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[Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1842, in tlie Clerk's 
Office of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, by Iiilbeht Hills, pro- 
priotor and puMishcr.] 


I ff •■ * ■ 


In collecting the materials necessary for compiling a History 
of Lancaster County, we sought access to every possible 
source of information, as far as our prescribed time and limited 
means admitted. Could we have anticipated half the difficul- 
ties we should encounter in prosecuting our researches, we 
would certainly have relinquibhed the undertaking. Although 
we had spent several months in search of materials, the col- 
lection was still far from being satisfactory to our ourselves, 
hut owing to the Publisher's engagements, we were constrained 
to yield to his wishes and commence the arrangement of such 
materials as were on hand. To add to what was collected, we 
read, in less than one hundred days, upwards of ten thousand 
pages, opened correspondence with a number of gentlemen, 
in different parts of the county, called on scores of persons — 
on some ten times — who had fairly promised to collect facts, 
&c. — arranged the materials, re-wrote half the book twice, 
examined a portion of the proof sheets, now and then attended 
to business abroad, yet amidst all this " bustle and hurry," we 
aimed to trace facts to their sources ; and these, it is confidently 
believed, are authentic. 

Whether the best judgment has been exercised in the selec- 
tion of the materials on hand, and the happiest arrangement 
adopted, is not for us to decide. We strove to make the fairest 
use of them. As to the diversity of style appearing in this 
book, we would here "interpose" the remark that, except in a 
few instances, the very words of authors quoted, and of 
contributors, were preserved. In general the usual marks 
of credit are given. 

Owing to our repeated absence, the book has not appeared 
in that "due proportion" desirable in all its parts. Could we 
have always been at hand to shape the copy as it was called 
for, wc believe the book would have appeared in a somewhat 
improved form, and some slight errors, in dates, have been 
detected, in time to correct them.* 

We Vv-ould, therefore, in view of all this, claim the indul- 
gence of the reader for any imperfection he may notice. — ■ 
That we have been sometimes too rapid in recital, and again 
too prolix in detail, we knov/. This, however, we could not 
avoid in order to connect detailed facts and events, as we had 
not all the materials before us when we comm.enccd the com- 
pilation, consequently could not know when to be concise, 
and when to enlarge. Situated as we were, "to strike a new, 
dark and devious path, without a guide to follow," was the 
only course left us. With these facts before him, the good na- 
tured critic, it is believed, will excuse the Compiler. 

The acknowledgments of the compiler are due, for facts fur- 
,iished, to the following gentlemen: Hon. Charles M'Clure, 
Secretary of the Commonwealth ; H. K. Strong, State Libra- 
rian ; Col. R. M. Crain, of the Land Otiice ; G. W. Harris, of 
Harrisburg ; Messrs. John Thome, T. H. Burrowes, H. A. Car- 
penter, E. C. Rcigart, R. Conyngham, Joseph Konigmacher, 
A. Dubree, Gardner Furness, H. F. Slaymaker, John Slayma- 
ker, George Dificnbach, Samuel Bowman, Abraham Mylin, 
Christian Herr, Henry Flickinger, John Strohm and others. 

We arc particularly indebted to Mr. John Beck and George 
Ford, Esq. for the free use of their MSS. Prof S. S. Halde- 
man, furnished chapter XIII ; J.J. Libhart, of Marietta, the list 
of birds, and the drawings by a self-taught artist, Mr. C. S. Gctz, 
proprietor of the Lancaster Museum. 

Lancaster, Dec. 1843. 

•OoiiiiECTioNS.— P. 122, 4th line of the note, read 1712— p. 257, 4th 
line from lioltom, reail, as early as 1G31 — p. 2C4, 4tli line h-om tlic top, read, 
Lowe— p. 2yC, 12lh line, read, in 1785— p. 308, 9th lii)e,rcad 1742— p. 310, 
1st line, read 1744 — p. 3)G, read, Charles — p. 323, 5th line, read sciences — 
p. 442, 13ih line, read, one hunflred and sixteen. 


Introductory part : from ihe earliest settlements made in Penn- 
sylvania, to the first settlements made loithin the present limits 
of Lancaster county. 


Uolinizfition, remarks on, p. 13 ; Purchases made from the Indians, 14 ; 
In New England, 15; By Calvert, 15; By Koger Williams. 15 ; By tht 
Swedes, 15; By ('arteret, 16; Penn follows their example, 16; Early set- 
tlement of Delaware bay and river, 17 ; Swedes supplanted l;y the Dutch, 
18; Dutch triumph short, 18; Delaware taken possession of by the Eng- 
lish, 18 ; Pcnn purchases New Castle, 18. 


William Penn born, p. 19; How he was made acquainted v.ith America, 
20; Instrumental in settling West New Jersey, 20; Obtains a charter for 
Pennsylvania, 21; First purchasers embark for America, 22; P.Iarkham's 
instruction, 22 ; He holds a treaty with the Indians, 22 ; Penn arrives in 
America, 23; Convenes an Assembly at Upland, 23; Interview with Lord 
Baltimore, 23 ; Religious visits, 23 ; Visits New Jersey, the Duke of York, 
his friends on Long Island : returns to Philadelphia, holds his grand treaty 
with the Indians, 24-26; iMoie arrivals from Europe, 26; Emigrants pro- 
vide shelters, 27; Form plantations, 27; Philadelphia laid out, 28; Cjun- 
ties organized, 28 ; Second Assembly convoked, 28 ; Penn obliged to retura 
to Europe, 29. 


Brief sketch of the History of Pennsylvania from 16S4 to 1699, p. 30- 
37; Provincial executives from 1684 to 1G09, 31; Boundaries of Chester 
county determined, 34 ; Increase of i>opulution, 34 ; First mills iu Chester 


county, 34 ; Penn's effort to improve the condition of the natives, 35 ; 
Efforts to christianize the Indians, 35 ; Penn's new treaty with the Susque- 
hanna, iShawancse and Ganawcse, &c, natives, 36; A new form of Govern- 
ment framed, 37 ; Penn appoints Andrew Hamilton deputy governor : sails 
for England, 37. 


Prince William dies, p. 38 ; Anne ascends the tin-one, 38 ; Penn in favor 
with her, 38 ; State of affairs in the province, 39 ; Disquiet among the Indi- 
ans, 39 ; Messenger sent to the Conestogo Indians : Secretary of the council 
and shcrilf of Chester and New Castle are sent to thcin, 40; Thomas 
Chaliiiey preaches at Conestogo, 41 ; Governor visits the ('onestogo Indi- 
ans, 44 ; Indian eloquence, 44; Gov. Evans' strange character, and second 
journey to Susquehanna, 45 ; Governor's journal of his interview with the 
Indians, 40; Nicole apprehended at Paxtan, conveyed to Philadelphia and 
imprisoned, 51. 


Cause of disquietude among the Indians, p. 53; Indians at Conestogo 
send a messenger to the council, 53 ; Mitchell and other Europeans intrude 
Upon the Indians, 54 ; Governor Evans' explanation of Mitchell's course, 
66; Critical juncture, 55; Evans rc-called, 56 ; Gooliiii appointed governor, 
56; Penn's embarrassment, 56; Quitrcnts, 56; Emigration impeded, 57. 
Gookin sends a message to the Indians at Conestogo, 57 ; Swedish mission- 
ary at Conestogo, 59; His sermon and Indian chief's answer, 59-60; 
French and Worley on a message to Conestogo. 


From the earliest settlements made within the present limits of the 
county to its organization in the year 1729. 


Preliminary remarks, p. G7; Unsettled state of aftliirs in Europe, C8 ; 
Consequent emigration of Swiss, Germans, French and others, into America, 
70; Into Pennsylvania, 72; Swiss Mennonites settle in Pequea Valley, 74; 
Purchase ten thousand acres of land, 76; Make improvements, 78, Others 
purchase buds, V'.) ; T!ic Mennonites call a mectin;; to send a person to 
Europe Ibrlhc residue of their families, 80; Kendig goes and returns wiih a 

number of families, 81; Settlements augmenteJ, 82; Governor Gookiii'fl 
journey to Conestogo, 86, 


Ferree family make preparations to emigrate to America, 90; Procure 
certifiicates of civil and religious standing, 92 ; By way of HollatKl and 
England come to New York, 96 ; Ac:iuire the righto of citizenship, 96; 
Settle in I^ancaster county, 101 ; Several documents of interest, 103 ; Tra- 
dition of the ancestors of the Ferrees, by Joel Lightner, Esq., 1C8 ; Tusca- 
rora Indians winter with the Five Nations, 113. 


Augmentation of settlements, p. 115 ; Germans and English settle around 
the Swiss or Palatines, 117; Settlements in diflcrent parts of the county, 120; 
Names of persons naturalized, 123; Notice of Slaymakers, 127; Concstoga 
Manor surveyed, 129; Names of first purchasers, 131; Grafichal settled, 
133 ; Lancaster and vicinity settled, 135 ; Squatters on the west side of Sus- 
quehanna, 136 ; Indians at Conestoga address a letter to Logan, 136 ; Col. 
French goes to Conestoga: holds a treaty with the Indians, 137; Logan 
meets them on the Susquehanna, 141 ; Samuel Robins sent to Virginia, 153. 


Governor Keith visits the governor of Virginia, p. 154; Holds a council 
with the Indians at Conestogo 155 ; Indians complain of the use of rum, &c. 
158; Their trade in pelts impaired, 160 ; Secretary Logan holds a discourse 
with Ghesaont, 169; Ghesaont's reply, &c. 170; Disturbances created by 
intruders under pretence of finding copper mines, &c. 175 ; Governor Keith 
has a survey made on the west side of Susquehanna. 176; Indians alarmed 
by Maryland intruders, 176 ; Logan, French and sheriff of the county hold 
a council at Conestogo, 177; Keith determines to resist attempted encroach- 
ments by the IMary lander.^, 178 ; A council is held at Conestogo, 179; 
Springetsbury manor surveyed, 182; Council held at Conoytown, 182; 
Settlement of Germans at Swatara and Tulpehocken, 182. 


Donegal township organized, p. 135; First settlers, 185; Harris attempted 
to settle at Conoy, 185; Settles at Paxton, 186; ScUleiaent commenced by 
Barber, Wright and Blunston, 187; Settlements back from the river, 189; 
Reamstown settlement, 190; Welsh settlement, 191; Weber's Thai settle- 
ment, 193 ; Settlement at Saeue Schwamm, or New Holland, 193 ; Germans 
misreprascnted, 194 ; Committee appointed to inquire into the facts: makes 


report, 196; Thomas Wright killed by the Indians, 197; InhaLitants of the 
upper part of Chester county alarmed, 198; (Jovernor Gordon goes to Con- 
estogo and holds a treaty with the Indians, 199; Returns to Philadelphia : 
Note : Iron works, 206 ; David Dieffenderfer, brief notice of, 207. 


Ephrata, p. 211 ; Origin of German Baptists in Europe, and their emi- 
gration to America, 212; Sieben Taeger Association formed at Ephrata by 
Conrad Beisscl, 215; Change of life among them, 216; They built Ivedar 
andZion, 217; iMngular architecture of buildings, 218; Fractur: Schriflcn 
by the Sister,?, 219 ; Specimens of original poetry, 220; Eckerlein and the 
bell, 222; Its destination, 223 ; Sabbath school established, 224; Miller 
succeeds Bcissel, 225; Juliana Pcnn's letter, 229; Poetry dedicated to 
Miller, 230; Present state of Ephrata, 232; List of names of the first 
inhabitants of Ephrata, 232 ; Names of some of the early settler* in Lancas- 
ter county, 233. 


From the organization of Lancaster county, one th»usand seven 
liundred and twenty-nine. 


Erection and or.'janization of the county, p. 235 ; Boundaries of, 239 ; 
feat of Justice, 242 ; James Annesly, 243 ; Boundaries of townships, 244 ; 
First court held at Posticwhaitcs, 250 ; Extracts of court records, 250 . 
Morris Cannady indicted, 250 ; Found guilty and sold, 252 ; Constables, 
overseers and supervisors appointed, 252 ; Applicants to be Indian traders, 
253; Petitions for license tj sell ru:n, 254 ; First court held at Lancaster, 
255; Conrad Wcisc/, notice of. 256 ; Notes, &c. 260. 


Road from Lancaster to Philadeljiliia ordered to be laid out, &c. p. 262; 
Election oxciUimrnt, or violent cor.tcst. 2C1; Border frays, 265 ; Townships 
orectc<!, 260; Pennsborough and Hopewell, west of the Suscjut hanna, 266 ; 
Hanover, 267; Little Britain, 367; James Ewing born, 567; Contest 
between the Murylanders and iidiabitants of Lancaster, 268 ; Cres^ap and 
bis ae.-ociates attempt to displace the Ciermans, 269 ; Is ap]>if liciided and 
i|)j prisoned, 269; Gpvernor Ogle sends messengers to Philadelphia, 269; 

German settlers seized and carried to Baltimore, 269 ; The council sends 
an embassy to Governor Ogle, 270 ; Marylanders break into Lancaster jail, 
270; Germans naturalized, 271 ; Notes of variety, 272. 


Governor Thomas appointed, p. 274 ; The county divided into eight 
districts, 274 ; Several new townships formed, 275 ; John Wright's charge 
to the grand jury, 276 ; Brief memoir cf W right, 281 ; Serjeant attempts 
to instruct the Indians, 232 ; Ornish apply to the Assembly for an act of na- 
turalization, 282 ; Count Zinzendorf in Lancaster, 283 ; Visits Wyominj, 
284 ; Indians conclude to massacre him, 284 ; Singular incident dissuades 
them, 285; Attempts made to prejudice the Assembly against the Germans, 
286; Martin Meylin's house built, 286; Church council convoked, 287; 
Irish behavoir or conduct at an election, 288 ; Disputes between Irish and 
Germans, 288 ; Murhancelliu murders Armstrong and his two servants, 289; 
Murhancellin arrested and imprisoned, 289 ; Indian treaty held in Lancaa-. 
ter, 289 ; Indians peel Musser's walnut trees, 290 ; Lutheran excitement in 
Lancaster, 291 ; Lindlcy Murray born, 291 ; Notes of variety, 292. 


York county organized, p. 293 ; Election frauds, 294 ; Sabbath school 
commenced at Ephrata, 294; David Ramsay born: memoir of, 295 ; Bart 
township organized, 297; House of employment provided, 298; General 
Clark, 299 ; Abundant crops, 299 ; Distilleries erected, 299 ; Partial famine, 
300; Indian alarms and horrid atrocities, 300 ; French neutrals imported, 
301 ; Their condition unenviable, 302; An Act to disperse them, 2C8 ; 
Cooper, Webb and Le Fevre appointed to execute the several provisions of 
the act, 303 ; Another Act passed relative to the French neutrals, 304 ; 
Notes of variety, 306. 


Moravian community at Liliz, p. 308 ; Zinzendorf in Lancaster, 309 ; Ap. 
plicaticn to the conference at Bethlehem, 310 ; Commencement of Litiz, 
311 ; Parsonage built, 311 ; School-house removed ; Rev. B. A. Grube, 312; 
Present condition or state of Litiz : Improvements : Church and consecra- 
tion of it, &c. 313 ; List of the names of pastors, 315; Schools and names 
of teachers, 317; Brother and sister houses, 320; The grave yard, 324; 
The spring, 328 ; Population, mechanics, &c. 329. 


Hostilities between the English and the French in America, p. 332 ; Dela- 
ware and Shawanese Indians commit murders, 333 ; General Braddocks's 


arrival, 333; Braddock's defeat, 334; Dismay caused among the frontier 
settlers, 334 ; Paxtoii and Tulpehockcn refugees at Ephrata, 335 ; Murders 
committed by the Indians, 335; Block-house erected at Lancaster, 336; In- 
habitants of Lancaster county petition the Assembly for a militia law, 337 ; 
Scalping parties, 338 ; War suspended against the Indians, 338; Prepera, 
tions made to repel Indian incursions, 339 ; Conrad Weiser commands nine 
companies, 339 ; French hostilities continued, 340 ; Murders committed by 
the Indians in 1757, 339 ; Indian treaties, at Lancaster and at Easton, 340 ; 
Minutes extract from, of Indian treaty, at Lancaster. 340 ; King Beaver's 
speech, 342; Treaty held at Easton: fifteen tribes of Indians represented; 
Murders by Indians in Tulpehockcn, 313; Murders committed by the In- 
dians in 1758, 344; Cumberland over-iun by savages, 344 ; Inhabitants fled 
to Lancaster, &c., 345; Barracks erected at Lancaster, 346 ; Work-house 
erected at Lancaster, 346 ; The Irish sell to the Germans, and scat them- 
selves at Chestnut Glade, 347; Baron Sticgcl lays out Manhcim, 347 ; No- 
tice of the Baron, 348; Notes of variety ; Emanuel Carpenter, 394, 


Tendency of war, p. 350 ; Hostilities continued, 351 ; Lancaster county 
exposed to Indian incursions, 352; Treachery of the Concstoga Indians, 
352; Paxton and Donegal Rangers watch the Indians closely, 359.; Indian 
villagers massacred, 356 ; Those abroad taken under protection by the mag- 
istrates of Lancaster, 356 ; Governor Penn's proclamation, 357 ; The Pax- 
ton boys at Lancaster : massacre the Indians, 358 ; Governor Penn issues 
another proclamation, 360 ; The Paxton boys grow desperate, and " shovT 
up some Indian," 362; Resort to Philadelphia, 363; Their non-commenda- 
ble conduct (here, 363; They return peaceably to their homes, leaving two 
of their number to present tlicir grievances to the Assembly, 305; Robert 
Fulton, 366; B. S. Barton, 367 ; Notes of variety. 


Hail storm, p. 369 ; Proceedings, &c. by the citizens of Lancaster countj 
touching the usurjiation of Parliament, in (Jrcat Britain, 371 ; Letter from 
the committee of correspondence at Philaddjihia, 372 ; Mciting ;it the court 
house in Lancaster, 373 ; Copy of a circular letter Irom Philadelphia, 376 ; 
Meeting called at ]>ancaster, 378; Subscriptions opened for the relief of the 
suffering Bostonians. 380; Letters from Philadelphia, 382 ; Meeting called, 
to be held at Lancaster, 383 ; Committee appointed, 384 ; Meeting held, 
385 ; Letter from Reading, 387 ; Meeting of the committee of inspection, 
&c., 388; (Joinmittee men from different townships meet at Lancaster, 395; 
Their proceedings, &c. &c. 395. 



Course of the mother country objectioniil)le, p. 404; Military conventioii 
at Lancaster, 405 ; Uaniel Rolierdeun and James Evving elected Brigadier 
Generals, 407 ; Resolutions passed and adopted, 407 ; Committee of safety : 
convention to form the first State Constitution, 408; Pennsylvania and Lan- 
caster county active, 409; Numerous incidents, &c. in I, ancaster county 
during the Revolution, 410 ; General Wayne's head quarters and correspon- 
dence with his Excellency, Thomas Wharton, President of the Executive 
Council of Pennsylvania, 411 ; ('ongress repairs from Philadelphia to Lan- 
caster, thence to York, 420; Military meeting at Manheiin, 421 ; Surviving 
Revolutionary soldiers: Philip Meek, 323; John Ganter, 424 ; George 
Leonard, Peter Mauerer, Peter Shindle, Jacob Hoover, 425; Notes, 426. 


Lancaster county after the Revolution, 427 ; Germans and those of Ger- 
man extraction: views on education, 427; Franklin college established, 428; 
First board of Trustees, 428 ; Reichenbach : New Jerusalem Ctiurch ; the 
twelve articles received by that church, 429 ; Lnproveraents great in the 
county, 433; Columbia laid out, 433 ; Lancaster city, seat ot government 
434 ; Late war : means of Lancaster county, 434 ; Notes of variety, 435. 


EncCATios' : — Preliminary remarks: Importance of general education, p_ 
436; Views of colonists, 437; Mennonites' views of education, 438 ; Scotch 
and Irish settlers, made at first little preparation, &c till 1798, 439 ; First 
flchaols in the town of Lancaster, 440 ; Lutheran and German Reformed 
churches have schools under their auspices, 440 ; Rev. M. Schlatter, indefat- 
igable in his efforts to establish schools, 443 ; Extract from Coetuale pro- 
ceedings of 1760, 442; Trustees and managers of public schools, 443; 
Germans patriotic, modest and unassuming, &c. 443 ; Ludwig Hacker es- 
tablishes a Sabbath school at E'phrata, 444 ; German classical school at 
Ephrata, 445 ; Academy at Ephrat.i, 445 ; Academy at Litiz, &c. 445, 446 ; 
^5elect Academy at Lancaster, 446 ; Franklin college, &c. 447 ; Private 
schools and Academics in various parts of the county, 448 ; An act for the 
education of children in the borough of Lancaster, 448 ; The Mechanics' 
Society, 450 ; Classical Academy : Lancaster County Academy : Classical 
Academies in the county, 451, 453 ; Seminaries: Common Schools : Sab- 
bath Schools Lyceums, &c. 453. 


Religious De:tominatio\s. — Early missionaries among the Conestoga 
and other iHdians. p. 455 ; The Mennonites, 356 ; The Friends and Qua- 


kers, 457; The Ornish or Amish, 457; The Episcopalians, 457 ; The Pres- 
byterians, 457 ; The German Baptists, 458 ; The German Seventh Day 
Baptists, 458 ; The Lutherans, 453 ; The German Reformed, 459 ; Tire 
United Brethren or Moravians, 461; The Roman CathoHcs, 461; The 
Methodist Episcopal, 461 ; The New Jerusalem Church, 462 ; The Evan- 
gelical Association, 462; Tiie Reformed Mennonites, 462 ; The Universal- 
ists; TheSeceders; The United Brethren; The Church of God; The 
Calvanistic Baptists, 463; The Mormons, « Millerites" and African 
Churches, 464. 


Geology of Lancaster County, p. 465 ; Natural History, 467 ; Mamma- 
lia, 470 ; Reptilia, 471 ; Ojihidia, 471 ; Sauria, 472 ; Amphibia, 472 ; Pis- 
ces, 472 ; Coieoptera, 474 ; Orthoptcra, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Hymenop- 
tcra, Lepidoptera, Diptera, 478 ; Mollusca, 479 ; Helicidae, 481 ; Unionidae, 


Catalogue of the Filicoid and Flowering Plants of lisncaster county, 483. 
List of Birds, by Libhart, 508. 

ArPEXDii. — A. The Maryland and Pennsylvania boundary hne. B. 
James Le Tort. C. The Huguenots, 







Colonization, remarks on — Purchases made from the Aborigines — In New 
England — By Calvert — By Roger Williams — By the Swedes— By Car- 
teret — Penn follows their example — Early settlements on Delaware baj 
and river — Swedes supplanted by the Dutch — Dutch triumph short — 
Delaware taken possession of by the English — Penn purchases New 

From History it is evident that the formation of Colo- 
nies, which is among the oldest occurrences recorded, or 
handed down by tradition, was owing to various causes, 
and different circumstances. Perhaps the avaricious 
desire of man as an individual to increase his possessions, 
and collectively as a nation to enlarge his domains, by 
extending the boundaries of empire, and to secure a 
country acquired by the right of discovery, taken by 
conquest, or otherwise obtained, is a leading, among 
many causes, of colonization. 

Colonies have been the consequences from emigration, 
and which was either owing to a great increase of popu- 
lation at home, in a limited territory; or, produced by 
civil, as well as religious oppression. Phoenecia and 


14 HISTORY oy 

Greece, maratime states, possessing as they did, a limited 
temtory, would naturally have to resort to emigration. — 
Commercial enterprize led as much to colonization as a'ny 
one single cause. 

Many of the Colonies of North America were the 
consequences of emigration, either voluntary, or produced 
by religious persecution, in the Fatherland, where many 
an aching heart yearned after a place of peace and 
repose, where in obedience to the dictates of a quickened 
conscience, strains of worship, praises of the Almighty, 
might be poured forth unmolestedly. 

The Colonies established by the Carthagenians, were 
made through conquest and for the purpose of keeping 
the country in subjection. The policy of the Romans 
was, in the earliest ages of the republic, of sending out 
colonies to the conquered nations, to enforce the authority 
of the mother country upon the vanquished people. — 
Their colonies, in this respect, differed essentially from 
many others; and have very appropriately been called 

Die Rocmische Besaizungen, the outposts of Rome. 

The Venetian system of colonies in Candia and Cyprus, 
resembled that of Rome. The limits of this chapter will 
not permit enlargement. 

A principle had obtained in Europe, that a new dis- 
covered country belonged to the nation, whose people 
first discovered it. Eugene IV. and Alexander VI. suc- 
cessively granted to Portugal and Spain all the countries 
possessed by infidels, which should be occupied by the 
industry of their subjects, and subdued by the force of 
their arms. The colonies, established in North America, 
were founded upon more equitable principles. In almost 
every instance, possession of the country was taken with 
the least possible injury to the aborigines. Lands were 
purcJiased from the natives. It liad been, according to 


Bellmap, a common thing in New England to make fair 
and regular purchases from the Indians; many of their 
deeds are still presei-ved in the public records. Nume- 
rous instances, showing that the purchases were mada 
from the Indians, might be quoted; a few must suffice. 

The noble hearted, who were not allured by the love 
of conquest, and the power of wealth, in their efforts to 
colonize, piuchased the right of possession from the sons 
of the forest. Calvert, a Roman Catholic, when he 
planted his colony, 1634, in the province of Maryland, 
commenced Avith an act of justice, of which the natives 
of that State may well be proud; he purchased of the 
savage proprietors, a right to the soil, before he took pos- 
session ; for a compensation with which the Indians were 

Roger Williams, a baptist, on his expulsion from Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1636, went to Seconk, where he procured 
a grant of land from Osamaquin, the chief Sachem of 
Pokanot. He honestly purchased their land, and a suf- 
ficiency of it, for his little colony; he was uniformly 
their friend, and neglected no opportunity of ameliorat- 
ing their condition, and elevating their character.t The 
Swedes, landing at Inlopen, 1637 or 1638, on the west- 
ern shore of the Delaware Bay, proceeded up the river, 
opened communications with the Indians; and purchased 
from them the soil upon the western shore, from the 

*Haw's Contribution, T. 23. fHolmfis' Annals, I. 2.S3. 

Note. — In Roger Williams' Life, published by J. Knowles, 
in 1834, it is stated that Aquedueck Island, now Rhode Island, 
" was ceded or sold to him for forty fathoms of white beads, 
then the currency of the country, by the realm owner 
Canonicus, King of the Naragansets, because he was a good 
man and a friend of the Indians, having settled among them in 
1634, at Mochasuck, now Providence— MSS. 14. 


capes to the falls at Sankikans, opposite to the present 
city of Trenton. "They maintained a harmonious in- 
tercourse Avith the natives, acknowledging the right of 
soil to he in the aborignes. They not only scrupulously 
refrained from injuring them, but cultivated their friend- 
ship by acts of justice, and kindness in supplying their 
necessities:" they aimed in the spirit of the gospel, by 
friendly means, to civilize and win them over to the 
christian faith. 

Philip Carteret, appointed in 1665, as Governor of 
New Jersey, "purchased from the Indians their titles to 
all the lands which were occupied. This proceeding 
was afterwards approved by the proprietaries, who then 
established tlic rule, that all lands should be purchased 
from the Indians, by the Governor and Council, who 
were to be re-imbursed by the settlers, in proportion to 
their respective possessions."* 

William Penn, the 'sole lord' of the province of Penn- 
sylvania, followed the examples of justice and modera- 
tion, set him by former Europeans, in their magnanimous 
conduct towards the aborigines of America. Having 
thus united his example with theirs, for the imitation of 
all succeeding adventurers and settlers of colonies, he de- 
serves equal praise with those who set the example, and 
those who folio w.t 

♦Frost's U. S. 130. 

t " We find that Penn had sent a letter, previous to his arrival, 
by the first colony for Pennsylvania, to the Indians, informing 
them that the (treat (iod l)ad been pleased to make him con- 
cerned in their part of the world, and that the king of the 
country, where he lived, had given him a province therein ; 
but tliat he had no desire to enjoy it without their consent; that 
he was a man of peace, and that the people whom he had sent 
■wrere of tlie same disposition; but if any differoncc should 
happen between them, it might be adjusted by an equal num- 


Among historical writers there is a diversity of opinion 
as to the time when the first permanent settlement was 
made in Delaware. Darby, in his View of the United 
States, says, that a Swedish colony, under the auspices of 
Gustavus Adolphus, reached Delaware, 1628. Accord- 
ing to Gordon's History, Darby's assertion appears to be 
erroneous. The fact, however, that Delaware bay and 
river were explored as early as 1623, by Captain May, is 
well established. He sailed up the river as far as Glou- 
cester point, in New Jersey, a few miles below the city 
of Camden, where he built a fort called Nassau. Accord- 
ing to Gordon, the Swedes visited Cape Henlopen, which, 
on account of its verdure and fertility, they named Para- 
dise Point, and began a settlement on the Delaware bay 
and river; having, however, previous to makmg their 
settlements, bought land of the measurably civilized na- 
tives.* " Their fii'st settlement was near Wilmington, at 
the mouth of Christina creek, and they afterwards built 
forts at Lewistown and Tinicum isle : which last was the 
seat of government of their colony of New Sweden. — 
Here John Printz, their governor, built himself a spacious 
mansion, to which they gave the name Printz's hallP 
According to Watson, the Swedes settled many other 

ber of men, chosen on both sides. With this he appointed 
commissioners to treat with the Indians, about purchasing land, 
and promised them, that he would shortly come and converse 
with them in person." Belknap, II. 40. 

*The Indians at the Swedish settlement were very industrious 
and civilized. They sold the use of the land very cheap : 400 
acres of land for a yard of baize or a bottle of brandy. They 
had large fields of maize, beans, gourds, pumpkins, melons, 
&:c., with orchards of plum and peaches. Holm confirms this, 
and even says that the squaws spun and wove cloth of yarn, 
out of nettles, and wild hemp, which Kalm called Apocynum 
cannabinum. MSS. Remarks on the early His. Pa. p. 13. 


\^ niSTORY OP 

places within the present hmits of Delaware and Penn- 
sylvania; among these maybe enumerated, Moco;7onam, 
the preient town of Chester, Manaiung, a fort at the 
mouth of the Scluiyikiil. They seemed to flourish ; but 
amid their prosperity, some envied them; for it appears, 
the Dutch colonists viewed the Swedes as rivals, or in- 
truders. Notwithstanding the solenm protestations of the 
Swedes, the Dutch built a fort in 1651, at New Castle, in 
the very heart of New Sweden. Risingh, Printz's suc- 
cessor, by a well raalurcd stratagem, displaced the intru- 
ders. Ttiis SU2CCSS did not daunt the Dutch;— viewed as 
an insu'.t to tliem,P^'tor Stuyvesant, Dutch governor, em- 
barked at New Amsterdam, with an armament consisting 
of six vassals, and sevan hundred choice men; invaded 
New Swadeii; reduced the whole colony, in 1655. Al- 
though the Swadish empire was of brief destiny; the tri- 
umph of the Dutch was alike short. "In 1664, Charles 
II. of England, regardless of previous settlements by 
others, deemed it not inexpedient to grant all the large 
territory, not only of New Nctherland, but New Sweden, 
to his brother, the L'uke of York: and the country was 
taken possession of by an expedition of three ships and 
six huiJrad men, u ider the connuand of Col. Richard 
Nichols. New Amsterdam was thenceforth called New- 
York." The Duke's grant, from the King, also included 
New Jersey. He likewise obtained Delaware. In 1682 
William Penn purchased New Castle, and the country 
for a coni])ass of tv/elvc miles around it, of the Duke of 
York; luid afterwards extanded liis j)urchase to Cape 
Henloi)tn. This country, called the Lower Couniics of 
Delaware, remained a portion of the colony of Pcmisyl- 
rania, till I70i3. 



William Penn bom — How he was made acquainted with this conntry — In* 
atrumentil in settling West New Jersey — Obtains a charter for Pennsyl- 
vania — Firs' purchasers embark for America — Markham's instructions — 
He holds a Treaty with the Indians — Penn arrives in America — Convene* 
an Asscm <ly at Upland — Interview with Lord Baltimore — Religious visit 
— Visits New Jersey ; the Duke of York ; his friends on Long Island ; 
returns to Philadelphia ; holds his grand Treaty with the Indians — More 
arrivals from Europe — Emigrants provide shelters — Form plantations — 
Philadelphia laiil out — Counties organized — Second Asssembly convoked 
—Penn obliged to return to Europe. 

William Penn, the Founder of Pennsylvania, born 
in London, October 16, 1644, was the grand-son of Giles 
Penn, and son of Sir William, an Admiral of the Eng- 
l;s'i Navy. He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, 
whire, on hearing Thomas Loe, a quaker of eminence, 
he imbibed his principles, which a few years afterwards 
he publicly professed. He was in consequence, twice 
turned out doors by his father. In 1668 he began to 
preach in public, and to write in defence of his embraced 
doctrines. For this he was twice incarcerated, and once 
brought to trial. It was during his first imprisonment 
t'-iat he wrote — No Cross, No Crown. In 1672, he 
mairled Gulielma Maria Springett, a lady of his religious 
principles. In 1677, he visited Holland and Germany, 
to propagate his favorite doctrines. He devoted much of 
his time to preaching, writing, and visiting several coun- 
tries on the continent, and Ireland. 

To show the reader how Penn, whom Montesquieu 
denominates the modern Lycurgus, the real founder of 


Pennsylvania, was made acquainted with the country, it 
will be necessary to briefly notice a train of circum- 
stances which led to results of so much magnitude to the 
world, as the colonization of Pennsylvania — "the asy- 
lum of the oppressed." 

In or about the year 1675, says Proud, Lord Berkeley 
sold his half of the province of New Jersey to a person 
named John Fenwick, in trust for Edward Byllinge, and 
his assigns, in consequence of which the former, this 
year, arrived with a number of passengers, in a ship 
called Griffith, from London, on a visit to his new pur- 
chase. He landed at a place, in West Jersey, situated 
upon a creek, or small river, which runs into the river 
Delaware; to which place he gave the name Salem; a 
name which both the place and creek still retain. This 
was the first English ship which came to West Jersey; 
and it was near two years before any more followed. — 
This long intei-val is supposed to have been occasioned 
by a disagreement between Fenwick and Byllinge; 
which was at last composed by tJio Icind offices of Wil- 
liam Penn. 

Byllinge, having been reduced in circumstances, had 
agreed to present his interest in New Jersey to his cred- 
itors, by whose entreaty and importunity William Penn, 
tliough, it is said, witli reluctance, was prevailed upon to 
become joint trustee with two of them,Gawen Lawrie,of 
London, and Nicholas Lucas, of Hertford, for the manage- 
ment thereof. These he invested with his own moiety of 
the province ; it being all his remaining fortune,for the sat- 
isfaction of his creditors. Hence William Pemi became 
one of the chief instruments in settling West New Jer- 
sey; and thereby acquired a knowledge of the adjacent 
country of Pemisylvania, before it had that name, or 


was granted to him.* Having learned the advantages 
offered to settlers in West New Jersey, he spared neither 
pains nor time to point out to brethren of the same faith 
the benefits to be derived in settling here ; and, on his 
suggestions, many of them emigrated thither, pur- 
chased land, and built towns and villages, principally on 
the eastern shore of the Delaware river; and several of 
them settled as early as 1675, at Upland, now Chester, 
Kensington, and several other places, on the west bank 
of the Delaware. 

Having spent much time in the laudable employment 
of ameliorating the condition of others, he projected the 
design to colonize the country contiguous to that, which 
he had been the chief instrument to settle ; he availed 
himself of his favorite estimation, which the eminent 
services of his fother had gained him, and petitioned 
King Charles H. that in lieu of a large sum of money, 
due his father, from the government,! at the time of his 
death, letters patent might be granted him, for a tract of 
land in America, "lying north of Maryland; on the east, 
bounded by Delaware river; on the west, limited as 
Maryland; and northward, to extend as far as plantable." 

*Proud I. 136, 137. Penn despatched no less than eight hun- 
dred seUlers during the year 1677— '78, for West New Jersey; 
these were mostly Quakers and persons of property and res- 

fHis father, distinguished, in English History, by the con- 
quest of Jamaica, and by his conduct, discretion and courage 
in the signal battle against the Dutch in 1665, bequeathed to 
his son, a claim on the government for sixteen thousand pounds. 
Massachusetts had bought Maine for a little more than one 
thousand pounds; then, and long afterwards, colonial property 
was lightly esteemed; and to the prodigal Charles II. always 
embairatsed for money, the giant of a province seemed tha 
easiest mode of cancelling the debt — Bancroft, II. 303. 


His request being- duly considered by the King, by 
the Privy Council, and by the Lords of the CommittcQ 
of Trade and Plantations; and Lord North, Chief Jus- 
tice; and Sir William Jones, the Attorney General, 
having been consulted, William Penn obtained, amidst 
great opposition, a royal charter from Charles II. bearing 
date, Westminster, March 4, 1681. 

Having been, by virtue of this charter, constituted sole 
proprietary of Pennsylvania, he made sales of lands to 
adventurers, called first purchasers, who embarked 
some at London, others at Bristol, in 1681, for America, 
and arrived, "at the place where Chester now stands, on 
Uie 11th of December." Ajiiong these was William 
Markhani, a rolativp. of the propriolary, whom he had 
appointed deputy governor, and certain commissioners, 
with plenary powers, and instructions to confer with the 
Indians,, respecting their lands, and to confirm with them 
a league of peace. From these instructions, to the 
deputy governor and to the commissioners, it will be seen, 
the examples set by the New England States, by Calvert, 
Williams, by the Swedes, Carteret and others to pur- 
chase the rii^ht of soil from the Mborii^iyies, wei» 
honorably followed by Peini, notwithstanding the principle 
which had obtained among Ein'opcan nations, "/o ivrest 
the soil by force^^ from the people to whom it naturally 
belonged. It needs scarce repetition, in this place, to state, 
^ it has l)cen errotieousli/ supposed that Mar/cha?n, or 
Penn, was the first man who purchased la)ids froin the 
^Jhorii(i7ial t/2mericans ! .'" 

Markham,in obedience to his instructions, held a treaty 
in June, 1682, with the Indians, and purchased lands 
from them, as appears from a deed, dated July 15, 1682, 
signed by Idcpiahon, lannottowe, Idquoqucywon, Sa- 
hoppe, for himself and Okonichon, Swampisse, Na- 


hoosey, Tomackhickow, Weskekitt and Talawsis, Indian 
Shackamakers. Markham made several purchases pre- 
vious to the arrival ef Penn, who with many of his 
friends, chiefly from Sussex, sailed for America, and 
landed at New Castle on the 27th October, 1682, where 
he was received with demonstrations of joy. Penn then 
went to Upland, now called Chester, where he convened 
an assembly on the 4th of December. This body, dur- 
ing a session of three days, enacted several important 
laws, one of which was an act to natiu:alize the Dutch, 
Swedes, and other foreigners. 

Penn was -devoted to the interest of the colony; he 
lost no time in delays. No sooner, according to Gordon, 
had the assembly adjourned, than Penn hastened to 
Maryland, to see Lord Baltimore, who had set up 
claims, arising from an indistinctness of grant, touch- 
ing the boundary lines between the two provinces, which 
caused much disquiet to the border colonists — -with the 
intention, if possible to adjust the difficulties, he spent 
several days, without being able to effect the object of 
his interview with Lord Baltimore. The negotiation 
was postponed till next spring.* Tlie dispute was 
finally settled, in 1762! Penn spent some time in 
Maryland, in religious visits, and then returned to 

•Lord Baltimore relied on the priority and distinctness of 
his own title ; while Penn defended a later and more indistinct 
grant, on a plea which had been suggested to him by the 
Committee of Plantations of England— that it had never been 
intended to confer on Lord Baltimore any other territory but 
such as was inhabited by savages only, at the date of his 
charter; and that the language of the charter was, therefore, 
inconsistent with its intendent, in so far as it seemed to au- 
thorize his claim to any part of the region previously colonized 
by the Swedes and Dutch— Gra^m, //. 341 ; also, Sec Ap- 
pendix A. 

£4 HISTORY 07 

"From Chester, tradition describes the journey of 
Penn to have been continued with a few friends, in an 
open boat, in the earUcst days of November, to the 
beautiful bank, fringed with Pine trees, on which the 
city of Philadelphia was soon to rise." The following 
weeks, Penn, from a natural impulse, visited New Jersey, 
New York, the metropolis of his neighbor proprietary, 
the Duke of York, and, after meeting friends on Long 
Island, he returned to the banks of the Delaware. 

To this period belongs his first grand treaty with tlie 
Indians. It was held contiguous to Philadelphia. — 
Here, Penn, with a few friends, met the numerous dele- 
gation of the Lenni Lenape tribes. Here he confirmed 
what he had promised the Indians through Markhamj 
under the bleak, frost-shorn forest, Penn proclaimed to 
the mon of the Algonquin race, from both banks of the 
Delaware, from the borders of the Schuylkill, and it may 
be, for the news had spread far and wide, that the 
Quaker King was come, even to Mengwis from the 
shores of the Susqu3hanna, the message of peace and 
love, which George Fox had professed before Cromwell, 
and Mary Fisher had borne to the Grand Turk. "The 
English and Indians slioukl respect the same moral law, 
should be alike secure in their pursuits, and in their 
possessions, and adjust every difference by a peaceful 
tribunal, composed of an equal number of men from 
each race." 

" We meet, said Penn, on the broad pathway of good 
faith, and good will; no advantage shall be taken on 
cither side, but all shall be opencss and love. I will not 
call you children; for parents sometimes chide their chil- 
dren too severely; nor brothers only; for brothers differ. 
The friendship between me and you, I will not compare 
to a chain ; for that the rains might rust, or the falling 


tree might break. We are the same, as if one man's 
body were divided into two parts; we are all one flesh 
and one blood." 

These touches of pathetic eloquence, clothed by the 
sacredness of that sound doctrine which flowed from the 
speaker, reached their understandings, affected their 
hearts, assuaged their revenge, and removed their guile* 
They received the presents of Penn with more than mere 
formahty, it was with sincere cordiaUty ; they accepted his 
gifts, and in friendship gave him the belt of wampum. 
"We, exclaimed they, as with a sound of many waters, 
will live in love with William Penn and his children, as 
long as the moon and the su i shall endure." 

This treaty of peace and friendship was made under 
the open sky, by the side of the Delaware, with the sun, 
the river, and the leaflass forest, for witness. It was 
not confirmed by an oath: it was not ratified by signa- 
tures and seals: no written record of the conferences can 
be found; and its terms and conditions, had no abiding 
monument but on the heart.* There they were written 
like the law of God, and were never forgotten. The 
artless sons of the wilderness, returning to their wigwams 
and their cabins, would count over shells on a clean piece 
of bark, and recall to their memory, and repeat to their 
children, or to the stranger, the words of the Quaker 
King. This treaty, executed without oath, was inviola- 
bly kept for forty six years, on the part of the natives.t 

It has been well observed that the benevolence of Wil- 
liam Penn's disposition led him to exercise great tender- 
ness towards the tawny sons of tlie woods, which, however, 
was much increased by the opinion he had formed, and 
which he boldly and in-'Lnuously avowod, supporting it 

♦Bancroft, II. 382. f Col. Rec. III. 301-350. 


26 BISTOttT 05* 

by plausible inductions, that they were the ten dispersed 
tribes of Israel.* He travelled into the country, visited 
them in their cabins, was present at their feasts, conversed 
with them in a free and familiar manner, and gained their 
affections by his affability, and repeated acts of generosity. 
On public occasions, he did not forget the dignity of his 
station ; he always received them with ceremony, trans- 
acted business with solemnity and becoming order. 

In one of his excursions in the winter, he found a chief 
warrior sick, and his wife preparing to sweat him, in the 
usual manner, by pouring water on a heap of heated 
stones, in a closely covered hut, and then plunging him 
into the river, through a hole cut in the ice. To divert 
himself during the sweating operation, the chief sang the 
exploits of his ancestors, then his own, and concluded his 
song with this reflection: Why are we sick, and these 
strangers well? It seems as if they were sent to inherit 
the land in our stead ! Ah ! it is because they love the 
Great Mannitto — the Great Spirit, and we do not! — 
The sentiment was rational, and such as often occurred 
to the sagacious among the natives. It cannot have 
been disagreeable to Penn, to hear such sentiments uttered, 
whose view it was to impress them with an idea of his 
honest and pacific intentions, and to make a fair bargain 
with them. Some of their chiefs made him a voluntary 
present of the land which they claimed; others sold it at 
a stipulated price. Penn himself described one of these 
interviews in a letter to a friend of his in England.t 

The same year Penn arrived, there was quite an ac- 
cession; between twenty and thirty ships landed with 
passengers, and the two next succeeding years settlers 
from London, Bristol, Ireland, Wales, Holland, Germany, 

♦Proud, I. 259. fBclknap, II. 413. 


&c. arrived to the number of about fifty sail; among 
these were German Quakers, from Cresheim, near Worms. 
in the Palatinate. The banks of the Delaware presented 
motion and life. "On landing, they set bustling about to 
procure shelter. Some lodged in the woods in hollow 
trees, some under the extended boughs of trees, some in 
caves which were easily dug on the high banlvs of the 
Wissahickon and the Delaware, and others in haste 
erected huts. They were abundantly supplied with 
wood, water, and fertile land." Nor had they been for- 
getful to bring with them, the necessary implements for 
building and husbandry. Having now housed, treed, or 
caved, their provisions and portable property, under such 
shelter as they could find, or had provided, some were 
procuring warrants of survey for taking up so much 
land as was sufficient for immediate settling, "others 
went diversely further into the woods where their lands 
were laid out ; often without any path or road, to direct 
them, for scarce any were to be fomid above two miles 
from the water side ; not so much as any mark or sign oi 
any European having been there. All the country, fur- 
ther than about two miles from the river, except the 
Indians' movable settlements, was an entire wilderness, 
producing nothing for the support of human life, but "the 
wild fruits and animals of the woods."* 

They soon formed plantations of Indian corn and wheat. 
The forest furnished deer, rabits, squirrels, young bears, 
wild turkeys of enormous size, pigeons; the rivers 
abounded with fish, such as sturgeons, shad, rock, her- 
ring, perch, trout, salmon ; the fruits of the woods were 
chestnuts, grapes of diverse sorts; walnuts, cranberries. 
<'The first settlers endured some hardships, it is true, but 

♦Proud, I. 220. 



they were in a rich country, and their knowledge of re- 
sources, and of the free institutions which they were 
about to transmit to their posterity, enabled them to 
conquer all diiticulties."* 

" At the close of the year 1 682, according to Gordon, 
the proprietary, with the assistance of his Surveyor 
General, Thomas Holme, proceeded to lay out his 
promised city, Philadelphia. During the first year 
eighty houses were erected in the city, and an equitable 
and profitable trade opened with the Indians. The 
Governor chose his own residence in a manor, which he 
called Pcnnsbury, siluited a few miles below the falls of 
the Delaware, and about twenty-five from the city, 
where he built a large and convenient brick house, 
having an extensive hall for his Indian conferences." 

"The survey of the country inhabited by Europeans 
having been completed, the proprietary, in 1682, divided 
it into six counties; three in the province of Pennsyl- 
vania and the like number in the territory of Delaware. 
Philadelphia, Bucks, and Chester, in Pennsylvania— and 
Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex, in Delaware. The county 
organization was completed by the appointment of 
sheriffs and other officers." t 

The state of aftairs rendered it necessary for a second 
assembly^ to be convoked, which met at Philadelphia, 


tTl)c shcrilfs of each county in Pennsylvania, were, for 
Philadcipliia county, John Tost; for Bucks, llichard Noble; 
for Chcbtur, Thomas Uslier. 

JMcmbcrs of the second assembly, for Chester county, 
were, John Iloskins, Robert Wade, George Wood, John 
Blunston, Di.nnis Rucliford, Thomas Bracy. John Bezer, John 
Harding, Joseph Phipps. 


March 12th, 1683. During this session Penn created a 
second frame of government, differing in some points 
from the former, to which the assembly readily assented. 
They also enacted a variety of salutary regulations, by 
"Which the growing prosperity of the province was pro- 
moted, and its peace and order preserved. In 1684, the 
province and territories were divided into twenty-two 
townships, containing 7,000 inhabitants, of whom 2,500 
resided in Philadelphia.* This city already comprised 
three hundred houses." 

On information received from his agent that his 
presence was needed in England, and another addi- 
tional cause, his dispute with Lord Baltimore, Penn 
sailed for Europe, August 16, 1684; leaving the province 
under the government of five commissioners, chosen 
from the Provincial council. Previous to his departure 
he had made, according to Oldmixon, a league of amity 
with nineteen Indian nations, between them and all the 
English America 

*John Key, born 1682, in a cave, long afterwards known by 

the name of Penny-pot, near Sassafras street, was the first 

child born of English parents in Philadelphia, in compliment 

of which William Penn gave him a lot of ground; he died at 

Kennet, in Chester county, July 5, 1767, aged 85 years. — 





Brief sketch of the History of Pennsylvania, from 1684 to 1699 — Pro- 
vincial Executives from 1C84 to 1699 — Bounilarics of Chester county 
determined — Increase of populatinn — First mills in Chester county — 
Penn's eftbrt to improve the condition of the natives — Efforts to christianize 
the Indians — Penn's new treaty with Susquehanna, Shawanese and 
Ganawese, &c. nations — A new form of Government framed — PeJiR 
appoints Andrew Hamilton, Deputy Governor — Sails for England. 

As it will be necessary to occasionally recur to the 
main history of Peiinsylv^ania, and in order to preserve 
some connection in the narrative of events of the period 
between Penn's departure, in 1684, for Europe, and his 
return, in 1G99, to America, a brief historical sketch of 
that time is given, though some of the incidents con- 
nected with the early settlements of Lancaster county, 
and to which the order of time has not yet brought us, 
are tiiercliy anticipated. 

Soon after Penn's return to England, Charles II. died, 
February (J, 1G84 — 5; and .huncs II. ascended the 
'throne, who was jjroclaimed King in the province, May 
2d, 1685. "Ponn's altachmcnt to the Stuart family 
induced him to adhere to this unfortunate monarch till 
Jong alter liis fall;* and for two years after the revolu- 
tion wl.ic 1 placed William, Prince of Orange, and Mary, 
the duugliler of James, on the throne, the province was 
administered in the name of James. This could not fail 
to draw down the indignation of King William on the 
devoted head of the ])roprietary, who suffered much 
persecution for his unflinching loyalty. He was four 

»Jamcs abilicatcd, and went to France, December 23, 
■imS.— Blair's Chrunol. 


times imprisoned. The King took the government of 
Pennsylvania into his own hands; and appointed Colonel 
Fletcher to administer the government of this province, 
as well as that of New York. It at length became 
apparent to the King, that Penn's attachment to the 
Stuarts was merely personal, and not attended with any 
treasonable designs; and he was restored to favor. — 
Being permitted to resume and exercise his rights, he 
appointed William Markham to be his Deputy Go- 

"In 1699, the assembly complained to Governor 
Markham of a breach of their chartered privileges; and 
in consequence of their remonstrance, a bill of settle- 
ment, proposed and passed by the assembly, was ap- 
proved by the Governor, forming the third frame of 
government of Pennsylvania. This constitution was 
more democratic than the former." 

"In 1699, Penn again visited his colony, accompanied 
by his family, with the design of spending the remainder 
of his life among his people. He was disappointed, 
however, by finding the colonists dissatisfied with the 
existing state of things. Negro slavery, and the inter- 
course with the Indian tribes, were the subjects of much 

♦Provincial Executives during Penn's absence : 

1. Council and President, Thomas Lloyd, from August^ 
1684, to December, 1688. 

2. John BlackwcU, Deputy Governor, from December, 1688, 
to February, 1689. 

3. Council and President, Thomas Lloyd, from 1689, to 
April, 1693. 

4. Benjamin Fletcher, Governor, from April, 1693, to June, 

5. William Markham, Deputy Governor, from June, 1693, to 
1699, when Penn arrived. 


unpleasant altercation between the proprietary and the 
colonists. Certain laws which he proposed for regulat- 
ing these affairs, were rejected by the assembly. His 
exertions, in recommending a liberal system to his own 
sect, were attended with better success, and the final 
abolition of slavery, in Pennsylvania, was ultimately 
owing to these powerful influences."* 

The proprietary, previous to his departiue for Eng- 
land, had divided the lower part of Pensylvania, into 
three counties, viz: Philadelphia, Bucks and Chester, and 
cast the counties into townships, for large lot s^ of land\\ 
but, as appears from the Colonial Records, did not so 
clearly define and precisely fix upon the boundaries of 
the counties, as to prevent, among peaceable quakers 
themselves, subsequent misunderstandings. 

The boundaries of Chester county, especially its en- 
largement, had been made the subject of more than a 
mere transient conversation. Penn, in a discourse, a few 
days before he left the province, did declare "upon the 
bank (Delaware) by John Simcock's house,t to John 

•Frost's U. S. 139, 140. 

fit appears to have been part of the plan of William Penn 
to have laid out the province into townships of 5,000 or 10,000 
acres, and to have surveys made within the respective bounda- 
ries of such townships ; and that purchasers of large tracts 
might lie together; he accordingly introduced this clause into 
his warrant. " According to the method of townships ap- 
pointed by mc." This plan was not long pursued— •Smii/j's 
Laws, II. 140. 

JJohn Simock lived in Chester county. He was a man of 
good education; was one of the proprietor's first commis- 
sioners of property, and one of his most trusty friends in the 
government. He was a Quaker preacher.— He died January 
27, 1702. 


Blunston and others, when he was moved to decide, 
how the bounds of Chester county were to be run, so as 
to enlarge the Umits or boundary thereof; being at that 
time but a small tract of land not above nine miles 
square. Owing, however, to his departure, behig press- 
ingly urged to return for Europe, nothing definite was 
then done as to the enlargement of the county of 
Chester. In 1685, the council having seriously weighed 
and considered the same, ordered the bomids to be 

Although Chester county had been partly settled be- 
fore Penn arrived the first time ; and notwithstanding his 
benevolent spirit, in looking more to moral worth and 
fitness in inviting emigrants of every peculiarity of 
creed to his province, it, nevertheless, appears that 
Chester county, with its limited territory, was only 
thinly seated, prior to 1689. The smallness of tract of 
land, and its sparse population, were then urged, by the 
inhabitants of the county, as a consideration to the Go- 
vernor and council for enlargement, as will appear from 
their humble petition, in 1689. 

"The humble petition of ye Justices of Chester 
county, in the behalfe of themselves and inhabitants of 
ye said county, sheweth : 

That whereas, ye said county is but a small tract of 
land, not nine miles square, and but thinly seated, 
whereby ye said county is not able to support the charge 
thereoff; vpon our humble request to the Proprietor and 
Governor, and his serious consideration of our weak 
conditions, was pleased out of compassion to vs, to grant 
an enlargement of ye same, in manner following, viz: 
to runn vp ffrom Dellaware river, along Darby Mill 

•Col. Rec. I. 74. 

94 HisTORT or 

creek, ye severall courses thereof, vntill they took in 
Radnor and Herford townshipps then downe to the 
Skoulkill; then vpwards along the several courses there- 
off, witliout limniitt. 

Therefore, wee humbly pray you will be pleased to 
confirme ye said bounds, wherebye the county of Chester 
may be in some measure able to defray their necessary 
cliarge, and wee shall, as in duty bound/** 

It was signed by John Blunston, Thomas Brassie, 
Randell Vernon, Caleb Pusey, Thomas Usher. The 
prayer of the petitioners was considered at several 
councils, viz : March 25 and 26, 16S9. Some time in 
1693, the petitioners, inhabitants of Chester county, who 
had sufferred long for the want of the division, between 
the county of New Castle, State of Delaware, and 
Chester county, having again prayed the council to adjust 
bounds, a temporary division between the two counties 
was ordered to be made, August 9, 1693.t The 
boundaries of the county extended indefinitely west- 
ward, and remained unchanged till Lancaster and Berks 
were successively formed. 

The increase of inhabitants in the colony and in Ches- 
ter county, between the time of adjusting the boimdary 
between New Castle and Chester and Penn's second, 
arrival, was considerable; gradually augmenting the 
j)opulution; and tlie settlement extended to Brandy wine 
creek ; where, to meet the wants of the people, Corne- 
lius Empson, as early as 1GS9, erected a mill; beh)g, as 
it is believed, the second mill erected in the county of 
Chester; Xarkus's mill having been erected about IGSl. 

It has been stated that Penn was not successful in his 

•Col. Rec. I. 221. f Col. Rec. I. 340, 345. 


attempts to obtain legislative restrictions upon the inter- 
course with the Indians to prevent shameful practices 
upon these poor creatures, by unprincipled whites, whose 
conduct was occasionally beastly ; not satisfied with 
gelling them all manner of spirituous liquors for the sake 
of gain, but would frequently disgrace themselves and 
their wretched victims.* His not succeeding in having 
legislative co-operation, to prevent their temporal ruin, 
he was determined to improve their condition ; he paid 
the sons of the forest a visit, participating in all their 
innocent amusements, and in turn received their visits at 
his own house at Pennsbury.t He co-operated with his 
friends, who, as early as 1685, signalized by an attempt 
with the annual meeting of their society at Burlington, 
in New Jersey, to communicate the knowledge of 
christian truth to the Indians. With what success, may 
be learned from Proud's statement : " that the Indians in 
general acknowledged at that time, what they heard was 
very wise, weighty and true; and never afterwards 
thought about it." So far as is known to us, the Quaker 
Missionaries have kept no particular accomits of the 
the number of Indian converts to Quakerism, There is 
no doubt that the savages acceded readily to the con- 
ferences that were proposed to them, and listened with 
their usual gravity and decorum to the sedate Quaker 3 
who, in professing to obey the command of the Saviour^ 
" to teach and baptize all nations,'^ ever ventured to 
teach them that baptism was not an ordinance of divine 

♦See a case, Col. Rec. I. 96. 

fPenn, at a former treaty, had promised the Shawanese 
Chief, protection. "To enable him to fulfil this promise, he 
risited them in person at Conestogo, attended by many gen- 
tlemen of distinction."— Co/. Rec. II. 253. 


or christian appointment ! Indian converts to Christi- 
anity, if history be true, have been gained in America by 
Catliolics, Puritans, Moravians, Baptists, &c.-,* but no 
records are extant, showing the probable number of 
conversions of Indians to Christianity, by Quakers, 
though it is admitted, some of the Friends preached 
with much freedom to them. 

Penii, in 1700, formed a new treaty wilh the Susque- 
hanna, the Shawanesc, the Ganawese,t and tribes of the 
Five Nations. Tiiis treaty provided for perpetual peace 
and good officers between the parties, confirmed to the 
Indians the benefits, and subjected them to the penahies 
of the EngUsh law, in their intercourse with the whites: 
it stipulated that both parties should refuse credence to 
unauthorized reports of hostility intended by either: that 
the Indians should never suffer strange tribes to settle in 
any part of the province without permission from the 
Governor : that no European should engage in the Indian 
trade without the license of the government ; and lastly, 
in the neighborhood of the Conestogo, should be con- 

• According to Stiles' Literary Diary, there were in 1696, 
•thirty Indian churches in New England. — Holmes, 7.459. 

•fThc Piscatawisc, or Ganawcsc, having removed nearer the 
Susquehanna Indians, in 1G98, met William Pcnn in council 
in May, 1701, and entered into new articles of agreement; 
the Susquehanna Indians became sureties for their peaceabl 
behavior.— Proud I. 428.— Col. Rcc. II. 9-12. 

"William Penn permitted the Piscatawese or Ganawcsc, to 
remove higher up the Potomoc, within his claim; and tradi- 
tion says, he purchased their right of soil on the Putomoc, to 
strengthen his demand on Lord Baltimore." — Lan. Intdl. <^ 

I Gordon. 


firmed.* In the spirit of this treaty, the Provincial 
Council formed a company of traders exclusively au- 
tliorized to repress the inebriety of the nations, and to 
impress upon them a sense of the christian religion by 
examples of probity and candor. 

While busily employed in promoting the temporal 
welfare of the Indians, and improving the condition of 
the colonists, he received intelligence from England that 
measures were agitated to reduce all the proprietary 
governments in America to royal ones, which induced 
him to change his mind, and he at once determined to 
return to Europe, as soon as he had some frame of 
government firmly estabUshed. The assembly, met 
September 15, 1701. A form of government was estab- 
hshed, that gave the representatives of the people the 
right of originating laws, which was before solely vested 
in the Governor: it allowed the Governor the veto 
power on bills passed by the assembly: also the right of 
appointing his council, and of exercising the whole ex- 
ecutive power. Soon after the formation of this frame 
of government, Penn returned to England. He sailed 
from Philadelphia, November 1st, 1701; before his de- 
parture, he appointed Andrew Hamilton, Esq., Deputy 
Governor, and James Logan, Secretary of the province 
and clerk of the comicil. 





Prince William dies — Anne ascends the throne — Penn in favor with her — 
State of affairs in the province — Disquiet among the Indians — Messenger 
sent to the Conestogo Indians — Secretary of Council and Sheriff of 
Chester and New Castle are sent to them— Thomas Chalk ley preaches 
at Conestogo — Governor visits the Conestogo Indians — Indian Eloquence 
— Gov. Evans' strange character, and second journey to the Susquehanna 
— Governor's journal of his interview with the Indians — Nicole appre- 
hended at Pixtan, conveyed to Philadelphia and imprisoned. 

In the preceding chapter the reason of Penn's hasten- 
ing to England is stated. He arrived there about the 
middle of Decemher, 1701. At home he had sufficient 
influence to arrest the bill in its progress, for changing 
the proprietary governments, in America, into royaJ 

The reigning Prince, William HI. died January IS, 
1702; and was succeeded by the Princess Anne of Den- 
mark, during whose reign Pennsylvania received aug- 
mented accessions. Penn became her favorite. She 
greatly promoted his interest. Though he basked in her 
favor, he was not protected against the storms of 
political life. He was harrassed by complaints on the 
part of the provincialists, on account of the appointment 
of his Deputy Governor, Evans, whom ho had, on the 
death of Mr. Hamilton, constituted as his successor.* 

•Mr. 11. died at Amboy, whilst on a visit to his family, who 
resided at that place, April 20, 1703. It was this year that the 
representatives of tlie territory of Pennsylvania persisting in 
an absolute refusal to join with those of the province in legis- 
lation, it was now agreed and settled between them, that they 
should compose distinct assemblies, entirely independent of 
each other, pursuant to the liberty allowed by a clause in the 
charter. — Holmes, I, 480. 


The state of things in the province wa.7 such as to em- 
bitter Hamilton's brief administration, by the disputes of 
the assembly. Evans, whose life and conduct were 
objectionable, was re-called, and superseded, by the 
appointment of Charles Gookin, ,as Governor, who 
arrived in March, 1709. He continued in office till 1717. 
During his administration, the first permanent settlements 
were made within the present limits of Lancaster, then 
Chester county.* 

Though no actual settlements had been made, prior to 
1708, or 1709, in Lancaster county, a few whites had 
their abodes among the Indians on the Susquehanna. — 
These were Indian traders, viz : Joseph Jessop, James Le 
Tort, [t] Peter Bezalion, Martin Chartier, all Frenchmen , 
the latter had lived, prior to 1704, long among the 
Shawanah Indians, and upon the Susquehanna ;"§ and 
one Mitchel, a Swiss. { Nicole Godin, an active young 
fellow, but rather a sneak, and one Francois. These, 
however, had no license to trade among and with the 

It appears from a French letter, from Madame Letort, 
the French woman at Conestogo, directed to Edmund 
Ffarmer, bearing date 15th March, 1703-4, that the 
Towittois Indians had come down and cut off the two 
families of neighbor Indians at Conestogo, and that they 
were all there under great apprehensions of further mis- 
chief from them, and were preparing to demand succor 

* Lancaster county originally formed part of Chester, from 
which it was separated in 1729. 

[f ] See Appendix B. 

{See Col. Rec. II. 133. 

tHe had been sent out by the Canton of Berne, Switzerland, 
to search for vacant land. 

40 ' HISTORr OF 

of the government in case the disorders should be 

"The subject; mentioned in the letter, was considered 
in council, March 22d; and it was resolved that mes- 
sengers be forthwith despatched to Conestogoe, by way 
of New Castle, to know the truth of the information, the 
relation, as it appeared, being somewhat suspicious."" 

So repeatedly were vague reports of Indian disturb- 
ances from this quarter, and Indian conferences, held at 
Philadelphia, that the Governor was induced to send the 
Secretary of the council, in October, 1705, to Conestogo. 
The Secretary, in company with the Sheriff, and Cleric 
of Chester county, and the Sheriff of New Castle, and 
Hercules Coutts, Ilermanus Alricks, Edmimd Shippen^ 
Jr., and others, being ten in number, went to Conestogo,. 
as the chief place, telling the Indians that he was come 
from the Governor of Pennsylvania, who had always 

been a friend of all the Indians within the bounds of it. 

Among otliers, he would mention things of great im- 
portance at the present time, and which he must lay- 
before them: 

" First, That they should take great care of giving ear 
to malicious reports, spread and carried by ili men, for 
that we heard they had been alarmed at the christians 
putting themselves in arms in all these parts and muster- 
ing; the reason of this, was the war with the French, 
and was designed rather to help than hurt them; but, as 
they and their brethren each must be assistant to the 
other, and therefore the English took up arms to defend 
themselves, and the Indians, also, against both their ene- 
mies. That notwithstanding they ought all, as far as 

•Col. Record II. 123.— (^This winter was remarkable, in 
Pennsylvania, for a great snow, in general about one yard 
doo^.— Proud. 


possible, to avoid war, for peace was mo^' desirable, and 
war must be only for defence." ^■ 

"That we are also informed some o? the Maryland 
Indians, then among them, had d'ffered with the 
English there, and were afraid to return, or come among 
the English of that government. If so, they might 
then continue among us, till matters were fully settled, 
that our Governor would treat with the Governor of 
Maryland in their favor; but they must not quarrel with 
any of the subjects of England, for we are all under one 
crown, and are as one people." 

In the same year (1705,) Thomas Chalkley, an emi- 
nent preacher among the Quakers, as he was visiting some 
of his brethren at Nottingham, in the province of Maryland 
had a concern, says he, on my mind to visit the Indians 
Uving near Susquehannagh, at Conestogoe, and I laid it 
before the elders at Nottingham meetmg, with which 
they expressed their amity, and promoted my visiting 
them. We got an interpreter, and thirteen or fourteen 
of us travelled through the woods about fifty miles, car- 
rying our provisions with us, and on the journey set 
down by a river, and spread our food on the grass and 
refreshed ourselves and horses, and then went on cheer- 
fully and with good will, and much love to the poor 
Indians, and when we came they received us kindly, 
treating civilly in their way. We treated about having 
a meeting with them in a religious way; upon which 
they called a council, in which they were very grave, and 
spoke, one after another, without any heat or jarring — 
and some of the most esteemed of their women speak in 
their councils. I asked our interpreter, why they suf- 
fered or permitted the women to speak in their councils? 
His answer was, "that some women were wiser than 
some men." 



"Our interpreter told me that they had not done any 
thing for many years without the counsels of an ancienl; 
grave woman;' who, I observed, spoke much in their 
councils ; for as 1' was permitted to be present at it, and I 
asked, what it was the woman said? He told me, she 
was an Empress; and they gave much heed to what 
she said amongst them ; and that she then said to him, 
<' she looked upon our coming among them to be more than 
natural, because we did not come to buy or sell, or get 
gain, but come in love and respect to them — and 
desired their well-doing both here and hereafter;" and 
further continued, "that our meetings among them might 
be very beneficial to their young people" — and related 
a dream which she had three days before, and interpreted 
it, viz: "that she was in London, and that London was 
the finest place that she ever saw — it was like to Phila- 
delphia ; but much bigger — and she went across six 
streets, and in the seventh she saw TVilliam Penn 
preaching to the people, which was a great multitude, 
both she and William Penn rejoiced to see each other; 
and after meeting she went to him, and he told her that 
in a little time he would come over and preach to them 
also, of which she was very glad. And now she said 
her dream was fulfilled, for one of his friends was come 
to preach to them." 

" She advised them to hear us, and entertain us 
kindly; and accordingly they did. There were two na- 
tions of them, the Senecas and Shawanesc* 

•The Shawancsc had wigAvams along the bank of the Octto- 
raro creek, near the present boundary of Chester and Lancas- 
ter county. When the road, in 1719, to Christiana bridge, &c. 
was laid, its course was defined— "to the fording place at Oct- 
toraro, at Old Shawana town, thence over Octtoraro, along the 
Indian Path, kc.—Caurt Records, at Chcslcr, Avg/rerm, 1119. 



«We had first a meeting with the Senecas, with which 
they were much affected; and they ca.'led the other 
nation, viz: the Shawanese, and interpi-eted to them 
what we spoke in their meeting, and 'Le poor Indians, 
and particularly some of the yoimg men and women, 
were under a solid exercise and concern. We had also a 
meetmg with the other nation, and they were all very- 
kind to us, and desired more such opportunities; the 
which, I hope, Divine Providence will order them, if they 
are worthy thereof. 

The Gospel of Jesus Christ was preached freely to 
them, and faith in Christ, who was put to death at Jeru- 
salem, by the unbelieving Jews; and that this same 
Jesus came to save people from their sins, and by his 
grace and light in the soul, shows to man his sins, and 
convinceth him thereof; delivering him out of them, and 
gives inward peace and comfort to the soul for well-do- 
ing; and sorrow and trouble for evil-doing; to all which 
as their manner is, gave public assent; and to that of the 
light of the soul, they gave a double assent, and seemed 
much affected with the doctrine of truth; also the 
benefit of the holy scriptures was largely opened to 

"After this, we returned to our respective habitations, 
thankful in our hearts to the God and Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ. Several of the friends that went 
with me expressed their satisfaction in this visit, and 
offered themselves freely to go again to the like 


♦Thomas Chalkley, wife and family, came from England to 
Pennsylvania, in 1701, where he settled and resided for upwards 
of forty years, except when absent on business. He was, 
besides, a sea-faring man ; also engaged as a minister of the 
gospel; the discharge of duty, in this double capacity, aeces- 



It appears that the Indians, at Conestogo were quite 
an object of attention; fearful they might be ahenated, 
Governor Ev ^ns conceived it of the utmost importance, 
under these e.-^iing circumstances* "to maintain, as far 
as possible, a \perfect good understanding with the 
Indians, and to \a.hoT to keep them secure in the Queen's 
interest against tht\ machinations used by the enemy to 
debauch them from" the people of the province. To 
effect this, he proposed, in August, 1706, the year after 
Chalkley's errand to them as messenger of Peace, ta 
visit very speedily the Indians of Conestogo, and the ad- 
jacent settlement. He went, and had a personal inter- 
view with them at Conestogo; and it proved, as he 
hoped, of great service. 

It was then, perhaps, he was so eloquently addressed 
by an Indian Orator, who, as the Poet says, spake: 
"Hos docet ore loqui facilis natura diserto; 
Lingua) grande loquens est idioma suae. 
With native eloquence their speech abounds, 
Untaught with figures grand, and lofty sounds." 

"Father — we love quiet; we suffer the mouse to 
play; when the leaves are rustled by the wind we fear 
not; when the leaves are disturbed in ambush, we are 
uneasy; when a cloud obscures your brilliant smi, our 
eyes feel dim; but when the rays appear, they give 
great heat to the body, and joy to the heart. Treachery 

sarily called him much away from his family. He was a 
successful minister — beloved and highly esteemed for his 
virtues. "He was a man of a meek and quiet spirit; and he 
possessed an engaging sweetness, both in ministry and con- 
rersation." While on a religious visit to the Island of Tortola, 
he died in 1741. He left behind him some religious works, 
and a Journal, from which the above extract has been copied — 
Page, 47-51. 

*There was war, between tho French and English at tbv 


darkens the chain of friendship, but truth i\akes it 
brighter than ever. This is the peace we desire * 

The Governor and Council having been informed of 
the treacherous and murderous conduct of Nicole and 
-Francois, in their endeavors to incense the Indians on the 
Susquehanna, against the English, it was deemed expe- 
dient that they should be visited again. 

In the summer season of 1707, Gov. Evans made 
another journey among the Indians. With what mo- 
tives he undertook this second journey, is somewhat diffi- 
cult to decide, if it should be maintained they were pure- 
ly patriotic. If historians have not been biased, if they 
have been accurate, faithful and impartial, in reporting to 
future ages his actions, he presents to the v/orld a strange 
character; not worthy of imitation. Governors do act 
strangely sometimes! Of him it is recorded: 

" He increased the nmiiber of taverns, and ale houses 
for the sake of license money, which he had doubled : 
that m his private life he was indecorous and immoral ; 
had practised abominations with the Indians at 
Conestogo; committed at his own country resideiKe 
notorious excesses and debaucheries, not fit to be re- 
hearsed, and had beaten several of the peace- officers, 
who, ignorant of his presence, at a house of ill-fame, 
had attempted to disperse the company, at ten o'clock in 
the morning ;t and, though by his example, he weak- 

*Lan. Intel]. & Jour. 

f " William Penn, Jr., who came with Evans from England, 
was one of the parties of this night brawl, and was indicted 
for his conduct in the city court. He professed the faith of the 
Church of England, but had worn, it would seem, hitherto in 
the province a quaker garb. Upon the institution of this 
prosecution he threw off all disguise, abandoned his quaker 
connexions, and openly proclaimed his principles." — Logan, 


ened t^ie hands of the magistrates, he hypocriticalhr 
caused his proclamations to be read in the churches and 
religiou'5 meetings, against the very disorders which he.' 
himself committed." 

"i^e permitted French papists from Canada to 
trade with the Indians, and seduce them from th& 
English interest.^'* 

Having presented the reader a historical brief of his 
moral and political character, an account of his last 
journey, as laid before the Board in council, the 22d 
July, 1707, is given in extenso, in these words: "The 
Governor, with Messrs. John French, Wm. Tonge, 
Mitchel Bezaillion, Gray, and four servants, set out from 
New Castle the 27th of June, and the next morning 
arrived at Octoraro, where the Governor was presented 
with some skins by the Indians, and the same liight we 
arrived at Pequehan, " at the mouth of Pequae creek" 
being received at Martines,! by Pessah, "the chief 
of the Shawanoes," and some Indian chiefs, who con- 
ducted us to the town, at our entrance into which place^. 
we were saluted by the Indians with a volley of fire 
arms. On Monday, we went to Dekanoagah, upon the 
river Susquchaima, being about nine miles from Peque- 
han. Some time after our coming here a meeting was^ 
held of the Shawanois, Senequois and Canoise Indians, 
and the Nantikoke Indians from the seven following 
towns, viz: Matcheattochouisie, Witicliquaom, Teah- 
quois, Matchcouchtin, Natahquois, Byengeahtein, and 
Pohecommoati; an Indian presented to the Governor 
and liis company, and all the Indians then present, a 

•Gordon, 150 ; Proud, I. 482. 

fMartin Charticr, who had lived long among the Shawanah 
Indians!— Co/. Rec. H, 133. 


large pipe with tobacco, out of which every one smoked, 
and then the Governor acquainted the Indians that he 
had received a message from the Senequois Indians, of 
Conestogo and those of Pequehan, how that several 
strange Indians were amongst them, and desired his 
presence there; that although he had the charge and 
care of many thousands of the great Queen of Eng- 
land's subjects, yet he was now come to this place to 
know their desires, and was willing to serve them in 
whatsoever lay in his power. To which a Nantikoke 
Indian replied, that they were extremely glad the 
Governor was with them, and that they had waited ten 
days to see him. 

Adjunkoe, one of the Sachems of Conestogo, said 
he was well satisfied with the relation the Nantikoke 
Indians had given of their affairs ; yet, notwithstanding, he 
was very desirous they should make it known to the 
Governor that he might also be satisfied with it ; a Nan- 
tikoke Indian took into his hands a belt of wampun 
from him whereon there was hung nineteen others, and 
several strings of beads, and said that they had been 
given to understand the Queen had sent orders that the 
Indians should live in peace with one another, and that 
they were sent to give some of those belts in behalf of 
the Governor of Maryland, and themselves to the Five 
Nations, as our Indians also intended to do to others for 
Pennsylvania and themselves, if the Governor thought 
fit, in order to renew their league with the Five 

Governor — How long have you been at peace with 
this nation? 

Nantikoke Indians — Twenty-seven years. 

Governor — What is the reason, then, of so many belts 
of wampum and strings of beads? 


Nantikoke Indians — We send them as a tribute. 

Governor — I am very well satisfied with what has 
been told me, and with, what the Governor of Maryland 
has done, and had I been acquainted with this business 
at Philadelpliia, I would have sent a belt of wampum as 
a token of friendship to the Five Nations; but some of 
those Five Nations were with me not long since, by 
whom I sent a belt; and then Adjunkoe took a belt 
in his hands, saying, he meant to send it to the Five 
Nations for Penn and themselves. 

Indian Harry, by order of the Conestogo Sachem, 
spoke in English to the Nantikoke, who all understood 
that language, as follows, viz : you are going to the 
Onandagocs; be sure keep on your way; many may tell 
you several things to fright you, and that they are great 
men, and you will be killed. Yet keep on your way and 
believe them not, for you will find the King of the Five 
Nations a very great one, and as good a king as any 
amongst the Indians. 

Governor — I am very glad to see you altogether at 
this time, and it is my desire, and shall be my endeavor, 
tliat you all live in peace. Your enemies are ours, and 
whosoever shall pretend to injure you, I will endeavor 
tliat you shall have satisfaction made for it. 

Then the conference ended, and the Governor treated 

the Indian chiefs at dinner, and at night returned to 


Peqnehan, 301 h June. 

Present: — Shawanois Indians, and some of the Five 

Pessah spoke in behalf of the youth of the town, as 
follows, viz: 

We thank the Governor for his kindness in supporting 
our people. We are liappy to live in a country at peace, 


and not as in these parts, where we formerly hved ; for 
then upon our return from hunting, we found our town 
surprised, and our women and children taken prisoners 
by our enemies. 

Governor — The Indians may be assured of my pro- 
tection, for we are one people. If in your absence, any of 
your enemies endeavor to hurt any of your wives or 
children, they shall have redress; for I esteem an injury 
done to you as to myself. 

P ess ah — It was the Nantikoke and Canoise Indians 
who sent for our father, the Governor, and not we, there- 
fore we are very sorry they entertained him no better ; but 
since they have not been so kind as they ought, we hope 
the Governor will accept of our small present, which we 
now make him ; for we are sensible the ways are bad, 
and that the bushes wear out your clothes, for which 
reason we give these skins to make gloves, stockings 
and breeches, in place of those worn out. 

Governor — I am well pleased with my journey, and 
shall be always ready to do the like to preserve peace 
, amongst you at home, and maintain your alliance 
abroad. I have now (to let you see what confidence I 
have in you,) trusted myself in the midst of you, with 
a very few of our great Queen's subjects, although I 
could have easily brought with me very great numbers. 
I have been told that some ill-designing persons have 
frequently raised reports of my intention to destroy you ; 
pray, let me know the authors of these reports, and they 
^hali be punished according to their deserts. I am, and 
always have been, ready to do you all manner of good 
offices, and will continue in the same mind towards you. 
It is my mind that ycm. secure thoir persons, and give me 
immediate notice of it. Tliere have been formerly- 
several alliances made with you, which you well know 



we on our parts have observed punctually; and so shall 
contmue to do, and wish you may do the same. 

Then an Indian spoke in behalf of the women: — We 
are included in the alliances before spoken of, as well as 
our men, so we ask the Governor's protection, and de- 
sire the Governor will kindly accept this present of 
skins, which freely we make him, as a testimony of our 

Governor — I do accept your presents very kindly, and 
thank you for the same; and you shall always find me 
ready to protect and defend you, and will continue to 
treat you as friends and sisters. 

After which the Governor spoke to the messengers 
from the Five Nations, viz : 

You must be sure you remember to acquaint your 
chiefs that you have seen me here, and at the Shawa- 
noise town; and of the friendship and alliance that is 
betwixt us and the Indians. 

O Pessah — I hope the Governor will give us his hand 
in token of his friendship. 

Governor — I will give not only give my hand, but my 

During our abode at Pequehan, several of the Shawo- 
nois Indians, from the southward, came to settle here 
and were admitted so to do by Pessah, with the 
Governor's consent; at the same time an Indian from a 
Shaonois town, near Carolina, came in, and gave an 
account of four hundred and fifty flathcadcd Indians had 
besieged them: and that in all probability, the same was 
taken. Bczallion informed the Governor that the Shao- 
nois of Carolina (he was told) had killed several chris- 
tians; whereupon the Governor of that province raised 
the said flathcadcd Indians, and jomcd some christians to 


them, besieged, and have taken, as it is thought, the said 
Shaonois town. 

On Tuesday, 1st of July, we went to Conestogo, and 
lay there that night, and the next morning proceeded on- 
our journey and arrived in the evening within three 
miles of an Indian village, called Peixtan.* The Go- 
yernor had received information at Pequehan, that one 
Nicole, a French Indian trader, was at that place, against 
whom great complaints had been made to the Governor, 
of which he acquainted the chief Indian of Peixtan, as 
also of his design to seize him; who willingly agreed to 
it, but advised the Governor to be very cautious in ths 
manner; there being only young people at home, who 
perhaps might make some resistance, if it were done 
without their first being told of it ; for this reason we 
lay short of the village that night; but early in the 
morning we went within one-half a mile of the town, 
and leaving our horses, marched afoot, nearer the same, 
from whence the Governor sent Martine to the village, 
ordering him to tell Nicole that he had brought two kegs 
of rum with him, which he had left in the wood, for 
fear any christians were there, and to persuade Nicole 
to go with him to taste the rum. Martine returned 
with James Le Tort, and Joseph Jessop, two Indian 
ti-aders, but could not prevail with Nicole ; upon this, 
Martine was sent back, with orders to bring down some 
of the Indians, and Nicole with them ; then we drew 
nearer the town, and laid ourselves in the bushes, and 
Martine returned v/ith two Indians, whom the Governor 
acquainted with his intent of taking Nicole, telling at the 
same time, he had spoken with the luicle of one of them 

♦"Peixtan, spelt Peichtang, Pechetan, &c. in old records, 
once an Indian wigwan), now Harrisburg," R. C.—Lan, InteiL 
ij- Jour. 


upon that head, who ordered the Indians to subniit to 
the Governor's commands, with which they were con- 
tented, though we perceived too well the contrary, by 
tJieir inquiring how many we were, and how armed:;; 
and by the concern they seemed to be m, when they 
found we were more in number than they; but stilL 
Kicole was wanting; it was therefore resolved at oncet^; 
try once more if he could be got into the woods, accord-, 
ingly went again, and bronght Nicole to tlie place where 
we lay concealed, and asking to drink a dram, he seized 
liim ; but Nicole started from him and run for it, whe?i. 
immediately we started out and took him, and presently 
carried him to the village, through which we were 
obliged to pass, and there v/e found some Indians with 
guns in their hands, who looked much displeased at what 
we had done, but we being in readiness against any sur- 
prise, they thought it not fit to attempt any thing ; here 
we stayed about half an hour, and then parted for Tiu*- 
pyhocken: having mounted Nicole upon a horse, and 
tied liis legs under his belly; we got within a mile of 
Turpyhocken, about two of the clock on Friday morn- 
ing, and about seven the Governor went to town, from 
thence we went to Manatawny that night, and the next 
day to Philadelphia." 

Nicole was imprisoned in the common jail at Philadel- 
phia. From his examination and trial before the coun- 
cil, he stated, that according to what his mother had told 
him, he was born in Blackfryers, London, that iiis mother 
had carried him to France, and that his uncle in London^ 
had sent for him; and that about the year lGS(i, he was. 
brought over iuU) this coimtry, with a French gentle- 
man, who Iiad come on the account of Doctor Cox. — 
He was tried by indictments as a subject in England.* 

•Sec Col. Roc. II. 405-G. 



G«uso of disquietude among the Indians — Indians at Conestogo send a 
messenger to the Council — Mitchel and other Europeans intrude upon th» 
Indians — Governor Evans' explanation of Mitchel's course — Critical junc- 
ture — Evans re-called — Gookin appointed Governor — Penn's embarrass- 
ment — Penn mortgages the province — Quit-rents — Emigration impeded 

Gookin sends a message to the Indians at Conestogo — Mingoes and 

others appear in Philadelphia — Gookin's visit to Conestogo — Swedish 
Missionary at Conestogo — His sermon and Indian chiefs answer — 
French and Worley on a message to Conestogo. 

The disquietude among the Indians still was such as 
to render it necessary, shortly after the Governor's 
return, to despatch a message to them by Martiji Char- 
tier, who was returning from Philadelphia to his trading 
station among the Shawanois, at Pecquea, near Cones- 
togo. The great uneasiness among them was frequently 
occasioned by non-licensed and non-resident transient 
traders and speculators among them, or those who sought 
to mend their future fortunes by seeking out, locating 
and purchasing the choice vacant lands from the proprie- 
tary's commissioners. Such appears to have been the 
case about Conestogo, in 1707. Among those, at this 
time, was one Lewis Mitchel, or Michelle, who was em- 
ployed and sent out, about the year 1703 or 4, by the 
Canton of Bern, in Switzerland, to search for vacant 
lands in Pennsylvania, Virginia or Carolina.* 

The Indians at Conestogo, sent a message to the 
council, by Harry, the interpreter. The Governor was 
absent. The council convened to receive the message in 
form. As his credentials, Harry laid upon the board six 
loose strmgs of wampum, and declared that he was sent 

^Williamson, I. C. 6., 



hj the Queen and the principal of Conestego, to the Go-- 
rernor and council, to acquaint that divers Europeans,, 
namely, "Mitcliel (a Swiss,) Peter Bczalion, James Le 
Tort, Martin Chartier, the French Glover of Philadel- 
phia, Frank, a young man of Canada, who Avas lately 
taken up here, being all Frenchmen, and one from Vir- 
ginia, who also spoke French, had seated themselves and 
built houses u])on the branches of the Patowmeck^^ 
■within this govermnent, and pretended that they were in 
search of some mineral or ore; that in the Governor's 
name, they had required the Indians of Conestogo, to 
send some of their people with them to assist them, for 
which the Governor would pay them. That those of 
Conestogo, not thinking these proceedings to be incon- 
sistent with their past treaties and leagues of friendship, 
desired to know wliether the said persons were really 
sent by the government, and had tlius seated them- 
selves by their approbation, and whether they had 
any orders to desire the assistance of the said Indians, if 
not that they might be called home." 

Harry added in particular, ^' thai ihon!;h Milchel 
was the person tc/io had first led the rest Ihitheryyet 
he had left them for many weeks past, and pretended 
that he wanted one Clark, of Maryland, who it is said^ 
to be now under an attainder, by an act of assembly' 
of that government, to assist him in the discovery."* 

On further consideration it appeared that Peter Be- 
zalion was the only licensed Indian trader, according to. 
an act passed .-il a general Assembly, October 14, 1700, 
licid at New Castle. 

Mitchel, who had been in Philadelphia, in the summer 
of 170(5, wassentforby Governor Evans. The Governor 
♦'required to know of him what he intended by travers- 

•Col.Rcc. 11.420. 


ing the country, as he had done, without permission; 
and what was the meaning of these discourses about 

The Governor stated to the board, February 25, 1707, 
that the above was the substance of his tall<: with him, 
and that Mitchel repUed, " He had been employed by 
divers of his countrymen, who were in treaty with the 
w-own and proprietor for land here for a convenient tract 
to settle a colony* of their people on, to come over and 
gearch for such a place as might best suit them, and 
upon this head, he was large in giving an account of the 

The Governor further stated that he asked " How he- 
durst presume to range this coimtry, on any such design, 
without applying first to him; to which he answered 
tliat he would have done it, but that he lost his creden- 
tials, and expected others over." 

The Governor also added, "that he had some notion, 
of mines, and had his thoughts much bcmt that way, that 
he was willing to let him proceed,- and had not dis- 
couraged him ; that he had advised him to take some of 
the Indians with him ; that of the persons before men- 
tioned, he had ordered tv/o that he could confide in to be 
there, that he might have a full accomit of their proceed- 
ings; but that he knew nothing that so- many hadj 
gone out, nor could think it was fit to be suffered." 

The council agreed that none except those who had 
license to do so, should remain among the Indians on the 
forks of the Potomac; and thus the matter ended. 

This was a critical juncture to the provincials, to 
Governor Evans, and to the proprietary. The unsettled 
state of Indian affairs, perplexed the people; the execu^ 

*This colony settled in 1710, in North Carolina, at a place 
which they subsequently called New Bern.. 



tivG and the legislators, owing to the quarrels between 
tliem, had done nothing in their respective capacities, 
that resulted in a benefit to the country. Besides this 
family feud and Indian perplexities, the trade of the pro- 
vince had been greatly interrupted by the privateers of the 
enemies cruizing and capturing vessels. There was no 
remedy for all this, as long as Evans was Governor.— 
He was re-called. Col. Charles Gookin was appointed, 
and arrived in JMarch, 1708 

Penn's pecuniary' embarrassments were intricate and 
perplexmg, owing to various causes. The expenditure 
of his government was great, and he was defrauded by 
his Stewart of his Irish estates, and confined within the 
rules of the Fleet prison. "He was relieved from this 
humiliating state, by mortgaging the province, and his 
political rights therein, to Henry Gouldney, Joshua Gee, 
Sylvanus Grove, John Woods and John Field, of Lon- 
don, Tiiomas Callowhill, Thomas Cade and Jeffrey 
Pennell, of Bristol, and Thomas Cuppage, of Ireland. 

The mortgagees did not assume the government, but 
appointed Edward Shippen, Samuel Carpenter, Richard 
Hill, and James Logan, commissioners to superintend 
tlieir iuterj3st in the province, who repaid the loan with 
funds obtained from the sale of lands, and from his 

* Quit-rents.— It appears from the writings of Sparks, Belk- 
nap and Franklin, that when Penn reserved quit-rents, they 
were not agreed to without difficulty. The purchasers rcmon-. 
strated against tiieni as a burden, unprecedented in any other 
American Colony ; but it is said, Penn artfully distinguished 
between the character of Proprietor and of Governor, and 
insinuated strongly that government must be supported with 
dignify, and that by complying with this expedient, they 
would be freed from other taxes. Such distinctions are very 


Emigration, during this unhappy state of affairs, was 
reiy Umited. Though the oppression abroad was very- 
great, and a free asyhim held to all of every creed, tlie 
influx of population had for a season stopped, and settle- 
ments sparsely made. None seemed, even in the pro- 
rince, to adventure an approach m settling nearer the 
banks of the Susquehanna. Those who advanced 
took forethought not to seat far from " mill and meeting 
/wnse.'' A few quaker pioneers settled about the year 
1707, in Kennet, Chester county. Among others were 
Vincent Caldwell, Thomas Wickersham, Joel Bailey> 
Thomas Hope, Guyan Miller..* 

Nothing of importance c-f a local character, within the 
limits of Lancaster county, occurred during the first year 
of Gookin's administration. The Indians had sent 
several messages to him and council. He promised them 
a visit, but was prevented by public business. Lest he 
might forfeit their confidence, he instructed the sectretary 
at a comicil, held at Philadelphia, Jime 8, 1709, forth- 
with to despatch a messenger to the Conestogo and 
other Indians, &c., with instructions in writing to excuse 
him from coming, because the assembly was then in 
session upon an important business, and as a credential, 
he commanded the messenger to take a good belt of 
"wampum with him, to inform them that if they designed 
to pay a visit to the Five Nations, they ara now busily 

convenient to a politician — and by this distinction the poiat 
was gained. 

All quit-rents were abolished, except in Manors, by the ninth 
section of the Divesting Act, passed 27th November, 1779- — 
Smith's Laws, Pa. II, 138. 

The quit-rents were not uniform ; they varied from one 
shilling sterling per hundred acres, to six shillings per annum^ 
and in other instances more. 

*Proud, I, 482. 


engaged wtli the English in a war against Canada, for 
•which vast preparations are made from England ;* tha^ 
if those of Conestogoe, the Shawanois and otliers, can 
engage, and will prepare themselves to join immediately 
in this expedition, their young men should all provide 
themselves for it without delay, and they shall receive by 
the Queen's orders, sent for that purpose, a good reward, 
every man a gun, and that their answer to this, by some- 
of their old men, and a good interpreter, is immediately 
desired. That whether they can engage or not, we 
shall be glad to see some of tliem here, and the Governor 
will shortly make them a visit." 

John French hastened to Conestogo and delivered the 
message. He returned to Philadelphia, and communi- 
cated the Indians' message. "They would forthwith 
call in all their young men, and with all their force come 
to Philadelphia, in order to proceed to Albany and join 
in tlie expedition against Canada." 

But as the assembly had voted against raising money 
for that purpose, it was resolved that a message be sent 
to the Indians, desiring them to defer their coming- 
to Philadelphia, for that the Governor will speedily pay 
tlicm a visit. 

Notwithstanding the desire expressed by the Governor 
and council, that they might defer their coming, tliey 
appeared; they were the chiefs of several nations of 
Indians, living on Susquehanna, viz: Andaggy-jun- 
guah, Woshtachary, chiefs of the Mingoes, Owechcla, 
Passakassy and Skal itchy,, chiefs of the Delaware In- 
dians, settled at Pcshtang (Paxton), above Conestogo,. 

»An cxpcilition was determined on for the reduction of the 
French in North America. The plan was extensive. The 
French were to be subdued, not only in Canada and Acadia, 
but also in Newfoundland.— //oi/nc«, /. 500. 


zmd other adjacent places, Peter and Pipskoe, chiefs of 
Ganawese, with their several interpreters. 

The Governor congratulated them on their coming to 
see him, and they were all satisfied with him. A num- 
ber of presents were made them, before their departure 
for home. 

The following year the Governor paid the Indians a 
visit at Conestogo, "where he found them very much 
inclined to the English, and to the proprietary, and his 
government in particular; but that they had complained 
to him that several persons make it then- business to way- 
lay their young men returning from hunting, making them 
drunk with rum, and then cheat them of their skins, and 
that if some method be not taken to prevent it, they must 
be forced to remove themselves or starve, their depen- 
dence being entirely upon their peltry ; whereupon it is 
thought proper that such Indian traders as are foreigners, 
being admitted and licensed by the Governor, shall 
come under such regulation as the Governor and 
council, from time to time, shall direct and appoint." 

If any reliance can be placed on the following tradi- 
tion, for it should be considered such,* the Swedes also, 
as well as others, felt interested in the spiritual welfare of 
the Indians of Lancaster county, and sent missionaries 
among them to instruct them in the doctrines of the 
christian religion. One of their missionaries, who re- 
sided a few years at Conestogo, cither at the time of 
Governor Gookin's first visit to the Indians at Conestogo, 

*Robert Proud, who wrote a History of Pennsylvania, ia 
1780, says this speech had been printed in Pennsylvania, as a 
genuine speech of an Indian chief in the province ; but 
whether it be really so, or not, it certainly contains arguments 
which have been used by some of thsse people, and it may 
serve, in part, to give some idea of their sentiments on thi« 


or when Colonel French and Henry Worley, went on a 
message m 1710, was present, and preached a sermon to 
tile Indians at Conestogo, m which sermon he set forth 
original sin, the necessity of a mediator, and endeavored, 
by certain argtiments, to indiice the Indians to embrace 
tlie christian religion. After he had ended his discourse, 
one of the Indian chiefs made a speech in reply to the 
sermon ; the discourse on both sides was made known by 
interpreters. The missionary, upon his return to Sweden, 
published his sermon and the Indian's answer; having 
written them in Latin, he dedicated them to the University 
of tJpsal, and desired them to furnish him with argu- 
ments to confute such strong reasoning of the Indian. — 
The Indian's speech, translated from the Latin, is as 
follows : 

"Since the subject of his errand is to persuade us to em- 
brace a new doctrine, perhaps it may not be amiss, 
before we offer him the reasons why we cannot comply 
with his request, to acquaint him with the grounds and 
principles of that religion he would have us abandon. 
Our forefathers were under a strong persuasion (as we 
are) that those who act well in this life, will be rewarded 
in the next, according to the degree of their virtues. — 
And on the other hand, that those that behave wickedly 
here will undergo such punishments hereafter as were 
proportionate to the crimes they were guilty of. Tliis 
has been constantly and invariably received and ac- 
knowledged for a truth through every successive genera- 
tion of our ancestors : it could not then have taken its 
rise from fable ; for human fiction, however artfully and 
plausibly contrived, can never gahi credit long among 
people where free enquiry is allowed, which never was 
denied by our ancestors; who, on the contrary, thought it 


the sacred inviolable natural right of every man, to ex- 
amine and judge for himself. 

Therefore, we think it evident that our notions of 
future rewards and punishments were either revealed 
from Heaven immediately to some of our forefathers, 
and from them descended to us, or that it was implanted 
in each of us at our creation by the Creator of all things, 
Whatever the method might have been, whereby God 
has been pleased to make known to us his will and give 
us a knowledge of our duty, it is in our sense a divine 
revelation. Now we desire t® propose to him some 
questions. Does he believe that our forefathers, men, 
eminent for their piety, constant and warm in their 
pursuit of virtue; hoping thereby to merit eternal happi- 
ness, were all damned. Does he think, that we, who 
are zealous imitators in good works, and influenced by 
the same motives, as we are, earnestly endeavoring with 
the greatest circumspection to tread the path of integrity, 
are in a state of damnation? If that be his sentiments, 
it is surely as impious as it is bold and daring. In the 
next place we beg that he would explain himself more, 
particularly concerning the revelation, if he admits of no 
other, than what is contained in his written book; the 
contrary is evident from what has been shown before. — 
But if he says, God has revealed himself to us, but not 
sufficiently for our salvation, then we ask, to what pur- 
pose should he have revealed himself to us in any v/ise. 
It is clear, that a revelation insufficient to save, cannot 
put us in a better condition than we be without revela- 
tion at all. We cannot conceive that God should point 
out to us the end we ought to arrive at, without 
opening to us the way to arrive at that end. But sup- 
posing our understanding to be so far illuminated as to 


know it to be our duty to please God, who yet has left 
us under an mcapacity of doing it ; will this missionary 
therefore conclude we shall be eternally damned ? Will 
he take upon him to pronounce damnation agamst us for 
not doing those things which he himself aclmowledgeth 
were impossible by us to be done. It is our opinion, that 
every man is possessed with sufficient knowledge for Ms 
own salvation. The Almighty, for any thing we know, 
may have communicated himself to different races of peo- 
ple in a different manner. Some say, they have the will of 
God in writings ; be it so, their revelation has no advan- 
tage above ours, since both must be equally sufficient to 
save, or the end of revelation would be frustrated; be- 
sides, if they both be true, they must be the same m sub- 
stance, and the difference can only lay in the mode of 
communication. He tells us there are many precepts in 
this written revelation, which we are entirely ignorant 
of; but those written commands could only be assigned 
for those who have the writings, they cannot possibly 
regard us. Had the Ahiiighty thought so much 
knowledge necessary for our salvation, his goodness 
would not so long defer the communication of it to us. — 
And to say in a matter so necessary he could not at one 
and the same time reveal himself to all mankind, is 
nothing else than an absolute denial of his omnipotence. 
Without doubt he can make his will manifest witliout 
the help of any book, or the assistance of any bookish 
man whatever. We shall, in the next place, consider 
the arguments which arise from tlie consideration of 

If we be the work of God, (which we presume will 
not be denied) it follows from thence, that we are under 
the care and protection of God; for it cannot be sup- 
posed that the Deity should abandon his own creatures. 


aiid be utterly regardless of their welfare. Then to say 
that the Almighty has permitted us to remain in a 
fatal error through so many ages, is to represent him as a 

How is it consistent with his justice to force life upon 
a race of mortals without their consent, and then to 
damn them eternally without ever opening to them a 
door to salvation.'' Our conceptions of the gracious God 
are much more noble, and we think that those who 
teach otherwise, do little less than blaspheme. Again it 
is through the care and goodness of the Almighty, that 
from the beginning of time tluough so many generations 
to this day, our name has been preserved unblotted out 
by our enemies, and unreduced to nothing. By the same 
care we now enjoy our lives, and are furnished with the 
necessary means of preserving these lives. But all 
these things, compared with our salvation, are trifling. — 
Therefore, since God has been so careful of us in matters 
of little consequence, it would be absurd to affirm that 
he has neglected us in cases of the greatest importance ; 
admit he has forsaken us, yet it could not be without a 
just cause. , 

Let us suppose that some heinous crimes were com- 
mitted by some of our ancestors, like to that we are told 
of another race of people, in such a case, God would 
certainly pmiish the criminal, but would never involve 
us that are innocent in the guilt ; those who think other- 
wise must make the Almighty a very whimsical evil-na- 
tured being. 

Once more: are the christians more virtuous? or 

rather, are they not more vicious than we are? if so, 

ho^ came it to pass that they are the objects of God's 

beneficence, while we are neglected ? does he daily confer 

his favors without reason, and with so much partiahty ? 


In a word: we find the christians much more 
depraved in their morals than we are — and we judge 
from their doctrine by the badness of their Uves. 

Shortly after Governor Gookin's visit to the Indians^ 
he sent two messengers, Col. John French and Henry Wor- 
ley, to them. After a friendly interview, they retnrned to. 
Philadelphia, and laid before the board of comicil, in. 
session, June 16, 1710, their report. 

"t/^/ Cones fogo, June S, 1710, 
Present : — John French, Henry Worley, Iwaagenstj^ 
Terrutanaren and Teonnotein, chiefs of the Tuscaroroes, 
Civility, the Senegues kings, and four chiefs of the na- 
tions with Opessa, the Shawanois king. 

The Indians were told that according to their request, 
we were come from the Governor and Government, to 
hear Avhat prosposals they had to make anent a peace, 
according to the purport of their embassy from their own 

They signified to us by a belt of wampum* which was 
sent them from their old women, that those implored 
their friendship of christians and Indians of this govern- 
ment, that without (^finger or trouble they might fetch 
wood and water. 

*" Wampom or wampum, says Loskeil, is an Iroquois word 
meaning a muscle. A number of these muscles strung to- 
gether is called a string of wampum, which when a fathom, 
six feet long, is termed a fathom or belt of wampum, 
but the word string is commonly used, whether it be long or 
short. Before the Europeans came to North America, the In» 
dians used to make their strings of wampum chiefly of small 
pieces of wood of equal size, stained either black or white. — 
Few were made of muscles, which were esteemed very valua- 
ble and difficult to make ; for not having proper tools, they 
spent much time in finishing them, and yet their work had a 
clumsy appearance. But the Europeans soon contrived to 


The s-word belt was sent from their young men fit to 
hunt, that privilege to leave their towns, and seek provi- 
sion for their aged, might be granted to them without 
fear of death or slavery. 

The fourth was sent from the men of age, requesting 
that the wood, by a happy peace, might be as safe for 
them as their forts. 

Tlie fifth was sent from the whole nation, requesting 
peace, that thereby they might have liberty to visit their 

The sixth was sent from their kings and chiefs, desir- 
ing a lasting peace with the christians and Indians of this 
Government, that thereby they might be secured against 
those fearful apprehensions they have for these several 
years felt. 

The seventh was sent in order to entreat a cessation 
from murdering and taking them, that by the allowance 
thereof, they may not be afraid of a mouse, or other 
thing that ruffles the leaves. 

The eighth was sent to declare, that as being hitherto 
strangers to this place, they now came as people blind, 
no path nor communication being betwixt us and 
them; but now they hope we will take them by the 

make strings of wampum, both neat and elegant, and in great 
abundance. Those they bartered with the Indians for other 
goods, and found this traffic very advantageous. The Indians 
immediately gave up the use of old wood as substitutes for 
wampum, and procured those made of muscles. 

Every thing of moment transacted at solemn council, either 
between the Indians themselves, or with Europeans, is ratified, 
and made valid by strings and belt of wampum. Formerly 
they used to give sanction to their treaties by delivering a wing 
of some large bird. This custom still prevailed as late as 
1775, among the more western nations, in transacting business 
with tUe Delawares"— XiosieiZ. 



hand and lead them, and then they will lift np 
their heads, in the woods,, without any danger or 

These belts, they say, are only sent as an introduction, 
and in order to break off hostilities till next spring ; for 
then their kings will come and sue for the peace they so 
much desire. 

Wc acquainted them that as most of this continent 
were the subjects of the crown of Great Britain, though 
divided into several govermnents, so it is expected their 
intentions are not only peaceable towards us, but also to 
all the subjects of the crown ; and that if they intend to 
settle, and live amicably here, they need not doubt the 
protection of this Government, in such things as were 
honest and good; but that to confiim the sincerity of 
ther past carriage towards the English, and to raise in us 
a good opinion of them, it would be very necessary to 
procure a certificate from the Government, they leave to 
this, of their good behavior, and then they might be 
assured of a favorable reception. 

The Senegues return their hearty thanks to the Go- 
vernment for their trouble in sending to them, and 
acquauited us that by advice of a council amongst them, 
it was determined to send tlicse belts, by the Tuscaro- 
roes, to the Five Nations."* 

*Col. Rec. II. 553-4. 







Preliminary remark*— Unsettled state of aflairs in Europe — Consequent 
emigration of Swiss, Germans, French and others, into America — Into 
Pennsylvania — Swiss Mennonites settle in Pequea Valley — Purchase ten 
thousand acres of land — Make improvements — Others purchase lands— 
The Mennonites call a meeting to send a person to Europe for the residue 
of their families — Kendig goes and returns with a number of families- 
Settlements augmented — Governor Gookin's journey to Conestogo. 

The unsettled state of affairs in Europe subjected 
many of the Germans, French, Swiss and others, to sore 
persecutions because they could not change their reli- 
gious opinions so as to coincide invariably with those of 
tlie ruling Prince. The religious complexion of th« 
caimtry was frequently determined or influenced by the 
cliaracter of the mlers — as they changed, it was changed, 
either by force, or by inducements to "Ao/fi? it with 
the, populciceP To these changes it was impossible for 
the Germans, the Swiss, the French, to conform. 


Frederick II, Elector Palatine, embraced the Lutheran 
faith; Frederick III. became a Catholic,* Lodovic V. 
restored the Lutheran church ; his son, and successor, 
was a Calvmist. These, m their turn, protected some, 
others they did not. The last Prince, son of Lodovic, 
was succeded by a Catholic family, during whose 
reign it was the lot of the Protestants to be unkindly op- 
pressed. Besides these unpropitious changes, and of 
being subjects of alarm and persecution, the Germans 
occupied the unenviable position of living between two 
powerful belligerent rivals. War seemed to be the very 
element of these ruling Princes, then, of those countries. 

In the year 1622, Count Tilly, the Imperial General, 
took Heidelberg, and put five hundred of the inhabitants 
to the sword. In 1634, Louis XIV. entered the city and 
destroyed many of the inhabitants. 

The close of the seventeenth century, was an eventfiil 

l>eriod. The celebrated Edict of Nantes, issued by 

Heniy IV. hi 159«, in favor of the Huguenots* or 

Protestants, was revoked, Oct. 23, 1685, by Louis XIV. 

whose name was execrated over a great part of Europe. 

Consequent upon there vocation of this edict, there was 

one of the most terrible persecutions ever suffered in 

Franee. It is recorded in History, "abdit that time, 

though the frontiers were vigilantly guarded, upwards of 

five hundred thousand Huguenots made their escape to 

*Huguenot. — This epithet has been the subject of some dis- 
cussion. We are inclined to the opinion, that the origin of the 
word is derived from the German, Eidgenossen, confederates. 
A party thus designated existed at Geneva ; and it is probable 
ttat the French Protestants would adopt a term so applicable 
to themselves. This opinion is supported by Mezeray, Main,' 
hourg, and Diodatiy Professor of Theology at Geneva— Wl. 
S. Browning's His. Hug. 292. 
See AppendixC, for a fuliei account of the Huguenots^ • 


Switzerland, Germany, Holland, England and America. 
"The unfortmiate were more wakeful to fly, than the 
ministers of tyranny to restrain."* 

At this critical juncture, the Mennonites were perse- 
cuted in Switzerland, and driven into various countries ; 
some to Alsace, above Strasburg, others to Holland, &c., 
where they lived simple and exemplary lives ; in the 
villages as farmers, in the towns by trades, free from the 
charge of any gross immoralities, and professing the 
most pure and simple principles, which they exemplied 
in a holy conversation. Some of those about Strasburg, 
with other High and Low Germans transported them- 
selves about the year 1683, by the encouragement of 
William Penn, to Pemisylvania, and settled principally 
at Germantown ; the greater part of whom were natural- 
ized in 1709.t 

Li 16S8, Heidelberg was taken the second time, by 
the French, who laid the inhabitants under oppressive 
contributions; after which, at the approach of the impe- 
rial army, they blew up the citidal, and reduced the 
town to ashes. It soon rose again upon its cinders, and 

*The Huguenots put a new aspect on the North of Germany, 
where they filled entire towns, and sections of cities, introduc- 
ing manufactures before unknown. A suburb of London was 
filled with French mechanics; the Prince of Orange gained 
entire regiments of soldiers, as brave as those whom Crom- 
well led to victory ; a colony of them even reached Good 
Hope. The American colonies, influenced by religious sym- 
pathy, were ever open to receive the Huguenots. They set- 
tled in the New England States, the Middle and Southern 
States. The United States, says Bancroft, are full of monu- 
ments of the emigrations from France. 

The limits of afoot-note, will not admit of enlargement here- 
See Appendix C. 

fCol. Rec. II. 514. 


again it was taken by a French army, who laid it, a 
second time, mto ashes, in 1693. The inhabitants, men, 
women and children, about 1 500, stripped of all, were 
forced to flee, m consternation, to the fields by night. — 
Once more, on the retreat of the French army, were tlie 
former inhabitants prevailed upon to rebuild the city, 
miconscious, however, of the treachery of a perfidious 
Elector, who had sacredly promised them liberty of con- 
science — Heaven's choicest boon — ^and exemption from 
taxes for thirty years. After some time, the Elector, 
whose creed, it appears, embraced the essential ingre- 
dient, ^^ Promises made to herpetics should not be ra- 
dcemedy^ harrassed his duped subjects, with relentle3s 
persecution. The French army havmg crossed the 
Rhine, the distressed Palatines persecuted by their heart- 
less Prinee — plundered by a foreign enemy, fled to 
escape from death, and about six thousand of them, for 
protection, to England, in consequence of encourage- 
ment, they had received from Queen Anne, by proclama- 
tion, in 1708, Among these was a number to be men- 
tioned in the sequel of our narrative. 

Many also had, prior to the issuing of Anne's procla- 
mation, determined to seek refuge in America. Tlie 
Canton of Bern, in Switzerland, had employed Cluisto- 
plier de Graffenried and Lewis Mitchel or Michelle, as 
pioneers, with instructions to search for vacant lands in 
Pennsylvania, Virginia or Carolina. One of these, 
Michelle, a Swiss miner, had been in America, prior to 
1704 or 1705, traversing the country to seek out "a con- 
venient tract to settle a colony of their people on." He 
was among the Indians in and about Conestogo during 
1706 and 1707, "in search of some mineral or ore 
and, "it is believed, he and his associates built 

'"Col. Rec. 11. 420,— Williams, His, N. C. 



fort not far from Connejaghera, many miles above 

Before those of Bern had fully executed their project, 
they were induced to fly for safety, to London, in the 
vicinity of which, they pitched their tents, and were 
supported at the public expense until they could be 
shipped off for America — some sailed for New York,* 
Pennsylvania, and others for North Carolina, where 
they arrived in December, 1709, at the confluence of the 
Neuse and Trent. This year a respectable number of 
Meimonites left Strasburg, in German}'-, whither they 
had fled from their Vaterland, and sailed for America to 
seek a refuge free from persecution. At home they 
were persecuted by arrogant man, "glorying in the mag- 
nitude of his power, who was every where impiously inter- 
posing between the homage of his fellow and his Creator, 
and striving, by coercion, to apostatize mankind from the 
line of duty which conscience pointed out to tread;" 
aiid the Mennonites, unwilling to sacrifice their principles 
of religion upon the altar of expediency, were not 
tolerated to enjoy mimolestedly the privilege of worship- 
ing God according to the dictates of conscience. Many 
of the ancestors of those who first settled in this county, 
wliose lineal descendants still possess the lands pur- 
chased and improved by them, were beheaded, some 
beaten with many stripes, others mcarcerated, and some 

*Colonel Robert Hunter, appointed Governor of New York, 
arrived at that province, June 14, 1710, brought with him 3,000 
Palatines, who, in the previous year, had fled to England from 
tlie rage of persecution in Germany. Many of whom settled 
in the city of New York; others in Germantown, Livingston 
Manor, Columbia county, and others in Pennsylvania. — 
&mit)Cs New York, I. 123. 

Smith says "the Queen's liberality to these people was no 
mOie beneficial to them, than serviceable to the couQtry." 


banished from Switzerland. Of those who suffered, and 
who might be mentioned, were Hans Landis, at Zm-ich, 
in Switzerland, Hans Miller, Hans Jacob Hess, Rudolph 
Bachman, Ulrich Miller, Oswald Landis, Fanny Landis, 
Barbara Neff, Hans Meyhn and two of his sons — all 
these suffered between 1638 and 1643. 

JVIartin Meylin, son of Hans, was an eminent minister 
of the gospel of the Mennonite church, in the Palatinate 
and Alsace. His talents were above the mediocrity. — 
He rendered himself conspicuous as an Ecclesiastical 
writer ; his manuscripts on the sufferings of the Memio- 
nites of 1645, and other works of his, as well as those 
by Jeremiah Mantgalt, his colleague, were subsequently 
published, and are copiously quoted, by that voluminous 
writer, T. Von Bracht, author of the Maertyrer 

Those who emigrated to Pennsylvania had fled from 
the Cantons of Zurich, Bern, Shaflliausen, Switzerland, 
to Alsace, above Strasburg,* where they remained for 
some time, thence they came to the province of Penn- 

The offence of which they were guilty, bringing down 
"upon them so much suffering and persecution, was their 
non-conformity to what seemed to them, at least, a cor- 

*Many of the Mennonites fled from the Cantons of Zurich, 
Berne, Schatfhausen, &c., Switzerland— several edicts were 
issued forbidding them the free exercise of their religious 
opinions. One at Schaflfhausen, A. D. 1650. One was issued 
by the Prince of Ncwberg, A. D. 1653: in 1671, they were se- 
verely persecuted, and extensively dispersed. — BradiVs His- 
tory, p. 1019-102:3.— Erag-. Trans. 

Extract from a letter written by Jacob Evcrling in Obersuelt- 
xen, April 7, 1671: "In answer to the inquiry of your friends, 
touching the condition of our Swiss brethren in the department 
oi' Bern, it is an unvarnished fact, that they are in a distressed 


rupt practice, "To hear all manner of preaching." — 
They then had, and even at the present day, some have 
conscientious scruples in attending public worship with 
other religious assemblies. They also did, as they now 
do, openly discard the doctrine of self-defence and vio- 
lent resistance. They have been, and are still, opposed to 
war ; they believe it comports illy with the christian pro- 
fession to fight with carnal weapons. They have 
always been peaceable, and domestic in their habits. 
They ever cultivated the mild arts of peace, and trusted 
to their own domestic resources. 

