Skip to main content

Full text of "The History of Kingswood School: Together with Registers of Kingswood School ..."

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 

B 480644 



"HREt Old Boys 






7^ TfMTTtA^^^spyj/'^^'f'iT^y ' 1 

1 ^!^ iri::^^ ^ 

^^i^^M^^v^i^^Mwiw^M^Vmi^H^BPiOTnil^mHpiii I . I II i^^ijp 


19 6" 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC j 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


IVattrUw &• Sons Ltd- 


From the Painting of John Wesley which hangs in the 
Kingswood Dining HalL 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

r;< , ■■■: ()()! 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Together with Registers of Kingswood School 
AND Woodhouse Grove School, and a 
List of Masters 


In Gloriam Dei Of>nmi Maxim'i et in Usum EccUsiae ef Reijwbiicae 




Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Th£ task of compiling a History of Kingswood School might easily 
have fallen into abler hands ; to hands more loving it could not have 
been entrusted. For its execution we ask every consideration and 
every allowance that can come from sympathetic readers ; for the 
design itself we feel that no apology is needed. The 150th birth- 
day of Wesley's great Foundation is upon us, and no attempt has 
yet been made to tell its story. To make such an attempt is to 
perform a duty so obvious that it must be matter of wonder that it 
was not long ago accomplished. We have done what we could. 
Our labour of the last six years, never light, often most arduous, has 
had one only object — that we might gather up the fast-vanishing 
memories of the past, and weave them, however imperfectly, into a 
continuous whole, which should secure for them that perpetuity 
which is their right. 

We render our heartiest thanks to all those who have helped us, 
and tender our kindliest forgiveness to those who have hindered by 
withholding help within their power to give. It is impossible to 
name here all to whom we are indebted. They are numbered by 
hundreds. Yet grateful mention must be made of one who wishes 
to be nameless, for sharing with us the financial risk of the under- 

It is only right to state that the second of our trio is mainly 
responsible for the first section of our work, and the first for sections 
II. and III., but it has been repeatedly revised by all, and all must 
share alike the responsibility for the accuracy of its details. 

We have striven above all things to present a truthful picture. 
We have endeavoured to extenuate naught, and to set down naught 
in malice. We have not forborne to criticise where criticism seemed 


O|2r9/\00 Digitized by Google 



called for. Had our love for our School been less our criticism 
must have been less also. It is but a poor patriotism which can 
only feed on praise. We are sure of the name and fame of Kings- 
wood. We are sure that she is worthy of our absolute allegiance. 
W^e are sure that she stands, and shall stand, strong in the reality of 
her life, in the loyalty of her sons, and in the moral greatness of her 


A. H. L. Hastling. 
W. Addington Willis. 
W. P. Workman. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




I. Orioin and Establishment . . -13 

Pa^n Schools — A Christian School — Locus — The Kingswood 
Colliers — Foundation Day — The Sinews of War — Opening 
Day — The Building — Earlier Institutions — A Fourfold School. 

II. Rules and Regulations ..... 24 

Absolute Control — Tender Parents — The Early Bird — Daily 
Bread — Fasting — Exercise — The Whole Design — Made in 

III. Brain Work ....... 29 

The Common Task — Classes — Lacuna — Perfection — The Time- 
table— Tex t -lx)oks. 

IV. Early Days ....... 34 

Fees — Masters — Mary Davey's Prophecy — Fightings Within — 
The First Expulsion — Wesley's Purge — Low Tide — Wesley as 
a School Inspector — ** It's dogged that does it." 

V. A Connexional Institution . . . -41 

The Kingswood Collection — Strolling Preachers — Preachers' 
Boys — Wesley's Appeal. 

VI. Burning Questions ...... 47 

The Little Ghost's Story— Sarah Ryan— "Shall we drop the 
School?" — Thomas Welch — ^James Hindmarsh — Shifting the 
Burden — Ancient Records — Sartorial Notes — Drugs — Pocket- 

VII. The Revival Period ...... 56 

Joseph Benson — A Mighty Rushing Wind — A Gruesome Visit — 
Bedlam— Jacky Brown and Betty — Penelope's Web. 

VIII. The University of Kingswood . 65 

Satan's Spite— The " Plain Account"—'* Mr."— No Methodist 
need Apply — ^Needs must when Dr. Nowell Drives — University 
I'rivileges — Kingswood v. Oxford — Hier stehc ich. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


IX. Adam Clarke ....... 74 

A Cool Reception — Mrs. and Mr. Simpson — Infernal Undent — 
A Lucky Find — Glasses round — Jeshurun — Wesley's Indictment 
—Exit the Bengal Tiger— "Sweet Recess." 

X. After Wesley ....... 82 

The Committee of Inspection — Transition — Cockie Booades — 
Joseph Bradford — Finance — Horner's Methods — William 
Stevens — Holidays — An Exhausted Exchequer. 


I. A Song of Sixpence . . . . •' • 95 

Finance — The Housekeeper — The Patch — Travelling Expenses 
— Summer Holidays — Levites — Christmas and Easter Holidays 
— Prizes and Prize-winners — Food and Clothes — The Liquor 
Bill— A Diminished Exchequer— *' Charity "—The Clutch of 
the Law — ^The Hire of the Labourer — Home Allowances — 
. Expedients — Taxing the Ministry — Help from Outside — 
The Children's Fund — No Water! — The Exodus— Financial 

II. Clivus . . . . . . . .107 

Fathers v. Sons — Extra Years — Examinations — Simple Equations 
— Chaotic Grammars — Classical Course — Classics v, English — 
Valpy — Mr. Shaw's Defence — Wesley's Scheme Revived — 
I*rompting — Six Years or Five — Philosophical Apparatus — 
Time-table — Examiners — Mr. Exley — Writing — Divinity — 
Curriculum, 1845-51 — Science — The Museum — Drill. 

III. The Living Spirit . . . . . iiS 

The Bristol Superintendent— Ministers on the Staff— The First 
Governors — Dual Control — Rev. R. Johnson — Mr. W. Wracge 
— Rev. John Lomas — Examining the Examiners — Mr. W. 
Grear— " Farewell, Lomas '."—Rev. R. Smith—** Daddy "— 
Weakening Powers — ** Dame " — Rev. J. Crowther — Revolt — 
Mr. E. Shaw— Mr. S. Griffith— His Physical Prowess— A 
Touch of Nature — A Protest — Strained Relations — Rev. J. 
Cusworth — A Curious Nomination — Vigour — Rev. W. P. 
Burgess — Rev. S. Jones — Mr. II. M. Shera — ^Junior Masters — 
Punishments— Teaching Methods— ** Duty "—The Scholarly 
Master — The Skilled Teacher — The Fives Player — Rebellions 
— The Beloved Master — The Adventurous Master — The 
Silent Master — The Comely Master. 

IV. Bricks and Mortar . . . . .140 

Toby — New Buildings — Fives Wall — New Schoolroom — He- 
ligionis Alumni — Wesley's Tree — The Barton — Enlargement — 
The Piazza — More Changes — The New Chapel — The Main 
Building — The Classrooms — The Garden — The Clinkers — The 
I-Avatory — The Dormitories — The Schoolroom — The Re- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


V. The Daily Round . . . . . • iS5 

The Outer World— School Politics — Connexional Politics.— 
Cocky Boarders — Religious Initiative — Religious Survey, (i) 
from the Official Point of View, (a) from Within — Bullying 
— Cribbing — Morality — ^Want of Influence — ** Outbursts of 
Depravity"* — Artificial Ethics — Novels — The Case of Samuel 
Warren — Lioneliness — Running Away — Mrs. Banks — Letters 
— The Day's Routine — Washing — Domestic Work — All 
Clothes in Common — ^The Dietary — Hash Day — Silent Meals 
—"Daddy's Gravy » —Gunpowder Plot— " Scrap-plates "— 
Games — Monitors — Pocket-money — Walks — Books — Enter- 
tainments — ** Religious " Boys — Esprit dc Corps — Health — 
Progress — Farewel I . 

VI. Stow 182 

The Short Account — The Kingswood Magazine — Reminiscences 
— Mr. Way*s History — Grove History — Stow^ — Training — 
Tyranny — Mr. Goodenough — Mr. Allen — Masters — Cere- 
monial — ^Mr. Stern-"- Sweet Potatoes — The Sickroom — Gordon 
Dennis — The Qassroom — The Tailor — Cavi — Religion — 
Mrs. Perfect — Prayer-meetings — Thrashings — Flight — 
Rebukes — Criticism. 


I. The New School . . . 199 

Contempoiaiy Description — Foundation Day — An Unaccom- 
plished Design — ^The Piper — Natura Loci — A Sweet Spot — 
The Drowsy God— Brown Paper— The Tower— The Drying- 
ground — Aqualmpura — The Tank — The, Swimming Bath — 
Bathrooms — Masters' Rooms — ^The Opening — Relics — The 
Sunday Tramp — Festivals — Sanitation — Heat and Light — 
The Patch— The Field— Building Schemes— The New Buildings 
— John Cannington — Fam worth Hall — Recent Changes — An 
August Abode. 

II. In the Classroom .221 

Three Typical Years — Summary of Progress — Internal Examina- 
tions — External Examinations: The Locals, London, Oxford, 
and Cambridge — Scholarships — Medals — Prizes — Prize-giving. 

III. Finance ........ 239 

Items of the Balance-sheet— The Relief Fund— The Old Tax— 
Deus ex Machina — The Abyss Yawns again — The Thanks- 
giving Fund — Concentration — Circuit Assessment — Fifteen - 
and-a- penny — The Debt Fund — Laymen's Sons — Equalization 
of Payments — ^The Peril of Kingswood — The Management of 
the Fund— The Outlook. 

IV. DuAJ- Government . . . .251 

Parallels — Early Days — Rise of the Headmaster — * ' Large 
General Powers" — Dr. Waddy's Opinion — Relative Position 
— Opinion of Experts — The Chaplaincy — Final Arrangement. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


V. General Life, 1851-75 ...... 256 

Low Morals—" A Rough, Cruel Place "—A Great Change— The 
Firearms Row — The Prayer-Book Row — The Tower Row — 
Testimonies — Religion — The Weak Points — A Vigorous 
Criticism — Want of Freedom — Want of Books — Wesley's 
Library — Salaried Officials — Youthful Levites — The Master 
on the Prowl— Cricket — Other Games— The Dinner-table — 
Cheese-cakes — Dummies — Breakfast and Tea— Pocket-money 
— Family Worship — Whole Holidays — Entertainments — 

VL Concentration ....... 273 

The Birth of the Commission— The Witnesses— Oxford and 
Cambridge Old Boys — Laymen's Sons — Dual Control — 
Bifurcation ; a Preparatory School — Supper — Talk — Class- 
rooms — Espionage — The Whirlwind from the North — 
Amalgamation — Prefects — Permits — The Reading-room — 
Hard Work — Progress toward Concentration — The Olympic 
Struggle — Big and Little — Reduction of Years. 

vn. Men and Measures ...... 286 

The Genial Governor— The Rev. C. Prest — Sickness — The 
Sheras — Little Jeff— The Suave Governor — A Generous Deed 
—The Amen Row— The Arm of the l^w— A Terrible Time— 
The Governor w^ho did not Shrink — The Governor who 
(iovemed — Lofty Aims — Half-measures — Ill-health — Mr. 
Elton — The Great Teacher — Sermons — Love and Trust — A 
Man greatly beloved — Twice Headmaster — The Enterprising 
Ciovemor — Sickness — The Men of To-day — Physical Apparatus 
— The M useum — Sustenance — Recreation — Salaries — Long 
Service — Tlie Loyal Master — The Energetic Master — 
Passing References — A Fine Pair — The Eccentric Genius — The 
Master who ran away — The Poet — Unsuccessful Masters — 
The Disciplinarian — The Non -disciplinarian — The Foreign 
Masters — The Son of Anak — The Meteorologist — The 
Martyr- Missionary — Penal ties. 

VHL Enterprises ....... 322 

Tempting Fate — Circulation — Society Journals — Apollo — Urania 
— Natation — The Nestor of Societies — A Democratic Origin — 
Newspapers — The Magazine — The Journal — Young 
Imaginings — Odium Tluologicum — The Public Weal — Rivals — 
Peace — Independence — Politics — Confidence — Legality — 
Independent Thought — A Centenary — " Here is nothing base " 
—Old Boys. 

IX. Conclusion ....... 338 

Prophecy Fulfilled — A Venture of Faith— A School History— A 
Battlefield — \ Record of Success. 

Appendices ....... 341 

Letters — Prize Poem — Examination Paper — The Migration 
— Rules — Lists. 

Index ..... . . 367 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

A glorious company, the flower of men. 
To serve as model for the mighty world, 
And be the fair beginning of a time. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1746 TO 1748 

Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he 
will not depart from it. 

KiNGSWooD School was the outcome of an earnest desire on the 
part of John Wesley to establish somewhere in England a model 
ediacational institution "which would not disgrace the apostolic 
age," and to which no religious or right-minded man would fear to 
send his children. It is a mistake to suppose that it was originally 
established to benefit solely the travelling preachers who were 
sharing his labours, although it ultimately did effect this purpose 
after the failure of the attempt to combine under one roof a school 
composed of parlour, or paying, boarders and the non-paying sons 
of the preachers. Wesley's ulterior motive was doubtless to train 
up candidates for ministerial work.^ 

The necessity for a school which should be conducted on 
Christian principles, and should be capable of imparting a sound 
knowledge on all subjects, was forced upon Wesley by his own 
experiences as a boy at the Charterhouse, and by his later observa- 
tions of schools and colleges in Germany and at home. 

Wesley's criticism upon the schools of the day was fourfold. In 
the first place, most of them were placed in large towns. " The 
inconveniences which naturally attended this were more easy to 
be discovered than removed. The children, whenever they went 

' "We design to train up children there, if God permit, in every branch of 
useful learning, from the very alphabet, till they are fit as to all acquired qualifica- 
tions for the work of the ministry." This is the answer given at the Conference 
held at t" - " • -" 


held at the Chapel-House in Tower Street on 4th June 1748, to the question : 
"What is the design of the foundation at Kingswood?" [Publications of the 
Wesley Historical Society, No. I. p. 54.) 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


abroad, had too many things to engage their thoughts, which ought 
to be diverted as little as possible from the objects of their learning. 
And they had too many other children round about them, some of 
whom they were liable to meet every day, whose example (perhaps 
their advice too) would neither forward them in learning nor 
religion. I say neither learning nor religion. For if we have any 
religion ourselves, we certainly desire that our children should have 
some too. But this they are not likely to have, or retain, if they 
converse promiscuously with the children in a great town."^ A 
second objection lay in the evil results of the admission of all sorts 
of children into a great school ; and a third, in the fact that the 
masters in most schools had no more religion than the scholars. 
" Every part of the nation abounds with masters of this kind ; 
men who are either uninstructed in the very principles of 
Christianity, or quite indifferent as to the practice of it, * caring 
for none of these things.' Consequently, they are nothing con- 
cerned whether their scholars are Papists or Protestants, Turks or 
Christians. They look upon this as no part of their business ; they 
take no thought about it."- lastly, the course of instruction 
usually given in the schools was defective, illogical, and immoral. 
The elementary subjects of arithmetic, writing, and geography 
were neglected to make way for Latin and (xreek ; " and 
even as to the languages," exclaims Wesley, "there are some 
schools of note wherein no Hebrew at all is taught."^ Besides 
all this, little judgment was shown in the order in which the 
classics were read, the easy ones often succeeding, instead of 
preceding, the more difficult ; whilst such classics as were read 
were destructive of all religion whatever, instilling into the minds 
of the scholars both obscenity and profaneness. 

Such were the counts in Wesley's indictment against the schools 
and schoolmasters of his day, and such were the defects to be 
overcome by the Founder of Kingswood. 

It will be seen that there are two main features in the scheme 
formulated by Wesley : sound religious training and perfect 
control of the children, with a total elimination of everything 
from their lives which could in any way militate against the success 
of such training. In other words, this was monasticism of a severe 

^ Wesley, Works^ 3rd ed. vol. xiii. p. 256 : "A Plain Account of Kingswood 
School [printed in the year 1781]." 

* Ibid. xiii. p. 257. ' Ibid. xiii. p. 257. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


order applied to tender children. These principles were carried 
into practice by means of a code of stringent rules, to which full 
reference will be made later, and of which Wesley says, " the reasons 
whereon those rules were grounded were not only so strong, but so 
obvious, that every person of common understanding must discern 
them as well as myself." ^ For the objects which Wesley had in 
view his rules were as suitable as could be deviseds; he was a born 
organizer, and Old Kingswood is but another illustration of his 
powers in this direction. He carefully protected his young charges 
from all external contamination; but where he failed was in for- 
getting that " human nature " existed in boys as well as in men. 

Having formulated his educational scheme, his first duty was to 
choose a site for the school, " not too far from a great town — which 
I saw would be highly inconvenient for a large family ; nor yet too 
near, and much less in it — which would have been attended with 
greater evils."- Wesley's eyes turned upon Kingswood, a village 
three miles from Bristol. 

One is inclined at first to wonder at this choice when it is 

remembered that the Kingswood population was not only large 

but consisted of coarse, brutal, and blasphemous colliers. "Few 

pjcrsons," wrote Wesley, " have lived long in the West of England 

who have not heard of the colliers of Kingswood ; a people famous, 

from the b^inning hitherto, for neither fearing (iod nor regarding 

man ; so ignorant of the things of God that they seemed but 

one remove from the beasts that perish; and therefore utterly 

without desire of instmction, as well as without the means of it." -^ 

From these, however, Wesley had no fear ; they had for seven years 

past been his peculiar care, and already a school had been 

established there, for the education of their children. It was 

Wliitefield who first undertook the task of reclaiming these 

people, being urged by the taunts that "if he will convert 

heathens, why does he not go to the colliers of Kingswood ? " 

'*\n the Spring (of 1739) he did so. And as there were thousands 

who resorted to no place of public worship, he went after them 

mXo their own wilderness, *to seek and to save that which was 

lost.' When he was called away, others *went into the highways 

and hedges, to compel them to come in.' And, by the grace of 

Cjod their labour was not in vain. The scene is (November 1739) 

i Wesley, IVorks, 3rd ed. vol. xiii. p. 256. 

i/^/V/- xii«- P- 258. ^ Ibid. i. p. 251 (27th November 1739). 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


already changed. Kingswood does not now, as a year ago, resound 
with cursing and blasphemy. It is no more filled with drunken- 
ness and uncleanness, and the idle diversions that naturally lead 
thereto. It is no longer full of wars and fightings, of clamour and 
bitterness, of wrath and envyings. Peace and love are there. 
Great numbers of the people are mild, gentle, and easy to be en- 
treated. They *do not cry, neither strive,' and hardly is their * voice 
heard in the streets,' or indeed in their own wood, unless when 
they are at their usual evening diversion — singing praise unto God 
their Saviour. That their children too might know the things 
which make for their peace, it was some time since proposed to 
build a house in Kingswood; and after many foreseen and un- 
foreseen difficulties, in June last the foundation was laid.^ The 
ground made choice of was in the middle of the wood, between the 
Tendon and Bath roads, not far from that called Two-Mile-Hill, 
about three measured miles from Bristol." ^ 

And so it was that when it became necessary to choose a situation 
for the great model school, the Founder's thoughts naturally turned 

* The school was started by Whitefield in connection with his work in the 
village, but the expense and responsibility were also shared by Wesley. On 
Whitefield's leaving for America m the same year (1739) Wesley undertook the 
sole charge of the school. There were two masters, neither of whom received 
any remuneration. One of these was John Cennick, a lay preacher, who became 
notorious through his heterodoxy and his attack on the Wesleys. Shortly after 
Whitefield left, Cennick wrote to him about the doctrines of Wesley, and urged 
him to return at once to the scene of his former work at Kingswood. '* I sit," 
wrote Cennick, ** solitary like Eli, waiting what will become of the ark; and 
while I wait, and fear the carrying of it away from among my people, my trouble 
increases daily. How glorious did the gospel seem once lo flourish in Kingswood I 
I spake of the everlasting love of Christ with sweet f)ower. But now brother 
Charles (Wesley) is suffered to open his mouth against this truth, while ihe frighted 
sheep gaze and fly, as if no shepherd was among them. It is just as if Satan was 
now making war with the saints in a more than common way. Oh, pray for the 
distressed lambs yet left in this place that they faint not ! Surely they would if 
preaching could do it, for they have nothing whereon to rest who now attend on the 
sermons but their own faithfiilness. With universal redemption brother Charles 
pleases the world. Brother John follows him in everj'thing. I believe no atheist 
can more preach against predestination than they ; and all who believe election 
are counted enemies of God, and called so. Fly, dear brother ! I am as alone 
— I am in the midst of the plague ! If God give thee leave make haste ! '* This 
was a gross breach of confidence on Cennick's part, and it became known to 
Wesley through a copy of the letter falling into his hands. Wesley met the writer 
face to face before the Kingswood Society and publicly read the letter. Cennick 
admitted the writing and refiised to retract a sentence or to blame himself for 
having written it ; and to prevent undue heat, Wesley adjourned the meeting until 
the week following. Then, instead of debating with them, Wesley formally ex- 
pelled them from the Band Society in Kingswood until they should openly confess 
their fault. The breach was too wide to be bridged over, and Cennick left the 
Society (Southey's Life of Wesley, ii. 326). 
» Wesley,! fr^rifej, i. p. 252. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


to a spot in the country which was so conveniently situated, and 
where, in times past, the most signal success had attended his 
evangelizing efforts. The site for the " New House," as Wesley 
terms it, to distinguish it from the colliers' school, "was quite 
private, remote from all high roads, on the side of a small hill sloping 
to the west, sheltered from the east and north, and affording room 
for large gardens." ^ 

On 7th April 1746 the foundation stone was laid by Wesley 
himself, who at the time preached a sermon on Isaiah Ix., verses 
17-22.2 * 

The initial funds for the undertaking were raised in part by con- 
tributions from friends, and in part from the income which Wesley 
derived from his Fellowship at Lincoln College, Oxford.^ The 
greatest amount was, however, subscribed by a lady, who, Southey 
says, was Lady Maxwell. Southey is here in error, for 
Wesley did not make the acquaintance of this lady until a much 
later period.* The most authentic story is, that Wesley was 
mentioning to a lady with whom he was in company, in the neigh 
bourhood of Bristol, his desire and design of erecting a Christian 
school such as would not disgrace the apostolic age. The lady was 
so pleased with his views and scheme that she immediately went to 
her writing-desk and brought him ^500 in notes, desiring him to 
accept them, and to enter upon his plan immediately. Sub- 
sequently she made inquiry as to the progress of the building and 
its financial requirements, in answer to which Wesley informed her 
that he had laid out all the money he had received, and that he 
was ;;^3oo in debt ; at the same time apologising, and entreating her 
not to consider it as a concern of hers. She, however, pressed upon 
him the sum he wanted.^ 

On Midsummer Day, 24th June 1748,^ the school was opened 

* Wesley, Works, xiii. p. 258: "Plain Account of Kingswood School." 
- Ibid. ii. II (7th April 1746). 

* Ibid, viii. p. 400: "Answer to the Rev. Mr. Church." 

*• Lady Maxwell l^ecame acquainted with Wesley in 1764 {L4fe of Lady 
Maxwell, p. lo). 

* Boyne and Bennett's History of Dissenters, vol. iii. 71 n. 

* The old (and indeed present) prize labels give the date as 28th June ; 
this also was the date inscribed on the old building. The discrepancies are 
difficult to understand, but if John Wesley did not know» who did? Sir. H. H. 
Pollard ventures on the following suggestion. ** I should opine that John Wesley 
and the Committee started from their own particular standpoints. It is not un- 
charitable to say of our revered Founder that his position, in writing his journals, 
was *^ Vetat, cest moV ', and if he had appointed Midsummer Day, he would 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


by John Wesley, accompanied by his brother Charles. The former 
preached on that occasion from the text, " Train up a child in the 
way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from 
it." The event was a notable one in the history of the village, and 
hundreds of miners with their families, who some nine or ten years 
previously had laboured with their own hands and had given liberally 
of their substance to build a school for the education of their 
own children, were present to assist in the new venture of a 
" higher grade school," which was to exist side by side with that of 
humbler aims and earlier growth. From far and wide they flocked 
to hear him who had, with his fellow-worker Whitefield, done so 
much for them personally, and to receive from the hands of him 
and his brother the sacred elements of the Holy Communion, which 
were then administered. When all was over the two brothers 
retired to quietly discuss and frame the rules which should guide 
the conduct of the new school.^ 

The original building provided for the accommodation of fifty 
children, besides masters and servants.^ Its internal arrangement 
seems to have consisted of a dining-hall and schoolroom below, a 
large dormitory (afterwards two) on the first floor, and above this 
"the gallery up two pairs of stairs," which is referred to in the 
account of the great fire of 1757. Wesley reserved one room and 
a little study for himself where he compiled the text-books for 
school use, and, probably, interviewed those boys who fell short 
of the high moral standard required of them.'^ 

Further description of the internal arrangements of the 
building in its successive stages will be found in a later 

The school was situated in the middle of Kingswood, remote from 
all high roads and in the next plot of ground to that upon which the 
original " House " was built as a school for the villagers' children. 
A new main road to London soon encroached on its privacy. On 

keep his appointment, and did indeed preach from * Train up a child.' etc. ; and, 
so fiar as he was concerned, Kingswood School was 'opened,* and the fact is 
duly set down in his chronicles. On Tuesday 28th June Wesley is at Evesham, 
Studley, and Birmingham, leaving Kingswood far behind. Tuesday was then as 
now, I imagine, a more convenient day for beginning scholastic work than Friday. 
I think it probable that school work did begin on Tuesday 28lh June 1748, and 
that the original registers and chronicles of the school bear that date.'' 

* Wesley, Works, ii. p. loi (Friday, 24th June 1748). 

• Ibid. xiii. p. 259 : " Plain Account of Kingswood School." 
' Ibid* xiii. p. 259 : ibid. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


the front, wall of the building was inscribed the well-known motto 
of the school : 





a noble inscription, prostituted in future generations by the ignoble 
use to which it was put when compulsorily scrawled hundreds 
of times by the profane youth who merited punishment. Below 
the motto were the words "Jehovah Jireh" in Hebrew 

In front of the building was the strip of ground, bought by the 
Founder with his own money, of one Margaret Ward.^ This plot 
was turned into pastures and gardens, in the latter of which the 
boys worked when it was fine before dinner and supper. If the old 
prints be examined it will be found that the garden was divided into 
almost as many little beds for cultivation as there were boys in the 

Adjoining the garden was an avenue of trees, where Wesley 
often preached both before and after the opening of the school. 
Looking up the avenue there was visible the "old house," used 
as a chapel, and which the boys attended, we believe, every 
evening a little before seven o'clock and twice at least on the 

There has always been a considerable amount of mystery and 
misunderstanding about Wesley's schools at Kingswood, and the 
school which is the subject of this history has often been con- 
founded with the earlier institution, which was started as a day 
school for the children of the colliers. Indeed Mr. Thomas 
McGeary, a headmaster who, during the lifetime of Wesley, inscribed 
to him an excellent print of the new school, apparently falls 
into the same error, for he describes it as having been erected 

' According to a recent writer, the inscription on the building was carved on 
two stones, upon one of which appeared the words, hang sciiglam conditam 
DEDICAVIT REV. JOHANNES WESLEY, A.M., jUNii 28, 1748, while the Other bore 
the motto we have quoted ( The History of Kingswood Forest^ by A. Braine, 1891, 
p. 219). TTie former inscription is not referred to by Wesley, and was probably 
added at a later period. When the building was enlarged in 1822 a third tablet 
was inserted bearing the words, vesleiadarum filiis doctrina liberali 

COMMODIUS INSTITUENDIS, Ps. Ixviii. II. A.D. l822. [^Ibid.) 

'Wesley, IVorks, xii. p. 116. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


in 1741.^ One thing is perfectly certain, for we have it on the 
Founder's own records, that the year after the new school was opened 
(/>. in 1749) there were in Kingswood no less thanyz?///* schools, the 
children of which he met together for one hour each week when he 
was in the neighbourhood. The schools are described as being : 
" the boys boarded in the New House ; the girls boarded in the Old ; 
the day scholars (boys) taught by James Harding, and the girls by 
Sarah Dimmock."^ 

The mention of the girls' boarding school complicates matters, 
for it is not referred to elsewhere in the records ; but after careful 
investigation we believe the following to be the solution of the 
whole mystery. 

In 1739 a school was built in connection with VVhitefield's 
labours at Kingswood for the children of the colliers and other 
inhabitants of the village. On leaving England, Whitefield re- 
signed the whole concern into the hands of Wesley. At and in 
this schoolhouse Wesley regularly preached, so that it would in all 
probability serve as a school for the neighbouring children during 
the week-day, and be used as a preaching-house every evening and 
on Sunday. This schoolhouse, we are told, comprised a large room 
for the school, and " four small rooms at either end for the school- 
masters (and, perhaps, if it should please God, some poor children) 
to lodge in. It is proposed in the usual hours of the day to teach 
chiefly the poorer children to read and write and cast accounts ; 
but more especially (by God's assistance) to * know God and Jesus 
Christ whom He hath sent' The elder people, being not so proper 
to be mixed with children (for we expect scholars of all ages, some 
of them grey-headed), will be taught in the inner rooms, either early 
in the morning or late at night, so that their work may not be 
hindered."^ A master and mistress of this school are expressly 
mentioned in 1741.^ The central portion of this building still 
exists as "Wesley's Chapel," together with the "small rooms" at 
either end, now four in number instead of eight. 

^ The inscription on Mr. McGeary's picture is as follows : " To the Rev*'- Mr. 
Wesley, M.A., this North-west View of his School in Kingswood near Bristol, 
erected a.d. 1 741, In Gloriam Dei Opt. Max. in Usum Ecclesije et Reipublicce, 
is Respectfully Inscribed, by his Dutiful Servant Tho'*- McGeary. " 

2 Wesley, Works, ii. p. 129 (14th March 1749). 

' Ibid. i. p. 252 (27th Nov. 1739) supplemented by a paragraph which 
is omitted from the W^orks, and which has since been found and published 
{Methodist Magazine, 1843, p. 206). 

■* Ibid. i. p. 311 (23rd May 1741). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


In 1748 the New House for Wesley's large boarding school for 
boys was opened, being situated close to the preaching-house, 
which was none other than the schoolhouse built in 1739. Hence, 
whilst in 1749 Wesley speaks of four schools, there were in fact 
only two buildings ; the New House containing the boy boarders, 
and the old schoolhouse used as a day school for boys and girls, 
with a lodging for a few poor female children from the village. 

This explanation receives some support from the fact that to 
this day a small square space beside the chapel is known as the 
"girls' yard." 1 

' Further corroboration of this explanation is to be found in a letter printed 

in the Waichnian^ 1852, page 363, over the name of Jonathan Crowther. ** The 

building, serving for the double purpose of a school for poor children and a chapel, 

was continued in the form in which Mr. Wesley left it until the time when I 

entered the school (1803), except that two only of the smaller rooms were then 

used as a school, whilst of the six other rooms two were used only as vestries for 

class-meetings, and the remaining four were added to the gallery of the * large 

room ' or chapel. The schools for the children of colliers were soon afterwards 

altogether discontinued.*' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Rule youth weel and age will rule iisel'. — Scotch Proverb. 

I would have inscrilxid on the curtains of your bed and the walls of your 
chamber, ** If you do not rise early you can make progress in nothing." If you 
do not set apart your hours of reading ; if you suffer yourself or anyone else to 
break in upon them, your days will slip through your hands unprofitable and 
frivolous, and unenjoyed by yourself. — Lord Chatham. 

Behold, opened in the wild!— John Wesley.^ 

A.S might be expected from a j^erusal of the considerations 
which induced Wesley to venture so much in the establishment of 
this model school, the rules were unusually stringent. We have 
shown that the two main features of his scheme were religious 
training and perfect control of the children. To effect these objects, 
it is not surprising to hear that no child was received except as a 
boarder,- and upon the express agreement of his parents " ( i ) that he 
shall observe all the rules of the house, and (2) that they will not 
take him from school, jio, not a day, till they take him for good and 
all ; " 3 and that the child must not be over twelve years of age.* 

For " tender parents " the Founder had the utmost contempt. 
"The children therefore of tender parents, so called (who are 
indeed offering up their sons and their daughters unto devils), have 

* So exclaimed the Founder as he contemplated the newly-erected building. 

* Wesley, IVorks^ xiii. p. 249 : "A Short Account of the School in Kings- 
wood, near Bristol " [published in the year 1768]. 

* Ibid. xiii. p. 251. 

* Ihid, xiii. p. 249. The " Minutes " for 1748 fix ten as the limit {Publuations 
of the WesUy Historical Society, No. I. p. 54). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


no business here ; for the rules will not be broken in favour of any 
person whatsoever," ^ 

The general rules of the house, which were printed and published, 
are so quaint, and in the light of these days so extraordinary, as to 
be worth verbatim recital. 

"First. The children rise at four, winter and summer, and 
spend the time till five in private; partly in reading, partly in 
singing, partly in self-examination or meditation (if capable of it), 
and partly in prayer. They at first use a short form (which is 
varied continually), and then pray in their own words. 

"Secondly. At five they all meet together.- From six they 
work till breakfast ; for as we have no play-days (the school being 
taught every day in the year but Sunday), so neither do we allow 
any time for play on any day. He that plays when he is a child 
will play when he is a man. 

"On fair days they work according to their strength in the 
garden ; on rainy days, in the house. Some of them also learn 
music, and some of the larger will be employed in philosophical 
experiments ; but particular care is taken that they never work alone, 
but always in the presence of a master. 

" Thirdly. The school begins at seven, in which languages are 
taught till nine, and then writing, etc., till eleven. At eleven the 
children walk or work. At twelve they dine, and then work or 
sing till one. They diet nearly thus : — 

Breakfast — Milk porridge and water gruel, by turns. 

Supper — Bread and butter or cheese, and milk by turns. 
Dinner — Sunday — Cold roast beef. 

Monday — Hashed meat and apple dumplings. 
Tuesday — Boiled mutton. 
Wednesday — Vegetables and dumplings. 
Thursday — Boiled mutton or beef. 

Friday — Vegetables and dumplings. And so in Lent. 
Saturday — Bacon and greens ; apple dumplings. 

"They drink water at meals. Nothing between meals. On 
Friday, if they choose it, they fast till three in the afternoon. Ex- 
perience shows that this is so far from impairing health that it 
greatly conduces to it. 

" Fourthly. From one till four languages are taught, and then 
writing, etc., till five. At five begins the hour of private prayer. 

* Wesley, VVorkSy xiii. p. 251. 

= For "public worship" {Fublkations of the W. H. S., No. I. p. 55). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


From six they walk or work till supper. A little before seven the 
public service begins. At eight they go to bed, the youngest first. 

" Fifthly. They lodge all in one room (now in two), in which a 
lamp burns all night. Every child lies by himself. A master lies 
at each end of the room. All their beds have mattresses on them, 
not feather beds. 

" Sixthly. On Sunday at six they dress and breakfast ; at seven, 
learn hymns and poems; at nine, attend the public service;^ at 
twelve, dine and sing ; at two, attend the public service ; and at 
four are privately instructed." 

It must not be supposed that ^Vesley was blind to the im- 
portance of bodily exercise. He himself attributed his longevity 
and robust health to his strict obedience in boyhood to his father's 
injunction, that he should run thrice round the Charterhouse 
garden every morning.^ But mere play for its own sake was in his 
eyes unworthy of a Christian child. 

Play was entirely forbidden, in school and out. Chopping wood, 
or drawing water, or digging the garden, was a healthy exercise, pro- 
ductive of profit, and not incompatible with that habit of serious medi- 
tation which the boy was required to cultivate. Play was frivolous, 
unedifying, and distracting from serious views of life. The stolid 
Germans provided Wesley with a reason for this rule, as they did for 
another, that the presence of a master was indispensable at all times. 
" It is a wise German proverb, * He that plays when he is a boy will 
play when he a man.' " So writes Wesley, and then adds this naive 
comment : " If not, why should he learn now what he must unlearn 

The Founder himself was compelled to admit that some of these 
rules were " uncommon " ; and he has, in an account of the school, 
given reasons, more or less cogent, for the most peculiar of them. 
The whole design of the rules was to form the minds of the pupils 
"to wisdom and holiness, by instilling the principles of true religion, 
speculative and practical, and training them up in the ancient way, 
that they might be rational, scriptural Christians. ... It is our 
particular desire, that all who are educated here may be brought 
up in the fear of God, and at the utmost distance, as from vice in 
general, so in particular from softness and effeminacy."* The ease 

^ i,e. **go to church." {Publicaitons of the IV. H. S,, No. I. p. 56). 
' Southey's Life of IVesiey, p. 25. 

' Wesley, Works ^ xiii. p. 260: ** Plain Account of Kingswood School." 
* Ibid, xiii. p. 259 : ibid. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


with which children can unlearn in one week as much as they have 
learned in several, not to mention the prejudice they might acquire 
at home against the discipline of the school, was the convincing 
argument s^ainst holidays of any kind. In subsequent years the 
authorities tempered these vitiating influences by administering to 
the pupil a severe dose of what was called " holiday work," which, if 
applied, kept the mental machinery bright and lubricated, and, if 
not applied, kept the conscience in a state of uneasiness and of 
apprehension as to what would happen on return to school 

Rising at four in the morning Wesley says he knew, " by constant 
observation and by long experience, to be of admirable use, either 
for preserving a good, or improving a bad, constitution. It is of 
peculiar service in all nervous complaints, both in preventing and in 
removing them." ^ This prescription may be correct and efficacious, 
but it is believed that it must be taken regularly summer and winter 
to be of any use. A serious drawback to the cure is that it seems to 
necessitate going to bed at eight o'clock the night previous. At any- 
late, few people are in a position either to contradict or to corrobo- 
rate Wesley's view. We are prepared to believe be did it, and are 
further prepared to admit, with one of his successors in the presi- 
dential chair, that " if I had such a wife as Wesley's, I should get 
up at three?' 

The rule that the children should never work alone but always 
in the presence of a master was also " made in Germany," and was 
adopted from the great school at Jena. " It lays much labour upon 
the masters, but the advantage is worth all the labour. It prevents 
abundance of evil; not only rudeness and ill manners, but many 
sins that children would easily teach each other."* Since there 
was no time for play, the result of this rule was that the children 
were never out of the sight of the master, who haunted them also 
when they sought oblivion in sleep, for " a master lies in the same 

Neither stringent rules nor the the presence of a master nor the 
chastening diet could utterly repress the natural man. Once or 
twice an extra wicked sinner was sacrificed as a warning to the 
others. Only two years after the opening of the school one boy 
was expelled, charged and convicted on the unanimous evidence 

* Wesley, Works ^ xiii. p. 260 : " Plain Account of Kingswood School." 
' Ibid. xiii. p. 260 : ibid. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


of all the masters, with having " studiously laboured to corrupt the 
rest." He was sent home that very hour.' 

In the matter of food the Founder was wise in his day and 
generation. He knew the sins and dangers of over-indulgence, 
and was determined to protect the youth of Kingswood from these 
perils. The breakfast eaten (or perhaps we should say drunk) at 
six o'clock, after two hours' meditative waiting, was very welcome at 
the end of a fast of twelve hours, and it was never the same two 
mornings running — if it were milk-porridge to-day, the little epicure 
knew that it would be water -gruel to-morrow. There was 
ample time, too, to acquire an appetite for the midday repast. 
Four hours' school work and one hour's exercise in the garden 
would ensure full justice being done to the dinner — especially the 
dinner that followed the forty Lenten meals of vegetables and 
dumplings. For the over-burdened stomach, also, there was a 
respite every Friday throughout the year, when the owner had 
permission to fast, happy in the knowledge that it "greatly con- 
duced to his health." And six hours later the young gluttons were 
feasting again on bread and cheese and milk ! 

Notwithstanding the severity of its system, the school was well 
patronised. It was not kept for mere pecuniary gain — indeed there 
was none — and Wesley did not hesitate to clear the place of any 
unsatisfactory pupils ; and yet at no time was there a dearth of 
scholars. On the contrary, the school was often too full. 
^ Wesley, Works ^ ii. p. 175 (lOth March 1750). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Disce, puer, virtutem ex me, verumque laborem, 
Fortunam ex aliis. — Vergil. 

Profounder, profounder 

Man's spirit must dive ; 

To his aye-rolling orbit 

No goal will arnve ; 

The heavens that now draw him 

With sweetness untold, 

Once found — for new heavens 

He spurneth the old. — Emerson. 

Strange as the rules of the house were, those relating to the school 
were even stranger. None but boarders between six and twelve 
years of age were admitted, and these were taught reading, writing, 
arithmetic, English, French, l^tin, Greek, Hebrew, history, geography, 
chronology, rhetoric, logic, ethics, geometry, algebra, physics, music. 
An old account book, bearing date 1764 to 1769, shews that other 
subjects were added to these: two boys at least learnt painting 
on glass, while another is found to be debited with "a case of 
mathematical instruments, ;^i, 2s.'' 

The school was divided into eight classes : the first being the 

"In the first class the children read Instructions for Children 
and Lessons for Children^ and begin learning to write. 

" In the second they read The Manners of the Ancient Christians^ 
go on in writing, learn the Short English Grammar and the Short 
Latin Grammar^ read Proilectiones Fueriles, translate them into 
English and the Instructions for Children into Latin, part of 
which they transcribe and repeat. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


" In the third class they read Dr. Cave's Primitive Christianity^ 
go on in writing, perfect themselves in the English and Latin 
Grammar, read Corderii Colloquia Selecta and Historic Selectee^ 
translate Historic Selecta into English and Lessons for Children 
into Latin, part of which they transcribe and repeat. 

" In the fourth class they read The Pilgrim^s Progress^ perfect 
themselves in writing, learn Dilworth's Arithmetic^ read Castellio's 
Kempis and Cornelius Nepos, translate Castellio into English and 
Manners of the Ancient Christians into Latin, transcribe and repeat 
portions of Moral and Sacred Poems. 

" In the sixth class they read ITu Life of Mr. de Renty and 
Kennet's Roman Antiquities^ they learn Randal's Geography^ read 
Caesar, select parts of Terence and Velleius Paterculus, translate 
Erasmus into English and The Life of Mr, Haliburton into Latin, 
transcribe and repeat select portions of Sacred Hymns and Poems. 

" In the seventh class they read Mr. Law's Christian Perfection 
and Archbishop Potter's Greek Antiquities^ they learn Bengelii 
Introductio ad Chronologium, with Marshall's Chronological Tables^ 
read TuUy's Offices and Virgil's ^neid^ translate Bengelius into 
English and Mr. Law into Latin, learn (those who have a turn 
for it) to make verses, and the Short Greek Grammar^ read the 
Epistles of St. John, transcribe and repeat select portions of Milton. 

"In the eighth class they read Mr. Law's Serious Call and 
Lewis's Hebrew Antiquities^ they learn to make themes and to 
declaim, learn Vossius's Rhetoric^ read Tully's Tusculan Questions^ 
and Selecta ex Ovidio^ Virgilio, Horatio, Juvenale, Persio, Martiale ; 
perfect themselves in the Greek Grammar, read the Gospels and 
six books of Homer's Iliad, translate TuUy into English and Mr. 
Law into Latin, learn the Short Hebrew Grammar and read Genesis, 
transcribe and repeat Selecta ex Virgilio, Horatio, Jttvenale.^^ ^ 

This course of training is ingenious in its economy. There is 
little fear of Class VI. forgetting the sensational and humorous 
incidents in The Life of Mr. Haliburton, which they revelled in 
whilst they sojourned with him in Class V., for in this Class VI. 
we find them converting him into Latin. Class VII. had their 
hands full of the double feat of turning Bengel into English and 
Mr. Law into Latin, having previously sported with these gentlemen 
in their original tongue. What wonder, then, that fresh from such 
studies as Christian Perfection, Bengel's Introductio ad Chronologium 

^ Wesley, Works^ xiii. p. 250, 251 : "Short Account of Kingswood School." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


and Chronological Tables^ the boys of the seventh class should be 
invited to burst into song — " if they have a turn for it " ; and who 
would not? Can the legendary verses which used to float about 
Kingswood a few years back have emanated from this class? If 
so, they were not revised by the Founder. 

But, in the midst of all these works, we look in vain for some 
of the subjects which formed part of the school curriculum as 
originally devised and intended. Where is the geometry, the 
algebra, the physics, and, lastly, the music ? 

This course of study, if carefully followed, had one great advantage 
that modem schoolmasters have overlooked, and which they forget to 
include in their prospectuses. It provided for entire perfection in 
some subjects at least. Class III. rejoiced in perfection in the English 
and Latin Grammars ; another step, and the youth was perfected in 
writing ; one more and that great bugbear arithmetic is conquered for 
ever, and the student " perfected." We regret to find that Cl^s VI. 
perfected themselves in nothing, and no more is heard of perfection 
(except Mr. Law's in the next class) until we reach the head form, 
and find its members revelling in the happy consciousness of 
having perfected themselves in the Greek Grammar. So they 
" move on, their glorious tasks in silence perfecting." 

So much intellectual food could not be distributed, eaten, and 
properly digested without care and regularity in parcelling it out. 
The method in which this was done has been preserved to us. We 
are able to state without hesitation the exact labours of mind, body, 
or stomach of any boy at any hour on any day, provided only that 
his class be known. That this is the fact can easily be tested by 
examining the following tables, and by reading them together, and 
in the light of the menu card referred to in the previous chapter. 

4 A.M. Rose; reading, prayer, and meditation till 

5 „ All met together. 

6 „ Worked till breakfast. 
7-. 1 1 „ School. 

J I ,, Walked or worked. 

12 P.M. Dinner; then worked or sang till 

1—5 „ School. 

c ,, Private prayer. 

5 „ Walked or worked till supper. 

y „ Public service. 

8 „ Bed 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 









- rt 








Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


All the books used in the school were written or edited by the 
Founder himself. Most if not all the text-books are to be found 
in extenso in vol. xiv. of his >\Titings, and occupy in all only 
189 pages. They consist of a Short English Grammar of 11 
pages ; a Short French Grammar (which subject, however, does not 
appear in the regular school curriculum) of 21 pages ;^ a Short 
Latin Grammar of 45 pages, into which an enormous amount of 
learning is compressed; a Short Greek Grammar of 69 pages; a 
Short Hebrew^ Grammar of 1 4 pages ; a Compendium of Logic in 
two books of 23 pages, and an Appendix to the same of half a dozen 
pages. 2 

Besides these he revised and abridged and prepared for school 
use all the other works used by the classes, including The Filgrim^s 
Progress. These works are prefaced by the editor, and the careful 
instructions he therein lays down for both readers and teachers 
show how keen an interest he took in the welfare of his pupils, 
and in the success of his scheme of education. Surely no school- 
master ever wrought more earnestly and diligently in the interests 
of his scholars ! 

' For the French language Wesley had but little respect. **The French is 
the poorest, meanest language in Europe ; it is no more comparable to the 
German or Spanish than a bagpipe is to an organ ; and with regard to poetry 
in particular, considering the incorrigible uncouthness of their measure, and 
(heir alH'ays writing in rhyme (to say nothing of their vile double rhymes, nay, 
and frequently false rhymes), it is as impossible to write a fine poem in French 
as to make fine music on a Jew's harp." — Weslev, IVorks^ ii. p. 387 (iith October 


* Mr. John Jones, one of the early masters, is said, in Myles's Chrofwh^ccU 
History 0/ the Methodists^ to have composed a I^tin Grammar used in the school. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


1748 TO 1753 

. . . Neque semper arcum 
Tendit Apollo. — Horace. 

Notwithstanding the stringency of the rules for admission and 
government there were twenty-eight pupils in the school within two 
or three months of its being opened. Each of these paid ^^14 for 
board and teaching, including books, pens, ink, and paper. The 
terms for those who wished to stay on after having passed through 
the school were fixed at ^^20 per annum, without books, etc. 
Preachers' sons were not admitted, nor were they for some years to 
come, except upon the ordinary terms, as paying boarders. The 
school was, however, under the guidance and control of those few 
clergymen who met annually to discuss the affairs of the Society. 

The search for masters was a difficult one, because Wesley would 
have none " but men who were truly devoted to God ; who sought 
nothing on earth, neither pleasure, nor ease, nor profit, nor the 
praise of men ; " ^ but it was more or less successful, and six were 
engaged, namely, J[ohn] J[ones], T[homas] R[ichards], W[alter] 
S[ellon], R[ichard] M[oss], W[illiam] S[pencer], and A[braham] 

G[rou]. The housekeeper, M[ary] D[avey], a man, R T , 

and four maids, completed the household of forty persons. ^ 

Most of these names are to be found amongst the list of Wesley's 

* Wesley, Works, xiii. p. 259: ** Plain Account of Kingswood School." 
^ Ibid, ii, p. 235 (22nd June 1751). In naming the first masters we have 
followed the list given in initials by Wesley himself in his written report of the 
school three years after it was opened. According to the Minutes for 1748 
published by the Wesley Historical Society, p. 56, the list of proposed masters 
was : ** For the languages, John Jones, T. Richards, W. Garston. For reading, 
writing, etc., W. Sellon, W, Spencer, Rd. Moss. For French, Ahra. Grou." 
It will thus be seen that the two lists are identical when W. Garston is omitted. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


preachers. John Jones, " late a zealous Calvinist," joined Wesley 
and preached his first sermon at the Foundry in 1 746.^ Thomas 
Richards was one of the earliest supporters of Wesley. In his 
description of the gradual and almost imperceptible growth and 
influence of the Society, Wesley says : " After a time a young man, 
name Thomas Maxfield, came and desired to help me as a son in 
the gospel. Soon after came a second, Thomas Richards ; and then 
a third, Thomas Westell. These severally desired to serve me as 
sons, and to labour when and where I should direct. Observe : 
these likewise desired me, not I them. But I durst not refuse 
their assistance. And here commenced my power, to appoint each 
of these when, and where, and how to labour ; that is, whilie he 
chose to continue with me."^ Walter Sellon and another early 
master, James Roquet,^ were, or subsequently became, clergymen 
of the Church of England. These were two of the clergy to whom 
Wesley addressed, in 1764, a printed circular, advocating a union 
among the serious clergy,^ and with Sellon Wesley was in constant 
and affectionate communication for many years. 

We cannot take upon ourselves, as some writers have done, the responsibility of 
substituting James Roquet for Thomas Richards, although there can be no doubt 
that the former was among the early masters at the school. The list given by 
Myles in his Chronological History of the People called Methodists (p. 472) cannot 
Vie relied upon for exact detail, as he does not attempt to determine the first 
nasters, of whom there were six only, but contents himself with grouping the teyi 
earliest masters as having been at the school some time between 174S and 1760 ; 
bat he entirely omits T. Richards and Abra. Grou, the latter of whom was be- 
yond all doubt a master in 1748, as appears from a letter written by William 
Spencer to Wesley on 9th August 1748 {Arminian Magazine^ 1 778, p. 533). 

* Wesley, iVorhSf ii. p. 39 (30th November 1746). 

* /did, viii. p. 311 : " Minutes of Several Conversations (1744- 1789)." 

^ James Roquet (or Rouquet, as Wesley spells his name) was one of the early, 
though not one of the first, masters at Kingswood. He probably succeeded to 
the first classical or head mastership when John Jones left, possibly in 1751 
(see p. 39 infra). " Mr. Roauet was the son of a French Protestant refugee, 
whose &ther was condemnea to the galleys for his religion. He was early 
admitted into the Merchant Taylors' School m London, where he was instructed 
in the various branches of classical learning. . . . While at St. John's College, 
Oxford, he received repeated invitations to preside over the school instituted by 
Mr. Wesley at Kingswood near Bristol for the children of the Methodists and 
f<w the sons of itinerant preachers, which he accepted through the purest motives, 
and in which situation he acquitted himself with singular success. Mr. Roquet 
'TIS preceded in his situation as master of Kingswood School by several well- 
known characters — the Rev. John Cennick, the Rev. Walter Sellon, the Rev. 
John Jones, and others. Having spent three or four years in this employment, 
donng which he preached frequently as opportunity offered, he applied for orders 
in the Church of England" ( The Life and Tunes ofSelina^ Countess of Huntingdon^ 
h a member of the noble houses of Huntingdon and Ferrers^ vol. i. Simpkin 
Maishall, 1839 ; /bid. by a fnember of the houses of Shirley and Hastings , vol. 
ii. W. E.* Painter, Strand^ 1839). 

MVesIey, Works, iii. p. 169 (19th April 1764). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Richard Moss also was one of Wesley's first preachers. As 
early as 1 744 he is reported to have been travelling with him. He 
was a comrade who experienced many of the dangers and persecu- 
tions of the early Methodist preachers, and on one occasion narrowly 
escaped being pressed for a soldier.^ The appointment to Kings- 
wood as a master must have been a welcome rest from the trials and 
dangers of the itinerancy. 

William Spencer had been a master at the school for colliers' 
children, and was introduced to Wesley as a fitting young man for 
the post by J. Cennick, as appears by the following quaint letter :— 

" To the Rev. Mr. Wesley, 

" At Y*" Foundry, Upper Morefields, London, 

^^ Sat Aug, 16, 1740. 

" Dr. Brother, — I write now to ask your mind about letting 
Wm. Spencer be a sort of Usher to y*" School at Kingswood under 
me, so might fifteen or twenty Boys more be brought up, to y^ Good 
of them, and to y** satisfying y^ inquisitive people, who are always 
asking after more Masters. 

" You are perswaided I cannot alway be there. Yet so often as 
I cou'd an Hour or two of a day perhap's I might, and in that I 
might show him what to do. He can write and cast account well, 
and wou'd be content with Food and Rayment. This, I believe, w^e 
(that is, our Society) cou'd afford. Yet, d' Sir, if it be not accord- 
ing to your will, Speak and I have done. He is teas'd at Home, and 
to get from them looks to Jamaca. I think 'tis better to abide here. 

" All y° Church salute you. Grace, and Peace, and Mercy be 
multiplied with you, and that God may fully enlighten you, strengthen 
your hand ag*^ every gainsayer of Truth, and make you an 
Instrument of turning many to Righteousness, shall, so long as God 
give me Power (without Him I can do nothing), be y*' continual 
prayer of your fellow-traveller and Brother in y'' Testimony of our 
dear Lord Jesus. J. Cennick." 

From the day of the opening of the school until the day of his 
death, the Founder visited Kingswood regularly once, and generally 
twice or thrice every year. On these occasions he would examine the 
children in all subjects, and satisfy himself by personal investigation 
that everything was as he would wish it. At first all went well. The 
children settled down to the routine of daily work, and even the wildest 
of them — and doubtless there were many who fell far short of the 
^ Wesley, IVorks, i. p. 512 (12th August 1745). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


stem standard of diligence and piety of the Founder — showed promises 
of good results. In October, the housekeeper, Mary Davey (alas, as 
the events of the next year showed, she was not infallible ! ) wrote to 
Wesley, " The spirit of this family is a resemblance of the household 
above. As far as I can discern, they are given up to God, and 
pursue but the one great end. ... If any is afraid this school will 
eclipse and darken others, or that it will train up soldiers to proclaim 
open war against the god of this world, I believe it is not a groundless 
fear. For if God continue to bless us, * one of these little ones shall 
chase a thousand.' I doubt not but there will arise ambassadors for 
the King of kings from this obscure spot, that shall spread His glory 
all abroad, and bring many souls unto the knowledge of the truth." ^ 

The good lady's prophecy has been hundreds of times fulfilled 
since her day, though Wesley may have doubted the possi- 
bility of it amid the experiences of the next few years. From 
the banning he had met with all sorts of discouragement. Out- 
side cavillings and evil prophecies he could abide — he was already 
too well used to them in every department of his great life's work. 
He had no time to attend to the jeers and criticism of people who 
failed to understand why he should refuse the comparative ease and 
comfort of a vicarage for the strife and labours of an itinerant 
evangelist and reformer, especially when he exhausted his own private 
means in the work. But there arose troubles within the school 
boundaries during 1749. 

In July of that year he rode over to Kingswood and inquired 
particularly into the state of the school. He found that several 
rules had been habitually neglected, and it was necessary to lessen 
the family. He did so, "suffering none to remain therein who 
were not clearly satisfied with them (the rules), and determined to 
observe them all." ^ The following is his account of the household 
as he found it at this time : — 

" The maids divided into two parties. R T , the serving 

man, studiously blew up the coals by constant whispering and tale- 
bearing. Mary Davey (the housekeeper) did not supply the defects 
of other servants, being chiefly taken up with thoughts of another 
kind And hence the children were not properly attended, nor were 
things done with due care and exactness." ^ 

* Armifiian Magazine^ 1779. P- 4i- 

3 Wesley, Works, ii. p. 151 (25th July 1749). 

» Ibid. ii. p. 235 (22nd June 1751). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The troubles which began in the kitchen soon extended to the 
schoolroom. " T[honias] R[ichards] was so rough and disobliging 
that the children were little profited by him. A. G[.rou] was honest 
and diligent, but his person and manner made him contemptible to 
the children. R[ichard] M[oss] was grave and weighty in his 
behaviour, and did much good until W[alter] S[ellon] set the 
children against him, and, instead of restraining them from play, 
played with them himself. J[ohn] J[ones] and VV[illiam] S[pencer] 
were weighed down by the rest, who neither observed the rules in 
the school nor out of it. 

" The continual breach of that rule, * Never to let the children 
work but in the presence of a master,' occasioned their growing 
wilder and wilder, till all their religious impressions were worn off; 
and the sooner, as four or five of the larger boys were very un- 
commonly wicked." ^ 

In the March of 1750, a boy who, according to the masters, had 
" studiously laboured to corrupt the rest " was " sent home that very 
hour " ; ^ ^nd the weeding process was exercised, until in August the 
family had lessened considerably. This strange wickedness greatly 
depressed Wesley. " I wonder how I am withheld from dropping 
the whole design?" he exclaims, "so many difficulties have con- 
tinually attended it. Yet, if this counsel is of God, it shall stand, 
and all hindrance shall turn into blessings."^ The indefatigable 
reformer was not to be deterred. He gave the school at this time 
his constant personal supervision. . When he found, in September 
1750, the school reduced to eighteen, he "determined to purge the 
house thoroughly. Two more of the children (one of them exquisitely 
wicked) he sent home without more delay." * 

In the meantime, the school management had been changed. 
Mary Davey, the housekeeper, with her " thoughts of another kind," 
had left. The " rough and disobliging " T[homas] R[ichards] had dis- 
appeared from the scene. The " grave and weighty " Richard Moss, 
who, thanks to the frivolous Walter Sellon, found the children set 
against him, had also gone where his gravity would not provoke the 
gibes of thoughtless urchins. Three of the maids, having set the 
household by the ears, had also left in the midst of the commotion, 
and they were followed shortly after by the mischievous " odd man," 

* Wesley, Worksy ii. p. 235 (22nd June 1751). 

* Ibid, ii. p. 175 (loth March 1750). 

' Ibid, ii. p. 202 (26th August 1750). ** Ibid. ii. p. 236 (22nd June 1751). 

•Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


the sportive Walter Sellon, and poor persecuted Abraham Grou. 
Two masters alone remained, John Jones and William Spencer, 
tc^ether with Mrs. Hardwick (who succeeded Mary Davey), one 
maid, and sixteen scholars. 

After such a purge one would have thought as Wesley did, that 
all mischievous elements were removed. There was, however, a 
little human nature left behind. John Jones and William Spencer 
missed their comrades ; they missed the gentle pleasantries practised 
on the patient Moss by the waggish Sellon. The monotony of 
school work was no longer broken by the quiet jokes indulged in 
by the urchins at the expense of the foreign gentleman, and they 
"grew weary ; the rules were neglected again, and in the following 
winter Mr. Page died, and five more scholars went away. What 
weakened the hands of the masters still more was the bitter evil- 
speaking of some who continually endeavoured either to drive away 
the children that remained or to prevent others from coming." ^ 

The school reached its lowest ebb, numerically, in the June of 
*75^ when there remained two masters, the housekeeper (Mrs. 
Hardwick), one maid, and eleven children ; but there was quality if 
not quantity. " I believe," writes Wesley, " all in the house are at 
length of one mind, and trust God will bless us in the latter end 
more than in the beginning." ^ 

Meanwhile, in the midst of all these reforms in the household, 
Wesley was busy in the schoolroom. We find him spending three 
weeks examining the scholars and revising and preparing for them 
the necessary text-books. Kennet's Antiquities and Potter's Grecian 
Antiquities^ which he describes as a " dry, dull, heavy book," and 
Lewis's Hebrew Antiquities^ were revised and abridged for the use 
of the pupils. So was Dr. Cave's Primitive Christianity^ of which 
Wesley says : "A book wrote with as much learning and as little judge- 
ment as any I remember to have read in my whole life ; serving the 
ancient Christians, just as Xenophon did Socrates — relating every 
weak thing they ever said or did." The preparation of a History of 
England, a Roman History, and a Latin Grammar completed the 
work of this visit.^ 

No further entry is to be found in Wesley's journal relating to the 
school until September 1753. From this it would appear that the 

^ Wesley, Works^ ii. p. 236 (22nd June 175 O- 

^ Ibid. ii. p. 236 (22nd June 1751). 

' Ibid. ii. p. 209 (24th September to 15th October 1750). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


school had sunk again into an unsatisfactory state, and the Founder 
had once more to attempt to restore order. He repeats here that 
same dogged determination to carry through his project which 
enabled him to successfully grapple with the trials of its earliest 
years. " Surely," he exclaims, " the importance of this design is 
apparent, even from the difficulties that attend it. I have spent 
more money and time and care on this than almost any design I 
ever had, and still it exercises all the patience I have. But it is 
worth all the labour."^ 

* Wesley, Works, ii. p. 301 (24th September 1753). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




The conscience of approving oneself a Ixinefactor to mankind is the 
noblest recompense for being so. — Grove. 

The year 1756 marks an epoch in the history of the school. Up 
to the present the institution was partly self-supporting and partly 
dependent upon the contributions of Wesley and upon the spasmodic 
assistance of the more generous of his followers. In this year the 
Society took an active interest in the school, which interest has been 
maintained without intermission since that day. In September a 
meeting of some fifty preachers and supporters was held in Bristol, 
being the Ninth Conference, when the rules of the school were read 
and discussed one by one, and were found, in the opinion of those 
present, to be "agreeable to Scripture and reason." In order to 
give official and united support to the school it was agreed : — 

" (i) That a short account of the design and present state of the 
school be read by every assistant in every society : and 

"(2) That a subscription for it be begun in every place, and 
(if need be) a collection made every year." ^ 

For the next nine years, however, no official record of any collec- 
tion having been made is to be found, though probably these 
resolutions were in fact carried into execution. The first mention 
of the proceeds of such a means of raising money is made in the 
Minutes of Conference of 1765, when the returns were ;;^ioo, 9s. 7d. 
This point of the history is opportune for referring to the 
transition of the school from that of a high grade model educational 
establishment open to all comers to that of a school for the education 
1 Wesley, tVorks, ii. p. 385 (28th September 1756). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


of the sons of the Wesleyan preachers. The account referred to in 
the resolutions of the Conference just stated, which account we shall 
give in extenso} clearly relates to the school as offering education 
for the sons of the preachers, and shows that in that year (1756) 
such scholars were admitted. At the same time, and for many 
years afterwards, the majority of the scholars were paying boarders 
drawn from all parts of Europe. 

In order to understand why special privileges should be accorded 
to the sons of the preachers, it is necessary to explain the origin of 
the preachers themselves, and the methods adopted for their support. 

It must be remembered that when Wesley shocked the social 
and ecclesiastical proprieties by refusing to confine his energies to 
the limited sphere of one vicariate, by declaring that "the whole 
world was his parish," and by going throughout the length and 
breadth of the land ministering to the needs of the people, he had 
no idea of gathering around him a body of followers to bear his 
name (or his nick-name) ; nor had he, indeed, when he invited 
voluntary preachers ("helpers" or "assistants" they were called) 
to aid him in his work any idea of establishing a ministry whose 
existence should cast upon him the serious responsibility of making 
some provision for their physical comforts and need^, and for the 
maintenance of their wives and families. The first preachers who 
cast in their lot with Wesley could probably support themselves, as 
he did, by their own small means ; but there were added to them 
others who had nothing of their own. To whichever class they 
belonged, none of them looked, or could look, for pecuniary gain 
from their vocation. Not even a salary or remuneration of any 
description was at first given to them. They trusted for the supply 
of their daily needs to the generosity of those whose hearts they 
won by their eloquence, their zeal, and their noble self-sacrifice. 
It was many years before anything approaching a salary or a 
"living" was granted to them, and even at the present day the 
remuneration of the Wesleyan ministry does not take the form of an 
inclusive sum of money payable at stated periods, but consists of an 
amount of cash supplemented by various payments and privileges, 
payable or guaranteed by several funds or bodies of persons. 

The hand-to-mouth existence of the preachers in the early days 
may be clearly seen from some of the items of the old circuit 
accounts. In the earliest times, when the preachers travelled, there 
* See p. 44 infra. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


were always to be found gathered together two or three at least of 
their sympathisers ready to offer hospitality to the travellers, and to 
raise by their gifts sums large enough to pay immediate expenses. 
Hence we find, when societies were large enough to keep accounts 
of their income and expenditure, that such accounts contain con- 
clusive evidence of this peculiar system. The late Mr. Slugg in his 
history of Woodhouse Grove School gives several instances. In one 
cash-book, he says, is the following entry : " 7s. 6d. for turning the 
preacher^s coat and making it fit the second preacher " ; in the same 
book are the following entries of moneys paid on Wesley's own 
account : "a pair of breeches, 15s. 9d. ; a saddle, 9s. ; Mr. Wesley's 
man, a coat, ;^i, 13s. 6d. ; a chaise for Mr. Wesley to Chorley, 9s. 
9d. ; cash on the road, 4s." And such was all that the early preachers 
expected, at least before they were stationed in fixed districts or 
circuits: gratuitous board and lodging where they chanced to be 
temporarily located, and the means of transport from one place 
to another, with now and then a little further assistance when 
threadbare clothes, or worn-out shoes, or other exigencies of their 
fate required it. 

This state of affairs was improved to some extent when the 
"societies" were formed. The annual gathering of the preachers, 
most of whom in the early days were clergymen of the Established 
Church, controlled the societies throughout the kingdom, and 
required them to make regular provision for the preachers and 
their families. There was no central fund available for this purpose, 
and each society was called on to support its own preacher, as 
indeed is the case at the present day. 

In 1752 the circuits, or societies, were ordered to find for their 
preachers a sum of ;^i2, which they struggled more or less success- 
fully to do. In 1774 many of the preachers' wives were in want of 
the bare necessaries of life, and a further order was issued by the 
Conference to the circuits to supply each preacher's wife " with a 
lodging, coals, and candles, or allow her ;^i5 a year," and as a 
security for the due receipt of this the assistant was authorised " to 
take this money at the quarterly meeting before anything else be 
paid out of it." ^ 

With the highest of these stipends it can be seen that no preacher 

could afford to provide education for his children at any school. 

His own vocation took and kept him away from home : the family 

' Wesley, IVorks^ viii. p. 327 : '* Minutes of Several Conversations ( 1744- 1789). " 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


was practically fatherless. This was a state of affairs that Wesley 
could not tolerate. As an educationist far beyond his day he could 
not see the preachers' children grow up less educated than their 
fellows ; as a Christian of strong views he could only regard with 
apprehension the lack of discipline and moral control in a family 
whose father was constantly absent or was so engaged in ministering 
to the spiritual needs of strangers that he had no time to attend to 
equally pressing needs at home. 

The preachers* children must be educated — at least such of 
them as were less amenable to the maternal influence. The 
boarding-school which had been established at Kingswood might 
be made use of for the boys, and, as opportunity offered, preachers' 
boys were sent to Kingswood gratuitously, to associate w^ith the 
boarders who paid their ;^i4 or ;£^2o a year. When this was first 
done it is impossible to say. Probably there were isolated instances 
before the system was permanently adopted, as appears by an old 
bill-book to which reference will hereafter be made ; but the 
earliest record in the *' Minutes" is in 1773, since which date the 
entries show that two or three preachers' boys were sent annually. 
It was not, however, for another twenty years at least that the 
school was reserved exclusively for the use of the preachers' sons. 

At no time was Wesley backward in urging the claims of 
Kingswood upon the hearts and pockets of his followers — even in 
the days when every boarder was a paying scholar. The education 
of the rising youth was to him of importance second only to the 
saving of their souls ; learning to him was a necessity, not an 
adornment ; and he never failed to inculcate the duty of providing 
the best and purest education for the coming generation. To this 
his best and earliest energies were directed, and for this his first 
financial appeals were made. When the school added a further 
claim to the support of the societies, namely, that it could be 
used, and was necessary for the education of the sons of their 
preachers, and the probable raising up of others to take their 
places, Wesley made a stronger and more eloquent appeal on 
behalf of the institution, which appeal it was suggested should be 
read by every assistant once a year. The date of it is uncertain, 
but it runs as follows : — 

"(i) The wisdom and love of God have now thrust out a large 
number of labourers into His harvest, men who desire nothing on 
earth but to promote the glory of God, by saving their own souls 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


and those that hear them. And those to whom they minister 
spiritual things are willing to minister to them of their carnal 
things ; so that they * have food to eat, and raiment to put on/ and 
are content therewith. 

"(2) A competent provision is likewise made for the wives of 
married preachers. These also lack nothing, having a weekly 
allowance over and above for their litde children ; so that neither 
they nor their husbands need to be * careful about many things,' 
but may *wait upon the Lord without distraction.' 

"(3) Yet one considerable difficulty lies on those that have 
boys, when they grow too big to be under their mother's direction. 
Having no father to govern and instruct them, they are exposed to 
a thousand temptations. To remedy this, we have a school on 
purpose for them, wherein they have all the instruction they are 
capable of, together with all things necessary for the body, clothes 
only excepted. And it may be, if God prosper this labour of love, 
they will have these too shortly. 

"(4) In whatever view we look upon this, it is one of the 
noblest charities that can be conceived. How reasonable is the 
institution I Is it fit that the children of those who leave wife and 
all that is dear, to save souls from death, should want what is 
needful either for soul or body ? Ought not we to supply what the 
parent cannot because of his labours in the gospel ? How excellent 
are the effects of this institution ! The preacher, eased of this 
weight, can the more cheerfully go on in his labour. And perhaps 
many of these children may hereafter fill up the place of those that 
shall * rest from their labours.' 

"(5) It is not strange, therefore, considering the excellence of 
this design, that Satan should have taken much pains to defeat it, 
particularly by lies of every kind, which were plentifully invented 
and handed about for several years. But truth now generally 
prevails, and its adversaries are put to silence. It is well known 
that the children want nothing ; that they scarce know what 
sickness means; that they are well instructed in whatever they 
are capable of learning ; that they are carefully and tenderly 
governed; and that the behaviour of all in the house, elder and 
younger, is *as becometh the gospel of Christ.' 

"(6) But the expense of such an undertaking is very large, so 
that we are ill able to defray it. The best means we could think 
of at our Conference to supply the deficiency is, once a year to 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



desire the assistance of all those in every place who wish well to 
the work of God, who long to see sinners converted to God, and 
the kingdom of Christ set up in all the earth. 

"(7) All of you who are thus minded have an opportunity now 
of showing your love to the gospel. Now promote, as far as in 
you lies, one of the noblest charities in the world. Now forward, 
as you are able, one of the most excellent designs that ever was 
set on foot in this kingdom. Do what you can to comfort the 
parents who give up their all for you, and to give their children 
cause to bless you. You will be no poorer for what you do on 
such an occasion. God is a good paymaster. And you know, in 
doing this, you lend unto the Lord : in due time He shall pay 
you again." ^ 

* Wesley, IVorks^ viii. p. 333 : ** Minutes of Several Conversations (1744-1789)." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1757 TO 1767 

O tempora, O mores ! — Cicero. 

The year 1757 was noted in the history of Kingswood by reason 
of the great fire which at one time bade fair to totally destroy the 
school buildings. 

Those of our readers who are fortunate enough to possess a copy 
of the Christmas number of the Kingswood and Grove Quarterly 
for the year 1880, will find therein an interesting and graphic 
account of this event written by an old Kingswood boy and master, 
Mr. A. S. Way. The writer of that "Little Ghost's Story" has 
not, as he was indeed not bound to do, being a story-teller, stuck 
closely to the actual facts and details of the original account, and, 
amongst other things, has introduced Wesley as a spectator of the 
scene, and as the saviour of the premises. But for the fact 
that this is an attempt to give a strict and reliable history of our 
school, we should be tempted to borrow Mr. Way's story as even 
more palatable reading than the account given by Wesley. 

The news of the catastrophe was first given to the Founder as he 
was returning one morning from preaching the previous day at Bath. 
" I felt," says Wesley, " not one moment's pain, knowing that God 
does all things well. When I came thither I received a fuller 
account. About eight on Monday evening (24th October 1757) two 
or three boys went into the gallery, up two pairs of stairs. One of 
them heard a strange crackling in the room above. Opening the 
staircase door, he was beat back by smoke, on which he cried out, 
' Fire ! murder 1 fire ! ' Mr. Baynes, hearing this, ran immediately 
^oym and brought up a pail of water. But when he went into the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


room, and saw the blaze, he had not presence of mind to go up to 
it, but threw the water upon the floor. Meantime, one of the boys 
rung the bell ; another called John Maddern ^ from the next house, 
who ran up, as did James Burges quickly after, and found the room 
all in a flame. The deal partitions took fire immediately, which 
spread to the roof of the house. Plenty of water was now brought, 
but they could not come nigh the place where it was wanted, the 
room being so filled with flame and smoke that none could go into 
it. At last, a long ladder which lay in the garden was reared up 
against the wall of the house ; but it was then observed that one 
of the sides of it was broke in two, and the other quite rotten. 
However, John How (a young man who lived next door) run up it 
with an axe in his hand ; but he then found the ladder was so short, 
that, as he stood on the top of it, he could but just lay one hand 
over the battlements. How he got over to the leads none can tell ; 
but he did so, and quickly broke through the roof, in which a vent 
being made, the smoke and flame issued out as from a furnace. 
Those who were at the foot of the stairs with water, being able to go 
no farther, then went through the smoke to the door of the leads, 
and poured it down through the tiling. By this means the fire was 
quickly quenched, having only consumed a part of the partition, 
with a box of clothes, and a little damaged the roof and the floor 

" It is amazing that so little hurt was done, for the fire, which 
began in the middle of the long room (none can imagine how, for 
no person had been there for several hours before), was so violent 
that it broke every pane of glass but two in the window, both at the 
east and west end. What was more amazing still was, that it did 
not hurt either the beds (which, when James Burges came in, seemed 
all covered with flame) nor the deal partitions at the other side of 
the room, though it beat against them for a considerable time. 
WTiat can be said to these things, but that God had fixed the bounds 
which it could not pass ? " 

Mr. Way, in his thrilling and amusing story, wilfully blind to the 
innocence of the boys of that day and school, suggests, with the 
freedom of a romancer, a cause of the fire by picturing two lads 
seeking the seclusion of the upper rooms to indulge in a quiet smoke. 

Whether the narrow escape from sudden destruction startled the 
youths of Kingswood into a state of obedience and virtue, we know 
* John Maddern was English master. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


not, but in the January of the following year Wesley speaks of the 
school in eulogistic terais. "Wednesday, 4th January 1758, I rode 
to Kingswood, and rejoiced over the school, which is at length what 
I have so long w^ished it to be — a blessing to all that are therein, 
and an honour to the whole body of Methodists." 

It was in this year of 1 75 7 that Wesley made the deplorable mistake 
(at least so far as his domestic peace was concerned) of appointing 
one Sarah Ryan to be the housekeeper at Kingswood. This young 
woman of thirty-three had recently been converted, and was living 
with Miss Bosanquet (afterwards Mrs. Fletcher) at a house in 
Moorfields, where several other Methodist women boarded. Prior 
to her conversion Sarah Ryan had had a most extraordinary career. 
She had first married a cork-cutter, and during his lifetime had 
entered into matrimony with an Italian, and subsequently, the other 
two being alive, w^ith an Irish sailor ! Her life with all of them 
was most unhappy, and, in all probability, profligate. Notwith- 
standing her former history, Wesley appointed this woman, who still 
had three husbands living, to the post of matron at Kingswood. 
Of the sincerity of her moral reformation Wesley had no doubt, 
and there is no reason to justify us in saying that he was wrong 
in his opinion. There is, however, every reason for saying 
that the appointment was dangerous and unwise. The woman 
was naturally "vain, flippant, giddy," and for that reason was not 
fit to be placed in such a position of responsibility. Beyond 
this, the constant communication between Wesley and the 
housekeeper, rendered necessary by their business relations, 
roused the jealousy of Mrs. Wesley to active protest. On one 
occasion, stung to desperation, she threw herself into a room 
when the housekeeper was presiding, during the Bristol Con- 
ference, at the dinner-table, where some sixty or seventy ministers, 
including Mr. Wesley, were dining, and indignantly denounced the 
matron. The end of it all was separation.^ 

The diflSculty at this time, as, indeed, at several epochs in the 
school history, was to find fit and proper persons to become its 
masters. So important and pressing did this matter become that 
it, together with financial troubles, gave rise to a serious discussion 
at the Conference of 1758 on the question, "Shall we drop the 
school at Kingswood ? " It was ultimately resolved that the school 
should be continued " if a fit master can be procured." The strict 
* Tyerman's Life of Wesley, pp. 109, 285. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


conditions imposed by the stern Founder made the procuring 
of a competent master a thing of no small difficulty. What those 
conditions were may be guessed from the lines upon which the 
school was established, and they are also carefully stated in a letter 
written to an intending candidate for the post of writing master 
some five-and-twenty years later. 

In 1783, one Thomas Welch, having offered himself for a 
vacancy in the writing department, was thus addressed by Wesley : — 

" Bristol, August 15, 1783. 

" Dear Thomas, — You seem to be the man I want. As to salary, 
you will have thirty pounds a year ; board, etc., will be thirty more. 
But do not come for money, i. Do not come at all, unless purely 
to raise a Christian school. 2. Anybody behaving ill I will turn 
away immediately. 3. I expect you to be in school eight hours a 
day. 4. In all things I expect you should be circumspect. But 
you will judge better by considering the printed rules. The sooner 
you come the better. — I am, your affectionate brother, 

"John Wesley." 

Whether the excuse that he was induced by good advice to 
remain where he was at Coventry was the real reason, or whether 
the truth was that he dreaded the combined operation of Wesley's 
essential requirements, we cannot say, but certain it was that this 
worthy gentleman did not come to the school, and thus drew 
upon himself the outpourings of the vials of wrath of the reverend 
Founder. " You use me very ill," he wrote. " I have turned away 
three masters on your account. The person who gives you this 
advice (t,e, to stay at Coventry) is wanting either in common sense 
or common honesty." * 

For seven years from the date of the great fire the school 
flourished to the satisfaction of Wesley. One of those years was, 
however, darkened by the scourge of smallpox ; such, at least, 
appears to be the conclusion to be drawn from Wesley's records, 
where a death is noted in the September of 1763.2 

In 1765 there were the rumblings of a coming storm. The 

' Methodist Magazine, 1817, p. 324. 

2 " Fri. 23. — I preached at Bath. Riding home, we saw a coffin, carrying 
into St. George's Church, with many children attending it. When we came near, 
we found they were our own children, attending the corpse of one of their school- 
fellows, who had died of the smallpox ; and Clod thereby touched many of their 
hearts in a manner they never knew before." — Wesley, Works, iii. p. 147 
(September 23, 26, 1763). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


children were then in health, and behaved well and learned well ; 
"but, alas 1 (two or three excepted) there is no life in them." ^ The 
storm broke in the next year. On Wednesday, 12th March, " I rode 
over to Kingswood, and having told my whole mind to the masters 
and servants, spoke to the children in a far stronger manner than 
ever I did before. I will kill or cure : I will have one or the other — 
a Christian school, or none at all." ^ 

The Conference held in the August of 1766 again took into 
careful consideration the condition of the school. Advancing age 
and the increasing responsibilities of his work compelled Wesley to 
think about delegating to trustees some of the active duties in the 
management. It was resolved at this annual gathering: "(i) 
To put in James Hindmarsh and wife, as writing master and 
housekeeper ; (2) To desire Mr. Price to stay another year ; (3) To 
appoint three or five trustees ; (4) To require each Bristol preacher 
to be an hour a week at least with the children." "^ 

During the next week Wesley rode over to Bristol and delivered 
the management of Kingswood House to " stewards " upon whom 
he could depend."* The new arrangement seems to have worked 
well. Constant supervision by the stewards had the desired effect, 
and the Founder from this date had little or no cause for complaint, 
although his visits to the school were frequent. 

The finances at this time required consideration. As we have 
before stated, the first record of the amount of subscriptions was in 
1765, when ;^ioo, 9s. 7d. was raised. The slight increase of ;;^2o 
in two years was not sufficient to meet increased expenditure, and 
the Conference of 1767 resolved to make a midsummer collection in 
every place, with special subscription lists in Dublin, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, Leeds, Manchester, and Liverpool. This resulted in an 
advance of jQ^i in the next year's income, and a slight increase 
was made annually for another ten years, so that the collection in 
1777 amounted to ;^38o, 8s. 2d. 

Before dealing with the sensational year of 1768 it may interest 
our readers to have here a peep into the domestic economy of the 
school. This may be gleaned from an original bill-book ^ which is 

* Wesley, H^orks, iii. p. 237 (5th October 1765). 

"^ Jbid. iii. p. 243 (I2th March 1766). ' Minutes of Conference, 1766. 

* Ibid. iii. p. 262 (27th August 1766). 

* This is one of the very few early records of the school which survived the 
cfaaoge of the institution from Bristol to Bath. Two cart-loads of old books left 
Old Kingswood, but unfortunately never reached New Kingswood. 

A second bill-book which is in existence covers the years 1789- 1794. Here 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


in the hands of the present school authorities, and covers a period 
from 1764 to 1770. The index to the book shows that the majority 
of boarders paid (or ought to have paid) the amount of ;^i4 per 
annum, while preachers' boys, of whom there are nine mentioned 
out of a total of a hundred and seven, were admitted free. A few 
other scholars are represented as paying ;^2o a year. These are 
dignified by the prefix " Mr.," and are those residing at the school 
for the quasi-university training which was part of Wesley's design, 
as will hereafter appear. 

The accounts are not always complete in form, either from having 
been carelessly kept or from too liberal use of the credit system. 
Occasionally one meets the note attached to the total of money 
due, "P'orgiven by Mr. Wesley." 

The sartorial entries are the most numerous, and these, with the 
aid of a few (alas ! too few) prints which are fortunately available, 
enable us to produce the " taylor "-dressed boy of Kingswood School 
in the year 1766. 

Beginning at the top and working down to his shoes, we find the 
youth (aged eight to thirteen) adorned with a broad-brimmed " hatt " 
resembling the " wide-awakes " of to-day, the charge for which varied 
from IS. 6d. to 2s., or, with a "hatt-box," 6s. 6d. inclusive. From 
time to time these " hatts " were renovated, if we may judge from an 
item : " To dressing a Hatt, is. 4d." We may suppose that this was 
at least for a whole quarter, if not for a year, since the amount is 
almost equivalent to that of a new " hatt." 

The cost of a " sute of cloathes " may be gleaned from John 
Lyon's account : — 

To making a sute of cloathes .076 

To cloth I 4 4i 

To i yds. of Shaloon @ I9d. 
To two yds. of fustin 

To Buttons 
To Silk, etc. 

o 5 14 



o 3 84 

The "sute" consisted of a long tail-coat reaching below the 
knees, a vest, and a pair of knee-breeches, fastened round the knee 

we find the fees to be ;f 16 and ;f 20. Eight pay the higher fee, but cannot have 
been entered for the academic curriculum, as is seen from the fact that one of them 
is noted as being of the age of eleven ; one, George Gilbert, changes from ;ti6 to 
;^20 in the course of his career. Some of the boys named therein pay extra sums 
for tea in the afternoon ; others for French, drawing, or the violin. In some 
respects the dress appears to have been more ornate ; we meet with frequent 
references to a "hat and cockade," or to a 'Move- ribbon." A 2s. subscription 
to the library is common. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


by a " ribband," for which the price was 6d. The cloth for the coat 
was, we believe, broadcloth, which, from repeated entries, appears 
to have cost ids. a yard. The knee-breeches were made, in some 
cases at least, of white " fustin," and cost 7s. 6d. according to the 
entry : " To a pair of breeches." 

Stockings were to be had from is. 6d. to 2s. 4d. a pair, and 
Charlie Thompson had feet put to a pair of stockings for gd. The 
usual price for a pair of shoes was 3s. or 4s., and the buckles with 
which they were adorned were 6d. extra. 

There were, of course, stylish boys in the school, followers of 
their contemporary. Beau Nash. Joseph Cownley surprises us in 
this respect, for in his account there appears : " To a New wig, 6s.," 
and "To a pair of gloves, lod.," and "To making his great coat into 
a strait one and trimmings, 3s. 6d." 

The doctor was not entirely unknown at Kingswood in these 
years, but his visits were not so systematic as they used to be in 
the after days. A hundred years later a periodical inspection took 
place in the schoolroom at Woodhouse Grove by the doctor. Every- 
one had to stand at his desk, and the learned man, accompanied by 
the governor and his lady, beamed in turn on each class of boys, 
picked out four or five as victims, and the whole proceedings were 
over in five minutes. The " local board of health " passed solemnly 
out along the corridors, followed by the chosen few, to the secret 
recesses of the surgery. One thing was most noticeable about these 
rictims — they were usually the same. They consisted of those who 
had " tender parents," over-anxious for their sons' welfare, or of one 
or two who preferred a " licking " to eating hash, and who, as a last 
resource, were handed over with jolly, healthy faces to the doctor, 
rather to be punished than cured. One of these cases is well known — 
that of a healthy, hearty, funny fellow, who startled the Kingswood 
authorities, when he was transferred from the Grove, by refusing 
to eat meat, and who, notwithstanding the awful prognostications of 
the governor, is still alive, as hale and hearty as ever, and for aught 
we know treating youngsters for the same affliction from which he 
suffered at school. 

And so it would appear that in the early days of Kingswood the 
doctor had his favourites. Thomas Crone of Cork is debited : "To 
purging draught and stomach drops, is. 3d.," and under the name 
of the aforesaid Joseph Cownley there appear the following items : 
" To pocket-money for a year and a Hatt and A Bottle for his head 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


3s. 3d., To y® Doctor for Sore head los. 6d., To Doctor's Bill for 
Sore Breast i6s. 6d." Poor little Willie Damey, a preacher's boy, 
contributes a very small page to this portion of the history : " Physic 
2s., To Doctor's Bill £^\^ 3s. Qd., To Coffin, Shroud, etc., 19s." 

But beyond a doubt the doctor's real favourite was John 
Boddily, and we shall take the liberty of copying a portion of 
the account which appears under this name. Speaking without 
medical knowledge, one might suppose that he was periodically 
upset by the richness of the dining-table. 




Jan. 7. To 6 Powders . 



„ 14. To an Apozene . 



To an aperient draft . 


,, 21. To an Apozene . 



April 2. To a visit of Doctor . 



A plaster for the Side . 


Sudoryne Powder 



,, 3. A Stomach Julip 



M 4. do. 



The Powders 



A Journey .... 



7. Manna and Salts 


We believe J. B. left the school alive ! 

The account-book further shows signs of prosperity amongst the 
boys. Nearly all of them received pocket-money, even as much as 
threepence per week. Seeing that they were not allowed outside the 
premises, and that there is no mention of a "tuck-shop" on the 
premises, it is difficult to see how so much wealth was distributed. 
Here again we must seek for light from the sister school a hundred 
years later. The Grove currency was also very restricted prior to 
the days when the scholars were allowed beyond the " green gates " 
for other purposes than going home once in six months or going to 
worship thrice a week. The currency was a copper one, and these 
coppers pursued for many years an even course. We can begin at 
any point of their history, so let us go into the second classroom on 
a Saturday afternoon. The second master has a heap of coppers 
before him, which he distributes among the boys entitled to pocket- 
money, and to the monitors entitled to allowances. One and all 
rush off at once across the playground, up the alley, to " Ford's," 
and spend their pence at once. On the next day collection-money 
is w^anted. The second master sends up to " Ford's " for coppers ; 
these are distributed among the boys, who at the proper time 
solemnly deposit them in the collecting - boxes at the morning 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


service in the chapel. The master for the day counts them in the 
vestry, and carries them off to the school to await a redistribution 
as pocket-money on the following Saturday. Coppers have been 
known to remain in this restricted currency for years. But, after all, 
we do not derive much assistance from this later history. There 
was no ** Ford's " at Kings wood, and there was at the time of which 
we speak no record of a distribution of money for collections at the 
" House." That being the case, and repudiating the idea that the 
boys would be taught the pernicious habit of hoarding money, we 
are constrained to arrive at the conclusion that the pocket-money 
found its way as voluntary contributions into the collecting plates 
and boxes of the Society. 

There are not lacking in this book evidences of the relaxation of 
the inflexible rule that the boys were not to leave the school premises 
until they left " for good and all," but such exceptions are rare. The 
majority of the boys lived a long distance away, and their usual mode 
of conveyance was by " y*" coach " or " y*" machine," the latter being 
a cheaper and a more plebeian style of travelling. Those living in 
or near seaports availed themselves of the sea voyage, as would 
appear to have beei> the case of John Youd of " Leverpool," who is 
debited : "To cash for to pay his passage, los. 6d." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1768 TO 1773 

We have seen strange things to-day. 

The head classical master at this time (1766-1769) was Joseph 

Benson, while James Hindmarsh^ held the post of chief English 

and mathematical master from 1765 to 1773. It is to these two 

masters, particularly the latter, that was due the beginning of a 

period of revivalism in the school which lasted for a number of 


Joseph Benson was appointed by Wesley to a mastership in the 

school on nth March 1766. The resolutions which, according 

to his own diary, he formed on entering on his duties show that 

he must in all respects have been a man after Wesley*s own heart. 

Take for a sample the following: — "(i) To rise at four o'clock 

in the morning, and go to bed at nine at night. Never to trifle 

away time in vain conversation, useless visits, or studying anything 

which would not be to my advantage. (2) To be careful to 

maintain private prayer, and not to be content without communion 

with God in it. To spend from four to five o'clock every morning, 

and from five to six every evening, in devoted meditation and 

prayer ; and at nine in the morning, and at three in the evening, to 

devote a few minutes to prayer. (3) Let me with a single eye, not 

for praise, instruct the boys diligently in useful learning, and see 

that they make as great a progress as possible. I^t me, especially, 

endeavour, depending upon divine influence, to impress a sense of 

the things of God upon their minds, at the same time that they are 

instructed in the principles of religion." 

^ See note on Rol^ert Hindmarsh, p. 58 infra, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Benson remained at Kingswood until the spring of 1 7 70, when 
he entered on his duties as headmaster of the Theological College 
which the Countess of Huntingdon had just established at Trevecca 
in South Wales. For this appointment he had been specially re- 
commended by Wesley. In 1769, Benson entered his name at St. 
Edmund Hall, Oxford, where he devoted himself particularly to the 
study of the classics, metaphysics, and natural philosophy. His 
connection with the Methodists disabled him from graduating at the 
university, or from taking orders, as he was desirous of doing. The 
result was that he became a Methodist preacher, being accepted at 
the Bristol Conference of 1771, and ultimately became the greatest 
oraament of the Connexion in every department of his labours. He 
is well known as the author of many valuable theological works, 
especially his Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. He died on 
6th February 1821, aged seventy-three years.^ 

Under his superintendence the school flourished in every 
department. But the most extraordinary development was the 
religious revival which manifested itself in 1768, and reached its 
climax two years later, by which time, however, Benson had left to 
become classical master in Lady Huntingdon's College at Trevecca. 

The chief agent in stirring up this tremendous excitement at the 
school was James Hindmarsh. On 27th April 1768 he wrote to 
Wesley in terms which may appear to many of our readers, as they 
did to the Poet laureate, Southey, of great extravagance. 

"On Wednesday, the 20th," Hindmarsh writes,^ "God broke 
in upon our boys in a surprising manner. A serious concern has 
been observable in some of them for some time ; but that night, 
while they were in their private apartments, the power of God came 
upon them, even like a mighty rushing wind, which made them cry 
aloud for mercy. Last night I hope will never be forgotten, when 
about twenty were in the utmost distress. But God spoke peace to 
two of them, J[ohn] Gl[ascott] and T[homas] M[aurice]. A greater 
display of His love I never saw ; they indeed rejoice with joy un- 
speakable. For my own part, I have not often felt the like power. 
We have no need to exhort them to pray, for that spirit runs through 
the whole school ; so that this house may well be called * an house 
of prayer.' While I am writing, the cries of the boys, from their 
several apartments, are sounding in my ears. There are many still 

* Life of Bensattt by the Rev. James Macdonald, p. 13. 
' Wesley, Works^ iii. p. 319 (5th May 1768). 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


lying at the pool, who wait every moment to be put in. They are 
come to this, * Lord, I will not, I cannot, rest without Thy love ! ' 
Since I began to write, eight more are set at liberty, and now rejoice 
in God their Saviour. The names of these are — John Coward, John 
Lion, John Maddern, John Boddily, John Thurgar, Charles Brown, 
William Higham, and Robert Hindmarsh.^ Their age is from eight 
to fourteen. There are but few who withstand the work ; nor is it 
likely they should do it long ; for the prayers of those that believe 
in Christ seem to carry all before them. . . . 

" I had sealed my letter, but have opened it to inform you that 
two more of our children have found peace. Several others are 
under deep conviction. Some of our friends from Bristol are here, 
who are thunder-struck. This is the day we have wished for so 
long ; the day you have had in view, which has made you go through 
so much opposition for the good of these poor children." 

This report filled the Founder's heart with joy and gratitude, and 
when in the September of that year he visited the school, his soul was 
satisfied, as' is evident from his entry that " all behave in such a 
manner, that I have seen no other schoolboys like them." ^ 

Meanwhile the numbers in the school increased. " The grievance 
now is the number of children. Instead of thirty (as I desired) we 
have near fifty ; whereby our masters are burdened. And it is 
scarce possible to keep them in so exact order as we might do 
a smaller number. However, this still comes nearer a Christian 
school than any I know in the kingdom." ^ 

The climax of the revival was reached in 1770. 

On Tuesday, i8th September 1770, most of the school were 
taken in solemn procession to view the body of a near neigh- 
bour who had died some three or four days before. The children 
ranged from eight to fourteen years of age, and meagre diet and 
the lack of physical exercise and of boyish recreation, com- 

* Robert liindmarsh (1759-1835) was the son of James Hindmarsh, one of 
Wesley's preachers. Robert, who was never a Methodist, became a printer. 
Whilst so engaged he studied the writings of mystics, and in 1783 formed a 
society for the purpose ofstudyingSwedenborg's works, called the " Theosophical 
Society," of which his father, who had left Methodism in 1785, was a member. 
Robert with his father then organized the " New Church," but four years later 
was expelled owing to his lax views of the conjugal relation. He subsequently 
established various "temples," which one by one were closed owing to financial 
difficulties. His friends in 181 3 built for him a New Jerusalem temple in Salford, 
where he preached till 1824. He wns the author of numerous works on mystical 
and kindred subjects {Dictionary of National Biography), 

' Wesley, IVorks, iii. p. 345 (7'th October 1768). 

^ Ibid. iii. p. 379 (12th September 1769). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


bined with enforced prayer and meditation, both morning and 
evening, made them unusually morbid and sensitive. It is not 
surprising that this gruesome visit startled them, as indeed it would 
people of older growth and more robust minds. They were, doubt- 
less, horror-stricken, and to make the matter worse, whilst their 
nerves were unstrung, Mr. Hindmarsh in the evening " met them all 
in the school, and gave them an exhortation suited to the occasion." 
What that suitable exhortation was we may readily conceive both 
from the circumstances immediately preceding and from the hymn 
which he announced for the poor little urchins to sing — 

And am I born to die, 
To lay this body down? 
And must my trembling spirit fly 
Into a world unknown? 

This exhortation, we are told, " increased their concern ; so that 

it was with great difficulty they contained themselves till he began to 

pray." Southey says,^ "It was a wonder that the boys were not 

driven mad by the conduct of their instructors. These insane 

persons urged them never to rest till they had obtained a clear sense 

of the pardoning love of God. This advice they gave them severally, 

as well as collectively; and some of the poor children actually 

agreed that they would not sleep till God revealed Himself to them, 

and they had found peace ! The scene which ensued was worthy of 

Bedlam, and might fairly have entitled the promoters to a place 

there," For the rest of the narrative we will leave Wesley to speak.^ 

"Then Al[exande]r M[athe]r and R[ichar]d N[obl]e cried aloud 

for mercy ; and quickly another and another, till all but two or three 

were constrained to do the same ; and as long as he continued to 

pray, they continued the same loud and bitter cry. One of the 

maids, Elizabeth Nutt, was as deeply convinced as any of them. 

After prayer, Mr. H. said, * Those of you who are resolved to 

serve God may go and pray together.' Fifteen of them did so, 

and continued wrestling with God, with strong cries and tears, till 

about nine o'clock. 

" Wed., 19. At the morning prayer many of them cried out 
again, though not so violently. From this time their whole spirit 
and behaviour was changed; they were all serious and loving 
to each other. The same seriousness and mildness continued on 

' Life of Wesley^ ii. p. 509. 

« Wesley, Works, iii. p. 414 (i8th September 1770)- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Thursday ; and they walked together, talking only of the things 
of God. On Friday evening their concern greatly increased, and 
caused them to break out again into strong cries. 

"Saturday, 22. They seemed to lose none of their concern, and 
spent all their spare time in prayer. 

"Sunday, 23. Fifteen of them gave me their names; being 
resolved, they said, to serve God. In the afternoon I gave them a 
strong exhortation, and afterward Mr. Rankin. Their very counte- 
nances were entirely changed. They drank in every word. 

"Tues., 25. During the time of prayer in the evening they 
were affected just as the Tuesday before. The two other maids 
were then present, and were both cut to the heart. 

" Wed., 26. * I rode,' says Mr. Rankin, * in the afternoon 
to Kingswood, and went upstairs in order to retire a little. But 
when I came up, I heard one of the boys at prayer in an adjoining 
room. . I listened a while, and was exceedingly struck with many of 
his expressions. When he ceased I went in, and found two others 
with him. Just then three more came in. I went to prayer. The 
Lord seemed to rest upon them all, and pierced their hearts with 
deep conviction. The next morning I spent some time with all the 
children, and then desired those who were resolved to save their 
souls to come upstairs with me. I went up, and nine of the 
children followed me, who said they were determined to flee from 
the wrath to come. I exhorted them never to rest till they found 
peace with God ; and then sung and prayed. The power of God 
came down in so wonderful a manner that my voice was drowned 
by their cries. When I concluded, one of them broke out into 
prayer, in a manner that quite astonished me ; and, during the whole 
day, a peculiar spirit of seriousness rested on all the children. After 
spending some time in the school on Friday, I desired those I had 
spoke to the day before, to follow me ; which they did, and one 
more. I pressed each of them severally, not to rest till he had a 
clear sense of the pardoning love of God. I then prayed, and the 
Lord poured out His Spirit as the day before, so that, in a few 
minutes, my voice could not be heard amidst their cries and groans.' 

" * On Friday, 28,' says Mr. Hindmarsh, * when I came out into 
the ground ten of the children quickly gathered round about me, 
earnestly asking what they must do to be saved : nor could I dis- 
engage myself from them till the bell rang for dinner. All this time 
we observed, the children who were most affected learned faster and 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


better than all the rest. In the evening, I explained to all the 
children the nature of the Lord's Supper. I then met twelve of 
them apart and spoke to each particularly. When I asked one of 
them, Simon Lloyd, " What do you want to make you happy ? " after 
a little pause he answered, " God." We went to prayer. Presently 
a cry arose from one and another, till it ran through all, vehemently 
calling upon God, and refusing to be comforted, without the know- 
ledge and the love of God. About half-hour after eight, I bade 
them good-night, and sent them up to bed. But Lloyd, Brown, 
and Robert Hindmarsh slipped aside, when the rest went up, being 
resolved they would not sleep nor rest till God revealed Himself to 
them. When they began to pray, some of them heard them, and 
one and another stole down, some half dressed, some almost naked. 
They continued praying by turns near three-quarters of an hour, in 
which time, first one, then a second, and, before they concluded, 
two more found peace with God. I then went to them and asked 
Bobby Hindmarsh, " Why did you slip aside ? " He said, " Simon 
Lloyd and Jacky Brown and I had agreed together that we would 
not sleep till the Lord set us at liberty." After I had prayed with 
them, and praised God, till about half-hour past nine, I desired them 
to go to bed. They did so ; all but those three, who slipped away 
and stayed with Richard Piercy, who was in deep agony of soul, and 
would by no means be persuaded to rise from his knees. The children 
above, hearing them pray, in a few minutes ran down again. They 
continued wTestling, with still increasing cries and tears, till three 
more foimd peace with God. About a quarter-past ten I went to 
them again, and, observing some of them quite hoarse, insisted 
upon their going to bed, which all of them then did. But quickly 
one, and then another, stole out of bed, till, in a quarter of an hour, 
they were all at prayer again. And the concern among them was 
deeper than ever, as well as more general ; there being but four of 
our five-and-twenty children that did not appear to be cut to the 
heart However, fearing they might hurt themselves, I sent one 
of our maids to persuade them to go up. But Jacky Brown, 
catching hold of her, said, **0 Betty, seek the salvation of your 
soul ! seek it in earnest ! it is not too late : and it is not too soon ! " 
Immediately she fell upon her knees and burst into tears and strong 
cries. The two other maids, hearing this, ran in, and were presently 
seized as violently as her. Jacky Brown then began praying for 
Betty, and continued in prayer near three-quarters of an hour. By 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


that time there was a general cry from all the maids, as well as the 
boys. This continued till past eleven. My wife and I, and Mr. 
Keard, then went in, and fearing some of them might be hurt, with 
difficulty prevailed on them to go to bed, and went up with them. 

" * The maids continued below in much distress. We talked 
with them a little, and left them praying. But it was not above a 
quarter of an hour, before Betty broke out into thanksgiving. 
Going in, I asked her, ** Now is the love of God free ? " She answered, 
" Free as air : blessed be God, that ever I came under this roof ! " 
The other two remained on their knees, praying as in an agony. I 
desired them to go into their own room, and they did : yet would 
not go to bed, but continued in prayer. 

"* Saturday, 29. I was waked between four and five by the 
children vehemently crying to God. The maids went to them at 
five : and first one of the boys, then another, then one and another 
of the maids, earnestly poured out their souls before God, both for 
themselves and for the rest. They continued weeping and praying 
till nine o'clock, not thinking about meat or drink : nay, Richard 
Piercy took no food all the day, but remained, in words and groans, 
calling upon God. 

" * About nine, Diana went into her own room, and prayed, 
partly alone, partly with Betty. About ten (as Betty was praying), 
her strength was quite spent ; and she sunk down as quite dead. 
She lay so for some minutes, while the other prayed on ; but then 
suddenly started up, praising God with all her might, and re- 
joicing wuth joy unspeakable. 

" * Mary, hearing her voice, broke off her work, and ran in to her 
in haste. They all remained praying by turns till twelve, when she 
lay like one at the point to die. But there was not yet any answer 
to prayer, nor any deliverance. 

" * About one all the maids, and three of the boys, went upstairs, 
and began praying again. And now they found the Lord's hand 
was not shortened. Between two and three, Mary likewise 
rejoiced with joy unspeakable. They all continued together till 
after four, praising the God of their salvation. Indeed, they 
seemed to have forgotten all things here below, and to think of 
nothing but God and heaven. 

" * In the evening, all the maids, and many of the boys, not 
having been used to so long and violent speaking, were worn out 
as to bodily strength, and so hoarse that they were scarce able to 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



speak. But they were strong in the Spirit, full of love, and of joy 
and peace in believing. Sunday, 30. Eight of the children and 
three of the maids received the Lord's Supper for the first time. 
And hitherto, these are all rejoicing in God, and walking worthy 
of the gospel.'" 

For thirteen days this tension had been maintained, till physical 
exhaustion seems to have moderated it. One by one the effects 
vanished, and the next record of the religious character of the scholars 
shows how evanescent was its influence. A year later (i 77 1) Wesley 
v^Tites: "I spent an hour among our children at Kingswood. It 
is strange. How long shall we be constrained to weave Penelope's 
web? What is become of the wonderful work of grace which God 
VrTought in them last September ? It is gone ! It is lost ! It is 
vanished away ! There is scarce any trace of it remaining ! Then 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


we must begin again ; and in due time we shall reap, if we 
faint not." ^ 

Yet one more record is to be found two years later of this 
strange enthusiasm. Certain charges had been launched against 
the management of the school, and it was necessary that Wesley 
should go to Kingswood to investigate the matter. Whilst there, 
Ralph Mather endeavoured to rouse the boys once again from the 
lethargy into which they had fallen, and of which Wesley had 
complained so bitterly. In this he appears to have been successful, 
and Wesley was enabled to see for himself the remarkable force at 
work amongst the scholars. He went down one evening, when the 
children had gone into the schoolroom to pray, and, standing by a 
window, he watched the thirty or more who were gathered together. 
"Such a sight," he says, **I never saw before nor since. Three 
or four stood and stared, as if affrighted. The rest were all on 
their knees, pouring out their souls before God, in a manner not 
easy to be described. Sometimes one, sometimes more, prayed 
aloud ; sometimes a cry went up from them all ; till five or six of 
them, who were in doubts before, saw the clear light of God's 
countenance." 2 

* Weslev, Works^ iii. p. 442 (6th September 1771). 
' Jbid, iii. p. 506 (loth September 1773). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1773 TO 1780 

Gratum est quod patriae civem populoque dedisti, 

Si facis ut patriae sit idoneus, utilis agris, 

Ulilis et bellonim et pads rebus agendis. — ^Juvenal. 

The period from 1773 to 1780 was apparently one of inaction or 
reaction, and little of any moment is recorded of this time. Now 
and again one reads of a short visit paid to the school by the 
Founder, when he inspected its arrangements, examined its scholars, 
and " preached in the avenue." But such visits were rare, and the 
school was left more than ever in the hands of the stewards, with 
the result that in 1781, when Wesley "made a particular inquiry 
into the management of the, school," he had bitter complaints to 
make. " I found," writes he, " some of the rules had not been 
observed at all ; particularly that of rising in the morning. Surely 
Satan has a peculiar spite at this school ! What trouble has it cost 
me for above these thirty years ! I can plan ; but who will execute ? 
I know not ; God help me ! " ^ 

It was in this year (1781) that Wesley printed and published 
*A Plain Account of Kingswood School." ^ So much of that 
document as relates to the origin of the school and to its rules 
and curriculum has already been referred to. The latter portion of 
the " Account " deals with a feature of the school upon which we 
have said little or nothing as yet, namely, the school as a substitute 
for the university. 

Of the school curriculum as described by Wesley, and as set 
forth in the early pages of this book, and of the academical course 
' \fes\cyt Works, iv. p. 216 (7th September 1781). * Ibid, xiii. p. 255. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


stated in the note below,^ the Founder says : *' Whoever carefully 
goes through this course will be a better scholar than nine in ten 
of the graduates at Oxford or Cambridge." It was not intended 
that the resources of Kingswood should be exhausted by the school 
curriculum ; Wesley made provision for the youth who had " gone 
through the school." This academical scheme was not extensively 
worked, but there are traces of it to be found in the old account- 
books, where are recorded the names of students, not necessarily 
former scholars, who pay twenty pounds a year, and are dignified by 
the title of " Mr." These we believe to be the academical students 
finishing off their school course by a training equivalent to that to be 
obtained at the university, or else, like Adam Clarke, whose sorry 
experiences we shall shortly record, enjoying the advanced education 
to be had at the school without having previously risen through 
its several forms. 

The love that Wesley bore to his college and university is well 

' The subjects and books studied in the school have already been described 
in detail. For those students who desired to go through a course of academical 
learning, Wesley prepared a further syllabus of subjects, which is worth tran- 
scribing. It is as follows : — 

*^ First Year, Head Lowth's English Grammar \ Latin, Greek, Hebrew, 
French Grammars ; Cornelius Nepos ; Sallust ; Ciesar ; Tully's Offices ; Terence ; 
Phjednis ; ALneid ; Dilworth ; Randal ; Bengel ; Vossius ; Aldrich and Wallis's 
Logic ; Langbaine's Ethics ; Hutchinson on the Passions ; Spanheim's Introdttc- 
tion to Ecclesiastical History ; Puffendorfs Introduction to the History of Europe ; 
Moral and Sacred Poems\ Hebrew Pentateuch, with the Notes ; Greek 
Testament — Matthew to the Acts, with the Notes ; Xenophon's Cyrtts ; Homer's 
Iliad ; Bishop Pearson on the Creed ; ten volumes of the Christian Library ; 

*^ Second Year. Look over the Grammars; read Velleius Paterculus ; 
Tusculan Questions ; Excerpta ; Vidte Opera ; Lusus IVestmonasterieftscs ; 
Chronological Tables ; Euclid's Elements ; Wells' Tracts ; Newton's Principia ; 
Mosheim's /«/r^.«/r//(£?« /<? Church History \ Usher's Annals \ Bumci's History 
df the ReformcUion ; Spenser's P'aery Queen ; Historical Books of the Hebrew 
Bible; Greek Testament, a^////^'w ; Kupou Ai'a/Sacrts ; liova^r^ Odyssey ; twelve 
volumes of the Christian Library ; Ramsay's Cyrus ; Racine. 

^^ Third Year. Look over the (Grammars; Li\'y ; Suetonius; Tully, De 
Finibus ; Musie Anglicance ; Dr. Burton's Poemata ; Lord Forbes's Tracts ; 
Abridgment of Hutchinson^ s Works ; Survey of the Wisdom of God in the 
Creation \ Rollin's Ancient History \ Hume's History of England \ Neal's 
History of the Puritans ; Milton's Poetical Works ; Hebrew Bible — ^Job to the 
Canticles ; Greek Testament ; Plato's Dialogues ; Greek Epigrams ; twelve 
volumes of the Christian Library ; Pascal ; Corneille. 

^^ Fourth Year. Look over the Grammars; Tacitus; Grotii Historta 
Belgica ; Tully, De Natura Deortim ; Pnrdium Rusticum ; Camiina Quad- 
ragcsimalia ; Philosophical Transactions Abridged ; Watts' Astrofwmyy etc. ; 
Compendium Atetaphysiccr ; Watts' Ontology ; Locke's Essay ; Malebranche ; 
Clarendon's History ; Neal's History of New England ; Antonio Solis's History 
of Mexico ; Shakespeare ; rest of the Hebrew Bible ; Greek Testament ; 
Epictetus ; Marcus Antoninus ; Poeta Minor es ; and the Christian Library ; La 
Faussetd de les Vertues Humaines ; Quesnell sur les EvangiUs. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


known, and the reasons why he should desire the youth to continue 
at Kingswood rather than to go to the universities must have been, 
and were, cogent; but the strongest of them was one of sheer 
necessity. Such of his followers as were already in the universities 
had been expelled, and the college doors were closed to all the 
others who sought admission. On this point the Founder himself 
shall speak. 

" I have for many years suspended the execution of this part of 
my design (providing for the youth who had gone through the 
school course). I was, indeed, thoroughly convinced, ever since I 
read Milton's admirable * Treatise on Education,' that it was highly 
expedient for every youth to begin and finish his education at the 
same place. I was convinced that nothing could be more irrational 
and absurd, than to break this off in the middle, and to begin again 
at a different place, and in quite a different method. The many 
and great inconveniences of this I knew by sad experience. Yet I 
had so strong a prejudice in favour of our own universities, that of 
Oxford in particular, that I could hardly think of any one's finishing 
his education without spending some years there. I therefore 
encouraged all I had any influence over to enter at Oxford or 
Cambridge; both of which I preferred in many respects to any 
university I had seen abroad. Add to this that several of the young 
persons at Kingswood had themselves a desire of going to the 
university. I cannot say that I am yet quite clear of that prejudice. 
I love the very sight of Oxford ; I love the manner of life ; I love 
and esteem many of its institutions. But my prejudice in its favour 
is considerably abated; I do not admire it as I once did. And 
whether I did or not, I am now constrained to make a virtue of 
necessity. The late remarkable occurrence of the six youn^ 
students expelled from the university, and the still more remarkable 
one of Mr. Seagar refused the liberty of entering into it (by what 
rule of prudence I cannot tell, any more than of law or equity), have 
forced me to see, that neither I nor any of my friends must expect 
either favour or justice there. I am much obliged to Dr. Now^ell ^ 

* Dr. Thomas Nowell was one of the prime movers and actors in the expul- 
sion of the six students from St. Edmund Hall, Oxford. He is specially 
mentioned here by Wesley owing to the fact that he published a lengthy tract 
vindicating the action of himself and the authorities in the matter. He filled 
namerous offices at the university, amongst others that of public orator and 
principal of St- Mary's Hall, to which he was appointed in 1764. In 1771 Lord 
North appointed him to the Regius Professorship of Modern History. 

The expulsion of the six students took place prior to this, and it is not 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


and the other gentlemen who exerted themselves on either of those 
transactions for not holding me longer in suspense but dealing so 
frankly and openly. And, blessed be God, I can do all the business 
I have in hand without them. Honour or preferment I do not 
want, any more than a feather in my cap ; and I trust most of those 
who are educated at our school are, and will be, of the same mind. 
And as to the knowledge of the tongues, and of arts and sciences, 
with whatever is termed academical learning, if those who have a 
tolerable capacity for them do not advance more here in three years 
than the generality of students at Oxford or Cambridge do in seven, 
I will bear the blame for ever." 

And then follow some of the. objections to be made to this 
scheme — objections which are answered by a scathing criticism of 
the ways and life of the university of that day. This will be in 
itself interesting to most of our readers, whilst the concluding 
paragraph of the "Account" exhibits such dignity and eloquent 
pathos, as Wesley describes the position which he has been com- 
pelled conscientiously to maintain, that we feel justified in reciting 
the whole of the remainder. It will be remembered that during the 
forty years of his labours this zealous churchman was not only baited 
by a brutal populace, but was denied by his equals and fellows 
many of those privileges which were his due, under a mistaken idea 
of the purposes of his preaching and the aim of his mission. The 
closing of the university doors to the Methodists, as his followers 
were called, was probably a keener blow to Wesley than even the 
refusal of the bishops to ordain them. It took ninety years to re- 
open those doors, and, if we may judge from our own school history 

surprising to find a man of Dr. 'Nowell's views being actively engaged in the 
work of judging and dismissing them. The students were James Matthews, 
Thomas Jones, Erasmus Middleton, Benjamin Kay, Thomas Grove, Joseph 
Shipman. The articles of accusation were practically the same in all cases : (i) 
they were **bred to trades," i.e. sons of persons in trade, a disqualification not 
confined to these students ; (2) they "frequented illicit conventicles in a private 
house in this town"; (3) they "had held an assembly for public worship in- 
which they, though not in holy orders, had publicly expounded the Scriptures to 
a mixed congregation and had offered up extempore prayers " ; (4) they were 
"reputed Methodists." The expulsion was followed oy an anonymous tract 
called Pietas Oxoniensis^ which called forth Dr. Nowell's pamphlet in reply, and 
numerous others followed. Dr. Nowell's bore upon the frontispiece a text 
which is indicative of his line of argument: "Beloved, believe not every 
spirit, but try the spirits, whether they be of God : because many false prophets 
are gone out into the world" {^Dictionary of National Biography; Afiswer 
to a pamphlet entitled Pietas Oxoniensis^ or a full atul impartial account of 
the expulsion of six students from St. Edmutui Hally Oxford^ by Thomas 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


since 1870, the universities during that long period lost many of the 
brightest and cleverest of students. 

