite linguA} But the young rubs of 
Avignon had ovorgro^rn the licking season. The Jesuit's 
sermons excited suspicions, which were confirmed by the 
movements of the pope's legate, and the jXKiple of 
Avignon rose up with one accord against the Jesuits, 
who had a college in the city. They stormed the 
college : the fathers barricaded the doors, and held out 
until the magistrates i^ued a decree by which they 
revoked the grant of the college to the Company. This 



^ Vn%« 165- Hens U ihe \m&\ (i^lCfiqiLQ hUluxb of the ode phntcd bcttMfh 
(he Jesuil-Baikr in (h*> /tmtffo. — What an incon^uouB compuriaen I 



El rudi«ii dcirU poofvkta Imgud - 
Prrgiir, Kterao fdmilcm P&reuti 



Go forth, O Brothers, over U10 wid« 

world. 
And the uniJiApcn poKsTi with yoat 

wiitp tongues : 
Go, luid like ante tike ctenul Pirpnt 
FuliJi^n the jDung t-ubh,'* 



THEIB CONDUCT IN THIU5K CAaBS. 



281 



was an iii&Uible iiiettiod, it appears^ to deal with the 
Jesuits, wlio required "well founded*' colleges: being 
deprived of tlieir revenues they decamped forthwith- 
Under the mask of disinterested piety the JeHuits 
undertako to give instruction ffr/riis: their tcrmfl are 
accepted to the letter ; then the mask falls to the 
ground, their chanty evaporates, and more unconcerned 
than the she-bear of nature, tliey resign their unshapen 
cube without a pang, excepting that whicli roBtilts from 
the losfl of a *' consideration," They struggled, however, 
to have the edict revokedj-^nnd left no means untried 
to soften the magistratea. They appealed to the pope, 
whose scheme had produced the catastrophe. And the 
accommodating pope formally denied to the magistrates 
that he ever thought of introducing the Inquisition, and 
interceded so warmly for his obedient friends, that the 
gratuitous teachers were again provided with their 
coU^o and revcnuea, and proceeded with their work of 
chanty, * If we but compare the conduct of the 
Company in the three cin:umatancea lately described, it 
IB evident that the Jesuits were ready to cany out any 
"idea," however at variance with its antece- 
dent or consequent. In India they were 
demolishing the pagodas of the Hindoos—^persecuting 
the priests without rjuaiter or mercy — propagating the 
&ith with powder and shot.^ In Peru they were 
persuading the poor savages and negroes to sene King 
Pliiiip and the Spaniards, for the sake of God Almighty 
and his Christ. At Aiignon they were appealini^ to the 
same motives in order to make the people submit to the 
retentlesa Moioch of Itome s Inquisition — ,simplrj-dunta^rai 



RclltKiiam, 



1 Tatmer. AdL Poocv.; Surhin. lib. v. L.19 ; Htnct ox Anhiv. Avunfii. ; 

Qoflvd, SAfl. * Ani*, p. 1511. 



282 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



et um/m, — they always kept right l)efore the wind — 
thougli thoir gallant bark rolled borself to pieces at lasU 
Piua V. had other work for his faithful legion : he 
converted them into warriors of the faith. The pope's 
pupr i-ius hatred of heresy and heretics roused him to 
I^IIlo"*" Uic maddest efforts in the cause of orthodoxy. 
^^J- He equipped armies and sent them to the aii 

of various princes then battUng with the Turks or their 
heretic subjects ; but he never sent troops vrithout 
Jesuits to " excite the soldiers to do thcb- duty, and 
inspire them with a generosity altogetlier Christian ;" 
thug the fathers hod tho happiness to contribute to the 
wonderful victories of Lepanto, and Jamac and Mou- 
contour,' the last over the wretched Huguenots of 
France. Awful times were those — times of incessant 
commotion, social, poUtical, and " rehgious/' The coi- 
respondence of Pope Pius V. in the midst of those social 
tempests is a curious expression of the sentiments pre- 
valent at tliat epoch of humanitj'p When Charles IX, 
had resolved on war with his heretics, Piua V. wj-^te to 
all the Catholic princes^ inviting tliem to maintain thai 
zealous son of the Church, who was undertaking the 
complete extermination of the miserable Huguenots. 
Hia letters to Philip II. and to Louis de Gonzague, 
Duke of Ncvers, to the Doge of Venice, to Phihltert, 
Duke of Savoy — all have for their entire ohject the 
obbairiiug uf men and money. He granted, himself^ 
ten thousand ounces of gold to carry on the holy war. 
In his letters to Charles IX., to Catherine de' Medici, 
he sjieaks of nothing but the enornuty of the crime of 
heresy, and the vengeance that ought to he inflicted for 
it, either to satisfy the just auger of Heaven or to reclaim 

^ VvfjuB, ii. w, 



THE WAR OP ORTHODOXY, 



283 



the obedience of rebellious subjects — two ideas which 
wore then intimately connected. "Give no longer to 
the common enemies/* aaid the pope, "'give them not 
the chance of rising agaiuat the CatlioUcs. We exhort 
you to this with all the might, all the ardour of which 
we are capable .... May your majesty continue, as 
you have constantly done, in the rectitude of your soul 
and in the simplicity of your heart, to seek only the 
honour of God Almighty, and to combat openly and 
ardently the enemies of the Catholic rehgion to thmr 
death/^ Wliilst the common fatlior, the type, tlie pcr- 
soniScation ul" CathoUcism displayed and developed such 
ideas, ought we to be aatoniahed at the seal, the heroic 
ardour which animated his people in the war against 
the Huguenots ? ^ And fierce and horrible was that 
bloody warfare to hecome. There was to be no hope, 
no rest for the Huguenot. So incessantly was he kept 
in the roaring blaze of persecution, that the word 
Hugueuot became, and still is, the name for a kettle in 
France. Huguenots and Catholics all were drunk \vith 
the rage of mutual slaughter, whose prime movement 
came irom the Pope of Kome. The King of Th^Ki„g 
Sjiain fanned the flame of civil war; kept it **f^P»^ 
alive by bis incessant advice, not vrithout gold— the 
gold that was cuiseJ by tlie blood of Indians crying to 
God for vengeance. And that vengeance was man^s own 
making — the most avrful that can befall humanity — the 
prostitution of religion to the vile paaeions and iutereats 
of cidculating pariies. There was some excuse for the 
muliitude — the people who were roused to fight the bat- 
tles of the designing great ones — but the groat waded 
through their despicable blood to the accomplishment 



^ C4i|4ngu',^cC 39a 



184 



HieTORY OF THE JESUITS, 



The Jesait», 



of their desires, Aud there is some excuse for Uie 
Jesuits, if their time-serviiig dCFOtedaess to lUl wLo 
would emploj them, made a virtue of that iuteuBest lust 
of their hearts to overtop all competitors in the struggle 
for influence on mankind. With the armies sent into 
France by Pope Pius, Jesuits went exulting, 
exhorting, inspiiing desperate energy to the 
fiend of their religion, panting for the blood of a brother. 
Nor did the Jesuit-aristocrats fail to enlist the feehngs 
of the whole Company in the enterprise. Their histo- 
rian tells us that Borgia ordered prayers to be said 
thj'oughout the Company, a thmi.mnd ma sues to be 
celebrated, for the success of this worse than pagan 
warfare ; aud he adds, that doubtless the said prayen 
aud masses eventuated the glorious Catholic victories of 
Thtir 1569! Jesuits were present^ as they tell us; 
wpioiti ^jj^j ^jjg battle of Moncontour merited, accord- 
ing to the Jesuit martyrologist, eternal glory for one 
of their lay- brothers, named Lelio Sanguinini, who 
perislied amongst the slain of the papal army. And 
at the battle of Jaruai: their famous Auger had the 
honour of assisting the Duke d'Anjou — afterwards 
Henry IIL — in donning his cuirass and pulling on hia 
boots.* The function of a valet he soon e^sehanged for 
that of propagandist — ** converting " iu eight days, 360 
Huguenots, and founding a convent of nuns — and then, 
in horrible mockery of premeditated wue, puV 
lishiiig a book whicli he called The Spiritnat 
Stitfar h sweekn the BitiernesH of the tVars of Jieli- 
ff'wn!'^ Adored were the Jesuits by theij* part> : but 
execrated by their opponents. Listen to one of the latter 



Their 
■11 frunv. 



■ SMchin. lib, iu< \%A—Ul,€li;eq, 

' Sftwhin, ^iaupt^, I'JO, ciwf. ; Quvauck, U. 267. 



AN OPPONENTS DEdCBirTrON OP TflKM. 



285 



" It ia not the preaching of the word of God tliat they 
[the other party] demand. Thoy care not wliether this 
kingdom be peopled with good preachers, or that the 
people be instructed in their salvation, or that the 
Ktrayed sheep may be reclaimed. No, — they want 
Jtr^uifs who inspire the venom of their conspiracy, under 
the sliadc of sanctity, in thia kingdom : — Jesuits, who 
under the pretext of confession (what horrible hypocrisy) 
abuse the devotion of those who believe them, and force 
them to join that league and their party with an oath ; 
who exhort subjects to kill and assaasinate their princes, 
promising them pardon for their sins, making them 
behcve that by such csccrabic acts tlicy merit Paradise. 
True colonicH of Spaniards, true leaven of SpEun in this 
kingdom, wliich has for yeai-s soured our dough, has 
Spaniarded the towns of France under the brows of 
the Pliarisees, wliose houses are more dangerous than 
citadels, whose assemblies are nothing but conspiracies. 
Such are they known to be : such are for us the fruits 
of the get»eral assembly which they lately held in ParinS, 
over which presided a certain Jesuit of Pontamousson, 
the director of those designs. Others there are who 
blame the king [Henry IIL] in open pulpit, inflame the 
people, arm them with furv against the magistrates, 
preaching the praises, recommending the virtues of 
those pretended scions of Charlemagne. This is the 
ardent zealf this is the religion that antoiatee them. 
And would you see them ? When tliey are in Germany, 
they are Lutherans. They have an eye to the clergy ; 
they have an eye to the Bervice ; they take precious 
good care of their residences ; possessing numerous 
bishoprics, numerous abbeys, contrary to tlie canons, 
contrary to the Council which they go preaching in 



286 



HISTORY OP THB JEaUlTS, 



France ; and selling the woods, tbev waste the iloiuato, 
leaving the churches and dwellings to rot ; selling relicx, 
reserving for themselves all tliat is most precious. Few 
alms they givo : the poor are naked, and even the 
priests die from hunger. True heirs, not of Charle- 
magne indeed, but of Charles df Lm^^aine^ who knev 
how right deroutlv to sell the great cross for hia 
profit, with the richest jewels of Metz."^ Such being 
the sentiments against the JesaitB in France, the ques- 
tion is, not how far they merited this obloquy, but how 
far it was impossible for them to be otherwise than 
thorns in tho sides of the people — by their rery pre- 
?*oncc alone keeping alive and stiraidating the rancour 
of parties. 

Wherever they wandered, the Jesuits were drawn, or 
naturally Fell, into every scheme that disturbed agilated. 
harassed luimauity. In that very year when they 
joined the pope's army in France, they enhsted them- 
selves in the espedition of the Spaniard, warring with 
Thr Moon ^'**^ Moore of Grenada, whom he drove to 
pffirca^u. revolt, Ferdinand ttie Catholic had hiunl 
4000 Jews together : he bad driven the greater part of 
the Moors into exile ; thoRe who remained hatl purchaser) 
by the ceremonial of baptism a dear permi^ion to see 
the sun sliine on the tops of Alhambra, The 8paniar<ls 
despised them, insulted them. They hated the Spimiarda 
and their rehgion. Clinging together in the Alrezin of 
Grenada, thoy never resigned the language of Mo* 
hammed ; and the dress of the Arab still grai^e the 
descendants of that race whose Llood had Ix'ttered 
the Man of Spain. The Jesuits went amongst them. 
and, according to thfir historian, made number1««a 

■ Mnmay Du Ple»iL», Mem, t Ahljttm^ 



REVOLT OF THE MnORS OP OKENADAh 



287 



conversioria. Tf they did so, there waa uo necessity 
for advising royal interference to promote the cause of 
religion. In concert with the Archbishop of Grenada, 
they induced King Philip to prohibit, under severe 
pGnalties, the use of the baths, all which were to be 
domolishefl. Besides, the Moorish women wore to dress 
in the fajshicn of Spain : all were to renounce their 
language, and speak only Spanish. The Moors revolted, 
A tliousand remembrances nerved titeir arms, and awoke 
the energies which had won for their race glory, king- 
doms, supremary among the nations. Led on by a 
yoiztlifnl but valiant descendant of that race* they spread 
haroc and dismay far and wide. They began with the 
house of the Jesuits, AThich they forced, and sought, but in 
rain, the life of the superior, Tiiroughout the suiTomid- 
ing country they profaned tlie clmrches, maltreated the 
priests and the monks. A war with the rebels ensued ; and 
the Je^iit^ joined the armies of their master " to excite 
tho soldiers, aiid inspire Christian generosity:" whilst 
I^hp6«^ vho remained at Grenada stood as sentinels to 
Ifnrd the city from surprise. The Moors were finally 
defeated, and reduced to a worse condition than before. 
They were forced more strictly to conform to the Church: 
they were scattered at a distance from Grenada, can- 
toned amongst the interior provinces ; and the prisonei^s 
were sold a3 slaves.^ It was no consolation to the Moora 
that the Jesuits loet their house iii the Alreziii of 
Drenada. 

The warlike spirit of the Company animated the sons 
of Loyola in India aa well. The Portuguese were 
masters of Amhoyna, where they were well defended ; 
ind they eonceive<l the design of building a fort in an 

' Sfuohin. liV v.; Qtic«Qtil,iL; HifL of Spun, 121 



288 



HISTORY OF THE JKSUITS. 



adjacent islaud. The inhabitants granted permissi' 
but whether they repented of their imprudence, or we 
j^^^^^ impeUed by their neighbours, tliey set upoa 

vvrion. the Portuguese workmen engaged in the e 
tion. Vengeatfce, of course^ was resolved. Fearful 
ravages ensued : the Jesuit Pereira was amonirat the 
leaders of Portugal ; but still the barbarians Imd tlio, 
advantage. Two Jesuits headed a reinforcement 
decided the victory in favour of the Portuguese, whi 
would otherwise have been cut off to a man. Tlie first 
Jesuit was Vineent Diaz : he wore a cuirass, and carried 
a huge cros,s in the van, whilst father Mascai"enia. eilificd 
the rear. Diaz was wounded, and would have been 
killed liad he not been cuirassed. The conquest of t 
whole island gave finality to the achievement of tli 
free-booters — with the timely aid of the warrior^, 
Jesuits,^ 

It cannot be denied that the Jesuits were doing their 
utmost to serve the pope in extending the lever of his 
power and prerogatives. Nor can it be gjun- 
said that Pope Pius was a good master to hia 
good and faithful servants. He bad enrich 
them with benefices. He had exalted them with b 
He had made them powerful with privileges. Andno^ 
he generously gave them the Ptyt/itt*ntiajy of 
Romo. That word, like a ^-ast many others^ 
has been strangely perverted in the coiu^e of 
time. Its meaning ou the present occasion demands 
some explanation, particularly as this grant was the 
sixth bouse of the Jesuits in Rome. The Koman Peni- 
tentiary is an establishment instituted for the accommo- 
dation of the pilgrims from all parts of the worM, 




IS70.- 

P>pil 

fafourt. 



The Pi?ni- 

(L-DllBFy at 



ullM 
no^^ 



^ Sacohin. lib. t. ; QtiMnel, R 371 ; Vnjuge nux lDde«, iii- p, }97. 



THE PENITENTUKY OK ROMB. 



269 



impeJled to Kome by tl^eir devotion, or by Uie guilt ol 
Home enormous sin, wliose absolution was reserved for 
Rome in |>articular ; in other words, tliere were, and 
there ai'o, certain tenible perpetrations for wliicli there 
is no ahaolution either from priest or bisliop without the 
special liconce of the pope. The Komans, you perceivoT 
are Iicreby highly favoured in not having to go far for 
pardon. Tins may have been one of the causes whicli 
made Uome (tlie city of Rome) at all times the very 
model of ever>'" possible crimo imaginable. Now, to hoar 
ihe confessions nf these multilinguist pilgrims, there 
were attached to this Penitentiary eleven priests vfho 
spoke, altogether, all the languages of Europe. These 
were presided over by a cardijial with the title of Grand 
Peuitentiary. They lUd not live in community ; but 
each had a fixed salary, constituting a benefice for life, 

'heir salaries were liberal ; and, as it usually happens 
!h cases, particularly in matters spiritual, the peni- 

Dtianes delegated tlieir functions to priests or ciu'ates, 
whom thev remunerated oa sparingly as possible — a 
practice whicb many will pelt at, without considering tiiat 

eir own houses are made of glass. These curates were 
ieneraUy as worthless as their cures or " situations." 

ccording to Sacchinns. these abuses determined Pope 

ua V. to transfer the establishment to the Jesuits. 

flr© wore many objections against Borgia's acceptance 

f the concem. It was eaay to disnii^ tlie fact tliat the 

on would excite the envy of many, — those whom 

supplanted, especially ; but the statutes of the 

positively prohibited the acceptance of any 

Tenues excepting for colleges. It was easily managed, 
he ftifficulttea vanished like smoke in the clear blue 
ty of Jesuit -iuTention. The Jemiits satietied ihc 

TOk. n. V 



290 



HlSTOfiY OF THE JESUITS- 



Tin JoTjiu 

fttOffurcd ht 
CUrki IX. 



sorrowing penibeiitiiLries (jiitgoiiig, by granting them a 
pensioi] ; ami, secondly, tlioy traiiBferrert some of tlieir 
students to tlie house, so as to bring it under the mask 
of a college — thus exhibiting one of those curious and 
edifying practical equivorationH ^rhosG neatness is equftl 
to tboir utility on tlelicatc occasions. Thus the holj 
general yielded to the echeme, like a gentle '* beast of 
burthen/' and received on his back at one load, for the 
res Socieiftth, — the stoik of the Company, — no less than 
twelve of tlie richest benefices in Rome, which were 
enjoyed by tlio Jesuits to the day of their destruction.' 
They were not loss favoured in Franco. At length, 
after all their useless efforts to manage the University and 
Parliament> royal favour enabled them at once 
to disjionse with the sanction of their rivals. It 
was certainly to be expected that Cliarles IX., 
so completely under the influence of Philip 11., should 
follow tlie example of the Spaniard, and patronise the men 
who could carry out his " idea" ao aucccssfiUlj. The time 
wftfi coming when the Jesuits would be useful iu France, 
The French king issued a mandate to his parhament for 
the speedy termination of the process against the 
disputed donations, which he confirmed to the Company 
without resei've. The Jesuits followed up this display 
of royal patronage with extraordinary efforts at conver- 
sion :^thcy would repay the king with the souls of 
Huguenots. Auger and Possevin, the two grand apos- 
AiiiTPrand tolical tuiuters of the Company, were incas- 
PouoviD. santly in the pulpit or on horseback, Possevin 
laid the foundations of a college at Rouen, and threw 
himself on Dieppe, a stronghold of heresy. He preached 
two or three sermons, and, wonderful to tell, fifteen 



Sncchin. llb> ti.^ Queuvil, ii, 283. 



A MIRACLE. 



291 



A oiinclc. 



hundred Hugueuota were converted. Pitv that such an 
apostle did not do the same in every town of France : 
there would have been no Huguenots left to be slaugh- 
tered : the space of a single year would havo been 
enough to forefend the maledictions of ages, Posae^Tn 
left his work unfinished ; he was called from hia miracu- 
lous npoatolate to gratify the Cardinal de Bnnrbon at 
Rouen, with a course of Lent sermons I His snbstitiito, 
however even eurpassed the apostle. As rapidJy, he 
converted fifteen hundred Hiignenots, — which must 
havo exhaustt^il heresy at the small seaport of Nor- 
mandy, This natural a&sociation of seaport with fishes, 
seems to have su^ested a corresponding miracle to the 
secretaries of Jesuit-ambassadors — for we are told that 
tliis last apostle at Dieppe, attracted into the 
nets of the fishermen the shoals of herrings 
which had swum off to other coasts — since the infrodttc- 
tion of/t€j'esy, says SiK^hinusl Poitiers, Niort, Chatel- 
temut, and other towns of Poitou, ftirnished sintilar 
miraculous conversions to six other Jesuits — although 
in the tniddle of the eighteenth century these towns 
continued to be strongholds of heresy^ filled with Cal- 
nnistfl, notwithstanding the fine houses which the 
Jesuits possessed in Normandy and Poitou,* And if it 
be more difficult to make one good Jesuit than a 
thousand ordinary priests : and if an ordinary Jesuit 
may convert fifteen hundred heretica with two or three 
sormonSf — then the conversion of a Jesuit must be 
tantamount to tliat of some ten thousand lie- Another 
reties — and such a conversion came to pass •p*«»>* 
about the same time : a German Jesiut apostatised and 
took a wife. He was of the college at Prague. Vain were 

■ SaecldD. nb. ^. : Quvonel, ii. 266, Kt ttq. 
U 2 



292 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



all the proviuciars efforts to reclaim the lost sheep ^ 
vain were tlie prayers of the Jesuits ; vastly thej 
abuse the man for his secession ; deeply they cut into" 
his reputation for bringing discredit upon thorn — in the 
midflt of the lynx-eyed heretics. And they pour tha 
phial of God'a judgment upon his head, devoted to ' 
destruction by the curses of the Jesuits, saying: **TheJ 
plague which spared the city of Prague seized th^I 
apostate: it killed him and the ivoman who had ih9\ 
melancholy courage to hnk her destiny vnih his!"', 
Those who can gay such things may he simply infatuate 
with rancorous zeal : but they c^an claim no praise or 
congratulation aa to their Itearts or tlieir minds. And 
as a set-off to tliat ranccur, public rumour trumpeted 
the bad morals of the Jesmts themselves at Vienna andl 
appealed to the evidence of a woman for the attestation 
of sin : nay, it was proclaimed that disguises were useil 
to facilitate the indulgence of rice. Truly or fabely, it 
matters little to inquire, since tlie Jesuits so rajicorously 
blasted the reputation of a member who joined the ranks 
of the detestable heretics. =^ 

The fortunes of war harassed the Jesuits more 
effectually than the loss of a member or the obloquy of 
fame. The " idea " of tlie Spaniard was even 
destined to recoil upon liinL^elf with vengeance 
redoubled^ and to re-ax^t against all who leal a 
hand to its development. The mighty flchemes of heretic- 
extirpation prompted by Tope Pius, imdertaken by King 
Philip and King Cliarles, were fast progressing to a 
dreadfiil consummation. To work the ferocious Alva 



Tbc SpantBUl 
in tho 
Xcthi^rlandi. 



' ** Lb peato, qui ^rar^AU la rUle de Ptk^ia, &lti?igiiLt TapokUt : die \f bi* 
■vec U femme qui *v^t pu le trifllo courage d'iu«i>der wdevUu^ a¥W! b •kluiv.' 
^CrthtiMu, li, 48. = SftcchiiL M "^i, 9*% tt Kq. j Queanel, 3. 207. 



THE SPANIAilD [N THE NETHERLANIW* 



29Z 



I 



Trent, exulting over tliu tortures and the blood of the 
rebels in Flanders, For the Catholic refugees from 
England there was gold in abundance, splendid liberality. 
For the native heretics there were tortures, unspeaJtable 
cruelty — and yet — eveniu vfisto — with vast benefit to 
the Catholic enuso, according to tho JcBuit Strada.^ 
Alva had cut down the Protestant leaders Egniout and 
HoHL The prisons were filled with nobles and the rich. 
The " Cornia'l of Blood " had the scaftbld for its cross of 
aalvation ; and the decrees of the Inquisition for its 
gospel Men were roasted alive : women were delivered 
over to the soldier^s brutality. Alva boasted that he had 
consigned to deatli eighteen thousand Flemings, And 
who were these adversaries of the Spaniard ? Who were 
the men whom this ruthless t\Tanny drove to revolt ? 
A peaceful tribe of fishermen and shepherdfi. in an 
almost forgotten comer of Europe, which with difficulty 
they ha<l rescued from the ocean ; the sea tlieir profes- 
aiou, and at once their wealth and their plague ; 
poverty with freedom tlieir highest blessing, their 
glory, tleir virtue. The severe rod of despotism was 
held suspended over them. An arbitrary power threatr 
ened to tear away the foundation of their happiness. 
The guardian of their laws became their tyrant. Simple 
in their political inatincta, as in their mannci"S, tliey 
dared to appeal to ancient treaties, and to remind the 
lord nf both tho Indies of the rights of nature- A name 
decides the whole issue of things. In Madrid that was 
called rebellion, which in BriL^els wa^ styled only a 
lawful remonstrance. The complaiiits of Brabant required 



ban nuv Lofleaie iTfltilu(i»."^i>t Jkito Bely. [tifi. 



2!)4 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



a prudent mediator Pliilip seut an executioner, and 
the signal of war was giteii.* Driven to frenzy, the 
cruel battle-field was their only refuge — retaliating 
slaughter, deatniction, their only hope : — for kings had 
not yet been taught to fi^d that they are simply the 
aervaiitB of their people for pmiii^hmenL as soon as they 
ceaso to be the esponent of God's providence over the 
land they call their kingdom. The Pope of Rome 
The popt'i sanctioned the wickedness of kings in those 
tfcnciiflb, ihx^jB. Pope Pius, as I have stated, pmised 
and rewarded Aha for his atrocities; he stimulated 
Philip mth ojihortatiou, aiid even gave him a " diapeiisa- 
tion " to marry the betrothed bride of his ottm son — a 
dispensation to marry ids tnoji fUece, who was disap- 
pointed of a husband by the untu/iefy denlh of Don 
Carlos— of whicli it were to be wished that Thilip was 
guUtless.^ Such was the mediation of the popedom 

■ Schiller, Revolt. IntroiL 

' ** ProtCfilAnt wiiitrn rh^cust iJiu king of pningjiiiig Lift Hm dm'iiig hla eapVviq 
[boiug »iiiHpect4iil of hrrotiy, juiJ klmnn to L>> fut'onriitff Otf taaUtMtrmt$ of tJu 
ye(f\trlandi]j nod also Iija yoiuig qui^cn, n Tl'w monUifl afterw^rdB, wh^n ^ 
died in premature duld-b^d- SpuiiAh writers gt^non^lj stale ihat Doa Orloi 
di«d of ft fever ; and of the authors ^bo may be eHttpmud impirual, matt 
ftUogn tJuil CarUa mt^utioaallj brought on such a fever hy intciiip^iihiico, wtiibi 
o(}iPra na^iorL thit he wba Hulemoly rtelirprpd hy lua fulhor inlu tho huitlE nf Iha 
luquiflitloii ; H'lw convicted by that fearful trlbuiiiil of heref^, luid se&t^nad tfl 
deathf when, ob nn e^pct^iaJ indulgcni^c, he vna aliened |o choo^ the mode of 
hifi txeention, oixiE ohoso pnHon^ Tho bt^lter ojiimiili teems to be, thftt his doatJ] 
wan a lutunbl uac. At sud' it ^viis uiniiuncfMl j *hen Uic king received Ihs 
iiitelLigeni-f* with e^vpreuiiDnB of dei^p bditdw, retiring Id n nionimUirf for & i^MUl 
lime, tlie cfvrt wukt into moumiugf aihl all the nsimt funns of |Tief v«n 
ubaervpd. Philip favc, howt^ver, fui nir of £:re<libilitj^ lo Uie horrible und im- 
probahle ni^cuulion of bin enemicsj by wqulog hi^ hou^s jtccond betrodicd bndc> 
ftltlumgh bip own uitfcc, sh(.irtlj afttir Irtabtrfl dcaUi. A dinpifji&jLlioii b«iii( irSlli 
KHiii^ diniculty abL&ini>d from t1ii> pdpe, tho ArehducbeH Anus b(?«EAe hvr 
buole's fiiunh wif(>, and tbo motlii-r of liia lieir, inumudi m Uabul hiul left unlj 
dftugIJlcrs/'"//»jf. 0/ Spain, (Lib, of Uuet Kuowl.) 120. Oi^tinvAU pw» a 
«uriou» uotc on t^tis lOfiur. 1 most rcmiud the reAder Ui&t Thilip't QueeOf 
IsAboi of FiTiun', iwtii hvvty pixuiiLaoJ io Dan Carlua -, jud it irt allv^-d Uwfei 
Carloe ui?\cr fargAto lik fachn- fm- robbing bim of hia bcautilul protoificd bride, 



%RE JESTTIT9 DECAMP PBOM FLANDERS. 



295 



'twist heiiven and earth iii tliuse days. And think you 
tliat tlie temporary punishment iiiflictetl by the French 
and Napoleon lias settled the account of humanity 
againgt the popedom 1 We have yet to aeo it swept 
away for ever — and many of us may live to see that 
dcsiraJjle day for religion — for all humanity. 

In the midst of the disorders pro^luced by the 
revolt of the Netherlands, the Jesuits did not think 
proper to expose themselvea to the discretion of the 
I'onfiueroi's, nor the fiiry of the vanquished. They 
decamped. But they took precautions to xi.^ j^m„ 
conceal their iliyht. They doffed their gowns ^'"'^"'^ 
and donned the dress of the coimtry, belted on a sword, 
luid tlius equipped they dispersed in different directions 
— taking the additional precaution of cutting; their 
beards. Their hair they always wore short ; and that 
circumstance may have had some effect in exciting their 
iQCCi^santly active brains — for short briatling hairs are 
powerful electrics, ^ But the reN Sociefaits was not 



muX QiM ibo king ptttertained ■ deep and avigc Jo^ilaiiHygf hie sou's Aitndiuieab 
Id Uk*4 pTTDCHs. CtcEjddku'h cuFiouH ua(D ie 04 rulLown t " A^wanting In a 

muiaseTJplludfSpaBiflL, luJriAtui, taken JoriDK the PeoinBulBT wu^ in mil, 
from thK' jurhivQB of Simu;cu . . , . which muiUM!Tipt wns ui tlit- po&scfuou 
of llie Dukp tie Brogkc, tad probably tliu contpoaitlotL af aome i'ha|ibun of 
bnbcT,'— Don CArloa died in a batti, bis vdna Luvliig toeu ajx'ticd^ and 
Imhtl *«■ poiHiHnl by a tlrink which ECiDg Philip forcHl her la swrnllaw bprorv 

bbeyoa. This wri ling conftrma tho intiinicy Bupposed to oiiat betwwn tbo 
qVMti ud the king's son," I. ii. p. 6G. Wh&t a coHipliration of horrora I And 
y»t IhbPhOipwu the very god of OTthodt>Ky. Wbal a fearful example of 
UfirriDj; tike % nlat uul tunning like a Jevi] ! According to De TboUf Tupfl 
PfaiaV. prikbed Philip for hin elem iincoiapromiHiig »vDnt^ in die eatA^ie 
OMM (!) for which he liad nnt even flpuvrl hia ovn toa.—^i prt/prio Jlto WNI 
pKfrrtUtri. xUii. 1 miut hero i>h«erve tlial Crvtineiu, or Lbo Uiuialntor be quotM, 
bM lakidi gtcat liberiien uith V^ Tbon in die Eev4>ij liaea he puu into iavcrtod 
, as tbongh they weiv iraiubt^ from that audiw, 10 uphold lib idea tn 

I g# Philip's cruelty- — ii. 6C. note. 
> HoiM) to ent alior< tlv hAJr o( pnponcre is to itrolorg their wickedocH by 
tofiiBg up their phf BJcal etcit«nicul in eulitude. A cloui nhavo wMild be io- 
fimt<ly more tu the pnrposei just ha in nuidD(?A. 



2!>6 



H13T0RV OF THE JESUITS. 



utterly ueglected and forgotten. They left a few com- 
pauions thus disguised, to wander up and down, and 
yet keep an eye on the interests of the Company, so a* 
not completely to lose the establishment wliicli they had 
earned with so much ilifficulty-* 

The toTVTi of MechUn or Malines was taken by assault, 

and Alva gave it up to hia houiida for rape and rapine. 

None were spared ; even the monks and the 

1572, The ^ 

lick of nmia were plundered and maltreated by the 

troops of the most cathohc king under his 
general, complimented and rewarded by the Pope of 
Rome, fe-thcr of the faithful, aucccsaor of Hi. Peter, 
Christ's vicar upon earth. The sack lasted lliree days: 
and the fortunate soldiers, glutted with crime and laden 
with the booty, marched into Antwerp, where tliey I 
began to sell off their stolen goods to the best advan- 
tage, *' A priest of the Company of Jesus, who was in 
high repute in Antwerp, assembled some of the mer-1 
uhanta," says Stra^la^ the Jesuit "and induced them to] 
buy up the articles so wa^tefully sold by the 
troops, in order to restore them to the origiUHl 
owners at the same price.'* The "pious merchants" 
complied, according to Strada ; the goods, which wer^^ 
worth one Iiundred thousand florins, were bought in for 
twenty thousand, and resold to the owners at the same^ 
price — the portion which was not redeemed being distri- 
buted among the poor — i?tte7' inopes. Nay, the same 
merchants made a subscription, and freighted a vessel 
with provisions for the unfortunates at Malines. Evea 
the soldiers, by the same Jesuit's exhortation, sent in the , 
same vessel more than a hundred precious vestment 
besides othci" sacred furniture, to be i-estored to the 



Pioui 



■ SaccMn. lib. Tiii, 2135, r^H^. ; Qu«Encl,ii. 201, 



THB JESUIT SCHOOLS. 



297 



monks and nuna gratuitously.* Such is tLe Jesuit- 
vei'siun of the aftair, which, however, was differentlv 
related by other parties. These 8ay that the soldiers 
gave a portion of the booty to the Jesuits, as it was a 
(wmmon practice with them to share their spoil vrith the 
monks : and the Jesuits converted the same into money, 
vdih wliich they huilt their costly and magnificent house 
in Antwerp. Sacchinus deaiea the fact, as a matter of 
course, stating that tite Jesuits were piibUcly accused of 
having built their house out of the spoils of Mechlin ; 
and further, that they had used some of the same money 
to procure the favoiir they enjoyed with Alva's successor 
in the Netherlands — an instance, adds the historian, of 
the malignity and perversity of mac, which can find 
nothing good or virtuous without putting upon it a 
wrong construction,^ It would have been better to 
supply the place of this moral axiom, by stating whence 
the funds were obtained for building or beautifyiJig the 
house at Antwerp. However, perhaps wo may halve 
the evidence on both sides, and believe that the Jesuits 
displayed a kind consideration for the unfortunates of 
MaLnee, and provided for their house in the bargain. 
i It is deUghtful for a sportsman to kill two birds at one 
I shot. 

In the midst of these awful scenes of war in almost 
every other province of the Company, the Jeeuita at 
, Rome were cultivating the arts with tlieir usual activity, 
■tere training youth according to their system, 
rmd mth curious results. The German Col- Jpiuit- 
Icgf, as I have stated, waa filled with the sons 
of the nobility — youths destined for the highest functions 



Stnd>,i3'J. 
1 SMcbiE, Ub. viiu 231 ; Mtl«rco, Hal Dn T^^ Bm ; Qimntt, li. 701. 



298 



HIBTOEY OF THE JESUITS. 



in cliurch aud state — youtbs wlio would become men and 
be placed in a position to influence maay a social circle, 
niajij a city, many a kingdom. Considering the domi- 
uant ideas of the Catholic reaction headed by the pope. 

considering the perfect concun^ence of the Jesuits in that 
movement, we may take it for granted that the hatred 
of the heretics was intensely inculcated in their schook 
as PoBsovinus told tlie Duke of Savoy. In the spreading 
establishments of tlxe Jesuits, therefore, we behold one 
immense Bource of the desperate spirit of conlentioa 
which made that most immoral fii-st centmy of the 
Jesuits, the most bigoted withal. Everything was post- 
poned to the bugbear orthodoxy. To insure fidelity to 
" the Church " everything would be sacrificed. And it 
was the groat, the noble, and the rich, wlioBO heart and 
hand the chanipioua uf Catholicism were eager to enhat 
arouud their banners. With such support there would 
be no necessity for the pope '' to sell the last chalice of 
the Chui'ch " for gold, whereon and whereby to establish 
and defend Catholicism. So the Jesuits were excessively 
endearing, kind, indulgent to these sprigs of nobility, 
whom they effectually bound to their cause, and to them- 
selves or the Company : but not without the usual 
consequences of partiahty, indulgence, and connivance iu 
the management of youth. If there be a class of himiau 
beings for whose guidance tlie most undeviating single- 
ness of heart, the nioat candid simplicity, with rational 
firmness, he absolutely necessary, it is youth — youth of 
all ranks— but especially the i^liildren of the gi'eat and 
the rich, who imbibe that mmatural pride, selfishneea, 
and self-sufficiency which are destined to perpetuate 
the abuses of civilisation. Amongst the Jesnit-eslablisli- 
ments the evils of their ayatom were already ap[)arGnt. 



FACTS AND REFLECTIONS. 



299 



A trvgvd^. 



iTGH m the life-tiuie of Igiiatiiis, we beheld them with 
grief, tliuiigh wc bitterly laughed at the incongruous 
contrast of rules as rigid as cast-iron, and conduct as 
unbridled as the ocean — amongst tlieir own scholastics 
— the embryo-Jesuits of Portugal. We must not. there- 
fore, be surprised to roail of a * row " in the Romau and 
German CoUegos, managed by the Jesuits. The Josuit- 
iheairicals were the origin — ua-^' holy emula- 

I tion " was the proximate cause of the strife. 
The students at the German College bad performed a 
tragedy with the usual dis|>lay ; the pupils at the Roman 
College baxl also prepared their drama to succeed among 
the Roman festivities iisual during the carnival. From 

Hwomraendablo spii-tt of economy^ or to Icsacu the coat 

Pot their attractions, the Jesuits thought proper to requetit 
the pupils of the Roman College to perform their drama 

j in the theatre already constructed in the German College, 
As sooEi as this was made known, the students of the 
German College resolved to give a second representation 
of their tragedy. It appears that it was " by particular 
desire" of the public, who hiid duly applauded the 
histrionic etforls of the young Jesuits : but the pupils of 
the Romaji College were determined to fire ofi" their gun, 
and resolved not to lose the oppoitimity. The Germans 
took possession of the theatre ; the Romans rushed on, 

1 nsd a desperate struggle ensued ; " In fact/' says Sac- 
chinus, " there waii every bkobhood of seeing a real 
tragedy enacted, and the tlieatre converted into a gla- 
diatorial arena." On such occasions the fj^^i^juhi 
young are themselves frightened by the serious "fl«^™' 
consequetices of their unbridled humours ; and in that 
condition they are easily managed. Borgia intoriiosed, 
pit>hibited both companies from acting, and dismissed 



aoo 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



the audience.^ Still the Jesuits persevered in the 
practice of these exhibitions, and became famous for their 
theatrical pomps and vanities. Their Shakspeares com- 
posed tragedies — absurd and wretched platitudes most 
of them — and their Keans and Kembles delighted their 
rnllj parents and friends, who deemed it an honour to 
have the family-gonius osliibitod to the multitude. The 
Jesuits of coui-se humoured the weakness — sacrificed to 
the vanity ; but those who have some experience in 
these matters, who have witnessed the total absorption 
of every other thought by the preparations for a college 
performance, the feverish anxiety to win applause, the 
positively demorahsing impression produced by the 
concourse of gaily-dreasod women, on the eyes at least 
of the students previously so strictlv secluded, — whoever 
has witnessed tliese concomitants of college-theatricals, 
may be permitted to think that they should have been 
dispensed with by those who maJfo a boast of their 
moral students. But these displays served the purpose 
of the Jesuits. They captivated the most vulgar portion 
of humanity — parents blindeil by vanity^ intoxicated 
with over-fondness for their progeny. Not only did the 
Jesuits stimulate the histrionic ambition of their pupils 
by these regular (iisplays, but their very prizes were 
neatly bound and gilt plays, composed by their Com- 
pany — harmless, stupid matter enough decidedly, and 
not worth the binding ; but it is the "spirit" thus 
entertained and stimulated, which demands attention.* 



' Saochio, lib. vL ^f r.{ A^. ; ftuesnel, iL 313, et »tq. 

' f fortunitoly fell in widi one of tbo ptirxa, qow in my poffieflnim ^|>Wn 
Mvtanii Virdunetuit r SocidaU Jetu Tiftgediay " perforTO&l in ihe lht*l» of 
Henry IV. 'a CtilJcgf," ^t U Flcclifi. On the fly-U»f thvrv i» a manuBOipt 
cleclaratioQ by ClievUict, tiie profoct of Studies «l Ihe college, Httefltjog thftt flw 
Tolurae was merited by vi *' ingcnuoui ymilh " nwne'i Michtl Tar»ret, In WlMm 



301 



Their colleges answered anotliei* purpose as well — 
tliej presented a field of selection whence the noble oaks 
and mighty poplars emerged and towered aloft, 
overehadotting the lortnnate confederation, 
Robert Bcllamiinc was now in condition to begin the 
glorious career of hia pen and his tongue^ in defence of 
orthodoxy. The Jesuits consoled themselves for tlie 
disaster at Montepulciaiio, by the thought that the city 
gave them a Bellarmina' A cousin of Pope Marcellus 11., 
he was sent very young tn the Roman school of the 
Jefiuite^ and inibil>ed a ^M'ocation" into the Company, 
It ia said that his humility and simplicity of character 
led him to join the Coiiip;aiy, on account of the vow by 
which the Jesuits engaged themselves not to accept 
any prelacy or church-dignity, unless compelled by an 
express command of the pope.* It seems to me that 
Igtiatiiis could not have devised a better expedient for 
making his men most likely to be chosen for such ap- 
pointTueiEts. It nmde them conspicuous amongst the 
monks—so eager for bishoprics and other church-pick- 
ings; and it slily appealed to that rtiimtts lu vt'titrtm, the 
grasping at the forbidden fniit, which alone, without other 
motives, will make men, and self-willed popes particularly, 
enforce their desires. Of course the general as wisely 
kept a check on his ambitious individuals. Bollarmine 



it «■■ preecnlc'l in Ou-puLlio tliMlrcof tlio&iune wllt-ge, an a roWBrd for ppntiim- 
ibip — ** hoc volumpB in primuni iMaipliotiw pni-jnium, in publioo fjusdem Colleuii 
ibevlTD, meritum ot Fonsccutuni caw"— Jvi/. If', jut- IC^C. J aIiilII iltude lollie 
wHi KDMi, The lOAUer is cortaiuly utiwonJi^ of the binding, whii^h is red 
morccco, riddj gilt, witb beaded edge*. The prioe van \A^, luid upon mjr 
■bjectiofi, thr bookflcllcr eud diAt it wiu |]|c binding, Uk* ovinJi, tliAt iniulc it 
^luble: otherwiH, said he, you inigbt hftve it for a vhilUng. But lie alUreti 
ham opiDiaa when 1 paid the priee. and expUined to liim the purport of the muiu- 
KVipl dccl&nlion on ilicflydeafTof "hic^h hi.' wu nal ftwnrv, nml vhidi, of eourw, 
V0«ld hare enhuiec!il the prit'e of Uie eunoolty, ' Bwtoii, Drll' TtaL 

' Friiofi, Vis do Il*Uann. i. ; i^t. iu»-l, li. 30fl j Fulig»U Vita, L 



302 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS, 



passed through bia preUminaiy studies with great suc- 
cess and edification. Wo are told that he excelled 
in poetry, and never committed a mortal sin, nor even ' 
a venial sin with fill! deliberation.' In fact he is com- 
pared by his Jesuit-biographer to the heavens, which were 
made for the utility of otlicra.^ Without being pre- 
judiced against tliis celebrated man by the wretched 
absurdities which the Jesuits aaj of him, it must be 
admitted that be was one of the best Jesuits — in the 
better sense of tlie word — that ever existed — an earnest 
believer in the doctrines cf the Church which he mic- 
cossfully defended — to the utter ruin and destruction 
of heresy, according to the boast of liis party, and not^ 
without affright in the ranks of the Protestaiite.' 
He entered the novitiate in 1560, aged only eighteen : 
but his merits or the want of labourers in the Company. ' 
induced the general to dispense with the constitutional 
two years, which were compressed into two mcntlis for - 
Robert Bellarmine. He was then hurried through liia 
philosophy, and sent to teach the languages and 
rhetoric at Florence, and subsequently at Moudovi. 

' Pulig. Vita. ' HiiA 

^ The titlo-pai^f! to hla Life by tho JpbuU FulignCi, p nblithcd in I C^l, m » 
aploudid cmbteni of that boJiatiiig. Bolknamc appean cljbd aa a wamnr, " wilb 
ias martial tloak around him/' looking coDtetnptuuugly but Bcrer^lyon ahi-lnju* 
demoniacj lite p^iibct cxprmaioij of horrible on^ialj, loaring out 111? l<!«ffM 
of ftb^joli, nbilst bur foe? i& averted iiiid dreAitfiiCly diHt^^rt*?:]. nellamine Iaa 
t}ie rntV-liDK'^ °^ ^^^ Hcht brunl on liia Vi[\ comiUAnditig Bilf^npp, whilot «ith hii 
ttifl he holdfl a Hr-top, Aail a chuii whirh u [>aAfled round ttio n(?ck i>f tJic fenvle 
mouater- Tliore are pknly of tir-lopB pending from tlip l*o itctA vlitch boosd 
die cniblein, aod at tlif top tlwrp » juiotljur ludeuus face wiih a fir-top vtuck in 
hJa tnou(h, hy vny of " a niit to craek," 1 guppaeo. Then there id k IdUt 
cuTiQua Anaifmvi discovered by Mmc idle but orthcnfoK Joniit. In tha mi^ 
RoUrlia Cardinatii BrHaiinhiit4 t BKUtoU Ji-ra. thin JcAuit hu 4iK0VCnd 
uukgrotDmati colly ttio roLlowing awful ptOphecy—LutAeri aT^nt ae oMflai 
Ctitvini GirirKo (fifrfm — you will dcmollilj all the frroFB of LqUiof anit *ilu of 
Calvin, 1 Buppow tJw words « if yon can" wi-ro mh-uvderttootl lutipUtimU^fvi^yt 

or by eqiuvovatioTL. 



BBLLARM1NK, 



303 




IS remaricabTe Laleut iuJuced tlie superioi-s to dispense 
with the usual course, — and he was sent to preach in 
various placeSj the Company availing herself of a papal 
privilege which permitted her members to preach though 
not in orders. Gfenoa. Padua, Venice, and otlier large 
of Italy listened to the young Jesuit, scarcely 
-two years ofage» with profit and admiration. The 
of Ills public disputations and lectures at Genoa, 
suggested to the superiors that Louvain, where they 
had so much trouble with the university, wa.s the right 
position for such a great gun as the young Bellarmine. 
Besides, tliero was a sort of Catholic heretic at Louvain, 
the famous Baiua, whoso views of Divine grace were 
censured by others of his Church, who had other views 
in view. Hitherto the doctor, Baitis. had to contend 
with hidden cTieniics, excepting a certain tribe of the 
monks : but now the Company of Jesus took him in 
hand and sent BcUaimine, its famous young preacher, to 
bestow a few words upon him, which he did in a public 
disputation against the aforesaid views of Divine grace. 
Bcllannine was ordained shortly after hie arrival ; and 
continued to preach with more zeal than ever. His 
youth and eloquence astonished all the world, and his 
reputation became ao great that the Protestants from 
Uollrtitd and England were attracted over to hear the 
new preachcn His great talent consifited in winning 
ever the heretics by mildness. He spared the heretic 
whilfit he inveighed against heresy : he strove to direct 
the steps of tlie wander'er rather than to beat him into 
the fold ; and in wrestling with tlie opponents of Rome 
by his eloquence, his triumph was always the result of 
hia mildness, which was charming.' Rellai*mine was 

> FriftfVf I. ; FuligBLii. ; QomooI, 11 Z\\. 



304 



BISTOUT OF THE JESUIT:^. 



Rihadonoym. 



one of the very few Jez^uita wliose peculiai' uigauisation 
permitted them to pursue that method with the heretics; 
and if he had had more imitators iu his Compaiij\ 
Christendom would not have seen so much bloodshed 
amongst the heretics — aU victims of that ferocious and 
sanguinary zeal which irritates and perpetuates dia- 
aension. There is a remarkable iuconsisteQcj' in the 
Jesuits in this matter. How could men^ so coostanllv 
complaining of persecution and intolerance, be tlie first 
to give the example when their bow>s, and their smiles, 
and their soft words failed to convert the heretic^ But 
so it WHS, however. At the very time when they most 
lamented the injuetice of persecution, they were else- 
where advocating the principle in its widest extant. 
Thus, in l^^^X one of the first Jesuits, the 
bosom (riend of Loyola, and the most vene- 
rable of the Company at the time, Father RibadenejTa, 
published a sort of Anti-Macchiavel, whose twenty-siilh 
chapter is entitled '* That the heretics ought to be 
chastised, and how prejudicial is liberty of cooacience — 
Que Ion ftervges dt^vcn /fcr vo^tigadm, /y tjnan prefrtdicial sm 
fa iUwrtad de con^^ienvia." And after heaping together 
very many arguments from all sources, iu defence of his 
position, he asks : " If he who coins false money is 
burnt, why not he who makes and preaches false doc- 
trine ? If he who foi^;es royal letters desei-voa the 
penalty of death, what will he merit who corrupts the 
Sacred Scriptiuc^ and the divine letters of the Lord \ 
The woman dies justly for not preserving tidehty lo 
lier husband, and shall not tliat man die who does 
not preserve his faith to his God?" And lastly he 
concludes, "that to permit liberty of conscience, and W 
let each man lose himself as he pleases, is a diabolical 



THE TURKS. 



305 



doctrine " — attributing the words to Beza, whom he 
calls " an [iifenial furv. and a wurthy disciple of his 
master, Calvin." Nor irs Bcllarniine himself exeujpL from 
the charge of intolcrancf*. though he thought Jesuitical 
crafl and porsnaeion better adapted for success ^rith 
heretics. In hir* practice he was a sleek seducer : in hia 
tlieorv he was a stem persecutor. Thus Ribndeneyra 
refers his readers for more copious details on the subject 
to *' Father Robert Bellarmine of our Company."^ In 
&xA it was the universal doctrine of the Churchmen ; 
4nd whnt is more diagrac^ful still, actuailj' practised by 
Prot<^9tauts, Of all crimes in history none seems to me 
more hideously inconsistent — t'^^ say nothing of its guilt 
than the ample share which CaUiu had in the burn- 
ing of Servetus, The plain fact is that there was no 
tnie religion, no pure religion on earth in those times^ 
amongst the Ifnders of parties. All was utter selfish- 
noes in thought, word, and deed- 

The infidels ciime in for their share. No one need be 
told that (luring the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
all Clirist^ndoni was in constant terror of the 
Turks. It was destined for Pope Pius V. to 

»e the great promoter of an expedition which broke 

he Ottoman power for ever : at all events so completely 
maimed it that since then Turkey baa only served to 
keep up the bidance of j>ower '* in Europe — one of 

hose incomprehensible axioms that statesmen invent to 
n^e a purpose, until another maxim issues from a 
diametrically opposite procedure. One of these days 
ussia will swallow up Turkey, and our statesmen will 

nd their balance somewhere else, without losing their 

rarity — as we hope and trust, 

▼OL. n. X 



Tl* T>rl,. 



306 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS, 



Now, in the year 1571 fright and orthodoxy adtnirahlj 
combined to exterminate the Turks : — but the Vene- 
tians— the lord-high admirals of the ocean in 
those times — were rather the worse for the 
■war of fright and orthodoxy. The Grand Turk was 
just preparing to smoke his pipe in Cyprus — a Christian 
etroiigliold rather too important to be sacrificed by the 
devout sons of orthodoxy. Tlie pope, fierce old Hus V^ 
bestirred himself a<^cordiug]y — applied to the Spaniard, 
who struck an alliance with him. but sent very few 
ships to make the Turk strike withal, — whilst llie 
Ottoman grinned fiercely at the prospet^ts before him. 
83 he scanned his mighty armaments ready to devour 
the Chriatians. The pope resolved to istimulate the 
Spaniard. Pius thought it hia duty to exterminate the 
Turks, simjily because they were not CathoHcs. Thai 
was the impelling motive of his ferocious zeal added to 
the universal fi'ight of Christendom at the encroach- 
ments of the Ottomans. When the Tiu'kish power waa 
crippled, vaat praise was given to the pope for hia 
exertions : but, with liia known motives, he merited aone» 
and the residta of the victory of Lepanto, so beneficial 
to the terror-fitricken Chtistians, proved decisive merely 
from the cliaractcr of the Turks, who could not digest n 
disaster. Christendom waH delivered of its incubus — 
and the Turks were not capable, by their character, to 
reaume tlieir devilry — whereat we liave great rea^n to 
rejoice and be thankful But it must be admitted that 
Piua bestirred liimself with vast determination. He 
dispatched a cardinal to Philip, and sent General Borgia 
with him as secretary- The celebrated Francis Tolel 
had joined the Company — a *' monster of intellect " as 
his master, Dominic Soto, styled him. Pope Pius set 



MAaSACRE OV ST. RABTIJOLOMEW, 



307 



aini to work, dieijotoliej him into Portugal to Uboiii' 
for the sanie Icagut against the Tiirka. It "jis a 
stirring time foi' the Company. The Jesuits dispersed 
themselves in all the kingdoms of Euiopo, and j,*uii- 
penetrated into their courts, vrith the noble ^^^'^''' 
pretext of lagging assistance for the haniperetl V'enc- 
tians. The Company profited by the work of charity. 
Her houses were multiplied to such an extent that it 
was found necessary to appoint six proiincials to visit 
all the new eBtabhaliments. The increase of their wealth 
set the Jesuits in constant agitation. They wished for 
ubiquity^ omnipossession ; and by the n^tm-al conse- 
quence of their indefatigable exertions in these stirring 
times, they constantly managed to fall in fur something 
— new establishments arose almost daily. Everything 
favoured tlieir designs* The ignorance of the people 
and the priesthood and monkhood, in those days, — added 
to the by-play of the princes, lords, and monarclis. who 
found the Jesuits usefid, — fiimifthed them with the 
grand fidcrum for the lever of intellect, tact, and craft, 
9et in motion by their boundless ambition. 

Early in 1572 Borgia visited the Court of France 
in behalf of the pope's affairs. He retimied to Rome 
almost dying with lassitude, harassment^, 1570. 
and disease. In May, the same year, Pius V. ^[."J^ ^ 
expired '' in the odour of sanctity ;" and on the ih^ioBiew, 
24th of Augtist, Charles IX. and his niolher Catherino 
performed the grand religious ceremony of St. Bartholo- 
mew's massacre. It was an universal mandate to cut 
to piecefi every Hugtienot in Paris and tliroughoul the 
provinces of France — as if the fiend of religionism in 
those days wished to mock what we lend of the destroy- 
ing angel in Egypt How Philip of Spain exulted 



308 



HISTORY OF THE JESUlTa 



thereat 1 ■' So Christian, so great, so valiant an exter- 
mmatiotL aad execution " rs lie callc*.! it. ** Finiah,'' he 
wrote to the king, " finisli purging your kingdom of 
the infection of heresy : it is the greatest good lliat can 
happen to your majesties'* — Charles IS, and Catherine 
de' Medici, his raotlier. At Rome tlic news was receiveil 
with enthusiastic acdamatious. Pope Gregory SIII,, 
who had auccoeded to Pius V., expressed his joyin a 
letter to Charles and his mother — he congratulated them 
Rijoinng. f^^i' having "served the faith of Christ in 
■L juiuc. shakiiig off liideoua heresy/' Bonfires blazed 
in the streets at Rome, and from the castle of St Angelo 
cannous roared glory to the deed of blood — and at last 
tlioy mocked God Almighty by a solemn procession to 
the Church of St» Louis — all Rome's noliility anil people 
uniting in the impious thanksgiving-' Such was the 



■ CApofi^e, Ri^forme, Thia wnter ^rea tlie bcit ftccount eKt&al of thil 
tlir-AtlAil aHair. Nolhiu^ more uctd be knuwji □□ the culijrct- A Dicdal wM 
fllFHckj liy nrder uf iha \topp, ta oortimptiinntl^ this ** ftpTfmbiJntin^ wLcrifi^-* ni 
not 1f«B Lhaa JO^QOO humiLn vicCitn^ Co tbt' Muloch of Pa|viiJ anti-ClLrisiUliJtj," 
and rallilesi tyranny. IT iIip Jpsuiw were not diri'Clly v^civsorin to the 
alauglif«r, tlioy wero ao^RHonc.i afl^r tlic TilcI, by their npproTal af Ihc d««^ u 
lie following uoiice of the inednl by thf* Jfsuit aniiquiriatt Bnuanni, proTw bat 
too fttrikingly, Tbo modA.! luia an the o1i\erw, lu uauAl, a fagaro of ttic p4p* : 
GaEOO&lce XllT. Font, Mm- An. 1. Tbo mvutPB hiu a repnscntBtiof] «r % 
defltmying angel, wUh it vm^s in one buiil and n avord xn t\w other, daying and 
putHumg a pro^tm:? ajid fnlllng Irand of berctli^ Tbo Jegcuil U, UooTiDTfAmL 
5TbAGBS. Inl2. Tike Jf^uii Biinanni tlms proci>?dfl t *^T1Jt ui](?xjic<:ler) diangv* 
of ihCkira ovcrwliclmuJ Crcgi>rj', the poii^lT, tad Itftlyr Vtith tho ^^rtnltT joy, ia 
proportion to th« increAflin^ frnr pniduccd by tlie accouiil of Ciinlinat Al«ai]- 
drino, loBt tliR rcholp, »lio liad rcvnlteil frflm the nncfcnl religinn, slioulil \ma~ 
d»te lljJy. [tntnedifltply upon ihp receipt of llif news iho poniifl" procpoded *ilh 
aolema flnppLicatkm Trom St, Mirk^n to St. Looib'h tempLc ; and hAvi[tg publiifacd 
b jubiloo for tht^ CliHa^fUL n'orM^ ho caUf^il u[.od the pfopit t^ coiamviid thf 
religion and Kin^ of Fmnee lo the supromc Deity. Hi^ga^-erdc'rA for a rAimiag 
dMcriptire of the filaugliter of (he Admiral Coligny and hie comptmions. tfi b« 
nudt^in the Hall of Lbe Vnticant by Giorgiv VadfLri, a« a tnonumCDl of vindicated 
religion, and a trophy of cxt<:miinftCed herefiy, noliritoiw lo imprcsa by Ibat 
mpihfiB hviv AolnlAry woidd bo llio effect, lo the mc\i hoJy nT iho Idngdoni, *> 



z' 



C0I^\'Eft910N 01 



309 



climax of religious zeal, for which the most ardent 
machiiiators of the faith — the Jesuits — with all Catholics 
of the time — might boast : but alas ! how sliort-sighted 
it was — considering the deaperaLioii which it would pr-o- 
duce in the persecuted— and the excuse it would give, 
ID the eyes of all tUsinterested ol^servera, for the most 
savage persecutions by Protestant kings and pagans 
against tlie Catholics — presenting that retributive justice 
which never fails to ovei-take crime, in some shape or 
another, het^e — in this world, before the criminal departs 
Fur the other 

Two dajs before the niaafsacre, Ileury ol" Navarre, 
afterwards Henry IV,, had married Charles IX/e eiater. 
He was still in the Louvre, Henry was a Huguenot : 
the king would force him to abjure his reli- 
gion. To give tlic transaction the appear- 
ance of conviction, he sent for the Jesuit 
KEaldonat. The Jesuit camo- — ^thi"ough the scenes of 
blood he came tremblijig — but not ^vithout self-posaes- 
sion, and addressed the prince of the Huguenots. 



C-DUTt<niaa 

of Heory 



Mpbue Ui eiaU^ou of bud bl(>od— Timitt nd^^rrU agro Ajcfm evrpori taut copio*t 
ifpromft wm^inii rmisiio cbkI projulvra. lie Bonds CanlinU Ur-mo m \ub 
togato — d iaicrr — Into FrikDco, to uliuoDL±h the king to pursue liiit advimiagai 
<vi)b TigOttP) DDE- Idbc Ilia labour^ «o onjuptrota^y comtacnval uitb pJiArp 
TKDBdifBt by miDgling witli ilit-m mar* gonilc onetu Although tlipse y-e-w sach 
hnWitiui proufe ot tlia ^hXy of Ch&rJtffl, aiid of bia sioixire atUt'liment In tha 
Cfttiiulic Cburch, ju wdl u cif poDtiHcal vgltciludo, tlien; were nU wuiliiig some 
vbo ^re tihtm a very diltcreut uiLerprctation . Uut^ Uimt the alftughwr wau tic< 
vsKCflilc^ wiiboiit the Hcl|i of God 'uid die divine cuun»cl, GregQcj' iuculcAUd in 
A medftl Alruf k on the ociiihJon, in H]iii>b lUi nitgc], &nnFd Tnth n award and k 
aom, fttuokfl ilie rclnrla ; h ruprtscntjition by which ho recalls to mind, that Ow 
hiXMtt of tiifl hpTGlif^a were iiigood with a wbili? croH, in order that ike king** 
^Idifn mi|E;ht tnuv Uitm Trom ih?TV»1, as iikcwiw tlieylhptnJ4o]THwon-b«hitiP 
rroB on ibair lukta/'^iVun^iini. PfMi^. Htntt. a timp. IHurf^ V. etc- JUtiM, I G9S. 
I. i. p. 33(!. Sti* Mt^ndhikni, nh<i quntei tbo nrif^iafel Lsdii, for pnmo prnrtiiiBiit 
n-niferka. *qJ gther fitd** reUtJug In the miifiAciVj its many med&lHj aud tta 



310 




HI3T0RT or THE JESUlTg- 



Heai"}' listened, but made no reply, when Charles IX- 
Id a paroxysm of rage, cried, *' Either the raass, death, 
or i>erpctiial iraprisonnierit — choose instantly." The 
future Henry IV. had no vocAtioii for religious or politi- 
cal martyrdom, bo he abjured heresy with his lips, sarod 
his life, and bided his time. We shall meet hira again.* 
On the let of October, 1572, General Borgia expirad. 
Hi^ age was sixty-two — twenty-two of which he passed 
i>„^, „f in tlie Company. His generalato lasted eight 
**''■' years. His companions requested him to 

name a vicar-general ; but he refused, sapng that he 
had to render an accoimt to God for many other things- 
without ad<ling that appointment to the number Then 
he humbly begged pardon of all the fathers for the faults 
he had committed against the perfection of the Institute, 
and the bad example he thought he had given them, 
craving their boncdictioti ; and, in accordance with their 
earnest rei.[uest, promising to remember tlicm in the 
abodes of the blest, should God be merciful to him ; and 
asked to be left alone. But still they troubled the poor 
man, anxious to depart iji peace, and to give his list 
moment to God alone They had the heart to ask tlie 
dying man to permit a painter to take his portrait 
Borgia refused permiaaion. They disobeyed their dying 
general, because they wanted the lauble to sanction 
miracles withaL as the event verified.* In spite of his 
wish to be alone with God — in spite of Ids refusal to 
have his portrait taken, ihe Jesuit-aristocrats persisted : 
two of tliem stood befoi-e him, with the painter in the 
rem-, at work with his paint and pencils : they actually 



' Se« Vcijwi, ii. <123, Sov nlial lit cnJIa " llie |iri)ilj(^inw cffi'CU uJ ft porctwl nS 
1\\v Mint." 