The descendants of the Puritans boast that their an- 
cestors fled from the face of their persecutors, willing to 
encounter 'perils in the wilderness and perils by the 
heathen,' rather than be deprived, by the ruthless perse- 
cutor, of the free exercise of their religion. The descen- 
dants of the Swiss Mennonites, who, amid hardships and 
trials, made the first settlements among the tawny sons 
of the forest, in the west end of Chester county, can lay 
claun to more. Their ancestors did not seek for them- 
selves and theirs only, the unmolested exercise of faith, 
and the practice of worship ; but they in turn did not 

condition — four weeks since they had arrested near forty per- 
sons, male and female — one of them has since arrived at our 
place. They also whipped a minister of the word, took 
him out in the country as far as Burgundy — marked him with 
a branding iron, and let him go among the French ; but as he 
could not speak their language, he had to wander three days 
before he could get his wound dressed and obtain any refresh- 
ment, &c. — BracUVs His. p. 1022 

From the same, dated May 23d, 1761 : The persecution of 
our friends still continues in all its violence, so that we are as- 
tonished that they do not make greater haste to leave the 
country. One or two occasionally arrive here in a miserable 
condition; but the most of them stay above Strasburg, in 
Alsace ; some chopping wood, others labor in the vineyard, &c. 



persecute others, who differed from them in rehgious 
opinion. They plead for miiversal toleration, and their 
practice confirmed it. 

About the year 1706 or 1707, a number of the perse- 
cuted Swiss Mennonites went to England, and made a 
particular agreement with the Honorable Proprietor, 
William Penn, at London, for lands to be taken up."* — 
Several families, from the Palatinate, descendants of the 
distressed Swiss, emigrated to America and settled m 
Lancaster county in the year 1709."t 

The traditions, respecting the first visit to the place of 
subsequent settlement, are discrepant. From public 
documonts and some private papers in the possession of 
Abraham Meylin, and others, residing in West Lampe- 
ter township, we may confidently state that the Memio- 
nites commenced a settlement in 1709 or 1710, at the 
place where the Herr's and Meylins now reside, near 
Willow Street. 

A Swiss company, to emigrate to America, and settle 
in the wilderness, had been organized, but who the pro- 
jector of it was, we cannot state. The pioneers were 
Hans Meylin, his son Martini and John,§ Hans Herr, 
John Rudolph Bundcly, Martin Kendig, Jacob Miller, 

*Col. Rec. III. 397. 

f Iin Jahr 1709, kamcn elliche familien von der Pfalz wclche 
von den vertriebencn Schweizern abstammten und liessen 
sich nieder in Lancaster County — Benjamin Eby^s Geschichten 
dcr Mennoniten,p. 151. 


IMartin IMeylin, son of Hans Meylin, was the first gun-smith 
within the limits of Lancaster county ; as early as 1719, he 
erected a horing-mill, on what is known as Mcylin's run, on 
the farm now owned by Martin Meylin, West Lampeter town- 

^John Meylin connected himself with the Siehen Taeger, at 
Ephrata — he assumed the name ' Amos,' or '■Bruder Amos.^ 


Martin Oborholtz, Hans Funk, Michael Oborholtz, Wen- 
del Bowman and others, who came to Conestogo in 
1709, selected a tract of ten thousand acres of land on 
the north side of Pequae creek, and shortly afterwards, 
procured a warrant for the same. It is dated October 
10, 1710 — the warrant was recorded, and the land sur- 
veyed, the 23d of the same month- The 27th of April, 
1711, the Surveyor General, at the request of the first 
pui'chasers, subdivided the said ten thousand acres, 
"into so many parts as they had previously agreed 

It appears from tradition and other corroborating testi- 

ship. He was esteemed one of the most skilful workmen, m 
iron, of his day. He was an active, useful member of the new 
colony ; and transacted much of their business abroad. 

AVe here present a few copies of many papers in the pos- 
session of Abraham Meylin, Mill-wright, grandson of Martin 
Meylin, from which it will sufficiently appear that he transact- 
ed bnsiness abroad. 

In 1729, an act was passed to naturalize many of the Swiss 
and German settlers— April 14th, 1730 — Received of Martin 
Meylin £14, 4s. 6d. for the naturalization of seven persons. 

Samuel Bltjnston. 

In 1729, the fears of the government were excited, because 
the Germans adhered to each other, and used their own lan- 
guage exclusively; their emigration to this country was to be 
discouraged by passing an act to lay a duty of forty shillings per 
head on all aliens ! ! 

Received, September 29th, 1731, of Martin Meylin, £8, lis. 
8d. for passage and head money of John Eschellman. 

Thomas Laweence. 

Philadelphia, 17th, 3d mo., 1729— Received of Martin Mey- 
lin, £10, 18s. 8d. money of Pa., which with £9, formerly paid 
to me by James Dawson, is in full for the principal, interest 
and quit-rents, due to the proprietaries for 200 hundred acres 
of land near Conestogo, first granted and surveyed to the said 
James Dawson, but now in possession of said Martin Meylin. 

James Steel, Receiver General, 


mony, that by virtue of the agreement with William 
Perm, and permission from the Deputy Governor, Hon. 
Charles Gookm, they commenced making improvements; 
before a warrant had been issued, and that while some 
Avere felling trees, removing underbrush, building cabins, 
others went to Philadelphia to obtain a warrant for theii' 
choice tract of woods. The following documents 
strengthen the tradition to be correct in the main facts. 

"By the commissioners of property — Whereas we 
have" agreed with John Rudolph Bundely, Martin Ken- 
dig, Jacob Miller, Hans Hcrr, Martin Oborlioltz,, Hans 
Fmik, Michael Oborholtz and one Wendel Bowman. 
Swissers, lately arrived in this province, for ten thousand 
acres of land,* situate on the northwesterley side of a 
hill, about twenty miles easterly from Connystogoe, near 
the head of Pecquin creek, for which said land, they are 
to pay the sum of five hundred pounds, sterling money 
of Great Britain, in manner following: that is to say, the 
sum of one hundred pounds, part thereof in hands, at 
ye insuing of these presents, the sum of one hundred 
pounds more thereof (together with forty eight pounds,, 
like money, being the interest of four hundred pounds 

*It was part of Penn's policy to sell large tracts in one 
body, and under such restrictions as to induce families to unite 
in settlements. In a proclamation, concerning the treaty of 
land, dated in Old England, the 24th of the llth month, 1686, 
Penn declares, " Since there was no other thing I had in my 
eye in the settlement of this province, next to the advancement 
of virtue, than the comlortable situation of the inhabitants 
therein ; and for that end, with the advice and consent of the 
most eminent of the first purchasers, ordained that every town- 
ship, consisting of five thousand acres, should have ten fami- 
lies, at least, to the end the province might not lie like a wil- 
derness, &c." 

Those who purchased in large tracts were required by certain 


for two years) at the end of two years and six months, 
from the time of the survey of the said lands, (one-half 
year's interest of the whole being abated), one hundred 
and eighteen pounds fiuther, part thereof with interest, 
included within one year, then next after one hundred 
and twelve pounds (the mterest being mcluded) further 
part thereof, within one year, then next after, the sum of 
one hundred and six pounds full residue thereof, that of 
all interest for the same, within one year, that next fol- 
lowing, so that the said five hundred pounds and mterest, 
a^ aforesaid, is to be paid in six years next after the time 
of survey. And also that the said purchasers, their heirs 
and assigns, shall pay imto the proprietary and Governor 
William Penn, his heirs and assigns, the sum of one 
sliilling sterling aforesaid, quit-rent yearly forever, 
for every hundred acres of the said ten thousand 
acres of land, and that said purchasers shall have said 
lands free of quit-rent for the two first years next after 
the survey thereof, and the said purchasers requesting of 
us a warrant for the location and survey of the said land 
aforesaid. These are, therefore, to authorize and require 

concessions to plant a family within three years after it was 
surveyed, on every thousand acres. These regulations were, 
however, not generally observed. 

By warrant, dated, July 5, 1712, there were surveyed, Nov. 
1^ 1712, Pequea, now Strasburg township, for Amos Strettle, 
3380 acres, who afterwards sold it in smaller tracts; the prin- 
cipal persons to whom he sold, prior to 1731, were Henry 
Shank, Ulrich Brackbill, Augustine Widower,- Alexander 
Fridley, Martin Miller, George Snavely, Christian Musser, An- 
drew Shultz, John Fonts, Jacob Stein, John Hickman, John 
Bowman, Valentme Miller, Jacob Hain, John Hcrr, Henry 
Carpenter, Daniel Ferree, Isaac Lefevre, Christian Stoner, 
John Beiers, Hans Lein, Abraham Smith, John Jacob Hoover, 
Septimus Robinson, Samuel Hess, Samuel Boyer, John 


thee to survey or cause to be surveyed, unto the said 
purchasers the full quantity of ten thousand acres of 
land (with reasonable allowance for roads and highways) 
in one entire tract, at or near the place aforesaid,- and to 
subdivide the same (if they request it) into so many 
small tracts or parts as they shall agree or appoint to 
each of them his respective share to be holden by the 
purchasers, their heirs and assigns, under the rents, pay- 
ments and agreements aforesaid, subject to distress for 
the said rent in case of non-payment, and of thy trans- 
actions and doings in the premises, by virtue of these 
presents thou art to make such returns into the Secretary's 
office, with all reasonable expedition. Given mider our 
hands and seals of the province, the tenth day of the 
eight month at Philadelphia, A. D. 1710. 

To Jacob Taylok, Surveyor General. 
Warrant Book, 1700—1714, p. 229. 

On the 23d of October, the land was surveyed and di- 
vided among the Meylins, Herr, Keiidig, and others of 
the company. 

Having erected temporary shelters, to answer their 
wants, some set about it, and put up dwellings of more 
durableness. Martin Kendig erected one of hewed wal- 
nut logs on his tract, which withstood the storms and 
rain — the gnawings of the tooth of time, for rising of one 
hundred and ten years, and might, had it not been re- 
moved in 1841, and its place taken up by one of more 
durable materials, have withstood the corroding elements 
for generations to come. They now began to build 


houses and add new acquisitions of lands to their first 

To depend upon their Indian neighbors for provisions, 
wa5 useless — the Indians depended mainly upon game 
and fish — of course, the supplies of provision were 
scanty, and what they had they were under necessity to 
transport from a distant settlementt for some time, till 
the seeds sown in a fertile soil, yielded some thirty, 
others forty fold. Fish and fowl were plenty in the 
wilds. The season of their arrival was favorable — 
around them they saw crowned the tall hazel with rich 
festoons of a luscious grape. J 

*Martin Kendig, lately an inhabitant of Switzerland, had 
surveyed him a tract of land in Strasburg township, 1060 acres, 
bounded by lands of Martin Meylin, Christian Herr, and John 
Funk. Another tract of 530 acres, bounded by John Herr's 
land. Another of 265 acres. — Recorded Sept. 1711 

Christopher Franciscus, of Switzerland, 530 acres, bounded 
by lands of Jacob Miller, Wendel Bowman, John Rudolph 
Bundely— in 1710, John Funk 530 acres, bounded by lands of 
Martin Kendig, Jacob Miller.— Surveyed Feb. 28, 1711. John 
Rudolph Bundely, late of Switzerland, 500 acres, bounded by 
lands of Wendel Bowman, Surveyed, 1710, and Martin Mey- 
lin, 265 acres. Christian Herr, 530 acres, John Herr, 530 acres, 
all recorded July 3, 1711. Wendel Bowman 530 acres, re- 
corded July 7, 1711. The warrants for all the above tracts are 
dated 1710. 

tTheir nearest mill was at Wilmington, on the Brandywine,. 

t"Of living creatures, fish, fowl, and the beasts of the wood,, 
here^ are dirers sorts, some for food and profit, and some for 
profit only ; for. food and profit, the elk, as big as a small ox ; 
deer, bigger than ours; beaver, raccoon, rabbits, squirrels and 
some eat young bear, and commend it. Of fowl of the land, 
there is the turkey, (forty and fifty pounds weight) which is 
very great; pheasants,. heath-birds, pigeons and partriges, in. 

80 HI8T0BT or 

After they had been scarce fairly seated, they thought 
of their old homes, their country and friends — they 
sighed for those whom they left for a season; "They 
reynembered them that were in bonds as bound with them 
aiid which suffered adversity," and ere the earth began 
to yield a return in ^^ kindly fruit s,^^ to their labors, con- 
sultations were held and measures devised, to send som» 
one to their Vaterland, to bring the residue of some of 
their families; also their kindred and brothers in a land 
of trouble and oppression, to their new home ; into a 
land where peace reigned, and abundance of the comforts 
af life could not fail ; they had strong faith in the fruit- 
fulness and natural advantages of their choice of lauds. 
Tliey knew these would prove to them and their children^, 
the home of plenty — tlieir anticipations have never, 

A council of the whole society was called ; at whidi- 
their venerable minister and pastor, Hans Herr, pre- 
sided, and after fraternal and free interchange of senti- 
ment, much consultation and serious reflection, lots, in 
conformity to the custom of the INIennonites, were cast, 

abundance, &c. Of fish, sturgeon, herring, rock, shad, cats- 
head, eel, trout, salmon, &c. 

The fruits that I find in the woods, are the white and black 
mulberry, chesnut, walnut, plums, strawberries, cranberries, 
hurlleberries, and grapes of divers sorts. The great red grape, 
called by ignorance, the fox-grape." — Penn's letter to the Fre» 
Society of traders, at London, dated Philadelphia, the \%th August,., 

Well might the poet say, 

" Quaevis sylva feria, et piscibus amnis abundat;. 
Fertque suum I'ructus quaelibet arbor onus. 
With beasts the woods, with fish the streams abound ; , 
The bending trees witij plenteous fruits are crowned." 



to decide who should retiirn to Europe for the families^ 
left behind and others. The lot fell upon Hans Herr, who' 
had left five sons, Christian, Emanuel, John, Abraham 
and one, whose name we have not learned.* This deci- 
sion was agreeable to his own mind ; but to his friends 
and charge, it was unacceptable; to be separated von 
ihrem prediger, from their preacher, could be borne with 
reluctance and heaviness of heart only. They were all 
too ardently attached to him to cheerfully acquiesce in 
tliis dttermination — ^reluctantly they consented to his 
departure — after much anxiety manifested on account of 
this unexpected call of their pastor from them; their sor- 
rows were alleviated by a proposal made on the part of 
Martin Kendig, that, if approved, he would take Hans 
Herr's place — this was cordially assented to by all. — 
Without unnecessary delay, Martin, the devoted friend of 
tJie colony, made ready — Avent to Philadelphia, and there 
embarked for Em'ope ; after a prosperous voyage of five 
or six weeks, he reached the home of his friends, where 
he was received with apostolic greetmgs and salutations 
of joy. Having spent some time in preliminary arrange- 
ments, he and a company of Swiss and some Ger- 
mans, bade a lasting adieu to their old homes, and dis- 
solved the tender ties of friendship with those whom 
they left. With his company, consisting of the residue 
of some of those in America, and of Peter Yordea, Jacob 
Miller, Hans Tschantz, Henry Funk, John Houser, John 
Bachman, Jacob Weber, Sclilegel, Venerick, Guldhi, and 
others, he returned to the new home, where they were all 
cordially embraced by their fathers and friends. 

•Three of Hans Herr's sons settled in what is now called 
West Lampeter township, and two in Manor township ; from 
these sprang a numerous connexion of Herrs; rising of one 
hundred and fifty of that name, descendants of Hans Herr, are 
taxables, residing within the present limits of the county. 


With this accession, the settlement was considerably 
augmented, and now numbered about thirty families; 
though they lived m the midst of the Mingoe or Cones- 
togo, Pequae and Shawanese Indians, they were ne^er-- 
theless safely seated ; they had nothing to fear from the 
Indians.* They mingled with them in fishing and hunt-- 
ing. "The Indians were hospitable and respectful to the 
whites, and exceedingly civil." 

This little colony improved their lands, planted 
orchards,! erected dwellings, and a meeting and school- 
house for the settlement, in which religious instruction, 
on the Sabbath, and during the week, a knowledge of 
letters, reading and writing, were given to those who 

♦The Honorable Chas. Gookin, Esq., Lieut. Gov. of Pa» 
made a journey to Conestogo, and in a speech to the Indians, 
June 18th, 1711, says, "He intends to present five belts of 
wampum to the Five Nations, and one to you, of Conestogo, 
and requires your friendship to the PalatiTies, settled near 

To which they answer, "That they are well pleased with the- 
Governor's speech » * » " As to the Palatines, they are in 
their opinion safely seated." — Col. Rec. II. p. 556-7. 

The several nations of Indians,. living on the Susquehanna 
at this time, were Mingoes, or those of the Conestogo, Dela- 
ware Indians settled at Peshtang, above Conestogo, and other 
adjacent places, and Ganawese. " The Piquaws had their 
wigwams scattered along the banks of the Pequea." — Col, 
Rec. II. 489. 

fSome of the first planted fruit trees may yet be seen on the 
farm of Christian Herr, great grandson of Hans Herr. There 
we saw a cherry tree in full vigor, which, it is said, is rising of 
one hundred and twenty years old. We measured it, and, 
found it 15 feet and 4 feet inches in circumference. Also a 
a Catalpa, Bignonia catalpa, which was transplanted by 
Christian Ilcn^'s mother; it measures fifteen feet in cir-- 


assembled to receive information. The Mennonites 
never wasted money in rearing stately temples, or in 
building massive colleges, in which to impart nseful 
knowledge. They ever observed it religiously, to have 
their children instructed in reading and writing, at least, 
since the days of Menno Simon, the great reformer, and 
to bring them up in habits of industry, and teaching 
them such trades as were suitable to their wants, expe- 
dient and adapted to their age and constitution."* Their 
sons and daughters were kept under strict parental au- 
thority, and as a consequence, were not led into tempta- 
tions by which so many youths, of both sexes, at the 
present day, are rained. 

Their religious meetings and schools were for a long 
time held in the same rude buildings. Among their first 
preachers were Hans Herr, Hans Tschantz, Ulrich Brech- 
bill,t who was accidentally killed, while driving liis 
team on the road to Philadelphia. Their ministers were 
men of sound minds, of irreproachable conversation. — 
lu tliis country, the Mennonite ministers, especially in 
this county, are not, in the parlance of the age, classi- 
cally educated. " In Europe, at Amsterdam, the jNIenno- 
iiites have a college, in which all the useful branches are 
taught. Students of Theology receive instruction in a 

*"Haltetund foerdert die kindern zu lesen und schreibeo ; 
lehret sic spinnen and andere Haende \TOrkthun, was ihren 
Jahren und personen nach fueglich, nuetzlich, ertraeglich und 
bequem isL" — Menno Simon. 

fl739, October den 19ten, Ulrich Breckbill, ein diener der 
gemeinde ist auf der Philadelphia Slrasse, mit seinera wagen 
ploetzlich umgekommen. — Meylin's Family Bible. 

(^Samuel Miller, son of Jacob Miller, was the first child 
•born in the Swiss Colony; he was born January 22, 1711. 

Jacob Miller, Samuel's father, was born in Europe, 1663, 
came to America, in 1710, died the 20tb April, 1739— interred 

84 HISTORY or 

room, containing the library, over the Mennonite Chapel. 
The lectui'es are delivered in Latm ; and each student, 
before his entrance, must be acquainted with Latin and 
Greek. They attend at a literary institution for instruc- 
tion in Hebrew, Ecclesiastical History, Physics, Natural 
and Moral Philosophy, &c. The college was established 
nearly a century ago, and was at first supported by the 
Amsterdam Memionites, alone ; but lately, other Men- 
nonite churches sent in their contributions. Some of the 
students receive support from a public fimd ; they are all 
intended for the christian ministry." — Dr Ypeij. 

in Tschantz's burying ground, now on the farm, owned by 
Doctor Martin Musser. 

Barbara Meylin, consort of Martin Mcylin, was born in the 
year 1672; after living twenty -four years in matrimony, she 
died April 2d 1742, aged 70 years. 

Hans Meylin, born in 1714, died at the age of 19 years, the 
26th of December, 1733 — all interred in Tschantz's grave-yard. 
Preacher Tschantz set apart from his farm two hundred and 
fifty-six perches for the purposes of a grave-yard. Released 
all personal claim thereto in 1740, for the use of the neighbor- 

Note. — Menno Simon, one of the distinguished reformers of 
the sixteenth century, a man whose apostolic spirit and labors 
have never yet been fully appreciated, was born at Witmar- 
sum, in Friesland, 1.505. In 1.528 he entered in*o orders as a 
Romish Priest; but after examining the New Testament for 
himself, he seceded from that sect. 

About the year 1-537, he was earnestly solicited by many of 
the christians with whom he connected himself, to assume 
among them the rank and functions of a public teacher; and 
as he looked upon these brethren as being exempt from the 
fanatical phrensy of the Munstcrites, he yielded to their en- 
treaties. Their community was greatly scattered till 1536, 
about that time they obtained a regular state of church order, 
separate from all Dutch and German Protestants, who, at that 
time, had not been formed into one body by any bonds of 


A settlement having begun, forming the nucleus of a 
neighborhood or community of neighbors, German and 
French settled around them; among these were the 
Ferree family, Daniel Ferree and his sons; Isaac Le- 
fevre,* Slaymaker and others, of whom a particular ac- 
coimt will be given in the sequel. Every new country, 

unity. This advantage was procured them by the sensible and 
prudent management of that champion in Protestanism, Menno 
Simon. This wise, learned and prudent man, as said before, 
was chosen by them as their leader, that they might by his 
paternal effortsv in the eyes of all Christendom, be cleared 
from the blame which some of the Munsterites had incurred, 
and which the enemies of the friends of Menno laid to their 
charge. Menno accomplished this object — some of the per- 
fectionists he reclaimed to order, and others he excluded. He 
purified also the religious doctrines of the Baptists. He was 
indefatigable in labors — he founded many communities, viz: — 
in Friesland, Holland^ Groningen, East Friesland, Brabant — 
on the borders of the Baltic Sea — in Germany, in the Palati- 
nate, in Alsace, Bavaria, Suabia, Switzerland, Austria, Mora- 
via, &c. He suffered tnore persecution, and endured more 
fatigue, than all the rest of the reformers of his day-^he died 
the death of the righteous, at Fresenburg, January 31st, 1551. 

*" William 'Penu', Proprietor, &c. — Whereas my late com- 
missioners of property, by a warrant bearing date the 10th 
October, 1710, granted unto John Rudolph Bundely, Hans 
Herr, and divers other Germans, late inhabitants in or 
near the Palatinate of the Rhine, 10,000 acres of land, to be 
laid out by them on the north side of a hill about twenty miles 
easterly of Conestogo, and near the head of Pequea creek, in 
this province, by Virtue of which warrant there was surveyed 
and subdivided, at the instance of the said Martin Kendig, for 
the use of Daniel Ferree and Isaac J^efevre, late of Steinmeis- 
ter, in the Palatinate of the Rhiiie, a certain tract of land, situ- 
ated and bounded by lands of Thomas Story, &:c., two thousand 
acres."— iJecorJt'cZ July 12lh, 1712. 


it is believed, has had its man of ^^ notoriety^ ^ — Ken- 
tucky had a Boone — Peqiiae, a Franciscus.* 

Not to deviate too far from a chronological order, we 
shall now present Governor Gookin's minutes of. a 
journey in 1711, to the Indians in the vicinage of the 
Palatines; such the Mennonite settlement was called. 

On information received from Peter Bezallion, that the 
Queen and some of the chiefs of the Conestogo Indians, 
would be glad to see the Governor and some of the 
council, touching the death of one Le Tore, who it ap- 
pears, had been killed before Gookin's arrival in America, 
and to have a talk with some of the chiefs of the Five 
Nations, who were waiting ; he and some of the coun- 
cil proceeded to Conestogo. The following is a copy of 
the journal, which was laid before the council at a ses- 
sion, Jime 23, 1711. 

"t/^/ Conestogo, June 18, 1711. 
Present: — The Hon. Charles Gookin, Esq., Lieut. 
Governor, and Joseph Growdon, Richard Hill, Griffith 
Owen, Caleb Pusey, Esq., council. 

*Christopher Franciscus Wcus an adventurous Swiss, and one 
of the first settlers in the county. It is said the current of dar- 
ing runs in the blood of the Franciscuses. His sons, after him, 
and his son's sons, and grandson's sons have, since the old 
man's day, been known as stoict men. They made many "a 
fellow'' cry out, in the language of Terence, auribus teneo lu- 
pum, i.e./ know not which way to turn, as said the wolf when 
Franciscus hugged him. 

Of Daniel Boone, the Kentucky adventurer, it is said, he 
slew a bear; of Franciscus and his daughter, it is related, they 
eviscerated a wolt, with a similar weapon, a butcher-knife. — 
We give the traditional story as wo have it from one who as- 
.sures us, it is true. While Francis, one evening in the fall of 
the year, was reclining on his bed, and the rest of the family 
having all retired, except a daughter, who was about " laying 


A present of 50 pounds of powder, 1 piece of Stroud- 
water, 1 piece of Duffils, 100 pounds of shot — being 
laid upon the floor, the Governor, by Indian Harry, the 
Interpreter thus spolie : 

Governor Penn, upon all occasions, is willing to show 
how great a regard he bears to you, therefore has sent 
this small present, a forerunner of a greater one to 
come next spring, to you, and hath required me to ac- 
quaint you that he is about to settle some people upon 
the branches of the Potomack, and doubts not but the 
same mutual friendship which has all along as brothers 
passt betwixt the inhabitants of this Government and 
you, will also continue betwixt you and those he is about 
to settle ; he intends to present five belts of wampum to 
the Five Nations, and one to you of Conestogo, and 
requires your friendship to the Palatines, settled near 

To which they answer : 

That they are extremely well pleased with the Go- 

her head on the ear," fhe father heard a noise at the cabin's 
door, he went and opened it, at that instant a wolf seized him 
by the breast of his jacket — Franciscus hugged him tightly — 
called to his daughter to bring the butcher-knife and rip open 
the beast — she did — and the wolf was butchered. 

The place where the wolf was slain, is marked by the head of 
a fine spring, near Lampeter Square, where Daniel Zimmerman, 
who bought of Franciscus, erected a substantial sandstone 
house in 1750. Daniel was the son of Henry Zimmerman, or 
Carpenter, a Swiss patriot, of whom we shall have occasion to 
speak hereafter. 

Col. Bouquet, a Swiss, in the English service during the 
French and Indian War, visited Daniel Zimmerman, in 1758, 
while his detachment of men was quartered at Lancaster. 

John Miller, grandfather of Jacob Miller, who communi- 
cated these facts, raised one Paulus, who was Bouquet's driver 
— he drove what B. called miin roth wagdii. 


vernor's speech ; but as they are at present m war with 
the Toscororoes and other Indians, they thihk that place 
not safe for any christians, and are afraid if any damage 
sliould happen to these the blame may be laid wpou 
them, ihat settlement being situated betwixt them and 
tliose at war witli them. As to the Palatines, they are-, 
in their opinion, safely seated, but earnestly desire that 
the death of Le Tore may be nov/ adjusted, for thaJ 
they shall not thinlv themselves safe till it is.''' 

July ISth, Tuesday about twelve. 

The Senoquois and Shawnois met the Governor and 
Council, Opessah, chief of the Shawnois, by Martin 
Cliartier, interpreter, thus spoke : 

Were it posssible for us by presents, or any other way, 
to atone for the lives of these young men, our young 
people unadvisedly slew, we would be partly willing to 
make satisfaction, and such a condcscention would for- 
ever be gratefully remembered and more eagerly engage 
us, and for the future render us more careful. The 
uneasiness we had on that accomit was such that we 
could not sleep until the last time the Governor and 
his people were up here, and which time we had some 
hopes given us of adjusting the matter, since the 
murderers arc all dead, save one, who is gone to 

To which the Governor answered: 

That the laws of England were such that whosoever 
killed a man must run the same fate ; yet considering the 
previous cicriunstances lo that murder, the length of 
the time since the account, the distance of place where 
acted from this Government, and before my coming here, 
and the persons all, save one, who is absconded since, 
are dead, I am willing to forbear further prosecution on 
enquiring into it, but withal caution you if any such 


thing hea-eafter falls out, you may be assured I shall as 
well know how to do justice, as I have now showed you 
mercy, for which they return the Governor their hearty 
thanks, and Opessah assures that if hereafter any such 
thing should happen, he himself would be executioner, 
and burn them that should dare do it. 

The Senequois acquaint : 

That Opessah being thereto solicited by John Hans 
Steelman, had sent out some of his people, either to 
bring back or kill Francis De Le Tore and his company. 
Op&ssah, he affirms he was entirely iimocent, for that 
John Hans came to his cabin, where he and his young 
people, who were there going a hunting, were in coun- 
cil, told him that some of his slaves and dogs (meaning 
Le Tore and company) were fled, therefore desired him 
forthwith to send some of his people to bring them back 
or kill them, and take goods for their trouble, at which 
motive Opessah being surprised, told him that he ought, 
by no means, to discourse after that manner before yoimg 
people who were going to the woods, and might, 
by accident, meet those people, and therefore ordered 
him to desist, utterly denying his request. 

The Senoquois also acquainted the Governor that Le 
Tore had taken a boy from them and had sold 
him at New York, and requested the Governor 
would enquire after him, that he might hear from him 



Fcrrce family make preparations to emigrate to America — Procure certi^. 
cales of civil and religious standing — By vvay of Holland and England 
come to IS'cw York — Acquire the rights of citizenship — Settle in Lan- 
caster county — Several documents of interest — Tradition of the ancestors 
of the Ferrees, by Joel Lightncr, Esc^. — Tuscorora Indians unite with the 
Five Natioiis. 

About the year 1709, as stated in a preceding chapter, 
a large emigration from the Lower Palatinate to the 
British colonies, took place. Among these were the well 
known names, besides those mentioned in the last chap- 
ter, of Weigand, Fisher, Kennan, Volck, Plettel, Gulch, 
Hubertson, Schaneman, Lefever, Ferree and others, as 
they are at present spelled. Some of them located them- 
selves and became permanent inhabitants of what is now 
Lancaster comity. It is certain that the Ferrees and Le- 
fevers, who were what was called Walloons, did settle 
and improved lands, taken up by JNIartin Kendig,* 
which was part of ten thousand acres previously pur- 
chased from the proprietary's conmiissioners, by him, a 
meml.ier of a Swiss company; and it is both hiteresting 
and instructive to see with what carefulness and regard 
for their own characters, both as citizens and christians 
for the good opinion of the world, these sterling people 

*"At a meeting of the commissioners Sept. 10, 1712 
— the late commissioners having granted 10,000 acres of 
land to the Palatines, by their warrant dated Gth, 8th, 
1710, in pursuance thereof there was laid out to Martin Kendig, 
besides the 2,000 acres already confirmed and paid for, the like 
quantity of 2,000 acres, towards Susquehanna, of which the 
General Surveyor has made a return. The said Martin Ken- 
dig now appearing desirous that the said land may be granted 


conducted their removal from their former, and th€ set- 
tlement in their new homes. 

There is httle similarity between the proceedings of 
these progenitors of some of our good old fashioned 
Lancaster comity farmers, and those of the flitting popiu- 
lation of the present day. The latter in their inconsid- 
ered removals only seem desirous of can-ying with them 
as large an amomit as possible of this world's wealth, 
regardless of any other proof of respectability, and 
trusting to it to make way for them in all the pm-suits 
and relations of life. By way of contrast, and of gain- 
ing instruction from the actions of our ancestors, we 
shall present a somewhat detailed accomit of the ro- 
moval and settlement of a particular family. 

Owin? to French incm-sions into the Palatinate and 
Other oppressions of a rehgious nature, the family of the 
Ferrees turned to seek a home in the new world, about 
the beginning of the last century, when thousands came 
to America. Its members were Daniel Ferree, his 
widowed mother, (the wife of Daniel Ferree deceased) 
his wife and their two sons, Andrew and John. The 
first step as good citizens was to obtain the consent 
of their country to their departure, as appears by the 
following original document. 

and confirmed to Maria Warenbuer, for whom the same was 
taken up, or intended, and who is to pay the consideration of 
it. But upon further consideration of the matter, it is agreed 
among themselves that the said land shall be confirmed to 
Daniel Fierre and Isaac Lefevre,j; two of the said widow's sons, 
and the consideration money, viz : £140 at £7 per 100 acres, 
by agreement having been for some time due, but is now to be 
paid down in one sum. 'Tis agreed they shall only pay £10 
for interest, that is £150 for the whole. '^ 

(t Isaac Lefevre was her son-in law.) 

92 HISTORY 07 

Demnach Maria, Daniel Fuehre's Wittib, mit ihreni 
sohn Daniel Fiiehrc, dessen Eheweib imd noch andem 
sechs ledigen Kindcrn, ihrer hoffenden Besscmng, Gele- 
genheit und Wohlfahrts willen, von Steinweiler aus der 
ober Schultheiserey Bittigheim, dcs Churpfaeltzischcn 
oberamls Gormcrshcim, auf die insul Pcnnsylvanien per 
Holland luid Engclland sich zubegeben imd allda zu 
wohncn vorhabcn, und dahero urn ein beglaiibtiges 
Certifikat, dasz sic init vorwissen von dem ort Stein- 
weiler geschicden und sich gewaehrter ihrer wohnungs- 
zeit vertraeglich und ohne klag verhalten, auch niemand 
mit schulden verwandt, dcsglcichen keiner leibeigen- 
schaft zugethan,. gebuehrend angesucht: als hat man 
denselbcn ihr suchen and bitten willfahren, anbey imver- 
haltcn woUen, dasz obgedachte leute ganz offenbar von 
hier wegziehen, waehrendcr zcit als ilu- vatcr, die wittib 
und kinder in mchrgedacliten Steinweiler gewolmt, sich 
fromm und ehrbarlich verhalten, dasz man sie gern laen- 
ger all hier und der ortcn gcschen hactte. So sind sie 
auch der leibeigenschaft nicht unterworfen, massen die 
ober sciniltheiserey Bittigheim, worin Steinweiler gelegen 
freyzuegig; auch haben sie ihrem gcbuehrenden abzug 
Oder naclisteur fuer gnaedigste herrschaft hinterlasson : 
von schulden, damit sie andern verwandt seyn sollen,hat 
man nichts vernommen, als schultheis Hr. Fischer in 
Steinweiler, Avelcher expresse deswegen gehoert worden, 
zeugniss alles dessen giebt. Dessen in urkund habe ich 
dieses in abwesenlieit Churpfaclzischen regiermigs rath, 
obcramtmann und gemcinschacft Gudenberg, Fauthe zu 
Altenstatt uiid ober schultheis allhier Ilerr von Cmi aiLS- 
gefertiget und den aus diescr nothdurft behacndiget. — 
Siege] Bittigheim den lOten Martii, 170S. 

[Sicgcl.] J. P. DIETRICH, Grejffier. 


Translation. — Whereas Maria, Daniel Fuehre's (Fe- 
ries') widow, and her son Daniel Ferie with his wife and 
other six single children, in view of improving their 
condition and in furtherance of their prosperity, purpose 
to emigrate from Steinweiler in the mayoralty of Bittig- 
heim, High Bailiwick Germersheim, via Holland and 
England, to the island of Pennsylvania, to reside there, 
they have requested an accredited certificate that they 
left the town of Steinweiler with the Imowledge of the 
proper authorities, and have deported themselves peacea- 
bly and witliiout cause for censure, and are mdebted to no 
one, and not subject to vassalage, l>eing duly solicited, it 
has been thought proper to grant then* petition, declaiing 
tliat the above named persons are not moving away 
clandestinely — that during the time their father, the 
widow and children resided in this place they behaved 
Uiemselves piously and honestly — that it woujd have 
been highly gratifying to us to see them remain among 
us — that they are not subject to bodily bondage, the 
mayoralty not being subject to vassalage — they have 
also paid for their permission to emigrate ; Mr. Fischer, 
tlie mayor of Steinweiler being expressly interrogated, 
it has been ascertained that they are not liable for any 
debts. In witness whereof, I have, in the absence of 
tlie counsellor of tire Palatinate, &c., signed these 
presents, gave the same to the persons who intended to 
emigrate. Dated Bittigheim, March 10th, 170S. 

[L. &] J. P. DIETRICH, Court Clerk. 

Next, as christians, they obtained a certificate of their 
religious standing from the proper church officer's, even 
to a statement of the time and place of the christian 
baptism of their young children. No doubt they es- 
teemed the following, which was thus obtamed, as the 

94 HisToar of 

most valuable article among their possession. We 
present the original and a translation. 

Temoignage pour Daniel Firre et sufianilk. 

Nous Pasteur, Anciens ct Diacres de PEglise Re- 
fomiee, Vallonne de Pelican au has Palatinat ayants este 
prie par I'honorable Daniel Firre, sa femme Anne Marie 
Leininger, et leurs enfants, Andrie et Jean Firre, de leur 
accordir mi temoignage de leur vie et religion, certifions 
et attcstons quils out toutjours fait profession de la pure 
Relision Reform-ce, frequente nos saintes assemblees, 
et participe a la cene du Seigneur avec les autres fidcles : 
Au reste lis se sont toutjours comporte honnestement 
sans avoir donne aucun scandale qui soit venu en notre 
connoissance : Estants maintenant sur leur depart, pour 
ses establir aillems, nous les recommendons a laguarde 
de Dieu et a la bienveillance do tons nos freres en 
Seign: Xt: En foy de quoy nous avons signe ce present 
temoignage de nos signes et marques accustumees: fait a 
Pelican en nostre consistoire le 10 de JNIais, 1708. 

J. ROMAN, Pasteur et Inspccteur, 

Les cnfans sus noma a scavoir, Andrie et Jean Firre 
out esti Raptistcs, le premier dans I'Eglisc de Stcmviler 
i'an. 1701, le 2S me de Septembre: son parain estoit 
Andrie Leininger et sa Maricc Margarithc Leininger, 
L'autre cc scavoir Jean a este Baptize dans I'Eglisc de 
Rliorbac, I'an. 1703, le 8 me de fevricr: le parain 
estoit Abraham PiilUon et Judith Mille tons deux de 


Certificate for Daniel Firre arid his family. 
Translation. — We, the Pastor, Elders and Deacons 
-of tlie Reformed Walloon Church of Pelican, in the 
Lower Palatinate, having been requested by the Hon- 
orable Daniel Firre, his wife Anne Maria Leininger 
and their children Andrew and John Firre, to grant 
tliem a testimonial of their life and rehgion, do certify 
and attest that they have always made profession of the 
pure Reformed religion, frequented our sacred assemblies, 
and have partaken of the supper of the Lord with the 
otiier members of the faith: in addition to which they 
have always conducted themselves uprightly without 
having given any cause for scandal, that has come to 
our knovdedge : being now on their departure to settle 
elsewhere, we commend them to the protection of God, 
and to the kindness of all our brethren in the Lord 
Christ In witness of which we have signed this 
present testimonial, with our signatures and usual 
marks. Done at Pelican in our consistory, the 10th of 

May, 1708. 


J. RO]MAN, Pastor and Inspector, 
The undernamed children, to wit : Andrew and John 
Firre were baptized, the first in the church of Stein- 
weiler in the year 1701, on the 2Sth of September: his 
sponsors were Andrew Leininger and his wife Margaret 
Leininger : the other, to wit : Jolm was baptized in the 
church of Rhorbac, in the year 1703, on the 8th of 
February^- the sponsors were Abraham Ptillioo and 
Judith Miller, both of Steinweiler. 

Note.— -It was customary among the Reformed to procure a 
church certificate before leaving their Vateriand. 

&6 HISTORY or 

Haying openly and lionestly adjusted their affairs 
previous to their departure, they bade adieu to their old 
and endeared home, this family, via Holland and 
England" made their way to the 7ieiv 7voi'ld-, where they 
an-ived, sometime in 1709, in the city of New York. — 
Having arrived, and being pleased with the country, 
iJieir next step was to acquire the rights of citizenship 
from the proper authority. The following letters patent, 
under the Privy seal of Queen Anne will show they 
were successful in their application, and will be read 
with interest by the descendants of all named in it. 

Anne, by the grace of God, of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, Queen, defender of faith, &c. To whom all these 
presents may come, Imow ye that we for good causes 
and considerations especially moving us hereunto by 
om- special grace, moving us thereunto, do grant for our- 
selves, our heirs and successors to onr beloved Joshua 
Rocherthal, Sybella Charlotte, his wife, Christian Joshua 
his son, and Sybella and Susanna his daughters, Law- 
rence Schwisser, and Ann Catharine his wife, and John 

♦According to the statements of R. Conyngham, Esq., a man 
of erudition and well known as one of more than ordinary re- 
search into Historrcal facts, Mary, the mother of Daniel Ferree, 
accompanied by her children, and armed with a spirit of reso- 
lution superior to her sex, went to London, from Ihence to 
Kensington, whore William Penn resided, to be near Queen 
Anne, of whom he was deservedly a favorite. Madame 
Ferree made her wishes known to him : William Penn sympa- 
lhi7.ed with her in her misfortunes and became interested for 
her and her children, and ne.xt day introduced her to Queen 

The Queen was delighted in thus being afforded an opportu- 
nity to display the natural feelings of her heart. Lodgings 
were obtained for Madame Ferree in the vicinity until a vessel 
was ready to sail for New York. — Redmond Conyngham's 
Address of July Ath, Ib-l'J. 


liis son, Henry Rennau, and Johanna his wife, and Law- 
rence and Henry his sons, Susanna Lisboschain, and 
Mary Johanna Lisboschain; Andrew Volk, and Ann 
Catharine his wife, and George Heeronimus his son, and 
]\Iary Barbara, and Ann Gertrtraude his daughters, Mi- 
chael Weigand, Ann Catharine his wife, Tobias and 
George his sons, Ann Mary his daughter, Jacob Weber, 
and Ann Elisabeth his wife, and Eve Elisabeth, and 
Eve Mary his daughters, John Jacob Plettel, Ann Elisa- 
beth his wife, and Margaret, Ann, Sarah and Catharine 
his daughters, John Fisher, and Mary Barbara his wife, 
Melchior Gulch, Ann Catharine his wife, Henry his son, 
and Magdalen his daughter, Isaac Twek, Peter Rose and 
Joannah his wife, Mary Wemarin, and Catharine We- 
marin his daughters, Isaac Feber*- Catharine his ivife, 
and Mrahain his son, Daniel Firre, Ann Mary his 
wife and Andrew and John his sons, Hubert Hubert- 
son, and Jacob his son, and Harman Schuneman ; 
which persons are truly German Lutherans; and who 

^Undoubtedly Isaac Le Fevre who had married Catharine, 
the daughter of Mary Ferree, and who settled within the limits 
of this county at the time Daniel Ferree did. According to Mr. 
Conyngham's statement, "Isaac Le Fevre was born in 1669, 
and in 1686, came to Philadelphia from Esopus. He married 
Catharine soon after her arrival." He was but a youth when 
he left his fays naiaZ, Fatherland. Mr. C. in an eloquent ad- 
dress on the Early Settlement of the Valley of Pequea, delivered 
July 4, -1842, speaking of the Ferree family, says : "And nozo 
let me turn your attention to a youth of fourteen : his parents 
had perished in the religious wars which had desolated France 
— an oi'phan — friendless — he travelled through Holland— went 
to London — came to Kensington where he made known his in- 
tentions to William Penn. Alone 1 oh no ! he had one com- 
panion — it was his consolator in Europe — 'it was his comforter 
in Pcnnsylv-ania^— that companion was his Bible. That young 
lad was Isaac Le Fevre. That Bible is still preserved by the 
family of Le Fevres as a most precious relic.'' 



being reduced to extreme poverty by the frequent 
French incursions into the Palatinate in Germany, lately 
have fled for refuge to this oiu* Kingdom of Great 
Britain, and further have gone to live in our province of 
New York, in America, and therefore they shall and 
will be esteemed as natural born subjects and reputed as 
£uch by our heirs and successors of this our Kingdom of 
Great Britain, and their heirs respectively shall and will 
be esteemed as such by cur heirs and successors, and 
their heirs shall and v/ill be dealt with, reputed and 
governed as such, as the rest of our faithful subjects of 
this our Kingdom of Great Britain, and they shall be so 
esteemed in every place and jurisdiction under this our 
crown of Great Britain, and shall be lawfull for them or 
their heirs respectively in all actions of what kindsover 
they may be to pursue for and enter complauit in and 
about the same in whatsoever place or jurisdiction they 
may be in or under in this our Kingdom of Great Britain, 
and elsewhere, under our Government to have, exercise, 
use and enjoy the full privilege of making answer and 

The descendants of Isaac Lc Fcvre are numerous and res*- 
pectable in this county ; and many of them are settled in va*- 
;ious parts of Pennsylvania, and other states. Isaac had four 
sons and two daughters — Abraham, Philip, Daniel, Samuel, 
Mary and Esther. Philip, the second son, was a gunsmith, 
settled on a farm now owned by George Meek, and by Henry 
Le Fever, both lineal descendants. Philip, had four sons and 
four daughters; Isaac, . George, Adam, Jacob, Catharine, 
Esther, Eve and Elisabeth. 

Catharine was born in March, 1734, and was married to 

Nicholas Meclf ; both resided for many years in this county 

They spent their last days with their son Jacob Meek, at Har- 
(isburg, wiicre buth died at an advanced age. Nicholas Meek 
died April Hi, lbO;3, aged 71 years, 4 months and 4 days ; Cath> 
arine Meek died October 2nd, 1804, aged 70 years and 7 
months. Philip, t^leir eldest son, aged 87, is yet living. 


defence in all matter or matters whatsoever as any others 
of these oixi natural born subjects of Great Britain, and 
moreover it shall be lawfull for them or their heirs res- 
pectively to hold lands and the same to convey ; and to 
hold places of trust anywhere under this our Crown of 
Great Britain, and the land purchased the same to enjoy 
and hold and possess to themselves and their heirs, or in 
any other mamier to make clear titles or to alienate the 
same to any person or persons that they, at their own 
pleasure, may- think proper and the same to be peaceably 
and honestly enjoyed as well as by any others of our 
faithful subjects of this our Kingdom of Great Britam, 
born within the same, and it be lawfull for themselves or 
their heirs respectively, to hold and enjoy the mannor of 
lands and hereditaments whereby they may be to them- 
selves or those whom they may think proper to convey 
them respectively, or to any person or persons whatso- 
ever, him or them, the same to enjoy honestly and 
peaceably, as well as if they were originally born in this 
our Kmgdom of Great Britain, and the same to hold, 
enjoy and possess from any grievance whatever from 
any grievance from our heirs or successors or ministry, or 
any other whatsoever, nevertheless, it is oiu" will that the 
persons and those to whom respectively, in the first 
place, and to whom their heirs respectively, relative shall 
make or cause to be made obeisance to us oiu: heirs or 
successors and shall contribute and pay as may seem just, 
them and their heirs respectively, shall pay to our heirs 
and successors, our custom and subsidy on their mer- 
chandize as well as merchant strangers ought or should 
pay, and they or their heirs respectively, shall pay due 
regard to every ordination act, statute and proclamation 
of this our Kingdom of Great Britain, and shall be obe- 
dient as may appear just and formal, and shall render a 


due regard to magistrates and to our sliips of war and 
shall be in subordination to our corporations mercantile 
of this our Kingdom of Great Britain, by any charters 
or letters patent of ours, any others of our predecessors 
heretofore granted, and at any time hereafter, or any 
person or persons that are or will be master of ship oi 
matters of ships or may follow merchandize, that then 
this shall be void and of none effect : Provided, never- 
theless, That we reserve for the time being to ourselves, 
our heirs and successors, our full power and authority 
from time to time of revoking and determining, by letters 
patent, under the Great Seal of Great Britain, these 
Letters Dennizens to such person or persons, concerning 
whom we, our heirs, or our successors, in order, in pri- 
vate counsel to our heirs or successors will declare as 
may appear right to us, to our heirs or successors, in 
making Demiizens to those person or persons as may 
appear hurtful! or inconvenient to us our heirs or succes- 
sors, yet giving and grunting to persons, and any others, 
reasonable and sufficient time of selling, alienating, as- 
signing or disposing of their manors, messuages, lands, 
so held hereditaments, and their merchandize, respec- 
tively, and likewise of removhig their respective goods 
and effects of whatsoever kind or qualify they may be 
before determination of these letters patent as appears. Li 
witness whereof we caused these letters patent to be 
made and done : witness myself at Westminster, this 
21st day of August, 1708 in the seventh year of our 
reign. Registered under our Private Seal. COCKS. 

New York, Aug. 10th, 1709, Recorded in the Secre- 
tary's office of the province of New York, iu the Book 
of General Records, Lib: No. L. Folio 141 & 142. 

Co])ied from the original, word for word, and concord- 
ing thereto as a sworn evidence. 



New York, 27th day of August, in the year 1709, 
diligently compared and examined this true copy. 

San me tendering the oath. 

Before me, 


Signed with the Great Seal of Great Britain. 

After spending some time in New York, they went, 
according to tradition, to Esopus Settlement, in Ulster 
Comity,* about seventy miles from Albany. Here they 

*That there was then a settlement in Ulster county, N. Y. 
of those who always made '■'■ profession ds la pure religion re- 
formee," is a matter of history. The following extract of a 
letter, from our friend, Edmund Eltinge, to us, dated New 
Paltz, Feb. 25', 1S43, will go to strengthen the tradition in the 
main facts. Speaking of the Huguenots when leaving France, 
says, "The greatest proportion went to Germany and a party 
of them settled at a place called Paitz on the River Rhine. — 
This was about the year 1650, A. D. Here they remained ten 
years, and in 1660 emigrated to New York, then under the 
Dutch Dynasty. What num.ber came at this time, I cannot say 
— probably hundreds. The most opulent settled in New York 
city and on Long Island. The second class in point of wealth 
at New Rochelle, and those who were poor came to Kingston, 
(formerly Esopus R.) in this- (Ulster) county, then called 
Wildwyke (Wild-retreat) and inhabited by the Dutch. 

The names of Huguenots who came to Kingston, twelve in 
number, were Louis Da. Bois and his sons Abraham and Isaac, 
Christian, Doaice or Deys, Abraham Hosbrouch, Andries Lefevre, 
Jean Brook or John Hosbrouch, Lewis Berier, Antonie Crispell, 
Hugo Freer and Simon Lefevre. Eleven of these came in 
1660. Abraham Hasbrouch accompanied them as far as Eng- 
land, where he remained for a year or two, and while there 
joined the army, and formed the acquaintance of Edmund An- 
dres, who was subsequently the Governor of this colony — when 
became — he andtho^e who accompanied him, went into Canada 
— where they located I cannot say — Mr. Hosbrouch was Jipvv- 



remained about two years. Whence they proceeded- to 
Pennsylvania, where (as is evident from documents) 
Martin Kendig had taken up for Maria Warenbuer, 
widow of Daniel Ferree, two thousand acres of land, as 
appears from the minutes of the commissioners, Sept. 
10, 1712, quoted at large: — See pages 90, 91. "The 
said Martin Kendig now (Sept, 10, 1712) appearing 
desirous that the said (2000 acres) land may be granted 
and confirmed to Maria Warenbuer,/or whom the same 
was taken \qi or intended, (§r." 

This tract was then in Chester county, Cones toga 
township, now East Strasburg, in this comity. It 
composed the farms now owned by Henry A. Carpenter, 
Ferre Brinton, Jolin C. Lefevre, Joseph L. Lefevre, Jacob 

ever informed that his brother Jean Brook was in this countv, 
and he came hither. 

The Huguenots of Ulster spent a few years of unsettled life 
at Kingston and in the meantime explored the country. They 
linally concluded upon purchasing a tract now enclosed within 
the boundaries of this town, and comprising about two-thirds 
of its surface. The purchase was made from the Indians, sub- 
ject however to the claim of the Government. The Indians, 
though so universally charged with treachery, yet in this 
instance observed strict fidelity to their covenant, and the 
Huguenots were never molested by them on this soil. In 
order to get a perfect title it was necessary to obtain a cession 
from the Government of these lands, and Abraham Hcsbrouch 
who was entrusted with the commission, being acquainted 
with Edmund Andros, obtained letters patent in 1677, Sept. 
29th. confirming to the twelve individvals above named their 
purchase without charge. This tract comprised about ninety 
sijuarc miles." • • « "Some of the Huguenots' de-cen- 
dants, who reside in your county, (Lancaster), emigrated from 
this county, or rather their ancestors. The name of Lefevre 
and Du Buis, is from here. One by the name of Lefevre was 
in Congre.'iS some years since, whose ancestors resided in this 


Hershey, Cliiistian Leman, Henry and Jacob Brackbill, 
Theo. Sherts, Isaac B. Burrowes, Jacob Eshleman, Chris- 
tian Hershey, INIessrs. Witmers, R. Conyngham, Esq. R. 
Taggart, Phihp Foster, Henry Shertz, John Shertz, F. S. 
Burrowes, D. Lefevre. 

While speaking of the family of Ferrees, it will not 
be out of place to direct the attention of the reader to 
two other documents; one is an inventory of goods and 
chattels of a farm of the early times, being the list of 
appraisement of the personal property of Andrew 
Ferree, the same person who is mentioned as the eldest 
son of Daniel, the first settler. It shows the prices of 
articles at that time. The reader will find in it plenty of 
all the useful and necessary food, and implements, of a 
farmer ; but will seek in vain for the fine furnitiue of 
the present day."^ The other document is the marriage 

* Inventory of the goods and chattels of Andrew Fei^ee^ 


To wheat in the stack at £-3 — wheat and rj-e in the 

ground, £6, 
To great waggon, £12 — little waggon, £5, 
To a plow and two pairs of irons. 
To two mauls and three iron wedges, 9s — to four 

old weeding hoes, 4s, 
To a spade and shovel, 8s — to a matock and three 

dung forks, 10s, 
To two broad-axes, 12s— to joyner'saxe and adze, 

To Sundry carpenter tools, £1 — sundry joyner's 

tools, £2 5s, 
To seven duch sythes, 
To four stock bands, two pair hinges, sundry old 

To a hand-saw, £2— to five sickles and two old 








3 5 




of Daniel Ferree, Jr., who was a son of the fijrst settler; 
out bom in this country, with Mary Carpenter or Zim- 
merman, It is somewhat in the form now used by tlie 
Society of Friends. Many of the present citizens of 
the vicinity will recognize the names of their ancestors, 
in the list of signers and guests at the wedding. 

To a cutting box, two knives, £1 — to twenty -two 

baggs, £2 10s, 3 10 

To two pair chains, 14s, two hackles, £1 10 — to 

five bales, 12s, 2 16 

To four smal chains and other horse goers at 14 

To other horse geers at £1 10 — to a mans' saddle 

at £110, 3 

To three falling axes at 10s — to two fowling pieces, , 

£2, 2 10 

To a large Byble, 2.: 

To two fether beds at £6 — to wearing cloaths, £7, . 13 
So sundry pewter, £2 8 — to a box iron, 4s, 2 12 

To sundry iron ware, £2-r~to a watering pot, 6s, 2 6 

To sundry wooden ware al £l— to two iron pot- ■ 

racks, £1, 2 0> 

To four working horses, £24 — to a mare and two 

colts, £11, 
To six grown cows at £15 — to ten head of yong 

cattle, £13 10, 
To eleven sheep, £3 17— to swine, £l 10, . 
To two chests, 16s — to a spinning wheel, 8s, 
To sley, 6s — to cash received of Samuel Tayler, , 
To cash received for a servant girles time, 

£152 8 6 

As apraised this 24th day of i- the month called November,. 


Note. — Thomas Makin, in his Descriptio Pcnnsylvaniae,. 
Anno, 1729, describes most graphically the rural state of affairs 
at that time : 


28 10 

5 7 

1. 3 

2 8 



« Whereas, Daniel Feire, Junior, of tlie county of 
Lancaster and province of Pennsylvania, yoeman, and 
Maiy Carpenter, daughter of Henry Carpentex of the 
comity and province aforesaid, spinster, having made due 
publication of their intention of marriage as the law 
directs : — These are therefore to certify all whom it may 
concern that on the first of May, Anno Domini, 17^9, 
before me Emanuel Carpenter, one of his JNIajesty-s 
justices of the peace for the said county, they, tlic said 
Daniel Fiere and Mary Carpenter appeared in a public 
and solemn assembly for that purpose appointed and 
meet together at the dwelling house of the aforesaid 
Hemy Carpenter, where he the said Daniel Fiere did 

Providus in morem formicae alimenta reponit 

Rusticus hiberni frigoris usque memor. 
Aestivo reputans quodumque labore lucratur, 

Quae mox insequitur, longa vorabit hymens. 

Stramine tecta replet Cerealibus horrea donis 
Impeger, ct curat condere quicquid habet: 
Despicit exoticas que dapes, vestesque superbas, 
• Contentus modicis vivere pace suis. 

Esuriens dulces epulas depromit inemptas, 

Et proprio vestis vellere texta placet, 
Parva huinilisque domus, latos quae prospicit agros, 

Parta vel empta, sibi sutficet atque suis. 

Utilis est illi, si non opulenta supella; 

Res sapiens omnes utilitatc probat. 
! mihi si liceat sylvas habitare beatus, ^ 

Et modico victu, non sine pace, frui. 


The farmer, provident^ amidst his cares, 
For winter, like the prudent ant, prepares : 

Foreknowing, all that summer doth produce, 
Is only for consuming winter's use. 


openly declare that he took the said Mary Carpenter to 
be his wife, promising to be unto her a loving and faith- 
ful husband till death should separate them, and she, the 
said JMaiy Carpenter, then and there in the assembly, did 
in like manner openly declare that she took the said 
Daniel Fiere to be her husband, promising to be unto 
him a loving, faithful and obedient wife till death should 
separate them, and for a further confirmation thereof,, 
both the said parties to these presents have hereunto in- 
terchangeably put their hands, she after the custom of 
marriage, eissuming the surname of her husband ; and 
we whose names are hereunto subscribed, being, wit-, 
nesses present at the solemnization thereof, the year and 
day first above written. 


Emanuej. Carpenter, MARY FIERE. 

Henry Hanes, Elizabeth Kemp, Paulus, Peter ApfeL. 

Heiuy Gai*pentGr, Salome Carpenter, Lawrence Hayn, 

Daoiel Le Fevre, Henrich Zimmerman, William Bufiing-- 

Hg fills his barns and collars with gecd cheep, 
Against that dreary season of the year. 
/ He scorns exotic foods, and gaudy dress. 
Content to live on )iomely fare, in peace. 

Sweet to the taste Jiis unhouglit dainties are 

And his own home spun he delights to wear. 
His lowly dwelling views his large domain, 

Improv'd in part, where peace and plenty reign. 

Plain furniture, but useful, he doth chusc; 

And wiijely values cv'ry thing for use. 
In these blest sliades may I delight to be ; 

Here little is enough, with peace, for mc. [motto was: 

These were days of peace and plenty — the German's 

" Selbst-gcsponnen, und selhst^gemacht ; 
Rein dabei, ist Bauern TracW'' — which he practised. 



ton, Daniel Zimmerman, Hans Haiiser, Gabriel Zimmer- 
man, Jacob Carpeiiter, Theophilus Hartman, Christian 
Zimmerman, Hani Hartman, Isaac Fiere, Peter Fiere, 
Joharm Conrad Kaempf, Isaac Le Fevre, Daniel Har- 
man, Johannes Volkaemmer, George Philip Dollinger, 
Christian Harman, Maria Herman, Abraham Fiere, 
Susan Zimmerman, Hester Le Fevre, Jacob Fiere, 
Philip Le Fevre, Samuel Le Fevre, Salome Harman, 
Leah Fiere, Mary Hain, Jonas le Rou, Rachael Fiere, 
Isaac Fiere. 

This tract, spoken of before, had been taken up, or 
mtended, for Maria Warenbuer. At a meeting of the 
commissioners, 10th, 7th mo. 1712, Martin Kendig, the 
widow, her son Daniel, and son-in-law Isaac Le Fevre, 
appeared before them, Kendig desired that the land mjght 
be granted and confirmed by patent to Maria, the widow : 
— " but upon further consideration of the matter, it ivas 
agreed among themselves that the said land be confirmed 
to Daniel Fierre and Isaac Lefevre — and the considera- 
tion money, one hundred and forty pounds, at seven 
shillings per hundred acres, having been for some time 
due, but was to be paid down in one sum, it was agreed 
they should only pay ten pounds for interest, that is one 
hundred and fifty pounds." 

The receipts for the purchase of this tract and quit- 
rents for several years, signed by James Logan, and 
others, are yet in existence, carefully preserved.* Much 
care manifests itself in the business of this family. 

In this methodical and regular manner was the emi- 
gration of our earlier German settlers conducted ; and in 

*We here present a copy of a reciept: "Philadelphia, 11, 
7, 1712, Received of IMaria Warenbuer, twenty shillings sterl- 
ing, for one year's quit-rent of two thousand acres of land, 
laid out to her at Sirasburg, in this Province. 

JAMES LOGAN, Receiver:' 


the present instance, it is a fine commentary on such 
honest proceedings to find the land thus obtained to be 
still in the hands of the lineal descendants of such 
wartlt/ ancestors. Hexry A. Carpenter, from whom 
we have obtained the foregoing documents, is now the 
ov/ner of the old Ferree Homcstetid,^ containing two 
hundred and forty acres, and nearly all the owners of 
the otlier farms makingup the tract of two thousand acres, 
first purchased by Daniel Ferree and Isaac Le Fevre, 
are eitlier relatives, or closely connected with the Ferrees, 
H. A. Carpenter is the fifth in descent from Daniel Ferree. 
His father was Abraham Carpenter. 

Before closing this chapter, we shall introduce a tra- 
ditionaiy account of the Ferree famil}^, furnished us by 
Joel Ligiitner, Esq., of Leacodk township. It was written, 
in answer to several inquiries ptit to Mr. Lii^htner, in 
lS22,by the Hon. Abraham Shreiver,E.sq.,ofV]i:edenck 
county, Maryland. We have added a few iwte-s.-^ 
Shreiver's mother was a Ferree. 

•*'An account of the ancestors of the Ferric family, as 
given by John Ferric, aged 84 years, (in 1822) Joseph 
Le Fevert and Leah Lightncr,J aged about 63, (in 1822), 
and from some of the original title papers to the lands 
purchased from the Hon. William Pcnn, proprietor of 
the province of Pennsylvania. 

"Mary Fcrrcc, whose maiden nafno was Warcnbucr, died at 
an advanced age, in Concstoga township, 1716. On her death, 
Peter Evans, Register General for llie probate of Wills, and 
granting Letters of Administration, in and for the province of 
Pennsylvania, fee. granted Letters of Administration to Mary's 
sons, Daniel, Philip and John, tlie 20th of September, 171G. 

fJoel Lightner's wife's father. 

jThc mother of Joel Lightncr. 


In the reign of Louis XIV. King of France, the pri- 
vileges of the Protestants were openly violated, mission- 
aries were sent for their conversion, supported by 
dragoons, and severities were exercised which excited 
the horror and indignation of all the reformed states of 
Europe. In 1685, the revocation of the edict of Nantes, 
first granted by Henry IV. and confirmed by Louis 
XIII. deprived the Protestants of all exercise of their 
religion, and tore them from their children to be educated 
Catholics. The tyrant, at the same time, issued his 
decrees against emigrations, and placed guards on his 
coasts; nevertheless, vast numbers escaped from his 
machinations and carried their arts and industry to 
foreign and hostile nations. 

Louis became ambitious of the fame that would 
attach to the extirpation of heresy from his kingdom. 
Calvinism in France, since the victory over it by Riche- 
lieu had become a peaceful separation from the national 
cimrch, and its sectaries were useful citizens, chiefly 
attached to manufactures and comm.erce. Influenced bv 
a spirit of intolerance and bigotry, he undertook to put an 
end to it. About this time the husband of Mary Ferrie 
or Verre resided in the town of Lindau, not far from the 
river Rhine, in the kingdom of France; his family con- 
sisted of himself, his wife, three sons and three daugh- 
ters ; the names of the sons were Daniel, Philip and John, 
the daughters' names were Catharine, JNIary and Jane. 
Mr. Ferrie, the father, was a silk-weaver by trade, his 
religion Calvinistic ; consequently he became one of the 
sufferers under those decrees. The troops had entered 
their town and commenced murdering the Protestants, 
taking and destroying their property, they had no other 
shift but to take flight, leavmg behind them all their 
property except some trifling articles, and some cash ; 



they made flight into Germany, not far from Strasburg, 
where they resided two years. On their leaving France, 
they were accompanied by a yomig man by the name of 
Isaac Le Fevre, who stated that his family were nearly 
all put to death by the soldiers, that he himself escaped 
with difficulty, unhurt : he continued as one of the family 
until they arrived in America and married one of their 
daughters, Catharine Ferrie, and from whom, as far as 
we can learn, all the names of the Le Fevres, in this 
county, spring. 

During their residence in Germany, the father died, and 
Mary Ferrie, the widow, (it is singular that after she 
came to America, she was not pleased to be called by 
any other name than that of JVIary Warrinbuer, that 
being her maiden name) — hearing of a fine province, 
called P«nnsylvania, in North America, that the pro- 
prietor, William Penn, resided in London, determined to 
set out for that place, that if she could find sufficient 
encouragement from Penn, she would try to get to 
America ; she accordingly set out for London with her 
family, and when she arrived there, she employed a 
person to direct her to William Pcnn's residence. When 
on their way, her conductor pointed out to her Penn's 
carriage, which wah just meeting them: she being of a 
persevering disposition, called Penn, who immediately 
stopped his carriage, and he being well acquainted with 
the French language,"^ which was cpiite gratifying to her, 
as she could neither speak nor understand the English. — 
Penn having learned the nature and object of her call, 

»Pcnn, while in France, in 1662 and 1663, studied Theology 
and French., under tho instruction of Moses Amyraut, a Calvi- 
nistic or French Protestant divine, a native of Bourgcuil ; a 
man of unbounded charity and compassion. He inculcated 
these principles into all his students, and exemplified them in 


invited her into his carriage, as he was then on his way 
home, when he would be more particularly attentive to 
what she had to say. Penn told her, he had an agent in 
Pennsylvania, that to him, he would give her a recommen- 
dation, so that her business, he hoped, might be done to 
her satisfaction. 

Penn treated her very kindly whilst at his house.— 
They remained in London about six months, when a 
vessel was about to sail for the North river, in which 
they took passage. On their arrival at New York, they 
moved up the North river to a place called Esopus,* 
where they remained about tiuo years, then moved to 
Philadelphia ; thence into Pequea settlement. Previous 
to which they had taken up a large tract of land. Be- 
fore they sailed from London for America, a variety of 
implements of husbandry was presented to them by 
Queen Anne, which they found of great use when they 
commenced clearing land. 

Philip, one of the sons, was now about twenty-one 
years of age, and had a desire to earn something for 
himself; and having formed an acquaintance with 
several families at Esopus, he made for that place, where 
he hired for one year with a respectable farmer, by the 
name of Abraham Dubois, whose daughter Leah he 

his actions ; during the last tea years of his life, he bestowed 
his whole salary, which was considerable, upon the poor, 
without distinction of Catholic or Protestant. Amyraut was a 
man of moderation and candor, and had the rare fortune to be 
esteemed by men of all sects. His Theological works are 
numerous,. He died in 1664. 

*Esopus was an early settlement, between eighty and ninety 
miles north of the city of New York. It was also formerly 
called Wildwycke, now Kingston. The village of that place 
was burned by the British under Vaughan, in October, 1777, 
when great quantities of stores were destroyed. 


married at the expiration of the year, and brought her 
to his people in Pequea settlement, where he o^m- 
menced improving a tract of land on the north side of 
Pequea creek, (on part of which Joel Lightner^ Esq., 
resides at present) which land had been previously 
allotted to him by his mother.* 

Some of their first labor was to cut grass in the 
woods for the purpose of making hay,t no land' being 
cleared on that part — for a shelter, house and bam, they 
placed timbers, forked at the top, into the ground, laid 
poles across them, built their hay upon the frame, which 
served as a roof to their house, under which they lived 
several months ; during their ^'■siihstack stay,^^ in this 
rude shelter, their son Abraham, was born. 

They lived to raise eight children, five sons and three 
daughters ; the names of the sons were Abraham, Isaac, 
Jacob, Philip and Joel; the daughters' names were Lena, 
who intermarried with William Buffington; Leah was 
married to Peter Baker, and Elisabeth to Isaac Ferrie. — 
Abraham, first born, was married about the year 1735 or 
36, to a woman by the name of Eltinge, from Esopus, her 
parents were Low Dutch. Abraham lived on part of 
the land owned by his grand-mother, Mary Ferrie. 
They had several children.^ He died at an advance^ 

*From a communication to us, dated Dec. 21, 1842, by Isaac 
F. Lightncr, it appears, Abraham Dubois patented one thou- 
sand acres of land, in Lancaster county, which he gave to his 
daughter Mary, who had married Philip Ferrce. The patent 
was granted May 7, 1717. 

f The great flats of Pequea were natural meadows on which 
grass grew luxuriantly, which proved a great source of com- 
fort to new settlers. — Conyvgham. 

JTheir children were, Cornelius, Israel and Rebecca, Cor- 
nelius settled in Virginia; Israel married a Miss Dickey; 
Rebecca was married to David Shreiver, father of the Hon. 
Abraham Shreiver, of Frederick county, Md. 


age, and was buried in a place now called Carpenter^s 
grave-yard, about one mile from where he was born — 
the burial ground was pointed out by his grand-mother, 
Mary Ferrie, where she and several of her family were 
buried.* After Abraham's death, his widow married 
one Curgus or Circus — they moved up the Susque- 
hanna, and I cannot tell what became of them after- 

This year, 1712 or 13, the Five Nations received into 
their confederacy, the Tuscororas. 

We would ask the indulgent reader to follow us in an 
apparent digression from the main narrative, while a 
few relevant facts are adduced to show how the Tusca- 
rora nation came to miite with the Five Nations. 

In 1712, the Tuscaroras, the Corees, with whom 
Baron de Graffenried, Governor of the Palatines, in 
North Carolina, mentioned in a preceding part of our 
narrative, made a treaty in the town of CorJ and other 
Indian tribes, in North Carolina, formed a conspiracy to 
exterminate the English. To be seciu-e themselves, the 
chief town in the Tuscarora nation, was enclosed by 
kind of stockades; within this enclosure, 1,200 bowmen, 
of different tribes, met. Under the mask of friendship, 

*"Mary Ferrie vested in Trustees a piece of land near Para- 
dise, as a burial place for the use of the settlement. It is 
neatly walled and kept in good condition by the neighbors, 
whose ancestors repose within its limits." — Redmond Conyng- 

f "I have found a copy of a will of Abraham Dubois, dated Oct. 
1st, 1731, among his grand-father, Joel Ferrie's papers, which 
had been some time in possession of his son Isaac Ferree, 
from which it appears that a person by the name of Roeloflf 
EUsting, as spelt in that instrument, is recognized as a son-in- 
law, married to his daughter Leah. 

JWilliams' N. C. I. 287. 



small parties went in various directions into the settle- 
ments, and after night, committed the most atrocious 
murders. Near Roanoke, they killed a great number of 
the Palatines, who had come to America with Graffen- 
ried, and many others. This distressing intelligence 
coming to the ears of Governor Craven, who immedi- 
ately despatched Col. Barnwell, with 600 militia and 
366 Indians, to the relief of the settlers. As soon as Barn- 
well and his men arrived, he attacked the Indians, killed 
300, and took about 100 prisoners. After this rough 
encounter, the Tuscaroras retreated to their fortified 
town ; Barnwell pursued and surrounded them, killed a 
considerable number, and obliged the living to sue 
for peace. About one thousand of them were killed, 
Avounded and taken. 

Most of ihe Tuscaroras, after this defeat, abandoned 
tlieir country and repaired to the Five Nations, who 
received them in their confederacy, and made them the 
Sixth Nation.* 

Gov. Spotswood, in a letter dated Williamsburg, 
January 25, 1719-20, speaking of the Indians on the 
Susquehanna: Your Indians were actually in these 
parts (Virginia) assisting the Tuscaroras, Avho had mas- 
sacred in cold blood some hundreds of the English, and 
were then (1712 and 1713) warring against us, and they 
have at this very day (1719) the chief murderers, with 
the greatest part of that nation, seated under their pro- 
tection, near Susquehannah river, whither they removed 

♦Jefferson's Va. 138. 

Note— "1717, the Rev. Mr. Waynian, missionary to the Welsh 
settlements of Radnor and Oxford, frequently visited Pequea, 
Conestoga, and the Indian settlements of Conestoguc. He 
baptized many children of Quakers, and some who had been 
Quaiicrs."— R. C. Lan. Intel!. &c Jour. 


theiTi, when they found they could no longer support 
them against the force which the English brought upon 
them in these parts.* 


Augmentation of settlements — Germans and English settle around the 
Swiss or Palatines — Settlements m dilferent parts of the county — Names 
of persons naturalized — Notice of Slaymakers — Conestoga Manor sur- 
veyed — Names of lirst purchasers — Grajf Thai settled — Lancaster and 
vicinity settled — Squatters on the west side of Susquehanna — Indians at 
Conestoga address a letter to Logan — Colonel French goes to Conestoga ; 
holds a treaty with the Indians — Logan meets the Indians on the Susque- 
hanna— Samuel Robins sent to Virginia. 

Settlements had now been fairly made amidst the 
Indians; the hardships that presented themselves in the 
incipient stage of settling, began to vanish, and almost 
every discouraging obstacle was surmounted. "Their 
success, the glowing, yet by no means exaggerated 
accounts given by them, of the scenery of the country, 
the fertility of the soil they cultivated, the abundance of 
game with which the forest teemed, the quantity and 
delicacy of the fish v/hich the rivers yielded; but above 
all, the kind and amicable relationship they cultivated 
and maintained with their Indian neighbors, all conspired 
to make them the objects of attention, and afterwards 
one of the prominent points whither emigration tended 
in an increasing and continued stream."t Tlie perse- 
cuted of every land, and of different tongues, settled 
around them, in various directions of the comity. 

In 1713, Christopher Schlegel, late of Saxony, took 
up with a view to settle, though he afterwards trans- 

•Col. Rec. III. 77. fGeo. ford's, MSS. 


ferred his interest in his tract of one thousand acres, to 
others; — this land is on a stream flowing into the Cones- 
toga, "not far from land granted to the Palatines." It 
was afterwards the place where the Cartliges, Indian 
agents, resided. Another person, Benedictus 'S^enerick, 
late of Germany, took up two hundred acres, near the 
Palatines, in 1715.* Between the Pequea and Cones- 
toga creeks, near the Susquehanna^ Richard Carter, an 
Englishman, a wheel-right, located and improved two 
hundred acres, in 1716. The same year, Alexander 
Bews, took up four hundred acres on the south side of 
the Conestoga; Anthony Pretter, of East Jersey, three 
hundred acres, near Pequea, or south side of Conestoga ; 
and John Gardhier, Jr., from Philadelphia county, two 
hundred acres, on the same side of Conestoga. About 
this time, Jacob Greider, or Kreider,t Jacob Hostater, 

*In and about Smoketown, in 1715, Peter Bellas, Daniel 
Harman, William Evans, James Smith, settled. 

fThe relentless spirit of persecution, as the number of its 
subjects of oppression decreased, singled out individual fami- 
lies ; of these oppressed, were the Kreiders and Hostaters — 
these fled for life from Switzerland to Wurtcmburg; taking 
nothing with them from their Fatherland, except their families, 
and small quantities of tow cloth, a few linens, and some 
wearing apparel. Kreider remained but a short time — but 
emigrated to America, and in company with Hostater, after 
paying the brethren of their faith, a visit, at Pequea, settled on 
the north side of the Conestoga, about two miles south from 
the present site of Lancaster, where he took up -eight hundred 
acres of land in 1716 or 1717, "among the new surveys at 

Here, he erected a temporary shelter, a tent covered with 
tow cloth brought from Switzerland, which served him and his 
family till autumn, when the tent gave way to a cabin built 
of round, unlicwn hickory saplings, and covered with bark — 
both were abundant. 

When the weather became cold, his tawny neighbors, the 


Hans Frantz, Schenk, and others, settled on the banlvs of 
Conestoga; Joseph Cloud, in 1717, took up 500 acres 
near Pequea creek. The same year, settlements were 
began on the banks of Octoraro, William Grimson, 
constable of Sadsbury township, in 1717, was among 
the first settlers on the Octoraro ; his neighbors were the 
Cooksons, Mayes, Jervis, Irwins, and some years after- 
wards, the Pattersons, Darbys, Mackrels, Leonards, 
Jones, Steels, Matthews, Cowens, Mm-rays, Millers, 
Allisons, Mitchels, and others, all of whom settled on or 
near Octoraro. 

The Swiss settlement received an augmentation in 
1715-16 and 17; besides those already named, were 
Hans Mayer, Hans Kaigy, Christian Hearsey, Hans 

Indians, paid him regular night visits to shelter with him, and 
sleep by the side of a genial fire. They were on perfect terms 
of intimacy and friendship ; the Indians frequently supplied 
him and family with fish and venison, which they gave ia ex- 
change for bread. Fish were very abundant in the Conestoga 
and all the streams of the country ; these they took with nets 
made of bark, or speared them with a gig made of Ashvood.^ 
The inventive genius of the Indian is known to all who have 
spent some time among them, or are conversant with their 
mechanism. Perhaps the reader may wish to know how to 
make a fish-gig, if he should ever be placed in the Indians' 
situation, we will tell, as we were told, how the Hickory 
Indians, on Conestoga, made theirs. Christian Kreider, grand- 
son of the first settler, says, " The Indians took a very slender 
sapling of Ashwood,— this kind of wood v/as preferred on 
account of its hardness : and burned it to a point at one end ;'* 
this, says the reader, is simple. So it is, just as easy to be 
done as setting up an egg on the point end, or the discovery of 
America, after it is known. The reader, especially our.young 
friends, would, we think, be pleased to know how the fish 
were secured with a barbless, pointed stick. The Indian is 
never at a loss to take a fish, if he has no net, he takes either 
his bow and arrow or his spear, such au one one as has just 


Graaf, (who afterwards settled GraaPs Thai) Hans Pu- 
pather, Michael Shank, Henry Pare, Peter Leman, 
Melchior Breneman, Benedictus Witmer, Henry Funic, 
Jacob Landis, Ulrich Houry, Hans Faber, Isaac Coff- 
man, JMelchior Erisman, Michael Miller, Jacob Krentzer, 
Jacob Boehm, Tlieodorns Eby, Michael Donegar, and 

Down the Conestoga, towards Susquehanna, settle- 
ments were made between 1716 and 1719 — among those 
who took up lands and settled thereon, were David 
Jones, Edmund Cartlidge and John Cartlidge. Edmimd 
Cartlidge resided in Darby township, Chester county, as 
early as 1G98, and in 1711, in Philadelphia county,* 

been described, and his tiny, barky boat; he glides to a place 
where, as every skilled piscator knows, fish are; here, through 
the calm and transparent water he strikes the spear through 
the body of the fish, passes one hand below, and takes a huge 
salmon or some other fish. 

On a certain, occasion, as Kreider had the honor of the com- 
pany of his Indian neighbors, and having that day consulted 
his almanack to regulate his clock, by its indication of rising 
and setting of the sun, noticed the moon would, in afew weeks, 
be eclipsed ; he informed the guests that on a certain evening, 
a few weeks from that time, the moon would hide her faces 

just as the clock would strike ; to hear, that the moon 

would refuse to shine, was nothing new to them, they had seen 
eclipses before; but that their white neighbor shc;uld possess 
so much prescience as to know this before hand, was strange to 
tliem. At the time specified when the hroad-faced moon was to 
hide her disc, fifty or sixty Indians assembled ; they were all 
attention ; scarce had the clock struck, to their utter astonish- 
ment, the moon's face began to lessen. Profound silence pre- 
vailed. Their spokesman expressed the cogitations of the 
wonder-stricken visitors, uttered it as their sage conclusion, in 
these words: 'Tis the white man's God tells him this, else he 
would not know it before hand." 

•Public Rec. West Chester, Vol. A. p. 291. 


John, his brother, for many years an Indian agent, was 
at one time held in high estimation by the proprietary's 
agents ; but like many others, the day of trouble came upon 
him ^^andhe was not remember ed.^^* A warrant ' for land ' 
was issued, dated "Octobe? 1st, 1718, for him to take up 
on the north side of Conestoga creek at some convenient 
place, three hundred acres, and to make an addition 
thereunto of two hundred acres, to be by him enclosed 
and held for the conveniency of pasturage for the term 
of fourteen years, in consideration of his services among 
the new settlers." 

It was at the house of this gentleman a number of 
councils were held with the Indians. We have been in 
the house, built in 1719, in Avhich the councils were 
held. It is nov/ owned by Benjamin Wright, of jManor 

It appears from the Public Records at West Chester, 
that Jolm Cartlidge sold liquor by the small, prior to 
1718, among the neighbors on the banks of the Cones- 
toga. It was so reported by his vigilant " fellow inhabi- 
tant," to the court. Christian and Joseph Stoneman, 
Sigismund Landart, all late of Germany, took up lands 
on the Conestoga, prior to 1719, and Francis Neiff on 
the west branch of Little Conestoga, prior to 1715. 

The following persons located lands in 1719: Jenkin 
Davis, late of Wales, near or on the branch of Cones- 
toga creek, George Steward, near the Susquehanna, 
James Le Tort, on or near Susquehanna, where he had 
his station as Indian trader, and received a warrant for one 
hundred acres. Le Tort, Bizaillon and Chartier, had 
resided some years previous to the commencement of 
Swiss settlements among the Indians; Chartier was 

*John Cartlidge was one of His Majesty's Justice of Peace, 
appointed in 1718, July 4th.— CoZ. Rec. III. 40. 


among them before 1704,* and in 1717, upon his request, 
he received a warrant for three hundred acres, where he 
"had seated himself on the Susquehanna river, above 
Conestoga creek, including within the survey the im- 
provement then made by him, for which he agreed, on 
behalf of his son Peter Chartier, in whose name he 
desired the survey to be made, to pay for the same. 

Tn 1714, Peter Bizaillon, who had license to trade, 
prior to 1703,t received a warrant from the commis- 
sioners of property: "We dO hereby authorize and allow, 
Peter Bezaillon, Indian trader, to seat himself at Pash- 
tang, or an]'' other Indian town or place on Susqua- 
hannah, in this province, and to erect such buildings as 
are necessary for his trade, and to enclose and improve 
such quantities of land as he shall think fit, for the 
accommodation of his family there, until further order 
shall be given by the proprietor or his commissioners : 
Provided, always, That the said Peter shall not act or 
proceed in any thing under color hereof, but by the free 
leave and approbation of the Indians amongst whom he 
' dwells or resides." 

In various" parts of tlie county surveys were made, 
from 1714, to 1718. A. Dubrie, Esq., of Drumore 
township, kindly furnished us accounts of surveys made 
in Little Britain and other southern townships. 

A survey was made in Little Britain for Alexander 
Ross^ — warrant dated Nov. 5, 1714 — land situated near 
the middle of the township, on Little Conowingo creek, 
now held by Christian King, and others. Another 
survey in part of seven hundred acres was made for 
Edward Sleadwell, granted to him by warrant dated 
May 5, 1717, situated in the -soutli west corner of the 
county, nearly surrounded by Octoraro creek, and con- 

•Col. Rcc. II. 133 t^ol. Rcc. II. 100. 


tained two hundred acres, and after his decease was 
divided between his son and son-in-law, John Priest; 
and has since passed by the name of "Priest's Neck.'' 
There were other surveys made between 1715 and 
1720 in the south west part of the township. 

" Teague's Endeavor.'" — A Maryland patent was 
granted to IMary Graham, June G, 1715, for one hundred 
acres, now held by Robert JNIaxwelL 

"Cornwall.''^ — A Maryland patent, granted to 
Emanuel Grubb, for one hundred acres, in 1716, and 
and another, 1720, for two hundred acres; now held by 
Jeremiah B. Haines, Levi Brown and others. Three 
Partners. — Another Maryland patent, granted to Thomas 
Jacobs, September 16, 1720, a large tract now held by 
James Porter and others.* From the forearoina-, it is 
<?vident, that the Swiss Settlevient, with tlieir fine 
country, attracted considerable attention, while it was 
yet in its infancy. 

Not to weary the reader with general details of 
individual settlers, we shall present a public document 
possessing more than ordinary interest to the numerous 
descendants of those whose names are recorded in it. — 
They had all come to this country previous to 171S, and 
had purchased and held lands before 1729. We are 
indebted to Abraham Meylin, of West Lampeter town- 
ship, for a copy of it. This document has been upwards 
of one himdred and fourteen years in the possession of 
^ho. 3Iey]in family. It is an act passed Anno Eegni, 
Georgii II. Regis JSIagnae Britunniae, Franeiae, et 
Hiberniae, tertio.^ October 14, 1729. 

*If the reeuler will examine the article in the Appendix^ A, 
he will understand these patents fully, 

fin the third year of the reiga of George, II. King of Great 

Britain, France and Ireland. 



Whereas, By encouragement given by the Honorable 
William Penn, Esq., late Proprietary* and Governor of 
the province of Pennsylvania, and by permission of his 
Majesty, King George the First, of blessed memory, 
and hLs predecessors. Kings and Queens of England, &c. 
divers Protestants, who were subjects to the Emperor of 
Germany, a Prince in amity with the Crown of Great 
Britain, transported themselves and estates into the 
province of Pennsylvania, between the years one thou- 
sand seven hundred, and one thousand seven hundred 
and BigMeen; and since they came hither have con- 
tributed very much to the enlargement of the British 

*\Villiam Penn, the Proprietary and Founder of Pennsyl- 
vania, died July 30, 17W, at Rushcomb, near Twyford, in 
Euckinghan^shire, England, aged about seventy-four years. — 
In 1612, he had been seized witn some fits of the aDoplectic 
kind; which, for the last six years of his life, had so affected 
his mental faculties, especially his memory, as to render him 
in a great measure incapable of public business; which, with 
the gradual decline of his strength of body, continued to 
increase till the last period of his days. As a leader of a 
christian sect, he has left no mean name. He was a man of 
more than ordinary zeal and courage; he was ardent and 
enthusiastic, yet discreet. As a statesman, he was wise and 
judicious. As an economist, liberal, even to his own pecu- 
niary embarrassment. As a writer, much esteemed by his 
friends. In his demeanor, it is said, he was grave, yet free 
from moroseness. Christians are not morose. He had been 
twice married; his first wife was Gulielma Maria Springctt, 
daughter of Sir William Springett, of Darling, in Sussex; 
with her he had two sons and one daughter, Springett, William 
and Lctitia. Springett died at the age of twenty-one years, 
in 1696. William and Lelitia, and three grand children 
children of his son William, survived him. His second wife 
was Hannah, daughter of Thomas Callowhill, of Bristol, by 
whom he had five children, John, Thomas, Margaretta, 
Richard and Dennis, who, with their mother, were living at 
their father's death. 


Empire, and to the raising and improving simdry com- 
modities fit for the markets of Europe, and and have 
always behaved themselves religiously and peaceably, 
and have paid a due regard and obedience to the laAvs 
and Government of this province ; ^nd whereas., Many 
of said persons, to wit, Martin Meyhn, Hans Graaf, and 
others, all of Lancaster county, in the said province, in 
demonstration of their affection and zeal for his present 
Majesty's person and Government, quahfied themselves 
by taking the qualification, and subscribing the declara- 
tion directed to be taken and subscribed by the several 
acts of parliament, made for the security of his Majesty's 
person and Government, and for preventing the dangers 
which may happen by Popish Recusants, &:c., and 
thereupon, have humbly signified to the Governor and 
Representatives of the freemen of this province, in 
General Assembly, that they have piurchased and do 
hold lands of the proprietary, and others, his Majesty's 
subjects within this province, and have likewise repre- 
sented their great desire of being made partakers of 
those privileges which the natural born subjects of Great 
Britain do enjoy within this province ; and it being just 
and reasonable, that those persons who have bona fide 
purchased lands, and who have given such testim.ony of 
their affection and obedience to the Crown of Great 
Britaui should as well be secured in the enjoyment of 
their estates, as encouraged in their laudable affection 
and zeal for the English constitution ; 

Be it enacted by the Hon. Patrick Gordon, Esq., 
Lieut. Governor of the province of Pennsylvania, &c,, 
by and with the advice and consent of the freemen of 
the said province, m General Assembly met, and by the 
authority of the same, That Martin Meylin, Hans 


Graaf, Christian Stoneman, Jacob Funk, Francis Neiff,"* 
Francis Neiff, Jr., George Kindeck, John Burkholder 
John Burkholder, Jr., Abraham Burkliolder, Michae 
Bowman, John Hess, John Frederick, Christophei 
Preniman, Martin Harnist, Joseph Buckwalter, Felix. 
Landes, Jr., Adam Preniman, John Funlv, John Boh- 

*Francis NefF, his sons Francis, Jr., Henry and Daniel, and 
the sons of Daniel, namely : Henry and Daniel, gi-andsons o| 
Francis the elder, were all natives of Switzerlaud. On 
account of religious persecution, being Mennonites, they fled 
from their Vaterland, to Alsace, thence they emigrated to 
America, and settled at a very early date on a small stream, 
Neff's run, which empties into the west branch of the Little 
Conestoga, where the great ancestor took up a large tract of 
land, and which is stiil owned by some of the lineed descen- 
dants, of the male and female issue. 

As it may be interesting to the numerous descendants of one 
of the first families, in this part of the county, we insert a 
brief genealogy of Francis Neff's progeny, as furnished us, 
vr.rbaUy, by Mrs. Magdalen Sehner, aged 79, the great grand- 
daughter of Francis, the elder, and grand-daughter of Daniel 
ISTefi", who had four sons and two daughters, viz: Henry, 
Daniel, John, Jacob, the grand-father of Jacob K. Netf, M. D/, 
of Lancaster; Barbara, who intermarried with Musselman, 
aud Ann, married to Isaac Kauffman. Henry, the oldest son 
of Daniel Neff, married a Miss Obcrholtzer; their children 
were John, Daniel, David, Jacob, Henry aud one daughter, 
Mrs. Keller, Dr. John Eberle's grand mother. 

The original Homestead is now principally owned by Gott- 
lieb Sehner and Jacob Neff. We seek for tlic descendants of 
Francis Neff', in the male lineage, ihc numerous Neffs in Lan- 
caster and Huntingdon county. Pa., and in Virginia; in the 
female, the name of Musselman, Kauffman, Miller, Mayer, 
Henneberger, Scbwar, Sehner, Ruth, Cassel, Florcy, Keller, 
Eberle — the two last named are noticed in the sequel — Bear, 
Brandt, Shelly, Bowman and others, principally in this 


man, John Taylor, Henry Neiff, Michael Mire, Henry 
Bare, Peter Bimigarner, Melcor Hufford, Melcor Eris- 
man, John Brubakcr, Jacob Nisley, Hans Snevely, 
Jacob Goot, John Woolslegle, Jacob Mire, Christopher 
Sowers, Joseph Stoneman, Daniel Ashleman, Christian 
Peelman, John Henry Neiff,* John Henry Neiff, Jr., 
Abraham Hare, John Ferie, Jacob Biere, Peter Yordea, 
Peter Leamon, Hans Jacob Snevely, Isaac Coffman, 
Andrew Coffman, Woolrich Rodte, Henry Fmik, Roody 
Mire, John Mylin, Jacob Bheme, John Coffman, 
Michael Doneder, Charles Christopher, Andrew Shultz, 
John Hoiiser, Christian Preniman, Jacob Miher, black, 

* John Henry Neff, known as the " Old Doctor," a brother of 
Francis Neff, named above. He was undoubtedly the tirst 
regularly bred physician in Lancaster county. Who has not 
heard of Doctor Hans Heinrich Neff? So well was Dr. Neff 
known, that when the boundaries of townships were fixed 
upon, June 9lh, 1729, one of the lines of Manheim township, 
is thus defined: "thence down the said creek to the "■Old 
Doctor's Ford:' Hans Henry Neff, Doctor of Physic, had 
taken. up land on the Conestoga, a few miles from the present 
site of Lancaster city. Among his descendants, are, besides 
the Neffs, Millers, Tchantzs, Kendigs, Weavers, Bears, and 

The Neffs were of those, " who, many years since, came into 
this province under a particular agreement with the late Honor- 
able Proprietor, William Penn, at London ; and had regularly 
taken up lands under him. And who, it appears to me," said 
Gov. Gordon, J aimavy 13th, 1729, "by good information, that 
they have hitherto behaved themselves well, and have generally 
so good a character for honesty and industry, as deserves the esteem 
of this Government, and a mark of regard for them.''''— Col Rec. 

III. 29G. 



Henry Carpenter,* Emanuel Carpenter,! Gabriel Car- 
penter, Daniel Herman, Christian Hemian, Philip Fiere, 
Mathias Slareraaker,J Big John Shank, Jacob Churts, 
Jacob Snevely, Jr„ John Woolrich Hover, John Croy- 
der, John Leeghte, John Stampher, Martin Graaf, Peter 
Ncwcomat, Jacob Bare, Jr., John Henry Bare, Jacob 
Weaver, Henry Weaver, John Weaver, David Longan- 
icker, George Weaver, Abraham Mire, Woolrick Houser, 
John Mire, Henry IMusselman, Michael Shank, Jacob 
Miller, Jacob Miller, Jr., Martin Miller, Peter Abye, 
Hans Goot, Christian Staner, John Jacob Light, Adam 
Brand, Christopher Franciscus, Casper Loughman, 
Frederick Stay, John Line, John Swope, Bastian Royer, 
Jonas Lerov/, Simeon King, John Abye, Everhard 
Ream, all of Lancaster county, be, and shall be to all 
intents and purposes deemed, taken, and esteemed, His 
JNIajesty^s natural born subjects of this province of Penn- 
sylvania, as if they, and each of them had been born 
within the said province; and shall and ma}^, and every 
one of them shall and may, within this province, take, 
receive, enjoy, and be entitled to all rights, privileges 
and advantages of natural born subjects, as fully, to all 

"'Henry Zimmerman or Carpenter arrived in Pennsylvania 
in tile year 1G93, and returned afterwards to Europe for his 
family, whom he brought out in 1706, and settled first in Ger- 
mantown, and removed within the present bounds of Lan- 
ca^sier county, (then Chester) in 1717." His descendants arc 
very numerous and respectable. 

jEmanuel Zimmerman or Carpenter, son of Henry Car- 
pent;jr, was born in Switzerland, in the year 1702 and 
died 1780. His influence was salutary and great in the 
county. He had the unbounded confidence of his fellow 
citizens, as will appear from the sequel. 

tXhe name was originally in German Schleiermacher. 


intents and constructions and purposes, whatsoever, as 
any of his Majesty's natural bom subjects of this 

The subjoined communications will be read with more than 
OTflinary interest. The first is from H. F. Slaymaker, Esq.., 
and the other from John Slaymaker, Esq., both written in reply 
to several queries previously proposed touching the ancestors 
of this highly respectable family : 

" Mathias Slaymaker emigrated from Strasburg, in Germany 
He WcLs born and bred in Hess Castle, and came to this coun- 
try about the year 1710. He settled on what is called the 
"London Lands;" a tract of 1,000 acres, near the present 
residence of Peter J. Eekert, in Strasburg township, which i^ 
supposed to have been named by him ; he was at that time 
suiTounded by Indians; their names are not known. 

He had two brothers ; one of whom was a clergyman, and 
settled in the Emperor's dominion, high up in Germany ; he 
was appointed Secretary of Legation from that Government 
to tlae Court of St. James; afterwards. Charge d'Atfairs, and 
tliere married. President John Adams, when minister to tiie 
Court of St. James, resided with one of his descendants. — 
His oldest son was Governor of an Inland. 

The other brother was major in the King of Prussia's full 
regiment; and afterwards, it is probable, his son was one of tlie 
officei-s (a Major) in the Hessian troops — as one of that name 
w£us confined as a prisoner of war in the Lancaster jail. 

The first named, Mathias, had five sons, Lawrence, Mathias, 
John, Henry, Daniel and two daughters, Margaret and Bar- 
bara Eeckman. He was married before he came to this 
country — and Lawrence and Margaret were born in Germany. 
Lawrence married a sister of Jacob Pfautz, and had one cliild 
who mamed a person by the name of Lefevre, and moved to 
Cumberland county. 

Mathias married a Miss Smith, and had two sons and three 
daughters, John, William, Rachel, Rebecca and Elisabeth. 

John married Elisabeth White, and had Mathias, John, Wil- 
liam and Alexander, and five daughters, Jane, Elisabeth, Mary, 
Kitty and Ann. 

Henry married Faithful Richardson, and had three sons, 
Amos, Henry and Samuel, and six daughters, Mary, Hannah, 


province, can, do, or ought to enjoy, by virtue of their 
being His INIajcsty's natural born subjects of His 
Majesty's said province of Pennsylvania. 

Faithful, Lydia, Sarah and Sophia. Daniel marricJ Gilsey 
Young, and had Daniel, William and Matliias, and two daugh- 
ters. Margaret married Michael Fickle, and had a large 
family. Barbara married Hironimeus Eckman, 

Henry, the father of Amos, assisted in clearing the ground on 
which part of the city of Lancaster is now founde d. 

The "London Land," alluded to, descended to the four sons, 
John, Henry, Mathias and Daniel, all of whom had children, 
and left their estates to their respective descendants— a large 
portion of which is still held in the name. 

Active measures were taken by the emissaries of the British, 
to prevail on the inhabitants to take protections from the 
Crown, and Henry Slaymaker was called upon to take one, 
but refused, having taken part with the Republic, and was a 
magistrate at that time, and received the oath of allegiance 
from all who were friendly to the Republic. He was the oldest 
Justice, and after M. Hublcy became incapable of trying a 
cause, he was appointed principal Judge, and presided for a 

In the time of the Revolution there wasa company of young 
men who entered into articles of agreement for the purpose of 
suppressing all who were then called tories — at the head of 
this, was Col. James Mercer, an active whig— Amos Slay- 
maker, (son of Henry) was one of this association, and his 
Father (Henry) also an active whig, had, at all times, informa- 
tion of what was going on so as to suppress any attempts at 
rising against the Republic, or stealing or carrying off 
property. It was very effective in suppressing the incursions 
of the tories, who were very annoying to the eastern section of 
Lancaster county, by stealing and carrying olf horses and 
other property tu the British army— but was attended with 
great hazard to the members. They were ordered out by 
Henry Slaymaker, (father of Amos) when information was 
given of their presence in the neighborhood : and I have often 
heard my father (Amos) relate adventures he had in pursuit of 
them at night, which was their time for committing dcprcda- 


The same year the Conestoga Manor was sun-eyed 
for the use of the proprietary, by order of the Coniniis- 

tions, and he has often been out whole nights after tbeni — one 
hi particular, when they were informed that the Doanes, who 
were celebrated tories, were encamped in a swamp near the 
Gap, about where the Pennsylvania Railroad passes the Gap, 
and the cussociations went in pursuit of them through a tremen- 
dous storm of rain, sleet, thunder and lightning, but after grea^ 
difficulty from underwood, briars, and in gaining their retreat, 
they found some of the disaifected in the neighborhood, had ia 
the mean time apprised them of their approach, and they had 
escaped. The members of this company were in constani 
danger of losing their lives, as many in the eastern part of tlxj 
county were disafiected — and they were in danger of being 
shot even at their ordinary occupations. Amos served two 
terms in the Revolutionary war as an Ensign of a company, 
commanded by his uncle Capt. John S, (father of the present 
Captain) who was also an officer in Braddock's war. Amos 
was magistrate for many years — a member of the Legislature 
and of the Pennsylvania Senate, and also a member of 

[Extract of a Letter from John Slaymaker, Esq.] 
"My father John, was in Braddock's campaign, as a 
wagoner. He was put to draw a cannon at the place of ren- 
dezvous, and took it into battle on the day of Braddock's 
defeat — he had eleven horses to it on that day, which were all 
shot before the retreat. I have often heard him say if it hail 
not been for Washington's brave conduct in covering tba 
retreat, there would hardly a man have escaped. In this conflicl 
the most of the American troops were killed — my father came 
off safe. In 1776, he marched at the head of a company to 
Bergen, in Jersey — was in the skirmish on Chesnut Hill, under 
General Bull, where Bull was taken prisoner. After his return 
home, he was chosen County Commissioner, which ended his 
public services. He died in 1798, aged 65 years. 

The sale of the "London Land" was in the year 1761, in 
Philadelphia. Father paid £800 for 346 acres of said tract. 

Note — London Lands, in Lancaster county. — It appears 
that a land company was organized at an early date. In 


sioners of Property,* to Jacob Taylor, Surveyor Gen 
eral — he had been Surveyor General for many year 

1696, this company, called the London Company, owned 
65,000 acres of land in Pennsylvania, usually known by the 
name of London Lands ; of this, there were 47,800, in Lancas~ 
ter and Berks, Part of these lands were rented at the rate of 
£2 per 100 acres, with exception of some thousands of acres sold 
from 1718 — 1720, by the company to different persons. 
The rest remained in possession of the company until 1762. — 
At this time the heirs of those who originally constituted the 
company had been considerably scattered, and many entirely 
unknown. An Act of Parliament was therefore procured 
authorizing the sale of the land, and Dr. Fothcrgill, Daniel 
Zachary, Thomas How, Deboreaux Bowly, Luke Kindc, 
Richard How, Jacob Hagen, Sylvanus Grove and William 
Heron, were the agents appointed to superintend the business. 
Their attorneys in this country were Samuel Shoemaker, 
Jacob Cooper and Joshua Howell. In 1762, sales were ac- 
cordingly effected to the great satisfaction of the occupants of 
the land, who had generally made considerable improvements, 
cleared away the wood, and erected comfortable farm-houses, 
and out-buildings, many of them not being altogether aware of 
titles; but supposing that they were possessed of a fee simple 
estate in soil — the prices however at which they were held, 
were not unreasonable ; each settler, it is believed, with few 
exceptions, purchased the tract upon which he was seated. — 
There were a few squatters who were not willing to comply. 
The case of Ilormbinc. is still remembered by some of the 
descendants of the first settlers on the London Lands. One 
Richard Brazier had squatted in the vicinity of the Slay- 
makers. Brazier died, left a widow and some money — Horra- 
bine made suit to, and married the widow. He forged a deed 
for a London tract — the misdating of three days exposed the 
forgery — and he was tried, convicted, cropped and sent to 
Honduras Bay to chop Logwood. His family was left penny- 

*These are to authorize and require thee without any delay 
to survey or cause to be surveyed all that tract of land lying 
between Sasquahanuah river and Conestogo creek, from the 


from 1706 to 1733, when Benjamin Eastburn was 

mouth of said creek as far up the river as the land already 
granted to Peter Chartier, and then by a line running from the 
said river to Conestogo creek, all which tract of land for the 
proper use and behoof of William Penn, Esq., proprietary 
and Governor in Chief the said Province, his heirs and assigns 
forever. Given under our hands, March 1, 1717-18. The 
Manor was afterwards divided and sold to purchasers. 


Note. — This survey included rising of 16,000. It was after- 
wards sold in small tracts and patented. The following were 
the principal patentees: Israel Pemberton held 300 acres, date 
of his patent, October 1st, 1723. The Messrs. Wrights ov.n 
1500 acres— date of patent, December 13, 1735— sold after- 
wards in smaller parcels to John Herr, Andrew Stineman, 
Daniel Lintner, Jacob Killhaver, Rudy Herr, Jacob Frantz,^ 
Godfrey Klugh, Mathew Oberholtzer, Rudy Herr, Jr., John 
Killhaver, Christian Hershy, Andrew Kauffman— James Patti- 
son, 107 acres, Nov. 21, 1734, James Logan, 700 acres, patent 
dated July 15, 1737, afterwards held by George Brenner, 
Philip Brenner, Christian Stouffer, Casper Souter, Adam 
Fisher, Valentine Rummel, Law^rence Clifier, Christian Stake 
—Michael Baughman, 499, Michael Mayer, 131 acres, both 
same date, Feb. 20, 1738, Michael Mayer, sen., 217 acres, 
patent dated October 16, 1737, Abraham Steiner, 63 acres, 
May 3, 1740, John Wistler, 167 acres, July 3, 1741, Jacob 
Kuntz, 166, Anna Ottila Betty Kofi'er, 166, Jacob Hostetter, 
475, John Shank, 197 acres, patent dated July 30, 1741, Edward 
Smout, 113 acres, June 21, 1743, Michael Baughman, 339, May 
28, 1752, Abraham Hare, 424, April 22, 17.51, Jacob V/istler, 
125, Valentine Miller, 140, both May 25, 1756, Martin Funk, 
•237, Dec. 18, 1758, Jacob Wistler, 202, Jacob Shuck, 155, Aug. 
18, 17.59, Abraham and John Miller, 89, Valentine Haith, 29, 
Robert Beatty, 226, Feb. 1760, Samuel Herr, 247, John Keagy, 
188, Henry Funk, 150, Jacob Wistler, 173, Ludwich and 
Frederick Ziegler, 209 June, 1760, John Witmer, 77, Abraham 
3Iillcr, 204, Rudolph Herr, 176, Jacob Witmer, 77, Nov. 1761, 


Passing, we would add the remark, that "technically 
sperCking, there were no Manors, (that is, lands belong- 
ing to a Lord or Nobleman, or so much land as a Lord 
formerly kept in his own hands for the use and sub- 
sistence of his family) in Pennsylvania, although the 
proprietaiy's tithes, and other large surveys for them, 
were so called." 

The settlement of the Ferrees and Lefevres, received 
a considerable augmentation about this time. The 
promising fniitfulness of the country, beside other 
advantages, attracted settlers, among them were the 
Slaymakers, Witmers, Lightners, Eschelman, Herr, 
Hershey, Espenshade, Baer, Groff, Graaf, Zimmerman, 
Koenig, Keneagy, Denlinger, Beck, Saudor, Becker, 
Roam, and many others. 

James M'Mastcr, 247, April, 1761, John Keagy, 159, Henry- 
Funk, 177, David Hare, 195, John Miller, 150, George Adam 
Dustier, 112, John Correll, 209, Christian Stoner, 244, all dated 
1761, Michael Kauffman, 116, John Kauffman, 118, Jacob 
Kauffman, 167, Christian Kauttman, 163, Michael Kauffman, 
118, Abi-aham Steiner,200, John Wormely, 115, Jacob Whistler, 
19, John Kreemer, 184, Bartholomew Butt, 40, John Graff, 
136, all dated 1762, Philip Ulweiler, 39, Benjamin Miller, 220, 
David Hare, Jr. 94, Tetcr Snyder, 86, Henry Atkinson and 
Adam Eigging, 49, Peter Witmer, 132, dated 1763, John Miller, 
m, Jan, 19, 1764, John Newcomer, 109, Joseph Nelson, 109, 
Jacob Wisler, 178, Mary Wright, 1-19, dated 1767, John Kendrick, 
.'>58, James Pratt, 232, 1768, Henry Buckley, 150, 1769, William 
Wright, 257, 1770, Ulrich Rcbur, 232, John Manning, 165, 
1772^, Jacob Ashlcman, 340, 1774, Indian Town, 414, Blue 
Rock;, 800 acres. We omitted fractions of acres. 

Note. — Thomas Pcnn estimated the value of Conestoga 
Manor, being 65 miles from the city of Philadelphia, 13,400, at 
£40 per hundred acres, £5,360, Pennsylvania currency.-^ 
There is no date to the paper from which we made the extract. 
Sparks^ Fraiiklin, III. 553. 


A settlement was also commenced in the interior of 
the county ; Hans Graaf located at the head of a small 
stream, known by the name of Grove's run, in West E^rl 
township.* He was joined next year by Mr. Wenger, 

*Hans Graaf fled from Switzerland to Alsace, with one of 
his brothers, about the year 1695 or 96, he came to Germantown, 
where he remained a short time; afterwards settled on Grove's 
Run, in Earl township, both of which were named in honor of 
him. The following circumstance, as related to us by one of 
his lineal descendants, will show the reader how Graaf was led 
to settle in Graaf s Thaal; for this is the name by which the 
settlement is known to this day : 

His horses having strayed from Pequea; while in pursuit of 
them in a northern direction from the inhabited parts, he dis- 
covered a fine spring in a heavily timbered spot; the head of 
Grove's Run. In this elysian dale, said he, will I fix my per- 
manent abode. He nevertheless pursued his horses till he 
found them, and returned to Pequea. A short time afterwards 
he made a disposition of his effects. Now he returned to the 
spring, and about one-half mile down, on the north side, he 
erected a cabin under a large AVlfite Oak tree, in which he, his 
wife and an only child, stayed all winter. In the spring of the 
year, having secured by a warrant, dated November 22,1717, a 
large tract of land, he erected a house near the cabin. The 
spot where he erected the house in the spring of 1718, is still 
pointed out by his progenitors. At this time, as was common 
with the aborigines in all the new settlements, the Indians called 

frequently at his house to sell baskets and Hickory brooms. 

Mr. Graaf had six sons; as soon as some of them were grown 
up, he turned his attention to dealing in blankets, and other 
articles of merchandize, which he procured at Philadelphia, 
and took them to Harris's Ferry, on the Susquehanna, and 
exchanged them for skins, furs and the like. 

He spoke, it is said, the Indian language fluently. \Vhen 
one of the sons drove, the old gentleman accompanied him, 
riding a fine steed, for he kept none but fine horses. On one 
cccsaion, as his team was returning to Philadelphia, Peter, the 
oldest, was driving, in crossing the Brandywine, which was 
very flush at the time, he was in danger of a watery grave ; 



one of whose grand-sons, Joseph Weiiger, occupies the 

From and after 1718, settlements, in their incipient 
stages, had been pretty general throughout the greater 
part of tlie county. The JNIill Creek Settlement, and 
others, were commenced about the year 1719, or 20. 

About tlie year 1708, Alexander Mack, of Shriesheim, 
and seven others in Schwarzenau, Germany, met in a 
religious capacity ; from which society, arose, what is 
well linown, the Tunkers, or First Day German Bap- 
tists; and who, though apparently inoffensive, were 
made subjects of persecution, and were driven by force 
of oppression into Holland, some to Creyfels, and the 
mother church voluntarily removed to Senistervin, in 
Friesland, and thence emigrated to America, in 1719, 
and dispersed to different parts in Pennsylvania, some to 
Conestoga, some to Mill Creek, some to Oley, some to 
Skippack, some remained at Germantown, where they 

the father on a lofty steed, rode in, took the young fellow on 
his own horse behind him, and seizing the lines, drove safely- 
through the rushing stream. 

He raised six sons, Peter, David, the grandfather of John 
Graaf our informant, John, Daniel, Marcus and Samuel, 
\vho was known as Graaf, der Jaeger, the huntsman. 

Hans Graaf, after having served his day and generation, the 
public also on several occasions,! and having divided his land 
among his sons, died, leaving a large family connection. — 
Perhaps there is no family in the county, more numerous 
respectable and useful citizens than the Graafs. So, without 
doubt, the magistrates and inhabitants of Lancaster county 
thought, when they met to settle upon the bounds and give 
names to townships, June 9, 1729: they had regard to the worth 
of thi.s family in calling one of the townships, after the first set- 
tlers of Graaf, i. e. Earl township. 

fCol. Rcc. III. 420— G73. 


formed a church in 1723, under the charge of Peter 

Among the early settlers on Mill Creek, were Conrad 
Beissel, a man of some notoriety in the religious 
history of the county, Joseph Shaeffer, Hans Meyer, 
Henry Hoehn, and several Landises. 

The settlement near and around Lancaster, began to 
increase. Francis Neff, Hans Henry Neff, Doctor of 
Physic, who, and his descendants, are well known, Roody 
Mire, Michael Shank, Jacob Imble, and others, having 
settled here for some time. Lancaster was com- 
menced about the year 1721, or 1722. " The settlements 
about the Indian villages of Conestoga were considera- 
bly advanced in improvements at this time ; the land 
thereabouts being exceedingly rich; it is now (1721) 
surrounded with divers fine plantations, or farms, where 
they raise quantities of wheat, barley, flax and hemp, 
without the help of any dung."* 

According to tradition, where Lancaster is now built, 
was once an Indian wigwam ; a Hickory tree stood in its 
centre, not far from a spring ; under this, the councils 
met, and it was from one of these that a deputation was 
sent to confer with William Penn, at Shackamaxon, 
1683. The Indian nation was called Hickory, and the 
town was called Hickory Town, before Lancaster was 
laid outt "Gibson, tavern-keeper, had a Hickory tree 
painted upon his sign, about the year 1722. His tavern 
was situated near where Slaymaker's Hotel was for 
many years, now occupied by the Hon. Benjamin 

•-Proud, II. 128, 

fAccording to Gordon, Lancaster was originally laid out in 
1728, by James Hamilton, Esq. of Philadeldhia, at the request, 
it is said, of the proprietaries, but certainly with a design on 
the part of the founder to increase his estate. 


Champneys, on East King street." Another Indian 
town was built on a flat land north-east of Hardwick, 
the seat of the late William Coleman, Esq., and a Poplar 
ti-ee was the emblem of the tribe, whence their name was 
derived ; this wigwam was situated near Conestoga, and 
the tree stood upon its bank. 

About the time that Lancaster was building, some 
persons, without any warrant for land, settled on the 
west side of the Susquehanna. There was one John 
Grist, very abusive to the Indians, so much so, that they 
complained to the Governor of the mal-treatment re- 
ceived at the hands of this squatter. He was rather a 
reckless character; he, and his accomplices, were auda- 
cious, contemned the authority of Government. John 
Cartledge, Esq., by a warrant under the hand and seal 
of the Governor, raised a Posse Comitatus with instruc- 
tions to burn and destroy Grist's, and his accomplices, 
dwellings; Cartledge did not, however, enforce v/ith 
stem rigidness the letter of his instructions ; but simply 
warned and admonished ihem forthwith to relinquish the 
lands they had unlawfully taken possession of. Grist, 
notwithstanding this pointed warning, refused to remove ; 
whereupon the Indians did destroy some of their cattle. 
Grist, with the fool hardihood of an inured transgressor, 
repaired to Philadelphia to raise complaint against the 
Indians. His contumacious behavior, which was con- 
sidered insolent and seditious, procured him lodgings in 
jail. The Board, who were moved in compassion for 
his poor family, granted him conditional release from 
prison. He returned home in Aug. 1722, and removed 
his family after he had gathered his corn.t 

Some time in the latter cud of April, 1719, the 
Indians at Conestoga addressed a letter to Mr. Logan. 

fCol. Roc. III. 133-5. 


Secretary, informing, through him, the Governor, that 
some of their Indians, while on a hunting expedition, 
were attacked near the head of Potomack river, by a 
body of southern Indians who had come out to war 
against the Five Nations, and the Indian settlements on 
Susquehamia; that the southern Indians had killed 
several of their people, by which those at Conestoga 
were so much alarmed that, in their opinion, " The care- 
ful attention and vigilance of Government was never 
more called upon than at this juncture." 

Measures were adopted by Government, "towards 
quieting the minds of the Indians, and also to prevent 
incursions upon them from southern Indians. In a letter 
from them, to the Governor, in the beginning of June, 
the Indians at Conestoga stated, "that if any of them had 
done amiss, and departed from what was right and good, 
in not strictly keeping their promises, and observing 
peace with all the Indians in friendship and league with 
the English, they would, having admitted their errors 
and mistakes, offend no more, in that nature or case." 