" It may be objected," continues Wesley, " * But they cannot have 
many advantages here which they have at the university. There 
the professors are men of eminent learning, and so are also many 
of the tutors. There they have public exercises of various kinds, 
and many others in their several colleges. Above all, they have 
there such choice of company as is not to be found elsewhere in all 
the kingdom.* 

"This is most true; but may I be permitted to ask (and let 
calm, sensible men give the answer). What is the real intrinsic 
worth of all these advantages ? As to the professors, how learned 
soever they are (and some of them I verily believe yield to none in 
Europe), what benefit do nine in ten of the young gentlemen reap 
from their learning ? Truly, they do them neither harm nor good, 
for they know just nothing about them. They read now and then 
an ingenious lecture, perhaps three or four times a year. They read 
it in the public schools, but who hears ? Often vel duo vel nemo. 
And if two hundred out of two or three thousand students hear, 
how much are they edified ? What do they learn, or what are they 
likely to leam, which they may not learn as well or better at home ? 
For about fourteen years, except when I served my father's cure, 
I resided in the university. During much of this time I heard 
many of those lectures with all the attention I was master of. And 
I would ask any person of understanding, considering the manner 
wherein most of those lectures are read and the manner wherein 
they are attended, what would be the loss if they were not read at 
all? I had almost said, what would be the loss if there were no 

professorships in the university ? * What ! Why, Dr. would 

lose three hundred a year ! ' That is a truth : it cannot be denied. 

" * But the tutors,' you say, * in the several colleges supply what 
is wanting in the professors.' A few of them do, and they are 
worthy of all honour ; they are some of the most useful persons in 
the nation. They ^are not only men of eminent learning, but of 
piety and diligence. But are there not many of another sort, who 
are utterly unqualified for the work they have undertaken ? who are 
far from being masters even of Latin and Greek ? who do not under- 
stand the very elements of the sciences? who know no more of 
logic or metaphysics than of Arabic, or even of that odd thing 
religion? Perhaps, if a person who knew this were to examine 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


therein the famous Gentleman of Edmund Hall, who made such a 
potter with the young men for their want of learning, he might be 
found as very an ignoramus as Mr. Middleton. 

"And even with regard to many of those tutors that have 
learning, how little are their pupils the better for it ? Do they use 
all diligence to instil into them all the knowledge which they have 
themselves ? Do they lecture them constantly, every day, either in 
the languages or the sciences ? Do they instruct them regularly or 
thoroughly in logic, ethics, geometry, physics, and metaphysics? 
Are there not some who, instead of once a day, do not lecture them 
once a week, perhaps not once a month, if once a quarter ? Are 
not these precious instructors of youth ? Indeed, when I consider 
many of the tutors who were my contemporaries (and I doubt they 
are not much mended since), I cannot believe the want of such 
instructors to be an irreparable loss. 

" * Well, but they lose also the advantage of the public exercises 
as well as those in their several colleges/ Alas ! what are those 
exercises? Excuse me if I speak with all simplicity. I never 
found them any other than an idle, useless interruption of my 
useful studies. Pray, of what use are the stated disputations for 
degrees ? Are they not mere grimace, trifling beyond expression ? 
And how little preferable to these are most of the disputations in 
our several colleges ? What worthy subjects are usually appointed 
for the scholars to dispute upon? And just suitable to the 
importance of the subject is the management of it. What are the 
usual examinations for the degree of a Bachelor or Master of Arts ? 
Are they not so horridly, shockingly superficial as none could 
believe if he did not hear them ? What is that which should be the 
most solemn exercise we perform for * a Master of Arts ' degree ? 
The reading six lectures in the schools, three in natural, and three 
in moral philosophy. Reading them to whom ? To the walls ; it 
being counted an affront for any one that has ears to hear them. 
This is literally true ; you know it is. But what an execrable insult 
upon common sense I These are the public exercises, and is it a 
loss to have nothing to do with them, to spend all our time in what 
directly tends to improve us in the most useful knowledge ? 

" * However, there is no such choice of company elsewhere as 
there is at Oxford or Cambridge.' That is most true ; for the 
moment a young man sets his foot either in one or the other, he is 
surrounded with company of all kinds — except that which would do 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


him good ; with loungers and triflers of every sort (nequid gravius 

dicam) ; with men who no more concern themselves with learning 

than with religion, 

Who waste away 
In gentle inactivity the day, 

to say the best of them, for it is to be feared they are not always 
so innocently employed. It cannot be denied, there is too much 
choice of this kind of company in every college. There are likewise 
gentlemen of a better kind ; but what chance is there that a raw young 
man should find them, seeing the former will everywhere obtrude 
themselves upon him, while the latter naturally stand at a distance ? 
Company, therefore, is usually so far from being an advantage to 
those who enter at either university, that it is the grand nuisance, 
as well as disgrace of both ; the pit that swallows unwary youths by 
thousands. I bless God we have no such choice of company at 
Kingswood, nor ever will till my head is laid. There is no trifler, 
no lounger, no drone there ; much less any drunkard. Sabbath- 
breaker, or common swearer. Whoever accounts this a disadvantage 
may find a remedy at any college in Oxford or Cambridge. 

" * Be this as it may, there are other advantages of which no other 
place can boast. There are exhibitions, scholarships, studentships, 
fellowships, canonries ; to say nothing of headships and professor- 
ships, which are not only accompanied with present honour and 
large emoluments, but open the way to the highest preferments, 
both in Church and State.' 

" All this is indisputably true ; I know not who can deny one 
word of it. Therefore, if any of these advantages — if honour, if 
money, if preferment in Church or State be the point at which a 
young man aims, let him by all means go to the university. But 
there are still a few, even young men, in the world who do not aim 
at any of these. They do not desire, they do not seek, either 
honour, or money, or preferment. They leave collegians to dis- 
pute, and bite, and scratch, and scramble for these things. They 
believe there is another world, nay, and they imagine it will last 
for ever. Supposing this, they point all their designs and all their 
endeavours towards it Accordingly, they pursue learning itself 
only with reference to this. They regard it merely with a view to 
eternity ; purely with a view to know and teach, more perfectly, the 
tnith which God has revealed to man, *the truth which is after 
godliness,' and which they conceive men cannot be ignorant of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


without hazarding their eternal salvation. This is the only ad- 
vantage which they seek, and this they can enjoy in as high a 
degree in the school or academy of Kingswood as at any college 
in the universe. 

" * But whatever learning they have, if they acquired it there, 
they cannot be ordained ' (you mean episcopally ordained ; and 
indeed that ordination we prefer to any other, where it can be 
had), * for the bishops have all agreed together not to ordain any 
Methodist' O that they would all agree together not to ordain 
any drunkard, any Sabbath-breaker, any common swearer, any that 
makes the very name of religion stink in the nostrils of infidels, any 
that knows no more of the grounds of religion than he does of 
Greek or Hebrew ! But I doubt that fact. I cannot easily believe 
that all the bishops have made such an agreement. Could I be 
sure they had, I should think it my duty to return them my 
sincerest thanks. Pity they had not done it ten years ago, and I 
should not have lost some of my dearest friends. However, I am 
extremely obliged if they have agreed to prevent my losing any 
more the same way, if they have blocked up the door through 
which several others were likely to run away from me. 

" I should not wonder if there was a general agreement against 
those who have been so often described as both knaves and mad- 
men. Meantime, I can only say, as a much greater man said, 
Hier stehe ich ; Gott helfe mir I By His help I have stood for 
these forty years among the children of men, whose tongues are set 
on fire, who shoot out their arrows, even bitter words, and think 
therein they do God service. Many of these are already gone to 
give an account to the Judge of quick and dead. I did not expect 
to have stayed so long behind them, but * good is the will of the 
Lord.' If it were possible, I should be glad, for my few remaining 
days, to live peaceably with all men ; I do as much as lieth in me 
in order to this. I do not willingly provoke any man. I go as 
quietly on my way as I can. But, quietly or unquietly, I must go 
on ; for a dispensation of the gospel is committed to me, and woe 
is me if I preach not the gospel. I am convinced that I am a 
debtor to all men, and that it is my bounden duty 

To rush through every open door, 
And cr}', Sinners, behold the Lamb ! 

Now especially I have no time to lose ; if I slacked my pace, my 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


grey hairs would testify against me. I have nothing to fear, I have 
nothing to hope for here ; only to finish my course with joy. 

Happy, if with my latest breath 
I might but gasp His name ; 
Preach Him to all, and cry in death, 
Behold ! l)ehold the Lamb I " 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1782 TO 1789 

Corriiptio optimi pessima. 

It was to this " academy of Kings- 
wood" that Adam Clarke (afterwards 
the celebrated divine and com- 
mentator) came in the August of 
1782. He came there on the 
invitation of John Wesley to 
prepare himself for the ministry, 
and he carried with him a letter 
from Wesley addressed to the head- 
master, Mr. Simpson.^ His recep- 
tion was cool in the extreme. The 
headmaster read the letter, but had 
had no information about the new- 
comer. There was no room for 
any one. Mr. Wesley was away and 
would be back in a fortnight; so 
the intruder was advised to return 
to Bristol and await further instructions from the Founder. The con- 
vincing reply to this was that Clarke had only three halfpence in his 
pocket. However, after repeated grumblings that the school w^as 
not meant for such as Adam, but for the ignorant and such as were 

^ The main facts in this sketch of Adam Clarke's experiences at Kingswood 
are gleaned from the Life of Adam Clarke^ published (1834) by John Stephens, 
4, Red Lion Court. The publication of this work was immediately succeeded by 
an attempted vindication of the conduct of Mr. and Mrs. Simpson in an article 
in the Wesley an Magazine of 1 834 (or 5). 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


out of the way, the youth was allowed to remain pending the arrival 
of Wesley in Bristol. But he was treated rather as a suspect than 
as a guest. He was put into a square room " on the end of the 
chapel," under strict injunctions not to leave it, and here the maid 
brought him his meals. The explanation of this extraordinary 
conduct on the part of the school authorities is to be found in the 
"Bengal Tiger," as Clarke described the headmaster's wife. She 
was a Scotchwoman, at least so Clarke significantly says, and 
suspected that Adam must be troubled with the itch. This 
suspicion was delicately communicated to Clarke by Mr. Simpson, 
and the indignant youth immediately sought to convince his host of 
its en-oneousness by ocular demonstration. However convincing 
this was to the headmaster, the unbelieving Mrs. Simpson was 
determined to have her way, and Clarke "was compelled to rub 
himself with Jackson's ointment, a ceremony which introduced him 
to the only fire he saw while he remained at Kingswood. Re- 
turned to his miserable chamber, he was not allowed to have a 
change of sheets, and, as they would not send for his box, which 
was at the inn at Bristol, he was equally destitute of a change of 
shirt, but was doomed to lie in the sheets and wear the shirt, 
which were defiled with the * infernal unguent,' as he styled it. 
He had bread and milk for dinner, breakfast, and supper, was left 
to make his own bed, sweep his own room, and perform all the 
other offices of a chambermaid. This was his state during three 
weeks. On the Thursday of the second week, however, he was 
permitted to fetch his box from Bristol, and consequently had a 
change of body linen. The weather being unseasonably cold he 
b^ed for a fire, which, though the coals were to be had for little 
more than the expense of carriage, and that from a very trivial 
distance, was peremptorily denied him. Once when he showed 
Mr. Simpson his benumbed fingers this austere pedagogue directed 
him to some means of physical exertion, from which, however, he 
was instantly driven by his still austerer spouse. This woman the 
doctor compares to a Bengal tiger ; she seemed never to be in her 
element but when she was driving everything before her. One 
request was granted to him : he was allowed to work in the garden, 
which contained a shallow pond of stagnant water, in which he 
occasionally bathed ; * for,' says he, * there is none in the place but 
what falls from heaven.' But this, at least, was not Mr. Simpson's 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


In spite of the harsh and incomprehensible treatment accorded 
to Adam, his stay at Kingswood afforded him, by a strange chain 
of circumstances, an opportunity of laying the foundation of that 
knowledge which has gained for him a world-wide and everlasting 
reputation. It was here that he first studied Hebrew. "While 
working one day in the garden Adam found a half-guinea which he 
offered to Mr. Simpson, who said he had not lost a coin of that 
kind. Mr. Bayley, the second master, had, and it was given up to 
him ; but he returned it in a day or two, saying that he had been 
uneasy in his mind ever since it came into his possession, because 
he did not know it to be his. Adam then offered it to Mr. Simpson 
for the use of the school ; but he turned hastily away, declaring that 
he would have nothing to do with it. It remained, therefore, with 
the finder, and was added to his residuum of three halfpence. With 
the greater part of the money Adam subscribed for a copy of Mr. 
Bayley, the second master's Hebrew Grammar, the study of which 
laid the foundation of his great acquirements in Oriental learning, 
and issued in his unparalleled commentary on the sacred text. The 
remainder he devoted, according to the testimony of Mr. Joseph 
Beaumont, who received his information from his own lips, to the 
purchase of some coals. The finding of this half-guinea, together 
with all the circumstances which followed. Dr. Clarke, who referred 
all events to God's providence, ever viewed as a special interposition 
of the Divine goodness." 

At last Mr. Wesley returned to Bristol, and Adam was able to 
interview him, the result being that Clarke was sent back to 
Kingswood to await a call to the post of a travelling preacher. 
Now that all suspicion was removed, and it was made clear that 
Adam had the favour of the Founder, he was very differently treated. 
He was released from solitary confinement, slept with the rest of 
the school, and dined with the family. This was fortunate for the 
present historians, because the celebrated Doctor recorded in after- 
life the doings of this household, and these records elucidate some 
of the mysteries attaching to the domestic arrangements of 

The school, including the headmaster, was ruled by the head- 
master's wife. " She was probably very clever," says Clarke ; " all 
stood in awe of her. For my own part, I feared her more than I 
feared Satan himself." 

Adam soon came into conflict with her, and the most amusing 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


battle was that which arose out of his refusal to abide by a custom 

of health-drinking at table. " At the table," says the Doctor, " every 

person when he drank was obliged to run the following gauntlet : he 

must drink the health of Mr. Simpson, Mrs. Simpson, Miss Simpson, 

Mr. Bayley (the second master), M. de Boudry (French master), all 

the foreign gentlemen, then all the parlour-boarders down one side 

of the long table and up the other, one by one, and all the visitors 

who might happen to be there, after which it was lawful for him to 

drink his glass of beer." Adam objected, and refused to conform 

o'en after the assurance of the good lady that Mr. Wesley himself 

always complied in this respect. The battle was a drawn one : 

Clarke "preserved a whole conscience at the expense of a dry 


With such a mistress governing capriciously both the academy 
and the headmaster, it is no wonder that the school was impaired 
in its usefulness. Clarke says : " The school was the worst I had 
ever seen, though the teachers were men of adequate learning. It 
was perfectly disorganized^ and in several respects each one did 
what was right in his own eyes. There was no efficient plan pur- 
sued ; they mocked at religion, and trampled under foot all the laws. 
The little children of the preachers suffered great indignities ; and, 
it is to be feared, their treatment there gave many of them a rooted 
enmity against religion for life. The parlour-boarders had every 
kind of respect paid to them, and the others were shamefully 
neglected. Scarcely any care was taken either of their bodies or 

This is a forcible description of the school at that time, but it is 
probably not exaggerated. The truth was that the school was too 
prosperous — it " waxed fat and kicked." Its fame had spread far 
abroad, and scholars sought it from the Continent, and even from 
the West Indies. These were lucrative boarders, and were no doubt 
well received by the stewards who managed the school. They were 
carefully tended at the expense of the non-paying preachers' sons, 
whose expulsion for delinquencies, which would have been winked 
at in the other boarders, inflicted no loss on the management, but, 
on the contrary, relieved the responsibility of the stewards. 

The most remarkable deviation from the strict and original rules 
was the beer-drinking. "They drink water at their meals," says the 
Founder in his " Plain Account of Kingswood School," which was 
printed only one year before the time of which Clarke writes. The 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


statement is a quotation from the original rules, but its reproduc- 
tion in 1 781 may naturally lead one to suppose that it was still the 
rule to allow nothing but water to the scholars at dinner. There is, 
at any rate, a glaring inconsistency here between precept and practice, 
and one which it is ver)' difficult, if not impossible, now to explain. 

A simple solution of the mystery might at first sight be found by 
including beer-drinking in the long category of illegal luxuries for 
which the well-to-do boarders were responsible, but investigation 
shows that long after these had disappeared from the school the 
item for malt and hops appears regularly in the yearly expenditure 
of the institution. 

The impressions received by Clarke were probably conveyed by 
him to Wesley, and it is not astonishing to find that the news of the 
school, from whatever source received, roused the indignation of the 
Founder. In 1 783 Wesley preferred an indictment against the school 
at the yearly conference, and the whole matter was seriously con- 
sidered. His indictment (or " Remarks") runs as follows : ^ — 

" My design in building the house at Kingswood was to have 
therein a Christian family; every member whereof, children ex- 
cepted, should be alive to God and a pattern of all holiness. 

" Here it was that I proposed to educate a few children accord- 
ing to the accuracy of the Christian model ; and almost as soon as 
we began, God gave us a token for good; four of the children 
receiving a clear sense of pardon. 

"But at present the school does not in any wise answer 
the design of the institution, either with regard to religion or 

"The children are not religious. They have not the power, 
and hardly the form, of religion. Neither do they improve in learn - 
ing better than at other schools. No, nor yet so well. 

" Insomuch that some of our friends have been obliged to re- 
move their children to other schools. 

" And no wonder that they improve so little either in religion or 
learning, for the rules of the school are not observed at all. 

" All in the house ought to rise, take their three meals, and go 
to bed at a fixed hour. But they do not. 

"The children ought never to be alone, but always in the 
presence of a master. This is totally neglected, in consequence of 

^ Wesley, Works, xiii. p. 268 : " Remarks on the State of Kingswood School, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


which they run up and down the wood, and mix, yea, fight, with the 
colliers' children. 

" They ought never to play. But they do, every day ; yea, in 
the school. 

" Three maids are sufficient. Now there are four, and but one, 
at most, truly pious. 

" How may these evils be remedied, and the school reduced to 
its original plan ? It must be mended or ended ; for no school is 
better than the present school. 

" Can any be a master that does not rise at five, observe all the 
rules, and see that others observe them ? 

"ITiere should be three masters and an usher, chiefly to be 
with the children out of school. 

"The headmaster should have nothing to do with temporal 

The verdict was " guilty " on all the counts. The Conference 
were agreed " that either the school should cease, or the rules of it 
be particularly observed. Particularly, that the children should 
never play, and that a master should be always present with them." 

After such a conclusion it was impossible to retain the existing 
management. Mr. Simpson and his " Bengal Tiger " were dis- 
missed after twelve years' service, on the ground that Mr. Simpson 
desired "to be itinerant." His successor was Thomas McGeary, 
M.A., the gentleman to whom we are indebted for the excellent 
print of the school of his day, which he dedicated to the Founder, 
and which is the only print in existence giving a really satisfactory 
description of the old school. 

The second master, Mr. Cornelius Bayley, ^ also left with Mr. 

' Cornelius Bayley, afterwards D. D. Trinity College, Cambridge, remained at 
the sdiool from 1773 to 1 783, and was one of the most notable of its masters. 
fhi leaving Kingswood he entered the ministry of the Established Church, and 
!>uljaequently became the founder and first incumbent of St. James, Manchester. 
He was an author of considerable merit, his chief works being Select Psalms and 
Hymns, a Hebrew Catechism, Tke Swedenborgian Doctrine of the Trinity 
Considered, various sermons, and, lastly, but by no means least, a Hebrew 
(rrammar. This last was the work referred to as having been purchased by Adam 
Clarke while at the school, and upon which the commentator based his subsequent 
learning in that language. The title-page of the book runs : " An Entrance into the 
^cred Language ; containing the necessary rules of Hebrew Grammar in English : 
With the Original Text of several Chapters, select Verses, and useful Histories, 
translated verbatim, and analysed. Likewise, some select Pieces of Hebrew 
Poetry. The whole Digested in so easy a Manner, that a Child of seven Years old 
may arrive at a competent knowledge of the Hebrew Scriptures with very little 
a^tance. By the Rev. C. Bayley of Trinity College, Cambridge." Then 
follow two texts. The work was published in London, ** Printed for the Author 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Simpson, after ten years* service. The Frenchman, M. Vincent 
de Boudry, alone remained. 

After this clean sweep the school prospered. So early as March 
of the following year Wesley writes,^ " I talked at large with our 
masters in Kingswood School, who are now just such as I wished 
for. At length the rules of the house are punctually observed, and 
the children are all in good order." There was also at this time a 
great demand for places in the school, and it was necessary in the 
Conference of 1785 to resolve not to receive any preachers' sons for 
the future under nine years of age. And so the improvement con- 
tinued to cheer the declining years of the old preacher. It was still 

the one scheme upon which his best 
thoughts dwelt, and with what joy 
he must have written, in 1786, "I 
walked over to Kingswood School, 
now one of the pleasantest spots in 
England. I found all things just 
according to my desire, the rules 
being well observed, and the whole 
behaviour of the children showing 
that they were now managed with 
the wisdom that cometh from 
above." 2 

The masters at this time appear 

to have been Thomas McGeary, 

A.M., Richard Dodd, and William 

Winsbeare, the last of whom left 

in the next year. It was with the 

greatest difficulty that Wesley found 

masters, and in writing to John Valton on 22nd December 1786, 

he says, " It is amazing that we cannot find in the three kingdoms 

a fit master for Kingswood School." The vacancy in the post of 

by R. Hindmarsh, llol born- Bars : and sold by T. Longman, raler-Xoster-Row ; 
T. Merril, Cambridge; Messrs. Fletchers, Oxford; T. Mills, Wine Street, Bristol ; 
and S. Hazard, Bath. ijSa.** Dr. Bayley died in or about 18 18. 

The following were among the subscril)ers to Bayley 's Hebrew Grammar : 
" Mr. Joseph Bradford, Mr. Daniel Bumsted, junior, Mr. Adam Clarke, Mr. W 
Delx)udry, French teacher at Bristol, Mr. Robert Hindmarsh, Mr. Alexander 
Mather, Mr. McAllum, Mr. James Roquet of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, Thomas 
Simpson, A.M., Rev. John Wesley, A.M. (four copies), James W^hitestonc, 
Esci., A.B., T.C.D." 

1 Wesley, Works, iv. p. 266 ( 1st March 1784). 

'^ Ibid, iv . p. 343 (2lst July 1786). 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


second master remained for some time, and was ultimately filled, 
we believe, by Samuel Green. 

By this time the claims of the children of the travelling preachers 
were beginning to assert themselves. Their families were in- 
creasing as rapidly in proportion as was the Connexion. The 
Kingswood collection had more than doubled in eight years, 
and in 1787 stood at;^739, os. iid. ; and out of this an allowance 
was made to four ministers' children, for whom there was no room 
at Kingswood. The school was now in a state of transition after 
the searching alterations recently effected, when the luxury of the 
parlour was invaded and destroyed ; the preachers' sons were, by 
force of numbers and the justice of their silent claims, usurping 
the lay boarders. In 1788 the Conference resolved that the 
preachers' sons at the school should be raised to forty, and the 
number of boarders reduced to ten, as soon as possible. So full 
was the school this year that only three preachers' boys could be 
admitted, provision being made for one other at Raynham School. 

The last entry of any importance made by Wesley in his journal 
affecting the school was made Friday, nth September 1789: "I 
went over to Kingswood ; sweet recess ! where everything is now 
just as I wish. But 

Man was not bom in shades to lie ! 

Let us work now ; we shall rest by and by." 

And SO, after forty-one years of alternating hope and misgivings, 
joy and trouble, — of struggles against every species of opposition, 
but none so strong as that which came from within, — of constant 
personal supervision — the great educational scheme of his life was 
executed to his satisfaction, and the heart of the aged and failing 
evangelist was cheered by a faith and a conviction that there was 
before him an institution which should remain true to the motto 
he had wreathed round its portals — 





Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


1790 TO 1807 

Ast alii sex 
Et plures uno conclamant ore. — Juvenal. 

Hx tibi erunt artes ; pacisque imponere moreni, 
Parcere subiectis et deoellare superbos. — Vergil. 

The history of the school here enters upon a new era. The Founder 
was now (28th June 1790) eighty-eight years old. Until the August 
previous he had felt none of the infirmities of age, but in this 
autumn his eyes grew dim and his strength began to fail, and one 
by one the many schemes and plans which he had originated and 
personally controlled were delegated to his followers. For the 
management of Kingswood, stewards had already been provided, 
and they, being situated at or near the school, supervised the 
domestic and scholastic arrangements. They served the same 
purpose as the periodical visits of Wesley had done previously to 
their appointment. Beyond these, it was necessary to have a 
governing body, and so in 1791 a Committee of Inspection w^as 
appointed, consisting of Henry Moore, Thomas McGeary, John 
Valton, Thomas Roberts, and John Ewer — the prototype of the 
schooFs committee of later years. 

The collection for the School's Fund this year had amounted 
to over ;^iooo, and was continuing to make rapid strides; and, 
financially, everything looked promising. Those preachers' boys 
who were so unlucky as not to find room at Kingswood had, for 
some time past, been provided for by a small allowance, and that 
sum now appears to have been fixed at ;^i2 ; but the receipt of this, 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


according to the decision of the Conference in 1791, deprived the 
recipient of " the usual salary of ;^4, either from the Circuit or from 
the yearly collection." 

The task of compiling the history of this period becomes 
peculiarly difficult after the death of Wesley. There is a great- gap 
in the chain of material from that date until well into the next 
century. The most reliable sources are the accounts and resolu- 
tions of the Conference, which are necessarily so disjointed as to 
require speculation in order to weave a satisfactory record from 

It is especially difficult to determine at what time the school 
at Kingswood became exclusively devoted to the education of 
the sons of the preachers. In 1788 the school consisted of both 
paying and non-paying boarders, and in that year we have, as 
already stated, an expressed desire to provide for the preachers' boys 
at the school by reducing the number of the other boarders to ten. 
Some of these paying boarders remained till 1794 at any rate. In 
1796 it was ordered that "if a preacher cannot give a satisfactory 
reason why his son should not go to the school, he shall not be 
allowed the ;;^i 2 a year out of the collection." The great change 
was probably made between these two dates, and is fixed by Myles 
in his Chronological History of the Wesley an Methodists at 1794. 
WTiatever its date, the alteration was very gradual, and the fact is, 
that the preachers* boys by degrees squeezed out the paying 
boarders, it being found more economical to maintain and educate 
the increasing preachers' families in a large number at the school 
than to distribute the ;^i2 a year per head all round. The 
preachers' sons, therefore, supplanted the boarders, in a way similar 
to that in which the colliers thought that the day boys had been 
ousted from what they regarded as their school by the more 
respectable boarders. This grievance of the colliers was, however, 
purely imaginary, since the school built by Wesley was originally 
intended, and was continuously and exclusively used, as a boarding 
school, and did not in any way interfere with the colliers' schools, 
which were conducted as before in the "Old House." Although 
imaginary, the effects of this supposed grievance were visible for 
many years in the village where the colliers' note of greeting to the 
Kingswood boys was " Cockie Booades." * 

*Sir J. W. Akerman, K.C.M.G., says that the phrase was in use in his day 
i '^37-39)1 and he interprets it to mean " Cuckoo boarders." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Some of the names of the early committee men are so 
well known that we append a list of those who served in this 
capacity during the first five years of the committee's constitu- 
tion. They are: Henry Moore, Thomas McGear)', John Valton, 
Thomas Roberts, John Ewer, Samuel Bradburn, Thomas Ruther- 
ford, James Yewer, Richard Rodda, Joseph Benson, Thomas 
Vasey, Joseph Bradford, Joseph Cole, Charles Atmore, James 

There appear to have been three masters at the school in 
1794, two of whom were Irish: Clarke of Coleraine, the father of 
Dr. Adam Clarke, and appointed headmaster that year ; Johnson of 
Lisbum, second master, also appointed in 1794; and William 
Collins, who had already served four years at Kingswood. The 
luxury of having a real Frenchman to teach his native tongue, 
which had been indulged in from the earliest days, when poor Grou 
endured persecution, was apparently discontinued in 1789, when 
Robert de Joncourt, who had succeeded the worthy Vincent de 
Boudry in 1787, left the school. 

In 1795 ^^^ ^^rm governor seems to have been applied to the 
head of the establishment, that distinction being conferred upon 
Joseph Bradford, who held office until 1802. A description of the 
school and governor of those days is to be found in an obituary notice 
of the Rev. Robert Wood, who was then a boy at Kingswood. " The 
establishment at that time consisted of a minister and his wife, two 
masters, two maid -servants, one man-servant, and about thirty 
scholars. It was under the wholesome rule of the Rev. Joseph 
Bradford. Scorning the idea of making fine gentlemen of his pupils, 
and knowing that most of them would have to ' rough it ' in their 
future career, Mr. Bradford endeavoured to prepare them for the 
encounter of life. Mr. Wood was accustomed to relate with 
pleasantness the impressions made on his boyish imagination by 
the tall, gaunt figure of the * governor' as he stalked into the 
dormitory. One stroke on the ground with his oaken staff was 
expected to rouse the youthful sleepers. Then, with his watch in 
his hand, he counted three minutes, at the end of which their simple 
toilet was to be completed. Another signal was then made for them 
to kneel down to their morning devotions. After this their ablu- 
tions were performed in a long, low gallery, open on one side to 
the air, which, as they rose at five in summer and six in winter, 
was chilly enough. Their diet and studies were regulated with the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



saaie uncompromising strictness. ... So great at that time were 
the difficulties and expense attendant on travelling, that during the 
seven years of his residence at Kingswood he saw his father but 
t\*ice, and never visited home." The dress of this strict disciplinarian 
seems to have been by no means of a Puritanic severity, so far as 
colour went: he wore "a straight-breasted, long-tailed coat of a 
bluish-grey colour, and a red waistcoat"; and he had "leathern 
breeches with knee-buckles, red stockings, and large buckles on 
his shoes." 

Upon his retirement a silver 
tankard, costing some ;^i3, 5s. 6d., 
was presented to the Rev. Joseph 
Bradford by order of the Con- 

The school at this time still 
retained the characteristic which 
Wesley designed to impress upon 
it, "one of severe simplicity with 
respect to the habits of the boys 
and the course of instruction 
through which they were to pass. 
Mr. Bradford left the school a few 
months before the date of my 
arrival " (says Rev. Jonathan Crow- 
ther). "Up to his time, that is, to 
1800, the boys were required to 

be up at five o'clock in the morning, both summer and winter, 
fine weather and foul, and the first hour was spent in exercise, 
walking, running, and climbing. There was an abatement of this 
part of the system when I got there, much to my satisfaction. Still, 
even then, we were required to be up at six and to breakfast at 
seven. Our school hours were from eight to twelve, and from one 
to five. The fare was nothing to complain of, but sufficiently 
testing to feeble stomachs and constitutions, and the discipline was 
rather severe." ^ 

The finances of Kingswood still continued to prosper, and it 
became advisable to publish annually a minute account of the dis- 
bursements and application of the yearly collection, which had in 
1796 risen in Great Britain to ;£^I3I7, ts. 6d., whilst Ireland con- 
* Watchman, 1852, p. 363. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



tributed ^^i 17, 13s. So prosperous, indeed, had the Fund become 
that the Bookroom borrowed j[^<po from it in 1797. 

In the first of the published accounts, that of the year 1797-98, 
the following interesting items appear on the debit side : — 

£ s> d. 

£ s. 


Butcher's meat. 

78 8 6 

Linen, making and mend- 

Malt and hops 

23 16 10 

ing ..• . 

18 6 


Wine and spirits 

I II 4 

Shoes and repairing . 

15 13 


Hats and stockings . 

10 16 

Repairs of House 

25 17 


Boys' pocket-money . 

6 13 

Taxes and ground rent 

20 16 



I 12 6 

Travelling expenses for 

Cloth, making and mend 

masters and boys . 

20 17 


ing clothes . 

97 6 104 

After noting the precision with which the account is kept, " even 
to the uttermost farthing," attention is arrested by the items of 
"boys' pocket-money" and "travelling expenses for masters and 
boys." The system of giving pocket-money to the boys existed for 
many years, as indeed did the provision for travelling expenses. In 
explanation of the account a note is added : " In this account there 
are many expenses included which are not incurred in other schools : 
such as clothing, washing, boys* pocket-money, travelling expenses 
for removing the boys to and from the school, the masters' attend- 
ance upon the Conference, the posting of letters, implements for 
the school. There being no vacations, the boys are perpetually at 
the school, which occasions another large extra expense, and also 
every boy when he leaves the school has six new shirts, six new 
pairs of stockings, two pairs of shoes, two hats, pocket-hand- 
kerchiefs, etc." 

In 1799 the increase of the annual collection to ;;^i627, iis. 
permitted the allotment of more generous allowances. j£lS a 
year for six years was assigned to boys unable to be admitted to 
the school on account of their suffering from " scrofulous humours " ; 
^i a month till admission to boys just too young to enter at the 
proper date, with the proviso that these like the rest should leave 
at the age of fourteen ; and an allowance to daughters for five years 
instead of four as hitherto. 

The prosperous condition of the finances of the school was 
largely due to the eloquence of the preachers, who did not hesitate 
to urge with all the power at their command the claims which 
Kingswood then had upon the followers of Wesley. The key- 
note at this time was the same as that struck by the Founder 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



when he made his appeal. " We only request you will not permit 
their (the preachers') little ones to perish ! " exclaimed Thomas 
Roberts, in addressing a large congregation at King Street, Bristol, 
in 1800, when he preached from 2 Cor. ix. i, 2, for the benefit of 
the school fimds.^ " While they live to go about doing good, shall 
their own children, of all in the land, be alone unbenefited by 
them ? " And then in order that his hearers might fully appreciate 
the merits of the institution as an academy, he proceeded to give 
the details of school management and curriculum. " The domestic 
department is directed by a governor (Joseph Bradford), whose 
praise is in all the churches; the other departments, by proper 
masters. A superintending committee investigate once a quarter, 
or oftener if they choose, the state of the school, who make an 
annual report. . . . Reading, writing, arithmetic, the mathematics, 
and the learned languages are taught. What I believe is peculiar 
to this school, where the chief design is to form the man, and to 
plant the scholar thereupon, the indiscriminate use of the pagan 
poets is unknown. After an initiation into the languages, by 
grammars composed on purpose for the school, the scholars are 
led into the Latin by the aid of 
judicious extracts made by Mr. 
H'esley from the earliest Latin 
authors; from them they are led 
on to an acquaintance with the 
beauties of the best Latin poets. 
The Holy Penmen conduct them 
to the fountains of Grecian erudi- 
tion. When their minds have been 
cast into the mould of the gospel, 
by the simple phraseology of St. 
John, their taste is cultivated till 
they can relish * the immortal tale of 
Troy divine.' " 

The Rev. John Pritchard suc- 
ceeded the Rev. Joseph Bradford 
as governor in 1802. 

One of the assistant masters 
in this year was William Homer, subsequently known through- 
out the educational world as a great mathematician. Homer 
* Wesley an Methodist Magazim, 1804, p. 201. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


was the son of the Rev. William Horner, and was born in 
1786. He was a boy at the school, and at the age of sixteen 
was appointed as an assistant master at Kingswood. Four 
years later, while still legally an infant, he was promoted to the 
headmastership, a post he retained until 1809, when he left to 
establish a school at Grosvenor Place, Bath, which he kept until his 
death on 22nd September 1837. William Homer was the discoverer 
of a mode of solving numerical equations of any degree, a mode 
which is of the highest importance, and which is known as 
" Horner's Method." The mode was first made known in a paper 
read before the Royal Society, on ist July 1819, by Davies Gilbert, 
headed " A New Method of Solving Numerical Equations of all 
Orders by Continuous Approximation." This paper was published 
in the Philosophical Transactions for that year, and was re- 
published in the Ladies' Diary for 1838, whilst a simple and more 
extended version appeared in vol. i. of the Mathematician in 1843. 
Beyond this, Horner published a poem entitled "A Tribute of 
Friendship," which was addressed to his friend Thomas Fussell, 
and was appended to a funeral sermon on Mrs. Fussell of Bristol 
in 1820; a pamphlet, Natural Magic \ and Questions for the 
Examination of Pupils on General History,^ 

The salary of this noted scholar as a master was jQ^o^ which was 
increased by ;^io when he became headmaster. From all accounts 
he suffered, as so many great thinkers and scholars have done, from 
irritability and impatience, or perhaps we should rather say that 
his pupils were the sufferers. One who knew him remarks, that 
" though talented, he was severe and impatient with the diligent yet 
dull boy," and he sought to impart instruction through the pores of 
the skin and nerves of the body rather than through the eye and 
ear and brain. '-^ This also was Horner's method, but one of 
which he was not the first discoverer. 

The long list of meritorious boys who in future times obtained 
extra years should remember that that privilege was due in the first 
instance to the influence of Mr. Homer. The suggestion was first 
made during his headmastership, and many years afterwards he 

^ Dktiotiary of Natiofial Bio^aphy. See also Kingnuood Magazine^ vol. vii. 
p. 54 ; Bath aiid Cheltenham Gazette^ 3rd October 1837 ; Bath fountain 2nd 
October 1837 ; and Wcsleyan Methodist Magazine, 1837, p. 957. 

^'* Instead of patient instruction, the blow and the cane was the medium by 
which knowledge was to be imparted " (letter by an old scholar, Methodist 
Recorder, 1 879). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


further urged a liberal exercise of the power of conferring an 
additional year. 

The engagement of another master in this year of 1802 
shows that Kingswood was at times made a refuge for the over- 
worked preachers. The Bristol Conference then appointed to the 
post of writing and English master one William Stevens, who 
had become a supernumerary owing to his physical weakness. 
The history of this preacher's connection with the school and 
i-illage of Kingswood is not uninteresting. He travelled with his 
wife from Yorkshire to his new sphere, and found provided for him 
a small dirty cottage, " the only one that could be procured in so 
short a notice. Here," he says, " we had to begin the world again, 
without even a spoon or a single article of furniture." Together 
with his scholastic duties he combined a small business in the village 
"in the druggist and stationery line." He appears also to have 
been a medical practitioner in the district, and these professional 
senrices were greatly appreciated in a village which had previously 
been totally devoid of medical assistance in any shape or form. 
Particularly was this so during the terrible distress among the colliers 
which prevailed during the few years he remained in the village. To 
meet this distress the practical Stevens started "The Kingswood 
Benevolent Society," which was still in existence in 1814. Mr. 
Stevens remained at the school till 1807, when other arrangements 
were made, and he was once more superannuated.^ As a means of 
livelihood he endeavoured to start a school in Bristol, but failed to 
obtain a single pupil. In the following year he was more success- 
ful The Conference assisted him by a grant from the Preachers' 
Merciful Fund, and he started a boarding and day school at 
Kingswood, where he was fortunate enough to obtain seven boarders 
and five day scholars, which numbers were doubled the year 
following. He died on 22nd November 1813.^ 

In 1803, only a few years after the decease of the Founder, the 
Conference after solemn deliberation resolved to break through the 
cardinal rules that the boys should not be allowed to play, or to be 
absent from the school until they should leave it for good and all. 

* "The religious teaching under the direction of the Rev. William Stevens, who 
acted as writing master, was highly valuable, as exemplified by its results in the 
fiiturc life and character of many amongst the number of those twenty l)oys, at 
that period the entire number of preachers' sons at Kingswood" (From a letter 
by an old scholar, Methodist Recorder^ 1879). 
* Wesley an Methodist Magazine ^ 18 14, p. 800. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


It will be remembered that this former rule was ever the most 
important law in the original and stern code of Wesley : it was the 
breach of this rule which constantly called forth complaints, which 
formed the chief count in Wesley's indictment in 1783, and which 
brought about the sudden downfall of the headmaster, Mr. Simpson. 
Yet it was resolved in 1803 that the boys should have a vacation of 
two months every two years, and during that time that the parents 
should be allowed one shilling a day. How shocked must the spirit 
of John Wesley have been as it watched over the deliberations of 
that Conference and heard so disastrous a determination ! And then, 
again, how such spirit must have rejoiced the following year to find 
that even in one short twelvemonth the soundness of the principle 
of the Founder was established, and it was discovered that the new 
departure of granting vacations was " highly detrimental to morals and 
learning." The rule of 1803 was repealed, and the luckless youth 
who was counting on a respite in two years' time was compelled to 
look wistfully to the end of that long monotony which was not to 
be broken until it ushered him into a struggle with the world. 

The accounts during the last two or three years of this period 
of the school's history foreshadow financial difficulties. It was 
necessary in 1804 to borrow ;^6oo to meet the expenses of the 
coming year. The balance in hand each year had been gradually 
dwindling. Special efforts were made by an appeal to the Connexion, 
and the preachers, then as now ready to share the burden of 
financial difficulty, imposed upon themselves a tax of four guineas a 
year for clothing. The effect was to afford temporary relief, and to 
raise the balance ; but the report of 1807, with which the first sixty 
years in the school's history closes, is very ominous : Balance, 
;^ii87, 3s. 2jd., "includes ;£6oo borrowed, and jQz^o due for a 
lease, besides the interest on the jQz^o, which leaves scarcely 
sufficient to support the school two months." 

Since then, however, it has lasted nearly a century. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

rprqyvL dAA' dya^ Kovpvrp6<f>o^, — HOMER. 

Distance lends enchantment, — Kindly distance ! 
Wiping out all troubles and disgraces, 
How we seem to cast, with your assistance, 
All our boyish lines in pleasant places. 

Greek and Latin, struggles mathematic. 
These were worries leaving slender traces ; 
Now we tell the boys (we wax emphatic) 
How our lines fell all in pleasant places. 

How we used to draw (immortal Wackford !) 
Euclid's figures, more resembling faces. 
Surreptitiously upon the blackbird, 
Crude yet telling lines in pleasant places. 

Pleasant places? That was no misnomer. 
Impositions? little heed scapegraces 
Writing out a book or so of Homer — 
Even those were lines in pleasant places. 

How we scampered o'er the country, leading 
Apoplectic formers pretty chases. 
Over crops, through fences, all unheeding, 
Stiff cross-country lines in pleasant places. 

Then the lickings ! how we took them, scorning 
Girlish outcry, though we made grimaces; 
Only smiled to find ourselves next morning 
Somewhat marked with lines in pleasant places. 

Alma Mater, whether young or olden, 
Thanks to you for hosts of friendly faces. 
Treasured memories, davs of boyhood golden. 
Lines that fell in none but pleasant places. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



As when a traveller, forced to journey back, 
Takes coin by coin and gravely counts them o'er. 

W. Cory. 

On 30th June 1808 the committee, we read, were gratified to find 

"such an agreeable reduction of expence." With such good 

omen runs the first entry in the surviving minute-books. It is 

somewhat startling, however, to hear that there had been unusual 

outlay for mal^; this the committee ascribed to the large number 

of workmen employed in repairing the premises, and "it was 

therefore directed that the housekeeper^ should keep a sharp 


To assist, even in a humble way, the finances of the school, it 

was decided (10th February 1809) "to let the bottom of the Patch 

to Mr. Priddy for 20s. per annum." What the boys thought 

of this is not recorded, but no doubt their criticism, though not 

reaching official ears, was couched in plain and crisp terms. The 

extract, however, is noteworthy as at a very early date giving the 

sanction of authority to the use of a historic name. Why the 

playground at Kingswood was known as " the Patch " it is perhaps 

impossible now to say with certainty. An ingenious writer in the 

Kingswood Magazine once hinted that it was because "no other 

could be a patch upon it." But this was probably humour. 

Others have deduced the name from the small allotments or 

patches into which part of it at least was divided in very early 

times for boys' gardens. But this, one would suppose, would 

* Mrs. Hannett, the housekeeper, received a wage of twelve guineas, while 
the cook had seven and the housemaid six. This seems to have l^en the entire 
female establishment. Mrs. Hannett left in 18 10, and was succeeded by 
Mrs. Feamhead. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


rather have led to the term being "the Patches" than "the Patch." 
Perhaps the simplest solution is that it was the patch or " parcel 
of ground" attached to the premises. Part of this became a 
garden, and was so called. The rest lacked a definite name ; it 
could not be called "the Playground," for (have we not read?) 
"Neither do we allow time for play on any day." So for want 
of anything better, the vague term "Patch" continued in use, 
gathered gradually mingled associations, and accompanied the 
school in its migration to Lansdown Hill. The name is now^ 
in articulo mortis. It seems a pity that these old terms, peculiar 
to the school, should die out. As the Israelites asked for a 
king in order that they might be "like all the nations," so the 
modern tendency is to modify ancient usages into a tame assimila- 
tion to "all the schools." Yet the fact of peculiarity ought to 
work the other way. Every school has a playground, only one had 
"the Patch." May it not keep it? 

It has not been parsimony, but necessity, that has driven 
succeeding committees to regulations of an apparently harsh 
economy or taxation. We find the burden lightened whenever 
the revenues permitted it. Hence in August iSio- the committee 
decide that the school shall pay the travelling expenses of those 
boys who live more than sixty miles away. But it must not be 
supposed that this refers to anything more than the cost of the 
first journey to the school and the last away from it ; it was the 
New Boy and the Levite ^ only who profited thereby. For it is 
only at this very same committee meeting that regular holidays 
begin to take shape, though as yet with nothing of the formal 
splendour of later days. There had indeed been a rule made in 
1803 that every boy should receive a two-months' holiday once in 
two years, and parents w^ere allowed a shilling a day for their sons' 
maintenance during that time. But this eminently unworkable 

» 1898. 

* This ancient pleasantry needs no explanation. It is, however, more 
difficult to understand why the rest of the school were known as " Manassites. " 
The Grove term in the seventies was " Massites," and was sometimes explained 
by etymologists among the boys to refer to the mass of the school. But it was 
clearly a contraction of the longer word, as Kingswood usage shows. Why the 
tril)e of Manasseh was singled out seems to baffle conjecture. Can it be due to 
the fact that Manasseh received his name, because, as his father said, "God 
hath made me forget all my father's house " ? If so, it should date from the 
pre-holiday era. Or was it because Joshua said to Manasseh, *'The mountain 
shall be thine ; for it is a wood " ? But perhaps this allusion to Kingswood 
Hill is too far-fetched. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


regulation was repealed the next year. Now, however, it was 
resolved " that it be allowed to those parents who are willing and 
able to bear the expense to send for their children home to see 
their parents, subject to the consent of the Bristol committee." 
This was at first a permission available for any time of the year, 
and inaugurated a brief contest between parental and scholastic 
authority. The inconvenience, or rather the fatal folly, of allowing 
boys, now one, now another, to be absent from school for an 
undefined time, soon became apparent, and next year (18 11) the 
month of September was fixed as the time for these days of 
relaxation. However, the parents rebelled, and in June 18 13 won 
their cause, and were allowed to select their own month. This 
meant, of course, that teaching went on all the year through, and 
teaching means teachers. It is not till 19th June 181 3 that the need 
is recognised of occasional cessation from instructing as well as 
from being instructed; each master is from that time to have a 
fortnight free in the year, but only one must be away at once. 
The parental victory continued for but one year, for the Conference 
of 1814 ordered the month's holiday to begin in the last week of 
April ; four years later it was altered to the second week in May ; 
in 1836 to the last week in May or the first in June ; and in 1846 
to the month of June. There was, however, still some laxity, for 
in 1834 the governor ascribes a serious outbreak of discontent * to 
the improper length of time during which some of the boys are 
detained at home by their parents after the vacation, "whence 
they return with minds dissipated and disinclined." The time so 
annexed is stated as eight, ten, or even twelve weeks. The same 
complaint is made by the classical examiner. The committee's 
remedy is that a week's absence without sufficient cause shall 
vacate the boy's place, which shall be at once filled. This 
remedy was sufficient and decisive. 

The Christmas holidays have a less definite history. Christmas 
Day must, one would suppose, have been a day of cessation from 
TOrk from the first; gradually it acquired its proper festal 
character; the length of the holiday gradually increased, Boxing 
Day perhaps being the first addition ; in course of time a fortnight's 
relaxation was reached, and those boys who lived within reasonable 

^During the governor's absence at Conference eleven boys set out for 
lAndoQ, but were overtaken and brought back ; two of them were subsequently 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


distance went home. There were also brief Easter holidays, and 
we have evidence in 1838 of five days being given in this way. 
Half of Good Friday, however, was spent in school, in order that 
the collier congregation might hold a " love feast " in the chapel, 
undisturbed by the noises of the playground. 

Travelling expenses formed no inconsiderable item in the regular 
outlay. In 181 1 we find an entry of ^£'62, 9s. lod., including 
" the expenses paid to various preachers who brought their sons to 
the school." This, however, was an unusually large sum, and was 
due to some special cause. The average expenditure under this 
head was about ;^35.^ 

A less important cause of outlay arose from the presentation of 

prizes. In 181 1 two books were presented for improvement and 

good conduct, and in 1813 twelve were given. In 1814 it w^as 

decided that book prizes of five degrees were to be given, of the 

values of five shillings, three shillings, two shillings, one shilling, and 

sixpence. In 1817 the annual sum to be spent on prizes was fixed 

at eight pounds. In January 1819 the first recorded prize list 

occurs ; it will be of interest to give it. It runs as follows : — 

James Moulton * ... Homer's Iliad. 

William Bunting ' . . . Greek Testament. 

William Chettle .... Latin Testament. 

William Shaw < ] 

John Wintle j- . . . Watts' Improvemait of the Miftd. 

John Morley I 

^ Old-time modes of travelling are commemorated in the breaking-up song : — 

Away with melancholy. 
And let our hearts be jolly, 
And let us gladly sing, 
For time is on the wing. 
The packet|s on the river, 
The coach is on the way ; 
Then sing ID for ever 
Upon the jolly day. 

2 The Rev. William Moulton (Wesleyan minister, 1794 to 1835) had a large 
family, including William, who died when a boy at the Grove ; John Bakewell, 
Wesleyan minister, 1830 to 1837 ; James Egan, the prize-winner mentioned above ; 
and Ebenezer, Wesleyan minister, 1835. James E^an Moulton was subsequently 
a master at Kingswood School, and entered the ministry in 1828 ; he died in 1866, 
leaving four sons — William Fiddian [eheu ! fuit\ Headmaster of the Leys, Presi- 
dent of the Conference in 1890 ; James Egan, President of the New South Wales 
Conference 1893; John Fletcher, Senior Wrangler 1868, and a Q.C.; Richard 
Green, well known as a Cambridge Extension lecturer, and now a Professor in 
Chicago University. Of these four, the first was at the Grove, the other- three 
were at Kingswoodr 

' William Maclardie Bunting, a well-known Wesleyan minister, famous as 
much for the literary grace as for the unusual length of his sermons. Several of his 
hymns are to be found in the present Wesleyan Jlymnal. 

* Offered a junior mastership in 1821, but the offer was subsequently with- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



A second list is given in October of the same year, containing 
the names of James Moulton, John Hodson, William Shaw, John 
Morley, William Aver, John Wood, D. Campbell, John Claxton, 
John Fielden, J. Martin, James Isham, and Per. Bunting.^ William 
Bunting does not appear, but turns ^up again in the following January, 
when, if the order of the names has any significance, Shaw and 
Hodson had ousted Moulton from his pre-eminence. This last list 
includes also Thomas Rogers, Benjamin Roberts, J. Wood, James 
Alexander, Thomas Warren, 
George Button, Robert Wood, 
Robert Smith. In 1837 a strong 
representation was made by the 
headmaster that there were not 
enough prizes, and that their 
award ought to be influenced 
by the annual examinations. A 
sub-committee raised the annual 
grant to ;£^i6, and ordered an 
additional public examination 
twice a year, the results of which 
were to affect the prize list. 

Other regular items of ex- 
penditure fall under the heads 
of Food, Clothing, Stationery, 
Coals, Malt, and Pocket-money. 
These vary little from year to 
year— 1820 may be selected as 
typical ; there were then 54 boys 
at Kingswood, and the total 

food-bill comes to £$(>$, 4s. ; this, of course, includes governor, 
masters, and ser\'ants, and cannnot be called excessive. In the 
department of clothing, we find that hats, caps, and stockings 
cost jQ^ij 13s. rod.; woollen cloth, making and mending, 
^152, 4s. 5d. ; linen cloth, jQ6f)y i8s. 3d.; shoes, ;^68, 8s.: 
^0^1? jQz^^i 4S- 6d. To completely clothe a boy for jQi a year 
is no inconsiderable triumph of management. From 1808 to 
1820 the clothing was entirely provided from the school 
funds, but in 1820 it was ordered that each parent should pay 

' Thomas Percival Bunting, who died in 1886, father of P. W. Bunting, M.A., 
Editor of the Contemporary Review, 


^— 1»#? 



' Digitized by LjOOQIC 


2i four-guinea subscription annually : this will meet with further 

The item, malt and hops, deserves a special word ; it averaged 
about jQ^o a year, as the following table shows : — 

£ s. d. 

1816 32 12 o 

1818 55 3 6 

1819 46 14 o 

1820 46 15 o 

182T 46 10 3 

1822 39 o 4 

1823 38 o o 

1824 37 12 6 

From 1803 to 18 14 this item appears in the governor's day- 
book with great regularity, at about the same figure as above ; from 
the second quarter of 181 3-14 it disappears; the foregoing list is 
taken from the annual reports. In the governor's day-book, how- 
ever, entries for beer and porter begin where that for malt leaves off, 
and in 181 5-16 the amount spent on beer and porter is ;^32, 12s., 
evidently the same item which appears as malt and hops in the 
report for that year. We have also entries in the day-book such 
as the following: — Mar. 10, 1804, " a quart Pott"; Feb. 9, 1805, 
"a Brewing Sive at Hick a buck"; Sept. 12, 1806, a beer barrel; 
Aug. 30, 1809, Sarah Pool for brewing, baking, etc ; Sept. i, 1810, 
Sieve for brewing; same date, beteny for brewing. Entries like 
these make it pretty clear that the school brewed a considerable 
quantity of beer, and apparently ceased to do so in 18 14, and began 
to buy beer and porter. Subsequently, brewing was renewed, as an 
old boy of 1837-39 testifies. The interesting question is, Who con- 
sumed all this liquid? Up to 1828. the school held about 60 boys, 
but after that, when there were a hundred boys, the malt bill rises, it 
is true, but not in proportion; in 1831 it is ;^49, 8s. 6d., and in 
1837 ;^42, i6s. ; later it becomes merged under the head of 
"Groceries, etc." But the testimony of an old boy of 1828 to 1832 
makes it certain that the boys never saw this beer — no, not never, 
but only once ; for on one memorable day the cows refused to pro- 
vide the milk for tea, and the authorities fell back upon their store 
of beer. Many boys of teetotal proclivities found that, w^hile 
their consciences forbade them to drink beer themselves, they 
did not forbid them to hand it to their neighbours. The issue 
was that it was but a swaying and unsteady line that tried 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


that Thursday evening to fall in to march to divine service, and 
some part clave to their ancient mother ere they reached the 
sacred doors. 

Turning from separate items to the general result, we find 
that up to 1816 annual balances in hand of over ;^iooo induced 
a comparative feeling of security. In 1816 the encouraging state 
of affairs permitted the committee to decide to enlarge the main 
building to meet the growing number of applicants for admission. 
The addition consisted of a new S.E. wing, for which the original 
estimate was ^279; the ultimate cost was ;^6oo. Prosperity, 
however, did not continue. About 18 18 there was considerable 
anxiety; the term of the lease on which the land was held was 
expiring, and it was necessary to purchase a renewal of it; 
repairs had formed a serious item; the allowances for children 
not at the school had increased; clothes and food cost 
more than formerly. "At the Conference of 18 16 there was a 
Balance in hand of about ;^i2oo. In 181 7 this Balance was 
nearly exhausted : and there was only ;^9, 14s. in the Treasurer's 
hands. And at the close of the last Conference, in 1818, the 
Collections, Subscriptions, and Legacies, and other Income of 
the year, were less than the expenditure of the year by the sum 
of nearly ;£8oo." ' 

Hence many ministers took occasion to strongly commend 
the school to the sympathy of their congregations on the 
day of the annual collection. An appeal of this nature, 
made by the Rev. J. Benson in City Road Chapel, called 
forth a letter, signed "J. H.," and published in the Methodist 
Magazine, "Why, good sir," exclaims the writer, "did you 
use the name of Charity? Charity does not demand its 
support. It is gratitude on the part of the Methodists which 
urges it" 

However, expenses went on increasing. A protracted lawsuit 
added to them. In March 1819 the lord of the manor, a Mr. 
Whittock, laid claim to a piece of land at the bottom of the 
garden, which the trustees had held for over sixty years. The 
case was defended successfully, but next year the plaintiff obtained 
an order for a new trial. This also terminated favourably, but cost 
over ;^3oo in all. 

* Annual Report, 18 18. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


The expenditure at Kingswood was continually increasing, as 
the following table shows : — 

Y^ar. Expenditure at Kingswood. 

Number of Boys. Salaries. 


^1316 8 2 

;^I02 18 


1471 3 4 



1634 14 " 

52 163 15 

1825 . 

1909 18 7 

60 297 5 

183I . 

2300 6 2 

100 234 19 6 

1835 . 

2171 14 9 

100 352 5 


2643 13 9 

100 549 5 

1845 . 

2646 15 4 

100 524 6 



100 565 18 4 

1855 . 

3469 IS 2 

120 674 II 

In the fourth column is to be found the amount paid in masters' 
salaries; in the first three instances the governor's salary is not 
included. The Rev. R. Johnson, who was governor from 181 3 to 
1820, received ;^3i, 10s. for the first two quarters of 18 16-17, as 
the day-book shows ; before that his salary does not appear in 
the day-book, and may have been paid by the Circuit, in part at 
least. The Rev. J. Pritchard (1802 to 1807) appears regularly in the 
day-book. The fourth column is given to show that the engage- 
ment of masters not content to serve for the small salaries of earlier 
years added another growing item to the wrong side of the 

But the main increase of expenditure arose in that part of the 
fund which was not devoted to the school ; the annual payments 
made for children not at the schools were ;^i2 to boys, and ^^8, 8s. 
to girls. As the Methodist Society increased, the number of 
preachers increased, and therefore the number of preachers' 
children. This caused first a number of applications for admission 
to the school far in excess of the accommodation, and therefore a 
continual demand for building operations, and, secondly, a great 
advance in the amount devoted to home allowances. An attempt, 
not with much success, to check the first of these grownng difficulties, 
was made in 181 2, when an entrance fee of five guineas was 
imposed. In 1820 the committee found it necessary to issue a 
remarkable circular to the quarterly meetings, warning them that 
by readily accepting candidates for the ministry, and so increasing 
the number of preachers, they were adding largely to the burdens 
of the Schools' Fund. Yet, despite all these efforts, it was found 
necessary to spend ;^6oo, as already stated, in 181 8, and ;;^2ooo 
in 1828, on enlargement of the premises. 

But the second difficulty was the greater: in 1816 home 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


allowances were made to 29 boys and 119 girls; in 1826, to 63 
boys and 256 girls; in 1831 to 158 boys and 363 girls. Thus 
during the five years, 1826 to 1831, there was an increase of 95 boys 
and 107 girls chargeable upon the fund, or of ;;^2038, 8s. in home 

What was done to meet this growing strain ? In the first place, 
there were various temporary alleviations devised, of which the 
boldest and most important was that in 1820 the allowances for 
children at home were not paid. Thus about ;;^2i3o was saved; 
yet even then there was a deficit of ;^22o on the year. 

Another great relief was obtained in 1838, when the Centenary 
Fund paid off the debt. 

But in the way of more permanent schemes we must note in 
the first place the recurrent taxation of ministers. In 1820 each 
minister was to pay four guineas for each son he had at the schools ; 
ministers having sons at home for whom they received the regular 
allowance were to pay two guineas, and all others one guinea each. 
ITiis tax was reduced by one half in 1826, and lasted till 1829. In 
1827 each preacher was required to raise one guinea towards the 
enlargement of the schools. These taxes were not imposed with- 
out much hesitation and many appeals to the lay members. " Will 
they," it was asked, " care for the children of the poor, and not for 
those of the ministers they profess to love ? Nay, they cannot, they 
will not, withhold this debt of Christian equity." It is to be feared, 
however, that they did. The amount raised by subscriptions and 
collections in 1816 was ;;^5577, 12s. iijd. ; in 185 1 it was ;;^5oi8, 
IS. 2d. Despite the increase of membership in ^hese thirty-five 
years, there is not only no increase, but an actual decrease, in 
subscriptions. In 1825 a special circular was issued, urging most 
vigorous efforts, and the subscriptions went up ;^6oo the next year. 
In 1833 the income met the expenditure, — "This is an occurrence 
which has not happened for many years past," ^ — and was due to a 
steady increase in subscriptions, which reached the sum of ;^6762, 
15s. 3d. But two years later the " Reformers " vehemently attacked 
the schools, and urged the societies to stop the supplies ; they were 
so far successful as to reduce the contributions by over ;^iooo. 
Recovery was gradual, and in 1839 a sum of ^^6214, 2s. id. was 
realised, when another period of retrogression sets in, till we end 
in 1850 pretty much as we started in 18 16. 
* Annual Report. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


It was evident that the Schools* Fund was not prospering, and 
from time to time other funds were called in to assist. In 182 1 
the Mission Fund began to pay over £\2 for every missionary's 
son at the school ; three years later the payment was raised to ;^20, 
and in another year to £2$. In 1821 this produced ^32, 8s. ; in 
1 85 1, ;;^6oo. In 1825 the missionaries were included with their 
home brethren in the four-guinea tax. The Auxiliary Fund was 
another source of income, and paid jQ\2 for the sons of deceased 
and supernumerary ministers; this began in 18 15, and ceased in 
1837; before this time the Wom-Out Preachers' Fund had been 
charged with this payment; afterwards it fell to the Children's 

In 18 1 9 the Children's Fund was established. In 1806 Confer- 
ence had settled that six guineas should be paid annually for the 
maintenance of each preacher's child up to the age of seventeen ; 
in 1 8 14 the limit was raised to twenty. This was the charge for 
which the Children's Fund was to be responsible, and it was started 
on the basis of one child's maintenance being raised by each 
166 members of Society. In 1826 the Children's Fund was 
ordered to pay over to the Schools' Fund the allowances for the 
boys at school. In 1851 ;^i474, 4s. was received from this source. 

By these means considerable balances on the right side were 
from time to time secured. But the old school was coming rapidly 
into a state of dilapidation, and balances could not remain long 
unspent. The scarcity of water, too, had harassed the authorities 
for some time. The decision was reached to sink a well. In January 
1846 this had been done to a depth of forty-two feet; in March it 
reached twenty fathoms, with no success in finding water. The 
committee resolved to spend jQi2 in going two fathoms farther. 
In April it was determined to go on, if necessary, to thirty fathoms, 
the significant remark being added that a well would increase the 
saleable value of the estate. In July the well had reached a hundred 
and twenty-six feet, and had twenty-two inches of water in it. It 
was then decided to go no farther. 

A special committee was appointed to consider certain improve- 
ments in the building, and on their report the committee framed 
three notable resolutions: "(i) That these alterations and enlarge- 
ments are necessary or desirable for the comfort of the family ; 
(2) that a small outky would be inadequate, and that the committee 
cannot recommend that so large a sum as is required should be 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


expended on the present site; (3) that a site near Bath seems 
satisfactory, and that the committee would concur if the special 
committee deemed it desirable to buy it." The date of these 
resolutions is' 8th April 1846. The old building had become utterly 
unfit for its purpose. The committee were eager enough to replace 
it, and the forces behind them worked, they thought, much too 
slowly. In January 1848 they resolved "that an injury will be 
inflicted upon the institution by delaying the expected erection, and 
they strongly urge the General Building Committee to hasten its 
completion." Conference, however, was more cautious; the new 
school was not to be begim till jQ2>ooo was raised. Against this 
decision the committee petitioned in vain. It was not till Thursday, 
20th June 1849, t^^t Mr. James Heald, M.P., laid the foundation 
stone of the new school, and not till October 1852 that the formal 
opening took place. It was, however, in September 1851 that the 
young pilgrims entered on the land of promise, and the Annual 
Report of 185 1 bids the committee's farewell to their old home. 
"For more than a century the building in which they now hold 
their meetings has been devoted to the religious education of our 
youth. The associations connected with its Founder and the early 
Methodist preachers, and the moral results that have followed the 
training enjoyed within its walls, cannot fail to be viewed with 
peculiar interest." 

It may be convenient to conclude this chapter with a rapid survey 
of the general financial position as it varied from time to time. 

In 1 81 6 the income from all sources was ;£^6o99, 2s. iijd., and 
the expenditure ;^49S9, 17s. 4id., leaving a balance in hand of 
£^^Z9y 5s. 7d. In 1818 the income is ;;^528i, os. 3d., and the 
expenditure ^6079, 5s. iid. This marks a turning-point. Up to 
that time all was comparatively well ; now difficulty and embarrass- 
ment b^n. There is a falling off in the subscriptions and 
collections of more than ;^900 ; on the other hand, the ordinary 
expenses of the two schools increased by about £,2 50. The home 
allowances were more by about ;^3oo, and there was an extra- 
ordinary outlay of nearly ;^6oo for the enlargement of Kingswood. 
To meet the deficiency of nearly ;;^8oo, the treasurer borrowed 
;fiiio "from various friends," to be repaid on ist December 181 8. 
Part of these loans was to be repaid by Conference borrowing 
;f 600, and the rest out of the annual income. The ;^6oo was to 
meet the cost of enlargement, and remained as a building debt, and 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


therefore disappears from the current account in future. This leaves 
a deficiency of about ;;^2oo on the accounts for i8i 7-18. Next year 
the deficiency is jQ6oo. In 1820 the home allowances were stopped, 
but even then the deficiency was ;^2oo. Had these been paid, the 
balance due to the treasurer would have been over ;^2ooo. Then 
the four-guinea tax was imposed and produced about ;^iooo. At 
the same time collections improved, and the income rose from 
;^5o78 to ;^6893. The home allowances were paid, and there 
remained a balance of ;^376. Next year the balance was ;^86i. 
Then a steady increase in expenditure, due to causes already 
mentioned, produced a steady reduction of the balance, till in 1831 
we find the annual account jQgg2 on the wrong side. Successive 
borrowings had left a considerable debt, the interest on which 
reached at this time jQ^2^. The balance now due to the treasurers 
exceeded ^^5000. By 1837, however, there is a great improvement. 
The cash paid for children at home is more than ;;^iooo less ; the 
debt is handed over to the Centenary Fund; over ;^7oo fell in 
from legacies ; and there remains a balance in hand of ;;^i7i6, 13s. 
4d. By 1847 this has sunk to ;^io88, and in 1848 it is only jQsA^- 
Next year it becomes a deficit of jQ(i22^ ; in 185 1 the balance due to 
the treasurers is ;^i 87 7, los. 2d Comparing this year with 1846, 
when there was a balance in hand of over ;^iooo, we find a 
diminution of subscriptions to the extent of jCl^^y while ministerial 
contributions were slightly increased; the cost of Kingswood is 
nearly the same, that of Woodhouse Grove is ^430 more, and 
the home allowances are greater by ;^824. 

It is said that the worst kind of lies is statistics. Yet, from 
the figures given above, two conclusions seem to be legitimate — 
first, that by far the most serious part of the embarrassments of the 
fund during this period arose from the rapid increase in the number 
of children at home receiving allowances ; and, secondly, that the 
income received from collections and subscriptions by no means 
kept pace with the growth of the Methodist Connexion. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



What knowledge or what art is thine? 

Set out thy stock, thy craft declare. — \V. Cory. 

Some few years ago there was rife a dispute between fathers and 
sons. The fathers held that the attainments of Kingswood boys in 
their days were equal, if not superior, to those of their sons. The 
sons pooh-poohed the idea. It is to be feared that the fathers' 
memories sometimes confused the acquirements of later years with 
those of the years of school. An old boy of the twenties writes : 
" I have had opportunities of inquiry and of examining boys, and I 
do not know that in a single instance I have found any one of them 
in advance of our studies." The age for admission was in those 
days eight, and boys, except extra-year boys, left at fourteen.^ If 
the above statement is true, it is a heavy indictment, and Kingswood 
is behind the times. In every other school of any repute surely the 
standard is higher now than it was early in the century. Has 
Kingswood stagnated ? Let us see. 

* It was in 1808 that Conference resolved " that if any boy shall discover an 
extraordinary genius, he shall be allowed to continue at the school beyond the 
usual period, provided that his parents shall pay such sum as the committee deem 

Occasionally boys were admitted at an earlier age than eight, and, neverthe- 
less, continued till they were fourteen. Hugh Ransom, admitted at the age of six, 
remained from 1821 to 1829. His father died in 1821, and it is probable that he 
»as admitted early for that reason. John Kyte, admitted at seven, dates from 
1803 to 181 1. The same explanation applies here, for the Rev. C. Kyte died in 
1802. But it is impossible to conjecture why in 18 10 James Knox was admitted 
at the age of six and Richard Knox at four. There is no preacher of the name 
in "Hill's Arrangement" among those who "died in the work." Both these 
bo)^ left in 18 16 and went to " a school in Bristol." 

The Conference of 1847 decreed that an extra-year *' without any expense to 
fbeir parents, beyond the common subscription, be granted annually to the boy 
in each school whom the governor, headmaster, and examiners shall judge, on 
account of his proficiency in learning and general good conduct," most suitable. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The school was first examined in classics by Mr. W. G. Horner, 
a former headmaster, in 1815, and in mathematics by Mr. Thomas 
Exley, M.A., in 18 16. Mr. Exley reports that "about fourteen or 
sixteen are ready to begin algebra and geometry ; two have already 
begun algebra." In 181 8 some have plunged into the mysteries 
of simple equations. In 1826 we hear of quadratic equations, 
mensuration, and elementary geometry being reached by some of 
the first class. Between 1839 ^^'^ '^44 ^^ differential calculus 
engrosses some of the upper boys ; a copy of the very elementar>' 
text-book which they used still survives. 

Turn, however, to the classical work, which occupied the greater 
part of the school hours. Mr. Horner, the examiner, not only took 
a keen interest in the school, but was gifted with a strong critical 
faculty and a marked /^«^^a«/ for writing papers and elaborating 
schemes. Hence we have many interesting documents from his 
pen, and even in the drier and more formal reports little oases of 
comment occur to relieve the general tabular dulness. Thus in 
1817 : "I must take the liberty of suggesting to the classical 
master the propriety of repressing a slovenly and injurious practice 
which prevails in all the classes. I mean the pupil who happens to 
be saying his lesson being interrupted by the whispers and hints of 
his class-fellows." Earlier in the year he had remarked (Shade of 
the Founder ! ) on the " chaotic grammars compiled for the use of 
this school." So little satisfied was Mr. Homer with the condition 
of things, that in the end of 18 18 he declined to examine again. 
" As long (he wrote) as the improvement of the boys was apparent, 
or even seemed to be in a hopeful train, I should not only cheerfully 
but tenaciously have continued my visits. Nothing but an opposite 
state of things could induce me to decline the task." 

Unfortunate Mr. Grear, the classical master of the period, resigned 
soon after, and in 1821 Mr. Horner was induced to return to his old 
post. He resigned again in 1823, but was once more persuaded to 
continue. In 1826 he mentions the work presented by the various 

Class I — Lysias' Orations, Greek exercises, Horace's Odes, Cicero*s 
Orations. (R. Moulton added "prosody" and E. Warren 

Class 2 — Homer and Vergil. 

Class 3 — Aftalecta Minora, Ovid, Nepos. 

Class 4 — (No statement.) 

Class 5 — Ccesar, Greek Delectus. 

Class 6— Latin Delectus. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


In 1827 he states that a new Greek class shows little progress. 
In this same year the headmaster, Mr. Shaw, introduced the 
Hamiltonian system for the junior classes, and the committee 
ordered more time to be given to English composition. Next year 
Mr. Homer writes a long and instructive report ; he expresses him- 
self very dissatisfied with the state of the work, and suggests changes 
in the scheme of study. To this report the headmaster (Mr. Shaw) 
sends an elaborate reply. These two documents throw so much 
light on the nature of the school's work at this period that some- 
what lengthy extracts from them seem to be justified. Mr. Horner 
says, "The classical department is at best stationary. . . . The 
higher classes should not only be quite at home in syntax, but 
alive to whatever is interesting in the authors they read ... as well 
as able to translate with ease and propriety, at least, if not with 
elegance. ... I cannot but regard this department as in a critical 
state. ... Of the common grammatical figures given at the end 
of Valpy's Latin Grammar, and without which no Latin poet can 
be understood, they knew nothing. . . . Every particle of Valpy's 
text, examples and all, may be recited three or four times through by 
a little boy of common capacity in his first half-year at school, if one 
of a higher class is allowed to assist him the first time through, by 
translating the examples verbatim^ to aid his apprehension of them, 
and nothing else is given him to commit to memory until he has 
said this grammar three times through." (It is worth noting that 
the gentleman who penned these lines was for nine years a master 
in the school, and for twenty-three years examiner, and exerted 
throughout a powerful influence upon the curriculum.) " As soon 
as he has learned the * Special Rules ' the first time, it would be 
well for him to begin declining, and giving the rules for gender, etc., 
in the first part of Valpy's vocabulary, alternating this with the 
second part as soon as the four conjugations are once learned. After 
this third course through he may vary the scenes with lessons in 
geography, history, etc. . . . Young sanguine teachers and persons 
inexperienced in teaching, I know, will not readily be persuaded 
but that a little boy would find as much tiresome uniformity in this 
process as their own feelings apprehend from the idea of it ; but this 
is a mistake altogether. Every successive page of a grammar offers 
new ideas to a child in his first course through it " (most of the 
grammars of those days offered a child no ideas whatever), " and 
before that course is ended, the sense of proficiency will be added 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


to the excitement of novelty, unless his progress is delayed and his 
ideas confused by learning other tasks." (Apparently the unhappy 
boy's first year at school is to be entirely devoted to learning Latin 
grammar by heart. What follows is still more startling.) " The use 
of Valpy's Latin Grammar on the plan here recommended entirely 
supersedes the direct study of English grammar " (this is truly to 
approach the known from the unknown), " so much so, that in my 
deliberate judgment it is little less than a criminal waste of time to 
set a child to commit to memory a single page of Murray." (This 
may be true, for quite other reasons than Mr. Horner thought of.) 
" It is w^ell for a class in their last year at school to read a good part 
of Murray's large grammar and exercises, if it were only to make 
them feel that they stand on as high ground as the author himself." 
(The charge has been from time to time levelled at Kingswood that 
the chief characteristic of the men it turns out is conceit. If this 
be true, here surely is the sowing of the seed. Was this report 
communicated to the boys in their last year ?) " I earnestly trust 
that the present committee are not wavering towards any inclination 
to deviate from the principle recognised by former committees, \\z. 
that this is essentially a classical school. . . . All mere classical 
schools, and all commercial schools which throw in the classics by 
way of a lure, equally affect to follow the Eton system ; which never 
was designed to harmonise with an enlarged system of education, 
and, generally speaking, never can." (Mr. Horner does not mean 
to be satirical ; he does not approve of " an enlarged system of edu- 
cation.") " It is morally impossible that six years can be profitably 
devoted to a theoretical preparation for commercial life ; the rising 
generation of commercial men themselves must attain some degree 
of sdiolarship, or be outstripped by the multitude of scientific 
mechanics. ... Of two pupils of equal abilities in a school where 
both departments are cultivated, if one give his whole time to 
English and arithmetic, and the other give the principal portion of 
his time every day to the classics, the latter will gain a sounder ac- 
quaintance with English and arithmetic- in the remaining fraction of 
his time than the former in the whole. Commercial studies terminate 
in the concerns of life ; the learned languages are naturally allied to 
the revelation of the life to come. I appeal to the committee 
whether the only direct literary institution in the Methodist 
system should cease to be literary, and in such times too as we 
live in. I have ventured into this . . . having been informed 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


that Latin and English are the work of alternate days in each 

How simple was the problem to our forefathers before the 
modem multitude of school subjects had sprung into being, and 
before every unfortunate guest at the educational banquet was ex- 
pected to have a bit of everything on the table — that is, the time- 
table. With regard to the type of school Kingswood was to be, the 
committee reply that they have no discretionary power, and that 
the school is committed to their charge on the principle that 
English education is to be regarded equally with classical education. 
Mr. Edmund Shaw, the headmaster, tabulates very carefully the 
classical work done in each part of the school, and compares it with 
the work done two years before. It will suffice to summarise the 
condition at this date, January 1828. The senior division spend 
26i hours in classics and 21 in English, the junior division 22^ 
hours in classics and 25 in English weekly. This gives an average 
of nearly eight hours' work a day. But possibly it includes prepara- 
tion periods. The work of the first class ^ (there were nine classes in 
all) was as follows : Since October 1826 — Sallust, Catiline and part 
oijugurtha ; Vergil, /Eneidy part of ii., also iii. and iv. ; Homer, 
lUady part of ii., also iii. and iv. ; Cicero, in Cacilium ; Dalzel's 
Anaiecia Majora \ some Herodotus and Thucydides ; Recueils choisis 
to page 112, LAmi des Enfans to page 143. French was begun in 
ckss 5, and Greek in class 7. Only three boys, Mr. Shaw points 
out, were over four years' standing, and the maximum age was 
15. On the other hand, the time given to classics was much 
greater than now, and there was only one month's holiday in 
the year. Here seem to be sufficient data, except a knowledge 
of the students' proficiency in their work, for a comparison with 
modem times, a comparison which it is not necessary to make 

It will interest us to see what Mr. Horner had to say after his next 
examination of the school later in the year. Apparently his sug- 
gestions had been largely carried out, or he imagined they had, for 
he writes : " The result of this examination has amply verified the 
prognostic made twelve months ago concerning the restorative effi- 
cacy of that familiarity with the rules of Latin grammar which is 
now habitual to the Kingswood scholars." 

' This class was always very small, and usually consisted only of two or three 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Mr. Horner refers to Wesley's rules for scholastic arrangement 
and moral discipline. The latter, he says, were "theoretical or 
swayed by partiality for models unsuitable to English constitutions." 
The former were as follows : — 

1. In the two lowest classes a short course of English 

2. No more English grammar ; but " Lowth " to be read in the 
first year of the academical course. 

3. Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, every day in every class, except 
the lowest. 

4. Arithmetic in the middle classes. 

These four principles, Mr. Horner declares, are not to be 
bettered except in small details. What then has become of his 
idea of Valpy superseding English grammar ? 

After this comes, for a time, peace. Mr. Horner, who must 
have been a terror to the masters, is pacified, and, except for a 
passing allusion to " indiscriminate mutual suggestion " in the lower 
classes, his reports are commendatory.^ However, he has other 
ways of harassing the unhappy usher, and in 1830 he suggests that 
the junior masters should give occasional specimens of their literary 
talent ! Nor is this all, for the committee also take them in 
hand, and require their attendance at the quarterly meetings of 
that body, that they may be questioned on the state of their 
work. This rule, however, was in force only from June to 
October 1833. 

In 1835 an important discussion arose with regard to the age of 
the boys. It was proposed to raise the age of entry from eight to ten. 
At the same time the six years were to be reduced to five. The 
examiners were consulted. Mr. Exley suggests, having an eye to 
those boys who were to enter mercantile life as apprentices, that 
the choice of either age might be left to individual parents. Mr. 
Horner's ready pen eagerly seizes the opportunity to write at great 
length. "Many years ago" (he says) "a proposal was on my 
suggestion advocated by Messrs. Wood and Reece, and acceded 
to by Conference, according to which boys of superior merit and 
proficiency were allowed to remain a year after the expiration 
of the usual time." He is of opinion that the case will be 
sufficiently met by a liberal interpretation of this regulation. 
* In 1833 Mr. Horner complains of the misuse of the letter *' h " ! 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Here is a table which he draws up of the ninety-eight boys then 
at the school : — 

Age at Entry :— 1 9 



12 13 

The first ten boys . . ,' 6 



The 2nd 

1 8 



The 3rd „ 

! 2 



The 4th 





The 5th 






The 6th 



The 7th „ 





The 8th ,, 

, 5 


The 9th 

1 6 



The last eight boys . . i 




Total j 38 





Average age at admission 9 ^V- 

Of the first twenty boys only one came when over ten years of 
age, and he is the last of the twenty. Of eleven boys who came 
when over eleven years of age not one appears to have a chance 
of reaching the second class. Of the fourteen boys at the head of 
the last examination the average age was i3tV, the average age of 
admission 8y%, the average standing 4y\. 

The object of the proposed reduction from six years to five was to 
make it possible to admit a larger number of boys to a share in the 
advantages of the school ; by this means, one in six of the sons of 
the preachers was to be saved from exclusion. Mr. Horner asks : 
" If this adjustment exactly meets the present occasion, how many 
years must elapse ere an equal pressure is felt and demands a fresh 
sacrifice ? In other words, in how many years will the preachers' 
children of a given age be as six to fivQ compared with their present 
number ? And as the preachers are all encouraged to marry, and as 
the number of preachers is regulated by that of their numbers in 
Society, which on the average of the last twenty years has advanced 
in the compound ratio of about three per cent, yearly in Great Britain, 
it will appear that between six and seven years at the utmost will 
suffice." This reasoning was fatal, and the idea was dropped. " Any 
alteration," the committee resolved, "in the term of education 
would be prejudicial." 

In 1808 we hear of money spent on repairs to an electrical 
machine and an air pump, and 18 14 a telescope was purchased for 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


eleven guineas. In 1836 the committee make a grant oi J[^2^ for 
philosophical instruments, and ;^2o is spent next year on another 
telescope.^ In the same year they also deem it important that 
special attention should be paid to commercial education. 

An important educational truth was realized by the headmaster 
in 1837, which has not always been so fully recognized since. With 
the consent of the committee, the time-table was so arranged that 
the juniors should not work for as long hours as the seniors. This 
system, sound in itself, had an additional value, inasmuch as the 
masters who taught the junior forms were themselves but youths, 
and required leisure in which to prosecute their own studies. 

In 1837 Mr. Horner died, and the influence of his remarkable 
personality was thus removed. 

It may be convenient here to record the names of the examiners 
of this period : — 


Mr. T. Exley, M.A., 1815-49. 
Rev. J. Crowther, 1850-55. 


Mr. W. G. Homer, 1815-37. 

Mr. Fras. W. Newman, M.A.,* 1837- 

Rev. J. E. Bromby,' 1838 (with Mr. 

Dr. Alfred Day, 1841. 
Rev. T. Galland, M.A., 1842. 
Dr. J. Hawksworth,* 1843-46. 
Rev. J. Crowther, 1847-55. 

Mr. Horner, as examiner, is described by those who remember 
him as " a very stern man." Of Mr. Exley the story is different. 
" He was a fine old gentleman, and a profound mathematician. He 
used to walk into the school, clad in a swallow-tail coat, his face 
beaming with good humour, and the tails of his coat bulging with 
examination papers." He had "a thin, wasted frame," and was 
known as "Digits."^ Another describes him as a "tall, stately, 
slim, kind old gentleman, whose very smile was contagious." He 


^ Probably the one sold to Mr. T. G. Osbom in 1890. The one in use at the 
school now was brought from the Grove, to which it had been presented by Mr. 
J. T. Slugg, F.R. A.S. There was an old and decrepit Naime Electrical Machine 
existing in 1890, which was called "Mr. Wesley's," and was perhaps the one 
repaired in 1808. 

* Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, 1826-30 ; classical tutor of Bristol 
College, 1833-40. Brother of Cardinal Newman ; d, 1897. 

' Vice- Principal of Bristol College. 

* Master of Queen Elizabeth's Hospital, Bristol. 

* From a stock question of his. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


hardly exhibited the judicial ways of a modern examiner, for he 
was "always ready to help, or explain some of the more difficult 

Of the other examiners less need be said. Dr. Hawksivorth had 
more radical notions than his great predecessor as to the proper way 
of teaching classics. " The task of getting rules by heart out of a 
book is a depressing, and in most cases a useless drudgery." He 
recommended the use of standard translations for the top boys, and 
for the juniors the study of English as preparatory to a foreign 

Writing and divinity were subjects which much exercised the 
minds of the committee. So far back as 1 8 1 3 the order was made 
thai each boy should write one line a week for the committee's 
inspection. In the end of 1837 a sub-committee recommended 
"more time and better quills," and the two hours a week hitherto 
devoted to this pursuit were doubled. It is not, however, till 1 843 
that we hear of "gratifying improvement." In October 1837 it was 
arranged that a monthly divinity lecture should be given by one 
of the circuit ministers. This was declared to be unnecessary in 
the following April. The knowledge of the Catechism was found 
defective, and in 1842 the committee drew up an elaborate scheme 
of instruction in divinity. The evidences, doctrines, and duties of 
Christianity were to form an integral part of the curriculum ; Bloom- 
field's Greek Testament^ Wesley's Sermons^ Watts' Scripture History^ 
and The Manners and Customs of the Jews^ were added to the 
school class-books ; at least half a day every week was to be devoted 
to religious instruction, for which the headmaster was made 
responsible. In 1844 one of Mr. Griffith's science lectures was 
taken from him and turned into a Catechism lesson. A year later a 
sub-committee on the subject reported that some boys had not a 
Bible in their possession. Each boy was henceforth required to 
om a Bible, and, in addition. Bibles were provided as class-books. 
In January 1848 an important step was taken ^ in the appointment 
of two ministers to examine the school regularly (at first twice a 
year) in divinity. The first pair were the Rev. T. Martin and the 
Rev. J. MacLean. 

From 1845 to 1850 the system of instruction was as follows. 

* Not alwiiys with the best results. Many of the ministers were quite inex- 
P«icnced in this kind of work. There was one who insisted on hearing each boy 
repeat the whole Catechism ! 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The school was divided into six classes, each nominally consisting 
of two divisions; rank in the senior school was determined and 
promotions were granted quarterly. The headmaster (the Rev. S. 
Jones) states in his report of 1 848 that rank was mainly influenced 
by classics and mathematics. In that year there were one hundred 
and two boys in the school. The first division contained thirteen, of 
whom three formed the first class. Of these three, one (W. Davies) 
read Prometheus Vinctus^ (Edipus lyrannus^ the First Oiynthtac^ 
and the first book of Thucydides, in Greek ; and, in Latin, Terence's 
Heauton Timoroumenon^ Horace's Ars Poetica^ Tacitus' Germama^ 
and Cicero's Pro Archia. He also wrote verses in both languages. 
The other two (T. Davies and J. Lowthian) read Euripides, 
Demosthenes, Terence, and Juvenal. The second class were 
occupied with Homer, Herodotus, Horace, and Cicero. In mathe- 
matics the scope of the first division was six books of Euclid, algebra 
to quadratic equations, some trigonometry, and mensuration. Add 
also the Bible, the Second Catechism and Greek Testament, Greek 
and Roman history, general geography, and English composition. 
French and lectures on science also occupied some part of their 
time. German and Hebrew were taught somewhat extensively ; in 
1846 we find the first six classes learning Hebrew, and the first 
seven German. 

We may here add a summary of the same course looked at from 
the other side ; the above statement is from the headmaster's report, 
the following from the testimony of one of his pupils (1846-51) : — 

Prizes were for classics, mathematics, and general proficiency. ... In 
my time we were not " brought up on Caesar," but Eutropius took its place. 
... In the last year we read, or had lessons in, Euripides {MecUa), Homer 
{Iliad), and Herodotus, Juvenal, Horace, and Cicero. We were thoroughly 
familiar with the text of the first six books of Euclid. Be it always remembered 
that fourteen was the age limit in those days. . . . Hence memory was more 
prominent than is desirable in later years. Hence, too, we might have been 
weaker in corollaries, riders, and the various mental athletics which characterize 
older .students. . . . We did some conies and portions of the differential calculus. 
The several branches of natural philosophy we did not touch. ... In religious 
knowledge the first division could repeat the Second Catechism literatiniy and 
give almost as exactly the Third. Paley's Evidences were more nebular, and 
Butler's Analogy might have been called "guesses at truth." . . . French was 
weak, rather ungrammatical than grammatical, and with no further pretensions. 
Writing reminds one of Anthony Farindin, who was a "painefuU pastour." Our 
bookkeeping was strictly mechanical. We had occasional lectures in chemistry 
and electricity, but they should rather be relegated to our amusements. ... I once 
heard a lecture on botany by a peripatetic. History, geography, and English 
were indifferently done — not badly learned, but perfunctorily taugnt. 

Drawing is recognized as early as 181 2, when it is supplied to 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


boys with a taste for it at a charge of a guinea annually, and a 
Mr. Stevens is appointed drawing master. What scientific teaching 
there was manifested itself almost entirely in the form of lectures. 
There was a certain amount of apparatus provided from time to 
time, and in 1820 an order made that scientific lectures shall be 
given. At a later period Mr. Griffith entered very enthusiastically 
into this part of the work, and acquiesced with great unwillingness in 
an order of the committee to give up one of his lectures to divinity 
work. Mr. Sibly must also be mentioned as having done good 
work in this direction. 

There exists a catalogue of a school museum, dated 1837 ; this 
is remarkable more for the extraordinary excellence of its decorative 
penmanship than for the fulness of its pages. It consists of little 
more than elaborate headlines, and chronicles the possession of a 
hundred and eleven objects, some apparently of considerable interest, 
such as an edition of Ovid, bearing the autograph of George Crabbe ; 
others of less value, such as a cinder from the Duke of Newcastle's 
palace ; others again of doubtful authenticity, as a jawbone belong- 
ing to one of the crew of the Armada, and a brick made by the 
Israelites in Egypt. 

Physical education of course was unknown — here as elsewhere. 
The nearest approach to it is a resolution of the committee to the 
effect that " we deem it very desirable to have the assistance of a 
pious soldier to instruct the boys in walking" (1825). This is 
before the era of gymnasiums and anthropometry. It may also be 
mentioned that in the forties a good many boys studied shorthand 
by the aid of correspondence with Mr. (afterwards Sir Isaac) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Shall I mar 
By stress of disciplinal craft 
The joys that in your freedom are? — W. Cory. 

From 1807 to 1809 the classical 

master, Mr. Wragge, acted as 

4.S ^ f ^^^p.^^rP^B governor. The circuit preacher, 

Mj^K *y' '^ ^jKiJaH however, had some voice. In the 

^^F -Tfc_ fP^ "stations" of 1808 the Rev. James 

^ tL ^^* t ■ y^ Wood is superintendent of the 

J Kingswood Circuit, and a note is 

^^L " added : " The Conference consider 

^I^^^^L A ;j the appointment of their president 

i^^^^^HV^ ^M ■ % ^ third year for this circuit as highly 

I^B^^^^* l^.v ^^ expedient for the interests of Kings- 

l^r / wood School— so expedient as to be 

^^^V considered an exempt case, and 

^^^^ p • ^' . y iy I sufficient to justify their deviation 

from their important law in respect of 
the two years' stations." In 1809 it 
was decided that the superintendent 
of the circuit should live on the premises, and the Circuit rented from 
the school a house adjoining the chapel for his use. The first to 
occupy this position was the Rev. Thomas Pinder.* A garden was 
allotted to him, and upon him was laid the duty of ordering the 
provisions for the school. In 181 1 he was succeeded by the Rev. 
Joseph VVomersley,- and he in 181 2 by the Rev. Thomas Stanley.^ 


' Entered the ministry 1799; ^^^*^ 1835. 

2 Entered the ministry 1804; died 1851. 

^ Entered the ministry' 1795 ; die<l 1832. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



In this last year, in response to the request of the Circuit, conveyed 
in "a very good and respectful letter," the Rev. D. Jackson, jun., 
another circuit minister, was permitted to live at the school. In 
1813 ^^s system came to an end. "It is the unanimous opinion 
of the committee that a preacher and his wife be stationed over 
this school, and to be the governor and governess of this institu- 
tion." In spite of the curious structure of this sentence, the 
intention is clear. In addition to the governor, however, it happens 
at various times that one or more of the masters are in the ministry, 
and their names appear in the "stations." Thus in 1809 we have 
the name of Thomas Edwards, in 1820 John Lomas and William 
Entwistle, in 1823 Jonathan Crowther, in 1832 W. P. Burgess, and 
from 1845 to 1850 Samuel Jones. 

In 181 3 the Rev. Robert 
Johnson became governor of 
Kingswood School. The system 
of dual government may then be 
said to have begun. In the early 
days of Methodism the line of 
demarcation between preachers and 
lay folk was vague. The first 
governor, so-called, is Joseph Brad- 
ford (1795-1802); he was followed 
by John Pritchard (1802-1807). 
These gentlemen were evidently 
meant to succeed to the relations 
which John Wesley had with the 
sdiool. The former was also, at 
any rate for part of his time, one 
of the Bristol Circuit ministers. 
In 1807 the classical master has 
arrangements, and it is not till 1813 that we get an approxi- 
mation to two co-ordinate authorities in the establishment. 
Indeed it is hardly correct to say that anything like co-ordina- 
tion b^an till late in the thirties, though the title of head- 
master occurs in the "Rules for Masters" of 1827. Co-ordination, 
as a matter of fact, rather existed between the classical master and 
the mathematical master, or the classical master and the English 
master. Co-ordination between governor and. headmaster was 
explicitly denied by the committee as late as i860. 


charge of the domestic 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The Rev. Robert Johnson entered the ministry in 1783, was 
governor of Kingswood from 1813 to 1820, and died in 1829. " He 
was of a kind and gentle disposition ; cheerful, instructive, and 
pious in conversation ; diffusing something of that happiness around 
him which he enjoyed so largely himself."^ He was the first to 
bear the nickname of " Daddy." 

Mr. William Wragge was classical master from 1807 to 18 16, 
acting also as governor for the first two of those years. In 1810 he 
was required to rent a house for himself in the neighbourhood, and 
received a salary of ;^iSo. He dined at the school. This gentle- 
man, though serving the school for a somewhat lengthy period, 
found his usefulness continually hampered by pecuniary difficulties. 
He received a loan of j[^^o for furniture in 18 10, and again of ^^15 
in 181 2, and of ;^35 in 1813, "to keep him from sinking under a 
pressure of debt." He was warned that this could not go on, and 
for some timfe he appears to have been more circumspect. In 
September 1813 he received ;^2o per annum in lieu of board, on 
condition that this sum went to the payment of hife debt. Eventu- 
ally, however, his fall came from another direction. In 181 6 
" certain accusations charging Mr. Wragge with severity in correct- 
ing some of the boys " were held to be proved, and he received three 
months' notice. Had the committee dismissed him summarily by 
paying his salary in advance, they, as the sequel shows, would have 
better secured the school's interests. In April 1816 a strong com- 
ment is recorded in the committee's minutes. "Mr. Wragge, 
during the last months of his stay, has greatly neglected the 
school, and in March last left it entirely, under very disgraceful 

No doubt Mr. Wragge's shortcomings formed no small part of 
the considerations which led to the appointment of a governor in 
1813. It was in 181 5 that regular examinations were instituted, 
and in 181 3 that the school had been divided into classes. These 
steps, coupled with the departure of an unsatisfactory master, 
gradually bore fruit in a more regular and systematic management 
of the school. The chaos of instruction when some fifty boys were 
taught en masse^ as appears to have been the case before 18 13, 
must have been very great. 

The Rev. John Lomas became, in 181 3, a junior assistant at 
a salary of sixteen guineas. When Mr. Wragge left, the committee, 
* Minutes of Conference, 1829. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




having r^ard to Mr. Lomas' " genuine piety, universal good conduct 

in the school, and his steadiness and attention to every excellent 

mode of managing the scholars," at 

once turned their eyes upon him 

as a possible successor to Mr. 

Wragge. It can hardly be rash 

to conjecture, that, under the dis- 
advantages of the last three years, 

the presence and influence of so 

conscientious a master had gone 

far to prevent utter decay and 

possibly ruin. 

The committee, with a view to 

leam Mr. Lomas' fitness for the 

post of classical master, ordered him 

to be examined \ The examiners 

were the Rev. Dr. Clarke, the Rev. 

J. Benson, and Mr. Homer. 

Apparently, Mr. Lomas was 

plucked ! At any rate, it was Mr. 

William Grcar who, also after examination, succeeded to the 

post of classical master in 1817, Mr. Lomas acting as temporary 

head during the interval. Mr. Grear, unfortunately, was another 
failure. He sufiered, we are told, from " nervous debility," and had 
little control over the boys. It was during his reign that Mr. 

Homer in disgust resigned his examinership. 

Mr. Grear was subsequently headmaster of the Grove for six- 
teen years (i 838-54). " He was both a gentleman and a Christian. 
He was a good classic within a moderate range, . . . with great 
enthusiasm as a teacher." He resigned his post at Kings wood in 
1819, and by this time Mr. Lomas's attainments had apparently 
become sufficient to permit of his succession to the vacant post. 
He was therefore appointed in 18 19, at a salary of ;^8o, and 
held office till 1823. During the last two of these years his name 
appears in the " Stations." He has been described as " an universal 
favourite, an admirable scholar, and, if not a strict disciplinarian, 
one who allowed no liberties to be taken with his authority." An 
amusing story is told in connection with his departure. On the 
occasion of his last appearance in the Kings wood Chapel, the choir, 
which was a circuit and not a school institution, performed a 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



farewell anthem ! The recurring refrain, " Farewell, Loraas," must 
have been peculiarly embarrassing to its object, as he stood in the 
pulpit, facing the boys of the school ! How the boys must have 
enjoyed it ! and how entirely it must have dissipated any solemn 
feelings which may have been aroused by the last sermon of their 
popular ruler ! The Annual Report of 1820 records an " improve- 
ment in morals and deportment," and that of 182 1 is absolutely 
glowing : " The masters appear to take pleasure in their work, and 
rule the boys in love ; the boys seem .highly satisfied with their 
teachers " (this reverses the usual way of looking at it), " and every- 
thing goes on sweetly and harmoniously." In 1822 we hear of 
frequent applications of schoolmasters in various parts of the 
country for Kingswood boys as their assistants. The period of Mr. 
I-romas's mastership must be ranked as one of the most successful in 
the school's history, and his credit for this must also be shared with 
his assistant, the Rev. Wm. Entwistle (1813 to 1823). 

The Rev. Robert Smith was 
governor for no less than twenty- 
three years, from 1820 to 1843, 
and, inheriting the nickname of 
"Daddy "from his predecessor, by 
its peculiar appropriateness to him- 
self fixed it for seventy years as 
the traditional and time-honoured 
title of successive governors. Surely 
many a worse sobriquet might have 
been invented; there hangs round 
it an aroma of paternal kindness 
and affectionate care that must, one 
would think, have made the name 
dear to its possessors, and was 
often the half-playful token of 
a real warmth of regard on 
the part of those who bestowed 
it.^ Mr. Smith, in the earlier part of his office at least, was 
in many ways well fitted for the post. Increasing years and 
ill-health made his sway less successful towards its close. He 

* The title is said to be dead now ; the Rev. J. H. Lord was the last 
** Daddy." It may be added that the title of ** Dame" was similarly bestowed 
on the governor's wife. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


was appointed in the first instance, according to rule, for six years. 
At the end of that time the committee recommended and secured 
his appointment for a second term, this time of four years, this 
making the maximum period which the Conference regulation 
allowed. At the end of the ninth year the committee regret " that 
if the rule ... be carried into effect, this institution must be 
deprived of the very invaluable and judicious superintendence of 
the present governor and governess." The Conference consents to 
suspend the rule. 

In 1836 a serious fall caused a long and severe illness, and from 
that time the grasp of the governor upon the rojns of government 
seems to have weakened. Discipline became less exact, and this 
caused considerable anxiety to the committee. In addition, the 
relations between the governor and headmaster and the other 
masters became somewhat strained. Early in 1842 Mr. Smith felt 
the uncertainty of his health and the weight of his years (he was 
bom in 1769), and sent in his resignation. The committee, how- 
ever, pressed unwisely for his reappointment, and it was not till 1843, 
when he was partly paralysed and his speech affected, that he 
finally relinquished his office; he coupled his resignation with a 
request that he might be allowed to occupy the old headmaster's 
house, which stood vacant. The committee recommended that 
this request should be granted, and that the rent be nominal. This, 
however, the Conference, somewhat churlishly it seems, refused to 

Mr. Smith was of patriarchal appearance and vast perimeter. 
He possessed a genial countenance and a considerable gift of song. 
His kindly disposition has endeared him to many an old boy. On 
his retirement, the boys subscribed to present him with some silver 
article as a token of their esteem, the presentation being made by 
the Rev. T. Trethewey, then first boy. Mr. Smith died in 1847, 
and his character is described as " marked by great simplicity and 
spirituality." His wife, ** Dame " Smith, who survived him eleven 
years, was the living embodiment of neatness : she lacked, perhaps, 
the personal dignity befitting the wife of the head of so large an 
establishment, but her attention to the cares of housekeeping was 
thorough and unremitting. One who remembers her says — 

Her horror at any misbehaviour of the boys in regard to the property of the 
«hool was one of the features of the place. The lads often tried for fun, from 
the bedroom windows overlooking the garden, how far their nightcaps would be 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



blown — every one wore nightcaps in those davs. When recovered from the trees 
and cabbages of the garden, Dame's invariaole exclamation came dolefully ring- 
ing out, "Oh, these wicked lads ! they'll ruin the institution ! " 

Another writes — 

The Rev. Robert Smith, our corpulent governor and chaplain, did not often 
wield the bamboo. Griffith, who became his son-in-law, enforced discipline for 
him in flagrant instances. But there were critical occasions when double-chinned 
Daddy deemed it necessary to exhibit the law in his own fat hand. It was a 
si^ht to see. Being heavily weighted anteriorly, he first steadied his greatness 
with care in the aisle, and then struck backwards upon the desk-hoisted victim 
and breathed hard. . . . Neither Mr. nor Mrs. Smith said much to the boys 
individually. My lot was to have only one conversation with the elect lady. 
As I happened to be passing the end of the open yard at the top of the play- 
ground, she chanced to come from the rear of the house to the same border-line. 
**Have you stolen my butter?" she wildly exclaimed. "No!" I answered, 
blushing, no doubt, as was my wont in the most innocent circumstances, and 
feeling very indignant. She shouted, ** You diabolical bad boy, your countenance 
betrays you," and wasted upon me a torrent of boiling vituperation. . . . 

When in my turn, for the first time, I had stood in the middle of the hall or 
refectory and read the chapter at family worship, he (the governor) remarked, as 
I passed near hiiu, ** You read very well, Ed'ard, only too loud." And when the 
hoiisehold were singing grace before or after meat, and I was standing close to 
his elbow, he commanded, ** Ed'ard, sing up." 

The Rev. Jonathan Crowther was born in 1795. ^^ ^^ ^ 
boy at Kingswood from 1803 to 1809 ; in 18 13 he became a 

master at Woodhouse Grove, and 
in 1816 headmaster; he held 
this position only for a few 
months. In 1823 he entered the 
ministry, and was appointed to 
the headmastership of Kingswood, 
receiving the same stipend as 
the Bristol ministers. With him 
came the rod of iron, fear, indig- 
nation, and finally rebellion. He 
inaugurated a system of " harsh and 
cruel treatment" (says one of 
his pupils) "which turned boys 
into devils, and made school a 
prison-house." "I -have only to 
say," he remarked, as he took his 
seat for the first time at the head- 
master's desk, "that I insist on 
perfect order, and the first boy who disobeys will be flogged." 
That and that only was his opening speech. The opportunity 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


came, and Mr. Crowther was as good as his word. Then arose 
revolt. The headmaster was hooted and his windows broken ; the 
boys refused to come into school; Mr. Moulton, one of the 
masters, was stoned in the playground; finally Mr. Crowther 
capitulated and undertook to confine his castigatory efforts to the 
juniors. The compromise does not reflect much credit on either 
side ; nor did it, nor could it last long. Yet the boys never altogether 
submitted. It was an illustration of Mr. Crowther's inflexibility 
when, not being able to discover the culprit in some offence, he 
ordered all but the youngest boys to be kept in continuously till 
discovery was made; this punishment was persisted in for nearly 
a month! But the boys also showed a capacity for confederate 
resistance, such as we expect to hear of only in the pleasing pages 
of TJu Boys of England or similar publications ; it is a feature at 
any rate unknown to the happier relationships of to-day. It 
implied not only a month's persistence on the part of the head- 
master, but also a month's resistance on the part of the boys. 
The culprit was never discovered. At another time a "barring 
out" took place. The boys smuggled provisions into the school- 
room, and then barricaded themselves in for some days. What 
happened in the end, history does not say. Probably somebody 
was flogged. On another occasion a boy, afterwards in the 
ministry, appeared at morning school with a red and swollen face ; 
it was the beginning of erysipelas ; his strange aspect caused some 
merriment among his classmates. This was disorder; down 
swooped the headmaster, and the boy was flogged there and then 
for causing a disturbance ! Then he was taken to the sickroom. 
" When the nurse and Mrs. Smith and her daughters heard it, they 
all wept" Can we wonder ? 

On a subsequent occasion the same boy, stumbling in his 
Caesar, and at last goaded to rudeness by Mr. Crowther's taunts, 
was seized and flung across a desk, and so beaten that for several 
days he could hardly walk or sit. This was the headmaster's 
proudest effort, and he never forgot it. Some dozen years later, 
when he saw his victim's name appear in the " Stations " for the first 
time, " Ah ! " he remarked, " I gave that young gentleman as fine 
a flogging as any boy at school ever received, and one that I 
have no doubt he will remember to the very end of his days." 

It is pleasing to know that not all spirits were broken and 
hearts cowed under this regime. ** Charlie, I'll give you a penny 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


if you*ll go up to his desk and offer to fight him,'* was the offer 
made to one merry young bundle of mischief. The offer was 
accepted. It must have been a glorious sight to see this small 
boy dancing with doubled fists before the tyrant's desk and 
entreating him to "come on." When amazement permitted, he 
came on, and his defier was soundly flogged. But was it not 
worth it? 

Where was the governor, one may ask, when all these scenes 
were being enacted? He, good, easy man, knew little of it. 
Treating the boys himself wuth unvarying kindness, and with no 
partiality or favouritism, he never realized the mischief that was 
being wrought a few yards away. Boys, he knew, must be flogged 
sometimes, but he did not understand boy-nature well enough to 
know how deeply it may be injured by cruelty or injustice. Mr. 
Crowther's reign was a short one, however. In 1826 economy 
suggested a rearrangement of the staff: "The two under-masters," 
say the committee, " Messrs. Moulton and Griffith, have now made 
those attainments in the several branches of learning taught in the 
school that the services of either Mr. Crowther or Mr. Shaw could 
be dispensed with, without injury." It was Mr. Crowther who 
went, and the estimated saving in salaries was ;^ioo. 

Mr. Edmund Shaw, educated at the school (181 1 to 18 18), 
became a pupil teacher in 1817, was articled to the governor for 
five years in 1818 at a salary rising gradually from j[^\2 to £,2^y 
became English master in 1823 at ;6*3o, classical master in 1826 
(;^6o-8o), and left at Christmas 1829. He is described by one of 
his pupils as "a lovely character," but also as "ungenial, stiff, and 
formal." His nickname of "Poker" seems to justify the latter 
part of the description. He was an able and accurate scholar, and 
not cruel. It was during Mr. Shaw's three years of sovereignty 
that the controversy arose with Mr. Horner as to the type of study 
to be pursued in the school. The committee ordered that more 
attention should be paid to English composition, and appointed a 
sub-committee to examine in English subjects and writing. This 
naturally demanded a decrease in the hours given to classics ; add 
to this Mr. Shaw's illness for ^\^ months, and it is not surprising 
if the standard of classical attainment somewhat suffered. 

Mr. Samuel Griffith was appointed "Usher" in July 1823 
at a salary of ;^6 per annum. In 1826 he became writing master, 
in 1828 "second master," with a salary of ^40, and in 1830, when 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



twenty-one years of age, succeeded Mr. Shaw as headmaster,^ with 
a salary beginning at ;^6o, to rise in three years gradually to ;£8o. 
In 1832 he resigned on the ground of ill-health, but returned to 
his post a year later. During that short period of absence the 
payment of masters had considerably improved, and on his re- 
appointment Mr. Griffith was engaged on the terms of ;£^i2o 
resident, or, if he married,^ ;£^i5o and a house, this stipend to 
rise by annual increments of ;£io up to ;£2co. In 1838 his 
salary was fixed at ^^250, to rise gradually till it reached ;;^30o. 
In October 1844 he resigned, the committee recording "their 
high estimation of the ability, assiduity, and efficiency with which 
Mr. Samuel Griffith has served this institution during the twenty 
years ending at Christmas 1844." Mr. Griffith was an excellent 
scholar and an admirable teacher ; he was also a headmaster who 
inspired considerable awe among his subjects. " We were terribly 
afraid of the headmaster," writes one of them. Another says — 

His stature was imposing. He was 
said to stand six feet in his stockings, 
and his frame was of faultless propor- 
tions. His ample and swarthy brow was 
crowTied with luxuriant black hair, fas- 
tidiously arranged in glossy curl. His 
features were sharply defined and 
decidedly severe. His eyes were dark 
and penetrating, and when in class they 
flashed under the provocation of a false 
quantity, both guilt and timidity alike 
did quail. His muscular power, in the 
estimation of the boys, many of whom 
had full opportunity of judging, was 
prodigious, for his limbs were those of 
an athlete in full training. Not an ounce 
of superfluous fat impeded their move- 
ments. He was said to be the terror of 
the rafiianly colliers who roamed outside 
the porch in quest of booty. One grimy 
man who £u:ed him in threatening attitude, 
be felled with a blow, to his sudden 
astonishment and great discomfiture ; and 
ho]« in class, who trifled with their work 
or tripped in their translation, or whose 
memories foiled, it may be from sheer 
trepidation, were often sent reeling and staggering from the ranks, and some- 
times exchanged their perpendicular attitude for the ignominious horizontal, 


{circa 1865). 

^The preference shown by the Kingswood committee for young head- 
masters is worth noting. Mr. Homer was nineteen at the time of his appoint- 
ment, Mr. Lomas twenty, Mr. Shaw twenty-three, Mr. Griffith twenty-one, 
Mr. Osbom twenty-three, the present headmaster twenty-five, and Mr. W. J. 
Shera twenty-eight. 

' Mr. Griflith married a daughter of the governor. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


ere well they were aware, and without seeming effort on the part of their 

The testimony of another is more severe in tone, but of the same 
tenour — 

He was not habitually cruel ; but times there were when the lightning burst 
from the threatening clouds and we were aghast at the fate of anv subject of his 
wrath. I am glad to bear witness to his evident wish to create and maintain truth- 
fulness and elevation of tone, and at times there was a directly religious influence 
^which was altogether distinct from cant. But his occasional outbursts of temper 
were frightful, and he seemed to have no judgment as to the weight of his blows 
on their unfortunate victims.* 

On leaving Kingswood Mr. Griffith opened a private school, in 
which he dispensed with corporal punishment. This reversal of his 
ordinary methods, however, did not prove altogether satisfactory. 
" He won his undoubted successes as a first-rate teacher . . . only 
when with Jove-like authority he ruled his trembling little world, or 
with Rhadamanthine severity, but not always with real equity, he 
crushed his victims." A more pleasing picture, borrowed from the 
same source as the foregoing appreciation, ought not to be omitted. 
At intervals, perhaps of a year or two, a certain ill-dressed ne'er- 
do-well would enter the schoolroom, slouch up to the headmaster's 
desk, receive pecuniary aid, and depart. On each such occasion, 
Mr. Griffith would call the school together, " and with a tenderness 
of voice and feeling of which our formidable head might have been 
scarcely suspected, he would tell us of one who had just come and 
gone, but who once sat where we sat, only, alas ! to throw away his 
privileges and become a vagabond and a beggar. Then * Sammy ' 
was to be seen and heard at his best, when addressing us, as though 
we had been little brothers, he melted into gentle, solemn pleadings 
or wanfings, and dismissed us earlier than usual from our work, as 
though that day he felt unequal longer to pursue the wonted 

It is only fair also to add that in 1834 the committee expressed their 
admiration for Mr. Griffith's " mild, but very effective system of 
discipline." Upon his second term of office Mr. Griffith was not 
allowed to enter without a protest. On the resignation of Mr. Burgess 
in 1833 the committee advertised for a headmaster, and a certain 
Mr. Elmes applied for the post. Mr. Griffith then offered his 
services, and the committee accepted them, their chairman, the 

* Ilis nickname was the " Spanish Bloodhound." He was bom at Gibraltar. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Rev. R. Treffry, however, protesting and causing his protest to be 
entered in the minutes. The point of his objection, as there 
recorded, was that, inasmuch as the post had been advertised, Mr. 
Elmes ought at least to have received the justice of an interview 
before a final decision was come to. The criticism seems just ; but 
how often have governing bodies had their eye on their own 
nominee, even while advertising to the world at large ? 

In 1838 the first "outward and visible sign" of strained 
relations, or at least of disputed range of authority, between the 
governor and headmaster, is shown in the suggestion of a sub- 
committee that the headmaster should purchase class books without 
reference to the governor. The fact that the topic was considered 
important enough for reference to a sub-committee suggests hidden 
fires. The committee, however, endeavoured to keep their hands 
oflf this burning subject, and postponed its consideration. We do 
not find it referred to again in so many words, but various indica- 
tions point to a growing influence of the headmaster with the 

In April 1838 his salary is raised by ^^o \ in July he asks for 
and obtains, after a little delay, another classical assistant and (slight 
in itself but involving a principle) permission to buy maps. In 
April of that same year the apparently harmless resolution that the 
prize account should be kept distinct from the general book account 
is followed next January by a direction to the headmaster to buy 
the prizes. The tendency of these regulations is to raise the head- 
master's school-work into a separate and independent department. 
In July 1839 it is decided to build a new headmaster's house. 