UKATH OF BUKUIA- 



311 



trieil to trick tlieir dying general ! What chUdrtn vrould 
thus persist in annoying a d^>'ing parent ? Ami yet for 
them thore would be some excuse, since it woiilt! be 
motived by those strong feelings of nature, of which we 
arc proud : but these Jesuits totally disclaimed any 
feeling of the sort in theory, and tfiey were incapable of 
it in practice, aa their cruel impoitunity attested. 
Borgia perceived the trick. The poor man had lost his 
Rpeecli : he could not reproach them : but with his 
hands he tried to express his displeasure, evidently 
without effect, for he made an effort, and turned away 
from the persecutors. Then only did they disniiaa the 
painter ; and then ho Bighod and expired,^ 

Throughout the eight years of Jiis gcneralatc, Borgia 
kept his promise to be the '* beast of burthen " of the 
Company's aristocracy : and the pope of Itome 

* , " , ■ ' ' His cJaiuwitflr. 

used lum in Uke manner, to the utter afflic- 
tion of the man, whoso peculiar organisation ever made 
Inm the tool of influence — ever subservient to the will of 
otbors— utterly incapable of resistance to impulses from 
without, and a prey to the wildest notbus of aticetio 
devotion from within, "Thus he was a saint in his 
infancy at tJie bidding of his nurae — tlien a cavaher at 
the command of his uncle — an inamorato because the 
empress desired it — a warrioi* and a viceroy liecause 
such was tbo pleasure of Charles— a devotee from seeing 
a corpse in a state of decomposition — a founder of col- 
leges on the advice of Peter Fabcr — a Jesuit at the will 
of Ignatius — a general of the Ordtr because his col- 
leagues would have it so.^ Had he lived in the times and 



* V«rjaaj ii, 110 — 83, I owd do! uj thai tJio Joauil niiikn « very tdifyiivf 
ailUr out of the dvigiivtlng cmdnct uf Hie ^^fatiicrs" who bt^aicgcd Borgia cm 
bin lAth-br-L 



312 



HISTORY OF THE JESL'ITS. 



in the society of liia infamous kiii^men^ Borgia would, uoi 
improbably, have sliaretl tbeir disastrous reoowii/' ' How 
much soever his intimate conuectioii mth the ^'religious" 
Borqimoi the sixteenth century — PliiliplL, Charles IX., 
and Pope Pius V., miiat tend to diminish our esteem of 
the man — the Christian, — yet there is evidence to prove 
that his mind perceived, and hia hi>art embraced, the 
best intentions ; but palsied as he was by the weakness 
of hifi nature, and the i-ushing force of circumstances in 
which he was placed, he lived a man of desire, aud after 
doing what bo coidd to a\'crt evil, he died with bitter 
thoughts ami apprehensions respecting that Company 
for which he made himself a " beast of burthen " — uoi 
indeed from terror or a grovelling nature^but in defe- 
rence to tliat internal ascetic devotion wliich we must 
experience in order to understand ita dictates of nndb- 
tiiiguisliing siibniissiveness. 

His presence at the court of Prance, on a mission 
from the pope» immediately before the horrible massacre 
o! St. Bartholomew, is suspicious; but. "though he 



Ilia Ajiaoeintea." Crutiiu^u-Jctlj' t>oLill^ aud ODutiJcnlljr pidtiiA thu nrtt^lc oo 
Mi\ J/JMaWc/i/^uiJ iinotea froiu \l Iniimplittutlj on m*nyo«a«ons ;iiot wilhoui 
tAkhig flotup ]ibf!rtJi?b vrixh tlic original, ll \» a. ciirioua fk^ce at conipobilioD, boi 
cvidi-ailv written of Bomu "rGligiautt" pjirly— u cenio of bltjn^ ^unla ycrj ikepljr 
FUt ia> Certainly, Uowpver, no Jmuit itor frictiil of rhdrs bIiouIiI ftppemJ to that 
Orttde, dlocD thiTO is CYCiylliing iii it to |>i-aiIni>F a tod impteaqiiHi i^unal' 
JcBulriwn even In i&> beat »Hpot?t» — (lie eiu'lier itliast of its liift'nry. Tlier? it 
iiiQch irciii^ throughgUC the compoAiLion, and its IntibcHL pmines Are Lnoc).^ 
ilowii flinidcnly hy a bifU'J' tlnst of vituperation, all bo mmplotvly bmiLllAl 
tftgollur, tlmt it win be iraposMtile fur ynn to " utake lieiul op lail ou "i. ' StHI* 
h Is AifuiU^bljr writrvu -, as the I'Lu'nao in, " bvilliaut as h diuunnd — flosbitig Ukr 
the lightning," and rauit liave been a ihiindprlhilt to ihe \inrty in vipw It Wl 
iIk- honuur to eventuate n cmifM: of Iccture^a luiil a publioatioik enritled *' Tlir 
JpHiilfl/' wliich 1 hnvc tvail ; but the Jiulhor. whose intentions were rxrvltmU 
iiiigtit have ^poTtHl hiruai^r tht tronb^v ot inviuling the Ivitibburgh JemitAinn* 
wUmc intcniioD wod oeiiMulj not I"* wHic U|» the J«uito, but bo mrltt doWB 
MUne olhitrs. whi> intrit no i|ko1i>gi?>la. Verb. Sap. 
■ Eilinbiu^b Review, uU tupi a^ No, M. p, 357^ 



BgKOIAS CllAltAtTEK. 



313 



muiutaiiie J hu intimate personal intci'couj-ac with Charles 
IX., mil his mother and cujoyod tlieir highest favour, 
there is no leosoii to suppose tliat he was in- 
trusted wjtu their atrocious secret. Lvcn in 
tho land of the Inquisition he had firmly refused to lend 
tlie influence uf his name to that sanguinary tribunal [as 
Ignatius /tad done before him] ; for there was nothing 
morose tu hici fanaticism, nor mean in his subservience, 
Such a man as Francis Borgia could hai'dly become a 
persecutor."" Or rather, he might lend himself as the 
indirect or dircctj instrument of pcrsecutiou, in obedi- 
ence to his undistinguisliing submissivenei^s — but would 
never cease to lament his share in the horrible perpe- 
tration. It may be odked, ia it possible that Borgia was 
not at least awai"e of the intended mawsacrc — he who 
was intrusted with the designs of Pojje Pius V,, whose 
atrocious advice and exhortations to Charles IX. we 
have perused ? God oidy knows at the present moment. 
If lie did, it suific'es to explain the dreadful increase of 
his Liitirmitied, which hurried him to his grave 6o 
soon after hifi return from the Couit of France, and 
five Weeks after the awfid event had desolated that 
kingdom. 

Humble towards his enemies^hc appointed public 
prayer for the enemies of the Company — 
kind to his subjects, gentle to all, but moix-Uess 
to hia own poor body, he strove thronghout life to 
conform himself to the friifihtful inmge he had cunceived 
of Christian perfection, and constantly displayed an 
example which few of hiti Comjmny thonght propel- to 
follow, tliougli they wisely made it the subject of glowinp 
laudation. 



AiiDunAr^. 



K'iUlui'^U BeWv*, itAi *upiJtt K«> M. p M7. 



314 



HlSTOfiT UF THE J£SUIT& 



The y^si increase of his Company's establishments is 
to be aacribed to its own elastic energies rather iLan to 
Borgia^s wisdom, pnidence. or cakulatiou. Always the 
"beaatof burthDn," he carried his men whithersoever 
they wished to advance, or the pope and princes directed 
their efforts. In the armies of Cathohc princes battHng 
with the Turks and the Huguenots, hi« Jesuits bran- 
iliwhed the crucifix, and sanctified the slaughter of war- 
To the strongholds of vice or heresy and paganism — 
to Naples, to Poland, Sweden, Spain, France, Scotland, 
England, Gennany. to the East and West Indies, to 
Africa, and the Isles adjacent — all the wide world over, 
the Company sent her JeEiuits to expand her power, 
wealth, and domination, whilst she did "good ser^ioe"* 
to her patron princes. 

In the midfit of this world-encircling expansion, Borgia 
was not without alarm for the fate of his Company. 
Rnrpa'^np- Already had it become the resort of nohlee 
Ta^™™"" like himself— attractal doubtless by his name 
irU*Dce» ^^the resort of great names in the circle of 

lettera or the world's renown. His novitiatca were 
filled — his colleges were thronged — the Company was 
become the receptacle of the vain, the proud, iha 
sensual. Some he found it necessary to expel ; but to 
others he yielded. One young nobieman "felt himself 
strongly inspired aJid urged by the grace of the Saidour" 
to enter the Company : but this "grace of the Saviour" 
met with one overpowering objection — the joung sprig 
of nobihty " could not do without a valet-de-chambre to 
dress and undress liim !" Borgia promised to allow him 
a Jesuit to perform the fiinction, and fulfilled the 
proraifie. Another ** refused to obey the voice of God, 
because he was accustomed from childhood to change 



BOMTA AND RDUCATION. 



315 



bis lioeii every day ; — and the small dimensions and 
poFCrty of the rooms of tlje novices horrified" a third 
3ung lord- Borgia "gave the former his clean shirt 
B-ory day ; and for the latter lie prejKired a large room 
which he got well carpeted," * We are aasured by the 
same authority tliat these young lords beoinie sick of 
the indulgences, and begged with equal ardour to bo 
served worse than the otlicr novices — the usual old 
song ill honour of expedient concessions. Doubtless 
Borgia hoped for that result : bwt undoubtedly during 
that rush of appHcants, noble and rich, some such 
expedieiita were absolutely necessary to retain tliose 
Binls of ParafUse. 

Borgia promoted the education of the Company with 
considerable vigour, — importing French professors from 
the TJnivorsity of Paris to teach in his college n^rg^ „^j 
of Gatidia, and sparing no pains nor expense td^f^tiop. 
in the cultivation of hteratni-e in all the Jesuit-acade- 
mies : — but in 80 doing he merely conformed to the 
ambitiori of the Company — that "holy emulation" if 
yon please, with which the Jesuits were inflamed, 
eagerly advancing to the foremost rank in all the 
departments of knowledge, human and divine. No 
" founder of a system of education " was Borgia> although 
<Iuring his generalaLc the Jesuit-system of education 
became "pregnant mth results of almost matchless 
importance" — destined to begin its parturition in the 
eventful times of General Ai|na^^va.= On the contrary. 



" Vtfjus, ii. ST4. 

' Thi^ writw of tlw artidn in ihe Etlinlnirgli. befjire noticed and <iuott*l, «y» 
thai L«inr-t mw tlic matlii^- nt ll»' Jr'ntiiH^ |wuliAr tyatcio of ibvoJugv, and cjtllvi 
D oiyifc (lio nrchitfi'l *tt llii'ir ty HlFin nf cdnt-all'm ■ on wIlaI t^iiiid«, t nm unitblr 
tQ di«PO¥cr- The *■ fioi'iibAr ti^aicm of thoalogy *' uli>ptrd by tlic J^HiitK wu 
AcbMlIt no *^tlAnti ML r]I, Tnit an rnrlk'?u vu^mrun A'Upttci lo rircunuitnncM ; 



316 



HISTOEY OF THE JESUITS, 



tliere is reason to believe that he apprehended the per- 
nicious consequeoccK of that wild advaucemeut iu letters 
which left the Jesuits no lime to think of the ** spirit of 
their vocation/' In a letter widch he addressed lo the 

Fathers and Brothers of the Aqiiitanian Pro* 
wwning Id viTice ill FraQCG, he writes in prophetic terms 

on the subject. The object of the letter is to 
8Ug|;est the means of preaerviug the spirit of tlie Com- 
pany, and the Jesuit's vocation. It was written three | 
years before his death. After quoting the words : 
Happy is the man thai fearvlk ti/ivat/, and the other 
proverb i Darts foreseen strike not, — he strikes at the 
root of the ovil as follows : "If we do not at all attend! 
to the vocation and spirit with which members join the i 
Com]>any, and look only to literature, and care only for 
the circumstances and endowments of the body, the j 
time wiU come when the Company will see itself exten- ^ 
sively occupied with literature, but utterly bereft of any 
desire of virtue. Then ambition ^viU floujish in the 
Company ; pride will rise unbridled : and there will he 



eo tli»t iTVvr; ttVHCcni ur tJLQulugj- iimj, to a vimt c^xi^-ut, fliid aJvucat« iu tiit 
multiluditioua iheDlogijUiB of tlit- (-'ompan^. CcTlAUily LaiDirE Advociitfd louit 
peculiar vicwti at iIe Cuiini^il of Trent, but tlicy wire nothing dj^v in UiHwelTca; 
Ihe^ DiLglit be found amoug Che ** Fathore-" St- TUomafl wna the Coinptfij'ft 
theoln,^iaii ; but aerorduig to tJi8 ConatJliitJoira (ae revised) any oilier might b* 
diueEn m ilie will Qf llw general, — F- iv. e. Jav. s. L ; !b. D. This rafuim to 
Srhnht^ie Thci>lrn;j ; nf cuiitht, in tbe/*wwfiiT, thp dth-dTuoB of tho CboT^ tMr9 
matters for thp Council of TrL-iit ur the pope lo d^fddo. Aa to Borgib aiid * Uw 
nyHtcm of education '* ntti'iljiitod lo tiiiii^ nothmg nec^d be sud eSLpcpt thai he 
had npilhcr the capacity, nor the nill, lo do more tliau favour tin? orward CliOV» 
iiivut, wlijclt tie fuimd 40 dcLcmiiiied to advaoce. Id proof of Iho tiitvllaCCOil 
riot of dio JeauiU at tlm feaal of Thculofy, J appfsal to llio BSd d«!fw of th» 
7Ui Congreg., nhcn an nttempl t>> flattie the " apiiiLnn<i^' of the Coihiajij wh 
Utterly abortive. See also tho SiM Dtfnv of the SlJi Congreg-, *hen Uw 
vngarici of" certain profoBoon of theolng^" were copiphuned of, long hftcr lli*j 
liromulgatioii of the RiUirt -^»lrf^w'um .' "nua vas CJic caie rhrougliopl Ui«J 



m:>KGIA3 PROPHETIC WARNING. 



317 



no one lo I'eatrain and keep it dowiL For if thev turn 
their minds to their wealth, and their relatives, let tliem 
know that they may be ricli in weilth and relalivea^ but 
totally destitute of virtue. Therefore, let this be the 
paramount counsel, and let it be written at the head of 
tho book — lest at length oxporience should show what 
the mind perceives by demonstration. And would to 
lieaven that already before thia, experience itself had 
not often taught us and attested the whole evil." Thus 
we find that Borgia perceived the tendency of the spirit 
which was salient in the Company, The spiritual 
maladies which other generals cAuterised in vain in their 
epistles, were already too apparent Tfie reign of 
anibition and pride was already begun. Already in 
receiring their members, the aiistocrats of the Company 
were actuated by the spirit of worklliness^ caring more 
for mental abilities and temporal advantages than true 
vocation, or the pure spirit of God resulting from a riglit 
intention in a right mind, Youtlis of hlootL youths of 
wit^ and youtlia of fortiinc or fine prospects, were the 
desirable members. Pride, mammon, and amhitionj 
prescribed their qualifications. Such were the matters 
alluded to by Borj^a's prophetic warning ; and it is said 
(hat he exclaimed on one occasion : " We have entered 
2s lambs : We shaU reigu like wolves : We shall be 
driven out like dogs : We shall be renewed as eagles." ' 
Unqnestiuuably Borgia would have totally reformed the 
Company in its most dangerous abuses, bad it been in 
his power. He was no willing party to the Company's 
comt-faToir, its worldliness. its ambition : but he was 



' I ftcUublly hc&nJ ihc lj>.tia of that prophtvy af Borgii quoted by one of the 
mrScca : * /mraWmuj tit a^i. rrgaabimia tit liij>i^ e^pelinrtMr ui fanftfrm^Vft* 



318 



HISTORY or THE JESUlTa. 



thrown upon the rushing Niagara, — and if he himself 
clung fast iLiui (bill on iht* rock luiJ-way, tlie roaring 
waters dashed foaming past into the gulf beneath, where 
they whirled and whirled for a time with strange 
upheaviugs, and then spread onwards to the gulf of 
destruction. 

The thought 13 saddening ; but still more painfiil 
when we think what good the Jesuits might have dcwic 
for humanity in those dreadful times of transition. 

This prophetic warning of Boi^a was not pleasant to 
the Jesuits. Before the end of the Company's first 
century^ the prophecy respecting priile and 
ambition, was an old experience. Still the 
worda were an eye-sore ; and thejif were 
accordiugly altered, falsified, or expunged, '' by autho- 
rity/' or otherwise. The original occurs in the edition 
printed at Ipres in 1611 ; the amendments in that of 
Antwerp, in 1635, and all the subsequent editions of tbe 
Institute. As the trick is an important fact in the 
liifltory of the Jesuits, 1 shall give the two texts, side by 
side, as a sample of Jesuit-invention, &c» 



It u ^blcd 
and rifcUjBBtl 
fay UicDi. 



Edition oriprcft, ICll, p. 57- 
Proffclo ei nvU^ hahlta ra/ioprf 
vQ^otioHiB H sjiiriitU, qtio f^tiip^ve 
o^ertau r>ftiiat, liilfimft moito ud- 
BpeotBmufl,etopportumUtes, habi- 
lilfttcKjue r<irporia nirwrnia, renit^ 
tetttpus qua se Sofifia^ iKuifixguifhut 
occupataiu litteria, Bcd aine uUo 
virtutiB Btadjo iniuibitur^ in qufi 
tunc v'igcbit aj/f6Uio, et sese ffferet 
9ohtu ftahatift iHperbia., mc & quo 
contineatitr et mtpprinuthtr habebit: 
^mppf w fjnmHm cofteericriai ml 



EiUlion of Antwerp, 1G3G, 
Sftn ai iLuliiL ImbUa rationc Toa- 
tionia et epiritfis, quo qut^^ue 
impulflua lu^ccdit litt^rna modi^ 
tpectemMtf fit etia tal^a H Ahva, 
vfiiiiot tcmpus quo se Sodetu 
multis qiiidem homitti6v4 a&tm- 
flajitem. ted itpiriiu ei viHuU tU*i%- 
h'lttirt jjtfpreKs inlaeliitur. mrn^ 
ej'i^tet ainbltio, et b^m effent 
solutis habenis euperbia: nee a 
(juoquam rontincftt\tr et sttppri- 
matur habcbit. Quippc si aaimum 



BOBOIAS MIRACLES. 



319 



at illi «e ijiudem propin- 
omnmo Wrtutnm copiis deaT-itiitoa. 
ft ik tt^iU li&ri acriptum. ne tatiJeiu 

qiie ulinmn, Jam hoh ante hoc 
fotum, fxjferimiia tpm sdspiiis ti'S' 
fa/a doetiiAKft. 



ponvcrterint nd opeoct cogiintbnca 
qiina habeiLt, iiiteUigfut iJli se 
quidnm proprnquifl et opihus afaun- 
danti^?, Hod anfitfitrum rrrtufvrn, tu 
s/tintwdiurmhiwr-UM ropiU ff^eno* 
fic vntmta. Ilftquc hoc primiim 
i:8to consilium, et !□ capite libri 
Bcriliatur, ne tftiideru uliquundo *x- 
pprienlia dooe-al, alquu utinnin 
DVLoquam [utinam nomhittj in edit> 
Ant. 1703,] Jocuisaet, i|uod men» 
demonstratione concludit.' 



the Jesuits ascribe the gift of prophecy to Borgia, 
i relate facts in attestation, it ^as certainly irnfair to 
endeavour to deprive htm of alJ the credit due to him 
for a foresight of tlie calamities which they wore obvi- 
otisly prepflxing for thei:iselves. 

As a tribute of respect to Borgia, I shall be silent on 
th(! ritUculous miracles wliicL the Jesuits impudently 
relate as having been performed by the inter- bot^'^ 
cession, the invocation, tlie rehcs, tlie portrait, '*'^'^- 
the apparition, and the written hfe of Borgia — making 
him sometimes a Lucina, or midwife, sometimes a phy- 
Bician, or a gjiost— piiases of character which, however 
amuaing in tliemselves, would he a very unbecoming 
prelude to the serious, the tumultuous, the "stirring" 
events about to follow the death of Francis Borgia, 
tliird general of the Jesuits.* 



* Stf* Morotf Pfati'pUf Hi. 76, rt kj. 

■ For DorgU^B Minclce, sec Vojui, il 3tftf^337. 



BOOK VIL OR. BOBADILLA- 



To Pope Pius V> Catholics must ascribe the glory of 
having restored the ascendancy of the Roman cause. Call 
Thpc.thr.iir it Catholicism, papal prerogative, or Catho- 
rflGcOon. ijj. Inaction : it matters little : the result was 
the same — all flowing as a consequence from the spreaJ 
of fanatical orthodoxy— the murderous rage of higotry- 
What auflering for humanity he prepare*!, and sanc- 
tified ! The reeking blood of men, and the exulting 
shouts of fiends, with clapping of hands, in the midst of 
social niin and desolation, attested tlial horrible glory of 
the '* miglity paramount" of Rome, at ihe head of liis 
" grand infernal peers/' Ho sounded the key-note dirill 
and pierdng, and the thoiifiand instnimenta of Loyola in 
unison responded. They hid cry 

With trampol^ii ppgal H>iin4l tlu? grfitt r-autt .- 
ToitiuhI thn four wisdH four apt^cly clu^rabim 
Put to their miutliB the Ftoiiodin^ olchom/ 
By lierald's void? explain'd ; Llie IioUqw abyn 
Ilsird tnr uid uiJc, luid nil ttje lioet uf hell 
Wiih dpornning ■haut retumM tliam laud judftSni. 

It was indeed a '' false presumptuous hope ; " but it waw 
a " stirring " hope ; that the popedom woidd once more 



/* 



THK CATHOLIC REACTION, 



321 



ffve tbe law to the iiiiiven*e. Time was when ruin 
utterly impemled ; and then tlie Mamelukes of Ronio 
adventurously tried '* if any clime, perhaps, might j-ieM 
them easier habitation/' Over the wide world thay 
spread and *' worked in dose design, by fraud or guile, 
^hat force effected not." Indin, Japan, Africa, America, 
l>ec?Lnu* familiar with ' tlie gi"eater glor>' of God." In 
the land of the savage and the heathen, the golden age of 
the Church was restored f'j/ thr Annval Lettet's of the 
Company^ at least ; and a Jesuit-empire was established 
hy th<^ niimerouR hniises, or fartories, of the same 
Adventtiroi-H, Allegiance to Rome was ihe aign-mnnual 
of the eoncjuest, and thus, and thus only, did the Jesuits 
make heaven compensate Rome for her eternal and 
temporal losses. That was magnificent, however And 
the Jesuits were the divine paladins of that bewildering 
crusade— the little godw of thnt pagan mctaniorpliosis, 
vliich eelipee."^ the Tvildest ef Ovid. For ©very one 
heretic made by the apoptat<> Luther, a thousand savages 
leaped into ^Mhe Church," and made the sign of the 
cross with holy water. The Jesuits taught them. But 
tJiis was religion in sport, as far as the popedom was 
concemeH. Pope Pius willed it in right good earnest in 
Europe. And it was dnne. He died, leaving every 
kingdom of Europe distracted with the feude. the ran- 
cour of orthodoxy and heresy, war to the death pro- 
clumed on both sides, reckless, merciless war — the war 
fnr '^religion," 

Gregor\* Xltl,, who succeeded Pius V.. wa5 flung on 
the nwhing torrent. The thousand shouts of publie 
opinion cheered him from the shore. Mad p^, ^^_ 
with the glorious ejccitement, he plied his p*';^"'- 
paddles, like the savage Indian, with redoubled energj- for 



VOL, 11 



322 



HISTOET OF THE JESUITS. 



the leap over the roaring cataract — the speed of lightning 
was the only chance of achievcmeut. Gregory he called 
himself — the word means "watchful,'' "viplant:" for 
he had "sharpen'd his visual ray " — 



- " «n Bome grc&t charge employ'dp 



nuTiH ifae 
gtnenl lo 

%t r]cctc4. 



H« s^em'd, or tix'd in cogiutioa d«ep." 

You will understand the man as we proceed : his deC(ia 
will dissect liim. 

When the ]iarassed, tormented soul of Borgia t->ok 
flight, the aristocracy of tlie Company appointed Polancus 
Tho |»t« vicar-general. He was one of the ancienta 
of the Company, I have hefore described his 
laborious and numerone employments in the 
administration. A man of all work under Ignatius, and 
the governor of the Company in the lasst days of the 
founder ; he was the assistant, admonitor, and secretary 
of Lainez, the very right hand of Borgia, the depository 
of the secrets, the general correspondent, and man of 
business, in short, tlie Atlas of the Company, wliicb he 
fiecmcd to bear on liia shoulders — suis humeris umi^Anm 
qiuydammodi) Sodetatefn sustijiere videretur,' Undoubt- 
edly here was a general ready made for the Company of 
Jesns. The ancients of the Company, with Polancus at 
their head, went, as usual, to the pope for his *' benedic- 
tion," ere they proceeded to open the congregation for 
tlie election, *' How many votes do the Spaniards of 
your Company number, and how many generals of that 
nation have there been liitherto 1 " asked Gregory 
XllL "Three generals — all Spaniards," was the reply. 
"WelV exclaimed the man of the watch, "it seam 
to me that you ought now, in justice, to choose a 

' BJbl. Scriirt. S, J. JrtMi. VnUtnr. 



PREJrmOK IN Tire SIXTEIINTH CKNTrRT. 



323 



geneml of some ot)ier nation." The Jesuits demurred : 
it was a blow at their prerogatives. " What," rejoined 
tioB pope, ** have jou no other members as capable as the 
liards to direct your important Functions? Father 
Everard Mercurian would seem to mo worthy of your 
choice.'' And thereupon, without giving the Jesuits a 
moment to protest against the desfgnatioii, he dismissed 
thera with Lis benediction, and a charge *' to do what 
was most juat," " 

"The apostle" observes the Jefluit-liistorian, "said 
that before God there was no difference between a Jew 
and a Greek ; " but the apostlea of bigotry, prtjudiw 
in these times, made a remarkable difference d,tt«Bih 
between a perfectly converted Jew or Moor, centMj- 
or their perfectly orthodox progeny, and the tnie bom 
Christians. The prejudice was desperate and universal 
— like that against " colour*' in America, in the East and 
West Indies, even in our days, though " enhghtenment" 
and gt}ld bave, in the last-named kingdom of chromatic 
prejudice, rendered black and its interminable shades of 
brown* somewhat more curious and fascinating and 
respectable, for fathers and mothers to fancy, in their 
accommodating impoverishment. At the time in ques- 
tion, the descendants of Jews and Moors were " held 
infemoufi" — r'/ifames ^ta&cntier — and wore consequently 
precluded from the Company of Jesus, aa'ording to 
its Constitutions.^ Still, a ''dispensation" was usually 

' ** Qui elum JQxUi ConvtituticuifB litulo inftuiun B^mitti uon pomuit." — 
TL Cmffrrg, ^\jw. Touchmg the lilood of Inrkol, I bftvc nothing: to ny. 
Eipabiatnl wwidcrerB overewili, perptouu^dcvorj-nhere^hilwi, desjnsedj their 
only reoo^rc^ ipba to hmp up ^oldj thai uiuv^^rHLl compensating ]icndu1iini of 
Vodvtj, Bui the pEichy loucb, julded Vo their dcgradaiioDj poiHrietl ilitir LcAru, 
nud* th«Tt » crifigingH grwi^llLQg ruiCfj tLat «onfoled lliemf«lva far all ignoTainy 
when liie> Uinchcd jud hugged their burntiDe ttt^ U wu not Lhui wilh t]i« 

y2 



324 



HISTORY OP THE JEStliTS. 



granted when the applicant had other endowments 
natural or a<:quired^ to compensate for the hereditarj 
How oio taint of ijifidclity. We may stop for a moment 
tuh*!ho'^^ to observe that no proof can be stronger to 
"uinied.'' attest the conviction of** converters" in tha^^e 
dayg» that they did ?ioi boHeve they ever made a Christian 
out t»f an infidel. They never ceased to apprehend a 
relapse. The base motives of bigotry made them always 
suspicions. In the Sixth Congregation of the Jcsuita, it 
was decided, on this score, to make inquiries in such 
cflfies, as far hack as the fifth degree inclusive^ with 
regard to those " w-Ao were of good stock i?i other reftpects. 
Of nofflcj or of good repiitatioti^*' * Pulancns had the 
misfortune to belong to the "tainted" race* The idea of 
his lieing made general of the Company of Jesus was 
horrifying. The Sjianiards were bo desperately alarmed 
that Philip II., Don Sebastian, and the Cardinal Henry of 
Portugal had written and conjured the pope to oppose 
the election of every Jesuit suspected of such origin. 
This explains the conduct of Gregory' in suggesting 
Mercurian for the generalate, and shows that the preju- 
dice was patronised by '* the Vicar of Jesus Christ," 
just as the prejudice against colour in the West, fouini 
accommodating supporters in the priesthood, in spit^ of 
their European enlightenment and charity, imUbing 



MooTQ. Wherever ihcv bcul miriglpcl wirJi tho mm vliom thoy ««d 
wherever they orindeaconrjed to mix tholr hlnod witb Uift Spiuiiard,they imprnTBd 
it ; grace of boily, pniw of toiu'l and power witlml, uoblo wntimeiit, ctheml 
poflBy, facjLUtj', hearty aiid raind. alJ were given or enlianeed hy tlie LilooJ of tb« 
Moor- And now, m tho presrat dnv, tJie brti of the larnl *houkl I* |iruwi at 
that " taint^^ wliich tVifiir prcdeceAsui-? dcapiscil. Even hlr, Dunliani »U) Q^ 
yon aotUG idea of ^' I^IobamttiPd&ti Spnin,"— ^I'M, ^ Spain, &r. vol. it, 

^ *' la Mleri?, ijui iiliof|ui honoHtflJ foniiliiP teftent, nnt vol^u nobile*, r^l Umi 
Ddmima haberenlur, inforniDtiores fierint us<]ue ad t^tijntuxri gradum indiiUT^ " 
—Jbid. 



^ 



MBRCURlAy, THE NEW OBKEKAL. 



325 



prejudice against colour as deeply as anj '* Creole." ' 
1q the presout instance, the Jesuits remonstraLed, not 
in defence of Polauco's taint, but in defence of their 
prerogative of ii-ee election. Still the pope told them 
that they might please themselves, but he enjoined 
them to aaneuuce to hiiu, before proclamation, tlie 
choicf they should make, should it fall on a Spaniard, 
On the following day. these remonstrants elected the 
pope's choice — Everard Mercurian — a Belgian, and, 
can^quently, a '' l^pauiard/' inn^much as he was a 
subject of King Philip. His age was sixty-eight. 

llis name has nothing to do with the god Mercury, 
but was simply derived from Marcom- in Luxemburg, 
tlie place of his birth.* He was bom of poor 
parents, educated at Liege and Louvam, 
became a curate> was disgusted \vith the little *' good" 
he did. and, inspired by the example of Faber and the 
Jesuit Strada, joined the Company at Paria, whence he 



■ h i« wvit kucwii to oU ^vho Uavf mvJdc J in the Wtut IndJofi tbnl tho priuU 
pvi-fi^tly pohfonutd I'j this prpjuilii*> and mmde uu ciFort to comHl it. 1 even 
kM« tt tiunviov when: the priest cm the o«u/tuio*ol ftdvanced the '■ taint " of 
faiipcniuiitM AmoUv*i Sot !tiii"iJUjf / C'hrUliaH hmm^iy I 

' Aiutiag Lhf vilioioloua bml-s jlU^^Usb^.■d by t!ic Jchjiia to <]i'JiLrai'? iliu 
navi^KiIiuii jf Igna^up.. *ii* "' /'"> Tulft^a-rt or tbo PictnrM of the Ulortriuu* 
pnvomgM td tbfl Compnnj <>f JcfU^t." pdbLialicJ at Dmmy, to nprodLLCf! Uie 
hBpnwlOb of (he gloriou* f<?aiintioi iu ihal luv-u, aiuong llic tliuutfLiiJ* where 
ihey wtre wlebraUnl I ah^ll hBreiaJltr dcw^ribo ihc pr«ceHJing9. Suffice 
H hm Id <tat#r that uudrr tim " picture" uf Mcri-untn tju tbt rullowkug 

Rtei^rda dc ljftv«n Ard«iie el Lturmbour ; 
Romef unw^ du miel dii ce ngs Mcrrurer 
Sc eooSesse ohMffk} k Icur peiit Atcrvour/* 

Let so urn? over »v that DAtiin was Btm^ 

And looked Mkcv on ArdeniM^'i unl LumntAnir i 

Roxnc, watd^ 4itU dip iio»<y I'f lUjb u i** Merxiiry. 
Qmfi^Mcthenieirobligod to Ihcir Little Mpmiut. 

rnAJrHirdet Pefrnma-i^, Alc. p. H2. 



32fi 



HlJiTOlty (JF THE JEiiUlTS. 



was summoned to Home in 1551, was higMy eeU^cmed 
bj Ignatiiis, and, finally, was one of Borgia's aesistaiila 
At the intelligence of liia exaltation, a brother of his, 
the son of his mother^ not a Jesuit, wrote to Mercurian 
from the Netherlands, congratulating the general, and, 
of conr«e, begging his exalted brother to remember Iiis 
poverty, and the sorry condition of all his relativea, 
Mercurian very properly wrote back, telling the mistaken 
applicant, that he was the general and servant of the 
Company, that his office did not increase his revenue 
by a farthing, and that he was not richer than the least 
cook of the Company.* 

The decrees passed in thia congregation are more his- 
torical as to facts than all the histories of the Jesuits, by 
, . theraselvee or their enemies. To these mines of 

The njiEmtial 

projudif«of the Company's "spirit" I sliall always pene- 
trate, diggmg for truth, ire the aristocrats of 
the Company proceeded to the election, preUminary reso- 
lutions had passed : but the pope sent a cardinal who, *' in 
the name of the pontiff, and for the interest of the Uni- 
versal Church, called upon the electors to elect, for once 
at least, a general who was not a Spaniari"* Other 
considerations than Spanish prejudice against ancestral 
taint, seemed to have enliglitened tlio pope, on inrjuiry. 
All the high offices of the Company were filled by 
Spaniards exclusively. And national prejudices were Jis 
strong in the Company of Jesus^ as tliat against Jewish 
and Moorish taint was throughout the realms of ortho- 
doxy- The " Constitutions of Ignatius ''—the peculiar 
training of the Cuni]mny — seemed to subdue the most 
decided characters, the most turbulent natures : but 



' TaIiIi-iilix, p. 7^, ti Kq. i Bill ScriptH S. J. £ver. Mom. 
' Crciuieau, fi- 171. 



THEIR NATIONAL PREJUDICES. 



327 



these characters, these natures, were ao/ aubdued. 
Motives were given unto them, to make them husband 
or direct their energies to other objects than the mime- 
djate suggestions of nature. They remained essentially 
the same — hence the resistless power of each Jesuit in 
his peculiar sphere of action. But hence, also, the con- 
temptible littleness, shallowness of his nature, thus 
contracted and made subservient in all things by selfish 
motives or fanatical convictions, utterly bereft of that 
elastic, bounding spirit of freedom, which constitutes the 
prime pri?rogativG of man— his fearless independence of 
heart and mind. And hence, also, that national egotism 
which, it is certain and admitted, prevailed fiom the 
first among the Jesuits, and was never uprooted. If we 
read the gorgeous sentiments of the theoretical Jesuits 
on self-abnegation, on Christian chainty, we conclude 
that these men, above all others, understood and pro- 
moted that equality of loving brotherhood, which He of 
Nazareth came to suggest and exemplify ; but it was 
not 80< '■ The Jesuits, without giving vent to their com- 
plaints, evinced their jealousy respecting that equality." ^ 
Ignatius. Lainez, Borgia, doubtless perceived this ele- 
ment of decay in the Company ; but how could they 
afford to attempt that radical reform which would have 
banished tho evil \ Natural passions, strong as ever, 
and pent up into narrow channels — coufmed to llie little- 
ness, the petty views of small circles, found pride in 
their Hpankh oi'i<}in ; and untold dislikes, selfish diflap- 
probation, when their *' foreign " brotliers were exalted, 
brooded in their souls.' 

* ' Lr« Ji*«uilc«, Bftm Ure rckter Teiin plunCcs, m moDtiiwnt pourtuit 
jftlma du InoDipbe Je cette iignlile." — Crctiai^it, iL ITS. 

' C^v^iKHi, eJIct ibo Jccuiu, mjfljfl^ tltia impoj-uuiL fui u fallowH : " Egiucr, 
lAynvB et BurgUp quuji^ua EapngntrlB, ■'■^taiuiil, par ciDphi de jiutiH, conTurm^a 



328 



UlSTUKT Oi' THK JESllTS. 



No man in the Compaiij was more in tlie secret 

these matters than tbe secretai"; and assistant, Polancus, 

As a preliRiiiiary to the ebctioii, lie proposeti 

Lbutc# in ihB to appomt a coiBmittee of the Others to ex- 

^"^' amine and report whether the Company liad 
hitherto suffered, or was in danger of suffering daniagt*. 
Five fathers wore appointed from the five nations. Ger- 
maii» lUihan, French, Spanish, and Portuguese, who, with 
the vicar-general Polancus, and four assistftnta, with i 
Sahneron and Bobadilla, should receive evidence from 
the other fathers : but by a laj-ge majority it wa£ decreed | 
that the requisite evidence should be taken only from I 
the electoral and the procurators of the proviaceA^ and to | 
be confined to practices, without oxtenthng to pcrsoUA — 'I 
wot even to practices which might refer to individuals. 
The evidence of other members, particularly if they were 
discreet and approved men, was not to be rejected if^ 
offered ; hut it was not to be a^ked ; and such evidence 
was to be given in writing, signed with the names of the 
informers, — stringent couditiona, which point at once tc 
the purely aristocratical cxclusiveness of the Companya 
government. Besides the constitutional qualificatiooB 
appointed for the general, the peculiar qualities sug- 
gested by the Company's present predicament were aa 
follows : — " 1. Whether the member profjoscd to h© 
elected general, was likely to govern the Company wiUi 
ft paternal spirit, and not despotically — easy of access, 
ajid capable of inspiring confidence. 2. Whether he 
was likely to direct his serious attention to the re-^ 
establishment of tliat charity and union m Uiu 



I lui V4BU doiU \]a ne nn^ouniULisfiuiunT pas riaHuoiiee ; ruiua, «ut( que f^ertJiEM 

doii^mer. mit plutiH quo f& t^ein^ <t>i«iI1iido LVpril (riip nnufPiU fon PinpiTr. i 
[liBHiitiuiiB iiiUJi'ii^ui'cb L-otikibifnt mi fond ^/^ iiMCv."^tL 17-- 



lyVESTlOATlON OF ABD8EH IW THB COMPAirY. 329 



I 
I 



reconuueiided by the Cotistitutioiis, and whicli had been 
so inucU aJiuired in tht; Coiupaiij — so that lio might cut 
ofl^ gU t/te occmi^m of dificord, and strenuously ^VP^y 
himself to restore th' w/iole Company to fier Joi'iner find 
amimeftdaUe union. 3. Whether he would be likely to 
observe the Constitutious as to admhsiotta info the Com- 
pany, to dismissals, pt'ofemon, profmlion. the intptjriiy of 
ike fotrs ofpoteriy und i-ha.stity ; tht! mortijicaiion of the 
pcsslomj and self-tfilt ; the e.Hii'-palion of (he ftan/cering 
after diHinHion. the disease (>f anibiiion. mrnal riffection^ 
aud thtf pfiriialities of kindred — the ab^lute staiii^lard of 
ubcdiencc, &<.%, — «ot iodced according to Ids own views, 
but according to tlie spirit and practice of our Father 
Ignatius — discarding every spirit foreign to, and at 
variance with, our Institute. 4. Whether he will 
seriously tjndeavuui" to free the Company from raaJiy 
things which do not besc^em our In-^tltute, an<l whi< h so 
c&cumber ua that we are forced to neglect those which 
)lie proper for the lastitute ; of the former kind are the 
ivies, the home of boarders, the vollct/e of pcmten- 
r, our preM'tice at lite meetings of Ute litfjuhition for 
pfMsi/iffjudymeat, &c., contrary to the form of our decree. 
J. Wliether it i» feared that he will be inclined to admit 
aftw collegea, tchilst (lie Company seern-i alrtnd'/ so 
htrthentfl and opj'rcs.std lit/ (he mtdiitttde- of ctAk-ges, fliat 
she eanntft urtpport (he Irtad slit' has inaieriak^ti. Q. 
Whetlier he will diligently take care to send proper 
l«boujx-ra to relieve the wants of the colleges, especially 
the foreifpi missions, where the Coinpartj/ is gravely 
defieieid in (Iv oltsenance of the histitufe, titid- other 
things, owing to the want of good sftperiors and InltourerBy 
lest thow who are the least adapted and qualified be 
dJHpalched to them» as the prorinees eomplnin (hat ^trh 



330 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



I 
I 



has ojten happetwd, , . . . 8. Whether be will be kim 
to all ^thout partiality — without being suspected of 
making exceptions as to persons — not guided by his own 
passions, or those motives which are called human am 
worldly- . ... 11. Whether he be full of zeal to p] 
mote the perfection of our mon, and more inclined to th< 
office of a shepherd, than qualified by industry and 
biisinesa-cxperience, in carrying on personalb/^ or by 
others, lawsuits and worldly hmness; in esacftjiy montyt^ 
and (7'amforTing the same from one protincc to anatheri 
since, an that arcovnt, our Comjmnif is eT^erytthen 
branded by prhices in Church and Staffs, end ti 
knm^n thai there has been thd'cby danf/er of s<Ms\ 
in Uie Company"^ 

Honest Polancus, who su^eated these matters, evi- 
dently was alive to the diseases of the Company, Had 

ho been elected there cannot be a doubt that i 

M««Mniin he would have attempted extenBire reforms t^H 
qg jH I . ^ — j^^^ 1^^ m'ould have been desperately resisted ^^ 
— not by the vulgar herd of the Company, but by the 
aristocracy^already swajing the destinies of the Jesuit- 
empire. This docuEnent gives us a most favourable 
impression of Polancus. We are compelled to give him 
the most unlimited credit for a thorough knowledge of 
tho Company's membera and their concerns ; and wo 
so admire his honesty of purpose, that wc rather co; 
gratulate him at being postponed on account of 
" taint." to Mercurian on account of the pope's tiomtn. 
tion. Mercurian's "miiilncss and prudence"^ were 
better adapted to eventuate a comfortable reign in thi 
midst of abuses, than Polanco's honesty and reform 
the midst of turbulent opposition. 




Dec Ui. CuDff, ; Corp. Ijistil. i. 77^jcf «r$^ •"/^oiartjjiHffH/,- 



VAEI0U8 NEW DECREES. 



331 



Many characteristic decrees were passed in the coa- 
gregation, after the election. The distribution of the 
hereditary ■wealth of the brothers, given to Di,u^butioi. 
the Company, was a subject of considerable '*™''"*3"- 
difficulty fitilL And again tho matter was left chiefly to 
the discretion of the geueiu! — always premising due 
regard to tho M-ill of tho kings and princes in whoso 
dominions such property was situate.^ EJixteen decrees 
are omitted in the printed copy — all of tbem doubtless 
pertaining to that growing anxietj^ of the Company in 
the increase of their wcaltli — in certaio quarters too 
abundant, in others too deficient. 

The promise ma-io by the novices to abdicate their 
wealth, after the first year of probation, was considered 
a hard matter by some, and in certain places Ai^iiaiioiiof 
it was not, apparently, complied with. It was v^v^^y^ ■ 
now declared to be simply a promise, not a vow — and 
loft to the discretion of the general.* 

Against the multipUcity of colleges, whicti was brought 
forward, no new decree was niade : but the general was 
seriously and urgently requested and advised MuitipUdij 
to attend to the former decree on the subject ''f""'^"' 
— touching the multiphcity of the Company's college^ 
and Uie insufTifiency of their revenues.* 

Some of the fathers proposed to expunge those enact- 
ments of the Constitutions which, by the lapse of time or 
otherwise, we^^tnolonfterin practice — a startling 
declaration at so early a period after these «riL*Coiaii- 
Constitutions were universally approved by 
successive popes, and sworn tu by the Company. And 
yet the shghtest alteration suggested by the pope liim- 
aell^ ever met Viiih. the stauncheet opposiiiou I It is 



' Dec K»L in M9. D. uvi 



Dec ^is. 



Dh^kjl 



332 



HJtfruttY UK THE JESUITS, 



Monita 



iiicuoEUsteut : but quite uiitural ; £iud the fathers oti the 
present occasiou wisely and moat sagaciously resolved 
that there should be, on no account, any expunging of 
obsotete eoactments — all must remain just as "Igna- 
tius" left tbem.' Thus, again, you see that the Jesuits 
could always silence objection by appoaling to tLe 
inviolate Cooatiiutions, However, there ia a hiatus of 
two decrees, after tliis question about the old Coaetitu- 
tions. Whether any expochciit wa« proposed and 
adopted to supply their place is a matter of cnrious 
conjecture. An enemy of the Jesuits would be temjittid 
to ascribe the idea of the famous Monita Secreta 
to this occasion^ particularly n^ RibadcnejTa 
tells us that Genera! Mercuriaa "' prepared certain very 
ueefiil monita for the public use of the Company ; ipse 
monita Socidofi in puldicum mum pcruiUia concinnnrU.^^ 
As to the bi>ardcrs who p;ud a stipend at the German 
College, nothing was decided : but the matter was left 
to the eeneraL as u«uaL who was to conGidor 
ihtOemiid whether the '* burthen' was to be removcnL 
"^ '^' and the beautiful prospectus-declaralion about 
^7'fl^;s-instruction, honestly practised or not, jTipo 
decrees are omitted.^ The ConstitutiooB poatively 
dwlai^ed tliat no alma, no tlonations, were u> 

Toil thing 

<in.4 uid do- be received for colleges which had revenues 
enough to support twelve scliolara, beaidefl 
teEicljers. This enactment had been infringed : the 
question — probably proposed by Polaocus — ^was, How 
the enactment was to be understood ? It was left lo 
the general to enforce^ to interpret, or dispense with it> 
as he should think proper.* Four decree are sunk in 



Uibl. Scrip*, S- J- Enjr M«rv- 



^ Dec. xxiii. \jx MS. D. utxiii. 
^ Dm. Kxiv, in MS, P. xx^v. 
* Utc. xxf. It ill cviUeai UibL the i^niciml of ihv Jmiitt Wis Dupollor ID 111" 



EDITIONS OF THE ('ONaTITTTTlOSS. 



333 



Tlif Cnrntl- 



edifying oblirioii ; aud the everlasting question about 
the Latin tmnslatiou of the Conatitutions is again brought 
forward. It is declared that the two editions 
alreoilv published diftore<i in many point**— iw 
mtiltiJt invictm dhctpp^jtt : so the demand waa, that the 
congregation should deolai'c whetlier the first or the 
second edition, was the tnio original of the Cotistitutionfi 
— rerrrm origmole CfymfUniinnum — lest thev should 
subsequently agaiu have to go to the Spanish copy — 
exemplar Hhpnnicmn — which, as it was not printed, 
and not op/ft to fill — aec nmnihvs commune — might, 
perhaps, in the lapse of time, be rather ra/iilt/ ck/i/tf^f/ 
or aiJrred : — poswt Jirrta^sf ^^ucce^jnu temporh facilms 
tmirmtttri — n most significant piece of itfomnation 
decidedly. Six fathers were appointed, amocg the reRt 
Ribadeneyra and PoBscvinus, to compare tlie two 
versions with pa^h other, and with tlie *^ autograph ;'* in 
order that the congregation might approve of the second 
edition and appoint it to be used. The autograph was 
to be preserved ;' and ought to be now in existence, in 
the Konian archives of the Company ; but there is 
something very suspicious about these same Constitu- 
tions and their editions. The subject was mooted in 
the preceding Congregation, although a *' version " had 
been approved In the First Congregation, under Lalnez. 
In the Fourtli Congregation, in 1581, the version with 
declarations, approved in 1573, was again objected to. 
with demands for a new examination and comparison 
with the eternal original, for correction and emendation.' 



COBfftitutionH whtui rt nLitfil lt>c JunsToFnojr to Tote him wch ; jiint u iho 
JCMdla> lAitfa LunPi nl ihi^r hi'^d, vated thr pope supertnr to lh« gmmit 
•MM^il of the Chulvh, irhpTi it nuileil ihcir ^^urpove to feiii?r Uw buhopA bjr ui 
appwl from t>u dATP44 of ihe Counril, lo Lh^* privilp^e* pnD»dAd \/f theqr 
fimtfwig tOMter*, th« popn, v\\t\ luwcl the Company for hit purTHMM. 
' D«dX*i. ' IV. CodK D«- viir. 



334 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



Ill tlio Fifth Congrogation, in lS93-4jit^a« asserted 
tliat the Latin translatiou of the Constitutions differed in 
mam/ pout ts from the Spanish original of "Ignatius;" 
thatr tlic points ivere collected ; and it was demanded 
that inspectors might be appointed to correct the said 
eflition : — but the demand was not granted — the edition 
sanctioned by the Fourth Congregation was to be retained 
— ^thert waa no time for the examination — the difr- 
crepanciea might be referred to llie general and assist- 
ants.' In the Sixth Congregation, in l(i08, itwas at 
length proposed to alter the Constitutions, which, it is 
stated, were not sufficiently respected, notwithhtanding 
they were the "product of so many tears and prayers 
of Blcescd Father Iguatius, — a £* Patre Nostra toi 
laa\^?nis el oralioni/fiis cotidiias ;"^ and finally, in the 
Ninth Congregation, inl649-50, several important points 
of the Constitutions were proposed for ejj^artfifion, which 
WHS given accordingly.^ Is it not most extraordinarr, 
most unaccountable, tliat with so many learned linguists 
in the Company — men engaged with translating the 
Council of Trent into every language, even Arabic — 
there was not one who could render correctly in Latin, 
the original draft of the Spanish ? Tlie supposition 
cannot be entertained for a moment* It follows, there- 
fore, that the Constitutions, like the Jesuits, underwent 
the changes of Old Time, and that it took some time to 
" lick " thom into their present shape, without being mudi 
ohlige<l for the same to Blessed Father Ignatius, with his 
tears and prayers so plentiful, after the good round lapse 
of a himdred years and over ; the last hand — tdUma 
jimmfs — having been apparmfhf given to them between 
1608 and 1615, when a now edition, with declarations, 

' V. Cong, Dw. huTi. J VI. C<mf. Det »k ' IX, Cong. Dep, umx. 



DECREE RELATlNi; TO PEOPERTY. 



335 



The wrallli 
of Ihc 
brcEhrrb. 



issnea from the Company » press at the Roman College, 
Such ia the curious history of the famous Constitutions 
of the Company of Jeaus. Meanwhile, there was always 
a collection of general rules for universal observance in 
the Company ; and it is very probable that during the 
first century of the Company, access to the Constitutions 
was strictly confined to the professed. 

In the same congregation imder Mercuiian a decree 
was passed relating to the property of the members. 
It was admitted that the Jesuits might enter 
into contracts with their relatives or any 
other parties, concerning their inheritances 
and other goods belonging to them,— the Company 
claiming no right to tlio mid property : but, no such 
contracts should subsequently be entered into, without 
the general being exactly informed touching the circum- 
stances of the brother, the inheritance, the property, the 
whole affair without reserve, — and the entire disposal 
of the business should be directed by his judgment and 
command.' It is obTious that this interf«reuce was 
liable to serious abuses, and likely, at least, to produce 
much bitterness iu families — since experience attests 
that the settlement of money-matters aroongst relatives, 
ia generally attended with the unsettling of all the best 
feelings of kindred — frequently converting those nearest 
by blood into such rancorous foes as are nowhere else 
to be found. Besides, the decree was au indirect, if not 
a direct, infringement of a canon of the Gfreat xte Jcmju 
Council. In fact these Jesuits who were for ^Fp™-,^ 
reforming all the world, and for stretching or ^"'"' 
clipping all states and conditions to fit the Procrustean 
bdd of the Trent-Councih were themselves the first to 



SS6 



IflSTURV OF THE J&SITITK, 



infringe tbe canons where they were at variani:e with 
their "Constitutions," and " Privileges/' Bj the thirtieth 
decree in ftill congregation, tJie general was enjoined to 
Bolicit from the pope, "a relaxation of those derogn- 
tiona:'' and they were the foilowing canons, whose 
perpetual intringonient was, amongst the many other 
causes, the jierpetua! fiom'ce of contention between 
bishops and the Jesuits, the perpetual source of jealouxy 
among other labourers in the vineyard, the per7>etual 
source of pecuniary annoyance among families. The 
Council of Trent decreed — 1. That all the Re^lars must 
present themselves to the bishop, and get his beue- 
dictioOf before they began to preach ; and no Regular 
is permitted to pi'each even in a church of bis Order, 
if forbidden by the bishop,' The pride of the Jesuit* 
stuck at this; and they wore resolved not to comfrfy 
vrith the injunction — under the shield of Pririk^ 
2. All ecclesiastic^] benefires, whether annexed Ui 
churches or colleges, are to b© visited yearly by the 
Ordinaries.' Jesuit-pride and cupidity shuddered at 
this mandate, and they determined to hide themselve* 
under the wings of Frivikge. 3. Regulars were ncit 
to be ordained without a diligent examination by tho 
bishop — to the complete exclusion of all privileges what- 
ever. — 'pririle^fiis qitibuscnmqve pcnititn e^rlmia} 4. In 
like manner, no Kcgular, notwithstauding his priril€^;ciip 
can hear confessions unless he has a parish-benefice, w 
be judged comi>etent by the bishop's examination, or 
otherwise.* 5. All censures and interdicts promulgated 
by order of the bishop must be published and ob- 
served by the Regnlars in their churches.^ Jemiit-pridet 

■ Se«n. x3;It, c, iv. ; Sens v- c. \\. > Sw^, vii. rr. vii- uiil firi. 

' Sew. xxm, c. %\\. * Sph». r, iv, ^ Smb. XKr. «. xiL 




THE JESUITS OPPOSE THE COUNCIL OF TRKNT, 337 



Fh\8 Order's iD(lepen<i(?nce, aiid giaiit-elattlicitj were pi-e- 
pared to snap these new bonds suggested by the Dalilah 
of Trent in favour of the epiacopaJ Pbilistia. 6. The Gi'eat 
and Holy Synod of Trent enjoined all Masterx, Doctors, 
■ and others in the Universities, to teach the Catholic faith 
according to the rule laid down by the decrees of the 
aaid Couucll, and required (hem to bind tbemeelvcs by 
a solemn oath at the beginning uf every year, to observe 
this injunction.' What possible difficulty could the 



' Sen. Ml', c. ». Sotdc hiatorii?al elucidation is here iiect^Eigu-j. Afl Car 
hattk u IdtiO, Martin Ki?iniiiciaA lind jioblielied n tract entitled, *^The (hirflitgdt 
^tkftAtUayyof^tJtniittj'' printed at Cologne. Jtlsawvrt« attack on ih? 
OompaBj and lis ongin ; but die writcr'B ecvi^rity U cluofly directed against the 
doclrinea adt^anced i^ llie Caterhi^ni of CaniAiiv, uid a Ctneurv pablLshed that 
jnrt At CvLngne, b^ die JteuitA, Kemnit^flA qui>l<4 fmm butli prodnctiona, to 
ei^ibit iLc «xtravagnnt notioni of tlip Jeauitu on the Scriptures, fliii, free-will, 
juitififaiian, good worka, lie HflCTMnenf, imngw, &p- Ac. A friend of Uio 
Jiauitft, PajTa ADdradiun, a doctor of divjniij^, UnAi np lliuir caoac, U'ni them 
ft hftod,aad atlacked Kvmiueiiu in a tract oonceming Tht Oriffin a/ thf Ctm^ 
poiy ^Jt$ui; but he lenvta tlio niiuu charges of Keoiniciua catirvlj oat of 
'MOMdcTfttioa, landing the JisuiL? fur tljoir fKer-tiomi b the CotboUc oaner, an<), 
■noaigat otber u&crtloDB, «UtIji^, that within one or tro j''?arB, (lit' JeHuica had 
eOQWrlM) lo ihc Eaillt 110,000 barbonfuii ! This wu in I56f^, Ab ihe jH(iJLa> 
a« nnial, fumialted the apologieL with ibo malerialB, lie laJke marvrltoUAl/ of 
Xavur'» Mhit-TcmeatA and other Jc^it-woDdcrB in India, already blaAcd to the 
«oHd in ■ publication of thpir letters from India^ and tranalateit into rarioiu 
Isopiagf*— /^'itTti Arirj, di£<\ . . . dalf anno 1.151 olno al lAAn — wn ycon 
afliT the itxitK of Igiufiuq, A prof«aor of lh.c HoIt Srriphipefl, in ihu Academy 
al li«deib«Fg» had aluo attacked tho whole ■n^Bteni of the Company, In a work 
«nlitled " Tht Amertiuit of (ht old i\ini trot Ckrittitinity, agairnt tfit n*w tintt 
fetitU/ut Jefn-ititm or Cotnpa%}/ o/Jtjuu. HIb ntnac wa4 tiequin. Laaily, Dona- 
ttn fvotvivua, * dirine at Trevea. came forward with a tract called TAr faiih *,/ 
/#«»' tfW of rAf JftniUf in wTu^h hv contraAte thu pro*-'l&iiued doctHufv af tho 
Jtvoiti, ude hj ude, with the contrary doetrinm of tJie prupheUL the eruif^clisUt 
iht afK«t}rfl, and die fath^iv of the Chnrrh : and he certaii^ty makes out a Btrong 
«Me tgftUnt the doctrine* then propagated b_r the Company-, and throws Mtae 
H^flX <■> the ileiiiur of Ihc Jeniitx, in taking a nJemn nth to teach the docu-ioeA 
af IVbi*. The dirine of TrvvcA provrs MmBrlf a> lirvffy learned in llie fAtJier* 
am Lainoi in faia boBAEful display at the CoundL Some of ihe Jeauii-dactnaea 
MI* very curiooa, for insl&nc<< : " The Iltrtj/ Svriplurf u an im^trftttt mMiiittai^ 
tt^ftii* ilorlriitt. ■aAicA Joel not -^mTain aU Omi ptriuiuM U «ilpftliMt/i!MU, tatd 
fmd moniU."—In Jmi4tamm Ctnrurd CVohervi', fbU 320 ; ni opfr* (hMcAwTvP 

vou a. % 



338 



HISTORY OP THE JESUITS, 



Company of Jesus — pronounced to be a '* pious Iiisli- 
tute " by the same Council — patroniHed, cberisbed, 
fondled by the Head of the Catholic Chuich^ — ^holdiug 
itself forth as the very champion of orthodoxy — what 
difficulty could the Jesuits decently allege for demurring 
to comply mtli ilii^ injunction? With what part of 
the Constitutions can this injiuiction be at variance? 
Certainly none that we c^n now iliscover — absolutely 
none that the rabidly orthodox Ignatius ever penned or 
Banctioned. And yet, immediately after this canon of 
the Council, we read the following Jesiiit-protest : So 
Muchfor the den'ce^ of tlip Comtcil of Trefit, mamf'tttly 
repugnant to the laws and customs of our Company! — 
IFtec de lods CoiiciUi Tridcndni vminfest^ pttffnatifi/tus 
ei/m h'ffiffus ct ctmsuHvdinibn^^ nostra SocietflfiJi^ Surely 
it is now crident from this opposition of the Jesuits— 
this extravagant abuse of privilege — that the wide- 



Ccnisii, foL ]2fi, HO, l£l, 163. Agun, '^ Tlje Holy Scr)(>ti]iij, in itt cinitntU 
and pTopoaitioutt, lb like \ ntm <>/ ACiur, yielding 110 fixi^] luid ctrri&m eenaei bul 
capable or bemg twisted into any niGBoing you Itki)/' — /« OiVftfUaf. 117 ; h 
irp. Catiif. f, 44. ThirJl_Y^ *' Tfir jfiidii\i/ t'f the litt^ Sciiptnrc u wirf vmlf vt 
nfffttl, hvt 111 many vai/t jtentidout to l/tr Cfiureh." — /n CWtwrd, f^ ?l ^ ■* a^ 

Conit. t -SOL, And snoa prfvecede thii divbo, convicting ihc JenriU orheredatl 
luid immorftl xnculcatioHB, at [ml fiirth Id tlieir Censure^ uid the ratechiwn uf 
C^niiriiiH. It limy gratify llip reader tn leam that GotnidUft ooQTirla CiJiiaua 
uiiO iho Jet^uit, nuMV fv\vre]y and triuuipliojiUy thnn Cjuiiaius di'l in Lin JitMekf 
tM^fan? given, an (he doctrinn of Lullicr And thr Proteatnntia. n<«td«A, Gnlainit 
lavuhes no &1iiir4« whitover ; he merely qaotos uid mbjoiiifl the conlT%>tU froni 
the oribodon sources abovp nnmed. In the Liet of Aiithora printed &l Ih* ti»*l 
of this liiBtorj, y*m »iU find the Latiu tJtlva of the wurks jiisl nsinod. 1 may 
obnvnc, Ly Uie way^ [JiAt in the BLili»^itumtt nUtiiinA uf OuiihiuB, the JenjiU 
took cure ta cipnngc the nhjt-ctionnblp rufioi-tiDEiA, whidi *ere mtEnded to *■ put 
down " the stihont doctrtnffl of the Prfitpstantd. 

> Corpus Lietit. S. J^ t. 915- WJiat fitirrcd die Jesuits itiU raorv in lli« 
matter vu, that Tope Gregnry XIU. had jusE issued a buM rcToldng kU lb* 
prtvi]cgi^4 luid cnutriMioiib livforc cnntviloil to thr Rcguloj-B, &nd plunJy Hh- 
jeftiiig llipm to Ihe dinpuHLl of thf rnmmon law and Council of TVeut. o/tW*^ 

f^renijti, n&id thd* Jr-eaita in congr^iBitJan ; but on what groundi, we w not 
told.— ;fi»d. 816, 



/BSITTT-BAPACITY. 