Immediately on the receipt of the letter, in question, 
CoL French was sent to Conestoga, by the advice of the 
Board, to treat with the Indians. French met them 
at Conestoga, on the 2Sth of June, 1719; on that day, he 
spoke to them, as follows : 

Friends and Brothers: 

" By the seal to this paper affixed, and my old ac- 
quaintance and friendship with you, you will believe me 
that I am a true man, and sent from your good friend 
and brother, the Governor of Pennsylvania, to let you 
know tliat he is well pleased and satisfied with the letter 
he received by the care of our good friend, John Cart- 
ledge, in the beginning of this month, signed in behalf 
of your nations here met, in which letter you declare, 



severally, your iiiteiitions of keeping his words, and if 
any amongst you have done amiss, and departed from 
what was right and good in keeping your promises, to 
observe, strictly, peace with all the Indians m friendship 
ajid league with the English, you have therein 
acknowledged your errors and mistakes, and engaged to 
offend no more hi that nature or case. 

The Governor takes these assurances of your good 
behavior very kindly, and now he and his council have 
sent me on purpose to visit you that I might further 
treat witli you, and receive you in the same manner, and 
as fully as he and his council, of which I am a one, were 
all here and present with you, so well begun with our 
good friend, John Cartledge, and that I might more fully 
and largely give him an account of your affairs, and how 
matters go with you. I must, therefore, acquaint you 
from my Governor, that as you, in your treaty, call 
yourselves his children, he will always trust you as his 
sons, and that he has ever since your good friend, 
AVilliam Penn, who is now dead, sent amongst you, and 
endeavored by all means to keep you in peace, and given 
you other tokens of his friendship, that you might 
flourish and increase, that your old men might see their 
children grow up to their comfort and pleasure, and that 
the young men might bury their old parents v/hcn tlicy 
die, which is much better than to see your old people 
momii for their young sons, who rashly, and without 
cause, go to war and are killed in the prime of their 
years ; and he hopes now that you arc all fully con- 
vinced that peace is belter than war, which destroys you 
and will Ijring you to nothing ; your strong yoimg people 
being first killed, the old women and children are left 
defenceless, who soon will become a prey: and so all 
the nation perishes without leaving a name to posterity. 


This is a plain mark that he and we are your true 
friends; for, if we were not, then we would encourage 
you to destroy one another: for friends save people from 
ruin and destruction, but enemies destroy them. And 
this will serve as a mark to know all people by, Avho 
are your enemies, either amongst you or elsewhere, if 
they want, or study to throw strife and dissention 
amongst you: these are a base and bad people, and 
ought to be rooted out from amongst you; for love and 
friendship make people multiply, but malice and strife 
ruin and destroy. Such should, therefore, be shut out, 
both from you and us, as disturbers of oiu- peace and 
friendship which have always continued. 

I am also to acquaint you, that you have in a grave 
and solemn manner renewed your last treaty with me, on 
which message I am now come, that our Governor v/ill 
write to all the Governors of the English that the Indians 
within his Government are resolved to live peaceably 
and quietly, and for that reason that they should give 
notice to all their Indians thereof, and that all the friends 
to the English should be accoimted as one people, and 
the Government desires you will let him know o£ 
what nation these Indians were who gave you the 
late disturbance, that they may especially be ordered to 
do so no more. 

I am also to acquaint you that it is the Governor's 
pleasure that if any of the Five Nations came amongst 
you to trade or hunt, that you receive them as friends 
and brothers; but if they come amongst you, either to 
persuade you to go to War or to go themselves, or in 
their return from it, that then you have nothing to do 
with them nor entertain them ; for he expects that none 
of his friends will Imow any people but such as are 


pea^jeable, lest they bring you into a snare and you suflfer 
hurt for their faults. 

The Governor expects and requires, that if any 
prisoners, by any means whatever, fall into any of your 
hands, that he be quickly acquainted with it, and that 
no person offer to take upon him to kill any stranger 
prisoner, for it will not be suffered here. He has been 
much displeased at what happened, and was done by 
some amongst you last year in these parts, but is now 
again a friend upon their promise and engagement to do 
so no more, and Avill take no more notice of it, if they 
observe and fulfil the'it words. It is indeed, a shameful 
and base thing to treat a creature of their own sliaj^e 
and kind worse and more barbarously than they would 
a bear or wolf, or the most Avicked creature upon earth. 
It is not man-like to see a hundred or more people sing- 
ing songs of joy for the taking of a prisoner, but it is 
much worse to see them use all their contrivances of 
torture and pain, to put that unfortunate creature to 
de^th after such a manner, and was as other nations, 
especially the English, now heard of; for if they in a 
just war kill their enemies, it is like men, in the battle, 
and if they take them prisoners, they use them well 
and kindly, until their King gives orders to return them 
to their own country. They take no pleasure meanly to 
biun, pinch or slash, a poor man who cannot defend 
himself, it shows mean spirits and want of true courage 
to do so. For men of true courage are always fidl of 
mercy. I am commanded to tell you,, and should have 
you remember it well, that no person whatever offer, 
after this time, to put any man to death by torture here, 
for whosoever does it must answer it to the Governor 
and Government at their peril. It is inconsistent with 
the ways of nations ; it is a violent affront to our Govern- 


ment, and is contrary to the laws of the Great King, 
who will not suffer it. 

As our mutual and good friendship has long con- 
tinued; so the Governor hopes, and the Government 
also, that it will last from one generation to another, as 
long as the sun endures ; and that we shall be of one 
mind, one heart, one inclination, ready to help one 
another in all just and good ways, by charity, compas- 
sion and mercy, sticking closely and inviolately to all 
treaties heretofore made ; and most exactly to this now 
concluded, which he hopes will forever last and remain 
to your good and prosperity, which he and this Govern- 
ment heartily wish ; and it is expected that every article 
of this treaty be from the whole hearts of all of you ; so, 
if amongst yourselves, you know of any who have from 
your last treaty, or will dissent from this, let them be 
known either by their own words or your knowledge of 
them, for what I do, I have done with the whole consent 
of our Governor, council and people." 

Col. John French, in company with Capt. James 
Gould, Joseph Pigeon, John Cartledge and James Hen- 
drickson, met the next day in council at Conestoga. — 
There were present, on part of the Indians, Canatowa, 
Queen of the Mmgoes, Sevana, King of the ShaAvenese, 
Wightomina, King of the Delawares, Wininehack, 
Kuag of the Canawages, and Captain Civility, of 

Civility, interpreter, in behalf of the four nations, 
who all agreed to return one answer, acquainted John 
Cartledge, interpreter for the English, that this day the 
Indians were met to return an answer to the Governor's 
speech by Colonel French, and no other account. — 
Looking upon every thing said to Colonel French to be 
said as if the Governor and his council were then 


present, and Colonel French to be a ti'uc man to the 
Government and to the Indians ; they return with one 
heart and mind their thanks to the Governor for this 
kind message. They meet him and take him by the 
hand, and are forever determined that his will shall 
be tlieirs, and that, on all occasions, tJiey will be ruled by 

They desire that the Governor may bo acquainted 
that tliey are much pleased that his message came 
whilst their young people were at home, for whom they 
had lately been in pain and trouble as being absent or 
aibroad, that they might hear his good words and counsel, 
which both old and young of the Mingoes, Shawanese, 
Delawares and Conawages, are resolved to hearken to-, 
for tliough hitherto they have taken night for day, yet 
now by his good counsel they can see the light and 
what is good for them. They are glad that none of 
their 3^oung people miscarried in their late journey, and 
that being now present, they have an opportunity of 
heai'ing the Governor's message by Col. French, for 
most of them were, when the other letters from the 
Governor came, also that they have an opportunity to 
ask their opinions and designs. Their young people 
agree to obey the Governor's words and message. Aiul 
ais Colonel French yesterday told them, that wliat he 
said was with the whole heart of Governor and council ; 
so tliey declare that what they say is not from their 
mouths only, but from their whole hearts, and the heari 
of every one. They desire the Governor to believe, and 
be assured that they will be obedient to his words, and 
that tlicy ever have, and ever will, advise their young 
people to bo mindful of his good advice. They 
acknowledge themselves so much obliged to the Go- 
vernor for Ills care and concern for them, tliat they intend 


m two months' time to wait upon the Governor 
personalb/j to return their hearty thanks for such lov-e 
from him and his Government." 

James Logan, Secretary, being on business up the 
fartlier end of the Great Valley, on the road to Cones- 
toga, went to the Susquehanna, at the request of the 
Governor, where he, by appointment with the Indians, 
Who were desirous to speak with him on the 27th of 
June, met them at the house of John Cartledge. The 
dhiefs of the Mingoes or Conestogoe Indians, the sachem 
or chief of the Shawanese, the chief of the Ganawese, 
with several of their people and some of the Delawares, 
had assembled there ; John Cartledge and Peter Bi- 
zaillon, interpreter, having seated themselves; James 
Logan addi-essed the Indians, "telling them that as they 
had been long expected at Philadelphia, in pursuance of 
their own messages for that purpose; but instead of 
coming, had lately sent to the Governor, desiring some 
rea^ns that he would come up to them. Here their old 
friends, with whom they had been acquainted in their 
treaties for twenty years past, being now come on 
business into these parts were v/illing to hear from 
themselves, not only how it was with them, but the 
occasion of their delaying their journey to Philadelpliia 
so long, and at length sendmg the said message to the 
Governor. They hereupon sat silent without appearing 
ready to speak to any thing, and making no return, the 
secretary pressed them to answer him, telling them that 
he asked these questions in behalf of the Governor and 
Government, that they themselves had appeared desi- 
rous to speak to him, and that as they now had an 
opportunity they ought to proceed and speak their minds 
freely. To which at length they answered, that there 
had been lately killed, by the southern Indians, twelve 


men ; two of the Mingoes or Five Nations and two 
Shawanese, about one lumdred and sixty miles from 
that place, which was the occasion of their sending that 
message. James Logan asked them, whether these two 
Shawanese had been abroad hunting: they answered, 
no ! Tliey had gone out to war. He then demanded 
the reason why they would offer to go to war after their 
solemn promises to our Government to the contrary. 
The chief of the Shawanese replied, that a dispute aris- 
ing among some of their young men, who was the best 
man, to end it, they resolved to make the trial by going 
to war, that they could not be restrained, but took the 
opportunity of accompanying some of the Five Nations 
that were going out and took their road that way. 

The Secretary told them he should have a great deal 
to say to them on these heads, and that the day being 
now far advanced, he must desire them to meet him in 
the same place in the morning, and then treating them 
with some drink Avithdrew. 

Next morning the same persons attended, bringing 
some bundles of skins with them; from whence it being 
conjectured that the Indians designed to begin a discourse. 
All being seated, after some time spent in silence, the 
Mingoes or Conestogoe Indians began ; a Ganawese In- 
dian, who called him Capt. Smith, and is said to speak 
all the several languages, viz : his own, or the Ganawese, 
the Mingoe, the Shanawese and Delaware, to perfection, 
being appointed interpreter into the Delaware tongue, 
and Peter Bizaillon and John Cartledge iiiterpreting into 
English. They spoke as follows : 

" The last year Colonel French came to them on a 
message from the GoTernor, to inquire into their health, 
and how it was with them, their children and grand- 


That they were not then ready to give an answer 
to all that he said to them, but that now they would 
speak freely from the bottom of their hearts, and their 
friends might depend on not having words only, but 
their truest inwald sentiments without reserve: and then 
they laid down a bundle of undressed deer skins. 

That Col. French and those with him told them from 
the Governor that the message the Governor sent them, 
and the advice he gave them, were from his heart and for 
their good, and they would as freely speak from their 
hearts. The Governor advised them to go out no more 
to war, nor to join with any of the Five Nations, or 
others that went out for that purpose, but to live at 
peace with all people, and if any prisoners were brought 
to their towns, they should not suffer them to be burned 
or toptured. That though some of their people were 
killed once or again, yet they should not go out, but bear 
it, but the third time they might all go out as one man 
together ; that this they thought was somewhat too hard 
upon them, if they must be as prisoners at home, and 
could not go to meet their enemies that came against 
them; thai when Governor Penn first held councils 
with them, he promised them so much love and friend- 
ship that he would not call them brothers, because 
brothers might differ, nor children, because these might 
offend and require correction, but he would reckon them 
as one body, one blood, one heart and one head; that 
they always remembered this, and should on their parts 
act accordingly; that five of the old men who were at 
those councils were living; these were removed, and 
tliose who were then very young are now grown up to 
s-uoceed, but transmitted it to their children, and they and 
all theirs should remember it forever; that they regarded 
not reports, or what was said abroad, their head was at 



Philadelphia, and they were one with him ; on him they 
depended that tliey should know eveiy thing that con- 
cerned them. 

The Ganawesc, in behalf of their people say, they are 
glad that they never heard any thing from the Govern- 
ment at Philadelphia, but good advice, and what is for 
their advantage ; that their present chief was once at a 
council with William Pemi before they removed into this 
province, and that since they came into it, they have 
always lived quiet and in peace, which they acknowledge, 
and are thankful for it; that the advice that is sent them 
is always so much for their good that they cannot but 
gladly receive it. When the sim sets they sleep in 
peace, and in peace they rise with him, and so continue 
while he continues his course, and think themselves 
happy in their friendship, Avhich they shall take care to 
have continued from generation to generation. And 
that as it shall thus forever continue on their side, so 
they desire the same may continue on the Governor's 
part; and that if any reports should be heard concerning 
them, they desire it may not be believed to their disad- 
vantage, for they will still be true and the same they at 
first professed themselves; and then laid down a bundle 
of deer skins, 

Tlic Conestogas say : ^ 

That William Penn made a league with them to last 
for three or four generations ; that he is now dead, and 
most of their ancients are also dead, but the league of 
friendship continues strong, and shall forever continue so 
on their part. And this is not said on behalf of them- 
selves, the Mingoes only, but of all the Indians on the 
river; and they gave another bundle of deer skins. 
Captain Civility threw down a small bundle of furs, 
saying : 


" That they all join and sent that as a present to the 
GoTemor to make him a beaver hat. They say in 
behalf of the Ganawese, that they have no writing to 
show their league of friendship as the others have, and 
therefore desire they may be favored with one lest, if they 
should transgress by reason of rum, which was brought 
to them in too large quantities, they may be cast off 
and forgotten that ever they were in friendship with us." 

The Indians being met again after some refreslmaents, 
the secretary spoke to them as follows : 

"It must be a great satisfaction to all honest and good 
men to find that the measures that great man, William 
Perm, took to establish a firm friendship with you had 
such excellent success. Your predecessors and you 
always found him sincere in what he professed. He 
always ordered all those in power during his absence to 
show you all the like friendship and affection. Every 
Governor that has been the same to you, and the present 
Governor, Colonel Keith, showed the same disposition 
immediately upon his arrival, by hastening up to you 
with his council and many of his friends as soon as he 
heard you were in trouble. 

You, on your part, have been faithful and true to us, 
whatever reports might be spread, yet the chain was 
still preserved strong and bright. We have lived in 
perfect peace and unity above any other Government in 
America. And you renewing the chain at this time upon 
the decease of your great friend with us who remain 
alive, is so affectionate and kind that I shall not fail to 
represent it duly to the Governor and your good friends 
in Philadelphia. Tliis chain has been made forty years 
ago; it is at this time strong and bright as ever, and I 
hope will continue so between our children and your 
children, and their children's children to all generations 


while the waier flows or the sun shines in the heavens; 
and may the Great Spirit, who rules the heavens and the 
earth, and who made and supported us all, who is a friend 
to all good men who love justice and peace, contume the 
same blessings upon it forever. 

But my friends and brothers,, as we are obliged to care 
for each other, and as the English have opportunities of 
seeing farther than you, I find myself obliged, in behalf 
of the Governor and Government, to offer you some 
advice that may be of great importance to you, and 
which at this time is absolutely necessary. 

You acquainted me yesterday with a loss you had 
sustained, viz : that twelve men, ten of the Five Nations 
and two Shawanese, had been lately cut off by the 
southern Indians, not two hundred miles from this place, 
which grieves me exceedingly. 

I am scarcely willing to mention the cause of it,, lest I 
sliould trouble you, but I must do it for your good; 
I should not be your true friend should I forbear. 

You know then, my brothers, that the cause is thai 
some of your young men have unadvisedly gone out to 
war in comjmny ivith others of the Five Nations 
against the southern Indians. Young men love to go 
sometimes to war to show their manhood, but they have 
unhappily gone against Indians that are in friendship 
with the English. You know, that as of the Five 
Nations, some are called Isawandswaes, some Cayoogoes, 
some Anondogecs, some Oneyookes, and some Con- 
nyinngoes, yet they are all one people ; so the English, 
though they have different Governments, and are divided 
into New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland, Virginia and Carolina, yet they are all 
under one great king wlio has twenty times as many 
subjects as all these, and has ui one city as many 


subjects as all the Indians we know are in North 
America. To him we are all subject and are all 
governed by the same laws; therefore, those Indians 
who are in league with one Government are in league 
with all ; your friendship with us recommends you to the 
friendship of all other English Governments, and 
their friends are our friends. You must not, therefore, 
hurt or amioy any of the English or any of their friends 

Those southern Indians, especially the Tootelese, 
formerly made friendship with you, and I believe it was 
them who lately sent you nine belts of wampum to con- 
tinue the league. They desired peace, yet the Five 
Nations, and some of your rash young men have set 
upon them : pray, remember, they are men as well as 
you; consider, therefore, I request, what you would 
thinlv of yourselves, should you suffer these or any other 
people to come year after year and cut off your towns, 
your wives and children, and those that escape should sit 
still and not go out against them;, you would not then 
deserve to be accounted men; and as they, you find, are 
men, it is no wonder if they come out to meet these 
young fellows and endeavor to destroy those whose 
business it is to destroy them and their families." 

I must further, my friend, lay before you the conse- 
quence of your suffering any of yovu young men to join 
with those of the Five Nations. They come through 
your towns and bring back their prisoners through your 
settlements, thus they open a clear path from these 
southern Indians to your towns, and they who have 
been wrong may follow that open path, and first com.e 
directly as the path leads to you. Thus you have done 
but Ihtle, and by the instigation and advice of others 
may be the first that are fallen upon, wliile those of the 



Five Nations are safe at home, at a great distance with 
their wives and children, and you may be the only 

They have hitherto come out to meet their enemies 
who were going to attack them, and like men they fight 
tliem ; but as I am your friend, I must further inform you 
that these people would come quite up to your towns to 
do the same to you that they haA'e suffered, but your 
being settled among the English has hitherto preserved 
you, for the Governors of Virginia and Carolina can no 
longer hinder them from defendhig themselves. They 
desired peace, and would live in peace, if it miglit be 
granted them. 

I must further inform you, as youi" friend, that this 
whole business of making war in the manner you do, is 
now owing to those who desire nothing more than to see 
all the Indians cut off, as well to the northward as to the 
southward, that is the French of Canada, for they would 
have the .Five Nations to destroy the southern nations, 
the destruction of all being their desire. The Governor 
told you, by Col. French, that they were your enemies 
who put you upon war; and they are your truest 
friends, who would preserve you in peace ; hearken to 
the advice of your friends, and you will bo preserved. — 
You see your numbers yearly lessen ; I have known 
above three score men belonging to this town,.andnov/- 
I see not five of tlie old men remaining. 

What the Governor has said to you by myself and by 
Colonel French, and what I now say to you is for your 
own advantage, and if you arc your own friends you 
will i)ursue the advice that is given you. If any of the 
Five Nations come this way in their going to war, and 
call on any of you to accompany them, you must inform 
lliem as you are in league with us, and are our people* 


you camiot break your proinises, and it cannot but be 
pleasing to them to- see you live in such friendship with 
us. I have said enough on these heads, and you- 1 hope 
will lay it 'dp in your hearts, and duly observe it : let it 
sink into your minds, for it is of gi'eat weight. 

The Ganawese have behaved themselves well since 
they came amongst us, and they shall have what they 
desire. Your people of Conestogoe, about twenty years 
ago, brought the Shawanese to Philadelphia to see and 
treat with Governor Penn, and then promised the 
Governor that they would answer for the Shawanese 
that they would live peaceably and in friendship with us, 
but we find their ears are thick, they do not hear what 
we say to them, nor regard our advice. 

Tlie chief of the Shawanese answered to this with 
deep concern ; that this was occasioned by the young 
men who lived under no Government ; that when their 
king, who was then living, Opessah, took the Govern- 
ment upon him, but the people differed with him; he left 
them, they had no chief, therefore some of them applied 
to him to take that charge upon him, but tlmt he had 
only the nation without any authority, and would do 
nothing. He counselled them, but they would not obey, 
therefore he cannot answer for them ; and divers that 
were present, both English and Indians, confirmed the 
trath of this. 

The secretary hereupon admonished him and the rest 
to take a further care, that what had been said should 
be pressed upon the young people and duly observed ; 
and tlien callmg for liquor and drinking with them 
dismissed them. 

But the ludians, before they would depart, earnestly 
pressed that an account of this treaty should, with all 
possible speed, be despatched to the Governors to the. 

\52^ HISTORT' OP- 

southward, and to their Indians, that further mischief 
might be prevented; for they were apprehensive the 
southern Indians might come out to meet the Five 
Nations, and then they, as had been said to them, lying 
in the road might be the sufferers, but they truly desired 
peace, and were always against molesting any Indians 
tliat were under the protection or lived in friendship - 
with the English. 

The secretary then proposed to them that they should 
send some of their people with beUs of wampum to the 
Governor of Virginia, to assure him of their resolution 
to live in peace, and to desire him to acquaint all his 
Indians with the same. They readily agreed to send 
belts without delay, and promised the following week to 
bring tliem to Philadelphia; but they seemed appre- 
hensive of danger to their people in going to Virginia, 
where they were all strangers, unless the Governor 
would send some English in company with them to 
protect them. 

After this conference was ended, Civility desired to 
speak with the secretary in private, and an opportunity 
being given, he acquainted the secretary that some of 
the Five Nations, especially the Cayoogoes, had at divers 
times expressed a dissatisfaction at the large settlements 
made by the English on the Susquehanna, and that 
they seemed to claim a property or right to those lands- 
The secretary answered, that he (Civility) and all the 
nations were sensible of the contrary, and that the Five 
Nations had long since made over all their right to Sus- 
quehaima to the Government of New York,* and tliat 

•William Pcnn had engaged Thomas Dongan, late Governor 
of New York, to make a purchase of these lands. Dongan,, 
(January 13th, 1G9G,) conveyed by deeds to William Pcnn all 
that tract of land lying on both sides of the river Susquehanna,. 


Governor Penn had purchased that right with which 
they had been fully acquainted. Civility aclmowledged 
tiie truth of this, hut proceeded to say he thought it his 
duty to inform us of it, that we might the better prevent 
all misunderstanding." 

The following week they redeemed their promises "to- 
send their belts of wampum without delay to Philadel- 
phia." The Conestogos sent their belts by Tagoleless or 
Civility, Oyanowhachso, Sohais Connedechto's son and 
Tayucheinjch : the Ganawese, by Ousewayteichks or 
Captain Smith, Sahpechtah, Meemeeivoonnook, Win- 
jock's son, George Waapessum and John Prince : Ken- 
neope carried the Shawanese belt of wampum. 

He informed them that he was pleased to hear that 
they were disposed to be peaceable, and that he would,, 
with all possible despatch, send a message to the south, 
to acquaint the Indians there of their peaceable inten- 
tions ; but as it would require some time to do this fully, 
he advised those present, and through them then about 
Susquehanna, to take care of themselves and keep out of 
the warrior's paths till a full and perfect peace and good 
understanding can be settled. 

The Governor and council sent Samuel Robins to 
Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, with these belts; he 
delivered them ; and returned in March following, with 
two belts from, the Indians of Virginia, which were sent 

and the Lakes adjacent, in or near the province of Pennsyl- 
vania, in consideration of £100 sterling: beginning at the 
mountains, or head of the said river, and running as far as, 
and into the bay of Chesapeak, which the said Thomas lately 
purchased of, or had given him by the Susquehanna Indians, 
witii warranty from the Susquehanna Indians. — Sjnith, II. Ill, 
112. This purchase was confirmed in 1700,. when Penn held 
a treaty with the Mingoes; and subsequently at a meeting at 
Conestoga it was again confirmed.— C'oZ. Rec. III. 95. 


to those of Conestogoe, assuring them that they " will 
not in future pass over Potomack river to eastward or 
northward, or the high ridge mountains extending along 
tJie back of Virginia: Provided, That those of Cones- 
togo, and those to the northward, shall not pass over 
Potomack into Virginia, to the southward, nor shall go 
over to the eastward of the said ridge of mountains." — 
Jolm Cartledge delivered them the belts and interpreted 
the messa2;e. 


Governor Keith visits the Governor of Virginia — Holds a council with, 
tlie Indians at Conestoga — Indians complain of the use of rum, &c. — 
Their trade in pelts impaired — Secretary Logan holds a discourse with 
Ghesaont— Ghesaont's reply, &c. — Disturbances created by intruders 
under pretence of finding coppermines, &:c. — Governor Keith lias a 
survey of lands made on the West side of Susquehanna — Indians 
alarmed by Maryland intruders — Logan, French and Sheriil'of the county 
hold a council at Conestoga — Keith determines to resist attempted 
foicroachments by tlie Marylanders — A council is held at Conestoga — 
Springetsburg manor surveyed — Council held at Conoytown — Settlement 
of Germans at Swatara and Tulpehocken. 

In the preceding chapter, it is stated, that Samuel 
Robins had been sent, by the Governor and council, to 
Governor Spottswood, of Virginia ; but before he 
returned, Governor Keith started for Virginia; on his 
way thither, he met Robins, at Chester, returning to 
Piiiladelphia. Keith, after an interview had with 
Robins, pursued his journey. 

In order to reconcile the Pennsylvania Indians and 
those of the south, he visited the Governor of Virginia,, 
in person. The disscntions among the belligerents were 
caused about their hunting grounds^ The q^uarrels. 


between the Indians were such as to disturb the peace 
of the province. To prevent this, Keith entered into 
articles of stipulation; returned, determined on, and 
soon afterwards, visiting the Indians at Conestoga, to 
have them ratify the treaty, which was in substance: 
"That the Indians resident on the north and south of the 
Potomac be confined to their respective sides of the 

Governor Keith, accompanied by a suit of seventy 
horsemen, many of them well armed, repaired to 
Conestoga.* "He arrived there, July 5th, 1721, at 
noon, and in the evening went to Captain Civility's 
cabin, where four deputies of the Five Nations, and 
some few more of their people, came to see the Go- 
vernor, who spake to them by an interpreter to this 
purpose : 

That this being the first time that the Five Nations 
had thought fit to send any of their chiefs to visit him 
(the Governor had invited them to Philadelphia; but they 
refused), he had come a great way from home to bid 
them welcome ; that he hoped to be better acquainted 
and hold a fui'ther discourse with them before he left the 

They answered, that they were eome a long way on 
purpose to see the Governor and speak with him; that 
they had heard much of him, and would have come 
here before now, but that the faults or mistakes of their 
young men had made them ashamed to shew their faces, 
but now that they had seen the Governor's face, they 
were well satisfied with their journey, whether any thing 
else was done or not. 

The Governor* told them that to-morrow morning he 
designsd to speak a few words to his brothers and 

♦Proud, 11. 12&. 

156 lilSTORT Ot 

children, the Indians of Conestoga and their friends 
upon Susquehanna, and desired that deputies of the 
Five Nations might be present in council tb hear what is 
said to them. 

At a council held at Conestoga, July 6th, 1721 — 
Present: the Hon. Sir William Keith, Bart., Gov. 
Richard Hill, Caleb Pusey, Jonathan Dickinson, Col. 
Jolm French, James Logan, secretary. 

The Governor spoke to the Indians, as follows : My 
]irothers and children, soon as you sent me word that 
your friends and relations, the chiefs of the Five 
Nations, \Vere come to visit you, I made h::lste and came 
up to see both you and them, and to assure all the 
Indians of the continuance of my love to them. 

Your old acquaintance and true friend, the great 
William Penn, was a wise man, and therefore he did not 
approve of wars among the Indians whom he loved, 
because it wasted and destroyed their people, but 
always recommended peace to the Indians as the surest 
way to make tlicm rich and strong by increasing their 

Some of you can well remember since William Penn 
and his friends came first to settle among you in this 
country ; it is but a few years, and like as yesterday, to 
an old man ; nevertheless, by following that great man's 
peaceable councils this Government is now become 
'wealthy and powerful, in great numbers of people ; and 
though, many of our inhabitants are not accustomed to 
war, and dislike the practice of men killing one another, 
yet you cannot but know I am able to bring several 
thousands into the field well armed to defend both your 
people and ours from being hurt by any enemy tliat 
durst attempt to invade us. However, we do not forget 
what William Pej:m often told us, " That the experience 


of old age, which is true wisdom, advises peace," and I 
say to you, that the wisest man is also the bravest man, 
fox he safely depends on his wisdom, and there is no 
true courage without it. I have so great a love for you, 
my dear brothers, who live under the protection of this 
Government, that I camiot suffer you to be hurt no more 
than I would my own children. I am just now returned 
from Virginia, where I wearied myself in a long journey 
botli by land and water, only to make peace for you, my 
children, that you may safely hunt in the woods without 
danger from Virgmia, and the many Indian nations that 
are at peace with that Government. But the Governor 
of Virginia expects that you will not hunt within the 
Great Mountains, on the other side of Potomac river; 
being it is a small tract of land which he keeps for the 
Virginia Indians to hunt in; and he promises that his 
Indians shall not any more come on this side Potomac, 
or behind the Great Momitains, this way, to disturb your 
himting; and this is the condition I have made for you, 
which I expect you will firmly keep, and not break it on 
any consideration whatsoever. 

I desire that what J have now said to you, may be 
interpreted to the chiefs of the Five Nations, present ; 
for as you are a part of them. They are in like manner 
one with us, as you yourselves are ; and therefore our 
councils must agree and be made known to one another ; 
for our hearts should be open, that we may perfectly see 
into one another's breasts. And that your friends may 
speak to me freely, tell them I am willing to forget the 
mistakes which some of their young men were guilty ofj 
among our people ; I hope they will grow wiser with 
age, and hearken to the grave counsels of their old men 
whoee valor we esteem because they are wise; but 
the rashness of their young men is altogether folly- 


158 BISTORT or 

At Coiiestoga, m council, July 7th. — Present: Gov. 
Keith, Richard Plill, Caleb Piisey, Jonathan Dickinson, 
Col. John French, James Logan, Secretary, with divers 
other gentlemen. Present, also : The chiefs or deputies 
sent by the Five Nations to treat with the Government, 
viz : Sinnekaes nation, Ghesaont, Awennool, Onondagoes 
nation, Tannawree, Skeetowas, Gayoogoes nation, 
Sahoode, Tchehuque. 

Smith, the Ganawese Indian interpreter of the Mingo 
language to the Delawares ; John Cartledge and James 
Le Tort, uiterpreter of the Delaware into English. 

Ghesaont, in the name and on the behalf of all the 
Five Nations, delivered himself in speakmg to the 
Governor, as follows : 

They were glad to sec the Governor and his comicil 
at this place, for they had heard much of the Governor 
in their towns before they came from home, and now 
they find him to Le what they had then heard of him, 
viz : their friend and brother, and the same as if William 
Penn were still amongst them. They assure the Go- 
vernor and council that they had not forgot William 
Perm's treaties with them, and that his advice to them 
was still fresh in their memories. 

Though they cannot write, yet they retain every thmg 
said in their councils with all the nations they treat 
with, and preserve it as carefully in their memories 
as if it was committed in our method to writing. 

They complain that our traders carrying goods and 
liquors up the Susqueliamia nver, sometimes meet with 
their young men out to war, and treat them unliindly; 
not only refusing to give them a dram of their liquor, 
but use them with ill language,and call them dogs, &c. 

They take this unkindly, because dogs have no sense 
or understanding; whereas they are men, and think that 


their brothers should not compare them to such creatm-es. 
That some of om* traders calling their young men by 
those names, the young men answered, "if they were 
dogs then they might act as such;" whereupon, they 
seized a keg of their liquor and ran away with it. 

N. B. — This seems to be told in their artful way to 
excuse some small robberies that had been committed by 
their young people. 

Then laying down a belt of wampum upon the table, 
he proceeded, and said: That all their disorders arose 
from the use of rum and strong spirits, which took away 
their sense and memory; that they had no such liquors 
among themselves, but were hurt with what we fur- 
nished to them, and therefore desired them that no 
more of that sort might be sent among them. 

He presented a bundle of dressed skins, and said: 
That the Five Nations, faithfully, remembered all their 
ancient treaties, and now desire that the chain of friend- 
ship, between them and us, may be made strong as that 
none of the links can never be broken. 

Presents a bundle of raw skins, and obsei-ves : That a 
chain may contract rust with lying and become weaker 
wherefore, he desires it may now become so well 
cleaned as to remain brighter and stronger than ever it 
was before. 

Presents another parcel of skins, and says : That as in 
the firmament all clouds and darkness are removed from 
the face of the sun, so they desire that all misunderstand- 
ings may be fully done away ; so that when tliey Avho 
are now here shall be dead and gone, their whole people 
with their children and posterity, may enjoy the clear 
sunshine of friendship with us forever, without any 
thing to interpose and obscure it. 

Presents another bundle of skins, and says: That 

160 msTOEr OP 

looking upon the Governor, as if William Penn was 
present, they desire, that m case any disorders should 
hereafter happen between their young and ours, we 
would not be too hasty in resenting any such accident, 
until their council and ours can have some opportmiity to 
treat amicably upon it, and so to adjust all matters as 
that the friendship between us may still be inviolably, 

Presents another parcel of dressed skins and desires .• 
That we may now be together as one people, treating 
one another's children kindly and affectionately on all 
occasions. He proceeds, and says : Tliat they consider 
theroselves, in this treaty, as the full plenipotentiaries 
emd representations of the Five Nations, and they look 
upon the Governor as the Great King of England's 
Representative, and therefore they expect that every 
thing now stipulated Avill be made absolutely firm and 
good on both sides. 

Presents a bmidle of bear skins, and says: That 
having now made a firm league with us as becomes owe 
brothers, they complain that they get too little for their 
slcins and fm's, so as they cannot live by their hunting. — 
They desire as, therefore, to take compassion on 
them and contrive some way to help them in that 

Presenting a few furs, he speaks only as for himself to 
acquaint the Governor that the Five Nations having 
heard that the Governor of Virginia wanted to speak 
with tliem. He himself, with some of his company, 
intend to proceed to Virginia, but do not laiow the way 
how to get safe thither. 

At a comicil held at the house of John Cartledge, Esq. 
near Conestoga, July 8th, 1721. Present, Gov. Keith, 


Richard Hill, Jonathan Dickinson, Col. John French, 
James Logan, secretary. 

The Governor desired the Board would advise him as to 
the quantity and kind of presents that must be made tp 
the Indians in return to theirs, and in confirmation of his 
speech to them. Whereupon it was agreed that twenty- 
five strowd match coats of two yards each, one 
hundred weight of gunpowder, two liundred weight of 
lead, with some biscuit, tobacco and pipes, should be 
delivered as the Governor's present to the Five Nations. 
And the same being prepared accordingly, the council 
was adjourned to Conestoga, the place of treaty. 

At a council held at Conestoga, July 8th, 1721. P. M. 
Present: Gov. Keith, and the same members as before, 
with divers' gentlemen attending, the Governor and the 
chiefs of the Five Nations being all seated in council, 
and the presents laid down before the Indians. — 
The Governor spoke to them, by the interpreters, in 
these words : 

]My friends and brothers, it is a great satisfaction to me 
that I have this opportmiity of speaking to the valient 
and wise Five Nations, whom you tell me you are fully 
empowered to represent. I treat with you, therefore, as 
if all these nations, here, were present; and you are to 
understand that what I now say to be agreeable to the 
minds of our great monarch, George, the King of Eng- 
land, who lends his care to establish peace amongst all 
the mighty nations of Europe, and unto whom all the 
the people, in these parts, are as it were but like one 
drop of a bucket; so that what is now transacted 
between us must be laid up as the words of the whole 
body of your people and our people, to be kept in 
perpetual remembrance. I am also glad to find that 
you remember what William Pemi formerly said to you, 



He was a great man, and a good man; his own people 
loved Inm; he loved the Indians, and they also loved 
him; he was as their father; he would never suffer 
tliem to be wronged ; never would he let his people enter 
upon any lands until he had first purchased them of the 
Indians. He was just, and therefore the Indians loved 

Though he is now removed from us, yet his children 
and people follow his example, will always take the 
same measures, so that his and our posterity will be as a 
long chain of which he was the first link, and one link 
ends another succeeds, and then another being all fii'mly 
bound together in one strong chain to endure forever. — 
He formerly knit the chain of friendship with you as the 
chief of all the Indians in these parts, lest this chain 
should grow rusty you now desire it may be secured and 
made strong, to bind us as one people together. We do 
assure you it is, and has always been bright on one side, 
and so we will ever keep it. 

As to your complaint of our traders, that they have 
treated some of your young men unkindly, I take that to 
be said only by way of excuse for the follies of your 
people, thereby endeavoring to persuade me that they 
were provoked to do what you very well know they did ; 
but, as I told our own Indians two days ago, I am 
willing to pass by all these things. You may therefore be 
assured that our people shall not offer any injuiy to 
yours ; or if I know that they do, they shall be severely 
punished for it. So you must, in like manner, strictly 
command 3'our young men that they do not offer any 
injury 'to ours ; for when they pass through the utmost 
skirts of our inhabitants, where there are no people yet 
settled, but a few traders, they should be more careful of 
them as having separated themselves from the body of 


theiif friends, piU'ely to serve the Indians more commo- 
diously with what they want Nevertheless, if any 
little disorders should at any time hereafter arise, v^e 
will endeavor that it shall not break or weaken the 
chain of friendship between us; to which end, if any of 
your people take offence, you must in that case apply to 
me or to our chiefs; and when we shall have any cause 
to complain, we shall, as you desire, apply to your 
chiefs by our friends, the Conestogoe Indians, but on 
both sides we must labor to prevent every thing of this 
kind as much as we can. 

You complam that our traders come mto the path of 
your young men going out to war, and thereby occasion 
disorders amongst them ; I will therefore, my friends and 
brotliers, speak very plainly to you on this head. Your 
young men come down the Susquehanna river and take 
tlieir road through our Indian towns and settlements, and 
imdie a path between us and the people against whom 
they go out to war ; now you must know, tliat, the patji 
tills way, leads them only to the Indians who are in 
alliance with the English, and first those who are in 
strict league of friendship with the great Governor of 
Virginia, just as these, our friends and children, who are 
settled amongst us, are in league with me and our 
people. You cannot therefore make war upon the 
Indians in league with Virginia without weakening the 
chain with the English ;. for as we would not suffer these 
om friends and brothers of Conestogoe, and upon this 
river, to be hurt by any persons without considering it 
was done to ourselves; so, the Governor of Virginia 
looks upon tlie injmies done to his Indian brothers and 
friends as if they were done to himself; and you very 
well know that though you are five different nations, yet 
you are but one people, so as tliat any wrong done tp, 

164 EisTonr of 

our nation is received as an injmy done to oil. In the 
same manner, and much more so it is with the English^, 
who are all united under one Great King, who has 
more people in that one town where he lives, than all 
the Indians in North America put together. 

You are in a league with New York as your ancient 
friends and nearest neighhors, and you are in a league 
with us by treaties often repeated, and by a chain which 
you have now brightened. As therefore all the English 
are but one people, you are actually in league with all 
the English Governments, and must equally preserve 
the peace v/ith all as with one Government. 

You pleased me very much when you told me that 
you were going to treat with the Governor of Virginia. 
Your nations formerly entered into a firm league with 
that Government, and if you have suffered that chain to 
grow rusty it is time to scour it; and the Five 
Nations have done very wisely to send you there for that 

I do assure you, the Governor of Virginia, is a great 
and good man. He loves the Indians as his children, 
and so protects and defends them, for he is very strong, 
having many thousand christian warriors under his com- 
mand, whereby he is able to assist all those who are in 
any league of friendship with him. Hasten, therefore, 
my friends, to brighten and strengthen the chain with that 
great man; for he desires it, and will receive you kindly. 
He is my great and good friend; I have been lately 
with him. And since 3^ou say you are strangers, I will 
give you a letter to him to inform him of what we have 
done, and of the good design of your visit to him and to 
his country. 

My friends and brothers, I told you a few days ago^ 
that we must open our breasts to each other; I shall,, 


tlierefrc, like your true friend, open mine yet further to 
yoTi for your good. 

You see that the EngUsh, from a very small people at 
first, are by peace amongst themselves, become a very 
gi'eat people amongst you, far exceeding the number of 
all the Indians that we knoAV of. But while v/e are at 
peace, the Indians continue to make war upon one 
another, and destroy each other, as if they intended that 
none of their people should be left alive; by which 
means you are, from a great people, become a very 
small people, and yet you v/ill go on to destroy 

The Indians of the south, though they speak a 
different language, yet they are the same people, and 
inhabit the same land with those of the north, we there- 
fore camiot but wonder how you, that are a wise people, 
should take delight in putting an end to your race : the 
English, being your true friends, labor to prevent this. — 
We would have you strong as a part of ourselves ; for 
as our strength is your strength, so we would have yours 
to be £ts our own. 

I have persuaded all my brethren in these parts to 
consider what is for your good, and not to go out any 
more to war ; but your young men, as they come this 
way, endeavor to force them, and because they incline to 
follow the counsels of peace and advice of their true 
friends, yom' people use them ill and often prevail with 
them to go out to their own destruction. Thus it was 
that tliis town of Conestogoe, lost their good King not 
long ago, and thus many have been lost. Their young 
children arc left without parents, their wives without 
husbands, the old men, contrary to the course of nature, 
mourn tlie death of their young, tiie people decay and 


grow weak, we lose our dear friends and are aiilicted, 
and this is chiefly owing to your young men. 

Surely you cannot suppose to get either riches or 
possessions by going thus out to war ; for when you kill 
a deer you have the flesh to eat and the skin to sell, but 
when you return from war you bring nothing home but 
the scalp of a dead man, who, perhaps, was husband to 
a kind wife, and father to tender children, who never 
wronged you, though by losing him you have robbed 
them of this help and protection, and at the same time 
got nothing by it. 

If I were not your true friend, I would not take th& 
trouble of saying all these things to you, which I desire 
may be fully related to all your people, when you return 
homo, that they may consider in time what is for their 
OAvn good; and after this, if any will be so madly deaf 
and blind as neither to hear nor sea the danger before 
them, but will still go out to destroy and be destroyed for 
nothing, I must desire that foolish young men will take 
another path, and not pass this way amongst our people, 
whose eyes I have opened and they have wisely hearkened 
to my advice. So that I must tell them plainly, as I am 
their best friend, and this Government is their protector, 
and as a father to them. We will not suffer them 
any more to go out as they have done to their destruc- 
tion. I say again, we will not suffer it, for we have the 
counsel of wisdom amongst us, and know v/hat is for 
their good; for though they are weak, yet they are our 
brethren. We will therefore take care of them tliat they 
are not misled with ill council; you mourn when you 
lose a brother, we mourn when any of them are 
lost; to prevent which, they shall not be suffered to go, 
out as they have done tQ,t>q destroyed by war,,. 


My good friends and brothers, I give you the same 
counsel, and earnestly desire that yO'U will follow it 
since it will make you a happy people. I give you this 
advice, because I am your true friend, but I much fear 
you hearken to others who never were nor never will be 
your friends. You know verj' well that the French have 
been your enemies from the beginning, and though they 
were at peace with you about two and twenty years 
ago, yet by subtle practices they still endeavor to ensnare 
ycu. They us'^ arts and tricks, and tell you lies to 
deceive you, and if you would make use of your own 
eyes, and not be deluded by their Jesuits and Luter- 
preters, you would see this yourselves; for, you know, 
they have had no goods of any value, these several 
years past, except what has been sent to them from the 
English, of New York, and that is now all over. They 
give fair speeches instead of real services, and as for 
many years they attempted to destroy you in war, so 
they now endeavor to do it in peace; for when they 
persuade you to go out to war against others, it is only 
that you may be destroyed yourselves, while we, as 
your true friends, labor to prevent, because we would 
have your numbers increased that you may grow strong, 
and that we may be all strengthened m friendship and 
peace together. 

As to what you have said of trade, I suppose the 
great distance at which you live from us has prevented 
all commerce between us and your people. We believe, 
those who go into the woods and spend all their time 
upon it, endeavor to make the best bargains they can for 
themselves; so, on your part, you must ^alie care to 
make the best bargain you can with them, but we hope 
our traders do not exact, for we think that a stroud coat, 
or a pound of powder is now sold for no - more buck- 

16S filsToRY or 

skins than formerly; braver, indeed, is not of late so 
much used in Europe, and therefore does not give so 
good a price, and we deal but very little in thai 
commodity. Cut deer-skins sell very well amongst us, 
and I shall always take care that the Indians be not 
■wronged, but expect other measures be taken to regulate 
the Indian trade every where ; the common methods used 
in trade will still be followed, and every man must tate 
care of himself, for thus I must do myself, when I buy 
any thing from our own people, if I do not give them 
their price, they will keep it, for we are a free people.- — 
"But if you have any further proposals to make about 
these affairs, I am willing to hear and consider them, 
for it is my desire that the trade be well regulated to 
your content. 

I am sensible ram is x'ery hurtful to the Indians ; "wb 
have made laws that none should be carried amongsi 
them, or if any were, that it should be staved and thrown 
upon the groimd; and the Indians have been ordered to 
destroy all the rum that comes in their way; but they 
will not do it, they will have rum, and when we refu^ 
it, they will travel to the neighboring provinces and 
fetch it; their own women go to purchase it, and then 
sell it amongst their own people at excessive rates. I 
would gladly make any laws to prevent this that could 
DC effectual, but the country is so wide, the woods are so 
dark and private, and so far out of my sight, that if the 
Indians themselves do not prohibit their own people., 
there is no other way to prevent it ; for my part, I sliall 
readily join in any measures that can be proposed for so 
good a purpose. 

I liave now, my friends and brothers, said all 
that I think can be of any service at this time, and I 
give you these tilings here laid before you to coufirm my 


w'-ords, viz : five stroud coats, twenty pounds of powder, 
and forty pounds of lead, for each of the Five Nations; 
that is, twenty-five coats, one hundred weight of powder, 
and two hundred of lead, in the whole, which I desire 
may he delivered to them, with these my words in my 
name and the behalf of the province, 

I shall he glad frequently to see some of your chief 
rtien sent in the name of all the rest, but desire you will 
be so Idnd as to come to us to Philadelphia to visit our 
families and children born there, where we can provide 
better for you and make you more welcome ; for people 
always receive their friends best at their own houses. — 
I heartily wish you well on your journey and good 
success on it And when you return home. I desire you 
will give my veiy kind love, and the love of all our 
people, to your kings and to all their people. 

Then the Governoi- rose up from his chair, and when 
he had called Ghesaont, the speaker to him, he took a 
coronation medal of the King's out of his pocket, and 
presented it to the Indians, in these words: 

That our children, when we are dead, may not forget 
these things, but keep this treaty between us in perpetual 
remembrance, I here deliver you a picture in gold, 
bearing the image of my great master, the King of all 
tl-ie English ; and when you return home I charge you to 
deliver this piece into the hands of the first' man or 
greatest chief of all the Five Nations, whom you call 
Kannygoodk, to be laid up and kept as a token to your 
children's cliildren, that an entire and lasting friendship is 
now established forever between the English, in this 
country, and the great Five Nations." 

By the approbation and direction of Gov. Keith, James 
Logan, secretary, held a discourse with Ghesaont, on tlte 
9th of July. Lcgan reminded Ghesaorit of the great 


170 nisTOHY OP 

satisfaction the Governor had exj^ressed to him in the 
council upon their kind visit, and the freedom and 
opemiess that had been used to them on our parts, and 
tlierefore advised him if he had any thing in his thoughts 
further relating to the friendship established between us 
and the matters treated in council, he would open his 
breast in this free conversation, and speak it without 
reserve, and whatever he said on those heads should be 
reported faithfully to the Governor. 

Ghesaont then said, that he was very well pleased 
with what had been spoken. He saw the Governor and 
the English were true friends to the Five Nations, but as 
to their young people going out to war, which we 
chiefly insisted on ; the principal reason was that their 
young men were become very poor, they could get no 
goods nor clothing from the English, and therefore they 
went abroad to gain them from their enemies. That 
they had once a clear sky and sunshine at Albany, but 
now all was overcast; they could no longer trade and 
and get goods as they had done, of which he could not 
Icnow the reason, and therefore they had resolved to 
try whether it was the same among the other English 

To which Logan answered, that they had from the 
first settlement of New York and Albany, been in a strict 
league and friendship with that Government, and had 
always had a trade with and been supplied by them 
with goods they wanted. That it was true, for three or 
four years past, the French had come from Canada to 
Albany, in New York, and purchased and carried away 
great part of the goods, strowd waters, especially, 
sometimes three or four hundred pieces in a year, which 
the Five Nations ought to have liad; but that now, 
another Governor being lately sent thither, from the 


great King of England; he made a law that the 
French should not have any more goods from the 
English : that this had been the reason of the clouds and 
dark weather they complained of; but that now a clear 
sunshine, as they desired, would be restored to them . 
that he very well knew this gentleman, the new 
Governor, that he had not long since been at Philadel- 
phia, and at his (the secretary's) house, and that he 
heard him say he would take care his Indians should 
be well supplied for the future, and accordingly they 
might depend on it. 

Ghesaont hereupon asked, whether they did not know 
that the French had for some years past, had the cloths 
from the English, ansAvered, that they knew very well 
that these English goods went now in a new path, 
different from that they had formerly gone in, that they 
knew not where they went, but they went beside them 
and they could not get hold of them, though they much 
wanted them. 

The secretary proceeded to say^ that as New York and 
Albany had been their most ancient friends, so they 
could best supply them, and they could certainly do it, if 
they continued in duty on their part; that they were 
sensible the great King of England had a regard for 
them, by the notice that he took of them almost every 
year; that all the English, every where, were friends. — 
We were now very glad to see them, but wished for the 
future they would come to Philadelphia, as they 
formerly used to do; that he himself had seen their 
chiefs twice at Philadelphia, the two years that William 
Penn was last here,. and that when his son came over 
about three years after, now about seventeen years ago,, 
a considerable number of them came down and held a 
great council^ with us, and therefore he hoped they 


would visit US then again, Avliich would be much moi'c 
convenient than so far back in the woods where it was 
difficult to accommodate them and ourselves, that, how- 
ever, we were glad to sec them here. This they knew 
was a Government but lately settled, but that they were 
now soina; into two Govenuuents that had been much 
longer seated, and were very rich, and would make them 
exceedingly welcome ; that we saw them in the woods 
only, at a great distance from home, but they would see 
the Governors of Virginia and Maryland, at their own 
towns and houses, where they would entertain them 
much better; that they would be very kindly received, 
for we were all of one heart and mind, and should 
always entertain them as our brothers. 

Ghesaont took an opportunity of himself to enter again 
on the subject of their people making peace with the 
other Indians on the main. He said that he had in his 
own person labored for it to the utmost; that he had 
taken more pains to have it established than all the 
English had done; that their people had lately made 
peace with the Twcuchtwese; that they had now a 
universal peace with all the Indians, excepting tluee 
small nations to the southward, with whom they hoped 
to have concluded upon his present journey by means of 
the Governor of Virginia; that his own desii-es were 
very strong for peace, as his endeavors iiacl shewn, and 
that lie doubted not to see it established every where. — 
He said the Governor had spoken veiy well in the coun- 
cil against their young men going to war, yet had not 
done it fully enough, for he should have told them 
positively that they should not on any account be 
suffered to go out to war, and he would have reported 
It accordingly, and this would have been a moi;e 
cffe.clual way to i)revent tjiera. 


The secretary then proceeded to treat with them about 
the road they were to take, ^nd it was agreed that the chief 
of the Nanticokes, a sensible man, who was ihen present, 
should conduct them from Conestogoe to their town, on 
Wye river, that they should be furnished with provi- 
sions for their journey sufficient to carry them among the 
inhabitants, after which they were directed, as the 
Governor had before ordered, that they should produce 
his passport to the gentlemen of the country where they 
travelled, by whom they would be provided for ; and the 
Nanticoke chief Avas further desired, upon their leaving 
the Nanticoke towns^ to direct them to some of the chief 
gentlemen and officers of those posts who would un- 
doubtedly take care of them on sight of these passports, 
and thereby laiowing their business, have them trans- 
ported over the bay of Annapolis. Being further asked 
how they would get an interpreter to Virginia where 
the Indians know nothing of their language, and some 
proposals being made to furnish them, they answered, 
there would be no occasion for any care of that kind, for 
they very well knew the Governor of Virginia had an 
interpreter of their language always with him. 

Provisions being then ordered for their journey, as also 
at their desire, some for those of their company, who 
witli their women and children were to return directly 
home by water up the river Susquehanna, viz: a bag of 
biscuit, some pieces of bacon and dried venison ; these 
matters were concluded with great expressions of 
thankfulness for the Governor's great care of them 
and their families, which kindness- they said they never 
should forget. 

The discourse being continued, they were told it was • 
now very near, viz: within one moon of thirty-seven 
years since a great man of England, Governor of Viir- 



ginia, called the Lord Effingham, together with Colonel 
Dongan, Governor of New York, held a treaty 
with them at Albany, of which we had the writings to 
this day. 

Ghesaont answered, they knew it well, and the sub- 
jects of that treaty, it was, he said about settling of 
lands. Being further told, that in that treaty the Five 
Nations had given up all their right to all the lands on 
Susquehanna to the Duke of York, then brother to the 
King of England. He acknowledged this to be so, and 
that William Penn since had the rights of these lands. — 
To which Civility, a descendant of the ancient Sasque- 
hannah Indians, the old settlers of these parts, but now 
reputed as of an Iroquois descent, added that he had 
been informed by their old men, that they were troubled, 
when they heard that their lands had been given up to a 
place so far distant as New York, and that they were 
overjoyed when they understood William Penn had 
brought them back again, and that they had confirmed 
all their right to him. 

Divers questions were further asked him, especially 
concerning the French of Canada, their trade and fortifi- 
cations, on which he said that the French had three forts 
on this side the river of St. Lawrence, and between their 
towns and Mentual, furnished with great numbers of 
great guns, that the French drove a great trade with 
tliem, had people constantly in, or going to and coming 
from their towns, that tlie French kept young people in 
their towns on purpose to learn the Indian language, 
wliich many of them now spoke as well as themselves; 
tlKit they had a great intercourse with them, that about 
three hundred of their men, viz : of ilic Five Nations, 
were seated on the other side of the great river, that the 
French had this last spring begun to build or to provide 


for building a fort at Niagara Falls, but they had since 
declined it ; he knew not for Avhat reasons ; and they 
(the French) had sent to his town (the Isanandonas) this 
last winter a great deal of powder ta be distributed 
among them, but nothing was done upon it. Being 
particularly asked whether the French had ever treated 
with them about any of their lands, or whether the 
Idians had ever granted the French any. He answered, 
no ! diat his people knew the French too well to treat 
with them about lands ; they had never done it, or ever 
granted them any upon any account whatsoever, and of 
this he said, we might assure ourselves. Thus the day 
was spent in such discourses, with a pipe and some 
small mixed liquors, and the next morning Ghesa.ont, 
with tlie rest of his company, returning from the Indian 
town to John Cartledge, took their leaves very affec_ 
tionately, with great expressions of thankfulness to the 
Governor and tliis Government for their Idnd reception." 
Shortly after the treaty held at Conestoga, the Go- 
vernor received information that tiie Lidians were likely 
to be disturbed by the secret and underhanded practices 
of persons, both from Maryland and Philadelphia, who, 
under the pretence of finding a copper mine, were about 
to survey and take up lands on the other side of tlie Sus- 
quehannah, contrary to a former order of Government; 
Keith determined to prevent this. He nat only sent a 
special messenger with a writ under the lesser seal, but 
himself went to the upper parts of Chester county to 
locate a small quantity of land, for which he purchased 
an original proprietary right ; on his way, he understood 
that some persons were actually come with a Maryland 
right to survey lands upon the Susquehanna, fifteen 
miles above Conestoga; he pursued his coiu-se directly 
to that place, and fortunately arrived but a very 

176 HISTORY 07- 

few hours in time to prevent the execution of their- 

" Having/' says Keith, "the Surveyor General of this 
province with me in company, after a httle consideration, 
I ordered him to locate and survey some part of the right 
I possessed, viz : only five hundred acres upon that spot 
on the other side of Susquehanna, which was likely to 
prove a bone of contention, and breed so much mischief, 
and he did so accordingly, upon the 4th and 5th of April ; 
after which I returned to Conestoga to discourse with tli* 
Indians upon what happened ; but in my way thither, I 
was very much surprised with a certain accomit that the 
young men of Conestoga had made a famous war dance 
the night before, and that they Avere all going to war 
immediately, hereupon, I appointed a council to be held 
with the Indians next morning in Civility's cabin." 

The particulars of tliis meeting were never recorded. 
But before long the Indians became considerably 
alarmed, at the proposed encroachments of the Mary- 
landers; Governor Keith, shortly afterwards, held a 
council with the Indians at Conestoga, June 15, 1722, to 
procure from them a grant to survey a tract of land, 
known by the name of ^Springett Manor,^^ in York 

Closely connected with the Maryland intrusions as to 
time, an accoimt of v/hich has been presented, the fears 
of the people of the province were again awakened by 
a quarrel between two brothers, named Cartledge, and 
an Indian, named Saanteenee, near Conestoga, in which 
the latter was killed, with many circumstances of 

The known principles of revenge, professed by the 
Indians, gave reason to apprehend severe retaliation. — ^^- 


Policy and justice required a rigid inquiry, and the 
infliction of exemplary punishment."* 

The Governor sent James Logan and Colonel French, 
and the high sheriff of the county of Chester, who left 
Philadelphia, March 7th, and arrived at the house of 
John Cartledge, the 9th, to execute their commission, 
and to investigate the whole matter connected v/ith the 
death of Saanteenee. 

They then proceeded to Conestoga, where they held a 
council the 14th day of March, 1721-22, with the Indians, 
viz: Civility, Tannacharoc, Gunnehatorooja, Toweena, 
and other old men of the Conestogoe Indians, Savannah, 
chief of the Shawanese, Winjack, chief of the Gana- 
wese, Tekaachroo, a Cayoogoe, Oweeyekanowa, Nosh- 
targlilmmen, Delawares. Present, divers English and 
Indians — the acused were arrested, and confined at 

Great pains, says Proud, were taken in this affair; an 
Indian messenger, Satcheecho, was despatched to *he 
Five Nations. The Governor, with two of the council, 
met and treated with the Five Nations, at Albany, 
respecting it; besides the presents, which were made to 
the Indians. " The Five Nations desired that the Cart- 
ledges should not suffer death; and the affair was at 
length amicably settled." "One life," said the Indian 
King, " on this occasion, is enough to be lost, there should 
not two die."t 

In a preceding page we stated that the Marylanders 
attempted encroachments on the lands within the limits 
of Pennsylvania. Keith was determined to resist them 
by force; he ordered out a company of militia, from 
New Castle, to march to Ouchteraro, (Octoraro), where 
they were to aAvait his further orders. His councils, 

•Gordon's Pa. 188. f Votes of Assembly. 


however, who were disposed to resort to no violence, 
even should the Marylanders employ force to gain their 
object, did not coincide with the Governor in these 
violent measures. The Indians had become greatly 
alarmed ; a council was held at Conestoga, on Friday 
and Saturday, the 15th and 16th June, 1722; when the 
Indians agreed, hi order Governor Keith might have a 
better title to resist the Marylanders, that a large tract 
should be conveyed to him for the use of Springett 
Penn, grandson of William Penn, senior. 

The following is a copy of tlie minutes of the council, 
held at Conestoga: Present, Governor W. Keith, Colonel 
John French, Francis Worley, Esq.; the chiefs of the 
Cojiestogoe, Shawana and Ganaway Indians ; Smith, 
the Ganaway Indian, and James Le Tort, interpreters. 

The Governor spoke as follows : Friends and brothers, 
the belts which I lately received from the Five Nations, 
signify that they are one people with the English, and 
our very kind neighbors and friends. They invite me 
to come to them, and I purpose, in a short time, to go 
and meet them at Albany, and to make the chain as 
bright as the sun. When they see me, they will remem- 
ber their great friend William Penn; and then our 
hearts will be filled with love, and our councils with 

Friends and brothers, you say you love me, because I 
come from your father, William Penn, to follow his 
ways, and to fulfil all his kind promises to the Indians. 
You call me William Penn, and I am proud of the name 
you give mc. Put if we have a true love for the 
memory of William Penn, we must show it to his 
family and his children, that arc grown up to be men in 
England, and will soon come over to represent him here. 
The last time I was with you at Concstogoe, you 


showed me a parchment which you had received from 
William Penn, containing many articles of friendship 
between him and you, and between his children and 
your children. You then told me, he desired you to 
remember it well for three generations ; but I hope you 
and your children will never forget it. That parchment 
fully declared your consent to William Penn's purchase 
and right to the lands on both sides of the Susquehanna. 
But I find both you and we are likely to be disturbed by 
idle people from Maryland, and also by others'* who 
h ave presumed to survey on the banks o£ the Susque- 
hanna without any powers from William Penn or his 
children, to whom they belong, and without so much as 
asking your consent. I am therefore now come 
to hold a council and consult with you how to prevent 
such unjust practices for the future. And hereby we 
will show our love and respect for the great William 
Penn's children, who inherit their father's estate in this 
country, and have a just right to the hearty love and 
friendship of all the Indians, promised to them in many 
treaties. I have fully considered this thing; and if you 
approve my thoughts, I will immediately cause to be 
taken a large tract on the other side of Susquehanna, for 
the grandson of William Penn, who is now a man as 
tall as I am. For when the land is marked with his 
name upon the trees, it will keep off the Marylanders, 
and every other person whatsoever, from coming to 
settle near you to disturb you. And he bearmg the 
same kind heart to the Indians which his grand-^father 
did, will be glad to give you a part of his land for your 

^•^One John Grist and divers others, had, without warrants, or 
permission, settled their families, and taken up lands on the 
west side of the Susquehanna, prior to 1121.— Col Rec. III. 


o^vn use and convenience ; but if other people- take it 
up, they will make settlements upon it, and then 
it will not be in his power to give it you as you want it. 

My friends and brothers, those who have any wisdom 
amongst you, must see and be convinced that what I 
now say is entirely for your good; for this will 
effectually hinder and prevent any person from settling 
lands on the other side of Susquehanna, accordmg to 
your desire -, and, consequently, you will be secure from 
being distiubed by ill neighbors, and will have all that 
land at tlie same time in your own power to make use 
of This will also beget a true hearty love and friend- 
ship between you, your children, and the great William 
Penn's grandson, who is now Lord of aU this country 
in the room of his grand-father. It is therefore fit and 
necessary for you to begin as soon as you can to 
express your respect and love to him. He expects it 
from you according to your promises in many treaties, 
and he will take it very kindly. 

Consider, then, my brothers, that I am now giving you 
an opportunity to speak your thoughts lovingly and 
freely unto tliis brave young man, William Penn's 
grand-so::; and I, whom you know to be your true 
friend, will take care to write down your words, and to 
send them to England, to this gentleman, who will 
return you a kind answer ; and so many hearts will be 
made glad to see that great William Pcnn still lives in his 
children to love and serve the Indians. 

Council met on the 16th. The Indians replied through 
Tawencu, spokesman: They have considered of what 
the Governor proposed to them yesterday, and think it a 
matter of very great consequence to them to hinder the 
Marykmdcrs from settling or taking up lands so near 
them upon Sasquchanna. They veiy much approve 


-v^/hat the Governor spoke, and like his counsel to them 
very well; but they are not willing to discourse particu- 
larly on the business of land, lest the Five Nations may 
reproach or blame them. 

They declare again their satisfaction to them in coun- 
cil; and although they know that the Five Nations have 
not any right to their lands, and that four of the towns 
do not belong to any, yet the fifth town, viz: the 
Cayugoes, are always claiming some right to the lands 
on the Susquehanna, even where they themselves live ; 
wherefore they think it will be a proper tmie, when the 
Governor goes to Albany, to settle that matter with the 
Cayugoes, and then all parties will be satisfied. 

They asked the Governor whereabouts, and what 
quantity of land, does he propose to survey for Mr. 
Penn ? It is answered, from over against the mouth of 
Conestoga creek, up to the Governor's new settlement, 
and so far back from the river, as that no person can 
come to annoy or disturb them in their towns on this 
side. They proceed and say, that they are at this 
very apprehensive that people will come when the 
Governor is gone to Albany, and survey this land; 
wherefore they earnestly desire that the Governor will 
immediately cause the surveyor to come and lay out the 
Land for William Penn's grand-son, to secure them ; and 
they doubt not but the Governor's appearance and con- 
duct afterwards at Albany, will make all things easy 

Having obtained the consent from the Indians, the 
Governor issued his warrant, June 18th, and on the 19th 

*A congress of several Governors, of New York, Pennsyl- 
vaniaand Virginia, and commissioners were hold in September- 
1722, with the Six Nations, at Albany ; and the ancient friend, 
ship was renew.ed. 



and 20th, June, Springeftsbury Manor made by Col 
John French, Francis Worley and James Mitchell.—- 
They had been directed, by the Governor, to take with- 
them such of the neighboring inhabitants as they thought 
fit to call to their assistance, immediately to cross the 
river Susquehanna, and to survey or cause to be sur- 
veyed, marked and located, the quantity of seventy 
thousand acres, or thereabouts.* 

There was a council held at Conoy town, July, 1722, 
in Donegal township. James Mitchell, Esq. and Mr, 
James Le Tort, were desired to be present with the 
chiefs of the Conestogoes, Sawaneis, and Conoys, 
together with seven chief men of the Nanticoke Indians, 
who were upon a journey to the Five Nations, in order 
to renew former friendship, and strengthen it in unity for 
time to come. Anxious to make the best of their 
journey, they determined upon having the best inter- 
preter they could find at Conoy town, they made appli- 
cation to Captain Smitli, to accompany them; but in 
consequence of having engaged to accompany Governor 
Keith to Albany, in August, he declined. Mr. Mitchell 
hastened to inform Governor Keith of the presence of 
the Nanticokes, who were a peaceable people, and 
lived quietly amongst the English, in INIaryland. 

About the year 1723, a number of Germans, lately 
from Schoharie, New York, settled on the Swatara and 
Tulpehocken creeks. It may be interesting to readers to 
know how these Germans came to Tulpehocken. 

On a proclamation of Queen Anne, of England, 170S, 
some three or four thousand Germans went in 1 709, to 
Holland, and were thence transported to England. — 

•Col. Rcc. III. 195. 


They encamped near London. In 1710, Col. Nicholson, 
and Colonel Schuyler, accompanied by five sachems or 
Indian chiefs, returned from America to England, to 
solicit additional force against Canada.* While in 
London, the chiefs of the confederated Indians saw the 
miserable condition of the Germans, and commiserating 
their case, one of them voluntarily presented the Queen 
a tract of his land in Schoharie, New York, for the use 
and benefit of the Germans.t About this time, Colonel 
Robert Hunter, appointed Governor of New York, 
sailing for America, brought with him about three 
thousand of these Germans or Palatines, to the town of 
New York, Avhere they encamped several months, and 
in the fall of 1710, were moved, at the Queen's expense, 
to Livingston District. In this wilderness home, it was 
allotted them, that they should manufacture tar and raise 
hemp to repaij freightage, from Holland to England, 
and thence to New York. J In this business, they were 
unsuccessful. However, they were released of all 
freightage upon them in 1713. About one hundred and 
fifty of tlie famiUes, willing to avail themselves of the 
advantages of their present from the Indians to Queen 
Anne, moved through a dense forest, to Schoharie, west 
of Albany, and seated themselves among their Maqua 
or Mohawk friends. Here their sufferings, for a while, 
were great; they were deprived of nearly all the neces- 
saries of life. Their neighbors, like Indians, " are wont 

*His. N. Y. 39, Holmes, An. I. 501. 

fHallische Nachrichten, 973—981 

tDiese Teutche Colonie solte Theer brennen und Hanf 
bauen, fucr Erstattung ihrer Fracht von Holland bis England, 
und von da bis nach Neuyork.— ^. iW", Muehlenierg, Hal 


not to do'^ — laid up no stores from which they could" 
supply the wants of their white brethren — depending 
entirely upon Natiue's store-house ; believing that their 
hands were not made to labor with, but to have rule 
over the birds of the air, the fishes of the stream;, 
and the game in Nature's park. 

In Schoharie, having permission from the Indians, this 
colony commenced, under discouraging circumstanceSy 
improving lands and building houses. They labored 
for ten years, when they were dispersed; and in 1723, a 
portion of them, surrounded by difficulties in travelling, 
rising of three hundred miles, seated themselves, some 
eighty or ninety miles from Philadelphia, at Swatara and 
Tulpehocken.* Among this number were the Weisers,t 
whose descendants are numerous and respectable ; these 
are the Muhlenbergs and others. 

*Hallische Nachrichten. 

fConrad Weiser, who remained in New York, when his 
father came here in 1723, arrived at Tulpehockcn in 1729. In. 
a subsequent page the reader will find a mticz of C. W. 



Donegal township organized — First settlers — Harris's attempt to settle at 
Conoy — Settles at Paxton — Settlement commenced by Barber, Wright 
and Blunston — Settlements back from the river — Reamstown settlement 
— Welsh settlement— Webei's Thai settled — Settlement at Saeue 
Schwamm, or New Holland — Germans misrepresented — Committee 
appointed to inquire into the facts ; makes report — Thomas Wright killed 
by the Indians — Inhabitants of the upper part of Chester county 
alarmed — Governor Gordon goes to Conestoga and holds a treaty -nith 
the Indians — Returns to Philadelphia — Note ; Iron Works. 

As the population of the county increased, it was found 
necessary to organize new townships. Donegal was 
organized in the year 1722, and David Jones appointed 
constable. The first settlers of Donegal were principally 
Irish emigrants; they were the Semples, Pattersons, 
Mitchells, Hendrickses, Speers, Galbraiths, Andersons, 
Scotts, Lowreys, Pedans, Porters, Sterrits, Kerrs, Works, 
Litles, Whitehills, Campbells, and others. James 
Mitchell and James Hendricks, were justices of the 
peace. Many of the lineal descendants, of the first 
settlers, are still the owners of their ancestor's first 

Jolm Harris, a native of Yorkshire, who commenced, 
afterwards, a settlement at Paxton, first made an attempt 
to settle near the mouth of Conoy creek, not far from the 
present site of Bainbridge. Harris did not think this a 
propitious spot ; for, it appears, this place was fre- 
quented by more northern Indians, on their southern 
excursions, which excited considerable alarm.* Go- 
vernor Spottswood, of Virginia, in a letter to the 
Governor of Pennsylvania, says: "A nnmber of Penn- 

*Col. Rec. III. 58—90. 



sylvania Indians, while on their return from the south, 
when they had committed several robberies and out- 
rages, stopped at Conoytown, May 20, 1719, and while 
there, the Indians sent for John Cartledge, Esq, — On his 
arrival, they sat do-«Pli before him in a grand council of 
war, produced fifteen prisoners, bade him discourse with 
two of them that spoke English. Cartledge found they 
were natives of Virginia ; he interceded for their lives 
and liberties; but the Indians turned a deaf ear to his 
entreaties, and gave him to understand, that they 
intended to continue in their dire perpetrations of out- 
rages upon the Virginians, declaring, they had made a 
clear path tp pass and repass, to and from the southward, 
having removed all obstacles out of the way, and that 
they expected to have free recourse for their people 
amongst the English plantations, whilst they were 
making war."* The apprehension of insecurity may 
have influenced Harris to abandon this place, and locate 
at Paxton. 

John Harris, the first white settler at Paxton, the 
present site of Harrisburg, "experienced much difficulty 
at his first settlement, as his supplies had to be trans- 
ported on liorscs, a great distance. He was an extensive 
Indian trader; and he was also the first person who 
introduced the plough on the Susquehanna, within the 
jncsent limits of Dauphin county. 

His son John, the founder of Harrisburg, is said to 
have been born at the present site of Harrisburg or nn- 
mediately below it, in 1726 ; and he is also said to have 
heen the first white child born in Pennsylvania, west 
oi the Conewago Hills. He died in 1701, aged 65- 

*Col. Hoc. 111.70. 


" An incident in the life of John Harris, the elder, has 
excited considerable interest, and been the subject of 
much inquiry. On one occasion, a band of Indians, who 
had been down the river, or, as is said, to the east, on a 
trading excursion, came to his house — some, or most of 
them, were intoxicated — they asked for lum, meaning 
West India rum, as the modern whiskey was not then 
manufactured m Pennsylvania. Seeing they were 
already intoxicated, he feared mischief, if he gave them 
more, and he refused. They became enraged, and 
seized and tied him to the JNIulberry tree to burn him. — 
Whilst they were proceeding to execute their purpose,, 
he was released, after a struggle, by other Indians of the 
neighborhood, who generally came across, the river. — 
How tlie alarm was given to them, whether by firing a 
gun or otherwise, or by whom, is not certainly known. — 
In remembrance of this event, he afterwards directed 
that on his death he should be buried under the Mul- 
berry tree, which had been the scene of this adventure. 
Part of the trunk of this tree, is still standing. It is ten 
feet high, up to the lowest limbs,, and the stump is eleven 
feet six inches in circumference.^' 

John Harris, died about 1748-^probably in December,* 
and was biu:ied v/here he had directed-— under the shade of 
his own memorable tree — and there his remaiiis still 
repose, with those of some of his children. The title to 
the grave yard, to the extent of fifteen feet square, is 
secured by conveyance from the commissioners who 
laid out the town. In the words of Parson Elder, 
who knew John Harris, well, ^'He was as honest a 
man,as ever broke bread.^' 

A settlement was commenced in 1726, on the Susque- 
hanna, south of the Chiques Hill, by Robert Barber, 

*EsQ. Geo. W. Harris' letter, dated August 10, 1843. 


Jolin Wriglit and Samuel Blunston, Quakers, The first 
mentioned took up and pm-chased one thousand acres, 
bounded by the Chi([ui's Hill on the north, and extending 
down the Susquehanna to llie present site of Columbia. 
Having his warrant, INIr. Barber returned to Chester, and 
in 1727, in company with John Wright and Samuel 
Blunston, and families, came and settled on the land he 
had piu-chased. Samuel Blunston took five hundred 
acres, adjoining the Chiques Hill, and built a house 
where Mr. S, B. Heise now resides. He died without 
issue, and his estate descending to collateral heirs, is 
now held by the JNIisses Bethel. 

John Wright, (who had come from Lancashire, Eng- 
land, to Chester county, on the Delaware river, in 1714,) 
took two hundred and fifty acres of the land lying south, 
and immediately below Blunston's, and built where the 
Messrs. Wrights now reside. Two large Walnut trees, 
of the English species, planted by him more than one 
hundred years ago, contimie to designate the place 
of his first improvement. His descendants continue 
to reside in Columbia, and hold part of the first 

These three gentlemen were active and enterprising 
and useful citizens. Their names are intimately asso- 
ciated with all the earlier transactions of Lancaster 
county, as will appear from the sequel of our History. 

"When they first settled here, and for some time, says 
William Wright, grandson of John Wright, in a letter* 
to George Ford, Esq., they had to depend on the Darby 
Mills for flour, which they carried on pack-horses 
through the woods along an Indian path to the Susque- 
hanna. The Indians, who were very good neighbors, 
and the only ones they had, often supplied them with 

•T^ated Columbia, 2 mo. 25, 1842. 


game ; in return, they looked for nothing but bread and 
milk, of which they were very fond. When their supply 
of flour run low, they had to hide their bread. The 
Indians had no idea of any thing being withheld; 
whilst either party had it,, all should partake." The 
descendants of these pioneers still reside in the county. 
This settlement sbon attracted the attention of others. — 
Repugnant as they are in feelings, the Irish and Germans 
soon afterwards established themselves as neighbors, 
living on terms of mtimacy for a while. In newly 
settled countries all is sociability, and perfect friendship 
prevails. Former distinct nationalities are not cherished ; 
yet never forgotten. German and Irish are opposites. 

The land back from the river was settled principally 
by Germans: Forrys, Stricklers, Garbers, and others. — 
Their first purchase was, it is said, from an: old woman 
named Mary Ditcher,^ who used to go through the 
country making what was called improvements — a few 
sticks piled together, a fire Irindled, and a pot hung over 
it, constituted a first right. Those Avho could pay for the 
land had first choice, but these improvements were 
generally bought for a trifle by those able to pay for the 

This old Mary Ditcher seems to have been rather a 
singular personage. She is described as wandering 
through the woods, leading an old horse, her only 
property, with her laiittmg in her hand, and clad in a 
garment chiefly of sheep-skin. 

Hempfield township was so called from the great quan- 
tity of hemp raised there. Manor, from lands reserved by 
the proprietors. The settlers adjoining Barber's and 
Wright's, were Irish families, named Patton, who gave 
name to the hill and the current below, called Patton's 

*Haz. Reg. IX. 113. 


current. It has been said there was once a great 
slaughter of the Indians at that place, by a party of 
cruel men, headed by a person named Bell. In the 
neighborhood were many places said to be graves of the 
Indians, and it was believed that a piece of cannon lay 
sunk in the current. Below this, the settlers were 
Gemians: Stinemans, Kauffmans, Herrs, Rupleys. — 
The township (where Wright first settled) above, was 
called Donegal by the Irish settlers, Andersons, Cooks, 
Tates, Kays. 

In the noith-eastern part of the county, a settlement 
was commenced about the year 1723 or 4, by Everhard 
Ream, whose descendants still reside in the village called 
after the first settler and proprietor. This place, like many 
others, was occupied solely by the Indians, at the time 
Mr. Ream located here. He ventured with his wagon 
and horse into the woods, where he unloaded his '■'■fix- 
tures and furniture,''^ under a large oak tree that 
spread its extended boughs over him and his small 
family till he had put up a rude hut of logs, which he 
built upon what is now Lesher's farm. His nearest mill 
was on the Brandy wine, and his nearest neighbors, the 
Mulbachers, then living on Mill creek. After clearing a 
small spot, he procured a warrant and located about 
four hundred acres; afterwards, in 1725, received a 
patent for the same. 

Some of his first or early neighbors, who had been 
attracted by the improved spot and fine water, were 
Bucher, Huber, Walter, KoUer, Schwarsswalder, Leader, 
Schneider, Killion, Dock, Forney, Rupp, Balmer, 
May, Mayer, Hahn, Rosier, Beyer, Leet, Sclilott, Graf, 
Wolf, Feierstein, Weidman, and others. 

At the very infancy of the Pennsylvania colony, a. 
nmiiber of Welsh, of sterling worth and excellent charac* 


ter, arrived in the province in 16S2. "They had early 
purchased of the proprietary, in England, forty thousand 
acres of land, and settled west of the Schuylkill. In a 
few years their number was so much augmented, that 
they had settled, before 1692, six townships m the lower 

The Welsh (Tustom, and that of the Swiss and Pala- 
tines, in settling new countries, were similar in many 
respects. At first they would send persons across the 
Atlantic, to take up land for them, and made some 
preparations for the reception of their families. Among 
the Welsh, who acted as pioneer, was the well known 
Rowland Ellis, who sent over Thomas Owen and family 
to make a settlement, and as soon as Owen had made 
some unprovements, in which he spent a few years, 
ElUs, and one hundi'ed other Welsh passengers, arrived 
in 16S6. 

In 1 6 9S, other Welsh families arrived; among whom 
were William Jones, Thomas Evans, Robert Evans, 
Owen Evans, Cadwallader Evans, Hugh Griffitli, 
Edward Foulke, John Humphrey, Robert Jones, and 
others, who purchased ten thousand acres of land 
of Robert Turner, in Guinedd township, Chester 

Another settlement was commenced, about the year 
1722 or 3, by the Welsh, extending up as far as to the 
present site of Churchtown. Among the principal 
settlers were Torbet, Douglas, E. Davis, A. Billing, Z. 
Davis, Spenger, Henderson, Evans, Ford, Lardner, 
Morgan, Robinet, Edwards, Jenkins. 

While the Welsh were making improvements, a few 
miles south of Allegany;* a region on the Tulpehocken, 

*The country along Alleghany creek, a small stream which 
enters Tulpehocken, is still known by that name. 


some Swiss and Germans settled in JVeher Thai, south 
of Conestoga creek, so called from the Webers, or 
Weavers, who took up between two and three thousand 
acres of land, in 1723 or 4. George Weber and Hans 
Guth, brothers-in-law, Jacob Weber and Henry Weber, 
all Swiss, were the first settlers contiguous to the 
Welsh. Guth located north-east from the Webers. — 
The plain, or thai, was timberless when the first settlers 
commenced. Guth or Good settled in Brecknock town- 
ship, where a numerous connexion of them reside. 

The Webers and Guths had, previous to taking up 
land here, lived some twelve or fifteen years near 
Lancaster. They were a young family, seeking a place 
of permanent abode, where they have since become 
both wealthy and numerous.* George, the oldest of the 
three brothers,, had three sons and two daughters : Hans, 
Henry, Samuel, Maria and Magdalena. The present 
generation of Weavers still possess the lands of their 
ancestors. Some of them have moved to the ^'Far 
IFesi,'' others to Canada. The Webers were soon 

*The following, which we copied at the house of Samuel 
Weaver, in 1842, may give the reader some idea of the 
numerical strength of the family. Christian Weaver's father 
was a native of Switzerland. 

Christian Weaver was born in Earl township, Lancaster 
county, ra. Dec. 25, 1731— married Sept. 30, 1749, to Bliss 
I\lagdalcn Ruth — lived 55 years in a state of matrimony, and 
16 years as a widower. He was a member of the Mennonite 
church. Died of a lingering disease, Feb. 13, 1820, aged 68 
years, 1 month, 1 week and 2 days. Had eight sons and 
five daughters. Of the seven sons and five daughters were 
born, before C. W's. death, and living at the time, 99 grand- 
children, 88 grand children's children, and 55 great grand 
chilhren's children. His lineal descendants were 309. Henry 
Martin preached his funeral discourse. Text, John, 14, 12, 13. 


}oined by the Martins, Schneders, Millers, Zimmermans, 
Ruths, and many others, principally IMennonites. 

During the year 1727, rising of one thousand Pala- 
tines arrived in Pennsylvania; among these were the 
Dieffenderfers, Ekmans, Meyers, Bowmans, Eberlees, 
Zugs, Shultzes, Funks, Frans, and others, whose 
descendants constitute a portion of the inhabitants of 
Lancaster county.* Two brothers, Alexander and John 
Dieffenderfer, sailed from Rotterdam,! arrived at Phila- 
delphia in the month of September ; Alexander settled in 
Oley, now Berks county, and John at Saeue Schivamm, 
now New Holland, in the woods. His grand-son, 
David, son of Michael Dieffenderfer, now in his ninety- 
second year,t informed us that liis grand-father's house- 

*They were of those who first subscribed a "writing, de- 
claring their allegiance to the King of Great Britain, and 
fidelity to the proprietary of the province." The paper was 
drawn up in these words: "We, subscribers, natives and late 
inhabitants of the Palatinate upon the Rhine, and places adja- 
cent, having transported ourselves and families into this 
province of Pennsylvania, a colony subject to the Crown of 
Great Britain, in hopes and expectation of finding a retreat 
and peaceable settlement therein, do solemnly promise and 
engage, that we will be faithful and bear true allegiance to his 
present Majesty, King George the Second, and his suc- 
cessors, Kings of Great Britain, and will be faithful to the 
Proprietor of this province ; and that we will demean our- 
selves peaceably to all his said majesty's subjects, and strictly 
observe and conform to the laws of England and of this 
province, to the utmost of our power and best of our under- 

fThey sailed in the Ship William and Sarah, William Plill, 
master. There were ninety Palatine families, making in all 
about 400 persons, in this ship.— CW. Rec. III. 390. 

tSee a brief sketch of his public life, at the close of this 



}iold goods were brought from Philadelphia, by one 
JMartin, and unloaded under an Oak tree. In the course 
of a few days after their arrival, a hut or cabin was 
erected by the aid of the neighbors, who were kind ; and 
the goods snugly housed, and the family comfortably 
situated. INIichael, David's father, Vv'"as then a child. 

The neighbors were attentive in relieving their wants, 
and supplying them with necessaries. Mr. Bear 
bestowed them a cow; JNIr. Martin and Hans Graaf, 
some flour and meat. Shortly afterwards, other German 
families settled here ; among these were Ranck, Bachert, 
Beck, JNIayer, Brimmer, Koch, Hinkel, Schneider, Seger, 
Stehly, Brubacher, INIeixel, Diller, and others. 

The caprice of Keith, induced him to receive the 
application of the Swiss and Germans, with perfect 
indifference. They applied as early as 1721; but the 
consideration of their petition was procrastinated, days, 
months and years, till 1724, and then only was leave 
granted to bring in a bill to naturalize them, on the hu- 
miliating condition, provided each Swiss or German 
should individually obtain from a justice of the peace, 
a certificate of the value of his property, and the 
nature of his religious faith — not enough yet — a 
representation is made (1727) to Governor Gordon 
Keith's successor; "that a large number of Germans, 
peculiar in their dress, religion, and notions of political 
Governments, had settled on Pcquca, and were deter- 
mined not to obey the lawful aiuhority of Government; 
that they had resolved to speak their oivn language^ (a 
grave charge indeed !) and to acknowledge no sovereign, 
but the Great Creator of the Universe." 

There was, perhaps, never a people who feel less 
disposed to disobey the lawful authority of Government 
than the JSIennonites, against whom these charffes were 


made. In justice to them, we shall digress from our 
narrative, and introduce their own sentiments on this 
subject: "We dedicate ourselves to the security of good 
Government, and the preservation of human life. As 
Christ commanded Peter to pay tribute to Cesar, so we 
shall always pay our taxes. We are subject to high 
authority, as Paul advises, for those in authority bear not 
the sword in vain to execute wrath, but to exercise 
mercy. We hope and pray, that we may not offend. — 
INIay God govern the hearts of our rulers, that they do 
those good things which will add to their own, and our 

It is also well known, that it was owing to their con- 
scientious scruples to take up arms against the mother 
country, to whom they had vowed loyalty, that they 
were the last to resist a high authority; but no sooner 
had the American Independence been acknowledged — 
lawful authority established — than they obeyed the 
rulers of their country. They have never, as a class, or 
as individuals, so far as we know, been disloyal, trouble- 
some, or expensive to Government. They pay their 
taxes regularly ; support the poor of their faith, at their 
own expense : You look in vain in the poor-house for 
any of their brethren or sisters. 

To add food to keep alive jealousies, and excite mis- 
givmgs against the Germans, "it was reported that some 
thousands were expected to arrive in the ensuing season 
of 1727." It is true that three hundred and forty-eight 
Palatine families, making in all twelve hundred and forty 
persons, did arrive.* They came not as disloyalists, but 

•The number of German emigrants, during 172.8, was less 
than the preceding year, only 152 families, consisting of 390 
persons arrived at Philadelphia; during 1729 it was still less ; 
only 243 Palatine passengers arrived. Strange, that this num?- 


were encouraged to come to Pennsylvania to settle and 
improve the country, upon tlie invitation of the proprie- 
tary. Tlicir industry and utility had before that period 
been proverbial. 

This information, and the report of expected arrivals, 
were laid before the Assembly, whereupon William 
Webb, Samuel Ilollingsworth, and John Carter, were 
appointed a committee to inquire into the facts, and make 
report to the next House. These gentlemen investigated 
the grave charges, and in 1728, made a report favorable 
to the Germans and Swiss, who had been invited by the 
original proprietary, William ; " that they had honestly 
paid for their lands, and were a quiet and industrious 
people, honestly discharging their civil and religious 
duties. But tliat some had made a settlement on lands 
without any right, and refused to yield obedience to 
the Government; that those persons had entered this 
colony from that of New York," says the report, &c. — 
These some, were but few who had settled " upon Tul- 
pahaca creek," about the year 1722, or 23. These, 
"from New York," had settled on the Tulpehocken 
lands, by Governor Keith's permission. They were 
thirty-three families in 1723 Avith other natives of 
Germany, who were by the bounty and goodness of 
Queen Anne in(hiced to transpoit themselves and 

ber should alarm the Government so much as to pass an act 
laying a duty of forty shillings, per head, on aliens, i. e. Ger- 
mans, Swis-^', Dutch and French!!! The influx of paupers — 
not Germans — which was so great during 1729, should have 
excited more alarm, than the few aliens. 

During the year 1729, there were of English and Welsh pas- 
sengers and servants, 267, Scotch servants, 43, //-tsA passengers 
and servants, 1155, Palatine (alien, or 40 shilling head) passen- 
gers, 243 ; by the way of New Castle, chiefly passengers and 
servants from Ireland, 4500. — JIugh. His. Acd. 163. 


families to the colony of New York, in 1710, or 1711, 
where they settled. But their families increasing, and 
being in that Government confined to the scanty allow- 
ance of ten acres of land to each family, whereupon they 
conld not well subsist, being informed of the kind recep- 
tion which the Germans usually met within the province 
of Pennsylvania, and hoping they might, with what 
substance they had, acquire larger settlements in the 
province of Pennsylvania, did leave their settlements in 
New York, and came with their families; applied to the 
Governor, who granted them permission to settle." 

The names of many of these are still preserved 
recorded, viz : Johannes Yans, Peter Ritt, Conrad Schitz, 
Paltus Unsf,. Toritine Serbo, Josap Sab, Jorge Ritt, 
Godfreyt Filler, Johannes Claes Shaver, lo. Hameler 
Ritt, Antonis Shart, Johan Peter Pacht, Jocham Michael 
Cricht, Sabastian Pisas, Andrew Falborn.*" 

As the settlements were now becoming numerous, and 

settlers located in various parts, they came frequently and 

more closely in contact with the Indians ; and in despite 

of the efforts of the Government to prevent bloodshed, 

owing to some violence on the part of both whites and 

natives, a person named Thomas Wright was killed by 

some Indians at Snaketown,. forty miles above Conestoga. 

John Wright addressed a letter, carried by Jonas Deven- 

port, to Secretary Logan, at Philadelphia, which was 

laid before the council, Sept. 27, 1727. The account in 

the letter stated, that on the 11th of September, several 

Indians, together with one John Burt, an Indian trader, 

and Thomas Wright, were drinking near the house of 

Burt, who was singing and dancing with the Indians, 

and tlie said Wright; Burt bade Wright to knock down 

the Indian, whereupon Wright laid hold of the Indian, 

•Col. Rec. III. 341. 


198 HiSTonr ov 

but did not beat him, that afterwards Biirt struck the 
Indian several blows with the fist, that the said Wright 
and Burt afterwards returned into the house where the 
Indians followed them and broke open the door, that 
while Wright was endeavoring to pacify them, Burt 
called out for his gun, and continued to provoke them more 
and more; that hereupon said Wright fled to the hen- 
house to hide himself, whither the Indians pursued him, 
and next morning he was found dead. The inquisition 
on the body set forth, that the said Wright came to his 
death by several blows on his head, neck and temples, 
which the jurors said, they believe, were done by the In- 
dians. This quarrel arose from too free use of rum, sold 
by Burt, the Indian trader.* 

About this time the colonists of Pennsylvania were 
much annoyed by non-resident Indians, who frequently, 
in small parties, roved on the borders of the settlements, 
and stimulated by drink and cupidity, committed out- 
rages upon the persons and property of the inhabitants. 
This was the case in the settlements on Manatay creek, 
which empties into the Schuylkill, thirty miles above 

In the spring of 1728, the hihabitants of the upper 
part of Chester aounty, were considerably alarmed, in 
viev/ of a quarrel that Avas likely to ensue between the 
Indians of these parts and tbe Sbawanese, who had 
killed two of the Conestogoe Indians. Mr. Wright 
acqliainted the Governor by letter that tbe Indians 
seemed to prepare for war, and that therefore his presence 
was desired as necessary to settle these differences, 
which might, in the end, affect llie peace of the people of 
the province. In the back parts of the county, whole 

*Col. Rcc. III. yU2. -[Gordon, 20G. 


families had left their habitations, through fear of being 
attacked by the Indians. 

The Governor and council paid strict attention to tlic 
representations of Mr. Wright, and made necessary- 
arrangements to go to the seat of disturbance to recon- 
cile those at enmity. The Governor, attended with 
some members of the council, and divers other gentle- 
men, to the number of about thirty, set out from Phila- 
delphia, May 22, 1'72&, and on the evening of the 23rd, 
arrived at the house of Mr. Andrew Cornish, about a 
mile distant from Indiantown. Here they spent the 24th 
and 25th, in waiting for some other persons expected at 
tlie treaty and in mutual civilities ;• and on the 26th, the 
treaty began at the- Indian town of Conestogoe. 

Present: The Hon. Patrick Gordon, Esq., Lieut. Go- 
\'ernor, some members of council and divers other gen- 
tlemen. Present, also, viz: Ganyataronga, Tawenna, 
Tanniatchiaro, Taquatarensaly, alias Captain Civility, 
chiefs of the Conestogoe Indians; Oholykon, Peyeas- 
hiskon, Wikimikyona, chiefs of some of the Delaware 
Indians, on Brandy wine; Howickyoma, Skayanannego, 
Onneygheat, Nanamakamen, Peyhiohinas, chiefs of the 
Ganawese Indians; Weysow-walow, Keyscykakalow^ 
Nichtamskakow, chiefs of the Sliawanese. 

Shakawtawlin, or Sam, interpreter from the Delaware 
mto the Shawanese and Mingoe, {alias Conestogoe). — 
Pomapechtoa, interpreter from the Delaware into tlie 
Ganawese language. Nicholas Scull, John Scull, and 
Peter Bizallion, assistant interpreters. 

The Governor spoke as follows: My friends and 
brethren, you are sensible that the great William Penn, 
the father of this country, when he first brought his 
people with him over the broad sea, took all the Indians, 
the old inhabitants, by the hand, and because he found 


them to be sincere, honest people, he took them to his 
heart and loved them as his own. He then made a 
strong league and chain of friendship with them, by 
which it was agreed that the Indians and English, with 
all the christians, shonld be as one people. Yonr friend 
and father, William Penn, still retained a warm affection 
for all the Indians, and strictly commanded those whom 
he had sent to govern this people to treat the Indians as 
his children, and continued ia this kind love for them 
until his death. 

His sons have now sent me over in their stead, and 
they gave me strict charge to love all the Indians as their 
brethren, and as their father, William Penn, loved you. 
I would have seen you before this time, but I fell sick 
soon after I came over, and continued so until next 
spring. I then waited to receive some of the Five 
Nations who came to see me at Philadelphia, and last 
fall I heard you were all gone hunting. 

I am now come to see you, and to renew the ancient 
friendship which has been between William Penn's 
people and you. I was in hopes that Sassoonan and 
Opckasset, with their people, would have been likewise 
here; they have sent me kind messages and have a 
warm love for the christians. I believe they will come 
to me at Philadelphia, for since they could not get hither 
I have desired them to meet me there. I am now to 
discourse witli my brethren, the Conestogoes, Delawares, 
Ganawese and Shawanese Indians upon Susquehanna, 
and to speak in love to them. 

IVIy brethren, you have been faithful to your leagues 
with us, your hearts have been clean, and you have 
preserved the chain from spots or rust, or, if there were 
any, you have been careful to wipe them away. Your 
leagues with your father, Williaui Penn, and with his. 


Governors, are in writing on record, that our children's 
children may have them in everlastmg remembrance. — 
And we know that you preserve the memory of 
those things amongst you by telling them to your 
children, and they again to the next generation, so that 
they remained stamped on your minds never to be forgot. 
The chief heads or strongest links of this chain, I find 
are these nine, viz : 

1. Tliat all William Penn's people or christians, and 
all the Indians should be brethren, the children of one 
father, joined together as with one heart, one head, and 
one body. 

2. That all paths should be open and free to both 
christians and Indians. 

3. That the doors of the christian's house should be 
open to the Indians, and the houses of the Indians to 
the christians, and that they shouid make each other 
welcome as friends. 

4. That the christians should not believe any false 
rumors or reports of the Indians, nor the Indians believe 
any such rumors or reports of the christians, but should 
first come as brethren to inquire of each other; and that 
both christians and Indians when they hear such false 
reports of their brethren, should bury them as in a bot- 
tomless pit. 

5. That if the christians heard any ill news that may 
be to the hurt of the Indians, or the Indiaiis hear any 
such ill news that may be to the injuiy of the cliristians, 
they should acquaint each other with it speedily, as true 
friends and bretlu'en. 

6. That the Indians should do no more any manner of 
harm to the christians, nor their creatures, nor the chris- 
tians do any hurt to any Indians, but each trust the other 
as their brethren. 

203 inal'ORY OF 

7. But as there are wicked people in all nations, if 
either Indians or christians should do any harm to each 
other, complaint should he made of it hy the persons 
suffering that right may he done, and when satisfaction 
is made, the injury or wrong should he forgotten, and be 
buried as in a bottomless pit. 

8. That the Indians should in all things assist the 
diristians, and the christians assist the Indians against 
all wicked people that would disturb them. 

9. And lastly, that both christians and Indians should 
acquamt their children with this league and firm chain 
of friendship made between them, and that it should 
always be made stronger and stronger, and be kept 
bright and clean, without rust or spot between om- 
children, while the creeks and rivers run, and while the 
sun and moon and stars endure. 

And for a confirmation on our parts all these several 
parcels of goods, viz : twenty strowd match coats,., 
twenty duffels, twenty blankets, twenty shirts, one 
hundred pounds of gunpowder, two h^^ndred pounds of 
lead, five hundred flints and fifty knives. 

After whicii the Governor proceeded and said: INIy 
brethren, I have now spoke to the league and chain of 
friendship, first made by your father, William Penn, 
with your fathers, which is confirmed. I am now to 
acquaint you with an unhappy accident that lias afllicted 
me and all good people amongst us, and we lament and 
mourn with you on the heavy misfortune. 

About forty days ago we heard that the Twcchtweys* 
were coming as enemies against this country. I believe 

'<Thi.s intelligence was communicated to the Governor by 
James Le Tort, Indian trader, then at Philadelphia, who had 
just come from Chcnasy, in the upper parts of the river Sus-- 
quchannah. — Col. Rec, III. 312. 


it is false, for we never hurt theTwechtweys; and about 
eighteen days since, I received an express from the Iron 
Works at Mahanatawny,* acquainted me that eleven 
foreign Indians, painted for war, and armed with guns, 
pistols and swords, were come amongst our inhabitants, 
plundering them and taking away their provisions by 
force, whereupon some of our people, to the number of 
twenty men, with arms, went to speak to them civilly, 
but the Indians fired upon them and wounded some of 
them; our men likewise fired on the Indians and 
wounded some of them also, but the Indians fired first.t 
It was very ill done to fire. 

As soon as I heard this account, I took my horse and 
went to Mahanatawny, with several gentlemen of 
Philadelphia; but the Indians were gone off. I found 
our people believed there were more coming, and there- 
fore some hundreds met together with their arms to defend 
themselves in case the Indians should attfick them. As 
I was returning home, I heard news that grieved me 
exceedingly. I was told that two or three furious men 
amongst us had killed three of our Indian friends and 
hurt two girls. I went back mourning, and sent out 
men to take the murderers, Avho were accordingly taken, 
and they are now in irons in a dungeon to be tried by 
the laws of the Great King of all the English, as if they 
had killed so many of his own subjects. I have likewise 
caused search to be made for the dead bodies, and two 
women were found murdered, who, by my order, were 
laid in a grave and covered with shirts and strowds. I 
hear likewise that the dead body of an Indian man has 
been found and was buried. 

*About 30 miles above Philadelphia, in Berks county. 

fThey were non-resident Indians, headed by a Spanish 
Indian.—CoL Rec. III. 321. 


You know there arc wicked people amongst all 
nations; there are ill people amongst you, and you are 
sometimes forced to put them to death. The English 
are a great people, and there are likewise wicked men 
amongst them. I mourn for this misfortune, and will do 
all I can to comfort the relations of the dead when I see 
them, which I hope will he at Philadelphia with 
Sassoonan, and Opekasset. 

jVbout eight months ago, I received an accoimt that an 
Englishman was killed by some Indians, at the house of 
John Burt, in Snaketown. I heard John Burt was very 
abusive to the Indians, and I sent to apprehend him, but 
he fled; if he can be taken he will be punished. But 
since there was a man killed, we expect the Indians will 
do us justice, for we must be just and faithful to each 
other, that this spot may be wiped away and the chain 
be kept bright and clean. 

You know, my brethren, that one link of the chain is, 
that when the Indians are uneasy, they should tell it to 
us, and when we are uneasy, we will tell it to them. I 
therefore desire your hearts may be open, that I may 
know if you have any cause of grief, Avhich I will 
endeavor to remove, for I am your brother. 

I have issued a proclamation requiring all people to 
use you well, which shall be read unto you before I go 
away. I will prevent any hurt being done to our 
friends, the Indians, because those who do not behave 
themselves agreeable to what is therein connuanded, 
will be severely punished. The Governor, council, 
Indians, and others, as the day before, met at the same 
place. May 27th. 

Tawenna, in the name, and on the behalf of all the 
Indians spoke to the Governor, which was rendered into 
English, by John Scull, interpreter. 


Give ear, said Tawenna, my brethren, of Philadel- 
phia, the Conestogoe Indians, the ShaAvanese, the 
Ganawese, and Delawares, have somewhat to say, 
which they will speak presently. 

They say, they look upon the Governor as if William 
Penn himself were present. They are four nations and 
among them are several foolish people, as if they were 
just sprung from the earth; but that since their first 
friendship with William Penn, they never have received 
any wrong or injury from him or any of his people. — 
That several foolish people among them committed follies 
and indiscretions, but they hope these will never inter- 
rupt the friendship which is between their people and 
us, for that they and all William Penn's people are as 
one people, that eat as it were, with one mouth, and are 
one body, and one heart. 

Then presenting a belt of wampum of eight rows, 
they say : They would not have the Governor grieve too 
much for the rash inconsiderations that' of late have been 
committed; they must be buried and forgot, for that what 
has happened was done by their friends ; if it had been 
done by their enemies, they would have resented it, but 
that we and they are one ; that they have always met 
with justice and kindness from William Penn, and from 
all the Governors whom he had sent here, and thus do 
all the Indians of Conestogoe, Delaware, the Shawanese 
and Ganawese, say. That they are extremely glad and 
satisfied with Avhat the Governor said to those yesterday, 
it greatly rejoiced their hearts that they had no such 
speech made to them since the time that the great 
William Penn was amongst them, all was good, and 
nothing was amiss. 

Then presenting four strings of wampum, they say : 
They will visit the Governor at Philadelphia, after the 


206 niSTORT OF 

harvest is over, and then tlicy Avill speak fully to him, as 
their brother and friend, for the Conestogoes, Delawares, 
Shawanese, and Ganawese will then come to him, and 
he may look up the Conestogoe road and expect them. 
That wliat had happened at John Burt's House, was not 
done by them, it was done by one of the Menysinicks, 
who are of another nation, and therefore, they can say 
nothing to it." 

After this answer of the Indians, some of the gentle- 
man present, moved the Governor that seeing there was 
now a numerous company of our inliabitants met 
together, he would be pleased to press the Indians to 
declare to hiin if they suffered any grievance or hard- 
ship from this Government, because several reports had 
been industriously spread abroad, as if they had some 
just cause of complaint. And the Governor having 
ordered the interpreters to acquaint them therewith; 
they all answered that they had no cause of complaint, 
that William Penn and his people had still them treated 
well, and they had no uneasiness. 

The Governor then told them, that he was well 
pleased with what they had said unto him, and that 
since the Indian, who killed the Englishman at Burt's 
house, is not of their nation, he would demand justice 
from that nation to which he belonged. 

After giving the Indians a few presents, the Governor 
took all the Indian chiefs by the hand, and desired them 
that when they returned home they should acquaint all 
their people with what had now passed between them and 
us, that the remembrance thereof might endure forever. 

Note.— Iron Works—" Kurtz, it is supposed, established the 
first Iron Works in 1720, within the present bounds of Lancaster 
county. Tlio Grul)bs were distinguished for their industry and 
entcrprize : they connnonced operations in 1728." — Haz. Rtg. 


To close this chapter, we have introduced a brief 
sketch* of the public services of our old father, David 
Dieffenderffer, residing at Hew Holland. 

David Dieffenderffer, was born, February 9th, 
1752, near New Holland; before he had reached his 
tenth year, his father, Michael Dieffenderffer, moved to 
Lancaster. David, when in his eleventh, saw a sight in 
Lancaster, "too horrible to relate," to use his own 
language, the massacred Indians in their gore, and one 
in the agonies of death, menacing revenge by the motion 
of "his dying hands." 

At the age of twenty -five, he sternly advocated the 
suffering cause of his bleeding country, by actual and 
personal services; first in the character of a militia man, 
after the expiration of his tour, he served as an enlisted 
volunteer of Colonel Houssacker's* regiment, under 
Captain David Wilbert, of Philadelphia, and Lieut. Col. 
George Strieker, father of General Strieker, late of 

He was in many important engagements. He was 
engaged in the taking of the Hessians at Trenton, where 
Colonel Rahl, the Hessian commander, and a gallant 
officer, was mortally wounded, besides six other 
officers, and between twenty and thirty privates, of the 
enemy, were killed, Decembsr 26, 1776, and twenty- 
three officers, and rising of nine hundred privates, were 
taken prisoners by the Americans, who lost only four 

*Houssacker, who afterwards deserted the Americans, and 
surrendered twenty or more of his men, at Princeton, had 
been originally commissioned a major of Wayne's battalion. 
" He had," says Graydon, "if I mistake not, been an adjutant 
of the Royal Americans; and was considered a capable dis- 
ciplinarian. He was a German, or rather a man of no country 
or any country ; a citizen of the world, a soldier of fortune, 
and a true mercenary." — Graydon's Mem, 218. 


privates, and two of these were frozen to death. He 
was at the cannonading of Trenton, January 2, '1777; 
when the Americans were repulsed, "I ran," said the 
veteran to us, in his ninety-first year, " like a Hollander, 
while the bullets whistled about my ears, and rattled 
like hailstones against the fence." He was in the en- 
saarement where there was a fearful odds in numbers and 
tact against the Americans, when they had to contend 
against Lord Cornwallis's troops, and reinforced by regi- 
ments under the command of Colonel JNIaywood, at the 
battle of Princeton, January 3rd, 1777; here the British 
loss was more than one hundred killed, and rising of 
three hundred prisoners taken. "But the victory was 
by no means a bloodless one to the Americans; General 
Mercer was mortally wounded. Col. Haslet, Col. Potter, 
and other officers of subordinate rank, were killed." 

He was with the American army at Morristown, hi 
winter quarters. Here Washington, not trustmg to the 
barriers nature had thrown around his position, sent out 
detachments to assail and harass General Howe's troops; 
and it was in these expeditions Dieffenderffer frequently 
took part. 

In a skirmish at Monmouth, in the spring of '77, 
Dieffenderffer was taken prisoner and shamefully mal- 
treated by one of the British, who struck him in his 
face with his musket ; a scar is still visible on his upper 
lip ; blow upon blow would have been repeated, but for 
the manly and timely interposition of a small Scotch- 
man, he was treated as a prisoner. He, and twenty-five 
or thirty fellow-prisoners, were conveyed to New York, 
and confined in a sugar-refinery, covered in part with 
tile. The sufferings they endured, excited universal 
indignation, and will, everlastingly, reflect reproach on 
the British conunander. Many of them sunk mider 


their sufferings and died. Dieffenderffer's sufferings 
were mitigated by the kindness of a Mr. Miller, Hessian 
commissary in the English service; having been at 
Lancaster, he had taken lodging at the public house of 
Michael Dieffenderffer, and who, in a conversation, told 
Miller he had a son, a suffering prisoner, at New York, 
and if he had an opportunity, would send him some 
money. Miller informed him he would shortly return to 
New York, and would be pleased to have it in his power 
to befriend him or his suffering son ; the opportunity was 
improved, and four half-johannes, placed in the hands of 
the commissary, who, with the characteristic fidelity of 
an honest Hessian, on his arrival, delivered the gold to 
David.* He received, he said, with gratitude, and in. 
tears, the money, a kind father had sent him. His condi- 
tion was greatly ameliorated. 

Notwithstanding the economy he used, his money, as 
his imprisonment was protracted, was reduced to a few 
cents; and while, as a prisoner of hope, he was meditat- 
ing how his future sufferings should be mitigated, Capt. 
Michael Smyser,t of York county, on his retui-n from 
Long Island, by way of New York, to his home, handed 
him an English guinea. After five months' suffering, 
in the latter part of October, he went to Long Island 
where he was, on parole, laboring for his board and 
clothing for some time ; he returned to New York ; was 

*This statement we have from the old father himself; v/hile 
relating to us the incidents of liis eventful life, at this particu- 
lar, we saw steal down his cheeks, in hurried succession, tears 
from his sightless organs ; he added, "I had a kind father." 

fCaptain Michael Smyser was one of the virtuous band of 
th£ gloomy period of '76. At the unfortunate capture of Fort 
Wcishington, he vvas made prisoner, and could appreciate the 
sufferings of his fellow-citizens. 



exchanged, and received a permit ; and in company with 
Colonel Atlee, who had been taken prisoner before, 
came to Trenton, where they parted. Dieffendcrffer, by 
way of Valley Forge returned to Lancaster. He 
remained a short time at home ; then in company with 
Captain Wilbert, went to Valley Forge; here he 
remained four weeks, sufficiently long to witness the 
sufferings of the American army. 

On the 18th of June, 1778, General Howe evacuated 
Philadelphia, and crossed over into New Jersey, whither 
they were speedily followed by Washington ; pursuing the 
enemy, and on the 28th of June, gained a signal 
victory at Monmouth, over the British. Dieffendcrffer 
was in this engagement. This, says he, was one of the 
hottest days that he ever experienced ; several fell dead 
from drinking cold water. From Monmouth, they 
marched to the White Plains, a few miles to the north- 
eastward of New York Island. Thence they went to 
West Point, where Washington had his head quarters. — 
Here Dieffendcrffer having received a furlough, 
returned to Lancaster, where he remained till March, 
1779, when he returned to the regiment at East on. — 
Under the command of General Sullivan, they marched 
into the W^yoming country, and Gennesee Flats ; thence 
returned to Wyoming ; then the regiment, under the 
direction of Major Weldner, came on to Sunbury. — 
Owing to sickness, Dieffendcrffer, as ensign, resigned his 
commission, and returned to Lancaster, in 1779. 

His eventful life, through habits of temperance and 
moderation, has been lengthened four score and ten. — 
Though sightless for some years, he enjoys at present 
remarkable health ; and enjoys the company of a 
virtuous and intelligent offspring and relatives. Here 
we would add that his cousin, Jacob Dieffendcrffer, 


residing in the same village, New Holland^ was 
in the service of his countiy, when Lord Corn- 
wallis was taken. We regret that we have not the 
particulars of his services. May they both continue to 
command the esteem which tliey so richly merit, and 
when their warfare on earth ends, may they rest iii 


Ephrata — Origin of Gcnnan Baj:tist3 in Europe, and tlieir emigration to- 
America — Some settle at Mueibach — Sieben Taeger association formed 
at Ephrata, by Conrad Beissel — Change of life among tiiem-^They built 
Kc'iar and Zion — Singular architecture of buildings — Fractur-Schriften. 
by the Sisters — Specimens of original poetry — Eckerlein and the bell-^ 
Its destination — Sabbath School established — Miller succeeds Beissel — 
Juliana Penn's letter — Poetry dedicated to Miller — Present state of 
Ephrata. List of names of the first inhabitants of Ephrata — Names of 
some of the early settlers in Lancaster county. 

A settlement v/as commenced, in 1725, or 1726, on 
the banks of the Cocalico creek, where the Reading 
road, and Downingtown turnpike intersect, at present, in 
Ephrata township, and is well known by the name of 
"Kloster," or "Ephrata," or "Dunkertown," a nick- 
name from the word Dunker, or Tunker, a corruption 
of Taeicfer, Baptists. To show the origin of this settle- 
ment, we shall introduce as preliminary, a brief historL- 
cal sketch of the Germa,n Baptists, from whom the 
founder of the society at Ephrata, seceded. Those 
at Ephrata, are generally known by the name of ''Sieben 
Taeger," Seventh Bay People; because they keep the 
seventh, mstead of the Jirst day of the week, as the 



In the year 1708, eight persons, five brcllircn and three 
sister\s, viz: Alexander Mack, of Schreisheim, in the 
Palatinate, Germany, George Graby and Lucas Fetter, 
of Hesse Cassel, Andrew Boney, of Basle, in Switzer- 
land, and John Kipping, from Wirtemburg, and Johanna 
Bong, Anna Margaretta Mack, and Johanna Kipping, 
entered iriio a covenant with each other, to meet regu- 
larly, to carefully and impartially examine the doctrines 
of the New Testament, and by the help of God, to ascer- 
tain what are the obligations it imposes on professed fol- 
lowers of the meek and the humble Saviour; laying 
aside pre-conceived opinions, and, if possible, to attain 
to the answer of a good conscience by rendering implicit 
obedience to the commands of the Lord Jesus ; to follow 
him in evil as well as in good report. The result of 
their meetings and prayerful investigations was the 
formation of a society, that as brethren and sisters, under 
the cross of the Lord Jesus Christ, dwelled togetiier in 
unity of a living faith. This society is now called the 
Dunkers, from the mode of administering baptism, in 
water, by trine immersion. 

The society having been formed, and, as they con- 
ceived that immersion was the only valid mode of 
administering bajUism, and none of them thus baptized, 
they felt themselves in a difficulty, says one of their 
writers, "not soon got over;" one of their number, who 
labored among them in word, visited the societies in 
diffcrents parts of Germany, to collect the opinion of the 
awakened generally, upon the subject of baptism; the 
greater number acknowledged that immersion was the 
mode practiced by tlie Apostles and primitive christians, 
l)ut still endeavoring to satisfy themselves, that a hand- 
full of water by pouring, would answer the same end, 
provided it was administered to proper subjects only. 


^'The consciences of the before mentioned could, how- 
ever, find no satisfaction in these; they, therefore, 
desired him, who was their minister, to baptize them by- 
immersion; according to the example and practice of 
the first christians and primitive believers; he felt a 
diifidence to comply with their request on account of his 
not being baptized himself, he desired, therefore, first to 
be baptized before he could conscientiously baptize any 
of them; and they betook themselves to fasting and 
prayer, in order to obtain help and direction in this case, 
from Him who is the restorer of paths to dwell in, for they 
were all desirous to be baptized. In this dilemma, a 
testimony of scripture revived in their minds, "Where 
two or three are gathered in my name, there am I in the 

"Wherefore, with an unbroken confidence in the 
precious promise of God, they cast lots, who of the 
four brethren should baptize him, that was anxiously 
desirous of being baptized; they pledged their Avord, at 
the same time, that it should remain a secret upon whom 
the lot fell, that no one might take occasion to call the 
society by the name of any man, as was the case with 
the Corinthian church, which was sharply reproved by 
the Apostle." 

"The crisis for the camp to move forward, had now 
arrived; they were now made w^illing in the day of the 
Lord's power; accordingly, they went out in the morn- 
ing, to a stream called Ader, and then, he, upon whom 
the lot had fallen, baptized the brother, who was so 
anxious to submit to. the ordinance. This being done, 
he was acknowledged as duly qualified; he baptized 
him first by whom he had been baptized, and the three 
remaining brethren, and the sisters; thus were these 
eight, at an early hour in the morning,, baptized in the, 

214 nisTORr of 

water by trine immersion ; and after they came up out 
of the water, and liad changed their clothes, they were 
filled with joy, and by the grace of God, these expres- 
sions were revived in their minds with peculiar energy, 
"be ye fruitful and multiply." 