In October 1841 a resolution is passed of great importance, in 
^er years to bear much fruit, — "The headmaster is considered to 
be responsible for the discipline during school hours, and should 
he find any diflficulty his appeal shall be made to the governor." 
The first half of this resolution does not say to whom the head- 
niaster is to be responsible ; the intention was, as later events (in 
i860) showed, that the responsibility was to be to the committee ; 
but it is not surprising if the second half of the resolution led 
subsequent governors to suppose that it was to themselves. In 
^843 "Rules for Internal Management " were drawn up, with a note 
that they were •* not to be considered to exempt from obligation to 

^ The headmaster, however, was not yet ex-officio a member of the 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


any other instructions of the governor out of school or of the head- 
master in school." This looks like co-ordination of authority, pure 
and simple. So do the following rules : — " The governor must be 
satisfied that all persons are punctual ; no inmate is to leave the 
premises without his sanction. The headmaster is responsible for 
the good order and internal management of the school. No 
corporal punishment is to be inflicted except under the direction of 
the governor or headmaster." To the rest of these rules we shall 
have to return in other connections. Then came in 1843 ^^ 
appointment of a new governor who did not prove so easy to handle 
as Mr. Smith had been. He obtained from the committee a de- 
claratiori in general terms that all orders for goods were to be given 
by the governor, and all payments made by him. Against this Mr. 
Griffith kicked energetically. The committee, however, stand their 
ground : — 

No provision or expression in the resolutions referred to was designed to 
encroach upon the legitimate rights or official duties of the headmaster, nor do 
they consider that the said resolutions contained anything calculated to give 
offence ; they do, however, sincerely deprecate everythmg which would interrupt 
the harmony of their relations with the headmaster, and most affectionately 
reiterate their high opinion of his private character and of the efficient manner in 
which he has conducted the business of the school ; but, with the utmost anxiety 
to avoid giving pain to any of the parties concerned, the committee feel bound to 
reassert the principle of their former resolutions, viz. that all articles of whatever 
kind needed for the institution must be ordered through the local treasurer and 
paid for by him. 

To perceive the real drift of this resolution, it is necessary to 
remember that the local treasurer was the governor. A compromise 
was reached : from time to time the headmaster should submit a 
list of required books and apparatus to the committee through the 
governor. This was not all that Mr. Griffith wanted, but it gave far 
more power of initiative than his predecessors enjoyed. How^ever, 
the storm is not over. An issue was come to in July 1844, when 
the headmaster consented to consider it his duty to meet the boys 
on Sunday in the governor's absence, and he promised to do his 
best to carry out the wishes of the committee in religious instruction ; 
on the other hand, the governor consented to consult with the head- 
master before granting holidays. The difficulty in the matter of the 
teaching of divinity was connected with the amount of time to be 
given to it. Mr. Griffith thought that the Catechism might be effectu- 
ally taught on Sundays; the committee desired instruction, not 
only in the Catechism but in other specified books, during the week. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



The matter terminated as stated above. However, Mr. Griffith's 
opposition drew from the committee a notable declaration that " it 
shall never be matter of debate whether or not the headmaster or 
any other master shall implicitly submit to the authority of Conference 
or of the committee, and that the governor must be upheld in the 
exercise of his supreme and undoubted authority." This declaration 
became a powerful weapon in the armoury of a later governor. 

Mr. Griffith shortly afterwards resigned, and an interregnum 
in the headmastership lasted from Christmas 1844 till the Con- 
ference of 1845, ^^ R^v. S. Jones temporarily filling the office. 

Mr. Griffith subsequently opened a private school in the old 
monastic buildings at Westbury-on-Trym, near Bristol. 

The Rev. Joseph Cusworth 
entered the ministry in 1807, and 
was governor of Kingswood School 
from 1843 till his death in 1857. 
The minutes of the committee 
"half reveal and half conceal" a 
curious episode in connection with 
his appointment. The nominee 
of the Kingswood committee w^as 
the Rev. D. Walton. But the 
Grove committee at the same 
juncture wanted a governor, and 
ihey took it upon themselves to 
nominate for both schools — the 
Rev. \\\ Lord for the Grove, and 
the Rev. J. Cusworth for Kingswood. 
The Kingswood committee, learn- 
ing this, resolved that they "are 

unanimously and increasingly of opinion that they will best serve 
the interests of the Connexion by strongly urging upon the Con- 
ference the appointment of the Rev. D. Walton." However, the 
Grove secured the election of both their nominees, and Mr. 
Cusworth may be regarded in the light of a sovereign imposed upon 
the State by an external power. It was, nevertheless, not an 
unhappy choice. It is to Mr. Cusworth, as much as to any one 
man, that we owe the new school at Lansdown. His zeal and 
enthusiasm for it were unbounded. He traversed the length and 
breadth of the kingdom begging subscriptions. This, of course, 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


necessitated his frequent absence from the school, and no doubt the 
government somewhat suffered and improvements were delayed. 
But yet much was done to ameliorate the life of the place. The 
clothing system was vastly improved, and everywhere Mr. Cusworth's 
pervading energy swept away abuses that had crept in during the 
time of his predecessor's feebleness of health. He was vigilant, 
decisive, and pertinacious. He was not of a literary bent, and some- 
times gave occasion to scoffers. But he possessed the power of 
vigorous, forceful speech, which made its impression. This reference 
to " Daddy " Cusworth would be incomplete without an allusion to 
his waistcoat, whose size has continued a persistent memory to this 
day. On one occasion, one ^ of these portions of the gubernatorial 
vesture had been surreptitiously borrowed by certain boys, who had 
just succeeded in buttoning three of their number inside it, when 
the rightful owner appeared on the scene. One superhuman heave, 
and the buttons yielded — and the curtain falls on Daddy soius gazing 
in amaze at his buttonless garment.^ 

Mr. Cusworth accompanied the school to its new home, and we 
shall therefore refer to him again. 

The interval between the two headmasterships of Mr. Griffith 
was filled by the Rev. W. P. Burgess, M.A. Mr. Burgess entered 
the ministry in 1814, and died in 1863. He had been both pupil 
and master at the school. His obituary notice in the minutes of 
Conference speaks of his biblical learning, his reserved manner and 
air of abstraction, and his skill in music. Extreme short-sightedness 
militated against his success as a master : " He would think he was 
administering a terrible thrashing when only striking the iron l^s 
of the school furniture." His reign at Kingswood extended from 
the middle of 1832 to June 1833 'y about the latter date a sub-com- 
mittee report that "the boys in the schoolroom appeared to be 
very inattentive, making great noise, and in general disorder." In 
consequence of this report, Mr. Burgess resigned. 

The Rev. Samuel Jones, M.A., was requested in October 1843 
to take the post of mathematical master, which he did. He 
succeeded to the headmastership in 1845. He held this post for 
five years, and till the very end enjoyed the confidence and esteem 
of the committee. Soon after his appointment he addressed to this 
body a letter containing many sensible and workmanlike remarks : 

^ It is said that Mr. Cusworth's favourite hynin at family prayers was — 
"O great mountain, who art thou?" 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


he stated the absolute need for new classrooms and a reading-rooni ; 
and he commented on the roughness and want of polish among the 
boys, which he ascribed to the lack of suitable accommodation out 
of school : he also referred feelingly to certain cases of immorality 
which had necessitated removal. Almost every Annual Report con- 
tains a strong commendation of Mr. Jones' work ; in 1847 the com- 
mittee record their satisfaction that " there is not one vicious boy in 
the school " ; both the manners and the learning of the boys were un- 
doubtedly improving ; Mr. Exley in his report on the mathematics 
in 1847 chronicles an advance "greater than any during the last 
thirty years. Physical punishment " (we read) " is discountenanced 
by the headmaster, and never inflicted but in cases of extreme 
necessity." And again (in the Report of 1848): "Esteem and 
affection are taught more than any attempt to excite fear. The 
reward for good conduct aqd successful effort is the bestowment of 
favour and commendation ; and the dread of frown and censure is 
more terrible than the ebullition of passion or the infliction of the 
nxi." It seemed as if a more civilized and humane regime had 
begun, under which there might be formed a school where boys 
were educated and not driven, and where the entire household 
might learn to consider themselves one united society working for a 
common end. The sequel is therefore the more pitiful. It must 
suffice to say that in December 1849 Mr. Jones was summarily 
dismissed. No wonder that the committee express themselves 
"deeply aflected with sentiments of humiliation and distress." 

It was under these peculiarly diflicult circumstances that Mr. 
Henry McEffer Shera succeeded to the headmastership. Mr. 
Shera came to the school as classical master in 1845, he accompanied 
it to its new dwelling-place, and was the first headmaster in the 
present building. He resigned in 1853. More remains to be said 
about him subsequently. 

We must revert here to some of the masters who occupied 
more subordinate positions during this period. For many years 
a constant supply of teachers was secured by promoting elder 
boys straight from the pupil's bench to the master's desk. 
Sometimes they became pupil teachers, sometimes were articled 
to the governor for a term of years. ^ Their salaries, of course, 

^ About 1848 a rule was made that no one should be appointed to a master- 
ship unless he was of age. This, of course, cut out aU boys at the school. Pupil 
teachers, however, continued till 1873, and nominally much later. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


were ridiculously small, but in most cases were in proportion to 
their attainments. Occasionally there was a brilliant exception, 
but as a rule boys of fifteen were totally unsuited for the posi- 
tion of responsibility into which they were thus thrust. From 
1829 to 1832 the entire staff of six, including the headmaster, 
consisted of men who had thus risen from the ranks, and always 
the proportion of them was large. Their extreme youth made 
it, they thought, necessary for them to preserve their dignity by 
standing apart from their pupils. They were too near in taste and 
ideas to those whom they taught to be able to mix with them at 
once freely and safely. Hence there was no scope for that good 
fellowship and sense of common interests which characterizes the 
relations of masters and boys in schools of to-day. Nor had these 
youths the power to understand either boys' natures and needs or 
their own position. Brutality and tyranny too often seemed to them 
to be strength and good discipline. The boys more easily resented 
unjust, or even just, severity from those so little removed from 
themselves, and perhaps not long ago so well known to them — 
possibly too well known. A parent in 1831 ^vrites to the governor to 
complain that his son " has been kept in for nearly a week together 
and at the pleasure of these young teachers." Whatever the boy's 
character, complaint seems to be justified. And yet it was no 
solitary case. The punishments, says an old boy of 1831-33, were 
" severe, cruel, and often unjust. This was the unhappiest period 
of my life. It was a reign of terror." The testimony for 1839-44 
is similar : " Punishments were brutal ; ... no wonder that, to a 
large extent and with exceptions, the boys hated the masters." " I 
have seen," says another (1846-51), "a small boy's hands tied up to 
a hat-rail until the blood burst out, and this more than once. The 
barbarous system of punishing a boy by making him hold aloft two 
or three slates was in full swing in my earlier days." ^ One of an 
earlier epoch (1823-29) describes how he once received eight strokes 
of the cane on each hand, so severe that he could not, for some 
weeks, write, dress himself, or cut his food ; the boy himself, out of 
sheer fear of the consequences, persuaded his indignant father not 
to complain. Yet the master who inflicted this was, when not 
angry, both generous and genial. 

It will readily be understood that these youthful dominies were 
not experts in their art. Their method (or want of method) would 
^ To set Psalm cxix. to he learned by heart was rather folly than brutality. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


have horrified a modem educationist. There was no Fitch or 
Sidgwick amongst them. "Education was given in lumps, and 
indigestible." What teaching there was consisted almost entirely 
in a reliance on the memory ; the clever boy, of agile mind, who 
could exercise his own faculties, and who naturally delighted in 
mental gymnastic, no doubt profited by the rigid restraint of the 
system and by the insistence on accurate and detailed grammatical 
knowledge ; but the boy of ordinary mind received no help in the 
use of it, and no stimulus to make ventures outside the daily 
routine ; ^ he paid with more or less completeness his required tale 
of uncomprehended recollection, and was content. 

In the great public schools of the period many of the masters 
were in holy orders, and had a certain social status. But the 
masters at Kingswood were nearer to the type of the usher in a 
country grammar school, and were regarded in that light by the 
committee.^ Their duties were irksome, undignified, and often 
incompatible with self-respect. In 1827 the committee drew up 
certain " Rules for Masters," from which the following excerpts are 
made : — " The hours of rising for the boys are, from March the 20th 
to September the 20th, 5.30; from September the 20th to March 
the 20th, 6. The superintendence of two masters is expected at 
that time, as also when the boys are retiring to rest ; and one shall 
continue in or near the bedroom till 9 p.m., till he is satisfied the 
boys are asleep." (It may be mentioned here that the masters' 
bedrooms were so arranged as to have windows commanding the 
doraiitories.) "The masters shall take care that the boys wash 
themselves before school-time in the morning. The duties of the 
schoolroom commence at 6.30, and continue, with the proper 
inten-als, till 8. The attendance of all the masters is expected 
during the hours of study, with the exception of the time devoted 
in the evening to preparation, when the care of one only is 

* An illustration of this exists in the case of a boy who detemiined to learn 
Hebrew. As he sat at his self-imposed task in the schoolroom, Mr. Squarebridge, 
one of the masters, inquired what he was reading. On being told, he retorted, 
" Do you think nobody has leamt to read the Old Testament in the original 
^ietter than you will ever be capable of doing ? Do you dream of becoming more 
competent than learned men like Dr. Adam Clarke ? Be off to the playground ! " 

- The sub-committee of 18 19 referred to previously, reported : " The number 
of ser\'ants employed in the institution is as follows : — One Classical Master, one 
Mathematical Master, one Assistant Teacher, one man as Gardener, one 
'Occasional Labourer, one woman-of-all-work, one woman-servant as cook, one 
housemaid, one sempstress, a charwoman to bake and wash two or three days in 
€ach week, and two or three additional washerwomen once a fortnight." The 
collocation is suggestive. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


requisite.'* (To teach for some seven hours a day, as this involved, 
cannot be done with the necessary freshness and vigour. Hence 
boys as well as masters suffered.) "Two masters are always to be 
in charge of the playground." (Picture the day's work of a master 
"on duty." He rises about 5.30; attends in the dormitories till 
6 J accompanies the boys to the lavatory; is in school till break- 
fast at 8 ; probably marshals the boys in to breakfast ; immediately 
the meal is over, he is in charge of the playground ; school occupies 
him till 12.30; then there is quarter of an hour's playground duty; 
dinner intervenes ; then playground again from i to 2 ; school, 2 to 
5 y playground, 6 to 7 ; preparation, 7 to 8 ; dormitory duty, 8 to 9 — 
about thirteen hours' work ! ) Against some of these duties the more 
self-respecting masters at times made protest, either by open 
remonstrance or tacit neglect In October 1837, Messrs. Square- 
bridge and Sibly memorialized the committee, requesting to be 
relieved from playground duty. The committee put the request 
aside, on the ground that it was not presented in the regular way 
through the governor. This decision practically gave the governor 
absolute control; for it was presumably within his discretion to 
refuse to present any petition that a master might tender, if it did 
not meet with his own approval. The two masters in question 
resigned ; but Mr. Sibly was persuaded to remain, and received an 
increase of salary. In April 1843 ^ ^^"^ set of rules was drawn up, 
printed, and ordered to be placed in the masters' room. In i860 
the committee express their surprise that that copy has been 
removed. A study of the rules does not lead us to share that 
surprise. " A tutor ^ is always to be with the boys in the school- 
room on Sundays during the intervals between the times of worship. 
One tutor and one assistant shall be present at evening study. A 
tutor is to superintend washing in the morning. A tutor and an 
assistant are to be in charge of the playground. All masters are 
to accompany the boys' walks. A tutor and an assistant are to be 
in chargp of the bedrooms in the evening." There is no lightening 
of the burden here ; if anything, the change is the other way. 

Some of these early masters must be referred to by name. 
James Egan Moulton has already been mentioned in the first list 
of prize-winners. He received an extra year, and his term of 

^A distinction exists in these rules between "tutors" and assistants,'* 
probably much the same as subsequently existed between " senior "and ** junior *" 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


education ended in 182 1. He was then offered a junior post on 
the staff, which he declined; but in the following October the 
committee received a letter from his father asking for the offer tp be 
renewed In April 1822 he was engaged for five years at a stip)end 
beginning at J[^\2 and rising eventually to £^2^. In March 1826 
he was promoted to be assistant classical master, and next year his 
salary rose to ;^35. In 1828 he left to enter the ministry. 

Thomas Sibly was appointed second master at a salary of ;£2o in 
1833. "On the very first day he was told by the governor that a 
part of his duty was to clean the lamps. This he politely but 
firmly refused to do." He was brought before the committee, and 
there received a homily on obedience ; but he won his point, and 
was not again required to dabble in oil. Those who were his 
pupils speak of his merits in an unanimous chorus of praise. Even 
when the general character and attainments of the staff are severely 
criticised, Mr. Sibly is admitted to stand out as an illustrious 
exception. His teaching powers were great, and more than one 
old boy remembers to this day his peculiarly clear and skilful 
handling of geometry. His personal character is spoken of no less 
highly. He was so impressed, when he came to the school, with 
the constant and brutal use made of the cane, that he determined 
that he would himself dispense with it altogether. " In school and 
at our games he was ever the friend and the Christian, interesting 
himself in all boy-life." He left in 1843 to become the first head- 
niaster of the Wesleyan College at Taunton, and he remained in 
this position till 1882. He died ten years later. 

Mention should be made of his ally in the remonstrance of 1837, 
Edward G. Squarebridge^ a skilful fives player. He was raised from 
boyhood to mastership in 1829, and left in 1837 to enter the 
ministry. He died in India in 1840. Of him opinions differ ; some 
speak of his severity ; others say that his influence raised the whole 
tone of the school. 

Nor must we omit to make some reference to T ^ >> note- 
worthy as the central figure of " the Great Rebellion," which has 
been thus graphically described : — 

He (the master referred to) was a strict disciplinarian ; that word was too 
long and high-sounding for us boys, so we called him "tyrant." At last we re- 
volted. Worms will turn. We made a banner, inscribed on it in huge letters, 
"T — - is a tyrant," and placed it conspicuously in the schoolroom over the 

entrance. It was T *s tium on duty. Veni^ vidi., — I cannot proceed. There 

«« dead silence, the whole school assembled and breathless. He stared in 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


bewilderment, scarcely believing his own eyes. He turned pale and livid with 
rage. A shaky, choking voice broke the silence, "Who did that?'* An awful 
silence, not a boy moving, not a boy speaking. Again the husky voice, " The 
boy that did that stand up." All still, not a single boy erect. Then he said he 
would go round and ask them singly " Did you do it ? " " Did you ? ** " Did you ? " 
all through the school of one hundred boys. "No," "no," "no," one hundred times. 
Then a universal keep-in. No playing, not even any schooling, till the mystery 
is solved. The latter element, no lessons, reconciled us to the former, no play. 

At last T in rage strikes a lad with a cane ; the boy with a concealed cane 

strikes him back ; every boy rises to his feet and rushes upon the master. He 
sees one hundred boys now possessed with a spirit of lawlessness and revenge, and 
to prevent, in all probability, trampling to death, he flies." Exit, the master ; 
enter, the governor. " Boys ! boys ! now sit down quietly and tell me what's the 
matter." A soft answer turneth away wrath. Sequel — quietude, confession, 
contrition, and reformation on both sides. 

X was, we are told, " to be put in training for the office of 

mathematical tutor." This probably means that he became a 
junior master, " with prospects." In six months his prospects ended. 

There was a senior boy called X (says the same informant). He was 

" finished " ; so the next term he dropped his jacket and came in flourishing in a 
tail-coat and a cane ! The exaltation was too sudden and giddying. He turned 
dizzy. He lost his head. He unduly " magnified his office." ... It wasagreed that 
next time he struck a boy the whole school would rise and rush upon him. The 
opportunity soon occurred. He must flourish his sceptre and reign supreme. 
The surging tumult rose and swelled. He rememlxired " former times. " He ran, 
all the lx)ys after him, and just upon him when he leaped through the window. 
We saw him no more. 

H. M, Harvard became an assistant in 1829 and remained on 
the staff till 1836. He was subsequently a well-known Wesleyan 
minister. An old boy writes : " I would like to say how much we 
all loved Henry Harvard. I always connect him in my mind with 
St. John's Gospel, which he taught me to read." 

An old boy, describing, in the Watchman in April 1869, a visit 
to the old school after its appropriation to other uses, in speaking 
of the schoolroom, says — 

In the ceiling there remained the two round doors. On one of them hangs 
a tale. A now learned and famous D.D. had ended his schooldays, and was the 
youngest of the tutorial staff". A ladder put up by some workmen tempted him 
to avail himself of his new-born privileges ; he disappeared through one of the 
circular openings — for a moment. Stepping where he ought not, he broke through 
lath and plaster, and only our dear master's elbows saved him from falling. He 
had l)een exemplary as a scholar. On the Rev. John Smith's visiting Kingswood 
and desiring any who would like to be daily prayed for by him to stand up, he 
was the only boy who had courage enough to do so. 

Internal evidence points to the fact that the hero of this narrative 
\\2i% James H, Rtgg^ who entered on his mastership in April 1835. 
His later career it is unnecessary to describe here. At Kingswood 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


he had the reputation of being a very severe disciplinarian. " His 
memory " (says one) " was prodigious, enabling him to master and 
recollect a book from one reading." 

John Kerr Johnston was classical master from 1839 ^^ 1842. He 
was a tall Irishman "of saturnine disposition, eccentric ways, and 
few words. He was kindly in nature, and scholarly." He was not, 
however, a perfect disciplinarian, largely owing to fits of absent- 
mindedness. " There was a generally accepted myth that on one 
occasion, roused from a reverie, he woke into unwonted haste and 
effort, and in three gigantic strides made his way from the school- 
room to the hall steps." He was for a time in the ministry, and 
died early. 

John IVevi// joined the staff in 1838 and was at the school for 
sk years. A former pupil speaks of his " graceful, comely presence 
and kindly, smiling enthusiasm." He subsequently entered into 

Allusion may also be made to Henry Hayman, "a kind and 
generous master " ; W. F. Burdon, a Yorkshireman, who married Dr. 
Shera*s sister-in-law ; A. Burgess, who taught modern languages, and 
others, whose names will be found in the list of masters elsewhere. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



I may have failed, my school may fail ; 

I tremble, but thus much I dare: 

I love her. Let the critics rail ; 

My brethren and my home are there. — W. Cory. 

The accompanying plan ^ may be taken to represent the last state 
of Old Kingswood in 185 1. To understand how this differed from 
the earlier buildings, the following chronological statement of 
successive changes will perhaps serve. 

In 1809 the rooms adjoining the west side of the chapel, up to 
that time used as a writing school, were converted into a preacher's 
house. For its use a small rent was paid by the Circuit. In this 
same year the committee order, " that a plain dog-kennel be made 
for Toby." Further allusions to Toby desunt 

In 181 7 the main building was increased, at a cost of nearly 
£^S^> by a south-eastern addition, which will be described in more 
detail later. 

In 1 8 18 an order was made that a burial-ground should be set 
apart on the estate. 

' This plan is based upon architect's drawings made about 1850, by James 
Wilson, Esq., F.S.A. Many details in this and other plans of Old Kingswood 
are due to the recollections of H. H. Pollard, Esq., J. P., and the Rev. G. 
Fletcher. The explanation of the lettering is as follows : — 

A. Mulberry tree. 

B. Paved yard — forbidden ground — containing a pump. 

C. Door to main building. 

D. Door to schoolroom. Between D and C a paved space, with door, not 
used, leading through iron palisades into the garden. 

E. Latrines. 

F. Piazza. 

G. Giles' tuckshop. 

H. Headmaster's nouse. 

J. Gardener's cottage, with railed-off garden before it. 
K. Route to chapel. 

The position of the main gateway is not quite accurate ; it ought to be 
brought more round, to face the headmaster's house. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



In 181 9 a wall took the place of the fence which extended from 
the comer of the preacher's house to the gateway. The fence had 
''permitted" communication with the village boys." 

In 182 1 a stone wall was built m continuation eastward of the 
line of the chapel frontage. With regard to this wall the committee's 
report says — 

The boys had no wall where to recreate themselves by playing at ball but 
the chapel wall, which occasioned the breaking of many windows, and had an 
unseemly as well as an unsanctified appearance. Your committee have removed 
this unhallowed practice by ordering a wall to be built in a line with the chapel. 

Later in the same year the dairy and washhouse were built. 
Between the fives wall and the bakehouse were the piggeries. There 
was also a glass-roofed passage between the laundry and the 


1823. A new schoolroom, ordered in 1822, was completed and 
opened on nth September by the Rev. Henry Moore. ^ The Rev. J. 

' This is the building which bore the inscription (on a tablet now incorporated 
in the walls of the Reformatory) referred to in a former chapter, Vesieiadarum 
hlii*, etc. (p. 21). 



Stanley also addressed the gathering, and pointed out that eighteen 
preachers then in the Connexion had been educated at Kingswood. 
There were also English and Latin speeches delivered by specially- 
selected boys. From the Latin speech it seems worth while to 
extract the following not infelicitous passage : — 

Hac in regione, iibi pulcherrime eluxit gloria Evangelii, sedem locavit Vir 
ille gravissimus Schola: Regiosylvensis ; <^use pariter prseteriti memoriam 
conservaret et spem futuri prsetenderet ; indicioque foret qiiam maxime de recta 
iuventutis institutione pendeat in posteros prolatio beneficiorum, quae cuique 
saeculo fiierint donata. . . . Ventus omnis, qiii arborum illarum folia deturbat, 
ad aures nostras nomen aflfert Viri, qui auotannis itinera confecit ardua, laboresque 
pertulit maximos ; quern a proposito aimovere possent nbn xstatis calores, non 
hiemis frigora, non multitudinis inc . . . Ilia domus, illi hortuli, illi agri, non 
solum monumenta sed quasi munera sunt Auctoris nostri pietatis. Religionis 
sumus alumni. 

The company were also favoured by the recitation of an original 
poem by the Rev. T. Roberts, from which the following extract will 
probably suffice : — 

But O, what scenes o'erwhelm me with delight ! 
Visions of glory, spare my aching si^ht. 
From their high seats, whom seraphim attend. 
See the great Wesleys, see the Bensons bend, 
Sellons, MacGearys, all our ancient sires, 
Who erst in Kingswood caught celestial fires. 
Lo, brighter halos beam around their heads, 
As wide and wider our pavilion spreads ; 
And see ye not their holy mantles fall 
On Lomas, Entwistle, on Shaw, on all? 
While genial cherubs hail the pledge sublime, 
And all heaven antedates the Future Time. 

On 30th July 1823 John Wesley's birth was commemorated by a 
sermon to the school by the Rev. Henry Moore, preached under 
Wesley's tree. There may be some slight doubt as to which 
Wesley's tree was. There stood a pear tree in the garden known as 
" John Wesley's pear tree," and reputed to have been planted by 
Wesley's own hand. In 1894 this tree still stood and was bought 
by the governor of New Kingswood for ;£5. Shoots of it wefe 
grafted into some of the pear trees at Lansdown, and some of it 
utilized for cabinet work. This tree had a curious form ; its upper 
part bifurcated into two spirals, each twisting outward away from the 
other. It is said that lightning was the cause of the original cleaving. 
But there was also another tree, a sycamore, which was held in peculiar 
esteem. This stood in the Patch. In 1809 the committee ordered it 
to be " cased high enough to prevent it being destroyed by cutting ofT 
the bark." Thirty-two years afterwards, we read that " it is expedient 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


to remove Mr. Wesley's sycamore tree on account of its decay and 
the continual attempts of those who wish to possess portions." How- 
ever, further anxiety in the matter was averted in the following year 
by a gale which blew down the tree. The wood was ordered to be 
worked into useful and ornamental articles for sale.^ May it be 
possible that, after the sycamore tree was gone and forgotten, the 
knowledge that there had been a " Wesley's tree " at Kingswood led 
to attempts at identification, and that these attempts finally rested 
upon a pear tree, which was apparently ancient and certainly of 
peculiar form ? It was, at any rate, the sycamore under which Mr. 
Moore preached. 

1824. A wall was built to enclose the "patch and barton." 
'* Barton " is a Somerset term denoting a yard, and probably refers 
to the paved space between the main building and the schoolroom. 

1827. A new washhouse and bakehouse were built. 

1828. The school was enlarged at a total cost of jQin)^, to 
accommodate a hundred boys. The dining-hall was enlarged ; two 
new classrooms were added ; a large attic, a new cellar, a lecture- 
room, a lavatory, and fresh latrines were erected ; the kitchen was 
doubled in size ; there was a new laundry and drying-room, connected 
with the main building by a scullery and coalhouse. In the main 
building a stone staircase replaced the old wooden one, and two 
new rooms were added on the ground floor and two on the second 
floor. Masters' bedrooms were made to command the dormitories. 
These dormitories were equipped with beds, and nothing else. 
There were no cubicles, no washing arrangements, no lockers 
for clothes. The beds resembled large boxes, divided in two by a 
partition down the middle. Each room was lighted by a lantern set 
on the floor. While the enlargement was in hand, the boys, instead 
of going through the kitchen and up the stairs there, " used to 
climb or slide down the tall ladders to get up or down." At this 
time the boys' gardens were abolished. 

1829. ^^ ^^^s year another historic name appears; a wall is 
built with a view to 2l piazza or covered shed for use in wet weather. 
For this each parent is taxed one guinea. 

1830. The piazza, or "arcade," as it is also called, is built. The 
original piazza, then, was a sort of small covered playground, and 

*Whcn this tree fell, Mr. Sibly offered a prize for the best poem on the 
sal^eci ; the prize consisted of a box made from the wood of the tree and filled 
»ith foarpenny pieces. The successful competitor was A. B. Barber. 


Digitized' by'VjOOQ'lC 


more resembled the "bottom shed," which old Grovites will 
remember, than the abortive underground gymnasium which bore 
that name at the new school. Once a year the piazza was decked 
with evergreens, among which shone the inscription : The memory 
of the just is blessed. It was the 2nd of March ; on that day the 
boys wore their Sunday clothes, and were supposed to spend the 
time in meditation. It was a good thought in its inception, but 
little was done to carry out the idea as valuably as might have been. 

1839. A new stable for six horses built and the lavatory 

1840. New headmaster's house; for this purpose ;£^3oo was 
borrowed from the Centenary Fund. 

1844. A tank laid down for the boys' lavatory, a new cooking 
range set up, and a bell provided by which the governor could call 
the masters "in case of any movement among the boys in the 
night." A new chapel was an important addition at this time. 
The old chapel — Wesley's — served for the Kingswood Circuit as 
well as for Kingswood School. This arrangement not unnaturally 
led to friction. As far back as 1833 the Kingswood Circuit 
quarterly meeting had suggested the building of a new chapel 
nearer the circuit population, and asked for the materials of Wesley's 
Chapel to build it with. But the committee could not tolerate the 
destruction of a building so rich in associations ; they made a 
counter-offer : if the Circuit would build a chapel at the top of the 
" Three Comer Field," and guarantee free pews to the school, the com- 
mittee would give the site and would hand over the fittings of Wesley's 
Chapel. There, apparently, the matter rested as far as formal and 
official action went. But unofficial remarks were no doubt freely 
exchanged, the members of the Circuit feeling the distance and 
difficulty of access of the school chapel a great inconvenience. In 
1837 the committee "were of opinion that a new chapel was greatly 
needed for the neighbourhood, and yet cannot consent to give up 
the one now in use." The Circuit retorted by sending a deputation 
to inquire " whether the Society occupied the chapel as a matter of 
right or on sufferance." A sub-committee was appointed to confer 
on the subject (Jan. 1838), and eventually the matter was taken to 
Conference. This body recommended the consideration of the 
propriety of erecting a new chapel on the premises. At last, in 
October 1842, it was decided to build a new chapel off the premises, 
a compromise being reached in the matter of the site, a certain field 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjiOOQIC" 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


being selected as approximately convenient to both parties. Next 
year, however, the dispute arose once more. At which end of the 
field was the chapel to be built? The committee insisted on 
seeing all plans and specifications before their being finally settled ; 
they also censured the Circuit's action in soliciting subscriptions 
from outside, and instructed the superintendent, the Rev. J. Heaton, 
to put a stop to this forthwith. Finally, however, plans were 
approved, and the committee began to raise money ; initiating at 
this juncture a method to which large recourse has subsequently 
been made, for they circularized former pupils. This seems to be 
the first occasion where the old boys were recognized as a distinct 
class. The old boys (and others) raised ^£96, iis. iid., the boys 
in the school, a hundred in number, subscribing ;^i6, 8s., an 
average of over 3s. a head — no trivial response. Conference 
undertook to raise ;^8oo. One cannot but think that a propor- 
tionate liberality to-day from the same quarters would provide a 
chapel not unworthy of the school. The subscriptions of the 
boys, we are told, were accompanied in many cases by letters of 
gratitude. The old chapel was utilized as a place for retirement 
and meditation, the pews being allotted to separate boys, or to two 
or three juniors together, as a species of private studies. 

Let us turn now to a description of the building as shown in the 
plans which follow. 

The older portion of the house,^ or main building, had, on the 
ground floor, the dining-hall and kitchen beyond. The additions 
of 181 7 contained a masters' room, used also for examinations, 
the governor's study, and a "family-room" or parlour. The 
masters' room is described in the architect's drawings as a committee 

Passing up the staircase, we find on the first floor the bedrooms 
of the governor and his family, a sickroom, upper-servants' rooms, 

] See Plan of Kingswood School, 1850. This plan omits the schoolroom, which 
is given separately (p. 153). In the dining-hall the letters signify as follows : — 

W. Portrait of John Wesley. 

(^. Governor's seat. 

1). The governor's wife. 

C. Carver. 

R. Reader. 

The stove stands in the middle. The tables are somewhat inaccurate. Mr. 
I'ollard says : ** Those on the right were regulated by the entrances on that side, 
^ were iambic — a short and a long ; but on the other side, under the windows, 
^hcy were spondaic — of two equal lengths" (P). This and other notes by the 
'>anic authority are indicated by the letter (P). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


store-closets, etc., and, over the projecting portion of the kitchen, a 
women-servants' workroom. 





r r 

Going to the second floor,^ we reach a series of dormitories, of 

* See plan. The older part of the second floor (Dormitory IV.) seems to bx; 
what John Wesley calls " the gallery up two pairs of stairs." ** Dormitory I.: 
The beds were arranged just as in the other dormitories, there being a fairway 
from window to window between them. Dormitory II.: There was another 
(single) crib in the farther left corner. Dormitory III.: There was another crib 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


which the largest was the fourth, containing forty beds. The second 
and third, containing twenty beds each, belonged to the compara- 
tively newer portion of the block. Above these were various attics, 
a small dormitory, a masters' bedroom, and a man-servants' room. 
The larger " lumber-room " bore a mark on its wooden floor which 
tradition asserted to be an imprint of the devil's foot, left by him 
as he fled through the window to escape John Wesley's horsewhip. 
Another form of the legend asserts that His Infernal Majesty 
appeared in the form of a fiery-footed dog, and was twice thrown 
from the window, twice to return by the same route. A third 
ejectment proved final. 

The classrooms, three in number i^ide p. 153), were reached by 
three or four steps up from the schoolroom ; in the basement below 
them were the lavatory, boxroom, and caproom. This formed the 
usual course of exit from the schoolroom. The caproom lay con- 
veniently on the way ; the boxroom also at times would cause the 
steps to linger, the lavatory perhaps less often. 

The garden was large, and convalescent invalids roamed there, 
not always to the security of the fruit. The mulberry tree also 
proved a source of temptation in the silkworm season. Nor was 
sickness the only road of access to this forbidden Eden. A dark 
night and a knotted sequence of sheets also at times gave an 
entrance of " fearful joy." On one occasion, a carelessly-tied knot 
gave way and the marauder revealed his presence by crashing 
through a glass roof. He had his reward — next morning. 

The playground was roomy, but of very rough and uneven 
surface, further diversified by rows of trees. It was entirely bare 
of grass. The lower part of it was known as the clinkers. The 
lenn " clinker," a Dutch word, denotes a hard cinder, and the play- 
ground was originally covered with these, the refuse of old coalpits. 
In course of time, the " clinkers " proper disappeared, and a later 
generation applied the name to certain natural water-courses which 
earned off rain-water at the bottom of the playground. 

(single) dose to the masters* bedroom door. The entrance to this masters' bed- 
nioni was from Dormitory III. only. Third floor : The rooms marketl storeroom 
ind bedroom were thrown into one and used as a boys* bedroom. It was a 
mere wooden partition altogether. I [H. 11. Pollard] was the first and only 
monitor of that room. I think there were seven of us in those comfortable 
quarters. There were two or three iron bedsteads there, the first introduced 
into the school, and they did not multiply there. The smaller lumber-room had a 
good deal of newer timber in it, and was used as a blanket-room. There we crept 
ra the early days of the great revival in 1849 to hold our prayer-meetings " (P). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


One of the most remarkable architectural features of the place 
was the entire absence of washing arrangements in the bedrooms. 
A recollection of the position of the lavatory will suggest what was 
the only possible course of action. A boy, after rising and partially 
dressing, would fling his coat and waistcoat over his arm, and run 
shoeless down the stairs, to the lobby by the dining-hall. There 
he found his boots ^ in the rack, thrust them hastily on, or perhaps 
carried them in his hand, sped across the paved yard into the 
schoolroom, and thence to the lavatory. There a long trough ran 
round the walls, containing the water necessary for the ablutions of 
fifty boys. At an early period the same water served for all. In 1837 
partitions and taps were added at intervals, so that each boy might 
have a fresh supply — so comparative cleanliness began to reign at 
the same time as Her Majesty. Next year the supply of towels (to 
the last, quite inadequate) and of soap was increased. In 1843 
windows were ordered ; before this only open spaces in the walls 
had existed, and at six o'clock on a winter's morning it was often 
necessary to break the ice before ablutions were possible. The 
change, however, was not effective, for the panes soon became and 
remained conspicuous by their absence. In the same year, how- 
ever, one simple alteration was effected which made satisfactory and 
cleanly, if not comfortable, washing possible: metal basins were 
provided, so that each boy was able to have a basin of fresh water 
for his own use. At the same time it was ordered that the towels 
should be increased in number and oftener changed. However, 
there never seems to have been more than seven towels for a 
hundred boys. Each boy kept, or was supposed to keep, a brush 
and comb in the boxroom, but looking-glasses there were none. 

The dormitories were low and over-crowded ; " number 4 " was 
only seven feet high. Lamps and candles died out for sheer want 
of air. Till 1843 boys made their own beds. These latter were 
mainly of the semi-detached kind known as double cribs ; a board 
ran down the middle as a partition. Pillow-fights, of course, took 
place. Nor were these the only delights. " We kept the feast of 
tabernacles, not at canonical periods. Our sheets and blankets, 
stretched from point to point, formed the tents we dwelt in, until 
a footstep on the staircase would force us to strike them with a 
speed no Israelite ever dreamt of. We observed the eclipses of the 
moon, until the governor, in the plenitude of his powfer, cashiered 
^ Slippers were unknown — except perhaps for monitors— at an early period. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



the planet, and would *have no more eclipses.' . . . Many tales 
were told in the bedrooms. Novels were worse contraband than 
tobacco, but in the first bedroom Oliver Twist had begun to be told, 
chapter by chapter. . . . They were not always novels and tales of 
adventure that were told in the bedrooms, save so far as that was a 
grand adventure when * He took upon Him the form of a servant, 
and was made in the likeness of men'; for I have known the * old, 
old story ' told in those rooms with a youthful fervour and a simple 
pathos, as when Andrew first found his own brother Simon." 

The schoolroom ^ was arranged as in the plan. Each desk held 
four boys. The room was warmed by hot air from a furnace outside. 




" There were indications of much thought expended in successive 
efforts to meet the wants of the school. But the entire premises 
had gradually ^own out of a gentleman's country house of moderate 
dimensions, by successive accretions, into a planless aggregate of 
dilapidated afterthoughts, the bedrooms particularly being close and 
unwholesome. New Kings wood did not come a day too soon." 

When eventually the new premises were acquired, the old school 

* See plan. It will l)e noted that this plan lies with the north to the right 
hand of the page. 

L. Porch. 

S. Stairs to Ijasenient. 

F. Fireplace. 

H.M. Headmaster's desk. 

IV. V. Desks of the masters of fourth and fifth divisions. 

"The space round the headmaster's desk was not so ample as is represented. 
The first desk was nearly under the middle of the window " (P). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


was bought by Mary Carpenter, a well-known Unitarian lady of 
philanthropic bent, and a Mr. Russell Scott, with help from Lady 
Byron and others, and converted into a reformatory for sixteen 
boys and thirteen girls. The girls were subsequently removed. In 
1869, at any rate, Wesley's room was preserved untouched and the 
pane of glass carefully protected which bore an inscription from his 
hand: "God is here: 1774." This pane in now in the Bristol 
Museum. The great water difficulty which had baffled the Kings- 
wood committee was overcome by their successors at an expense 
of ;^io. The abortive well of 1846 had cost over ;£^ioo. 

The reformatory buildings have gradually ousted those of the 
old school, only Wesley's Chapel remains. This, however, is 
carefully preserved, and was restored in 1897. Most of the play- 
ground trees are gone ; a few survive, among them " Bandy Jenny." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Spartam nactus es ; banc exoma. 

We have thus briefly outlined the building itself ; let us turn now 
to the effervescent life which that building enclosed and shut in. 
Shut in, verily. Few scraps of information from the outer world 
found their way into that monastic seclusion. The Bristol riots, 
indeed, made themselves known by fire and smoke from afar. The 
potato famine in Ireland was felt at the dining-table. The presence 
of the cholera that in 1834 stalked through the surrounding districts 
was known and dreaded; but the school, despite the extremely 
unhealthy condition of the boys' outbuildings, escaped. " Though 
the subtle and wasting pestilence extended its march of death to 
within a few yards of the house, and seemed for some time to hover 
about the precincts, a signally gracious Providence here arrested its 

These events of national interest did make some impression on 
the school, and a fragmentary knowledge of others crept in by 
means of occasional papers sent from home. " Old colliers, very 
good men some of them, strolled into the playground at times, and 
their conversation, coming as it did from the outer world, was much 

But otherwise, little was known. The effect of this was to 
magnify the apparent importance of occurrences within the walls. 
School politics held the place of wider concerns. Groups formed, 
possessing common interests — cliques, parties, sets, comradeships of 
all kinds ; the conspiracies of the bad, the combinations of the good. 
The main topics of convefsation were — not games, for these were 
nidimentary and embryonic; not national politics, for these were 
unknown; not the last novel or the latest opera, for these 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


were officially taboo \ not often hdme life, for traditional reserve 
forbade — but the last caning or the most recent hamper, rank in 
class, a master's injustice, a boy's "cheek," one another's charac- 
teristics, a breach in a conspicuous friendship, personal partialities, 
or school rules. No doubt there was harm in this narrow limitation. 
There is a temperament that would enter into conflict with a master 
in order to be talked about. A perpetual recurrence to real or 
fancied injustices bred ill-will, discontent, and at times revolt. 
Criticism of one another, instead of possessing that frank, face-to-face 
out-spokenness so characteristic of the ordinary boy, tended to 
become a morbid assessment of the character of one not present. 
Friendships liable to public discussion grew unhealthily sentimental. 

But if imperial politics were unknown, connexional politics 
were absorbing. At the time of the "Reform" movement (1849) 
the excitement was great. The Methodists among the colliers of 
Kingswood were reformers almost to a man ; the school held by 
the old paths. Hence the traditional antagonism with the collier 
boys received a new element. On the rare occasions when Kings- 
wood boys passed outside the school gates, they were liable to be 
received with a shower of stones ; at one time, a boy did not venture 
outside unless armed with a stick. In any case they were assailed 
with the cry of " cocky boarders ! " ^ The collier warfare played no 
small part in the life of the school. It apparently dates from the 
time when a colliers' day school existed side by side with the board- 
ing school. It has been suggested that the hostility arose from the 
resentment of the colliers at the apparent appropriation of their 
school to the use of others. Considerations of space forbid any 
detailed narrative of the incessant conflicts which took place — some- 
times between the serried arrays of either side, sometimes between 
chosen champions. Among the protagonists of the school the 
names of J. P. Dunn, Hugh Hughes, T. Brocklehurst, R. H. Mole, 
J. Rosser, James Parry, and others, are retained in grateful recol- 
lection by their contemporaries. Many memories survive of these 
fierce combats, and in every account the school was victorious. No 
accounts, however, are to hand from the colliers. But, during all 
this strife, where was the ubiquitous usher ? 

Another result of the " Reform " movement was that the choir 

^ Attempts have been made to represent these words phonetically in the 
dialect of the district. **Cackey boadez" and "cacey buadas" are interesting 
variants. But these pages are intended to be understocid. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


at Kingswood Chapel struck \ it was replaced by a choir from the 
school, which became a permanent institution. 

Closely connected with the interest in connexional affairs is a 
striking feature of Kingswood life. No doubt there were here, 
as at other schools, sets of boys whose conversation could not be 
called wholesome, and who instructed one another, from a somewhat 
limited knowledge, in the ways of evil ; but there were certain other 
sets, well defined, and not numerically insignificant, whose aims were 
the precise reverse. Perhaps the differentiating characteristic of 
Kingswood as compared with an average school is a certain power 
of initiative in religious matters possessed by the boys themselves. 
At most schools the religious influence is exercised mainly through 
a chaplain or other clerical masters, and by means of the school 
chapel, sometimes aided by a profitable use of the divinity lessons. 
But at Kingswood ^ the boys themselves and by themselves performed 
public religious exercises, and there were to be found among them 
those possessed with a missionary spirit, who endeavoured by direct 
appeal to influence their fellows. "Religion," says one, "played 
a great part in our lives — revivals, backslidings, Methodism in 
t^ttoP Prayer-meetings and the like were conducted by the boys 
themselves — not always with wisdom, for the committee were com- 
pelled to decree (1843) that band-meetings should not take place 
except under supervision. In order to reach some idea of the result 
of this system, it will perhaps be best to try, first of all, to give a 
bird's-eye view of the religious state of the school by a series of 
dironological quotations from official sources.^ 

1826. " Proofs of religious prosperity have been numerous and 

1827. " Religion does not yet make that progress in the seminary 
which the committee have long desired and expected." Surely a 
swift fall from the somewhat exultant mood of the year before. 
This rapidity of change is characteristic. 

1 83 1. The discipline and morals are highly commended. 
1837. The moral state of the school is described as "most 

1842. The state of the school considered unsatisfactory. 

1843. The headmaster reports favourably of the religious state 
of the boys. Sixty meet in class ; many use the chapel for private 

' And equally, of course, at the Grove. ^ Such as the Annual Reports. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


1844. "Their ingenuous air and serious deportment impress a 
stranger favourably." 

1845. Certain boys are admonished before the committee for 
moral offences. Later in the year, two boys are expelled for a 
similar reason. 

1847. Forty or fifty meet in class. There is "not one vicious 
boy in the school." 

1848. " A gracious revival has taken place among the boys. . . . 
Th6ir tempers are changed, their obedience is prompt and uniform ; 
their love to one another, their gratitude to their teachers, and their 
delight in devotional exercises are marked and most exemplary." 

1849. About half the boys meet on Tuesdays for religious in- 
struction ; on Wednesdays the entire school. The superintendent 
of the circuit has a smaller class of about twenty. " Care is taken 
not to admit any into formal union with the Church without satis- 
factory evidence of the fear of God." 

1849 (December). The headmaster summarily dismissed. 

Let us turn now to some of the statements of old boys. 

1807-13. "There were not more than twenty-five boys in 
residence . . . not more than twelve or thirteen preachers had 
sons who were scholars. ... I shall never forget a religious 
revival which took place at that period in the school, in which the 
late Dr. Beaumont took a prominent part. He became the senior 
leader in that movement, and so continued till 1808, when he left 
the school. ... It is true the discipline was severe, and yet, thank 
God, we had many religious privileges. It was a religious school, 
and we had a religious training. There was a select religious class 
of well-conducted boys ; the leader, the venerable and saintly William 
Stevens. That consistent gardener, Samuel Whyatt, after a long 
service, ended his Christian course in or about 1870,^ The memory 
of these is precious." 

1823-28. "There was a revival of religion about 1825 or 1826; 
it seemed to alter the character of the school." 

1828-32. "There was little bullying or unfairness in work." 

1832-36. The following description will be read with interest : — 

In a crib opposite mine, when among the occupants of the third bedroom, 
poor Benjamin Ward, soon after the light was put out, thinking of his lately 
deceased brother, began to cry and sob. Fellows in the adjoining cribs, sitting up 
to comfort him, made him weep more loudly. Presently others audibly 

^ He died in 1863, aet. 84. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


sympathised. So for, so good. As I lay expecting the master to rush out from 
his adjacent dormitory to allay the storm, the door of our room was gently opened, 
and in crept the pious nurse, carrying a candle. While the contagion was spread- 
ing, she held the light to my face. I breathed on with careful regularity, till at 
last she pronounced me fast asleep. Never more awake in my life, I observed, 
through slightly parted eyelids, what was going on ; and my ears were open. A 
number of boys, kneeling upon the floor, were distressing and consoling one 
another. Governor and masters kept out of the way ; and ere long disappeared 
the ministering angel, whom we had never seen in the bedroom before, and never 
saw there again. Lights had been kindled and I thought it well to awake. All 
eyes were now wide open, excepting those of the seekers of mercy. Boys who pro- 
fessed to have found peace favoured me with advice ; and in a serious mood, 
obeying their instructions, I arose and knelt. Counsel was poured into my ears, 
10 which I had nothing to reply. I prayed in silence as well as I could, but, 
when I saw a suitable opportunity, returned to my couch. Curious young gentle- 
men b^an to stream in from the other rooms. My brother was not among them, 
and I was solemnly informed that he had refused to get out of bed. The zealots 
persnaded me to venture into the first room and invite him. From a sense of duty 
I did so, an excursion for which I should have been sorely punished on any ordinary 
occasion. Samuel's answer was discouraging, and I regamed my pillow. Never- 
theless, he came in by and by, the prisoner of triumphant converts, and knelt 
down with apparent reluctance. Not many minutes passed before he withdrew, 
professing to have gained no benefit. In the next report which the governor sent 
10 my fa£er, he stated that Samuel was well-behaved but careless about religion. 
There was not a more Christian boy in the school. 

A consequence was that discipline was strangely relaxed for a season. . . . 
Allen, Alfred Hayman, and I, lamenting that we had not received the blessing 
which others talked of, presumed in broad daylight to enter the vacant bakehouse ; 
and, having shut the door, we knelt down to pray. Two of us did not get on very 
well, but Allen was remarkably fluent. I lament to think that my wrestling was 
greatly hindered by the interest I took in his repeated cry, " Lord, if thou will'st," 
(such was his wora), **Thou canst make me clean." Having exercised himself a 
coaaderable time, he arose, praising God. Hayman next found his feet, but 
made no demonstration. At last I stood up, sheepish and ashamed, and we 
^-alked out. . . . Possibly we were as much Christians before we entered the 
school as at any period during our residence there, and subsequently we have 
never more piously rejoiced in the redeeming love of God than we did when 
taught to worship Him at our mothers' knees. 

Revivals call forth persecutions, and these sometimes harden the conscience. 
. . . My first powerful temptation was when a black cat, dressed in rags and 
ribbons, was thrown as a representative of the Evil One into the midst of a crowd 
of us who were gathered for singing and prayer in a room at the end of the 
laundry; and swift would have been my backsliding if I could only have got 
sight of the bad boys insulting us and maltreating pussy. . . . Our adversaries 
merely excited my pity, when, standing round a stick and calling themselves 
Papists, they chanted in a subdued voice, as I remember the words — 

Ara Cnicis, Lampas Lucis, 

Sola Salus Hominum, 
Nobis pronam fac Patronum, 

Qu« tulisti Dominum. 

But they provoked us by the law they laid down that the " saints " must con- 
fine themselves to the upper part of the playground. If we dared to cross the 
border, woe unto us ! I submitted with a show of meekness, till a stone was 
aimed at my ankle. It missed me ; but I flew after and punished the assailant. 
No longer reckoning myself a Christian, I was at any rate glad to move about 
where I pleased and do battle for God's people. 

The revival may have been truly such to favoured and vigilant souls, but with 
Sorrow it must be owned that, as to most of the boys, it burnt and smoked itself 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


out in a few months. . . . Perhaps it had been found that, according to the testi- 
mony of a junior observer in a present-day seminary, artificial religious excitement 
is not helpful to school work. A lady having spoken exultingly of the literary 
triumphs of the scholars, the young gentleman replied that they were not doing so 
well this year ** because religious concern seemed to have brought the fellow^s' 
brains to a maudlin state." 

1837-39. "I should not consider the boys, speaking generally, 
as being religious. One or two revivals took place, but there were 
more lads who held sham prayer-meetings and preaching." 

1839-44. "Sneaks were sent to Coventry, and bullies sooner 
or later found their level. Tale-telling was as despised as it is now, 
and ordinarily there was fairness in work. . . . Occasionally there 
were outbursts of depravity in which the entire morale of the school 
was perverted, and rectitude and religiousness simply persecuted." 
The same old boy gives a beautiful picture of religious life at Kings- 
wood in his day in the Kingswood Magazine (Nov. 1 89 1 ). He says : — 

I have never known of harder conflict than was involved in confessing Christ 
at Old Kingswood School. I had the honour of l)eing associated with the little 
religious circle, which in my time had its origin in my personal friendship with 
pure, tender, devout William Stevens, who, as our borders grew, became Ijy 
common acclamation, if not by connexional appointment, our chosen class-leader. 
We were soon joined by Henry Hickman, delicate in health but true and leal, who 
a few years later was sorrowfully drowned. Next came Conrad Cox, who walked 
well till years after he was caught in the meshes of Hunt's anthropological net, 
and, sadly to us, vanished into the orbis ignotus of the Western World. Then we 
rejoiced, as over great spoil, in the acquisition of dear Henry J. Piggott, who 
afterwards blossomed into the school poet- laureate, and is now the veteran 
missionary. . . . And lastly came Josiah Slater, who to his passion for classics 
and mathematics, and remarkable attainments in both, in which I take it no later 
boy of his years has ever surpassed him, added a hearty homage to Christ. . . . 
Some of my schoolfellows may have abused the sanctuary privileges of that old 
chapel ; but to me its memories of my dear boy-leader's gentle, faithful appeals 
and admonitions, never weakened by a solitary inconsistency, are very precious. 

1843-46. A great revival occurred ; evening after evening the 
boys met in Wesley's Chapel for prayer. " All the boys " (writes 
one of them, now in the Wesleyan ministry) " were converted, or 
said they were, save one. There was a dead, but affectionate, set 
made on this unfortunate one, who at last yielded. After this, 
affairs went on smoothly. Then it was found that many boys were 
more attentive to praying than to lessons, so the prayer-meetings 
were limited to one or two evenings a week." 

1842-47. "Though the attempt to devote the old chapel to 
purposes of private devotion broke down a little ignominiously,^ it 

* Boys used to climb up through the trap-door to the roof till one slipped 
and broke through the ceiling. The governor, not knowing the ruin thus wrought, 
ushered in no less a visitor than the President of the Conference. 

Digitized by 



must not be supposed that there was no religious life in the school. 
When I think of the influences that have told on me for good, I 
never forget the character of Henry J. Piggott, always true and 
straight, and pure and kind." 

1845-51. The testimony is that bullying was bad for three 
years ; that there was no unfairness in work \ and that morals were 
good except in certain sets, generally West Indian, Welsh, or Cornish. 

1846-52. "Conscience and honour were words of which the 
meaning was practically unknown ; remember, none of us were over 
fourteen. I do not recollect that lying or immorality or bullying 
tstx prevailed. Novel-reading was a very serious offence," that is, 
was held serious by the powers that were. 

1846-51. "The tone of the school varied. ... I have heard a 
swearing match between boys. . . . The name of the boy is familiar 
who smuggled wine into the dormitory, sold himself (with only one 
of the parties to the contract visible) to the devil, and signed the 
covenant with blood. It was his last act. He was expelled. There 
was a bully now and then, but I should not set that down as a crying 
evil at Kingswood. Competition for place was keen, and the boys 
watched the slightest tendency to unfairness." 

'849-51- "I did not observe any special bullying; big boys 
thought it their duty to whack little ones if they thought they 
deserved it, and the younger boys took it for granted. . . . Most 
boys copied from anyone they could." 

Inconsistencies in these testimonies are what we should expect. 
lU-doing is often confined to sets, or even to forms ; a boy in one 
set may have little idea of what goes on in another. 

But the general consensus of opinion seems to be, that in their 
dealings with one another the boys of the school maintained on the 
whole a satisfactory standard. In a school of any size bullying is 
certain to exist ; but at Old Kingswood it appears to have been less 
than one would expect, considering the ages of the boys, the youngest 
being young enough to offer an excellent field for this form of amuse- 
ment, and the oldest old enough to appreciate the base pleasure of 
it and not old enough to realize its meanness and unmanliness. 
Fagging existed, not authorized by the ruling powers, but established 
by tradition. It began to die out in the forties.^ 

* The story Is told of a French Iwy, Mahy, who, when the news arrived of the 
nctory of Waterloo, was seized by certain too patriotic schoolfellows and hanged 
to the nearest tree. He was cut down in time by one of the masters. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


One fact militates strongly against a belief in the existence of 
very prevalent bullying. Amidst much that was open to criticism in 
the matters of teaching and of comfort, old boys, while they often 
animadvert strongly upon the incapacity of the masters and the 
barbarity of the domestic arrangements, speak, almost unanimously, 
in affectionate terms of the life of the " patch," and of the comrade- 
ships that existed there. The boys, if they were not always happy in 
the presence of the authorities, were happy together. The Kings- 
wood boy is in one respect in a peculiar situation. He has, strictly 
speaking, no home. His attachment, outside the school, is to 
persons, but not to a place. There is no one spot to which his 
earliest memories go back, which has remained familiar to him through 
following years, which has exercised a continuous influence upon 
him from birth till the time of his going out into his work in the 
world. The itinerant system has hurried him at short intervals from 
place to place ; allowing for the time spent at school, he stays but 
one year where his father stays for three. Hence the school escapes 
a formidable rival in his affections. It is at the school that his 
interests, his associations, his friendships take root. Thus we can 
understand how it is that the memory of Kingswood friendships 
seems to be peculiarly dear. Outside the family circle there were 
practically no others. 

The arbitrament of the fist was of course not unknown. It 
has been said that public-school boys of to-day " are polite to one 
another and funk one another." That was not the characteristic of 
Kingswood boys at the period of which we write. They described 
each other frankly. For the most part, the payment was in kind. 
Sometimes, however, it was felt that "words was not ekal to it," 
and a fight ensued. We cannot resist the temptation of referring 
to a certain fight in the thirties which never got beyond its pre- 
liminaries. The intending contestants were J. H. Rigg and Hugh 
Hughes. The ring was formed, and the combatants stood face to 
face. The former of the two, before he strove, essayed to explain 
the laws of fair fighting, under which he proposed that the present 
engagement should take place. His opponent, however, with Welsh 
impetuosity, chafed under the delay, and smote him on the face. 
" Now," was the reply, " that is against the rules, and I shall not 
fight." Solvuntur tabula, * 

With regard to dishonesty in work, the testimony is contradictory, 
and can only be explained by what has been said above about 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


difference of sets — and perhaps also by an allowance for that mist 
of memory which softens the rough and jagged corners in the 
landscape of one's boyhood. We cannot, it is to be feared, 
get over the fact that it existed ; but we are equally justified in 
holding it to have been limited in area and despised by the 

In all moral questions age is an important factor. In the case of 
children of eight years of age, we may hope that the birthright of 
innocence could hardly have been lost. But the boys at the top of 
the school, fourteen or fifteen years old, were at an age which is 
specially susceptible to temptation, and when boyhood begins to feel 
its freedom, and tends to turn it into licence. There were no older 
boys, who had learnt thoughtfulness and self-control, to check 
young waywardness and set a tone. The junior masters, who 
were, as we have seen, but older boys, and who ought to have taken 
upon them this duty, and who no doubt would have done so if they 
had been officially boys still, sought to maintain the dignity of their 
position by aloofness. 

Generally speaking, there was one special weakness. The 
natural healthy life for a boy, especially a young boy, is that in 
which, except at occasional crises, he does right instinctively. It 
is fatal to be always digging up his virtues to see if they are 
growing. The authorities at Old Kingswood, however, permitted, 
and to a certain extent encouraged, various unhealthy religious 
movements amongst the boys themselves, not realizing the fact 
that a boy who is always thinking of " religious " things is 
also necessarily thinking of their opposities. Their motives 
were of the best and noblest. We cannot read the Annual 
Reports, for instance, without seeing how genuinely anxious 
the committee were for the best interests of the boys over whom 
they had charge. They " watched for their souls, as they that must 
give account" The page on which we have recorded successive 
impressions of the committee as to the religious state of the school 
is most pathetic reading. The noble joy of one year is followed 
after a brief interval by depression and dissatisfaction. There was 
no continuity of moral tone. The testimony of those who knew 
and shared the life of the place tells us of recurrent waves of evil 
which from time to time rose in flood, " outbursts of depravity in 
which the entire morale of the school was perverted, and rectitude 
and religiousness simply persecuted." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


It is common enough in schools for public opinion to make an 
artificial standard ; to make some things permissible, and others not 
permissible, quite apart from the right and wrong of the matter ; to 
draw a fine line between what inay and what may not be considered 
as justifiable action, between what is held to be actually bad 
and what just escapes being bad ; to go as close as possible to the 
edge without crossing over. And it is evident that where there is 
no wise control and strong influence this will go further; this so 
fine line will be thinned quite away, and everybody will cross over it, 
and there will be no tradition of goodness, and public opinion will 
offer no check to wrong-doing. And that is ruin ; that is a weltering 
chaos of wickedness; that is an abyss in which conscience and 
right feeling and good customs and individual sincerities are 
swallowed up and lost. 

The necessary control and influence have come now from the 
appointment of a higher type of master, and, above all, from the 
creation of the order of prefects. But, in the absence of these, no 
wonder that we find these periodic "outbursts of depravity." 
Influence was the exception and not the rule ; control there w^as, 
but not always wise. The tendency undoubtedly was to draw too 
hard and fast a line between good boys and bad boys. Most boys 
£u:e of composite character ; motives are often complex ; the inner 
condition is often that of a moral see-saw, or rather, perhaps, a tug- 
of-war, in which often the contending forces are very evenly matched, 
and now one, now another, gains a slight advantage. Not enough 
allowance was made for temporary inconsistencies. • " Religion was 
presented to us as a duty and solemn obligation rather than as a 
privilege and delight, and we were taught to think of judgement much 
more than of mercy." 

Besides this, the ethical standard was somewhat artificial. An old 
boy relates how, on the day of departure, at Bristol Station, the 
platform of which was reached by a flight of steps, the big boys were 
sent up and the little ones kept below in the booking-oflfice as 
samples, while half-tickets were procured for all. To enforce sub- 
scriptions of one-third or one-half of the weekly pocket-money as 
" voluntary contributions " to foreign missions seems equally 
dubious. In the opposite direction, as has been already stated, 
to read a novel was held a grave sin. An amusing illustration 
of this occurs in 1827. The Memoirs of Mrs, Anne Warren 
(by the Rev. S. Warren, LL.D.) contains a letter from Mrs. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Warren to her son Samuel at Kingswood, in which she 

writes : — 

But, my dear lK»y, the subject which most afflicts my mind is that which 
follows. I shall again quote from your own words, that I may not misunderstand 
you. Vou say, *' I am afraid I have injured my mind by that pernicious kind of 
amusement — reading novels ; but I think, after all, more good than bad has 
resulted from it." Now, if what you state were correct, — that more good than 
bad has resulted from that kind of reading, — your reading was not pernicious but 
advantageous. Your next sentence, however, will abundantly prove that your 
reading has been very pernicious indeed. " I have now found that the mind is 
shaped after the reading in youth. Now I can write a romance or make a novel 
with a great deal more ease and skill than I could write on a moral or religious 
subject. Before I read novels, I could write with considerable fluency on a 
religious or moral topic ; therefore, by the advice and entreaty of Miss H. C, I 
have almost promised never to read another novel." Surely the first reflection 
which arises m your mind on reviewing the above quotation from your letter must 
be, that the reading in which you have indulged is not only pernicious (that is too 
feeble a word to express the thing) ; it has proved to you downright poisonous 
—and that to an alarming extent. What ! To be able to write a novel or a 
romance now with greater fluency than you can write on a moral or a religious 
subject ! Poison, deadly poison has been administered to your mind ; and, 
accoidii^ to your own account, has been received by you with greediness. . . . 
VViihout making any further remarks on your letter at present, let me ask you — 
" NMjai are the books which you have been reading, and how did you procure them 
at Kingswood School ? " I hoped that the little library with which you were 
furnished from home would have given ample scope for the expansion of your mind 
without exposing you to danger. I know of no other book which was put into 
your hand that had the character of a novel except The History of the Earl of 
Moreknd, and that work I know need not lead you from God ; nor would it, I 
am persuaded, wthout the operation of other causes. You had, it is tnie, the 
fictitious Life and A dvetttures of Robinson Crusoe ^ but you also had with it sufficient 
admonition, that we did not consider it a proper book for you ; because, though 
founded on fact, it carries with it too mucn of the character of novels and 
romances. That you were permitted to take it at all was an indulgence which 
we >ielded to your importunity, hoping that the instruction you had previously 
had in the things of God would preserve you from sustaining any injury from it. 

In what a pathetic situation was young Samuel Warren ! He 
knew nothing of that superabundant deluge of " books for boys," 
which every Christmas pours upon the blasi youngster of to-day ; 
his young imagination was fed only by the somewhat unattractive 
pages of The Earl of Moreland and by his dear treasure, won after 
many entreaties, the Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. And 
what better book could a boy have ? How he must have known and 
loved every line of it ! He was supposed to be confined for his leisure 
reading mainly to the matter to be found in the school library — 
Arminian Magazines, biographies of the early Methodist saints, 
and Wesley's Christian Library^ and suchlike. By some means or 
other, however, he is able to get hold of a novel or two, which 
not only occupy his spare time, but stir him to emulation ; he begins 
to write novels on his own account. Would that these early efforts 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


were preserved, for this young novelist became subsequently the 
author of Ten Thousand a Year and The Diary of a Late Physician. 
However, being surrounded by an atmosphere hostile to novels, and 
being a youth possessed of a conscience, he begins to doubt the 
morality of his conduct. He takes counsel with Miss H. C, whose 
identity we cannot fix. He determines to make a clean breast of the 
matter to his mother. Surely it was a wise and honourable resolve. 
Alas ! it met only with an austere and unsympathetic response — as 
austere as that letter of a year later which said, " I have also to re- 
mind you of. my wish respecting the use of your flute. Confine your- 
self to sacred music." There was no welcome for the first springs 
of penitence, no praise of the frank confession, but only a strong de- 
claration of the greatness of the sin. Surely such a letter must have 
been likely to check all freedom of intercourse thereafter. This 
seems to have been the case, for subsequent letters from Mrs. Warren 
to her son, after he had left school, are apt to complain of the lack 
of this freedom : " You surely could send me a few lines once a 
month without any detriment to your other engagements." 

These, however, were not the reflections aroused in the mind of 
the Kingswood committee when they read the letter, either in the 
Memoirs or in the pages of the Imperial Magazine^ where it was 
quoted. To the editor of this magazine and to Dr. Warren, the 
author of the Memoirs^ they forwarded a resolution — "That the 
reading of novels has always been strictly prohibited in Kingswood 
School, and would never be indulged in but by clandestine means, 
such works being deemed utterly incompatible with those religious 
principles which it has ever been the chief object of its Founder 
and friends to implant and form in the minds of the young." 
One point, however, presents itself for elucidation. At this time all 
letters home were subject to inspection. Hence Samuel Warren's 
confession was written in the knowledge that it would meet the eye 
of authority. What steps did authority take on learning of this 
offence ? Or had authority known it all along ? 

But all this is seventy years ago. It is still true, as the report of 
1 82 1 proudly declared, that "whilst the state of the religious world 
is regularly improving and advancing to that maturity to which it 
must ultimately arrive, Kingswood School is not the last in this 
eventful march." 

Let us turn from the religious to the social life of the school. 
Bullying we have already referred to ; but, apart from that, the change 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


from a home of comfort to a residence which little resembled a home^ 
and was certainly comfortless, was too abrupt. The amenities of life 
were absent. The following testimony will graphically illustrate the 
position of a new boy — a mere child — plunged suddenly into this 
strange new world : " Left absolutely alone at eight years of age, 
amid the constant bustle of a great school, where a boy was never a 
moment alone, I had a few days of utter misery. I have never known 
such a sense of utter desolation since. There was no penny post ; a 
letter home would cost a shilling ; and even writing-paper, sealing- 
wax, and wafers were a costly luxury ; and I soon found that to send 
a letter, whether home or elsewhere, without its being submitted to 
the censorship of the masters and the governor, would be a crime 
certam to meet with condign punishment. . . . And no holidays long 
enough to give any chance of a visit home were to be expected until 
the midsummer vacation ; and at that age nine months appear an 
eternity. My home was utterly gone from me." Nor was this sense 
of forsaken loneliness, which all young boys not destitute of a natural 
taidemess of affection must have felt, softened, as it is so often in 
modem days, by the gentle kindliness of the ladies of the house. 
" What a famine of love ! " exclaims one. " True, there was Dame 
Smith, but she seemed centuries off, and never spoke to us unless, 
in true shopkeeper fashion, she sold us sweets once a week. There 
was Miss Smith, too, but her duties did not lie our way. I remember 
how we little boys yearned for a look from her, and if she ever smiled 
on one of us the favoured one ran off with rapture to boast of it to 
the rest." A natural issue was that now and again a young and 
unhappy boy could bear it no longer. " Boys whose homes were 
one or two hundred miles away would be missing some morning \ 
often they were caught ^ before they reached Bristol ; at other times 
they would be detected while begging their way along, and brought 
back ; and at times, famished and despairing, they would return and 
give themselves up." Running away — and there was much of it in 
these days — was not always to be ascribed to bravado or to depravity. 
It was sometimes pitifully due to sheer wretchedness. There is a 
striking series of entries in an old day-book of 18 12. The first two 
record expenses on ist July and 2nd November in bringing back 
runaways. In each of these little companies, of two and three 

* About 1830 six boys ran away together ; being caught and brought back, 
part of their punishment was to dine together at a separate table and to wear their 
coats inside out. In 18 10 one boy has attached to his name in the governor's 
r^cr the single word ** eloped ! " His age was ten. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


respectively, occurs the name of Byron. In the light of this fact, the 
entry for 14th November calls up a picture that suggests various 
thoughts. It reads: "A chain for Byron's leg, is. 3d." 

Another wretched boy, who on two occasions had without leave 
visited his widowed mother at Bristol, was publicly expelled. It was 
a " committee day," and the committee assembled to see the sentence 
executed. The Rev. William Atherton, the chairman, announced 
the startling intelligence, and angrily addressed the culprit as " You 
dastardly coward ! " 

Expulsion, which as a punishment is after all a confession of 
impotence, ^as too easily resorted to at this period. Between 1808 
and 1 85 1 twenty-six boys terminated their career abruptly and 

The lack of humanizing feminine intercourse, to which reference 
has been already made, continued at a later period. " Ours was a 
monastic institution, in the main, for boys of tender age. There 
was but one girl about the place, but Katty Cusworth was in the 
bloom of her early girlhood. Slander would have it that some boys 
meeting her in the passage, whereabout the kitchen stairs come up 
to the region of the workroom, all out of * the moonlight alone,' had 
the apostolic injunction (Rom. xvi. 16) borne irresistibly in upon 
them. It was unwise to look sheepish when the charge was brought. 
. . . Extremely rarely lady visitors came. No boy would admit that 
their glances fell on him, but it was our opinion that many boys 
hoped they did." 

It is only right to add here that several recall much kindness at 
the hands of Mrs. Smith, especially in times of sickness. " Whatever 
we were suffering from, we were invariably treated with most motherly 
tenderness and sympathy." Mrs. Banks also, a minister's widow, 
who resided in the neighbourhood, took much interest in the boys. 
She held religious classes for them, and often invited them to tea. 

The rule authorizing a censorship over boys' letters dates from 
very early times. It was repeated by the Conference of 181 3, and a 
regulation was made that all boys should write home once in six 
weeks ; but in 1822 the committee recommended that " indiscriminate 
and unrevised correspondence be not permitted, except perhaps to 
boys in their two last years, and then only letters to parents." This 
suggests two things. The reason for forbidding little boys to write 
home " unrevised " would appear to be a fear of complaints, justified 
or not, which would arouse the dissatisfaction and remonstrance of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


parents. A check on the ^<f//errt/ correspondence of elder boys must 
have had other objects. Was it that the " famine of love " within 
the walls suggested attempts to secure supplies from outside ? In 
1824 even the small privileges permitted in 1822 were removed ; 
from 1837-39 the testimony is : "No boy received a letter that the 
governor had not opened and read, and no boy could write a letter 
home that had not been inspected and corrected by a master. The 
plan was as follows : On certain days the boys wrote their would-be 
letters on slates, which were then subjected to the master's inspec- 
tion. Many corrections were generally made, and the residue copied 
for transmission." The penny post seems to have eventually killed 
the system. 

In 18 1 9 a sub-committee on the general management of the 
school presented a report, from which we are able to glean many 
valuable details as to the daily course at that period. The maids 
rose between four and five, the governor at five, the governess 
between five and six, the boys at half past five. At a quarter past 
six school began ; breakfast was at eight ; school from* a quarter 
past nine to a quarter past twelve, and from two to five, with prepara- 
tion in the evening at seven. Dinner was at half past twelve and 
tea at five. The juniors went to bed at eight, the seniors half an 
hour later. 

Each boy received one new suit a year, and was allotted two 
shirts, one nightcap, one pair of stockings, and one handkerchief 
weekly. Short religious exercises followed each meal. There was 
a chapel on Thursday evenings as well as twice on Sundays. On 
Sunday evening the governor catechized or one of the masters read 
something devotional. 

There was little attempt to provide a civilized life for the boys. 
Their youth demanded more careful supervision in matters of 
clothing and cleanliness than in the case of older boys, and the 
absence of this produced a race of unkempt young savages. The 
scandalous lavatory arrangements have been already referred to. 
The lavatory, moreover, was kept locked, except at stated times. 
The two following extracts from the minutes of the committee speak 
for themselves. 

1819. On Wednesday and Saturday their necks and faces are washed, and 
erery other Tuesday their feet are washed. 

1843. The washing of heads, necks, and feet is to take place in the lava- 
tory instead of the schoolroom ; the younger boys are still to be washed by elderly 
«id disaeet servants, the seniors are to wash themselves under proper inspection. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The method adopted is described by an old boy of 1837-39. 

On certain evenings two large tubs were brought into the schoolroom ; each 
tub contained warm water. By each two strong women stood, prepared with 
soap and flannel for the coming laving. Stript to the waist, every boy in turn 
had to present himself for the operation — walking from his place to the tubs, and 
returning in like manner. The wondrous and grotesque scene of a hundred half- 
nude youths can be imagined. . . . For the necessary cleansing of the feet the same 
provision of tubs and domestics was made, but here each boy, taking off shoes and 
stockings, and leaving them at his seat, walked up the gangway, trousers tucked 
up to his knees. The process of ablution over, he could not of course soil his feet 
by walking back again, and therefore monitors were improvised, and these carried 
the lads pick-a-back to their places, presenting a picture as comical as it was 

Up to this date boys made their own beds, but on 26th October 
1843 ^^^y were relieved from this ; till 1841 they assisted in the 
kitchen, and till 181 2, at any rate, small sums in pence were disbursed 
to them for manual assistance — the official phrase on one occasion 
is, "for hard labour in the garden." 

In 1843 the old system of communistic clothing ceased. 

When a lad for its repair parted with his second or every-day suit brought 
to the school, he took final leave of it. From that time he must depend on any 
supplies to be obtained. Twice a week after breakfast boys were called upon to 
change their garments. There was the trouser department, the jacket ditto, the 
waistcoat ditto. On proceeding upstairs they found Daddy seated by a big box, 
and calling for those whose trousers were torn. From the box were extracted 
pairs that had been repaired, and, from these, various ones were hung up against 
the lad, until Daddy pronounced the fit suitable. The lad then retired and put on 
the fresh pair, leaving his torn trousers for repair ; after which the latter would 
find their way into the said box to make other fits for other boys. In this manner 
waistcoats and jackets were dealt with. 

Shirts and stockings also were all thrown into a common stock. 
The fresh supply of these, weekly laid on each boy's bed, was made 
haphazard, with little attempt to supply a suitable fit. No doubt 
the boys themselves tried to remedy this to some extent, and we can 
imagine the cry of some discontented youth : " I say, you chaps, 
my shirt's too small. Who'll swop ? " 

Mr. Cusworth enjoys the credit of having put an end to this 
system. He supplied each boy with a receptacle in which his own 
clothes might be kept separate from the others. 

On leaving, a boy received a new suit, similar to that with which 
he came, but that a tall hat replaced the cap. The outer garments 
are described (1828-32) as consisting of an olive-green coat wth 
short tails and brass buttons and light drab or green corduroy 
trousers. Each boy also possessed a cloak, which was carefully 
stored away during winter and handed out for use in the summer 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


holidays I Leather caps were worn early in the century. " Imagine 
us,'' writes one (1834-40) "dressed in clothes which had been under 
our pillows all night " (there was nowhere else to put them, but the 
floor), "and which had hardly been brushed since they were made, 
wearing shirts with little turn-down collars, innocent of starch, which 
we wore by night as well as by day, and shoes which once a week 
received a touch of oil, but had never heard of blacking;^ and 
remember that we were all little boys under fifteen, for whose per- 
sonal appearance nobody cared, and we ourselves least of all." 

The dietary forms no unimportant topic in the history of a school. 
In 181 9 the dinner menu was as follows : Sunday — mutton, veget- 
ables, occasionally a pudding ; Monday — beef ; Tuesday — puddings 
or dumplings ; Wednesday — meat and pudding ; Thursday — meat 
and vegetables \ Friday — fruit or meat pies ; Saturday — " cakes " 
and butter or cheese. The rarity of vegetables seems the main flaw 
in this system, if the quantity were suflficient. Bread and milk was 
served for breakfast and tea. The seniors had bread and cheese for 
supper. The fact that the apples, when apple-pie appeared, were 
neither pared nor cored, suggests unsatisfactory cooking. 

An old boy of 1828-32 says, " We had bread and milk 2 for break- 
fast, and meat and potatoes to dinner, except Saturdays, when we 
had bread and cheese in the schoolroom. (The dining-hall was 
cleaned that day.) There was always on week-days a hot steamed 
suet-pudding, and on Sundays a cold plum-pudding." 

1834-40. During this time porridge appears as a breakfast dish. 
The hash-day mentioned in a subsequent table is Tuesday. Sunday's 
and Monday's overplus no doubt found a resting-place in this day's dish. 
Digestion was assisted by silence ; all talking was forbidden both in 
hall and in dormitory. In the former, no doubt, it was not only for- 
bidden but prevented. The reading of books, however, was allowed. 
The quantity of food seems to have been ludicrously insufficient. 

For breakfast a lad was supplied with one slice of dry bread and half a pint 
of water gruel, tinged with milk and flavoured with salt, in a tin pannikin. At 
dinner he had one helping of meat and vegetables and one slice of suet-pudding. 
The evening repast consisted also of a slice of dry bread and half a pint of milk 
and water. ... A boy, even in the bleakest morning, had been up two hours when 
lie got that miserable breakfast. His last meal in the evening was served at six 
o'clock, so that from that hour until eight the next morning he was without food, 
though he spent an hour in the evening and an hour and a half in the morning in 
study. . . . Notwithstanding the little time allowed for play and recreation, quite 
a competition existed among the boys to be permitted to turn the mangle in the 

* On Sundays only were blacked ^\io^ worn. ^ Known as ** sops." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


laundry in their playtime. If they did this they were allowed to roast a potato, 
and obtained a small slice of meat and bread at bedtime. 

Some boys supplemented the authorized rations by raids on the 

1839-44. We have for this period the following "cycle of 
feasts " : Sunday — cold roast beef and cold plum-pudding ; Monday 
— roast mutton; Tuesday — boiled beef; Wednesday — hash; 
Thursday — boiled mutton ; Friday — " gunpowder pie " ; Saturday 
— bread and cheese, with fruit in season. On Monday, Tuesday, 
Wednesday, and Thursday the meat was accompanied by potatoes 
and other vegetables, and followed by plain suet-pudding with 
" Daddy's gravy," a thin, treacly unguent. " Gunpowder pie " is the 
dish known to later generations as " resurrection pie." The older 
title was due to the excessive amount of pepper employed in making 
this "savoury meat." Hence the "gunpowder plot," a day when 
all the school refused to eat this pie. Daddy Smith appealed first 
to the monitors, then to the " religious " boys. Four or five yielded ; 
the rest remained firm. At the evening meal the assembled school 
found themselves confronted with the identical viands of noontide. 
When tea was over, the plates were empty — but otherwise than 
authority thought, unless perhaps the master in charge of the hall c 
winked at what he saw, for it was the boys' pockets and not their 
mouths that received the unpopular preparation. Then it was that 
gunpowder pie gave way to fruit pie, and the school won their cause. 

" Scrap-plates " disappeared in 1843. These stood at intervals 
down the tables, and received fat and other portions of food which 
public tradition or private taste rejected. These repulsive-looking 
heaps were afterwards distributed to beggars. 

That was a pleasant custom, whereby a boy on his birthday 
was allowed to dine at the governor's table. Sometimes adjacent 
birthdays were transferred to the same day, so as to bring a little 
batch of boys to the high table at once. Then alone, except on the 
last morning of term, did a boy taste butter. 

1843-48. The food is described as "insufficient, ill-cooked, and 
ill-served." ^ Parents sometimes complained of their sons' ravenous 
hunger in the holidays. 

* Hence the words of an ancient rhjnne : — 

Peter and Paul went into the hall 
To collar a loaf of bread ; 
Daddy was there, and saw the affair, 
And gave Peter a clout on the head. 

Paul evidently got off; he doubtless "outran Peter." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


1846-51. The breakfast milk was warmed in winter by the 
simple method of adding hot water. " The milk was furnished by 
eight cows, seven of which grazed in the meadows; the eighth always 
stood near the dairy and laundry. . . . We had cold plum-pudding 
on Sunday; the raisins were like Loch Awe, whither it is a *far 
cry.' We managed to eat the pudding, how, I cannot tell, for I 
cannot remember seeing a knife-grinder all the time I was at school. 
We had a hash-Wednesday every week ; the dog — it was a brown 
spaniel, named Hector — had a good dinner those days. . . . We 
often had rice for dinner." 

1849-51. The following dietary is given : — 

Sunday — Cold beef; cold plum-pudding. 

Monday — Hot roast beef; rice and treacle. 

Tuesday — " Gripe day," acid fruit pie. 

Wednesday — Hot joint, beef, mutton, or veal. 

Thursday — Stew ; "diamond " pudding (suet) with sugar or jam. 

Friday — Hot joint, generally pork. 

Saturday — Bread and cheese. 

The Saturday's dinner seems to have been the most popular 
with the boys I It was the only day they had enough. The pork 
was too fat to be appreciated, for tradition forbade the eating of fat. 
Any boy who transgressed this custom was a " beast." On Sunday 
there was bread and cheese for supper. Sunday's cold plum- 
pudding was in wintry weather warmed by insertion in the trousers 
pocket ! The chief fault was the insufficiency of the food.^ 

On occasion some extra delicacy sweetened the plainness of the 
fare. Hot cross buns appeared at one time on Good Friday, and 
a fish dinner on that day was once de rigueur, and was regarded, 
doubtless, rather as a feast than as a fast. At another time we find 
plums distributed, and in 1805 we meet with an expenditure of 4s. Qd. 
on "oisters." But, perhaps, these were not for the generality. 
Still, fourteen pounds of honey in 1 814 is sweetly suggestive. 

Games were in " a parlous state." We know how the playing 
dilBculty cropped up in John Wesley's time, and it would be 
interesting to know how soon after his death play was officially 
recognized. In 181 5 the term "playground" appears in the 
governor's day-book. Play hours are mentioned in 18 19 in the 
committee's report on the existing arrangements of the school, but 
only as times when the boys "recreate themselves" or "amuse 
^ ** Occasional fast-days " are mentioned (1846-52). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


themselves." In 1821, as we have already mentioned, the com- 
mittee built a fives wall. But there was no sort of official 
organization of athletics. No august Games* Committee ruled out- 
door life, and dabbled in finance. There was no finance to dabble 
in ; boys were too poor. One describes how a gift of half a crown 
made him a " silver king." This alone narrowed the rkpertoire of 
sports. Another limiting circumstance was the nature of the 
playground ; it was roomy, but traversed by rows of stately trees, 
goodly to look upon, but fatal to many games, if conducive to 
others. Moreover, the playground was gravelled, and there was no 
field — none, at least, into which boys might go. Hence cricket 
was an impossibility. A sort of prehistoric football was engaged 
in ^ — how the historians of the game would be interested to know 
its rules as played at Old Kingswood ! Fives had a great vogue. 
The trees, all informants agree, were a great inducement to rounders, 
and added much zest to the game. This is somewhat difficult to 
understand ; they would, no doubt, add uncertainty, which perhaps 
constituted the charm. Anyhow, rounders flourished. Marbles (at 
one time forbidden, as an incentive to gambling), dapping (the 
bouncing of a soft ball on the piazza floor — the record was some 
two thousand daps), wrestling (on an arena of autumn leaves), 
skipping (usually supposed to belong to the other sex, but admirable 
exercise, and excellent training for athletes), prisoner's base, hoops, 
leap-frog, must be added to the list. Here also are to be recorded 
"caravans and robbers" (the name explains itself), "foot and a 
half" (a species of leap-frog, in which a boy gave his back to 
successive jumpers, and then moved forward by the length and 
breadth of his foot, till one failed at the leap and took his place), 
" charging !' (often between serried ranks of Levites and Manassites, 
sometimes between Whigs and Tories), hockey (ultimately suppressed 
as dangerous to windows and faces), pole-jumping, long-jumping, 
and " conquerors " (the chestnut game of childhood). Sliding and 
snowballing held high rank in their season, slides being carefully 
prepared by pouring water down overnight. In' this list, at any rate, 
there was scope for all, and a wider range of choice for the 
individual than in modern days. The value of compulsory games 

* Played with a solid ball, **the size of a small Dutch cheese"! (1846-52). 
" Football," says another, "was played with earnestness and apple-sauce. By 
kicking the ball into Giles* orchard, we got leave to fetch it, and improved the 
opportunity by pocketing a fallen apple, or, what was more exciting, one thai 
would have fallen in time." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


is undeniable, biit the system often presses hardly on special boys, 
who are not loafers, but whose peculiar athletic fancy is not one of 
the recognized sports. At Old Kingswood each boy was free to 
follow his own bent — but many boys played no games at alL 

Till 1828 boys' gardens existed, situated in the playground 
before the scheolroom, and surrounded by a privet hedge. Here 
an autumn occupation was to rear structures of leaves and grass, 
made to cohere by a plentiful supply of mud ; into these Esquimaux- 
like huts one or two boys would creep, and there enjoy " bread 
eaten in secret " on Saturday afternoons. In the " clinkers " after 
wet weather a pond was formed by stopping up the outlets ; here 
home-made fleets made their voyages. 

A word, perhaps, ought to be added, not utterly to pass over 
nocturnal athletics in the shape of pillow-fights. They need no 
description. Their science is not lost in a hoary antiquity. Pillows 
are glorious weapons — they are a splendid test of temper, and they 
do no mjury. Only they are apt to be rent. 

The monitorial system existed only in name. Control exercised 
by older boys was won by force of arm. Fagging existed, but it was 
informal and unauthorized. The official monitor^ was rather a 
servant than a ruler of the rest ; he waited in hall, distributed the 
books before a lesson and collected them afterwards, rang the bell, 
carried ink, and suchlike. Some small fragment of authority he 
possessed in the dormitories, but his main distinction lay in 
receiving a double allowance of pocket-money. 

With regard to this same pocket-money, the regulation appears 
in 181 1 : "The boys shall receive their pocket-money weekly, to 
prevent them buying too much fruit at once." This money was 
provided from the school funds, and the amount was three half- 
pence a week, from which a halfpenny was deducted as a 
"voluntary" contribution, divided between foreign missions and 
the Worn-out Preachers' Fund. There was also "white book" 
money, or money banked with the governor after the holidays by 
boys who could do so from their private resources, and doled out 
by him in small sums. There were two " tuckshops," the cottages 
of Giles Golding and Samuel Whyatt " Uncle Giles " was a great 
institution.^ " On purchasing a red-herring, say, for a halfpenny, and 
a slice of bread to eat with it, the frugal but hungry lad was permitted 

' The term "censor" also occurs. 

* There is still a sweet-shop on the site of Giles* cottage ! 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


to broil the fish on Uncle Giles' fire. . . . Giles sold, too, lollypops, 
twine, tops, hoops, and other accessories to boy-life, when funds 
could be found for their purchase." Giles was a pitman, and it 
was a popular recreation to visit his shop on Saturdays to see his 
wife lather the good man's back, and remove the week's accumula- 
tions therefrom. Giles became a "reformer" in 1849, ^^'^ was 
" discommonsed." This order did not, perhaps, seriously affect his 
trade. "But in addition to this, there was the benevolent old 
dame who furnished a kind of portable tuckshop to the institution. 
. . . Once or twice a week it was the habit of Daddy Smith to 
drive to Bristol in a specially strong Coburg, capable of sustaining 
his enormous weight, and return bearing sundry comestibles, 
including his loving partner's tuckshop requisites. These consisted 
of various kinds of economic pastry and cakes, and, on pay-day, 
were tendered for the lad's custom, in one comer of the school- 
room, the diligent dame doing the office of saleswoman." Beyond 
visits to Giles and Whyatt, there was little but clandestine exit from 
the premises. Occasionally the masters would take their classes 
for a walk on Wednesday afternoon, and at times bigger boys w^ere 
able to get leave to go by twos and threes for a walk. Now and 
again on these occasions they would illegally bathe in the Avon. 
An excursion for twenty-one boys to Pill is recorded in 181 3, and 
in the previous year an entry of some obscurity runs: "Boys 
bathing at Baptist Mill, 2s. 6d." Again, in 18 16, several of the 
boys went into Bristol to attend the funeral of the Rev. John 
Barber, the first President of Conference to die within his year of 
office. At times, also, a few of the elder boys were permitted to 
accompany Governor Smith on Sundays when he was engaged to 
preach at Hanham, Redfield, or some other neighbouring place. 

But the day as a rule was divided between the drudgery and 
severity of the schoolroom, and the roughness and monotony of 
the playground. A library there was indeed, but of little interest 
to boys, though it is recorded of one that he read through all 
Rollin's History of Europe in forty volumes. At one time the 
committee spent much ill-directed care upon this library ; as early 
as 181 2 it was ordered to be increased, and magazines (chiefly 
The Methodist and The Eclectic) began to be regularly purchased. 
In 1818 a peculiarly sapient resolution decreed that a copy of all 
bookroom publications should in future be given to it, and that 
every preacher who published a book should be invited to present 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


a copy. This must have made the library valuable to antiquaries, 
but of small suitability to schoolboys. In 1841 the boys themselves 
subscribed to improve their store, and the committee made a 
grant, but by 1850 the library had fallen into much decay. Some 
boys took in The Saturday Magazine and The YoutKs Instructor. 

As early as 1808 small sums begin to appear from time to time 
as expended on " entertainments " or " extra amusements " for the 
boys. The earlier entry, "slings for boys," is of doubtful signifi- 
cance. They may have been simply surgical appliances. There 
are entries of the latter nature about the same date, sometimes 
rather startling when one comes upon them unexpectedly. Of this 
kind is "a new leg for Master Sutcliffe, 6d." Next year (1806) 
Master Sutcliffe acquires a thigh at a cost of 8s. A little later we 
read: "Wooden legs, 2s. 6d." These items provoke a smile, 
which turns to a sigh; no doubt to Master Sutcliffe and the 
others the affliction was sore enough. However, the slings may 
have been of a more pleasurable character. 

In the Christmas holidays the boys who remained at the 
school had entertainments and concerts of a somewhat primitive 
kind. Latterly, Mr. Shera was a tower of strength at these 
gatherings. The fifth of November was another occasion of 
festivity, and was, indeed, the great high-day of the year. A huge 
bonfire and a monstrous Guy were always in evidence. The last 
few days intervening between the examination and the holidays, 
and known as " the everlasting days," were also occasions of high 
revel, sometimes uproarious and illegal. At one time there was a 
short-lived manuscript magazine. Of one editor thereof the fact 
is narrated that he had definite theological views on "final 
perseverance," and announced that if in the prayer-meetings any 
h)Tnn were sung contrary to this doctrine he would walk out. 
Hymn 317 * was sung, and he was as good as his word. He who 
tells this story adds, " I hope he is persevering still." 

The life at Old Kingswood was as unlike as possible to that 
of schools of to-day, and it is perhaps difficult to form a correct 
picture of it. The introduction of a prefect system in 1875 alone 
made an enormous difference. When some fifty or one hundred 
^^ are herded together within a playground which, though large, 
is yet limited, some sort of system of self-government must of 
course spring up. The strong impose their will on the weak ; 

' In Wesley's Hymns. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


this again is checked by public opinion, and, to some extent, 
by the ever-present master. The latter, however, had so often 
himself as a boy imbibed the traditions of the place, and was, 
moreover, so young for the exertion of influence as distinct from 
command, that he probably found the wiser course to be not to 
interfere unless to check very gross bullying, or in other extreme 
cases. Nor was he always possessed of the moral quality to make 
interference effectual. The monitor had practically no more 
authority than any other big or strong boy. He might at most be 
looked to, in dormitory for instance, to supply on demand the names 
of those engaged in any disturbance or breach of rule ; he himself 
could not punish, except by force of arms. We have, indeed, seen 
how on one occasion the governor appealed to the " religious boys." 
But this is hardly an incident in proof of self-government. A 
congeries of fifty boys, the eldest of them but fourteen, and 
practically uncared for and unguided out of school (and sometimes 
in school too) could not, one would think, have exhibited a ver>' 
high moral tone. But more fatal to tone than anything else was to 
classify certain of the boys as " religious," and, by implication, the 
rest as "irreligious." No doubt, amongst the "religious" boys, 
were many noble, high-minded fellows, who did much at various 
epochs to elevate the tone of the school, and also to bring their 
influence to bear on individuals. The testimony of their con- 
temporaries shows that this influence was often very precious, and 
has left abiding results. But the probability is that among the 
others too there were many good fellows, whose excellence remained 
unrecognized, inasmuch as they could not say the Shibboleth that 
authority expected ; and many others of potential goodness, capable 
of very high qualities, never brought out. The surest way to make 
a boy " irreligious " is to persistently call him so. What was wanted 
was a recognition of partial goodness. For those in authority so 
to speak, and for those who claimed to be " religious " so to bear 
themselves towards any boy as if he were not one of themselves, 
' impels him to seek peace of mind in the opposing camp. It was 
no doubt acknowledged that many boys who passed for " religious '' 
were not worthy of their high calling, but the converse was not so 
readily admitted, that there might be goodness without the formal 
profession of it. 

"Public spirit" is a modem term in educational history; but 
yet it dates back, at any rate in one or two schools, almost to the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


period when Old Kingswood opened. But at Old Kingswood there 
cannot have been much of it. The need of combination for the 
purposes of games must have produced some sense of corporate 
life. But the absence of competition with other schools prevented 
this from going very far. The esprit de corps and loyalty so 
conspicuous in a boy of New Kingswood had hardly begun at the 
time of the migration. The history of Kingswood in this respect 
has curiously reversed that of most schools. In the generality of 
these, rivalry with others has begun in the playing fields; at 
Kingswood it began in the examination room. After a series of 
triumphant conflicts there, it is not till the late seventies that we 
find Kingswood^ venturing to cross swords in the other arena. 
Neither of these fields of strife were open to Old Kingswood. 
Matches the lack of accommodation at the school and expense 
forbade ; nor were there other schools at hand to meet. With regard 
to examinations, the university "Locals" had not begun. The 
tender age at which boys left forbade them to enter at the uni- 
versities themselves, had the older universities then been open to 
them. Hence the only examinations which the school knew were 
within its own borders. 

Many old boys testify that the life was healthy. But this is 
the witness of survivors. No doubt it was hardy, and to boys of 
vigorous constitution strengthening. But it must have been fatal 
to delicate boys. Many remember -how they sat shivering on 
winter Sundays without overcoats in the frigid chapel ; they recall 
that it was often necessary to break the ice before the morning 
wash ; they allude to the unhealthy and neglected condition of the 
latrines. The food was insufficient in quantity; the dormitories 
were ill-ventilated and overcrowded. One old boy compares the 
migration to the new school to the Carthaginians settling down in 
Campania. Comfort was not considered a necessary for school 
life, and it was forgotten that to many constitutions comfort means 
^ife. On the other hand, the school register from 1808 to 1851 
records twenty deaths and forty-one cases of leaving owing to ill- 
health, out of about seven hundred boys. 

There were, of course, from time to time the usual epidemics 
(such as measles) which are apt to attack schools. It does not 
seem necessary to allude to these in detail. Smallpox visited the 

^ Woodhouse Grove began to play matches about ten years earlier. Kingswood 
played an occasional match in the sixties. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


school more than once, and in 1830 one boy died from this cause. 
It is an interesting commentary on the methods of the times to 
know of one father at any rate who writes to his son to say how 
glad he is to hear of the boy's recovery from smallpox, and adds, 
"We should have been very anxious if we had known that you 
had been ill." The first intimation had beien from his son's letter 
announcing his recovery. 

It is hardly necessary to attempt a summary of this term of the 
school's life. A period of forty-three years must have been one 
of progress or the school would never have reached the end of it. 
That it lived so long is a proof that it advanced. This advance 
was mainly along two lines — domestic and scholastic. With regard 
to the former of these, we have seen what material changes were 
made from time to time that tended to increase, or to create, the 
comfort of life; we have arrived at a time when the domestic 
arrangements were no longer in a condition which seems so 
impossible to men of to-day; we have arrived at a time when 
comfort is officially recognized as one of the factors of the problem, 
and, comfort being no longer possible in the old buildings, the 
authorities are prepared to seek new ones; in a word, we have 
reached civilization. With an improvement in this respect, there 
must have also come social improvement, a greater degree of 
mutual courtesy and consideration; but this element of progress 
is not strongly marked till we reach a later date, when the average 
age of boys has risen. 

In the scholastic department, the gain is not so much in the 
curriculum as in the teaching. In the curriculum indeed there is 
a distinct advance; the mathematical work has gone further, 
and the general system of study has been widened. But it is 
mainly the improved salaries of masters that is responsible for 
better teaching; higher salaries mean a superior type of master, 
with more teaching power and personal weight. Men come who 
do not think their work solely to consist in setting lessons one 
day, and hearing them the next; the gerund-grinder is beginning 
to give place to the teacher. No doubt it is possible to point to 
many excellent scholars sent out from the school in its early days — 
the names of Joseph Beaumont, John Lomas, W. M. Bunting, 
T. E. Webb, J. H. Rigg, J. D. Geden, occur to one's mind ; but 
there are always clever boys who will learn under any system. 
Improved educational methods mean that interest in his work 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


spreads to the ordinary boy, that the general average of attainment 
rises, and that the number of boys who leave the school practically 
uneducated tends to the vanishing point. 

And now we are about to enter on a new epoch, in a new 
habitation. The home of so many memories is left behind; it 
becomes a temple on whose altar the sacred fire is extinguished ; 
it becomes at most a dismantled shrine to which pilgrims may 
journey. And pilgrims have from time to time sought this shrine. 
If to some its memories are but sad and recall only unhappy years, 
there are many who thank God they were ever there, and who, 
had they so returned, could have pointed out places of special and 
personal interest, and the eye would have dwelt lovingly upon 
spots around which sacred memories hovered. This or that place 
would have brought to their remembrance incidents in their lives 
which have been afterwards seen to have been critical and far 
reaching. Here, perhaps, was a place which had seen the beginning 
of a lifelong and loyal friendship, which had meant very much to 
them afterwards. There again sprang up a host of recollections, 
of success or failure, of pleasure or of disappointment. There 
once more was a spot, perchance within the walls of the old chapel, 
of more solemn memories ; memories of a crisis in the inner being, 
when the resolves of a lifetime were formed, perhaps after a period 
of stormy conflict, when the powers of the soul were at strife ; 
memories of the sudden illuminating ray of divine light flashed 
upon the soul ; memories, it may be, of a great fall and of a great 
recovery from that fall ; memories of close and solemn communion 
with di\dne things, from which they had come away awed and 
strangely strengthened, to live henceforth not to themselves but to 
God and their fellow-men. 

There is little now even for a pilgrim^s eye. The old buildings 
are pulled down. But though the landscape that surrounds it is 
new, the school at Bath is the school at Bristol. It is not bricks 
and mortar that make continuity — it is life; and the life is the 
same, amplified, sweetened, deepened perhaps, but in unbroken 
succession from the first day until now. Though, as we pass from 
one epoch to another, our footsteps would for a moment fain linger 
upon the old ways, yet with the courage of faith we plant them 
firaily on untried ground, secure in the confidence of that memorable 
word : " The best of all is, God is with us'' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



They are neither man nor woman, 
They are neither brute nor human, 
They are Ghouls.— Poe. 

Before quitting this period of the history, there remains one 
topic which cannot be passed by and which seems to find its most 
appropriate place here. 

The existing literature of our subject is extremely scanty. 
Wesley's " Plain Account" expresses rather a design than an achieve- 
ment. Scattered references in his journals supply fragmentary facts, 
but from the time of his death down to about 1830, when surviving 
memories reinforce our store of information, there is a yawning 
hiatus, only partially and unreliably bridged over by a remarkable 
book, to which reference is made further on. 

The Kingsxvood Magazine not only supplies a record of current 
events, but has made laudable and successful efforts to collect the 
reminiscences of old boys of different epochs.^ But this is not all, 

* The following list of these contributions may be useful : — 


1819. . 




1831. . 







1855. . 
1867. . 

Rev. T. Woolmer 

G. D. D. 

Rev. J. H. Lord 

Rev. Francis W. Greeves. 
Rev. W. Barber . 
Rev. G. T. Taylor . 
Rev. F. Greeves, D.D. . 
H. H. Pollard, J. P. 
Rev. G. W. Cowper Smith 
Rev. C. Eacott, B.A. 

F. Richards, M.A. . 
R. W. Jackson, M.A. 

S. Stephenson, M.A. 
W. A. Willis, LL.B. 
W. A. Willis, LL.B. 


June, Oct. 1892 ; Sept, 

. Nov, 1884 ; Oct, 


Dec. 1889 

Dec. 1895 

. Dec. 1889 

Apr. 1890 

. Feb. 1890 

Feb. 1890 

. May 1892 

Sept., Oct., Nov. 1 89 1 

. July 1890 

. Oct. 1889 

Apr., May, June 1893 

. Apr. 1896 

May 1895 

. June, l^c. 1880 

Nov. 1889; Nov. 1893 

. Sept. 1885 

. June 1880 

. Oct. 1895 

1893 ; Oct., Nov. 1894 

1894; Feb., June 1895 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

STOIV 183 

for in March 1880 the Kingswood and Grove Quarterly (as it then 
was called) began a History of Kingswood School, which brought the 
record down to the year 1 789. This history was from the pen of 
Mr. A. S. Way, and exhibited all the charm of diction and luxuriance 
of poetic thought which we should expect from that source. But 
the writer aimed rather at giving a vivid picture of the early days of 
the school than at grappling with any of the difficulties to which the 
more matter-of-fact historian must apply himself. The narrative 
ended with the last reference to Kingswood in John Wesley's 
Journals. A promise was made in October 1881 of a further 
chapter, which was "in course of preparation," but that chapter 
never appeared, perhaps because it was about that time that Mr. 
Way went to Australia. 

The Grove has been more fortunate ; a complete history of that 
school from the pen of Mr. J. T. Slugg was published in 1885, under 
the title of Woodhouse Grove School : Memorials and Reminiscences, 
Mr. John Middleton Hare also began a history of the Grove in the 
Kif^swaod and Grove Quarterly in October 1882 ; this ran through 
four numbers, and then abruptly ceased with the tantalizing words, 
"to be continued." It covered only the first four years of the 
schooFs existence. 

From 1823 to 1826 Jonathan Crowther was headmaster of Kings- 
wood School. The record of that troublous three years* reign is to 
be found in an earlier chapter of this history, but it is also preserved 
by one who saw it from within, in that extraordinary book alluded to 
above. The late Rev. Theophilus Woolmer was one of those who 
groaned under that tyranny, and in later years, while he was musing 
on the bitternesses of the past, the fire of his indignation kindled ; into 
that flame he cast the memories of his own boyhood and those of 
some of his friends, together with his own views on a right and just 
system of school management, and there came out Bozv it was done 
at Stow School. The work was published anonymously, and reached 
a second edition in 1888. Stow is Old Kingswood under the 
thinnest of disguises. Many of the incidents and of the portraitures 
are easily recognizable. Some, no doubt, are new creations. Not 
professing to write a history but to draw a picture, the writer was, 
of course, perfectly justified in supplying details, which, though not 
true in fact, should be true in character. It will perhaps be thought 
worth while to give some connected account of this little book of less 
than 250 pages. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The introductory chapter contains some wise remarks on the 
true qualifications of a teacher, and a demand for training and 
registration as the only means of choking off the swarm of totally 
unfit persons who crowd into the profession — a motley horde of 
" unsuccesful tradesmen, privates in the army, disabled clerks, farm 
labourers, pill-makers' assistants, etc., etc., together with a strange 
medley of the other sex, now dignified as governesses, who used to 
be housekeepers, nurses, milliners, and widows of grocers, potato 
dealers, and the like ; all of whom announce that their schools are 
served by * well-qualified assistants,* and perhaps, in some instances, 
by * graduates of the University of London ' — a perfect godsend to 
such people." If we observe a touch of exaggeration in these words, 
this will be found, it is thought, to be a characteristic of the book as 
a whole. The colours are laid on with a whitewasher's brush — and 
they are nearly all of sombre hue. There is, however, no exaggera- 
tion, but sound sense in the thought that lies behind the statement 
that " for teachers we do not so much want scholars as men. We 
want men of sense and sympathy, who understand the true quality 
and value of things, and who love life and human nature ... [it 
is] of more importance to our merchants and tradesmen, and to 
professional men, that we should furnish them with youths well 
disposed and accustomed to self-government, than with youths 
who have obtained certificates of proficiency in a * middle-class 
examination.' " 

The object of the book in question is to show how not to provide 
this education. It is the record of a tyranny — a tyranny of the cane, 
but not of the cane only. " There are other tyrannies besides that 
of the rod. There is the tyranny of unwise and unyielding laws. 
There is the tyranny of absurd and revolting customs ; of a cruel 
and repelling indifference; of mean and demoralizing stint; of 
extorting but unsatisfied selfishness; of the strong boys over the 
weak. There is the tyranny of a self-sufficient ignorance, which has 
not the least power of communicating knowledge, but shouts and 
storms as if it had. And, last of all, there is a tyranny of a blind, 
stupid, obstinate, brute will, which is simply bent on having its own 
way, and in its course treads down and crushes love, and natural 
feeling, and self-respect, and reason, and whatever else exalts man 
above the inferior herds." 

Chapter II. plunges us at once into a description of "the 
principal" and the assistant masters of Stow School; the head- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

STOM^ 185 

master receives a chapter to himself. All terms and phrases peculiar 
to Methodists are carefully omitted, in accordance with the design 
of the book. Hence " ministers " become " clergymen " and " the 
governor" becomes "the principal.'' It is easy, however, to identify 
many of the personalities here described. Mr. Goodenough, the 
principal, is " about fifty years of age, a little above the average 
height, fat and round, on excellent terms with himself, what is 
commonly called a good-looking man, and conveying in his person a 
suitable idea to parents and friends of the paternal or patriarchal 
character." This is " Daddy Smith " to the life. As he appears in 
this book, his great fault is an easy-going ignorance both of what 
was done in the school and its effects, and of the needs and nature 
of boyhood. He is presented to us as amiable, good-natured, and 

The masters are less easy to identify. Mr. Allen, the second 
master, is almost the only pleasing character in the book ; he is 
described as "a clergyman in priest's orders," and may be intended 
for the Rev. John Lomas. Mr. Lomas was headmaster immediately 
before Mr. Crowther, and therefore, of course, does not rightly fall 
into place here ; but so fragrant a memory of him remained with 
those who lived under his benign rule that Mr. Woolmer, at the risk 
of an anachronism, may have wished to preserve a portraiture of 
him in his book. 1 

Mr. Horton, "one of the most disagreeable and tyrannical 
ushers that ever entered a school," we cannot identify. Mr. Meggitt, 
"a mean, ignorant, spiteful bully, who had the unenviable distinc- 

^ The following extract from ajeu cttsprit by an old boy of 1819-25 exhibits 
the feeling of the time:— 

Our Lomas is fled 

And void is his place; 
Time quickly hath sped 

Since we nrst saw his face. 
HLs rule was so wise, 

So gentle withal ; 
His smile was a prize, 

And was valuea by all. 
No Ajax was he 

Who flogged with his might ; 
No fault could he see 

Unless glaring to sight. 

Our Lomas is fled, 

And Crowther is here, 
To flog us quite red. 

But we'll make him feel queer, 
Give kicks for his blows ; 

In measure quite full 
He'll reap what he sows — 

For the boys he can't gull. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


tion of exciting devilish feelings in the heart of every boy in the 
school," is associated in the subsequent narrative with an incident 
which was in actual fact connected with — of all people in the world 
— the Rev. J. E. Moulton ! If Meggitt is meant for a representation 
of Mr. Moulton, well and good ; every man has a right to his own 
opinion, however absurd; if not, however, it is hardly just to 
connect the names by the incident in question. Any who 
remembered Mr. Moulton during his term of office at Kingswood 
would strongly protest against the ridiculous unfairness of associating 
him by implication with such a character as Mr. Meggitt. Another 
master, Franklin, who, " though terribly severe, had some generosity," 
is probably intended for Mr. Samuel Griffith. "Stiff, stony, 
consequential, conceited Mr. Sergeant," who " never condescended 
to the least intercourse* with either masters or scholars," may be 
meant for Mr. Edmund Shaw, who, says Mr. Woolmer in the 
Kingswood Magazine^ "was called * Poker,* because both in his 
manner and his action he was extremely stiff."* This identification 
is strengthened when we read in Mr. Woolmer*s My Way and 
Work that Mr. Shaw was " ungenial, stiff, and formal." Here again 
there is cause for criticism. Mr. Shaw, as a matter of fact, rose 
to be headmaster of Kingswood, after five years* service as an 
assistant ; Mr. Sergeant at "Stow" was dismissed under disgraceful 

Chapter III. introduces us to playground life. The description 
of the "rites and ceremonies" with which new boys became 
speedily acquainted presents a picture which would be true also in 
much later days ; the formalities described are the " surprise," the 
" baptism," the " coronation," the " exercise," the " discipline," the 
"triumph." Some of these survived at the Grove in 187 1. The 
institution of " slaves " also lingered on ; this was simply a system 
of fagging which, being unauthorized and unregulated, naturally 
gave scope for much tyrannous treatment. 

Mr. Nicholas Stern, the headmaster, appears before us. In 
the fourth chapter we have what is really a description of Mr. 
Crowther's first entrance into the schoolroom ; of his opening speech, 
and the first flogging he administered ; of the rebellion which broke 
out ; the seizure of Mr. Crowther's watch, and the stoning of Mr. 
Moulton in the playground. 

" Domestic Economy " occupies Chapter V., which relates 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

STOIV 187 

mainly to matters connected with the food supply. The scanty 
and unpalatable fare, the deprivation of food as a punishment, the 
annexation by big boys of little boys' " portions," all come under 
the lash ; raids on the garden and the larder are vividly described. 
Once more there is occasion for protest. Here is the story as told 
of " Stow " : " Little Brewer had a great aversion to sweet potatoes ; 
and, on one occasion, being unable to get rid of them, his sweet 
potatoes were left on his plate. When he went in to supper, he 
was invited to a chair at the centre table, at which Mr. and Mrs. 
Goodenough usually sat, and the plate of sweet potatoes was set 
before him. Nothing else was offered him ; but he still declined 
the potatoes. *We shall see who is master, Edward,' said Mrs. 
Goodenough ; * your proud stomach must come down.' . . . The 
next morning there was the same plate of sweet potatoes for 
Edward's breakfast. . . . *I hope your appetite is good this 
morning, Edward?' said Mrs. Goodenough, with a satirical smile. 
* Proud stomach won't hold out much longer, I suppose ? ' But she 
was mistaken. Proud stomach had resolved to die rather than 
}-ield. ... As for Edward, he no sooner came out of the dining- 
hall than he was surrounded by dozens of boys, some of whom had 
fKx:keted the half, and others the whole, of their breakfast ; every 
morsel of which he was urged to eat without delay. And so little 
proud stomach won the day." Contrast this with the similar story 
Mr. Woolmer tells of himself in Afy IVay and IVorL On one 
occasion, when a boy at Kingswood, he was unable or unwilling to 
consume his morning meal of "sops," or bread and milk. The 
same dish was served up to him by the governor's orders from meal 
to meal, as described in the parallel narrative. It is the governor 
who rebukes him, but Mrs. Smith pities him, and at length, on 
pretence of adding fresh milk to the bowl, carries the " sops " out 
of hall, and returns with an entirely different supply, fresh and 
sweet, which young Woolmer had no difficulty in consuming 
This unfair treatment of Mrs. Smith's counterpart is shown 
elsewhere. At "Stow," Frederick Dixon, appearing in the sickroom 
under an attack of scarlet fever, is greeted by Mrs. Goodenough 
thus : " What ! have you come back again already, sir ? It is just 
as I thought ; Mrs. Hannah [the nurse] petted you when you were 
here before, and you want to have another holiday." We are told 
that " this was Mrs. Goodenough's constant style of address when 
she found patients in the sickroom ; and many a boy at Stow learnt 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


from her what * playing the old soldier ' was, and how to do it." In 
the Kingswood Magazine^ Mr. Woolmer writes of Mrs. Smith : " If 
any of us were sick, she and Elizabeth, the nurse, were ministering 
angels, who for us with as much attention and kindness as 
we could have had in our own homes. . . . Whatever we were 
suffering from, we were invariably treated with most motherly 
tenderness and sympathy." The intention of the writer of Hmv 
it was done at St<nv School was to present a dark picture ; to the 
accomplishment of that purpose irreconcilable facts had to give 

A remarkable character is Gordon Dennis, a man of some forty- 
five years, of weak intellect, who " had been at Stow School almost 
from time immemorial." There he remained, sharing the food and 
the accommodation of the boys, not going away for the holidays. 
He was liable to outbursts of passion, which baser minds loved to 
arouse ; but at other times he was of a harmless and indeed lovable 
disposition, with a great penchant for holding extempore religious 
services in playhours. His choice of texts and his pithy discourses 
were so apt and telling, that an old boy (a layman, be it said) 
remarks : " I think we could find room for some such idiots on our 
* plans.' " One or two instances may be cited : shortly before the 
holidays, after a half-year marked by special " short commons," he 
preached from the text, " Depart in peace ; be ye warmed and 
filled." At the end of another half, with pathetic reference to the 
fact that there were no holidays for him, he selected the words, 
"The king doth not fetch home again his banished." On the 
resignation of the loved and respected Mr. Allen, the choice was, 
" Now Jabez was more honourable than his brethren " ; while, on 
the occasion of Mr. Stem's departure, the text equally expressed 
the popular feeling by the words, "He departed without being 

Class work at Stow is described as an " unvarying succession of 
scoldings, reproaches, tasks, confinement, and floggings," intermitted 
only when the master in charge of a class solaced himself with a 
nap. In the three following chapters we pass from the picture of 
a brutal, unintelligent, and unrefined staff of masters to that of a 
barbarian and irreligious horde of boys. The story of the adven- 
tures of the tailor who, prevented by the storm from returning to 
his home, was accommodated with a bed in one of the dormitories, 
is indeed in a lighter vein, and moves to laughter ; the devices of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

STOIV 189 

the boys for signalling the approach of a master show nothing but 
boyishness; but we speedily pass to their savage ill-treatment of 
one another, and their bitter hatred of the authorities, and of the 
ver)' school itself. No school tale is complete without a fight ; so 
a fight we have. It is told in a spirited manner, and the reader 
would have enjoyed the recital, were it not that it serves at length 
only to exhibit the cruel stupidity of the " principal " in his treat- 
ment of the combatants. The conflicts of the colliers and the 
"cocky boorders," afford scope for interesting treatment; was it 
ever tme in fact that the Kingswood boys on one occasion arrived 
at the field of battle with " a formidable array of knives, daggers, 
and pistols " ? 

