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Jlarbarli CoUtge liirarp 


\^ 

BRIGHT LEGACY 

for tbc CoUtt' Llbtirr- The <HheI half of ihc Income 
btllcaiBfiJ»«B«DUor 

HINRV BRIGHT, JR., 








1 



H ISTORY 



LCITCRSBURG DiSTRitT 



WASHINGTON COUNTY, MD. 



XNCLUDZNO 



Its Original Land Tenure ; First Settlement ; 
Material Development ; Religious, Educa- 
tional, Political, and General History; 
Biographical Sketches, Etc. 

BY 

HERBERT C. BELL, 

Author of a History of Northumberland County, Pa. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



I,EITERSBURG, MD. 

Published by the Author. 

1898. 






j^RDCOt^ 



^ 



JUL 21 1899 



RA 



'id^o^iir J, , . ,^ 



Copyrighted, 1898, by 
Herbert C. Bell. 



') 






PEEFAOE. 



The plan of this work includes the original land tenure 
of the District, its first settlement, and material develop- 
ment ; the origin and growth of its churches, schools, and 
other institutions, and of the village of Leitersburg ; and a 
series of biographical sketches, combining much of the per- 
sonal with the public history. The data have been obtained 
almost entirely by original research, and not without diffi- 
culty. Although more than a hundred and sixty years have 
passed since the settlement of the District, its history has 
been altogether neglected. The pioneers who first invaded 
its territory, removed the primeval forest, and initiated its 
development rest in unknown or forgotten graves, and even 
tradition is silent regarding the names of many of them. 
Early religious and educational effort in the community 
they founded is traced with difficulty, and much that would 
be most interesting regarding its general history is forever 
lost. It has been the author's earnest endeavor to recover 
all that was accessible, and neither time, labor, nor money 
has been spared in the effort to produce a comprehensive and 
accurate District history, valuable and interesting to the 
present generation and increasingly so in future years. 

For courtesies rendered in the preparation of this work 
appropriate acknowledgments are due and gladly tendered 
to the publishers of the Hagerstown Mail and Herald^ to 
public officials in the county offices at Hagerstown, Fred- 
erick, and Upper Marlboro and the State land office at 
Annapolis, to the Maryland Historical Society, to the pas- 
tors of churches, to those enterprising citizens who have 
given their support to the work, and in general to every one 
who has in any way contributed to its success. 

Herbert C. Bell. 

Leitersburg y Md, 



EXPLANATIONS. 



Approximate scale, one inch to a mile. Continuous 
lines indicate public roads; double lines, turnpikes ; broken 
lines, private roads ; the heavy broken line, the old Nichol- 
son's Gap road. 

Real Estate Owners. 

Daniel Beck. 

Lewis Miller. 

I*evi L. Ridcnour. 

Mrs. Magdalene Neff. 

Curtis Fogler. 

John B. Newcomer. 

Samuel Newcomer. 

John Wishard. 

George A. Beard. 

George W. Coss. 

Martin's School. 

Jacob Needy. 

Joseph Martin. 

Julia and Lydia Bell. 

64. Daniel W. Durboraw. 

Rudolph Charles. 

C. L. G. Anderson. 

Charles B. and I^evi B. Wolfinger. 

Jacob B. Stoncr. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Stoner. 

92. Immanuel and Katie B. Martin. 

Henry Martin 

George H. Bowman (Mills Postoffice). 

(S. R. of Leitersburg) Freeland W. 

Anderson. 
(North of I<eitersburg) Samuel Mar- 
tin. 
Daniel Oiler. 

Heirs oi Henry G. Clopper. 
Joseph and John B. Barkdoll. 
Claggett Hartle. 
Daniel Hoover. 
Upton Clopper. 
Solomon Stephey. 
Mrs. Margaret Leather. 
Daniel V. Shank. 
Joseph Wishard. 
Leonard Senger. 
Kemp M. Bell. 
Pleasant HiU School. 
Albert Stoner. 
Heirs of Daniel Harshman. 
Mrs. Mary M. Newcomer. 
William F. Ridenour. 



X. John Wingcrt. 


49. 


a. Isaac Hykes. 


50. 


3. J. H. Hykes. 


51. 


4,5. Henry P. Lehman. 


52. 


6. Isaac Shank. 


(§> 


7. Cressler Brothers. 




8, 9. William S. Young. 


55. 


10. Mrs. William S. Young. 


56. 


XI. Abraham Lehman. 


57. 


13. William G. Young. 


58. 


13. Daniel N. Scheller. 


59. 


X4. Paradise School. 


60. 


15. M. L. Trovinger. 


61. 


x6. Longmeadows Church. 


62. 


17. Samuel Hykes. 


63. 


x8. 0. H. Ragan. 


65. 


19. Jacob B. Lehman. 


'66. 


ao. William H. Hykes. 


. 67. 


31. Henry M. Jacobs. 


. X«8- 


23. Heirs of Frederick Ziegler. 


V69. 


35. John C. Miller. 


70, 


14. David Ziegler (Startown Postoffice). 


71. 


35. Edward M. White. 


72. 


36. Mt. Union School. 


73. 


37. Lewis H. Myers. 




38. William G. Martin. 


73- 


39. Samuel Howard. 




30. John D. Spessard. 


74. 


31. Simon Clopper. 


75. 


32. Henry F. Ungcr. 


76. 


33, 43. Samuel Hartle. 


77. 


34. Henry and Frederick Hartle. 


78. 


35. Alveh L. Stockslager. 


79. 


36. Frank D. Bell. 


80. 


37. George H. Wolfinger. 


81. 


38. Joseph Barkdoll. 


82. 


39. Harvey J. Hartle. 


83., 


40. 41. Levi Hartle. 


84. 


43. Clinton W. Hartle. 


85. 


44. B. F. Spessard. 


86 


45. J. H. Wishard. 


87. 


46. J. C. Stouffer. 


88. 


47. George T. McKee. 


89. ; 


48. Martin C. Funk. 


90. 



EXPLANATIONS. 



91. William H. Stevenson. 

93. Daniel R. Grove. 

94. William H. Hoffman. 

95. Mrs. Nancy Hoffman. 

96. E. Keller Mentzer. 

97. Joseph M. Bell. 

98. Daniel S. Wolfinger. 

99. Heirs of John Eshleman. 
[00. John H. Miller. 

[01. Otho Kahl. 

I03. William H. Barkdoll. 

103. Benjamin Shockey (Rock Forge). 

[04. Augustus ShifiSer. 

[05. Franklin M. Strite. 

[06. Jacobs Church. 

[07. Daniel Hoover. 

[08. Mrs. Martha H. I«eiter. 

[09. New Harmony School. 

[10. Lewis Lecron. 

[II. John Kriner. 

[13. Mrs. Fanny Strite. 

[1 3. Isaac Needy. 

[14. Heirs of Joseph Strite. 

115. Hiram D. Middlekauff. 

116. John A. Bell. 
[1 7. Samuel Strite. 



C. C. Hoi- 



18. John Summer. 

19. (West of Leitersburg) George 

Ziegler. 

19. (N. E. of Leitersburg) 

linger. 

20. Heirs of David Strite. 

21. Henry L. Strite. 

22. Mrs. Mary A. Gilbert. 

23. William H. Kreps. 

24. Noah K. Shank. 

25. Miller's Church. 

26. Daniel W. Martin. 

27. John O. Wolfinger. 

29. Heirs of Joseph Strite. 

30. John S. Strite. 

31. John F. Strite. 

32. Samuel McH. Cook. 

33. W. Harvey Hykes. 

34. Casper Linderman. 

35. Mrs. Laura K. Ziegler. 

36. Rock Hill School. 

37. David H. Wolfinger. 

38. Mrs. Mary A. Jacobs. 

39. Mrs. Mary A. Hykes. 

40. Henry M. Jacobs. 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Washington County, Maryland. 

Situation and Extent — General History— Political Organization — 
Internal Improvements — Town and Village Growth 9-18 

CHAPTER I. 

Early Land Tenure and Settlement. 

Antietam — Prehistoric Remains— Longmeadows—Skipton-on-Craven 
^—Deceit — Darling's Sale — Lambert's Park — Downing's Lot — Ches- 
ter—Well Taught— AUamangle— All That's Left— Rich Barrens- 
Perry's Retirement — Huckleberry Hall — Dry Spring — Burkhart's 
Lot— Scant Timber— Father's Good Will— Elysian Fields— The 
Farmer's Blessing — Addition to Cumberland— Turkey Buzzard — 
Cumberland — Smaller Tracts— Adjustment of Boundaries— Mason 
and Dixon's Line 19-50 

CHAPTER II. 

Social and Material Development. 

Language, Dress, Etc. — Slavery — Erection and Boundaries of Lei- 
tersburg District— Politics— "In War Times'' — Agricultural De- 
velopment—Postal Facilities— Public Roads — Bridges — Turnpikes 
— Mills — Rock Forge— Distilleries — Tanneries, Textile Manufac- 
tures, Etc 61-101 

CHAPTER IIL 

Leitersburg. 

Early History— The Town Plot— The Village in 1830— Business In- 
terests — Secret Societies — Municipal Incorporation — Popula- 
tion 102-112 

CHAPTER IV. 

Churches. 

Antietam Lutheran Church— Jacobs Lutheran Church— St. Paul's 
Lutheran Church, Leitersburg — St. James Reformed Church, 
Leitersburg — Miller's Mennonite Church — Longmeadows German 
Baptist Church — Reformed Mennonite— River Brethren- United* 
Brethren Church, Leitersburg — Methodist Episco])al Church, 
Leitersburg 113-142 



8 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER V. 

Schools. 

"The Hollow House "—Martin's School— Leitersburg Schools— The 
Jacobs Church School— "Jacob Miller's School House"— Paradise— 
Rock Hill— Pleasant Hill— New Harmony— Mt. Union— General 
Statistics 148-164 

CHAPTER VI. 
Biographical Sketches. 

165-881 

Index 388-887 



INTRODUCTION. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY, MARYLAND. 

Situation and Extent— General History— Political Or- 
ganization—Internal Improvements— Town and Vil- 
lage Growth. 

A noticeable feature of the Appalachian mountain system is 
the great valley that extends from Vermont to Alabama, bounded 
on either side by parallel ranges and crossed by the largest rivers 
of the Atlantic slope in the United States — the Hudson, the 
Delaware, the Susquehanna, the Potomac, and the James. The 
section between the Susquehanna and the Potomac is called the 
Cumberland valley, in which the larger part of Washington 
County is situated. It is bounded on the south by the Potomac 
river; on the east the South mountain separates it from the adja- 
cent coimty of Frederick; Mason and Dixon's Line is the northern 
limit of its territory, which terminates at Sideling Hill creek on 
the west. The county has a maximum length of forty-four miles; 
in breadth it varies from a mile and a half at Hancock to twenty- 
eight miles at the base of the South mountain. 

The basin of the Potomac river embraces the whole of Wash- 
ington County, from which its principal affluents are the Cono- 
cocheague and Antietam. Both rise in Pennsylvania. The former 
pursues an extremely winding course through the geological for- 
mation known as slate or shale and joins the Potomac at Williams- 
port; the latter traverses a limestone region and terminates its 
course near Sharpsburg. 

General History. 

The Indian occupation of Western Maryland is perpetuated in 
the names of its streams — Potomac, Conococheague, Antietam, 
Tonoloway, Monocacy, etc. Indian village sites, burial grounds, 
and battle-fields have been identified in various parts of Wash- 
ington County. About the year 1736 a sanguinary battle oc- 
curred at the mouth of the Conococheague between the Delawares 



10 HISTOEY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

and Catawbas, in which the former were disastrously defeated. 
Schlatter, writing of the Conococheague region in 1749, says: "In 
this neighborhood there are still many Indians, who are well dis- 
posed and very obliging and are not disinclined toward the Chris- 
tians when they are not made drunk by strong drink." 

The upper Potomac was explored at an early period in the his- 
tory of Maryland, but neariy a century elapsed after the founding 
of St. Mary's before the present territory of Washington County 
was formally opened to settlement. The sale of lands west of the 
South mountain was first authorized in 1733. The Proprietary 
reserved the Manor of Conococheague, a tract of eleven thousand 
acres. The largest individual estate in the county was Ringgold's 
Manor (twenty thousand acres); Chew's farm, Longmcadows, 
Montpelier, the Chapline, Jacques, and Hughes lands were also 
extensive tracts. 

Two converging streams of immigration contributed to the 
eariy settlement of Washington County. There was a movement 
of population, principally English in nationality, across the South 
mountain from the older settlements of Maryland, while the Ger- 
man communities of southeastern Pennsylvania also contributed 
a large contingent, which found its way thither through Lancas- 
ter, York, and the Cumberiand valley. To the relative numerical 
strength of the different nationalities composing the eariy popu- 
lation there is perhaps no better index than religious preferences. 
The Church of England was an established provincial institution 
and one of the first places of public worship in the county was an 
Episcopal chapel, situated near Chapel Woods school in Funks- 
town District; but the adherents of this faith, while generally 
wealthy and influential, were not numerous, and no other English 
church existed in the county before the Revolution. There was 
a German Reformed congregation at Conococheague as early as 
1747, at Hagerstown in 1766, and at Salem in 1768; a German 
Lutheran congregation at Antietam in 1754, at Sharpsburg in 
1768, at Hagerstown in 1769, and at Funkstown in 1771. Ger- 
man Mennonites and Baptists were also represented before the 
Revolution. 

Washington County was the scene of important military' opera- 
tions during the French and Indian war. Braddock's army, 
which rendezvoused at Frederick, crossed the county on its march 



INTRODUCTION. 1 1 

to Fort Cumberland in the campaign which terminated in disas- 
trous defeat on the Monongahela, July 9, 1755. A general panic 
ensued; in the Conococheague settlement numbers of people de- 
serted their homes and retired for safety to the interior of the 
Province. As Fort Cumberland was too far to the westward to 
afford adequate protection Governor Sharpe built Fort Frederick, 
an extensive fortification with massive stone walls near the Poto- 
mac fourteen miles above the Conococheague. Here a garrison 
was stationed until the close of hostilities. Parties of Indians 
still devastated the frontier, however, especially in 1763, when a 
second exodus similar to that of 1755 occurred. But in 1764 the 
allied tribes of Pontiac's confederacy were finally defeated and the 
western frontier of Maryland at length enjoyed the benefits of un- 
disturbed tranquility. 

After the close of the French and Indian War the development 
of Washington County was rapid. The population increased, and 
the cultivated area was greatly extended. The number of mills 
multiplied and flour became a staple commodity for export. 
Towns were founded and soon became local centers of business 
and industry. The mineral resources of the coimty were also de- 
veloped: the Jacques Furnace in Indian Spring District, Mt. 
Aetna at the South mountain, and the Antietam Iron Works were 
all in operation at this period. A number of important public 
roads were opened to facilitate internal communication and the 
transportation of the varied products of the farm, the mill, and 
the forge to distant markets. 

In the war for American independence the people of Washing- 
ton County bore an honorable part. The Stamp Act of 1765 was 
practically nullified in Frederick County by the action of the 
county court and the revenue measures by which it was followed 
were successfully frustrated. "On Saturday, the 2d of July, 
1774,^^ as reported in the Maryland OazettCy "about eight hundred 
of the principal inhabitants of the upper part of Frederick County 
assembled at Elizabeth-Town and being deeply impressed with a 
sense of the danger to which their natural and constitutional 
rights and privileges were exposed by the arbitrary measures of 
the British Parliament,^^ expressed their sentiments in a scries of 
resolutions in which the Boston Port Bill was denounced, the 
suspension of all commercial relations with Great Britain and 



12 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURO DISTRICT. 

the holding of a Continental Congress were advised, etc. On the 
12th of September, 1775, a Committee of Observation was elected, 
which exercised general executive and judicial functions within 
its jurisdiction until the 3d of March, 1777. It supervised elec- 
tions, regulated the militia, tried offenders and suspected per- 
sons, etc. Of the representation of the county in the field it is 
possible to speak only in general terms. In addition to a full 
complement of regular troops the militia was also called out and 
rendered efficient service. Cannon were manufactured in the 
county for the State troops and military supplies of various kinds 
were also obtained here. Fort Frederick was used for a time as a 
place of detention for prisoners of war. 

In the War of 1812 the county was represented at the battles of 
Bladensburg and Baltimore and in the Canada campaign. After 
the battle of Bladensburg General Einggold mustered his bri- 
gade at Boongboro but its services were not considered necessary 
by the Secretary of War. 

The Civil War was an eventful period in the history of Wash- 
ington County. It was at a farm house near the Potomac oppo- 
site Harper's Ferry that John Brown collected the band of twenty- 
one men with which he seized the United States arsenal at that 
place. In June, 1861, ten thousand Federal troops marched 
through the county and occupied Harper's Ferry. In the Mary- 
land campaign of 1862 the Confederate army occupied Frederick 
on the 6th of September; here several divisions were detached for 
the reduction of Harper's Ferry, while the main body crossed the 
South mountain. The Federal army reached Frederick on the 
12th and continued in pursuit; its advance was disputed by the 
enemy at the passes of the South mountain, where a battle was 
fought on the 14th of September. The Confederates then con- 
centrated their forces west of the Antietam in the vicinitv of 
Sharpsburg, and here on the 17th of September occurred the 
greatest battle ever fought on ^Maryland soil. Eighty thousand 
Federal troops and forty thousand Confederates were engaged, 
and the aggregate loss in killed and wounded was twenty thou- 
sand. In the Confederate invasion of 1863 Lee's army of eighty- 
five thousand men marched through Washington County, which 
was also the scene of its retreat after the battle of Gettysburg. 
Of minor military movements the most important were Stuart's 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

raid of October, 1862, and McCausland's raid of July, 1864, when 
Chambersburg was burned. The county had a large representa- 
tion in the Federal army and the sentiment of its people was over- 
whelmingly favorable to the Union. 

Political Organization. 

From 1658 to 1776 Western Maryland was successively in- 
cluded in the geographical limits of Charles, Prince George^s, and 
Frederick Counties, erected in 1658, 1695, and 1748, respectively. 
On the 26th of July, 1776, the Provincial Convention of Mar}'- 
land divided Frederick County into three election districts, des- 
ignated as the Upper, Middle, and Lower. The first and most 
extensive included the present territory of Washington, Alle- 
gany, and Garrett Counties; the second, Frederick and part of 
Carroll; the third, Montgomery. Each of these divisions was con- 
stituted a separate county by an ordinance passed on the 6th of 
September, 1776. Washington County thus included all that 
part of the State west of the South mountain until 1789, when 
Allegany County was erected. 

The first court house of Washington County stood in the center 
of the public square in Hagerstown. It was a two-story structure; 
the court-room and public offices were on the second floor, while 
the first was used as a market house. In 1816 the Legislature 
authorized the selection of a new site and the erection of a new 
building, which was accordingly located at the comer of Wash- 
ington and Jonathan streets. On the night of December 6, 1871, 
it was destroyed by fire. The present court house, a substantial 
and imposing brick edifice, was erected in 1872-74. 

The first county prison was a log building. The second was 
situated on East Franklin street, nearly opposite the market 
house. The present jail is located on North Jonathan street and 
was built in 1857-58. 

The county almshouse was located for many years in Hagers- 
town, at the corner of Locust and Bethel streets. In 1878 John 
Nicodemus presented to the county a farm near Hagerstown upon 
which commodious buildings for the accommodation of the in- 
digent and insane have been erected by the county commissioners. 

At March term, 1749, the Frederick County court established 
five hundreds in the territory subsequently embraced in Wash- 



14 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

ington County. Antietam extended from the Potomac to the 
Temporary Line between South mountain and Antietam creek. 
Marsh and Salisbury included the territory between Antietam 
and Conococheague; Marsh extended from the Potomac to "the 
road that leads from Wolgamot's mill to Stull's," and Salisbury 
from that road to the Temporary Line. Conococheague extended 
from the Conococheague to Big Tonoloway between the Potomac 
and the Temporary Line, and Linton included all that part of 
the Province west of the Big Tonoloway. 

Antietam Hundred was divided in 1758. Elizabeth, Fort 
Frederick, and Skipton were erected prior to 1775, and Barrens, 
Morley's Eim, Upper Old Town, and Sandy Creek between 1775 
and 1785. The present territory of the county was embraced in 
the following hundreds in 1813: Elizabeth-Town, Lower An- 
tietam, Upper Antietam, Middle Antietam, Jerusalem, Barrens, 
Sharpsburg, Marsh, Williamsport, Upper Salisbury, Lower Salis- 
bury, Conococheague, Fort Frederick, and Linton. In 1823 the 
Legislature authorized the levy couri; to appoint constables for 
the election districts, and hundreds were no longer recognized as 
subdivisions of the county. 

From the organization of the coimty in 1776 until 1800 its 
present territory constituted one election district with the polling]: 
place at Hagerstown. In 1800 five election districts were erected. 
K'o. 1 (Sharpsburg) included the extreme southeastern part of the 
coimty; No. 2 (Williamsport) and No. 3 (Hagerstown) extended 
from the Conococheague to the South mountain; No. 4 (now 
Clearspring) was situated between the Potomac and the St^ate line 
between Nos. 2 and 3 on the east and Green Spring Furnace run 
on the west; No. 5 (Hancock) included all that part of the county 
west of No. 4. 

District No. 6 (Boonsboro) and No. 7 (Cavetown) were erected 
in 1822; No. 8 (Rohrersville), in 1833; No. 9 (Leitcrsburg), in 
1838; No. 10 (Funkstown); No. 11 (Sandy Hook) and No. 12 
(Tilghmanton), in 1852; No. 13 (Conococheague), in 1858; No. 
14 (Ringgold) and No. 15 (Indian Spring), in 1860; No. 16 (Bea- 
ver Creek), in 1867; No. 17 (Antietam), in 1869; No. 18 (Chews- 
ville), in 1872: No. 19 (Keo^ysvillc), in 1873; No. 20 (Downs- 
ville), in 1878; Nos. 21 and 22, in 1884. Three others have since 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

been added, two of which are located principally within the cor- 
porate limits of Hagerstown; the other is known as Wilson's. 

Internal Improvements. 

The first road through the Cumberland valley was laid out in 
1735-36 from Harrises Ferry on the Susquehanna to the Potomac 
at the mouth of the Conococheague. Its course through Wash- 
ington County was nearly identical with the present Williamsport 
and Greencastle turnpike. Among the county roads in 1749 were 
the following: "Between the Great Marsh to Potomac and from 
thence to Conococheague"; "From the Great Marsh to Antietam 
and from the river to StuUV; "Up Conococheague toWolgamot's 
mill and from thence to the head of the Great Marsh"; "From 
Baker^s to StulFs mill." Under the jurisdiction of the Frederick 
County ceurt a number of roads were laid out, including many 
of the most important in the county to-day and some that no 
longer appear upon the map. 

In 1791 a number of important county roads were resurveyed, 
including the road from Hagerstown to the Frederick County line, 
from Hagerstown to Hancock, from Hagerstown to Charlton's 
Gap, from Hagerstown to Nicholson's Gap, from Hagerstown to 
Williamsport, and from Williamsport to Turner's Gap. 

The construction of the Cumberland road was authorized by 
act of Congress in 1806. Its eastern terminus was at Cumber- 
land, Md., which was connected with Baltimore and Washington 
by turnpikes constructed by incorporated companies. A great 
overland highway was thus established from the Atlantic sea- 
board to the West. It passed through Boonsboro, Hagerstown, 
and Clearspring and was for many years an important factor in 
the development and prosperity of the coiinty. A number of 
other turnpikes have since been constructed. 

The Potomac Company was organized in 1785 for the purpose 
of improving the navigation of that river, the futility of which 
was finally apparent, and its franchises eventually became vested 
in the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company. The excavation of 
the canal was begun in 1828, and in 1850 it was completed to 
Cumberland. It passes through Washington County parallel 
with the Potomac river. 

The construction of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad was begun 



16 HISTOEY OF LEITERSBUEG DISTRICT. 

in 1828; it was opened for travel to Harper's Ferry in 1834 and 
to Cumberland in 1842. The Washington County branch, which 
extends from Weverton to Hagerstown, was opened in 18G7. 
The Cumberland Valley railroad was constructed to Hagerstown 
in 1841 and extended to Martinsburg in 1874. The Western 
Mar}'land railroad was opened to Hagerstown in 1872 and to Wil- 
liamsport in 1873; a lateral line extends from Edgemont to Ship- 
pensburg and a western extension from Williamsport to Cherr}- 
Run. The Norfolk and Western railroad was opened from Ha- 
gerstown to the valley of Virginia in 1880. The street railway 
system of Hagerstown was constructed in 1896 and is operated by 
electricity. Lateral lines extend to Williamsport and Funkstown. 

Town and Village Growth. 

Hagerstown, the coimty seat of Washington County, was 
founded in 1762 by Jonathan Hager. The proprietor conferred 
upon it the name of Elizabeth-Town in honor of his wife, and 
many years elapsed before the present designation acquired undis- 
puted currency. Bev. Philip V. Fithian, a Presbyterian clergy- 
man, visited Hagerstown on the 18th of May, 1775, and entered 
the following brief description in his journal: 

Hagerstown — a considerable village. It may contain two hundred 
houses. Some of their are large and neat, built with stone or brick, 
but the greater part of the houses are built with logs, neatly squared, 
which indeed make a good house. There are many stores here and 
many mechanics, and it is a place of business. The inhabitants are 
chiefly Dutch. East and southeast of this town the Blue mountains 
appear like thick, hazy thunder clouds just above the horizon in sum- 
mer. There is here a Dutch Lutheran church and they are building 
an Enti^lish church.* 

Business and industrial activity has continued to be the promi- 
nent characteristic of Hagerstown. Turnpikes and public roarls 
radiate to every part of the county, while its railroad facilities arc 
unsurpassed by those of any other inland city on tlie Atlantic sea- 
board. 

Sharpsburg received its name in compliment to Horatio Sharpe, 
Governor of Maryland. It was founded in 1763 by Joseph Chn])- 
line, rapidly attained the proportions of a frontier village, and in 

♦Kgle's Notes and Queries i8Si, p. 156. 



INTRODUCTION. 17 

1765 its population was deemed sufficient to warrant the appoint- 
ment of a constable by the Frederick County court. Within a few 
years after its founding it had become the business center of the 
lower Antietam valley, and in 1776 it was an imsuccessful as- 
pirant for the location of the county seat. On the 17th of Sep- 
tember, 1862, the town and adjacent coimtry were the scene of 
one of the most important battles of the American Civil War. 

Williamsport is situated on the Potomac river at the mouth of 
the Conococheague. It was foimded by General Otho Holland 
Williams, an officer in the Eevolutionary War, and was laid out 
in 1787 under authority of the Maryland Legislature. The Po- 
tomac was then extensively used for the shipment of grain and 
merchandise, for which Williamsport possessed every advantage 
as a point of consignment, while the construction of the canal 
and of the turnpikes to Greencastle and Hagerstown were addi- 
tional factors in its business growth. 

Boonsboro is located at the foot of the South mountain, on the 
turnpike from Frederick to Hagerstown. A century ago the site 
of the village was owned by two brothers, George and William 
Boone, from whom its name is derived. In 179G it comprised 
five houses. It received an impori:ant impetus from the comple- 
tion of the turnpike in 1810, and was for many years one of the 
most important business centers of the county; but with the de- 
cline of travel over this thoroughfare its prosperity also suffered, 
and for some years it has been practically stationary. 

Funkstown derives its name from Jacob Funk. Here he 
built a mill prior to 1768, and before the Revolution he founded 
the town, of which the original name was Jerusalem. Since the 
early part of the present century the town has been a manufac- 
turing point of local importance. It is situated on the Boonsboro 
turnpike, two miles from Hagerstown, with which it is connected 
by an electric railway. 

Hancock, one of the oldest towns in the county, perpetuates the 
name of its founder, and came into existence prior to 1790. It is 
situated in the extreme western part of the county on the line of 
the canal and the old National road. 

Smithsburg was founded prior to 1815 by Christopher Smith. 
It is situated on the Western Marvland railroad at the foot of the 
South mountain. 



18 HISTORY OF LEITEESBUEQ DISTBICT. 

Clearspring was founded in 1821 by Martin Myers, who de- 
scribes it as located *'on the turnpike leading from Baltimore to 
the western country/' eleven and one-half miles from Hagerstown 
and one mile east of the North mountain. It is the business cen- 
ter of a rich agricultural region. 

Among the minor villages of the county are Cavetown, 
Rohrersville, Leitersburg, Chewsville,Tilghman ton, Sandy Hook, 
Maugansville, etc. 



HISTORY or LEITEP5BUf?G 

DI5TPICT. 

CHAPTER I. 



Early Land Tenure and Settlement. 



Antietam — Prehistoric Remains— Longmeadows— Skipton- 
on-Craven— Deceit— Darling's Sale— Lambert's Park— 
DowNiNO's Lot— Chester— Well Taught— Allamangle— 
All That's Left— Rich Barrens— Perry's Retirement 
—Huckleberry Hall— Dry Spring— Burkhart's Lot- 
Scant Timber— Father's Good Will— Elysian Fields— The 
Farmer's Blessing — Addition to Cumberland— Turkey 
Buzzard— Cumberland — Smaller Tracts — Adjustment 
OF Boundaries— Mason and Dixon's Line. 

The watershed of Antietam creek includes the whole of Lei- 
tersburg District. A short distance north of the State line two 
branches of nearly equal volume unite to form this stream, but 
its only affluent of importance in the District is the Little Antie- 
tam, whose waters it. receives half a mile below the village of 
Leitersburg. A smaller stream, known at the beginning of the 
century as Tipton's run, empties into the Little Antietam near 
the eastern boundary of the District. Marsh run, which drains 
the western part of its territory, rises in Franklin County, Pa., 
where its course possesses political significance for some miles as 
the boundary of Washington and Antrim Townships. It is also a 
tributary of the Antietam. 

While the name Antietam is perhaps the most enduring me- 
morial of the Indian occupation, there are also others. A well 
defined village site has been identified a short distance beyond the 
eastern line of the District at a spring on the farm of C. L. G. 
Anderson on the north side of Little Antietam. Here hundreds 
of arrow heads and numerous axes, scrapers, celts, pestles, etc. 
have been found. In 1831 Ira Hill of Funkstown, Md., pub- 
lished a book entitled "Antiquities of America Explained," in 
which the following description of prehistoric remains near Lei- 
tersburg occurs: 



20 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURQ DISTRICT. 

In this part of the extensive valley west of the Blue Ridge are 
many remains of antiquity. * * * « On the banks of the Antie- 
tam near Leitersburg are many such remains. There are numerous ar- 
rows of different sizes, many remains of burned bones, large pieces of 
purest flint of various shapes, and many other kinds of stone curiously 
carved as if designed for some important use. 

There are innumerable pieces of a kind of ware which was un- 
doubtedly manufactured at this place. From the convex and concave 
surfaces of the pieces it is evident that the vessels were of as many 
sizes as those made use of at the present time by the generality of 
community. This ware is about as thick as that sfenerally made in 
our potteries, and though it may have remained for thousands of 
years under the earth or exposed on its surface to wind and weather, 
yet it is harder than any I have ever seen manufactured in any part 
of the country. The outside is rough as if fashioned into innumer- 
able figures ; the inside is as smooth as glass. The rims are likewise 
adorned with many cuts or figures. The greatest degree of heat that 
I have been able to apply to this ware seems to have no effect, and 
other methods I have taken to dissolve it have proved as ineffectual. 
This ware and many other remains are all mingled together, and 
among whieh are to be seen ashes and charcoal. The gentleman on 
whose ground most of these remains are found observed that when 
he first ploughed up this field it seemed that bones had been burned 
in log heaps. 

Near to these curiosities on a beautiful bottom are two circles, the 
one about ten yards in diameter and the other somewhat less. These 
are in a'meadow and though the ground has been cultivated for many 
years and is on a perfect level with the circles, yet from the growth 
and color of the grass that grows upon them they are distinctly seen 
from the surrounding meadow. The soil appears the same as that 
around them and the whole has been richly manured, yet the grass on 
these circles has a more thrifty growth than the other. Here were 
undoubtedly the places on which they moulded their ware or on which 
they mixed the materials of which it was composed. 

Not many hundred yards from these places are many Indian graves : 
these mounds are still a number of feet higher than the ground 
around them. A number of gentlemen assisted mo in opening one. 
On account of a mill-dam which has raised the water above the level 
of the bottom on which these graves were made the water rushed in 
so fast that we could not succeed entirely to our wishes in this work. 
But we found pieces of the ware above mentioned, a number of curious 
stones, and what was once undoubtedly part of a human foot now 
petrified. These were all incased in a black mud, interspersed with 
whitish veins, which we conjectured were the remains of bones. 

The earliest authentic information regarding the settlement 
of Leitersburg District is that whieh occurs in connection with 



EAKLY LAND TENURE AND SETTLEMENT. 21 

its original land tenure. From this source it is ascertained that 
there were settlers here prior to 1738. The frontier population of 
Maryland at that date, like that of the other Atlantic colonies, was 
composed of a variety of elements. Here the restraints of civil- 
ized society were comparatively weak; wants were few and easy 
of gratification; the cheapness of the land and its certain appre- 
ciation in value presented strong inducements for its acquisition. 
Hence the less ambitious and industrious, the indolent, the shift- 
less, and the criminal, as well as the adventurous and enterprising, 
gravitated from the older communities to the frontier. All these 
classes were doubtless represented in the early population of Lei- 
tersburg District. Some of the earliest residents were hunters and 
trappers rather than agriculturists, mere squatters upon the land 
they occupied with but little desire for its permanent possession, 
and their history is as destitute of memorials as that of the savages 
who preceded them. Then there were others who acquired land 
and improved it, founded homes and reared families, established 
churches and schools and the miscellaneous industries of an agri- 
cultural community, and laid the foundations of the present social 
and material development of the District. It is with the latter 
class and their descendants and successors that these pages are 
principally concerned. 

LONGMEADOWS. 

The first tract in Leitersburg District secured by original pat- 
ent was Longmeadows, which first received this designation in 

1738. On the 10th of March in that year Thomas Cresap peti- 
tioned the Land Commissioner of the Province for the survey of a 
tract under this name, for which he received a patent, June 16, 

1739. The preamble to the latter instrument recites that ^^pur- 
suant to our instructions to our Governor and judge in land affairs 
for granting our back lands on the borders of the Province afore- 
said a certain John Church obtained from his Excellency Samuel 
Ogle, Esq., an order for three hundred acres of vacant land, all 
i^'hose right, title, and interest of, in, and to the said order and the 
land therein mentioned the said Church assigned and made over 
to the petitioner [Cresap]; and forasmuch as he has discovered 
that quantity of vacant land lying and being in the county afore- 
said on one of the branches of Antietam, between that and Cono- 



22 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURO DISTRICT. 

cocheague, and near some ponds of fresh water in said Antietam, 
partly cultivated/' a warrant for its survey was issued in his favor, 
March 10, 1738. This was executed by J. P. Dent, deputy sur- 
veyor of Prince George's County, June 14, 1739, and his return 
describes the boundaries as "Beginning at a bounded red oak, 
standing on the west side of Neal's meadow, below the mouth of 
a drain that comes out of a great pond being in the said land." 
The area of the tract was 550 acres. 

Colonel Cresap resided at Longmeadows from 1738 to 1741. 
The improvements he erected here included a stone building in 
which he resided and which also served the ])urposes of a forti- 
fication and trading post. It stood on the east bank of Marsh run, 
on the farm now owned by Mrs. William S. Young, and was 
doubtless at the time of its erection the most substantial building 
in Leitersburg District. 

The original area of Longmeadows was twice enlarged by Col- 
onel Cresap — July 30, 1742, by an additon of 110 acres, and Au- 
gust 8, 1743, by an addition of one hundred acres. Daniel Du- 
lany secured the entire tract, aggregating 760 acres, in 1746. 
Within a few years he had it resurveyed, resulting in the acquisi- 
tion of 1,371 acres of vacant land, thus increasing the area to 
2,131 acres, for which he secured a patent, November 7, 1751. In 
the following year he was granted a warrant for a second re- 
survey, by which 2,370 acres were added, but owing to disputes 
with other claimants no patent was issued. He sold the tract to 
Colonel Henry Bouquet, a native of Switzerland and a British 
officer of distinction in the French and Indian War, who, 'Toeing 
willing and desirous to adjust the said disputes/' secured a second . 
resurvey, as the result of which the area of the tract was in- 
creased to 4,163 acres, for which he was granted a patent, Sep- 
tember 16, 1763. 

Bouquet made the following disposition of Longmeadows by 
his will, executed on the 25th of June, 1765: 

I constitute and appoint my friend. Colonel Frederick Haldimand, 
my heir and executor, and to him I give and bequeath all and ever>'- 
thing" which I may die possessed of in North America, without any 
exception whatever, upon the condition of paying my just debts and 
above legacies: my estate, consisting for the present in the farm 
called Long- Meadows Enlarged, situate in Frederick County in the 
Province of Maryland, ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ the said farm to be sold with 



EAKLY LAND TEXUBE AND SETTLEMENT. 23 

the saw-mill, tan-yard, houses, tenements, and appurtenances on the 
same for the payment of my debts and legacies.* 

It does not appear that Bouquet ever remained at Longmeadows 
any length of time, although it is not improbable that he designed 
to make it the place of his residence in the event of his retirement 
from the army. 

Colonel Haldimand was a compatriot of Bouquet. His early 
military experience was obtained on the Continent, where, like 
Bouquet, he had been in the service of the Dutch against the 
French. He entered the British army with the same rank as Bou- 
quet, that of colonel in the Eoyal American Brigade. The Long- 
meadows estate continued in his possession until November 6, 
1773, when he sold it to Joseph Sprigg of Prince George's 
County, Md. It is not probable that he ever resided here, al- 
though in some legal documents relating to this locality Long- 
meadows is referred to as "Colonel Haldimand's plantation.'' In 
the deed of conveyance to Sprigg he is described as "Frederick 
Haldimand, at present of the City of New York in the Province 
of New York, and major general in His Majesty's army." 

The Longmeadows tract extended along the western boundary 
of Leitersburg District from Paradise school House almost to the 
Pennsylvania Une. A considerable part of its area was also be- 
yond the District line on the west and south. It embraced one of 
the most fertile and desirable sections of Washington County. 
Fortunately for the development of the District Joseph Sprigg 
was the last individual owner of this extensive tract, the disinte- 
gration of which began about the close of the Revolutionary War. 
In 1779 he sold to Samuel Hughes 1,300 acres, to John McConkey 
521 acres, and to Dr. Henry Schnebley 322 acres, and in the fol- 
lowing year 781 acres to Thomas Sprigg. 

The purchase of Samuel Hughes embraced the original Long- 
meadows tract and improvements. In 1789 he sold the entire 
tract of 1,300 acres to Thomas Hart, who came to Hagerstown in 
1780 from Hillsboro, N. C, a locality that he was obliged to leave 
on account of the depredations of his Tory neighbors. At Ha- 
gerstown he engaged in merchandising and was for some years the 
partner of Nathaniel Rochester, the founder of Rochester, N. 
Y. He resided at Longmeadows for a time and here a daugh- 

* Colonel Henry Bouquet andhisCampai^sof X763and 1764, by Rev. Cyrus Cort.p 76. 



24 HISTOBY OF LEITEKSBUKG DISTBICT. 

ter was born, who afterward became the wife of Henry Clay, the 
Whig candidate for President in 1844. Hart removed to Ken- 
tucky in 1794. 

Thomas B. Hall succeeded Colonel Hart in the ownership of 
510 acres of the Longmeadows tract, now embraced principally in 
the farms of Mrs. William S. Young and Abraham Lehman. Hall 
was connected with the internal revenue service of the United 
States as collector of direct taxes for the Eighth district of Mary- 
land. There was a deficit of $17,916.68 in his accounts for the 
years 1815-16, for the recovery of which the United States mar- 
shal levied upon the Longmeadows farm; it was sold at public 
sale, March 30, 1827, and purchased for the United States, to 
which the marshal accordingly executed a deed, February 15, 
1831. From this circumstance it was long known as "the United 
States farm," and such in fact it was. In 1831 Richard Eagan 
and William D. Magill, of Hagerstown, purchased it from Virgil 
Maxey, solicitor of the Treasury of the United States, by deeds 
*^signed, sealed, and delivered in the presence of J. Marshall, Jo- 
seph Story,^' chief justice and associate justice, respectively, of the 
Supreme Court of the United States. The part purchased by 
Bagan is now owned by Mrs. William S. Young of Baltimore 
and that purchased by Magill by Abraham Lehman. 

The large brick mansion near the terminus of the Marsh turn- 
pike was built by Thomas Sprigg, whose purchase of 781 acres 
from the Longmeadows tract has been mentioned. His estate 
eventually comprised 1,754 acres and bore the name of Sprigg's 
Paradise. It consisted of 1,581 acres from Longmeadows En- 
larged, Pleasant Spring (seventy-eight acres, patented by John 
Eench in 1760), Race Ground (twelve acres, patented by Joseph 
Sprigg in 1776), and The Grove (eighty-five acres, patented by 
Joseph Sprigg in 1777). General Sprigg secured a warrant for 
the resurvey of these tracts in 1785, but the patent was not issued 
until December 12, 1804. Sprigg's Paradise was situate<l on 
both sides of the Marsh turnpike. The proprietor, who was a 
member of Congress, brigadier general in the State militia, and 
otherwise prominent in public affairs, resided here until his death 
in 1809, and in 1810 the estate was divided among his three chil- 
dren. The Sprigg residence and several hundred acres adjacent 
thereto are now owned by the Messrs. Cressler. 

In 1780 McConkey sold the land he had purchased from Joseph 



EARLY LAND TENURE AND SETTLEMENT. 25 

Sprigg to John Bench, whose son, Peter Bench, resided thereon; 
in 1833 the larger part of this tract was purchased from his heirs 
by Jacob B. Lehman. 

In 1789 Thomas Hart sold to John Dorsett six hundred acres 
of land, of which 395 acres were purchased from Dorsett by Wen- 
dell Gilbert in 1791. Samuel Gilbert, his son, subsequently ownod 
part of this land, which embraced the Paradise spring and the 
site of Longmeadows church. 

Skipton-on-Craven. 

Colonel Cresap was also the owner of an original tract several 
miles east of Longmeadows, and to this he gave the name of 
Skipton-on-Craven, his native place in England. The certificate 
of survey, returned under date of November 27, 1740, describes 
the boundaries as ^^Beginning at a bounded Spanish oak standing 
on the south side of a branch of Antietam known by the name of 
Forbush's branch;" and in the preamble to the patent, which was 
granted March 27, 1744, the tract is described as ''lying and being 
in the County aforesaid in the fork of Antietam creek, whereon a 
certain Thomas Catens formerly settled and made some improve- 
ments." 

In 1749 ^Ttfichael i^Iiller, yeoman, of Frederick County," pur- 
chased Skipton-on-Craven from Colonel Cresap. Nothing is 
known regarding his personal history, although it may be stated 
with certainty that he resided for many years in the vicinity of 
Leitersburg near the mouth of Little Antietam. Here he owned 
at one time about seven hundred acres of land, now embraced in 
the Ziegler, Hartle, and Stockslager farms. In 1760 he was con- 
stable for Upper Antietam Hundred. 

In 1765 John Reifl purchased from Michael Miller 117 acres 
of land, part of Skipton-on-Craven, "whereon John Roiff now 
lives." He was therefore an actual resident of the District and a 
near neighbor to Jacob Leiter. By successive purchases he even- 
tually acquired more than four hundred acres of land, southwest 
of Leitersburg and on both sides of the Antietam and the turn- 
l)ike, much of which was doubtless reduced to cultivation and im- 
proved by him. 

Jacob Good was also a resident of the District as early as 1765, 
when he purchased from Michael Miller 163 acres, part of 



26 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

Skipton-on-Craven, ^T)emg the land whereon the said Grood now 
lives." Good's house was a log building and stood between the 
Little Antietam and the stone residence of Harvey J. Hartle. It 
was near the bank of the creek, and on the opposite side there was 
a saw-mill. Surrounding these improvements Good owned 350 
acres of land, embracing the confluence of Antietam and Little 
Antietam, the whole of Harvey J. Hartleys farm, and adjacent 
lands now owned by Levi Hartle, John Hartle, and Alveh L. 
Stockslager. In 1787 he sold this land to Joseph Long, his son- 
in-law, from whom in 1795 it passed to John Barr, of Lancaster 
County, Pa. 

In 1775 Christian Lantz, formerly a resident of Lancaster 
County, Pa., purchased from John Keiff 476 acres of land south- 
west of Leitersburg, along the turnpike and Antietam creek. 
Here he resided until his death in 1798. In 1776 he was a mem- 
ber of the County Committee of Safety. A large part of his 
landed estate is still in possession of his descendants. He built 
one of the first mills in the District. 

Deceit. 

"Forbush's branch" is now known as Little Antietam, the latter 
designation having completely superseded the former, which 
would no longer be recognized in this locality. Yet George For- 
bush, from whom the stream derived the name by which it was 
known in 1740, was undoubtedly one of the earliest settlers along 
its course; and although he took his departure about the time the 
first permanent settlers began to arrive, the location of his planta- 
tion can be determined with a fair degree of probability. On the 
23d of August, 1743, John Darling secured a patent for Deceit, 
a tract of 108 acres, the boundaries of which are described as 
^^Beginning at a bounded white oak standing nigh a branch of 
Antietam on the top of a steep hill and near the place that George 
Forbush formerly lived on." In the patent for Darling's Sale 
(surveyed in 1739), its boundaries are described as "Beginning at 
a bounded white oak standing on the southeast side of Little An- 
tietam creek, near the plantation of one George Forbush." From 
a plot of the Stoner lands entered in the land records of Washing- 
ton County in 1820, it is ascertained that this "bounded white 
oak^' stood on the present line between the lands of Daniel W. 



EARLY LAND TENURE AND SETTLEMENT. 27 

Durboraw and Charles B. and Levi B. Wolfinger; the "steep hill" 
referred to in the patent for Deceit is therefore embraced princi- 
pally in the property of Jacob B. Stoner and the Forbush planta- 
tion doubtless included the adjacent meadows. 

Joseph Perry purchased Deceit from John Darling in 1754. 
He secured a resurvey thereon, whereby its area was increased 
to 658 acres; the patent was issued on the 17th of February, 1761, 
and the tract received the name of The Resurvey on Deceit. It 
embraced, wholly or in part, the farms of Oliver F. Lantz, William 
H. Stevenson, Charles B. and Levi B. Wolfinger, C. L. G. Ander- 
son, Jacob B. Stoner, Mrs. Elizabeth Stoner, and others. This ex- 
tensive tract continued in Perry's possession until 1779, when he 
sold it to Daniel Hughes, from whom it was purchased by Benja- 
min and John Crockett of Baltimore. In 1783 they sold it to 
Martin Barr, of Lancaster Coimty, Pa., by whom the improve- 
ments on the Anderson farm, the mill, etc., were built. In 1801 
he sold 193 acres to John Stoner and in 1823 Daniel Winter pur- 
chased from Colonel John Barr 310 acres, embracing the Ander- 
son and Lantz farms, etc. 

Darling's Sale. 

Captain John Charlton was a contemporary of Forbush. His 
principal landed estate in Leitersburg District was the tract called 
Darling's Sale, which he purchased from John Darling, by whom 
its acquisition from the Proprietaries was initiated. The survey 
in Captain Charlton's favor was returned under date of February 
1, 1739, and describes the tract as bounded by a line "Beginning 
at a bounded white oak standing on the southeast side of Little 
Antietam creek, near the plantation of one George Forbush.'' 
The patent was issued on the 14th of October, 1743. The area 
of the tract was 420 acres. It was situated in the vicinity of Mar- 
tin's school house and is now embraced in the farms of Daniel 
Durboraw, Curtis Fogler, John B. Newcomer, and others. After 
Captain Charlton's death it was divided into seven tracts of sixty 
acres each, which were apportioned by lot among his children. 

In 1792 lots Nos. 4 and 6 became the subject of litigation. It 
was claimed by Bichard Eight that Thomas Charlton had leased 
to him for a term of ten years "part of a tract of land called Dar- 
ling's Sale, known and distinguished by lot No. 4, containing sixty 



28 HISTORY OF LEITER8BURG DISTRICT. 

acres of land, forty whereof is arable land and twenty acres oi 
woodland, and one other part of said tract of land called Darling's 
Sale, known and distinguished by lot No. 6, containing in the 
whole sixty acres of land, forty-five whereof is arable land and fif- 
teen in meadow, and also ♦ ♦ ♦ two dwelling houses, a 
bam, and malt-kiln,^' from which he was ejected by Poynton 
Charlton. For this he entered suit for damages; the case was tried 
at April term, 1794, resulting adversely to the plaintiff. Captain 
Charlton's descendants are still residents of Washington County, 
although the family name long since ceased to be familiar in the 
locality where its first representative settled more than a century 
and a half ago. 

Lambert's Park. 

George Lambert was also an early settler in close proximity to 
Forbush and Charlton. On the 18th of November, 1742, he se- 
cured a patent for two hundred acres of land under the name of 
Lambert^s Park, the boundaries of which are described as "Begin- 
ning at a bounded white oak standing on the north side of a 
branch of Antietam near the mouth of a run that comes from 
Captain Charlton's and falls into the aforesaid branch." This 
tract is partly embraced in the lands of Joseph Martin, the heirs 
of Jacob E. Bell, and John Wishard. Lambert was also the 
original owner of several other tracts in this vicinity. His direct 
descendants resided in the District for several generations and 
are still represented at Hagerstown. 

Dowxing's Lot. 

A short distance south of the present District line near the 
Hagerstown and Waynesboro turnpike stands a substantial stone 
house on the farm of Daniel N. Scheller inscribed in one of the 
gables with the date 1750. Here Robert Downing resided until 
his death in 1755. He had a hundred acres of land surveyed here 
in 1739, but his first acquisition appears to have been a tract of 
fifty acres, Downing's Lot, surveyed on the 1st of October, 1742, 
with a boundary "Beginning at a bounded walnut standing in a 
glade about a quarter of a mile from the said Downing's house." 
The patent was issued on the 13th of July, 1743. In the follow- 
ing year the tract was resurveyed and its area was increased to 



EARLY LAND TENURE AND SETTLEMENT. 229 

319 acres. In the return of this survey the ^T)eginning tree" is d^ 
scribed as ^'standing in the marsh that leads from Captain Thomas 
Cresap^s to Antietam creek." A second resurvey was made in 
1754, by which the tract attained an area of 754 acres; the patent 
was granted m the 4th of April, 1755. It extended from the 
turnpike to Antietam creek at Trovinger's mill and embraced 
the site of Antietam church, one of the earliest places of worship 
in Washington County. 

Chester. 

Robert Downing was also the original owner of Chester, a tract 
of one hundred acres, for which he was granted a patent on the 
23d of August, 1744. Its boundary began "at a bounded black 
oak tree standing on the east side of Antietam about a mile and a 
half below the sugar bottom" — evidently the game sugar bottom 
referred to in the survey of NeaFs Bottom (1747). In 1752 it was 
resurveyed and enlarged to 388 acres. This tract includes the 
lands of Simon Clopper and others in the southern part of the 
District. 

Well Taught. 

George Poe was another of the pioneers of the District of whom 
but little is known beyond his name and the fact of his residence 
here. On the 10th of February, 1748, he secured a warrant for 
the survey of one hundred acres of land, the return of which was 
certified to the land office under date of July 4, 1749, and on the 
same day a patent was issued in his favor. The tract received the 
name of Well Taught and its boundaries are described as "Be- 
ginning at a bounded white oak standing on the east side of An- 
tietam near the creek and over against the said Poe's plantation." 
It is difficult to identify the site of Poe's plantation. Well Taught 
was subsequently embraced in Rich Barrens, an original tract 
patented to Peter Shiess; it was also adjacent to the Antietam on 
the west side and the only farms adjacent to the Antietam into 
which Rich Barrens enters are those formerly owned by Jo- 
seph and William Gabby and now by Hiram D. Middlekauff and 
the heirs of the late Joseph Strite. Here there are extensive 
meadows on the west side of the creek, and there can be little 
doubt that George Poe resided there in 1749. 



30 history of leiteksbubg district. 

The Resubvey on Well Taught. 

After Poe had resided here about four years he conceived the 
design of extending his landed possessions — a procedure by no 
means unusual at the period when large tracts were secured and 
held solely for speculative purposes and the only limit to indi- 
vidual acquisition was the ability to pay the nominal price re- 
quired by the provincial authorities. Accordingly, on the ICtli of 
March, 1752, he secured a warrant for the survey of "some va- 
cant land" that he had discovered contiguous to Well Taught. 
Not having been executed within the time required the warrant 
was renewed on the 28th of August following, in pursuance of 
which twelve hundred acres of vacant land were added and the 
tract received the name of The Resurvey on Well Taught, with a 
total area of thirteen hundred acres. The patent was issued on 
the 14th of March, 1754. This tract embraced the site of 
Leitersburg; its principal extent was east and southeast of the vil- 
lage, although it also extended north as far as the mill that for- 
merly stood on the land of Samuel Martin. 

That Poe secured this extensive tract for speculative purposes 
is shown by the fact that in the following year he disposed of 
eight hundred acres, nearly two-thirds of its area. The respec- 
tive purchasers were Michael Miller, 409 acres; William Hall, 115 
acres; Michael Leatherman, 52 acres; Robert Hartness, 51 acres, 
and Christopher Burkhart, 173 acres; to all of whom deeds were 
executed on the 17th of March, 1755. Of The Resurvev on Well 
Taught the original owner eventually retained 362 acres, but be- 
fore disposing of this he initiated proceedings for a second re- 
survey. The first resurvey was principally east of the Antietam; 
west of that creek he discovered an extensive tract of vacant land, 
for the survey of which he secured a warrant in 1761, but before 
completing the title he sold his landed interests here to Jacob 
Leiter. About this time he purchased land on Fishing creek in 
Frederick County, in which at a later date there was a a large 
connection of Poes near the town of Jefferson, although the 
family is no longer represented there. 

George Hartle was a resident of Leitersburg District in 1760 
and perhape earlier; it was in 1760 that he purchased from 
Leatherman the fifty-two acres the latter had bought from Poe in 



EABLY LAND TENURE AND SETTLEMENT. 31 

1755. By the acquisition of several original tracts and the pur- 
chase of others he owned at his death in 1776 350 acres of land, 
now embraced in the farms of Samuel Hartle, Henry and Freder- 
ick Hartle, and Alveh L. Stockslager. It is believed that he built 
and occupied the present dwelling house on the farm of Samuel 
Hartle. His descendants are more numerous in the District to- 
day than those of any other of its pioneer settlers. 

In 1797 Jacob Miller purchased 162 acres of land, now em- 
braced in the farm of Samuel Hartle, part of which was formerly 
owned by Martin Hartle and constituted his part of his father's 
estate. Here Jacob Miller lived until his death in 1822. His 
son, Jacob Miller, from whom Miller's church derived its name, 
was bom and reared h^re. 

The IiESUBVEY on Foe's Part of Well Taught. 

In 1762 Jacob Leiter became a resident of the locality that per- 
petuates his family name. From George Poe he purchased 362 
acres of land, embracing the site of Leitersburg, the Barkdoll and 
Summer farms, etc., and here he resided until his death two years 
later. It is not improbable that the oldest part of the present 
house on the farm of Joseph Barkdoll was built and occupied by 
him. Poe also assigned to Leiter his interest in a resurvey on 
Well Taught then pending; Leiter completed the title and se- 
cured a patent, which was issued in his favor, April 19, 1763. 
Nearly a thousand acres of vacant land were added, increasing 
the area of the tract to 1,294 acres. It was called The Resurvey on 
Poe's Part of Well Taught, and embraced some of the finest farms 
in the central part of the District, including, wholly or in part, 
those of the late David and Joseph Strite, Henry L. Strite, Noah 
E. Shank, William H. Kreps, John F. Strite, W. Harvey Hykes, 
Mrs. Mary A. Hykes, Henry M. Jacobs, John C. Miller, Edward 
M. White, and others. 

Previous to his death Jacob Leiter had arranged for the 
sale of nearly a thousand acres of The Second Resurvey on Well 
Taught, and in his will he gave the following instructions to his 
executors: *T empower my executors to convey to the several 
[parties] hereafter named all that tract of land which was as- 
signed to me by George Poe according to the agreement and com- 
pact between the parties, viz., to Christian Leiter, Jacob Good, 



32 HISTOEY OF LEITEESBURG DISTRICT. 

John Reiff, Jacob Bitter, Philip Eeinall, and to Henry Fore." 
Accordingly, in October, 1765, Andrew Hoover and John ReiflE, 
the executors referred to, deeded to Christian Leiter 10? acres, to 
Jacob Good 145, to John Beiff 144, to Jacob Bitter 216, to PhiUp 
Bcinall 119, and to Henry Fore 233. Another clause of Jacob 
Leiter's will read as follows: "I give and bequeath unto my two 
youngest sons, Jacob Leiter and Peter Leiter, the place of land 
whereon I now live, containing 362 acres more or less." Thus 
the extensive landed estate of the testator was divided among 
nearly a dozen individuals the year after his death. 

Christian Leiter's land was northwest of Leitersburg on the 
Greencastle road. In 1793 he sold it toMichael Wolfinger, a native 
of Germany, who located here and was engaged in farming, dis- 
tilling, blacksmithing, and hotel-keeping until his death in 1816. 
He has numerous descendants in the District. 

Jacob Bitter's part- of the Leiter lands is now embraced prin- 
cipally in the farms of Henry M. Jacobs and Mrs. Mary A. Hykes. 
On the line between these two farms is a well, referred to in old 
deeds as "Jacob Bitter's well." The line of division was run 
across the well in order that the occupants of both farms might 
have access to it. Here Jacob Bitter resided until his death in 
1804. 

Henry Fore's purchase of 233 acres was embraced in Collier's 
Amendment, a tract of 448 acres granted by patent to Frederick 
Nicodemus, October 8, 1768. In 1779 Nicodemus also pur- 
chased Beinall's part of the Leiter lands. 

Allamangle. 

Peter Shiess was an extensive land owner in Leitersburg Dis- 
trict at the period to which this chapter relates. His first acqui- 
sition was AUamangle, a tract of one hundred acres, for which 
he secured a warrant, August 22, 1750. The boundaries are de- 
scribed as "Beginning at a bounded wild cherry tree near a 
marked rock about three poles from Antietam creek on the west 
side thereof." This tract is principally embraced in the farm of 
Lewis Lecron, although it also included the channel of the creek 
for some distance above the mill that formerly stood on the land 
of Samuel Martin. In the patent, which was granted October 9, 
1752, Shiess is described as "a German Protestant." There can 



EABLY LAND TENURE AND SETTLEMENT. 33 

be little doubt that he became a resident of the District at thifi 
time, as he is known to have resided here for many years. 

All That's Left. 

The area of this tract was 597 acres; it was granted to Peter 
Shicss by original patent. May 4, 1765, and adjoined The Resur- 
vey on Well Taught. 

In 1767 two brothers, Peter and Anthony Bell, purchased land 
from Shiess, the former 248 acres, the latter 105 acres, parts of 
All That's Left. Peter BelFs land is embraced principally in the 
farms of Joseph M. Bell and Daniel S. Wolfinger; Anthony Bell's, 
in that of the heirs of John Eshleman. Anthony Bell resided 
here until his death in 1812; Peter Bell died at Hagerstown in 
1778. He was a member of the County Committee of Safety in 
1776. 

BiCH Barrens. 

The most extensive tract acquired by Peter Shiess was Rich 
Barrens, the area of which was 1,154 acres. The warrant for its 
survey was issued on the 4th of May, 1765; the patent, April 27, 
1767. The preamble to the latter instrument states that he "was 
seized in fee of and in a tract or parcel of land called Well Taught, 
* * * originally on the 4th day of July, A. D. 1749, granted unto 
a certain George Poe for one hundred acres," contiguous to which 
he had discovered some vacant land, etc. Rich Barrens included, 
wholly or in part, the farms owned by Mrs. Abraham Strite, the 
heirs of Joseph Strite, John S. Strite, Franklin M. Strite, Daniel 
Hoover, Mrs. Martha H. Leiter, Daniel W. Martin, and others; it 
also extended into Pennsylvania, where it enters into the farms 
of Henry Barkdoll, Upton W. Harshman, and Joseph Shank. 

In 1770 Shiess sold 713 acres to Dr. Henry Schnebley, who 
gave to his purchase the name of The Forest. Several years later 
he sold two hundred acres to Philip Boyer, from whom it was 
purchased by Daniel Mowen; in 1777 this land was bought by 
Henry Schriver, who located thereon in August of that year. It 
was part of the agreement between them "that the said Daniel 
Mowen and family have free privilege to live in the dwelling 
house on said premises with the said Henry Schriver and family, 
and likewise enjoy the full use of his own property and equal 
share of stabling for and until the 1st day of April, which shall 



^ HI8T0BT OF LEITEB8BUB0 DI8TBICT. 

be in the year of our Lord 1778, the summer crops, viz., oats, 
com, and hay, to be divided between the said parties hereunto, 
share and share alike." Three generations of Schrivers, each 
bearing the surname of Henry, successively resided upon the land 
thus purchased. It is now embraced principally in the farm of 
Mrs. Martha H. Leiter. 

Dr. Schnebley sold 142 acres to Abraham Leiter in 1774, re- 
serving ^liberty to himself or any other person whatsoever, they, 
their heirs, or assigns forever to have liberty and a free passage to 
go and carry water of and from the spring or well now situated 
in the above mentioned land sold by the above Henry Schnebley, 
Sr., to the above named Abraham Leiter whatever is useful and 
necessary for the people that live at present or any other people 
that possess the land whereon Philip Boyer now lives on thence- 
forth forever; providing always that they all every one of them 
do no other damage or hurt to said Abraham Leitfir's land and to 
said spring or well than carry oflE water for the use of their family 
and cattle in the summer time or when the water is low and do 
not run that they may have recourse by a path to said spring or 
well." This reservation shows the importance attached to run- 
ning water. The well referred to is situated on the farm of 
Franklin M. Strite, which embraces a large part of the land sold 
by Schnebley to Leiter. The latter sold it in 1782 to Melchoir 
Beltzhoover from whom it was purchased in 1792 by Henry 
Schriver, who devised it by will to his son John. Among the sub- 
sequent owners were George Shiess, Frederick Bell, John Horst, 
and Henry Funk. 

That part of The Forest between the Schriver farms and Ja- 
cobs church was sold in 1800 by Dr. Schnebley to Albertus Haf- 
ner, who had probably resided thereon as tenant for some years 
previously. John Simpson owned this land from 1809 to 1814, 
when he sold it to Samuel Qarver, who resided there until 1832; 
he then removed to Greene Township, Franklin County, Pa., 
where his descendants now live. This land is now owned by 
Daniel Hoover. 

Pebby^s Retibement. 

Joseph Perry was also the original owner of a tract of one hun- 
dred acres near Leitersburg, to which he gave the name of Perry's 



EARLY LAND TENURE AND SETTLEMENT. 



35 



Retirement. The patent was granted on the 29th of September, 
1755. In the following year he sold this tract to William Hall 
and Robert Hartness in equal parts. In 1762 Hall sold 166 acres 
(116 from The Resurvey on Well Taught and fifty from Perry's 
Retirement) to Jacob Leiter, who devised it by will to Peter 
Good, the husband of his daughter Anna, from whom it was pur- 
chased in 1769 by John Gabby. He resided here for a number 
of years and eventually acquired a landed estate of several hun- 
dred acres, which was subsequently owned by his sons, William 
and Joseph. The Gabby lands are now owned by Hiram D. Mid- 
dlekauff, John A. Bell, C. C. Hollinger, and the estate of the late 
Joseph Strite. 

Huckleberry Hall. 

Huckleberry Hall was originally surveyed for Daniel Dulany, 
December 5, 1742, but before completing the title he died. The 
patent was granted to Jacob French, September 29, 1759; its 
area was one hundred acres, the boundary of which was described 
as "Beginning at a bounded white oak standing by the side of 
Forbush's branch, a draught of Antietam creek." The next 
owner was John Schnebley, from whom this tract with other ad- 
jacent land aggregating 240 acres was leased by Jacob Good in 
1770. It was specified that at the expiration of the lease "There 
will be left with the place all buildings such as it is at present, 
with all the improvements; likewise the table and benches in the 
house; also two bedsteads, with divers household goods, the iron 
stove excepted." The value of all "building, clearing, ditching, 
or damming the water" done by Good was to be appraised by four 
men. In 1772 he purchased the entire tract. Here he resided 
from 1787 until his death in 1797. Huckleberry Hall was subse- 
quently owned by the Barrs and Winters and is now embraced 
partly in the farm of C. L. G. Anderson. 

Dry Spring. 

Frederick Fogler was the original owner of Dry Spring, a tract 
of 129 acres principally embraced in the farm of John S. Strite 
near New Harmony school. His patent was granted on the 26th 
pf August, 1762. That he actually resided here is shown by a 
deed executed in his favor in 1770 by Peter Shiess for fifty-three 



36 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURO DISTRICT. 

acres, part of Bich Barrens, the boundary of which is described as 
'^Beginning at the beginning tree of a tract of land called Dry 
Spring, being the land whereon the said Frederick Fogler now 
lives." The "dry spring'^ has been identified as a shallow well near 
Mr. Strite's house, and in all probability Fogler's improvements 
were in the immediate vicinity. He sold this property in 1778 to 
John Johnson, from whom it was purchased in 1780 by Philip 
Snell. He resided here until his death in 1789 and devised the 
property by will to his son Henry, by whom it was sold in 1797 to 
John Strite, fohneriy of Lancaster County, Pa., the ancestor of 
the Strite family of Leitersburg District. It has since contin- 
ued in possession of his descendants. 

Burkhart's Lot. 

Christopher Burkhait has been mentioned as the purchaser of 
land from George Poe in 1755, the boundary of which is described 
as "Beginning at the beginning tree of the tract of land the said 
Burkhart now lives on," which shows that he was a resident of the 
District at that date. Here he built one of the first mills, the site 
of which is now marked by the ruins of a similar structure on the 
property of Samuel Martin. He resided there in 1755, as evi- 
denced by the patent for Hunt for Timber, a tract now embraced 
in the farm near Rock Forge owned by the heirs of John Eshle- 
man; the original boundary of this tract was surveyed in 1755 
and is described as "Beginning at a bounded black oak standing 
on the north side of a hill on the east side of Great Antietam 
about one mile above Christopher Burkhart's." 

In 1759 Burkhart secured a patent for NeaFs Bottom, a tract 
originally surveyed in 1747, the boundary of which began "at a 
bounded Spanish oak standing on the hillside on the west side of 
Antietam * * ♦ two miles above the sugar bottom." This tract, 
as well as his purchase from Poe, was included in Burkhart's Lot, 
the area of which was 638 acres; the patent was issued in his 
favor, September 29, 1764. It embraced, wholly or in part, the 
lands now owned by Samuel Martin, Benjamin F. Baker, 
Isaac Needy, Daniel Oiler, Joseph Wishard, Mrs. Margaret 
Leather, C. C. Hollinger, Upton Clopper, Henry Martin, and Im- 
manuel and Kate E. Martin. 

That part embraced in the farms of Upton Clopper and Henry 



EAKLY LAND TENURE AND SETTLEMENT. 37 

Martin was purchased from Burkhart in 1768 by Nicholas Shafer, 
who sold it in 1785 to Henry Solmes. He resided here until his 
death in 1799 and left two daughters, Catharine and Margaret 
The former married John Mentzer, who received that part of her 
father's estate embraced in the Martin farm, where he lived until 
his death; the latter married Andrew Bell, who thus acquired the 
Clopper farm, and resided thereon until 1834. 

In 1765 John Scott purchased sixty-one acres from Burkhart; 
in 1770 he secured a resurvey thereon with an area of 298 acres, 
designated in the patent as The Besurvey on Part of Burk- 
hart's Lot. The boundary is described as "Beginning at a 
bounded white oak standing on the north side of Tipton's run, it 
being the beginning tree of a tract of land belonging to George 
Lambert." Tipton's run is the stream that crosses the Smiths- 
burg road near Martin's school house. A part of this resurvey 
with considerable adjacent land was acquired prior to 1792 by 
Peter Stotler, who lived near Little Antietam at the present resi- 
dence of John B. Barkdoll, where he died in 1835. In 1773 the 
larger part of Scott's resurvey (223 acres) including the site of 
Bowman's mill, the farms of Immanuel and Kate E. Martin, etc., 
came into possession of Christian Hyple, who probably resided 
thereon during the Bevolution. After him the successive own- 
ers were Abraham Stouffer, Jacob Gilbert, and Abraham Moyer. 
A short, distance down the creek from Bowman's mill stands a 
substantial stone house, in one of the gables of which is this 
inscription: "H. B. Hockman, 1803." This property is now 
owned by the heirs of the late Henry G. Clopper. Hockman 
purchased it in 1785 from Casper Swenk and resided here until 
his death, May 29, 1813. In the deed to Hockman the land is 
described as part of three original tracts, viz., The Resurvey on 
Part of Burkhart's Lot, Little Valley, and Chaney's Choice. It is 
probable that Swenk resided her© before Hockman. He pur- 
chased Little Valley in 1771 from John Lambert of Augusta 
County, Va. 