339 



I 



I 



spread ill-odoiir of the Jesuits, eveu anioug orthodox 
Catliolics, and partiailarly the bishops, those of France 
eapecialiy, waa not without ample cause in the 
spirit and practice of the Jesuits tlieiuselres, CarLoiic 
seeking and obtaiuing extravagant oxemp- 4po"irritht 
tioiLB from solemn injunctions, mounted on "'"^*' 
which, they could easily distance all their rivals in the 
race whoee reward was influence with the people, of all 
ranks and conditions, wealth and aggrandisement. 

Nor was tliia alL There was another cajioii whose 
smoke was likely to suffocate the Jesuita. It is mentioned 
among others '* which seem in some way to mili- j^^^^^^ 
tate against our Institute and its privileges/* "H^itr- 
By a curious coincidence, it actually occurs in tlie very 
passage where the Company is called a " pious Institute." 
One would HUppose that this soft impeachment, clipped 
out of the Holy Synod as eagerly fiR a publisher snaps 
up a favourable sentence from a review of his specula- 
tion, would hare gently "moved" the Jesuits to exhibit 
their '* pious" gratitude by swallowing the little fly 
drowned in the genernas wine of tie cecumenical toast. 
Not a bit of it. Nor was it likely, when you perceive 
that this htlle fly was, to the Jesuits, a horrible swarm 
of locusts, eating them out of house and home, for — the 
Synod decreed that, '* before the profesRion of a-novice, 
male or fumale, the parents, relatives, or guanhans of 
the same, should give no portion of the said novice's 
wealth to the monastery, on any pretext whatever, 
except for board and clothing during probation ; " and 
the reason properly advanced is, '*leat the novice, liy 
such donation, be prevented from leaving, because the 
monastery possesses the whole or the greater part of 
his substance : and it will not be easy for him to regain 

z 2 



340 



HisTony OF THE jESurra, 



possession iu the erent of his leaA'ing. Moreover, tlie 
holy Sjnod rather forbids, under the penalty of anathema, 
anything of the sort, in any way, to be done, whether 
by the givGi-H or the receivers, and commands that those 
who leave before profession, should have all their pro- 
perty restored to them juat as it was before."* To 
this mandate the Jesuits were opposed, and they did 
not bhish in seeking to evade it by privilege. 

Such are the striking features of the Third Congrega- 
tion — rather uii prepossessing, decidedly, I have eiilai^ed 
on the subject by way of additional attestation 
civeittirA for the preceding facts. If you romember all 
of ih" °^ tliat you have read, it must be evident thai a 
^'*'''"' history of the Jesuits might be written almost 
entirely from the decrees of their congregations.* Such 
was the state of affairs at Mercurian's accession, **Mild 
and pmdent, all lie had to do," says the Jesuit-historiaa 
" was to coneoUdate the edifice of the Company; — that 
was his chief vocation," ^ And yet wo have seen that 
Polancus, the secretary of the Company, and assislaut 
of the late general, thought a vast deal more was to be 
expected from the " vocation *' of Borgia's succeswr 
than mere " consolidation of the Company s edifice^" 
destined anon to sink by its own weight — fmJ^ sad. — 
into the gulph over which it was supported, when the 
flimsy rafters hastily buttressed^ shall no longer resist 
their irrational, infatuated ** consolidation," But much 



■ ScsA. xxy, c jEvi. ; Corpiw Instit, S. J. i. R|6. 

' If my rpMlt-ra can rvfer to Credntaii-Jolj'H bmilalor/ hialory of liie Jenlla, 
the)' will seo how very irippingly ihp pfirtiBftn BumB Mp the propesdings of ihb 
coDgmgftLJon, totkll^ misrepr«ktiting the vtbole ikfikir, &nd iliembain;, with on* 
fliniHj' p»g^, tliia mmc importatit pftAsngo of JeBuil-hialory— the ir-ry Inimpe*- 
notCBor warning. booming lri»m Ihc IhouHand comeniof iil'QBea aJ ready fm^pvin| 
downfall Mid Jortruction, ' CivUiif»u, U. J7a 



ATTEMPT TO CATHOLICIZE SWBDEN. 



341 



I 
I 



k 

■I 

I 



was to be done and undoue ere that eveut could come 
to pass, accordiag to the everlasting laws of providential 
retribution. 

To the most *' stirring'^ epoch of Je-suitiam we are 
now advancing. The political schemes of Philip IL 
suggested the propriety of wiuning over to the Catholic 
cause the King of Sweden. I say the Khig of Sweden, 
for in those days, and long after, it was of little conse- 
quence to gfliu over the people of a kingdom, as long as 
the strong arm of milita,ry domination could enforce the 
will of potentates. We are at the present moment 
awaking from that dream. Cast-iron despotism is fast 
melting away in the fuinaco of public opinion. 

Gustavus the Great had established Luthcranism in 
Sweden. He left four sons, among the rest Eric XIV., 
who succeeded him, and John, Duke of Finland, 
afterwards John III. of Sweden. Eric was an 
aatrolc^er and magician.* By tlie revelations of his 
stars or binek art, he beUeved that his brother John 
would dethrone him, and thereupon threw him into 
prison, together with his young vrife, the Princess 
Catherine of Pohmd, sister to Sigismuud Augustus. Of 
course all the sons of Gusta^iis — "the brood of King 
Gustaii-ns/' as the Swedes call them — were Lutherans ; 
but John's Catholic wife was a good docoy of Catholicisin 
in the northern wilderne&s. Meanwhile, King Eric 
plunged into all manner of vice and atrocity. Y{\& old 
tutor, Denis Burgos, offered him good atlvice : the savage 
plunged his dagjjcr into the old man's heart. Many a 
murder was on his con.science. The ghost of bis old 
fiiend and tutor seemed to haunt him ; then he seemed 
to relent, and libemted his brother John, with his young 



Sweden. 



1 Plorin. dv Raynt- (the Jeailit Rit^heumt?), 1. \t. c. i*i. i Mftbnb. li. 34A. 



:u2 



H19T0KY OF THE JESUITS. 



nnd KJDj; 

JullD. 



wife, fi'om prisoQ. But Kric was hall' mad at least ; his 
magical terrors came upon him again, and he resolved 
to cut off all his fancie J euemies at one fell swoop. He 
would cobhrate his nuptials with a maiden of low con- 
dition, anr!, at tlie marriage-feast, he would suddenly 
cut off all hifi hrothers and the nohlcs. His Dalilah 
betrayed liim to his iutendud victims. John put luniself 
at the head of the nobles, took Eric prisoner, and then 
put liini to death in the most Solent manner.' Thus it 
was that John of Finland became Kin^ John IIL of 
Sweden in 1569. 

In If) 74 the Jesuit Wareeviez was dispatched by the 
pope to King John JIL He represented himself as the 
Tiw jfiiiii ambassador of Queen Anne of Poland to her 
sister Catherine, King John s Catholic partner : 
— this was the only means he had to penetrate 
to the Swedish Court. Warsevicz waa^woare told, one of 
those Jesuits whom nobility of birth, experience of tie 
world, a knowledge of mankind, had familiarised with 
all the positions of humaiiitv. So the queen hid him in 
a room of the palace : Warsevicz awaited the propitious 
horn- ; she sounded at last ; and liing Joltn consented to 
see the Jesuit.^ The Jesuits mission had a two-fold 
object. Ho had to treat with the king concerning an 
alliance with King Philip, who was anxious to fiightep 
the Nethcrlttudera fiom the north as well as the 8outb ; 
and, secondly, he had to prepare the king for a relapse 
or return to the faith of his ancestoi's.' According to the 
Jesuits, the kmg !iad fructified his former imprisonment 
bj studying the M^'athers.'' and thas became quile 

' M*imb. ii. 2(5. ri ecj. ; Rflnke, ii. 130. Pklumbourg nttmly says OiM Erie 
"died (en ymre ftrtflr;*'but iho fact of tlip murder U tlwwborc Alltsi^^J, 4» 
tp^cn by lUnke, = Cretinpnu, il. inf, iHfl, 183. > Iliid. 189. 



TKICKfl OF THE JESUIT NICOLAL 



S43 



I 



led in theology ; but ihty say the result was only 
•* chaos amklst Lght :" six days llie Jesuit laboured on 
the king ; but no sabbuth came : — the king's anoma- 
lous Catholicism was uothiug more tliau Proteataatism 
befouled by the prominent vices of Romanism — an 
incongruity which we behold with regret amongst those 
who, at the present daycare the fiercest brawlers against 
popery. The expedition was a failure : Warsevicz took 
leave, and departed, after a month's sojourn in Sweden 
— the first Jesuit who penetrated into that country so 
essentially anti-cattiolic. 

It was evident, however, that King John, whether 
through tho '* Fathers." or through his wife, was inclined 
to Catholicism : only he wished, from political Trirksoftho 
L^tives, to compromise the matter by certain J""i^ ^i-^-i-^ 
Cngratiings, as I have said, which the Jesuit accordingly 
reported to bis general and the pope- Three yeai'S 
afterwards, a Jesuit, named NicolaT, a Norwegiaa was 
sent from Rome, in disguise, to the Swedish court, with 
the iuLcntion of waiting on the ({ucen, like Mary Queen 
of Scot^' Italian Rizzio* and to coumct, with her 
Majesty's aid, tho means of re-establishing tho faith in 
Sweden. Accordiug to tlie Jesuit Maimboui-g, the king 
entered into his plans, and even cleverly advised him 
how to !*et about the matter. At all events, on the 
same authority, this Jesuit Nicolai presented himself to 
the Lutheran ministers and preachers, and told them 
It he had passed all his life in tlie study of the high 
jices, in which lie thought he had, by God's gi-ace, 
made very considerable progress, which had gained a 
reputation in sevei-al universities ; that having heard 
that tlio king was establishing a new ciillege at Stock- 
holm, he hwl come to oiler hU services to his majesty. 



344 



m&l^ORY OF THE JBSUlTS. 



because he mucL preferred to be somewhat useful to 
Sweden^ so near to K^onvaj, his country, ratlier thau lo 
strangers Trhom he had hitherto sened, by teacbing 
them the sciences whicli lie professed ; and tlierefore he 
begged them to employ their credit ^vitli the king, lU 
order to get him employment in that college. This trick 
succeeded admirably, saya the Jesuit Maimhoui'g, nhoui 
1 have been trauslating iu all the foregoing tissue of lies* 
These ministers, continues the Jesuit, wore surjirised at 
hearing a man speak Latin so easy and elegantly, and 
had not the leii-^t idcn that he iras an^fhim^ but a Lutheran^ 
xitire he was a Norwegian — nataienl f/arde de ^imaf^nfr 
tjiiesiani deNorir^ge ii fust autre que Luiherien ; — they 
believed effectually that he was a very clever man, 
which was tnic, and did not fail to recommend hiui par- 
ticularly to the king, who, plnj/ing his own part with 
equal perjWiion^ told them that he relied on their retom- 
mendation. Whereupon he gave him the profcssorsliip 
of theology ; in wliich, without explaining himself hf 
adroitly ^apj}^d all the foundations of Lutheran i-fm in his 
lectures — oti.^ suits se declarer, il sapatt udroitemmU dam 
»es le^otis tmis ics fomlemens du Luihernmsme. The 
rector of the college and one of the inainibentfi of 
Stockliolm detected the Jesuit's nianteurre : the other 
ministers, says the unhlusliiiig Jesuit, were too ignoraol 
to see through the thing. The former came forward 
and opposed "such fortunate beginnings,*' says Maim- 
bourg. Biit iXin king, tinder pretext tliat they disturbed 
pubUc repose by their seditious speeches, drove them 
from the city, and made Nicolai rector of the college, 
aajnng that it was only justice in liim to do so, in order 
to justify so skilful a man, whom those two sediticnta 
men bad cahimniott^d — r/nc ce^' deu.r srditiriKv araient 



Cowl 

P6 



JOHN HI. or Sft-EDEN PATBOKISES THKM. 345 

calomniS. Was there cvlt such bare-faced effrontery ? 
Or did the Jesuit believe it impossible for any moral 
sentiment to shrink from dciiouiiLiing ao disgusting an 
instance of diabolically-deceitful means, employed to 
promote an end deemed *'good" by the perpetrators ? 
John III. followed up his Jesuit-roguery, He published 
at the same time a new Liturgy, drawn up by himself, 
and intended to abolish by degrees, as he said, the 
Lutheran practices.^ A battle of pamphlets ensued 
between the exilc<i rector and incumbent, and the roguish 
Jestiit, resperting the new Liturgy, which the former 
denounced, and the latter defended, although '* it was not 
altogether Catholic*" as his brother-Jesuits admit. There- 
upon the king advanced boldly with Catholic reforms, 
according to the Jesuit's account, ami even sent an 
ambassador to Pope Gregory XIIL, to treat for **the 
reduction of Sweden to the obet-lience of the Church, 
on ctrtnin conditions^ Pontug de la Gardie was the 
ambassador,™ 

* Blaimlj, HisT. du Liiihemn- ii, "24?J i Snuchin. P. iv. 1. v. 

* Tlii» adventurer isoDGaf llie muiy ei am pita which Ihni stirring ^'ptich pre- 
ecoti^ of nplendid fortUTid achieved bj talent. Poatui wia ft FrcDctinun of 
low btrtli, Wii ill I-AUguctluc, and on^uoUj a simple DoldiEr in ScoUfUiJ onder 
Ot«vI| cvie of FranciB 11. 'n IIguI^jikhu. Thofii^t hi? fliliiileil intJ tlu< armita of 
Dvnmafk, mtucd Calvini^I, ojid wu tnide prifloncr bj tbe Swirdpa, imder 
VaminF«« ibc^r gpnenJt buotlior FrenL^h oiIvcDtcrer who conjniAiidtd Utc 
bmvtlcK VaiTiiriei look a fuicj to hia pountrjmin, rooimmeniliil him ta 
Kiic, wlio LufriifuiIiHl him grenU^f niid plDceJ eucli nuiHdctice Id 1»iii, UiaL he 
appainf^J Itim a»«is(&rit to John, u-lvn, aXtrr \\\a \i\^mX\Gi\, hfl madf liim 1iea> 
tnuDt of tin* Linploin; a?»unn)ir hU hriillior llial F'ontns would prove Tcry 
■xfiil to Jiim- AnJ fio he did with n vcn^anw ; for Fontiui wu ihe forcmofll 
ID lb* oniflpincy ngunat his bencfarlar, cut &li liii* guardH lo pitves, bnd cotu- 
pirUnt UiG king Uj MiiiYtidiu: ai ili«craUiju. By Uiu exploit he KODml <ha good 
f moH of Jnhn Itl, ; bud ibrD^-cfnrwurd became biHlflnT&l undpr die DiunA of « 
Oraal Pmi/w ife (AtnfiVi and the risht li&nd of Che nviiurch. A hibtory of 

itfh ajtfci-lutvn, wlio lukvc lUuA cut tlieir wa^ to ricbcfi %aA rMiowti, would 

higlily iiifrfTitinE, even if it cmlrd nnlj witli Bcrondotte in Uii- wine Irirnj- 

1 rriacmbcr whm a bajr, % French print wfu dining ai die uhk of thr 



H46 



HiarORY OK THE JESUITS. 



It appeal's that Jobii's maiu object wafl to indue*? llie 
pope to prevail ou king Pli'lip to paj some laj-ge arrears 
The iOpuIb- ^^ revenue Juc to liia wile, fi'om the kingdom 
tvoni. ^)f Jfaples- At all events, that was the pro- 

text of tlie einbaasy, according to the Jesuits. The 
conditions for Swedish orthodoxy were four in number 
— the nobles were to retain the church property vrhich 
tliej had seized ; but the king would give them a good 
example of restitution by restoring, from the ro)'al share 
of the booty, two hundred thousand livres of revenue. 
Secondly, the married bishops and priests were to retain 
their wives ; but celibacy was to be enforced ou all 
future candidateB for orders. Thirdly, communion in 
both kinds. Fourthly, the divine service muat be per- 
formed in yweihsk No decisive answer could be giver 
to these terms ; but the Jesuit Possevin was dispatdied 

_ by the pope to complete the king's conversion, 
ipUndiii Possevin took with him two companions, an 

^ Irish Jesuit, William Gfood, and a Frenchman. 
Father Fournior, by way of attendants; for "this skilful 
man," says Miumbourg, " wishing to liavc a good pretext 
for treating freely with the king without giving umbrage 
to the scnatoi-s/' entered Stockholm as an ambassador 
from the Empress Maria of Austria. Dressed in a rich 
and appropriate costume, splendidly embroidei^oJ, a 
sword at his side, *' not a trace of the Jesuit remainod 
on his person,' says tlie Jesuit; "but to redeem ieforeh^ftd 



Swedbb Guvomor of Si. BiLntiulumcw, in the Went Imlicfl. Tbc Sirodc cud* 
«oiii& ^if'lkaraging r^-inju'k on liie FroaL'h tinti<iu r ^^^ iprioBl took him up, 
galLaallj wing : " A pnltry nnltoii mdoerJ, whoso lintmenU uro worlhy I* 
become tiwjt of Sweden," Bllndiug to EkruaJolle. PonTufl do In Gaidie wu 
icddentallj drowutJ, in l.ilt-l. He liAd rawriwl a nalnral dougblcr of Xliif 
John II1-1 Hiid Itft W'hind him two eonn to Inherit hia irt&lih %nd tiiJca, unonf 

" th* grtai Inrdt of Sweden.*' 



BVtK's RHBASSr TO SWI 



347 



hIrmsietU ho?tours, he had marie the greater part of 
fits jofimejt on fooH"'^ Such is a specimen of the 
metliocl how the Jesuits managed their vow of poverty. 
Doubtless they played the same tricks with that of 

cha&tity — in fact, we sliall find the subject "siguahsed" 
in a subsequent decree for the Company, According to 
Sacchinus, Fossovinus completely converted tlic king, 
heard his confeHsion, gave him absolution, Jind thus 
tranquillised his conscience, iliatracted by the execution 
or murder of his hrother Eric.^ Po&aevinus returned to 
the pope with no ic5s than twelve conditions, now urged 
by the king, for obedience to Rome : if ho was really 
80 gloriously converted, he would scarcely have uiged 
conditions which be know would not be granted to a 
king of Sweden, '" after having been refused to other 
princes mor<? powerful than himself," observes the Jesuit 
Maiinbourg.^ The conditions were almost universally 
rejected by the car*linala ; but Possevinus was ordeied 
U) return to the king for fiirther negotiation. 
The pope resolved to send the Jesuit witli "Hi power 
more honours than ever. By a breve he ' "*"'" 
made Possem Ids legate, appointed him \-icar-apo8tohc 
of Russia, Morana, Lithuania, Hungary, and all the 
north ; kh power was unlimited i and an univei'sal jubilee 
was iinnoujiced for the success of his mission.^ That 
unlimitt^ power seems to declare that the Jesuit might 
accept the king's conditions, should be be unable to make 
Sweden surrender at papal discretion. Evidently the 
pope thouglit Sweilen was in his grasp : else why make 
the Jesuit a bishop of all the north, if. in spite of the 
atiff conditions, he was not to receive the submission of 



' Cratinoui, iL l^S. 



* 8H»hin. lib- VI. ; MmintL. 2-S4. 



348 



HISTORY Oy THE JESUITS. 



Sweden to the dominion of Rome I Nay, furtheifl 
Poseevinus Lad induced PliUip IL to send a plenipoten-1 
tiary to Stockholm^ who was even subser\-ient to the 
Jesuit, Pliilip having entrusted Possevin with his con- 
fidential negotiation. In fact, it was a determined 
onslaught on Lutheran Sweden : all that pomp, andi 
splendour, and power, and prayer might effect, was 
broufrht to bear on the success of the scheme, Poaae- 
vin's companion was the Jesuit Ludovico — a printtl 
Odescalchi : and on his route he had an interview j 
with King Albert of Bavaria ; and, by the pope's order, 
held a conferenco with the Fuggcrs, the great bankers 
of Gennauy, '* whose colosaa! foilune was at the 8emc«' 
of the Church/' as we are told expressly. At Prague, 
he liad audience from the Emperor Rodolph II. Ali 
Vilna he conferred with the King of Poland, VfTiata^ 
glorious and important embaflfly for the Jesuit I And 
at length when he got a sight of the Baltic, he found] 
a Swedish fi-igate avraiting hia lordship's embarlvation.1 
What more could he desire to '* consolidate " the scheme 
ao admirably planned ? Indeed, the Jesuit was so con- 
fident of victory for Rome, that he would boldly ent^i 
Stockliolra in the dress of his Order.' The Jesuit alwaj's 
throws off his mask as soon as he finds or ^ncies 
weaknuHa changed into strength. 

The result was a losson to all the crafty schemer?^ 
concerned, Pontus de la Gardie, who had turned 
Catholic again, at Homo, was at StockholmJ 
before the Jesuit aiTived. The adventurerl 
gave auunfavourablcaccountof his embassy, and having 
himself received a large portion of church property,! 
likely to be restored with ihc return i>f papal dominion,] 



Crc'lineMi, ii. ?09. 



RESULT OF POBSEVIN's EMBASftY. 



349 



be joined the otijer nobles situaU;d tike liimi^elf, in a 
remonstrance to the king agniust the project A gene- 
ral revolt was menaced. Nuniemu-s letters poured in 
from the Protestant princea of Germany. The king'a 
brother, Charles, had even sent emisaariea to seize Posse- 
vinus on Lis route. They caught a wandering dignitary, 
but he turned out to be an Irish bishop of Ross, and not 
the Jesuit Posserin, vtliQ enjoyed^ without being aware 
of it, the misfortUDe of tliis poor Irish bishop, and con- 
tinued his journey without nioleatation.^ But what was 
Lis surprise to find all his tiopes utterly ruined beyond 
redemption ! He had brought very fine letters fi^^m the 
pope, the emperor^ the King of Poland, the Duko of 
Bavaria> and many other CathoHc princea, congratulat- 
ing King John III. on hia cofiverswn—and what did he 
find when he presented himself before the king, boldly 
enveloped in the garb of the Jesuit ? The king openly 
professed Lutheranisin, more so than before : he was 
even oppressing the CatholiG^ : he refused to pei^form 
all he Lad promiacd. All Possovin'a efforts were in 
vain : the uiii^aeulous eon verier was utterly baffled by 
the king's inflexibility. The Jesuit Nicolai liad been 
driven off— and he richly deserved it for his dirty craft 
— the college was restored to the Lutherans, its lawful 
owners; and Possevio, papal nnnHo, virar-apostolic of 
all the north, and Jesuit, **wafl obliged to leave Sweden, 
and resign the hope which he had conceived of finishing 
the great work he had so fortunately begun."' Once 
Lutheran, and Lutheran for ever, was the national will 
of Sweden : Uie minds and hearts of the nation would 
never swerve from that determination- As barren as 






350 



HISrrORY OF THE JESUITS, 



her rocks, as hard as her iron, wuuld Sweden ever he 
the propagandism of Rome, And jet Sweden i» tole- 
rant, nobly 80 ; m spite of the craft and tricks which 
have been from time to time played upon her I>y tli6 
emissaries of the great propag:andist. On tlie other) 
hand, we must give the Jesuits credit for having done' 
all tliej could — for liaving left no means untried to 
achieve their end ; they failed, hut the fault was not 
tlieirg : it was a blessing for Sweden that Providence 
interposed and swsmped the bark of Rome, just sailing 
into port with her cargo of bullfi, priests, indulgences, 
confessionals, all the elements of old chaos renewed- 

Everard Mercurian, tho general of the JoBnits, died in 
1530, after a reign of eight years. Intestine broils and 
iniaUnft commotions characterised his generalate. The 
broik inequahty of the gradations of rank, the mode 

of election, the facility of expulsion granted to the i 
general gave to a party formed in the Company des-j 
perate employment; whilst another insisted that the I 
Spanish members hod a right to elect a head for them- 
selves aJoue. Nor was this turbident spirit confijicd toj 
the bosom of the Company.^ In a political quarrelj 
between the Spanish governor of Milan, and Cardinftj| 
Borromeo, the Jesuits divided on either side according 
to their nations, and one of them. Julins Mazarini, who 
sided with the governor^ being his friend and confessor, [ 
attacked tlie cardinal from the very pnlpit> and lashed 
him without moderation. The archbishop bitterly com- ^d 
plained of the outrage ; the general of the Jesuits repri- " 
manded the delinquent ; and he was suspended firom 
his apostolical functions for the space of two years,*) 
These wild imaginings of the Jesuits should not surprise I 



' l>fllini?ui, ki> ?18. 



^ Ibid, 522. 



THE company's STAR IN THE ASCENDANT. 351 



US ; they are but tlie preludej* of coming events. Mer- 
curian had soon resigned his functions to an assistant. 
Father Palmio. Perceiving that this appointment would 
be, or was, taxed witli partiality, he gave Palmio an 
„ Father Manarc ; and thereby hurt the feelings 
of Kather Palmio! * Can it be believed tliat a Jesuit — 
Bud one who was so far advanced in perfection, being a 
professed — could possibly exhibit the petty iJasaions of 
little men ? There is the fact, hovpever. But, notwitli- 
standing these internal broils and outward r^^^^^ 
extravagaitce, the Company's star was high in iwnj'ifUBn- 
the ascend aji t ^ — nothing could check her 
aggrandisement — gods and men united to promote her 
splendid perversion. Already she numbered more than 
fi?e thousind men, one hundred and ten houseK, and 
twenty-one provinces. Never before had her men been 
more in requisition, more exalted, more conspicuous. In 
embassies here, embassies tl^ere — everjwliere infringing 
the prominent mandates and decrees of their Constitu- 
tions ajid congregations. In a whirlpool they floated : 
they swam indeed lustily : but ui that desperate 
struggle they knew not what they were doing — pro- 
gress in some direction, it mattered not how or whither 
— still progress was the one thing needful. The gene- 
ralate of (lie superannuated Mercurian was as disastrous 
to the Jesuit^Institute as a long minority to a turbulent 
empire. 

In Pope Gregory XIIL the Jesuits found admirable 
BUpport, Completely had this pontiff imbibed the spirit 
of his predecessor. Not only would he imitate him, 
but he was resolved to surpass him in his zeal for the 

' " Fftlnito M montra sonnble k cctte subntitution d'ftDtoril^." — Cr<titHa%, 



352 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



cause of orthodoxy.^ To Catholic princes at war vnfl 
tlieii- heretic subjects lie was lavishly boiiuliful with 
otp^rjr'. golden ducal3 : he gave the King of France^ 
.ui.Kii«u four hundred thousand scudi (SOfiOOL) fa" 
pfthe&ith. that blessed object ; but, he raised the mone 
bj a tax oil the cities of "the Chiirdi," which was an" 
oppresfiivG injuetice ; and he gave liberal aesi&taJtce to tbe 
Archduke Charles and the Knights of Malta, with a slice 
of ecclesiastical benefices, which was much more con- 
sistent at least, and much less deplorable/ 

Wherever there was a Turk to be bombarded, or 
heretic to be hunted down, aid from Gregory was alwaji 
^ forthcoming with a cheer and a benediction 
iui fflx Kngland. and her Elizabeth above all, caught" 

mgiDD. j^^ Taney; deeply was hia heart set on the 
ruin of that queco in her island-throne. OF this deter- 
mination the pope made no secret : a general combina- 
tion against Eagland was his soul's desire. Year after 
year his mmcios negotiated on this subject with Phihp II. 
and the Guises : Gregory plied them with the moet 
ardeat zeal. The French league, bo dangerous 
Heury III, and Henry IV., owed its origin to the con- 
nexion between the pope and the Guises.' It was s^eal 
for religion run mad. 

In the same spirit, Gregory pationised the Jesuits wi 
their strict system of ecclesiastical education. 
To the houses of the profeased he made Ubei^ 
presents ; he purchased houses, closed up 
streets, and allotted reveuues for the purpose of gi 
the whole college the form it wears to this day. 



er 



Tho ■•wmi- 




■ " KelU reljglono ha tolto uoa nolo d^imilar. nu uivorft d'avuizw Pio ^ 
> Vil* de* pDntef. dnJ Plal. r.i Att.-i. Ven, IJO,-*. » lUnki^, tili ni^ ' 



JAPANESE EMBASSY TO ROME, 



353 



iras adapted to coiitaiu twenty lecture-ruoius and three 
hiindred and sixty cells for students. This was called 
the " Seminary of all Nationa." At its Ibimdation, in 
order to signify its purpose of embracing the whole 
world witliin its scope, twenty-five speeches were deli- 
vered, in as many different languages, as UBual, each 
immediately accompanied by a Latin translation,^ To 
testify their gratitude to the pope for all his benefac- 
tions, the Jesuits placed, in the large hall of the college, 
pictures of the two-and-twenty colleges which the pope 
had founded in variotia parts of Christendom : and they 
alijo displayed the pope's portrait, with the following 
inscription : " To Gregory XIII., Sovereign Pontiff, 
Founder of this College, the whole Company of Jeans, 
defended by him with the most am]>le prinlegee, and 
increased by mighty benefits, placed this monument Ln 
memory of their best parent, and to attest their grati- 
tude/' Nor did the Jesuits ^top here. They were never 
equalled in devising com pi i mental rewards for those who 
befriended them ; whatever may be said against them, 
anil justly too, for tlieii- abuse of the religious sentiment 
in man — their wild encroachments on the rights of 
others — their domineering spirit, if you will — stilL it is 
impossible to deny them the respectable praise of having 
almost invariably made an adequate return to their 
benefactors— adequate, because always exactly tho thing 
to be relished by their patrons. On the present occasion, 
by way of displaying the enlarged dominion of the Holy 
See, the great hobby of the zealous Gregory, jrtuitiw- 
they induced some petty kings and lords of 
Japan to send ambassadors to the pope I The 
roytl blood of Japan or its representatives did the 






fOL. 11. 



A A 



3j4 



HISTORY OF THE JSSUlTd. 



Jesuits fetch m a joumoy of tweatj thouBand miles, to 
do homage to tlie father of the faithful. The king cf 
Bungo and tlie king of Arima, the king of Cugino and 
the king of Omura, each sent his representative, a youth 
of about twenty years of age. Great was the jubilation 
of the holy city at the advent of these kings of the east 
But the Jesuits took great care of the precioufc samples. 
and lodged them in the Geai, or House of the Professed. 
The pope granted them audience in Ml consistory an 
with vast magnificence : all the princes of the Rom. 
court, vying with each other to honour the interesting, 
strangers/ They had, of course, previously paid theij 
respects to King Philip 11., now ruler of the East hy his 
usurpation of Portugal, and the king had received them 
with even more magnificence than the pope of Rame, 
whose feet they came to kiss, in attestation of die 
Buccees and gratitude of the omnipotent Jesuits. Ii 
seems to have been too much for the pope. Overjoyed 
at the glorious event, the old pontiff exclaimed : ''Nunc 
dimittis. Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart 
peace," — and cffcctttalh/ died a few days after, killed 
his joy at papal supremacy in the bles of the sea — 
snuffed out as a lamp by the trumpet-blast of ortho- 
doxy! The idea was indeed a comfort amidst the 
wild anarchy then raging over Italy and in Rome, u 
you will read anon. I need scarcely state that there 
were many who beUeved the whole affair & 
conco<:tcd by the Jesuits ; but, for my part, I think i 
probable that it was a veritable embassy, proving t 
influence which the Jesuits had achieved in Japan 
but if it was a hoax, it must be admitted that it w»a 
well conceived, admirably executed and, what is very 



H 







' Vit^^deTonlef, tirog. XHl- 



ralAaSr to TtrmK. 



355 



significant, rather *'j'pptmve for the mendioant Con!]Miny 
of Jesiis,' 

* Chulevoi^, H?5t. i1u Japan, iii. lOB — lift, TIjc Je«uil giTCa ■ wry diffuFiii 
bot intomting &Tid mrinoa arMiint of th«t ivhtilt> ftffiur. Up uva llm( A^^db^ 
Ht* requpflted ihe pope to receive the ambaaaadora witliout pomp— which, if 
iii«4c» w** a Trrj ridiculr>UB requesl^ftl aU cv^nU, rallipr too Inte, after aII ihe 
una d doing* in PorUipU &nd Spaiti, m evpn the ^nad old Cbvtevi>ix Jeauit 
rvnurluj "bal>" bajti lit, " it wnulil bav? bpeu naclcaa cvm il mbilt> scxmc-r, for 
Grvfjiiji 3CIII. Iiiul Luken hii re^olv^ i tt the nawa of ih& ArHvot if r}i? cmtiiiuy 
m Italy, bo httiJ held a donwaiory, in which it waaderlarwl that ilwaa IncnmbeHt 
Ml Ihe honnnr of tlie Church (Uid the Holy See, u> neeive the ombasay with 
■ill poHibJe pomp and apkadoiir." — P. 12Ci, (Gregory »nt lua romiuuiy of 
H^l cavp]ry to <«C(>rt tho nrobnaamJorb : a midtitudo ttf Itonian lorda, also 
■MVilBd, wUh the ^iitry of the Tirmity, formed Ji nkvalcadt which oxtond«d 
ftlnoflt all the nny from Vii^rtKi io Rome, whi{:h they enterciL witlj the Aound 
of tTiUiipe(9, uid the d4.-af>;nui^ ni^clMnaiioDft of tbo holy mttb of the Etomat 
CUy- The Jnuils joiited in the jolLitlcatloEi ; sad with tJjbir ^ouvraJ AquaTiva 
at their li<Jbli cafijrted tlio rurioaidcs to their chutcli, where the 7V I^cttat n^a 
pcfl'fnrmcd Nothing t-ouM excopd t]iD s|k!ffndoiir of tlie proi^e^on to tha 
Valicon. Ah ibe foreign ntnbfiSFiaitorBr wiih tiioirn^tlnue, ^acod Iho pjigeant 
with tii^ir AUgunt piYsentw : the cardiiuUfl^ ihe ehauiberlaina of the pope, mid 
Ol&cen of Ihi? palace, aU in thoir red dre»nc9, icnmediati-ly preceded tli« 
JapaiKve, w)i4 were on hoiaobAckf and in iheir national co«tuDie. yolhiag 
eoiU airpiiB tbs coadiDiMS and iMfnifieaiMe of thin cwslDtne : it mti»t hava 
vnlloved tlic rcT^noe of a vhole JEEnit-province, if die thing was t hnax, or 
lh« Udgi of Japan niaoly raolfwl lo mah*? the J*>BUite''pay fm- die piper." 
In fmctt GMTlovnjx intimates ihal VaJoj^nani, the Jesuit leader of the JapancM, 
WAS noflvvd to let dicm have no nut^n^cfitt tqnipaf/tf aiid ta piakfi au ahw 
villi iho fkRair (p. 1lin\ cooF^quHiily vie are- at a toaii to aecannt for ih^ pro- 
dwiHm of Ihe foLlowing ma^iRceDt equipage — ^ptipage moptif^ttc^ *' Thej 
vore ihrvfl k>iig rubes, on? on the othtr, but of nftne a toxmre thitall thivo did 
not weigh M mu'-h a$ one of ourH," aaye the Jesuit, " and all of daztling ^^hilio. 
TK«B* rob«4 wrrc <;oT--ryd with flower*, foliage^ and bb-d*, iKAUCifulLy painted, aad 
■ftmiag to hare bni i omhrnidcn^l, ihniigh rae5i woB all of a pipce : die flguraa 
w«v« eoloiared after nature, hul uniuually bTilliant. Theae rohv* opened in iroat, 
Wid had eitremel^ widefjeeTH, KhJdi odIv noched Lbe clbin's ; baLin order that 
lb« fon-annmi^hlnot beuncoTeredjUiathe custom in Japan, /ojAfr Fai^ffyumt 
had CHwrJ thin to &f kiigt^fjieii wtlh the vuae AlufT, ita viU ^4 at iho colUr. 
wMob gwerally apona so low that a part of tho sliouhler in vlaililo. Un thtir 
ihonldera Ihey wore a kuid of scarf, twelve inchea long, sud eight iticbea wide, 
tifd with HbboDi, croMC^ over iJie breut, thrown hrhuicl, and VnotEed lik« a 
girdle. Thene afarfa were aimilar tc the robca in material ; but of a much Anor 
miur*^ Tbfy hud nn bmta of c-vtreoirly fine leatber. open nt tiie Utra^ Tli«ir 
eimMfira and aworda were of ilio linml temper, and die hilta, as well ai tOih- 
hanla, w^re adon>H with fitw pearli, other precioua Moiie*^ and many figuPia 
in enamrl. Thrir hfftdi were unffowted, and thavnl quit* elfan. eawpJ M tap. 



J56 



HISTOKY OF THE JEtiDlTS. 



to ihc 

Jauki 



But Gregory had beeu as lavisli in liLs beDefacUona 
on the Jesuits. Their Germao college had become 
Gregnrv'ii embarrassed with debt and penury from the 
failure of fie funds ; the pope granted it not 
only the San Apolinare palace and the reve- 
nues of San Stcfano on Monte Celio, but also ten 
thousand scudi (200C/,) from the apostolic treasurj-. 
He also founded an Englisli college at Eoine, and found 
naeans to endow the establishment- He aided their 
colleges in Vienna and Gi^tz out of his privy purse. 
Thei'G was probably not a Jenuit school in the world 
that had not cause, in some way or another, to applaud 
liis liberality-* And what was his inotire 1 Not because 
he might think that the Jesuits promoted holiness — that 
was a matter he cared little about. His was a jovial 
nature. He had not scrupled to liave a natural sou 
before he became a priest, and though he led a regular 
life aiferwai'ds, he was at no time over-scrupulous, and 
to a certain kind of sanctimony ho rather manifested 
dislike.^ Why, then, did be patronise the Jesuits I 
Btjcauss he thought them the ablest restorers of Catho- 
licism, and therefore the best props of the popedom 
and its prerogatives. All the wealth he gave tbem was 
therefore so much money depoaited on interest.* It 



vb^«!e Jependcd behind a tufl of hur. The featnrefl of their cfiuntpninw* i 
equftJly/arnpn with tlieir drcaq ; but ppople mnu'ked that uvrinblc ftlr tthi«h U 
given by virniL- &nd innot;cnc:<'^ a modeirt bniiglititicu ftnd h ^ iv ifiu fwn of 
nubUhy, iiift|rirtKl hy ah iHusirious blood, juid wliich noihiug p»n belie."— P. \2X 
I nuBl 4-iinf«ui Lbut iiivfv bist rQHiArks of tbe J«uit nukea cdK •D4|WPt tfa*t tlv 
■flHir Htu a liiui*, mi>Bt elearly conceived and prnotiBod on ibe itupid Una PhJbp 
kkI 14 fttupid Pope Gregory, Wh^t luiublcfl cnlnuiit with delight old j^IaH, 
fftnftlics, nnd flhtUloW'brttiDed mortolB ! ' Ranke,»i/» *«prd. ' Ibiil- 

' AcL'ordmii; ti> Bu-oiLiiLH^ hia I'xpvuLtitnE-B on iho ? duration or joanf mm, 
&mciuiitt>d Lo r \vo uiillioJiH : if thU vam did not include the coM of ths Enmtj' 

coUog«H of the Josuita, it will be irapouible to Moount tor Uie ninng of cIk 






OREOOBT's STOLIATIONS of H13 SUBJECTS. 357 



■KBS an infatuation of course ; but think of the thousands 
of pounds as senselesslj' wasted ill our Jays bv simple 
contributors tu ^'religious'* funds, by all deuominations, 
year after year, to no purpose what^?ver iu the advance- 
ment of civilisation. — funds which, if expended on the 
wi"etched poor of England, would go far to sweeten the 
bitterue-HS of heart in those who find life miserable, and 
to prepare body and soul together for better days of 
enlightenment, whose advent we may accelerate indefi- 
nitely by the real determination to '* fulfil a// justice/' 

Gregory spt-nt 200,000 scudi (40,000/,) yearly on 
" pjoua works/' — opn'6 jiif. We need not etop to inquire 
what real good he did for Humanity : but opjEnrt'i 
we must be curious to know how he got the 'p*"**""- 
money — even should the answer prove that those who 
received it were little better than receivers of stolen 
goods. Well, then. Pope Gregory got his pious iunda 
by spoliation. He found out more nghts to the property 
of others than the hungry wolf iiiscovered causes of 
complaint against the poor Iamb in the fable. He laid 
an impost on the com of the Venetians : they did not 
comply soon enough with his measures: he forced their 
warehouses at Ravenna, sold the contents by auction, 
and imprisoned the owners. Then he discovered a host 
of abuses among the aristocracy of liis own domioions, 
and wollishly concluded that their abolition would Iw 
profitable to the papal treasury. On a most flimsy 
pretence of feudal rights, he seized and appropriated 
numerous domains belonging to the barons or gentry of 
Romagna and other provinces, and congratnlattul himself 
at having by such h<ffj} means^ and not hy tixation, 
augmented the revenues of the popedom by 100.000 
*cudi (20,000/.) The Churcluneri of course approved 



358 



BiaruitY UK THE JK8UIT3. 



of these apuliaticiia — because tlie end jufitified the tm 
always in thoso days of rabid orthodoxy, which 
invariably roguish. Mauy great families were thus 
fiuddenlj ejected from properdin they had considered 
their own by the most lawful titles : others saw them- 
Belvos tbreateued. Daily search into old papers wsa 
made in Komc — and every day new claims were 
created from the musty nothings. Ere long no man 
thought himself secure j and many resolved to defend 
their possessions with the aword, rather than surrender 
them to the commissioners of the ]>apal treasury. One 
of these ft^udatories once Raid to the pope, to hia very 
faco. '' What is lost, is lost ; but a man had at least 
some satisfaction when he haa stood out in his own 
defence." He did not atop short with the aristocracy. 
His injudicious, or rather, tyrannical measures inflicted 
severe losses on towns as well ; by raising the lolle of 
Ancona, he ruined the trade of that city, and it has 
nevpr recovered from the blow. Of course 
men rose up against tliis multipUed iniquity. 
The whole couulry was in a ferment : feuds bruke out 
on all sides. Then troops of outlawed bandits swelled 
into armies, and overran the provinces. Young men of 
the fiiBt families were their leaders. Murder and rapine 
overspread the country. Anarchy reigned throughout 
the papal dominions. The confiscations of course ceased 
— but they had done their work ah'eady. The Bg6d 
pope was forced to rei^eive the bantht leader Piccoloinini 
at Rome, and give him absolution for a long list of 
murders which lie read with fihuddering. It availed 
little or nothing. His own capital wiis full of bandits 
and revolters. And then the pope, weak and weary of 
life, looked up to heaven, and cried, -' Thou wilt arise. 



J 



TheJr reiatt. 



4 



AQUAVIVA. TKK NEW QBNESAL* 



359 



Aqiuvivfet 



O Lord, and have mercy on Zion 1 " ' Can anything be 
more bitterly ruiiculoiia ? Nevertheless such was tliG 
regenerator of Catholicism — and such "v.'as thfl country 
wheace the Jesuits were sent to reform ajid t-onvert &11 
Dfttions of the universe — Great Britain among tho rest, 
wbo9e '' religious " troubles we are soon to contemplate. 

Claudius Aquaviva waA elected General of the Jesuits 
by a large majority, His age was only thirty-seven, 
When the fact was announced to the pope by 
the fatliera. he exclaimed, " What I you have 
elected to govern you a young man not forty years of 
agef" Claudiua Aqiia^nva was the son of the Duke 
d'ALri. Renouncing tho world, the Coin-t of Rome, all 
the hopes which his name and talents inspii-ed, he had 
given hiraself to the Company ; and uow tho CompaJiy 
gave him herself in return — another instance of Jesuit- 
gratitude. Piety, virtue, science, became bis ambition. 
A deep, indefatigable student, hard study and the con- 
stant effort to repress his impetuous passiouB^ are said 
to have rapidly blighted his personal graces : his black 
hair was alreJidy tiirned to grey : — sufficient by way 
of introduction to a man whose deeds ai'e his best 
portrayera.^ 

The Fourth Congregation continued its Besaions. The 
murmurs and heart-biu'niiigs of the middle ranks in the 
CoiDpaTkv fouud a mouth-piece in the midst „ 
<tf that aristocratical assemblage, " Many there *ht i-ietmw 
are in the Company," said that beuovolent 
voice> " who have lived many virtuous years, and complain 
that their admisfiioa lo the 'State of tlie Company * — 
Hatus Sowfath. m doferrod too long. They fall into 
many temptations. Tliey are absorbed in overwheloung 



M 



> 1Unl». lOV—ni. 



1 QvtiDMU. U. U99. 



3(jU 



HIttTURY OK THE JESUITS, 




tsaJiiess, ami become a Hcaudal hy reuuuiicmg our to 
Institute/'* A strong case was that, and as strongly 
put to the vote :^but in vain : ^uhil innovandum — no 
inaovation was the decree : all was left as usual to the 
judgment and prudence of the general, who was advised 
to eiifor<;G the letter of the Coofltitutions, without respect 
of persona, remembering that this was of vital im- 
portance to the preservation of tlie Company,* The 
complaint, the decree, and the advice, are equally cha- 
racteristic and remarkable : — that Company which 
been ** stirring '* all the world, is now about to 
" stirred " itself 

Another proposition was made. It was a sort 
opcculatiou — a literary speculation by the gratis-teachers. 
EcincmtioBii Some of the members proposed that, on ac- 

and the want of good masters, and the advantages that 
might be derived from the enterprise, the Jesuits might 
receive boarders in the iiortherti countries, and take 
them under their care ; but that the 6ti]>end should 
given over to the procurator : the pupils were not to 
solicited, nor received against the will of their parenta. 
The Congregation did not at once reject the proposition 
but it was declared much preferable for the Company 
to be freo from such burthens, as far as passiilt' : — ani 
the matter was committed to the prudence of 
general, as usual.^ 

And now the aristocracy began to feel their power,' 

and to apprehend their peril. Tliey decreed 
jMniinns- that every Jesuit — whether lay-brother cr 

scholastic, — who after taking the ^-ows Rhou 
return to the world, might be punished as an aposta 



Coag. iv, IK. 



> Ibid 



* tt^d. xUi 



361 



according to the privileges and apo&loHcal letters granted 
to the Company,' 

Mercurian and Gregory XIII. had bequeathed the 
Jesuits and the popedom to Aquaviva and SixtUB V., 
two men who deserved to be contemporaneoiia. 
The very antipodes of each other by birth — im v. md 
for Sixtus was the son of a swineherd — ^^^^^^^ 
energetic unity of purpose stamped both as leading 
influences of the age. Both were by their natural 
organisation impelled to seek, to achieve, and maintain 
tliat sovereign power which results more from mental 
qualification;^ in the possessor, than from the privileges 
and prerogatives of rank or station. Such chciractera in 
history reheve the dull, drowsy monotony of rulers by 
pnngative — mlera by '* right divine," without any otker 
himfm right to win admiration or command respect. 

England and Eli^abctli now begau to engage the 
Bpecial attention of the Jesuits. Protestant ascendancy 
had triumphed; in other words, Cathohcism giaiflorportio* 
was shorn cjf it^ wealth, dignity, and power : ^'^ EogUnd. 
the CathohcB themselves, as in the reigns of Henry and 
Edward, bad mtually acquiesced in the change of their 
religious fortimes. They had unanimously acknowledged 
Queen Ehzabeth's title to the throne of England :^ it is 
stated on Catliohc authority that a great majority of 
the people then inchued to the Roman Catholic religion :^ 
and yet, in spite of this national submission to the 
Protestant queen. Pope Pius V. hdminated a Bull of 
deposition against the Queen of England, in order to 
"stir" her people to rebellion, aud rouse all nations to 
cniah the interesting heretic. This was in 1570, just 
ftfter the failure of an insurrection set ou foot by h few 



■ iHciia 



1 DlKld,U. 4. 



" Bu^mr,i.'27\. 



862 



HISTUIIY OF THE JKSUlTa. 



designing leaders, with papal approbation, to attempt 
the liberation of Mary Queea of Scots — the heiress to 
the throne of England. The Bull had long beea pre- 
pared by th^ pope, but pnidoutly witliheld during tha 
machinELtions ; and was now torn from its quietude bj 
the old man's impotent rage of desperate disappointment 
at the failure of the insurrection.* Piue said in his Bull: 
" We do, out of the fiilness of our apostolic power, 
deckre the aforesaid Ebzabeth, as beine an 
-depoMd^tiy heretic and favourer of heretics, and her 
^'^' adherents in the matters aforesaid, to have 
incurre^l the sentence of excoiumunicAtion, and to bo 
cut off from the unity of the body of Christ;. And 
moreoTen we do declare her deprived of her pretended 
title to the kingdom aforesaid, and of all dominion, 
dignity, acd privilege whatsoever; and also the nobility, 
subjects, and people, of the said kingdom, and all 
others who have in any sort sworn unto her, to be for ever 
absolved from any such oath, and all manner of duty of 
dominion^ allegiance, and obedience : and we also do 
by authority of tbese pr&senta absolve them, and do 
deprive the said Elizabeth of her pretended title to the 
kingdom, and all other things beforeiiamed. And we do 
command and charge all and every one, the tiobleroeii, 
subjects, peopio, and others aforesaid, that they pre«nimd 
not to obey her, or hei' orders, msnclalea, and lawa: 
and those which shall do the contrary, we do inclade 
them in the like sentence of anathema"^ Thus spake 
the "Servant to God's Servants/* as the popes called 
thetnsekes by a prerogative which was tlie only one tbcy 
neve^' effectuated. Copies of the precious parchment 
were sent to the Duke of Alva for diepersion on tba 



> Ling, riii. 5ti ; Cumd. An. \-^7** : Ra^lii, ib. ficc. 



« tteaiL ih. 



TH3 CATHOLICS OF KKOLAXD. 



368 



coast of the Netherlands, ami he forwarded samples to 
the Spanish ambassador in England. An enthusiastic 
or zealous Catholic, Folton by name, and a wealthy 
gentleman by inher'itance, posted one of the 
Bulls on tho Bishop of London's palace-gates, ti>c pcppc ■■ 
biding the result — which waa that he waa 
hanged : for the deed was declared treason by the kw 
of the land ; and was tiecidcdly seditious, Feltou gloried 
in his exploit, called the queen a pretender, but sent her a 
diamond ring as a token that he "boro her no malice" — 
one of those curious abstractions with which party-leadere 
justified every atrocity. It ia the famous riffH intention 
— recta intentio — of the Jesuit and other casuists.' 

Meanwhile, however, the great body of the English 
Cathclics were by no means inchned for a " stir/' 
according to some authorities. '* They never n.^ c>.iv»u« 
were presf^ed with, nor accepted of, the pope's ''f ^s^^^- 
BuIL, that pretended to dispense with them from their 
allegiance/' says the Catholic Church-historian, " They 
were entertained by the queen in her army," he con- 
tinues, "and now and then in the cabinet, till such 
times as the inishGhavimr of some particular person* 
drew ft persecution upon l/ie whole bodif, and occasioned 
those pena! and sanguinary laws, to which their substance 
ojid hves hare over since been exposed. From that 
lime, by a strange sort of logic, a Catholic and n rebel 
have passed current for the same thing, and so they are 
commonly represented, both in private conversation, in 
the pidpit, and at the bar,''* But there was a different 
opiuion proclaimed abroad in those stirring time^ On 
tlir person of th© Scottish Jesuit Creighton.' when 

^ ling- *iii. ^1 ri wvf. ' Dod^v iUh 5' 



364 



HISTORY OF THS JESL'ITS, 



apprehended aud iiiiprieoned in 1534, was found s 
paper detailing '"Reasons to shewe the eaaines" of 
inrasioTi, grounded on the examples of history, instancing 
particularly the case of Henrj' VL — "how a few and 

L'umudurabte fc&l &jid tA^I, but waa dcfioieot in Judgmont. To his minplawd 
coufidtnce ma.v he priaL-ipally aacribed thf fitifut^ of Popt Pita jV.'t itertL 
tifiiiitvy to 3titry Qtian of &cot4 (see p. 105 of ' Tauncr^v Coufo««ora of iha 
5i»letv of Jeeus*)," fiKyH ibo piauji and layal dootor, " From the Diary k^lbi 
thf Tower of LtJndori, by lEi? Rev. Edward Rjahton, wd lean th^ Frnther 
Crdghton^ an rehirniii|^ Troiu Scotland (nborc be bul CDDverted the Eui of 
Arron}, was Rppn^hcndeil and cominitied to that priaoa on the IGtb S^tetDlHT, 
Lr^'l't. tli/w lujii! lib n^muinvd iu l-usUhI^ I kuow ifut, but PuJieE ParvMU 
iLddroKcrd iMfurs to hint at Sfrillp In ISSG. Tt i.i pImu- tluE Jiuiw« VX. el 
S<^otUDd [Eni;tai]d'B Maater Jatfuei. oa Hi^iiry IV. caIIimE himj had teOMLj 
emplnji^d hitn m a tlctifut^ tmbaxt^j : foTf tn a lelti?r tj Father Thomu Oweo, 
dated ^tlj Jui>e, 1605, he stiys . ' Oar li^ ugp had so ^reat a fear of jn nombn 
of CntholJIiH, Hjd yt puL!4iLTi«i (if ji'ipD ATid SpaiijF, yt he ofleivd libertiBVf 
DObSDieii^i.', ikcd Bent fiie ta Rome to dciul for ya pupc^i £au>t and >n*l«iwg o| « 
Scottish eordiual ; aa 1 did shen ye kyug'a tettef^ to F. Parsoua,' Hftiiii; no 
gnilo himaelf," uuya Dr. OlWer, ^' h? auspedHd nnae in hia weak and botlov- 
btoiried aovet^ign ^^ Tne nnough, decidedly, of Maal^r Jaqus^ if not va 
coDcluaiie of Oils oilmlmbJe Cricbton. Bartull girea anotber veraioii of tlto 
«hptur<i of lliU Jesuit. Ho Haya ihAt " Cniglitoo »aa cnniflit by ike ti^^i«Bt 
Ofiicode. ivnil tent ae a gift to Klizabipthp ivUo was so pleased with the prey* diM 
ahe[jave the bt^arorraauy gifta,ataoDg tlit rest,acollftrorgi>ld/*f.2S7. CrdgtiMi 
waa mc.-iitijjned by Parry aa having dissuaded bini from murdering the qn«« ; 
and, owing Ui lUia, says Banoli, ihe {]UcetL Kt hirn free (1586), aayinp, ■■ ||«« 
can tho Jcaulla hta ail luagucd to kill mc in Enj^'liuiJ, if this Jcauii dtfcmU iHT 
life ov«i iu Frnnre !^' It appeara from Caindi?a lliac (be docomenta found on 
Cri!lgbtou agF^vftTod the negotiations ketwcvfi Eliubptb and Mary, " millMn 
that wei-Q already dlaplcbAcd with one aoother, but priiicipaUy by (he dJSMV^ 
of oortain papera wliitih Creigliton, a Scoltiahman, of llio Sociely of Je«i% 
piuBinj^ info S^fithmd^ aud bcmjf taken by auoie Nelhprldjid pirah:?>, hkd torn in 
pieces : the torn piedua wberoof* being tbrowa ovorlviard, wpn* by ib« wbd 
blown back ngam, atiJ fell by i^honce iuCo the abip, rot nitJjout a luinnJe, ■# 
CrvighLon himself suiJ- These bciii|j put togeibcr by \^'aad wiib much (Aifla 
and Hingulor dexlerity. diecovered new deBigosof the Pope, the Spaiiurd,aBd 
tho Guirwft, for iDvndiiig finglaud . " ^ vl li An. 15114. BarLob mmplaJiu <tf 
Camdi'u'fl bad fnith in reoiiunting thin affair, tthiL'h, hcmo^ttr, ht iitm^aU 
mii-tranBLites, with worse fai lb, making Camden Ulk to die following dhtt: 
" Voile dar luogo [alia favolaj delle miBteriose Jettore airacdote deJ P, Critt4«. 
poiche ai irovcl in mono degli OUandeai, o gitiato in miire ; e <)Ucgli fipanp iitimii' 
coll, ilal piitKo movintrntff dtJt' tm</Cf eon uu phi uIjf ibecao mirarolOi rwqnali, 
e poco *»rii rlir. tiOK ditte ita ff* intiUtim't v^n oingiHtDro miimir", nrDHFii^dti/'- — 



THB 



OF 



fOLJfSDT 



365 



weak have overcome a great raaDj" — aad appealing 
fwrtually to tlie general wish and expectation of the 
Caihdks of England : " aa for the contreye of England, 
it is easy to be overcome witli a few ibrces, few fortresftes 
or Btrong places in the Uinde* So 83 one army would 
raffice to eud that warre, the pt-ttpic tjivcn to cAautfe and 
iteration, rhwffhlj/ uhcit thvif ffrt sortu' beffinninge or 
cssu2'iincf\'^ This is a strong contradiction to Lodd'e 
testimony. And yet Dodd is fully canfimied by Camden, 
" The most part of the moderate papists/' aaya the 
queens historian, •* secretly niisliked this Bull ; . . . and 
foreseeing alao that hereby a great heap of nmchiefa 
hung over their heads, who before had private exercise 
of their religion within their own houses quietly enough, 
or else refused not to go to the service of God received 
in the English ChmTh, without scmple of conscience. 
And from that time many of them continued firm 
in their obedience, when they saw the neighbour princes 
and Catholic countries not to forbear their woutad com- 
merce with the queen, and that the Bull was sUghted as 
a vain crack of words that made a noise only."^ The 
followUig pages will tlirow some light on these discre- 
pancies, and will show how it came to pass that the 
" people,^* or rather a faction, wei*e " given to change and 
alteration ;" and how the cffecte of the pope's Bull were 
anyihitig but "a vaiu crack of words" to the poor, 
honest Catholics of England. It will follow that both 
assertions which I have quoted are true ; and it will be 
curious to note what inflm'nce can effect with 
the most discordant elements of in<li\idiials 
And nations, provided there be some point or two 

■ MS. Bib. Cotion. Jul. i. vi fbl> 33 (Brit. Hoa.). A cntuHiA dixijmMiL 



InllueiicA. 



36t) 



Hl-STORY OK THE JESLHTtt. 



I 



wliereou its grappling-iroua may be fiung. This m' 
phor does not adequately exprei^s the workings of influ- 
ence, which are» however, admirably figured by the i 
doings of tJie httle busy bee. If you are a florist, never fl 
liope for the continuation of a favourite flower in all its 
purity, without a sprinkling of sulphur to protect il 
from the bee. In a range of five miles around the 
hive, tliat indefatigable propagandist, with pollen on iU 
wings, will vitiate, adulterate every flower that it ^ncieot 
Bs well as yourself. Sprinkle your flower with sjilphur, 
and then hope on. We have now to see how Queen 
Elizabeth sprinkled her flowers to protect them from^j 
the bees of Loyola, ^H 

An almost total disorganisation had taken place in the | 
ecclesiastical incumbency of the Ronian Catholics, after 
Thppri«tho,..i '^liG accession of Eli2abeth. Most of the monk* 
lb Engiimd. had fled to the continent : most of the secular 
clergy conformed to the new religion. Those who 
remained were cafled ^* the old priests." and "Queen 
Mary*fl priests.*' Some retired to the continent, particu- 
larly the Netherlands, where, as I have stated, thej 
were liberally patronised by Philip II., and some 
obtained considerafile preferment. The greater number 
remained in England ; and of these some obtained sine- 
cures, in M'hich conformitj' was generally tlispensed with: i 
others remained in privacy^ unknown, or at least uth^J 
hoeded. Those who actively discharged the dutica of 
their pi'ofeBsiou were -supported hy individuals among 
the Catholic nobility and gentry who adhered to ih4 
ancient faith. Ensconced in London and other hTg$\ 
towns, or residing with their patrons in the coiuitry, 
they hare gained the honour of having ''presen'ed thai 
romnant of the Cathohc religion in England." Ag«,j 



en 
Tie ~ 



HEn.fiCJTTONM ON THK PBlB-STHOOD. 



3S7 



ReflHiioDi, 



infirmityi aud deatk, liaj ilimiuished their numbers ; a 
total extinction of ihe aucient faith was expected both 
by its friemls and its enemies." How true, but incon- 
gruous, ia this statemeut at all times repeatsi 
Why must priesL^ be absolutely necessary to 
preacr\'e the failh of a nation, if that faith is reaUy 
a matter of com-iction 1. How arc these pricais t/icm- 
selues prc^terred / Does this not point at once to that 
very cnnkerwonn of Christianity — the inculcated depen- 
dence of man on gnides as weali as liimaelf, and from 
their partisan education so likely to have so many 
selfish motirea for *^ preserving * wimt they call "reli- 
gion 1 " Never will the asking, the seeking, the knocking, 
80 consolingly set forth by the Eedeemer, be fully 
accomplished until man be enabled to stand ahn^, in the 
matter and manner of his feuth and practice. Too long 
kafi proud man usurped the place of Gfod in the human 
heart and in the liuman mind. Too long have we been 
compelled to be as the blind led by the blind — ever 
falling into the pit of restless, unmitigated dif^appoint- 
meut. We ao-c told, forsootlu that man uHturally requires 
human guidance in these matters of religion — we are 
told so in spile of the forementioncd divine charter of 
all real rehgion. It is an axiom invented by sacerdotnl 
craft to sanction its prerogatives. On the contraiy. 
resiftlance^ the spirit of independence, are the pnme 
impulses in all God's organised creatures — and in man 
immensely more than in any other ; but, aa in ihe 
former, brute force Kubduea resistance, so in the latter, 
brute force and influence, or the appeal to certain 
Daotives, manage to fetter that resistance and spirit of 
independence. This state of thing^i is ftst disappearing. 

■ OulJi^i 1. 346. tf *rf . 



36S 



aiSTORT Of THIi JESUITS, 



Man is beconaiug enliglitened on tlie score of tlictatorial 
religionism, as in all the other checks and clog^ of 
human advancement. The time will come when each 
man will think for hiniself, and be none the worse in 
practice, because he will be freed from the source of 
numerous abuses which vitiate thu hpjirt, deceived by a 
specious nomenclature craftily invented. Then it will 
not be asked, " What shall we belieye, or do, to be 
saved ? ^ — but each shall find his God in proportion to 
his own asking, seeking, and knocking. Systems are 
vanities. They may suit their /ra/w^rv ; but cannot be 
made applicable to erery individual ; and therefore are 
too ^Jtite for the infinitude of man s religious sentiment 
which God alone can fit and lill for ever- System- 
mongers have always been the bane of humanity- Thej 
have given their paltry names to a clajss uf ideas the 
very product of their own individual organisation. By 
influence tbey built up a Partj/, and then burst forth all 
the evila of the selfish speculation. Consider the won!* 
of Him who made and taught us, What system did Ife 
frame? None. Good action — ^the perfection of mau'a 
nature in his duty to liimself, his fellow-creatures, i&nd, 
therefm^e, to God— these constitute the splendid sum of 
Christ's doctrinal example. Ye who think, who medi- 
tate good thoughts for man's advancement, beware of 
the usual vanity of system-mongers. Root out the foul 
stuff unworthy of your exalted calling. Let the conchi- 
eiou of all your God-inbpired argument be freedom 
to the mind — the equipoise of all the faculties and sen- 
timents, and inclinations which are man's organisation, his 
dependence on nothing but God iulfiliing His part in the 
covenant of man s creation — -who is by rtafure perfect in 
hifi sphere of action, through h\& feelings and inte/Uct called 



CATHOLIC SEmNABlKS ABROAD. 