A chapter on " Religion " should naturally supply much that it is 
pleasing and elevating to read ; as a matter of fact, this chapter is 
perhaps the most unpleasant in the whole book. " Stow was called 
a decidedly religious school. The principal and headmaster were 
always clergymen, and the directors thought it of the utmost 
importance to secure the services of a clergyman as the second 
master. The friends of all the boys were said to be religious 
people,^ and the boys themselves were supposed to have been 
religiously trained at home. This training, it was understood, 
would be perfected at Stow." The only real religious influence, 
however, is represented as originating from one Mrs. Perfect, a 
dergyman's widow, who was wont to invite two or three boys to 
tea from time to time. Clearly, we have here a presentation of 
Mrs. Banks. Some of Mrs. Perfects talks on religion are recorded, 
and certain boys under her influence make up their minds " to 
be religious." Then come the gruesome persecutions. Here is 
a sentence or two from a conversation which occurred shortly 
afterwards. Wood, one of the older boys, happens to see one of 
the new converts reading his Bible. 

" * Holloa, Davies ! ' said Wood, * what are you doing ? Is 
your mother dead ? ' 

" *No, she's not dead. At least, Tve not heard anything.' 

" * What are you reading the Bible for, then ? ' " 

Is it not an extraordinary fragment ? " Holloa, Davies ! what are 
you doing? Is your mother dead?" Was there ever a time at 

^ This curious statement is, of course, a device to secure the same conditions 
at Stow as would naturally exist at a school for the sons of Wesleyan ministers, 
while excluding any limitation to Methodism. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Kingswood when one boy addressed another with such gauche ill- 
feeling ? 

The bigger and wickeder boys — for size and wickedness seemed 
to increase pari passu at Stow — determined to put down this new 
movement. From a tree branch in the playground hung a pulley 
and a rope, the latter carrying a hook at one end. By this means 
a boy was hoisted by his belt some fifteen feet, and then let down 
with a run. Davies, who proved resolute, was twisted round several 
times before the hoisting, so that in his descent he spun round 
and round. Naturally, he fainted. But, as always, " Sanguis 
martyrum semen ecdesicp," The movement grew — till Mr. Meggitt 
took the matter up. He listened outside the door of the room where 
a prayer-meeting was held. " Some of the boys confessed that they 
were great sinners, which he fully believed, and of which he took a 
note, to be used on some future occasion. Some prayed that the 
whole school might be converted, which in his judgement meant 
nothing more than that this rebellion should extend. Another prayed 
that God would save the masters ; and with the utmost difficulty Mr. 
Meggitt restrained himself from rushing into the room, to punish 
such insolence in a summary manner. But he knew the voice I *' 
Next day, when his class was before him, he seized his opportunity. 

" * Let me see. You are religious, Ferrers, are you not ? ' 

" ' Yes, sir.' 

" * Davies, are you religious ? ' 

" * I wish to be, sir.' 

" * Don't talk to me in that way, sir ; because that is only an 
attempt to deceive. If you are religious, say so ; if you are not, 
say so. Are you or are you not religious ? ' 

"* Yes, sir.' 

** * Very well ; why didn't you say so ? Spearman, are you 
religious ? ' 

" * I. am trying to be, sir.' 

" ' Didn't you hear what I said to Davies, not a moment ago, 
sir ? Hold out your hand.' 

" * Now, listen to me, you gentlemen who profess to be religious. 
Mind, I didn't make you religious ; you have become so of your 
own accord. And I now tell you distinctly, that as you have chosen 
the better part, I shall expect better behaviour and better lessons 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

STOJV 191 

from you than from the other boys ; and whenever I have occasion 
to punish you, I shall give you twice as much as the others.' " 

To this skilful treatment the disease speedily yielded ; there 
were soon no more religious professions at Stow. 

Chapter XL describes the breaking of a boy's spirit; the 
operator is Mr. Stem, with assistance from Mr. Horton. At the 
beginning of the chapter Frederick Dixon is a bright-spirited, frank, 
and cheerful boy; at the end he is "sulky and obstinate, with a 
lowering countenance, in which revenge, or some other equally detest- 
able passion, seemed to be perpetually brooding." According to 
tradition, he was required to invent a tale on the first night when as 
a new boy he appeared in the dormitory. Mr. Stern heard of it, and 
next day Dixon was flogged till he fainted for telling lies ! On another 
occasion he was confined in a large dog-kennel for some hours. 
Relief from miseries such as these some boys sought by running 
away ; a chapter is devoted to cases of successful and unsuccessful 
flight " At length, one morning when we rose, it was found that 
above twenty boys had left in the night. . . . The directors of the 
school were summoned. An inquiry took place, and it was resolved 
that Mr. Stem should be instantly dismissed." General rejoicings 
at this happy deliverance occupy Chapter XIII., and the book con- 
cludes with an address to Mr. Goodenough and another to Mr. Stern. 
" Your motto has been" (says the writer to Mr. Goodenough) " * Take 
care of number one.' . . . Did it never occur to you that these boys 
were endowedwith thought and reason and common sense? . . . Did 
it never occur to you that you might be accounted responsible for 
the perpetuation of this abominable spirit of selfishness ? . . . We 
remember that you prided yourself upon the strict enforcement of 
morality. Theft, lying, dishonesty, insolence, swearing, and the like, 
were always frowned upon and punished ; but they were not put 
down. There was a fearful amount of immorality among us, and 
it was immeasurably increased by the system of espionage which 
prevailed- . . . But we had spies of our own, who met trick with 
trick and cunning with cunning. . . . We were never told that 
wickedness was a mean and ungentlemanly thing, degrading those 
who committed it ; but were duly informed, when it was found out, 
that we should be flogged. . . . Every offender was treated as a 
hardened rebel." 

Then the writer tums to the headmaster. " No language, Mr. 
Stem, can describe the indignation and disgust with which we men- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


tion your name. That you are a man of talent and of great learning 
we freely admit. But we are obliged also to affirm, that towards us 
you acted the part of a tyrant . . . True, you made us learn ; but 
you did not inspire us with any desire for knowledge. Its acquisi- 
tion was not made interesting or agreeable. Our books were odious 
things, approached with dislike and studied with disgust." 

This last chapter, like the first, exhibits many just perceptions 
of the nature and methods of a true education ; but the book as a 
whole leaves one with a most nauseous taste in the mouth. 

Mr. J. G. Hayman, who was at Kingswood under Mr. Crowther, 
has very kindly supplied some interesting comments on How it was 
done at Stow^ from which we extract the following statements. He 
says : " I never saw Mr. Smith flog much — only one case that I can 
recollect. The severe lecture to the principal, if Mr. Smith is in- 
tended, is quite undeserved and inapplicable. Mr. and Mrs. Smith 
were both earnest in their attention to the wants and afflictions of 
the boys. The appointment of Crowther placed them in a difficult 
position, of course, and Mr. Smith tried to help Crowther. As to 
domestic economy, the experience was very sad. Rising between 
five and six o'clock every morning (but no such thing as hot air in 
the schoolroom), we washed ourselves in the open air on a frosty 
morning. The description of the Friday fare is all true ; Friday's pie 
I never ate, and so fasted every Friday for five years. On Saturday 
we had only bread and cheese. That day we had pocket-money 
(i Jd.), and id. extra from our private deposit. The money was not 
taken away from the young boys by senior scholars, as the book states. 
No such person as Gordon Dennis existed, and the story of the 
tailor is all imaginary. About a mile from Stow lived, it is said, a 
clergyman's widow, Mrs. Perfect. About this time there settled a 
minister's widow, Mrs. Banks, who took a great interest in boys of 
religious bias and met a class of boys every Sunday morning. 
Previous to this there had been an extensive religious awakening 
among the boys. They held prayer-meetings, which at one time were 
attended by the bulk of the boys. In these meetings Mr. James 
Moulton took an active part, encouraging any boy in his religious 
convictions.^ Mr. Moulton was not at all a severe man ; I never 
saw him give a very severe caning except one, and that was to his 
own brother. Mr. Griffith was a severe man, but there was a 
generosity in all his dealings with the boys which made him 
* Contrast this with Mr. " Meggitt's " dealings with boys' religious convictions. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

STOIV 193 

generally liked. Mr. Shaw was not at all the severe and excitable 
man here described. He was regarded as a clever but rather a 
timid man. I scarcely ever saw him beat a boy. From his 
temperament he was hardly fitted for headmaster of a school." 

We have also had the advantage of a detailed criticism from the 
pen of Sir J. W. Akerman, who was at Old Kingswood from 1837 
to 1839, a period not very far removed from that described in the 
book, and whose brother was at the school from 1827 to 1833. 
He says : — ^ 

Speaking generally, I rose from the perusal of this book with a somewhat 
siiured and disturbed mind. It alxDunds in evident facts, but so overdrawn at 
limes as to make one wish the writer somewhere else ; while one or two at 
least of the most salient points suitable for attack in the old regime are either 
quite omitted or dealt with very cursorily. I mention here three : ( i ) the dis- 
graceful substitution of one boy's garments for another, (2) the shopkeeping in 
tarts and sweets of old Dame Smith, and (3) above all, the cruel intercepting of 
the boys' letters, and the prevention of their free intercourse with their parents 
in correspondence. The boys were put upon and had much to endure, but 
surely such an experience need not per se teach boys lying and all kinds of 
wickedness. I gloried, on looking back, because of having bravely withstood 
the ordeal ; and such endurance at Kingswood instructed me in self-denial and 

When dealing with the historic period, it must be remembered that the 
enforcement of stern and inflexible measures towards youth was not only 
sanctioned by law, but deemed a virtue. Look at the old apprenticeship system, 
and its power over life and limb. In my own experience I found more than once, 
while serx-ing articles involving fourteen to sixteen hours a day of labour, nearly 
as much thoughtless tyranny exercised — not, of course, with corporal stripes — as 
one found them in this country in many schools. 

As to "fags." No doubt there existed a practice of compelling small lx))rs 
to own the superiority of elder ones and to minister to their behests, and it 
I'i^umed sometimes the form of cruelty. But when pursued to extremes, good- 
natured bigger boys would come to the rescue. 

"Chapter V. Domestic Economy." This chapter confirms my own version 
of the paucity of food and its quality, with but a slight variation — the **sops" I 
forget. The theft of fruit from the garden continued in my time (boys con- 
sidered it was their lawful spoil), also inroads on the pantry. We had no food 
after 6 

* * Chapter VII. Lessons and Tasks. " Very truthfully given. The impositions 
ivere, in many cases, a barbarous ordeal. School hours were also far too long. 
We rose at six all the year round. The sleeping of masters at their desks was 
not uncommon ; but these incidents, so playfully inserted, evidently serve to 
reHe\'e the dreadfulness of the composition. 

** Chapter VIII. Tricks." Now on these topics much could be said. What 
\]oy^ are there without fun and frolic ? I was three years at a boarding-school 
before going to ** Stow," and I found as many tricksters there. I object, therefore, 
10 the description of depravity among the boys. At both schools I found liars, 
unchaste, and very wicked boys ; and at both some fine lads, kindhearted, truth- 
ful, and commendable. There was, no doubt, much ingenuity and dash in 
Kingswood tricks ; but they were boys' tricks. A book in the library, Henry ^ 
Earl of Aloreland, ostensibly by John Wesley, supplied the suggestions for many 
1 ricks. The masters deserved all they got, though sometimes the lads went too 

^ We have taken the liberty of some degree of abbreviation. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


fkr. But I cannot concede that these lads were made so desperately wicked as 
'y the book asserts. 

* "Chapter X. Religion." The sweet Mrs. Perfect was unknown in my time. 

E The lads had no house of refuge then, or abode of sympathy. But am I to 

I follow the book when it asserts that to be religious was to incur persecution of 

I the boys and intimation from one of the masters that more severe punishment 

f would be exacted from a professing Christian lad than from another for the same 

k offence? Certainly and emphatically, No. A little badinage from some boys 

[ a religious lad must expect and did expect, but that masters combined against 

and disliked religious l)oys won't go down with me. There were some scoffers 
in the school — where are scoffers absent ? About twelve boys were really pious. 

Perhaps criticism of the book cannot be better summarized than 
f in the words of another old boy who says : — 

How it was done may be true in every particular, and yet to my mind it 

conveys a false impression. To tell all the troubles of an average life in conse- 

i cutive chapters, though every word might be true, would necessarily give a false 

view of that life. No man is all devil, and few lives have been all misery. If 

How it was done were made canonical, I must perforce be a heretic. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Qui studet optatam cursu contingere metaf/it 

Multa tulit fecitqtu puer^ sudavit et fl/r/V. —HORACE. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Happy places have grown holy ; 

If ye went where once ye went, 
Only tears would fall down slowly, 

As at solemn sacrament. 
Merry books, once read for pastime. 

If ye dared to read again, 
Only memories of the last time 

Would swim darkly up the brain. 
Household names, which used to flutter 

Through your laughter unawares — 
God*s Divinest ye could utter 

With less trembling in your prayers. 

E. B. Browning. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



The Lord brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand. 

The building occupies a space of 15,000 square feet in the form of a letter H, 

comprising generally a ground floor and two upper floors. The principal entrance 

stands immediately in the centre of ^ the south elevation, opening through 

double folding outside and inside folding glass doors into the entrance hall.^ 

The fomi of this apartment is an exact square with corresponding arched recesses 

on either side, havmg a groined ceiling with moulded ribs at each of the angles 

springing from a foliated corbel at each of the principal four corners. The position 

of the principal staircase is in the immediate centre line beyond the entrance 

hall facmg the principal entrance, to the right and left of which the several parts 

of the building are approached by means of a spacious corridor. On the right 

hand are situated the committee room, governor's apartments, and dining-hall ; 

and to the left the visitors' room, students' library and reading-room, senior and 

junior schoolrooms, classroom, and masters' room. The senior schoolroom and 

dining-hall occupy the projecting wings of the building on the front legs of the H, 

and are carried up to the top level of the first storey, making a clear height of 

22 feet 6 inches. They are each about 75 feet long by 30 feet wide, circled with 

paneb and moulded nbs, and lighted on each side by ornamental double-light 

windows, and at the south end by a spacious and handsome bay window, the 

whole height of the apartments. A students' passage runs in the rear of the 

building in communication with the students' staircase and the dining-hall. At 

the rear of the dining-hall, shut off from the other parts of the building, are the 

kitchen and offices. An inclined way from the students' passage leads to a 

gymnasium ' under the schoolroom, opening through a series of arches in the west 

elevation (by which it is lighted) into and on a level with the boys' playground. 

It is proposed to erect a chapel near the east front in a line with the right-hand 

corridor, and connected with the building by a short cloister. The storey 

immediately above the ground floor provides bedrooms for the governor and 

servants, clothes room, bathrooms, etc. The third floor is occupied by the 

students' dormitories and masters' bedrooms, except one portion, which is 

entirely shut off from the dormitories, and which is to be used as an infirmary or 

sickroom. A tower, in the base of which stands the entrance hall, rises three 

^torej-s above the other part of the building, the uppermost of which is intended 

to be used for the purposes of ventilation. The whole of the building is intended 

(0 be heated and ventilated by means of a hot-air apparatus placed in the centre 

of the basement, from which, by the aid of flues built in the walls, the hot air is 

conveyed to ever)' part of the building, valvular gratings being placed in the 

skirtii^ of each apartment to regulate the supply. Other flues are built in the 

walls from similar openings under the ceiling level, to convey the vitiated air to 

calrerts running through the roofs lengthways, all leading to the tower. In the 

* There are three sets of door : folding oak doors outside, then folding glass 
<ioors, and between the entrance hall and main staircase another set of glass 

* The piazza, whence a boxroom and a lavatory (1867) were entered, and 
vbere guinea-pigs and white mice sometimes passed a troubled existence. A 
great place for bghts. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


walls of the tower spacious flues are constructed to their extreme summit, where 
they open in the perforated ornament of the parapet. The architectural character 
of the building is in the domestic style of the perpendicular era. The principal 
elevation faces the south, in which the tower forms the most striking feature, 
occupying the centre of the front and rising to a height of 82 feet above the terrace 
level. An enriched oriel window of two-storey height adorns the base of the 
tower immediately over a deeply- recessed and moulded doorway. The front of 
the building continues on each side and in a line with the face of the tower to an 
inclusive frontage of 54 feet, when the general front recedes about 4 feet on either 
side. The total frontage of the building, exclusive of the intended chapel, is about 
210 feet. In front of the building a series of terraces are intended to be con- 
structed with the soil from the various excavations. The building is being 
erected of Bath stone from the Combe Down and Lansdown quarries, the stone 
for all the face-work being of the former. The playground will be on the west 
side of the building, extending the entire length from the front of the schoolroom 
to the south boundary of the estate, and commanding the larE;e and inspiring 
panoramic scene over and around Bath. The contract for the ouildings now in 
course of erection is ;f 8875. ^ 

Such is the description of the building as begun in 1850, accord- 
ing to the instructions given in 1846. On 20th June 1850 the 
foundation stone was laid by Mr. James Heald, M.P. By that time 
the walls had risen to the second storey, and they and the surround- 
ing grounds were thronged by an immense crowd of visitors and 
workmen. It was real Queen's weather on that Accession Day, 
and the gaiety of the scene was further enhanced by the flags which 
marked out the boundary of the estate, and by a large evergreen 
arch surmounted by an imperial crown enclosed in a floral device. 
The hymn — 

Kxcept the Lord conduct the plan, 
The best concerted schemes are vain. 

And never can succeed ; 
We spend our wretched strength for nought. 
But if our works in Thee be wrought, 

They shall be blessed indeed. 

* This description is taken from The Watchman^ 26th June 1850. The 
accompanying plan represents Kingswood in 1875. Additions during the interval 
(1850-75) are dated. • 

A. Position of former entrance to swimming bath, now indicated by a built-up 
archway in the wall. 

B. Games committee stores. This recess is no longer in existence. 
CD. Capholes, now removed. 

E.F. Cantello the bootblack worked in F, and delivered clean lx)ots to 
expectant boys through a hole in the wall separating E and F. 

G. Gong. 

H.L. Two lidded baths. 

H.K. Foot-trough. 

P. Inclined plane. 

R. Reader. 

O. Organ. 

Z. Drinking fountain, now removed. 

In the schoolroom the lettering shows the position of the masters* desks 
(H.M., headmaster) and the situation of classes up to the summer of 1875. Class 
III. should be indicated under the third window on the east. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


having been sung, the Rev. J. Beecham, D.D., read the sixth 
chapter of Deuteronomy, full of suggestive passages. The Rev. 
J. Rigg and the Rev. F. J. Jobson having taken part in the service, 
and the Rev. J. Mason having read a copy of the document, which, 
with coins, was deposited beneath the stone, Mr. Heald delivered 
an address and performed the ceremony allotted to him. Several 
speeches followed, and were succeeded by luncheon. In the evening, 
Mr. T. Farmer presided over a second meeting, in the luncheon 
marquee. It was then that the offer was made of the foundation of 
the Farmer Prize. On 8th September of the next year (1851) the 
school was sufficiently near completion to permit of the boys being 
summoned to it. But there was still much to be done, and the 
first months must have been a troublous time for those in authority. 
For a short time the dining-hall was used as the schoolroom, and 
the schoolroom as dining-hall ; but both soon reverted to their 
destined uses. The chapel was never built. In 1850 the com- 
mittee determined to postpone its erection in order to reduce the 
contract from ^8875 ^o ^^8000; but (they say) "it is not the 
intention of the committee to abandon the erection of a chapel on 
the premises. They have merely postponed that part of the work." 
It is still postponed. 

The entire cost of the land (about 7 acres) and buildings reached 
;^i6,ooo, of which ;^io5o was given for the land. Above ;^8ooo 
was collected by Mr. Cusworth, towards which the ministers sub- 
scribed over ^2500, and that at a time when, owing to the " Reform" 
agitation, their stipends were in grave peril. The sale of the old 
school produced ^1000, a miserable sum. A more advantageous 
first sale had been invalidated by defect of title. Eventually a debt 
of about ;^5ooo was paid by the Relief and Extension Fund. 

The school thus built stands 600 feet above sea-level, faces 
south, and commands a magnificent view of the cup-like hollow in 
which lies the city of Bath. The alterations made in the building 
were very slight till the momentous year 1882. Such as they were 
they will be chronicled in due order. At present one or two points 
require to be added to the formal description quoted above. 

The addition of a lodge was an idea of the architect's (Mr. 
James Wilson, F.S.A., of Bath). It added to the convenience and 
to the attractiveness of the premises, as well as, subsequently, to the 
pleasurable comforts of the boys. The dormitories were fitted up 
on a modified cubicle system ; behind each bed a wooden partition 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



separated off a small apartment containing washing apparatus and a 
chest for clothes. The bed itself stood out in front of this in the 


open room. This excellent system combines the advantages of 
both the open and the cubicled dormitory ; it gives privacy but not 
secrecy. Not every one, however, has approved of it ; one old boy, 
who holds that " apparently the architect designed the outside of 
the building, and then fitted rooms and passages in" as best he 
could (a view not without certain plausible support in the actual 
arrangements), considers the dormitories absurdly large and ver>' 
cold. It is noteworthy that Dr. Clement Dukes, in his work Health 
at Sc/iool, describes as the ideal dormitory system the very system 
which exists at Kingswood, and he gives a woodcut of the arrange- 
ments at the Leys School, which were borrowed from those at 
Kingswood, and are in every particular identical with them. It is 
no small testimony to the foresight and skill of the Building Com- 
mittee, that, thirty-eight years before this description appeared in 
print, they had adopted a plan which the standard authority on 
school hygiene now considers perfect. They mark a great advance 
on the system either at Old Kingswood or the Grove, especially in 
the arrangements for ablutionary purposes. It would, however, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


sometimes happen that the water would be scarce, and the pressure 
insufficient to set the taps flowing. Experience soon taught the 
boys that the best way to meet this emergency was for one boy to 
unscrew his tap and blow down the pipe. On one occasion the 
deliverer of his brethren, a timid boy, forgot to screw his tap on 
again. During the day water was pumped up, and the dormitory 
of course flooded. Inquiries resulted in Mr. Shera calling forth 
this boy to receive his due reward. "Take off your coat," said 
Mr. Shera. The boy obeyed. But Mr. Shera paused ; he appeared 
to be eyeing something near, the small of the boy's back. Suddenly 
he stretched forth a hand and drew out slowly an immense sheet of 
brown paper from between the boy's garments and his skin. " What 
is this?" demanded Mr. Shera, holding it aloft amid universal 
laughter. " Go to your place," said Mr. Shera. What else could he say? 

While the dormitory arrangements were of a satisfactory nature, 
there was for a long time great lack of means for washing during the 

The tower has always been an interesting feature of the place. 
It is an early custom that opened it to the school on prize day. 
The great Tower Row is chronicled elsewhere. At another time 
one of its small rooms was allotted as a bedroom to a few boys, and 
a glorious time they had there, not to the comfort of the master who 
slept below them. Eventually absence from early morning school 
led to their relegation to the more humdrum existence of the larger 
dormitories. Externally the tower forms the chief beauty of a very 
graceful and well-proportioned front elevation, on which the archi- 
tect is to be heartily congratulated. 

Behind the school stood the drying ground, " where we and the 
shirts we were to wear next week hung about on Sunday mornings," 
before the start of the various divisions for chapel. There was 
also a bakehouse and a kitchen garden. At the north-east corner 
of the property stood the headmaster's house. The traces of his 
private gateway are still to be seen in the wall on Lansdown 
Road. East of the Patch was the farmyard, including those 
mysterious regions known as " Norris's playground " and " the pigs' 
playground." In the latter stood a large circular pump which fed 
the swimming bath. This pump was usually worked by a horse. 
The inquiring new boy was surprised to learn, on the apparently 
satisfactory authority of older schoolfellows, that the animal was 
engaged in winding up the tower clock. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The worst possible site had been chosen for this well. It was 
almost in the middle of the farmyard, and within a few feet of the 
latrines. Despite, therefore, the fact that the wholesomeness of 
the water was originally guaranteed by an expert, it was bound to 
become contaminated ; and the repeated attacks of scariet fever in 
the sixties may, with fair certainty, be ascribed to this source. It 
is, of course, now quite disused. 

This well was sunk in 1858, and, it was stated at the time, "an 
unlimited supply of water" was secured. However, in 1867, we 
hear of " negotiations for obtaining an increased water supply." In 
1854 a stone fountain was discovered in digging, and set up for use 
in the garden. At present there exists, immediately to the east of 
and partly underneath the kitchens, a large tank, capable of holding 
50,000 gallons. It was, in 1896, divided into two halves ; one for sur- 
face and rain-water for laundry use, the other for the storage of the pure 
water of the town supply, which is thence pumped to the dormitories. 

The swimming bath existed till the early seventies. It was 
opened only after the summer vacation, and then rarely. It 
was only some four or five feet deep at the deepest part. It was 
necessary for leave to be obtained to fill it ; if this were granted — 
usually somewhat unwillingly, as it necessitated the presence of a 
master on duty while the bath was used — two or three boys worked 
the pump in the pigs* playground. The water thus provided remained 
unchanged for that half-year. The bath eventually passed into 
entire disuse. New lavatories, near the piazza, were opened in 1867, 
the cost being met by Mrs. Scott of Bath. It was not till 1868 that 
hot-water baths were provided. For this purpose a small room near 
the foot of the boys' staircase was used ; it contained two large 
lidded baths, in each of which two boys cleansed themselves at the 
same time! Sportive spirits would sometimes shut down the lid 
upon a bath and its occupants and its steam. Before this, complete 
ablution was carried out in sections ; hot water was provided two 
nights a week for the upper part of the body ; feet received a similar 
attention — fortnightly ! Along one side of the bathroom ran a foot- 
trough ; some ten boys rolled up their trousers to the knees, climbed 
in, and sat on the farther side, while " dummies " washed their feet 

About 1876 the foot-trough was abolished and the bathroom 
divided into compartments, each containing its separate bath. Each 
boy was allowed twenty minutes, and each prefect half an hour for 
bathing. In 1883 a second bathroom was added on the west side of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


the former one. Dr. Bowden had two of the baths fitted up as 
shower-baths ; in these, junior boys received attention at the hands 
of men-servants. 

The accommodation for masters was not extensive ; each master 
had his bedroom cut off by wooden walls from the end of a 
dormitory, and commanding that dormitory by a window. In 
addition, there was a by no means spacious common room, facing 
the inclined plane ; but there were no separate sitting-rooms, and no 
smoking-room. In front of the building extended a terraced garden, 
usually open to Levites on the last Sunday of the year — a graceful 

Such was the building which on 28th October 1852 was 
formally opened. In the morning a sermon was preached at 
King Street Chapel, by the Rev. W. M. Bunting, from Exodus xv. 2. 
After dinner "the meeting adjourned for half an hour, that the 
friends might inspect the premises. After this adjournment, the 
friends reassembled and continued together, listening to the various 
addresses, until nearly nine o'clock, the youths being ranged down 
the aisles between the tables." Alas, poor "youths"! Mr. J. 
Robinson Kay was in the chair, and among those present were the 
President of Conference and the headmaster of Woodhouse 
Grove. Mr. Robinson Kay described a visit which he, with Mr. 
Peter Roth well, Mr. Heald, Mr. Farmer, and others paid to Old 
Kingswood in 1846. They felt humbled and ashamed to have a 
school for the education of the sons of their ministers in such a 
condition. Upon their return to Bristol they determined that a 
new edifice must be erected, and there and then laid the foundation 
of a subscription for the purpose. 

The Rev. F. J. Jobson stated, . that after Mr. Kay's visit 
Conference still clung to the old place on account of its associations, 
and directed an earnest effort to make the building sufficient for 
a hundred boys. It was found that to patch up the old place 
would require six or eight thousand pounds, and then there would 
still be the lack of water. The new school was built on a broad 
fiat platform on the hillside \ all ornaments had been paid for by 
private individuals, Mr. Wilson's original design having been cut down 
in ornament as far as possible. The entire cost was ;^ 16,000 — 
;^2ooo for land, ;^ 12,000 for the buildings, ;£'2ooo for furniture, etc. 

The Rev. Jonathan Crowther indulged in reminiscences; the 
Rev. S. D. VVaddy and the Rev. John Scott (president) enlarged on 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


the nature of education. The Rev. J. Bunting, D.D., made a 
characteristic speech, from which the following passage may be 
quoted : " Perhaps it may be said that a sum of money might be 
distributed to each parent, leaving him free to do as he likes as to 
the training of his child. I think about the year 1812 or 18 13 we 
had a very long debate in Conference on that subject. ... I am 
very glad, however, that that plan was abandoned. I was in favour 
of domestic education when a young man, but experience has cured 
me of that. . . . General observation convinces me that collective 
education, when properly managed, is the way to make better and 
more useful men than private instruction can do." 

The Rev. C. Prest, before giving an address to the boys, read 
one which they themselves had prepared, " but which they all shrink, 
with what many will regard as commendable modesty, from pre- 
senting themselves." The address is signed, " William D. Killick, 
First Boy." 

Various objects of interest were presented to the school from 
time to time. A portrait of John Wesley was brought from the old 
school.^ To match this, a portrait of Charles Wesley by Mr. W. Gush 
was presented by the artist. Both were hung in the dining-hall. 
Mr. Batchelor gave an antique arm-chair, formerly used by Mr. 
Wesley in his visits to Bath ; Mr. James Wilson gave a water colour 
of the school, Mr. H P. Parker an engraving of John Wesley*s 
escape from fire. In 1891 a terra-cotta figure of John Wesley was 
placed in the dining-hall, another is in the library ; both are copies of 
the City Road Centenary Statue. The school also possesses an 
ancient bed in which John Wesley often slept, two M.A. gowns 
formerly belonging to John Wesley and John Fletcher,^ a piece of 
silver plate, probably an alms-dish, a set of chairs, and a mahogany 
table, all said to have been Wesley's ; the last is indeed stated to 
have been used as a communion table whenever Wesley celebrated 
Holy Communion at Old Kings wood. 

As has been already stated, no chapel was built on the 
premises. Consequently the boys are compelled to attend the 
somewhat distant chapels in Bath. Half of them go to King 
Street, and half (the juniors) to Walcot. This weekly tramp is 
conducive, no doubt, to health, and is especially serviceable to those 

* See Frontispiece. 

* These are much dilapidated ; a former nurse used to give snippets from them 
to her favourites among the Levites. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


boys who are by natural disposition loafers. It also used to form 
a test of endurance, inasmuch as it was the wont, at any rate of the 
King Street divisions, to race one another on the way back, to the 
school ; and a race up Lansdown hill is no joke. The record time 
long lay with a division led by W. T. A. Barber ; probably it holds 
the record still, competition having ceased in more decorous days. 
When the contest was especially fierce, the issue rested with the few 
leading pairs of a division ; the rest straggled up at intervals, while 
the unhappy master in charge toiled after them in vain. Often the 
more enterprising leaders would fill the division behind them with 
unutterable woe by leading them up " Breakneck Lane." 

One Sunday in the year was traditionally set apart as Stamp 
Sunday, when the serried ranks marched to chapel with elephantine 
tread. What impression this made on the inhabitants of Bath is 
not recorded. The townspeople must often have been amazed at 
the strange evolutions of the Kingswood brigade, which was wont to 
sweep relentlessly, if somewhat confusedly, down the causeway, 
turning aside for neither man, woman, or child. It scorned the 
mechanical triviality of keeping in step ; nothing could induce it to 
conform to this, not even constant reminders of the feelings of " old 
military men " in Queen Square. Bath must also have been deeply 
moved, on one occasion, by the sight of a division gaily kicking 
before it a master's silk hat, and the master himself pursuing with 
highly decorated language ; and again, on another occasion, when a 
future Queen's Counsel and an embryo professor of divinity fought 
openly outside King Street Chapel. 

In addition to Stamp Sunday, other high festivals were duly re- 
vered. The last Sunday of the school year, Flower Sunday, was a more 
pleasing occasion. On that day many boys wore flowers, and Levites 
received theirs from the governor's garden ; whence the others were 
obtained is not known. Cockhat Sunday is a name which explains 
itself. First Button Sunday is not so clear ; its method was as 
follows — ^if a boy possessed, say, five buttons on his waistcoat, the 
fifth Sunday from the end of term was his First Button Sunday ; all 
that day he went to and fro with the top button of his waistcoat 
undone. The next Sunday was Second Button Sunday, and so on. 
There were two streams of tradition : some boys on, for instance, 
Second Button Sunday would undo simply the second button ; a 
straiter sect held that a button once ceremonially undone must never 
again be fastened ; hence, on the last Sunday of all, these rigorists 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


were to be recognized by a waistcoat "flowing free" to every 

The sanitation of Kingswood was a continual difficulty. In 
1854 the sewage caused an offensive odour in the main road, and 
the Board of Trade Inspector required a fresh plan of drainage. A 
shaft was therefore sunk at the bottom of the estate to a depth of 
thirty feet, when it was " hoped that sufficient natural fissures had 
been arrived at to carry away the drainage." This primitive system 
could not be permanent. In i860 it was found necessary to empty 
the cesspool, and in 1864 it is reported that "arrangements are 
likely to be made with the City Commissioners for a more complete 
drainage of the premises, which will perfect the sanitary condition 
of the school." The sanitary condition of the school has been 
" perfected *' several times. However, owing to the failure of the 
Bath City Improvement Bill, these plans were delayed. The 
school was inspected in 1866, and certain alterations made. Next 
year the drainage was connected with that of Bath, and it was 
hoped that these arrangements would "obviate any further 
inconvenience or difficulty." In 1876 further improvements were 
made. In 1885 a very valuable and important addition was made 
in the erection of a sanatorium, capable of holding fourteen patients, 
and situated at the top of the old kitchen garden. In 1892 the 
sanitation was entirely remodelled at a cost of about ;^i2oo. The 
committee " is assured that now the premise3 are in a thoroughly 
satisfactory sanitary state." ^ In 1895 investigation showed defects 
which required further alteration, and once more the committee " is 
assured that the premises are now in a thoroughly satisfactory 
sanitary state." ^ That at length that assurance rests on a firm 
foundation, the health of the school during the past two years has 
sufficiently proved. Ventilation, warming, and lighting have, as in 
most large buildings, presented difficulties, to overcome which efTorts 
were from time to time made. The original method of warming 
by hot air proved a failure. Gas stoves and fires have also been 
tried. Hot water appears to have met the difficulty. 

It is said that some thirty different systems of ventilation have 
been adopted one after the other. The existing system was carried 
out in December 1896, under the instructions of Mr. T. P. 

Among minor changes may be mentioned the building of a 
^ Annual Report, 1S92-93. - Annual Report, 1895-96. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


stone wall on the south boundary of the estate (1859), the erection 
of g)'mnastic apparatus in the piazza about the same date, the erec- 
tion of an organ in hall (1864), the levelling and asphalting of the 
playground (1870), and the laying down of tan on the flagged floor of 
the piazza (1872). 

The playground formerly exhibited three distinct slopes : one of 
moderate gradient, extending from the north boundary to the line of 
the present field door ; then a short and very abrupt second slope or 
bank ; and thirdly, another moderate one reaching to the garden. 
These were asphalted about 1858. In 1870 the patch was made of 
one uniform slope by filling up the lower part, and re-asphalted. 
The effect of this was to block the circular arches by which the 
piazza had opened upon the playground. A short flight of steps and 
a porch were constructed to give access to the open air, and the 
upper part of the arches turned into windows. Three racquets 
courts were built at the same time, and the giant stride ^ abolished. 
More important than these were the acquirement of the field in 
1863 and a series of changes in 1875, necessitated by the amalgama- 
tion of the schools. The land acquired in 1 863 consisted of 1 1 
acres 2 J roods, and cost ;^27oo. Amongst the conditions of sale 
was that no buildings should be erected on this land of less value 
^^^ ;^5oo or nearer than forty feet to College Road or Hamilton 
Road or than twenty feet to Fonthill Road. In 1875 the changes 
were partly in arrangement : the old second class room became 
the prefects' room, and the library was assigned to the second master 
as his classroom ; the committee room became the music-room ; 
from the Glasgow room ^ the " gallery " had already disappeared. But 
the greatest change, which took place some few years earlier, was 
the abolition of the swimming bath, which provided space for a 
classroom and a new laboratory, and above them for the new 

We now approach the concentration period, when the task was 
practically to double Kingswood — indeed, to more than double it ; 
for, whereas its normal accommodation hitherto had been one hundred 
and thirty boys, it was now to become capable of housing three 
hundred. For this purpose several schemes were suggested. They 
may be grouped under two heads ; it was possible either so to enlarge 

* A gift of the Rev. W. M. Bunting. 

' So called as being at one time the classroom of the master who taught on 
the'* Glasgow" system. SoQ^Laxi^ow*^ School Manageffienty ^p. 140-150. The 
system was introduced at Kingswood in 1851. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


. the existing building as to make it capable of fulfilling for the larger 
number of boys all the functions it had fulfilled for the smaller 
number, or to provide additional accommodation by building 
masters' houses along the Fonthill Road or in other convenient- 
situations. The latter plan had much to commend it from an 
educational point of view, but was met by probably insuperable 
financial difficulties in connection with the necessary catering and 
similar matters. It was then determined to enlarge the building 
itself. Here, again, several methods presented themselves. 

(i) It has already been pointed out that the school was built in 
the form of the letter H. One plan was to unite the rearmost parts 
of the two legs by a cross building parallel to the main building, 
thus forming the drying-ground into an enclosed quadrangle. The 
effect of this would have been to destroy the farmyard, and to place 
the new buildings in a somewhat cheerless and unsunned situation. 

(2) A plan which held its ground for some time was the extension 
of the frontage at either end, the addition of the prefects' room to 
the schoolroom, the storeroom over that room forming a gallery, 
and the building out of classrooms into the playground on the 
western side. 

(3) Finally, however, the plan adopted ^ was to build a new block 
straight out from the back of the tower, and to lengthen the dining- 
hall by an extension southwards. On entering the passage which ran 
along the west side of these new buildings, one passed on the right, 
in order, a lavatory, the headmaster's room, four classrooms, and a 
staircase ; beyond the staircase lay another classroom, a science-room, 
and a laboratory. The latter was designed by Mr. J. W. Buck, and 
contains sixteen benches. Above were dormitories, capable of hold- 
ing one hundred and sixty-eight beds, and masters' bedrooms. The 

^ See plan. 

A.B. Original passage of 1882, afterwards thrown into the classrooms. 

C. Staircase to lower house. 

D.E. Position of the ** glass passage," added 1883. 

F. Staircase to junior reading-room ; now removed. 

G. Glasgow room. 

H. Entrance to first floor of new buildings. From here the small staircase to 
the junior schoolroom (1891) starts. 
L.L. Masters' lavatory. 
M.M. Music-rooms. 
N. Former position of capholes. 
P. Prefects' room. 
(^. Escape staircase. 

R.R.R. Present doors of classrooms (1883). 
S.S. Senior schoolroom. 
T. Inclined plane. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



first floor communicated by a small door with the stone staircase run- 
ning up the centre of the old buildings. There is also a fire-escape 
staircase and a lift for linen. The entrance to the new junior school- 
room lay opposite the headmaster's room, and at its farther end 
access was given to the new reading-room, perched above the inclined 
plane.^ The old drying-ground gave place to a junior playground, 
containing two fives courts. At the same time considerable changes 
were made in the old buildings. As already stated, the dining-hall 


was lengthened, though not the dormitories above it. The instructions 
to the architects ordered a gallery for organ and choir, but, on account 
of the height of the Grove organ, this part of the scheme was not 
(^rried out. The old organ was replaced by the superior instrument 
brought from the Grove; this cost originally ^170, a sum mainly 
raised (in 1877) by the exertions of Mr. T. P. Brocklehurst, the 
music master at the Grove. The end of the piazza was cut off to 

' Known as the junior reading-room and used as a newsroom. This room 
was entered from the junior schoolroom only, into which senior boys were for- 
bidden to go. But the rule was never enforced. Now the first form room. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



form a second boxroom, which is now partly a storeroom for the 
Games Committee. A large underground tank, previously referred 
to, was excavated, and the material flung into the school field (!), in 
the hope that at some future date it might be employed for levelling 
it. An effort was consequently made to raise money for the 
purpose, the Building Committee granting ;£^ioo. Eventually some- 
thing was done in this direction, and a fine range of cliffs elevated 
midway across the field. 


A covered playground supported on pillars separated the junior 
playground from the old patch. An ironing-room and a flour-room 
were built over the bakehouse ; the old music-room was turned into 
the governor's study, and the old laboratory into a music- room. The 
bathroom was enlarged to hold fourteen baths. 

These extensive alterations, begun in March 1882, were com- 
pleted in May 1883; but later in 1883 it was found necessar>' to 
make a slight improvement in the new block by throwing the 
corridor as far as the staircase into the classrooms, a new external 
glass-roofed corridor being built along the east side. The effect of 
this, as the plan shows, was to cut off the headmaster's room from 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


the outer air, and to ventilate both this room and the adjoining 
water-closet into a passage. The latter absurdity has been recently 

During the next ten years we find considerable progress, and 
this progress is identified with the names of two generous bene- 
factors — ^John Cannington and John Farnworth. 

John Cannington of Waterloo, near Liverpool, from being a 
friend of Dr. Bowden became a friend of Kingswood — how 
generous and true a friend Kingswood will surely never forget. 
Nothing pleased him more than to visit the school, and on these 
occasions he would take delight in going to and fro seeking for 
some deficiency that he might supply, some improvement that he 
might make. He always left a ;^io note to provide the boys with 
bacon for breakfast. In 1889 the comfortless chaos of the prefects' 
room attracted his attention, and he had the room completely 
repapered, repainted, and refurnished. In 1891 he removed once 
for all a long-standing difficulty, and at a cost of ;;^iooo provided 
the school with a ten-acre field. It was soon found necessary to 
build a stone wall on one side of the land at a cost of ;£io7 ; John 
Camiington paid it. On another occasion he paid ;^42o to build 
another storey over the kitchen for the better accommodation of the 

No wonder his was the most popular name in the place ; but 
he was welcomed not only for his gifts but for himself. " So soon 
as it was rumoured that he was expected, a good lookout was kept. 
Sharp eyes were on the watch at all odd corners and between the 
gate and St. Stephen's, that early news might be obtained of his 
arrival. He made smiles come everywhere. All hearts were glad 
to see him. On his entering the dining-hall for the first time of 
each visit, all faces were eager and bright, and hearts and hands 
gave him a not-to-be-forgotten welcome.'* 

He was for forty years a crippled man, his right foot and hand 
and eye having been affected by paralysis. Surely it must have 
stirred many thoughts had any stranger seen these two hundred 
and fifty boys cheering this paralysed form with all their hearts. 
They greatly err who say that nothing appeals to English boys but 
bodily prowess. He liked no part of his visits better than the daily 
prayers in hall; his favourite tunes were sung, and all sang their 
best. As the boys passed out, their names were whispered to hirp. 
" It is like reading the stations," he would say. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


"This month of May," wrote Dr. Bowden in 1896, "it was his 
purpose to come south-west again, and he wrote, *I am looking 
forward to it as a boy does to his holidays/ " But it was not to 
be. His holiday has begun elsewhere. He entered upon it on 
Good Friday 1896, in the early morning. In commemoration of 
his gifts, especially that of the field, a scholarship was founded, 
known during his lifetime as the Field Scholarship (for he insisted on 
the name of the donor of the field being withheld), but henceforth 
to be called by his name. There is also a small exhibition, 
originated in the same way. 

John Famworth was also of Liverpool, and sometime mayor. 
Truly, for all the fears of the concentration time, the North has not 
forgotten how to be generous. In 1890 he left a legacy of ^1000 
to the Schools' Fund. It was devoted to a most admirable pur- 
pose. In 1 89 1 Farn worth Hall, a detached two-storey building, 
was erected. The lower storey is a gymnasium, provided with 
gallery, dressing-room, and lavatories. The apparatus was paid for 
by subscriptions, a large proportion of which were raised by the 
efforts of Mrs. T. S. Workman. Above the gymnasium are three 
rooms, used as a reading-room, newsroom, and reference library. 
The building was opened by Dr. Moulton on i8th December 

During this year other important changes took place. The 
junior schoolroom roof was raised bodily, by means of winches, nine 
or ten feet, and the room divided into two storeys ; of these the 
upper storey became the junior schoolroom, while the lower floor 
was divided into a series of alcoves for overcoats, boots, boxes, etc. 
The headmaster's room and the first and second form rooms in the 
new buildings became workrooms, while the old workrooms were 
handed over to the headmaster ; of these he made a sitting-room, 
a physical laboratory, and a classroom. The last of these com- 
municates with the staircase to the old reading-room, which is now 
a classroom. Next year the old changing- room was covered with 
a glass roof and turned partly into two music-rooms and partly into 
a masters' lavatory. Another music-room was obtained in the site of 
one of the former boxrooms, while the then music-rooms were thrown 
into one for a masters' smoking-room. The movements of the 
music-room are somewhat confusing. In 1875 what was known as 
the committee room was given up to this purpose ; this room was 
in the main building west of the tower, and looked out upon the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



garden. In 1883 the cult of Apollo was removed to dingier 
quarters, where the laboratory, and before that the swimming bath, 
had stood. One of these music-rooms had no natural light at all ! 
Now it takes the place of the old changing-room, and, descending 
into the abyss, of one of the boxrooms. 

During the Christmas holidays of 1892-93 a remarkable piece 
of work was done which deserves record. The breakdown of the 
main boiler made it necessary to obtain a new one, and a contract 
was made to finish in time for the reopening of the school. " The 


boiler arrived late on Friday, and it was Saturday evening before it 
could be got into its bed. Starting work at four o'clock on Monday 
morning, the same staff of men worked on without interruption till 
it was finished on Wednesday afternoon at five. Sixty-one hours' 
continuous work in a narrow underground passage is a record not 
easily beaten." During those holidays, also, the drainage was 
entirely renewed and great improvements in lighting made. For 
the first time the schoolroom and dining-hall were made cheerfully 
light in every part. The once gloomy Glasgow room, moreover, is 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


hardly to be recognized in the glow of the "Clapton ventilating 

The headmaster's house was originally a cottage which stood on 
the site of the present sanatorium. Mr. Osborn for some time 
rented a house (St. Lawrence) on the Lansdown Road, his pre- 
decessor's residence being thought worthy of no better fate than to 
become a toolhouse. About 1870 Burton House was built out 
of money left by Mrs. Burton, and is still the headmaster's home. 

The original architect was, as has been stated, Mr. James Wilson. 
At the alterations in 1882 he was joined by Mr. E. Hoole, F.R.I.B.A., 
of London. To the kindness of the latter gentleman we owe the 
1875 plan which accompanies this chapter. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Then what golden hours were for us ! 

While we sate together there, 
How the white vests of the chorus 

Seemed to wave up a live air ! 
How the cothurn trod majestic 

Down the deep iambic lines, 
And the rolling anapeestic 

Curled like vapour over shrines ! 

E. B. Browning. 

It were a long and not interesting business to trace in any detail 
the nature of Kingswood studies during the last fifty years. In order 
to give some idea of the progress or regress that may have been 
made, it is sufficient to take two or three typical years and describe 
the curriculum then followed. 

Take first the year 1853, soon after the migration, and during 
the headmastership of Mr. H. M. Shera. At that date boys left the 
school at or before the age of fifteen, except, of course, the extra-year 
boy, who stayed till sixteen. The school was divided nominally into 
fourteen classes, number one being the highest ; but these classes 
worked mostly in pairs, thus forming seven divisions. The highest 
division contained nine boys, four in Class I. and five in Class II. 
Class I., during that year, read the Crito^ the First Philippic^ and six 
hundred lines of (Edipus ReXy twenty Odes of Horace, with the Ars 
Poetica^ twenty chapters of Livy, and a little Juvenal ; they also 
prepared a certain amount of Arnold's Prose Composition, but 
apparently no continuous prose, and wrote Latin verses. In mathe- 
matics, Tate's Calculus,^ Tate's Plane Trigonometry ^ and Tate's 
AfcTisuration were read through, six books of Euclid, and the whole 
of Part I. of Colenso's Algebra^ with arithmetic completing their 

* A slender but interesting book, which includes the elements of the Differ- 
ential and of the Integral Calculus. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


equipment. French and German and the ordinary English subjects 
formed part of the course. No English literature seems to have 
been read, except for parsing purposes ! Paley's Evidences^ Bushby's 
Introduction to the Study of the Scriptures^ and the Conference 
Catechisms were the divinity text-books. Latin was taught from the 
very first, Greek was begun in Division V. Division IV. was the first 
to attempt algebra, and Division III. read the first book of Euclid. 

In 1^59, at the close of the first school year during which boys 
had been sent in for the Oxford Local Examinations, the first class 
submitted for examination very much the same classical work as in 
1855, Tacitus replacing Livy, and Thucydides being read instead of 
Demosthenes. The mathematical programme of Class I. (two boys) 
omits differential calculus, goes farther in Euclid, algebra, and 
plane trigonometry, and adds some amount of analytical geom.etry, 
statics, and spherical trigonometry. In divinity, Whately appears 
in lieu of Paley, Bushby has disappeared, a portion of the Bible and 
(in the two upper divisions) of the Greek Testament is added. 
Apparently for the first time "papers" were set, as far as Class I. 
was concerned, in addition to oral examination. The examiner is 
" especially gratified to find them honest productions." 

In 1873, for the first time, the school was examined by examiners 
appointed by the Cambridge Syndicate for the Examination of 
Schools. The report was far from laudatory with regard to the lower 
forms ; but our business here is with the curriculum. Class I. (six 
boys) presented portions of Demosthenes, Herodotus, ^schylus, 
Sallust, and Horace, together with grammar and composition ; the 
highest mathematical work included mechanics, hydrostatics, and 
trigonometry ; in divinity, Greek Testament and the Acts in English 
were offered by Class I., the Catechism and Old Testament books 
being taught in the classes below. We find also French, history, 
geography, and English grammar as subjects of examination, to- 
gether with a portion of the play of Hamlet, 

Turn now to a date subsequent to the amalgamation ; take 1878. 
Here we find the highest form, the sixth, containing fifteen boys, 
divided into various sections, one boy reading for a university 
scholarship, two for the Intermediate Arts Examination at London, 
four for the Oxford and Cambridge Joint Board Examination, and 
eight for the Senior Oxford Local Examination. One division of 
the fifth is working for London Matriculation, the other division and 
one of the fourth forms for the Junior Local Examination. At this 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


time the forms extended from the sixth down to the third. The 
sixth and fifth were, as is shown above, divided into groups work- 
ing for various definite objects. The fourth and third forms each 
consisted of two parallel divisions, classical and modern. The 
modem forms replaced Greek by German and additional science. 

Take, lastly, a more recent year, 1897. Here we have a .sixth 
form of fourteen boys, twelve of whom are prefects. These boys 
specialize ; two are reading for the London B. A., nine for university 
scholarships (in classics, mathematics, or modern languages), and 
three for the Intermediate Arts Examination at London. The fifth 
form, in various sections, devotes itself to London Matriculation and 
the Cambridge Local Examinations, the fourth form mainly to the 
Junior Local Examinations. 

In attempting to estimate the progress of Kingswood studies, 
during, say, the last hundred years, it is of course only possible to 
speak in general terms. The classical work seems to have followed 
the same lines of development as in the majority of English schools. 
Much less time is devoted to it, and in consequence there are points 
of deterioration ; the power of apt and ready quotation from ancient 
authors seems to have become well-nigh lost ; grammatical know- 
ledge is not so minute, and is less scholarly. On the other hand, the 
method of teaching is more rational, and the classics are treated 
more in the light of literature than as merely fields for the study of 
language. No doubt the average boy gains and the clever boy loses 
under this treatment. In this change that has come over classical 
teaching in England, Kingswood has shared ; here, as elsewhere, 
the growing multiplicity of subjects has compelled it. Verses never 
formed a serious part of the Kingswood course ; occasionally a few 
of the upper boys dabbled in them ; but verse-making, if it is to be 
of any good, must begin early. In mathematics Kingswood has 
made immense strides ; the amount of mathematical work done at 
Kingswood in the twenties was on a par with that of other classical 
schools of the time, but seems ludicrous when we compare it with 
the work of to-day. The scientific teaching is of modern growth. 
" Philosophical lectures " formed from early times a pleasant relief 
from more severe studies, but it is not till about 1870 that any 
systematic scientific work was done, and then only in chemistry. 
The creation of a Modern Side in 1875 gave some stimulus and 
opportunity to this branch of education, and a certain amount of good 
work was done in botany. Physics, to any useful extent, has only 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



been added during the present headmastership. The idea of a 
choice of curriculum is as old as 1814, when it was ordered that all 
boys should pursue the same course for the first two years (except at 
their parents' request), and at the end of that time the parents of such 
boys as then seemed " incapable of languages " were to be consulted 
as to the best course of study for them. The creation of a 
systematic Modem Side in 1875 has not met with all the success 
that could be desired. In 1876 the headmaster reported that the 
modern forms did " not stand so high in industry, discipline, or attain- 
ments as the classical forms of corresponding rank." According to 


the original plan, German and additional science took the place of 
Greek on the Modem Side. In 1889 an attempt was made to give 
vitality to this department by adding shorthand and by creating a 
modern fifth, whose work should be with a view to commercial life 
and the Civil Service. At present the upper fourth is purely a modem 
form, which does Civil Service subjects. It has been found that the 
average " modern " boy cannot manage three languages, and German 
has been dropped. Drawing and music do not seem to have ever 
been part of the regular curriculum. Many modern educationists are 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


of opinion that drawing and class-singing should be taught through- 
out a school, but the great diversity of subjects required at the 
present day makes it unavoidable that something should give way. 
Drawing and music (vocal and instrumental) have therefore at 
Kingswood been "extras."^ A drawing master has formed part of 
the teaching staff from very early times. In 1861 a singing master 
came from Bath on certain days ; in 1867 the present music master 
was engaged ; his duties have been almost entirely connected with 
instrumental music; vocal music has been taught to voluntary 
classes by one of the resident masters. 

Examinations naturally group themselves under two heads, 
internal and external. 

Internal Examinations, — From 1847 to 1855 the Rev. Jonathan 
Crowther examined the school annually in both classics and mathe- 
matics. In 1856 he died, and the duty was assigned to Mr. H. M. 
Shera, who was assisted by the Rev. J. Lomas. From 1857 to 1863 
the Rev. Benjamin Frankland fulfilled this function, and the Rev. 
W. F. Moulton from 1863 to 1872. The reports presented by 
these gentlemen offer little material for comment, and are almost 
uniformly commendatory. In 1862 Mr. Frankland writes: "The 
morale of the lads, as it may be designated, — their general bearing, 
their manner towards each other, their self-respect, their self- 
possessed method of going to work, as they appeared in the ex- 
amination room, — is of an order strikingly superior to anything 
which it has been my pleasure to witness even in Lansdown. . . . 
After many years' familiar knowledge of both the schools, I now 
seem to see — I had almost said for the first time — some embodi- 
ment of the very idea (I refer to the moral purpose) of the Founder." 
Up to 1868 the mathematical results regularly show themselves 
somewhat inferior to those in classics. In that year, however, the 
reports show that the mathematics had taken a great stride forward 
both in quantity and quality. In 1869 the examiner commends 
the introduction of Farrar's Greek Syntax into the school, and 
records the interest it awakened in this subject. In that year Greek 
and Latin " unseens " were set, apparently for the first time. During 
this time examinations in divinity and in " English subjects " were 
conducted separately by ministers appointed for the purpose by the 

' Drawing, however, formed part of the ordinary curriculum in the lower 
fonns from 1883 to 1897. Mr. Sanderson also taught singing at one lime. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


In allusion to what has been said above with regard to the 
curriculum of the fifties, we may quote from the report of the 
" English " examiners in 1855. "The first division was exercised 
in parsing and scanning the third book of Milton's Paradise Lost, 
and they indicated a very exact acquaintance with the rules and 
principles of English grammar. The second division parsed a 
passage from Sheridan Knowles' Elocutionist with very great 
correctness. In the remaining five divisions M*Culloch's Reading 
Lessons were used with an equally satisfactory result. In addition, 
the first three divisions parsed and scanned many portions of Wesley's 
Hymns in a very creditable manner ; and all the boys wrote short 
exercises on their slates, which were severally examined." In 
1856 the examination of the upper boys "embraced the nature 
of language, the structure and different kinds of sentences, with 
other subjects comprehended in the philosophy of language." This 
probably intimates the first introduction of English " analysis " into 
the course. Next year Paradise Lost is used to supply passages for 
analysis ; in this year also history and geography appear among the 
examination subjects. In i860 two optimistic examiners deduce 
from the fact that some boys did not know as much as others the 
conclusion " that there is scope for diversities of mental taste and 
aptitude, and that, while all have the opportunity of becoming well- 
informed, they are not planed down to a uniform level." In 1863 
reading forms part of the examination, and " distinctness of utter- 
ance and correct aspiration" are desiderata. In 1866 a separate 
writing examiner was appointed. Three years later English 
literature appears among the subjects, the first five classes each 
taking up some classical work. There is an obscure remark made 
by the divinity examiners of that year; they say: "Occasional 
failures — in a few exceptional cases — furnished occasions for a 
display of tact and resources on the part of others which it was very 
refreshing to observe." In 1872 a separate PVench examiner was 
appointed. But in 1873 a considerable alteration in the system 
was produced by entrusting the examination of the school to the 
Cambridge University Syndicate for the Examination of Schools. 
This body sent down three men, the Rev. Stanley Walton, Vicar 
of Fenstanton, the Rev. Bryan Walker, and Mr. J. F. Moulton, an 
old boy of the school. The reports thus obtained were distinctly 
more critical than those of the past; while the summaries were 
generally commendatory, particular classes or subjects often came 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


in for severe treatment. Thus, in French, in Class IL, with one 
exception, "no boy distinguished himself." Map-drawing through- 
out is "downright bad." In Class II. the classical "composition 
was bad ; the exercises were so full of blunders that it was almost 
impossible to mark them." Here are a few more gems from the same 
source : Class V. (history) : " Good in the parts requiring nothing 
but memory ; break down the moment they are cross-questioned " ; 
(geography) : " Do not know accurately the merest outlines." 
Class VI. (Latin): "Slow, and, I must say, seem ill-taught"; 
(history) : All but three or four " utterly ignorant." 

These strictures are here quoted because they did as much as 
anything to force on a general recognition of the need of a better 
btaflSng of the school. To this subject we shall return. 

Meanwhile the Divinity Examination was still retained in the 
hands of ministers appointed for the purpose, a course necessitated 
by the denominational character of some of the work. 

In 1878 the Syndicate Examination was dropped. The fact that 
practically the entire upper forms presented themselves for one or 
another external examination was considered to render unnecessary 
any further examination as far as they w^ere concerned. The re- 
mainder of the school was entrusted to an examiner appointed by 
the committee. In 1883, however, the entire school came before 
this examiner, but next year the previous system was reverted to. 
In 1888 two examiners were appointed, and it was thought desirable 
to bring the whole w^ork of the school under survey ; their report, 
as the governing body say, " speaks for itself." The mathematics, 
except Euclid, are pronounced satisfactory, the VI., V., and Upper 
III. being especially commended; the Euclid, however, was dis- 
tinctly disappointing, except in the V. matriculation form. " There 
was no general examination of the upper school in English subjects, 
but geography was chosen as a test." It was an unlucky choice, 
at any rate as far as the physical geography was concerned ; the 
ignorance on some points is termed "deplorable." But the 
strongest animadversions were those made by the examiner in 
languages. In VI.a. there was "no paper showing decided 
power and grasp." In the Upper V. grammar and syntax 
"were badly missed." In another form there was "lamentable 
ignorance of both Latin and Greek " ; in another, " no boy did 
well, and most badly." In French, four out of the six forms in 
the upper school are pronounced " bad all round." This ill-advised 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


and ill-tempered report, which, in the fixed conviction of those best 
able to judge, was grossly unfair, not only led to the resignation of 
the headmaster, but also seriously damaged the school. The 
numbers fell in three years by no less than 52. Then a recovery 
took place, and in 1891 there was an increase of 26. In 
1889 the same examiners reported great and marked improve- 
ment, except indeed in Greek Testament and Catechism; a 
year later, and the same examiners speak in terms of very warm 
commendation. In 1891 the detailed report of the Cambridge 
Locals was held sufficient for the upper school, the lower school 
only being examined. The Cambridge Locals results are now 
summarized and commented upon at intervals by someone appointed 
for the purpose by the governing body. 

External Examinations, — For many years there were no external 
examinations which were open to Kingswood boys; the age at 
which they left precluded them from attempting even the London 
Matriculation. The first boy from either of the schools for ministers' 
sons who passed this examination was E. Waddy (of Kingswood) in 
1839, nine years after he left the school; the first boy to pass direct from 
school was C. A. Clulow (of the Grove) in 1864. However, in 1858 the 
Oxford University Local Examinations were begun, and Mr. Jefferson, 
who was one of the members of the Bath committee, seized the 
opportunity to send in five of his boys, with the result that three 
of them passed in the first division and two in the second. The 
action did not escape criticism, and criticism of the quaintest kind. 
At a meeting of the committee in 1859, the Rev. W. H. Rule, D.D., 
stated that he had heard that the boys of one institution had 
been sent to the Middle-Class Examination without adequate 
authority ; had he a son in that school he would certainly have 
objected to his going where young tradesmen and clerks went ! 
The Rev. T. Vasey said that the Grove committee had carefully 
considered the matter, and had declined to send boys in, consider- 
ing that the object of these examinations was to extend the influence 
of the Church among the middle classes ! Well might Dr. Bunting 
ask in what sequestered dell in Yorkshire they had got that idea. 

In i860 the Grove followed the example of Kingswood, and 
in 1864 the last effort of opposition died away when Dr. Rule and 
Dr. Waddy were defeated on a motion intended to prevent use 
being made of these examinations. From 1858 to 1890 the con- 
nection of Kingswood with the Oxford Locals was unbroken, and 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


its success extraordinary. At first the top boys of the school com- 
peted, but afterwards Mr. Osborn was accustomed to send in 
fifth and fourth form boys only. During the entire thirty-two 
years 204 passed as seniors, 1 2 1 in the first division ; and no less 
than 795 as juniors, 336 in the first division. This gives an average 
of about 31 passes annually. In the seniors the first place in the 
general list was taken six times, the second place five times, the 
third place seven times ; in separate subjects the first place has 
been taken tea times in mathematics, six times in languages, five 
times in English, thrice in Greek, twice in divinity, and once each 
in arithmetic, physics, and Italian. Among the juniors the first 
place has been won seven times, the second nine times, and the 
third seven times.^ Since 1 890 four seniors have passed, all in the 
first division, one being first in the list ; the four secured between 
them first places in Latin, Greek (twice), and political economy. 
The Oxford lists offer a clear testimony to the fact elsewhere 
stated, that the system of amalgamation extending from 1875 ^o 
1883 presented the best opportunities for academic success. The 
summary given above records 999 passes in thirty-two years ; during 
a quarter of that time, the eight years of amalgamation, 414 ot 
these were secured, or an average of nearly 52 a year. 

In 1890 the date of the Oxford examinations was altered from 
June to July, in order to suit the almost universal adoption of the 
di\ision of the school year into three terms. Kingswood, however, 
retained the old plan of half-years, and July fell in the holidays. 
The experiment was made of dividing the year into three, and in 1890 
the Oxford Examination was taken as usual. The plan, however, 
proved so costly and so difficult to adjust to the date of Conference, 
that reluctantly the time-honoured connection with " the Oxfords " had 
to be abandoned, and the Cambridge Locals, which fall in December, 
took their place. This necessitated, or seemed to necessitate, the 

* For convenience of complete reference, the Grove results for i860 to 
1874 are appended. The Grove, however, divided its forces, in some years 
gimg preference to the Cambridge Locals. The Grove passed 5 seniors, all in 
the first division, securing the second place twice ; and 88 juniors, 50 in the first 
division, obtaining the first place twice, and the second once, and the third three 
times. In the Cambridge Locals from 1863 to 1874, 10 seniors passed from the 
Grove, 6 in the first division, and 49 juniors, 19 in the first division. Among the 
"•CTiors six distinctions were won in divinity (once the first place), five in English, 
four in mathematics, three in Greek (once the first place) and in applied mathe- 
matics, and two in Latin. Among the juniors the distinctions won were, in 
mathematics eleven, in Greek eight, in divinity seven, in English five (once the 
first), in French two. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


alteration of the beginning of the school year to Januar)\ Nor are 
the Cambridge examinations so suitable for a classical school ; natural 
science and drawing are at the candidate's option in lieu of Latin 
and Greek, and they as much assist his final place in the order. 
Moreover, though the successful candidates are arranged in classes, 
these classes are alphabetical ; this, while it conceals inferiority, also 
obscures success. 

However, during seven years (1890-96), 59 seniors have passed, 
39 in honours ; and 273 juniors, loi in honours — ao average of 47 
passes a year. Among the seniors 8 special distinctions have been 
won in English, 5 each in arithmetic and mathematics, 3 each in 
applied mathematics, divinity, Latin, and French, and i in German ; 
among the juniors, 16 in mathematics, 12 in arithmetic, 10 in 
French, 8 in English, 7 each in divinity and Latin, 2 in drawing, i 
in shorthand. Add to these figures a few casual candidates from 
1873 to 1889. During this time there were 20 senior passes, all in 
honours, 16 in the first division, gaining between them 9 distinc- 
tions in Greek, 8 each in English, mathematics, and I^tin, 4 
in applied mathematics, and 3 in divinity. There was a remarkable 
occurrence in 1878-80. In 1878 one Kingswood boy was first, 
in 1879 t^'<5 Kingswood boys, and in 1880 three Kingswood boys 
were bracketed equal as first in the whole list. 

Four hundred and fifty-eight Kingswood boys have matriculated 
at London University (besides 75 (irovites). Of the whole 533, 219 
have graduated ; they have carried off 47 exhibitions and scholar- 
ships, 23 prizes, and 10 medals. Eleven have proceeded to a 
doctorate. Of the 533 matriculants, who extend over sixty-seven 
years (1839 to 1896), 156 passed during the eight years of amalgama- 
tion, mostly direct from the school. 

London has had more attraction for Kingswood boys than the 
older universities, for evident pecuniary reasons. Being an examin- 
ing body only and requiring no residence, London offers a degree 
at a comparatively trifling cost. As a general rule Oxford and 
Cambridge have been forbidden Edens to those who could not win 
scholarships. Of course for many years their degrees were not 
obtainable by Nonconformists. 

However, what has been done by Kingswood at these universities 
has been for the most part done brilliantly. Complete records are 
probably not within our access, but some statistics may be given 
with the proviso that the figures are none of them too great, all of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



them probably less than the fact. Take Oxford first ; there we 
claim 51 scholarships or exhibitions and 6 fellowships. In the 
final honours schools mathematics has attracted 18 men, Litercp 
Humaniores 18, science 6, history 5, law 2, theology i ; while one 
man has taken both mathematics and classics (he secured a double 
first), and one mathematics and science. Turning to Cambridge, 
we find 60 scholarships, exhibitions, or sizarships, and 17 fellow- 
ships. With regard to the selection of triposes, 37 men have taken 


mathematics (27 wranglers), 14 classics, 11 natural science, 2 
modem languages, 2 theology, while law, history, and moral 
science each claim one devotee. Ten have taken two triposes, 
three of them securing double firsts, one in classics and mathematics, 
one in mathematics and science, and the other in classics and 
theology.^ Kingswood claims two Senior Wranglers, and allusion 
must be made to a peculiarly brilliant run of successes, probably 
unmatched by any other school. It began in 1882, when Kings- 
vood supplied the 5th, 8th, and i8th Wranglers; in 1883 she was 
' These figures include the Grove. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


content with the 31st ; in 1884 she claimed the 2nd ; in 1885 again 
the 31st ; in 1886 ihe first and second^ as well as the 19th. 

It seems fitting at this point to put on record as extraordinar>' 
a career of examinational success as ever fell to the lot of one 
candidate. In 1878, at the age of thirteen, A. C. Dixon essayed 
his first public examination, the Junior Oxford Local ; he came out 
first in the first class. In 1879 he entered for the Senior Oxford; 
he came out first in the first class. In 1880 he attacked the Senior 
Cambridge ; he was first in the first class. He then turned his 
attention to London ; at the 1S82 January Matriculation he wsls first 
in the highest (the honours) division. At Intermediate Arts in 1 884 
he secured the Mathematical Exhibition, at B.A. in 1886 the Mathe- 
matical Scholarship, at M.A. in 1887 the Mathematical Medal. 
Meanwhile, in 1883, he won the first open scholarship at Trinity 
College, Cambridge. In 1886 he entered for the Mathematical 
Tripos ; he was Senior JVrangier. 

Scholarships, etc, — The first boy to receive an extra year at 
Kingswood was Jonathan Crowther in 1808. From that time an 
extra-year boy seems to have been selected from time to time ; for 
this extra year payment was made. When the Grove was founded, 
the same custom was introduced there. In 1862 the Grove held its 
jubilee, and the funds raised on that occasion were devoted to the 
foundation of a Jubilee Scholarship. By way of distinction, the title 
of Conference Scholarship was applied to the extra year referred to 
above. By this time the Conference Scholarship was a free year 
granted to the most distinguished Invite of the year. At the 
amalgamation, the Grove Conference Scholarship was transferred to 

The Jubilee Scholarship consists of the proceeds of ^500 
invested in railway stock. In some years two scholarships have 
been given. In 1875, at the amalgamation, the regulation was 
made that the income of this stock should be used either to pay for 
an extra year or for a prize, at the option of the parent, to be 
awarded for mathematics and open to all boys who have not had 
an extra year. As a matter of fact, it has always taken the form of 
an extra year, though the governing body are also at liberty to 
award it as a leaving exhibition. The Morley Scholarships, like the 
last, were founded at the Grove in 1862 ; one through the munifi- 
cence of George Morley, Esquire, of Leeds, an old Grove boy, and 
one from the same source as the Jubilee Scholarship. The deed. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


dated 1868, states that they are to be awarded to leaving boys, but 
gives Conference power to alter the conditions. In 1875 it was 
determined to allot one to a boy who has just completed his 
ordinary course, and the other to a boy who has already had a 
scholarship year. They were to be open, as long as suitable 
candidates could be found, only to boys who had been at the 

In 1874 Mr. John Femley left ;£5oo to Kingswood and ;;^5oo 
to the Grove, and the proceeds were assigned to an exhibition for 
two years to be held at some place of higher education ; next year, 
however, the term of holding was reduced to one year, and the 
value was to be made up to ^^50 from the school funds. 

In 1878 Mr. J. E. Lightfoot, formerly Mayor of Accrington, 
founded a scholarship for divinity by the gift of ;^75o. 

In 1 88 1 Mr. W. W. Pocock of London made over four houses 
in Battersea to trustees, for a scholarship at Kingswood, to be open 
only to ministers' sons who have been not more than five years at 
school. The four houses produced an annual rent of ;^i8; the 
leases fall in in i960. From 1883-85 the scholarship was given to 
boys who would not otherwise have obtained a sixth year; from 
1886-88 it was given as an entrance scholarship, adjudged on the 
results of the entrance examination ; this, however, was found very 
unsatisfactory, and the original plan was restored. The John 
Cannington Scholarship is mentioned elsewhere. There is also a John 
Cannington Exhibition of ;^ro, tenable at the school. A curious 
fact — due to the early age at which boys formerly left the school 
—is the existence of scholarships from Kingswood to other schools. 
In 1852, "The Directors of the Wesleyan Collegiate Institution, 
Taunton, regarding the removal of Kingswood School to Lansdown, 
near Bath, as the commencement of a new era in its history, offer to 
the acceptance of the committee of that school on behalf of the 
pupils educated there an annual scholarship of ;^20, as an incentive 
to high literary effort . . . and as affording to them the opportunity 
of continued training." The scholarship was to be offered to the 
first boy at Kingswood ; it was to be tenable for one year at Taunton, 
and the holder must pass " a creditable examination " in the ordinary 
subjects of a school course. The first holder of this scholarship 
was P. Chsipman. Wesley College, Sheffield, followed suit, and 
both Sheffield and Taunton extended their offer to the Grove. 
Various successful private school masters took the same step, but 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


their offers were not accepted without protest. As early as 1867 the 
Rev. Charles Prest and the Rev. (ieorge Osborn objected to private 
schools securing the best fruits of Kingswood training for the 
benefit of their own reputation. 

In the matter of medals, as in that of scholarships, the Grove 
led the way. The enthusiasm and affection which the Grove 
aroused in the north was very striking all through its history. 

In 1857 two silver medals were founded at the Grove; one by 
Dr. F. W. Bedford, a former master, and one by Mr. J. C. Lane of 
Doncaster. The former was awarded "to the most proficient out- 
going boy," the latter for modern languages. These medals, being 
given each year by the donor, ceased in 1875. I" ^^^^ Mr. John 
Chubb, hearing of the existence of silver medals at the Grove, 
offered jQ^o to found one at Kingswood in memory of Dr. Jabez 
Bunting' to be given to the head of the school. The example being 
thus set, many imitators quickly followed it. In 1863 Mr. S. Evans 
of Bath gave a medal for the best arithmetician ; this medal was 
known formerly as the Bath Medal and the Welsh Medal, but 
subsequently as the Evans Medal. In the same year Mr. John 
Wesley Hall of Bristol gave the medal that bears his name. In 
that year also we read in the report of the Grove Committee, that 
Mr. W. B. Holdsworth offered an annual " Morley Medal " for " the 
most proficient out-going mathematical scholar " ; but we cannot 
find any trace of this medal having ever been actually given. Next 
year the first and only gold medal (for divinity) was given by Mr. 
Thomas Meek, an old Grove boy. This medal was continued at the 
Grove as long as possible, and was not transferred to Kingswood 
till 1884. 

Among other bequests must be mentioned ;^2oo left by Mr. C. 
T. Gabriel for the encouragement of modern studies ; the prize for 
good conduct founded by Mr. Thomas Dix ; that for reading, 
awarded after public competition, by the Rev. W. O. Punshon, 
LL.r). In 1880 Sir Henry Mitchell gave ;;^io to provide a prize 
for mathematics at the Grove; and ;^25, the gift of Mrs, Taylor of 
Bath, is invested for prize purposes, but no Taylor prize has yet been 
awarded. At the laying of the foundation stone of New Kingswood 
in 1850, Mr. Thomas Farmer offered ;^ioo to provide an annual 
prize for an essay on Dr. Chalmers* remark that "Methodism is 
Christianity in earnest." Subsequently, he wrote to say that this 
proposal was " the fruit of a sudden impression," and that he would 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


leave the choice of subject to the committee, with the suggestion 
that "The Bible" or "The British and Foreign Bible Society," 
might be suitable. As a matter of fact, two prizes are offered 
annually (for seniors and juniors respectively) for the best essays on 
some subject connected with the English Reformation in the six- 
teenth century. Among other donors of prizes in recent times was 
the Rev. W. O. Simpson, who, up to his death, gave a prize which 
was awarded in a curious way, namely, by the vote of the school. 
The school justified the confidence by invariably selecting a worthy 
recipient. The Rev. E. T. Stubbs, M.A., the Rector of Charlcombe, 
in which parish the school stands, invariably took a great interest in 
this portion of his flock ; he was a constant and welcome visitor on 
prize day, and gave an annual prize to be awarded to some boy who 
should combine athletic skill with a fair proficiency in other 
respects. Mr. Stubbs died in 1897. For many years the late 
Rev. W. F. Moulton, D.D., gave a prize for Greek Testament, and 
for many years Mr. P. W. Bunting, the editor of the Contemporary 
Review^ gave one for music. Among other donors may be 
mentioned Sir Henry Fowler, M.P., the Rev. F. W. Kellett, Mr. S. 
R. Edge, Mr. W. Hunt, Mr. A. H. S. Lucas, the Rev. R. N. 
Young, D.D., Mr. S. Fox Andrews, Mrs. Hart, and Mrs. Tonkin. 
Many of the masters have also from time to time given prizes, 
among whom may be mentioned Mr. Hobson, who has continually 
given drawing prizes, and Mr. Richards, who gives most valuable 
rewards for classics. The latest addition to the list is due to the 
generosity of the family of the late Rev. J. S. Jones, himself an old 
Kingswood boy, whose sons have been among the most dis- 
tinguished alumni of the school; fifty pounds has been handed 
over to the trustees of the Scholarship and Prize Fund, to found a 
biennial prize for higher mathematics. If in time the appreciation 
of the investment or any increase of the capital sum permit it, the 
prize will take the form of a gold medal. It is among the conditions 
of the gift that this prize shall rank among those " associated with 
boards," that is, that the names of the winners shall be inscribed on 
a board hung in some conspicuous position. 

Prize day has, of course, always been an occasion of interest, 
but was not always a public gathering. Formerly, a committee 
day was selected, and the chairman of the committee would 
present the prizes. In 1861 we first hear of anything more 
formal, when " the boys and a few friends assembled in the hall." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


In 1863, however, a great function took place. "Shortly after 
three the assembled company were conducted to the large dining- 
hall. On entering, the boys were ranged on either side under 
some formidable printed announcements * Whigs,' * Tories,' 
* Government Benches,' 'Treasury Bench.'" This Parliament 
opened in an unusual way, for the boys sang "Dulce Domum" 
under the guidance of their music master; other pieces followed. 
As the music ceased, "there glided quietly into the room Mr. 
Speaker, arrayed in wig and long robes, and preceded by one usher 
with his robes, and followed by another. With much dignity, he 
took his seat upon an elevated platform in the centre, the Clerk of 
the House, duly attired, at the same time seating himself at a table 
in front. The usual parliamentary preliminaries were gone through : 
a certain honourable member for Bath took his seat ; notice was 
given of a Bill for the closing of public-houses on Sundays, and 
of another for the abolition of corporal punishment in schools ; 
the Kingswood Vacation Bill was read a third time, and passed 
unanimously amid loud cheers, and then came the tug of war. A 
leading member of the Government rose from the Treasury Bench 
to introduce a Bill for the erection of a statue to Oliver Cromwell 
in Hyde Park at an expense not exceeding ;^j8ooo. A vigorous 
and well-sustained debate ensued, and after an hour the motion 
was lost by a large majority." ^ Then followed the distribution of 
prizes by the governor. An appeal was made to the boys : " Who 
is worthy of the Bunting Medal ? " As the conditions of the award 
of this medal are clearly laid down, it was perhaps fortunate that 
the choice of the boys accorded therewith. The recipient was 
T. L. Taylor. 

In 1864 the new organ added to the harmony of the pro- 
ceedings, under the manipulation of Mr. J. M. Shum, the organist 
of King Street Chapel. Mr. West seized the opportunity of making 
a collection towards the cost of this instrument, ;;^i6 being 
realized. The governor again presented the prizes, the chairman 
of committee presiding. W^hen the Bunting Medal was given, 
Mr. West pointed to the board on which the names of medallists 
were inscribed, and remarked that there was room for several more 
boards of a similar kind. This led to the immediate offer of the 
W^esley Hall Medal and the Evans Medal. 

The feature of the 1 865 prize-giving was the presentation of a 
* A prophetic division. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


clock and ring to Mr. Henry Jefferson, the presentation being 
made by Mr. H. E. Prest. The testimonial had been set on foot 
by the then first class, and Mr. Prest spoke as representing some 
seventy boys who had passed through that class. The clock bore 
the inscription : " Presented to Henry Jefferson, M.A., on his 
resigning the headmastership of Kingswood School, after ten 
years of the most successful labour, by some of those who have 
enjoyed the great moral and intellectual advantages of his 
training." In 1866 — for hereabouts almost every year presents 
some point of interest — the second master, Mr. Gostick, read out 
the mark list for the year, each boy, "as his name was uttered, 
modestly standing up," and receiving due applause. Mr. West as 
before distributed the prizes. ** * This boy,' said he, concerning 
one whom all his schoolfellows love, * this boy ought to have had 
a prize last year, but did not get it ; gain to him in some respects, 
it is loss in others that he is my son.' ... To the honour of the 
Misses West, the satisfaction of the assembly, and the amazement 
of such as remembered the musical instruments of the old school, 
some pupils performed on the piano." There was also some 
chorus-singing; in one piece "our ear" (says the contemporary 
chronicler) " distinguished the words — 

We wave our caps on high. 
And cry, Dear liath, adieu ! " 

In 1867, for the first time, a special chairman was invited to 
preside and to distribute the prizes ; the gentleman on this 
occasion was Mr. W. H. Budgett. It is an interesting fact that 
J. M. Lightwood, J. W. Russell, and T. C. Lewis were 
equal for the Bunting Medal, the award being determined by 
seniority. Among those who addressed the meeting was Mr. 
G. Hobson, who gave prizes for drawing, and "spoke at some 
length on the collateral advantages of an art education." One of 
the functions of the headmaster — now fulfilled by the senior 
prefect — appears to have been to lead the cheers ; at any rate, Mr. 
Osbom called for cheers for the governor, three more for Mrs. 
West, and three more for the governor's daughters. Boys have 
always obeyed Mr. Osborn, and they obeyed then — nothing loth. 
Mr. West, alluding to his approaching departure, said that many 
happy memories of the last seven years would attend him in his 
retirement It was not likely any of them would see him after- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


wards ; they might possibly soon hear of his safe and happy 
departure to another world ; he could never forget Kingswood. 
This prophecy was fulfilled ; in 1 869 Mr. West died. 

In 1868 a very remarkable point in the prize list was that the 
dux in each class in the lower school was the youngest boy in that 

There is nothing of note to arrest attention till we reach the 
year 1882, when, amidst a scene of great enthusiasm, a presentation 
was made to Mr. Osborn on behalf of his past and present pupils 
by Mr. W. T. A. Barber. The presentation consisted of an 
illuminated address, a handsome writing-table, and a cheque for a 
hundred guineas. 

In more recent years the prize-givings have been enlivened by 
excellent musical performances and gymnastic displays. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


*Pt^a TravTcov twv KaKwv, 

In order to follow the progress of this somewhat complicated 
subject, it will be convenient to describe the condition of the Schools' 
Fund in 1852-53, as a basis from which to start. The chief sources 
of income were as follows. Subscriptions raised in the various 
circuits and public collections, during November, provided ^£48^4. 
This was, however, an unusually scanty yield, owing to the agitation 
at that time going on in the Connexion. This item will be referred 
to simply as Collections, Ministers having sons at the school paid 
two guineas for each, ministers having children at home paid one 
guinea for each such child that was on the fund, all other ministers 
paid half a guinea. These Minister^ Subscriptions were annual, and 
in 1852-53 produced ;;^i 1 50. The Children's Fund paid six guineas 
for each child at school; total, ^^1634. The Foreign Missionary 
Society provided ^^550, paying ^25 for each missionary's son at 
school. In addition, there was a small sum, varying of course from 
year to year, produced by legacies. 

Turning to the other side of the account, we find that Kingswood 
cost ;^3399, and IVoodhouse Grove £2^011. The fund also paid 
£\2 for each boy, and eight guineas for each girl, of educational 
age, not at a connexional school. At this time there was no such 
school for girls. These payments continued for a period, in the 
case of boys, of six years, in the case of girls, of five years. The 
total sum thus reached was somewhat lessened by the payments to 
children of retired or deceased ministers being charged to the 
Children's Fund.^ The amount of these Home Allowances paid by 

^This r^ulation was made in 1844 ; from 1835-44 these payments had fallen 
to the Auxiliary Fund. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


the Schools' Fund in 1852-53 was ^^4211. There were, of course, 
also expenses of management and interest on loans. Altogether, 
the expenditure exceeded the income by ^2489. Adding to this 
the accumulated deficits of the past, at the Conference of 1853 the 
Schools* Fund was ;^5799 in debt. This unhealthy financial 
position had naturally caused much concern to the committee, for, 
besides the constantly increasing adverse balance in the current 
account, there was also a standing debt of some ;^5ooo on the 
building fund of the new school. There was now, however, a 
prospect of deliverance. In 1851 a finance sub-committee, when 
the debt due to the treasurers was ;^i8oo, had recommended a step 
of considerable magnitude. Besides the Schools' Fund, the Con- 
tingent Fund and the Auxiliary Fund had balances to the bad. Mr. 
Francis Riggall of Bristol " proffered a noble sum, which he has since 
increased " to start a " Relief and Extension Fund " for the payment 
of all connexional debts. By this means ;^i 00,000 was eventually 
raised. The " loyal and large-hearted views " expressed by the laity 
at this time were not without their counterpart in the action of 
Conference, for the already heavily-burdened ministers decreed an 
additional subscription of one guinea from each of their number 
towards the Schools' Fund. This extra tax realized about ;^iooo, 
but as the annual deficit was estimated at ;^25oo, this was clearly 
insufficient, apart from increased income from collections. The 
Conference of 1854 found it necessary to make each minister 
responsible for raising 32s. "In some circuits the ministers were 
kindly aided by the people in this effort ; but in many others the 
entire sum had to be drawn from their own allowances, which, even 
in their undiminished form, were too small for the comfortable 
maintenance of themselves and families. This arrangement, though 
it involved a great amount of sacrifice, was conscientiously carried 
out," and produced about ;^iooo. This, however, clearly could not 
be done twice ; many of the laymen on the committee declared that 
they would be no parties to any plan that made the ministers re- 
sponsible for the deficiencies of the fund. , The eventual decisions 
of Conference were, to instruct the local committees of the two 
schools to retrench expenditure by ;^4oo at least, to double the 
normal ministerial payments, thereby returning to the rate of 
1820-25 (four guineas for each boy at school, and one guinea from 
all other ministers), and to request the circuits to contribute los. 6d. 
for every ninety members. At the same time a wise step was taken 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


in appointing a lay treasurer to act with the ministerial treasurer at 
each school. The result of these measures was that for 1855-56 
the deficit on the year was only ;^6oo, and the accumulated debt 
;^3959, ;^575o having been received from the Relief Fund. Next 
year's deficit was but ^63. 

Still there was the debt — which grew year by year, if only 

slowly. There was also ;^8oo building debt at the Grove. The 

Conference of i860 turned their serious attention to the matter, and 

succeeded in devising a plan, which was simplicity itself, and which 

seemed to promise permanent safety for the schools. There existed 

a fund, founded in 18 19, known as the Children's Fund, the business 

of which was to raise money for the payment of six guineas annually 

to each minister's child, up to the age of twenty. This money was 

raised by a charge on each district in proportion to the number of 

members in the society ; at this time the assessment was six guineas 

per ninety. This fund was in a highly prosperous condition ; its 

objects bore considerable resemblance to those of the Schools' P'und ; 

what was easier than to bring the strong to the aid of the weak, and 

to employ the large balances of the Children's Fund to redress the 

large deficits of the Schools' Fund ? At the same time it was made 

possible to remit the circuit assessments of 1854 (half a guinea per 

ninety). In i860 the entrance fee of five guineas^ was abolished. 

This fee had been characterized by Mr. T. P. Bunting as an " odious 

confiscation," and " a monstrous and iniquitous tax, and a disgrace 

to the Connexion " ; it had certainly prevented some ministers from 

sending their sons to the school. In 1862 the taxation of ministers 

was discontinued, except that ministers having sons at school should 

pay for each, not four guineas as heretofore, but three. It was 

also thought necessary, to restrain undue extravagance, that the 

committee should fix at the beginning of each year a maximum 

sum for the expenditure at each school, which, under ordinary 

circumstances, was not to be exceeded. The committee can hardly 

restrain their delight at the removal of this incubus of debt that had 

so long paralysed their efforts. In the report of 1860-61, after a 

brief resumk of the financial position, they state that the debt " now 

amounts to ^^5374, os. 5d. In former years this state of things 

would have been a cause of great uneasiness to the committee." 

But now 

* This had gone to the trustees' account, and was spent only on improvements 
to the property. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


So the debt was cleared off. The annual deficit was regularly 
met. Girls' schools, three in number, were opened ; the com- 
mission of 1872 was appointed, and the whole system of the 
boys* schools was remodelled. In 1875-76, the first year of the 
new scheme by which the (zrove became the preparatory school 
for Kingswood, the total cost of the year rose from ;^ 17,545 to 

It was then that the blow fell ! All the happy security of the 
past fifteen years was swept away ! The Children's Fund began to 
fail. Next year the expenditure was ^2 2,026, the deficiency ;;^8o49. 
" This deficiency grows, and the accumulated surplus of the 
Children's Fund is exhausted." After another year, a debt of 
^9613 is left unpaid. 

To meet the annual deficit, which was now about ^£"8000, the 
Conference took the following steps: the cost of clothing was 
charged to the parents, the circuit assessment for the Children's 
Fund was raised from jQ6^ los. to jQ*] per 100 members, and 
the Foreign Missions Fund payments were raised so as to cover the 
cost to the fund. It was hoped thus to add ^^4600 to the income. 
" For the rest, the Conference relies upon the growing liberality of 
the Connexion." With such words the financial resolutions at 
former crises had been wont to end — and yet the crises recurred. 
Despite all these schemes and all this reliance, the deficiency for 
1878-79 was over ;£" 7000. 

As the Relief Fund in 1855 had come to the rescue, so in this 
new hour of difficulty there arose the Thanksgiving Fund, which 
granted ;^Sooo towards the deficiency of 1878-79 and ;^2ooo 
towards that of the next year. Still there was to be faced an 
estimated annual deficiency of ^£^1500, after allowing for an increase 
in the collections as the result of a special appeal. " In the multi- 
tude of counsellors there is wisdom " ; a statement of the position of 
the fund was submitted to the district committees of May 1881, and 
their suggestions invited. The annual deficit, estimated at ;^i5oo 
in 1879, was in February 1880 put at ;^35oo ; and by the time the 
statement above referred to was prepared, fuller information had set 
it at ;^7095 ! The difference was due partly to the unexpectedly 
large number of home allowances claimed — 646 instead of the 
estimated 500. This increased the payments of the Schools' Fund 
by jQ^lS^'i at the same time the Children's Fund was only 
able to advance ^^300 instead of ^2000. For 1881-82 it was 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


anticipated that the income would fall short by ^£^797 5, and in 
1882-83 by ;^8967. Meanwhile there were certain slight sources 
of increased income (allowed for in these calculations). The 
Home Mission Fund paid, in respect of the children of ministers 
employed as circuit missioners, ;£30oo in ecjual instalments spread 
over ten years ; the assessment of the Foreign Missions Fund was 
raised to ^40 for missionaries' children at school, ^£'25 for chil- 
dren at school bom abroad, £^12 for all children born abroad not 
at school. 

What steps were taken to meet this crisis, and with what 
result ? A special appeal for 1 879-80 produced ;^i 1 00, the Thanks- 
giving Fund gave ^^ 12,000 in two years, and a sale of invested 
legacies brought in about ;^5ooo. But these were only temporary 
alleviations. The number of claimants upon the fund was steadily 
growing; in 1870-71 that number was 657 ; in 1875-76, 750; in 
1880-81, 1060. Nothing remained to be done but to concentrate 
the two schools on one spot. The offer of ;;^i 5,000 for this purpose 
from the Thanksgiving Fund ^ made it possible without any added 
debt. It was estimated by the general committee that concentra- 
tion would reduce the cost of the boys' schools from ^^8400 to ;;^6868. 
Meantime, for the three years intervening before concentration 
could come into effect. Conference returned to the old system of 
taxation. Every minister in full work was to pay ^i, is., every 
preacher on trial los. 6d. ; and, in addition, £^2 were to be paid for 
every boy at school. At the same time an assessment of ^^4237 ^ 
was apportioned among the circuits. 

It was found necessary to continue these ministerial taxes and 
circuit assessments after concentration had taken place. The first 
result was to produce a balance in hand of ;^3379 in 1883, which 
gradually fell to ^991 in 1886, and became a debt of ;^936 in the 
next year. 

In estimating the effects of concentration, it will be useful to 
compare the financial condition of 1883 with that of 1884. In the 
former year the two boys' schools cost ;;^7705, in the latter the one 
school cost ^£^6233. There was a reduction of about ;^3oo on 
provisions, ;;^23o on salaries, and ;^26o on servants' wages. Mean- 
while, home allowances went up ;^8oo and collections fell off to the 

*This fund in all contributed ;f37,878—;f 15,000 for concentration, ;f5000 
for a southern girls* school, and ;f 17,878 for extinction of debt. 
' This sum varied slightly from year to year. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


amount of ;^2oo. The last-named item continued steadily to 
decrease, as the following list shows : — 

Collections and Subscript ton?.. 

1882-83 C^^l 

1887-88 ..... 7767 

1892-93 ... 7474 

1895-96 7104 

Home allowances steadily increased up to a maximum of ;^i4,o54 
in 1894; since then they have shown a decrease. From 187510 
1883 the average annual cost of the two boys' schools was ^£"94 74, 
from 1883 to 1896 that of the one school has been ;^676o. This 
difference, however, is not entirely due to concentration ; for in 1879 
the cost of clothing ceased to be chargeable to the fund. Making 
allowance for this, the reduction is from ;^8696 to ;^676o. On the 
other hand, the average amount raised by collections during 1875 to 
1883 was ^£"9085 ; since concentration it has been (up to 1896) 
;£7747. Putting these two facts together, concentration appears to 
have resulted in an annual gain of about ;£7oo. 

The annual average of home allowances has increased from 
^£'6432 to ^\ 2, 293 — nearly double. The greater part of this increase 
would have accrued in any case, but the average number of boys at 
school has decreased from 272 to 261, representing an additional 
annual charge of ;;^ 132 in home allowances, while their presence at 
the school would not have appreciably increased the cost. 

In 1888 the debt was ;^2698, and further steps were taken. The 
circuit assessment was altered from a rate per member, which put a 
tax on the increase of members, to a rate per minister. Each 
circuit calling out a minister into the work was assessed ^2 during 
his period of probation, and ;^4 afterwards. This principle already 
existed in the case of the Children's Fund. The effect was a slight 
increase in the amount thus raised, and the principle was manifestly 
just. Since 1882 any increase on the year's collections in any 
circuit had been allowed to go to the reduction, in equal parts, 
of the circuit assessment and the ministers' subscriptions; this 
permission was now withdrawn. 

Lastly, an additional half-guinea was added to each minister's 
Subscription. This produced nearly ;£ 1000 more. These methods 
were adopted on the ground that " it appears that the expenditure 
of the Schools' Fund will exceed its present income during the period 
1888-94 by about ;£i 0,000 in the gross." As a matter of fact, 
the debt in 1892 was ;^i4,5o6, and in 1893 ;^i6,437, besides 
;^3ooo due for a loan. Desperate diseases require desperate 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



remedies. First of all the sum allotted to the schools for their 
nuximum year's expenses was reduced, at Kingswood by ;£30o. 
At the same time Conference directed that " an effort be at once 
made to raise the annual income from collections and subscriptions 
to the point at which it stood ten years ago, viz. by the sum of 
;^iooo." Alluding in 1893 to this resolution, the general committee 
say that in obedience thereto they " issued an urgent appeal to all 
ministers to take to heart the embarrassment of the fund, and to 
press its claims upon our people. As far as the treasurers' interim 
statement affords an answer to the appeal, not the least good has 
come of it" When the year's amount came to be made up, this 
assertion was found to be incorrect; the collections, etc., had 
increased — by fifteen shillings and one penny: 

However, Conference in 1893 "pledged itself to raise a sum of 
not less than ;;^ 10,000 towards the liquidation of the existing debt," 
and the remaining anticipated debt of ;^i 0,000 was to be regarded 
as a charge upon the Grove estate, the annual rent of that property 
being reserved to meet the interest on this debt. At the same time 
the girls' school at Queenswood was to be sold. Finally, for the next 
ten years, the twentieth year of the maintenance allowance from the 
Children's Fund was to be withdrawn. A special committee was 
also appointed to consider again the question of the admission of 
laymen's sons to Kingswood. What was the effect of these 
measures? Within twelve months ^£"2567 was subscribed by 
ministers, and ;^8796 by laymen towards the liquidation of the 
debt ; the sale of Queenswood realized ^£'3000. 

The initiation of the "Debt Fund" of 1893 was due to the 
efforts of Mr. Moses Atkinson. In 1896 it reached;^ 11,488, i6s. 4d., 
with still outstanding promises of ^172, i6s. Of this sum, 
;{^2869, 5S- 4d. is due to the ministers. It does not seem out of 
place to add the following list of the larger contributors to the fund : — 

Mr. M. Atkinson . 
Mr. T. H. Bainbridge 
Mr. J. L. Barker . 
Mr. Joseph Beckett 
Mr. r. S. Budgetl 
Mr. \\ W. Bunting 
Mr. lames Bumley 
Mr. K. Cannington 
Mr. J. Cannington 
A Cardiff Layman 
Messrs. Cole Bros. 
Mr. W. HoweU Davies 
The Rev. Walford Green 
Mr. T. M. Harvey 

. ;flOO 

Mr. Sydney Hill 

. ;^I00 


Mr. W. H. Hincksman 



Mr. 0. Hosegood 



Mr. E. Hutchinson 



Mr. A. Mc Arthur . 



Mr. T. G. ()slK)rn 



Mr. T. Owen 



Mr. W. W. I»oc()ck . 



Mr. James Taylor 



Mr. W. Tunstill . 



Mr. T. E. Vanner. 



Mr. \V. Vanner . 


;n 100 

Mr. P. F. Wood . 



The Misses Wood 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


At the same time, one must not fail to recognize an equally 
generous spirit in smaller gifts from smaller incomes. 

With regard to the admission of laymen's sons, which was strongly 
advocated by Mr. W. Hunt, the committee rejected the proposal on 
four grounds : first, they pointed out that " our financial system is 
already so complicated as to be with difficulty understood by our 
people, and even in some cases by our ministers." This is true ; 
hence there would be great difficulty in making people see the justice 
of supporting by connexional funds a school which received the fees 
of laymen. Secondly, the necessary increase of expenditure that 
would arise from the unwillingness of laymen that their sons should 
share in the plain living, if not in the high thinking, at Kingswood, 
would counterbalance the gain in income. Thirdly, the education 
would suffer ; for the past success of the school has depended largely 
on two facts, namely, that the pupils have attended with continuity, 
and that their education is known by them to be their fortune. 
Lastly, the other Methodist secondary schools might not unreason- 
ably complain if Kingswood were brought into competition with 

The liquidation of the debt and the decrease in home allowances 
made it possible in 1896 to remit the extra ministerial tax of half 
a guinea begun in 1888. 

At a meeting of the committee in 1855, Mr. T. P. Bunting made 
the following remarks : " Preachers' sons who go to the school have 
a distinct provision made for their clothing and pocket-money (a 
very curious item that !) . . . Nobody can reconcile with fairness 
and good sense the notion that a minister who keeps his child at 
home should have so much less than a minister who sends his child 
to the school, that minister who sends his child to school getting, in 
nine cases out of ten, so much better meat, drink, lodging, washing, 
and education for him than he could have at home. . . . You 
appeal to the bounty of the Connexion whenever you feel a difficulty ; 
you get what you can, but the deficiency is in every case thrown on 
the ministry. If you go on with this system, you will break the 
hearts of the Methodist preachers — it is a system of confiscation. . . . 
I believe you will find no relief for the difficulties of this fund, but 
by an amalgamation with the Contingent Fund." It had been 
pointed out that each boy at school cost ^^26, while each boy at 
home received only ;^ 16 j and the Rev. G. B. Macdonald had said 
that " those who avail themselves of the advantages of the school 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


should pay the difference." This theory of the equalization of pay- 
ments has been raised from time to time. In 1881 Dr. Rigg 
proposed it in a less crude form ; the schools, he said, should be 
maintained by the payments made by ministers, the allowances paid 
to them from the fund being made sufficient, and the same amount 
being paid whether the children are at school or not With this in 
view, he proposed to raise the ;£6, 6s. grant from the Children's 
Fund to £fi up to the age of six, ;£io from six to twelve, J[^\2 from 
twelve to twenty. The education allowance of £^12 was to be 
extended over seven years, in such a way that from the two sources 
a boy of school age would receive usually ;£26 a year. For this 
purpose an additional ;^ 18, 000 a year would be required, which was 
to be raised by further circuit levies. 

Mr. William Hunt, in the same year, suggested that the annual 
cost of the school should be charged equally on the boys, who would 
receive towards it the ;£i8, 6s. from the two allowances ; at the same 
time he suggested an increase of these allowances, by raising the 
maintenance allowance to ;^7. This would add, as it extends to the 
age of twenty, £^\^ towards school fees. 

A special finance committee in 1892 gave their adhesion to the 
principle of equal payments. A pamphlet, The Peril of Kingswood^^ 
was issued to rebut this doctrine. Therein it was pointed out that 
the children at school do not have any advantage over children at 
home, as they come mostly from those circuits which offer little 
or no educational opportunities in the existence of good and cheap 
schools ; a calculation, based on the circuits from which the boys 
then at school came, showed that for all but nineteen per cent, the 
school was the great equalizing factor in their lot. 

Moreover, the existence of the school is not simply an advan- 
tage to the fund ; without it, the fund would collapse. It is the 
name of Kingswood that attracts subscriptions. 

Note also the following simple calculation, often lost sight of. 
In 1892 (for instance) the cost of Kingswood was ;^6i35 ; but this 
was not its cost to the fund. Deduct the allowances (;;^i8, 6s. per 
^'j '•^. ;^3678), the payments of the Missionary Society (;;^io98), 
ihe payments for extra years (;^28o), ministers* subscriptions 
^;^2 per boy, />. £^o'^^ and the payments from the Scholarship 
f'und (;^2i2), and we find that Kingswood cost the fund ^£'463 
only. In some years the school actually brought a profit to the 
' Issued in the names of the Revs. W. Perkins and H. B. Workman. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


fund. In nine years, 1884 to 1892, the average cost was ^^^^^ 
annually, for an average of 250 boys. In the same period the girls' 
schools (95 girls) cost ;^io65 per annum. 

It may be of interest to trace the successive changes which have 
taken place in the constitution of the various bodies to whom has 
been entrusted the management of the fund. 

From very early times "the Fund for the Education of the 
Children of the Methodist Preachers, and, in particular, for the 
Support of the Wesleyan Schools at Kingswood and Woodhouse 
Grove," was controlled by a treasurer and two secretaries, all 
ministers. In addition, each of the above schools had its own local 
committee, with chairman, treasurer, and secretary. The local 
treasurer was the governor of the school. These committees con- 
sisted of from fifteen to twenty-five members each, but the number 
seems not to have been absolutely fixed. In 1835 Mr. John Irving, 
a layman, took the place of one of the ministerial general treasurers. 
On his death, in 1865, Mr. John Meek succeeded him. In 1875, 
on the amalgamation of the two boys' schools, the two local 
committees were replaced by a single governing body. Each girls' 
school, as it was opened, received of course its own local committee. 
The new governing body thus formed possessed a lay treasurer and 
two secretaries, one ministerial and one lay. In 1879 * general 
committee was created for the control of the whole fund. In that 
year we find the following arrangement. Over all, a general com- 
mittee, with a ministerial and a lay treasurer, and two ministerial 
secretaries; it consisted of the two governing bodies mentioned 
below, and seventeen other members. Next in order stood two 
governing bodies, one for the amalgamated boys' schools, one for 
the two girls' schools. Of each of these bodies the president, 
ex-president, and secretary of Conference, and the officers of the 
Schools' Fund and the Children's Fund, were ex-officio members, 
together with the chairmen of the districts in or near which the 
schools respectively stood. On the governing body of the boys' 
schools were the two governors and the headmaster; this body 
retained its treasurer and two secretaries, as in 1875. ^^ should be 
added that the masters of the school and the associates of the 
school each nominated one member, the latter annually, with a seat 
for three years. Lastly, the girls' schools had each a small 
executive committee with two local treasurers and a local secretary. 
One of the treasurers at each school was a layman. In 1887 the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


secretary of the cash office was added to each gbverning body, and 
the treasurership of the Kingswood governing body (long a sinecure) 
was abolished. These schemes were slightly modified, in a way 
that needs no particularization, by the successive disposal of the 
Grove and Queenswood. 

The principle which has throughout been supposed to guide 
the Conference in the formation of the general committee has been 
conformity to the trust deeds of the schools, which require absolute 
equality in numbers of ministers and laymen. But the large 
number of ex-officio ministerial members had destroyed the 
balance. In 1896 a careful scheme was drawn up, on the initiative 
of Mr. T. S. Simpson, not altering the essential features of the plan 
detailed above, but securing the presence of thirty-two ministers, 
and an equal number of laymen, on the general committee, and 
precisely half that number of each on either governing body. 
In 1890 the Schodls' Fund and the Children's Fund were 
amalgamated under the title of "The Fund for the Maintenance 
and Education of Ministers' Children." This made it possible 
to revert to the old system, and to employ the balances of the 
maintenance section or Children's Fund for the assistance of the 
education section. In 1893 ;;^i200 was so transferred, and in 

Lastly, what of the future ? The great difficulty of the fund has 
always been the variability of the number of children who become 
entitled to allowances annually. Moreover, it automatically happens 
that when the fund is in difficulties the number of claims increases. 
A father may begin to claim for his child at the age of nine, ten, 
eleven, or twelve, at his option. Generally he will defer till ten or 
eleven, so that his education allowances may cover the best age for 
school. If, however, the fund is in difficulties, there is a rush to claim 
at the very earliest opportunity, while yet the fund is above water. 
Thus difficulties produce accentuated difficulties ; trovo^ vovm tcqvov 
i^ifKi, The present system of circuit assessment, however, being 
based on the number of ministers, ought to keep the fund secure, 
provided the collections and subscriptions maintain their le%^eL Other- 
wise, the assessment rate must be raised. 

The most serious feature presented by the annual accounts of 
the Schools' Fund (to retain the old title) is the steady decrease of 
the item : collections and subscriptions. In this connection the 
following short table is of interest 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Number of 

Members in 


Amount of 
Collections and 

Per head 
in pence. 



5,512 7 3 
6.005 I I 
7,246 7 3 


3.97 : 

Put by the side of this the fact that in 181 9 there were 342 
children on the fund, either at school or at home, in 1837 614, and 
in 1895 1 163, and it is not surprising that difficulties have arisen. 
The contract between the Methodist people and their ministers 
includes the free education of the ministers' children. This part of 
the contract has been broken. It will, however, be noticed that, 
while the increase in collections has not kept pace with the increase 
of members, the increase in number of claimants on the fund has 
outstripped it. Had the collections from 1819 to 1895 kept pace 
with the number of children on the fund, they would in 1895 have 
produced ;^i8,745. In what a happy state would the fund have 
then been ! Had they even kept pace with the increase of member- 
ship, the result in 1895 would have been about ;^i 2,000. 

" Is it fit " (said John Wesley) " that the children of those who give 
themselves wholly to the work of the Lord, and labour to save souls 
from death, should want what is needful either for the soul or the 
body? Ought not we to supply what the parent cannot, because 
of his labours in the gospel ? The parent, thus eased of his weight, 
can the more cheerfully go on in his labour. And, perhaps, some 
of the children may hereafter fill up the places of those that shall 
rest from their labours. Do what you can to comfort the parents, 
who give up their all for you. You will be no poorer for w^hat you 
do on such an occasion. God is a good paymaster." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



The headmaster should have nothing to do with temporal affairs. 


The peculiar system of dual government which has existed 
both at Kingswood and Woodhouse Grove is not entirely without 
parallels elsewhere. Eton has both a provost and a headmaster ; 
Winchester, Charterhouse, and Bradfield have at different times 
presented the same phenomenon. But the systems at these various 
schools differ from one another and from that of Kingswood in 
many important features. 

It is impossible to state with any precision the mutual position of 
the classical master and the writing master in the early days of the 
school ; no doubt the former enjoyed the greater prestige^ but they 
seem to have held, in some respects, a co-ordinate status. But John 
Wesley was not a man to leave either of them without very definite 
and plain rules to which they were absolutely to conform. After 
his death some resident minister, either the superintendent of the 
circuit or a governor ad rem, controlled the entire family. There 
was, however, a short period (1807-9) when the classical master held 
the governorship, and had he been a greater personal success the 
system might have continued. The same pjan was tried at the 
Grove on its foundation. 

It is when the name of " classical master " begins to give way 
to that of "headmaster" that the weakening of the governor's 
control begins. At the great majority of schools the headmaster 
was of course supreme, and the associations of the title helped to 
strengthen his position at Kingswood. Hence the time could not 
be long before there arose misunderstandings. We have already 
seen how Mr. Griffith seemed on the way to independence, being 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


helped thereto by the enfeebled health of the governor. But when 
Mr. Cusworth came, the headmaster found himself confronted with 
a very different force, and he shortly afterwards resigned. The 
difficulty cropped up again in the time of Mr. Jefferson and Mr. 
Woolmer, and so severe did the tension become that a sub-com- 
mittee was appointed to consider the functions of the two officers. 
This sub-committee reviewed all the resolutions of the committee 
since 1827 which seemed to have any bearing on the subject, and 
agreed to certain preliminary principles. They say : " The selection, 
appointment, and powers of the governor are regulated by these 
principles, viz. that, having regard to the weighty and paramount 
considerations of religion, morals, and humanity, the Conference 
seeks a minister of such character and qualifications as will admit 
of his being entrusted with large general powers ; that a minister so 
appointed is in a peculiar manner and degree placed in loco 
parentis . . . and he ought to be in a position to promote reason- 
able wishes and to redress grievances. He is not expected personally 
to do the teaching ; but he is expected to be eyes and ears for the 
parents and the Conference, and must therefore be understood to 
have a general right of inspection and oversight in all departments 
of the institution. ... It has, so long ago as 1844, been judged 
needful [to declare that] *the governor must be upheld in the 
exercise of his supreme and undoubted authority.' The sub-com- 
mittee understand this clause comprehensively as foreclosing any 
pretension on the part of the headmaster to equal or co-ordinate 

After this very important and decisive declaration, the governor 
and headmaster were heard at length on the points at issue between 
them. The most important of these was the question of the 
governor's right to take part in the teaching. The governor had 
asked for an occasional class ; the headmaster declined to let him 
take any work but divinity. Some other points were raised, and it 
was clear that matters had reached a very unpleasant and critical 
position. No doubt things were said on both sides which would 
have been better unsaid. Finally, the headmaster appealed to the 
Conference. At that Conference, however, Mr. Woolmer resigned 
his post, and Mr. West took his place. 

It is instructive to read the remarks made by the Rev. Dr. 
Waddy in 1858 relative to the appointment of a new governor. 
He said : " Unless the governor have some pretensions to learning, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


and can stand a very decent comparison with the boys and with the 
masters, and even with the headmaster, the idea that he will ever 
be able to secure and maintain authority is perfectly ridiculous. 
He can only maintain his position by one of two alternatives, either 
of which is lamentable — by a sort of old-womanish kindness to the 
boys and masters, which makes his position one of mere toleration ; 
or by an amount of severity, which cannot be justified on any 
principle whatever. I mean this : the power and ability to interfere 
with the headmaster will save the necessity for such interference. 
The governor should be able to sit during your examinations and 
detect common inaccuracies either in classics or in any other depart- 
ment of education. He should not sit there as a mere automaton ; 
but it should be seen and felt by the boys that he understands what 
is going on." 

The governor always possessed a strong position. He was 
appointed by Conference, while the headmaster was appointed by 
the local committee. The governor was a member, not only of 
Conference, but also of the committee that appointed the head- 
master. The governor was not only on the committee but was 
independent of it and responsible to Conference only ; the head- 
master was not even on the committee. On the other hand, it was 
the headmaster who was brought into constant contact with the boys 
and exerted a continual influence over them. To him the boys 
looked as their natural chief; an appeal from his word, therefore, 
interfered seriously with his discipline. A very strong headmaster 
no doubt held so entire a command over the loyalty and obedience 
of the school, that no boy would think of appeal as within the range 
of " practical politics " ; but under such circumstances the prestige of 
the governor was correspondingly lessened. On the other hand, 
the existence of the governor relieved the headmaster from " serv- 
ing tables " and let him devote his entire energies to the educational 
department, where there was certainly no lack of employment. The 
amount of work which falls upon a headmaster of Kingswood 
seems to leave no possibility for the addition of more in the way of 
domestic management. He is not in the position of the head- 
masters of most great public schools, who take a comparatively 
small share in the actual teaching ; he works " full time." It is with 
difficulty that he finds opportunities for the necessary examination 
of the lower forms ; the school is staffed at a minimum. 