After disposing of about two hundred acres from Burkhart's 
Lot the original owner had the remainder resurveyed under the 
name of Burkhart's Establishment, for which ho was granted a 
patent on the 11th of April, 1794. It? area was 440 acres, now 
embraced principally in the lands of Benjamin F. Baker, Samuel 
Martin, Daniel Oiler, Isaac Ifeedy, and Joseph Wishard. 



38 histoby of leiteb8bukg distbict. 

Scant Timbeb. 

Pelican was granted to Andrew Slush, October 27, 1759, with 
an area of ninety-five acres and adjoined The Resun^ey on Ches- 
ter. Wendell Sights, a subsequent owner, secured a resurvey with 
an area of 540 acres and changed the name to Scant Timber, for 
which he was granted a patent on the 10th of March, 1766. This 
land adjoined the road that leads from the turnpike to the Old 
Forge, and Sights resided here for some years. 

Fatheb's Good Will. 

The original name of this tract was Content, patented to John 
Stoner on the 24th of May, 1762, with an area of 230 acres. He 
secured a warrant for a resurvey, by which the area was increased 
to 1,365 acres, but died before completing the title; John Stoner, 
his oldest son, sold it to David Stoner, to whom the patent was 
granted, September 1, 1774, under the name of Father's Good 
WiU. 

This tract comprised the northeastern part of the District and 
also extended into Ringgold. It was one of the last of the ex- 
tensive original grants to be settled and improved. The principal 
purchasers of the Stoner lands in Leitersburg District were Chris- 
tian Garver, 197 acres, 1790; John Mentzer, 100 acres, 1793, and 
30 acres, 1801; Peter Stotler, 109 acres, 1801. The farm now 
owned by William H. Hoffman was embraced in Christian Car- 
ver's first purchase; his son, Isaac Garver, also resided here and in 
1830 it was purchased by Jacob Barr. Garver subsequently 
bought one hundred acres from Abraham Stoner; it was also pari; 
of Father's Good Will and is now included in the farm of Mrs. 
Mary M. Newcomer. The greater part of the Mentzer land has 
continued in possession of the family four generations and is now 
owned by E. Keller Mentzer. Stotler's purchase was devised by 
will to his daughter Catharine, wife of Henry Yesler, who resided 
here for some years. 

Elysian Fields. 

Among the original tracts in the extreme northwestern pari: of 
the District were Scott's Grief, one hundred acres, patented to 
Wiliam Douglass, May 4, 1752; Work Easy, twenty acres, 
patented to Henry Fore, June 10, 1761; The Eesurvey on 



EABLY LAND TENUBE AND SETTLEMENT. 39 

Nicholases Contrivance, patented to James Downing, all of which 
eventually came into possession of Wiliam Douglass together with 
part of Collier's Amendment. He was a resident here in 1765. 
On the 27th of May, 1788, his son, Samuel Douglass, secured a 
warrant for the resurvey of these lands under the name of Elysian 
Fields, the area of which was 237 acres. In 1794 the tract was 
purchased from Samuel Douglass by Ignatius Taylor, who re- 
sided here until his death in 1807. The subsequent owners were 
Joseph Sprigg, Daniel Sprigg, Henry Funk, Henry Myers, and 
Daniel Jacobs, whose purchase was made in 1825. It is now 
owned principally by his descendants, Isaac Hykes and J. H. 
Hykes. 

The Farmeb's Blessing. 

The patent for this tract was granted to Dr. Henry Schnebley, 
November 16, 1793. It was a resurvey on Scant Timber, 
Schnebley^s Neglect, Walker's Welcome to Antietam (forty-eight 
acres, patented to Samuel Hughes, August 7, 1770), and Well 
Meant (305 acres, patented to Thomas Johns, September 7, 1770). 
The original area was 573 acres. Dr. Schnebley died in 1805, 
having devised this tract to his son, Jacob Schnebley, who resided 
here for a time. In 1828 it was purchased from the adminis- 
trators of his estate by Frederick Ziegler, whose descendants still 
own a considerable part of it. 

Addition to Cumberland. 

This was a resurvey on All That's Left, Search Well and You 
Will Find, and Hunt for Timber (one hundred acres, patented to 
George Keeler, November 24, 1755). The patentee was Anthony 
Bell; the patent was granted on the 11th of April, 1794, and the 
area of the tract was two hundred acres. It is situated near Eock 
Forge and is now owned by the heirs of John Eshleman. 

Turkey Buzzard. 

This was a tract of 506 acres, a resurvey on Longmeadows En- 
larged, Collier's Amendment, and Well Meant. The patent was 
granted to Thomas Belt, October 24, 1794. In 1827 it was pur- 
chased by George I. Harry, who gave it the name of Colebrook. 
Both Belt and Harry resided here. It is now embraced partly in 
the farm of Isaac Shank. 



40 HISTOBY OF LEITEBSBUBO DI8TBICT. 

CUMBEBLAND. 

This was originally a tract of one hundred acres, patented to 
John Stoner, October 13, 1750. Its boundary is described as 
"Beginning at a small bounded locust about fifty yards north of 
Antietam creek about two miles from the Temporary Line." 

In 1791 Daniel Hughes purchased from the heirs of Peter 
Shiess all of Allamangle, All Thaf s Left, and Eich Barrens not 
previously sold, and in the same year he applied for a resurvey 
that should embrace all these lands, together with Cumberland 
and Great Eocks. Legal obstacles were encountered, however, 
and the patent was not granted until September 17, 1810. The 
tract was called Cumberland, and its area was 658 acres. It em- 
braced, wholly or in part, the farms of Leonard Senger, Daniel 
V. Shank, Lewis Lecron, John Kriner, Mrs. Fanny Strite, and 
William BarkdoU, extending across the northern central part of 
the District from near Jacobs church to the Leitersburg and 
Ringgold road. Colonel Hughes died in 1818, having devised 
this extensive tract by will to his son Eobert, in whose possession 
it continued until his death in 1829. 

Smalleb Tbacts. 

In addition to the large tracts described the District also in- 
cluded others of smaller area. For instance, in a deed from Mi- 
chael Grebill to Sebastian Hartle (1813) for 275 acres adjacent to 
the road from Leitersburg to Chewsville the following original 
tracts are mentioned: The Eesurvey on Well Taught, Skipton-on- 
Craven, Good, Hartleys Lot, The Eesurvey on Poe's Part of Well 
Taught, Surveyor's Last Shift, Miller's Fancy, Strawberry Bot- 
tom, Small Timber, Jacob, Johnson^s Lot, Baker's Best, and Fry's 
Lot. And in a deed fromAlexander Claggett to JohnStrite (1817) 
for 282 acres, now embraced in the farms of John F. Strite and 
W. Harvey Hykes, Brown's Grief, The Eesurvey on Poe's Part of 
Well Taught, Collier's Amendment, The Eesuney on Well 
Meant, The Eesurvey on Small Gain, and Tom's Chance are men- 
tioned as constituent tracts. Brown's Grief was surveyed in 
1753 and patented by John McClelland in 1771. Its area was 
thirty acres. The boundary began "at a bounded Spanish oak 
standing on the northwest side of a stony hill near a great marsh 
known by the name of the black meadow.'^ 



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eably land tenure and settlement. 43 

Adjustment of Boundaries. 

The original tracts were laid out with but little regard to regu- 
larity of outline. The prospective purchaser or his agent visited 
the locality in which he desired to secure land, and having ap- 
proximately determined the number of acres in the proposed tract 
applied to the provincial land oflBce for a warrant for its survey, 
which was executed by a deputy surveyor. Marshes and hills 
were avoided; smooth land of apparent fertility was most desired, 
and hence the lines were usually run so as to include as much of 
the latter and as little of the former as possible, often resulting in 
an almost interminable succession of courses and distances. 

In determining the boundaries of a tract of land it is essential 
to know with certainty the location of some point from wliich 
distance and direction have been taken. The point meet desir- 
able for this purpose is "the place of beginning," which in the 
original surveys was usually a bounded tree; i. e., a notched tree 
or one from which the bark was removed in a circle a foot or more 
wide. This served the immediate purpose well enough, but such 
a tree dies as a result of the process and in the course of years falls 
to the ground, undistinguishable from others that have shared 
the same fate. When this occurred it became a matter of import- 
ance to identify the point the tree was intended to mark; and in 
eases of this kind the law provided that on application by the 
owner of the tract the county court should appoint commission- 
ers to meet upon the ground, take testimony, and erect a perma- 
nent comer-stone. Thus, at August session, 1769, upon petition 
of Lawrence O'Neal, the Frederick County court appointed a 
commission to determine and perpetuate the boundary of Great 
Eocks. Two of the commissioners, Daniel Hughes and William 
Beard, met on the tract in question, June 2, 1770, when the fol- 
lowing proceedings were taken: 

The boundary, a large white oak, being destroyed, there is set up a 
stone at the same place marked on the south side GBR. 

Peter Bell, being duly sworn, sayeth that a larpe white oak where 
the stone marked as above is set up he heard was the boundary of 
Great Rocks and saw references taken from it by said name. 

Anthony Bell, being sworn, saith that he saw a small white oak 
bush which grew close to the old white oak markexl for the boundary 
of Great Rocks in place of said old tree, and said small bush stands 
there still but is on the decay; and likewise was sworn chain carrier 

3 



44 HISTORY OF LEITER8BUEQ DISTBICT. 

when reference was taken from said white oak by the name of the 
boundary of Great Rocks. 
Peter Shiess, being sworn, saith as above and no more. 

The boundary of Skipton-on-Craven was similarly determiiied 
on the 6th of November, 1772, by William Beard and Christopher 
Burkhart, commissioners appointed by the Frederick County 
court upon petition of Jacob Good. The proceedings in this ease 
were as follows: 

George Hartle, being sworn, saith that he was two times with the 
surveyors and saw them start from an old Spanish oak, which oak 
went by the name of the boundar;y' of Skipton-on-Craven, and that 
for several years he understood said oak to be the boundary of Skip- 
ton-on-Craven. 

John Ueiff solemnly affirmeth and saith that he frequently saw 
the surveyors run to and from an old Spanish oak near Jacob Good*8 
saw-mill by the name of the boundary of Skipton-on-Craven. 

Frederick Hartle, being sworn, saith he was chain carrier when the 
surveyor ran that part of land called Skipton-on-Craven and that 
they ran from an old Spanish oak near Jacob Good's saw-mill, which 
oak he understood was the boundary of Skipton-on-Craven. 

George Lambert-, being sworn, saith he saw an old Spanish oak 
near Jacob Good's saw-mill, notched on two sides, and for many 
years knew it by the name of the boundary of Skipton-on-Craven*. 

The above boundary' being destroyed, we have set up a stone 
marked on the south side "1772" and three holes marked with a 
punch, and on the east edge three marks with said punch. 

The disappearance of old landmarks and the frequency of dis- 
putes over boundary lines resulted in 1786 in the passage of an 
act of Assembly authorizing the owners of contiguous lands to 
unite in the employment of a competent surveyor to run the lines 
of their respective holdings and erect permanent comer-stones. 
Under the provisions of this law an extensive resurvey was made 
in 1792, embracing the site of Leitersburg and many farms in 
the center of the District. The parties to this agreement were 
John Gabby, Christopher Burkhari:, Jacob Leiter, Mari;in Grider, 
Christian Lantz, George Lantz, Peter Leiter, Henry Solmes, Sam- 
uel Kraumer, Sebastian Hartle, Joseph Long, Frederick Hartle, 
Henry Walter, and Peter Stotler, and the surveyor was Ambrose 
Geohagen. Division lines were rosurveyed, discrepancies ad- 
justed, conflicting claims compromised, and comer-stonos erected, 
inscribed with the date, 1792, and distinguishing initials. Some 



EARLY LAND TENURE AND SETTLEMENT. 45 

of these monuments still possess legal significance, although in 
the lapse of a hundred years the boundaries of farms have 
changed. 

In 1811 a similar resurvey was made by Jonas Hogmire for a 
number of land owners in the northeastern part of Leitersburg 
District and adjacent territory in Einggold and Cavetown. 

Mason and Dixon's Line. 

Mason and Dixon's Line, the northern boundary of the Dis- 
trict and for many years the northern limit of slavery, represents 
the conclusion of a controversy contimued through several genera- 
tions between the successive Proprietaries of Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania. By the terms of Lord Baltimore's charter his grant 
extended northward "unto that part of Delaware Bay which lieth 
under the fortieth degree of north latitude and westward in a 
right line." These limits embraced the State of Delaware and a 
strip of Pennsylvania territory about twenty miles wide, includ- 
ing the city of Philadelphia. The southern limit of Penn's grant 
is described as "a circle drawn at twelve miles distance from New 
Castle northward and westward unto the beginning of the for- 
tieth degree of northern latitude and then by a straight line west- 
ward." His Province would thus have embraced the greater part 
of Maryland, including the city of Baltimore. 

In the controversy that ensued Lord Baltimore had the ad- 
vantage of priority, Penn that of possession and power. In jus- 
tice to the claims of the latter, however, it should be stated that 
the map used in making both grants was one published in 1614 by 
Captain John Smith, in which the location of the fortieth parallel 
is nearly identical with that of Mason and Dixon's Line. 

At an early period in the controvelrsy the Maryland Proprie- 
taries were obliged to concede the claims of the Penns east of the 
Susquehanna, but they still hoped that west of that river the 
northern limit of their charter would be recognized. Accord- 
ingly, under Governor Ogle's administration strenuous efforts 
were made to colonize the present territory of York County, Pa., 
in the Maryland interest and to maintain jurisdiction there by 
force of arms. A border war ensued, reference of which is especial- 
ly pertinent here, as two of the most active partisans in the 
Maryland interest, Cresap and Charlton, subsequently became 



46 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

residents of Leitersburg District. These troubles were termin- 
ated in 1738 by a royal order establishing a temporary line, fifteen 
and one-fourth miles south of Philadelphia east of the Susque- 
hanna; west of the river, fourteen and three-fourth miles south of 
that city. The latter part of the line was run by Lawrence Grow- 
d«n and Richard Peters, commissioners, and Benjamin Eastbum, 
surveyor. They began at the Susquehanna on the 8th of May, 
1739, and proceeded westward "to the top of the most western 
hill of a range of hills called the Kittochtinny hills [North 
mountain], distant from the place of beginning about eighty- 
eight statute miles.*'* On the 28th of the same month the sur- 
vey was reported as completed. The line thus run is known as 
the Temporary Line. Its course was marked at frequent inter- 
vals by blazed trees. In the longitude of Leitersburg District 
the Temporary Line was about 225 perches north of Mason and 
Dixon's,! and the intervening territory in Pennsylvania was all 
secured under Maryland tenure. 

It was doubtless expected that a permanent survey would soon 
supersede the Temporary Line of 1739; but it was not until 1760 
that the Penns and Lord Baltimore entered into an agreement by 
which the controversy was finally terminated. In 1763 Charles 
Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two eminent mathematicians and 
surveyors, were employed to run the lines agreeably to the terms 
of this agreement. The lines that constitute the present bound- 
aries of the State of Delaware first engaged their attention. In 
the survey of the line that bears their name they reached the Sus- 
quehanna on the 17th of June, 1765, and crossed South moun- 
tain about the 1st of September. The following entries occur in 
their journal during the survey across the Cumberland valley: 

September 4. At 93 m. 63 ch. crossed the first rivulet running into 
Antietam. At 94 m. 62 ch. crossed a second rivulet running* into An- 
tietamk This rivulet is at the foot of the South mountain on the 
west side. 

♦ Pennsylvania Archives, Vol., I, p. 613. 

t In the office of the county surveyor of Washingrton County there is a connected 
draught of Fabian's Marsh, Poor Robin's Almanac, and other tracts, on which the 
course of the Temporary Line is indicated about twenty-five perches north of the 
northern point of Fabian's Marsh, which is also the northern point of a tract of land 
deeded to Joseph M. Bell by the heirs of David Jacobs in 1881. This point is about two 
hundred perches north of Mason and Dixon's Line between the first and second mile 
stones west of the Antietam. 



EARLY LAND TENURE AND SETTLEMENT. 47 

5. Brought the sector to this side of the mountain. 

6. Set up the sector in our direction at the distance of 94 ni. 63 ch. 
10 L from the post* marked west in Mr. Bryan's fleld, and made the 
following observations. 

The journal from September 7th to 18th consists entirely of 
astronomical observations and computations based thereon for 
the purpose of determining the true parallel. 

19. Packing up the instrimients, etc. 

20. Began to run the line in the direction found per stars on the" 
9th inst., corrected so as to be in the parallel at 20' west (supposing 
us to change at every 10' as usual). 

21. Continued the line. At 95 m. 38 ch. crossed a brook* running 
into Antietam. At 96 m. 3 ch. Mr. Stophel Shockey*s house 7 ch. 
north. 

23. Continued the line and crossed Antietam creek at 99 m. 35 ch. 

24. Continued the line. At 101 m. 71 ch. Mr. Samuel Irwin's spring* 
house 2 ch. north. At 102 m. 34 ch. Mr. Michael Walker's house 4 
ch. north. At 102 m. 67 ch. a rivulet" running into Antietam. At 102 
m, 70 ch. Mr. William Douglass's house* 4 ch. north. 

25. Continued the line. At 103 m. 69 ch. crossed a road* leading to 
Swaddinger's Ferry on Potomac. 

26. Continued the line. At 105 m. 78 ch. 67 1. changed our direction 
as usual. At 106 m. 4 ch. Mr. Ludwig Cameron's house 4 eh. north. 

27. Continued the line. 

28. At 108 m. 5 ch. crossed the road* leading from Carlisle to Wil- 
liams's, now Watkin's Ferry, on Potomac. 

30. Continued the line. At 108 m. 65 ch. Mr. Thomas Meck's house 
2 ch. south. At 109 m. 14 ch. crossed Conococheague creek. 
October 1. Continued the line. 

2. Continued the lineL At 112 m. 20 ch. crossed a road leading from 
the Temporary Line to Frederick Town. 

3. Continued the line. At 114 m. Mr. Philip Davis's house one mile 
and a half north by estimation. 

^Thenortheastemcomer of Maryland, described as "situated in Mill Creek Hun- 
dred in the County of New Castle on a plantation belongrinff to Mr. Alexander Bryan." 

1 Near Midvale station on the Western Maryland railroad. 

* This spring is on the farm of John H . Miller near the intersection of the line with 
the Iveitersburg.and Greencastle road. 

^ Marsh Run. 

* Near the present residence of Isaac Hykes. 

* This is probably the road laid out in 1749 under direction of the Frederick County 
court by Thomas Cresap and Thomas Prather from the Potomac river to the Pennsyl- 
vania line " through Salisbury plains." 

* The present Williamsport and Greencastle road. 



48 HISTOBY OF LEITEBSBURQ DISTRICT. 

4. Continued the line. At 115 m. 42 ch. crossed a small rivulet at 
the foot of the North mountain. 

A series of astronomical observations was begun on the 7th 
of October, upon the conclusion of which the party returned to 
the Susquehanna. The journal reads as follows: 

Packed up our instruments and left them (not in the least dam- 
aged to our knowledge) at Captain Shelby's.* 

Repaired with Captain Shelby to the summit of the mountain in 
the direction of our line; but the air was so hazy, prevented our see- 
ing the course of the river. 

27. Captain Shelby again went with us to the summit of the mount- 
ain (when the air was very clear) and showed us the northernmost 
bend of the river Potomac at the Tonoloways, from which we judge 
the line will pass about two miles to the north of the said river. 
From hence we could see the Allegheny mountains for many miles 
and judge it by appearance to be about fifty miles distance in the 
direction of the line. 

28. Set off on our return to the river Susquehanna to mark the ofP- 
sets from our visto to the true parallel. Set off the offsets to the 
109th mile post. 

29. Set off the offsets to the 96th mile post. 

30. Set off the offsets to the 87th mile post. 

They reached the Susquehanna on the 6th of November and 
on the 8th "discharged all hands.^' The westward survey was re- 
sumed on the Ist of April, 1766. Sideling Hill creek, the western 
boundary of Washington County, was crossed on the 29th of 
April, and the parity reached the foot af Savage mountain eariy 
in June. The following entry occurs under date of June 18th: 

Set up a post (18 inches square, 3 feet in the ground and 5 out) at 
the distance of 3.66 chains north of the sector, marked M on the 
south side, P on the north side, and W on the >vest, and began to 
cut a visto in the true parallel or line between Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania by running it through points we have laid off from the line 
we have made at every ten chains. 

They reached the 118th mile post, on the Nori^h mountain, 
July 19th; the 107th, near Mason-Dixon station on the Cuml)€r- 
land Valley railroad, on the 26th; the 96th, near Ringgold, Md., 
on the 2d of August; and the 85th, east of the South mountain, 
on the 9th. On the 25th of September this work was completed 
to "the intersection of the meridian from the tangent point with 

♦Kvan Shelby, father of Isaac Shelby, the first Governor of Kentucky. 



EABLY LAND TENURE AND SETTLEMENT. 49 

the parallel'^ — the northeastern comer of the Province of Mary- 
land. Eegarding this visto tlie following entry occurs in the 
journal Tinder date of September 25th: 

From any eminence in the line where fifteen or twenty miles of the 
Tisto can be seen (of which there, are many) the said line or visto 
yery apparently shows itself to form a true parallel of northern lati- 
tude. The line is measured horizontal; the hills and mountains, 
with a 16V^ foot level. 

Besides the mile posts we have set posts in the true line (marked 
W on the west side) all along the line opposite the stationary points 
where the sector and transit instruments stood. The said posts 
staiid in the middle of the visto, which in general is about eight 
yards wide. 

It thus appears that Mason and Dixon crossed the Cumberland 
valley three times in making their survey. The line run from 
east to west in September and October, 1765, was not the true 
line, but its variation from the true line at intervals of ten chains 
was determined by astronomical observation and computation. 
The true line was marked from west to east in October, 1765, at 
eight points in every mile, determined by measurement from the 
line first run. The true line through the points thus determined 
and marked was finally run in July and August, 1766, when the 
visto thereon was also cut out, and here again the surveyors pro- 
ceeded from west to east. But the work was not yet completed. 
In 1768 stones were planted at the end of every fifth mile en- 
graved with the arms of the Penns on the north side and those 
of the Calverts on the south side; the intermediate miles were 
marked with stones engraved with the letter P on the north side 
and M on the south. These stones were imported from Eng- 
land. 

A five-mile stone stands near the eastern line of Leitersburg 
District, between the farm of William H. Hoffman in Maryland 
and that of John Bonebrake in Pennsylvania, and another for- 
merly stood at the terminus of the Marsh turnpike, where it 
formed the northwestern comer of the District. Of the four in- 
termediate mile stones along the District line three still stand, 
located as follows: On the farm of Mrs. C. B. Deitrich, east of 
Antietam creek; west of that stream, between the lands of Augus- 
tus ShiflBer in Maryland and David B. Shoemaker in Pennsyl- 
vania, and between the lands of Franklin M, Strite in Mar}-land 



50 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

and those of Henry Barkdoll in Pennsylvania; the fourth for- 
merly stood on the farm of John H. Miller, three perches west 
of the Leitersburg and Greencastle road. 

The surveyors were accompanied by a full complement of as- 
sistants, including laborers, axemen, wagoners, etc. In Septem- 
ber, 1767, far to the westward of Fort Cumberland, twenty-six of 
their assistants deserted through fear of the Indians and only 
fifteen axemen remained, from which it is evident that the party 
numbered about fifty persons. From July 19 to August 9, 1766, 
they cut out the visto at the rote of eleven miles per week, an 
average of nearly two miles per day, as it is evident from the 
journal that no labor was performed on Sunday. This visto con- 
situated the first road to Jacobs church and doubtless detennined 
the selection of its site. 



CHAPTER II. 



Social and Material Development. 



Lanouaoe, Dress, Etc.— Slavery— Erection and Boundaries 
OF Leitersburo District— Politics— ** In Wartimes"— 
Agricultural Development— Postal Facilities— Public 
Roads— Bridges —Turnpikes— Mills— Rock Forge— Dis- 
tilleries— Tanneries, Textile Manufactures, Etc. 

With respect to nationality the pioneers of Leitersburg Dis- 
trict were almost exclusively German. Cresap, Charlton, Perry, 
and Sprigg were English, and Gabby was Scotch, but their 
names are almost forgotten. The German element was repre- 
sented by such names as Lambert, Miller, Shiess, Burkhart, Har- 
tle, Fogler, Leiter, Good, Ritter, Reifif, Bell, Lantz, Schriver, 
Solmes, Snell, Mentzer, Garver, Stotler, Wolfinger, Ziegler, Strite 
— an overwhelming majority; and many of these families are still 
represented, because the Germans, as a class, came to stay. 

Industry and thrift, the tendency to acquire real estate and to 
retain it when acquired, are characteristics of the Teuton, and 
while there is abundant reason to believe that the early German 
settlers were generally poor, tliey were not long in securing homes 
and providing for their families the necessities and comforts of 
life. The second generation started in life with larger capital 
and better advantages than the first; its numbers were reduced 
by emigration, but reenf orced again from the older German com- 
munities of York and Lancaster Counties in Pennsylvania, and 
thus the District became more thoroughly German than before. 
The poll and tax books still show an almost uninterrupted suc- 
cession of German names, Anglicized in orthography and pro- 
nunciation but German nevertheless. The four religious de- 
nominations represented in the District — Lutheran, Reformed, 
Mennonite, and German Baptist — are all of German origin. For 
several generations German was the language of social and busi- 
ness intercourse with a large majority of the population; it was 
the language of public worship at Jacobs church until 1840, and 
at Miller's church at a still later date. To-day it is a dead Ian- 



52 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUKQ DI8TKICT. 

guage, and in this respoct the pioneers have failed to transmit to 
their posterity that to which they most tenaciously adhered. But 
English was the language of the county courts, of the local school- 
master, and of the coimtry at large, and under such a combination 
of influences the transition to its use, though gradual, was in- 
evitable. 

The change in language was accompanied by others equally 
noticeable. *The dress of the early settlers,'^ says Kercheval in 
his History of the Valley of Virginia, "was of the plainest material, 
generally of their own manufacture. The men's coats were gen- 
erally made with broad backs and straight short skirts, with pock- 
ets on the outside having large flaps. The waist-coats had skirts 
nearly halfway down to the knees and very broad pocket-flaps. 
The breeches were so short as barely to reach the knee, with a 
band surrounding the knee, fastened with either brass or silver 
buckles. The stocking was drawn up under the knee band and 
tied with a garter (generally red or blue) below the knee, so as 
to be seen. Shoes were of coarse leather, with straps to the quar- 
ters and fastened ^vith either brass or silver buckles. The hat 
was either of wool or felt, with a round crown not exceeding three 
or four inches in height with a broad brim. The dress for the 
neck was usually a narrow collar to the shirt, with a white linen 
stock draTVTi together at the ends on the back of the neck with a 
broad metal buckle. The more wealthy and fashionable were 
sometimes seen with their stock, knee, and shoe buckles set in 
gold or silver with precious stones. * * * The female dress 
was generally the short gown and petticoat made of the plainest 
materials. The German women mostly wore tight calico caps 
on their heads. * * * In hay and harvest time they joined 
the men in the labors of the meadow and grain fields. * * * 
Many females were most expert mowers and reapers. It was no 
uncommon thing to see the female part of the family at the hoe 
or plow.'' To this it might be added that men, women, and chil- 
dren alike discarded shoes in wanii weather, on the score of com- 
fort as well as economy. Wliile respect for the church was almost 
universal, it was not considered neccssarv to wear a coat in warm 
weather, when the men usually appeared in their shirt sleeves. 
There arc those still living who remember when this was charac- 
teristic of the congregations at Beard's and Jacobs. 



SOCLVL AND MATEKIAL DEVELOPMENT. 53 

The firet farm improvements usually consisted of a log house 
and bam, built near a spring or running water if the land offered 
such advantages. The floor of the primitive cabin was made of 
split puncheons and the roof of clapboards weighted with poles. 
Hewn logs, a shingled or thatxiied roof, and plank floors indicated 
an improvement in the circumstances of the owner. A few 
houses of more pretentious appearance were also built at an early 
date. The stone house on the farm of Daniel N. Scheller, near 
the Ziegler mill and several rods beyond the District line, was 
built by Samuel Downing in 1750, and is undoubtedly one of the 
oldest specimens of colonial architecture in Washington County. 
The oldest part of the farm house on the farm of Hiram D. Mid- 
dlekauff near Leitersburg was built by John Gabby prior to 
1779. Among the oldest stone houses within the limits of the 
District is that on the farm of George F. Ziegler near Leiters- 
burg, built by George Lantz, who died in 1802. In 1803 Henry 
B. Hockman built the stone house near Bowman's mill owned by 
the heirs of Henry G. Clopper. Frederick Bell built the stone 
house on the farm of Daniel S. Wolfinger near Eock Forge in 
1812. In 1823 Andrew Bell built the stone house on the farm 
of Upton Clopper. The stone house on the farm of Harvey J. 
Hartle, near Leitersburg, and that on the fann of Isaac Shank, 
near the Marsh mills, are also among the oldest representatives of 
the stone age in rural architecture in Leitersburg District. The 
oldest brick house is undoubtedly that on the Cressler farm, 
built by General Sprigg in the last century. 

Stone was also used so far as possible in the construction of 
bams. Frederick Bell built the stone bam on the farai of Daniel 
S. Wolfinger in 1806; John Barr, that on the farai of Harvey J. 
Hari;le, in 1809; Michael Wolfinger, that on the fami owned by 
the heirs of the late Joseph Strite, in 1815; Joseph Miller, that 
on the farai of Samuel Hykes, in 1819; John Mentzer, that on 
the farai of E. Keller Mentzer, in 1826. A mmiber of others 
were also built, principally at a later date. It seems somewhat 
surprising that the enormous stone gables of these stmctures 
should have been reared at a time when timber was plenty and 
possessed but little commercial value. 

A hundred years ago the aristocracy of Washington County 
lived in the country, and of this class the most distinguished 



54 HISTOBY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

representative in Leitersburg District was General Thomas 
Sprigg. His estate was Sprigg's Paradise, a tract of seventeen 
hundred acres. Here he erected a spacious mansion, some de- 
scription of which may not be inappropriate. The main hall is 
sixty-two feet long and twelve feet wide, and at each end there 
was originally a winding stairway. The drawing room, dining 
room, etc. connected with this hall. The ceilings are fourteen 
feet high on the first floor and thirteen on the second. The house 
is constructed throughout in a most substantial manner and fin- 
ished with a degree of care, taste, and expense ngrely found in 
Washington County country residences at the present day. The 
culinary department and the servants' quarters occupied a separ- 
ate wing. East of the mansion was the garden, arranged in a 
series of terraces. The estate was cultivated by slaves, whose 
quarters, a long, low stone building near the turnpike, were re- 
moved several years ago. The establishment also included a race 
track, west of the turnpike, one mile in length and sixty feet wide, 
with woods on either side. 

This old mansion was often the scene of protracted festivities, 
in which horse-racing, fox-hunting, cock-baiting, dancing, and 
other fashionable amusements contributed to the diversion of the 
guests. The General and his son, who succeeded him, dispensed 
a lavish hospitality. Their immediate circle included the fam- 
ilies of Major Ignatius Taylor, Thomas Belt, and Thomas Hall, 
all of whom resided in Leitersburg District, and Charles Carroll 
of Bellevue, an estate of a thousand acres near Hagerstown. The 
elite of Washington County were entertained here, and visits were 
also exchanged with families of wealth and prominence in south- 
em Maryland. But Sprigg's Paradise has shared the same fate 
as Fountain Rock, Montpelier, and every other large landed estate 
in the county. The old mansion still stands, a reminder of 
social and material conditions that are forever past, but only a 
fraction of the estate is connected with it in ownership, and the 
family name in which the title was vested for three generations 
is now unfamiliar or forgotten. 

Slavery ix the District. 

There is evidence that slaver}' existed upon the present terri- 
tory of Leitersburg District at an early period in its history. 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 55 

Robert Downing, who died in 1755, bequeathed to his son Robert 
'*one negro man named Will and one negro woman named 
Rachel;" and to his son Samuel "one negro boy named Dick and 
one negro girl named Kate." 

The following are transcripts of original papers relating to 
slavery in the District at a later date: 

Received, January 21, 1804, of Jacob Miller the sum of £18 for hire 
of negro Jem, the property of Letty Hall, for one year ending 20th 
January, 1804. I. Taylor. 

Received, January 20, 1806, of Mr. Jacob Miller $80.00 on account 
of Miss Letty Hall for the hire of two negros, Jem and Bob, for one 
year ending this day. Thomas Belt. 

To all whom it may concern: Be it known that I, Jacob Miller, of 
Washington CJounty in the State of Maryland, for divers good causes 
and considerations me thereunto moving as also in further considera- 
"tion of one dollar current money to me in hand paid, have released 
^rom slavery, liberated, manumitted, and set free from and after the 
1st day of January in the year of our Lord 1825 ♦ ♦ ♦ my negro 
I3ian named John Norrison, who will at the date aforesaid be of the 
^ige of thirty years and if in health be able to work and gain a 
sufficient livelihood and maintenance, and him the said negro man 
xiamed John Norrison I do declare to be from and after the 1st day 
of January, 1825, aforesaid free, manumitted, and discharged from 
ell manner of servitude or service to me, my executors, or adminis- 
^tj^tors forever. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand 
snd affixed my seal this 26th of July in the yeai* of our Lord 1820. 

Jacob Miller. 

Know all men by these presents that I, Jacob Kessinger of Wash- 
ington County and State of Maryland for the consideration of the 
sum of $145.00 current money to me in hand paid by John Mentaer, 
-Jr., of the county and State aforesaid, the receipt whereof I do here- 
l)y acknowledge, have granted, bargained, sold, and delivered ♦ ♦ ♦ 
xinto the said John Mentzer, Jr., my negro slave Betty, which said 
slave Betty I will warrant and defend to the said John Mentzer, Jr., 
liis executors, administrators, and assigns ♦ ♦ ♦ against every 
other person or persons whomsoever. In witness whereof I have 
hereunto set my name and affixed my seal this 13th day of March, 
1820. Jacob Kessinger. 

It is my will that my colored people, viz., Hannah Reed, Benjamin 
Buchanan, and Joseph Smith, be free immediately after my death, 
and that my executors pay to each of them ♦ ♦ ♦ the sum of $150 
apiece. — Will of William Gabby, 

In 1815 Christian Lantz manumitted his slave Charies Bryson, 



56 HISTORY OF LEITEBSBUKG DISTKICT. 

aged thirty-eight years, at the consideration of $600.00. In 1827 
William Gabby maniimitted his *^negro woman named Jemima, 
being at the age of thirty-five years, and able to work and gain a 
sufficient livelihood and maintenance," at the consideration of 
one dollar. Among other slave-owners in the District were the 
Spriggs, Thomas Belt, George I. Harry, Jacob Schnebley, Joseph 
Gabby, George Shiess, and F. C. B. Wilms. It is probable that 
the number of slaves kept on the Sprigg estate was equal to those 
of all other owners in the District combined. At her death in 
1851 Mrs. Maria E. Eeynolds {nee Sprigg) owned twelve slaves, 
of whom the youngest was twelve years of age and the oldest 
eighty. By the terms of her will they all received manumis- 
sion and substantial legacies. Chatham Jones, who thus secured 
his freedom after eighty years of servitude, lived to the age of 
more than a hundred and is still remembered by old residents of 
the Marsh neighborhood, to whom he used to relate that he was 
brought to Paradise by General Thomas Sprigg and employed 
as a young man in the building of the old Marsh mill and other 
improvements on the Paradise estate. 

Slavery was never a flourishing institution in Leitorsburg Dis- 
trict, because there were few estates of sufficient size to render 
slave labor profitable. Emancipations were frequently made, as 
shown in the preceding pages, and it is doubtful whether a single 
slave remained in the District to be liberated by the constitution 
of 1864. 

Ebection and Boundaries op Leitersburg District. 

Antietam and Salisbury Hundreds, erected by the Frederick 
County comt in 1749, with Antietam creek as a mutual boundary, 
embraced the present territory of Leitersburg District. Both 
were subsequently divided, the former in 1758 and the latter at a 
later date, after which the District was embraced in Upper An- 
tietam and Upper Salisbury until 1824, when hundreds were no 
longer recognized as political subdivisions in Washington County. 

For many years after the organization of the county elections 
were held at Hagerstown. In 1800 five election districts were 
cstabb'shed, of which No. 3 included the nori^heastcm pari; of the 
county. This extensive district was bounded on the west ])v 
Conococheague creek and the Williamspori; and Greencastle road, 



SOCIAL AND MATEKIAL DEVELOPMEXT. 57 

on the north by the State line, and on the east by the South 
mountain, with Orr's Gap as its southern limit; it included Hag- 
erstown, and there elections were held at the court house. In 
1822 the territory of District No. 3 was materially reduced by 
the erection of District No. 7 (Cavetown), a measure of much im- 
portance to the region subsequently embraced in District No. 9 
(Leitersburg). The Greencastle road from the State line to An- 
tietam creek and that stream for a distance of some miles to the 
south were constituted the line of division between Nos. 3 and 7. 
West of the Greencastle road and Antietam creek the citizens 
continued to vote at Hagerstown, as they had done since 
1776; east of that line the polling place was at Cavetown. 
This arrangement continued until 1838, when Leitersburg Dis- 
trict was erected. The original act of the Legislature es- 
tablishing the District was passed on the 6th of March, 1837. 
It provided for the erection of an additional election district 
in Washington County to be composed of parts of the Seventh 
and Third, and I^ewis Ziegler, John Byer, and Jacob Bell 
were appointed commissioners to establish the boundaries. As 
this involved an amendment to the constitution, concurrent legis- 
lation at the ensuing session was necessary before it became oper- 
ative. A confirmatory act was duly passed on the l-ith of March, 
1838, and thus, so far as legislative action was concerned, Leiters- 
burg District became a separate and distinct subdivision of the 
county and State. The boundary commission met at the couri; 
house in Hagerstown on the 29th of March, 1838, and after three 
days' deliberation established the following boundary for the 
Ninth Election District: 

Beginning at the red post in the town of Middleburg on the Penn- 
BylTania line, thence with the Greencastle and Hagerstown road to 
where the road from Frederick Ziegler's mill intersects said road, 
thence with said Ziegler's road to Paradise school house, thence 
with the Hagerstown and Waynesboro road to the finger-board where 
the Nicholson's Gap road intersects said road, thence with a strnight 
line to Baohtel's school house, thence with a straight line to John 
Wolfersberger's ford on the Antietam creek, thence with said creek 
to the Forge mill, thence to Beard's church, thence >\'ith the road to 
Welty's church and school house, thence with said road to the Penn- 
sjlTania line, thence with said line to the place of beginning. 



58 HISTOBY OP LEITEBSBUBO DISTBICT. 

Some explanation of the original boundaries of the District 
may not be inappropriate. "The Greencastle and Hagerstown 
road^* is now known as the Hagerstown and Middleburg turnpike; 
"Frederick Ziegler's miir^ is situated on Marsh run and is now 
owned by his son, David Ziegler; "the Hagerstown and Waynes- 
boro road" is the Marsh turnpike and the Nicholson's Gap road 
is the Hagerstown and Leitersburg turnpike; "BachteFs school 
house" was situated near Fiddlersburg on the farm of Martin 
Bachtel, now owned by the Loose estate; "John Wolfersberger's 
ford on the Antietam creek'' is the ford at Trovinger's mill. 

The boundary thus established embraced an area probably 
twice as great as that of the District at the present time. Unfor- 
tunately, however, the work of the boundary commission was not 
entirely satisfactory, and within a few years after the erection of 
the District its territory was materially reduced. This was ef- 
fected by an act of 'the Legislature passed on the 10th of March, 
1841, by which the line between District No. 3 and District No. 
9 was established agreeably to the following description: 

Begrinning' at the Pennsylvania line where the Waynesboro road 
crosses the same, and running with said road to the Paradise school 
house, and from thence with the public road to Frederick Zieg'ler^s 
mill, and from thence \vith a straight line to the end of Peter Spess- 
ard*s lane on the road leading from the Forge mill to Hagerstown, 
and thence with said road to the fording at the Forge mill, where it 
intersects the original location of said Ninth Election District. 

This established the present western and southwestern bound- 
aries of the District. The present eastern boundary was estab- 
lished by the erection of Ringgold District, June 12, 1860; this 
line is described as "Beginning on the line dividing the States of 
Maryland and Pennsylvania at a point about two hundred yards 
west from Frick^s foundry and in the center of a public road" — a 
point it might be difficult to identify, as both foundry and road 
have gone out of existence. The present southern boundary 
from the Old Forge road to a point beyond Antietam creek was 
established in 1872 by the erection of Chewsville District. The 
Old Forge road continued to be the southeastern boundary of the 
District untU September 5, 1882, when the present line between 
Districts Xo. 7 and No. 9 (Cavetown and Leitersburg) as surveyed 
by S. S. Downin was confirmed by the county commissioners. 



social and material development. 59 

District Politics. 

On the 20th of March, 1838, the Legislature passed an act di- 
recting the commissioners of Washington County to appoint a 
place for holding elections in Leitersburg District and appoint 
judges for the same. The first election was accordingly held on 
the first Wednesday in October, 1838, when Samuel Lyday was 
elected to represent the new District in the board of county com- 
missioners. 

The constitution of Maryland confers upon local election dis- 
tricts a very limited measure of political autonomy. There was 
a time when each district elected a county commissioner and a 
local constable; when the board of county commissioners ap- 
pointed a district supervisor of roads, with jurisdiction over all 
the public roads of the district, and a district school commissioner, 
^th similar functions in connnection with its educational work. 
But at the present time all administrative functions are central- 
ized at the county seat and the district is a geographical rather 
than a political subdivision. No local offices are elective. Jus- 
tices of the peace and registers of voters are appointed by the 
<3ovemor; election officers, by the county board; constables and 
supervisors of roads, by the county commissioners; school trus- 
tees, by the county school board. Consequently, the larger issues 
of the county. State, and nation engross the attention in district 
politics; there is no contest over local officers and measures. 

This does not imply an apathetic or indifferent attitude toward 
partisan politics; on the contrary, the great national political par- 
ties have always had stanch and stalwart supporters in Leiters- 
hurg District. A presidential campaign usually develops all the 
latent political enthusiasm and party loyalty, and that of 1840, 
the first after the organization of the District, is generally re- 
garded as one of the most exciting the country has ever known. 
The Democratic primary, as reported in the Hagerstown Mail, 
was held on the 13th of June at the house of James Weaver. 
Joseph Trovinger was chairman, Benjamin Hartman vice-chair- 
man, and John P. Stephey secretary. A committee of three, 
composed of Joseph Leiter, William E. Doyle, and William N. 
Rolls, was appointed by the chairman to select delegates to the 
county convention and reported the names of Joseph Trovinger, 
David T. Wilson, William E. Doyle, Joseph Leiter, William N". 



60 HISTOKY OF Li;iTERSBUKG DISTKICT. 

Bolls, John p. Stephey, Samuel Etnyer, David Bell, Henry 
Brumbaugh, Hugh Logan, Ignatius Brown, and Abner Hays. 
Jacob E. Bell was nominated for county commissioner. The 
county convention was held on the 20th of June, when Samuel 
Lyday, of Leitersburg District, was one of the nominees for the 
House of Delegates. 

The WTiig primary meeting was advertised to be held "in Dis- 
trict No. 9 at the Log Cabin in Leitersburg," but no account of 
its proceedings was published in the Torch Light Lewis Tritle 
was nominated for county commissioner, but before the election 
he was superseded by George Poe. Joseph Gabby of Leitersburg 
District presided over the county convention, and among his col- 
leagues as delegates were Charles A. Fletcher and David Brum- 
baugh. Lewis Ziegler was one of the nominees for House of 
Delegates. In the Whig convention for the nomination of a 
presidential elector for the Sixth Congressional district. No. 9 
was represented by Joseph Gabby, Dr. T. B. Duckett, and Charles 
A. Fletcher. The District member of the county central com- 
mittee was D. G. Martin. 

As the campaign advanced the enthusiasm on both sides be- 
came intense. Immense public meetings attended by thousands 
of people were held at Hagerstown by both parties, to each of 
which Leitersburg District sent a numerous equestrian delega- 
tion. Nor was the proper education of local public sentiment 
neglected; both parties held large and enthusiastic meetings at 
Leitersburg, when suffrages were sought by fervid oratory and 
persuasive eloquence, reenforced on the part of the Whigs by co- 
pious supplies of hard cider. 

The judges of election were William Webb, Joseph Trovinger, 
and Peter Bell. The number of votes received by the respective 
candidates was as follows: Bell, 169; Poe, 177; Lyday, 194; Zieg- 
ler, 193; Van Buren, 185; Harrison, 177. The "Log Cabin and 
Hard Cider*' campaign having resulted in the national triumph 
of the Whigs, Frederick Ziegler of Leitersburg District sent a 
barrel of cider to the White House shortly after the inauguration 
of President Harrison. His wagoner delivered it with the six- 
horse team — a very unusual proceeding, notwithstanding which 
it was accepted by the President and duly acknowledged as a con- 
gratulatory testimonial from a loyal member of his party. 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 61 

The vote for President, so far as ascertainable, since the erec- 
tion of the District has been as follows: 

1840. — Martin Van Buren, Democrat, 185; William Henry 
Harrison, Whig, 177. 

1844.— James K. Polk, Democrat, 168; Henry Clay, Wliig, 180. 

1848.— Lewis Cass, Democrat, 152; Zachary Taylor, Wliig, 190. 

1852.— Franklin Pierce, Democrat, 171; Winfield Scott, Whig, 
187. 

1868. — Horatio Seymour, Democrat, 121; Ulysses S. Grant, 
Republican, 183. 

1872. — ^Ulysses S. Grant, Eepublican, 174; Horace Greeley, 
Liberal Republican, 111. 

1876.— Samuel J. tilden, Democrat, 131; Rutherford B. 
Hayes, Republican, 180. 

1880. — Winfield S. Hancock, Democrat, 127; James A. Gar- 
field, Republican, 185. 

1884. — Grover Cleveland, Democrat, 116; James G. Blaine, 
Eepublican, 179; John P. St. John, Prohibitionist, 1. 

1888. — Grover Cleveland, Democrat, 124; Benjamin Harrison, 
Eepublican, 169; Clinton B. Fisk, Prohibitionist, 6. 

1892. — Grover Cleveland, Democrat, 132; Benjamin Harrison, 
Republican, 162; John Bidwell, Prohibitionist, 6. 

1896. — William J. Bryan, Democrat, 114; William McKinley, 
Republican, 163; Joshua Levering, Prohibitionist, 9; John R. 
Palmer, Independent Democrat, 2. 

The official representation of the District has been as follows: 

Member of Congress. — 1792-96, Thomas Sprigg. 

Member of State Convention to Ratify the Constitution of the 
TJnited States. — 1788, Thomas Sprigg. 

Members of Constitutional Conventions. — 1864, James P.May- 
hugh; 1867, George W. Pole. 

Presidential Elector.— 1821, William Gabby. 

Members of House of Delegates. — 1784, Thomas Hart; 1787- 
88, Ignatius Taylor; 1788, Thomas Sprigg; 1807-8, William 
Gabby; 1810-11, Thomas B. Hall; 1812, William 0. Sprigg; 1813- 
14, William Gabby; 1819-23, Joseph Gabby; 1826, Thomas B. 
Hall; 1838-39, Frederick Byer; 1840, Lewis Ziegler; 1841, Sam- 
uel Lyday; 1844, Charles A. Fletcher; 1846, William E. Doyle, 
Joseph Leiter; 1847, George L. Ziegler; 1863-64, Frederick K. 
Ziegler. 



62 HI8T0KY OF LEITER8BUKG DISTRICT. 

RegiBter of Wills.— Thomas Sprigg, 1776-80; Thomas Bdt, 
1780-1806; William Logan, 1857-67. 

Justices of the Levy Court.— 1806-9, Thomas Sprigg; 1820, 
William Gabby; 1823-29, Joseph Gabby. 

County Commissioners. — 1838, Samuel Lyday; 1840, George 
Poe; 1844, William E. Doyle; 1857, Daniel Mentzer; 1865, Fred- 
erick Bell; 1871, Samuel Strite. 

Judges of the Orphans' Court.— 1806-7, Ignatius Taylor; 1812, 
Thomas B. Hall; 1821-24, William Gabby; 1875-79, Samuel 
Strite. 

Collectors of County Taxes.- 1847, William E. Doyle; 1849, 
WilUam Logan; 1864-65, Samuel F. Ziogler; 1876-77, William 
M. Lantz. 

Sheriffs.— 1853-55, William Logan; 1879-81, Frederick K. 
Ziegler. 

School Commissioners. — 1864, James P. Mayhugh; 1868, Ed- 
ward Smith; 1871, James D. Slaughenhaupt; 1881-91, Samuel 
Strite. 

Justices of the Peace. — Thomas Sprigg, William Webb, Wil- 
liam Gabby, Christopher Burkharii, Joseph Gabby, Thomas B. 
Hall, William Kreps, George H. Lamberi;, Hugh Logan, Benja- 
min Hartman, Samuel Lyday, Francis C. Shiess, James P. May- 
hugh, James A. Hays, Peter Middlekauff, John Lamberi;, Lewis 
J. Ground, Frank D. Bell. 

Population and Wealth. 

In 1860 the population of the District was 1,962; in 1870, 
1,673; in 1880, 1,546; in 1890, 1,368. 

The value of the different species of property in the District 
in 1897, as shown by the records of the county commissioners, 
was as follows: Beal estate, $569,636; private securities, $45,671; 
bonds, etc., $2,648; stock in trade, $7,607; personal properi:y, 
$78,201; exemptions, $14,803. 

"In Wak Times.'' 

England and Spain were at war in 1740, and although Western 
Maryland was far from the scene of conflict the war brought 
financial disaster to one of the pioneers of Leitersburg District. 
Colonel Thomas Cresap had collected at his trading post at Long- 
meadows a quantity of valuable furs, and the ship by which they 
were consigned to England was captured by the enemy, reducing 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 63 

him to bankruptcy and necessitating his departure from Long- 
meadows in the following year. 

In the French and Indian War (1755-63) the enemy made fre- 
quent incursions into the Cumberland valley, but if any Indian 
atrocities were committed in Leitersburg District no record of 
the fact has been preserved. There is a tradition that Antietam 
church near Trovinger's mill was converted into a blockhouse and 
was a place of rendezvous for the surrounding country in time 
of threatened danger. In his will, dated February 8, 1764, Jacob 
Leiter of Leitersburg District inserted this clause: "I ordain 
that if any of my estate shall be destroyed or carried away by the 
enemy that my executors shall not be subject to loss thereby." 
It was Colonel Henry Bouquet, the owner of the Longmeadows 
estate in Leitersburg District, who defeated the Indians at the de- 
cisive battle of Bushy Eun, August 5-6, 1763, and led a victorious 
expedition against the Ohio tribes in the following year. 

The various schemes of colonial taxation devised by the British 
government at the close of the French and Indian war elicited 
energetic protests from the people of Western Maryland, and 
when the Continental Congress declared against the importation 
of taxable articles the people of Frederick County assembled at 
the county seat, November 18, 1774, and appointed a general 
committee to carry into effect the resolves of Congress; among 
the members of this committee were Joseph Perry and Christo- 
pher Burkhart, of Leitersburg District, of whom the former was 
also a member of the county committee of correspondence. At a 
meeting at Frederick on the 24th of January, 1775, they were 
again appointed members of the county committee ^^to carry the 
resolves of the American Congress and of the Provincial Con- 
vention into execution.^' Local committees were also appointed 
for every hundred in the county to solicit subscriptions for the 
purchase of arms and ammunition. Leitersburg District was then 
included in Upper Antietam and Salisbury Hundreds; for the 
former the committee consisted of Jonathan Hager, Dr. Henry 
Schnebley, and Jacob Zeller; for the latter, of Jacob Funk, Con- 
rad Hogmire, Joseph Perry, and John Ingram. They were in- 
structed "to apply personally or by deputy to every freeman in 
their respective districts and to solicit a generous contribution." 
In the Committee of Observation for Washington County Leiters- 
burg District was represented by Christian Lantz and Christopher 



64 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURQ DISTRICT. 

Burkhart. There can be no doubt that the District contributed 
a fair quota of men to the Continental army, but imf ortunately no 
record of their names or services is now accessible.* 

In the War of 1812 the militia of Washington County was 
called out en masse, August 25, 1814, by General Samuel Ring- 
gold and mobilized at Boonsboro on the following day. The 
company from Leitersburg District was commanded by Captain 
John Byer and embraced practically all the citizens of the Dis- 
trict capable of bearing arms. A British army had routed the 
forces opposed to it as Bladensburg, Md., and burned the national 
Capitol at Washington; General. Ringgold called out his brigade 
with the conviction that its services would be necessary in con- 
testing the further advance of the enemy. But the Secretary of 
War regarded the forces already at his disposal as sufficient for 
the emergency and on the 28th, the brigade having been dis- 
banded, Captain Byer and his company returned to their homes. 
The District was also represented at the battle of Baltimore and 
in the Canada campaign of the preceding year. 

For some years the State maintained a militia organization and 
the citizens in every locality were required by law to muster for 
practice in military drill and discipline. Thomas Sprigg, of Lei- 
tersburg District, was commissioned as lieutenant colonel for 
Washington County in 1794 and subsequently rose to the rank 
of brigadier general. Regimental musters were held for some 
years on his estate, and company musters at Captain Byer's mill, 
near Leitersburg, subsequently owned by Fowler & Ziegler, at 
Schmutz's mill, now the property of David Ziegler, and on the 
farm of David Hoover, near Beard's church. Something of the 
spirit of the old militia days is reflected in the following notices, 
originally published in contemporary newspapers: 

• On the 30th of December, 1776, the County Committee ordered the militia to march 
to the assistance of General Washini^on and appointed a number of persons to " col- 
lect all the people who may be left after the militia have marched and form them- 
selves into companies and choose their own officers for the purpose of relieving the 
distress of the inhabitants." Among the persons so appointed were Christopher Burk- 
hart. Jacob Ritter, Peter Shiess, Wendell Sights, George Lambert, Joseph Perry, and 
John Gabby of I^eitersburg District. 

The following etitry occurs in the minutes of the County Committee, January 10, 
1777 : "Whereas, Complaint has been made to this Committee that no horses have yet 
been procured in order to draw the cannon for the use of Colonel Stull's battalion : 
Ordered, That Jacob Good furnish one team for that purpose ; in case the said Good 
can not furnish four horses his own property, that he apply to some neighbor to assist 
him therein, who is hereby required to be assistive." Good was a resident of I^eiters- 
burg District. 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 65 

The companies commanded by Captains Wellar, Lantz, Rench, and 
Allen are desired to meet at General Sprigg^s quarter on Saturday, 
the 29th Inst., to exercise in battalion agreeably to law. 

CiiABLES Cabroll, Major. 

Elizabeth-Town, August 18, 1795. 

Hagerstown, September 19, 1799. 
Ordered, That the Eighth Hegiment of the Second Brigade of mil- 
itia be paraded on Saturday, the 19th of October next, the Tenth 
Regiment on the 22d, and the Twenty-fourth Regiment on the 26th 
day of the same month, each at 9 o'clock in the morning. 

T. Sprioo, 
Brig, Gen,, Second Brigade, 

Attention! You are hereby ordered to parade in company at Mr. 
Abraham Schmutz's mill on the second Saturday in May next and 
at Captain Byer's mill on the last Saturday in August next at 2 
o'clock p. m. A court martial to try the absentees of both the above 
parades will sit at Captain Byer's on the last Saturday in September 
next at 2 o'clock p. m. 

Joseph Tbovinger, Captain. 

March 26, 1825. 

The court martial was accordingly held and the follo\ving is 
a transcript of its proceedings: 

At a court martial held at Mr. John Byer's in Washington County 
on Saturday, the 24th day of September, 1825, composed of Lieuten- 
ant iVrchibald Halbert, Sergeant John Daniel, Private D. T. Wilson, 
the following delinquents were tried for their non-attendanoe at the 
company parade on Saturday, the 27th day of Augrust, 1825, belong- 
ing to Captain Joseph Trovinger's company. Eighth Regiment, 
Maryland militia: 

John McVey, out of the State at Daniel Jacobs, 
the time, acquitted. Lewis Ziegler, 

Jacob Byer, lame knee, acquit- John Strife, 
ted. Samuel Miller of Jos., 

John Wolfersberger, 
John Coursey, 
William Minor, 
Nathan Davis, 
Isaac Ilammaker, 

We do certify that the above statement is a true copy of the pro- 
ceedings of this court martial. 

Archibald Halbert, Lieutenant, 
John Daniel, Sergeant. 
D. T. Wilson, Private, 



Joseph Emmert, 


Fined $1 00 


Samuel Bachtel, 


1 00 


Abraham Strite, 


1 00 


Samuel Strite, 


1 00 


Joseph Strite, 


1 00 



Fined $1 00 


t( 


1 00 


44 


1 00 


(i 


1 00 


H 


1 00 


ii 


1 00 


(( 


1 00 


»i 


1 00 


ti 


1 00 



66 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

Many delinquencies were due to conscientious considerations, 
as the principles of the Mennonite and other religious bodies do 
not pennit participation in military exercises. Some original 
papers showing the operation of the law in such cases are still 
preserved, several of which are herewith given: 

Received, April 2, 1800, of Jacob Miller $3.00 for his muster fines 
due for the year 1799. J. McPhebson, Deputy Sheriff, 

1 hereby certify and make known that I have reason to believe and 
verily do believe from, the religious and exemplary deportment of 
and uniform declaration of Jacob Newcomer that he is conscien- 
tiously scrupulous of bearing arms and that I consider him as belong- 
ing to the Mennonist society under my direction. Given under my 
hand this 28th day of May, 1818. 

John Stouffeb. 

Received, March 24, 1821, of John Newcomer $9.00 in f uU for militia 
fines against John, Andrew, and Jacob Newcomer for the year 1820. 

Samuel Eichelbebgeb, Deputy Collector, 

In the Civil War the District became for the first time the scene 
of military movements on a grand scale. Before the battle of 
Gettysburg (July 1, 2, 3, 1863) one division of the Confederate 
army passed through Leitersburg and on Saturday .night, July 
4th, the Confederate wagon train passed through the village, 
followed on Monday morning by the army, which marched con- 
tinuously until 2 o'clock p. m. on Tuesday. The main body, con- 
sisting of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, passed over the turn- 
pike, but all the by-roads leading southward were also crowded. 
General Lee and several of his division commanders were recog- 
nized by the citizens as they passed through Leitersburg. 

The Confederate invasions of 1862 and 1863 occasioned great 
alarm in Washington County and many farmers and others from 
Leitersburg District joined in the general '^skedaddle.'' Horses, 
wagons, and other movable property were hurried over the moun- 
tains in the direction of interior Pennsylvania, for which there 
was abundant reason, as such property was freely appropriated 
by both armies and especially by tlie irresponsible parties of strag- 
glers that followed them. 

The following is a list of Federal soldiers who enlisted from 
Leitersburg District: 

WiUiam Anderson, Martin Maugans, 

Abram Avey, Jacob A. Metz, 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 67 

Samuel Avey, Miller, 

Philip M. Bell, Abram Mowry, 

John Boner, John Mowry, 

John Oagle, Polk Mowry, 

Solomon Oagle, Solomon Myers, 

Benjamin F. Garver, John W. Nigh, 

Daniel Garver, Samuel T. Nigh, 

James A. Hays, Gabby Nofford, 

Joahua Hellman, Robert Slick, 

David V. High, David Stephey, 

Jacob Hovifl, William Stephey, 

Thomas Hughes, Daniel Tritle, 

Samuel Kline, John Wampler, 

William Kline, Frederick Ziegler, 

Charles E. H. Koppisch, George Ziegler, 

George U. Lowman, James R. Ziegler. 
Jacob F. Lowman, 

Perhaps no event of the Civil War excited so much horror in 
Leitersbnrg District as the murder of Edward Gladfelter. He 
reached Leitersbnrg on the 26th of August, 1864, in charge of 
some horses belonging to a Federal oflScer; there he was stopped 
by four Federal cavalrymen, who took his horses and compelled 
him to accompany them on foot, and at a point a mile north of 
the village on the turnpike he was murdered. The perpetrators. 
Coon, Forney, and Riley, were apprehended near Hagerstown and 
delivered to the civil authorities. They were tried at March 
term, 1865, and convicted. In pronouncing sentence Judge 
French said: "On the road running the boy was seen delivering 
to you his silver watch. A little farther on you were seen robbing 
his body, as he stood pale and trembling in your power, of his 
money, his pocketbook, his comb, etc. You then took him to the 
next hill and there wilfully and deliberately blew his brains out 
with a pistol or gun. Edward Gladfelter fell at your horses' feet 
in the middle of the high road, a murderd man, a lifeless body. 
Then you left him on the public road to welter in his gore and 
returned shouting, soon after the pistol shot was heard, through 
Leitersburg. In all the annals of crime I have never read of so 
foul, so black, so inhuman a murder." 

In the war with Spain the District is represented by Lieuten- 
ant Strite, U. S. N"., and Keller Lowman, a private in the Douglas 
Guards. Lieutenant Strite^s ship is the Olympia, the flag-ship of 



68 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

the Asiatic squadron, which participated in the battle of Manila, 
May 1, 1898. 

Postal Facilities. 

The following is a list of postmasters at Leitersburg, with the 
dates of their respective appointments: Joshua Grimes, May 9, 
1826; Charles A. Fletcher, March 21, 1829; Samuel Etnyer, De- 
cember 8, 1838; Charles H. Besore, February 17, 1841; David M. 
Good, June 7, 1843; James P. Mayhugh, September 19, 1845; 
Jacob Kissell, May 7, 1847; David M. Deitrich, June 9, 1849; 
Samuel F. Ziegler, January 13, 1851; Benjamin F. Slick, April 
26, 1853; Daniel S. Wolfinger, March 19, 1861; James A. Hays, 
December 18, 1865; Samuel Ziegler, April 22, 1869; John H. 
Ziegler, January 28, 1871; John W. Nigh, May 27, 1872; Fred- 
erick Koppisch, January 6, 1873; Charles E. H. Koppisch, May 6, 
1884; David Barnhari:, May 19, 1885; Alice Ziegler, May 28, 
1889; David Barnhart, March 10, 1894; Jacob M. Stouffer, April, 
1898. 

Frank Trovinger was appointed postmaster at Startown, May 
3, 1894; William R. Trovinger, October 14, 1895; Samuel Hart- 
man, February 6, 1896. 

George H. Bowman was appointed postmaster at Mills, Febru- 
ary 5, 1889. 

Tho route upon which these postoffices are located extends 
from Hagerstown to Mills. The mail is carried each way every 
day. 

A post office was established at Eock Forge in 1894 and discon- 
tinued in the same year. 

Agricultural Development. 

Limestone is the prevailing geological characteristic of the An- 
tietam valley. This usually implies a soil of permanent and re- 
cu])erative fertility, with the disadvantages of protruding rocks 
and uneven surface; but this description would not apply to the 
whole of Leitersburg District, although it is situated entirely 
within the watershed of the Antietam. The limestone also ap- 
pears in combination with shale, sandstone, etc., and in many 
areas of considerable extent it is depressed far below the surface. 
In the western part of the District there is an extensive and fer- 
tile region locally known as the Marsh or Longmeadows. Here 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 69 

a black loam appears in many places as the principal constituent 
of the soil and while the surface is rolling, its elevations are every- 
where gradual, thus imparting to the landscape a peculiar softness 
of contour. This locality may well be compared with the mid- 
land counties of England or the Blue Grass region of Kentucky. 

At the period of its first settlement the District was probably 
well timbered throughout its entire extent. Trees of various 
kinds — ^red oak, white oak, Spanish oak, wild cherry, locust, wal- 
nut, etc. — ^are referred to in the original land patents. When Ma- 
son and Dixon's Line was surveyed they employed a force of 
axemen to cut a vista through the forest. In 1770 Dr. Henry 
Schnebley purchased from Peter Shiess a tract of 713 acres, lo- 
cated principally in the District, to which he gave the name of 
The Forest, which certainly implies that it was well timbered. 
Scant Timber, the name of a tract patented by Wendell Sights 
in 1766, is equally suggestive. 

The removal of the forest was the first concern of the pioneer. 
This was a laborious undertaking, without any compensation ex- 
cept the increased value of the land, as timber was not a market- 
able commodity. Sometimes the trees were "girdled," a process 
which consisted in the removal of a girdle of bark from the trunk, 
resulting in the death of the tree and the decay of the bark and 
branches, which fell to the ground and added greatly to its fer- 
tility. 

The agricultural implements at the disposal of the pioneer * 
were few in number and of the crudest description. The plow 



• Some idea of the equipment of a lyeitersburj? District farm and household in the 
colonial period may be gained from the following inventories of appraisement : 

1755. Robert Downing ; Twenty-six horses, 33 cattle, 41 hogs, 17 sheep, 4 bee-hives, 
sickles, augers, chisels, adze, axes, i still, still-tubs, barrels and half-barrels, tight 
hogsheads, grind-stone, cross-cut saw, grubbing hoes, spade, i iron harrow, 2 ploughs 
and irons, i wagon ; 5 spinning wheels, i dough-tray, butter-tubs, 2 looking glasses, 
knives and forks, " pewter dishes, basins, plates, and spoons," iron pots, earthenware, 
smoothing-irons, i chum and cooler, " a clock and glass." 

1764, Jacob Leiter : Eight horses, 7 cows, 4 sheep, 3 hogs, i cutting-box and knife, 
I iron harrow, 2 forks, i plow and plow-irons, i wagon, i grindstone, i cross-cut saw, 
X brass kettle, i still, stilling vessels, 4 grubbing hoes ; 2 spinning wheels, i pepper- 
mill, 1 iron stove," a parcel of pewter dishes and plates," i clock, i brass kettle, i 
iron kettle, " large Bible, hymn book, and a parcel of other books." 

1776, George Hartle : Eight horses, 11 cattle, 11 hogs, 14 sheep, i iron harrow, i mill 
lor cleaning grain, i old wagon, i grindstone, 2 mattocks, i sprouting hoe, i garden 
hoe, 3 weeding hoes, i broad-ax, i spade, 2 shovels, i brass scythe, 2 axes, 4 forks, i 
branding iron, " plow irons"; i weaver's loom and stays, j iron stove, i clock, " pew- 
ter basins, dishes, and plates," pewter spoons, i brass ladle, i iron kettle, " iron 
spoons, ladles, and water buckets," " i large Bible," " books of different sorts." 



70 HISTORY OP LEITERSBUBG DISTRICT. 

with which the soil was first broken was made almost exclusively 
of wood. Wheat was sown broadcast; hay was cut with a scythe 
and raked by hand; grain was cut with a sickle and threshed with a 
flail. In the last century farming implements, like wearing ap- 
parel and household goods in general, were all of local manufac- 
ture. The iron forks used in handling manure, grain, and hay 
were made by the blacksmith; the prongs were half an inch thick 
at the base, tapered to a point, and the handle, which was inserted 
in the socket, was made by the farmer from a suitable sapling. 
For a shaking-fork a forked limb was cut from a tree, and its se- 
lection sometimes involved a long excursion through the forest. 
Plow-making was an art that had its special practitioners. In 
one day a skillful plow-maker could cut down a tree and from its 
materials fashion the beam, post, handles, mould-board, and land- 
side, which, with the necessary irons, constituted the completed 
plow. Covering the mouldboard with sheet iron was an import- 
ant improvement; others followed, eventually resulting in the 
evolution of the modem plow. 

Cutting a harvest with the sickle was laborious and protracted. 
A good reaper could cut and bind an acre a day. Reapers gen- 
erally worked in pairs and cut from one end of the field to the 
other; when the end opposite the starting point was reached one 
walked back some distance and carried both sickles while the 
other bound both swaths; he then laid down the sickles and 
boimd both swaths until his companion overtook him, when it 
was again his turn to carry the sickles. The grain cradle was the 
first great improvement in harvesting facilities and the next was 
the reaping machine. In 1856 George Bell purchased a Mc- 
Cormick reaper and used it successfully in cutting his crop and 
that of his brother, Daniel Bell; this was the first introduction of 
har\'esting machinery in Leitersburg District. It was drawn by 
four horses; the cutting apparatus and the reel were similar to 
those generally in use at the present day; the wheat was received 
upon a platform, from which the sheaves were raked off by a man 
who sat behind the master wheel. A year or two later the 
Manny machine was introduced; in this a man on the platform 
pushed off the wheat with a fork. The automatic rake soon fol- 
lowed and finally the automatic binder, the crowning feature of 
the harvester of the present day. 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 71 

When grain was threshed with a flail or tramped out by horses, 
lis was a long and disagreeable task. The first threshing ma- 
line was merely an inclosed cylinder, from which the straw was 
xmoved and shaken with a fork. (Hence the word "shaking- 
>rk.") With this primitive machine it was possible to thresh two 
iindred bushels in a day, after which about the same length of 
me was required to separate the wheat from the chaff with a 
ind-mill. The shaker, revolving fan, and straw carrier were suc- 
sssively devised, and threshing machines combining these were 
manufactured by John Dayhoff at Rock Forge and also by 
«orge Frick at a foundry located within the original limits of 
leitersburg District This foundry was removed to Waynesboro, 
a., in 1860, and eventually developed into the extensive plant of 
"he Frick Company, capitalized at one million dollars. 