369 



Cftftiolir 



Ic be perfect eveu aa liis Father ia heaveih "When such 
shall be the result of enliglitetiraent, man will dispense 
with the things of party-s jstema for the 'preservation" 
of hifi reUgion — " total extinction of his faith '* will never 
be expected, because his faith will not depend upon 
party-ascendancy, party-Wewe, and party-abuses. 

In order to " preserve the remnant of the Cathohc 
religion " in England — a phi'aae which scarcely com- 
ports with that of " a gi'eat tnajorit^ of the 
people," asserted by the same pen — Wilham 
Allen conceived the project of perpetuating 
tbe Catholic ministry in England by a regular succession 
of priests, to be educated in colleges on the Continent, 
and thence sent to the English niisaion.' Allen was a 
zealous man in the cause of orthodoxy : he did not 
approve of the coniuion practice of couforraity in vogue 
among the Catholics ; he objected to their attending the 
divine service in Protestant churches, to avoid the 
severe penalties of recusancy. The Engliah Catholic 
divinea were very far from being unanimoua on the 
question : but Allen wa» decided, and dctermmed to 
lake what he supposed to be the most effectual means 
of consolidating a Catholic party in England. The 
result would be disastrous to humaEi life, to human 
welfare, to human progress, to everything that makes 
life valuable — but what mattered that ? It was the 
reeult of Zeal — and therefore, though heaven should 
rush amain, let tbe thing be done, And it waa done 
with a vengeance. His zeal was patronised : fimds 
flowed in : a college arose at Douay in French Flandera. 
All his clerical revenues abroad, this zealous man sunk 
in the stirring scheme of stiff-necked orthodoxy. This 



TOL, II, 



■ BmlcT, DID. 
B B 



370 



HISTORY OF THE JESDlTS. 



wafl in 1566. Hia establiahment became the reeort of 
all the emigmut ecclesiastics, Soon he sent nusi*^ionarie8 
into England Their favourable account of the scheme^ 
and '* the fruits of it, which appeared in the activity and 
success of their missionary labours, operated so much in 
its favour, that a petition was signed by the Cathohc 
nobility and gentry of England/' by the universitj of 
Douay^ by Bcveral religious commuiuties, and by the 
Jesuits, recommending the infant college to theliberalicy 
of the pope- Gregory SIIL immediately settled on the 
college an annual pension of 2100 scudi, and soon after- 
wards raised it to 2500 (500/.) — and subsequently ta 
1500/., which was punctually paid — from whatev^* 
source the zealous pontiff derived his contribution^ 
always generous in the midst of his injustice- ThooD 
prosperous beginnings did not endure. A party in 
Douay demanded the expulsion of the collegians :' tiiQ 
magistrates yielded to the cry, and ordered AJleD^ with 
his associates, to quit for a time — not without reluctance, 
however, and with a strong testimonial in favour of the 
exiles. On the invitation of the Cardinal de Lornuno 
and other members of the house of C^^ise related to the 
Queen of Scots — the grand and self-seeldng nucleus of 
the Catholic party in France — Allen and his associates 
repaired to Rheims and were received with hosfntality. 
This event chanced in 1576. During the/owr following 
years Allen sent one hmidred priests into England ; and 
during the five next years he expedited a greater 
number to the same disastrous vineyard t Forty in one 



rt teif. Thorp iqa; bo sonio likcliliood in Lho dibg ; for no bd^jUAte i^aa mi b* 
form^ of th« mbchlnfttJcnfl at partial in Uiote dnvlfhl LimH. S«« DaU, ft- 
164. 



t 



TRAiNmO IS THE CATHOLIC SEMINARIES. 371 

month iaid down Uieir lives in their cause.' Another 
establisliment was founded at Rome, by Gregory XIII. 

IThu3 Douaj, Rhoims, and Rome, maintained the seed 
of orthodoxy which was to germinate and ripen into 
nonconformity in England. Hence these schools were 
called Semi/iOTies, and the priests there prepared were 
named Seminary-priests — names derived from a Latin 
word for seed- This regetable metaphor acquired growth 
subsequently — and we now hear of "propagating " the 
I faith — propagandism — and propagandists — terms which 
seem to have been invented by way of contrast to Roman 
c^Ubacy, 

I The opinion prevalent in England, at the court and 
amongst politiciaud and churchmen, respecting the 
training pursued in these seminaries, was very The numn ' 

I nearly, if not precisely, in accordance with °ng^n\^" 
the reaKty. " Whilst among other things, «™'a»ri«. 
disputations were held concerning the ecclesiastical and 
temporal power, zeal to the pope their founder, hatred 
against the queen, and hope of restoring the Romish 
religion by the Queen of Scots, carried some of them so 
fiw that they really persuaded themselvesj and so main- 
tained, that the Bishop of Rome hath by divine right 
full power over the whole world, as well in ecclesiastical 
as temporal causes ; and that he, according to that 
absctute power, may excommunicate kings, and, having 
h so done, dethnjne them, and absolve their subjocts from 
tb«ir oath of allegiance/' The consequence iji England 
was that **many withdrew themselves from the received 
service of God, which before they had frequented 
without any scruple. Hanse, Nelson, and Maine, priests, 
and Sherwood, peremptorily taught the queen was a 

' BoUct, 1306— 309 ; Dwld, ii. ISft— 170. 
B B 2 



372 



HISTORY OF THE JESDITS. 



schismatic mid an heretic, and therefore to be deposed ; 
for wliich thev were put to death. Out of these 
seminaries were sent forth into divers parts of England 
and Ireland at first a few ;vouug men, and afterwards 
more, according as they grew up, who entered over- 
hastily into holy orders, and in&itnictod in tho above- 
named principles. They pretended oidy to administer 
the sacraments of the Romish religion, and to preach to 
Papists : but the queen and her couqciI soon found that 
they were Bcnt underliand to seduce the subjects from 
their allegiance and obedience due to their prince, to 
ohlige them by recoucihation to perform the pope's 
commRntlfi, to stir up intestine robelhons under the Seal 
of Confesxiony and flatly to execute the sentence of Pius 
"Quintus against the queen, to the end that iray might 
be made for the pope and the Spaniard, who liad of late 
designed the conquest of England. To these eeminariea 
were sent daily out of England by tlie Papists, in 
contempt and despite of the laws, great numbers of 
boys and young men of all sorts, and admitted into the 
same, making a vow to return into England : othcra 
also crept secretly &oni thence into the land, and more 
were daily expected with the Jesuits^ who at this lime 
first came into England. Hereupon there came forth a 
proclamation in the month of June : 'That whosoever had 

any children, wards, kinsmen, or other relations 
*g»iii»MhB m the parts beyond the seas, should aftor ten 

days give in their names to the ordinary, and 
within four months call them home again, and when 
they were returned, should forthwith give notice of the 
aajne to the said ordinary. That they should not 
directly or mdirectly supply eucb as refused to return, 
with any money. That no man should entertain in his 




I 

I 



» 



» 



ffTUKELT'S EXPEDITION TO IBELASD. 373 

house or liarbour any priesto sent forth of the aforesaid 
serainariew, or JefiuiLs, or cherish aud relieve them. 
And that whosoever did to the contrary should be 
accounted a favourer of rehels and seditious persona, 
and be proceeded against according to the laws of the 

Events had rendered the EiigUgh governiaeiit rigUant, 
if not severe ; but the pope and tbe Spaniard scarcely 
made a secret of their aims against Enoftaud. 
About two years before this edict was issued, Mptdnioq 
tlie pope had sent an expedition to invade 
Ireland. It was a joint-stock concern, conducted by 
one Siukelj, an English refugee and adventurer, formerly 
patTonised by the queen, but subsequently disappointed, 
a man without honour or conscience. Camden calls him 
a ruffian, a riotous spendthrift^ a notable vapourer — who 
liad sold his services at the same time to the queen and to 
the pope, alternately abusing the confidence and betray- 
ing the secreta of each, adds Lingard — what a man for a 
chanipion, a saviour in a time of trouble aud disaster ! But 

■ Ctrnddi, Ad. Ann. lACO. ■ If (lia Comp^n^ erf J»us could iii>i puiber loot 
into Eagiand/* nye Bivtoli, ** EpgUad mcsuDivhJIo pal hen iato the Qtrnpiu]^ ; 
mkny of thht luticiu, mad Qicii of tbe Diust valrublc qruiLitiflii, entering tliB 
CompBuy. iMdOtt tnd Borgia bad concvded the f^vcjur lo bo miuij, Ibat 
Hercuriv], their mc^crasor. Kohg their miiJlitude d^ty increiAiiigr «clviped : 
* Now il #e«M G<id'i will llat tlie Company thoiiJd mirch to ba»!p hgain^c the 
birreay af England, nace ho Hads to har each & numcroua and vHliurt hvet 
Irmn Enetaod/ In a &jigLt \«iLr, 1^76, FUndcTB jUone g^ve tbe Company twdrc 
wlvirt EikgUehincn, ftud they were inaJtiplivd from year lo year. Tbdr good 
tjvdiltv* [uade tlicin n p&rt of the moat wortliy kod Mtinuible of the Company. 
Hivy were all cxil<«, and ecutiered oivr Irctuid, Fbuidera, r^ranc?) Germuiy, 
HanBhryj Polvid, LilhuaiiiiiT i^peia aucI Italy. Muiy of thorn bocune onuuciit 
for pksly and Jn kttorVr "Jid ^'"^ diown La til la the penerflJ con^ivgmtionB. 
OtJjen v«)t ■■ miMtonen to ibo £a^[, and to tho We«t, and to tho oamp of 
wir in HuDguy, figtitiiig «g&ifal Lhv Turk» ; vxd Uetly, «otno dovfttvd (Jkud- 
mi^m to KlUnd the pm-fitrickflU, aiid pi^iihed in ihe btrolr ininlMxy.*'' — 



374 



HISTORY OF THE JEStnTS, 



he promised to be useful to Ihe pope uotwithstandmg : 
irith three thousand Italians he would drire the Euglish 
out of Ireland^ and fire the fleet of England, — the 
apparent preliminaries, as was Imagined, to get Ireland' 
as a kingdom for the pope's natural son, whom the holy 
father had made Marquis of Vmeola ; whilst Philip IL 
thought of retaliating on Elizabeth for her aid to his 
Netherlanders, by aiding her rebel Irish. It is curious 
to note that '*in the meanwhile amity in words wis 
maintained on both sides." What an age of craft and 
machination : and yet, by the numberless spies fed and 
maiutaiued by all parties, in all parts of Europe, nothing 
was done without being made known respectively : but, 
as a matter of conrsc, it followed as a certain result from 
this trade in rumour and espionage, that discordxint 
intelhgencB mystified all deliberations — except those 
with Elizabeth in tlie midst, and her cool-headod wily 
politicians around her ; — from a frightful, heterogeneon^ 
chaotic jumble of vain rumours, tlic English cabinet 
created security for tho realm, aud discomfiture for itoj 
voracious enemies. The pope made Stuhelj bis chami 
berlain. Marquis of Leinster, and advanced 40,000 scud 
(8000/.). 6O0 men, 3O00 stand of arms, and a ship 
war, for the expedition. Sttikely put to sea, and rcachc 
the Tagus, where he found King Sebastian just ready tall 
start in his disastrous enterprise against Africa. Sehastiaa 
** with youthlyhcatandombition" had long before promis 
the pope bis assistance against all Turks and hereUcs,! 
and was to lead off the expedition against England : itt' 
tho meantime he persuaded Stukely to go with him first 
and finish off the Tiu^ks before he belahotirod the heretics. 
Stukely. the ** subtile old fox " was entrappotl, went, and 
perished with the king and kingdom of Portugal, in th^j 



ttESCLTS OP KEBELLION IK [RELAND. 



375 



memorable battle of Alcazarquivir, — finuibiDg " the 
interlude of a loose life with an honest catastrophe or 
coQclusioii/' It was altogether a proridential aQair for 
England or rather for the poor Catholics, erer the 
scapo-goata. Besides the destruction of Stukely, the 
fall of Sebastian diverted Philip's attention from England 
to the usurpation of Portugal — which for the nonce he 
preferred, in spite of the iiuportunitiea of tJie Catliolic 
fugitives recommending England to his majesty's zealous 
attention. Thus all seemed at an end. Of course^ the 
Euglish spies had duly notified all the fordgn proceed- 
ings : a fleet was waiting on the coast of Ireland to givs 
Stukely a warm reception : it was now recalled, and Sir 
Ilenry Sydney, the Lord-deputy, bade Ireland farewell 
with a verse out of the Psahns, saying, " When Israel 
departed out of Egypt, and tlie house of Jacob from 
BiDcngsia barhrom peopkJ' Meanwhile, Fitzmaurice, 
''an Irish refugee, likewise, with the aid of 
papal fiindfl/' who had joined Stukely, con- 
tinued the voyage, witii a few Irish and EngliBli exiles, 
and Spanish aoldiersj and the famous Dr, Sanders on 
board as papal legate, provided with a bull constituting 
the invasion a regular crusade with aU its '* privileges." 
A descent was effected near Kerry : but the people were 
sick of ** stirs " which had hitherto only drenched them 
with disaster ; Mid they held ofi' until the Eail of Des- 
mond took arms against tho queen. Then the whole 
island was in commotion. How fared the issue ? Re- 
verse after reverse — hke tho sledge-hammers tempest 
on the glowing metal — befel the insurgents. Fitz- 
maurice himself was cut off in a private quarrel with 
one of his kinsmen. Desmond slunk off, to perish 
miserably soon after : the pope's funds fell short : the 



FitZDiAnric*. 



37ti 



HISTOKY Of THE JE8UTT6, 



promised aids were not foi-thcomiug : tlie Englisli pun- 
ished tlie iuvaderii aad inanrgente with horrible cmelty. 
yir Walter Raleigh had a large share in this transaction. 
Men and women were driven into barns, and there biamt 
to death ; children were Btrangled : all Mimster was 
laid waste : Enghsh colonists overran the desolated 
region.^ Which do you abhor most — the cruelly infa- ^j 
tuated enterprisCj or the saiege ferocity of the victors ? ^H 
I confess that I place them exactly on a par — ^both of ^ 
them horrible aboniinatiou8> whicli there should be no 
Heaven, no God to behold. But the ruthless hope of 
zeal sank not. To the rescue once more was the cry of | 
infatuated zeal in tim/ew — was the clamour of the self- ; 
fieeking mnm/ — was the resolve of the cool, calculating, 
indefatigable */€suUs^ And England, heraelf, it was 
resolved to make the field of " Spiritual Exercises," to 
eventuate political ** change and alteration." The 
notorious Father Parsons, or Persons, and the ardent 
Campion were dispatched to found the English province 
of the Company of Jesua, immediately after the fiiilare 
of the late invasion. Not without rejoicings they 
departed ; and Campion was congratulated on the 
glory he was about to achieve by his headlong, enthu- 
siastic intrepidity. The Jesuits gave out that th«j 
Virgin Maj7 had appeared to Campion, in a visiUei 
form on an old niutberry-tree in the garden of the 
novitiate, and showing him a purple rag — ifn pamto iinic 
pifrpureOf slie had foretold to him the sheddiiig of his 
blood in the glorious death which he aubsoquently 
suffered,* If Campion originated tliis story, oui' sym* 
pathy with the man and his fate must be largely I 



' Cund, prcp\ anni^^'f Ling. viiL 12!), M m^. ; Ranke, 151, ct «ff. ; Cnrnl ' 
aim, tt 4e*i. 9 BuEoll, DaU IsgluL f. W, 



MALICE PREPES9E OF THR JESUITS. 



377 



t 



The maUa 



dimiuished : it were better to traiister it to the account 
of Jesuit-inTeiitions so disgracefiil to the best members 
of the Company. 

Kot "nitliout being perfectly a^\'are beforehand of 
what was to follow, did the Jesuits embark in this 
minoua expedition. From tlie words of Mer- 
curirin before given, it is evident that tliey 
thought the time was now come for a demon- 
stration. Besides^ we have also seen that they had often 
tried to gain admissioo into England And yet they 
admit that " it was easy to foresee that whether few or 
many of our Company were in England, great com- 
motions must Jicccaaarily arise both among the Catholics 
and Protestants. Tliis was so true, that soon atler the 
arrival of the two first — as we shall presently see — 
tliere were more disputes on that score than on any 
other, aB well among the Cathohcs as among their 
adversaries : and this is precisely what Parsons wrote 
to Its at the time : ' It is expected ' — these are hie 
words — ■ that the persecution of the Cathohcs will be 
redoubled, and that new and more sauguinary edicts 
will be issued against the missionary priests and the 
Catholics in general, as the government of that kingdom 
is in the hands of Protestants ; and this we shall see 
fulfilled soon after the two first of our Company shall 
haTO set foot in England/ " ^ They went cotwith- 
standing, and their historian protcnda that their General 
Kercuriau conscuttid with reluctance to the mission — 
though the same writei" quotes the general's exclamation 
prophetic of tliat mission. At all events, the Jesuits 

^ Thli y fiuUer'i tnuiBUUoii from Bvtoh : but in m; omi oopy or UAnoli, 

Jill the kiter or Pu-kh* u omitted, aniL tJierv ia onlj iht phntao — f cul p/yjufo 
M Jcr/jHrt-A .ifu iPaJiora. I knoiw not whether Buder iDE«rpalAt«l Ifao pA^Agc 
from odicr Bourer* by wky of riackrlktiDD. My cditjvia l» ihil of HaaiF^ Il1i>7> 



378 



H18T0BT OF THE JE8TTIT3, 



Putonfl. 



might have endeavoured not to fulfil their " apprehen- 
fiions/' tQst«ad of aggiavating their debts to humanity, by 
producing them to the very letter, in every particular. 

Robert Parsons, or Persons, was bom in the pariah 
of Stowey, in SomerBetehire. in the year 1546J "Ha 
parents were right honest people," says ParsocB 
himself, "'and of the most substantial of their 
degree among their neighbours while they Uted ; and 
hia father was reconciled to the church by Mr, Bryant, 
the martyr ; and his mother, a grave and virtuous 
matron, living divers years, and dying in flight out of 
her country for her conscience/' " Surely it mfittered 
little to the man whether honour or dishonour attended 
his birth, at a time when the natural sons of popes and 
kings were exalted to the highest rank by no oihcr 
recommendation ; but in the desperate hatred which 
Parsons boldly excited, no epithet nor reproach was too 
foul to be flung on the terrible worker. On the other 
hand, Parsons richly desei^ed the worst representations, 
for he spared no man in his rancour. In his Response 
to the Queen s Edict, he lavishes the lowest reproacfa€i& 
imputations, and infamy on the queen s ministers, ani 



* Ho used botli forms of aignatnre ; but tbongfa often writMii FffvMM hj 

Cuholkca, i[ la generally proTiounced Partont. 

- laoae of hia ntionyiuouB diMribeSfeu titled *'A Manlfcatatian of tlie gt^FoUj 
fcDd bod Spirit of Corto^e in I^glfvod coHing tlioiuwlrti Sofniltv Pii^Btas*' ICO^ 
— "Bui AoA'era] RoaLsh pFiesrn aod QLlici%aiHl tuaan^ the rtHt Mr. TlioaoA B^ 
(Atiatotnjr of Popiah T^ruiDj) luid Dr. Tl^omnfl Jiuncs (Life of F. PuwiDti 
in Jemiit^H DirWDfall) Asaert that * ho nas bJLV^Iy horn of tnpau parentJifT iL 
SuAeney, in SumerHtBlLire ; that hia supposed fftihcr vu a blacLvnitb, bit 
ri^bt &tJivr the pariah pra»l of Stokursc^ ; hy muuia whoroof ho vraa biiuHir' 
inoiiB, fiomrjtimefl caLJcd Rob. PorsDua^ Bomctimsa Roh. Cflivbacli-* And Mt. 
Gea remnrks llial the ^vorld in Dot agreed cither aboat hU name or parental 
for the aaxtv of ParsonitT or Pithous, aa he wntes U hinuetr^ they vrill 1iaf« it la 
be gtren liiia upon H HCnmUloua Eraaoo, vhUfl tlie true naiao of bia aupCMid 
f&thar wna Cowhat^b, ot Cnljboi.'k." — Bayh^ PjiitwDa IA,J 



HOBEBT PAR8058, 



S79 



still more on the queen herself/ In 1563 he went to 
Baltol College, Oxford, either as a servitor or scholar, 
whore be distinguished liimself as an acute disputant, 
became Master of Arts, a Fellow of the College, and a 
celebrated Tutor in the Umrersity. He did not taJke 
priest's orders ; but on two occasions he swore the oath 
of abjuration of the pope's supremacy- In alluiiing to 
this transaction, he exhibits his own character at tliat 
time m no very favourable Ught " What a crime ! " 
he MTites ; ''ambitions youth that I was, lest I sbould 
lose my degree, I pronounced that most iniquitous oath 
with my lips, though I detested it in my mind — licet 
animo detcstarcr. Spare me, O merciful God/* Ac* 
In 1574, he was expelled from the college. Accounts 
rary as to the cause of this event, His friends attribute 
it to hia CathoUc fientrments, which he did not conceal f 
whilst Camden, who was at the University at the time. 
and Icnew Parsons, declares that " he openly professed 
the Protestant rchgion, until he waa, for his loose car- 
riage, exjK-lled with diegrace, and went over to the 
Papists." * Archbishop Abbott^ also contemporaneous 
Trith Parsons at BaUol, and styled an "unexceptionable 
witness^" by Gee, an enemy of Parsons, coincides with 



^ See for Lmteice his dumder uid parentage af Buoo, p. IH ; »nd of Cecil, 

p. 3B ; liut ahovc all, the diagnwefa! dijparagpmcnt with wliich lie ItefoulB 
Qii«ni ElJzabpili BJid her pnTGntagc : ha B(?tU(UI^ ii^tJn»tC9 that Hcorj Vltl. waa 
not her &ther 1 *^ ^ tunpn ilJm Henriei Octan Ulia fucril, quod Sanil«ri 
histoha ex Adiue Bolenrt inalrifl incontmentja dubimn ptaiie vl incertum 
tvddiC &<-^, 1>' ?f>Oi Ed Rom. 1593. 

^ ^ Frub Boi^lua ] bin juruDeatuia illad ppguiwiniutn juvdus ambitiDnu, ae 
gndum ftmiltensia labUi procandaTli licet aaimo dvttalATcr. Farce mtlil, 
muwricoTB D«DB, A« ^randt hoc javcntu^s men dDliirtum condona ; aopdum eoim 
novmUD. quid fwwt te fupcr amaia dUigero, et hcmorem tuum rpbva anteTanv 

* Morue, HUL Ptot. An^l. I u, c, 7. "Cum Ofttholicis wntire baud obvcori 
prw le rcrebtt" ' Ad, Ami. 1500. 



380 



HJSTOBY OV THE J£SUITS> 



Camden, not, however, without evidencing, at the sam^ 
time, that there was an animus against the redoubtable 
Parsons, who seems to liave been always similar to 
himself, either as Protestant or ** Papist." The Arch- 
bishop says : *^ Bagshaw, being a smart young man, and 
one who thought his penny good silver, after he had 
his grace to be bachelor of arts, was witli some despite 
swiudged by Parsons, being dean of the colle^;e- ffoc 
matid oltd mente repostum ; and Bagshaw afterward 
coining to be fellow, was most hot in persecution against 
Pai'sons. It was the more forwarded by Dr. Squire's 
diflplcasui'e, who was then master of Baliol College, and 
thought himself to have been much bitten by vile libek, 
the author whereof be conceived Parsons to be ; who, 
in truth, was a man at that time wonderlVdly given to 
scoffing, and that with bitterness, which also was the 
cause that none of the Company loved hiuL Now, 
Dr. Squire and Bagshaw being desirous of some oocasion 
to trim him, this fell out." Hereupon the Archbishop 
informs us that Parsons, as Bursar, falsified the reckon- 
ings much to the damage of the college, by taking 
advantage of the weakness of his colleague, who hap- 
pened to be "a very simple fellow," Other disgraceful 
swindlirg is mentioned to the round sum IoIaI of one 
hundred maiks. about 70/, Then tbey found out that 
he was illegitimate, and the Archbishop declares " that 
Parsons was not of the best fame concerning ineonti- 
nency ; " but this is only on "heareay." His enemies 
now rose up g/i masse, resolved to expel him ; but, at 
his earnest request, they permitl^d him to ** resign/' 
which be did accordingly, after having endured con* 
siderable humiliation from the now triumj)hant Squire 
and BagshaWi whose conduct exliibite all the spitefiilneas 



ROBERT PARSONS, 



381 



which grovelling [lalures call revenge,' As we have no 
reason to doubt the Archbishop's veracity, so are we 
justified in condemning the proceedings as the petty 
machinations of a party whoae object was revenge rather 
than justice. This Bagshaw, however, turned '* papist" 
not long after, became a secular priest, and figured in 
the "atirs" amongat hia own pai"ty, at the time when 
they forgot even Protestant persecution to fight their 
petty battles of jealous prerogative. Doubtless Parsons 
was **a violent, fierce-natured man, and of a rough 
behaviour ; '' but there was nothing in this treatment 
at Oxford either to quiet the former or to mollify the 
latter. The whole tenor of a man's life is oftea decided 
by the pang of humiUation shot through the heart in 
the moment of its pride, Bartoli seems to have been 
conscious of this fact when he wrote commenting on 
this transaction : ** But the synagogue of his victors/' 
Bays the bristling Jesuit, *' who, at having expelled him 
with shame, indulged their stupid merriment, Mill in a 
few years lament it with despair ; and thoy shall have 
him there in the same Oxford, in a different profession 
of life, and with more trophies for the faith than the few 
he achieved amongst his pupils, which they envied him 
so much ; and as long as he lives, yea. as long as his 
spirit shall live iii his books, heresy will be forced to 
remember Robert Parsons, without any other consolation 
for its grief than a vain biting at air, badly striving to 
write and to talk him down, which is the only availing 
effort of desperate rancour," * 

■ S«« BayU,f*Ai nj*^, loFlhe uvhbubop'a \eiU^ to Dr. HoHye. PuMifu(R) 

* " H> !■ SiiiAgogB de' viociton, die deU' luverio Tn^ognoonMDta CMonMO, 

mitle^ikTCDo ill isctocca alle^zia, dod Ludcna molli timi » fdme Ib dupen- 

tiooi per doglii ; « hAvraalo quivi Btvaao in Ueaouio, in ilm pnfieBione di rlu, 

V coo altai nc^uiati fOU Fed* Cktu>lka, cho hod qac1L> hkh d«' giovuii »wti 



382 



HISTOST or THE JESUITS, 



CHDipion. 



Edmund Campion was bora in London in 1540, tlw 
year in which the Conipauy was founded. His parenu 
were Catholics. At Christ s Hospital he distin- 
guished himself as a scholar, entered subse 
quently at St John's, Oxford, and had the honour on 
two or three occasions, to address Queen Elizabetli al 
Woodstock or Oxford, as spokesman of the College ; 
and each waa the opinion that Cecil, afterwards Lord 
Burghley, conceived of his wit> enidition, and good 
taste, that be pronounced him to he one of the DwmoHth 
of England*' But it appears that he was all along a 
Protestant m name only, tormented however with that 
inner angtiish which sometimes results from conscious 
simulation. As usual, this res\ilt is attributed to the 
^' Primitiye Fathers/' that CathoUc source of all con- 
versions. Campion read the " Fathers, ' was ** con- 
verted," and yet suffered himself to be " prevailed upon 
by dint of importunity " to receive the Protestant order 
of deacon. This proceeding is said to have " formed 
the climax of his misery. So hitter was his remorse 
that ho hastened to throw up his fellowship, and quitted 
the University in 1569."* He fied to Ireland, where he 
was hunted by the queen *8 commissioners, and com- 
pelled to escape in the disguise of a servant to avoid 
martyrdom. In 1571 he reached Douay College, studied 
theology for a twelvemonth, and went to Kome in 1573, 
was admitted into the Company of Jesus, and sent to 
the novitiate at Brunn, whore he saw the Virgin Mary 
on the midberry tree, with the purple rag of Martyrdom, 

pnpaii, eho builo gli invidiaroiio t « fin i*h^ igLi vivt, UEi fin rfiff titvA d «m 

ipirito De' stun libri, Mwk roradA onje ricordun di Roberto PerMolo ; tonn 
$^tn ooQBolatioQO ft] mo dalan*, cbe d'uii tuo mortlerc tAV uu, &c«ado • M 
peg^o ui* Bcrivc, c pjuk ; ch« e quel aolo m che il furor diapento m moatrmnd 
TBlmte."— A*rtoli\ f. 91. i Oliver, »3. » Ibid S*. 



BDMLTND CAMPION. 



383 



M I have related according to the Jesuit-legend. 
During the seven eubsequent y^ai^ he taught rhetoric 
and philosophy at tlie Jesuit- College in Prague, was 
promoted to holy orders, aud was rouchsafed another 
prediction of his destined martyrdom, according to the 
Btatcmont of Parsons, who says that a certian young 
Jesuit wrote on Campion s door the words Campianus 
Marhfr^ It may have been a pious joke on the pro- 
fessor's proclaimed aspirations, and his desperate zeal : — 
for at Rlieima, on his journey to England, he exhorted 
the students of the seminary to martyrdom, iu an 
address on the text — / am come to sendjire upon earth — 
and becoming violently excited, he cried out J^ire.^re, 
JtrCf so lustily that the people in the streets, thinking 
there was a conflagration, rushed in with their buckets 
and water.^ The career of the ejected Pai'sons was by 
no meanfi so determinate. From England he went to 
Calais, thence to Antwerp, and Louvain, where he met 
Father William Good, his countryman, and under whom 
he went through the " Spiritual Exercises." Padua 
was tiis nest refuge. Here he applied himself to the 
stady of medicine, and Ukewise civil law : but he 
changed his mind, and fulfilling the advice of his exer- 
citant, Father Good, he abandoned his studies, went 
to the English College at Rome, and gave himself to 
the Company in 1575 — one year after they "trimmed" 
him so disgracefitlly at Oxford. In 1578 he was ordained 
priest,^ — his two years of probation and his four years 
of theology being epitomised into less than three, by 
'' dispensation/' for the quality of his metal, or by the 

' OllTer, u. 

* ttKPioli, f. inn, Thin fket wiuK vUnflrng }6kf hiaan^t fh« novi^M in tha 
fingliih aoiiti&i^ At llntiler — one of our " pious itonH '^ during recreation. 

* Bnfl«, Ollnr, BvioU. 



334 



BJSTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



to ytimiDt 
AodCaDiptoii. 



deaire to "fix'* him— which however was not iieceeaarr, 
for Robert Farsoiis waa iio\v in his elemeut. The ex- 
pedition to England left Rome in 1580. The pope 
gave the Jesuits his benediction, and their general, 
Mercurian, enjoined them not to metldle in 
the ha^t vnth any " political interests in the 
affainj of England — now coctinnallj agitato^:! 
by the auspicioiia of the government, the dread of inno- 
vation, the tumulta of Ireland, the imprisonment of the 
Queen of Scots, and the miserable oppression of the 
Catholics, besides the suspicion of danger from without" 
The Jesuits were neither to speak nor listen to aay one 
on the subject of politics : thej were strictly to observs 
the prohibition, and Campion and Parsons were to make 
that protestation on oath to the ministers and magistrates 
of England, as soon as they should set foot in the 
country.^ On application from Parsons and Campion 
the pope granted that the Bull of deposition against 
Elizabeth should be understood in this manner : — tliat 
it should always hind the queen and heretics : and 
should by no means bind Catholics, as matters then 
stood — but hereafter bind them, when some pubhc 
execution of the Bull might be had or made — which 
pomts at once to the hopes of the party, and their 
determhiaiion : m the event of invasion the Catholics 
would he bound to stand against the queen — and it waa 
now the "mission " of the Je&ults so to strengthen them 
in their ** faith," that this " hope " of the infatuated 
party should not be disappointed. Forsooth this waa 
no mitigation of tlie Bull — but rather an aggraMition ; 
though neither Allea. Bartoli, nor Butler, ventures to 
explain its bearings on the events that followed. 



■ Banolij /. DS. 



/^ 



DI^OCTSB OF PARSONS, 



-38A 



Ambo anhhu. mnln} insit/nes prte-strnftibm ntfsis, these 
two Josuits were well cuntmsted, according to the Cou* 
stitutions — Campion bein^ (by the atlmission of an 
enemy) '* of a sweet disposition, and a well-polished 
man," whilst Pftrsons was "a violent, fierce-natured 
man, and of a rough behaviour."' ParaonB was appointed 
su[>erior of the mission, or expedition, which consisted 
of a lay-brotlier besides seven priests, two laymen, and 
'' perhaps" another who is not named — making in all 
thirteen — by way of a good oraen from the gospel- 
tiuniber. T snpposo.' After a prosperous journey through 
the continent, which they fructified hy a conference 
with Beza at Grencva, Parsons resolved to penetrate 
first into England, leading Campion to follow the more 
adroit and brazen-faced leader," He gave out n(,p,i„rf 
that he was a captaiu returning from Flanders P"**"- 
to England His dress was '* of buif, layd with gold 
lace, with hatt and feather suted to the same."* He 
assumed not only tho dress of an officer, but looked the 
character to admiration, and vafft^imtae Ctufiiyrarn di 
ffa/**^ alia mnnkra de fjli altri — "full of strange oaths/' 
he swaggered away, to simulate the soldier completely — 
qui'f tiitfo eke hisoynana a paver diphito wa soldalo. 
When Campion saw him in hia character, the imitation 
waa so complete, that he thought tlie sagacity of the 
English searchers, however keen-sighted, would bo baf- 
fled and deceived : '* thus no oite would ever suspect 
ihat^ under so different an appearance, a Jesuit was 
concealed — xi nascondesse un Gemiiay^ He embarked. 



■ OwiLdeii, ail Ana lASO. 

' " E foFse fin dfcimotf rzo, che bJtri vi mntuio.'^— RiMefi, f. 9S. 
I ■• RAfcion roll? ch« kl pEnunio, e Superionf e piu JmIa), v |>iu fmiKA, 
I4cc*«bc i1 fariT k1 P^ Edmondo U 8lrad&'* — Barioii, I0|. 

VOL. 11. C C 



380 




HISTOHY OF THE JESUITS. 



and reached Dover the next momiug. Here the searcher, 
according to bis commisstot], examined him, '' found no 
cause of doubt in liim, but lot liiin pass with all favour, 
procuring him horse, and all other things necessary for 
his journey to Gravescnd." It is at least amusing to 
think of tho multitudinous fakehoods that Parsons 
must have told from the time of his embarkation to 
his shaking hands with the ucaixher, and decamping 
with flving colours. HoTvever, according to JesuitHXin- 
Bcience, and Dr. Oliver, '^ This manifestation of God's 
care and protection, inspired the Fatlier ivith cotxrage 
and confidtmcp, and he told the searcher tJtai he luida 
certain friend^ a merchant, lying in St. Omer's Uiat 
would follow him very shortly, to whom he desired tho 
8aid searcher to show fill favour : and so he promised to 
do, and took a certain letter of tlie same Father to send 
to Mr. Edmunds, (for so Father Campion was now 
called,) and conveyed it safely to St. Omer's, in which 
letter Father Pai'sons wrrteunto him tho great courtesy 
which tho senrchcr had ehowod hijn, and recommended 
him to hasten and follow liira in dispasintf of his gtock o/* 
Jewels and diamonds.^' * The astonishing dexterity oi 
these Jesuits is proved by the fact, that their porlniila 
were hung up on the gates of the towns, the seaports 
particuiarly^ so as to insure their detection,^ Nor must 
we fail to remark how active were the queen's epioe in 
discovering; the project. This chapter in the 
thr dn^ ■ of history of Elizabeth a reign is worthy of inves* 
" ' ' tigation : a history of the method and men, 
and coxt of tliat spy system would be as interesting 



^ Oliver. 101, Ua Bwiiili s*>*, '*un Patrttv nercttnio Ii-landcw (n 
queBti LL P- E^lmando} \o tpoc^'iMSero di prawnte"'— b«CAUA? bis vpeody ptaHoev 

in London waa necen^irjr for hU rUfkir* * BtTLoIi, tiM nprd. 



PAHflOira ENTRAPS THE 



I 



I 



» 



a3 tliat of the JesuiU. Witlj great difficulty Parsons 
joumcveJ on towards Londou. In consequence of tlie 
queen's prcK'laniation, and the general suspicion prevaii- 
ing against strangers, he found it impossible to procure 
accommodation at the inna, coming, as he did, without 
ahorse. At laj^t Le found his way to the Marshalsea 
prison, where he met his brotbcr-Jesnit, Thomas Poimd,* 
a fact which seems to prove that the present expedition 
was not the first settlement, but only a more determined 
and better organised ni^saidt on the dragon of heresy ; 
and we may note the hypocrisy of the Jesuits in pretend- 
ing to undertake the mission so relutrtautly. The faetis, 
they wished to secure a right for saying to the secular 
priests — Your master, Allen, invited us — we consented 
with i-eluctance— and you must be silent on the score of 
our obtruftive ambition and interference. Meanwhile, 
Campion, in liis garb of a pedlar or merchant — doubtless 
with jewels in his box to keep up the deception — reached 
London : Paraons was waiting for him on the banks of 
the Thames, and saluted him with a sign, and then shook 
handswith him as an expected friend, in so naturalaraanner 
that no one could suspect it wa« " all artifice and a trick," 
■^-iuiio nrtificio e ftraltrimenfa — says the Ja^^uit-historian.^ 
A meeting of the Jesuits and misaionarj' priests now 
took place, and by unanimous consent Robert Parsons 
presided. He disclaimed all political objects, p^^^hoidi 
contrary to the general report, and the direct »"<*'*°« 
consequeuce of bis presence and that of his lUpriMW. 
brother-Jesuits, in England. The conversion of Eng- 
bind, with the co-operation of the secular priests, was 
the only object in view. He awore an oath to that 
effect — € sottofide ginrato ceriificolto. TIjen he appealed 



Bvtoli bdU DUrar- 



' BtflotiilO^ 



C O 



388 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



to the Council of Trent, and prvtesteJ against the 
attendance of Catholics at the diviae service of Protestwit 
chiirclios, and strongly recommended uon-confonnitj, 
which, of course, was just the very tiling to hring oa the 
poor Catholics a torrent of fires, racks, and gibh<>t8. 
What cared tlie *' ficrce-naturcd raan" f*»r that? No 
Virgin Maij^ on a mulberry -tree had doomed him to 
martyrdom with a purple rag^ — ^and ho had no particular 
fancy for the thing in itself, and so, '* until some public 
execution of the pope's Bull of deposition against the 
queen might be had or niade/' he was resolved, by 
command of authority and inclination, to quicken that 
result by goading tho government to fury againat ilio 
wretched Catliolics, thereby to rouse, as he hoped, all 
Catholicity, with King Philip II., to the invasion of 
England and destruction of the queen. In order lo 
prevent conformity, which was, in most instances, the 
result of indifteretif^e to Catholicism, Parsons ut^d ilie 
necessity of supplying all parts of tho kingdom equally 
with priests, and induced the secular priests ti> place 
themselves under him as subjects — noii allramcttte cie 
sudditi — and these "verysimplefellows"ofleredtogoaDd 
labour in any manner, and at anyplace, which hesliould 
prescribe to them. Thua, besides the end already meu- 
iioned. Parsons at once acliieved a party in Englan^l, 
arrogating to himself and Ida Company an ascendancy 
iu the concerns of t^he mission, destined to divide the 
body of misaioners into factions, which tore and worried 
the English Catholic Church in the midst of ruinous 
perspcution. Heavens 1 Can there ho a greater curse 
on humanity than pneetly craft, ambition, and selfi?ih- 
ness. united to all tho reckleRsness of the Jesuits ?* 



Batler, i. 3€h% 3Tltiuulynii»£ BartoliMid Mora. 



OF PAUaONS MKASURE, 



389 



MvUiitBtlaiii. 



I 

I 



I 



Then began tlie sowing of tlie seed. Parsons and 
Cainincii " travelled up and down tlirougli tlie couiitrey, 
and to Popish gontlemens hoiist^. cnuvcrtly pr.»p^of 
and ill tlie disgviiscd habits aometimes of soul- *''* ™'"**"'' 
diars. aometuncs of gentlemeti, aometimes of ministcit* vt 
the word, and sometimes of apparitors [a sort of uiider- 
chureh-dfficcr]. diligently performing wliat they had 

cliarge, both by word and writing, l\ii-aoii3 being a 
mat! of a seditious and turbulctit spirit, and 
Aimed with a confident boldiio&s, tarapcred so 
fiir with the Papists about deposing the queen, that 
some of them (I speak upon their uwii uedit) thuught 
to have deUvere*.! him into the magistrute'e hands. 
Campion, tliough more modest, yet by a written paper 
challenged the ministers of the Enghsh Church to a 
dispiitaliotk, and pnllishetl a neat, well-penned look in 
Latin, called * Tt'ji Reat^ons m Defence of the Doctrine 
of the Church of Rome;'' and Parsons put out another 
virulent book in English against Chark, who had soberly 

written against Campions challenge Neither 

wanted there others of the Popish faction (for religion 
was grown into faction) who laboured tooth and nail at 
Rome and elsewhere in princes' courts, to raise war 
\t their own country ; yea, thoy published also in 

int, that the Bi^hoj) of Rome itnd the Spaniard had 
conspired together to con*|ucr England, and expose it 
for a spoil and prey : and lliis they did of purpose lo 
give courage to their own party, andtotcnifio neq^m^ 
others from their allegiance to their piince >n™'*^**- 
und countrey. The queen being now openly Urns assailed 
both by the arms and cimning practices of the Bishop 
of Home and the Spaniard, set forth a manifesto. 




I 



3^0 



HISTORY OP THE JESUITS. 



wherein Rafter acknowledgment of the goodness of God 
towards her) she declareth, " That she had attempted 
nothing against any prince but for presen'ation of her 
own kingdom ; nor had she inraded the provinces of 
any other, though she had sundry times been thereunto 
provoked by injmies, and inv-ited by opportunities. If 
any princes go about to attempt ought against her, she 
doubteth not but to be able (by the blessing of God) to 
defend her people ; and to that purpose she had 
mustered her forces both by sea and land, and had 
them now in readiness against any hostile invasion. 
Her faithful subjects she exborteth to continue im- 
movable in their allegiance and duty towards God, and 
their prince the minister of God. The rest, who had 
shaken off tbeir love to their couiitrey, and their 
obedience to their prince, she commandeth to carry 
themselves modestly and peaceably, and not provoke 
the severity of justice against themselves : for she 
would no longer bo so imprudent, as by sparing the bad 
to prove cruel to herself and her good siibjecta."*^ 

Such being the queen's and her i-abinet's sentinienta, 
and such being the undoubted, the admitted facta 
parwns lad wheteon they rested, the influx of Diiasionary 
dZ'tur»' pi'iests and Jesuits rousefl them to exert their 
toihecoun.il- prerogatives to the utmoat» and harassing 
inquiries were everywhere set on foot to discover the 
priests and the Jesuits, with severe denunciaiions 
against all who harboured them, and against all who 
quitted the kingdom without the queens license ; 
and rewanls were offered for the discovery of the 
offenders. Hereupon Parsons and Campion in concert 
addressed a letter to the Privy Council- The letter of 



Cuaden, ad Ann. 1560. 



A CUfilOUS ELUCIDATION. 



391 



I 
I 



Parsons is lost, says Butler, but Bartoii gives it iiever- 
tlielefiSp It is entitled a Confession of the Faith of 
Robert Parsons, and coniplaiiia of the general persecu- 
tioa» the suspicions against the Company, "whii;!! he calls 
moat blessed, and affirms the fidelity of the Cathohca, 
nhich ho states to be ba^cd on better grounds than that 
of the ProtesUmta, esjtecially the Puritauy, who were 
then as rutlilessly proscribed as the CatIioli<js.' Cam- 
pion's letter is preserved ; he gate a copy of it to one of 
his friends, with tlirections to preserre it secret, unless 
his friend .should hear of bus imprisonment ; and then 
he was to print and give it circulfttion. Hia friend 
printed one thousand copies three or four months after, 
and thus it became pubUc before his apprehension,* 
Such is the e^ parle statement emitted by Butler ; but 
the man who subsequently printed his " Ten Iiemo7ift in 
Defence of the Church of Rome/' in such circumstances, 
vould scarcely shrink from flinging before the pubhc, 
then in uttermost excitation, hia ultimate defiance to 
the excommunicated autliojities ; or, as be apprehended 
it£ probable effect on /timf>elf^ why did he not shrink 
&om €T€T permitting it to entail misery oa his fellow 
Catholics \ 

But then comes the question, who was that "friend" 
alluded to by the strong Jesuit-partisan Butler, so 
vaguely, as if he did not know his name ? ^ curicut 
Why, he was no other than t\\^ Jesuit Tkumaa •^"'^^*"'='' 
Pounds Butler knew this well enough, but it did not 



* BatlcT, »;l ; BATtoli, 136, 1Q7, 

' ''Cbavivn apercf ?he i|iic] uobilo Coofeasoro di Chriito,« ReEigioiM ddU 
CoiDptgttB> Tomuo Poiido, nolle l-di tOAXiG fll»mTDo liAvcre il F, Ounpiuto 
dipMittM U ma letUrrv, e pmcestatione n Conaiglieri di Stftto, e inguiaiogU il 
4£rdlgftrl« a1 ptimo udir ch? fArcIibc lui eMur prv«o : dopo tre if qcultm mnl da 



ay2 



HISTOSY oy THE JESUITS. 



suit bis views to state the fact, so plainly evidencing 
the infatuated or reckless deliaiice of the Jesuits to all 
authority, and cruel indifference to the suflering of the 
Cathohca whom they pretended to benefit and consol 
In his letter^ Campion briefly informed the council of 
his arrival, and the object of his mission, according to 
the expressed ivords of the Company ; and earnestly 
solicited penniaaion to propound^ explain, and prove his 
religious creed, first before the council, then before an 
assembly of divines of each university, and aften^'anK 
before a meeting of graduates, in the civil and cruiou 
law.' Then he blazed forth and displayed the hearts 
and-soul ardour of his infatuatod enthusiasm, saying: 
" As for oni' Company, I give you to know that all of 
us who ate scattered and spread over tlio wide wwld 
in such numbers, aud yet coiitiiuially succeeding each 
other, will be able, whilst the Company lasts, to frustrate ^ 
youi^ machinations. We have entered into a holy coo^H 
spiracy. and we are resolved to bear with courage tbe^^ 
cross you place upon our backs — never to de*ipnir of 
your recovery aa long as there remains a single man 
of us left to enjoy your Tyburn — to be torn to pieces 
by your toitures — to be consumed and pine away in 
your piisons- We have right well considered the matter. 
— wo are resolvetl, and vrith the favouring inipiilse 
God, neither force nor assault shall end the battle wbi 
now commences. Thus, from the first was the Ihi 
planted, — thus it shall he planted again with Wgour 
renewed." ' '' The spirit of this letter may be ailiuired ; 
its prudence must be questioned," says Butler, and, we 

di^ A ban rai<F» H^vea fani altrlmeati ila qnello ch'tfn paruiL> ^ P. t^cUaoal 
nu liberie, c fiiid&uu d'Aini«», aenza jdtm btlflbilere, U |iul>liod frinu dal 

I butler, i,»71 I BwtoliJ, IN.f/^f, : atrloli, f, 76, M ft. 



CONTIIOVEUSIAL i^Nl^OUNTEHS. 



393 



mayadcl,tbat its publkatiou byauotlier Jesuit aggravates 
tiio cruel infetuation. It gave great olfenct). Campion 
himself, in a lotter to Mcrcuriau, bis general, says, that 
" its publication put the adverRariea of the Cathobcs into 
ft fiiry," * Tho thousanfl copies of the Defiance, eirculated 
tbrough the courts tho universities, throughout the wliole 
kingiiom ; and alt the world were in expectation of the 
result. All the Catholics, and a large portion of the 
Protestants, wished that permission might be given to 
Campion to make liis appearance either at London or 
one of tte universities, for an open field to enter the 
lists with tho Protestant theologians,— and vast would 
have boeu the concourse from far and near to witness 
6uch a glorious tournament, the like to which might 
never chance again.' Thus Avished enthuGiasra and 
frivohty ; but what good could possibly result 
in those times, or any times, from a contro- contre^trti-i 
versial tilting-match ? — in a matter wherein ^^"*""""' 
dexterity is infinitely moro likely to triumph than truth 
or reaflooablo argument — wherein, though vanquished, 
the disputants will argue still, for ever and a day after — 
in sliort. where infinite trutlis are to he propounded hy 
finite intellects, and decided by the votes, the shouts, 
the stamping and clapping of hands of an audience, even 
iucalculahly less qualified to jn^lge than tho disputants 
themselves ? Whatever was the motive of the queen 
and her council, their non-a*x:eptance of the misguided 
Jesuit's challenge and defiance was wise in a pohtica! 
point of view. In tnith, the elements of national discord 
were lawless enough, without congregating ten thousand 
selfish partisans on a given spot to explode with the 
volcanic rancour of religionism. It was infinitely hotter 



Butin-, i. S72. 



' BvtoU, f. 127. 



394 



UlSTUKY OF 1U£ JESUITS. 



An episode , 



to let the people iadulg© their curiosity by listeoing UH 
the adventures of Admiral Drake, then just returned to 
England, " abounding with great wealth and 
greater renown, having prosperously sailed 
round about the woi'ld ; being, if noi the first of 
which could challenge this glery, yet questionless the 
first but Magellan^ whom death cut oil in the midst 
his voyage." Far better it was for Elizabeth to send 
her idlers to gaze at the good old ship that had ploughed 
a hundred seas, and which she had tenderly "caused 
to be drawn up into a bttle creek near Deptford, upon 
the Thames, as a mouument of Drake's so lucky sailing i 
round about the world (where the carcaas thereof is yett^f 
to be seen) ; and having, as it werCj consecrated it for a ' 
memorial with great ceremony, she was baaquett«d in 
it, and conferred on Drake the honour of kinghthotKL^ 
At tins time a bndge of planks, by which they cam^H 
on board the ship, sunk under the crowd of people, and 
fell do^vn with an hundred men upon it, who notwith- 
standing, had none of them any harm. So as that &bip 
may seem to have been built under a lucky planet."^ 
Why were there any of the queeu's subjects compelled 
to absent themselves from this national joUification! 
Why. amidst that ceremony, wherein England's queeu 
identified herself with the fortunes of her subjec 
gently praising them unto heroic exertion for th^ 
country's weal — why were tliorc Catholics who slunk off, 
having no lieait to cheer, no voice to huzza fur tlieir 
queen % They were busy \^"ith their catechism and 
"the Faith," and thus promoting the "hope*" of the 
Jesmts and their masters, or, rather, their patrons and 
friends : — but the Jesuits will not succeed as ihe 



«t3, J 



■ Cund. kd Ann. \S^^. 



England's loyalty. 



S90 






de«re. In the moBt acceptable moment the people of 
England wiU be eager to prove their loyalty, in spite of 
papal bulls ajid Jesuit-Qoncoiiformity. And 
thus it will be for ever. In England loyalty is 
an instinct : but it requires to be cheered by the smilea 
of royalty. Like a loving hc<art, it craves some love 
in return. Give it but that* and all the world may 
be priest-ridden, faction -ridden, sunk into republican 
anarchy, or democratic tyranny ; yet England s instinct 
will shrink from that perilous imitation of an exceed- 
ingly ambiguous model ; and she will remain for ever 
the hardest-worked nation under Goal's heaven — the 
most persevering spider in existence, whose web you 
may tear every morning, and every night you will see 
it again, as a proof of her industry ; for, far from 
preying on any other nation, it is the most remarkable 
fact in the world, that she has wasted on others incal- 
culably more than site has ever gained by aUies, or by 
colonies : and yet she endures. In spite of all her 
desperate wounds from time to time, still she is a 
veteran, but not yet pcuaioned off to repose. Her 
rulers, her nobles, her people will again and soon be 
ed to decide the fate of the political universe, as they 
%ere at the end of the sixteenth century, when that 
decision went under tlie name of *' religion," with 
Philip XI. and the pope on one side, and Elizabeth, with 
the people of England, on ihe other- 

The terrible eilict which went forth against the 
Jesuits flung them into constant peril, but made them 
objects of sympathy in England. In fact the 
Tery words of that edict which throughout 
England proclaimed it treason to hariiour the 
Jesuits, was a sort of useful advertisement 'to Uiem, 



DevatddnrH 
Ci (holla. 



39fi 



HJSTOHY UP TUE JblSriTii. 



made them interesting, covered thorn with merita to 
which in a time of perfect toleration they would liave 
kid claim in vain. '' We are eagerly desired," writes 
Parsons to his general, "and whithersoever we go we 
are received with incredible gladness ; and many therei 
are who from afar come to seek us, to confer with u»| 
on the concerna of their sotds, and to place their con- 
scisnce into our hands ; and they offer us all that they 
arc, all that they can do, all that they have, — do cAl 
mno. cio c/ie po^so/io, do ch^ hamioJ* Campion said 
that these generous Catholics seemed to have forgotten 
themseWes, and set aside all thought for themselves, 
and to have centred all their eohcitudc on the fathers. 
But the Jesuits did not permit these consolatory | 
demonetratioiis to throw them off their guard. Theyj 
took every precaution to prevent detection and to baffle 
the numberleas spies everywhere iu quest for the pope'j 
emissaries, the Spaniard's jackalls, and, by their oi 
account, the idols of their infatuated dupes. They wer 
DispiiHh Di always dieguiacd^ and frequently cliangod theit 
Lhe Jrtiiit.. Jisguisea, their uaoies, and places of rcfiortl 
Thus they deluded the spies, constantly fekifyiug thd 
deacnptions with which they were represented. The 
fashion and colour of their garb of yesterday, was not 
the same v\ji to-day : tlic fipies met the Jesuits and bad 
no eyes for the prey. Perhaps they got hold of thdr 
oamea : they repeated them aaking for their hearers J 
they asked in vain, these were no longer the names of 
the invisible Jesuits who perhaps stood behind them, 
beside them, before them. Before sun-rise the spiet^ 
ransacked a house into wliich one of tlie Jesuits liad 
entered the night before : he was already flown and 
many miles ofl". "My drosses are most nmneroua," 



r 



ESCAPES OF PARSONS. 



397 



writes Campiou, " and various are my faaliions, and as 
for names» I luve an abiimlance.*' ^ The escapes of 
Parsi^ns were tnily woTiderful : the wily old 

,1,1 1 KAi^ipes nf 

fox Vi-as iiovcr to be hunted down or entrapped, Pomou* md 
One night the hunters surroimdcd the house 
where he was sleeping : he buried himself in a heap of 
hay and they left him behind.' One day, whilst passing 
through a atreet> the hue and cry was raised — '^ Parsons! 
Parsons I ^' they cried; and in the universal rush of 
eager Jeauit-huntcrs you might sea Parsons rushing 
too, and lustily crying — " Tliore he is yonder," and 
sUrkin<^ off quietly by a side-turn.^ They once besieged 
the house where he was : it was a sudden onslaught 
Parsons boldly came forth and asked them what they 
wanted. *' The Jesuit/" they cried. *' Walk in/' said 
he, *'and look for him qnietly/' and Parsons walked off 
williout looking bohind him.* Nor were there wanting in 
his career, those lucky coiBCidences which served his turn 
bjr " attesting ** the special providence over the Jesuit 
He was once invited to supper by a pi-iest, in order to 
convert some heretics . thougli he knew the place right 
well, though ho wall;ed the neighbourhood up and down 
throe times in search of the spot, and inquired of the 
neighbours, still he could not find the house ; and tired 
out at Wtj he went away. On the following day he 
learnt that during all that time the house was besieged 
by the heretics, wailing to seize him, and that they 
had carried off the priest and six Catholics to prison.* 

This is one of his own anecdotes, and so is the follow- 
ing. He had passed the night at the house of a ]>riest; 
at break of day he was roused by certain very sharp 

' Bviai, l!7- ' Aim^LitL ISWL 

> A k^^A I hnrd Hitwl in tlie Eii^lwli Dov^Li*i«. * Ann. UtL ]M^y 

• Ihii I5»3 



398 



RlSTOaT OF THE JESUITS. 



prickings — stimulis ^uibmdam acerrimU — 80 that he 
got Tip and went off as soon as possible, when the 
heretics came and seized the hospitable priest.* 

" By ihfl firifking of my thcmbq, 

Wonderfiil was the fame that Paraone achieved by hia 
dexterity, baffling the uttcrmoGt vigilance of his ene- 
mies, and theii' multitudinous trap^ and stratagems. 
He slipped through their hands like an eel, and ghded 
through his ocean of adventure — ever on the wateh — 
but feeling secure from his repeated escapes and e^'asiona 
There is no doubt that he had made friends even in the 
court of Elizabeth. Thei-e were CathoUcs around the 
queen who undoubtedly hated not Cathohciam, but the 
treason with wliich the pope and his paity cliose to 
connect it : the veiy tenement that the EngUsh Jesuiu 
now possess in Lancashire was built by a Catholic 
nobleman, higli in favour with the queen. Parsons was 
the universal theme of conversational wonder. The 
queen shared the wonderment of her people. To on© 
of her Catholic lords ebe said she " woiJd so like to see 
the invisible Jesuit.'' '* You shall see him," said the 
lord in question. A few days afterwards the queen 
and some company were at the palace window gazing 
into the Btreet- Tiiere came sUiggering down thfl 
street a drunken fellow, making all manner of gam« 
for the crowd around him. Wlion he was out of 
sights the Catholic lord told the queen that &he had 
Been Parsons in that drunken stafeerer 

Hit portmU. r i t ^ rx ^^ 

— one of the Jesuits Dramatis person/B, or 
tragi-comic characters, which he played to perfection,' 
Look at the man's portrait : and should you ever see 
A pike lying in ambush just under the river-baEik, 

■ Arm. IUl 1581 ^ Oaoof thelvg^flds 1 hEi&rd relkfedni the Ebgliib iiovitUta 



MSCBIPTIVB POETRAIT OF PARSO^flS. 



399 






where the water is deep, try and catch a glimpse 
at hia eyes, and their expression will remind you of 
those of Father Parsons — awfully wide awake — keen 
and penetrating, yet not mthout a shade of anxious 
thoughti universal snapicion. Faleehood and equivoca- 
tion his desperate position compelled him to use without 
scruple ; but that position resulted from his '' vocation" 
which he had himself embraced ; and thus, without 
moral excuse, he daily per\'erted his own heart and 
mind, whikt he was teaching others unto salvation and 
orthodoxy, for which the downfall of Protestantism and 
its queen w:ls the price awarded, with ulteiior contin- 
gencies. It is besidea curious Lo observe, that this pro- 
fessional stickler for tton-cnu/tyrm/jf conformed in every 
possible way with every possible thing — except the 
wishes of the queen and her coiuicil, and their sharks, 
to entrap or fang the Jesuit — for which, however, he 
must be excused, though his general, himselfj and Cam- 
pion, are answerable for the immediate consequences of 
their presence and machinations in Enghuid, Their 
" apprehensions '' of that doom which they would entail 
on the Cathohcs were speedily fulfilled.^ 

■ A Catholic contemporuy thus writei of this Jwuit-cupeilition : ■■ Tlie» 

pood rntTiPTh (aa the d^vtl viU hbve it) nune into Eoffliuiil, uid intruded llitm- 
■vlir«« inUi OTtr liBPV««t, Iwiiig the taan In oar conscienreB (iv« mpui b<tLh Ihvta 
mtd olhcn of that StK-iely, wiih some o( iheir Adherent^} who hare been ths 
eliief iortmmeiitii of dl the mincliipfB Ihftt have bwn int^odpd flgftiEflt her 
UftJMty, nnce Uie bi^guining of herreipi- uid of Ibe mis^rieft vihich we, or lAj 
OChcr Catholicfl, Unvv uu>u iZ^CK ^lecoNunA aiutaLDeJ. Tboit liral rvpbli hither 
«>A Anno I 5Gll, nb^n tlie rchln of IrvlmiH nnn m grpal prtmbmlioii^ and thi^ 
Uiey FDi«red (via, Miufltpr Campion, lbs SubjtTl ; hnd MaIpIct Parsons, tbe Fro- 
vifical) hht a l««n|>«t, wjtb modrj such ^M btmgs and chftUvagea, u divert 
of dta gTftT«t fler^y ihea IjTing in England (Dr, Watuii, Biiihop of Liornln, 
and othn-«) did gmilj' djslikc them, uad pbtinly forvlold, dmL u things then 
Maod. thrir f<ror#»dio/z nffer thil fiwhinn would eertainljr upgp ili* mlMi» to m&k* 
MTDc ahuper lanta, whii^li ahoold not only touch them, bal likcviu all olbprv, 
boCh ^Mto and Caiholiea. Upon th«ir arnTal,»nd lAer tht said bntca, HaiBUr 



400 



mSTORY OF THE JESuna 



Campion's letter liighty incensed tlie qtiecn am 
ministera. In spite of all tliat may be said against 
Elizabeth, it must be for ever impossible to 
ofthnpene- deny that she was forced by the Jesuits r« 
cuuon. adopt severe and cruel Toeasures against 

the Catholics, Her previous liberal toleration reacted : 
bitterly against her foclinga when she beheld iho 
eatraugemeut of her Catholic subjects, so evidently 
effected by tlie Jeauita. It ia admitted that Catholicaj 
frequented her court : that some were a<lvanced to] 
places of high honour and trust : several filled subordi-' 
nate offices ; and though there was an act which 
excluded Catholics from the House of Commons, still 
they always aat and voted in the House of Lords,' To 
Aliens semiiiary-Hchome and Jesuit-obtrusion must U 
ascribed the weight of calamity brought do\vn upon th< 
Catholics of England — though we are far fi-oni countc-| 
nancitig the hon'ible tortures and measures adopted lo 
put down *' Cathohcism" when it was roused by Allen, 
Pareons, and Campion, to etiTigglo for empire. Doubt-, 
less tite partisans of i^li^onisni thiuk all this hnni:^ 
suffering, all these national calamities, bloodshed^ deceitl 
and craft of all kind, violence and rancour on all sidee — \ 
nothing compared to the struggle for "the Faith" — fo 
never was it more than a struggle in England : doul 
less they think all these things light when compared 
the ** boon of the Faith :" but Providence has permit 
better sentiments at length to prevail. We now fe 

Ttti's^ne jireecDUj feU to Jiiii Jeaulticni couraea ; ukd so bclabmuml both luti^pir 
and (Uliora in mntLfrM r>f aUU>t liow he might ist lier Majdit\''« arvwtt upon 
mioLher Li»ict (a» Appearclb by a IcUer of }jiB uwu lo & rcruiui ou-l^.liial ibo 
CAtholics IhomHclvps Uircatt^ncd tu doliviT him Into tho buids nf tlic cliiJ bb^i^ 
imio, except lie dwisted from sach kind of pr»cli«a," — Ipmirrbiitt Cj n jiilrrofi ■■ j 
'■]/ Sun.iiy ,./ I'g ihc Sc^tdtir PrU4/: 1501. ' Bullert L MS. 