The question of dual control naturally formed no small part of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


the deliberations of 1872. Various opinions were expressed by 
those whom the commission then appointed examined. Dr. Barr>' 
said, " A headmaster who looks on the boys as Christians will not in 
the end stand a system in which he has not the moral responsibility. 
If he is to be a moral trainer, there must be no limit to his authority." 
Dr. Vaughan said that the dual system was "quite indefensible." 
He also urged that the headmaster must teach the highest classics. 
"The boys will look up to a classic. Possibly a very eminent 
scientific man might hold his position in such circumstances, but it 
would be difficult." Mr. T. G. Osbom, on the other hand, was in 
favour of a clerical headmaster, for whom it would suffice to take 
the upper forms in divinity and English subjects. To whichever of 
these two views we may lean, the history of Kingswood makes it 
clear that Dr. Barry was right when he said, " It would do if the 
headmaster were head of the mathematical teaching, if he were 
very good at that." The Rev. W. Arthur thought the fondness 
of parents for the idea of a father at the head necessitated the 
retention of a governor, but considered it " monstrous " that the 
headmaster should not be a member of the committee. The Rev. 
W. H. Sargent was also in favour of a clerical headmaster, who 
should examine but not teach ; but it was essential that he should be 
able to teach the highest form. There should be a clerical second 
master, and, in addition, a steward. The Grove authorities, Mr. 
Chettle and Dr. Raby, seemed in favour of the double system ; but 
Dr. Raby thought that the headmaster should be consulted in such 
matters as expulsion and leave of absence and masters* salaries, and 
should be on the committee. The Cambridge old boys were 
strongly in favour of the abolition of the governor, and suggested 
that the duties of chaplain should be performed by a clerical 
assistant master; a steward would also be needed. This is, of 
course, a system which exists at many schools, but it also is not 
unattended with fricrion. Especially do the duties and powers of 
the steward need careful definition. The office of chaplain is, of 
course, not necessarily connected with that either of governor or of 
headmaster. We know that when Dr. Arnold was appointed to 
Rugby he insisted on the chaplaincy being vested in himself, and 
his argument that the headmaster must not have the most impor- 
tant part of the work of the school taken out of his hands seems 
very strong. But when we read in the pages of his biographer. 
Dean Stanley, that he would rarely speak to boys on the subject 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


of Holy Communion, lest their attendance should become a matter 
of either fear or favour, as headmaster he was doubtless wise, but 
IS chaplain he was in a rather anomalous position. A similar 
difficulty was felt at Kingswood in regard to the society class. 
Among those who were examined by the 1872 commission were A. 
V. Harding, who left in 187 1, and LI. W. Jones, then head boy. The 
former, while bearing witness to the governor's tact, was sure it was 
better to have an independent class-leader. The latter spoke more 
strongly. Many irreligious boys, he said, attended class, and were 
e\'en communicants; the masters were ashamed to receive Holy 
Communion with some of the boys. The governor had so little to 
do with the boys that he had no true notion of their character. Mr. 
G. 0. Turner, the second master, bore testimony to much the same 
effect ; many boys went to class to appear well. 

There were thus three possible plans: (i) to maintain the dual 
government, (2) to appoint a clerical headmaster, or (3) to have a 
lay headmaster with a subordinate as chaplain. The final decision 
of the commission was not to recommend any change in the general 
system, but to insist on the need of a clear definition of the duties of 
each officer, the supremacy of the headmaster in school without 
appeal except to the committee, and the right of the headmaster to a 
seat on the committee. The scheme passed by Conference in 1877 
allotted to the headmaster the control of the teaching, the arrange- 
ment of classes, and the choice and use of school books ; to the 
governor the religious instruction and the domestic management. 
To the conjoint action of the two were entrusted the giving of 
holidays, the appointment, payment, and dismissal of masters, and 
the compulsory removal of boys. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


1851 TO 1875 

Youth ended, I shall try 

My gain or loss thereby ; 

Leave the fire ashes, what survives is gold : 

And I shall weigh the same^ 

CJive life its praise or blame: 

Young, all lay in dispute ; I shall know, l)eing old. 

R. Browning. 

When we turn our attention to the moral and religious life of the 
school in its new home, we find that it presents a great contrast to 
that of earlier times in the fact of its continuity. Things began, 
badly certainly. "The religious experience of the scholars does 
not present all those features which could be desired," say the 
committee in January 1853. An old boy of 1855 (the Rev. T. D. 
Anderson) states that in that year there was not a single boy who 
made a profession of religion. A contemporary of his makes a very 
similar statement, and remarks that the few boys who tried to mend 
the state of affairs suffered much persecution ; among these he 
mentions T. D. Anderson and Jabez Eacott. At the same time 
discipline was not in a satisfactory condition. In 1856 two or three 
boys were expelled. " Faction " fights formed a savage occupation in 
playhours. Boys would get out at nights ; of these, certain were 
caught because they foolishly inscribed their names on the Lansdown 
monument. Bullying was not unknown ; one of the time describes 
how he sank from fourth to fifteenth in his class, being in dread 
through the threats of those who promised him a sound thrashing if 
he did not get down into the class below. For this descent the 
unhappy boy was publicly reproved by the headmaster. It was a 
" rough, cruel place," says another. On one occasion two boys ran 


Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


away; they were caught at Bristol in a futile attempt to board a 
ship ! Mr. Perks described it in hall as a " Don-Quix-otic enterprise." 
The joke restored general good humour. 

However, with the advent of Mr. Woolmer and Mr. Jefferson, 
things b^an to mend. About 1857 a great change passed over the 
spirit of the school. Since that time there has been in many respects 
no looking back. There have been fluctuations, no doubt, but the 
moral barometer has exhibited none of the rapid and excessive rise 
and fall that were so characteristic in the old school. 

The contrasts have existed not so much between different epochs 
as between different sets. We do not hear, as we have done at Old 
Kingswood, of times when the whole school seemed destitute of any 
healthy moral tone. There is always a remnant in Israel. There 
are, it is true, periods of deficient morality, but always, at the very 
worst, with a large minority not floating with the stream. These 
periods are not chronicled here with any detail ; our duty is rather 
to mark the general trend of feeling. Those who desire may find 
brief references to them from time to time in the annual reports. 
The chief fault seems to have been that which we have already 
noted at the old school — a too definite line of demarcation between 
two types of character ; the boys themselves recognized the distinc- 
tion sanctioned by authority, and, at one time, dubbed the two 
dasses as "saints " and "anti-saints." For a perhaps well-meaning 
boy to be popularly branded as an " anti-saint " did him harm. 

Among the fluctuations must be included periodical "rows," 
when a certain trembling excitement pervades the school, especially 
lively in the breasts of the guilty. Some boys really enjoy the advent 
of a " row," just as the same boys enjoy the exploits of Deadwood 
Dick or Bill the Bushranger. Never perhaps did they feel a more 
pleasing thrill than at the Firearms Row of 1861, when Governor 
West had to be fetched in all haste from Bristol, because a boy had 
blown his hand off in the racquet courts. It appears that several 
^'s were in secret possession of pistols, and the boy in question, 
with the supernatural folly of youth, placed his hand over the 
muzzle of his own weapon, and began playing with the trigger. He 
nan-owly missed an equally cautious boy, who stood in the line of 
fire watching him. 

The Prayer-Book Row presented its own features of interest. 
During the absence of Mr. Cusworth on his begging expeditions 
it fell to one or other of the masters to conduct family worship in 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


his place. This gentleman was, in some cases, diffident of his own 
powers, in this direction at any rate, and relied on the aid of some 
manual of devotion. The boys observed this, and, being staunchly 
Methodist, disapproved of any prayers that were not " fresh from 
the heart." They consequently, to the master^s great discomfort, 
removed and buried the offending book. They perhaps were not 
acquainted with the reasoning whereby a certain Welsh clergyman 
excused himself for bringing his pencilled notes into the pulpit : 
" I know " (he said) " that you cannot put fire on paper ; but you can 
use paper to light a fire." 

We must not forget the great Tower Row of 1862. Within a few 
days of the end of the half, certain exuberant Levites, including 
some of the best and cleverest boys of the school, betook themselves 
to a room in the tower in the dead of night, and there made to 
themselves a luscious " spread," such as boys love. The governor, 
returning late from Bath, saw from the road a light in the tower, and 
at once conjectured fire. He made all speed to the spot, and 
without pause of investigation turned the fire-hose upon the 
luckless banqueters. One would have thought that was pretty 
nearly punishment enough for a "lark," in which there was certainly 
no vicious element. But, though it was the eve of the classical 
examination and within a few days of his leaving, the best classic in 
the school was ignominiously expelled. 

The testimony to the tone of the school after the first few years 
is of varying character. It is perhaps best to adopt the method 
alfeady employed in an earlier chapter, and to summarize the 

statements of old boys under the dates of their residence, 

1854-61. "A rough, cruel place. Many so-called revivals, when 

Satan reaped a large harvest." 

1855-62. "Cribbing unknown, except under one master, who 

was cruel and unsympathetic ; in the code of schoolboy honour it 

was almost considered a duty to cheat him. Honour with respect 

to each other^s letters was most exacting." 

1859-65. "Little immorality, bullying, or unfairness. The boys 

were cowed and spiritless." 

1862-65. "The tone was good, healthy, and fair." 

1863-70. "The tone was poor till Mr. Sargent's time. Flagrant 

bullying was put down by the boys. Cheating rare." 

1864-68. "Bullies were few. There were of course a few 

swaggering, swearing, foul-mouthed boys." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


1871-72. We have here the testimony of one of the masters, 
which merits quotation in extenso. The master in question is now 
Vicar of East Hardwicke, near Pontefract. He says: "The tone 
was most admirable. This I remember distinctly. Bullying, unfair- 
ness, and immorality were almost unknown. I have had lots of 
experience in schools, and only know of one school from personal 
experience (All Saints School, Bloxham) where the tone was so 
good. . . . Whether on the whole it was wise to encourage quite 
young boys to put themselves so prominently forward as to offer up 
prayer in public is, of course, a matter of opinion ; but I wish to say 
that, so far as I could judge, those who did come forward to pray 
were quite consistent and evidently spoke out of a full heart, without 
any desire to show off or become pharisaical." 

At the same time complaints are made of the manner in which 
religion and religous duties were presented to the boys. In the 
dormitories, for instance, boys both knelt for their devotions and 
rose from them by word of command. A case is recalled of a boy 
who was rebuked for praying too long ! Prayer-meetings and society 
classes held their ground. At some periods the former were usually 
conducted by a master. A well-known old boy of 1855-62 says 
that the religion of the place was sincere but unhealthy ; there was 
too much spiritual analysis. The religious teaching is described by 
an old boy of 1864-68 as unintelligent. "We were," he says, " led 
to try to talk like grown-up people ; we tended to use the phrases 
our fathers used ... it was a bit unreal." A brighter and more 
natural presentation of religion was needed. 

I-astly, we may quote the summary of the commission of 1872. 

We believe that the schools are on the whole free from vice and profanity. 
The weak points lie in the want of a high sense of honour and truthfulness, 
and of a sufficiently healthy public opinion, and in a prevalence of sneaking 
offences. Faults of this kind are the inevitable result of excessive surveillance. 
... With regard to religious profession, the boys appear on the whole to be 
.sincere ; but as the authorities are naturally anxious for the signs of early decision, 
there are not a few instances of conventional profession, better known of course to 
the boys than to the governor or the masters, and most numerous in times when a 
special tide of religious feeling is subsiding. . . . We are decidedly of opinion 
that the society classes should not be led by the governor or masters. The boys 
ought to be specially considered in every appointment made to the chapel at 
which they attend ; and it would be well to assemble them once on a Sunday 
for preaching by the governor or headmaster. This would give a new bond of 
school fellowship. 

There seems to be only one comment that need be made on 
this statement. The governor is officially and formally chaplain. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


A chaplain who may not have the most intimate religious inter- 
course with his flock (as in society classes) is surely debarred from 
the full exercise of the cure of souls. 

Closely connected with the subject of morals is that of the daily 
and hourly life of the boys ; it certainly lacked, as one witness says, 
" the social amenities." It was a vast improvement on the old life 
at Bristol, but it was not perfect. Here is a very vigorous testimony 
to that effect : — 

Punishments were brutal. I was again and again thrashed with abomin- 
able cruelty, and bear the results of it to this day in a varicose leg. You won't 
put this in your history, I daresay, but it is true. I learned to hate God pretty 

thoroughly at Kingswood, and my pleasantest luxury was to dream of G 

[a master] in hell. I owe the school no thanks. It was ill-managed, immoral, 
and brutal. Many, indeed most, reformatories are better managed. When 
Osborn came things mended, but Ijefore him things were as bad as they could be. 
I have never felt the least pride in the school. After all these years it fills me 
with shame and anger to think I was ever there. For that reason I have never 
sought to identify myself with the school in any way. Four years of the six that 
I was there were times of sheer misery. I learned little, endured much ; hated 
the place and its traditions ; left it with joy, and have never returned to it. I 
never shall. This is a plain record, but a true one. 

The same gentleman (of 1863-69) writes in the Sunday 
Magazine of April 1896, " I don't claim that I was a particularly 
good boy, but I certainly could not have been bad enough to merit 
all the thra.shings I received." One of these he recalls, inflicted by 
the governor for the offence of reading Byron. "I had resisted 
many temptations in order to buy the book, and I shall never forget 
him flinging it in the fire and executing a Pyrrhic war-dance with 
the poker whilst it burned. My first act was to demand compensa- 
tion and buy another." 

Another old boy (1862-68) sums up his grievances in a more 
humorous spirit : " Never outside the playground except on Sundays 
for six months together, in food scanty, in thrashings oft, in 
holidays few and far between, the boys of those days deserved to 
be called heroes." 

It does not seem necessary to make any comments on these 
statements ; they do not stand alone. Temperaments differ, and other 
boys found the life satisfactory. One (1862-65) describes it as a 
healthy, happy life ; another ( 1 864-68) says that caning was sparingly 
employed. The latter describes the " public thrashings," when " the 
culprit leant over a desk in the schoolroom, and the argument d pos- 
teriori ^^^ freely resorted to." The master of 1 87 1-7 2, quoted above, 
thinks that there was a lack of esprit de corps^ and ascribes this to the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


want of organized games. Putting aside the matter of games, there 
were two very distinct deficiencies during the early part of the sojourn 
at Lansdown. Bath is a delightful city, and the country around it is 
of great beauty and full of historical interest. The influence of this 
was lost by a rigid confinement to the premises. It is true that 
the playground commands a view of great charm. The constant 
presence of that magnificent landscape before the eyes must have 
had some unconscious humanizing effect. But the authorities of the 
time did not appreciate the power of such influences as these ; they 
were not as a rule men of sentiment, though often men of emotion. 
They did not realize the good that might have been done by letting 
the boys loose among the thronging beauties of nature, nor the 
great lessons that were to be learnt by the study of that illuminated 
manuscript of God. 

As little did they perceive the need of supplying the boys with 
the best modem literature. Yet there were no less than four 
libraries. There was, first of all, a collection of some two or three 
thousand books, known distinctively as ** The Library." This collec- 
tion contained the remains of Mr. Wesley's library at the old school. 
This is a most interesting assortment of books. There is an almost 
complete edition of the Christian Library^ published by Farley of 
Bristol in 1755. There is a copy in calf binding of The Workes of 
the most High and Mightie Prince James, dated 1616, and stamped 
with the royal arms. It was presented to the school, as a note by 
Wesley on the fly-leaf testifies, by John Perowne in 1769. There is, 
once more, a first edition of the Commentary on the Old Testament, 
with an engraving of Hone's portrait of Wesley (now in the National 
Portrait Gallery). Unfortunately, many of the books in this collec- 
tion have been unscrupulously mutilated by autograph-hunters. In 
the library proper were also to be found a large number of bound 
Methodist magazines and of other bookroom publications, and 
various old standard workst presented at different times by friends of 
the school. There was also a set of Arabic and Syriac books, pre- 
sented by the Missionary Committee, and a few bound periodicals 
of general interest. Much of this was of a great antiquarian interest. 
But boys as a rule are not antiquarians. Such as were might obtain 
books by application to the headmaster. 

There existed also a useful but small reference library, used by 
the upper forms, which occupied cupboards at the top of the 
schoolroom. Thirdly, there was a Sunday library, in very ragged 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


condition ; it was in charge of two monitors, and the boys in 
general made use of it both extensively and destructively. Lastly, 
the reading-room possessed a library of very slender proportions, 
which was considerably increased by generous gifts of books, 
due to the kindness of Mrs. J. S. Workman and others, about 


Fights, of course, at times drew a crowd of excited spectators. 
The boxroom and the basement lavatory, being remote, were 

favourite battlefields. When T and S met, it was because 

onlookers insisted that some petty insult from one to the other was 
a casus belli. The fight was arranged for in the boxroom after 
breakfast, only a select few to be admitted. The fight was still in 
progress when the school bell rang, and was therefore adjourned 
till the eleven o'clock playtime, when the whole class assembled to 
see the next stage. Again the school bell interrupted the contest. 
It happened to be winter time, the season of chaps and chilblains, 
and after two playtimes of pretty hard fighting, the hands of the 
two opponents were in a somewhat pitiable condition. The fight 
was therefore adjourned, by arrangement, for a month. No one 
will be surprised to learn that, before the month was out, the blood 
of the principals had so far cooled as to render further fighting 

impossible. Between A and C it was an unequal combat, the 

latter being terribly beaten, without being conscious of it. In spite 
of a serious smashing, he continued to fight like a bulldog, and, for 
his own sake, had to be forcibly removed from his antagonist 
This fight, like others, issued in an immediately - formed fast 
friendship between the two combatants. A well-remembered conflict 

between H and Y took place in the piazza lavatory. H 

was the stronger of the two, and engaged to fight Y with his left 

hand, the right being secured behind his back (H being naturally 

left-handed). The class assembled to witness the affray. Although 

H received some fairly stinging blows on his face, he returned 

them with tremendous interest. At last Y lost his head, covered 

his eyes with one arm, and rushed blindly in. H seized his 

opportunity, stepped back, and, with a tremendous upward blow, 

caught Y on the upper lip and nostrils, flinging him backwards on 

to the wash basins, the exquisite pain of the blow forcing a scream 
from the vanquished one. 

This fight came before the notice of the authorities, as did a 
subsequent scufile (hardly a fight) between R and T . These 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


two latter the governor summoned from their places in hall, and the 
following dialogue ensued ; — 

Governor {ore rotundo^ with slow, measured words). R ,- - 

who — was — the — ag-gressor ? 

R (timidly and open-eyed). Please, sir, who, sir ? What, 


Governor (with growing emphasis). Who — took — the — 
initiative ? 

R (quickly and apologetically). Not me, sir ; I didn't take 

anything, sir. (General smiles.) 

Governor (furiously). Who began it ? 

R . Please, sir, I did, sir. 

Governor, And what did you do then, T ? 

T . I hit him again, sir. 

Governor, And what did you do, R ? 

R . I hit him back, sir ? 

Governor. And what then, T ? 

T . I knocked him down, sir. 

Governor, And what then, T ? 

T . I kicked him, sir. 

Governor (tragically). T ! T ! ! What ! kick a fallen 

foe ! A dis-grace-ful act ! 

Sad to say, the governor's horror was not infectious, and 
amusement was again the prevailing influence of the incident — as 
we suspect Mr. Lord meant it to be. 

The monitorial system was gradually growing in importance. 
Many of the duties of monitors were, it is true, still those of upper 
servants. The following is a list of the different functions of these 
officials as existing in 1872, together with the weekly stipend 
allotted to them. 

Six bedroom monitors (id.). 

Ten class monitors (id.), who collected and distributed books. 
Three coat, cap, and lace monitors (id.), who distributed, for 
instance, overcoats and caps before chapel on Sundays. 
Twelve hall monitors (id.), practically waiters. 
Two library monitors (i^d.). 

One map monitor, who kept the keys of the map cupboard, a 
purely honorary office. 

One organ monitor (id.), i,e, a blower. 
One playground monitor (2d.). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


One postboy (id.). With regard to this functionary, a con- 
temporary manuscript in the form of a boy's diary naively remarks 
that " he gets a lot of profit on the things he buys for boys at Bath." 

How little the term monitor bore its usual significance is shown 
by the fact that the games club appointed its own club monitor, 
to look after the plant. 

However, the bedroom monitors were gradually gaining 
increased power. They were permitted to give punishments 
(lines or bad marks) on their own account, and were not confined 
to reporting the disorderly. In addition to the bedrooms, the 
passages came under their jurisdiction. But as a rule they were 
too young to exercise much control. The age for leaving was fifteen 
or sixteen. A few boys remained with scholarships, and one, the 
Conference Scholar, usually continued another year as "pupil 
teacher." His duties in this capacity were largely nominal, and he 
was rarely called upon to take a class ; he was, in fact, practically 
in the enjoyment of a second scholarship. The early age of 
leaving had many obvious disadvantages. Boys desirous of pro- 
ceeding to the universities or of entering one of the learned pro- 
fessions were compelled to dislocate their course and complete it 
elsewhere. Hence arose the anomaly of scholarships from Kings- 
wood to other schools. Mpreover, it deprived the school of its 
natural leaders. As the Kingswood Commission of 1872 pointed 
out — 

It is seldom before the age of fifteen that the character settles down to a 
steady sense of power and responsibility — that the boy begins to be formed, by 
influencing whom the master influences the whole school. It is mainly to bo}'s 
who have reached sixteen or seventeen, and are passing into manhood, that the 
school looks up. From them it will take tone as from an authority ; without 
them, speaking generally, the school has no social organization. It is partly to 
this delect that we attribute the system of government which is adopted in 
these schools, and which we think too close and repressive. . . . The whole 
school life is passed under the close inspection of the master, and indeed almost 
entirely withm the ring-fence. . . . The duty of the monitor is not to ape the 
master, and exercise with a high hand parental authority, far less to act as a spy, 
and report oflences which he himself cannot deal with ; he is rather a guardian 
of order and manners, and insists, with prompt and light hand, and under the 
criticism of his peers, on the preservation of the ordinary social obligations of 
the boys to each other. The very same offence which the master must treat 
seriously, may often, with great benefit to the culprit and the school, be put 
down off-hand by the elder boys, as a breach of good order and manners. 

Games were still in an unsatisfactory state, but were slowly 
improving. Cricket and football were for a long time carried on 
under great difficulties. The playground was at first rough and 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


stony, but it was not long before it received a surface of asphalt. 
The asphalting, however, was a long process, and was carried out in 
sections; moreover, it had to be repeated. The field adjoining 
the playground was acquired later, but its natural slope was not 
conducive to scientific play. Cricket was generally carried on in 
the shorter play hours under the form of " commons." The school 
being dismissed by classes at the close of the morning, the upper 
boys would walk in a dignified manner down the length of the 
schoolroom; but "directly the first boy had stepped over the 
threshold, we heard a scurry, a digging of heels into the stone of 
the passages, a smash through the swing-doors, a tear of the chain 
on the farther door " ; it was a race for an innings. Those who 
arrived first secured the right to bat, or at any rate to bowl. When 
a batsman succumbed, he who caught him or he who had fielded 
the ball that bowled him took his place. Matches with outside 
teams were rare. Mr. Wilson, the son of the school architect, and 
others would sometimes raise an eleven to play the school. F. C. 
Maxwell was the first to be a formally recognized captain of the 
eleven (in 1862), and his team included J. L. G. Mowat, W. T. 
Davison, and F. G. Dawson. At that time real cricket was only 
possible in a distant field on half-holidays. Flannels were unknown, 
and it is interesting to know that the colours of that pioneer eleven 
were red and white, displayed in a red flannel cap with a white star 
on the top. Football was almost entirely confined to the patch ; 
even after the permanent field had been obtained its use was 
usually prohibited in winter. Football on asphalt required rules 
appropriate to the conditions of the game. It was not a carrying 
game, neither did it partake entirely of the nature of Association.^ 
Fives and racquets were played against a small wall near the door 
leading into the patch ; subsequently three excellent racquet courts 
were built, and the game secured many devotees. 

The greater games being thus surrounded with difficulties, 
minor and more juvenile sports were extensively patronised. 
Prisoner's base, relievo, I spy, "widdy widdy way," are titles 
with a more or less definite meaning; marbles, tops, hopscotch 
had their followers. Others formed themselves into military 

*A correspondent writes: **The late Mr. F. R. 'Wilton introduced a new 
cxxie of football rules, drawn up by the masters for the use of the school. This 
would be about 1868 or 1869. The rules were <juite impracticable, and were 
soon withdrawn ; then we fell into a kind of spurious Rugby, which served its 
porposcfeirly well," 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


detachments in unrecognizable uniforms, and drilled vigorously, 
not forgetting to charge. Tallywags, or tightly-twisted comforters, 
supplied amusement not unmixed with pain. Some would wrestle, 
not always without risk, for it is on record how A. S. Way 
broke his arm thereby. Some would act the plots of novels. 
Some would evolve small gardens of flowers or vegetables 
from a narrow border of soil that ran round the patch. Some also 
would only loaf. 

Occasionally the school indulged in the excitement of a political 
election. In 1874, for instance, the polling at Bath suggested an 
imitation on Lansdown Hill, where two Liberals (W. T. A. Barber 
and A. Knowles) and one Conservative (C. J. Prescott) presented 
themselves for two vacancies. The system of cumulative voting 
was adopted, and C. J. Prescott headed the poll, W. T. A. Barber 
coming next. The triumphant party promptly celebrated their 
victory in true British fashion — by a banquet, over which A. B. Shaw 
presided. In subsequent years similar elections took place under 
the control of the Literary Association. 

The dietary table underwent little alteration during this period. 
In 1 85 1 it was as follows : — 

Dinner. — Sunday — Cold roast beef; plum pudding. 

Monday — Hot roast beef ; boiled rice and treacle. 
Tuesday — Cold roast beef ; fruit pie. 
Wednesday — Hot boiled beef; rice and treacle. 
Thursday — Cold boiled beef ; suet pudding and treacle. 

Friday — Roast mutton ; rice and treacle. 
Saturday — Bread and cheese. 

The fruit pie was a popular dish; the rice and treacle might 
have been, had they not been boiled together. For a considerable 
time only one turn was allowed of each course, and both courses 
were served on the same plate ; the effect on Friday of a combina- 
tion of rice and treacle with mutton gravy may be dimly imagined. 
Mr. Sargent altered that, and Mr. Woolmer substituted hash for the 
poor fare of Saturday. This latter change put an end to " cheese- 
cakes," for which the following recipe has been given : " Take one 
of the small bun-shaped loaves served out for Saturday's dinner, 
and out of the thick flat crust at the bottom carefully cut a piece 
about an inch square. Scoop out the crumby interior and eat it at 
once. Cut up the cheese into small pieces, add salt and pepper 
(the latter condiment being previously purchased at the lodge). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Stuff the hollowed loaf with the mixture, replace the square of 
crust, and tie all round with a bit of string. * Convey ' the whole 
out of the hall, and, as soon as opportunity serves, put it in the hot 
ashes in one of the stoves, and there leave it for half an hour, or 
longer in case of any danger of discovery. After which, eat on 
the sly." 

As has already been stated, the serving was done by monitors. 
Four " outside monitors " sat at the end of the two long tables ; they 
went to the carving masters in the centre of the hall, and received 


the plates from them ; these they handed on to four " inside 
monitors," stationed between the tables, and the latter served the 
boys. Monitors were privileged to receive second turns. On 
Saturdays there were no sweets, but any pudding or pastry that 
might remain over from the masters' table was served to the boys as 
far as it would go. The monitors kept record where the turn began 
each weelc ; it took about half a year to go round. No bread was 
supplied at dinner; potatoes were served by a "potato dummy" 
from a large tin receptacle. A "dummy" was a domestic or 
maidservant ; the term became extended to all of the gentler sex ; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


hence " Count-dummy Sunday," when it was the traditional duty of 
every boy to count all the females he came in sight of on the way 
to and from chapel and at chapel.^ 

Breakfast and tea consisted of milk (warmed in winter) and 
bread. The apparatus supplied consisted of tin cans and leaden 
spoons. The tins were difficult to keep sweet, and after cleaning 
retained an oily flavour. At length someone presented a supply of 
earthenware mugs bearing a picture of the school, and the change 
was much appreciated. The spoon handles were frequently so 
abbreviated as to be of little use, while the spoons themselves were 
at times punctured by holes ; they were made serviceable by plugs 
of bread. The bread was cut up by a master. The supply was 
practically unlimited; boys signified how many more pieces they 
wanted by holding up their fingers, and the monitors counted up 
the total. The pieces found on the plates when the boys entered 
the hall were known as " wholes " ; the second supply consisted of 
" halves " ; and a third, of " quarters," was permitted. Mr. Sargent 
occasionally varied this fare by bread and butter and coffee, to great 
and general satisfaction. On Sunday evening " bread and scrape " 
and water were served as supper. The following description has 
been given of the fare in 1866-70. "The present generation is 
regaled with tea and coffee ; not such as the Grand Turk imbibes 
in marble halls and on superb couches, but still coffee. The liquid 
dealt out to us, morning and evening, summer and winter, was 
supplied by a few melancholy cows, assisted by the labours of a 
dilapidated horse, entitled Captain, who raised waters from an 
ancient well. In the contest between these different races of 
animals in supplying the major part of our morning and evening 
drinks, the palm must, with great respect to the memory of the 
cows, be awarded to the equine efforts. The pats of butter which 
now adorn the tables at regular intervals, though not of extensive 
area or surprising depth, are better than nothing, which was the 
quantity allowed to us. Thursday was a day of dole. On that 
day we had fat pudding; and when our stomachs had wrestled 
successfully with that lugubrious concoction, our minds were set to 
regale themselves on catechism. It was a device worthy of the 
Inquisition, when we were spent with buffeting with the products of 
the cook, to assail us with the products of Richard Watson. In 

^ It is said that the term was originally spelt **dumbie/' and was due to the 
rule which forbade conversation between servants and boys. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


those days no mild chaos of sound existed such as now fills the 
hall with a pleasing but bewildering buzz. We consumed our 
fragal meals, like the boys in Utopia, *with marvellous silence.'" 

The boys naturally supplemented the regular fare as far as their 
scanty purses would go. In 1855 the pocket-money supplied by 
the school funds had been discontinued, but in i860 the Rev. J. 
Rattenbury proposed, and Mr. John Irving seconded, a motion for 
its restoration. The Conference consented, to the extent of i Jd. a 
week instead of the 2d. formerly given. In 1855 the discontinuance 
had not been made without protest, the Rev. G. B, Macdonald 
saying that he thought of the Missionary Society, towards which the 
boys in his time used to contribute sixty-six per cent, of their little 
income. Several laymen volunteered to restore the money out of 
their own pockets. 

There was no difficulty in getting rid of this income. Hudson 
the gardener brought to the school a basket of comestibles on half- 
holidays, and earned the sobriquet of " The Tempter." At a later 
date, what memories gather round the lodge, where Mrs. Parker 
sold stewed prunes, cocoa, and other delights, and the fireside in the 
little back room was so grateful on raw afternoons ! 

In the sixties a commercial craze lasted for several weeks, and it was on this 
wise. A packet of Fry's cocoa, drawn gradually into the mouth through a short 
pea-shooter or paper tube, was a not unusual luxury enjoyed by those boys who 
were in affluent circumstances. (We passed as rich at twopence a week !) One 
such epicure conceived the idea of further enjoyment by a judicious admixture of 
sogar with the cocoa. Then either he or some other adventured on an introduced 
dash of tartaric acid to give piquancy to the mixture.^ But it required our chemist, 
Savery (omen of later distinctions), to suggest a further addition of carbonate of 
soda, in order that the most perfect entertamment of the palate might be assured. 
Then came the final inspiration. Whose it was I cannot say, but I have a 
shrewd suspicion that John Lamont Lewis was the happy mortal. But whoever it 
was, the inspired one acquired a stock of the four required materials, mixed them 
in the proper proportions, measured out about a teaspoonful into each of a large 
number of neat little packets, called the mixture '* Beverage," and then hawked the 
packets round the school at a halfpenny each. There was quite a rush upon the 
commodity, whose insidious flavour created an increasing longing; for further 
supplies. The commercial genius soon found imitators, and incredible fortunes 
of many shillii^ were made in a few days. But the success of the speculators 
made them bold, and their colossal money-makings became known to the 
authorities, who, with socialistic tyranny, denounced all such modes of acquire- 
ment of wealth, and commanded their discontinuance. Those whose pockets were 
empty, and who had consumed their beverages, applauded, but the swollen sons of 
fortune frowned. 

Each meal in the dining-hall was followed by prayers ; some boy 
walked down to the lectern at the far end of the room, and read the 

' This identical concoction was in later days purveyed at a fabulous profit by 
X , who is now one of Her Majesty's Judges. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


lesson for the day, or, after dinner, a psalm, and then betook himself 
to the humbler function of organ blower for the ensuing hymn. At 
one time the little boys took their turn to read, but afterwards the 
function was confined to the seniors. Even then, however, the 
results were not always pleasing. On one occasion a boy convulsed 
the assembly by his manner of reading the words, "Finally, 
brethfen." At another time the reader (nothing shall induce the 
revelation of his name) omitted to announce the number of the 
psalm at the outset, and hence summoned his schoolfellows to an 
unusual duty by saying, "Praise the — 150th Psalm !" 

Besides the regular holidays at midsummer (about four weeks) 
and Christmas (three weeks), there were also a few days at Easter, 
when only a small number of boys went home. Occasional holidays 
were not numerous. There was at one time an annual treat, to 
Weymouth one year, usually to some place in the vicinity convenient 
for a picnic. Foundation day (28th Oct.) was duly kept. The 
governor's return from Conference was welcomed vigorously, whether 
for its intrinsic pleasure or for concomitant advantages it were too 
curious to inquire. When Conference met at Bristol the school 
attended, and were afterwards royally entertained by Mr. Budgett. 
When J. F. Moulton became Senior Wrangler in 1868, he visited the 
school, and was received with the welcome he merited. His speech 
in the schoolroom to the assembled boys was one of the best- 
appreciated speeches ever made there ; it may be quoted at large. It 
ran : " Mr. Osbom, I have seen the schoolroom full ; I should now 
like to see it empty." The governor's birthday and that of the head- 
master also afforded opportunities for relaxation, as did the 5th of 
November, which w^as from very early times kept with a strange 
devotion at Kingswood. To the Saturday half-holiday that of 
Wednesday was added in 1853, but for some time had to be asked 
for each week, and was at times withheld. After "permits "had 
been introduced by Mr. Sargent, these days w^ere much used for 
explorations of Wick Rocks, Hampton Rocks, Sham Castle, and 
other features of the neighbourhood. The river was forbidden ; but 
the Cleveland Baths were much patronised. The Christmas holiday 
of three weeks was an advance on the ten days of the fifties, and by 
1875 had become four weeks, when the midsummer vacation had 
also gained a week. During the short Christmas and Easter 
holidays, when most boys stayed at the school, the discipline was 
greatly relaxed ; leave out was freely given, and entertainments were 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


devised. Mr. John Jefferson was a tower of strength on these 
occasions, and so, earlier, was Mr. Henry Shera. The 5th of 
November was celebrated sometimes by fireworks, sometimes by 
a " trial of Guy Fawkes," sometimes by — a Missionary Meeting ! 
" Bardell v. Pickwick " also afforded scope for amateur comedians. 
Occasionally there were lectures by friends from outside, of whom 
the Rev. G. T. Perks evoked prolonged cheers by his opening 
sentence in a lecture on St. Patrick : " Every one has heard of St. 
Patrick, and how he bothered the vermin of Ireland." By this time 
the boys were beginning to know something of politics. Sometimes 
distinguished visitors addressed the boys; among these were Sir 
Charles Napier and Sir Bartle Frere. 

Clothing was from the very first provided from the funds of the 
school. Wesley's rule on the subject was : " If their parents can pay 
for them in whole or in part, they should ; if they cannot, all is well." 
At different times an annual payment of four guineas was levied on 
the parents, to be dropped after a few years' existence. Till 1878 
the cost of clothing was charged to the fund. Shoes in 1858 began 
to be made on the premises. There was always a resident cobbler 
(one Cantello long held the office), who did the necessary cleaning 
and repairing. Mr. Woolmer made various improvements in the 
clothes, an example which subsequent governors followed. In 
1874 the arrangement is thus officially described : " All clothing for 
the boys, with the exception of flannel shirts, vests, collars, neckties, 
and overcoats, is provided by the governor and charged to the 
School Fund. The cloth for suits is of improved quality, and is 
chiefly purchased from the manufactory at wholesale prices. The 
making and trimming are contracted for by a Bath tailor at 13s. 
per suit. In the case of leaving boys, some liberty is allowed in the 
choice of style, all extra cost involved in the gratification of their 
taste being charged to the parents in the half-yearly account. . . . The 
recognized allowance has been one new suit of clothes per annum, 
with a very occasional pair of new trousers in addition, the further 
necessity being met by the tailoress as best she could. It has been 
her custom to turn and remake old jackets, and by feats of ingenuity 
to make the cast-off garments of the elder boys do duty for the 
younger, to the, at times, no small humiliation of the parties re- 
sponsible for their personal appearance. . . . Caps and boots are 
purchased direct from the manufacturer." 

These particulars bring us up to the date of 1875 ; the manifold 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


alterations which have taken place since will be mentioned else- 
where, as far as seems necessary. But the interest in particulars 
such as these only exists when they present a certain quaintness and 
unlikeness to modern and usual methods. It will not be needful to 
detail the daily life of a Kingswood boy of the present time. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Now, a' together, hear them lift their lesson — theirs and mine: 
Law, Order, Duty an' Restraint, Obedience, Discipline ! — Kipling. 

In 187 1, at the Committee of Review preceding the Manchester 
Conference, Mr. (now Sir) Henry Fowler moved a resolution for the 
appointment of a special committee — " something in the nature of 
a commission " — to inquire whether some improvements could not 
be introduced into the management and education at the two boys' 
schools. Mr. Fowler asserted that the principle upon which they 
ought to act was, that these schools should supply a complete and 
final secondary education, such as to qualify a boy at once to com- 
pete for a scholarship at one of the universities, or to pass into the 
higher grades of civil and mercantile life. If they undertook to 
educate their ministers' sons, they should do it thoroughly. Boys 
ought not to enter school so young, nor leave it so young ; boys of 
fifteen were not capable of exercising the proper influence of elder 
boys. Why should there be two schools ? the expense was greater, 
the staff redundant. There should, he thought, be provision for a 
commercial grade in the school. Scholarships were wanted ; why 
not pay for them out of the fund ? It was as wise to spend money 
in that way as in asphalting the playground at Kingswood. There 
should also be a possibility of buying extra years. 

Mr. W. W. Pocock seconded the resolution, and, despite the 
strong opposition of the Rev. Dr. G. Osborn, it was carried almost 

The step thus taken reached farther than perhaps even its 
promoters hoped. To the work and final recommendations of the 
committee thus appointed we shall now turn our attention, and we 
shall see that the object of their investigations was nothing else than 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


the bringing of Kingswood into line with the public schools of the 
country ; that it should no longer be simply a place where a boy's 
education was begun, and then left to be finished elsewhere, but 
one where it was carried on to the end, and the boy turned 
out into the world as fully equipped as school life can make 

The method of proceeding was as follows. A special committee 
was appointed, as stated above, consisting of twenty-one members, 
and of these six were formed into a commission of inquiry. The 
commission, when their labours were ended, reported to the special 
committee, the special committee reported to the general committee, 
and the general committee to Conference, and by Conference the 
final decision was made. The bulk of the work therefore was done 
by the commission of six. These were — 

The Rev. Benjamin Gregory. 
The Rev. W. F. Moulton, M.A. 
The Rev. W. J. Tweddle. 
Mr. P. W. Bunting, M.A. 
Mr. (now Sir) H. H. Fowler. 
Mr. G. Lidgett, B.A. 

Curiously enough, there was not an old Kingswood boy among 
them, though three were Grovites. This commission examined a 
considerable number of witnesses, received some communications 
in writing, elicited opinions from Methodist undergraduates at 
Oxford and Cambridge, issued circulars of questions to the ministers, 
and finally drew up a report. 

(i) The witnesses orally examined were : — 

The Rev. W. Arthur, M.A., late Principal of Belfast Methodist 

The Rev. A. Barry,- D.D., Principal of King's College, London; 
afterwards Bishop of Sydney. 

The Rev. H. H. Chettle, Governor of VVoodhouse Grove School. 

The Rev. W. T. Davison, M.A., an old boy and master. 

The Rev. J. Farrar, an old Grove boy and late Governor of 
Woodhouse Grove School. 

Mr. J. G. Fitch, M.A. (now Sir J. G. Fitch, LL.I).), Com- 
missioner for Endowed Schools. 

Mr. J. Scott Fox, University College, Oxford. 

Mr. A. V. Harding, an old Kingswood boy, recently left. 

Mr. R. N. Hartley, an old Grove boy, recently left. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Mr. C. P. Ilbert, M.A., BalUol College, Oxford. 

Mr. H. Jefferson, M.A., late headmaster of Kingswood. 

Mr LI. W. Jones, head of the school, Kingswood. 

Mr. T. G. Osbom, M.A., headmaster of Kingswood. 

Mr. R. W. Perks, an old Kingswood boy. 

Mr. J. M. Raby, LL.D., an old boy and headmaster of Wood- 
house Grove. 

The Rev. W. H. Sargent, an old Grove boy, Governor of Kings- 

Mr. G. O. Turner, an old Grove boy, second master at Kingswood. 

The Rev. C. J. Vaughan, D.D., Master of the Temple, afterwards 
also Dean of Llandaff. Died 1897. 

(2) Opinions were received in writing from — 

Mr. T. Beach, M.A., headmaster of Wolverhampton Grammar 

The Rev. T. B. Rowe, M.A., master at Uppingham; an old 
Grove boy. 

Mr. J. G. Fitch, and others. 

(3) Of the reports from ministers' sons at the universities, that 
from Oxford is signed by H. Chettle and S. F. Harris, formerly at 
the Grove 3 J. W. Russell, T. A. Goodwin, A. H. S. Lucas, C. O. 
Watson, R. M. Thomas, formerly at Kingswood; with B. A. Gregory ^ 
and J. Scott Fox.^ That from Cambridge is signed by W. A. 
Brailey and R. M. Lewis, of the Grove; J. F. Moulton, R. G. 
Moulton, F. C. Maxwell, J. M. Lightwood, T. C. Lewis, of Kings- 
wood; with T. Adams,3 H. T. Davies, J. W. V. Punshon, T. O. 
Harding,* H. S. Foxwell,*^ W. G. Rushbrooke,« T. G. Little, and F. 
R. Wilton.7 

(4) The questions addressed by circular to the ministers and some 
leading laymen were two : Would it be wise to open the schools to 
the sons of laymen ? Should the course of study be bifurcated into 
a classical side and a modern side ? To these questions a com- 
paratively small number of responses was sent. 

What was the general drift of opinion gathered in this fourfold 
way? It will be perhaps most convenient to group it under a 

* Wesleyan minister. Died 1876. ^ Barrister-at-law. 

* Rev. T. Adams, D.C.L., Principal of Lennoxvillc University, Quebec. 

* Senior Wrangler, 1873. 

' Fellow of St. John's ; Professor of Political Economy, University College, 

* Headmaster of St. Olave's Grammar School, Southwark. 
' Master at Kingswood, 1865. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Variety of heads, and to roughly outline the pros and cons with 
regard to each of them. 

I. Admission of Laymeris Sons, 

Pro. A narrowness of outlook arises when all the boys are from 
one class of home. Mr. (now Sir) Clarence Smith asserted that the 
present method produced successful ministers but not successful 

The association would be valuable to the ministers' sons, or, as 
Mr. W. Hunt somewhat bluntly put it, they "would form friend- 
ships which would be to their advantage in after life." 

It would be in accordance with the scheme of the Founder. 

Laymen had a rigAl to send their sons ; so Mr. Henry Jefferson 
and Mr. W. W. Pocock asserted. Perhaps this is only another 
form of the previous argument. 

Dr. Vaughan and Dr. Barry were both strongly in favour of the 
admission, as was Mr. Fitch. Dr. Vaughan considered it " vital." 
Dr. Barry pointed out that there was no class-feeling at Marlborough.^ 
Mr. Fitch thought that laymen's sons should have a stiffer entrance 

Con. No room — a very common objection. 

Laymen would not submit to the present dietary or discipline. 
There would be much parental interference. 

The offer would not be made use of; the existing connexional 
schools (Taunton, Sheffield, etc.) are not full. Kingswood ought 
not to enter into competition with these. 

Class-feeling and mutual jealousies would arise. 

The collections for the school would suffer. 

The Oxford report said that the admission would "tend to 
destroy the esprii de corps.^^ 

The Cambridge report pointed out that, unless the boys came 
young and went through the course, they would be a hindrance to 
the school. 

As tentative schemes, Mr. T. P. Bunting suggested a trial of the 
plan at one of the schools, and the Cambridge report suggested 
that the headmasters might be permitted to take boarders. 

The commission in their report ably sum up the arguments, and, 
while expressing themselves in favour of the principle, think that 
this change is not of vital importance, and that it may be left for 
further consideration. 

^ Where clergymen's sons are received at lower fees. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


At the Committee of Review in 1874 the Rev. H. W. Holland 
moved a resolution in favour of the admission of laymen's sons, and 
at the Conference of 1880 Mr. (now Sir) Clarence Smith did the 
same. Both were lost by large majorities. 

Determined efforts in this direction have since been made by 
Mr. \V. Hunt On one occasion there was actually a tie in the 
committee on this question. 

2. Dual Government 

Pro, The idea of z. father at the head of affairs is deep in the 
minds of parents. There is something more paternal in the aspect 
of an elderly minister than in the energy of a more youthful layman. 

There would be difficulty in obtaining a suitable minister as 

Con, Friction must arise. Boys naturally look to one head; 
they will hold to the one and despise the other. 

The religious is divorced from the intellectual training. 

The commission refrained from offering any recommendation on 
the subject, but were strongly of opinion that the headmaster should 
be on the committee and should be supreme in schqol without 

3. Curriculum. 

On this matter the most diverse opinions were expressed. 
Among the suggested schemes were the following : — 

(a) A bifurcation into classical and modem in each school. 

(^) Make one school preparatory to the other. 

{c) Make one school classical and the other modem. 

(d) Let things alone. 

Among the arguments employed were, on the one side, that it is 
not possible at an early age to determine in what direction a boy's 
hent is; that modern languages and science (!) can be picked up 
later, while Greek requires a long period of study, begun early ; and 
that it is bad to have a double aim in a school. On the other side, 
that three foreign languages are sufficient ; that not much Greek is 
known by the age of sixteen ; that German is as good training (!) 
as Greek ; that many boys will necessarily enter on a commercial life. 

Finally, the commission adopted plan (d) ; the Grove should be 
preparatory to Kingswood, and the upper school should be bifurcated. 
An entrance examination into the lower school should be established, 
and the age of entrance should be ten. Boys should pass to the 
upper school, generally speaking, at thirteen. Every effort should be 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


made to keep a sufficient number of the best boys up to the age of 
eighteen, both with a view to their proceeding to the universities, 
and as the material for an order of monitors worthy of the name. 

The remaining recommendations of the committee may be 
briefly summarised : — 

4. "There is no meal at either school on week-days between 
five or six o'clock in the evening and eight o'clock next morning. 
. . . This regimen is too severe. It would be well to temper it with 
a little supper." To this recommendation the Kingswood boys of 
to-day owe the vesper bun.^ 

5. The " monastic silence " of the dining-hall should give way to 
"cheerful talk." It did. 

6. Too many classes are taught at once in the large schoolroom. 
In 1874 five classes were taught in this one room. They are now 
reduced to three. 

7. The position of the masters requires amelioriation ; during 
the last five years over thirty had left the schools. They " have to 
keep up a microscopic inspection of the daily life of their pupils. . . . 
The under-master is neither a policeman nor a nurse ; his work is 
teaching. He requires his whole mind fresh for his school hours. . . . 
To expect of him the regular overlooking of the playground, the 
lavatory, and the dormitory,^ is to saddle him with tasks lowering to 
his spirit and self-respect, and to fetter his time. . . . Their salaries 
are much too low, and cannot command men capable, by their 
acquirements, their force of character, or their manners, of holding 
the respect of the scholars. It is a sufficient ground for a searching 
reform of the schools that the under-masters do not as a body possess 
that respect. . . . The printed rules of Kingswood School, besides 
requiring the tutors to see the boys go to bed at night and wash in 
the morning, contain this clause: *No tutor or servant in the 
establishment shall leave the premises without the knowledge of the 
governor.' A school which treats its masters as upper servants 
must expect that the boys will treat them likewise." 

Such was the report presented to the special committee. It 
eventually reached Conference on 2nd August 1873. Conference 
appointed a large committee to consider it. This committee brought 
in their recommendations, and Conference passed them. But as 

* It was on 6th October 1873 that these buns were first distributed ; on the 
same day— /rar/art nominis — butter first appeared on the breakfast table. 

' The disused windows commanding the dormitories are the only relics of this 
system left. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


thus passed they contained one very large and far-reaching deviation 
from the proposals of the commission : there was recommended by 
the committee and carried in Conference nothing less than that the 
Grove should be sold and Kingswood enlarged to hold three hundred 
boys. A special committee was appointed to take immediate steps 
for carrying this out. 

Then began the protest of the North. The Grove committee 
appealed; important northern districts appealed; pamphlets and 
newspaper correspondence multiplied exceedingly. It served to 
show, as the Grove committee justly say, " how large a place the 
Grove has in the affectionate interest of Northern Methodism, and 
how its removal would be considered as a loss and calamity." The 
president (the Rev. G. T. Perks) was urged to take the responsi- 
bility of directing the concentration committee not to proceed with 
the scheme till the matter could once more be brought before 
Conference. He consented to do so, and the Grove committee 
breathed again. The concentration committee devoted itself to 
drawing up a tabular statement of all the possible schemes, which 
fonned practically a plea for concentration. Before the northern 
storm Conference itself quailed. In 1874 the resolutions of the 
previous year were " suspended," and the plan of the commission 
was reverted to. The amalgamation, but not concentration, of the 
schools was ordered to take effect after the midsummer holidays of 
1875. Consequently, on the 30th of July, Kingswood reopened 
with seventy-five of its old pupils and fifty-four transferred from 
the Grove. At the same time considerable changes were made 
in its internal organization. The school was divided into two 
sides, classical and modem. On this the headmaster reported 
that very few of the more advanced boys had shown any 
desire to join the modem side, but that, on the whole, the 
experiment had been fairly successful. The weakest feature, from 
an educational point of view, was the composition of the lowest 
form, the third modem, which consisted largely of a heterogeneous 
collection of boys who were in the upper school solely on account of 
age. The average age of the school was a little over fourteen. 
There were in all twenty-three boys enjoying extra years, twelve by 
purchase. From these, eight were selected as prefects. The old 
name of monitor had been so long identified with the performance 
of more or less menial functions that it was only permitted to 
survive in the case of a few boys who still carried out some necessary 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


duties on behalf of their schoolfellows. Among these may be 
instanced the two bun monitors, whose lot it was to distribute the 
evening sustenance. They were not entirely ignorant of the nature 
of perquisites. But the name of prefect was assigned to those boys 
whose responsibility it was to turn the stream of popular opinion 
into worthy channels, and to put down all offences against public 
good manners. Their existence also relieved the masters of the 
more irksome parts of " duty." The foundation of this order was a 
turning-point in the general life of the school. The two senior boys, 
W. T. A. Barber and A. B. Shaw, were specially retained for an 
additional year, "that under new and untried arrangements, the 
school may have the advantage of their influence as senior prefects." 
The school was fortunate in the governor and in the headmaster 
under whom the new organization came into effect ; it was no less 
fortunate in its first prefects. By their sense of honour, their dignity, 
their scorn of meanness, their strong, true influence, they had no 
small part in starting the school on that career of prosperity then 

Here may be mentioned the introduction of " permits " or exeats, 
which were practically obtainable on application, — except, of course, 
by boys estopped by punishment, — and which admitted the boys to 
a knowledge of the interesting and attractive city and the delightful 
country which lay so near them. When the new school was 
formally opened in 1852, the boys of that day presented an address 
to the assembled dignitaries ; it is almost pathetic to read in it that 
" the gorgeous panorama presented by the surrounding scenery in 
all its diversities, our proximity to the ancient and elegant city of 
Bath, with its delightful promenades and objects of interest . . . 
cannot fail to impart to us a tone of health and cheerfulness." 
Great was the faith that was " cheerful " at the thought of " gorgeous 
panoramas " and " elegant promenades " that should only be opened 
to the feet of the Kingswood boy some twenty years afterwards. 
The privilege of permits was eagerly welcomed and continually 
used. " A boy who had come to the end of his five years and had 
never let off fireworks in the caves, lit a bonfire in the woods, or 
shivered on the top of Hampton Moor, would by most of the law- 
abiding inmates of Kingswood School be regarded as a person of 
a somewhat heterodox turn of mind." Who, since this gracious 
system, this true "enlargement of Kingswood," came into being, 
does not remember the charms of Warley, the seductive delights of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Milsom Street, or, at a later date, the " shining reaches " of the 
river? The introduction of half-holiday permits was due to Mr. 
Sargent. In 1875 ^^^ alteration of school hours allowed them to 
come into use daily. Another great boon was the opening of the 
reading-room \ ^ towards this most worthy object Mr. W. H. Budgett, 
ever a friend of the school, gave ;£^So, Mrs. Bailey and Miss Pool 
(of Roade) ;^ioo. Altogether, ;£^5o6 were collected. The actual 
construction of this room was completed in 1873, but for some 
time its shelves were tantalisingly empty. Mrs. Workman in 1875 
begged J[^^o and scores of books to remedy this want. 

This happy system continued for eight brief years. The 
goveming body, in their report in 1876, declared that "the 
principal aim of the change of system was an improved education." 
There is no doubt that they succeeded in their aim. They avoided 
the waste of power due to having two sets of masters engaged in 
the same work. They secured much more equality of attainment 
in each class. Moreover, they brought together at Kingswood 
the pick of both schools. This offered a great chance for a head- 
master, and Mr. Osbom was not the man to let it slip. He infused 
a marked enthusiasm into his upper boys ; an extraordinary zeal for 
work took possession of the major part of them, so that the 
governor was wont to humorously complain that the hardest part 
of his duties was rising in the morning at four o'clock to prevent 
boys getting up to work.^ In this atmosphere even the idlest learnt 
much ; there is a limit to the extent in which the worst boy in a 
form will fall behind the general average, and when this average 
is raised the laggards rise with it. It was a period of great 
academical brilliancy, and therewith, at any rate in matters scholastic, 
of high tone and real earnestness. 

But further change loomed ahead. Concentration was never 
forgotten. To many minds it seemed an advantageous move 
educationally ; but whether that were so or not, financial considera- 
tions compelled it. The system of 1875 was undoubtedly costly, 
and the fund could not bear anything costly. 

The Thanksgiving Fund of 1878 offered a large grant, sufficient 

^ A newspaper club had been formed in February 1872, and used the 
Glasgow room. It started with seventy-seven subscribers. 

* This spirit of diligence existed before Concentration ; witness the following 
remarkable extract from a boy's diary in 1873 : *' This morning I got up at 5.22. 
1 was very tired, because yesterday morning I got up at 1.50, on Saturday 2.45, 
on Friday 2.5a" This diary contains several similar statements. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


to cover the cost of concentration ; and after that the alteration was 
only a matter of time. 

In 1880 the general committee recommended concentration to 
Conference, together with a reduction of the years of a boy's normal 
school-life from six to five. Still, however, the forces of opposition 
were strong, and the matter was referred to the consideration of 
the May district meetings. At the next Conference their reports 
were received. It was found that the majority of them were opposed 
to concentration at Kingswood, only five being entirely in favour 
of it ; while, on the other hand, all without exception were in favour 
of a reduction of the number of years at school. Truly the district 
meetings did not love the schools. The opposition to concentration 
was not due to any attachment to the existing system; many 
desired a return to the old plan ; some even advocated concentration 
at the Grove ! 

To the same Conference there was presented a strongly-worded 
petition, signed by some two hundred old boys, in favour of con- 
centration, in the interests both of economy and education. 

When Conference turned to consider the matter, the Rev. G. W. 
Olver moved that concentration should take place, on grounds of 
economy. To lower salaries would do very little, and he " did not 
hesitate to say that the difference between maintaining the present 
efficiency of the schools, and sinking down into a position that 
would make every Methodist layman and every minister blush 
before his country, would be covered by the amount of ;^6oo." 
The Rev. Dr. Moulton seconded the motion : " in the proposal ot 
the committee lay the salvation of the school." It was impossible 
to organize a school properly for less than two hundred and fifty 
boys ; they could not go back to the old system of young masters, 
domestic discomfort, and rigid curriculum. 

The Rev. M. Randies spoke in opposition : were we, he asked, to 
make a special appeal to raise money for the benefit of two hundred 
and fifty out of a thousand ministers' sons ? More than half of the 
ministers were north of Birmingham. Let us have two big schools, 
with laymen's sons admitted. 

Mr. P. W. Bunting asserted that Mr. Randies' figures were 
exaggerated. Only eight or ten applicants were refused admission 
each year. It was impossible to say that each minister was entitled 
to an equal share whether he sent his sons to the schools or not ; 
the people would not subscribe to a general fund; it was the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


name of Kingswood that attracted subscriptions. Selection 
ought to be made for admissions ; e,g, orphans, and boys 
whose homes were where there were no educational advantages, 
should have a preference. He wished to withdraw the support he 
had hitherto given to the admission of laymen's sons ; they could 
not make experiments with the fund going wrong at the rate of 
;^6ooo a year. 

The Rev. Charles Garrett thought the need for the schools was 
gone, in these days of easier travelling and more accessible 
education. Kingswood would not be popular as a grand 
collegiate institution, or if they aimed at more than a plain, useful 

The Rev. William Arthur pointed out that the school was 
founded because John Wesley knew that his people must have 
educated leaders. 

Mr. W. Hunt drew attention to the fact that not more than five 
or six districts were in favour of concentration, although the Second 
London meeting was held first to give the keynote to the others. 
VNTiy make the appeal to the district meetings a farce ? The saving 
by concentration he calculated at £^^2, Let each school be 
enlarged to hold two hundred. 

The Rev. H. Price Hughes protested that they were not there as 
the mere delegates of the district meetings. 

The Rev. H. W. Holland averred that concentration would 
shut out boys and make many a widow's heart sad. 

The Rev. G. O. Bate thought that ministers near to good schools 
should not send their boys to the connexional schools. He was in 
favour of concentration. 

Mr. W. W. Pocock, who was also in favour of it, declared that 
boys who went to other schools would be lost to Methodism. 

At length the President put the motion in the following form : 
That the Conference directs that the scheme for the immediate 
concentration of the schools at New Kingswood be carried out by 
the general committee, but that the estate at Woodhouse Grove 
shall be retained and appropriated to any use for Wesleyan 
Methodist educational purposes which may hereafter be found 
necessary or advisable. 

The voting was — Ayes 243, Noes 80. 

Mr. Hunt immediately rose and said that he had great satisfac- 
tion under defeat from the fact that the services of the then head- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


master would now be retained. He loyally accepted the vote, and 
offered an annual prize. 

The subsequent motion for the reduction of years from six to 
five was carried unanimously. 

So, in face of much opposition, amid many misgivings, many 
perplexities, the great step, for good or evil, was taken. The financial 
aspect of the matter is presented in another chapter ; here we have 
to consider it from an educational point of view. 

It will be noticed that several speakers on both sides in the 
Conference debate were of opinion that the schools were too small. 
Dr. Vaughan, Dr. Barry, and Mr. Fitch shared this opinion. 
But the difference between Kingswood and the great public schools 
is in one point very great. From 1875 ^^ '^^3 ^ ^^y at the 
connexional schools spent three years (from ten to thirteen) at the 
preparatory school, and three or four (thirteen to sixteen or seven- 
teen) at Kingswood ; in the case of public schools the usual career 
is three or four years (from ten) at a preparatory school, and then 
till nineteen at the public school. By concentration, all the time 
is spent at Kingswood from ten to seventeen. It is ooe thing to 
have two hundred and fifty boys at a public school all over thirteen 
years of age ; it is another to mass together two hundred and fifty 
boys, big and little, from the age of ten upwards. The difference 
is so great as to be almost vital. However possible it may be to 
keep the educational courses separate and suitable, and to preserve 
some further separation by the use of a distinct playground for 
the juniors, the domestic arrangements, treatment, and discipline 
required for little boys are very unlike those suited to their elders. 
Little boys may certainly be taught in the same building with big 
ones; they should be housed in another. This was not done at 

The immediate effect of the scheme of concentration has been 
thus described : " The old days of quiet and freedom, when every 
boy might feel that he was, in some sense, sitting under his own 
vine and fig tree, were gone for ever ; the happy family of a hundred 
and thirty dwelling peacefully under one household roof was 
suddenly transformed into a bewildering rout of three hundred 
massed in a hostel. It was a barbaric irruption, which for a time 
removed landmarks, confused traditions, and threatened to upset 
the legitimate and healthy control of the elder boys." If anything 
could have been done to make the disadvantages of concentration 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


greater, it was to reduce the six years' residence allowed to founda- 
tioners to five. This at once increased the proportion of junior 
boys in the school, besides, of course, lowering the standard of work. 
It was done, to be sure, in order that every boy might have a 
greater chance of admission into the school. Instead of ^\^ boys 
receiving a complete education, six were to receive an incomplete, 
or at all events less complete, one. Five boys were to be injured 
for the partial benefit of one. The detrimental character of the 
change was soon discovered. In 1882 Conference suspended the 
nile for a year, and again in 1883. I" ^^^4 ^my vacancies that 
might occur were filled by fifth-year boys on payment of ^^25, the 
enforcement of the rule being left to the discretion of the committee 
who thus dealt with the matter. In 1890 Conference gave discre- 
tion to the governing body to permit any boy recommended by the 
authorities to remain for a sixth year. This discretion was so freely 
exercised that a sixth year was granted in almost every case. 
But the impression that five years only were allowed was so general, 
that in almost every case one year's allowance was taken before 
entering a boy, and boys brought the knowledge of nine at the age 
of eleven. This was partly met by allowing parents to return the 
allowance, but its permanent effect has been to raise the average 
age of the school. It is now about thirteen years ten months, with 
little variation. In 1896 the old rule was restored : "The ordinary 
time of residence shall be six years." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Come, dear old comradci you and I 
Will steal an hour from days gone by ; 
The shining days when life was new, 
And all was bright with morning dew ; 
The lusty days of long ago, 
When you were Bill and I was Joe. 

O. W. Holmes. 

The Rev. Joseph Cusworth accompanied the school to the new 
home which he had done so much to secure. His system was one 
of rough-and-ready justice; punishment was administered on the 
spot, and no ill-feeling on either side remained. At meal times he 
would perambulate the hall ; sometimes he would stop and draw a 
strap from his capacious waistcoat pocket, exclaiming, " Get that 
milk eat, or I'll eat you." This strap was known as "Daddy's 
Imperial." Out of doors he carried a thick walking-stick, which 
did good service. On Saturday afternoons he was to be found in 
hall keeping in the delinquents of the week; after two hours, 
according to his humour, they were chastised or chased out of the 

He was a burly, genial man. Tradition for many years associated 
a crack in one of the stones of " the inclined plane " with a fall of 
Mr. Cusworth thereon. 

Various incidents marked Mr. Cusworth's reign. There was, of 
course, the formal opening of the school in 1853, which has been 
elsewhere described. The Rev. Charles Prest paid frequent visits, 
and his manly bearing and words made him very popular. He it 
was who, while engaged in " giving out " a hymn, was interrupted 
in the middle of the verse, and paused to rebuke his interrupters, 
somewhat with the following effect : — 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


"Now, you two boys who are making a noise, aren't you 
ashamed of yourselves ? Now, stand still, and look at me — 

And gaze transported with the sight 
To all eternity." 

Mr. Cusworth's two children were well known to the school as 
"Bill" and "Katty." The latter eventually married a clergyman 
and went to India. The former became a medical student. On the 
occasion of his passing the qualifying examination, the boys were 
promised a whole holiday and a glass of wine, in which to drink 
the young doctor's health. This festivity, however, they lost, ow^ing 
to the action of certain boys, who, baiting an ineffective and short- 
sighted master, broke his glasses. On another occasion, two half- 
holidays were stopped because some boy, who was never discovered, 
somewhere in the " wee sma' hours ayont the twal'," fired a pistol 
at a harmless passer-by in the road ! 

The first five years of New Kingswood did not escape sickness : 
in 1852 there were a few cases of scarlatina; in 1855 measles 
assailed the school, and the headmaster's death and the serious 
illness of the governor made matters worse. Later in the year 
there were cases of hooping-cough. From 185 1 to 1857 not 
only did the headmaster and three boys die at the school, but on 
19th March 1857 the governor passed away. He was in the 
seventieth year of his age, and the fiftieth of his ministry. He 
was buried in Walcot Cemetery on the 23rd of March, the whole 
school following to his grave. The Rev. Charles Prest in his 
funeral address truly declared that "Mr Cusworth's monument is 
New Kingswood School." On 5th April a funeral sermon was 
preached at Walcot Chapel by the Rev. John Lomas. Mr. Cus- 
worth, says an old boy, was " beloved by everyone in the place ; 
under his gruff exterior he had the very kindest heart." 

Mr. H. M. Shera was a native of Roscommon, and joined the 
staff of Old Kingswood in 1844. In January 1850 he was appointed 
to the headmastership. His appointment restored vitality and 
vigour to the educational department. He was alert, active, strenu- 
ous. He insisted on work^ both on the part of boys and masters ; 
but he was no tyrant. He understood and sympathised with boy- 
nature. His own athletic prowess endeared him to the school. 
One old boy recalls how, on his first interview, as a new boy, with 
the headmaster, Mr. Shera, by a firm grasp on the trousers, hoisted 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



him on to his high stool, inquiring in surprise, " Did that hurt you ? " 
He took delight in every part of his work as a schoolmaster ; he 

was never happier than when among 
boys, whether at study or at play. 
Among his pupils were James 
Mowat, William Rowlands, Josiah 
Slater, H. J. Piggott, and many 
others whose names are well known. 
"I cannot resist the impression" 
(says one of his pupils), " that the 
numerous successes of New Kings- 
wood boys at Oxford and Cam- 
bridge were but the natural results of 
the movement initiated by Dr. Shera." 
At the end of 1853 Mr. Shera 
was appointed to the headmaster- 
ship of Wesley College, Sheffield, 
a position he held for thirty-five 
years. He and Dr. Dallinger, the 
governor, resigned their posts at 
the same time, owing to the decision of the directors to abolish 
dual government there. He died in 1892 at the age of sixty-six. 
He was succeeded at Kingswood, in 1854, by his brother, Mr. W. 
J. Shera, who had held the position of second master since 
1850. It was against his own judgement that he acquiesced in the 
desire of the committee, his health being far from robust. Per- 
sonally, he was a man of high character, a good scholar, and a 
zealous teacher. His tenure of office, however, was very brief. 

MR. H. M. SHBRA, M.A., LL.D. 

On Thursday, 15th April 1855, after having attended to his usual duties 
in the school, he went into the parlour of the governor in a perfectly exhausted 
state, and was deeply affected about his condition. Nevertheless, he hoped 
that in a day or two he should be sufficiently recovered to resume his labours in 
the school. But from that time he began rapidly to sink, and on Tuesday 
evening, May the 8th, he departed this life, full of confidence in the Redeemer. 
When first he perceived his danger, his mind was deeply impressed with the 
solemnity of dying, but by degrees his faith in the Saviour increased, and at last 
his victory over death was complete. 

On Mr. Shera's death, the committee suggested the advisability 
of appointing a minister to the headmastership. Conference, 
however, selected Mr. Henry Jefferson for the office, and this 
gentleman entered on his duties in August 1855. During the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


interval, Mr. Rowe, the second master, had discharged the duties of 
the headmaster, and his permanent appointment to that post had 
been expected and hoped for. With great loyalty, Mr. Rowe 
remained at his post for three years, under Mr. Jefferson, and 
himself testifies that the latter " was an excellent headmaster. 
Possessed of scholarly taste and acquirements, an ardent student, a 
most painstaking and devoted teacher, and gifted as few men are 
with the power of inspiring his pupils with love for learning and 
interest in their studies, he could scarcely fail to be an exceptionally ' 
successful educator. At the same time, by his close personal 
supervision of all the details of school work, his sound judgement 
and good common sense, and his kindly and considerate treatment 
of his colleagues, he showed himself in no way inferior as an 
administrator." All at first was not plain sailing. Mr. Jefferson 
was of small physique, — "Little Jeff" was his familiar sobriquet, — 
and many boys thought they might take liberties with him. He did 
not, however, jyove so easy to handle as many expected and some 
desired. The first year of his headmastership was thick with the 
dust of battle; but in time the dust settled, and through the 
lessening obscurity there gradually drew into sight the short, 
vigorous figure, unscathed and victorious. He was thenceforth 
much feared — " a terror to evil-doers," and never more so than at 
his periodical examinations of the lower classes. To his own class 
he was known as a painstaking, suggestive teacher, who taught boys 
to think for themselves. It was during his time that the long 
connection of Kingswood with the Oxford Local Examinations 
began. In 1858 these examinations were started; Mr. Jefferson 
sent in five junior candidates, of whom three passed in the first 
division and two in the second. Three years later J. F. Moulton 
won the first place among the seniors. Besides J. F. Moulton, 
among Mr. Jefferson's pupils might be mentioned H. E. Prest, 
Caleb Eacott, R. H. Thornton, W. T. Davison, A. S. Way, Lewis 
Lewis, J. L. G. Mowat, T. L. Taylor, G. J. Morris, and others. 

His moral influence was very strong. " There was scarcely a lad 
under his immediate influence who did not respect him most highly." 
He liked to encourage every taste. One boy recalls how Mr. 
Jefferson taught him Hebrew out of school hours ; others he took 
out on geologising or botanising expeditions. " If the taste for 
poetry, for history, for science were dormant, he awoke it ; he even 
took notice of the fiction we read, striving to make us ashamed to 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


read trash, and helping us to discern the merits of what was good.'' 
Novels of which he disapproved he confiscated and locked up in 
his desk — a measure which did not answer all the purposes intended, 
as a certain boy owned a key that fitted that lock, and acted as 
an unrecognized librarian of the store thus accumulated. "He 
revealed himself as a personal friend and a genial host on the not 
rare occasions when he had us up for tea and the evening to his 
house, a high privilege, which invested us with dignity in the eyes of 
the school, to whom we seemed * to tread the air and circumspect 
the sun.*" One who was a master under him recalls how Mr. 
Jefferson would put under his special care various boys, who for one 
reason or another did not do well, supplying at the same time a 
written analysis of their character and failings. 

During his headmastership Mr. Jeffierson came into sharp conflict 
with the governor, Mr. Woolmer, on a question of prerogative. It 
speaks well for both men that their personal friendship never 
ceased throughout their subsequent life, and that each always spoke 
in the highest terms of his former antagonist.^ 

Mr. Jefferson always lamented (says an old boy) that "the 
grinding poverty of our fathers prevented us from doing him 
justice after we left." He specially regretted the rule which 
terminated the school career of his best boys at the age of fifteen, 
and it was his inability to obtain any change in this system that 
largely determined his resignation in 1865. We shall meet with 
him again later. 

The Rev. Theophilus Woolmer was the son of the Rev. Samuel 
Woolmer {d. 1827). He was himself educated at Old Kingswood, 
under Mr. Smith and Mr. Crowther. He entered the ministry in 
1842, and was appointed to the governorship of New Kingswood in 
1857. Mr. Woolmer says : " It was a great surprise and disappoint 
ment to me in 1857 to be made governor. Mr. Samuel Tindall 
had been designated. As I had the most vivid remembrance of 
my six years* residence at the old school, with the cruelties there 
practised, and the tricks that were played, and the irreparable 
mischief done to scores of boys, exposed to the brutalities of their 
bullying seniors and to the snubbing and flogging of injudicious 
and inefficient masters, I thought it not impossible that I might 

^ Mr. Woolmer says : ** No one could have done his duty better than our 
headmaster, Mr. Henry Jefferson. He was an earnest and most devoted teacher, 
who won the respect and confidence of his pupils." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



be of some use in rectifying such a state of things if it still 

Mr. Woolmer was a very different type of man from his pre- 
decessor. In manner he was 
suave and kindly. He en- 
deavoured to promote gentlemanly 
feeling and high tone among the 
boys ; he was fair and just to all, 
and had no favourites. He had 
for many years himself owned a 
private school, and was therefore 
one of the few governors of Kings- 
wood who had some previous 
experience of boys. One old boy 
describes him as "a model 
governor " ; another speaks of his 
" wholesome moral influence " ; 
another testifies that "the tone 
was very high ; there was no 
dirtiness ; a thief or a Har was 
morally kicked out, and often 
actually so." Perhaps if he made 

any mistake it was in bringing too much pressure to bear upon 
boys to induce them to meet in class; this "produced a wish to 
be religious because it was fashionable." It was Mr. Woolmer 
who introduced class-meetings into the school, and about seventy 
boys attended. 

He made great efforts to improve the clothing and food. In 
1858 a friend of the school, Mr. J. Duncan, presented seventy-two 
umbrellas. Mr. Woolmer distributed apples from his own garden, 
and opened the garden to the boys on Sunday afternoon. He 
abolished first turns (two half-rounds) and second turns (two 
smaller pieces), and allowed unlimited bread. He put an end to the 
Saturday bread and cheese, and substituted hash. In this last 
change the committee declined to follow him ; but so convinced was 
Mr. Woolmer that the health of the boys must suffer if they passed 
forty-eight hours without meat, that during his governorship he 
devoted his entire salary (;^ioo a year) to providing a Saturday 
meat dinner. He received no thanks. But when a new governor 
came it was felt to be impossible to return to the old system, and 


[circa i860). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Mr. Woolmer's generosity secured this added benefit in perpetuo, 
Mr. Woolmer's governorship, brief as it was, was not devoid of 
striking incidents. Sir Charles Napier and Sir Bartle Frere both 
visited the school. The Amen Row should not be passed over. 
A universal shout of " Amen " at the end of the Lord's Prayer at 
family worship turned out to be due to the misunderstood and 
mistaken action of certain boys who passed along written requests 
that the "Amen" should be said by all. In 1859 two boys ran 
away, and were brought back by the police. On another occasion 
the governor found it necessary to dismiss a servant who refused to 
attend to the orders of "a parcel of stuck-ups" (she meant the 
masters). Here also the services of the police were necessary. At 
another time two burglars found their way, vid the dining-hall 
window, to the governor's parlour, where they secured money and 
jewellery, together with two brooches containing the hair of the tw^o 
Wesleys. These were never recovered. 

In February 1 860 a most serious visitation of scarlet fever broke 
up the school; fifty boys, four masters, six servants, and all Mr. 
Woolmer's seven children were attacked. One boy died ; several 
were near to death. It was a terrible time. The nurse grew 
frightened, and wished to leave. Mr. Woolmer declined. She won 
over the doctor to her side, but the governor stood firm : ** She 
shall not go, sir," he said. She afterwards thanked him. ** One of 
the maids who was attacked " (says Mr. Woolmer), ** and whom I 
ordered to bed, said, * No, sir ; if you please, I will attend to my 
duty. There is too much to be done and too few hands to do it.' 
With resolute energy she persisted in her work, and got over the 
attack without omitting any part of it." 

In May of that year Mr. Woolmer intimated his intention of 
retiring from the governorship. At Conference the Rev. J. Rattenbury 
said : " I have watched Mr. Woolmer during the trials of the last 
year, and especially during the trials connected with the melancholy 
visitation of fever, when forty or fifty boys were laid aside at one 
time, several of his own children seriously afflicted, the death of 
some expected hour by hour, and he up night after night for more 
than a week, watching over those lads — his own beloved partner 
being obliged to be sent away on account of illness. The anxieties 
of Mr. Woolmer have been intense ; his interest in the school, 
conscientious, earnest, prayerful, I have never seen surpassed in any 
department of Methodism," 

Digitized by.VjOOQlC 



" When a young man " (says Dr. Gregory) " Mr. Woolmer was 
the handsomest young preacher in the Connexion." Later in life, 
his son (the Rev. Wesley Woolmer, born at Kingswood) testifies 
that "he was a man of fine presence, in height about 5 feet 
II inches, with a chest measurement of over 52 inches." He well 
maintained the traditional physique of Kingswood governors ; 
during his term of office his weight rose from thirteen stone to six- 
teen stone. At a dinner given by Mr. Robinson Kay to the con- 
tributors to the London Quarterly Review^ Mr. Woolmer, replying 
to a toast, spoke of the difficulties at Kingswood, and said that he 
had not shrunk from meeting them. " No," interjected Dr. Waddy, 
"we can all see that you have not shrunk, Mr. Governor." 

Mr. Woolmer, on leaving Kingswood, returned to the ordinary 
work of the itinerancy, and subsequently for ten years held the office 
of book steward. He died on 27th December 1896, aged 82. 

The Rev. F. A. West, an old 
Grove boy, and a former President 
of the Conference, succeeded Mr. 
Woolmer. " I am come," he said, 
"to be the governor — the governor 
—the governor." Of this fact there 
was soon left no doubt in the 
mind of the most recalcitrant boy 
in the place. Mr. West intended 
to rule, and rule he did. He was 
not content to be merely either 
an ornamental figure-head or an 
economical caterer. He is perhaps 
the only governor who ever ventured 
to refuse the President's request for 
a holiday. But Mr. West had been 
President himself. He, like his 
predecessor, encouraged a gentle- 
manly tone among the boys; nor did he forget their material 
well-being, as, for example, when he improved the arrangements 
for warming the schoolroom. 

Despite Mr. West's energetic sway, it was clear that boys would 
be boys. One "soaring human boy" stole up to the tower and 
climbed the flagstaff in the dead of night. Another recalls how he 
and a friend arranged a speaking-tube from bed to bed. Unfor- 

THE REV. F. A. WEST (1834). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


tunately, at a critical moment, the latter spoke through it; the 
voice issued at the other bed, and the (temporarily) innocent boy 
was punished. Another incident of the same period may be noted 
here. It happened at a time when a special school holiday was due, 
and the boys were looking forward to its enjoyment. Mrs. West 
was walking in the grounds in front of the school one day, when 
she noticed a long rope hanging from one of the gargoyles at the 
extreme corner of the western wing of the building. The rope was 
evidently connected with some mischief, and the governor, being 
informed of the matter, assembled the school and demanded an 
explanation. No explanation, however, was forthcoming. Con- 
sequently the holiday was forfeited, the school, at the same time, 
thoroughly understanding that if the mystery was cleared up the 
holiday would still be granted. In due course, the boys cormected 
with the mystery confessed, and were severely thrashed. The story 
of the rope was as follows : Certain boys proposed to hold a 
smoking-party in the middle of the night in the roof over the first 
bedroom. The appointed night arrived, and the party left their 
beds, made their way up the first flight of the tower stairs, and so 
through a window to the roof. Walking along the front parapet, 
and taking a long rope with them, they reached a point where, by 
help of the rope, they crossed over the angle of the roof that covers 
the first bedroom, and, dropping half-way down the playground 
side of the roof, entered the manhole. They then enjoyed (?) 
themselves on the rafters as well as circumstances would allow, until 
they thought it time to retrace their steps and seek their resjjective 
couches. Having once more reached the roof and covered the 
manhole, one of the party essayed to sling the rope as before, but, 
in his effort, the rope's end as well as the coil escaped from his 
grasp, and a high wind helped the coil in its flight. In the darkness 
its course and whereabouts could not be seen, and the boys, after 
vainly searching, made their risky return journey somewhat crest- 
fallen at the unfortunate end of their adventure, though they little 
thought that a grinning gargoyle would prove their betrayer. As 
much as was necessary of all this they confessed, and stood their 
punishment. But the holiday was still denied. This the school 
took to be a grievous injustice. At the next assembly something 
like a miniature rebellion took place. The school refused to leave 
the playground. Windows were freely stoned, every pane of glass 
being broken in the chemical laboratory, which w^as then at the 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


back of the Glasgow room, between it and the bath. Much 
damage was also done to the contents of the laboratory, the 
governor's pet hobby being to spend hours in chemical experiments. 
This mode of expressing opinion, however, secured something less 
pleasant than the promised holiday. In connection with the 
matter the governor played a grim joke, and so allowed some to 
repent, at only too long leisure, of the part they had taken in the 
affair. In the stoning of the windows, some of the first bedroom 
windows had suffered considerably; the nights were cold, and it 
was many a long day before the glazier was permitted to interfere 
with the excessive ventilation caused by the boys' mode of manifest- 
ing indignation. 

On one occasion two boys were summoned to Mr. West's study 
"in consequence," to quote the account of one of them, "of some 
altogether unconscious act of irreverence during prayers. As it was 
our first offence, the governor assured us he would be merciful to 
us, and be content with half - measures. I was to be flogged, 
and the other boy was to look on and take warning ! " It cannot be 
denied that Mr. West was extremely unpopular in the school. Ill 
health and severe physical pain made him at times irritable, and 
concealed the natural buoyancy of his temperament. He un- 
fortunately possessed also the habit (which boys can, perhaps, least 
easily put up with) of addressing them in a sarcastic manner. As 
a matter of fact, he regarded them with much tenderness. He 
was a man of refined tastes, who took much interest in music 
(which he added to the curriculum), literature, and the fine arts. 
He possessed the gift of humour ; " it was rich to see him encourage 
Dr. Rule in embroidered slippers at breakfast-time to shake hands 
with all the boys in the hall." His penetration into character was 

During his governorship the school was twice visited with 
scarlet fever; once in 1863, when there were twenty-four cases and 
four deaths, and. again in the winter of 1864-65, when one boy 
died. Measles and mumps also appeared at times ; in Mr. West's 
first half-year there were thirty-four cases of measles. 

He resigned, owing to ill-health, in 1867, when the committee 
voted him a gratuity of a hundred guineas. He retired to Great 
Crosby, and died on the 4th of April 1869 in his sixty-eighth year. 

On Mr. Jefferson's resignation of the headmastership, Mr. 
William Elton, a Dublin graduate, was elected to succeed him. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



His reign was so brief that there is little for the chronicler to record. 
Mr. Elton himself was a gentlemanly and cultivated man, and a 
good and interesting teacher. He held office, however, at a far 
from easy time ; the health of the governor was shaken, and the 
second master was a very difficult man to work with. In November 
1866 Mr. Elton's own health gave way, and he was compelled to 
quit his post. The Rev. B. Hellier suggested that Mr. T. G. 
Osborn should be asked to come as locum tenens^ and this arrange- 
ment was made. Mr. Elton, however, soon recovered, and returned 
to the school in the following January. But in a few weeks his 
health again failed, and he finally resigned, Mr. Osborn becoming 
his successor. Mr. Elton subsequently became a clergyman of the 
Church of England, and is now, in completely restored health, 
Vicar of St. PauFs, Burnley. 

Mr. T. G. Osborn, the son of 
Mr. John Osborn, of St. Austell, 
nephew of the Rev. George 
Osborn, D.D., and the Rev. James 
Osborn, and grandson of the 
Rev. T. Rogers, was educated at 
Wesley College, Sheffield, and 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge. In 1866 
he graduated as loth Wrangler, 
and, while studymg for the Bar, 
held, for a short time, a mathe- 
matical mastership at Durham 
Grammar School. He came to 
Kingswood under the circumstances 
mentioned above, and in 1875, 
under the new system, became also 
headmaster of Woodhouse Grove. 
He held a fellowship at Trinity 
Hall from 1871 to 1881, having been called to the Bar in order to 
qualify for its tenure. In 1869 he married the youngest daughter of 
Mr. West, the former governor. Mr. Osborn's name is one that 
Kingswood will not readily forget. The success of the school under 
his headmastership was brilliant in the extreme. As a disciplinarian, 
he was strict and at times severe, " bearing not the sword in vain." 
The juniors, perhaps, feared rather than loved him. The senior 
boys, at any rate after the amalgamation, he refrained from punish- 


{circa 1885). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


ing by the cane, but a "jaw" from Mr. Osborn was no whit less 
terrible. In the boys who came under his own immediate care, he 
created an extraordinary loyalty to himself; he also called forth a 
great enthusiasm for learning, and he was a most skilful teacher. 
He mainly confined himself to mathematical instruction ; in this 
he possessed great powers of making things clear. He taught 
rationally^ and not by rule of thumb ; he insisted on the principles 
that underlie a method being understood; and he aroused great 
eagerness in his pupils to know mrore and to go farther. There 
were idle boys, of course, to be found in the school under Mr. 
Osborn ; but they were idle under disadvantages to themselves. 
They won no popular admiration by it ; on the contrary, they were 
liable to public contempt. Boys who looked upon Mr. Osborn as 
only a mathematician were at times surprised when he went through 
with them some paper on science or literature, which they had recently 
sent up as examination work. Those who formed his Monday 
Greek Testament class are not likely to forget the charm of it. 

Mr. Osbom's headmastership continued through two great crises 
of the school's history — the amalgamation of 1875, and the con- 
centration of 1883. Had a change of headmaster taken place at 
either of those periods, the result might easily have been disastrous. 
No man was better fitted than Mr. Osborn to inaugurate the 
happier age that began in 1875. The appointment of prefects and 
the wthdrawal of the omnipresent master were changes happily 
made under a headmaster who was prepared both to support and 
to trust his upper boys. 

In 1875, when Woodhouse Grove became the junior department 
of Kingswood, Mr. Osborn united the headmastership of the 
northern school with that which he already held, succeeding in 
this office that admirable teacher and popular chief. Dr. Raby. 
This arrangement necessitated Mr. Osbom's periodical absence 
from Bath, it being his custom to conduct the annual examination 
at the Grove. His first appearance there was at the end of the 
summer half of 1875, on the eve of amalgamation. Those boys 
who were expecting to proceed to Kingswood after the holidays 
naturally studied his appearance and manner with much interest. 
On the day before the commencement of the examination he went 
for a short time into the playground. As he stood there, surveying 
the scene, a certain small boy was observed to be eyeing him from 
a respectful distance; then he began to make timid advances in 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Mr. Osbom's direction, describing a spiral in his course as he 
gradually drew nearer. In due time he reached the august 
presence, and ventured to address a question : " Please, sir, do you 
examine us ? " " Yes, my boy, I do," replied Mr. Osbom. " Then, 
if you please, sir, would you kindly remember that I suffer from 
constitutional dyspepsia ! " 

Mr. Osborn's interest in the boys was not confined to the 
classroom. He was himself a cricketer and a skilful wicket-keeper. 
He was never weary of urging on the committee the need of a 
better library for the boys* use. Indeed, he felt somewhat strongly 
the way in which the dual system debarred him from fuller 
intercourse with the boys out of school. " My greatest difficulty," 
he said, "has been that I am only a visiting master." This feeling 
helped him to decide to resign his post in 1885. 

At the prize-giving of 1882, as has been stated elsewhere, a 
presentation was made to Mr. Osbom by his former pupils. The 
accompanying address said : " The beginning of a new era in the 
history of the schools under your care has seemed to many of your 
old pupils and friends a fit occasion for some public recognition of 
the value- of your work during the last sixteen years. . . . We 
remember the enthusiasm that your example and your method of 
teaching roused within us — an enthusiasm which made our work 
pleasant and easy at the time, and by which we are often influenced 
even now. We remember, also, the unflinching sense of duty 
which impelled you to mark with the strongest disapprobation 
whatever was dishonourable or opposed to good government, and 
we recognize that much of our happiness while at school was due to 
the firm and kindly discipline which you constantly maintained. 
In all this, the energy and rectitude of your character were 
conspicuous, and we cannot be too thankful for the example of 
your never-failing devotion to duty and to your Christian principle, 
combined as it was with high intelligence and great culture." This 
address was signed by J. M. Lightwood, R. H. Chope, W. T. A. 
Barber, and some two hundred others. Mr. Osborn rose to reply 
amid a storm of applause. He said that that day had brought to 
him one of the greatest pleasures he had experienced. One thing 
he claimed — to have worked hard. And yet everything had been 
in his favour — kindly colleagues in the governor's post, persevering 
and able assistant masters, and several generations of hard-working 
and trustworthy upper boys. He thought he could scarcely have 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


borne to receive this gift had it meant that his connection v^ith 
Kingswood was to cease, and he was glad to receive it as an 
encouragement for labour in the future. 

In 1885, on Sunday, 23rd August, Mr. Osbom preached a 
farewell sermon in hall, and on the following Friday addressed the 
school in the schoolroom. No school, he said, could ever be to 
him what Kingswood had been and was. 

In the Conference of that year Sir Henry Fowler moved a 
resolution relative to Mr. Osborn^s departure. He recalled how 
Mr. Henry Fawcett had once said to him : " You Methodist people 
have an enormous advantage in having such a man to train your 
ministers' sons." The resolution recorded the Conference's " deep 
and grateful sense of the invaluable service rendered by Mr. 
Osbom to the school during nearly twenty years of incesSant and 
unwearying labour in its interests." 

On leaving Kingswood Mr. Osbom opened a private school 
at Colwyn Bay, where he still resides. He has, however, never 
forgotten Kingswood, and in 1894 became the first president of 
the Old Boys' Union. 

While at Kingswood he was for many years a member of the 
Bath School Board, and he is now a Justice of the Peace for the 
county of Denbigh. 

We may conclude this notice of Mr. Osbom by quoting the 
following appreciation by an old boy, without committing ourselves 
to all the opinions expressed : — 

The faults of Mr. Osbom's connection with Kingswood School were confined 
to his earlier days of headmastership, and have doubtless been long ago forgiven 
by all save himself. When he came to Kingswood he was young, and had a 
difficult task to fulfil, and it is not to be wondered at that he confes^dly erred on 
the side of severity now and again. His splendid and loyal services to the school 
for a long period of years cannot be praised too highly, and will never be forgotten 
so long as the history of the school is known to succeeding generations. He is 
Kingswood's Arnold, and it is a thousand pities that Methodism could not consent 
to abolish the altogether unnecessary dual-control arrangement, the unsatisfactory 
nature of which compelled Mr. Osbom to retire from the headmastership in 1885. 
from January to August 1873, owing to the illness of the Rev. W. H. Sargent, 
Mr. Osbom resided in the school, and successfully discharged the duties of 
governor and headmaster. During that time he sometimes preached to the boys. 
The texts of two of his remarkable sermons I well remember. One was '* It was 
night" (John xiii. 30). The other was evidently an impromptu choice. Bad 
weather had suddenly necessitated a change in the ordinar}' Sunday arrangement, 
and we were kept at the school for Sunday evening service. During the day 
there had been trouble in the kitchen department, and, if I remember rightly, 
the police had been called in to deal with some delinquency on the part of one of 
the domestics. We were all assembled in the hall, and Mr. Osb6m came in 
hurriedly, in cap and gown, to commence service. When the text was announced, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



it was, '*A man's foes shall be they of his own household" ! And it was a 
capital sermon for boys that followed. If Mr. Osbom had continued as governor, 
he would have been an invaluable chaplain. 

One cannot help feeling that the governors have to a very large extent 
thoroughly shirked the duties of chaplain- They were very frequently away 
on the Sunday, and, even when at home, if the boys were unable to go to 
chapel in Bath, they fell back on Mr. Osbom or one of the masters to preach 
to the boys. I have for many years felt that the Conference appointment of 
chaplain ought to carr)' with it the obligation that the minister so appointed 
should preach at least one sermon per week to the school. It is quite time" 
the school had its own chapel, and one of the Sunday services should be held 
there. * 

The Rev. W. H. Sargent was the son of the Rev. George 
Sargent. He was born in 1806, and educated at Woodhouse Grove 

School. He entered the ministry 
in 1832, and in 1867 was 
appointed governor of Kingswood. 
He was a man of great kind- 
ness of heart and much sympathy. 
In his opening speech he 
declared his intention of governing 
by love and trust. He relaxed 
the stringency of many rules, and 
ought to be ever remembered as 
the governor who introduced 
"permits." He was very anxious 
to improve the clothing, and paid 
special attention to the domestic 
comforts of the boys. He entered 
very thoroughly into all the life 
of the place, and heartily interested 
himself in the games. He was 
"a shrewd and dignified governor, combining a natural heartiness 
of disposition with an old-world courtesy of manner that was some- 
times peculiar, but always kindly and pleasant. He had a high 
sense of honour, and was very resolute and determined in all that he 
regarded as connected with duty or discipline." He disliked any- 
thing irregular and unseemly, and more than once put his foot down 
on unwise, if well-meant, religious efforts. He took much interest 

* These are the words of an old IxDy and old master, now in the ministry, 
who has known several governors. Yet it must not be forgotten that Dr. 
Bowden initiated a weekly Thursday evening service for the boys, and that the 
present governor arranges for a service in hall on the last Sunday evening of 
every month. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



in educational matters, and was for some time vice-chairman of the 
Bath School Board. 

The school made very distinct advance in many things con- 
nected with the personal comfort of the boys during Mr. Sargent's 
governorship, and much of this was also due to the very able 
domestic rule of Mrs. Sargent, a daughter of Mr. Thomas Wigfield 
of Rotherham. In the latter half of 1872 scarlatina again visited 
the school, and the medical attendant pointed out the pressing need 
for a sanatorium. About the same time Mr. Sargent's health gave 
way, and he was compelled at once to relinquish his duties. For 
the remainder of the school year Mr. Osborn took over the domestic 
department, and secured a brief unpopularity by abolishing the 
huge "first turns" with which monitors were supplied at dinner, 
to the proportionate impoverishment of the little boys. 

Mr. Sargent never entirely recovered, though he lived in growing 
infirmity till 1890. 

He did much for the school. "If his confidence was some- 
times abused, as it undoubtedly was, nevertheless the moral tone of 
the school responded to the kindlier influences of his rule, and 
greater freedom and more privileges resulted in the cultivation of 
a healthier spirit. The boys who 
left in 1869 will never forget the 
governor's private talk with them 
just before their departure. His 
plain warnings, his fatherly exhorta- 
tions, and his loving appeals to 
them to lead a pure life amid the 
sure temptations that would meet 
them between their leaving school 
and their possible settlement in 
life, have confessedly proved instru- 
mental, in more cases than one, 
in securing the end he desired." 

The Rev. J. H. Lord was the 
son of a former governor of the 
Grove, and himself an old Kings- 
wood boy. He succeeded Mr. 
Sargent at Kingswood in 1873, and 

held office till 1885, for two full periods of governorship. "Dear 
old Daddy Lord " is assuredly held in most affectionate remembrance 

{circa 1 885). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


by all who lived under his benign rule. As his successor 
truly said, "he was a man greatly beloved." His distinguishing 
feature was kindheartedness. It was positive grief and pain 
to him to cane a boy. On one occasion it became his duty 
to cane publicly a batch of some dozen — a punishment they 
richly merited. He worked off some four or five of them with 
evident difficulty ; then, as it chanced, a very small boy came out to 
take his turn. The governor looked up appealingly and said, " How 
can I cane a little boy like this?" The punishment abruptly 
ended, probably with a better effect, even perhaps on those boys 
who escaped, than its carrying out to the end would have produced. 
But it must not be supposed that Mr. Lord's characteristic was a 
mere weak good nature. He could speak with great force, and his 
voice took an indignant ring when he referred to anything base or 
little-minded or ungentlemanly. His own gracious courtesy was a 
constant rebuke to all ruder ways. 

He was, moreover, an admirable manager of the household. 
His administration, says Dr. Bowden, was marked by "fidelity, 
ingenuity, and thrift." It fell to him to carry out the improved 
domestic arrangements of 1875, and he did so with economy and 
yet without parsimony. Boys fared well under Mr. Lord ; there was 
no stint, and yet no waste. No boy could complain of want of food ; 
there were some who could claim to have consumed at one meal so 
many plates of "starch" that imagination reels at their number. 
Who does not remember this " starch," or boiled rice, and its baked 
counterpart, with equal gracefulness named " slush " ? The health of 
the school was singularly good; so much so, that the nurse was 
ordinarily employed as a needlewoman. In 1877 sickness attacked 
some twenty-five boys, and the governor's own health failed, so 
seriously, indeed, that for many days the school " went softly " in 
much anxiety. In 1883 scarlet fever tried to return to its old 
haunts, but, after attacking two boys, was ignominiously repelled. 
An invasion of measles in 1 884 completes the list of epidemics for 
the twelve years. During that time only one death occurred at the 
school, and that one was due not to illness but to accident ; in 1884 
J. W. Hunter was drowned while boating on the Avon. 

In 1885 Mr. Lord relinquished the governorship; he was 
the recipient of a cheque from past and present boys of the 
school, which was presented to him in the schoolroom, on the 
ist of September, by A. R. Stephenson. The governing body of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



the school expressed, in the form of a resolution, " its high apprecia- 
tion of his long-continued and faithful service ... its sense of 
obligation to him for his unwearied diligence during the process of 
concentration ; and for the wisdom and fatherly sympathy which he 
has displayed in his general management of the school." 

The year 1885 was an anxious one ; the school lost at the same 
time the control of Mr. Lord and of Mr. Osbom. Both had 
remained long enough to carry the school successfully through the 
reorganization of 1883, but not long enough to feel all the results of 
that ill-advised decision to reduce the years of a boy at the school. 
These results Mr. Jefferson felt to the full. 

Mr. Jefferson was bom at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1826, and 
educated at Newcastle Grammar 
School and at Wesley College, 
Sheffield. He graduated at Lon- 
don in 1849, being second in 
classics and sixth in mathematics ; 
in 1854 he proceeded to his 
M.A. in classics. From 1839 to 
1855, except for a short interval, 
he was a master at Wesley 
College, Sheffield, and, as already 
described, was appointed to Kings- 
wood in 1855. On leaving 
Kings wood he carried on a private 
school at Clapham till 1873; 
then, after some years of travel 
and of private life, he became head- 
master of Huddersfield College. In 1878 he married Miss McAdie 
of Thurso, and in 1882 essayed the brave but thankless task of 
reducing to harmony the conflicting fragments that remained at 
Taunton after the disastrous mpture which followed Mr. Sibly's 
resignation. In 1885 he returned to Kingswood. It was not the 
haven of rest which perhaps he expected. It was not an easy task 
to follow Mr. Osborn ; the tension at which the school had for a 
long time been kept was bound to slacken and the pace to suffer. 
It is hard to overestimate the evil caused by the reduction of six 
years' residence to five. The most important year of each boy's 
school life was taken from him ; the number of senior boys was 

{circa 1885). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


diminished ; scholarships were few, and not new ; the only difference 
was that their holders were younger. The reduction of years was 
from beginning to end disastrous ; boys came later, and brought the 
knowledge of nine at the age of eleven. All sorts of injurious 
statements were circulated about the school ; an ill-balanced report 
by one of the annual examiners did much harm. Promising boys 
were removed by their fathers, others who would have been sent 
went elsewhere. Yet for all this Mr. Jefferson stuck gallantly to 
his work for four years ; he laboured day and night for the school, 
with patience, with courage, with devotion ; he bore in silence all 
the evil that was said ; he marvellously preserved in his upper boys 
that spirit of honest, earnest work which Mr. Osborn had called 
forth. During those four years eleven scholarships were taken at 
the universities; in the Oxford Local Examinations forty-eight 
seniors and one hundred and twenty-six juniors passed; of the 
seniors, fifteen were in the first class, and this, be it remembered, at 
a time when, while the age of Kingswood boys was lowered, the 
limit of age for candidates in these examinations was raised. 

When Mr. Jefferson left Kingswood the second time, he con- 
nected himself with the East End Mission, in London. On 2nd 
October 1893 he died. Personally he was a man of most beautiful 
character. " Unselfishness was one of his most noticeable traits ; 
in dark days of our family history" (it is the testimony of his 
sister), "he was a tower of strength, always ready as a wise and 
judicious adviser, a generous helper, untiring as a sympathiser and 
comforter, a most devoted son and brother, a cheerful and bright 
companion. Only about two months before his death he said he 
had had such a happy life." 

The Rev. George Bowden, D.D., succeeded Mr. Lord in the 
governorship, being selected from among three nominees — the Rev. 
Marshall Hartley, the Rev. F. W. Greeves, and himself. He was a 
governor of strong personality and great energy ; he was constantly 
occupied in introducing improvements, and was possessed of great 
skill in contrivance. His first public words were characteristic of 
his governorship ; they were a promise to cure certain strong smells, 
due to imperfect drainage, in the passages. Before the day was 
over the promise was redeemed. These early experiences led to an 
entire overhauling of the system of drainage. 

In his first year he started, on behalf of boys prone to loaf, a 
system of small gardens, which provided occupation for some fifty 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



boys ; this scheme was short-lived, but he conferred a great and 
permanent boon by causing a workshop to be constructed and a 
skilled carpenter to be engaged to teach his art. He remodelled 
the bathroom and instituted shower-baths. In 1886 he inaugurated 
a Thursday evening service; in 1887 a cricket pavilion was made by 
the carpenter, and a tennis club started ; in other years his busy 
energy found scope in providing a wardrobe-room, where the 
junior schoolroom had stood, and in satisfactorily ventilating the 
dormitories and the dining-hall He constituted himself banker to 
any boys who cared to lodge their money with him ; he kept up a 
lively interest in the games, and acted as treasurer to both the 
games committee and the reading- 
room. In his time two great gifts 
came to the school : the gymnasium 
and the upper field. He en- 
couraged music, having himself an 
unrivalled knowledge of Methodist 
hymnology, and the worship in hall 
was assisted by the school band, 
which owed its existence to the 
careful training of Mr. Maltby. 

All these advances were made 
during seven years much troubled 
with sickness and other hind- 
rances. In September 1887 two 
cases of typhoid fever occurred, 
due to water drunk from an impure 
stream. In the same month one 
boy died. Later in the half-year 

mumps appeared. In the following half, one case of scarlet fever, 
three of pneumonia, and nineteen of measles caused unusual anxiety. 
The next year was practically free from illness, but not so 1 889-90 ; 
a hundred and fifty cases of influenza put a heavy burden on the 
governor's shoulders. In the same term one of the boys succumbed 
to a long-standing disease. But the worst was yet to come. After 
the Christmas of 1891 return to the school was delayed for a week 
by the damage wrought by frost. Well if it had been delayed 
longer. In February scarlet fever appeared, apparently brought 
from home ; when seven cases had occurred, a circular sent to the 
parents resulted in the withdrawal of thirty-eight boys. For three 


{circa 1890). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



months the school was kept in quarantine; there were nineteen 
cases, mild but tedious. At length, after three weeks in which 
no further outbreak occurred, the absent boys were sent for. 
Immediately a fresh case appeared, and with great promptitude on 
the next day the school disbanded. In February of that year a 
death from meningitis occurred. 

For some time all went well, till in January 1892 the scarlet 
fever again appeared, and hung about the place till the middle of 
May. It is a great testimony to the confidence inspired by Dr. 
Bowden's previous action during a similar visitation that not a 
single boy was called home by his parents. It is not surprising 
that amid all these cares Mrs. Bowden's health gave way — and that 
so seriously that Dr. Bowden was compelled in 1892 to resign his 
governorship. No record of Dr. Bowden's governorship ought to 
be without a reference to the organizing power, the thoughtfulness 
for and the interest in the boys, the attention to their domestic 
comforts shown by Mrs. Bowden. On his retirement. Dr. Bowden 
was publicly presented by C. F. Hunter, the senior prefect, on 
behalf of the school, with a cheque and a barometer. His con- 
nection with the school was happily not entirely severed, for he 

accepted the post of secretary to 
the governing body. 

In 1889 Mr. W. p. Workman 
became headmaster, and in 1892 
the Rev. Wesley Brunvate was 
appointed to the governorship. 
^ ^^L" I?' ''H^^HF^^"^ ^^ these are the present occu- 
lt ^p^ ^ '^^^^^L pants of these offices, it seems 

better to confine ourselves to a 
record of the more important 
changes made in recent years. 
The replacement of the Oxford by 
the Cambridge Local Examinations 
has been referred to elsewhere ; 
so also has the fact that the term 
of residence has been happily 
restored to its former period of 
six years. It was found necessary 
in 1889 to submit the books in use at the school to a thorough 
overhauling; their condition was indescribable, and had produced 

{circa 1890). 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


a ver}' ill effect upon the work ; more than half were unfit for use. 
A thousand new books were required, and nearly as many required 
rebinding. Altogether, about four thousand books were in use. 
To insure their better preservation, a periodical inspection and a 
system of fines were introduced. 

The illness of 1890 had naturally a very detrimental effect. At 
one time six of the staff were laid aside, and classes of seventy or 
eighty boys were found to be working under one master; some 
boys had less than a fortnight's work in the term. In addition, the 
external liberties of the school were sadly shortened ; all out-matches 
were prevented, and the cricket record of the year is a blank. Bath 
was out of bounds, and the Sunday services were held in the dining- 
halL Nevertheless, during this year an improvement of great value 
was made in the foundation of a physical laboratory. The apparatus 
was at first somewhat deficient, but this lack was largely remedied 
by the Crone legacy, and the equipment is now as complete as could 
be desired. The training made possible by this means opens to 
Kingswood boys many careers, such as that of engineering, hitherto 
difficult of access. As an instance of its utility may be mentioned 
the fact that boys have begun to take the London Preliminary 
Scientific Examination direct from the school. A part of the 
chemical laboratory was at the same time set apart for biological 

In 1892 the gymnasium was opened, and an instructor, Mr. J. T. 
Pratt, engaged to give lessons to each class half an hour a week. 
The apparatus was provided by subscriptions collected by the head- 
master. In the latter half of 1892 a few cases of fever interfered 
with the work, and one death (not from fever) occurred. These 
repeated visitations necessitated a thorough overhauling and re- 
modelling of the drainage, at a cost of about ^^looo. It was also 
necessary, at very short notice, to provide separate arrangements 
for the examination of Kingswood candidates for the Cambridge 
Locals in December. It was only three days before the examination 
that they were informed that they would not be allowed to sit with 
those from other schools. 

The year 1893 saw the formation of a reference library and the 
beginning of a museum in the rooms above the gymnasium. The 
school already possessed a valuable herbarium, which was carefully 
arranged by T. M. Lowry. Gifts to the museum flowed in from 
all sides. The Rev. R. Butterworth provided oak cases, the Rev. 

Digitized by VjDOQ IC 



G. B. Richards sent a collection of Australian minerals, the Rev. 
C. Crawshaw a set of British shells, Mr. C« A. Barber part of his 
own collection of fossils, and Professor Bragg of Adelaide a box 
of Australian minerals. Much also was done by the boys them- 
selves in the collection of fossils ; three specimens thus discovered 
are now in the British Museum.^ In 1895 the late Mr. S. Learoyd, 
F.G.S., an old Grove boy, sent a most valuable collection of minerals 
and fossils, and in the same year Mr. C. H. Weston of I^nsdown sent 
four cart-loads of fossils. Among other gifts should be mentioned 
those of Indian butterflies (the Rev. John Brown), of minerals 

(Mr. W. Tutton, of Shrewsbury), 
of sponges (Mr. F. G. Bowers), 
and of mounted flowers (Mr. T. 
M. Lowry). In December 1893 
an attack of influenza, laid low 
some hundred and twenty victims, 
including the governor, the head- 
master, ten out of the eleven 
Senior Locals candidates, and forty 
of the juniors. This could not, 
of course, be without its effects in 
the examination results — but, 
after all, examination results in 
themselves are poor things, and the 
disappointment felt by candidates 
who came out lower than they 
hoped was, if severe, yet temporary. 
It is gratifying to know that 
have not destroyed the spirit of 

MR. W. p. WORKMAN, M.A., B.SC 

these repeated interruptions 
diligence and the love of learning. 

Among recent changes may be noted the unrepeated experiment 
of short Michaelmas holidays in 1894, the institution of a Sunday 
afternoon instruction for the lower forms by the governor, the 
custom of once a month holding the Sunday evening service in 
hall, the starting of a Sunday library for the juniors, the addition 
of regular lantern lectures at intervals in the gymnasium during the 
winter half, and the rearrangement of the time-table so as to 
secure a third half-holiday in the week in summer. 

Much has been done by Mr. Brunyate to improve the school 
* Two Echinoderms new to England, and one new altogether. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


dietary, and it may be interesting to compare the following table 
with those previously given : — 

Breakfast — Porridge; coffee, or cocoa, or milk; bread and 

Tea — Tea, or cocoa, or milk ; bread and butter. 

To this boys add from the storeroom at their own expense. 
Eggs, ham, sausages, meat pies, and jam may be bought at trifling 

Lunch — Milk and biscuits may be bought for a penny. 

Dinner — 

Sunday — Cold mutton, beef, or pork ; cornflour with fruit. 
Monday — Hot roast beef; rice or hominy. 
Tuesday — Cold roast beef or hash ; fruit pie or jam sandwich. 
Wednesday — Hot roast beef; rice. 

Thursday — Cold roast beef or hash ; fruit pie or college 
Friday — Hot mutton ; rice or tapioca. 
Saturday — Stewed beef; cheese or jam. 

The topic of school games requires somewhat fuller treatment. 
Some reference has already been made to occasional out- matches, 
both cricket and football, in the early seventies. From 1 87 9 to 1 883 
we find two or three matches every year, but the winter of 1883 
is the first when Kingswood can be said to have had a football 
season, and of the following summer the same remark is true with 
regard to cricket. In those seasons six football and seven cricket 
matches were played ; of the former only two were won, but of the 
latter five. In no year has the number of matches been great, for, 
with the exception of the Old Boys' Match and a very occasional 
game with a scratch eleven, the opponents have been almost 
entirely confined to school teams. One or two specially successful 
seasons may be noted. In 1890-91 the football fifteen won eight 
matches out of nine, in 1893-94 eight out of ten, and in three 
seasons — from 1894 to 1896 — the records were nineteen wins, five 
draws, and only one defeat. Per contra : in 1887-88 six matches 
were played and lost. Cricket has hardly succeeded so well ; the 
lack of a good wicket has sadly marred the style of play ; however, 
from 1879 to 1896, forty-three matches have been won and thirty-five 

Games at Kingswood have never been compulsory : many 
boys have not joined the school clubs — not only those w^ho have 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


had no inclination for games, but even many zealous cricketers. 
These latter were in the habit of forming little private clubs among 
themselves, delighting in fancy names, such as "The United 
Choktaws," or " The Zulu Wanderers." It was a great gain when 
in 1893 these private ventures were abolished. 

In 1 89 1 a football challenge cup was provided, for which the 
dormitories competed annually. A great step in advance was 
taken in 1895 by the introduction of the house system in that 
modified form which is possible in schools on the hostel plan. The 
boys were divided into houses according to the dormitories ; over 
each house was appointed a house master, to be the "guide, 
philosopher, and friend" of the boys thus put under his more 
immediate care. The existing dormitory football competition was 
replaced by a house competition, and a cricket competition was 
also started, a challenge shield having been presented by the Old 
Boys' Union. The rivalry of the houses extends also to the athletic 
sports — swimming, gymnastics, and other physical exercises. The 
houses were respectively named School, Hall, Upper, Middle, and 
Low^er; each has its own house captain and committee. At the 
same time the school games committee was remodelled, and now 
consists of two masters and the five house captains ; the selection 
of the school teams was taken from the hands of the games 
committee and put in those of the cricket or football captain, as the 
case might be. 

The athletic sports, in the past a spasmodic occurrence, have 
become annual, and are carried out with that seriousness and 
attention to detail which they deserve. Swimming sports have also 
become an annual occurrence, and a School Four has made its 
appearance on the river. " Fifth and sixth " is a game indigenous 
to Kingswood. It is a species of football played with a small 
indiarubber ball across the breadth of the patch. 

Much difficulty was for a long time experienced in obtaining 
assistant masters who would remain for any length of time. From 
1853 to 1867 the normal number of the staff was six, omitting the 
headmaster. During those fifteen years there were no less than 
fifty-seven different men who filled these six posts. In 1868 the 
staff was increased to eight ; from 1868 to 1875 we meet with thirty- 
four names. Altogether, including headmasters, from the opening 
of New Kingswood till the amalgamation of 1875, ninety-four men 
appeared on the scene, mostly for a very brief stay. The cause 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


was partly the insufficiency of the salaries paid. Thus, in the fifties 
the second master received only from £^0 to ;£'8o ; some of the 
other masters received as little as jC20, At the amalgamation, 
however, there was a great improvement. Thus, in August 1875 
we find five regular assistant masters with an average salary of £iS^'^ 
The harassing details of out-of-school duty no doubt often increased 
unwillingness to stay at the school; and a sub-committee in 1874 
assign another reason : " Though the provision for tuition is 
confessedly inadequate, the committee is not of opinion that a 
better class of assistant tutors could be secured by the simple 
expedient of paying such higher salaries as are within the com- 
petency of the school to offer to unmarried masters, who must 
necessarily be without sufficient interest in an institution to which 
they would be attached chiefly by monetary and temporary con- 
siderations. Any alterations ought to be such as to present to able 
men a career in connection with the school." 

Since 1875, however, changes in the staff have been a much less 
common occurrence; three years — 1879 to 1881 — passed without 
any alteration whatever. Of the staff with which the year 1896 
ended, the average length of tenure of office was no less than ten 
and a half years. Of these, Mr. G. Hobson, the drawing master, 
has been connected with the school since 1859, and Mr. Priest, the 
music master, since 1867 ; five others joined ten or more years ago. 
In all, from 1748 to 1897, Kingswood has seen two hundred and 
forty-seven masters, of whom ninety-one have been old boys either 
of Kingswood or the Grove. 

It is impossible to refer to all these by name. Some have been 
gratefully remembered by their old pupils. We have already referred 
to the indefatigable manner in which Mr. George Rowe fulfilled the 
duties of headmaster during an interregnum; he was a good 
disciplinarian and something of a musician. Mr. Woolmer testifies 
of him in 1858 that "he has had eighteen applications from other 
schools, but has stuck to Kingswood." Many old boys will 
remember the excitement of a struggle between Mr. Rowe and 
J. F. Moulton, consequent on an overheard comment of the latter 
on Mr. Rowe's taste in hats. Mr. John Jefferson, " Long Jeff," by 
way of distinction from his half-brother, ** Little Jeff," was a very 
prominent and energetic master. He was something of an elocutionist, 

* Kingswood was then, of course, the senior school ; including the Grove, 
the average was ;^I23. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


and fond of organizing entertainments ; on one fifth of November 
he provided a half-hour's merriment for the school in the guise of 
a cheap-Jack. He was a man of high character and great practical 
ability; he had, however, some quaintnesses. He held a Sunday 
morning class for the lower forms, when he was wont to remind the 
youngsters before him that, as it was very improbable that every 
boy in the room would go to heaven, it was morally certain that 
some of those to whom he was speaking would be eternally lost 
When certain of his colleagues participated in enjoyments which 
did not command his approval, he was wont to prepare the 
masters' room that it might greet them on their return with 
phosphorescent inscriptions suggestive of the fate of ill -doers. 
Mr. Jefferson died on 3rd February 1865. Mr. George Moon 
is remembered as a "kind and painstaking teacher," Mr, Eacott 
and Mr, Rogers as "genial, gentlemanly men," the former a 
cricketer and racket - player, the latter of musical tastes; Air, 
Williamson was "a capable teacher," and Mr, Killick "an 
admirable teacher, with much out-of-the-way knowledge, very 
stimulating to his scholars." Mr. Killick's moods varied. Some- 
times he was so rollickingly jovial as to sing to the boys in 
night school; at other times a pointer or walking-stick was in 
free use. Mr, J, Jackson^ who subsequently invented a popular 
system of vertical handwriting, enjoyed fame as a wicket-keeper. 
Mr, Elliott started a drum-and-fife band, and the services of Mr, 
Bowers to the literary society, of Mr. Sanderson to the scientific 
society and the swimming club, of Mr, Sanderson and Mr. Knowles 
to the musical society, of Mr. Maltby to the band and the reading- 
room, and of Mr, R, W, Pordige to the chess club, ought to be 

Mr, Wilton is described as a man with whom it was a pleasure to 
be in contact, a downright good fellow, frank, bright, kind, manly, 
enthusiastic. His career was but brief; he was lost on Snowdon at 
a comparatively early age. Mr. W, G. Dawson, now in the ministry, 
and Mr. Wilton formed "a fine pair, whose joint influence was 
admirable " ; " Billy Daw," as the affectionate familiarity of the time 
named him, drilled the lower forms very thoroughly in their work, 
was a capital cricketer, and most diligent in his efforts to benefit 
the boys. iXfr, Gostick was a most extraordinary man. He was a 
very stimulating teacher on irregular lines ; he knew something of 
a vast variety of subjects — languages, music, science, literature ; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


some of his tunes were sung in hall. When in a good humour 
he was a man of kindly spirit, and an afternoon in his classroom, 
when he would allow himself to be drawn out, was a delightful time. 
He possessed, however, a little-controlled temper; his language 
when under the influence of anger was most violent, and so, very 
often, was his wielding of the cane. Of German literature and 
metaphysics he possessed a very profound knowledge, and he has 
published several valuable works. He was educated at the Grove, 
and died in London seven or eight years ago in great poverty. 