When grain was sown broadcast it was covered with a harrow or 
lovel plow. The first grain drill had a rigid shovel fastened with 
wooden pin, which broke when a stump or rock or other obstruc- 
on was encountered; as such occurrences were frequent a box of 
iii3 always accompanied the drill, to be inserted in place of those 
roken. Drills of this description were in use in Leitersburg 
^strict as early as 1850. Henry F. Bell manufactured grain 
rills at Waynesboro, Pa., from 1852 to 1857, in which the feed- 
ig device was a series of rotating cups and the shovel had a spring 
ijustment; these were the first drills of this kind manufactured 
nd introduced in this locality. The drill rapidly superseded 
roadcast sowing. 

The invention and improvement of the mower was contempo- 
ineous with that of the reaper. The horse-rake, another import- 
nt implement in connection with the hay crop, was at first a 
lumsy contrivance, in which the rake consisted of a wooden 
earn with two sets of wooden teeth projecting in opposite direc- 
ions. The operator walked behind and manipulated the ma- 
hine with a lever; when he lifted this one set of teeth dumped 
nd the other set came into play. Henry Schriver purchased 
ne of the first iron-tooth horse-rakes used in the District. With 
his machine the operator stood on the teeth to keep them down 
nd raised them with a lever which he pushed vnih his foot. The 
Tst hand-lever spring-tooth rakes introduced in the District were 
lanufactured by John Dayhoff at Rock Forge, and the first rake 



72 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURQ DISTRICT. 

of this description that he sold was purchased by Samuel Martin 
in 1860. 

The first centrifugal cream separator in Washington County 
was purchased in 1891 by Samuel Newcomer and placed in opera- 
tion on his farm, which is situated partly in Leitersburg District 
and partly in Caveto\^Ti. It was manufactured by the De Laval 
Separator Company of New York. In 1895 the Maugansville 
Creamery Association established a skimming station at Strite's 
mill near Leitersburg. The plant consisted of a Reid separator of 
large capacity driven by a steam engine. Its operation was con- 
tinued at intervals for several years and then abandoned, owing 
to lack of patronage. 

As the price of land is generally regarded as a fair index to 
agricultural development and prosperity, some statistics of this 
nature may not be inappropriate here. When the District was 
first settled land was purchased from the Proprietary at the uni- 
form price of one shilling per acre, subject to an annual quit rent 
of four shillings per hundred acres and an equal amount upon 
every alienation thereof. Among the transfers of real estate 
prior to 1800 were the following: 1749, Thomas Cresap to Mi- 
chael Miller, 260 acres, £220; 1755, George Poe to Christopher 
Burkhart, 173 acres, £15; 1762, George Poe to Jacob Leiter, 362 
acres, £397; 1767, Peter Shioss to Peter Bell, 248 acres, £70; 1769, 
Peter Good to John Gabby, 166 acres, £400; 1770, Peter Shiess 
to Dr. Henry Schnebley, 713 acres, £100; 1773, Frederick Haldi- 
mand to Joseph Sprigg, 4,313 acres, £5,250; 1775, John ReifiE to 
Christian Lantz, 476 acres, £2,350; 1779, Joseph Sprigg to Sam- 
uel Hughes, 1,300 acres, £21,000; 1779, Joseph Sprigg to John 
McConkey, 521 acres, £3,126: 1780, John McConkey to John 
Rench, 521 acres, £20,000; 1787, Jacob Good to Joseph Long, 350 
acres, £1,800; 1795, Joseph Long to John Barr, 366 acres, £5,055. 

Public Roads. 

In the material and social development of the District public 
roads have been an important factor. 

The judicial records of Frederick County afford but meager 
information regarding the early public roads of Antietam and 
Salisbury Himdreds, in which Tjeitersburg District was embraced. 
The first roads were doubtless bridle-paths, winding around the 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 73 

hills and avoiding the marshes; when it became necessary to widen 
these for wagon transportation the work was done by public co- 
operation, without the formality of legal proceedings. Hence the 
information of the court regarding the courses or even the ter- 
mini of the earliest roads was exceedingly meager. Supervisors 
were regularly appointed, however, as shown in the following lists: 

"All the main roads in Antietam Hundred:" 1749, Robert 
Turner; 1750, William Kelly; 1752-53, Isaac Hoser; 1754, John 
Carr; 1755, George Moore. 

"All the main roads above Beaver creek in Antietam Hundred:" 
1758-60, George Lambert; 1761, John Charlton; 1763, John Roh- 
rer; 1766, Peter Fugate; 1768, James WalUng; 1769-70, Henry 
Wall. 

*'A11 the main roads ♦ ♦ ♦ from Baker's to StuU's mill, 
between that road and the Temporary Line in SaUsbury Him- 
dred:'' 1749, John William Smith. 

"From Baker's to StuU's mill, between that road and the Tem- 
porary Line in Salisbury Hundred, and from Aaron Price's to 
the Temporary Line, known by the name of 'The Old Road:'" 
1750, Peter Rench; 1751, Conrad Hogmire; 1753, John Keller; 
1754-55, Joseph Volgemore (Wolgamot); 1758, John Ritter; 
1759, James Downing; 1760, Peter Dizer; 1761, Jacob Brum- 
baugh; 1763, Nicholas Martin; 1766, Samuel Pawling; 1768-69, 
Dilman Washabaugh. 

"From Nicholson's Gap to Jacob Funk's mill and from said 
mill to Sharpsburg:" 1768, Conrad Hogmire; 1769-70, Samuel 
GrebiU. 

"The new road from the mouth of Conococheague through 
Elizabeth-Town to where it intersects the run below Haldimand's 
plantation:" 1770, Henry Tice. 

At November sessions, 1749, of the Frederick County court, 
Jonathan Hager, Captain Thomas Prather, and Joseph Swear- 
ingen were appointed to view a proposed road "from the mouth 
of Conococheague to Stoner's mill on Antietam as far as the line 
extends." As Stoner's mill was situated at the present site of 
B. F. Welty's, one mile southeast of Waynesboro, this road would 
certainly have passed through Leitersburg District; but it does 
not appear that it was ever opened. 

The earliest positive evidence of a road in Leitersburg 



74 HISTOBT OF LEITBESBUBG DISTBICT. 

District that the writer has discovered occurs in the patent 
for Cousin's Obligement, a tract of fifty-one acres now em- 
braced partly in the farm of Henry M. Jacobs near Miller's 
church and formerly owned for many years by Abraham 
Strite. This tract was patented to Andrew Hoover, February 
14, 1755; its boundaries are described as "Beginning at a 
bounded walnut tree standing on the east side of the road 
that leads from Eobert Downing's to Gteorge Burkhart's and 
among a parcel of limestone rocks by a large sink-hole/' The 
house in which Downing lived still stands on the farm of Daniel 
N. Scheller near Ziegler's mill. It is difficult to identify Burk- 
hart's residence, unless that of Christopher Burkhart is meant; 
in 1755 he lived on Antietam, where Samuel Martin now resides. 

At that point in the South mountain where Mason and Dixon's 
Line crosses it there is a depression known at the middle of the last 
century and for many years thereafter as Nicholson's Gap. Of 
all the gaps in this range from the Potomac to the Susquehanna 
it is doubtful if any other possesses equal importance for com- 
mercial purposes. Here the Western Maryland railroad, the most 
important line of communication between the Cumberland valley 
and Baltimore, crosses the mountain barrier, and in the same vi- 
cinity may be seen the embankments and bridges of the old "Tape 
Worm" railroad, projected by Thaddeus Stevens in the '30's and 
partially constructed for many miles through Adams and Franklin 
Counties. 

Nicholson's Gap was the focal point of several important pub- 
lic roads before the close of the colonial period. In 1761 a peti- 
tion was presented to the court of quarter sessions of Cumber- 
land County, Pa., by citizens of Peters Township, representing, 
"That they have no prospect for a standing market for the pro- 
duce of their county only at Baltimore, and having no road lead- 
ing from their township to said town of Baltimore, and flour be- 
ing the principal commodity this township produceth," etc., and 
therefore praying the court to appoint viewers to lay out a road in 
the direction of Baltimore as far as the Temporary Line. Viewers 
were accordingly appointed, and at April sessions, 1768, they re- 
ported in favor of a road "crossing the Conococheague creek at 
the mouth of Muddy run, thence through Antrim Township to 
the gap commonly called Nicholson's in the South mountain'* — 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 77 

the present route of the Mercershurg, Greeneastle, and Waynes- 
boro turnpike.* 

Influenced doubtless by the same considerations the people of 
Antietaxn and Salisbury Hundreds were also making an effort at 
the same time to secure a legal road through Nicholson's Gap. 
Viewers were appointed by the Frederick County court at Novem- 
ber sessions, 1767, and a year later their report was submitted. 
This document, with the action of the court relative thereto, reads 
as follows: 

yovemher Sessions, 1768. — Messrs. John Rohrer and Conrad Hogtnire 
report to the court here as follows, viz. : 

In obedience to an order of Frederick County November court, 
1767, we, the subscribers, have viewed the several roads therein men- 
tioned and find that a road from Xicholson*s Gap may be made in a 
direct line to Jacob Funk's mill on Antietam and from thence 
through Sharpsburg to Swearingen's ferry on Potomac river with 
much more advantage to the public than any roads hitherto made,, 
and we have given the proprietors notice on whose lands the said 
roads go through. 

Also, we have carefully viewed the roads from the mouth of 
Qpeckon ford leading a direct course to the chapel in All Saint's par- 
ish and from thence to Jacob Funk's mill on Antietam creek; and 
from Thatcher's ford on Potomac river to Ebersole's and Wolgamot's 
mills on the Great Marsh; and that all those roads can be laid out 
in a direct course with great advantage to the public, and have also 
given the proprietors notice on whose lands the said roads go 
through. 

Witness our hands this 16th March, 1768. 

Johannes Rohber. 
Conrad Hogmire. 

To the Worshipful Justices of Frederick County Court. 
Upon reading which report the court concurs with the former part 
thereof; the latter is disallowed. 

This is the road "from Nicholson's Gap to Jacob Funk's mill 
and from said mill to Sharpsburg*' for which Conrad Hogmire 
was appointed supervisor in 1768. It passes through Fiddlers- 
burg, crosses the Antietam at the Old Forge, and passes Beard's 
church and Welt/s church. It was the original eastern boundary 
of Leitersburg District and still constitutes the extreme south- 
eastern limit of its extent. 

* McCauley's History of Franklin County, p. 133. 
5 



78 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTRICT. 

The following entry occurs in the minutes of the Frederick 
County court at November session, 1770: 

Joseph Gaither and sundry others prefer to the court here the fol- 
lowing petition, to wit: "The humble petition of the inhabitants of 
Conococheagne to the Worshipful Bench of Frederick County now 
sitting beg leave to inform you that there was a road led from the 
mouth of Ck)nococheague to Nicholson's Gap, but at present it is 
quite useless; your petitioners therefore humbly beg that your Wor- 
ships will be pleased to grant an order that the public road shall 
lead from the mouth of Conococheague through Elizabeth-Town un- 
til it intersects the road that leads through said gap, and they as in 
duty bound will pray." Joseph Gaither, Joseph Mitchell, and sundry 
others. 

Upon reading which petition and consideration thereon had it is 
ordered by the court here that Messrs. Colonel Thomas Prather, 
Van Swearingen, Jr., and Patrick Allison view and lay out the said 
road and make report thereof to the next court. 

No report appears in the court minutes, but at the same term 
of court Henry Tice was appointed supervisor for "The new road 
from the mouth of Conococheague through Elizabeth-Town 
to where it intersects the run below Haldimand's plantation." Hal- 
dimand's plantation was the extensive Longmeadows tract; the 
new road therefore terminated at Marsh run at or near the 
Ziegler mill. But it was at this point that the road referred to 
in the patent for Cousin's Obligement (1755) began; hence it is 
highly probable that the latter continued to Nicholson's Gap. 
It had not yet became a legal road to that point in 1776, and as 
the records of the Washington County court for many years after 
the organization of the county are no longer in existence, it is 
impossible to say when this occurred. 

There can be no uncertainty, however, regarding its course. On 
the 20th of December, 1790, the Legislature passed an act author- 
izing resurv'cys on a number of important roads in different parts 
of the State, one of which was the road "from Elizabeth-Town to 
the Pennsylvania line in Nicholson's Gap." Liidwig Young, 
William Lee, and Joseph Sprigg, Jr., were appointed as commis- 
sioners to make the resun-ey, a report of which, signed by Messrs. 
Young and Lee under date of October 17, 1791, is entered in the 
land records of Washington County. This report shows the 
courses and distances of the road from the court house in Hagers- 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 79 

town (which then stood in the center of the public square) to the 
State line in Nicholson's Gap.* 

The original course and changes made by the commissioners 
are both indicated. The alterations were very inconsiderable, 
and did not afifect the general course of the road, which was origi- 
nally thirteen miles and twelve perches in length and as amended 
eighty-five perches shorter. The only points indicated are 
Benches mill, now o^^led by David Ziegler; Christian Letter's, now 
the property of the estate of the late Joseph Strite; "Antietam at 
the Rock Forge;'* and Frederick Howard's, near the present resi- 
dence of Jacob Tharpe, about two hundred yards from the noFth- 
eastem comer of the District on the State line. Its course seems 
to be identical with that of the road referred to in the patent for 
Cousin's Obligement (1755). 

The resurvey of 1790 was evidently unsatisfactory to many in- 
terested parties, probably because its principal purpose — a direct 
road from &agerstown to Nicholson's Gap — had not been accom- 
plished. Accordingly, on the 15th of January, 1799, the Legisla- 
ture passed a law repealing the act of December 2, 1790, so far as 
it applied to the Nicholson's Gap road. The levy court of Wash- 
ington County was authorized to appoint "three discreet persons, 
freeholders in said county" as commissioners to lay out and survey 

*Rey. Philip V. Pithian, a Presbjrterian clerfn^man, passed over this road, May x8 
1775, and thus describes it in his journal : " Here we arrived late last night at a small 
log house. A smart, neat, young land-lady, a spry, golden-haired, buxom maid, sev 
eral sturdy wagoners, huge hills on every side — we are at what is called Nicholson's 
Gap. We jog on over the rugged hills. A middle-aged, dropsical Dutch woman with 
her face muffled up in the mumps boiled up for our breakfast a little coffee in the sugar 
and milk ; indeed, it made good broth. Prom the mountain to Blizabeth or Hagers- 
town is a level country and good land." 

Interesting allusions to the old road also occur in the following advertisements, 
which were published in the Washington [County] Spy .- 

Lost, on the night of the 14th inst. between Hagerstown and Burkhart's tavern on 
the road leading through Nicholson's Gap, a leather pocket book containing three 
notes • • • Whoever delivers said book and papers to me, living on Antietam 
near Burkhart's mill, shall receive the above reward. Hbnry Snell. 

February 31, 1794. 

Strayed or stolen from the subscriber, living on the main road leading from Hagers- 
town to Nicholson's Gap about two miles from Burkhart's mill, on the 19th of this 
inst. a black horse eight years old, fifteen hands high, shod before, branded on the 
near shoulder thus, C. G.; also a sorrel horse two years old last spring with a blazed 
face, branded on the near shoulder C * * * Any person taking up the said horses 
and bringing them to me shaU receive $10.00 reward and reasonable charges paid by 
me. ' Christian Garver. 

October az, 1794. 



80 HISTORY OP LEITEBSBUBQ DISTRICT. 

a road "from Elizabeth-Town * * ♦ * to Nicholson^s Gap * * ♦ ♦ 
not exceeding forty feet in width, clear of ditches and in as 
straight lines as the nature of the ground * * * * will admit of." 
Unfortunately, the records of the levy court for this period have 
disappeared and it is therefore impossible to trace the proceedings 
under this law. But there can be no doubt that commissioners 
were duly appointed and that they proceeded to survey and open 
a road, visible and tangible evidence of which still exists after the 
lapse of nearly a century. On the farm of Immanuel and Kate E. 
Martin near Pleasant Hill school house there is a tract of wood- 
land through which a vista forty feet wide extends in a northeast 
and southwest direction. Seventy years ago an almost unbroken 
forest extended from Leitersburg to Ringgold and there are per- 
sons still living who remember when the vista through the Mar- 
tin woods was continuous for several miles. There can be no 
doubt that it was cut out in 1799 or 1800 as the course of the 
Nicholson's Gap road. Notwithstanding the expense thus in- 
curred legislative interposition was again secured in the passage 
of the following act on the 31st of December, 1801: 

A Supplement to an Act entitled, '*An Act respecting the public Roads 
in Washington County,** passed at November sessions, 1798. 

Whereas, By an act of Assembly to which this is a supplement 
the levy court of said county did apx)oint commissioners to lay out 
and survey a road from Elizabeth-Town in Washington County to 
the Pennsylvania line in Nicholson's Gap; and whereas the said com- 
missioners did proceed to lay out and survey the said road and did 
Kurvey and lay out the said road in different directions, one of which 
has been confirmed by the said court: which road, so confirmed by 
the said court, it is represented to this General Assembly by a large 
number of respectable inhabitants of said county is tJie most in- 
convenient and expensive and on the worst ground ; and whereas it 
is also represented to this General Assembly that if the present levy 
court of the said county had the power to reject, alter, change, or 
confirm the said road, it would be highly beneficial to the inhabi- 
tants of the said county: therefore, 

2. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Maryland, That the 
justices of the levy court of Washington County be and they are 
hereby authorized and empowered to reject, alter, change, or con- 
firm the said road so as aforesaid confirmed by the former levy court, 
and they are hereby authorized and empowered to confirm, reject, 
alter, or change either of the said routes as surveyed and laid out 
by tiie commissioners appointed under the act to which this is a 
supplement, or to lay out a new road in the discretion aforesaid; 



SOCIAL AXD MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 81 

and the justices of the levy court are authorized and empowered 
to appoint commissioners for any or either of the purposes afore- 
said, which commissioners when appointed shall have the powers 
and be subject to all the limitations given by the original act. 

3. And &e it enacted. That all the powers given to the super^'isor 
or super\isors for the said road by the former levy court be and 
the same are hereby suspended, and he or they shall not proceed 
to clear or open the said road or any part thereof. 

Under this act and doubtless in the next year (1802) the ques- 
tion of location was finally settled by the selection of the present 
course, which is that of the turnpike from Hagerstown to Leiters- 
burg and the county road from Leitersburg through Ringgold to- 
ward the mountain. 

The road from Greencastle to Smithsburg, the second public 
road opened through Leitersburg District, was authorized by an 
act of the Legislature passed on the 3d of January, 1807. It is 
described as leading "from the State line noar Peter Baker's to in- 
tersect the main road leading from Hagerstown to Baltimore 
through Charlton's Gap at the foot of the South mountain near 
Robert Hughes's." William Gabby, Robert Hughes, and Jacob 
Ronch constituted the commission under whose direction the sur- 
vey was made. The only points indicated in Leitersburg District 
are Michael Wolfinger's (now the residence of Mrs. Joseph Strite), 
Russell's gate (Strite's mill), Antietam, Andrew Bachman's (east 
of Leitersburg), and Meyer's mill (now owned by George H. Bow- 
man). 

On the 6th of January, 1810, the Legislature passed a law open- 
ing to the public "a road from Hagerstown to the Pennsylvania 
line in the direction of Waynesboro" — the Marsh turnpike. A 
private road to the various residences along its course had been 
used by the public for many years but there were gates at the 
boundary of every farm, the removal of which was doubtless one 
of the main advantages to be gained in having it declared a public 
road. William 0. Sprigg, through whose extensive estate the 
road passed for some distance, objected to this, and through his 
influence the law was repealed on the 24th of December, 1810. 
The road thus reverted to its original status and so continued for 
sixteen years. In 1824 a petition was addressed to the county 
court stating that it was ^'out of repair" and "at all seasons of the 
year almost impassable." Jacob Schnebley, John Harry, and Dan- 



82 HISTOBY OF LEITER8BURG DISTBICT. 

iel Malott were accordingly appointed examiners, November 16, 
1824. In their report, certified under date of November 11, 1825, 
they state that they proceeded "to locate the present road as it is 
now used, commencing at the Pennsylvania line and ending at its 
intersection with the Nicholson^s Gap road/^ At March term, 
1826, this report was confirmed, and thus the Marsh road was 
opened to the public. Two important changes have since been 
made in its course, one in 1839, by which the present location be- 
tween Reid postoffice and the Pennsylvania line was established, 
and the other in 1869 at Paradise school house. 

At April term, 1826, upon petition of Abraham Schmutz and 
others, the levy court appointed Henry Fouke, Jacob Huyett, and 
John Harry commissioners to lay out a road "from the Hagers- 
town and Nicholson^s Gap road at or near Abraham Schmutz's 
mill across to the road leading from Hagerstown to Greencastle." 
The proposed road was accordingly surveyed under their direc- 
tion. May 29, 1826; they reported "that the public convenience 
required the said road to be opened, on account of a private road 
being shut up" and that "a road is necessary for the convenience 
of the inhabitants of that section of the country to get to the mill." 
] t was accordingly confirmed by the court at March term, 1827. 
This road constitutes the western boundary of Leitersburg Dis- 
trict between Paradise school house and Ziegler's mill. 

The following entry occurs in the proceedings of the levy court 
of Washington County under date of September 7, 1830: 

Ordered by the court that the commission and return in the case 
of the commission issued to John Welty, Peter Mong, and Christo- 
pher Flory to open a road from Leitersburg to the Pennsylvania line 
above the place commonly called the Rock Forge be returned to said 
commissioners for amendment pursuant to the order of Washington 
County court passed in the said case. 

The opening of this road was opposed by Robert Hughes, 
through whoso lands it passed. The final survey was made on the 
*^Oth of July, 1831, by Iknjamin Garver under the direction of 
Christopher Flory and Peter Mong, who laid out a road thirty- 
three feet wide extending from the public square in Leitersburg 
two miles and forty-four perches to the termination of a road al- 
ready laid out from Waynesboro to the State line. It was con- 
firmed by the county commissioners on the 8th of September, 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 8i^ 

1831. This is the present course of the turnpike between Leiters- 
burg and Waynesboro. 

"Commencing at the Leitersburg and Wayne8lx)ro road at a 
private road tliat leads to Samuel Lyday's saw-mill; to continue 
to the Pennsylvania and Maryland line to a place called Jacobs 
meetinghouse; then northward to the land of Schriver and Horst; 
then the most direct route to the Leitersburg and Greencastle 
road, to terminate at a place commonly called Strite's hemp 
patch:'* the road thus described was surveyed by Marmaduke 
W. Boyd, December 28, 1842, under the direction of George Poe, 
Daniel South, and Jacob Adams, examiners appointed by the 
county commissioners. There was dissatisfaction with the route 
selected, however, and a new board of examiners was appointed, 
composed of George Poe, James Coudy, and Emory Edwards, for 
whom Mr. Boyd surveyed the road from Jacobs church to the 
turnpike on the 7th of August, 1843. The entire line was con- 
firmed by the county commissioners in 1845. This is the present 
public road from the turnpike at Bock Forge, past Jacobs church, 
across the Greencastle road, past Miller's church, to the turnpike 
near Mt. Union school house. 

From the Leitersburg and Waynesboro road to Flagg's cross- 
ing, thence to Funk's mill, and thence to Henry Schriver's — this 
road was surveyed by Benjamin Garver, June 9, 1848, for a board 
of examiners composed of himself, Abraham Strite, and Jacob E. 
Bell. It was confirmed w^ith a width of thirty feet in 1850, but 
the course was materially changed between the first survey and 
the final confirmation. This road diverges from the turnpike 
about half a mile north of Leitersburg, crosses the Antietam, 
passes New Harmony school house, and terminates at the road 
from Jacobs to Miller's church. 

A short distance east of Jacob's church a road diverges to the 
south, terminating at the property of Benjamin Baker as origi- 
nally laid out. This road was surveyed by Benjamin Garver, April 
26, 1850, and confirmed with a width of twenty-five feet. Henry 
Schriver and Robert Fowler were associated with Mr. Ganger as 
examiners. 

The road from New Harmony school house to the Greencastle 
road was surveyed by Benjamin Garver, October 24, 1850, and 
subsequently confirmed with a width of twenty-five feet. The 
examiners were Benjamin Garver and George Poe. 



84 HISTOBY OF LEITEBSBUBG DISTBICT. 

The public road from the turnpike near Mt. Union school house 
to the Old Forge road, a distance of one and three-eighths miles, 
was surveyed by Benjamin Garver, March 15, 1850, and confirmed 
in 1851 with a width of twenty-five feet. The examinera were 
Joseph Garver, Andrew M. Shank, and Abraham Strite. 

From "Antietam bridge near Fowler & Zieglers mill past David 
Brumbaugh's mill to the old Marsh road," a distance of two miles 
and 184 perches — this road was surveyed by John Oswald, Sep- 
tember 15-16, 1852, under the direction of Samuel Etnyer, Peter 
Bell, and Jacob H. Barr, examiners. It was confirmed in 1853 
with a width of twenty-five feet. The "Antietam bridge" referred 
to is on the turnpike a short distance southwest of Leitersburg, 
and "David Brumbaugh's mill" is now owned by Henry F. Leh- 
man. 

About a mile northeast of Leitersburg a road 158 perches in 
length connects the Waynesboro turnpike and the Ringgold road. 
It was surveyed on the 26th of December, 1854, and confirmed in 
1855 with a width of twenty-four feet. The examiners were 
Jac^b E. Bell, Henry Schriver, and George Beard. 

The public road from Martin's school house to Welty's church, 
which constitutes the eastern line of Leitersburg District for some 
distance, was sur\'eyed by John Oswald, September 13, 1852, 
"upon or near the old road now in use by the neighborhood." The 
examiners were David Oswald, Jeremiah S. Besore, and Elijah 
Bishop. This road was confirmed in 1853 with a width of twenty- 
five feet. 

The public road that forms the eastern boundary of the District 
from the Ringgold road to Charles's mill was surveyed by John 
Oswald, November 15, 1853. The examiners were Frederick Bell, 
Peter Bell, and George Kessinger. The authorized width of this 
road is twenty feet. 

From the Smithsl)urg road near Bowman's mill a road diverges 
to the Old Forge road. It was surveyed on the 23d of October, 
1858, and confinncd in the following month. The examiners 
were George Poe, Henry Schriver, and John Welty. The author- 
ized width is thirtv feet. 

The road from the tum])ike to the Antictam at Henr}' Hartleys 
was surveyed by S. S. Downiii, Dccomber 20, 1808, and confirmed 
in 1870. The examiners were I. G. Brown and William B. Strock. 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 85 

It was originally designed to continue this road to the Old Forge, 
and a resurvey for this purpose, made in 1897 by E. E. Piper and 
confirmed by the county commissioners, is now in litigation. 

A road 158.43 perches in length extending from the Green- 
castle road to the Pennsylvania line was surveyed by S. S. Downin, 
June 10, 1872, and confirmed in December of the same year. 
The examiners were John F. Lehman, John D. Eakle, and Joseph 
Middlekauff. 

The road from Buena Vista school house on the Old Forge road 
by way of "the watery lane" to the Leitersburg and Smithsburg 
road, which constitutes the eastern line of the District for some 
distance, was surveyed by P. Oswald, June 11, 1875, and oon- 
firmed in September of the same year. The examiners were Isaac 
E. Davis, Edward Ingram, and Joseph Kimler. 

A road 295 perches in length extending eastward from the 
Einggold road to the eastern line of the District was surveyed by 
E. E. Piper, February 4, 1&91, and subsequently confirmed. The 
examiners were John Martin, Jr., William H. Bohrer, and Isaac 
6. Beard. 

In 1811 there were three public road districts in Leitersburg 
District, described as follows: No. 20. — "The road from Hagers- 
town by Benches mill to Antietam creek below Lantz^s mill on the 
Nicholson's Gap road: six miles." No. 21. — "The road from 
Lantz^s fording on the Nicholsoji's Gap road to the Pennsylvania 
line: six miles." No. 22. — "The road from the Pennsylvania 
line near Peter Baker's until it intersects the Charlton's Gap road 
near Robert Hughes's: seven miles." The respective supervisors 
were Christopher Trovinger, John Mentzer, and Michael Wol- 
finger. The appropriation for No. 20 was $100.00; for No. 21, 
$60.00; for No. 22, $80.00. 

In 1812 the levy court established the following rates of pny 
for work on the county roads: 

A wagon, four horses, and driver $2 07 

A wagon, two horses, and driver, 1 07 

A cart, two horses or oxen, and driver 1 67 

A cart, one horse, and driver, 1 34 

An able-bodied man, 75 

An able-bodied man with wheelbarrow 80 

A plough, two horses, and driver 1 34 

An able-bodied man engaged in blowing rocks 1 00 



86 HISTOBY OF LEITEBSBUBG DISTBIOT. 

Various changes have been made and other methods have been 
tried, but the system of road construction and repair in Wash- 
ington County is substantially tho same as in 1811 and for many 
years previous to that date. The public roads are divided into 
districts, for each of which a supervisor is appointed and an ap- 
propriation made from the county treasury. Special improve- 
ment by private initiative is encouraged, however; where the sup- 
ervisor or other interested citizens express a willingness to bestow 
labor or materials gratis in the construction of permanent im- 
provements the county commissioners usually reward their enter- 
prise by an increased appropriation. In this way two of the steep- 
est hills on the Smithsburg road southeast of Leitersburg were re- 
duced to much better grades in 1897-98, largely through the ef- 
forts of Freeland W. Anderson and Dr. J. H. Wishard; and in 
1897 Samuel Cook and John F. Strite hauled 155 loads of stone 
on the Greencastle road adjacent to the Pennsylvania line, with 
which it was macadamized for a considerable distance. In both 
instances the county commissioners granted liberal appropriations 
in aid of the work. 

Horseback riding was once the universal mode of travel. Wagons 
were used in hauling grain, merchandise, etc., but no vehicle for 
personal transportation was known to the pioneers of Leitersburg 
District. On errands of pleasure or business ever}'body travelled 
on horseback. At funerals the coffin was placed on a farm wagon 
and a similar conveyance carried the family of the deceased, while 
the relatives and friends followed on horseback like a troop of 
cavalry. In many families the daughters as well as the sons had 
their riding horses, with the necessary o-quipment of saddle, bridle, 
etc. As the condition of the roads improved gigs, carriages, and 
other light vehicles with leather springs were introduced, but they 
differed greatly from the modern type both in comfort and ap- 
pearance. 

Before the constniction of railroads grain, flour, whiskey, and 
other products were transported to market l)y wagon, and on many 
of the larger farms a six-horse team was employed in this way for 
several months every year. The shortest route from the District 
to Baltimore was the road through Nicholson's Gap, Mechanics- 
town, and Westminster, but in the winter and spring the journey 
was generally made by way of the National road through Middle- 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 87 

town and Frederick. Seven days were required for the journey 
by way of Nicholson's Gap and eight days by way of Frederick. 

In 1821 a line of stage coaches was established between Gettys- 
burg and Hagerstown by way of Nicholson's Gap. It formed pari; 
of the line between Philadelphia and Wheeling. The coaches 
were drawn by four horses and Leitersburg was a point of ex- 
change. 

Bbidges. 

On the 14th of January, 1824, the Legislature passed an act 
authorizing the levy court of Washington County to erect a bridge 
over Antietam creek at Frederick Ziegler's ford on the Nichol- 
son's Gap road; and on the 3d of May, 1824, the couri; entered into 
a contract with James Lloyd for the erection of a stone bridge at 
the point designated for the sum of $2,175. This is the bridge 
on the turnpike a short distance southwest of Leitersburg. 

In 1838 the county commissioners were authorized to build 
"over Antietam creek upon the best practicable site at or near 
Lewis Ziegler's ford on the road leading from Greencastle to Balti- 
more a substantial stone bridge." It was accordingly erected in 
the following year by J. Weaver. This is the bridge directly west 
of Leitersburg on the Greencastle road. 

In recent years the county commissioners have erected four iron 
bridges in the District, located as follows: on the Antietam at 
Bock Forge and at the crossing on the public road between that 
point and Leitersburg; on the Little Antietam at the crossing on 
the Chewsville road and at Bowman's mill. 

Turnpikes. 

The Hagerstown and Antietam Turnpike Company was incor- 
porated by the Maryland Legislature, February 2, 1819, "to make 
a turnpike road from the public square in Hagerstown to intersect 
the turnpike road leading from Gettysburg through Nicholson's 
Gap at the Pennsylvania line." Christopher Burkhart, Frederick 
Ziegler, John Welty, Joseph Gabby, 0th o Holland Williams, and 
Upton Lawrence were designated as commissioners for the organ- 
ization of the company. The authorized capital was $60,000. 
The company secured several extensions of its franchise, but it 
does not appear that the project ever passed the initial stage. 



88 HISTOBY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

On the 11th of March, 1840, the Legislature passed an act au- 
thorizing Robert M. Tidball, Charles A. Fletcher, Lewis Ziegler, 
Samuel Lyday, William E. Doyle, Dr. Frederick Dorsey, Abraham 
Strite, and Joseph Gabby to conduct a lottery for the purpose of 
raising a sum not exceeding $30,000 "to be applied to the making 
of a turnpike road from Hagerstown through Leitereburg to the 
Pennsylvania line, and for introducing wholesome water into the 
town of Leitersburg.^* It does not appear that the lottery was 
ever organized, although the commissioners held a meeting in 
Hagerstown for that purpose in 1840. 

The Hagerstown and Waynesboro Turnpike Company was in- 
corporated by the Maryland Legislatureat December session, 1846, 
for the construction of "an artificial bed of stone or gravel not 
less than sixteen feet in breadth" on the bed of the county roed 
"to be commenced at some point within the corporate limits of 
the town of Hagerstown and extended to the Pennsylvania line 
in the direction of Waynesboro through the town of Leitersburg." 
The act of incorporation authorized two toll gates and designated 
the rates of toll, which have been modified by subsequent legis- 
lation. 

The corporators named in the charter were Joseph Gabby, 
Frederick Ziegler, Abraham Strite, Lewis Ziegler, John Mentzer, 
and Frederick Dorsey. The company organized on the 6th of 
May, 1847, by the election of the following officers: President, 
Abraham Strite; treasurer, Jacob E. Bell; managers, Nathan Mc- 
Dowell, Frederick Bell, Benjamin Garver, George L. Ziegler, and 
Christian Strite. The first secretary of the company was Benja- 
min Garver, who was elected on the 17th of May, 1847. 

The road is nine miles in length, and was constructed under 
contract by Eobert Fowler and Frederick K. Ziegler. On the 13th 
of June, 1847, a commission composed of Joseph Gabby, Abraham 
Strite, William E. Doyle, Lewis Ziegler, Samuel Lyday, and R. 
^I. Tidball certified to the completion of three miles of road ex- 
tending eastward from Hagerstown. The first toll collector at 
Gate No. 1 was Eobert Bigham, who was appointed on the 1st 
of November, 1847. At Gate Xo. 2 the first collector was Jacob 
Garver; tolls were not collected here until November, 1848. 

The capital stock of the company is issued in shares of $25.00 
each. The amount originally subscribed was $10,260; this was 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 89 

insufficient for the construction of the road, however, and a con- 
siderable indebtedness was necessarily contracted. This was grad- 
ually liquidated out of the earnings of the road, after which the 
stock was increased by the amount of indebtedness thus paid. 
The present capital is $16,456.25, of which Washington County 
holds $2,500. No dividend was declared until 1861, all the sur- 
plus earnings of the road up to that date having been applied to 
the payment of indebtedness. Since 1861 dividends have been 
regularly declared, and the company's stock is regarded as a 
desirable investment. 

The succession of presidents of the company since its organiza- 
tion has been as follows: 1847-49, Abraham Strite; 1850-53, Rob- 
ert Fowler; 1854, George L. Ziegler; 1855-63, Abraham Strite; 
1864-67, Jacob Miller; 1868-71, Daniel Mentzer; 1872, David M. 
Deitrich; 1873-95, David Strite; 1896-97, Alexander Xeill. 

The following persons have served as secretaries of the com- 
pany: 1847, Benjamin Garver; 1848-49, Christian Strite; 1850, 
David M. Good; 1851-53, George L. Ziegler; 1854-72, Frederick 
Bell; 1873-83, David M. Deitrich; 1884-97, Josephus Ground. 

The succession of treasurers has been as follows: 1847, Jacob 
E. Bell, Joseph Leiter; 1848-50, Abraham Strite; 1851-54, Robert 
Fowler; 1855, Abraham Strite; 1856-58, Jacob Miller; 1859-63, 
Abraham Strite; 1863-85, George W. Pole; 1886-93, Samuel 
Strite; 1893-97, Josephus Ground. 

The president of the company during the years of its early his- 
tory' usually performed the duties of superintendent. The in- 
cumbents of this office since 1865 have been as follows: 1865-68, 
Deniel Mentzer; 1869-71, David Strite; 1872, David M. Deitrich; 
1873-79, David Strite; 1881-92, John Miller; 1893-97, Samuel 
Strite. 

The Marsh Turnpike Company was incorporated by the Mary- 
land Legislature at January session, 1868. The first directors 
were David Cleaver, Peter Middlekauff, Jacob Oberholtzer, 
Daniel G. Rowland, and Peter Eshleman, who organized on the 
25th of March, 1870, by electing Peter Middlekauff president 
and Daniel G. Rowland secretary. Three hundred and forty- 
eight shares of stock (par value, $25.00) having been sub- 
scribed, the stockholders met at Paradise school house, April 
2, 1870, when a permanent organization was effected, con- 



90 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

stituted as follows: Directors: Joseph Eshleman^ Peter Mid- 
dlekauff, Daniel G. Rowland, Daniel N. Scheller, and 
George A. Cressler; president, Peter Middlekauff; secretary, 
Peter Eshleman; treasurer, Henry Clopper. On the 22d of April, 
1870, the contract for the construction of the turnpike was 
awarded to Michael Dillon at $2498 per mile; and on the 18th of 
March, 1871, the work of construction having heen completed, 
he received final payment. The line of the road extends from 
the State line to the Hagerstown and Wayneshoro turnpike, a 
distance of four miles. 

The officers of the company since its organization have been 
as follows: Presidents: Peter Middlekauff, 1870-71; George A. 
Cressler, 1872-73; Jonas Eshleman, 1874-77; George A. Cressler, 
1878-79; Joseph Eshleman, 1880-90; George A. Cressler, 1891-93; 
John H. Miller, 1894-98. Secretaries: Peter Eshleman, George 
A. Cressler, Jonas Eshleman, Peter E. Eshleman, Emanuel 
Burger. Treasurers: Henry Clopper, 1870-75; Peter R. Eshle- 
man, 1876-77; Jonas Eshleman, 1878-81; George A. Cressler, 
1882-90; Peter E. Eshleman, 1891-93; Jacob Eshleman, 1894-98. 

Mills. 

Mills for grinding grain and sawing lumber were among the 
first necessities of a community and usually followed closely upon 
its settlement. Before the erection of a mill upon the territory 
of the District its inhabitants resorted to StuU's, on the Antie- 
tam near Hagerstown, which was built prior to 1748; S toner's, 
which was in operation as early as 1749 on the Antietam east of 
Waynesboro at the present site of B. F. Welt/s; or possibly to 
Wolgamot's on the Conococheague. But the water power af- 
forded by the streams of the District offered ample inducement 
to local enterprise and was early utilized for commercial purposes. 

As evidenced by Colonel Bouquet's will, there was a saw-mill 
on the Longmeadows estate in 1765. Its site was on the farm 
of Daniel N. Scheller, near the Marsh run and Paradise spring, 
where the wheel-pit may still be seen, the masonry of which is 
still in a good state of preservation. On the opposite side of the 
Marsh turnpike and on a branch of Marsh nm is Snively's saw- 
mill; it was from this branch that the power was derived and the 
course of the old race, extending from Snively's along the line 
between the lands of Lehman and Scheller, was clearly distin- 
guishable some years ago. 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 91 

In 1772, as shown by the depositions in the Skipton-on-Craven 
boundary case, there was a saw-mill on the Little Antietam just 
below the bridge on the Chewsville road and opposite the present 
residence of Harvey J. Hartle. Nothing now remains to mark its 
site. 

One of the first grist-mills in the District was that of Chris- 
topher Burkhart on Antietam creek a mile north of Leitersburg. 
The»site is now embraced in the lands of Samuel Martin. It is 
probable that this mill was established as early as 1770. The 
erection of the mill-dam resulted injuriously to the lands of Peter 
Shiess, who resided on the opposite side of the creek, and in 1779 
Burkhart purchased from him eleven and three-fourths acres of 
land, "together with all and singular the water and water courses, 
and all the drained lands, meadows, and other of the benefits of 
the waters stopped and gorged up by the damming of the water 
for the use of the above named Christopher Burkharfs grist- 
mills * * * and any other waters that may be stopped or 
gorged up by means of said Christopher Burkhart's mill-dam, 
for the benefit and advantage of said Burkhart and his mills in 
any kind or nature whatever." In 1797 Burkhart- leased the 
mill, dwelling house, and lands adjacent thereto to Levan 
Hays for the term of seven years at an annual rental of £200. A 
"new mill-dam" recently erected is referred to in this lease. By 
his will, executed November 10, 1797, he devised the mill prop- 
erty to his son, Christopher Burkhart, in whose possession it 
continued until his death in 1838. Among those who operated 
it under lease from him were George Shiess and Samuel Lyday. 
After the property passed out of the possession of the Burkharts 
the successive owners were Henry Funk, Henry H. Snively, Daniel 
Mentzer, George Bell, and Christian Lehman. The old mill was 
a two-story stone structure, equipped at the close of its career with 
two sets of buhrs. This building was removed in 1857 by Daniel 
Mentzer, who erected on the same site a new mill that was re- 
garded as one of the most commodious on Antietam creek. It 
was three stories high and the walls were built of stone to the 
second story. This building was completely destroyed by fire on 
the 29th of January, 1886. Only the foundation walls now 
remain to mark its site. There was also a saw-mill connected 
with this property at one time; it survived the period of its use- 



92 HISTOBY OF LEITEBSBURG DI8TBICT. 

fulnees and after reaching an advanced stage of dilapidation was 
eventually removed. 

Christian Lantz seems to have formed the idea of erecting a 
mill soon after he became a resident of Leitersburg District, for 
in 1776 he purchased from Jacob Leiter two and one-half acres 
of land, the boundaries of which are described as *^Beginning at 
the end of thirty-two perches in the sixth line of a tract of land 
called Skipton-on-Craven and running from thence down Antie- 
tam creek on the northwest side of said creek * * * to include 
the whole of the creek and all the advantages of the water for wa- 
ter works." The last clause is significant. In 1783 Lantz entered 
into an agreement with Leiter "not to raise the water or dam fur- 
ther or higher than the aforesaid corners or marked stones when 
there is not a flow in the creek, but at all other times he and his 
heirs and assigns are at liberty to raise the dam or water if they 
choose as far as the said stones but no farther, only when the flow 
is high." In a provisional disposition of his lands in 1792 Chris- 
tian Lantz assigned the mill property to his son Christian and ad- 
jacent land to his son George, reserving to the latter "the use of 
the water every Monday night, Thursday night, and Saturday 
night forever, to be let through a hole made one foot square in the 
said Christian Lantz's mill race where George Lantz may think 
proper for the convenience of watering the said George Lantz's 
meadows." 

The Lantz mill was situated west of Leitersburg on the opposite 
side of the Antietam creek and a short distance above the turn- 
pike bridge over that stream. At the beginning of the century 
this crossing is referred to as "Lantz's fording on the Nicholson's 
Gap road." From Christian Lantz, Jr., the son of the first pro- 
prietor, the mill passed to his son-in-law, John Byer, by whom 
several other manufacturing establishments were also operated 
here. These included a saw-mill, tannery, hemp-mill, and dis- 
tillery. Fowler & Zieglcr subsequently bought the property, 
equipped the mill with new machinery, and transacted an exten- 
sive business, which rapidly declined after they discontinued/ 
operations. 

On the south side of the turnpike at the point where Marsh rim 
crosses the District line stands one of the oldest mills in Washing- 
ton County. This mill is located on a draft of the Nicholson's 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 93 

Gap road in 1791 under the name of Rench's mill. It was built 
by John Reneh, who purchased the site in 1780 in connection 
with a tract of over four hundred acres. He died in 1794 and by 
the terms of his will the mill was devised to his son, Peter Bench, 
by whose heirs it was sold in 1819 to Joseph Miller. The next 
owner was Abraham Schmutz, from whom the property passed to 
D. G. Yost and Adam Kinkle in 1826. On the 29th of June, 
1833, Yost and Kinkle entered into an agreement with Frederick 
Ziegler for the sale of the mill and all its appurtenances, in consid- 
eration of which he agreed to deliver to them at Hagerstown 
"375 barrels of good, merchantable, first proof whiskey, to be 
the same quality of whiskey which the said Ziegler has been in 
the habit of selling in Baltimore, Georgetown, and other cities 
at from fifty to fifty-five cents per gallon." It was further stipu- 
lated that the capacity of the barrels should average thicty-four 
gallons. At this time (1833) the mill was operated under lease 
by Thomas Phillips. The property appears to have been in liti- 
gation about this time, as Ziegler did not secure a valid deed 
until 1847. At his death it passed to his son, David Ziegler, of 
Greencastle, Pa., in whose possession it has since remained. The 
present lessee is Samuel Hartman. 

Some time near the close of the last century General Sprigg 
built a mill on Marsh run in the extreme northwestern part of the 
District. It was a two-story stone structure about forty feet 
square. The power was originally derived from a dam* a half-mile 
distant. David Brumbaugh, who subsequently purchased the 
property, improved it in various ways and excavated a reservoir 
with an area of half an acre. Brumbaugh sold it to Jacob B. 
Lehman in 1854, and from him it was purchased in 1858 by his 
son, Henry F. Lehman, the present proprietor. The old stone 
mill was removed in 1869 and replaced by the main part of the 
present structure, a brick building thirty-eight by forty-five feet 
in dimensions, to which a frame addition thirty by thirty-one was 
added in 1878. Steam power was introduced in 1887, and at tho 
present time engines of thirty-five horse-power are used. The 
use of buhrs in the manufacture of flour was discontinued in 
1887 in favor of the roller process, to which the gyrator system 
of bolting was added in 1897. The present capacity of the mill 
is fifty barrels per day. It is also provided with facilities for the 
6 



94 HISTORY OF LEITEBSBURG DISTBICT. 

manufacture of other mill products, and in the character of its 
equipment and the extent of its business is justly regarded as one 
of the leading mills of Washington County. 

An advertisement in the Washington Spy for May 3, 1793, re- 
fers to "Jacob Gilbert^s mill, on Little Antietam creek, seven miles 
from Hagerstown and two miles oflE the main road leading from 
said town to Nicholson's Gap." Here Gilbert owned two hun- 
dred acres of land, which he purchased in 1789 from Abraham 
Stouffer, who is said to have built the mill. He derived his title 
from Christian Hyple. In 1800 Gilbert sold it to Abraham Moyer, 
by whom it was owned when the Smithsburg road was opened. He 
became insolvent and in 1825 the property was purchased at 
sheriflE's sale by Frederick Bell, who built the present mill in 
1837-38 and equipped it with new machinery throughout. He 
died in 1839 and in 1840 the mill was bought by his son, Freder- 
ick Bell. Among the subsequent owners were Samuel Etnyer, 
David M. Deitrich, Jeremiah Fahmey, Elias R. Stottlemeyer, 
and George H. Bowman, the present proprietor, who pur- 
chased it in 1886. He introduced the roller process in 1896 and 
has also improved the property in various other ways. 

Strite's mill near Leitersburg has been known by this name for 
more than half a century. The mill site and adjacent land were 
owned by the first Jacob Leit^r at his death in 1764 and devised 
by him to his son. Christian. He sold it in 1790 to Peter Shana- 
berger, from whom it was purchased in 1792 by Samuel Kraumer 
(Cromer). "Wliile it is possible that some previous owner may 
have built and operated a mill at this site, there can be no doubt 
that the present structure was erected by Kraumer. A large 
stone in the front wall bears the inscription, ^"^S. K. 1798.^' Fur- 
ther authentic testimony occurs in a deed from Jacob Leiter (of 
Peter) to Felix Beck for land subsequently owned by George Zieg- 
ler, the boundary of which is described as beginning at a tree on 
the west bank of the Antietam creek "two perches below Samuel 
Kraumer's mill house." This deed was executed in 1799. In 1807 
Kraumer sold the property to John Bussell, who was from the 
Shenandoah valley in Virginia. He died in 1808: his son, CJhris- 
tian Bussell, by inheritance and purchase secured a two-thirds 
interest in the property, which he operated imtil 1829, when 
financial reverses compelled him to sell it. He then engaged in 



SOCIAL AND MATEBIAL DEVELOPMENT. 95 

other business and eventually lost his life in a steamboat explosion 
on the Mississippi. Stephen Martin purchased the mill in 1829 
and owned it until his death. It was bought in 1843 by Christian 
Strite, by whom the south wing was built for grinding plaster. 
He died in 1862, after which the properi;y was purchased by Sam- 
uel Strite, the present owner. This is one of the largest mills on 
Antietam creek and is equipped throughout with modem ma- 
chinery. The present lessee is John C. Strite. 

Eariy in the century the Barr family built a mill on their estate 
in the eastern pari; of the District on Little Antietam. Here they 
conducted a variety of industrial operations. In one stone build- 
ing there was a plaster-mill, saw-mill, and clover-mill, and in 
another a nail factory and distillery. The property was pur- 
chased in 1823 by Daniel Winter, whose son-in-law, Isaac H. 
Durboraw, was the next owner of the mill. The present pro- 
prietor is Eudolph Charies, who bought it in 1894. It is a sub- 
stantial stone building. A short distance further down the creek 
is a saw-mill, owned by Jacob B. Stoner. 

EocK Forge. 

Great Rocks was a tract of fifty acres originally patented to 
Daniel Dulany on the 5th of April, 1750. The boundary is 
described as ^TBeginning at a bounded white oak standing near a 
spring called the Locust spring on the east side of Great Antietam 
about a mile from the Temporary Line." This spring is situated 
a short distance down the creek from the Rock Forge bridge. In 
1769 Daniel and Walter Dulany of Annapolis, executors of 
Daniel Dulany, Sr., sold this tract to Lawrence O'Neal; and sev- 
eral years later it was purchased by Daniel Hughes. 

Below the Locust spring the bank of the creek is quite steep; 
but the '^great rocks'' from which the tract derived its name are 
some distance above. Here the rocks rise precipitously at the 
southern bank of the creek and for some distance west of the pree- 
ent channel, which turns to the south at right angles with its 
former course and passes through a deep and narrow gorge. 
There is ample evidence that the creek originally described a 
circle of fully half a mile around the northern front and western 
slope of the rocky barrier through which it now passes. It is im- 
possible to accoimt for the inmiense deposite of sand on the farm 



96 HISTOBY OF LEITBBSBUBG DISTBICT. 

of William BarkdoU on any other hypothesis; and when the creek 
overflows the waters still follow the old channel. K this view 
of the original course of the creek is correct, the gorge through 
which it passes must have been artificially excavated; and it was 
doubtless the practicability of such an excavation that attracted 
the attention of Colonel Hughes. There was probably a natural 
depression in the rocky barrier at this point, so that the undertak- 
ing was not so formidable as might appear; and it was further fa- 
cilitated by the geological formation, which is that of strata in- 
clined at an angle convenient for the operations of the quarry- 
man. 

While there can be no doubt that Colonel Hughes first de- 
veloped the property for industrial purposes, the time when this 
was done is difficult to determine. In 1780 be married Susanna 
Schlatter and in lieu of dower in his extensive estate executed for 
her benefit a deed of trust to Samuel Purviance of Baltimore for 
Poor Robin^s Almanac (213 acres), Great Rocks, and The Kesurvey 
on Sarah^s Delight ((770 acres) as security for the payment of an 
annuity of £150 to her in case she survived him. It is certainly 
highly improbable that Great Rocks would have been included in 
thisdeedifithadbeen the location of a valuable plant. Like the 
other tracts specified in the deed, it was probably unimproved 
land. 

The earliest positive evidence of the existence of the forge that 
the writer has discovered occurs in the Maryland Journal^ a news- 
paper publishd at Baltimore. The issue of this paper for March 
31, 1786, contains tho following advertisement: 

To he rented: The Mt. Aetna Furnace, lying in Washington County, 
State of Maryland, and within six miles of Hagerstown. The ore 
is of excellent quality, either for bar iron or castings, which, with 
\tood, limestone, and sand, is in great abundance and very conven- 
ient to the works. The buildings, bellows, gears, etc. are in good 
repair and the stream of water constant. Pot, stove, and other pat- 
terns may be had with the furnace, as also meadow ground and land 
for farming. 

The Great Rock Forge is also to be rented; it stands on Antietam 
creek, within eight miles of the above furnace, has two hammers 
and four fires, a substantial dam, and considerable head of water. 
A lease may be given for three or seven years. For terms, apply to 
Daniel Hughes in Hagersto\vn. 

Daniel and Samuel Hughes. 

March 23, 1786. 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT. 97 

The old forge was a substantial stone building, one story high, 
with two stone chimneys as high as the highest trees in 
the vicinity. It stood on the east side of the creek, opposite the 
present distillery of Benjamin Shockey and almost directly in 
front of the present residence of John Fumora, in whose property 
the site is now embraced. Here there is a narrow strip of meadow, 
the soil of which consists largely of ashes and other refuse from 
the old forge. The site of the dam is still plainly indicated by 
its ruins, which extend across the creek several rods below the 
present structure. During the period of its operation the plant 
probably employed a dozen workmen, while several teams were 
also required. The product* probably consisted principally of 
bar iron suitable for use by blacksmiths. 

In 1805 Colonel Daniel Hughes entered into an agree- 
ment with Henry Jacobs for the sale of "as much of the 
tract of land called Balsher^s Misfortune as may lie on the 
north side of the State line and northwest of the Antietam 
creek, not to include any of the land that the Rock Forge 
dam formerly covered with water." This reference to the 
forge is significant. It shows that the dam had sustained ma- 
terial injury, in consequence of which it is fair to infer that the 
property was no longer operated. Colonel Hughes was interested 
in other iron plants, including Mt. Aetna Furnace, the Old 
Forge in Chewsville District, and Antietam Iron Works at the 
mouth of the Antietam, and to one of these the machinery was 
doubtless removed. He still seems to have retained some idea of 
rehabilitating the property, however; in his will, executed in 1809, 
he refers to "an iron estate by the name of Mt. Alto Furnace and 
the Rock Forge," in which his son Samuel held an equal interest 
with himself. But in 1811 they erected a blomary and forge on 
East Antietam creek in Franklin County, Pa., and this was oper- 
ated in connection with the Mt. Alto Furnace. All idea of re- 



* Cannon and cannon balls have been found in the debris at the site of the old forg^e, 
mnd it has been supposed that they were manufactured here. The Hugrheses made 
cannon for the Maryland State troops during the Revolution, but so far as can be as- 
certained this was done at their works at the mouth of the Antietam. At the begin- 
ning of the century the land between the present course of the creek and its former 
channel was called Tory island, the origin of which would be difficult to explain aa 
Colonel Hughes was an active and influential patriot. Another interesting story as- 
sociated with the locality is the tradition of hidden treasure in the caves at the sides 
of the gorge. 



98 HISTOEY OF LEITER8BUEG DISTBICT. 

sumption at Eock Forge was now abandoned. The old stone 
building fell into decay and each succeeding spring freshet left 
the dam in worse condition than before. Immense quantities of 
sand were hauled to Mt. Alto, but otherwise the property received 
but little attention from the Hugheses. It still possessed advan- 
tages that were not neglected by the public, however; above the 
old dam there was a wide, deep pool, and on summer Sundays 
horses were brought here from all the country around and made 
to plunge and swim. The old forge dam was sometimes the 
scene of animated equestrian performances. 

In 1840 Holker Hughes sold the property to Samuel Lyday, 
and with this transfer its modem history begins. Lyday erected 
a dam at the present site and built the saw-mill; here he 
did a thriving business in sawing lumber for the United States 
gun factory at Harper^s Ferry, W. Va. The finest walnut timber 
for miles around was secured for this purpose and entered into the 
construction of thousands of muskets afterward used in the Mexi- 
can AVar. In 1851 Lyday sold the property to Samuel Etnyer, 
from whom it was purchased by Jacob Tritle in the following year. 
He sold it in 1857 to John S. Dayhoff,and in his possession it con- 
tinued until his death in 1876. Dayhoff built the machine shop, 
foundry, blacksmith shop, etc., and established an implement 
manufactory of considerable local importance. Grain separators, 
horse-powers, hay rakes, farm wagons, com shellers, etc. were 
made here. In 1874-75 the plant was leased by Samuel Martin 
and George M. D. Bell. It was purchased in 1877 by Garver, 
Foltz & Company, who manufactured implements and transacted 
a general foundry and machine business. In 1882 they removed 
to Hagerstown and the property was subsequently converted into 
a distillery, of which the present proprietor is Benjamin Shockey. 

Distilleries. 

Wliile the mills of the District have always been a prominent 
feature of its business and manufacturing interests, there was a 
time when they did not constitute the only local market for grain. 
Distilling was also a business of considerable importance. In 
proportion to its bulk whiskey was many times more valuable than 
flour, and as transportation was expensive and laborious it is not 
surprising that a large part of the cereal product of the District 
found its way to market through the still. The profits were also 



SOCIAL AND MATEBIAL DEVELOPMENT. 99 

large, the plant did not usually involve a large investment of capi- 
tal, and hence many men were engaged in the business. 

The personal property of Robert Downing as appraised in 1755 
included "one still, still tubs, barrels and half-barrels,*' etc. 
"One brass kettle, one still, and stilling vessels" are also men- 
tioned in the inventory of Jacob Leiter's personality (1764). At 
that time and for many years thereafter the still was considered 
by many farmers a necessary part of farm equipment. 

The following is believed to be a complete enumeration of the 
distilleries of the District: General Thomas Sprigg's, which was 
operated in a stone building at a spring between the mansion and 
the turnpike; Thomas Belt's, on the Colebrook farm, now owned 
by Isaac Shank, where the stone building in which it was oper- 
ated stands between the house and bam; Michael Wolfinger's, on 
the Greencastle road at the present residence of Mrs. Catharine 
S trite; George Shiess's, of which he at one time operated three in 
Leitersburg District, located on the farms of FranklinM.Strite and 
Daniel Oiler; Lewis Ziegler's, near Leitersburg, on the farm 
owned by the late David Strite; Joseph Gabby's, near the creek 
south of the house on the farm of Hiram D. Middlekauff ; Fred- 
erick Ziegler^s, on the farm of George F. Ziegler near Leitersburg; 
Andrew M. Shank^s, on the farm of Immanuel and Kate E. Mar- 
tin; Stephen Martin^ at the residence of Daniel W. Durborow; 
Fowler & Ziegler's, in succession to John Byer^s, on the Antietam 
west of Leitersburg near the turnpike; Abraham Moyer^s, at 
Bowman's mill; Michael Wolfinger's, on Water street in Leiters- 
burg; and in recent years Jacob Wishard's on the farm of Free- 
land W. Anderson and Benjamin Shocke/s at Rock Forge. 

Frederick Ziegler engaged in the distilling business about 1810. 
His first distillery was a small one-story building near the large 
stone mansion on the pike west of Leitersburg, but about the year 
1835 he built a stone structure on the opposite side of the road 
and here he continued the business for some years. This was 
considered one of the best equipped distilleries in the District at 
that date. The product was hauled to Frederick, Md., and George- 
town, D. C, for shipment to the cities, where it was sold through 
commission merchants and enjoyed a high reputation. Every 
barrel was branded with the letter "0^' between the first and sec- 
ond hoops. 



100 HISTOEY OF LEITEKSBURQ DISTBICT. 

The distillery of Fowler & Ziegler (Robert Fowler and Fred- 
erick K. Ziegler) was the most extensive ever operated in Leiters- 
burg District. It was originally established by John Byer and 
William E. Doylo in connection with the former's mill on Antie- 
tam creek. Fowler & Ziegler purchased the farm, mill, distiller}', 
etc., replaced the old distillery by a substantial stone building 
equipped with the beet appliances known to the business at that 
time, and supplemented the water power with a twenty horse- 
power engine. The capacity of the plant was fifty or sixty bushels 
of grain per day. A considerable quantity of whiskey was stored 
here during the Civil War, and on one occasion a detachment of 
Confederate soldiers appropriated sixteen barrels. The operation 
of the plant was discontinued at the close of the war. 

Of the other distilleries mentioned in the foregoing enumera- 
tion individual treatment is scarcely possible or necessary. So 
long as the condition of the trade and the character of the revenue 
laws were favorable they flourished, and the aggregate business 
they represented was an economic factor of importance. Every 
nationality represented in the District — German, Scotch, and 
English — was also represented in the distilling business; and so 
were all the churches — Lutheran, Reformed, Protestant Episco- 
pal, Mennonite, Presbyterian. With scarcely an exception the 
men engaged in it were wealthy, prominent, and influential; but 
it is simply a statement of fact to assert that the business almost 
invariably resulted disastrously to their fortunes and their fam- 
ilies. 

Taxnekies, Textile Manufactures, Etc. 

A tan-yard is mentioned by Colonel Bouquet as one of the feat- 
ures of the Longmeadows estate in 1765. This casual notice com- 
prises all the information now available regarding it. The tan- 
nery operated by John Byer near Leitersburg was situated di- 
rectly above his mill and comprised about twenty vats. It is prob- 
able that this tannery was originally established by Byer, who ac- 
quired possession of the property in 1813. It was also operated 
by Samuel Lantz. 

Hemp was once an agricultural product of some importance in 
the District, and the reduction of the fiber to a condition suitable 
for the spinning-wheel was equally ])romineTit as a branch of local 
manufacturing. The raw material was first operated upon by a 



SOCIAL AND MATEEIAL DEVELOPMENT. 101 

cone-shaped buhr, resembling the ordinary grist biihr in its mode 
of action; it was then "scutched'* with an oval-shaped, two-edged, 
wooden hand-knife, and finally "hackled,*' the instrument used 
in the latter process resembling a rake fastened to a bench with 
the teeth turned upward. At this point the spinning-wheel was 
brought into requisition to convert the product into thread, from 
which a variety of fabrics could be woven. There were once two 
hemp-mills in Leitersburg District. That of John Byer was oper- 
ated in connection with his grist-mill and by the same water- 
power. The other was situated on Little Antietam a shori: dis- 
tance above the present residence of Levi Hartle. 

Another branch of textile manufacture was that pursued by 
Jacob M. Good on Little Antietam less than half a mile south of 
Leitersburg near the Smithsburg road and on the farm now 
owned by Joseph and John B. Barkdoll. This was a carding-mill, 
operated in a stone building, of which the foundation walls may 
still be traced. Here the manufacturing process, as in the case of 
hemp, was preparatory to the spinning-wheel. Good purchased 
this property from Bamhart B. Light in 1822 and operated it im- 
til his death. At an earlier date a carding-mill stood on the farm 
of Curtis Fogler, near the public road that forms the eastern 
boundary of the District. The power was derived from the 
stream that flows through this land. 

A gun factory was once located on Little Antietam creek, prob- 
ably where Freeland W. Anderson now lives. Here Frederick 
Bell, Jr., built a saw-mill and clover-mill. Nails were once manu- 
factured at a long stone building on the Sprigg estate. About 
the year 1850 Lewis L. Mentzer conducted the business of coach- 
making one mile north of Leitersburg near the Ringgold road. 



CHAPTER m. 



Leitebsbueg. 



Early History— The Town Plot— The Village in 1880— 
Business Interests— Secret Societies— Municipal In- 
corporation—Population. 

The site of Leitersburg is embraced in The Resurvey on Well 
Taught, a tract of thirteen hundred acres granted to George Poe 
in 1754. In 1762 he sold 362 acres to Jacob Leiter, who died in 
1764, having devised it to his youngest sons, Jacob and Peter, by 
whom it was subsequently divided. As the site of the village was 
convenient to the Leiter residence it was doubtless reduced to 
cultivation at an early date and apparently promised no advan- 
tages apart from its value for agricultural purposes. There were 
no indications of future village growth. The nearest public high- 
way was the old Nicholson^s Gap road, on the opposite side of the 
Antietam a mile to the west. 

Regarded as a sociological phenomenon, the growth of a village 
is due to the same causes and subject to the same limitations as 
that of a city. Its population is attracted by the advantages it 
offers as a place of residence or business. Great cities are usually 
situated at the sea, on navigable rivers, or at the convergence of 
important routes of inland travel; public roads are the correspond- 
ing factor in the growth of a country village. In 1802 the Nich- 
olson's Gap road was changed to its present location, and in 1807 
the road from Greencastle to the South mountain was opened, in- 
tersecting the former a short distance southeast of Antietam 
creek. In contemporay legal documents the former is also de- 
scribed as "the main road from Hagerstown to the Borough of 
York in Pennsylvania" and the latter as "the road from Green- 
castle to Baltimore." In 1811 Andrew Leiter purchased from Ja- 
cob Leiter, his father, the land adjacent to the intersection of 
these roads, and here in 1815 he laid out the town of Leitersburg. 

At that date the immediate vicinity of the village was already 
well improved. Jacob Leiter had died in 1814, but his family 
still lived at the log house that stands on the farm of Joseph Bark- 
doll, a short distance west of the village. Near the Antietam 
creek on the road to Hagerstown stands a stone mansion, built by 



LEITERSBTJBG. 103 

George Lantz^ who died in 1802; in 1815 this was the residence 
of his son-in-law, Frederick Ziegler. On the opposite side of the 
creek were the tannery of Captain John Byer and the mill built 
by Christian Lantz thirty years before. Christian RusselFs mill, 
now owned by Samuel Strite, had been in operation since 1798, 
and on the opposite side of the Greencastle road lived the family 
of George Ziegler, while the residences of William and Joseph 
Gabby were a shori; distance farther up the creek. In 1803 An- 
drew Bachman purchased 103 acres of land along the Smithsburg 
road adjacent to the Leiter lands and here he was engaged in 
farming and blacksmithing. The first house on the site of the 
village was a long, one-story stone building, situated at the north- 
west comer of the public square where the hotel now stands. 
There can be little doubt that it was built by Andrew Leiter, who 
resided there in 1812. 

The Town Plot. 

The plot of the village shows fifty-three lots, located as follows: 
Nos. 1 to 14, from the public square to the foot of Water street on 
the north side; southeast of the square, Nos. 15 to 25 on the north 
side of the Smithsburg road and Nos. 40 to 50 on the south side; 
Nos. 33 to 39, southwest from the public square on the west side 
of the turnpike, and Nos. 51 to 53 on the opposite side; Nos. 26 
to 32, northeast of No. 1 on the west side of the turnpike. ^*The 
road from Hagerstown towards York,^' now the turnpike and the 
main street of the village, is fifty feet wide; the "road from 
Greencastle towards Baltimore" is sixty feet wide. 

The following persons received deeds for lots from Andrew 
Leiter: 

Isaac Clymer, September 15, 1815; No. 28, $90. 

Jacob Kessinger, September 16, 1815; Nos. 4, 5, $200; 16, 17, 
18, $395; 26, 27, $200. 

Lewis Weaver, September 16, 1815; Nos. 7, 29, $174. 

Casper Fulk, September 16, 1815; No. 14, $50. 

Jacob Houser, September 16, 1815; No. 3, $132. 

George Kessinger, August 24, 1816; No. 14, $120. 

Adam Lantz, August 24, 1816; No. 6, $100. 

Daniel Lowman, August 24, 1816; No. 26, $100. 

John Reynolds, August 25, 1816; No. 19, $110. 



104 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBO DISTBICT. 

Joseph Gabby, January 11, 1817; No. 39, $50. 

Henry Barnhart, January 11, 1817; Nos. 30, 31, $160. 

John Garvin, May 3, 1817; No. 11, $200. 

Samuel Myers, October 4, 1817; No. 16, $200. 

William Gabby, February 21, 1818; No. 5, $65. 

Samuel Houser and John Light, February 21, 1818; No. 2, 
$200. 

George Shioss, April 1, 1818; No. 24, $26. 

Henry Shamhart, April 1, 1818; No. 30, $100. 

Barnhart B. Light, April 1, 1818; No. 4, $70. 

George Kessinger, April 1, 1818; No, 18, $74. 

Henry Myer, April 1, 1818; No. 12, $40. 

Henry Barnhart, May 13, 1818; No. 1, $900. 

Andrew Leiter died in 1818, practically insolvent. He had 
secured advances from the Hagerstown Bank and The Farmers' 
and Mechanics' Bank of Greencastle which he was unable to re- 
pay, and in the litigation that ensued a number of lots in Leiters- 
burg were sold at sheriflf^s sale. 

The Village in 1830. 