They met with no small share of opposition and per- 
secution, notwithstanding these, they soon increased, 
wherever the hand of persecution had driven them; 
some fled to llolland, some to Creyfels, in the Dutchy of 
Cleves; and the mother church voluntarily removed t(J 
Serustervin, in Friesland. In a very short time, there were 
efficient laborers in this branch of God's moral vineyard; 
especially at Creyfels. Among the brethren there were 
John II. Kalklosor, from Frankenthal, Christian Leib, 
and Abraham Dubois, from Ebstcin, John Naas, and 
others, from the north, Peter Becker, from Dilsheim, 
John H. Traut, and his brethren, and Stephen Koch, 
George B. Gantz, from Umstadt, and Michael Ecker- 
ling, from Stras1)urg. Among these, as their leader, was 
Alexander Mack, who devoted his property to the com- 
mon use of the society, and emigrated to Pennsylvania, 
in 1729,* where persecuted virtue found an asylum 
under the benign Goverimient of Penn. They first 
settled at Germantown, some at Skippack, Oley, others 
at Conestoga, and elsewhere. A congregation of them 
was organized, and they chose Peter Becker, as official 

The society increased rapidly, and soon a church was 
formed in Lancaster county, at Muclbach, (Mill creek). 
One of the prominent members of this last mentioned 

•Im lahr, 1729, ist Alexander Mack, der Urstaender der 
Taeufer, samt dm ucbrigen gcdachtcr GcMiieinde, von Fries- 
land abgcsctzt und in Pcnnsylvanicn angekommen. — Peter 


church, was Conrad Beissel, a native of Germany. He 
Was converted in 1715. He had fled from the persecu- 
tions of that period. He arrived in America in 1720, 
and in 1721, settled at Mill creek, where he, and one 
Stuntz, built a house; and they were soon joined by 
Isaac Von Babern, George Stiefel, and others. It 
appears from an extract of the Ephrata Chi'onicle, that 
Conrad Beissel was baptized by Peter Becker, in Pequea 
creek, in 1724. Soon a new organization arose from 
the Dunkers.* Beissel, "wholly intent upon seeking 
out the true obligation of the word of God, and the 
proper observances of the rites and ceremonies it im- 
poses, stripped of human authority, he conceived that 
there was an error among the Dunkers, in the ob- 
servance of the day for the Sabbath; that the seventh 

*About the same time, another religious sect was formed in 
Oley, now Berks county. This association was headed by one 
Mathias Baumann. His followers or disciples were styled 
"The New-born." 

They professed to be impeccable, or of having attained a 
state of sinlessness: they were perfectionists. They boasted 
they were sent of God to confound others. Their disputations 
were frequently heard in the market places of Philadelphia. — 
On one occasion, Baumann, to show that his doctrine was 
from God, proposed to wade across the Delaware river. 

They were, as it is the custom of enthusiasts and fanatics, 
contentious, wandering through the country, displaying zeal 
for their doctrines, by controverting with al! who differed from 
them in matters of faith. Conrad Beissel, the founder of the 
Sieben Taeger, was occasionally annoyed in his recluse situa- 
tion, by them. 

Baumann, their leader, was a native of Lamshelm, Palati- 
nate ; born in 1701 ; came to America between the years, 1719, 
and 1722; he died, 1727. It is reported, he was an honest and 
sincere man ; not solicitous to accumulate property ; but, that 
Kuehlenwein, Jotter, and others of his followers, loved the 
g»od things of the world inordinately. 


day was the command of the Lord God, and that day 
being cstabhshed and sanctified, by the Great Jehovah, 
forever! And no change, nor authority for change, ever 
having been announced to man, by any power sufficient 
to set aside the solemn decree of the Almighty; a 
decree which he declared that he had sanctified forever ! 
He felt it to be his duty to contend for the observance of 
that day. About the year 1725, he published a tract 
entering into a discussion of this point, which created 
some excitement and disturbance in the society, at Mill 
creek ; upon which he retired from the settlement, and 
went secretly, to a cell on the banks of the Cocalico,'* 
that had previously been occupied by one Elimelich, a 
hermit. His place of retirement was unknown for 
sometime to the people he had left, and when discovered, 
many of the society at Mill creek, who had become 
convinced of the truth of his proposition for the observ- 
ance of the Sabbath, settled around him, in solitary 
cottages. They adopted the original Sabbath — the 
seventh day — for public worship, in the year 1728; 
which has ever since been observed by their descendants, 
even unto the present day. 

In the year 1732, the solitary Mfe was changed into a 
conventicle one, and a monastic society was established 
as soon as the first buildings erected for that purpose 
were finished. May, 1733. The habit of the Capuchins, 
or White Friars,t was adopted by both the brethren and 

*Cocalico, called by the Delaware Indians, Kocli-Halckung, 
CIcrmanice, Schlangcnhochlc, Serpents den ; from the abun- 
dance of serpents along the stream. — Chron. Eph. 52. 

fCapuziner, cine Abart des Franciscaner Ordens, wclche 
gegen das lahr 1525, ihren Anfang nahm. Sie tragen cine 
lange spitz zulaufendc capuze und cincn langen Bart; die 
Vcrfassung des ordens ist strong und zcichnet sich durch 
Enthaltsamkcit aus. 


sisters; which consisted of a shirt, trowsers, and vest, 
with a long white gown or cowl, of woolen web in 
winter, and hnen in summer. That of the sisters 
differed only in the substitution of petticoats for trowsers, 
and some little peculiarity in the shape of the cowl. — 
Monastic names were given to all who entered the 
cloister. Onesimus (Israel Eckerlin) was constituted 
Prior, who was succeeded by Jaebez (Peter Miller) and 
the title of Father — spiritual father — was bestowed by 
the society, upon Beissel, whose monastic name was 
Friedsam; to which the brethren afterwards added 
Gottrecht; implying, together. Peaceable, Godright. In 
the year 1740, there were thirty-six single brethren in 
the cloister, and thirty-five sisters ; and at one time, the 
society, including the members living in the neighbor- 
hood, numbered nearly three hundred. 

The first buildings of the society of any consequence, 
were Kedar and Zion; a meeting house and convent, 
which were erected on the hill called JNIount Zion. — 
They afterwards built larger accommodations, in the 
meadow below, comprising a sister's house, called Saron, 
to which is attached a large chapel and "Saal" for the 
purpose of holding Agapas, or Love Feasts. A 
brother's house, called Bethania, with which is con- 
nected the large meeting room, with galleries, in which 
the whole society assembled, for public worship, in the 
days of their prosperity, and which are still standing, 
surrounded by smaller buildings, that were occupied as 
printing-office, bake-house, school-house, almonry, and 
others, for different purposes; on one of wliich, a one 
story house, the town clock is erected.* 

•One of the buildings having been erected thirty-eight years, 
was converted into a Hospital in the American Revolution, 
and afterwards occupied as a school house. The house stands 



"The buildings are singular, and of very ancient 
architecture; all the outwalls being covered with shin- 
gles, or clapboards. The two houses, for the brethren 
and sisters, are veiy large, being three and four stories 
high : each has a chapel for their night meetings, and 
the main buildings are divided into small apartments, 
each containing between fifty and sixty, so that six 
dormitories, which are barely large enough to contain a 
cot (in early days a bench, and billet of wood for the 
head) a closet and an hour glass surrounded a common 
room, in which each subdivision pursued their respec- 

no more ; the spot it occupied is still pointed out to the casual 
visitor, by the courteous inhabitants of Ephrata. 

A few days after the battle of Brandywine had been fought, 
September 11, 1777, four or five hundred of the wounded 
soldiers were taken to Ephrata, and placed in the Hospital. — 
Doctors Yerliel, Scott and Harrison, were the attending 
surgeons and physicians. The wounds and camp fever, 
baflied their skill: one hundred and fifty of the soldiers died 
here ; they were principally from the Eastern States, and 
Pennsylvania, and a tew British, who had deserted and joined 
the American Army. " The first of them that died here, was 
buried by the honors of war; a funeral sermon, preached by 
one of their own number, appointed for that purpose. This 
practice was continued for some time, till they began to drop 
off too rapidly to allow time for the performance of the cere- 
mony, when every thing of the kind was dispensed with." 

The place where they rest, is enclosed ; and for many years, 
a board, with this inscription : 

"lijfcv anuhfu Hi'r <KffI)cinr tjfclcr Soltr»T[teu/* 

was placed over the gate of tlie enclosure. The board, with 
the inscription, is no more. Measures are now, upon sugges- 
tion of Joseph Konigmacher, Es(]., and many of his fellow 
citizens, taken to raise a plain and durable monument, to 
rescue from oblivion, and perpetuate the memories of the 
entombed soldiers, who were wounded at Brandywine, and died 
at Ephrata. 


tive avocations. On entering these silent cells, and 
traversing the long narrow passages, visiters can scarcely 
divest themselves of the feeling of walking the tortuous 
windings of some old castle, and breathing in the hidden 
recesses of romance. The ceilings have an elevation of 
but seven feet; the passages leading to the cells, or 
kammers, as they are styled, and through the different 
parts of both convents, are barely wide enough to admit 
one person, for when meetmg a second, he has always to 
retreat. The dens of the kammers are but five feet 
high, and twenty inches wide, and the window, for 
each has but one, is only eighteen by twenty-four 
inches; the largest windows affording light to the 
meeting rooms; the chapels, the saals, and even the 
kammers, or dormitories, are hung and nearly covered 
Tvith large sheets of elegant penmanship, or ink paint- 
ings ; many of which are texts from the scriptures, exe- 
cuted in a very handsome manner, in ornamented 
Gothic letters, called in German, Fractur-Schrifter. 
They are done on large sheets of paper, manufactuied 
for the purpose at their own mill, some of which are put 
into frames, and which admonish the resident, as well as 
the casual visiter, which ever way they may turn the 
head. There are some very curious ones : two of 
which still remain in the chapel attached to Saron. — 
One represents the narrow and crooked way, done on a 
sheet of about three feet square, which it would be 
difficult to describe ; it is very curious and ingenious : 
the whole of the road is filled up with texts of scripture, 
adverting the disciples of their duties, and the obliga- 
tions their profession imposes upon them. Another 
represents the three Heavens. In the first, Christ, the 
Shepherd, is represented gathering his flock together ; in 
the second, which Occupies one foot in height, and is 

220 HISTORY 07 

three feet wide, three hundred figures in Capuchin dress, 
can be count xl, witli harps in their liands, and heads of 
ail innumerable host ; and in the third is seen the Throne 
surrounded by two hundred Arch-Angels, Many of 
these Fractur-Schriften express their own enthusiastic 
sentiments on the subject of Celibacy, and the virtue of 
a recluse life, whilst others are devotional pieces. The 
following are from two found in the chapel of the 
sisters' convent. We can copy the sentiment, but carmot 
convey an idea of their style. 

Die Lieb ist ursrc kron und heller tugend spicgel. 

Die Weishcit unsre Lust, und reines Gottcs Siegel; 

Das Lamm ist unser schatz wir uns an vertrauen, 

Und folgen seinem Gang als reinste Jungfraucn. 

Unsre Kronen die ■wir tragen in diescr sterblichkeit, 

Werden uns in Trucbsals-tagen durch vicl Lcid zubereit, 

Da muss unsre Hoffnung bUiehen und der Glaube wachscn auf 

"Wan sich Welt undFleisch bemucchen uns zu schwacchem im 

0, wol dan ! wcilwir gezachlct zudcr rcinen LacnimcrHeerd, 
Die dem keuschen Lamm vcrmachlet, und crkauft von der Erd, 
Bleibet schon alhier verborgen, unser Ehrcn Schmuck und 

Wird us doch an jencm Morgen Krocnon, lesus Gottcs Sohn. 

Above the door, as you enter from the sister house 
m the saal, is one which we copied while on a visit to 
the place. 

Die Tliucr zum cingang in das haus 

Wo die vcrcinte Scclcn wohncn 

Laosst koines mehr, von da hinaus 

Weil GoU tlnit sclber untcr ihnen tlironcn 

Ihr Glucck bluehl in vcreintcn Licbes Flammcn, 

Weil sie aus GoU und seiner Lieb herstammcn. 

Immediately to the right of this is another which, 


by the aid of Schwester Barbara, we were able to 

So lebet dann die reine Schaar 

Im innern Tempel hierbeisamen, 

Entrissen aller Welt-Gefahr 

In heiss verliebten Liebes-Flammen ; 

Und lebet dann in Hoffnung bin, 

Nach der beglueckten Freiheit die dort oben ; 

Da sie nach dem verliebten Sinn 

Ihn ohne zeit und end wird loben. 

Another on the same wall, which, as we have been 
informed, was a favorite Rdm in their more prosperous 

So steht der Tempel da erfuelltmit reinen Seelen, 

Die sich das keusche Lamm zu eigen thut vermaehlen: 

Els gehet vor uns her, wir folgen treulich nach, 

Und nehmen mit auf uns sein Kreuz und Ungemach. 

Bleiben wir so in ihm so ist das Ziel getroffen ; 

Und haben dorten einst das wahre Gut zu hoffen : 

Bleiben ihm gespart, bis es sich wird vermaehlen, 

Und wir in jener Welt, ewig sein Lob erzaehlen. 

Die Lieb ist unsere kron und heiliger Tugendspiegel ; 

Die Weisheit unsere Lust und reines Gottes Siegel: 

Das Lamm ist unser Schatz dem wir uns anvertrauen, 

Und folgen seinem Gang als reinste Jungfranen. 

In the rooms which any sister has occupied, and is 
departed, a piece, which is framed in imitation of a 
tablet, is put up expressive of the character and virtues 
of the deceased, or some feeling memorial of love is 
inscribed. The following was found in the kammer 
which had been occupied by Zenobia, a very beautiful, 
lovely and devout sister : 


" Wird gruenen und Gcdeyen, ihre Arbeit wird nicht vergel- 

lich, noch auch ihre Hoffnung, verlohren seyn, ihr Erbe 

bluehet mitten unter den Heiligen." 



"A room was set apart for such purposes, called 
^ Das Sclircib Zimmer," the writing room, and several 
sisters devoted their whole attention to this labor, as 
well as to transcribing the writings of the founder of the 
society; thus multiplying copies for the wants of the 
community, before they had a printing press. Two 
sisters, named ^Qmiastasia and Iphigenia, were the 
principal ornamental writers. They left a large folio 
volume of sample alphabets, of various sizes and style; 
which are both elegant and curious, exhibiting the most 
patient application. The letters of the first alphabet are 
twelve inches long, surrounded by a deep border, in 
imitation of copper-plate engraving; each one of wliich 
is different in the filling up. It was finished in the year 
1750, and is still preserved in the hands of the trustees. 
There was another transcribing room appropriated 
exclusively to copying music. Hundreds of volumes, 
each containing five or six hundred pieces, were trans- 
ferred from book to book, with as much accuracy, 
and almost as nuich neatness, as if done with a 


"It was in contemplation, at one time, by the Ecker- 

lins, three brothers, one of \vhom was a pi'ior, and had 
the superintendence of the secular concerns, to make it a 
place of more importance than a mere religious refuge. 
They were from Germany, and had been brought up 
Catholics. They conceived a project of erecting exten- 
sive buildings, and connecting trades Avith it; and had 
some preparations under way; (he timber all hewn, as 
ail the buildings are of wood, even the chimneys, which 
remain in use at this day; and in readiness to erect a 
tower, and liad sent to Europe, where they had exten- 
sive connexions, and got a chime of bells cast, unknown 
to the society, until they arrived at Philadelphia, and tlie 


bill for payment was forwarded to them. The society 
resolved not to receive them, but had them sold and paid 
the loss. One of these bells having upon it, "Ephrata — 
Israel Eckerlin, Prior/^* was purchased, and is now on 
one of the churches in Lancaster. 

" This transaction led to the discovery of a conspuacy 
of the Eckerlins to possess themselves of the titles of 
the property, which v,^as much more extensive and 
valuable then now, and which termmatcd in the expul- 
sion of Israel from the office of Prior. The Eckerlins 

♦Israel Eckerlin, Prior; this is given on the authority of "W. 
A. Fahaestock, M. D., to whom we are indebted for much of 
this article. We believe the bell alluded to, is the one on the 
Lutheran church. If it is, it h£is this inscription : Buh auspicio 
viri venerandi Onesimi Societ. Ephrat. Pracpo:>iti, A. O. 
MDCCXLV. Which we translated: "Under the auspices of 
the venerable man, Onesimus^ placed over the society at 
Ephrata, A. D. 174-5. 

Note. — At a church council held in Ephrata, Beissel, and 
his associates, had determined to break the bell and inter thB 
fragments ; however^ on a night's reflection, it was resolved to 
dispose of it dlflferently : the bell was pardoned from its de- 
creed fate, and sold to the Lutherans, at Lancaster. We quote 
the Chomican Ephratense : " Um diesselbe zeit, 1745, kara die 
ansehnliche Glocke in Philadelphia an von England, welche 
die EckerUn sollen bestellt haben, folgendes motto war um 
dieselbe gegossen: Sub auspicio xiri venerandi Onesimi Socie- 
tasis Ephratensis Praepositi : Auf diese empfangene Nachricht 
•ward Rath gehalten in des Vorstehers Gegenwart, welcber 
fur die Glocke sehr unguenstig ausfiel: dasz sie solte ia 
stuecken zerschlagen, und unter die erde vergraben werden; 
aber wie sie solte bezahli werden, wusste niemand, dann sie 
kostete 80 pfund. Des andern Morgens erschien der Vorsteher 
abermal Im Rath, und sagte: Er haette nachgedacht, weil die 
Brueder arm waeren, solte die Glocke pardonirt werden, und 
also ist sie an die Lutherische Kirche, in Lancaster komraen. — 
Ckron. Eph. p. 164. 

224 niSTORT OP 

afterwards moved to Virginia, where tlicy obtained 

some notoriety in connection with the Indian affairs. 

The society was wedded to apostohc simpUcity; they 
•deshed no towe?' — no bells. They refused to have a 
bell to call them to meeting, even the midniglit meeting, 
which was regularly held at twelve o'clock: P'riedsam 
contending that the spirit of devotion ought to be suih- 
cient to make them punctual to the hour, which generally 
proved to be adequate. 

" The community was a republic, in which all stood 
upon perfect equality and freedom. No monastic vows 
were taken, neither had they any written covenants, as 
is common in the Baptist cliurches. The New Testa- 
ment was their confession of faith, their code of laws, 
and church discipline. The property Avhicli belonged 
to the society, by donation, and the labor of the single 
brethren and sisters, was common stock; but none was 
obliged to throw in his own property, or to give up any 
possessions. The society was supported by the income 
of the farm and grist mill, paper mill, oil mill, fulling 
mill, and the labor of the brethren and sisters, in the 

IMany of the male members were men of education, 
and the school which they had established, attracted 
attention abroad; young men from Baltimore and of 

Philadelphia, were sent to this i)lacc to be educated. 

Ludwig Hacker, the teacher of the common school, 
projected the plan of holding a school in the afternoons 
of the Sal.ibath, or Saturday, and who, in connexion 
with some of the brethren, commenced it, to give instruc- 
tion to the indigent children who were kept from regular 
school by employments which their necessities obliged 
them to be engaged at during tlie week, as well as to 
give religious instruction to those of better chcmn- 

LANCA"rr:n countf. 235 

stances. The precise time when this school was estab- 
lished, is not known; it was after 1739. 

Tlie society, after an existence of fifty years, began to 
decline, from some cause, which we have not been able 
to learn. Some say that BeissePs successor, Peter Miller, 
wanted vigor of mind. This, says Doctor Fahnestock, 
is not, he believes, the cause ; for he assured us, in a 
conversation with him on this subject, in 1S36, so far as 
he could learii, Peter Miller was a man of much greater 
powers of mind than Beissel, and that he had the 
management of the establishment during Beissel's time f- 
and to whose energy and perseverance is mainly 
attributable the great prosperity of the institution in its 
early days. 

That Miller was a man of more than ordinary powers 
of mind, is evident from the testimony of the Rev. 
Jedediah Andrews, an alumnus of Havard College, of 
the class of 1695, Andrews speaking of INIiller, in a 
letter, dated Philadelphia, 8th, 14th, 1730. 

"There is lately come over a Palatine candidate of the 
ministry, who having applied to us at the Synod (Scotch 
Synod) for ordination, 'tis left to three ministers, (these 
were Tenant, Andrews and Boyd), to do it. Ho is an 
extraordinary person for sense and learning. We gave 
liim a question to discuss about Justification, and he 
answered it, in a Avhole sheet of paper, in a very notable 
manner. His name is John Peter Miller, and speaks 
Latin as readily as we do our vernacular tongue, and so 
does the other, ISIr. Weiss."t 

•Beissel died July 6th, 1768, aged 77 years and 4 months,-^ 
He was a native of Oberbach, in the Palatinate. 

tGeorge Michael Weiss, was born at Stebback, in Neckar- 
thal, Germany. Mr. Miller and he were fellow students at 
Heildelberg. Vfeiss came to America, some years before 


At an early period, they established a German printing 
office, wliich enabled tlieni to distribute tracts and 
hymns, and afterwards to print several large Avorks, in 
virhich the views of the founder are fully explained. — 
Many of tliese books have been lost and destroyed. In 
the Revolutionary war, just before the battle of Ger- 
mantown, three wagon loads of books, in sheets, were 
seized and taken away for cartriges. They came to the 
paper mill to get paper, and not finding any there, they 
pressed the books in sheets. The printing press, used 
then, is now in possession of R. R. Heitler, Esq., at 

" JNIusic was much cultivated. Beissel was a first rate 
musician and composer. In composing sacred music he 
took his style from the music of Nature, and the whole 
comprising several large volumes are founded on the 
tones of the Aeolian harp ; the singing is the Aeolian 
harp harmonized; it is very peculiar in its style and 
concords, and in its execution. The tones issuing from 
the choir imitate very soft instrumental music ; convey- 
ing a softness and devotion almost super-human to the 

Miller finished his studies. Before Miller's ordination, Weiss 
had been Pastor of the German Reformed congregation, in 
Philadcljjiiia, and about that time, in company with an Elder, 
named Keif, visited Holland, and other parts of Europe, for 
the purpose of making collections in aid of the feeble congre- 
gations, in Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Miller, Weiss, and John Bartholomew Ricger, fellow 
students, wore on terms of intimacy, at liome and in America. 
Rieger was a native of Obcringclhcini, ralalinate. He 
studied at Basel and Heidelberg, arrived in America, in 1731^ 
and afterwards settled in Lancaster county ; he had charge of 
several German Reformed congregations in this county. Ho 
died at Lancaster, March 11, 1709, aged G2 youi-s, 2 luonlhs 
and 4 days,; buried in the German Relur'ned church grave* 


auditor. Their music is set in four, six, and eight parts. 
All the parts, save the bass, are lead and sung exclusive- 
ly by females, the men being confined to the bass, which 
is set in two parts, the high and the low bass — the latter 
resembling the deep tones of the organ, and the first, in 
combination with one of the female parts, is an excellent 
imitation of the concert horn. The whole is sung on the 
falsetto voice, the signers scarcely opening their mouths, 
or moving their lips, which throws the voice up to the 
ceiling, v/hich is not high, and the tones, which seem to 
be more than human, at least so far from common church 
singing appears to be entering from above, and hovering 
over the heads of the assembly." 

The reader may form some idea of their music from 
tlie following extract of a letter written by a tourist 
durmg the proprietary administration of Governor 
Penn : " The counter, treble^ tenor, and bass, were all 
sung by women, with sweet, shrill, and small voices, but 
with a truth and exactness in time and intonation that 
was admirable. It is impossible to describe to your 
Lordship, my feelings upon this occasion. The per- 
formers sat with their heads reclined, their countenances 
solemn and dejected, their faces pale and emaciated from 
their manner of living, the clothing exceeding white and 
quite picturesqe, and their music such as thrilled to the 
veiy soul ; I almost began to think myself in the world 
of spirits, and that the objects before me were ethereal. 
In short, the impression this scene made upon my mind, 
continued strong for many days, and I believe, will never 
be wholly obliterated." 

Tliis music is lost, entirely now, at Ephrata ; not the 
music books, but tlie style of singing; they never 
attempt it any more. It is, however, still preserved and 
finely executed, though in a faiiit degree, at Snow hilly 


in Franklin county, where there is a branch of tlie 
socictj?-, and which is now the principal settlement of 
tlie Seventh Day Baptists.* 

This society attracted considerable attention. Lien of 
various rank and standing visited the place. 

George Thomas, formerly an Antigua planter, ap- 
pointed in 1737, Governor of the province of Pennsyl- 
vania, visited Ephrara, in 1741. He came, says Peter 
Miller, accompanied by a retinue of twenty horses, and a 
large number of distinguished gentlemen from Maryland 
and Virginia; they were all honorably received by the 
brethren. The Governor said he was much gratified to 
see such an institution. He spoke very favorably of 
their religious and economical arrangements. The 
motives of visit, it is believed, were sinister. Without 
doubt, he gained the object of his visit more easily by 
adulation than he would have otherwise. At this time, 
the talented, and active Conrad AVeiser, was a member 
of tlie association. It was the Governor's object, if 
possible, to secure once more the services of this man in 
a capacity, for which he seems to have been felicitously 
suited, that of an Indian interpreter. He tendered him 
the appointment of justice of the peace, which he 
accepted. Wciser frequently presided at court, as 
chief justice, ivith his beard:\ He was afterwards 
appointed provincial interpreter, in which capacity, he 
rendered his country essential services for many years. — 
Governor William Denny, spent some time time here, in 

•The leading rchgious tenets ef this society, may be seen in 
a work, entitled, "He Pasa Ecclesia," published by Rupp, 
Clyde & Williams, Octavo, 900 pages, 1843. 

fMan hat ihn, C. W. auch auf dcr Court als obcrstcn Ricbter 
gesehcn unter Krone sitzcn mit scinem gewochnlichonlBard. — 


1756, and through an interpreter, had a long conversa- 
with Beissel, touching the condition of the country. 

Peter Miller was a native of Oberant Lantern, came 
to America in 1730 ; soon after his arrival, was ordained 
by a Scotch Synod, at Philadelphia; received as a mem- 
ber of the Society at Ephrata, by being baptized in 1735, 
and remained sixty-one years, to the day of his death, 
September 25, 1796, a member thereof. — His remams 
rest in the grave yard at that place. 

He was well known in the religious and literary 
world. It is said, he translated the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence into seven languages. His correspondence was 
extensive ; he was visited by hundreds : General Lee, 
David Rittenhouse, Count Zinzendorf, and several noble- 
men of Europe, have been the guests of the establishment. 
We have space to insert a few of his correspondents' 
communications. The first is from a female; the other 
is " a rhymic effusion,^ ^ by a young gentleman of Phila- 
delphia, written many years ago, in consequence of a 
visit he made Peter Miller, and to whom he dedicated 
the Poem. 

September 29fh, 1114:. 
Sir: — Your very respectable character would make me 
ashamed to addres you with words merely of form. — 
I hope, therefore, you will not suspect me of using any 
such, when I assure you, I received the favor of your let- 
ter with great pleasure. And permit me, sir, to join the 
thanks I owe to those worthy v/omen, the holy sisters at 
Ephrata, with those I now present to you, for the good 
opinion you and they may have of me. I claim only 
that of respecting merit, when I find it ; and of wishing 
an increase in the world, of that piety to the Almighty, 
and peace to our fellow-creatures, that I am convinced is 
ill yom- hearts; and, therefore, do me the justice to 



believe, you have my wishes of prosperity here, and 
happiness hereafter. 

I did uot receive the precious stone, you were so good 
to send me, mitil yesterday. I am most extremely 
obliged to you for it. It deserves to be particularly 
distinguished, on its own, as well as the giver's account. 
I shall keep it with grateful remembrance of my obhga- 
tions to you. 

Mr. Pemi, as well as myself, were much obliged to 
you for remarking to us, that the paper you wrote on, 
was the manufacture of Ephrata. It liad, on that ac- 
comit, great merit to us ; and he has desired our friend, 
j\Ir. Barton, to send him some specimens of the occupa- 
tion of some of your society. I heard him say, tliat he 
rejoices to hear of your and their welfare. 

It is I, that should beg pardon for interrupting your 
quiet, and profitable moments, by an intercourse so little 
beneficial as mine ; but trust your benevolence will in- 
dulge this satisfaction to one who wishes to assure you, 
sir, that she is, with sincere regard, your obliged and 
faithful well wisher. 




Th' Eternal God from his exalted throne, 
Surveys at once, caith, heav'n, and worlds unknown — 
All tilings that are, before his piercing eye, 
Like the plain tracings of a picture lie — 
UnuUcr'd thoughts, deep in the heart conceal'd, 
In strong expression stand to him revcal'd — 
Thousands and twice ten thousands, every day. 
To Him or fcign'd or real homage pay — 
Like clouds of incense rolling to the skies, 
In various forms tlieir supplications rise. 

Their various forms to him no access gain — 


Without the Heart's true incense all are vain ; 
The suppliant's secret motives there appear, 
The genuine source of every offer'd prayer. 

Some place Religion on a throne superb, 
And deck with jewels her resplendent garb ; 
Painting and sculpture all their powers display, 
And lofty tapers shed a lambent ray. 
High on the full-ton'd organ's swelling sound, 
The pleasing anthem floats serenely round; 
Harmonic strains their thrilling pow'rs combine, 
And lift the soul to ecstacy divine. 

In Ephrata's deep gloom you fix your seat. 
And seek Religion in the dark retreat ; 
In sable weeds you dress the heav'n-born maid, 
And place her pensive in the lonely shade ; 
Recluse, unsocial, you, your hours employ, 
And fearful, banish every harmless joy. 

Each may admire and use their fav'rite form. 
If Heav'n's own flame their glowing bosoms warm. 
If love divine of God and man be there, 
The deep-felt want that forms the ardent prayer, 
The grateful sense of blessings freely given, 
The boon, unsought, unmerited of Heav'n, 
*Tis true devotion — and the Lord of Love, 
Such pray'rs and praises kindly will approve. 
Whether from golden altars they arise, 
And wrapt in sound and mcense reach the skies; 
Or from your Ephrata, so meek, so low, 
In soft and silent aspirations flow. 

Oh! let the Christian bless that glorious day, 
When outward forms shall all be done away. 
When we, in spirit and in truth alone. 
Shall bend, God ! before thy awful throne. 
And thou our purer worship shalt approve* 
By sweet returns of everlasting love. 

What yet remains of Ephrata, is worthy a long 
journey to be seen; "its weather beaten walls; upon 


which the tooth of time has been gnawing for nearly 
one and a half century, are crumbling to pieces, render- 
ing it more interesting from its antiquity, "Many traces 
of the olden time remain, but its life has departed. — 
There are, however, many delightful associations con- 
nected with the mouldering walls, and like some of the 
dilapidated castles, which are apparently falling to the 
ground, deserted and given to the rooks and owls, yet it 
contains many habitable and comfortable apartments." 
These are occupied by several single sisters, one of 
whom, sister Barbara, has been here fifty-five years; 
but under different Government; in former days the 
whole property and income belonged exclusively to the 
single brethren and sisters ; but now by legislative 
enactment is invested in all the members, single and mar- 
ried. The sisters, since this enactment, in the convent, 
are not supported out of the common stork and their 
common labor, but each has house-room, which all the 
married members are entitled to, who require it, as well 
as firewood, flour and milk, from the society, who still 
possess some land and a mill, and their labor they 
apply to their own use, or dispose of it as they see proper." 

We state, with regret, that the prescribed limits of this 
work, preclude a detailed account of this highly in- 
teresting association. 

The descendants of those who were connected at an 
early date, are numerous, and many of them influencial 
in society. The principal ones connected with the 
society, in early existence, were Conrad Beissel, Urner, 
Landis, Lang, Mcyljn, Graff, Weber, Grc1)il, Funk, 
Eicher, Naegly, Frey, Wolfart, Gass, Hildcbrand, Hoehn, 
Sigmund, Landart, Peter Miller, Conrad Weiser, Heur- 
man, Zinn, Hoecker, Pettikoffer, Gorgas, Mack, Ries- 
man, Eckstein, Rinsing, Eckerlin, Heipcl, Koch, Meyer> 


Hardie^ Stretch, Pearcol, Derborough, Griffyth, Peas- 
cify, Rogger, Seymour, Hackly, these were English — 
Philip Beusel, Lohman, Kimmel, Sangmeister, Hoelleor 
thai, Martin, Horn, Koenig, Beller, Hummer, Senseman, 
and others, who all were members prior to the death of 
\ £. Beissel, who died June 6th, 1768. 

Note.— We shall close this chapter with a list of the names 
of land-holders (not before mentioned) who settled at an early 
date, within the present limits of the county, some before, 
others shortly after, Lancaster county had been erected. For 
the want of information, the list is necessarily limited. Those 
named, all settled prior to 1735. Among these, in various 
pai*ts of the county, were the Roddyes, Craigheads, Towsten- 
beriers, Cooksons, Mayes, Jervis, McCawlys, Storys, Greens, 
Whitehills, Hermans, Irwins, Wolfs, Bezoars, Venericks, 
Ritters, Millseps, Royers, Woolricks, Houslemans, Byerlya, 
Simons, Palmers, Poutchs, Kitchs, Travengsrs, Linders, 
Verdrees, Wises, Barnetts, Ringers, Stoners, Alberts, Beards, 
Pendalls, Kores, Owens, Eaves, Thornburys, Marshalls, 
Brickers, Lertys, Jacksons, Beesons, Nessleys, Swoops, Bears, 
Emmets, Hcrseys, Astons, Steers, M'Nabbs, Smiths, Beckers, 
Forneys, Rowlands, Weidlers, Elroods, Stumps, Snejv;elys, 
Eberles, Oikelbergers, Wypreights, Finks, Longs, Lindseys, 
Kings, Reads, Wells, Blyths, FuUertons, Moores, Francis, 
McKanes, Dehoofs, Goughnours, Lines, Dyers, Hietts, Stani^ 
bach, Bumgarners, Hoffs, Noacres, Lytles, Darbys, Douglas, 
Sturm, Echman, Guy, Philips, Basler, Shinover, Scroop, 
Varner, Mackrells, Shillys, Turners, Hoffmans, Knowls, AVhit- 
raers, Kinrighs, Burkhards, Leepharts, Pleystows, Weightmans, 
Burkhunters, Andersons, Piggots, Wiesenants, Blacks, Leoo- 
ards. Steels, Ramsays, Sypes, Lyncks, Lowdpns, Musselraans, 
Matthews, McClanaghans, Staigys, Bradcns, Burtons, Gales, 
Cowens, Robinsons, Murrays, Bensons, Shannons, Browns, 
Kellys, Allisons, Eddys, Fultons, Mitchells of Sadsbury, Fos- 
ters, Graypcels, Shryers, Clinehaws, Harnist, Webbs, Reiffs, 
Watsons, Montgomerys, McCardys, LeRues, Adlumns, Clem- 
sons, Conodes, Plumbs, Shieft'ers, Warders, Dennings, Reists, 
Slemmans, Armors, Templemans, McConnels, Sensineys, 
Tillers, Hustons, Meixells, Geers, Wolfspaniers, Baughmaas, 
~ 20* 


Ters,Hennings, Andrews, McNcalys, Rudcneglee, Kitzmillers, 
Le Chaars, Bushans, Roodcs, Birshings, Jacks, Flemmings, 
M'Clellaiids, Howards, EUmakers, Adams, Haines, Haltzingers, 
Tcttcnhaucrs, Hokenbracks, Davisons, Bishairs, Seldenridge, 
Saunders, Shcrrards, Molers, Stinsons, Eancks, Kcysers, 
Shcrks, Davids, Paxtons of Sadsbury, Eobcrtsons, Coxs, Heis- 
tandts, Fences, Painters, Pouts, Livistoncs, Kellers, Wingers, 
Lightners, Bombergcrs, Krcils, McGarrys, Shallybcrgers, Hig- 
genbothcms, Evalts, Walters, Middlctons, Hanricks, Heys, 
Baldwyns, Campbells, Vanleres, Stiles, Musgroves, Balls, 
McKimms, Phillips, Pegellis, Brittans, Dyers, Dieffenbachs, 
Gillmores, Boyds, Overs, Georges, Lambs, Bishops, Stritchs, 
Krebs, Hastings, Alexanders, McNealys, Kahoons, Hudsons, 
Wendcls, Fcczers, Westhavers, Cuffroots, Wcitmans, Lloyds, 
Lyncks, Hewstons, Berriers, Buchanans, Saudters, Sherricks, 
Perrys, Cumptons, Reynolds, Moffats, Moodys, Allinsons, 
McClcnns, Littles, Shennons, Classprinners, Klings, Griffiths, 
Shizlers, Hendersons, McClures, Hughes, Thomcs, Walters, 
Duflields, Stettcrs, Kates, Oralis, Hollers, Crawfords, Dcnnys, 
Scotts, Baltens, Brackens, McPhersons, Pcnnocks, Rippys, 
Daws, Walkers, Rohrcrs, Richardsons, Linvilles, Walls, Gaills, 
Ross, Posllewhaits, Pughs, Bcckott, Encks, Imblcs, Boosons, 
Kyles, Bauds, Elis, Blackshaws, Doughertys, 






Erection and organization of the county — Boundaries of — Seat of Justice—- 
James Annesly — Boundaries of townships — First court held at Postle- 
whaites — Extracts of court records — Morris Cannaday indicted — Found 
guilty and sold — Constables, Overseers and Supervisors appointed- 
Applicants to be Indian traders — Petitions for license to sell rum — First 
court held at Lancaster — Conrad Weiser, notice of — N otes, &c. 

Settlements on both sides of the Susquehanna, 
especially on the eastern, having been extended and 
greatly augmented by the influx of a mixed population; 
emigrations from abroad and natives of the province; 
the inliabitants of the upper parts of Chester county 
deemed it necessary as early as 1628, to avoid inconve- 
niencies arising daily from the want ^^ of justice at every 
maivs^^ to petition the proper authorities, to erect and 
establish a new county. Petitions were accordingly 
forwarded to the council at Philadelphia, Februar}^ Gth, 
1728-9, and received due consideration. 


"At a council held at Philadelphia, February 6th^ 
1728-9: Present, the Hon. Patrick Gordon^ Esq., Lieut. 
Governor of Pennsylvania, and James Logan, Richard 
Hill, Isaac Norris, Samuel Preston, William Fishbourn, 
Clement Plumsted, Samuel Hazle, Esquires ; a petition 
of the inhabitants of the upper parts of Chester county 
was laid before the board and read, setting forth that by 
reason of their great distance from the county town, 
where courts are held, offices are kept, and annual elec- 
tions made, they lie under very great inconveniences, 
being obliged, in the recovery of their just debts, to 
travel near one hundred miles* to obtain a writ ; that for 
want of a sufficient number of justices, constables and 
other officers, in those parts, no care is taken of the 
high-ways ; townships are not laid out, nor bridges built, 
when there is an apparent necessity for them ; and 
fiuther, that for want of a gaol there, several vagabonds 
and other dissolute people harbor among them, tliinking 
themselves safe from justice in so remote a place ; and 
therefore praying that a division line be made between 
the upper and lower part of said county, and the upper 
part thereof erected into a county, with all the immu- 
nities, rights and privileges which any other county of 
this province does enjoy. 

"The board taking the same into consideration, are of 
opinion, that the Governor is fully empowered by virtue 
of his commission, to grant the prayer of the petition, if 
the same shall appear necessary; but as it is a matter of 
some moment, and Avill require a mature deliberation, it 

*Tho courts, &:c. were held at Upland or Chester, on Dela- 
M'arc river, 15 miles S. W. from Thiladclphia. Upland is an 
ancient place. The first adventurers under Pcnn landed here, 
Dec. 11, lC)f^2. It w as also the scat of the first legislature after 
the arrival of William Tcnn. 


was moved and agreed that the further consideration, 
thereof should be deferred till to-morrow at nine o'clock? 
beforenoon, to which time the council is adjourned." 

"Council met next day — the minutes of the three pre- 
ceeding councils being read and approved, the board 
according to order entered into the consideration of the 
petition in the minutes of yesterday, touching the 
division of Chester county, and after the same had 
been fully considered and debated, the board came to 
the following resolution : That, as well for as reasons set 
forth in the said petition, as the security, peace and good 
order of the whole government, there doth appear a real 
necessity that a new county should be erected, according 
to the prayer of said petition ; and although the power 
of erecting counties is wholly vested in the proprietary, 
and therefore in the Governor, or his lieutenant, yet, in- 
asmuch as this will require the establishment of courts 
of judicature, with other alterations, for which a due 
provision will best be made by a law; it may be 
convenient that the government acquaint the House of 
Representatives now sitting, with the application made 
to him, that the same may be carried on with, and 
strengthened by the joint and unanimous concurrence of 
the whole Legislature." 

"At a council held at Philadelphia, February 20th, 
1728-9. The minutes of the preceeding council being 
read and approved, the Governor informed the board 
that pursuant to the resolution of the last council, he had 
acquainted the House of Representives with his inten-- 
tion to erect the upper part of the county of Chester 
into a separate county, in Avhich they had concurred and 
desired that an equal number of the inhabitants of the 
lower and upper part might run the division line ; and 
therefore, he was now to recommend to tlie board to. 


(iosc fit and well qualified persons for that service, and 
to consider of proper directions for their guidance 
therein; and after due consideration thereof: 

^Tis Ordered That, Henry Hayes, Samuel Nutt, 
Sainuol Hollingsworth, Philip Taylor, Elisha GatcheL, 
James James, John Wright, Tobias Hendricks, Samuel 
Blmiston, Andrew Cornish, Thomas Edwards and Jolin 
Musgrove, or a major part of them, calling to theii 
assistance John Taylor, the siuveyor of Chester county, 
meet at some convenient place near Octoraro creek oi 
river, and cause a marked line to be run from the most 
northerly or main branch of tlie said creek northward, or 
to the east or west thereof, as it shall be found most con- 
venient, to the next high ridge of barren or uninhabited 
hills that lead from thence to Schuylkill river, keeping as 
near as may be to the right of said hills, and to proceed 
along the ridge thereof, yet with as few changes in the 
course as their situation will admit, and fixing the same 
to tlie most conspicuous, natural and durable mai'ks, tliat 
may be least subject to uncertainty or variation ; to be 
bomided southward by the southern bounds of the prov- 
ince, and eastwardly the said Octoraro creek ; and from 
tlience the northern line to be by them run as aforesaid, 
to the said hills, from thence the said line along the said 
hills to Schuylkill, and from thence to the main northern 
cor easterly branch thereof, above the forks of said river, 
to lie open on the westward, till fm'ther orders shall be 
given therein ; and to make report of their proceedings 
to tills board. 

«At a council held at Philadelphia, May 2d, 1729:^ 
Present, the Hon. Patrick Gordon, Esq., Lieut. Governor 
Richard Hill, William Fishbourn, Clement Plumsted, 
Tliomas Lawrence and Samuel Hazle, Esquires. A 
return being made by the order, dated the 20th February 


last, for running a division line in the county of Chester, 
and setthng the boundaries of the county to be erected 
in the back parts of this province towards Susquehanna, 
pursuant to the minutes of council of the 20th of said 
February, the same was read, approved and confirmed, 
and is in these words : 

"Pursuant to a warrant from the Hon. Patrick 
Gordon, Esq., Lieut. Governor of the province of Penn- 
sylvania, and counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex, 
upon Delaware, bearing date the 22d day of February 
last past, We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, 
met together on the 17th day of March, 1728-9, near 
tlie head of the northern branch of Octoraro creek, and 
with tlie assistance of John Taylor, Surveyor of the 
comity of Chester, run a line from the said branch to the 
river Schuylkill, accordmg to the courses following, viz: 
Beginning on a corner marked white oak standing on the 
eastern side of the said branch, on the land of John 
]VIinshall, thence north-east by north, five hundred and 
eight perches to a chesnut oak standing on the top of a 
barren mountain at the head of the branches of the said 
Octoraro creek, thence along the said mountain, norths 
east by east, three hundred and forty perches to a chest- 
nut tree, thence north north-east, four hundred and forty 
perches to a white oak by a branch of Pequea creek, 
tlience continuing the same course along the said moiu> 
tain four hundred and eight perches to a chestnut oak, 
thence north by east seven hundred perches to a white 
oak near a small branch of Brandywine creek, thence 
north by west six hundred and sixteen perches to a 
diestnut tree standing on the top of a mountain at the 
head of the western branch of the said Brandywine 
creek, thence east north-east along the said mountain 
two thousand two hundred and twenty perches to a 


chestnut tree near the western branch of the French 
creek, thence northeast by east three hundred and fifty 
perches to a red oak, thence north east one hundred and 
ninety perches to a chestnut oak near another branch of 
the said French creek, thence north east by north tAVO 
thousand one hundred perches to a corner marked white 
oak, standing by the said river Schuylkill, about three 
quarters of a mile below the house of John Burroughs. 

Henry Hayes, Samuel Hollingsworth, Philip Taylor, 
Elisha Gatchel, James James, John Wright, Tobias 
Hendricks, Samuel Blunston, Andrew Cornish, Thomas 
Edwards, John Musgrove. 

"And the upper parts of the province described as 
aforesaid, are hereby declared to be erected, and are 
accordingly erected into a county by the name of 
Lancaster County.* And 'tis ordered that the same 
be signified to the House of Representatives, and the 
return laid before them for their direction in describing 
the boundaries thereof in the bill now before them for 
establishing courts of judicature, &c. within the same. 

"May Sth, 1729, the governor recommended to the 
board to consider of proper persons to be appointed 
justices of the peace of the said county of Lancaster, 
and the following persons were named justices, viz : — 
John Wright, Tobias Hendricks, Samuel Blunston, 
Andrew Cornish, Thomas Edwards, Caleb Pierce, 
Thomas Reid, and Sannicl Jones, Esqrs. 

*Lanca.stcr county was named by Julm Wright — ""Wlicn 
Lancaster county was laid ofl' from Chester, my grand father, 
says William Wright of Columbia, in a letter to George Ford, 
Esq., gave it, its name, after the county he came from in Eng- 
land." Wright came from Lancashire, England, in 1714, and 
settled in Chester; in 1726 he moved to, and settled on the 
Susquehanna, at Columbia. 


Robert Barber was likewise appointed sheriff, and 
Andrew Galbraith, Coroner ; and commissioners were 
ordered to be proposed accordingly. 

" May 10th, 1729, the House of Representatives waited 
Gil the Governor, and the Speaker presented a bill passed 
into a law, which tUas accordingly by the Governor 
passed into a law of this province. Be it enacted, That 
all and singular the lands within the province of Penn- 
sylvania, lying to the northward of Octoraro creek, and 
to the westward of a line of marked trees, running from 
the north branch of said Octoraro creek, northeasterly to 
the river Schuylkill, be erected into a county, and the 
same is hereby erected into a county, named, and from 
henceforth to be called Lancaster County ; and the said 
Gctoraro creek the line of marked trees. From the sub- 
sequent organization of other counties the original boun- 
daries of Lancaster have been altered. 

«At a council held at Philadelphia, Feb. 18, 1729-30. — 
The Governor acquainted the board that whereas, by the 
law for erecting Lancaster county, John Wright, Caleb 
Pierce, Thomas Edwards and James Mitchell, or any 
tliree of them, are empowered to purchase for the use of 
the said county, a convenient piece of land to be ap- 
proved of by the Governor, and thereon to build a court 
bouse and prison, and that now the said John Wright, 
Caleb Pierce and James Mitchell, have by a certificate 
under their hands, signified that they have agreed upon 
a lot of land for the use aforesaid, lying on or near a 
small run of water, between the plantations of Rudy 
Mire,* Michael Shank and Jacob Imble, about ten miles 

*Rudy Mire had settled here about the year 1712. It is said, 
his son Abraham was the eighth white child born in Lancaster 
county. Abraham was a minister of the Mennonite denomi- 
nation, and the first German Scrivener in Lancaster, Though 



from Susquehanna river, and prayed his approbation of 
the same. The Governor therefore referred the matter 
to the consideration of the hoard, whether the situation 
of the place those gentlemen had pitched on for a town 
might be fit to be confirmed, and that a town should 
accordingly be fixed there. But the question being 
asked to whom the land they had made choice of now 
belongs, and who has the property of it, because it may 
be in such hands as will part with, or at least, on 
reasonable terms for that use, and this not being known 
by any at the board, it was deferred till such time as that 
could be ascertained. But as it is presumed for any 
thmg that is yet known, to be unsmweyed land, and that 
the right is only in the proprietor, it is the opinion of the 
board, that it is more proper to be granted by the 
proprietor for such uses, than by any other person. 

Metn.— "The Governor having understood that the 
right of the land pitched upon for the townstead of Lan- 
caster, remains yet in the proprietaries, was advised to 
approve of the place agreed on by Messrs. Wright, 
Pierce and Mitchel, and the same was confirmed ac- 
cordingly by a writing dated JMay 1st, 1730. 

According to tradition, it appears, "that on the division 
of the county, a contention arose as to the most suitable 
location for the seat of Justice. Wright's Ferry was 

Abraham was a defenceless Mernonitc, his son Christian took a 
decided and aclive part with the Whigs in the Revolution ; he 
was an officer in the anny. The sword, with which he so val- 
iantly del'cndcd his country, was presenled by his widow, to a 
relative, to Capt. George Eichholtz, while in the service of the 
United States in 1814. 

Jolui Jiicob Eieliholtz, grandfather of Capt. George, was 
married to Christian Meyer's sister. Mr. Eiclitioltz was wag- 
onmaster at the time of Braddock's defeat; and it is said, upon 
good authority, the fu-st brick-maker in Lancaster county. 


Strenuously recommended. So confident was the first 
sheriff of the coimty, Avho resided at Wright's Feriy, 
that the seat would be fixed there, "that he had a strong . 
wooden building put up near his residence, which was 
intended for the county jail. It is only a few years since 
this building was pulled down."* 

"Postlewhait's, from its being an old settlement, (now 
Jacob Fehl's, Esq.,) the origmal site of an Indian 
wigwam, appearing to possess superior advantages, a 
temporary court house of logs and jail were there 
erected." Courts, as will appear from the records, were 
held at Postlewhait's, till August term, 1730, and after- 
wards at Lancaster. 

"Governor Hamilton made an offer of two places, 
the old 'Indian Field,' 'High Plain,' 'Gibson's Pasture,' 
'Sanderson's Pasture;' the other the 'Waving Hills,' 
embosomed in wood, bounded by "Roaring Brook,' on 
the west. The road from Philadelphia to Harris's 
Ferry, passed through the centre. Gibson resided near 
a fine spring, with a large hickory tree before his door. — 
This was the favorite tree of the Indian tribe who lived 
in the vicinity, and were called by the whites from that 
circumstance, the ' Hickory Indians.' 

"There were two swamps, one called the 'Dark 
Hazel Swamp,'t nearly in the centre of the proposed 

*Rev. D. Goheen. 

f " The Dark Hazel Swamp was attempted to be cleared 
from wood, and a drain made to carry ofl' the water, in the 
year 1745." 

Note. — "James, afterwards Lord Altham, was confined in 
the prison erected at Wright's Ferry. The history of this indi- 
vidual is curious, and illustrates the remark, '■'■Truth is stranger 
tlian fiction.'''' The individual, the subject of this note, came to 
this country in 1728, v/hen quite young, and served his time as 


town ; the other, ' Tlic Long Swamp/ rmming from a 
south westerly direction through the northern hmits to^ 
^Roarmg Brook.'" 

After the county had been erected, justices, sheriffs, 
and other oflicers appointed, a meeting was held the 9th 
of June, 1729, by magistrates and inhabitants of the 
county, to settle and agree upon the names and bounda- 
ries of townships. The following names and bounda- 
ries were agreed on, and confirmed by the Court of 
Quarter Sessions, held tlie fii'st Tuesday in August, 

Drumore. — The township of Drumore, beginning at 
the south line of Sadsbury by Octoraro, thence down 
die said creek to the province line towards Maryland, 
thence up the Sasquchanah to the mouth of Muddy run, 
tlience by the said rmi to Richard Booson's land, and 
from thence on a direct course to the south-west corner 
of John Kyle's land on Sadsbury hue, and by the said 
line to the place of beginning. 

James Anncsl)', ■with a farmer on the Lancaster road. From 
some cause he ran away from his master ; and was caught and 
confined in the jail at Columbia. He was a fine singer, and 
the neighbors frequently visited the prison to hear him sing. 
The events of his life furnished the ground work for ^'Roderick 
Randoyn,^^ and the popular novel oi '■'■Florence McCartey.^' The 
facts concerning this singular case are taken from the evidence 
given on his trial and may be relied on as authentic. 

"Arthur Annesley (Lord Altham) married Mary Sheffield, 
natural daughter of the earl of Buckingham. By her, in the 
year 171.'3, he had a son, James, the subject of these remarks. 
In the next year, the parents had some differences, which ter- 
minated in separation. The father, contrary to the wish of the 
mother, took exclusive possession of his son James, and man- 
ifested much fondness for him, until the year 1722, wlicn he 
formed some intimacy witli Mrs. Gregory. His wife died 
about the same time. Bliss Gregory expecting now to become, 


Sadsbury. — The township of Sadsbmy, by the county 
line at the mountain which divides Octoraro and Pequea, 
thence westerly along the said mountain to the north- 
west corner of John Kyle's land, thence by said land to 
the south-west corner, and from thence south 200 
perches, thence east to Octoraro, thence up the said 
county line, and along the said line to said place of 

Martock. — The township of Martock, beginning at 
the mouth of Muddy run, thence up Sasquehanah to 
Pequea, thence up Pequea to the mouth of Great Beaver 
creek, thence up the said creek to Sadsbury line, thence 
by the said line to John Kyle's corner aforesaid, thence 
by Drumore township to the place of beginning. 

CoKosTooA. — The township of Conostoga, begin- 
ning at the mouth of Pequea, thence up Sasquehanah, 
to said mouth of Conestogoe creek, thence up the said 
creek to the mouth of Mill creek, thence by a direct line 

his wife, exerted herself to alienate his affections from his son,, 
by insinuating that he was not his lawful child. She succeeded 
to get him phiced from home, at a school in Dublin. In No- 
vember, 1727, Lord Altham died; and his brother Richard 
wishing to possess the estate and title, took measures to get rid 
of his nephew, James, by having him entered on board of an 
American vessel which sailed from Dublin in April, 1728. He 
was landed at Philadelphia, then in his thirteenth year, and 
sold as a redemptioner! and actually served out twelve years 
of his time in rough labor, when a seeming accident, in the 
year 1740, brought him to such acquaintances as led, in the 
next year to his return home. The case was as follows : — Two 
Irishmen, John and William Broders, travelling the Lancaster 
road in 1740, stopped at the house near the forty mile stone, 
where James was in service with an old German, These coun- 
trymen entering into conversation perceived that they were 
severally from Dumainc, in the county of Wexford, and that 
James Anncsly was the son of Arthur. The two Broders vol- 
unteered to go back to Ireland, and testify to the discovery, 



to Pequea at the moutli of Beaver creek, thence down 
Peqviea to the place of beginnmg. * 

Hempfield. — Tlie township of Hempfield, beginnmg 
at the mouth of Conestoga, thence up Sasquelianah to 
Chickasakuigc, thence up the said creek to Peters' Road 
by the Log Cabins, thence to Little Conestoga, and 
down tlie same to the Manor hne, and thence down the 
said line to Great Conestoga, and down the same to the 
place of beginning. 

Donegal. — The township of Donegal, beginning at 
the mouth of the Chickasalunge, thence up the East 
Branch to Peters' Road, thence (taking in the present 
inhabitants) on a northerly coiu'se to Concwago, thence 
by the same and the said river to the place of beginning. 

DERPtV. — The township of Dcrry, beginning at the 
mouth of Conewago, thence up Sasquehanah to the 

Avhich they had made, and actually kept their word, and ap- 
peared as witnesses at the trial which afterward occurred. 
James subsequently stated his case to Robert Ellis, Esq., of 
Philadelphia, who compassionately heard his case, procured a 
passage for him to Admiral Vernon, then in the West Indies, 
by whom he was afterwards landed in England. But shortly 
after James had arrived in London, he unfortunately killed a 
man, fur which he had to stand a trial. He was acquitted not- 
withstanding the clforts of his unnatural uncle to have him 
convicted. An action was then brought against the uncle. 
Lord Altham, and went to trial in November, 1743, and the 
verdict was given in favor of James, our redemptioner. The 
uncle appcaled^to the house of Lords; and while the case was 
pending James died, leaving his uncle in quiet possession of 
his ill-gotten estate, and who while he continued to live, which 
was not long, c.\hil)ited the spectacle of the finished villain m 
the Iriiih nobleman." — Columbia Spy, vol. 2(1, No. 3o. 

•NoTF,. — ConfHogn was originally organized, about 1712 — 
prior to 171!), it was divided into East and West Conestoga. 
David Fcrrcc was the first Constable of East Conestoga, and 
James Hendricks, of West Conestoga. 


mouth of Suataaro, thence up Suataaro to the mouth of 
Quetopohello, thence south on a direct hne to Conegawo, 
and down the same to the place of beginning.* 

Peshtank. — The township of Peshtank,t beginning 
at the mouth of Suataaro, thence up the river to Keh- 
tohtaning hill above Peter Aliens, thence eastward by 
tlie south side of said hill to the meridian of Queto- 
pohello mouth, thence on a south course to the mouth 
of the same at Suataaro, and down Suataaro to. the 
place of beginning. 

Lebanon. — Lebanon J township, beginning under the 
aforesaid hill at the north-east comer of Peshtank, thence 
by the said, hill easterly to the meridian of the west line 
of Tolpchockan manor, thence southerly and by the 
said line to the hills bounding Warwick townsliip, thence 
by the said hills and township westerly to the corner of 
Deny on Conewago, thence northerly by Derry and 
Peshtank to the place of beginning. 

Earl. — Earl township, beginning at Peters' Road by 
Conestogoe creek being a corner of Leacock township, 
thence up Conestogoe creek and up Muddy creek to the 
Indian Path, thence along the southern branch of said 
creek to the brow of Turkey hill, thence southerly in a 
direct coiu-se to the north-east corner of Thomas Ed- 
wards' land apjd by the said land southerly over Cones- 
togoe creek to another corner of said land, thence on a 
direct course to the corner of the west line of Nathan 
Evans' land, thence by the said land and along southerly 
to the top of the mountain, thence westerly along the 

*Now in Dauphin county.. 
fNow in Dauphin county. 
|Now in Lebanon county. 


said mountain by Salisbury line to David Cowcn's west 
corner, thence to Peters' Road and along the same to the 
place of beginning. 

Wauwick. — Warwick township, beginning by Cones- 
toga creek at a corner of Manheim township by Peters' 
Road, thence up by the west side of Conestoga to 
Hans Graff's mill, thence up a northerly branch to David 
Preist's mill, thence westerly along the hills by Lebanon 
township to Derry, thence southerly by Donegal to the 
aforesaid road, thence along the said road easterly to the 
place of beginning. 

INIanheim. — Manheim township beginning by Peters' 
Road at a corner of Donegal and Warwick townships 
near the head of Little Conestoga creek, thence down 
the said road by Warwick township to Conestoga creek, 
thence down the said creek to the Old Doctor^ s* Ford, 
thence westerly by, Lancaster township on a direct line 
to Little Conestoga at the upper side of Peter Bom- 
garner's land, thence up the said creek to the place of 

Lancaster. — Lancaster township, beginning at the 
Old Doctor's Ford, thence down the west side of Cones- 
toga to the jN'Ianor line, thence by the said line to Little 
Conestoga, thence up the said creek by Hempfield 
township, thence by the said toAvnship to the place of 

Le ACOCK. — Leacock township, beginning at the mouth 
of Beaver creek, thence up the cast side of Pequea to 
Philip Fcire's lower corner, thence west by Lampeter 
township to Conestoga creek at the upper corner of 
George Bard's land, thence up the said creek to Peters' 
Road, thence easterly along the said road by Earl town- 
.ship to David Cowen's land, thence southerly and wcs- 

*Hans Henry NcfT, Doctor of Physick. 


terly by Salisbury, Sadsbury and Martick townships to 
the place of beginning. 

Lampeter. — Lampeter township, beginning at the 
mouth of Mill creek at a corner of Conestoga township, 
thence up the east side of Conestoga creek to Leacock 
township, thence easterly by the said township, Pequea, 
thence down Pequea by the said township, Beaver 
creek, thence by Conestoga township to the place of 

Salisbury. — Salisbury township, beginning at the 
county line at the north-easterly corner of Sadsbury 
township, thence northerly along the said line to the 
mountains at Brandywme head, thence westerly by 
Caernarvon township along the said moimtain to a 
corner of Leacock township by David Cowen„ thence by 
the said township southerly to the east line of Thomas 
Story's land, thence continuing by the said township 
along another mountain to Sadsbury line, thence to the 
said line easterly to the place of beginning. 

Caernarvon. — Caernarvon township, beginning at 
the county line at a corner of Salisbury on the moun- 
tains, thence northerly along the said line to the north- 
east corner of Cadwaleder Elis's land, thence westerly 

by township along a ridge of mountains to Earl 

township at the northTcast corner of Thomas Edwards' 
land, thence southerly by the said township to the 
corner of Leacock and Salisbury township, thence 
easterly by Salisbury and along tlie said mountain to the 
place of begmning. 

Several extracts from the early court records are 
presented, which will, it is believed, be read with some 

At a court of General Quarter Sessions of the 


250 niSTORY OF 

Peace held at the liouse of John Postleivhait* in the 
township of Concstoga, for the county i>f Lancaster, the 
fifth day of August, in the third year of the Reign of 
our Sovereign Lord, the second by the grace of God of 
Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the 
Faith, &.C. Before John Wright, Tobias Hendricks, 
Andrew Cornish, Thomas Read and Samuel Jones, 
Esquires, Justices of our said Lord, the King, the peace 
of our same Lord, the King, in said county, aforesaid, to 
keep, as also divers felonies, tresspasses, and other mis- 
demeanors, ill the said comity, committed to hear and 
determine assigned, &c. 

The court being opened, the sheriff, to wit, Robert 
Barber, Esq., returns the writ of Venire Facias to him 
directed, with the panel thereunto annexed, and the 
following persons were sworn and affirmed on the 
Grand Inquest, viz: James Mitchell, George Stuart, 
Edward Smout, Edmund Cartlidge, James Patterson, 
Andrew Galbraith, John Hendricks, James Hendricks, 
Thomas Baldwyn, James Roddy, Francis Jones, Samuel 
Taylor, Patrick Campbell, William Hey, John Gail- 
braith, Matthew Atkinson, Ephraim Moor. 

DoMiNus Rex, vs. Morris Cannadt. 

And now, at this day, Morris Cannady, being indicted 
by the Grand Inquest for this comity, for having feloni- 

'Posikichairs, in Conestoga township, 7 S. W. from Lancas- 
ter, now Jacob FeliVs. On John Postlcwhait's decease, Charles 
Nonis, and other persons, Trustees for the General Land 
OHice, sold Postlcwhait's farm to Joseph Pugh, of Lancaster, 
in June 175G. Pugh sold to Tobias Stoneman the same month, 
to whom the children of Posllewhait, namely, Susana, married 
to Benjamin Price, John, Samuel and Edmund, released, Oct. 
28th, 17()L Stoneman sold in 17f)"2 to Andrew Foehl, grand- 
father of Jacob Fehl, Esq. This farm has been held rising of 
80 years by the Fehls. 


oiisly taken and carried away fourteen pounds, seven 
shillings, tlie goods and chattels of Daniel Cookson, was 
brought to the bar in custody of the sheriff, and being 
asked how he would hereof acquit himself, pleaded 
tliereunto instantly not guilty, and for trial put himself 
upon the country, and Joseph Growdon, Jr., Esq., who, 
for our Sovereign Lord, the King, this behalf prosecutes 
in like manner; and thereupon a jury being called, im- 
mediately came in, viz : John Lawrence, Robert Black- 
shaw, Thomas Gale, John JNIitchell, Joseph Burton, 
Edmund Dougherty, Richard Hough, Joshua Minshall, 
Richard Carter, Joseph Worke, David Jones, Lawrence 
Bankson, who the truth of and upon the premises being 
duly elected, tried, sworn or afhrmed upon their oath or 
aiiirmation, respectively do say, that the said jNlorris 
Cannady is guilty of the felony as in manner and for as 
he stands mdicted; and thereupon it is considered by 
the comt that the said ]Morris Cannady pay to the Go- 
vernor, for the support of this Government, (the money 
stolen having before been restored unto the said Daniel 
Cookson, the right owner thereof) the sum of fourteen 
pomids, seven shillings, and that he further pay the 
costs of this prosecution, together with two pounds, 
eighteen shillings, by the court allowed, the said Daniel 
Cookson, for his loss of time, charges and disbursements 
in the apprehending and prosecuting the said Morris 
Cannady, and that the said JNlorris stand committed to the 
custody of the sheriff of this county, until he make 
satisfaction for the same aforesaid by the court in manner 
aforesaid adjudged, and moreover shall be publicldy 
whipped * * * on his bare back with twenty-one 
stripes well laid on. 

Upon the petition of Morris Cannady, setting forth that 
he hath no estate or effects whatsoever, to satisfy the 

252 BisTonr o^ 

fiiie to the Honorable, the Governor of this province^ 
and to discharge the costs of prosecution against him, 
and humbly praying the relief of this court in the 
premises; it is therefore ordered ^^er curia, that the said 
Morris be sold by the said sheriff of this county, to the 
highest bidder for any term not exceeding six years, and 
thatjhe money thence arising be applied for or towards 
payment of the fine and costs aforesaid; and that the 
sheriff make return of his doings herein to the next 

1730, November 3.---At a court held at Lancaster. 

Robert Barber, late sheriff of the county, reports to the 

com-t, that pursuant to a former order he had sold Morris 

Cannady for the time limited by said order to one John 

Lawrence, of Peshtank, for sixteen pounds, of which 

smn he had only received the value of fourteen pounds, 

five shillings, and the said John being insolvent, the 

remainder could not be had ; he, therefore, prays this 

court would order the costs of suit and other charo-es 

against said Canady to be settled and the state thereof 

represented to the Governor that the said sheriff may be 

no further liable than he hath effects to answer. 

Ordered, ptr curia, that Tobias Hendricks and An- 
drew Galbraith, Esqrs,, settle the said accounts and 
certify their proccedhigs to the Governor hi behalf of 
said sheriff, according to his prayer. 

To completely organize the townships after their 
erection, the court, at the session for August, \129, made 
the following appohitments, viz: For Hempfield town- 
ship, Joshua Low, for John Brubaker, constable; Ed- 
mund Smout, over-seer of the poor; Joshua Law and 
Henry Neiff, supervisors. Conestoga, Albert Hendricks, 
constable; David Jones, over-seer of the poor; John 
Linvillc, supevvisor. Martock, George Littleton, con- 


Stable. Drmiiore, Patrick Ewings, constable. Sads- 
bury, Robert Young, constable. Leacock, Henry Jones, 
for Hans Good, constable; Israel Robinson and Daniel 
Fiere, supervisors. Lampeter, John Wall, for Wendel 
Bowman, constable ; Stephen Atkinson, over-seer of the 
poor; Edmund Cartledge and Adam Brand, supervisors. 
Manheim, Thomas Gall, constable ; Thomas Thornbury 
and John Mire, supervisors. Salisbury, James Gaut, 
constable. Warwick, Richard Carter, constable. Co- 
calico, Edmund Carpenter, constable. Earl, INIartin 
Grove, constable. Lebanon, John McCurry, constable. 
Robinson, Francis Hughes, constable. Tulpehocken, 
Michael Shaver, constable. Carnaervon, George Hud- 
son, constable. Peshtank, Thomas Garner, constable; 
Peter Allen, overseer of the poor. Donegal, Patrick 

Petition presented to court by the subscribers, "pray- 
ing that they may be recommended to the Governor as 
suitable persons to trade with tlie Indians," was allowed 
per curiam. 

James Pattison, Edmund Cartledge, Peter Chartier, 
John Lawrence, Jonas Davenport, Oliver \Vallis, Patrick 
Boyd, Lazarus Lowry, WiUiam Dunlap, William Bes- 
wick, John Wilkins, Thomas Perrin, John Harris. 

At the same session petitions were presented to the 
court praying to be recommended to the Governor as 
proper persons to keep public houses of entertainment, 
which v/ere severally granted j^er curiam, in favor of 
John Postlewhait, John Miller, Jacob Funk, Christian 
Stoneman, Jacob Biere, Edmund Dougherty, Samuel 
Taylor, Francis Jones, Mary Denny. 

Upon the petition of divers inhabitants of this county 
setting forth the necessity of a high-way through Hemp- 
field township, from the first unsurveyed land near Sas- 



quehaiinah to Christian Stoneman, his mill, and from the 
said mill to Daniel Cookson's, at the head of Pequea 
and praying that fit persons may be appointed to view 
and lay out the same accordingly. It is ordered per 
curiayn that Edmund Cartledge, William Hughes, 
Charles Jones, Henry Neiff, John Brubaker and James 
Pattison, do view the place, and if they, or any four of 
them are satisfied that there is occasion for the said road, 
they lay out the same and make return by course and 
distance under their hands to the next court. 

Whereas, At a meeting of the magistrates and 
others at the house of John Postlewhait, on the ninth of 
June past, (1729) it was agreed that for the present 
supply of this county, the sheriff should erect a building 
sufficient to hold prisoners and should be allowed towards 
defraying the expense, the sum of five pounds, public 
money — which building is now nearly built. It is there- 
fore agreed and ordered by this court that the said 
sheriff shall with all expedition finish the said building 
which when finished sliall thenceforth be reputed the 
common jail of the county of Lancaster, till the prison 
be built, and with this order the sheriff agrees. 

November 4, 1729. — The court appointed, ordered 
that, Tobias Hendricks and Andrew Galbraith, viev/ 
the prison and make report tothe county and assessors, 
accordingly, &c. 

From the following extracts— May term, 1730 — it will 
be seen that Lancaster county had, at an early day, a 
good supply of places to ''^o sell rxnn by the smaW' — 
these are the words of the petitioners. 

List of those licensed. May 5th, 1730, and rate of 

Jacob Bear, 40 shillings; Francis Jones, 10s.; James 
Patterson, 40 s. ; James Cook, 20.; Andrew Cornish, 


40 s.; Erasmus Bachraan, 20 s.; Martin Hamist, 20 s.; 
John Harris, 40 s. ; John Postlewhait, 60 s. ; Christian 
Stoneman, -50 s.; Edward Dougherty, 30 s.; John Steel, 
25 s. ; Christopher Franciscus, 20 s. ; John Miller, 20 s. ; 
Samuel Bethel, 40 s.; John David, 30 s.; George Stuart, 
20 s. ; Thomas Armstrong, 20 s. ; Jacob Fimk, 30 s. ; 
WiUiam White, 10 s.; Thomas Baldwin, 30 s. ; Peter 
Allen, 40 s.; Edward Cartledge, 30 s.; Jones Daven- 
port, 30 s. ; Henry Baily, 20 s. ; WiUiam Dunlap, 20 s. ; 
William Clark, 20 s. ; Henry Snevely, 20 s. ; Michael 
Mire, 20 s. ; John Wilkins, 20 s. ; Lazarus Lowry, 20 s. ; 
Michael Shank, 20 s.; Casper Laughman, 40 s.; George 
Haynes, 30 s. ; Isaac Miranda, 20 s.; John Hen- 
dricks, 20 s. 

At a court of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace, 
held at Lancaster, the third day of November, in the 
fourth year of his Majesty's Reign, Armo, 1730, before 
John Wright, Thomas Edwards, Tobias Hendricks, 
Andrew Cornish, Andrew Galbraith and Caleb Pearce, 
Esqrs., Justices of our Lord, the King, the peace of our 
said Lord, the King in the county aforesaid, &c. 

The court being opened, the sheriff, to wit: John 
Galbraith returns the writ of Venire Facias to him 
directed with the panel thereunto annexed, and the 
following persons were sworn and affirmed on the Grand 

Edward Smout, Jr., James Patterson, John Kile, 
Randel Chambers, Hatwell Varnon, Ephraim Moore, 
Richard Hough, George Stites, Christian Vanlere, 
Daniel Cookson, John Jones, Jolm Musgrove, Jr., James 
Gait, James Whitehill, Thomas Johnston, William Wil- 
kins, William Richardson. 

Robert Barber, late sheriff of the said county, re- 
turned to this court by indenture under the hands and 


seals of six free-holders of the said county, Gabriei 
Davis, John Caldwell, Joshua Low, Emanuel Carpenter, 
Walter Denny and Thomas Wilkins, for assessors, and 
John Davis commissioned for the ensuing year. 

We have introduced a brief notice of one whose name 
is intimately associated with the history of Lancaster 
county, and the early history of the United States. 

Conrad Weiser, an active, enterprising man, con- 
spicuous in the annals of this county from its organiza- 
tion till 1760, was born in Germany, 1696. At the age 
of 13, in 1709, he left his Vatcrland, accompanied by 
his father and seven brothers and sisters, with three or 
four thousand other Germans, they went to England ;* 
thence they sailed for New York, where they arrived, 
the 13th June, 1710. In the fall of the same year, the 
father of the subject of this notice, and hundreds of 
German families, were transferred at Queen Anne's 
expense to Livingston District, where many of them 
remained till 1713; that year about one hundred and 
fifty families moved to Schoharie to occu])y lands pre- 
sented to Queen Anne by a Mohawk chief, for the 
benefit of these Germans. While residing here, Conrad 
Weiser 's fothcr, in 1714, became acquainted with Quag- 
nant, a chief of Maqua or Mohawk nation. Quagnant 
proposed to the father to take Conrad with him into 
his country, and to teach him the language spoken by 
his nation; the father consented, and Conrad accom- 
panied the chief to his house in the autumn of 1711. — 
Here his sufferings, according to Weiser's own journal, 
were almost intolerable. lie was exposed to the in- 
clemencies of a severe winter, '^pinched by hunp^cr and 
front,'" menaced with death by the inebriated Indians; 
tc escape which, he had often to flee and conceal himself 

•See page 182—184. 



till reason was restored, and " a second sober thought 
restrained their threats. Having spent eight months 
among them, and acquired the principal part of the 
Mohawk language, he returned to the German 
colony, where, as interpreter, he acquired a competent 
knowledge of the language,, in a very short time. 

Owing to a defect in the titles to their lands which 
involved them in difficulties, this German colony was 
dispersed; some remained at Schoharie, among these 
was Weiser, the interpreter, others left, in search of a 
new home ; these wended their course in a south-wes- 
terly direction till they struck Susquehanna, where 
they made canoes, freighted these with their families and 
goods ; floated down the river to the mouth of Swatara 
creek, thence they worked their way up till they reached 
a fertile spot in Tulpehocken, where they settled amidst 
the Indians, in 1723. 

Weiser, as stated, remained at Schoharie, till 1729, 
when he, his v/ife and four children left, and followed 
his relations and friends to Tulpehocken, where they 
were all cordially received. Here he took up a tract 
of land within a few miles of the site of Wommelsdorf. 

He, as occasion demanded it, acted as interpreter 
between the Indians and the German settlers. Though 
he had determined to spend his remaining days in 
private, his talents soon attracted the attention of the 
Government, and his services, as interpreter, were re- 
quired, by the Hon. Patrick Gordon, Lieut. Governor 
of Pennsylvania, as early as 1631; for that purpose, 
Weiser accompanied Shekellany and Cehachquey, In- 
dians, who liad returned from the Six Nations, to Phila- 
delphia.* He was called on repeatedly to act as. 

•Col. Rec.452. 



interpreter while pursuing the improvement of hk 

He was a man of imbounded benevolence, and dis- 
posed "/o hope all things'' — it was tlirough him the 
Moravian brethren were made attentive to Indian 
natives, especially the Iroquois, or Six Nations. Mr. 
Spangenberger received the first account of them from 
Conrad Weiser, a justice of the peace, and interpreter to 
the Government in Pennsylvania.* The Governor and 
Proprietor of Pennsyh^ania had sent him in the winter 
ol 173G, to treat with the Iroqiiois, concerning a war 
ready to break out between them and the Indians of 
Virginia, and to endeavor to settle the dispute amicably. 
On this journey, of nearly five hundred miles, he suffered 
great hardships. The weather was uncommonly severe, 
and he had to force his way, mostly on foot, throus-h 
deep snow, thick forests, brooks and rivers, carrying 
provisions fc r several weeks on his back.t 

If it may be called such, he had the good fortune to 
become acquainted with n^any of the conspicuous 
characters of his day. Count Zinzcndorf visited him 
August 14, 1752, where he met, at Tulpehocken, a 
numerous embassy of sachems or heads of the Six 
Nations, retm-ning from Pliiladelphia. The count was 
desirous of preaching the Gospel to the Indians; Weiser 
was interpreter on this occasion ; adding in conclusion 
of the discom-se: "This is the man, whom God hath 
seni, both to tlie Indians and to the white people, to 
make known his will unto them,'' confirming his words, 
*Loskiel. P. T, 4, .J. 

flic was fippoiiited in 1741. Die Landcs Obrigkcit gewann 
ilin lid), uc'gen sciiu-s chrliclien uiul bcscjink-i-.s iiiicl/Jichcn 
Characters, umi maciitu ihu 1741, ziim Fricde-lliclitcr und 
i: othschaftcr buy den Indiancr-Naliun. Hall. Naclirichtcn 978. 


after the Indian custom, by a present of a piece of red 

Sometime in the month of September, Conrad Weiser 
visited Shomakin, a populous Indian town, where he 
interpreted between Shikellimus and the count. 

He attended all the principal Indian treaties held for a 
period of rising twenty-five years. About the year 
1752, Com'ad Weiser, in connexion with the Governor 
of Pennsylvania, Chief Justice Allen, Mr. Peters, Secre- 
tary of the Land Office, Messrs. Turner, and B. Frank- 
lin, was appointed a trustee and manager of the public 
schools, which were established through the efforts of 
the Rev. IVIichael Schlatter. By virtue of their com- 
mission, the trustees established schools at Lancaster, 
York, Reading, New Hanover,^ Skippack, and Goshen- 

During the French and Indian hostilities, as Lieut. 
Colonel, he commanded the seccni battalion of the 
Pennsylvania regiment, consisting of nine companies — 
"they were thus distributed — one company at Fort 
Augusta, one at Hunter's mill, seven miles above Har- 
risburg, on the Susquehanna, one half company on the 
Swatara, at the foot of the North mountain, one com- 
pany and a half at Fort Henry, close to the Gap of the 
mountain, called the Tothea Gap, one company at Fort 
Williams, near the forks of the Schuylkill river, six 
miles beyond the mountains, one company at Fort Allen, 
at Gnadenhuetten, on the Lehigh, the olh2r three com- 
panies were scattered between the rivers Lehigh and 
Delaware, at the disposition of the captains, at farm- 
houses, others at mills, from three to twenty in a place."t 

The duties of the numerous stations of life he held, 
were always discharged with fidelity and ability; he was 

»Ibid. 27. fHall. Nach. G61. t^ordon's Pa. 341. 


both capable and honest. The space allowed us, we 
regret, will not admit of details. He closed his eventful 
life, July 13, 1760 — his remains were interred July 15, 
near Wommelsdorf, Berks county. He left seven chil- 
dren and numerous relatives to lament his departure. — 
Weiser was a man of strong mind — cultivated in the 
never failing school of experience. His poetical effu- 
sions, a few of which only remain, are said to be well 
written. The following is a concluding verse of a hymn 
fiu'nished by W. at a church dedication: 

Fuer Feuer, Krieg und Wassers-Noth 
Wollst du dis Haus bewahren ! 
Damit nach unserm selgen Tod 
Die Nachkommen erfahren, 
Dasz wir dich, wahren Gott, geliebt 
Und uns in deinem Wort geuebt, 
Um deines Namcns willen. 

Notes. — Hatvvel Varnon was a native of Wrexford, Ireland.. 
In 1728, he settled in Lancaster county, now Leacock town- 
ship. It is said he was a man of rare endowments ; and ac- 
tive and useful Friend — died 1747, 1 mo. 1 day. — Friend's Mis- 
cellany, Vol. IV. 2d. 

Quakers were numerous in Lancaster county, as early as 
1730. " The Quakers extended their settlements to the Susque- 
hanna, one thousand families of the Society of Friends, settled 
in Chester county, before 1700. A thousand families of 
Friends were settled in Lancaster county, at the time or shortly 
after its erection. The meeting house in Lancaster city, was, 
for a length of time, numerously attended." — 11^ C. Jmu. Jour. 

In the spring of 1729, John and James Hendricks made, 
under the authority of Government, the first autliorizcd settle- 
ment on the west .side of the Susquehanna, now called York 
county. They were soon followed by other families. 

The following mills had all been erected in Lancaster 
county, prior to 1729: Christian Stoneman's, Hans Graff's, 
Samuel Taylor's. 


In May 1729, the Conestogoe, Ganawese and Delaware 
Indians, went to Philadelphia to have an interview with Gov. 
Gordon. The chiefs of the Conestogoe were Tawenna, Gaya- 
torouga and Taquatarcnsaly, sometimes sailed Civility ; those 
of the Ganawese, Amawoolit, Peyhiohinas and Yaochkon- 
guess; those of the Dclawarcs, Peyashickon, Whawyayga- 
men and Saykalin. Peter Bizallion and John Scull, were 
interpreters.— CoZ. Rec. III. 383. 

1730, May 5th, at Postlewhait's, John Emerson, Gent., upon 
his humble suit to court, was admitted to practice as an at- 
torney at law within the same. 

1731, May 4, at Lancaster, Edward Harris, Gent., upon his 
humble suit to court, was admitted to practice as an attorney 
at law. 

1730, Lancaster town contained about 200 inhabitants — this 
year Stephen Atkinson built a fulling mill at a great expense ; 
but the inhabitants of the upper part of the creek assembled 
and pulled down the dam on the Conestoga, as it prevented 
them from rafting and getting their usual supply of fish. At- 
kinson altered his dam with a twenty feet passage for boats and 

Members of the Assembly from Lancaster county for 1727, 
were Thomas Edwards, John Wright, James Mitchell and 
Thomas Reed. For 1730, John Musgrove, Thomas Edwards, 
John Wright and George Stuart. 



Koad from Lancaster to riiiladelphia ordered to be laid out, &c. — Election 
excitement, orviolent contest — Border frays — Townships erected — Penns- 
borough and Hopewell, west of the Susquehanna — Hanover — Little 
Britain — James Ewing born — Contest between the Marylandeis and 
inhabitants of Lancaster — Cressap and his associates attempt to displace 
the Germans — Is apprehended and imprisoned — Governor Ogle sends 
messengers to Philadelphia — German settlers seized and carried to Balti- 
more — The council sends an cml'assy to Governor Ogle — Marjlanders 
break into Lancaster jail — Germans naturalized — J\otes of variety. 

Previous to the erection of the county, Uttle or no 
care had been taken of the high-Wcays. The first, and 
leading object of the inhabitants, after townships had 
been erected and organized by the appointment of 
the requisite ofiicers, was laying out roads and build- 
ing bridges where there was necessity. "A petition of 
the magistrates, grand jury, and other inhabitants of 
Lancaster county, was presented to the board of coun- 
cil held at Philadelphia, January 29, 1730 — 1, setting 
forth that not having the conveniences of any navigable 
water, for bringing the produce of their labors to Phila- 
delphia, they are obliged, at a great expense, to transport 
them by land carriage, which burthen became heavier 
through the want of suitable roads for carriages to pass. 
Th^tt there are no public roads leading to Phi]adol})hia, 
yet laid out through their county, and those in Chester 
county, tlirough which they now pass, are in many 
places incommodious. And therefore praying that proper 
persons may bo appointed to view and lay out a road for 
public service, from the town of Lancaster, till it falls in 
witii the high road in the county of Chester, leading to 
the Ferry of Schuylkill at High street, and that a review 


may be had of the said pubhc road in the county of 
Chester; the prayer of which petition being granted: 

« It is ordered that Thomas Edwards, Edward Smout. 
Robert Barber, Hans Graaf, Caleb Peirce, Samuel Jones 
and Andrew Cornish, of the county of Lancaster, or 
any five of them view and lay out by course and dis- 
tance, a convenient high road from the said town of 
Lancaster; and that Thomas Green, George Aston, 
William Paschal, Richard Buffington, William jMarch, 
Samuel Miller and Robert Parke, of the county of 
Chester, or any five of them, in continuing to lay out as 
aforesaid, the said road from the division Ime aforesaid, 
till it falls in with the King's high road in the county of 
Chester, leading to Philadelphia, and make return 
thereof to this board. And they, the above named per- 
sons of the county of Lancaster, or any five of them, 
together with the above named persons of the county of 
Chester, or any five of them, are further empowered 
jointly to review the said road within the last mentioned 
county, and to report to this board what alterations may 
be necessary to be made therein, and suit the conve- 
niency of carriages, and for the better accommodation of 
the inhabitants of this province. 

The persons appointed to view and lay out the road, 
made report to the board, October 4, 1733, that they had 
attended to the business assigned them, which report 
was approved and confirmed ; and it was then ordered 
that the road thus laid out, be declared the King's High- 
way, or Public Road, and that the same be forthwith 
cleared and rendered commodious for public service."* 

•The courts ordered, the Governor and council having certi- 
fied the same, that the respective supervisors open and clear 
the King's Road leading from Lancaster to Philadelphia ; to 
clear the same on the north side of the marked trees, at least 



111 the history of this county, the year 1732, is re- 
markable on account of a violent contest, and bo7'cler > 
frays, in both of which females played " a manly part ;" ^ 
Mrs. Galbraith "iigured " in the former, and Mrs. iitnise— 
" shone " in the latter. Andrew Galbraith of Donegal, 
and John Wright of Hcmpiield, were both candidates 
for member of Assembly ; it was an excitting time pro- 
duced by exciting causes. "Andrew Galbraith was 
pushed forAvard by his friends. Mrs. Galbraith mounted 
her favorite mare, Nelly; a spur, she fastened to her 
ancle, and away she went, her red cloak flowing to the 
wind, to scour the county for Andrew. She did him 
good service; for Andrew Galbraith was elected and 
returned a member, and took his seat," among his col- 
leagues of the county, viz: Messrs. George Stuart, 
Thomas Edwards, and Samuel Blunston. 

" John Wright contested the election, and Wright and 
Galbraith were heard at the bar of the House, and after 
hearing their claims, the House resolved " that Andrew 
Galbraith is duly returned a member for the county of 

. John Wright was a short time after elected in the 
place of George Stuart, who had died a short time after 
his election. 

thirty feet wide, and grub the underwood, at least fifteen feet 
of the said space on the side north the marked trees and make 
necessary bridg-cs over swamps so as (o render the same safe 
and passable for horse and wagon. — Ducket of Quar, Ses.for 

*John "Wright contested the scat of A. Galbraith, on the 
ground that a number of the tickets on which his name was 
written, were rejected, because the tickets contained but three 
names instead of fuur. The House resolved, " That a ticket 
containing a less number of names than by law directed, be a 
Oad ticket.'" — Votes of Assembly. 


Sometime in 1732, as appears from the affidavits of 
James Hendricks, William McMannack, John Capper, 
John Briibaker, Charles Jones, John Patten, Alexander 
McKey, JoshiialVIinshal, Francis Ward, Rebecca Hen- 
dricks, Joshua and Tobias Hendricks, taken before John 
Wright and Samuel Blunston, Hempfield, that "James 
Patterson had been informed that one or more of his 
horses had been killed near John Lowe's plantation, and 
that his two sons, Daniel and William, had been seen 
presenting a gun to fire at another horse, but were pre- 
Terited by being discovered, sent some persons thither to 
enquire into the truth of the matter, who, finding one of 
them lying dead near Lowe's house, made some expos- 
tulations with his sons on that head, who were so far 
from disowning the fact, that they said they would kill 
all the horses which came upon that land, and having 
assaulted and grossly abused Patterson's messenger, 
threatened they would tie and v/hip all those he should 
send over thither ; that upon complaint hereof made, a 
warrant was issued for apprehending the two persons 
who had been thus guilty of that assault." The war- 
rant was directed to Charles Jones, constable of Hemp- 
field township, v/ho, with his staff in hand, and in con- 
sequence of threats from Thomas Cressap and his asso- 
ciates — " ^Maryland intruders," — to shoot any officer 
of Pennsylvania, Vv'^ho came into those parts to do liis 

Note. — Thomas Penn, son of William Pcnn, arrived in 
Pennsylvania, 1732. He was at Lancaster in October, 1736 — 
signed licenses or grants for settlements that had been made 
previously on the west side of the Susquehanna. Samuel 
Blunston was engaged as his agent to grant licenses for 12,000 
acres, to satisfy the rights of settlers, &:c. These licenses, or 
rather promises to the settlers, to grant them patents for the 
lands they had settled, are signed by T. Penn, himself. — 



duty, Jones demanded ihe assistance of James Patter- 
sons, senior and junior, William McMannack, Alexander 
McKcy, Jolm Capper, John Hart, John Patten, James 
Patten and jNIatthew Bailey, "who took three guns, and 
these not loaded, serving only as an appearance of 
defence," went to the house of Mr. Lowe, apprehended 
Daniel and William, who made considerable resistance. 
i\Irs. Lowe raised an alarm to raise the neighborhood,* 
whereupon, Thomas Cressap, William Canon and Ed- 
ward Evans, followed to rescue the prisoners, and 
wounded John Hart; but were obliged to desist. The 
Lowes were arrested and imprisoned at Lancaster. 

This was soon followed by more " unhappy frays," 
accompanied by acts of atrocity committed by the JVIary- 
landers "upon the Pennsylvanians," The Lancaste- 
rians were aroused to action, they called "to arms," and 
a body of the mostr esolute, entered into JNIaryland and 
compelled Cressap and his associates to flee. The Lan- 
casterians convinced the Marylanders that they were not 
to be assailed Avith impunity. 

Though Lancaster county was without specified 
limits, at this time, settlements had nov/ been made west 
of the Susquehanna, within the present boundaries of 
York, Adams, Franklin, Cumberland, Perry; the inhabi- 
tants in various parts presented petitions to the court at 
Lancaster for the erection of townships. At the Novem- 
ber session, 1735, upon the petition of many inhabitants 
on the west side of the Susquehanna river, opposite to 
Paxton, praying that the parts settled between said river 

*Lo\vc's house, where his sons were taken, was within the 
boundaries of Pennsylvania. About 400 people lived more 
south than Lowe's house, who paid taxes in Lancaster county, 
and had always acknowledged themselves inhabitants of Penn- 
sylvania.— CW. Rcc. HI. 007 


and Potomac river, on Conedogwainst, Yellow Britches 
and Conegocliegue creeks, may be divided into two 
townships, and constables appointed in them, it was 
ordered by conrt that a line running northerly from the 
hills to the southward of Yellow Britches (crossing a 
direct line by the Great Spring) to Keghtotening moun- 
tain, be the division line, and the eastern-most township, 
be called Pennsborough, and the western, Hopewell. — 
(Cumberland county.) 

At the February session, 1736-7, upon a petition of 
the inhabitants of Lancaster county, Hanover township 
was erected; divided on the west from Peshtank by 
BeaAT-er creek from its mouth to the mountain, from 
Lebanon on the east, and Derry on the south by Sua- 
taaro creek, from Beaver mouth to the forks, thence by 
the north branch thereof to the mountain. 

At the Februaiy session, 1737-8. — The petition of 
many of the inhabitants of Drumore township, setting 
forth the inconveniences they lie under by the largeness 
of the township, and praying the same may be divided 

Note. — James Ewing was born about the year 1736, in 
Manor township, of this county, of Irish parents. When yet a 
lad his parents moved to Hellam township, Lancaster, now 
York county. Our young hero, at the age of 18 or 19, was 
engaged in repelling, with his associates, and citizens soldiers, 
the incursions of the Indians. Ho took, at an early day, an 
active part in the Indian or French army; and was, it is be- 
lieved, a lieutenant in Braddock's army, and present at the 
disastrous slaughter usually called "Braddock's Defeat." 

He served his country in various capacities. He was a 
member of the Legislature for six or seven years. He was 
Brigadier General, and attached to the Flying Camp in the 
Revolutionary war. He was in public life till 1800 — died in 
March, 1906, aged about 70 years. Of him it is said, at the 
time of his death, what is said of few: "He died without an 


by a line running from a marked Spanish oak standing: 
on the brow of a roundisli hill by Sasquehanah opposite 
an island, called INIonnt Johnson, north-east by cast to 
Octoraro creek, and that the said western division may 
be called the townsliip of Little Britain, which said 
petition being considered and approved of, the same is 
ordered ^;cr curiam to be recorded in manner aforesaid. 

The year 1736, there was a contest between the Mary- 
landers and the inhabitants of Lancaster, arising from 
tlie undefined boundary between Pennsylvania and 
INIaiyland. A respectable number of Germans and 
others had settled west of the Susquehanna, now York 
county, under Pennsylvania titles; but to avoid paying 
taxes, imposed by the province, these settlers accepted 
titles from Maryland, "and attorned to Lord Baltimore; 
but, becoming satisfied that adhesion to him might ulti- 
mately prejudice their interests, they formally renounced 
their allegiance, and sought protection from Penn- 

This course of shiflivg greatly displeased the INIary- 
landers; they were determined to eject the "miscreants" 
from their possessions. Three hundred men, headed by 
the sheriff of tlic county of Baltimore, advanced within 
the borders of Pennsylvania to execute their ejectment. 
The citizens of Lancaster county could not look with 
indifference upon the conduct of the Marylanders: 
Samuel Smith, the sheriff of Lancaster county, drew out 
a Posse Comitatiis, i. e. citizens to oppose the aggres- 
sions of rioters or invaders, and to protect the settlers 
west of the Susquehanna. Smith .succeeded without 
violence in having the Marylanders leave tlu^ arena, 
where tlicy proposed to execute the design of their mis- 
sion, with tiie midcrstanding the settlers there would. 


after consultation, " give an answer to Lord Baltimore'sj 
expedition to acknowledge his authority." ] 

For a short time, disturbances seemed to be settled;) 
but before long, through the instrumentality of Captaiii 
Thomas Cressap, a restless, quarrelsome individual, an 
association was formed with the knowledge of Governor 
Ogle, of some fifty or sixty persons, under the auspices 
of the Captain, to displace the Germans, being the prin- 
cipal settlers; and to divide their lands, according to the 
agrarian laws of Rome: "to distribute the lands of the 
conquered among the conquerors; for Cressap had 
promised each of his associates two hmidred acres of 

In the prosecution of their design, they killed one 
Knowles, Avho had resisted them. Their leader, how- 
ever, did not escape with impunity; the sheriff of Lan- 
caster assailed him, and on the 23d of November, 1736, 
after he was Avounded, took him as prisoner and. con- 
ve^^ed him to Philadelphia jail. 

"Governor Ogie, on receipt of this intelligence, 
despatched Edmund Jennings and Daniel Dulany to 
Philadelphia, to demand reparation, and the release of 
Cressap. Both were refused by the president and coun- 
cil, who earnestly remonstrated against the encroach- 
ments of the people of Maryland, encouraged and pro- 
tected by their Governor. 

"Governor Ogle immediately ordered reprisal. Four 
German settlers were seized and carried to Baltimore, 
and a band of associators, under one Iliggenbotham, 
proceeded forcibly to expel the Germans. Again the 
council ordered out the sheriff of Lancaster, and the 
power of his county, with directions to dispose detach- 
ments in proper positions to protect the people; and they 
despatched Messrs. Lawrence and Ashton, members of 




\ the board, to support liim in the execution of their orders, 
rWhen the sheriff entered the field, tlie invaders retired,. 
I mt returned as soon as his force was witiidrawn. Cap- 
tvires were made on both sides. The German settlers 
w*rc harassed perpetually; in many instances driven 
froau their farms, and in others deterred from every 
attempt to plant or improve. 

f'ln May, 1737, the council sent Samuel Preston and 
John Kinsey, on an embassy to Governor Ogle, to treat 
on some measures which might preserve the quiet of 
the border, until the pleasure of the King should be 
known, to whom both parties had appealed. But Go- 
vernor Ogle requiring some concessions incompatible 
with the rights of the proprietaries of Pennsylvania, 
file deputies returned without having made any agree- 
ment. In October, 1737, a party of Marylanders, six- 
teen daring fellows, under the direction of a desperadoy 
named Richard Lowder, broke open the jail al Lan- 
caster, and released the rioters wlio had been appre- 
hended by th? sheriff, among wliom was a brother of 
the leader. Fortunately, when indignation was prompt- 
ing the inhabitants on l:)oth sides of the line to further 
breaclies of peace, an order of the King in council, on 
the subject of the boundary, induced both parties to re- 
frain from further violence, to drop all persecutions,, 
and to discharge their respective prisoners on bail." 

In 1738, a respectable number of Swiss and Germans 
having applied, were naturalized. Many of the appli- 
cants had been in the country as early as 1727, 1 ul the 
gi-eater part of them came in between 1731 and 1735. — 
TIk! AfM was passed at a session held from October, 173S> 
to May, 1739. 

The following arc the names of tiiose naturalizod^all 
of Lancaster ccuntv: 


Michael Albert, William Albert, Leonard Bender, 
George Miller, John Bushong,* Nicholas Candle, John 
Hagey, Charles Keller, Stephen Remsberger, Ludowick 
Dettenburn, Jacob Bare, Jr., John Leiberger, Michael 
Becker, John Peter Cooher, Christian Lawer, John Li- 
bough, Bartholomew Shaver, Casper Stump, Jacob. 
Becker, Tobias Pickle, Peter Rutt, George Klein, Paiit 
Tittenhoffer, Matthias Tise, George Lodowick Horst, 
Sebastian Graff, John Henry Basseler, Matthias Yung, 
Jacob Schloug, Henry JMichael Immel, Felix Miller, 
INIartin Weybrecht, Frederick Eighelberger, Sebastian 
Fink, Hans Adam Schreiner, Christian Lang, Casper 
Fillar, Anthony Bretter, Leonhard Ellmaker, Andreas 
Bersinger, Hans Graff, Jacob Hartman, Theophilus 
Hartman, Theophilus Hartman, Jr., Benjamin Witmer, 
Abraham Witmer, Johannes Pinkley, Turst Buckwalter, 
Henry Neaf, Jr., Valentine Hergelrat, Henry Basseler, 
John Stetler, Leonhard Romler, Leonhard Heyer, Peter 
Schell, John Nohaker, Nicholas Miller, Johan Hock, 
Tiiomas Knopnenheffer, Michael Knoppenheffer, Chris- 
tian Leman, George Unrook, Jacob Scheffer, Valentine 
Keffer, Jacob Etshberger, Herman Walburn, Casper 
Reed, Christian IVIanusmith, Nicholas Kutts, George 
Weyrick, Christopher Ley, Jacob Lower, Hans Moor, 

*John Bushong, a French Huguenot, sailed in the same vessel 
with the Rev. Johannes Bartholomews Rieger. They left 
Rotterdam by way of Cowes, in the Ship Britannia of London, 
Michael Franklyn, Master, and arrived at Philadelphia in Sept. 
1731. Some of Bushong's descendants reside in East Lam- 
peter, near Heller's Church. Among others, who arrived in 
the same vessel, are the well known names of Beyer, Bock, 
Frey, Hiestand, Carl, Keyser, Kraft, Kobell, Lehman, Lutz, 
Nehs, Roth, Ruppert, Voglcr, Schwartz, Weis, Wirtz, Seig- 
mund, Weynand, Schrotcr, Bihlmcier, Mentz, Horsch, Boor, 
Bahn.— CoZiJec. ///. 431. 


Johannes Blum, George Steitz, Ercismus Biickenmeyer, 
George Graff; "being all of the Protestant or Reformed 
religion, and subjects of tlic Emperor of Germany, and 
other provinces now in amity with the King of Great 
Britain ; every one of them ivas by this act declared citi- 
zens, and all the immunities enjoyed by natural liege sub- 
jects, were to be enjoyed by them. 


Notes of vaeiety. — In 1732 locusts were very numerous, 
and the noise made by them was sufficient to drown ones 
voice in conversation — orchards and young trees generally 
sulfered much by them. — Meylins Family Bible. 

Smith's mill in Martic, Buckley's mill on the Octorora, and 
Emanuel Herr's on Pequea, had been erected prior to 1733. 

The first house erected in Strasburg, 1733. 

In 1734, Lutheran Church and School House were commen- 
ced in Lancaster, the Church was dedicated October 28, 1738. 
The same year (1738) an Episcopal Church was built in Con- 
estoga 15 miles from Lancaster. The same year tlie hottest 
summer ever experienced in the count}' — harvest men died in 
the fields — multitude of birds were found dead. 

The Court of Nov. term, 1735, appointed Eandle Chambers, 
Jacob Peat, James Silvers, Thomas Eastland, John Lawrence 
and Abraham Endless, to view and lay out a road from Harris' 
Ferry towards Potomac, so as best to answer the necessities of 
the inhabitants. 

Aug. 5, 1735, James C alder. Attorney at Law, on applica- 
tion, was admitted to practice in the Lancaster court. 

June 20, 1736, the first German Reformed Church, in Lan- 
caster, dedicated — a log building, nearly opposite the present 
church — after 1771, when the new church had been iinished, it 
was converted into a private dwelling and occupied as such 
till Jan. 14, 183G, Avhen it was destroyed by fire. Kcv. John 
Jacob Hook or Iluck, V. D. M. was German llcf. pastor at 
Lancaster, in 1730. 

Dec. 7, 1737 — at night a smart earthquake was felt at Cones- 
toga and Philadelphia. 


Nov. 2, 1736, Alexander Pearcy— May 3, 1737, James Kea- 
ting — admitted to practice law at the Lancaster bar. In 1736-7 
settlements commenced at Adamstown — first settlers were 
William Adams, Abraham Kearn, John Johns, Philip Steflfy, 
Mathias Fansler, Flickingers and others. 

"■How to settle with some Doctors in olden times.'''' — August 5, 
1736, at a court of Gen. Quarter Session : Doct, William Smith, 
a vagabond and beggar, being convicted before the court of 
being an impostor, it is the judgment of the court that he re- 
cieve, in the town of Lancaster, ten lashes, and be conducted 
from Constable to Constable, and be whipped with ten lashes, 
in the most public place, till he comes to the bounds of the 
county, at Octorora, and there be dismissed." Be patient in 
suffering, as the Doctor said, when he received his pay. 

In 1738, the number of taxables, in Lancaster county, was 
2560. About the year 1733, many emigrants from the Pala- 
tinate, Germany, settled in Brecknock township; among these 
were Jacob Guth, Christian Guth, Avho erected the first grist 
mill in the township ; John Mussleman, Francis Diller, who 
erected the first distillery in Brecknock ; Jacob Schne Jer, 
Francis Eckert, Herman Deis, Christopher Waldhaucr, Wil- 
liam Morris, Englishman, and some others. — >S. Bowman's 

Member of Assembly for Lancaster county. 1731 : John 
Koyle, Andrew Galbraith, John Musgrove, Thomas Edwrads— 
1732: George Stuart, Thomas Edwards, Samuel Blunston, 
Andrew Galbraith— 1733: Andrew Galbraith, Thomas Edwards, 
John Wright, John Koyle— 1731: James Hamilton, John Em- 
erson, Andrew Galbraith, John Wright— 1735 and 1736: James 
Hamilton, Tbomas Edwards, Andrew Galbraith, Thomas Arm- 
strong— 1737: James Hamilton, John Wright, Andrew Gal- 
braith, Samuel Smith. 



Governor Thomas appointed — The county dividcc] into eight Districts 

Several new townships formed — John Wright's charge to the grand jury 

Brief memoir of Wright — Serjeant attempts to instruct the Indians — 
Ornish apply to the Assembly for an act of naturalization — Count Zin- 
zcndorf in Lancaster — Visits Wyoming — Indians conclude to massacre 
him — Singular incident dissuade them — Attempts made to prejudice the 
Assenihly against tlic Germans — Martin Mcylin's house built — Church 
council convoked — Irish behavior or conduct at an election — Disputes 
between Irish and Germans — Murhancellin murders Armstrong and his 
two servants — Murhancellin arrested and imprisoned — Indian treaty held 
in Lancaster — Indians bark Musser's Walnut trees — Lutheran excite- 
ment in Lancaster — Liiidley Murray born — Notes of variety. 

On the death of Governor Gordon, James Logan, 
senior member of the council, discharged the duties of 
president, from August, 173G, to August, 1738, when he 
was superseded by George Thomas, Esq., a planter of 
Antigua, as Governor of the province and territories. — 
He was appointed in 1737, "but his assumption o'f office 
was delayed by the remonstrance of Lord Baltimore, 
against the right of the proprietaries to the Lower coun- 
tries. He met the Assembly of the province, on the Gth 
of August, 1738." He was Deputy Governor till 1747. 
During his achninistration, events of a local and general 
character transpired, of some interest to the reader; the 
leading ones shall be noticed. 

Pursuant to an act of Assembly, passed in 1739, for 
the dividing the county into districts, the justices of the 
courts of Quarter Sessions, made and agreed to the fol- 
lowing divisions: The first district was constituted of 
Hem])field, I^ancastcr and Hellam townships. Hellam 
is now part of ^'ork county. The second district cm- 
braced Donegal, Paxton, Dcrry and Hanover. The last 


three are within the bounds of Dauphin county. The 
third district was composed of Sadsbury, Sahsbury, Lea- 
cock and Strasburg. The fourth district of Warwick, 
jManheim, Lampeter and Lebanon. The last named is 
ill Lebanon comity. The fifth district inchided Cones- 
toga, Martic, Drumore and Little Britain. The sixth of 
Tolpehocken, Hidelberg, Berne* and Bethel ;t all in 
Berks county. The seventh of Robinson, Cocalico, Car- 
naervon and Earl ; the first is in Berks. The eighth was 
constituted of Pennsboro and Hopewell ; both in Cum- 
berland; but since divided mto fifteen or sixteen town- 
ships, in that county. 

The year 1741, is remarkable in the history of the 
county, and in the life of the incorruptible John Wright^ 
Esq., for his immoveable resistance to the encroachments 
made upon ancient usages. "During the administration 
of Governor Thomas, the enlisting of indented or 
bought servants,! for soldie7\s, was first permitted to be 

*Berne had been part of Tulpehocken, till May, 1738, when 
it was divided or separated from the latter, by order of the 

fBethel was part of Lebanon township, till May, 1739. The 
court ordered that it be divided and bounded as follows, viz : 

" That the division line begin at Swatara creek, at a stony 
ridge, about half a mile below John Tittles, and continuing 
along the said ridge easterly to Tolpehockon township to the 
northward of Tobias Pickel's, so as in its course to leave John 
Benaugle, Adam Steel, Thomas Evv'crsly and Matthias llr?e, to 
the southward of the said line ; that the northermost division 
be named and called Bethel — the southern division continue the 
name Leianon,''^ 

tThe number of bought and indented servants, who were 
thus taken from their masters, as appears by the printed votes 
of the Assembly, were about 276; whose masters were com- 
pensated by the Assembly for their loss sustained thereby, to 
the amount of two thousand five hundred and eighty-eight 
pounds. — Pruud, 


carried into execution, in the province, before the act of 
parliament, in that case, was made ; which being disa- 
greeal)lc and injm'ious to many of the inhabitants, and 
contrary to ancient usage/' John Wright, tlie mild but 
firm Quaker, of Wright's Ferry, of this county, and 
who had for many years been a member of the Assem- 
bly, spoke out freely and firmly against this measure; as 
a consequence, he fell a victim to Governor Thomas' in- 
tolerance. Having understood that the Governor in- 
tended to remove him from office; he had at that time 
been justice of the peace, and president of the Common 
Pleas, he attended the May session of the court, 1741, 
and before the new commissioners had been published, 
delivered a charge to the grand jury, whicli was pub- 
lished by their order; and wliich deserves to be en- 
graven upon the hearts of all who hate executive 

"As a new commission of the peace, for this county, 
is, I suppose, now to l)c published, in which my name, 
and some of my brethren, are, I presume, left out; I 
desire your patience and attention a few moments, while 
I give the last charge to the grand jury, which I shall 
ever do, from this place, and take leave of my bretln-en, 
the justices, and my friends, the good people of tlie 
county, as a magistrate. 

"I have, for upwards of twenty years, borne a com- 
mission of the peace, in Chester and Lancaster counties, 
under the respective Governors of this province, and have 
lived in familiar friendship and good understanding with 
all of them, until of late. 

"About twelve years ago, under the mild and peace- 
able administration of Governor Gordon, I was one of 
those who were instrumental in procuring this part of 
the province to be erected into a separate county, and 


have contributed, according to my small ability, to have 
rule and order established and preserved among us. I 
have always attended the courts of judicature; except 
when want of health, or the service of my country, in 
some other station, require my absence ; and it has been 
my lot repeatedly to give the charge to the gentlemen of 
the grand juries from this place. 

"I am now an old man; too old, if both opportunity 
and inclination should invite (which I am assured never 
will) ever to take the burden upon me again; and, there- 
fore, am willing to make you a few observations on power 
and Government, and the present posture of affairs here. 

" I shall pass over the original of the English constitu- 
tion; the several steps and gradations, by which it has 
rose to the purity and perfection, it is at this day; the 
many attempts, which have been made to invade it, and 
the blood and treason, which have been spent, in defence 
of that constitution, and those liberties, which render the 
English nation so famous throughout the world. 

"And, first, I observe to you. Gentlemen of the Grand 
Jury, that the privilege of trials, by juries is counted 
older than the English Government, and was not un- 
known to the ancient Britons: juries are looked upon 
as essential felicity to English subjects; and are put m 
the first rank among English liberties; the reason given 
is this; because no man's life shall be touched, for any 
crime (out of parliament) unless he bethought guilty by 
two several juries ; and these juries, being substantial 
men, taken, from time to time, out of the neighborhood 
of the person accused, cannot be supposed to be biased; 
whereas, it is observable, that judges are made by pre- 
rogatives and many have been preferred by corrupt min- 
isters of state; and may be so again; and such ad- 



vanced as will serve a present turn, rather than those of 
more integrity and skill, in the laws. 

''Juries are of two kinds, and are commonly distin- 
guished by Grand and Peilf Juries; the former, which 
you are, have larger power than the other, as very 
plainly appears by the qualification, which you have 
taken. Your power extends to all offences within the 
comity; and your office is principally concerned in two 
things, prese7iime7ifs and indictments ; the difference of 
which is this, the first is, where you, of your own 
knowledge, or inquiry, take notice of some offence, 
crime, or nuisance, to the injury of the public, which you 
think ought to be punished, or removed, and give notice 
to the court, in writing, briefly, of the nature of the 
thing, and the person's name and place: this is 
called a ^j^r-sf^/ywe;?/, and differs from an indict- 
vient in these two respects : first, in that it is not drawn 
up in form; whereas inditiraents are generally drawn 
up and presented to you, by the Attorney General and 
the witnesses qualified to attend you; and when you 
have examined them you either indorse, that it is a true 
bill; or, tha,t it does not appear to you, sufficient grounds 
for the accusation, that the person's life, estate, or repu- 
tation, should be brought in question ; all which is under- 
stood, by indorsing the word ignoramus. From hence, 
it appears, that you are appointed, as well to be guar- 
dians of the lives, liberties, estates, and even reputations 
of the innocent, as to be a means of bringing offenders 
to justice. And, as you are endued with a sufficient 
portion of understanding to know what offences are 
represenlable by you, I shall not enumerate them; 
}uiving already said, they arc generally under your 
notice ; but sluill rather recommend to you, and your 
successors, a steady care, both for the secm'ity of tlni 


innocent, (for by you malicious prosecutions may be 
cropped in bud) and bringing offenders to the justice of 
the law ; that by their public shame and suffering, they 
and others may be deterred from the like offences, for the 

"The office of a civil magistrate, or justice of the peace, 
is an office of high trust, and ought to be executed with 
great care, circumspection, and good conscience. Magis- 
trates may be looked upon as ministers under God. 
invested with some branches of power, for the public 
benefit, viz: To be a terror and scourge to evil doers^ 
and to praise them who do well ; and while they lead 
lives exemplary of this, and in their public actions, have 
this principally in view, distributmg justice impartially, 
with clean hands and pure hearts, their post is truly hon- 
orable, and they are highly worthy of regard. But if 
they unhappily deviate from this rule, if they are found in 
the practice of those crimes, which they ought to punish 
and suppress, if they pervert justice for bribes, and op- 
press the poor and innocent, they therefore render them- 
selves highly imworthy of an office of so great a trust. 

" I was always a friend to power, well knowing that 
good and wholesome laws, duly executed, are so far from 
being a restraint upon true liberty, that they are only as 
regulating springs to the passions, and productive of it; 
and our worthy founder, and first proprietor tells us, 
" That he con:posed his frame of Government with a 
view to support poiver in reverence with the people, and 
to secure the people from the abuse of power :" and these 
two are generally observed to attend each other, as causes 
and effects. And a noted professor of the law, in this 
province, some years ago, when he espoused the cause of 
liberty, and loaded with age and infirmities, took a long 
journey in defence of it, has these words on power: "It 


may justly be compared to a great river, which, while 
kept witliin due bounds, is both beautiful and useful; but 
when it overflows its banks, it is then too impetuous to 
be stemmed! it bears down all before it, and brings 
destruction and desolation where it comes," 

" If, then, these are the ill effects of lawless power, eveiy 
wise man ought to be on his guard, to prevent them, by 
keeping up the banks of liberty, and common right, the 
only bulwark against it, 

"It was in defence and support of this great bulwark, 
against the attempts of power, under a pretence of serving 
his majesty, l)ut done in such a manner as I apprehend, 
cannot be supposed was ever intended, or expected, by 
our most gracious sovereign ; whose distinguishing char- 
acter is, to protect and not to oppress; and whatever 
burden the necessity of the times requires to be laid on 
the subjects under his immediate and just administra- 
tion, is laid equally and impartially; I say, it was to the 
opposition given by the House of Representatives, to the 
manner in which these attempts were made, and the just 
concern and dislike shewed thereto, that we may impute 
the late changes made in the connnissions of the peace 
throughout the jirovince, whatever other pretences they 
may be glossed with, 

" For this cause, my friends and countrymen, for the 
cause of English liberty^ for standing in the civil defence 
of right and property, are we dismissed; and I rejoice, 
and am heartily glad, that I have been one of those, 
who are thought worthy of displeasure. 

"And now, to conclude, I take my leave, in the words 
of a Judge of Israel. "Here I am, witness against me; 
wliom have I defrauded; whom have I oppressed; or, of 
whose hands have I received any bribe, to blind my 
eyes therewith? And I will restore it." 


"May the Prince of Peace, who is the King of Kings, 
protect the people of this province from domestic foes 
and foreign enemies, is my hearty desire ; and so I bid 
you all farewell." 

"Respecting this same John Wright, it may be 
further observed, in this place, that he died about the 
year 1751, in Lancaster county, where he had lived, in 
the eighty-fourth of his age. 