The following narrative from the pen of one w^ho wept or 
laughed, according to circumstances, under Mr. Gostick^s rule, will 
give a clearer idea of the man than any abstract analysis of his 
character can do : — 

Joseph Gostick was a man of about fifty years of age, and a very remarkable 
individual. Most of my remembrances of him are either comical or agreeable ; 

one or two, however, as in the \\ incident, being of a painful character. 

I well remember his coming to the school as second master. He was corpulent, 
so that we sometimes nicknamed him **beer barrel," was clean shaven or almost 
so, and had somewhat Ions, curly grey hair. One of his duties was to call us 
up in the morning. I distmctly call to mind his coming round to the various 
dormitories at the regulation hour with the words, spoken more as a request than 
as a command, ** Rise, gentlemen, rise," the word **rise " being pronounced " rice." 
But the politeness was lost upon us, and it was not long before his morning call 
was as likely as not to be — '* Now, then, get out, ye nuisances ; get out, ye fish- 
faced goats ! " When such words were hurled at us, accompanied by savage 
gesture, very few took long to wake and turn out of bed ; for we all had come to 
know that there lay coiled up in Gostick 's coat-tail pocket the terrible gutta- 
percha whip of the H episode, and that it needed only a moment's irritation 

to call it into play. I have known him, in his passion, threaten that he would 
thrash us until our flesh hung down about us in ribbons. The said gutta-percha 
whip would be about two feet long, being as thick as one's thumb at the heavier 
end, and tapering off almost to a point at the other. For extra-special occasions 
Gostick used a thin, pliable Malacca cane, which he called "Sweet William" ; 
and when a boy had from him the command, '* Go, sir, fetch me Sweet William," 
he found the journey a melancholy one and all too short. 

One or two bedroom episodes may be noted here. It is well known to 
old boys that after a more or less reasonable time for dressing had elapsed, we 
were summoned to stand each at the end of his bed, then told to '* Kneel down," 
and allowed a short space for devotions before filing downstairs for morning 
school at seven o'clock. One morning Gostick gave us the order ** Kneel down, 
and in about five seconds or so he cut short our devotions, and noticed that 
one youth, Arthur Shipham, was not standing at his Ixjd's end. Striding down 
the room to Shipham's cubicle, with infinite scorn he addressed the kneeling 
figure of the boy who dared to " brave the tyrant's ire," exclaiming, ** Come out, 
my lady ; come out, my lady. \'c)ur religion's to ol^ey me, and not to stay there 
upon your knees." Further devotion was, under the circumstances, out of the 
question. Shipham came to the end of his Ixjd, and, strange to say, no further 
punishment was meted out to him. 

Another well-remembered bedroom incident was the following : It was 
the time of the "everlasting days." The school had retired to bed, but not to 
rcsL In the first bedroom thirty-six of us (out of fifty) were engaged in a fierce 
pillow fight, when Gostick suddenly bore down upon us, so suddenly that we 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


were caught in flagrante delicto. There was, of course, a rush for our beds and a 
sudden silence, every heart beating, and each one wondering what would be 
the next thing, for we knew that Gostick was quite equal to thrashing the whole 
lot of us, one by one. The gas was turned up, and, notebook in hand, our 
** natural enemy " moved from bed to bed, until he had all the names of the 
thirty-six delinquents. Gostick then left the room, and in a few moments we 
heard him once more approaching. We should have been in no way surprised 
to have seen him enter brandishing Sweet William in his hand, but instead of 
that, by some mysterious freak of temper, he brought in a chair, sat down in 
the middle of the room, and then for quite a long time he delighted us by the 
narration, one after another, of a series of charming and exciting stories ! Most 
of the boys heard nothing more of the pillow fight, but Gostick had not finished with 
those of us who happened to be in his class. A somewhat farcical punishment 
awaited us. The next day our slates were served out to us in the ordinary 
school time, and we were directed to write a careful composition on the subject 
of "Getting out of Bed." Whilst we were thus engaged, the others of the class 
were invited to witness a strange trial of skill. A chessboard was produced, two 
skilled players were chosen as opponents, whilst a third boy was appointed to 
make moves at the dictation of Gostick, who did not see the board from 
beginning to end of the game, but had the moves of his adversaries reported to 
him as he stood looking out of his classroom window. I am afraid that all of 
us took too much interest in the progress of the game to give much attention to 
our essay, and, when Crostick finally checkmated his opponents, he was much 
too well pleased with himself to be exacting with regard to the task he had 
set us. 

Gostick was given to bestowing nicknames on boys in his class, and by 
these he would usually address them. For example, J. B. Hellier was known as 
Anaxagoras ; Field, who devoured Euclid, secured the distinction Archimedes, if 
I remember rightly ; J. A. Vanes rejoiced in the sobriquet Buffoon ; B. C. 
Spencer was styled Intelligence ; and so on. 

Of various funny passages between Gostick and Buffoon, the following is 
certainly the most striking. Vanes was monitor at the time, and remained 
behind the rest of the class on one occasion to see that all books, etc., were 
properly stowed away in the cupboards. Suddenly Gostick, who had not left the 
classroom (now the prefects' room, I believe), turned to Vanes, and said somewhat 
as follows: "Buffoon, I feel that a little castigation would be beneficial to me, 
and I desire you to do me the kindness of administering a thrashing to me." 
With that he drew out the well-known gutta-percha knout, handed it to Vanes, 
turned his back to him, and, inclining his shoulders, ordered him to "lay on." 
Many memories crowding in helped to nerve Buffoon for the task, and for some 
time he laid on stroke after stroke ; then some stimulating remembrance inspired 
him to increased severity, and, changing ends with the whip, he lustily applied 
the stock end with such energy that Gostick speedily confessed that Vanes might 
well desist from his labours. Few indeed are the boys who have thus been 
permitted the luxury of paying off some of their old scores. 

Occasionally Gostick would take a junior class during the time that his own 
boys were being initiated into the mysteries of calligraphy by Puleston or Butler. 
On our return to our own classroom, we should perhaps discover on the blackboard 
the subject which had Ixjcn studied by the juveniles during our absence. 
Paragraphs commencing with " Hoc est domicilittm quod Johannes adificar'it^'* or 
".SV;/<?jr ///rt/<rr /r7/^^<7r//^7," etc., would attract our supercilious attention. One 
boy once ventured to mutler something about "absurd dog-Latin," and Gostick 
heard it. Something at once happened which ensured our future abstention from 
any such comments. 

In the register of masters is the record : " 1866 : Jones (to March)." There 
is no initial, only "Jones." Poor Jones had a weeping time at Kingswood. A 
little was more than enough for him. He disappeared soon and suddenly. It was 
on this wise. After many various troubles, he and Gostick met casually by the 
masters' lavatory. What was the matter in dispute we never knew, but some of 
us witnessed the unusual sight of masters hustling one another and exchanging 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


blows, accompanied by appropriate expletives. As soon as Gostick had cleared off, 
we surrounded Jones, escorted him to the Glasgow room, expressed our abhor- 
rence of the treatment he was receiving, and exhorted him to run away. We 
perfected a plan, to which he lent an all too ready ear, and at breakfast time next 
morning inquiries for Jones were unavailing. He had vanished, and no one ever 
heard any more about him. 

Gostick was a many-sided genius. In matters musical he was an enthusiast. 
Now and again in school entertainments short and homely comic operas of a mild 
type were performed, the music, dresses, and play being all arranged by him. 
One of his musical compositions was a loyal part-song entitled, " Vivat Kegina 
Victoria^ " and another was a somewhat effective setting, for voices and organ, of 
the Lord's Prayer. For some time the latter was r^ularly sung by the boys and 
household at daily prayers. 

Not only was Gostick versed in music and in languages. Eastern and Western, 
ancient and modern, but he was interested also in some matters scientific. When 
he was in a good humour it was a treat to go for a walk with him. On one such 
occasion he was discoursing to a few of us, and was emphasising the providential 
pro>nsion suggested by the fact that most poisons are nauseous, and therefore form 
anything but a temptation to the palate. As he was talking, he said, pointing to 
a plant in the hedge, *' There, for instance, is a poisonous plant which no one 
would be likely to eat in mistake for wholesome food. Just taste it ; a mere taste 
won't hurt you." Of course we all rushed to pluck a leaf in order to verify his 
statement, and each one tasted the said poisonous plant. To say that the 
experiment nauseated us is to use mild language. The horrible taste refused to 
be dismissed for that day at any rate, and, so far, Gostick's teaching was verified. 
Gostick hated the ordinary Lnglish subjects of school routine. English 
history, geography, and English gramniar he systematically n^lected, and made 
no secret of his distaste for them. With some epithet of scorn for English history, 
he would add, " Let us have some natural history." He might then, with a few 
quick and clever strokes of the chalk, draw upon the blackboard a rough sketch 
of some animal, and proceed at once with a most interesting lecture on its 
anatomy, habitat, etc. Or he might say, ** Buffoon, fetch Wild Sports of the 
World from the library, and we'll read Livingstone's adventure with a lion." Or, 
in place of one of the other obnoxious subjects, he might regale us with a reading 
from one of the most exciting parts of Tom Brown^s Schooldays. 

One incident of his time [ remember distinctly. The school was assembled 
for some public act of discipline, Mr. Elton being in charge. The second 

master (Mr. Gostick) was standing near him, and noticed a boy, H , 

smiling. Altogether ignoring the headmaster's presence, Gostick summoned 

H to come to him, and then, with the fury of a demon, he mercilessly 

thrashed the boy until his legs were literally raw, Mr. Elton standing by pale 
and helpless, whilst some of the boys could not restrain their tears, so pitiless 

was the caning that H received. As far as we knew, no official notice was 

ever taken of this strange proceeding, and it is no wonder that, many years 
afterwards, when Gostick came into a West-End chemist's establishment for a 

draught of laudanum, the proprietor, who was none other than the same H , 

could scarcely refrain from paying off an old score in summary fashion. 

Mr. Way, an old boy, held the second mastership from 1876 to 
1881. He was an admirable teacher, who inspired his pupils with a 
great love for literature. A lesson in Homer or Horace under Mr. 
Way was full of charm ; he would read his own skilful verse 
translations of these authors, and encourage the class to imitate 
them — haud passibus cequis. 

An allusion is perhaps sufficient to an Irish master of whom it is 
said, " He would fling boys across the room and land them among 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


the boots ; he never seemed so happy as when setting the rules of 
the school to be written out, or with a small boy across his knee " ; 
or to another son of Erin, who convulsed the school with the cry, 
" Soilence, soilence ! Now, whin Oi spake, if any other boy spakes, 
Oi'll mark him ! " or to a certain incapable man who, failing to get 
order in evening school, would walk up and down muttering, " This 
is gross impiety, gross impiety." 

Another, an ignorant bully, professed to know pretty well every 
town in which the boys happened to reside. On one occasion a 

boy, E. M. J , hazarded a fictitious description of a town and 

its points of interest, with all the details of which the master 
professed acquaintance, even to the antiquarian beauties of a 
supposed pump. When the latter- was thoroughly well involved, 

the whole class being interested, J confessed the fraud, and the 

result may be easily imagined. 

No master ever inspired more awe than Mr. Coates, Who, of 
those who trembled before him, forgets how, towards the close of 
night school, always a time of peace when he was there, he would 
stalk to the end of the room and stand silently facing the school ? 
AH knew what he meant, and for the last three minutes almost 
respiration was intermitted. But no one ever accused Mr. Coates 
of injustice, stern though he might be. 

The following remarks on Mr. Coates are due to an old boy 
who remembers him well : — 

The causes of the wonderful success of Kingswood School in the seventies 
are, I suppose, patent to any one exercising ordinary powers of intelligent 
reflection : a powerful headmaster, wielding a great influence over the mind and 
will of his boys ; the excellent classification, facilitated as it was by the regularity 
with which boys came, and stayed, and left ; the absence of parental interference, 
parents being no longer what they are to many teachers, a " necessary evil " ; the 
moral earnestness and intellectual seriousness of the homes from which the boys 
were drawn. In this connection one reflects that the parents had not become 
blas^ through surfeit of thought and knowledge at a university, but still in many 
cases had the enthusiasm of children " picking up shells on the seashore." The 
Kingswood boy was generally bent on ** improving his mind," and knew also that 
his ^ucation was the instalment with which he would have to carve his career. 

Prominent among the secondary causes of the success of Kingswood School 
in the seventies, I should place the Draconian discipline of Mr. Coates. He 
belonged to the race of despt^ts, now well-nigh extinct in schools, the stepping- 
stones on which schoolmasters have risen to higher things. Stories might 
perhaps 1^ told of him that the present generation would hardly believe, or 
would l>elieve only to condemn. But more than once, when the demon of 
disorder stalked about the "house "in the evening hours, to work his will on 
those whom he could not reach in ** school " during the day, the grim form of Mr. 
Coates stood in the way, and the demon skulked back to his lair. Any Kings- 
wood boy worth his salt remembers with respect and gratitude the master who 
so often saved the discipline on the house side. When I entered Kingswood at 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


the age of nine, I had two advisers : my father urged me to set my foot on the 
ground, and vow to become head boy ; an elder brother, profiting by ex- 
perience gained at the Grove, urged me to keep clear of Mr. Coates. I paid 
good heed to the advice of the latter, but my early attempts were not very 
encouraging. I rememl)er, in particular, how warily I followed his movements 
about the schoolroom the first time he was on duty in night school. Suddenly he 
caught me watching him, and fixed his stern eye upon me. In the fascination of 
fear I continued to look straight at him. Then the storm burst, and for the rest 
of the evening it was only by hearing and instinct that I was aware of his 
nearness or distance, until the sound of the ticking clock and of a felling pin, 
followed by a brief nasal announcement, marked the termination of night school, 
and I breathed more freely. But in the bedrooms what a power he was ! 
Could any other man have been omnipresent in those four large rooms, and 
omnipotent? At one time I slept at the entrance to the second bedroom, and 
was many a time startled by awareness of a tall dark form at the foot of my bed. 
Noiseless he came, noiseless he went, like the Furies. I used to lie awake 
wondering where he was and when he would return, and not till the genial 
prefect took the reins from him at ten o'clock did I compose myself for sleep ; 
and even now I have hardly lost the habit of lying awake for an hour before 
dropping off ; but that is partly due to the habit I contracted in those days of 
of saying rinrrw^ or The Deserted Village^ or some other task to myself as 1 
lay in hcL This habit made me appear cleverer than I was, and I remember 
how Coates reproached me in class as a lazy bov, who might be easily ahead 
of all competitors, if I only chose. He was hearing us say The Deserted 
Village right through, and I spouted unfalteringly everv time as my turn came 
round. Needless to say, I resented his imputation. I do not remember that he 
was a very interesting teacher, but he maae us work, and boys **got on " in his 
classes. Occasionally he would unbend, as when he drew rapidly on the board 
a picture of a Dutch boer, or gave as a specimen of rhyme — 

I saw a man. 

Running away as fast as ever he can ' 

or played the plagiarist with — 

When Dido saw that iCneas wouldn't come, 

Wasn't then — di — do — dum? ' 

That was before the days of Way and the ** new-fangled" pronunciation. 
He also enriched our vocabulary of vituperation with such words as *^ dunder- 
headed donkey," "numskull," "ninnyhammer," ** nincompoop, "and of his free 
use of the word *' hypocrite " I will speak anon ; but I return for a moment to the 
stem disciplinarian. His punishments were sometimes unauthorized and a little 
brutal — a big key swung loose on to the knuckles, forcible application of the 
knee to the inferior spinal termination, excruciating compression of the flesh and 
muscles of the arm, seizure by collar and breeches for the purpose of shaking, 
and 1 have known him seize a boy by the hair and bump his face upon the desk, 
but I don't remember whether he drew blood on that occasion. He was an 
adept in the art of boxing the ears, and in the bedrooms he utilized his slipper and 
hairljrush on fleshy parts, as doubtless some remember who are now Methodist 
ministers and headmasters. A few evil-doers hated him, but I think most could 
pay him the compliment which Archbishop Temple received from the Rugby 
boy, ** He's a l)east, of course, but he's a just beast." He was no respecter of 
persons, and once made a front bench lx)y of commanding stature, now an 
incumbent in London, stand throughout night school on the headmaster's stool, 
not with his back tufned to the boys, as a weaker man would have preferred. 
Such a character could not fail to be a power for good in the school. I have 
intimated that I do not remember that he gave much intellectual stimulus to his 
pupils, but directly and indirectly he did much to strengthen their moral character. 
The stem prophet of work and duty, he startled us once (in the Third Classical) 
by suggesting that there was a great deal to be said in favour of the man who, 
finding that he was not able to lead a good and honourable life, resolved to 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


commit suicide. Above all, he was the deadly foe of false religious fervour, and 
I hear his harsh nasal tones, as he said, ''It's perfectly sickening the way you 
boys behave. You go to your prayer-meetings and your class-meetings, and 
read your Bibles in hall when you have done eating, and you go down to the 
Sacrament, and then you are disorderly and neglect your lessons. You 
hypocrites, you ! " An excellent corrective to a Kingswood boy of a certain 
type ! We liked him in that class, and when Butters and Boyns organized a 
banquet and entertainment at threep>ence per head, and asked Coates to be present, 
we liked him none the less for his gruff reply : " Here ! there's the key ; I 
know you don't want me." 

Not every master was so successful a disciplinarian. There was 
one of the weaker spirits to whom it once fell to take his class in 
the classroom adjoining the common room. Ordinarily, his pupils 
met him in the schoolroom, where they were more or less under 
the eye of the headmaster. On this occasion they felt the greater 
freedom of their situation, and began to crowd round the master's 
table, ostensibly to ask questions, pinning him against the wall. 
Then some boy on the outskirts extended the map-pointer between 
the interstices of the crowd, and began to poke the unhappy man 
in the ribs. The infuriated victim sprang up, and seized the 
implement ; then ensued a glorious tug-of-war. Suddenly the door 
opened, and the headmaster entered ! Every boy rushed to his 
place, leaving the unfortunate master standing in the middle of the 
room, grasping firmly with both hands the wrong end of the 

Nor ought we to forget a foreigner who, when his class were 
standing in a semi-circle to repeat their lesson, found that the 
simplest punishment for the talker or trifler was to bid him "go 
to the foot " of the class. One day, however, the disorder was so 
general that human nature could stand it no more, and, rising in 
wrath, he hurled forth the fatal edict—" Ail go to the foot ! " All 
went. Another master has been thus described : " He was a 
Welshman, and among his native hills had acquired a fine crimson 
countenance and hardy frame; but his soul had fed on more 
economical pastures. He excelled in elocution, though his pro- 
nunciation was not fettered by commonly-received maxims. His 
accents wandered about with true Cymric freedom, and alighted 
promiscuously on any syllable that was at hand to receive them. 
None who were present could forget his Shakespearean recital : his 
locks soaked with fragrant unguent ; the piteous whine of Arthur, 
and Hubert's blatant roar; officials of unimpeached gravity 'slain 
with laughter.' In respect of discipline, he was energetic but 
unsuccessful— w^ et praterea nihiL His fine Keltic organ was 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


heard booming through the noisy schoolroom, but only added to 
the tumult. He called order from the vasty deep, but it did not 
come when he did call. At such times his visage waxed vermilion ; 
his observations passed the limits of a gentlemanly sarcasm, often 
deepening into unknoAvn gutturals. But peace to his memory, to 
whom, I fear, we gave but little peace." 

Mr, Paravicini was a native of Corsica, his family being 
neighbours and friends of the Buonapartes. He fought in the 
Franco-Prussian War, in a Turco regiment in the army of the 
South. He was captured by Bavarians, and carried to Orleans, 
whence he escaped in a peasant's dress. The story of his ad- 
ventures may be read in the earlier numbers of the school 
magazine. He was a capable teacher and a popular man, and an 
excellent cueist. He would often invite boys to his house in Bath 
to tea, where the hospitable welcome of Mrs. Paravicini would 
ensure for them a pleasant time. 

Mr, John Heivson^ an Irishman, and a graduate of Trinity 
College, Dublin, was a master at the Grove in 1872, and at 
Kingswood 1876-78. Subsequently he was for many years on the 
staff of the Leys School. The Rev. H. H. Chettle described him 
as "a fine-spirited man." It was a very just remark. He was 
characterized by great scrupulosity of conscience, which, if it some- 
times seemed to run to an extreme, always commanded respect. 

One striking characteristic [says one of his pupils] was his rude, his 
aggressively rude, health, and the enormous jjains he took to preser\'e it ; he 
was a sort of valetudinarian of the race of the Anakim. I remember his scorn 
for the poor boys who caught cold. "What business have you to catch cold? " 
(he would say). ** Breathe through your nose, gargle with water night and 
morning, and let us have no more of this nonsense. W^hy, when I was 
staying with my uncle in Ireland, and had scarlet fever, he made me run 
naked— stark naked, sir ! in the snow in his garden. Catch cold, indeed ! Why, 
what you want is to swallow gallons of air, gallons of fresh air, wet or dry.'* 
And so he would discourse sometimes during the greater part of a lesson. He 
nsed to illustrate his precepts by example. With what delight on a day of 
pouring rain would he roll down the passages, head and shoulders bent to avoid 
collision with the roof, and out at the dryinjj-ground door, for a long con- 
stitutional, followed by the wondering gaze of the small boys he had scattered 
on the way ! He professed to sleep in winter time with but one blanket to 
cover him. Perhaps that was the reason why he got up at five o'clock 
frequently, and clattered through the bedrooms in heavy boots, to the accompani- 
ment of groans and niutterings from disturbed sleepers. His object, he said, 
when in a moment of friendly conversation some small boys expostulated with 
him, was to read the New Testament in Greek. His treatment of offenders 
against discipline was uncertain. On one occasion in class when I laughed too 
frequently (at him, I am afraid), he turned on me with fury, and raked me 
fore and aft for nearly twenty minutes. The climax of his passion was reached 
when he said, " If 1 had a cane, I would flay you alive — flay you alive, sir I " 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


On another occasion he was going along the passage, stooping in a manner 
that was quite unnecessary, for the roof was several feet above his head. Being 
of small stature myself, I resented a behaviour which I put down to ostentation, 
and in a moment of awful forgetfulness I pulled him back by his coat-tails. As 
soon as I realized what I had done, I quaked mightily, with my heart in my 
shoes ; but a gentle, sad reproof was all 1 received, more eflective perhaps than 
a severe punishment. At times he was quite incapable of compromise. I 
remember that two of the upper classes used to go to him at the same hour 
once a week before breakfast, and his custom was to " hear " one class one 
morning, while the other remained seated during the whole period ; next 
week the classes reversed their position. Well, we were both seated in the 
classroom one morning, when in came Hewson, marched up to the desk, and 
said, ** Which class comes to me this morning?" Some unlucky wight replied, 
" We both come to you, sir." In sterner and louder tones he repeated, ** Which 
class, I say, comes to me this morning?" Then many voices repeated in 
chorus, **We both come to you, sir." .He smote the desk, and repeated his 
question until seven times, and ever louder waxed the chorus, ** We both come 
to you, sir." Then he sat down, and silence reigned till eight o'clock, when 
the classes were dismissed. 

He was often a stimulating teacher, but was apt to be 
impatient with slowness of thought or deficient power of mental 
presentation. Thus he would make some haphazard chalk-marks 
on the blackboard, saying, " Imagine that to be a circle," or " a 
square," or whatever he might desire for the immediate purpose. 
He would even describe invisible triangles in the air, and so 
demonstrate a proposition. Clever boys would learn much from 
him, but dullards had little chance. 

Mr, John W. Buck was science master at Kingswood for 
seven years. He taught well, and concealed a real enthusiasm 
under a somewhat cynical manner. As stated elsewhere, he 
founded and ruled a successful Natural Science Society. He was 
always willing to encourage and assist boys with a taste for science. 
He kept careful meteorological records, which were periodically 
posted up on the notice-boards; he also ventured on daily fore- 
casts of the weather ; occasionally, to the delight of small boys, he 
was hopelessly wrong. Probably the part of his work he least liked 
was that of conducting the "divisions" to chapel on Sundays; 
on these occasions, having "put on glorious apparel," he would 
stride along on the other side of the road, endeavouring to appear 
to have no connection with the " mixed multitude " across the way. 
He was a very popular man, and judiciously mingled the necessary 
sternness of the disciplinarian with his own natural kindliness. 
Why he should have been universally known as "Jim" is an 
unravelled mystery. 

Mr, A. IV, Lockyer was a brilliant scholar ; himself educated 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


at Kingswood, he held a mastership there for a short time in 1877, 
and again for a year in 1882-83. -^s a teacher, "his translations 
of Vergil were occasionally (we are told) a bit queer. He would 
talk about Dido * twigging what -^neas was up to,' and seeing 
it was * all my eye.' " He it was who, criticising Homer's expression 
" mortal men," asked, " Did you ever hear of a man that wasn't 
mortal ? " and received the answer from the humorist of the form, 
"Yes, sir; Enoch." On leaving Kingswood, he was ordained 
deacon by the Bishop of London, and sailed for Panama on 
27th December 1883 under the auspices of the South American 
Missionary Society. On the 7th of the next March he died, a 
victim to yellow fever, having sacrificed his life by carrying ice to 
one of his fever-stricken flock. In his last letter home he says, " I 
nail my colours to the mast, and fight on, leaving the issue to my 
great Captain," 

Corporal punishment was in theory inflicted by only the 
governor, headmaster, and second master. "Lines" generally 
consisted of a repetition of the school inscription : In Gloriam 
Dei Optitni Maximi et in usum Ecdesia et ReipubliccB?- This was 
a long enough line, but there was once a prefect who was accustomed 
to set the following words as a line : — 

Boys will anticipate 
Lavish and dissipate 
All that your busy pate 
Hoarded with care. 

That was one line ! The prefect in question is now able, as a 
judge, to exercise a similar severity towards ill-doers. Cubes, too, 
were a favourite and soul-rending device of authority; the boy 
who received the doom — "Cube 187654 and the next six numbers," 
groaned bitterly. Mr. Jefferson wisely abolished the punishment of 
setting portions of the Bible to be learnt by heart. The commonest 
and easiest method of punishing, however, was by bad marks. 
Each boy started each week with twenty good marks on the school 
side, and twenty on the house side ; if he lost more than a certain 
number in the week he suffered divers penalties, such as loss of 
permit, detention, and, if necessary, bodily pain. The system now 
is simply to count the bad marks. 

* The present headmaster has forbidden this profane use of the inscription. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



O for boyhood's time of June, 
Crowding years in one brief moon ; 
When all things I heard or saw, 
Me, their master, waited for. 


In September 1879 appeared the first number of the Kingswood 
and Grove Quarterly^ issued, as its name implies, four times a year. 
The first editors laid down their programme in an " Introduction," 
cleverly modelled on the characteristic preface to Wesley's Hymns. 
It was to include histories of each of the schools which gave the 
magazine its title, " good stories " of old times, University letters, 
and sketches of the principal schools of Methodism. Of these 
designs the first and the last have been only partially accomplished. 
Histories of Kingswood and the Grove (as stated elsewhere) were 
begun but never completed ; of other schools, only the Leys 
received a description in these pages. Old boys' " yams " and news 
from the Universities have been more plentiful and constant. 
Current events at the school have, of course, received due notice, 
while a fairly successful attempt has been made to supply in each 
number of the magazine an article on some subject of literary or 
general interest. Poetry, or what has passed for such, has not been 
wanting — sometimes indeed from the pen of acknowledged poets of 
the outer world, such as Mr. Arthur Way and the Rev. W. J. Dawson ; 
sometimes the product of young imagination within the school. 
The Kingswood boy has always been apt to exhibit a taste for 
poetry ; if the result has, at times, been somewhat turgid, that is a 
characteristic of youth, which prefers verses that are " gleaming with 
purple and gold," and has no patience for half-lights and neutral 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The Quarterly started with about three hundred and fifty 
subscribers. In September 1883 the relinquishment of the Grove 
necessitated a change in the title ; at the same time it was decided 
to alter the period of issue, and thus arose the Kingswood Magazine^ 
priced at threepence instead of sixpence as formerly, and issued 
eight times a year. The large circulation with which the Quarterly 
began was not kept up in subsequent years. The amount received 
from subscriptions was in the yfear 1879-80 over £,y)\ next year 
it dropped to ;£^32, in 1889 it was only J[y2^^ The issue of 
successive pages of a school register with the magazine began in 
1890, and the subscriptions received that year rose to £yZA' Now, 
however, the extent of the circulation of the magazine is hardly in 
its own control ; the Old Boys' Union supplies it to its members, 
and other outside subscriptions are so few as to be almost a 
negligible quantity. The result is that the receipts remain pretty 
constantly at about ^^^35. The magazine has been able to issue 
recently three admirable photographs, from Meisenbach blocks, of 
the school, the gymnasium, and the tower. 

From time to time various cyclostyled periodicals have solicited 
the coppers of the multitude ; of these the most famous was The 
Tub^ which for two years regaled its readers with the wit and 
humour, not to say the gossip and tittle-tattle, of the hour. 

The Rev. J. H. Lord was fortunate in possessing musical 
daughters. In 1881 these ladies lent their valuable aid to the 
formation of a Choral Society, with the assistance of J. A. Knowles, 
A. F. Kellett, L. C. James, and other musically-inclined boys. 
The society made a modest beginning with fifteen members, con- 
siderable difficulty being experienced in obtaining a sufficient supply 
of trebles j this want was, however, remedied in 1883, when the 
juniors migrated from the Grove to Lansdown, and the member- 
ship went up to forty. On the departure of Mr. Ix>rd and his 
family, Mr. Priest became the conductor and trainer. The first 
work of any magnitude that was undertaken by this society was the 
performance of Farmer's Christ and His Soldiers on 16th November 
1882. Subsequently one or two cantatas were given annually, 
and the society provided many admirable concerts. L. M. Arm- 
strong, T. H. Barratt, A. W. R. Cole, and others, were among its 
prominent supporters. On one occasion, at least, original work has 
been produced, when A. W. R. Cole in 1890 performed an organ 
piece, to which he had given the title of the Marche des Prefets ! 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Meanwhile, a second musical body had sprung up, under the 
auspices of Mr. Sanderson, known as The Choir. Its primary 
purpose was to lead the daily worship in hall, but its ambitions 
soon took a wider range, and a second and concurrent series of 
concerts pleased the school. In 1886 the choir performed the first 
part of the Elijah, On this occasion, as on many others, it received 
a valuable reinforcement in the person of Miss Emily Harper, 
R.A.M. ; the other soloists were Miss Hitchings, Mr. J. W. Baker 
(an old boy), 2tnd Mr. A. Neate. The choir also did excellent 
work in forming a collection of manuscript hymn-tunes for use in 

In 1886 Mr. Maltby's efforts led to the formation of a small band, 
which rendered effective service both in hall and at the concerts. 

On Mr. Sanderson's departure at Christmas 1890, it was felt 
desirable to amalgamate these three bodies into one, under the name 
of the Musical Society. Mr. Priest has continued to act as instructor, 
while various masters, notably Mr. Knowles, have taken the society 
under their wing. There have, of course, been fluctuations in the 
degree of merit attained from time to time, but any one who visits 
Kingswood on one of the great festival days of the year may 
generally reckon on hearing an excellent concert. 

In Septeniber 1882 Mr. J. W. Buck took in hand the formation 
of a Natural Science Society, under his own presidency, with the 
assistance of W. C. Fletcher and H. S. W. Jones. This society met 
fortnightly, and for some eighteen months did much good work. Mr. 
Buck, however, left the school, and for some six or seven weeks there 
were no meetings. Mr. Sanderson then took the matter up, but his 
efforts hardly met with due response ; after a somewhat languishing 
life, the society expired in the latter half of 1885. However, in 1887, 
the e-xistence of the Wesley Scientific Society, of which Dr. Bowden was 
a vice-president and Mr. Sanderson a local secretary, suggested the 
formation of a local branch at the school. The beginnings of a library, 
due largely to Dr. Bowden's generosity, were stored in a temporary 
cupboard — in point of fact, an old meat-safe ; botanical gardens were 
established in the neighbourhood of the " side entrance " ; and the 
surrounding country was mapped out into districts, and allotted among 
he members as a field for observations and collections. A small 
aquarium replaced the jam-pots and pickle-jars of a more rudimen- 
tary stage ; and various places of interest in the neighbourhood, such 
as quarries and paper-mills, were visited by the society in a body. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



However, the parent society did not prosper, and after 1888 we 
hear no more of these efforts, till Mr. Pethy bridge founded a Scientific 
Association in 1895. ^^^^ body began vigorously, but when Mr. 
Pethybridge left fell into rapid decay. The latest effort has been 
more modest in its scope, and has restricted its purview to a single 
branch of scientific research, if such it may be called. There seems 
no reason why the Photographic Society should not be permanent ; 
there will alw^ays be boys who take photographs ; a dark room is in 


existence, and will always be at their service ; and the society is one 
whose success does not depend on numbers. 

The Swimming Club was formed in 1884, Mr. A. R. Stephenson 
and Mr. A. 1). Sanderson lending it their valuable aid. In 1885 
we find it with as many as eighty members, and using the Cleveland 
Baths. It performed a useful duty in awarding swimming certifi- 
cates, which were accepted by the authorities as a passport to the 
use of the river. In 1895 ^^^ management was taken over by the 
games committee. 

A line must sufiice for the mention of the Chess Club (1889) 
and the Tennis Club (1887), '^he latter of which found a habitation 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


in the junior playground. But a longer reference is due to the oldest 
of Kingswood societies. During the Easter holidays of 1868, three 
boys— J. M. Lightwood, T. A. Goodwin, and A. H. S. Lucas— agreed 
on a weekly meeting for the discussion of literary questions. On being 
invited, the whole of the first class joined them ; and the second class, 
in emulation, set up a similar institution of their own. Before the 
summer vacation the two were amalgamated, and J. M. Lightwood 
was chosen president for the few remaining weeks ; he was succeeded 
in that office, after the holidays, by T. A. Goodwin. " The associa- 
tion was popular and successful. It was confined to the first two 
classes, but all the masters (except the headmaster) expressed a wish 
to join us, and their presence secured decorum at the meetings." 
Thus the origin of the Literary Association was thoroughly demo- 
cratic ; and herein, perhaps, lies the secret of its vitality. It was 
not due to the initiative, well-intentioned and valuable as that might 
be, of some energetic and public- spirited master, but it was a 
spontaneous enterprise on the part of the boys themselves. Indeed, 
the association was for a long time prone to be very jealous of the 
influence and even presence of masters ; it was always difficult to 
secure the election of a master to its membership, and only once 
during its thirty years* history has a master held any office in the 

Early in its career the association undertook also the functions 
of a newspaper club, and it is curious to note that the Methodist 
Recorder^ of all papers, found the greatest difficulty in securing a 
place among the association's purchases. Thus on ist August 1870 
it was admitted by a slender majority of two : a week later it was 
discontinued, but again found sufficient supporters on the 29th ; on 
5th September it preserved its existence against attack by one vote ; 
but, after many fluctuations, not till November did it by a majority 
of three find a haven of rest. In 1872 the newspaper club became 
a distinct body, and the Literary Association limited its exertions to 
the management of its own meetings and the production of a monthly, 
afterwards fortnightly, manuscript magazine, known as The Journal. 
It also issued an annual printed report. The first of these reports, 
issued in September 1869, says: - 

It is with feelings of no small pleasure that we present this, the First Annual 
Report of the Society, to the careful examination and, we believe, the approval 
of its meml^ers. In taking a retrospective view of the past, we are satisfied that 
we can with the greatest confidence assert that the society has never before been 
in so prosperous a condition. It is now eighteen months since this body was 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


formed, and on reviewing this period we feel called to remark upon the evident 
success which has followed its efforts to advance the general knowledge of the 
association, and to support the first principle laid down : the ** Mental and Moral 
Improvement of its Members." We are pleased to notice that that which has in 
so large a measure contributed to so striking a success, may without doubt be 
attributed to the interest at all times manifested by those who have taken part in 
its proceedings : added to this, nothing has advanced the well-being of the society 
so much as the harmony and goodwill which have on every occasion characterized 
the members. . . . And while we have thus briefly adverted to the success and 
the various operations of the society during another session, we would also call 
attention to the fact that many of the most active and influential members are at 
this time about to leave, and will no longer beable to take part in maintaining the 
society. Among them may be found those who have had the honour of founding 
so important a body, and who have up to this time chiefly borne its offices. Seeing 
ihat we are shortly to lose our most energetic and able members, we look to those 
who are about to join us to unite in upholding fend advancing the cause and 
interests of our society. At this very miportant point of its history, we are 
anxious to guard against all measures injurious to the welfare of the association ; 
so that, when they have ceased to be members, it may still remain and flourish. 
And we would not conclude without saying a word to the newly-made members, 
that in order to maintain the society in a flourishing condition, strict attention 
should be paid to the code of laws which have hitherto constituted its leading 
principles. If you are resolved to benefit by a society of this kind, your highest 
aim should be always to give it your warmest and most cordial support. If, being 
thus determined, you carry out and act upon your resolution, we do not hesitate to 
say that the New Kings wood Literary Aissociation will continue to advance and 
prosper. The future will be more glorious than the past ; the past will reflect a 
lustre on the present ; and as years roll by, this association will still form one of 
the institutions of New Kingswood. 

The report then goes on to give a list of the papers and 
periodicals taken in by the society, a list of the officers and honorary 
members, a resume of the association's proceedings during the 
session 1868-69, and a financial statement. 

The fortnightly journal deserves notice, not only for its intrinsic 
interest, but as having paved the way for the issue of a printed 
school magazine. In February 1877 a proposal was made to 
purchase a printing-press, in order that the association might not 
only issue a printed magazine, but might also be its own printer. 
This scheme, however, not unnaturally proved too bold for the 
majority of the association, and we hear nothing more of it till in 

1878 a proposal was made that a printed journal should take the 
place of the manuscript one. This proposal failed to secure a 
majority, but the matter was not allowed to drop, and in September 

1879 Mr. Way attended a meeting of the society, and gave particulars 
of the probable cost and circulation of a school magazine. A 
committee, consisting of Mr. A. S. Way, Mr. R. W. Jackson, F. W. 
Kellett, H. B. Workman, and W^ P. Workman, was appointed to 
bring the scheme into actual existence. Mr. Way and Mr. Jackson 
were to be joint editors. Before the month was ended the first 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


number was issued. The association seems to have been somewhat 
exercised from timfe to time as to the precise relationship between 
themselves and the magazine committee ; the majority seem to have 
held that, as the association elected that committee, and as the 
association's journals were freely borrowed from to feed the pages 
of the magazine, the committee must be considered under their 
control. In November 1880 the secretaries were instructed to 
suggest various changes in the management of the magazine. Mr. 
Way, in reply, recommended the association to take the magazine 
into their own hands entirely, which, by a vote of twelve to one, 
they promptly proceeded to do. A committee of five boys was 
chosen, with the two masters, Mr. Way and Mr. Jackson, as extra 
members. To these two a veto was given on all articles and con- 
tributions, but, to preserve the balance of power, the association 
also assumed a veto on all decisions of the committee. In August 
1 88 1, however, all connection between the association and the 
magazine was, by the vote of the association, completely severed. 
The manuscript journals were not discontinued when the school 
magazine became an accomplished fact, and they form a very useful 
part of the association's work. They extend sometimes, in their 
fortnightly issue, to as much as two hundred pages, and are bound 
in half-yearly volumes, which are preserved in the reading-room. In 
the session 1879-80 three such portly volumes were produced, 
a total of two thousand five hundred pages ! Young ventures 
with the pen, of all kinds, find a place within their boards ; essays, 
poems, plays, nothing came amiss. All topics, from "Where is 
Heaven?" to "Kissing an Art and an Accomplishment," were 
welcomed. " The Imprecatory Psalms " or " The Body of Moses " 
were not felt to be too difficult, nor " Woman the oppressed and 
Woman the triumphant " too delicate, nor " Historical Pigs in 
Historical Pokes " too recondite for these youthful essayists. 

Each of the journals (it has been said ^) presents the truly Homeric appear- 
ance of a train of gallant steeds (the essayists, bards, and what not), wildly 
plunging along in front of the car (the leading article), on which towers the 
form of the editor, who unmercifully plies the lash, from which few escape. It 
is instructive to obs-rve with what naivete he commences by deploring the lack 
of support the journal receives, or, it may be, congratulates his readers on the 
bulk and general excellence of *' this number," and then proceeds most ruthlessly 
to criticise, to vivisect, one and all of those who have so generously answered 
former appeals. He has got them at least, and (to change the figure) he hales 
them captive to his chariot wheels. Their little weaknesses, their favourite 
tricks of style, their harmless jokes, their flutterings of poetic wings, all, all are 

^ Kingswaod Quarterly^ No. I. p. 3. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


held up to scorn ; and, as they stand ranged before him in the thin disguise of 
turns depiumcy he bowls them down like ninepins. It is Saturn devouring his 
own children. What, then, must have been their enthusiasm for literature, what 
their immutable confidence in this terrible censor's entire devotion to truth and 
impartial honesty of purpose, what the depth of their conviction that it was "all 
for their good," when, fortnight after fortnight, the supply of martyrs was kept 
up, when 

The stubborn penmen still made good 
Their right to roam Parnassus' wood, 
Snapt at the lash the cheery thumb, 
Nor grudged the mental pabulum ? 

The late Dr. Jowett once expressed his pleasure in receiving 
Kingswood boys at Balliol, because " they were not all cut to one 
pattern." Still, a study of the (for the most part) admirably-kept 
minutes of the Literary Association suggests that the Kingswood 
boy, at any rate in the field of mental activity, possesses certain 
distinguishing characteristics. There is, first of all, the fact that 
that mental activity of his is extremely active. He is of facile pen 
and fluent tongue. No intricacy of subject deters him, no profundity 
daunts him. He is prepared to pronounce, at considerable length, 
an opinion on all things in heaven and earth. In his more leisurely 
moments he unravels some problem of history, or touches with easy 
grace the poet's pen ; but his more serious efforts are devoted to 
the obscurities of metaphysics or the more perplexing questions of 
theolc^. Thus .on one occasion the doctrine of the intermediate 
state was exhaustively debated, and the conclusion arrived at that 
"immediately after death the spirit passes into an intermediate 
state, the first heaven, which will be immaterial ; and after that will 
come the judgement, when the spirit will pass in a glorified body to 
its final destiny." There is nothing so comforting as certainty in 
these matters ; but, to be sure, it is the prerogative of youth to be 
certain. The proposition " that animals have a future existence " 
met with a crushing defeat. The debate seems to have turned 
mainly on the question as it concerned insects; but even the 
argument that certain insects deserved immortality as alone possess- 
ing the power of describing a perfect geometrical figure, failed to 
convince the meeting. The president at this date rejoiced, for 
easily-conjectured reasons, in the sobriquet of "Leg3," and one 
member seemed to settle the question by remarking tha\ he did not 

see why P (the smallest boy in the school) had not as much right 

^0 go to heaven as the president. A debate on the reliability of 
the Pentateuch led to something of a crisis. The fact that the 
subject was debated, even though the Pentateuch was saved by a 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


majority of seven, led some friends of the school, rating too highly 
the importance and permanence of these youthful audacities, to 
protest. For some time, at any rate, theological subjects of debate 
were dropped. Connexional topics excited considerable interest, and 
in 1876 the society disapproved of the presence of laymen at 
Conference. Of social topics, various aspects of the perennial 
woman question secured most attention. Female suffrage met 
with small support, and one member even doubted the pre- 
sence of women in the final realm of bliss, and gave as his 
reason that " there was silence in heaven for the space of half an 

The association, while sternly tenacious of its independence and 
privileges, endeavoured in various ways to benefit the school as a 
whole. Thus, in 1870, it gave instructions to its librarians to cut 
out the telegrams from the Daily Telegraph and post them up for 
public edification — a very sensible and kindly act. In 1873 it held 
the first of a long series of half-yearly " open meetings," at which 
music and recitations provided an hour or two's pleasure to the 
school at large. In 1874 it founded a Junior Literary Association, 
appointing L. W. Posnett as its first president. This body came 
to a comparatively early end, but when, in 1878, certain boys on 
their own initiative formed themselves into another Junior Associa- 
tion, the older society sent them a letter of encouragement and 
good wishes. Two members were appointed to draw up this letter ; 
but at the next meeting it was found that each of them had devised 
a document, and each thought the other's unsuitable. The meeting 
speedily selected one of them by a majority of fourteen to one. 
Shortly after, however, the junior society were able to score heavily on 
account of this letter ; they requested an exchange of journals, but 
met with the uncompromising reply " we consider that your request 
touches one of the fundamental and long-established constitutional 
privileges of the society, and therefore feel bound to refuse it." 
Then the retort courteous was made possible : " The Junior Literary 
Association are much obliged to the Literary Association for the 
interest they profess to take in the Junior Literary Association, but 
they would have appreciated it much more had the Literary Associa- 
tion been pleased to give the help they asked for. The Junior 
Literary Association gives its best thanks to those members of the 
Literary Association who showed that they meant what they said 
in their letter by upholding the proposal which the Junior Literary 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Association sent to them. Signed on behalf of the N.K.S.J.L.A., 
F. W. Brash " — really a smart reply for " juniors." 

In 1 88 1 a third society was founded, under the name of " The 
Fourth Form Literary Association." This society prospered and 
grew till it numbered some thirty or forty members, and bade fair 
ultimately to swamp its rivals. In March 1882 a compromise 
i^-as arrived at: the officers of the Junior Association, with all 
members above the Fourth Form, joined the Senior Association ; 
the remainder were attached to the Fourth Form Association. 
However, at no later date than the next August, another Junior 
.^ociation sprang into being. It, nevertheless, came to an end 
next year, and its Fourth Form rival shortly afterwards. The doors 
of the Senior Association were then thrown open to all boys of the 
sixth, fifth, and fourth forms who chose to pay the subscription. 
Both the lower societies have, however, reappeared, the "Junior" 
in 1890, and the "Fourth Form" in 189 1. In connection with 
the topic of the Junior Literary Association, a curious, somewhat 
obscure, but lichly suggestive paragraph occurs in the minutes of 
February 1881. It was proposed that the officers of the junior 
society should be ex-officio members of the senior body. One 
speaker objected on the ground that " these gentlemen might not 
know how to behave themselves in a civilized association." What 
follows is a remarkable commentary on these words. The senior 
editor thought that as this proposal was tantamount to the election 
of new members, it would require to be carried, as all elections of 
members, by a two-thirds majority. He was clearly right, but the 
president ruled against him. " The senior editor didn't like this, 
and profX)sed that we should outdin the president by the noise of 
a combined association. Three members here clapped lustily, and 
in a manner that did them credit ; but they were not enough, the 
president having a pretty good voice considering his time of life." ^ 
Other similar evidences of " civilization " will meet us anon. " The 
Ut," to use its popular name, has thus been associated in some 
degree with various other organizations, but with the "Peace 
Society" it refused to have anything to do. The governor on 
one occasion, being desirous of interesting the school in the work 
of this body, suggested that the Literary Association should take 
it up. The society seized its opportunity, and by a large majority 
resolved: "That this association, recognizing its duty to oppose 
^ Minutes of the Literary Association. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


war and to further peace, humbly represents to the governor that 
drilling is detrimental to the propagation of peaceful principles, and 
therefore should be discontinued in a school so zealous in the good 
cause of peace." 

The society always exhibited an independent spirit. In 1873 a 
member, unauthorized, took it upon himself to collect a considerable 
sum of money in the school to defray the expenses of an " open 
meeting" recently held; the society at once declined to receive 
assistance from any but its own members. 

Politics, as was to be expected, have occupied a considerable 
portion of the society^s eloquence. Grave problems, that have 
vexed the brains of generations of statesmen and diplomatists, have 
been settled off-hand with a most effective thoroughness. What, 
for instance, could be simpler, and at the same time more 
complete, than the remedy for the Eastern Question proposed by 
that member who suggested that " all the Turks should be turned 
into Sahara, and that then that great desert should be flooded ? " 

The manner of these debaters and essayists is everywhere 
marked by confidence; there is nothing tentative, nothing 
hesitating. ''^Hypotheses non fingo^'* is, in a sense, their motto. 
Upon an obscure problem they do not cast a feeble glimmer of 
light by suggesting a possible theory; they flood it at once with 
radiance by stating its solution. They move in an atmosphere of 
intellectual superiority ; the feebler efforts of others provide material 
for a caustic jest ; they are skilled in sarcasm ; the critical spirit 
dwells in them. 

Yet, with all this, how extraordinary is this literary bias in these 
schoolboys. Read their essays : the ideas, of course, are crude, but 
there are ideas ; the style is often unpolished, sometimes grotesque, 
but there is style. They themselves delight in literature ; the best 
work of the best authors they read with avidity. 

The critical spirit, to which reference has been made, found 
scope for its exercise partly in the raising of nice points in con- 
nection with the association's rules. At one time the society was 
plunged into a long conflict over a proposition, that no one should 
be proposed for election to membership by members of less than 
half a year's standing. These latter were numerically some six or 
eight in number, no small proportion, and were thus able to make 
a fight of many weeks over the matter. At length a compromise 
was offered : W. A. Slater proposed that candidates for election 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


might not be nominated by members of less than six months' 
standing, but should be balloted upon by the whole association. 
Then, with an ingenuity worthy of a better cause, he referred to a 
rule of the society which said that no member might vote on a 
motion in which he was personally concerned ; therefore (he said, 
naming those six or eight members of insufficient status), none of these 
may vote on this proposition. F. Spencer, the spokesman of the 
opposition, in rejecting the compromise, pointed out that, accord- 
ing to the wording of the motion, "the whole association" was 
personally concerned, and that, therefore, no vote could be taken 
at all! To evade this difficulty, at the next meeting Slater 
proposed that "Spencer, Hastling, E. E. Kellett, Mason, Boyns, 
and Maillard, until they have been in the association six months, 
be not allowed to propose any new member." E. E. Kellett at 
once retorted wnth a proposition that "Slater, Simpson, Jackson, 
\V. P. Workman, and H. B. Workman be not allowed to propose, 
second, or vote upon any motion whatever " ! Slater's proposal 
was carried, — by a majority of one ! — and the members mentioned 
in it at once shook the dust of the meeting off their feet, and left 
the room. Stirring times were these ! Next week harmony was 
restored by the repeal of the obnoxious rule. 

From its very origin the society seems to have revelled in 
conflicts of this kind — so much more exciting than a formal debate. 
In 1871 the president said that "there was one member, who 
always seemed to show an utter contempt for the society, and who 
never did anything but behave in an extremely babyish manner 
during the meetings ; if that member did not improve, he should 
feel it his duty to move for his expulsion." During the next year 
we read that " on account of the great disturbance that was going 
on, Mr. Jones left the room in the middle of his speech." 
Repentance, however, was welcomed and promptly rewarded. 
In March 1872 one of the ringleaders "expressed his regret that 
his past conduct had brought the society into difficulties. His 
apology was accepted, and he was made vice-president " ! 

In 1875 ^^^ society arranged itself as a Liberal party in power, 
under the premiership of the president, and a Conservative 
opposition led by the vice-president. This led to difficulties. In 
December of that year the vice-president, on the ground that the 
opposition had not, according to agreement, been allowed a turn in 
the choice of subjects for debate, declined to call on any of his 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


followers to speak, as the rules required him to do. The president 
proposed a vote of censure upon him, saying that this was not the 
first time the vice-president had tried to get them all under his 
thumb. The vice-president retorted in kind, proposed the censure 
of the whole Liberal party, put it to the meeting, and declared it 
carried. He then stated that the Liberal members could not be 
considered to belong to the association, and proposed the adjourn- 
ment; his followers voted ay, and forthwith adjourned. The 
president and his friends remained, and proceeded formally to 
expel all those who had just left the meeting. Some of these 
were subsequently re-elected, but the vice-president never 

The independence of " the Lit " has been shown, not only in its 
attitude towards other bodies, but in the opinions it has expressed 
in debate, on questions which might almost have been expected to 
be foreclosed among Methodists. "Ritualism," indeed, received 
its quietus^ but only by the president's casting vote ; theatres were 
condemned by a majority of one ; the Salvation Army found only 
eight supporters in a meeting of twenty-two. Methodist reunion 
was hopelessly lost. 

The same freedom is shown in the handling of school topics. 
A debate on corporal punishment gave evidence of the healthy and 
natural spirit of the school by the preponderance of voices in its 
favour. The consideration of the best way of giving the school 
effective control over its various committees gave one speaker the 
opportunity to say, that in his opinion there should be no such 
control, " most of the school, through the lack of mental training, 
being incapable of controlling anything." On another occasion, 
the general opinion was that the school hours were too long ; but 
it was great magnanimity that suggested the shortening of the 
hours for the younger boys, and the giving of extra work to the 
seniors. Compulsory games and the admission of laymen's sons 
met, as a rule, with little favour. 

Besides the journal, which at one time took the form of a 
weekly cyclostyled production, the methods employed by the 
association were such as are usual^ in debating dubs — debates, 
lectures, "sharp practice," recitations, the reading of plays, and, 
of course, banquets. But in 1872 we hear of debates conducted 
in French, and it seems worth while to chronicle the admirable 
manner in which, on 9th March 1891, the association celebrated 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


the centenary of John Wesley's death by a series of short papers on 
the following topics : — 

The Social and Religious Condition of England 

before Wesley . . . •. . L. E. Rea Y. 

"The Holy Club" .... L. D. Holland. 

First Years of Wesley's Work . . H. S. Allen. 

Methodist Doctrine . . . Mr. F. G. Bowers. 

Wesley and the Church of England . . J. Waterhouse. 

Wesley's Hymns . . . A. Wi R. Cole. 

Methodist Organization . . . . G. T. Dickin. 

Early Methodism in America . . C. F. Hunter. 

Methodism since Wesley . . . H. E. Wright. 

The continuous existence for thirty years of the Literary 
Association is a fact of which Kingswood boys may be proud. 
Amid all the difficulties which have arisen from time to time from 
the presence of cantankerous members, from personal quarrels, 
from individual apathy, from temporary lack of debating power, it 
has never been suffered to collapse. At times it has seemed to be 
in a state of rapid decline, but it has always confounded prophets 
of evil by arising from its sickbed in restored and vigorous health. 
It has been of great value to those who have taken part in its 
proceedings; if it has perhaps given undue opportunity for 
immature criticism, it has also stimulated thought, loosened 
unready tongues, and cultivated taste. Amid all its expressed 
opinions, youthful, onesided, rash as they may sometimes have 
been, there is nothing on the side of what is mean or third-rate or 
vulgar; it has always "loved the h^hest when it saw it"; its 
instinctive bias has always been towards the best. Such a fact is a 
most convincing testimony to the inherent excellence of the character 
of the Kingswood boy. 

It is not only, however, at the school that Kingswood societies 
have flourished. The allegiance of old boys to their aima mater 
has drawn them, or some of them, together into a Union, about 
which a few words must be said. 

In 1875 a resolution of Conference directed that all former 
pupils subscribing to the Schools' Fund should be enrolled as 
** Associates." These Associates had the right of electing one of 
their number annually to serve for three years on the governing 
body of the school. 

On 13th July 1877 ^^ first meeting (and dinner) of this body 
of Associates took place, the Rev. J. H. James, D.D., being in the 
chdir. At that meeting the Rev. Dr. Moulton and Mr. Clarence 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Smith were elected secretaries, and a large and influential committee 
was appointed. By the end of the year 298 names were enrolled. 
That, however, proved to be the high-water mark. 

The second annual dinner was held in 1878 under the chair- 
manship of Mr. T. P. Bunting. Nominations were then made for 
the Associates* first representative on the governing body. A poll 
was taken by post, and the Rev. G. G. Findlay, B. A., headed it At 
the same dinner the then burning question of the admission of 
laymen^s sons to the school was discussed, but no resolution was 

Next year the Rev. J. H. Lord presided, and Mr. Clarence 
Smith was nominated as representative. 

In 1880, under the chairmanship of Mr. J. B. Ingle, a fund was 
started for the purposes of founding a scholarship tenable at one 
of the universities and of improving the school libraries. About 
jQi^ was raised at the dinner. Mr. F. C. Maxwell was added as 
a third secretary. 

There was no meeting in 1881, but in 1882 Mr. Ingle again 
presided. The Association was now showing signs of weakness. 
A meeting was held at Mr. Clarence Smith's house to discuss the 
situation. In that year only ten votes had been given from among 
the whole of the members in the election of a representative. 

About this time pressure of other work necessitated Mr. Clarence 
Smith's relinquishment of the post of secretary. 

In 1890 the Rev. F. VV. Kellett, M.A., became secretary in place 
of Mr. Maxwell ; next year he was succeeded by Mr. W. P. Workman, 
M.A., B.Sc, headmaster of the school. Mr. Workman formulated 
a scheme for the future management of the Association, of which 
the main feature was the appointment of local representatives in 
various parts of the country, each of whom should be a link 
between the secretary and the old boys of his own district. Mr. 
Workman, however, found it impossible to combine the labour of 
the headmastership of the school with that of the secretaryship of 
the Old Boys' Association. To the latter office Mr. W. Addington 
Willis, LL.B., succeeded, and this gentleman was in at the death. 
In 1894 Conference decreed the dissolution of the Association. 
Despite the energetic efforts of successive secretaries, it had entirely 
failed ; the numbers dwindled and interest evaporated. The causes 
of this were manifold. The system was from the first most un- 
business-like. By the terms of its original creation, members were 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


free to pay their subscriptions, if they preferred it, among the 
annual subscriptions collected in any one of the 780 circuits of the 
Connexion. Most of them did so ; only a few paid through the 
secretary of the Association, who was thus in ignorance of the names 
of the members till the publication of the Conference report ! 

The secretary possessed no money for expenses of management ; 
the subscriptions paid to him were to be handed over intact to the 
Schools' Fund. Consequently, he had no means of maintaining 
the interest of old boys in the school or of promoting mutual 
acquaintance among them. "We never hear of the Association 
except when you ask for subscriptions," was the constant and justi- 
fiable complaint. 

From the ashes of the Association rose, in 1894, "The Kingswood 
and Old Grove Union," of which Mr. W. Addington Willis is the 
secretary. This new body has prospered and done good work. 
Its finances are in its own hands, and therefore it is able to assign 
its funds to such purposes as it thinks fit. During three years it 
has devoted nearly ;;^i5o to purposes connected with the school; 
and it has successfully maintained the annual old boys' dinner, 
which function is required by the Rules of the Union to be held " as 
early as possible in May." It inherits, by permission of Conference, 
the power of electing three representatives to the governing body. 
It also supplies all its members with the school magazine, and from 
time to time arranges for provmcial gatherings in various centres of 

Some mention must also be made of the Kingswood Club, a 
body which meets for social purposes on certain days at Anderton's 
Hotel in Fleet Street. This society was founded in 1883, with Mr. 
H. Hillard as its secretary. Mr. Hillard still holds that office, and 
has kept alive, by the exercise of much zeal and energy, a club, 
which is not as well supported as it ought to be. The Kingswood 
Club deserves well of old boys, if only because, at the time of the 
great weakness of the Association, it stepped into the breach and 
determined that the annual old boys* dinner should not be allowed 
to drop. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



For brass I will bring gold, 

And for iron I will bring silver, 

And for wood brass, 

And for stones iron : 

I will also make thy officers peace, 

And thine exactors righteousness. 

Violence shall no more be heard in thy land» 

Wasting nor destruction within thy borders ; 

But thou shalt call thy walls Salvation, 

And thy gates Praise. 

The sun shall be no more thy light by day ; 

Neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee : 

But the I>ord shall be unto thee an everlasting light, 

And thy God thy glor>'. 

Thy sun shall no more go down, 

Neither shall thy moon withdraw itself: 

For the Lord shall be thine everlasting light. 

And the days of thy mourning shall be ended. 

Thy people also shall be all righteous. 

They shall inherit the land for ever ; 

The branch of My planting, 

The work of My hands, 

That I may be glorified. 

A little one shall become a thousand. 

And a small one a strong nation : 

I the Lord will hasten it in his time. 


Such was the text from which John Wesley preached on the first 
foundation day of Kingswood, 7th April 1746. The history which 
we have traced in these pages justifies the faith that selected that 
text. We have seen the fulfilmeht or the beginning of the fulfilment 
of almost every one of these inspiring prophecies. We have seen 
the rudeness and discomfort of the earliest domestic arrangements 
give place to a more civilized and refined life, and equipment and 
appliances increased and improved. We have seen tyranny and 
harshness superseded by a rough-and-ready justice, and that again 
by the law-abiding and self-governing spirit that befits a great school. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


We have seen cruelty and ill-treatment of the weak disappear, and 
healthier traditions take root and grow up. We have seen the 
steadier and more persistent light of a high moral tone take the 
place of the startling but intermittent coruscations of sudden 
emotion. We have seen the poor little building of 1 748, with its 
handful of scholars, transformed into the present large and handsome 
edifice, with nearly ten times as many inhabitants. It is not difficult 
to see how these changes follow almost verse by verse the majestic 
utterances of Isaiah, which, great as they were, were not too great 
for John Wesley's faith. Surely the history of Kingswood gives us 
the right to apply to the school the titles which Isaiah gave to his 
own nation ; it is a branch of the Lord's planting, a work of the 
Lord's hands. Ought we not also to have the right to expect that 
no merely financial stress shall ever be permitted to tear off or to 
injure this branch, and to destroy or to damage this work, or to 
hinder the fulfilment of that line of the prophecy which says, " They 
shall inherit the land for ever " ? 

The history of Kingswood is the history of a magnificent venture 
of faith. The stones of its walls are an abiding witness to countless 
self-denials. It was begun, it has been supported, it has been 
increased, during the greater part of its life, by the contributions of 
a people not rich in this world's goods, but rich in love; and, 
whenever the supply thus secured fell short of its need, those who 
came to its succour were the very persons whom it was intended 
to relieve, pitifully small though their incomes often were. This 
feature alone makes the history of Kingswood a remarkable one. 

But, apart from this, the history of any school overflows with 
interest. However ill it may be told, it can never entirely lose its 
pathos, its triumph, its rejoicing. Within the school -walls has 
been collected an ever-renewed supply of plastic material ; and the 
moulders have been there also, often cunning workmen, who have 
wrought shapes of wondrous beauty ; sometimes, alas ! mere bunglers 
and botchers, who have left only shapeless lumps of clay. 

Consider any one day in the life of a school ; how full it is of 
adventures, not only of those incidents which seem trivial in later 
years, but are so important and exciting in boyhood, but also of 
real adventures in the arena of moral conflict. Tiny impulses, 
unknown, unnoted, mere " unconsidered trifles," have produced the 
bias, the trend of years. In secrecy and silence, powers are at war 
in a boy's heart, and battles are often fought and won, unseen by 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


any onlooker, sometimes unnoticed by the boy himself. Who can 
tell what little thing it is that has turned the tide of victory to either 
side ? Surely it can only be ^ith fear and trembling that a man can 
dare to attempt to guide the mysterious forces of such a life as this. 

These things make the real history of a school, and they cannot 
be told on any printed page. Yet to those who understand, the 
story of that which can be seen and known is ever suggesting them 
in all their beauty or in all their sadness. To tell the history of a 
school, as far as it can be told, is to describe a landscape which is 
the battlefield of good and evil for the soul of a boy; but it is 
not to describe the battle. It is possible to show how the nature 
of the ground, and the disposition of stream or hill or wood, may 
give advantage to that army or to this ; but it is not possible to 
depict the movements of the forces, to trace the varying fortunes of 
the day, or always to state the issue of the fight. But each who 
sees such a landscape may recall the part he once played in it, of 
victorious advance or of shameful retreat, and therefrom he may 
learn sympathy for his comrades on the same field, whether of 
yesterday or to-day. 

It has been our fortunate lot to picture a field whereon, we are 
bold to believe, the greater part of the young warriors have fought a 
good fight. If it were not so, then indeed Kingswood, for all her 
intellectual triumphs, for all her growing athletic prowess, would 
have failed. But we do not think Kingswood has failed. We 
think that her sons ought to be proud of her, true to her. We 
think that she merits, that she has won, that she will retain a 
lustrous name. We think that the landscape of her hundred and 
fifty years is rich with those acts of chivalry and generosity that are 
natural to British boyhood ; with patient and sympathetic and self- 
denying toil on the part of those who have borne rule within her 
borders ; with the birth and the strong growth of honour and high 
principle in individual lives ; with the memories of many sterling 
souls trained there, who have nobly " served their day and genera- 
tion, ere by the will of God they fell on sleep." By these things 
she has justified her dedication, and has done her work "in gloriam 
Dei Optimi Maximi." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Letters from T. Simpson, M.A., Headmaster, to Mrs. Capiter. 

Kingswoody July 3, 1773. 

Dear Madam, — Mr Baynes informs me of his intention of visiting 
Lincolnshire, and desired me to draw out your son's account, which is 
as follows : — 

Sepi. 6. To a ribbon, 6d. ; Pair of Stockings, is. 3d. 
Nov. 5. To a pair of Thickset Breeches . 
To Making a Coat and Waistcoat 

, 1773. 

Jany. i. To Cloaths Mending .... 
March 20. To Shoes Mending, 1/9. Cloalhes Mending, gd. 
April 10. To a pair of Buttons .... 
July 3. To Cloaths Mending .... 

To Hair Cutting 5 limes .... 

To Pocket Money from 26lh Aug. to 3rd July . 

To a Suit of Cloaths .... 


o I 3 

o 10 

1 6 6 

2 12 3 

Your little son improves very well considering his age. I hope time 
and application will make him a good scholar. I pray that divine grace 
may make him a good Christian. He remembers his love and duty to 

I am, Dear Madam, 

Your sincere Friend and Servant, 

Thos. Simpson. 

To M'rs Capiter. Favour of the Rev. Mr. Baynes, Lincolnshire. 

Kingswoody April \ith 1776. 

Dear Sister,— Your letter I received with the £\o Bill enclosed, for 
which I have given you credit. I shall desire Tommy to write a few 
lines at the bottom as I believe he could not yet write a letter. He 
continues to enjoy a good state of health, and desires his duty to you 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


and love to all his friends. With my sincere desire for your prosperity 
in the best things, I am, 

Your sincere friend and Brother, 

Thomas Simpson. 

HOND. Mother, — 1 send you this as a specimen of my writing 
" Bounty Creates Esteem " 

Your dutiful son, 

Thomas Capiter. 

Kingswood, March 20, 1779. 

Dear Madam, — I yesterday received your letter enclosing a Bill 
for ;£io, 1 6s which is placed to Account. There will be no difficulty to 
get your- Son to London at Conference, either by the Stage Coaches or 
the Stage Waggons. I expect to be at London in the time of the 
Conference, but it is possible I shall come on Horse-back. Your son is 
of a very saving disposition, and when I had told him that it will cost 
near 20/ more to go by the Coach than the Waggon, he readily chose 
the cheapest way. However, I shall follow your direction. Tommy 
does not want for sense, and I have reason to think, as he has promised 
to me, he will be studious to behave himself so as to gain our esteem 
more and more. Mr. Wesley left Bristol last Monday to go for the 
North. You will probably see him this summer. All our family, 
thro* divine mercy, are well. My Wife joins me in best wishes for 
your happiness in every respect. 

I am, Dear Madam, 

Your sincere Friend and Servant, 

Thos. Simpson. 

P.S. Tommy desires his duty to you. 

Letter from A. H. Roberts to Rev. R. Smith. 

Beaumont^ July Tjih 1827. 

Dear Sir,— As I find that I am not to return to Kingswood I feel 
it my duty as well as my pleasure to thank you and dear Mrs Smith 
for all your kindness and attention to me while under your care and 
although I shall be at a great distance from you I shall always 
remember it with gratitude and affection and I hope that when I come 
home for the holydays you will Find I am improved in every thing^. 
May I trouble you dear Sir to give my love to the Miss Smiths and 
thank them for all their kindness to me nor must I omit to thank the 
Masters for all the pains they have taken with me. I am sorry I did 
not attend more to their instructions but I hope to be more attentive 
for the future and so make up for the time I may have lost. I am 
sorry I did not know when I left Bristol that I was to remain in Ireland 
for I should then taken leave of your family for indeed Sir I love 
you all very much and I should be very ungrateful if I did not always 
respect and love you. Will you be so kind as to give my love to Mrs 
and the Miss Smiths and believe me to be 

Your affectionate pupil 

A H Roberts. 

(In the School Register, Mr. Smith has appended to this hoy's name 
the remark, " a lovely boy.") 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Letter from the Rev. James Jones to the Rev. R. Smith. 

Portsmouth^ 24 May 1830. 

Dear Sir,— I feel it to be really my bounden duty to acknowledge to 
you and to Mrs Smith, and to Mr. Griffith and the rest of the Masters of 
the School, the personal obligation which I am under to evety one of 
you for the great pains which you have taken in the education of my 
son ; and I only wish that your labours had been more successful. 

I am fully aware that you must have found him to be an unprofitable 
subject and a difficult boy to manage ; for the obstinacy of his spirit is 
such as I have found it to be extremely difficult to overcome ; and yet I 
begin to hope that by the blessing of God, I shall be able by and by to 
manage him with advantage and success. 

The management of untoward children is, however, an exercise, 
which must always afford to us an ample opportunity of acquiring a 
knowledge of human nature in its degenerate condition, of exercising 
the important duties of forbearance and self-command, and it is highly 
adapted to show to us the great forbearance of God in the government 
of the world ; and I am therefore willing to hope, that under present 
circumstances, I may acquire a more competent degree of these very 
important acquisitions. 

I have been induced to address this note to you, not only from the 
grateful feelings of my own mind ; but likewise from a sense of public 
duty, as I think that the public servants of the Connexion, when they 
discharge their duties with such commendable fidelity, as do the present 
agents of the Kingswood School, deserve something more from us than 
a silent and implicit acknowledgement of their services. 
I am, 
My dear Sir, 

Your affectionate Son in the Gospel, 

James Jones. 

From the Rev. John Waterhouse to the Rev. R. Smith. 

Dudley^ October 20th 1 830. 

Mv Dear Sir, — I have just rec'' your Letter which has greatly 
surprized and pained me. 1 never heard the whisper of a complaint 
against my son when at the Grove but I greatly regretted his not 
improving in learning as I could wish ; indeed he never could equal his 
Brothers and I considered him dull as to learning. His general 
conduct must have been good, when he left the School and for some 
time before he was a member of Mr Adam's Class, so that I was 
altogether unprepared for hearing such an account. If I had supposed 
it at all probable that he would have done so, he should never have left 
my house. He well knows what awaits him if he return home, as I 
never did, and never will, allow any Child of mine to transgress and 
escape with impunity. 

I am not sure that my taking him home would either serve htm or 
the Institution. I think it would rather encourage other boys to decamp 
if they thought by so doing they could free themselves from Tasks etc. 
1 think it much the best to give him severe punishment in the presence 
of the boys />. if he return to school ; if he should find his way home 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


then I must of course consider whether it would not be best for me to 
send him to work in a Coal Pit for a few months. I certainly shall adopt 
some method of severe punishment, if he return home. 

Please to let me know by return of Post if he has returned to School, 
if so, he is in your hand, only spare his life, and I will write him my 
mind on the subject forthwith. Tell him how much I am displeased. 

In haste 

Yours affectionately 

John Waterhouse 

The Rev. Samuel Lear to his sons at Kingswood. 

Dudley^ Octr. 27th 183a 

My Dear Boys, ... I suppose the Conduct of Waterhouse and 
Sugden greatly astonished and grieved you all at school. The trouble 
and distress'it gave their Parents is indescribable. Last Friday Morning 
Mr. Waterhouse and I took a gig and went over to Stourbridge to Mr. 
Sugden's, and finding that he went off the day before to Droitwich, to 
see if the two boys had found their way to Mrs Sugden's Mother's, we 
went in the same road and met him, but he had heard nothing of them. 
On Saturday Morn'g., we heard that a coachman had seen two such boys 
the Evening before, this side Worcester, in the Kidderminster road. 
We again took a gig and set off, and two miles beyond Stourbridge we 
met them. Mr. Sugden had met them two miles farther on. We took 
them up and drove back to Mr. Sugden*s. I assure you, my dear Sam., 
such was the condition in which we found them, that had it been you or 
Thom., I think the sight of you would have broken my heart. At Mr. 
Sugden's I was shut up with them for some time to get all out of them 
that I could. After charging them solemnly to tell me the truth only, 
I said, " Why did you run away from the School ? Were you not treated 
with the greatest kindness by Mr Smith and family? Yes Sir. Did 
the boys vex you in any way ? No Sir. Then had you been punished 
at the school ? No Sir. Why then did you leave ? We found we could 
not get our lessons." That was the only reason they assigned for leaving. 
Then, my dear Samuel and Thomas, I told them of the disgrace they 
had brought on themselves, how they had distressed the kind family at - 
the School, almost broken the hearts of their Parents^ and what was worse 
than all, had greatly offended the Lord. They say they thought to run 
behind the coaches and get home in one day. They came a few miles 
this side Bristol the first day and slept at night under some rushes. The 
next day they travelled about 23 miles, when, finding night come 
on and being tired and hungry^ they thought of the school^ of their 
homes ^ and of what they had done, and sat down and wept. Then they 
fell to sleep under a hedge. After that they proceeded slowly and with 
difficulty, as poor Sugden's feet became very sore. They had no money 
and only brought two pieces of bread from the School. They say a man 
threw them twopence half penny from a cart. With this they bought 
some bread, and ate the last of it on Friday Morn'g. So they had eaten 
nothing but blackberries from Friday Morn'g till Saturday near noon. 
They travelled nearly 80 miles, slept out of doors 5 nights, and 
had scarcely anything on which to subsist. I think another night or 
two would have cost them their lives, and all brought on themselves by 
their wicked conduct in running away from School. Thus my dear boys 
you see sin does not go unpunished. I have too much confidence in 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


you to suppose that either of you would take such a step on any con- 
sideration. Your characters now stand very high at the School for 
good behaviour, and your Father and Mother pray, and I hope you both 
pray, that you may never disgrace yourselves by any wrong act. 

Your aff«- Father 
Sam^- Lear. 

Rev. James Baker to Rev. R. Smith. 

Aylesbury^ June lUh 1831. 

My Dear Bro., ... I am very sorry you should have any 
difficulty in makeing my son a hard student. I think he has not that 
capacity to learn as some boys, and of this I fear those lads who are 
placed over him and set him tasks to learn are not capable of judging 
and therefore give him more to do at a time than he is able, this makes 
him dislike his book rather than love it. I understand he has been 
kept in sometimes for nearly a week and not allowed to be out with the 
other boys, this being the case he has a very great aversion in comeing 
back to School — Of Mr and Mrs and family he makes no complaint, 
nor of his living or anything else ; but those young lads who the other 
day were scholars and now masters, perhaps you are not aware of the 
manner in which my son, and I suppose others are treated by them. 
I understand when they go to say their lessons and are not perfect in 
them they frequently have a rap on their head with their knuckles, and 
their Hair and Ears pulled, My James tells me has frequently had a 
violent pain in the head throug it. I am aware that boys need correction 
but I think this correction ought not be given by such youths who the 
other day were their playfellows — I do not wish to give heed to all that 
school children may say of their Teachers, but I thought I would 
mention these few things to you — If you think you cannot make a 
scholar of James I would rather keep him at home than he should 
be treated unkindly by those lads who 1 think are not capable of judging 
of the capacity of a child and therefor set him more to do than he is 
capable of doing. 

I remain 


James Baker. 

Letter from the Rev. J. Baker to the Rev. R. Smith, Governor. 

Aylesbury^ June \^th 1831. 

My Dear Bro., — I am not dissatisfied with the discipline of our 
School at Kingswood any further than I have thought those youths who 
are employed as Teachers are not (as I have said) capable of judging of 
the capacity of a child and therefore may appoint a boy more to do than 
he is able. 

It appears from your letter you entertain an idea that my boy has 
been talking unkindly and telling untruths of you and your family, for 
you say, " Myself and wife and Daughters are so devoted to promote 
the boys comforts that a boy must be perfectly devoid of every principle 
of gratitude and truth that could speak unkindly of us." Now I can 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


ashure you this is not the case with my boy, for he speaks of you and 
your's in the highest terms ; he neither manifests ingratitude for your 
kindness nor has he said a disrespectful word of you ; but quit the 
reverse. All that he complains of is, that he has been kept in for 
nearly a week together and at the pleasure of these young Teachers. 

1 say nothing against the abilities, or goodness of the characters of 
these Teachers, nor would I do anything to bring our School at Kings- 
wood into disrespect. I hope as a Methodist Preacher I feel interested 
in the support of both our Schools. In the note you sent home with 
my boy you informed me that he had " behaved well " (this afforded me 
pleasure, but on the other hand I was sorry to find he was not " a hard 
student") but now you say he is "truly lazy" (I am sorry he should 
have this character), this I think is no proof of his having behaved well, 
for if he is "truly lazy" he must have been very disobedient to the 
commands of those who " wish to make the boys under their care wise 
and good scholars." You inform me you have " never corrected my 
son," I realy wish you had, I should have been thankful (especially has 
he is "truly lazy") he might have been much more diligent. 

I was not aware by sending my boy a few presents that it would have 
been such an injury to him, in making him think more " about his belly 
than his mind." I should think I am not the only Parent who send 
presents to their children at school. With respect to " sharp advice " 
(you think I ought to have given my boy instead of sending him " cakes 
and other nice things ") I no doubt should have given him such advice 
had I been aware of his laziness ; this is the first time I have heard of 
it. As it relates to myself, there is no man who entertains an higher 
opinion of Mrs Smith and family, of your suitableness to fill the situa- 
tion you now occupy, with your dear Wife and Daughters. I am fully 
satisfied, and cannot doubt for a moment that concern you feel relating 
to the boys comforts. I liave frequently said to my James — should you 
like to have another governor? No, father, he has said, we all like Mr 
and Mrs Smith, and I hope there will never be another governor while 
I am at school, so say I, and I hope please God you may yet live to 
watch over and take care of our children. I hope after what I have 
stated in this letter, should my boy live to retume to school no unpleasant 
feeling will be entertained towards him. In writinpf to you I had no 
intention to offend. I am much obliged for your kmd offer relating to 

Mrs B she joines in love to Mrs S and family. 

I remain 

Your affectionate 


P.S, The last letter you sent had neither wax nor wafer. I suppose 
you did not intend to send it open. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


By Aquila Bennett Barber. 

On the fall of a Sycamore at Kingswood School on 26th January 1842. 

O Phoebe, coeptis annue nunc meis I 
Nunc tende chordas, O Polyhymnia I 
Pamassides, audite caniien I 
O Heliconiades, adeste ! 

Tristissimum casum memoro arboris, 
Vastante nimbo et turbine dirutae ; 
Caelum arbori Lethum imperavit, 
£t statuit cecidisse lignum. 

Lignum tuum, arbos, praemia carminis 
Alcaici sunt discipulo anxio, 
Formam tenens parvi canistri : 
Musa, igitur, mihi copiam da 

Verae poesis, praemia tollere 

Rivalibus, Phoebi au^ilio baud dato ; 
Hi sunt quibus pars est Minervam 
Aut Venerem can ere, aut tonantem 

Patrem Deorum ; sed placet arboris 
Cantare casum carmmibus meis, 
Vesleiique amplam tabellam, 
Turbmibusque agitata tecta. 

Nimbus videtur; nee rabies Noti 
Longe remota est, nee furor Africi 
Aedemque totam quassat Eurus ; 
Aggrediuntur aquae fragore. 

Nunc arbor ex alto cadit in solum, 
Nunc clamor auditur domibus Jovis ; 
Clamore nunc motatur orbis, 
Omnia nunc tumide intuentur. 

Conatus hortos intrahere arborem 
Terra iacentem, sed digitos meos 
Conata sunt ingrata ligna 

Pondere suppremere, adiuvantes. 

Servandane arbos? Lignave quomodo 
Servanda nobis? seu data margini 
Magnae tabellae Vesliensi 
Gratius omnibus intuenti ? 

Condenda seu pilae monumentave 
Felice decasae arboris in loco 
Dictura lignum seminatum 
Tristiaque arboris aeva casae? 

[There was also an English prize poem by the same author, which 
IS not here quoted. The juvenile poet was but fourteen.] 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


MAY 8, 1846. 


1. What is arithmetic ? What are numbers ? 

2. How many digits are there ? 

3. What are notation and numeration ? 

4. What are sum, difference, product, and quotient ? 

5. Write in figures ninety-six millions and ten. 

6. Write in words 4076023568. 

7. Explain an unit and number. 

8. Reauired the sum of 812, 6, 72, 807, and 94. 

9. Add ;£86, i8s. 2d., 15s. 9d., ;£96, 14s., and 9id. 
la From 64 cwt. i qr. take 37 cwt. 2 qrs. 14 lbs. 

1 1. Required the product of 837602 and 503. 

12. Multiply 37068 by the sum of 96 and 88. 

13. Multiply 1286 yds. 3 qrs. 2 na. by 87. 

14. Divide ;^876, i8s. 8d. by 376. 

15. What will 34i cost at 5 for 15s. 6d. ? 

16. If 4 lbs. of soap cost I9d., what will 24 lbs. cost.? 

17. If 18 men do a job in 30 days, in what time will 24 men do it ? 

18. The tax on £\\oo is ^loo, what is it per £\ ? 

19. If 209J lbs. cost ;£i5i, what will 81 lbs. cost? 


20. At 3s. 4d. per pair, what cost 17 dozen and 4 pair? 

21. How much shaloon 3 qrs. broad will line 3 yds, 2 qrs. of cloth 
ij yds. broad? 

22. What must be given for a piece of silver weighing 73 lbs. 5 oz. 
15 dwts. at 5s. 9d. per oz. ? 

23. What quantity of hops may be bought for ;£68, i8s. of which 8 
bags cost ;£2i, 4s. 

24. Reduce ^ -- and— to their lowest terms. 

6424 314 

25. Reduce ^ -and ^^-^ to simple fractions. 

26. Reduce i6j'j and 6J to improper fractions. 

27. Reduce ^ and —3 to mixed numbers. 

9 27 

28. Reduce J of 3^^ of 5 J to a simple fraction. 

29. Reduce J, J, and 5J to a common denominator. 

30. Add I of i and ^ of i^. 

31. From \^ take A. 

32. Multiply 2i by I of I ; and divide y^^ by ^'^ of ^'g. 

33. How much per year at ;£i4, i6s. for 16 weeks ? 

34. What principal will gain ^£262, los. in 7 years at 5 per cent, per 

35. Add 2oa+i2c+^2ii+2Sd, iic-i-iSa, and 43^+ 14^+1 8r. 

36. From 3jjr— iqy take 5|;r — 2qy. 

37. Multiply 4| -J' by 44+^^. 

38. Divide 3(^'--^')bv^-^^^--^). 

a ' 2 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



39. Demonstrate the 4th and 8th propositions (Euclid, Bk. I.). 

40. Demonstrate the 47th, Bk. I., and 4th, Bk. II. 

41. Divide a^^\a^b^-\-\tb^ by a* + 2a^+4^*. 

42. Divide fl'«+«-a"*^-|-a«^-^+« by aT-^-b"', 

43. Find the square root q{ x^-'Zax^-\-{a^-\-2ab)x^ — 2c^bx-\-a^b^. 

44. Find the greatest common measure of ;r*H-2jr+i and x^ + 2x^ 

45. Find the sum of jr-^£t and x+ ^^^ , 

x-^-y x—y 

if. From S'iri^take "+^1. 
2^1— 9Lr yi—2x 

47. Divide 140 a. 2 r. 26 p. by 112. 

48. What is the sum of £,i, ^s. Jd. ? 


49. Demonstrate 35th proposition (Euclid, Bk. III.). 

50. Given :r-£l^ = 5|-^^±^+-, to find x. 

3 5 4 

51. Given (;r+a)i+.r^ = -'^, to find x. 


52. What number when multiplied by 4 exceeds 30, as much as it is 
now below 30 ? 

,3. A, B, and C together have ;£6oo, A, B, and D ;^720, A, C, and 
J900, B, C, and D ^1020, what sum has each ? 

54. Given (-^Ji_(^)i=2, to find x. 

55. Required the compound interest of ;£45o for 5 years at 4 per 
cent, per annum. 

56. Required the discount of ;£5oo due in 10 months at 5 per cent. 

57. The common stock of three merchants is ;£2ooo, A gains ;£200 
in 8 months, B ;^i68 in 12 months, and C ;£240 in 6 months, what was 
each man's stock .'* 

58. The extremes of a geometrical series are 5 and 885735 and the 
ratio 3, required the sum of the series and the number of terms. 

59. The base of a triangle is 1374 and its perpendicular 217 links, 
bow many acres does it contain ? 

60. The diameter of a circle is 1 28, what is its area ? 


61. Demonstrate the 4th of Euclid's 6th Book and the 9th of the 
nth Book. 

62. The axis of a cone is 400, divide it into two parts by a plane 
parallel to the base in the ratio of 2 to 3. 

63. The sides of a triangle are 100 and 200^3 and the contained 
angle is 60°, what are the other angles and side ? 

64. The sines of two angles of a triangle are 33 and 44, the side 
opposite the first is 420, what is the side opposite the other } 

65. Find the equation to a straight line passing through a given 
point and through the origin of the co-ordinates. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


66. Find the equation to a straight line passing through a given 
point and parallel to a given line. 

67. What are the differentials of jr"«/", '^)fi , tv^y^x^y^^ x\^ sin .r, 
//./.jr., and the 2nd differential of x"? 

68. Find the equation to the ellipse. 

69. Find a fraction such that the difference between its m and n 
powers shall be a maximum. 

70. A rectangular cistern contains 240 gallons of water, what are 
its dimensions if lined with lead at the least expense ? 

71. A cylindrical tankard holds a quart of ale, what are its dimen- 
sions when made of the least quantity of silver of a given thickness. 

72. Trisect a cone by planes parallel to its base. 

T^. The sides of a triangle are 33, 44, and 55, what is its area? 

74. Prove that the sum of the circles described on the sides of a 
right-angled triangle are equal to the circle described on the hypo- 

\Note, — This is one of Mr. Exley's papers. It was the regular re- 
currence of question 2 in his papers that gave him his nickname of 
"Digits." Tne boy, whoever he was, that once used this copy, was 
apparently in the Third Division. He marked with a cross certain 
questions, presumably those to which he supplied more or less correct 
answers ; they were 39, 41, 43, 44, 46, 47, 5o> 52, 55, 5^, 57, 59, 60. It 
will be observed that he shied at the old friend Euclid, I. 47. 

Algebra seems to have been commenced in the Fifth Division ; 
Euclid in the Fourth ; yet Euclid's Third Book appears at the same 
time as Simple Equations (questions 49 and 50). The absence of 
problems and riders is noteworthy ; the nature and wording of the 
questions are indeed Jill in favour of rule-of- thumb working.] 


[The following extract from Braine's History of Kingswood Forest 
shows an amusing misconception of both facts and motives.] 

Why the Wesleyan body, after having been so successful in this 
place for so many years, should have shifted off all their educational 
machinery to the neighbourhood of Bath one cannot understand. 
Certainly they have grown very much richer than they formerly were, 
and may have needed a more elegant school to meet the advanced 
taste of the age. But people who grow rich do not always grow wise, 
and there are not wanting indications, I think, in their movements in 
this respect, to believe otherwise than that they have acted somewhat 
if not altogether, wisely in this matter. Whiiefield and Wesley both 
planted their churches in the darkest comers of the land. Their 
object was to Christianise and elevate the " benighted*' masses. 
Hence, whatever means would tend towards this end was adopted. 
For this purpose, the foresight of Wesley is clearly seen in placing a 
school of this kind in Kingswood. Its effect iVould be twofold: the 
sons of ministers would become early acquainted with the deep 
degradation and misery to which men could sink— the picture was 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



before them ; whilst the schooPs opposite effect for good would be 
powerfully and continually felt. 

Indeed, this was afterwards greatly experienced. The neat and 
orderly appearance of the boys had a marvellous effect on the rough 
collier lads and their parents. The contrast which education and 
religion made preached far more powerful sermons than many ministers 
could have done, and induced a decent respect to what was said where 
all other means would have failed. The school thus became an 
institution so highly esteemed by the people in the neighbourhood 
thai its removal was looked upon as a sad loss, and not a few persons, 
especially the poor, were deeply grieved about it. " Could not a site 
be found in all Kingswood ? ^ said a native one day, adding also the 
following remark : "It is sometimes sneeringly said — of course there 
is no truth in it — of this great and growing body that for *a certain 
sin' they are frequently guilty, although the sin of * begging' is now 
punished by common law." If this be true, then the old adage " that 
all beggars go to Bath" receives another verification in the above 
event ; and the spot near Bath may be exquisitely chosen to train the 
young ministry in the higher branches of that art. 


Three sets of rules are appended. The first set consists of the 
latest rules in force at Old Kingswood, the second of the earliest at 
New Kingswood ; these are printed in parallel columns. The third set 
is taken from a manuscript copy made at some time in the late sixties 
or early seventies. 


I. II. 

Of Kingswood School. 

Of the New Kingswood School. 

I. Tlie governor must be satisfied 
that all persons in the establishment 
are at their respective duties in time. 

I. The governor must be satisfied that 
all persons belonging to the establish- 
ment are at their respective duties in 

2. No inmate of the establishment 
shall leave the premises without the 
knowledge of the governor. 

3. No holidays or half-holidays shall 
l:je given without the consent of the 

13. No tutor or servant in the estab- 
lishment shall leave the premises with- 
out the knowledge of the governor. 

10. No holidays or half-holidays shall 
l^ given without the consent of the 

4. The headmaster shall be respon- 7. The headmaster shall be respon- 
sible for the good order and internal sible for the good order and internal 
management of the school. management of the school. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



5. The headmaster shall see that the 
tutors are at their respective duties 
in school hours, and shall report to 
the governor all cases of repeated 

6. No corporal punishment shall be 
inflicted, but under the direction of the 
governor or headmaster. 

7. All the tutors shall be present 
with the boys at public worship on 
Sundays and week-days, and shall walk 
with them to and from chapel, except 
when the governor, for good and 
sufficient reason, shall grant leave of 

8. Two of the tutors shall assist the 
governor or (in his absence) the head- 
master in catechising and in imparting 
religious instniction to the boys, at such 
time on the Sunday as the governor 
shall appoint. On the week-day after- 
noon devoted to religious reading and 
instruction, all the tutors shall assist 
the headmaster as he shall direct. 

9. During the intervals of public 
worship, on Sundays, one of the tutors 
shall be present with the boys when in 
the schoolroom, and when walking in 
the playground. 

10. The hours of study are : from 
seven a.m. to eight — from a quarter- 
past nine to eleven — from a quarter- 
past eleven to a quarter before one P.M. 
— from half-past two to a quarter before 
five — and from seven to eight. In the 
winter months — November, December, 
January, and February — the afternoon 
school hours shall be from half-past two 
to half-past four. 

11. On Saturdays all school exercises 
shall cease from twelve till seven P. M. , 
but on this day the interval from eleven 
to a quarter-past eleven shall be spent 
in school. 

12. The head master shall be in the 
schoolroom during school hours, except 
from seven to eight a. m. and from seven 
to eight P.M. 

8. The headmaster shall see that the 
tutors are at their respective duties in 
school hours, and that they devote their 
undivided attention to the improvement 
of their respective classes. In the 
absence of the headmaster the manage- 
ment of the school shall devolve on the 
second master. All cases of repeated 
irregularity to be reported to the 

9. No corporal punishment shall be 
inflicted, except under the direction of 
the governor or headmaster. 

12. All the tutors shall be present 
with the boys at public worship on 
Sundays and week-days, and shall walk 
with them to and from chapel. 

II. Two of the tutors shall assist the 
governor or (in his absence) the head- 
master in catechising, and in imparting 
religious instruction to the boys, at such 
time on the Sunday as the governor 
shall appoint. On the week-day after- 
noon devoted to religious reading and 
instruction, all the tutors shall assist 
the headmaster as he shall direct. 

3. The hours of study are : from five 
minutes to seven a.m. to eight — from 
a quarter-past nine to eleven — from a 
quarter- past eleven to a quarter before 
one P.M. — from half-past two to a 
quarter before five — and firom seven to 

4. On Saturdays all school exercises 
shall cease from twelve till half-past 
six P.M., but on this day the interval 
from eleven to a quarter-past eleven 
shall be spent in school. 

5. The head master shall be in the 
schoolroom during school hours, except 
from seven to eight p.m. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



13. The tutors shall be in the school- 
room during school hours, except from 
seven to eight P.M., when one or, if 
needful, two tutors shall be present. 

14. Each boy shall have his face and 
hands washed, and be in all other 
respects clean in his person and clothes, 
before he enters the schoolroom. To 
secure attention to this regulation, one 
of the tutors shall be present in the 
mofcing when the boys wash. 

15. One or, if needful, two of the 
tutors shall be with the boys on the 

16. On one afternoon in each week, 
under the direction of the headmaster, 
each tutor shall take his pupils out to 
walk. This regulation does not include 
the afternoon of Saturday, nor the after- 
noon devoted to religious instruction ; 
and it shall cease during unfavourable 

17. All the tutors shall be present in 
the hall to assist the governor in super- 
intending the behaviour of the boys at 
their meals, and during family worship. 

18. Two tutors shall superintend the 
tjoys when going to bed. Each tutor 
shall be responsible for the behaviour 
of the boys in the bedroom under his 
special superintendence, from the time 
he enters the room till the boys leave 
the donnitories in the morning. 

6. The tutors shall be in the school- 
room during school hours, except from 
seven to eight p.m., when one or, if 
needful, two tutors shall be present. 

16. The tutors are required to super- 
intend the lavatories of their respective 
dormitories in the morning ; and also 
to see that the boys, at all times, present 
themselves in their classes with their 
hands and faces well washed, and their 
persons neat in every particular. 

14. One or, if needful, two of the 
tutors shall be present with the boys on 
the playground, and under no pretence 
shall the boys, at any time, be left 
without, at least, one tutor. 

15. Two tutors shall superintend the 
boys when going to bed. The tutors 
shall be severally responsible for the 
behaviour of the boys in the dormitory 
under his special superintendence. 

2. The school shall be opened every 
morning with singing and prayer. 

[These rules were in force up to 1875.] 

The second master is the next authority, in all extra-school matters 
and times, to the governor, in whose absence he is responsible. In 
governor's absence, he conducts family worship. He is held responsible 
to and by the governor for the general maintenance of the Rules, and 
of order and discipline, among — 

I. Masters. 

The second master is responsible for the efficient discharge oi extra- 
school duties by the other masters, and is expected to report to the 
governor any repeated neglect of duty ^ lateness^ or other irregularity. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


He is expected to keep the mark-book and to see that each master 
enters up his marks, and that the totals are made up for public 
announcement by the governor on Saturday morning. Also punishment- 
book for Mondays and Thursdays. 

Duty is taken in rotation by the six other masters, week by week,— 
two masters being engaged each week. It is divided into Nominal 
Duty and Duty proper. 

Nojninal Duty, — To be down and take charge of boys before 
morning school, ringing the bell for assembly a few minutes before 

To be in schoolroom during playtime after tea^ to preserve >?^^/irrii/ 
order (talking is of course allowed). When weather is wet and play- 
ground closed, the schoolroom is always open, and the nominal man in 
attendance. On holiday afternoons the schoolroom is opened at four 
P.M., when he must be present ; or if the boys go to the field, he is 
expected to share the charge of them with the duty master. 

To take charge of boys in bathroom on Wednesday and Saturday 
evenings during washing, and every other Monday, when strict silence 
and despatch is to be enforced. 

To be in the hall for every assembly. 

To be present in the bedroom every evening as the boys come up to 
bed, taking charge of the whole till the duty master comes up, when the 
nominal takes charge of the ist and 3rd Bedrooms, and the duty 2nd 
and 4th. 

To be in the changing room every Monday and Thursday after 
breakfast, to enforce rules. 

Duty (proper). — To take charge of boys during all playtimes in the 
playground and piazza (playground to be closed at dusk and during 
rain), to keep boys out of passages, and to oblige all to go out during 
the following playtimes : after breakfast, at the quarter, after dinner 
(allowing at this time access to schoolroom for tasks, letters, etc.). 

To ring in at two or three minutes before each schooltime, viz. at 
9.15, at 1 1. 1 5 (the two or three minutes does not apply here), at 3.0, and 
at 7.0 P.M. ; to get boys into cla^s places, and mto silence, for the 
headmaster and other masters. 

To maintain silence and order between bells, before meals, and 
then to send boys on in order of tables, fourth first. 

To maintain the strictest silence and order in evening sch<x)l, 
abstaining himself, cts much as possible^ from speaking aloud xo any boy. 

After sending on boys to bed, to follow them and take charge of 
2nd and 4th Bedrooms, seeing every boy in bed before leaving the 

To be present at supper with boys on Sunday evening. 

To lock up by 10.10 and bring keys to the slab. 

The Nominal and Duty are never to be performed by one man ; 
there must always be a substitute if one be absent. 

Chapel. — On Sundays two masters are expected to take King Street, 
and two W.alcot boys. The division has usually been thus : two out 
of third, fifth, and seventh to King Street, two out of fourth, sixth, and 
eighth to Walcot. 

Sundays. — The schoolroom is open all day, and the nominal master 
is, of course, on duty. At four o'clock the boys are all rung in, when the 
duty master takes charge of them till the bell rings (an hour^s reading 
in silence). 

Combing. — On Saturday before dinner in Glasgow room. Boys 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


remain after school in schoolroom with nominal to go on in school 
order to be combed, as required, and thence into playground. Duty 
master in charge of Glasgow room. 

2. Boys. 

The second master is expected to enforce the Rules ; to see the 
boys out of hall after meals, in conjunction with the governor ; to call up 
masters and boys at 6.30 A.M., turn on water, give order for prayer, 
etc., and dismiss in order from dormitories. 

No boy is allowed to go beyond the folding-doors, either to the 
workroom or dormitories, without a ma sterns leave. No loitering 
allowed in workroom. 

Every boy is to show his cap on Monday morning as he goes out 
of hall. 

Every boy is to show his pocket-handkerchief^ on Saturday evening 
as he goes out of hall. 

No boy to leave the premises at any time without the governor's 
permission, or, in his absence, the second master's. 

No boy to enter the dormitories with his boots on. 

The second master is expected once or twice a week, during some 
playhour fixed upon at his own convenience, to sell to those boys who 
have money in white-book, stationery, etc., charging them with same. 

Also to give out pocket-money on Saturdays, and to pay the monitors. 

3. Monitors. 

To report all cases of talking and disorder in hall or bedrooms to 
second master. Punishment by marks or tasks. The pupil teacher 
and extra-year boy to maintain order and silence in passages as boys 
go to and from hall, and on the stairs as boys go to bed. 

1 These were of red cotton and belonged to the school. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





The extra year, given first in 1808, appears not to have been awarded 
every year. Perhaps it was not always taken up. Still the following 
list cannot pretend to absolute completeness. 

1808. J. Crowther. 
1810. J. G. Riles. 

181 2. J. Lomas. 

1813. W. Entwistle. 

1814. Joseph Horner. 

1817. E. Shaw. 

1818. D. W. Vipond. 
R. Treffry. 

C. H. Greenly. 

1 819. \V. M. Bunting. 

1820. J. Morley. 

J. E. Moulton. 
1828. F. Graham. 
1833. G. Morgan. 

H. Hay man. 
1839. F. W. Greeves. 

1842. A. B. Barber. 

1843. G. W. Olver. 

1845. J- Slater. 

1846. R. Mainwaring. 

1847. J. Mowat. 

1848. W. Davies. 

1849. R* Meadmore. 

1850. J. Lowthian. 

1 85 1. W. Rowland. 

1852. W. D. KilHck. 

1853. J. W. F. Cox. 

1854. H. Bythway. 

1855. T. Lowthian. 

1856. T. S. Smeeth. 

1857. T. D. Anderson. 

1858. A. Appleby. 

1859. G. D. Lowthian. 
.S. J. Hooley. 

i860. J. F. Moulton. 
1861. C. W. Appleby. 


1819. G. B. Macdonald. 
1823. W. Coultas. 

1840. J. V. B. Shrewsbury. 

1841. W. M. Woolsey. 

1842. J. M. Raby. 

1843. J. B. Shrewsbur}'. 

1844. Joseph Roberts. 

1845. *W. Gibson. 

1846. A. Levell. 

1847. T. Dickin. 

1848. F. F. Rigg.' 

1849. W. F. Moulton 


1851. E. 

1852. A. 

1853. w. 

1854. J. 

1855. S. 

1856. S. 

1858. E. 

1859. J 
i860. F. 
1861. W. 

W. Turner. 
. Jubb. 
B. Firth. 

W. Nye. 
A. Hartley. 
J. Rowe. 
. Fiddian. 

1 The lionour boards give T. B. Rowe, but the minutes of the Grove Committee 
give F. F. Rigg. According to the Grove governor's register, Rowe left in 1847, 
and Rigg in 1849. 

* The honour boards give F. F. Rigg, but see preceding note. According to the 
minutes the year offered to John l^aumont, but dechned. It was then to be 
offered to W. H. Greenwood, or, as second choice, to T. M. Hocken. Appiu^nlly 
both declined, for the governor's register states that the)r left in 1850. 

' An extra year was also ^ven to J. C. JoU, as ' ' monitor." In 1852 the committee 
appointed J. S. Keeling monitor, in 1854 H. Parkes. in 1855 F. Neale(J. Richardson 
second choice), in 1856 W. F. Robson. in 1857 John W. Winterbum. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





1862. A. S. Way. 

1863. T. L. Taylor. 

1864. R. G. Moulion. 

1865. R. W. Moss. 

1866. T. C. Lewis. 

1867. J. M. Light wood. 

1868. A. H. S. Lucas. . 

1869. R. M, Thomas. 

1870. LI. W. Jones. 

1871. F. H. Kirk. 

1872. C. J. Prescott. 

1873. A. Hillard. 

1874. W. T. A. Barber. 

1875. A. J. Gaskin. 


1862. H. Chettle. 

1863. C. A. Clulow. 

1864. G. G. Findlay. 

1865. R- W. Portrey. 

1866. S. F. Harris. 

1867. B. Fletcher. 

1868. R. G. Smailes. 

1869. E. H. Sugden. 

1870. R. N. Hartley. 

1871. T. P. Walker. 

1872. W. H. Findlay. 

1873. ^- B. Chettle. 

1874. A. W. Ward. 

1875. R- W- Evans. 


June 1876. E. H. Hare. 

June 1887. 

H. A. Naish. 

A. J. Davidson. 
1877. A. D. Sanderson. 

W. H. Thorp. 


H. H. Piggott. 

T. S. Simpson. 
1878. E. P. Gaskin. 

P. Coleman. 


W. 0. Williams. 

F. W. West. 

G. B. Lambert. 

1879. F. W. Kellett. 

Dec. 1890. 

L. D. Holland. 

W. P. Workman. 

L. E. Reay. 

1880. W. E. Hoare. 


H. S. Allen. 

S. A. Vanes. 

T. M. I^wry. 

1881. A. C. Dixon. 


T. P. Thompson. 

W^ C. Fletcher. 

R. Kidman. 

1882. A. E. Hillard. 


S. Smith. 

J. V. Thompson. 
1883. W. E. Brunyate. 

A. T. de Mouilpied 


A. W. Thompson. 

T. C. Piggott. 

C. W. Parkes. 

1884. S. N. Hoare. 


P. M. Orton. 

A E. Taylor. 


G. S. Brett. 

1885. W. R. B. Gibson. 

L. Smith. 

R. H. Colwell. 

S. S. Fairlx^urn. 

1886. E. G. Wilkinson. 


B. W. Baker. 

LI. M. Penn. 

A. W, Greenwood. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Founded by subscription at the Jubilee of the Grove ; transferred to 
Kings wood, 1875. For Mathematics. 

June 1862. A. J. Palmer J 

1863. C. S. McLean. 

1864. J. J. Hartley. 

1865. T. E. Vasey. 

1866. E. S. Woolmer. 

1867. T. H. Morrison. 

1868. R. Foster. 

1869. J. H. Cleminson. 

1870. R. O. West. 

June 1876. 


H. Hillard. 
L. W. Posnett. 
R. H. Figgott. 
A. L. Gaskin. 
A. McAulay. 
G. E. Blanch. 
T. T. Brunyate. 
A. L. Dixon. 
T. P. Kent. 
C>. T. Jones. 
F. T. Dixon. 
S. Pearce. 


June 187 1. 





June 1888. 

Dec. 1890. 


June 1893. 
Dec. 1893. 




LI. R. Hughes. 
A. Dilks. 

fT. Parsonson. 

(J. G. Exton. 

(W. M. Canncll. 

\R. J. J. McDonald. 

/S. Rhodes. 
\W. B 


C. R. Smith. 
F. E. Sandbach. 
C. F. Hunter. 
E. S. Coleman. 
P. M. Wright. 
R. Butterworth. 
R. M. Hooper. 
A. R. Gardner. 

/J. P. .S. R. Gibson. 

\J. L. Ratcliffe. 
A. L. Cooke. 


Founded at the Grove, one by G. Morley, Esq., of Leeds, and one 
by the subscribers to the Jubilee Fund ; each of ^25. Transferred to 
Kingswood in 1875. From 1862-90 awarded in June, from 1890-96 in 


1862. T. F. Moorhouse. * 


W. E. B. Ball. 

M. T. Male. 

A. T. Wilkinson. 

1863. J. W. Whitehead. 


G. W. Blanchflower. 

G. T. Lewis. 

T. W. Piercy. 

1864. J. A. Harris. 


C. H. Cattle. 

G. 0. Turner. 

S. R. Chettle. 

1865. A. E. Booth, 


W\ Foster. 

N. H. Dawson. 

J. P. Bate. 

1866. C. S. Crosby. 


E. W. Cattle. 

W. T. Radcliffe. 

I. W. Winterbum. 

1867. F. W. Ward. 


t. L. Ball, 

H. A. Davison. 

A. E. Toll. 

1868. C. F. Findlay. 


J. J. Findlay. 

J. P. Fiddian. 

T. R. Smith. 

1 The honour boards assign the Jubilee Scholarship of 1862 and the first Morley 
Scholarship of the same year to Palmer and Moorhouse respectively, as in these lists ; 
the Grove headmaster's register reverses this, and makes Moorhouse, J ubilee Scholar, 
and Palmer, Morley Scholar ; the Grove governor's register describes Moorhouse as 
Jubilee Scholar, with no note to Palmer's name. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





1876. J. J. Findlay. 
C. P.White. 

1877. A. J. Davidson. 
W. A. Slater. 

1878. T. S. Simpson. 
K. VV. Pordige. 

1879. W. N. Tetley. 
H. B. Workman. 

1880. W. P. Workman. 
A. J. Moulton. 

1881. W. E. Hoare. 
R. H. Jenkin. 

1882. A. C. Dixon. 
H. S. W. Jones. 

1883. J. V. Thompson. 
P. Armstrong. 

1884. W. E. Brunyate. 
L. M. Armstrong. 

1885. S. N. Hoare. 
J. E. Langley. 

1886. W. R. B. Gibson. 
G. H. Hunter. 

1887. LI. M. Penn. 
T. H. Barratt. 

1888. H. A. Naish. 

jy>o /A. E. Rigg. 

1889. P. Coleman. 

A. G. Rodwell. 

1890. (June) A. Y. Greenwood. 
J. Waterhouse. 

1890. (Dec.) G. B. Lambert. 

1891. L. D. Holland. 
rW. H. Fuller. 
\P. C. Gane. 

,e«, JTH. S. Allen. 
'^92. \i^ M. Lowry. 
G. G. Cocks. 

F. J. Cleminson. 
1894. F. J. Cleminson. 
F. R. Barratt. 

p. J. Cooling. 

1896. P. M. Orton. 

A. L. Dixon. 

1897. L. Smith. 

B. R. de Mouilpied. 


Founded by a legacy of the late Mr. John Fernley ; originally a 
scholarship held at the school, but from 1876 an exhibition for two years, 
tenable at some place of higher education. 

1874. A. B. Shaw. 


1875. J. G. Ridsdale. 

1874. W. W. Holdsworth. 1875. J. T. Gardiner. 

June 1876. W. T. A. Barber. 

1877. A, J. Gaskin. 

1878. A. J. Davidson. 

1879. A. D. Sanderson. 

1880. E. P. Gaskin. 
t8fi, i I^'- W. Kellett. 
'^*- Ie. O. Barratt. 
1882. E. E. Kellett. 
,00 _ f A. C. Dixon. 
^^3. ^w. C. Fletcher. 

1884. A. E. Hillard. 

1885. P. Armstrong. 

1886. (|-5J»^"- 

IS. N. Hoare. 


Tune 1887. 



T. B. S. Barratt. 
W. R. B. Gibson. 
LI. M. Penn. 
P. Coleman. 
A. W. R. Cole. 
G. B. Lambert. 
H. S. Allen. 
T. P. Thompson. 

ni. C. Hocken. 
\ R. M. Hooper. 

IC. W. Parkes. 

) S. Smith. 

\V, J. Cleminson. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Of ;£30 ; founded by the late Mr. J. E. Lightfoot, of Accrington. 
For Divinity. 

June 1879. T. R. Maltby. 

1880. W. H. Willey. 

1 88 1. J. T. Waddy. 

1882. S. VV. Scadding. 

1883. S. Stephenson. 

1884. T. K. Brighouse. 

1885. A. P. Cummings. 

1886. M. Pearson. 

1887. W. P. Fuller. 

1888. A. W. R. Cole. 

1889. J. C. Kidman. 

Christmas 1890. H. Pearce 

1891. P. D. Hunter. 

1892. W. A. Robinson. 

1893. N. Gane.^ 
A. R. Fuller. 

1894. LI. C. Evans. 

1895. K- O. Appleby. 

1896. R. G. Lawn. 



From 1883-85 given to enable fifth-year boys to remain a sixth year ; 
from 1886-88 given as an entrance scholarship. 

From 1 883-85 and in 1889 awarded in June; from 1890-96 at Christmas. 

June 1883. 

G. E. Andrews, 


C. H. Simpson. 


J. C. Hargreaves. 


P. 1). Hunter. 

P. C. Gane. 

W. G. Morgan. 


E. H. G. Duncan. 

T. P. Thompson. 

W. P. Wray 


•D. Hopper. 

W. A. Robinson. 

June 1888. 

Dec. 1890. 





S. Smith. 
R. W. Harding. 
A. C. Coleman. 
J. F. Parkes. 
W. T. Lambert. 
G. F. T. Pearson. 
S. L. Hosking. 
H. L. Bishop. 
J- H. Jagger. 
R. VV. Wanisley. 


Christmas 1 89 1. II. Peet. 

1892. F. Raw. 

1893. C. C. Mayes. 

1894. R. Butterworth. 

Christmas 1895. C. M. Wenyon. 

1896. F. I). Winston. 

1897. A. L. Dixon. 


Christmas 1893. A. R. Fuller. 

1894. A. R. Fuller. 

G. F. T. Pearson. 

1895. A. H. Clogg. 

Christmas 1895. ^^- J^- ^^*^'- 

1896. G. Reilton. 

1897. R. G. Lawn. 

1 X. Gane was drowned in the course of the year, and the scholarship passed to 
A. R. Fuller. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




A silver medal given by the late Mr. John Chubb, of London, in 
memory of the Rev. Jabez Bunting, D.L)., and awarded to the Head of 
the School. 

June 1861. 


W. T. Davison. 

June 1880. 

A. S. Way. 


T. L. Taylor. 


R. G. Moulton. 


R. W. Moss. 


;. M. Light wood. 
M. Lightwood. 



A. H. S. I-ucas. 


J. n. Heeley. 


R. M. Thomas. 


LI. W. Jones. 
F. H. Kirk. 

Dec. 1890. 


C. J. Prescott. 


W. T. A. Barber. 


W. T. A. Barber. 

A. J. Gaskin. 


A. D. Sanderson. 

T. S. Simpson. 


/F. W. Kellett. 


\W. P. Workman. 

A. C. Dixon. 
A, C. Dixon. 
A. E. HiUard. 
W. E. Brunyate. 
S. N. Hoare. 
W. R. B. Gibson. 
E. G. Wilkinson. 
H. A. Naish. 
H. H. Piggott. 
W. O. Williams, 
L. D. Holland. 
H. S. Allen. 
T. P. Thompson. 

/C. W. Ingram. 

\S. Smith. 

/ A. W. Thompson. 

\C. W. Parkes. 
L. Smith. 
G. S. Brett. 


For Divinity ; founded by Mr. John Wesley Hall, of Bristol. 

June 1865. 



J. Fison. 



E. E. Kellett. 

A. Sutch. 


A. E. HiUard. 

A. H. S. Lucas. 


A. E. Hillard. 

J. A. Vanes. 


A. E. Taylor. 

R. M. Thomas. 


A. E. Taylor. 

A. Shipham. 


J. B. S. Barratt 

LI. W. Jones. 


T. H. Barratt. 

C. J. Prescott. 


C. R. Smith. 

C. J. Prescott. 


G. B. Lambert. 

A. B. Shaw. 



H. S. Allen. 

A. B. Shaw. 


C. F. Hunter. 

A. J. Gaskin. 


C. W. Ingram. 

A. D. Sanderson. 


S. Smith. 

F. Spencer. 


S. Smith. 

F. W. Kellett. 

June 1897. 