In 1830 Christopher Burkhart conducted a hotel at the present 
residence of David Barnhart, a substantial two-story stone build- 
ing. Charles A. Fletcher, merchant, and Adam Lantz, laborer, 
lived on the opposite side of the street, their residences corre- 
sponding to the present properties of Joseph BarkdoU and Jacob 
Creager. Both were one-story log structures. These were the only 
improvements on the village plot west of the public square; the 
old Leiter homestead at the extremity of the \dllage was owned 
by George Poe, blacksmith, and Samuel Leiter, carpenter, lived 
on the opposite side of the turnpike. 

In 1830 Fletclier & Stonebraker s store wa«5 located in the sub- 
stantial brick building at the southeast comer of the square in 
which Josephus Ground now resides, and John Lahm conducted 
a hotel at the present residence of Mrs. Charles A. Armour, then 
a two-story log building. The stone building at the comer of the 
square in which Andrew Leiter lived in 1812 was still standing 
and here the Cross Kevs Hotel was conducted in 1830. North 
of this the succession of improvements was as follows: A two-story 
log building, erected by Daniel Lowman, distiller, and now in- 



LEITEBSBUBG. 105 

corporated in the residence of Mrs. Laura K. Ziegler; a two-story 
log house in which Isaac Clymer, cooper, resided; a one-story log 
house, the residence of Mrs. Kessinger, a widow; a log house one 
story and a half high, the present residence of Mrs. John Wolf; a 
two-story log house, the present residence of Mrs. John Har- 
baugh; a two-story stone house in which Dr. James Johnson lived 
and which is now the residence of Jacob B. Mentzer. 

On the west side of Water street there was a log building a story 
and a half high, now the residence of Frank Minor. In 1830 this 
was the cooper shop in which Amos Dilworth made barrels for 
Lewis Ziegler's distillery. Mrs. Barbara Leiter, widow of the 
founder of the town, lived in a one-story log house at the present 
site of Samuel Minor's; Daniel Lowman, distiller, at the present 
residence of William Johnson, a one-story log house; Siekman, a 
weaver, at the present residence of Henry Minor, a log house one 
story and a half high; Daniel Sheetz, post-fence maker, at a two- 
story log house at the site of Mrs. Lousia Ziegler's present resi- 
dence; Frey, a weaver, at Hilary Unclesby's present residence, a 
one-story stone house; Samuel Light, a shoemaker, at the one- 
story stone house owned by Freeland W. Anderson. 

On the south side of the Smithsburg road John Beckman, 
blacksmith, and Jacob Martz, wagon-maker, occupied the respec- 
tive residences of Wilfred L. Flory and Upton Bell, and east of 
the latter was the Lutheran church. James Slick's residence was 
occupied by John Beaver, a school teacher. Christian Lantz, tan- 
ner, lived to a one-story log house, now the residence of John 
Lowman; John Fry, a weaver, whose family was remarkable for 
height, at the present residence of William Shiess. On the oppo- 
site side of the street the improvements in 1830 included a log 
house a story and a half high now incorporated in the residence 
of Dr. Charles W. Harper; tho present residence of Mrs. Catherine 
Rohrer, a one-story log house; Joseph Leiter'** residence, directly 
opposite the Lutheran church; the residences of Mrs. Ann Leiter 
and Elizabeth Repp, both log houses a story and a half high; the 
iormer was the residence of the late Samuel McDowell and in the 
latter Daniel J. D. Hicks now lives. 

It is evident from the preceding enumeration that the village 
was composed almost entirely of log houses in 1830. The only 
brick building was the present residence of Josephus Groxmd; 



106 HISTOEY OF LEITEKSBUBQ DISTBICT. 

there were five stone buildings: the church, Burkhart's hotel, 
Dr. Johnson^s residence, and two small houses on Water street. 
It is also evident that very few of the houses that constituted the 
village in 1830 have been removed, although, without exception, 
they have been enlarged and remodelled until the original struct- 
ures would no longer be recognized. 

Business Interests. 

Among the early hotel-keepers at Leitersburg were Andrew 
Bachman and Christopher Burkhart, at the present residence of 
David Bamhart; William Kreps, at the present residence of Jose- 
phus Ground; Michael Brunett, and John Lahm, at Mrs. Charles 
A. Armour's residence. At a later date Samuel Lyday conducted 
a hotel at the brick building on the Smithsburg road adjacent to 
the public school grounds. Hotel-keeping was a flourishing busi- 
ness in the days when the Nicholson's Gap road was one of the 
most important routes of travel in Washington County. 

Among the merchants of the village prior to 1840 were Fletcher 
& Grimes, Fletcher & Stonebraker, Byer & Lantz, and Fletcher 
& Lantz, who successively conducted business at the southeast cor- 
ner of the square; Jacob Good and Etnyer & Besore, whose store 
room occupied the present residence of Charles B. Wolfinger; 
Jacob Funk, Henr}' Snider, Joseph Besore, and Kissell & Metz. 
Besore's store was at the present location of Andrew Hartman's. 
Between 1840 and 1860 the leading merchants were Fletcher & 
Good, Etnyer & Martin, Samuel F. Ziegler, George W. Pole, 
George W. Lahm, and Josephus Ground, who has been engaged 
in business continuously since 1853. Charles A. Fletcher, Joshua 
Grimes, Dr. Frederick Byer, Samuel Lantz, Samuel Etnyer, and 
Charles H. Besore were individual members of the firms men- 
tioned. 

The various avocations usually pursued in a country village 
wereearlyreproscnted. The tailor's craft was pursued by Jonathan 
Humphreys, Thomas Atkinson, Stephen G. Staley, Alfred Hen- 
dricks, and Daniel Lowman; Samuel Light was one of the first 
shoemakers. Augustus Copeigh (Koppisch) and Andrew Bell 
were employed as weavers in the vicinity of the village before it 
was founded and for many years thereafter, and here Frey and 
Siekman pursued the same occupation at a later date. John 



LEITEBSBUBG. 107 

Ziegler was a tinsmith and at the northwest corner of the public 
square he manufactured copper kettles which enjoyed a high repu- 
tation and found purchasers in the adjoining States. 

The first village blacksmiths were Andrew Leiter and George 
Poe, who fonned a partnership on the 3d of April, 1816. Thoir 
shop was situated on the Greencastle road at the upper end of a 
triangular field belonging to the Strite's mill property. Poe was 
subsequently engaged in business individually for some years at 
the stone blacksmith shop adjacent to the village on the turnpike, 
and John Beckman was similariy employed at Flor/s shop in 
Leitersburg. 

Wagon-making was once an industry of considerable local im- 
portance. Samuel Price's shop was located on Water street and 
Henry Gagle's at Poe's smith shop. In 1844 Upton Bell engaged 
in this business, which he continued for some years. The wagons 
he manufactured were especially adapted for heavy hauling and 
were readily sold. 

Samuel Leiter and Joseph Leiter were the carpenters of the 
village for many years, and either built or rebuilt a majority of the 
houses. John Shutt was the first undertaker. 

The first resident physician was probably Dr. James Johnson, 
who practiced here from 1827 to 1834. Dr. Frederick Byer lo- 
cated at Leitersburg early in the '30's and continued in practice 
here until his death. Dr. Thomas B. Duckett was a resident of 
Leitersburg from 1839 to 1856. Among other local representa- 
tives of the medical profession were Doctors Crooks, White, 
Beard, Good, and Harper. 

A business directory at the present time would include the fol- 
lowing names: Josephus Ground, Andrew Hartman, dealers in 
general merchandise; Isaac G. Leiter, David Bamhart, William L. 
Shiess, carpenters and contractors; Wilfred L. Flory, blacksmith; 
Charles C. Ziegler, cable-wire fence contractor; J. H. Wishard, 
M. D.; Charles E. Poe, V. S.; D. J. D. Hicks, secretary of the 
Planters' Mutual Insurance Company; Jacob M. Stouffer, post- 
master; Frank D. Bell, justice of the peace; Virgil H. Miller, Wil- 
liam Anderson, confectioners; A. H. Bowers, dealer in country 
produce; John C. Strite, miller; Michael N'iuflfer, shoemaker; 
Samuel Minor, Hilary Unclesby, masons; John Shatzer, hotel- 
keeper. 



108 history of leitersburg district. 

Insurance Company. 

The Planters' Mutual Insurance Company of Washington 
County was incorporated by the Maryland Legislature in March, 
1846. The charter of the company designated Joseph Gabby, 
Jacob E. Bell, Christian Strite, David M. Good, Joseph Leiter, 
and George L. Ziegler as its first directors, and on the 19th of 
March, 1846, they organized by electing David M. Good as presi- 
dent. At this meeting the president appointed Joseph Leiter, 
Abraham Strite, Christian Strite, Jacob E. Bell, and George L. 
Ziegler as assistant surveyors, and the work of soliciting insurance 
seems to have been at once begun. The first policy was issued 
on the 22d of September, 1847, in favor of Lewis Ziegler. 

The following is a list of presidents of the Company with dates 
of their election to office: David M. Good, March 19, 1846; Joseph 
Leiter, March 20, 1847; WiUiam B. McAtee, August 2, 1862; 
Jacob E. Bell, September 9, 1865; David M. Deitrich, September 
20, 1873; David Strite, September 20, 1884; David Hoover, Feb- 
ruary 15, 1896. 

Christian Strite was elected secretary, March 20, 1847; Samuel 
Etnyer, September, 1847; Josephus Ground, November 3, 1855; 
James A. Hays, July 24, 1886; Lewis J. Ground, September 21, 
1889; D. J. D. Hicks, the present incumbent, April 30, 1891. 

Jacob E. Bell was elected treasurer, March 20, 1847; David M. 
Good, June 16, 1849; Samuel F. Ziegler, September 20, 1851; 
Jacob A. Metz, September 18, 1852; Josephus Ground, September 
9, 1854; George W. Pole, November 3, 1855; Josephus Ground, 
May, 1886; J. Freeland Leiter, July, 1886; Samuel Strite, August, 
1891. 

The property insured by this company is located principally in 
the counties of Washington, Frederick, Montgomery, Carroll, 
Caroline, Dorchester, and Somerset, in Maryland; Franklin, in 
Pennsylvania, and Loudoun, in Virginia. The assets of the com- 
pany consist almost entirely of premium notes, representing from 
ten to fifty per cent, of the amount insured, the rates varying with 
the nature of the risk. The cost of insurance is from two to five 
per cent, of the premium note, depending on the length of time 
the policy is in force. During the fifty years the company has 
been engaged in business it has levied fifteen assessments, aggre- 
gating forty-five per cent, of its premium notes. The last annual 



. •■ 



• I 



• I . 



• i ■ 



'< t 1 



; i 



> 1-1 



I 




■iirRcH. I.EiTEiiSiirnd. 



LEITERSBURG. Ill 

statement of the company (December 31, 1897) shows ap^gregate 
risks in force, $934,139.90; aggregate assets, $153,637.08, of which 
$lo2,109.G9 consisted of premium notes; aggregate disbursements 
for the year 1897, $9,999.87, of which $8,257.70 represented the 
amount of losses paid. 

Secret Societies. 

Howard Lodge, Independent Order of Good Templars, was or- 
ganized on the 28th of June, 1846, with the following officers: 
Edward Smith, W. C. T.; James A. Hays, W. S.; Maggie P. Wag- 
goner, W. I. G.; AUce M. Staley, W. V. T.; Daniel Wolfinger, 
W. T.; James H. Ziegler, W. 0. G. The organization disbanded 
about the year 1873. 

A lodge of the Independent Order of American Mechanics was 
instituted in 1871 with the following officers: James A. Hays, 
W. S. M.; Henry Schriver, W. M.; John W. Nigh, J. M.; David 
Summer, B. S.; H. T. Creps, S.; Upton Clopper, T.; Edward 
Smith, C. 

Golden Bod Council, No. 42, Junior Order United American 
Mechanics, was chartered December 22, 1891, with the following 
officers: Charles C. Ziegler, P. C; D. J. D. Hicks, C; Jacob D. 
Wolfinger, E. S.; David Bamhart, F. S.; Samuel MiddlekaufT, T. 
In 1897 the Council erected a hall at a cost of $2,000. It is a 
two-story frame building, of which the first floor constitutes an 
auditorium in which public meetings of a general character are 
held; the council rooms occupy the second floor. Samuel Middle- 
kauff, Charles C. Ziegler, and Jacob M. Stouffer composed the 
building committee. It was dedicated with appropriate cere- 
monies on the 12th of September, 1897. 

Minneola Tribe, No. 114, Independent Order of Bed Men, was 
instituted April 10, 1895, with the following officers; Joseph S. 
ISarkdoll, P.; D. J. D. Hicks, S.; Samuel Middlekauff, S. S.; 
IB. F. Baker, J. S.; Daniel T. Johnson, C. of B.; Virgil II. Miller, 
C:\ of W.; Harvey J. Hartle, K. of W.; Daniel T. Hartle, G. of W.; 
Cnaggett A. Hartle, G. of F. 

Municipal Incorporation. 

Leitersburg was incorporated by act of the Legislature, Febru- 
ary 25, 1803, with the following boundariee: 



112 HISTORY OF LEITEBSBURG DISTBICT. 

Commencing at a poplar tree on the road leading from Leitersburg 
to Smithsburg near a stable belonging to Jeremiah Slick, thence 
running with a straight line to a stable near the house now occupied 
by Daniel Lowman, thence with a straight line to a spring on or 
near a lot belonging to Nathan McDowell on the road leading from 
Leitersburg to Greencastle, thence with a straight line to a black- 
smith shop now occupied by G. W. Lantz belonging to George Poe, 
thence with a straight line to the beginning. 

The act of incorporation provided for the annual election of a 
burgess, assistant burgess, and three commissioners, whose func- 
tions were minutely defined. The first election occurred on the 
first Monday in April, 1853. The local government was duly or- 
ganized, and under its administration the streets were improved, 
the sidewalks were curbed and paved, and other measures of bene- 
fit to the community inaugurated. But after several annual elec- 
tions had been held the town government dissolved and no effort 
has since been made to reestablish it. 

Population. 

The late George W. Ziegler of Greencastle informed the writer 
that in 1829 he made an enumeration of .the inhabitants of Lei- 
tersburg and found a population of 219. In 1850 it was 298; in 
1870, 335; in 1880, 308. No statistics are given in the census of 
1890. 



I 



CHAPTER IV. 



Chubches. 



Antietam Lutheran Church— Jacobs Lutheran Church— "St. 
Paul's Lutheran Church, Leitersburg — St. James' Re- 
formed Church, Leitersburg — Miller's Mennonite 
Church— LoNGMEADOws German Baptist Church— Re- 
formed Mennonite— River Brethren— United Brethren 
Church, Leitersburg — Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Leitersburg. 

One of the oldest churches in Washington County was situated 
within the original limits of Leitersburg District. There is con- 
clusive endence of its existence at an earlier date than that of 
any other place of worship in the county, with the possible excep- 
tion of St. Paul's near Clearspring and the Protestant Episcopal 
chapel near Chapel Woods school in Funkstown District, not far 
from the College of St. James. This evidence occurs in the will 
of Roberi; Downing, executed on the 1st of November, 1754:. The 
clause referring to this church reads as follows: 

I give and bequeath to my beloved daughter, Esther Downing, 
all that tract or parcel of land, part of the second resurvey on 
Downing's Lot, beginning at the most easternmost comer of the 
first resurvey on Downing's Lot and running thence south forty- 
five degrees west six perches across the second resurvey and all 
the land on the most southernmost side of the before mentioned 
line, containing by estimation 113 acres of land, excepting ten acres 
to be laid out for and convenient to the meeting house, provided the 
people that resort to the said meeting house pay for it. 

In 1786 the Rev. John George Young, pastor of St. John's 
Lutheran Church, llagerstown, wTote the following account of 
this church: 

1756. — About thirteen families of our church united, purchased 
ten acres of land, and built a sort of church, as their circumstances 
allowed, about four mile« from Hagerstown on the Antietam creek. 
They were served first for several years by Pastor Haushihl from 
Frederick and then for a short time by Pastor Schwerdtfeger; 
finally, after I received a call from Hagerstown I was also called there 
and served them every four weeks until, on account of other pressing 
duties, I was compelled last year to relinquish this part of the field. 
They consist now of from fifty-five to sixty families, many of whom 
with resx)ect to their spiritual welfare were thoroughly ruined by 



114 HISTOKT OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

the late war, so that little improvement is to be expected. From 
this congregation four others have originated, viz., Hagerstown, 
Funkstown, Manorland, and Conococheague. 

On the 9th of June, 1787, Martin Eidenour and John Beard 
"by and with the consent of the Lutheran congregation belonging 
to Antietam church, for and in consideration of the sum of £42," 
executed a deed to William Shanafield for nine and one-half acres 
of land, part of a tract of ten acres called God Save the Church, 
subject to the following reservations: 

One-half acre thereof, whereon there stands a church and church 
yard, two perches added on the west side and two perches on the 
south side of said church yard, together with the church yard, will 
contain one-half acre of land, the same to be exempted forever; the 
wagon road from Kohrer*s mill to said Shanafield's house through 
said ten acres of land is to be kept open, free, and clear, that there 
may be a clear passage to said church and the yard forever. 

Rohrer's mill was built before the Revolution; it is situated on 
Antietam creek four miles from Hagerstown and half a mile from 
the turnpike leading from that city to Smithsburg. The present 
owner is Joseph Trovinger. In the immediate vicinity Shana- 
field acquired a tract of throe hundred acres, to which he gave the 
name of Rock Hall. It is now embraced principally in the farm 
of Daniel Doub, and the house referred to in the deed of 1787 was 
probably the present farm house. The present public road fol- 
lows the north bank of the creek; in 1787 the road from the mill 
to the farm house must have pursued a different course. The 
church site and burial ground are embraced in Mr. Doub's farm, 
about midway between the farm house and the mill and at a 
distance of about two hundred yards from the creek, to which 
there is a gradual slope. The opposite bank is steep, rugged, and 
picturesque. 

The tract of ten acres referred to in Robert Downing's will is 
readily identified with that of Beard and Ridonour's deed, al- 
thougli no deed for the church land has been discovered. Esther 
Downing died without issue, and in compliance with the terms of 
her father's will hor part of his estate reverted to her brothers and 
sisters. Her oldest sister, Elizabeth, married Robert Blackburn, 
of Frederick County, Yq., and in 17G7 they executed a deed to 
John Rohrer for twenty-eight acres of land in the immediate 
vicinity of the church, part of the 113 acres bequeathed to Esther 



CHUKCHES. 115 

Downing. In 1786 Joseph Downing executed a deed to William 
Shanafield for twenty-six acres adjacent to the church land, also 
part of Esther Downing's bequest. And since this 113 acres ad- 
joined on two sides the tract of ten acres referred to in Beard and 
Ridenour's deed of 1787, the conclusion is irresistible that it was 
identical with the reservation of ten acres for which Robert Down- 
ing provided in his will in 1754. 

It may be observed that the will refers to the meeting house as 
already built, while the Rev. John George Young says it was built 
in 1756. But the w411 was a contemporary document while Mr. 
Young obtained his information from hearsay thirty years later; 
therefore the evidence of the former must be accepted. Downing 
secured the warrant for his second resurvey, March 24, 1753; it 
was renewed in 1754, and the patent w^as issued in 1755 under 
date of April 4th. No reference to the meeting house occurs in 
this document. 

From Mr. Young's account it is evident that this was the 
mother Lutheran church of Washington County. The informa- 
tion that he gives regarding its numerical strength is also valuable 
while the references to Haushihl and Schwerdtfeger show that 
itwas originally under the same pastoral jurisdiction as the church 
at Frederick, Md. Rev. Bernard Michael Haushihl was bom in 
Wurtemberg in 1727, obtained his education at the University of 
Strassburg, and was ordained at Rotterdam. He arrived at An- 
napolis, Md., in 1752, and resided at Frederick until 1758. From 
1770 to 1783 he w^as pastor of the Dutch Lutheran Church in 
New York City. He was an ardent Royalist and after the Revo- 
lution moved to Halifax, Xova Scotia, where he died in 1797. He 
was an eloquent and learned man. If, as Mr. Young states, he 
was the first pastor of Antiotam church, it could not have been or- 
ganized prior to 1753. 

Rev. John William Samuel Schwerdtfeger was pastor at Fred- 
erick from 1763 to 1768, when he returned temporarily to Eu- 
rope, leaving Rev. J. G. Hartwick in charge of his congregations. 
The following entry occurs in the journal of the Rev. Henrj' Mel- 
choir Muhlenburg concerning the meeting of the Ministerium of 
Pennsylvania in 1769: 

The congreg'ations which up to the present have entered a written 
petition for the reception of Mr. Wildbahn into the Ministerium are: 



116 HISTORY OF LEITEBSBURO DISTRICT. 

I. In Pennsylvania: Jacobs Church, Codorus township, St. John*8 
Church, Germany township, York County. 

n. In Maryland: On Silver run, on the Great Pipe creek, on 
Thomas creek, on Oliver's creek, Frederick County; in Conoco- 
chea^ue: on Antietam creek; in Sharpsburg* on the Potomac. 

III. In Virginia: Shepherdstown; Winchestertown. 

Eev. Charles Frederick Wildbahn resided at the time near Lit- 
tlest own, Pa.; the wide extent of territory embraced in his pastoral 
jurisdiction is shown by the preceding list of congregations. In 
1770 he moved to MacAUistertown (now Hanover, Pa.), and his 
continuance as pastor of congregations so far from his home was 
opposed at the next meeting of the Minis terium, when one of the 
questions considered was: "The separation of the Conococheague 
congregations from MacAUistertown.'* The following entry oc- 
curs in the minutes for 1772: "A delegate from vacant congrega- 
tions in a region situated between the boundaries of Pennsylvania 
and Virginia in Maryland and called by the Indian name Cono- 
cocheague, which Senior Kuiiz visited now and then and adminis- 
tered therein the means of grace, and which is also said to be 
very populous and surrounded by all 8ori:s of sectarian religious 
parties, laid before the Ministerium a petition for an able teacher 
and pastor and said to me privately that they desired the older 
Mr. Kurtz." The younger Kurtz was accordingly sent thither 
as shown by the following entry in the minutes for 1773: ^'A pe- 
tition from four congregations in the Conococheague district in 
Maryland connected with the Ministerium, in which they petition 
for Frederick Muhlenburg as their pastor and preacher, because 
Mr. Kurtz, Jr., who had been appointed for the place at the pre- 
ceding synodical meeting, could not get along well.'' Three of 
these congregations were undoubtedly Antietam, Sharpsburg, and 
Hagerstown; the fourth was probably Jerusalem (Funkstown). 
Eev. Frederick Augustus Muhlenburg accordingly acted as sup- 
ply for a short time. lie was subsequently a member of the Con- 
tinental Congress, chnirman of the first constitutional convention 
of PenuFvlvania, and Speaker of the first House of Representa- 
tives of the TTnited States. 

In the same year (1773) Eev. John George Young located at 
Hagerstown, whore ho wns pastor of St. John's and other 
churches in the county until his death, April 20, 1793. His pas- 
torate at Antietam ceased in 1785. In 1787 the congregation 



CHURCHES. 117 

erected a new church at the present site of Beard's, or St.Peter^s, 
now in Chewsville District, but formerly in Lcitersburg. * 

The original resen^ation of half an acre at the old church site 
was gradually encroached upon. Some years ago many of the 
grave-stones were pulled out and utilized in the construction of 
a culvert. A few were spared for a time, however, and in 1887, a 
hundred years after the sale to Shanafield, the burial ground was 
still thirty-five feet long and twelve feet wide, with several tomb- 
stones in a horizontal position, one inscribed with the year 1763 
as the date of death. Within the next ten years, however, all this 
was removed, and on the occasion of the author's visit in the 
autumn of 1897 only the stump of a wild cherry tree remained 
to mark the place. It is disgraceful to a civilized community that 
o spot hallowed by Christian worship and Christian burial, the 
oldest church site in the valley of the Antietam, the last resting- 
place of many of the pioneers and doubtless of some who rendered 
loyal service in the French and Indian War and in the Revolution, 
should be thus desecrated. 

Jacobs Lutheran Church. 

Of all the institutions of Leitersburg District, the oldest is Ja- 
cobs Church. It w^as founded more than a score of years before 
the village of Leitersburg and nearly a decade before the more 
pretentious borough of Waynesboro. In the consideration of its 
history we revert to the period when many of the first permanent 
settlers were still living — the men and women who had success- 
fully contested with wild nature and the wilder savage for their 
farms and homes in the valley of the upper Antietam. 

The Lutheran congregation that worshiped on the banks of the 
Antietam in 1754 doubtless numbered among its membership 
some of the families afterward embraced in the constituency of 
Jacobs Church. Others were members of St. John^s at Hagers- 
town, organized prior to 1769; of the church at Grindstone Hill 
in Franklin County, Pa., which w^as in existence as early as 1765; 
or of Zion Lutheran Church at Greencastle, also one of the old- 
est in Franklin County. The date at which Jacobs Church was 
organized can not be satisfactorily determined, but there is reav<!on 

• For the citations from the protocol of the Ministerium of Penusylvania contained 
in this sketch the author is indebted to Rev. Henry K. Jacobs. D. D. 



118 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

to believe that this occurred in 1T91. The grounds for this con- 
clusion are as follows: 

The records of St. John's Lutheran Church at Hagersto\^Ti 
show that several Lutlieran families from this locality were mem- 
bers there from ITTO to 1780. Peter and Anthony Bell were 
among those whose names occur in this connection; and as they 
lived within a mile of Jacobs church it is not probable that they 
would have journeyed so far if an organization had existed in the 
immediate vicinity at the time. In 1786 Rev. John George 
Young of ITagerstown prepared a brief historical sketch of the 
churchesof his charge in which, referring to Beard's, he says: "From 
this congregation four others have originated, viz., Hagerstown, 
Funkstown, Manorland, and Conococheague." Mr. Young's paj5- 
torate embraced the churches referre<l to, as well as others in 
Frederick County. If Jacobs Church had been organized at this 
time it is more than probable that it would have been part of his 
charge, or that he would in any case have mentioned it; hence 
its omission affords strong presumptive evidence that it had no 
existence in 1786. Furthermore, the present church grounds were 
not acquired from the State until 1787, and it is extremely im- 
probable that a church building would have been erected here 
before that date. 

Aflfirmatively, it may be positively stated that the church was 
organized in the year 1791 or prior thereto, as the protocol of the 
Ministerium of Pennsylvania shows that the Rev. Guenther Win- 
gardt was pastor from 1791 to 1795. While this evidence is con- 
clusive, it leaves to doubt and conjecture much that would be 
most interesting regarding the circumstances under which the or- 
ganization was effected. Wingardt was succeeded by Rev. John 
Ruthrauff in 1795, and with this date adequate local records 
begin. The earliest document of this description is a list of sub- 
scriptions for his support. It reads as follows: 

Ein VorzeichnisR von denjenipen Gemeindc Glieder und anderen 
friiten Freundon der Gemeinde an der so ^enannten Freidens Kirche 
welcho be^viIli^t sind ziim Unt4?rhalt des Fredifrt^rs nnd ziir femern 
Fortsetznnpr des Gottos Dienstcs an den Ilerrn Johannes Ruthranlf 
als iinser Prediper das ihripe mit beizntrajjen, die werden desweg-en 
ersncht da« .sie Kich in den Pfrunde Zettel ihre Xanien sich iint^r- 
sebreibon zn lasson. Der Anfang dieses Jahres wird wohl sein als 
den ote Jnlius, 1795. 



CHURCHES. 119 

Die Xamen der Was ein Jeder 
Gemeinde Glieder. Geben wiU. 

Pf. Sch. 

Alt Christian Lantz, Altester, 1 2 6 

Anthony Bell, Altester, 2 

Johannes Hafner, Vorsteher, 16 

Heinrich Jacob, Vorsteher, 10 

This may be translated as follows: 

A list of those church members and other friends of the congrega^ 
tion known as Friedens Church who are willing to contribute to 
the support of the pastor and the further continuance of divine wor- 
ship with Rev. John Ituthrauflf as our pastor, and who may be so- 
licited to enter their names for this purpose in the subscription 
list of the church. The current year will begin with the 5th of July, 
1795. 

What Each One 

Names of Church Members. Will Give. 

£ 8. d. 

Christian Lantz, Sr., elder, .. 1 2 6 

Anthony Bell, elder, 2 

John Hafner, deacon, 16 

Henry Jacobs, deacon, 10 

In addition to the officers of the church, subscriptions were also 
made by the following persons: 

Christopher Burkhart^ David Ritter, 

Jacob Ritter, Martin Jacobs, 

Adam Lyday, Philip Ripple, 

Christian Pfeiffer, Felix Wagner, 

Carl Goll, Jacob Leiter, Sr., 

George Baker, George Lantz, 

Christopher Burkhart, Jr., George Burkhart, 

Jacob Huber, Michael Summers, 

George Augenstein, John Wesenman, 

Ludw^ig Emerick, Andrew Bell, 

George Baker, Jr., Jacob Ritter, 

John Bell, Fruhlig, 

David Scholl, Christian Lantz, Jr., 

Johannes Dornwart, Frederick Nicodemus, 

Jacob May, Michael Altig, 

Herman Stolz, Henry Jirb, 

David Besore, Henry Miller, 

Jacob Busch, John Mentzer. 

In a similar subscription list for 1796 the following additional 
names appear: Alexander Duncan, John Dorbart, Jacob Grove, 



120 HISTOBY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

Davis Sittro, Frederick Mero, William Ebrad, George Leiter, Sr., 
Simon Fogler, Frederick Wagner, Michael Wolfinger, and Mat- 
thias Summers. 

Within a few years after the Eev. John Euthrauff became pastor 
he proposed a constitution for the church, which was duly 
adopted and signed by the officers and members on the 23d of 
September, 1798. This document is entitled "Kirchen Artikel 
f iir die Evangelische Lutherische Gemeinde liegend an der Linie 
von Maryland und Pennsylvania — die Friedens Kirche genannt" 
— ^'Constitution for the Evangelical Lutheran Congregation situ- 
ated at the Maryland and Pennsylvania line, called Peace 
Church." It defines in detail the duties of pastor, council, and 
members. The church council at that time was composed of Ja- 
cob Eider, Anthony Bell, Philip Eipple, David GoU, and John 
Bell. 

The membership at this time was widely scattered. Four other 
Lutheran churches have since been organized upon the original 
territory of Jacobs Church, located, respectively, at Waynesboro, 
Leitersburg, Quincy, and Eouzerville. The formation of the two 
first named practically reduced the congregation to its present 
limits. Its numerical strength has varied widely. In 1796 the 
number of communicants was 33, but in 1798 105 persons at- 
tached their names to the constitution as members and officers. 
The formation of the Waynesboro congregation in 1818 undoubt- 
edly deprived the mother church of many members, but defec- 
tive records at this period render it impossible to estimate the 
loss. In 182G, after the organization of the Leitersburg church, 
there were still 76 communicants at Jacobs. In 1830 the number 
was 93; in 1835, 67; M^ 26, 1839, 65; April 30, 1843, 87; May 
11, 1845, 88; June 4, 1848, 97; May 19, 1850, 102; May 13, 1855, 
85; May 19, 1860, 70; November 21, 1869, 64; April 27, 1879, 65; 
September 20, 1885, 61; October 31, 1897, 69. The following 
note is appended to a communion record in 1855: "This congre- 
gation has lost a considerable number of members by removal." 
This remark would apply to tlie church at almost any period in its 
historw Manv families have removed from its bounds at various 
times and located in neighboring: towns or in the West, whore 
they have in more than one locality been active in establishing 
or sustaining other Lutheran churches. 



CHUBCHES. 121 

The regulations governing the baptism of children at the or- 
ganization of the church are a part of the first constitution; the 
earliest baptismal entries, which are also the earliest records ex- 
tant, are herewith given: 

Frederick Bell et uxor Rosina; sohn, Johannes; gebohren den 
29 Juni; getauft den 6te November, 1791. Taufzeichen, Johannes 
Bell et Margaretha Bell. 

Martin Lauman et uxor Regina Elizabeth; tochter, Eva; gebohren 
3791 den 20te October; getauft den 6te November, 1791. Tauf- 
zeichen, Heinrich Jacob, Elizabeth . 

Andreas Letter et uxor Barbara; tochter, Susanna Catharina; 
trebohren 1791 den 3te Juli; getauft den 6te November, 1791. Tauf- 
zeichen, Jacob Leiter et uxor Juliana. 

1797, den 24te Februar ist Heinrich Jacob und seiner frau Anna 
Maria ein Sohnlein zur Welt gebohren, n. Johan Heinrich. Tauf- 
zlechen sind die Eltern. Getauft, 1797, den 2te April. 

Throughout this old register Qerman surnames are invariably 
given. Among those that occur most frequently are Johannes, 
Georg, Andreas, Anton, Heinrich, Friedrich, Mattheus, Leon- 
hardt, Ludwig, Dorothea, Margaretha, Eegina, Maria, Catharina, 
Elizabeth. German was also the language of public worship 
throughout the ministry of Rev. John Ruthrauff. 

The site of the church and the burial ground adjacent are em- 
braced in a tract of land called Martin's Good Hope. Martin Ja- 
cobs secured a warrant for the survey of this tract on the 21st of 
August, 1787; the survey was made on the 1st of April, 1788, 
and a patent was issued in his favor, September 21, 1790. The 
area of the tract was eighteen acres. The church land was deede J 
by Martin Jacobs to Christian Lantz "for the use of the German 
Lutheran congregation and their successors," November 18, 1799, 
at the nominal consideration of five shillings "and in considera- 
tion of divers other good causes him the said Martin Jacob there- 
unto moving.^' It contained three-fourths of an acre and thirty- 
four perches of land "together with the church thereon and other 
the appurtenances thereunto belonging." 

Here many of the settlers of Leitersburg District and the ad- 
jacent towTiship in Pennsylvania are buried. But unfortunately 
no intelligible memorials mark the graves of many of them. The 
tombstones are limestone specimens, evidently selected with some 



122 HISTORY OF LEITEBSBUBG DISTRICT. 

regard for smoothness of surfacje and regularity of form, but 
destitute of information regarding those whose last resting place? 
they are intended to perpetuate. It is probable that George Ja- 
cobs, a son of the donor of the land, was one of the first persons 
interred here, as the date of his death, Xovember 16, 1790, is the 
earliest inscription of this character that has been discovered. 

From the deed for the church land it is evident that the church 
building had been erected thereon at that time; how much earlier 
it may have been built is matter of conjecture, but it is extremely 
improbable that this occurred prior to 1787, when the land was 
acquired by Martin Jacobs. For this was a substantial and some- 
what pretentious building, one that the projectors would scarcely 
have erected upon land that might possibly have become vested in 
an owner indifferent or unfriendly to their interests. Eegarding 
the cost of this building or the persons responsibly connected with 
the enterprise no particulars have been preserved. There is, how- 
ever, in one of the old church records a memorandum of subscrip- 
tions for the "Kirch Decken" (church roof), for which some made 
contributions in money and others in labor. The same plan 
doubtless prevailed in the erection of the building. Trees were 
felled in the surrounding forest, and from their trunks the logs 
were hewn that formed its walls. "The raising'' was no doubt 
a grand affair, distinguished by the conviviality usual on such 
occasions, and participated in by the entire membership and their 
friends. The last great event was the day of dedication, when 
pastor and people set apart the house they had built as a place of 
public worship, and such it continued to be for about fifty years. 

This building occupied the site of the present brick structure. 
In form it was nearly square, each side being about twenty-five 
feet in length. The entrance was at the middle of the south 
side, and was reached by steps of large, flat stones. There were 
two doors, as in the main entrance to the present building, but 
thoy were constructed with battens instead of panels. Prior to 
1825 the church was weather-boarded and })ainted a nondescript 
color intermediate between white and yellow. 

To an observer of the present generation perhaps the most 
striking feature of the interior Avould have been the pulpit. This 
was an octagonal enclosure at the middle of the north side, and 
directly opposite the entrance. It was supported on a pillar 



CHURCHES. 123 

at a height of six feet from the level of the floor, and was reached 
by a narrow stairway at the left or east side. Its furniture con- 
sisted of a shelf in front, supported by a cornice, on which the 
Bible rested, and an uncushioned seat placed against the wall. 
After the preacher had ascended the stairway and entered the 
sacred enclosure that was peculiarly and exclusively his own he 
had space to stand comfortably or to sit with such comfort as he 
could. An assisting clerg}'man was obliged to take his place 
among the laity, as the pulpit was too small to accommodate two. 

The aisle extended from the entrance to the pulpit. The men 
occupied the east or right side, tlie women the west or left side. 
The benches were securely fastened to the floor; they consisted of 
a horizontal seat and a back-rest six inches wide, supported at 
each end and in the middle. A gallery, supported by columns, 
extended across the south and west sides over the door and the 
pews occu])ied by the women. Here the seats were arranged in 
three tiers, with a balustrade in front of the Ipwer tier. At the 
south side of the church a stairway ascended from the door to 
the comer of the gallery. In front of the pulpit there was an 
open space, in which were placed a substantial panelled table 
used on communion occasions and a plain bench at which candi- 
dates for confirmation knelt. Here, too, conspicuously in front 
of the pulpit, the vorsanger or precentor sat, with a little bench 
before him on which he placed his books. Back of the precentor 
and on his right were seated the church council, some of whom 
could" always* observe anything that occurred without turning 
around. This was the post of honor as well as duty. Immediately 
after installation the elders and deacons took their places here, 
and here they sat as long as their official incumbency continued. 
One important duty of the vorsteher was to pass the Klingenseckel 
(tinkling pocket), a velvet bag with pendant tassel and bell, sup- 
ported by an iron hoop at the end of a long pole. The bell was 
doubtless intended to arouse somnolent members to a sense of 
their financial duties. Originally the furniture of the church 
comprised neither lamp nor stove, and there was no artificial 
provision for either light or heat. About the year 1825 a large 
ten-plate stove was placed in the center of the church, and as 
there was no chimney, tlie pipe passed out through the roof. 

Such was the building in which the fathers of this church wor- 



124 HISTOBY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTBICT. 

shiped. It survived, in all probability, all who were prominently 
identified with its erection. But the time at length arrived when 
its usefulness was terminated. In 1841 it was removed; the logs 
were hauled to Leitersburg and used in the construction of two 
houses, now owned, respectively, by Jacob Stouflfer and Mrs. Sarah 
Tritle. That of Mrs. Tritle was formerly the United Brethren 
parsonage. 

The following account of the building of the present church 
was contributed by Eev. John P. Cline of Smithsburg, Md., 
to the Lutheran Observer of December 31, 1841: "On the 10th 
of September last the comer-stone of a new church was laid 
within Bev. F. W. Conrad's charge, in Washington County, 
Md.; and on Sunday, the 5th inst., it was already consecrated 
to the service of the Triune God. This was truly expeditious 
work. At the laying of the comer-stone the Bev. Messrs. Bom- 
berger and Hoffmeyer of the German Beformed Church and 
Sahm, E. Keller, Conrad, and the writer of the Lutheran church 
were present. At the dedication Brothers Startzman, Conrad, and 
the subscriber officiated. The new church occupies the site of 
the old one. The old one was named ^Friedens Kirche' (com- 
monly known as Jacobs church), and the new one was named 
^Jacobs church.' It can not be said of tliis house as was said of 
the second Temple; for the second is superior to the first. It is 
built of brick; is neat and comfortable. It is exclusivelv Lu- 

ml 

theran." Supplementary^ to this it may be stated that the con- 
trr4ctor for its erection was Joseph Loiter, of Leitersburg, who 
accepted the old church in partial payment for his work. 

In 1854 the church building was enlarged to its pr»3sent di- 
mensions by an addition about sixteen feet in lenorth at the west- 
em end. Other repairs were also made at this time, and the re- 
modeled edifice was first occupied for di^ane service on the lOth- 
of December, 1854. This was a communion occasion, in whichi- 
the pastor, Eev. John Heck, was assisted by Bev. H. F. Early- 
Extensive repairs were again made in 1881, after which th<? 
church was formally reopened on the 1st of January, 1882. The? 
clcrg}' present were Beverends P. Bergstresser, L. J. Bell' X. J- 
Bichardson, and V. Miller, who delivered a sermon appropriate 
to the occasion. Ten years later the interior was a<rain re- 
modeled, the principal improvement being the present pews. 



CHURCHES. 125 

The opening service occurred on the 1st of May, 1892, when the 
pastor, Rev. H. S. Cook, and Bev. E. H. Delk were the officiating 
clergymen. 

The fence surrounding the church grounds has been repaired 
and rebuilt at various times. In 1897 Malinda B. Jacobs pre- 
sented to the congregation the handsome and substantial iron gates 
formerly used at one of the entrances to Green Hill cemetery near 
Waynesboro. The post-and-rail fence in front of the church 
was forthwith removed and replaced with the present one, adding 
greatly to the appearance and convenience of the church grounds. 

The following is a list of pastors of Jacobs Church since 1791: 

1791-95, Guenther Wingardt. 1857-62, J. F. CampbeU. 

1795-1835, John RuthraufP. 1863, Edwin Dorsey. 

1835-37, Jeremiah Harpel. 1864-71, Alfred Buhrman. 

1837-39, Jacob Martin. 1871-75, C. L. Keedy. 

1840, Peter Sahm, D. D. 1876-87, P. Bergstresser, D. D. 

1841-44, F. W. Conrad, D. D. 1888, H. S. Cook. 

1845-56, John Heck. 

Wingardt resided at Taneytown, Md., and was pastor of the 
following churches: Taneytown, Jacobs, Winter's, Thomas 
Creek, Upper Bermudian, Zion, and Flohr's. The charge to 
which Buthrauff was assigned in 1795 was composed of Qreen- 
castle, Jacobs, Beard's, Mayfield (?), And Mercersburg, but its 
limits varied at different times during his long pastorate. He 
resided at Greencastle, and Jacobs was part of the Qreencastle 
charge until 1841, when the Waynesboro charge was formed; 
the original constituent churches were Waynesboro, Jacobs, 
Quincy, and Funkstown. For some years past the Waynesboro 
and Jacobs Churches have constituted a charge. 

Of the several auxiliary organizations connected with Jacobs 
Church the oldest is the Sunday school. A German school was 
organized about the year 1830, but it was not a success. An 
English Sunday school was also conducted for a time at the 
school house on the church grounds with John Beaver as super- 
intendent. When Harpel became pastor an effort was again 
made to organize, and from that time the school has been con- 
ducted every year to the present time. The first election of which 
there is any record occurred on the 6th of May, 1837, resulting in 
the choice of John Jacobs and Frederick Bell as superintendents, 



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churches. 129 

St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Leitersburg. 

The oldest original document relating to the history of this 
church bears the following title: "Unser Qrundsatze beim Eck- 
steinlegen der Evangelisch Lutherischen Kirche in Leitersburg." 
As German would probably be unintelligible to readers of this 
book, an English translation is herewith given: 

Declaration of our Principles at the laying of the Corner-stone of 

the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Leitersburg: 

In the name of the Triune God, Amen. 

Since the members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in and 
about Leitersburg, in Washington County and State of Maryland, 
have no house of their own for the special purpose of divine worship 
and one is necessary for the maintenance of religion, for conveni- 
ence in hearing the sacred Word, for the administration of the holy 
sacraments, and for our own salvation as well as that of our chil- 
dren and children's children; and since the congregation in the past 
year has greatly increased and has now decided to build one, it is 
proposed to proclaim to the world with what intention, for what 
purpose, and on what principles of Christiajiity this house is built. 

Therefore, we hereby declare for the information of the present 
and future generations that here this day, the 6th of August in the 
year of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ 1826 and of the independ- 
ence of the United States of North America the fiftieth, under the 
administration of President John Quincy Adams and John C. Cal- 
houn, Vice-President, and of Joseph Kent, Governor of Maryland, 
we lay the comer-stone of a German Evangelical Lutheran church; 
and that if God prospers the work under our hajids and the building 
is finished, it shall be dedicated to the Triune God, Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost, and so remain forever, and shall be called 

St. Paul's Church. 

That it shall be and remain an Evangelical Lutheran church, 
wherein the pure and unalloyed Gospel shall be preached and the 
holy sacraments administered according to the teachings of Christ 
and the Augsburg Confession, the contents of whjch we have in 
our catechism, which we now, in conclusion, place in the comer- 
stone, that in time to come it may be seen what was the confession 
of our faith. Should men arise after us who forget their Saviour, 
despise God's word and sacraments, and will not endure sound doc- 
trine, we take Heaven and Earth as witnesses that we are not to 
blame but are pure from the blood of all men. W^e take Heaven and 
Earth as witnesses of our attachment to Evangelical Christianity 
and that its extension is our most ardent desire; that it is our wish 
that the doctrine of Christ's atonement may be proclaimed to desti- 
tute souls here in this place; that we expect our children and chil- 

8 



130 HISTORY OF LEITEB8BURG DISTBICT. 

dren*8 children never to forsake their chnrch, but to be true to it; 
that it is our wish that here old and young may be edified, animated, 
encouraged, and prepared for eternity. With such desires and with 
such prospects we may confidently hope and with Jacob say: This 
stone which we here set up as a memorial shall be God*s house, a 
place where He manifests His presence. 

Done at Leitersburg on the 6th day of August in the year of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ 1826 and in the fiftieth year of the 
independence of the United States of North America^ and signed 
by the ministers present and the meYnbers of the building com- 
mittee: 

Ministers* Names. Names of Building Committee. 

John Ruthraufl, Christopher Burkhart, 

Frederick Buthraufl, Frederick Bell, 

Henry Kroh, Frederick ^iegler, 

Jacob Medtart. Lewis Ziegler, 

Joshua Grimes. 

Jacob Tanner, Contractor. 

This document further states that the first sermon was 
preached by Bev. John Buthrauflf from Jude 21, 22; the second 
sermon, by Eev. Frederick Euthrauflf, from Eph. ii. 19-22; the 
third sermon, in English, by Bev. Jacob Medtart, from Isa. xxviii. 
16; and the fourth sermon, by Bev. Henry Kroh, from I. Cor. 
X. 31-33. 

It thus appears that there was no church edifice at Leitersburg 
for more than a decade after the village was founded. The near- 
est places of wxjrship were Beard's and Jacobs churches, each 
several miles distant and in opposite directions. The organiza- 
tion of a congregation doubtless preceded the erection of a 
church building. This is evident from a clause in the document 
just quoted, "since the congregation in the past year has greatly 
increased." At this time Bev. Benjamin Kurtz was the Lu- 
theran pastor at Hagerstown, and his charge also embraced 
Beard's, with which many of the Lutheran families of Leiters- 
burg District were connected; but during his absence in Europe 
(1825-27) Bevs. John Buthrauflf and Jacob Medtart supplied 
his congregations, and it was doubtless under their administration 
that St. Paul's Church at Tjeitersburg was organized. The 
earliest list of members now extant, that of 1831, is as fallows: 

Daniel Beard, Elizabeth Bell, 

^fary Beckman, Jacob E. Bell, 

Andrew Bell, John Bell, Jr., 



CHUBCHE8. 



131 



Mary Bell, 
Catharine Bigham, 
David Branty 
Caroline Burkhart, 
Henrietta Burkhart, 
Mary A. Burkhart, 
Phoebe Burkhart^ 
Elizabeth Byer, 
John Byer, 
Susan Cole, 
Barbara Cook, 
Mary Cook, 
Elizabeth Fletcher, 
Louisa Frey, 
Susanna Hartle, 
Mary Hays, 
Catharine Hoover, 
John D. Eiefler, 
Samuel Lahm, 
Christian Lantz, 
Elizabeth Lantz, 
Samuel Lantz, 
Ann Maria Leiter, 
Barbara Leiter, 
Barbara A. Leiter, 
Catharine Leiter, 
Elizabeth Leiter, 
Isabella Leiter, 
Samuel Leiter, 
Susan Leiter, 
Christian Lepley, 
Catharine Lowman, 
Mary A. Lowman, 
Jacob Manf^le, 
Catharine Martin, 
John Martin, 
Catharine Metz, 
James P. Mayhew, 
Mary Mayhew, 



Elizabeth Miller, 
Elizabeth Mort, 
John Nofford, 
Joseph G. Protzman, 
Sarah Protzman, 
Catharine Repp, 
John Repp, 
Michael Repp, 
Peter Repp, 
Mary Ritter, 
Jacob Ritter, 
David Rook, 
Joseph Ross, 
Henry Ruthraufl, 
Jacob Ruthrauff, 
Susan Ruthrauff, 
Mary A. Sheetz, 
John Sheetz, 
Frederick Schilling, 
Julia A. Schilling, 
John Shook, 
Catharine Snider, 
Henry Snider, 
Elizabeth Spitzer, 
Maria Stoff, 
Catharine Tritle, 
Lewis Tritle, 
David Wolfinger, 
Elizabeth Wolfinger, 
Jacob Wolfinger, 
Michael Wolfinger, 
Sarah Wolfinger, 
Henry Yesler, 
Catharine Ziegler, 
Frederick Ziegler, 
George W. Ziegler, 
Lewis Ziegler, 
Magdalene Ziegler. 



Among the members of the church council from 1835 to 1845 
were Frederick Ziegler, Lewis Ziegler, John Byer, Jacob E. Bell, 
Samuel Lantz, Abner Hays, Henry H. Snider, Lewis Tritle, 
Samuel Creager, John Bowers, John Kissell, Jacob Wolfinger, 
Frederick Bell, George Bell, Jonas Bell, Samuel Etnyer, James 
P. Mayhugh, Jacob Kissell, and Thomas Atkinson. 

The succession of pastors since the organization of the church 



132 HISTORY OF LEITEK8BUBG DISTBICT. 

has been as fallows: Revs. John Buthrauff, Jacob Medtart> and 
Benjamin Kurtz, D. D., 1825-28; Samuel K. Hoshour, 1828-30; 
John Reck, 1831-33; John P. Cline, 1833-46; John J.Biemen- 
snyder, 1846-51; Daniel H. Bittle, D. D., 1851-52; J. F. Probst, 
1853-56; John Heck, 1857-61; W. F. Eyster, D. D., 1861-65; M. 
C. Horine, D. D., 1865-69; Samuel McHenry, 1870-72; X. J. 
Richardson, 1872-81; Victor Miller, 1881—. Prior to 1828 the 
congregation was part of the Hagerstown charge, which em- 
braced a wide extent of territory. From 1828 to 1880 it was 
part of the Smithsburg charge; the Leitersburg charge was 
formed in 1880 and embraces two congregations, Leitersburg 
and Beard's. 

The site of the church and the burial ground adjacent, com- 
prising lots Nos. 44 and 45 of the town plot of Leitersburg, were 
conveyed to Frederick Ziegler, John Byer, Jacob Bell, Lewis 
Tritle, John Bowers, and Henry H. Snider, who composed the 
church council, by John Lahm, February 28, 1835, at the con- 
sideration of $100.00. 

A charter for the incorporation of the church was adopted on 
the 12th of April, 1864. The first trustees were Jacob E. Bell, 
Jonas Bell, John G. Garver, George Bell, Jacob Hoover, and 
James P. Mayhugh. 

It has been stated that the comer-stone of the church was laid 
on the 6th of August, 1826: the kind of building it was proposed 
to erect was thus described in the following advertisement, which 
appeared in the Hagerstown Torch-Light some months before: 
"Proposals will be received imtil April 22d at the house of Chris- 
topher Burkhart in Leitersburg for building a church forty-five 
by sixty feet, two stories high, with gallery on three sides, to be 
built with brick or stone and rough-cast and finished in a plain, 
substantial manner.'' The building was evidently completed ac- 
cording to these specifications. It possessed no architectural 
pretensions, but was certainly one of the most substantial and 
commodious places of worship in Washington County. There 
was originally neither boll nor belfry, but about the year 1850 a 
bell was procured and mounted on a platform in the rear of the 
church: here it remained until 1853, when a belfry was built. In 
1884-85 the building was completely remodeled at a cost of $4,- 
100. A new front and tower were built, the side galleries were 



CHURCHES. 133 

removed, the corresponding upper and lower windows were con- 
verted into one, the interior was refurnished, etc. The rededi- 
oation occurred on the Ist of February, 1885, when an appro- 
priate sermon was delivered by Eev. F. W. Conrad, D. D. 

The parsonage is a two-story brick structure, situated on ihe 
main street of the village. It was erected in 1881 at a cost of 
$3,100, and is jointly owned by the two congregations composing 
the charge. The site was presented by Bev. Victor Miller. 

The Sunday school connected with this church was for many 
years a union school. It was organized soon after the erection of 
the church and has been continued without interruption to the 
present time. 

The Woman's Home and Foreign Missionary Society was or- 
ganized on the 15th of June, 1887, with ten constituent mem- 
bers and the following officers: President, Mrs. Josephine Mil- 
ler; vice-president, Athalinda Bell; corresponding secretary, 
Mary E. Miller; recording secretary, Ida M. Bell; treasurer, Kate 
E. Martin. 

The Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor was or- 
ganized on the 22d of December, 1892, with the following officers: 
President, Mayberry G. Freed; vice-president, D. J. D. Hicks; 
corresponding secretary, Emma S. Newcomer; recording secre- 
tar}-, Mary E. Miller; treasurer, Frank D. Bell. 

St. James' Reformed Church. 

Among the early settlers of Leitcrsburg District there were 
several families that adhered to the Reformed faith, the most 
nimierous and prominent of which were the Lamberts, Hartles, 
Schriveis, and Lecrons, all of whom, as evidenced by the records 
of Zion Reformed Church at Hagerstown, worshiped there and re- 
ceived the ministrations of its pastor in the ordinances of baptism, 
confirmation, etc. Other Reformed families located in the Dis- 
trict at a later date, among which were those of Felix 
Beck, George Ziegler, Stephen Martin, Christian Russell, 
and John Harbaugh. After the erection of Beard^s church at 
its present location this was the place of worship for adherents 
of the Reformed faith in Leitersburg District until 1826, when 
the first church at Leitersburg was built. 

About the year 1826 two Reformed churches were organized 



134 HISTOBY OF LEITEB8BURG DI8TBICT. 

from the former constituency of Beard's, viz., Christ's at Cave- 
town and St. James' at Leitersburg. This was effected chiefly 
through the efforts of the Rev. Henry Kroh, who was the first 
pastor of both churches. Unfortunately, Mr. Kroh has left no 
local record of his work; but from the archives of the Maryland 
Classis it has been learned that he became pastor on the 15th of 
September, 1826; and on the 11th of June, 1827, the following 
action was taken by Classis: 

Resolved^ That the con^rregations of Cavetown and Leitersburg, 
Md., of which the Rev. Mr. Kroh is pastor, be received into connec- 
tion vnth the Maryland Classis. 

From September 15, 1826, to June 10, 1827, Mr. Kroh bap- 
tized 71, confirmed 55, buried 24; he reported 158 communicants 
and two schools. From June, 1827, to June, 1828, 132 were 
baptized, 65 confirmed, 44 buried; the number of communicants 
was 226. These statistics include both churches, and probably 
cover the period of Mr. Kroh's ministry. 

In 1829 Eev. J. C. Bucher became pastor and Jacobs con- 
gregation in Harbaugh's valley was a third congregation in the 
charge. He resigned in 1830 and a vacancy followed, probably 
due to the inability of the charge to support a pastor. In 1831 
Leitersburg and Cavetown were attciched to the Waynesboro 
charge, then under the ministry of Eev. G. W. Glessner, D. D., 
who was succeeded in 1840 by Rev. J. H. A. Bomberger, D. D. 
Eev. Theodore Appel, D. D., became pastor in 1845. Two years 
later the extensive Waynesboro charge was divided and the Cave- 
town charge was established, its constituent congregations being 
those of Leitersburg, Cavetown, Harbaugh's in Franklin County, 
Pa., and Wolfsville in Frederick County, Md. Dr. Appel was 
the first pastor of the new charge, and continued in this relation 
imtil 1850. He was succeeded by Rev. J. W. Santee, D. D., who 
preached his first sermon at Leitersburg on the 4th of May, 1851, 
and continued as pastor forty-one years and six months. His 
son and successor. Rev. Charles A. Santee, w*as pastor from 1892 
until May, 1896, when the present incumbent, Rev. S. H. Dietzel, 
was called. His pastorate began on the 1st of January, 
1897. The congregations at Cavetown, Leitersburg, and Wolfs- 
ville constitute the charge, Harbaugh's Church having been de- 
tached some years ago. The pastoral residence is at Cavetown. 



CHUBCHE8. 135 

In the summer of 1826 the Rev. Henry Kroh preached to his 
congregation in a grove near the village school house where the 
buildings are now located on the farm of George H. Wolfinger, 
formerly owned by Solomon Hartle. 

For a period of neariy forty years, closing with 1866, the Re- 
formed congregation worshiped in the Lutheran church, to the 
original erection of which its membership had made substan- 
tial contributions. From the 1st of January to the 18th of 
August, 1867, there was no Reformed service in Leitersburg. 
The use of the United Brethren church was then secured, and 
here services were regularly held until 1879. The erection of 
a church edifice was agitated in 1868, but the project never passed 
the initial stage. In the spring of 1878 another eflfort was made, 
resulting in the present edifice. Formal action in this direction 
was first taken at a congregational meeting on the 5th of 
August, when articles of incorporation and a constitution for the 
government of fEe congregation were adopted, and a building 
committee was selected composed of Peter Middlekauff, Jacob 
Hartle, Solomon Hartle, John H. Miller, J. Freeland Leiter, 
John Middlekauff, and Rev. J. W. Santee, D. D. An acre of 
ground for church site and burial purposes was purchased from 
Joseph Barkdoll. On the 20th of August the committee decided 
to erect a brick building sixty feet long and thirty-five feet wide, 
with tower ten feet square; the general supervision of the work 
was entrusted to J. Freeland Leiter and Peter Middlekauff. The 
corner-stone was laid on the 19th of September, 1878, and the 
consecration occurred on the 16th of March, 1879. On the latter 
occasion the sermon was delivered by Rev. J. 0. Miller, D. D., of 
York, Pa.; Dr. Santee and Rev. S. S. Miller were also present. 
Services were also held on three successive evenings of the fol- 
lowing week, when the oflSciating clergymen were Revs. J. Spang- 
ler Kieffer, D. D., I. NT. Motter, and F. F. Bahner. On the 30th 
of March, 1879, the churchyard was consecrated to the purposes 
of Christian burial. At that time the consistor}' was composed of 
Peter Middlekauff and Jacob Hartle, elders; John H. Miller and 
Jacob A. Ziegler, deacons. 

The Sunday school was organized on the 20th of April, 1884, 
with the following officers: Superintendent, J. D. Lambert; as- 
sistant superintendent, B. F. Spessard; secretary, Emma Bam- 



136 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTRICT. 

hart; treasurer, J. P. Middlekauff. The first teachers were 
Emma Barnhart, J. A. Strite, J. D. Lambert, Alice Ziegler, Abi- 
gail Ziegler, Mrs. Catharine Miller, and Mrs. Rebecca Bowers. 
The number of scholars at the organization was thirty-five. The 
succession of superintendents has been as follows: J. D. Lam- 
bert, Clinton Hartle, John Summer, Iva Spessard, Harry Wol- 
finger, and Thomas Summer. 

Miller's Mennonite Church. 

There was a considerable number of Mennonitee among the 
early settlers of Washington County. In 1776-77 they were a 
subject of consideration by the County Committee of Observa- 
tion, as they declined to take up arms or participate in military 
exercises. Although excused from actual service they were re- 
quired to furnish transportation and supplies for the county 
troops, to make contributions in money, and to assist the famihes 
of those who were in the army. 

Among the early settlers of Leitersburg District who adhered 
to the Mennonite faith was Jacob Good, a resident near the Little 
Antietam as early as 1765. It is supposed that his immediate 
neighbors, Michael Miller and Andrew Reiff, were also Mennon- 
ites, but this can not be positively stated. John Barr, Jacob Mil- 
ler, and John Strite, all of whom were Mennonites, located in the 
District prior to 1800, and Christian Shank in 1812. Among the 
most prominent and numerous Mennonite families in the adja- 
cent Districts were the Shanks, Xewcomers, Hoovers, Bachteb, 
Hoffmans, AYeltys, and Eshlemans. 

For many years the Mennonites in this part of Washington 
County met for public worship at private houses. It is an es- 
tablished fact that the stone house on the farm of Abraham H. 
Martin in Cavetown District, built in 1820 by Henry Shank, was 
a regular place of meeting for some years. On the Loose farm 
near Fiddlersburg stands a building erected many years ago by 
Martin Bachtel, who owned the farm at that time and was an 
influential member of tlio Mennonite connection, in which he 
held the office of minister. This building was used as a place of 
worship until the year 1835, when Miller's church in Leitersburg 
District was built. The ori^rinal list of subscriptions for this 
purpose is still preserved and reads as follows: 



CHURCHES. 



137 



December den 25ten, 1834. 
Wir, die unterschriebenen zu dieser subscription, versprechen zu 
bezahlen an Christian Shank, Jacob Miller, und Johannes Strite oder 
an einer von den oben benahmten oder an ihre Verordnete die Sum 
oder Sumen zu unsere Namen gezeiget wie unden folget, zur Abstat- 
tung der unkosten vom Bau einem Mennonischen Gemeinhaus 
welches gebaut werden soil in Washington County nahe bei Leiters- 
burg auf ein Stuck Land vorhin zu Jacob Miller und hetz dass Eigen- 
thum von der oben gemeldete Gemeinde. 



Martin Bachtel, 

John Strite, 

Christian Shank, 

Jacob Miller, 

John Eshleman, 

Abraham Stouffer, 

Peter Newcomer, 

Andrew Shank, 

Jacob Shank, 

Andrew and Jacob Newcomer, 

Daniel Shank, 

Christian Stouffer, 

Abraham Stouffer, Jr., 

John Newcomer, 

Christian Newcomer, 

Benjamin Carver, 

Lewis Ziegler, 

Jonas Shank, 

Samuel Strite, 

Henry Snively, 

Andrew Snively, 

John Welty, 

George H. Lambert, 

John Lesher, 

John Horst> 

Joseph Reiff, Sr., 

Christian Barr, 



Jacob Barr, 
Henry Funk, 
Abraham Strite, 
John Byer, 
John Snively, 
George Poe, 
Jacob Funk, 
Samuel Bachtel, 
Joseph Strite,. 
Christian Strite, 
Daniel Scheetz, 
Joseph Gabby, 
William Gabby, 
John Hoover, 
Andrew Shank, 
Christopher Burkhart, 
Samuel Lantz, 
Jacob Bell, 
Garrett Wolff, 
Frederick Bell, 
Frederick Byer, 
Henry Schriver, 
Peter Hoover, 
Jacob Hoffman, 
David Hoover, 
Jacob Lesher, 
George Shiess. 



The German may be translated as follows: 

We, the undersigned to this subscription, promise to pay to Chris- 
tian Shank, Jacob Miller, and John Strite or any one of them or to 
their order the sum or sums marked opposite our names as follows 
below, to pay the cost of building a Mennonite meeting house which 
shall be built in Washington County near to Leitersburg upon a 
piece of grround at Jacob Miller's and to be the exclusive property 
of the above mentioned congregation. 



138 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DI8TKICT. 

On the 25th of March, 1835, Christian Shank, Jacob Miller, 
and John Strite entered into a contract with Joseph Cookston for 
the erection of "a stone meeting house on Jacob Miller^s farm." 
It was specified that the building should be forty feet long and 
thirty feet wide, "laid oflf in three different apartments," with 
two chimneys, "a sufficient number of doors, windows, tables, 
benches," etc.; that Cookston should "procure at his own proper 
expense all the necessary materials and of a good quality" and 
finish the building by the Ist of July; and that he should receive 
the sum of $510. The contract was duly executed and the build- 
ing thus erected constitutes the main part of the present place of 
worship. In 1888 an addition of twenty feet was built under the 
supervision of a committee composed of John Strite, Joseph 
Eshleman, and David Strite. The present building is therefore 
sixty feet in length. 

The church grounds originally comprised half an acre, the 
deed foi* which was executed on the 4th of April, 1835. An ad- 
ditional purchase of 125 perches was made in 1869 and one of 
seventeen perches in 1889. 

The first trustees were Christian Shank, John Strite, and Jacob 
Miller. The following is a list of their successors: Christian 
Strite, elected August 9, 1845, vice John Strite, deceased; Chris- 
tian Horst, elected May 1, 1856, vice Christian Shank, deceased; 
Joseph Eshleman and Frederick Shank, elected December 6, 
1862, vice Christian Strite, deceased, and Christian Horst, who 
had removed out of the boimds of the congregation; Joseph 
Strite, elected January 30, 1864, vice Frederick Shank, deceased; 
John Miller, elected December 26, 1868, tnre John Miller, de- 
ceased; John S. Strite, elected November 27, 1890, vice Joseph 
Eshleman, deceased: Jacob Eshleman, elected October 25, 1891, 
vice Joseph Strite, deceased; Christian Eshleman, elected June 
9, 1893, vice John Miller, deceased. The present trustees are 
Jacob Eshleman, John S. Strite, and Christian Eshleman. 

Among the first ministers who preached at this church were 
Peter Eshleman, Christian Newcomer, John Weltv, Christian 
Strite, John !Martin, and Jacob Oberholtzer. The present min- 
isters are Adam Baer, Henry Bacr, and John C. Miller. 

The first bishop who officiated at Miller's church was Abra- 
ham Both, of Mummasburg, Adams County, Pa., whose sue- 



CHUBCHE8. 139 

cessors have been Peter Eshleman and Michael Horst. Biahop 
Horst^s jurisdiction embraces all the Mennonite Churches in 
Washington County. 

The Sunday school was organized in 1893 with Adam Baer as 
the first superintendent. John C. Miller held this office in 
1894-96, and Adam Baer in 1897. 

LONGMEADOWS QeBMAN BaPTIST ChTJRCH. 

The Longmeadows or Bowland^s German Baptist Church is 
not an individual organization, but an integral pari; of the 
Beaver Creek congregation. The membership of this com- 
munion residing norih of Hagerstown, having a long distance to 
travel to attend the services of their church at Beaver Creek, met 
occasionally for worship at Paradise school house and also at pri- 
vate houses. Jonas Bowland was among those who realized the 
importance of having a permanent place of worship, and in 1853 
he erected at his own expense a brick church building. He 
burned the brick on his own farm, from which the church site was 
also donated. After the completion of the building he was par- 
tially reimbursed by his fellow-members. This building was 
forty feet long and thirty-five feet wide, and occupied the site of 
the present structure. In 1881 it was removed, when the present 
place of worship was erected. This also is a brick building, of 
which the respective dimensions are forty and seventy feet. It 
was erected under the supervision of a building committee com- 
posed of George W. Petre, Andrew J. Boward, and Daniel N. 
Scheller. In 1896 a frame dwelling house was built adjacent to 
the church for the occupancy of the sexton. 

The membership of the German Baptist Church in this locality 
in 1853 included George Petre, Jonas Rowland and wife, David 
Rowland, Daniel Rowland, George W. Petre, Amy Petre, Mar- 
garet Petre, Henry Shank and wife, Mrs. Crumb, Jo- 
seph Wolf and wife, Mrs. Philip Warfield, David An- 
thony and wife, George Poe, Samuel Trovinger, Andrew Bow- 
ard, Sr., and wife, and others. The first ministers were Joseph 
Wolf, Henry Koons, Jacob Hilbarger, and Joseph Emmeri, who 
were succeeded by Leonard Emmeri, Andrew Cost, Daniel F. 
Stouffer, Barton Shoup, Frederick D. Anthony, Abram Rowland, 
and John Rowland, of whom Elders Shoup, Abram Rowland, and 



140 HISTOBY OF LEITEBSBUBG DISTBICT. 

John Eowland are the present ministers. The bishop in 1853 
was Henry Koons, who was succeeded by Andrew Cost and Daniel 
F. Stouffer. In the board of trustees for the Beaver Creek congre- 
gation Longmeadows is represented by Daniel N. Scheller and 
George W. Petre. 

By the will of Henry Shank of Antrim Township, who died 
in 1875, the sum of $500 was bequeathed to this congregation. 

The Sunday school at Eowland^s was organized in 1893. A 
union Sunday school had previously been conducted at Paradise 
school house, of which the school at Rowland^s may be regarded 
as a continuation, as it is also a union school. Elder John Eow- 
land was superintendent in 1893 and 1894. In 1895 the school 
was not organized. The superintendent in 1896 and 1897 was 
John Eowe. 

Eefobmed Mennonite. 

For more than half a century Eeformed Mennonite services 
have been regulariy held at intervals of two months at Paradise 
school house. The ministers of tho Waynesboro congregation 
usually preach here, with others from Chambersburg and else- 
where. 

BiVER Brethren. 

Daniel Jacobs, who located near the terminus of the Marsh 
turnpike, was a member of the Eiver Brethren Church, and pub- 
lic worship was regularly held for many years at his house and 
that of his son-in-law, Jacob Hykes. Among the ministers who 
conducted these semces were Henr}^ Myers, Martin Stoner, John 
Hawbecker, Christopher Hoover, John Hoover, and Christopher 
Breckbill. 

United Brethren Church, Leitersbfrg. 