It is recorded of him, "That he was born in the year 
1667, in Lancashire, in England, of religious and repu- 
table parents ; who were among the early professors of 
the doctrine held by people called Quakers, and lived 
and died highly esteemed members of that community. 
He was educated with a view to the practice of physic ; 
but he declined pursuing it, and entered into trade, till 
the year 1714; when he removed with his family into 
Pennsylvania, well recommended by certificates, from 
his friends, the Quakers, in that part of England, both 
as to his moral character, and as a preacher, in the society ; 
.with whom they had, for many years, lived in strict 

"Soon on his settlement in the province, his principles 
and conduct recommended him to the notice of the 
public : he was a representative to the General Assembly, 
for Chester county, and many years one for Lancaster 
county. In his station as a Judge, for the last county, 
he was noted for prompt, honest principles, and candor, 
and an inflexible integrity ; one instance of which ap- 
pears in the cause and manner of his dismission from that 
office, in 1741, as above mentioned. 

"He continued to attend the Assemblies, till broken 
health, and an advanced age, rendered such attendance 
diflicult, and sometimes impracticable ; although the 
people among whom he lived, from a long experience of 



liis sei-vices, and regard to him, would not be prevailed 
on by himself, or his family, to name another in his stead, 
for that station ; but continued to return his name till he 

" Through every station in life, his good will to man- 
kind, his love of peace and good order, and his en- 
deavors to give them a permanent footing in his neigh- 
hood, and in the county in general, were known to be 
liis delight and study : his sense of religion, and the 
testimony he bore to it, were free from intemperate zeal^ 
yet earnest, and attended with life and spirit, influenced 
by the love of God, and benevolence to his whole crea- 
tion ; such he continued, with his understanding clear, 
his mind calm, cheerful and resigned, to the advanced 
period of old tige, when he expired without a groan/'* 

This year, 1741, a Mr. Serjeant, a gentlemen of New 
England, took a journey to the Shawanese, and some 
other tribes on the Susquehanna, and he may, it is proba- 
ble, have visited the Indians in this county, and offered 
to instruct them in the christian religion ; but they would 
have none of his instruction ; they rejected his offer 
with disdain. The poor fellows had experienced, to 
their soijow, too many wrongs at the hands of those 
who should have treated them kindly. "They re- 
proached Christianity, judging it, as they did by the lives 
of those \\'\\o professed lo he chrislians. They told him 
the traders would lie, cheat, and debauch their daughters 
Siiid sisters, and even their wives, if their husbands were 
not at hoiue. Tlioy said further, that the Senecas had 
given them their country, but charged them, never to 
receive Christianity from the E)ig/ish.'''\ 

1742. — A n.spectablc number oi' the Omisli, of Lan- 
caster couuiy, petitioned the General Assembly that a 

*ProuJ. fi'ivud, 11. 312. 


Special law of naturalization for their benefit, might be 
passed. Tliey stated, " They had emigrated from ^lurope 
by an invitation from, the proprietaries ; that they had 
been brought up and were attached to the Omisli doctrine, 
and were conscienciously scrupulous against taking 
oaths — they therefore cannot be naturalized agreeably to 
the existing law." A law was passed iu conformity to 
thfcir request.* 

The year 1742, is also remarkable in the annals of 
this county, for the visits of Louis Nicholas Zinzendorf, 
usually called Count Zinzendorf. This remarkable man 
arrived in America in 1741, and in 1742, visited Lan- 
caster County and city. On his arrival, permission was 
granted him to preach in the court house. He made 
converts wherever he went; among his first fruits was 
the convei^sion of George Kline to his views, who after- 
wards, as may be seen from the sequel, aided in the pro- 
motion of a INIoravian church in this county.t His 

'^Haz. Reg. 

Note. — Touching oaths, they maintain the following as 
set forth in their own words: Was das Eid Schwoeren angehet, 
davon glauben und bekennen wir: Das der Herr Christus das- 
selbe gleichfals den seinen abgerathen und verboten habe: 
naemlich, das sie lieinesweges soUen schwoeren, sondern das 
ja, ja, und nein, nein sollte seyn. — Glauhens BeJcenntniss, 
Art. 15. 

The Ornish and Mennonites hold the same doctrities. They 
maintain that Christ in Alalt. v. 34-37, totally and explicitly 
prohibited his followers the use of oaths, and has given them 
permission to ratify their cause with nothing more than a yca^ 
yea or a nay, nay. His disciples, they maintain ought to be 
children of truth. — Illustratiriir Mirror, by John Jlerr, p. 127-133 
Lane. Ed. 1634. 

fSee chapter V. 


engrossing aim was to christianize the- Indians. With- 
this view he visited a distant part of Lancaster county — 
the Wyoming country — inhabited by the Shawanese 
Indians. Zinzcndorf, and his httle company, pitched 
their tents on the banks of the Susquehanna, a Uttle 
below the town. This caused no small degree of alarm 
among the Indians; "a council of the chiefs was assem- 
bled, the declared purpose of Zinzcndorf was deliber- 
ately considered. To these unlettered children of the 
wilderness it appeared altogether improbable that a 
stranger should brave the dangers of a boisterous ocean, 
three thousand miles broad, for the sole purpose of in- 
structing them in the means of obtaining happiness after 
deaths and that too without requiring any compensation 
for his trouble and expense ; and as they had observed 
the anxiety of the white people to purchase lands of the 
Indians, they naturally concluded that the real object of 
Zinzcndorf was either to procure them the lands at 
Wyoming for his own use, to search for hidden treasures, 
or to examine the country with a view to future con- 
quest. It was accordingly resolved to assassinate him, and 
to do it privately, lest the knowledge of the transaction 

Note. — Zinzendorf, the patron of the sect of the Moravians, 
was born at Dresden, May, 1700. He studied at Hale and 
Utrecht. About the year 1722, he began to preach and write to 
instruct his fellow men. He travelled extensively in Europe. 
In 1737 he visited London ; 1741 he came to America, and 
preached in various parts in Pennsylvania. He with his daugh- 
ter, Benigna, and several brethren and sisters, visited various 
tribesof Indians. At Sheconneco he established the lirst Indian 
Moravian Congregation in America. In 1743 he returned to 
Europe. He died at Ilerrnhut in 17(50, and his coffin was car- 
ried to tlic grave by thirty-two preachers and missionaries, 
whom he had reared and some of whom liad toiled in Holland, 
England. Ireland, North America, and Greenland. \Nhal mon- 
arch uas ever honored Inj a funeral like this .' — Allen, 


should produce war with the EngUsh who were setthng 
the country below the mountains. 

"Zinzendorf was alone in his tent, seated upon a bun- 
dle of dry weeds, which composed his bed, and engaged 
in writing, when the assassins approached to execute their 
bloody mission. It was night, and the cool air of Sep- 
tember had rendered a small fire necessary to his comfort 
and convenience. A curtain formed of a blanket and 
hung upon pins was the only guard to the entrance of 
his tent. The heat of his small fire had roused a large 
rattlesnake which lay in the weeds not far from it ; and 
the reptile, to enjoy it more effectually, crawled slowly 
into the tent and passed over one of his legs undis- 
covered. Without, all was still and quiet, except the 
gentle murmur of the river at the rapids, a mile below. 
At this moment, the Indians softly approached the door 
of his tent, and slightly removed the curtain, contem- 
plated the venerable man too deeply engaged in the 
subject of his thoughts to notice either their approach, 
or the snake which lay extended before him. At a sight 
like this, even the heart of the savage shrunk from the 
idea of committing so horrid an act, and quitting the 
spot, they hastily returned to the town and informed 
their companions that the Great Spirit protected the 
white man, for they had found him with no door but a 
blanket, and had seen a large rattlesnake crawl over his 
legs without attempting to injure him. This circum- 
stance, together with the arrival soon afterwards of 
Conrad Weiser, procured Zinzendorf the friendship and 
confidence of the Indians."* After spending twenty 
days at Wyoming, he returned to Belhlehem. 

The Indians had been so repeatedly duped that their 
suspicions were nearly as often excited as those of the 

♦Chapman's His. of Wyoming. 


Avhites against their own brethren ; however, with this 
difference, that in both cases under consideration there 
was no cause at all for these suspicions. The inoffensive 
Count, as well as the inoffensive Mennonite and Ger- 
mans, had the singular fortune to be noticed "i^i'M screen 

When excitements run high, arising from prejudice, 
the innocent themselves feel as thougli it were a duty 
they owe their fellow men, to avoid every appearance 
that might engender unfounded suspicions. This the 
Mcnnonites of Lancaster county did on more than one 
occasion. "In 1741, a second attempt was made to 
prejudice the Assembly against the Germans, but in the 
message of the Assembly to Governor Thomas, the 
House expressed their views as follows: Who they are 
that look with jealous eyes at the Germans, the Go- 
vernor has not been pleased to inform us, nor do we 
know. Nothing of the kind can be justly attributed to 
us, or any preceding Assembly, to our knowledge. — 
The Legislature of this province has generally, on appli- 
cation made to them, admitted the Germans to partake 
of the privileges enjoyed by the King's natural subjects; 
and as Ave look upon them to be a laborious, industrious 
people, we ?hall cheerfully perform what can be expected 
from us for their benefit, and for those who may here- 
after arrive." 

To allay unfounded prejudices, the Mcnnonites gave 
a decided proof thereof in 1742, in convoking a churcli 
council, consisting of elders, preachers and the bishop^ 
and meeting at the house of Martin J\I(\i/lin, in Lam- 
peter townsliij). 

Martin Mcylin, grandfafher of Martin JMeylin, Jacoh 
Meylin, John Meylin, and Abraliam Meylin, all at 
present residing in West Lampeter township, built what 


Was then caWed a palace, of sandstone. It was, in 1742, 
one of the most stately mansions in the country ; and as 
the Mennonites were a plain people, and Martin Meylin, 
an active member, the house was not only considered too 
palace-like, but the appearance of it might, as they rea- 
soned, strengthen their enemies in prejudicing the gov- 
ernment against them — they had been virtually charged 
with disloyalty — "determined not to obey the lawful 
authority of government — that they were disposed to 
organize a government of their own." 

The bishop, Hans Tschantz, with his elders and 
assistance, having repaired to the humble log cottage 
hard by the '-'stately mansion," and organized the 
meeting, himself presiding over the deliberations of the 
assembled. Martin was first questioned, upon conscience, 
to openly declare what his intentions were in erecting so 
large, so gorgeous a dwelhng — remmding him of the 
rumor some twelve or thirteen years ago ; and lately, of 
the prejudices excited against the Germans. He stated, 
he consulted only his comfort, and that he had no 
sinister views. Next he was reminded that, in their 
view, the house was rather too showy for a Memionite. 
The question was, v/hether he deserved severe censure, 
if not suspension from church privileges, for this over- 
sight. After some concessions, and mutual forbearance, 
by the parties, it was resolved that Martin be kindly 
reprimanded ; to which he submitted — thus the matter 
ended, and all parted as brethren. 

The Germans were at one time viewed in " double 
vision;^' both as objects of suspicion, and subjects of 
easy imposition. Even at this day, many of us scarcely 
understand the "spicy and sweet words" " of the dear 
people" — " the bone and sinew of the country," &c. 
uttered by politicians in their scrambles for seats of 


honor, and the fat things of office. The " scenes gont 
ore?*," and now playing, rcmmd us of the recorded 

Scrambhng for ollicc among the Enghsh and Irish in 
this county is nothing new ; as early as 1732 there was 
a violent contest between Galbraith and Wright. In 
1743 the Irish strove for "ascendancy at the polls." An 
election was held this year to supply the vacancy occa- 
sioned by the death of Thomas Linsey. The Irish com- 
pelled the sheriff to receive such tickets as they approved, 
and make a return accordingly. The following resolu- 
tion was passed in Assembly : Resolved, That the sheriff 
having assumed upon himself the power of being sole 
judge at the late election, exclusive of the inspectors 
chosen by the framers of said county of Lancaster, is 
illegal, unwarrantable and an infringement of the 
the liberties of the people of the province ; that it gave 
just cause for discontent to t!ie inhabitants of said 
county; that if any disturbances followed thereupon, it 
is justly imputed to his own misconduct. Resolved 
further, That the sheriff of Lancaster county be 
admonished by the speaker. The sheriff attended, and 
being admonished, promised he would take care and keep 
the law in future. He also altered the return, as 
Samuel Blunston was entitled to take his seat.* 

Tlie Germans began, about this time,t to look to their 
rights as well as their interests; they had determined 
upon maintaining these with firmness. Disturbances be- 
tween the Irish and Germans, were common. The pro- 
proprietors, to prevent these, "on the organization of 
York and Cumberland, gave orders to their agents to sell 

•Votes of Assembly. 
fGordon's Pa. p. 241, 242. 


no lands in York and Lancaster counties to the Irish ; 
and also to make advantageous overtures to the Irish 
settlers on Paxton and Swatara, and Donegal townships, 
to induce them to remove to Cumberland county, which 
offer being liberal, was accepted by many."* 

While warm feelings were engendered among the 
Germans and Irish against each other, the savage Indian 
was, in a distant part of the county, imbruing his hands 
in the blood of the whites. Murhancellin, an Indian 
chief, of the Delaware tribe, murdered John Armstrong 
and his two servants on Juniata. He was soon appre- 
hended by Captain Jack's party, conveyed to Lancaster 
jail, where after several months, imprisonment he was 
removed to Philadelphia jail, '-'lest he should escape, or 
his trial and execution should produce an unfavorable 
impression on his countrymen about to assemble, for a 
conference with the whites, at Lancaster." Tiie gov- 
ernor also required that the property of the deceased 
should be returned to his family; and he invited a dep- 
utation to attend the trial of the Indian, and his execu- 
tion, should he be found guilty.t 

The proposed conference, held in Lancaster 1745, was 
attended by Gov. Tiiomas himself, in person, and by 
agents from Virginia and Maryland, and from the 
Iroquois tribes. This treaty or conference Avas con- 
ducted with much parade and formality, after the Indian 
manner. "All matters of dispute between the parties 
were satisfactorily settled. The Indians engaged to 
prevent the French, and the Indians in their alliance, 
from marching through their country, to attack the 

*The Works, Moores, Galbraiths, Bells, Whitehills, Silvers, 
Semples, Sterrits, Woods, early settlers" In the ea^t end ol 
Cumberland county, were from Donegal township. 

fGordon's Pa. 24G, 247. 




English settlements; and that they would give the 
earliest information they received of the enemy's designs j 
and, in consideration of four hundred pounds, they 
recognized the title of the king to the colony of Virginia, 
as it was then, or should be, afterwards bounded. The 
favor of the Indians was not obtained gratuitously. 
Pemisylvania presented them with three hundred povmds 
currency ; Maryland one hundred pounds ; and Virginia 
two hundred pounds, with the addition of a promise to 
recommend the Six Nations to the consideration of his 

But this conference did not remove causes of future 
disquiet. These lay in the encroachments of the settlers, 
and in the conduct of the traders ; who, in defiance of 
the law, carried spirituous liquors to the Indian wigwams ; 
and, taking advantage of the inordinate passion of the 
savage for this poison, cheated them of their skins, and 
their wampum, and debauched their wives. " Is it not 
to be wondered at then, said Governor Thomas, if when 
the Indians recover from their drunkcn-fit,they should take 
severe revenge. Or would it have been a matter of 
surprise, had they charged on whites, in the aggregate, 
the vices of individuals, and sought vengeance on the 
natives whose citizens daily assumed their soil, and 
destroyed the best of their people." 

The Indians about the town of Lancaster were also 
committing depredations in a small way; some of them 
found their cabins wanted roofs, and to secure the 
shingles, they barked Jobn Musser's Walnut trees, 
which stood in town, to cover their cabins with. Musscr 
made complaint to the Governor, touching the barking 
of his trees, demanding six pounds damage ; the Assem- 
bly gave him three pounds.* 

'Votes of Assembly, 17M. 


' The year 1745, is remarkable in the history of the 
Lutheran church, in the city of Lancaster, on account of 
a great ferment excited among the Lutherans. The 
Rev. Neyherg, pastor of the Lutheran church, united a 
portion of his congregation with the Moravians ; this 
caused an excitement among the Lutherans; they in- 
formed the Governor they were compelled to hear a doc- 
trine which they did not approve, or they must resign 
their church. The Governor kindly informed them that 
he could not interfere, that the law protected all alike, 
and their rights were thus secure, and it was to the law 
they should look for protection.* In 1746, after Rev. 
Henry Mclchior Muhlenberg, had visited the congrega- 
tion to reconcile the parties, Neyherg v/ithdrew, and 
had a Moravian church built. In 1748, Rev. Handschuh, 
took charge of the Lutheran congregation.! 

*Haz. Reg, 

f Nachricht der Ev. Gem. in America, 67. 

Notes. — Lindley Murray, the English Grammarian, was 
born in 1745, near Swatara, Lancaster county. He died in 
England, 1S2G. 

October 1741, by the special order and direction of the pro- 
prietaries, Thomas Coolcson, Deputy Surveyor of Lancaster 
county, laid out the town of York. 

John Eby's mill, Elias Myer's mill, and George Eby's mill — 
all erected before 1739. The winter of 1740, dreadfully severe 
— the snow in general more than three feet deep — the back 
inhabitants suffered much from want of bread — many of the 
families of the new settlers had little else to subsist upon but 
the carcases of deer they found dead or dying in the swamps or 
run about their houses. The Indians found a great scarcity of 
deer and turkeys. 

Tradition speaks of a great flood in the spring of 1740 — 
January 6th and 7th 1741, the coldest days for many years. 
William Smith's mill on Beaver creek had been erected prior 


to 1741, In 1741 Mr John Ross, keeper of the ferry at Blue 
Rock, on the Susquehanna, prayed the court for a road from 
his ferry to the town of Lancaster. 

The neighborhood of Rcinholdsville was settled between the 
years of 1735 — 40 by Germans, by Hans Beclinan, Hans Zim- 
merman, Peter Shoemaker, large landholders, and others. 

Rapho township. — May 1741, the inhabitants of the north cast 
part of Donegal township, petitioned for the erection of a 
new township to be called Rapho. 

In 1742, a party of Indians, twenty-one Onondagoes, and 
seven Oncidas, on their way to Virginia, in an excursion 
against the Tallapoosas there, left their canoes at Harris's 
landing — came to Lancaster county, procured a pass from a 
magistrate — travelled peaceably through the province, obtain- 
ing supplies of provisions from the inhabitants. They were 
directed to obtain a renewal of their peiss from the authorities 
of Virginia, after they should cross the Potomac; but this they 
found impossible, being unable to make themselves under- 
stood — were foiled in the object of their excursion. — Gokdon. 

In 1745, the Catholics procured a lot, in the city ot Lancas- 
ter, from Hamilton's estate, on which a few years afterwards, a 
small log church was erected, in 1760 this was burnt down. — 
In 1762, the present Catholic church was founded. 

May 1, 1742, Lancaster was incorporated as a borough by 
George Thomas, l)y charter. 

A German Reformed congregation was organized, near 
Adamstown, called "Modecrick Church," in 1743. 

October 3, 1744, the Episcopalians held a meeting at Lan- 
caster, for the organization of a parish — St. James' church. — 
The Rev. Richard Locke, an itinerant missionary, was the 
first ofliciating minister. Measures were taken, April 15, 1745, 
for the erection of a small stone church, which however was 
not completed till 1753. 

In 1754, the Moravians held a provincial council in Lan- 
caster, In 1746, they built a church and school house — the 
former stood on the site of the present church. Their first 
pastor at Lancaster was Rev. L. T. Neyberg. 

September 22, 1746, Rev. Michael Schlatter, V. D. M.of St. 
Gall, Switzerland, in company with Rev. Weiss, of Philadel- 


phia, visited Rev. John B. Rieger, V. D. M. Pastor Loci, 

Members of Assembly from Lancaster county, for 1738, were 
James Hamilton, John Wright, Andrew Galbraith, Samuel 
Smith ; in 1739, John Wright, Thomas Evving, Thomas Lind- 
ley, Thomas Edwards; in 1740, Anthony Shaw, and the same 
as before, except Thomas Edwards ; in 1741 and 1742, Samuel 
Blunston,and the same as before, except Thomas Edwards. 


York county organized — Election frauds — Sabbath school commenced at 
Ephrata — David Ramsay born ; Memoir of — Bart township organized — 
House of Employment provided — General Miller — General Clark — 
Abundant crops — Distilleries erected — Partial famine — Indian alarms, 
and horrid atrocities — French neutrals imported — Their condition unen- 
viable — An Act to disperse them — Cooper, Webb and Le Fevre ap- 
pointed to execute the several provisions of the Act — Another act passed 
relative to the French neutrals — Notes of variety. 

As the settlements extended westward of the Susque- 
hanna, and the population augmented, the difficulty, as 
is the case in newly settled countries, increased among 
the orderly portion to secure themselves against thefts 
and abuses, frequently committed amongst them by idle 
and dissolute persons, who resorted to the remote parts 
of the province, and by reason of the great distance 
from the court or the prison, frequently found means of 
escape. These facts were urged by the inhabitants west 
of the Susquehanna, as with one voice, for consideration, 
upon the Legislature. The Governor with the Assem- 
bly, on the 19th of August, 1749, made a division of 
Lancaster county, and the part west of the Susquehamia 
was called York. 



Tlie same year York was separated from Lancaster, 
" James Webb complained to the General Assembly of 
the undue election and return of a member from Lan- 
caster county, and praying redress. It was given in evi- 
dence before the Assembjy,, that the election had been 
conducted in a violent and unbecoming manner; that 
votes had been received by persons unauthorized to re- 
ceive the same, and particularly two by Christian Herr, 
one of the inspectors ; that many persons voted as 
often as four, five, six, and even ten times; that one of the 
candidates, who was elected, encouraged them, and 
although there had not been one thousand persons upon 
tire ground, yet two thousand three hundred votes had 
been received. 

The House resolved. That the election be confirmed, 
and the officc7^s be admonished and censured by the 
speaker: they were severely censured." 

Sabbath school instruction, which is so common in the 
world, was first introduced in this county, at Ephrata. — 
Ludwick Hacker, whom we mentioned before, was a 
man devoted to the cause of juvenile instruction. "He 
came to Ephrata in 1739, and shortly on his arrival, was 
appointed the teacher of the common school. After 
being a short time employed in this responsible station, 
lie likewise opened a school in the afternoon of the sab- 
bath ; aided by some of his brethren, imparted instruc- 
tion to the poorer class of children, who were kept from 
regular school by employments in which their necessities 
obliged them to be engaged during the week, as well as to 
give religious instruction to those of better circumstances. 

It is not exactly known in wiiat year the Sabbath 
sciiool was commenced. " It appears from the records of 
the minutes of the society, that materials for a Sabbath 
school room were furnished in the year 1749. This 


school flourished many 3^ars, and was attended with 
some remarkable eonsequences. It produced an anxious 
inquiry among the juvenile class, who attended the 
school, which increased and grew into what is now 
termed a revival of religion. The scholars of the Sab- 
bath school met together every day before and after 
common school hours, to pray and exhort one another, 
under the superintendance of one of the brethren." 

The year 1749, is remarkable in the annals of Lan- 
caster county, for the birth of David Ramsay, the great 
American Historian. He was born in Drumore town- 
ship, the 2d of April, 1749. He was the youngest son 
of James Ramsay,* a respectable farmer, who had emi- 
grated from Ireland at an early age, and by the cultiva- 
tion of his farm, with his own hands, provided the means 
of subsistence and education for a numerous family. — 
He was a man of intelligence and piety, and early sowed 
seeds of Imowledge and religion in the minds of his 
children. He lived to reap the fruits of his labors, and 
to see his offspring grow up around him, ornaments of 
society, and props to him in the evening of his eventful 

David Ramsay was educated at Princeton college, and 
took the degree of bachelor of arts at the age of 1 6. — 
After devoting some time to the general cultivation of 
his mind, he began the study of physic, at Philadelphia, 
and attended the lectures at the college of Pennsylvania. 
He commenced the active duties of his profession in 
Maryland, where he continued one year, and then went 
to Charleston, South Carolina, with a letter of very high 
recommendation from Dr. Rush. He soon acquired 

*David's mother was a Miss Montgomery. Many of his 
relatives still reside in this county; among whom are the 
Pattersons, Clcndeiiins, and others, of Little Britain. 


celebrity in his profession ; but his diversified talents and 
active mind soon took a wider range. From the com- 
mencement of tlie revolution, he was an ardent patriot,, 
and exerted all liis powers to promote the independence 
of his country. From the declaration of independence 
to the termination of the war, he was a member of tlie 
privy council, and with two others of that body was 
among the citizens of Charleston who, in 1780, were 
banished by the British to St. Augustine. On an 
exchange of prisoners, after an absence of eleven months, 
he was sent back to the United States. In 17S2 he was 
elected a member to Congress; in 176*, Mr. Hancock 
being unable to attend. Dr. Ramsay was elected president 
pro tempore, and for one year discharged the duties of 
that station with abiUty, industry, and impartiality. In 
1786 he returned to Charleston, and resumed the duties 
of his profession, and his historical labors, in which he 
continued to be occupied during the remainder of life. 
" The predominant trait in the character of Ramsay," 
says his biographer, " was philanthrophy." The experi- 
ence of his philanthropy and beneficence in early life 
in the attentions received from him at Charleston, and in 
letters of introduction, which he spontaneously offered,, 
to the highly respectable family of Barnwell and to others 
in Beaufort, and in a very obliging historical correspon- 
dence of later years, has left an indelible impression on 
the mind of the present writer, who must be indulged in 
the concurrent testimony. He was also a man of exem- 
plary piety. He was a member of the independent or 
Congregational church in Charleston^ and adorned his 
christian profession. The last scene of his life furnished 
bright evidence of his faith and piety, of his ^love and 
charity, and of his immortal ho])c, " through the blood 
of the Redeemer." 


He was assassinated in the street, a few paces from his 
own dwelUng, in the open day, hy a maniac, who shot 
him with a pistol loaded with three balls. One of his 
wounds proved mortal the second day. " Death had for 
him no terrors." The publications of Dr. Ramsay, 
which have met with a very favorable reception in 
Europe as well as in America, are, " The History of the 
Revolution, in S. Car. pub. 1784— His. Am. Rev. pub. 
1790— Life of Washington, 1801— The History of S. 
Car. — being the extension of an interesting work, pub- 
lished in 1795, entitled "A Sketch of the Soil, Climate, 
Weather, Diseases, of S. C— Memoirs of the Life of 
Martha Laurens Ramsay, 1810. Among his manu- 
scripts were, "A History of the U. S. from the first set- 
tlement to English Colonies," and a series of historical 
volumes to be entitled " Universal History Americanised, 
or, An Plistorical View of the World, from the earliest 
records to the nineteenth century, with a particular 
reference to the state of society, literature, religion, and 
form of government in the U. S. of America." Tiiis 
Universal History, has been published in 12 volumes, 
Phiia. 1818.* 

The citizens of Sadsbury having petitioned for a divi- 
sion of the township, the court, at the November Session 
of 1743, appointed Calvin Cooper, George Leonard, sen. 
James Wilson, Samuel Ramsay, Robert Wilson and 
James Miller, to divide the same — "they met the 20th 
of March, and considered the most proper place. The 
line is to begin in a road called Aaron Musgrove's road, 
near the coppermines, at Strasburg township line, where 
it divides from Sadsbury, and down the several courses 
thereof to the east side of said road to a new road 
branching therefrom, leading to John Tayloi-'s mill, 

*Thatchers Med. Diet. Vol. I. Art. Ramsay. 

298 HISTORY or 

commonly known by the name of Buckley^s mill, on the 
east side of said road, the several courses thereof, to a 
road branching therefrom commonly known by the name 
of Rustan's road, and on the east side thereof, by the 
line that divides Colerain and Sadsbmy ; all which we 
allow and conclude to be the division. The eastern part 
thereof retaining the name Sadsbury, and the western 
part, to be called BartP 

The condition of many of the inhabitants of the 
county was, in 1750 and 1751, such as to induce the 
people of the county to call meetings to devise measures 
to obviate the sufferings of the destitute. " In pursuance 
of a resolution passed at a large and respectable 
meeting of the freemen of Lancaster county, in the 
town of Lancaster, it was stated that a number, of the 
settlers had severely suffered, both from the hardships of 
a new settlement and the hostilities of the Indians — and 

Note. — Gen.H. Miller was born near Lancaster city Feb. 13, 
1741. Took a distinguished part in the Revolution. He was 
in all the important engagements on Long Island, York Island, 
White Plains, Trenton, Princeton, Head of Elk, Brandywine, 
Germantown, Monmouth ; at this latter place two horses 
were successively shot under him. 

In a letter of General Washington's to Congress, dated 
"Trenton Falls, Dec. 12, 1770," it is said, "Captain Miller, of 
Colonel Hand's regiment, also informs me, that a body of the 
enemy were inarching to Burlington, yesterday morning. — 
He had been sent over with a strong scouting party, and at 
day break fell in with their advanced guards, consisting of 
about four hundred Hessian troops, who fired upon him before 
they were discovered, but without any loss, and obliged him 
to retreat with his party, and to take the boat." 

lie was a member of the Legislature — Quarter master in tho- 
Whiskey Expedition — Brigadier General of the Militia of the 
United States, during the late war, at Baltimore. He held 
other civil otliccs — died at Carlisle, Aprils, 1824. 


therefore resolved, That a house of employment be pro- 
vided for the industrious, in indigent circumstances. — 
The building was accordingly erected by the benovo- 
ient spirit which disposed all sects and all countries to 
contribute their aid for so excellent a purpose. 

A farm was procured, and farming implements pro- 
vided ; also manufacturing articles for the encouragement 
of honest but indigent industry. Lancaster became 
soon remarkable for the excellence of its stockings, made 
in that establishment." 

■ The year 1752 is remarkable in the annals of Lan- 
caster county for the abundance of all cereal products, 
especially wheat. Since the settling of the county, the 
crops had not yielded so bountifully as they did in 1751 
and 1752. The mercies, received at the hands of a 
munificent Giver, were not duly appreciated, and thank- 
fully enjoyed. They induced to lead men into excess. — 
Many in their levity and wantoness, destroyed this rich 
store of provision, fattened their hogs on wheat, " which 
they consumed upon their lusts." Others in various 
parts of the county, erected distilleries, and thus consumed 
the wheat, by converting it into a poison, and thereby 
brought a great evil upon community.* 

*Die jahre 1751 und 1752, sind so fruchtbar an Weitzen und 
andern Fruechten gcvvesen, dasz dieMenschenin ihrer Leicht- 
sinnigkeit aus Muthwillcn haben gesucht, diesen Vorrath zu 
verschwenden : dann sie haben mit dem edlen Weitzen, von 
welchem viele Arme haetten leben koennen, die Schweine 
gemaestet, welclie sic liernach in ihrer Wohllust verzchret 
haben. Daneben hat man allenthalben Brenn-Kessel ange- 
schaft, und aus diesem Segcn starke Getraenke gebrannt, 
welches grosse Unordnung hat verursachet.— -C/iron. Epiirat. 

Note. — Gen. John Clark, a native of this county, was born 
in 1751 — at twenty-five he entered the public services of his 


These years of plenty were followed by years of 
scarcity. The summers of '53, '54, and '55^ were 
remarkable for continued drought, and consequent 
want of food for man, and provender for beast ; both 
lacked the wonted abundance — both were, in some in- 
stances, reduced to the point of starvation. There was 
a public calamity in the land, and not unlike the famine 
in the days of David, (2 Sam. 31) ; the indigent suffered 
greatly. In addition to their pressing wants, Indian hos- 
tilities having commenced, the fear of being murdered by 
the Indians, cast a deep gloom over the face of the 
country. They felt it as a merited rebuke of heaven for 
their excesses. "For about the 20th of October, 1755, 
the news was received at Lancaster, that the French and 

country. Congress appointed him, February 0, 1778, as one 
of the auditors for the army under General Washington. He 
was also aid-de-camp to Gen. Green. The following letter from 
Washington, to Congress, speaks of Clark's character : 

Head Quarters, Valley Forge, Jan. 2, 1778. 

I take the liberty of introducing Gen. John Clark, the bearer 
of this, to your notice. He entered the service at the com- 
mencement of the war, and has for some time past acted as 
aid-de-camp to Major General Green. He is active, sensible, 
and enterprising, and has rendered me great services since the 
enemy l;as been in Pennsylvania, by procuring me constant, 
and certain intelligence of the motives and intentions of the 
enemy. It is somewhat uncertain whether the state of his 
health will admit of his remaining in the military line ; if it 
.should, I shall perhaps have occasion to recommend him in a 
more particular manner to the favor of Congress at a future 
time. At present, I can assure, that if you should, while he 
remains at York, have any occasion for his services, you will 
fmd him nol only willing, but very capable of executing any 
of your commands. Respectfully, 


At the close of the Revolution, Clark resumed the practice 
of law at York. He died December 27, 1819. 


Indians had massacred and scalped many of the inhabi- 
tants, not more than forty miles above Harris's Ferry, 
(Harrisbm-g). About forty-five persons from Paxton 
immediately proceeded to the spot, where they found 
fourteen bodies shockingly mangled, which they in- 
terred." At Reading, October 22, 1755, says Conrad 
Weiser, the people are in a great consternation, coming 
down, leaving their plantations and corn behind them ; 
twenty-five persons, men, women and children, killed, 
scalped and carried away on the 16th October; thirteen 
killed, who were men, and elderly women, and one 
child; the rest being young women and children carried 
away ; a house burnt up. Many had been alarmed 

The defeat of Braddock's army, July 9, 1755, threw 
the inhabitants into the utmost consternation. "All the 
females and children of the settlements, at Wright's 
Ferry, numbering about thirty, were removed to Phila- 
delphia, where they spent the winter. They occupied a 
house in Chestnut street, which has since been pulled 
down to make room for the Arcade. The men only 

Toward the close of the year, 1755, a large number 
of French neutrals were transported from Nova Scotia 
into the different English provinces of America; and 
many of these unfortunate persons, men, women and 
children, destitute of means to support themselves, were 
thrown into Lancaster county, and became a public 
charge to the inhabitants. 

While preparations were making on the part of Eng- 
land to carry on the war against the French, in 1755, an 
expedition was undertaken against Nova Scotia, under 
the command of Colonel IVIonckton. The expedition, 

*D. Goheen. 



proved successful, and the French forces in Nova Scoti* 
were vanquished. "A question then arose how the 
Frencli inhabitants should be disposed of. They had 
called themselves neutrals; but some of them were 
found in arms, and they had, as appeared, supplied the 
French with arms, and thus seven thousand of them 
were distressed in consequence of a few taking up arms. 
The rest were peaceable, industrious, pious and frugal 
people. A proposal was made to such of them as had 
not borne arms, to remain in possession of their lands, 
upon condition that they would take the oath of alle- 
giance to the British Government, without qualification ; 
this they refused; for they might then have been com- 
pelled to take up arms against their own kindred and 
Indian neighbors, which they deemed a flagrant abuse of 
a former right : for by the treaty of Utrecht, 1713, they 
were permitted to retain their lands, on taking the oath 
of allegiance to their new sovereign. Queen Anne, ivilh 
the gratification that they should not be compelled to 
bear arms against their Indian neighbors, or their 
countrymen, the French; and this immunity was, at 
subsequent periods, assured to their children. On 
refusing to take the proposed oath of allegiance, their 
property was destroyed, and they were transported and 
distributed among the several British Colonics. Some of 
them were thrown on the public charge of this county.'* 
Their condition was unenviable — deplorable indeed. — 
From a pathetic address, drawn up by themselves, to his 
most excellent Majesty, King of Great Britain, we learn 
that the miseries tlicy endured were great. "The 
miseries," said they, "we have endured since our depar- 
ture from Nova Scotia, cannot be sufficiently expressed, 
being reduced for a livelihood to toil and labor in a 
southern climate, so disagreeable to our constitutions, 


that most of us have been prevented by sickness from 
procuring the necessary subsistence for our families; and 
therefore are threatened with that which we esteem the 
greatest aggravation of aU our suffering, even of having 
our children forced from us and bound out to strangers, 
and exposed to contagious distempers unknown in our 
native country. This, compared with the atfluence we 
enjoyed, shows our condition to be extremely wretched. 
We have already seen in the province of Pennsylvania, 
two hundred and fifty of our people, perish through 
miseries and various diseases." 

This memorial, says Halyburton, in his History of 
Nova Scotia, had not the effect of procuring them 
redress ; they were left to undergo their punishment m. 
exile, and to mingle with the population among whom 
they were distributed. 

In this county, the citizens petitioned the Legislature 
for the passage of an Act to disperse the inhabitants of 
Nova Scotia, thrown upon them. An Act was passed 
March 5, 1756, by which Calvin Cooper, James Webb 
and Samuel Le Fevre, were appointed to carry its 
several provisions into execution. The Act empowered 
and required them, or a majority of them, or their sur- 
vivors, and enjoined it, that within twenty days after the 
passage of the Act, to order and appoint the disposition 
of the inhabitants of Nova Scotia imported and per- 
mitted to be landed, in such manner and proportions as 
to them appeared most equitable under certain limita- 
tions, to have regard to such lands and plantations, or 
other employment as they might procure for them 
towards maintaining themselves and families, and there- 
by easing the province of the heavy charge of support- 
mg them. The act further provided in these words : — 
<' And for tht more effectual settling and employing said 



inhabitants, it was enacted that the overseers of the 
poor of the several townships of Lancaster county were 
required and enjoined to accept of, provide for, and 
receive into their respective townships such of the Nova 
Scotians, as were to be allotted, and sent into their town- 
ships, by an order under the hands and seals of at least 
two of the above named persons; provided, that not 
more th^n one family was allotted to the care of the 
overseers of the poor of any one township. They were 
to secure them employment, as was most suitable to the 
circumstances of the families and persons allotted, and 
appointed for their respective townships, as directed. — 
The overseers were directed to keep just and true ac- 
counts of all such unavoidable charges and expenses as 
might have accrued ; which accounts were directed to 
be transmitted under oath, or afhrmed, to the persons 

Those who had been bred to farming, farms at a rea- 
sonable rate, were to be rented for them, and some small 
assistance was to be afforded them toward settlement 
thereof. The commissioners were authorized to pur- 
chase or procure such slock or utensils of husbandry for 
making settlements, provided the supplies allotted to any 
single iinnily did not exceed in the whole ten pounds. — 
The expenses incurred Avere to be defrayed and paid out 
of the money given to the King's use by an Act of 

Their condition was such as to make it necessary for 
the Assembly to pass another Act, January 18, 1757: — 
"Wiiereas it has been found by experience that the Act 
of March 4, 1756, has not answered the good intentions 
of the Legislature of uniting them with his Majesty's 
loyal subjects by granting the said inhabitants of Nova 
Scotia equal privileges and innnunitics with the inluibi- 


'cants and settlers of the province, and the grievous bur- 
dens of maintaining them in the manner hitherto used is 
greater than the good people of this province, under their 
present distressed circumstances, are well able to bear, 
and for as much as there are numbers of children among 
them whose real advantage and interest it would un- 
doubtedly prove to be brought up in industry and fru- 
gality, and bound out to learn husbandry, or some other 
profitable art, whereby they might become reputable 
inhabitants, entitled to the rights of the British subjects, 
and their parents thereby eased of the charge of their 
maintenance as well as the public, which by proper care 
may be in a good degree relieved from the present heavy 

It was enacted that the overseers of the poor of the 
townships in which the Nova Scotians were dispersed, 
were required and enjoined within two months of the 
passage of the Act, or as soon afterwards as convenient, 
by and with the consent and approbation of one or more 
justices of the peace to bind out, such of the children of 
the Nova Scotians, whose parents or friends were not 
capable to maintain them, or neglected otherwise to pro-* 
vide for them, to kind masters and mistresses, on the 
best terms they could obtain; on condition the children 
were taught to read and write the English language, and 
such reputable and profitable occupations as would ena- 
ble them to support themselves at the expiration of the 
term of apprenticeship; males were to be bound out till 
twenty-one ; females till eighteen. 

Further provision was also made for those, who, by 
reason of age, impotence, or any bodily infirmity, were 
rendered incapable to maintain themselves, that they, were 
provided for, and maintained, as other poor of the town- 
ship ; but at the charge of the province. 




We doubt not, there may some of the descendants of 
the F];ench neutrals, reside in the comity. Vestiges of 
them remained in Philadelphia for a long time. "They 
refused," says Gordon, speaking of those in Philadel- 
phia, "for a long time to labor, but, finally, settled in low 
huts, in a quarter of the town, where a vestige continued 
until the year 1800." 

Those who were carried to Baltimore, soon fomid means 
to become proprietors of much of the ground on South 
Charles street, and erected thereon their habitations, 
which long bore the name of French town. Many 
of the French descendants of the old French neutrals, are 
still there. 

Notes.— Octobei- 20, 1749, the Annual Synod of the German 
Reformed church, met for the first time in Lancaster. Rev, 
Bartholomaeus, V. D. M. preached the Synodical sermon.— 
The number of German reformed ministers in America was 
small in 1749; these were John Philip Bochm, George Michael 
Weisp, P. B. Ricgcr, Jacob Lischy, formerly a Moravian, 
Rev. Bartholomaeus, John Philip Leydich, Michael Schlatter, 
missionary from Holland, two on probation, Conrad Temple- 
man, at Swatara, J. C. Wirts, at Sacany, and two students 
lately from Europe, David Marinus, and Jonathan Du Bois. 

January 27th, 1749-50, Cumberland county was erected— 
Marcli 11th, 1752, Berks was erected— June 1 and 2, 1750, se- 
vere frost— ice in many places— rye and corn injured. 

Governor Pownall in Lancaster in 1754:— "I took the road 
from Philadelphia to Wright's Ferry, on the Susquehanna.— 
Lancaster is a growing town, and making money— a manu- 
factory is here of guns— it is a stage town— 500 houses- 2,000 
inhabitants. Between Lancaster and Wright's Ferry, I saw 
the finest farm one can possible conceive, in tlie liighest culture ; 
it belongs to a Switzer. Here it was, I saw the method of wa- 
tering meadows by cutting troughs in the side of the hill for 
the springs to run in; the water runs over the sides and waters, 
whoki ground. — PownaWs Jourml. 


Lancaster county had, for half a century, been celebrated 
for the manfacture of guns. This business was successfully 
carried on by John Fondersmith, a European, who located at 
Strasburg, in 1749, where, assisted by one of his sons, he 
made " defensive arms'' for the Revolutionary patriots. 

The late Dr. Eberle's father — a peerless genius tn steel and 
iron — a natural mechanic — manufactured bayonets, during the 
Revolution, not inferior to the damask blade. 

Peter Schaub, of Lancaster county, setting forth to the 
Assembly, that when the forces under Col. Dunbar were at 
Lancaster, on their way to Philadelphia, a considerable num- 
ber of horses and cattle belonging to them were put into his 
meadow, and kept there for two days, whereby the greatest 
part of the grass was destroyed, required compensation for 
damages sustained ; Jacob Myers and others valued the 
damages at £11, 7s. The Assembly considered the petition, 
September 19th, 1755. John Brubaker presented a similar 
petition ; his damages were £8, 6s.* 

Col. Dunbar was an officer under Edward Braddockj who 
met with a fatal reproof, July 9th, 1755, near Pittsburg, for his 
overweening confidence and reckless temerity. 

Members of Assembly for Lancaster county, for 1743: — 
Anthony Shaw, Arthur Patterson, Thomas Lindly, John Wright 
— in 1744: James Mitchell, John Wright, Arthur Patterson, 
Samuel Blunston — in 1745 and 1746: John Wright, James 
Mitchell, Arthur Patterson, James Wright — in 1747 and 1748: 
John Wright, Arthur Patterson, James Webb, Peter WorralL 

*Votes of Assembly. 

308 nisTORT OP 


Moravian community at Litiz — Zlnzendorf in Lancaster — Application tc 
the conference at Bethlehem — Commencement of Litiz — Parsonage 
built — School House removed — Rev. B. A. Grube — Present condition, or 

state of Litiz; Improvements; Church, and consecration of it, &c List 

of the names of Pastors — Schools and names of Teachers — Brother and 
Sister Houses — The grave yard — The spring — Population, mechanics, &c. 

The Moravians, those who embraced the views of 
Count Zinzendorf, of whom a passing notice has been 
given in a preceding page, commenced the formation of 
a community, in this county, about the year 1755 or 56, 
at Litiz, eight miles north of the city, of which we 
shall give a detailed account. The subject is interesting,* 

To give a full account of this village, and the first 
settlement of the Moravians in Lancaster county, we 
shall begin with the year 174*. It happened, in that 
year, that Count Zinzendorf, the patron of the renewed 
church of the United Brethren or Moravians, who being 
persecuted in Saxony, by such as disliked his attempts to 
form Christian communities, which were not to be 
governed by the established church government of that 
Kingdom, directed his attention and Christian eye to 
Pennsylvania, where, at a previous period, a great num- 
ber of German Separatists had emigrated ; accordingly, 
lie visited Pennsylvania, and believing that his visit 
might be rendered more profitable, if he could succeed 
in uniting many of these emigrated Christians, who 
diffcrco in some particular points, he set out on his tour 
ihrougli Pennsylvania, and whenever he iiad an oppor- 

*This article has been furnished by a inejubcr of the Mora-- 
vian Society of Litiz. 


tunity, to acquaint himself with the various sects, he 
tried to unite them on those points, which he considered 
as essential in Christian doctrine. He neglected no 
opportunity to preach whenever he found an open door, 
and to proclaim Christ, and Him crucified, as the only 
ground and hope of our salvation. From Bethlehem, 
he proceeded, firstly, through Berks county, where he 
visited the Schwenkfelders, and other sects, and from 
there to Lancaster county, where, among other pious 
persons, whom he visited, was Mr. Jacob Huber, of 
Warwick township ; and he met with a friendly recep- 
tion. The same evening after his arrival, he addressed 
the assembled neighbors. Many more would have 
attended, had they not been prevented by Mr. George 
Kline, IMr, Huber's neighbor, who made efforts to dis- 
suade others from hearing him, and endeavored to excite 
unkind feelings against him ; however, during the succes- 
sive nights, he became very uneasy, touching his course; 
his conscience told him loudly, he had not acted rightly. 
The following day, Count Zinzendorf went to Lan- 
caster, where he had permission to preach in the court 
house. Kline followed him thither to hear him preach, 
and was one of his most attentive hearers. The Count's 
address removed all his prejudice, and made such an im- 
pression on his mind, that he, as well as some of his 
neighbors, requested him to visit them again, or to send 
them a minister who preached like him ; this the Count 
promised to do, and immediately on his return to Bethle- 
hem, sent the Rev. Jacob Lischy, to them, with orders 
also to visit other pious persons, who resided in various 
parts of Lancaster county, and whom the Count had 
visited previously. After that they were for a number 
of years visited by others from Bethlehem. Their meet- 
ings were partly held in private hpuses, and partly ill a 

310 HISTORY OP , . 

Lutheran church, which was huilt in 1741, on Mr, 
George Khne's land, and known as St. Jacob's church. — 
The Reverend Theophilus Neyherg, who was then the 
Lutheran minister at Lancaster, preached every four 
weeks in this church until 1746, when he left the Lan- 
caster Congregation, and devoted his whole attention to 
the Lutheran congregation in Warwick township, and 
finally united himself with the greater part of his flock 
with the Moravian Society. 

In 1747, they concluded to apply to the conference at 
Bethlehem, for an ordained minister, who would live 
among them, and who could attend to the spiritual 
affairs of their small congregation; this request was 
readily granted, on condition that they would provide a 
suitable dwelling for him and his family. As soon as 
Mr. George Kline heard this, he offered three and three- 
quarter acres of land, at the lower part of his farm, for 
this purpose, and it was determined to build a suitable 
house, which might serve for a dwelling, church and 
school house. On the 9th of February, 1748, house 
was consecrated, and on the 22nd of July, following, the 
Rev. Leonhard Schnell moved into it, as their minister 
and school teaclier. On the 1 3th of May, following, ho 
opened the school, with four boys and three girls. This 
house was then known as the " Warwick Churcli and 
School House," and stood eastwardly from the present 
site of Litiz. 

Ill 1751, it was determined to establish a similar 
congregation, like that at Bethlehem. Mr. George Kline 
being one of the most zealous members, of the then but 
small flock, and having no heirs, offered them, to accept 
his farm of more than 600 acres for that purpose. This 
kind offer was gratefully accepted, and t\u: title thereof 
transferred to the Society, according to law. In the 


spring of that year, Mr. Geogre Kline had built a large 
two story stone house for a residence, which, however, 
he occupied but a short period, as he moved to Bethle- 
hem, where he ended his life. This house stands to this 
day, and is found in the central part of the village, and 
according to it, the main street has been located, and 
which causes, that it does not run due east or west. 

In 1757, the village was laid out by the Rev. Na- 
thaniel Seidel, and Mr. John Renter, who were sent from 
Bethlehem for that purpose, and the name of Litiz was 
given to it, in memory of a village in Bohemia, from 
which the forefathers of the United Brethren had emi- 
grated. * * * The same religious basis was then 
given to all the future proceedings of the United Breth- 
ren, in Litiz, which is characteristic of all their settle- 
ments, in Europe and in this country, and accordingly, 
the Brother and Sister Houses, of which we shall say 
more hereafter, were built in the years, 1758 and 1759. 

In 1761, the present Parsonage was built, and the 
greater part of the upper story was dedicated for a place 
of worship. It was provided with a small organ, and 
the walls were adorned with a number of beautiful oil 
paintings ; the works of the celebrated Hayd, represent- 
ing all the most remarkable scenes of our Saviour's life. 
In this Hall, the congregation worshiped until the 13th of 
August, 1787, wken the present church, of which we 
shall say more hereafter, was consecrated for spiritual 

In 1762, the Warwick church and school house, of 
which we spoke above, was removed into the village, to 
serve as a dwelling and school house for the teacher, 
who had the charge of the school for such children as 
did not belong to the Society. In those days, schools 
were not as numerous as in our day, and there was not 


another school withm four miles o:f Litiz, consequently, 
the children, from the adjacent country, were all sent to 
this school. The children of the Society, had then a 
Separate school. Among those who resided in this house, 
and served as teachers, the Rev. Bernhard A. Grube, 
deserves particular notice. It was not only the object of 
this good man to teach the children to read, write and 
cypher, but also to impress good morals on their minds, 
and to acquaint them with their Saviour. Various were 
the methods which he adopted, but one in particular we 
would mention: Being an excellent ornamental writer, 
he wrote into his pupils' book, their names, adding some 
wish or prayer, and from time to time, he presented them 
with hymns of his own composition, or passage from 
Scripture, beautifully written. Many of these trilling 
presents, proved as seeds sown into good ground, which 
grew, and have brought fruits unto salvation. To this 
day, there are Bibles and spelling books to be found in 
Warwick township, in which is found his writing, and 
many, who are grand, and great-grand children, of those, 
who, as children received of his trifling presents in those 
long by-gone days, hold them as dear as their fore- 
fathers did. 

In 1771, the St. Jacob's church, to which we referred 
to, in a preceding page, being much out of repair, and 
not used any more for sacred worship, was taken down, 
and removed to the fulling mill below the village, and 
converted into a dweUing house, for the miller; this 
house stands to this day, and is at present the property of 
Mr. John Keller. 

The grave yard, which belonged to this church, is yet 
in existence, and is known by the name of "Warwick 
Grave Yard;" it is located a short distance southwardly 
from the village, near the Lancaster road. To persons 

LANCASTER couxxr. 315 

who are fond of reading old epitaphs on tomhstones, this 
place offers a fine opportunity. 

Having given the reader some account of the early 
"settlement of this interesting village, we shall now 
-attempt to describe it, as we find it in our day. 

It is not saying too much, if we state, that it is proba- 
hly the neatest and cleanest village in Lancaster county. 
As said before, its location is nearly east and west, ex- 
tending in that direction, about one-half a mile. There 
is not only pavement before all the houses through the 
whole village, but the different paths leading to the 
church, schools, &c,, are well paved, with creek or lime- 
stone slabs. The square, r. round which are located the 
institutions, church and parsonage, is, perhaps, not sur- 
passed in beauty by any other spot in tlie county ; such 
is its splendor in the summer season, that it frequently 
occurs, that travellers stop in their journey to give it a 
closer examination than a mere transient notice. 

It is enclosed by a white fence, and tastefully laid out 
in gravel walks; around it is an avenue of locust and 
cedar trees, and the interior is adorned with Linden 
Cedar and Balm of Gilead trees, and a very great variety 
of shrubbery. From the beginning of jSIay, till the end 
of October, different kinds of flowers are there found in 
bloom; its greatest splendor is in August, when the great 
variety of Hollyhocks and Dahlias are in bloom, and 
there are probably few places where such a variety of 
tint and color is found as in this spot. The superin- 
tendence of this truly delightful spot is under the care 
and direction of Mr. Mathias Tschudy. 

The church, to which reference has been made, is 66 
feet in length, and 50 feet in depth; it is built of lime- 
stone, and has a very fine appearance, and the mason 
Avork in its front is generally considered a master-piece of 


314 SistoRf OS* 

workmanship ; it is ornamented with a neat spire, and 
has a town clock, which is remarkable, because it strikes 
the quarters. It has two entrances, at one of which the 
Brethren, and at the other the Sisters enter. Its interior 
is plain and very neat; there are no pews in it, but 
benches with backs. It has two galleries, and is pro- 
vided with an excellent organ. Originally, there was no 
pulpit in the church, but merely a table, covered with 
l)lack cloth, at which the minister officiated. It being 
fifty years in 1837, since the church had been conse- 
crated, various alterations were undertaken in that year, 
and among others, also, that of placing a pulpit in the 
place of the table. After all the repairs were com- 
pleted, the congregation celebrated the fiftieth anniver- 
sary of their church on Sunday the 13th of August, 
1S37. A brief account of such a celebration among the 
Moravians may perhaps be interesting to the reader ; we 
shall, therefore, attempt to give some description of this 
cliurch festival. The church was previously beautifully 
adorned with various inscriptions, and most tastefully 
decorated with flowers and evergreens, and the musicians 
selected and practiced their best sacred music; and to 
render it still more harmonious, invited a number of the 
best vocal and instrumental performers from Bethlehem 
and Nazareth, to assist them on the occasion. On the 
evening of the 12th, the congregation met for the pur- 
pose of solemnly closing the remarkable period of fifty 
years, during which the Lord had permitted them to 
worship in this sanctuary. Early on the morning of the 
13lli, all the inhabitants were a^vakened by solemn 
music, announcing to them the approach of the happy 
day, for which old and young had been looking wi*h 
such joyful anticipation. At eight o'clock, the congre- 
gation met for the first time, in the new period of their 


church's existence, and dedicated the church, as well as 
themselves anew to the Lord. At ten o'clock, they met 
again, when an excellent address, suitable to the occa- 
sion, was delivered, and an account read of the first con- 
secration, August 13th, 1787, and also the names of all 
those who served as ministers within the transpired 
period. At two o'clock, there was a Love Feast, a, 
church ceremony which is customarj'- at all festival occa- 
sions among the Moravians — in token of fellowship and 
brotherly union, and is in imitation of a custom in the 
primitive churches ; during which the congregation and 
the choir, accompanied with instrumental music, alter- 
nately, sang anthems, which had been expressly printed 
for the occasion ; after that, the communicants met for 
the first time at the Lord's table in this new era of their 
church. In the evening, the beautiful square, which we 
have attempted to describe, was tastefully illuminated 
with upwards of 800 lights, and the whole congregation, 
together with numbers from the adjacent country, met in 
it for the purpose of solemnly closing this joyful festival. 
Anthems, which had been expressly printed for the occa- 
sion, were handed to all present, when in the solemn 
evening hour of that blessed sabbath, surrounded by 
thousands of beautiful flowers, and accompanied with 
instrumental music, all united in singmg the praises of the 
Lord, for all the blessings conferred on them as a con- 
gregation ; the scene was a heavenly one, and will long 
be remembered by all who witnessed it. 

The following ministers labored in succession, in the 
congregation at Litiz : 

1742, Count Nicolas Louis de Zinzendorf; 1743, Jacob 
Lischy; 1745, Daniel Neuberts; 1747, Leonard Schnell; 
1749, Christian H. Ranch; 1748 to 1153, Abraham 
Reinke, Senior j 1754, Michael Zahm,^ and Christian 

316 ^. HISTORY OF 

Bader; 1755, Christian 'Krogstinpp and Abraham 
Reinke, Senior; 1755 to 1787, Mathcw Hehl; 1756 
Francis Christian Lemhkc ; 175G, David Nitshmann, 
Daniel Bishop and Daniel Neubert; 1757, George 
Weiser; 1759, Jacob Till; 17ao, Abraham Rusmyer and 
Godfrey Roesler; 1762, Christian Krogstrupp; 1763, 
]krnhard AdamGrnbc; 17G5, Nicholas Eberhard; 1774, 
Godfrey Roesler; 1784, John Klingsohr; 1790, Andrew 
Huebner and Abraham Reinke, Junior; 1801, John 
Herbst, John Meder and John F. Freeauf; 1811, Jacob 
Van Vleck and Constantino Miller; 1812, Andrew Be- 
nade, John M. Beck and Abraham Reinke, Junior - 
1822, Thomas Longballe; 1823, John Christian Beckler; 
1829, Andrew Benade and John F. Loefller; 183G, 
William Eberman and Charles F. Kluge; 1843, Peter 
Wolle and Charles W. Senft. 

The Schools. — Litiz has long been celebrated for its 
schools, and we shall attempt to give some description of 

There are four schools in the village ; tv/o of them are 
however, infant schools ; one for the little boys and one 
for the little girls. In these schools, the small children of 
the village, and some from the neighborhood, arc taught 
to read, the rudiments of arithmetic, and. some writing, 
and from these, they are promoted into the two existing 
higher schools. 

The young Ladies' Seminary. — The commence- 
ment of this Institution was as early as 1794. Previ- 
ous to the building of the edifice in which we find it at 
present, it was conducted partly in the Sister's House, and 
partly in a small house, adjacent thereto. In the year 
1804, on the 2Gth of October, the pupils then living in 
the Sister's House, moved into the new building, expressly 
built for school purposes. It is three stories high, and 86 


feet in length and 40 in depth. In the basement, is a 
large dining room, and the first and second story are the 
schooh-ooms, principal's residence, and a chapel for 
spiritual devotions. The third story is occupied as a 
dormitory, and a room called the sickroom, which is 
expressly set apart for such as may be indisposed ; a nurse 
resides in this room, whose duty it is to attend to such of 
the pupils, as it may be found necessary to remove 
into it. In the rear of the building is a large yard, or 
play-ground, provided with a pavillion, seats, swings, 
&c. for the pleasure and amusement of the pupils. The 
Institution is provided with a very extensive Library, 
and as music is taught, every room is provided with a 
piano. It is customary in this Institution to have 
musical entertainments from time to time. A friend of 
ours who has occasionally been present, assures us, that 
the performances of the pupils, in vocal and instrumen- 
tal music, arc tru'y excellent, and are probably not sur- 
passed in any other Institution of the kind. Ornamental 
needlev/ork of various kinds, is also taught to great per- 
fection, and all other branches, which constitute a practi- 
cal education, receive their due share of attention. — 
Their are six Tutoresses engaged, two always residing 
in each schoolroom, with about fourteen pupils, whose 
duty it is, not only to instruct them, but to have a 
watchful eye over their morals, and to take walks with 
them, after the daily exercises are closed. We are 
indeed happy to be able to so.y, that the school is at 
present in a very fi-jurishing condition, under the direc- 
tion of its present eificient Principal, Mr. E. A. Freeauf, 
and his amiable lady. 

The Principals of this Institution, since its establish- 
ment have been as follows: 

1794, Rev. John A. Iluebner; 1801, Rev. Johnlierbst, 



1802, Rev. John Meder; 1805, Rev. John F. Freeanf; 
1815, Rev. Andrew Bcnade ; 1822, Rev. John C. Beck- 
ler; 1824, Rev. Samuel Renike ; 1826, Rev. John G. 
Kummer; 1833, Rev. Charles F. Klnge; 1836, Rev. 
Peter Wolle 5 1843, Rev. Evigcne A. Freeanf. 

Among these, Rev. John F. Frecauf, the father of the 
present Principal, and the Rev. Andrew Benade, deserve 
particularly to be noticed, as it was under their direction 
that this Institution was in its most flourishing condition. 
Long will the names of good Old Pappy Freeauf, and 
good Pappy Benade, as the young ladies were wont to 
call them, he remembered by the many who were placed 
into their care, and there is no doubt, should this meet 
the eye of such, they will remember with pleasure those 
happy days which they spent in Litiz school under their 
care and the many devout prayers they offered in their 
belialf, when met in the little chapel, as well as the many 
good and fatherly admonitions they gave them from time 
to time. 

The Young Gentlemen's Academy. — We have 
abready stated that in the early years of Litiz, 
there were two schools, one for the boys, belonging to 
the society, and the other for those from the adjacent 
country. As Warwick township became more settled, so 
the schools increased, and there was no more necessity to 
send the children to ]jitiz, consequently, the one for the 
children from the comitry was discontinued. Mr. Chris- 
tian Schropp conducted the town school, for many years, 
and on the 2nd of January, 1815, Mr. John Beck, the 
present Principal, took charge of it. At that period, the 
school was held in an old building, which liad been fixed 
up for tliat purpose, and which stood at the same place> 
where the present brick school house stands. 



Mr. Beck spared neither pains nor expense in improv- 
ing the school, and his indefatigable exertions, as well as 
the various methods he adopted to further his pupils in 
their studies, became a subject of general remark. In 
1S19, the school began to attract the attention of parents 
from abroad, and boys were brought from various places. 
In 1822, it was found necessary to erect the present 
brick school house; the old building being too small to 
contain all the pupils. This building is two stories high, 
and is adorned with a neat cupola. The second story is, 
however, not occupied for school purposes, but as a 
concert hall, where the musical society of Litiz meets. — • 
It is provided with an extensive musical library, and a 
number of instruments belonging to the Society. 

The school continued to. increase from year to year ; 
and boys were brought from various parts of Pennsyl- 
▼ania, Virginia, Ohio, the Carolinas, Maryland, Louisi- 
ana, &c. Ttiis continued increase, rendered it neces- 
sary, not only to add another building, but also more 
teachers. Accordingly, the large building, formerly 
called the "Brethren's House," which is near the brick 
house, was engaged, and arranged for school purposes. 
The school is therefore at present conducted in two 
buildings, in which five teachers are employed; the 
school rooms, fi,ve in number, are large, and well venti- 
lated, and furnished with every thing that can render 
pupils comfortable; each pupil has his own desk and 
chair, and the number admitted into a room never ex- 
ceeds, at highest, twenty-four — this arrangement is made 
with the view to enable the teacher of each class, not 
only to do ample justice to each one m his charge, but 
also for the preservation of good order, and the separa- 
tion of the larger boys from the smaller ones. Each 
r»om is provided with a time-piece, and the walls are 


adorned with handsomely painted moral lessons, as well 
as Astronomical, Historical, ]\Iathematical, and Geo- 
graphical Charts. The school is likewise provided with 
an excellent Library, and a very extensive Philosophical 
and Chemical apparatus. Not far from the school, is a 
large play gromid for the pupils ; it is enclosed with a 
high fence, and has a number of shade trees in it. Over 
the gate, leading to it, there is an arch, on the inside of 
which is the following inscription in gold letters, the 
object of which is to serve as a perpetual monitor to the 
boys while at play : " In all your actions and amuse- 
ments, avoid profane language and quarrels." The 
principal object in view in this institution, is to give a 
good and practical English, Mathematical and Scien- 
tific education. The Latin and German languages are 
also taught, and for such as wish to learn drawing and 
draughting on mathematical principles, as well as music,, 
it offers likewise advantages. The quiet village is very 
suitable for schools, and particularly for boys, there being 
no kind of temptations in their way; the great difference 
between Mr. JJcck^s method, and that of similar schools, 
attempted in imitation of his, has always been his socia- 
ble and parental intercourse with his pupils, by which 
means he gains their esteem and affection, and checks 
the slightest irregularity; the enthuiasm with which he 
lias always been found to enter on his arduous duties, 
and responsible calling, deserves the highest commenda- 

The Brother and Sister Houses. — We have had 
occasion to refer to these institutions, and as they form a 
a very conspicuous part in the beautiful square we have 
endeavored to describe, some account of their intent and 
origin may 1)0 interesting lo the reader. Tiiis we give 
also with a viow to remove erroneous ideas, v/hich are 


lield by many about them, namely, that they arc con- 
vents or nunneries, such as are found in the Roman 
church. In order to give the reader their origin, we 
must refer him back as early as 1727, and in the last 
century. It was at that period, when the emigrants 
from Bohemia and Moravia, from the latter of whicli the 
society has its name, settled on the estate of Count jZin- 
zendorf, in Saxony. At that place, they built their first 
town called Herrnhut, which means in English, "The 
Lord's protection." Ilavhig united with the great 
object in view, to be a congregation of the Lord, to keep 
sacred, in holy union, those doctrines, contained in the 
Holy Scriptures, and to promote, not only their own v>^el- 
farc, but also that of their fellow men, it became neces- 
sary to adopt some method or system. Among others 
was that of dividing the congregation into different 
classes, namely: the class of the married persons, the 
classes of single brethren and sisters, the classes of 
widowers and widows, the classes of boys and girls, be- 
tween the ages of twelve and eighteen, and the classes 
of children of both sexes. This classification they con- 
sidered necessary for the well-being of the spiritual and 
temporal welfare of their members, but always subject 
to such alterations and improvements as they should 
deem proper to make from time to time, or even to dis- 
continue the same if not found applicable. After some 
years of their existence in Saxony, it occurred that a 
great many persons applied to be admitted as members of 
the comnnmity; among these were many single persons 
of both sexes, for whom employment, as well as a home 
had to be provided, which in then peculiar situation was 
often attended with difficulty. The plan of building 
houses for them, was then adopted, namely: one for the 
single men, and one foi the single women, which they 


called Brother and Sister Houses. It was thought, iii 
these houses the men could follow their professions, and 
the women sustain themselves with knitting, spinning, &c. 
This was the beginning of these institutions, and to this 
day, they are found in various parts of Germany, Holland, 
France, England, Switzerland and Russia. The plan 
meeting Avith so much success in Europe, they were also 
introduced into this country, and accordingly, when Litiz 
was laid out, the places for their location were laid down 
in the original plan. 

In 1759, the brethren's house at Litiz was built — 
which, however, is not used for iis original intent at 
present — it is built of limestone, is three stories high, 60 
feet in length and 37 feet in depth. The basement story 
was occupied as a ki!chen and dining room ; the first 
story was divided into four rooms, in each of which nine 
or ten brethren resided ; part of the second story con- 
sisted of a large hall or chapel, for spiritual purposes, 
which was provided with a very excellent organ. The 
remaining part was divided into dwelling rooms, in one 
of which resided the elder and steward ; the duty of the 
former was to care for the spiritual welfare of those in 
the house, and those of the latter for the temporal con- 
cerns thereof. One of the rooms in the second story was 
set apart for the boys between the ages of twelve and 
eighteen. The greater part of the third story was occu- 
pied as a dormitory, where they all slept; aside of it, 
Avas a room set apart for such as might get sick, and one 
of the brethren, who had the office of waiting on them, 
resided in this room. In each room, wliere the brethren 
resided, there was one who was called tlie overseer, 
whose duty it was to correct any disorders which might 
arise, care for fuel, repairs and cleanliness in the room. — 
In the room in which the boys resided, tlicre Avera 



genei'ally three overseers, whose duty it was to guard 
over their morals, and to guide them irx the path of ^ 
virtue and religion, go with them to church, and during '^ 
the winter season, to devote three evenings in the 
week for instructing them in useful se¥*4ees. These 
hoys were partly employed in the town, and partly in 
the Brother House, in learning various mechanical trades. 
In the rear of the building, there are several houses, 
which were formerly occupied as shops for cabinet 
makers, chair makers, weavers, &c. The shoemakers 
and tailors had their shops in the house. There also 
belonged a very extensive farm to it, on which a num- 
ber were employed. Much attention was paid to fatten- 
ing cattle, and it was nothing unusual to buy whole droves 
for that purpose, which when fat were sold to the Lan- 
caster and Philadelphia butchers. In the year 1817 it 
was found proper to discontume the Brother House at 
Litiz, and after that period, it was for a time occupied by 
several families, and at present is used for school purposes. 
During the Revolutionary war, it was for a short period 
used as a hospital for invalid soldiers, a number of whom 
died there, and were buried a short distance eastwardly 
from the village. Although this system did not suit all 
who resided in this house, yet it must be admitted, that 
there are numbers, who will ever ascribe their welfare to 
having been in their younger years an inmate, and under 
the care and admonition of such, who from experience 
could guide and instruct them. 

The Sister's House. — This was built A. D. 1758. — 
It is likewise built of limestone, three stories high, 90 feet 
in length, and 37 feet in depth. The basement story is, 
like that formerly in the Brother House, used for a kitchen 
and dining room ; the first as well as part of the second 
story is divided into dwelling rooms ; one part of the 

324 bisToRr of 

second story, is a hall or chapel for spiritual purposes aiid 
provided with an organ ; the greater part of the third 
story is a dormitory, aside of which is a room for such as 
may be indisposed. The arrangements are in all respects 
similar to those we have described in the Brother House. 
A small farm, together with a very large vegetable 
garden, from which the kitchen which furnishes the table 
of the Ladies' Seminary is provided, are attached to it. 
The number of sisters, who reside in the house at this 
present time, is not so large as formerly, yet the greater 
part of the rooms remain occupied. There was never 
any kind of vow of celibacy comiected with these Insti- 
tutions ; any of the sisters can leave the house if she has 
any desire to change her situation. 

In larger Moravian communities, similar houses are 
established for such widows as desire to live retired, and 
•are called widows' houses. The individuals residing in 
these establishments pay a small rent, by which, and by 
the sums paid for iheh- board, ilic expenses thereof are 
defrayed, assisted occasionally by the profits on the sale 
of ornamental needlework, confcctionarics, &c. on which 
some of the inmates subsist. We hope our account of 
tliese Institutions will prove satisfactory to our readers, 
and particularly to such as have hhherto entertained 
different opinions. Tliey are in their character nothing 
more than the different asylums for widows &c. which 
are found in Philadelphia and other cities, and we are 
inclined to think, the idea for establishing those in the 
dtics, has been borrowed from the JMoravian Institutions. 

The Grave Yard.* — This bcautil'ul spot is located 
on a rising ground to the south of the village, of Avhich 

♦November 8, 175S, a lad of three years, named John Baum- 
gartner, was buried in this Grave Yard; bc^ng the inter- 
ment; the occasion was improved by solemnly consecrating 


we will give the reader some account, there being perhaps 
not another similar arrangement to be found in Lan- 
caster county. It is enclosed with a white fence, along 
which there is an avenue of trees; there are three gates 
leading to it, one large one, and two at its sides of smaller 
dimensions : the large one is never opened except on 
funeral occasions. Over this there isj an arch, on 
which are the following inscriptions, in golden letters : 
Firstly, that which is seen by the visitor as he approaches 
it, through a thickly planted grove, " Blessed are the 
dead which die in the Lord:" — Rev. chap. 14-13 v: Sec- 
ondly, that on the interior side, "I am the resurrection, 
and the life, he that believeth in me, though he were 
dead, yet shall he live:" — St. John chap. 11-'J5 v. 
After entering the gate, the visitor finds himself in a 
beautiful avenue of cedar trees, which separates the 
graves of the males from, those of the females, the former 
being on the right and the latter on the left as he passes 
on. We have before stated that the congregation is 
divided into classes ; in the same order then as it is 
divided, so they are laid on the grave yard ; here the 
visitors find the rows containing nothing but the married 
men and on the opposite side married women ; as he 
passes onj, those of the single classes, and further, those 
of little boys and girls under the age of twelve. The 
graves are all of two sizes, being without distinction of 

this parcel of ground as a resting place for the remains of the 
departed. On the arrival of the funeral procession, an appro- 
priate address was delivered by the Rev. Mathew Hehl, then, the 
usual funeral service while the corpse was let in the grave, was 
read; after which., the assembled congregation knelt down, 
and with solemn prayer consecrated the spot, for all who in 
future would be enterred here, to rest in hope till that import- 
ant moment when Christ shall call those who died in the Lord, 
iVom their graves to a glorious resurrection. B. 


326 HISTORY of 

an oblong shape, and flats on the top, to which shape 
they are brought by two moulds, expressly kept for that 
purpose, one for adults and the other for children. The 
sides are planted with sod, and the tops are overrun Avith 
the Virginia mountain pink, which in the month of May 
is in full bloom, and renders the appearance of the graves 
one of the most beautiful imaginable. On each grave 
there is a marble tombstone which, without distinction, 
lays flat on the grave, verifying the old adage " Death 
levels all, both great and small." 

The epitaphs contain the name, birth and departure ; 
to some, a few more lines have been added, a number of 
which are truly edifying, and very striking. Each tomb- 
stone is numbered and the highest number in May, 1843, 
is 527. The first person was buried there in 1758. 

It is truly remarkable, that out of the several thousand 
children, who have been sent to the Litiz Schools, only 
one died while at school. This was Miss Sarah Ann 
Cazy, from Kent county, Maryland, and who we are 
informed, was in a delicate state of health when brought 
to the school; her grave is No. 379, and is found in one 
of the rows containing young girls between the ages of 
twelve and eighteen. This only death, certainly speaks 
volumes in favor of the healthy location of the village, 
as well as of the care and attention which is paid to the 
children entrusted to these schools. 

Having given the reader an account of the graveyard, 
it may also be agreeable to him to know how funerals 
are conducted among these Moravians, who live in a 
community together. When a member dies or " goes 
HOME," as it is generally termed among them, the depar- 
ture is immediately announced with solemn music from 
tlie steeple of the church. It is customary not to bury 
any person after his departure, until three days have 


elapsed, and in order to accomplish this, particularly in 
the summer season, when bodies are more subject to 
•corruption, there is a small building or vault behind the 
church for the purpose of keeping the departed in a better 
state of preservation. To this place the remains are 
removed, which however, is optional with the relatives 
of the departed ; another reason why they have this 
arrangement, is, in case a person dies of a contagious 
disease, that it may be prevented from spreading further, 
by removing the body from his residence. On all funeral. 
occasions, there is first an address to the congregation in 
the church, which is closed by the choir singing an ap- 
propriate anthem. The congregation then assembles in 
the large yard behind the church, in the middle of which 
is placed the bier with the coffin, which is covered with 
a white pall, instead of black, as is the general custom ; 
on the pall the words " Jesus my Redeemer liveth," are 
wrought in blue silk. After the singing of a hymn the 
procession moves in the following order : First the chil- 
dren, two by two, attended by their teachers, next the 
music and clergy, and then the corpse and relatives ; if it 
be a funeral of a brother, the brethren follow next to the 
relations, and if a sister, the sisters ; as the procession 
moves, the solemn music of the band is heard playing 
tunes of well known hymns, expressing the hopes of 
eternal life, and a glorious resurrection. After the con- 
gregation is arranged on the graveyard, the corpse is 
lowered into the grave during the singing of an appro- 
priate hymn ; after which the funeral service customary 
at burials is read, and the singing of another hymn closes 
the ceremony ; the procession then returns in the same 
order as before described. We have been thus explicit 
on this subject because the graveyard and funerals, in 
nearly every respect are different from those elsewhere 


and tliat an accurate description might prove interesting 
to the reader. 

The Litiz Spring. — This spring, wliich is visited by 
so many persons, is situated on the land of tlie Society, 
about one-half mile westwardly from the village, and is 
probably one of tlie largest springs in Pennsylvania. — 
There is only one fountain from which all the water, 
which forms a considerable stream, is discharged, and 
has water sufficient for some of the largest merchant 
mills in the county. From its head to the Conestoga, 
into which the stream, denominated on the map of Lan- 
caster county, " Carter's Creek," empties, it is six miles, 
and in that distance, there are seven mills. The water 
is the pure limestone, and very fresh. In former times, 
it formed a large pond, around which Indians resided, of 
which the number of Indian arrorw heads, hatchets, and 
stones used for throwing in their slings, give ample 
proof. Could these Indians return and see the great 
change which has taken place at their spring, they 
would probably not believe it to be the same, from which 
they had formerly drunk. About the year 17S0, some of 
the inhabitants of Litiz began to improve it by enclosing 
it with a circular wall and filling up part of the pond, 
and in later years the remaining part was filled up, and 
there, where there was formerly a considerable body of 
water, there is at this time a beautiful park of trees. — 
Various improvements were undertaken from time to 
time; but at no period was it found in such an im- 
proved state as at this time. Around it are a number of 
seats, and on the hill, from under which it has its source, 
there arc handsomely laid out gardens, arbors and orna- 
mental shrubbery. From the spring to the village is an 
aveimu of Linden and Maple trees, winding along the 
stream, the path of wliich is partly covered with gravel. 


and partly with tan, which renders access to it easy in 
wet, as well as dry weather. Along this avenue there 
are various seats under shade trees for thb accommoda- 
tion of visitors, and also several neat bridges, in case 
they wish to cross the stream. Among other attractions, 
there is a water work on a small scale ; this consists of a 
forcing pump, the wheel of which is set in motion by the 
stream, and forces the water into a circular basin, 
located under a number of oaks, which have grown 
there in a circular form, as if nature had predestined the 
spot for a retreat of pleasure. In the centre of the 
basin there is a jet, through which the water is forced by 
the pump to the; height of fifteen feet, forining thereby a 
beautiful fountain, and ■ rendering the sfxjt still more 

Fire Engines. — The village is provided with two 
excellent Fire Engines, one of which called the " Friend- 
ship," was built in Philadelphia, by Messrs. Agnew & 
Merrick, and the other, called the " Assistance," by Mr. 
Martin Shreiner of Lancaster. The Friendship is kept 
in the upper part of the town, and the Assistance in the 
lower, in buildings expressly put up for that purpose. — 
There arc two well organized companies, and their 
apparatus, consisting of hose, ladders, axes, hooks, &c., 
is very extensive. Only one fire occurred in Litiz since 
its establishment; this was on the 16th of July, 1S37, 
when five buildings were consumed, and among them 
was the house to which we have referred, which 
formerly' was the so called Warwick church. 
. Population, Mechanics, &c. — The population of 
of. Litiz is at present 36G ; it contains fifty-five dwelling 
houses, and the following number of meclianics : two 
shoemakers, three tailors, one confectioner, one weaver, 
one tanner, one brewer, two clock and watch-makers, 


wo HisToar or 

one silver-smith, one potter, one smoke-pipe manufac- 
turer, two stores, one tavern, two coopers, one chair- 
maker, two cabinet makers, two tin-smiths, one lock- 
smith, one copper-smith, two saddlers, one blue dyer, 
one glue-boiler, one blacksmith, one wheel-wright, one 
hatter, three tobacconists, one malt manufacturer, one 
post office, four schools, one justice of the peace, and one 

One of the stores and the tavern belong to the com- 
munity, to which also belongs the land, which is partly 
divided into farms, and partly into lots, which are rented 
by the inhabitants, and the profits arismg from the rents, 
are applied for various purposes. 

Formerly there was an extensive chip hat and bonnet 
manufactory carried on by Mr. Mathias Tschudy, 
which gave employment to many. lie was the only 
person in the United States that understood the art of 
manufactining them, and supplied nearly all the cities 
and country with his hats. The palm leaf and straw 
hats, coming into fashion, they were preferred, and con- 
secpiently tlic factory was discontinued. 

Organs were also built in Litiz in former times, which 
for tone and excellent workmanship, are very celebrated, 
A mimber of the best organs in Philadelphia, Baltimore 
and Lancaster, are specimens thereof; and among 
others, the large and beautiful organ hi the Lutheran 
chnrcl), at Lancaster, is one of them. 

In lornier times, tlic; augers which were sent from 
England bad no screw, serving as a point, as we have 
them in our day. The invention of this screw was first 
made at Litiz, by Mr. John II. Raucb, Senior, during the 
last ccnuny; the pattern was then sent to England by 
Judge Iici;ry, after which the screw pohit was generally 


The first plan of the ten-plate stoves was also mvtnted 
at Litiz, Ly Mr. Godfrey Albright, who made a pattern 
and gave it to Robert Coleman, Esq., and who then 
introduced them. 

Note. — Members of the Assembly for Lancaster county. — 1749, 
James Wright, Arthur Patterson, Calvin Cooper, Peter Worrall; 
1750, Arthur Patterson, Calvin Cooper, James Wright, James 
Webb; 1751, Peter Worrall, James Wright, Calvin Cooper, 
Arthur Patterson ; those of 1751, were all re-elected for 1752, 
1753 and 1754 ; 1755, no return made, but James Wright and 
James Webb, appeared; 1756, Emanuel Carpenter, James 
Wright, James Webb, John Douglass ; 1757, Isaac Saunders, 
Emanuel Carpenter, James Webb, James Wright; those of 
1757, were re-elected for 1758, 1759 and 1760. 



Hostilities bctwi?cn the English and the French in Anierit-a— Dela.wara 
and Shawanese Indians commit murders — General Braddock's arrival, 
&c.— Biaddock's defeat — Dismay caused among the Ironticr settlsrg — 
Paxton and Tulpehoi-ken refugees at Ephrata — rMurdcrs committed by 
the Indians — Block House erected at Lancaiiter — Iiihaliitants of Lap- 
caster county petition the Assembly for a Militia law — Scalping pArties — 
War suspended against the Indians — Preparations made to repel Indian 
incursions — Coniad Weiser commands nine companies — French hos-* 
tililics continued — Alurders committed by the Indians in 1757 — Indjan 
treaties, at Lancaster and at Easton — Minutes, extract from, of Indian 
treaty, at Ijancaster — King Beaver's speech — Treaty held at Easton; 
fifteen tribes of Indians represented — Murders by Indians in Tulpe- 
hockcn — Murders committed by the Indians in 1758 — (Jumbcrland over- 
run by savages — Inhabitants flee to Lancaster, &c. — Barracks erected at 
Lancaster — ^Vork-IIouse erected at Lancaster — The Irish sell to the 
German?, and seat themselves at Uher.tnut Glade — Baron Stiegel lays out 
Manheim — Notice of the Baron — Notes of variety ; Emanuel Carpenter. 

Ardent hostilities between the English and French 
commenced in America, in 1754. The events of that 
year in America, had determined both England and 
France to send re-info rcements to their colonies. The 
French courted, and Avon the assistance of many of the 
Indians, who had felt themselves aggrieved by the 
English; especially the Delawares and Shawanese,* 

*The Indians felt themselves aggrieved. At a treaty held 
with the Indians, at Easton, Pennsylvania, in November, 1756; 
upon the Governor requesting of the Indians to know the 
cause of their uneasiness, and hostile conduct. Tccdyuscung, 
chief of the Delawares, and who then represented several 
nations, mentioned several; among which were the instiga- 
tions of the French, and the ill usage or grievance they had 
sufiered both in Pennsylvania and Noav Jersey. When the 
Governor desired to be informed what these grievances were, 
Tcedyuscung replied, "I have not far to go fur an instance: 


whose cruelty was stimulated by the French promising 
*' to restore their lands." They committed gross atroci- 
ties upon the provincialists — perpetrated cruel and cold- 
blooded murders. At this time the Six Nations, a 
numerous people, were seated on the western waters — 
they were cold towards the English cause — "divided 
among themselves, and barely maintained their neutral hy. 
Some of them had moved to Canada — those who re- 
mained were only kept pacific by the liberality of the 
province. The French were making preparations to 
subdue the country, and while thus preparing, England 
determined to oppose '■^ their groiving power.^' General 
Braddock, Adjutant General St. Clair, and the regiments 
of Dunbar and Halkett, arrived from Europe, in March, 
1755, at Alexandria, Virginia. 

To oppose a formidable obstacle to the invasion of the 
French, P'ranklin was commissioned on " liberal terms to 
procure one hundred fifty wagons, and fifteen hundred 
pack-horses. In a few weeks all the wagons, and two 
hundred and fifty pack-horses were obtained in Lan- 
caster, York, and Cmiiberland county. The wagons and 
pack-horses, with the necessary provisions, met General 
Braddock on Will's creek. Fort Cumberland. Braddock 
being amply furnished with all the necessaries, and re-in- 
forcea by a numerous body of Americans and Indians, 

this very ground, that is under me;" striking it with his foot; 
"was my land and inheritance; and is taken from me by 
fraud: when I say this ground, I mean all the land lying be- 
tween Tohiccon creek and Wyoming, on the river Susque- 
hanna. * * * I have been served so in this province." — 
Minutes of Conference at Easton. 

The Delawares and Shawanese, who had emigrated from the 
south, and by mere permission to settle in 1698, had no title to 
land, yet they claimed some by the permission from the 
proper owners. 


broke up his encampment, Jmie 12th, and marched his 
army to tlie fatal field, where, on the 9th of July, 1755, 
he met with an unparalleled discomfiture. He had five 
horses shot under him, and received a ball through the 
arms and lungs — he expired the 18th of July. Sixty- 
four, out of eighty-four of his officers and one-half 
of his privates, were killed or wounded. The issue 
of this battle inspirited the enemy, and dispirited the 
provincialists. Dismay and consternation brooded upon 
the frontier settlers. "The enemy now roamed unmo- 
lestedly and fearlessly along the western lines of Vir- 
ginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, committing the most 
appalling outrages,, and wanton cruelties, that the cu- 
pidity, and the ferocity of the savage could dictate. — 
The first invasions were in Cumberland county, whence 
they soon extended to the Susquehanna. The inhabi- 
tants, dwelling at the distance of from one to three miles 
apart, fell unresistingly, were captured, 'or fled in terror 
to the interior settlement. The main body of the enemy 
encamped on the Susquehanna, thirty miles above Harris' 
Ferry, whence they extended themselves on both sides 
the river. The settlements at the great Cove in Cum- 
berland county, were destroyed, and many of the inhabi- 
tants slaughtered or made capfives,* and the same fate 
fell upon them at TulpehQcken."t 

*Onc Johnson, had been captured in Lancaster county — 
Washington while being on a scouting party — 1758, took three 
prisoners of the Indians among whom was Johnson. — Gor- 
don's Pa. 307. 

f On the 14th of. December 1755, the savages attacked the 
house of F. Reichelsderfer, in Albany township, Berks county. 
R. was in the field, and escaped. The Indians murdered his 
two children, set his buildings on fire, destroyed his grain, and 
killed his cattle. At Jacob Gerhart's, neighbor of Mr. Reich- 


During the time of these hostilities, the doors of the 
Sieben Taeger at Ephrata were open for the reception 
of th« inhabitants of Tulpehocken and Paxton settle- 
ments. They did not even consider their cloisters, 
chapels and meeting rooms too sacred ; these they gave 
for the accommodation of those who were driven from 
their homes by the incursions of the hostile Indians. To 
give both the inhabitants and those who fled thither, 
protection against the infuriated savage, a company of 
infantry was despatched by the Government from Phila- 
delphia to Ephrata,* and on representation of the 
character of the society, by the commissioners who were 
sent to visit the place, the Government made them offers 
of large presents, which they respectfully declined to 
receive, except two large communion goblets, which was 
the only recompence they would receive.! 

elsderfer, they killed on-e man, two women. Six children, 
slipped under the bed, one of whom was burned, the other 

In March, 1756, they burned the house and barn of Barnabas^ 
Seitle, and the mill of Peter Conrad, in Berks county, and 
killed the wife of Balser Neytong, and made captive his son, a 
lad of eight years of age: they fired upon David Howel, five 
times, and the last time shot him through the arm. — Gordon. 

Peter Miller, in his Chronicon Epliratense, p. 203, speak- 
ing of this period, says : — Untcrdessen kam der Fiend alle 
Tage dem Lager der Einsamen naeher, und war nur noch 13 
Meilen davon ab, die Fluectiingeliefen Ephrata zu und suchten 
shutz by denen, die des shultzes selbst bedurften. Alle Tage 
brachten die Boten neue Nachtrichten von Mordthaten, 
welches sie ins gemien einem ncucn Zusatz vermehrten. 

*Manche zeiten war Ephrata voUer Roth-roecke. — Chron. 
Ephra. 202. 

fW. M. Fahnestock, M. D. 


In the town of Lancaster, preparations were made in 
the latter part of November, and the early part of 
December, to erect a block-house. From the following 
letter, dated Lancaster, December 1st, 1755, addressed to 
James Hamilton, Esq., we may learn that the inhabitants 
of the county feared the incursions of the Indians : 

Honored Sir: — I received the favor of yours of the 
2.4th, November, and we are all much pleased by your 
willingness to contribute to the building of a block-house. 
The savages who committed the murders in Paxton are 
now believed to be very numerous, perhaps, one 
hundred. A mmiber of families, but thirty-five miles 
from us, are entirely cut off Farmers are flying from 
their plantations to Reading. An alarm, last night, 
about twelve o'clock; we assembled in the square, say, 
three hundred, but with fifty gUns ; it was shocking to 
hear at such a moment, when in expectation of the 
savages, that we had neither a sufficiency of guns, nor 
ammunition. Thanks be to God, the alarm was false. — 
The block-house will be built on the north side of the 
north end of Queen street. There will be a wide ditch 
around it, a small drav/ bridge ; one important use is to 

Note.— A petition was presented, November 7, 1755, to the 
Assembly, from divers inhabitants of Paxton Narrows, Lancas-- 
tercounly, praying furthe enactmentof a militialaw, orto gran 
asuiTicicnt sum of money to maintain such a number of regular 
troops as may be thought necessary to defend their frontiers, 
and buil.l fortifications in proper places; also, that Conrad 
Weiscr might be sent to the Indians, at or about Shamokin, in 
order to sound their dispositions, and engage them to come 
down among the inhabitants with their wives and children, 
where they might be plentifully supplied with every necessary, 
and be out of the reach of the intrigues of enemies.— V'ofes of 


place our wives, girls and and children within, that 
they may be in safety. * *s * * These are fearful 
times. Ood only knows how they will end. 

I am yours, 

Edward Shippen. 
Another, dated Lancaster, December 5, 1755. 

Honored SiR:-^The fort we have agreed to build, is 
as follows : For the stockage, the logs split in the mid- 
dle, and set on end, three feet in the ground, placed on 
the north side of the town, between Queen and Duke 
street; with curtains 100 feet. The planks of the 
bastions, 16 feet; and the saws of said bastions, 30 feet 
each. Yours, &c., 

Edward Shippen. 

James Hamilton., Esq., Bush Hill. 

Marauding parties of French and Indians w^ere still 
on the frontiers in January, 1756, attacking the settle- 
ments on the Juniata river, murdering and scalping such 
of the inhabitants as did nor escape, or were not pri- 
soners. To guard against these devastations, a chain of 
forts and block-houses were built, garrisoned with from 
twenty to seventy-five provincials, as the situation and 
importance of the places required. 

"The friendly Indians v/ere gathered in from the 
Susquehanna to Philadelphia, lest they should be mis- 
taken for enemies. These did not remain long at Phila- 
delphia, headed by their leaders. Scarroyady and ]\Ion- 
tour — they merited praise from the whites — at the risk of 
their lives they visited the several tribes of Indians 
seated along the Susquehanna, to dissuade them from, 
taking up arms. 

While preparations were in progress to wage war with 
certainty against the Shawanese and Delawares, in- 


338 msToHY OS" 

formation was received by the Governor,* "that Sif 
WiUiani Johnson, through the mediation of tlie Six 
Nations, had succeeded in disposing the ShaWanese and 
Dclawares to an accommodation, and that these tribes 
had promised to refrain from hosiihties. On the part of 
the province, the Governor suspended the war against 
the Indians, by proclamation." A treaty was pro- 
posed, and acceded to. It was held at Easton. But 
scarce had the Indians returned to their wigwams, when 
new scenes of cruel murders were perpetrated on the 
southward of the Blue Mountains.! The frontier set- 
tlers were driven into the interior. "In 1755, the 
country west of the Susquehanna, possessed three 
thousand men fit to bear arms, and in 1756, exclusive of 
the provincial forces, there were not one huhdred; fear 
having driven the greater part into the interior." 

Successfully to repel the insurgents, the Governor and 
provincial commissioners raised twenty-five companies, 
amounting to fourteen hundred men. J Nine of these 

♦Governor Morris of Pennsylvania, thought proper by pro- 
clamation, to declare war against all Indian nations who should 
persist in so doing ; offering one hundred and fifty dollars for 
every hostile Delaware Indian taken alive, and one hundred 
and thirty dollars for every scalp, inviting at the same time, 
all those wlio laid down the hatchet, to meet at a treaty of 
peace. — IleckcweUer^s Nar. 50. 

f Heckewelder's Narrative. 

|It appears the government was somewhat remiss in timely 
action. Intelligence arrived at Pliiladelphia, Aj)ril 13, 1750, 
that the people of the back counties were about to meet at 
Lancaster to march to Philadelphia, and make some demands 
of the legislature in session. Tiie 15th of tlie same month Mr. 
Chew and others were sent by the governor to persuade the 
people to desist. April 21, Mr. Chew and others returned fiom 
Lancaster; and the governor summoned the Asscmblv for the 
10th of May.— i/az. Pa. Rrg. Y. 287. 


companies were commanded by Lieut. Colonel Conrad 
Weiser; they were stationed at different points, to meet 
the exigencies of the time and place, one at Fort Augusta; 
one at Hunter's mill, seven miles above Harrisburg, on 
the Susquehanna; one-half company on the Swatara, at 
the foot of the North Mountain; one company and a 
half at Fort Henry, close to the gap of the mountain, 
called Tothea Gap; one company at Fort William, near 
the forks of the Schuylkill river, six miles beyond the 
mountain; one company at Fort Allen, at Gnadenhutten, 
a Moravian settlement : the other three companies were 
scattered between the rivers Lehigh and Delaware, at 
the disposition of the captains, some at farm-houses, 
others at mills, from three to twenty in a place. Major 
James Burd and Colonel Armstrong, had the command 
of the other companies; these were principally sta- 
tioned west of the Susquehanna.* " The Shawanese and 
Delaware Indians, stimulated and abetted by the French, 
kept up their hostilities, till 1757, when negotiations for 
peace commenced with Teedyuscung, the chief of the 
Delaware and Shawanese tribes, on the Susquehanna, 
their fury abated. But the French and Western Indians, 
still roamed in small parties over the country, committing 
murders. The counties of Cumberland, Berks, North- 
ampton and Lancaster, were, during the spring and 
summer months, of 1757, kept in continual alarm,t and 

*Gordon's Pa. 

fMarch 29, 1757, the Indians made a breach at Rocky 
Springs, where one man was killed and eleven talcen prisoners. 
April 2d, 1757, William McKinnie and his son were killed near 
Chambers's fort. April 17th, Jeremiah Jack, near Potomac, 
was taken captive, and two of his sons killed, and a man and 
woman were drowned in the Potomac, while endeavoring to 
escape. April 23d, John Martin and William Blair were 


acme of the savage scalping parties were pushed on, to 
within tliirty miles of Philadelphia." 

Several Indian treaties were held, in 1757; one at 
Lancaster,* in May ; another at Easton, in August. At 

killed, and Patrick McClelland wounded in the shoulder, who 
afterwards died of his wound, near Maxwell's fort, on Cono- 
cocheague creek. May 14th, Major Campbell and one Tussey 
were killed or taken captive, with fourteen others, rear 
Potomac. May 12, John Martin and Andrew Paul, both old 
men, were taken from Conococheague. May 13, two men 
killed, near McCormick's fort, Conodoguinet. May 16, eleven 
persons killed at Paxton, Lancaster county. June 9, James 
Holiday, and fourteen men killed and taken ; James Long's 
son and another man, killed in a quarry at Fort Frederick. — 
Nineteen men killed in a mill at Quitipihilla, Lanca&ter county, 
and four were killed in Shearman's valley ; all done in one 
week. June 6, two men were killed, and five taken prisoners, 
near Shippensburg. July 18, six men killed or taken from a 
field, near Shippensburg. July 19, nineteen men killed and 
taken wliile reaping in a field, near Shippensburg. August 
17, William Waugh's barn was burnt, in the Tract, York 
county, by Indians. September 9, one boy and girl taken 
from Donegal, Lancaster county. October 1 and 2, a very 
great slaughter, near Opikcn, in Virginia, where more than 
sixty were killed and taken. November 9, John. Woods, his 
wife and mother-in-law, and John Archer's wife were killed, 
four children taken, and nine men killed, near McDowell's 
fort. — Loudon''s Narrative, II. 200-208. 

♦At the tjeaty held. May 29, 1757, between Governor Denny 
and the Indians of the Six Nations, they complained of 
grievances, and assigned a few causes of disaffection. 

" Brothers, some years ago, in the Jer-cys, one of the head 
of the Delawares had been out hunting. On his return, ho 
called to see a gentleman, a friend of his, one of your people, 
whom he found in the field: when the gentlemen saw him, he 
came to meet him. It was rainy weather, and the Delaware 
chief had his gun under his arm ; they met at a fence, and as they 
reached their hands to each other, the Delaware's gun went 


the latter, three hundred Indians, representations of ten 
tribes, chiefly from the Susquehanna, (those on the Ohio 
were not included) with their chief, Teedyuscung, at- 
tended. Before departing from the treaty, they not only 

off, by accident,, and shot him dead. He was very much 
grieved, went to the house, and told the gentlennan's wife what 
had happened; and said, he was willing to die, and did not 
choose to live after his friend. She immediately sent for a 
number of the inhabitants: when they were gathered, some 
said it was an accident, and could not be helped ; but the 
greatest number were for hanging him; and he was taken 
by the sheriff, and carried to Amboy, where he was tried and 

" There was another misfortune happened : a party of the 
Shav/anesc, who were going to war against their enemies, in 
their way through Carolina, called at a house, not suspecting 
any harm, as they were among their friends : a number of the 
inhabitants rose and took them prisoners, on account of some 
mischief which was done them about that time; suspecting 
them to bo the people who had done the mischief; and carried 
them to Charleston, and put them in prison, where the chief 
man, called " The Pride,"' died. 

" The relations of thoi^e people were much exasperated 
against you, our brothers, the English, on account of the ill 
treatment you gave their friends; and have been continually 
spiriting up their nations to take revenge. 

"Brothers, you desired us to open our hearts, and inform 
you of every thing we knew that might have given rise to the 
quarrel between you and our nephews and brothers: That, in 
former times, our fore-fathers conquered the Dclawares, and 
put petticoats on them ; a long time after that, they lived 
among you, our brothers; but, upon some difference between 
you and them, wc thought proper to remove them, giving them 
lands to plant and hunt on, at Wyoming and Juniata, on the 
Susquehanna: but you, covetous of land, made plantations 
there, and spoiled their hunting grounds ; they then com- 
plained to us, and we looked over those lands, and found their 
complaints to be true. 

"At this time they carried on a correspondence with the 



agreed to a cessation of hostilities against the provin- 
cialists, but agreed to take up arms against the French. 
A definite treaty, however, was not held between the 
English and Indians, before the month of October, 1748, 
when a convention was held at Easton with the Indians, 
which lasted from the 17th to the 26th of tliat month. — 
There were present, on the part of the English, the Go- 
vernors of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, with Sir Wil- 
liam Johnson, and other agents. The Indians who 
assisted at this treaty, were the Mohawks, Oneidas, 

French ; by which means the French became acquainted with 
all the causes of complaint they had against you ; and as your 
people were daily increasing their settlements, and by these 
means you drove them back into the arms of the French; and 
they took the advantage of spiriting them up against you, by 
telling them, ' Childnn, you see, and we have often told you, 
how the English, your brothers, serve you ; they plant all the 
CO imtry, and drive you back ; so that, in a little time, you will 
have no land : it is not so with us; though we build trading 
houses on your lands, we do not plant; we have our provisions 
frcm over the great water.' 

'We have opened our hearts, and told you what complaints 
we have heard that they had against you ; and our advice to 
you is, that you send for the Senecas and for them ; treat them 
kindly, and rather give them part of their fields back again 
than differ with them. It is in ycur power to settle all the 
ditferenccs with them, if you please.' — Minnies of (he Indian 

" King I' caver was also present, and made a speech : 'When 
our Great Father came first, we stood on the Indian's path; 
we looked to the sun as he rose in the east; we gave the 
English venison; the English gave us many, many good 
things; but the English trod on our tees — we turned our faces 
to the west — the English trod on our heels — we walked on — 
the English followed— we walked on, not knowing where to 
rest — the English were at our heels. Father, we are weary, 
we wish to rest.'" 


Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas, Tuscaroras, Nanticokes, 
Conoys, Tuteloes, Clmgnuts, Delawares, Unamies, Mini- 
sinks, Mohicons, and Wappingers, whose deputies, with 
their women and children, amounted to 507.* Peace 
and friendship had now been established between the 
EngHsh and Indians; all fear of an Indian war Xd^n- 
ished, and the minds of the people had been at rest for 
some time; but the Frencii war still continued, and occa- 
sional barbarities were committed upon the frontier set- 
tlers, by the Indians, till near the close of the war be- 
tween the English and the French, in 1762 ;t "for there 
had been a secret confederacy formed among the Shawa- 
nese, the tribes upon the Ohio and its tributary waters, 
and about Detroit, to attack, simultaneously, all the 
English posts and settlements on the frontiers. Their 
plan was deliberately and skilfully projected. The 
border settlements were to be invaded durhig harvest, the 
men, corn, and cattle, to be destroyed, and the out-posts 
to be reduced by famine, by cutting off their supplies.-r- 
Pursuant to this plan, the Indians fell suddenly upon the 
traders, whom they had invited among them, mur- 
dering many, and plundered the effects of all, to 
an immense value. 

*Hoh-nes' An. II. 86. 

fJuly 1, 1757, three men and four children, were murdered 
and scalped in the vicinity of Tulpehocken. The Rev. John 
Nicholas Kurtz, pastor of the Lutheran congregation, at Tul- 
pehocken, in writing to the Rev. Muhlenberg, pastor of the 
Lutheran congregation at New Providence, under date of 
July 5, 17.37, says: Diesen Morgen, wurden sieben ermordete 
und gescalpte, nemlich drey Maenner and vier Kinder, zur 
Bcerdigung auf unscrn Kirchhof gebracht, so gestern bey 
Sonnen Untergang, fuenf Meilcn von hier von den Indianern 
umgebracht worden, und alle in einem Hause ! 


"The frontiers of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Vir- 
ginia, were overrun by scalping parties, marking their 
way with blood and devastation."* 

"The upper part of Cumberland was overrun by the 
savages, in 1763, who set fire to houses, barns, corn, hay 
andevery thing that was combustible; the inhabitants were 
surprised and murdered with the utmost cruelty and bar- 
barity. Those who could, escaped — some to Shippens- 
burg, others to Carlisle, where houses and stables were 
crov/ded with refugees. INIany of Ihem sought shelter 
(in Lancaster county) in the woods, with their families, 
and with their cattle.t Some staid with their relatives, 

*April 2d, 1758, two men were killed near Shippensburg - 

Apsil .5, one man killed and ten taken, near Black's Gap, on the 
South mountain. April 13, one man killed and nine taken near 
Archibald Bard's South mountain. May 21, one man and fiye 
women taken from Yellow Breeches creek. May 23, Joseph 
Gallady killed, his wife and one cliild taken from Conoco- 
cheague. May 29, 1759, one Dunwiddie and Crawford shot by 
two Indians, in Carrol's tract, York county. July 20, a boy was 
plowing at Swatara, was shot by two Indians, one horse killed, 
and the other wounded. — Loudon's Narrative. 

Note. — It was apprehended that the Indians of Conestoga 
were becoming restless. In May, 1758, intelligence was re- 
ceived at Philadelphia that the Indians at Conestoga designed 
to move off to the woods — a message was sent them— May 3, 
some of the Indians arrived, at Philadelphia, from Conestoga 
— they stated, in conference, that they did not intend leaving 
Conestoga, though some had gone to Susquehanna. They 
had thought of going to Susquehanna to hunt and tiade. — 
Will Sock, Chazrea and others of then), gave Conrad Weiser 
the news of Indian incursions. — JIaz. Reg. V. 272. 

t" In July, 17G3, the reapers of Lancaster county took their 
guns and ammunition witii thorn into the harvest fields to de- 
fend themselves from Indians."— Lan. Intell. c^- Jour. 


and never returned to the place from which they had 

"After the first panic had passed away, the refugee 
settlers associated themselves together, and under the 
care of divisions of the regular troops and miUtia, 
succeeded in collecting and saving the remnant of their 

In the latter end of August, a party of volunteers 
from Lancaster county, one hundred and ten in num]>er, 
intercepted at Muncy hill, a number of Indians, pro- 
ceeding from Great Island, in the Suscpiehanna, to the 
frontier settlements. In several skirmishes with the 
Indians, the Lancasterians killed twelve of them — four 
of their own men v/ere killed, and a like number 

After General Forbes had taken possession of Fort 
Dti Quesne, November 25, 1758, and garrisoned it by 
men, chiefly provincial troops, from Pennsylvania, Mary- 

*The following we copied at the Donegal church: "In mem- 
ory of William McDowell, late of Conccaeheague, who was a 
tender parent and careful instructor, and an example of piety 
to a numerous progeny. When the settlement was obliged to 
fly by the barbarous Indian war,, he deceased in these parts. — 
So was interred here September 12, 17.59, aged 77," 

Note. — Extracts from letters to James Hamilton, Esq. dated 
Carlisle, July 3d and 5th, 1763, signed Henry Boquet : 

If the measures I had the honor to recommend to you in my 
letter of yesterday, are not immediately put into execution, I 
foresee the rnin of the posts of the province on this side of the 
Susquehanna; and as York county would be covered by 
Cumberland, I think they ought to assist in building the post, 
and sowing the harvest. It would not be the less necessary 
to send arms and ammunition to be distributed among the in- 
habitants for the protection of the reapers. 

May, 5. The road was nearly covered with women and chil- 
dren flying to Lancaster and Thiladeiphia. 



land and Virginia, under the command of Colonel 
Mercer, many of the other soldiers were marched into 
the interior, and quartered at Lancaster, Reading and Phi- 
ladelphia, the soldiers were quartered or billetted among 
the inhabitants, who complained grievously of the 
men, and the caprice, favor and oppression, of the 
olRcers. The assembly, having remonstrated in vain on 
these enormities, directed a barracks to be erected, 
1759, in the town of Lancaster, to contain 500 men. — 
Mr. ]jausman was appointed Barrack master.* 

The influence of war is ever pernicious to the morals 
of society — the train of evils consequent upon war arc 
baleful. Lancaster county felt its effects, not only in the 
shape of burdens and taxest upon the industrious por- 
tion of its inhabitants. The true condition of the state 
of morals, and the fruits of war, may be learnt from a 
petition presented to the Assembly, in 1763, praying the 
Legislature for the passage of an Act for erecting a 
House of Correction. The preamble to the Act, recites 
part of the petition : 

Whereas, It hath been represented to tliis House, by 
petitioners from a considerable number of inhabitants of 
the borough and county of Lancaster, that they now, 
and for a long time, have suffered most grievously, as 
well by unruly, disobedient servants, as by idle strolling 
vagrants from divers parts, who have taken shelter in 
the county and borough; that drunkenness, profane 
swearing, breach of the Sabbath, tuamlts, and other 
vices, so much prevail, that it is not m the power of the 

•Gordon; Ilaz, Reg. 

fTlic tax assessed in Lancaster county in 1760, amounted ta 
upwards of sixteen thousand dollars. The land estimated in the 
county to bo 436,346 acres. Taxables 5,635, £l. 2s. to each 
taxable ; amounted to £6,178 IDs. 


riiagistrates to suppress them, and preserve peace and 
good order, liaving no house of correction lor the punish- 
ment of such offenders. A law was passed — a house of 
correction, or work house, erected. " This was the 
work house in which the Indians were ' despatched^ hj 
the Paxton Rangers, Tuesday, the 27th of December, 

For several successive winters, and especially in the 
year 1763, the frost was severe upon the winter and 
summer grain, in the low lands and limestone soil. — 
This circumstance, and the heavy timber, induced many 
of the Irish to seat themselves, in 1763, along the 
northern line of the counties of Chester and Lancaster, 
well known at an early period by the name of Chestnut 
Glade. The Germans purchased their little improve- 
ments, and were not intimidated either by the difficulty 
of clearing their lands, the scarcity of water, and the 
liability of frost which, at this period, was experienced 
every month of the year.* 

AboiU the year 1760 or 61, Mr. Steigel, who managed 
the Elizabeth iron Vv'orks for many j^ears, when they 
were owned by Benezet &Co. of Philadelphia, commenced 
his singular career. He was well known as the eccentric 
German Baron, or Wilheim Heinrich Steigel, proprietor 
of Manheim. Having purchased two hundred acres of 
land from the Messrs. Stedmans of Philadelphia, he 
■erected a grand chateau, (castle) very singular in its 
structure,! and afterwards laid out a town, to which lie 

'Haz. Reg. V. 12. 

f This house is now occupied by Mr. John. Arndt, merchant 
who, we state it with regret, in improving the house, made such 
alterations that the original of the internal arrangement is so 
materially altered as to leave neither the Baron's pulpit, from 
which, in a large upper saloon, he, in the capacity of a preacher, 


gave the name o^ his place of nativity — -Manheim.— ' 
This town was laid out in 1761. and in 1762, contained 
three houses. One of his countrymen, Mr. Andrew 
Bartruff, father of Colonel John Bartruff, erected the 
third house in the town — he kept the first grocery.* 

To give encouragement to the inhabitants of the place, 
and to advance his own interest, as proprietor, the Baron 
erected a glass house, where the manufacture of the 
article of glass, in all its varieties, was successfully carried 
on for some years, by Steigel himself, and afterwards by 
a Mr. Jenkins. Nothing remains of the glass house. — 
The place where it stood is still pointed out, to the enquir- 
ing visitants, by the attentive and courteous inhabitants 
of Manheim. 

In 1761, William Adams laid out Adamstown. First 
holders of lots were Bicher, Eichholtz, Fansler, Negle, 
Kearn, Richards, Brendle, Steffs, Flickinger, Schlough, 
Reager and others. 

addressed his hands employed at the glass factory ; nor are 
other fixtures any longer visible. What remains of the inter- 
nal, has not its like, in the United States. Its rich scenery 
painting of falconry on the sides of the room walls — the tab- 
lets of china, curiously painted and fastened on the jambs, at- 
tract and excite the admiration of all who have the pleasure of 
spending a few moments with the hospitable andaflable owner 
of the house. 

The Baron was, as well as his fortune, singular. His 
vicissitudes in life were varied. He was Baron in Europe — an 
iron master, glass manufacturer, a preacher, a teacher — rich 
and poor, in America. He died a schoolmaster. At liberty; 
and imprisoned. A special act was passed for his relief, De- 
cember 24, 1774. So gehts dem Mensch. 

»Among the first settlers uf the place were, besides those 
already nicntioned, the Naumans, Minnichs, Wherlys, Kaisers, 
Longs, Hentzelmans, who kept the first tavern. About the 
town were the Lightncrs, Heists, Hcrshys, llostottcrs, Lehmans, 
Longeneckers, Brandts, Witmcrs, Ilellar.^ and others. 


Notes.-— In 1757 Elizabeth township was erected — then 
bounded: beginning at the land of Joseph Cratser, bounding 
upon Heidieberg, thence by the same to Cocalico township, 
thence by Cocalico to Warwick, thence by the same to the 
place of beginning. 

January 10th, 1759, Christian Frederick Post arrived at the 
town of Lancaster, from his journey to the Indians on Ohio, to 
whom he had gone to deliver a message from Governor Denny. 
Post had started from Easton, for Ohio, Oct. 25, 1758. 

July 13th, 1760, Conrad Wciser, the Indian agent, died in 
Heidieberg township, Berks county. 

1760, Emauuel Carpenter was appointed Presiding justice of 
the Court of Common Pleas of Lancaster county. He tilled 
this office until 1780, the time of his death. " He lived beloved 
and died lamented by all. He was in every sense an honest 
man; always just, liberal and tolerant. He was an arbiter in 
all matters of dispute among his neighbors ; and from his deci- 
sions they never appealed, such was the confidence of his 

He left a numerous connection of relatives and friends. His 
remains rest in Zimmerman's grave yard, near Earlville, at 
whose side rest those of his consort, Catharine Line, who died 
1785. Their lineal descendants are many, and are to be found 
in the names of the Carpenters, Groff:>, Ferrees, Heigarts, 
M'Cleerys and others. 

"In 1761, the inhabitants of Tulpehocken and Heidieberg 
townships, raistjd 150 men as rangers, to guard the county lines 
of Berks and Lancaster." 

1762, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two able and inge- 
nious mathematicians, after their return from Good Hope Cape, 
were employed to run the line so long the subject of angry con- 
troversy. The business was accordingly performed agreeably 
to directions, and stone pillars erected to exhibit clearly, an.l 
fix with certainty the long disputed boundary. 

Maytown was laid out May 1st, 1762, by Mr. Doner. To cele- 
brate the day of laying out Maytown, a fair, "a gathering of 
Zoose feeeZs," was held, and dancing performed in its best style, 
in the middle of the main street in the " houseless town." It 
is to be regretted that the dance could not have been 



in the absence of human beings, as well as in the absence of 

" An Indian conference was held, August 9, 1762, and a treaty 
made at Lancaster, which restored, for a short period, the tran- 
quility of the inhabitants." 

Members of AssemUy from Lancaster county, 17G1 and 1762 — 
Emanuel Carpenter, James Wright, James AVcbb, John Doug- 
lass. 1763, Isaac Saunders and those before named, except 
James Webb. 1764, James Webb, and those of 1763 except 
John Douglass. 


Tendency of war— Hostilities continued — Lancaster county exposed to 
Indian incursions, &c. — Treachery of the (Jonestoga Indians — Paxton 
and Donegal Rangers watch the Indians closely — The Paxton Boys 
surprize the Indians at Conestoga — Indian villagers massacred — Those 
abroad taken under protection by the magistrates of Lancaster — Governor 
Penn's proclamation — The Paxton Boys at Lancaster; massacre the In- 
dians — Governor Penn issues another jiroclamatlon — The Paxton Roys 
prow desperate, and " bhow up some Indian'' — Resort to J'hiladelphia — > 
Their jion-commendable conduct there — They return peaceably to their 
homes, leaving two of their number to represent their grievances to the 

In war, and in the midst of the calamities of war, the 
ordinary sympathies of our nature seem to forsake man. 
In the savage, war whets the destructive propensities, 
and his thirst to shed !)Iood increases in ardency as tlie 
numher of his victims swells. Total extirpation only cir- 
cumscrihcs his sphere of slaughter; hence, the indis- 
criminate murders of the innocent and the guilty, hy the 
savage. War makes demi-savagcs of the civilized, and 
the dcmi-savage, though \\q formerly felt his whole soul 
thrilled at hearing of, or seeing, the nmrder of one single 
individual, in turn, when inured to th.e miseries of war, 
can listen to the report of countless murders as an anmsing 


tale, and be prepared to resent to the utmost every 
wronsr : avenore himself in the destruction of those whom 
he believes to be aggressors, or mere abettors. Of this, 
we have a striking case in the "cruelties reciprocally 
committed " among the whites and Indians upon each 
other, during the bloody times of the middle of the last 
century. Hostilities were kept up by the Indians, and 
barbarities committed, calculated to excite the calmest 
to revenge the wrongs which the inhabitants of Lan- 
caster and the adjacent counties, suffered at the hands of 
hostile Indians, from 1754 to 1765.* Those whose path 
was marked, wherever they went among the whites, 
" with cruelty and murder," Vv^ere called hostile Indians, 
to distinguish them from the peaceable ones, residing at 
Conestogj, Nain and Wichetung. 