THE LAWS AGAINST CATHOLICS, 



40! 



coTiTinced that this *' boon of the Faith '* was nothing 
more than the *'bone of contention" — the cmel pretext 
of tactions — and therefore was it doomed never to 
reahse its "hopes" — never to effect more than bitter 
calamitv for the unfortmiate dupea who lent themselves 
to the will of the scheniors. Konaed to exertion in 3olf- 
defence, the queen and her ministers issued a severe 
enactment against the offenders and their dupes. The 
Party in [wjwer, like Herod of old, involved the whole 
mass of CathoUcs in one indiscrrminate proscription. 
Imnnediatelyafter the entrance of the Jesuits into England 
the parliament had provided an act whose execution the 
proceedings of the Jesuits expedited with a vengeance. 
The motive principle of the enactment was that the 
Jestiils, under the cover of a corrupt doctrine^ sowed the 
seeds of sedition : — tlicrefore tlie dreadfiil laws to 
counteract that treason were as follows : All persons 
possessing, or pretending to possess, or to 
cxercbe, the power of abeohnng or of with- n^uMt 
drawing otbers from the established religion, ° "' 

or suEFering themselves to be so withdrawn, should, 
together with their procurers and counsellors, suffer the 
penalties of high treason. The penalty for saying mass 
was increased to 200 inarks, alxiut 1130/,- and one years 
imprisonment : for being present at the mass, 100 marks 
(65A), and the same term of imprisonment. For 
absence from church {noiicttnfnrmili/) there was a stand- 
ing penalty of 20 marks per month (13/.) ; and if that 
absence was prolonged to a whole year, the recusant 
was obliged to find two securities for his good behaviour 
in 200/, oach. Imagine an income-tax of 33S0/. a year 
on your attendance at mass alone, instead of only having 
to pay from one to two eiuIUiiga, as at present imposed 



vol.. u. 



D D 



402 



HISTUBT OF THB JESUITS. 



by your priests, who, for the sake of the mu^ 
make your uiasa-chapels " ehilliug theatres," afi a great 
ihike called them, and rightly tool Here was a 
ravenous law — almost as bad as the euactraents whereby 
Ttap^n.i Pope Gregory XIIL plundered and ruined 
Uwiiad j^Ij^ nobles of Italy to raise fluids for the 

in? pope t *i 

tpQiiatioDi, destruction of the heretics, to fee the Jesuite' 
and Allen's seminaries — the two leading causes of 
Catholic calamity in England : — but there ia a difference; 
England, or rather the party in power, cared nothing 
for the money : — they feared for their Uvcs, hhertiea, 
anrl fortunes, menaced by the dreaded consequenfiei* frf 
Catholic ascendancy ; and thus, as usual with men. 
were cruel in their desperation. A horrible excuse -was 
that : but Pope Gregory had not even that for tiis 
tyrannical proscriptions. Then open your eyes : trace 
events to their right sourcea : compare, perpend, decide 
that there is no difference between Cathohc aiid Pro- 
testant selfishness when armod with power, and renJei*e<l 
inordinate by prescriptive abnacs unchecked, uiirebuke<l. 
and rampant as the raging lion. Finally, there was 
another enactment which corresponds exactly with the 
proposition made in the last congregation of the Jesuite, 
jnst given. — the propasition, you remember, to permit 
Jeauitfl t^ take Itonrdcrs in tlic noi-fhern parts, in order 
to instruct them and *' care for them entiroly." This 
waa but another method of propagandism — in their rage 
for the cause which they embraced with all the energy 
of hungry monopolists, grasping speculators. So the act 
provided tliat to prevent the concealment of priests iS 
tutors or schoolmasters in private famihes, every person 
acting in that ca[)acity without (he approbation of the 
ordinary, should be liable to a years iniprisonQient> nufi 



AIM OF THE LAWS AOAIXST CATHOLICS 



403 



the person who emploved him to a fine of 10/, per 
month. It is plain, sajs Dn Lingard, that, if tltese pro- 
visions had been fulfy executed, the profession of the 
Catholic creed must, in a few years, have been entirely 
extinguished.^ But, for the great mass of Catholics, 
those enactments werfi only a scareerow. Tn 
the beads of the growing faction they were a HiuorLiHw 
raTenxng tiger — and no one can wonder '"' 
thereat, though vo abhor with heart and mind the 
dreaiifiit severity, nrid the reckless proceedings of the 
men wljo, as leader^ were the nucleus of determined 
opposition to the government — hut of course, this waa 
effected " solely by the exercise of the spiritual functions 
of the prieethood" — their own words, ghbly adranced, 
93 if this confeBsion did not a^ravate their guilt in 
abusing man's religious Bentiment, and making him 
irretched by the means of the very feelings which should 
constitute hv^ happiness. Open \noIence would have 
been more honourable to the propagandist* than this 
Lnaddiaus undermining— this secret poison administorod 
as by men who had not the courage to attempt aAsa«- 
ion. Forsooth, treason was not the major nor the 
Tninor of the Jesuit syllogism : but it was the infaUible 
conclusion. They reversed tlio usual method : for here 
the end was abominable, wbilst the means, assuming 
their description, wore " good" — for those who needed 
sacerdotal consolation. Now, you will be surprised to 
know that it wai* in reply to these severe enactments 
that Campion wrote thoso brave words to the queen and 
her council — following up the defiance with his Ten 
R^a.wns if^v Iloman ascendancy.^ 

In the midst of the universal excitement, the shout 



P D 2 



- li&f,Mh«^»rdj44, 



404 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS, 



and the cry for the Jesuits and traitors. Campion and' 
Parsons, bj their wonderful gSovU> at coucealiiient, eludvd 
Soflrrinin of ^'^^ pursuit of their enemies ; but heavilj 
tilt CatbDiic*. fg}]^ meanwhile, the cataract of persecution on 
the ^Tetched Catholics. A bitter lesson it is for men. 
fooled bj' those who f)hould bo thoir guides — cruelly 
sacrificed by those whose presence should be the good 
tidings of peace and happineaH. Think of the result : 
imagine the scenes enacted. The names of fifty thou- 
sand recusants have been returiied to the Council. The 
magistrates arc urged to the utmost severity. The pri- 
sons in eveiy county are filled with persons suspected as 
priests, or harbourers of priests^ or delinquents against 
tho enactments. Whilst the Jesuits chajiged their garbs, 
and tashions, and names, every day, and thus scoured die 
land, untouched by the thimderbolts falling around, no 
other man could enjoy security even in the privacy of his 
own house. At all hours of the day, but mostly in the 
stillness of nigitt, a magistrate, at the head of an armed 
mob, rushed amain, bni-st open the doors, and the pur- 
suivants, or officers, dispersed to the different apartr 
ments, ransacked the beds, tore the tapestry and 
wainscoting from the walls in search of biding-pla^ss 
behind^ forced open the closets, (b'awers, and coffers, 
and exhausted their ingenuity to discover eitlier a 
priest, or books, chalices, and priests' vestments at 
mass. Additional outrage was tho result of remon- 
strance. All tho inmates were interrogated : their 
persons searched, imder the pretext that superstitious 
articles might be concealed among their clothes ; and 
there ai'e instances on record of females of rank, whose 
reason and lives were endangered and destroyed by the 
brutality of the officers.' 

' Ling. liiL 144,«(Wff. 



THE CATHOLICS OF ESOr.AND^THE SOAPEOOATS. 



405 



A ri'flcr-IJon 



I 



Mirabeau^a simple valet was always wretched if his 
master did act thrash him every day ; aiid there are 
men who coasider human suffering to be one 
of the gratifications of man's all-good Creator 
— men who actually belie^^e that God dcUghts in seeing 
creatui'Gs plunged in misery, — cacli pajig they feel 
bmng an acceptable tribute to Him who said, *^ Come to 
me all yo who labour and are heavily Ia<ien." Undoubt- 
edly tlio Jesuits consoled the poor Catholics with the 
luual arguments, for the dreadful sufferings which their 
presence and their insolent manoeuvres entailed upon 
the scapegoats. It was a bitter time for the hiunan 
heart — a bitter trial for humanity. And in the midst 
of that fearful proscription, wliat heroic devoteduess, 
heroic pity and commiseration, did the Catholics evince 
towards the Jeauits, though they knew them to be the 
cause proximate at least of all their calamitiL'S, A 
Catholic nobleman was visited by Parsons. Terrified 
by the edict, the nobleman sent a message to tlie Jesuit, 
requesting him to go elsewhere, for he did not approve 
of his coming. Parsons turned off: but the English- 
mans heart got the better of fear : the nobleman sud- 
denly I'elented, grieved for the seeming hardness of 
heart, ran after Parsons, andj with earnest entreatieSj 
brought him back to his mansion, exposing his life and 
fortunes to imminent peril.^ 

It is but fair to listen to Elizabeth's historian, in his 
attempt to joetiijs excuse, or paUiate the cruel severities 
inOtcted on the Catholics and thoh" leaders. Ej^ui„jio5j 
"Such now were the times/' says CamdeTi, *' Eii^»«^- 
" that the queen (who never was of opimon that men's 
consciences were to be forced) complained many times 



1 Ajm.LiU^ 1.^83 i MIm. Angl 



mSTORY 0? THE JESriTS. 

that slie wfis driven of necessity to take these courses, 
unless she would suffer the mine of herself and her 
subjects, upon some men's pretence of coiiacieuce ami 
the Catholic religioa Yet, for the greater part of these 
silJj priests, slie did not at all believe them guilty of 
plotting the destruction of their country : hut the ^upe- 
riors were they she held to be the instruments of this 
villany : for these inferiour emissmies comniitted iKe 
full and free <lisposiire of themselves to their superioura. 
For when those that wore now and afterwards taken 
were asked, * whether by authority of tho bull of Piiis 
Quiutus, bisho]) of Kome, thu 8ubjecta were so absolved 
from their oath of allegiance towards the queen, Uiat 
they might take up arms against tlieir prince ; whether 
they thought lier to be a lawfull queen ; whether they 
would subscribe to Saiiders^s anil BristoVs opinion 
eoueerning the authority of that bull ;* whetiior, if the 
£ishop of Rome should wage war against the queen, they 
would joyn with her or him:' they answered some 
of them so ambiguously, some so resolutely, and aome 
by prevarication, or silence, shifted off tho questions in 
such a manner, that tlivers ingenuous CathoUckji began 
to suspect they fostered some treacherous disloyahy ; 
and Bishop, a nuui otherwise devoted to the Bishop of 
Rome, wrote against them, and sohdly proved tliat the 
Constitution obtruded mider the name of the Lateran 
Council, upon which the whole authority of absolving 
subjects from their allegiance and deposing princes b 
founded, is no other than a decree of Pope Innocent the 
Third, and was uover admitted in England ; yea, that 
the said Council was no council at allj nor was anvthing 



■ Dr, SfLudcrti, RuiDloh ptiCsL, wIid wa« wie ot (lie i-AUditu m (be pop*'* 

ci'UMde fteniofli Irolond, M >ty SIuLpIj uiik Fidmnurl™, 



EXCULPATION OP ELIZABETH. 



407 



ni all tliere decreed by tbo Fathers. Suspicions also 
were dmlj increased by the great number of prieats 
creeping more aiid more into England, who privily felt 
tbe miuds of men, spread abroad tliat princes excommu- 
uicat^ wero to be deposed, and whispered in comers 
that such princes as professed not the Itomisb religion 
had forfeited their regal titio and authority : that tliose 
who had taken holy orders, were, by a certain eccle- 
siastical privdege, exempted from all jurisdiction of 
princes, and not bound by their laws, nor ought they to 
reverence or regard their majesty"' Thus spake 
rumour, thus believed the authorities ; and if facts did 
not bear out the asaertioiis, the i>ope'ti bull against 
Elizabeth was a sufficient attestation of the worst that 
could be rumoured or imagined. That bull was power- 
less, even ri<liculous> before Allen's priests and the 
Jesuits consolidated a Catholic party in tho kingdom. 
Treason was not perhaps their direct inculcation ; but, 
in tbe existing circumstances, in tbe very proviao which 
the Jesuits demanded from the po])e by way of explana- 
tion of tbe deposing bull, if treason was not a direct 
inculcation, it was undoubtedly the end of the scheme — 
the effect of a cause, so cleverly cloaked with *' religion." 
To all these circumstances we must add the infatuated 
excitement of the " religious " opei-ators^ — tho bollowB of 
sedition and incendiary pharisees, who trusted to theu" 
own dexterity for escape, whilst the very sufferings 



' CtMod^, Ann. (5UI. In effert by otvj of the pnrilegee givoD to the Jcflulte, 
«B Ungv, pri]ie*:«, dultca, uxaniuiB^, bvons, wildiurs, do1tLl«, Ujidcd, coqw- 
lACiana, uiu*enJtiH, ougktnlcfl, rvfHon, rulot* ot til »oru imd coudltiaiiii, 
and of ah ^ea t/hMejeFt &rc forbidden to dare (nndc^ut) or p-aartu (vol finb^ 
■amcnl) lo impoBo Uipa, impofitSf dnnalioiia, rontntoliDiin. ovca fur (he rrpAin 
(if bridge*, rvr oth<T towIbj on tlic Jeauit*' ; or lo \ny aa liicm in/ burthen* wliAl' 
crer. imdrr pmaJij of rtrmal damnativa — ntaU'ticttimit attrnm pamit/ — Ojm- 
pmd. Prir- £xtmj>l. | «. 



408 



HISTOKY OF THE JEai'ITS. 



they brought upon their dupes tormed a new motive for 
resistance to the government, and for perpetuating reli- 
gious rancour. " Some of them were not ashamed to 
own that they were returned into England with no 
other intent th&n, by reconciling men at confession, to 
absolve every one particuhirly from all hia oaths of 
allegiance and obedience to the queen, just as the said 
bull did absolve them all at once and in general. And 
this seemed the easier to be efl'ected, because they pro- 
miaed withal absolution from all mortal sin ; and the 
safer, because it was perfonued more closely under the 
■^eal of confessions^ By the privileges conceded to 



' CzuadtiUi Aon. 1511!- *'Our injufeoAura,^* t»ya a privilc};!! uf khe Jcvuila, "cmi 
reuut i>r minx aii^ oalha irhaievrr, without jwT-jinlii'ft to ■ th^nl pArty — ynirfi/W 
irtrfitnftUfifiiiepr'trjudiciotiriUtTeiaxfm p(iautiC"^eo that the ojily^vtHoti miA* 
wlut might be called " prejudice |u & third party "—* Halvo ho vagDo ihU II 
tttood fiir nothing. — Compmd.Prw. Conftu. ^ G. 

" TIjo (^QiHriLt, und the otber fifty tcads nf Ujf hoiuos, &cd rectonv appoiiiliBd 
by him far K timp^ con ^rjuit n diHpefuatioii t> our men Id all caaea isiilAvirf cai^ 
fion — nallo cxixpt9,— 'vi tbc ciraR'Sdicna] only ; but thct diHpcnmtiDn i& tbrcftii 
of \oluDluy hamiddo id eoucetlod, barring tbe ministry &| the aJtAT*— «a dul 
A Jeeuit ini|;ht eumioit uiurdei-, and aII the pf^nalty \nt would lomr vould be the 
prohiliiiiuii cjf wyiuy ibh&h 1 — Compatd. PHv. iJupin^, ft 4. 

" The gDDeTA] con, in tbo cDtirt-aBioiml^ grimt a diepetiBiLtiofi ia ponons of «r 
Company, ui nil irrepilftritiea, otgd io lho§e ewes which die pope renrvM to 
himseLft uomuLy in murder (mor/r)f in the laainiingof limbs {ntcmbrontmo^trwtt^ 
^nr:), aod cnartnnua spiUiiig nf hlooil {enomi intTVptinii ^tuicnw) — pTOTided, 
howpTPT, any of Uie thi-ee be not notorioia [known lo the world], and dii« prV' 
TiHoa U oa uwatiDt of LboiioaudAl £tbit might enonej' — tf Koc pmptrrtCiHuJaimmk.'' 
—lb. fi S. 

Tliifl doAS apptAJ n moat pxtr&crdinftTT privllv^. Why ehnnld «uc4i ft 
priTilegQ ha neeeasary to men calling themselvee the Carapanionfl of Jt«a»— And 
by their profea^iop touUy preirluded from all occusloos whers ihey might Pooiinrt 
munlDT, mum Umb^f oad «li«d blood cnonnouuly T In truth, there ■> vo gotting 
over the inferences bo iraper»lively enfr^^led by tboac privilegca, A iliiimnw 
tion to oommit mnrdeTWHnia indeed i berrilJe tlmig ; juid ^et bere are the nfj 
wonld— fii'jjLfnuarc: cunt noati^ !h homu^iUo viilujUaria . . in /«ro Mnxiaitim^^ 
undrr (Tie ^ui of Cti^esriunf os Camden haa ic The wards admit of do MImt 
intflrplvtalloD, A di»|A'nfialinn iDeana a pemuHnioD to do wUat is othertnm pcv- 
hibit«d— fiuch u n diE|>onBaCion to marry within prohibited degrecft- 'fmt 
qnently the diapehMtjoiie given ahuve are bond fdg penniuioru Ui do Ibfl 



CAMPION TAKEN AND TORTURED. 



409 



the Jesuits, it is endent that these charges are rather 
more than probable, lii their inscription, so gratefully 
addressed to Pope Gregory 5111., the Jesuits failed not 
to state that the pope had " fortified the Compauy with 
mighty privileges/' as we liave read ; and all the privi- 
leges wliicli I have just givctt were enjoyed by the 
Jesuits at tlic time of the Enghah mission. Long before 
existing in manuscript, they were printed in 1(535.' 

At lengtli, tliirteen months after his arrival, Campion 
was betrayed by a Catholic, and seized by the officers 
of the crown. He was found in a secret c^^^^ 
closet at the house of a Cathohc gentleman. Jj!|S^(^n ^ 
Tliey mounted him on horseback, tied his ^ «<««"* 
legs under the horse^ bound his arms behind him, and 
pt a paper on his hat mlh an inscription in great 
ipitals, inscribed — Campion the Seditious Jesuit. Of 
course he was racked and tortured— words that do not 
convey the hideous reality. Imagine a frame of oak, 
raised three foet from the ground. Tho prisoner was 
laid mider it, on hia back, on the floor. They tied his 
wrists and ancles to two rollers at the end of the frame: 
these were moved by levers in opposite directions, until 
the body rose to a level with the frame. Then the 
tormentors put questions to the wretched prisoner ; and 
if his answers did not prove satisfactory, they stretched 
him more and more till hia bones started from their 
sockets* Then there was the Scavenger's Daughter — a 
broad hoop of iron, with which they surrounded the 



HiokeiJneH they DJua&^VDluntu^ homicidu unong the r«l — only tfai; Jeeiutwlu 
tindpiioak the thing WBfi to Th- precluded from snjin^ mm. I| lh thia fetnyiilng 
»1 ft Knkt wiH ffwfttl'jvinfl a cftinelj luhicfa porrobor&to* Ui« &cbu1 cvinloarc of th# 
iniiLiily. Eipi'dieiicy or a " ffftod " pucI riuute tha dcej nentsAry, dul tlw Ult^r 
nt \he Uw •nns U* he rEflp«M«d, ho that thetw reli|;ii>iLiaUi mght '* ihmk ihey hvl * 

* CompPAdium ftivLlrgionuD el Gntianua Sw. Jmu. Aoii KM. 



410 



H13T0EY OF THE JESUITS. 



body, over the back and under the knees, ecrewiug the 
lioop closer and closer, until the blood started from the 
nostrils, even from the himds and feet. They had also 
iron gauntlets, to compress the wrists, and thus to 
suspend the prisoner in the nin Lastly, they had what 
thoy called '* little eaac "—a coll so small and so con- 
structed that the prisoner could neither 5taud in it^ 
walk, sit, nor lie at full length,* Rome's, Sj^ain's, 
Portugal's Inquisitorial atrocities imitated by Protestants! 
Was it a horrible inconsistency, or a dreadftd Retri- 
bution by Providence permitted to teach "^rohgioiis" 
mon that forbearance which was never spoutaneoud in 
their hearts, ever possessed by the fiend of persecution t 
We abhor these cruelties of England'a ministers : but 
Uiey must not be contemplated without refreshing the 
memory with their prototypes, the cruelties of B^^ne's 
Inqiusition : — the Protestant party in England did not 
invent, they only imitated the horrible atroortiee which 
the Catliolic party, at that time at least, deemed im- 
perative to protect and establish the religion of Rome. 
And we may ask what right had these leaders of Home 
to complain of their treatment, when it was exactly 
what they were prepared to inflict on the heretics in 
the land of orthodoxy ? Nor must the fact be passed 
over, tliat these loaders of Romanism based their base 
hopes of ultimate success on these very atrocities. Ye^ 
they speculated with the blood of their slaughtered 
brothers. Listen to the Jesuit's remark on the perse- 
cution. It ifl probably written bj' the '^fierce-natured" 
Parsons. After repeating the torments as above, ho 
exclaims : " But in [proportion &s fter womanuh fury 



■ Linffkfd, Till K1\, quciliug iJio Jeflolt B^Jloli, wlioso infomutinn catn«> \v%m 



TRIAL AHD DEATH OF CAMPIOH, 

was armed for the destruction of the Catholic name, so 
ou tie otlior Land, equally, the minds of tlio Catliolics 
were excited to reaistance, impelled by their valour, and 
theii* fixed obedience to tlic Pope of Eomc, as also by 
the admonitioua and pereua^uoii of the Bnglish youths 
who were sent over from the semiuaries at Rheims, 
and Rome ; — for these men, inflamed with the desirc of 
restoring the Catholic religion, and prepared with the 
aids of learning, either confirmed many in their behef, 
or couvertod them to the taith,"^ 

It is impossible to arrive at the exact tnith from the 
Gooilicting accounts of Proteatants and Catholics, with 
reffard to the treatment, trial, and death of ^_, . . 

" i rlfli alio 

Campion.^ The latter represent him as boldly ii<*ii Df 
declaring hh^ aUegiance to the queen, and his 
opposition to the papal IniU : tlie former assert that after 
his condemnation ho declared, that ahoidd the popo 
send forces against the queen, he i/v'ould stand for the 
pope ; — after having refused to answer the question 
whether Elizalieth was **a right and lawful Queen/"* 



' Sed qimotuiu ex oaa parts iDiiliebri» furor ail Ctthcjiieonim nomen cxciden- 
doui lunubatur ; tADTuiu vx altcrd Cb(liulii!uruiu animi ad rceiatcJuluBi cxdU- 
Irtkbtur; idqUD tuin euA ipii vu-1uto,iiiiilt£i|Lit gOEti RoDiHjii PouliiiAtiolwdi^itid, 
UiED Tcro Aoglonjiu odolpBccadum ^lui ox Eemuim BoouiKiqac scmiimriis iij 
ADjUun vubiude lailtobandir inonitiB et euafiu." — Ann^ Lit. I5G3- Mjaii. Angl. 
Hj rHk«on for attribimng tbi« lotlcr to PqjsnuB it die iuet tliHt u Iho head of 
llw miBHioQ it dtvolvt^ iLpoii IjIdi to write sucli l«tt«r ; aaiJ, secuiidtj'. In liie 
loiter, liL' TvdffTA for mora Elotoild to the ux'Ll-tuiovD book (aft^nvanta pub^ 
d) which he wrote on tho Pereccutian in Engiaiid — *■ wcni id eo libro, qui 
de pvnecudoDe Aiiglicaod LmpresBaa est, copiosc vjcponilor : quo fodhim 
cicWHUi fiit/sum, £ ip hftc miuionc expoaendA, broviorJ' — lb. 

*OuuikD, Anil- 15SI, Compare Butl^, L Hi%a m^. ; liog, vlii. 115. Coo- 
tirmftL of HoUngflhed, p. 4SG ^idcoiu in tnitli), Iliat. del gloriciHO Martirio ji 
diooilo Bacerdali, &p,, liflfl by Panwua. So^also Hallam. L US. 

' Aiaoii|-«t tho awful [uoua fAlauhoods coikfocUd hy the Juuite, Ehi^^ my liiat 
one or Ibt twelve Jodgos who oondooined Cani|iion " mw blood ruHntn^ /rvA 
hUfftovti h< look it iff amt/etind no ipound, an4 mvtrihrtrn itii Ai did l*t rif^> 
•I, t^vid p»of jfiVrthf tkc Iflcadittff ntUU tU md o/ thai f-Mi^«wtrv '■™' xfViU' 




HISTORY OP THE JISUITS. 



Unquestionalijly the charges of treasou against Campion 
were not legally proven ; nor was there ever more 
justice ill tlie condemnations of the Inquisition. Siirelv 
no man will say that the poor Calvinist whom Lauiez 
tried to convert before they burnt him at Rome, was 
justly condemned to the flames. Let us therefore abhor 
both transactions equally a.s to the facta — bnt we may 
be permitted to award some excuse to the Protestant 
party of England, whose cruelties were in their own 
estimation justified by the direct consequences of th© 
Jesuit s machinations^ striking as they did at Protestant 
ascendancy, and the stability of Elizabeths royal power, 
and perhaps, her very existence. Let me not be mis- 
imderstood. I pity the fate of this Jesuit. I abhor the 
persecution of the Catholics. But in like manner do I 
feel with respect to the lierelics and Jews murdered by 
the Catholics for the faith> I look upon the mere facts 
in the case of the CathoUca as a provideutial retribution: 
but at the same time, I cannot see anything in AJlec'a 
scheme, and that of the Jesuits, but a direct tendency 
to subvert the cxistiug goverunient in Knglaud. One 
the prisoners, Bosgrave, a Jesuit, Riahton, a priest, and 
Ortou, a layman, on being asked what part they would 
take in case an attempt were made to put tho papal 
bull in OAecutiou, " gave aatisfactory answers," says 
Dr> Lingard, and " they saved their lives/' ft seems to 
me tliat had Campion said as much, he would have 



I 

i 

4 




aeUonf^ They cill thja *'a ihiug ftltofE^rtlior pro4tKiiHi«— 1«« prodtgimtL" 
RcCToil dc que1iw>e miuiyn, Ac, in the TnLlmux, p. 440. Tho suae taihotitj 
OOntnulicU Uie Btotem^nt of i'lirsonH fctx.nt ti»e prediclion of Cnm^on'a mtatyt- 
dom gJTou ^y ■ '* jouth " mX ** Pi-flLguv," The nullior wf Uic TftblciH»\ Iikaia il 
ht RotUB, JUBI boForp Campifni'p dttpftrtrnv, and ihkLda thv prophpt a ** min ""— 
flight ooQiradiirlioiiBf }>orhApn, bot incBflcois very ugniliunt of tJut gloriow 
invfptioii which ev^t diu^ctorised tbo JoHiita. 



KEMABKS ON CAHPIOK S TBIAU. 



413 



been spared — at least this ia tlie inference. Dr. Lingard 
very properly observes : *' At the some time it must be 
owned that the answers which six of thpni gave to the 
queries were for from being saLisfactoiy.^ Theii- hesita- 
tion tn deny the opposing power (a power then indeed 
mainlmned by the greatei* numbei- of divhies in Catholic 
kingdoms) rendered their loyalty very problematical, in 
case of an attempt to enforce the bull by any foreign 
prince,''* Liberty of conscience, offered to all Catholics 
who wuuld abjure the temporal pretensions of the 
pontiff, would have been the proper remedy to be 

' ' For unongM titter qaoaiJons that wcro propmiuilDd nnta (heiD( thu being one, 
▼IL If Lhepc^pe do byhifi bull or Kentenco prouoiuict^ bur MaJesLy Ui bfj cjcjirived, 
Hid tin lawfa] ^utettj njLcl her Hubjecta Iq bi- dlfl^hiirgnl of th#ir Alltffiani^o nn<l 
abn1ioa<?e uiiLo ber ; nnd nflcr, (he po|K.% or nry '>tli^ hy hla appunntinpnt uicL 
AUlhoril^', do invule Lhis naJm ; which part would yoo, t^ko, or which part 
ought a good flubject of Ewjl^^ to taki? T Somi; anflwisrcd, that vbcn the oue 
rfwld liftppeii, tbej would ukc comiBt-l wliai were XtoiX for iJiem lo do ; 
ftBothpr. that wbcu thiLl nuH ithuuld hmppcn, h» would luuwcr, and not bafovQ ; 
ftnothfTt thai far the prv«eat, ho wsa not kaoIvc^ what lo da in sach a cue ; 
ULolhcT, ihac w|i«d the caae huppcaeth, thea he will antwer ; another, that if 
KDch deprivntioQ and iiiTiidictD jibould be mudp, fur imy mattfT of hia Ikith, he 
ihiukeUi he weru ilieu buuuil W inke pun *ithilieptipa, Nuv wLat king in ihe 
world, heing in dotibl to l» iuvidwl bj hin vnvniii'B," &.0, Ae. — -Imporl. 0*mdft. 

' HiBt. viiL 150- Fuller says that Campion n« a itlbii of exL-eDent parts ; 
Ibpugh h« who rode poa: to tell bim ho, mi^hl conxc too laLe tobruig him tidings 
Avrcof ; beinjk; «ii?li a vnluor of hiiitwif, tlial liv swtOlrd v/htj drop of hi^ 
^UJly irto a bubble by \vm ™q i^Bt^ntntion. And indoM few who ware 
rvputed whoEikTB liofl more lA Liliiit or leea of Greek, than lie bad. . . , . Dia 
TVn Rnttow^ no purely tvtv IjitLi, rtu plaluly uid pithily penned, thai they we» 
rery talEing, and fetdied ovor inatiy (iipulcrs before) lo hia iMTSOuion- ..... 
Socne daj-B after ht- wjw eugaged iu funr i»o]l-uiu diBputaiiuofi, u> make giwd that 
bold chaJlaiig? bo had made agiuriit all PrutefltanU : ** he ftparooly answered the 

eip«ctatMna raued of him," aaya Camden ; ^ and in plain trutfa>" cohtinuev 
Fnllcr, '■no mui did over bout more when he put on hie aruiouri or had caiue 
la boat !»■ when ho pat it off " — but thiz ei Cunsider that a doBP cf the ru^jt; «a4 
9t irc<ry poor atinmlant to the Jeauit's brain and tongue, aldiou^h (hey «ay It was 
K mild tmo. " Within b few ilnys iho c|U4wn wu beoecAital^Hl, for hoT o*vn 
■Kunly, to makQ him the eubjiict of acTcriLy* by whoac lawa be waa cxecuCed ui 
the following Dectmibcr, J5JIL"— ITorfAuv, i. 382, ** To Campioa'a Anhom 
Whilakcr i^ve a «o1id nnimaeri" aaya Cundn», 



414 



HISTORY OF TH^ JRSUITS- 



applied by Elizabeth and her council flays Dr. Lingard:' 
and so it would, hail there been no Allen's SemiiiarT-_ 
prieate, no Jeauits to uphold '* obedience to the 
pontiff — Jionmm ponti/cus ohdiejUiam" — and to inflai 
their deluded dupes with their '* admonitions anti per* 
suasion — monWs ac snasu^"^ To the infamous bull of^ 
the aaiated Pope Pius V.» to Allen's misguided schemagS 
to the sworn fidehty of the Jesuits in the service of the 
pope and his royal colleague of Spain — to these hia- 
torical plagues must be ascribed all the calamities which 
befel the deluded and pitiable Catholics of England. 
In writing of these transactions historians fail to draw 
attention to the main cause of these struggles on the one 
liand, and tortures on the other. The question was, which 
ascendancy there was to be — Protestant or Cathohct^ 
The Pope, Allen, and the Jesuits, wotc on one side,- 
Eli^abeth and her Ministers on the other. The sufferir 
that ensued were the expected price of the struggle. 

Averse to all manner of ascendancies, whether political^ 
or religious, yet I for one exult that the Prolostai^H 
ascendancy was never utterly shaken, and that it Iim 
reached the present times ; simply beca^ise under that 
ascendancy wc have freedom of thought, freedom Q^h 
expression, freedom of action — which were never, an^H 
never will be compatible with Catholic ascendancy. By 
tliis freedom, time enables us to correct the abuses 
which came from Rome ; so that even Catholics havi 
reason to rejoice that those elements are essential 
Protestantism, which is necessarily tolerant by uaiw 
(if the phrase be allowed) and which became a per- 
secutor only by an impulse from Rome, the gigantic 
persecutor of the miiverse. 



she t^^ 



1 



' Ubi wHitHt,y. [,^0. 



' Aim- Utt. Ai bebre. 



y 



PABSONS DECAMra, 



41d 



Paraons did not wait to see Onrnpioti executed ; ho 
'' fle^l to the Continent/'^ — "prtiferring Llie Jtity of 
watcliine over the infant Church to tlio glory 
of martyrdom, if I may borrow Lingards «rapitoU». 
[Arase applied to John Knox on his departure 
from Scotland to Geneva- Henceforth he will tempoat his 
country by his writings and maehijiatious ; and whilst 
he will be the muse of desperate unrest and suffering to 
others, he will keep his own skin perfectly whole — just 
as it should bo for the comfort and consolation of all 
intriguers. Like a skilful general when baffled by an 
unsuccessful attack on the encmjs ran, be shifted Ids 
opemtrons to the rear or flank, — casting his iri^n.^ 
eyes towards Scotland. It waa nothing less °*°""- 
than an attempt to convert Jftraea VI. of ycotland, the 
aon of Mary Queen of Scots, then imprisoned in England. 
Parsons sent an embassy to the young king, then in his 
fifteenth year. The Jesuit Creighton was the leaden 
Young as be was, James resolved to turn tho affair to 
his own account. Ito promised to connive at the silent 
introduction of tho Cathohc missionaries ; he would 
even receive one at his court as bis tutor in the Italian 
language ; he would co-operate in any plan for the 
deUverancc of his mother : but unfortunately he was a 
long without a revenue ; and poverty would compel 
him at last, unless reheved by the Catholic princes, to 
0tbmit te the pleasure of Elizabeth. Thus did tho wily 
young Scot set a trap for the Jesuit — and he caught 
him easily. Forthwitli Parsons and Creighton went to 
Paris, where they met the Duke of Guise ; Castelli, tlie 
pofie's nuncio ; Tassis, tho Spanish ambassador ; Beatoiij 
the Archbishop of Glasgow, and Mary s resident in the 



> BqIl«T,l37a. 



416 



HISTOEY or THE JESUITS, 



French court ; Dr. Allen, the Preeident of the Seminari/ 
at llheims ; aiid the famous Pfere Matthieu, the pro- 
Fuicial of the French Jesuits. A long consultAtion 
ensued. The general opinion was that Mary should be 
a,esociated with her son on the Scottish throne, and that 
the pope and the King of Spain should be solicited to 
relieve tlie present pecuniary wants of the young kiog. 
It IB probable that other projects with which wo 
unacquainted were also formed in this secret consulta- 
tion, aaya Dr. Lingard : whatever they were, they after^ j 
wards obtained the assent of the captive queen, of Uiej 
Scottish king, and cabinet, consisting of Lennox, HuntleyJ 
Eglintoii, and other deep-schemed pohticiacs, who doubt-| 
less had schooled James into bis first hints about 
money-wants, and were resolved to work out the adroit 
contrivance. Parsons went to Valladolid and induced 
King Phihp to promise the Scotchman a present of^ 
12,000 crowns; and the other Jesuit Creighton, got' 
the pope to promise to pay the expenses of a hodj-J 
guard for the king's defence, amounting to 4000 crownii 
per annum.* But tlie English cabinet was made awar« 
of the secret consultation at Paris, and the Jesuits 
mancenvres in Scotland : what the English spies dis-J 

' " Fn^ QJiDouftle d'um guvdui cli soldnii mm^rieati a diflbnclere !■ pecvon^ ] 
dtl Re JiM'opo-"^flurf(>/*, p. 2%'i5, It wna ibo French Jenil &«mcier ■rUo i 
the unbaHUiInr frnm thifl iwi^rei conaultAfion to Mary- H« entered En^lud #« 
mUUairr, occoutreJ m n cloublet of omtige nlin, filodied utd txhibitJiiE pwt 
iilk in the openings. At bis auldlv bow he diflpkyeJ a pair of pisioh, a sirorl 
&t lUB »(]o, nzid BParf rnund bin neck. Tuquier aawrts t!iiH rn^rton tlm lalhorilj 
KiT thone wliuia hu sajn'* veiv nul far fruia llur Compiuij." Hi* endear dik mm 
|o exc-itp a Bpcret rcvull Amatig cvrtnin Carhfilic- Lorda, B^imt EJizAbcth. ThilJ 
auky heoueof tlie "otlirr projects" nlluded tahy Dr. Liogard, la 1 haie sutpJ.! 
Hi* ir»dui-ed Mary to ^mbnuv tbe proJK^t '. but^ jiccnrding to Pjub|nicT, tli*| 
fi^llow Jind uUerini' views Id faFoiir of the Spuiuird, And ceuod not to pnno 
then) tbrough the inattuiutiiUlitjr of tbt ca]irivv rjuueji, " Ynu uut)' Dai]cl4dc,1 
nddfl PhiqiilBr, ** tlmt nttp hnd no other forgtnofhsr denth Iban thp JmittA" 
Catrithu^ c- XT. p, 25(1. 



PLOT IN FAVOUR OF MARY OF SCOTLAND. 



417 



I 



covered, the Englisli cabinet tumetl to account, and 
ibrtliwith orgaaised a new revolution in Scotland, the 
it of which was that tlie young king vi^is thrown 
completely into the liands of tlie Protestant party ; and 
the Scottish preachers from the pulpit pointed the 
resentment of their hearers against the men who had 
sought to reatorc an idolatrouB worship, and to replace 
"an adulteress and assassin on the tlirone/* Thus was 
Parsons onco more baffled by Elizabeth and her men. 
Was it not enough to rouse the Jesuit to the utmost of 
his efforts, after biting his nails to the quick ^ The 
announcement of these transactions, flo fatal to big 
acheme, came whilst be was discussing the subject with 
Philip : — but he fructified his visit notwithstanding. 
He induced the king to give an annual pension of 
2000 crowns for the support of more priests at the 
Seminary of Rhoims ; and to promise to ask for a 
cardinars liat for Allen— by way of giving more dignity 
an<l effect to tlie scheme of conversion and all its 
nincliinationBJ 

Agaui was a secret consultatioi; held at Paris between 
the Guise, Beaton, the pope's nundo, and the Jeauil- 
provincial, Fere Matthieu, The present object 
was to devise a plan for the hberation of 
Mary : the duke was to land with an army in tlie south 
of England : James was to penetrate hy the north with 
hia Scottish forces ; and Ike English friends of the 
Sfufirfs shoftlfl he summoned fo the aid f/f the injured 
queen. This project was imparted to Mary by the 
French ambassador, to James by Holt, the English 
Jesuit.' Here, then, we have an admitted fact attesting 



' Ling- tiAifW|T«. 164. 
TOt. ir, E. Z 



418 



Hlt^TuRY OF THE JESUITS. 



a political scliciiie against Eiif;laiul ; a Jesuit pTOvincial 
is one af tlio framers ; the ikijjo lends liis sanction by 
liis nuncio ; and a Jesuit is the messengtT to one of iHe 
prime agents. Assuredly it must now be cvideut thiil 
the English cabinet did not proceed against the Jesuits 
on unfounded rumours, Tl*e Hcherae failed in the issue : 
Mary refused her assent, being aware that her keepers 
had orders to put her to death if anj attempt were 
made to carry her away by force. It was soon after 
these transactiona that the Jesuit Creighton was cap- 
tured and -sent in the Tower, where, in tlie presence of 
the rack, ho disclosed all the ]>articnlars of the project^] 
invasion which had so long alarmed Elizabeth.^ 

Numberless schemes and plots succeeded, and fiiiled 
by the vigilance of Elizaheth and her council : but each 
sufFcHnpof ^^ cnieUv followed by redoubled persecution 
c.tudi», againet the poor Catholics of England. The 
innumerable spies of the British government perpetnally 
a*hicd hara.ssmeuts to the agitated debates^ whoso object 
was to frustrate the schemes of the enemy and forti^ 
the throne of Englandn Poor Queen of Scots — unfortu- 
nate indeed, since she was made a misery to herself and 
to all who professed her religion in England. It is 
impossible to form an adequate idea of the condition of 
the English Catholics during that poriodj when tlie 
Jesuit faction exhausted all tlioir resources to bring 



1 Liqf. ITS. Rc^jculiu^ die |i»i>orB found vith CT«igbtoa) Dr.Lmg^MO m^i 
" Creightuti hud tnrii liin impora aiiH llirowii llieni into ihc- ftnM^ but tlv fir^ 
ment* wore ct^llected, and umong iiwm n p^iper, wrntteti in Uaiiiiii about t<m> 
jearal)dbre, shuwiiig Jiuw Englauil luigiit b<-tucwufuUy iiiThJed."'— JW^, it 
401. "1 Huapeot*" caiilinacA LingiLrd, '^ dl^tliE>ftp«^m Strypc ii » truMk£on of 
it."^-^'-jfpe, iii- 414. In his caEife^ion Cn^igliUjn dctailn] kII the pjtrticiilBi* «f 
tlie PonaiiltAtioii Jit P.in.q ; tiut ndJ^iI thar iUq hi-vaniati wiu pOc^Mfitd tiU Ih* 

tnjublefl in the Low C'Ouutrii^ should bo eadvd SMlter, il>, Sm p. M3 uf the 

present vDlumc^ 



DErBNCE OF QDfiEN KLIKABETH. 



419 



about her deIive^anc[^ by the invasion of England and 
tlie fiimulUineous rebellion of the partisans wlioni that 
faction continually fed \vitli the hope of Cathohc restora- 
tion. It is not the effort of Mary herst^lf to effect her 
deliverance that i denounce. That was but natural 
Her captivity vraa nnjust, however expedient it might 
he thought by the British government : but nothing can 
justify the reckleRSuess with which her partisans entered 
into the wildcnst projects, in spite of previous experience, 
and ever destined to fail in their objects, but sure to 
redouble the pitiless vengeance of the Protestant party 
in England. But, on the one hand, whilst " Verily 
there were at this time nome subtle ways 
taken to try how men stood affected; conn- th«<|H«B 
terfeit letters privily sent in the name of 
the Queen of Scots and tlie fugitives, and left in Papists' 
houses ; spies sent abroad up and down the cnnnlry to 
take notice of people's discourao, and lay hold of their 
worrls ; reporters of rain and idle stories admitted and 
crctiited ; many brought into suspicion, amongst the rest 
the EarlofNorthmnberland; the Earlof Arundel, his son, 
was confined to his house, his wife waa committed to 
custody ; " — whilst such were the proceedings on tlie one 
hand, still on the other we read, and from tlie same pen, 
tliat ** Neither yet are such ways for discoveiy, and easy 
giving credit* to be esteemed altogether vain, where 
there is fear for the prince's safety. Certain it is, at 
this time a horrid piece of popish malice against the 
queen discovered itself : for they set forth books wherein 
Uiey exhorted the queen '.s gentlewomen to art the like 
fl^inst the queen, as Judith had done with applause and 
commendations against HoIofomcB. The author was 
never discovered, hut the suspicion lighted upon Gn^ry 

e B 2 



420 



HISTOHY OF THE JE8UITB. 



Martlu, ail OxfurJ man, one very leaxneii iQ the Greek 
and Latin tongues. Carter, a bookseller, was executed, 
wlio procured thorn to be printed. And ^vhereas the 
Papists usually tmduced the queen aa rigid and cruel, 
she who was always careful to leave a good name and 
memorial behind her, waa highly offended with the 
inqnisitors that were to examine and discover Papists, 
RS inhumanely cruel towards them, and injurious to her 

honour She commanded the inqiusitors to 

forbear tortures, and the judges to relrain from putting 
to death. And not long after she commanded seventy 
priests, some of which were condemned, and others in 
danger of the law, to be transported out of England : 
amoQgat whom those of chicfeat note were Jaspar Hay- 
wood, son to that famous epigrammatist, who was the 
first of all the Jesuits that came into England ; James 
Bosgrave, of the Society of Jesus also ; John Heart, the 
most learned of all the rest ; and Edward llishton, that 
impious, iingmtoful man to his prince, to whom, though 
he owed hk life, yet he soon after set forth a book 
wherein he vomited out the ]>o]son of his malice against 
her/'* 



■ Cundsn, Ann. \&Rl. There ttiu one very reimarlaiblp «xccpQon loihiiil^ 

jaJl-ddivGry of Boofeaaun — tliu Jesuit TLiumu Poad, vliom Panoiu vuMdal 
the MarHluLlsf^^ and n\in publulied Cnmpina'a letter to the qoeen Mad counol. 
Tbe hiBtory of thh poor fellow is most touchingly mtoiVHtLiig : wliui we onniiiW 
hin CAlutiilleA, wr iltu ii1iuu«t Dompi^llml lu t'lcuHr hia cuiiducl vilh rocBrd to ihft 
publicnticm of CitnipionV im|irudent letter. His enrly hiatiTy kIsq ihnj«v •□idb 
ligbt on t]iQ character of Ell^aliotli^ — m no fftvoitnble point of vicv. lioireiTT> 
I iJiall follow Pond's own nnrmdvo aa pvvn hy llw Jesuit Birtoti, H« wm A 
gentl^mat] hy birUi Mid 1>>minc : his rootlier wm ^isIit la the Ebri of Soalb- 
ftinptoii- ReuiorkAtrle fur uiiLiit^ heaury aitd PUiture, *e ncll la mouMl feCCOO^ 
pllflhnientn. he nttru'lrd EliMhpth'fl atfenlion nl the Col!*g* of WimihcAv, 
whcn>, as a student, he hrtd the honour nf compliment iiig the qtieea vifh * LAtia 
poetD, whieh ho racilod o» the occasion fif a rojul visit lo the colle^. Hitt^Uwr 
dirtl, biving ihe yauth mnslpr nf a rortune, which he resolved lo eajoy to dw 
utTDPHt. Hie court of Eh^Bbctl] wh the object of hia iLrd»i( dewre ; it* wp^rn- 



r 



MAET QFEEy OF SCOTS, 

At length the fate of Mary Queen of Scots was pro- 
nounced. There can be no doubt that the unfortunate 
queen went to great lengths in her declarationa miu7 Qutui 
to the Spaniard Mendoza, Phihp's ambassa- "'^^'^"■ 
dor, who, aftor hia expulsion from England, never ceaaed 



ilouin UJ<I ilc^Li^bbi were JiiaA^tnwliun. TliiiUer ho liA«L«Dvd : the Hmilea of liia 
qnoon churned fewky bifl rBligioD ; be confonned Co tKat of hb roytJ Diibtrcod. 
From CliriftUiioa to llic Epiph&ny, a ci>ui?lp&a round of airmsements, halh, nnd 
imnicAl enterUinnifnU) gave fj-esh maiinAtioD to tlio Eiifltifih coarL ; ood in the 
year 1 5 <i 3. no courtier figurod widi greater luftire Ihui Tliofniis Pond, Hib 
«x^cikditiin! vita laviBh, uid he dnucej lu a^bnirjitjon, Ii appears tliat lila am- 
MlviQ was to oxDel id a feat, aaw eKclueivflly conRtiod to female opn-fr'CaiaiUu. 
nunety, 1o tw, ausbuoing the body cu one toe, and (hiu to perform a pirouette, 
ur Lvirl round aud round nith ^reriC veboitVT but witLout^ddiacM nod a fall. 
Pond perfi>mi«d the feat v'nh immense app1&us« ; the eourd«n thouied appro- 
iMbiEoa ; Uke qiie«D, by way of reward, gave him her hAnd ungloved, and tumhig 
%•* Lei««tvr, lior fbVDiirito^ olio touk hia linl mul i^nt it lu Piuid to oovcr bin 
hfad, aa hu was very vftrm after bis foat^ and in a profuse perspiration. latCTL 
iote ntccwd«d wliilat the danrer took rcBt- The Quern requeated hlin U) 
npeat hifl perlurmance. He gladly Ameuted. Gloriously te iFent tlirough the 
ptrlimirury atcpe^ and catnc at Icnj^ to the alJ-importnrt and most exppcled 
plrQUcttc. He miulc die olTort, but ilLiu 1 hia head swam round foAler thati bin 
body — giddineffi ovcrpowtred him — he fell to the ground with viotene^. Pealrt 
of bitter Inughl^r I'eeouniled ; cutting Mri^flSfn^ larerated rhe ei>urtii;r*ii heart ; 
but the emellest ent of all m-bs, ibnt the queen did not give him her hand, nor 
Ulie hiB jiflTt ; on the contrary, •* na if in revenge fcr liifl hftvinfi thus disgraced 
tJw enltfrlftinmcot^ brim-fuU flf diflgTwt bIio Biiid tnliinif'Gtt l]u*e up, ox/ luid 
tliuaredonbled thelflUgbler ari>nnLl,nnd the poor fellow's confuaiun. Pond got up, 
■ad friUi one tnpe on the ground, beiidin(|i low, he Tnult*red thwe Sftlemn w'ordii: 
— ' Sic transit ^or!a mifnJi— thus pBaaelh ftWay the glory of the world.' " l^e 
Tttired from ibe ccrari, wherri he waa nerer seen agiin^ nor in London. Sawno 
and inward dipguqt buried him in rolircnicnt al Bvlmont, hia nuuiai'on. He 
then returned to Itia rpliginn, and to f!od, praetimng greftt auatpritiea. Some of 
the Irtlere from tlie Jvanit-muinonariei in India fell into hlA lianda : the wonderful 
adTenturet, labourer and eonversiona there related insplre-l him with the wi^ ii> 
join tlie Company. He applied for admisnon ; and ere tll(^ answer came ^m 
Rome, be ww imprieoncd for the Oulh : but ho was »cecptpd by tlic gc]ieral, 
and fjioL ibe vovn in prison In the ymr }S7^. Long waa tiH bitter, and aa far 
«■ we are aw&rv, innocent Cftptlvity, He waa conlin^ In ten different pnaoaa 
during the space of thirty yean^ and " [n that t^i^ce^' aiid he, in a Utier to 
Pmnoat in ICOW, " fonr UiouBand poiui-ls npnU suffered of my BUbsianc*," On 
mie (wmoion, *hcci brought btfore Ibe Com-I, he -avH, ^ layiuj^ my hand tipcii 
the brvaai nf idv rlDnlr^ I ppoteated to thfTR (hat t would not ctiaoge it for tha 
1u««D't erown " He had a good «*quirp'" i^<ttt1e, bat >l wm ao pillaged by flop* 



422 



3lTlTa. 



to machinate the destruction of Klizabeth, A catholic 
conspiracy — the deliverance oi" Mary Stuart — these 
were the projects uppermuat witlj the stirring Pliilip of 
Spain. The Queen of Scots wrote to Meudoza, saying : 
'* Tho bearer is charged to impart to you certain over- 
tures ill my behalf, considering the obstinacy so great of 
my son in heresy, which I assure you I hare bewaQed 
and lamented night and day, more than my oavti cala- 
mity, and foreseeing on that score the great damage 
which thence will result to the catholic church by his 
succeeding to the throne of this kingdom, I have taken 
the resolution, in case my said son docs not submit to 
the catholic church before my death, to cede and give 
by will my right to the said succession of the crown, to 
the king your master. I beg you agaiu to keep this very 
secret, the more, liiocause were it revealed, it would, in 
France, cause the loss of my dowry, in Scotland, the 
complete rupture with my 8on^ and in this country* my 
total ruin and destruction, Marie."' 

*' Certain Enghsb critic-s,'' says the dcep-soarchins 
Capefigue, " have beheved that many of the documents 



ojid exiLctiuiiH. tlint qvcu his enemica we!tv bslumod of ihtte cni«Jt>- * Ytt, 
Salisbury himMilf upon my plaint, t^lJlDg lum Uiat our giHf|re] tuight ml ot 
Clariat^a unti niouLlr, ihnl ii whb mort bkfwed to give tluui lo tAkfi awitr, ■* ihrj 
hmt Ink^n ho timr^h fnrm me, tank aa mudi compBAtiioD on me for hu i>«rft 

honour, u to givo inc Wk £*2\i for xny relief of £^00, tthkli trma « wmni 
diHl rdl to mo of one of my (-^imte, lie hul lakou from me &Dd givea Vt fa^ 
^ecTGlat-y." Of caurw it wu only by disponudon that Fond vka p amMa ilto 
rctujii hiA [■alriiDouiflJ ri|;bt3, duvmsd eitpeilient for ilie pruvitjCB. Tbo good old 
C-avnlitv-JpsuiL ftubwrnbea hinuAlf tfl Par0<fKM, "onv nf your DDoot devoted clul- 
ilren, kltboogli bitberto ka^t beacflcibl." At WngUi JumeB I. mtof«d to 
vtmer&ble conf^i^or Ici Liberty ; and in )G]h be a^iluiLlly died in tbe irrjm^ 
flpnrlniPDl Kt Belmont, in which hy wnji born aevctitj«K yeirs l^fure 1 l%e 
i^iicrii mail cua]ii:i] juuni havt hail Bomc good reuon for keqi]fif( liim » Itmg in 
dunncp vile ; fifrhnpq ibny fiMi^d bia i-cflcntinfuit. Jwnca ptubttblj kB«« 
Tiothinff nf hisliihlory,— Bartoli, lib. L p. 51, rf teg. -, OLtot, CtdlecL 
^ ArfhiTra of SlmivncM ; Apnd Ctii^ofiguc, p. 40, 



EXECCTIOK OF MARY (JUEEN OP PCOTS, 



423 



produced at the trial were forged by Elizabeth in order 
to destroy her rival : but tliere remain in tlie archives 
of SimaDCas. certain docuinenta too decisive and too 
important to permit the possibility of still denying tlic 
participation of Jlary in the grand projects of Philip 
II. against the Pi-otestant crown of England/" The 
Jesuits had stirred all Christendom, witli Mary for their 
watchword : tliey had been her advisers : one of them 
attended her for some time during her captivity, in the 
quality of physician : — but all to no purpose : their ad- 
dress failed by the su|iorior craft of tlie EngUsh cabinet; 
and the Spaniard's gold wbs as j>owcrlee3 as hia arma- 
ments were destined to prove ag^iiust Britain. Mary 
Queen of Scots was executed in 1587- Mary Htr cwm- 
could not escape her fate : she suffered like a ^'^ 
strong womau ; as admirable in her death as she was 
beautiful and captivating in life.' Deep was the 



^ C^ief. Ia Ligne el Henri IV. p. 20. 

* After lU Uuil hu been s&iJ for and ngninet the couAuct of Eliubeib m 
fOt&t^ JAmtjIo deith, it is aooicvf hat curiiiua to Hud LhatlhoJcmJt RibDiloiievrt 
taadJbta her fiM*: Co a vmUtk' juiJ>^}«ut uf lEuavun, fcir ImviJi^ [ok-ralt^l htrcajr 
■pdiut tlie DpiDion of good C&tliDlica, &riil for nnt having -^murijj'rcil the ba*liii^ 
Stturt, Iheir vliict—toleri (as hertftioi corura fl pmro^f^ iff fat bHmoa Catotkot, y 
DOqaiMqueimtaflMnftlbMlardoSliULnl qut: ct-& cnbe^n 'Idlos'* (T) Tfaia is » 
quoted <»|unu>D exprsHsed to Henrj ll[,^ and umctioncd hy this Jefluit-patriLrch^ 
l|f iu{>cTit4ila his ai»n le fallowH :— ^ Id (hia viLaiuy]^ wo sec lir>w dinVrvnl un 
die JudgmoDU of God Kiid ihoBS of men. For die Qnvrai of ScoilAfld, wlicn far 
rewoD» of Hate. «hc conulved at tho heretuai of her kiiigdoiU, thi«e nerc iiume- 
rota ui'l pDWfrfiil, and she va» a wonian bad ^'oiutg, nod without c.^jicticnc^ 
uid the follawcd tlic ruJvicG of liioso wliom diQ hid hy Ikt Hde, and tohl her II 
UTAH beuvr ut cDnallat^ tliim ondanger Uit Ion ol aXlj vfLivh w kll rcwoiiB that 
laay exruflfl her in our cyca^ But the Lonl, who is moat jpjJoiu of hia hoaoiir, 

knd who dove in>t vrwh ihai kitiL'St whom h.v hna honoured t,hi)vv tM other on'O, 
•Iwuld be guvIhh of i(, pDJiiHtKHl Ihc (Jocon on oan huiJ nilh justice, dtpnriiig 
hi?r of hot- LingdoiQ and libert^^ uid ftEll^oUng her with no long on impruoDLaeul^ 
uid *dlh a ti-oitniPDl imworUiy of her royal pennn ; and on tbi: other likiid, 
MdiDg tier miwriev with bo ^Innona ul end wi I'lU ]hr oftcritiev of Iter life for 
hew iHOJt Ao/jf /aiC^ [wbidi in decidedly' a new vicftj «nd far the mme religkn 
whirKvhehftdat fintdvrrtirlvdnkMT^BrTnniw.''*-7Vada^d«^d/ZefV^ e.ft'.S). 



424 



mSTOKY or THK JfiSLITS. 



impresaion made hy tlie fall of that royal liead : all 
Europe shuddered at the tale — pity and indignation 
shared the feelings of humanity. Pope Pius IV^. had 
put to death the uephows of Paul IV., on the fluusiefit 
preteuccs, and unjustly : no indignant sound boomed 
forth : the very i-epresentativos of all the world's mora- 
lity at the timej the JcsuitSj kissed his guilty bands 
with as much fervour as before. There was now, how- 
erer» in the case of the unfortunate Queen of Scots an 
important differen<;e : she bad been the nucleus of the 
Catholic moTcment in England, whilst EngUuid wba 
connected with Prance, was an object of anxious desire 
to the papal party, and was the hopo of tho Spaniard, 
whose influence then, in the shape of gold, extended 
over Europe. It required all these considerations ti> 
enlist the sympathies of the Catholic world at that time 
in tho fate of Mary Queen of Scots, 

That event accelerated the glorious Armada which 
Philip was preparing to crush Elizabeth. The pope's 
approval was demanded bv ibc Spaniard, 
loibflSpubh who also suggested that Allen might be made 
a cardinal, for tho purpose of coming to Eng- 
land Rs legato, with a commission to reconcile the coun- 
try to the commimion of Rome, and to confirm the con- 
quest to the Spaniwh crown— should the expedition 
prove successful. Pliilip also demanded an aid of money 
from the pope. All tho former requests were compbed 
with readily bySistus V, ; hut the subsidy — the money 
— a milUon of crowns — v^as to be paid when the in- 
vading army should have landed in England — a provi- 
sion which at once shows the deep sagacity of the 
cunning Sixtus, who knew the value of money. If 
England were reduced to the dominion of Rome, the 



THE FAMOUS *' ADMONITION. 



iSS 



millioD of crowns would be a very ativautageoua invest- 
ment ; which however could never bu said respecting 
ita apphcation to a mere attempt. Alien was ordered 
to prepare an explanatory address to be dispersed 
among the people on the arrival of the Armada ; and 
he comphed. The result of his pious meditations waa 
the famous Admonitmn to theiwbiliti/ and peo- Tho"Adnw- 
p/e of En(//and and Ireland, coucerninge the "*"'*"■" 
present warfes^ made fm* f/te execution of his hoHries' 
sentence, (ff/ the higke and migktie Kinge Catholkkf of 
Spaine.'^^ There can be but one opinion on thia pre- 
cioufs docimicnt ; and it shall bo cxprcseed by one of the 
most candid writers that ever honoured the church of 
Rome. " This publication/' says Mr. Tierney, 
"the most onensive, perhaps, of the many opmjonof 
offensive libels sent forth by the pflrty to ' "*' 
which Allen had attached hiniaelf, was printed at Ant- 
werp, and, in a tone of the most scurrilous invective, 
denounced the character and conduct of the queen ; 
portrayed her as the offspring of adulteiy and incest, a 
ladcivious tyrant, and an unholy perjurer; and con- 
cluded by calling upon all persons, ' if they would 
avoide the pope's, the lunge's, and the other prince's 
highe indignation,' if they would escape ' the angels 
cur^o and malediction upon the inliabitantCB of the land 
of Meros,' to rise against a woman odious alike to God 
and man, to join the Uberating army upon its landing, 
and thus to free themselves from the disgrace of having 
'fiuffered fiuch a creature, almost thirtie yeares toge- 
ther, to raigne both over their bodies and soules, to the 
extinguislunge not onely of religion, but of all chaste 
livinge and honoaty.' *' To increase the effect of this 

■ Unp. Tin>2Tl ; Ti^tdi^v (DvM) iii. 2B (noU) ; Stnda, Ann. I55n. 



426 



IJISTOKY or THE JRSUITS. 