This organization had its origin in religious services at the 
house of Peter Stotler, on the Little Antietam near Leitersburg 
and now the property of Joseph and John B. BarkdoU. Here 
prayer and class meetings were regulariy held, with preaching at 
intervals by the itinerant ministers of the denomination. Among 
the first members were Peter Stotler, Henry Yesler, John Miller, 
Jacob Dayhoff, Adam Bovey, and their families, who were sue- 



CHUKCHE8. 141 

ceeded at a later date by Henry Boertner, John D. Eakle, John 
and Peter Yeeler, and John Dayhoff. About the year 1835 a 
chnrch edifice was built at Leitersburg; a parsonage was also se- 
cured and for some years the church prospered. Its member- 
ship was gradually reduced by death and removal, however, and 
finally the church building was sold and the congregation dis- 
banded. 

Methodist Episcopal Church, Leitersbubg. 

Among the leading members of this church were Edward 
Smith, who afterwards entered the ministry, John Johnson, the 
local class-leader, Jonathan Humphreys, and John Brown. The 
village school house was their first place of worship, and about 
the year 1841 a brick church was built by Alexander Hamilton 
and Henry Smith of Waynesboro, Pa. It is now the residence of 
Mrs. Ida Leather. The pastors of the Waynesboro circuit 
preached here until 1857, after which services were occasionally 
conducted by Rev. Henry Stonehouse of that place until the so- 
ciety disbanded. 

Cemeteries. 

One of the earliest places of interment in Washington County 
was the burial ground adjacent to Antietam church. Interments 
were made here as eariy as 1763. 

There axe a number of private burial grounds in Leitersburg 
District, and here many of the pioneers sleep their last sleep. The 
eariiest moituary inscription that the writer has discovered ap- 
pears on a stone in a private burial ground on the farm of Joseph 
Martin. It reads as follows: "1781. Hier liegt Eva Lamberi; 
und ihre Tochter. War alt 59 Jahr." A short distance from 
the Greencastle road on a slope toward the Antietam there is a 
burial ground inclosed by a substantial brick wall erected by J. 
F. Leiter and L. Z. Leiter in 1896. Andrew Leiter, the founder 
of Leitersburg, Jacob Leiter, his father, who died in 1814, and 
other eariy members of the Leiter family are interred here. It is 
not improbable that this is also the burial place of the first Jacob 
Leiter, who died in 1764. Southwest of Leitersburg on the farm 
of George F. Ziegler is the Ziegler burial ground, where some of 
the early representatives of the Lantz, Ziegler, and other families 



142 HISTOKY OF LEITEB8BUKG DI8TKICT. 

arc interred. This was a place of burial as early as 1783. It is 
surrounded by a brick wall, erected in 1889 by (Jeorge W., David, 
and Sophia Ziegler. The Hartle burial ground, on the farm of 
Alveh L. Stockslager, is inclosed by a substantial stone wall 
The burial ground of the Lecron family is situated on the farm 
of John D. Spessard; that of the Good and Barr families, on 
the farm of C. L. Q. Anderson; of the Qilberts and Rowlands, on 
that of Daniel N. Scheller; of the Garvers, on that of William 
H. Hoffman; of the Dayhoffs, on that of William H. Stevenson. 
There are also private burial grounds on the farms of Upton 
Clopper, Samuel Cook, etc. 

A burial ground is connected with each of the five churches 
of the District. That at Jacobs is the oldest, and here there are 
many graves marked by rough headstones bearing no inscriptions 
whatever. It may be positively stated, however, that interments 
were made here as early as 1790. 



CHAPTER V. 



Schools. 



" The Hollow House " — Martin's School — Leitersburo 
Schools— The Jacobs Church School— *• Jacob Miller's 
School House"— Paradise— Rock Hill— Pleasant Hill- 
New Harmony— Mt. Union— General Statistics. 

It is difl&cult to trace the history of early educational effort in 
Leitersburg District. It may be positively stated that George 
Adam Mueller was a teacher in the Jacobs church neighborhood 
in 1774 and Michael Boor in 1786, but where they taught is a 
matter of conjecture. The population of the District was cer- 
tainly ample to sustain one or more schools as early as the Bevo- 
lution, but while it is highly probable that the more enterprising 
and intelligent among the pioneers secured for their children 
some local educational advantages, no record of such efforts has 
been preserved. 

"The Hollow House." 

One of the earliest school houses of the District stood on the 
north side of the Greencastle road about a mile from Leitersburg 
and a short distance from the residence of Andrew Strite. From 
its location in a deep depression between two hills this was long 
known and is still remembered as "the hollow house." The build- 
ing has been removed, and but little now remains to mark its lo- 
cation except a well of water. It was a long, low structure, built 
of logs, and served both as school room and as residence for the 
teacher. Here Thomas Hauks taught in 1804. The follow- 
ing correspondence, the original of which is preserved by Mark 
Z. Poe of Leitersburg, is probably the earliest document extant 
relating to the educational history of the District: 

Sir: As the first quarter was to have been in advance there oould 
be no doubt of its being due now, but as I did not stand in any great 
need of the money till now I did not think it material to write you 
for any; but my family as well as myself being at this time in a bad 
state of health make it indisx)ensably necessary that I should write 
you this note, the purport of which is for the sum of $4.00, which 
you will please to send by one of your sons in the morning when 



144 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTRICT. 

they come to school, for which I will send you a receipt in the even- 
ing of the same day. 

July 24, 1804. THOMAS Hauks. 

Mr. Oeorge Ziegler, 

Charles Cavender taught here in 1813 and a Mr. Crawford 
about 1820. Tho latter appears to have been one of the last 
teachers. There can be little doubt that this school was estab- 
lished prior to 1800, and that a large part of the District was 
embraced in its territory. 

Martinis School. 

One mile east of Leitersburg on the main road to Smithsburg 
is the school house locally known as Longmeadows or Martin's. 
On the opposite side of the road from the present modem build- 
ing stands a long, one-story, wooden structure, weatbier-beaten 
and dilapidated though still comparatively substantial. This 
building may well be regarded as a landmark in the educational 
history of the District. From the original subscription paper 
for its erection it is learned that "a number of the 
inhabitants of Upper Antietam Hundred in Washington 
County, Md., met according to notice given for that pur- 
pose at the dwelling house of Christian Good on the 2d of March 
last [1811] in order to choose suitable persons and a proper place 
for building a school house and the persons then and there 
met did unanimously elect Christian Good, John Moyer, 
and Jacob Lambert trustees for carrying into eflEect the 
said purpose," who accordingly selected "a lot of ground on a 
corner of Christian Good's plantation, on which they provided 
material and commenced the building." This they agreed to 
finish "with good and sufficient materials and in a neat and 
workmanlike manner, the whole to be made with two good floors 
and well illuminated with glass windows, the room for a school 
to be furnished with a desk, two writing tables, with proper seats 
and a good stove. The part intended for the accommodation of 
a teacher and family is also to be well furnished with a good 
stone chimney, door, windows," etc. It was further specified 
"that the said house shall be and remain for the sole use of a 
school and accommodation of a teacher and for no other pur- 
pose, except that it be open on Sundays and other convenient 



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Miller's Church. 



SCHOOLS. I'AT 

days, and it is agreed that is shall be freely open to any society 
of Christians who meet for public worship." 

The cost of the building was $322.96, and a second subscrip- 
tion was necessary before the entire amount was provided for. 
The lease for the ground was executed by Good to Lamberi: and 
Moyer on the 4th of January, 1817. In this instrument the site 
is described as located "on the main road leading from Green- 
castle to Harman^s Gap." The dimensions of the plat were 
seventy and forty-four feet, respectively, from which it is evident 
that very meager provision was made for a play-ground. Tho 
lease was to terminate April 1, 1896 — eighty years "from the 
first day of April now last past." The annual rental was twenty- 
five cents, which was paid for some years — probably until the 
death of Stephen Martin, who purchased the Good farm in 1817. 
The lease describes the school house as "substantial and well fur- 
nished." It was to be used "for the exclusive purpose of educa- 
tion, and occasionally on Sabbath or holidays or other suitable 
days for divino worship." The sale of '^eer, ale, or other liquors" 
and the holding of "any offensive entertainment" were forbidden. 

Thomas Smith was teacher in 1819, and ])robably for some 
years prior to that date. He resided in the school building. Tho 
last teacher who did so was probably Francis Shioss. Among 
the successors of the original trustees were George M. Boyer, 
Jacob Garver, and John Oswald, who held office in 1828; Jacob 
Shank, who succeeded Oswald in 1828, and Peter Newcomer, who 
succeeded Shank in 1830; Andrew Shank, Jr., Jacob E. Bell, and 
David Bell, 1840. 

The Jacobs Church School. 

The school house at Jacobs church was situated about the cen- 
ter of the graveyard, where a ledge of rocks rendered the ground 
unsuitable for burial purposes. It was a one-story log building, 
nearly square, and was divided into two apartments by a wooden 
partition. The apartment on the south side constituted the resi- 
dence of the teacher, while the other was used for school pur- 
poses. The latter was entered from the east side; there was a 
\vindow opposite the door and two on the north side. Tho walls 
were neither plastered nor wainscoted. The furniture consisted 
of a ten-plate stove in the center of the room; the teacher's desk, 

9 



148 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTRICT. 

wliich occupied one corner by the door; a writing desk for girls, 
opposite the entrance, and one for boys, along the north side; and 
several long slab benches without backs. The benches for the girls 
were placed close to the partition and parallel with it, so that 
they could sit with some degree of comfort, but no provision of 
this kind was enjoyed by the boys. 

It is possible that this school was established about the time 
the church was organized (1791), but this is improbable. John 
Elliot taught in the Jacobs church neighborhood in 1810 and in 
1817 (January Gth) Charles Ca vender gave to Henry Jacobs a 
receipt for $2.00 "in full of subscription to school house." 
It is probable that this school house was at Jacobs church, and 
that it was erected in 181G or 1817. It is believed that German 
teachers were at first employed, among the last of whom was a Mr. 
Beaver, who subsequently removed to Ohio. John McKee was 
the teacher for some years and occupied the teacher's quarters 
in the school building; unlike many of his pedagogical associates, 
who itinerated from one community to another, he became a 
permanent resident of this locality, acquired a modest home near 
Antictam Junction, and lived there until his death. He was a 
native Scotchman and a man of fine education, but while his 
al)ility was recognized he never became popular \nth the Germnn 
constituency at Jacol)s church. Although the adoption of the 
pnl)lic school syptem in Pennsylvania deprived this school of a 
Inrtre share of its former patronage it was sustained with var^ins 
success nntil abont the year 1854. The building was then con- 
vortod into a dwelling for the sexton of the church and sened 
this purpose until finally demolished. 

Letterrburg Schools. 

Joseph Gabby, who was born near Leitersburg in 1779, used to 
relate that in his boyhood he attended a school near his home, 
fit which nearly all his fellow pupils were from German families. 
It would bo interesting to know^ more about this school, but fur- 
ther information seems unattainable, unless it mav be identified 
with '^tho hollow house/' 

After the founding of the village a local school became a puh- 
lic necessity, and a log Imikling was accordingly erected for this 
purpose on the north side of the turnpike a short distance west 



SCHOOLS. 149 

of tho village. The site was then owned by John Barr and is now 
embraced in the Wolfinger farm. About the year 1840 it was de- 
stroyed by fire and replaced by a brick building, which was used 
for school purposes until the erection of the present building. It 
was then demolished, but the materials still serve an educational 
function, having been utilized in the erection of tho Spessard 
school house on the Chewsville road. Neither of these buildings 
possessed much architectural merit. In the first the logs wore 
untrimmed at the comers, which gave it a ragged, backwoods ap- 
pearance. 

In 1825 the local school authorities published the following 
advertisement in a Hagerstown newspaper: 

A Teacheb Wanted. 

A man of steady habits, who is well qualified to teach the various 
branches of a good English education, will meet with an agreeable 
situation at Leitersburg. None need apply but such as can furnish 
testimonials of character, etc. 

William Gabby, 
Fbederick Zieoleb, 
John Barb, 
Lewis Zieoleb. 
August 10, 1825. Trustees, 

Among the early teachers at Leitersburg were Messrs. Win- 
rode, Chancellor, and McGeechan; Samuel Brown, subsequently 
a successful physician at Philadelphia; and J. Allen Brown, who 
afterward became an eminent divine and was for many years a 
member of the faculty of tho Lutheran Theological Seminary at 
Gettysburg. 

Three teachers are employed in the Leitersburg schools, in 
which the rQspective departments are designated as grammar, in- 
termediate, and primary. The school building is a substantial 
brick structure and occupies an elevated location with ample 
grounds. It comprises three rooms, two of which constitute the 
main building, erected in 1868-69, and here the grammar and 
intermediate departments are conducted; an extension in the rear 
wr»s subsequently built for the primary department. 

"Jacob Miller's School House." 

This school house was situated in the immediate vicinity of 
Miller's church, directly in the rear of the dwelling house on the 



150 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTRICT. 

farm of Noah E. Shank, and was probably built or used for school 
purposes after the school at "the hollow house" had been dis- 
continued. John Davis taught here in 1823 and Joseph Miller 
in 1827. Thomas Banks was the teacher in the spring of 1829 
and Hilary Herbert in the winter of 1829-30. Banks's con- 
tract with his patrons specified that they should provide for him 
"a good and sufficient school houso furnished with a good and 
suitable stove and a number of benches; also a supply of fuel de- 
livered at the school house door.*' For every child put under 
his care "to teach them reading, writing, and arithmetic'' he was 
to receive $8.00 per year. He agreed "to attend his school at 
regular hours and to progress his pupils in their respective 
studies as fast as possible." The agreement is dated March 5, 
1829; "School to commence on the Ist day of April next in Jacob 
Miller's school house." 

Paradise. 

Formal action for the erection of a school house in the Paradise 
district was taken at a public meeting on the 15th of October, 
1829, at which Jacob Schmutz presided and Thomas H. Bench 
was secretary. George Arendt, Joseph Trovinger, and Daniel 
Schlencker were elected trustees for the prospective District; 
Jacob Sclinuitz and Elisha Hame were appointed to solicit sub- 
scriptions; and it was decided "to build a school house on the 
cross-roads of stone twenty-five feet square by the subscribers for 
the benefit of the neighborhood." Four days later (October 
19th) Daniel Schlencker, one of the trustees, entered into a con- 
tract with John Newman by which the latter obligated himself 
"to build a school house of stone, twenty-five feet square, eight 
feet higli, and the walls twenty inches" at the rate of eighty-five 
and one-half cents per perch. It was further specified that the 
building should have a chimney and "one rough coat" of plaster. 
The contractor also agreed to quarry the stone. In 1832 Henry 
Schlencker executed a deed to the trustees conveying a plot of 
ground "at the intersection of the roads leading from Hagerstown 
and Waynesboro and Schmntz's mill and the Greencastlo road" — 
"East with the Greencastlo road, one hundred feet; north with 
the Hagerstown and Wa^Tie.sboro road, sixty-five feet" — "for the 
purpose of building a church or school house" and at the consid- 
eration of $5.00. 



SCHOOLS. 151 

The building was probably erected in the spring of 1830. In 
the course of his professional rounds Dr. Frederick Dorsey passed 
one day while building operations were in progress and made 
some inquiries of the workmen regarding the purpose of the 
structure upon which they were engaged. He was told that it 
was to be a school house, and asked whether any name had yet 
been selected. This was answered in the negative. "Call it 
Paradise," said the Doctor, as he drove away. The name at 
once received popular approval and has since enjoyed undis- 
puted currency. 

The first subscriptipn having proven inadequate a second paper 
was circulated, in which it was stated that the trustees "have suc- 
ceeded in erecting a largo and comfortable house (being situated 
where the road from Hagerstown to Waynesboro crosses a road 
generally known by the name of the Schmutz mill road) and bear- 
ing the title of the Taradise school and meeting house;* that 
they have furnished a sufficient number of desks and benchcv?, 
also a large ten-plate stove; that it is public for religious sects 
of all denominations." 

Notwithstanding the importunities of the solicitors, there was 
still a considerable balance unpaid on the 31st of January, 1835. 

Some years after the completion of this building the gable 
wall showed a disposition to part company with the remainder 
of the structure, and in order to avert such a catastrophe several 
heavy timbers were propped against it. In course of time the 
timbers rotted away, but the wall, contrary to all expectatiouB, 
obstinately refused to fall. The general condition of the build- 
ing, however, eventually became so dilapidated that an effort wos 
made to replace it with a new one and subscriptions were solicited 
for this purpose by Captain Henry Clopper and George Petre. On 
a Saturday evening in the autumn of 1853 a meetincj of citizens 
was held at the school house to consider the project. It was 
found that the amount subscribed was only about half the cost 
of the contemplated new building, in consequence of which the 
project was practically abandoned, when Georpre Petre arose and 
said it was a shame the community could not afford a better school 
house for its children; he offered to double his subscription, others 
agreed to do the same, and it was at once decided to rebuild. On 
the following Monday and Tuesday the old stone house was de- 



152 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

inulished; on WedDesday the bricks were hauled, and on Thurs- 
day the erection of the present building was begun. It was com- 
pleted in time for occupancy the ensuing winter and has since 
been used for school purposes. 

Among the first teachers at Paradise were James Gallion, Jacob 
Lightcap, Henry Leiter, Michael Feierstein, George Carson, Sam- 
uel Phillips, and Gearhart Brenner. 

Rock Hill. 

The first school house at Rock Hill was built in 1831. George 
I. Harry, the owner of Colebrook farm at that time, donated a log 
house that stood on his estate; it was demolished and rebuilt by 
the united exertions of the community and constituted the first 
school house at Rock Hill. The first teacher was James Gelwix, 
whose services were secured by Mr. Harry, and who is said to have 
possessed qualifications superior to those of the average country 
pedagogue at that day. The first trustees were Jacob Miller, 
George I. Harry, Abraham Strite, Peter Eshleman, Christian 
Strite, and Samuel Strite, to whom the school grounds were leased 
by John Strite for the term of forty years from the 1st of April, 
1831. In 1858 this lease was superseded by a deed, executed by 
Jacob Miller in favor of Abraham Strite, John Miller, and Joseph 
Kshleman, trustees, under whose supervision the present school 
house was erected in the same year. It is a substantial brick 
building and has been continuously used for school purposes. 

Pleasant Hill. 

The first school within the present limits of Pleasant Hill dis- 
trict was taught in 1806-07 by the Rev. Jacob Dayhoff at his resi- 
dence on the farm of William H. Stevenson. A German school 
was subsequently taught at a log house near the farm buildings 
of William IT. Hoffman. 

About the year 1830 the community united in the erection of a 
hg school building on the land of John Mentzer. It stood on the 
Ringgold road on the hill above the present residence of Mrs. 
ilary M. Xewcomer. Among those who taught here were Mrs. 
Anna fSnively) Garver, Rev. Christian Lepley of the Lutheran 
Church, and several members of the Mentzer family. In 1852 
or '53 this building was removed and rebuilt at the location of 



SCHOOLS. 153 

the present school house, the site of which was leased by John 
D. Eakle to Benjamin Garver, Daniel Winter, and Samuel Nigh 
on the 8th of February, 1853. This instrument contained a re- 
versionary clause in favor of the grantor and his heirs in case the 
ground should cease to be used for school purposes, and in 1877, 
when the present brick school building was erected, it was sujjer- 
seded by a deed vesting the title in the county school board. 

New Harmony. 

The New Harmony school house is a substantial brick building 
and was erected by public subscription. The first trustees were 
Henry Schriver, David Gilbert, and Daniel Mentzer, to whom 
Joseph Strite executed a deed for sixty-four perches of land, De- 
cember 17, 1855. An additional purchase of sixty perches was 
made in 1885, when the course of the public road was changed 
to permit the enlargement of the school grounds. The title to 
the property is still vested in a local board of trustees. The 
county school board pays an annual rental, which is expended 
upon repairs and improvements. 

Mt. Union. 

This district was created by the county school board in 1868, 
when a brick school house was erected. The first teacher was 
John 0. Wolfinger, by whom the school was opened in January, 
1869. The present school house was built in 1890. 

General Statistics. 

In 1824 the managers of the school fund in District No. 7 
(Cavetown), which embraced the village of Leitersburg and a 
large part of the District, were William H. Fitzhugh, Peter Sei- 
bert, William Gabby, John Welty, and Marmaduke W. Boyd. Dis- 
trict No. 7 received $44.00 from the county school fund, from 
which it is evident that the duties of the commissioners were not 
onerous. The county school fund in 1825 was $450, of which 
District No. 7 received $65.00. 

In 1845 the trustees of the school fund in District No. 9 were 
Lewis Ziegler, John Mentzer, George I. Harry, George Kessingc r, 
Jr., and Abraham Stouflfer. Abraham Strite served as school 
commissioner from 1849 to 1851 and Samuel Etnyer in 1852-53. 



154 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURO DISTRICT. 

In 1853 there were eight schools in the District, with 276 paying 
scholars and 16 free scholars; the amount received from the 
county school fund was $509.32 and from tuition fees $520.26. 
In 1849, according to tlie oificial report of Abraham Strite, the 
books and supplies at each school within the present limits of the 
District (Martin's excepted) were as follows: 

Loitersburg. — Thirty-four spellers, 18 American Manuals, 15 
grammars, 400 quills, 100 slate pencils, 1 register, 21 arithmetics, 
22 dictionaries, 3*4 McGuffey's readers, 8 Elements of Agricul- 
ture. 

Pleasant Hill. — Thirty spelling books, 8 grammars, 11 geog- 
raphies, 6 inkstands, 100 slate pencils, 200 quills, 1 register, lo 
arithmetics, 18 dictionaries, 18 copy-books, 100 quills, 9 copy- 
books, 4 Elements of Agriculture, 18 McGuffey s readers. 

Jacobs Church. — Twelve dictionaries, 36 Comly Spelling 
Books, 16 arithmetics, 4 grammars, 6 geographies, 6 large slates, 
100 quills, 4 Elements of Agriculture, 30 McGuffey^s readers. 

Paradise. — Twelve copy-books, 5 quires of paper, 12 American 
Manuals, 6 Chandlers Grammars, 38 Comly Spelling Books, 100 
slate pencils, 2 quarts of ink, 14 arithmetics, 6 dictionaries, 12 
slates, 8 geographies, 1 register, 18 McGufEey's readers. 

Kock Hill. — Fifteen Comly Spelling Books, 13 arithmetics, 
6 American ^lanuals, 3. grammars, 3 geograpliies, 12 copy-books, 
100 quills, 2 dictionaries, G oleuients of Agriculture, 18 McGuf!- 
ey's readers, 2 slates, 1 register. 



CHAPTER VI. 



BlOGKAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Colonel Thomas Cresap* was ])orn at Skipton-on-Craven, 
Yorkshire, England, about the year 1702, and emigrated to Amer- 
ica at the age of fifteen. He learned the trade of carpenter and 
after his marriage located at Havre-de-Grace, Md. Being of an 
energetic and adventurous disposition and in reduced circum- 
stances he was early attracted by the opportunity of securing land 
on the frontier and made a journey into Virginia for that pur- 
pose. In this he was unsuccessful, however, and next turned his 
attention to the territory claimed by Maryland west of the Sus- 
quehanna within the present limits of York County, Pa. Here 
he secured under Maryland tenure a tract of several hundred 
acres adjacent to the river and neariy opposite the town of Co- 
lumbia, and on this tract he located, March IG, 1732. He at once 
became the leading partisan of the Maryland interest. The re- 
gion in which he settled was disputed ground and circumstances 
soon brought him into collision with the Pennsylvania claimants. 
One of his neighbors was John Hendricks, who had made valuable 
improvements on a tract secured by a Pennsylvania i)atent. In 
1734 Cresap had the same tract surveyed under a Maryland war- 
rant and employed workmen to build a house within a hundred 
yards of Hendricks's door. Upon complaint of the latter the sher- 
iff of Lancaster County crossed the river and arrested the work- 
men, but Cresap was prudently absent and escaped. This oc- 
curred on the 29th of Januar}', 1734. That night the guard loft 
by the sheriff at his departure went to Cresap's house for the pur- 
pose of arresting him, and in the melee that ensued Knowles 
Daimt, one of the attacking party, was mortally wounded. 

In 1730 the Germans who had settled in Cresap's vicinity ac- 
knowledged the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania. This was con- 
strued by the Marvland authorities as an insurrection, for the 
suppression of which the sheriff of Baltimore County hastened 
thither with several hundred men and established his headquar- 

* Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. I pp. 311 : 410-411, etc.; Colonial Records, Vol. IV pp. 
iic-147, etc. Jacob's Life ol Michael Cresap. 



156 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

ters at Cresap's. After the departure of this force the latter re- 
mained as the official representative of the Maryland interest in 
the dual capacity of magistrate and captain of militia. He con- 
\v.rted his house into an arsenal and received an ample supply of 
arms and ammunition from Governor Ogle. For five years ho 
had been the terror of the Pennsylvania authorities, whose juris- 
diction he persistently and flagrantly defied, and he was now r.n- 
parently prepared to maintain his position with greater security 
than ever. But at last the Pennsylvania authorities took decisi\e 
action. A warrant for his arrest for the murder of Knowles 
Daunt had been issued two years before; on the night of Novem- 
ber 23, 1736, the sheriff of Lancaster County crossed the Susque- 
hanna to execute this warrant. His posse numbered twenty-four 
men and at daybreak on the 24:th they surrounded Cresap's house. 
A furious fusilade ensued and continued at intervals throughout 
the day. The termination of the affair is thus described in a dis- 
patch to the Provincial Council: 

The sheriff and his assistants, having waited until sunset 
and finding* they must either return without executing their war- 
rant or destroy the house to come at him, they set fire to it, but 
offered to quench it if he would surrender. He nevertheless obsti- 
nately persisted in his refusal, neither would he suffer his wife and 
children to leave the house, but fired at those who proposed it. 
When the fire prevailed and the floor was ready to fall in he and 
those with him rushed forth loaded with arms, which, as they fired 
at the sheriff and his assistants they threw away and in this con- 
fusion one of Cresap's men, Michael Reisner, shot down by mistake 
another of the g'anpf named Lachlan Malone; Cresap was at length 
apprehended and it has since appeared that he intended to have had 
his wife and children burned in the house, and that during" the time 
of action he set his children in the most dangerous places and had 
provoked the sheriff's assistants to shoot at them. Of the six per- 
sons who had thus joined with Cresap one got out at the chimney 
and another was killed as Ikik been mentioned: three are now sent 
down hither with Cresap. 

This affair was deemed of so much importance that the Penn- 
sylvania Assembly was summoned in special session. Cresap was 
placed in irons and confined in the Philadelphia jail. Within a 
fortniirht two commissioners from ^Farvland, Edward Jennings 
and Daniel Dulany, secretary and attorney <reneral, respectively, 
of the Province, appeared to demand his release and the delivery 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 157 

of his captors to the Maryland authorities for trial. The sheriff 
and his posse were denounced as "incendiaries and murderers/' 
"monsters of men," etc., and the capture was characterizeil by 
such expressions as "horrid cruelty," "savage violence," a "bar- 
barous transaction," in need of "no colors to heighten the black- 
ness of it or words to raise that horror and indignation which 
every humane breast must feel at the bare relation." But the 
Pennsylvania authorities were firm in their refusal to release the 
prisoners. Cresap's irons were removed, but he continued in 
confinement until January, 1738. The royal order under which 
he was released was followed by another establishing a Temporary 
Line, which placed his former residence far within the limits of 
Pennsylvania. Doubtless in anticipation of this he had selected 
a new home, the Longmeadows tract in Leitersburg District, and 
here in the spring of 1738 he brought his family, which had found 
shelter at an Indian village on the Codorus during his imprison- 
ment. 

Cresap's house at Longmeadows served the triple purpose of 
residence, fortification, and trading post. It was situated in the 
extreme western pari of the District near the Marsh turnpike on 
the farm now owned by Mrs. William S. Young of Baltimore, 
on the opposite side of Marsh run from the farm buildings and 
about six hundred feet a little south of east from the bam. It 
18 described as a substantial structure, the walls of which, at least 
to the second story, were built of stone, which subsequently en- 
tered into the construction of the barn, spring house, and other 
buildings on the Longmeadows farm. Here Cresap engaged ex- 
tensively in business as an Indian trader. For a time his opera- 
tions were successful but a vessel on which he had consigned a 
large quantity of peltries to England was captured by the enemy. 
This loss reduced him to bankruptcy, and Daniel Dulany, a 
prominent Maryland lawyer from whom he had received advances 
of capital, took the Longmeadows establishment in partial satis- 
faction of his claims. 

In 1741 Cresap located on the Potomac near the junction of 
the north and south forks of that river. There he acquired an 
extensive estate and continued to be an influential character in 
the affairs of Western Mar}'land. As the agent of the Ohio Com- 
pany he opened a trail from tho present site of Cumberland to 



158 HISTORY OF LEITER8BUBG DISTRICT. 

that of Pittsburg. He was a man of sound constitution and great' 
muscular strength and lived to the advanced age of one hundred 
and five or six. When more than eighty years old he contracted 
a second marriage, and at the age of one Hundred he made a 
journey to Nova Scotia. He had five children: Daniel; Thomas; 
Michael; Sarah, and Elizabeth. Michael was ceptain of one of 
the first Mar}'land companies sent to Boston at the call of tJie 
Continental Congress. 

Captain John Charlton* first appears in Maryland history 
in connection with a scheme to colonize the present territory of 
York County, Pa., in the Maryland interest. This region was 
first settled by Germans, who secured the land under Maryland 
tenure; but in August, 1736, fifty or sixty of these settlers re- 
nounced the authority of Maryland and acknowledged that of 
Pennsylvania. Plans were at once formed to evict them from 
their lands, a warrant for the resurvey of which was issued by 
Governor Ogle of Maryland in favor of fifty-two persona, among 
whom were Thomas Charlton, John Charlton, Edward Charlton, 
John Charlton, Jr., Thomas Charlton, Jr., Arthur Charlton, and 
Henry Charlton, Jr., for whom, with four others, eleven of the 
best plantations were to be reserved. Although the scheme was 
frustrated by the arrest of Henry Munday, one of its principal 
promoters, and of Thomas Cresap, to whom the execution of the 
surveys was to have been intrusted, the eviction of the Germans 
was partially accomplished. This work was intrusted by Gov- 
ernor Ogle to Captain Charles Higginbotham and John Charl- 
ton, who were stationed with a detachment of militia at Canajo- 
hela, west of the Susquehanna in York County, Pa., where they 
built a fort and stationed a garrison. 

Of Captain Charlton's individual proceedings two instances 
are reported. The first was the capture of Elisha Gatchell, a 
Pennsylvania magistrate, which was effected at Nottingham in 
Chester County, on the 29th of June, 1737. On this occasion 
tlio Captain was accompanied by four men, one of whom w^s 
Joseph Perry, subsequently his neighbor in Leitorsburg District. 
All were armed, ^'some with gims, others with hangers and 
swords." Gatchell was brutally beaten and compelled to accom- 
pany his captors into Marv'lanrI, where he was released through 



♦Colonial Records of Pcnna., Vol. IV pp.62, 100-ioS, 160, 22S-232, 251. 



BIOGBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 159 

the intervention of a magistrate. There is every reason to be- 
lieve that this arrest was made at the instance of the Maryland 
authorities, who regarded the imprisonment of Cresap as a suffi- 
cient justification. 

Several months later the Captain successfully accomplished 
one of the most daring exploits of the border war. It is thus 
described in the affidavit of Kichard Lowdon, keeper of the 
county jail at Lancaster, Pa.: 

On Wednesday the 26th day of October [1737] last, about 12 
o'clock in the night, John Charlton, the captain of the Maryland 
garrison, with sundry other persons unknown to the number of 
about sixteen, armed with guns, pistols, and cutlasses, broke into 
the house of the said Kichard Lowdon adjoining to the prison of the 
said county, and getting into his bedchamber where he and his wife 
then lay, pulled them out of bed and presenting cocked pistols to 
their breasts demanded the keys to the jail, that the doors might 
be set open and sundry prisoners who were therein confined, to wit, 
Daniel Lowe, George Bare, Philip Yeiger, and Bernard Weymer, to 
be set at liberty, for that they belonged to the Province of Mary- 
land, threatening to shoot the said Lowdon if he disputed doing 
what was required of him; that amongst the said armed company 
was one Frances Lowe, sister of the aforesaid Daniel, who, by fre- 
quent visiting her brother in jail, becoming acquainted therein, and 
having observed where the keys were put at night, undertook to 
show the company where the keys were, and accordingly opened 
several drawers until she found them; whereupon the said Charlton 
and his associates required the said Kichard Lowdon forthwith to 
t^ke the keys, open the doors himself, and to dismiss the aforesaid 
prisoners upon pain of instant death, which he peremptorily refused 
to do, even though they should carry their threats against him into 
execution; that one of the company took the said keys, unlocked the 
jail doors, and calling to the said four prisoners they came forth 
and with the said armed company rode off towards Maryland; that 
Lowdon's wife and maid, endeavoring to escape in order to give the 
alarm, were seized by some of the said company, kicked and beat, 
and the whole family were held and detained, so that no timely no- 
tice could be given in the town of Lancaster of this action until the 
rioters were all gone off. 

These high-handed proceedings provoked immediate and em- 
phatic protests from James Logan, President of the Provincial 
Council. Higginbotham and his associates were characterized 
as "banditti/' "ruffians/' etc.; the arrest of Gatchell was pro- 
nounced "so unparalleled an outrage/' and after the attack on the 



160 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

Lancaster jail he wrote: "We find the same lawless person, your 
Captain Charlton, as it appears, depends so far on your support 
that there is nothing too heinous for him to undertake/' Gov- 
ernor Ogle maintained in their defense that the region from 
which they had evicted the Germans (now York County, Pa.) was 
Mar}dand territory; he expressed mild surprise when informed of 
the arrest of Gatchell and the attack on the Lancaster jail, but 
declined to deliver Charlton and his associates to the Pennsyl- 
vania authorities. They doubtless continued in garrison at Can- 
ajohela during the ensuing winter (1737-38), but no further opera- 
tions of importance are reported. Happily for the distressed in- 
habitants of the border the violent measures of the Maryland 
partisans were terminated by a royal decree promulgated on the 
20th of May, 1738. 

Not many months after the evacuation of Canajohela Captain 
Charlton appears to have taken up his residence in Leitersburg 
District, whither Colonel Cresap, with whom he was associated 
in the border war, had preceded him. Here he secured Darling's 
Sale, a tract of 420 acres in the eastern part of the District. His 
residence was probably on that part of this tract now embraced in 
the farm of Curtis Foglcr, near the small stream, known as Tip- 
ton's run a century and a half ago, which crosses the Smithsburg 
road near Martin's school house. Here he died in tlie spring of 
1748, leaving a widow, Eleanor, and seven children. Darling^s 
Sale was divided into seven tracts of sixty acres each and appor- 
tioned by lot among them. The names of six of these children 
were John; Thomas; Henry; Poynton; ^Irs. Ann Wilson, and Mrs. 
P'leanor Webb; that of the seventh has not been ascertained. 
Several of the sons resided on their res])ective parts of Darling's 
Sale, and John died there in 1781. 

George Lambert was one of the first permanent settlers in 
Leitersburg District. He was dou])tless of foreign birth and 
probably a native of Germany or Switzerland; in documents re- 
lating to the family more than a century- ago the name is also 
spelled "Lampcrt." On the 18th of November, 1742, he secured 
a patent for two hundred acres of land, to which he gave the 
name of Lamhert's Park, the boundaries of which are described 
as "Beginning at a bounded white oak standing on the north side 
of a branch of Antietam near the mouth of a run that comes from 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 161 

Captain Charlton's and falls into the aforesaid branch.- ' This 
land is now embraced in the farms of Julia and Lydia Bell, Joseph 
Martin, and John Wishard. It is probable that the rosidencu 
of the pioneer corresponded in location with the buildings on the 
farm of Joseph Martin. South of these buildings several hun- 
dred yards is a small burial ground in which the most conspicuous 
object is an immense stone, about four feet square and one foot 
thick, securely planted in the ground. It bears this inscription: 
"1781. Hier liegt Eva Lambert und ihre Tochter. War alt 
59 Jahr.'' This Eva Lambert was probably the wife of the pio- 
neer, and the date of her death is the earliest inscribed on a tomb- 
stone in Leitersburg District. George Lambert died in 1787. 
Begarding his descendants it is known that he had one son, whose 
name was also George, and one daughter, Mrs. Eve Mary Riser 
(Geiser). In 1758 and 1760 he was appointed by the Frederick 
County court supervisor of "all the main roads above Beaver 
creek in Antietam Hundred.'^ 

Geokge Lambekt was bom in Leitersburg District, October 
15, 1746. In 1781 he secured Lambert's Park at a nominal con- 
sideration by deed from George Lambert, Sr. This instrument 
furnishes conclusive evidence that they were father and son, and 
also that the former resided upon the land in question when it 
was executed. Here George Lambert, Jr., resided imtil his death, 
July 10, 1823. Ho married Eva Maria Hartle, who was probably 
a daughter of George Hartle, from whom the Hartle family of 
the District is descended. She survived him, with the following 
children: Mrs. Margaret Hahn; Mrs. Susanna Xoland; Jacob; 
George H.; Mrs. Esther Grabill; John; Mary; Jonas, and Shem. 
There were also three grandchildren, viz., Rebecca and Elizabeth, 
daughters of Mrs. Eve Gearhart, and Barbara, daughter of Mrs. 
Elizabeth Ziegler. 

Jacob Lambert was bom in Leitersburg District, the son of 
George and Eva Maria (Hartle) Lambert. He was engaged in 
farming for some years on the land previously owned by his father 
and grandfather; he subsequently removed to Franklin County 
but afterwards returned to Washington County and located at 
Smithsburg, where he held the office of justice of the peace. He 
married Margaret Gearhart and thoir children were Sophia, who 
married Jacob Cassell; Daniel, who removed to Quincy, 111.; 



162 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTHICT. 

Mary Ann, who married David Flory, and John, a practicing 
physician at Chambersburg, Pa., from 1837 until his death in 
1872. Jacob Lambert was a Whig in politics and a member of 
the Reformed Church. 

George H. Lambert was born in Leitersburg District, Sep- 
tember 9, 1783, the son of George and Eva Maria (Hartle) Lam- 
bert. He was a farmer by occupation and operated for some 
years the farm now owned by John H. Miller at the inter- 
section of the Greencastle road with the State Line. At a later 
period he resided on the farm southeast of Leitersburg which is 
now the property of Claggett Hartle. He was a Whig in politics 
and held the office of justice of the peace. He married Jane 
Johnston and they were the parents of three sons: Moses; Samuel, 
and John J. Mr. Lamberf s death occurred on the 1st of July, 
1864. 

John J. Lambert was bom in Leitersburg District, March 3, 
1812^ the son of George H. and Jane (Johnston) Lambert. He 
was a farmer by occupation and was justice of the peace at the 
time of his death, January 10, 1888. He married Barbara, 
daughter of George and Catharine (Ziegler) Poe, and their chil- 
dren were George P.; J. Sophia, wife of Alexander M. Wolfinger; 
Mar}', deceased; Mark F.; John D., and Martha A. 

George P. Lambert was bom in Leitersburg District, Febru- 
ary 19, 1847, the son of John J. and Barbara (Poe) Lambert. He 
was reared in his nafive District and obtained his education at the 
Leitersburg schools. After teaching school three years he lo- 
cated at Hagerstown in 1868 and was engaged in clerking four 
years. In 1872-73 he was similarly employed at Altoona, Pa. 
Returning to Hagerstown in 1873 he entered the employ of S. M. 
Bloom & Company. This firm was then engaged in the retail 
grocery trade; its wholesale business, the first in Western Mary- 
land, was established in 1878. Mr. Lambert has been connected 
with the firm since 1873 and holds a responsible position in the 
management of its affairs. In 1871 he married Ida V., daughter 
of Simon Xowcomor, who died in 1877 leaving three children: 
Blanche: !Mar>% and David 0. In 1881 he married Mary, daugh- 
ter of Frederick and ilargaret (Cross) Schock, and their children 
are Carrie S.; Frederick, deceased, and George P. Mr. Lambert 
is a member of St. John's Lutheran Church of Hagerstown, in 



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Reformed CHURrn, Leitktisburg. 



BIOGKAPHICAL SKETCHES. 165 

which he is Sunday school superintendent. In politics he is a 
Bepublican. 

Peteb Shiess was one of the earliest permanent settlers in 
Leitersburg District and one of its most extensive land owners. 
He was the patentee of the original tracts known as AUamangle, 
Eich Barrens, and All That's Left, aggregating 1,851 acres, now 
embracing many of the finest farms in the District. He acquired 
AUamangle in 1750, and doubtless became a resident of the Dis- 
trict at that date. This tract is now embraced principally in the 
farm of Lewis Lecron, and it was here that Shiess resided. His 
house stood on the east side of the Antietam on a steep bank a 
short distance below Mr.Lecron's residence. Here he died in 1788, 
leaving the following heirs at law: Elizabeth Shiess, Peter Shiess, 
Heniy Penner and Susanna his wife, and Peter Weaver and 
Elizabeth his wife. Before his death he had sold neariy the 
whole of his landed possessions, realizing but little more than the 
nominal price he had paid. 

Joseph Perry became a resident of Leitersburg District as 
early as 1754, when he purchased from John Dariing the tract 
called Deceit. In 1755 he secured a patent for Perry's Retire- 
ment, a tract of one hundred acres now embraced partly in the 
farm of John A. Bell near Leitersburg. In 1761 he secured a 
resurvey on Deceit whereby its area was increased to 658 acres. 
He sold this land to Daniel Hughes in 1779; the deed of convey- 
ance contained this clause: "whereon the said Joseph Perry now 
lives." In 1751 he was constable of Antietam Hundred. In the 
locality in which he lived he was actively identified witlkthe move- 
ment for American independence. On the 18th of November, 
1774, at a public meeting at Frederick, he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the county committee of correspondence and of the com- 
mittee to carry into execution the wishes of the Continental Con- 
gress; and on the 24th of January, 1775, he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the committee for Upper Antietam Hundred to solicit 
contributions for the purchase of arms. It is probable that he 
continued to reside in Leitersburg District after the sale of his 
estate; his death occurred in 1785. In his will, executed in 1777, 
he refers to his "aged and beloved wife, Isabella,'^ and six daugh- 
ters: Mrs. Martha McCoy; Jane; Isabella; Mrs. Ann Perry, wife 
of Daniel Perry; Mrs. Alice Charlton, and Eleanor. 
10 



166 HISTOKY OF LEITEBSBUBQ DISTKICT. 

Christopheb Buhkhabt was one of the earliest permanent 
settlers in Leitersburg District. The orthography of the name is 
variously given as "Burekhartt," "Pargett/' "Bargett/' "Bur- 
gett," and "Bnrkett/' "Burckhartt^^ having been that generally 
nsed by the first three generations of the family. The first 
Christopher Burkhart was a resident of Leitersburg District as 
early as 1755, when he purchased from Qeorge Poe two tracts of 
land aggregating 173 acres, the boundaries of which are described 
as **Beginning at the beginning tree of the tract of land the said 
Pargett now lived on, being the end of the thirteenth line of The 
Besurvey on Well Taught." He also secured by original patent 
the tracts known as Burkhart\s Establishment and Burkhart's 
Lot, to which extended reference is made in the chapter on Early 
Land Tenure and Settlement. He resided near Antietam, where 
Samuel Martin now lives; there he built a mill, which was in 
operation as early as 1779 and was probably the first in the Dis- 
trict. In 1777 he was a member of the Committee of Safety for 
Washington County. In his later years he leased the mill, but 
seems to have retained the active management of his extensive 
landed interests imtil his death. He also conducted a hotel. The 
Lantern, on the old Nicholson's Gap road. He died in 1799, 
leaving four daughters, two sons, Christopher and George, and 
two grandsons, the children of his son John, deceased. 

Christopher Burkhart succeeded to the mill property for- 
merly owned by his father and an adjacent tract of 220 acres orig- 
inally embraced in Burkhart's Establishment and now includ- 
ing, wholly or in part the lands of Benjamin Baker, Samuel Mar- 
tin, Daniel Oiler, and Joseph Wishard. He resided for a time at 
the Oiler farm and at The Lantern, as the house on Benjamin 
Baker^s property was called, but for many years he conducted a 
hotel in Leitersburg at the present residence of David Barnhart. 
He also held the ofRce of justice of the peace and was honored by 
his neighbors with the title of "Judge." He was a member of the 
building committee for the erection of the Lutheran church at 
Leitersburg. He died in 1838, leaving the following children: 
Daniel; Henry; Jacob, who operated a tannery at Cavetown, Md.; 
Frank, who was a practicing physician at Darkesville, Va.; Caro- 
line, who married Josiah D. Flagg; Eleanor, who married Jacob 
Lytle, and Henrietta, who married George Rummel. 



BIOGBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 167 

Geoboe Bubkhabt resided near Antietam creek at the farm 
now owned by Isaac Needy, in which he enjoyed a life interest 
by the terms of his father^s will. He married Catharine, daugh- 
ter of John Winters, and their children were George; John; 
Susan, who married George A. Snotterly; Elizabeth, who married 
Daniel Ollinger; Phoebe, who married John Minor, and Cath- 
arine, who married George Shiess. 

Geobge Bubkhabt was bom in Leitersburg District, February 
7, 1780, the son of George and Catharine (Winters) Burkhart. 
WTien he reached manhood he farmed for his mother and after- 
ward rented the farm of Samuel Freed near Wingerton, Pa. He 
then moved to Leitersburg, whore he was employed as a farm* 
laborer and lived to an old age. He married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Isaac Ford, and their children were Mary, who married Abra- 
ham Mowry; William; George W.; Nancy, who married John 
Lowman; Sophia, who married William Unclesby; John H.; 
Jacob, and Frank. Mr. Burkhart was a member of the Lutheran 
Church and in politics a Whig. 

Geoboe W. Bubkhabt was bom in 1818, the son of George 
and Elizabeth (Ford) Burkhart. He was a shingle-maker by 
trade, but was also employed at farming. For many years he re- 
sided a short distance north of Leitersburg on the turnpike, and 
there he died, February 2, 1890. He was twice married, first to 
Susan Thom, daughter of George Thorn, and after her death to 
Louisa Stem. Of the children by the first marriage one son sur- 
vives, George F., and of the children by the second, one daughter, 
Mrs. Nettie S. Jacobs. Mr. Burkhart was a member of the Re- 
formed Church and a Democrat in politics. 

Geobge P. Bubkhabt was born in Leitersburg District, June 
3, 1841, the son of George W. and Susan (Thom) Burkhart. Af- 
ter completing the course of study at the local schools he entered 
the store of J. & T. J. Harbaugh at the Marsh (Wingerton, Pa.) 
as clerk, and was afterward employed in a similar capacity by 
David Harbaugh at Walkersville, Frederick County, Md. In 
1865, while a witness in the Gladfelter murder trial, he was ap- 
pointed by Isaac Nesbit, clerk of the circuit court for Washington 
County, as one of the deputies in his office, and this position he 
has since held, having been successively reappointed by Lewis B. 
N3rman, William McK. Keppler, and George B. Oswald. He is 



168 HISTOBY OF LEITERSBUKO DISTBICT. 

the senior deputy in the oflBce and the oldest in service in the 
State of Maryland. For years all matter for record, all licenses 
issued, etc. have passed through his hands. In 1870 he married 
Sophia, daughter of Charles G. Lane, judge of the orphans' court 
and president of the First National Bank of Hagerstown; they are 
the parents of two children, Charles G., deceased, and Nellie M. 
Mr. Burkhart is a Democrat in politics. 

Geobge Habtle, the emigrant ancestor of the Hartle family 
of Leitersburg District, was bom on the 10th of May, 1722, and 
may probably be identified with Hans George Hertel, who arrived 
at Philadelphia on the 19th of September, 1749, in the ship 
Patience^ Captain Hugh Steel, from Rotterdam. In the con- 
firmation certificate of George Hartle, his grandson (1819) the 
name is spelled "Hartel;" in the records of Zion Beformed 
Church at Hagerstown it appears as "Hertel" and *TEertli;" and 
in the Frederick County records the usual orthography is "Hart- 
ley," the English phonetic equivalent of tlie German ^^ertli.*' 
The first George Hartle was a resident of Leitersburg District as 
early in 1760, when he purchased from Michael Leatherman 
fifty-two acres of land, part of The Resurvey on Well Taught. 
To this he made extensive additions by purchase and original 
patent, and at the time of his death he was the owner of 341 acres 
of land, now owned by Samuel Hartle, Henry and Frederick Har- 
tle, Alveh L. Stockslager, and others. The location of his resi- 
dence cannot be definitely stated, but in all probability it was 
situated where the buildings on the farm of Samuel Hartle now 
stand. There was, however, prior to 1822 a log house on the farm 
of Henry and Frederick Hartle at the bank of the creek below 
their present residence, and the old pioneer may have resided 
here. In 1768 he served as constable of Upper Antietam Hun- 
dred. He died on the 13th of September, 1776, and was buried 
at Antietam church, near Trovingers mill on the farm of Daniel 
Doub. Four sons sunaved him, viz., Martin; Frederick; 
Michael, and Sebastian, among whom their father's lands were 
divided in compliance with the terms of his will. The survey 
was made by Thomas Brooke, surveyor of Washington County, 
in 1781. There were also several daughters, one of whom, Eva 
Maria, married George Lambert. George Hartle was a member 
of the Reformed Church. 



BIOGBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 169 

Sebastian Hartle was the only son of George Hartle that re- 
mained in Leitersburg District, and from him the Hartles of 
Washington County are descended. He resided at the farm now 
owned by Alveh L. Stockslager, upon which he erected the pres- 
ent improvements. In addition to this he also owned the adjacent 
farm of Henry and Frederick Hartle, which he purchased 
from Adam Lantz in 1822, and a tract of 275 acres along 
the Chewsville road which he bought of Michael Qrebill in 1813, 
besides other property; and at the time of his death he was one 
of the wealthiest citizens of the District. He was a member of 
the Reformed Church and in politics a Democrat. He was three 
times married and died in 1840 at an advanced age, leaving the 
following children: George; John; Jacob; Mrs. Elizabeth Swope; 
Mrs. Sallie Stephey; Mrs. Hannah Shanafelts, and Mrs. Susan 
Scarberry. 

George Hartle was born in Leitersburg District in 1788, the 
oldest son of Sebastian Hartle. He began farming upon the land 
purchased by his father from Michael Grebill and his first resi- 
dence was an unfinished building formerly used as a wagon- 
making shop which stood on the land now owned by his grandson, 
Clinton D. Hartle. In 1833 he purchased from Jacob Barr the 
farm now owned by his son, Levi Hartle, and here he lived until 
his death, July 8, 1856. He married Barbara Swope and their 
children were Elizabeth; John; Jacob; Susan, who married John 
Marker; Mary, who married Daniel Spessard; Solomon; George; 
Levi, and Samuel. George Harile was a prosperous and successful 
business man and owned at the time of his death about eight hun- 
dred acres of land, six hundred in Leitersburg District and the 
remainder in Beaver Creek. He was a Democrat in politics and a 
member of the Reformed Church. 

John Hartle was bom in Leitersburg District in 1790, the 
pon of Sebastian Hartle. In 1822 he located upon the farm his 
father purchased from Adam Lantz; this became his property by 
the terms of his father's will and is now owned by his sons, Henry 
and Frederick. Here he lived from 1822 until his death, April 
20, 1857. He married Maria, daughter of Jacob and Maria Le- 
cron, and their children were Mary, who married Hiram R. 
Stahl; Mrs. Rebecca Henrihan; Henrietta, who married George 
Knouf; Henry; Jacob; Elizabeth; Frederick, and Sallie, who mar- 



170 HI8T0BY OF LEITEBSBUBQ DISTRICT. 

ried Joseph Wagner. John Hartle was a member of the Re- 
formed Church and a Democrat in politics. 

Jacob Hartle was bom in Leitersburg District, November 3, 
1796, the son of Sebastian and Catharine Hartle. By the terms 
of his father's will he received the home farm, now owned by 
Alveh E. Stockslager, and here he resided until his death, March 
21, 1854. He married Nancy Kuntz and their children were 
Ephraim, who died in Hlinois; Peter, deceased; Jacob and Nancy, 
who died in childhood; Isaac, David S., and Charles K., of Ha- 
gerstown, Md.; John H., of Chewsville, Md.; Anna, wife of Chris- 
tian Miller, and Catharine, wife of John H. Miller. Mr. Hartle 
was a Democrat in politics and a member of the Reformed 
Church. 

Jacob Hartle was bom in Leitersburg, District, May 15, 
1820, the son of George and Barbara (Swope) Hartle. He received 
his education at the local schools. After his marriage he began 
farming as tenant on a farm owned by his father near Spessard's 
school house. Three years later he removed to his father's farm 
near Whitehall in Beaver Creek District, which he operated ten 
years. He then returned to Leitersburg District, where he pur- 
chased in 1859 the farm upon which he resided until his death, 
September 13, 1897. This farm is now the property of his son, 
HarsTy J. Hartle. He married Amelia, daughter of Samuel and 
Sarah (Wagoner) Creager, and their children were Catharine, 
wife of B. F. Spessard; Daniel L.; Claggett, deceased; John C; 
Sarnh S., wife of Daniel Hoover; Mary, deceased; Clinton W.; 
Martha, wdfe of William G. Martin, and Harvey J. Mr. Hartle 
was a member of the Eeformed Church and a Democrat in pol- 
itics. 

George Hartle was bom in Leitersburg District, December 
11, 1826, the son of George and Barbara (Swope) Hartle. He be- 
gan farming in Leitersburg District near the Speesard school 
house. After his father's death he purchased, in partnership 
with his sister, Mrs. Susan Marker, a farm of 204 acres near 
Whitehall in Beaver Creek District: a year later he secured her 
interest, and here he resided until his death, May 16, 1878. He 
married Margaret, daughter of Samuel Meisner, and their chil- 
dren were Theodore; George S.; Immanuel; Annie, who married 
John Shadrick; Emma S., who married Levi Holtzmart; Jennie, 



BIOGBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 171 

who married William Forney, and Ida, widow of David Leather. 
Mr. Hartle was a member of the United Brethren Church and 
a Democrat in politics. 

Solomon' Habtle was born in Leitersburg District, October 
20, 1831, the son of George and Barbara (Swope) Hartle. He was 
a farmer by occupation; in 1865 he purchased the farm a short 
distance west of Leitersburg now owned by George H. Wolfinger 
and there he resided until his death. May 18, 1886. Ho married 
Mary, daughter of Joseph Wagner, and their children were 
Charles E.; Claggett A.; Alice, who married Frank Bowers; Wil- 
liam; Daniel; Maud, who married Theodore Isminger; Kate, and 
Edith, who married William Trovinger. Mr. Hartle was a Demo- 
crat in politics and a member of the Reformed Church. 

Samuel Hartle was bom in Leitersburg District, December 
11, 1835, the son of George and Barbara (Swope) Hartle. His 
education was obtained at the school house on the turnpike near 
Leitersburg. In 1860-61 he was associated with his brothers 
in operating the farm formerly owned by their father. In 1862 
he was at Canton, Ohio, where he enlisted as a volunteer, but 
was not in active service. In 1863 he returned to his native Dis- 
trict and engaged in farming; in 1870, in partnership with his 
mother, he purchased the farm of 212 acres which he now owns 
individually. After operating this farm nine years he built his 
present residence and retired from farming. His wife, now de- 
ceased, was Alice Creager, daughter of Jacob Creager, and their 
children were Jacob M.; Elizabeth; Charles, deceased; Lola, and 
Victor, who died in infancy. Mr. Hartle is a Democrat in politics. 

Levi Hartle was bom in Leitersburg District, October 15, 
1837, the son of George and Barbara (Swope) Hartle. The farm 
upon which he now resides was then owned by his father; here he 
was bom and reared, and here he has lived all his life. His edu- 
cation was obtained in the school house near Leitersburg. He 
engaged in farming in 1865 and was in partnership with his 
brother Solomon for a short time, after which he continued the 
business individually. In 1865 he purchased the farm of 164 
acres which he has since owned and materially improved. In the 
same year he married Mary J., daughter of Benjamin Slick, and 
they are the parents of two sons, Harry L. and George F. In pol- 
itics Mr. Hartle is a Democrat. 



172 HISTOBY OF LEITEBSBUBQ DI8TBICT. 

Henby Habtle was bom July 12, 1826, the son of John and 
Maria (Lecron) Hartle. He was bom and reared and has resided 
all his life on the farai foraierly owned by his father, which 
he and his brother Frederick have jointly operated since 1857. 
In 1861 he married Annie M., daughter of Joseph and Elizabeth 
(Clopper) Trovinger, who died on the 26th of October, 1897. 
Their children were Albert L.; John H.; Lilie A.; Joseph F.; 
Elizabeth T.; Iva D., and Otho M. Mr. Hartle is a member of 
the Beformed Church, in which he has served as deacon, and in 
politics he is a Democrat. 

Clixtox W. Habtle was bom in Leitersburg District, June 
1, 1859, the son of Jacob and Amelia (Creager) Hartle. He ob- 
tained his education at the district school and the Leitersburg 
grammar school. In 1887 he purchased the farm of ninety-five 
acres which he has since operated. He married in 1883 Mazie, 
daughter of Ezra and Catharine (Welsh) Shieldknecht, and 
their children are Harry; Mabel, and Chester. Mr. Hartle is a 
member of the Reformed Church and a Democrat in polities. 

Habvey J. Habtle was bom in Leitersburg District, March 
24, 1864, the son of Jacob and Amelia (Creager) Hartle. His 
education was obtained at the Leitersburg schools. He engaged 
in famiing in 1887 as tenant on his fathers farm, and here he 
has since resided. This farm became his property in 1897. He 
married in 1887 Maud H., daughter of Isaac and Rebecca 
(Stephey) Bell, and their children are Rexford B. and M. Inez. 
Mr. Hartle is a member of the Reformed Church and a Democrat 
in politics. 

Geobge S. TIabtle was born in Ijcitersburg District, Septem- 
ber 25, 1849, the son of George and Margaret (Meisner) Hartle. 
He was brought up principally in Beaver Creek District, whore 
he received a common school education. After working at the 
carpenter trade two years in Hagerstown he engaged in farming 
in 1872 near Whitehall, whence in 1880 he removed to the farm 
of Samuel Hartle in Ijeitersburg District, which he has since 
operated. He owns a farm in Beaver Creek District. In 1872 
he married Mary E., daughter of Samuel and Rebecca (Hains- 
worth) Gantz, and they are the parents of the following chil- 
dren: Mary, deceased: William: !Maggie, wife of Charles Clop- 
per; Claggott, deceased; Delia; Kate; Blanche, and Charles. Mr. 
Hartle is a Democrat in politics. 



BIOGBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 173 

Harry L. Hartle was bom in Leitersburg District, March 
24, 1866, the son of Levi and Mary J. (Slick) Hartle. He ob- 
tained his education at the public schools of Leitersburg. He 
began fanning in 1891 at his present residence and here he has 
since pursued that occupation. In 1886 he marriod Nettie, 
daughter of Isaac and Elizabeth (linger) Shank, and they are the 
parents of one child, Robert L. Mr. Hartle is a Democrat in 
politics. 

George F. Hartle was bom in Leitersburg District, April 
7, 1870, the son of Levi and Mary J. (Slick) Hartle. His edu- 
cation was obtained at the local public school, at the Leitersburg 
and Smithsburg grammar schools, and at Meyer's Nomial Music 
College, Freeburg, Pa. In 1891 he engaged in faraaing on his 
father's farm. In 1894 he married Maggie, daughter of Solomon 
and Elizabeth (Crist) Myers, and they are the parents of one 
child, Levi M. Mr. Hartle is a Democrat in politics. 

Martin Jacobs was from Preussdorf, Alsace, a village on the 
edge of the battlefield of Woerth, where the Bavarians, as the 
reserve of the German army, were stationed during that memora- 
ble engagement. His migration to America* was doubtless 
prompted by the same considerations that induced thousands of 
his countrymen to leave the Fatherland — ^the larger political 
freedom and better material advantages offered by a new count r^^ 
Leaving his native village in the summer of 1753, he embarked 
at Rotterdam in the ship Richard and Mary, arriving at Phila- 
delphia on the 17th of September in that year. In the list of 
passengers published in the Pennsylvania Archives the name is 
given in one place as "John Martin Jacob." Martin always wrote 
the name "Jacob,^^ and so did his son Henry until late in life. 
The present orthography, "Jacobs,^^ seems to be an Anglicized 
form. 

Martin Jacobs settled first on the Carroll tract, in Frederick 
County, Md., between Fairfield and Emmittsburg. Thence he 
removed in 1761 to the localitv of Jacobs church, where he se- 
cured a tract of land that continued in his possession and that of 
his descendants a hundred and twenty years. He gave to this 
tract the name of Martin's Fabian. Its area was 103 acres. In 
the original title deed, which is still in existence, the courses and 
distances are described as "Beginning at a bounded white oak 



174 HISTORY OF LEITEBSBUBG DISTKICT. 

standing on the west side of the head of a marsh known hy the 
name of Fabian's marsh/' The marsh gradually contracted in 
area as the surrounding country was reduced to cultivation and 
eventually lost its primeval character; its former site is now em- 
braced in the farm of Upton W. Harshman and like land of this 
character in general it possesses great fertility. The survey was 
made in pursuance of a warrant issued August 18, 1760; the pat- 
ent is dated February 10, 1761, and bears the autograph of 
Horatio Sharpe, Governor of Maryland. By this instrument 
"Frederick, Absolute Lord and Proprietary of the Provinces of 
Maryland and Avalon, Lord Baron of Baltimore, etc.," reserved 
an annual quit-rent of four shillings one penny half-penny pay- 
able at St. Mary's "at the two most usual feasts of the year, viz., 
the feast of the annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. 
Michael the Archangel." It is not likely that this was ever paid, 
however, for in the same year that Martin Jacobs secured his 
land the location of the line between the two Provinces was fin- 
ally settled, and when Mason and Dixon surveyed it he found 
himself a resident of Pennsylvania holding land under Maryland 
tenure. This did not affect the validity of his title, however, 
that having been guaranteed by general agreement between the 
Penns and Baltimore. He subsequently secured three other 
tracts, viz., Peter's Good Will, from Peter Shiess, February 9, 
1770, forty-four acres, consideration, £5; Jacobsburg, original 
patent, June 14, 1787, fifty acres; and Good Hope, original pat- 
ent, September 21, 1790, eighteen acres. The two tracts first 
named are both in Pennsylvania, the former northeast, the latter 
northwest of Martin's Fabian. Good Hope is in Marj'land, and 
the warrant for its survey was issued August 21, 1787. The site 
of the church and burial ground are embraced within its limits. 
This land was presented to the congregation by Martin Jacobs 
in 1799, although the church was built thereon some years pre- 
viouslv and interments were made hero as earlv as 1790. 

The old pioneer died in 1803 and is buried at Jacobs church. 
A low sandstone headstone once marked his grave, but this has 
disappeared and its location is now a matter of conjecture. His 
landed possesions comprised the tracts above specified, aggregat- 
ing 218 acres. Forty years of continuous toil had doubtless re- 
duced a fair portion of it to cultivation. His farm buildings 



BIOGHAPHICAL SKETCHES. 175 

were located west of the church, near the State line, where lilacs 
and blue bells and other garden flowers still grow among the 
rocks. Here, too, several old and gnarled apple trees, doubtless 
planted in pioneer days, survived until a few years ago. Below 
the orchard was a small brook, the outlet from the marsh above. 
It was not, as now, an intermittent stream, running in the spring 
and dry through the summer, but flowed all the year round and 
was no doubt considered a valuable feature of the property. The 
fields cleared by the first owner are still tilled, but not a vestige 
of the buildings he erected now remains. The exact time of his 
death and place of his burial are unknown, but the old pioneer 
has left a lasting memorial of his character in the church that 
bears his name. 

Martin Jacobs was twice married. His first wife, Barbara Mus- 
selman, was a member of the family of that name still represented 
in the vicinity of Fairfield, Adams County, Pa. To this union 
three sons were born, viz., George, Henry, and Michael. As his 
second wife he married a widow, Mrs. Anna Barbara Fiehls, who 
survived him eleven years, dying in 1814. By the terms of his 
will she received an annuity of 600 pounds of flour, 100 pounds 
of pork, 2 pounds of coffee, 2 pounds of tea, 6 pounds of sugar, 
10 pounds of flax, 3 pounds of wool, 1 bushel of salt, 2 pairs of 
shoes, "peaceable house room and fire-wood in the old house," 
and forage for one milk cow. 

Qeorge Jacobs, the oldest son of Martin and Barbara, was 
bom March 14, 1763, and died November 16, 1790. As the date 
of his death is the earliest inscribed on a tombstone at Jacobs 
church, it is presumed that he was one of the first persons buried 
there. He married Magdalena Leiter, a member of the family 
that has given its name to the village of Leitersburg. 

George Jacobs, the only child of George and Magdalena, was 
bom November 24, 1790, eight days after his father's death. He 
married Elizabeth Johnston, of Hagerstown, Md., June 16, 1812, 
and engaged in farming in Washington County, Md. Subse- 
quent to 1824 he removed to Fulton County, 111., where he was 
as truly a pioneer as his grandfather had been in the Jacobs 
church neighborhood seventy years before. The overland jour- 
ney of nearly a thousand miles was made with two covered wagons, 
one of which carried his family and the other their household 



176 HISTOBY OP LEITEBSBUBQ DI8TBICT. 

goods. Several years after he reached his destination Black 
Hawk's war occurred, and he served for a time as a volunteer in 
defense of the frontier. In 1844 he removed to Iowa Coimty, 
Wis., and there he resided until his death. May 16, 1878. Eliza- 
beth, his wife, died March 26, 1866. Their family consisted of 
ten children, viz., Sarah Ann, who married Herman Liscum, a 
farmer and teacher of Plattsville, Qrant County, Wis., where she 
died on the 28th of November, 1863; John, who died in child- 
hood; Maria M., who married Stephen Arnold; Martin, who died 
in childhood; Susanna, who married James W. Bums; Eliza Jane, 
wife of John Wrisley, Medford, Ore.; George F. and Cyrus W., 
who died in childhood; Eohert S., harness maker, Livingston, 
Wis., and Nathan J., farmer, Linden, Wis. Eohert S. Jacobs was 
in the military service during the Civil War as a musician in the 
band of the Second Wisconsin Volunteers and was discharged in 
September, 1862. Nathan J. Jacobs was in the service from 
September, 1862, until June 12, 1865, as a musician in the Iron 
Brigade Band, First Begiment, Third Division, Fifth Army 
Corps. 

Michael Jacobs, the youngest son of Martin and Barbara, sur- 
vived his father but little more than a month, dying June 15, 
1803. Michael and Margaret Jacobs had four children, viz., 
Jacob, George, TTenry, and Mary, but one of whom, Mar}', grew 
to maturity. Sbo married Jacob G. Smith, of Washington 
County, Md., and died March 28, 1826, in her twenty-eighth year. 

Hexry Jacobs, the second son of Martin and Barbara, sur- 
vived both his brothers and succeeded to his father's estate, to 
which he made extensive additions on the east. On the 7th of 
ifay, 1799, he purcbas£'d from Christian Gilbert forty-two acres, 
for which he secured a patent under the name of Bossgarland, 
March 12, 1802. From Colonel Daniel Hughes, the proprietor 
of Bock Forge, he purchased two separat<^ tracts, one north, the 
other south, of Rossgarland, the former comprising ninety-seven 
acres, the latter forty-six. The larger was originally part of Poor 
Eobin's Almanac, patented to Bichard Wooten April 23, 1765; it 
extended along the public rond from Antietam creek to the cross- 
roads. The smaller was originally part of Balsher's Misfortime. 
The purchase from Colonel TTughes was made in 1805, at the 
consideration of £8 per acre. January 31, 1821, a patent for nine 
acres at the western end of his farm was issued in his name. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 177 

The Jacobs lands had thus, through the continued acquisitions 
of the pioneer and his son, attained an area of about 450 acres, 
and constituted one of the largest individual holdings in Wash- 
ington Township, comprising the farms of Samuel Hykes, David 
B. Shoemaker, Upton W. Harshman, and Henry Crider, and part 
of the estate of the late George V. Mong. The tract was nearly 
rectangular in form and its length from east to west was about 
two milee. The road from Antietam Junction to Union school 
house was its northern boundary (except where this road passes 
through the farm of Henry Crider) and Antietam creek was the 
limit of its extent on the east. The improvements were also 
among the best. In 1816 the stone house and bam across the 
meadow from the church were erected. They were the scene 
of an active and busy life in the days when grain was cut with 
the sickle, threshed with the flail, and hauled in wagons to Balti- 
more, when modem agricultural machinery was unknown and 
farming operations were performed almost entirely by manual 
labor. The establishment was almost patriarchal in its propor- 
tions. In addition to his own family of eight, Henry Jacol)s 
reared the children of his deceased brothers, and there was always 
a full complement of servants, both men and women. German 
was the language of the household, the church, and the commun- 
ity generally. The old stone mansion was also the scene of a 
generous hospitality. People came to the church from long dis- 
tances and were easily prevailed upon to stay here for dinner be- 
fore returning home. This was the invariable custom of the 
preacher as long as the farm remained in the family. 