The inhabitants of Lancaster county, (especially those 
in Paxton and Donegal townships, being most exposed to 
the merciless Indians) reflecting upon the past, and the 
present with them ; "that the bloody barbarians had 
exercised on their fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, wives 
and children, and relatives, the most unnatural and 
leisurely tortures ; butchered others in their beds, at their 
meals, or in some unguarded hour. Recalling to their 
minds, sights of horror, scenes of slaughter; seeing 
scalps clotted with gore ! mangled limbs ! women ripped 

*" 1763. Two letters were received from Jonas Seely, Esq. 
from Berks county, dated, 10th and llth September, 1763. 

" We are all in a state of alarm. Indians have destroyed 
dwellings, and murdered with savage barbarity their helpless 
Inmates ; even in the neighborhood of Reading. Where these 
Indians come from, and where going we know not. These 
are dangerous times. Send us an armed force to aid our Ran- 
gers of Berks and Lancaster." 

" Those letters were laid before the Assembly, September 
16, 1763." — Lancaster Intelligencer & Journal. 


up ! the heart and bowels still palpitating with life, and 
smoking on the ground ! See savages swilling their 
blood, and imbibing a more courageous fuiy with the 
human draught. They reasoned thus : These are not 
men ; they are not beasts of prey ; the}^ are something 
worse ; they must be " infernal furies in human a/iape." 
Are we, asked they, tamely to look on and suffer tliem 
to exercise these hellish barbarities upon our children and 
wives ! our brethren and fellow citizens ! Shall these 
savages — even those whom we suspect as accessories — 
sliall they escape ? 

Who could, with all the influences of a continued war 
upon him, and under such circumstances, let escape one 
Indian, and if only strongly suspected of treachery, 
however specious his conduct, in the light of day? 
These, we conceive, were the feelings that incited the 
whites to acts of cruelty ; as ive icouhl view them now. 

That some of the Conestoga Indians were treach- 
erous, appears abundantly, from the facts set forth in the 
following afjidavifs: 

"Abraham Newcomer, a JNIcnnonite ; by trade a gun- 
smith, upon his affirmation, declared that several times, 
within these few years, Bill Soc and Indian John, two of 
of the Conestogoe Indians, threatened to scalp him for 
refusing to mend their tomaliawks, and swore they 
would as soon scalp him, as they would a dog. A few 
days before Bill Soc was killed, he brought a tomahawk 
to be steeled. Bill said, "if you Avill not, I'll have it 
mended to your sorrow," from which expression, "I 
apprehended danger." 

" Mrs. Thompson, of the borough of Lancaster, per- 
sonally appeared before the Chief Justice Burgess, and 
upon his solemn oath, on the Holy Evangelists, said that 
in the sunnncr of 17G1, Bill Soc come to her apartment, 


and threatened her life, saying, ' I kill you, all Lancaster 
can't catch me,' which filled me with terror :' and this 
lady further said, 'Bill Soc added, 'Lancaster is mine, 
and I will have it yet.' " 

"Colonel John Hambright, gentleman, an eminent 
brewer of the borough of Lancaster, personally appeared 
before Robert Thompson, Esq., a justice for the coimty 
of Lancaster, and made oath on the Holy Evangelists, 
that in August, 1757, he, an officer, was sent for provi- 
sion from Fort Augusta to Fort Hunter, that on his way 
he rested at McKee's old place ; a sentinel was sta- 
tioned behind a tree to prevent surprise. The sentry 
gave notice, Indians were near ; the deponent crawled 
up the bank and discovered two Indians, one was Bill 
Soc, lately killed at Lancaster. He called Bill Soc to 
come to him, but the Indians ran off. When the depo- 
nent came to Fort Hunter, he learnt that an old man had 
been killed before ; Bill Soc and his companions were 
believed to be the perpetrators of the murder. He, the 
deponent, had frequently seen Bill Soc and some of the 
Conestogoc Indians at Fort Augusta, trading with the 
Indians, but, after the murder of the old man. Bill Soc 

did not appear at that garrison." 

John Hambright. 

Sworn and subscribed the 28th of February, 1764,. 
before me, Robert Thompson, Justice. 

"Alexander Stephen, of the county of Lancaster, per- 
sonally appeared before Thomas Foster, Esq., one of the 
magistrates, and being duly qualified according to law, 
doth say, that Cannayak Sally, an Indian woman, told him 
that the Conestogoe Indians had killed Jegrea, an Indian, 
because he would not join the Conestogoe Indians in 
destroying dio English. James Cotter told the deponent 
that he was one of the three that killed William 



Hamilton, on Sherman's creek, and also another man, 
w-ith seven of his family. James Cotter demanded of 
the deponent a canoe which tlie murderers had left, as 
Cotter told him when the murder was committed. 

Alexander Stephen." 
Thomas Foster, Justice. 

" Anne Mary Le Roy, of Lancaster, appeared hefore 
the Chief Burgess, and being sworn on the Holy Evan- 
gelists of Almighty God, did depose and say, that in the 
year 1755, when her father John Jacob Le Roy, and 
many others, were murdered by the Lidians, at JNIa- 
honey, she, her brother, and some others, were made 
prisoners, and taken to Kittaning; that strange Indians 
yisited them; the French told them they were Cones- 
togoe Indians, and that Isaac was the only Indian true to 
their interest ; and that the Conestogoc Indians, with the 
exception of Isaac, were ready to lift the hatchet when 
ordered by the French. She asked Bill Soc's mother 
v/hetlicr she had ever been at Kittanir)g ? She said ' no, 
but her son Bill Soc had been there often ; that he was 
good for nothing. '*" Mary Le Roy." 

From these depositions, the reader may decide whether 
.suspicion was well founded or not. " Bill Soc's own 
motlicr declared he was good for nothina:." 

The friendly Indians, it was fully believed by the 
Paxtonians, connived at, if not indirectly stimulated the 
liostilc ones, in their relentless attacks upon the frontier 
settlers in 17G3. The grounds for this suspicion were 
sufliciently founded, in tlie opinion of the eagle-eyed 
Paxton and Donegal Rangers, to watch with a " keen 
eye " the movements of both parties, friendly and 
liostilc Indians. In September, the Indians eluded their 
close, searching pursuit. The Paxton Boys, and their 

"Lancaster Intelligencer & Journal. 


neighbors, havin<^ asked in vain* for protection from 
Government, were bent upon making an assault that 
woukl infuse terror into all called Indian ; if not put a 
stop to Bill and George Soc's going abroad, and their 
dances at Conestoga.t 

And the conviction having become general, aroused 
feelings, which war naturally engenders, in the bosoms 
of the citizens, in the Paxton and Donegal inhabitants, to 
extirpate the Conestogoes, the remains of a tribe of the 

*Indian.s had been traced by scouts to the wigwams at Con- 
estoga. Suspicion was awakened, the questions, " Are these 
christian Indians treacherous! Are ihcir wigwams the harbors 
of our deadly foe! Do they conceal tlic nightly prowling 
as-vassin of the furestl These and the like surmises were en- 
tertained by the people. Tlie rangers were active in endeav- 
oring to discover the perpetrators of those acts of violence. — 
The people declared openly they no longer confided in the 
professions of the governor; numbers of volunteers joined the 
rangers of Northampton, B Mks, Lancaster, and Cumberland, 
who were engaged in tracing the midnight assassins. Such 
vras the state of irritable feeling of these frontier counties, yet 
government was supine." 

■\Jacob Bachman, Esq. of West Strasburg, says, he ''reqiiently 
heard his mother relate, that when she was a girl of sixteen 
Soc frequented their house ; but she never liked his counte- 
nance — guilt played upon it. She also related, that a few days 
previous to the fatal day of the Conestogoes, one of their old 
women came to their house, and enquired, " Have you heard 
the bad news ;" when interrogated what bad news, she evasive- 
ly replied " the snow, the snow." It was then remarked by 
Mr. Rohrer, the father of Mrs. Bachman, "I guess. Bill and 
George have been again doing mischief; they will be caught 
sometime or other." 

In company with Dr. J. K. Netf, wc called on Mr. John 
Newcomer, August 10th, 1343, who told us, he distinctly remem- 
bers Bill Soc, coming to his father's house selling baskets, 
brooms and wooden ladles. 



Six Nations,* who occupied a spot of land in Manor 

On Wednesday, the 14th of December, 1763, at day 
break, " a number of armed mounted men, principally 
from Donegal and Paxton townships, attacked the 
Indian village, and barbarously massacred some women 
and children, and a few old men ; amongst the latter, the 
chief, Shaheas, who had always been distinguished for 
his friendship towards the whites. The majority of the 
Indian villagers were abroad at the lime of the attack."! 
After slaying those at home, their buts were set on fire, 
and most of them burned down.| " The magistrates of 
Lancaster sent out to collect the surviving ones, brought 
them into town, for their better security against any 
further attempt ; and it is said condoled with them on the 
misfortune that had happened, took them by the hand, 
and promised them protection. They were put in the 

*Il. C. a writer in the Intelligencer & Journal says : "The 
Indians at Conestogo, at the time of its destruction consisted 
of Senccas, Mingoes, Pequeas, &c. The Mmgoes were not 
of the five nations ; they belonged to a distant tribe of that 

f Gordon's Ta. 405. 

JOne of these huts or cabins still exists. It is occupied as a 
kitchen by Isaac Kuhn — it is built of round logs. The writer 
had been in this cabin, December 7, 1842. 

Note. — In a pamphlet ascribed to B. Franklin, written in 
1764, we find the following names of Indians, who resided at 
Conestoga: Shehaes, a very old man ; Peggy, his dauglitcr;. 
John, an old man ; Harry ; George and Bill Soc, brothers, 
both young men ; Betty a harmless old woman, and her son 
Peter, a likely lad ; John Smith, who liad married Sally, 
\vhoso Indian name was Wyanjoy, — /S/;ari's FranUiiiy IF, 


recently erected workhouse, a strong building, as the place 
of greatest safety." 

When the news of this unkind treatment of the Indians 
by the Paxtonians reached Philadelphia, the Governor 
issued the following proclamation : 

Whereas, I have received information, that on Wed- 
nesday the 14th of this month, a number of people well 
armed and mounted on horseback, unlawfully assembled 
together, and went to the Indiantown in the Conestoga 
manor, in Lancaster county, and without the least reason 
of provocation, in cold blood, barbarously killed six of the 
Indians settled there, and burnt and destroyed all their 
houses and effects ; and whereas so cruel and inhuman 
an act, commuted in the heart of this province on the said 
Indians, who have lived peaceably and inoffensively 
among us during all our late troubles, and for many years 
before, and were justly considered as under the protection 
of this government and its laws, calls loudly for the vigor- 
ous exertion of the civil authority, to detect the offenders 
and bring them to condign punishment ; I have, therefore, 
by and with the advice and consent of the council, thought 
fit to issue this proclamation, and do hereby strictly charge 
and enjoin all judges, justices, sheriffs, constables, officers, 
civil and military, aiid all other his Majesty's liege subjects 
within this province, to make diligent search and inquiry 
after the authors and perpetrators of the said crime, their 
abettors and accomplices, and use all possible means to 
apprehend and to secure them in some of the public jails 
of this province, that they may be brought to their trials, 
and be proceeded against according to law. 

And whereas a number of other Indians, who lately 
lived on or near the frontiers of this province, being 
willing and desirous to preserve and continue tlie ancient 
friendship which heretofore subsisted between them and 


the good people of this province, have, at their own 
earnest request, been removed from their habitations and 
brought into the county of Philadelphia, where provision 
is made for them at the public expense ; I do, therefore, 
hereby strictly forbid all persons whatsoever, to molest or 
injure any of the said Indians, as they will answer the 
contrary at their peril. 

Given under my hand and the great seal of the said 
province, at Philadelphia, A. D. 1763, Dec. 22d, and in 
the 4th year of his Majesty's reign. 

By his honor's command. John Penn. 

Joseph Shippen, Jr., Sec'y. 

" God save the Kiiig:" 

Notwithstanding the governor's interposition, the 
people were too much exasperated to have their fury 
allayed by a proclamation from a supine governor. 
" They assembled,* says Gordon, in great numbers, forced 
the prison, and butchered all the miserable wretches they 
found within the walls. Unarmed and unprotected, the 
Indians prostrated themselves with their children before 
their murderers, protesting their innocence and their love 
to the English, and in this posture they all received the 

The following letter by William Henry, Esq. of Lan- 
caster, to a gentleman of Philadelphia, may enable the 
reader to form some idea of the treatment the Indians 
received at the hands of the " Puxton Boys.'' 

"There are few, if any murders to be compared with 
the cruel nuirder committed on the Conestogo Indians in 
the jail of Lancaster, in 1763, by the Paxton boys, as 
they were then called. From fifteen to twenty Indians, 
as report stated, were placed there for protection. A 

♦Tuesday, the 27th Dec. 1763. 


regiment of Highlanders* were at that thiie quartered at 
the barracks in the town, and yet these murderers were 
permitted to break open the doors of the city jail and 
committed the horrid deed. The first notice I had of 
this affair was, that while at my father's store, near the 
court house, I saw a number of people running down 
street towards the jail, which enticed me and other lads 
to follow! them. At about six or eight yards from the 
jail, we met from twenty-five to thirty men, well mounted 
on horses, and vv^ith rifles, tomahawks, and scalping 
knives, equipped for murder. I ran into the prison yard, 
and there, oh what a horrid sight presented itself to my 
view ! Near the back door of the prison lay an old 
Indian and his squaw, particularly well known and 
esteemed by the people of the town on account of his 
placid and friendly conduct. His name was Will Soc; 
across him and squaw lay two children, of about the age 
of three years, whose heads were split with the toma- 
hawk, and their scalps taken off. Towards the middle 
of the jail yard, along the west side of the wall, lay a 
stout Indian, whom I particularly noticed to have been 
shot in his breast ; his legs were chopped with the toma- 
hawk, his hands cut off, and finally a rifle ball discharged 
in his mouth, so that his head was blown to atoms, and 
the brains were splashed against and yet hanging to the 
wall, for three or four feet around. This man's hands 
and feet had also been chopped off with a tomahawk. — 

*Captain Robinson's company, on their way from Pittsburg. 

f Of the lads present then ; a few as old men are still living. 
We spent a i'ew pleasant hours with each, lately. They 
are Mr. David Dieffendeefer, at New Holland, and Mr. Peter 
Maurer, near the city of Lancaster, now in his eighty -seventh 
year. Both enjoy remarkable health — both had been in the 
service of their country, during the war '76. 


111 this manner lay the whole of them, men, women and 
children, spread about the prison yard ; shot^-scalped — 
hacked and cut to pieces." 

The bodies of slain were then buried in the borough 
of Lancaster, where the bones of the Indians rested 
undisturbed till the month of May, 1S33, when the 
workmen employed in excavating for the rail road, dug 
up the bones, '^^ 

The Governor issued a second proclamation, and offered 
a reward for the discovery of the perpetrators, but 

without effect. 

" Wherees, on the 22d Dec. last, I issued a proclama- 
tion for the apprehending and bringing to justice a 
number of persons, who, in violation of the public faith, 
and in defiance of all law, had inhumanly killed 6 Indians, 
who had lived in Conestoga manor, for the course of 
many years, peaceably and inoffensively, under the pro- 
tection of this government, on lands assigned them for 

»Pctcr Maurer informed us that ho saw the bodies of the 
Indians buried ii) one hole, at the place where the bones in 
1833, were dug up, at the corner of Chesnut and Duke streets. 

Note.— From a letter of the Rev. Elder to Col. Burd, it 
appears, if the statement be correct, that the Paxton boys did 
not cut the bodies of the Indians to pieces; but it was done by- 
others. Elder says, "The inference is plain, that the bodies 
were thus mangled after death by certain persons, to excite a 
feeling against the Paxton boys. This fiict, Stewart says he 
can and will establish in a fair trial at Lancaster York, and 

Note.— Felix Donnelly was keeper of the n-ork house at the 
time I'le Paxton boys forced in the door, &:c. Donnally was 
appointed keeper, at the November session 1703; in May 1765, 
Mathias Booch of the borougli ot Lancaster, was appointed, in 
his place. 


their IiaLitation; notwithstanding which, I have received 
information, that on the 27th of the same month, a large 
party of armed men again assembled and met together in 
a riotous and tumultuous manner, in the county of Lan- 
caster, where they violently broke open the workhouse, 
and butchered and put to death 14 of the said Conestoga 
Indians, men, women and children, who had been taken 
under the immediate care of the magistrates of said 
county, and lodged for their better security in the said 
"workhouse, till they should be more effectually provided 
for by order of the government ; and whom common 
justice loudly demands, and the laws of the land (upon 
the prosecution of which not only the liberty and security 
of every individual, but the being of government itself 
depends,) require, that the above offenders should be 
brought to condign punishment ; I have, therefore, by 
and with the aclvice of the council, published this procla- 
mation, and do hereby strictly charge and command all 
judges, justices, sheriffs, constables, officers civil and mili- 
tary, and all others his Majesty's faithful liege subjects 
within this province, to make diligent search and inquiry 
after the authors and perpetrators of the said last men- 
tioned offenders, their abettors and accomplices, and that 
they use all possible means to apprehend and secure them 
in some of the public jails of this province, to be dealt 
with according to law. 

And I do hereby further promise and engage, that any 
person or persons, who shall apprehend and secure, or 
or cause to be apprehended or secured, any three of tlie 
ringleaders of the said party, and prosecute them to con- 
viction, shall have and receive for each the pubhc reward 
of ^200 ; and any accomplice, not concerned in the imme- 
diate shedding the blood of said Indians, who shall make 
discovery of any or either of the said ringleaders, and 



apprehend and prosecute them to conviction, shall over 
and above the said reward, have all the weight and influ- 
ence of the government, for obtaining his Majesty's 
pardon for his offence. 

Given under my hand and the great seal of the pro- 
vince, at Philadelphia, January 2, in the 4th year of his 
Majesty's reign, A. D. 1764. 

By his command. John Penn. 

Joseph Shippen, Jr., Sec'y. 

" God save the Ki?2g.'^ 

The Paxton Boys had become desperate, and in turn 
'' showed up some Indian^^*' as is manifest from thek 
conduct in destroying the Indians at Lancaster. 

*David Rittenhouse, in a letter to a friend, speaking of the 
Paxton Boys in Philadelphia, on this occason, says : " About 
fifty of the scoundrels marched by my work-shop. I have 
seen hundreds of Indians travelling the country, and can with 
truth affirm, that the behavior of these fellows was ten times 
more savage and brutal than theirs. Frightening women, by 
running the muzzles of their guns through windows, swearing 
and hallooing ; attacking men without the least provocation ; 
dragging them by the hair to the ground, and pretending to 
scalp them ; shooting a number of dogs and fowls ; these are 
some of their exploits." — Rittenhouse's Mem. j). 148. 

In another letter, Mr. Barton says : " I received a letter from 
sister E. soon after the alaim at Philadelphia was over, and 
will give, &c. &:c. 

" On Monday morning, between one and two o'clock, an 
express came to the Governor, informing that the rebels were 
on their way, and that a great number of them were on this 
side the White Horse. There was one express after another, 
till there was certain intelligence that some of tliem were at 
Gcrmantown. When the first express came, the bells were 
rung, tlic drums beat, luul tlie constables were ordered to go 
from house to house, to knock up the inhabitants, and bid them 
put candles at their doors: it i)ad the a])pearance of all the 
houses being illuminated. Before day, there was about 


The Moravian Indians were placed for safety in the 
barracks at Pliiladelphia, and no sooner had this intelli- 
gence been received in Lancaster, than a large number 
assembled and marched to Philadelphia. They produced 
considerable alarm in the city. " The Governor fled 
to the house of Dr. Franklin for safety ; and nothing but 

twenty men met at T. T's, and chose their officers. Before 
night they were increased to nearly an hundred ; as were like- 
wise most of the other companies. E and all our men 

were in captain Wood's company. They all appeared to be 
in high spirits, and desirous to meet the rebels. On Tuesday, 
when the Mayor and other gentlemen set off for Germantown, 
the heads of companies begged of them not to comply with 
any dishonorable terms, and told them : " Gentlemen, we are 
ready to go wherever you may command us ; and we had much 
rather you would let us treat with them, with our guns." On 
their return, there was a general murmur among the compa- 
nies against the proceedmgs of our great men ; they knew it, 
and there was a long harangue made by Mr. Chew ; but it did 

not answer the end. On Wednesday morning I went to , 

as usucil, and on my return home, I stopped at our friend H. 
T's, when, on a sudden an alarm gun was fired, the bells began 
to ring, and the men called " to arms," as loud as possible. I 
cannot describe, my dear brother, how I felt : we ran to the 

door, when, to add to my fright I saw E , amidst hundreds 

of others, run by with his gun. They met at the court house, 
formed themselves into regular companies, and marched up 
Second street as far as the barracks ; where they found it was 
a false alarm, 

"It was a pleasing, though melancholy sight, to view the 
activity of our men. In less than a quarter of an hour, they 
were all on their march — it is supposed above a thousand of 
them; and by all accounts, there were not ten — ^- among 
them. It was the very conamon cry, while our men were 

parading— "What! not one among us^! Instead of 

joining with others, they would sneak into corners and applaud 
the " Paxton Boys." Their behavior on occasion has 
made them blacker than ever," 


the spirited measures of tlie inliabitants of the city, saveS 
it from the fury of an exasperated multitude, who would 
not have hesitated to extend vengeance from the Indians 
to their ])rotectors." 

After some consultation among themselves, on salu- 
tary advice given, they concluded to peaceably return to 
tlicir liomes, leaving Matthew Smith and James Gibson, 
two of their number, to represent their views to govern- 
ment." They laid their grievances before the Governor 
and the Assembly, by a memorial in behalf of Lancaster, 
York, Cumberland, Berks, and Northampton, complain- 
ing that these counties were irregu^arly represented in the 
Assembly, sending collectively ten members only, whilst: 
tlie three counties of Philadelphia, Chester, and Bucks, 
sent twenty-six ; that a bill had passed the Assembly, 
directing the trial of persons charged with the murder of 
an Indian in Lancaster county, to be had in some of the 
latter counties ; that whilst more than a thousand 
families, reduced to extreme distress, during the past and 
present war, by the attacks of skulking parties of 
Indians upon the frontiers, were destitute, and were suf- 
fered by the public to depend on private charity, one 
hundred and iivcnty of the pcjyeirators of the most 
horrid barbarities were supported by the province, 
and protected from the fury of the brave relatives of the 
murdered ; that the cruelties of the Indians were exten- 
uated, and efforts improperly made to excite commis- 
eration for them, on the plea that they were not parties 
to the war ; " But, in what nation," said the memorial- 
ists, "was it ever the custom that, when a neighboring 
nati(jii took up arms, not an individual of that nation 
should be touched, but only the persons that offered 
hostilities ? Wiioever proclaimed war with part of a 
nation, and not with the whole? Had these Indians 


disapproved the perfidy of their tribe, and been willing 
to cultivate and, preserve friendship with us, why did 
they not give notice of the war before it happened, as it 
is known to be the result of long deliberation and precon- 
certed combination ? ^Vhy did they not leave their tribe 
immediately, and come amongst us, before there was 
cause to suspect them, or war was actually waged ? — 
No, tliey staid amongst them, were privy to their murders 
and ravages, until we had destroyed their provisions, and 
when they could no longer subsist at home, they came — 
not as deserters, but — as friends, to be maintained through 
the winter, that they might scalp and butcher us in the 

" The memorialists further remonstrated against the 
policy of suffering any Indians whatever, to live within 
the inhabited parts of the province, whilst it was engaged 
in an Indian war ; experience having taught that they 
were all perfidious, and that their claim to freedom and 
independence enabled them to act as spies, to entertain 
and give intelligence to our enemies, and to furnish them 
with provisions and warlike stores. To this fatal inter- 
course, between pretended friends and open enemies, they 
ascribed the greater, part of the ravages and murders that 
had been committed during the last and present wars. — 
This grievance they prayed might be considered and re- 
medied. They remonstrated against the neglect, by the 
province, of the frontier inhabitants, who had been 
wounded in its defence, and required that they should be 
relieved at the public cost. They expostulated against 
the policy of the government, in refraining to grant. 
rewards for Indian scalps, " which damped the spirits of 
brave men, who were willing to venture their lives 
against the enemy ;" and they proposed that public 

*yotes of Assembly, and Gordon's Pa. 



rewards might be granted for their trophies, adequate to 
the danger of procuring them. They lamented that 
numbers of their nearest and dearest relatives were 
retained in captivity among the savage heathen, to be 
trained up in ignorance and barbarhy, or be cruelly tor- 
mented to death for attempting their escape : and they 
prayed that no trade might be permitted with the Indians 
until their prisoners were returned." 

The year 1765 is remarkable for the birth of Robert 
Fulton, who was born in Little Britain. He early showed 
peculiar talents, and cultivated them abroad, as well as in 
his own country. He is distinguished as an inventor of 
steamboats. In 1803, at the joint expense of himself and 
Robert R. Livingston, chancellor of New York, and 
minister of the United States to the French court, he con- 
st] ucted a boat on the River Seine, by which he fully 
evinced the practicability of propelling boats by steam. — 
On returning to America in 1806, he commenced, in con- 
junction with Mr. Livingston, the construction of the 
first Fulton boat, which was launched in the spring of 
1807 from a ship yard at New York. There was great 
incredulity among the people on the subject ; but this 
boat demonstrated, on the first experiment, to a numerous 
assemblage of astonished spectators, the correctness of 
his expectations, and the value of his invention. The 
same year, he suggested the first idea of joining the 
western lakes and the Atlantic ocean by canal. 

In 1810, the legislature of New York appointed com- 
missioners, with whom Mr. Fulton was joined the next 
session, to explore the route of inland navigation from 
the Hudson river to the lake Ontario and Erie. The 
commissioners reported in 181 1, 12, 14. Mr. ¥n\ton was 
very estimable in his domestic and social relations ; "but 
what was most conspicuotis in his ciiaracter, was his calm 


constancy, his industry^ and that indefatigable patienc3 
and perseverance, which always enabled him to over- 
come difficulties." A distinguished foreigner, the chevalier 
de Gessicourt observes, " Steamboats offer such advan- 
tages to commerce, that England, France and America, 
with one accord, proclaim the glory of Fulton."— rZ^e- 
laplaine^s Repository, I. p, 201, 223. 

In 1766, Benjamin S. Barton, professor in ths 
University of Pennsylvania, was born at Lancaster, Pa. 
His mother was the sister of the celebrated David Ritten- 
house. In 1786, he went to Great Britain and pursued 
his medical studies at Edinburg and London. He after- 
wards visited Gottingen, and there obtained the degree of 
Doctor in Medicine. On his return from Europe in 1789, 
he established himself as a physician in Philadelphia, 
and soon obtained an extensive practice. In the same 
year he was appointed professor of natural history and 
botany in the college of Philadelphia. 

On the resignation of Doctor Griffiths, he was appoml- 
ed professor of Materia Medica ; and succeedcLi Doctor 
Rush in the department of the theory and practice of 
medicine. He died in 1815. His chief publication is 
" Elements of Zoology and Botany." 

1769. This year the Rev. John Woodhull came io 
Lancaster Borough, as pastor of the Presbyterian church. 
He was their first pastor. They preached occasionally 
in the court house, before Woodhull came. In 1770 or 
71, a meeting house was finished. The leading men 
among the Presbyterians at that time were E. Shippen, 
Esq., Dr. R. Boyd, W. White, H. Halen, C. Plail, S. 
Boyd, W. Montgomery, W. Ross, Judge Yeates, r.I, San- 
derson, in the town ; W. Davis, T, Davis and John Jacks, 
in the country. 



From 1769 to 1775, a score and two of lawyers Avere 
admitted at the Lancaster Bar. 

In 1769 Thomas Hood, Jacob Moore, Casper Wcitzel, 
Jacob Rush, Clmstian Hook and Thomas Hartly. 1770, 
John Hubley, Abel Evans and Andrew Ross. 1771, 
James Lukens, David Grear, Asliton Humphries, George 
Noarth and Nathaniel Ramsey. 1772, Edward Eurd, 
Francis Johnson, Peter Zachary Lloyd, Charles Stedman 
and Mr. CoUinson. 1773, John Stedman and George 
Ross, Jr. 1775, William Barton. 

Members of Assembly from Lancaster county for 1765, 
Emanuel Carpenter, James Wright, James Webb, Jacob 
Carpenter; those of 1765 were re-elected,, for 1766 and 
1767. 1768, Emanuel Carpenter, James Wright, James 
Webb, George Ross. 1769, Emanuel Carpenter, Jacob 
Carpenter, James Webb, George Ross. 1770, Emanuel 
Carpenter, James Wright, Joseph Ferree, George Ross. 
1771, Emanuel Carpenter, George Ross, Joseph Ferree, 
William Downing. 1772, Joseph Ferree, Jacob Carpen- 
ter, Isaac Whitelock, James Webb. 1773 and 1774, Jo- 
seph Ferree, James Webb, George Ross, Matthias Slough. 

Notes. — In the year 1765, the following named gentlemen 
were admitted, at Lancaster, to practice law : Alexander Wil- 
cocks. Jasper Yeates, Richard Peters, Jr., Andrew Allen, 
James Allen, James Sayre and Henry Ewes. la 1766, Elisha 
Price, George Campbell, practising attorneys from Ireland, 
and William Swainey. 



Hail storm — ProcccJings, &c. by the citizens of Lancaster county tauching 
the usurpation of Parliament, in Great liritain — Letter Srom the coinmit- 
tee of correspondence at Pliilatlelphia — Meeting at the court housa in 
Lancaster — Copy of a circular letter from Philadelphia — Meeting called 
at Lancaster — Subscriptions opened for the relief of the suffering Bosto- 
nians — Letters from Philadelphia — Meeting called to be held at Lancas- 
ter — Committees appointed.— Meeting held — Letter from Reading — 
Meeting of the committee of inspection, &c. — Committeemen from dilFep- 
ent townships meet at Lancaster — Their proceedings, &c. &c. 

Nothing of thrilling interest appears in the- annals of 
this county from the close of Indian incursions, to the 
time when the indignation of the colonists was generally 
excited by the attempted oppressions on the part of the 
mother country. There are, nevertheless, a few things 
we deem worthy of notice. 

In 1768, in the month of June, Lancaster county was 
visited by a dreadful hail-storm. A writer in the Pen)i- 
sylvania Chronicle, of June, 1768, says, "I now sit 
down," in writing to the Editor, "under the shade of a 
friendly oak in the country, in order to give you some 
account of the late dreadful storm here, the effects of 
which, I have taken pains to examine, having rid several 
miles for that purpose. 

" On Friday, the 17th inst. about 2 o'clock P. M. the 
sky was overspread with flying clouds, apparently 
charged with heavy rain. The wind blew pretty fresh 
from the south-east, and thickened the clouds in the op- 
posite quarter ; so that about 4 o'clock there was dark- 
ness visible in the north-west attended with distant rum- 
bling thunder, and now and then with a small gleam of 
lightning, without any explosions. The clouds deepened 


more and more in the north-west, and thus seemed to 
make a stand, being opposed by the wind from the 
opposite points. At half-after four, they assumed a 
frightful appearance, and at last a large crescent, with its 
concave sides to the wind, and its inner edges tinged 
with a dusky violet color. About five the wind veered 
about to the north-west, which immediately gave motion 
to the clouds, and discharged a most dreadful and destruc- 
tive volley of hail. The storm then proceeded in a south- 
east direction, at the rate of twelve miles an hour,, 
attended with a most dreadful noise, something like the 
sounds of cannon, drums and bells mingled together. — 
The hail stones were of various dimensions, shapes and 
forms. Some measured nine inches in circumfer- 
ence, some seven, whilst others were not larger than, 
peas. As to their forms, some were of globular, some 
spheroidical, surrounded with small excresences or knobs,, 
some eliptical, and some irregular and smooth, like pieces 
of ice. Such as were globular, were endued with so 
much elasticity, that they rebounded from the ground 
like a tennis ball. This storm divided into several, 
branches, or veins, if I may use such terms, all which 
kept the same course, but bent their fury mostly towards 
the mountains hills and highlands. 

" At Susquehannah the hail was as large as pigeon's 
eggs ; at Lancaster about the size of peas ; at Dunker- 
town, and in the valley, between the Welsh and Reading 
hills, they were as large as turkey's eggs ; in some other 
places, still larger ; and at Reading no hail appeared. — 
The damage done by this storm is very great; the county 
of Lancaster alone, it is thought, has suffered several 
thousand pounds. In many places there is not a single 
ear of wheat, rye, barley, &c. but what is cutoff; and 
nothing left but the green straw, bruised and beat to 


pieces. It is melancholy to see fine plantations, and 
extensive fields, which a few days ago waved with luxu- 
riant crops, now lying waste. Many able farmers who 
expected to carry several hundred bushels of grain to 
market, will be obliged to buy bread for their families ; 
and many of the poorer kind will be ruined, and reduced 
to beggary. All these people are mowing their late 
promising and rich crops, as fodder for their cattle. — 
Their distress is moving and alarming. At Dunkertown 
it is said, with what truth I cannot say, that cattle were 
killed by the hail ; but certain it is, that about IMuddy 
creek, in this county, calves, pigs, fowls, &c, were killed 
in that settlement ; the ground in the woods is as thick 
covered with green foliage, beaten from the trees, as it is 
with the fallen leaves in the month of October ; and in 
many places the birds are found dead in woods and 
orchards. The north-west side of the fruit trees are 
barked, and all the glass windows on that side, that were 
not secured by shutters, are demolished ; and even the 
rails of the fences, visibly show the impression of hail 
upon them. In short, this storm threw every person 
who saw it, into the most dreadful consternation; for the 
oldest man here never saw or heard any thing like it." 

As early as 1765, the British Parliament passed an act 
that all instruments of writing, such as promissory notes, 
bonds, indentures, &c. were to be null and void, unless 
Avritten on paper or parchment stamped with specific 
duty. This measure was opposed in England and in this 
country ; and being found unpopular, the act was repeal- 
ed in 1766 ; but another act was passed by Parliament, 
declaring that the British Parliament had a right to make 
laws binding the colonies in all cases whatever ; this act 
was soon followed by another, imposing, in the colonies, 
duties (5n glass, paper, painters colors, and tea. These 


several acts kindled in every patriotic bosom, a strong 
opposition to the measures of the mother country, and 
one circumstance after another led to an open rupture 
between the colonies and the parent country, which hap- 
pened about the year 1773, when the Bostonians threio 
the tea overboard. From that time on, a flame was 
kindled in every breast. Gen. Gage, from Britain, arrived 
at Boston in 1774, with more troops, some having arrived 
before, " to dragoon the Bostonians into compliance." — 
The Bostonians had to suffer much; but their sufferings 
excited the sympathy of others. Associations for their 
relief were formed in nearly all the colonies ; even this 
county was not the last nor least to aid in relieving their 
suffering brethren, as will fully appear from the following 
precious relic, which is deposited in the Prothonotary's 
office of ].ancaster county :* 

Copy of a letter from the committee of correspondence 
for the city of Philadelphia, directed to the freeholders 
and other inhabitants of this place, dated about the I'Jth 
of June, 1774. Runs in the words following to wit: 

Gentlemen: — We beg leave to refer you to the enclosed 
paper for the steps we have taken on the present alarm- 
ing occasion. The Governor declining to call the As- 
sembly, renders it necessary to take the sentiments of 
tlie Inhabitants ; and for that purpose it is agreed to call 
a Meeting of the Inhabitants of tiiis city and the county 
at the State House, on Wednesday, the 15tli instant.-^ 
And as we would wish to have the sentiments and con- 
currence of our brethren in the several counties, who 
are equally interested with us in the General Cause, we 
earnestly desire you to call together the principal Inhab- 

*An abridgement of this relic would have destroyed the in- 
terest of the whole. 


itants of your county and take their sentiments. We 
shall forward to you by every occasion, any matters of 
consequence that come to our knowledge, and we should 
be glad you would choose and appoint a Committee to 
Correspond with us. 

Signed by order of the committee of Corres- 
pondence,for the city of Philadelphia. 
Charles Thompson, Clerk. 

In pursuance of which, and also of another large letter 
wrote by Mr. Charles Thompson, and sent to the inhabi- 
tants of this borough, directed to the care of Mr. Wil- 
ham Atlee, a meeting was held on the 15th day of June, 
1774. And the following Resolves were agreed on, viz: 
At a meeting of the inhabitants of the borough of Lan- 
caster, at the court house in the said borough, on Wednes- 
day, the 15th day of June, 1774 : Agreed — that to pre- 
serve the Constitutional rights of the inhabitants of 
America, it is incumbent on every colony, to unite and 
use die most effectual means to procure a repeal of the 
late act of Parliament against the town of Boston. 

That the act of Parliament for blocking up the port 
and harbor of Boston, is an invasion of the rights of the 
inhabitants of the said town, as subjects of the crown of 
Great Britain. That it is the opinion of the inhabitants 
at this meeting that the proper and effectual means to 
be used to obtain a repeal of the said act, will be to put 
an immediate stop to all imports, and exports, to and 
from Great Britain, until the same act be repealed. 

Tiiat the traders and inhabitants of this town will join 
and concur with the patriotic merchants, manufacturers, 
tradesmen, and freeholders, of the city and county of 
Philadelphia, and other parts of this province, in an 
association or solemn agreement to this purpose, if the 
same shall be by them thought necessary i. 



That Edward Shippcn, Esq., George Ross, Esq., Jasper 
Yeates, Esq., Mathias Slough, Esq., James Wehb, Esq., 
WiUiam Atlee, Esq., WiUiam Henry, Esq., Mr. Liidwig 
Lauman, Mr. WiUiam Bailsman and Mr. Charles Hall, 
be a committee to correspond with the general committee 
of Philadelphia ; that these sentiments be immediately- 
forwarded to the committee of correspondence at 

The gentlemen above named, after being chosen and 
appointed a committee of correspondence, resolved upon 
the following letter to be transmitted to the committee of 
Philadelphia, directed to Mr. Charles Thompson, and is as 
follows, viz : 

Lancaster, the 15th June, 1774. 

Sir : — Agreeable to the request of the Committee of 
Correspondence for the city of Philadelphia, signified to 
some of the Inhabitants here, by your letter. We have 
this evening had a Meeting of the Inhabitants of this 
Town, (at which a very great number attended) at the 
Court House, and unanimously gave their assent to the 
Resolves or Agreement inclosed. As taking the senti- 
ments of the county could not be so expeditiously done 
by having a general Meeting of the Inhabitants, we 
thought best to give you those of the Town, and have 
the pleasure now to assure you that the Inhabitants of 
the county in general begin to entertahi similar opinions 
within, as to this matter — and no doubt, heartily concur 
in them at a Meeting which we shall endeavor as soon as 
possible to have with them. We hope you will give us 
intelligence of any matters worthy of notice, and be 
assured we shall do everything in our power to promote 
the General Interest. 

We are, &c. Signed by 

Edward Shippen, James Webb, Matthias Slough, 


William Atlee, William Henry, Esqrs., Messrs. Ludwig 
Lauman, William Bailsman, Charles Hall. 

Ordered that Eberhurt Michael the clerk of this com- 
mittee do forward a copy of this day's resolves to Mr. 
Charles Thompson, the clerk of the committee at Philadel- 
phia, whh a copy of this letter, signed by him. 

At a meeting of the committee of correspondence, ap- 
pointed for the borough of Lancaster, the 2d of July, 
1774, Edward Shippen, Esq. being chosen chairman: 
The committee taking into consideration the- resolves of 
the respectable inhabitants of the city and county of Phil- 
adelphia, on the 18th of June last; as also, the circular 
letters signed by the chairman of their said committee, 
the honorable Thomas Willig, Esq. 

Resolved, That they do most heartily concur with their 
brethren of Philadelphia, in the mode proposed for taking 
the sentiments of the good people of this province, on the 
present alarming and critical situation of the American 
colonies, therefore, 

Resolved, That notice be given to the freemen and 
inhabitants of this county with the utmost expedition, to 
choose a committee to join with the committees of the 
other counties of this province to meet at Philadelphia, 
for the very great and useful purposes mentioned in the 
said resolves and circular letters: and therefore. 

Resolved, That the freemen and inhabitants of this 
county be requested to meet on Saturday, the ninth day 
of this instant, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, at the court 
house, in Lancaster, for the purpose aforesaid. 

N, 13. The said resolves of the committee at this 
meeting, being ordered to be printed, and the same after 
they were printed, signed by Edward Shippen, Esq., the 
chairman. Sent and put up at all public places in the 


Now following the copy of the circular letter mention- 
ed in the last foregoing resolves, and is from word to 
word, as followeth, to wit : 

Philadelphia, Jmie 28th, 1774. 

Gentlemen:— The committee of correspondence for this 
city and comity beg leave to enclose you printed copies 
of the resolves passed at a very large and respectable 
meeting of the freeholders and freemen, in the State 
House square, on Saturday, the ISth instant. By the 4th 
of those resolves, you will observe that it was left for the 
committee " To determine on the most proper mode of 
collecting the sense of this province in the present critical 
situation of our affairs, and appointing deputies to attend 
the proposed Congress. In pursuance of this trust, we 
have, upon the maturest deliberation, determined upon a 
mode contained in the two following propositions, which, 
we hope, may meet with the approbation and concur- 
rence of your respectable county, viz : 

First : " That the Speaker of the honorable House of 
Representatives be desired to write to the several mem- 
bers of Assembly in this province, requesting them to 
meet in this city as soon as possible, but no later than the 
1st of August next, to take into their consideration our 
Tery alarming situation. 

Second : ' That letters be written to proper persons in 
each county, recommending it to them, to get committees 
appointed to their respective counties, aud that the said 
committees or such a number of them as may be thought 
proper, may meet at Philadelphia, at the time the repre- 
sentatives are convened, in order to consult and advise 
on the most expedient mode of appointing deputies for 
the general Congress, and to give their weight to such as 
may be appointed.' 

The Speaker of the Assembly, in a very obliging and 


ready manner, had agreed to comply with the request in 
the former of those propositions ; but we are now inform- 
ed that, on account of tlie Indian disturbances, the Gov- 
ernor has found it necessary to call the Assembly to meet 
in their legislative capacity, on Monday, the 18th of July, 
being about the same time the Speaker would probably 
have invited them to a conference or convention in their 
private capacity. 

What we have therefore to request is, that if you 
approve of the mode expressed in the second proposition, 
the whole or part of the committee appointed, or to be 
appointed for your county, will meet the committees from 
the other counties, at Philadelphia, on Friday the fifteenth 
of July, in order to assist in framing instructions, and 
preparing such matter as may be proper to recommend 
to our representatives, at their meeting the INIonday 

We trust, no apology is necessary for the trouble we 
propose giving your committee of attending at Philadel- 
phia, as W3 are persuaded you are fully convinced of the 
necessity of the closest Union among ourselves, both in 
sentiment and action ; nor can such union be obtained so 
well by any other method, as by a meeting of the county 
committees of each particular province in one place, 
preparatory to the general Congress, 

We would not offer such an affront to the well known 
public spirit of Pennsylvania, as to question your zeal on 
the present occasion. Our very existence in the ranks of 
freemen, and the security of all that ought to be dear to 
us, evidently depend upon our conducting this great cause 
to its proper issue by firmness, wisdom and unanimity. 
We cannot therefore doubt your ready concurrence in 
every measure that may be conducive to the public good; 
and it is with pleasure we can assure you, that all the 



colonies, from South Carolina to New Hampshire, seem: 
animated with one spirit in the common cause, and con- 
sider this as the proper crisis for having our differences 
with the mother country bi:ought to some certain issue, 
and our liberty fixt upon a permanent foundation. This 
desirable end can only be accomplished by a free com- 
munion of sentiments, and a sincere fervent regard to the 
interests of our com.mon country. We beg to be favored 
with an, answer to this, and whether the committee for 
your county can attend at Philadelphia, at the time pro- 
posed. Signed by order of the committee. 

Thomas Willig, Chairman, 
To the committee for Lancaster county. 

Pursuant to the publication of the resolves of the com- 
mittee before mentioned : A general meeting of the 
freemen and inhabitants of this county, (of Lancaster,) 
was held on Saturday, the 9th of July, 1774. 

George Ross, Esq., being chosen chairman. This 
assembly taking into serious consideration the severallate 
acts of the British Parhrnient, relative to America ; came 
unanimously to the following declarations and resolvesj^ 
viz : 

1. We do sincerely profess and declare, that his most 
gracious majesty King George the third, is our rightful 
and lawful sovereign ; and that we will support and 
defend him to the utmost of our power with our lives 
and fortunes against hi$ enemies. 

2. We do further declare that no power is constitu- 
tionally lodged in the hands of any hotly of men, to give 
and grant our money, save only our representatives in 
Assembly, who have at all times cheerfully granted aid 
to his majesty whenever he has made requisition frona 

3. Tliat the acts of the British Parliament for divest 


ing us of such right, and assuming such power them- 
selves, are unconstitutional, unjust and oppressive. 

4. That it is an indispensible duty we owe to ourselves 
and posterity, to oppose with decency and firmness, every 
measure tending to deprive us of our just rights and 

5. That a close union of the colonies, and their faith- 
fully adhering to such measures as a general Congress 
shall judge proper, are the most likely means to procure 
redress of American grievances, and settle the rights of 
the colonies on a permanent basis. 

6. That it is highly expedient to appoint a committee 
to meet the committees of the other counties of this prov- 
ince, at Philadelphia, on the 15th instant, to confer 
with them on the important matters, mentioned in the 
letter from the chairman of the committe of Philadelphia. 

7. That we will sincerely and heartily, agree to and 
abide by the measures which shall be adopted by the 
members of the general Congress of the colonies. 

8. That we tenderly sympathize with our brethren of 
Boston, who are suffering in the American cause, by an 
unconstitutional and oppressive act of the British Parlia- 
ment, called the Boston Port bill 

9. That a subscription be opened for the relief of our 
suffering brethren there. 

10. That the subscription be put into the hands of the 
commhtee of this county, to be by them laid out in the pur- 
chase of provisions and sent to Boston towards the relief 
of their distresses. 

11. That the committee for the borough of Lancaster 
already appointed, be a committee of correspondence, 
and that George Ross, James Webb, Mathias Slough, 
Joseph Ferree, Emanuel Carpenter and William Atlee, 
Esqrs., Mr. Alexander Lowry, Mr. Moses Irwin, be a 


committee to meet and consult with the committees of the 
other counties of this province at Pliiladelphia the 15th 
inst., and also to join with the committee of correspond- 
ence in receiving subscriptions for the relief our Boston 

It was then moved, tliat the thanks of the freemen and 
inhabitants present, should be rendered to the worthy 
Chairman for the very proper and spirited address made 
by him to this Assembly, replete with the warmest 
expressions of loyalty to his Majesty, and fervent zeal 
for the common interest of America — which motion was 
agreed to by a general holding up of hands, and the 
thanks of the Assembly were then presented to Mr, Ross 
for his patriotic conduct upon this occasion. 

Eberhart Michael, Clk. 

A subscription was then immediately opened by the 
committee for the benefit of our suffering brethren of the 
town of Boston, and very handsome sums subscribed by 
several of the persons present, and at the request of 
numbers of the reputable inhabitants, papers are printing 
and sending to the different townships, to receive the 
subscriptions of the inhabitants of this county, which, 
it is expected, will amount to a considerable sum, and 
will be collected as expeditiously as possible by the com- 
mittee and laid out as shall be thought to answer the good 
purpose intended. 

A paper was delivered by Mr. Elijah Weikersham, to 
the Chairman at this meeting, and read by him, contain- 
ing similar resolves (with the above) of the freemen of 
the townships of Paxton and Derry, at their meeting at 
the town of Middletown on the Sth last past, and signed 
by James Bird, Esq., chairman. 

At a meeting of the committee of the county of Lan- 


caster, at Lancaster, on the 9th September, 1774, Edward 
Shippen, Esq. in the chair. 

The subscription received for the reUef of the distresses 
of the poor inhabitants of tlie town of Boston, were laid 
before the committee, and it appeareth that the smn of 
one hundred and fifty three pounds, fifteen shillings and 
two pence, has been collected in the Borough of Lancas- 
ter for the purposes aforesaid, and it being put to the vote 
whether the said sum should not be immediately remitted 
to Philadelphia to Mr. John Nixon the Treasurer of the 
city and county of Philadelphia, to be laid out in such 
manner as the committee for the • said city and county 
should think proper for the relief of our distressed poor 
brethren of the town of Boston, the same was carried in 
the affirmative, and Edward Shippen, Esq., the chairman^ 
is requested to forward the said sum of money forthwith 
to Philadelphia for the purpose aforesaid. 

At this time no proper account could possibly be had 
of the subscription papers of the several townships in 
this county. 

The following letter was omitted entering in its proper 
place, and is as follows, to wit : — 

Gentlemen : — Enclosed you will receive a printed cir- 
cular letter signed by the chairman of our committee, and 
the resolves therein referred to, with some other printed 
papers. The use to be made of them, your own prudence 
and good judgment will suggest ; we would be glad to 
hear as soon as possible from the committee for your 
county, and are Your most humble servant, 

William Smith. 
Your assured friend, 

Isaac Howell. 

Philadelphia, June 29, 1774. 

To Edward Shippen and George Ross, Esq'rs., who 


are requested to communicate the enclosed papers to the 
other gentlemen of the committee. 

Those gentlemen named and appointed at the meeting 
of the 9th July last, did attend the provincial convention 
at Philadelphia, on Monday the 15th then next. And 
the proceedings together with the resolves of that provin- 
cial committee, hath been inserted in the public papers. 

At a meeting of the committee August Uth, they were 
informed that Joshua and Robert Lockharts, of this 
borough, shopkeepers, had brought to this town a 
quantity of tea, that hath paid duty under the late act of 
parliament. A note was therefore sent to them by. the 
committee requiring their inmiediate attendance. In 
consequence thereof one of the partners called on the 
committee, but denied their having received any tea, but 
as this account by no means appeared satisfactory from 
several matters which escaped the partner attending, the 
committee did inspect their shop, and witli some diffi- 
culty learned of a chest of Bohea tea, weight 349 
neat Avcight which they had bought from a certain 
merchant in Philadelphia. The committee taking an 
account of all the marks of the case in whicli it was 
packed, removed the tea, and wrote to the committee of 
Philadelphia, who examined the matter, and it appeareth 
that this tea never had paid any duty, but was part of a 
seizure made by the Custom house and was afterwads 
purchased at public sale by the original owner of it, as by 
a letter from the committee of Philadelphia, dated 
August 25th, wrote and signed by the Honorable 
Thomas Willing, the chairman, directed to this connnittee, 
appears ; upon whicli, the said teas were returned again, 
and the said Lockharts were acquitted. 

The Continenial Congress held at Philadelphia, the 5th 
of September, 1774, continued to the 25th of October 


Tlie votes and proceedings of which, have since been pub- 
Ushed in the public papers, and printed also by a pam- 
phlet containing the bill of rights, list of grievances, 
occasional resolves, the association, an address to the 
people of Great Britain, a memorial to the inhabitants 
of the British American Colonies, and petition to the 

November 22nd, 1774. The committee of this bor- 
ough met and the following hand bill by them ordered to 
be printed, and sent to, and put up at all the public places 
in this county viz : 

To the freeholders and electors of the county ol' 

The committee for the borough of Lancaster, taking in 
their consideration the resolves and recommendations of 
the American continental Congress, request that the free- 
holders and others qualified to vote for Representatives in 
Assembly for the county of Lancaster, would meet at the 
Court house, in Lancaster, on Thursday the fifteenth day 
of December next, to choose by ballot sixty proper 
persons for a committee, to observe the conduct of all 
persons touching the general Association of the general 
Congress ; which committee, it is proposed, when elected, 
shall divide the county into different districts, and appoint 
members of the committee to superintend each district, 
and any six of the members so appointed for a district to 
be a quorum for transacting business. 

It will be necessary, previous to the general election, 
that each township shall elect a proper person to act as 
inspector, and receive the tickets of the electors on that 

On the said 15th day of December, in pursuance to the 
notice above mentioned, a general election was held at 
the borough of Lancaster, for this county, and the fol- 


lowing persons were chosen as, and for, a committee. Viz: 
Lancaster borough — Edward Shippen, George Ross, 
James Webb, Adam Sim. Kuhn, Jasper Yeates, William 
Atlee, Adam Reigart, Wm. Bailsman, Christian Voght, 
Eberhart Michael, Charles Hall, Casper Shaffner. 
Concstoga — Martin Bare. Manor— John Killhafer, Jacob 
Wistler, ^James Jacks. Hempfield — Val. Breneman. — 
Manhcim — Samuel Bear, Sebastian Graff. (As the first 
district.) Upper Paxton, Londonderry, Deny, Hanover 
and Paxton, (the second district,) — Paxton — James Burd, 
do. Joseph Sherer — Hanover, Timothy Green — Derry, 
Castle Bycrs, do. *William Laird, do, ^Robert McKee — 
Londonderry, John Campbell, — Paxton, John Bakes- 
tose — Upper Paxton, William Patterson — Hanover, 
William Brown, do. James Crawford, Warwick, Rapho, 
Mountjoy and Donegal, (the 3rd district,) Mountjoy, 
*Jamcs Cunningham, do. Abrm, Frederick — RaphOj Ja- 
cob Erisman, do. Patrick Hay — Donegal, *Bartram Gal- 
braith, do. Alexander Lowrey, do. Fred'k Mumma — 
Warwick, Jacob Erb, do. Peter Grubb. Bethel, Heidel- 
berg, Elizabeth and Lebanon, (the 4th District, — Leba- 
non, Thomas Clark, do. Curtis Grubb, do. Henry Light — 
Bethel, *Ludwig Shuy, do. *Casper Corr, do. *John Bi- 
shon — Heidleburg, John Weiser — Bethel, *Killian Long, 
do. *Sam'l Jones — Elizabeth, Hans Frantz, Lebanon, 
Henry Bealor, Brecknock, Carnarvon, Cocalico and 
Earl, (the 5th District,)— Earl, *Alex'r Martin, do. 
*Emanuel Carpenter, do. ^Anthony Ellmaker, do. Wm. 
Smith, do, *Zacheus Davis, do. Geo. Rein, do. Jno. Bru- 
baker — Cocalico, John Jones — Brecknock, Benj. Lessley— 
Carnarvon, David Jenkins. Lampeter, Strasburg, Lea- 
cock iiiid Salisbury, (the 6th District,) — Salisbury ■* James 
Clemson, do. Mno. Whitehill — I^eacock, David AVatson, 
do, Nath'l Lightner — Strasburg, Eberhart Grube, do. 


Mich'l Witter— Lampeter, Jno. Witmer, Jr. Martick, 
Bart, Sadsbury, Colerain, Little Britain and Drumore, 
(the 7tli district,)— Sadsbury, Robert Baiiy— Little Brit- 
ain, John Allton— Druniore, *Thos. Porter— Bart, Jacob 
Bare— Colerain, Joshua Anderson — Martick, Jno. Snod- 
grass— Drumore, *WilUam McEntire— Little Britain, 
Thomas Whitesides— Bart, Hieronimus Hickman. 

N. B. Tlie names with Astericks (*) before them, were, 
■elected in their respective townships, and upon proper 
certificates by them produced of their being duly elected, 
their names being added to committee. 

At a meeting of the committee of the borough of Lan- 
caster. Present, Edward Shippen, Esq. Wm. Bausman, 
Charles Hall, Christian Voght, Sebastian Graff, Adam 
Reigart, Casper Shaffner, William Atlee, Peter Grubb, 
and Eberhart Michael, Edward Shippen, Esq. in the chair. 

Several of the reputable inhabitants of this borough of 
Lancaster, having mentioned their dislike to Mr. Francis 

, having opened a dancing school in this borough, (at 

the present time) and that in their opinion the same was 
contrary to the eighth article of the association of the 
continental Congress, and rec[U'jsting a meeting of this 
committee and their sentiments on the occasion. Upon 
consideration of the matter, it is the opinion of this com- 
mittee, that the said Mr. Francis , opening and 

keeping a dancing school in the said borough, comes 
within the meaning of the eighth article ot the association 
■ of the continental Congress, and that the same ought, at 
the present time, during the unhappy dispute with the 
mother country, to be discontinued. And Mr. Francis 

being sent for, waited Uj)on the committee, and 

being informed of the sentiments of this committee, agreed 
and promised to break up and discontinue his said school. 

Signed by the members above named. 



A letter received from the committee of correspondence 
of the city of Philadelphia, dated the 22d December, 
1774, directed to the committee of this place, of which 
the following is a copy, viz : 

Gentlemen: By order of the committee of the City and 
Liberties of Philadelphia, we have the pleasure to trans- 
mit you the following resolves, passed this day with great 
mianimity, viz : 

"That this committee think it absolutely necessary that 
the committees of the counties of this province, or such 
deputies as they may appoint for this purpose, be request- 
ed to meet together in provincial convention as soon as 

" That it be recommended to the county committees to 
meet in said convention, on Monday, the 23d day of Jan- 
uary next, in the city of Philadelphia." 

From a view of the present situation of public affairs, 
the committee have been induced to propose this conven- 
tion, that the sense of the province may be obtained ; and 
that the measures to be taken thereupon, may be the 
result of the united wisdom of the colony. 

The obvious necessity of giving an immediate conside- 
ration to many matters of the greatest importance to the 
general welfare, will, we hope, sufficiently apologize to 
you for naming so early a day as the 23d of January. 
We are, gentlemen, respectfully. 
Your humble servants, 

Jos. Reed, Charles Thompson, Geo. Clymer, John Nix- 
on, John Benezet, Sam'l Meredith, Thos. Mifflin, Jona. 
B. Smith, Committee of correspondence. 

Tlie following letter from the conmiittee of correspond- 
ence for the county of Berks, was sent to the committee 
of this place, viz ; 


Reading, 2d January, 1775. 

This day the committee of this county met here. A 
letter from the committee of correspondence of the City 
and Liberties of Philadelphia, (meaning the same above,) 
was laid before them proposing a provincial convention, 
to be held at Philadelphia, the 22d instant. The letter 
being duly considered, the committee unanimously agreed 
to the proposed convention, and appointed Edward Bid- 
die, Jonathan Potts, Mark Bird, Christopher Shultz, John 
Patton, Sebastian Levan, and Balzer Gehr, a committee 
to attend to said convention, in behalf of this county. — 
The committee then proceeded to choose a conmiittee of 
correspondence, and Edward Biddle, William Reerer, 
Mark Bird, Jonathan Potts, and Christopher Wittman, 
were duly elected a committee of correspondence for this 
county. Extract from the proceedings of the committee. 

Jonathan Potts, Clerk. 

Another letter from the same committee of correspond- 
ence of the county of Berks, to the committee of this 
place, viz : 

Gentlemen : Enclosed is an extract from the proceed 
ings of the committee of this county, by which you will 
see that deputies are appointed to attend the proposed 
provincial convention. 

When we consider that our disputes are drawing fast to 
a crisis, and that the most cordial unanimity is absolutely 
necessary for our preservation ; we cannot doubt but that 
your respectable committee will without hesitation appoint 
deputies to attend the provincial Congress. The neglect 
of any one comity may have the most fatal consequences. 
And we well know the pleasure it would give our ene- 
mies to see even the appearance of a disunion at this 
very important time. 

388 HISTORY 01 

The great consequence of tliis subject will, we hope;^ 
apo]o2:ize for this freedom. 

We are, gentlemen, with the greatest respect, 
Your most obedient humble servants, 

Edward Biddle, Jonathan Potts, William Rccrer^. 
Cliristopher Witman, Mark' Bird, 

Commillee of correspondence. 
Reading, 5th January, 1775. 

N. B. The above mentioned extracts, &c. arc put 
among the files of other papers relative to the committee. 

At a meeting of the committee of inspection of the 
county of Lancaster, at the Court house, in Lancaster, on 
Saturday, the 14th day of January, 1775, Edward Ship- 
pen, Esq. was chosen chairman. 

It was unanimously agreed that in case of any differ- 
ence in sentiments, the question proposed be determined 
by the members of committee, voting by townsliips. 

A letter from the connnittee of correspondence of ih^ 
City and Liberties of Philadelphia, and another letter from 
the committee of correspondence of Berks county, were 
then read; audit being put to vote, whether this com- 
mittee would appoint deputies to meet the other counties: 
of this province in provincial convention, on Monday, the 
23d Jxmuary instant, the same was carried in the affir- 
mative : 

Yeas; Borough of Lancaster, Hempfickl township, 
Manliemi township, Paxton township, Hanover to wnship^ 
Londonderry township, Mountjoy township, Rapho town- 
ship, Donegal townsliij), Warwick township, l^ebanorx 
township, Bethel township, P^lizabeth township. Earl 
townsiiip, Brecknock township, Caernarvon township^ 
Salisbury township, Leacock townsiiip, Lampeter town- 
siiip, Sadsbury township, Little Britain township, Dru;^ 
mere township, Colcrain township. 


Nays ; Lancaster township, Derry township, Strasburg 
township, Bart township. 

Absent ; Conestoga township. Upper Paxton township, 
Heidleberg township, Cocalico township, Martick town- 
ship. Manor township. 

The committee then proceeded to appoint deputies, and 
the following gentlemen, to wit: — Adam Simon Kuhn, 
James Biird, James Clemson, Esq., Peter Grubb, Sebas- 
tian Graff, David Jenkins and Bartram Galbraith, or any 
five of them, were nominated to attend the said provin- 
cial convention, in behalf of the county of Lancaster. 

Edward Shippen, Chairman. 

The preceding proceedings of the committees and 
occurrences, being recorded by E. M. (June 3d, 1775.) 

At a meeting of the committee of inspection and obser- 
vation, of the borough of Lancaster, the 27th of April,, 
1775, at the house of Adam Reigart. 

Present; Edward Shippen, Esq., William Atlee, Wm. 
Bausman, Charles Hall, William Patterson, Casper Shaff- 
ner, Eberhart Michael, Adam Reigart. 

Edward Shippen, Esq. was chosen president. 

It appearing by intelligence from divers places and by 
the papers, that General Gage, hatli at length atta.cked 
the inhabitants of Massachusetts Bay, and killed and 
wounded many of them, and the latest accounts from 
England confirming the accounts that the Parliament of 
Great Britain are determined by force of arms to compel 
the colonies to an abject submission to the late acts of the 
British Parliament, calculated to deprive tlie inhabitants 
of the colonies of their inestimable rights and privileges ; 
and that a formidable fleet and army are preparing to 
invade the colonies or some of them; it is therefore 
thought proper to request a general meeting of the com- 
mittee for tills comity, to consult and determine upon such 



measures as may be necessary to be pursued at this 
alarming crisis ; and it is unanimously agreed that hand- 
bills 1)0 immediately printed and distributed throughout 
the county, requesting the members of the committee to 
meet at the house of Adam Reigart, in the borough of 
Lancaster, on Monday, the first day of May next, at two 
o'clock in the afternoon for those purposes ; and Mr. Bai- 
ley is requested to print a sulhcient number of hand-bills 
for this purpose, in the following words, to wit : 

The members of the committee of observation for the 
respective districts and townships, are desired to meet at 
the boroudi of Lancaster, at the house of Adam Reieart. 
in the said borough, on Monday, the first day of May 
next, at two o'clock in tlie afternoon, to consult and 
determine upon proper and necessary measures to be 
taken for the general good in the present alarming situa- 
tion of affairs. 

At the request of the committee of observation, in the 
borough of Lancaster. (Signed.) 

Edward Shippen, Chairman. 
Lancaster, the 27th April, 1775. 

At a meeting of the committee of observation, at the 
house of Adam Reigart, the thirtieth day of March, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and 

Present, George Ross, Esq., Jasper Yeates, Esq., Wm. 
Atlee, Esq., Adam Reigart, William Bausman, Esq., 
Charles Hall, Casper Shafliier, Samuel Bare, Eberhart 
Michael, James Cunningham, Alexander Martin, Wm. 
Smith: — George Ross, Esq., chosen chairman; George 
Ross, jun., chosen clerk. 

A complaint being made to the committee, that Charles 
Hamilton had sold tea contrary to the association of the 
contiueutul Congress. Ordered that notice be given to 


said Charles Hamilton. Thereupon a copy of the follow- 
ing notice was sent to Mr. Charles Hamilton. 

u Sir — You are charged before the committee for this 
county of having vended a quantity of tea since the first 
instant, contrary to the association of the continental 
Congress. The committee are now sitting at Mr. Adam 
Reigart's, and desn'e your attendance to answer to the 
charge." (Signed) 

Geo. Ross, jun., Clerk. 

To Mr. Charles Hamilton, shopkeeper. 

March 30, 1775. 

Mr. Hamilton having attended, and it appearing by the 
oath of John Taylor, the clerk, that the tea was sold in 
Mr. Hamilton's absence at Philadelphia, contrary to the 
express orders given by him in his store since the first of 
March instant ; and Mr. Hamilton, upon knowing of the 
said tea being sold, immediately disapproved of the sale 
thereof. And Mr. Hamilton himself, upon oath, declar- 
ing that ever since the first of March instant, his orders 
in the store have been to his clerk, that they should sell 
no tea whatsoever, and that the said sale was in his 
absence, and that he disapproves thereof. Upon conside- 
ration of the premises by the committee, it is their unani- 
mous opinion, that Mr. Hamilton stands acquitted of the 
charge against him, and that he hath not counteracted the 
p^sociation of the continental Congress. 

" I, Charles Hamilton, of the borough of Lancaster, 
shopkeeper, do hereby declare and assert, that I utterly 
disapprove of the sales of any tea in my store since the 
first day of March, instant, and it is and always hath been 
my fixed intention and determination to adhere inviola- 
bly to the association of the American continental Con- 
gress, being fully convinced that the measures proposed 
thereby are the only probable modes of rescuing America 


from British Parliamentary despotism. Witness my 
hand, the thirtieth day of March, A. D., one thousand 
seven hundred and seventy-five. (Signed) 

"Charles Hamilton." 

Edward Shippen, Esq., George Ross, Esq., Jasper 
Yeates, Esq., William Atlee, Esq., Adam Simon Kuhn^ 
Esq., and William Bausman, Esq., or any four of them, 
are appointed a standing committee of correspondence for 
the county of Lancaster. 

The members of the committee for the county of Lan- 
caster, now present, taking into consideration the conduct 
of George Ross, Esq., in the late interesting dispute in 
the House of Assembly of this province, respecting the 
answer given to his honor, the Governor's message, re- 
commending a separate petition to his Majesty from the 
the said House of Assembly, do unanimously approve of 
the active part taken by the said Mr. Ross in opposition 
to that measure, as the same would tend to introduce dis- 
union amongst the colonies ; and do return the thanks of 
the committee to Mr. Ross, and the other worthy. members 
of the honorable house, who have so steadily adhered to 
the true welfare of their constituents in opposing a deep- 
laid plan to disunite us. 

May 1st: — The association of the freemen and inhabi- 
tants of the county of Lancaster, the 1st May, 1775. 

Whereas, the enemies of Great Britain and America 
have resolved by force of arms to carry into execution the 
most unjust, tyrannical, and cruel edicts of the British 
Parliament, and reduce the freeborn sons of America to a 
state of vassalage, and have flattered themselves, from 
our unacquaintance with military discipline, that we 
should become an easy prey to them, or tamely submit 
and bend our necks to the yoke prepared for us : We do 
most solemnly agree and associate imder the deepest sense 


&f our duty to God, our country, ourselves and posterity, 
to defend and protect the religious and civil rights of this 
and our sister colonies, with our lives and fortunes, to the 
utmost of our abilities, against any power whatsoever 
that shall attempt to deprive us of them. 

And the better to enable us so to do, we will use our 
utmost diligence to acquaint our ourselves with military 
discipline and the art of war. 

We do further agree to divide ourselves into companies 
not exceeding one hundred men, each, so as to make it 
most -convenient to our situation and settlement, and to. 
elect and choose such persons as the majority of each 
company shall think proper for officers, viz : for each 
company a captain, two lieutenants and one ensign, who 
shall have the power of appointing the other officers 
under them, necessary for the companies. 

That when the companies are formed and the officers 
chosen and appointed, an association shall be signed by 
the officers and soldiers of each company, for the good 
order and government of the officers and soldiers. 

May 3d : Resolved, That the members of the commit-- 
tee of the county of Lancaster, do, with the utmost expe- 
dition, take an account of the number of whites — men, 
•vyomen and children— :to the respective townships of this 
county, and transmit the same to the members of the 
committee, residing in Lancaster, to be forwarded to the 
members of the general Congress for the province of 

Resolved, That the members of the committee do 
examine the quantity of powder and lead the store-keepers 
have in their hands, in the respective townships, and that 
the store-keepers be required, that they sell no powder or 
lead before the first of June next, as they tender the trade 
SJjd custom of the inhabitants of the respective townships, 


provided that it be sold only by such store-keepers having 
a license from two members of the committee. 

At a meeting of the committee of observation, on the 
4th day of May, 1775, the Commissioners of the comity 
being also present, Mr. Charles Hamilton agrees, that the 
county shall have his powder, being 26 casks, at the rate 
of £14 per cwt. and they paying the carriage ; and that 
the county shall have his lead, being about eight hundred 
weight, at 45 pence per cwt.* 

Messrs. Josiah & Robert Lockhart agree that the county 
shall have their powder, being five quarter casks, at £15 
per cwt., they paying the carriage ; and their lead at 45. 
pence per cwt. 

Mr. Matthias Slough agrees that the county shall have 
his powder, being four quarter casks, at £15 per cwt., 
they paying the carriage ; and his lead at 45 pence per 

Mr. Simons by Mr. Levy, Andrew Levy, agrees that 
the counties shall have his powder, being 3 quarter casks, 
at the rate of £15 per cwt., they paying the carriage ; and 
his lead, being about 200 pounds, at 45 per cwt. 

Mr. Christian Wirtz agrees that the county shall have 
his powder, being 5 quarter casks and some pounds loose, 
at the rate of £15 per cwt., they paying the carriage ; 
and his lead, being about 150 pounds, at 45»per cwt. 

Mr John Hopson agrees that the county shall have his 

powder, being 2 quarter casks, at the rate of £15 per cwt., 

they paying the carriage. 

*January 22, 1774, an act was passed by the General Assem- 
bly, that no person or persons within the limits of Lancaster 
borough, shall keep in any house or shop, cellar, store, or other 
place more than twenty-five pouuds weight of gunpowder, and 
that was to be kept in the highest story of the house, at any 
one time, unless it had been fifty yards distant from any dwell* 
ing house, under the penalty of five pounds. 


Mr. Crawford agrees that the county shall have his 
powder, bemg 10 or 12 pounds, at the rate of £15 per 
cwt. and carriage. 

Mr. Bickham agrees that the county shall have his 
powder, being 1 quarter cask and some loose powder, at 
the rate of £15 per cwt. and carriage ; and his lead at 
45 per cwt. 

Mr. Graff agrees that the county shall have his powder, 
being about a quarter cask, at the rate of £15 per cwt. 
paying carriage. 

At a meeting of the committee of observation for the 
borough and county of Lancaster, at the house of Adam 
Reigart, the 15th May, 1775. 

Present ; George Ross, Esq., chairman, Jasper Yeates-, 
Esq., William Atlee, Esq., Charles Hall, Eberhart Mi- 
chael, Casper Shaffner, Adam Reigart, Sebastian Graff, 
Esq., Emanuel Carpenter, Esq., James Clemson, Esq., 
Alexander Lowry, James Cunningham, Samuel Bare, 
James Burd, Esq., Christian Voght and Jacob Erb. 

The question being put whether the powder, lead, and 
other mihtary stores, which can be collected in the 
county. ******* 
[Here the connection is broken.] 

Wednesday, November 8th, 1775. 

A number of the members of committee, chosen and 
appointed by the several townships in Lancaster county, 
to serve as committee men for the ensuing year, assem- 
bled at the Court house, in Lancaster, 

For the borough of Lancaster — William Bausman, Ja- 
cob Clatz, Casper Shaffner, Christian Voght, Abraham 
Dehuff, Michael Musser. For Lancaster— Andrew Graff, 
Michael Shank. For Manheim — Peter Bachman, Se- 
bastian Graff, Jasper Yeates. For Manor — Leonard Rod*^ 



funk-. For Conestoga — William Atlee, Michael Halber- 
stick-, Abraham Newcomer. For Strasburg — Everhard 
Gruber, John Breckbill. For Warwick — John Erb, Pe- 
ter Kratser. For Cocalico — Michael Witmer. For Lam- 
peter — John Whitman, jr., Henry Kendig. For Caer- 
narvon — David Jenkins, Joshua Evans, Henry Weaver. 
For Lebanon — John Piiilip de Haas, Philip Greenwalt. 
For Bethel — Casper Kohr, John Beshore, Killian Long. 
For Hanover — John Rogers, John McKewn. For Lon- 
donderry — William Hays. For Donegal — Alexander 
Lowry, Robert Craig. For Mountjoy — James Cunning- 
ham, John Jamison, Abraham Scott. For Upper Pax- 
tang — Samuel Taylor, James Morrow. For Brecknock- 
Benjamin Leslie. 

The members present proceeded to the choice of a 
chairman, when Jasper Yeates, Esq. was elected, and 
took his scat accordingly. 

George Ross, junior, Esq. was chosen Secretary. 

Peter Riblet was appointed door-keeper and messenger 
to this committee. 

The returns of the elections in the several townships 
were produced, and read, and approved of by this com- 
mittee ; the following gentlemen thereby appearing to 
have been duly chosen in the respective townships as 
members of committee in the county of Lancaster, viz : 

In the borough of Lancaster — Edward Shippen, Geo. 
Ross, William Bausman, Jacob Clatz, Casper Shaffner, 
George Moore, Christian Voght, Abraham Dehuff, Jacob 
Krug, Michael Musser, Adam Reigart. In Lancaster 
township — Matthias Slough, Andrew Graff, JNlichael 
Shank. In Herapiield — Peter Brubaker, Robert Spear, 
John Hoover. In Manheim — Peter Bachman, Sebastian 
Graff, Jasper Yeates. In Manor — Leonard Rodfunk, 
Jacob Rupley, Henry Fup.k. In Conestogo — William 


Atlce, Michael Haberstick, Abraham Newcomer. In 
Drumore — John Long, William McEntire, John Smiley. 
In Strasburg — Samuel Lefevre, Everhard Gruber, John 
Breckbill, In Lampeter — John Whitman, jiin., Henry 
Kendig, John Kirk. In Warwick — Valentine Griner, 
Jacob Erb, Peter Cratzer. In Elizabeth — George Hoyle, 
Christian Staley, Christian Rojrer. In Cocalico — Michael 
Witman, Adam Grill, George Elick. In Earl — Gabriel 
Davis, George Rhine, Jonathan Roland. In Caernarvon- 
David Jenkins, Joshua Evans, Henry Weaver. In Breck- 
nock — Benjamin Leslie, Peter Good, Conrad Popp. In 
Heidleberg — Henry Eckart, George Hudson, Michael 
Ley In Lebanon — John Philip de Haas, Philip Green- 
wait, John Light. In Bethel — Casper Kohr, John Be- 
shore, Killian Long. In Hanover — John McKo wn, JolirT 
Rogers, William Cathcart. In Londonderry — William. 
Hays, Robert Clark, Jacob Cook. In Donegal — Bartram 
Galbraith, Alexander Lowry, Robert Craig. In Mount- 
joy — James Cunningham, Abraham Scott, John Jami- 
son. In Rapho — James Patterson, Jacob Haldeman, Jo- 
seph Litle. In Upper Paxtang — Adam Warts, James 
Murray, Samuel Taylor. 

The return from the township of Paxtang being pro- 
duced in these words, to wit : 

" At an election held at Mr. William Dickey's, in Pax- 
ton township, the ITtii October, 1775, the following six 
persons were elected as members of the county commit- 
tee for the county of Lancaster, to wit : James Burd, Jo- 
seph Sherer, William Brown, John Harris, James Crouch, 
and Jacob Awl, or any three of these men to be admitted 
in the committee from time to time." 

Certified by James Bnnl and Joseph Sherer. Th« 
same was objected to, and it bv.^ing put to vote whether 
the same return should be received, as it confahted a 



return of six persons instead of three, it passed in the 
negative unanimously. 

Resolved, That in determining a question in this com- 
mittee, the borough of Lancaster and the several town- 
ships in this county shall have each one vote, and the 
majority of the townships or borough and townships so 
Voting shall determine the question. 

Resolved, That no person shall speak more than twice 
on the same point, without leave of the committee. 

The letters of the committee of safety of this province, 
to the committee of this county, respecting J, Brooks and 
Doctor John Kearsley, (which were received at Lancas- 
ter, between the time of the election of this committee, 
and this meeting,) were read ; and the proceedings of the 
gentlemen of the committee who negociated that busi- 
ness, and escorted Doctor Kearsley to York, being taken 
into consideration, their conduct is approved of by this 
committee. And the following persons, to wit: George 
Ross, Jasper Yeates, William Atlee, William Bausman, 
Matthias Slough, Christian Voght, Jacob Glatz, Abraham 
Dehuff, Sebastian Graff, Andrew Graff, John Whitmer, 
jun., and Jacob Krug are appointed by the members of 
the committee now present, a sub-committee to see the 
sentence and resolves of the committee of safety respect- 
ing J. Brooks, a prisoner in goal of this county, strictly 
carried into execution. And it is ordered that no person 
be admitted into the company of the said J. Brooks, but 
in the presence of one or more of the sub-committee 
aforesaid, of which the goaler is to have notice. 

Adjourned until to-morrow morning, eleven o'clock. 

Thursday, November 9th, 1775. 

The committee met according to adjournment. 


The same members who attended yesterday, and 


moreover George Ross, Jacob Kriig, George Moon and 
Adam Reigart, for the borough of Lancaster: Henry 
Eckert and Michael Ley for Heidleberg township; and 
Gabriel Davis for Bart township. 

A new return of members elected for Paxtang town- 
ship being produced to the committee, certifying that Jo- 
seph Sherer, William Brown and John Harris were duly 
chosen to serve as members of the committee for the said 
townships, the said return is approved of, and they took 
their seats accordingly. 

A letter from the committee of safety to the late com- 
mittee of this county, dated October 7th, 1775, respecting 
some provincial muskets supposed to be in the hands of 
the military associators and others in this county, beino- 
produced and read : 

Resolved, That William Atlee, Alexander Lowry and 
Sebastian Graff be a committee for preparing the draft of 
an answer to the said letter, and that they report the same 
to this committee in the afternoon. 

Resolved, Unanimously, that this committee will use 
their endeavors to carry into immediate execution the 
resolves of the honorable House of Assembly respecting 
the six hundred stand of arms and other military accou-. 
trements to be furnished by the county of Lancaster. 

The question being put whether the gun-smiths residing 
in the borough of Lancaster should not be immediately 
sent for to give their reasons to this committee, why they 
have not set about making the arms directed by the hon- 
orable House of Assembly to be made in the county of 
Lancaster, agreeable to the application of the commis- 
sioners and assessors of the said county. The same was 
unanimously carried in the affirmative, and the gim- 
smiths were sent for accordingly. 

A petition signed by Henry Zericher being presented 


to the committee, upon inquiry into the facts therein 
contained, it is ordered by this committee (three town- 
ships dissenting) that the said Henry Zericher be allowed 
five pounds of powder, and no more, out of the public 
magazine, for the purposes expressed in the petition, he 
paying for the same into the county treasury at the rate 
four shillings per pomid. 

The sub-committee appointed to essay the draft of an 
answer to ilie letter of the committee of safety respecting 
the provincial muslcets, do now report to this committee, 
the draft of the answer winch they had prepared, in these 
words, to wit : 

Lancaster, November 9th, 1775. 

Gentlemen : — Your leiter of the 7th day of October 
last, directed to the committee of Lancaster county 
respecting the provincial muskets, in the hands of the 
military associators and others in this county, has been 
laid before this committee and taken into consideration. 

We find that the gentlemen who were the committee 
of correspondence, apj-ointed by the late county commit- 
tee, had upon \he receipt of your letter, published and 
dispersed hand-bills Throughout the county requiring the 
persons possessed of such nmskets to bring them in at 
this time. As none are brought in, we beg leave to 
suggest to 3'^ou some facts, relative to those arms, and 
wait your further directions. 

After the troops raised by the province in the late war 
were disbanded, a number of muskets and military accou- 
trements were lodged at a Mr. Carson's in Paxtang, 
where they remained Avitliout any notice or care being 
taken of them, until the unhappy disputes between Great 
Britain and the Colonies rendered it indispensably neces- 
sary for our safety to associate and arm in defence of our 
rights. The then committee of this county upon hearing 


of those arms, requested some of their members to exam- 
ine and send them down, intending an application to the 
Assembly to have them repaired at the public expense, 
and put into the hands of such associators as were unable 
to furnish themselves, and who were to give receipts for 
them to be returned, if not lost in actual service. At 
this time arms Avere sought for with great assiduity by 
every one, who wished to be instructed in the military 
discipline. The inhabitants of Cumberland county, 
knowing also of the provincial muskets, v/ere beforehand 
with us, and having the first choice, took between sixty 
and seventy of the best of them (for which Mr. Carson 
has a receipt) leaving a parcel of rubbish which were sent 
to this town, consisting of barrels mostly without locks 
and stocks, and all of them so covered with rust that they 
were thought almost unfit for use, and scarcely worth 
repairing. Many of them were loaded and had probably 
been so for many years. Some of the poor associators 
here took the barrels, and with much labor had them 
cleaned. By the help of some old locks which about this 
time were found in, a garret in this town (without an 
owner) and were distributed amongst them, they had 
them put into such repair, as to serve them to exercise 
with. These persons have been at a considerable expense 
in putting them in the order they now are ; and if they 
are deprived of them, are not able to purchase others. — 
There are a few indeed of the best of the firelocks which 
we think could safely be trusted to for real service. To 
take the arms from the poor people under such circum- 
stances would greatly damp their martial spirit. 

We conceive it our duty to mention these things to the 
committee of safety. If that honorable Board, neverthe- 
less, shall be of opinion that such firelocks will be of use 
and will direct in what manner the people who hare 



been at expense in repairing them are to be reimbursed, 
we shall cheerfully exert ourselves to the utmost of our 
power in calling them in, and forwarding them to Phila- 

This, gentlemen, is the first opportunity we have had 
of answering your letter relative to the arms. Give us 
leave to assure you, it will afford us great pleasure to be 
instrumental in any degree to the safety of the city of 
Pliiladelphia. We feel very sensibly the situation of your 
citizens ; we deem ourselves most strongly bound to give 
every assistance in our power to repel any attaclv which 
may be attempted against you, and humbly trust we shall 
not be deficient in the day of danger. 

Your letter of the 19th October, came to our liands. — 
According to your desire a proper guard from hence con- 
ducted Dr. Kearsley to York, and took a receipt for his 
safe delivery to the committee there. S. Brooks remains 
coi;fnied in our gaol. A sub-committcc of twelve gen- 
tlemen residing in and near this town, has been appoint- 
ed to see that your sentence and resolves respecting 
Brooks, be carried into executi-m, and no person is per- 
mitted to visit him but in the presence of one or more of 
those gentlemen. 

By order of the committee of Lancaster county. 

The foregoing answer .being read at tlie table, was 
unanimously approved of, and it is ordered that the same 
be transmitted to the committee of safety l)y the first 

Adjourned until to-morrow, eight o'clock 

Friday, November 10th, 1775, 

The committee met according to adjournment. 

F resent. 

The same members who attended yesterday, and 
moreover Josepii Litlc for Kapho townf.;hip. 


Upon motion, Resolved, That in case any of the gun- 
smiths, in the county of Lancaster, upon application made 
to them by the members of the committees of the respec- 
tive townships to which they belong, shall refuse to go to 
work and make their proportion of the firelocks and 
bayonets required by this county, by the honorable House 
of Assembly, within two weeks from such application 
agreeble to the patterns, at the Philadelphia prices; — 
such gun-smiths shall have their names inserted in the 
minutes of this committee as enemies to their country, 
and published as such, and the tools of the said gun- 
smiths so refusing shall be taken from them, and more- 
over the said gun-smiths shall not be permitted to carry 
on their trades, until they shall engage to go to work as 
aforesaid, nor shall leave their respective places of resi- 
dence, until the arms are completed. And it is further 

Resolved, That the committee of correspondence and 
observation, do take especial care that their resolves be 
carried into execution. 

Christiain Isch and Peter Reigart appeared in commit- 
tee, and agreed to set to work on Monday, the twentieth 
day of November instant, and make muskets and bayo- 
nets for this county, (part of the number required from 
this county, by the honorable House of Assembly,) at 
the Philadelphia prices ; and that they will confine them- 
selves to that work entirely from tliat time to tiie first day 
of ]^.Iarch next, and furnish as many as they can possibly 
complete in the time, and deliver the same to the Com- 
missioners of the county or this committee. 

Michael Withers appeared in conunittee, and agreed 
to set to work as soon as he hath completed a few guns 
which he hatli now in hand, and make muskets and 
bayonets for this county (part of the number from this 
county by the honorable House of Assembly,) at the 


Philadelphia prices ; that he will confine himself, and his 
workmen to that work and carry on the same as expedi- 
tiously as he can, and that he will deliver in to the com- 
missioners and assessors of this county or to this com- 
mittee as many muskets. (If further proceedings were 
had, they cannot be found. 

Note. — Members of Assembly from Lancaster county for 
1775; Curtis Grubb, Matthias Slough, George Ross, James 
Webb, Thomas Porter, Bartram Galbraith. 1776: William 
Brown, John M'Millan, Philip Mar.steller, James Anderson, 
Alexander Louicy, Ludwig Loumau. 


Course of the niotlicr country objectioiiablc — Tdilitarj convfritioii at Lan- 
rastor — Daniel Kobertleau t>nJ James Ewing elected Brigadier Generals — 
Resolutions passed and adojUed — Committee of safety ; Convention to- 
form the first State constitution, Pennsylvania and Lancaster county 
active — Numerous inciuesits, &c. in Lancaster county during the RevolU'- 
tion — General Wayne's head quarters and correspondence with his 
excellency, Thomas Wharton, president of t'.ie executive council of Penn- 
gylvania — Congress repairs from Philadelphia to Lancaster, thence to 
York — Military meeting at .Manhciiu — Survi\ingP.evoIulionary soldicrs^- 
Notes, &c. 

The course pursued hy the mother country, incensed 
the people of the several colonies — a continental Congress 
assembled at Philadelphia, Sept. 4, 1774 — resolutions 
were passed approving the course of the people of Mas- 
sachusetts, in opposition to Gen. Gage — the open and 
decided hostilities eventuated in bloodshed at tlie battle 
of Lexington, April 19, 1775 ; which was soon followed 
by another, the battle of Bunker Hill, Juno 17tli. To 
meet the emergency, the colonists held conventions, mili- 
tary and other meetings. In this great conflict between 


the mother country and the colonists, the inhabitants of 
Lancaster and adjacent counties, met at Lancaster 
borough, July 4th, 1776. The meeting consisted of the 
officers and privates of the fifty-three battalions of the 
Associators of the colony of Pennsylvania, to choose two 
Brigadier Generals, to command the battalions and forces 
of Pennsylvania. Col. George Ross, was president of 
the meeting, and Col. David Clymer, secretary. 

The following officers and privates attended, as dele- 
gates to the convention, from Philadelphia city and Lib- 
erties: Colonels, Chevalier, Roberdeau, Clymer and 
Major Knox. Captains, Copenwhait, Bradford, Du- 
lancy, Brewster, and Bitting. Privates, jMessrs. Nevil, 
Nelson, Montgomery, Pool, Cox, Prior, Brower, Keck, 
Craig and Kitter. From Philadelphia county : jNIajor 
Hughs, and George Grey standard bearer; Captahis 
Hart and Edwards ; Privates; Roberts, Smith, Whitten, 
Simpson, Hazelett and Hicks. 

From Bucks county : Colonels Hecklinc, and Erwin ; 
Lieutenant colonels Bryan and Robinson; Captains 
Jarvis, Falwell, Jameson, and Adjutant Thompson ; pri- 
vates, Watts, Fenton, Hollis, Herr, Patterson, Stoneback, 
Middleswarth, and Titus. 

From Chester county: Major Culbertson ; Colonel 
Montgomery ; Lieutenant colonel Gibson ; Captains W al- 
lace, Scott, Gardiner; privates, Cunningham, Boyd, 
Denny, Culbertson Mackey, and Fulton. 

From Lancaster county : Colonels, George Ross, Curtis 
Grubb, James Crawibrd, M. Slough, John Ferre, Peter 
Grubb, Timothy Green; Lieutenant colonels, Adam Rei- 
gart, R. Thompson, Lowry, Leonard Rautfaung, Peter 
Hendricks, Christian Weyman, Andrew Little ; Majors, 
Philip Marstaler, Thomas Smith, James Cunningham, 
Michael Fire ; Captains, Joseph Sherrer, James Murray, 


James Miriir, Henry Weaver; privates, Christian Werts^ 
Francis liaily, James Sullivan, Ludwick Ziering, John 
Smiley, Isaac Krwin, Abraham Darr, William Leard, 
Henry Slaymakcr, John Whitehill, George Bealy, John 
Jameson, Christian Bough, Simon Snider, George Line, 
Joseph Whitehill, William Smith, George Wry, William 
Barnet, George Little, Michael Diffebaugh, and Anthony 

From York county : Colonels Smith, Diel, and Lieiv- 
tenant colonel Donaldson ; Majors Donwiddie, Jefferies, 
Andrew, Finley and Craft ; Captains Smiser and Camp- 
ble ; privates, W. Scott, Ewing, Clinghan, Hamilton, 
Little, Shiey, J. Scott, Nealor, Messerty. 

From Cumberland county : Colonel J. Armstrong, and 
Lieutenant colonels Blair, Clark, Watts; Captains J. 
Steel, M'Clelland, Davison, M'Farland, Robhison ; Ma- 
jor J. M'Calmont; privates Hogge, E. Steel, Smith, Paw- 
ling, 15rown, Sterrett, Hamilton, Read, Finley, Vance. 

From Berks county : Colonels Bird, Patton, Levan ; 
Majors, G. Hiester, Jones, Lindimuth, Loeffler; Lieuten- 
ants, Cremer, Lutz, Rice, Miller; Adjutant, S. Eby ; 
Captains, Keim, May ; privates, Hartman, Filbert, INIor- 
gan, Tolbut, Spoon, Winrich, Moser, Seltzer, Winter, 
Hill, Larke, Wister, Smack. 

From Northampton county : Colonels, Guigar, Stroud: 
Majors, Lebar, Sicgtried ; Captains, Orndt, Snider, Kearn, 
Jayne ; privates, M'Farren, Upp, liarkhaus, Haas, 
Brown, licst, J. M'Dawd,jr., D. Von Flick. 

From Northumberland county : Colonel B. Weiser, 
and Lieutenants Calhoun, M'Kinzie ; Lieutenant colo- 
nels, M'Clay, Moodic-, Captains, Gillespie and Gray; 
Major, lirady ; privates, Stone, M'Cartney, Gattes, Cul- 
bertson, Matlock, Yokan, Starret, M'Clanahan. 

From Westmoreland county : Colonel, P. ISIornly ; 


Captains, V. Orey, Thompson ; Major, .J'ames ^mith ; 
privates, William Guthrey, W. Perry, Carmicliael and 
George Gray. 

A question was put, whether the officers and privates 
shall vote by ballot, singly ; and it was agreed they 
should. It was also further resolved that both Brigadier 
generals be voted for at the same time, and the highest 
in votes to be the commanding officer. After colonel 
Mark Bird and captain Sharp Dulancy, with colonel 
George Ross, president of the convention, were appointed 
judges of the election of Brigadier generals, an election 
was held, and after casting at the poll, the votes stood 
thus for Brigadier general: Daniel Roberdeau 160; 
James Ewing 85 ; Samuel Miles 82 ; James Potter 24 ; 
Curtis Grubb 9 ; George Ross 9 ; Thomas McKean 8 ; 
Mark Bird 7. Robertdeau was elected first Brigadier 
general, Ewing second Brigadier general. 

Resolutions were then adopted, that the Brigadier gen- 
erals shall have full power and authority to call out any 
number of the associators of this province into action, 
and that power be continued until superceded by the 
convention, or by any authority under the appointment. 
That the president of the board shall have full power and 
authority to grant commissions to the two Brigadier gen- 
erals until commissions issue from the convention ; or any 
authority they shall appoint to succeed them. That we 
will march under the direction and command of our Brig- 
adier general, to the assistance of all or any of the Free 
and Independent states of America. That associators to 
be drafted out of each county, by the Brigadier generals, 
shall be in the same proportion as that directed by the 
late provincial conference held in Philadelphia. This 
conference met June 18, and adjourned the 25th. Dele- 
gates to this conference were William Atlee, Esq., Mr. 


Lodowick Lowmon, colonel Bartram Galbraith, colonel 
Alexander Lowrey, captain Andrew Graaf, Mr. William 
Brown, Mr. John Smiley, major James Cunningham, 
major David Jenkins. 

While the convention was holding in Lancaster, the 
friends of American Independence, having met in con- 
vention at Piiiladelphia, and discussed the suject fully 
and dispassionately, passed a Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, on the same day the convention was held in Lan- 
caster. Now the contest was fairly begun. The diffi- 
culties, on the part of the Americans, in supporting their 
pretensions, as a declared free and independent people, 
were of the most appalling character. 

After the Declaration, the magistrates who liekT 
appointments under the royal authority declined serving 
longer ; the business of the courts was suspended. Our 
citizens were left for a while without any constitutional 
government. In this state of things a committee of 
safety in Piiiladelphia undertook the management of 
affairs, under the unassuming name of recommendations, 
prescribed to the people of the state. 

" Ou Monday the 15th of July, 1776, a convention for 
forming the constitution of Pennsylvania, met at Phila- 
delphia, and elected Benjamin Franklin, president ; col- 
onel George Ross, vice president; John Morris, secre- 
tary, and Jacob Garrigues, assistant secretary. The dele- 
gates from Lancaster county, were George Ross, Philip, 
Marsteller, Thomas Porter, Bartram Galbraith, Joseph 
Sherer, John Ilubley, Henry Slaymaker and Alexander 
Lowrey. Tiie convention, after framing the first consti- 
tution of tlie State of Pennsylvania, adjourned the 28th 

•Several of the provinces had adopted state constitutions 
before and after Pennsylvania. JSicw Hampsliire adopted the 


As soon as this convention was organized, it assumed 
the powers of tlie committee of safety — the political 
power of the state. One of its first acts was the appoint- 
ment of delegates to Congress. The delegates were, 
Messrs. Franklin, Morton, Morris, Wilson, George Ross, 
James Smith, Benjamin Rush, George Clymer and Geo. 

Pennsylvania made prodigious exertions, in co-opera- 
ting with the allied colonies, fully to meet the hostilities. 
Several regiments were raised and equipped in Lancaster 
county. " It is believed, had all the other provinces done 
as much in proportion to their ability,* and the men been 

first state constitution, January 5, 1776 ; Soutli Carolina, March 
24, 1776; Virginia, June 29, 1776; New Jersey, July 2, 1776; 
Maryland, August 14,1776; Pennsylvania, September, 1776; 
Delaware, September, 1776 ; North Carolina, December, 1776 ; 
New York, April, 1777 ; Massachusetts, March, 1770 ; Vermont, 
July 4, 1788; Georgia, May, 1789. 

The first constitution of Pennsylvania of 1776, was altered 
and amended by a convcsition, held at Philadeiphia in Novem- 
ber, 1789. Delegates from Lancaster county were Edward 
Hand, Robert Coleman, Sebastian Graff, William Atlee, John 
Hubiey, and John Breckbill. This convention framed the 
second constitution. Another convention was held at Harris- 
burg, in the spring and summer of 1837. Met May 2— after 
two month's session, it afterwards met at Philadelphia. The 
present or third constitution of Pennsylvania, was framed by 
this convention. Delegates from Lancaster county were Vvll- 
liam Hiesler, James Porter, Jeremiah Brown, Lindley Coatcs, 
E.. E. Cochran, Joseph Konighniacher, Henry G. Long, 
Emanuel C. Reigart. 

A convention commenced at Philadelphia, November 20, 
1787, for the pui pose of taking into consideration the consti- 
tution framed by the federal convention for the United States. 
The delegates from Lancaster county were Stephen Chambers, 
Robert Coleman, Sebastian Gratf, John Hubiey, Jasper Yeates, 
and John Whitehill. 

'^'Graydoa's Mem. 116. 


410 HISTORY or 

enlisted in war, the Americans might have avoided the! 
hair-breadth escapes which ensued,"* as well as the long 
continued, arduous conflict of eight years, and an enor- 
mous sum of expense, besides saving many valuable 
lives, in delivering themselves from a foreign dominion, 
and gaining, as they did, a rank among the nations of the 
earth. Much treasure, and many lives might have been 
saved. Great Britain expended more than one hundred 
millions of dollars, with a hundred thousand lives, and 
won nothing. America expended rising of ninety millions 
of dollars, and lost many lives, and endured cruelty and 

Lancaster county furnished its full quota of militia and 
continentals, during the Revolution. Her citizens acted 
early and efficiently. " Prior to the four regiments of St. 
Clair, Shee, Wayne and Magaw, that of De Haas, and 
Hand's rifle company, were already raised and equipped, 
respectively commanded by Miles and Atlee, in the 
whole, nine regiments complete and very reputably 

Numerous are the incidents, and some full of adven- 
ture, which happened in this county during the Revolu- 
tion. Gen. Washington, and other distinguished Ameri- 
can and British officers were in the borough of Lancaster 
at the period referred to. Though neither battles, nor 
skirmishes took place within the limits of the county, the 
wounded and prisoners here were many. At the battle 
and cannonading of Trenton, December 26, 1776, many of 

*The quota furnished by Pennsylvania from 1775 to 1783, 
consisted of 7357 militia and 22,198 continentals. The aggre- 
gate quota by all the states was 234,971 continentals and 56,- 
163 niililia— total 279,134. In the year 1776, rcnnsylvania fur- 
nished 5,519 continentals and 4,B76 militia— total 10,395. 


the Hessians,* prisoners taken there, were conveyed tt) 
Lancaster borough. 

American soldiers were quartered at the barracks and 
other parts of the county during the winter of '77 and 
'78. Both the Lutheran and Reformed church at oSIan- 
heim were quartered with soldiers. Wlien the battle of 
Brar.dywine was fought, September 11th, 1777, many of 
tlie wounded soldiers were conveyed to Ephrata, where 
about one hundred and fifty of their number, which was 
rising of five hundred, died. 

While General Washington took winter quarters, Gen- 
eral Wayne encamped in this county, in Mountjoy town- 
ship, where his men endured no small degree of suffering, 
as appears from the following letters, from the General 
to his excellency, Thomas Wharton, Esq., at Lancaster : 

*In 1775, the British King entered into treaties with some of 
the German princes for about seventeen thousand men, who 
were sent to America early in 1776, to assist in subduing the 
colonies. Among these were the Hessians, who had been 
taken at Trenton and conveyed as prisoners to Lancaster. At 
the close of the Revolution many of them remained and in- 
termarried with German and English families, whose descend- 
ants are respectable, and some of the best citizens. 

In September, 1843, we visited one of the German mercene- 
ries, living at Millport, Warwick township; a Mr. Jacob Ha- 
genberger, who according to his own statement, wasborn March 
3d, 1750, arrived at Quebeck, March 5, 1775. He belonged to 
Captain Schachter's company ; he was taken prisoner at the 
surrender of General Burgoyne, October 17, 1777; taken to 
the barracks near Boston, thence to Winchester, Virginia, 
thence to Reading, and lastly to Lancaster, where, on the 
close of the war, he was sold for eighty dollars, for the term of 
nearly three years to Captain Jacob Zimmerman, of Earl 
township. Hagenberger is now in his 94th year. His health 
is good and memory remarkable. 


To his excellency, Thomas Wharton, Esq. 

Mountjoy, 28th Dec, 1777.* 

Dear sir: — I was favored with yours of the 12th 
instant, but the enemy being then out, prevented me from 
acknowledging it sooner. 

I can't help expressing both surprise and concern, at 
the councils directing the clothing collected in this state 
into the hands of the Clothier general — especially after 
being informed that the other states were collecting 
clothing for the use of their troops ; clothing for the 
Eastern troops has actually arrived — they are now com- 
fortable, whilst ours are perishing. 

His excellency is also informed that Governor Henry 
of Virginia, has ordered on clothing for the troops of that 
state, which he expects every hour. 

Thus sir, whilst other states are exerting every power 
(under a resolve of Congress) to provide for their own 
troops only — you are following the generous course of 
providing for the whole-r-this sir, is being generous out 
of time — it is an old adage, that a man ought to be just, 
before he can be permitted to be generous — the case 
applies in full force here. Supply the immediate wants 
of your own troops first — then give scope to your 

Enclosed is an estimate of the cost of 650 suits of 
uniform, which Mr. Zantzinger has provided for the 
troops of that state. He is in great want of money. I 

* Secretary's Office, Harrisburg, Oct. 11, 1843. 

Mr. T, D. Rupp— Sir: Your letter of the 9th instant was re- 
ceived, and in reply I would inform you that it appears from 
the letters you mentioned, that General Wayne had his camp 
at Mountjoy, in Lancaster county, during the winter of 1777 
and 1778. Very respectfully, yours, 

Chas. M'Clttre, 


wish you would assist him to the cash he wants, and to 
take some effectual method to clothe the troops in the best, 
speediest, and neatest manner possible. Lest you should 
be under a deception with regard to the mode in which 
the clothing in the hands of the Clothier general is dis- 
tributed, I am to inform you that they are delivered in 
proportion to their wants (or in plain English) to the 
number of men in each regiment throughout the army. 

Judge how far inadequate our proportion must be to 
our wants, whilst the troops from other states have an 
equal dividend in addition to their other supplies. 

At this inclement season, one third of our troops are 
totally destitute of either shoes, stockings, shirts or 
blankets,* so that unless they receive an immediate 
supply of those necessary articles, sickness, death and 
desertion will be the inevitable consequence. 

I am your excellency's most ob't humble serv't, 

Ant'y Wayne, B. G. 

I have directed Mr. Zantzinger to call on you for 
money. I wish you to order the clothier general to esti- 
mate the price of the clothing, which, agreeable to a 
resolve of Congress is to be in proportion to the pay of 
the officers and men — the states to bo at the loss of the 
surplus. A. W. . 

To his excellency , Thomas Wharton, Esq., President 
of Pennsylvania, Lancaster. 

Camp Mountjoy, February, 1778. 
Dear sir : — Enclosed is a list of the officers sent on the 

' *1777, 2d May, Bartram Galbraith, James Crawford, Adam 
Ordt, Robert Thompson, Joshua Elder, Christopher Crawford, 
William Atlee, John Hubley, Alexander Lowry, Curtis Grubb, 
Philip Marstcller, Matthias Slough and Adam Reigart, were 
appointed by the war-office, to supply the army with blankets, 
ice. for Lancaster county, Pa. 



recruiting service from my division who, you will see by 
the within instructions, ara directed to wait on your ex- 
cellency for recruiting orders. I wish they may meet 
with that success that the exigence of the case 
requires, but I fear that nothing short of a draft will save 
America; however the effect of a total prohibition of the 
substitute business ought first to be tried. I flatter 
myself that when the people (who used to hire themselves 
as substitutes) once find that no more luuidred dollars 
can be had in that way, that they wiil enlist in the line 
of the continent. 

But I am confident that they never will whilst any 
idea is held up of a family substitute, for it is only 
hiring a man to-day, and he may be sent to-morrow as 
substitute belonging to my family. 

Will you, and the honorable Council, use your ii fiuence 
with the House of Assen;bly to f ut this sul^titute busi- 
ness totally out of \hv question, for believe mjc that the 
salvation oi this State dtpends upon the exertions that 
may be made during the winter towards filling the con- 
tinental regiment. 

I wish you to or er all such recruits as may l>e enlisted,. 
to be completely uni,fornrcd before they leave Lancaster. 
I also wish that no more cloth be m.ade up in coats unless 
it be blue ; but that all the rest be made into over-alls 
and vests, except such colors as will admit of being dyed 
blue. The Virghiians have received blue cloth sulficient 
for to uniform the whole of their troops, so that I fear 
we shall be eclipsed by all the other states, unless we 
take some pains to give our soldiers an elegant uniform ; 
for I do lay it down as a position that the best dressed 
troops will ( ver be both the healthiest and bravest with 
CQual discipline and regimen. 

Tlie Clothier general informed me when I was at Lan- 


-caster, that there were shirts plenty at camp ; I find he 
was mistaken, for although some hundreds of our poor 
worthy fellows have not a single rag of a shirt, (but are 
.obhged to wear their waistcoats next their skins, and to 
sleep in them at night,) I have not been able to draw a 
single shirt from the store; for the Avant of which our 
men are falling sick in numbers every day — contracting 
uermin, and dying in hospitals, in a condition shocking 
to humanity, and horrid in idea ; for God's sake procure 
a quantity for me, if you strip the Dutchmen for them — 
which I beg your order to camp, together with such other 
clothing as may be ready, with all possible despatch. 
Interim, I am your excellency's most obedient 

And very humble servant, 

Ant'v Wayne. 
To his excellency Thomas Wharton., Esq., Lanca^ster : 

Mountjoy, 27th March, 1776. 
Dear sir : — It's at last concluded to throw the Pennsyl- 
Tania troops into one division, after reducing them to ten 
regiments, which I believe v/ill be as many as we can 
fill. I have but little hopes of being supplied with many 
recruits, unless the officers in the back counties meet with 
more success than those in Philadelphia and Chester ; an 
officer from the latter came in yesterday, after being out 
five weeks, without a single recruit. 

J would beg leave to suggest the expediency of em- 
ploying a greater number of officers on that business in 
Berks, Lancaster, York and Cumberland counties, as the 
most likely places to meet with success. I fear all our 
exertions in this way will fall far short of our wishes, and 
.that nothing but a draft will be adequate to the business. 
It's rumored that the enemy have evacuated Rhode 
Island, and are drawing all their force to one focus. If 
this should be the case, as we have grounds to think it is, 


they will be too powerful for us in the field, unless great 
and speedy supplies be thrown in. It therefore becomes 
the duty of the state to make an immediate and effectual 
exertion to complete her quota of men ; but whilst this is 
doing, let me entreat you, sir, not to neglect providing 
the linen over-alls and other clothing, to enable us to take 
the field with some eclat, which will add both spirit and 
health to your troops ; for you may rest assured nine out 
of ten deaths and desertions, in this army, are owing to 
dirt and nakedness. 

I have the happiness to inform your excellency that 
the troops of this state enjoy a much greater share of 
health than any other post of the army, and I pledge my 
reputation to keep them so, on condition that I can be 
provided with linen and other clothing. 

It's to you, sir, that we look up to for those matters — 
and in this case we consider you as our conmion father. 
Adieu, my dear sir, and believe me 

Yours, most sincerely, 

Ant'y Wayne. 
To his excellency, Governor Thomas Wharton, Esq., 

Lancaster : 

Mountjoy, April lOlh, 177S. 

Dear sir : — Agreeable to your desire, I have ordered 
up an additional number of recruiting oliicers, who are 
well rcconnncnded for their industry and sobriety, and 
who I wish were tolerated to enlist in any quarter where 
it is most probable they may meet with success ; as con- 
fining them to particular counties will rather retard than 
expedite the recruiting service. I communicated your 
idea to his excellency, of constantly employing some 
officers in (liat business, in order to keep the regiment 
and corps c()m])!ete, which meet his warmest a])proba- 
tion, an(,l he requests, through me, that your excellency 


would adopt so salutary a measure, as it is of the first 
consequence to have veterans, in place of raw raised 
troops, which will always be the case if the recruiting 
business is put off till the spring of the year ; and then 
the time is so short ihat we can't hope either to complete 
or raaneuvre our corps before they take the field. I 
wish your excellency to order the recruits to be clothed 
and appointed before they leave Lancaster, as they can't 
be supplied here, the sixteen additional regiments, and 
the Carolina troops being ordered to be supplied previous 
to any others, so that we have little prospect of receiving 
any benefit from the Clothier general's store in this 
quarter; and although tolerable with regard to shoes, 
stockings and hats, we an; but wretchedly provided iu 
other respects, particularly as to shirls, I do assure your 
excellency that there are near one-third of my men that 
have no kind of shirts under heaven ; and scarcely a 
man in the division with more than one, nor have I been 
able to draw any during this whole winter. For God's 
sake endeavor to do something for us; die season has 
now arriv(d tliat requires every attention to keep the 
troops healthy, and nothing will be more conducive to it 
than clean linen ; in this article we are in a worse con- 
dition than any troops on the ground ; now worse than 
Falstaff's recruits — they had a shirt and a half to a com- 
pany. You will pardon me for dwelling so long on this 
subject, but upon my soul I cannot help it; my feelings 
as a man arc so much hurt by the complainings and 
misery ct the poor fellows, ivho have no shirls at all, 
that I can have no peace of mind until they are provided., 
A quantity of superfine cloth, and about 12 or 1500 
yards of linens and cloths were purchased by Colonel 
Miller, and left in the hands of Mr. Jacob Eichelberger 
at York, for the use of our troops ; will you be kind, 


enough to order IVIr. Howell to send for it, lest other 
troops should receive the benefit of that which we are so 
much in want of. 

A woman who has been in Pliiladelaphia for three or 
four days, and this moment returned, says that the gen- 
eral re])ort there is, that in the course of two weeks the 
enemy intend to take the field ; but at the quarters of 
some principal olliccrs they have- frequently been over- 
heard talking in a desponding style, and that they can't 
move until they receive reinforcements, with severe 
sarcasms against their generals. Who they wish to' be 
recalled, and who I hope will not, until \vc have an 
opportunity to Burgoyne him ; but this will depend upon 
the exertion of the states; at present he out numbers us, 
and by the last accounts New England is so absorbed in 
accumulating wealth, that they have become totally 
insensible to our sufferings and danger, and sunk into a 
torpid supineness, from which it is dillicult to rouse them. 
I am your excellency's most obedient 

And very humble servant, 
By order of General Wayne. 

Bex. Fishburn, A. D. C. 
To his excellency Thomas IVharton, Esq., Lancaster : 

Mounljoy, 16th April, 1778. 
Dear sir: — ^Nlr. Donaldson of "N'ork, who will deliver 
you this letter, has been kind enough to offer his services 
in procuring shirts for our troops. He thinks that he 
could snp))ly us with three or four liundred in a wc^ek, 
and that he has linnen now on hand sullicient to make 
six hundred, and that he can i)rucure a large (quantity if 
properly empowered and supplied with cash. 

The necessitous situation of our troops, for want of 
shirts, justify any manner, and requires every exertion to 
procure our inmiediate supply. 


I therefore wish your excellency to give Mr. Donald- 
son power for that purpose. We shall certainly want in 
tlie whole 0000 shirts, and 9000 pair of overalls. 

I herewith transmit you the returns of the two Brigades 
of Pennsylvania troops, under my command — the sick 
now in company contained in the returns, have been laid 
up for want of clothing, except in a few instances ; there 
is scarcely one of them that has a shirt, I shall order a 
general return of the whole Pennsylvania line to be made 
out, which I shall transmit next week. 
Interim I am with every esteem, 
Your excellency's most obedient 
And very humble servant, 

Ant'y Wayne. 
To his excellency Thomas Wharton, Esq., Lancaster : 

Mountjoy, ISth April, 177S. 
Dear sir : — Colonel Butler of the 9th Pennsylvania regi- 
ment, among other business, wants clothing for his regi- 
ment. I wish him to be indulged if it can be done without 
prejudice to the other part of the line. 

I have procured from Mr. Zantzinger, since November 
last, about five hundred and fifty coats, two hundred 
waistcoats, three hundred and eighty pair of breeches, 
and an equal number of stockings, about one hundred 
pair of shoes, and several hundred hats ; these have been 
distributed among nine regiments, and has only in part 
clothed about one fourth of them. All the clothinar as 
yet furnished by this state, has been distributed between 
the 3d, 6th, 9th, 12th and 13th, which I believe is rather 
more than came to the share of the other nine. I there- 
fore wish all such clothing as may be ready to be sent 
together, and I will undertake to see impartial justice 
done to the whole, for I believe no one at present is 
better off for them than another, except Colonel Stewart 

420 Bistort oi" 

and Colonel Hartly, whicli are well clothed : most of t\l^ 
others are in a Avretched condition. 

I am yom* excellency's Immble servant, 

Ant'f Wayne. 

Fearful their deliberations might be interrupted, whiles 
in session at Piiiladelphia, Congress resolved to remove 
from Philadelphia. "On the ISth of September, 1777, 
Congress sat as usual, and after having fulfilled the regu- 
lar hours of daily service, adjourned to 10 o'clock the 
next morning, but during the adjournment the president 
received a letter from Colonel Hamilton, one of General 
Washington's aids, which intimated the necessity of Con- 
gress leaving their place of deliberation. The members 
resolved at once to repair to Lancaster, where they 
arrived on the 27th of September, the very day when 
Sir William Howe entered Philadelphia, and took peace- 
able possession of it. 

The treasury books, papers, money, &c. were carried 
from Philadelphia to Bristol, thence by Reading to Lan- 
caster. This circuitous route was to avoid falling into 
the hands of the enemy, who were at that time still in 
'Chester county, where, a few days previous, the battle of 
Brandy wine had been fought. 

Congress met, but fearful that Lancaster was too easily 
accessible to the enemy, they determined the broad Sus- 
quehanna should flow between them and the enemy. — 
They adjourned the same day of their first meeting to 
York. The first day of their session at York was the 
30th September, 1777 ; here Congress remained till June 
27, 1778, when they adjourned to meet at the State House 
in Philadelphia.* 

Ttjough the conflict continued long, the ardor of the 
citizens of Lancaster coun'y did not abate in opposing 

*His. York county. 


encroachments upon their rights, no matter from what 
source they anticipated them. Action, vigilance and 
union of efforts, seemed to have been their motto on all 
occasions of apprehended or real danger. 

A circular was issued at Hanover, now Dauphin 
county, November 28, 1782, calling a meeting at ]\Ian- 
heim, to take into consideration measures touching their 
jeoparded liberties, as it was then thought. W^ give the 
circular and proceedings : 

Dear sir: — The officers and representatives of the ninth 
battalion of Lancaster county militia, upon consultation, 
have concluded from the present complexion of the 
present House of Assembly, tliat the constitution and 
liberty of the State are at stake in some measure; and 
sensible of the importance of what has caused us so much 
blood and treasure, we have thought it incumbent upon 
us to exert ourselves for their preservation, as far as our 
influence extends, and to warn all who would wish to be 
free Irom the dangers that seem to impend, not doubting 
at the same time but you are ready to take the alarm, as 
you must be sensible of the same danger. 

We do not think it necessary to multiply words, tending 
to inspire your spirit, for we are of opinion you possess 
the same, and have been only waiting to know the senti- 
ments of your fellow friends of Liberty. Let us not 
then coolly and simply suffer any of our rights to be 
taken from us by any men, especially as our constitution 
invests us with full power to oppose any such attempt. — 
Perhaps our fears are groundless ; but in case of appar- 
ent danger, which undoubtedly is our present rase, a wise 
man will be qx\. his guard ; and therefore let us meet at 
Manheim, on the 15th day of January next, in order that 
we may mutually contrive such measures as may have a 



tendency to preserve our good and inestimable constittl- 
tion, and our dear Independence and sweet Liberty. 
Be active and do not fail to fulfil our request. 

John Rogers, Colonel. 
To the Colo7iels of Lancaster county militia. 
Hanover, November 28th, 1782. 

Militia Meeting. 