L. Smith. 

W. P. Workman. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




A gold medal for Divinity ; founded at the Grove by Mr. Thomas 
Meek, of Preston. From 1876 to 1883 it continued to be awarded at 
the Grove, though that had become the Junior School. In 1884 it 
came to Kingswood. 


June 1865. G. G. Findlay. 

June 1875. A..W. Ward. 

1866. R. W. Portrey. 

1867. S. F. Harris. 

1876. G. Osborn. 

1868. I. G. W. Sykes. 

1877. E. 0. Simpson. 

1869. *R. Foster. 

1878. L. A. Baine. 

1870. E. H. Sugden. 

1879. S. B. Gregory. 

1871. R. N. Hartley. 

1880. H. B. Brown. 

1872. T. I*. Walker. 

1881. A. H. Williams. 

1873. W. H. Findlay. 

1882. W. T. Garrett. 

1874. G. B. Chettle. 

1883. A. E. Taylor. 


June 1884. S. Mason. 

1885. S. Stephenson. 

1886. A. E. Taylor. 

1887. E. G. Wilkinson. 

1888. A. E. Rigg. 

1889. H. A. Naish. 

1890. A. W. R. Cole. 

Dec. 1891. L. D. Holland. 

1892. P. C. Gane. 

1893. T. P. Thompson. 

1894. R. Butterworth. 

1895. S. Smith. 

1896. L. Smith. 

1897. B. W. Baker. 


Also known as the Evans Medal ; founded by Mr. S. Evans of Bath, 
in memory of his father, the Rev. S. Evans ; for Arithmetic. 

June 1866. 




J. T. Hillard. 
J. T. Hillard. 
LI. W. Jones. » 
W. W. Jones. 
LI. W. Jones. 
R. H. Chope. 
R. H. Chope. 
C. J. Prescott. 
W. T. A. Barber. 
L. W. Posnett. 
W. P. Workman. 
A. L. Gaskin. 
A. L. Gaskin. 
A. L. Gaskin. 
A. C. Dixon. 
W. C. Fletcher. 

June 1882. 

Dec. 1 89 1. 



June 1897. 

A. C. Dixon. 
W. L. Bunting. 
W. E. Brunyatc. 
T. P. Kent. 
G. H. Hunter. 
G. H. Hunter. 
H. H. Piggott. 
I*. Coleman. 
T. P. Thompson. 
/T. M. Lowr>'. 
VT. 1\ Thompson. 
T. P. Thompson. 
T. P. Thompson. 
R. M. Hooper. 
R. M. Hooper. 
A. E. Brown. 

1 Won by J. T. Hillard, but given to Jones, Hillard having already received it 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Given to the " most proficient out-going boy " at the Grove. Founded 
by F. W. Bedford, Esq., LL.T)., a former master. 

1857. S. Fiddian. 1867. E. S. Woolmer. 

1858. W. L. Ward. 1868. B. Fletcher. 

1859. E. W. Nye. 1869. R. G. Smailes. 
i860. J. A. Hartley. 1870. E. H. Sugden. 

1861. T. H. Grose. 1871. R. N. Hartley. 

1862. W. Fiddian. 1872. T. P. Walker. 

1863. T. F. Moorhouse, 1873. W. H. Findlay. 

1864. G. T. Lewis. 1874. G. B. Chettle. 

1865. G. G. Findlay. 1875. A. W^ Ward. 

1866. R. W. Portrey. 


At the Grove ; for modern languages ; given by Mr. J. C Lane of 
Doncaster, till 1868 ; in 1869 and 1870 by Mr. T. Dewhirst of Bradford ; 
in 1873, 1874* and 1875 by Mr. J. W. Winterburn of Huddersfield. 

1857. S. Fiddian. 1867. E. S. Woolirer. 

1858. R. A. Watson. 1868. B. Fletcher. 

1859. A. P. Fiddian. 1S69. J. P. Fiddian. 
i860. J. A. Hartley. 1870. R. N. Hartley. 

1861. T. H. Grose. 187 1. 

1862. W. Fiddian. 1872. 

1863. A. J. Palmer. 1873. W. H. Findlay. 

1864. G. G. Findlay. 1874. G. B. Chettle. 

1865. J- A. Harris. 1875. A. W. Ward. 

1866. A. E. Booth. 


Two prizes for English essays on some subject connected with the 
Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. Founded by Mr. Thomas 
Farmer in 1850. Up to 1875 the prizes were awarded for the two best 
essays on the same subject ; the list of winners is unobtainable ; among 
them were R. G. Moulton, T. A. Goodwin, A. V. Harding, F. H. Kirk, 
LI. W. Jones, C. J. Prescott, W. T. A. Barber, A. Knowles, G. S. Tyack. 
After the amalgamation in 1875, two subjects were set, one for a 
Senior prize, the other for a Junior. 

The list of winners is appended, omitting years in which there was 
no award. 

June 1876. J. G. Ridsdale. June 1885. A. H. Williams. 

1877. J. J. Findlay. 1887. H. G. C. Webb. 

1878. A. D. Sanderson. 1888. LI. M. Penn. 

1879. F. W. Kellett. 1890. C. R. Smith. 

1880. H. B. Workman. Dec. 1891. P. C. Gane. 

1881. E. E. Kellett. 1892. N. Gane. 

1882. A. E. Hillard. 1893. N. Gane. 

1883. T. M. Taylor. 1894. R. Butterworth. 

1884. J. A. Jones. June 1897. G. S. Brett. 


June 1876. F. B. Greeves. June 1883. R. B. Morgan. 
1877. S. J. Wray. 1884. T. B. Male. 

,00- (0. V. Hughes. Dec. 1892. J. W. Sowerbutts. 
*^^- \LL N. Tyack. . 1894. A. W. Keeley. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





For good conduct ; founded by Mr. Thomas Dix. 

une 1869. J. W. Payne. 

June 1884. J. B. S. Barratt. 
E. D. Jackson. 

1870. LI. W. Jones. 

1871. J. F. W. Turtle. 

1885. S. N. Iloare. 

1872. F. W. Harding. 

1886. L. Parry. 

1873. A. Hillard. 

1887. W. H. Thorp. 

1874. W. T. A. Barber. 

1888. A. R. n. Ingram. 

1875. T. S. Smith. 

1889. G. T. Dickin. 

1876. W. M. Cannell. 

1890. F. T. G. Jones. 

1877. W. P. Workman. 

Dec. 1891. W. A. Robinson. 

1878. F. B. Greeves. 

1892. R. Kidman. 

1879. J. F. Smith. 

1893. N. D. Thorp. 

1880. R. H. Jenkin. 

1894. E. H. Scott. 

1 88 1. A. J. Moulton. 

1895. J. W. E. Sommer. 
June 1897. N. C. Ingram. 

1882. A. B. Thorp. 

1883. S. Mason. 


The foundation for these is a sum of ;£2oo, given in 1872 by Mr. C. 
T. Gabriel, of Streatham, " for the encouragement of studies on the 
Modern Side." In recent years this bequest has been used for the 
encouragement of Natural History, especially Botany and Geology. 
The following are the winners of the Senior Prizes under these 
conditions : — 

June 1882. N. W. Raw. 
1884, A. F. Morrow. 

1886. H. W. Lawton. 

1887. R. I. C. Rodgers. 

1888. LI. M. Penn. 

1889. T. M. Lowry. 
Dec. 1890. T. M. Lowry. 

1 89 1. T. M. Lowry. 

Dec. 1892. F. Raw. 

H. H. Raw. 

1893. F. Raw. 

H. H. Raw. 

1894. C. D. Choate. 
S. V. Sansom. 
L. Smith. 

June 1897. C. M. Wenyon. 


Founded by the Rev. W. O. Punshon, LL.D., in 1876, to be awarded 
after a public competition in Reading. 

June 1876. 


T. S. Smith. 
S. Rhodes. 
L. W. Posnett. 
(j. Osborn. 
T. C. Piggolt. 
L. C. James. 
T. T. Brunyate. 
A. E. Hillard. 
H. A. Naish. 
H. A. Naish. 
J. B. S. Barratt. 

June 1887. 


Dec. 1890. 






C. W. Posnett. 
J. L. Holland. 
J. L. Holland. 
A. Y. Greenwood. 
H. S. Allen. 

A. R. Fuller. 
F. R. Barratt. 

J. S. M. Hooper. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Aug. 1875. W. T. A. Barber. 

Aug. 1887. W. R. B. Gibson 

1876-7. A.J. Gaskin. 

1888-9. W. H. Thorp. 

1878. A. D. Sanderson. 

1 890- 1. G. T. Dickin. 

1879. E. P. Gaskin. 

Jan. 1892. G. B. Lambert. 

1880. F. W. Kellett. 

Aug. 1892. C. F. Hunter. 

1881. E. E. Kellett. 

Apr. 1893. H. S. Allen. 

1882. W. C. Fletcher. 

Aug. 1893. C. W. Ingram. 

1883. A. E. Hillard. 

Nov. 1894-6. S. Smith. 

1884. P. Armstrong. 

Jan. 1897. S. L. Hosking. 

1885. S. Mason. 

Nov. 1897. G. S. Brett. 

1886. J. B. S. Barratt. 



May 1868. 
Aug. 1868. 



Mar. 1872. 
Aug. 1872. 



J. M. Lightwood. 
T. A. Goodwin. 
A. 11. S. Lucas. 
A. V. Harding. 
LI. W. Jones. 
F. H. Kirk. 
W. T. A. Barber. 
W. T. A. Barber. 
W. T. A. Barber. 
W. T. A. Barber. 
A. D. Sanderson. 
A. D. Sanderson. 
A. D. Sanderson. 
H. B. Workman. 
W. P. Workman. 
E. E. Kellett. 
A. E. Hillard. 
A. E. Hillard. 

Mar. 1884. 
Aug. 1884, 





Jan. 1890. 
Aug. 1890. 




Oct. 1894. 
Jan. 1895. 
Aug. 1896. 
Nov. 1896. 
Oct. 1897. 

T. T. Brunyate. 
W. E. Brunyate. 
S. Mason. 
T. P. Kent. 

E. W. Thompson. 
LI. M. Penn. 

W. H. Thorp. 
C. R. Smith. 
H. E. Wright. 
L. E. Reay. 
H. S. Allen. 
C. W. Ingram. 
C. W. Ingram. 
C. C. Mayes. 
S. Smith. 

F. J. Cleminson. 
S. L. Hosking. 

G. S. Brett. 



Aug. 1878. 
May 1879. 

Aug- 1879. 
May 1880. 

Aug. 1881. 
May 1882. 



Aug. 1885. 
May 1886. 
Aug. 1886. 
May 1887. 

T. S. Simpson. 
T. S. Simpson. 
F. W. Kellett. 
F. W. Kellett. 
F. W. Kellett. 
W. C. Fletcher. 
W. C. Fletcher. 
W. C. Fletcher. 
P. Armstrong. 
P. Armstrong. 
L. M. Armstrong. 
L. M. Armstrong. 
T. P. Kent. 
T. P. Kent. 

May 1888. 


June 1890. 






June 1896. 
Aug. 1896. 
May 1897. 


W. R. B. Gibson. 
LI. M. Penn. 
W. H. Thorp. 
G. T. Dickin. 

C. W. Ingram. 
C. W. Ingram. 
G. F. T. Pearson. 
(t. F. T. Pearson. 
A. H. Clogg. 
S. Smith. 
L. Smith. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



ZKVTKl^'Si— continued. 


Jan. 1879. 
Oct. 1879. 


188 1. 

Dec. 1882. 
Oct. 1883. 






A..D. Sanderson. 
E. P. Gaskin. 
K. W. Kellett. 
W. C. Fletcher. 
W. C. Fletcher. 
T'. Armstrong. 
P. Armstrong. 
P. Armstrong. 
L. M. Armstrong. 
n\ P. Kent. 
LI. M. Penn. 
LI. M. Penn. 

Oct. 1889. 
1 891. 

Feb. 1894. 
Oct. 1894. 
Feb. 1894. 
Oct. 1895. 

Feb. 1897. 

W. H. Thorp. 

G. T. Dickin. 

(;. T. Dickin. 

H. Pearce. 

VV. T. Lambert. 

C. C. Mayes. 

C. C. Mayes. 

G. F. T. Pearson. 

A. R. Gardner. 

S. Smith. 

L. Smith. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Academical Course, The . 

•Age of Boys . . . 107, 

Akerman, SirJ. W. 

•Vmen Row, Tne 

Anderson, Rev. T. D. 

Andrews, S. Fox 

Armstrong. L. M. . 

Arthur, Rev. William 


Auxiliary Fund, The 

Baker. J. w. 

Band, The . 

Banks, Mrs. . 

Barber, Rev. W. T. A. 

Barratt. T. H. 

Barry, Bishop . . 254, 

Barton, The . 

Bate, Rev. G. O. . 

Bathroom, The 

Baylcy, Rev. Dr. . 

Baynes, Rev. William 

Beaumont, Rev. Dr. 

Bedford, Dr. . 

Beer . . . 

Benson, Rev. Joseph 


^dilyjohn . 

Boiler, The . 

Books . 

Bowden, Rev. Dr. . 

Bowers, F. G. 

Bradford, Rev. Joseph 

Bristol Riots, The . 

Brown, Charles 

Brown, John . 

Brunyale, Rev. Wesley 

Buck.). W. . 

Budgeit, W. H. . 


Bunting, Rev. Dr. J. 

Bunting, I*. W. 

Bunting, T. P. . 99.241,246, 

Bunting, Rev. W. M. . 98, 

Burdon, W. F. 

Burgess, Rev. Arminius 

Burgess, James 



52. 165 

113, 290 

• 193 

. 256 

• 23s 

• 323 
254. 283 

• 335 
. 104 

• 324 
305. 324 
168, 192 
209, 280 

• 323 
276, 284 

. 14s 
. 283 
. 206 
. 47 
. 158 

• 234 
77i 100 

. 56 
. 172 
. 219 
I, 39. 306 
304. 324 

• 312 
. 84 

• 155 

• 58 
. 61 
. 306 

320, 324 
237, 281 
160, 256 
208, 234 
99. 282 
276, 336 
207, 211 

• 139 
■ 139 
. 48 

Burgess, Rev. W. P. 
Burglary .... 

Burial-ground, The 
Button Sundays 

Cambridgb: Local E.\aminations . 229 
Cambridge University . . 226, 231 
Cannington, John 



Cennick, Rev. John 
Centenary Fund, The 

Chapel, The 
Chaplain, The 
Cheesecakes . 
Chess Club, The . 
Chettle, Rev. H. H. 
Children's Fund, The 
Choir, The 
Cholera . 

Choral Society, The 
Chubb, John . 
Clarke, Rev. Dr. Adam 
Clarke, John . 
Classics . 
Clinkers, The . 
Clothes , . .52, 
Club, Kingswood . 
Coates, W. S. 
Cockhat Sunday 
' ' Cocky Boarders ' 
Cole, A. W. R. 
Collections 41, 51, 81, 82, 
Colliers, Kingswood 
Colliers' Schools, The 
Collins, William 
Commission, The 
Committee, The 
Coward, John 
Cownley, John 
C:ox. J. W. C. 
Crone, Thomas 
Crowther, Rev. Jonathan 



. 103 

22, 146, 200, 201, 208 

254. 259, 300 


• 325 

• 254 
104, 239 

156, 324 

• 155 

• 323 

• 234 

• 74 
. 84 

28, 108, 223 

• 151 
86, 169, 170, 271 

• 337 
. 316 
. 209 

83, 156 

. 323 

85. 103, 239, 249 

15. 155 

16, 21, 83 

. 84 

• 273 
82, 248 

211, 273 
. 58 
■ 53 
. 160 

162, 258 

• 53 
124, 207, 225 


Curriculum . 28, 66, 87, 107, 22i| 277 
Cusworth, Rev. Joseph 131, 170, 201, 286 
Cusworth, Miss . . 168. 287 

Cusworth, Dr. W. W. . . . 287 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



"Daddy's Gravy" •. 
Damey, William . 
Davey, Mary . 
Dawson, Rev. W. G. 
Debates . 

De Boudry, Vincent 
Debt Fund, The . 
Devil's Footprint, The 
" Diamond I'udding" 
Dining-hall, The . 
Divinity . 
Dix, Thomas . 
Dixon. Prof. A. C. . 
Dodd, Richard 
Dormitories, The 27, 
Drill. . 

Dual Government . 
"Dummies" . 


Eacott, Rev. Caleb 

Eacotl, Rev. labez . 

Ivdge, S. Ratnbone 


Elliott, H. . 

Elton, Rev. William 

English . 

Enlargement of School 


Entrance Hall, The 

Entwistle, Rev. William 

Equalization of Payments 

Evans, S. 

Ewer, Rev. John . 

Examinations . 



Exley, lliomas 


Extra Years . 

Fagging 193 

Farmer, Thomas . . . 201, 234 
Fam worth, John . . .216 

Fasting 25, 173 

Fees 34. 52 

Fernley, John 233 

Field, The . . . 211,214.215 
Fights . . . . 162, 189, 262 
Finance 41. 51, 81, 85, 90, 95. 99, 105, 239 
Findlay, Rev. G. G. . . . 336 

Fire, The 47 

Firearms Row, The . . . 257 
Fitch, Sir J. G. . . . 276, 284 
Fives Wall, The . . . .143 

Fletcher, W. C 324 

Flower Sunday .... 209 
Food 25, 28, 171, 187, 192, 193, 266, 278, 
291, 302, 309 
Foundation Day . . 17, 105, 200 
Fourth Form Literary Association, 

The 331 

Fowler, Sir H. H. . . . 235, 273 
Frankland, Rev. Benjamin . . 225 





. 172 

• 54 

34. 37 
, 312 

• 329 

• 77 
' 245 

• 151 

• 173 
149, 199 

• "5 

• 234 
. 232 
. 80 

152, 201 
116, 224 

. 117 
251, 277 

. 267 

. 312 

• 256 

• 235 
. 266 

• 312 

• 295 
III, 226 

• 145 
177, 270, 311 

. 199 

. 122 

. 246 

• 234 
. 82 
. 225 

114, 222 

. 176 

io8, 114, 348 

27. 38 

88, 107, 232 

Gabriel Bequest. The . 

Games . . 26, 79, 173, 

Garden, The . 

Gardens, Boys' 

Garrett, Rev. Charles 

Garston, W. , 

Gilbert, George 


Girls' Schools . 

Glascott, John 

Glasgow Room, The 

Goodwin, T. A. 

Gostick, Joseph 

Governor, The 

Grear, William 

Green, Samuel 

Griffith. Samuel 

Grou, Abraham 

Gunpowder Plot 

Gymnasium, The . 

Hall, J. Wesley . 
Hamiltonian System, The 
Harding. A. V, 
HardMick. Mrs. 
Hare. J. M. . 
Harper. Miss . 
Hart, Mrs. 

Har\'ard, Rev. H. M. 
Hawksworth, Dr. . 
Hayman, Rev. Henry 
Hayman, J. G. 
Headmaster's House, The 
Heald, James ... 
Health 50, 53, 179, 287, 292, 295. 301 
302, 305 
Heating Apparatus 
Hewson, John 
Hickman, Henry . 
Higham, William . 
Hillard, Henry 
Hindmarsh, Rev. James 
Hindmarsh, Rev. Robert 
Hitchings, Miss 
Hobson. George 
Holidays . . 90, 
Holland, Rev. H. W. 
Home Allowances . 
Hoole, Elijah 
Horner, W. G. 
Hours, School 
Housekeeper, The . 
Houses . 
How, John 
Hughes, Rev. H. P. 
Hunt, William 
Hunter, J. W. 


































Ingle, J. B. . 
Irving, John . 

Jackson, Rev. D. . 
Jackson, John 
Jackson, Rev. R. W. 
James, Rev. Dr. 

199, 210 

• 319 
. 160 

. . 58 

• 337 
Si» 56 
58, 6i 

. 324 

235.237. 3" 

96, 229. 270, 308 

. 277. 283 

81, 82, ic». 239 

. 220 

87. 108 

25, 31, 114, 169 

34. 37i 39. 49 

. 3>o 

. . 48 

. 283 

235, 246, 276, 283 

. 302 

• 336 
348, 269 

. 119 

. 312 

. 327 

• 335 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Janies, L. C 323 

lefferson, Henr}' . 237, 252, 288, 303 | 
efferson, John . . . 271, 311 

obson, Rev. Dr 207 

.ohnson, Rev. Robert . . 102, 119 
Johnson, Rev. W. M. . . .84 
obnston, Rev. J. K. . . . 139 I 

[ones, H. S. W 324 

' I ones, Rev. John .... 34 

Jones, Rev. 1. S 235 

Jones, LI, W. 255 

"ones, Mr 3^3 

ones, Rev. Samuel . . 132 

foumal, The 326 

unior Literary Association, The . 330 

Migration, The 
Ministers' Sons 
Missions Fund, The 
Mitchell. Sir H. 
Modern Side, The 

Moon, Rev. George 
Moore, Rev. Henry 
Morality . 
Morals . 
Morley, George 
Moss, Richard 
Moult on, Rev. J. E. 
Moulton, J. F. 
Moulton, Rev. Dr. 

Kat, J. Robinson . 
Keliett, A. F. . 
KeUett, E. E. 
KcUett, Rev. F. W. 
KilUck, W. D. 
Knowles, J. A. 

. 207 

• 323 

• 333 
235» 327. 336 

. 312 
312, 323, 324 

Museum, The 


Music Rooms . 

Musical Society, The 


211, 212, 


Laboratory. The 

Une, J. C. . 


Lawsuit, A . 

Laymen's Sons, Admission of. 

Letters . 


Library, The . 

Lightfoot, J. K 

Lightwood, J. M, 

Literary v\ssociation, The 

Lloyd, Simon . 

Lockyer. Rev. A. ^\ 

Lodge. The . 

Looms, Rev. John . 

London University . 

Lord, Misses . 

Lord. Rev. J. H. . 

Lucas. A. H. S. . 

Lyon, John . 

Macdonald, Rev. G. B. 
MacGeary, Rev. Thomas 
Maddem, John 
Maddem, John, jun. 
Marine, Kingswood 
Main Building, The 

Maltby, T. R. 
Masters . . 27 
Masters' Rooms 
Maihematics . 
Mather, Alexander 
Mather, Ralph 
Maurice, Thomas 
Majcwcll, Dr. F. C. 
Medals . 
Meek, John . 
Meek, Thomas 


216, 307 ! 

• 234 
152, 2C6 I 

. lOI 

246, 276 

. 168 

. 96, 

261, 281 

. 233 

. 326 

326, 365 j 

. 61 1 

. 320 I 
2or, 269 
, 185, 225 
1 228 

• 323 

301. yp ; 

235. 326 ' 

52, 58 

Neatk. a. 
New Buildings, The 
New Kingswood 
Newspaper Club, The 
Noble, Richard 
Nowell, Rev. Dr. . 
Nutt, Elizabeth 


. 104, 350 

42. 83 

104, 239 

• 234 
. 224, 279 

175, 263, 267 
. 3X2 

. 82, X43 

. . . 163 

157. 193. 256 

. 232 

34, 36 

125, 136, 186, 192 

98, 270, 311 

98, 216. 225, 235, 

282, 335 

. T 17. 307 

. 224, 324 

. 216 

• 324 

. 324 
. 211 

. 199 
281, 326 

• 59 
. 67 
59. 61 


246, 269 
. 21, 79, 82 I 
. . 48' 
■ . 58; 
182, 322, 327 

• 149 I 
100 ' 


. 312, 324 
. . 96 

133. 278. 310 

T08, 223. 348 

• 59 
. . 64 

• 57 
. 336 

. 234, 361 
. 248 
. 234 

Old Boys . . . 149, 254, 335 
Old Kingswood ... 18, 140 

Olver, Rev. G. W 282 

Opening Day . . . 17, 105, 207 

Osbom, Rev. Dr 273 

Osbom. T. G. 238, 254, 296 

Oxford Local Examinations 228. 289, 304 
Oxford University . . . 67, 231 

Page, Mr 39 

Paravicini, Giovanni . . 319 

Parlour Boarders . 77» 8r 

Patch, The . . 95, 151, 211 

*' Peril of Kingswood, The" . . 247 
Perks, Rev. G. T. . . 257, 271, 279 

Permits 270, 280 

Pethybridge, G. H. . -325 

Photographic Club, The . . 325 

Physical Training . . . 26,117 
Piazza, The . . . 145. 199, 211 
Piercy, Richard . . 61, 62 

Piggott. Rev. H. J. . .160 

Pigs' Playground, The . . . 205 
Pinder, Rev. Thomas . . .118 
" Plain Account, The " ... 65 
Pocket-money . . 54, 86, 175, 269 

Pocock, W. W. . 233, 273, 283 

Pordige. R. W. . . . . 312 
Portrait of Wesley .... 208 

Posnett, L. W 330 

Potato Famine, The . . -155 
Prayer- Book Row, The . . 257 

Prayers 269 

Preachers, Wesley's ... 42 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Preacher's House. The 
Prefects . 

Prefects' Room, The 
Prest, Rev. Charles 
Price, Peter . 
Priest, Henry . 
Pritchard, Rev. John 
Prize-giving . 
Prizes . 
Punishments . 
Punshon, Rev. Dr. . 



Raby, Dr. 
Randies. Rev. Dr. . 
Rankin. Thomas . 
Rattenbury, Rev. John 
Reading-rooms . 2 
Reduction of Years . 
Reformatory, The . 
Relics . 

Relief Fund, The . 
Religion 57, 1^7, 178. 
Richards, Frank 
Richards, Thomas . 
^^^'g'. Rev. Dr. 
Riggall, Francis 
Roterts, Rev. Thomas 
Rogers. J 

Roquet, Rev. James 
Rowe, Dr. George . 
Rule, Rev. Dr. 
Rules. . 
Running Away 
Ryan, Samh *. 


280, 36s I 

. 215 I 

208, 286 ' 

• 51 ! 

3". 323 
87. 102 I 

• 235 
98. 234. 363 I 

191, 260, 321 

• 234 

. 245 


. 254 

. 282 


269, 292 

213. 216, 281 

125. 137 

113. 285, 303 

. 154 

. 208 

201, 240 

194, 256, 291 

• 23s 
. 34 

138, 162, 247 

. 240 

82. 87, 144 

. 312 

• 35 
289, 311 
228, 295 

24. 135. 351 

167. 256 

. 49 


Sanderson. A. D. . 

Sargent, Rev. W. H. 
Scholarships . 
Schoolroom, The . 
Schools, Public, in 1748 
Schools' Fund, The 
Science . 

Scientific Apparatus 
Scientific Society. The 
Scrap-plates . 
Seager. Stephen 
Sellon. Rev. Walter 
Shaw, A. B. . 
Shaw, Edmund 
Shaw, William 
Shera, Dr. H. M. . i 
Shera, W. J. . 
" Short Account, The " 
Sibly. Thomas 
Simpson, Thomas . 
Simpson, Rev. W. O. 
Slater, Josiah . 


, 102. 126, 311 

312, 324. 325 

210, 307 

. 254, 300 

2 1 6. 232, 356 

143. 153. 199 

• J3 
41. 247 

137. 223 

• "3.307 

• 324 
. 172 

. . 67 

. 34 

. 280 

109, 126, 186 

• 98. 193 
225, 271, 287 

. 288 
. 41 
117. 224 
. 136. 137 
74. 341 
. 235 
. 160 

Slater. W. A. . 
Slugg.J. T. . . 
Smith, Mrs. . 
Smith, Rev. Robert 
Smith, Sir Clarence 

Soans, Rev. R. G. . 
Southey, Quoted . 
Spencer, Prof. Frederic 
Spencer, William . 
Squarebridge, Rev. M G, 
Stamp Sunday 
Stanley, Rev. J. 
Stanley, Rev. Thomas 

Stephenson, A. R. . 
Stevens, Rev. William 
Stevens, William . 
"Stow" . 
Stubbs, Rev. E. T. 
Subscriptions . 
Sw^imming Bath, The 
Swimming Club, The 

Tank, The . 
Taxation of Ministers 
Taylor, Mrs. . 
Tennis Club, The 
Thanksgiving Fund, 
Thompson, Charles 
Thurgar, John 
Toby . 
Tonkin, Mrs, . 
Tower, The . 
Tower Row, The 
Travelling Expenses 
Treffr>', Rev. R 
"Tub, The" . 
Turner, G. O. 




Union, Old Boys' . 

Valton, Rev. John 
Vaughan, Dean 

Waddy, Rev. Dr. . 
Walton, Rev. David 
Ward, Margaret 
Wardrobe Room, The 
Warren, Dr. Samuel 
Way. A. S. . 
Welch, Thomas 
Well. The . 
Wesley's Death, Centenary 
Wesley's Tree 
West. Rev. F. A. . 
Wevill, John . 
Whitfield, Re\'. George 

47. I 

• 332 
. . 183 

168. 176. 187 
122, 185, 342 

. 276. 335 
. 294 
. 259 
J7. 59 

• 333 

. 136. 137 
. 209 

• 144 
. 118 
. 302 
. 325 

. 89, 158 
. 160 
. 51 

. . 183 

• 235 


41. 51 

146, 206, 214 
. 103,239 

• 234 
180, 193, 296 

. 325 
. 242, 281 

. 53 

. . 58 

. 140 

• 235 

. 199, 20$ 
. . 258 

. 86,96.98 
. 129 

• 323 

• 255 

. 337 

. 82 

254, 276, 284 

199, 210 

. 252 

. 131 


. 216 

. . 164 

52. 169. 205. 206 

83, 266, 315, 327 

. 50 

. 104, 206 

of . 335 

. 144 

. 237. 293 

. 139 

15. 22 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Whittock. Mr. 
Whyatt, Samuel 
Williamson, John 

wnus. w. A. . 

Wilson, James 
Wilton, F. R. 
Wing, New . 
Winsbeare, William 
Womersley, Rev. Joseph 
Wood, Rev. James 
Wood. Rev. Robert 

.. 101 

158. 175 


loi, 140 




Woodhouse Grove . . 183, 229, 279 
Woolmer, Rev. Theopbilus 183, 252, 290 
Workman, Rev. H. B. . . . 327 
Workman, W. P. . 306, 327, 336 

Workshop, The 

Worn-out Preachers' Fund, The 
Wra^ge, William 
Writmg . 

YouD, John . 
Young, Rev. Dr. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


" Ptt«r non res est, aed spes." 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

" And hath that early hoi)e been blessed with truth ? 
Hath he fulfilled the promise of his youth. 
And borne unscatlied through danger's stormy field 
Honour's whit« wreath and virtue's stainless shield?" 

F. W. Farkar. 

^As birds of passage on some mid -sea isle, 

From divers lands and bound on divers ways, 
In company assembled for a while, 

Then lose each other in the ocean haze : 

So we are parted when are done the days 
Of our brief brotherhood within this pile; 
The world grows wider tlten ; new hopes beguile ; 

And from new lips we look for blame or praise. 
No lifeless page is this, that bears enrolled 

Names once familiar, and bids reappear 

Forgotten faces. One has climbed to fame 
In law or letters : one proved greatly bold 

In battle : one — it may be the most dear — 

Just does his life's work well and is the same." 

Journal of EducatmHi May 1801. 

" Werde Mann, und dir wird eng die unendliche Welt." 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

The Register which follows is an attempt, not entirely successful, to 
chronicle the name of every boy educated at Kingswood or the Grove. 
^Vhenever possible, notes have been added indicative of the more salient 
poinU in the boy's subsequent career. 

The sources of information are briefly as follows : From 1808 down 
to the present day a Register has been kept by the Kingswood Governor 
for the time being. This is nearly complete in respect of surname and 
date of admission ; less complete in respect of date of departure ; and, 
except in recent times, not at all complete in the matter of Christian 
names. The earlier Governors contented themselves as a rule with 
giving only one Christian name. This has sometimes rendered identifica- 
tion difficult ; sometimes perhaps it has prevented it altogether. The 
corresponding Grove Register dates from the opening of the school in 
1812. It exhibits up to about 1850 a considerable number of inaccuracies 
and omiasionfi. The names have up to that date been apparently copied 
from earher lists, and are all in the same handwriting. Subsequently, 
boys' names seem to have been entered as they arrived. 

Previous to 1808 information is fragmentary. Old bill-lxjoks and 
day-books have supplied the greater portion of such names as have been 
discovered ; the earliest of these books is dated 1766. Some of the early 
Minutes of Conference contain the names of preachers' sons admitted 
each year, but not always, it would seem, with accuracy. Passing 
allusions in Wesley's Journals supply a few other names. 

This Register consists of three parts. The first part is a Register of 
Kin^wood boys. When a boy has been cUso at the Grove, the fact is 
indicated by dates in brackets with the letter G. The second part 
consists of boys who were at the Grove only. This has been added, partly 
lor completeness' sake, the two schools having been virtually only two 
l^ranches of the same institution, and partly because the list in Mr. 
Slugg's MeinoriaU of IVoodliouM Grove ScJwol is both in many points now 
out of date, and was also unfortunately never very accurate. The third 
part GonslBta of a list of masters at both schools. In this list an asterisk 
denotes that the name will be also found in Part I., and a dagger that it 
will be found in Part II. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

The first two parte contain the names of 4669 boys. Of these the 
subsequent career of 2623 has been more or less completely traced. 
A classification of these is added. It may be of interest to compare this 
classification and the details which follow with a statement that occurs in 
the Report of the Grove Committee of 1830. They say : " It is not 
likely that many of these youths will be called to the higher walks of 
life. In some rare instances, indeed, it may occur that individuals 
educated in our seminaries should attain to eminent and exalted stations ; 
but in all reasonable anticipation the great mass of our pupils are 
destined to a happier lot, to tread the paths of middle life, and to 
amalgamate with those numerous and important sections of our popula- 
tion whose general designation is that highly honourable one of the 
yeomanry of Britain."* 

Other prophets were even more pessimistic ; thus the Rey. J. H. 
James, D.D., speaking in 1871, said, "While the ministers are in their 
present financial position, I apprehend that nearly all the boys must 
become retail tradesmen." It is appropriate to note that of Uie forty- 
seven boys who entered the school in that year, eleven proceeded to one 
of the older universities. 

As far as Kingswood is concerned, the work of compiling the Register 
has been done in great detail for the period 1869 to 1889 by Mr^ W. P. 
Workman. This has been published in connection with The Kiiygsxcood 
Mcigdzine, The compiler of the present Register desires to record his 
most sincere thanks to the very numerous old boys and others who have 
assisted him by furnishing information. It is impossible here to record 
all their names. Many of them have been at great pains to supply a 
very large mass of facts. He has also had the advantage of the assistance 
of Mr Daniel Hipwell, of London, an expert in such matters. 

A. H. L. H. 

1 An allusion to this statement is made in the next year's Report ; "If cleanli- 
ness will promote their health , it reigns within the walls of Woodhouse Grove School, 
as surely as pure air and beautiful scenery amongst its surrounding hills and vales. 
If good plain food be adapted to train the dear lads for hardy English yeomen (for 
to this class the last Committee say they are generally destined), here it is furnished 
in abundance. The accommodation for exercise also, if it be not such as to gratify 
their unquenchable desire for play, is, however, quite sufficient to promote their 
health without exposing their monds." 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


'* In via recta celeriter.*' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


1. Total names recordkd : — 
At KingBwood only 
At the Grove only 
At lx)th Bchools 

. 2627 
. 1354 

. 688 


2. Something is known of the subsequknj career of 2623, as 




Wesleyan Ministry 








Holy Orders .... 




Law .... 




Government Service 






Architects and Surveyors 




The Sea 


Art, Literature, Drama, Music . 


Ministers of other Denominations 


Dentists .... 



. 29 

3. Masters:— 

At Kingswood . . 227, of whom 77 were old Ijovs. 

At the Grove . . 152 „ 58 „ „ 

At both schools . . 23 „ 






Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Abraham, Edward (G. 1878-81), 1881-2. Chemist, 79 Abbey Road, 

Adams, Frederick, 1846-52. 

Adama, John Hll^hes, 1840-2. Engineer ; drowned at sea. 

Adcock, Arthur, 1897- . 

Addison, (George Henry Male, 1866, 1869-70 (G. 1871-3). 
Architect, Brisbane. 

Aikenhead, John, 1821-7. M.D., Edin. ; M.R.C.S., Edin. Physician 
to the Manchester Penitentiary. Dead. 

Amsworth, William Gallard (G. 1881-3), 1883-4 ; d. 1890. 

Akerman, James, 1827-33. 

Akerman, John William, 1837-9. Mayor of Pietermaritzburg, 
1859; M.L,C., 1862-92 (Speaker, 1880-92); J.P., F.R.CJ., F.I.I., 
K.C.M.G., 22 Uxbridge Road, Ealing. 

Albrighton, George Robert, 1883-8. Timber trade; Condley, 
West Bromwich. 

Aldiogton, Hcurold Arthur John, 1894-7. Builder, Chatham. 

Aldiogton, Hubert Edward, 1894-7. 

Aldis, James William, 1852-6. Head clerk in a com merchant's 
office; d. 1879. 

Aldis, Robert Browne, 1852-6. Dentist ; d. 1869. 

Aldom, John Wesley, 1832-5. M.A., Dublin and Oxford ; Holy 
Orders, 1855 ; Vicar of Thornton Hough, Cheshire, 1867 ; d. 1897. ' 

Aldom, Joseph RufOs, 1832-6. M.A., F.C.P., private school 
master, Leytonstone ; d, 1885. 

Aldom, William Onesiphorus, 1828-32. Wesleyan minister, 
1840; d, 1888. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Alexander, James, 1816-22. 

Alexander, John Bird, 1819-25. Wesleyan minister, 1835. 

Algar, Joseph, 1795- {X). Wesleyan minister. 

Alger, Berlram Archbutt Morris, 1884-9. Clerk, 20 Denmark 
Hill, S.E. 

Allen, Charles Herbert (G. 1877-81), 1881-2. Photographer, Cornhill. 

Allen, Clifford Birkbeck (G. 1878-82), 1882-4. Formerly Assistant- 
secretary of the KingBwood Club ; clerk in City Bank, Threadneedle 

Allen, Edgar Johnson (G. 1876-9), 1879-82. B.Sc., London; 
received Royal Society's Grant for Research, 1893 ; director of 
Plymouth Laboratory, 1896. 

Allen, Ernest Lupton (G. 1881-3), 1883-7. Art-master, Redditch 

Allen, Harold Newman, 1874-5 (G. 1875-7), 1877-81. B.Sc, 
London. Assistant Professor of Physics, State University, Nebraska, 

Allen, Herbert Stanley, 1886-93. B.Sc, Ix)ndon ; B.A., Trinity 
College, Cambridge (10th Wrangler, 1896 ; first class in Natural 
Science, 1897). Lecturer, University College, Aberystwyth. 

Allen, James, 1831-7. Wesleyan minister, 1846 ; d. 1873. 

Allen, James, 1839-45 ; d. 1846. 

Allen, John Sutoliffe (G. 1873-6), 1876-9. Wesleyan minister, 1889. 

Allen, Joseph Bawden, 1861-6. Wesleyan minister, 1876. 

Allen, Richard Watson, 1842-6. Wesleyan minister, 1859 ; 
Secretary of Army and Navy Sub-committee. 

Allen, WiJter, circa 1766. 

Allen, William, 1856, 1858-62. 

Allen, Williajn George (G. 1876-8), 1878-81. Wesleyan minister, 1891. 

Allen, William Osborne, 1891-6. G.W.R. Works, Swindon. 

AUin, John Wesley, 1854-60. Doctor, Islington ; rf. 1875. 

Alston, Alfred Edmund, 1857-63. Engaged in china manufacture ; 
d, 1891. 

Alston, Bemajxi Bourne, 1856-62. Captain in Merchant Service. 

Alston, James Wardle, 1860-5. Holy Orders, 1882 ; Vicar of 
Cobridge, 1895. 

Alton, Frank Edward, 1878-81. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Anderson, Charles S., 1828-30 (G. 1830-4). Died at Madras, 1844. 

Anderson, John Henry, 1850-6. Wesleyan minister, 1862 ; ih 1880. 

Anderson, Theophilus David, 1851-^8. Master at K. S., 1859 61 ; 
W.H.G., 1862-3. H.A., London. Wesleyan minister, 1865. 

Anderson, William Jenkins Webb (G. 1881^), 1883-6. 

Andrews, Charles William (G. 1872-3), 1874-9. B. A., London ; 
B.D., St. Andrews. Wesleyan mimster, 1886. 

Andrews, Frederick Neville (G. 1870), 1874-7. Chemist 

Andrews, Frederick William (G. 1875-8), 1878-80. Hatter, 
Fleet Street. 

Andrews, Q^orge Ernest (G. 1878-80), 1880-5. B.A., London; 
master at K. S., 1894- . 

Andrews, Henry Edgar (G. 1879-82), 1882-4. Wesleyan minister, 

Angold, Henry Francis, 1895- . 

Angwin, Charles Ashley, 1887-93. Civil engineer, Taflf Vale Ry., 

Angwin, George, 1892-4 ; d. 1894. 

Angwin, James Thibon, 1889-91. Craigmore College, Bristol. 

Appleby, Albert, 1852-9. Master at K. S., 1860-1. Banker. 

Appleby, Charles Wesley, 1856-61 ; d, 1864. 

Appleby, Ernest Osbom, 1892-6. 

Appleby, Qeorge Henry, 1860-5. Wesleyan minister, 1871. 

Appleby, John Payne James, 1861-7. Clerk, Weston Road, 

Appleby, Joseph, 1849-54. Grocer. 

Appleby, William Lawton, 1849-53. Wesleyan minister, 1859. 

Appleyard, Edwin William, 1824-30. B.A., Magdalen Hall, 
Oxford ; Holy Orders, 1844 ; headmaster of Burnley Grammar 
School, 1845-61 ; Vicar of Prestolee, 1862 ; d. 1888. 

Appleyard, John Whittle, 1823-9. Wesleyan minister (S. Africa), 
1838; d. 1874. Translated the Bible into Kaffir, wi-ote a Kaffir 
grammar. Corresp. Mem. Ethnological Society. 

Armett, William, 1842-4. 

Armstrong, Ernest William, 1872-7. Civil Service (War Office). 
Egyptian medal, 1881 ; d, 1893. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Armstrong, Lawrence McKnight (G. 1879-81), 1881-6. M.A., 
Queen's College, Oxford ; master at Bnustecl, Kent. 

Armstrong, Percy (G. 1878-9), 1879-86. M.A., Jesus College, 
Oxford (first class in Mathematics, 1889) ; headmaster elect, 
Middle Class School, Scarborough. 

Armstrong, Sidney Joseph, 1874-6 (G. 1875-6). M.R.C.S., Eng. 
and L.K.Q.C.P., Ireland. Doctor on Inman Line ; rf. 1889. 

Arundell, Richard, drca 1766. 

Ashton, Thomas, 1822-8. Master at K. S., 1828-34. 

Atkins, James Frederick Qannaway, 1861-8. Star Life 
Assurance Society, Moorgate Street 

Aver, William, 1814-20. Chemist; d, about 1837. 

Back, Frank Charles, 1896- . 

Back, James Ncuice, 1891-6. 

Bacon, William, 1829-34. Draper, now retired, 1 Bloomslmry 

Badcock, Henry Southgate Bobertus, 1872-8. Chemist^ 
London Ophthahnic Hospital, E.C. 

Baddeley, Arthur William, 1862-6. Printer and stationer, Boston, 

Bailey, Clement Heeley, 1882-4. G.W.R. Works, Stafford Road, 

Bailey, Reginald, 1897- . 

Bailey, Thomcus Harold, 1897- . 

Baine, Laurence Augustus (G. 1875-8), 1878-81. M.D., B.S., 
Durham ; D.P.H., Cantah., F.C.S. ; 36 Waller Street, Luton. 

Baker, Alfred Francis, 1871-7. Chemist ; rf. 1885. 

Baker, Arthur William, 1893- . 

Baker, Bex^'amin Wood, 1892- . 

Baker, Charles Main, 1872-8. American provision trade, LiverpooL 

Baker, Frederick Norman, 1893-7. 

Baker, James, 1828-31. 

Baker, John, 1823-9. Stetioner, Gloucester. 

Baker, John, 1789-90. 

Baker, John William (G. 1866-8), 1869-72. Chemist, 14 Arle> 
Hill, Bristol. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Baker, Joseph Herridge, 1842*7. Willersley Hou^e, Wellington 
Road, Old Charlton. 

Baker, Reginald Walter, 1893-7. 

Baker, Robert Macfarleuie, 1869-75. Tea trade ; rf. 1893. 

Baker, Stanley Henry, 1897- . 

Baker, Thomcus, 1833-6 ; d, 1861. 

Baker, Thomas Beecroft, 1844-9. Grocer, Bath; d, 1873. 

Baker, William, 182a-30. In business at Bridgewater ; dead. 

Ball, Harold Stead (G. 1874-7), 1877-80. Draughtsman, Chubb's 
Safe Works, London, S.E. 

Ballingall, Chcurles Edward, 1836-40. Copestake, Moore, & Co ; 
rf. 1860. 

Ballingall, Robert Williamson, 1834-8. Draper, 85 Tudor 
Street^ Oldham. 

Ballingall, Thomas McAllum, 1830-6. Draper ; d, 1890. 

Balshaw, George Bowden (G. 1881-3), 1883-6. Draper, Toronto. 

Balshaw, George Herbert (G. 1878-9), 1879-81. In S. Africa. 

Bambrough, WilMd Ernest, 1888-92. 

Bamford, George Highfleld, 1886-91. Adelphi Bank, Castle Street, 

Bamford, John Henry (G. 1876-7), 1877-82. M.A., London. 
Master at W. H. G., 1885-7 ; rf. 1891. 

Ranham, Charles Prootor (G. 1878-82), 1882-5. Electrical 
engineer (A.LE.E.), Table Bay Harbour Works. 

Banham, Sidney Marshall, 1889-95. Medical student. 

Banks, Joseph Edwin (G. 1871-6), 1876-7. Manchester and 
County Bank, Manchester. 

Banks, Richard, 1824-30. 

Bannister, Edward Pox, 1856-61. Captain, Merchant Service. 

Bannister, James, 1788-90. 

Bannister, Samuel Qarle, 1849-66. In America. 

Bannister, William, 1862-8. Draper; dead. 

Barber, Alfred, 1846-51. Wesleyan minister, 1869. 

Barber, Aqnila Bennett, 1837-43. Master at K. S., 1844-5; 
drowned at Bristol, 1846. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Barber, Charles Alft^, 1871-7. M.A., Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, F.L.S. Superintendent of Agriculture, Antigua, 1891 ; 
Lecturer on Botany, Cooi>er's Hill, 1896. 

Barber, Charles William (O. 1877-81), 1881-3. Wesleyan 
minister, 1889 ; i\, 1897. 

Barber, Edward, 1844-9. Wesleyan mini.*»t-er, 1859; went to New 
Zealand, 1881. 

Barber, Edward Qethyn, 1869-75. Commission agent, 16 Holbom 
Viaduct, E.C. 

Barber, Prank Bennett, 1888-90. Civil Service (Post Office 
Savings Bank), 10 Chapel Place, Long Lane, E.C. 

Barber, Frederick, 1849-51 (G. 1861-3). Wesleyan minister, 1860. 

Barber, Henry Martyn, 1889-90. Merchant's clerk, 10 Cbapel 
Place, Long Lane, S.E. 

Barber, William, 1839-44. Wesleyan minister, 1852 ; Ceylon, 1863-8; 
S. Africa, 1859-70. 

Barber, William Theodore Aquila, 1869-76. M.A., Gonvillc and 
Caius College, Cambridge (27th Wrangler, 1880). B.A., London ; 
B.D., Dublin. Wesleyan minister, 1882; China, 1884-92. 
Missionary secretary, 1896 ; headmaster, Leys School, 1898. 

Bftfker, David, 1819-25. 

Barker, Prtuxcis Burton, 1854-6 (G. 1856-9) ; d. 1868. 

Barker, Gheorge, 1766- (?). Schoolmaster, Wandsworth. 

Barker, Jonathan, 1821-4; d. 1831. 

Barker, Bcdph Heathcote, 1893-96. 

Barker, Samuel, 1825-31. 

Barley, Bunten Archibald Hxird, 1888-94. Engineer. 

Barley, David Henry (G. 1870-5), 1875-8. M.D., Durham; 
M.RC.S., Eng. ; (irove House, Burmantofts, Leeds. 

Barley, Frederick Thomiua Murray, 1862-3 ; A, 1863. 

Barley, Henry Alexander Hurd, 1885-90. Wesleyan minister 
(India), 1896. 

Barley, Maurice Arthur Hurd, 1887-9. Chemist. 

Bamley, Arthur Nathanael (G. 1872-3, 1874-6), 1875-7. L.RC.P. 
and L.R.C.S., Edinburgh. Medical officer, Blaby Union. Surgeon cap- 
tain. Medical Reserve. The Manor House, Great Wigston, Leicester. 

Barr, John, 1843-6. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Barratt, Ernest (G. 1876-9), 1879-82. LL.B., London. Solicitor; 
d. 1890. 

Barratt, Ernest Osbom, 1879-81. M.A., Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge. Wesleyan minister, 1889-96. Master at Lough ton 
Grammar School, Essex. 

Barratt, Frederick Russell, 1888-96. Schoolmaster. 

Barratt, John Bernard Sieinlen, 1882-7. M.A., Corpus Christ! 
College, Oxford. Holy Orders, 1893. 

Barratt, Robert Mead, 1874-5 (G. 1876-7), 1877-81. Braid 
manufacturer, 104 Great King Street, Macclesfield. 

Barratt, Thomas Hugh (G. 1882-3), 1883-9. B.A., London. 
Wesleyan minister, 1894. 

Barrett, Charles Alfred, 1859-65. Civil Service (Inland Revenue), 
73 Mount View Road, Crouch Hill, N. 

Barritt, John Wesley, circa 1806. Wesleyan minister, 1817 ; d, 1861. 

Barritt, Wesley (G. 1881-3), 1883-5. Chemist, Newton Heath. 

Barron, William Arthur, 1896- . 

BcuTOWclough, William (G. 1878-81), 1881-3. Draper, Caledonian 
House, Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow. 

Barry, Edward, 1790- (?). 

Barry, Isaac, 1783- (?). 

Barry, James, 1781- (?). 

Barry, John, 1779- (?). 

Barry, Samuel, 1786- (?>. 

Barry, 1773- (?). 

Bartholomew, Charles, 185:2-8. Civil engineer, Great Trunk 
Railway, Canada. 

Bartholomew, John, 1861-7. Cotton broker, Bootle. 

Bartholomew, Thomiua Comock, 1854-60. Printer, and Editor of 
Norwich GixzetU, Ontario. 

Barton, Frederick James (G. 1881-3), 1883-4. Farmer, Pincher 
Creek P.O., Alberta, Canada ; d, 1897. 

Barton, Henry Frederick (G. 1882-3), 1883-6. Ironmonger. 

Bastable, Solomon, circa 1764. 

Bastable, William, (?)-1767. 

Batchelor, George Arthur, 1867-72. M.D., M.S., Aberdeen; 
M.R.C.S., Eng. ; Burghersdorp. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Batchelor, Henry Thomas, 1864-6; M.KC.S., Eng. ; L,R.C.P., 
Lond. Queenstown, Cape Colony. Mayor of Queenstowii, 1896. 

Batchelor, Peter, 1854-6 (G. 1856-8). 

Bate, Arthur Macaiilay, 1866-70. Chemist, Bewdley. 

Bate, Henry Vipond, 1873-6. Civil Service (Bankruptcy Office), 
55 Addiaon Gardens, W. 

Bate, John Henry (G. 1875-6), 1876-8. Druggist. Abroad. 

Bate, William Pope, 1879-81. Farmer, Saskatoon, N.W. Canada. 

Bateman, Qeorge, 1893-7. 

Bateman, John Robert, 1895-7. 

Batten, Edward Bennion, 1828-31. M.R.C.S., Eng. Dead. 

Batten, Thomas, 1830-3. Wesleyan minister, 1845 ; d, 1857. 

Batten, William, 1824-30. 

Baugh, Qeorge Ingledew (G. 1879-82), 1882-4. California. 

Baugji, John William Mah€Uioora(G. 1879-83), 1883-4. Chemist, 
Bexley Heath. 

Baugh, Robert Spence Hardy (G. 1882-3), 1883-7. California. 

Beal, Philip, 1830-4. Doctor ; dead. 

Beal, Samuel, 1834-40. B.A., Trinity College, Camhridge ; Holy 
Orders ; chaplain, R.N. ; afterwards rector of Wark, Northuml>er- 
land. Dead. 

Beal, William, 1824-30. LL.I)., Trinity College, Cambridge; 
F.S.A. Headmaster of Tavistock Grammar School ; Holy Orders ; 
Vicar of Brooke, Norfolk. Dead. 

Beard, James Collins (G. 1867-9), 1859-63. Chemist. Drowned at 
Nagambie, Australia, 1894. 

Beard, Joseph Benson (G. 1858-9), 1859-64. Chemist ; d, 1870. 

Beard, Samuel Robert Richard Hardwidge, 1890-3. 

Beard, Samuel Wesley, 1850-6. Wesleyan minister, 1865. 

Beard, Vincent, 1840-3. Bookbinder. 

Beard, William, 1768-9. 

Beard, William John (G. 1854-9), 1859 ; d, 1864. 

Beaumont, Joseph, 1803-8. M.D., Edinburgh ; Wesleyan minister, 
1813 ; (f. 1855. 

Beaumont, Joseph, 1840-1. Barrister-at-law. Chief Justice, Britisli 
Guiana, 1863-8. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

KINGS wo on SCHOOL 15 

Beaumont, Thomas, 1806^9. Doctor ; Alderman of Bradford ; d. 1859. 

Beaumont, Thomas, 1851-5. 

Beckett, William James, 1895- . 

Beckwith, Gtoorge M., 1849-53. 

Beckwith, Henry J., 1846-62. 

Beckwith, William John. 1841-4 (G. 1844-7). Clerk, N.E.H., 
Darlington. Dead. 

Beeson, John, 1873-5 (G. 1875) ; d, 1875. 

Beeson, William Henry, 1872-7. Cashier ; rf. 1892. 

Beet, William Ernest, 1882-6. B.A., London ; Wesleyan minister, 

Bell, Arthur Hamilton, 1869-72. Joyful News Depot, Rochdale. 

Bell, Edwin, 1837-44. Holy Orders. Held Bishop Colenso^s licence. 

Bell, Herbert Edwin (G. 1874-7), 1877-9. Draper, 4 Newport Road, 

Bell, John Henry (G. 1872-6), 1876-7. Chemist, Beaufort West, Cape 

Bell, John Robinson, 1835-9. Woollen draper. 

Bell, Leopold William, 1892. 

BeU, Richard Wright, 1887-9. 

Bell, Robert, 1841-4. Commercial traveller, Hyde, Manchester. 

BeU, Thomson (G. 1831-2), 1832-4. 

Bell, Walter Wakefield (G. 1874-8), 1878-9. Ocean Insurance 
Company, Bath. 

Bellman, Lewis Dysart, 1885-1891. Chemist. 

Bellman, Robert James, 1886-92. Dentist. 

Bellman, Stanley, 1895- . 

Bennett, Charles Ewart, 1893-7. 

Bennett, Qeorge, 1887-91. 

Bentham, Augustus Lanson, 1847-51. M.KC.S., Eng. ; Southsea. 

Bentley, Ernest John, 1887-91. Draper, 13 Oldham Street, Man- 

Bentley, Vivian Macaulay, 1886-91. Clerk. 

Berry, Siumuel Robert (G. 1875-9), 1879-81. Leather trade, Newark, 
New Jersey. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Berry, Thomas Blaydes (G. 1878-82) 1882-4. Commercial traveller, 
Yarm, Yorkshire. 

Bersey, John D., 1830-2 ; d. 1842. 

Bersey, Thomas, 1828-31. Holy Orders ; d. 1869. 

Bersey, William Davey, 1826-9. B.A., St. John's College, Cambridge; 
second master, Wesley College, Sheffield ; d. 1840. 

Bestall, Albert Henry Arthur, 1 873-6 (G. 1 875-6), 1876-9. Wesleyan 
minister, Burma, 1887. 

Bestall, Charles Edward Stephenson, 1867-72. Planter and J.P., 
Ida, Xalanga, Cape Colony. 

Bestall, William John Gregory, 1868-73. Wesleyan minister, 1881. 

Bevan, William Olphert, 1897- . 

Bewley, Q^orge Edward, 1846-61. 

Bicknell, William, 1767-1760. Schoolmaster, Tooting ; d. 1826. 
See Bid. Nat. Biog, (a. v. Elkanah Bicknell). 

Bingant, Thomas Kempster (G. 1876-7), 1877-80. Timber trade, 

Bird, Mark Despres, 1890-3. 62 Whitmore Road, Small Heath. 

Birley, John, 1828-34. 

Biscombe, Leonard Webster, 1892. 

Biscombe, Thomas Pamell, 1892. 

Bishop, Bernard Osbom, 1896- . 

Bishop, Collins Howell, 1887-92. In a foundry at Poole. 

Bishop, Edward de Jersey, 1883-8. Master at K. S., 1894- . 

Bishop, Herbert Louis, 1892-7. 

Bishop, Norman Millett, 1896- . 

Bishop, Stanley, 1897- . 

Bishop, William Webley (G. 1871-6), 1876-8 ; rf. 1879. 

Bissell, John N., 1846-50. Formerly headmaster of Penrith Grammar 

Blackett, James, 1821-6. Commercial traveller; d. 1876. 
Blackett, William R. (G. 1820-1), 1821-2 ; d. 1822. 
Blair, William, 1794- (?). 
Blair, William Andrew, 1796-1803. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Blake, George Millsom, 1860-5. 

Blanch, Gteorge Ernest (G. 1876-7), 1877-82. M.A., Christ Church, 
Oxford (first class in Natural Science, 1886) ; B.Sc, London. Master 
at Sydney Qrammar School. 

Blanchflower, Qeorge William, 1864-6 (G. 1867-71). B.A., 
London. Master at W.H.G., 1874-6 ; headm^ter, York Castle School, 
Jamaica, 1886-8. 

Bleby, Henry. Moore, 1882-9. B.A., London. Wesleyan minister 
(India), 1895. 

Bleby, Henry William, 1840-6. B.A., London. Master at K. S., 
1852-3. Barrister, 6 Paper Buildings, Temple. 

Bleby, John L., 1852-8. Wesleyan minister, 1862 ; d 1882. 

Bleby, Richard H., 1853-9. Wesleyan minister, 1864 ; d. 1891. 

Bleby, William Henry Parmer, 1867-73. Wesleyan minister, 1876. 

Boddily, John, circa 1766-8. 

Bogie, , 1803- (?). 

Bogie, James, 1811-3. 

Boggis, Arthur Banyell, 1885-91. B.A., London. Schoolmaster. 

Bolton, James Arthur Henny, 1889-93. 

Bond, Charles Ireson Macaulay, 1891-3. Ironmonger. 

Bond, Frederick, 1845-51. 

Bond, John, (?)-1766. 

Bond, John, 1837-42. Wesleyan minister, 1852; Secretary, Ex- 
tension of Methodism (1886), Metropolitan Chapel Building (1881) ; 
Treasurer, Home Missions. 

Bond, John Samuel, 1883-8. Chartered accountant. 

Bond, Robert Arch (G. 1861-3), 1864 ; d 1886. 

Bond, William Morgan, 1843-9. 

Bone, Charles William, 1897- . 

Bonham, Francis John, 1887-9. 

Bonner, John, 1832-5 ; d. 1835. 

Bosward, Qeorge Gooderick, 1888-90. Chemist. 

BoBward, Walter James, 1886-90 ; d. 1890. 

Boulter, Alfred Hilton, 1888-93. 

Boulter, Dennis Boberts, 188&-90. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Boulter, John, 1886-91. 

Bourke, Daniel, 1767- (?). 

Bourke, John, 1778- (?). 

Bourne, Arthur Percy, 1894- . 

Bo wen, James, I76ar (1). 

Bowers, Henry (G. 1827), 1829-30. Exhibitioner of Queen's College, 
Oxford. Tutor, Government High School, 1843-52 ; Lecturer in 
English Literature, Presidency College, 1863-63; Grovemment 
Inspector of Schools, 1863-74 ; all in Madras. 

Bowes, Joseph, 1811-7. 

Bowes, Philip, 1809-15. 

Box, Alfred A., 1863. Artist. 

Box, Edward Q., 1866-61. Merchant. 

Box, Frederick Charles, 1867-63. Publisher, So%dh, Birmingham 
NewSj Balsall Heath. 

Box, James Bromley, 1845-51. Merchant, 26 Tredegar Road, 
Bow, E. 

Box, Wesley Coke, 1844-9. Holy Orders, 1863. Rector of Pole- 
brooke, Northamptonshire, 

Box, William George, 1842-8. M.A., Durham. Holy Orders, 1867. 

Boyd, John Rice, 1835-41. Chemist ; d, 1890. 

Boyd, William N., 1839-45. Commercial traveller; d. 1864. 

Boyns. Nicholas Holman (G. 1872-5), 1876-9. B.A., LL.B., 
London. Solicitor, 1 Alexandra Villas, N. 

Brackenbury, Albert Blackwell (G. 1871 -6X 1876-7. Com- 
mercial traveller. 

Brackenbury, Arthur BUiot (G. 1873-7), 1877-9. Civil Service, 
Newington, New South Wales. 

Bra,ckenbury, Charles Ernest, 1884-9. Engineer, Darlington. 

Brackenbury, Frank Herbert (G. 1879-83), 1883-4. Qerk, 
Orient Line, Sydney. 

Brackenbury, Henry Britten (G. 1876-8), 1878-82. M.R.C.S., 
Eng. ; L.R.C.P., Lond. Royal Hospital, Soho. 

Bradbum, George, 1792^ (?). 

Bradford, Joseph, 1792-9. 

Bradley, Charles H., 1883-8. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Bradnaok, Frederick, 1824-30. Died young. 

Bradnack, Samuel Wesley, 1828-32. Private school master, 
Folkestone ; d. 1895. 

Brailsford, Alfred Walton, 1867-9 (G. 1859-62). Manufacturer, 
Manningham, Bradford. 

Bramfitt, Qeorge Neville, 1894- . 

Bramley, James, 1872-9. B.A., London. Schoolmaster ; d. 1890. 

Bramley, John, 1868-73. M.A., London. Headmaster of Queen's 
College, Taunton. 

Bramwell, George, 1796-1802. 

Bramwell, Qeorge, 1799- (?). 

Bramwell, William, 1799- (?). M.R.O.S., Eng. Surgeon to H.M. 
Sick and Wounded Seamen, North Shields. Dead. 

Brandreth, John, 1834-40. Draper, 192 York Road, Bristol. 

Branston, Edward Penny, 1851-2 ; d, 1853. 

Branston, Joseph Ellis, 1854-9. Clerk in Railway Clearing House, 
London ; d. about 1866. 

Brash, Alexander Denholm, 1886-9. On the staff of " \VM& 
Who ? " (A, & C. Black). 241 Elgin Avenue, W. 

Brash, Prajik Wilson (G. 1874-6), 1876-8. Actor. 

Brash, John Bardsley, 1883-9. M.R.C.S., Eng. ; L.R.C.P., Lond. 
24 St. Domingo Street, Liverpool. 

Brash, William Bardsley, 1891-5. Stead Bi-os., Liverpool. 

Bramie, Henry, 1789- (1). 

Braune, John, drca 1789. 

Brett, George Sidney, 1890- . 

Brewer, Charles Curtis, 1892-3. Ironmonger. 

Brewer, Frederick Jones, 1894- . 

Brewer, James Herbert, 1883-8. Marine engineer, 9 Northcote 
Avenue, Sunderland. 

Brewer, John Waldron, 1894- . 

Brewins, Albert Ernest (G. 1878-82), 1882-4. Grocer, Doncaster. 

Brewins, William Bennitt (G. 1877-80), 1880-3. Stationer, 
Castleton Hill, Rochdale. 

Brewster, Charles Henry, 1866-8. Merchant, America. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Brewster, Frederick William, 1867-8. Merchant, America. 

Brewster, John Edward, 1866-8. Merchant, America, 

Brioe, Alft*ed, 1866-7. Wesleyan minister, 1868. 

Brioe, Charles Wesley (G. 1852-4), 1854-7. First officer, Merchant 
Service, Japan. Drowned, 1872. 

Bridge, Thomas Bverard, 1896-7. 

Bridgnell, Samuel, 1826-8 ; d. 1836. 

Brigg, Frederick Keir, 1886-9. 

Brigg, HemTT Oswald, 1886-9. Wesleyan minister (Mashonaland), 

Brigg, John Teasdale, 1889-91 ; d. 1891. 

Briggs, William Milbum, 1868-64. Wesleyan minister, 1871. 

Brighouse, Alexander Davidson (G. 1874-7), 1877-80. B.A., 
London. Solicitor, Leeds. 

Brighouse, Thomas Keetley (G. 1879-83), 1883-6. M.A., London. 
Lecturer in Classics and French, Aberystwyth, 1894. 

Brisco, Thomas, 1781-9. 

Britten, Charles, 1835-40. Printer, 78 High Street, Birmingham. 

Britten, John Isaac, 1844-6. Wesleyan minister, 1869. 

Britten, Thomcus Candy, 1840-6. Holy Orders. Vicar of Somerbv ; 
rf. 1881. 

Britton, Herbert Edward, 1892-6. 

Britton, Joseph, 1824-30 ; d. 1830. 

Britton, Joseph Willis, 1866-62. Wesleyan minister, 1871. 

Britton, Maurice Wingrave, 1846-60. Business; rf. 1895. 

Britton, Maurice William Willis, 1889-94. 

Broadbent, Arthur, 1883-8 ; d, 1893. 

Broadbent, Arthur Stratton (G. 1876-8), 1878-82. Farmer, 
Olympia, Washington Territory, U.S.A. 

Broadbent, Edwin Paul, 1895- . 

Broadbent, Ernest Theophilus, 1887-92. Shorthand writer, Wesley 
Street, Waterloo, Liverpool, 

Broadbent, Frederick John (G. 1880-2), 1882-6. Carpenter, 

Broadbent, George Thomas, 1883-7. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Broadbent, Percy Augustus Leopold, 1886-91. In a shipping 

Broadbent, Samuel Winn (G. 1 829), 1830-4. M.R.C.S., Eng.; d. 1896. 

Broadbent, Wilftid Lawson (G. 1881-3), 1883-8. Wesleyan 
minister, West Indies, 1897. 

Broadhead, Archibald Corderoy, 1896- . 

Broadley, AIft*ed Reyward, 1892-5. Outfitting business, Derby. 

Broadley, Bex^jcunin, 1891-3. Dixon & Parker, outfitters, 

Broadley, George Herbert ((i. 1882-3), 1883-5. Outfitting 
business, East Grinstead. 

Broadley, John Harrison (G. 1878-81), 1881-3. Outfitting 
business, East GriRstead. 

Brocklehurst, Charles Lavender, 1833-6. 

Brocklehurst, Q^orge H., 1867-71. B.Sc, Glasgow. Schoolmaster. 

Brocklehurst, Gheorge Marsden, 18:^9-33. Accountant; d, 1894. 

Brocklehurst, Herbert, 1864-9. Clerk. 

Brocklehurst, James Shilton, 1836-40. Printer ; died at Victoria, 
British Columbia, 1893. 

Brocklehurst, Joseph, circa 1831. Doctor ; drowned at Northampton. 

Brocklehurst, Theodore Percy, 1863-9. Master at W. H. G., 
1873-8. M.A., Queen's College, Cambridge. Holy Orders, 1892 ; 
Vicar of South Merstham, 1897. 

Brocklehurst, Thomas, 1835-8. Grocer. 

Brocklehurst, William, 1826-9. Died at the close of his apprentice- 
ship to a chemi.?t. 

Brooks, Frederick Morley, 1895-7. 

Brooks, William Garrett, 1894-6. 

Brothwood, Joseph, 1840-4. Teacher of drawing. 

Brothwood, Thomits Qriflaths, 1849-52. Chemist ; d. 1863. 

Brown, Alexander Herbert (G. 1876-80), 1880-2. 

Brown, Arthur Ernest, 1895- . 

Brown, Arthur Turtle (G. 1879-83), 1883-4. Printer, 47 Owen 
Street, Tipton. 

Brown, Cecil Norman, 1895- . 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Brown, Charles, 1838- (?). 

Brown, Charles, 1767- (?). 

Brown, Edmund, 1839- (?). 

Brown, Bmest William (G. 1882-3), 1883-7. Gresham Life 
Assurance Society. 

Brown, Frederick Leighton (G. 1882-3), 1883-6 ; d, 1896. 

Brown, Harold Cowell, 1883-8. Commercial traveller, U.S.A. 

Brown, Henry Brooke (G. 1878-81), 1881-5. B.A., Loudon. School- 

Brown, Hugh Charles, 1894-6. London and Midland Bank. 

Brown, Hugh Lynton, 1886-90. 

Brown, IsaAo, 1783- (?). 

Brown, John, 1840-^. 

Brown, John, 1768- (?). 

Brown, Joseph Norwood Higgins (G. 1878-82), 1882-3. Clerk, 

Australian Banking Company, S. Australia. 

Brown, Lewis Atkins, 1895- . 

Brown, Reginald Duncan, 1886-8. Stockbroker, London. 

Brown, Robert, 1811-3. 

Brown, William, 1840- (0- 

Brown, William Arthur (G. 1882-3), 1883-5. Colliery clerk. 

Brown, William Barlow, 1897- . 

Brown, William Kilner, 1887-9. 

Brown, William P., 1853-5. 

Browne, John Henry, 1870-5. City Bank, London. 

Browne, Richard Trevenen (G. 1876-8), 1878-81. In Star Life 
Assurance Society, Moorgate Street. 

Browne, William Arthur, 1868-75. B.A., London. Wesleyan 
minister, 1883. 

Brownell, John B., 1810-3 (G. 1813- 1). Wesleyan minister, 1826 ; 
rf. 1863. 

Brownell, Thomas, 1809-13 (G. 1813- ?). Went to Tasmania. 

Brumwell, Charles Wesley, 1872-6 (G. 1875-6), 1876-^. Chemist, 
Notting Hill. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Brumwell, Frederic Herbert, 1873-6 (G. 1875-7), 1877-9. School- 

Brumwell, Percy Middleton, 1895-7. 

Bmnyate, James Bennett (G. 1882-3), 1883-5. Trinity College, 
Cambridge ; Indian Civil Service (N.W.P.). 

Bnmyate, Thomajs Tombleson (G. 1876-8), 1878-84. M.A., M.D., 
Christ Church, Oxford. 46 Maidstone Road, Rochester. 

Bmnyate, William Edwin (G. 1878-9), 1879^5. M.A., Fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge (2nd Wrangler, 1888); B.A., London 
(Scholarship in Mathematics, 1888). Barrister, Lincoln's Inn. 

Bryan, James A., 1823-6. 

Biyan, John W., 1821-3. 

Biyant, James, 1834-9. Chemist 

Bryant, John Dyer, 1828-33. 

Buckley, Henry, 1810-2 (G. 1812- ?). Wholesale druggist, London. 

Buckley, James, 1810-2 (G. 1812- ?) 

Buckley, James Fraser, 1862-9. LL.B., London. Master at 
W. H. G., 1870. Solicitor ; d 1891. 

Buckley, John Dcuiiel, 1865-71. Manchester and Liverpool District 
Bank, Manchester. 

Buckley, John M., 1819-25. Captain, Transport Service ; d, 1854. 

Buckley, William Marcus, 1816-7 ; d. 1818. 

Bumsted, Daniel, 1768- (?). 

Bunting, Herbert William, 1882-4. Wesleyan minister, 1891 ; 
d, 1892. 

Bunting, Thomas Peroival, 1818-24. Solicitor; dl886. Author: 
Life of Jabez Bunting. 

Bunting, Wesley Lightfoot (G. 1878-80), 1880-4. B.Sc, London. 
Broad Oak Calico Print Works, Accrington. 

Bunting, William Hartley (G. 1878-82), 1882-5. M.B., CM., 
Edinburgh ; F.R.C.S., Edinburgh. Formerly House Surgeon, Black- 
bum Infirmary. Penge Road, South Norwood. 

Bunting, William Henry (G. 1881-3), 1883-6. Wesleyan minister, 

Bunting, William Maclardie (G. 1813-6), 1816-20. Wesleyan 
minister, 1824 ; d, 1866. 

Burohell, Leonard Rosewame, 1887-8. Colour printer. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Burchell, William Mead, 1885-7. Master at Truro College. 

Burdon, Vincent (G. 1877-81), 1881-3. Koster Brothers, Cloth 
merchants, Bradford. 

Burdsall, John, 1821-2 ; d. 1822. 

Burgess, James Lambert (G. 1874-6), 1876-8. S. Africa. 

Burgess, William Pennington, 1799-1805. Wesleyan minister, 
1814. M.A. Headmaster of K. S., 1832-3; Secretary of Schools' 
Fund, 1836-7 ; d. 1868. Author : IFesUyan Hymiwloyy. 

Burgstrom, John, 1769- (?). 

Burnett, Thomas Gregory, 1889-93. Master, Trowbridge High 

Burrell, Alft^d Gteorge, 1862-4. Wesleyan minister, 1878. 

Burrell, Charles WilHam, 1861-3 ; d. 1863. 

Burrell, Samuel James, 1861-4. Wesleyan minister, 1873 

Burrows, Arnold Hayes, 1895- . 

Burrows, Gteorge Bamford, 1891-6. 

Burrows, I., 1862-8. 

Burrows, Thomas, 1851-6. 

Burrows, Wilfrid Bdgecumbe, 1894- . 

Burton, Arthur Angell, 1879-85. B.A., LL.B., London. Solicitor, 

Burton, Henry Kingsley, 1886-9. Managei*, Holywell Flour Mills, 

Burton, Howard Norley, 1896- . 

Burton, Percy Ezekiel, 1889-94. Shorthand clerk and type-writer. 

Butcher, Gteorge Scales (G. 1873-6), 1875-9. 

Butcher, Wilham Fowler (G. 1871-5), 1875-7 ; rf. 1877. 

Butters, Joseph Bendall (G. 1882-3), 1883-7. B.Sc, London. 

Butters, Joseph BUis (G. 1871-2), 1872-7. 

Butterworth, Raymond, 1887-95. Messrs. Downing & Handcock, 
solicitors, Cardiff. 

Butterworth, Richard Lanyon, 1887-92. London and Provincial 
Bank, Cardiff Docks. 

Button, George Peacock, 1818-24. M.D., Abeitieen ; M.R.CS., 
Eng. Physician, Dorset County Asylum ; d. 1851. 

Button, John Wesley, 1808-12. Wesleyan minister, 1821 ; d. 187U. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Buzza, Charles Kessen, 1883-8. Cloth designer, Huddersfield. 

Byron, WilHam, 1808-14. 

Bythway, Edward, 1850-5. Solicitor, Manchester. 

Bythway, Henry, 1850-3. Solicitor, Pontypool ; clerk to Trevethiu 
School Board and to Llanvrechva School Board. 

Bythway, Herbert, 1863-8 ; d. about 1880. 

Bythway, John Edward, 1840-5. B.A., London. Drysalter, 

Bythway, Monta^^, 1351-7. Merchant, Manchester. 

Bythway, Thomas T., 1844-8. Retired merchant, Southport. 

Bythway, William, 1841-7. Retired merchant, Llanelly ; Hon. 
Volunteer Major. 

Cade, Ernest William, 1885-91. Surveyor, Tiverton. 

Galey, John James Henry (Ci. 1880-3), 1883-5. Engineering 
draughtsman, Lincoln. 

Cfdlier, Percy Myrddyn, 1892- . 

CiiUier, William George, 1892-4. Draper, Newport. 

Calvert, Jcunes, 1863-6. Stockbroker, 120 Bishopsgate Street. 

Cambom, Thomas, circa 1766. 

Campbell, Alexander, 1827-31. 

Campbell, Daniel, 1819-24. 

Campbell, R. John, 1810-5. 

Campbell, William, 1820-3. 

Cannell, John Hilton (G. 1875-9), 1879-81. Goldsmith, Men>oume. 

Cannell, Robert Holmes (G. 1874-7), 1877-80. Leather trade, 
52 Whitefriargate, Hull. 

Cannell, Thomas Beecham (G. 1871-5), 1875-7. M.A., London ; 
Master at Wesley College, Sheffield. 

Cannell, William Morrison (G. 1868-75), 1875-6. B.A., London. 
Wesleyan minister, 1882 (West Africa, 1882-8). Author: Fanii 

Capiter, Thomas, 1772-9. Yeoman-farmer, Grimsby ; d. 1856. 

Cardy, William T. S., 1845-51. Paper-l»ox manufacturer, Chelsea, 
Mass., U.S.A. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Carr, Henry Laacelles, 1850-1 (G. 1851-5). Part proprietor and 
Editor of TU IVestern Mail. J.P., Cardiff. Author: Yankedand 
and the Yankees. 

Carr, James William Hay, 1857-61 (G. 1861-2). Holy Orders, 
1869 ; Vicar of St. Mary's, Hull, 1884 ; d. 1892. 

Carr, William, 1790- (?). 

Carriok, W., 1769. 

Carter, Charles Frederic, 1852-6. Manager, Coal, Salt, & Tanning; 
Co., Grimsby; Member of the Central Council, Royal Provident 
Society for Sea Fishermen ; formerly Town Councillor, Cleethorpes. 

Carvosso, Benjamin, 1834-5 ; d. 1836. 

Carvosso, William Banks, 1831-5 ; d. 1842. 

Cass, Arthur Morgan (G. 1875-9), 1879-82. M.R.C.S., Eng. ; 
L.R.C.P., Lond. Gloucester. 

Caas, Robert Jones, 1859-64. 

Cass, Valentine, 1865-8 (G. 1868-71). Civil Service (Inland 
Revenue), Leeds. 

Castle, Adam Cottam (G. 1864-6), 1868-70. Solicitor, Bristol. 

Castle, Frederick Arthur (G, 1875-8), 1878-81. Draper, 7 Clyde 
Park, Redland, Bristol. 

Castle, Henry Charles, 1855-62. Ti'echman & Co., shipbrokers, 
W. Hartlei)ool. 

Catlow, James, 1766- (?). 

Catterick, Gteorge W., 1846-60. 

Catterick, Thomas B., 1828-32 ; d. 1849. 

Cattle, Arthur Nightingale (G. 1871-4), 1875. Drowned at 
Amsterdam, 1878. 

Cattle, Frederick (G. 1876-8), 1878-83. B.A., London. Solicitor, 

Cave, Pawoett (G. 1871-5), 1875-6. Glass and china merchant, 35 
Lord Street, Southport. 

Chalker, John Robert Evelyn, 1893- . 

Chambers, Albert "P^nia (G. 1881-3), 1883-7. Commercial traveller, 
16 Alma Villas, Driffield. 

Chaml)ers, Gteorge Percivcd, 1867-9 (G. 1869-71). Engineer; d. 1893. 

Chambers, Heber Hamilton, 1864-9. Bookseller, Hall I^ne, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Chambers, John Alexander (G. 1875-7), 1877-9. Reckitt & Sons, 

Gerken Building, West Broadway, New York. 
Chambers, Thomas, 1884-8. F.C.S., A.I.C. Analyst, Parazone Co., 

Chambers, Walter Edwards (G. 186()-2), 1862-6. Surveyor ; d, 


Champness, Charles Se3nnour, 1882-6. Evangelist, China. 

Champness, Thomas Kilby, 1891-3. Joyful News Mission. 

Champness, William Weldon, 1886-8. Carpenter. 

Chapman, Charles, 1852-5. Civil Service, Jamaica. 

Chapman, Edward, 1821-7. 

Chapman, Frederick Wilson, 1883-8. Furnishing business, London. 

Chapman, Philip B., 1849-53. Administrator-General and Stamp 
Commissioner, Jamaica. 

Chapman, William, 1830 ; d 1830. 
Charles, Gterald Percy, 1891-5. 
Charles, Reginald Alfred, 1884-9. 
Charlesworth, Edward Shirley, 1897- . 
Charlesworth, Harold Jesse Lowe, 1897- . 
Cheesman, John, 1854-60. B.A., LL.D., Trinity College, Dublin ; 
Holy Orders, 1869 ; Vicar of Brampton Bierlow, Rotherham. 

Cheeement, Robert, drm 1765-8. 

Cheeswright, James Henry, 1840-2. Master at W. H. (}., 1851 ; 
Wesleyan minister, 1853 ; d, 1856. 

Chesters, Eric Horsefall, 1894- . 

Chesters, Prank, 189a- . 

Chesters, Wcdter, 1889-95. 

Chettle, Bl)enezer, 1826-31 ; rf. 1866. 

Chettle, Henry Hulbert, 1818-24. Master at W. H. G., 1825-31 ; 
Wesleyan minister, 1832; governor of W. H. G., 1868-76; d, 1878. 

Chettle, John, 1813-9. 

Chettle, William Morgan, 1815-21 ; d. 1861. 

Child, Joseph, 1788-92. 

Child, William, 1791-3. 

Choate, Alfred Rodwell, 1888-92. With Mr. W. J. Morley, architect, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Ohoate, Arthur Samuel, 1885-90. Manchester and County Bank, 

Choate, Christopher Denis, 1889-94. With Law, Russell, & C:o., 
merchants, Bradford. 

Choate, Matthew Francis Stephen, 1894- . 

Choate, Robert Pearson, 1897- . 

Choate, Thomas Arnold, 1893- . 

Chope, Albert Edward, 1872-3 (G. 187a-7), 1877-8 ; d, 1881. 

Chope, Hichard Henry, 1865-73. B.A., London. Master at K. S., 

1886- . 

Clark, Albert Fisher, 1863-4. 

Clark, William Chadwell, 1862-6 ; d. 1866. 

' Clarke, Adam, 1782. Wesleyan minister, 1782. M.A., LL.D., 
Aberdeen ; M.R.I.A., F.G.S., F.A.S. President of the Conference, 
1806, 1814, 1822; d. 1832. Autlior : Commentary m the Bible, 
Christian Theology, Bibliographical Dictionary, etc. 

Clarke, Arthur, 1859-64. B.A., London. 

Clarke, John, 1851-6. 

Clarke, Norman, 1861-6. Dead. 

Claxton, John Marshall, 1814-9. Solicitor ; d. 1849. 

Claxton, Marshall, 1821-7. Artist. 

Claxton, William, 1820-4. Stationer. 

Cleaver, Arthur Linton (G. 1882-3), 1883-6. 

Cleaver, Joseph Charles Carleton, 1867-70. M.R.C.S., Eng. ; 
M.D., Kingston, Canada ; d. 1894. 

Cleaver, Percival Dillon, 1883-6. Draper. 

Cleaver, William Pidler, 1863-9. M.R.(;.S., Eng. ; L.R.C.r., 
Lond. Port of Spain, Trinidad. 

Clegg, Gheorge William Brough, 1888-93. Draper, Houn^low. 

Clegg, James Barlow, 1889-94. With Woolright & Co., silk inercer^^, 

Clegg, Stanley, 1884-90. Electrical engineer. 

Clement, John Radford, 1852-8. Chemist^ Egremont, Birkenhead. 

' Adam Clarke entered for the academical course as a student in theology. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Clements, John Hall, 1884-8. Sui^eou, 4 Claremuut Road 
HaDdsworth, Birmingham. 

Cleminson, Arnold Buasell, 1894- . 

Cleminson, Frederick John, 1891-6. Oaius College, Cambridge. 

CleminBon, Henry Millicaji, 1897- . 

Cloche, John, 1826-31. 

Glogg, Arthur Henry, 1892-6. 

Clogg, Ernest Harold, 1893- . , 

Glogg, Herbert Sherwell, 1885-92. Medical student. 

Clogg, William Edgar, 1886-91. Solicitor. 

Close, John Wesley, 1833-9. Wesleyan minister, 1847. Dead. 

Clulow, William, 1768-9. Attorney. 

Coates, Henry, 1838-44. 

Coates, John, 1825-30. Bookseller, Loughborough. 

Coates, John Gteorge, 1853-8. Solicitor ; d. 189"). 

Coates, William, 1832-8. Chemist. Dead. 

Coates, William Henry, 1853-9. M.R.C.S., Eng. Hambledou, 

Cocker, Alfred, 1859-64. 

Cockill, Thomas Treflftrjr (G. 1876-8), 1878-83. M.R.C.S., Eng. ; 
L.R.C.P. Lond. Hanley. 

Cockill, William Baron, 1874-5 (G. 1875-7), 1877-81. M.R.C.S., 
Eng. ; L.R.C.P., Lond. Hon. Surgeon, Kendal Hosjatal, 1888. 

Cocking, Charles Thomas, 1870-76. Wesleyan minister, Canada 
(Japan, 1884-91). 

Cocks, Q^orge Qower, 1888-93. Schoolmaster, Queenstown, S. 
Africa. B.A., Cape University. 

Cocks, James Dingle, 1884-8. Wesleyan ministry. 

Cole, Alfred William Richardson, 1883-91. B.A., Merton College, 
Oxford. Indian Civil Service. 

Cole, Arthur Walter, 1889-95. Auctioneer, Frome. 

Cole, Ebenezer Vincent, 1885-90. Law clerk. 

Coleman, Arthur Charles, 1885-91. Electrical engineer, Elswick 

Coleman, Edwin Sydney, 1885-92. Chartered accountant, 59 Elms 
Road, Clapham Common. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Coleman, Percy, 1883-90. B.A., Queen's College, Oxford (first class 
in Mathematics, 1894). Master at Owen's School, Islington. 
Assistant Secretary of Eingswood Club. 

Coley, Samuel Ernest, 1894- . 

Collet, Richard, 1768- (?). 

Collier, Charles, 1821-6. 

Collier, John, 1813-9. Wesleyan minister, 1829 ; d, 1870. 

Collier, John Adams (G. 1845-8), 1848-61. Chemist, Bute Docks, 

Collier, Joseph, 1817-23. 

Collier, Thomas, 1815-21. 

Collier, Wesley, 1849-53. 

Collins, Joseph, 1781- (?). 

Collins, Joshiia, 1782-9. 

Collins, William, drca 1789. 

Collins, William, 1766- (?). Wesleyan minister, 1787. 

Colwell, Charles, 1842-7. Wesleyan minister, 1856 ; rf. 1866. 

Colwell, John William (G. 1877-8), 1878-81. Wesleyan minister, 

Colwell, Joseph Cullis, 1876-9. Wesleyan minister, 1888. 

Colwell, Richard Harold (G. 1879-83), 1883-6. 57 Isledon Road, 
Finsbury Park. Formerly minister, M.E. Church. 

Condy, Gteorge, 1799-1804. 

Condy, Richard, 1800-6. 

Cook, Edward Boyer, 1845-61. 

Cook, John Thomhill, 1846-50. Artist. 

Cooke, Albert Lionel, 1893- . 

Cooke, Alfred, 1869-64. Wesleyan mini.ster, 1871 ; f/. 1890. 

Cooke, Alfred Ernest, 1890-3. Grocer. 

Cooke, Arthur J. R., 1851-5. 

Cooke, Corbett Johnson, 1827-30. M.R.C.S., Eng. 

Cooke, Frederick Howard, 1891-6. Draper, Redditch. 

Cooke, James, 1846-62. Wesleyan minister, 1859. 

Cooke, James Wesley, 1860-3 ; d. 1863. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Cooke, Robert S. (G. 1859-60), 1860-6. 

Cooke, William, 1861-6. 

Cooling, Prank Norton, 1891-7. 

Cooling, Percy John, 1891-6. Owens College, Manchester. 

Cooper, Bertram, 1882. Wesleyan minister, 1890. 

Cooper, Charles, 1788-93. 

Cooper, Edward Staple Poxen, 1884-9. Engineer, Dartford. 

Cooper, Prancis, circa 1792. 

Cooper, Gteorge J., 1853-5. 

Cooper, James, 1788-93. 

Cooper, James Sidmouth, 1883-7. Wesleyan minister, 1895. 

Cooper, Richard, 1843-9. Wesleyan minister, 1857 ; rf. 1859. 

Cooper, William S., 1853-5. 

Cope, Carlton Baynes (G. 1876-9), 1879-82 ; d. 1882. 

Comforth, Athelstane, 1872-7. Stockbroker, 4 Queen Victoria 
Street, London. 

Comforth, Harold, 1862-7. 

Comforth, John Moore Wilson, 1863-5. Went to America. 

Cotton, Arthur Sparks, 1887-93. Civil Service. 59 Elms Road, 
Clapham Common. 

Cotton, Harry Thomas, 1886-92. Civil Service. 29 Connaught 
Road, Harlesden. 

Cotton, John Ebenezer Hynde, 1851-5. B.A., London. Private 
tutor, 3 Church Grove, Lady Well, S.E. 

Cotton, Leonard Candy, 1897- . 
Cotton, Neville Stuart, 1897- . 
Cotton, Stanley Prank, 1895- . 
Cotton, Wesley Gteite, 1891-6. 
Coward, John, 1768-9. 
Cowell, Arthur Corlett, 1895- . 
Oowell, Harold Lee, 1885-90. Surveyor. 
Cowell, Wilfred Lee, 1886-91. Surveyor. 
Cownley, Joseph M., 1766- (?). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Cox, Charles Arthur, 1869-76. ladia-rubber trade, Llanishen. 

Cox, Henry Majrtyn Hill, 185&-9. 

Cox, James William Conrad, 1839-44. B.A., LondozL Clerk in 
Bank of England ; afterwards went to America. 

Cox, John Wesley Fraser, 1860-4. 

'Cox, Nathaniel G., 1850-6. 

Cox, Theophilus P., 1854-8. West Indies. 

Crake, John Hcunpden (G. 1879-82), 1882-4. Printer, Wilkinson 
& Co., Pendleton, Manchester. 

Crake, William Arthur (G. 1881-3), 1883-6. Engineer, Douglas, 
Lapraik, & Co., Hong Kong. 

Crankshaw, Alfred Hubert, 1871-4. Went to sea. 

Crankshaw, Charles H., 1862-7. Cashier, Clifton, Bristol. 

Crankshaw, John Frederick William, 1868-74. In America. 

Craven, Arthur Herbert (G. 1877-8), 1878-82. B.A., London. 
Wesleyan minister, France, 1890. 

Craven, Henry Ernest (G. 1874-6), 1876-9. Chemist, Whitby. 

Craven, Walter Joseph, 1881-4. Chemist, Whitby. 

Crawshaw, Arnold (G. 1876-80), 1880-2. Wesleyan minister 1889. 

Crawshaw, Charles Jphn, 1860-6. Private schoolmaster, Halifax. 

Crawshaw, Charles John, 1892-6. 

Crawshaw, Edward Clegg, 1849-60 ; d, 1860. 

Crawshaw, James Edward, 1873-6 (G. 1876-6X 1876-9. Wesleyan 
minister, 1886. 

Crawshaw, Livingstone, 1887-92. Stationer and photographer, 12 
Collingwood Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Crawshaw, Watson, 1883-8. Schoolmaster, Jamaica. 

Critchison, John Bickerdike, 1892-3. 

Crofts, John H., 1837. 

Crone, Thomas, drca 1766. 

Crosby, John, 1800-3. 

Crosby, John Hawke, 1858-64. B.A., London. Holy Orders, 1879 ; 
Minor Canon of Ely, 1882 ; Precentor, 1895. 

Crosby, Thomas Harold (G. 1881-3), 1883-6. Maudslay & Field, 
engineers, Westminster. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


CroBoombe, William, 1827-31. 

Croee, Cohyngham Peters, 1895- . 

Cross, Pembroke Henry, 1896- . 

Crouch, Richard Halford Winterly, 1894- . 

Crowe, John, 1839-44. 

Crowther, Jonathan, 1803-9. Master at W. H. G., 1814-6 ; bead- 
maater of K. S., 1823-6 ; Wesleyan miniater, 1823 ; d, 1856. 

Crowther, Robert, 1806-10. 

Crowther, Thomas, 1797-1803. 

Crozier, Porster, 1885-90. Manchester and Liverpool Bank. 

Crozier, John Hallimond, 1886-90. Westminster Training College. 

Crozier, Norman Greener, 1888-93. Appleby & Wood, accountants, 

Crmnp, Edward OomeHus, 1883-7. Bank clerk. 

Crump, Frederick William, 1850-6. 

Crump, John Arthur, 1893-5. 

Crump, StaJiley Treftasis, 1889-94. Leech, Harrison, & Forwood, 
cotton merchants, Liverpool. 

Crump, Thomas G., 1844-9. 

Crump, Thomas Robert, 1883-8 ; d, 1895. 

Culcheth, Ebenezer, 1858-64 ; d 1866. 

Culcheth, John Wesley, 1851-2 ; d. 1852. 

Culcheth, J. J., 1851-6. Indian Civil Service. 

Culcheth, Joseph Benson, 1855-60 ; d. 1861. 

Culcheth, William Wood, 1847-53. Civil engineer, Public 
Works Department, Bengal. 

Cullen, Richard, 1845-51. 

Cullen, Thomas, 1841-7. 

Cullen, William, 1838-44. 

Culley, Robert John, 1886-90. Chartered accountant. 

CuUingford, William Durrie, 1860-2. 

Cnmmings, Arthur Pollard (G. 1881-3), 1883-7. M.B.C.S., 
Eng. ; L.RC.P., Lond. Old Basford. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Cumook, Gteorge Corderoy (G. 1881-3), 1883-7. Formerly Editor, 
Record of Chrutian JFork, Chicago, now journalist, London. 

Cumock, Wesley Strickland (O. 1869-75), 1875-6. B.A., Cam- 
bridge; L.S.A., Lond. Doctor, 1 Plough Road, Battersea; d. 1897. 

Cumook, William Alexander, 1859-62. Land and estate agent, 
51 Moorgate Street, E.C. 

Curtis, Joseph, 1845-50. 

Curtis, Samuel Thornton, 1841-6. 

Cusworth, William Wilson, 1844-51. M.D., Edin.; M.RC.S., 
Edin. Drowned at sea, 1868. 

Cuthbertson, John (G. 1882-3), 1883-6. Bank clerk ; d. 1896. 

Dall, John Wesley, 1798-1804 ; d. 1868. 

Dall, Josiah, 1799- (?). 

Dalzell, Arthur Gteorge (G. 1880-3), 1883-5. Architect, Halifax. 

Dalzell, Charles Edward, 1885-8. Chemical manufacture trade, 

Daniels, G^eorge S., 1853-6. Wesleyan minister, 1864 ; d, 1892. 

Daniels, Henry M., 1852-8. 

Daniels, John W., 1854-61. Newfoundland. 

Danks, Alft^ Ernest (G. 1877-82), 1882-3. Merchant, Chili. 

Danks, Arthur Westgate, 1870-4; d. 1874. 

Danks, William Edward, 1872-5 (G. 1875-6), 1876-8. Engineer, 
State Water Commission, Santiago, Chili. 

Dannatt, Edward Henry, 1884-9. Clerk, N.E.R., Darlington. 

Damey, William, ?-1766 ; d, 1766. 

Davey, Austin Herbert (G. 1877-81), 1881-4. Master at K. S., 
1891-3 ; Wesleyan minister (India), 1894. 

Davidson, Alexander James (G. 1870-6), 1875-8. B.A., London. 
Private tutor, London. 

Da vies, Ernest, 1893-7. 

Davies, John Twiston, 1828-31. Doctor ; d. 1892. 

Davies, John, 1840-6. Holy Orders. 

Davies, John, 1836-42. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Davies, John Lloyd (G. 1875-7), 1877-80. Duncan, Fox, & C.^o., 
Iquique, Peru. 

Davies, Owen Mathias, 1823-8. Captain, Merchant Service ; d. 

Davies, Percy Geden (G. 1876-9), 1879-81. Bank of Liverpool, 

Davies, Thomas Twiston, 1828-32. Chemist ; d. 1848. 

Davies, Thomas, 1828-33. 

Davies, Thomas, 1844-9. 

Davies, Walter, 1828-31. 

Davies, William Twiston, 1843-9. Tobacco merchant, Chester. 

Davis, John, 1836-42. 

Davison, William Theophilus, 1855-62. M.A., London; D.D., 
Middletown. Wesleyan minister, 1868; theological professor, 
Handsworth, 1891. Author : The Wudom Literature of the Old 
Tedamejity Tlie Praises of Israely The Christian Conscience^ etc. 

Dawson, Arthur James, 1862-3, 1864-6. Shipbroker, Cape 

Dawson, Arthur Robert, 1870-6. Collector, H.M. Customs, 

Dawson, Frederick Groombridge, 1857-62. J. P. Shipping 
agent, Gravesend. 

Dawson, John Wesley, 1855-9. With J. Unite, canvas tent and 
flag contractor, £dgware Road. 

Dawson, Richard Qoodhugh, 1861-3. Wesleyan minister, 1872. 
Dawson, Samuel John, 1868-74. National Provincial Bank, 

Dawson, Samuel Wesley, 1864-9. Huntley & Palmer's, Reading. 

Dawson, William Gk)odhugh, 1855-61. Master at K. S., 1867-9; 
at W. H. G., 1872-6 ; Wesleyan minister, 1871. 

Dawson, William James, 1863-9. Wesleyan minister, 1875-92 ; 
Congregational minister (1892), Highbury. Author : London 
Idylls, The Story of Hanna/i, The House of Drmnm^ etc. 

Day, Castle, 1828-32 ; d. 1834. 

Day, Charles, 1836-9; d. 1843. 

Day, Matthew, circa 1833. In business ; d. 1884. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


'DB,y, Simon, (?>-1803 ; d. 1803. 

Day, , circa 1806. 

Dean, Arthur Edwin, 1861-3 (G. 1864-7). 

Dean, Edward Llewelyn, 1867-73. Draper. 

De Jersey, Henry Stephen (G. 1877-8), 1878-81. Farmer, Monett 
P.O., Barry County, Mis8(juri, U.S.A. 

De Kerpezdron, Armand, 1816. Schoolmaster at Mer, France, 

Delamore, John, 1789- (?). 

De Mouilpied, Alfred Th6ophile, 1890-4. B.Sc., Victoria /first 
class in Chemistry, 1897). 

De Mouilpied, Blondel Bend, 1892- . 

De Mouilpied, Edouard Alexandre, 1890-3. 

Dennis, Edwin Benjamin Ruffell, 1859-60 ; d. i860. 

Dennis, William Frederick, 1853-9. Wire manufacturer, London ; 
d, 1890. 

De Putron, John Samuel, 1837-42. Linen draper, Leeds; d. 1846. 

Dermott, Q^orge, 1811-4. 

Dermott, John, 1796-1802. 

Derry, Francis Buxton, 1864-70. Commercial traveller, Manchester. 

Derry, John Kingston, 1867-71 (G. 1871-4). Wesleyan minister, 
S. Africa, 1894. 

Derry, Thomas de Grouchy (O. 1873-7), 1877-9. Chemist, 

Derry, William Thompson (O. 1871-5), 1876-8. Wesleyan 
minister, 1884. 

Despr^s, Alfred Thomas, 1886-8. Accountant, Moscley. 

Dewstoe, Edgar, 1886-9. Wesleyan minister, 1894. 

Dickenson, Edward Rowe (G. 1875-8), 1878-81. Corn merchant, 

Dickin, Qeorge Thomas, 1883-91. B.A., London. Schoolmaster 
(at K. S., 1892), Stationers' School, Stroud Green. 

Dieuaide, William, 1790- (?). 

Dillon, Robert William, 1869-74. F.R.G.S. Schoolmaster, Toronto. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Dixon, Alfred Cardew (G. 1875-^), 1876-83. M.A., London (Gold 
Medal, 1887) ; Sc.D., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge (Senior 
Wrangler, 1886 ; Smith's Prize, 1888) ; Professor of Mathematics, 
Galway. Author : Elliptic Futictions, 

Dixon, Arthnr Lee (G. 1878-9), 1879-85. M.A., Fellow of Merton 
College, Oxford (first class in Mathematics, 1888 ; University 
Mathematical Scholar, 1886). Mathematical tutor, Magdalen 

Dixon, Arthur Lewis, 1890- . 

Dixon, Frederick Thomas (G. 1881-:}), 1883-7. B.A., Trinity 
College, Cambridge (34th Wrangler, 1892). Indian Civil Service. 

Dixon, Harry Knight (G. 1882-3), 1883-6. Draper, Caistor. 

Dixon, James, 1849-53. Merchant, Melbourne. 

Dixon, James, 1840-4. Teacher. Dead. 

Dixon, James Edwin (G. 1881-3), 1883-5. Wesleyan minister, 1892. 

Dixon, John, 1838-43. We.sleyan minister, 1850. 

Dixon, John Albert (1875-9), 1879-81. Wesleyan minister, 1890. 

Dixon, Joseph Drake, 1851-3. North America. 

Dixon, Sidney Ben (G. 1881-3), 1883-5. 

Dixon, Thomas, 1835-40. Doctor. 

Dixon, Walter Seth, 1883-8. Ironmonger, Nottingham. 

Dixon, 'William Bunting, 1848-53. North America. Dead. (?) 

Dod, James, circa 1764. 

Dodd, Henry Peverley, 1887-90. Wesleyan ministry. 

Dodd, Richard, circa 1772. M.A. ; schoolmaster. 

Dodds, John de Quetteville, 1887-93. Paper maker, 48a Spring- 
head Road, Northfleet. 

Dodds, Joseph Edward, 1885-91. Electrical engineer, British 
Insulated Wire Co., Prescot. 

Dodge, James Horsfleld ((t. 1882-3), 1883-6. Was a member of 
Dr. Jameson's force. 

Doherty, Arthur Henry James (G. 1875-9), 1879-80. 

Doncaster, John, 1808-9. 

Dorey, William H., 1864-9. Export trade, 35 Rue de Lubeck, 

Doubleday, John William Lambe (G. 1877-81), 1881-3. School- 
master, Canada. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Douglase, James, 1893-7. 

Douthwaite, George Herbert (G. 1874-9), 1879-80. M.R.C.S., 
Eng. ; L.R.C.P. and L.R.C.S., Edin. ; L.F.P.S., Glasgow. House 
surgeon, Monkwearmouth Hospital, Sunderland. 

Douthwaite, John Henry Roberts (G. 1874-8), 1878-80. School- 
master ; d, 1891. 

Dowty, Flexton Gk)lding, 1821-7. Bookseller, Biidgewater. 

Dowty, Gteorge, 1828-31. Holy Orders. 

Dowty, Henry, 1832-8. 

Dowty, John, 1825-30. M.A. ; Wesleyan minister, 1839 ; d. 1892. 

Dowty, Robert, 1850-5. 

Dowty, Thomas, 1852-6. 

Dowty, Thomas, 1819-24. 

Dredge, John Norris, 1860-6. B.A., Trinity College, Dublin. 
Holy Orders, 1875 ; Rector of Mantl)y, Norfolk, 1897. 

Dredge, Norris, 1862-6. M.A., St. John's College, Cambridge. Holy 
Orders, 1876. Vicar of Orcop, Herefordshire. 

Driver, Gteorge Frederick, 1854-60. B.A., London ; M.A., Queen'.*? 
College, Oxford. Master at W. H. G., 1865-7 ; Holy Orders 1870 ; 
Rector of Cuxham, 1892. 

Driver, Joseph Pleydell, 1856-62. Holy Orders, 1878 ; Vicar of the 
Tything, Worcester, 1882. 

Driver, Samuel Barnes, 1849-55. Congregational minister. 

DuffiU, Gharies James, 1868-74. Wesleyan minister, Australia, 

DufBll, Frederick Read, 1871-6. Wesleyan minister, 1882. 

DufBQl, John Francis (O. 1865-6), 1867-72. Accountant, 108 York 
Road, Bristol. 

Dnflail, William Arthur (G. 1866), 1867-72. Stationer, Woodbridg« 
Road, Guildford. 

Duncan, Bmile Horace George, 1887-93. Medical student. 

Duncan, John Glendinning Bryden, 1867-73. Chemist, Traralgon, 
Gippsland, Victoria. 

Duncan, Robert WiUiam (G. 1879-82), 1882-4. M.B., CM., 
Edinburgh. Buckhurst Hill. 

Duncan, William David St. Glair, 1883-8. Medical student. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Dunman, Charles Clement, 1889-95. Accountant, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Dunman, Percival Sidney, 1891-6. May & Hasscll, timber 
merchants, Bristol. 

Dunn, James P. (G. 1828-30), 1830-2. Wesleyan minister, 1839; 

d. 1876. 
Dyson, George, 1867-73. B.A., Trinity College, Dublin. Wesleyan 

minister, 1884-6. Engineer, U.S.A. 

Dyson, James Ldvesay, 1885-9. 

Dyson, John William, 1864-70. Draper, Houndsditch. 

Dyson, Robert, 1858-64. Wesleyan minister, Australia. 

Dyson, Thomcua Shelton, 1862-^. Master at K. S., 1870-1 ; 
Wesleyan minister, 1873 ; rf. 1873. 

Bacott, Caleb, 1853-60. B.A., London; L.Th., Durham. Holy 
Orders, 1870 ; Rector of Gaulby, 1878. 

Bacott, James (G. 1880-3), 1883-8. Alliance Insurance Office, 

Eacott, James W., 1848-53. Wesleyan minister, 1862. 

Baoott, Jabez, 1851-7. Holy Orders, 1869. A.K.C. 

Bacott, William (0. 1882-3), 1883-7. Wesleyan minister, 1894. 

Eccles, John, 1768-70. 

Edgoose, Alft^ J., 1855-8. 

Bdman, William John (G. 1871-5), 1875-7. Draper, 97 Duke 
Street, Barrow-in-Fumess. 

Edmonds, Frederick Wesley, 1845 ; d, 1845. 

Edmonds, John Thomas, 1845-50; Colliery owner; M.I.C.E., 
F.S. Arts, F.R.G.S. ; d, 1878. 

Edwards, Edward Philip, 1837-42. Entered brass - founding 
business; d. 1844. 

Edwards, Edward Stanley, 1884-8. Wesleyan minister, 1896 

Edwards, Evan, 1828-9. 

Edwards, John, 1826-8. 

Edwards, Rol)ert, 1836-9. 

Edwards, Walter Henry, 1876-7. 

Edwards, William Outhbert, 1886-7. Architect (Francis & Son 
Old Broad Street). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Bland, Frank (0. 1876, 1877-9), 1879-81. Lamplough and Co., ComhUl. 

Bland, Joseph Billingham (G. 1872-4), 1874-5 (G. 1875-6), 1876-8. 
Lamplough and Co., Comhill. 

Bland, Oliver Stewart (G. 1881-3), 1883-5. Stockbroker's clerk, 
London. 57 Doddington Grove, Kennington. 

Bland, Rajnnond Josiah (G. 1877-81), 1881-2. Farmer, Virginia. 

BUiott, Arthur Shipham, 1897- . 

BUie, John Carr (G. 1866-70), 1871-2. Mount Blaxland, South 
Bowen Fells, N.S.W. 

Bllis, WiUiam Stainton (G. 1869-70), 1871-3. Shortlands, Kent. 

Blton, Frederick, 1855-6. Wesleyan minister, 1871. 

Elton, John Frederic, 1886-9. 

Blton, John Pratt (G. 1850-1), 1851-6. Wesleyan minister, 1866. 

Blton, Robert, 1853-7. Bookseller, Tipton. 

Blton, William Arthur, 1886-90. 

Blvins, Francis, 1853-5 ; rf. 1855. 

Blvins, Henry Stocker, 1852-6. Wesleyan minister, 1865 ; d. 1871. 

Bmpringham, Joseph, 1790-6. 

Bntwistle, James (G. 1812-3), 1813-5. 

Bntwistle, Joseph, 1805-9. Wesleyan minister, 1823 ; d, 1864. 

Bntwistle, Samuel (G. 1812-3), 1813-7. Wesleyan minister, 1830; 
d. 1830. 

Bntwistle, William, 1807-9 (G. 1812-3), 1813-4. Master at K. S., 
1814-23 ; Wesleyan minister, 1820 ; d. 1831. 

BtcheUs, Charles Dunbar, 1894- . 

Btchells, Clement, 1842-7. In business ; Jersey. 

BtcheUs, Herbert Hutchins, 1892-5. 

Btchells, Reginald James, 1891-2 ; rf. 1892. 

Btchells, WiUiam Wesley ((i. 1833-6), 1836-9. 

Eva, Arthur Llewelyn, 1892-5. 

Bvans, Adam, 1828-9. Printer, Machynlleth ; d. 1895. 

Bvans, David, 1781-9. 

Bvans, David Glyn, 1896- . 

Bvans, David P., 1856-62. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Evans, Evan Albert, 1866-8. Wesle^au minister, 1879. 

Evans, Frank Coram, 1895- . 

Evans, Gk>mer Arthur, 1883-5 ; d, 1887. 

Evans, Harold Stanley, 1897- . 

Evans, Hugh James, 1886-9. 

Evans, Hugh John (G. 1871-5), 1876-7. Master at W. H. G., 
1881-3 ; K. S., 1883- . 

Evans, Idris Meirion, 1884-7. Draper, Liverpool. 

Evans, Jabez Davies, 1835-9. Druggist, Colling wood, Alelbourne. 

Evans, John Edmund (G. 1876-9), 1879-81. A.R.I.B.A.; Seward 
and Thomas, architects, Cardiff. 

Evans, Llywelyn Caradoc, 1889-95. University College, Bangor. 

Bv€«is, Richard Watson (G. 1869-75), 1875-6. B.A., LL.B., London. 
Solicitor, Halifax. 

Evans, William Crookes, 1893- . 

Evans, William Harvard, 1870; d. 1870. 

Evans, William Vincent, 1897- . 

Evans, William Watkin (G. 1878-81), 1881-2. 

Bxton, William Henry Gaskell, 1860-1 (G. 1863-6). 

Byre, Daniel Alexander, 1889-93. Bryant and Sons, cycle manu- 
facturers, Weston-super-Mare. 

Eyre, Sidney Marmaduke, 1891. Bryant and Sons, Weston-8ui)er- 

Pairboum, Samuel Schofleld, 1891- . 

Parquhar, James Chaplin, 1862-9. Civil Service (Inland Revenue), 

Pcurquhar, Joseph Kent, 1859-64. Hardware agent, 27 Brazennose 
Street, Manchester. 

Parr, , cirm 1785. 

Parr, Charles, circa 1773. 

Porrar, Abraham Bccles, 1799- {i). Wesley an minister, 1807 ; 
Secretary of Schools' Fund, 1829-31 ; d, 1849. 

Pajrar, Wesley (G. 1831-5), 1835-7. M.A., New Inn Hall, Oxford. 
Holy Orders, 1850 ; Vicar of Castleside, 1864-92. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Featherstonehaugh, John Stanley, 1891-6. In Lloyds. 

Featherstonehaugh, William Irwin, 1887-91. Actuary, Com- 
mercial Union Insurance Co., Cornhill. 

Felvus, Charles Percival (G. 1879-82), 1882-5. L.R.C.P. and 
L.R.C.S., Edin. ; L.F.P.S., Glasgow. In P. and O. Company's 

Felvus, Horace Henry (G. 1881-3), 1883-6. Draper, 216 Oxford 


Felvus, Norman, 1884-9. National Provincial Bank, Tamworth. 

Fentiman, Albert Bolchin, 1884-8. In Australia. 

Ferris, Thomas, 1768-9. 

Field, Arthur Beijamin, 1862-7. 

Fielden, Caleb Joshua, 1812-8. 

Fielden, Henry W., 1828-31. Flax spinner, Woodstock Boad, 

Fielden, John, 1814-20. 

Fielden, William, 1884-9. A.Mus., Trinity College, London. 

Finch, Alfred James, 1874. Estate agent, 59 London Road, St. 

Finch, WiUiam Morley (G. 1880-3), 1883-5. Adelpbi Bank, 

Findlay, Joseph John ((}. 1871-5), 1875-7. M.A., Wadham College, 
Oxford (first class in History, 1883) ; Ph.D., Leipzig. Headmaster 
of Taunton Wesleyan College, 1885-8 ; of Wesley College, Sheffield, 
1888-91 ; Principal of College of Preceptors' Training College, 1894. 
Author : Arnold of Rugby, 

Fisher, James B., 1852-6. 

Fisher, James Bverard Blenoowe, 1862-8. Journalist, 16 White- 
house Lane, South Norwood. 

Fisher, Thomas R., 1845-51. 

Fison, James, 1859-65. M.A., London (Scholar in Moral Philosophy, 
1870) ; Fellow of University College, London. Private schoolmaster, 
New Wandsworth. 

Fison, John Willoughby, 1867-9 (G. 1869-72). In business. 

Fitzgerald, Thomas Patrick, 1864-8. War Office. 

Fitzgerald, William Blackburn, 1 867-70. Wesleyan minister, 1 877 . 

Secretary of Wesley Guild. 
Fletcher, Charles, 1845-50. In business, 3 Town Hall, Brisbane. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Fletcher, Gteorge, 1846-52. Wesleyan minister, 1859 ; Governor of 
W. H. G., 1876-82 ; Governor of Richmond Theological College, 1891. 

Fletcher, George Herbert, 1886-7. 

Fletcher, James Blanchflower, 1883-7. 

Fletcher, John, 1842-8. Schoolmaster, 101 Trafalgar Terrace, 
Petersham, Sydney. 

Fletcher, Joseph H., 1831-7. Wesleyan minister, 1847 ; President 
of the Austi-alian Conference, 1884. Dead. 

Fletcher, William, 1838-44. B.A., London. H. M. of Wesley College, 
Auckland ; Wesleyan minister, Fiji. Translated the Bible into 
Fijian. Dead. 

Fletcher, William Charles ((J. 1875-6), 1876-83. M.A., Fellow of 
St. John's College, Cambridge (2nd Wrangler, 1886). Headmaster 
o{ Liverpool Institute, 1896. 

Flint, William BramweU (G. 1830-4), 1834-6. 

Flower, John Wesley CoUins, 1859-65. 

Floyd, Charles Hume, 1845-6. Wesleyan minister, 1859. 

^ Floyd, John, 1769. Wesleyan minister, 1770-82. 

Floyd, Joseph, 1842-7. Chemist, Soham. 

Fogwell, William Frederick, 1888-91. 

Follows, QteOT^Q Herbert, 1870-7. Civil Service (Local Govern- 
ment Board). 

FoUows, Percival James (G. 1877-8), 1878-80. Engineer, Xatal 
Government Railways, Pietermaritzburg. 

Ford, Edward, 1842-8. 

Ford, Frederick Walter, 1864 (G. 1865-7). Holy Orders, 1876. 
Vicar of St. Matthew, City Road, 1897. 

Ford, Samuel P., 1844-50. 

Fordred, Joseph, 1838-42. Milliner, 61 High Street, Birmingham. 

Foster, Charles Manly, 1872-8. M.D., CM., Victoria College, 

Foster, Claude Scott, 1885-8. 

Foster, Edward A., 1855-62. In Jamaica. 

Foster, Henry Beattie, 1855-61. M.B., Trinity College, Dublin; 
L.R.C.S., Ireland ; d. 1895. 