Henry Jacobs was bom December 16, 1764, and died October 
24, 1821. He married Ann Maria Miller, daughter of Henry 
Miller, a soldier of the Revolution, who was a resident of Antrim 
township, Franklin County, Pa., as early as 1773, and was one 
of the founders' of Salem Reformed Church. She was bom No- 
vember 17, 1770, and died July 20, 1809. They reared eight 
children, viz., Susanna Barbara, who married Michael Eyler: 
Henry; Elizabeth; John; George; Ann Maria, who married Jacob 
E. Bell; David, and Michael. 

Henry Jacobs, Jr., and John Jacobs jointly operated the ex- 
tensive farm of their father for ten years after his death. It was 
then divided, Henry receiving the eastern part and John the 



178 HISTOBY OF LEITEKSBUBQ DISTBICT. 

western. The line of division, which now separates the farms of 
Upton W. Harshman and Henry Crider from that of David B. 
Shoemaker, was surveyed by Joseph Snively, November 9, 1830. 
The principal part of the lands thus divided continued in pos- 
session of the two brothers and their families for more than fifty 
years. When the lands had all been alienated there yet remained 
tho dower of Mrs. Elizabeth Jacobs, widow of Henry, in the lands 
owned by her husband at his death; after her death in 1886 this 
was extinguished, and thus, of the extensive estate owned by 
Henr}^ Jacobs, Sr., eighty years ago, not an acre is now in the 
possession of his descendants, comparatively few of whom reside 
in this locality. 

In this respect the family history is a representative one. In 
almost every agricultural community throughout the Atlantic 
States it is the exception and not the rule to find farms that have 
continued since their first settlement in possession of successive 
generations of the same family. But it would be a grave mistake 
to suppose that the old pioneers lived and labored in vain because 
ancestral acres are no longer a family possession. Present social 
conditions — moral, religious, edmcational, and industrial — ^would 
utteriy fail of adequate explanation without admitting the mo- 
mentous influence of early settlers. The Alsatian emigrant who 
located in the neighborhood of Jacobs church one hundred and 
thirty-seven years ago was certainly a most important factor in de- 
termining the entire future of that locality. He served his gen- 
eration faitlifully and well; and since Time has left him no epi- 
taph in stone, let it be said of him, in his own vernacular and in 
the language of the old Book that was doubtless his most familiar 
and cherished possession, "Redet er noch, wiewohl er gestorben 
ist." 

Henry Jacobs, Jr., was born February 24, 1795, and died 
March 15, 1863. He married Elizabeth Crider, who was born Feb- 
nmry 10, 1804, and died April 3, 1886. Their children were 
Henry, deceased, a doctor by profession; Barbara, deceased, who 
was the first wife of Joseph S. Mentzer, deceased; Athalinda, de- 
ceased, who was the first wife of the late John Harbaugh, Jr.; 
Ann Maria, of Tacoma, Wash., widow of John Harbaugh, Jr., 
who, after the death of his father-in-law, purchased his farm and 
resided thereon for many years; Elizabeth, deceased wife of Sam- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 179 

uel Speck; Dr. Luther D., a practicing physician at Emporia, 
Kans.^ and Louisa, who died in childhood. 

John Jacobs was bom November 4, 1798, and died November 
8, 1854. His wife, Elizabeth Mowen, was born February 2, 1804, 
and died January 23, 1884. Their children were David, who 
succeeded to his father's part of the ancestral estate and resided 
thereon until his death; Eobecca, wife of Henry Gilbert, of Wash- 
ington Township; Mary Ann, widow of Isaac Jacobs; Jeremiah, 
who died at New Orleans, La., whither he had gone in the milita]fy 
service of the United States during the Mexican war; Elizabeth, 
deceased, and Malinda B., of Washington Township. 

George Jacobs was a farmer by occupation. The farm east 
of Waynesboro now owned by C. W. Good was his property, and 
here he resided during his active business life. He represented 
Franklin County in the Legislature in 1857. He was bom May 
2, 1801, and died November 2, 1869, in Knox County, 111. He 
married Susan Bell, and their children were Mary A., widow of 
David 0. Blair, of Abingdon, 111.; Helen, widow of David W. 
Eiker, of Knoxville, 111.; Susanna, deceased; Elizabeth, deceased 
wife of Daniel Tritle, of Waynesboro, Pa.; Louisa, deceased; Ma- 
linda K., wife of George Foltz, of Abingdon, 111., and Georgiana 
B., deceased. 

Eev. David Jacobs was bom November 22, 1805. He ob- 
tained his education at the Hagerstown Academy and at Jeffer- 
son College, Canonsburg, Pa., graduating from tlie latter institu- 
tion in 1825. He then began the study of theology under the 
private tuition of Rev. Benjamin Kurtz at Hagerstown, ])ut when 
the Lutheran Theological Seminary was established at Gettys- 
burg he entered its first class. While he was pursuing his studies 
here a classical school preparatory to the seminary was projected 
and he was solicited to take charge of it. He did so, opening the 
proposed school with two pupils on the 25th of June, 1827. This 
small beginning developed into Pennsylvania College, the first 
college under Lutheran auspices in the United States and now a 
prosperous and influential institution. Professor Jacobs was an 
accomplished scholar and a thorough teacher. For three years 
he gave to the incipient college his unremitting attention. In 
September, 1830, he left Gettysburg for a journey through Vir- 
ginia and the Carolinas, and while returning home he died at 



180 HISTORY OF LEITEBSBUBO DI8TBI0T. 

ShepherdstowTi, W. Va., November 4, 1830. His remains were 
interred in the burial ground at Jacobs church. 

Bev. Michael Jacobs^ D. D.^ a member of the first faculty of 
Pennsylvania College, was bom January 18, 1808. His early 
education was obtained in the schools of his natiye township. 
Graduating from Jefferson College in 1828, he began his peda- 
gogical career as teacher in a privato school at Bel Air, Md. In 
April, 1829, he became associated with his brother David as 
teacher of mathematics and sciences in the Gettysburg Gym- 
nasium. When this institution was merged into Pennsylvania 
College he retained his position in its faculty, of which he was 
a member until 1866. He was a man of deep and thorough cul- 
ture, of acute perception, and soimd judgment; as a teacher his 
character and attainments commanded the uniform respect of his 
students. In 1845 he was secretary of the General Synod of the 
Lutheran Church. In 1833 he married Julia M. Eyster, of Har- 
risburg. Pa., and they were the parents of four children, viz., Bev. 
Henry E., D. D., Professor of Systematic Theology in the Luth- 
eran Theological Seminary at Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Dean of 
the faculty of that institution, and a well known author in the 
province of dogmatics and church history; Michael William, at- 
torney-at-law, Ilarrisburg, Pa.; George Edward, optician, Den- 
ver, Col., and Mary Julia, wife of Rev. J. H. Harpster, D. D., a 
missionary of the Lutheran Church at Gimtur, India. 

Jacob Leiter, from whom the Leiter family of Leitersburg is 
descended, was born in Europe and probably emigrated to Amer- 
ica about the middle of the last century. In his will the orthog- 
rai»hy of the name is "Lyder''; other variant forms are "Leidro," 
**Lighter," and "Lider." Authentic information regarding the 
personal history of the pioneer begins with the year 1762, when 
he purchased from George Poe 362 acres of land, embracing the 
present site of Leitersburg. This land was part of The Resurvey 
on Well Taught, and a second resurvey was pending at the time 
of his purchase; he completed the title to this, and on the 19th 
of April, 1763, secured a patent for The Resurvey on Poe's Part 
of Well Taught, a tract of 1294 acres, embracing many of the 
finest farms in the central part of the District. The selection of 
this land is tangible testimony to the sound judgment of the pur- 
chaser, while its value and extent show that he was evidently a 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 183 

man of substance. His residence was probably the oldest part of 
the present dwelling house on the farm of Joseph BarkdoU adja- 
cent to the village of Leitersburg on the Hagerstown turnpike. 
Here he died in February, 1764, leaving a widow, Elizabeth, who 
was his second wife, and seven children, viz.: John; Christian; 
Abraham; Jacob; Peter; Barbara, and Anna, wife of Peter Good. 
One daughter, Fronika, died before her father, leaving two chil- 
dren. 

John Leiteb received the following mention in his father's 
will: "I give and bequeath unto my son, John Leiter, the sum of 
ten shillings, money of Pennsylvania, and one shilling Sterling." 
Nothing further is known regarding him beyond the fact that he 
had a son, also named John, who, by a legal instrument duly 
executed in 1791, renounced all claim to the real estate owned by 
his grandfather at his death. 

Christian Leiter, by the terms of his father's will, received a 
tract of land called Spruce Bottom, comprising thirty acres, to 
which he subsequently made considerable additions. His resi- 
dence was northwest of Leitersburg on the Greencastle road 
where Mrs. Joseph Strite now lives; but about the year 1792 he 
became financially embarrassed and removed elsewhere. He is 
said to have died in Washington County in 1817. Christian and 
Eve Leiter were members of the Lutheran Church. They were 
the parents of the following children: Elizabeth, who was bom 
on the 13th of June, 1758; Abraham; John; Jacob; Mary Ann; 
Magdalena, and Susan. Elizabeth probably died before her 
father. Magdalena married George Jacobs, a son of Martin Ja- 
cobs, one of the founders of Jacobs Church. One of the other 
daughters married a Mr. Messersmith. 

Abraham Leiter purchased in 1774 from Dr. Henry Schnebley 
of Hagerstown 142 acres of land, now embraced in the farm of 
Franklin M. Strite near Jacobs church in Leitersburg District. 
In 1782 he sold this land and removed to Hagerstown, where 
he died in 1818, leaving the following children: Mrs. Susanna 
Moles; Mrs. Judith Morgan; Mrs. Catharine Shank; Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Oswald; Mrs. Juliana Hink; Mrs. Eva Boward, and John, 
who was bom on the 12th of June, 1779. The name of his wife 
was Joanna Catharine, and thev were members of the Lutheran 
Church. 
II 



184 HISTORY OF LEITEBSBUBQ DISTRICT. 

Jacob Leiter and his brother Peter received the following 
specific bequests by the terms of their father's will: 

Item. — I give and bequeath unto my two youngest sons, Jacob 
Leiter and Peter Leiter, the place of land whereon I now live, con- 
taining 3C2 acres, more or less. 

Item. — I give and bequeath unto the said Jacob Leiter and Peter 
Leiter, my youngest sons, the sum of £100 current money of Penn- 
sylvania, to be paid unto them after the land is appraised by six 
men that are to be chosen to divide and appraise the land, and the 
aforesaid £ 100 is to be allowed to these, my youngest sons, as the 
portion of their mother, my second wife. 

By the division of the 362 acres referred to Jacob Leiter re- 
ceived that part embracing the site of Leitersburg, the farm of 
Joseph Harkdoll, etc.; and the oldest part of the present dwelling 
house on the Barkdoll farm was his residence until his death 
in 1814. The following children survived him: Elizabeth; An- 
drew; Jacob; John; Abraham; Susanna, who married Samuel 
Houser; Samuel; Catharine, who married Jacob Houser; Judith, 
who married Benjamin Hartman, and Juliana, who married 
Peter Bell. Jacob Leiter was a member of the Lutheran Church. 

Peter Leiter received the nori;hern part of the 362 acres 
jointly inherited by himself and his brother Jacob. His land was 
situated on both sides of tlic Antietam and is now embraced prin- 
cipally in the fanus of John Summer and the heirs of the late 
David Strite. He died in 1792, leaving a widow, Kve, who subse- 
quently married Peter Stiirhtether, and two sons, Jacob, born on 
the 14th of August, 1716, and John, born in 1T91. The former 
eventuallv secured the interests of his mother and brother in his 
father's estate; the latter died in 1814, leaving three sons, viz., 
Peter; Henry, and Jonas. Peter Leiter was a member of the Lu- 
theran Church. 

Andrew Letter, tlie founder of Leitersburg, was bom in Lei- 
ters})urg District, the son of Jacob Leiter and grandson of Jacob 
Leiter the pioneer. He seems to have been an energetic business 
man, ])ut unforiunately his judgment was not e-qual to his energy, 
and at the time of his deatli he was practically insolvent. He 
was a blacksmith by trade. He laid out the town in 1815, and 
built the house now owned by David Bamhart. For a time he 
resided on the farm owned by the estate of the late David Strite, 
but at the time of his death in 1818 he lived in Leitersburg where 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 185 

the hotel now stands. He married Barbara Kieffer and they were 
members of the Lutheran Church. Of the children bom to them 
the following grew to maturity: Catharine, who married John 
Leiter and after his death Daniel Lowman; John, who was bom 
on the 24th of June, 1793, and died on the 16th of February, 
18T2; Andrew; Elizabeth, who married James Xofford; Mary, 
who married Abner Hays; Barbara, who married Jeremiah Wam- 
pler, and Samuel, a tailor by occupation, who resides in Richland 
County, Ohio. 

Jacob Leiter was born in Leitersburg District, July 6, 1773, 
the son of Jacob and Juliana Leiter. He was a farmer by occu- 
pation and resided for some years at the present residence of John 
A. Bell, where he died in 1823, a member of the Lutheran Church. 
The following children survived him: David; John; Jacob; 
George; Ann Maria; Samuel; Felix; Henry; Abraham, and Ann 
Catharine. George and Samuel entered the ministry, the former 
in the Lutheran Church and the latter in the Reformed Church. 
Henry was a tailor and the other sons were farmers. The entire 
family, with the exception of George and Samuel, located in 
Richland County, Ohio. 

Abraham Leiter was born in Leitersburg District, February 
9, 1779, the son of Jacob and Juliana Leiter. Ho was a miller 
by occupation and was so employed for some years at the Lantz 
mill near Leitersburg; he also worked at the mill of John ^liller, 
now Walker's distillery on the Greencastle and Willianuspoi-t turn- 
pike, and at the Bowles mill in Clearspring District. He died 
while a resident of that locality and is buried at St. Paul's church. 
His first wife was Mary Elizabeth Houser and their children were 
Joseph; Abraham; Mary E.; James M.; Rachel, who married 
George Steinmetz, and Catharine. As his second wife he married 
Julia Bowles, and their children were Anna; Sarah, and Evans. 
Abraham Leiter was a member of the Lutheran Church and a 
Democrat in politics. 

Samuel Leiter was bom in Leitersburg District in 1789, the 
son of Jacob and Juliana Leiter. He learned the trade of cabinet 
maker under George Ziegler, with whom he served an appren- 
ticeship of five years. The first building on which he was em- 
ployed as a journeyman carpenter was the house on the farm of 
Alveh L. Stockslager, built for Sebastian Hartle by Lewis and 



186 HISTOBY OF LEITEB8BUB0 DISTBICT. 

Frederick Ziegler. After working for the Messrs. Ziegler one 
year he engaged in business individually, and there are few 
houses in Leitersburg that were not either built or repaired by 
him. He built the house where Frank Swailes now lives and there 
he died on the 17th of December, 1855. He married Catharine 
Myers, and their children were Isabel, who married Jacob Flory; 
Benjamin F.; Andrew; Samuel; Christian; Isaac G.; Lydia and 
Magdalene, who died in childhood, and Athalinda, who married 
Frank Swailes. Samuel Leiter was a member of the Lutheran 
Church and in politics a Whig. 

Joseph Leiter was bom in Leitersburg District, December 
13, 1805, the son of Abraham and Mary Elizabeth (Houser) 
Leiter. He was reared in his native District and in the vicinity 
of Williamsport and Clearspring. He learned the trade of car- 
penter under Samuel Dayhoff, after which he entered the employ 
of George Ziegler, under whose instructions he was initiated into 
the mysteries of cabinet making. At that period it was the cus- 
tom for apprentices to enter the family of the master under whom 
they served, and thus ithappened thatwhile a member of the Zieg- 
ler household he formed an attachment for one of the daughters, 
Ann, to whom he was married in 1828 by Rev. Henry Kroh. 
Shortly after this he j)urchas€d a property opposite the Lutheran 
church and outraged in business individually. It was at this 
period that many of the present improvements in the District 
and adjacent region were erected and he did an extensive business 
as architect and eontractt^r, oniployino: from four to six men 
all the year round. Tn addition to ])rivaio residences he also built 
Jacobs church, Daniel Mentzer's mill, the first brick school house 
at Leitersburg", t tc. As his circumstances improved he built an- 
other house adjacent to his first purcliase: here he lived for some 
time and then removed to tlio ancestral home of his family. th«^n 
owned by Geor<rc Poe and now ]>y Joseph Barkdull. In 1846 he 
purchased the property in Loitersburfr that constituted his resi- 
dence until his death. 

Joseph Inciter's early educational advanta^res were exceedingly 
limited: in fact, he attended school but one term in his life. These 
early deficiencies were partly compensated by habits of close ob- 
servation and by extensive readinnr, while his mind derived valu- 
able discipline from the calculations peculiar to his calling. He 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 187 

was one of the corporators of the Planters' Mutual Insurance 
Company and president of that corporation from 1847 until his 
death. In politics he was an ardent Democrat, and cast his first 
presidential ballot for Andrew Jackson. In 1846 he was elected 
to the House of Delegates of Maryland as a Democratic candidate 
from his native county. He was a member of St. James' Eefonned 
Church at Leitersburg, in which he sensed continuously for many 
years as deacon and elder. His death occurred on the 2oth of 
July, 1862; his wife, who was born on the 16th of October, 1805, 
sur\'ived him less than six months, dying on the 18th of Decem- 
ber, 1863. They were the parents of four children: James Free- 
land and George Abraham, deceased; Levi Ziegler, of Chicago, 
111., and Samuel, deceased. 

Benjamin F. Leiter was bom in Leitersburg District, Octo- 
ber 28, 1813, the son of Samuel and Catharine (Myers) Leiter. 
His education was obtained at the schools of his native District. 
In May, 1834, he removed to Canton, Ohio, and entered the em- 
ploy of his uncle, Jacob Myers, a miller near that city. He taught 
school in the winter and worked at his uncle's mill in the summer 
until 1839, when he was elected justice of the peace. To this 
office he was annually reelected for ten consecutive years. Dur- 
ing this period he studied law, and having been admitted to the 
bar he resigned his office and enterexi upon the practice of his 
profession. At this time he was a Democrat in politics and as 
such he was twice elected from Stark County to the Ohio Legisla- 
ture, serving as chairman throughout the long contest between 
the Whigs and Democrats known in the annals of Ohio politics 
as "the days of the Revolution." In 1854 he entered the Ameri- 
can party, by which he was elected to Congress in that year and 
returned in 1856. After the conclusion of his second term he 
resumed the practice of his profession, in which he continued 
until his death, June 17, 1866. He enjoyed great personal popu- 
larity and in the responsible public positions to which he was 
called reflected credit upon himself and his constituency. He 
was a member of the Lutheran Church. In 1836 he married 
Catharine, daughter of Peter and Barbara Burger, and their 
children were Isabella; Benjamin F.; Elmira J.; Charles A.; Mar- 
cus T., and Catharine W., wife of Volney Fulmer. Charles A. 
served in the Civil War as captain of Company E, Sixty-first Ohio 



188 HISTORY OP LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

Volunteers, and subsequently entered the medical profession. 
His brother, Marcus T., the sergeant in his company, was killed 
in battle at Atlanta, Ga. 

Isaac G. Leiter was bom at Leitersburg, January 29, 1823, 
the son of Samuel and Catharine (Myers) Leiter. He obtained 
his education at the village school, and learned the carpenter 
trade under his father. In 1853 he began business individually, 
and during his long career as carpenter he has either built or re- 
paired many of the houses of the District and adjacent territory. 
In 1842 he married Catharine Ann, daughter of James and Cath- 
arine (Reichard) Swailes, and to this union the following chil- 
dren were bom: Louis B., who was bom in 18 M and died in 1886 
at Hagerstown, whore he was engaged in contracting and build- 
ing; Barbara Louisa, deceased, who married Frederick Hose; Al- 
len B., who died in 1895 at Latta, Ohio, where he was engaged 
in business as a carpenter and machinist; Margaret A., who died 
in infancy; Franklin S., who was bom in 1853 and died in 1887 
at Leitersburg, where he was principal of the public schools; 
Helen K., wife of Samuel Middlekauflf; Isaac C. who died in in- 
fancy; Barry F. and Henry W., deceased, and Charles G., a 
teacher by profession. Mr. Leiter has been a Repu])lican since 
the organization of the party, and in 189G he was a member of 
the board of assessors for Leitersburg District. 

James P'keelaxd Letter was born at Leitersburg on the 11th 
of July, 1829, the son of Joseph and Ann (Ziegler) Leiter. He 
obtained his earlv o<lucation at the schools of his native villa<je 
and learned the trade of carpenter under liis father, whose employ 
he entered as an apprentice at the age of seventeen years. From 
tliat time until the deatli of the latter he was either employed by 
him or associated with him in business, with the exception of the 
year 1853, when he spent nine months in the West, principally 
at Xew Carlisle, Ohio. From 18G0 to 1802 he operated a sash 
and door factor}^ established by his father at Williamspori, Md., 
one of the first industries of its kind in Washington County. Re- 
turning to Leitersburg in 1862 he was engaged in contracting and 
building ten years, after which he retired from business. He 
owned a valuable farm in Tvcitersburg District, to the manage- 
ment of which and other interests he gave much of his attention. 
For many years he was a director in the Planters' Mutual Insur- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 189 

ance Company of Leitersburg and treasurer of that corporation. 
He was a Democrat in politics and wielded considerable influence 
in the local councils of his party, frequently serving as delegate 
to county and State conventions. 

A representative of one of the oldest families of Washington 
County, he was deeply interested in every measure calculated to 
preserve the ancient landmarks and promote local historical re- 
search. During the last year of his life much of his time was 
given to the erection of a permanent inclosure aroimd the graves 
of his forefathers; in this he was associated with his brother, Levi 
Z. Leiter, although the work of personal supervision devolved 
entirely upon himself. The author of this work, to which he was 
the first subscriber, gladly bears testimony to his appreciative 
sympathy and generous support. 

Mr. Leiter died, after a brief illness, on the 19th of March, 
1897. He was a member of St. James' Reformed Church of Lei- 
tersburg, in which he held the ofiice of elder. In 1855 he married 
Martha H., daughter of George W. and Mary B. (Drill) Lantz, 
and their children were Anna M., wife of George H. Wolfinger; 
Titus Benton; Barbara V., who died in infancy; Levi Z.; Joseph 
G.; Elizabeth, who died in childhood; Fannie K., wife of A. K. 
McGraw; James W., and Martha A. 

Levi Z. Leiter was bom at Leitersburg, November 2, 1834, 
the son of Joseph and Ann (Ziegler) Leiter. His boyhood and 
youth were spent in his native ^^llage, and hero his early educa- 
tion was obtained. Realizing the narrow opportunities of the in- 
sular community in which he was bom he sought in early man- 
hood a larger field of action in the West. In 1853 he located at 
Springfield, Ohio, whore he found employment in the store of 
Peter Murray, a prominent merchant. It was at this period that 
Chicago first evinced the marvelous growth that placed it in a 
few years among the great cities of the United States, and to a 
young man of Mr. Leiter's temperament it presented peculiar at- 
tractions. In the summer of 1854 he arrived at that citv, thence- 
forth the place of his residence, and here he realized a business 
career that places him in the magnitude of its success among the 
foremost financiers of his generation. He first entered the employ 
of Downs & Van Wyck, with whom he continued imtil 1856, 
when he secured a position with the wholesale house of Cooley, 



190 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DI8TBICT. 

Wadsworth & Company, with which he remained through its 
various changes until January 1, 1865. During this period, in 
consideration of the value of his services, he secured an interest 
in the business. This he sold to John V. Farwell, and in con- 
junction with Marshall Field purchased a controlling interest 
in the business of Potter Palmer, which was continued for two 
years under the style of Field, Palmer & Leiter, and then as Field, 
Loiter & Company until January 1, 1881, when, having large real 
estate and ether investments to engage his attention, Mr. Leiter 
sold his interest to his partner and retired. 

In the social life of Chicago no less than in its business circles 
Mr, Leiter is a prominent figure, while his Washington residence, 
justly regarded as one of tho architectural attractions of that 
city, has been the scene of many brilliant social functions. He 
is a director in the Chicago Relief and Aid Society, a member of 
the Chicago Historical Society, and president of the Chicago Art 
Institute. Mr. Leiter married Mary T., daughter of Benjamin 
and Xancy (Fish) Carver, and their children are Joseph; Mary, 
wife of the Hon. George N. Curzon, M. P., under-Secretary for 
Foreign Affairs in Lord Salisbury's Cabinet; Nancy, and Mar- 
guerite. 

Levi Z. Leiter was bom at Williamsport, Md., November 25, 
1861, tho son of James F. and Martha H. (Lantz) Leiter. He 
obtained his education at the local schools, at Mercersburg Col- 
lege, Mercersburg, Pa., at the Bryant and Stratton Commercial 
College in Baltimore, and at Franklin and Marshall College, 
Lancaster, Pa. In 1881-83 he clerked in the store of Josephus 
Ground at Leitcrsburg and in 1883-86 he was similarly employed 
at Lawrence, Kans. In 1887 he again entered Mr. Ground's em- 
ploy and continued with him until 1896. On the 10th of August, 
1892, ho married Mary H., daughter of Josephus and Mary (Zieg- 
ler) Ground, who died on the 12th of April, 1895. In politics 
Mr. Leiter is a Democrat. 

Joseph G. Leiter, M. D., was bom at Leitersburg, Md., April 
13, 1864, the son of J. Freeland and Martha H. (Lantz) Leiter. 
His academic education was obtained at the Leitersburg schools 
and at tlio Washington County High School at Hagerstown, 
where he <rraduated in 1882. He was then a student in the 
scientific department of the University of Virginia three years 



BIOQBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 191 

and in the medical department of that institution one year; his 
professional training was completed at the Bellevue Hospital 
Medical College of New York City, from which he graduated on 
the 12th of March, 1888. He was one of four young doctors se- 
lected by competitive examination from thirty-one applicants for 
the position of interne at St. Mary's Hospital, the largest in 
Brookl3m; at the conclusion of his term of semce he received 
a diploma and opened an office in Brooklyn. He was still con- 
nected with St. Mary's Hospital, however, as chief of the dis- 
pensary staff, until July, 1894, when he was elected as one of the 
consulting physicians on the visiting staff of that institution, and 
this position he now holds. In 1892 he married Miss Nellie 
Morey of New York State and they are the parents of one child, 
Martha Victoria. The Doctor is a Democrat in politics. 

Jacob Ritter was one of the pioneers of Leitersburg District. 
In 1764 ho purchased from Jacob Leiter, Sr., a tract of 216 acres, 
part of The Resurvey on Poe's part of Well Taught, now em- 
braced principally in the farms of Henry M. Jacobs and Mrs. Ja- 
cob M. Hykes. On the line between these farms is a well, re- 
ferred to in old deeds as "Jacob Hitter's well." Near this his resi- 
dence was doubtless located, and here he lived until his death in 
1804. The following children sur\^ived him: Anna; Elias; Cath- 
arine; Margaretha; Tobias; Elizabeth; Jacob, and Barbara, who 
married Henry Clopper. Jacob Ritter was a member of the Lu- 
theran Church. 

Jacob Good was a resident of Leitersburg District in 1765. 
He was probably a descendant of Hans Guth, who settled south 
of Conestoga creek in Lancaster Coimty, Pa. There were Guths 
in Brecknock Township, Lancaster Coimty, as early as 1711, and 
it was doubtless from this locality that Jacob Good (Guth) re- 
moved to Western Maryland. The land he purchased in 1765 
comprised Good's Choice, with an area of 163 acres, originally 
embraced in Skipton-on-Craven, and Luck, a tract of 100 acres, 
formerly included in Tho Resur\^ey on Well Taught. He lived 
in a log house tJiat stood on the bank of Little Antietam near 
the present residence of Harvey J. Hartle; on the opposite side 
of the creek was a saw-mill, in operation as early as 1772. Good 
eventually owned 350 acres of land, embracing these improve- 
ments and the confluence of Little Antietam with Antietam, and 



192 HISTORY OP LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

hero he resided until 1787, when he sold this estate to his son- 
in-law, Joseph Long, and removed to Huckleberry Hall, a tract 
several miles distant in the valley of Little Antietam; there he 
died in 1797, leaving a widow, Barbara, and the following chil- 
dren: John; Anna, wife of Peter Longenecker; Elizabeth, wife 
of Joseph Long; Barbara, wife of Peter Witmer; Catharine, wife 
of Peter Newcomer; Jacob; Mary, wife of Christian Hershey; 
Christian, and Abraham. The senior Jacob Good was a member 
of the Difennonite Church, one of the few adherents of that faith 
among the pioneers of Leitersburg District. 

Christian Good was born on the 25th of February, 1757, the 
son of Jacob Good. He was engaged in farming in Leitersburg 
District and owned the farm of 220 acres which he sold in 1817 
to his son-in-law, Stephen Martin. His residence was at the pres- 
ent location of Daniel W. Durboraw^s. He died on the 5th of 
December, 1820, and is buried at a graveyard on the Anderson 
farm near Charles's mill. He was a member of the Mennonite 
Church. His wife, Barbara, who is also buried here, was bom on 
the 24th of October, 1759, and died on the 16th of May, 1813. 
Their children were Christian; Peter; Abraham; Jacob; John; 
David; Elizabeth, who married Henry Funk; Nancy, who mar- 
ried Peter Newcomer, and Barbara, who married Stephen Martin. 

Christian Good was born in Leitersburg District, November 
18, 1783, the son of Christian and Barbara Good. In 1813 he 
purchased the farm in Washington Township, Franklin County, 
Pa., upon which ]\lidvale station on the Western Maryland rail- 
road is located and which is now owned by his grandson, Jacob 
F. Good. Here lie resided until his death, Januar}' 2, 1863. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Michael Stover, and their chil- 
dren were David M.; Henry; Christian; Jacob S.; David F.; Chris- 
tiana, wlio married Jacob Funk; Sarah, who married Samuel 
Welty, and Mary. He was a member of the German Baptist 
Church and in politics a Whig. 

Jacob Good was born in Leitersburg District, April 12, 1794, 
the son of Christian and Barbara Good. In 1822 he purchased 
a tract of land southeast of Ijcitersburg adjacent to the 
SmithsburfT road and Little Antietam creek; here he owned a 
carding and fulling-mill, which he operated until his death. In 
1840 he purchased from Henry Boertner the adjacent farm, and 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 193 

this he also conducted. He married Sarah, daughter of Michael 
Stover, and their children were Daniel, who died in infancy; 
Samuel; Elizabeth, widow of Albert Metz; Sarah, deceased; Ja- 
cob; Abram; and Benjamin, deceased. Jacob Good was a mem- 
ber of the German Baptist Church and in politics a Whig. His 
death occurred on the 1st of August, 1854. 

David M. Good was bom at Midvale, Pa., November 30, 1813, 
the son of Christian and Elizabeth (Stover) Good. He was edu- 
cated at an academy at York, Pa. At the age of eighteen he en- 
tered the store of Henry Smith at Waynesboro, Pa., as salesman, 
and for one year he was similariy employed at Massilon, Ohio. 
In 1840 he embarked in general merchandising at Leitersburg in 
partnership with Charies A. Fletcher and here he was engaged 
in business until 1852, when he removed to the Old Forge in 
Chowsvillo District, where he owned and operated the farm and 
mill. From 1864 to 1867 he was engaged in business as a brewer 
at Hagerstown. " From 1867 to 1870 he again resided at Leiters- 
burg, and in 1870 he located at Waynesboro, Pa., where he died 
on the 20th of October, 1885. In 1839 he married Margaret B. 
Davison, who died in 1841. In 1842 he married Mary M., daugh- 
ter of Henry and Elizabeth (Stehman) Dietrich, and their chil- 
dren were Allen; Milton D.; Stehman Y.; Preston 0.; David M.; 
Henry W.; Mary K., wife of Dr. J. B. Amberson; Titus S.; 
Genora B.; Victor B., and Lillie A., wife of Joseph C. Clugston. 
Mr. Good was a member of the Presbyterian Church and a Re- 
publican in politics. He was a member of the first Republican 
County Committee of Washington County, Md. 

Captain Peteb Bell was probably a native of Germany and 
emigrated to American in early manhood. Definite information 
regarding his personal history begins with the year 1767, when 
he purchased from Peter Shiess a tract of 248 acres, part of the 
larger original survey called All That's Left, to which he gave 
the name of Bell's Choice. Its location is in the northern part 
of the District adjacent to Mason and Dixon's Line and the Ha- 
gerstown and Waynesboro turnpike; the present owners are 
Daniel S. Wolfinger and Joseph M. Bell. Near the turnpike on 
the Wolfinger farm there are several springs and here at the first 
settlement of the District there was a marsh, south of which on 
the slope of a hill near the line that separated his land from his 



194 HISTOBY OF LEITEB8BUBG DI8TBICT. 

brother Anthony's Peter Bell erected the improvements that con- 
stituted his residence. The main road from Hagerstown to Nich- 
olson's Gap passed through his land and the travel over this thor- 
oughfare doubtless gave him advantages not enjoyed by his more 
isolated neiglibors. About the year 1775 he removed to Hagera- 
towTi, where he owned the lot at the comer of Franklin and Po- 
tomac streets now the location of the market house in that city. 
It is probable that he engaged in merchandising here, as the 
settlement of his estate shows that 225 persons were indebted 
to him in sums ranging from Is. 3d. to £65. 

On the 25th of November, 1776, he was elected a member of 
the Committee of Observation for Washington Coimty, and dur- 
ing his connection with this body he served as a member of a sub- 
committee of seven appointed for the purpose of ^licensing suits." 
It appears that the judicial fimctions of the Committee were in- 
trusted to this sub-committee. On the 30th of December, 1776, 
the Committee ordered the militia of the county^to march to the 
assistance of General Washington. Some who had served in the 
Flying Camp claimed exemption from this order, and it is en- 
tered in the minutes of the Committee under date of January 
4, 1777, that "On motion of Captain Bell it is resolved that the 
Flying Camp are by no means exempt from marching with the 
militia/' The following entry occurs in the minutes for January, 
6, 1777: "On motion, Resolved, That Matthias Need serve as a 
committeeman in the room of Captain Bell, who hath resigned." 
His resignation is not difficult to explain. In a letter from Col- 
onel John StiiU to the Maryland Council of Safety, January 11, 
1777, he says: "The militia of my battalion have marched al- 
most generally. * * ♦ There are some of the former com- 
missioned officers who have gone in the German battalion whose 
places are vacated in the militia ; others have been elected to serve 
in their room, viz., Ca])tain Peter Bell in the room of Captain 
William ITeysor," etc. ITe requested the Council to forward com- 
missions for these officers to Philadelphia. The following entry 
occurs in the minutes of the Council of Safety under date of Jan- 
MSiTy 15, 1777: "Commissions issued to Peter Bell, appointed cap- 
tain, Jacob Ott, first lieutenant, Michael Ott, second lieutenant, 
and William Conrad, ensign, of a company of militia in Washing- 
ton County." Their commissions were duly forwarded to Phila- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 195 

delphia, and Thomas Johnson, the first Governor of the State, 
writing from that city on the 20th of January informed the Coun- 
cil of the arrival of Stull's battalion. There can be little doubt 
that it proceeded to New Jersey, then the scene of Washington's 
operations.* 

No roster of Captain BelFs company is known to be in exist- 
ence. The names of the commissioned officers have been given; 
John Eyerly was the drummer, and many years after the war 
with Privates Black, Schultz, and Lock he visited Peter Bell, Jr., 
the Captain's second son. Eyerly was then living at Green 
Spring near Bath, W. Va. Frederick Bell, the Captain's oldest 
son, used to relate that he rode in front of his father on his horse 
when the militia marched from Hagerstown. It was called out 
to serve until the 15th of March, but probably continued in the 
field beyond that date. Captain Bell did not long survive the 
hardships of the campaign. He died at Hagerstown in the spring 
of 1778, probably in February, as his will is dated January 2l8t 
and was admitted to probate on the 2d of March. The inventory 
of his personal property was the first to be entered upon the offi- 
cial records of Washington County. 

Peter Bell married Elizabeth Leiter, a member of the family 
that has given its name to Loitersburg District. Their children 
were Juliana, who married Francis Bittle; Frederick; Elizabeth, 
who married Peter Krauth; Margaret, who married Barnhart 
Lowman; Peter, and Daniel. Bittle and Krauth removed to the 
Shenandoah valley in Virginia; Lowman located at Middlebrook, 
Augusta County, Va., in 1800, and there he was engaged in busi- 
ness as a tanner until his death in 1846. He has numerous de- 
scendants in Shelby County, Mo. Peter and Elizabeth Bell were 
members of St. John's Lutheran Church at Hagerstown, and here 
the baptisms of several of their children are recorded. He was 
buried in the graveyard adjacent to the old church building; his 
grave is unmarked and its exact location can not be determined, 
but it is supposed to be under the west wall of the present church 
edifice. 

Frederick Bell, the oldest son of Peter and Elizabeth 

*The facts regarding Captain Peter Bell's military record have been obtained from 
the minutes of the Committee of Observation for Washington County, now in the 
custody of the Maryland Historical Society, and from the published Archives of Mary- 
land, Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Safety, 1777, p. 42, etc. 



196 HISTOBY OF LEITEB8BUBG DISTBICT. 

(Lciter) Bell, was born in Leitersburg District, Juno 29, 1768. 
\Vlien he was seven years old the family removed to Hagerstown, 
where he obtained his education and learned the trade of carpen- 
ter and cabinet maker. It does not appear that he ever followed 
this occupation, for, having married soon after attaining hjs ma- 
jority, he returned to the farm where he had passed his early 
childhood and there he resided until his death. In 1812 he 
erected the substantial stone house near the turnpike, one of the 
most attractive residences in the District, and here he reared a 
numerous family, for whom the various operations connected 
with a large farm at that period furnished ample employment. 
When his father died only a small part of the tract was under cul- 
tivation, and the removal of the timber was continued at frequent 
interv'als for years. Local distilleries furnished a convenient mar- 
ket for surplus grain, but having experienced severe losses by 
disposing of his crops in this way he decided to haul them to 
Baltimore and invest the proceeds in land. This proved to be a 
wise business policy. At his death he owned, in addition to the 
homestead tract of 274 acres, the farm in Leitersburg District 
now owned by Franklin M. Strite, the mill of George H. Bowman 
and eighty acres adjacent thereto, and a farm of 161 acres in 
Kinggold District, the whole aggregating 603 acres. The entire 
proceeds of his estate amounted to upward of $50,000. 

Although a successful business man he also found time for 
other ])ursuits. lie had a library of respectable proportions for 
the time and the community in which he lived. It included such 
works as Eollin's Ancient History, histories of the American Kev- 
olution and the Napoleonic wars, German and English theological 
works, etc. He liad a taste for music and collected the young 
people of the neighborhood at his house for instruction and prac- 
tice in singing. In politics he was an ardent supporter of 
Thomas Jefferson and equally emphatic in his opposition to John 
Adams. He was also in hearty sympathy with the policy of An- 
drew Jackson. He was a lifelong member of the Lutheran 
Church and an elder in the Jacobs congregation at the time of 
his death. He was also a member of the building committee for 
tlie Lutheran cliurch at Leitersburc: and contributed liberallv 
toward its erection, although not a member of that organization. 
He was one of the first farmers in the community to abandon the 



BIOGBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 197 

custom of offering alcoholic drinks to visitors at his home and to 
laborers in harvest time. He died on the 3d of July, 1839, and 
is buried at Jacobs church. 

Frederick Bell was twice married. His first wife was Rosina 
Lantz, and their marriage occurred August 17, 1790. Three 
children were bom to this union: John; Elizabeth, and Peter. 
Their mother died, February 13, 1798, and on the 24th of May, 
1801, he married Maria, daughter of Ludwig and Susan (Em- 
minger) Emerick, who died on the 20th of January, 1852. Their 
children were Jacob E.; David; Susan, who married George 
Jacobs; Samuel; Daniel; Mary, who married John Saunders; 
Frederick; George; Jonas; Samuel; Lewis, and Henry F. 

Peter Bell was bom at Hagerstown, Md., June 1, 1775, the 
son of Peter and Elizabeth (Ijciter) Bell. In his youth he learned 
the trade of potter, and about the year 1800 he was engaged in 
the manufacture of earthenw^are at Hagerstown as a member of 
the firm of Leisinger & Bell. Subsequently he engaged in this 
business individually; his residence and pottery were located on 
the south side of West Washington street and their site is now 
owned by Alexander Ncill. As a practical workman he enjoyed 
a high reputation among the members of his craft. He was par- 
ticularly expert at glazing, in which he is said to have originated a 
process unknown to the generality of potters in his day. About 
the year 1825 he removed to Winchester, Va., where he operated 
a pottery for some years; in 1844 he returned to Hagerstown, and 
here he died on the 18th of June, 1847. He married Mary 
Ziegler, who was born in York County, Pa., April 1, 1778, and 
died on the 20th of December, 1854. Their children were John; 
Elizabeth, who married William Miller; Samuel, who died in in- 
fancy; Polly, who died in childhood; Peter; Samuel; Rebekah, 
who married Jacob 'Newcomer; Susanna; Solomon, and Upton. 
Peter Bell was confirmed as a member of St. John's Lutheran 
Church at Hagerstown in 1796, and while a resident of Win- 
chester he served as an officer in the congregation at that place. 
He was a Democrat in politics. 

Daniel Bell w^as bom at Hagerstown, Md., July 12, 1777, 
the son of Peter and Elizabeth (Leiter) Bell. His father died 
when he was Iosp than a year old, and at an early age he was ap- 
prenticed to a hatter at Hagerstown, where he was employed at 



198 HISTOBY OF LEITEK8BUBG DI8TBICT. 

this occupation for some years. Subsequently he located at 
Middlebrook, Augusta County, Va., and while a resident of this 
place he served for a short time in the War of 1812 under General 
Briscoe G. Baldwin. He afterward lived at Staunton, Va., 
whence he removed to Missouri in 1840, dying at Macon City 
in March, 1844. He married Catharine Wiseman, who survived 
him until September, 21, 1864. They reared twelve children: 
John W.; Mary, who married Atkinson Fisher; Elizabeth; Jacob; 
David, who died without issue; Lavina; Catharine, who 
married Calvin Sutton; Isabella; Sarah; Eliza, widow of James 
Ellis; Julia A., who married Albert Grear, a Baptist preacher 
and farmer of Gainesville, Tex., and Nancy, deceased wife of 
Sterling Gee. Daniel Bell was a Whig in politics and a member 
of the Lutheran Church. 

John Bell was born in Leitersburg District, June 29, 1791, 
the son of Frederick and Rosina (Lantz) Bell. He was a black- 
smith by trade and first established himself in business at a shop 
on his father's farm, after which he was located in the vicinity of 
Ringgold and finally on the Smithsburg road a mile east of 
Leitersburg, where he died on the 12th of April, 1830. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of George Bonebrake, and their children 
were Kate, who married Leonard Barrack; Rosina, who married 
Jacob Kissell; Ceorgo W.; Mary, who married Upton Bell; 
Sophia, who married Benjamin Oswald, and Frederick. John 
Bell was a member of the Lutiieran Church and an officer in the 
congregation at Leitersburg. Heconducted at hisown houseoneof 
the first prayer meetings in Leitersburg District. He was also 
a pioneer in the temperance reform. In the War of 1812, being 
an unmarried man, he entered the ranks in place of his uncle, 
Jacob Bell, who was a man of family, and participated in the bat- 
tle of Baltimore. 

Peteu Bkll was born in Leitersburg District, September 23, 
1795, the son of Frederick and Rosina (Lantz) Bell. He was a 
farmer by occupation and owned the farm east of Leitersburg that 
is now the j)roperty of Henr\' Martin, where he resided for many 
years. He married Juliana, daughter of Jacob Leiter, and their 
children were Frederick, who died in infancy; Judith; Isaac; 
Daniel L.; Snsan, who married John Garver, and John A. Peter 
Bell died on the 4th of June, 1880. He was a Democrat in poli- 
tics and a ni ember of the Lutheran Church. 



'- I • 



I 



t * 



' ! -. ■ 



■ • ■ . . 



BIOGBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 201 

Jacob E. Bell was born in Leitershurg District, ^larch 11, 

1802, the son of Frederick and Maria (Emerick) Bell. In 1828 
he engaged in farming as tenant on his father s farm in Leiters- 
burg District near Martin's school house; he purchased this farm 
in 1839 and resided here until 1874. In 1825 he married Ann 
Maria, daughter of Henry and Ann Maria (Miller) Jacobs, and 
they were the parents of four children: Lewis J.; Julia Ann; 
Simon P., and Lydia. Jacob E. Bell was a member of the Lu- 
theran Church and an officer in the congregation at Leiters- 
burg for many years, lie was a Democrat in politics and was 
once the candidate of his party for county commissioner but was 
defeated. He was one of the organizers of the Planters' Mutual 
Insurance Company of Leitersburg and president ri that corpora- 
tion for some years. His death occurred on the 7th of May, 1886. 
His wife, who was bom on the loth of August, 1803, died on the 
2oth of January, 1892. 

David Bell was born in Leitersburg District, September 28, 

1803, the son of Frederick and Maria (Emerick) Bell. He was 
apprenticed to the milling trade in his youth and was engaged 
in this business throughout his active life. For a time he oper- 
ated the mill in Leitersburg District owned by his father. In 
1848 he removed to the West, locating at Byron, 111., where 
he conducted a mill on the Fox river one year. He then removed 
to Frceport, where he conducted the first flour mill at that place. 
In 1850 he located at Mill Grove, Stephenson County, 111., where 
he was engaged in milling and farming until 1883. Here he also 
ser\'ed as justice of the peace. He was a Democrat in politics 
and a member of the Lutheran Church. In 1827 he married 
Elizabeth Gierhart, and their children were Jeremiah; Mrs. Mar- 
tha J. Smith; William; Franklin; Mrs. Rebecca A. C. Wertz; Mrs. 
Amanda K. Mitchell, and Mrs. Mary A. Mitchell. Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Bell was bom on the 10th of December, 1803, and died on 
the 24th of May, 1884. David Bell died on the 14th of Sep- 
tember, 1892. 

Daniel Bell was born in Leitersburg District, ^lay 8, 180S. 
the son of Frederick and Maria (Emerick) Bell. He was a capa- 
ble horseman and was the teamster on his fathers farm from about 
the year 1825 to 1840. During this period ho was almost c^n^tant- 
ly on the road between the home farm and mill and Baltimore, 
12 



20J HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

hauling grain and flour to that city and merchandise or plaster 
on the return journey. In 18-40 he purchased the home farm of 
274 acres, 125 of which he sold to his brother George in 1845, 
retaining that part adjacent to the turnpike, and here he was 
engaged in farming until his death, March 13, 1860. He was 
twice married. Ilis first wife was Catharine, daughter of Henry 
Lyday, and they were the parents of one son, M. Luther, of Kan- 
sas City, Mo. She died on the 16th of December, 1838. In 
1841 he married Mary, daughter of Daniel and Elizabeth (Settles) 
^lickley* and their children were Amos M.; Theophilus F.; 
Marv Olivia, deceased wife of Daniel Stover; Daniel M.; Cora 
E., wife of James B. Kreps; Emma C, deceased wife of William 
H. Kreps, and John H. Daniel Bell was a member of the Lu- 
theran Cliurch and a Democrat in politics. 

Frkdeiuck Bell was born in Leitersburg District, May 17, 
1811, the son of Frederick and Maria (Emerick) Bell. In his 
youth lie was employed in his father's mill and thus acquired some 
knowledge of the business, but before engaging in it individually 
he rented for several years the farm near Jacobs church owned 
by his father. In 1840 he purchased the mill east of Leitersburg 
that had been the property of his father and here in 1841 he eni- 
l)arkod in the milling business. After relinquishing this he n^- 
sided in Leitersburg and subsequently removed to Fulton, Mo., 
wliore ho died on the 30th of Xovember, 1893. In 1837 he mar- 
ried Su<an, daughter of Philip and Martha (Hege) Tritle, wlio 
died at Leitersburg on the 28th of June, 1872. Their children 
were -Magdalena, deceased; Beljecca, deceased wife of Lewis L. 
]\I('ntzer: Ann Maria, wife of Benjamin Carver; Philip M.: 
Anmndn C, widow of Iliram Wolf, of Mt, Morris, 111.; ]Morris F.: 
>jiinia A., deceased wife of 11. J. Friedlein, and Ida M., wife of 
P. J. ^IcFarland, of Kansas City, Kans. Frederick Bell was a 
nieinbor of the Lutheran Church. He was a Republican in poli- 
tics and was elected countv commissioner of Washingion Countv 
in 1805, serving one term. 

(iKOTiGK Bell was born in Leitersburfi: District, Januarv T. 



* The ancestry of the Mickley family of America is traced to Jchan Michelet of Meti, 
\\\\. One of his descendants in the fifth jfeneration was Jean Jacques Michelet (John 
Jacob Mickley), born at Zwcihrucken in the Palatinate in 1697 ; he emigrated to Penn- 
sylvania in 1733 and settled near Mickley's in I.ehiph County. He was the ancestor of 
♦he American branch.— G"/'«rrt/o^> of the Mickley Family, by Afinrtie F. Mickley, tFq^^. 



BIOGBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 203 

1813, the son of Frederick and Maria (Emerick) Bell. His early 
life was spent upon his father's farm with the exception of one 
year, when he was employed in the mill. In 1838 he began 
farming as tenant on his father's farm near Ringgold. In 1845 
he purchased from his brother Daniel the eastern part of the 
tract originally secured by their grandfather in 1767; here he 
erected the present substantial improvements and resided for 
about twenty years. He then purchased the farm near 
Leitcrsburg now owned by Daniel V. Shank and located thereon. 
Several years later he acquired Esther Mills on Antietam creek 
a mile north of Leitersburg, and here he was engaged in the mill- 
ing business until his death, May 27, 1874. On the 24th of De- 
cember, 1835, he married Mary Ann, daughter of Joseph and 
Esther (Hartman) Mickley; she was born on the 24th of May, 

1814, and died on the 28th of December, 1860. Their children 
were Henry F., deceased; Malinda C, deceased wife of Daniel 
Snively; Jason; Joseph M.; George M. D.; John A.; Mary E., 
book-keeper at the Pennsylvania State Norman School, Blooms- 
burg, Pa.; Ezra K., and Anna K., wife of Charies H. Albert, a 
member of the faculty of the Bloomsburg Normal School. 
George Bell was a member of the Lutheran Church and a Demo- 
crat in politics. 

Jonas Bell was born in Leitersburg District, November 24, 
1814, the son of Frederick and Maria (Emerick) Bell. He began 
his active business life as tenant on that part of his father's home 
farm subsequently acquired by his brother George. There he 
farmed two years. In 1840 he purchased the farm in the east- 
em part of Leitersburg District now owned by Curtis Fogler; here 
he erected the present improvements and resided twenty-five 
years. In 1865 he bought a tract of three hundred acres in Wil- 
liamsport District; this he also improved and here he resided 
until his death, October 29, 1885. He was a member of the Lu- 
theran Church and an officer in the congregations at Leitersburg 
and Williamsport. In politics he was a Democrat. He married 
Catherine, daughter of Daniel and Elizabeth (Settles) Mickley 
and their children were Mary Ann, widow of David Martin; 
Aaron; Martin L.; Clara p]., deceased; Amanda C, wife of George 
W. Yt\q: Jonas; Martha A., deceased wife of Clayton Kemp; 
Albert; William H.; Cyrus D.; Effie S., wife of Alvey Hoffman, 
and Charles C, deceased. 



204 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

Samuel Bell was bora in Leitersburg District, April 22, 
181G, the son of Frederick and Maria (Emerick) Bell. He owned 
the faraa east of Leitersburg that is now the property of Julia 
and Lydia Bell and here he was engaged in farming until 1849, 
when he removed to Pleasant valley near Weverton. In 1852 
he migrated to the West, locating at Hagerstown, Ind., where 
he was engaged in farming until his retirement from active busi- 
ness. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Jacob Smith, of Boons- 
boro, Md. 

Lewis Bell was born in Leitersburg District, April 12, 1818, 
tlie son of Frederick and Maria (Emerick) Bell. In 1842, in 
partnership with his brother Frederick, he built a mill for hulling 
clover seed on Little Antietam creek; this he operated individu- 
ally and was one of the first to introduce this method of hulling 
seed in the District. In 1843 he purchased the Pleasant Valley 
mill near Weverton, Md., to which he added a file factor}-, which 
he operated in connection with the mill until his death. He 
married Ruth, daughter of Hezekiah and Elizabeth (Easton) 
Boteler, and their children were Mary E., deceased wife of Wil- 
liam Barnhart; Henry K., and Hamilton B. 

Henry F. Bell was lx)rn in Leitersburg District, December 
12, 1819, the son of Frederick and Maria (Emerick) Bell. In 
1845 ho visited the principal eastern cities of the United States, 
and in the following year he made a tour of the West. In 1850 
bo began the manufacture of grain drills at Boonsboro, ^Iti.; 
two years later he transferred this business to Waynesboro, Pa., 
whore it was successfullv continued until 1857. This was the 
first spring-shovel drill ever manufactured in this locality. 
From 1857 to 1862 he operated a grain thresher. In 18G4 he 
was traveling salesman for George Frick. In 1864-05 he was 
employed by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company as ticket agent 
at Pittsburg. From 1865 to 1871 ho was agent for the Grovor k 
Baker sewing machine, and from 1872 to 1878 he was engaged in 
tlio retail coal business at Hagerstown. He has since resided at 
Xewton, Iowa, Williamsport, Md., Carthage, 111., and Selin^- 
grovo, Pa. In 1849 ho married Amelia E., daughter of TIoz?- 
kiah and Elizabeth (Easton) Boteler of Pleasant Valley, ^Id.. and 
thoy were the parent? of four children: Lawrence B. and Flor- 
ence A., deceased; ^Marv^ Frcdcricka, wife of Bev. J. A. M. Zv^^zhx, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 205 

and Justice H., deceased. Mr. Bell is a Eepublican in politics 
and a member of the Presbyterian Church. 

Upton Bell was bom in Hagerstown, Md., October 10, 1820, 
the son of Peter and Mary (Ziegler) Bell. He was reared at Win- 
chester, Va., where he obtained his education at the local schools. 
At the age of seventeen he was apprenticed to Levi Saunders, a 
wagon maker of Waynesboro, Pa., by whom he was also employed 
for several years after the period of his indenture had expired. 
In 1844 he located at Leitersburg, where he has since resided. 
For some years he made a specialty of the heavy wagons used in 
hauling produce, etc., to Frederick, Georgetown, and other ship- 
ping points, and* the industry thus established was one of consid- 
erable local importance. Mr. Bell was a Whig until the dissolu- 
tion of that party, after which he became a Republican. 
He was one of the first registers of voters in the Lei- 
tersburg Election District, his colleagues being Frederick 
Bell and Daniel Mentzer. He married Mary, daughter of John 
and Elizabeth (Bonebrake) Bell, and their children are Athalinda, 
a teacher by profession; John F., of Springfield, Ohio; Mary K., 
wife of William H. Young, of Springfield, Ohio; Ann E., wife of 
Clinton Repp, of Pratt, Kans.; Mary L., wife of Samuel Rey- 
nolds, of Hagerstown, Md.; George U.; Susan; Frank D., and 
Ida, deceased. Mr. Bell is a member of the Lutheran Church. 

John W. Bell was bom at Middlebrook, Va., July 1, 1805, the 
son of Daniel and Catharine (Wiseman) Bell. He was reared in 
his native town and obtained his education at the local schools. 
In 1830 he removed from Rockbridge County, Va., to Howard 
County, Mo., and thence in 1838 to Macon County, where he 
owned and operated a farm of four hundred acres near Macon 
City. Here he resided until 1878, when he removed to Mexico, 
Mo., and there he died, June 30, 1880. In 1824 ho married 
Elizabeth Combs, and their children were Mary J., deceased, who 
married William Grafford, a farmer of Macon County, Mo.; Mar- 
garet; Rev. William F., a minister in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South; Elizabeth C, widow of Marshall Samuels, and 
Martha. John W. Bell was a Whig until the dissolution of that 
party, after which he became a Democrat. In religion he was 
a Methodist and for fori;y years ho held official position in the 
church. 



206 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTRICT. 

Jacob Bell was bom at Middlebrook, Va., March 22, 1809, 
the son of Daniel and Catharine (Wiseman) Bell. In 1839 he 
married Virginia Mc Williams, who died in 1865. They were the 
parents of three children, all deceased. In 1866 he married Vir- 
ginia Shepherd, of Highland County, Ohio, and they are the par- 
ents of four children: Robert L.; Mary V.; Jacob W., and E. 
Maude. In 1841 he secured by original entry a tract of 240 acres 
of land near Macon City, Mo., and here ho has since resided. 
He is a member of the Presbyterian Church and a Democrat in 
politics. 

Rev. Lewis J. Bell, A. M., was bom in Leitersburg District, 
October 1, 1828, the oldest son of Jacob E. and Ann Maria 
(Jacobs) Bell. In 1847 he entered Pennsylvania College, from 
which he was graduated in 1851; after this he was employed as 
tutor in the preparatory department of that institution. He 
entered the Theological Seminary of the Lutheran Church at 
Gettysburg in 1853 and graduated in 1855. In the same year he 
was licensed to preach the gospel by the Pittsburg Synod and at 
once accepted a call to a missionary field in Cambria County, Pa., 
and had charge of a classical school in Johnstown. As a result 
of his labors in this region a congregation was organized at Scalp 
Level and a house of worship erected, while beginnings were also 
made at other points now included in several pastoral charges. Dis- 
engaging himself from the classical school, he became pastor of 
congregations in Adams Coimty, Pa. During the Civil War. 
after a year in Virginia, he was occupied in literary and educa- 
tional work and in hospital and quartcnnasters sorvico until 
18G8, when he located at Smithsburg, ^fd., where he has since 
conducted a drug and book store, preaching as much as defective 
organs of speech and other limitations have permitted. In 1857 
he was married to Charlotte A., daughter of Alexander and Sarah 
(King) ^farbourg in Johnstown, Pa., and their children are 
James A., of Cincinnati, Ohio; Sallie K., deceased in 1878: Max F.; 
Henry J., of Waynesboro, Pa.; Emerick C, of Ilagerstown, Md.; 
Julia M., wife of Charles H. Ulen^; Anna M.; Elizabeth W.: 
Chnrles K., a Theological student at Gettysburg, Pa., and Char- 
lotte K. 

St:mox p. Pell was horn in Leitersburg District, Juno 20, 
183ft, the son of Jacob E. and Maria (Jacobs) Bell. His educa- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. -07 

tion was obtained at Martin's and Leitersburg schools, after 
which he was engaged in teaching several years. In 18G3 ho en- 
gag»jd in plant raising and market gardening, at which hi^ still 
continues. In 1802 he married Eebecca M. Kosser, and two chil- 
dren were bom to them, ]\Iay A. and Nena K. Mr. Boll is i\ 
member of the Lutheran Church and a Democrat in polities. 

General Morris Frederick Bell was born in Leitersburg 
District, August 18, 1849, the son of Frederick and Susan (Tritle) 
Bell. His early education was obtained at Martin's school in his 
native District, after which he entered Duff's College at Pitts- 
burg, from which he graduated with the Class of 18G8. Ho tlien 
entered upon the study of architecture, which he pursued in Vir- 
ginia and at Baltimore and Pittsburg. In 1869 he located 
at Mexico, Mo., where ho was engaged in business as a builder 
and contractor. In the following year he removed to Fulton, 
the county seat of Callaw^ay County, Mo., and there he has since 
resided. As an architect he has designed and superintended the 
erection of many private residences and public buildings in 
different parts of tho State, among the most important 
of which are the State Lunatic Asylum at Nevada, 
costing $350,000; the Deaf and Dumb Institute at Ful- 
ton, of which tho cost was $300,000, and the new University build- 
ing at Columbia, upon which $500,000 were expended. At the 
opening of the Missouri Eeform School at Boonville he was 
appointed by Governor Moorehouse a member of tho board of 
managers of that institution, and for seven years he has been 
prt^ident of the board of managers of the Missouri Deaf and 
Dumb Institute at Fulton. He is president of the Mokane Realty 
Company and the Sun Printing Company of Ftflton, and a direc- 
tor in the Callaway County Savings Bank. .In politics he is an 
aggressive Dcjuocrat, and in 3894 he was the candidate of his 
party for State railroad commissioner. In 1897 he was appointed 
adjutant general of Mis.souri l}y Governor Stephens, and in this 
position he has done much to promote the interests of the. State 
militia. In 1873 he married Mario, daughter of Joseph and M:iiy 
Drops, and they are the parents of iwn daughters, Bculah l^'airi'O 
nrid Kathryn Lee. General Bell and his family are members ol 
the Presbyterian Church. 

Jason Bell was born in Leitersburg District, May 1, 18 11, the 



208 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUnO DISTRICT. 

son of George and Mar}' Ann (Mickley) Bell. He received a com- 
mon school education. From 1864 to 1869 he was engaged in 
fanning in his native District; in 1869 he removed to Waynes- 
boro, where for five years he was identified with the Waynesboro 
Manufacturing Company. He was then employed by the 
Hagerstown Steam Engine and Machine Company three 
yea 1*8 as general agent. In 1880 he entered the em- 
ploy of the Geiser Manufacturing Company of Waynesboro, Pa., 
with which he has since been connected with the exception of a 
brief ]}eriod. For some years he was the general traveling repre- 
sentative of the company and in this capacity he has traversed a 
large part of the United States and Canada. He has also been a 
director in the company and is now assistant secretary. In 1864 
he married Helen E., only child of Joseph H. and Anna J. (Broth- 
erton) Crebs and their children are Carrie A., wife of Bennard H. 
Foreman, and Joseph C. Mr. Bell is a Democrat in politics and 
a member of the Waynesboro Lutheran Church, in which he holds 
the office of trustee. 

Joseph M. Bell was bom in Leitersburg District, October 12, 
1843, the son of George and Mar}' Ann (Mickley) Bell. He ob- 
tained a common school education and after a brief experience as 
teacher engaged in fr.rming in his native District in 1865. In 
this occupation he has since continued. In 18TG he purchased 
the farm in Leitersburg District now owned by Daniel Y. Shank; 
in 1.^81 lie sold this and bought a farm near Jacobs church, where- 
on ho resided from 1882 to 18!)8. lie then purchased the fann of 
125 acres in Leitersburg District formerly owned by his fath-or 
and grandfather and by Captain Peter Bell, the ancestor of the 
family in Leitersburg District, and here he now resides. In 1865 
bo married Catharine B., daughter of Henry and Mary (Hess) 
Oaks and granddaughter of Captain Andrew and Mar}' ]M. (Fish- 
ack) Oaks. Captain Oaks was born on the 15th of March, 1770, 
and died on tlie 31st of January, 1850; he commanded a com- 
pany of militia from Greencastlo, Pa., in the War of 1812 (His- 
tory cf Fraids'lin County, Warner, Beers & Company, 1887; pp. 
230. 239). ^Ir. and ]\Irs. Bell are the parents of six children: 
Ida M., wife of Per. D. A. Kcarns-Preston, pastor of the Presby- 
teri.m Church at Xcwtcnvn. Ind.: llerbrTt C; Ernest E., who fills 
a rc-ponsiltle position in the general offices of the DeLaval Sepa- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 209 

rater Company, Xew York City; George H., a graduate of the 
Pennsylvania State Normal School, Bloomsburg, Pa., and prin- 
cipal of the Plain Hill grammar school, 1896-97; Keller J., a 
student at the Bloomsburg Normal School, and Albert L. Mr. 
Bell is a Democrat in politics and while a resident of Washington 
Township served as a member of the school board three years. 
He is a member of the Lutheran Church and an elder in the 
Jacobs congregation. 

George M. D. Bell was bom in Loitersburg District, January 
30, 1846, the son of George and Mary (Mickley) Bell. He re- 
ceived a common school education and was also a pupil at the se- 
lect school of William Noetling, A. M., at Waynesboro, Pa., after 
which he taught one term of ten months at Pleasant Hill in 
Leitersburg District. He spent nine months of the year 1869 in 
Kansas, but returned to Waynesboro, Pa., in the same year and 
entered the employ of the Waynesboro Manufacturing Company, 
of which he was treasurer. In 1874-75, in partnership with Sam- 
uel Martin, he operated the Eock Forge in Leitersburg District. 
In 1876-80 he was engaged in farming in Washington Town- 
ship, Frankhn Co., Pa. From 1880 to 1885 he resided at 
Waynesboro, Pa., where he was employed by the Geiser Manu- 
facturing Company for several years and was also engaged in 
the grocery business; during his residence here he was elected a 
member of the borough school board. In 1885-95 he was en- 
gaged in farming in White County, Ind. He resided at Monti- 
cello, Ind., from 1895 to 1897, when he purchased a farm near 
Lucerne, Cass County, Ind., which he has since operated. In 
1873 he married Charlotte E., daughter of Dr. Benjamin and 
Mary (Ryder) Frantz of Wa3mesboro, and their children are 
Mary F.; Lottie K.; Bessie E.; Lela K., and George. Mr. Bell is a 
Democrat in politics and a member of the Presbjrterian Church. 

John A. Bell was bom in Leitersburg District, September 
26, 1848, the son of George and Mary (Mickley) Bell. He was 
reared on the home farm and attended the local schools, complet- 
ing his education at a select school in Waynesboro conducted by 
William Noetling, A. M. In 1867 he accompanied his father on 
a journey to the South, going as far as Augusta, Ga., as a mem- 
ber of a party of twenty-seven from this section. In 1870 
he engaged in fanning as tenant on his father^s farm near 



210 HISTOHY OF LEITEH8BUBG DISTBICT. 

Leitersburg; here he continued five years, and during this time 
the house was destroyed by fire, resulting in the loss of his house- 
hold elTects. After residing at Rock Forge one year and near 
Jacobs church two years, he located upon his present farm, theu 
the property of his father-in-law, from whose executors he pur- 
chased it in 1892. In 1870 he married Mary E., daughter of 
Peter and Catharine (Petrie) Middlekauff, and they are the par- 
ents of the following children: Kemp Middlekauff; William, who 
died in infancy; John Frank, and Mary Kate. Mr. Bell is a 
Democrat in politics and a member of the Leitersburg Lutheran 
Church, in which he holds the office of elder. 

Rev. Ezra K. Bell, D. D., was bom in Leitersburg District, 
November 14, 1853, the son of George and Mary Ann (Mickley) 
Bell. He was reared in his native District. In 1872 he en- 
tered ^Yittenberg College, Springfield, Ohio, graduating with the 
Class of 1877, and two years later he graduated from the theo- 
logical department of that institution. In September, 1879, he 
was ordained to the ministry by the Wittenberg Synod of the 
Lutheran Church. His first pastorate was West Liberty, Ohio. 
In 1881 he accepted a call to Findlay, Ohio, where a handsome 
church was built during his incumbency. In 1884 he removed 
to Cincinnati, where he has since been pastor of the First Lu- 
theran Church; under his administration this has become one of 
the largest Protestant churches of that city, while several other 
English Lutheran churches have been organized in the city and 
suburbs from its former membership. A new church has been 
erected during Dr. BelFs pastorate, and he has also been resj>on- 
sibly connected with reformatory and evangelical movements of 
a general character. To him was originally due the suggestion 
of the Committee of Five Hundred which accomplished so much 
for the purification of municipal politics. He was prominently 
identified with the Jones and Mills revivals and in 1892 he was 
elected president of the Cincinnati Evangelical Alliance. In 
1893 ho was ])re?ident of the board of directors of Wittenbor<: 
Colleire. Ho was editor of The Lutheran Evangelist in 1890 and 
of The Lutheran World when it was founded in 1892. He hp.< 
also served as ])resident of the Miami Synod and as delegate to 
the (Jenernl Svnod of the Lutheran Church. In 1879 ho nv^r- 
ried Jennie E., daughter of John McXaull, of Mansfield, Olii". 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 211 

Of the children born to them the following are now living: 
Paul S.; Ethel; Stanley McN., and Frederick K. 

^Iartin L. Bell was horn in Leitersburg District, November 
14, 1814, the son of Jonas and Catharine (Mickley) Bell. He ob- 
tained a common school education and was engaged in farming 
with his father until 18T4, when he purchased the mills in Wil- 
liamsport District near tlie Conococheague originally established 
by John T. Miller and subsequently owned by Abraham Leiter. 
Immediately after locating here he established a general repair 
shop, which he has since operated in connection with the saw 
and chopping mills, to which he also added a planing mill in 
1888. In 1875 he married Laura V., daughter of David and 
Martha (Brewer) Byers, and their children are Keller B.; Ella 
K.; Howard A.; Edith W., and Martin L., deceased. Mr. Bell 
is a member of the Williamsport Lutheran Church, in which he 
holds the oflBce of deacon. In politics he is a Democrat. 