Present : Colonel Thomas Edwards, colonel Ziegler, 
colonel Lowry, majors Cook, Kelly, Hays and Hare^ 
colonel Ross, Mr. Chambers, captain Ewing, captain J. 
Hubley, colonel Rogers, Mr. Clark, captain Laird, colo- 
nel Elder. 

On motion, colonel Rogers was unanimously chosen, 
chairman, and captain Joseph Hubley, secretary. 

Colonel Rogers made a neat and appropriate speech, 
explaining the objects of the meeting, that a rumor was 
in circulation calculated to do nmch injury: " That the 
President'' of the State of Pennsylvania was hostile 
io the independence of Jlmerica.''^ 

On motion, this question was put to each battalion : Is 
it the opinion of the members present, that they approve 
of the appointment of John Dickinson, Esq. as President 
of the State of Pennsylvania, or not ? Answer : The 
members of the second battalion arc of opinion that a 
better choice of a President could not be made. 

Colonel Ziegler, same opinion; seventh battalion, same; 
eighth battalion, same ; ninth battalion : we hope the 

*Thc persons who presided over the Executive council of 
Pcnnisylvania, from 1779 to 1790, were styled Trcsidents. The 
llrst under the constitution of 1779, was Thomas Wharton ; 
second, Joseph Read; third, John Dickinson; fourtli, Benja- 
min Franlvlin ; (ifth, Thomas Mifllin. In 1790, a new constitu- 
tion was adopted. Thomas Miilliii was elected governor, Octo- 
ber 12tli 1790. 


Assembly have made a good choice, and if they have we 
thank them. Colonel Elder agrees in opinion with the 

Resolved, unanimously. That the people have a right 
to assemble together for their common good, to instruct 
our Representatives, and to apply to the Legislature for 
redress of grievances, by address, petition, or remon- 

Resolved, unanimously. That in opinion of the deputies 
from the different battalions now met, that the complex- 
ion of the present House of Assembly is such that we 
have no reason to doubt that the independence and con- 
stitution of this state are safe, and that we highly approve 
of his excellency, John Dickinson, Esq. as President. 

Resolved, unanimously, That we approve of colonel 
Rogers calling this meeting, as it has tended to remove 
doubts and unjust charges that were in circulation to the 
disadvantage of his excellency, the President of this state, 
and two of our members of Congress, James Wilson and 
John Montgomery, Esquires ; and we conceive such 
meetings have a tendency to suppress false and malicious 
reports, and that thereby virtue may meet with its just 
reward, and vice be depicted in its true deformity. 

Signed, John Rogers, chairman. 

J. HuBLEY, secretary, 

]\Ianheim, June 15th, 1783. 

For the want of space, we are obliged to close, imper- 
fect as it is, the sketch of some of those incidents which 
occurred in this county during the Revolution, by noti- 
cing some of the surviving Revolutionary soldiers, natives 
of this county. 

Still a few of the patriotic Revolutionary veterans are 
living. Of this number is Mr. Philip Meek, of West 
Lampeter township, now in his 87th year. At the ago 


of nineteen, he entered under Captain George Grove, the 
service of his country. He belonged to the " Flying 
Camp," estabhshed on a resolution of Congress, passed 
June 3, 1776, and consisted of ten thousand militia, 
whereof Pennsylvania furnished 6,000, Maryland 3,400, 
and Delaware 600, JNIcck was in several engage- 
ments. He was in the bloody engagement on Long 
Island, August 27, 1776, where Lord Percy and Grant 
commanded the British and Hessians, and a division of 
tlie American army was commanded by General Putnam. 
At the White Plains, October 28, 1776, and at Fort Wash- 
ington, November 1776. It was here Hezekiah Davis, 
one of the lieutenants in the Flying camp of Pennsylva- 
nia, was made prisoner, and held in captivity till Decem- 
ber, 1780. After this engagement, M. went to New 
Brunswick, and at the expiration of his tour of six 
months, was dismissed. The sufferings he endured were 
many ; and it is remarkable to see him now, far advan- 
ced in life, to enjoy unusual health, and the full possession 
of all his mental faculties, Mr, Meek was born in Lan- 
caster county, 

John Gantner, born in Lancaster, July 4th, 1761. At 
the age of 17 enlisted in the service of the state of Penn- 
sylvania, under the command of Captain John Ilubley; 
under whose command he marched to Shamokin, and 
several other places. After sustaining the hardships of a 
winter campaign, he returned to Lancaster and was dis- 
charged. He afterward joined Colonel Armand's corps; 
was two years in the service of his country as a United 
States regular, and after many skirmishes, fatiguing 
marches, &.c. he was honorably discharged, Mr, Gant- 
ner was a private in Captain Sliarp's company of 
dragoons, and was on his march to Yorktown, whea 
intelligence was received of the capture of Lord Corn- 


wallis ; they did not proceed to the place of destination. 

George Leonard, also a native of this county, born 
September 13, 1758, enlisted in 1776 under Captain Mat- 
thew M'Donald in Philadelphia, having, however, served 
nearly two months before as a militia man. He was 
nearly three years in the service, and in several battles, 
viz : at Trenton, Germantown, Princeton. 

Peter Mauerer, born June 13. 1757, volunteered in 
1776, under Captain John Henry, went to Philadelphia, 
Trenton, and Elizabethtown, N. J. After a tour of two 
months, he returned to Lancaster, and late in the fall, 
under his former captain, v/ent to Pliiladelphia, thence to 
Burlington, Trenton and Elizabethtown, where they 
united with the main army in winter quarters — helped to 
build a fort. After serving a second tour, returned to 
Lancaster, and aided in guarding Hessian and otiier pris- 
oners, where rising of two thousand were kept. When 
the Hessian prisoners v/ere taken to New York to bo 
exchanged for American prisoners, Peter Mauerer was 
one of those who accompanied them. He saw Washing- 
ton and La Fayette frequently during the war ; and in 
1824 dined with La Fayette at Lancaster. 

Pdter Shindlc, born April 29th, 1760, was also in the 
Revolutionary service. He went in the capacity of a 
fifer, in Ju!y 1776, under Captain Andrew Graaf, of Colo- 
nel George Ross' regiment; and in September, 1777, 
under Captain Stoever, of Greenawalt's regiment. He 
was promoted to brigade fife major. He was present at 
the battle of Brandywine and Germantov/n. He went 
out a third time uader Captain William Wertz ; and in 
1778, he voluntacred to aid taking the Hessian prisoners 
of Lancaster to Piiiladelphia, in Captain App's company. 

Jacob Hoover, of the city of Lancaster, enlisted in the 
war of the Revolution in the year 1776, under captain 



Bull of Carlisle ; and was in the battle of Long Island, 
August, 1776; battle of Brandywine, Germantown, 
Trenton and Monmouth, and several small skirmishes, 
and was regularly discharged in the year 1779, hi Phila- 

In a preceding part of our book, we noticed David 
Dieffenderfer and others. See page 207. 

Notes. — The winter of 1780, is denominated the " Tlie Hard 
Winter.^'' Ice was from 10 to 19 inches thick — frost penetrated 
the ground from 4 to 5 feet. During this winter the ears of the 
horned cattle, and the feet of hogs exposed to the air, were 
frostbitten. Squirrels perished in their holes, and partriges 
were often found dead. — Haz. 2; 379. 

In 1781, Methodist ministers first visited Lancaster county ; 
and in 17S2, what was then called "Lancaster circuit," was 
formed, and the Rev. William Partridge appointed to it as 
minister. It then contained seventy members of society ; the 
Methodist Episcopal Church not yet having been organized.-— 
Among the early ministers who preached in the count}-, may 
be named : Reverends William Glendening, W. Jesup, Isaac 
Robertson, W. Hunter, J. P. Chandler and Simon Miller, a 
native of the county. — Goheen. 

In 17S2, John F. MifRin, John Wilks Kittera and George 
Thompson, were admitted at the bar of Lancaster, to practice 

Ml nibcrs of Assembly for Lancaster county for 1777 : — Cur- 
tis Grubb, Matthias Slough, George Ross and James Webb. 
1778, John Gillchrist, Curtis Grubb, Alexander Lowrey, John 
Smiley, James Anderson, William Brown. 1779, James An- 
derson, John Smiley, John Gillchiist, Christopher Kuchcr, 
James Cunningham, William Brown, sen., Emanuel Carpen- 
ter, Jr., William Porter. 1780. John Whilehill, Emanuel Car- 
penter, Jacob Cook, Christopher Kuchcr, James Anderson, 
Adam Rcigart, James Cowden, Alexander Lowrey, Matthias 
Slough, James Jacks. 1781, John Whilehill, Christopher 
Kuclier, Jacob Cook, Jacob Carpenter, Abraham Scott, James 
Jackp, Blatlhias Slough, William Brown, Jacob Krug, James 
Mercer, James Porter, 1782, Joseph Montgomery, Christo- 


pher Kucher, John Whitehill, Samuel John Atlee, Abraham 
Scott, James Jacks, John Craig, Matthias Slough, Curtis Grubb, 
"William Brown, James Mercer. 1783, Abraham Scott, William 
Brown, James Mercer, John Craig, Matthias Slough, Joseph 
Work, Adam Orth, Adam Hubley, Jacob Cook, William Parr, 
Robert Coleman. 


Lancaster county after the Revolution — Germans, and. those of Gei'man 
extraction; views on education — Franklin College established — First 
board of Trustees — Rcichenbach ; New Jerusalem Church ; the twelve 
articles received by that church — Improvements great in the county — 
Columbia laid out — Lancaster city, scat of government — Late war; 
means of Lancaster county — Notes of variety. 

Lancaster comity, in common with other comities of 
this state, and the United States in general, during the 
struggle of the Revolution, paid but little attention to 
endowing and sustaining schools of advanced standing. 
In this county, education for many years fell far short of 
the wealth and leisure the citizens had to bestow upon 
the education of their sons and daughters, beyond that of 
a common school education. The citizens of this county, 
principally Germans, have always entertained peculiar 
views touching "college learning;" they ever preferred 
being taxed to make ample provision for the erection of 
poorhouses and hospitals, and the maintenance of the 
unfortunate and poor, and cheerfully to pay towards 
educating the children of the indigent, than to aid in 
building college edifices, and endowing professorships. — 
Shortly after the close of the Revolution, the subject of 
education in this county received a new impulse. 

In the year 1787, a number of citizens of this state, of 
German birth and extraction, in conjunction with others, 

428 nisTORY OF 

from a desire to increase and perpetuate the blessings 
derived to them from the possession of property and a 
free government, apphed to the Legislature for a charter 
of incorporation and a donation of lands, for the purpose 
of establishing and endowing a college and charity school 
in the borough of Lancaster. Their petition was granted ; 
a board of trustees, as a corporate body, was established, 
styled, in honor of his excellency, Benjamin Franklin, 
Esq., " The trustees of Franklin college, in the borough 
and county of Lancaster^ 

The first board of trustees were : the honorable Thomas 
Mifflin, Hon. Thomas M'Kean, Rev. John H. C. Hel- 
muth. Rev. Casper Weiburg, Rev. Henry Muhlenberg, 
Rev. William Hendell, Rev. Nicholas Kurz, Rev. George 
Troldiener, Rev. John Herbst, Rev. Joseph Hutchins, 
Rev. Fred. Weyland, Rev. Albertus Helfcnstein, Rev. W. 
Ingold, Rev. Jacob Van Buskirk, Rev. Abraham Blumer, 
Rev. Fred. Dalecker, Rev. C. E. Schultz, Rev. F. V. 
Meltzheimer, Messrs. John Hubley, Joseph Hiester, Cas- 
per Schaffuer, Peter Hooffnagle, Christopher Crawford, 
Paul Zantzinger, Adam Hubley, Adam Reigart, Jasper 
Yeates, Stephen Chambers, Robert Morris, George Cly- 
mer, Philip Wagner, William Bingham, William Hamil- 
ton, William Ravv'le, Lewis Farmer, Christopher Kucher, 
Philip Groenwaldt, Michael Hahn, George Stake, sen., 
John Musser. 

Franklin college was located in North Queen street, 
known for many years as "The old storehouse," now 
as "Franklin row,* The college was opened for the 
instruction of youth, in the German, English, Latin, 
Greek ;uid other learned languages; in Theology, and in 
the usclul arts, sciences and literature. It remained in a 

*The compiler occupies (1843) one of the apartments of 
*' Franklin row." 


flourishing condition for several years ; owing, however, 
to some defect in the charter, and the pecuniary resources 
of the trustees faiUng,it was suspended.* 

Amon? the first teachers of this institution was WilUam 
Reichenbach, a native of Saxony, a man of classical 
attainments. In 1785, he left Germany; immediately on 
his arrival at Lancaster, was appointed professor of 
mathematics and German literature. About the same 
time Henry Von Buelow, a native of Prussia, a German 
nobleman, who had in his juvenile years adopted the 
military profession, visited America and spent some time 
in Lancaster. Buelow had embraced the peculiar views 
of Em. Swedenborg,t and with a view to disseminate- 

'See chapter XI on education. 

f These views being so peculiar and not generally known^ 
we here devote a small space to presenting the leading doc- 
trines of the New Jerusalem Cliurch. The founder of this 
church was Emanuel Swedenborg, son of a bishop of Skara.. 
Emanuel was born 1689, at Stockholm. He was, it is admitted 
by all, a learned and pious man. He died in 1772. 

The following twelve articles are received by the New Jeru- 
salem church : 

I. That Jehovah God, the Creator and Preserver of heaven 
and earth, is Love Itself and Wisdom Itself, or Good Itself and 
Truth Itself: That he is One both in Essence and in Person, 
in whom, nevertheless, is the Divine Trinity of Father, Son, 
and Holy Spirit, wliich are the Essential Divinity, the Divine 
Humanity, and the Divine Proceeding, answering to the soul, 
the body, and the operative energy in man: And that the 
Lord and Savior Jesus Christ is that God. 

II. That Jehovah God himself descended from heaven, as 
Divine Truth, which is the Word, and took upon him Human 
Nature for the purpose of removing from man the power of 
hell, and restoring to order all things in the spiritual world, and 
all things in the church: That ho removed from man the 
powers of hell, by combats against and victories over them ; 
in which consisted the great work of Redemption: That by 


them, he brought witli him, from Europe, a number of 
New Cliurch works, for gratuitous distribution, and f jv 
sale. Ueichenbach, on examining the doctrines, embra- 
ced and avowed them openly. He afterwards published 
several works on the doctrines of the New Church. One 
entitled *,'lgathon, published in English and German, 
which was favorably received. 

From the efforts of Von Buelow, who afterwards re- 

the same acts, which were his temptations, the last of which 
was the passion of the cro-s, he united, in his Humanity, Divine 
Truth to Divine Good, or Divine Wisdom to Divine Love, and 
so returned into hi:? Divinity in which he was from eternity, 
together with, and in, his Gloritied humanity ; whence he for- 
ever keeps the infernal powers in subjection to himself; And 
that all who believe in iiiin, with the understanding, from the 
heart, and live acccu'dingly, will be saved. 

III. That the Sacred Scripture, or Word of God, is Divine 
Truth Itself; containing a Spiritual Sense heretofore un- 
known, whence it is divinely Inspired and lioly in every syl- 
lable; as well as a Literal Sense, which is the basis of its 
Spiritual Sense, and in which Divine Truth is in its fulness, its 
sanctity, and its power: thus that it is accommodated to the 
apprehension both of angels and men: Tliat the spiritual and 
natural senses ar.- united, by correspondences, like soul and 
body, every natural expression and image answering to, and 
including, a spiritual and divine idea: And thus that the 
W(n'd is the medium of communication with heaven, and of 
conjunction with the Lord. 

IV. 'J'lial ihe government of the Lord's Divine Love and 
Wisdom is the Divine Providence; whicli is universal, exer- 
cised according to certain fixed laws of Order, and extending 
to the minutest particulars of the lif(! of all men, hotii ol' the 
good and of the evil: That in all its operations it lias respect 
to what is iufniite and eternal, and makes no account of things 
transitury but as they are subservient to eternal ends; thus, that 
it mainly consists, with man, in the connection of things tem- 
poral with things eternal; fur lliat the continual aim of the 
Lord, by his J)ivinc Pruvidence, is to join man to himself and 


turned to Europe, there arose a small band of brothers 
about the year 1788, who hold the peculiar views of 
baron Swt-denborg; among the first, besides count Buelow 
and Reichenbach, in this county, who were receivers of 
the doctrines of the New Jerusalem Church, were Fran- 
cis Bailey and family, Mr. Eckstein, Jacob Carpenter, the 
intimate friend of Buelow, Frederick Damish, a Saxon, a 
teacher of music. There still exists in this county, a respect- 

himself to man, that he may be able to give him the felicities 
of eternal life: And that the laws of permission are also laws 
of the Divine Providence; since evil cannot be prevented 
without destroying the nature of man as an accountable agent; 
and because, also, it cannot be removed unless it be known, 
and cannot be known unless it appear: Thus, that no evil is 
permitted but to prevent a greater: and all is overruled, by 
the Lord's Divine Providence, for the greatest possible good. 

V. That man is not life, but is only a recipient of life from 
the Lord, who, as he is Love Itself and Wisdom Itself, is also 
Life Itself; which life is communicated by influx to all in the 
spiritual world, whether belonging to heaven or to hell, and to 
all in the natural world; but is received differently by every 
one, according to his quality and consequent state of re- 

VI. That man, during his abode in the world, is, as to his 
spirit, in the midst between heaven and hell, acted upon by 
influences from both, and thus is kept in a state of spiritual 
equilibiium between good and evil ; in consequence of which 
he enjoys free-will, or freedom of choice, in spiritual things 
as well as in natural, and possesses the capacity of either 
turning himself to the Lord and his kingdom, or turning him- 
self away from the Lord, and connecting himsjif with the 
kingdom of darkness: And that, unless man had such free- 
dom of choice, the Word would be of no use, the Church 
would be a mere name, man would possess nothing by virtue 
of wliich he could be conjoined to the Lord, and the cause of 
evil nould be chargeable on God himself. 

Vil. That man at this day is born into evil of all kinds, or 
with tendencies towards it: That, therefore, in order to his 

4'Sii "HISTORY or 

able number of receivers and embracers of the New Church 
doctrines. In point of intellect and activity, unsurpassed 
by the same number, who, though few, did, unaided by 
other religious denominations, purchase a lot of ground 
in Lancaster city, and erected a neat New Jerusalem 
temple, in 1837, in wliich stated meetings for religious 
exercises are held. The exercises are conducted by a lay 
member elected for that purpose. Th€ sacraments are 

entering the kingdom of heaven, he must be regenerated' or 
Created anew ; which great work is effected in a progressive 
manner, by the Lord alone, by charity and faith as mediums, 
during man's co-operation : That as all men are redeemed, 
all are capable of being regenerated, ^and consequently saved, 
every one according to his state: And that the regenerate 
man is in communion with the angels of heaven, and the un- 
regeneratc with the spirits of hell : But that no one is con- 
demned for hereditary evil, any further than as he makes it 
his own by actual life; whence all who die in infancy arc 
saved, special means being provided by the Lord in the other 
life for that purpose. 

VIIL That Repentance is the first beginning of the Church^ 
in man ; and that it consists in a man's examining himself, 
both in r(>gard to his deeds and his intentions, in knowing and' 
acknowledging his sins, confessing tliem before the Lord, sup- 
plicating liim for aid, and beginning a new life: That to this 
end, all evils, whether of affection, of thought, or of life, are 
to be abhorred and shunned as sins against God, and because 
they proceed from infernal spirits, who in the aggregate arc 
called the Devil and Satan ; and that good affections, good 
thoughts, and good actions, are to be cherished and p(>rformed, 
because they are of God and from God : That these things are 
to be done by man as of himself; nevertheless, under the ac- 
knowledgment and belief, that it is from the Lord, operating in 
him and by him: That so far as man shuns evils as sins, so 
far they are removed, remitted, or forgiven ; so far also he does 
good, not from himself, but from the Lord; and in the same 
degree he loves truth, has faith, and is a spiritual man: And 
that the Dc.'calogue teaches what evils arc sins. 



■administered by a regularly ordained minister, who visits 
the congregation as often as the wants of the chm-ch 

From and after the year 1785, Lancaster county began 
to improve rapidly; towns in various parts of the county 
were laid out. Samuel Wright laid out the town of Co- 
lumbia in 1787, and in a few years afterwards others 
were laid out. Agriculture and commerce prospered. — 

IX. That Charity, Faith, and Good Works, are unitedly ne- 
cessary to man's salvation ; since charity, without faith, is not 
spiritual, but natural; and faith, without charity, is not living, 
but dead ; and both charity and faith, v»ithout good works, are 
merely mental and perishable things, because without use or 
fixedness: And that nothing of faith, of charity, or of good 
works, is of man ; but that pU is of the Lord, and all the merit 
is his alone. 

X. That Baptism and the Holy Supper are sacraments of 
divine institution, and are to be permanently observed ; Bap- 
tism being an e.vternal medium of introduction into the Church, 
and a sign representative of man's purification and regenera- 
tion ; and the Holy Supper being an external medium, to those 
who receive it worthily, of introduction, as to spirit, into 
heaven, and of conjunction with the Lord ; of which also it is 
a sign and seal. 

XL That immediately after death, which is only a putting off 
of the material body, never to be resumed, man rises again in 
a spiriiUaJ or substantial body, in which he continues to live to 
eternity ; in heaven, if his ruling affections, and thence his 
life, have been good ; and in hell, if his ruling affections, and 
thence his life, have been evil. 

XIL That Now is the time of the Second Advent of the 
Lord, which is a Coming, not in Person, but in the power and 
glory of his Holy Word : That it is attended, like his first 
Coming, vviih the restoration to order of all things in the spiri- 
tual world, v/here the wonderful divine operation, commonly 
expected under the name of the Last Judgment, has in conse- 
quence been performed ; and with the preparing of tlie way 
for a New Church on the earth, — the first Christian Church 



All was tranquility till 1 794, when the Whiskey insun-ec- 
tion took place iu the western part of Pennsylvania; 
many in this county began to fear that the stability of our 
government was not immovable, but their apprehensions 
were removed before the expiration of that year. From 
that period down to the present, there is little of special 
interest in the history of the county that is not common 
to the adjacent and even more distant counties of the 
state, except that Lancaster city was the capital of the 
state from December 1799, till 1812, when the seat of 
government was removed to Ilarrisburg. The law for 
locating the seat of government at the latter place, was 
approved 21st February, ISIO ; and the offices were re- 
moved from Lancaster 12th October, 1S12. The com- 
missioners for that purpose were Robert Harris, George 
Hoyer, George Ziegler, 

During the late war of 1812, '13, '14, no county in the 
state was more ready to meet the exigencies of the times 
than the militia and volunteers of Lancaster county. — 
Companies were raised, and prepared to confront the 
hauglity invaders of our country, and effectually to curb 
the proud Dritons in their headlong course against our 
eommon country. 

Lancaster county, though of limited territory, has all 

having sphitually come to its end or consmmnation, thrcugh 
evils of hfe and errors of doctrine, as foretold by the Lprd in 
the Gospels: And that this New or Second Christian Church, 
which vill be the Crown of all Cliurchcs, and will stand for 
ever, is what was representatively seen by John, when he 
beheld llic holy city. New Jerusalem, descending from God out 
of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her hiishand. 

The writings of Swedcnborg, in German, English and 
French, and oilier New Church pul)Iicat.ions, can bo had at 
their Book Depository, kept by F. J. KuAMru, merchant tailor, 
Lancaster, Pa. 


the elements, natural, physical, moral and intellectual, if 
these are properly cultivated, to secure to itself a niche of 
distinction in the Keystone State. 

Notes. — The winter of 1784, was considered one of the 
hardest winters for forty years. The same year there was a 
high flood of the Susquehanna. 

Travelling in 1784. This year Frederick Schaeffer establish- 
ed a travelling accommodation stage, which occupied three 
days in returning to and from Philadelphia. 

In 1792 the turnpike from Lancaster to Philadelphia, 62 miles 
in length, was commenced, and finished in 1794 — cost $465,000; 
at about $7,516 per mile. 

Population of Lancaster county in 1790. Free white male 
persons of 16 years and upwards, including heads of families, 
9,713; free white males under 16 years, 8,070; free white 
females, including heads of families, 17,471; all other free 
pei'sons, 545; slaves, 348 — total 30.179. 

Members of Assembly from Lancaster county : — 1789, James 
Clemson, John Hopkins, Henry Dering, James Cunningham, 
Jacob Erb, John Miller. 1790, James Cunningham, Williaai 
Webb, Abraham Carpenter, Jacob Erb, John Breckbill, 



EiivrATK.N: — Preliminary remarks; Importance of general cilupalion— 
Vicr.s cf tlio coIoiiiKls — Mcnnonilrs' views of education — Scotrli-Irish 
settlers, made at first liltic preiaraiion, &c. till 179S — First schools in the 
town of Lancaster — Lutheran and Germnn Kcformed churches have 
schools under their ausjjiccs — Rev. M. Schlatter indefatigahle in his efforts to 
establish schools — Extract from Coctuale proceedings of 1760 — Tnibtees 
and managers of public sc'.ioois — Germans patriotic, modest and unas- 
suming, &c. — Ludwig Hacker establishes a Sabbath school at Ephrata— 
German ela.'.-sical school at Ephrata — Academy at Ephrata — A«ideniy at 
Liti:; — Select Academy at J.ancaster — Franklin college, &c. — Private 
schools and aradamies in various reclics^.s of tlic counly — A.n act for tbo 
education of children in the borough of Lancaster^-The Mechanics' So- 
ciety — Classical Academy ; Lancaster (Jounty Aradcmy ; Classical Acad- 
emics in the counly — Seminaries; Common Schools; Sabbath Schools, 
Lyceums, &c. 

The permanency of all Rcprvblics, depends upon the en- 
lightenment of the people. As education is therefore encour- 
aged or neglected, so will their foundations be sure and stable, 
or loose and unsettled ; and it is diiricult to say, ■whether in 
Uieir moral relations or political privileges, this truth is most 
self-evident. The certainty, stability and perpetuity of a re- 
publican government, with all its vast machinery of offices and 
officers, such as the efficient administration of the government 
by the Executive, the judicious and wholesome e.\ercise of its 
powers by the Legislature, the j)ron)pt and energetic adminis- 
tration of justice by faitiiful Judges, and above all, the just de- 
termination of the rights of parties by impartial Jurors, must 
depend alone upon tiic people. There is no otlicr foundation 
upon wliich the structure can rest. Tiiis constitutes its chief 
excellence, its greatest strcngih. 

In a government then such as ours, based as it is upon ac- 
knowledged democratic principles, in the theory and practice 
of which, it is admitted that the peoj)le arc the source of all 
power, making and unmaking at stated intervals all their func- 
tionaries, from the Chief magistrate of the nation, down to tho 


humblest officer created by a Borough charter, the necessity of 
having that same people educated, will not for a moment be 
questioned. For, as they are enlightened or unenlightened, so 
will their government be elevated in character, or depressed 
in a corresponding degree. Called upon as they are, to the 
frequent exercise of the elective franchise, and thus necessarily 
to judge of men and measures, their course of action must be 
determined, either by each man's own personal examination 
iflto the character of the one, and a careful investigation into 
the propriety or expediency of the other, or else it must be 
suggested and fixed by the advice and opinions of others. And 
what a prolific source of abuse is this. It is seldom indeed 
that such advice is honest, for the most part it is the gratuitous 
oflFering of interested men. How shall those whose minds are 
obscured by the clouds of ignorance, be capable of discrimina- 
ting between the correctness and incorrectness of questions 
of public policy ] How shall they judge between the patriot 
and the ambitous, self-aggrandizing demagogue 1 Are they 
competent to arrive at a proper decision of the various compli- 
cated questions, necessarily arising for their determination, and 
by a reference to which, their choice is to be regulated in ths. 
selection of officers and representatives'? Let the people be 
educated, and thus each individual will be rightly impressed 
with the important truth, that his own interests are identified 
with those of the State. For no government is so free as that 
which is upheld by the affections of the people, and no com- 
munity so happy as that in which the youth, by proper educa- 
tion, are disciplined to the exercise of all those moral virtues 
that ennoble human nature. 

So thought and so acted, almost all of the early settlers of 
nearly every state in the Union. Although Colonists it is true, 
and perhaps entertaining not even the most remote idra of a 
separate existence, at any period of time, as a nation, they 
were in their Colonial government, if not essentially, at least 
partially Democratic. Returning by a popular vote, their own 
Representatives, and — with the exception of their Governors—, 
the greater part of all their prominent oflicers, they felt the 
necessity of so enlightening this first great power, that at a 
very early day, schools and institutions of learning were estab- 
lished and founded by voluntary contribution? among them. — 



Such is tlic history of the Turitans of New England, the Roman 
Catholics of Maryland, the Quakers of P ennsylvai:ia and the 
Huguenots of the Carolinas, True, their first efforts in this 
respect were feeble. The country was new, and surrounded 
as the inhabitants were by savage foes, the first elements of 
education wliich the children obtained, were communicated by 
the parents themselves, in the midst of dangers and unexam- 
pled hardships. Ey degrees however, as the difierent settle- 
ments increased in number and strength, schoolswcre establish- 
ed fur the instruction of the children, in the ordinary branch- 
es of the education of tlic country from whence the parents 
had emigrated; and as in time, wealth began to flow in upon the 
Colonists, schools, academies and cullcges came to Le endow- 
ed either by individual liberality or Logisldtivo munificence. — 
Truly the good seed sown thus early by the settlers, has yielded 
abundantly, "some thirty, some sixty and some an hundred 

In general terms and fewer words, we have thus described 
the progressive history of the educatiun of almost every com- 
munity in the United States. In some parts we admit, the ad- 
vance has been accelerated more perhaps by the comparative 
extent of t!io information of tlio first emigrants an 1 the dimin- 
ished number of obstacles encountered by them in subduing 
the country, than from any other cause. Under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, this might therefore suffice for the object to which 
the present chapter is devoted; but as it is intended to pre- 
sent to t!:c reader, a detailed account (fall matters of sufficient 
importance and worthy of being embodied in a woik of this 
kind, it is uiir duty as a faithful historian, to enter into details. 

As has been already shewn in a former part of this work,* 
the first settlement of any extent in Lancaster county, was 
made by tlie German Slcnnoniles in I'^OO and "10 in tlic neigh- 
borhood of Willow-street, in Lampeter and Conestoga town- 
.ships. Tiicy v.ere — as their descendants still are — a highly 
moral and religious people. Holding rcace-princijilcs, and 
taking very little if any jjart in the alVairs of government, they 
taught tlieir young men, that the first great duty of life, was 
for var\i iwjw If) mind his own husinei:s. Practising upon this 
maxim, they encouraged indu>jtry by their own examples, and 

•J'age 71 aiitca. 


discouraged ambition by a representation of the evils neces- 
sarily following in its train. Devoting themselves and their 
families to religion, they labored and were happy. Spurning 
alike the honors and emoluments of office, they kept on in the 
even tenor of their way, rejoicing. Why then should they 
spend much time in Literary pursuits'! They were farmers, 
why waste time precious to them, in the acquisition of 
that which when obtained, to a people of such simple habits 
of life and so unassuming, could be of no present or conceiv- 
able advantaged Thus reasoned the father, so argued the sons, 
and as a consequence, learning was — with the exception of so 
much as barely enabled them to read the Bible and the Psalm- 
book, to v/rite a little in the German and master the three first 
rules in Arithmetic — not only neglected but absolutely dis- 
couraged by them. Although there has been a vast improve- 
ment in the Society for the better in this respect; and notwith- 
standing; many of its members possess superior abilities and 
attainments, still the same opinions are entertained by the 
Society at large ; and while almost every other sect has made 
its efforts towards the establishment of Academies, Colleges, 
and Theological Seminaries, they have been content to walk 
in the ways of their fathers, and to hear "the word of life" 
expounded, by men of as simple tastes and habits as them- 
selves. Let no man here reproach them with hostility to 
learning for learning's sake, for such a reproach will be as 
unjust as it is undeserved. They oppose its extension among 
their youth, beyond what we have already stated, .simply 
because in their estimation, it begets a state of life inconsist- 
ent with their profession of religion. Of them it may be truly 
said, they worship God, not only in the "beauty " but also in 
the simplicity of " of holiness." 

In the year 1717* a settlement was commenced on the banks 
of the Octorara Creek, by a party of uhat are now known as 
"the Scotch-Irish." They had many difficulties to encounter, 
for besides being destitute of any large amount of this world's 
goods, they had the misfortune of settling upon a soil by no 
means so fertile or so kind as that secured by their more for- 
tunate fellow emigrants — the German Mcnnonites. From ne- 
-cessity and poverty, they made but little progress in the estab- 

•Page 117 antea. 


lishnieiit of schools for the education of their 3'outh ; and at 
no time until about the year 1798, was there any effort made to 
support a classical and mathematical school among tli(;in. — 
Their progress however in this respect, on a comparison, will 
be found to bo but little behind even the boasted elTorts of the 
colony at Plymouth, They and tlieir descendants have always 
been justly regarded as among the most intelligent people of 
Lancaster county. 

The Borough, now the city of Lancaster, as we have seenf 
^as originally founded in 1730. The first lot holders were 
Quakers and English Protestants ; but before any settled plan, 
other than the ordinary schools supported by voluntary sub- 
scription could be adopted by them for the education of youth^ 
German Protestants from the upper and lower Pahitinates, 
holding the doctrines of the Lutheran and German Reformed 
Churches, with all their attachments — strong and powerful a,s 
they arc — emigrated to this flourishing and prosperous town. 
Entering at once upon the business of life as Tradesmen and, 
Mechanics they labored with all the indomitable perseverance 
of the Saxon character, until by an increase of numbers from 
additional emigrations and the accumulation of a little wealth, 
they weie enabled to build a Lutheran and also a German 
Reformed church fur the accommodation of themselves ^nd 
tliose holding the doctrines of these respective churches. The 
first great duty with these people, was the erection and dcdi-: 
cation of Houses of Worship to Almighty God. The next, was 
to supply them with those who should minister to their sj)iritual 
wants in holy things; and the third but co-equal duty with the 
latter, was to secure the services ot a competent School-mas- 
ter, to instruct their children in the elements of a good German 

At no part of this History better than the present, can it 
with greater propriety be observed, that almost co-cxistcnt 
with tile establishment of the first Lutheran churches in Ger- 
many and of the Reformed churches in Switzerland and Hol- 
land, tli'-re sprang up a custom among their members peculiar 
to themselves. Each congregation was regarded as a spiritual 
municipal corporation, and among other duties performed by 
those living its controul or government, in order that "the 

■|-Pugo312 aiitca. 


word might not perish for lack of knowledge among the 
people," they employed a competent teacher, to instruct the 
youth of both sexes, without any regard whatever to the wealth 
or standing of the parents in society. Generally each church 
was supplied with an organ — indeed this instrnment was re- 
garded as indispensable to the proper worship of the Almighty, 
and tlie person employed to perform upon it during divine 
service, was required to unite with his skill and knowledge as 
a mu.-ician, the profession of a School-teacher. He usually 
received a stated salary, and was furnished with proper accom- 
dations for his school, himself and family at the common cost 
of the congregation. In return for this, and in addition to his 
duty as an organist — as has been shewn — he was required to 
teach the children of the congregation upon such terms as the 
vestry might from time to time determine. The sum thus fixed, 
was paid to him by the parents of such of the children, as 
were able to afford it, while the children of those who were 
in indigent circumstances, were taught the same branches 
without charge and in consideration of the salary paid by the 
congregation. This mode of educating their own poor, by a 
system so simple, was regarded as a religious duty. It was so 
taughtfrom generation to generation, through successive years ; 
and when the two churches we have referred to, were founded 
in Lancaster, the Lutheran A. D. 1734 and the German Re- 
formed A. D. 1736, it was not forgotten. 

As may well be supposed, the schools thus established were 
not at first very far advanced, beyond the ability to impart a 
knowledge of what are now known as the first rudiments of a 
common education, but in a few years, they attained to some 
eminence, and from being originally intended only for the 
benefit of the children of their particular churches, they came 
to be multiplied and extended, for the benefit of all the inhabi- 
tants of the Borough and adjacent country. So rapidly indeed 
had the scholars increased, and with so much success were the 
schools conducted, under the united efiorts and persevering 
industry of the Pastors of the Lutheran and German Reformed 
congregations, that from about the year 174.5 to 1784, they were 
almost the onlyschoolsof characteria the county — except those 
at Ephrata and Litiz, of which we shall speak hereafter. During 
the earlier part of this time, great interest was taken in the es- 


tablishmcut of Schools in America, by the Highest Ecclesias- 
tical bodies of these two Churches in Europe. By the Reform- 
ed Synod of Amsterdam, Sclioolmastcrs were sent out for the 
instruction — and German Bibles and otlier religious books for- 
warded to meet the wants of the community not only at Lan- 
caster but throughout Pennsylvania, Maryland and New York. 

In the Ca3tuale proceedings of the Reformed church in Hol- 
land, for the year 1700, we iind a Report dated May 20, A. D* 
1760, in which, among other things, it is stated as follows: ^ 
"We begin with Lancaster. After Mr. Stoy came here, A. D. ,^. 
1758, in the month of October, he found about one hundred ^ 
families that belonged to the church. He has baptized since ^o 
that time to the month of May, 17C0, one hundredy^lnstruc!M- 
forty young persons in llic confession of faith, and received 
them as communicants. At present sixty children attend the 

For years anterior to the time wc arc writing of, the minis- 
ters of the German Reformed church in America as well as in 
Europe, were among the most learned of all Divines. Essen- 
tially Calvinislic in their doctrines, they were necessarily able 
and astute polemics. Called upon as they were dail)^ to combat 
the errors of the Romish, and to explain the difference and 
defend their doctrines from those of the Lutheran church — 
which also ranked among its ministers men of great learning 
and erudition — f they were constrained to search the Scrip- 

*It is worlliy of remark licro. that all the proceedings, reports, &c., of the 
Synoils of tliis ( 'liDrcli wore, until toward the close of tiic ] 8lh Century, con- 
(lucteil in llie Latin or Dutch languages: 'J'hc report spoken of in the text, 
is in tli<> Dutch iJniJ as follows, viz: 

" Wy niaken den et liecin met Lancaster. Nadien Domine Stoy. A. D. 
1758 in dc Maand Octuli: daar hen (luani, zoo vond liy onitrent een hundred 
IIuislioudiiiKcn, die tol die Kerkc Ix luioren. Ily lieclft /int die 1yd tot de 
Maand Mey 17G0daar gedoopt 116 Kinderen ; 40 jongs personcn in die 
Ocloofe Uelydenisse ondcrweeren, en tot Ledeniaten aangcnomen. In die 
School gan legenwoordig GO Kindcre: 

■jTlie Kev. Henry M. Mulilenlierg, for a long time the pastor of the Lu- 
theran Congregation at I'liiladelphia, spoke the Latin with great fluency. 
He also preached in tiie Sweedish, Dutch, German, French and English 
languages. He wan a profound linguist, and was familiar with the Greek 
und Hebrew. 


tUres and to read the Fathers in the original.* To do so effectu- 
ally, they devoted themselves to the study not only of the dead 
but also of the living languages; so necessary was this know- 
ledge considered, that with but few exceptions, none but rare 
and ripe scholars were found in her pulpits. Hence, the deep 
and intense interest manifested for the education of the youth, 
in such of the Lord's vineyards as were planted by their hands. 

We have already shewnf that about the year 1752, the Gov- 
ernor of Pennsylvania, Chief Justice Allen, Mr. Peters, Secre- 
tary of the Land Office, Messrs. Turner, Benjamin Franklin 
and Conrad Wuiser, were appointed trustees and managers of 
the public schools, which it was intended to establish in the 
province. Previous to tliis time however, a large number of 
schools were in successlul operation in several counties, and in 
the town of Lancaster particularly, through the active exer- 
tions of the Rev. Michael Schlatter. He was a German Re- 
formed minister, and cams out at the expense of the Reformed 
Synod of Amsterdam, A. D. 1746, for this single purpose. It 
is more than probable, that the schools which it is alleged these 
trustees established at Lancaster and elsewhere, were only 
branches of those already in operation under his auspices, and 
the enterprise of the Lutheran and German Reformed con- 
gregations, for it is a well known fact, that the plan of the trus- 
tees named, did not succeed, and the schools soon fell back 
under their original charge. 

"The Germans are a patient, modest and unassumirlg peo- 
ple. Their character is either imperfectly understood or wil- 
fully misrepresented. For their attachment to learning and 
their untiring efforts in the cause of education, they receive but 
httle credit, even from those whose acquaintance wit!i the 
facts — independent of their German origin — should prompt 
them upon all occasions, to become tlicir readiest defenders. — 
How many valuable hints have we — whose mother tongue is 
the English — not received "from this loo-lightly estimated peo- 
ple 1 How many schemes for the dissemination of knowledge 
among men," have they not successfully devised, and other 
iiations as well as ourselves, as successfully put into operation, 

*l'iipy not unfrcquent!}' conversed in Latin and all their correspondence 
was conJuctoJ clilcfly in tongue. Vide also page 225 antea. 
^Page 259 antea. 

444 nisTony df 

without so much as crcdiling the source from whence derived? 
Nay more, how often is it that they and we have seized upon 
a plan devised by them for the education of youth — crude, 
and it may be ill-digested, because of its novelty — and im- 
proving upon it, liave as unceremoniously and unblusliiugly 
claimed for ourselves, tiie credit of the discovery ! Witii no 
other people would it have been attempted ; and they 
have submitted to the moral wrong, only because they re- 
joiced more in the good that followed to others, than in the en- 
joyment of the honor that was due to the discovery, for them- 

We are led to introduce these remarks, in consequence of 
our now approaching a period in the history of education in 
Lancaster county, where we are, as a faithful historian, to claim 
for — comparatively speaking — an obscure German, the honor 
not only of suggesting, but also of successfully carrying into 
practical operation, the never-to-be-too-much-encouraged Sab- 
bath Schools of the present day. About the year 1740, af 
German by the name of Ludwig Hacker, a man of much 
learning and great piety, the teacher of the school which had 
been previously established by tlie society of Seventh-day 
Baptists at Eph rata, proposed the plan of holding a school in 
the afternoon of their Sabbath, which was and is, the seventh 
instead of the lirstday of the week. It was at once carried out 
by the brethren into practical operation, and continued to dis- 
pense its blessings among the children of the neighborhood, 
until September 1777, when — alter the batth; of Brandywine — 
the room used for the school, was w ith the whole building, con- 
verted into a military hospital for the accommodation of the 
American soldiers wounded upon that sanguinary field. After 
this event, the school was never again opened; but the plan 
years afterwards, was revived in England ; and the poor Ger- 
man scholar, Ludwig Hacker who sleeps in the bosom of his 
mother earth, without a stone to mark his resting place, is for- 
gotten in the praises and blessings which are lavished upon 
the memory of him| who but resuscitated and improved upon 
his plan. 

•MSS. by Geuhge Fjul, Esq. 
jRobcrt Kiiikcs. 
^Page 2;M anlca, 


In a former part of this work* the efforts of this society in 
the extension of knowledge, have been already shewn. Co- 
existent with their change of life from a conventicle to a mon- 
astic one, A. D. 1733 a school for the education of themselves 
and their youth in German and Classic Literature, was estab- 
lished. It was of course local in its operations, and its advanta- 
ges never became to any extent known to the public ; but its 
reputation and the ability of its teachers, are attested by the 
many evidences of their skill and proficiency, remaining 
among the archives of the society. The school thus estab- 
lished, continued its beneficial operations until with the grad- 
ual decay of the society, it was finally suspended. Thus it 
remained until after the passage of an Act by the Legislature 
of the State, February 21, 1814, iacorjjorating the few members 
which yet remained of the society. With a pious reverence 
for the memories and virtues of their fathers, and desirous of 
emulating, as far as practicaWe, the efforts made by them in 
their day and generation, these survivors, chiefly through the 
active exertions of Mr. William Konigmacher, by virtue of the 
provisions of tiie act referred to, and also of others subse- 
quently passed for the purpose, started an acadamy where the 
English and German languages, mathematics and other 
branches are successfully taught. 

Like tlieir German brethren at Ephrata, the Moravians at 
Litiz, vi-ere and still arc the devoted friends of Education. — 
Their first settlement at Warwick, A. D. 1743, was marked by 
the establishment of a school under the charge of their min- 
ister, the Rev. Leonard Schnell,f a German of considerable 
literary attainments ; and when at length in 1754, a monastic 
life was determined on, and the village of Litizin consequence 
thereof founded, their school had attained to some local emin- 
ence. In the year 1762, it was removed to the latter place, 
and there continued until A. D. 1794,|; when it was divided 
into two departments, one for each sex. Out of the Female 
department, the now justly celebrated Young Ladies Semi- 
nary, sprung into existence as a Boarding school, v/ith what 

■*Page 216 antea. 
f Page 310 antea. 
iP^gs 316 antea. 



success and how much benefit to the community, its present 
widely extended reputation will best attest. 

The school for the education of the male youth of the soci-' 
ety and adjacent country, continued its operations until in the 
year 1815,* when it was assigned to Mr. John Beck, the pre- 
sent able and indefatigable principal — a gentleman of ac- 
knowledged ability, of great goodness of heart, enthusiastical- 
ly devoted to his profession, and remarkable for the fatherly 
care and affection which he has always evinced for his pupils, 
the school grew rapidly into public favor under his superin- 
tendence ; and at this day, its reputation is deservedly high as 
an academy where the English and German languages. Mathe- 
matics, Chemistry, Astronomy and all the sciences are taught 
with unsurpassed skill, to young men from almost every State 
in the Union. 

We now return once more to the movements of the friends 
of educatiun, in the borough of Lancaster. Being the metrop- 
olis of the county, we must judg« of the progress of know- 
ledge in the rural districts by the encouragement given to 
learning in this local Capital. About the year 1780, Jasper 
Ycates, Esq., Casper Shaflner, Esq., Col. George Ross, Charles 
Hall, Esq., and other gentlemen of the place, finding that the 
existing Schools under the charge of the Lutheran and German 
Reformed Congregations, as also the one established a number 
of years previous by the Moravians, and conducted upon the 
same plan, were inadequate to the growing wants of the people, 
and incapable of teaching the higher branches, engaged the 
services of a teacher of recommended abilities, to conduct a 
select academy for the education of their male children. This 
Academy continued in existence for several years, as the High 
School of the place, until, owing to the violent temper of the 
teacher and the many indignities which he oifered to the pupils 
under his charge, it was finally suspended. This school sugges- 
ted the idea of establishing another; but upon a surer basis, 
under tlie control ui' Trustees by an act of incorporation, and 
ultimately begat the application to the Legislature for the incor- 
poration of" Franklin College." 

On the 10th of March, A. 0^-1787,* the General Assembly of 

•Page 318 autea. 

■j-2 Sm. laws, page 398. 


the State, granted the prayer of the petitioners, and passed an 
act with the following title : " An act to incorporate and endow 
the German College and Charity School in the borough of 
Lancaster, in this State." The Preamble of the act explains 
the object which it was intended to effect, and is in the follow- 
ing words, viz : " Whereas, the citizens of this State of German 
birth or extraction, have eminently contributed, by their indus- 
try, economy and public virtues, to raise the State to its present 
happiness and prosperity: And, whereas, a number of citizens 
of the above description, in conjunction with others, from a 
desire to increase and perpetuate the blessings desired to them 
from the possession of property and a free government, have 
applied to this House for a charter of Incorporation, and a do- 
nation of lands, for the purpose of establishing and endowing 
a College and Charity School, in the borough of Lancaster. 
And, whereas, the preservation of the principles of the Chris- 
tian Religion, and of our Republican form of Government in 
their purity, depend, under God, in a great measure, on the 
establishment and support of suitable places of education, for 
the purpose of training up a succession of youth, who by being 
enabled fully to understand the grounds of both, may be led 
the more zealously, to practice the one, and the more strenu- 
ously to defend the other. Therefore, &c." Here then follow 
the different sections of the act, the prominent features of 
which are these : §2. That the youth shall be taught in the 
German, English, Latin, Greek and other learned languages, 
in Theology, in the usL'ful arts, sciences and Literature. The 
corporate title shall be "Franklin College," in honor of His 
Excellency Benjamin Franklin, Esquire, President of the Su- 
preme Executive Council, &c. The first Trustees are named 
and incorporated with the usual powers. Yearly income not 
to exceed £10,000. The annual meeting of the trustees to be 
at Lancaster, nine of them to be a quorum and to appoint thefr 
own officers. The Principal, vice Principal or Professors 
while they remain such, are not to hold the office of trustee. 
The style and powers of the faculty are prescribed. Proper^ 
tion of Trustees how to be chosen, and Principal to be chosen 
alternately from the Lutheran or Calvinist Churches. Seat of 
Trustee being a Clergyman, to be filled with another Clergy-, 
man, but the proportion of Lutheran and Calvinist trustees to 


be invariably preserved. Trustees empowered to appoint 
other officers not named in the charter, to fix salaries, &c. 
Misnomer not to defeat any gift &c., nor non-user to create a 
forfeiture, fee. ^3. The Constitution not to be altered but by 
the Legislature. ^4. The College endowed with 10,000 acres 
of land, &c. 

Under this charter and a donation subsequently granted by 
an act of Assembly, consisting of an old military store-house 
and two lots of ground in the borough of Lancaster, worth 
about >5;2GOO, the College went into operation, A. D. 1786, as 
a Grammar School, with a Professor of the Latin and Greek lan- 
guages, and also a Professor of Mathematics. The first pro- 
fessor was a German by the name of Melsheimer. Ardently 
attached to literary pursuits, he strove long and earnestly to 
create a proper taste for them, among the Germans and tlieir 
descendants. To some extent he succeeded, for under his 
management the Hohe Schule* prospered fur a little while ; 
but continually owing to the want of a proper management of 
its finances, it afterwards gradually declined, until^about the 
year 1821, when it ceased all further practical operations: 
But it was not doomed to sleep in inglorious inactivity, like 
the Phoenix from her ashes, it was destined to rise again with 
renewed usefulness, as we shall hereafter shew, when through 
the prudence of its Trustees, its funds should be carefully hus- 
banded, and their ability to support its existence from the 
income, would be undoubted. 

In the meanwhile, private schools and academies were estab- 
lished and supported in the Borough and various sections of 
the county, but no organized or settled system being adopted 
for their government, none of them attained to any eminence. 
It is true, large numbers of poor children in the county, as 
well as the city, were educated free of expense, pursuant to 
the provisions of the act of Assembly of April 4, A. D. 1809,t 
entitled "An act for the education of the poor gratis;" but 
such education, owing to the general incompetency of the 
teachers, was exceedingly limited. The system established by 
this act, having been found in its pracficaloperation, tobe both 
expensive and inadequate to the wants of the people in the 

*Anglice-I!igh School. 

j5 Sm. laws, pages 73 and 74. 


city of Lancaster, another act was passed by the Legislature 
on the 1st day of April, A. D. 1822,' entitled "An act to 
provide for the education of children at the public expense, 
within the city and incorporated Boroughs of the County of 
Lancaster." By the provisions of this act, the city and incor- 
porated boroughs of the county, were erected into a school 
district, by the name, style and title of the " Second School 
District of the State of Pennsylvania." Twelve Directors were 
to be annually appointed by the Court of Quarter Sessions of 
the County — their duties and powers were prescribed — the ad- 
mission of children regulated — the Lancasterian system ordered 
to be adopted — the expenses provided foi — the duty of the 
County Commissioners set forth, and the division of the 
district into sections whenever required — how to be done. — 
Under this act, the first and only section of the district was com 
posed of the city of Lancaster. 

The Directors appointed by the Court of Quarter Sessions, 
proceeded at once, to purchase a lot of ground, erect a large 
and commodious school house, employ male and female teach- 
ers, admit scholars, and in pursuance of the law, adopting the 
Lancasterian system of education, opened their schools with 
thehighesthopes of success. In this they were not disappointed. 
The plan worked so well, that the city of Lancaster until lately 
did not become an accepting school district under the provisions 
of the general school law of June 13, A. D. 1830.f But the 
expense of erecting a school-house, and of continuing the 
schools, being borne out of the County treasury, it never 
ceased, because of its partiality, to be a source of complaint 
on the part of the inhabitants of the county. JN'evertheless, 
the schools — maie and female departments — continued in ope- 
ration under this special law — with all their objectionable 
features as pauper schools — until in the month of May, A. D, 
1838, when, in pursuance of the provisions of certain Resolu- 
tions, passed by the Legislature on the 14th day of April, A. D. 
1838,1 the inhabitants, by a popular vote, determined upon an 
acceptance of the Common School System, modified and adopt- 
ed to their circumstances by the Hesolulions already referred to. 

«7 Sm. laws, 538.. 

tPam, laws 1835-36, page 525. 

4Pam. laws 1837-8, page 686. 



Upon the result of this vote being made known, the Board of 
Directors was organized, and through their indefatigable exer- 
tions, schools have been established so nunncrous and so well 
graded, that every child in the city can be educated " without 
money and without price," to an extent which but fifty years 
ago was seldom attained even by the children of wealthy 

While upon this subject, it may as well be observed, that a 
deep and growing interest in the cause of education is mani- 
festing itself daily, in the rural districts, for out of thirty-three 
school districts in the county, eighteen in 1842, had accepted 
the provisions of the Common School law.* 

It must not be supposed while these efforts were making to 
instruct the great mass of the children of Lancaster county in 
the elementary branches of an English education, the inhab- 
itants were unmindllil of the higher and more difficult ones. — 
We shall speak of these hereafter. Thus have the exertions of 
the friends ot education been crowned with eminent success, 
in the establishment and support of Common Schools, as well 
in many parts of the county as in the city of Lancaster. 

While these movf;mcnts were making for tlie extension of 
learning to and among the children of the town and county, a 
number ot Master Mechanics of the city, perceiving that their 
apprentices were destitute of the means of mental improve- 
ment, and taught by their own <:xpericnce, that idleness is the 
prolific source of vice— a rock upon which has stranded the 
highest hopes and fondest expectations of parents and friends — 
with a commendable determination to project some plan, by 
which the leisure hours of their apprentices might be rationally 
employed, convened a public meeting for consultation and 
advice upon this subject, on the evening of July 8, A. D. 1829. 
At this meeting Hugh Maxwell, Esq. presided; and out of it 
soon grew "The Mechanics Society." A constilution was 
soon alter formed, agreed upon and submitted to t?ic Supreme 
Court, by which a charter was decreed. May 26, A. D. 1831. — 
Having thus procured a legal existence, the society soon went 
into active operation. By voluntary contributions, a Library 
was conunenced and has gone on increasing in sizeaud valuc» 

•9lli annual Roport of the SuiH'iintcndcnt of Coninir n School?. 


until it now numbers near 2,000 volumes, besides a valuable 
collection of maps, globes, philosophical apparatus, &c. &c. 

The Library soon became the centre of attraction to the 
apprentices, and an improvement morally as well as mentally, 
became apparent in their habits and condition. Increasing in 
strength and character, the society found it necessary to 
procure a Hall for their accommodation, in which a system of 
"popular instruction, by familiar lectures," was soon after 
(A. D. 1836) carried into operation under the management of 
a committee appointed for that purpose. These lectures, at 
first confined to Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, Astronomy, 
&c. soon became popular, and in a short time after, were ex- 
tended and enlarged so as to embrace almost every science 
and every subject, except that of Religion. In 1838, a new 
and capacious Hall was erected in South Queen street, for the 
better ficcommodation of the crowds which gather from time 
to time listen to the words of instruction and of interest, as they 
fall from the lips of the LectOrers, engaged through the enter- 
prize and liberality of the Society. Of it, all that we have to 
say is, that it has done much and great good, and to it, we have 
only to add our prayer — Esxo perpetua ! 

We now return to consider the efforts made for the endow- 
ment and support of schools of a higher order than those here- 
tofore treated of — classical and mathematical acadamies, where 
inquiring youlh might attain a knowledge of the languages 
of Homer and Demosthenes, of Cicero and Virgil — where they 
might be taught to solve the problems of Euclid — to study the 
works of Gallileo — explore the vast fields of Natural Philoso- 
phy, Astronomy and Chemistry, with all the various sciences, 
necessary to the constitution of a finished scholar. 

Immediately after the suspension of the Grammar or High 
School of the "Franklin College," as already shewn, but one 
private classical academy existed in Lancaster. This school 
•was at host but feebly supported, and was at length discon- 
tinued. A taste for classic literature however, having been 
created to some extent, among the people, application was 
made to the Legislature during the session of 1826-7, for the 
incorporation of an academy at Lancaster, and on the 14th 
day of April, A. D. 1827,* an act was passed entitled " An act 

*Pam. laws, page 357. 


incorporating the Lancaster County Academy." In this act 
certain gentlemen were named as Trustees — the corporation 
was established with the usual powers — the powers, privileges, 
meetings and duties of the trustees were prescribed — a dona- 
tion of 83,000 was granted by the state, and poor children, not 
axceeding at any one time, four in number, to be educated in 
consideration thereof: The Trustees thus appointed by the 
act, organized, received subscriptions, purchased a lot of 
ground in the city of Lancaster, and in the year 1828, erected 
a large and commodious house for their schools. They em- 
ployed a competent Teacher, and the academy was opened 
under very flattering auspices. With varied, and at best, but 
indifferent success, it continued in operation, until in the 
Summer of 1939, when, in pursuance of an act of Assembly, 
passed on the 15th of May, A. D. 1839, authorizing the arrange- 
ment, the buildings of the Academy were conveyed to the 
Trustees of Franklin College, and after being considerably 
enlarged by the latter corporation, the "Hohe Schule" again 
went into operation upon an entirely new plan, and under such 
an arrangement, as to secure its permanent existence and use- 
fulness. So far indeed has it succeeded, that it now supports a 
professor of the Greek and Latin, and also one of the German, 
French, Spanish and Italian languages. The English and 
Mathematical department is also under the charge of a gentle- 
man of superior ability. Thus has the intention of those who 
originally projected the plan and procured the incorporation 
of the "Ilohc Schule" or Franklin College, at Lancaster, been 
practically carried out. Long may it continue to flourish, and 
be what it now is. — an honor to the county, and the dispenser of 
riches more " precious than rubies or fine gold !" 

Simultaneous with this movement, in the ci.'y, eff'orts were 
made with great success in various parts of the county, for the 
establishment of Classical and Mathematical academies, inde- 
pendently of those already existing at Liuz and Ephrata. Of 
these there are at this day, some of very high character and 
extensive reputation as Boarding schools. Among the most 
prominent, is "The Mountjoy Institute," at the villags of 
Mountjoy, under the charge of J. H. Erown, Esq.— " The 
Strasburg Academy," at the village of Strasburg, under the 
dicqctionof the Rev. Dr. McCartcr— "The Paradise Academy," 

LANCASTER couxTr. 453: 

"Sander the care of Mr. Enos Stevens, and the Rev. Mr. Timlow's 
Academy, at Bellevue. The Columbia Academy is also re- 
spectable in character, but only as a Day School, where boys 
are taught the Latin and Greek languages — Matiiematics, kc. 

In this honorable provision for the mental improvement of 
the youth of the sterner — it must not be supposed that those 
of the softer — sex, have been ungenerously forgotten : Impress- 
ed with the importance of this great truth — that good mothers 
train up good sons, and that they — more than the fathers — form 
the characters of their children — the citizens of the city and 
county alike, have sought with commendable zeal, to secure 
the services of able and competent teachers, whose attention, 
should be devoted exclusively to the proper education of fe- 
males. As a result of these etforts — a Seminary has been 
established and is in successful operation in the city under the 
control of James Damant, Esq. which in point of standing and 
character is equal to any other in Pennsylvania. As a Board- 
ing School, the Young Ladies Seminary at Litiz has been 
already spoken of; and in addition to it, "The Young Ladies 
Lyceum Institute" — Rev. N. Dodge, A. M. Principal — located 
on the banks of the Chicquesalunga creek near the village of 
Mountjoy — is perhaps, as regards accommodations — kind, 
attention to the wants of the pupils — facility for acquiring a 
competent anrl thorough knowledgeof all the various branches 
and accomplishments taught at similar institutions, if not 
superior to, at least surpassed by none other in the country. 

The civdization of any people is progressive, so also is their 
education. Habits inconsistent with the growth of the former,, 
and tastes incompatible with the advance of the latter, are to 
be changed and overcome. Hence the transition is not nor 
can it ever be, either immediate or instantaneous. The move- 
ments are at first slow, gradual and confined to the tew ; but 
as their benetits are extended, they become accelerated and 
penetrate into all the various strata of society. With regard 
to Lancaster county, this has been particularly so. At first, 
the inhabitants were content with schools conducted by teach- 
ers who would scarcely be tolerated by any community at 
the present day. But as we have already stated generally, in 
the commencement of this chapter, as they increased in pop- 
ulation and wealth, their tastes improved with their pccu- 

454 HISTORY or 

niary abilities and as a consequence, their schools advanced in 
character in an equal degree, so that they ^\•ill now bear com- 
parison with those of any other community in the Union. — 
Born and bred as we were upon her soil, when we contem- 
plate the efforts of her citizens in the cause of Education, as 
they have been practically carried out in the establislmient 
and liberal support of our Common and Sabbath schools, 
Lyceums — and Academies and Female Seminaiies, we have 
abundant cause for gratulation, that our lot has been cast 
in such a land. 

It has been said somewhere, by some one, that Pericles, who 
succeeded Aristides, found the city of Atliens of brick and 
left it of marble. Truly the Germans who first penetrated into 
and settled Lancaster county, have done more than this. They 
found it in its physical aspect, a wilderness — they left it to their 
children blooming as the rose, and they in turn with their 
descendants, have so improved the mental character of its 
people, that their light is seen and felt from afar off. Be the 
endeavor of this and succeeding generations, not only to 
maintain their present character, but to improve it still more ; 
and as they gather beneath the banner whereon is inscribed 
"the Education of all" — let there be one universal shout— 

tANd'AST^R COtTNTT. 455 


Heligious Deno3iinations — Early missionaries among the Conestoga and 
other Indians — The Mennonites — The Friends or Quakers — The Ornish 
or Amish — The Episcopalians — The Presbyterians — Tiie German Bap- 
tists — Tlie German Seventh Day Baptists — The Lutherans — The German 
Reformed — The United Brethren or Moravians — The Roman Catholics — 
The Metliodist Episcopal — The New Jerusalem (church — The Evangeli- 
cal Association or " Abrecht's Leute " — The Reformed Mennonites — The 
Universalists — The Seceders— The United Brethren or "Allgemeine 
Brueder"— The Church of God — The Calvanistic Baptists— The Mor- 
mons, &c. 

If diversity of creeds, or multiplicity of religious sects serve 
as a standard of deep toned piety and christian benevolerce, 
then may the people of Lancaster county lay claim to a goodly 
share ; for there is no spot upon earth, with so limited a popu- 
lation and the same confined territory, that counts more de- 
nominations, than Lancaster. But with all this diversity, there 
are few, if any, irreligious controversies, that usually charac- 
terize bigots, among the inhabitants. Each seems to promote 
his own and his neighbor's welfare, and therewith appears 

In this chapter we shall attempt a succinct sketch of the seve- 
ral religious denominations found in this county. We regret 
it, that only a few of the score of ministers whom we addressed 
to furnish religious statistics, have seen proper to comply.* 

At an early period missionaries of the Swedish church visited 
the Indians, within the present limits of Lancaster county. — 
The Friends also paid some attention to the Indians. As early 

*For an accurate and impartial account of the /listori/ and doctrines of 
aJl the religious denominations in the United States, the reader is referred to 
a work entitled He Pasa Ecdesia,orthe Whole Church in the United States^ 
every article of the work quoted has been expressly written for it by eminent 
theological professors, ministers or distinguished lay members of each re- 
spective denomination. It is the only work extant that can be relied on as 
being impartial and authentic. Rupp, ('lyde, Williams & Co., of Harris- 
burj, Pa., are the publishers. The wotk is in press. 


as 1705, Thomas Chalklcy, an eminent preacher among the 
Quakers, visited the Indians living near Susquehanna, at Con- 
estoga, and preached to them. In 1708 or 1709, a Swedish Lu- 
theran, in the capacity of a missionary, resided among the 
Conestoga Indians, to instruct them in the christian religion. 

The Mennonites. — In 1709, several families from the Pala- 
tinate, descendants of the distressed Swiss Mennonites settled 
on Pequea creek. With this colony came Hans Herr, a Men- 
nonite minister, who dispensed to them the word of life. The 
Mennonites were of course the lirst regularly organized de- 
nomination in the county. Among their first ministers in this 
county, before 1725, were Hans Hcrr, Ulrich Breckbill, Hans 
Tschantz. Hans Burkholter, Christian Herr, Benedict Hirschi, 
Martin Bear, Johannes Bauman. They had been very numer- 
ous till about the year 1791, or '92, when a certain Martin 
Boehm and others made inroads upon them, and a considera- 
ble number seceded and united themselves with the United 
Brethren or Vereinigte Brueder, nevertheless, they are still the 
prevalent denomination in this county. They have about 
forty-five ministers in the county. These are divided into 
bishops and ordinary ministers. The bishops at present are 
tiie Revds. Jacob Hostater, Jacob Zimmerman, Christian Herr, 
Henry Schenk, and Mr. Bomberger; among tbeir ordinary 
teachers are the Revds. Daniel Gehman, Mr. Guth, Mr. 
Gehman, Tobias Warner, Mr. Sherick, Joseph Wcnger, 
Jacob Weaver, Jacob Stauifer, Joseph Hershy, Joseph Ilorst, 
Jacob Hershy, Henry Breneman, Benjamin Herr, John Kreider, 
David Witmer, Mr. Staufer, Benjamin Eby, A. Brubaker, John 
Shenk, Andrew Kauffman, Christian Herr, Martin Mayer, 
Daniel Sterrieman, John Hoover, Christian Kaufman, John 
Kindig, Jolin Nissly, Christian JNissly, John Schlott, David 
Ebersole, Peter Ebersole, Mr. Brubecker and others whose 
names we have not learned. 

These all preach in German. They have upwards of thirty- 
five meeting bouses. Smiic of t!ie congregations are large, 
numbering rising of two hundred members. The probable 
number of Mennonitc church members, we think cannot 
be less tlian si\ thousand. As they keep no records of names, 
it is somewhat diiiicult to ascertain the exact number. Their 
forefathers all brought Bibles with them. We have seen within 


the last year, several of Froschauer's edition of the Swiss 
Bible, printed at Zurich, 1540, and still in a good state of pre- 
servation, with the Mennonites. 

Thk Friends or Quakers.— These are next in order to the 
Mennonites. They were very numerous about the years 1725 
and 1730. Their meetings were well attended for a long time. 
In 1729, there were at least 1000 families of Friends in the 
county. They have since greatly diminished; at present they 
have only 9 or 10 places of worship. There are two denomi- 
nations of them in the county — Orthodox and other Friends. 

The Omish. — This society are Rigid Mennonites, not differing 
essentially from the Mennonites. At present, the chief differ- 
ence between the Omish and Mennonites, consists in the 
former being more simple in their dress, and more strict in 
their discipline. They settled in this county at an early date. 
They were numerous in 17S5. Their number is comparatively 
small, having 5 or 6 ministers. They hold their religious 
meetings in private houses, founding this practice upon 
Acts I. 40. 

I The Episcopalians. — Their ministers visited this county as 
early as 1717 or 1719. They were the first after the Mennon- 
ites and Quakers, to erect houses for religious worship. We 
could not obtain the names of their first ministers, except those 
who labored principally in the city of Lancaster. In 1744, the 
Episcopalians held a meeting at Lancaster, for the organiza- 
tion of a parish. The Rev. Richard Locke, an itinerant mis- 
sionary, was the first officiating minister. The following is the 
order in which others succeeded him : 1751, Rev. Geo. Craig ; 
1759, Rev. Thomas Barton; 1783, Rev. Joseph Hutchins; 1791, 
Rev. Elisha Rigg ; 1799, Rev. Joseph Clarkson ; 1820, Rev. 
W. A. Muhlenberg became associated with the Rev. Clarkson; 
1828, Rev. L. S. Ives ; 1827, Rev. Samuel Bowman, the present 
Rector; besides him, two others officiate ia the county: the 
Rev'ds Levi Bull and E. Y. Buchanan. They have 4 places of 
public worship in the county. 

The Presbyterians. — About the year 1717 a number of 
Scotch and Irish Presbyterians, settled in the Octorara region. 
Among their first ministers was the Rev. Adam Boyd, who 
preached in Octorara in 1724. In 1726, Rev. Anderson received 
a call from the Donegal church. Rev. Alexander Crai^'liead 



preached in Pequeainl736. Rev. John Elder of Paxlon, was or* 
dained in 1738; Rev. Dan'l Alexander was in Pequeal739. The 
city was occasionally visited between the years 1745 and 1760. 
In 1769, the Rev. John WoodhuU'*' became their regular min- 
ister in the borough of Lancaster. In 1779, the Rev. Nathaniel 
"W. Semple was called, and was their pastor for 40 years ; in 
1821, Rev. AVilliam Ashmcad succeeded. These are in their 
order. In 1829, Rev. Richard Dickinson; 1884, Rev. J. T. 
Marshall Davie; 1840. Rev. John M'Nair. There are nine 
Presbyterian ministers residing in the county : Rev'ds M'Nair, 
Joseph Barr, Lindley C. Rutter, David M'Carter, T. Marshall 
Boggs, Philip J. Timlow, Alfred Nevin, Robert W. Dunlap, 
John Wallace and Samuel Dickey. They have 15 churches. 

The German Baptists. — A number of these settled in this 
county prior to 1721. They constituted a church in 1T23, under 
the charge of Rev. Peter Becker. At first they increased rap- 
idly, but at present their number is small. They, like the 
Ornish, meet in private houses to hold their religious meetings. 
They hold their meetings at some 12 or 15 different houses in 
the county, and in a few instances at school houses. 

The German Seventh-day Baptists, or Siebcn Taeger. — 
This society took its rise about the year 1724 or 1725. The 
founder was Conrad Beisel, who seceded from the German 
Baptists. This society flourished for many years at Ephrata, 
where is their only place of holding meetings in the county.— 
See pages 211, 233. 

The Lutherans. — Many of this denomination emigrated to 
Lancaster county before 1730. Missionaries visited the scat- 
tered brethren. Among these were, in 1731, 1732, &c. the 
Rev'ds C. J. Shultz, Casper Stocver, who also ministered as 
the first pastors of the Lutheran church in the city. The fol- 
lowing succeeded them : In 1740, Rev. T. Dylander, Swedish 
Rector of Philadelphia ; 1741, Rev. Valentine Kraft; 1743, 
Rev. L. Nyberg; Rev. G. Nauman, Swedish Rector of Phila- 
delphia, preached occasionally in Lancaster, from 1746 to 
1748; this year Rev. T. F. Iiandschuh preached till 1751. 
From 1751 to 1753, the congregation was successively served 
by the Uev'ds Tobias Wagner, England, H. B. G. Wurtman. 
From 1753 to 1709, the Rev. Siegfried Gerock ; from the latter 

•Sec page 367. 


•period, the congregation was visited by the Rev'ds Dr. Heniy 
Melchoir Muhlenberg, E. Shultz, N. Kurtz and others, for a 
short time ; when the Rev. J. C. Helmuth, late from Europe, 
was called and continued till 1779 ; in 1780, Rev. H. Muhlen- 
berg, son of Dr. H. M. Muhlenberg, took charge of the con- 
gregation, and was their pastor till 1815, when Rev. Dr. C. En- 
dress succeeded him and continued till 1827. The present 
pastor, the Rev. Dr. J. C. Baker, took charge of the congrega- 
tion in 1828. Besides Dr. Baker's church, there is another in the 
city, exclusively German, under the pastoral care of the Rev. 
W. Beates. 

There are at present seven Lutheran ministers residing in 
the county: Dr. John C.Baker, Rev'dsW. Beates, J. J. Strein, 
S. Trumbauer, C. G. Frederick, C. Barnitz and L. G-erhart. — 
They have 27 places of public worship. Here we v/ould add 
the names of the Rev'ds A. C. Muhlenberg, Schroeter, Yung, 
Ernst, Scriba, Riemenschneider, Rothraufi, Bevnheim, Sahm 
and Mueller, all of whom had charge of congregations at dif- 
ferent times. 

The German Reformed. — In the beginning of 1700, a 
number of Reformed came to the province of Pennsylvania. 
The Ferrees, members of the Reformed Walloon church of 
Pelican, in the Lower Palatinate, left Europe for America, and 
settled in this county about the year 1712.* With the Ferrees, 
Isaac Le Lever came to this county and brought with him his 
French Bible, which is still preserved by his descendants as a 
precious relic. 

As early as 1717 or 1718, the Rev. P. Boehm of Witpen, one 
of the oldest German Reformed preachers, had charge of a 
German Reformed church. Rev. Boehm, the Rev. G. M. 
Weiss, v/ho had charge of a congregation in Philadelphia,, 
about the year 1724, and the Rev.H. Dorstius of Bucks county, 
occasionally visited the pastorless German Reformed who had 
settled in this coUnty prior to 1729. 

In 1727, a large number of Germans, among whom were 
many German Reformed, came into this county: these were 
the Dieffenderfer's and others, whose number was augmented 
in 1731 by the arrival of the Bushongs,f Nehs, Schwartz^ 

*3ce pages 308 and 20. 
f See page 271, 


Mentz, and the Rev. J. B. Rieger,* who had charge for many 
years of German Reformed congregations in this county, 
among others was " Seltenreich's Kirche," near New Holland. 
In 1730 or 1731, the Rev. John Peter Miller, ordained by the 
Scotch Presbyterian Synod, in 1730, visited German Reformed 
congregations at Cocalico and Tulpehocken. About this time 
several congregations were organized, one at Lancaster, and 
in other parts of the county. In 1743, there was one formed at 
"Modecrick," near Adamstown. However, there was a great 
and general destitution of pious and qualified pastors in this 
branch of the church till the middle of the last century. In 
1746, the Kev. Michael Schlatter, of St. Gall, in Switzerland, 
in consequence of information he had received of the destitute 
condition of the German Reformed churches, left his pastoral 
charge, and having received a regular appomtment and re- 
commendation, visited the churches in Pennsylvania, and 
while in the discharge of this duty, visited those in Lancaster 
county. Besides the visits paid them by the Kev. Schlatter, 
the Rev'ds Folk, Loescher, Waldsmith, Deckert, Fuetzmiller, 
Wittner, Templeman and others ministered occasionally in 
spiritual things among the German Reformed. The IJev'ds 
J. C. Bucher, W. Runkel, W. Stoy and others labored in vari- 
ous parts of the county prior to the Revolution. In the Co- 
calico charge, now principally under the pastoral care of the 
Rev. Daniel Hertz, the Rev'ds Gobrecht, Hautz, Wilhelms, 
Charles HcllTenstein, Faber, A. Herman ; and since 1819, the 
Rev. Hertz, labored from time to time. The Rev. Henry 
Schaftner of Marietta, had, for rising of thirty years, a number 
of congregations in charge. The Rev. Hiester also had charge 
of several congregations. 

The congregation in the city, at an early period, was occa- 
sionally served by the Rev'ds Hoch, Rieger, Hochreutneri 
Stcincr, Schlatter and others. In 1752, the Rev. W, Otterbein 
took charge of it. The Rev. Stoy was a supply for a short 
time, and so was the Rev. L, C. Boehm. In 1770 the Rev. A. 
Helffen.stein was called ; in 1782 the Rev. W. Hendel; in 1795 
the Rev. Becker; in 1806 the Rev. Hoffmeier; in 1832 the 
Rev. Brunner; in 1840 the present pastor, the Rev. G. W. 
Glessncr, was called. The Rev'ds Wcilcr and Hoflheins have 

»Scc page 226. 


charge of congregations. The German Reformed have 
twenty places of public worship, and if they had a competent 
number of efficient ministers, might easily organize ten or 
fifteen congregations in a few years. Here is a large field for 
home missionary enterprize. 

The United Brethren or Moravians. — This denomination, 
is essentially missionary in their operations; and as early as 
1742, several congregations were organized in this county. In 
1742, count Zinzendorif, the apostle of the American Mora- 
vians, visited Lancaster. In 1746 they held a provincial council 
in the town of Lancaster. At Litiz they have a large commu- 
nity.* The following ministers have presided over the congre- 
gation at Lancaster : 1746, Rev. L. T. Nyberg ; 1748, Rev'ds 
L. Schnell and R. Ultey ; 1749, Rev. A. Reinke, sen.; 17.51, 
Rev. G. Weiser; 17.53, Rev'ds C. Rauch and A. Wagner; 
17.54, Rev. 0. Krogstrup; 1755, Rev'ds C. Bader and C. F. 
Oerter; 17.56, Rev. A. L. Rusmyer; 17-57, Rev. C. G. Rundt; 
17.58, Rev'ds Rundt, Rusmyer and Bader; 1753, Rev. C. Bader; 
1762, Rev. A. L. Rusmyer; 1766, Rev. A. Langgaard; 1773, 
Rev. 0. Krogstrup; 1785, Rev. L. F. Boehler; 1786, Rev. J. 
Herbst; 1791, Rev. A. Reinke, jr. ; 179-5, Rev. L. Huebner; 
1800, Rev. J. M. Beck; 1803, Rev. A. Reinke, jr. ; 1806, Rev. J. 
M. Beck; 1310, Rev. C. Mueller; 1819, Rev. S. Reinke; 1823, 
Rev. Peter WoUe ; 1826, Rev. J. G. Herman ; 1829, Rev. C. F. 
Reinhel; 1834, Rev. C, A. Vanvleck ; 1835, Rev. S. Reinke; 
1839, Rev. George F. Bahnson, present pastor. 

The Roman Catholics.— A church, by this denomination 
was organized about the year 1740. The members were regu- 
larly visited by pastors from Philadelphia. It appears they 
had no regular settled pastor among them before 1800. The:r 
number has steadily increased, principally however from 
foreign emigrations of German and Irish Catholics. Their 
present pastor is the indefatigable Rev. B. Keenan. They have 
3 or 4 places of public worship in the county. 

The Methodist Episcopal.— In 1781, Methodist ministers 
first visited this county ; and in 1782 the Lancaster Circuit was 
formed, and the Rev. William Partridge appointed as minister, 
Among the early ministers v/ho preached in difrerent:parts of 

-i-?ce pages 308 and 20. 



this county, were the Rev'ds William Glendening, W. Jesup, 
Isaac Robertson, W. Hunter, T. P. Chandler and Simon Miller 
a native of the county. 

In the city of Lancaster, the Rev. Jacob Gruber preached 
occasionally about the year 1705 and 1706. The first regular 
service held in town, was in the house of Philip Benedict, by 
Rev. Henry Boehm in 1807. In 1808 the Rev'ds Thomas Birch 
and James succeeded Boehm. Their successors were the 
Rev'ds Joseph Samson, Thomas Ware, John Walter, John 
Tally, George Cookman, Jacob Gruber, John Leonard, John 
Woolson, Wesley Wallace, W. Torbcrt, Thomas Neal, John 
Ogden, James Moore, as circuit preachers. In 1829, Lancas- 
ter was made a regular charge, where stationed ministers have 
since been located : these were Rev'ds Joseph M'Cool, Thomas 
Miller, John Nicholson, Thomas Sovereign, James Houston, 
James Neil, D. D. Lore, S. H. Higgins, and the present pastor, 
the Rev. Robert Gerry. The following named preachers are 
stationed in various parts of the county: Rev'ds T. Sumtion, 
T. C. Murphy, J. W. Arthur, E. Reed, A. W. Milby, Mr. Hum- 
phries. The Methodists have rising of twenty places of public 
worship in the county. 

The Nev\^ Jerusalem Church.— For an account of this de- 
nomination, see page 431. 

The Evangelical Association. — This sect, sometimes called 
" Die Albrechts Leute," is of comparative recent origin. It 
took it:!> rise in this county about the year 1800, througli the 
indefatigable etforts ot Jacob Albrccht, a native of Berks coun- 
ty ; but he had settled previous to 1800 in Earl township. — 
They have 8 or 9 places of worship, besides several churches. 
The Reformed Mennonitks. — It appears that prior to 1810, 
some conceived t!iat there was spiritual declension among those 
who had embraced the doctrines of Menno Simon, and in order 
to renew tliesc doctrines and re-establish that church, a few of 
them, amuMg whom was their persevering tYiend and minister, 
John Herr, of Strasburg township, united tor that purpose, and 
in 1811, organized an assijcialion, now generally known by the 
name of the Reformed Mennonites. Their number of minis- 
ters is small, and their members, though active, is stiU'compar- 
atively not large. Tiicy have two orders of ministers, bishops 
and ordinary ministers. Their bishops at present, in the 


county, are the Rev'ds. John Herr, John Keeport, and Henry 

.Bowman. Among their ordinary ministers are the Rev'ds. 

Abraham Landis, John Landis, Joseph Weaver, Abraham 

.Snevely, Christian Resh, and Samuel Hershy. They preach 

English occasionally. They have three meeting houses; and 

hold meetings at eight or ten other stated places in the county. 

The UxivEKSALisTS. — There are comparatively few of thern 

in this county ; th(;y have three places of public worship ; but 

at present they have no one that officiates in spiritual things. 

The Seceders. — The number known by this name is small 

in this county. They have one minister, the Rev. Easton, and 

two places of public worship. 

The United Brethren, or Vereinigte Brueder. — There are 
some of this respectable body in the county. We know neither 
-the probable number of their ministers nor places of worship. 
The Church of God. — This denomination is of compara- 
tively recent origin. The name of " Church of God,'''' was as- 
sumed by them about the year 1827 or '28. The church in the 
city was first gathered about the year 1820, under the ministry 
of the late Rev. John Elliott, who preached the gospel many 
years faithfully and with success, to an independent congrega- 
tion in the city. After he left, the church declined, till about 
the year 1841, when the Rev. John Winebrenner, V. D. M. of 
Harrisburg, Rev'ds Jacob Flake and Joseph Ross and others of 
the Eldership of the Church of God, held protracted meetings, 
when a number were revived and others awakened, and a deep 
interest manifested, and soon a congregation of one or two 
hundred was organized. The Rev. Winebrenner, and their 
present pastor, the Rev. Jacob Flake, labored jointly in the 
city till lately. 

The number of ministers at present in the county, is five, 
viz: the Rev'ds J. Flake, J. H. Bomberger, J. Tucker, I. Bra- 
dy, J. Stamm. Their places of public worship, may range 
from twelve to fifteen in the county. Within the last few 
years they have erected several houses for public worship. 

The Calvanistic Baptists. — This denomination although 
characterized for their missionary enterprises, made no effort 
in this county to promulgate their views, and organize congre- 
gations, until within a few year;-, except in the southern part 
^f the county, where a church has been built rising of twenty. 


five years since. In the year 1835, the Rev. Leonard Fletcher,, 
then stationed in Chester county, preached occasionally at 
Churchtown, and baptized a number of persons. Sometime 
about 1839, a member of that denomination, Gilbert Hills, late 
from Connecticut located in the city of Lancaster, at whose 
instance baptist ministers were invited to visit the place. The 
same year the Rev. Kingsford preached occasionally, and he 
was soon followed by others, among those were the the Rev'ds. 
Gillette, Kennard, Babcock, Dodge, Keys, Woolsy, Fletcher, 
Dickinson, Dean, Brettell, Higgins, who organized a church in 
February, 1811 ; after which missionaries and visiting minis- 
ters preached — these were Rev. Shadrac, Miller, Burbank, 
Keys, Smith and Ilendrickson. 

Ill the spring of 1843, the Baptists purchased a house for 
public worship in Lancaster, on Chestnut, near Duke street. — 
Their present pastor, October, 1843, is the Rev. Leonard 
Fletcher, of the American Baptist Missionary Society. He 
and the Rev. Enos M. Philips of Colerain, are the only Baptist 
ministers in Lancaster county. They h:ivc three places of 
public worship. 

The Mormoas. — A few are found in the county who hold 
the views of this sect; and also some theoretical Mz7Zeri7es, 
who are ready to ride into notice on every "cloud of novelty." 
These are hahes in knowledge and piety, amifuU-grojcn in the 
love of the world — ceaseless in schemes "to raise the wind." 
Besides these, there are also several African churches in the 




"For an extended view of the Geology of the county, we 
^lust refer to the final report of the general survey authorize(J. 
ty the State government. 

In glancing over Mr. Scott's very beautiful and accurate map 
of Lancaster county, it will be seen that the surface is broken 
by irregular east and west ranges of hills, no one of which can 
be properly styled a mountain. Commencing at the south, 
we find an extensive formation of primary stratified, or meta- 
morphic rocks, such as mica slate and talcose slate, the latter 
having garnets imbedded in it. These are quite abundant on 
the Susquehanna, below Pequea creek. Occasional patches 
of limestone* and clay slate occur, and the latter is extensively 
worked for roofing purposes, at a place called Slate-hill. — 
Ascending the river, we find the same formation extending to 
Turkey-hill, where it terminates, about two miles below the 
village of Washington, or about the fortieth parallel of latitude. 

The next rock in ascending order, is a close grained, very 
hard, siliceous sandstone, best seen at the mouth of the Chic- 
quesalunga, between Columbia and Marietta, where it strikes 
the Susquehanna in a bold blulT upwards of three hundred feet 
in height. It is found at the opposite boundary of the county, 
and extending into Berks, forms the hill on the south side of 
Reading. A great deal of iron ore (argillaceous oxid and 
hematite) has been taken from the clay overlying this forma- 
tion, which although possessing some of the characters of the 
preceding, such as large veins of quartz, and traces of fel- 
spar and tourmalin, may probably be looked upon as the 
lowest of the transition, rather than the uppermost of the pri- 
mary stratified. This conclusion, however, could scarcely be 
attained from an examination of the rock, limited to our own 
localities. To understand it fully, it must be studied in tho 
atate of New York. 

*Two miles below the mouth of the Concstoga, for example. 


Next above this lies " formation number 11" of the state- 
survey, including the tracts of limestone found in our valleys 
and level districts, and approaching the base of most of the 
larger hills, but seldom itself rising into ridges much above the 
general undulations of the surface. 

The northern border of the county is made up of a formation 
of red and grey shales, or soft slates, grits, and pudding stones, 
furiiisliing in some places a material sufliciently hard and 
compact to afford an excellent material for mill stones. These 
are accordingly wrought out of the large detached fragments 
found upon the surface in Cocalico township. In several loca- 
lities the same formation has alforded indications of coal, but 
as it is entirely distinct from the great coal formation of the 
commonwealth, it is very ])robable that veins which can be 
advantageously worked, will never be discovered. Iron ore is 
of rather frequent occurrence, and we have met with indica- 
tions of copper. In several localities on the southern border 
of this series, the curious calcareous rock called Potomac 
marble occurs; namely, cast of Bainbridge, and north of Man- 

But the most interesting feature in the Conewago hills, 
is the large amount of weathered blocks upon the surface, of a 
hard grey stone made up of white vmd black particles. This is a 
trap rock of the variety called greenstone, and identical in 
composition with the smaller ridges which traverse ditferent 
parts of the country, under the name of ironstone, a mineral 
remarkable for the sonorous ring produced when struck. The 
finer texture of the latter is produced by the rapid cooling of 
the material, consequent upon the comparatively small quan- 
tity of matter; this rock being of igneous origin, and injected 
from below in a melted condition. In the Conewago rock 
the quantity of material is so great, that in the length of time 
required to solidify, the constituents were able to enter into 
combinations; or crystallize, in a manner; whence the felspar 
and hornblend appear in distinct particles. 

A flood sweeping across these hills, has carried large blocks 
of the rock for miles southward, and beyond the reach of the 
highest floods of the Susquehanna. That a powerful current 
swept over the country from the north-west, is proved by the 
additional fact that primary sienitic pebbles arc found among 


the accumulations of gravel which must have been derived 
from the regions of the great lakes. 

Besides the ores of iron mentioned, the sulphuret occurs ia 
detached cubic crystals, over a considerable portion of the 
surface ; galena, or sulphuret of lead, and plumbago, have 
been found in small quantities ; and chromate of iron and sul- 
phate of magnesia have been mined in the southern section of 
the county, for economical purposes ; but as we possess no 
granitic rocks, our list of mineral species is much more meagre 
than those ol the counties lying more to the east. 


In giving a sketch of the Natural History of a single county, 
in a work of this character, it is of course necessary to com- 
press the matteras much as possible, as the zoology and botany 
would separately require volumes equal to the present one in 
size, were they to be discussed ai some length. Our collections 
have been made more with a view to the Natural History of the 
commonwealth at large, than to any particular county ; so 
that no care has been taken to prevent objects collected in 
other part> of the state from being intermixed with those now 
under consideration ; whence it has been necessary to omit the 
mention of some which may have been collected within our 

A note of interrogation has been added to some species to 
indicate that the species may not be properly named, or may 
not occur within the boundary of the county. Thus among 
the fishes, not having been able to examine the trout found in 
our streams, we quote the name Salmo fontinalis with doubt; 
and Menopoma Alleghaniensis has been cited with a question, 
because this reptile has been caught in the Susquehanna some 
miles above the boundary line of the county. We have in- 
serted both species of "black-snake," not being certain which 
of the two occurs with us; but it is not improbable that we 
have them both. We have seen a green snake in the south-west* 



em part of the county, but not having a specimen, are unable tcr 
name it with certainty. 

English names are given to such animals as have received 
them, and short notes have been added to some of the species 
to enable the reader to recognize them ; but it would have 
extended this article to too great a length to follow out this plan 
to any considerable extent. The objects are so numerous, 
that in must cases, a dry list uf names must sullice ; as the 
reader who wishes to know more about the object themselves, 
must refer to works expressly devoted to their history. Some 
of these arc noted at the foot of the pages ; but unfortunately 
several of the more important branches are still unillustrated, 
as the fishes and insects ; and much as works devoted to these 
branches are wanted, it is probable that little will be done until 
the necessity calls forth the patronage of legislative enact- 
ment, as in Massachusetts and New York. 

Our vertebrate animals, except tiie fishes, are pretty well 
know n to naturalists, and the number of species found within the 
borders of the county, may be stated approximately as follows : 
Beasts, 30; Birds, ISO; Reptiles, 40 ; Fishes, 50. 

Among the Mammalia, the Cervus Virginianus (deer) might 
have been included, as it sometimes crosses the Susquehanna 
from York county. The Lutra Canadensis (otter) is said to 
have inhabited liie islands of the Susquehanna at an early 
day; and within ten years, a species of wolf has crossed the 
same river from the western side. 

But the greater part of the zoology of most countries, is that 
which takes cognizance of the Annulosa, including the exten- 
sive class of Ptilota or winged insects; the Akachnida, or 
spiders; the Crustacea, of which the crab and lobster are 
familiar examples, and of which class all our springs and 
streams contain species, some of them so minute, as to be re- 
cognized with dilliculty by the naked eye ; and the class Ame- 
TOBOLA, represented by the cenlipedcs found under stones and 

Taking all these together, the number to be found in Lan- 
caster county, cannot fall short of six thousand species; the 
Ptilota or \. inged insects being the most numerous, and of 
these, the order Colcoptcra (distinguished by having the wing*- 
folded under a pair of bard elytra) is the most extensive ; and 


although they do not possess the brilliant beauty of the Lepi- 
doptera, or butterfly order, they have hitherto secured the prin- 
cipal attention of entomologists ; whence it happens that they 
are best known, and we have devoted more space to them than 
to the remaining orders. 

The Coleoptera deserve a careful study, as a knowledge of 
their habits will enable us to turn them to account in the de- 
struc'.ion of noxious species. Thus the genus Coccinella (la- 
dybug) feeds upon the Aphides or plant lice, so destructive to 
roses and other plants; and in tiieir larva state they maybe 
found upon the leaves of useful vegetables, devouring small 
insects or grubs which, when numerous, destroy the plants by 
eating tlie leaves. The Cccidomyia destructor (wheat fly) is 
extensively destroyed in the grub state, by the young of 
another minute insect. The carnivorous tribes are readily 
distinguishable from those which feed upon vegetable food ; 
and the greater number and variety of the former to be found 
in gardens and fields, the more likely will they be'to destroy 
the noxious kinds, or to prevent their increase by the destruc- 
tion of their eggs. 

There can be no necessity in giving common names to ani- 
mals which have not already received them, as they can be just 
as well recognized by the scientific name. Commrm names are 
frequently local, and the same name is applied to different an- 
imals in difterent parts of the country ; whilst the scientific 
name, being that under Vvhich animals are described, are 
known in all parts of the world, whatever may be the language 
spoken. The English apply the name ground-hog to an Afri- 
can animal not at all like our ground-hog, which some authors 
call by a name under which most people would not recognize 
it. Ont^ of our hauks is called a buzzard in England, and our 
buzzard a vulture. A mammal is called gopher in the west, 
and the same vulgar name is applied to a tortoise in the south. 
In a work upon North American birds, one author has called 
our Hirundo'rufa (barn swallow) chimney swallow! doubtless 
because it is like t'le chimney swallow of England ; instead of 
preserving this name for the Chsetura pelasgia, which actually 
frequents chimneys. Bald eagle is the common name for Ha- 
Hatrous leucocephalus throughout the United States, yet some 
peeple affectedly call it the whitehcadcd cogle ! Thus it suine- 



times happens that authors use neither the proper nor tlis 
common name of an animal, but adopt one, perhaps entirely 
unknown to those best acquainted with it. 

The scientific appellation is the only true name of a plant or 
an animal, as no other will answer our principal purpose, that 
of giving a distinct name to every organized object. Nothing 
is gained by naming certain insects weavil, hammerbug or 
schnellkaefer, when there are more than a hundred ditferent 
kinds of each in Pennsylvania, each of which has its proper 
name. "We call an insect the rose bug, but this name will not 
enable us to discover the true appellation under which it may 
be found in European books, whether English, French or Ger- 
man. A little consideration upon this subject will convince 
any one that an animal or plant is not properly known until 
we are acquainted with its name, and every one interested in 
the study of zoology or botany, should endeavor to become 
familiar with the proper names. Naturalists themselves are 
often to blame in this matter, from a jealousy that the public 
at large will linally become as wise as themselves; and they 
accordingly invent English names which they set forth in largo 
capitals, so that tire proper names will be less likely to attract 

MAMMA] JA'— Beasts. 

Four species of bat occur in Lancaster county, viz : 
Vespcrtilio Carolinensis; chesnui brown above, yellowish 
beneath: V. Noveboraccnsis; rcddisii brown : V. pruinosus; 
fur dark, tipped with white: V. subulatus"? Scalops Cana- 
densis; mole. Condylura macroura; star-nose mole. Sorex 
brevicaudus; found along water courses, where it constructs 
burrows in the grass. Procyon lotor; the raccoon is not un- 
common in some parts of the county, Mustela erminca; de- 
scribed under this name by Godman, and usually called weasel. 
Mustela lutreola ; mink. Mephitis Americana; the skunk or 
polecat. Vulpes fulvus; red fox: V. cinereo-argentatus; grey 
fox. Dideljihis Virginiana ; possum, incorrectly named o'pos- 

•Aiiicricau IN'atural History, t>y Jo'.ui D. Godman, 3 vols. 8 vo. plates. 


sum in modern books. Fiber zibethicus; muskrat. Arvicola 
xanlhognatus ; meadow mouse : A. viparius; tail short, inhab- 
its marshes. Mus agrariusi Gerbilliis Canadensis; kanga- 
roo, jumping mouse. Arctomys monax ; ground-hog. Sciu- 
ruscinereus; cat squirrel : S. Hudsonius; red squirrel: S. ni- 
ger? black squirrel. Tarn ias striata ; ground squirrel. Pter- 
omys volucella ; flying squirrel. Lepus sylvaticus ; rabbit. 

REPTILIA*— Reptiles. 


Cistuda Carolina; the color of the common land tortoise is 
yellow, mottled with dark brown or black. Emys geographica; 
shsU 8 inches long, with a ridge along the back ; dark brown, 
with lighter, indistinct, irregular lines ; used as food, and usu- 
ally called terrapin. Emys Muhlenbergiil 4 inches long, a 
large orange spot upon each side of the neck; doubtful as a 
native of this county. Emyspicta; 5 inches long, margin of 
the shell marked with red stripes, common in ponds and small 
streams, fond of reposing in the sun. Emys guttala; black, 
with small yellow spots, less than the preceding, with which it 
is frequently found. Emys insculpta ; yellow and black, each 
plate comprising the carapax or upper shell is roughened by 
concentric and radiating furrows, a b'ack spot upon each plate 
of the sternum. E. rubriventrisl sternum marked with red ; it 
may be found in the lower parts of the Susquehanna. Sterno- 
thorus odoratus; length about 4 inches, dark brown, sternum 
very narrow, carapax oval, convex and smooth, chin with 
several small warts. Kinostcrnon Pennsylvanicum ] nearly 
resembles the preceding, but the sternum is wider, and separ- 
ated into three parts, not hitherto observed within the county. 
Emysaura serpentina; (snapper) head large, tail long and 
strongly serrated above; highly prized for "terrapin soup." 

Ophidia — Serpents. 

Coluber constrictor ; blacksnake : C. sipedon ; watersnake : 
C. sirtalis; gartersnake: C. saurita; gartersnake: C. septem- 

•Holbrook's North American Herpetology. 5. vols, quarto. 


vittatus 'J^gartersnake : C. punctatus; greenish orange below, 
a light ring around the neck: C, amoeniis; light brown with: 
violet rellexions, head very small: C. eximins; house-snake, 
Tlie above species arc at present included in several "-enera, 
Heterodon platirhinus ; viper, harmless. Trigonoccphalus 
contortrix ; copperhead. 

Sauria — Lizards. 
Tropidolepis undulatus; inhabits woods, brown, mottled, 
scales very rough, tail long, active, innoxious. Scincus fascia- 
tus ; back with 5 yellow stripes, tail blue. 


Ranapipiens; bullfrog: R, halccina ; shadfrog, green with 
black spots : R. sylvatica; woodfrog, reddish brown, 2 inches: 
R, palustris; brown, with rows of square dark brown spots, 3 
inches: R. gryllus; 1 incli long. Jlyla versicolor; treefrog, 
treetoad. Bufo Americanus ; toad. Salaniandra erytlironota; 
S. cinereain: woods, under logs and stoiics: S. longicauda : 
S. maculalal S. fasciata] S. venenosal 

PISCES— Fishes. 

Of the fifty species of this class which are probably found 
in our waters, we arc not prepared to give a complete list, as 
we iiave not yet compared the greater part of our specimens 
with authentic individuals from other states ; and we are there- 
fore in doubt as to the names they ouglitto bear. This remark 
applies particularly to tiie species first made known by Dr. 
Mitchill, and which were found in iho waters of New York. 

The several diims in tlie Susquehanna, have nearly cut off 
the supply of the .shad, so important an article in domestic 
economy, until a recent period, tliat families witliin twenty 
miles of the fisheries, thought it impossible to pass through a 
season unsupplicd willi a barrel of salted shad. 

Fishing is not conducted upon an extensive scale at present, 
the bcinc being employed for tiie shad and herring alone. The 


former is sometimes caught by means of a large scoopnet, in 
such places where it is necessary for the fish to approach near 
the shore or a rock, to pass upwards. 

Angling is in considerable repute, and the out-line is fre- 
quently employed. This consists of a stout cord about a hun- 
dred yards long, to which the hooks are attached at intervals, 
by lines (or links) a yard long; the whole being stretched and 
anchored in a suitable place during the night. Live bait is em- 
ployed, and should be supplied from time to time to the hooks 
which have been stripped. 

Various species are abundantly caught in the fall of the year 
in fish-baskets, made of lathwork, with diverging v. alls of 
stones, leading from the entrance up the stream for one 
hundred or two hundred yards. In the shallow v.aters, fishes 
are speared or gigged by torch light ; the smaller streams are 
fished Vvith a bow-net, into the mouth of which the fishes are 
driven by beating the water; and set-nets of a cylindrical 
shape, kept open by hoops, v>ith an expanded mouth, and pro- 
vided v.ith funcels to prevent the return of the prisoners once 
entered. These are set in dams, at the mouths of creeks in 
deep water, when suckers are principally caught ; but when 
set in the Susquehanna, catfishes and sunfishes are usually 

The published materials on the history of our fishes are scat- 
tered through many different works, and arc inaccessible 
except to the professed naturalist. 

Perca lutea, Rafincsque ; (flavescens, Cuvier.) the yellow 
perch is common in the Susquehanna. Labrax lineatus, Lin ; 
reck fish : L. albus; Raf. (mucronatus, Cuv.) white perch. — 
Percina ncbulosa; Hald : P. minima, (Etheostoma Olmstedi, 
Storer.) Pcmotis appendix, Mitchill ; black-cared sunfish:* 
P. aurilus, Lin; (moccasinus, Raf.) ycUovz-cared sunfish. — 
Lucioperca Americana'? Cuv.; salmon. Cottus viscosus, Hald.- 
(cognatus ! llich.) resembles a small Pimelodus or catfish. — 
These nine species include all those which have spiny rays in 
the first dorsal fin, as far as we have been able to determine. 

Cyprinus cornutus; Mitchill — hornchub, and several other 
species. Catostomus cyprinus, Lesueur; carp, not allied to 
the European carp : C. maculosus, Les. ; stoncroUer and som.e 

*These English names are also applied to certain marine fishes.. 




others. Leiicisciis corporalis; fall fish and several other 
species of chub. Exoglossuni maxilingiia, Les. ; remarkable 
for the manner in which tlic tongue projects, to form part of 
the lower jaw. Esox rcticulatus, Les.; pike. Belonc trun- 
catal Les.; green gar. Pimelodus; one or two species of 
catfish.* Noturus; one species. Salmu fonlinalisl Mitchill ; 
trout. The fish properly called salmon belongs to this genus, 
and has nevei been caught so farsouth as Pennsylvania. Alosa 
sapidissima, Wilson; shad. Clupea vernalis, Mitchill; her- 
ring. Lcpisostcus osscus, Liu.; gar*. Anguilla ; one or two 
species of eel. Accipenscr; one species of sturgeon, Pe- 
tromyzon Americanus, Les,; lampereel. Bdellostoma nigri- 
cans, Les. ; found attached to the shad. Ammocoetes bicolor, 
Les. ; lives under sand and mud. 


Wc commence with the Coleopleia, because we intend to 
say but little on the remaining orders, otiierwise it would have 
been proper to begin the series with the Uymenoptera, (inclu- 
ding bees, ants, wasps, &:c.) which appear to stand at the head 
of the class. That the attention may be more particularly 
called to the insects themselves, wc add a few notes on twenty 
species, such as may be readily recognised : 

Cicindela. This genus stands at the head of our carniverous 
in-gects, and the species may be known by their bright colors, 
strong jaws, long legs, the activity with whicii they run upon 
the bare ground, and the ease with w iiich they take wing. 

Casnonia rennsylvariica has the head and slender thorax 
black, and rather longer than the remainder of the body. The 
elytra (wing covers) arc yellowish, each one with 3 black 
.spots; 3-10 of an inch long. 

Galerita Americana; length J of an inch, head ;.iul tliora.x 
slender, the former black, the latter, with the legs yellowish 
brown, elytra blue-black. 

Brachinus fumans, half an inch long, greatly resembling the 
preceding, but the head is of the same color as the elytra; 

•Tlica: Eijslisli ramcs arc also npjilicd to ccrtjun mctinc fifihcs. 


when caught, ii throws out a jet of vapor with a slight explosion, 

Scaritessubterraneus; an inch in length, black, with a strong 
pair of jaws, head and thorax as long as the liinder part, and 
somewhat wider — lives under logs. 

Calosoma scrutator; length 1 1-4 inches, head black, thorax 
(pronotum) purple, margined with golden, elytra bright 
green, with a golden margin. 

Calosoma calidum ; length of the preceding, but mucii 
narrower, black, elytra striate, with numerous golden 

Agoniim octopunctatum ; length 3-10 inches, active, green, 
with four impressed punctures arranged in a line upon the in- 
ner margin of each elytron. 

Anorops obliquatus; half an inch long, short oval, dull black, 
except a small orange spot at the inner base of the elytra, 
punctured longitudinally — found in decayed wood. 

Diaperis maculata ; quarter of an inch long, oblong hemis- 
pherical, elytra light yellowish brown, with two black spots 
upon each, near the base, and a larger irregular spot towards 
the extremity, and upon the outer margin, head and thorax 

Coprobius volvens ; (tumble-bug) is commonly seen in 
pairs rolling a ball of dung. A much larger insect, an inch 
long, black with the elytra coarsely furrowed, is named Copris 
Carolina, and is proportionally shorter than the Scarabaeus 
Jamaicensis, which is tinged with brown, the head of the male 
being armed with a long recurved horn ; a small species quar- 
ter of an inch long. 

Onthophagus Janus ; has two straight, upright horns upon 
the head ; it is found in rotten fungi. 

Pelidnota punctata; is an inch long, of a brownish yellow, 
each elytron with three black spots, a similar spot on each' 
side of the thorax ; found upon grape vines. Nearly allied, 
but without spots, is the Pelidnota lanigera, of a fine lemon 
yellow color. 

Macrodactylasubspinosa; is the abundant and destructive 
rosebug or cherrybug. 

Crioceris trilineata; a common garden insect, quarter of aa 
inch long, yellow, with three black, conspicuous, longitudinal 
lines upon the elytra, and two black dots Lipon the pronolura. 


The nearly allied Galeruca vittata (cucumber bug) is smaller 
^vith narrouxu' bands, and Galeruca 12-punctata, intermediate 
in size, is marked with three transverse rows of black dots, 
four in each row. 

Coccinella borealis, yellow spotted with black, the largest 
species of our ladybugs. 

The following is a list of the species captured principally 
within the last year, and of a number of them, but a single spe- 
cimen was taken. 

Cicindela punctulata: C. vulgaris: C. hirticollis : C. sex- 
guttata: C. marginalis: C. purpurea: C. patruela. Casnonia 
Pennsylvanica. Galerita Americana. Brachinus fumans: B. 
alternans: B. curticollis: B. pcrplexus. Plochionus Bonfilsii. 
Cyminas pilosus: C. limbatus. Dromius piceus. Lebia atri- 
ventris: L. ornata: L. vittata: L. scapularis: L. viridis: L. 
pumila. Scarites subterrancus. Clivina quadrimaculata : C. 
morio: C. viridis. Sphcerodcrus stenostomus. Carabus ser- 
ratus : C. ligatus. Calosoma scrutator : C, calidum : C. ex- 
tcrnus. Omophron labiatum. Elajjhrus ruscarius. Notiophi- 
lus scmistriatus: N. porrectus. Chkenius scriceus: C. oisti- 
vus: C. chlorophanus: C. emarginatus: C. nemoralis: C. to- 
mentcsus. Diccclus violaceus: D. dilatatus: D. simplex. Pa- 
nagaus fasciatus. Patrobus longicornis. Calathus grcgarius. 
Anchomenus extensicollis. Agonum octopunctatum : A. cu- 
pripenne: A, punctiforme: A. excavatum. Poecilus chalci- 
tcs: P. lucublanda. Omaseus stygica : 0. complanata: 0. 
politus: 0. morosa] Platysma adoxa. Amara basillaris : A, 
impuncticollis: A. musculis. Daptus incrassatus. Bractylus 
exaratus. Agonodcrus pallipes. Selenophorus troglodytes. 
Pangus caliginosus. Anisodactyluscarbonarius: A. agricolus: 
A. Ballimorien&is: A. rusticus. Harpalus faunus: H. bicolor: 
H. intcrstitialis: II. dichrous: H. herbivagus: PL tcrminatus. 
Stcnolophus ochropegus. Acupalpu-s rupcstris. Bembidium 
coxendix: B. patruelum. Dyticus vcrticalis. Laccophilus 
maculosus. Ilaliphus immaculicollis. Hydroporus lacustris. 
Cyclous vVmcricanus. Hydrophilus natator. Pa-dcrus littora- 
lius. Pinophilus latipcs. Emus villosus : E. maculosus: E. 
cinnamopterus: E. angulatus. Stalicus armalus ! Buprcstis. 
Cholcophora Yirginica. Dircera divaricata. Agrilus ruficol- 
Us. Chrysabotbris sc.\signata. Brachys ovata. Alaus ocula- 


tus. Limonius quercinus. Cardiophorus areolatus. Athous 
longicollis. Steatoderus attenuatus. Ludius piccus: L. nem- 
nonius: L. bellus. Cratonychus communis. Dolopius sericens. 
Limonius cylindriformis. Oephorus dorsalis : 0. delectus: 
O. instabilis. Anomala pinicola. Omaluplia vespertina. Di- 
cheionyclia hexagona. Macrodactyla subspinosa. Hoplia vi- 
rens. Tricliius piger: T. affinis. Cetonia inda : C. fulgida, 
Gymnetis nitida. Lucanus capreolus. Passalus cornutus. — 
Capris Carolina: C. Ammon : C. anaglypticus. Coprobius 
volvens. Phanajus carmifex. Onthophagus janus: 0. hocate. 
Scarabosus tityus: S. satyrus. Pelidnota punctata: P. lani- 
gera. Phyllophago iiicis : P. quercina: P. pilosicollis. Iph- 
thinus Pennsylvanicus : I. saperdoides : I. rufipes. Opatri- 
nus notum. Tenebrio obscurus. Uloma rubens. Diaperis 
Hydni. Anorops obliquatus. Helops vittatus: H. pullus. — 
Cisieia suturalis: C. fuscipes. Melandria striata: M. labiata. 
Pyrochroa flabcllata. Mordella atrata : M. marginata. No- 
toxus monodon: N. bicolor. Athicus, 5 species. Scirtes sol- 
siitialis. Ellychma corusca : E. arcuata. Photuris versicolor. 
Epicauta marginita: E. vittata. Chauliognathus bimaculatus. 
Telephorus Carolina. Malachias cinctus. Anobiiini notatum: 
A. capitata. Cupes cinerea. Hister depurator: H. abbrevia- : H. 14 striatus : H. 12 lineatus. Necrophorus grandis: 
N. tomenlosus : N. arbicoUis. Necrodes suiinamensis. Sil- 
pha Americana : S. marginalis: S. inequalis. Hololepta tequa- 
lis. Platysoma sordid um. Nitidula colon. Ips 4 maculosa. 
Dermestes lardarius. Attagenus cylindricornis. Aathrenus 
niger. Parnus fastigiatus. Bruchuj Phyllobius tienia. 
tus. Hylobius pales: H. picivorus. Sixus scrubicollis. Cra- 
toparis lunatus. Balamirus nasicus. Prionus brevicornis: P. 
cylindricus. Cerasphorua cinctus. Clytus flexuosus : "). ery- 
throcephalus: C. colonus: C. obliquu-^, Kn. palliatus, II: C, 
mucronatus 1 C. picipss. Hylotrupes bajulus. Monochamu- 
nus pini. Molorchus bimaculatus. Tetraopes tornator. Sa- 
perda lateralis: S. tripunctata. Strangalia luteicornis. Lep- 
tura 4 viltata. Uroplata qnadrala : U. naturalis. Cassida cia- 
vata. Chlanys plicata. Celaspis ovatus. Chrysomela trimacu- 
culata: C. scalaris. Galeruca vittata: G. 12-punctata. Systena 
striolata. Oedionchus vians. Disonychiacollaris. Zygogramma 
pulchra. Craptoderacrythropoda. Phratora aineus. Triplax hu- 


meralis. Coccinclla borealis : C. 9-notada: C. lO-macuIata: C, 
20-maciilata: C. tibialis: C. parenthesis : C. munda: C. aire- 
viata. Ciiciiocorus stigma. 



Gryllotalpa brcvipennis; mole cricket. Acheta abbreviata ; 
cricket. Ptcrophylla concavus ; katydid. Locusta Carolina ; 
our largest grasshopper. L. viridifasciata. 


Haly.^ arborea, Say. Cylnus bilincatus, Say. Berrytus 
spinosus, S. Mysdochus serripes, Latr. Syrteserosa. Tingis, 
four species including T. elongata, Say, first observed in Mis- 
souri; it is found upon Bapti^ia tinctoria in June. Galgulus 
ocuialus. Bclostoma Americana. Cicada pruinosa ; locust. 
C. septendecim ; 17-year locust. Membracis bimaculatis, F : 
M. accuminata, F : M. vau, Say : M. calva, say. 

Neuropteka — Dragovjlies, c^-c. 

Aeshnavinosa, Say. Libellulapulchella : L. Turnaria, Say : 
L. Lydia. Corydalis cornutus, L. Chauliodes pectinicornis, 
I;. Phryganea semifasciata, S. 


Trcmcx columba, L. Pelicinus polycerator. Pimpla atrata, 
F. Trogus fulvus. Odyncrus quadricornis. Polistes fuscata, 
L; wasp. Vespa maculata, L ; hornet. Leucospis fratcrna. 

Li.pidoptera — Bulterjlies. 

Papilio Turnus: P. glaucus: (female of the former.) P. 
Philenor: P. Asterius: P. Triolus: Ajax. 

DlPTERA — Tu-o-uhigril Jlies. 

Midus filatus. Sphyracephala brevicornis. Conops sagilta- 
ria. Tabanus atratus. 



The moUusca constitute a class of animals which includes 
all our land and freshwater shells ; but as the county is out of 
the influence of salt Nvater, and not even touched by the tide ; 
we are without any of the more beautiful species which occur 
in the sea alone. This, however, should not lead us to neglect 
these humble creatures, for they, as well as the most highly 
organized, have had their station given to them in the great 
scheme of creation. 

Those which construct a univalve shell, are the most highly 
organized, and include the so called snails, whether of the 
land or water. These move about slo\vly upon a disk called 
the foot, in search of their vegetable food ; and instantly re- 
tract themselves within their spiral shell, upon being distur- 
bed. The bivalve species are enclosed in a pair of valves, 
lined by the mantle of the animal, and closed by two strong 
transverse muscles, thus differing from the genus Ostrea 
(oyster) the valves of which are closed by a single muscle. 
Upon each side of the body of the animal are two long flaps, 
which are the gills, and the water is admitted by two siphons 
projected a little, from the upper and hinder pait of the shell. 
The animal moves with the open margin of the shell turned 
down into the sand, and draws itself forward, making a furrow 
as it advances by means of its foot, with which the oyster is 
not provided, as it never moves from the place to which it was 
first attached. The freshwater univalve shells have two tenta- 
cles projecting from the head, and are divided into those which 
breathe water, and those which breathe air ; the former have 
the eyes situated upon an enlargement of the outside base of 
the tentacles ; whilst in the latter, they are upon the head, near 
the inside of these organs. At ti^e head of our Mollusca, the 
genus llelania may be placed. It contains but a single spe- 
cies, Melania Virginica, which occurs throughout the Susque- 
hanna, and in many of the larger streams." The shell is an inch 
long, with eight or ten turns ; the color green, with two spiral 
reddish bands, in some individuals. AVith this species occurs 
another belonging to the allied genus Anculosa, and called, 
tr«m the dissimilarity of the various individuals, Areculosa dis- 
similis. Length half an inch. 


In the genus PALrDiNA, the head is much smaller, and the 
foot much larger, than in Melaiiia. Two species are found in 
some parts of the Susquehanna, the larger one, Paludina 
decisa, having a short smooth light green shell, nearly an inch 
long, whilst that of the other is smaller, rough with transverse 
spiral lives, of a dull light green color, and with a rounder 

Abinicola presents a shell which is a miniature representa- 
tion of Paludina. Amnicola limosa is one eighth of an inch 
long, and resembles Paludina decisa, but the aperture is pro- 
portionally wider. Amnicola lustrica is of the same size, but 
is more nearly globular, the aperture is circular, and the base 
of the shell presents an opening. Amnicola granum resem- 
bles the latter, and is our smallest freshwater shell, being less 
than the one twentieth of an inch in length. 