^ Entered for the academical course, as did Adam Clarke. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Foster, Horarce Edgar, 1885-90. 
Foster, John, 1811-4. 
Fowler, John Wesley, 1863-5. 

Fowler, Robert (G. 1831-5), 1835-7. M.R.C.S., Eng. Wcsleyan 
minister, Canada ; d. 1887. 

Fowler, WiUiam (G. 1819-22), 1822-5. 

Fox, William, 1828-32. Wesleyan minister, 1845 ; d. 186U. 

Fox, William C, 1855-9. 

Frayn, Howard Gteorge, 1891-6. 

Frayn, Reginald Soott, 1895- . 

Freeman, Ambrose, 1830-1 (G. 1833-5). Watchmaker. Dead. 

Freeman, John (G. 1880-3), 1883-5. Wesleyan minister. 

Freeman, Morley, 1891-5. 

Freeman, Walter, 1891-5. 

Friend, Charles Edward (G. 1876-80), 1880-1. Draughtsman, 

Fryar, George Whitfield (G. 1881-3), 1883-7. London and County 
Bank, Deptford. 

Fryar, John Robert (G. 1875-9), 1879-81. Schoolmaster. 

Fuller, Alfred Rouse, 1890-5. Schoolmaster. 

Fuller, Arthur Sydney, 1897- . 

Fuller, Benjamin Rouse, 18J)0-3. Drai)er. 

Fuller, Walter Pearson (G. 1882-3), 1883-8. M. A., Loudon. 

Schoolmaster, Aberystwyth. 

Fuller, William Hiint, 1886-92. Wesleyan minister. 

GaJlienne, Albert (G. 1867-8), 1868-73. Farmer, Success P.O., 
Buncombe C^ounty, N. Carolina. 

Gane, Ernest Gerald (G. 1877-81), 1881-4. M.A., l^)irdon. Head- 
master of Kingswood College, (irahamstown, 1894. 

Gane, Eustace Harold (G. 1879-83), 1883-5. Chemist, Haverstock 
Hill, X.W. 

Gane, Lawrence, 1892-4. S. Africa. 

Gane, Norman, 1888-94. Drowned, 1894. 

Gane, Peroival Caxleton, 1886-93. B.A., Jesus College, Oxford. 
Schoolmaster, Grahamstown. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Gardiner, Frederick Butterworth (G. 1878-82), 1882-4. Medical 

Gkurdiner, Henry Adlington (G. 1875-7), 1877. Engineer, 

Gardiner, John, 1769- (?). 

Gardiner, John Talbot (G. 1869-76), 1875-6. B.A., Trinity College, 
Dublin. Holy Orders, 1886. Headmaster of Coleford Grammar 

Gardiner, Luke Norman, 1886-9. In business. 

Gardiner, William Brynin^ (G. 1872-4), 1874-5 ; rf. 1876. 

Gardner, Arthur Roberts, 1889-96. Schoolmaster, Truro College. 

Gkurdner, William Ernest, 1892-4. Electrical engineer. 

Garrett, John P., 1862-8. 

Garrett, William H., 1856-8. 

Garrett, William Towers (G. 1878-82), 1882-4. B.A., London. 
Wesley an minister (Ceylon), 1890. 

Garry, Thomcua Cozens, 1873-7. F.R.C.V.S. ; veterinary surgeon, 

(^artrell, James, 1815. 

Gartrell, John, 1817-23 ; d. 1827. 

GkuBCoigne (Qaskin), John Henry, 1869-73. Civil Service (Scotch 

Gkuakin, Alfred Louis, 1873-80. M.A., King's College, Cambridge 
(31st Wrangler, 1885). Master at Lancing. 

Gkuskin, Arthur Joseph, 1870-8. B.A., St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. Accountant, Rheims. 

Gaskin, Ernest Philip, 1872-80. M.A., Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge. Master at High School, Nottingham. 

Gaskin, Lionel Edward Palmer, 1883 8. (Christ (Jhurch, Oxford. 
Indian Civil Service (Nagpur). 

Gaulter, John, 1800-4. Printer. 

G^ach, Cteorge Hender, 1856-61. Master at K. S., 1863. 

Geach, John Tredwin, 1851-6 ; rf. 1867. 

Geden, Arthur Jewitt, 1836-9. B.A., London. Master at Wesley 
College, Sheffield. Died in Mauritius, 1867. 

Geden, Frederick WilliEim, 1848-52. Agent to shipping firm, 
Brisbane. Died, 1874. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Geden, John Dmy, 1830-6. D.D., St. Andrews. Wesleyan minister, 
1846. Member of the O. T. Revision Company. Professor of 
Theolog}', Didsbnry, 1856-82; rf. 1886. Author: DoctrtTie of a 
Future Life in the Old Testament. 

Gedye, Prank Banfleld (G. 1877-8), 1878-9. Colonial Civil Service, 
Dordrecht, Cape Colony. 

Gedye, George Greenwood (G. 1880-3), 1883. Died at Pretoria, 

Gedye, James Burnett, 1889-94. Engineer. 

Gellard, George Henry Brown, 1818-24. 

Gellard, , 1823- (?). 

Gteorge, William, 1894- . 

Gibson, Alexander George (G. 1881-3), 1883-6. Treasury Office, 

Gibson, Charles Herbert, 1895-7. 

GKbson, Prank Speeding, 1897- 

Gibson, George Edward, 1891-4. 

Gibson, John Clark, 1892-6. Chemist. 

Gibson, John Paul Stewart Riddell, 1891-7. 

Gibson, Walter John (G. 1881-3), 1883-7. London and Midland 
Bank, West Smithfield. 

Gibson, William Ralph Boyce (G. 1881-2), 1882-8. M.A., Queen's 
College, Oxford. 

Gilbert, Prederick William, 1894- . 

Gilbert, George, 1788-92. 

Gilbert, John Edward, 1789- (?). 

Gilbert, Mark Harold, 1894-5. 

Gilbert, Robert Hoole, 1864-5. 

Gill, Daniel, 1896- . 

Gill, Rowland, 1896- . 

Glascott, John, circa 1766-9. Wesleyan minister, 1782-3. 

Gleave, Prederick Rowland, 1883-5, 1887-8. Fellow of the 
Guild of Church Musicians; precentor and organist, St. George's 
Cathedral, Sierra Leone ; Secretary in W. Africa for Victoria College 
of Music. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Gleave, Henry Hurd (G. 1876-80), 1880-2. Secretary to Wm. 
Gray & Sons, Hull. 

Gloyne, Chaxles Glynn, 1811-3 (G. 1813-0- Chemist, Kingston- 
on-Thames ; d. 1879. 

Gk)odacre, Frederick Josicth (G. 1877-80), 1880-3. In business; 
d. 1894. 

Goodman, Gilbert, 1892- . 

Goodman, William Austen, 1888-92. Engineer, Sunderland. 

Goodwin, •Gteorge Herbert, 1864-71. M.A., St. John's College, 
Cambridge. Holy Orders, 1880. 

Goodwin, John, 1784-91. Merchant, Liverpool. 

Gk)odwin, Joseph, 1789- (?). Cotton manufacturer. 

Gk>odwin, Josiah, 1792-8. Wesleyan minister, 1808 ; rf. 1866. 

Goodwin, Thomas Arnold (G. 1862), 1863-9. B.A., Balliol 
Coltege, Oxford. Solicitor, Liverpool. 

Goodyer, Cecil Braham, 1890-2. Tutor. 

Goodyer, Leonard Ernest, 1889-92. J^Iedical student. 

Goetick, John Trevan, 1886-9. Western Australia. 

Gostick, Ralph William, 1888-94. Hodgson & Harris, chartered 
accountants, Hull. 

Gover, Frederick, 1855-61. 

Gower, Richard, 1816-7 ; rf. 1817. 

Gk)y, Charles Wesley, 1840-4. In business ; d. 1850. 

Goy, George Edward, 1838-42. Tutor; d. 1856. 

Goy, Matthew Henry, 1836-40. Ironmonger ; d, 1847. 

Goy, William John, 1833-8. B.A., Dublin ; d. 1850. 

Graham, Charles, 1793-6. 

Graham, Frederick, 1824-9. Master at K. S., 1829-32 ; d. 1833. 

Graham, Jabez, 1832. 

Grant, Thomas, circa 1766. 

Greathead, John (G. 1876-9), 1879-81. 

Greaves, Richard Henry (G. 1882-3), 1883-6. Wesleyan minister, 

Greaves, Robert WaUdngton (G. 1882-3), 1883-7. Architect and 
surveyor, Liverpool. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Green, Richard Brandreth, 1874-5 (G. 1875-7), 1877-8. British 
South Africa Company's Pioneer Corps, Mashonaland. 

Greenland, William Kingscote, 1883-5. Wesleyan minister, 1890. 

Greenly, Charles Hickes, 1814-8. M.R.C.S., Eng. ; school docior. 
K. S., 1843-51 ; H. 1895. 

Greenwood, Alan Young, 1884-91. M.B., CM., Edin. 

Greenwood, Arthur William, 1891- . 

Greenwood, Charles Harvard (C4. 1881-3), 1883-4. Fanner. 

Greenwood, Frederick, 1887-92. Civil Service (Somerset House), 
Metho<list Settlement, Bermondsey. 

Greenwood, James, 1774- (?). 

Greenwood, John, 1775- (?). 

Greenwood, Joseph, 1773- (?) ; iL 1839. 

Greeves, Arthur Wellesley (G. 1875-6), 1878-9. Holy Onler?^, 
1895. A.K.C. 

Greeves, Francis Wakefield, 1834-40. Master at K. S., 1840-6. 
Wesleyan minister, 1849 ; d, 1894. 

Greeves, Frederick, 1842-7. D.D., Victoria College, Toronto. 
Wesleyan minister, 1855 ; President of Conference, 1884 ; Princijial 
of Battersea Training College, 1886-95 ; d, 1895. Author : &rw*>«* 
and Addressee. 

Greeves, Frederick Bentley, 1873-8. M.A., St. John's College. 
Cambridge. Holy Orders, 1884 ; Peri»etual Curate of Cudworth, 1895. 

Greeves, Henry, 1838-43. Holy Orders, 1858 ; Vicar of Wisto<r, 1874. 
Secretary of York Diocesan Choral Association. 

Greeves, John Henry, 1873-5 (G. 1875-7), 1877-9. Wesleyan 
minister, 1886. 

Greeves, Thomas Neville, 1873-5 (G. 1875), 1876-9. M.R.C.S., 
Eng. ; L.R.C.P., Lond. Stonebridge Road, Willesden. 

Gregg, William Foskey, 1886-90. Millington & Sons, wholesale 
stationers, E.C. 

Gregory, Benjamin, 1886-90. Wesleyan ministry. 

Gregory, John Robinson, 1885-9. Stationer. 

Gregory, Sidney Benjamin (G. 1877-80), 1880-4. B.A., London. 
Wesleyan minister, 1894. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Gregory, Stephen Herbert (G. 1881-3), 1883-6. Wesleyan minister, 
India, 1892. 

Gregory, Theophilus Sidney (G. 1871-5), 1875-8. B.A., London. 
Wesley an minister, 1885. 

Griffith, John, 1826-32. M.A., LL.D., St. John's College, Cambridge 
(lOth Wrangler, 1840). Holy Orders, 1843 ; Principal of Brighton 
College, 1856-74 ; afterwards Vicar of Sandridge. 

Griffith, Richard Irving, 1856-9. Banker, India. 

Griffith, Samuel, 1817-23. Master at K. S., 1823-9 ; headmaster, 
1830-2 and 1833-45 ; d 1883. 

Griffith, WiUiam, 1815-21. Wesleyan minister, 1833-49 ; one of the 
founders of the United Methodist Free Church ; d, 1883. 

Griffith, William, 1830-4. 

Griffiths, Richard, 1829-35. 

Griffiths, Rees Trevor, 1892-5. Clerk, Civil Service. 

Griffiths, , drca 1804. 

Grigg, John, 1891-5. 

Grimshaw, Harry Hipwell, 1896- . 

Grose, Edward Giddy, 1851-2 (G. 1852-7). Civil Service, Towns- 
ville, Queensland. 

Grose, Samuel, 1845-51. M.D., St. Andrews ; F.R.C.S., Eng. Stafl- 
surgeon, R.N., Thurlow Road, Torquay. 

Groves, Charles Wesley, 1856-9 ; d, 1863. 

Groves, Daniel Barton, 1849-53. Wholesale provision mercliant, 

Groves, Henry, 1846-52. Died in Australia. 

Groves, John Wesley, 1851-6. Wholesale provision merchant, 

Groves, William Henry (G. 1882-3), 1883-8. Walsh & Co., clothiers, 

Grut, Paul, 1790- (?) 

Guiton, Paul Louis, 1872. Capital and Counties Bank, Jersey. 

H£U3k, Frederick George, 1889-95. Medical student. 

Hackett, Norman, 1895- . 

Hackett, Wilftid Spencer, 1885-7. Wesleyan ministry, 1896. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Hagen, Arthur Whiteley (G. 1876-80), 1880-2. Business, Hull. 

Hagen, Francis Spicer, 1863-6. Wesleyan minister, 1874 ; d. 1881. 

Hagen, Francis William Day, 1890-5. 

Hagen, Frederick John (G. 1876-9), 1879-82. 

Hagen, George Macdonald, 1862-7. S. Africa ; served in Zulu 

Hagen, James Smith (G. 1872-5), 1875-7. Chemist, Hong Kong. 

Hagen, Samuel Walter, 1865-9. Chemist, Hong Kong. 

Hagen, William L., 1868-9. In business, S. America. 

Haime, Charles, 1823-8. Went to Australia. 

Haime, Frederick C, 1835-40. Wesleyan minister, 1849. 

Haime, Herbert Wesley, 1833-8. Wesleyan minister, 1847 ; d, 1895. 

Haime, Jabez, 1831-5. 

Haime, John, 1828-31. Went to Australia. 

Haime, Williaan, 1828-33. Went to Australia. 

Haime, William Cole, 1865-71. L.R.C.P. and L.R.C.S., Edin. ; rf: 

Hainsworth, Henry, 1802-7 ; d. 1807. 

Hainsworth, Joshua, 1804-10. 

Hainsworth, William, 1807-11. 

Hale, Thomas, circa 1789. 

Hall, Alfred, 1853-4. Merchant, Bristol ; d 1881. 

HaU, Charles, 1846-8. 

Hall, Henry, 1849-54. Dead. 

HaU, John Heelas, 1844-50. 

HaU, John W., 1853-4. J.P. Glass merchant, Bristol. 

HaU, Samuel Boulton, 1864-7, 1869-70. Glass merchant, London. 
Cwm Avon, Castle Bar, Ealing. 

HaUam, John William, 1896- . 

HaUiday, Frederick Archibald, 1895- . 

HaUiday, Howard Edwin, 1895- . 

HaJligey, Frederick Joseph, 1885. City and County Bank, York. 

Ha«mar, Henry, 1870-5. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Hamilton, John, circa 1773. 

Hampson, Edward, drca 1764-8. 

Hampson, John, drca 1764-5. Wesleyan minister, 1771-83; after- 
wards in Holy Orders. 

Hampson, William, 1764-70. 

Hanby, James, 1780- (?). 

Hanby, Joseph, 1790-6. 

Handcock, Emile, 1855-7. -Master at K. S., 1871. Schoolmaster, 

Hann, Arthur Morley, 1888-92. Librarian. 

Hann, Edward Norman, 1895- . 

Hann, John de Quettevllle, 1894- . 

Hann, Martin Jones, 1892-6. 

Hann, William Henry, 1887-91. 

Hardcastle, Philip (G. 1846), 1848-51. 

Hardey, Edward Peirce, 1856-62. M.R.C.S., Eng. ; L.R.C.P., Lond. 
Spring Bank, Hull. Formerly medical missionary, China. 

Hardey, Robert James, 1868-71. Fought in Kaffir and Basuto 
Wars ; now in Australia. 

Hiurdey, Samuel, 1860-6. Business at the Cape. 

Harding, Arthur Vyvyan, 1867-71. Trinity College, Cambridge ; 
d. 1878. 

Harding, Frederick William, 1867-72 ; d 1878. 

Harding, Richard A., 1855-7. 

Harding, Richard Winboult, 1884-90. Wesleyan minister 

Harding, Thomas, 1860-3. 

Harding, Trevor Cecil (G. 1879-80), 1830-4. 

Hardwick, Charles Gheorge (G. 1 877-81), 1881-3. Wesleyan minister, 
W. Indies, 1891. 

Hjutiwick, Edward Ernest (G. 1877-81), 1881-2. Wesleyan minister, 

Hardwick, John Farrar, 1887-8. Chemist, c/o Mr. Pearson, Market 
Place, Peterborough. 

Hardwick, William Wesley (G. 1871-5), 1875-7. Engineer, E.X. -, 
76 College Avenue, New Brompton. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Hare, Ernest Henry (G. 1870-5), 1875-7. London and Westminster 
Bank, Bloomebury. 

Hare, Francis Joseph (G. 1882-3), 1883-8. 

Hcure, Hebden (G. 1873-7), 1877-9. Draper, Melbourne. 

Hare, Marmaduke, 1865-7 (G. 1868-71). Holy Orders, 1879 ; Rector 
of Bow, 1892. 

Hare, Peter, (?)-1767. 

Hargreaves, Ernest Jeffbrd (G. 1881-3), 1883-7. Utubankulu, 

Hargreaves, John Chamberlain, 1881-6. School inspector, Kolstad, 
Cape Colony. 

Hargreaves, John Kingdon, 1864-9. B.A., Christ Church, Oxford. 
Schoolmaster ; d. 1880. 

Hargreaves, William Thomas (G. 1877-8), 1878-80. J.P., South 
Africa ; Bo.\ 18, Umtata, Cape Colony. 

Harley, Charles Joseph, 1869-71. Diamond merchant, Cape Town. 

Harper, Joseph, 1789- (?). 

Harper, Stephen Clement Drew, 1897- . 

Harris, Benjamin, drca 1773. 

Harris, Charles Pope, 1894- . 

Harris, James Symonds, 1894-6, 1897- . 

Harris, Walter Fred, 1892-7. 

Harrison, Bl^ah, 1794- (?). 

Harrison, John, 1829-35. Private schoolmaster, Bath. 

Harrison, Lancelot, 1788- (?). 

Harrison, Matthew, 1807-13. Dentist, Chester; d. 1893. 

Harrison, Michael, 1783- (?). 

Harrison, Robert, 1815-9. 

Harrison, Stephen, 1809-15. 

Harrison, Thomas, 1819-24. 

Harrison, Thomas, 1780- (?). Wesleyan minister, 1790; d. 1830. 

Harrison, William, 1798-1804. 

Harrison, William, 1820-6. 

Harrowell, Thomas Newman (G. 1881-3), 1883-6. Medical student. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Harry, Frederick Herbert (G. 1881-3), 1883-5. Wealeyan minister, 

Harry, John Arthur (G. 1878-81), 1881-3. Bennetts & Co., timber 
merchants, Grimsby. 

Hart, John, 1789- (?). 

Hartley, John Sercombe, 1896- . 

Harvard, Cheorge Glough, 1829-33. Wesleyan minister, 1840 ; d. 

Harvard, Henry Moore, 1823-9. Master at K. S., 1829-36 ; Wesleyan 
minister, 1837 ; d, 1893. 

Harvard, Stephen P., 1831-6. Wesleyan minister, 1845. 

Harvard, William Martin, 1836-41. Farmer, New York State. 

Harvey, Thomas Featherstone (G. 1882-3), 1883-7. Chemist,. 

Harwood, Thonwus William (G. 1877-81), 1881-3. Salvation Army. 

H€wlam, Peter, 1815-21. 

Haslam, Samuel (G. 1812-4), 1814-8. Lost at sea. 

HaRla.m, Thomas, 1811-6. 

Haetling, Arthur Henry Law (G. 1871-5), 1875^8. M.A., Cam- 
bridge. Holy Orders, 1885. 

Haasal, Robert, 176^-70. 

Haswell, John, 1833-7. Died in the South Seas. 

Haswell, Joshua Edwin (G. 1856-7), 1857-8. 

Hawken, William DaUinger, 1884-5. Schoolmaster. 

Hawson, Ptolemy (G. 1879-82), 1882-4. Watchmaker, Xewington. 

Hay, John, circa 1768. 

Hayes, Isaac, 1831-3. 

Hayman, Alfred, 1832-7. Chemist, Neath ; d. 1887. 

.Hayman, Charles, 1835-9. Printer, Farringdon Road, E.G. 

Hayman, George Avery, 1837-42. Printer, Farringdon Road, E.C. 

Hayman, Henry, 1830-4. Master at K. S., 1834-6, 1838-9; 
Wesleyan minister, 1844 ; d, 1883. 

Hayman, John Gould, 1823-8. Newspaper proprietor, Barnstaple. 
Author : Methodism in North Devon. 

Hayman, Wilham, 1824-30. Draper ; d. 1851. 

Digitized by 



Hayward, Robert Leslie (G. 1879-83), 1883-4. Draper, Pudsey. 

Hayward, Walter Edwin (G. 1879-83), 1883-5. Chemist, 

Heath, George Carlton Pidler, 1868 ; d. 1861. 

Heath, William L., 1856-62. Died young. 

Heaton, Clement, 1833-8. Founded the firm of Heaton, Butler, & 
Bayne, glass painters, London. Dead. 

Hejiton, Ignatius, 1836-40. Clerk with Messrs. Thacker & Co., 
India agents, Newgate Street, for nearly fifty years ; d, 1897. 

Heaton, John, 1827-33. Clerk with Messrs. Routledge & Sons for 
fifty years ; now retired. 16 Crawshay Road, N. Brixton. 

Heaton, Philemon, 1830-6. East India Company's Service. Died 
in India. 

Heaton, William OUver, 1892-3. Artist, Wolverhampton. 

Hedges, James George, 1856-62. 

Heeley, Alfred Pawoett, 1858-63. Captain, National S.S. Co. 
(retired), 14 York Avenue, Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

Heeley, Edward, 1852-8. Clerk, 40 Avenons Road, Barking 
Road, E. 

Heeley, Francis, 1855-61. B.A., London. Schoolmaster and tutor ; 
d. 1885. 

Heeley, Joseph Henry, 1863-70. Schoolmaster and tutor, Fair- 
mead. Formby, Liverpool. 

Heeley, Thomas Pickard, 1849-55. Captain, S.S. "Clive" (Genoa 
and New York), 18 York Avenue, Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

HeUier, John Benjamin, 1864-8. M.D., London (Scholar in 
Obstetrics, 1876) ; M.R.C.S., Eng. Lecturer in Yorkshire 
College. Author : The Hand-reariyuj of Infants. 

Hemmings, Thomas, circa 1764. 

Hemsworth, Frederick Charles, 1889-93. 

Henderson, John, circa 1764. Pembroke College, Oxford. 

Henderson, Marshall Alan, 1892-7. Capital and Counties Bank. 

Henley, Edward, 1851-5. New Zealand. 

Henley, John, 1846-51. Xew Zealand. 

Henley, Maurice, 1853-6. Fanner, New Zealand. 

Henley, Thomas Clark, 1842- (?). Holy Orders, 1863 ; Vicar of 
Kirkby Malham, 1871. Author : Kirkby Malhani Sermons. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Henley, William Frederick, 1850-6. Chief accountant, Wilte 
and Dorset Bank ; rf. 1896. 

Henshall, John Alft^ (G. 1877-81), 1881-3. Fruit-farmer, U.S.A. 

Hepplewhite, John Mansefleld, 1884-90. Clerk, M.R., Derby. 

Herivel, John Jamieson, 1890-1. 

Hem, Ernest, 1793-8. 

Hem, Francis, 1775- (?). 

Hem, Jonathan, 1784-91. [This name, with those of William and 
Wesley Hern, occurs in the Kingswood Governor's Billhook of 
1789. The other Herns are recorded in the early Minutes of 
Conference of 1775, 1793, 1794, 1799. It seems improbable that 
there were three Jonathan Hems.] 

Hem, Jonathan, 1794- (?). 

Hem, Jonathan, 1799- (?). 

Hem, Wesley, 1787- (?). 

Hem, William, 1787- (?). 

Hewitson, Joseph Renwick, 1884-90. Electrical engineer, 
Sunnyside, Ripon Road, Shooter's Hill. 

Hewitt, Auirustus Herbert, 1873-5 (G. 1875-6), 1876-9. Solicitor, 

Hewitt, Fred Percy, 1883-7. Organist, Kimberley. 

Hickman, Henry, 1840-5. Schoolmaster. Drowned at Derby, 1852. 

Hickman, Richard W., 1842-6. 

Higham, William, 1767- (?). 

Highfield, Charles, 1803-9. In the Mediterranean trade; drowned 
at Smyrna, while young. 

Highfleld, George Bentley, 1800-7. Master at K. S., 1808-9. 
Merchant, Liverpool ; d. 1851. 

Highfleld, Henry, 1878-83. M.A., London; B.A., Cambridge. 
Wesleyan minister, India, 1895. 

Highfleld, John Walton (G. 1878-81), 1881-3. Halifax Joint-Stock 
Bank, Bradford. 

HigBon, Arthur Stephen, 1894- . 

Higson, Frank Augustine, 1894- . 

Hiley, Robert Nethicoat, 1842-6. Clerk, Budgett's, Bristol. 

Hiley, Samuel, 1837-9. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Hill, Francis, circa 1789. 

Hill, Henry Clarence (G. 1872-5), 1875-6. Explosivee trade, 

Hill, Henry Frederick, 1841-5. 

Hill, John, 1836-41. 

Hill, John H., 1850-6. Farmer, Queensland (?). 

Hill, Samuel Wesley, 1840-5. 

Hill, William, 1834-6. 

HiUard, Abraham, 1867-74. B.A., Oxford and London. Minister of 
the Catholic Apostolic Church. Edited Bacon's Essays. 10 Cormont 
Road, Caniberwell. 

Hillard, Albert Ernest (G. 1876-7), 1877-84. M.A., Christ Church, 
Oxford (first class in Classics, 1889). Holy Orders, 1890. Master at 
Clifton College. Author : A CorUinuous Narrative of the Life of 
Christ, Joint-Author : Greek Prose Composition; Latin Prose Com- 
position. Editor : The Books of the Bible (for schools). 

Hillard, Charles Wesley, 1863-70. Railway Co. Secretary, Chicago. 

Hillard, Henry, 1870-7. London and County Bank, Ashford. 
Secretary of Kingswood Club. 

Hillard, John Tucker, 1863-9. Volunteer lieutenant and pay- 
master, Zulu War. 

Hillard, Thomas Coke, 1873-9. B.A., London. Wesleyan minister, 


HiUier, Henry Moore, 1826-30. Draper. 

Hilton, Claude, 1892-6. Accountant, Glasgow. 

Hilton, Ernest Denison, 1891-3. Accountant, 190 West George 
Street, Glasgow. 

Hilton, Prank, 1891-4. Shorthand writer, Glasgow. 

Hind, Harry (G. 1882-3), 1883-6. Bonser & Parkes, grocers, 


Hind, John (G. 1881-3), 1883-6. Bonser & Parkes, grocers, 

Hindmarsh, John, circa 1770. 

Hindmarsh, Robert, left 1773. Swedenborgian minister, Salford. 
Author : The Birth of Immanuel^ Reflections on the Unitarian and. 
Trinitarian Doctrines, Rise and Progress of the New Church, etc. ; 
(l. 1835. 

Hinson, Henry, 1836 (G. 1836-41). 

Hoare, Oliver Eustace (G. 1881-3), 1883-5. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Hoare, Stanley Newton (G. 1879-80), 1880-6. M.A., Trinity 
College, Cambridge (14tli Wrangler, 1889). Wesleyan minister. 

Hoare, Wilfrid Ernest (G. 1874-6), 1876-82. M.A., Merton 
College, Oxford ; B.A., London. Principal of Doveton College, 

Hoare, William Herbert (G. 1874-6), 1876-9. Chemist, 179 
Blackstock Road, N. 

Hobson, Alfred Christian (G. 1877-80), 1880-3. Engineer, 

. Hocken, Herbert Castleman, 1892-6. Clare College, Cambridge. 

Hocking, Almond Trevosso (G. 1878-83), 1883-4. London 
Mission, East. 

Hocking, Francis Joseph, 1884-90. 

Hocking, John Peters (G. 1882-3), 1883-8. 

Hodder, Alfred Wilcox, 1897- . 

Hodgson, Richard Hutton (G. 1870-5), 1875-6. 

Hodson, John, 1814-20. 

Hodson, Thomas, 1811-7. Wesleyan minister, 1829; d. 1882. 

Hodson, Walter, 1817-9 ; d., 1819. 

Hodson, William, 1825-9. 

Hodson, William Mayo, 1897- . 

Hogg, Robert (Jeorge, 1889-94. 

Holdsworth, John Newstead Barrett (G. 1871-5), 1875-7. 
Wesleyan minister, 1889 ; d, 1892. 

Holdsworth, WiUiam West (G. 1871-5), 1875-6. M.A., Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge. Wesleyan minister, 1884 (India). 

Hole, Gteorge Adolphus, 1852-8. 

Holland, Henry Norman, 1887-92. Engineer. 

Holland, John, drca 1765. 

Holland, John Lea (G. 1882-3), 1883-9. Schoolmaster, 19 
ToUington Place, N. 

Holland, Leonard Duncan, 1885-92. B.A., Merton College, 
Oxford. At the War Office. 

Holman, Edwin Charles Paacoe, 1895- 

Holman, Horace Augustus, 1897- . 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Holmes, Charles Denton (G. 1878-81), 1881-4. M.R.C.S., 
Eng. ; L.R.C.P., Lond. Newbum-on-Tyne. 

Holmes, George Herbert, 1887-91. Bank clerk, 6 Wear Street, 

Holmes, John Llewelyn, 1874-5 (G. 1875-7), 1877-80. Dock 
engineer, London. 

Holmes, Richard Arthur, 1884-9. Bank clerk, 33 Brudenell 
Avenue, Hyde Park, Leeds. 

Holmes, Thomaa Henry (G. 1876-8), 1878-82. Solicitor, Collins 
Street, Melbourne. 

Holmes, William Henry, 1874-5 (G. 1875-7), )877-9. B.A., 
London. Wesleyan minister, 1888. 

Holmes, William, 1800-5. 

Holmes, Wilmot (G. 1882-3), 1883-6. Medical student. 

Homer, William Thomas, 1834-40. Chemist, Inkpen, Hungerford. 

Hooley, Arthur, 1860-5. M.R.C.S., Eng.; L.R.C.P., Lond. 

Hooley, Samuel John, 1853-60. Late manager, Manchester and 
Liverpool District Bank, Tunstall. Turnhurst Hall, Tunstall. 

Hooper, Henry Morley, 1888-92. Post oifice, Huddersfield. 

Hooper, John Stirling Morley, 1894- . 

Hooper, Ronald Morley, 1888-94. Worcester College, Oxford. 

Hope, Henry, 1845-61. 

Hope, Samuel, 1844-50. Assistant surgeon, 93rd Highlanders ; 
d, 1862. 

Hopkins, , drca 1807. 

Hopkins, Allan Marriott, 1868-73. Private secretary to Dr. 
Moulton, Lansdowne, Hills Road, Cambridge. 

Hopper, Donald, 1888-94. London and Midland Bank, Hull 

Hopper, Herbert Edmund, 1893-6. Dentist. 

Hopwood, Joseph, 1831-4. 

Homabrook, Frederick Mersham (G. 1846-9), 1869-70 ; d. 1872. 

Homabrook, George Edward (G. 1867-9), 1869-73. Volunteer 
in Zulu War (artillery lieutenant). Drowned, 1891. 

Homabrook, Joseph Gregory, 1840 ; d, 1840. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

KINGS wo on SCHOOL 59 

Homabrook, Richard Praaer (G. -1859-62), 1863-6. Master at 
W. H. G., 1870-2 ; Wesleyan minister, S. Africa, 1874. Governor of 
Heald Town Training Institution. J.P., 1897. 

Homabrook, William Henry (G. 1862), 1863-6 ; rf. 1869. 

Homer, James, 1807-13. Cabinetmaker, Bath. Dead. 

Homer, John, 1824-30. Tutor ; at one time to the children of the 
Queen's Household servants. 

Homer, John, 1800- (?). Wesleyan minister, 1815 ; d. 1853. 

Homer, Joseph, 1808-15. Holy Orders. Died at Everton. 

Homer, Thomas, 1798-1804. Died young. 

Homer, William Gteorge, 1794-1800. Master at K. S., 1800-4 ; 
headmaster, 1804-9 ; headmaster of Grosvenor School, Bath, 
1809-37 ; d. 1837. Discovered " Homer's Method " in Mathematics. 

Horton, Arthur William (G. 1881-3), 1883-6. Board school 
master, Sheffield. 

Horton, Prank, 1884-7, 1888-9. Manchester and Liverpool Bank, 

Horton, Fred., 1888-92. Wesleyan ministry. 

Horton, Jabez (G. 1879-82), 1882-3. 

Horton, Walter, 1891-4. Brecon and Merthyr Railway Engineering 
Department, Machen. 

Hoeking, Henry Richard, 1892- . 

Hosking, Sydney Lory, 1889-97. B.A., London. Thurman, 
Cattle, & Nelson, solicitors, Ilkeston. 

Hosking, Thomas Stanley, 1897- . 

HoBkings, Alexander (G. 1880-1), 1881-4. Schoolmaster. 

Howard, John Alfred, 1884-8. Forest Farm, Whitewood, N.W.T. 

Howard, William Mills, 1884-9. Forest Farm, Whitewood, N.W.T. 

Howarth, Charles Wesley, 1828-32. Dead. 

Howarth, John, 1811-4 (G. 1814-(?)). 

Howarth, Thomas, 1824-30. M.A., Fellow of St. John's College, 
Cambridge. Holy Orders ; d. 1875. 

Hudson, Josiah Howard, 1884-9. Lieutenant, Royal Sussex. 

Hughes, Albert Isaac Wenn (G. 1869-70), 1870-5 ; d 1878. 

Hughes, Arthur Francis, 1884-7. Dentist. 

Hughes, Arthur Jajnes, 1883-9. B.A., Queen's College, Oxford. 
64 Mansfield Road, N.W. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Hughes, Benjamin L., 1860-6. 

Hughes, Charles Owen Everett, 1889-90. 

Hughes, David Owen, 1850-3. 

Hughes, Edwaj^, 1833-5. 

Hughes, Henry Maldwyn, 1887-93. B.A., London. Wesleyan 

Hughes, Hugh, 1830-4. Doctor; d. 1848. 

Hughes, Jabez, 1820-5. Dead. 

Hughes, John, 1828-30. F.E.C.S., Eng. J.P., County of Carmar- 
then. Formerly Coroner, and Surgeon-Major of the Carmarthen 
Militia ; also Cliairman of Board of Guardians and of School Board, 
Carmarthen ; d. 1897. 

Hughes, John Ernest, 1894-7. 

Hughes, John Richard, 1851-4. 

Hughes, John WilliaJtn, 1869-73. Chemist. 

Hughes, Joseph Lacon, 1864-70. Draper. 

Hughes, Owen Vaughan (G. 1877-81), 1881-3. Stenographer, 
New York. 

Hughes, Richard Watson, 1870-3. 

Hughes, Thomas, 1833- (?). 

Hughes, Thomas Gilbert, 1895- . 

. Hughes, Thomas Jones, 1841-5. 

Hughes, Thomas Melancthon, 1865-9. Schoolmaster, Australia. 

Hughes, William, 1828-32. 

Hugill, Albert Henry, 18(52-7. Grocer, Leeds. 

Hugill, Charles Alfred, 1868-72. Lieutenant, R.N.R. ; Commander, 
B.I.S.N. Company. 

Hugill, Ernest Frederick, 1865-70. B.A., London. Master at 
WyclifFe College, Stonehouse. 

Hugill, John Snell, 1858-64. Tutor, 34 New Oxford Street. 
Hugill, Joseph James, 1867-70. Draper, Sheffield. 
Hugill, William Dyson, 1873-7. Draper, Sheffield. 

Hulme, Isaiah Alexander, 1867-73. Star Life Office, Moorgate 


Hulme, James Denton, 1831-7. M.R.C.S., Eng. Formerly House 
Surgeon, Leicester General Hospital ; d. 1886. 

Digitized by Google * 


Hulme, John Turley, 1870-3. Managing director, Lowe, Fletcher, 
& Hulme, printers, Chatham. 

Hulme, Richard Gleave, 1861-6. L.D.S., Eng. Dental surgeon, 
Finsbury Square. 

Huhne, Thomas Perrier, 1866-72. M.A., Trinity College, Dublin. 
Wesleyan minister, 1878. 

Humphreys, Humphrey Gwydol, 1888-91. 

Humphries, John, 1826-32. 

Humphries, Robert, 1829-34. 

Hunt, Anthony Gifford, 1768- (?). 

Hunt^ Frederick Leopold, 1883-7. In business. 

Hunter, Alfred Oswald, 1894- . 

Hunter,- Charles Frederick, 1885-93. B.A., London. Master at 
K. S., 1893-4 ; Wesleyan minister, 1896. 

Hunter, Edgar Pearson, 1886-91. Chemist, Ilkley. 

Hunter, Frederick (Jeorge, 1886-9. Farmer, New Zealand. 

Hunter, George Henry, 1883-7. B.A., London. Headmaster of 
Queenstown High School, South Africa. 

Hunter, Herbert Edward, 1891-4. Cabinetmaker. 

Hunter, Herbert Farrant, 1883-8. 

Hunter, John William (G. 1880-2), 1882-4. Drowned, 1884." 

Hunter, Percy Dugmore, 1886-92. Schoolmaster, Grahamstown. 

Himter, Ranulph Brocas, 1891-7. 

Himter, William Roden, 1895- . 

Hurst, Beiyamin Thomas, 1852-8. Died at Sydney, 1864. 

Hurt, Charles William (G. 1877-8), 1878-82 ; d. 1889, at Johannes- 

Hurt, Wesley (G. 184S-9), 1849-50 (G. 1850-3). Wesleyan minister, 
S. Africa, 1860. 

Hutcheon, Charles Edward, 1883-8. Wesleyan minister, 1895. 

Hutcheon, John Ernest, 1883-5. Provision trade. 

Hutton, Arthur Herbert (G. 1876-9), 1879-82. Clerk, 123 Stroud 
Green Boad, N. 

Hutton, Francis Samuel, 1882-5. Draper, 40 Finsburv Park 
Road, N. . 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Hutton, Frederick Norman, 1883-8. Surveying clerk, London 
School Board. 

Hutton, Harold Clarke (G. 1878-82), 1882-4. Solicitor, 40 Fins- 
bury Park Road, N. 

Hutton, Samuel William, 1873-5 (G. 1875-6), 1876-9. Accountant, 
London. 49 Lordship Lane, N. 

Hutton, Thomas Frederick, 1873-5 (G. 1875-7), 1877-9. Draper, 

Hutton, William Percy (G. 1876-8), 1878-83. B.A., London. 
Wesley an minister, 1889. 

Huxtable, W. W., 1872. Newfoundland. 

Ingham, Arthur Vey, 1874-5 (G. 1875-8), 1878-80. Timber trade, 

Ingham, Ronald, 1872-6. Australia. 

Ingham, Thomas, 1811-6. Surgeon ; d. 1852. 

Ingle, Richard, 1824-40. Draper, Bristol. Went to America. 

Ingle, Timothy, 1835-40 ; d, 1842. 

Inglis, Andrew, 1791-3. 

Inglifl, Gheorge, 1799-1803. 

Inglis, James, 1792-8. 

Inglis, John, 1792-8. 

Ingram, Arthur Romilly HaJl, 1886-8. B.Sc, London. Wesleyan 
minister, India, 1893 ; d, 1896. 

Ingram, Aubrey White, 1896- . 

Ingram, Clarence White, 1888-94. B.A., London. 

Ingram, David Bernard, 1888-93. Engineer. 

Ingram, Norman Charles, 1892-7. 

Iredale, Jabez Percival (G. 1880-2), 1882-5. M.B., B.C., Durham. 

Isham, Justinian WilHam, 1817-23. Clerk. 
Isham, Thomas Coke, 1817-23. 

Jackson, Arthur Hedley (G. 1879-82), 1882-3. Wesleyan minister, 

Jackson, Edwin Douglas, 1879-84. B.A., London. Wesleyan 
minister, 1894. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Jackson, Henry W. (G. 1833-4), 1834-8. B.A., Trinity College, 
Dublin. Master at W. H. G. Wesley an minister, 1849. 

Jackson, John, 1809-11. 

Jackson, Robert William, 1866-70. M.A., London. Master at K. S., 
1879-81, 1883 ; at W. H. G., 1882 ; headmaster of Trowbridge High 
School, 1884-93. Congregational minister, Macclesfield. 

Jackson, Samuel,- 1871-8. M.A., Merton College, Oxford. Head- 
master of Victoria College, Congleton, 1892. Author : Primer of 
Business^ Commercial Arithmetic. 

Jackson, Sydney Park, 1887-92. Engineer, L. and Y. Railway, 

Jackson, Thomas, 1799-1803. 

Jaxjkson, Thomas, 1845-50. 

Jackson, Thomas, 1868-74. M.A., London. Master atK. S., 1882-7 ; 
headmaster, Wesley College, Auckland, 1895. 

Jackson, Thomas Percy, 1885-90. Manchester and Salford Bank, 
Moseley Street, Manchester. 

Jackson, Williajn, 1796-1802. Wesleyan minister, 1811 ; d. 1863. 

Jagger, John Hubert, 1892- . 

Jagger, Thomas J., 1823-9. Wesleyan missionary, Fiji. 

James, Alexander, 1888-93. Clerk. 

JcuDies, Alexander Thomas, 1834-40. Wesleyan minister, 1847 ; d. 

James, Alfred, 1886-91. Engineer, G.W.R., Swindon. 

JcuDies, Charles Edwin, 1883-8. Parr's Bank. 

JcuDies, George Edward, 1883-7. Manchester and Liverpool Bank. 

James, John Hutchinson, 1824-30. D.D., Victoria, Canada. 
Wesleyan minister, 1836; Governor of Wesley College, Sheffield, 
1862-8; President of Conference, 1871 ; d, 1891. 

James, Lewis Cairns (G. 1877-9), 1879-82. Actor, 6 Clement's 
Inn, W.C. 

James, Thomas Egbert Lidiard (G. 1867-9), 1869-74. F.R.I.B.A. 
Architect, 27 Chancery Lane. 

James, William, 1828-31. Doctor. 

James, William Langford, 1891-5. Bank clerk. 

Jameson, Samuel B., 1831-6. 

Jameson, Thomas, 1833-6. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Jefl&reys, John Alfired, 1867-73. Wesleyan minister, Australia, 1882. 

Jeflfreys, William Henry, 1866-73. M.A., Queen's College, Oxford. 
Private tutor, Liverpool. 

JeflHes, William Albert Yates, 1885-90. Bank of North and 
South Wales (Warwick branch). 

Jenkin, Charles William, 1883-6 ; d. 1888. 

Jenkin, "Percy Spencer, 1895. 

Jenkin, Richard Henry (G. 1 876-7), 1 877-84. B. A., London. Master 
at K. S., 1884-5 ; d, 1885. 

Jenkins, Edward Arthur, 1860-5. 

Jenkins, Isaac Henry, 1858-63. Managing clerk, W. Price & Co., 

curriers, Bridgend. 
Jenkins, John, 1851-5. 

Jenkins, John Edward, 1846-7. M.P. for Dundee, 1874-80. Author 
of Giiia^s Baby, Panialas, etc. Barrister-at-law ; Agent-General for 
Canada, 1874-6. 12 Edith Road, W. 

Jenkins, Joseph, 1810-6. 

Jennings, Edward Fairless, 1845-51. Oldland House, Bishop- 

Jennings, Gborge AveUne, 1859-62. 

Jennings, Robert, 1851-4. M.D., St. Andrews; L.R.C.S., Edin. 
Bishop weannouth. Author : The Plurality of JVorlds, The Human 
Mind, etc. 

Jeune, Daniel George, ?-1803. Lieutenant, II.N. 

Jemie, John, 1800-2. 

Jewell, Charles Wesley, 1849-55. Manager of Consolidated Bank 
of Cornwall, Liskeard. 

Jewell, Richard, 1846-52. Auditor and accountant, London. 

Jewell, Thomas Cory, 1843-9 ; d. 1855. 

Jewell, William Walter, 1841-8. Mechanical engineer, Falmouth. 

Johnson, Alfred Adolf Harold, 1893-4. 

Johnson, Arthur William, 1893-6. 

Johnson, Arthur William Beebee (G. 1881-3), 1883-6. Master 
at Bakewell Grammar School. 

Johnson, Edward, 1798-1803. 

Johnson, Ronald Lee, 1894- . 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

KING swoon SCHOOL 65 

Johnson, Vernon Dockeray, 1892- . 

Jones, Arthur Wansbrough (G. 1877-8), 1878-82. 15. A., LL.B., 
London (Scholarship in Common Law, 1890). Solicitor, Norwicli. 

Jones, Benjamin, 1833-5. 

Jones, David Edgar, 1896- . 

Jones, David Ogwen, 1896- . 

Jones, David Richard, 1887-8. 

Jones, Ebenezer David, 1856-62. Went to sea. 

Jones, Edgar (Ebenezer) Morgan, 1861-7. Solicitor. Subsequciitiv 
Atlantic Fuel Worjts, Swansea. 

Jones, Francis Thomas Grafton, 1885-90. Schoolmaster. 

Jones, Frederick Joseph Grafton, 1879-82. Shilton & Co., 
drapers, Naples. 

Jones, Gwilym, 1896- . 

Jones, Harold Rodwell, 1883-8. Dent, Allcroft, & Co., Wood Street, 

Jones, Henry Richard Starke (G. 1869-75), 1875-6. B. A., London. 
Headmaster, New School, Halifax. 

Jones, Herbert Saunders Wansbrough (G. 1876-8), 1878-83. 
B.Sc., London ; M.B., CM., Edinburgh. Poplar Cottage, Harrow. 

Jones, Howell Francis, 1895- . 

Jones, Hugh Foxton, 1892-4. 

Jones, Hugh Owen, 1895- . 

Jones, James Daniel Cooke, 1870-6. Entered Didsbury College ; 
d. 1886. 

Jones, James Henry, 1865-6. 

Jones, John, 1822-4. 

Jones, John Arthur (G. 1877 80), 1880-4. B.A., Jesus College, 
Oxford. Sub-editor, Liverpool Mercury. 

Jones, John Ellis, 1814-9. 

Jones, John Hugh, 1860-6. Wesleyan minister, 1871. 
Jones, John Hugh, 1894- . 
Jones, John Mitchell, 1865-71. New Zealand. 
Jones, John Peter, 1867-9. Draper, Aberystwyth. 
Jones, John Price, 1883-8. B.A., Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Jones, John Samuel, 1831-5. Wesleyan minister, 1840; d. 189f>. 

Jones, John William (G. 1871-5), 1875-7. 

Jones, Llewelyn Rodwell, 18.92- . 

Jones, Uewelyn Wansbrough, 1864-72. B.A., Merton College, 
Oxford (first cUiss in Mathematics, 1879 ; Junior Mathematical 
Scholarship, 1877) ; d. 1881. 

Jones, Masfen, 1770- (?). 

Jones, Maurice Henry, 1886-90. Clerk, Hanwell Asylum. 

Jones, Owen Tudor (G. 1878-82), 1882-6. Solicitor, Liveq^ool. 

Jones, Peter Wesley (G. 1880-3), 1883-4. Draper, Cardiff. 

Jones, Richard C, 1854-9. 

Jones, Robert, 1837-41. 

Jones, Robert, 1866-71. Commercial traveller, Bath Sti-eet, Rhyl. 

Jones, Robert Bryan (G. 1881-3), 1883-5. Chemist. 

Jones, Robert Harwood Lloyd, 1894-6. 

Jones, Robert Maelgwyn (G. 1874-8), 1878-80. Chartered Bank 
of India. 

Jones, Samuel Cook, 1860-5. 

Jones, Sajnuel Wansbrough, 1869 ; rf. 1869. 

Jones, Sydney Wansbrough, 1882-5. B.A., L.Th., Hatfield Hall, 
Durham. Holy Orders, 1896. Curate of Burwarton, Salop. 

Jones, Thomas, drm 1789. 

Jones, Thomas David, 1863-9. Draper. Subsequently headmaster's 
secretary, K. S., 1893-4. 

Jones, Thomas B., 1850-5. 

Jones, William ((4. 1824-7), 1827-30. 

Jones, William, 1828-33. 

Jones, William, 1844-5. 

Jones, William Arthur, 1887-8. 

Jones, William D., 1867-8. Wesleyan minister, 1876 ; rf. 1878. 

Jones, William Hutchins, 1858-62. 

Jones, Williajn Price (G. 1878-81), 1881-3. Ironmonger, Market 
Square, Aylesbury. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Jones, William Wansbrough, 1863-9. M.A., M.B., Fellow of 
Magdalen College, Oxford (first class in Natural Science, 1875) ; 
B.Sc, London ; M.R.C.S., Eng. Barlow Moor Road, Didsbury. 

Jope, Edward Mallett, 1893- . 

Jordan, Henry, 1828-30. Draper. Went to New South Wale*'. 

Jordan, John Marion William, 1870-6. 

Jordan, Joshua Hawkins, 1870-6. Picture dealer, New York. 

Joss, John, 1767- (?). 

Joss, Torial, 1768- (?). 

Joyce, Matthias, 1793-9. 

Judson, John Percy, 1891-5. 

Julian, John Charles, l8.-)i-3 ; d, 1853. 

Jutsum, Frederick Ralph (G. 187G-80), 1880-1. Insurance broker, 

Jutsum, Josiah Arthur (G. 1875-8), 1878-81. City Bank, London. 

Jutsum, Richard Stanley, 1884-7. Manchester and Liverpool 
Bank, Tunstal. 

Kane, George, 1801-5. 

Kane, H., (?)-n99. 

Kane, James, 1789-96. 

Kane, Laurence, 1787-91. 

Kane, Scunuel, 1800-4. 

Keeble, Arthur Gordon, 1894-7. 

Keeble, (Jeorge Herbert, 1890-4. Draper, Hanley. 

Keeble, Harold Edwin, 1890-5. M.R., Stoke. 

Keeble, Leshe, 1896. 

Keeley, Arthur Webster, 1888-95. Schoolmaster, (irahaiusto\Mi. 

Keeley, Harold Percy, 1894- . 

Keeley, James Laurence, 1891-4 ; d. 1894. 

Keeling, James Hops ((J. 1875-8), 1878-80. Farmer, N.W. Canada. 

Keet, John Henry, 1866-72. Freezing Works, Aberdeen, N.S.W. 

Keil, Edward, circa 1773. 

Keil, John, circa 1773. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Kelk, Philip, 1808-14. 

Kelk, Thomas, 1814-20. 

Kelk, William, 1804-9. Wesleyan minister, 1820 ; d. 1866. 

Kellett, Alfred Peatherstone, 1879-83. M.B., B.C., St. John's 
College, Cambridge. 142 Lewisham Road, S.E. 

Kellett, Ernest Edward, 1877-82. M.A., Wadham College, Oxford 
(Ellerton Prize, 1887) ; B.A., London. Master at the Leys. Author : 
Jetsam, or occasional verses. 

Kellett, Frederick William, 1873-81. B.A., London; M.A., 
Fellow of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge (first class in Clas.«;irs, 
1884, 1885, and Theology, 1886; Prince Consort Prize, 1888). 
Wesleyan minister, 1886. Professor of History, Madras. Christian 
College, 1892. Author : Gregory the Great. Edited Baconh Emujs. 

Kelvey, William Parmer, 1883-8. Holland Road, Sutton Coldfield. 

Kent, Alfred Blake (0. 1882-3), 1883-7. Osair Kress & Co., 
chemists, New York. 

Kent, Arthur James, 1886-92. Draper, 13 Ohlham Street, 

Kent, Ernest Andrews, 1895-6. 

Kent, John Henry, 1886-91. Master at Woodhouse Grove, 1893. 

Kent, Thomas Parkes (G. 1879-82), 1882-7. M.A., Christ Church, 
Oxford (first class in Mathematics, 1890). Master at Surrey County 
School, Cranleigh. 

Kemick, Frederick Walwyn, 1894- . 

Kerr, Jaones, 1838-41. Wesleyan minister, 1850; d. 1855. 

Kershaw, Arthur, (?)-1768. Tninslator and journalist ; d. 1824. 

Kershaw, John Jones, 1823-4. 

Keyworth, Robert Aver, 1853-9. Business at Cape Town. Died 
at sea, 1868. 

Keyworth, William Aver, 1868-73. London and Midland Bank, 
Brierley Hill. 

Kidman, Henry ((7. 1877-81), 1881-3. Shipping office, Manchester; 
d. 1895. 

EZidman, Herbert, 1891-5. Auctioneer and e.<tate agent, 21 
Champernowne Terrace, Ilfracombe. 

Klidman, James Alfred, 1897- . 

Kidman, Joseph Cook, 1884-91. With Messrs. Reckitt & Sons. 

Kidman, Robert, 1888-94. B.A., London. Queenstown, S. Africa, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Killiok, Alfred Henry, 1853-60. M.A., Fellow of Durham 
University. Holy Orders. Author: StudenVs Handbook to MiWs 
Logic ; d, 1873. 

Killiok, Charles Richard, 1862-7. M.A., St. John's College, 
Cambridge. Holy Orders, 1875. 

Killick, John Homer, 1851-6. B.A., London; L.Th., Durham. 
Holy Orders. Died at sea, 1875. 

Killiok, William Donald, 1847-53. B.Sc, London. Doctor; d. 

Kilner, Henry, 1851-2 (G. 1852-6). 

Kilner, Thomas Frederick, 1847-52 ; d. 1862, at Kio Binto, 
W. Africa. 

King, Arnold, 1888-92. National Provincial Bank, Leicester. 

King, Benjamin Gregory, 1892-6. 

King, Boston, 1794-6. Wesleyan Negro evangelist. 

King, Edward Raley, 1890-4. Draper, Truro. 

King, Hairy, 1886-91. Lewis & Allenby, drai>ers, Regent Street. 

King, Herbert Jeffrey (G. 1882-3), 1883-7. Farmer, Wyoming. 

King, Joseph Hall, 1884-8. Farmer, Wyoming. 

Kirk, Frank Herbert, 1865-72. Clyde Steel Works, Sliettield. 

Kirk, William Arthur, 1888-93. Traveller for Cassy, Inwotxl, & 
Co., 25 Carter's Lane, B.C. 

Kirkby, James Leige Edgar, 18H.")-8. In Railway Office, Natal. 

Kirkby, Reginald Guy, 1886-8. Architect. 

Kirkby, Thomas Vivian, 1885-9. Government Service, Natal. 

Kirkman, Joseph Charles, 1883-6. B.Sc, Durham. Ma.ster at 
Tenby Intermediate School. 

Kirkman, 'William Rayner, 1884-6. Engineer's draught^nian. 

Kirtlan, Ernest John Brigham ((J. 1877-82), 188:^-4. B.A., 
London ; B.D., St. Andrews. Wesleyan minister, 1893. 

B^irtlan, James Brighajn (G. 1873, 1874-5), 1877 ; d 1878. 

Knibbs, Henry William Budgett (( 4. 1 878-9), 1 879-^2. Wholesale 
grain trade, Gloucester. 

Kno^les, Atherton, 1868-74. M.A., St. John's College, Cambridge. 
Holy Orders, 1881. Vicar of St. James, Ratcliff, E., 1895. 

E^owles, Charles Henry Gough, 1869-75. Solicitor, Luton. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



BZnowles, John Arthur (G. 1877-8), 1878-84. B.A., London. 
Master at K. S., 1887-91. 9 Tyne Road, Bishopston, Bristol. 

Elnowles, William Atherton, 1871-4. Commercial traveller, 3 
Stockwood Crescent, Luton. 

Knox, James, 1810^. 

Knox, Richard, 1810-6. 

Kyte, Charles, 1798- (?). 

Kyte, John, 1803-11. 

Kyte, Joseph, 1805-11. 

Kyte, J. H., 1809-15. 

Engineer, 2 Artliington 
B.A., Magdalen College, 
Civil Service (Post Office), 

Labrum, Frank Newman, 1897- . 

Labrum, William Ernest, 1893- . 

Laby, Philip, 1791- (?). 

Lambert, Charles Gordon, 1894- . 

Lambert, Frederick James, 1890-5. 
Street, Leeds. 

Lambert, George Bancroft, 1884-92. 
Oxford. Indian Civil Service. 

Lambert, Wesley Thornton, 1887-93. 
119 Brecknock Road, Kentish Town. 

Lambert, William Ashcroft, 1894- . 

Lancaster, John Bdkins, 1820-1. 

Lancaster, Thomas ((I. 1825-7), 1827-31. 

Lancaster, William Edkins, 1830 ; (/. 1878. 

Lane, William, 1789- (?). 

Langley, Aaron, 1854-61. L.K.C.P. and L.R.C.S., Edinburgh. 65 
Kennington Park Road, S.E. 

Langley, Aubrey Samuel, 1884-7. Schoolnia.«*ter, Capetown. 

Langley, Cecil Herbert, 1895- . 

Langley, Gilbert Horace, 1892-4. Chemist, Nottingham. 

Langley, James Edgar, 1882-6. B.A., London. Master at K. S., 
1894-6. Master at Prince Alfred's College, Adelaide. 

Langley, Oswald Read, 1885-8. Art master, Dean CUuse School, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Langstone, Edwin, 1839-45. 

Langstone, Thomas, 1837-43. 

Laugher, Henry James, 1859-60. Cashier, Middlesbrough ; d. 1876. 

Law, John Jackson, 1896- . 

Law, William JsrCkson, 1888-94. Dentist, Halifax. 

Lawn, Robert Gibson, 1891- . 

Lawry, Henry H., 1830-6. Wesleyan minister, New Zealand, 1845. 
Vice-president of British and Foreign Bible Society. 

Lawton, Herbert Wesley (G. 1881-3), 1883-6. Schoolmaster. 

Lawton, John Wesley (G. 1861-4), 1864. M.R.C.S., Eng. 

Leach, James Spicer, 1864 (G. 1865-9). Draughtsman, West 

Leach, William Attfleld, 1856-62. Wesleyan minister, 1872. 

Leale, George Urbane, 1856-61. Tea pknter, Brazil. 

Lecde, Josiah, 1852-8. Doctor, Guernsey, and Colonel, 2nd Regiment, 
Royal Guernsey Militia. 

Lear, Jabez, 1838-41. Went to Australia. 

Lear, John Wesley, 1831-2. Manchester. 

Lear, Joseph B., 1832-7. Teacher of languages, France. 

Lear, Samuel Willis, 1826-31. Commercial traveller, Birmingham ; 
d. 1889." 

Lear, Thomas, 1828-33. Went to Australia. 

Le Bas, Philip W., 1850-4. 

Leech, John, 1784-91. 

Leech, Thomas, 1789- (0- 

Lees, James (G. 1872-5), 1875-7. Watford. 

Leggatt, Benjamin, 1804-9. 

Leggatt, Samuel, 1808-12. 

Le Bougetel, Thomas David, 181)2-7. 

Lessey, Matthew, (?)-1799. 

Lessey, Theophilus, 1794-1801. Wesleyan minister, 1808 ; President 
of Conference, 1839 ; Trea.'^uivr of Schools' Fund, 1830-1 ; (/. 1841. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Lessey, Thomas, 1836-43. Cougregational minister; afterwards^ a 
Plymouth Brother. 

Lester, Allan Vemey, 1892-4. 

Le Sueur, Peter, 1820-3. Went into business. Drowned (0- 

Levell, William Alfred, 1887-9. Canada. 

Lewis, Arthur Ernest (G. 1882-3), 1883-7. With Messrs. A. & s. 
Henry, Bradford. 

Lewis, Benjamin Carpenter, 1834-40 ; d, 1868. 

Lewis, Edward Llewelyn, 1897- . 

Lewis, Frederick, 1856-9. Drowned 1866, in the " I/ondou." 

Lewis, Henry, 1770- (0- 

Lewis, John Lambert, 1887-8. Chemist. 

Lewis, John Lamont, 1862-8. 

Lewis, Joseph Cole Shepherd, 1851-7. Wholesale stationer, 
London ; d, 1893. 

Lewis, Joseph C, 1832-6. 

Lewis, Lewis, 1855-62. M.R.C.S., Eng. ; L.R.C.P., Lond. ; M.D., 
Durham. 43 Marlborough Hill, N.W. 

Lewis, Matthew William (Ci. 1878-81), 1881-3. Draper, Cardiff. 

Lewis, Robert Alun Ellis, 1892-4. 

Lewis, Robert Benson, 1832-5 (G. 1835-7). M.B., London (Surgery 
Medallist, 1850); M.R.C.S., Eng. Dead. 

Lewis, Thomas Crompton, 1861-7. M.A., Fellow of Trinity 
College, (Cambridge (6th AVrangler, 1875; Sheepf^hanks Exhibition, 
1874). l^irector of Public Instruction, N.W. P., India. 

Lewis, William Spencer, 1883-8. Chemist, Kendal. 

Lightwood, Edward Rich, 1857-65. B.A., Ix)ndon. Headmaster, 
Pembroke House, Lytham. 

Lightwood, James Thomas, 1866-72. Schoolmaster, Lytham. 

Lightwood, John Mason, 18G1-8. M.A., Fellow of Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge (1 2th AVrangler, 1874); B.A., London. Barrister. 
Author : The Nature of Pimtivc Laic. 

Lindley, John W., 1860-1. 

Lindley, William Walker, 1854 {(i. 1854-7). Chemist, Rother- 
' hithe. 

Ling, John, circa 1766-70. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Ling, John, 1770- (?). 

Little, Arthur Canvin, 1872-7. Publisher, Rochester, N.Y. 

Little, Harwood, 1866-72. B.A., Durham. Holy Orders, 1882; 
Chaplain to the Forces, Dover, 1893. 

Little, Joseph Roberts, 1859-61 (G. 1861-5). Dentist, San 
Francisco ; rf. 1895. 

Little, Leonard Sargent, 1897- . 

Llewellyn, Alfred John Dickinson Edward, 1894-6. 

Lloyd, Henry, 1831 2. 

Lloyd, John Wesley, 1847-50. Dentist, Liverpool. 

Lloyd, Simon, 1770- (0- 

Lloyd, T. J., 1852-4. 

Lockhart, Charles Henry, 1897- . 

Lookyer, Alfred William, 1867-71. M.A., London (Ciold Medallist, 
1879). Master at K. S., 1877, 1882-3 ; Holy Orders, 1884 ; died in 
Panama, 1884. 

Lockyer, Arthur Edmund, 1862-8. B.A., London. Master at 
K. S., 1877-8. Inspector of schools, Jamaica. 

Lookyer, Thomas Frederick, 1862-5 B.A., London. Wesleyan 
minister, 1874. Author : The Insjnrations of the Christian Life^ 
An Exposition of St. John^s Gospel. 

Lofthouse, Thomas P. Hilton Cheesbrough, 1867-71. Draper, 

Lomas, John, 1806-13. Master at K. S., 1813-9; headmaster, 
1819-22 ; Wesleyan minister, 1820 ; President of Conference, 1853 ; 
(I. 1877. 

Lomas, R., 1810-4. 

Lomas, , circa 1803. 

Lord, John Holt, 1830-2. Wesleyan minister, 1840 ; Governor of 
K. S., 1873-85. Author : Life of Edward Brooke. 

Lord, Percy (G. 1876-8), 1878-84. M.B., London; M.R.C.S., 
Eng. ; L.RC.P., London. Surgeon, R.N. ; d. 1895. 

Lord, William Dawber (G. 1870-5), 1875-7. B.A., London. 
Solicitor; d. 1891. 

Lord, William Dufton, 1824-30 ; d. 1895. 
Lowe, Henry, 1840-2 ((i. 1842). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Lowry, Frederick Theodore, 1893-5. London & So.-Westem Bank. 

Lowry, Thomas Martin, 1885-93. B.Sc., London. 28 St Lawrence 
Road, N. Kensington. 

Lowry, William Edward, 1883-8. B.A., Clare College, Cambridge. 
Indian Civil Service, Minbu, Upper Burma. 

Lows, John, 1768- (?). 

Lows, Matthew, 1768-74. 

Lowther, John Boswell, 1884-9. AVesleyan minister (Lagos), 1897. 

Lowthian, George Douglas, 1853-60. Textile trade, Cheai)side. 

Lowthian, Joseph, 1844-51. Cotton trade, Carlisle. 

Lowthian, Thomas, 1849-56. Bank clerk ; d. 1876. 

Lucas, Arthur Henry Shakespere, 1862-9. M.A., Balliol College, 
Oxford (University Geological Scholar, 1876) ; B.Sc, London. Head- 
master of Xewington College, Sydney, 1892. Joint-author ; Introduc- 
tion to the Study of Botany. 

Lucas, Thomas Pennington, 1854-7. M.R.C.S., Eng. ; L.R.C.P., 
Edin. Brisbane. Fellow of the Royal Society of Queensland and of 
the Linnsean Society of New South Wales. Author : Laws of Life and 
Alcoholy Creation and the CrosSy Devils Abroad^ etc. 

Ludlam, James Wesley, 1839-45. 

Ludlam, Joseph, 1846-51. 

Ludlam, Thomas Theophilus, 1837-42. 

Lusher, Edward, 1836-9. 

Lynch, John, 1790-4. 

Lynch, Nathaniel, 1789-92. 

Lyon, John, circa 1765-9. 

Lyon, John Arthur, 1850-4 (({. 1854-5). 

Lyon, William, (?) -1767. 

Lyth, John Hardy, 1860-4. Died while a ntudeut at Richmond 
Theological C^ollege, 1871. 

Mo A Hum, Daniel, 1804-7. M.D., Glasgow. Wealeyan minister, 1817 ; 
d. 1827. 

MoAllum, Dimcan, 1799-1805. Author: History of the Culdos, 
Gaelic Church History, History of the AnciejU Scota. 

MoAllum, John, 1796- (0- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Macartney, Thomas JarCkson, 1887-90. Bainbndge & Co., whole- 
sale clothiers, Leeds. 

Macartney, William Newton, 1885-9. National Security Savings 
Bank, Glasgow. 

Macaulay, Alexajider (U. 1875-7), 1877-81. M.A., Gains College, 
Cambridge (1 9th Wrangler, 1886). Lecturer in Mathematics, Tasmania 
Univei*sity, 1 893. Author : The Utility of Qxuiternions in Physics ; 
A Treatise on Odonians, 

Macaulay, Francis Sowerby (G. 1871-5), 1875-9. M.A., St. John's 
College, Cambridge (8th Wrangler, 1882) ; D.Sc, London. Master at 
K. S., 1884-5. Master at St. Paul's School. Author : Geometrical 
Gvnics. Editor : The Mathematical Gazette. 

McBumey, James, 1790-7. Master at K. S., 1798-1800. 

McGJeary, Williajn, circa 1789. 

Mack, Jajnes, 1828-32. Doctor. Dead. 

Mack, Robert, 1830-4. 

Mack, William Wilson ((i. 1873-6), 1876-9 ; d. 1883. 

McKean, William, 1769-(?). 

Mackenzie, William Neshajn (G. 1877-81), 1891-3. America. 

McLaughlin, Edward B., 1839-45. Went to sea. 

McLean, Adam Clarke, 1843-4 ((i. 1846-8). B.A., London ; F.C.S. 
Ma.'^ter at K. S., 1854-5 ; W. H. (J., 1857-60 ; headmaster of Bray 
School, County Wicklow, 1884-5. 

McLean, John Worsley (G. 1 847), 1848-50 (G. 1 850- ?). School- 
master ; d. 1857. 

McOwan, George (G. 1837-9), 1839-43. Went to United States. 

McOwan, Joseph, 1842-5. Yambroker, Bradford, Yorks. 

McOwan, Peter, 1841-4. B. A., London. Master at W. H. G., 1854-7 ; 
F.C.S., 1861 ; Rector of Shaw Coll., Cirahamstown, 1802 ; Professor of 
Chemistry, Gill Coll., 1808 ; Director of Botanic Gardens, Capetown, 
1881 ; Goverament Botanist, 1882 ; F.L.S., 1885 ; Member of Deutsche 
Bot. Gesell.'Kjhaft, 1888. 

Maddem, John. Left 1768. 

Maddem, William, n'rca 1769. 

Maden, Roland (G. 1881-3), 1883-6. Schoolmaster. 

Mahy, Stephen, 1814-8. Died young. 

Maillard, Jonas Daniel (G. 1877-9), 1879-84. M.A., Loudon ; M.A., 
Jesus College, G.xford. Sthool master. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Maillard, William Job, 1873-9. M.D., London; M.R.C.S., Eng. ; 
L.R.C.P., Lond. Surgeon, R.N. 

Mainwaring, Robert, 1840-7. 

Mainwaring, William Henry, 1841-7. 

Major, Williajn Hawken (G. 1878-82), 1882-3. Crown Insurance 
Office, Bristol. 

Male, Trevan Bersey ((». 1881-3), 1883-6. Chemist, Yarmouth. 

Malone, Henry, 1787-90. 

Maltby, George Bough, 1883-8. With Chamberlain, King, & Jone^, 
house furnishers, Birmingli&ni. 

Maltby, Thomas Russell (G. 1874-6), 1876-80. M.A., London. 
Master at K. S., 1882-93 ; headmaster of Trowbridge High School, 

Maltby, William Russell(G. 1876-9), 1879-81. Solicitor, Edinburgh, 
1893 ; subsequently Wesleyan minister, 1893. 

Malvern, Charles Francis, 1862-4. Evans & Co., Hanover Street, 

Manley, John, 1835-41. M.R.C.S., Eng. J.P. West Bromwich. 

Margate, Charles, 1779- (?). 

Marquand, Arthur Bertram, 1884-8. Analytical cliemist, N.E. 
Steel Works, Middlesbro'. 

Marquand, John Melville, 1884-7. Sir R. Dixon's steel ship-build- 
ing yard, Middlesbro'. 

Manis, Alfred William, 1884-9. Provision trade, VlaklaagU*, via 
Aberdeen, Cape Colony. 

Manis, Hubert Chfton, 1892-7. 

Marris, Stanley Punshon, 1883-8. Holy Orders, 1894. A.K.C. 

Marsden, William, 1770- (0- 

Marsh, Joseph, 1836, 1837-9. Chemist. 

Martin, Penwick Duckworth, 1819-24. 

Martin, Hamilton Duckworth, 1820-1, 1824-6. 

Martin, Henry Fowler (0. 1882-3), 1883-7. Ironmonger, Stocks 
Street, Manchester. 

Martin, John Duckworth, 1819-25. 

Martin, Norman Radcliffe, 1883-8. Agent for Wheatley Bros., 
cutleiij, 210 St. Paul's Road, Canonbury, N. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Martin, Robert A. G., 1833-9. Shipping agent. • 

Martin, Thomas, 1831-7. 

Mason, Arthur Henry (G. 1874-7), 1877-80. City and County Bank, 

Mason, Arthur Weir (G. 1871-2), 1872-8. B.A., London. Puisne 
Judge, Natal, 1895. 

Mason, Gillespie, 1874-5 (G. 1875). Solicitor, Natal. 

Mason, John, 1830-6. House surgeon, Guinea Street Hospital, Bristol ; 
rf. 1848. 

Mason, John Hawe, 1828-31. (4rocer. J.P. Formerly Mayor of 

Mason, Sydney, 1882-6. B.A., Merton College, Oxford ; B.A., 
London. Schoolmaster, Gill College, Somerset E., Cape Colony. 

Mather, Alexander, 1768-74. 

Matthews, William, 1791- (?). 

Maude, Charles, 1884-8. Marine engineer, Wilson Line. 

Maude, Frederick, 1884-8. Agent for Manchester firm, Sierra 

Maurice, Thomas, 1767-9. 

Maurice, William, 1767-9. 

Maxwell, Frederick Charles, 1857-62. M.A., LL.D., St. John's 
College, Cambridge. Headmaster of Manor House School, Clapham. 
Member of the Council, College of Preceptors. 

Maxwell, George Neal, 1846-51. Chemist, St. John's Wood. 

Maxwell, James W., 1855-60. Draper, Bedford. 

Maxwell, R. (G. 1850-2), 1852-5. 

Maxwell, William John, 1852-7 ; d. 1867. 

Maydew, William Dawson ((i. 1875-9), 1879-81. 

Mayer, James William (G. 1858-62), 1863-4. Tea merchant, 
London. Denecourt, Surbiton. 

Mayer, John, 1768-9. 

Mayes, Charles Claud, 1888-94. 

Mayes, Frederick James Alexander, 1890-5. Medical student. 

Meadmore, Charles, 1846-8. 

Meadmore, Jabez, 1857-62. Chemist, Farn borough. 

Digitized by LjOQQIC 


Meadmore, James, 1856-61. The Great Tree, Sydling, Dorset. 

Meadmore, Robert, 1845-50. In business. Died in Austmlia, 1893. 

Mee, William Caxton, 1887-8. Printer, Cardiir. 

Mees, Charles Edward Kenneth, 1894-7. 

Mees, Gustavus Eric, 1894- . 

Mellor, John Ralph, 1889-90. 

Menhinick, Sydney Fletcher (G. 1879-83), 1883-5. Civil Service ; 
f/. 1895. 

Midgley, Joseph Henry ((t. 1872-6), 1876-8. With Messi-s. Winsor 
& Newton, Rathbone Place, N.W. 

Milligan, James, 1889-91. Medic^jl student. 

Milligan, William (G. 1881^), 1883-0. Chemist, Al>erdaro. 

MiUman, James, 1828-33 ; d. 1837. 

Millman, John, 1820-1 ; rf. 1822. 

Millman, Thomas, 1826-30. 

Milward, Walton Baylis (U. 1877-81), 1881-2. Wesleyan minist4?r, 
South Africa, 1890. 

MitcheU, James, 1778- (?). 

Mitchell, John, 1782- (?). 

Mole, Alfred Ernest (G. 1875-8), 1878-^0. M.B., CM., Edinburgh. 
Adliugton, Lancasliire. 

Mole, Donald Braithwaite, 1891-5. 

Mole, Ernest William ((}. 1876-9), 1879-82. B.A., London. Mast^ir 
at K.S., 1887-94; St. John's Coll., Newfoundland, 1894 ; K.S.,1897- . 

Mole, George Norman, 1891-5. Clerk, Messrs. Wall, Bristol. 

Mole, Godfrey, 1890-4. 

Mole, Joseph, 1844-50. Wesleyan minister, 1860; rf. 1891. 

Mole, Joseph Henry, 1885-90. National Provincial Bank. 

Mole, Richard Hopkins, 1834-40. (Chemist ; rf. 1866. 

Mole, Richard Howard, 1887-93. B.A., London. University 
College, Aberystwytli. 

Mole, Robert Hopkins, 1837-43. Wesleyan minister, 1857. 

Moody, Charles, 1838-44. Draper. 

Moody, Christopher Henry, 1827-33. 

Moody, John Wesley, 1845-60, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Moody, Richard Watson, 1835-41. Draper, Liskeard. 

Moon, Francis Williajn, 1870-6. Wesleyan minister, West Indies, 

Moon, John, 1800-6. 

Moon, William James, 1896- . 

Moore, George, 1789-93. 

Moreton, Arthur William (G. 1882-3), 1883-7. 

Moreton, Francis Bajifleld, 1889^94. 

Moreton, James Dysart, 1891-7. 

Moreton, Robert, 1886-92. 

Morgan, George, 1828-34. Master at K. S., 1834-r) ; d 1851. 

Morgan, Henry, 1833-9. Chemist. 

Morgan, James, 1782-9. 

Morgan, John, 1776- (0- 

Morgan, Matthias, 1786- (?). 

Morgan, Peter, 1789- (?). 

Morgan, Richard Bonner (G. 1879-82), 1882-3. Chemist, Burton- 

Morgan, Thomas, (?)-1767. 

Morgan, Thomas John (G. 1878-82), 1882-4. Schoolmaster, Pococke 
College, Kilkenny. 

Morgan, William, 1776- (?). 

Morgan, William Griffith, 1886-9. 

Morgan, William Rowland (G. 1877-9), 1879-82. Master at New- 
ington College, Sydney. 

Morley, John, 1816-21. 

Morley, Samuel (G. 1812-6), 1816-8 ; d. 1818. 

Morris, G^eorge Joseph, 1858-65. Master at W. H. G., 1872. M. A., 
Royal University of Ireland. Civil Service (Public Record Office). 

Morris, James Scholefleld, 1877-9. Wesleyan minister, 1889 
(S. Africa). 

Morris, John Longstaff (G. 1879-81), 1881-3. Powder works, 
Winnipeg ; d. 1895. 

Morris, Robert, 1828-34, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Morrison, Arthur Stanley, 1869-75. India-rubber manufacturer, 
9 Graceehurch Street, E.C. 

Morrison, Charles Ernest, 1871-7. Coal merchant, 9 Graceehurch 

Morrison, Edward Burford, 1869-72. Sun Life and Fire Office, 

Morrison, John, 1768-70; rf. 1816. 

Morrow, Alft^d Mitchell (G. 1876-9), 1879-82. Wesleyan minister, 
1890 ; rf. 1891. 

Morrow, Arnold Wilton, 1892-6. 

Morrow, Arthur Fleetwood (G. 1878-82), 1882-4. Accountant. 

Morrow, George Edwin, 1873-5 (G. 1875-7), 1877-9, London and 
County Bank, Brighton. 

Morrow, Herbert James, 1893-6. 

Morrow, John Frederick, 1872-7. Journalist ; ^h 1883. 

Mort, George Cecil, 1893-6. 

Mort, Sajnuel Parker, 1891-5. 

Morton, Harold Christopherson, 1883-8. B. A., London. We.«^leyan 
minister, 1893. 

Morton, Philip Howajrd, 1897- . 

Morton, William Henry (G. 1875-80), 1880-1. 

Moss, John Fletcher, 1862-7. Draper, Radstock. 

Moss, Richard Waddy, 1859-67. Master at K. S., 1867-9; 
Wesleyan minister, 1869 ; classical tutor, Didsbury, 1888. Author : 
From Afalachi to Matthew, The Discipline of the Soul. 

Moss, Thomas, nrca 1765-6. 

Moss, William F., 1855-61. Grocer. 

Mosscrop, Thomas Duncan, 1893- . 

Mottram, Charles Sim, 1861-2. 

Mottram, Joshua, 1861-2. 

Moulton, Arthur Johnson, 1874-5 (G. 1875-6), 1876-81. Whit- 
worth Scholar, 1885. Draughtsman, M.R., Derby. 

Moulton, Bbenezer, 1818-23. Wesleyan minister, 1835 ; d. 1885. 

Moulton, Francis Edgar, 1893-6 ; rf. 1896. 

Moulton, James Ebenezer, 1852-6. Mathematical instrument 
maker, St. Mary's, Birmingham. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Moulton, James Egan, 1814-21. Master at K. S., 1822-8; 
Wesleyan minister, 1828; d. 1866. 

Moulton, James Egan, 1853-9. Wesleyan minister, 1862 ; 
Principal of Newington College, Sydney ; President of N.S.W. 
Conference, 1893. 

Moulton, John Bakewell, 1815-21. Wesleyan minister, 1830; d 

Moulton, John Fletcher, 1856-61. M.A., London (Gold Medallist, 
1868) ; M. A., Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge (Senior Wrangler 
and Smith's Prize, 1868) ; Barrister ; Q.C., 1885 ; Bencher of the 
Middle Temple, 1889; F.R.S., F.R.A.S., A.I.C.E. ; Fellow of the 
Society of Arts; M.P., 1885-6, 1894-5 ; Alderman, L.C.C., 1893. 

Moulton, Joseph, 1828-34 ; d. 1886. 

Moulton, Richard Green, 1861-5. M.A., Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge ; B.A., London ; Ph.D., Pennsylvania. Professor in Cliicago 
University. Author : Shakspere as a Dramatic Artist, The Literary 
Study of the Biblcy The Modem Reader's Bible, etc. 

Moulton, Robert, 1821-7 ; d. 1827. 

Moulton, Samuel, 1827-30. Grocer; d. 1857. 

Moulton, Wilfrid Johnson, 1883-6. B.A., Clare College, Cam- 
bridge. Wesleyan minister, 1893. 

Mountford (Mycock), Arthur Hambleton, 1867-71 (G. 1872-3). 
L.D.S., Eng. Dentist, Kingston-on-Thames. 

Mountford (Mycock), Mountford Wyche, 1865-71. B.A., 
Durham. Wesleyan minister, 1880. 

Mowat, Alexander, 1803- (?). 

Mowat, George, 1804-8. 

Mowat, George, 1843-9. M.R.C.S., Eng. ; M.R.C.P., Edin. Fellow 
of the Medical and Obstetrical Societies. St. Alban's. 

Mowat, Jajnes, 1806-10. Wesleyan minister, 1819 ; d. 1881. 

Mt>wat, James, 1841-8. M.A., Fellow of Sidney Sussex College, 
Cambridge (15th Wrangler, 1858). Holy Orders, 1859; Rector of 
Handsworth, 1870. 

Mowat, John, 1794- (?). 

Mowat, John Lancaster Gough, 1855-62. M.A., Fellow and 
Bursar of Pembroke College, Oxford. Proctor, 1885; d. 1894. 

Mowat, Thomas, 1800-5 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Mowat, William, 1796-1803. Wesleyan minister, 1812 ; d. 1850. 
Milliard, Prederiok, 1748- (?). 

Naish, Arthur Thomas, 1879-81, 1882-5. B.A., London. School- 
master ; rf. 1893. 

Naish, Herbert Astley, 1883-9. Commercial traveller, (irocery, 

Nanoaxrow, James Paul Clark, 1885-90. Marshall & Aston, 
drapers, Manchester. 

Nanoarrow, John Blvins, 1887-91. 

Nance, William Treflfty, 1861-4 (G. 1865-7). Grocer ; d. 1895. 

Naylor, Gordon Brew, 1897- . 

Neal, Thomas, circa 1765. 

Needle, Arthur James (G. 1874-7), 1877-9. Mechanical engineer, 
M.R., Hasland. 

Needle, Robert Newton (G. 1875-9), 1879-80. BelPs Asbestos 
Company, Birmingham. 

Nelson, Charles, 1838-43. Deiid. 

Nelson, Harry ((x. 1865-9), 1869-71. Mechanical engineer. Govern- 
ment Railway Works, Napier, N.Z. 

Nelson, John, 1796- (?). Wesleyan minister, 1809 ; d, 1877. 

Nelson, John Middleton (G. 1864-9), 1869-70. Government day- 
school teacher, Tologa Bay, N.Z. 

Nelson, John Wesley, 1835-9. Barrister ; d, 1852. 

New, John, (?)-1767. 

New, Samuel, circa 1768. 

Newell, John (G. 1879-83), 1883-4. 

Newman, Arthur Harold ((4. 1881-3), 1883-5. Printer. 

Newton, Christopher, 1838-43. Chemist. 

Newton, John (G. 1847-51), 1851-3. 

Newton, Michael, 1840-4 (G. 1844-5). 

Nichol, William Anderson, 1888-90. Messrs. Reckitt, starch 
manufacturers, Hull. 

Nicholson, Frederick Walter, 1891-6. 

Nicholson, George Robert Henderson, 1897- . 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Nicholson, Mervyn Ballans, 1895-6. 

Nicholson, Thomas Frederick, 1890-5. Dun<tall road, Woher- 

Nield, Arthur, 189a-4. Engineer, Tliirsk. 

Nield, Charles Edward, 1895- . 

Nield, Herbert Mitchinson (G. 187(5-9), 1879-83. AVesleyan 
minister, 1893. 

Nield, John Henry (Ci. 1878-82), 1882-3. Wesleyan minister, 1895, 
S. Africa. 

Nield, Joseph, 1887-91. Engineer, Joliannesburg. 

Nield, Thomas, 1888-93. (Chemist, Warwick Villas, Leeds. 

Nightingale, Arthur Winfleld (G. 1859-60), 1863-5. Weskyan 
minister, 1874 (China) ; d. 1884. 

Noall, Samuel Stephens, 1841-7. 

Noble, Richard, 1768- (?). 

NoUoth, John, 1789. Secretary to the Navy Board, Whitehall ; rf, 

Norman, James, 1789- (0- 

North, Arthur Guildford Dudley, 1896- . 

Norton, Edgar Hasell, 1888-92. 

Norton, John Harold, 1891-ri. 

Nowell, John William, 1864-8; (/. 1868. 

Nowell, Joseph Brewer, 1867-8. Wesleyan minister, 1887. 

Nuttall, Charles Griflath, 1866-72. Journalist, London ; d. 1896. 

Nye, Henry Everest Wason, 1852 ((i. 1853-5). Master at 
W. H. G. M.A., Lennoxville. Holy Ordei-s, 1861. Rector of St. 
James, Bedford, Canada ; Rural Dean. 

Ogilvie, Charles Atmore, 1803-(}. D.D., Fellow of Balliol 
College, Oxfoi-d (first chiss in Classics, 1815; Englisli Essay, 1817); 
Hami»ton Lecturer, 1836; Regius Professor of Pastoral Tlieology, 
1842-73, and Canon of ChriBt Churcli (1849) ; d. 1873. 

Oldlleld, Henry (O. 1875-9), 1879-81. 

Oldfield, Thomas Edmund ((J. 1882-3), 18S3-(;. In business at 

Oliver, Thomas Sherwood, 1896- . 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Olivers, Thomas, 1809-12. 

Olver, Gheorge Williajn, 1840-4. B.A., London. Wesleyan minister, 
1851 ; Principal of Southlands Training College, 1871-81 ; mission- 
ary secretary, 1881. Author i Life and DeaJth. 

Olver, John Wesley, 1846-51. Wesleyan minister, then teacher, 
S. Africa. Clerk, Bristol ; d. 1896. 

Olver, Richard Watson, 1842-7. B.A., LL.B., London. Heacl- 
master of Wharf edale College ; d. 1865. 

Olver, Thomas V., 1832-3. 

Orchard, Paul, 1835-41. Wesleyan minister, 1846 ; d. 1889. 

Orchard, Thomas L., 1829-35. M.C.P. Schoolmaster, Nantwich. 

Orton, Cyril Burgess, 1897- . 

Orton, Percy Martin, 1891-7. B.A., London. 

Osbom, Charles Penrose, 1857-61. 

Osbom, Edward (G. 1877-9), 1879-81. A.R.I.B.A. ; architect, 

Osbom, Frederick Marmaduke, 1868-71 ; d. 1873. 

Osbom, George, 1873-5 (G. 1875-6), 1876-9. M.A., Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge (17th Wrangler, 1887). Master at the Leys. 

Osbom, George Francis Atterbury, 1882-5. M.A., Trinity 
College, Cambridge (8th Wrangler, 1 894). Schoolmaster, Colwy n Bay . 

Osbom, Herbert, 1867-73. Tool merchant, Portsmouth. 

Osbom, John, 1870-6. Tool merchant, Portsmouth. 

Osbom, John Ashton, 1855-61. Master, Burnley Grammar School, 

Osbom, John B., 1850-5. 

Osbom, Thomas Charles, 1868-73. Proprietor of shooting school, 

Osbom, Thomas Bverit, 1857-60 ; d. 1860. 

Osbom, William Arthur, 1863-8. Shipbroker, Bristol. 

Osbome, Robert, 1829-31. 

Osborne, Robert Newton, 1835-41. Dentist^ NewT^rt (Men.); 
d. 189-. 

Osbome, Samuel (G. 1828-31), 1831-3. 

Osbome, Thomas Henry Churchill, 1845-9 (G. 1849-51). 

O'Sullivan, Glanville Rodgers, 1859-62 (G. 1863-5). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Outhwaite, G^eorge Binnini^n, 1891-5. Bank clerk. 

Overton, Jabez, 1830-6. Wesleyan minister, 1848 ; d 1883. 

Overton, Thomas Edgar, 1894-6. 

Owen, Albert Montgomery, 1892-6. 

Owen, Francis Griflath, 1896- . 

Owen, John Zephaniah, 1892-4. 

Owens, Thomas Lloyd, 1843-8. 

Oyston, (Jeorge, 1851-r> (G. 1855-7). B.A., London. Wesleyan 
minister, 1866. 

Oyston, John W., 184S-63. Medical student ; d, 1891. 

Oyston, Williaan Fletcher, 1888-91. Medical student. 

Page, William Irwin (G. 1877-81), 1881-3. Chemist, Boston. 

Palmer, Augustus Septimus (G. 1866-7), 1867-72. Master at 
W. H. G., 1878-80 ; Congregational minister, 1881 ; d. 1882. 

Parker, Edward Gartley (G. 1875-8), 1878-81. City Bank, 
Holbom Viaduct. 

Parker, George, (?) -1767. 

Parker, George Berthold, 1889-95. Solicitor, Walsall. 

Parker, John Leitch (G. 1872-5), 1875-7. Mining engineer, 
Washington Territory, U.S.A. 

Parker, Robert Hodgson (G. 1877-81), 1881-3. F.C.S. ; analyst, 
Hilo, Hawaii. 

Parker, Thomas Laidman (G. 1876-7), 1877-9. America. 

Parkes, Arthur Ernest, 1894- . 

Parkes, Charles William, 1889-96. B.Sc, London. University 
College, Aberystwyth. 

Parkes, James Frederick, 1886-92. Wesleyan ministry. 

Parkes, Thomas Peers (G. 1882-3), 1883-8. Photographer. 

Parkin, Edward, 1799-1807. 

Parkin, John, 1799-1804. 

Parkin, , 1804-7. 

Parkinson, Claude Frederick, 1894- . 

Parry, Edward, 1835-40. 

Parry, Henry Arthur, 1864-70, Draper, Newtown (Mon.). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Parry, James, 1837-43. Drowned at sea. 

Parry, Loton, 1883-6. Holy Orders, 1894. 

Parry, Robert, 1831-7. 

Parry, William, 1840-3. 

Parry, William Edward Oswald (CJ. 1878-82), 1882-3. Wesleyan 
minister, 1889. 

Parry, William Edwards, 1870-7. B.A., London. Holy Order.s, 


Parsons, James, 1853-4. 

Parsons, John O., 1853-5. 

Parsons, Litley Jones, 1872-5 (0. 1875-G), 1876-8. J. k R. iMorlev, 
drapers, Cheapside. 

Parsonson, Joseph Marsden ((i. 1865-8), 1868-71. Menbant 
(S. Africa, 1875). 

Parsonson, Thomas Edwin, 1869, 1871-3. Went to sea; d, 1884, 
at Kimberley. 

Parsonson, William Attewell ((J. 1864-8), 1868-70. Wesleyan 

Pascall, Frederick Gteorge, 1847-53. Dentist anrl chemist, 

Pater, Edward Rhodes (G. 1876-8), 1878-82. Chemist, Gloucester. 

Pater, Joseph Brewster (G. 1880-3), 1883-5. Chemist, Broomliill, 

Payne, John WooUard, 1864-9. M.R.C.S.,Eng. 3TorringtonPark,N. 

Payne, Joseph, 1852-8. 

Payne, Williajn Munton, 1856-62. Bookseller, Ipswich, (Queens- 

Payne, , circa Yi*lX^. 

Peacock, Benjamin, 1789- (?). 

Peacock, Cornelius, 1778- (?). 

Peaxjock, , 1770- (?). 

Pearce, Abraham (G. 1876-80), 1880-2. Grocer. Dead. 

Pearce, Andrew Kingston (G. 1883), 1883-7. Ironmonger, 

Pearce, Prank Jaanes, 1888-94. Dentist. 

Pearce, Frederick Stephen (G. 1879-83), 1883-5 ; d. 1886. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Pearce, Harold, 1885-92. 

Pearce, Herbert, 1896- . 

Pearce, Jaanes, 1852-8. Wesleyan minister, 1863 ; rf. 1891. 

Pe€UX5e, John Hamilton, 1847-53. Chemist, 7 Parma Crescent, S.W. 

Pearce, John Hammond (G. 1879-83), 1883-5. Chemist, Putney 
Bridge Road, S.W. 

Pearce, Spenser (G. 1881-3), 1883-9. B.A., London ; d. 1893. 

Pearce, Walter, 1893-6. 

Pearse, Thomas Henry, 1858-60. Solicitor, Banbury. 

Pearson, Francis, 1850-3. 

Pearson, Gheorge Flashman Tyler, 1886-96. Magdalen College, 

Pearson, John Hudspith, 1850-6. Chemist, Peterborough. 

Pecu^on, Marchant (G. 1881-3), 1883-9. B.A., London. Master at 
Bradford Grammar School. 

Pearson, Thomas, 1850-4. 

Peohey, Henry Robert, 1866-7. Army contractor, Pietermaritzburg. 

Pechey, Joseph Middleton, 1856-60. Dead. 

Pechey, Sampson William, 1859-62. Army contractor, Pieter- 

Peers, Charles Edward, 1883-8. Draper, Great Bridge, Tipton. 

Peers, Frederick William, 1887-8. Electrical works, Walsall. 

Peet, Gteorge Tinsley (G. 1882-3), 1883-7. Wesleyan ministry. 

Peet, Henry, 1886-92. Medical student. 

Peet, Major Flintham (G. 1881-3), 1883-7. Chemist, Liverpool. 

Peet, Stanley Harding, 1890-3. 

Peet, Thomas Ernest, 1874-5 (G. 1875-7), 1877-80. LL.B., London. 
Solicitor (Law Society's Gold Medallist, 1894), Cheapside, E.G. 

Pellow, Frank Gordon, 1897- . 

Penn, Llewelyn Mayson(G. 1881-3), 1883-9. B.A., Jesus College, 
Oxford. Schoolmaster, Rydal Mount, Colwyn Bay. 

Percival, Samuel, 1838-44. Holy Orders. S.P.G. missionary, 

Percival, William, 1796 - (?). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Percy, John Duncan, 1888-90. Wesley an ministry. 

Perks, G^eorgeDodds, 1878-81. Solicitor, London. 

Perks, Robert William, 1858-65. Solicitor, A.I.C.E.; M.P., Louth, 
1892 ; J.P. Treasurer of London Wesleyan Mission and of Exten- 
sion of Methodism Fund. 

Phelps, Thomas Burwell, 1860-6. 

Phenix, Isaac, 1828-^4. Wesleyan minister, 1841 ; d. 1870. 

Phillips, John, 1811-3 (G. 1813- T). Grocer, Pontefract. 

Phillips, John Andrew, 1885-9. 

Pickworth, Alfred Joseph, 1866-72. L.R.C.P., Edin. L.F.P.S., 
Glasgow. Parochial medical officer, Lakenheath, Suffolk. 

Pickworth, Arthur Jcunes, 1865-71. Wesleyan minister, 1876. 

Pickworth, Frederick Fisher (G. 1872-6), 1876-7 ; d. 1878. 

Pickworth, George Boyer(G. 1882-3), 1883-8. Chemist, Xew- 

Pierce, John Lloyd (G. 1877-8), 1878-81. Chemist ; d. 1893. 

Pierce, WaJter Lloyd, 1883-6. Schoolmaster, Llanfair, Welshpool. 

Piercy, James Edward (G. 1880-3), 1883-4. Engineer, Durhan, 

Piercy, Richard, 1769- (?). 

Piercy, Wilfrid Ashton, 1891. 

Piggott, Henry Howard, 1883-9. M.A., Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford (first class in Mathematics, 1894 ; Junior Mathematical 
Scholar, 1892 ; Taylorian Scholar, 1893). Schoolmaster. 

Piggott, Henry James, 1842-5. B.A., London. Wesleyan minister, 
1852 (Rome). 

Piggott, Ralph Henry, 1874-9. M.A., Sidney Sussex College, Cam- 
bridge (5th Wrangler, 1882). Professor of Mathematics, Bangalore ; 
d. 1889. 

Piggott, Theodore Oaro(G. 1878-9), 1879-84. B.A., Christ Church, 
Oxford. Indian Civil Service. 

Piggott, Theophilus John, 1853-6. Chemist ; rf. 1892. 

Piggott, William Frederick, 1853-6. Chemist, Huddersfield. 

Pilcher, Jesse Griggs, 1848-53. M.R.C.S., Eng. Deputy Surgeon- 
general, Indian Medical Department, Bengal. 

Pilcher, Robert Hope, 1859-64. Indian Civil Service, Died in 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Piloher, William John, 1848-9. F.R.C.S., Eng. High Street, 

Pimm, Henry Arthur, 1875-6 ; d 189-2. 

Pinder, Joseph, 1778- (?). 

Pinfleld, Thomas Harold, 1895- . 

Pinkney, Edward Knaggs, 1866-72. Went to sea ; d. 1883. 

Pinkney, John William Arthur, 1870-6. B.A., London. Private 

Pinkney, Joseph Henry, 1861-7. 

Pipe, Isaac, 1810-5 ; rf. 1836. 

Pipe, John Willson, 1808-12. Wesleyan minister, 1818 ; d. 1836. 

Pipe, William, 1811-5; d 1841. 

PoUard, HeniyHindes, 1846-51. Chemist. J.P., Ryde, I.W. For 
many years on Ryde Town Council. 

PoUard, Thomas Taylor, 1835-8. Draper ; d 1856. 

Pollard, William Inwood, 1883-6. Chemist ; rf. 1862. 

PoUitt, Thomas Percival (G. 1882-3), 1883-5. Electrical engineer 

Pollitt, William Edgar (O. 1879-81), 1881-2. Medical student. 

Pool, David, 1783- (?). 

Pool, James, 1781- (?). 

Pool, , 1770- (?). 

Pool, , 1773- (?). 

Poole, G^eorge, 1834-5. 

Pope, John, 1841-5. 

Pope, Thomas, 1830-4. 

Pope, Thomaa S., 1833-7. 

Pordige, Arthur Duncan, 1877-81. Master at K. S., 1885- . 

Pordige, Robert William, 1871-9. B.A., London. Master at K. S., 

Posnett, Charles Walter (G. 1881-3), 1883-8. Wesleyan minister, 
India, 1895. 

Posnett, Edward, 1872-5 (G. 1875-6), 1876-9. M.R.C.S., Eng. 
L.R.C.P., Lond. Grimsby. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Posnett, Leonard Walker, 1872-9. M.A., St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge (18th Wrangler, 1882) ; B.Sc, London. Headmaster of Pierre- 
mont College, Broadstairs. 

Posnett, Robert Harold (G. 1879-83), 1883-5. Manager of Highfield 
Tanning Company, Runcorn. 

Posnett, William Arthur, 1872-7. Managing Director of Hepburn 
& Gale, Southwark. 

Potts, Alfred George (G. 1879-83), 1883-4. Manchester and Liver- 
pool District Bank, Accrington. 

Potts, Francis B., 1823-9. Political agent, America. 

Potts, Frank Armitage, 1896- . 

Potts, Frederick, 1835-6. 

Potts, William James (G. 1878-81 ), 1 881 -4. M. D., London (Scholar 
and Medallist, 1893); M.R.C.S., Eng. L.R.C.P., Ixmd. D.P.H., 
Cambridge. Eastern Hospital, Homerton. 

Powell, Edmund L., 1852-7. In business, London. 

Powell, William, 1861-7. Manchester. 

Pratt, Francis, 1768-9. 

Pratten, George, 1840-6. Died at sea. 

Pratten, Thomas, 1846-9 ; rf. 1857. 

Prescott, Arthur Jajnes, 1867-73. Calico printer, Manchester. 19 
Clyde Road, Didsbury. 

Prescott, Charles John, 1866-74. M.A., Worcester College, Oxforfl. 
Wesleyan minister, Australia, 1882 ; headmaster, Wesleyan Colleges 
Burwood, 1886. 

Prescott, Edwin Henry, 1871-7. Formerly milway ofticial, Canada. 

Prescott, Frederick William, 1873-5 ((i. 187.')-6), 1876-9. (Mvil 
Service (Somerset House). 

Prest, Arthur, 1851-6. With Vanner & Sons ; rf. 1862. 

Prest, Charles John (G. 1880-3), 1883-5. CharUn-ed accountant 
(A.C.A), Redcot. Fell Road, Croydon. 

Prest, Charles William, 1845-6. Wesleyan minister, 1858 ; Secretary 
of Schools Fund, 1876-7. 

Prest, Edward, 1851-4. Oil merchant and patentee, 148 Ormside 
Road, S.E. 

Prest, Edward Ernest, 1886-91. M.B., St. Jolin's College, Cam- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Prest, Henry Edgar, 1852-9. Barrister. At the Admiralty, White- 
hall ; (f. 1885. 

Preet, Thomas Arthur (O. 1882-^), 1883-9. IJ.A., London. 
Solicitor, Birmingham. 

Prest, William Edgar, 1884-9. Hall, Higham, & Co., Manchester. 

Preston, Archibald, 1895 - 

Preston, Arthur Christopher ((i. 1878-82), 1882-4. Manchester 
Fire Insurance Office. 

Preston, Arthur Staple, 1891-3. Royal Navy. 

Preston, Charles Edward ((4. 1881-3), 1883-8. B.A., London. 
Medical student. 

Preston, John WiUiam (G. 1873-7), 1877-9. Schoolmaster; (/. 

Preston, Samuel, 1887-92. 

Price, Alexander Mc Arthur, 1896- . 

Price, Edward, 1788- (?). 

Price, Wheelook, 1798- (0- 

Prior, Joseph Albert, 18S7-92. Architect. 

Pritohard, Arthur GreenhiU ((x. ]h82-3), 1883-8. Shipping Office. 

Pritchard, Henry Melancthon, 1893-7. 

Pritchard, John, 1792- (?). 

Pritchard, John Tabor (G. 1874-8), 1878-80. Bank clerk ; i\. 1883. 

Pritohaixi, Samuel, 1798- (?). 

Puddicombe, Alexander, 189.")- . 

Pugh, Theophilus Parsons, 1843-6. Printer and publisher; 
formerly Editor of the Moretoii Bay Free Prras, the Brisbane Courier, 
and the Brisbane Teleijraiyh. M.L.A., Queensland (chairman of 
committees). Police magistrate ; d. 1896. 

Quiggin, Edmund Crosby, 1889-93. B.A., Caius College, Cam- 
bridge (first cliiss in Modern Languages, 1896). Schoolmaster. 

Rae, Percy Sowerby, 18};^90. 
Railton, G^eorge Ernest, 1893-7 
Ransom, Hugh, 1821-9. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Ransom, William Hugh, 1817-23. Went to sea. 

Banyell, Alexander Robert, 1859-62. Nobbs k Sons, tailors, 

Ratcliffe, Charles Harold, 1887-91. Chemiut, Liverpool. 

Ratcliffe, Ernest Alfred, 1892-4. Cotton broker, Liverixx)!. 

Ratcliffe, Frederick Allan, 1885-8. Ironmonger, Sleaford. 

Ratcliffe, Henry Laverack, 1883-7. B.A., London. School master. 

Ratcliffe, John Lavera^ok, 1892- . 

Ratcliffe, William Henry, 1872-8. Ironmonger, 28 Osniaston 
Road, Derby. 

Raw, Albert Edward, 1872-9. Wesleyan minister, 1886. 

Raw, Prank, 1887-94. B.Sc, London. Master at K. S., 1896-7. 
Demonstrator in j^eology, Mason College. 

Raw, George Harland, 1887-91. Schoolmaster. 

Raw, Harwood Woodwark, 1883-7. Weslevan niiniHter, 1896 

Raw, Herbert Harland, 1889-96. Medical student 

Raw, John Richard Prank, 1891-5. Draj)er. 

Raw, Nathan Whitfield, 1880-3. London and County Bank, 

Rawlings, Horatio Edward, 1869-73. M.R.C.S., Eng. ; L.R.C.P., 
Ireland. Resident medical officer, Swansea Hospital. 

Ray, Alfred, 1835-6. 

Ray, Joseph, 1837-43. M.A., Magdalen College, Cambridge. Holy 
Orders, 1856 ; Rector of Ashton-on-Mersey, 1866. 

Ray, Richard, 1831-5. 

Rayner, William (G. 1833-6), 1836-9. M.R.C.S., Eng. New- 
Zealand. Dead. 

Reacher, John William (Ci. 1871-5), 1875-6. Stockbroker, 4 
Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 

Reader, Charles Arthur, 1895-7. 

Reay, Lionel Edward, 1885-92. B.A., Queen's College, Oxford. 

Reddaway, William Fiddian ((4. 1885{-3), 1883-8. B.A., FeUow of 
King's College, Cambridge (first class in History, 1894 ; Whewell 
Scholar, 1895 ; Members' Prize, 1897). Lecturer in History to 
non-collegiate students, Cambridge. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Bees, Arthur Cyril/ 1897- . 

Bees, David Davis, 1868-75. In business, Preswylfa, Norton, 

Bees, Edward William, 1868-74. Quarry owner, Pontypridd. 

Bees, Prank Beinhardt, 1896 ; d. 1896. 

Bees, Herbert Leslie, 1897- . 

Bees, Hugh Merfyn, 1897- . 

Bees, John Bobert, 1856-63. Manager, N. and S. Wales Bank, 

Bees, Bobert Montgomery, 1862-9. M.A., London. Wesleyan 
minister, 1875. 

Bees, Thomas, 1813-9. 

Beid, Edwin Theophilus, 1884-6. Draper, Bradford. 

Beid, George Macdonald, 1889-94. Clerk, Yorkshire Penny Bank, 

Beid, Bobert Morgan, 1892-6. Civil Service. 

Bennard, Marmaduke, 1864-7. 

Benton, Gregory, 1891- . 

Benton, Thomas Edward Barron, 1889-96. 

Beynolds, Arthur Sampson (G. 1882-3), 1883-7. 

Beynolds, Charles, 1821-4. Surgeon. M.R.C.S., Eng. Dead. 

Beynolds, Edward, 1798-1804. 

Beynolds, Edward, 1821-4. 

Beynolds, John, 1800-4. 

Beynolds, Joshua, 1811-2 (G. 1812- ?). 

Beynolds, Boger, 1770- (?). 

Beynolds, Samuel, 1804-10. 

Beynolds, William, 1809-12 (G. 1812- ?). 

Bhodes, Bernard Clement (G. 1872-5) 1875-7. Law clerk; 
rf. 1888. 

Bhodes, Charles Lewis Brown, 1893. 

Bhodes, Sydney (G. 1869-75), 1875-7. B.A., London. Solicitor, 

Bhodes, , (?)-l804. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Richards, Charles Ladner, 1881-2. Wilts and Dorset Bank. 

Richards, Griffith H., 1855-61. 

Richard3on, Charles Graybum, 1896- . 

Richardson, George Sargeant, 1873; rf. 1883, in W. Indies. 

Rioketts, Daniel, 1851-6 ; rf. 1856. 

Ricketts, Frederick William, 1845-50. M.R.O.S., Eng.; r/. 1895. 

Ricketts, James (G. 1850-2), 1852-4. L.R.C.P., Edin. ; LF.P.S,, 
Glasgow. Frodsham, Cheshire. 

Ricketts, John, 1849-52. Leamington. 

Ricketts, Samuel, 1851-6. Commission agent, LiveqxxjL 

Ricketts, William, 1845-51. Merchant, Arequijia. 

Riddett, Stanley Alfred, 1897- . 

Ridler, Christopher B., 1858-63. Drai)er. 

Ridler, James, 1861-6. 

Ridsdale, Benjamin William, 1856-60 ; d. 1860. 

RidsdaJe, Charles Henry, 1872-6. F.C.S. Analyst, Guisboi-ough. 

Ridsdale, Harold Edward (G. 1878-9), 1879-82 ; rf, 1895. 

Ridsdale, James Grundy, 1870-6. B.Sc., London ; c/. 1881. 

Rigg, Arthur Bdmimd, 1887-9. B.A., Corpus Cliristi College, 
Oxford (first class in (Uassics*, 1893). Indian Civil Ser\-ice, Salin, 
Upper Burma. 

Rigg, Charles W. (G. 1834-5), 1835-8. Wesleyan minister, Australia, 
1851 ; i\. 1884. 

Rigg, Henry, 1833-8. Dead. 

Rigg, James Harrison, 1830-35. Ma.ster at K. S., 1835-9. D.D. 
Wesleyan minister, 1845 ; Principal of Westminster Traiiiinjj 
College, 1868; President of Conference, 1878, 1892; memlier of 
London School Board, 1870-6 ; of Royal Commission on Education, 
1886. 'Editor oi Loudon Qmirterly Review. Author: The Connaiond 
Economy of Wcaleyan Method i am,, The Living Wesley,, Modem AiufUcan 
Theoloi/y, ft<'. 

Rigg, Walter McMullen, 1853-4 ((i. 1854 -8). Dead. 

Riggall, George Herbert, 1895. 

Riggall, Robert Marmaduke, 1894-5. 

Riles, John Greenwood, 1804-11 (pupil teaclier, 1810-1). 

Riles, Samuel Dobson, 1816-8 ; d. 1818. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Riley, John, 1811-7. 

Buniner, Jcunes Richard, 1891-4. Schoolmaster. 

Rimmer, Williaan Frederick, 1893-7. 

Rippon, Thomaa Jackson (G. 1874-6), 1876-9. Manchester and 
Liverpool District Bank, Congleton. 

Rising^, Tilney, 1872-7. B.A., London. Schoolmaster, 117 Cambridge 
Gardens, Kensington. 

Ritchie, Charies Bnmet, 1857-63. Master at K. S., 1873 ; d, 1885. 

Roberts, Alfred Herbert, 1866-9. Draper, 209 Moss Lane E., 

Roberts, Arthur Henry, 1824-7. Went to Ireland ; d, 1844. 

Roberts, Benjamin Lee, 1814-20; d, 1831. 

Roberts, David Plowden, 1894-7. 

Roberts, Edgar Thomas, 1887-92. Bookseller, A.^hton-under-Lyne. 

Roberts, Edward Ingman, 1888-92. 

Roberts, Francis Ernest, 1868-9. Manchester. 

Roberts, George Wilham, 1864-9. Chemist. 

Roberts, Harold Atkinson, 1891-4. Chemist, Lower Clapton. 

Roberts, Herbert Charles ((i. 1881-3), 1883-6. Chemist, London. 

Roberts, John Heniy, 1893-4. 

Roberts, Joseph, 1839 (G. 1839-45). Merchant, Madras ; d. 1861. 

Roberts, Joseph Hugh, 1891-6. 

Roberts, Philip, 1812-8. Schoolmaster. 

Roberts, Reginald Brown, 1887-90. Bristow & Co., grocers, 
Queen Street, Hull. 

Roberts, Robert Edward, l89:J-4. 

Roberts, Robert George, 1893-6. 

Roberts, Samuel, 1783-9. 

Roberts, Stanley Halford, 1895- . 

Roberts, William Arthur, 1884-90. Bradley & Bourdfis, cliemi^ts, 
48 Belgrave Road, S.W. 

Roberts, William Edward, 1873-5 ((J. l87:)-7), 1877-8. 

Roberts, William Smith, 1892-5. 

Roberts, , circa 1803. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Robins, John, 1776- (?). 

Robins, Samuel, 1768-70. 

Robinson, Albion Ovington, 1897- . 

Robinson, Edwaiti Jewitt, 1832-6. Wesleyan minister, 1846. 
Author : The Mother of Jesiis iwt the Papal Mary, Passion Lays, etc. 

Robinson, Edward Colpitis (G. 1864), 1864-70. Draper, London 

Robinson, James, 1838-44. Clerk, Dockroyd, Keighley. 

Robinson, John, 1833-9. Draper. 

Robinson, John Alexander, 1871-6. Public notary, Newfoundland. 
Colonial Secretary, 1897. Editor and Proprietor, St. John's Daily News, 

Robinson, Joseph, 1835-7 ; d. 1837. 

Robinson, Robert Henry, 1839- (?). 

Robinson, Samuel Worley, 1829-34. Master at K. S., 1844-6; 
Wesleyan minister, 1846; d. 1856. 

Robinson, Thomas, 1835-6 ; d, 1836. 

Robinson, Thomas Edward, 1839- (?). 

Robinson, Williaan Aspinall, 1888-94. B.A., London. Assistant- 
Surveyor of Taxes. 

Rodda, John, 1785- (?). 

Rodda, Martin, 1789-96. 

Rodda, Richard, 1775- (?). 

Rodgers, Arthur Isaac, 1887-92. Messrs. Curtis, auctioneers, 

Rodgers, Prank Hambling, 1891-6. 

Rodgers, Frederick Miller, 1890-3. 

Rodgers, Hugh, 1893- . 

Rodgers, Robert Isaac Craig (G. 1881-3), 1883-7. M.K.C.S., 
Eng. ; L.R.C.P., Lond. House surgeon, Liverpool Royal Infirmary, 
2 North Street, Nelson. 

Rodgers, Thomas Edgar, 1885-8. Solicitor. LL.B., London. 

Rodman, Arthur Thomas, 1865-9. Became a soldier. 

Rodman, Edward Newton, 1870-3. 

Rodman, Sidney (G. 1875-7), 1877-80. Chemist. 

Rodman, WiUiaan Headley, 1865-71. Went to sea. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Rodwell, Arthur Glanville, 1884-9. Schoolmaster. 

Bodwell, Henry William, 1884-9. Schoolmaster. 

Rodwell, Herbert Bickford Hurd, 1887-93. Bank clerk. 

Rodwell, John Ohoate, 1892-5. Chemist, 102 Fortune's Well, 
Portland, Dorset. 

Roebuck, George, 1856-9 (G. 1859-61). Chemist. Dead. 

Roebuck, John, 1814-9. Chemist, Melbourne. Dead. 

Roebuck, Joseph Ousworth, 1857-9 (G. 1859-60). Tutor. Dead. 

Rogers, Augustus, 1834-40. Lawyer ; d, 1858. 

Rogers, Benjamin, 1787- (?). 

Rogers, Charles T., 1864-70. Draper, Newport (Mon.). 

Rogers, Colenso, 1823-7 ; d. 1829. 

^ Rogers, James Roe, 1793- (?). Excise officer ; rf. 1854. 

Rogers, James, drca 1820. Barrister. Died about 1862. 

Rogers, John Norman Percival, 1892-7. 

Rogers, Joseph, 1788- (?) ; d. 1852. 

Rogers, Martin Swindells, 1863-9. Became a soldier. 

Rogers, Percy Bertram, 1874-8. 

Rogers, Robert Smith, 1831-7. Surgeon, Wakefield Dispensary ; 
d. 1848. 

Rogers, Thomas, 1815-21. Medical student. Died young. 

Rogers, William Richard, 1848-54. 

Rose, Austin Charles, 1889-92. Wesleyan ministry. 

Rosevear, John, 1789- (?). 

Rossell, Henry William, 1845-51. Iron manufacturer, Sheffield. 

Rossell, James Walter, 1858-63. Went to sea. 

Rossell, John, 1817-8, 1821-3.