Rev. Albert Bell, A. M., was bom in Leitersburg District, 
September 28, 1855, the son of Jonas and Catharine (Mickley) 
Piell. He attended the public schools of his native District and 
Williamsport, Md., near which place his father located in 1865. 
In 1872 he entered the preparatory department of Pennsylvania 
College, Gettysburg, Pa., graduating w^ith the Class of 1878. He 
then entered the Lutheran Theological Seminary at that place, 
graduating in 1881. In the same year he was ordained by the 
Synod of Maryland and has since served the following Lutheran 
pastorates: Reisterstown, Md., 1881-84; Newton, Iowa, 1884-87; 
Williamsport, Pa., 1888-90; Boiling Springs, Pa., 1890-94, and 
St. Luke's, York, Pa., 1894. At the present time he is treasurer 
of the West Pennsylvania Synod. In 1882 he marric<l Elizabeth 
C, daughter of Daniel and Catharine A. (Weaver) Cashman, of 
Gettysburg, Pa., and their* children are W. A. Russell; Albert D.; 
Ralph E., and Catharine A. 

Cyrus D. Bell was born in Leitersburg District, Februar}' 18, 
1860, the son of Jonas and Catharine (Mickley) Boll. lie ob- 
tained his education at the Williamsport schools and was reared 
to agricultural pursuits. Since the death of his father ho has 
had the management nf the estate. Mr. Bell is a Democrat and 
was one of the candidates of his pariy for the House of Dele- 
gates in 1897, but was defeated. He is a member of the Wil- 



212 HISTORY OF LEITEHSBUBG DI8TBICT. 

liamsport Lutheran Church and a deacon in that organization. 

Kev. William F. Bell was bom in Old Franklin, Howard 
County, Mo., February 16, 1831, the son of John W. and Eliza- 
beth C. (Combs) Bell. In 1838 his father removed to Macon 
County, and there he was reared. He received a common school 
education. In 1850 he was licensed to preach by the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South, and in the following year he was ad- 
mitted to membership in the Missouri Conference. He was 
ordained a deacon in 1853 and elder in 1856. Mr. Bell was in 
the active ministry from 1851 to 1896, and during this period he 
was in charge of missions, circuits, stations, and districts in 
various paiis of Missouri. In 1898 he was a delegate to the (Jen- 
eral Conference at Baltimore, Md. In 1854 he married Mari;ha 
Ij. Kenyon, who died in 1856. In 1861 he married Sarah, daugh- 
ter of William and Hannah (Prince) Eidgeway, and their chil- 
dren are John B.; Anna B., wife of William Stapleton; William 
C; Marvin P., and Ada P. Mr. Bell has been a resident of Fay- 
ette, Mo., since 1880. In politics he is a Democrat. 

James A. Bell was bom in Johnstown, Pa., June 3, 1858, the 
son of Rev. Lewis J. and Chariotte A. (Marbourg) Bell. In 1868 
his parents located at Smithsburg, Md., where he was reared and 
obtained his education at tlie public schools. Here he also 
learned the trade of sliocmaking, and in 1882-84 he conducted a 
boot and shoe store at Waynesboro, Pa. In 1885 he was em- 
ployed in tlio same business at Chambers\)urg, Pa,; and in 1886 
he entered the employ of Mabley & Carew at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
with whom he has since continued. He married in 1889 Etta 
B., daughter of H. P. Snyder of Troy, Ohio, who died on the 30th 
of fhmo, 1890. In 1894 he married Ruth 0., daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Jacol) Alberi !Metz, of Company B, Second Regiment, 
Potomac Home Brigade, Maryland Cavalry, who was killed by 
sharpshooters near Clearspring, Md. Mr. Bell is now a resident 
of Bellevue, Ky. He is a Republican in politics and a member 
of the Lutheran Church. 

KMi-iarK C. Bell was born at Barren Hill, Pa., September 8, 
1863, the son of Rev. Lewis J. and Charlotte A. (Marbourg) Bell 
He was reared in Smithsburg, Md., and obtained his education 
at the schools of that village. In 1882-84 he was engaged in 
teaching. He then learned photography and has been engaged 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 213 

in this business at Hagerstown since 1887. In 1889 he married 
Emma J. Winter, who died in 1891, leaving one child, C. Emma. 
In 1897 he married Alice, daughter of M. A. McCreery, of Wash- 
ington, D. C. Mr. Bell is a member of the Lutheran Church and 
a Republican in politics. 

Herbert C. Bell was bom in Leitersburg District, January 
14, 1868, the son of Joseph M. and Catharine B. (Oaks) Bell. 
He received his education at the common schools, at the Penn- 
sylvania State Normal School, Bloomsburg, Pa., from which he 
graduated in 1885, at Wittenberg College, and at the University 
of Cincinnati. In 1885-86 he was engaged in teaching at 
Conyngham, Pa. In 1886-88 he w^as employed by A. Warner & 
Company, publishers, of Chicago, in the preparation of histories 
of Columbia, Bucks, and Allegheny Coimties, Pa., and subse- 
quently prepared for the Goodspeed Publishing Company his- 
torical sketches of Carroll and Madison Counties, Ark. In 
1889-90 he edited a History of Venango County, Pa., pub- 
lished by Brown, Eunk & Company, and in 1890-91 he prepared 
a History of Northumberland County, Pa., which was issued by 
the same publishers. He \vas also employed by Nelson, Runk 
& Company in the preparation of a History of Hamilton County, 
Ohio. He is the author and publisher of this History of Leiters- 
burg District. In 1895 he established a herd of registered Jersey 
cattle which has since received a large share of his attention, and 
during this period he has also been interested in the sale of 
DeLaval cream separators. He is a Democrat in politics and a 
member of the Lutheran Church. 

Anthony Bell was a native of Germany, and learned his 
trade at Wiesbaden, a German city on the Rhine. It is probable 
that he emigrated to America with his brother, Peter Boll, for 
in 1767 both purchased land in Leitersburg District. That of 
Anthony comprised 105 acres and was formerly embraced in the 
larger original survey called All That's Left. By subsequent 
purchase and original patent he eventually became the owner 
of more than two hundred acres, now embraced in the fann 
owned by the heirs of the late John Eshleman. There can be 
no doubt that he located here in 1767, and that this land was first 
improved and reduced to cultivation by him. Here he 
resided until his death in 1812. He was one of the 



214 HISTORY OF LEITEBSBUBG DISTHICT. 

last survivors of the pioneers of Leitersburg District who settled 
within its limits prior to the Revolution. In religious faith he 
was a member of the Lutheran Church — first of St. John's at 
Ilagerstown, nine miles from his home, and then of Jacobs 
Church, only a mile distant, the organization of which doubtless 
found in him an earnest supporter. Here he was an elder in 
1795-96, and probably for some time before and after thes^ 
years. In the burial ground adjacent to this church there are 
many graves marked by headstones M'ithout inscriptions, and one 
of these is doubtless his last resting place. He married Maria 
Snowberger, a native of Switzeriand, and possibly a member of 
the family that founded the Seventh Day Baptist Society of Snow 
Hill in Quincy Township, Franklin County, Pa. Their chil- 
dren were John; Andrew; Jacob; Anna; Catharine; Frederick 
and David, both of whom died unmarried at the age of fifty years 
in Monroe County, N. Y., the former on the 28th of August, 
1832, the latter on the 25th of December, 1834. Anna married 
Conrad Mentzer, who resided near Smithsburg, Md., and there 
she died. Catharine married George Lyday; they removed to 
j\I(mroe County, N. Y., where she died on the 24th of July, 1866, 
at the ago of eighty-seven. 

JoTix Bell was born in 17G5, the son of Anthony and Maria 
(SnowlxTgcr) Bell. He was reared in Leitersburg Di^it^ict. 
Alioiit the time that he reached manhood the Genesee vallev at- 
tractcd a large immigration from Western Maryland and ho tt- 
nioved thither; he was one of the pioneers of Rush Township. 
Monroe County, X. Y., and there he died on the 2d of October, 
lS's?2. Pie married ^largaret Lyday, and their children were. 
(Jot^rge, who died in 18G3, aged sixty-seven years; John, who died 
in 1871), aged eighty-two years; Sarah, who married John Fishol; 
Jacol), wlio died in 1847, aged forty-three years; Mary, who mar- 
ried Jncc^b Fishel; Xancy, who married Elijah Acker: Henn*: 
David, who died in 1895, aged eighty-four years, and Frederick, 
who died in 1886, ajxed seventy-two years. 

Andrkw Bell was horn in Lcitersburc: District in Mav, 1771. 
the s(ui of Anthony and Maria (Snowberger) Bell. He raarri:^] 
Margaret, daughter of Henrv Solmes, who resided east of Leiter?- 
luirg and owned the farms now belonging to Upton Clopper and 
Henry Martin. Mr. Solmes died in 1799 and by the division of 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 215 

his estate the farm now owned by Mr. Clopper became the prop- 
erty of Andrew and Margaret Bell. Here they located in 1800. 
He was a weaver by trade and pursued this nailing in connection 
with farming. The substantial stone house and barn on this 
farm were built by him. In 1834 he sold this property and 
removed to Richland County, Ohio, whero he died on the 4th of 
November, 1848. His widow survived him until the 25th of 
June, 1853, dying at the age of eighty-one. They were the par- 
ents of the following children: Elizabeth; Catharine; Jacob; 
Hannah; Maria; Samuel, and Andrew, who was born in 1810 and 
died in 1851 in Richland County, Ohio, where his son, John M. 
Bell, is the present county treasurer. 

Jacob Bell was bom in Leitersburg District, March 26, 1773, 
the son of Anthony and Maria (Snowberger) Boll. After reach- 
ing manhood he engaged in farming, continuing in this occupa- 
tion as long as he was actively engaged in business. After his 
father's death he purchased the farm of 208 acres formoriy 
owned by the latter, in addition to which he subsequently ac- 
quired the farms in Washington Township, Franklin County, Pa., 
now owned by Matthias Deitrich and Peter Smith. These farms 
arc situated at the junction of the two main branches of Antie- 
tam creek. On that of Mr. Smith there was a hemp mill, built 
in 1799, and this was operated by Jacob Bell in connection with 
his farms. In 1841, having disposed of his property in Leiters- 
burg District and Washington Township, he removed to Richland 
County, Ohio, transporting his family and household goods 
thither by wagon. There ho purchased land in the vicinity of 
Mansfield, the county seat, where he resided until his death, No- 
vember 19, 1847. He was a successful business man, and left 
to each of his sons a farm of 160 acres and to each of his daugh- 
ters the sum of $2,500. In politics he was a stanch Democrat. 
He was a member of Jacobs Lutheran Church and an officer 
in the congregation for years; he was also chorister, and served 
in this capacity as long as German was the language used in 
public worship. He married Barbara, daughter of Ludwig and 
Susan (Emminger) Emerick, and their children were Mary, who 
married David Leiter; Anthony; Jacob; Susan, who married John 
Shutt; John; David; Peter, and Samuel. All of the sons with 



216 HISTORY OF LEITEBSBUBG DI8TBI0T. 

the exception of Jacob located in Richland County, Ohio, where 
the family is numerously represented. Herbert E. Bell, who 
has served as prosecuting attorney of Richland County and post- 
master of Mansfield, is a son of Samuel Bell. 

John Gabby became a land owner in Leitersburg District 
in 1769 by the purchase of 166 acres of land from Peter Good, 
originally embraced in The Resurvey on Well Taught and Perr/s 
Retirement and now owned principally by Hiram D. Middlekauff. 
The orthography of the name was then "Gebby," a corruption 
of tho original Scotch form,- "Gebbie." The name also appears 
in connection with the early settlement of Letterkenny Town- 
ship, Franklin County, Pa., where Robert Gabby, probably the 
father of John, was the patentee of a tract of land in 1749. In 
1773 John Gabby purchased from James Brownlee one hundred 
acres of land, formerly embraced in Rich Barrens, on the op- 
posite side of Antietam from his first acquisition. Before the 
Revolutionary War he built the oldest part of the house on the 
farm of ^Ir. Middlekauff, and here he resided for many years. 
Eventually, however, he returned to Letterkenny Township, and 
there he died in 1810, leaving the following children: Archi- 
bald; Joseph; John; William; James; Janet, who married Jam^ 
Burns?, and Jane, who married Samuel Cooper. He was a mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian Church and probably the earliest repre- 
sentative of that denomination in Leitersburg District. 

William Gabby was born on the 25th of April, 17G2, the son 
of John Gabby. In 179o his father divided his plantation in 
Leiters])urg District and sold it to two of his sons, John and Wil- 
liam; the former received the part upon which the improvements 
wore located, now owned principally by Hiram D. Middlekauff; 
tlio latter received a tract of unimproved land on the opposite 
.<i(]o of Antietam creek, now owned principally by the estate of 
tlie Into Josc])h Strite. Here he erected the present substantial 
farm house and resided until his death, September 5, 1841. Ho 
married Emily McCormick of Leesburg, Ya., who died on the 9th 
(^f Jiilv, 1833, without issue. Thev were members of the Pres- 
bytorian Church at ITagerstown and there both were buried. 
WilliMiii Gabby was a Whig in politics and held a number of re- 
spoiisil.Oe offices. He was justice of the peace, member of tho 
orj^lmns' court and the levy court, member of the House of Dole- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.' 217 

gates, and presidential elector; he was also a member of the com- 
mission by which the present site of the Washington County 
court house was purchased and the first court house erected 
thereon, and was associated in a similar capacity with the build- 
ing of the second jail of Washington County. 

Joseph Gabby was born in Leitersburg District, April 25, 
1?T9, the son of John Gabby. He was reared in his native Dis- 
trict, but removed to Letterkenny Township with his father's 
family in 1795 and there engaged in farming ten years later. His 
brother John died in 1806 and the farm he had purchased from 
his father in 1795 reverted to the latter; Joseph Gabby located 
thereon about the time of his father's death, after which he pur- 
chased it, and here he resided in the house in which he was bom 
until his death, November 30, 1856. In 1805 he married Ann 
Cummins, whose birthday was the same as his own, April 25, 
1779; she died on the 6th of January, 1852. Their children were 
Elizabeth, who married Dr. Thomas B. Duckett; Jane, who mar- 
ried Dr. James Johnson; Emily, who married Nathan McDowell; 
John, and William, both of whoin died in infancy. Joseph 
Gabby was a member of the Presbyterian Church at Hagerstown, 
in which he held the office of elder. In his later years his hear- 
ing became impaired and he was accustomed to occupy a high 
chair near the pulpit in order that he might hear the sermon; 
this chair now constitutes part of the furniture of the Washing- 
ton County court room and has been used for years by the court 
crier. Mr. Gabby operated a distillery in connection with his 
farm and was one of the corporators of the Hagerstown and 
Waynesboro Turnpike Company. He was a Whig in politics 
and an active supporter of his party. He was identified with 
public affairs in various official capacities, serving as member of 
the Governor's council, of the House of Delegates, and of the 
county levy court. 

Christian Lantz, "late of Lancaster County in the Province 
of Pennsylvania, mason," became a resident of Leitersburg Dis- 
trict in 1775, when he purchased from John Reiff a tract of 476 
acres at the consideration of £2,350. These lands are southwest 
of Leitersburg along the turnpike and Antietam creek, and in- 
cluded the farm of George F. Ziegler, one of his descendants. 
The extent of his purchase and the price paid indicate that he 

13 



218 niSTCjRY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTBICT. 

was a man of comparative wealth, while there is ample evidence 
that his position in the community was one of influence and 
prominence. It is probable that ho erected the first mill on the 
Antietam near Leitersburg. At the commencement of the 
Eevolutionary War he was a member of the County Committee 
of Safety from Upper Antietam Hundred. He was a member of 
the Lutheran Church, serving as elder in the Jacobs congregation 
in 1795-90 and as treasurer for several years. He died in 1798, 
leaving a widow, Elizabeth, and three children: Christian; 
George, and Rosanna, who married Frederick Boyer. 

Christian Lantz, the son of Christian Lantz, was probably 
bom in Lancaster County about the year 1750, and came to 
Leitersburg District with his father in 1775. The mill prop- 
eriy on the Antietam a shori: distance above the turnpike came 
into his possession after his father's death, with considerable 
adjacent land, and here he resided until his death in 1811. The 
following children survived him: Christian; George; Adam, 
and Elizabeth, who married Captain John Byer. 

George Lantz was born on the 19th of May, 1766, probably 
in Lancaster County, Pa., whence he came to Leitersburg Dis- 
trict in 1775 with the family of his father, Christian Lantz, Sr. 
After the latters death he succeeded to that part of the parental 
Ci^tatc embracin<r the farm of George F. Ziegler, and here about 
tlio year 1800 he built the stone mansion along the turnpike 
which was subsequently the residence of his son-in-law, Frederick 
Ziegler, and grandson, Frederick K. Ziegler. Here he died on 
the 22d of April, 1H02. ITe married Barbara Ziegler and their 
children were Rose Ann Elizabeth, who married Frederick 
Ziegler, and Catharine, who married Lewis Ziegler. 

CiiRisTiAX Lantz was born in Leitersburg District, October 

7, 177T, the son of Christian Lantz and grandson of Christian 
Lantz, who located near Leiterslmrg in 177."). He succeeded to 
a part of his father's landed estate and was a farmer by occupa- 
tion. He married Esther Mnsselnian and their children were 
Christian: George: Samuel: Rose A. Iv, Caroline, and Catharine. 
His death (occurred on the 27th of August, 1860. 

(JK()i:(;r. W. Laxtz was horn in Leitersburg District, Janiian' 

8, 1811, the son of Christian and Esther (Musselman) Lantz. 
He learned the trade of Idacksniithinc under Ocorsre Poo and 



BIOGHAPHICAL SKETCHES.' 219 

piirsuedthisoccupation for some years, principally at Leitorsbiirg. 
He was also engaged in farming. In 1834 he married Mary B., 
daughter of Christian and Martha (Hackney) Drill of Frederick 
County, Md., and they were the parents of nine daughters, viz.: 
Martha H., widow of J. Freeland Leiter; Sarah E., wife of John 
Leiter; Anna C, wife of Elias Stottlemeyer; Mary J., wife of 
Samuel Dayhoff ; Rebecca, wife of Sylvester Traut; Emma S.,' de- 
ceased; Elvah H., wife of John B. Barkdoll; Alice, wife of 
Charles Pascal, and Georgiana, wife of David Rosewam. Mr. 
Lantz was a Democrat in politics and a member of the Lutheran 
Church. His death occurred on the 26th of May, 1894. 

Samuel Lantz was born on the 5th of August, 1794. He was 
a tanner by occupation and operated the tannery near Leiters- 
burg owned by Captain John Byer. Early in the ^30's, in part- 
nership with Dr. Frederick Byer, he purchased the general store 
of Fletcher & Stonebraker in Leitersburg and removed to that 
village; he also purchased the brick building at the corner of the 
pu])lic square in whicJi Josephus Ground now resides and which 
is still in possession of his son, Oliver F. Lantz. This house was 
nlso his residence and here he was engaged in business until his 
death, Janiiarj' 10, 1841. He married Elizabeth Fehl, of Lan- 
caster County, Pa., a flaughter of Jacob Fehl and niece of Fred- 
erick and Lewis Ziegler of Leitersburg District, and they were 
the parent of two sons, Oliver F. and Jacob F. Samuel Lantz 
was a Democrat in politics until the election of Harrison, for 
whom he cast his last presidential vote. He was a member of the 
Lutheran Church and an officer in the Leitersburg congregation. 

Oliver F. Laxtz was l^orn in Leitersburg District, September 
20, 1828, the son of Samuel and Elizabeth (Fehl) Lantz. His 
education was obtained at the Leitersburg school and at that vil- 
lage he began his business career as clerk in the store of David 
M. Goo<l. In 1847 he entered the employ of Martin & Hobson, 
grain commission merchants, Baltimore, Md., with whom he held 
the position of salesman and book-keeper for seven years, with 
the exception of a period of six months. Ho was associated in 
business with William H. Hager for several months in the year 
1.^54; after the dissolution of this partnership he entered the firm 
of Samuel Elder & Company. In 18^0 Mr. Elder died and Jacob 
Lantz succeeded to his interest in the business; since his death 



220 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUKG DISTBICT. 

in 1891 it has been continued by Oliver F. Lantz individually. 
These various changes have not affected the style of the firm, 
however, which is still Samuel Elder & Company and is one of 
the oldest in the grain and flour trade in Baltimore, ilr. Lantz 
has served as a director in the Com and Flour Exchange and in 
the National Exchange Bank. In politics he is a Republican, 
lie is a member of the First Lutheran Church of Baltimore, in 
which he has served as deacon and elder. In 1877 he was elected 
treasurer of the Board of Foreign Missions of the General Synod 
of the Lutheran Church, and to this office he has been continu- 
ously reelected to the ])re6ent time. In this responsible position 
he has received and disbursed more than a million dollars. In 
1855 Jlr. Lantz married Catharine, daughter of George and 
Catharine (Reese) Appold, and five children were bom to them, 
two of whom, a son and daughter, died in infancy, and two others, 
Virginia R. and ^lary C, in early life. The surviving child is 
Harriet S., wife of Louis J. Lederer, a flour and grain commis- 
sion merchant of Baltimore. 

Henry Schriver w^as the emigrant ancestor of the Schriver 
family of Leitersburg District. He wrote his name "Schreiber/' 
of whicli the present orthography is an Anglicized form. He wa*; 
born in Germany on the ITth of April, 1727: the date of his emi- 
gratinn is not known, but lie l)ecame a resident of Leitersburg' 
District in 1T77 and here he. lived until his death. He was an 
iron-worker l)y occupation and found employment at Rock Forge. 
He was also enga^^od in farming and transmitted to his descend- 
ants a vahiaMe landed estate: this comprised the farms now 
ow^ned l)v ^Irs. Martha H. Leiter and Franklin ^I. Strite, with eon- 
sidera])le adjacent land. His first purchase was made in 1777: 
it (Mnnjirised two hundred acres and is now embraced principally 
in the farm of ^Irs. Leiter. Here he resided from August, 1777, 
until his de^ath in ITDl. On the 22d of December, 17G7, he mar- 
ried Ann ^faria Solnies, and they were the parents of three 
daughters and one son: threo of these children grew to maturity, 
viz., Anna ^faria, who married David Lape: Henry, and ^far- 
garet. The name of his second wife was ^far}-, who survived 
h'un with two children: John, and Christiana, who married 
Henrv Stotler. Henrv Schriver was a member of the Reformed 
rhurcli and one of the pioneers of that faith in Leitersburg Dis- 
trict. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 221 

Henry Schriver was born on the 30th of January, 1772, the 
son of Henry and Ann Maria (Solmes) Schriver. By the terms 
of his father's will he received the fann in Loitersburg District 
ui)on which the latter lived and died, and here he also resided 
until his death in 1812. He married Mary A. Harbaugh and of 
their children the following reached maturity: Julia, who mar- 
ried John Fullerion; Margaret, who married Balzer Miller; 
Catharine, who married Ignatius Brown, and Henry. He was 
also a member of the Eef ormed Church. 

Hexry Schriver was bom in Leitersburg District, November 
4, ISOG, the son of Henry and Mary A. (Harbaugh) Schriver. 
He bore the same surname as his father and grandfather, and 
also succeeded to the farm upon which they had dwelt. Here 
he was bom and reared, and here he resided all his life, dying 
on the 5th of April, 1878. He was a Democrat in politics and a 
member of the Reformed Church. He married Barbara, daugh- 
ter of John and Elizabeth (Hess) Lind, of Carroll County, Md., 
and they were the parents of the following children: John; 
Elizabeth, who married David Jacobs; Ann M., who married 
William Flory; Henry; Cyrus; Louis; Catharine; Susan, who 
married Henrj- Miller; Levi; Jeremiah; Alice B., and Margaret, 
who married George Young. John, Louis, Levi, Jeremiah, Mrs. 
Jacobs, and Mrs. Flor}' are deceased. Louis died at Helena, Ark., 
in 1864, while a soldier in the Federal army. 

Henry Schriver was bom in Leitersburg District, September 
19, 1833, the son of Henr}^ and Barbara (Lind) Schriver. He 
was reared in his native District and obtained a common school 
education, supplemented by a two years' course under Prof. 
George Pearson at Smithsburg. In 1855 he engaged in teaching 
at Pleasant Hill in Leitersburg District. In 1856-57 he taught 
at Canton, Ohio, after which he returned to his native county 
and taught for three years at Chewsville and an equal period 
at Funkstown. During the next five years he was engaged in 
merchandising, two years at Indianapolis, Ind., and three at 
Leitersburg. He became the first principal of the Ix-itersburg 
graded school in 1869 and continued in this position eight years, 
after which he was principal of the Funkstown schools four years 
and of Antietam school in Hagersto\s'n three years. He then re- 
tired from the profession, after having given it twenty-three of 



222 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTRICT. 

the best years of his life. It is no exaggeration to say that Mr. 
Schriver was regarded as one of the ablest teachers of Washington 
County. He was equally successful as instructor and disciplin- 
arian, and possessed the rare faculty of inspiring his pupils to the 
attainment of high ideals in scholarship and conduct. On the 
1st of December, 1884, he was appointed deputy register of wills 
for Washington County and is still the incumbent of this position. 
In 1864 he married Ellen C, daughter of Henry and Angelica 
E. (Rench) Stonebraker, and the following children have been 
bom to them: May and Ernest, deceased; Edith, and Grace. He 
is a Democrat in politics, and adheres to the Reformed Church. 

Gexeral Thomas Sprigg was a native of Prince George's 
County, Md. The ancestry of the family is traced to Xori:hamp- 
tonshire, England, and one of its most distinguished representa- 
tives at the present time is Sir W. Gordon Sprigg, the premier of 
Cape Colony. The Maryland branch is descended from Colonel 
Thomas Sprigg, whose residence, Northampton, was an extensive 
estate in Prince George's County for w^hich lie secured a patent in 
IGOT. Toward the close of the last centurv it was owned bv Os- 
born Sprigg, a brother to Joseph Sprigg of Oldtown, Allegany 
County, and of General Thomas Sprigcr of Longmeadows. From 
him the Xorthanipton c^itate passed to his nephew, Samuel 
Sprigg, Governor of Maryland in 1819-22; he was a son of Joseph 
Sprigg of Oldtown. 

General Sprigg was the first register of wills in Washington 
County and held that office from 1770 to 1780. He was a mem- 
ber of the County Committee of Obsen-ation in 1777. In 1788 
he was elected to the House of Delegates, and in the same year he 
was a member of the Mar\'land Convention which ratified the 
Constitution of the United States. He also served as a member 
of the levy court and as justice of the peace. His first election 
to Congress occurred in 1792, and the result in Washington 
County was thus stated in the Spy: "At closing the polls for the 
County of Washington, being a principal part of the Sixth district 
of this State, on last Thiirsday evening [October 4, 1792], it ap- 
pears that the Hon. Thomas Sprigg, Esq., had the entire and 
unanimous voice of the county as a representative in the Congress 
of the United States." Toward the close of his term the excise 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 223 

laws of the Federal government began to arouse opposition, and 
the ringleaders of the defiant element at Hagerstown erected a 
liberty pole. General Sprigg's attitude in this crisis was thus 
represented in the following testimonials published in the Spy: 

We certify that vi^ were present in Hagerstown on the 1st day 
of September, 1794, when the mob so much talked of happened. We 
also certify that Colonel Thomas Sprigg was there present and that 
he exerted himself in a most sing^ular and spirited manner to pre- 
vent the erection of the liberty pole that was then raised and to 
disperse the mob. We were witness to many insults that he re- 
ceived from the mob in consequence of his exertions and we often 
supposed his person in danger. We have also been witness to the 
active and decided part which Colonel Sprigg has since taken to 
bring those insurgents to justice, and do think this county under 
particular obligations to that gentleman for the part he has acted. 

Adam Ott, 
H. Shbyock, 
Rezin Davis, 
William Lee, 
Benjamin Claqgett, 
X. Rochester, 
JosiAH Price. 
At a meeting of a number of the people of Washington County at 
the court house in Elizabeth-Town on Friday, the 26th day of Sep- 
tember, 1794, Colonel Henry Shryock, chairman, and John Thomas 
Mason, secretary, it was proposed and agreed to that Messrs. Na- 
thaniel Rochester, Henry Schnebley, Samuel Ringgold, William Clark, 
and John Thomas Mason be requested to prepare an address from 
the meeting to Colonel Thomas Sprigg, who proposed the following, 
which was read, approved, and ordered to be printed in Washington, 
Frederick, and Baltimore newspapers: 
To Colonel Thomas Sprigg: 

Sir: By the unanimous voice of the persons present at this meet- 
ing you are solicited once more to permit us to cast our suffrages 
upon you as the person in our opinion most proper to represent this 
district in Congress. We beg leave to return you our thanks for 
your past services in that station and to manifest our approbation 
of your conduct as our representative. We beg leave more particu- 
larly at this time to thank you for your late constant, unremitted, 
prudent, and spirited exertions in endeavoring to suppress those 
unhappy tumults that have disturbed the peace and threatened the 
safety of the well disposed citizens amongst us. The manner in 
which certain reports have been secretly and industriously circu- 
lated and the inexcusable misrepresentations that have been made 
excite our highest indignation, and we feel ourselves injured in the 
attempts made to calumniate you. But whilst we a.«*sure you of our 



224 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

determination to support you at the ensuing election, we hope and 
coniidently trust that every honorable and manly exertion will be 
made on your part to gratify the wishes and effectuate the en- 
deavors of your friends. 

Signed by order of the meeting, 

H. Shryock, Chairman. 

John T. Mason, Secretary. 

The congressional district included Washington, Allegany, and 
part of Frederick County, and Colonel Sprigg was again elected. 
In Washington he received 1,758 votes and R. Nelson, his oppo- 
nent, 1,030. At this time he was also colonel in the militia. He 
subsequently rose to the rank of brigadier general, in which he 
continued until his death, December 13, 1809. He was a mem- 
ber of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 

(icneral Sprigg's estate, to which he gave the name of Sprigg's 
Paradise, was a tract of 1,754 acres, situated on both sides of the 
Marsh turnpike. In 1810 it was appraised by Samuel Ringgold, 
Jacob Rench, Jacob Brumbaugh, Martin Kershner, and Jacob 
Zeller, commissioners appointed by the county court, and valued 
at $85,758. They also divided it among the Generars three chil- 
dren, William 0., Maria, who subsequently married Dr. John Rey- 
nolds, and Otho. William 0. received 546 acres, including the 
s])acious family mansion, whore he resided imtil his death, July 
29, IH'M). lie was elected to the House of Delegates from Wash- 
ington County in 1812. 

John Rench was born in IT 20, the son of Peter Rench, who 
died in 1772 leavintr a widow, Margaret, one daughter, the wife of 
Jacob Miller, and three sons, Joseph, John, and Andrew. Peter 
Rench was a i)ioneer settler in the vicinity of Salem Reformed 
church in Conococheague District, the site of which he deeded 
in 17G8 to the congregation worshipping there. He was an ex- 
tensive landowiKT, as were also his three sons, whose possessions 
included Settled in Time, a tract of 2,227 acres for which thev 
seLured a jnitent in 1785. John Rench, whose name appears as 
the subject of this sketch, purchased in 1780 521 acres of land in 
Leitersburg District, now owned by Jacob B. Lehman, Samuel 
Hykes, and David Ziegler. It is not known that he ever resided 
here, although it is highly probable that he built the Ziegler mill. 
He died on the 30th of X(n'ember, 1794, leaving six children: 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 225 

Peter; Jacob; John; Susanna, wife of George Dun; Catharine, 
wife of John Suavely, and Elizabeth, \vife of Jacob Zeller. To 
his sonPeterhe devised his lands in Leitersburg District, "it being 
the part whereon the said Peter now lives, together with all mills 
and improvements thereon." Peter Rench did not long survive 
his father; he died on the 24th of September, 1796, at the age of 
forty-two, leaving a widow, Catharine, and the following children: 
Elizabeth; Levi; Thomas H.; Otlio; Eli; Morgan, and Cassandra. 

Thomas Belt was probably a native of Prince George's Coun- 
ty, Md., where the village of Beltsville perpetuates his family 
name. He acquired the extensive estate in Leitersburg District 
known as Turkey Buzzard or Colobrook, a tract of 506 acres, now 
embraced in the farms of Isaac Shank and others, and here he 
resided for some vears at the stone house near the Marsh Mills. 
He marrie-d Elizabeth Bowie, whose mother, nee Hannah Lee, 
was the first wife of Joseph Sprigg, the father of Governor Samuel 
Sprigg. This marriage was without issue, and by the terms of 
his will the Turkey Buzzard farm was devised to his nephew, 
Thomas W. Belt of Baltimore. Mr. Belt was register of wills in 
Washington County for more than a score of years. He was a 
member of the Protestant Episcopal Church. He died at Hagers- 
town on the 3d of December, 1823, at the age of eighty-two. 

SiMOX Lecrox became a resident of Leitersburg District prior 
to 1792. The name first appears in connection with land c^mer- 
ship in the District in 1768, when Jacob Lecron purchased from 
Wendell Sights fifty-two acres of land, part of Scant Timber. 
It is not improbable that he was the father of Simon, whose name 
appears as the subject of this sketch. This land was subsequently 
owned by Jacob Lecron, a brother of Simon; he was born on the 
13th of March, 1763, and died on the 25th of September, 1834, 
leaving nimierous descendants; the land he owned is now em- 
braced in the farms of Spessard, Boward, and others. Simon Le- 
cron's land is now included principally in the farm of Henry M. 
Jacobs, and there he died in 1815. He was twice married, first 
to Elizabeth Lyday and after her death to her sister, Sarah Lyday. 
By the first marriage the children were Jacob; John; Nancy, who 
married John Clopper; Mary, who married Adam Hammaker, 
and Elizabeth, who married Samuel Bachtel. By the second 
marriage the children were Samuel; Sarah, who married Andrew 



22C HISTOBY OF LEITEBSBUBO DI8TBICT. 

Mitchell; Daniel; Rebecca, who married Abraham Eow; Cath- 
arine, who married John King; Susan, who married Michael Gon- 
der, and Maria. This family adhered to the Reformed Church. ' 

Samuel Lecrox was bom in Leitersburg District, April 14, 
1803, the son of Simon and Sarah (Lyday) Lecron. He first en- 
gaged in farming in partnership with Lewis Keller; they leased 
from George I. Harry the Colebrook farm, one of the largest in 
the District. After his marriage he rented for several years the 
farm near Jacobs church now owned by Daniel Hoover but then 
the property of Samuel Lyday. In 1846 he purchased the farm 
in Washington Township, Franklin County, Pa., whereon he re- 
sided until his death, July 17, 1880. He married Maria, daugh- 
ter of William and Mari;ha Dillehunt, and their children were 
Lewis; Benjamin, of Tiffin, Ohio; Ann Maria, wife of Lewis Gil- 
bert; Samuel, of Oklahoma; Catharine, wife of David R. Myers; 
Thomas J., of Lincoln, Xeb.; John and William, both deceased; 
Charles, of Washington Township; Maria, who married Jacob 
Eckstein, and Eliza, deceased. Mr. Lecron was a member of the 
Reformed Church and in politics a Democrat. 

Lewis Lecrox was born in Leitersburg District, October 30, 
1833, the son of Samuel and Maria (Dillehunt) Lecron. He was 
roared in his native District and in Washington Township and re- 
ceived a limited common school education. He began farming 
in Antrim Township, Franklin County, and afterward operated 
his fathers farm in AVa>hington Township eleven years; in 1880 
he purchased the farm of 1-14 acres in Leitersburg District where- 
on lie has since resided. Tn 1803 he married Barbara, daughter 
of John and Anna (Shank) Funk, and their children are Annie 
M., wife of John Fox: Ada F., deceased: Cvrus X.: Samuel 0., 
deceased: Linnie F., wife of Charles Hoover: S. Ernest, and Ar- 
thur F. ^Fr. Lecron is a member of the Reformed Church and 
in Tuditics a Democrat. AVhile a resident of Franklin Countv he 
served one term as lurv commissioner and was twice elected school 
director of Washington Township. 

Christian (iAiiVKn was tlio ancestor of the Garver family of 
Leitersburg District. In 1790 he purchased from David Stoner 
197 acres of land, now owned by William H. Hoffman, and here 
he residwl until his death, which occurred prior to 1802. The 
following names of children occur in alegal document now in pes- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 227 

session of Mrs. Mary M. Newcomer: John; Martin; Mary, who 
married Abraham Schmutz; Christian; Nancy, who married Yost 
Gardner; Fanny, who married Martin Stockman; Polly, who mar- 
ried Jacob Funk; Barbara; Catharine, who married Michael Sum- 
mers; David; Elizabeth, \vho married Ludwig Snider; Hester, who 
married Jacob Harshman; Eve, and Isaac. It is also known that 
there were three other sons: Jacob; Abraham, and Samuel. 

Isaac Garver was born on the 10th of October, 1779, the 
son of Christian Garver. He came to Leitersburg District with 
his father's family in 1790; after his father's death he succeeded 
to the paternal estate, and here he resided until his death, March 
12, 1826. He established an extensive vineyard, one of the first 
in the District, but the venture was not a success. He married 
Anna, daughter of Joseph and Magdalena (Stoner) Snively, and 
their children were Susanna, wlio married Henry Hoffman; 
Joseph; Benjamin, and Isaac. Mrs. Garver survived her hus- 
band thirty-seven* years, dying on the 5th of February, 1863. 

Jacob Garver was bom on the 20th of February, 1782, the 
son of Christian Garver. He was reared in Leitersburg District, 
where he was engaged in farming for twenty-five years near Mar- 
tin's school house. He also conducted a store at Chewsville, a 
hotel at Leitersburg, and a tannery at Cavetown, and was the first 
toll collector at gate No. 2 on the Hagerstow^n and Waynesboro 
turnpike. After his death his widow succeeded to this position 
and she was followed by their daughter, Eliza Garver, the present 
incumbent. He was twice married, first to Nancy Hogans, and 
after her death to Mrs. Elizabeth Smith nee Justice, and was the 
father of nineteen chiTdren, three of whom are now residents of 
Leitersburg District: Mrs. Mary Stephey, Mrs. Martha J. Stoner, 
and Eliza. Mr. Garver was a member of the Reformed Church. 
His death occurred on the 4th of October, 1859. 

Benjamin Garver was born in Leitersburg District, January 
19, 1805, the son of Isaac and Anna (Snively) Garver. He ob- 
tained a common school education, which was supplemented by 
private study, and while fanning was his principal business, he 
was also a competent surveyor and was frequently employed in 
this capacity. He also possessed considerable mechanical ingen- 
uity and manufactured practically all of the implements used on 
his farm. He was twice married, first to Elizabeth, daughter of 



228 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTRICT. 

Stephen and Barl)ara (Good) Martin, and their children were 
Susanna; Barbara, widow of William F. Grove; and Benjamin F., 
of Fulton, Mo. His second wife was Barbara, daughter of John 
Berger, and their children were Daniel; Cyrus; Mary M., widow 
of Benjamin Newcomer; David, of Shamrock, Mo.; Elizabeth, 
wife of Henry Binehart; Josiah, deceased; Melchor, and Lewis, of 
Van Alstyne, Tex. 

Benjamin F. Garver was bom in Leitersburg District, Janu- 
ary 18, 183G, the son of Benjamin and Elizabeth (Martin) Garver. 
His education was obtained at Pleasant Hill school and at Wavnes- 
boro, Pa. After spending several years at Mansfield, Ohio, he 
returned to his native District and (^ngaged in farming. He sub- 
sequently located at Springfield, Ohio, but again returned to Lei- 
tersburg District, where he enlisted in Company H, First Mary- 
land Cavalry (Potomac Home Brigade). After the close of the 
war he located at Martinsburg, W. Va., whence he moved to Kan- 
sas and thence in 1882 to Fulton, Mo., where he has since been 
engaged in contracting and building. In 1859 he married Ann 
Maria, daughter of Frederick and Susan (Tritle) Bell, and their 
children are Frederick, deceased; Charles E., of Boise City, Idaho; 
Frank T., deceased; Harvey B., of Fulton, Mo.; William L.. of 
Chillicothe, Mo.: Carrie E. M.; Emma S. T., and Edith ^l. Mr. 
Garver is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church and a Re- 
publican in politics. 

Daxikl Garver wa.< born in Leitersburg District, Februarj' 4, 
1839, the son of Benjamin and Barbara (Berger) Garver. He 
obtained a common school education and was employed on his 
father's farm until 1862, when he enlisted in Company A, Sev- 
enth MarA'land Yoluntc-ers, which participated in the Virginia 
campaigns of 18G2-65. He was taken prisoner and confined for a 
time at Libby ])rison. After the close of the war he returned to 
Leitersburg District. He was employed as a machinist at Hagers- 
town for some years, but was again a resident of the District from 
1877 to 1882, when the firm of Garver, Foltz & Company, of 
which he was the senior member, operated the Rock Forge prop- 
erty. When this firm transferred its business to Hagerstown he 
removed to that citv, and there he died, Februarv 13, 1890. 

Cyrus Garver was born in Leitersburg District, April 4, 18-10, 
the son of Benjamin and Barl^ara (Berger) Garver. He received 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 229 

a common school education and after reaching manhood was em- 
ployed for some years as a teacher and surveyor. He was also a 
machinist, and was a member of the firm of Garver, Foltz & Com- 
pany from its organization until his death, December 1, 1881. 
Mr. Garver was a member of the Lutheran Church and a Repub- 
lican in politics. 

Melchor Garver was bom in Leitersburg District, April 14, 
1849, the son of Benjamin and Barbara (Berger) Garver. He was 
reared in his native District and received a common school edu- 
cation. In 1872 he left his home and from March to December 
of that year he was employed as a carpenter at Shamrock, Mo. 
He then went to Sherman, Tex., and in April, 1873, to Van 
Alstyne in thaf State, where he resided until 1881; here he con- 
ducted a blacksmith and carpenter shop six years and in 1878 be- 
came associated with his brother Lewis in the business of building 
and contracting in connection with a lumber yard. In the au- 
tumn of 1881 he removed to Grand Island, Xeb., whence in the 
same year he returned to Leitersburg District, where he succeeded 
to the interest of his brother Cyrus in the Rock Forge property. 
The firm of Garver, Foltz & Company transferred its business to 
Hagerstown in 1882, where it was merged into the Hagerstown 
Iron Works, with which Mr. Garver was connected ten years. He 
was then engaged in the sale of washing machines two years and 
in the grocery business at Hagerstown two years. In 1896 he 
located at Maugansvillo, Washington County, where he is post- 
master and agent for the Cumberland Valley Railroad Company 
and the Adams Express Company; he also conducts a general 
store and is engaged in the business of fonvarding grain. In 1883 
he married Emma S., daughter of Martin and Susan (Barkdoll) 
Harbaugh, and their children are Arthur S.: Louis K.; Edna; 
Melchora, and Edwin H. Mr. Garver is a member of the Re- 
formed Church and a Republican in politics. 

John Mentzer was bom on the 4th of March, 1765. Regard- 
ing the place of his birth and the circumstances of his early life 
nothing is definitely known; but it may be stated with reasonable 
certainty that he was of German origin and came from Lancaster 
County, Pa., to Leitersburg District about the year 1790. Here 
he married Catharine, daughter of Henry Solmes, who owned 
the farms east of I^eitersburg now the property of Henry Mariin 



230 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

and Upton Clopper. Mr. Solmes died in 1799; by the division of 
his estate John and Catharine Mentzor received the farm now 
owned by Henry Martin, and here he died, August 20, 1822. 
He was buried at a small inclosure on the north line of his farm, 
but about sixty years later his remains and those of his son David 
were exhumed and reinterred at Jacobs church. The early records 
of this church show that he was one of its members, and through- 
out its history his family has been prominently identified with its 
affairs. John and Catharine Mentzer were the parents of the 
following children: Margaret, who married Samuel Gilbert; John; 
Elizabeth, who married Abraham Strite; Catharine and Darid, ' 
who died unmarried, and Samuel, who removed to Kenton, Har- 
din County, Ohio, in 1834. 

John Mentzer was bom in Leitersburg District, March 8, 
1795, the son of John and Catharine (Solmes) Mentzer. He was 
reared in his native District upon his fathers farm, to which he 
succeeded after the latters death, and here he resided several 
years. He then removed to the farm now owned by the heirs of 
the late Joseph S. Mentzer, which was his property as well as con- 
siderable adjacent land. Here ho erected the present improve- 
ments and reared a large family. Realizing the importance of 
educational advantages for his children he appropriated a small 
])ut sufficient plot of ground for school purposes, and, with tho 
cooperation of his neighbors, erected a school house thereon. He 
was equally active in the support of local religious effort, serving 
for many years as an officer in Jacobs Lutheran Church. As a 
liusiness man he was quite successful. He married Catharine, 
daughter of Jacob and Dorothy (Piper) Beaver, of Washington 
Township, Franklin County, Pa., and they were the parents of 
ton children: Daniel; Mrs. Sarah Tritle, widow of Jacob Tritle: 
Samuel: John W., (leeeased; Christian; Joseph S., deceased; Jacob 
B.; Catharine, wife of John X. Xewcomer: Lewis L., and Lo Eii- 
haniah Elizabeth, deceased wife of Cvrus Schriver. John 
]\Ientzer die<] on the 12th of February, 1874; his widow survived 
him until Xovemher 7, 1881. 

Daniel !Mkxtzer was born in Leitersburg District, January 
31, 1819, the son of John and Catharine (Beaver) Mentzer. He 
ohtninod his education principally at the log school house on his 
ffithors farm. Here he sul)sequently taught two winter terms. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 231 

although his first experience as a teacher was obtained at Green- 
castle, Pa. He was engaged in merchandising at Ringgold from 
1843 to 1849, and at Smithsburg from 1849 to 1851 in partner- 
ship with Lewis Tritle. In 1851 he bought the farm in Leiters- 
burg District now owned by Lewis Lecron, and three years later 
he purchased the old Burkhart mill in that vicinity. Here he 
erected in 1857 a new mill, one of the most commodious and com- 
plete on Antietam creek. This he sold to George Bell in 1859, 
after which he was engaged in merchandising at Leitersburg for 
two years in partnership with his brother Christian. In 1861 ho 
returned to his farm, which he operated until 1865; he then sold 
it and purchased another adjacent to Hagerstown on the Leiters- 
burg turnpike. This he sold in 1869, and in 1870 he leased the 
mill one mile from Leitersburg on the Smithsburg road, which 
he operated two years. From 1872 to 1875 he was engaged in 
merchandising at Smithsburg. After farming one year he en- 
tered the internal revenue service as storekeeper and ganger and 
held this position three years, after which he was employed as 
book-keeper by John W.' Cable two years and at the Fahnestock 
creamery one year. In 1889 he engaged in merchandising at 
Edgemont, !Md., where he is also postmaster. In 1850 he married 
Magdalene, daughter of Peter Hoover, and their children were 
Clara; Joseph P.; Mamie, wife of John Wiles; Daniel E.; Frank; 
Stanley; and two who died in infancy.. Their mother died Octo- 
ber 29, 1883, and in 1887 he married Malinda Delosier. Mr. 
Mentzer is a Republican in politics and a member of the Lutheran 
Church. He was elected county commissioner in 1857 and served 
one term. From 1872 to 1875 he was postmaster at Smithsburg, 
Md. He was president of the Hagerstown and Waynesboro Turn- 
pike Company from 1868 to 1871. 

Samuel Mentzer was born in Leitersburg District, Januar}' 
27, 1822, the son of John and Catharine (Beaver) Mentzer. He 
was reared in his native District and obtained a common school 
education. After teacliiug one term at the local school he located 
at Ringgold, Md., in 1843; here he resided until 1856 and was 
successively engaged in butchering, merchandising, and coach- 
making. He was then employed for ten years as cooper at the 
mill north of Leitersl)urg owned by his brother, Daniel Mentzer. 
In 1866 he located at Hagerstown, where he has since been on- 



232 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTBICT. 

gaged in business as a market gardener. In 1842 he married Julia^ 
daughter of Benjamin and Judith (Leiter) Hartman, and their 
children are James A.; Samuel C; Joseph C; Sarah E., wife of 
Louis Leiter; Catharine A., wife of Veniah Meredith; Bejssie F.; 
Margaret M., wife of Harry Smith, and Lola Lucy, deceased. Mr. 
Mentzer is a Democrat in politics and a member of the Lutheran 
Church. 

Jonx W. Mentzer was born on the 26th of October, 1823, the 
son of John and Catharine (Beaver) Mentzer. He was a native of 
Leitersburg District, in which he resided all his life. He was a 
farmer by occupation, and began his business life as tenant on 
his father's farms, several of which he successively operated, ul- 
timately purchasing the farm now owned by the heirs of the late 
Daniel Harshman; here he resided until his death, January 7, 
1879. In 1853 he married Esther, daughter of Jacob and Mag- 
dalena (Stouffer) Hoffman, who was bom April 22, 1830, and 
died January 23, 1881. Their children were Catharine, wife of 
William Reecher, of Coleta, HI.; Lucy, wife of John Stickell, of 
AVajoiesboro, Pa.; Cyrus H., of Big Cove Tannerj', Fulton Coimty, 
Pa.; Mary Elizabeth, deceased; L^. Grant, of Big Cove Tannery; 
Alfred B., deceased, and Linnie, wife of George AV. AVallace, of 
Wavnesboro, Pa. ^Ir. Mentzer was a member of the Lutheran 
Church and a Republican in politics. 

Christiax ^Ikxtzhr was bom in Leitersburg District, Feb- 
ruary 17, 182."), tlie son of John and Catharine (Beaver) Mentzer. 
His educaiiojial advantages wore such as the local schools afforded. 
He began fanning in 1851 as tenant for his father in his native 
District, continuing until 1858, when he spent some months 
in Oliio and Indiana. In 1859-60 he was engaged in merchandis- 
ing at Leitersburg in partnership witli his brother Daniel. He 
was then engaged in farming in Clearspring District and in the 
vicinity of AVilliamsport and Cearfoss until 1879, when he lo- 
cated at Willianisport, where he conducted a grocery for a time 
and has since been employed as a shoemaker. In 1851 he mar- 
ried Catharine, daughter of John and Catharine (Xave) Xew- 
comer, and to this union one son was born, John X., deceased. 
^Frs. Mentzer having died he married Mary M., daughter of Wil- 
liam and ]\rary Ann (Brewer) Beard, and their surviving children 



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BIOGBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 235 

are William B.; Christian C; Samuel M.; Percy S.; Harry C; Net- 
tie M., wife of Benjamin C. Lefevre; Emma G., wife of Daniel M. 
Brooks, and Minta B., wife of Millard F. Eoberson. Those de- 
ceased are Edward E.; Mary 0.; Martin L., and Benjamin F. Mr. 
Mentzer is a Eepublican in politics and a member of the Lutheran 
Church. 

Joseph S. Mentzek was born in Leitersburg District, Septem- 
ber 11, 1826, the son of John and Catharine (Beaver) Mentzer. 
In early manhood he taught at the school house on his father's 
farm and also at Ringgold. In 1849 he was a student at Witten- 
berg College, Springfield, 0., after which he taught for several 
years at Jacobs church, Harrison, and Pleasant Hill. In 1850 he 
married Barbara, daughter of Henry Jacobs, who died in 1852; 
the issue of this union was one child, who died in infancy. In 
1852 he rented the farm of his father-in-law at Jacobs church, but 
owing to the death of his wife he relinquished farming the same 
year. Several years later he again engaged in farming as tenant 
on his father's home farm, which he subsequently purchased, and 
here he resided until his death, January 20, 1881. In 1856 he 
married Susanna, daughter of John and Catharine (Besore) Wal- 
ter, and their children were Walter S., of Waynesboro, Pa.; E. 
Keller, of Leitersburg District; Elvah C, wife of William Middle- 
kauff; Mary J., wife of Harvey L. Harbaugh; Harlan J., of 
Waynesboro, Pa.; L. Buhrman, of Baltimore, Md.; John E., who 
died in infancy; Sudie B.; and Howard F., who died in infancy. 
Mr. Mentzer was a member of Jacobs Lutheran Church, in which 
he served as elder and deacon and as Sunday school superin- 
tendent for many years. In politics he was a Eepublican. 

Jacob B. Mentzer was bom on the 11th of May, 1825, in 
Leitersburg District, the son of John and Catharine (Beiiver) 
^Mentzer. He was reared on his father's farm and obtained his 
education at the local schools. In 1848 he became teacher at the 
«5chool house on the family homestead and continued in this pro- 
fession eleven years, teaching at Welty^s, at "New Harmony, and 
at Jacobs church in Tjeitersburg District, and at Harrison and 
T'nion in Franklin County, Pa. In 1861 he married Amanda, 
daughter of John and Susan (Lieberknight) Hawbecker, and their 
children are John H., deceased; Clarence Ellsworth, and Charles 
Titus. Mr. ^Mentzer has been a resident of Leitersburg for some 
14 



:i36 HISTORY OF LEITERSBCEG DISTRICT. 

years. Here he was engaged in farming until 1887, and since that 
time he has lived a retired life. He is a member of the Lutheran 
I'hurch and a llepublican in politics. 

Joseph P. Mp:ntzer was bom in Leitersburg District on the 
24th of August, 1853, the son of Daniel and Magdalene (Hoover) 
Mentzer. His education was obtained principally at the pubhc 
schools of Hagerstowu and completed with a business course. 
After reaching manhood ho learned the trade of cigar making, at 
which he worked six years in Hagerstown and Smithsburg. For 
one year he was employed as an advertising agent. He was also 
engaged in business individually as a manufacturer of cigars two 
years at Hagerstown, and for about the same period he was a 
meml;or of the firm of Beard & Mentzer, agents for the West- 
ern Maryland liailroad Company at Potomac Avenue in that city 
and dealers in grain and feed. Having disposed of his interest 
to his i)artner he emliarked in the grocery business, which he ex- 
changed two years later for a confectionery and bakery, and this 
he conducted one year. He was then employed at Antietara 
Creamery near Waynesboro eight years. In March, 1892, he be- 
came assistant agent for the Adams Express Company at Waynes- 
boro, and one year later he became the Company's agent, a p(x-i- 
tion that he has since filled with eminent satisfaction to his eni- 
])lc)yers and the ])iiblic. In 1882 Mr. Mentzer married Hattie K., 
<laii<ihler c^.f Zachariali and Ann (Cameron) Shugert, and thi-ir 
children are Al])ert S.; Klsie ^I.; ^lena D.; Merl, deceased, an 1 
Zoe Tona. ^Ir. Mentzer is a member of the Methodist Ej)isco|';il 
Church and in politics a Republican. 

Daxikl E. Mentzer was born in Leitersburg District, Xoveni- 
ber 2 1, 18()3, the son of Daniel and Magdalene (Hoover) Mentz-r. 
He ()l)tained his education principally at the public schools f 
Smithsbnro:. In 1883 ho entered the employ of Thomas M-- 
Daniel at Pntoniac Avenue station on the Western ^laryland nul- 
road at IIn;j:orstown. Here he was successively employed by Wil- 
liam S. Swartz and StefTey & Findlay until 1891, when h'-" ont-ro;l 
fho cnij^lcy of his father in their present business at Ed^rom^-nt. 
In 1891 ho married Annie ]\r., daughter of Jacob H. and AmamV^. 
Palmar cf ('hewsvilh\ r.nd tlioy are the j^arcnts ?i one child, Rnv- 
mond 1''. ^Fr. ^[cntzcr is a Pujuiblican in politics. 

WAi/n:u S. Mentzer was 1v. rn in Leitersburg District, Oct'^bor 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 237 

22, 1857, the son of Joseph S. and Susanna (Walter) Mcntzer. He 
obtained his education at the public schools of his native District 
and at the Washington County High School. In 1876 he con- 
ducted a summer school at Harrison in Washington Township. 
In 1877 he entered the employ of Garver, Foltz & Company at 
Eock Forge, where he served an apprenticeship of three years at 
the trade of machinist. This was supplemented by eighteen 
months in the machine department of the Frick Company at 
Waynesboro, by which he has been continuously employed since 
April 5, 1880. In 1884 he was promoted to his present position, 
that of foreman of the mounting and pipe department. In 1886 
Mr. Mentzer married Annie M., daughter of Christian D. Miller, 
and their children are Edna C. and Enola S. Mr. Mentzer is a 
member of the Lutheran Church of Waynesboro, in which he has 
held the offices of deacon and assistant superintendent of the Sun- 
day school. He was also superintendent of the Sunday school at 
Jacobs church while a member of that congregation. In politics 
he is a Republican. 

E. Keller Mentzer was bom in Leitersburg District, March 
8, 1859, the son of Joseph S. and Susanna (Walter) Mentzer. He 
was reared in his native District and obtained a cojnmon school 
education. In 1887 he engaged in farming on the old Mentzer 
homestead, and here he has since resided. In 1886 he married 
Emma S., daughter of Matthias and Nancy (Hoffman) Hoffman, 
and they are the parents of two children, Cora M. and Mary S. 
Mr. Mentzer is a member of the Lutheran Church and he holds 
the office of deacon in the Jacobs congregation. In politics he is 
n Kepublican. Mr. Mentzer is the only representative of his fam- 
ily in Leitersburg District, and the farm upon which he resides 
has been in possession of the family more than a himdred years. 

Clarexce E. Mentzer was bom in Leitersburg District, Janu- 
ary 15, 1866, the son of Jacob B. and Amanda (Hawbecker) 
Mentzer. He was reared in his native District and obtained his 
education at the Leitersburg schools. In 1886-89 he was engaged 
in teaching. His first school was Pleasant Hill in Leitersburg 
District; the second, Hopewell school in Election District No. 3: 
the third, the intermediate department of the Leitersburg schools. 
Prior to this, however, he had been employed by the Frick Com- 
pany of TTnynesboro, Pa., at pattern making from !Mr.rch, 1881, 



238 HISTOKY OF LEITERSBUKG DISTBICT. 

to June, 1885, and during his summer vacations while teaching 
school he was in the service of the Hagerstown Steam Engine 
Company in a similar capacity. In 1890 he went to Wilmington, 
Del., where he was employed as pattern maker by the Wilmington 
Malleable Iron Company four years. In 1894 he located at Ha- 
gerstown, where he has since resided; here he holds a position in 
the pattern department of the Crawford Bicycle Works. In 1893 
he married Emma S., daughter of Henry and Susan Baxnhart. 
Mr. Mentzer is a member of the Lutheran Church and a Repubh- 
can in politics. 

Michael Wolfingek was bom in Germany in 1763 and emi- 
grated to America in early manhood. He was a blacksmith by 
trade, and it was while seeking emplojrment that he found his way 
to Washington County. Eventually he reached a smith shop in 
the vicinity of Leitersburg, applied for work, and was at first re- 
fused, but having demonstrated his superior skill by mending a 
shovel his services were accepted. From this circumstance is due 
the fact that he located in Leitersburg District, and here, after 
the lapse of more than a century, many of his descendants now 
reside. In the record of his naturalization as an American citi- 
zen, which occurred in 1798 at the April term of the Washington 
County court, he is described as "a native of Germany, black- 
siiiitli, living near the Bock Forge.^' Within a few years after be 
first located here he was operating a smithshop on his own ac- 
count, and also engaged extensively in farming and distillinfr. 
He resided at the farm on the Greencastle road now owned by the 
estate of the late Joseph Strite; here the blacksmith shop and dis- 
tillery were located, and as the main road from Hagerstown to 
Gettys])iirg and York then passed this place he also conducted a 
hotel. His landed possessions also comprised the Summer farm 
near Leitersburg and a tract of two hundred acres now owned 
])rincipally by his grandchildren, David L. Wolfinger and Mr-. 
Laura K. Ziegler; these farms he also operated in connection witli 
his other interests. He was one of the most energetic and siic- 
cossfnl business men of his generation in Leitersburg District. 
He died on the 16th of February, 181(5, at the age of fifty-twn 
years and nine months, and is buried at Jacobs Lutheran church, 
where he was a member for more than twenty years. He marri?d 
Sarah Foltz, also a native of Germany, and their children wore 



BIOOBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 239 

Michael; Jacob; John; Daniel G.; Samuel, and David. The two 
last named died before reaching manhood. John was never en- 
gaged in active business and never married. Michael succeeded 
to his father^s farm on the Greencastle road; he never operated it, 
however, but resided in Leitersburg. 

Jacob Wolfixgeb was bom in Leitersburg District an the 14th 
of March, 1806, the son of Michael and Sarah (Foltz) Wolfinger. 
He was reared to manhood in his native District and obtained his 
education at the local schools. When a boy he was thrown from 
a horse, sustaining injuries that excluded him from active employ- 
ment and ultimately caused his death. After his marriage he lo- 
cated at Leitersburg, where he lived a retired life. Studious in 
his tastes and habits, he devoted much of his time to reading, and 
was justly regarded as one of the well-informed men of the com- 
munity. Although never engaged in active business, he was care- 
ful and conservative in the management of his affairs and left to 
his children a valuable patrimony. In religious belief he adhered 
to the faith of his father; he was a member of the Lutheran Church 
at Leitersburg from about the time of its organization until his 
death. In politics he was a Whig. Mr. Wolfinger married 
Nancy, daughter of John Lahm of Leitersburg, and their chil- 
dren were Daniel S.; Mary J., deceased wife of Joseph Clugston, 
of AVaynesboro; James A., deceased; Charles B.; Laura K., wife of 
Charles C. Ziegler, and George H. Mr. Wolfinger died on the 1st 
of May, 1857; his widow, who was born April 15, 1808, survived 
him until May 3, 1890. 

Daniel G. AVolfixgeb was bom in Leitersburg District on 
the 3d of December, 1814, the son of Michael and Sarah (Foltz) 
Wolfinger. He obtained a common school education, and in his 
youth and early manhood was employed as clerk by George W. 
Ziegler at Greencastle, Pa., Charles Fletcher at Leitersburg, Jona- 
than Harbaugh at Middletown, Md., and Jonathan Newcomer at 
Benevola, Washington County. After his marriage in 1836 ho 
began farming near Leitersburg at the Summer farm, which was 
formerly owned by his father. In 1839 he removed to the farm 
of 202 acres which he purchased in 1855 and whereon he resided 
until his death, January 31, 1891. This land is now owned prin- 
cipally by his son, David L., and Mrs. Laura K. Ziegler. The old 
homestead is now the property of Mrs. Ziegler. Mr. Wolfinger 



240 HISTOKY OF LEITERSBUKG DISTRICT. 

was a Whig until the dissolution of that party, after which he be- 
came a Kepublican. He was a member of the Christian Church 
at llagerstown. In 1836 he married Susanna, daughter of John 
Alexander, of Frederick County, Md., who was captain of a volun- 
teer rifle company in the War of 1812. They were the parents of 
the following children: Elizabeth, who died at the age of sixteen; 
Susanna, who died in infancy; David L.; Daniel H.; Mary E., of 
Hagerstown, Md.; Alexander M.; William H. H.; John 0.; Levi 
B.; George C, and Alice E., deceased wife of Martin L. Miller, 
M. D. Mrs. Wolfinger was bom on the 27th of August, 1815, and 
died August 31, 1858. 

Daniel S. Wolfinger was born at Leitersburg, January 27. 
1834, the eldest son of Jacob and Nancy (Lahm) Wolfinger. He 
was brought up at Leitersburg and obtained a common school 
education. He began his business career in 1853 as clerk in a 
dry-goods store at Springfield, Ohio. Returning to his native 
village he entered the store of George W. Pole as clerk and book- 
keeper and here he was employed as long as Mr. Pole was in busi- 
ness at Leitersburg, a period of about twelve years; during this 
time he was commissioned as postmaster of the village, March 19, 
1861, and serv^ed until the appointment of his successor, Decem- 
ber 18, 1865. During the construction of the Washington Coun- 
ty branch of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad in 1866-67 he wa.* 
employed by the contractors as book-keeper and paymaster, a posi- 
tion involving the disbursement of $20,000 per month in wages 
to the employees. After clerking in the store of Josephiis 
Ground at Leitersburg several years he was appointed dejnity 
collector of taxes in 18TG by William M. Lantz, treasurer for 
Washington County, retaining this position until 1882 under the 
next incumbent of that office, Charles W. Adams, In 1882 he 
became book-keeper for Lortz & Wolfinger, now Wolfinger, Allen 
& Brown, wholesale grocers, Chambersburg, Pa., and has since 
continued in this position. Although never engaged in biisine.'?^ 
individnallv, !Mr. Wolfirifror has held for a number of vears n .-uc- 
cession of responsible i)ositions, in all of which he has acquitted 
himself with honor and fid(.'litv. ITe is a member of the Lutheran 
Church, and in ])olitics a Eepuhlicnn of independent principles. 

Charles B. WoLFiyGER was born at Leitersburg on the 22(1 of 
July, 1848, the son of Jacob and Xancy (Lahm) Wolfinger. lie 



BIOGBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 241 

obtained his education at the public schools. After reaching 
manhood he learned the trade of carpenter under J. Freeland 
Leiter, with whom he was employed for several years after com- 
pleting his apprenticeship, when ill health compelled him to re- 
linquish active employment. In 1893 he married Mary Alice, 
daughter of George S. and Susan Ziegler. Mr. Wolfinger is a Re- 
publican in politics and a member of the Lutheran Church. 

George H. Wolfinger was born at Leitersburg, November 20, 
1854, the son of Jacob and Nancy (Lahm) Wolfinger. He was 
reared in his native village, and after completing the course at the 
local schools attended the Cumberland Valley State Normal 
School at Shippensburg, Pa. He was then engaged in teaching 
at Leitersburg for several years. In 1877, as a member of the 
firm of Lortz & Wolfinger, he embarked in the wholesale grocery 
business at Chambersburg; by the retirement of Mr. Lortz in 1895 
he became the senior member of the firm, of which the present 
style is Wolfinger, Allen & Brown. In 1877 Mr. Wolfinger mar- 
ried Annie M., daughter of J. Freeland and Martha H. (Lantz) 
Leiter, and their children are Max L. and Donald L. Mr. Wei- 
finger's political affiliations are with the Bepublican party. 

David L. Wolfinger was bom in Leitersburg District on the 
28th of November, 1839, the son of Daniel G. and Susanna (Alex- 
ander) Wolfinger. He received a common school education and 
learned the trade of mason under his uncle, Lawson Alexander. 
This occupation he pursued at intervals for several years. From 
1861 to 1866 he was engaged in business as a huckster in his na- 
tive District and the adjacent territory, collecting countr}- pro- 
duce and hauling it to Georgetown, D. C, at intervals of two 
weeks. In 1868 he began farming as tenant on his father's farm. 
In 1870 he removed to Clay County, Mo., but returned after a 
residence of less than a month. Since 1872 he has been engaged 
in farming at his present residence, which he purchased from his 
father in 1891. In 1861 he married Elizabeth W., daughter of 
Joseph and !Mary A. (Deibert) Wolforsberger, who died on the 8th 
of Februarv, 1883. Their children were David G. and Susanna 
M., both deceased; Daniel B.; Joseph W.; Henry B.; Edwin E., 
deceased; Charles I.; Grace M. A.; Lily M., Maud J., and Delia 
L. E., all deceased; and Viola F. In 1885 he married Martha A., 
daughter of Abram and Susan (Gossard) Stine, and their children 
are Mary A.; Emma; Carrie C; Bertha; iFartha M.; Elsie, and 



242 HISTORY OF LEITEBSBUEO DISTBICT. 

Eva C. 'Mr. Wolfinger is a member of the Christian Church and 
in politics a Eepublican. In 1896 he served as assessor-at-large 
for the Fifth assessment district of Washington County. 

Daniel H. Wolfingek was born in Leitersburg District, May 
19, 1841, the son of Daniel G. and Susanna (Alexander) Wol- 
finger. He secured a common school education and learned the 
carpenter trade under Eli Jacobs. In 1866, having completed 
his apprenticeship, he went to Bellfontaine, Ohio, where he re- 
mained one year. He then returned to his native county and 
was engaged in farming until 1871, when he purchased land from 
his father in Leitersburg District and erected the present improve- 
ments thereon; now owned by William Trovinger. Here he re- 
sided twenty-one years, and during this period he was employed 
as carpenter and builder. In 1892 he rented the farm of Mrs. 
Laura K. Ziegler, formerly owned by his father, and here he has 
since been engaged in farming. In 1867 he married Susan, daugh- 
ter of Jacob and Susanna (Ditch) Zentmyer, and their children 
are Mar}^ Alverda; Alice E., wife of Benjamin Etnyer; Jacob D.; 
Elvah S.; Vernon, and Esther N. Mr. Wolfinger is a member of 
the Christian Church and in politics a Republican. 

JoHX 0. WoLFiXGER was bom in Leiterslmrg District, Januar}^ 
8, 1848, the son of Daniel G. and Susanna (Alexander) Wolfinger. 
His education was (obtained at the schools of his native county 
and at the National Xomial University, Lebanon, Ohio. He be- 
gan teaching in 18G8 at the Old Forge school in Chewsville Dis- 
trict, and has since been engaged in this profession with the excep- 
tion of one term, 1881-82. He taught at Mt. Union from Janu- 
ary, isno, when this school was first established, to 1873; at Para- 
dise, 18; 3-74: Pleasant Grove, 1874-75; Paradise, 1875-79; Mt. 
Union, 18:9-80; New Harmony, 1880-81; Mt. Union, 1881-83: 
Roek Hill, 1883-93, and Mt. Union, 1893-98. In 1880 he lo- 
cated at the farm whereon he ha? since resided. In 1873 ho 
married Mary C, daugliier of Peter and Elizabeth (Short) Smith, 
wlio died on the 18th of Januarv, 1898. Their children wer.' 
Clarence S.; l^flie S., wife of Webster L. Spessard, and Cora I). 
Mr. Wolfinger is a l]e])ul)liean in ])olitics. 