■he I 

■M 

pi- n 



address, its aubetaace was, at the aanie time, conipr 
into a smaller compass, and printed oii a biYKidsiile, fbr*' 
more general distribution. It was called, **A Declara- 
tion of the sentence of deposition of Elizabeth, the 
usurper and pretended Qnene of Knglande," 

** Our said Holy Father,'* declared this broadside, " < 
liis beniguit^y, aud favour to this enterprise?, out of the spi- 
rituall treaaurcB of his church, committed to his custody ^i 
and dispensation, graunteth moat liberally to all such nJ^J 
assist, concurr, or help in any wise, to the deposition 
and punishment of the above-named persona, and to the 
reformation of these two Coimtryos, Plenary Indtd- ^^ 
fff^/tce aud pardon of all their Bimies, being duly penitenty^| 
contrite, and confessed, according to the law of God, 
aud usual custome of Christian people/' 

** The ostensible author of the Admonition,^ eays 
Mr. Tiemey, " waa Allen, who inserted his name, as 
' Cardinal of Englande,^ in the title-pa^e, and thus ren- 
dered himself answerable for its contents. Still, Wateon 
aud others constantly maintained that it was really 
Panonsisiti P^^ned by Parsons ; a charge which Parsons 
.uihgr, himself, in his Manifestation, (35, 47)^rath«' 

evades than denies. In another work, however, 
notices the accusation of his having * hpJped the cartl 
to make his book/ and to that replies at once, by' 
denouncing it as a 'he * (Answer to 0. E., p. 2, apud 
Warneword)/'^ The underhniiig of the word " helped,'* 

with the dehcate " lie," is not what PaUaiicino, another 
Jesuit, would call a " solid He." but it is an arrant cqmvo- 
cation notwithstanding, — as who should say, I did not kelp.^ 

^ Dodd^B Cbiirch History, ku. 29. See alu WaImiu'b ^mjwirtnji/ (hntvitniiimk^ 
^c. for B ctimptf'henfiivc ftnftlyjila of the biioV ; ^leiidliuii'6 Etlh. 5?, f^ pr^.; aad 
Fnr ft H^HtemAtic digest nf the &trocJoiw produi^iion, an Liiig>rd, viii, 444, nave Q. 



natha- 
rdina^H 




i'KffTIPENT CONCLUSIONS, 



427 



Iiim : I wrote it for him. Ami now it si-eras to me tliat 
thifl Admonition to which Allen lent his name, and 
which is brought home to the Jesuit Parsons, pcninctn 
attests at once the opinions entertained in ^""^^""""'^ 
England, as expressed by Camden, respecting the senti- 
ments and doctrines of Allen's aeininary-priests and the 
Jesuit inisaionaries.' The forcelnl energy of these 
hideoUH aentimcuts declared by tho Admonition and 
broadside declaration, could scarcely be inspired on the 
spnr of the moment^ when the Armada vfas ready to 
put the bull inio execution. No other inforenee ia 
lidmissible ; and ttiercforc I appeal to this lost demon- 
Btration, for the opinions I have all along expressed on 
the machinations of the missionary faction in England. 
History must bo grateful to the Amiada of iS])ain for 
tills impoitant elucidation. All who feel an interest in 
the veneration due to pure religion, must exult to find 
that the disastrous consequences of the missionary incul- 
cationa in England, resulted from the ahusc of the reli- 
gious aentimeiit in men, resulted aa the terrible retribu- 
tion awarded to crime by a superintending Providence. 
Those who represented themselves as the raeeaengera of 
peace and salvation, were the roaring bellows of sedition 



^ Auumgil tJie la^partani C^ytideratiomM of vAttkt SecaUar PriatU, «c tii^ na 
futlawB : — '^ In (bese Iiunnlluoiu aud rfbellioub prtK-c^Hug* by euiidrj' CaIJioIur, 
bvth ID EngUnd uid IrelaDd, il t^uld nox he ciprcloH but thnt tlic Q.uoea Uid Ihp 
StMe wonli] bo greailjr incoDAcd wiih indignation BgLinet de. We had (aosie of 
u*> gro^t^y appfovod (he eaid robcUion, higbl;' eslolJ4Ml tlie rtbcEc, mid pilifiiUy 
bewailed tbdr rum And ovorlhpow- Many i\t our alTertjoiiH were Icnil to Uie 
Spaniiu-d : had far oar ohe^icaoo to tb« po|>«, wc- oil da pmff^ it 'Vhtf nltoiupu 
\tvtli of Ui<j popv ud SpviUrd failing id Engtood, liis liolineaa, as a tanponU 
princa, disputed hiAbaimer ixi IreUnd. TUo pLutwviiodt<privtf herhigliufwlirst 
from Uutl kuigtlom (Lf ikvy uould) nnd ihi^a hy d«](rcvH (u dopuvc li^r tvom diiv^ 
In all ibcK ploia auao wciv in^^rv furvaixl lliau mihuy iImiI wcfq piimra. Thi> 
Leiiiift If we lukd o]ipo«iiHl au»cLvc4 U' th««c J«*igiiii]ouU» wouUI {o^i rj dtmhi) 
h§m (mi Oivr'ntW ky im> H^v manif nrv ft/ ow tattitt^ mrc adififini to fkff 

ttmth tko SkUt bum nU." 



428 



HISTORY OF THE JE3U1T3, 



and incendiary Pharisees. Had these priests and these 
Jesuits directed their efforts to conciliate rather than 
exasperate the queen and the goyemnient, far different 
■would have been the result. But what was their prac- 
tice must be evident from the sentiments expressed in 
this Admonition and declaratiun of the leaders. The 
man wlio penned those horrible and disgusting senti- 
ments, had journeyed far and wide throughout the 
country, wliilst the cruel measures of the crown against 
the scapegoat Catholics gave him the best opportunity 
for exasperating the people's rancour against tlieir rpieen, 
preparatory to the Spaniards invasion. Even that very 
persecution was made the means of stimulating foreign 
hatred against the queen and government of England 
Fai-sons wrote an account of it, as I liave stated, and it 
was translated into several languages, and scattered 
over Eorope. Wherever there were Jesuits, hatred to. 
the Qneen of England was not wanting, if it depend 
on the representations of the JcBuits ; but none co 
equal the "■ Polrpragmon " Parsons, whose monster-heart 
was at length gratifiGd when the " bulky dragons of the 
grand Armada " sped forth from the dark, deep waters 
of Vigo,^ 

Spain's mighty armament made sail. Eager were lie 
hungry billows to swallow do^-n the boastful and bla»* 
phoming Goliaihs : they were denied thi 
meal yet awhile ; and down upon Albii 
bore that gallant fleet which half the forests of Galicia 



The ipnnd 



llOi 

ui9 

!art~ 
c 



" "Tile memory of which attempt/* mj the Somilftr Prieatft beron qootea. 
'■will be (*ft wcs inwt)iiU BverlMiing moiiumcDl af Jesulticftl tr«Boa udcroeLlj. 
For it in, appwvnt in x tmiiliBe ponni-d by the adTic* at F^lhor Phnona 
*lloj-*lher(iiflwoM wrily think) tliat (he King of Sjiaine wuiwpcvimlly movvd 
ftnJ drawn lo that intruded miachitf againsl lis, by the long uid »riy Klj«a- 
tintiH iiF the JhuiU ut^l other Engli&h Cat1ioli«« beyond the bdu, ^ff^cKd ud 
iJc("geilwr givpH lo Jeroitinm. "^ — fmff»-(ant Conndcnttiont, S7. 



/-• 



TBfi SPANISH ARMADA. 



429 



been felled to build, manned hy all the sons of the 
Spauisb seas, impreaaed from the thousand bays and 
creeks of t)ie stern Cantabrian shore,^ There were 
8000 sailors and 19.000 soldiers. There were 135 
ships of war : all tlie mysteries of heaven and the holy 
men of earth had their namesakes in the motley arma- 
ment. There was tlie Su Louis^ the St. Philip, the 
St» Bernard, the St. Christopher, the Maiden aud She- 
Mouse, the Samson, the Little St. Peter, the Trinity, the 
Crucifix, and the Conception — all under the command 
of the Marquess Santa Crux, or the Holy Cross.^ No 
lack of celestial patronage for Philip's glorious '" idea.^' 
And whilst the indefatigable Jesuits stirred all Emope 
in the papal-Spanish cause, on every road were met 
bodies of Tolmiteer-soldiers, noble or otherwise, hasten- 
ing from Spain, and Germany, and Italy, to Uie place 
of the gathering — all impelled with one undoubt- 
able hope to crush the queen in her island-home.' 
And what was the fleet that Elizabeth opposed to this 
awful visitation 1 What the number of her men ? It 
were absiu'J to tell that computation against the Levia- 
thians and myriads of Spain. Never was England leas 
able to cope by numbers with the invader ; but the old 
age of Elizabeth was made youtlifiil by an ardent heart 
and a vigorous mind, and she sought and she found 
a world-defying rampart in that nefv peoplo whom 
the Reformation dashed into the political movement of 
the sixteenth century/ Tough were the hearts that 
had defied Rome, with aU her terrors — they might fear 
no other devilish foe — and they feared not the Spaniard 
and his invincible Armada. And the poor oppressed. 






430 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



1 



persecuted Catholics — will thcj oot now hail the mc 
sun of freeJora, aw J rise Jii its deceitfiil bkze to crush 
their queen and country for the Spaniard ? Somesaj^ 
they amounted to one half the population, which 
very improbable ; others raise the number to two-thirda,! 
which i3 as absurd as it is improbable ; still they verc 
undoubtedly numoroua ; and if being two-thirds» as 
Allen and the Jesuits gtrited, they had still fiub-H 
mitted to tlieir qnoen, acknowledged her right to the 
throne, were /oi/a!^ why had they been stimulated t^ 
disaffection by their aelf-appointed teachers ? By their J 
own ahowing, have we not here a proof of that partisan*^^ 
uifatuation and downright treason which accomp.'Uiied 
and motived the Cathoho movement in England, inipcDej^ril 
by the »7esuits and those seniinary-pricste who vere^^ 
managed by the Jesuits? And now, iu the very teeth 
of the Spaniard's demonstration, contemptuously tram- 
pling on the base prospect of righting themselves byfl 
betraying their country, they stood forth to a man — 
loyal as God, as their country, as their own hearts impe- 
ratively willcd-^in uttor defiance of that horrible abuse 
of rehgion, whereby their pope pretended to free them 
from their oatha of tillegiance, and to justify the murder 
of their queen— the betrayal of their country.' I'hfin 



' " And whcreu, it ifi well known that the Dubc of Medina SodomA ( 
SpAiuHli adialnLl after Santo Crux] had given U aut ditvct!^. Jut \t otter 
might land in En(/lan<f, bofk CitlioLioe oiid Beretica thai came id hia wa^ iLooTd 
be &tJ one to him: hin BWcrrl could not disepm thetn, io be might 
wa^ for Ilia tmuitcr, kU woa ooa tu liim.'' — hufyrfanf C'rr>sJdfraliojn Jy wi^ fb 
Stevfnr Priatt. b7. In eJTec:, there \n no douljt that Philip was the more 
euA)y indoi^l Io tindcrlAlte t1iL» Tniwidr- Hgninfit En^Tiuid, jaumuch u he )ut4 
muiy tbingn to aveiige uii EUiziibeth. Slia fand thwnilcd liim ba h« dt<ui i ul V> 
bo, on everj occaaloa. Hi-r vliijia hikd iniorcppted hia ilL-go(Een treowra ui ttM 
lodjos J sill' linJ iia<ted Lib vtiotnius, thu NcEhc-rlniiJarB, inthoir IwltlD of (roedaiiii 
civil and religio'ja. Tho Initor tHindui^t WTw highly honourable to her, thun^ 
the ioriQer and her disnmulatiou iri both ven repreheuBihlc^ StJIl, tvl it m 



nrra ^m 

ttlfl 

at haH 
[)oaT«H 



y 



I 



LOYALTY OF THE CATHULICH OF BS'iLANDp 431 

Wiu* the ftdmitteil end of the (jilinitteJ machinatioDs 
of the sacerdotal traitors. What a disappomtment for 
these traitors — but Low the heart of all humanity should 
exidt to find tliat God, and naturOt and our countr/a 
love, axe infinitely more powerful, more influential in 
Doble minds and hearts^ than all the vile tricks, and 
craft f^d machinations of sacerdotal iniquity. And 
thus it will ever be. Such will ever be the termination 
of sacerdotal abuses of man's rehgioiis sentiment : they 
will work out their own pimishment amain : God and 
His providence, and humanity, will be justified — to the 
Dtter deatruftion of nil sacerdotal pretentions, contri- 
Tuuces, machinationa, and influence amongst mon. Thitf 
is tlio finahty of that retribution which sacerdotal 
iniquity has deaervcd — and to this finality we are 
advancing — nay, half the providential work is abcady 
achieved. Bitter it is to record that the base fears 
generated by sacerdotal and Jesuitical machinations in 
England, suggested to some of Elizabeth's politicians 
the imitation of that Catholic monstrosity — the mas- 
sacre of St. Bartholomew, whereat Philip so exulted, 
and the Pope of Rome gave holiday and sang Te 
fMiim. These ahort-aighted politicians LTuelly advised 
the queen to cut off the beads of the Catholic party in 
England, Such is the force of example. Henry \TII, 
had perpetrated a similar atrocity, when the pope 
instigated the eiu[>eror and the King of France to 
threaten invasion ; and the massacre of the French 
Protestants was still fresh in the memories of men. 
But Elizabeth rejected the barbarous advice. No trace 



te lb>VOttCti, llut wfti the v«py age of cn.h ii.nd rv^t^ry of nil LSiuIk, civil jmi) 
nliglotli ; iu tkia respect, thay won lUl ikotIj A^iku, Lf PhiJip wu Dot wane 



432 



RISTORY OF THE JESUfTS, 




of a disloyal project could be discovered : ah© therefore 
refused to dip her hands in the blood of the inaocent, 
" upon some pretence or other," as they basely worded 
the infernal suggestion. Still she permitted the Catho- 
Ucs to he subjected to the severest trials. The " setters " 
ferreted moi^ keenly than ever. Crowds of Catholics of 
both sexes, and of every rank, were draped to the 
common jails throughout the kingdom. But ao prov< 
catioQ could urge them to any act of imprudence. Ih 
displayed no less patriotism than their more favoi 
countrymen. The peers anned their tenants 
dependentfi in the service of the queen. Some of 
Catholic gentlemen equipped vessels, and gave tlie com 
mand to Profestoith ; and many solicited permission to 
fight in the raidts as privates against the cGinmon enemy. 
But the Eternal seemed to interpose in behalf of Bntaiii 
and her queen, and her loyal subjects, Catholic and Pro- 
testant, Id truth, it could not be permitted that so 
crying an injustice an that of Rome and Spain sltould be 
crowned with success, Prodigi*^ of valoui' were axiueved 
by England's pigmy fioot against the dragons of the 
invader. Fiieships shot |>anic through the men of the 
flaming Inquisition— as by a judgment — and all waa 
confusion ; then a mighty tempest undertook the battle 
of England. '' Thou didst blow with thy wind — the 
sea covered them — they sank as lead in the miglitjr 
waters." In a single night the invincible Armada sank 
in " the yeast of wavoB,'*- — a tribute to the manes of 
Loyola and the spirit of his legion. How the rejaicing^ 
wares exulted with the wrecks of that glorious arma- 
ment— -one hundred and twenty ships, with Spain's 
best soldiers, her best trained mariners, down in the 
worrying watei-s, tearing them to pieces as the vultures 




I 

I 



tear a caniou, and tlie glutted waves rejoiced and 
sported with the wrecks of that proud aruiament. For 
along the coast of Scotlantl, Ireland, Denmark, Norway, 
the floating remnants sped and proclaimed Spain's down- 
agun. England's destiny was developed, and the 
glorious prosperity and power of the persecuted Nether- 
landers dawned with that day when t^puin was humbJcd. 
A single ship reached Spain — a crippled wreck. — pierced 
OD all sides, her masts shattered mth shot, almost every 
man wounded, iiicajfable of duty ; from day to day 
they liad flung their dead by sixes to the deep. Such 
was the end of Philip's gigantic enterprise — that project 
intended to establish Catholic unity and the immeasura- 
ble grandeur of Aw royal power. Paaquiu, at Rome, 
announced that" The pope wuuldgrant, from the plenitude 
ofhis power, indulgenciea for a thousand years^ if any one 
would tell him for certain what had become of the Spanish 
Armada : — whither it had gone, whether it was hfted up 
to heaven or driven down to hell — or was somewhere 
hangiTig in the air, or tossing in a sea."* What thought 
Philip when he heard the result? Heavenonlyknow**; but 
he said these words ; '* I sent my army to punish the pride 
and msolence of tlie Eugliab, and not to fight with the 
fur)' of the winds and the rage of the troubled ocean. I 
thank God that I have still a few ships remaining after 
such a furious tempest ; ' and he forbade all public 
mourning, and among the survivors he distributed 
50»000 crowns out of his Indian treasury.^ Hiatorians 
vary as to the words of Philip on this occasion : but 
most of them give him praise for the same ; and 



< Ntf««,iii. 3BA, 

' rhILiplubJft million ofducfciajowSy from Ptni ; &iid onp-fifJi of iwpntj snil- 
fiottk bt<ivgh( fpAin th« oitisr IndiH yfnrlj. — MR. Sitt- C'titon- Jt*L F. t!. M3. 

Tou ii> F r 



434 



BJSrORY OF THB JESlTITri. 




Dr. Lingard, otherwiao so slirowd, callfi this " Lhe i 
aaniniity of Philip/' For my part, I perfectly agree 
mth the Catholic Condillac, who says : " I would admire 
tlie sentiment, perhaps, if he had not liad the imprudeuce 
to reject the advice of the Duke of Pamia,^ I say 
per/uips^ because I do not think that tlie coura^e^e of a 
Bovereigu consists in e^icing iDsenaihtlity. whilst bis 
subjects are porishing around him : especially, if he has 
not foreseen that there are winds and wavoa on ifc 
ocean. Whilst his generals were winning the battle of" 
St, Quentiii, he remained in his tent between twa. 
monks, witl» whom he was praying to heaven 
victory ; and he did not go ont until he was iiiformf 
of the total defeat of the French. A king who watchea ' 
over liis own safety with so raucli pnidence is willingly 
rash when he only exposes his soldiers ; and when he 
suffers loss, liia seeming fortitude is only the mask of 
vain mind, which will not admit its errors."* 



1 Ponna Advised thu reduction of Ftuohing before Uue inrjuaon : Mki Si 
WiJliam SUtilty, tm? ot Ihe C'ath&lii; trfLitors of England, in Ihe Lang's flefiiff, 
hod ndvisod ihv oconp&tion of Ire-Und as a [iTcasnrG ncwasiu-y to seniir ibfi OtB- 
quMGof E^ugLuid ; bm Uie king wgald admit of no dotoy. raivoiu hid priflMd 
nnd loikled bini — uid ho cauld not belp going oCT St-e LinQard, viii^ 979. 

1 Hiet Mod. OllVTe^ t. xniir. p, 2ft3, For the Armjidji uid Ihc c«tutrof4Kv 
flee Ung. viiL 27l>— 2R5 ; CapeQgn^, Hel et Ilenry IV, p. \1, a wtq. Tbt 
Sjuuiieli clergy, wlio bul [rraphcfijed tbc bjipi>y iasuo of diia cxpedilion to tit nr- 
twn, were inudi pmburraflscd, bul at lengtt laid the bbune upon ikt itdera ti m 
a^fjr/lcfl r'n Spain to the iwjUieU, All tho Protectant pown-B niotoad •! iW 

hilurot for if En^Uud hnd foJlent tliey wuuld eoarctly bav'ebeon ible I* r>^»i4 
but even ibe CntUoUd powpr*, who Ukowiw drruli^i th^ preponclvnting influ' 
cjiM of Philip, JiJ noi iniiHi regret tho issae. To Ucrry TV. of FnncvU««» 
of inunedlftUT jvlvAntogtif Aud the independeaec of the Dutfb wu Mgcml ■* 
decided. Tlic^y tlicrvfurc, n-bovc all othcrv, tooli part in ibc jay of tlio Engtnht 
and Htruek Diedals in commcmnralion afthei1«itniPliDD of thclavindblcAmoilk, 
with the inscription, Vtnit, ivil, fnii, (it cmo^, it wont> and wu nn mure). 
Since that lime» Spain has never recovered atty dpeiaive influenoe in th* olbir* 
of Europe. Sijme iB^iJntnl nomentfl of AciiTc c^vrditfi &nd bold onthuMum 
havp not h^cn kbip lo Arrnt thr InntpnthVIr- di^cay of ibr atalo riAil (he peoplo- — 
ItthBtfT, P"Iil. flist. \. ^-=1G. 



THE C^ATHOLIC LEAGUE \S FRANCE. 



435 



I 



Leaving Euglaiid to follow ap her advantages in the 
crippled condition of Spain — the Karl of Essex ravaging 
the coasts of Portugal, captui-ing Cadiz, advancing to 
Seville ; whilst Frobislier and Drake on the ocean 
winnowed the galleons of Spain, laden with Indian 
wares and virgin gold, — Lancaster pillaging Brazil, — 
Raleigh, Hawkins, Norris, and Cavendish, seizing the 
South Sea islands ; — and leaving the Jesuit Parsons and 
Allen still machinating in behalf of Spanish interests in 
England, amidst intestine bickerings and paper-warfare 
among the body of the still persecuted Oatholica — ^let 
tis contemplate the Jesuits in another field, and consider 
the relieio- political opinions which, amidst the 
agitations of Europe, tliey advanced and de- imB^*^" 
fended. In France the Duke of Guise had 
reached the culDiinating point of his ambition, swaying 
the nation with higher prospects unconcealetl The 
stirring Spaniard, Phihp II., was his master. The proud 
Guise vowed *' a most faithful and most perfect obe- 
dience" to the golden monardi, whost; design seems to 
have been univei'sal sovereignty for himseli; amidst 
CathoUc unity for the popo, &c.' Orthodoxy, " religion," 
were the pretences of Philip and all his humbled and 
obedient servants. The oath taken by all who joined 
the league, at once declares its nature and its aim. 
"I swear to God the Creator and under penalty of 
anathema and eternal damnation, that I have entered 
into Uiis Catholic Association — accorfling to the form 
of the treaty whicli has just been read to me — loyally, 
and sincerely, whether to command or to obey and 
serve ; and I promise, with my life and my honour, to 
continue therein to the last drop of my blood, without 

* Cftfieflgiu, quoiiugH letier from Guim to Pliil^p. Ret M Hmri IV- p. AK 

P F 2 



43*5 



HJSTOUY or THK JESUITS. 



resisting it or retiring at ^ny coiumand, on anj pretext, 
excuse, nor occasion whatever/'* Henry IIL, tlje 
King of Frana"*, finding himself circumvented by tlje 
Spanish or Catholic party, and made their tool, tore 
from them at once, and threw himself into tlie arms of 
the opposition, after causing the Duke of Guise to be 
miirdered. This event roused the grand Catholic League 
or Association to open hostility, and bound it more 
closely to its motive head, the King of Spain. Po|ie 
Sixtufi V". was its patron. He resented the fall of Guise: 
but when the duke's brother, the Cardinal of Guise, alao 
was assassinated, his indignation I>ecame religiously 
inexorable. Henry III, trembled not before the pope's 
displeasure. His was not the resistance of manly vigour. 
hut the petulant excitement of mental weakness, stimu- 
lated by the desperate position into Mdiicb the machina- 
tions of party had thrown him. He thwarted tbe poiie 
to the utmost. The Court of Rome made a praspoctiie 
demand that he shi:aild declare Henry of Kavaire (the 
ftiture Henr^' IV.) incapacitated to succeed to the thro&e 
of France. Far from complying, the king struck an 
alliance with the Huguenot, whom be recognised as tbe 
lawful heir to the crown of France. Tbis sealed his fate : 
— but many important events had led to the issue. 

It is a striking fact that whilst the Prott^Unt Ascen- 
dancy of England maintained itself tnuraphant, and 
impregnable to the misguided efforts of the Jesuits 
and semiiiHiy-prieftta, the struggle against the Catholic 
ascendancy of France was most vigorous and determined 
— full of hope, and, in all appearance, drinng to com- 
plete success in the accession of a ProtestMit king. It 
was this desolating prospect that inspired the oadi 



THB CATHOLIC LEAGUE IN FRANCE. 



437 



which theLeaguera aware to God Almighty. Catholic 
theorists ajuuse themselves with discovering m the 
League a grand result of religious reaction : and so it 
was, but let it be always understood as the religious 
reaction of a most despicably corrupt age — a most un- 
ohristian humanity. At the prospect of a Protestant — 
a Huguenot king^ the Loaguei"s giew frantic ; and none 
were more desperate than the Jesuits. They joined and 
organised Uie insurrection^ It was favoured by Philip 11. 
and the Pope — how could the Jesuits hold aloof ? The 
Jesuits were skilful negotiators ; tbe League gave tliem 
employment.^ Samnier overran Germany, Italy, and 
Spain, Claude Mattliicu won the title of the Leagrtc's 
Courier by Ida indefatigable exertions in the cause. 
Ht-nry HI, complained to the pope respecting the ardour 
of the Jesuits iii the agitation of which he had the good 
sense to disapprove, if not induced by fear for his own 
security. To their general, Aquaviva. he notified his 
wiah that only French Jesuits should for the futui*G be 
appointed to govern the houses and colleges of France.^ 
Now it happened that the famous Auger possessed the 
confidence of tbe king ; and it also happened that Pere 
Matthieu wasakiiid of foreigner, although the provincial 
of Paris ; and so Mattlneu accused Auger, his brother Je- 
suit, of jealousy and ambition — giving Mm credit for tlie 
move. He was nevertheless aupersodcd In his offico, and 
Odon Pigenat was named his successor.* When Matthieu 



■ Crvtincau, ii. i9l. ■ Id. il. QH-2. * l>i ib, M5, 

* Tlip muncil-fBTlinn uf thd Si.rttfa, ve rall^l beuiive they rulvd the nxteea 
mmrds of Pirin, wm sumrdmeB graced Ly ihr ppcaenpe of (hU Jpeuit, for the 
pmpon of luodcmung " iho fory of tliAl exfvrtblo [ribuuAl,** if we may brtiet? 
ihA J««ait Kieheomp. — £>ocunicrUi. u4i iUfird. Tile Jwuit cuHeg* m tin- Rav St. 
Jwniok, vrm KnnetimeB the r^dcfiTOiu ut lluw '•cizrul catiBpiruUTB utJ U'uturvj 
in the tMwyin ttf llie Spuiiftnl. [l vms in tin? Jovuil hvuf^^ lJi»l MenJaiA, 
AfT^llon, Fcriflbf and other ogmilfl of Phiiip wurLcd imt thtrir ai^hrnu-* mil ploU^ 



438 



aiSTOfiV OF THE J£dt;iT8. 



( 



returned from Rome in 1585, the Idug ordered him w 
retire to Pont^-Mousaon, mill menaced liim witli hlsaD^ 
should h(j diwobey-' A({uaviva did not counteuance die 
League, aad the king resolved to put down itft very 
active courier, Pere Matthieu — the ring-leader of the 
Jesiutrsection. The General of the Jesuits did more. He 
complauied of Pero Mattliieu to the pope. It fiecnis an j 
extraordinary procedure for the general to appeal tfl I 
the pope against lus own subject : but it evidences tha 
fact that P^re Matthiou waa under authority distinct 
from that of the Company and its CousLitutioufi. Aqua- 
viva earnestly requested the pope not to ponuit mj 
Jesuit to meddle with combinations so foreign ud 
dangerous to the lustituta ** Give an order to confino 
these words to Claude Mattliieu/' said the general to 
the pope. **aQd permit me to send him into a country 
where lie caunot he fiuspected of encli negotiations.'*' 
Pope Sixtus V. positively rcfiiaetl to accede to tlie« 
petition. The Jeauit Leaguers Matthieu, Sajniiier/ Hay» ^ 

' So FftT CrctiuHU mad liio J^nitH i Imi tltcy do aot otAte thv »bj<«l of ^^^''fl 
misaion. Ug had bren di?iit tn Rome by itic LcBguGn in ord€r to ladu.'e ihe^ 
f-opc tu InvLiur I|j^ rcbL^llLDia anil llio cDcmii^ of tliff bUifv^ ** Wu liqL],^'aan 
Meuray, " by a letter of lliia Je^it, wluc)i wu giion to Lho pitbll#t Uul Ihr 
popu did not approve of the |iriijto(^ to OflaaaBiuaia tbc king ; but Im i 
the aciiiiiro ofliU pcrsiOD, n u lo <*nGure Hw occupalJoti of lIic li>wna 
wilburiy,— ^firii/^tTaroiLt, i). 504, <jd. 17ft5. Annaht, 1. 1 p, 4ft7, il 3,\ 

^ C'retinaiu, Li. 3fln. 

" The facts vhirli I bave quoted from iho but Jcauit'lUstoHui mvbi Id ] 
ftlL Uiat tlie «iLeniicfl of tho Company by to iCa charge in die trouUis of i 
Lengiio. l^m L^iatiu^au's accannt^ it ij uviilrDC tlut tlw L«k^« o^nd 
ofiLarnpiM itavclopintnt to die inttigiieri amd cluctrintA oT Uw JaeuLla. Tbr 
Jranit SoJaaifr tfwi tlip first of tlm i-onrmLpmity rm|i1oyeiI in liic maitluotlinL 
rasi^ulcT &l)'k-fl Jiiiu a man difpivcit anil remt1vi-J for i^ll anrts of h&iBrd& ll> 
Hoafroat ill J. 511 1 to all tJie Caibolic i^rim^ea to discover Jie procp«M of ftffun 
A juitij better cjiuLljlleJ coulil notbo t«kct«r| forUie bxisUittt. He l^ould in&^ 
form hinualf inio u inan^ fomis tut objirctu — airmvUtiK* d^v^cit u * »-|dic 
Bum^tiuiea u a pripet. at olbti'^. oh a i^ijimtry olonTi^ Giunn bt dice, futU, \4 
ttp^o as famUiar to liimAs liia bivviiLr^. Hv oiiulJ dtiuigt hiM nanit' as ivuity i 
hb Ewl>. Jitf viBiicdauccpflaiTtlyj iJDhisfruJBC|,l_ipnDiaji lUl) mudbpun. 




AQUAVIVA AKl) MATTHIEi;. 



439 



^onimulct, the Rector of tlie Parisian House of the 
Professed, and other Jesuits enrolled under the banner 
of the League, '' anhi did t/te'w duty" according to tlie 
popes opinion." Aquaviva forbade Mattbieu to meddle 
with politics for the futare, T^-ithout his express per- 
mission. Nevertheless, soon after, he accepted a com- 
inission from the chiefs of tlie League, and set oft~ for 
Italy. At Loretto he recoived a letter from Aquavivaj 
couched in the most respcctfiJ terras imaginable, accord- 
ing to the general's practice, bat strongly and im- 
peratively opposed to hia return into France. '' for a 
eertain artair/" whitli is not particularified (probably 
referring cither to the seizure or tlie murder of the 
king) \ and expressly commanding him, in the most 
respectRil leniia, not to leave Loretto until further 
orders. He died in this e-xile, within fifteen months. 
" Inactivity killed him in 1587," says the historian of 
tlie Jesuits. Thus it appears that Aquaviva sided with 
the king, whose adviser was the Jesuit Edmond Auger.* 



lnulD«4i WII0 tiO n>pn»ciil (o ihe Hjverdj{ii» llie daoger of the CadioltD rcLigion 

in Fr?uiei\ aii<J tlio cojiuivikiict.^ -jI lUv king, Kei^r/ tlL, t<> th&l aiau: tif 
fefflun, hy Hvr^tly fAVDuriTig (ho HiigiiPHOt*. — Ptuq\tieT, C'U. tin JfsuiJet, c. iL 
In 1b« ftlptubcUc&t ileFonct put fortii hy ihv ic^m^ touching the J uuU Lfo^^iten, 
Samrnrr a omilted ; m we may suppofie tlut nothing could be saiU la hiabTout. 
— Documents, i. ; Ja. irj?. p, J7. 

' Cnripcau, ii- i^5, H Juvciic, lliat Pitrt V. 

■ Ai tho momeni of thU h'M mnai Gultecl punttnu, Edmcmd Auger IwwtnM 
vtvy mien^linj;, putivulfirly « ne now tiod tlioi ihv moal del^rmiued adviser 
of heretic pmscrijition in tecome jjidiffprtnt, if n->t hwtile, lo Hit ^nind CaiboUc 
dcmonstntioD of t'nuii^^ Eilmond Au^pt, ivh«t n yoatli, wu n dumcstjc or 
onk-a^AtBnl aiiinn^ tlie JhuLUi n( Itouic, llin iijp<jpoFuti«ib luid A]i[>fLreiil 
UJeDt* meritoct vod wvn cnconmftpmfnl ; llu^ J«niil»i »t bim to vluiTy^ lie Ad> 

TiLticed, fij:ujv>l in Fruits u* mtc Imie refMl* tuid 6iib1Lj bocunc pEvadicr iuhI 
rnnfirwi to llmrv III. Thw hju m trying poflitinn, fur Hvorv hu one of thtt 
OMM pmBJgftte vwn of tJiat mu«E piuHigBto aga: aill *^ he luuJ priuuple* of 
rel1|^on/' ivFjUlivr Origiij thr JcBuii^obHrvn i ujd, nroiAy add, (Jint ihcMnw 
|fn«w mity hty hww^ImI to the wni^t nif^a nf the t!int — And iIja «*kii>o u lo b« 
fiiuiid m J^e pr^vuhng iruijih af Lhc ** rvligious** quMlitm on *!) <idn. Thv 
nnlivbcmiiy of pailu-nU iitTmtcd by tho Jcftuitn, i>r hI \v»Kt twivvd by tltvm. 



440 



HISTORY OF THE JGStlTS. 



This Jesuit )«ept aloof, with the king, from the machtna- 
tions of the League, Wliether it was a clever Hiroke 
of policy in the general, the result of that calculation 
which computed the infalUble catastrophe impending, 
is hut a matter of conjecture : certain it is that thougii 
Aquavi^a kept aloof, the Jestiit Leagiiers in France were 
as active as even and even accueod Auger t»f too great 
cotDphicency towards Henrj 111.^ because he did not 
"throw himself into the League with his Imhituftl fer- 
vour." Af|uaviva yielded or seemed to yield, and sura- 
moned Anger frum tlie Court of France ! Henrv c<>uH 
not do without bis father confessor, who " had felt the 
pulse of his conscience/' and appealed to the pope, 
craving liis intervention- The pope complied, the 
geiienU submitted, and Anger continued to feci Uie 
conscieiice-pidse of King Henrj' III, lleanwhile the 
Jesuit Leaguers, determined to achieve a triumph over 
heresy, had "fashioned themselves to a life half-religious 
half- military, which the danger's, tlie predications, the 
enthusiasm of every hour rendered attractive to men of 
courage and men of faith." ^ Many of the Jesuits were 

liloAfieJ Uic kiu^ for eomc tviuouh unLnowii, uid be took * part In them^drnwd 
ijj a «ftck, aiid pcFformcd iJl tli^ mumntcriM. Aoger pnbliAedt in 1514, « 
ireadBc □□ the iubject, eutJtJcd '^ McUuioelof^ [or, a discouiM oa ivpenUDfc) 
roiidi iD^ the ardi congregation of iwnilcntE of Our [dd/fiAunuiieutiija, mad «Qi>w 
Litlier bcBuliruL dcToot AaBcmbliu uf tbc HdI^ Chnroh/' Tha p«DpLe objwtvd to 
||]^ prhL^tioi-^ and bruided it fta bypocntiy ; but the king liked these meciiup, 
uid Ibc cnnfofiwr humoui-ed die disguflliiig fiiLCj, for to «u|)jK>ae piety ot Jtro- 
tioD iu Hrnrylir^ero fibsurd. He deacribeH find boiAla ijf ihcM p^nisnttiBl 
colOTieH, nnd iWw prattice*, initforgtflling Oieir wcks, their ^tnllcB, ibe diacipUiK 
ur whif i]ii>|;, luid fail:* not to he cxGcsnively Ktvoro od thoac crclmAfllifS uid 
UyriKTii ill great numbers who objected tu tbv mimiDiQdm. Au(rpT*g JaSnaiee 
wilL tbt king vfu lumi^l !■> ibo &coouhl of tlie CiifnpAiiy ; bal be »««iu huveir 
to b&ve ltd ui rxi'injibiTj life in npite of hia raoneclion utth Ibe Imrd aoil 
unphiielplpd king. His ijanegyrisc, Origny, »«y« thai be ■ppenrod I^j iwrvtil 
pET-ntne after biB dc&ib Tlie Hamc cnTn[>&niD& of Jeau* IeIIf nt th*4 Auger ••■ 
The Hmt Jesuit ivbo h%A Viit fioitoar to be coofcuer to the King of FnUiv.— Fm 
tin P- Eii'iivtui Aifj*i-j puT Jean tTOri^tf, p. 230, H arq. See ibo f^rymn. 






MUIUJEH OF THE DUKE UK OUieE. 



441 



cred bv the Huguenots : many of their colleges 
irere sackeJ : but they receiveJ ct>mpcnsatioii in other 
numerous foundations, — -when Aquaviva sent a visitor 
to ijivestigate tLo state of the French provinces of the 
Company of Jesus, He also enjoined Anger to in- 
duce tho king to permit his departure from that royal 
cciimcience wiiose pulse he hud felt so deeply. The 
Jesuit left tlie king. He went to Lyons, and preached 
agfiimt the Lea^e. The people threatened to throw 
the Jesuit into the Rhone : and be was ordered to leave 
the city within foiir-anJ- twenty hours. He went into 
retirement at Come J 

It was immediately after the Jesuits dopartore that 
Heury III. murdered the Duke of Guise, Tlien the 
pulpits blazed forth execrations, and heaped maledic- 
tions on the royal murderer, Keventy doctoi"S of the 
Sorbonne released his subjects from their oath of allegi- 
ance, and called down upon his head all the wrath of 
haiven and earth ; and '' a miserable little monk/^ 
naDied Jacques Clement, plunged a knife into the 
stomach of the king ; and the wound was morlak He 
had time enough, however, to make Henry of Navarre 
premise to pirnish those who had given him so much 
trouble, but, above all things, to get himself it/sinnied 
info a Ctttholif m soon mf pomsihlp^ — and then he expired.^ 
Henry wa« once before converted, we remember ; and 
u» words cost bim as little a« deeds, he made the pro- 
mise to the dying king who hail acknowledged him for 
his successor. It seems to me highly probable, from the 
Jesuit narrative of all these transactions, that Aqua- 
viva might have boldly *' predicted" the murder of tlie 

1 Cretiiinn, n. 101. 
Mem. Ann I JUJ», fte. &c. 



442 



HE5P0IIY or THE JESUITS. 






Guises. It i-ciiiaiiifi for ua now to cousider ihe L-uriuus doc- 
trine of the Jesuits bearing at once upon the evenU bodi 
in England anti in Fmuce, which have been jnst related 
The unliniitiid supremacy of the Church ovur di* 
State was tfaoii' aim— together with ftU the r^ulla of 
papal prerogatives. And how was that to be 
est^blislied i Not by ktn^, whose iiidividual 
interesta clashed with papal pit'i'ogativee — 
which in |>oint of fact were the repreaeutatives, ua^ffl 
the very substance of *' the Church/' If not by Iha 
idngs then, by whose overwhelming voice was the Si^j 
premacy of *■ the Church" ur the Cathohc Party to 
established i By the People. Conscious of their grow-j 
ing influence and ability to govern and to dii'oct thi 
popular will, the Jesuit'i did not hesitate to advance tL 
most sweeping domocnitic doctrines bs a baaia of theit 
nutcbinations. They deduced princely power from Llt4 
people. They blended together the theory of the pope'a 
omnipotence mth thedoctriue of the people's sovereignty, i 
Bellarraine, their everlasting oracle, discovereil tliat God 
had uot bestowed the temporal authority on auy one in I 
particular : — ^wlten(*e it followed that be bestowed it onj 
the masses. Therefore^ the authority of the Btate 
bdged in the people, and the people consign it some-' 
times to a single iudiridual, Komettmez^ to several ; but 
the people perpetually retain tie right of changing the 
forma of government, of retracting their grant of autho- 
rity, and disposijig of it anew. The Jesuits roundly 
asserted that a king might be deposed by the people foFj 
tyranny, or for neglect of his duties, and another 
elected in hie stead by tho majority of the nation 
Meanwhile tlie Catholic iuscendaiicy waa never for oe 
moment out of view,' This salient motive everywhewl 



PAPAL SUJ'ltEMACY AND ftEGTCIDEP- 



448 



dispels the ilhisioji wheu a turbulent democrat IrightenB 
sls lie reaJs his justification by the Jeauit-Juctors of tlio 
law. The vSupreniacy of the Church, or CatJioUc As- 
cendancy, must be tlie end of the people*^ enterpriae. 
Kings ai'e, indeed, rf'spoiisible to the sovereign People : 
but the people are subject to the eoveroign PontiiF. 
ich is the the<-»ry, but uiirortunately the pnictice is to- 
Jy dietiuct. Once rouse or justify, or couutenmice 
the revolt of a natiou^—aud then you n\ust leave eventa 
and the human piiasious to work out the problem jou 
have propose*). The only point ou which you may count 
iofalUbly, is the fact of revolt : all beyond you must leave 
to the direction of events and tlie passions of men ; and 
all who pray will call uj>on Providcucc? to avurt or miti- 
gaUi aJamity. In the Jesuit doctrines on this interesting 
and most important subject, it is impossible to separate 
the ideal supremacy of the Church from the soverei^tj 
of the People, which ift merely the iiiFtniment of Church 
ttuprcmat^y. Though the king is subject to the people, 
eccle&iastics are not subject to the king ; fur '' the re- 
bellion uf an ecclesiastic against a king is nut a crime 
of high treason, because he iw not subject to the king/' ' 
Thus taught the Jesuits by Kmmanuel Sa, at the peiiod 
ia contemplation. Defending themselves by right divine, 
ley decide tlie fate of kings and pnnces with a sweep 
■ Uie pen, *' An infidel or heretic king endeavouring to 
draw his subjects to kin hciesy or infidehty, is not to b? 
endured by Christians/' Pasaable enough ; but then who 
is to decide wlietber the couduct of the king comes under 
this bjiu 1 "It is the province of the soToreign pontifl' 
to decide whether the king draws them into heresy or 



> EiumuiQtl Sa, AjjIiKiihiii. Ctiiifiv*, m verb, Cl£ricvi, ^'Cbriri nWIlio tii 
Hon »l cHmeu fwiuo-nujc«tftlJ«i <|ui ami «■( Hilxtitu rpgi** — Sd^ 



444 



H18T0HY OF TUB JKdUJTS, 



not/' This beiug assumed, the coiisequuiice is ni 
follows : — *' It is, therefore, for the pontiff' to det^r- 
mine whether the king must be tleposetl or not'" 
What a wide field is here open to such a pope as 
Gregory XIII., who scrupled not to plunder so many 
barons on the pretence of musty parchments. And pro- 
claimed in the very midst of the dreadful struggle** for 
the religion of the sixteenth century, how powerfully 
such a doctrine must have operated to evolve tbc 
desperate '' stirs " in Ireland and England^ and ^H 
Franco — not without blood-guiltiness. It was. neve^^ 
theless, the doctrine put forth by Bellarmice— one of 
the moat inilueutial Jesuits — in 1596, 2fay, "the 
spiritual power,'* i, e. the pope, may change IciTigdoms, i 
and take them Irom one to transfer them to auoth^^l 
as a tipirituaJ princcj if it should be necessary -^^ 
for the salrntion of sonh^^ What is the meaning uf 
this prorao 1 I am unable to say — -unless the doctrine 
was based on the Bull of Pope Alexander \^., who ga^o 
the Kings of Hpain and Portugal the two hemispheres, 
dasldug m a word for the " salvation of souLs." Bu^j 
though we cannot understand the meaning of t^^| 
proviso, wo have but too plainly seen the result of the 
doctrine in the kingdom of England. Another Jesuit-^H 
and one of vast authority too — goes so far as *^^ 
" wrench the words of Paul " to the destruction of regal 
or secular power. " The language of St. Paul," saya 
Francis Tolet> in 1603. *M3 not opposed to it. 



^ 



', Noll liLi-t CbriAtiuiu tuh'rorfj rr^i^m infidelein nut ]ier«|jcum, al il)v 

pcrtL^at ail hu-remm Dpciie, |tei-duut od poriCiAf^eni, c\\\ eM\ ciniuiuiw ram 
rvli^Juiui. Ergo poiitJRtiB cat judicai-o. ivgom esw d^potiendum v«l nob 
neodum/* — Dc R\mi~ PoHfrf. lib- v- c- vii, 

' " PulcBt iTiuUiv rttgdn, hC uni ftufE-m*, ATfiur ^Ituri aiiiTvtrv, uui'jiimii |> 
epp* npicituHbaT *ii id n»ouariiiiii tit nd Aiilmni-uiii udutem,*^ — Btilurf*' v^i 




PAPAL RTTPREMACY AND REOtClDEa 



445 



mecUifl that all lu&o should L>e subject to tlie hiijhei' 
powers, but not to the sccnlur powers : for he does not 
deny to spiritual miDistei's the ]iower of exempthii) 
whomsoever, and as far aa they shall pleaae. from the 
ftecular power, whenever they may deem it e^yedtent" ^ 
A mere quibble, of course : biit the word " expedient " 
docs sound better than " the salvation of souls," Nor 
should this sweepiug prerogative surpriiwj us, since even 
the eternal is ruled by "the Church" or the pope, 
according to the Jesuit Maldonat, who affirms " for 
certain and immovable, that the Cljurch has the power 
of eYf^otomumcfiting even the dead, that 18, she may 
deprive them of suffrage," or the benefit of prayera.^ 
Then there is no wouder that the pope " can deprive 
princes of their empij'e and kingdom, or may transfer 
their dominions to another prince, and absolve their 
subjects from their allegiance which they owe to them, 
and from the oath which they have sworn, that the 
word of the Lord which ho apake to Jeremiah the 
prophet, &c. &c/*^ And if the idea of the prophet 
Jeremiah's giving a vote to this papal empire be pain- 
fully startling, you must summon all your patience to 



' " Nee ftcivcmtor Iidii; Tauli verbuiD, ^ui omnen vult etne nibjecioa pot«flt»< 
libva enMimEnHbus^nDb vcro sKCulBriluo : noti tomcra D^gat |jnic4(At':m miaifltru 

vimm fuerit."— OxnwTtf. in Epiti. B. PrntUf Apoat. ad Rman, j(niu/. 2, in 

^ " Doo (anwoi cena, 6xaque one ileb«Til : kJtcrumr Eoc1(?sUin pou^utem 
3iDvrtuoeejicDiiiiniuucM)diiid»t, JQBpriTondiBuffrs^js.'' — C^mfHTiBf, 
p. »vi. p. 3*^, E. 
Potest niA impvHo «t regno jirivuv, vel eonim ditiotieB lUim pnuclpi 
\ndenf,H «oniin HubdiUMab cibedieDtiiilliailebiU^ct jununcnturiictn ^lAolvtm 
Vt Terum sjl in poiit^fii-e Ronuuiu iUod viTbnin DcuniDi <tictuiii od propheUjn 
JvTVtniBm/' — Ik-bdd| E lurv put my wonlo m thy luoiitL : be^j I bftvc thi* <1bJ 
mt tbre airier tijc catiuiu, uid over tlie kitigduni^. to root out uid iv pull duim^ 
and to dntray vid to Oirow do^ii, lo bwild md tn pUnl."— CVwfWrt/. rtt £fan' 
griw. m^, if, u iv. P. iH. Tr. i^Sd. Mm. \S02, 



444; 



H13T0UY OF THE JESUIT8. 




bear that oven CKrist himself Lb made to suhftcribe 
the article, — "for in commainling Peter to feed his diecp 
Christ has given hiiii the power to drive away die 
wolves and to kill them, if they should be obnoxious 
the sheep. And it will also be lawfid for the shepht 
to depose the ram, the leader of the flock, from 
sovereignty over the flock, if he infects the oilier si 
with hia contagion, and att^icks tliem with his horns,"' 
A word or t^o from the rodoubtablo Parsons must be 
necessarily interesting- '* The trhoh' srhonf of ihr^n^ioH}' 
and ecci^dwitiait inwi/ers," says Parsons, '^ maintain— 
and it is a thing both certain and matter of faith— ttial 
every Christian prince, if he has manifestly departed 
from the Catholic religion and has wished to turn othoi 
from it, is immediately divested of atl power and digni 
whether of divine or humau right, and that, too. ev 
before the sentence proa ou need against him by 
supreme pastor and judge ; and that all his subjects 
free from every obligation of the oath of alli^gisn 
which they had sworn to him as their lawful prince 
and that they may and must (if they have the i>owel 
drive such a man from the sovereignty of Christian men, 
afi an apostate, a heretic, and a dcj^erter of Clirist tli^H 
Lord, and as an alien and an cnomj to his country. Ic^^ 
he cornipb others, and turn them from the faith bv liis 
example or his command. This t^le^ determineti and 
undoubted opinion of very learned menj is peril 
comformable and agreeable to the apostolic doctrine-" 



, ana 



r^TPs U^bt (.■'^nfleitti, ut corcUins petal* licoliil pMloH do piinclpAtu gKgii d*p»- 
a^^r^C'^A^j'- fvtitamnjCfjmmtni. inomnas E^^.S. PavU, Ae- Ijb. \. P. JiE, Divp. 

^ Respooiio ad Edict. Rogins AngVn, iect. ii. n. I£T ; Ed. Rarate, )&$3. 



PAPAL Siri'REMACY AKD UKtilClUES. 



447 



But tlus terribly practical Jesuit does not long amuse 
Ilia readers with such spiritual notions, forsootli. Into 
the ver^ pith of the matter he flings hia tuiglit^ head 
aiid horns, driving all before him in the camp of the 
* Afivarrc^se Liat\^^ as he callsHenry IV. of France, thea in 
his struggle with the Catholic League. Away to the winds 
with Henry IV. 's '' heresy, his suspected illegitimacy — 
^u^pecti-s nalfilihu:*~\i\B practices against tlie faith and 
other impedimenta — hb deprivation of power by the sen- 
tence of the pope — his rebijlUon and other crimes againat 
Charles X., Cardinal mid Khtij of I'vaucv — (enough, 
however, to exclude him) — lot all these impediments be 
no obstacle to hinj/' cries Parsons, "but this one thing I 
believe, namely, that the mofit iuiquitotts judge of events 
will not deny that the 7'r///ti/ poirc7^ is famided on dvH right 
and itof. rm fhv right uf mdwre trr thi^ rare. But tlie civil 
ri^iit (according to St. Isidore and all other philosophers, 
lawyers and even divines) is known to be what every 
people or state has resolved upon for itself, by those 
rondJLions whicli the commonwenl lias laid down, and 
this, hy its own will and judgment, according to tlio 
interest and arbitrament of each country — not by the 
necessity of nature, or by the decree and consent of aU 
nations — by which two points, natural iight» and the 
right of nations, ai^e <listinguished in the highest degree, 
and most properly, from civil right That kings are not 
hy nature, nor by the right of nations, is plainly evident 
from the tact that thoy were not at first necessary, nor 
have they always afterwards existed from the beginning, 
nor have tliey been received among all nations and 
people, nor have they always cvcr}Tvbere ruled on the 
aame conditions. The aj^reemcnt of the most learned 
men has decreed the conditions which are necessary to 




44±^ 



HISTOfiy or THE JESUITS, 



establish the rights of nature and of nations. Aa*! 
certainly if wo gu back to the beginning, we sliall finJ 
that the world held together without kings, for mauy 
ages ; and, besides the rest, that the Hebrew people of 
God, after the loug lapse of three thousand years ^t 
length received the power from God to appoint a king, 
not spontaneously, but reluctantly conceded. Among 
the Komans, for a very long time, there were no kings ; 
nor are there any among the Venetians, GeDoeae> uid 
other republics. And where kings are In use — fw wtu 
sunt — it is manifest that they do not rule everywhere 
by the same riglit : for the kings of Poland and Bohe- 
mia succeed not by generation but by election, wliose 
children and relatives lay no claim to succession at their 
death or deposition. Finally, the right and manner of 
royal rule are circumacribed by different limits in France 
to what they are iu England or in Spain, From all this, 
it seems manifest tliat the royal dignity and power has 
proceeded from the free will and ordination of the com- 
monweal, with God s ajiproval, wliibt it is bestowed by 
a Christian people on princes chosen by thcm&elvesi 
with this especial and primary condition, namely, that 
they defend the Roman Cathohc Faitli ; and they are 
bound to this by two oaths, — one in baptism when they 
are made Christians, — the other at their coronation. 
Wlio will be so absurd, or so blind in mind, as la 
affirm him competent to reign, who has neither of tliew 
rights 1" ' This contemptuous treatment of right divine 
IB not intended to favour republicanism, or democracy ; 
but merely to bring human motives to the exclusioti of 
an obnoxious ruler, such as Ehzabeth of England or 
Henry IV. of Fnuice. Nevertheless, the tendency of 

^ Ublsupri^D, 153— ft. 



MAUIANAS REOICIDAL <»riNIONfl, 



449 



such sentiments pronounced authuritfitivel}' in a time of 
agitation, must hare atldecl vast energy to the spirit of 
fections. Then the famous Mariana flung his strong and 
philoaopliical aciitimentfi into the whirlpool of politics. 
His whole book is altogether on lungs and their conduct. 
Full of striking and startlh^g sentiments is this famou.s 
book of a famous Jefiuit. His hciirt was brinifiil of hatred 
to tyranny : he tiid not spare his own general and govern- 
ment, — how could he be expected to mince matters with 
kings and their institute ? * Many examplea, ancient and 
even recent might he unfolded to prove the great power 
of R multitude aroused by hatred of their king, and Uiat 
the anger of the people is the destruction of the king, 
Laleiy in France," continues Mariana, "'a noble example 
was given. It shows how essential it is that the minds 
of the people should bo soothed: — a splondid and 
pitiable attestation that the minds of men are not to he 
govei-ned just hke their persons. Henry 111, of France 
lies low, felled by the hand of a monk, ^^^th a poisoned 
knife (biven into liis sLoma<:h — a sad spectacle which 
Imth few equals : but it teaches kings that their impious 
attempts are not without punishments. It shows that 
the power of kings is weak indeed, if they once cease to 
respect the min<ls of their aubjeeta." Brave words 
unquestionably ; and then he proceeds, from the siunmit 
of thifl glorious and popular notion, to the very depths of 
profeasiouat bigotry, mueli in the style of Parsons touch- 
ing the intended succession of Henry TV. — denouncing 
the murder of the Guises, to whom lie thinks no prince in 
Cliristendom is comparable — and then he exclaims ; 
"but the movements of the people are like a torrent ; 
Boon the tide upearges .... The audacity of one 
youth in a short lime retrieved affairs wliich were almoet 



rOL, J J. 



«0 



HISTOKT OF THE JESUTTft. 



desperate. His name was Jacques Clemeiit — ^bom In 
the obscure village of Sorbonne, he was studying theo- 
logy in the Dommican college of hia order, when, haviug 
been assured by the theologians whom he consulted, that 
a tyrant may be rightfully cut off . . . . he departe*! for 
the o<imp with the resoKition of killing the king , . 
After a few words had passed between them, preten 
to deliver some letters, he approached the king, com 
iog ]ns poifioned knife, and inflicted on him a d 
wouad above the bladder. Splendid boldness of soul — 
memorable exploit P . . . By killing the king he achieved 
for himself a mighty name . . . . Thus perished Cle- 
ment, twenty-four years of age, a youth of simple mind 
and not strong in body ; but a greater power gave 
strength and courage to hia soul/'* 

After this celebration of the regicide. MarianA pi 
ceeds to details respecting the method to be pursued il 
getting rid of a king. Admonition must first be tiied' 




* He wu uistuiil^ u'oundod by th« king uid dcftptt^hed bj ihc i 
Nor h RLbfidt^nejT&'g notice of this di^IeataLle murdn' lets Bigiiiliajil m I 
work profGa^edly vrritt^n A^nflt tlie prindplu of 51jLciii:iYeltL He calb At 
nnrdei? ^' a juj/ pid^'imtif "—jmlo /ui/iio^efffotti} *'hy tlie hiiiid of fc poor, ndO^ 
simple, homely friar, with tiie blow of a small \tnifQ. in tlit- kingV ovm ajiartiiM&ti 
nirroaDdpJ by Ixirt HcnnnLa (uid armed pEOplo, and a poHcHiiI troop wilh vhtrh 
Iw intended, in n few dnvs, in dcatr^ty the city of Parifl'* (!) " Poir lauio d* no 
pobre tnylvf mo^o, biuiplor y llauu, iJc una tiirnda ^ue le diu l-uu an rurliiUn 
ppqtieno i-n Hii miHino npoHflnto^ efllanilo v\ Rpy rtidwlo dfl f^Hiidoay ■!« ^ffitt 
■kiTDEula, y con un f\on:ito piKieroso con el qual pcnsATn uaohr dentro^ pnco* 
dijLH b ciudod de Pftiia." " }iAa the world over had an oxampb lik« iHb, » UL-vr, 
■0 «tfaagG, and neter bcfure hcurd of by moHab," i^nclfilfos thift tvtigiDu 
HfkcbiAvol, B tliQiiBaDd timed mor? pemiqimtB to humuiily th&n the police*) 
It&limn, becnniie the wickcdae»i wliich he fnubadtutps for ihu of lUfJittvd )l 
preaonled imJor ibo cloak of religion.— 7Vufrti/i> dr la TUliffion. c. xv, p. 90. Bd. 
M*drid, 159,^. He wrote More ilariwiA, 

* *' Tnfiigncmi Auiiiii ouiindtiiliam« rnclausmvinurrkbile. , . . QbB9 Regfl biffiii 
dbi nuDiflti fociL , , , Sic CIcmcne ille poniti rlgjat! ^luaCnor mibH mMimot, 
BimpliGL JLivenis ingenio^ noqut! robuHto corpore ; iied lOAJw vis rirei el i 
ConfirmalAt/' — Mariamit De H*^, f- vi. 



MARIANAS RBOICIDAL OPINIOKR 



451 



I 



"if be comply, if be satisfy the state and coiTect the 
errors of Iiis past hfc, I am of opinion that it vdW 
he necessary to stop, ant] to desist from harsher mea- 
nres. But if he refuse the remedy, and there remains 
no hope of cure, it will be lawful for the state, after 
sentence has been pronounced, in the first place to refuse 
to acknowledge his empire ; and since war will of 
necessity be raised, to unfold the plans of defence, 
to take up arms, and to levy contributions upon the 
people to meet the expenses of the war : and if circum- 
stances will permit, and the state cannot bo otheniviae 
preserved^ by the same just right of defence, by a more 
forcible and peculiar power, to destroy with the sword 
the prince who is declared to be a public enemy. And 
let the same power be vested in any private individual, 
who, renouncing the hope of impunity, and disregarding 
his safety, would exert an effort in the service of the 
state ... I shall never consider that man to have done 
wrong, who, favouring tJie public wiHhea, would attempt 
to kill him . . . Most men are deterred by a love of self- 
preservation, which is very frequently opposed to deeds 
of enterprise. It is for this reason that among the 
Dumber of tyrants who lived in ancient times, there 
were so few who perished by the sword of their 
subjects , - . Still it is uscfiil that princes should know, 
that if they oppress the state, and become intolerable by 
their vices and their pollution, they hold their lives upon 
this tenure, that to put them to death is not only lawful, 
bnt a laudable and a glorious action . . . Wretched, 
indeed, is a tyrant's hfe which is held upon the tenure 
that he who should kill him would be highly esteemed. 
Loth in favour and in praise. It is a glorious thing 
to exterminate this pestilent and mischievous race from 

a Q 2 



452 




HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 



the community of men. For putrid meml«?rs arc cut 
off, lest tlicY iiifeot the rest of the hoily. So sIjouIA lliis 
cruelty of the boast, in tlie form of man, be reinovcnl 
from the state, as from a body, and be severed from it 
witJi the sword- H© who terrifies, must fear for him- 
aelf ; and the terror he strikes is not greater thiin tho 
shtkldcr lie feels ^ . . . There is no doubt whelht-r it is 
lawful lu kill a tyrant and public enemy {the saiue 
decision applies to both) with poison and deadly herbe. 
The same question was proposed to me some years ago 
by a prince in Sicily, whilst I was teaching the theolo- 
gicnl schools in that island. I know that it hns l>iy*i!i 
frequently done^tf-/ aa^e factmn satmi^ — nor do I tliinit 
that any one resolved on the deed of poiaon would 
let slip the opportunity of destruction, if given, and 
wait for the decision of theologians, and prefer to 
assault with the sword — especially as the danger [for 
the poisoner] being less, liis hope of impunity is greater, 
in order that the public rejoicing be not at all diminished 
at the deatruction of the enemy, if th& author and archi- 
tect of public hbciiy be prosoi'vod. As for my p*irt» I 
am not considering what men aro likt^ly to do^ but what 
is permicted by the laws of nature ; and, indeed, what 
matters it whether you kill by the sword or by poison ) 
Especially as treachery and fraud are concede-l in the 
faculty of action ; and there aiv many ancient and 
recent examples of enemies cut off by that kind of 



^ *< VSlM/raJOk pluw vitiuii, eiijiu «i ron^tiu iwl n< r\a\ cecidiu^t, in ma^k I 
eraljd, tmn laudo futiiruD sit. Hoc uiniic genua p^-stifi-niiu el rxitiKl? tn I 
FfiTumutiiCAtp Qjctf^nuiuArc glurioRum oat. EuimverD i&cuilm quie^Mil tRtntnr 
« putriJn flunt \^k n^Jiqll^Tn corpm mficwnt : eic iata in liominis rpM-w b*«UB 
iirLiiumilaSj d. I'r'^mliJicii tani|uiuii h corp«rv amorpii JvLel^ fcma'jtiK rXKimU. 
Timfrir viJptiiTL't n^caite caL, i^iil toiTPl : nei|ue iDBJor wt tfrror itici)t«UB rjUB 



lAUrANAS REOICTDAL OPINIONS. 