Valvata TRicARiNATA is our only representative of this ge- 
nus, which is distinguished by the circular aperture and open 

The members of the family of freshwater univalve shells 
called Phisadae, though they live in vvalers of ponds and small 
streams, breathe free air, and are therefore compelled to come 
to tlic surface to breathe, which is effected by opening a 
small aperture to admit the air. The shells are thin and deli- 
cate, and of uniform tints. Physa heterostropha is extensively 
distributed over the United States, and is our only species in 
this genus, which has the peculiarity of having the turns of the 
shell reversed, or turned in a contrary direction from most 
spiral shells. Nearly allied is the genus Limnea, of which we 
have the following species; L. palustris ; shell brown, oblong 
conic, with six whirls, the surface frequently marked with 
irregular elevated lines — length about an inch. It is a Europe- 
an species, but those C'f this country were named L. clodcs, by 
Say, under the impression of their being a distinct species. 

L. desidiosa ; a light yellowish delicate shell, growing to the 
length of 3-1 of an inch, and presenting numerous varieties. 

L. caperata; very dark brown, approaching to blackish, 
shell covered with fine spiral elevated lines, 3-4 of an inch 

L. humilis; shell ovate-conic, short and inflated, less than 
half an inch long. A slender variety, considered a distinct 
species by some authors ; has been named L, mcdicella. 


^LANOUBis is a geiitis in which the shell is a flattened discoid 
spiral; the most common species throughout the country being 
Planorbis bicarinatus. A small species, P. parvus, is more 
rarely found within our limits, and may be nscognized by its 
small size, being less than a quarter of an inch in diameter, 
and by its compressed form. 

In the remaining genus of the family Physadce, the shell is 
not spiral, but has an oval conical shape, like a shallow cup, 
being a minute representation of the shell of the marine genus 
Patella. It may be found attached to stones under water. — 
The only species observed within the county is named Ancy- 
lus rivularis. 


The land snails have four tentacles, the principal or upper 
pair, bearing undeveloped eyes upon ihcir summits, and pos- 
sessing a peculiar structure, by means of which they can be 
withdrawn ; being tubular, the extremity turns inwards, when 
the whole tentacle follows. Snails live under bark, logs and 
stones, our species seldom moving abroad, except in wet 
weather, or during the night. Our largest species is najned, 
from the broad white lip of the shell, Helix albolabris. The 
next in size, and nearly like the preceding, is H. thyroidus, dis- 
tinguished by a white projection or tooth, upon the inner side 
of the aperture. 

Helix tridentata; shell depressed, base open, lip white, with 
two teeth, opposite to which, on the iiiiier side, is a third large 
curved tooth ; length three-fourths of an inch. 

Helix concava ; sliell polished, base very open, aperture 
nearly circular, the lip expanded. 

Helix alternata; shell nearly an Inch in size, open below, 
lip sharp ; color yellowish brown, mottled witii reddish bands 
lines of growth coarse. 

Helix hirsuta may be recognised by the rough exterior, and 
the narrow, radiating aperture, which is closed up in such 
a manner by a large tooth, that one might suppose it diilicylt 
for the animal to pass ; shell less than half an inch. 

I have observed the following species of Helix v/ithin our 
borders, together with several others v/hich may have boen 
collected in the neighboring counties : 

Helix albolabris ; H. thyroidus ; H. alternata; H. concava; 



H. palliata'! H. fuliginosa ; H. hirsuta ; H. pulchella; H. in' 
dentata ; H. electrina? H. labyrinthica. 

1 have found Succinea obliqua upon the islands in the Sus- 
quehanna, opposite to Washington. The shell presents a 
strong resemblance to some of the forms of Limnea colum- 
ella, a species which will probably be detected hereafter in 
this county, as it occurs in other parts of the state, as in the 
vicinity of Philadelphia, and in York county. 


This fomily includes all our large bivalve shells, usually 
called mussles. 

Unio is the principal genus, and contains the greatest num- 
ber of species. It is known by having one or two short, robust 
teeth at the hinge, and behind them one or two others, which 
are flat and blade-shaped; the former are called card'mal — the 
latter lamellar teeth. 

Alasmodon wants the lamellar teeth, and 

Anodon is Avithout either kind. The following species in- 
habit the Susquehanna and branches: 

Unio cariosus; shell straw yellow, 3 or 4 inches. U. radia- 
tus; covered with broad green bands, 4 or 5 inches. U. com- 
planatus ; compressed, dull brown, inside frequently purple ; 
young sometimes rayed ; extremely variable in form ; our 
most common species, 3 inches. U. viridis; a small, fragile, 
brown or green, rayed species, with the cardinal teeth com- 
pressed, and very variable ; usual length Ih inch, 

Alasmodon undulatus; dark brown, rayed, a very robust 
tooth in each valve, Ih inch. A. marginatus; green, rayed; 
cardinal teeth small and thin ; posterior extremity of the shell 
truncated ; 2 inches. 

Anodon cataractus; bright green, rayed; delicate, 4 or 5 

Anodon undulatus; dark brown, hinges slightly thickened, 
having a tendency to form a slight pair of teeth, 2 or 3 inches. 
See Conrad's work for information upon this family; Binncy's 
on those; (jf the land, and Ilaldeman's on the freshwater uni- 
valve species. 









The following attempt to enumerate the Filicoid and Flower- 
ing Plants of Lancaster county, is based upon the Index Flora* 
Lancastriensis of that eminent Botanist, the late Rev. Dr. 
Muhlenberg; adding thereto, such species as have been since 
ascertained to grow in the county, — or which, being found ia 
the adjacent county of Chester, may be safely enumerated the Lancaster Plants. The List is, unquestionably, still 
incomplete ; but it was thought better, genei'ally, to omit 
plants of doubtful habitat, rather than to insert them on mere 
conjecture. A few species, however, have been included, as 
probable natives, — with a mark of doubt [1] prefixed. 

By the arrangement in ?iatural Families, it will be perceived 
that kindred plants are grouped together according to their 
structural and other allinities; thereby rendering the investiga- 
tion of them more interesting to the Student, — as well as afford- 
ing a clue to their economical properties. The most usual 
common, or English Name, is annexed to such Species as have 



acquired a popular designation — so far as the same is known^ 

to the Compiler. 

O^The numerals prefixed to the Generic Names, refer to 

the number of the Genus, in Endlicher's great work ; and, for 

the sake of ready distinction, the names of those plants which, 

are cultivated for useful purposes, are printed in italic. 

W. D. 


Seclio III. Aeu'iilss'ya, 
Cohors SI. I'^i'd'-ophySd. 



601 Equisctiim, L. 
sylvaticum, L 

hyemale, L. Scouring Rush, 
arvense, L. Horse-tail, 
fluviatile, L] 


Suh ordo I. Folypodieae, 
615 PolypodiiiiD, L. 

vulgare, L 

he.xagonopterum, Mx 

Phegopteris, L 
618 Cheilantlics, S\v. 

vestita, Willd 
620 Adiautiim, L. 

pedatuin, L. Maiden's Hair. 
622 Pleris, L. 

atropurpurea, L [en, 

aquiliiid, L. Brake, or Brack- 

caudala, L 

628 Struthiopteris, V/illd. 
Peniisylvanica, Willd 

629 Oiioclea, L. 
sensibilis, L 

630 As])lciiiain, L. 
rhizophyllnm, Willd 
angu.'^tifoliiun, Mx 
cbeninnii, Wilhl 
Tricliouiiiiies, L 
thelyptcrioidcs, Mx. 
Ruta-muraria, L 

639 Nephrodium, Rich. 
acrostichoides, Mx 
thelyptcrioidcs, Mx 
bulbiferum, Mx 
asplenioides, Mx 
tenue, Mx 

640 Aspidiuni, Sw.. 
Thelypteris, Willd 
Lancastriense, Spreng 

644 Dicksonia, Hcrit. 

pilosiuscula, Willd 
646 Woodsia, R. Br. 

Ilvensis, R. Br 

Hufidula, Beck 

Perriniana, Hook & Grov 


665 Osmunda, L. 

intcrriipta, Mx 
spectabilis, Willd 
cinnamomea, L 


671 Opliioglossiim, L. 

vulgatum, L 
674 JBotrycliiuni, Sw. 

fumarioides, Wdld 

dis.scftum, Willd 

Virgiiiiciiin, Sw 


693 Isoetes, L. 

lacustris, L 

696 Lycopodiuui, L. 
clavatuni, L. Club Moss 
complanatuin, L 



dendroideiim, Mx 
alopecuroidos, L 
rupestre, L 
apodum, L 
lucidulum, Mx 

Sectio tV. AiMB>hi- 

I) I* v*i • 


Trihus I. Oryzeas. 
728 Leersia, Soland. 
oryzoides, Sw. Cut-Grass 
Virgiiiica, Willd 
731 Hydrochloa, Beauv. 
aquatlca, Beauv. Water Oats 
Trihus II. Phalarideae. 
742 Zea. L. 

Mays, L. Indian Corn 
747 Alopecurus, L. 

prate n sis, L 
750 Phleum, L. 
pratense, L. Timothy 

753 Phalaris, L. 
arundinacea, L 

754 Holcus, L. 
lanatus L. Feather-grass 

755 Hierochloa, Ginel. 
borealis, Roem & Schult 

756 Anthoxanthum, L. 
oderatum, L 

Trihus III. Paniceae. 
761 Paspalum, L. 

filiforme, Sw 

laeve, Mx 

setaceum, Mx 
770 Par.iciim, L. 

sanguinale, L 

glabrurn, Gaud 

agro-toides, Muhi 

proliferum, Lain 

virgatum, L 


nitidum, Lain 

microcarpum, Muhl 

anceps, Mx 

capillare, L 

latifolium, L 


elandestinum, L 

rectum, Roem & Scliutt 
778 Opiismeniis, Beauv. 

Crus Galli, Kunth 
781 Penuisetuni, Rich. 

glaucum, l{ Br. Foxtail Grass 

viride, •{ Br. Bottle Grass 

verticillatum, R Br 

Italicum, R Br var. g. Kunth, 
Trihus IV. Stipaceae. 
798 Stipa, L. 

avenacea, L 
801 Aristida, L. 

dichotoma, Mx 

stricta, Mx'^ Poverty Grass 
Trihus V. Agrostideae. 
803 Muhlenbergia, Schreb. 

diffusa, Willd 

Wildcuuwii, Trin 

sylvatica, Gray 

aristata, Pers 

Mexicana, Trin 

sobolifera, Trin 
SOS Cmna, L. 

arundinacea, L 
309 Sporobolus, R. Br.. 

Virginicus, Kunth 
810 Agrostis, L. 

vulgaris, Sm. Herd's Grass 

laxitiora, Richards 

cornucopiae, Fras 
Trihus VI. Arundinaceae. 
817 Calamagrostis, x\daus. 

Canadensis, Beauv 

coarctata. Torr 
824 Phra.gmites, Trin. 

communis, Trin 
Trihus VIII. Chlornideae. 
841 Eleii-iiiic, Gaertii, 

Indica, Gaertn. Dog's tail 

84G Spartina, Schreb. 

cynosuroides, Willd 
847 Eiilriana, Triu. 

curtipcndula, Trin 

Trihus IX. Avtnaceae. 



857 Descliampsia, Beauv. 

cespitosa, Beauv 
859 Aira, L. 

llexuosa, L 

863 TrisetLini, Kunth. 
Pennsylvaiiicum, Tria 

864 Aveiia, L. 

sativa, L. Common Oats 
palustris, Mx 

865 AiThenatheriim, Beauv 
avenaceum, Beauv. Oat-Grass 

871 Danthonia, DC. 
spicala, Hoeni & Schult 

872 Uralepis, Nutt. 
cup re a, Kunth 

Tribus X. Festucaceae. 
876 Poa, L. 

pilosa, L 

hirsuta, Mx 

capillaris, L 

Eragnjstis, L 

replans, Mx 

annua, L [Grass 

tiivialis, L. Rough Meadow 

pratensis. L. Green Grass 

comprcssa, L. Blue Grass 

punyens, Nutt 
878 'Giyccria, R. Br. 

fluitans. U. Br 

Michauxii, Kunlh 
880 Eaton ia, lh\\'. 

truncata, [cfr Trisctum] 
883 W\zi\, L. 

mctlia, L 

Canadensis, Mx 
887 Molica, L. 

spcci(j?a, Muhl 
892 Dactylis, L. 

glomrrata. L. Orchard Grass 

899 Fcrtuea, L. 
Tcnella Willd 
duriusenia, L 
Pralensis, Herds, Fescue 
elatior. L 

nuians, Sprong 

900 JJroimis, L. 
secalinus, L. Cheat. Chess 

arvensis, L'? (cfr. mollis) 
pnrgans, L 
ciliatus, L 
pubescens, Muhl 
902 Unlola, L. 
latifolia, Mx 

Tribus XI. Hordeaceae. 

912 Lolium, L. 
perenne, L. Kye grass 

913 Triticuu], L. 
vulgare,y\\\. Wheat. (Several 

varieties cultivated) 
Spelta, L. Spelt 
Polnnicum, L. Polish Wheat 
repens, L. Couch grass 

914 Sccale, L. 
cereale, L. Rye 

915 Elynnis; L. 
Canadensis, L 
striatus, Willd 
villosus, Muhl 
Virginicus, L 

916 Gymnostichum, Schrcb. 
Hystrix, Schreb 

917 Ilordeiuii, L. 
vulgare, L. Barley [ley 
distichum, L. Two-roived Bar- 
Tribus XII. Rottboelliuceae. 

930 Tripsacum, L. 
dactyloides, L. Gama Grass 
Tribus XIII. Andropngoncae. 

950 Aiidropogon, L. 
scoparius, Mx. Indian Grass 
furcatus, Muhl 
macrourus, Mx 
Virginicus, L 

Sorghum, Brot. Indian Millet 
cernuus, lloxb. Guinea Corn 
bico/or, |{o\b. Chocolate Corn 
saccharatus, Roxb. Broom 

avenaceus, Mx. Indian Grass 

Tribus I. Cariceac. 
957 Carex, L. Sedge, 
rosea, Schk 
cejjhaiophora, Muhl 
sparganit'ides, Muhl 



Muhlenbergii, Schk 
vulpiiioidea, Mx 
multiflura, Muhl 
bromoidcs, Schk 
slellulata, Good 
scoparia, Schk. (and var) 
festucacea, Schk 
cristata, Schw 
straminea, Schk 
cespitosa, L 
acuta, L 
crinita, Lam 
polytrichoides, Muhl 
pcdunculata, Muhl 
"Isquarrosa, L 
hirsuta, Willd 
virescens, Muhl 
gracilliiiia, Schw 
IDavisii, Schw. & Torr 
lanuginosa, Mx 
vestita, Willd 
Pennsylvanica, Lam 
pubescens, Muhl 
laxiflora, Lam 
Granularis, Muhl 

anceps, Muhl 

oligocarpa, Schk 
debilis, M:: 
intumescens, Rudge 
lupulina, Muhl 
tentaculata, IMuhl 
bullata, Schk 
vesicaria, L 
trichocarpa, Muhl 
lacre.stris, Willd 
1 scab rata, Schw 
hystericina, Muhl 
pseudo-cj'perus, L 
miliacea, Muhl 
umbellata, Schk 

Tribus III. Sderieae. 
964 Scleria, Berg, 
pauciflora, Muhl 
triglomerata, Mx 
■Iverticillata, Muhl 
Tribus IV. RhijncJiosporeae. 
967 Rhynchospora, Valil. 

cymosa, Nutt 

alba, Vahl 

! capillacea, Torr 

Glome rata, Vahl 
Tribus VIII. Fuireneae. 

998 Fimbristylis, Vahl. 
Baldwiniana, Torr 

1 spadicca, Vahl 
autumnalis, i.oem, & Schult. 
Tribus IX. Scirpeae. 

999 Isolepis, R. Br. 
subsquarrosa, Schrad 
capillaris, Roem k. Schult 

1000 Scirpus, L. 
planifulius, Muhl 
debilis, Pursh 
lacustris, L. Bull Rush 
triqueter, L. Chairmaker's 

atrovirens, Muhl 
brunneus, Muhl 
palustris, L 
intermedins, IMuhl 
obtusus, Willd 
acicularis, L 
tenuis, Willd 

1001 Eriophorum, L, 
Virgin icum, L 
angusti folium, Rich 
cyperinum, L 
lincatum, Endl ] 

Tribus X. Cypereae.. 

1002 DuUchium, Rich, 
spathaceum, Pers 

1003 Cy perns, L. 
diandrus, Torr 
strigosus, L 

] repens, Ell 
filiculmis, Vahl 
dentatus, Torr 
inflexus, Muhl 
ovularis, Torr 
erythrorhyzos, Muhl 
retrofractus, Endl I 


1025 Xyris, L. 
Caroliniana, Walt 




1031 Tradescantia, L. 
Vircinica, L. Spidcinvort 


1041 Alisina, .luss. 
Plantago, L. AVater Plantain 

1042 Sjsrittaria, L. 
sagittacl'olia, L. Arrow-head 
heterophvlla, Pursh 



1047 Luzula, DC. 

pilosa, Willd 
canipustris, Willd 

1049 J uncus, DC. 
elTusus, L. Soft Rush 
setaceus, Rostk 
tenuis, Willd 
nodosus, L 
marginatus, Rostk 
bufonius, L 
acuminatus, Mxl 
polycephalus, Mx 


1066 Helonias, L. 
dioica, Pursh. Blazing Star 

1066 Amiaiithium, A. Gray, 
laetum, A. Gray 

1067 Veriitruiii, Tournef. 
viride, Ait. Indian Poke. I 

1067 Lcirniuitliium, Willd 
Virginicum, Willd 

1050 Uvularia, L, 
pcrfoliata, L 
scssililblia, L 


10S7 Hctcranthera, Ruiz &. 
Pa von. 

I'cnilonnis, Ruiz & Pav 

graiiiiiiea, Vahl 
loss Pontedcria, L. 

cordata, L 


Sill) ordo I. Tulipnceae. 
1090 J^jiythroniun), L. 
Amcricanurn, Sm 

"? albidum, Nutt 
109S Liluun, L. 

Philadelphicum, L 

Canadense, L 

supcrbum, L 
Sub or do IV. Aspliodeleae, 
Tribus I. Hyacinthcae. 
1132 Ornithogaluni, Link 

umbellatum, L. Ten o'clock 
1137 Allium, L. 
' Canadense, L 

vineale, L. Crow Garlic 

tricoccum, Ait 

Porrum, L. Leek 

salivum, L. English Garlic 

schoe7ioprasum, L. Chives 

Cepa, L. Onion 

Tribiis II. Anthericeae. 
1143 Hemerocallis, L. 

fulva, L. Day Lily 
Tribus III. Asjmrageae. 
1164 Asparagus, L. 

njjicinalis, L. Asparagus. 

Tribus I. Parideae. 

1177 Trillium, iMiil. 
pendulum, Muhl 
'! e rectum, L 

1178 Medeola, Gronov. 
Virginica, L. 

Tribus II. Convallarieae. 
1181 Polygonatum, Tournef. 
multiflorum, Desf 
angiistifulium, Pursh 
Ipubescens, Pursh 

1183 Smilacina, Dcsf. 
bifolia, Ker 
1 stcllata, Desf. 
racemosa, Desf 

1184 Smilax, Tournef. 
rotundifolia, L. Green Briar 
caduca, L 

herbaoca, L. Carrion flower 
] poduncularis, Muhl 


1201 Dioscorea, Pluni» 



villosa, L 

Tribus I. Anacharideae. 
1206 Udora, Nutt. 
Canadensis, Nult 
Tt ibus II. Valisnerieae. 
1209 Vallisneria, Michel, 
spiralis, L. Eel-grass 


1220 Sisyriiichiuin, L. 

mucronatum, Mx 

anceps, Cavan 
1226 Iris, L. 

versicolor, L 


1259 Aletris, L. 
farinosa, L 


1364 Hypoxis, L. 
erecta, L. Star of Bethlehem. 


Sub ordo I. Malaxideae. 
1335 Microstylis, Nutt. 
ophiuglossoides, Nutt 

1339 Coraliorhiza, Hall, 
verna, Nutt 
odontorhiza, Nutt 
multiflora, Nutt 
hyemalis, L. Adam &; Eve 

1340 Liparis, Rich, 
lilifulia. Rich 

Sub ordo IV. Ophrydeae. 
1509 Gyinnadenia, R. Br. 

tridentatr', Lindl 
1515 Piatuitlicra, Rich. 

orbiculata, Lindl 

herbiola, Liiidl [non L 

lacera, (psycheda«, Lindl) 

psychodes, (iiinbriata, Lindl) 

1 incisa, Lindl 

1 lissa, Lindl 

ciliaris, Lindl 

1517 Peristylus, Blum. 

bracteatus, Lindl 

1 vLrescens, Lindl 
1525 Habenaria, Willd. 

spectabiiis, Spreng 

Sub ordo VI. Ntottieae- 
1547 Spiranthes, Rich. 

turtilis, Rich 

cernua. Rich 
1559 Goody era, R. Br. 

pubescens, K Br 
Sub ordo VII. Arethuseete. 

1600 Calopogon, R. Br. 
pulchellus, R Br 

1601 Pogouia, Juss. 
ophioglussoides, Ker 
verticillata, Nutt 
pendula, Spreng 

1602 Arethusa, Gronov. 
bulbosa, L 

Sub ordo VIII. Cypripedieae. 
161S Cypripediuin, L. 
candiduni, Willd 
pubescens, Svv. Noah's Ark 
'! spectabile, S\v 
acaule, Ait 


1655 Caulinia, Willd. 

llexilis, Willd 

1 fragilis, Willd 
1664 Potamogeton, L. 

natans, L 

perf.jjiatus, L 

lucens, L 

coinprcssus, L 

paucillorus, Pursli 
1668 Lcmiia, L. 

tiisnlea, L 

minor, L. Duckmeat 

polvrhiza, L 


1676 Arum, L. 

dracoiitium, L 

triphyllum, L. Indian Turnep 
1685 Peltandra, Raf. 



Virginica, ilaf 

1705 Symplocarpiis, Salisb 
foetida, Nutt. Skunk cabbage 

1706 Orontiiim, L. 
aquaticvim, L. Golden club 

170S Acorus, L. 
calamus, L. Calamus 


1709 Typha, Toiirnef. 
lafifolia, L. Cat-tail 

1 angustifulia, L 

1710 Sparganinm, Toiirnef. 
Amcricanum, Nutt. Bur-reed 
"! ramosum, Sm 


CoJtors I. fiifittno^pernif^e 



1789 .In ni perns, L. 
communis, L. Juniper 
VirginJana, L. Red Cedar 


1795 Pi I Ills, L. 

inops. Ait. Scrub Tine 

rigida, L 
. Strolius, L. White Pine 

Canadensis, L. Hemlock 


1799 Taxus Tonriief. 
1 Canadensis, Willd. Yew 
Co fifty ft Ifi ,/S^trJiifaf. 


1824 Saururiis, L. 

cernuus, L. Lizard's tail 


1829 Coratophyllum, L. ,' 
demcrsum, L 


18.30 Callitriche, L. 
verna, L. (and vars) 


1S32 Podostcmon, Rich. 

ceratophyllum, Mx 


1839 Myrica, L. 
cerifera, L 
asplenitolia, Endll 


1340 Betula, Tournef. 

1 populifolia. Ait 
nigra, L 

lenta, L. Sweet Birch 
1841 AImus, Tournef. 
serrulala, Willd. Alder 


1S42 Ostrya, Michel. 
Virginica, Willd. Hop Horn- 

1843 Carpiniis, L. 
Americana, Willd. Horn- 

1844 Coryliis, Tournef. 
Americana, Walt. Hazelnut 
cornuta. Marsh 

1845 Quercus, L. 
nigra, Willd. Black Jack 
tinctoria, Willd. Black Oak 
1 discolor, Willd 
coccinea, Wangenh 
rubra, t. Red Oak 
falcata, Mx. Spanish Oak 
palustris, ]\Ix. Pin Oak 
ilicifolia, Wangenh. Scrub 

obtusiloba, Mx 
nificrocarpa, L 
alba, L. White Oak 
Pi'inus, I, 
Michau.xii. Nutt 
montana, Willd 
Castanet, Mull I. Chestnut Oak 
chinquapin, Mx 

1847 P'agus, Tournef. 
sylvalica, L. Beech 

1848 Castanea, Tournef. 
vcsca, Willd. Chestnut 
pumila, Willd. Chinquapia 



ang Nettle 


1850 Ulmiis, L. 
Americana, L 
fulva, Mx. Slippery Elm 


1851 Celtis, ToLirnef. 
occidentalis, I,. Nettle tree 
crassitblia, Lam 


1856 Ivlorus, Touruef. 
rubra, L. Red Mulberry- 
alba, L. White Mulberry. 
muUicauIis, Perrot. (var. of 
1858 Bronssonetia, Vent, 
papysifera. Vent. Paper Mul 


1879 Urtica, Touruef. 
pumila, L 
urens, L 
dioica, L. Stin 
Canadensis, L 

1884 Boehmeria, Jacq. 
cylindrica, Willd 

1885 Parietaria, Touruef. 
Pennsylvanica, Muhl 


1890 Cannabis, Tournef. 
sativa, L. Hemp 

1891 Humulus, L. 
Lupulus, L. Hop 


1901 Platanus, L. 
occidentalis, L. Button wood 


1903 Salix, Tournef. 
Muhlenbcruiana, Willd 
conifera, Waugenh 
discolor Willd 
longifulia, Muhl floio 

Baljijlonioi, I,. Weeping Wil- 
Purshiana, Spreng 
nigra, IMarsh 
lucida, Muhl 
Icordata, Muhl 
grisea, Willd 
vitellina, L. Yellow Willow 

1904 Populus, Tournef. 
balsamifera, L 
tremuloides, Mx. Asperl 
grandidentata. Mx 
heterophylla, L. 
graeca. Ait. Athenian Poplar 
dilatata. Ait. Lombardy Poplar 



1912 Atriplex, L. 
hortensis, L. Orach 

1914 Acnida, Mitch, 
cannabina, L 

1915 Spinacia, Tournef. 
oleracea, L. Spinach 

1921 Blitum, L. 

capitatum, L. Strawberry 
1924 Beta, Tournef. 

vulgaris, L. Beet 

cicla, L. Mangel Wurtzel 
1930 Chenopodium, L. 

rhombifulium, Muhl 

album, L. Lamb's Quarters 

ambrosioides, L 

Botrys, L (seed 

anthelminticum, L. Worm- 


1972 Araarantus, L. 
albus, L 
hybriJus, L 
spinosus, L 


1948 Rheum, L. 

rhaponticum, Ait. Pie Rhu- 
1986 Polygommi, L. 

aviculare, L. Knot grass 

ercclum, Muhl 

tenue, Mx 

punctatum, Ell 

mite, Pers 

Virginianum, L 

amphibium, L 

Pennsylvanicum, L 

lapathit'oUum, L 

Persicaria, L 



lanccolata, |>. English Plan- 




orientale, L Virginica, L 

sagittatum, ]j 
aritbliuin, I.. Tear thumb 
convalvulus, L 
scandcns, I, 

1987 Fagoi)ynim, Tournef. 2181 Varerianeiia, 

esculenluin, Moench, Buck- olitoria Moencli 
«'/'<'«^ rudiuta,' Dufr 

1993 Riiiiiex, L. 

crispus, I.. Suiir Dock 

aqiiaticns, L 

saDguiiicus, L 

Pal lent la, L. Patience Dock 

Eritaniiica, \, 

obtusirolius, L. Bitter Dock 


2191 Di psacus, Tournef. 
sylveslris, M. Wild Teasel 
Fullonum, L. Fuller's Teasel 

Suh ordo I. Tubulijinrae. 
Tribus I. Yernoniaccae. 

Acetosejla, L. Siicep Snrrcl qqaa Vpvnnni'i Sr-hrph 


Tribus X. Flavijlorae. 
205G Sassafras, Nees. 

officinale, Necs. Sassafras 
2057 Ikiizoin, Necs. 

odoriferum, Nees. Spice wood 


2076 Coniniaiidra, Nutt. 

umbollata, Niitt 
20Sf) Nyssa, J.. 

multiik)ra, Walt, Sour Gum 


2091 Dirca, J.. 

palustris. I,. Leathcrwood 




21 GO Asaruiii, Tournef. 
Canadcnse, L. AVild Ginger 
1 Virginicum, J, 
21 G2 Aristolocliia, Tournef. 
Serpentaria, L. Virg. Snake 
CoIiOi s f^ff fMitr^iopflftiaf. 


2170 Ph4iJla<,ro, J^. 
major, L. Great Tlantain 
media, L 


Tribus II. Eiipatoriaceae. 
2270 Liatris, Schreb. 

spicata, Willd. 
2275 Conoclinium, DC. 

coelestinum, DC. 
2280 Eupatoriun], Tournef. 

purpureum, L. (vars.) 

album, L 

teucrifolium, Willd 

rotundifolium, L 

sessililiilium, J^ [stem 

pcifuliatum, L. Thorough- 

agcrutoides, L. f. 

aromaticum, L 
2282 Mikania, Willd. 

scandens, Willd 

Tribus III. Aslcroideae. 
2301 Aster, Necs. 

'! Radula, Ait 

patens. Ail. [& var.] 

laevis, L 

luiilulatus, L 

coidil'ulius, L 

Isagittifuiius, Willd 

cricordes, L 

miser, L 

simplex, Willd 

Novi Belgii, L 

piniiceus, Jj 

jirenantlioides, Muhl 



Novae Angliae, L 
2310 Sericocarpus, Nees. 
conyzoides, Nees 
solidagineus, Nees 
2316 Biotia, DC. 
corymbosa, DC 
macrophylla, DC 
2319 Diplostephium, Cass 
cornifolium, DC 
Tamygdaliaum, Cass 
umbellatum, DC 
2321 Diplopappus, DC. 

linariifolius, Hook 
2332 Erigeroii, DC. 
Canadense, L 
bellidit'olium, Muhl' 
Philadelphicnm, L 
strigosuni, Muhl 
2339 Steiiactis, Nees.' 

annua, Nees 
2373 Ctiry.sopsis, Nutt. 

Mariana, Nutt 
2376 Soliclago, L. Golden 
squarrosa, Muhl 
bicolor, L 
latifulia, L 
•caesia, L 
specifjsa, Nutt 
frigida, L 
patula, Muhl 
arguta, Ait 

Muhienbergii, Terr & Gray 
altissima, L 
ulmifulia, Muhl 
odora, Ait 
nemoralis, Ait 
Canadensis, L 
serotina, Ait 
gigantea. Ait 
laiiceolata, L 
2426 Inula, Gaerln. 

Helenium, L. Elecampane. 
Trib,s IV. Senecionideae. 
2474 Silphium, L. 

perfoliatuni, L 
2175 Polyinnia, L. 
Canadensis, L 

Uvedalia, L 
24S0 Xaiithium, Tonrnef. 
strumarium, L. Clot-bur 
f spinosum, L 
24S2 Ambrosia, Tournef. 
trifida, L [weed, 

artemisiaefolia, L. Bitter- 
2506 Heliopsis, Pers. 

laevis, Pers 
2514 Ptudbeclda, L. 
hirta, L 
fiilgida, Ait 
laciniata, L 
2516 Obeliscaria, Cass. 

1 pinnata, Cass 
2526 Chrysostemma, Less. 

tripteris, Less 
2530 Actiiiomeris, Nutt. 

squarrosa, Nutt 
2538 HeliaiUlius, L. 
giganteus, L 
strumosus, L 
decapeialus, L 

divaricatus, L [choke 

tuberosus, L. Jerusalem Arti- 
annuus, L. Sunflower. 
2541 Bideiis, L. 
frondosa, L 
connata, L 

cernua, L. Beggar ticks 
chrysanthemoides, Mx [dies, 
bipinnata, L. Spanish Nee- 
2603 Helenium, L. 
autumnale, L 

2639 Antlicmis, DC. 
arvensis, L 
nobilis, L. Chamomile 

2640 jNIaruta, Cass, 
foetida, Cass. Stinking Chann- 

omile ' 
2649 Achillea, Neck. 

millefolium, L. Yarrow 
2667 Leucanthemum, Tour- 
vulgare, Lam. Ox-cyc Daisy 
2694 Artemisia, L. 
Abrotanum, L. Southern wood 




Vulgaris, L. Mug-wort 

Absinthium, L. Wormicood 
ZQ9Q Tanacetiini, L. 

vulgarc, L. Tansey 
2746 Gnaphalium, Don. 

polj'ccphalum, Mx. Life ever- 

uliginosum, L 

purpurcum, L 
2752 Fiiago, Tournef. 

Geinianica, L 
.5767 Antciuiaria, R. Br. 

dioica, Gacrtii. Cud weed 

plantaginea, E. Br 

inargaHtaccci, R. Br 
2790 Erechtites, Raf. 

hieracifolia, Raf. Fire weed 
2800 Arnica, L. 

Inudicaulis, Ell 
2806 Cacalia, DC. 

suavcoiens, I, 

atriplicifdlio. 1- 

reniformis, JMuhl 
2811 Senecio, Less. 

aureus, L. (ct. vars) 
Tribus V. Cynareae. 

2871 Centaurea, Less, 
cyanus, L. Blue bottle 

2872 Cricus, Vaill. 
benedidus, Gaertn. Blessed 


2875 Carthamus, Tournef. 

tinctorius, \.. Bastard Saffron 
2887 Cirsinni, Tournel'. 

lanceolatuiii, Scop, Common 

discolor, Spreng 

altissimiim. Spreng 

arvcnse, Scop. Canada This- 

pumilum, S'prcng 

Ihorriilulniii, M\ 

muticiini, I\I.\ 

1 Virginiai)-:ni, Mx 
2892 Lappa, 'J\)nnier. 

mnjor, Gaertn. Bur- dock 
Sub ordo III. Ligulijlorae. 

Tribus VIII. Ciclioracecij^ 
2978 Cichoriiim, Tournef.- 
Intybus, I,. Wild Succory 
Endivia, Willd. Endive 

2981 Krigia, Scln-eb. 
Virginica, Willd 

2982 Troxitnon, Gaertn. 
Virginicum, Pursh 

2995 Tragopogon, L. 

■porrif alius, L.. Oyster Plant 
3003 Sonchus, L. 

ciliatus, 1 am ? Sow thistle 

asper. Villi 
3005 Prenanthes, Gaertn. 

ahissima, L 

Serpentaria, Pursh 
3008 Lacluea, L. 

elongata, Muhl 

saliva, L. Lettuce 
3010 Taraxacum, Juss. 

Dens Leonis, Desf. Dande- 
3020 Pachylepis, Less. 

IKalmii, Less 
3026 Hieracium, Tournef. 

venosum, L. Hawk weed 

Gronovii, L. [& var] 

paniculatum, L 
3028 jMulgcdium, Cass. 

Floridanum, DC 

acuminatum, DC 


3058 Lobelia, L. 
spicala. Lam 
? puberula, Mx 
syphilitica, L 

inllata, [.. Indian Tobacco 
cardinalis, L 


3055 Can]])anula, L. 
rotundilidia, ], 
aparinoides, Pursh 
Americana, L 

3056 Spccuhiria, Heist, 
porfoliata, Alph. D^ 





3100 Galium, L. 
Aparine, L. Cleavers 
trifidum, L 
asprellum, Mx 
triflontm, Mx 
pilosum, Alt 
circaezans, Mx. [et var] 
boreale, L 

3101 Riibia, Toiirnef. 
Tinctorum L. Madder. 

3123 Diodia, L. 

teres, Walt 
313S Cephalanthns, L. 

occidentalis, L. Button bush 
3188 Mitchella, L. 

repens, L. Partridge Berry 
3240 Hedyotis, Lam. 

caerulea, Hook 

purpurea, Torr & Gray 


3336 Diervilla, Tom'nef. 
trifida, Moench 

3337 Lonicera, Desf. 
1 grata, Ait 

1 parviflora, Lam 

3338 Triosteum, L. 
perfoliatum, L 

*! angu.stifolium, L 

3340 Viburnum, L. 
nudum, L 

prunifolium, L. Black Haw 
Lentago, L 

dentatum, Ti 
acerifoiium, L 
opulus, L. Snow ball 
1 lantanoides, Mx 

3341 Sambucus, Tounief. 
Canadensis, L. Eldcrbush 



3346 Chionauthus, L. 

Virginica, L. Fringe tree 
3352 Ligustrum, Tounief. 

vulgare, L. Privet 
3353 Fraxinus, Tournef, 
sambucifolia, Willd 
acuminata, Lam 
pubescens, Walt 


3422 Apocynum, L. 
androsaemifolium, L 
cannabinum, L 


3488 Acerates, Ell. 

viridiflora. Ell 
3490 Asclepias, L. 

syriaca, L. Silk weed 

amoena, L 

obtusifolia, Mx 

variegata, L 

phytolaccoides, Lyon 

laurifulia, Mx 

incarnata, L 

quadrifolia, Jacq 

verticillata, L 

tuberosa, L. Butterfly weed 
3495 Gonolobus, Rich. 

1 obliquus, R. Br 


3528 Genfiana, L, 
Saponaria, L 
1 ochroleiica, Willd 
crlnita, Willd 

3542 Centaurella, Rich, 
paniculata, Mx 

3543 Erythraea, Ren. 
pulchelja, Hook 

3546 Sa' batia, Adans 
angularis, Pursh. Centourey 

3564 Menyantlies, L. 
1 trifoliata, L 

3565 Villarsia, Vent, 
1 lacunosa, Vent. 


Trihus I. Ocimoideae. 
3569 OcimunijL. 

hasilicum, L. Sweet Basil, 
3585 Lavandula, L. 



Spica, L. Lavender 
Trihus II. Menthoideac. 
3592 Isanthiis, Rich. 
T caeruleus, Mx. 

3594 Mentha, L. 
viridis, L. Speer Mint 
piperita, L. Pepper Mint 
arveiisis, 1^ 
Canadensis, L 

3595 Lycopus, L. 
Virgin icus, L 
sinuatus, Ell 

Tribus III. Monardeae. 
3597 Salvia, L. 
lyrata, L. Wild Sage 
officinalis, L. Garden Sage 
Sclarea. L. Clary 

3600 Moiiarda, L. 
didyma, L. Burgamot 
fistulosa, L. Horse Mint 
1 punctata, L 

3601 Blcphiha, Raf. 
Iciliata, Haf 

Trihus IV. Saturcineae. 
3605 Pyciiaiitlienium, Bcnth. 
incanum, Mx 
linifoliiim, Pursh 
lanceolutum, Pursh 
1 mnticuin, Pers 

3608 Origanum, L. 
vulgai'e, L 

3609 Mitjorana, Moencli. 
hortensis, Moench. Marjoram 

3610 Thynjiis, L. 
Scrpylliim, L. Wild Thyme 
vulgaris, L. Garden Thyme 

3611 Satureia, L. 
Jioriensis, L. Slimmer Savory 

3612 Ilyssopiis, L. 
officinalis, L. Hyssop 

3613 Collinsonia, J.. 
Canadensis, L 

3614 Cnnihi, L. 
Mariana, L. Dittany 

Tribus V. MiUssinae. 

3615 Ilt'dcoina, Pers. 
pulcgioidcSjPers. Pennyroyal 

3617 Melissa, Benth. 

officinalis, L. Balm 

Clinopodium, Benth. 

1 Calamintha, L 
Tribus VI. Scutellarineae. 
3624 Prunella, L. 

vulgaris, L. Heal-all 
3626 Scutellaria, L. 

I galericulata, L. Scull cap 

1 nervosa, Pursh 

parvula, Mx [cap 

laieiiflora, L. Mad-dog Scull 

integrifdlia, L 

pilosa, Mx 

1 Crinescens, Nutt ^ 

Tribus VIII. Nepeteae. 

3635 Lophanthus, Benth. 
nepetoides, Benth 
scropluilariaefolius, Benth 

3636 Nepeta, Benth. 
Cataria, L. Catmint [Ivy 
Glcchoma, Bentli. Ground 

Tribus IX. Stachydeae. 
3641 Physostegia, Bcnth. 

Virginiana, Benth 
3645 Lfimium, L. 

amplexicaule, L. Henbit. 
3647 Leonurus, L. 

Cardiaca, L. Motherwort 
3650 Staciiys, Benth. 

aspera, Mx 

sylvatica, L 1 

'] tenuil'ulia. Muhl 
3657 Marrubium, L. 

vulgare, L. Horehound 
Tribus XI. Ajuguideae. 

3678 Trichostenima, L. 
dichotoma, L 

3679 Tcucriuni, L. 
Canadense, L 


3684 Lippia, L. 
nodiflora, Mx 

3685 Verbena, L. 
liastala, L. Vervain 
■i spuria, L 



urticaefolia, L 
angustifolia, Mx 
3690 Priva, Adans, 
leptostachya, Juss 

Sub ordo II. Bnragineae. 
Tribus I. Anchuscae. 
3755 Oiiosmodium, Rich. 

hispidum, Mx 
3757 Echium, Tournef. 

vulgare, L. Blue Devils. 
3759 Puimonaria, Tournef. 

Virginica, L 
3761 Lithospermnm, Tour. 

arvense, L. Stoiie-vvccd 

officinale, L 

canescens, Lehm 
3772 Myosotis, L. 

palustris,Roth. Forget me not 

arvensis, Sibtli 
3776 Symp!i3'tiim, L. 

officinale., L. Cmnfrey 
Tribus II. Cynnglosseae. 
37S4 Cyno^lossiun, L. 

officinale, L. Hound's tongue 

Virginicum, L. Wild Comfrey 
3786 Echinosperniiim, Sw. 

Vireinicuni, Lehm 


3801 CalystGG^ia, R. Br. 

spithamaea, Pursh 

sepium, Pursh 
3803 Convolvulus, L. 

arvensis, L 

panduratus, L 

purpureas, L. iNlorning Glory 
3807 Batatas, Chois. 

ed'dlis, Chois. Sweet Potato 
3816 Cu5cuta, Tournef. 

Americana, L. Dodder 

Europaea ] L. Flax vine 


3819 Piilox, L. 
paniculata, L 

maculata, L 
aristata, Mx 
uivaricata, L 
] reptans, Mx 
subulata, L 
3822 Polemonium, Tournef, 
reptans, L. Jacob's Ladder 


3827 Hydrophyilum, Tour- 
Virginicum, L 
Canadense, h 

3830 Eutoca, R. Br. 
parviflora, R, Br 

3831 Phacelia, Juss. 
fimbriata, Mx 


Tribus I. Nicotianeae. 
3841 Nicotiana, L. 
Tabicum, L. Tobacco 
Tribus II. Datureae. 
3845 Daturus, L. 
Stramonium, L. Jimson 
Tatula, L 

Tribus IV. Solaneae^ 
3851 Pliysalis, L. 
viscopa, L. Ground cherry 

3854 Capsicum, Tournef. 
amiuum, L. Red Pepper 

3855 Solanum, L. 
dulcamara, L. Bittersweet 
nigrum, L. Nightshade 
tuberosum, L. Potato 
e.scukntum, Dunal. Eg^ Plant 

3356 Lycopersicuin, Tournef 

esculfiitum, IMill. Tomato 

Tribus I. Verhnsceae. 
3878 Verbascurn, L. 
Thapsus, L. Mullein 
Blattaria, L. Muth Mullein 
3883 Scrophularia, Tournef. 
Marilandica, L. 




Tribus III. Antirrhineae. 
3891 Linaria, Tounief. 
vulgaris, Mill. Toad Flax 
Tribus V. Digitakae. 

3908 Ciieloiie, L, 
glabra, L 

3909 Pentstemon, Herit. 
pubescens, Pursh 

3915 Digitalis, roiimef. 

purpurea, L. Fox Glove 
Tribus \'I. G'ralioleae, 
3935 Miniiiliis, L. 

ringens, L. Monkey flower 

alatus, L 
3946 G ratio] a, R. Br. 

Virginica, L 

anagallidea, Mx 
Tribus VII. Buchnereae. 
3960 Buchiicra, L. 

1 Americana, L 

Tribus IX. Veroniceae. 
3977 Liuiosella, L. 

subulata, Ives 

3979 Veronica, L. 
serpyllifolia, L 
scutellata, L 
Anagallis L 
BeccabuDga, L 
officinalis, L, Speedwell 
peregrina, L 
arv(;nsi.s, L 
hcderaclolia, L 

3980 Paederota, L. 
Virginica, .Endl 

Tribus X. Gerardieae. 
3996 Gerardia, L-. 
purpurea, L 
tciiuil'uiia, L 
1 auriculata, Mx 
flava. L 
glaiica, Eddy 
pediciilaria, L 
Iribus XI. liltinanthcac. 
4004 Castilleja, Mutis. 
coccinca, Spreng. Painted 

4015 Pe.dicu'aris, Toiiriicf. 

Canadensis, L. Lousewort 
pallida, Pursh 
4018 Melampyrum, Tour- 

Americanum, Mx. Cow 
4026 Obolaria, L. 
Virginica, L. Pennywort. 


4047 Ruellia, L. 

strepens, L 
4093? Justicia, L. 

pedunculosa, Mx 


4113 Catalpa, Jiiss. 
syringaefoiia, Sims. Catawba 

4114 Teconia, Juss. 
Uadicans, Juss. Trumpet 



4182 Epiphegiis, Nutt. 
Americanus, Nutt. Beech 

4184 Conopbolis, V'allr. 

Americana, Wallr 
4189 Aiioplaiithus, Endl. 

uniflora, Endl 


4193 Utriciilaria, L. 
macrorhiza, Le Conte 
ccratophylla, Mx 



4202 Dodecatheon, L. 

Meadia, L 
1207 Lysimacliia, Moench. 

stricta. Ait 

(juadrilolia, L 

ciliata, L 

'.'bybrida, Mx 
4208 Trient;dis, L. 

Americana, Pursh 
4213 Anagallis, 1.. 

arvcnsis, L. Chickweed. 



4215 Samolus, Tournef. 
Vale ran di, L 


4249 Diospyros, L. 
Virginiana, L. Persimmon 



Sub or do I. Ericinae. 

4318 Andromeda, L. 
calyculata, L 
'? racemosa, L 
] Mariana, L 

4319 Lyonia, Nutt. 
paniculata, Nutt 

4320 Clethra, L. 
1 alnifolia, L 

4322 Epigala, L. 
repens, L 

4323 Gau.theria, L. 
procumbens, L. Tea berry I 

Sub or do II. Vaccinicae. 

4331 Oxycoccus, Tounief. 
macrocarpus, Pers. Cran- 

4332 Vaccinium, L. 
album L. Deer berry 
frondosum, L. Whortleberry 
resinosum, Ait 
corymbosum, L 
virgatum, Ait 
Suh ordo III. Rhododendreae, 

4339 Kahiiia, L. 

latifolia, L. Laurel 

angustifolia, L 
4341 Rhododendron, L. 

nudiflorum, Torr, Honeysuc- 

viscusum, Torr 

maximum, L. Mountain Lau- 

Ericaceis qffines 

4348 Cliiniaphila, Pursh. 
umbellata, Nutt. Pipsisswa 
maculata, Pur-h 

4349 Pyrola, Tournef. 
rotundifolia, L 

elliptica, Nutt 

! minor, li 
secunda, L 

4351 INIonotropa, Nutt. 
uniflora, L. Indian Pipe 

4352 Hypopitliys, Diilen. 
lanuginosa, Nutt. Pine sap 

Collars If\ Efialypeta- 


Sub ordo I. Orthospermae. 
Tribus I. Hydrocotyleae. 
4355 Hydrocotyle, Tournef, 
Americana, L 
! umbellata, L 
ranunculoides, L 
4359 Erigenia, Nutt. 
bulbosa, Nutt 

Tribus III. Saniculeae. 
4382 Sanicula, Tournef. 
i Manlandica, L 

Tribus IV. Ammineae. 

4391 Cicuta, L. 
maculata, L. Wild Parsaep 

4392 Zizia, Koch, 
aurea, Koch 
cordata, Kuch 
intcgerrima, DC. 

4393 Apium, HoiTm. 
graveolens, L. Celery 

4394 Petroselinum, Hoffm. 
sativum, Hoffm. Parsley 

4406 Caruni, Koch. 

Carui, L. Caraway 
4409 Cryptotaenia, DC. 

Canadensis, DC 

4413 Smm, Koch, 
latifolium, L 
lineare, Mx 

4414 Pupleurum, Tournef, 
rotundifolium, L 

Tribus Y. Seselineae. 
4425 Focniculum, Adans, 

vulgare, Gaertn. Fennel 
1438 Thaspium, Nutt. 

barbinode, Nutt 



Trihus VII. Angeliceae. 
4453 Lcvisticuni, Xoch 

officinale, Koch. Lavage 
4457 Archangelica, lioffm 

atropurpiirca, Iloffm 

hirsuta, Torr iz Gray 

Tribus VIII. Peucedaneae. 

4472 Arcliemora, DC. 
rigida, DC. Cow bane 

4473 Pastiuaca, Tourncf. 
saliva, L. Parsncp 

AAll Ileraclcum, L. 
lanatiim, Mx. Cow Parsncp 
Trihus XII. Daucineae. 
4497 Daiicus, Toiirnef. 
Ca7'ota, L. Carrot. 
Suh ordo II. Campylospermae. 
Tribus XV. Scandicina-e. 
4506 Cliacrophyllum, L. 

procunibens, L 
4515 Osmorhiza, Raf. 
longistylis, DC. Sweet cicely 
brevi.stylis, DC 
Tribus XVI. Smyrneae. 
4532 ("oniniii, L, 
rnaculatum, L. Hemlock 
Sub ordo III. Coclospermae. 
Tribus XVII. Coriandreae. 
4549 Coriandrum, L. 

.<;ativum, L. Coriander. 

4551 Panax, 

quinquefulium., L. Ginseng 
trifulium, L 
4558 Aralia, L. 
raccmosa, L. Spikenard 
nudicaulis, L. Sarsaparilla 
hispida, Mx 
spinosa, L 


4566 Cissu?!, L. 

qiiinquefolia, Desf. Virginia 

4567 Vilis, L. I 
Labrusca, L. Fox Crape ordo clxxii 
aestivalis,l\'Ix. Summer Grape 
cordifulia,Mx. Chicken Grape 

vinifcra, L. (vars) 


4574 Conuis, Tournef. 
alternifolia, L. f 
circinata, Herit 
paniculata, Herit 
sericea, L 
Florida, L. Dogwood 


4584 Visciim, L. 
flavescens, Pursh. Misselto 


4591 Hamamelis, L. 

Virginica. L. Witch Hazel 




4622 Sediim, L. 

ternatum, Mx 
4625 Pcnthomm, L. 

sedoides, L 

Sub ordo I. SaxiJ'ragcae. 
4634 Saxifraga, L. 
Virginiensis, Mx 
Pennsylvanica, L. 

46 38 Chiysosplenium, Tour- 

American am, Schw. 

4639 Hcuchera, L. 
Americana, L. 

4641 ISIitella, Tournef. 

diphylla. L 
Sub ordo III. Ilydrangeae. 
1668 Hydrangea, L. 

arborescens, L. 


4682 Ribes, L. 
floridam, Herit 
rubrum, L. lied Currant 
nigrum, L. Black Currant 
Vva crispa, I,, (iooseberry 



1685 Menispcrnium, Tour- 



Canadense, L. Moonseed 


4717 Uvaria, L. 

triloba, Torr &: Gray. Papaw 


4737 Magnolia, L. 

glauca, L 

?' Umbrella, Lam 

acuminata, L 
4740 Liriodendron, L. 

tulipifera, L. Tulip Poplar 


Trihas I. Clematideae. 
476S Cleiiiatis, L. 
Virginiana, L. Virgin's Bower 
viorna, 1^ 
4769 Atragene, DC. 
Americana, Sims 

Tribus II. Anemoneae. 

4772 Tiialictruin, Tournef. 
dioicum, L 
Cornuti, L 
anemonuides, Mx 

4773 Anemone, Hall, 
nemorosa, L 
Virginiana, L 
Pennsylvanica, L 

4774 Hepatica, Dillen. 
triloba, Chaix. Liver-wort 

4777 Hydrastis, L. 

Canadensis, 1,. Yellow root 
Tribus III. Ranunculeae. 
4783 Ranunculus, Hall. 

aqiiatilis, L 

Flammula, L 

replans, L 

pusillus, Poir 

aburtivus, L 

sceleratus, L. Crow foot 

1 acris, L 

repens, L 

Pennsylvanicus, L 

recurvatus. Poir 

fascicularis, Muhl 

bulbosus, L. Buttercup 
Tribus IV. Helleboreae. 
4786 Caltlia, L. 

palustris, L. Marsh Marygold 

4787 Trollius, L. 
1 laxus, Salisb 

4795 Aquilegia, Tournef. 
Canadensis, L. Columbine 

4796 Delphinium, Tournef. 
Consolida, L. Larkspur 

Tribus V. Paeonieae. 

4799 Actaea, L 
alba, Bigel. White Cohosh 

4800 Botrophis, Raf. 
racemosa, Raf. Black Snake 



4806 Podophyllum, L. 

peltatum, L. May apple 
4810 Leontice, L. 

thalictroides, L. Blue Cohosh 

Sub ordo I. Papavereae. 

4818 S inguinaria, L. 
Canadensis, L. Red-root 

4819 Chelidonium, Tournef. 
majus, L. Celandine 

4821 Argemone, Tournef. 
Mexicana, L; Prickley Pop- 


4823 Papaver, Tournef. 
! dubium, L 

Sub ordo II. Fumariaceae. 
4836 Dicentra, Borkh. 

CucuUaria, Endl. Breeches 

Canadensis, Endl. Sc^uirrel 
1837 Adlumia, Raf. 

cirrhosa, i<af. 
1839 Corydnlis, DC. 
aurea, Willd 
Glauca, Pursh 
4843 Fumaria, Tournef. 
odiciiialis, L. Fumitory 

Sub ordo I. Pleurorhizeae. 
Tribus I. Arabideae. 
4850 Nasturtium, 11. Br. 
otficinalc, K, Br. Water Cress 



palustre, DC. 

amphibium, R. Br 
4851 Barbarea, R.Br. 

vulgaris, R. Br. 

praecox, R. B. Scurvy 6'r«ss 
4854 Arabis, L. 

hirsuta, Scop 

lyrata, L 

laevigata, DC 

Canadensis, L 
4859 Cardaininc, L. 

rhomboidea, DC 

Irotuntlifolia, Mx 

hirsuta, L 
4861 Dentaria, Tournef. 

laciniata, Muhl 

diphylla, Mx 

Trihusll. Alyssineae. 

4880 Dral)a, L. 
ICaroliniana, Walt 

4881 Erophila, DC. 
vulgaris, DC 

4882 Cochlearia, L. 
Armoracia, L. Horse Radish 

Trihus III. Thlaspideae. 
4888 Cynocardamum, W. 
& B. 
Virginicum, Webb & Benlh 
Suh ordo II. Nolnrliizeac. 
Tribits VII. Slsymbrieae. 
4906 Sisymbrium, L. 

officinale, Scop. Hedge Mus- 
1 canescens, Nutt 
Thaliana, Gay 
Trihus VIII. CameUneae. 
4919 Camelina, Craiitz. 
saliva, Crantz. Wild Flax 
Trihus IX. Jjppidincae, 
4927 Cai),sella, Vent. 
Bursa Pastoris, Moench. 
Shepherd's Purse 
4932 Lepidiiim, R. ]ir. 
Sativum^ L. Tongue grass 
Suh ordo III. OrtJioptocear. 
Trihus XII. lirassiceae. 
4949 Brassica, L. 

ohraceae, L. Cahhage 

campestris, L. Ruta baga 

Rapa, L. Turnep 
4950 Sinapis, Tournef. 

riigra,!,. Black Mustard 

alha, L. White. Mustard. 
Trihus XVI. Raphaneae. 
4972 Raphanus, Tournef. 

sativus, L. Radish. 


4988 Polanisia, Raf. 

graveolens, Raf 
ordo cxxxv. nymphaeaceae. 

5020 Nymphaea, Neck, 
odorata, Ait. Water Lily 

5021 Nupliar, Sm. 
Advena, Ait. Spatter Dock 
* Sarraceniaceae . 

5023 Sarracenia, L. 
purpurea L. Sidesaddle 


5025 Brasenia, Schreb. 
peltata, Pursh 




5029 Helianthemum, Tour- 

Canadense, Mx. [&: vars] 
5930 Lecliea, L. 

major, Mx 

nninor, Pin weed 


5033 Droscra, L. 
rotundifidia, l>. Sun dew 


5040 Viola, L. Violet, 
pcdata, L 
palmata, L 
cucullata, Ait 
sororia, Willd 
sagittata, Ait 
blanda, Willd 
primulaefolia, L, 
.striata, Ait 



• Muhlenbergii, Torr 

rostrata, Pursh 

pubescens, Ait 

Canadensis, L 

tricolor, F, 


5126 Melothria, L. 

pendula, L 
5131 CitruHus, Neck. 

eduUs, Spach. Water Melon 
6136 Lageiiaria, Ser. 

vulgaris, Ser. Calabash 

51 37 Cucumis, L. 
Melo, L. Cantaleupe 
sativus, L. Cucumber 
Anguria, L. Prickly Cucum- 

5138 Cucurbita, L. 
Pepo, L. Pumpkin 
Mtlopepo, L. Cymling 
verrucosa, L. Long Squash 

5141 Echinocystis, Torr & 
lobata, Torr & Gray 
5l4G Sicyos, L. 

angulatus, I, 


S174 Portulaca,Tournef. 

oleracea, L. Purslane 
5178 Talinum, Adans. 

1 teretifolium, Pursh 
5180 Clayloiiia, L. 

Virgin ica, L 
5186 iMoliiigo, L. 

verticillata, L. Carpet weed 

Sub or do I. Paronychieae. 
Tribus ]. Tllaccbreae. 
5203 Paronycliia, Juss. 
Canadensis, Endl 

Tribus V. Pnhjcarpeae. 
5218 SpcrguUiria, Pcrs. 
!arvensi.s, Si. Ilil 

"I rubra, St. Hil 
Sub ordo II. Scleranlheae. 
5222 Scleranthus, L. 
1 annuus, L. Knawel. 
Sub ordo III. 
Tribus I. Sabulineae. 
5227 Alsine, Wahlenb. 
! Michauxii, FenzL 
Tribus III. StcUarineae. 
5234 Arenaria, L. 
scrpyllifolia, L 
lateriflora, L 

5240 Stellaria, L. 
media, Sni. 

] pubera, Mx 
longifolia, Muhl 
aquatica, Pollich 

5241 Cerastiiim, L, 
vulgatum, L 
viscosum, L 
arvense, L 
villosum, Muhl 
nutans, Raf 

Sub ordo IV. Sileneae, 
5248 Silene, L. 

stellata. Ait 

nivea, DC 

Antirrhina, L 

Pennsylvanica, L 

olficinalis, Endl. Soap wort 
5250 Lychnis, Tournef. 

Githago, Lam. Cockle 


5262 Phytolacca, Tournef. 

decandra, L. Poke 

Tribus II. Malvcae. 

5270 Althaea, Cavan. 
njficinalis, L. Marsh Mallow 
rosea, Cavan. Holly Ilock 

5271 Malva, L. 
rotundifolia, L. RunningMal- 

moschata, L. Musk Mallow 
sylvestris, L 
ciispa, L. Curled Mallow 



Trihns III. Hihisceae. 
5277 Hibiscus, L. 
Trionum, L 
Syriacus, L 
5281 Abelnioscliiis, Medik. 
escidejitus Mt)ench. Okra. 
mot^clicntos, Medik 
Tnhus IV. Sideae. 
5289 Sida, Kunth. 
spiiiosa, I, 
1 rhombifolia, L 
5292 Abutilon, Gnertn. 
Avicennae, Gaertn. Indian 


5373 Tilia, L. 
Americana, L. Linden 


5463 Ascyrum, L, 
Crux Andreae, L 

5464 Hyjiericum, L. 
perforatum, L. St. John's 

corymbosum, Muhl 
mutilum, L 
Canadense, L 
Sarothra, Mx 

5465 Elotlea, Adans. 
Virginica, Nutt 



5558 Acer, Moeiich. 
saccharinum, L. Sugar Ma- 
ple [Maple. 

dasycarpuni, Ehrh. Silver 
rubrum, I,. Red Maple 

5559 Neijuiido, Mocnch. 
aceroides, Moench, Box El- 



5647 Poiygala, J.. 
sanguiiiea, L 
cruciata, L 
verticilluta, L 
ambigua, Nutt 

Senega, L. SenecaSnakerool 
polygama, Walt 
! paucifolia, Wilid 


5673 Staphyiea, 1^. 
trifolia, I,. Bladder Nut 


5676 Euonymus, Toiirnef. 

atropurpureus, Jacq. Burn- 
ing bush 

Americanus, L 
5679 Celastiiis, Kunth. 

seandens, L 


5705 Ilex, L. 
opaca, Ait. Holly 

5706 Piinos, L. 
vcrliciliatus, L. Black Alder 
amblguus, Mx 


5722 Rhaimiiis, Juss. 

1 alnifolius, Herit 
5726 Ceauotlius, L. 

Americanus, L. New Jersey 

Trihus I. Euphorhieae. 
5766 Euphorbia, L. 
maculata, L 
Peplus, L 

1 athyris, L. Mole tree 
corullata, L 

1 nemoralis, Fl. Cestr. non 

TrihuslU. Acalypheae, 
5787 Acalypha, L. 
Virginica L 

Trihus V. Phyllantheae. 
584 7 Phyllaiittms, S\v, 

Caroliniensis, Walt. 


5889 Gary a, Nutt. 



sulcata, Nutt 

•alba, Nutt. Shellbark Hick 

tomentosa, Nutt 

amara, Nutt 

porcina, Nutt. Pignut 

1 microcarpa, Nutt 
5890 .luglans, L. 

nigra, L. Black Walnut 

cinerea, L. Butternut 

regia, L. English Walnut 



5905 Rhus, L. 
typhina, L. Staghorn Sumach 
glabra, L. Smooth Sumacli 
copaliina, L [mach 

venenata, DC. Poison Su- 
toxicodendron, L. Poison vine 


5972 Zanthoxylon, Kiinth. 

fraxineum.Wiild. Pricklv Ash 


6046 Geranium, Herit. 
maculatum, L 
Carolinianum, L 
1 pusillum, L 


6056 Linum, L. 
Virginiaiiuin, L 
usitatissimum, L. Flax 


€058 Oxalis, L. Wood Sor- 
violaccp, L 
corniculata, L 
stricta, L 


<)060 Impatiens, L. Snap 

pallida, Nutt 
fulva, Nutt 


6063 Tropaeolum, I>. 

viajus, L. Naflu7-tiv.m. 


[or.- 6065 Floerkea, Willd. 

proserpinacoides, Willd. 


Tribus I. Jussieueae. 
6111 Isnardia, DC. 
alternifolia, DC 
palustris, L 

Tribus II. Epilohieae. 
6115 Oenothera, L. 
biennis, L. Evening Primrosa 
fruticosa, L 
6121 Epilobium, L. 
angustifolium, L 
coloratum, Muhl 
palustre, L. (and var.) 
Tribus VI. Circaeaceae. 

6130 Circaea, Tournef. 
Lutetiana, L. Enchanter's 

Tribus VII. Gaureae. 

6131 Gaura, L. 
biennis, L 


6134 Hippuris, L. 
1 vulgaris, L. Horse-tail 


6146 Ammannia, Houst. 

1 humilis, Mx 
6151 Cut)hca, .Tacq. 

viscosissima, Jacq 


6200 Rhcxia, R. Br. 

Virginica, L 


6341 Cydonia, Tournef. 
vidsidris, Pers. Quince^ 

6342 Pyrus, Lindl. 
communis, L. Pfur 
Mains, L. Apple 
Coronaria, L. Crab Apple 



arbutifolia, L. f 
6345 Amelaiichier, IMedik. 

Canadensis, Torr k Gray 
G353 Crataegus, L. 

oxyacanlha, L 

crusgalli, L. Cockspur Thorn 

coccint'a, L 

tomentosa, L 

punctata, L. Jacq [Thorn 

cordaia. Ait. Washington 

1 jjarvilulia. Ait 

Suh ordo I. Roscac. 
C357 Rosa, Tournef. 
Carolina, L. Swamp Rose 
lucida, Ehrii. Dwarf Rose 
rubiginosa, L. Sweet Briar. 
<S'^'?) ordo II. Dryadeac. 

6360 Riilius L- 

Idaeus, L. Garden Raspberry 
odoratus, L. Flowering Rasp- 
occidcntalis, L. Raspberry 
villosus, Ait. Blackberry 
Canadensis, L. Dewberry 
hispidus, L. Swamp Dewber- 

6361 Fragaria, L. 

Virgin iana, Ehrh. Wild 

vcsca, L. Garden Straicierry 
<5363 Potciitilla, L. 

Norvegica, L. 

Canadensis, L. Cinqucfoil 
G368 Agriinouia, Toiiriicf. 

Eupatoria, L 
G373 Saiigiiisorba, L. 

Canadensis, L 
6386 Gi uin, L. 

Virginianum, L 

rivale, L 

Sub ordo III. S/Jiracaccae. 
6391 Spiraea, L. 

opulif'oli.'i, L 

.salicilolia, Jj 

tomentosa, Jj 
C393 Gillen.a, Moencli. 

trifoliata, Mounch. Indian 


6405 Amygdalus, L. 
Persica, L. Peach 

6406 Pruiuis, L. 
Anneniaca. L. Apricot 
dasycarpa, L. Black Apricot 
doimstica, L. Dams ni Plum 
Americana, Marsh. Red Plum 
chicasa, Mx. Cliicasa Plum 
Cera'^us, L. Cherry 
pumila, L 

Virginiana, L 

serolina, Ehrh. Wild Cherry 

Tribus I. Podalyricae. 
6421 Baptisia, Vent, 
tinctoria, R. Br. Wild Indigo 
Trilms II. Loteae. 

6472 Crotalaria, L. 
sagittalis, L. Rattle box 

6473 Liipiinis, Tournef. 
percnnis, L. Wild Lupine 

6507 Medicago, L. 
siliva, L. Lucerne 
hipulina, L. Hop'Trefoil 

6510 Melilotus, Tournef. 
qificinalis, Willd. Mdiht 

6511 Trifolium, Toiunef. 
arvense, L. Stone Clover 
pratrnsi^, L. Red Clover 
red ex urn, L 

repens, L. White Clover. 

'] procumbons, L. 

agrarium, L. Yellow Clover 
6539 Tephrosia, Pers. 

Virginiana, Pers. Cat-gut 
6546 Ro'oinia, J-.. 

Psucd-acacia, L. Locust tree 

viscosa. Vent. Clammy Lo- 
Trilms III. Vicieae. 

657S Cicer, Tournef. 



arietinum, L. Chick Pea 

6579 Pisiim, Toiirnef. 
sativum, L. Garden Pea 

6580 Ervum, Tournef. 
Lens, L. Lentil 

1 hirsutum, L 

6581 Vicia, L. 
Faha, L. Horse Bean 
Americana, JMuhl 
Cracca, L 

6582 Lathynis, L. 
venosus, Muhl 

Tribus IV. Hedysareae. 
6600 Stylosanthes, S\v. 

elatior, S\v 
G615 Desmodiiim, DC 

nudifloriim, DC 

acuminatum, DC 

1 pauciflorum, DC 

canescens, DC 

Dillenii, Darlingt 

cuspidatum. To it & Gray 

viridiflorum, Beck 

Marilandicum, Boott 

ciliare, DC 

? rigidum, DC 

paniculatum, DC 

rotundifulium, DC 
6623 Lespedeza, Rich. 

procumbens, Mx 

violacea, Pers 

') Stuvei, Nutt 

hirta. Ell 

capitata, Mx 

Tribus V. Pliaseoleae. 
6630 Aiiipliicarpaea, Ell. 

monoica, Torr & Gray 
6653 Galactia, P. Br, 

] glabella, Mx 

6673 Apios, Boerh. 
tuberosa, Moench 

6674 Phaseolus, L. 
perennis, Walt 

] diversifolius, Pers 

helvolus, L 

C vulgaris, L. Pole Bean 

I var. nanus. Bunch Bean 

lunatus, L. JAma Bean 
Tribus VII. Sophoreae. 
6750 Ccrcis, L. 

Canadensis, L. Judas Tree 

Tribus VIII. Caesalpineae. 
6756 Gleditschia, L. 

triacanthos,L. Honey Locust 
6781 Cassia, L. 

Marilandica, L. AVild Senna 

Chamaecrista, L 

nictitans, L 

The preceding List contains about 550 Genera, and some- 
thing more than 1290 Species: of which upwards of 100 species 
may be found under cultivation, in the fields, or gardens, of 
Lancaster county. A detailed description of the greater portion 
of the plants, here enumerated, is furnished in the Flora of 
Chester County : and the whole of them — except, perhaps, a fe\y 
of the cultivated ones, — will be comprised in Torrey & Gray's 
truly national work, the Flora of North America — now in pro- 
cess of publication. 

October, 1843. 




In arranging this catalogue, no particular classification has 
been followed. The species arc placed under the generic 
names of the older Systrynatis, with the expectation of render- 
ing it more satisfactory to the general reader. 


Carthartes aura, turkey buzzard. Falco peregrinus, wander- 
ing falcon : F. spauverius, sparrow hawk. Halioctos Icucoce- 
phalus, bald eagle. Pandion halioctus, fish-hawk. Asturcoo- 
perii, Cooper's hawk. Buteo lagopus, rough-legged hawk: 
B. buteoides, short winged hawk : B. leverianus, red-tailed 
hawk. Circus uliginous, hen harrier. Surnia nyctea, snowy 
owl: S. asio, red owl : S. nocvia,* mottled owl. Bubo Virgin- 
iana, great horned owl. Ulula otus, long eared owl: U. nebu- 
losa, barred owl. Strix Americana, barn owl. 


Family — dentirostres — Cuv. 

Lanius exubitor, great American shrike. Muscicapa tyran- 
nus, king-bird. M. crinita, crested fly catcher: M. atra, pewit 
ily catcher: M. virens, wood pewee: M. acadica, small pewee. 
Setophaga ru'iccilla, red start: M. cocrula, sylvan fly catcher. 
Virco flavifrons, yellow throated vireo: V. noveboracensis, 
white eyed vireo : V. silvus, warbling vireo: V. olivaceus, 
red-eyed vireo. Icteria viridis, yellow-breasted chat. Sylvia 
coronata, myrtle bird: S. petechia, red-poll warbler: S. letiva, 
ycUosv warbler: S. pardalina, Canada warbler: S. macules, 

*Wc arc confirmed in the opinion, that Wilson was correct in making the 
red and mottled owls distinct species. We possess an old fl'inalc red owl 
and its young, already fledged, possessing the same colors, shot from the 
nest. Later authors, say the mottled individuals arc the old and niatura 
birds, and the red ones the young. 


black and yellow warbler: S. vivens, black throated green 
warbler: S. blackburnioe, blackbiirnian warbler: S. castenea, 
bay breasted warbler : S. striata, black-poll warbler: S. varia, 
spotted warbler: S. pinus, pine warbler: S. formosa,* Ken- 
tucky warbler: S. trichas, yellow throated warbler. Dacnia 
verrnivora, worm-eating warbler: D. solitaria, blue winged 
yellow warbler. Regulus calenduhis, ruby-crowned wren: 
E,, cristatus, golden crested wren. Sialia Wilsonii, blue bird. 
Bombycilla carolinensis, cedar-bird. Orpheus pollyglottus, 
mockingbird: O. rufus, ferruginus thrush : 0. felivox, cat- 
bird. Turdus migratoiius, robin : T. mustelinus, wood thrush 
T. minor, little hermit thrush : T. Wilsonii, Wilson's thrush.— 
Pyranga rubra, black-winged red-bird. 

Family — fissirostres — Cuv. 

Hirundo purpurea, purple martin : H. rufa, barn swallow: 
H. bicolor, white bellied swallow: H. reparia, bank swallow: 
H. Fulva,f clitF swallow. Cypselus pelasgius, chimney swal- 
low. Caprimulgus vociferus, whip-poor-will: C. Virgrnianus, 


Famihj — coxiROSTRES — Cuv. 

Sturnus ludovicianus, meadow lark. Icterus phoeniceus, 
red-winged blackbird: I.Baltimore, oriols: I. spurius, orch- 
ard oriole, Emberiza agripennis, bob-o-link : E.Americana, 
black-throated bunting: E. nivalis, snow bunting. Spiza cy- 
anea, indigo bird: S. Pennsylvanica, white-throated sparrow: 
S. melodia, song sparrow : S. savanna, savannah sparrow : S. 
graminea, grass sparrow: S. Canadensis, tree sparrow: S. so- 
cialis, chipping sparrow: S. nivialis, common snow-bird. — 
Carduelis tristis, American gold finch. Fringilla erythropthal- 
ma, towee finch. Erythrospiza purpurea, purple finch. Gui- 
racse cardinalis, cardinal grosbeak; G, ludovicianarosebreast- 
ed grosbeak: G. coerulea, J blue grosbeak. Pyrrhula enuclea- 

•This Sylvia, it is said, is not found east of the mountains. I have ser- 
eral specimens in my collection, prccursd hcrr. 

fThis species was first observed in this viciiiity eight or ten years ago. — 
They attached their singular and ingenious nest on the sides of the piers of 
the Columbia bridge. ' 

^Bartram, saw this bird near the city of Lancaster; it is seldom seen ia 

the Union. 




tor,* pine grosbeak. Parus bicolor, tufted titmouse : P. palus- 
tris, blaek-capped titmouse. Alauda alpistris, shore lark. — 
Garrulus cristatus, blue Jay. Corvus corone, common crow. 
Quiscalis, versicolor, crow blackbird : Q. baritus, slender billed 
blackbird: Q. ferrugineus, rusty blackbird. 

Family — tenuieostres — Cuv. 

Sitta Carolinensis, white breasted nuthatch: S. Canadensis, 
red-bellied nuthatch. Certhia familiaris, brown creeper. — 
Troglodytes fulvus, house wren: T. curepteus, winter wren : 
T. pahistris, marsh wren. Mellisuga colubris, ruby throated 
humming bird. 

Alcedo alcyon, belted king fisher. 


Colaptes auratus, golden wood pecker or flicker. Picus pi- 
leatus, log-cock: P. erythrocephalus, red-headed wood pecker: 
P. varius, yellow-bellied wood pecker: P. Carolinus, red- 
bellied wood pecker, : P. villosus, hairy wood pecker: P. pu- 
bescens, downy wood pecker. Coecygus Americanus, black- 
billed cuckoo: C. dominicus, yellow-billed cuckoo. 


Malcagris gallopavo,f wild turkey. Ortyx Virginiana, par- 
tridge. Tetrao umbellus, ruifcdgrous or pheasant. Columba 
Carolinensis, turtle dove: C. migratorias, wild pigeon. 


Caladris arenaria, sand plover. Charadriuspluvialis, golden 
plover: C. melodia, ring plover: C. vociferus, kildeer plover, 
Squatanda helvetica, field plover. Tringa pectoralis, pectoral 
sand piper: T. Wilsonii, Wilson's sand piper. Ileteropoda 

•It is not often that this species extends its einigiations tliis far south. — 
Late in Novombcr, I8:}fi, the writer ohtaiiu'd sevei-al indiviiluals i)i this vi- 
cinity, fmm a flock of filti'en or twenty. 

f'i'lie wild turiicy •« still occasionally met with on tlie northern confines 
oi the c(>uiity. A few are also known still to exist on Cliesnut hill ridge. 
Several years ago an individual was shot near Chiques creek, on '.he groundB, 
now the property of y. Eoyi', Esq. by Mr. F. Kagle. 


semipalmaia, semipalmated snipe. Totanus vociferus, greater 
yellow shanks tattler: T. flavipes, smaller yellow shanks 
tattler: T. chloropygius, green rump tattler; T. macularius, 
peet-weet snipe. Limosa fedoa, marbled godwit. Numenius 
longirostris,* long billed curlew: N. hudsonicus esquimax 
curlew. Scolopax Wilsonii, American snipe. Rusticola minor, 
woodcock. Rallus Virginianus, Virginia rail. Crex Caroli- 
nus, soree or rail. Ardea herodius, great blue heron : A. egret- 
ta, white heron: A. nycticorax. qua-bird: A. lentiginous, bit- 
tern: A. virescens, green heron or fly-up. the creek : A. exilis^ 
least bittern. 


Phcenicopterus ruber.f red flamingo. Fulica Americana^ 
coot. Podiceps cornutus, dobchick. Hydroka Corolinensis, 
pied-billed dobchick. Sterna argentca,| silvery tern. Larus. 
capistratus, brown masked gull. L. canus, common gull: L. 
argentatus, herring gull: Zonorhynchus, ringed-billed gull. — 
Anser hyberboreus, white snow goose : A. Canadensis, com- 
mon wild goose : A. barnicla, brent goose. Cynus ferus^ 
white swan. Anas clypeata, shoveler duck: A. domcstica, 
mallard duck: A. strepera, gadwall duck: A. acuta, grey or 
pintail duck: A. Americana, bald pate duck : A. obscura, black 
duck: A. discors, blue winged teal: A. crecca, green winged 
teal. Dendronessa sponsa, wood duck. Oidemia fusca, velvet 
duck: 0. Americana, American scoter duck: O. nigra, scoter 
duck. Gymura rubida, ruddy duck. Fuligula valisneria, can- 
vass-back duck : F. ferina, pochard or red-headed duck: F. 
rufitorques, ring-necked duck. Clangula vulgaris, whistling 
or golden eyed duck: C. albeola, spirit duck. Harelda glaci- 
alis, long-tailed duck, or "South southerly." Mergus mergan- 
ser, goosander or great fisher duck: M. serrator, red breast- 
ed fisher duck: M. cucullatus, hooded fisher duck. Colymbus 
glacialis, loon. 

The principal number of the species enumerated in the 
foregoing catalogue, have come under the observation of the 
writer ; and are known to be residents, or casual visiters vvithin 
the limits of the county. Specimens of most of them are in 
Libhart's "Museum of the Arts and Sciences," in Marietta, 
and were obtained in that vicinity. 

*This and the following species have been shot on the Conestoga, near 
Lancaster, — now in the museum of that city. 

+We have been informed that the specimen in the Lancaster museum, was 
•hot on the Conestoga. When found thus far north they must be considered 
only as stragglers, 

4 A specimen now in my possession, shot on the Susquehanna in 1840. 


A p p E rv 1> I X . 

A. r- ?3. 

Tuo.MAS and RiciiAnn Pr.w surviving proprietors of the province of 
Pennsylvania entered, July 4, 17C0, with Lord Baltimore into a definite agree- 
ment touching the final adjustment of the boundary Une between Maryland 
and Pennsylvania. Commissioners were appointed for that purpose. Tiiose 
for Maryland were Horatia 8harpe, Benjamin Tasker, Jr., Edward Lloyd, 
Robert Jenkins Henry, Daniel Dulany, Stephen Bordley, Rev. Alexander 
Malcolm; on the part of Pennsylvania, the Hon. James Hamilton, William 
Allen, Richard Peters, Benjamin Chew,Lynford Lardner, Ryves HoltjGcorga 

While the committee was engaged in their labors, the following persons 
were appointed on the part of Maryland to supply vacancies, the Rev. John 
Boardlcy, George Stuart, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, and John Bcale 
Boardlry. To supply vacancies on part of Pennsylvania, Rev. John Ewing, 
V>'illiam Coleman, Edward Shi|)pcn and Thomas Willing. 

Tiie commissioners convened at Now Castle, Nov. 19, 1760, and after 
much dtliberalion made a final report the 9th Nov. 1763. The whole of 
their transactions have been faithfully recorded, and the document been pre- 
served. In 1762, Charles Ma^on and Jeremiah Dixon were employed to 
run the line, and put an end to a subject of early and continued warm con- 

Before the final adjustment of this vexed question, and the definiteness of 
the line, many had taken up lands under Maryland warrants. The lands 
now owned by David Brown, and James Barnes, in Drumore township, and 
by James i^PSparran, Jeremiah and Slater Biown, James A. Caldwell, Nich- 
olas Boyde, 'i'imothy, Allen Cook, Robfrt Maxwell, William Cook 
and others ol Little Britain towr;ship, were, we have been informed, all taken 
up under .Maryland warrants. 

B. p. 39. 

Jamks LeTout was according to R. Coni/nghain, Esq., a French Huguc- 
ni)t, and member of the French settlement on the Schuylkill; living among 
the Indians, he acquired a knowledge of their language, and was useful to 
the government as an Indian agent and interpreter. He lived on or near 
the banks of the Susquehanna, within the present limits of Lancaster county 
in 1719. From the Colonial Reconls, vol. II. j). 100 — it seems he came to 
this country when (juite young. " Having been bred in it from his infancy," 
and from p. 123,it appears he had been at Conestoga pviorto 1703; and accord- 
ing to Hazzard's Register, vol. XV. p. 82, he penetrated to Cumberland 
Valley as c irly rs 1731, and :ictt!cd at Le Tori's spring near Carlisle. 


U. p. 69. 
The HrcrF.NOTS. — This term, now so well understooJ as an honorable, 
rather than a dishonorable designation of those who professed the Re- 
formed religion in France, during the persecutions and civil wars in that 
kingdom, is involved in some obscurity. Whether it was originally confer- 
upon them, by the adherents of the so styk-d "Mother (church" as a terni 
oi reproach, or voluntarily assumed by themselves as a party name, or 
whether it is a derivation from some other word, having an analogous sound, 
and introduced from some foreign language, is equally uncertain. Many 
and various are the sources to which the learned and the curious have en- 
deavored to trace the ctymrlogy of this word ; but like every thing else 
founded upon conjecture, we are left as much in the dark as ever. 

Some have assserted that the term was originally applied to the members 
of the Reformed i)y the dignitaries of the Romish Cliurch,as one of reproach. 
To sustain this posiiion, it is argued that when the new doctrine was first 
preached in France, a number of the inhabitants of the city of Tours — 
which afterwards, and next to the city of Rochelle, ranked as the strongest 
hold of the Reformed party — embraced the same. Unlike the Romanists, 
their worship was conducted in the evening as well as in the day. Culti- 
Tating a spirit of genuine piety, they met after night in each ot'.iers houses 
for social prayer. In this, they imitated the example of primitive christians, 
and like them, they became the sulijccts of a persecution almost as relent, 
less. Going from house to house as ihc place of meeting might chance to 
be, after the labors of the day were over, to attend to this pious duty, and 
returning therefrom at a later hour, their enemies, the papists, endeavored to 
prevent the extension of their doctrines, by reporting at first that they were 
engaged in some foul conspiracy against the government, and afterwards 
against the people. Failing in their attempts to aflect them in this'way, 
and finding that the fallow ground was being broken up daily, with the pro- 
mise of a rich return, and that the seed of the true faith which was sown ia 
confidence, was germinating and yielding an abundant harvest, despite their 
efforts, to the contrary, they next changed their mode of warfare, and en- 
deavored to effect their object by bringing them into ritiicule and contempt. 
For this purpose, they seized upon the fact of their meeting after night, and 
connected with it a story, then current, concerning the city of ':l'ours. One 
•of the gates of the city, it seems, was called I'u^o, and according to a popu- 
lar tradition from Hugo, comte Tours, who it seems according to the same 
tradition, was eminent in life only for his crimes, oppression and cruelty. — 
After his death — so runs the story — his spirit incapable of repose, haunted 
immediately after nightfall, the scene, which was the neighborhood of thp 
gate in question, of its cruelty and crimes, when embodied in the flesh. — 
Many and strange pranks were played, and many a hapless wight was 


bruised and beaten by this pugnacious spirit, all of which added to horribi* 
sounds and uneaithl}- noises in tho immediate vicinity of its walks, so 
alarmed the inhabitants as to induce liiem to keep closely housed, whenever 
the liour for its appearance drew near. Hence, Hugo and ghost came to be 
synonymous; and as has been already shown, the social worship of night- 
meetings of the Reformers being so widely different from tlie nnposing cere- 
mony of the Romish church, and requiring them consequently to be out 
more after night than the latter, each individual of the former was called a 
Iluao, the whole JIugiunnts. Thus much for this derivation, and the tale 
that thereby hangs. 

The next supposed derivation, is that it was a term voluntarily assumed 
by themselves as a party name, when their religion was attacked and they 
were forced to take arms against the government in self-defence. As they 
were rigid Calvinists, ot great sanctity of character and purity of moral.", 
Ca.=ieneuve has pretended to have discovered the original in the Flemish 
word llcghenon or Huguenon, which means Cathari or Puritan; but this 
is not very probable, inasmuch as it is not likely, that having a word in their 
own vocabulary, so expressive as "Puritan," they would be disposed to bor- 
row from a language no more known than the Flemish. 

Another author has attempted to trace its origin to Hiisriifnole, a name 
given to a;i iron or earlhtn pot for cooking, by connecting it with the persecu- 
tions to which the Reformed were subjected in France; and basing it upon 
the hypothesis, that some of their number may have been roasted or tortured 
and exposed to the flames like a vessel used for culinary purposes. 

These are all, however, but mere sumdses, un.'^^upported and unsustained 
by any thing at all calculated to give them a proper title to serious consider- 
eratioi). The only etvinology then, which in our humble ojinion remains, 
is undoubtedly the true one— this we shall briefly attempt to prove by the 
history of the times and the people. 

Euls'-noHS is a German compounded word, in the Paxon and Dutch dial- 
ects redsii-ni.tlfii ; of which the singular i.s Euli:tvofS, or Ecds'Tiol.'* It is 
formed from Bid an oath, and Genofs a confederate or partaken of the oath; 
■and was the original designation of the three Swiss patriots WiUiam Tell, 
Walter Fuerst and Arnold of Me'cthal.-j- on the nii;lit of the 7th Nov. 1307, 
met at Ruetii on tlie lake of Luzerne and there bound themselves by a solemn 
oath, to shake off the yoke of their Austrian oppressors, and to re-eslabli&h 
the lil)crlies of their country. 'J'he conspiracy thus f )rmed was embraced 
with delight by all to whom it was communicated, each member of which 
was called an Eidjimoss and afterwards, January 7, \. D. 13(18, when the 
people of the Waldstetter, compoi-.ed of the Cantons Appenzcll, Claris and 
Uri, met in solemn council and took the oath of peri.etual alliance, they were 
designated as the Eiluennossfnschaft, I e. Confederation. Through suc- 
cessive senerations they were thus known, and when in aftertinies, the peo- 
ple of Ceneva which had now been included in the Swiss confederation, em- 
braced the doctrines of John Calvin; they threw off the allcgimee of the 
Duke i:f Savoy ; and in order to maintain their indi-pendence, formed a con- 
federacy after the example of the Waldstetter with the ("antons of Bern and 
Freibourcr, whi h was also confirmed by an oalh of all the contracting par- 
ties. Like the ori;;inal |!atriots, they in turn were called Fidi^rrKSsm. This 
movement being half temporal and half ecclesiastical or spiritual, related to 

*Li!u is Mayer. 1). D. See liis letter, Oct. 11, 1B43, 
f Davenport, article Fuerst. 


their freedom of govcramcnt as men and the rights of corisclcrtce as Chris- 
tians. Hence in its popular usage, this term conveyed the i)riinary idea of 
freemen, in contradistinction to vwmflvkes, serfs or s/arfs by which name 
the party of the Duke was better known; and also the secondary idea of a 
religious reformation, in the mind of the adlier^-nts to the Homish faith. For 
the citv of Geneva, having emhiaccd the Relormed doctrines, ami immedi- 
ately thereaftei-, thrown olf their allegiance, mider the circumstances already 
given, the term Ei^enossen became identified among the papists with the 
notion of rehels, or apnstoles from the church, and was therefore consequent- 
ly used as a term of re|)roach. 

From (xeneva, where he had taught with so much success that instead of 
Zurich, it became the metropolis of the Reformeci (Jhurchcs, Calvin, ardent 
in the dis;;harge of yphat he conceived his duty, pushed hi? doctrines with 
eminent success into his native kingdom of France. They were readily em- 
braced by the learned and the pious, vifithout regard to caste or standing in 
society. The admiral Gaspar de Coligni, D' Andelot, I^lornay, Duplessis, 
La Rcnandie, the Prinre de Co:ide Ann I)u')ourg, Theodore Beza, and a 
host of others equally worthy and eminent for t^eir virtues, were among the 
firmest supporters of the Reformation, and the teachers of its doctrines. Sus- 
tained by such men even againirt the power of the court; in the midst of 
persecutions and civil wars — the professors of the Reformed religion were 
spoken of with respect; and a!tliou2:h the term E'ulgenor.s, or Ecilgeiwt, was 
known in France at that time, still no effort was made to bring them into 
disrepute by the application of this or any other term of ridicule except wlien 
they were occasionally called "the ]>relendcd rfformrd'" or "seditious relig- 
i->ni.-;ts" in the state papers. Thus they remained, until on the accession of 
Francis, II. to the throne and his early marriage with Mary, Queen of Scot- 
land. Ijeing very young in years, and devotedly attached to his young 
Queen, he readily transfered the care of his kingdom to his wile's uncle, the 
Dukes of Guise and Lorraine. This begat discontent among the protestants 
who only wanted a leader to organize them into a formidable l)ody. Calvin 
like Thomas Granmcr, the celebrated reformer, had taught that the king was 
supreme, and acting upon this priiiriple, the French Calvinists maintained 
that the King being vet in his minority was to be protected by his subjects 
from the tyranny nf his uncles; to this end a plan was concerted known as 
the conspiracy of Amboise, for their overthrow of which the Prince deConde 
was unanimously chosen leader; but without his knowledge, nor was he to 
be considered as a participator, until the time of action arrived. Jolui De 
Bari, and the Sieur La Rcnandi, in the meantime were to direct all their 
movements. In conformity witii this plan they convened a meeting of the 
protestant leaders at .N'antes, in the darkness of the night in a ruined building 
on the outskirts of the tovvfu. Before they proceeded to devclope their 
schemes, La Kanandi, administered solemn oaths that 'nothing be done or 
attempted ncjainst the King and Quecn-mnther, or princes, his brothers.' To 
this agreement they all swore ; and after |)raying for success, they parted 
with fraternal embraces and in tears. 'J'hc time and place of carrying their 
plot into execution, was to be at Blois, on the 15ih .March, 1.5.50. f?y some 
means the plot was discovered to the Count and therefore, the Duke of (iuise 
was appointed Lieutenant General of the Kingdom, with supreme power in 
till cases, civil atid military. Armed with this authority he adopted tlic most 
energetic measures to suppress the protestants, and although succeeded in 
defeating and killing 1/a Renandi and a fev/ of his companions, yet the 
effect was not produced which the Count anticipated ; but on the contrary. 


the Reformed party increased in numbers and displayed additional zeal an^ 
activity in a!! their movements much to the annoyance of the Guises and 
their adherents." 

It is (Hily at this period of history in France tlicn tliat we find the profes* 
sors of tlie Reformed religion first designated by tlie term Huguenots. 'J'hey 
were identified in faith with the Reformed of 'Geneva, and like them, upon 
the discovery of the conspiracy referred to, were called Eidgtnossm, tliat is 
in the Papis^t sense, rebels and apostates. From this, owing to their igno- 
rance of the orthography of the Gciman word, and their inability to pro- 
nounce it correctly ; but yet well knowing its import, it is easy to conceive 
that Frenchmen would readily corrupt it inio I lug uc not. 'J"he analogy is 
striking, the facts undoubted, and the reasons given, to our mind, atleast 

With this brief enquiry into the origin of the term Eidgenossen, i. e. 
Huguenot, we might rest, but as there are many descendants of this brave, 
monil, religious and much jiersecutcd people, residing in Lancaster county, 
and in some instances still living upon the farms origiiially patented by their 
refugee ancestors, we feel bound to say a word concerning them. Alter the 
Huguenot colonics at New Rochelle,' West Chester county, EsopUs, Ulster 
county, New York, had been formed, some of their number at an early day, 
as has been shown (pages 1 01, 107, 11 1.) emigrated to this county and com- 
menced settlements. This soon opened the way for a direct emigration of 
their persecuted brethren still remaining in France, and of othcrsvvho had 
sought protection of the protestaiit powers of Switzerland, Germany, Hol- 
land and England. Among the most prominent of these early Huguenot 
settlers in this county, we give the names of several heads of famUes, as 
follows: Eg Fevre, Firrc, or Fuehre, now corrupted into Ferree, Brinton, Lc 
Mont, now v.Titten Leaman, Eushong, Deshong, Ee Roy, anglilied into 
King, Ec Eazure, now corrupted into Cezoar, or Ecsorc, Ea Rue, Dubois, 
Ea Pierre, unglified into Stein, Goshen, Barre Do Normandic, Meessakop, 
now spelt Messenkop, Bucher, Verdre.De Hoof, now spelt Eehufi", Ee Chaar, 
now written Ecsrher, ('hcrrard, and others. 

These pious and persecuted men with their fellow refugees and families 
passed "thmiigh ir.uch tribulation,'' until at length they secured lo4- them- 
selves and posterity an assylum where they could "worship God according 
to the dictates of their own consL-icnces." Although they succeeded far bi° 
yond their most sanguine expectations, still they looked back with regret, 
and in many instances with home-sick iiearts, u])on the vinc-elad hills lind 
Bunny fields of their own much loved France. 'J'hev Vv-ere exiles from the 
land of their nativity, the broad billows of Iha Atlantic rolled between thcni 
and the graves of their fathers. Separated from friends and kindred, who in 
turn were driven to seek the protection of foreign potentates or restrained by 
the policy of the government, after the revocation of the edict of JVanles, 
from emigrating and firced into an abjuration of tiicir fath— how harrass- 
ing must have been their feelings and' how s.)re tlieir trials ! ! But, "He 
Vvho tenijiers the wind to the thorn lamb,'' was still gracious unto them ; lie 
who ha<i prolcctcd and defended them from dangers imminent and terrible, 
was still "their strength and abiding place." Time blunted the kceness oJ 
their sorrows, and as the forest began to bloom beneath their labors, they 
pat down in contentment, and in daily ])raycr returned lha;iksgiving unto 
Him, who i.< the Aut!;or of every good and perfect gift. 




Lancaster City, 
Samuel Bowman 
John C Baker 
G W Glcssfter 
George F Bahnson 
Bernard Keenan 
S Hale Higgins, Pliila. 
Jacob Flake 
John McNair 
W m Beates 
EdvvarJ D Br3-an 
W K Benad« 
C F Hoffineier 
Robert Gerry 
E C Reigart 
Thaddeus Stevens 
A D Ditmars 
Nathaniel Elhnaker 
Samuel Humes Porter 
Hon. James Buchanan 
George Ford 
George Heckert 
Thomas E Franklin 
George M Kline 
Reah F razor 
John K Findlay 
John R Montgomery 
Henry G Long 
John Jj Tliompson 
\Vm Mathiot 
Wm Huston 
Bernard (^ornyn 
J B Annvake 
J B Kauffman 
James Cameron 
D B Vondersmith 
R R Bryan 

Francis Bacon 

.1 Land is 

Hon. B Champneys 

Hon. Ellis Lewis 

Hon. E. Schaefier 

Hon. A L Hayes 

George B Kerfoot 

F A Muhlenberg 

J K Neff 

John L Atlee 

J Heiss 

Washington L Atlee 

Abm Brenneman 

Henry Carpenter 

A M Cassiday 

Samuel Laucks 

Edward C J^andis 

Charles H Cameron 

Jacob K Smellz 

Christian Bachman 

John W Forney 

Peter McConomy 

A H Hood 

Charles S Gctz 

J H Filson, Philadelphia 

W M Grant 

Thomas Cox 

George Unkle 

Abm VV Russel 

J F Kramph 

John George Fetter 

Jacob Kreider 

J Howctt 

James Smith 

Christian Gast 

John Flatz 

C KiciliT 


James H Bryson 
Henry P Carson 
John W Hubley 
(Carpenter M'Cleery 
Charles Gillespie 
C Hager 
John Miller 
William Ihling 
Matthias Resch 
Matson Marsh 
Wm Kirkpatrick 
N S Pinkertoii 
John S Gable 
David Cockley 
J C Van Camp 
R F Ranch 
P Rcitzcl 
John Bear 

Edward C Darlington 
A Mchaffey 
r N Lightner 
Horace Rathvon 
Robert D Carson 
R White Middleton 
M M Moore 
Philip C Ranninger 
Peter Gcrber 
G Hal bach 
Wm J Pearson 
Wm Buchanan 
N C Scholfield 
VV Russell 
M Bachman 
R Modeiwell 
C C Ihling 
Thomas Fairer 
I Carpenter 



M S Pciper 
Jacob Gable 
Boughter & Hostetter 
David A Donnelly 
Jacob N Miller 
J F Ileinitsh 
Dennis Coyle 
Daniel Fugan 
Jolin Hamilton 
Jacob I''oltz 
Samuel Beam 
Wm Clalile 
H Kolhaniicl 
Jacob Rothaimel 
R Erbcn 
E Harkins 
S J Young 
Jose[)h Welchans 
Jacob Kathvon 
Ely Parry 
G B Marklcy 
James Andrews 
Michael Royer 
Joseph Brintnal 
J Gish 

Thomas R Torr 
D Marion 
John L Benedict 
Mason J Haines 
Jolm Gemperling 
Jacob Hess 
John Stewart 
Jacob Myers 
Daniel Brown 
D Heit.slui 
John Fordncy 
Peter H Fliclc 
George Martin 
Daniel (;ami)bell 
Frederick J, Kline 
E Kirkpatrick 
John Bender 
Benjamin M Shcrcr 
G Day 
John Ehlcr 
H F Benedict 
John Brown 
Sanuicl McC^omscy 
A N Bnnnenian 
E McLenegan 
John Wise 
C U blieair 

Day (on Ball 
Wm Gumi)h 
John Weidler 
Jacob Fordncy 
Jacob Weaver 
Steinn)an & Son 
Jnhn P Myer 
Jacob Price 
John R Russell 
John Beam 
John S (yiendenin 
Gcor!?e H Bomberger 
Mirliael Kehrer 
'I'homas Penington 
Zacharias Weaver 
M Dickson, Post Mistr 
M Carpenter 
John R Beatty 
Arthur Armstrong 
George VV'ilson 
George Mayer 
John Fondersmith 
McCalla & Mctzgar 
John II Duchman 
W F Mack ay 
Lewis Hartmau 
Henry Kitch 
A F Hambright 
B Samson 
J Cunningham 
(' Nauman 
Abm McKimm 
Charles Johnson 
Adam Wolf 
David Lebk ichor 
Christian Rinc 
George Metzgcr 
H Baumgardner 
John Yackley 
Geo H King 
Wm C ChamberUn 
Mary B Danncr 
Geo" A Miller 
John Davy 
James U'bitehiH 
John F Long 
Philip Metzger 
Juliana Jordan 
Henrv Kejijilc 
W G"Chandler 
Adam Kendig 
Joseph Slallings, 
Wm Taylor 

Thos Baumgardncl' 
Jas H Pennell 
John Block 
A E Roberts 
George Black 
Geo b Mefilrt 
Wm Nauman 
Chas Cordis 
Andrew Bear 
John Shallner 
Jacob Griel 
N E Leaman 
Jacob Metzger 
Jacob (jlass 
W Righter 
ess Edm C Landis 
Owen Hopple 
Jos S Royal 
H C Locher 
Henry E Len;ian 
John Warfel 
Wm J Kryder 
Watson H Miller 
George Miller 
Wm Morton 
Wm C Mull 
W Carpenter 
Jas Scott 
(yonrad Anne, jr. 
Daniel Harman 
H Nauman 
Jacob Snyder, jr. 
A E Reigart 
I^evi R Colo 
Jacob Spahr 
Daniel Erisman 
David Erisman 
Jacob Bundel 
John F Remly 
David Hook 
Peter G Ebcrman 
George Delict 
Adaline Hensel 
Gerhart Metzger 
J Zimmerman 
L J Denuilh 
Mathias Zahm 
George Wineour 
David Killinger 
John 'J'rissler 
John lVI((>rann 
J S (-^arpentcr 
E E Demulh 



Zuricl Swope 
David Royer 
Josepli Shirk 
George Eiclielberger 
George Paist 
Eml V^aiikanan 
-Tohn H liOiigenecker 
David Loiigenecker 
F B 8turgid 
James Boon 
Jacob Zecher 
Frederick Zecher 
Christian Zecher 
Jose))h Pool 
Edward Leeds 
Peter Bruner 
Robert Johnson 
Jacob D Gill 
Frederick Dern 
J Grosh. 
J Huber 

Michael McGrann 
Huber & Marks 
J M Westhaefler 
H H Lichty 
W Heitshu 
Hugli Maxwell 
Martin Bomberger 
Wm G Taylor 
Starr Sherwood 
liConard Keiser 
B D Campbell 
Patrick Ferry 

Peter Pastor 

Garret Everts 

J S Miller 

John A Seibert 

John Lippincott 

D Sabhis 

James Damant 

John S Jackson 

M II Mercer 

Henry Biindel 

Josc])h Bear 

Jonathan Brillhart 

Jacob Locher 

Josh A KaufTman 

Ann Mary Gibbs 

Christian Hukey 

Hugh Fitzpatrick 

C Brown 

D E Bruner 

Mrs D Brien 

Mrs Sarah Bethel 
Frs Keen an 
E C Stehman 
Geo D Eberman 
Christian Elcrshey 
Benj S Bender 
Misses Doughertys 
Henry 'J^allman 
John A Tryer 
li J lliener 
.los Lewis, Cecil co. Md. 
E F Shoenberger, Abbe- 

RevE HThomas.Harris'g 
J F Markley, Perry co 
David Longeneckcr, Phil- 
H Dillenderfer, Baltimore 
Jacob G Kitteman 
VVm H Lewis, Harrisb'g 
S M E Goheen, St Louis 
J C Stanley, Chester CO. 
Henry Duffield, Carlisle 
Henry Dehuff, licbanon 
Geo VV Kline, do 

John Wcidman, do 
Martin Cramer, do 
Kline &Masterson do 

Lancaster Township. 
Salome Livergood 
(} Brenner 
Samuel Bausman 
John Schmaling 
Thos H Burrowes 
John Baker 
John Haverstick 
Jacob Huber, jr 
Henry Summy 
David Seitz 
Daniel H Markley 
Daniel Dietrich 
Emanuel Daveler 

Wesl Lainpc'e). 

.] II Longeneckcr, mer'ht 

Lewis Urban 

Henry Goss 

Samuel Barr 

George Meek 

John Rohrer 

Jacob Herr 

Clirittian Herr, farmer 

John Barr 

Daniel Musser, M. D. 

Francis J Harrison 

i'eter Lyan 

Christian Hess, surveyor 

Samuel Lefcver 

Samuel Miller 

John Houscr 

H Bowman, coachtriaker 

David Erb 

David Book 

Christian Weaver 

Isaac Weaver 

Jacob Houser 

Joseph Hebblen, teacher 

Johannes Meek, bauer 

Jacob Meek, teacher 

Abraham Herr, miller 

Silas J Lcachey 
J Eshleman, miller 

Martin Kindeg 

Samuel Kreider 

J Stoutzenberger, tanner 

M Hoover 

Jacob Spring 

George Lutz 

John Forrer 

J Herr, Tobias' son 

Abraham M Hoover 

A Stoner, sawyer 

David Landis, miller 

Isaac Houscr 

Daniel Wiker 

Wm Wilson, blacksmith 

Daniel Froelich 

Henry Grubb 

Abm Mylin, niiUwrightl Peter Weaver, farmer 

Abraham S Mylin 
Jacob Mylin 
Martin Mylin 
Aliraham Mylin 
Martin Mylin, farmer 
John H Miller 
Fanny KenJig,Conestoga 
John Kindi 

George Weaver 
Henry Le Fevrc 
Adam Lefcver 
Jacob Echmam 
Samuel Weaver 
George Lefcver 
(Christian Koutz 
John C Lcfever 



Heiirv Hess 
Abraham Herr 
Jacob Carpenter 
Francis Herr, farmer 
Philip Gcist 
George Morgan 
David Miller, blacksmith 
Jacob Trashcr 
Henry Aument 
John Mussclman, miller 
Christian Binkley, miller 
Daniel Potts, miller 
Martin Herr 
Benjamin B Miller 
S Marchbank, teacher 
John Landis, shoemaker 
David L lionginecker 
Joseph Herr, sen. 
Frederick Dase 
John H Bear 
Henry Spahr 
Christian Kreidcr 
Jacob N Landis 
Robert Atkinson 
C Riddle, shoemaker 
Henry Gieider 
Martin Greider 
David Burkholdcr sen. 
Benjamin Landis 
Daniel McGowen, cooper 
John Kreider, jr. 
George Griibb 
Addison Bartholomew 
Abraham Landis 
Martin Donlinger 
Morgan Bowers, cooper 
Frederick IS'ixdorf 
John Price 
Jacob Dccts 
D Miller, foncemaker 
Jacob Griibb 
John 15 Landis 
H II Mnss'linan, teacher 
Jacob H Light 
Christian 15 Herr 
Christian Herr, Pcquea 
Henry IMiis.-cr, student 

of medicino 
Alphcus (.'arpenter.son of 

Hunry Clarpcnter, Es(j 
John Martin 
Benjamin Herr 

East Lampeter. 

John Kreider 

Martin Strublc, weaver 

Christian Nefi' 

Henry Nell", 

Joseph Weaver 

Abraham M Swertly 

Benjamin Lenman 

Abraham Kreidcr 

Jacob Denlinger 

John Denlinger 

Samuel Brua 

Henry Denlinger 

William ]3all, Gatekeep- 
er, No. \5 

Benj. Pickel, blacksmitli 

Rudolph Kaull'man, cart- 

David Starnm, tanner 

Martin Groff 

Benjamin Denlinger 

George Lefevre 

Isaac Dieflenbauch 

John Rolircr, tanner 

Andrew Kennedy 

Jacob Bachman, cabinet- 

Jacob Brenneman 

Jacob Harlmnn 

Abraham Howry 

John Weaver 

John Smith, teacher 

Samuei Baily 

Abraham Lefevre 

Benjamin Brackbill, co. 

Jonas Stinchiscr, 

Benjamin Hoover, Post- 
nia!?ter & gatekeeper 

Samuel (3rug 

Daniel Downer 

Israel W CiioiV, card ma- 
chine manuliicturer 

Jacob W Groir 

Andrew Schwartz, cloth 

S Z Hall 

lacoi) Zook 

"^anuiel licaman 
John Landis 

Emanuel Landis 

Mai tin Beck, miller 
David Beck, miller 

Levi Landis 

Henry Zook 

Jacob M Frantz, teacher 

Benjamin IJarnish 

Ijandis & Swartly 

Levi L Landis 

John Bushong 

Benjamin Bushong 

Jacob S T;andis 

Jacob Ij I,andis 

Emanuel Ij Landis 

James C Cooper, mcrch't 

Israel Baker 

Henry Guicc 

Daniel Potts, miller and 

mill owner 
Abraham Diftenbaugh 
H Diifenbaugh, tanner 
Henj. Eshleman, miller 
Henry Downer, farmer 
David Fulton, teacher 
Abraham Buchwalter 
Em'l Zereher, carpenter 
Henry Buchwalter 
Jacob Buchwalter, horse 

Benjamin GrofF 
Henry Brubaker, shocm'r 
Abraham S Landis 
I David AA itiner 
Ilcnry Stanflcr, teaelier 
Jacob II Musfer, M D 
I Benjamin H Frantz, stu- 
dent of medicine 
John Mathiot. 

Slnit-ltiinr Borough, 
Rev Daviil McCartcr 
Rev Janies Hand 
George DiHinbach 
James McPluiil 
Robert Evans 
Jesse Gyger 
James B Ramsay 
loseph Potts 
Jamrs Paul 
David Fulmcr 
Richard B Grofl' 
Henry Aumcnt 
Abraham B Wilmer 
Benj B Gunder 

E. Slinshiirii Toionship. 
Heniy A Carpenter 



Benjamin Herr 
Tlicophilns Shorts 
John Slayniakcr 
George J) Mcllvaine 
James P Mcllvaiue 
Fcrrcc Brinton 
(Christian F Row 
Jacob DiMilinger 
Isaac B Currowes 
Isaac Rife 
Wni Eckevt 
Tcter J Eckert 
Thomas H Ijinvill 
James H Slay maker 
Jacob King 
Henry Slaymaker 
iVatiil. E Slaymaker 
Hugh Aikin 
John K Falck 
John Smith 
Bcnj Brackhill 
John K Kiester 
H Lechler 
Enos Stevens 
Henry Eckert 
Wm Echternoch 
Jacob Frantz 
Jacob Eshlenian 
David Witmer 
John \V Miller 
Henry Smoker 
JohnK Herr 

W. Sliaslurg Townsliip 
F B Grofi 
Benj G Herr 
John K Herr 
Martin Hawk 
George Eeftver, jr. 
Peter Le fever 
Philii) Wikcr 
John Wikcr 
John S Hawk 
John B ■VleJiinger 
AJam Longenecker 
Henry Merr 
Augustus Stonesifcr 
Henry [I Hoover 
John "Brackhill 
Hiram Harting 
Jacob Sides 
John Ilcrsh 
Benjamin Hoover 


Benj & Joseph Kindig 

Jacob Bruliaker 

Martin Rohrer 

.Jacob Brenner 

Levi H McCue 

John Hoffman 

Benjamin Barr 

Jacob .Miller 

Samuel Kindig 

Jauob Fritz 

Emanuel Groff 

Jacob .Martin 

(saac H Mayer 

D & J Eckman 

Tweed & Evans 

Abr Metz 

Samuel Benar 

(Christian Shultz 

Adam Beck 

Richard Fisher 

John Ran!) 

Isaac Graft 

John Meyer 

[lenry J,efevcr 

Amos L Kinports 

Emanuel Winter 

Robert Hathorn 

Benjamin GrofF 

Michael Book 

Borough of Washivglon 

Geo G Brush 

li Urban 

A Bitner, M D 

P Haldemarr 

Jacob Taylor 

Alnn Harnlcy 

G E Sehner 

C A Wolf 

Geo M Gibbs 

David Mil!er 

Benjamin KauiTman 

John Shu man 

lacob Snyder 

Wm Reese 

Di! ie! Kise 

Jacob Kise 

Henry B Barney 

[Icnry Fisher 

Henry Funk 

J Augustus Elder, jVI D 

David Kaliler 

-Samuel Bender 

John McC^oIlaugh 

(•: S Baer, INI D 

Leonard Pick el 

J B Christ 

Abr Peters 

Henry W Hackman 

John Neidith 

B F W Bostick 

John Herr 

Geo L iMunJorfT 

M'anor Towns/up. 
Reuben Kendi g 
John V\ itmer 
John Brady 
John Doner 
Jacob Seitz 
Henry Hershey 
Michael Kauffman 
Geo M Houch 
Abraham Zook 
Charles' Willis ' 
Christian Brubaker 
Christian Newcomer 
John Killheffer 
Henry Hohrer 
('hristian H Hershey 
Daiiiel Forry 
Jacob Pcilfer 
("hristian Mellingcr 
E]ihraim Rohrer 
Daniel Myers 
Jacob Shultz 
Geo Geiger 
Daniel Green 
Michael Sourbccr 
Amirew J Kaullnian 
David Shartzcr, jr 
W^m Parker 
Benjamin Landis 
Christian Habecker 
Elizabeth Sloan 
xAbrahiim Buck waiter 
Adam Breneman 
John W Wright 
Samuel Kanti'man 
Andrew Causman 
Jose|)h Hershey 
Jacob (J Shuman 
John Mann 



Joho Mann, jr 
Geo W Soitz 
Christian Ilcrr 
Christian 8human 
David O Wisslcr 
Adam Shuman 
Christian O Hcrr 
Boiijamia Ilcrsliey 
Frederick Faiiick 
II S Mellin-cr, M D 
Jacob S Witnirr 
Christian B Hcrr 
Henry Jjintne.r 
John Lintncr 
Jacob Martin 
Benjamin Young, jr 
Benjamin Witmer 
Gotllieb Sehner 
Jacob Ncfl' 
Christian Zimmer, jr 
Daniel L Carpenter, jr 
John S Manning 
Geo Lutz 
Abr Drenncman 
John Shissler 
Daniel W Kauffman 
Ilcnry Lover 
John Staman, jr 
John E Mellinger 
Susanna Herb 
Benjamin II Hcrtzler 
John Musscliiian 
Benjamin Smith 

D Gohecn 
R W Dunlap 
Joshua Humphries 
Geo Moore 
II McCorkle 
J S CI ark son 
Thco D Cochran 
A D Boggs 
Jolm List 
Jolui Spear 
Jose|)h Black 
J V X Zeiglcr 
John Felix 
Wm Focfiig 
N riogentolilcr 
Daniel Ilcrr 
J W Coltrell 
Jeffrey S medley 

John Frederick Houston 
(ohii J McLaughlin 
I VV Fisher 
flonry D Zeigler 
J C McKissick 
Wm Cowden 
Esther Ann Simpson 
1'^ C Haughcy 
Wm Haiitsch 
(lenry Rrimner 
Patience Slack 
Francis Bradley 
i\Lirtin Neil 
Thomas Groom, jr 
George Groom 
Almira Jane Bishop 
Jemima H Mann 
H E Wolf 
H Suydam 
.las Burrell 
Henry Sourbeer 
John Flogendobler 
John Humel 
Isaac Clinton 
Andrew Gohn 
Caleb Lombard 
Francis Hays 

Rev H B Shaffner 
Wm W Martin, M D 
Peter Baker 
Henry Conghenour 
Thomas Stence 
Peter Goodman 
John Barr 
John B Carter 
John J Libhart 
Francis Flury 
James Mehalley 
George W Stackhousc 
James Whitehill 
Samuel Patterson 
John Peck 
Franklin Thompson 
[Icnry Sult/.bach 
Catharine Jamicson 
'J'homas Zell 
Joshua Loiigenecker 
S S Rathvon 
H R Musser 

(.Catharine (Jeist | 

Wm McClure 

Samuel Souders 
.Jeremiah Mc.Minn 

E. Hrinpfeld Tuwnfhip. 
J.ihn (iamher 
David Brubaker 
Ji)hn Davis 
Henry Bear 
Jo'iiu I^ehman 
flenry Cetz 
Wilham Myers 
Eler Kecse 
David Baker 
Jacob S'timmy 
Toliias S KaufTman 
Michael Seitz 
John Ream, M D 
John Denlingcr, sen. 
John Kauffman 
Jacobs Kauffman 
Reuben Bowman 
John C Landis 
Gcrrge VV Robinson 
Andrew Landis 
J H Kurtz, M D 
'C Streng 
Joseph Bowman 
[John Slauffer 
Jacob Fordney 
lAndrcw Hollsworth 
Jacob Bossier 
Abraham Long 
C K Long 
George Fisher 
John Shenk 
Henry Stcman 
Samuel Martzall 
Andrew Dillingcr 
(jhvislian Kauffman 
William Wiley 
Jacob Acker 
Alexander Klefelkcr 
A & C Reigart 
Jacob L Hershey 
David Brubaker 
Susanna Snyder 
Mary Ileisiand 
Jacob Sluigar 
William Berntheiscl 

I IF. Hrw