403 



death . . . Jn my owii opinion, <leleterioiis drugs should 
not bts given to an enemy, neither should a deadly 
I>oi8oii be mixed with hiafood, or in Iiis cup, for the pur- 
pose of destroying him. Yet it will be Ia\^'ful to use 
this mctliod in tho case in question, if the person who ia 
destroyed be not forced to drink the poison, whiuh, 
inwardly received, would deprive Mm of lifo, — but lot 
it be applied outwardly by another person without bis 
intervention : as when there is so much strength in the 
poisoii, that if spread npou a seat, or on the clothes, it 
would have the power to cause death. Thus I find that 
the Mooriah kings have often dc&treycd other priuccsby 
the [poisoned] presents they sent tlieui, cousistiiig of 
precious garments, napkins, arms, or saddles,* and it is 



* By Rstrildiij coincidence, llic nUcgi^J attenipl at JOf/i/ff-poiiBon sgiir>»t Quoen 
fiGubeih, hy Si^iiirtfl, Bt thu inFtigalloti of ihe Jramit Walpolc, occiured aLout the 
MMcCfRH tliAi Moriuut ivugivingbiflcurioubOUggivtJuudto tli« Ltrutauf Jit- nge. 
FLubooL wmftiihUiJic<1 4t Tr>lH]oin I50n, uiJ SquirPSi'fi kII^^jc^ AEtompr touL. filnvr 
a thv wamc yrai; artor Iiavinz btsen cofiroctoci in SpaJn. Thf.< promuienoc wliich 
Mafijuia, tbiii id SpiLln, u;d an AutJiorilALive thoaluginn, gives to Ui#80 strange 
CACcvof |K»tBoniTig, vhitb he actually AUggcdts u uM/f^, must, I ChiQ|i,give«uiLie 
couutnmudeCo ihvulfoir, lu lui atffrnji1,]M}'*-*^ver bLqui'J iirnA^ oi'^m tu o ur igiiu- 
nuics of Huch iufcniiilL^ putnil C\>Ea«ucttD(i& It U ivr^^umatuiEijilly tvIhIo J by Pn*- 
ipier ud bj Camden ; had the fsclA are to foL1'm« : :ji|uin-B wu tia Ejiulish 
liriHHicr in bpain : he ttu sot Trt^o ai the latoi'ceBaicm oF Uio JenuiL WaljKilv, liia 
eountiynuui, who tried U> convert biiu, but hudiug tht! hLTPtic finocr di&n ha 
vipectodj W&l|io]c ^^t him UT?«lod b^ the Inqnincioa. 5quirv» tbm lumt^d 
Ohthotic Thorcuptjn the JcsuJt bcgikn to priLctiev ua Un^ folLDV, &nil |itu|riHKU 
the poisouing or the Queeu u a tine DObrini; to God, aaHuriitg hini that ho would 
run no ruk by pui^flung tbt* method he would nigguL U was a very subtJv 
pOMon, whidL ho wsm to rub on th« Queen'i s&dJk', jtuC bcfuiv «he moimted, so 
that her haadt on tmcbiag Lhe Boddle ihould rvccivc ibo vt-iidm. Tlic dudr oT 

£tmci was (o be aerrcd in like niminvr. lie fouud hia oppurlunity, got into 
tbv roynl stable just in time, and performed Ibo opentloa^ wliidi, lioivcTcr, 
lUIcd in the isnie : *^ ber budjr {v\t no diritcmppnturv, nor her hanJ no more 
hnrt iboii Tiud'a did when Lc ^liook ofrtlie viper into die 1^.*' Jlin attempt on 
I^Bei nu tt^uallv iiusuL^ijFwru], altUoiL;L;h it tttn^iigeil hia aUmuch at auf^i^cr- 
Xlanj^ Uhiiilbi? c]apA.J, ojul Wutinjlo, ual bearing of che Quccu^b di.-alJi, Mitl 
floipputuii^ iJiM SifuiiTA I4J played hun (aim; I'cbOlVHl to be even wiCii 
h<in> and b«iL over an t^ngliabniAn, StAnkj \'} iinme^ to aoeuw Sijuiiu> of ihn 



I 



454 HiaroitY op the jksuits. 

generally knovm that certain elegant boota were wickedlj 
giYcn by a Mooriali chief to Henry, tlie King of Ca^iLCr 
and fis soon as he drew thera on, hin feet were infected 
with poison, whereby he suffered ill health to the end of 
his days. A purple garment, adorned with gold, waa 
sent by another to the King of Grenada, and it kifled 
him witliin thirty Jays. A third peiished in A poijsoned 
shirt;'' 

I need not inform the reader that the maintenance 
these regicidaJ opiuiona forms one of the great cbai^ 
against the Jesuits. They are conscious of the stigmA : 
but instead of at once admitting the e\il tendency 
of these doctrines, and instead of tracing the docUinlB 

project Sqoirev Admitted tliAt " Wilpole hwl propowd tile mfetder to iudU bit 
thai be Imd never conBeDied to it, nor Qveu employed poi&oa for ihM potfMib* 
LinLtarde^tntcBLbftthc ''died uoortJngbotliUiB own iiuiocrtioc uiJ thu of Walpo)*, 
with liiBlAsibri»tti/' Cundcn mid Spci^ are tbcAiJLliQTitii^tovhicbLinguxlr?rcin; 
butCamJeo du^ not mcDLlDaf/ko/factj wlufh,1ii>i>eTi-rr might liaivOfeiLFreilwillt' 
out AlTcriD^ the fefeluiraor the coee, aim Lt fOQTidcd liimof faiKhmd. SttuIfT, 
the ftocuser, stated ih.il he wa* teni by the S]»ftrii(di imnisters la mm S-pirre m 
revenge for Dot killiag tfie fjUeeiL ; and on bt-ing racked^ lie ^id he fainuc^f ■» 
dl«pAl£hed lu nhotrC filijcabuth. Dr- Ling&rd treatA tho aSiktr u k "* riilieialcus 
plol ; ** ami to it might h« if dUcouneetf^l frota Mnriana'ft rnggvatioiu., rsAptftl 
at tho rcry titae. Wdpole fltreniJou^y denied tlio chai^, v n nwtter of amm^ 
uid Tilified tJie chuivctor of nSquirea, in ■ pamphlet ■hicb he pnblulMd in •df- 
der^npe. Jt is thc< pri^ciKnai of the atvomiioo wtiieiL ocoms to gire vd^ ID 
tlie cliATge, Nut tlial bejcIi poJHU ^u rcollj' poeoible, but intcmiril JVy titw jfrtiA 
after liie fjwhifln of Miriftmu Dr. Llngnn! fays thut Watpolc wi UkIb kkoaft 
to Squires : but tltia is couti^licted ty Watpole himself, stating tkat h«*lw 
and dtaU vith Sqmrf in 5fiuiri^/* 5ui:1l are tlie factJi, however, and tKfiT «• 
mny In&ve them, ^itb Uaioden saying, ^' A pestikEit opirtJOD hi4 pOMcand U>e 
caindii of Nmf! inca, ye^. nonxc pritsu (I am »lum?d tt spcali it) Ant M taW 
Aiv;iy the hvcB of ki[igB cxtMimmonJeiLTod, wae ntidnn? obe but to ir«vJ wl 
the coekle out of the Loni's Ge[d " Aluch Ja, ju we hAVQ 8«en, tbe Tvntablc 
opinjoit of ihe EoadiDg theologians then influeceiug tbe ago. — Sec Cundco, aol 
lA9a j Rapuii ii. p, 140 ; Tuqul^r, CAttfdiia. p, Cl2, f< tcq. ; Luigard> rUL All 
and 1.^3, note U, It 'n eurioUfl ibat tho pampbJct by Walpolo (mioayniDU*) h 

directed ogaJnut Sf^uira and not againit Stanlpy, lliongh evidmil^ the tsriiD* 
mofor in tlie di*clo*ure. — See ila ijile in Lmgard. 
* Mariuia, De R«g«, e, vti. cd. Mogunl. 1 605. 




EXPEDIENCY THE PLEA OF THE BEOICIDEJ*. 4,15 

themselri^s to tlie peculiar exigeucies of the times vrhen 
two parties were etriving for victory, the apologists for 
the J caiiit- regicides strive to mjstifj tlie minds of their 
readers with theological distinctions, and what is per- 
haps still wone, bj ealisting the whole body of Catholic 
teachers, from the earUest times, into tlie lawless raakfl 
of king"killoi"s or king-deposera. 

Like the blinded S&msoti, oh tliey cannot escape, 
they shake rum aroimd them, and enjoy the suicidal 
triumph,^ 

As many other Jesuits maintained the opposite doc- 
trine, it becomes of importance to bear in mind that ear- 
pedumn/ which pequired their influential theologians to 
countenance and to suggest rebellion and murder. This 
expediency was the triuniph of Catholic unity. These 
inflammatory doctrines were intended and issued by 
order or request, to promote that grand consummation,* 
Through numerous editions, these books circulated 



I 



■ See tbear voltimiDouB Apologetic Docattitatt, t. il, p. B3, tt te^.^ for ft list <rf 
"topn of iJif ThorQL§t and Dominican tLeoln^rianB, diHjtora of tbeunivcmtj-, &c,, 
*ho have profonied Uii; doctrine of TjruiDjcicle," Such U the (illo at tlie heaU 
nI UtD columij, wliilat oppo«te ihb eune, tbcrc is a Ust of *tJ/ Uie Jcfliut-prafcBBon 
of the doctrine, uiiouiitint! tu foLirtfeD oDly.— ii fart which \a moflt cDriuiuily 
itlufitntire of JeeuitiEm^ The Jesuitf txpodtctitlj- iiphrld tlte doctriii? diij-ing 
tbe tiniD it wMA needed by tlio cause Lbey wrved, and ma CHpedicnilj held dieir 
longn^ or thcif pens wh^ji tlie pohtico-rcligionfi i|iicetioti eubfiLildl or took * 
difficTDiit lurn— hbout ibe iniddli- of thv Hwi-ntecoth centarj', EKobu* being ilia 
liM TvfficidBl profiaBoP. The opposite Yisi of other ilocLnn find prafinaora at 
njp^^c extend? froui St. HiomoA la the the 13(h fentury, with r%pld euccea- 
non, dovn to the yew 17**3. Thcro w somefJiing extrcmoly unpleMMrt in 
KFiiig rfligiuu'4 men »o po^r to exhilrit tho shune of their collfftgacA, for tlteir 
own eKnuw ur L^xtenuaiiou. 

- Uuquc«[^o(ubly MAHaiuL^a work is the uio^t d4MEp^r«t<> vn the cuhjec^ Kod 
y*l *■ hb coTKtpowd it *l tli*i solicitation of BevEsm] piTson* al the court of Spain, 
awl it WHH prini'jd at Tolodi wltlk the pernuniou of the kiii^ and Ihp appri/ba- 
tjon at tlic Iiu|uifiitian/' — I/ocwimfa, L ij> G2. Hia llrat chaitter is a dcdivAliufi 
ur a<ldrn« lo Philip ril., whf> had jiul Buccvwtc^l to bJi father, the *' Klirriiig " 
Philip iLf AD. 1&!iB. 



456 



UlSTOKY OF THK JESUITS, 



rapidly : they were the grateful, the savoury fooci of llic 
partV'Bpirits then tempesting the world of stnig^lins; 
heiri^y antl raveuous orthodoxy. It niu^t not, fur uut 
moment, bo supposed that these denunciations of tyranny 
Were meant as universal applications, They were ili- 
rectcd pointedly and fixedly against heretic niler^ or 
such as did not go to the utmost extremes of the ultn- 
catLoIic party. UTiat greater proof can we need of this 
view than the foot of these opiuiona being ndvunced 
under the auspices of the ruthless Philip IL and lii 
Iiic|uisition ^ Their Jesuit promulgaiors wtrc eith< 
Spaniards and Portuguese, or the very pillars that su[>- 
ported the Spanish faction in Kngland and m Fraui 
Subsequently, when the party which had changed ai' 
in France, or who had reason to oppose the Jesuits 
whom they alsit envied, raised a clamour against tL 
rcgicidftl doctiincs, leading, as they believed, U> 
murder of Henry IV",, the general, Aquavivfi. issued 
decree against any further promulgation of such doi> 
trines, either privately or publicly, by advice or b; 
writing. This was in 1014.^ A Jesuit apologist he 
upon exclaims : — " This decree was so well obserr 
that the search has been in vain to find in the ft 
qtiarteis of the world, a Jesuit, who, since then, 
twught the doctrine of tyrannicide."' Not in if*yokt>: 
but there can be no doubt that the Company waa not 
cured of that disease by Aquavivas first mandate. 
Another decree was deemed necessary, ami itu^ued 
l(il6, agauisL the discussion *'of papal power, and i. 



:9 

i 




' Contmry to my naual pracdce, 1 muFit hen- *iti>p U* pniiit out a voloivi 
nirssUitonn.*iit — a oiLBdate of OiU ilonrc l»> llie Jcfiuit nf Uw? thituinfuU^ u iU \ 
llv ilnLcb it iLl' Irili iiFJuIyf l&Ill (tlir yviii- tAHtnrjtS !'/« omuij/i^ifMt), ^ 
it »iiJ» TBPiifiJ fin lb*' l«t n|' AqgUiir, |hl1 Spp LVtum^'* i.\ilU<<, t- v. ; 

hufit. S^ J. i. 11, p. 2fiL Kd. Ant. MWl. ^ Uovunicnli, i, IL <|J 



BiirCHEKS niiMOCRATlC 3EUMON3. 



407 



leposition, &r. v( piinccs" — dr iMttrxtatv Sianml Pontiji- 
riji super Prhtdftes, w^^ (fejifmntdi, &c."^ AikI oven a 
third was called forth fmm General Vitelleachi tenym^rz 
after, in 1626, 

But not the Jesuits alnno must bear the blame of 
these horrible iloctrinew. They were too convenient 
not to serve as cloaks for the unscrupulous rebels of the 
sixteenth century, as they have served in every age, in 
every nation.^ Nowhere were they promulgated with 
such furious violence as in PVance. It is unpossible to 
meet with any tbing more anti-royal than the diatribes 
thundered from the piiipit by Joaii Boucher, siiecca- 
mvely Rector of the University of Paris, Prior of the 
Sorbonno, Doctor find priest of Saint Benoit, and one of 
the most ardent firebrands of the League. This preacher 
found centered in the eatate^ of the nation, all public 
might and majesty — the power to bind and to loose — 
the indefeasible sovereignty and judicial sway over the 
sceptre and the realm. In the estates of the nation he 
found tlie fountain of these proi'ogativcs : from tlie 



' tiic ill OHg. Certf^umj Coll. c, t. 3. Such wiitings Tfcfc Gr>t to ba exudiiiod 
iumI ■pprovpfl At ItfliDO, lb, 

' Sec ihv ZJarumnjfff jignin for nnui^iiict uicii-lftliornLednca-latiiiDan the piv- 
vidcnce of robclUous or rcgicidikL yituticaf/rotn tht <arlial itm/«, in Italy, Ovr- 
uuuiy, ^pAiji> KngUnJ (which t]ie writer «coffliigly calls '*the cbuaic brad of 

liUTly," lUtJ ijuote*! tliia title h "ILil' l^ngai^ of iIid cuinplfibjEia iui<l choHjifAiu 
if ihi- Rcv-Julifni/' p. II n^ All J ffitn^rj vhcTt* "modi-m in^ilnnpoft- wpivifinfe. 
FifTci; 19 till? Jcsuit'ri upDHtroplii; to the TUiHlL-m eiiPTnice of Ui^ Cunipany. He 
Lhundt-n forlli : ** IJypucHdi^ fricndA of kiiij^Pi ihat you arc, ih^vEKrril I'ltLuiiei 
of ilie IntholJj- rcM^'itai, nnd ilfl Totu\y perscLiUorft — apostlte ol lok-raEiaii &nd 
librrly, |frewniinK Uj do vii-pleiice to cmiBcicDcev, uid vhooc uncxuiiiJle<J tymniij 
^■riflmta rven into llie JHisam of funilits lu aawuilt iJic rightii of iiar^mily, 
nUich w r»p«.vti!<i even Btuon^ tljo tnoat b>rbu*oiu nutioiiA ! l3nitnUy imr Lbe 
Hght of the (ilrcmgf^t, if yuu Ham: it — hnl gu no fnrthtT : t,r il a rcDiiuuit nT 
tliuae ioducis yua to otti^iEipl n jii^liti<.'AliuTi of your iriconi:civablL' iKCC^crf'^t ^rj 
jiiid liAiv «iiiiL- gkaiu <if emuniuii n.-uH, luid Uiuii nt ksfti t^i Ji'tt <lfm€nU o/ 
A*itor^.''— Tr ii p- I '*H, Suirli i* h upopinipn ol J««iit'fin? in thfir ih[iiilogivH for 

lilt proud Compkoy or Jurnjh 



458 



HISTOBY OF THE JESUITS. 



people be deduced the exisienc^ of the king — not by 
necessity and compukion, but by free election— jusl &a 
Phtsoiis develupii the glorious lever of machioatioii. He 
takes the same ^iew as Bellamiinc of the relation be- 
tween church and state, and repeats the coTuparison of 
body and soul. One condition alone, he says, Umits the 
freedom of the popular choice : one thing alone is for- 
bidden the people, namely, to accept a Afretic king : 
they would thereby bring down upon them the curse of 
God.^ '' Strange combination of ecclesiastical pretensiottt 
and democratic notions, of absolute freedom and com- 
plete suhjectiou — eelf-contradictory and anti-national— 
but which still could cast an inexplicable spell over thej 
minds of men/' exclaims Ranke : but there was really 
no spell at all in the matter. The Catholic party i 
botched up a theory to put down the Protestant party ; 
and they contrived it so afi to flatter the masses to put 
it into practice. It was a comparatively safe method in 
those times, and it menaced no reaction when the masses 
were completely dependent on the great It is different 
now-a-days : and those who have stirred the masses 
will be the first to bleed for their pains — and at the 
hands of the masses themselves, Iti those days, as at fl 
the present time, it was €?asy to rouse the thoughtless 
multitude. The Sorbonne had Iiithertc constantly de- 
fended the royal and national privileges against these 
ultra-montane sacerdotal pretensions : but now, after 
the murder of the Guises, these doctruies were preacted 
from the pulpits ; it was proclaimed aloud in the streets, 
and typified hy symbolfi on the altars and in proces- 
sions, that King Henry III. had forfeited his crown.*' 






ANTI-KEQAL PKLIISION UK THE SURBONNE. 



459 



id ** the good citizens and mhabitaiits t>f tlie city," as 
ibcy called therasclvea, turned, in their scruples of coo- 
science/' to the theological faculty of tlie Univci-sitj of 
Paris, to ohtain from it a yalid decision respecting the 
legaUty of their resistance to their sovereign, There- 
uj>on the Sorhonnc assembloil on the 7th of January, 
1589 ; and ** after having heard tho mature and tree 
couusels of all the magiBtri/' says their Decision, '* after 
many and divers arguments heard, drawn for the most 
part verbatim from Holy Writ, the Canon Law, and the 
papal ordinances, — it has heen concluded by the Dean 
of the Faculty, \^'ithout any dissenting voice — first, that 
the people of this realm are absolved from tho oath of 
allegiance and obedience sworn by them to King Henry, 
Furthermore, that the said people may, without scruple 
of conscience, combine together, arm theniselrea, and 
collect money for the maintenance of the Roman Catho- 
lic apostoUc religion against the abominahie proceedings 
of the aforesaid king,'* ' Seventy members of the Fa- 
c^ty were present ; the younger of them, in particular, 
voted for the resolution with fierce etithusiusni, '* The 
general acquiescence which these theories obtained,*' 
says Rankc, " was doubtless owing cliiefly to their being- 
at the moment, the real expression of events. In the 
struggles of France, [wpular and ecclesiastical opposition 
had actually como forward from their respective sidefi 
and met in alliance. The citizeiiB of Paris had beea 
countenanced and confirmed in tlieir insurrection against 
their lawful sovereign by tlie Popes Legate. Bellarmine 
himself had long been in the suite of the latter. The 
doctrines which he had wrought out in liis learned soli- 
tude — and put forwai'd with such logical consistency — 



iGO 



HISTOUT OF THE JEStJITS, 



anJ with 3uch great success, aniiounceil themselvet 
ihe event which he witru^sed, and in pnrt elicited,*^ ^^ 
Meanwhile thu Kiug of t^paiii was linked in tlie effon^B 
for the renovation of Catiiolicism — not with the priest* 
alona bat also with the revolted people. The people of 
Parift reposed greater confidence in Philip than in the 
French princes at the head of the League. A new j 
ally, aa it were, now presented itself to the king in tli^^ 
doctrines of the Jeauitfi. There seemed no roaaon ta 
foresee tliat he might have anything to fear Grom them ; 
they rather afforded his poUcj a justification both legal 
and religious, liighly advant^eons to his dignity and 
imiwrtance even in Spain, and immediately conducive to 
the success of his foreign enterprises. The king dwelt 
more on this momentary utility of the Josnit-doetriiiee 
than on their general purport and tendency/' ^ 

But to this papal theory of popular domination and 
omnipotence, tliere was an ant^oni»tic I'esistauoe 'i^| 
Protestantism. Tlio Catliolics had accused Protestantism 
as essentially the epii'it of lawlessness and revolt : in 
thcii- ojiinion to be a heretic and a disloyal subject was 
one and the same. Such was Catholic opinion ; biit 
tlie fact to which it alluded was never an^-thing else 
than the fixod determination in the Protestants to believ^^H 
what ihey pleased — unfettered by popes, imterrified hjfl 
papal kings. And now, in this anarchy of Catholicism — 
in the midst of this wild spirit of revolt — unsci-upuloiis 
and regicidal — Protestantism upheld the rights of 
royalty. It wa.^ a physical and intellectual, a moral 
necessity. ** Tlie idea of a sacerdotal religion niliiij 
supreme over all tlie temporaUties of the world, cncouE 
tered a mighty resiHtance in that national independent 



naiiJt(Vp» JrB. 



^ Id. ib. 



l>B0TB3T.mTISM THE RrLWAHK OP ROTALTY, 4fil 

wliicli is the proper expreaaion oF the temporal element 
of society/' Religion must be tlie safeguard of man's 
freedom — ttic shield of his physical, intellectun], and 
moral rights : if it cease to be sucli, it is the reUgionisni 
of a selfish party striving by force or craft to achieve a 
lucnitive dumination. Shoit-hvcd must ever be such a 
triumph, whenever and wherever effected, because it is 
based on injustice, accompanied by the infringement 
of those moriil and intellectual statute^! M-tich are tho 
covenant of God with man. In the land of Luther the 
anUigonisni of that lawless casuistry, by monks, and 
doctors, and Jesuits defended, stood forth iu defence 
of royalty, ** Tlje Germanic institution of monarchy 
diffused through the nations of Roman origin, and 
deeply rooted amongst them, ha^ inviiriabiy triumphed 
over every attempt to overthrow it — whether by the 
pretensions of the priesthood, or by the fiction of the 
sovereignty of the people, which has always flually proved 
untenable" Sovereignty of tlie "People" ! Tell mc what 
M Hie " People," hero alluded to, and I may undemtan J its 
sovereignty. Half-a-dozen bewildered heads above, and 
ton thousand oonviileivo hands, anns, and legs below, 
may represent the tldng in practice. Toll me of the 
sovereignty of pbyeic^il, moral, and intellectual Jtisticc, 
and I can understand the splendid theory of which it 
can be made the basis : but if you talk of the sove- 
reignty of tlic " people/' a hundred historical remem- 
brances rush before mc, and I find it impossible to 
behevo its propouiidera aught else but calculating egotists 
— not even hot-beaded fanatics. And in truth the end 
and aim of that theoretic sovereignty were not niis- 
nnderstood at the end of the sixteenth century. It was 
spiritual monarchy for the pope, an<i it was temporal 




462 



HiSToRY OF THE JZSlllTfl, 



monarchy for tlie King of Spain. Noue believeiJ 
leagues sincere : the designs of the Catholic princer 
were refined in the furnace of lionic, and worked to 
their ohject by the pope : the extermination of Pro-^^ 
testpantism was the grand finality.^ The priestho<.>d and 
the ''sovereign people" were combined to ororthrow 
that antagonism, by raising over Europe orthodox and 
persecuting tyrants, to supply the place of those whom 
tlie deposing power and the regicidal (loctrines might 
efFectually incapacitate. Then it was that the doctrine | 
which upholds ** the divine right of kings '' found sup- 
porters, ^' God alone," the Proteatanta maintained, 
" Geta princes and sovereigns over the human race. He 
has reserved to Himself to lift up and bring low, to 
apportion and to moderate authority. True, He no 
longer descends trom Heaven to point out with his 
finger those to whom dominion is due. but through his 
eternal providence there have been introduced into 
every kingdom laws and an establislied order of things 
according to wliich the ruler is chosen. If, by virtue of 
thia apjjointed order, a prince is invested with power, 
his title is precisely the same as though God's voice 
declared, Tliis shall be your king. Time was when God 
did point out Moses, the judges, and the first kin^ 
personally to his people ; but after a fixed order had 
been established, those who suhse^juently adoended the 
throne were equally Gods anointed as the former-"' 
Such waa. agiiin, another compensating permission of 
Providence, to eventuate equihbrmm in the affairs of 
men. When first I called your attention to the subjects 

' P1i. lie Moniftj. Mem, i. p. 1 75. 

< ** ExjiUcalko 1. ontrovt^r^anim t\\it^ h nDnnnllia movcuiiir ex Kenrici Borboni 
Tt^ in rv^um Fruiciie CDtiatitulIapr," c. ii. ; apud RAbke,p, ITS. 



PHOTBSTANTrSM THE BULWARK OF ROVALTY, 463 

we beheld Ignatius rushing to tlie rescue of Catholicism 
— aad eflectuating something Uke an equilibrium,^ We 
behold that very Protestantism, which he and his 
followers managed to hold in check, now presenting a 
rampai't against that anomalous tide of opinioDB which 
threatened the physical, intellectua] and moral freedom 
of mankind. It waB a glorious destiny for ProtestantisuL 
In rallying round the banner of royalty and right divine, 
at that period of man's history, the angels that preside 
over empires sang — Gfort/ to God in the highest, mul on 
enrth pence, fjood ir/'il foward m€u. I allude to the 
effects of that reaction. The infatuated. Bcnselees, CTcr 
abortive attempts of Home and Spain against England's 
monarcliy, served but to cement more strongly together 
the everlasting foundations of that essentially Protestant 
throne : the people's wisdom and loyalty helped them 
along towards that exalted destiny which has made, 
and will ever make. Great Britain the central power of 
the univerac. And well had it been for Franc© had 
faction not compelled Henry IV. to sacrifice to it that 
religion or theory, if you hke, which, once established 
around tlie throne, might have utterly shut out those 
hideous abuses which festered and festered through his 
reign, and the reigns of his successors, until they were 
visited with their penalties in the great Revolution.^ 



* See rol, i. p. CO*. 

S Tl ifl iikdofd mnut t-pjtiKrkalil^ tlmt, fnim (he TtcfonniLtinii down to thit pre- 
KDt time, Tutimid rfllainiCica hkttf fcArTully hong cm the ftbosm of Ronuuiinu 
round *boui ihc tJmmea of Europe. Exjuninc th* Bvbjc^l — eren beginninE no 
r&nher back iliiuk Philip 11., adJ Spain and Portagsl — tbroo^b SooUAtid uid 
llu7 — -EngUad &aiJ CbarJes l.-wAuBtria, Pol&nd, BavftHii| FrantH' — crrrj- 
nh^Tv ibi^ rnnruntm of llinf gmngrpnp whow tfirminiirmn » dpiitb^ It Hcmi 
■bnoflt TidiL'tilons to inatimce the tasl illiistratum m Ibi* inttrwting Uienry. I 
nwui ttiff Ub' Ftkirmixh if the Taudi^ni Jeaaits m SwiL^i-Hand, Tlutt eri'iit imd 
II* uiiiri«iiAlv rcsulii ^ve the JDiliatire to lh« ^dpmic revolatiooi wbieU ^re 



4C4 



HISTORY OF THE JESl'lTS. 



Now, therefore, Protestajitisiii was the spirit of 
anti loyalty : Catholicism (with a fi-actional exception) 
was the spirit of wai' and revolt. Tlie former " insibted 
on the necessity of submitting even to unjust and 
censiirahle sovereigns. No man is perfect. Now, if it 
were onco dcemerl allowable to deviate from the orde 
appointed by God^ creii trifling defects would be seii 
on to justify the deposition of a sovereign. Not even 
heresy on the monarch's part could, on the whole, 
absolve siibjecta from their allegiance. The son must 
not indeed obey tlic impious father in what is contrary 
to God's commands — in other respects, however, 
continues to owe him reverence and subjection."* Asi 
contrast, take the following ; *' What is more e^tccrablejl 
says a contemporaneous author, " the Sorbonne, formerW 
the honour of the Church, being conaiilted by tl ' 
Sixteen, concluded, by a public act [abeady given], that 
Henry of Valois was no longer king, and tliat 
might he justly, and with good reason, raised agait 
him : the Sorbonne approved the acntencc of dcgra-1 
tion fulminated against the king — whence ensued the 
attempts against his person. We may say in tmth tha 
it was the Sorbonne who killed him, since it excited and 
resolved the assiissins to such madness and wickcilness 
. . . . The Sorbonne compared the parricide of a 
king, oh execrable blasphemy ! to the holy mysteric 
of the incarnation and the resun^ection of our Lord-'** 



nmr scAtuHng dioma^ over Earope •- rcvolutioT^n whcirat tbo tkoogKUeHB ' 
exaUf bnt ihn vjtv mnal forcbmlf' dcsfthilbn. In thp miclat of thin criffls — uiil i 
tliBso nonla otts prinEtil> wnr will l>o Kuropo's occup&tictD— in Lbe midil of ddli 
crisiH t]iD Popi of Ri/nw prctcudH to firrfend rptribution from liui ihronc bj Xhatf 
littli' ItaliAii (^i<^kfl which ihL'iv In a pjLrty iu Elngland M cliiwr uidiH|iplui(l \ 

' Thiflpntnut from rt^Icim (l, iii. Iivn- vin. p. MiH)^ Ifi trinmphiuill^ AUf^>d ftj 



MUBDER OF HUNHY Ml, OP FRANCB. 



U5 



The Jesuits were not contont to applaud this execrable 
deed in their factious assenibliefl ; they celebrated it in 
writing ; and thej 'lid more. When the a&sassin's 
mother appeared at Paris, they told the people to go 

Ifa? mjcinftlj In lie qnolrd Wm, ibe rapitid Ifttcrt ami fWirJ" heing tl^e Je»uite' : 
** Ce qoi ekt de plus PH^^raljIc, b Sc^rlimmL-, ftntrefniii rhnnni^nr 'I** I'Fgliw, e^n- 
ittLli^ par h» Suek, coDcluLt r*^ f^^ public, ^ue Henri dp Valtiin n'l'tiut plus 
roJ, «1 que Voti pouTait jaalcinf^ni tt k Ihid Jroit {jreadre lea omtB contrc 
)ui ; 1* SnrbnnQO approuvala digniai'mn Ou H"l, Tiiliuitui contre lui ...,., ; 
d'ofi s' cnjvizirrr't lea AtlcnUts coionus depiiia 4Hi /a jfcrtOH-v. Kgub pourann 
d^ 01 Ttfritd qiiA c'rst la SoKnoNHs gnr l\ the. puiftquVllo a t?jriT& kt itEtoLu 
Itt awBwina k [ellc rr>r«nfrLf et TOtfcliaiii»CiJ .... Elle a couipfircf b pArticidc 
iron i^Hod RoifOhE blMphemc ex?orAljle ! aujc tainU myat^i-ra dr Pinrantat/oa 
fi rfnrrtctiofi dt nnirf ikiifn'Atr"^Liomv\n\tt, I, ii. Now it h»|>poiis Ihnt Ihe 
Jfiaaii ooUegt «»h oiip af thu ftHiIeEviHis i»F Ui<? Sijiart! Svc DanLi, i. 517, 
HDd rhe JeHuilH (honuflvofi nn? fortvd to bdinit dial At litLSt ant nf lliifin vtKn 
**Kmetinic»^ pi¥««Tit M thf meeting or tJw^ Sixtntif Daindyf Pij^unt, "at tli^ 
request of Briflsou," ri^ramtJi, vho liiul nnLbiitg to <!□ witli the fHctioa, for hi? 
"d«£l&tv*l fur Henry |V.,iLnJ waaliiuLgcd iLCPDrdinglv- by tlit Li^guerK id IM'I /' 
AB UiF Jtfiuil Fflltfr iaforniF- bU rfailf'rn. I[ wb« » pcrrel, cmili*" aanemljly, uiJ 
noTM eould li4> itiltnilttil «h4 wi.'re not i^wtini metDb«rfl ; i&rid Hirtkioly not for 
1h# purpose of '* tnodcmlin}^ tJic fur>- of t^inl c?LP4Titb[p tribuiuJi" nh Itichcump 
the Jwuil cbITa it, jLt tbc- time vhcn Affairs had cbimgoJ fAcen. Et tbuA follDwn 
that ODC Jeanit, at Iphhi^ votpd for the bliMj^hemy nbuxc given. I ha™ befwo 
quoted this juluiisdimi of lUehcome (/>e fn VcJ^tfi rf^ewjH, c- IvLj, and h U 
unnng tli^ eti.<n'JJn;Q;ly flopbifitii* /Wumm^i nf the JiHtiils, L i- Dtr Jtruirem 
Ligtititra, p. ^S. PwjuifT 4ddTCft3«a tlie Jemiita an fnlln*B nji Uie mbject ; — 
" Re«p(<cttng whAt \mir oppuor-nC? objei?t to you, (namely, thai ycui' Father 
OdoD Pigenat vu Uir captain of die ^iAlecii who ruled in FariBj nnl only Uie 
ordmuy magialJiite, but evcu t)if kingt) yimHdnait f^ii' ficliiD your plmdin^«, and 
thphook nrMniiljtgni^H (hJe.ni!t),chap. 1vi, - tru^-^ynu siLyitn-.-um ntAt^in 
ite t]ieiractibTi4 wmcwlmt. Whfii wti riAil thc^c tn'O lASAni^'i^ vr? bo)^ 
to laugh, knoiking thil PlgciiAtf tbougb by nomciuiK ^flc] with wLndom. burned 
with fire and angrr : in faot, he \\va sinro lljen become so fnrituwij mad, that be 
If COaAilvil In a rtxini ivkH liound Mid corded/'— Cttiic/'Umt, p. 20J, A, ITii* 
Pi^DAl muat Dot he eitoffkiuidiyl nith hiH hi*othpr, FraDn* Pigf-nnl. a furtOD^i 
(ireAclipr of llic Leifcuo, whn u;:ni.i1 the dcpoddcm of Henry lll.i pronciUDfcd 
tfu fum^aJ orajioR of the Guiatw^whom ho caHed martyrs, and declared ihn( it 
wu itdponibte for Henry IV. to be coavertod— moreavor, thai the pope could 
nfM aivy^ve him — and, jf he did, he (ibc |iopv biinneir) would tx- excommuni- 
cated/' — FtJfir, ffioif- I'niv- Tbey iv^iv Jrcfvlf4 itftlo^ ra you prrepive ; but 
thft Jesuit uf Iho Documfnta U Dot, of courae, flatisBed Hilb the ^ridenoi- npitiMi 
the JetHit-hrothett aiid wouU have ua be|i«ie that the vwma of Fnmrit luire 
be™ aaprihed to Odon !— FH #«»ppi, p- JlJ, rt tr^. 
vol. II. » » 



466 



HISTORY 0? THE JRaCrPS. 



and 7}e7i€rate th<U blessed juvlhr of a holy martyr. Thus 
ill Uieir pulpits they called the murderer a martyr, ajid 
they styled Henry IIL a Herod. They placed the 
portrait of Jacques Clement over the altars of llieir 
churches ; and even proposed, it is said, to erect a 
statue to him in the cathedral of Notre Dame.^ It ii 
remarkable that the king was murdered on the very iij 
he had appointed for their expulsion from Bordeaux. 
They had fomented the machinations of the S]iaui«h 
faction and the League against the king in that city : 
ordered them to quit the place quietly, to preve 
"scandal and murmuring :" they retired to the neig 
bourmg cities ; and in their annual letter cclchrated 
murder of the king aa a vindicating judgment.* Ai 
no wonder that the servants exulted at the crime, wl 
the master praised it to the ekies. Pope Sixtus V^ in 
full consistory, compared the raui'derer to Judith and 
Eleazar. "This death/* said he, *' which strikes such 
aatoniahmont and admiration, will scarcely be believed 
by posterity. A most powerful king, surrounded by a 
strong army, who had compelled Paris to ask mercy at 
his hands, is killed at one blow of a knife, by a poor 
monk. Certes ! this gi'eat example was given m ord 
that all may know the force of God's judgments."^ " Td 
nothing hut the hand of the Almighty himself" says 
Spain's ambassador to Philip, " can we ascribe His 
happy event ; and it leads u8 to hope that it is no 



■ Hist. ikhT^gt icfl Jomitaii, i, 1 1 1 ; FiOirt, Ann. 15^9, 

' Atid. Litl Soc- JcHTj. Ann. L^Hfl. iti tit Coll- BiinHgufcriHe- "Quo di* 1 
regia tdiclo HurJigiLld ppllebuunr, do die rex ipse qai ediiorBt, t riU < 
t*L At "09 cfjnipiiigolumur ail S. Macharii . , - , ut wmnl opprimi;n<mi]f 
oiuuesf Kcu hiHT «ui(pdi> iinitLomm, mu funa tnlit, nisi unteA optrvewis iQe 
unuB fiiiaw^t."— Apud La jctmCa C^nnuFt, p. 20£. Hilt- dn Mat, de Mnti^iHi, 
livre ii. cc. nviiL xix- : C'oudretl*, i. IBfi, ri teq. 

> Hiflt dea JpKdilH, i. 1 12 ; Ranki?, J73 ; DiipKecio VoncK I SettPinK 




HENBT OP NAVARRE. 

a// oirr trttk the /leretics."* The joy of Ihe ortliodox and 
Spanisli ;uid papal party was univerBal, and gushingly 
expressed. 

Meanwhile, the inimeiliate consequence of t-Le murder 
provod that it was not all ovor with tho heretics, 
Henry of Navarre, as Henry IV. assumed the title of 
King of France, being the next heir to the throne, and 
named auccessor by the murdered king. iStrango had 
been tho fortunes of the Huguenot Henry. In his 
infancy a conspiracy had beon contrived to seize and 
deliver him, with his mother and otht^r support^^rs of 
heresy, to King PhiUp and tlie Inquisition,^ It failed ; 
and he Uved to be frightened into abjuration by 
Charles 15., as we have read, during the massacre of 
St, Bartholomew. Henry IIL, on his death-bed, advised 
him to turn Catholic if ho wished to enjoy the crown. 
Ho waa still a Huguenot, notwithstanding, The League, 
PhiUp II., and the pope, were reflolved on no condition 
to suffer Henry to attain tho enjoyment of his rights. 
Pope SixtuH had pro|K)sed his own nephew to succeed 
when Henry IH. aiurdered the Guises :^ he had since 
exconununicatod Henry of Navarre, and delivered him 
over to the rancorous animosity aud hostility of tlio 
papal-Spanish faction in France. Tho Jesuitfi did not 
remain idle. Pope 8ixtus, in order to fomont tho 
opposition, sent over Cardinal GaeLano as his legate, 
and associated with him the Jesuits Bellarmine and 
Tyriufl^with orders U* effectuate the election of a 

'''Ha pliu k Nostre Seigneur Ae notu eo dealiTivr par un cvtfiieiDcnt ■ 
bemvo^ i(u'nn nc p^tit I'Mlfihuer qu' i w nuio loutp-puiBaoalCi t<t qui fud 

^ "niiULTi-l xnKTi. Aim. I5fi4. QiKvnrt gives t)te plot (o Ihe Jmuti, ii. 105. 
* Ruke, 161, 

II II 2 



4ti8 



HISTORY OP THE JESDlTft 



ItoDian Catholic king for llie people of France, At tlic 
head of the other Leaguers they led forth processions ; 
prescribed double fasts and vows to keep up the agila-^j 
tion in Paris ; kept watch in their turn as sentinels ;^M 
and made themselves "generally useftil," together with 
the otJ/er j/iOfJi'Sf according to the desires of their master j 
the pope. Over the kingdom thev spread witli tbe 
same pious intention. They preached sedition U\ their] 
sermons, scattored it by their written addresses, and 
infused it into their fanatical cfmffjTfiaiions— that powerful 
arsenal of Jesuit-macIiiJiation." The horrors of siege 
came upon the deluded people. Round about the 
rebellious city Henry IV- and hie Huguenot army 
encami>ed in aiTay ; the Leaguers ^vithin — nionka, 
doctors, and Jesuits — kept up the spirits of the deluded < 
Parisians vnih potent doses of wild fanaticism : the! 
pensioners of Spain administered a dose of their Co/Ao-' 
licon, atid their miserable dupes consented to suffer for 
what was called religion and orthodoxy, Tlirough tli€j 
streets they went, following a huge crucifix and iniagej 
of the Virgin Mary, by way of standard, with tlie 
Bishop of Senlis for their captain — a motley crowd of 
priests, monks, Jesuits, and ** devout and religious " 
citizens, resolved to defend their religion by force, like 
true MacefiljOGB, or die in its defenee. '* And in that 
beautifiil and devout assemblage, there were some whose 
bones pierced their skins by stress of fastings and absti*J 
nence. such as the beting friars of St. Bernard, eating] 
only bread and raw herbs, or by way of a delicacy, 
boiled in salt and water. The sight of this beautifiil^ 
and devout assemblage so inflamed the hearts of 
people, and with a fire so ardent, that it seemed a4| 



4 

r 

I 



M 



Uist dn deniiera Troubles, Ann. J589 ; Condrctte, 1 1 8B. 



SIEGE OP PARIS BY HBKRT IV. 



469 



though the whole ocean would not be sufficient to 
quencit the least 9|>ai-k of it^tfue Umte la mer ne fmi 
pas baatanic jmur ch efilrehidre la moi/idre estincdle" ' 
There w^s odo slight (Irawbaclc on all this gallant Jovo- 
tion — want of food — want of everything. Tho pope's 
legate^ the Bishop of Paris. aiiJ the Hpanish ambassador, 
Mendoza, proposed to convert the aiher of tho churches 
into money to pay the troops ; and the y])aiiish ambas- 
sador laid a premium on the duration of the miserable 
fiiege, by euga^ng to distnbute to the poor dupes of 
tlieir toachei'S and masters, a hundred anil twenty crowns' 
worth of bread daily : and thus, in behalf' of his master, 
ihe King of Spain, he prolonged the sedition so aonse- 
leSE aud useless, at the paltry cost of 30/. per day, 
yielding a miserable subsistence to starving thousands,^ 
Meanwhile, Henry IV. pressed vigorously the liopelese 
but fanatical city : — ever yearning for peace, ever pity- 
ing the delddcd dupes of the faction, but still resolute in 
defence of hui rights, aud determined to enforce, if he 
could not conciliate, the surrender of the rebelhous city. 
Vain were the vows of the deluded ^Tetches to our Lady 
of Loretto in the dreadful hunger of tlie thousand 
mouths feeding on horseflesh, muleflesh, and bread made 
of powdered bones dug out of the tombs. Vain were 
'■ the very devout processions of people who went bare- 
foot," with long prayers aud a thousand mummeries all 
the livelong day and the livelong night — whilst harrow- 
ing disease, like plague, made the spectres of famine 
more horrible to see. To reduce the swellings of their 
hmbs, and the nnmberless maladies of the himger- 
lorturetl wretches, the pope s legato distributed pardons 
and indulgencies aiualu , and the monks, priests, and 



Pi«m Conwjo, U^miT, DUeoiir§ hr^ ft tvrilahU. 



Id. ih 



470 



HISrORY OF THE JESUITS, 



Jesuits, gave them sermons " wliidi so encouraged 
ill all tljeir sufferings, that the sermons sencd them J 
bread — qtte Us nn^niina leur servoyent da pain.'* And 
whan they falsely told them in these sermons that tlicy 
wouhl be relievod in eight days, they went away con- 
tented.^ Poor, miserable dujjca of priestcraft, Sball 
liumauity never be rid of the heartless, fiendish inir[uity 
— the true Moloch of earth. *' Long live the King of 
Spain/' the miserable dupes were taught to shout withiu 
the walls of the city, pining in famine, wasting in 
disease. For a little crust of bread the poor wretches 
" blind in tiieir uiiaery, saiig songa to the praise of the 
Lea^c> and boasted of their good fortune in belongiiig 
to a Roman Calhohc king, namely, the Kin g of Spain. 
And Mendoza, his ambassador, to reward their fidelity, 
scattered among them a quantity of coppers stamper! 
with the arms of H(min: **Long live the King of ^pexu, 
more lustily they shouted.^ Stilt they starved : 
coppers could not feed them* So desperate was Ui« 
famine that eight thousand persons died in a few d^y^ ; 
and Irantic despair, with unavaihng tears, called for 
pity and for food- " Give us bread ; we die of hunger," 
they now cried, when Mendoza flung them his S)>anish 
coppers. And the people must be fed, if factiou must 
endure : so it was proposed and resolved by tho prelates 
that all the houses of the eccleaia^ics should be ^"isit^d 
and searched for food to feed tho starving du[>Gs of 
faction ; a contribution from each house, according to 
the supply in hand, was deinanled. The Jesuits wore 
the first to refiise consonL to the expedient, the charitalite, 
the just demand ; and Tyrius, the rector of the Jesuit 



i 



3 I'i Corueju, it&i'flH7>ra. 



ia.ib. 



/^ 



FAMINE DL'KINO THE &1EQE UF PAiUS. 



471 



college, petitioned the [Kipc-'a legato to e:xoLupt him frotn 
thiB visitation. '' Your request is neither civil nor 
Christian," said the sherifl' of the merchants to the 
Jesuit "Why ghould jou be exempt? Is your life 
more valuable than ours?" They covered the Jesuit 
with confusion, and set to work with the visitation. It 
was all clover iu the rack of the holy fathers. They 
found quantities of wheat, liay, and biscuit, enough for 
a year's consumption. They found also a large quantity 
of salted meat, wliich tlie Jeeuits had dried to make it 
keep. In short, there were more provisions in tlieir 
hou^ thfin in the four best houses of Paris.' Hence you 
see how much better it is to be the leaders of a faction 
than iLs dupes ; and here we see how the siege was 
prolonged. If Henry could have starved out tlie leaders, 
the Spanish ambassador would have been long before 
bowed out witli his coppers. But is it not bitterly 
ridiculouH to find out at last how these roaring bellows 
of sedition fortified their Inngs to preach their falsehoods 
to tlicir miserable dupes ^ And is it not disgustingly tme 
in all times, that incencUary pharisees. whilst they 
preach up sacrifice to their dupes, take vast care not to 
be themselves the victims 1 Not a single house of the 
ecclesiastics was found without a supply of biscuits 
sufficient for a year's consumption at the least. " Even 
the house of the Capucliin moiikti, who are said to live on 
notluug but what is given to them clay by day, reserving 
nothing for the morrow, but giving the remnants to the 
poor — even their house was found well provitled. Wifereat 
many were astonished " — and well they might be, if 
they were stupid enough to take them at thoir wnrd.^ 
The provisions thua obtained, and sold to the hungry 



P- Cormjoj 1161 ^firk. 



' P. C«rfiL-ji>, ttli ittprA. 



472 



UWTOBY ^'F THE JESUITS. 



peoflo \vlio liad money, fuid given to tlioso who had" 
uonCj staved oft" the ianiiue for a ^¥llUe — for tlio ilomand 
was ouly made for fifteen days ; aud wLeu that term 
expired the suppHes stopped, and the second state waft 
worse tliaii the first, Doga and cats liad Ijceu boili 
up in Iiuge cauldrons, ^vith herbs and roots to feed tlii 
poor. A bit of a dog or a cat, and an ounce of broai 
liaJ been the allowance — nay, it was a stipulated ooU' 
Uun jtnnouncod to the poor wretches that, before thi 
distribution, tliey must bring all their cats and their doga 
to a place appointed. And yet they made them pay, 
and very dearly too, for the bread at sixpence a potun 
and the biscuit at eight penre — a nice Bttle tnifiic foi 
the Jesuits and other chuiehmen duiing that fair of thft 
famine.* Henry IV. pitictl the dupes of the heartleei 
faction. Their orieii reached hb^ cainp, aud resounded 
afai" : shrill were the pangs of agony* Dead bodies 
strewed tlie streets of the city. Night and day 
buried them, and yet there were more to be buri 




< Thuw- cburohmcu gold the skim of tlie dogs aiid catN to Che aUmug 
It JAAfllniii-d that lLiU dog-ftoeli luiil I'ttt-Rcdi vtcn; lold by some otlh*ac iBOttbl 
jinJ priesla to tlio Lmi^nt ot ^0,0011 crowoa, " For these (iriests, fore»dil^ Uut 
iiio JugB and uLta wauld Iw bi ilouiAud, had set some poor people, wbom Ib^ &4 
ill I'eUifiif bi cAlrli all chn i}ogH thai fji1lav(>cl (Iil* |ierHniiw1in wml la nUflB- Et* 
that oa it may, tlicj managed to well, ih&t hood ahcT, not a oat nor • dng «■■ to 
twaeciim Pam-"— iJrr/ Tr/iUe tla Mitera dc. annvjufA to ihe StU^ Mttifpit 
in the Pnalht^i Lilt. Tlio Jeauitfl fivn ren»ir&a tlio cniwn jowels u stminljr 
for ttie L-oflL of provifiiuus ubiili ditjr aupplicd to tbt Leagtu^m ; and tbe cnm 
jfiwi^la w^ru deliver^ tn ihi^ro b3- tlio DuLe rlo Nemoun 1 Tht- lum wkiifb ifac 
modtnt apolo^ttt £]vo to lliis nflAir ia, that some of iJlg jewcl« werv " dq>wbed" 
wilh tbo Jesuits ^ to [ircvent tlii.'fr entire dilApi^ktion." They wcrif afterwi^ 
rBoKrreil to thv king bj lui order of tlio coiuicil— & flad oeoea^ity wliidi ii o^Aftdj' 
n Du(ti:r fur bmsLijig^ no L]il< JvaiiJi-nptjln^Ht makvB ibc iraikAJh-doEL Tbc oib«f 
dppasitorieH of ilic cro^ii jcwolfl Bold llicm^ uhldh ahovH, pDrhaps, th&L lh» allifC^ 
tat cccMaatiCA woro Im4H wioe in their concruCion tluui the Jnuitt, who 
bi»ve been (eriou*]^ compromieiHl b^v aiith n pioccediiig. Doeumenta, uli 
p, 'Jl, rt (f^. ; CiijTt, tlu-oii. Tijvi*nu. i. \, Jivre vi. ; Hcloiviir lliftt. dp» Pay* 



EFFECTS OF THE SIEGE OF PAItlS. 



473 



Over Uie walls, into tlie ditcli below, some of the wi-etchea 
leaped, niaddenod ti^f hiuigen strong by despair, ami 
reached the camp of tite Huguenot. With tears they 
bogged liim to let some of their fellow-suflerers leave the 
city of the famine and the plague — and Henry con- 
ited. Four thousand eseapod, and more would have 

jUoMcd had the aoldicra not driven them back and com- 
pelled the Parisians to close their gates — shutting up the 
reet to famine and disease. Even the richest and the 
noblest of the groat city now writhed in the fanga of 
horrible hunger. One lady, of rank and fortune, lost 
two of her chiklren, who <^lied of hunger. Famine 
hardened her heart* and made her inventive : she put 
weights in two coffins which were buried, and she kept 
the bodies of her poor children to feed lier hunger : 
hut never a morsel did she eat of that piteous food, 
which was not drenched with the tears of a mother ; 
and she died ere the death-feast was ended.^ 

Still tlie Faction, the well-fed, comfortable Faction 
held out — in the midst of physical and moral dcsola- 
lion. The contact of the soldiers, and ttio Spaniards, 
marrmis Espagnol^, utterly corrupted all morals and 
decency* The suburbs were ruined, deserted. The city 
became poor and a solitude. All around it was desola- 
tion. A huntU'od thousand pei"90us died in the space of 
three months, through lumgcr, disguat of life, and 
wretchedness— in the streets, and iu the hospitals — 

Sthout rchef orpity. The University was deserted, or 
ved as a refuge for the husbandmen ; aud the col- 
leges were filled with cows and their calves.' In the 



' BroFTmit-clcflMii^rrs, &C-., Sftt. Moaip. 

' Tho JcvoItA bfUdtod UtEkt during thoeo trouUra tliej bonefiUMl ilie cil/ uf 

iMiivrriuly ttur (hi^irs m full |>lny. ^ WouM yoM know ilii' tfWOAt" Mid MRI9 



474 



HISTORY OP THE JESUITS. 




palace, the Lmijuevft and their pfirhj lnul taken up their 
exclusive above. Grass grew in the streets- The shopa 
were for the moBt part closed. Horror and solitude 
rcigued where before was heard the sound of the cart 
and the coach. It waa on the lower orders that the 
greater weight of the tempest fell bitterly — and on cer- 
tain families which were well to do befoi^e the war. The 
well-provisioned ecclesiastics talked of nothing but pR- 
tience. Roze^ the ardent firebrand, Pigcnat, Coninioletr 



one to Pvc|uicr- " Thv rouoa u, tlut the pnndprUft of Che otbcr T<dlffC«i 

droppcit thi^ir lumdH, di-ploriag in their souls tbe caUuaiiJefl caoMd bjr 
rebellion : nh?reuB the Jcfliiilfl rtUE^J theJr luutiU to the hIum «» Ihosr 
ilT4Lj>;bt tUv^v lioJ wuu tlie vlvt^jr^ of tlie ^Dierpnm.^ But, BboTv all, I fbiiMl ft 
initioos IfilUir whicb wns ^nX \n Spuitt lint iniewi^ied \iy Le Soi g ngP' ifi 
Chiflcruti, die Kovuraor of Do jrljonaoU, flf wliicli Pen Matchiniy JctnJt, wu (W 
bpflrur. Tills letter was piil iiito raj handfi, and it wm ks follows : " Sire^ jnrnr 
CaUiifbL- nuhjesty having been bo hiud to us, m to ^vo na to nndeniADtl Ij tte 
very rtligJuuH and n-vt-n^ad Futlicr MihLLbii'u, out imlj- vour buljr inifatHdiB in 
tbe genonO «UHe of r^MgiDn^Lut oBpociaJt^ y^ur gnod iitfi*t}tiona tow %r ^ tth 
citj of Pftria . . . , Wo hopp sooa lluit the amui of hin HoUi»«b mhJ yai» 
Cailiolic iiuijtBty united, will deliver us fpura llu- opproBion of our enemy, Hw 
liaa lo ihc prcernt, for a ymr and a hiif, Uopkaded gs on alf pdiea, wiChnU iSf- 
thijkg b^g ablo to tDU?r bito thin clLy titcept tjy cIihoht, dt by ftivn uf anM; 
lujd be noalJ alHve to pass tliroagh wpph it not fur thq troop* i^icb yvor 
mAJfiBtj boa plmded U> nppuint u9. Wc uui wrUiinly amipc yow (^ibofic 
nujcaty Uuit the rowa luid niahes of nil tht^ Calholiea w U> aft ynr CMli«it 
nK^'et^f iu poswsaion of tho aivptre of thii cron-iL. and irignin^ over la, liboww 
Bd wo niuFil willingly throw ouiwlves into your omis^ a« ihc-v.' or our f&lber . . ■ 
The iwrnmcl Fndicir Mnttbi(<ii, the- prc?w>tiL hnLrvr, who biu mif^b «]ifitid ai» 
beiij;; wuU acqmuiitfd with our affair«t ^ill «Dpply dit* ddioinipy of uur leitcrt lie 
your CiitbeUc mnjenty, whom we hujnbly beg to give rredtuw to wb*l ho wiU 
Buy." Tlia P^iv MatdiLCU bvre lUimcd a ni>t tlie funou^ Oxudo M«ttlikii, Hht 
ftmrivr of ibe hematic, but ciLber ftuoEher Jonut.or \ Sputiah luouli, Tbe Jesuit 
fcptilogiat of di« Doeunif-nlSj m epit« of the expljmatton gfvon by Pii»jtrier, hWlj 
It'llfl bijt remletft tluit Pftuquicr or rather Amaud me*nt Ctaadf Matlhinu T(ri< 
isonoof tLmw nienn triokeiti wliicli tht^JasaiU prmumc on the If^onuioe of IbvT 
dupvn. Cninpore Pnsiiuiar, CatvcliismiG, p- SB9, r' trvi vid tliu Ducumeoiiif M 
tujird, Ph ^^, cf Kq, fii4i|uii7r U of opiniun that this MatUiKui wu a JeouS^ «bd 
givDfl bis rmtAimq ; hul be does nof itay he wai Ulo Cwnoiu Cl^uJt. Bai Av 
raaiD point here \a l\v IctCer, witli \t& inttirMnU—-at\t[ llk^w aiV doI dcnM. 
Amiuiij vnid, " TLi^ Fjilhi-r MiiltbJcu of ilio flunv Ordtir, Imt ft iftfinriifffcino lo 
bimofwhom 1 bGroroi!^ke,"&e I^judoytr, p^ 3lt ; Jnuitea OiiiuiwIb, [h 913- 



I 



/^ 




OBSTINACY OF FACTION. 



475 



lletier, Boucher, Gariii, Christin, and other seditious 
preachers, incessantly thimdereii against the king and 
his people, and uever delivered a Beimon without pro- 
luiBiBg succour from Spain, The Sixteen on one hand 
— the Forty on the other — and the supportei^s of the 
parliaTiiezit shoved the whcole along — kept the machine 
of Faction Ln motion. The chiefs, fuuongst itthci's the 
Duke do Nemours, who was contriviug might}' projects, 
being well stocked with provisions for themselves, cared 
for the people only just as much as they thought neces- 
sary to prevent them fi^om mutiny. Spanish gold was 
tlio cemeut of this misery, whilst they waited for the 
arrival of the Duke of Parma with his liberating army. 
If theie were any priests, such as, amongst others, Bo- 
uoit and Morenne, who exliorted the people to nioJera- 
tion, they expelled them : no man was a zealous Catholic 
tf ho did not transform the kte king and the present 
into a sorcerer, devil, heretic damned. The miserable 
dty was fiill of factions, all vomiting a perpetual fire 
of deadly hatred against the king. If he apiK-arciI gra- 
cious, they called him a liare and a fox ; if sL^ere, all 
the tyrants in the world had been good people compared 
io him: and the more their necessities iucreased, the 
more ^v^etchedly they bit the stone which was thrown 
to them from on high, as thoy evidenced in the fii"st 
Bic^e. and in the second which followed the retreat of 
the Spanianls. Thus, as in a diseased hotly, whilst the 
bad Inmioui-a remain, there w no hope of health — so, 
whilst the chiefs of the League, namely, tlie Guise party, 
the iK)[>e 5 legate, the amlxis&idoraud agent of Spam, 
the Sixteen, the seditious preachers, were in Paris, and 
Bwayo^l tlie people, that body remained in a wretehed 
condition : but in proportion as those humours were 




476 



UrSTOSY OF THE JESUITS. 



evacuated, lioalth returned to those who would hare 
jjeriflhed utterly, if the chiefs of the League had remained 
however short a time longer in Paris/ 

Still it cannot be asserted that the Jesuits did not 
shore the dangers of the eiiterprisa On one occasion 
they saved the city for the Leaguers and for SpaljL 
Henry had alarmed the city, but without effect, and the 
weary people liad retu-ed to their houses : " but Uiese 
good fathers," says an admiring Leaguer, " either in 
order to give an account of the night s proceedings, or 
by divine inspiration for the saltation of the dty, 
would not retire, and remained on the fortifications 
until lour o'clock of the moniiog. They heard a noise 
and gave the alarm : but the enemy hod time to i>laDi 
six or seven scaling-laddere. and mounted the wall— 
the first invader rushed towards one of the Jesuits, who 
fetched him such a desperate stroke with an old halbert 
that it split in two on his head — and the soldier roll 
head over heels into the ditch below. The good fathi 
servtd two others in like manner- One of the scalensh 
already thrown over his ladder inside, so as to get im 
the city, but the good fathers belaboured him so hotly 
with two lialhcrts that they wrenched the ladder from 
his left band, and did not give him time to use the cut 
he hold in his right, though he struck at them lustil 
but they aimed at his throat and knocked him in 
the ditch like the rest. At the noise, an English 
named WdUam Baldwin, a lawyer, and one Nivelle, 
bookseller, ran up and found these good fathers strugg 
with another Huguenot, whom tliey overpowered, 

patched, and flung into the ditch Soon the ci 

was roused, a lot of straw was fired and hurled into the 





Abr^ div EnULs dv \h Linuc (Puithpva Lilt, Sat. Meuipp^), 



THEIK SERVlCEis DURING THE SIEGE OF PARIS, 477 

ditch, SO that the eneniv, finding tliat thcj were dis- 
covered, sounded a retreat. It was the third and best 
opportunity tlieae bUiided people had for capturing the 
city ; for if instead of six ladders they had 6xed six 
hundred, and in different places, as they might liave 
done, having more than fifteen hundred, (the people and 
everybody being tii'cd and fatigued) they would liave 
succeeded in Iheir enterprise, but God was pleased to 
blind them as on the other occasions, — and wished that 
these good fatliers should have the glory of having 
defentled this city, not only with their doctrine, but also 
with their arms, and at the risk of their lives. So that 
there are five thingn which preserved this people, with- 
out all of which it seems that it would have been 
impossible to preserve it — namely, the contrivance and 
valour of Monaeigneur de Nemoura, the governor, the 
presence of the pope's legate, the alms of the Spanish 
ambassador, the persuasion of the preachers, and tlie 
news sent by Monpeignour de Majenne and published 
by the princesses ; — -we can say that the sixth and most 
evident of all was the diligence and care of these good 
fathers/* ^ 



I 



' fivm Cnrupju, ZKmncri bn/^ v^ritabft, Stc, "Tlit loethod of apology 
*hi<*h thi' JoRiilK hwa "JwnyB lulnpterl/* oIiwtvm Sl Pri™i, " hM kIwa^i led 
tlvm to dpny cvepyihinj to wrvc & tompormry purp<i«, ovon couragcooa wid 
h-moiirnblo Jtcds." Tlir deed just rolntcl wiis fit ]iASt couragvoiiB— -lujd yd 
the Jp5iiiW deny it in tUc fnpo of four ajllimties, Dftviln noong Iho tvnt The 
«nJj Bf^ment lliej otloge iv tltc sfvettiaa nT I)s TliMUf tlial th? t^wiulE Ikilpd an 
kc«oiu< nf t]ii> (Jiortneu rhf tlir^ lutden-^^oortainly t very imprDbnblr* d#fli^ii9ii?y 
in MU^ s rcter&n Army ah ihht oT Henry f V^ whn had nude Uie Mttonpt lwi«- 
ImTok. Dp Tlinii At-tUAlly rjuotcs tho fnct from Comeja, uid the Lcogutr^ 
dwiiptian of tliE fuauie ; tliough he introduces tli^ man'kt nunc m one who in 
Bnmo respects did no; wriie wiili curt dilipojce rrapccling Uioee iiirn»— i//i'«* 
ttmpo^M pifWTitpif mitmu tmHA dil-^fenlid trrijtwil. Slill hv ijuotei the fmet, uid 
lliFlv i* no cTidcDw to allow tliAt he nw reaoon to guiuAy the LeA^fiiv^s ocMront, 
which oortftuily h«e no Appvknoce of * (kbricAliaii, u Uie nun vnle* Ui admim' 
ban rf the dB«ia of Ihe " gtwd rftth?r«.'' The mpatogi^ of th« DoemiMnti 



476 



HISTOBT OF TOE JESUlTa 



At len^h, after an important victory or two, an^ 
niiich skilful management to little purpose, or, at least, 
after the most conciliatiDg conduct on his part, Uenry IV. 
resolved to " take the perilous leap," as he wrot€ to his 
miatresB, and turned Koman Catholic once more, to 
confound hia enemies and secure the crown of France.^ 
Homy IV. hiunhled himself to the pitiful ceremonial in 
order to consolidate his ascendant, to group round about 
him the cities of the Lea^e, to fling confiifiion aimJ 
disorder amongst tlie powei'S which resisted his rights 
of inheritance and victory." What a bitter thing it wm 
for his faithful Huguenots 1 But he promised tliem 
complete protection — and they loved Iiim bo well tliat 
they let him *' take the perilous leap/' as he pil^ously 




irunaht«a Do Tliou tn orJer to mako tbe upendonon Cunwjo couebiaTv. Tlw 
fftct LB, however, tlint the oxpCflidoQ woe a blunder on the pun of n^mj^, u nonj 
bfliovod, apcunling lo Dftriljij nnd it rcmaiued for De Tbaii to «oc0unt fee thv 
ekccciliuglv curt mnuncT in wlucli ba diHTdiBAca the truuBflioii- 6e* J^mihi. ii, 
]T.». Tlin HHHir in iUro ^vnn in ilii? Jfivru'd tie rEtoiJr, and ilm ft i ' ii— JUm 
dtM QfitmA ovtlt^ artnvft m Fhrulrc/i. Tlic demot is in roL i. of Itv . 
mffiU$, D& JtnUia L\ffumi-tf p. 2\. lnfavonr<>f ComcjOpii inky be ttUtd, 
Chpoflgfie quotes him, p. l/i?, La Ligiuti Henri IV. It leooiA to me 
kuthoni/ of naviln is far nupcrior to that of Dc Thou. DlvUk Mtnftd mtuitf I 
htinrurt of Hmry IV.y and tliord'onr knen Ihc camo or the Tulure : Ivi 
It to '^ a Ji?tiuitf^' but, of i^uurse^ iGav&g \i to those nilhia the dty bo dMoribci I 
phrti<:u]jkra, which the Leaguer Cnmejo hua done eo gmpUciDj. Tooduv 
Davila, nee ^imtrtuii, HtJitoric Viev>, H. Ai*. 

^ "' J'Arrivu hicT aoiF de bonhimF,' ccrivmit-ili n belle iiininKiK, < et Im 
imporliini:' de Dicit ifanle juaqa' ^ tnon i-ourhcP. Nom croyonv la 
■jn'eU^ Be i!ou omcluro auj'>Einrhui ; pQur moi^ je smtk rendroiftdes Lipjr 
dc Tordrf de Sauict-ThocnAe, Jo rommeaM m matin 1 purler mu tfreqVMk 
outiv ceuE ijue jc vuue^ immiluls hiur . . , . L'captfnuic« que j'ai de niu ivr 
dprnKLii, rt^flr^l mik main do vous fkirv plus long dueonrs. O* Aeim dmdun ^rw 
jej'rrai U taut pirilfeux. A llieiire que jtt toub raenL, j*w wot importana mr 
lea eepouloa qm tno iiToni hmr SatiKt Z^miicomme vous raicl(« Mnn|«^ Bon jour, 
num nifur ; vcncz deriuun dfl boruip heiii'c. car il m^ eemble quH] ya de^ unaa 

qne jc nc voua a! vu«. Jo taLec uii million ile f'lia Ioji 1kiIIc4 uisiiu do tnon Vip 
etU boQchcdoiTiA fhfTv irultivfiH.' "— ^rm-i/F.^ln ilfiw7«H« de jfL— n— _ 
apwf (^^>(^kf:, ic/^r fiipTffr pH 351, cf ^, 4 






HENRY IV. TURKS CATHOLIC ONCE MORE. 



479 



wrote to tiis niislresB, just before lie abjured hia faith, 
ma<le his confession, was ittherwise humiliated — in fact 
diil the thing coniplct^^ly. and heJird a grand Te Dmm 
siujg over his fall from personal dignity, and his ascent 
to a golden crown of thorns. How Elizaheth of England 
bewailed that natural hut too eignificaut transaction, 
'■ Ah ! what grief/' she wrote to tJie iinscrupuloua con- 
formist, ** and what regrets, and what groans I have 
felt in ray soul at tlie sound of such tidings as Morlans 
has related ! My God 1 is it possible that any human 
respect can cftace the terror which Divine fear threatens! 
Cafl we even, by arguments of reiison, expect a good 
conscqiienco of iictions so iniquitous ? He who has 
Hiipjioi-tcd and preserved you in mercy, can you iuiogine 
tliat He will permit you to advance, unaided froiu on 
liigh, to the greatest predicament i But it is ilangerous 
to do evil witli the hope of good from it. Your very 
faithBd sister. Sire, aftiT the old fmhUm — I have nothing 
to do with the mif* one. Elizaaeth." ^ Doubtless 
Henry felt a momentary pang or misgiving at these 
earnest words of upright expostulation ; but doubtless, 
too, he smiled it away when ho thought of the results 
which the mummery promised. Indifferent to all creeds 
but thnt of Machiavel, Henry of Navarre mocked and 
made a je^t of his abjuration, to wliich he so flippantly 
alludes in his love-lottcr to his mistress — by way of 



> " All I qucUu Jouleuiv I f^t qu<-ta TVgv^ib «f ijock g<^iBS«nivriA j'lty nontia 
en mon une p*r Lo sod de telle9iioQvviIeft<|ue Moriana ta'it eoni^cs ! MonDim I 
eM-H pcMeibte qu'Mumn TDond&ln n^t-]>eft ^u«t effkoer U tcrreur que !■ emintc 
dfvtjip nttnnce ! PoiivoDfl-DouB, par raisoii m^m^i ittmilrc boanci Bei|udlc 
d'acu* Bi iniiinos ! Cdui ijui vou« a maiDtunu et coneerrc ftir aa nMrci, jtouTCi- 
vuud imogincr qu^il vjne ppnaiBt aller eoul nu plan gFKail beaoiti- Or, e<<La «■! 
iljui|^rou\ iJcmut faiiv pciuruD cip('r7r ^lu lii^i- Volrt tfrs aJttariv womt^ flifv, 
Jt la rielle rooiJc, nvw Ih uouvtite je i»'aj i|ue fairs. ELiiiBBiH," — Bffii il% Ra, 
MSS,dt(MbeH,afmdCt^Kfit;ue^p. 351. 



480 



HISTOIIY OK TilE JESUITS. 



a most (lismal preparation for that general con&snon 
which lie was to make on tlie morrow — with rontrili 
— and ahsohition — and holy communion. His reri 
motive was a political traasaction — a purely worWij 
means for gaining a crown, Tlie preliminaries were 
clap-trap : the finality was PX]iedience : but ilie verbU 
abjuration of Ida Calvinistic creed was complete, H^j 
cloaked liimself with popery^ — the charmed garmed^m 
that could dazzle and win the blinking religioTiifits of ■ 
the realm. To the churchmen of St, Denis he swore , 
every article of Roman Faitli : to the Protestant prince^^ 
he only said : " That following the counsel of his fricn^^^ 
and other princes, he had consented to hold a con- 
ference with the Catholic lords and ecclesiastics of the 
moderate party, and even to adopt tfte papal cerrmonirf, 
as the only means of avoiding a greater defection among 
his subjects, — to destroy that accusation of heretic 
relapse which served bb a pretext of revolt. — to saro 
his crown and wait for new snrcours from abroad : tliat 
Qiie^n Elizabeth of England herself had already enguged 
to give him fresh assistance '* — recoffnUiuff ike n^ctisittjf 
in which he ^mji plnced^—v^hich was false, as we have 
seen by the queen's afflicted letter. 

Here now, however, was a Roman Catholic king to 
throw all rivals out of the royal field Besides, there 
was valour, there was victory, there was force of arms 
still to advance his pretension. Henry's '* conversion " 

^ Cnrrapond. do llriirl TV, »vec Hmirice'lv-SaTviit par M. de HofmAeL ^ G> 
HniFjF'h Bini«r, PaEheriiip, nfd^rwjir'l'^ Ounhoe of LorrunG, vrotp Abonl thvdUBC 
time a4 fcjilows to tlio Pruicc Pulikliii^ Jdin 1. " I bostech yoo, tthfttCTfr jwi 
may lifar, not lo lelicve Umt T wiU dirvugc my religion : for wilh GoJ's ^d, 1 
9]ih1L make sa cxciJiphry tK confeBRori or it, thtt no nne will doubt lliat I mh 
rcHoWrd to end mj daj-a in il, tXnt 1 woidJ deem myiwl/ very unforumibtie 1/ I 
fthindnn^ God for mm, Dn me tW gofHl, 1 baseffh yoD. to oahut hll fOoA 
people of Cbuh" — /b. 



CARICATOKE IN TUB SIJtTEENTH CENTURY. 



481 



was ready money to the moderates; tliough Spanish 
doubloons Btill stimulated the holy union of sedition. 
It was a moment of crisis — a time when public opinion 
was totally unsettled, and therefore might be swayed 
with dexterity In any direction, if akilfiilly handletl- 
Pamphlets swarmed accordingly — biting ridicule — cut- 
ting sarcasm — stinging jokes fell thick upon the Spanish 
faction, so pious, so holy, so comfortable in the midst of 
starving thousands. In truth, the sixteenth century 
was the epoch of caricature and pamphlets, Luther, 
the German and Gonovau school, and subsequently the 
Dtiteli and Flemish, had popularised those dashes of 
biting rage which went at once to the common sense of 
the multitude. They would seize whatever was ridi- 
culous in a man, or a measure, or a cause, or a system, 
and fling it to feed the hprd of mockers. So desperately 
given to horrible hloodslicd — so often in tlie midst of 
hideous sights, that sickened the heart until it was mnde 
insensible as stone — the men of the sixteenth century 
ueeded farce, folly, burlesque, and masqueradc-^a mix- 
ture of rehgion and debauchery, so necessary to unite a 
dreadful earth to that heaven which, after all, those 
religionists felt was receding from them further and 
further for ever. They sang their mistresses and the 
holy confraternities together. Fantastic rehgionism and 
rampant Ucontiousness ai*e the most unitable things in 
existence ; infinitely more so in times when drca<:lful 
crimes must be committed with the deliberation wo 
commonly require to pei^form an act of heroic virtue. 
Ileuce the people then loved the excitement of vivid 
iraportraituree, whether tending to inspire grief* hatred, 
pity, or withering contempt. Never liad the productions 
of caricature been more touching, — light, yet penetrating. 



VOL. II- 



482 




tliaTOBY OP THE JESUITS. 



It douilcolI on all tbo omotions, all Uie creeds of die 
epocli. HaJ it tu account for religions pcrsecultoii ? 
How naturally it fetched a devil, and showed him up 
blowing forth the infernaJ atrodtj. Nor did it scru]Jo 
to paint the great serpent lugging off to his qiiartera 
flocks of Hugiionota and pohticiauB. lutentionH, cha- 
nictors, absurdities were perfectly reproduced, ami 
a£suiaed emhodiment life-like^ luinxbtakeable under Ulo 
creative band of tlie artist. The parliaiuenLarians took 
hold of tliia powerful arm as soon as it favonrcd them. 
Paris was innndated with pampldets, witlj caricatures, 
and striking snggestiona. They represented the Spanish 
ambassador imder the figure of a huge hen, her head 
covered with an enormouB red bonnet and plume, 
carrying on her back a loiig broom, and lioldiiig up a 
little owl — evidently meant for Philip's infanta, the 
royal dream of the Spanish and Jesuit fhction — for 
France or for England. This fowl ambassador is liolding 
a parley with the popes legate — a rt?Diarkahly fine 
cock with long feathers, accoutre<l in a crimson episoofo] 
roundabout, and armed with a cross-bow^ at the end of 
which is a little fiali, to represent Saint Peter's fai 
which cauglit l>oautiful pence rather than tlio aoolft 
of the purgatorial caverns.^ Disgusting and LUfphe- 



dofj 
uinn y 



' CH>dl£Uc, uA» aupr^, IflS. «t teg^ It wrrc imponiUti to quotp nMoytd ibr 
fandpa emitted id thoac Jays of ^ rell^oue " ^xciteroont. O^iriigu* pm 
ftomc of the woTfiL In Frcnchf hutribLe on b the mpouuig, niuefa <if ibc 
offcn>^]Tenc«s ib rpmovod by ih&t convcndoiuJitj ulildt nukM "all ijifp 
Ift'H'ful " to ihat Inngun^. The gnaia romii>rli IB HiijiLiGablc lo ihU ihc AbvAA 
lAn^nuc^^, ItiJian, Sjuuib^hf rtttd Portuguc^t, Wb^.^nci? cotim Ihib ! !» it fbot > 
fttrikiDg prooJ of tlut menial debaudiorj- which iv4uIt«<J from tJi^ IlivritiauMiHi 
tliAt Dcciimpauicd thu highest dcvdo|imcut of ooatiiipnul mteUftdl W«^ 
die Hiurt rt-voliing lo Ejigliahnji'ii are fKiiiliar to (he French. Inagiott tbs 
npino i'f n ihfpr.^uglifar c to bn ** /fdl-Mlift/" And yd nobody nbudiJcri feL 

Iwwipg uid n-pL'Atiog Rite d'Enfer in Firti. Thew remju-bn might tv 



THE SATYRE MEN'TPPRK. 



483 



mens were maty other thoughts ami fanciea of the 
Lour — a terrible reaction, however, against the still 
more (lisgustiiip and blasphemous i)rocec(lin^ of the 
LeAgiiers and their sacerdotal bcUowe. When ridicule is 
whelmingly brought to bear upon a cjinao, nothing 
rcnjains for it but to die, — aiid that was the doom which 
ridicule preparetl for the selfish League, its aelfish prieat- 
craft and fanaticism. CeiranteH has been awarded the 
merit of having ridiculed chiralry, or knight-errantry, 
out of faBhiou : but many other causes had ah^eady 
combined to direct men s thoughtR to more profitahle 
phantumf^. It is, however, unquestionable that the 
authors of tlic famous Sa/ip^e ^/t'«/ppee killed the hydra 
of Uic League- This pasquinade tore the veil from 
men's eyes, whilst it laid bare the deformities of the 
moiLster which hai:l preyed upon them so long, so reck- 
lessly, so cruelly. The original title was the Sati^re 
Mcnipp^e^ or The ^irttte of fhe Spitnitth Git-ft'Jiron, atid 
ihe sfttirfff of t/ie Estates of Paris dwiruf the l^tu\ue^ — 
published in 1594,* It became a joint-stock conjposition, 
when it ■* took " with the public, and consisted of scvcrnJ 
parts by " different hands/' The first, or the Catholicon, 
was composed by Le Roi, chaplain to the young Cardinal 
de Bourbon ; the second part^ or the Farce of the 



I 



luisely ^Ktmikd tlirongh lUe whole nuKe of pfvach ^Tivefi»t»QBJ expremoo 
uid tifrmtwy. Oii4> of ihc oaiHoa ivm the nbuiic of Ihu rrti'jiotu mi^ini^nf, whioh 
ihe Ronuin i«j*hem flpplipd to Ihc bsftMl purpose*, and nmd* subscrriMil Ia 
Uie vil«t iciioreitt uid expodinitv, 

' Tho n-nrJ Mooipp^ iH deriTod frrHA Hduppna, ■ Cynic phSUncpher of 
Phrmicia, oripiaaHy a slare ; \w purtliased Iub Bberty at*] Iweame one of ibr 
gmust usmm Atl1icbi«. lU grew ho deaperstc frum the {rontinunl reprowhH 
ftud LDmitB to uLich he wu d^y expoavd OO Hfisninl of his ihpiiiiijck, that hu 
deMmyvd biuuFir Hv wrote dilrtaon bopka of aitirTfl, wkiicb Imve htco loHt ; 
'kO full of AAlted nitlinaou, nnd peppered jrwings and jtikn provDOMiw aI 

kuebter, to cxHjM-nite the vicuHu mvn of Uu timo*"— i^vrowv dc T/* 

11 3 



484 



HI9TOBY OF THE JESUITS. 



Bstatca of the League, was by many hands ; but 
serat ami llapiri composed the poetrj' — some of lliC 
best specimens in the French language. The hai-aogue 
put in the mouth of the cardinal legate was by GiJloL 
canon of the Sainte ChapcUe of Paris, and a clerical 
member of tlio parliament. His house was the vrorkshq) 
of the wliole satire ; and he it was who represented the 
burksquG procession of the Leaguers, as pictured amopg , 
the cuta of the early editions. Florent, Chretien, an^H 
Pierre Pithon, other wits of tlie day, produced tlie" 
curious and striking harangues of the other sacerdotal 
Pharisees.' It is thus evident that it was a systematic 
onslaught, with determined energy and resolution to pii^| 
down the humbug, which was done accordingly, TIjc 
opening at once gives a full idea of the entire performance. 
Two charlatans are represented, one aa a Spaniard the 
other as a man of Lorraine, stationed in the court of tlic 
Louvre — both " quacking " their drugs, and hociispocus- 
ing all day long before all who would go and see tljeir 
performance, which was gratis, ** The Spanish charlatan 
(the Cardinal dc Plaif^nce) was very merry, and niount^^d 
on a small scaffold, playing the virginals, and keeping! 
haTik. as we see at Venice in the St. Mark. To his scAffab 
was attached a great skin of parchment^ with inscriptioD 
in ^sevcial languages, sealed with five or six seals of gold, 
lead, and wax, with titles in letters of gold, as follows ; 
— " Credentials of the power of a Spaniard, and of i 
wonderful effects of Lis drug, called Hitjuuro de InfiTh 
or Compound Catholicon."'' The sum of the scheduli 



kd 

i 

>ii 

^W!^ ; 

1 



' Henftult, HibL do Fruiee^ ii. 600 \ Follcr, Uiog, Unit, in -mfr, Gillot. 

- IIif}tii<ro d'l7ife}-no me«uH, in Sptuiuli, Fig-trve of BclL The drag w»* fo 
I'lUlvil fur Eimi]/ rt'fumiiB. '^ First, tJiL- hg-treo is a wiTtched ui4 inftKinvi W** 
whose |p&x-c8, iMworHijig lo Uic Uilili-, Bcrvod to rTotiiL- our fint p«raitBAft^ tbtjr 
had siimed, And coauiuttod higli treuon Ag^iuvt tb^ God, tbejr fktbcr ud 



THE SATYBE MEXIPPBB. 



486 



vaa, that this qiiack was the grandson of a Spaniard of 
Grcmuia. exiled into Africa for Mahonietanisin, physician 
to the liigh-pricst of the Moors, who, from l>Giug a 
schoolmaster and preacher, made himself King of 
Morocco by a species of Higuiero, by dispoeseesing hia 
master by degrees, and finally killing him, an<l taking 
hid place- The father of thi^ (jiuu'k being dead, the son 



crcAtor, jmt u (Jio Leaguen, in order to cdver tht^ir diBob^lionco uid ingradtuilfl 
■gikiuit Uieir ktog ajid Ln-uofbctor, Lbvc l&ki;n lliu CitiliUli*:, A^K^ttjlu:, ami Rwian 
^nrdi to eotrr dieir MJinrne anf/ thci* «■*- Wh^rvforo the cathothvH of Spiua {> 
the prelcit frhich [he Kiii^ uf Sptnn uid tbe Josuits, uid olLcr prvurtiprB, 
gftiavd over by llic iloobLgotis uf Sj>am> lia'ti givou lu th« smlitioua ood unbiljoitft 
Letgaen, to rise o\} ojid revoLl ngAUial their iiAtuml ami tuvrful kingr oud vnge 
nora tluui dvU war Lii iticir <!ounCTy t bhe Catkotican cauj iTicrufuiv, Ih: |iru}>erLjr 
nlled tlic Fig-trw of lluLl, wJi^rtaa tbat wiJi whiek AclAm KnA Evp covtred 

liimnsclvcft, waa tlie FiE-trcc of Pnm'liBC Von know, also, tlmt Uie 

iMuntFf coTuidf^red tJiifl trt*G a gibljot, aa wlien Timon tho Atht^iUAn nijahcd to 
nol up one vliii'h hu hfkd in IiIb garden, ood wu aomc-wluvt in tbo way, but do 
wludi niui; pers^ma hnd Imaged t]iciiis4.-Lv4d jdreHdy, — hi; win fordi a triujipL<(cr 
to pFoclvin, tli*t if Key ooc >^'iabcd to bang himsuU'r he miwE be quick, boc&iue 

(be fig'troo wnit to be uproott^ Pliny toUa os th&t thlit tree has no odaijri 
DoillMr Lu the League . abo, lli&t it ehaily drops its fnut, joet iiko the /^^^m : 
thirdLyj Ihftt il rocdvtta all kuidaof graTtiDgfl, jn^t aa Uie League receivVA all 
■urea of peopiv : founJily^ that it ig idion-livcd, juat A6 ihu Zeo^k ; n/tbly, Uifrt 
the greaCer part of tbo frxjil whitli appou^ at Antt does not rvacti omtunt^, 
cjuclly like thnt of the Leo'jvt. Uut irhat beee«]ii» it moat, adc] whirb las moro 
meialilauctj to tbt^ League thoo St. Francia ha« to our Lord, it tbe fig-tree of 
tlwlndiea, vhidi tLDSjiamarJnthe[nflt-lv«»ljavc named Fig-true of HpU [ i/i>«*f -a 
Imfrmalf the ctisiur-uU jilartt ] of which MaihEul aajB, diat if jou cut off only 
■ kaf, and plant it haJf way in IJiu soil, it flttikofl root, and tbfn on that IraJ 
aoutlier kiaf eprouta ; ilna, Icavca giiroiitiu^ uu lcaT<^ tlie plant becomes u higU 
BB a tree, trunkbss, etenileH, brancblbsa, and, a^ it wtre, riudess, su tlial Jt may 
he i^acvd iQiDDgfit tbe wouders of uatore. U Uiorc auytJiinf^ to siuiilo' and 
ft|ipuiiiCt< to Khu LcaffVff which, from a ungLu IqlT, diat ie, a aiuall bo^iiuuig, Um 
aUained by dogreea, frwa cmc acveuioa to onotht-T, that great fJtilUrli- at wliicb 
webavoBoeii it, and yot, for wuit of bivin^ a gooJ footing, and a vtrong §leEii td 
■apport Ll, liu lijppled wer at tbe ftmt vrind T " And so on, the writer follows 
up tlie corioufl all*'gory with wcndi'rful anil most amusmg rainutOTCBfl of fiiiuili' 
tade, diverging inio ibe cocoa-nut trxt. and the noiDbeTlGH unes U> ^vhii^b it 
■uImwftu j ** likv ih^ Lan^ucf wlilch frotu tlie firet •orved the purpose of alL aurta 
of pooidfv with All MFtn of bopw, with all eorte of Tocmim to eovor all vjrtfl uf 
pawoua — hatred, avarice, aiuUtioa, vengcwico^ *n4 mgntitude.^^ — Di$cw*t de 
r/mpiiiMMrt&ii. Atcnip. (PaMh. UU.) 



46€ 



UlSTOBY OP TUB JESUITS. 




camo lo Spain, got baptized, and put himself to service 
Llie Jf^uila' college of Toledo. Here, having Icamt 
tlic aimjtlcCatliulicou of Romo had ao other effects tl; 
the cdiiicatioii of souls, and caused salvation aud beau- 
tude in the next world only, and being rallier annojed 
at so long a dela}', he resolved (in oompliauce with the 
testamentary advice of his father) to sophisticate that 
Catholicon. — so that» by dintof liamlliiig, stirring, rotb- 
ing, calcining, and eublimatiiig, he had composed in that 
college of the Jesuits a aovereigu electuary' which ai 
[lat^scti Lrvery philosophei'^s atone, the [^roois whertAjf w 
couched in five articles." Thou follow the said artidirs, of 
which I shad translate the most striking. '^ What that 
^reat emperor Charles V. could not do with all the uuitaAl 
furces and all the gims of Europe, his brave son. Doi^^ 
l^iiilip. by the help of this (hnig [compoundwl in the 
Jesuit college of Toledo, a city famous for magic| has 
been able to do aportively with a simple lieittenaot 
twelve or fifteen thousand men." "Let a relire<I kii 
I Philip 11] amuse liiniself with refining this drug m the 
Kscurial — let liini write a word in Flanders, to Father 
Ignatius, sealed with the Catholicon. and the Father will 
find him a man who {yaM eojisdentia) will murder his 
enemy whom lie could not conquer by arms in twenty 
years/' alluding to the tLSSflaai nation of the Princ© of 
Orange at Delft.* " If tins king proposes to sc<;uro his 
estates to liis cliildi^n after big death, and to usurp 
iiciglibour's kingdom at small cost, let bim write a wo 
to Meudo/ii liis Eimbassador, or to Fatlier Commol 
[Jesuit], and let him write at the bottom of his let 
with the higuiern de htfiTtU}, ' Yo ff Jtej/f ajid tbey 



"* 



> Tbia miii'ilcr by BalUubr (tir&rd ia MMribrd lo ^e uutj^Jitioa of lUc Jc 



THE BATTBE MENIPPfe, 



487 



furtiis)! him with a religious apostate [Jacques Clement], 
who will go, witli a fine fitco, Uke a Judas, and assassi- 
nate, in cold blood, a great king of France for him, \m 
own brother-in-law, in tlie inidnt of his camp, without 
fearing either God or men : they will do more — they 
will canonise that murderer, and will place that Judaa 
al»cvo Saiut Peter, and will baptize that homble aud 
portentous enormity, with tlie name of a dlow from 
ki'ttren \ba *UJ Mendoza], whose godfathers \vili be the 
(rardiitals, the legates, and primates" — the Cardinals Gae- 
taiiu nnd Plaisance, legatea (lie Cardinal de Pe!v4 and 
the Archbishop of Lyons. " Serve as a epy in the 
camp, in the trenches, al the c«tnnon, in the king's 
chamhei". and in his counsels : although you be known m 
a spy. provided yon have taken in the morning a grain 
Uifftiieroy whoever challenges you will be considered 
Huguenot and favourer of the heretics" In the 
Jiarangue of the Archbishop of Lyons, composed by 
Uapin, the archbishop is maiie to speak appositely for 
itU Fi'ench revolutions, as well as the League. '' illua- 
trious as.sistaut^, chosen and ajjpointed at random for 
the dignities of tliis notable assembly — the pure croam 
of our provinces — the unpressed wine of our govern- 
ments — who have come hither with so mucli toil, some 
on foot, others unattended, some by night, nnil luost of 
\\is^u\ nt tfour ejrpviise ! Do you not admiru tlio heroic 
deeds of our Louchards, Bussys, Senaults, &c. [the Six- 
teen j, who have made their way bo well hi/ ilte penf 
What do you think of so many heails [vahochcti, uodttkx], 
whicli have been called together, and which God lias 
raised up at Paris, Itouon, Lyons, Orleans, Troyee^ Tou- 
louse, Amiens> where you behold butchers, tailors, 
knavish lawvern, watermen, cutlers, and other sorts of 



488 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS, 



the scum of the mob, poaseBsiug the flrat vote in the 
council and assembly of the nation, and giving the law 
to those who were before great by birth, by wealth, and 
by quaU6cationa, who would not dare now to hem or 
mutter before them 1 Is not that the fijlfilment of the 
prophecy which says :^De stm'core erigens pattptn^em f 
Woidd it out be a crime to pass over in silence that holy 
martyr Jacques Clement, who, having been the most 
debauched monk of Ms convent {as all the Jacobins ol 
this city know full well), and even after having bee: 
publicly reprimanded In the cliapter. and wlnppt^d, sc 
ral times, for hia thefts an<l wickedness, is, aevertheli 
to-day sanctified, and is now on high, disputing p 
deuce with St. Jago de Conipostella? O blessed confessor 
and martyr of God, how gladly would I deliver an oration 
and eulogium in tby praise, if my eloquence could readi 
thy merits ! But I prefer to be silent rather than say too 
little ; and continuing my speech, I will speak of tiifl 
strango conversion of my own person* Though Cato 
obsciTCB : — Nee tc iaudm-is, jicc tc crd/tQvais ipse — neither 
praise nor inculpate thyself; still I will confess freely t« 
you, that, before this holy enterprise of union, I was not 
a gi'cat cater of crucifixes, mangmr de crucifix, [not very 
devout,] and some of my relatives, and those who have 
been most intimate with me, have thought that I smelt 
somewhat of the fagot, because, when a young scholar, I i 
took delight in reading the books of Calvin, and at Tou- 
louse had joined the nocturnal disputations vnih the new ^ 
Lutherans ; and subsequently I have not much scrupled ^ 



i 
i 



to eat meat in Lent, nor to commit 



-, acconling to 



the example of the holy patriarchs in the Bible : ' but 



' " L'urplicvofiriup ilc Lyon, Iwrfi irriu^ contrt le R<»» [lleari IJI J jmnr d«& 
voi'H i^u^U avivit fnita, gI (jut Durv, m t^cnminrutt, ct mua Iob noma de Philoa «t \ 



THE BATYItE MENIPPEE. 



469 



sincoThavc subscribed to the holy League, and the fimda- 
meutal law of this estate, accompanied by doubloons and 
the hope ofa cardinars hat, no one has any longer doubted 
of my belief, nor made any further inquiries about my 
conscience, and my conduct You know, gentle- 
men, that our jjenfiflotts avG mattQTs for serious considora- 
tion. But, aboyealL frequently see to the renovation of the 
oaths of unity> on the precious body of our Lonl, and con- 
tinue the confrateiiiitivs of the iiame of Jesus and of the 
Order : for these aiegood coUai-s for small folks — where- 
with we charge the honour and conscience of our good 
bth^rs the Jesiiits ; and wo also recommend to them our 
spies, in order that thoy may continue to ospedlte with 
corUiinty our news to Sjiaiu, and enable ua to receive the 
secret commands of lus Catholic Majesty, to ensure their 
being obeyed by the ambassadors, agents, cur^s, con- 
vents, churchwardens, and masters of the vmtfrutennUes; 
and in their particular confessionals, let them not forget 
to forbid^uiiderpcnaltyof eternal damnation, every one to 
desire peace, and still less, to talk of it — but to make the 
devout Cliristians stubborn and resolved on assault, blood, 
and fire, rather than submit to theBeamese [Henri IV,], 
even should he go to mass, — as he has charged his am- 
bassadors to assure the ix>pe. But we well know the 
antidote should this happen, and we will take care to 
isauc ft command that his Holiness shall behove nothing 
of the kind, arnl even should he beUeve, he shall do no- 
thing, and should he do anything, we will receive no- 
thing, if I mn not made a carditial. Why should I not be 
made a cardinal, if Pierre de Froutac, being a simplo 
advocate at Paris during the reign of King John, was 






4!J0 



HLBTUBY or TUE JBSUITS, 



made a carJin^ for having strenuously JefeodeJ u\ 
OLiise of the church V And I— who Lave deserted mj 
master, and have betrayed my country to support the' 
grandeur of the holy apostolic see — must not be a car- 
dinaU Ye«, I shall—indeed I will — I premise yc 
or my &ieiidfi will fail me. I have spoken,"* 

TheHe extracts will serre to give some small idea of 
this wholming appeal to public opinion against the 
rclif^oua quackery of the League, by which this aseo- 
ci&tion managed to inflame the people to tiieir own 
misery and destruction. The Sah/re Aftntp/j^r took 
effect ; nod the good citizens of Paris kughed them- 
selves into wisdom — unquestionably the best method ^ 
t^suape frcfln irrational bigotry and political folly. At 
tlic present day, in the midst of our sympathetic 
stirrings, the British Paaquin of the world may prove 
himself the grand pacificator of EnglaJid. It is only to 
be hoped that the mini:ls and hearts of ouj' governors 
will not stop short with the triumph of security — l«it 
will rather make the dutiful cflFort to reform abuses . 
Ibifcud calamity by meriting no I'etributiou- 

In its last days the League had lost its primitii 
grandeur. The prestige — the leading idea — was no 
more, Its chiefs liail let themselves down by the guilt 
nf meanness in the eyes of the people. After so oiuch, 
trcastire -wasted on tlie part of Phihp, — so much abomii 
able roguery on the part of the pope, the priesthood 
the niunkhood, and the Jesuits, — after so much dreadfu 
suffering on the part of the people byfamine and dises 

vf thv CIkikIi of Pftiifl^ *vIjo Fnppar(4]<| titc pftrty of il»e l^-'jn:, or jxiti-papvy ' 
ClcnicoL VJL, ;uiil wna byUun nuutu ciirdiaftl id \5Q\ in Uivrcigri of LluuHn V[, 
—Scv CjAt^oiilvB (l<](niii-ut Vll.) ; hud iJic Milarrffto fi'lIttUiirf, t L ; r^iwW 
Marviilt, Ctithviiant </*£J7'ifync. ' Unrvi^ur do H> dc Lyon, SaL Mmf. 



AKTBCEDENT9 TO TOE DECLINE OP THE LEAHUE. 491 

after (ill — the thing turns out to be a complete failure. It 
is so delightful to contemplate such a result, that we wouM 
do well to fix the antecedeate in the memory of the uiiad 
and in the memory of the heart. Eventeandciircimifitances 
had antagonised two systems in Europe, — that of Philip 
and ultramontane CitthoUcism, M-hose end and aim were 
universal monarchy in miity of faith — whicli must !» 
Koman Catholic : — that of Klizaboth and Protestantism, 
whoso aim &nd end were simply so!f-dofenco in tho 
destrucliou of the monster enemy. The Catliohc League 
was, fur the Kiug of Spain, the principle of an universal 
policy. Under ito influence, Franco succumbed under 
the domination of Philip : the NetherlandH coidJ scarcely 
escape the same fate : the fleota of the gieat king ovcr- 
sliadowed England with their ten thousantl Raik— and 
faaned Catholic '• stirs " or insurrections in the heart of 
the couDtrv and in Scotland. This glorious scheme was 
completely undorstocd by Elizabeth, And she thwarted 
it to admiration. The alliances of "the poor old latly — 
In ptrnvre vieilli''^ as she called herself in her dispatches, 
tended to effectuate the dismemberment of the Spanish 
monarchy by the tri]>le league of the Pyrenees. France, 
iuid Italy. To that end she enlisted into her service 
the Protestantism of the Huguenots wherever they ex- 
isted on the Continent. Henry IV., the exponent of 
" religious indiflcrentisin," — if the oxpreeeion be not ab- 
surd — placed hiniself exactly in the midst of the two 
grand systems, liy Ids abjuration he did not abandon 
his aUiance with England — nor the stronger friendship 
of his brave Huguenot chivalry. Still a most dexterous 
politician, at the peace of Ver^'ins, he satisfied Spain^ — 
and yet without offcn^ling England. Henry IV. was, 
in politicvs, exactly what lie was m religion — iudiflbi'cut 



492 



HISTOKY OF THE JBSUITS, 



BB to persons — forgetful of services rendered him — 
placiug himself between two systems in order to create 
one for hhnself alone, both in his personal interests and 
those of the crown he was assuming. Philip's con- j 
stitntional indecision was an immense advantage to-^| 
Henry IV, The Spaniard's prodi^ous activity was that ^* 
of a doll effected by a string — totally irrational, and 
therefore easily '* played off" by a politician aa cunning 
and crafty as ever wore a crown. Consider tiie > 
Spaniard's agents : — all of them small intriguers — in- 
capable of those large contrivances which take into con- 
sideration all the passions of men — their desiroa, (Leir 
BO-callcd boat intorosts — driving each its own way, 
apparently, and yet eventuating the mighty result in 
contemplation. But there never was anj-tldng like a 
well-laid design in any of Philip's machinations. His 
agents " stirred*' everywhere recklessly — thwarting each 
other, exasperating the princes, lavishing heaps 
doubloons, which the insatiate a\idity of the great vassals 
in France devoured, without promoting in the least the 
grand result contem]jlatcd — ^namcIy, the destruction of ' 
heresy as an obstaele to Spain's universal domination. 
In fine, there was needed in that revolution, as in all 
popular movements^ a decided anil resolute lea<ler, 
capable of giftaping the energies of the masst^s to apply 
them vigorously as he listed, and by a whelming will ic 
necessitate achievement,* 

■ ScoCapofi^e, La Ligue ot Hmri IV. p. 271. Itis this dvAdenc/— Uii« M^ 
ck'ticy of a rapcrior miinl, that rcndora iJie proBont epoch of wild wd desuhivj 
revolutiouB m criiriB full of gloomy foreboding, AU OVft Ean^thotwoliitiuiuwj 
beadii luv H v/eak anil fJuJUw ds ihc rcvo!u^<iiuuy nxcmbt^n &ro wilU wul 
fmntie. Wa mij be Hure LkiAt roj-.-Jiem on Ute uohtiatul will lake adTwUice of 
thifl deB[Wrute deficiency. CounU-i-'rovolulJoaa will follcjw. 1 V bcheme uuij 
Duw be nihcliLuntiuj^ wbieh wjlj n^dcr Kuaaia the but 1>liI Ixniimpliuil hcipc of 
cuaspoTBloil poyaliani. Sin?har<ault wiU be ilisnair^uii lo Uin rroedom af Eimpo ij 
the owxfud BiAto will Inj worse lluu the Bnt Uod iorfond U ' 



THE FIHALE OF THE LEAGUE. 



493 



III 1594 the good people of Paris opened tbeir gates 
to Henry IV. *' The reduction of the city to the 
obedience of his majesty was so sweet and so gracious, 
and witli aucli contentment, that none of tlie cilizene 
received liarm in person or property, and the whole day 
was spent in thanksgivings for so many unexpected 
felicities, and bonfires blazed during the night for a sign 
of gladness,"^ Henry IV», lu his turn, by way of 
attesting his precious adhesion to the Catholic mysteries, 
accompanied the processions and grand ceremonies 
which filled the streets of Paris in every direction. The 
rectors, deans, theologians, all the wliole tribe of 
iiniversitanauB were foremost with tbeir allegiance to the 
Roman Huguenot, They ** sworo with heart and mouth 
to the most Christian Henry IV., with all submission, 
reverence, and homage, to recognise him for their lord 
and prince temporal, sovereign, sole, and legitimate heir ; 
renouncing all leagues and pretended unions, both 
within and without the kingdom ; and we confirm the 
same/' they said, " pbioing our hands, one after the other, 
on the boly gospels."^ This was the finale of the grand 
Catholic League so glorious. And a most appropriate 
ending it was. No other could be expected from its 
beginning and its progress. Elaborate theories have 
been developed to explain the phenomenon : but after 
all, two words suffice to declare both the cause and the 
effect — htonan nt^ure. How long must we continue to 
be fooled by names ? The paltriest cli<]uc-skimiiahea 
and feuds of tbe paltriest viUages poifectly represent 
the contentions of kings and nations. Some petty 
jealousy, some thwarted selfishness, shall make two or 



' Thus ibo PTent wm re«arcbd by Ibo P*rwuui lown-council In tSeir i^iaicr*. 



494 



HI8T0RT or THS JESUITS. 



more familica desperate enemies to eacli olbet. Some 
uuforeseon fortuituus incident shall bring thcni logutlior 
once more ; hands will be shaken ; and the lips, vrhirli 
uttered erewhilc vords of implacable detestation, then 
fasbion themselves to outpour exhaustlesa compliment. 
It isprecisely tlms with the little men oF great rank aJi*l 
pretensions, A thousand theories may be invented to 
explain political eveuta — but it JB human tmiure after 
all. When historians shall cease to mount on stills in 
order to instruct maukind respecting the doings of the 
kings and great ones of earth, then their tomes will be? 
the arcliives of lioneat wisdom speaking truth and 
shaming the dcviL 

Poor human nature \ Wo should be ashamed of H 
were wc not smo that. In spite of its baseness, it is called 
to ft belter destiny, which it can and would reach, were 
it not for our most defective indoctrination and convcai- 
tionalities. The tum-coat University of Paris — orer 
other would do the same — belied itself expedienUf:' 
Thereupon, the League was coffiu9d, or rather, wi 
thrown to the dogs or on a dunghill, to vanish 
oremacauaia — elemental putrefaction- Woe to the Tan-l 
quished! was the fact, and numberless caricatures and 
hbelfi fixed tlieir talons on the holy union of tho holj 
Roman Catholic and Apostolic Churcli — even as "»_ 
violent cross wind from either coast," the rcactiofl 
'* blew it transverse, ten thousand leagues awry into 
devious air " — 

Cowlft, hooiln, and haJiilfi, nith tlicif xthu-pTN, toal 
And flnCtor'i) into rs^rs : iJien rclifv, 1vn4«, 
iDdntgeaoM, dispcuBes. pordooa. bnlU, 
The ■port of wincJs : all Miwf , iipwhirl'd *lofl, 
T\j o'er the liackoiclc yf die worlJ fm- off, 
Into A limbo liLTgo and broui, ainop ciUlM 
Th^ Pttmdite of FooJt.*' 



CKANOE UF SENTIMENTS IN PRANCE. 



40.'> 



Odea, soniietej *]uatrains, staiieaf^, couplets, in laudation 
of tlic Beaniese, were the giisliing proJuctioiis of every 
pen ill the turn-coat city of Paris. AU the heroes of 
pagan mythology lent their attributes aud jackets to the 
triumphant Huguenot- Henri IV. was Perseus, and la 
Francfi was Andronie<la. La France had been saerificed, 
and lleiiH I V. dehvorcd hoi' from the niouster who 
liehi her in his fangs. Such was the reaciimi — the like 
Co which might at any time, in any roToIutioo, be 
brought about by those who understand human nature 
and liave "put money in their pocket/' Let me be 
perfectly midei'stooJ — my firm conviction is, that the 
^•^iylndiors of all revolutions are invariably the worst 
»pcx:imend of human nature. No man who has a heart 
to feel for humanity will consign the physical, Tooral, 
and intellectual fortunes of milUoiis to the arbitnujient 
of a mob, 

Henry IV., himself, waa astonished at the issue of 
ATsntfi. *' Can I believe," ho exclaimed, " that I am 
where I am 1 The more I think of it^ the more am I 
astounded.''^ Surely this attestation is enough to silence 
all tlieories in explanation — esccpt that of human imture. 
Some of the preachers continued to denounce the 
Huguenot king, Henry silenced tlicm, — drove tlie 
most ar<lent into exile : but where be stnick, the blow 
was inflicted with diacemment : he was not a mcrcifiil 
king, but a deeply political sovereign.^ By favoiu- and 
money he continued vigorously to sap the fomidations 
of the League. One of its great military heads, Brissac, 
had betrayed the Spanish cause : treason became con- 
tagious, or rather iu fashion — for treason was, and ever is, 
a matter of example. All rushed to sell then- allegiance 



\ 



■ Cftpvli^G, vbi tuj^h, AA1 



< II ib. 



19fi 



HIOTOfiY OF TlIE JESUITS, 



to the Huguenot : they tried to outstrip each other 
their Josortion of the conquered caxise. When a 
fella on evil days, the most desperate wound it has to 
endure is dissension amongst its defenders. The ejtul- 
tation of victory stifles the fermentation of intern 
discord : whilst the spring-tide of successfiil or oBensi 
battle rushes onwards, there is neither time nor inclii 
tion for internal strife : but when the receding tide 
adversity lays bare the unsightly mud-hottom of the 
cause, suggesting chiUing reflections on the ghas 
sights disclosed, — in that last winier of a cause erewh 
80 ardent, when defection Irom its ranks is bold a 
prominent, and the (uture darkens with despair — then 
is the time for mutual, unmeasured, and bitter recrimi- 
nations amongst tlie members. This happened to the 
League, and Henry IV. exerted himself to the utmost to 
fan the flame of discord.' The League and Flulip 
became contemptible. Narrowness of mind, — petty 
jealousies, — fi-ivolous vanity supplied the grand motivea 
of action. The Catholic question was sunk before the 
eyes of all the world, into the uttermost depths of 
desperate egotism, where it had always been in point of 
fact, though specifically raised to tlie surface hy tl 
bladders of vain promises and pretences, Itnonvbeoa: 
a trade in corruption — bard gold being the circidating 
medium, and dastardly defection the marketable com- 
modity. Henry IV- enticed away the chiefs of tin 
League, whilst Philip II. bought up men and war-postl 
It was no longer a royal contest of chivalry, but 
subornation of the vilest sentiments of the heart- Dai 
by day the strength of the Spanish faction in Fraji 
vanished amain : the country was evacuated, T 







i 



> Cftpefiguc, kAi M^ra, 33€, rJ v^. 



THEIR AVERSION TO HENRY IV. 



497 



wonderful activity of Henry IV. reduced, one by one, all 
the war-posta bought over with doubloons, or acquired 
by craft. It was now a war of nalloualifj/ — faction was 
no more. TLe SpaoiardB would have to measure tlieir 
prowess with that of the French : the League was 
shattered for ovon The furies whicli had stimulated 
civil discord in France were now to direct their energies 
against tlic very nation whose king aad whose gold Iiad 
roused them to treasonable insurrection and their 
country's destruction. This was exactly as it should be 
— ly way of retribution- 

The Jesuits and the Jacobins had not acquiesced in 
this turn of affairs so glorious for Henry IV. Popular 
among their party, and beloved by a certain portion of 
the masses, the Jesuits and tlie Jacobins had not bent 
the knee before the victorious "heretic of Navarre," aa 
the Jesuit Parsons called bira at the very time in ques- 
tion. When the king commanded these preachers to 
announce his power, and to justify hia authority, the 
two cor|x>rations had diaubeyed. In the at?creta of the 
confessional, in that mysterious interchange of opinions, 
advice, and penance, the Jesuits had often recalled to 
remembmnco the glorious days of CathoUc power in the 
League — in tlie midst of gi-and processions, with incense 
and flowers, with endless oath.H and iniinite obtestations.' 



monla ItUdlT eubmhtefl ta Honry IV The JncobioA nnd Jt-«uilfl ncre cJit only 
diuaenticnti- The onlli prr<powd U Ihem by D? ITai'Ia^, pr«aidviit of (lie nni- 
vtrtiijr, «u ^mple enough ; " I pmmiBe and iwoar, (ta&t I ^^ill live and d» in 
dw CAttioUc, nfx^olii^, «it>1 FUjdkui TidJi, under nbedwiiee to Hmrr IV , mnt 
Chrutijhn uiJ CndioUe Kmg of rrancD and NavnrrD ; nnd T renauur-p iJt lcBgn«a 
Mod MMmblieji mftile i^imBl hb wrviee, ko<1 T will nndirrtbke Dotlilng aj^siubI 
hb uithonty/' Jnui-ciiri, ihe Jesuit hixinriAD, uys that lliia oath w«a ftvn^ 
pntposelj to destroy ifioJoflLiiU: butitis infficultlnsc- wh&tobjwEionlhe^conld 
niftke to if, nnlvn Ilieir party-Bpint wh bj ihnnwWn Ailmitipfl in be partmminl 
TOL> II, K K 



498 



HI3T0RY OF THE JESUITS. 



As long as tbese miglity men of influence remained 
opposed to the king, there could be no security for his 
rights or his life. The thought of assassinating ihe 
king waa familiar with the people : the opinion of the 
corparations was, that a heretic not reconciled lo the 
Church waa without the pale of common rights — it whb 
a meritorious deed to use the knife in order to riJ the 
city of the anathema.* Private suggestions, religious 
insinuations, were not necessary to arm the hand of 
a fanatic: it was an article of faith, universally pro- 
claimed, that a heretic king might be cut off. as we have 
heard from the Jesuit-schoola : there was immortal glory 
(according to Mariana, whose book was just puhlisheJ^ 
for tlie assasain who would cut down an offensive tyrant 
— that is, a heretic king. Few believed in the sin- 
cerity of Henry's abjuration : the pope mistrusted the 
Huguenot. Sixtus V. was dead, but Pope Clement 
VJH. was disposed to carry out the papal poUcy. The 
inflammatory book of the Jesuit Parsons against Eliza- 
beth, but including, as we have seen, strong argnraenta- 
tion against Henry of Navarre, had gone through several 
editions, with a wide circulation over France : an 
edition had juat api>eared, puhlislied under the pope s 
own eyes at Eome.^ Until the king could be absolved 



to &U othor ooiuiiilGrntinnR of aLlo|ti^i?« to the 4»cpted king of thir ctranSTf. 
This ifl, doubUo^T the sei^rel of tli? appositioa. Al Lyotui, aXha^ thcj tvfuaed l» 
tako the oath^ aJUiongh the mob threatened to Htorm their housr, mtiA ove^ 
whvlmeil them with aIjuef. — Dk BtnUa^, &c. ; Oifwlrrtte, L Mti, etam, 

' C&peHguo, ii£i mpra, p. 34fl. 

' AiidrMe Pbilopntri vA Elizabethre RF^inffi EiUi^tuin,39 Noretntftu, IStI, 
proniulganuii respondo- Jn 159'2 it waa pubHabed At Lyons, and in tht wane 
year at Augabnrg. The vo^y in my poBSeBHoo wan printed at Eurat in ISSJ. 
Bit the Hiiporacriplioii on tlic titlr l"age, it Imluiigod tu tbi? lihrsrj- of ibe fUmiui 
fctlegij of die Company - nnrl tliutv in also & LaUn inecripljoti «tAlii>g tlwi^uthar 
Uf be Pvfiona ; the inavnpliuin t^ppoar to liAve been nmti^myor&neoiiiiBt wid ihr 
hjuidwritiug ib that o( ihei'iidcif tlie IQth, or beguiling of [b« ITih MfltDty, 



THK POPE a UPPOSinON TO HENBY IV. 



499 



by the pope, the abjuration waa iDcomplete ; nnd the 
churchmen, who still were "motived to resist Henry IT., 
4Bade this deficiency the excuse for violent agitation or 
underliand machination. Ilenry was aware of this, and 
was anxious to get absolution from the pope. He sent 
the Duke de Novors on the mission to the papal court : 
but tho ambassador was met in Switzerland by tho 
Jesuit Poasevin, who presented him a brief from the 
pope, and informed him that he could not be received as 
ambassador from Henry IV, to his Holiness.^ Never- 
theless* the French ambassador pressed forward to Rome, 
and obtained an interview ; but the pope positively 
refused to acknowledge his diplomatic qiialificaticns : all 
that passed between them must bo considered mere 
privates dificoui'sc ; ajid yet there was much public 
import in what he said to the ambassador of Henry IV". 
" Do not tell me that your king is a CathoLc. 1 will 
never believe that he is truly converted, mileas an angel 
come from heaven to whisper it in my ears. As to the 
Catholics who have followed his party, I look upon them 
oDly an disobedient deserters of religion and the crown, 
and no more than bastards and sons of the bondwoman. 
Those of the League are lawful cluldren, the real sup- 
ports and tnie pillars of the Catholic religion/'* It ia 
therefore iiot at all surprising that the pulpits of the 
faction, which still held out, resounded with appeals 

* Mem. dc Naveri, ii. p. 405 ; C*jrt, Cliroo, Noven, li. 253. 

' Caj-ct, Mm T. p. 251, d t<q. ; J<>unuJ Je Henri IV, ; Bmwmni ; Hankci. 
tl vnv leiljoiis to linaul ttie iiuiaeraufl con^indea hod sttempts tg^ouc tlie life 
of HLvrj IV., from tho year (StEl to \G\9, when ho «*a nibrderwl — all goae- 
nfAlbyllic Lcaf:ii«,Ai1vi»ediind aniiiHioDf-d far ihemosLpartbyUipCoarEof Ronf, 
inepircd Uid dirwteri by the King of Spain ^ ami b^ the Jmiita with oUter manks. 
Some of Henry^s e>K&pM wvre cnuSoiu and strikiDg ; buG 1 nuut rcfur lo Either 
wriccra for the details- ffce ^yet. Hem, do la Fain, p, 1 14, tt teq. i CbroooL 
Notch, p, ^^3D, el ic^,, and the \niiHi1efl dn Soi-dioant Jt-miffa, L iL p- 1 Si to 
p-SBV, iiKludiagaut]if»idr7 lH(«<n aiid cvlrapta from muiy hi^binand of th« timaa^ 

X K 2 



500 



HISTORY OF THE JESUITS. 




Calculated to excite any violent enttusiast to undcrtAke 
tliQ deliverance of the Church from ita pretended dangers 
The Jesuit Commolet, in one of his sermons, enlarged' 
upon the death of Eglon, King of Moab ; applauded, like 
Mariana, the assassination of the late king, and described 
Jacques Clement as BLtting among the angels of heaven. 
Having thus applied the text, he exclaimed : — " We must 
have an Ehud — we Trant an Ehud — be ho a monk, a 
soldier, or a shepherd, it is of no consequence — ^but lie 
must have an Ehud — this blow is all we want to put our 
affairs in the situation we desire."^ It is further stated 
that at the end of his sermon he exhorted his audience to 
look forward, saying : — " You will fioon beholda mirnrle 
sent express by God — yes, you will see it — and con^der 
it already done/'^ Such sermons were preached at Lyons 
and other towiLs, as well aa at Paris. They were sanc- 
tioned by the Company's theoiogiana, and certainly not 
discountenanced by the pope's opposition to the king. In 



^ The JefluiL of tJi« DncQTnGDta ileotoa tbiH ^ntttroplie of bis broihvr Con* 
motst, aUtefl by Amaud in ]ih p\tnli'm^Ji ngarnat the JeBoiCe ia 1594 : MmI 
lua^tTciU^v fay» (Jint lit- Lmit rcL'l 500 vuhiiitvf vt f'\tieii %t ilic time ur iiuovaidiAt^/ 
aft«r, Vkthntil finding lie (acI uli^rh. liowovM, it pvon in lh» Jontval 
d'Henri 1V.» whicli tho Jei^ult iiuotce for oUicr parputtea. He uv4, " lei ttie iii»- 
giatmCc4 auti-jeHiii(LCu] toll iib iit what li'mturiiui, in nliai iiKiiiQineiii, in *ti«l 
aoaro« AmniTd fouoil nn iLnocdote ^hich no <>iie Ieduw bpfore liim *' — but ntndjr 
u Arxiftud JisUvcred hie cliArgo &u «u-lj tta IhSti, Oicre la uo vcmder thit ihtt 
Tftct hod not u yet WcMitaa hinlimcbt : llio king had only joit enlvred l^kn^ 
The Anecdote wu tliercfortj u ^ct a iraditioi^ whicli OtllioticA reumte DckI 9o 
Suipture, nt li^iet, TIhh trolhy kpoluf^M takv« good (<w not to teU hia radir 
vi^fn Araaud iloLlvorei) hm tUor^e. Agiiiu^ tho aUi^grd aervim* of CuMDolM 
nubai^cjitciilJ^ in lAvotir of Uie kiag uv brojgbL ftirword hy tbe a^iologwi; bal 
ngiiin he fnilu io auLt« tlaut it was vrhoa tfifi tido wab volliiig (hgunal tho Cun- 
puLj-, ilint CoiitniolGt mndo a show of " good urTicu " — just u aJJ ttio JeraiBi 
tthuo aLil>snquuui]^ {ifttrodis^-d hy Hcary, ritd wliii each att\er in tho Buno tliow 
of '*goud servioc/' See DtKitmeiUa. i, Jnuittt Ltff. p- 2^,et k^- 

^ ATiikud, rUidoy. p. £0 ; Lts Jt«iii;e« CriiBincta, p. 210, cf n^. Anwod 
anya tlinl inoru lluut ^00 pflraviiB wera nble tiv nlte^t Uio f*iTt tliAt itiLfl Barwaai 
wu priAiiliiHl hy Lhe Ji.«iiit CuiniDaler. Sfltf hIm Piutquidr, Uvre iii. c tI Dc 
Thou ntlcMH the uditiiiu^ >H'rnii>mi of tli'' JrsuiU, \\h. cTiJ. 



efi'cct, one Pierre Barriere was fceiJied, and confessed his 
resolution to murder the ilenounced heretical Icing. When 
he had resolved to devote liimself to the attempt, he 
applied to the vicar of the Carmelite mouka for his opi- 
uiou ; the friar praiaed liis courage. A Capuchin hkewise 
]>ronounced such a deed meritorious : but a Doniijiican, 
who happened to be attached to the royalist ]*aity, 
beiag consulted by the assaasiri — an ignorant man of the 
lower orders — defeiTed giving his opinion till the follow- 
ing day, and notified the fact to a royalist, who seii^ed 
the fanatic. Barriere confessed that ht; had applied to 
a priest at Paris, who assured him that the king was not 
a Catholic, though he went to mass ; and introduced 
him to Vantde, the rector of the Jesuits. Varade, he 
said, assured him that to kill the king was a great 
a«^tion ; but it required courage, and he must previously 
confess hinisclf and perform bis Easter devotions. He 
thi'ii gave him his benediction, and intrusted bim to 
another Jesuit fur confe-ssion. Thus encouraged and 
fortified spiritually, he purchased a double-edged kuife^ 
which he liad pointed and sharpenetJ, and then set out 
to kill the heretic kiiig, when he wan arrested. Accord- 
ing to Pasquier, the criminal confessed all these &ct4 
without being subjected to the torture, and affirmed 
them on the scaffold, and even on the wheel on which 
he was hideously broken — "always full of sense and 
preaence of mind," saya Pasquier. who had interviews 
with the wretch in prison-" His confession was very 
simple, and he mentioned the names of bis advisorB, 
who were all prieats or doctors in theology : " indeed,'^ 

* Qk)«(«Ab. T> ; ThuuL lib, crit. ; rM<iiiivi',livii; lu, c vj. ; ld> Leum, livrc* 
mi. el xnki ; Dravnlng, p. 1 G8. 



502 




HI9T0BT OF 



says Browniug, ** there is not the least room t* doubt 
their compUcity on this occasion."* It was this event 
which liaBtciied tlic misfiion of the Duke de Nevere 
to Ronie for tLe pope's absolution, by way of a sliieU 
for the king against the rcgicidal preachers of Pranot' 
Meajiwhile tbo king marched into Paris, amidst crii^ of 
Vive ie Itoi, and all manner of gratulations, as I have 
Btated, from an iiDtnense majority of the people, monks, 
priests, and the universitarianfl. Then the gallant aoi- 
versity put forth the oath of allegiance to Henry IT., 
wliich I have given, but which the Jesuits rceoIvwJ 
not to s^ear. Doubtless, the great animosity against 
the Jesuita still existed in the universitarians : but, eren 
if we give to this motive the greatest possible weight, it 
must be evident that the determination of the Jesuits 
to refuse allegiance to the acknowledged king of the 
realm was sufficient to hold them up as pubUc eueuiies, 
bellows of sedition, incendiary Pharisees- To say that 
they could uottakt? the oath until the king was absolTcd 
by the pope would have been reasonable enough, if they 
had decamped from the kingdom ; but to remain at 



^ Hist- of tlio Hu^CDOts, p. IflR. TliD Jesuit Javend (Hi>l- Soc Jan. 

lib, xii-) denies (hp ahare of Varado in Uits uRaJr ; but the Jesuita dcnj tstry^ 
thing- It does indeod Mcm mcHit pn-postcroui in ihe Jesmi9 lo atier ibeir 
dexualflin lh« faco of aJl irknowledgcd oplniona of thinr ihwlagiiuu, then mo nfc, 
in tha face of the umloiiliteil rer^laDco of tlie pope to Elenry'R wcAoion. Daw 
TDucb belU^r it would Imve been to hdmit tlip fiKit, &ad (o tpjimit il >■ an mbom 
itf the lyOigioiis BfutiiupuL But iiurh is the pcrvenity of aA\ ^vtymOf tkil H 
pro-aupposea a mt^ntnl bJiDdncea iu otiiors u grciftl u Ihe Bioril obliqwty vitkh 

guiJetjteDmi prf>cccdiup. 

^ Hvnry ppMnitlwI Ihn OirdinaJ do Plftij*iife, who had fttpennniwJy opposed 
1diii,Ui Leave I^atU witliout moLcntatlon ; hecvou nUijwGdlilmtof&ke wiihlnm ibc 
J«ui(Vuade uid the priest Aubrj, the accompli i^taof Barrirra, Afcatmi^AMg^ 
Ckronot. Au- 15^4 ; I^u Bu\Uit}/, p. HIS. Henry's fofbrflnmpc »■«» nf^cnmv^ 
piirolj' puliliu&l ■ it wBsh»ml4'rtfH tocoiinivc *l Ihe iniqaily whiUt hik fb(« aPBmed 
to depend un ^hc noffcr itT the nrdinnljind tht JMuiU>^ zum<«ly, Ihe PopenfftflOift. 



* 



UEAaURES AUAmST TUG JC6U1T8. 



503 



their posta, anil jet refuse allegiance to the reigning 
monarch, was scarcely a resolution likely to meet with 
toleration in any age — not excepting the present- The 
unreasonableness of the Jesuits is enliaaced when we 
consider their known influence with the people — in their 
famous confraternities which, at that penod, belted all 
Eui'ope, which tho Company aspired to move as she 
listed, hy her application of the Archimedean screw to 
the hearts and minds of humanity. It was therefore not 
to be wondered at that the Univeraity of Paris passed a 
decree, a month after the king's triumphant entry, 
to summon the Jesuits to trial with a \"iew to their 
expulsion from the kingdom. The parochial clergy 
joined the University against the Jesuits, and the cause 
was tried by the parliament of Paris in 1594, The 
Jesuits were found to liave been, one and alL so deeply 
intcrestpcd in the Spanish party, that their expulsion 
&om the kingdom was considered necessary. It was 
futile to say that the whole Company should not be 
punished for the active exertions of certain members. 
There was a bad principle, which the wholt' Company 
was sworn to defend and to promote — the deposition of 
heretical kings, together with Philip "s grand idea : it 
was therefore perfectly impossible to make exceptions for 
the sake of the '* Company/' whilst all its members were 
under the influence of that principle, so hostile to the 
intoresta of the Frcncli govcnimcnt, and to every other. 
This question lasted for a long time : eudiesa maclu- 
nationa confused, protracted, exasperated the minds of 
the debaters. The decree of the University, ordering 
the proceedings for the banishment of the Jesuits, was 
signed by the Factdty without any objection. This 
affair has become memorable bv the constant i-cference 



504 



HI3T0HY OF THE JESCITS. 



mailo to it on erofy occasion wtict liae brought tlio 
Jesuit into collisiou ^itli the parliamenti The 
chai'ges then advanced against the Company have 
been always renewed whenever the public mind has 
been excited by the Jesuits, Antoine Arnauld was 
advocate for the University ; Louis Dol^ for the cur^ 
of Paris : and CIaud9 Dnret pi*mded on behalf of the 
Jesuits. Aniauld'a speech contained much violent de-' 
clamation ; tliat of Bol^ was more ai^mnentative. The 
defence of the Jesuits was comprised under two heads 
— one, that the accusation against the Company waa 
inadniissablo — the other, an answer to the accusation, if 
admitted.* Public feeUng was so much ag^nst the 
Jesuits, and the assertions made by Arnauld entered S9^.^H 
deeply into the experience of the nation at large, ihat^^ 
the proscnption of the Company was fully expected 
Tlie doctors of the Sorbonne had joined in the clamour 
against the Jesuits, and it was principally in couse-; 
quenee of their demand that the trial had been insti- 
tuted ; but by their intrigues and cabals, the Jesuits 
obtained a partial document from some of the Faculties, 
withholding theli' assent to the prosecution- They also 
produced a " conclusion'' under the name of the Faculty 
of Theologyj against theii* expulsion from the kingdom : 
but