Li:vi 1). WoLi-iXGni was born in Leitersburg District on the 
C)ih '>f May, 1849, ilie son of Daiiid 0. and Susanna (Alexander) 
WolfinLrer. lie olijaineil a ci.'ninvn schor)l OLlucation and learn.^;! 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 243 

the trade of carpenter under his brother Daniel. Soon after 
attaining his majority he went to the West and was located in 
Johnson County, Mo., a short time. He then returned to Ohio, 
where he spent six years, principally at Dayton and Bellefon- 
taine. In 1876 he engaged in fanning on his father's farm in 
Leitersburg District whence he removed in 1882 to Hagerstown, 
where he was employed as a carpenter thirteen years. In 1895, 
in partnership with Charles B. Wolfinger, he purchased the farm 
whereon he has since resided. In 1879 he married Annie, daugh- 
ter of George Ziegler, and their children are Lloyd F.; Levi Z.; 
Emma S.; Clara L., and Eoger W. Mr. Wolfinger is a member 
of the Christian Church and in politics a Republican. 

Alexander M. Wolfinger was bom in Leitersburg District, 
June 8, 1844, the son of Daniel G. and Susanna (Alexander) Wol- 
finger. He received a common school education, supplemented 
by a year under Prof. George Pearson at Smithsburg. In 1863-65 
he taught the Eock Hill school; in 1867-69, Orange school, near 
the Old Forge; in 1869-76, the school at Chewsville; in 1876-77, 
Wolfs school, near Chewsville; in 1877-90, Antietam school in 
Chewsville District; he was thus engaged in this profession 
twenty-five years. In 1878 he purchased the property in Chews- 
ville District upon which he has since resided, and here he is 
engaged in farming and fruit culture. In 1870 he married 
Sophia J., daughter of John J. and Barbara (Poe) Lambert, and 
their children are James S., deceased; John L.; Albert M.; Mary 
H.; Frank S.; Samuel, deceased; Barbara E.; George P.; Daniel 
W.; Marshall A., and Lawson H. Mr. Wolfinger is a member 
of the Christian Church and an elder in the congregation at Ha- 
gerstown,. In politics he is an independent Republican. 

Charles I. Wolfinger was bom on the 3d of January, 1873, 
in Leitersburg District, the son of David L. and Elizabeth (Wol- 
fersberger) Wolfinger. After completing the course of study at 
the Leitersburg grammar school he engaged in teaching, first at 
Mt. Zion near Smithsburg and then at Eock Hill in Leitersburg 
District. In 1894 he was a student at the National Normal Uni- 
versity, Lebanon, Ohio, and since his return from that institution 
he has taught the school at Rock Hill. Mr. Wolfinger is a Be- 
publican in politics. 

Ignatius Taylor was a resident of Leitersburg District at the 



244 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUEG DI8TBICT. 

beginning of this century and was a man of prominence and in- 
fluence. In 1794 he purchased Elysian Fields, a tract of 23? 
acres, with considerable adjacent land in Pennsylvania, to which 
he gave the name of Mt. Douglas, and here he resided until his 
death in 1807. He served as member of the House of Delegates 
and judge of the orphans* court and bore the military title of 
major. He was a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 
The following children survived him: Francis; Ann; Hannah; 
Jane, and Lucretia. Ann married Joseph Sprigg, who resided 
at Forest Hill near Williamsport and afterward at Cedar Grove, 
eighteen miles above Harper's Ferry; the other members of the 
family removed to Kentucky. 

John Strite, from whom the Strite family of Leitersburg 
District is descended, was born in Lancaster County, Pa., March 
28, 1775. His youth and early manhood were spent in his native 
county. On the 11th of April, 1797, he purchased from Henry 
Snell 137i acres of land at the consideration of £1,375, of which 
amount he paid £600 in cash and executed a mortgage for the re- 
mainder. This land is now owned principally by his grandson, 
John S. Strite, and here he lived for twenty years, gradually ex- 
tinguishing the mortgage on his farm and accumulating a sur- 
plus for future acquisition. On the 8th of Januar}', 1817, he 
purcliased from Alexander Claggett 282 acres of land, now em- 
bracing the farms of John F. Strite and W. Harvey Ilykes. For 
this he paid $60.00 per acre, and here again he became 
deeply involved in debt, but through the indulgence of his creili- 
tors and his own good business management he eventually suc- 
ceeded in discharging all his obligations. Here he resided until 
his death, November 21, 1840. He was one of the pioneers in the 
later German immigration to Washington County from York and 
Lancaster in Pennsylvania. Like the majority of those who fol- 
lowed him lie was a ]\IennonitG in faifh, and in the closing year? 
of hi? life, when the memhershi]) of this communion had became 
suiricicntlv numerous in this localitv to warrant the orgraniza- 
tion of a congregation and the erection of a church, he wa.- an 
active promoter and liberal supporter of this movement, serving: 
as one of the first trustees and as member of the building com- 
mittee of Miller's church. He married Elizabeth Eshleman, who 
was born on the 3d of February, 1767, and died on the 4tli of 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 245 

May, 1844. Their children were Abraham; John; Christian; 
Samuel; Joseph, and Ann, who married Jacob Miller. 

Abraham Strite was bom on the 31st of January, 1795, and 
died on the 14th of November, 1863. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Mentzer, and they resided at the farm now 
owned by Henry M. Jacobs on the road leading from Miller's 
church to the turnpike. The present improvements on this farm, 
a substantial stone house and bam, were erected by him. Abra- 
ham Strite frequently acted as executor, administrator, and guar- 
dian, and was thus responsibly connected with many important 
business transactions. He was the first president of the Hagers- 
town and Waynesboro Turnpike Company. 

John Strite was bora on the 25th of October, 1796, the son 
of John and Elizabeth (Eshleman) Strite. He began farming 
as a tenant in Leitersburg District, and also rented a farm near 
Greencastle, Pa. After his father's death he purchased the farm 
upon which the latter resided at that time, and which is now 
owned by his grandson, John F. Strite. Here he lived until his 
death. February 19, 1851. He married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Jacob Summer, and their children were David; Nancy; John; 
Elizabeth, who married John Eshleman; Jacob; Martha, who mar- 
ried Jacob Shank; Catharine, who married Lewis Harbaugh; 
Samuel; Daniel, and Mary, who married John L. Gilbert. 

Christian Strite was bom in Leitersburg District, December 
6, 1798, the son of John and Elizabeth (Eshleman) Strite, 
and died on the 15th of April, 1862. He owned and operated 
the mill near Lf»itersburg now the property of Samuel Strite and 
the farm connected with it, and was also engaged in distilling. 
The Summer farm on the opposite side of the creek was also his 
])roperty. The improvements on this farm and the two brick 
houses on the mill property were erected by him. He married 
Catharine, daughter of John and Anna (Hege) Snively,* who was 
bom August 22, 1810, and died, January 18, 1862. Christian 
Strite served as trustee of Miller's church from 1845 to 1862. 

Samuel Strite was bom in Leitersburg District, December 
10, ISOO, the son of John and Elizabeth (Eshleman) Strite, and 

•John Jacob Schnebele, a native of Switzerland, located in Lancaster County. Pa., 
between 1707 and 1718. He was naturalized at Philadelphia in 1739 and died at the age 
of eighty-four. His descendants intermarried with the Strite, Miller, Garver, Hoff- 
man, and other f&milies of Leitersburg District. 



246 HISTOBY OF LEITERSBUKG DISTRICT. 

died on the 1st of May, 1878. He was a farmer by occupation, 
and lived and died in the vicinity of Fairview, Washington 
County. He married Martha, daughter of John and Anna (Hege) 
Snively, and their children were John;. Anna, widow of Abraham 
Ditto; Henry; Martha, widow of Joshua Ditto; Elizabeth, wife 
of Philip M. Bell; Samuel, and Maria, wife of Martin A\Tiit- 
mer. 

Joseph Strite was bom in Leitersburg District, August 30, 
1805, the son of John and Elizabeth (Eshlenian) Strite, and died 
on the 8th of June, 1858. He began farming as a tenant on the 
farm his father bought in 1797; after the latter^s death he pur- 
chased it, and here he resided until his death. He also owned 
the farm that was subsequently the properi:y of his son Abraham. 
He married Elizabeth, daughter of Christian Strite; she was a 
native of Lancaster County, Pa., whence her parents removed to 
Upton, Franklin County. Their children were Elizabeth, de- 
ceased wife of Adam Baker; Abraham; Joseph; Catharine, de- 
ceased, who married Tobias Shank; Christian; John S.; Martha, 
wife of Noah E. Shank; Mary, wife of Christian Shank, and three 
who died in infancy. 

David Strite was born in Leitersburg District on the Gth of 
Januar}% 1822, the son of John and Elizabeth (Summer) Strite. 
During his boyhood his father resided near Antietam creek on 
the farm now owned by Samuel Hartle, and he attended school 
in the village of Leitersburg. After the family removed to An- 
trim Township he finished his education with one term at the 
Greencastle school. After attaining his majority he worked at 
barn building for two years under William McGuiney. In 184:7 
he began farming as tenant on his father's farm in Antrim Town- 
ship; he bought this several years later, but afterward sold it and 
bought another in the same neighborhood, whereon he resided 
until 18G4. lie then removed to the fann near Leitersburg 
now owned bv his heirs and here he lived until his death, Feb- 
ruary 4, 1896. In 1846 he married Elizabeth, daughter of David 
and Magdalena (Grcbill) Horst, of Lancaster County, Pa., who 
lived for several years at the Small farm on the Hagerstown and 
Leitersburg turnpike and then removed to Wayne County, Ohio. 
Their children were ]\Iarv A., widow of Jacob ]\I. Hvkes; John A.; 
Martha L.; Elizabeth C.., deceased wife of Jacob Shank; David G.; 



BIOQBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 247 

Franklin M.; Ida C, wife of Joseph H. Eshleman, and Emma S., 
wife of Henry L. Strite. Mr. Strite was a Republican in poli- 
ties. He was president of the Hagerstown and Waynesboro Turn- 
pike Company from 1873 to 1895. 

John Strite was born on the 19th of July, 1825, in Leiters- 
burg District, the son of John and Elizabeth (Summer) Strite. 
He obtained his education principally in the schools of Antrim 
Township. In 1851 he began farming as tenant on his father's 
farm, which he subsequently purchased and which is now owned 
by his son, John F. Although he retired from farming in 1863 
he resided here until his death, October 19, 1870. In 1850 he 
married Catharine, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Eshleman) 
Horst; the issue of this marriage was one child, Elizabeth, who 
died at the age of five months. Mrs. Strite died in 1851, and in 
1853 he married Eva, daughter of John and Lydia (Myers) 
Shank. Their children were Henry Clinton and Samuel Harv^ey. 
Their mother died in 1861, and in 1867 he married Mary, daugh- 
ter of Frederick and Susan (Eshleman) Shank. To this union 
were bom two sons: John F.; and Benjamin, deceased. 

Samuel Strite was born near Greencastle, Pa., May 23, 1837, 
the son of John and Elizabeth (Summer) Strite. His father re- 
turned to Leitersburg District in 1843, and here he obtained his 
education at the common schools. From 1859 to 1863 he was 
engaged in farming as tenant on the farm of Jacob Miller, his 
uncle. In 1862 he purchased the mill property near Leitersburg 
and the farm adjacent thereto; here he located the following year 
and operated the farm, leasing the mill until 1867; from that 
date until 1893 he operated the mill, with the exception of two 
or three years. In 1893 he removed to Hagerstown, where he 
has since resided. Mr. Strite is a Republican in politics and has 
held several important public offices. He was elected a member 
of the Board of County Commissioners of Washington County 
in 1871 ; in the organization of the Board he was elected its pres- 
ident and held this responsible position during the erection of the 
present county court house. In 1875 he was elected judge of the 
orphans^ court. In 1881 he was appointed county school commis- 
sioner, and continued in office ten years. Previous to this he had 
served several terms as trustee of the Leitersburg schools. In 
1896 he was appointed a justice of the peace for Hagerstown. 



248 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

For many years he was a director in the Hagerstown and Wajiies- 
boro Turnpike Company; he was treasurer of this corporation 
seven years and has served as superintendent since 1893. He wa< 
also a director in the Planters' Mutual Insurance Company of Lei- 
tersburg for some years and has been treasurer of the company 
since 1891. In 1858 Mr. Strite married Esther Ann, daughter }i 
Jacob E. and Mary (Hoover) Shank, and their children are Abra- 
ham C, attomey-at-law, Hagerstown; Jacob A., attomey-at-law, 
Chambersburg, Pa.; Samuel M., a lieutenant in the United 
States Navy; Mary E.; Emma K.; John C, miller, Leitersburg: 
Louis M. C, teacher in the AVashington Coimty High School, 
Hagerstown; William A.; Clarence E., and Cora M. 

Abraham Strite was born on the 7th of November, 1831, on 
tho farm in Leitersburg District whereon his grandfather first 
settled in 1797. His parents were Joseph and Elizabeth (Strite) 
Strite. He obtained his education at the local schools at Jacobs 
church and Eock Hill. In 1856 he began farming as tenant on 
the farm in Leitersburg District subsequently owned by himself. 
From 1858 to 1861 he rented from Jacob Miller the farm in 
AVashington Township, Franklin County, now owned by Aaron 
Shank. In 1861 he purchased the larger part of the land • n 
wbich he began farming, and here he resided until his dcruh, 
Decenihor 3, 1891. In 1855 he married Fanny, daughter of John 
and Fanny (Buckwalter) Huber, of Petersburg, Lancaster County. 
Pa., and they were the parents of the following children: ^lary 
A., who married Ilenrv Ebersole; Matilda A., who died in earlv 
w()Tnanho(xl; Fanny K., who married Abraham Horst: Eliza])etli 
XL, wlio married David Lesher: Annie L., who died in childhood: 
Lucy K., who mniTied Samuel Diller, and Maggie M., who mar- 
ried John IT. Dillor. ]\Ir. Strite was a Eepublican in politics and 
a nioniher of tho ^Mennoni to Church. 

JosKPH Strite was horn in Leitersburg District, ^Lirch 2."), 
1833, the son of JnsGi)h and Elizabeth (Strite) Strite. He was 
roared on liis fnthor's farm and attended the locr.l schools. In 
1850 he be,irnn fanning as tenant on the farm of Christian Strite, 
his nneK\ nrljncont to tho mill. From 1858 to 1807 ho rent-nl 
]u> fi'.ther'sfr.nn. In 1807 ho purchased from Henry Hess the Wil- 
liam Oalhy farm, and liore ho lived until 1878, when he bought 
the farm on the Oreencastle ror.d wliere he resided until his death. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 249 

July 4, 1891. In 1856 he married Catharine, daughter of An- 
drew and Magdalena (Shank) Lesher, and they were the parents 
of the following children: Ann Malinda, deceased, who married 
John Eshleman; Maria Elizabeth, who married Jacob Keijff; 
Henry L.; Martha A., deceased, who married Samuel Ebersole; 
and Andrew C. Mr. Strite was a member of Miller's Mennonite 
Church and trustee of tliat organization, and in politics a Repub- 
lican. 

John S. Strite was born on the 21st of January, 184G, the son 
of Joseph and Elizabeth (Strite) Strite. He was born and reared 
at the farm whereon his grandfather first settled in 1797, and 
here he has resided all his life with the exception of one year. 
He obtained his education principally at the schools at Jacobs 
church and New Harmony, although he also attended Harrison 
and Leitersburg. In 1867, in partnership with his brother Chris- 
tian, he rented the farm whereon he now resides. In 1868 he 
rented it individually, and in the autumn of that year he bought 
it in partnership with Michael Lesher, his father-in-law, whose 
interest he acquired several years later. Here he was engaged in 
farming until 1894, and since then he has lived a retired life. In 
1867 he married Catharine, daughter of Michael and Catharine 
(Sollenberger) Lesher, of Chambersburg, Pa. Five children were 
born to them, three of whom died in infancy. The two now living 
are Amanda L., wife of Michael Eshleman, and Daniel AL Mr. 
Strite is a member of the Mennonite Church, and holds the office 
of trustee. In politics he is a Republican. 

John A. Strite was born in Antrim Township, Franklin 
County, Pa., June 28, 1849, the son of David and Elizabeth 
(Horst) Strite. He obtained his education at the schools of his 
native township and at Leitersburg. In 1871 he began farming 
as tenant on his father's farm in Antrim Township, where he 
remained two years. He then farmed in Leitersburg District 
nine years, in Antrim Township eleven years, and again returned 
to Leitersburg District in 1892. In 1897 he located upon the 
home farm near Leitersburg belonging to his father's estate. In 
1870 he married Catharine, daughter of David and Elizabeth 
(McFerren) Maun, and their children are D. P>anklin; Ira 0.; 
Melchor E.; John C; Elizabeth M.; Emma K.; Charles E., and 
ilary A. Mr. Strite is a Republican in politics. 



250 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBQ DISTRICT. 

Franklin M. Strite was born in Antrim Township on the 
17th of April, 1857, the son of David and Elizabeth (Horst) 
Strite. He obtained his education at New Harmony and Leiters- 
burg. He began farming in 1882, and for ten years operated as 
tenant successively the farms of his father and that of Mrs. Fanny 
Miller in Leitersburg District. In 1892 he purchased the fann 
upon which he has since resided. In 1881 he married Martha, 
daughter of Jacob and Fanny (Snively) Miller, and their children 
were Clyde L.; Frank S.; Annie E.; David B., and Mary K. Their 
mother died, November 19, 1888, and in 1890 he married Lydia, 
daughter of Joseph and Fanny (Lesher) Horst. The following 
children have been bom to this union: Joseph H.; Annie M.; 
Daniel W., and Ira C. Mr. Strite is a member of the Mennonite 
Church and in politics a Republican. 

John F. Strite was born on the 11th of November, 1868, 
in Leitersburg District, the son of John and Mary (Shank) Strite. 
He obtained his education at Rock Hill school. Since 1893 he 
has managed the farm jointly owned by himself and his mother. 

Abraham C. Strite was born in Leitersburg District, Sep- 
tember 7, 1860, the son of Samuel and Esther Ann (Shank) Strite. 
He obtained his education at the grammar schools of Leitersburg 
and Smithsburg and at Dickinson College, Cariisle, Pa., from 
which he graduated in 1882. In 1882-83 he was principal of the 
Boonsboro public schools and in 1883-87 assistant principal of 
the AVashington County High School. During this period he 
was engaged in the study of law under the preceptorship of Louis 
E. McComas, and in 1886 he was admitted to the bar. In 1887 
ho engaged in the practice of his profession, to which he has 
since given his attention. He is officially connected with the 
city government of Hagerstown as attorney for the mayor and 
council. Mr. Strite is a Republican in politics and was twice nom- 
inated by his party for the House of Delegates. 

Samuel M. Strite was born in Leitersburg District, June 2, 
18(;r), the son of Samuel and Esther Ann (Shank) Strite. In 
1.^82, while a student at the Leitersburg Grammar School, he 
was appointed to the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis 
by Hon. Milton G. Urner; there he completed the usual course 
^^f study and grarluatcd in 1880 with the rank of cadet. After a 
two years' cruise he received the rank of ensign, from which he 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 251 

was promoted to a lieutenancy in 1897. Since entering the Navy 
he has made three voyages to China and Japan. He was also 
connected with the coast survey three years and was stationed at 
Pittsburg two years as inspector of armor plate. He is now a 
lieutenant on the Olympia, flagship of the Asiatic squadron, 
and participated in the naval battle at Manila, May 1, 1898. 

John C. Strite was bom in Leitersburg District, February 
28, 1871, the son of Samuel and Esther Ann (Shank) Strite. 
After completing the course of study at the Leitersburg schools 
he engaged in teaching in 1890, continuing in this profession five 
years, and during this period he had charge of the intermediate 
department of the Leitersburg schools. In 1895 he leased his 
father's mill near Leitersburg, which he has since operated. Mr. 
Strite is a member of the Lutheran Church and a Republican in 
politics. 

Henry L. Strite was bom in Leitersburg District on the 19th 
of February, 1862, the son of Joseph and Catharine (Lesher) 
Strite. His education was obtained at Xew Haraiony and at 
the grammar school in Leitersburg. In 1885 he began fanning 
as tenant on his father's farm, and here he resided until 1897, 
when, having purchased from the estate of the late David Strite 
his present farm, he located thereon. In 1885 he married Emma 
S., daughter of David and Elizabeth (Horst) Strite, and their 
children are Carrie M.; Chester A., and Milton H. Mr. Strite is 
a Republican in politics. 

Andrew C. Strite was bom in Leitersburg District on the 
22d of December, 1866, the son of Joseph and Catharine (Lesher) 
Strite. He was reared on his father's fami and attended the 
schools at New Harmony and Leitersburg. He began farming 
in 1890 as tenant on his father's farai, which he has since oper- 
ated. In 1889 he married Annie B., daughter of Abraham F. 
and Sarah (Brubaker) Landis, who died on the 28th of June, 
1895, leaving two children, Ada May and Ervin Landis. In 1897 
he married her sister, Miss Lizzie B. Landis. Mr. Strite is a 
Republican in politics and a member of the Mennonite Church. 

Daniel M. Strite was bom in Leitersburg District, March 
12, 1873, the son of John S. and Catharine (Lesher) Strite. His 
education was obtained at New Harmony school. He began 
farming in 1894 and has since operated his father's farm. In 

15 



252 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

1893 he married Annie G., daughter of John E. and Annie M. 
(Good) Horst, and they are the parents of one child, Amos W. 
Mr. Strite is a member of the Mennonite Church and a Sepubliean 
in politics. 

D. Franklin Strite was bom in Antrim Township, Franklin 
County, Pa., October 16, 1871, the son of John A. and Catharine 
(Maun) Strite. He obtained his education at the schools of his 
native township and at Kock Hill in Leitersburg District. In 
1895 he entered the employ of Henry F. Lehman, by whom he has 
since been employed in the milling business. 

Jacob Miller was bom on the 11th of Febmary, 1763. There 
is positive evidence that he resided in Lampeter Township, Lan- 
caster Coimty, Pa., from 1782 to 1788, and in Manor Township 
in that county in 1791. In 1797 he purchased the farm in Lei- 
tersburg District on Antietam creek now owned by Samuel Hartle, 
and here he resided until his death, January 13, 1822. Within 
the next three months three of his children also died, viz., Anna, 
on the 6th of February at the age of twenty-seven; Tobias, on 
the 23d of March at the age of thirty-one, and John, on the 29tli 
of March at the age of twenty-one. The sur\'iving children were 
Mar}', who married Jacob Barr; Jacob, and Susan, who married 
Henry Funk. Jacob Miller was a member of the Mennonite 
Church. 

Jacob Miller was born in Leitersburg District, July 17, 1797, 
tlie son of Jacob and Susan ^liller. lie was reared in Leitersburg 
District, of which he became one of the wealthiest and most influ- 
ential citizens. During the greater part of his active business 
life he resided near Millers church at the farm now owned bv 
William H. Kreps; this was his property, in addition to which he 
(\h() owned the adjacent farms of Noah K. Shank, John 0. Wol- 
finger, Mrs. Mary A. llykes, and W. Harvey Ilykes, aggregating 
525 acres; the farm of 275 acres in Washington Township now 
owned by Aaron Shank, and other valuable property. In 1864-67 
he was president of the llagerstown and Waynesboro Turnpike 
Company. He was a mem])er of the Mennonite Church and gave 
the ground upon which the churcli building that bears his name- 
is located. In 1820 he married Nancy, daughter of John i\mt 
Elizabeth (Eshleman) Strite, and their children were Elizabeth--r 
who married David Summer; Jacob; John; Nancy, who marricc^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 253 

Solomon StouJBEer; Joseph, and Susanna. Their mother died in 
1832, and as his second wife he married Fanny, daughter of John 
and Anna (Hege) Snively; their children were Henry, a farmer 
near Hagerstown; Benjamin, a farmer near Waynesboro, Pa.; 
Lewis, a farmer in Leitersburg District; Mary, who married John 
B. Martin; David; Andrew, a farmer near Hagerstown; Mariiin, 
a physician at Mannington, W. Va.; Fanny, who married Henry 
Martin; Catharine; Jacob S., a farmer near Smithsburg; Chris- 
tian, a teacher at Council Bluffs, Iowa; Tobias; Daniel; Samuel; 
Maiiha, deceased wife of Franklin M. Strite, and Maria, who mar- 
ried Alberi; Snyder. Jacob Miller died on the 7th of September, 
1868. 

John Miller was born in Leitersburg District on the 12th of 
June, 1825, the son of Jacob and Nancy (Strite) Miller. He ob- 
tained his education principally at a school house that stood near 
the present site of Miller's church. In 1850 he began farming 
on the farm now owned by W. Harvey Hykes, which afterward 
became his property, and here he resided during his active busi- 
ness life. In 1889 he removed to Hagerstown, and there he died 
in 1893. In 1850 he married Maria, daughter of John and Lydia 
(Myers) Shank, and their children were Jacob H. and Joseph C, 
who died in childhood; John C; Lydia A., wife of Abraham Mar- 
tin; Isaiah, and Susan R., who died in infancy. Mr. Miller 
was a member of Miller^s Mennonite Church, in which he 
held the office of trustee. In politics he was a Republican. 

Lewis Miller was bom in Leitersburg District, March 23, 
1841, the son of Jacob and Fanny (Snively) Miller. His educa- 
tion was obtained at Rock Hill and New Harmony schools. He 
purchased and improved the property of John 0. Wolfinger near 
Miller^s church, and afterward operated the farm of Henry Funk 
at Wingerton, Pa., two years and the Avondale farm of Israel 
Eeiff at Clearspring one year. In 1887 he purchased twelve acres 
of land in Leitersburg District and erected the present improve- 
ments thereon, and here he has since resided. In 1868 he mar- 
ried Sarah, daughter of Henry and Catharine (Schindel) Remley, 
and their children are Jacob H.; Fanny A. C; John C. and 
Myrtle S., both deceased; Cora M.; David E.: Laura E., and Noah 
F. Mr. Miller is a member of the Mennonite Church and a Re- 
publican in politics. 



254 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTRICT. 

John C. Miller was bom in Leitersburg District on the 17th 
of July, 1856, the son of John and Maria (Shank) Miller. He 
obtained his education at Rock Hill school. In 1881 he rented 
his father's farm in Leitersburg District and engaged in farming. 
In 1889 he removed to the farm of John F. Strite, which he oper- 
ated two years. In 1891, having purchased the property for- 
merly owned by Matthias Kayhoe, he located thereon, and here 
he resided until 1897, when he leased the farm of Mrs. Henry 
Fimk near Waynesboro, Pa., which he has since operated. In 
1878 he married Margaret, daughter of George and Fanny 
(StoufEer) Keener, and their children are Fanny M.; Christie V.; 
John A.; Amos E.; Ira S.; Clarence L., and Annie M. Mr. 
Miller is a member of Miller's Mennonite Church, in which 
he was elected to the office of minister, November 21, 1892. He 
was also superintendent of the Sunday school three years. In 
politics he is a Republican. 

John Newcomer removed from Millersville, Lancaster County, 
Pa., in 1797, and purchased from the Webb estate the land in 
Leitersburg and Cavetown Districts npw owned by his descend- 
ants, John B. and Samuel Newcomer and Mrs. Theodore Neff. 
Here he resided imtil his death. John and Frany Newcomer 
were the parents of the following children: Christian; Nancy, 
who married Christian Hoffman; Elizabeth, who married Abra- 
ham Stonffer: Marv, who married Abraham Weltv; Franv, who 
married Isaac Stoner; Peter; Jacob, and Andrew. The first John 
Newcomer was a Mennonite in faith. 

Joiix Newcomer was bom in Lancaster Countv, Pa., Jamiarv 
1, 1792, the son of John and Frany Newcomer. He was brought 
to AVashin^^ton County by his parents in early childhood. In 

1822 he married Catharine, daughter of David and 

(Petrie) Nave, who inherited from her father the farm in Ring- 
gold District whereon their son, John N. Newcomer, now resides. 
They located on this farm in 1822 and resided here until death. 
He died on the 14th of April, 1859, and she on the 11th of De- 
cember, 1863. Both were members of the German Baptist 
Church and in politics he was a Vfh\g. Their children were 
Fanny, widow of Jacob Friedly: David, deceased; Nancy, de- 
ceased wife of Daniel Geiser, deceased: Catharine, deceased wife 
of Christian Mentzer; Susan, deceased; John N.: Solomon, Sarah, 



BIOQBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 255 

and Benjamin, all deceased; Elizabeth, wife of Daniel Hoover; 
Christian; Mary Ann and Barbara, both deceased. 

Jacob Newcomer was born in Cavetown District, September 
2, 1798, the son of John and Frany Newcomer. After his father's 
death he succeeded to the home farm in partnership with his 
brother Andrew, whose interest he eventually secured, and here 
he resided until the close of his life, dying on the 26th of April, 
1855. He was a member of the Mennonite Church. He mar- 
ried Leah, daughter of George and Magdalena (Motz) Beard, and 
their children were Anna, who died in childhood; John B.; David; 
Fanny; Jacob; Magdalene, widow of Theodore Neff, and Samuel. 

John N. Newcomer was bom in Einggold District, September 
14, 1831, the son of John and Catharine (Nave) Newcomer. He 
was reared on his father's farm and obtained his education at the 
local schools. He engaged in farming in 1858 as tenant on the 
farm of John Mentzer in Leitersburg District. From 1862 to 
1873 he operated a farm in Ringgold District owned by his father. 
In 1873 he purchased the farm whereon his father and maternal 
grandfather lived and died, and here he has since resided, 
although in 1889 he retired from farming. In 1854 he married 
Ann Catharine, daughter of John and Catharine (Beaver) 
Mentzer, and their children are Mary A.; Joseph M.; Aaron; 
Daniel and Emma, deceased. Mr. Newcomer is a member of 
the German Baptist Church and in politics a Eepublican. 

Benjamin Newcomer was bom in Ringgold District, January 
20, 1839, the son of John and Catharine (Nave) Newcomer. His 
education was obtained at the local schools. He first engaged in 
farming in his native District at the home farm of his father, 
after which he bought a farm near Ringgold; this he sold in 1878, 
and in 1882 he purchased the farm in Leitersburg District for- 
meriy owned by Benjamin Garver; here he resided until his death, 
January 7, 1892. In 1867 he married Mary M., daughter of Ben- 
jamin and Barbara (Berger) Garver, and their children were 
Emma B.; Charies G.; Nettie; Cyrus; Fannie; Benjamin F.; J. 
Elmer, and Zella M. Mr. Newcomer was a Republican in politics. 

John B. Newcomer was bom in Cavetown District, September 
14, 1833, the son of Jacob and Leah (Beard) Newcomer. He has 
resided all his life on the farm upon which he was bom, pari: of 
which he owns, and here he is engaged in the business of wagon- 



256 HISTORY OF LEITEBSBUBQ DISTRICT. 

making and repairing. In 1857 he married Nancy, daughter of 
John and Susan (Welty) BarkdoU, and their children are EUza- 
beth, deceased; Ida, wife of Isaac StonfEer; Walter B.; Silas; Fan- 
nie, deceased, and Gertrude. Mr. Newcomer is a member of the 
Lutheran Church and a Republican in politics. 

Samuel Newcomer was bom in Cavetown District, February 
6, 1845, the son of Jacob and Leah (Beard) Newcomer. From 
1868 to 1876 he was employed by the Geiser Manufacturing Com- 
pany of AVaynesboro, Pa., as general traveling salesman, and per- 
formed efficient service in the introduction of their machinery in 
the middle western and southern States. In 1876 he purchased 
part of the farm previously owned by his father and grandfather 
and here he has since been engaged in farming. He married in 
1876 Sallie S., daughter of Daniel G. and Lydia (Kessinger) 
Beard, and their children are Keller J.; L. Blanche; Buth M.; 
Carlton, deceased; Luther B.; Grace E., deceased; May 0.; Nellie 
M.; S. Herbert, and Alice K. Mr. Newcomer is a member of the 
Lutheran Church and independent in politics. 

Joseph M. Newtomer was bom in Leitersburg District, Janu- 
ary 5, 1860, the son of John N. and Catharine (Mentzer) New- 
comer. He was reared in Ringgold District and obtained a com- 
mon school education. In 1883 he married Susanna, daughter 
of George K. and Anna (Newcomer) Bayers, and they are the 
parents of the following children: Maude E.; Cora E.; Mar}' G., 
and John. In 1884 he lived in his father's tenement house. In 
1885 he engaged in farming as tenant on the farm of William 
Newcomer in Beaver Creek District, which he operated until 
1897: he then located upon the farm of his father in Ringgold 
District where he now resides. Mr. Newcomer is a member of the 
Chri?:tian Church and a Republican in politics. 

Walter B. Newcomer was born in Cavetown District, Febru- 
ary 16, 1862, the son of John B. and Nancy (Barkdoll) Newcomer, 
lie received a common school education and after reaching man- 
hood was employed for several years at wagon making and market 
gardening. In 1888 he engaged in farming in Franklin County, 
Pa., near Jacobs church, where he resided three years. He has 
since been a resident of Leitersburg District, and has operated 
the farm of Daniel Hoover near Jacobs church since 1895. In 
1881 he married Alice ]\ray, daughter of Samuel and Letha A. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 257 

(Snyder) Martin, and they are the parents of one child, Arthur M. 
Mr. Newcomer is a Republican in politics and a member of the 
Lutheran Church. 

Rev. John Ruthrauff was born on the 14:th of January, 1764, 
in Northampton County, Pa., whence his parents removed to 
York County, where he was reared. In 1790 he began the study 
of theology under Rev. Jacob Goering, pastor of the Lutheran 
Church at York and an able and learned man. He preached for 
the first time on the 14th of July, 1793, and shortly afterward 
entered the ministry as pastor of several churches in York Coun- 
ty, after which he also had charge of the Lutheran Church at 
Carlisle. In 1795 he was assigned by the Ministerium of Penn- 
sylvania to a charge composed of the churches at Greencastle, 
Mercersburg, Jacobs, Beard's, and Mayfield(?). Here he found 
his life-work. Regarding the magnitude of his labors his biogra- 
pher thus speaks in Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit: 
"His charge embraced McConnellf^burg, Jjoudoun, Mercersburg, 
Waynesboro, Quincy, Smoketown, Jacobs church, and several in 
Washington County, Md. He also preached in the neighborhood 
of Emmittsburg and for a time at Chambersburg, and continued 
to supply the congregation at Carlisle and another about twelve 
miles from Harrisburg. This was distant from his home about 
fifty miles and he performed the journey once every month. Sev- 
eral of his congregations were fifteen or twenty miles apart, and a 
high mountain lay between two churches that he had to serve on 
the same Sabbath. But, as soon as he left the pulpit he mounted 
his horse with his dinner in his hand, that he might be able to 
meet his second appointment for the day. He had a vigorous 
constitution and great power of endurance, and was thereby well 
fitted to the work of a missionary pioneer. Some twelve or fif- 
teen ministers are now cultivating the field which Mr. Ruthrauff 
then occupied alone." 

Mr. Ruthrauflf also owned a farm of two hundred acres about 
a mile west of Greencastle; here he built a mill, which was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1827. The fire occurred on Sunday and a mes- 
senger was hastily sent to inform him. It was the day of his ap- 
pointment at Jacobs church and he was about to enter the pulpit 
when the intelligence reached him. He merely observed that it 
was too late for him to reach home in time to be of any service 
and proceeded with the sermon with his usual composure. 



258 HISTORY OF LEITEBSBUBQ DI8TBI0T. 

In 1784 Mr. Ruthrauff married Anna Maria Hamme, a native 
of York County, and they were the parents of nine children, one 
daughter and eight sons. Two of the sons entered the Lutheran 
ministry, Revs. Jonathan and Frederick Ruthrauff; one grand- 
son, Rev. William P. Ruthrauff; and two great-grandsons. Revs. 
J. M. Ruthrauff, D. D., and G. A. Bierdeman. 

Mr. Rauthrauff resided at Grencastle until his death, December 
18, 1837. He preached in Leitersburg District nearly forty years, 
and dedicated the Leitersburg Lutheran church. 

Bishop Peter Eshleman was bom in Warwick Township, 
Lancaster County, Pa., near the town of Lititz, November 8, 
1798, the son of Abraham and Susanna Eshleman and grandson 
of Ulrich Eshleman, a iiative of Switzerland, who emigrated 
about the year 1750 and located in Lancaster County between 
Manheim and Lititz. Here Abraham Eshleman was bom on the 
19th of June, 1765, and died on the 7th of April, 1838. He 
reared a large family and has numerous descendants. Peter Eshle- 
man removed from Lancaster County in 1831 and located near 
Reid postoffice on the Marsh turnpike, where he owned a large 
tract of land, the ownership of which is still retained by his de- 
scendants. He married ^lary Reiff of Earl Township, Lancaster 
County, and tliey reared eight sons and three daughters. Bishop 
p]?hlenian came to the mini.^trv a1)out the vear 1834 and was or- 
dained as bishop in the autumn of 1838. For nearly forty 
yeai\< he officiated in this capacity nt Millers church in Leiters- 
bur<r District, and here he is burie<l. Ilis death occurred on the 
12th of Mav, 1876. 

Rev. J. W. Santee, 1). D., was born and reared near Bethle- 
hem, Pa., and receivcnl his early education in the common schools 
and at an academy at Bethlehem. In 1843 he entered the pre- 
paratory department of Marshall College, Mercersburg, Pa., grad- 
uating in 1848. He then entered the Theological Seminar}' of 
the Reformed Church at ^lercersburg, then presided over by two 
world-renowTied theologians, Rev. J. W. Nevin, D. D., and Rev. 
Philip Schaff, D. D. In the fall of 1850 he received and accepted 
a call to the Cavetown charge, locating at Cavetown in the spring 
of 1851, and here his pastorate continued forty-one years and a 
half. This was Dr. San tee's fii*st and only charge. The Re- 
formed church at Leitersburg was erected largely through his 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 259 

efforts and affords tangible evidence of his fidelity and success as 
pastor and preacher. He was succeeded in this pastorate by his 
son, the Bev. Charles A. Santee, now pastor of the Eeformed 
Church at Mercersburg, Pa., where the Doctor also resides. 

Bev. John Heck was bom near Chambersburg, Pa., December 
11, 1809, the son of Ludwig and Catharine Heck. The former 
was bom on the 19th of December, 1770, and died May 4, 1837; 
his ancestors were of German origin and were among the first 
settlers in the neighborhood of Grindstone Hill. The subject of 
this sketch attended school in Chambersburg and obtained his 
collegiate education at Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, Pa., 
graduating in 1839. He then entered the Theological Seminary 
at that place, where he graduated two years later. In 1841 he 
was examined for licensure before the Maryland Synod at Hagers- 
town. Concerning this he writes: "The Synod of Maryland cus- 
tomarily examines all applicants for licensure before the whole 
Synod and hence the nerve of the examinees is put to a severe test. 
I and my companions were before the body about five hours." 
Prior to this he had received a call to the Newville charge in Cum- 
berland County, Pa.; this he accepted, entering upon his duties 
the same year (1841). In December, 1844, he became pastor of 
the Waynesboro charge, which included Jacobs church in Leiters- 
burg District, and there he preached for twelve years. In 1857 
he assumed charge of the Smithsburg pastorate in Washington 
County, Md. This was his last charge; he died on the 11th of 
March, 1861, and is buried at the Lutheran church in Leiters- 
burg. He had been in the ministry twenty years, and preached 
in Leitersburg District sixteen years. In 1847 he married Anna, 
daughter of Frederick and Bose Ann (Lantz) Ziegler, who sur- 
vives him and resides at Greencastle. They were the parents of 
the following children: Frederick Z.; Lewis L.; John M.; George 
S.; and David J., who died in childhood. 

Bishop Michael Horst was born in Lancaster County, Pa., 
September 2, 1824, the son of John and Elizabeth (Eshleman) 
Horst. John Horst removed from Lancaster County in 1838 and 
located in the vicinity of Maugansville, Washington County, Md.,* 
where the subject of this sketch has since resided. He was or- 
dained as a minister in January, 1859, and as bishop in Novem- 
ber, 1868. His jurisdiction includes all the Mennonite churches 
in Washington County. 



260 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICTT. 

Eev. Victor Miller, A. M., was bom in Wilson's District, 
Washington County, Md., October 24, 1834, the son of Samuel 
and Mary (Fiery) Miller and grandson of Captain John Miller, a 
soldier of the Revolution, who owned a farm on the Western 
turnpike nearly opposite Spickler postoffice. Here he died on 
the 24th of April, 1804, in his forty-eighth year. He married 
Julia Ann Stein and they were the parents of eight children. 
Samuel Miller was bom on the 17th of December, 1783; he suc- 
ceeded to the patemal estate and resided thereon until his death, 
June 3, 1849. He served in the War of 1812 with the rank of 
captain. The subject of this sketch obtained his early education 
at the school at St. Paul's church. In 1848 he entered the store 
of Wilson & Ely, general merchants, at Conococheague, in whose 
employ he continued for five years. In 1853-54 he attended Mc- 
Carthy's Academy at Williamsport, Md.; here he prepared for 
Pennsylvania College at Gettysburg, which he entered as Fresh- 
man in 1854, graduating in 1858 as valedictorian of his Class. In 
1859-61 he was a student at the Theological Seminary at Gettys- 
burg, at Union Theological Seminary, Xew York, in 18G1, and 
again at the Seminary at Gettysburg, where he graduated in 1861. 
In the spring of 1862 he became pastor of the Fayetteville charge 
in Lawrence County, Pa.; here he served three congregations and 
remained until 1871, and during this period a parsonage was 
erected for the charge. Having relinquished preaching on ac- 
count of throat trouble he returned to his native countv and en- 
gaged in teaching. In 1881 he was calkxl to his present charge, 
composed of the Leitersbnrg and Beard's Lutheran Churches. 
Durin<r his incunibencv both clnirch buildincrs have been exten- 
sivoly remodelled and tlie ]>arsnnage at I^eitersburg has been 
erected. In addition to local pastoral work ^Ir. Miller has been 
secretary of the Mar}'land Synod by successive reeleetions since 
1880, and in 1885 lie was a deletrate from the Marv'land Svnod to 
the (ioneral Svnod of the Lutheran Chnrch. In 1865 he married 
Mary C, daughter of David and Matilda (Ankeney) Spickler, and 
their children were ^Vlary E.; ^Matilda K., and Luther F., a grad- 
uate of Pennsylvania College and a student at the Tlieological 
Seminarv at Gf'ttvsburir. Mrs. Miller died on the 10th of Aufrust, 
1873, and in 1882 he married Josephine, daughter of Joshua and 
Mary (Ankeney) Newcomer. In politics Mr. Miller is a Prohi- 
bitionist. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 261 

Elder John Eowland was born near Chewsville, Md., July 9, 
1852, the eon of David B. and Catharine (Coup) Eowland and 
grandson of John Rowland, who lived near the Marsh church and 
St. James College. David B. Rowland was a farmer by occupa- 
tion and died at Welsh Run, Pa., in 1871 at the age of forty-nine. 
John Rowland was reared in Washington County and at the Little 
Cove and Welsh Run in Franklin County, and obtained a com- 
mon school education. In 1875 he engaged in farming near 
Welsh Run, where he continued two years. He was then located 
successively on the John Shank farm near Greencastle four years, 
at Long's Station six years, and at the Hade farm in Antrim 
Township one year. In 1888 he rented the farm of Isaac Shank 
in Leitersburg District, which he has since operated. In 1881 he 
entered into partnership with Jacob Shank in the purchase and 
operation of a steam threshing outfit; he has since been engaged 
in this business, individually or in partnership with others, with 
the exception of two years, and is now the owner of one complete 
rig and a half-interest in another. In 1874 he married Susan, 
daughter of John and Elizabeth (Braut) Miller, and their children 
are Albert M.; William D.; John E.; Katie M.; Charles L.; Annie 
E.; Gertie F.; and DoUie, who died in infancy. 

Elder Rowland was elected deacon in the Back Creek German 
Baptist Church in Antrim Township in 1883. On the 19th of 
May, 1888, he was elected to the ministry by the Beaver Creek 
Congregation of Washington County, and is now the only resident 
minister within the Longmeadows District. In 1893-94 he was 
superintendent of the Longmeadows Sunday school. 

George Ziegler was the first of the Ziegler family to emigrate 
from Lancaster County, Pa., to Leitersburg District. He first lo- 
cated a short distance west of Leitersburg on the turnpike; in 
1806 he purchased from Felix Beck, his brother-in-law, thirty- 
five acres of land on the opposite side of the Greencastle road 
from Strite's mill and now embraced in the farm owned by the 
heirs of the late David Strite. Here the house in which he lived 
still stands. He was a carpenter and cabinet maker by trade and 
was regarded as a master of his craft. He married Barbara, 
daughter of George Beck, of Manor Township, Lancaster County, 
and they were the parents of eight children: George; Jacob; 
David; Samuel; Catharine, who married George Poe; Elizabeth, 



262 HISTORY OF LEITEESBUBO DISTBICT. 

who married John Allwood; Ann, who married Joseph Leiter, 
and Barbara. George Ziegler died on the 14th of December, 
1812. His widow, who was bom on the 12th of October, 1775, 
died on the 13th of April, 1853. This family adhered to the 
Eeformed Church. 

George Ziegler was bom in 1793, the son of George and Bar- 
bara (Beck) Ziegler. He was a carpenter by occupation and a 
resident of the District until his death, September 15, 1862, His 
first wife was Xancy Seiler and their children were Maria, who 
married Adam Nail; Barbara, who married Samuel Burger; Cath- 
arine, who married Immanuel Rohrer; Jacob; George, and David. 
His second wife was Ellen Bigler, and their children were Sam- 
uel; Milton, and Joseph. Mr. Ziegler was a member of the Re- 
fora[i€d Church and a Whig in politics. 

George S. Ziegler was bom in Leitersburg District, Septem- 
ber 27, 1826, the son of George and Nancy (Seiler) Ziegler. He 
was a miller by occupation and a Whig in politics, and died on the 
4th of August, 1857. He married Susan C. Wolfersberger and 
their children were Mary A., wife of Charles B. Wolfinger; Anna 
M., wife of Levi B. Wolfinger; Jacob A., and Abigail Z. 

Jacob A. Ziegler was born on the 20th of October, 1854, at 
Brown'.s Mills, Franklin County, Pa., the son of George S. and 
Susan (Wolfersber<rer) Ziegler. In 1857, his father having died, 
the family removed to Leitersburg and there he was reared. His 
education was obtained at the public schools of Leitersburg and 
Smithsburg. He became teacher of the intermediate department 
of the 8niiths])urg schools in 1873 and held this position six years. 
In 18T1) he was appointed principal of the grammar department 
of the Washington County High School. In 1884 he became 
principal of the Antietam Grammar School in Ilagerstown; in 
1804 he was transferred to the Winter Street building, where he 
served as principal until 180G. He was appointed deputy col- 
lector of taxes for Washington County in 1896 and has since been 
the incumbent of this ])osition. In 1880 he married Margaret, 
daughter of Captain John 11. and Evaline (Gardner) HolUngs- 
worth and their children are Charles L.: Electa: Marie, and Emilv. 
Mr. Ziegler is a member of the Eeformed Church, in which he has 
held the office of deacon. In politics he is a Republican. 

Frederick Ziegler, a native of Gennanv, was bom on the 



BIOQEAPHICAL SKETCHES. 263 

30th of December, 1730, and emigrated to America in early man- 
hood, locating in Lancaster County, Pa. Here he owned a tract 
of five hundred acres, situated about one mile east of Millersville, 
in one of the finest agricultural sections of the State. The barn 
that he built on this farm is still used as such; the house was 
erected over a spring and its foundation walls are yet discernible. 
Here he resided until his death, November 21, 1791. The maiden 
name of his wife was Magdalena Hoehlander and they were the 
parents of three sons: George; Frederick, and Lewis; and of four 
daughters, whose married names were respectively Fehl, Resh, 
Detrich, and Kendig. 

Fredebick Ziegler was bom in Lancaster County, Pa., Janu- 
ary 19, 1778, the son of Frederick and Magdalena (Hoehlander) 
Ziegler. Prior to the year 1800 he came to Leitersburg District; 
here he learned the trade of carpenter under George Ziegler and 
engaged in contracting and building in part;nership with his 
brother Lewis. After the dissolution of this partnership he en- 
gaged in farming and distilling, residing at the stone mansion on 
the turnpike southwest of Leitersburg. In 1833 he purchased the 
mill on Marsh run at the extreme western limit of the District. 
He was also largely interested in real estate; he owned five hun- 
dred acres of land in I>eitersburg District, situated along the 
turnpike between his residence and mill, while the Old Forge 
farm of two hundred acres was also his property. The mill, dis- 
tiller}', and farms were operated under his personal supervision. 
The product of the distillery was sold through commission mer- 
chants in the cities and enjoyed a high reputation. Mr. Ziegler 
was careful and methodical in his business habits and was noted 
for close attention to details. In politics he was an ardent Whig. 
The Lutheran Church of Leitersburg, of which he was a member, 
found in him a loyal supporter. He was a member of the build- 
ing committee by which the church edifice was erected, a gener- 
ous contributor to that enterprise, and an officer in the congrega- 
tion for many years, ifr. Ziegler married Eose Ann Elizabeth, 
daughter of George and Barbara (Ziegler) Lantz, and their chil- 
dren were George W.; Sophia; Frederick K.; Lewis; Barbara; 
Elizabeth, who married Charles A. Fletcher; Catharine, who mar- 
ried Dr. Frederick Byer; Maria M.; Anna, who married Rev. John 
Heck; Henry; David, and Lydia, who married James M. Leiter. 



264 HISTOBT OF LEITEBSBUBO DISTBICT. 

The death of Frederick Ziegler occurred on the 30th of May, 
1857. 

Lewis Ziegleb was bom in Lancaster County, Pa., in 1787, 
the son of Frederick and Magdalena (Hochlander) Ziegler, and 
died in Leitersburg District on the 2d of March, 1863. In early 
manhood he removed to Washington County and learned the trade 
of carpenter under George Ziegler of Leitersburg District, after 
which he was in partnership with his brother Frederick in the 
business of contracting and building; this he relinquished some 
years later to engage in farming and distilling. He resided west 
of Leitersburg on the farm now owned by the heirs of the late 
David St rite; the improvements thereon were erected by him and 
rank with the most commodious and substantial in the District. 
His distillery was also one of the most extensive, and for years he 
had a team constantly on the road hauling its product to market. 
He was a Whig in politics and a man of prominence and influence 
in his party, by which he was elected to the Maryland Legislature 
in 1840. He was a member of the Lutheran Church of Leiters- 
burg, in which he held oflBcial position for years; he was also a 
member of the building committee when the church was erected 
and a liberal contributor to that undertaking. He was a man of 
generous instincts, which found expression in constant liberality 
to the poor. In 1809 Mr. Ziegler married Catharine, daughter 
of George and Barbara (Ziegler) Ijantz, and their children were 
George L.: Magdalena M., who married Dr. Josiah Harris, of Co- 
shocton, Ohio; Barbara, who died in early womanhood; Lewis; 
Frederick, wlio died in infancy; Elizabeth, w^ho married David G. 
Martin; Samuel; Charles; James, and Mar}^ C, wife of Jose]>hus 
Ground of Leitersburg. 

George W. Ziegler was born in Leitersburg District on the 
30th of April, 1810, the son of Frederick and Rose Ann Elizabeth 
(Lantz) Ziegler. lie was reared in his native District and ob- 
tained a fair education at the local schools. At the age of nine- 
teen he entered the store of Charles A. Fletcher at Leitersbur<r, 
and thus began his Imsiness career. Here he remained two vear? 
and a half. Tie was then employed in a similar capacity by 
Hager, Kauslcr &- Company at Hagerstown for eighteen months. 
In 1<S33 he purchased the interest of John G. ^liller in the gen- 
eral store of Stonebraker & ]\[iller, Greencastle, Pa., and embarked 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 265 

in business as junior member of the finn of Stonebraker & Ziegler. 
This partnership continued five years, when Mr. Ziegler bought 
the interest of his partner and conducted the business individu- 
ally until 1850. His brother, David Ziegler, then became asso- 
ciated with him. The style of the firm was George W. Ziegler & 
Company until 1876, when it was changed to George W. & D. 
Ziegler. The store is located at the northeast comer of the public 
square in Greencastle, and from 1833 until his death, November 
16, 1897, the subject of this sketch was identified with the busi- 
ness conducted here. It is doubtful whether the mercantile an- 
nals of the Cumberland valley present a parallel instance, and 
may certainly be stated with perfect safety that Mr. Ziegler was 
the last survivor in Franklin County of the generation of mer- 
chants with whom he began business more than three score years 
before. For many years he was a director in the Waynesburg, 
Greencastle, and Mercersburg Turnpike Eoad Company and exer- 
cised a controlling influence in its affairs, resulting in substantial 
improvements to the property. He was also responsibly connected 
with the organization of the First National Bank of Greencastle 
and was a member of the first board of directors of that institu- 
tion, serving in this capacity until his death. In ante-heUum 
days he was an ardent anti-slavery advocate; originally a Whig, he 
took a prominent part in the organization of the Eepublican party, 
serving in 1856 as a delegate in the National Convention that 
nominated Fremont for President. In 1842 Mr. Ziegler married 
Catharine, daughter of George and Maria (Ayres) Fatzinger, and 
they were the parents of three children: George F.; Maria E., who 
died at the age of seventeen, and Theodore F., who died in child- 
hood. 

Fredekick K. Ziegler was bom in Leitersburg District, Octo- 
ber 28, 1815, the son of Frederick and Eose Ann Elizabeth 
(Lantz) Ziegler. He obtained a common school education, and 
in early manhood was identified with the varied business interests 
of his father. In 1847-48 he was associated with Eobert Fowler 
in the construction of the Hagerstown and Waynesboro turnpike 
and for about twenty years they were in partnership in the dis- 
tilling business in T^eitersburg District. Mr. Ziegler was also a 
member of the firm of Ziegler, Gantz & Appleman, which was re- 
sponsibly identified with the construction of the Washington 



266 HISTORY OF LEITEB8BUBG DISTRICT. 

County Branch of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad^ and for a 
number of years he was engaged in fanning near Leitersburg. A 
Eepublican in poUtics, he was elected to the House of Delegates aa 
the candidate of his party and subsequently as sheriff of Wash- 
ington County. He married Louisa^ daughter of James and 
Catharine (Eeichard) Swailes, and their children were F. Scott, 
deceased; Charies C; Lewis F.; Bobeii;, deceased; Annie S., widow 
of Frank S. Leiter; George H.; Catharijie; David A.; Louisa; 
Margaret, and Samuel J. Mr. Ziegler's death occurred on the 
30th of October, 1887. 

David Ziegler was bom in Leitersburg District, July 4, 1824, 
the son of Frederick and Bose Ann Elizabeth (Lantz) Ziegler. 
His education was obtained at the local schools and at a select 
school in Waynesboro. In 1841 he entered the employ of his 
brother, George W., at Greencastle; in 1850 he became a member 
of the firm of George W. Ziegler & Company, the style of which 
was changed in 1876 to George W. & D. Ziegler. He is now the 
oldest merchant in Greencastle. In politics he is a Republican. 
George F. Ziegler was bom at Greencastle, Pa., February 2, 
1843, the son of George W. and Maria (Fatzinger) Ziegler. His 
early education was obtained at the local schools and under pri- 
vate tuition. In 18G2 he entered Amherst College, but before 
his work as a student had fairly begun he enlisted in Company K, 
One Hundred and Twentv-sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers. In 
the organization of this regiment, which occurred at Harrisburg 
on the 13th of August, 1862, he was appointed sergeant-major. 
Til is regiment })articipated in the movements of the Army of the 
Potomac during the winter of 1862-G3, particularly the battles 
of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, and was mustered out on 
the 20th of May, 18G3. Mr. Ziegler at once resumed his studies 
at Amherst, from which he graduated with honors in 1866. At 
this institution he was a member of the Alexandria Literary So- 
ciety and of the Psi Fpsilon fraternity. In 1866 he entered the 
Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church at Princeton, 
graduating in 18G9. The two years immediately ensuing were 
spent in England and on the Continent, where he was a student 
at the Fniversitios of Berlin and Heidelberg. In 1872 he re- 
turned to Greencastle and opened a select school. The curricu- 
lum included the classics, modem languages, higher mathematics, 




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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 269 

art, and music. Four instructors were usually employed; the 
school was popular with its constituency, and for more than a 
decade it was a useful factor in the educational effort of the val- 
ley. But, like proprietary institutions and academies in general 
throughout the State, its patronage was largely diverted to the 
State normal schools; and when, in 1886, Mr. Ziegler was elected 
professor of English Literature and French at Wilson College, 
(.'hambersburg, Pa., his school at Greencastle was finally discon- 
tinued. He performed the duties of this professorship two years; 
in 1888 he returned to Greencastle and has since given a large 
share of his time and attention to the extensive business interests 
of his father. He is president of the Waynesburg, Greencastle, 
and Mercersburg Turnpike Eoad Company, president of the 
Enoch Brown Park Association, and an elder in the Presl)yterian 
Church of Greencastle. His political affiliations are with the 
Kepublican party. 

Charles C. Ziegleb was bom in Leitcrsburg District, January 
31, 1852, the son of Frederick K. and Louisa (Swailes) Ziegler. 
He attended college at Mercersburg and Lebanon, Pa., and 
Springfield, Ohio. In 1875 he entered the internal revenue ser- 
vice, with which he was again connected in 1878-86 and 1888-92. 
He was also in the employ of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
Company for a time and is now engaged in the wire fence busi- 
ness. In 1883 he married Laura K., daughter of Jacob and 
Nancy (Lahm) Wolfinger and they are the parents of one child, 
M. Frederick L. Mr. Ziegler is a Republican in politics and a 
member of the Lutheran Church. 

John Stoner was born in Washington Township, Franklin 
County, Pa., August 9, 1767, the son of David Stoner and grand- 
son of John Stoner, whose name appears in connection with land 
ownership in that township as early as 1744. He was a taxable 
in Antrim Township, which then included Washington, in 1751. 
His lands were situated southeast of Waynesboro on East Antie- 
tam creek and included the site of Linden Mills, Fairview station 
on the Western Maryland railroad, etc. Here he operated a mill 
as early as 1749. He had four sons: Abraham; David; John, 
and Daniel, of whom the two last named removed to Carroll 
County, Md. Abraham resided at the present residonce of Henry 
Baer near Fairview station and David at Linden Mills. In 1774 
16 



270 HISTOKY OF LEITERSBURG DISTBICT. 

the latter secured the patent for Father's Good Will, a tract ol 
1,365 acres embracing some of the finest farms in Leit^rsburg 
and Ringgold Districts. He was the father of John Stoner, the 
subject of this sketch, who in 1801 purchased of John Barr, his 
brother-in-law% 193 acres of land in Leitersburg District, now em- 
braced principally in the farms of Mrs. Elizabeth Stoner, Jacob 
B. Stoner, and Charles B. and Levi B. Wolfinger. He built the 
house on the WoUinger farm, and there he died on the 15th of 
October, 1806. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Martin Barr, 
and their children were Margaret, who married Jacob Stouffer; 
Martin, who owned Linden Mills; John, who resided near Upton, 
Pa.; David, who resided in Morrison's cove; Jacob, of Leitersburg 
District; Anna, who married David Myers; Barbara, who married 
Daniel Newcomer; Elizabeth, and Benjamin of Leitersburg Dis- 
trict, each of whom inherited a farm or other property of equal 
value. Elizabeth, his widow, died on the 13th of July, 1849, in 
her eighty-fourth year. 

Jacob Stoner was born in Leitersburg District, December 5, 
1801, the son of John and Elizabeth (Barr) Stoner. He began 
farming in Leitersburg District where his widow now resides, and 
liere he lived until his death, January 6, 1852. He married Ehza- 
l)oth, (lnu<rhtcr of Christian and Catharine (Secrist) Shockey, and 
tluMi* children were Cyrus; Isaiah; Sarah, wife of John S. Xew- 
coiner, and Ann E., who died at the age of two years. ^Ir. Stoner 
was a Whig in politics. 

Hexjamix Stoxeh was born in Leitersburg District, August 
'3, 1806, tlie sun of John and Elizabeth (Barr) Stoner. He wa? a 
I'nnnor l)y occupation and resided all his life at the farm wher? 
lie was lumi, and there he died on the 11th of October, 18v^<i. 
He was also a surveyor, and was frequently employed in this ca- 
])acity. lie was a Republican in ])olitics and a member of tlie 
Kiver Brethren Church. He was twice married, first to Margaret, 
daughter of Daniel Winter, l)y whom he had one child, Benjamin. 
His second wife was I^Iarv, daughter of Jncol) Shank, and their 
children were Henry; Elizabeth; Jacob B.; John; and Annie, de- 
ceased. 

CvKi's Stoxkr was l^orn in Leitersburg District, October 30, 
183!), the son of Jacob and Elizabeth (Shockey) Stonor. He beuan 
fnrnnn;: in 18.59 on the farm in his native District upon whicli 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 271 

his father formerly resided and which is now owned by his mother; 
here he has since been engaged in farming with the exception of 
six years, 1867-73, when he operated the saw-mill in Cavetown 
District now owned by Josiah Brown. For the past twenty years 
he has owned a steam saw-mill, which has been in operation a 
large part of that time. In 1859 he married Martha J., daughter 
of Jacob and Elizabeth (Justice) Garver, and their children are 
Jacob G.; Lester E.; Albert C; Emma M., wife of John McKen- 
drick; Charles E.; Elmer E.; Clayton C; Edna D.; Maynard G., 
and Martha J. Mr. Stoner is a Eepublican in politics. 

Jacob B. Stoxer was bom in Leitersburg District, February 
3, 1848, the son of Benjamin and Mary (Shank) Stoner. His edu- 
cation was obtained at Martin's school. In 1867 he engaged in 
farming in Leitersburg District as tenant on his father's farm, 
which he operated nine years. He then resided at Greensburg 
one year and in Einggold District six years. In 1883 he located 
at his present residence, which he purchased in 1887, and here 
he is engaged in market gardening. In 18G6 he married Elizabeth 
0., daughter of Jacob and Sarah (Mentzer) Tritle, and their chil- 
dren are Bertie A., widow of Daniel I. Resh; Viola T., wife of Jo- 
seph G. Miller; Eva M., wife of Daniel R. Grove; Mary M.; Nena 
M.; Francis B.; Amy S.; Nettie, deceased, and J. Arthur. Mr. 
Stoner is a member of the River Brethren Church and a Repub- 
lican in politics. 

Rev. Jacob Dayhoff was bom in Baltimore County, Md., 
April 2, 1768, the son of George P. and Elizabeth Dayhoff, and 
grandson of George Dayhoff, a soldier of the Revolution, who 
died on the 13th of April, 1810. The father of George and 
grandfather of George P. was Philip Dayhoff, a native of Ger- 
many, but of French descent, who emigrated to America in 
1702 and located in Lancaster County, Pa. The original or- 
thography of the name was ^^DeHoff." Jacob Dayhoff left h\< 
home in Baltimore County in early manhood and went to 
Emmittsburg, IMd., where he learned the trade of tinner. In 
1806 he purchased from Henry Broughmeyer thirty-three acres 
of land in Leitersburg District and located thereon, and here he 
resided the remainder of his life. He was a man of fair educa- 
tion and conducted at his home the first school in the Plensant 
Hill district. On the 12th of May, 1815, he was ordained r? 



272 HisTOBY or leitersbubg district. 

an elder in the United Brethren Church, "in conference held 
at Henry Ejnimler's in Franklin County, Pa., by the Rev. Bishop 
Christian Newcomer and Brother Joseph Hoffman by the impo- 
sition of hands." For two years he traveled over a circuit em- 
bracing the counties of Frederick and Washington in Maryland 
and Franklin, Perry, etc. in Pennsylvania, but owing to the state 
of his health he was compelled to relinquish pastoral work, al- 
though he continued to preach occasionally. He married Bar- 
bara, daughter of Andrew White, of Emmittsburg, and their 
children were Mary; Samuel; Elizabeth, who married Daniel San- 
ger; Joshua; Susan, who married Powell Traut; Jacob, who died 
in childhood; Barbara, who married Jacob Exstine, and John. 
Rev. Jacob DayhofT died on the 18th of March, 1834. 

Samuel Dayhoff was born at Emmittsburg, Md., May 9, 1799, 
the son of Jacob and Barbara (White) Dayhoff. In 1806 his par- 
ents located in Leitersburg District and here he lived until his 
death, April 19, 1877. He was a carpenter, cabinet maker, and 
undertaker, and was engaged in business for many years in Lei- 
tersburg District, where he succeeded to the property purchased 
by his father in 180G, and now owned by his son-in-law, William 
H. Stevenson. He was twice married, jfirst to Fanny, daughter 
(•f Daniel Seiiger, and their children were Mary, who married 
Henry C. Lesher; Susan, who married Aaron Wingert; Jacob: 
John, and Samuel. As his second wife he married Mrs. ^larla 
Gayman, nee Wingert, and they were the parents of one child, 
Catharine, wife of William H. Stevenson. Mr. Davhoff was i\ 
member of the River Brethren Church and deacon in the Ring- 
gold congregation forty years. In politics he was a Republican. 

JoHX Dayhoff was bom in Leitersburg District, August 24, 
1814, the son of Jacob and Barbara (White) Dayhoff. In his 
youth he attended the earlv Enorjish and German schools of 
Pleasant Hill district. For twenty years he was engaged in fann- 
iii^^ near Cavetown, where he owned a farm of thirty acres; he 
also pursued this occupation near Fiddlersburg for nine years, and 
\vn> afterward eni})loyed collecting countr}^ produce for Chews- 
ville merchants, a business in which he traveled over a wide ter- 
ritory and acquired an extensive acquaintance. In 1836 he mar- 
rie<l Sarah, dansrhter of Henry and Annie (Avey) Prett, and their 
cln]<lron wore SamiiGl II., a farmer in Ringgold District; Lvdia, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 273 

wife of Christian Stotler; Mar}', wife of William Crumb; Daniel, 
of Cavetown, Md.; Jacob C, proprietor of a lumber yard and 
planing mill at Hagerstown; Wesley, a grocer at Hagerstown; 
William, deceased, and Ellen, wife of Remanis Reynolds. Mr. 
Dayhoff is a member of the United Brethren Church and a Repub- 
lican in politics. 

John S. Dayhoff was bom in Leitersburg District, October 
29, 1828, the son of Samuel and Fanny (Senger) Dayhoff. He 
early evinced an aptitude for mechanical pursuits, and built 
threshing machines and hay-rakes while a young man at his home. 
In 1857 he purchased the Rock Forge property, and here he es- 
tablished the most important implement manufactory ever con- 
ducted in Leitersburg District. The plant included a foundry, 
machine shop, forge, saw-mill, etc. Here he resided until 
his death, April 12, 1876. His first wife was Mary, daughter of 
Benjamin Gayman, and they had one child, Susan, who married 
Henry Crider. His second wife was Mary, daughter of Henry 
Wingert, and of the children born to them three grew to mature 
years: Henry; Catharine, wife of Ira Isenhour, and Alvey, all of 
whom reside near Abilene, Kans. John Dayhoff was a member 
of the River Brethren Church and in politics a Republican. 

LuDWio Emerick was bom on the 4th of July, 1754. In 1793 
he removed from Chester County, Pa., to a farm of sixty-nine 
acres adjacent to the present eastern boundary of Leitersburg 
District; he purchased this land in that year from Frederick 
Howard, whose residence is located on the line of the old Nichol- 
son's Gap road in 1791. It is here that the Frick foundry was 
subsequently located. He afterward removed to a farm in the 
vicinity of Greencastle, Pa., and there he died on the 13th of 
February, 1822. He married Susanna Emminger, whose family 
removed from Hummelstown to Mechanicsburg, Pa.; she was 
bom on the 3d of January, 1757, and died at Quincy, Pa., May 
18, 1848. They were the parents of the following children: 
Peter; John; George; Maria, who married Frederick Bell; Bar- 
bara, who married Jacob Bell; Margaret, who married Samuel 
Garver; llilary, who married John Runkle; Elizabeth, who married 
David Wertz; Catharine, who married George Wertz, and Susan, 
who married David Brumbaugh. Ludwig Emerick was a member 
of the Lutheran Church. 



274 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

Captain John Byer was born in Lancaster County, Pa., Jan- 
uary 31, 1T77, the son of Frederick and Anna Margaret (Moyer) 
Byer. Frederick Byer was born in Germany, December 20, 1732, 
and came to America in 1740 with his mother, his father having 
died on the voyage. He died on the 19th of February, 1801. 
Captain Byer probably became a resident of Washington County 
about the year 1800. In 1803 he married Catharine Study, and 
two children were born to them: Anna Margaret, who married 
William E. Doyle, and Frederick. Their mother having died, he 
married in 1809 Elizabeth, daughter of Christian Lantz, who 
inherited from her father the mill property near Leitersburg sub- 
sequently owned by Fowler & Ziegler. Here Captain Byer en- 
gaged extensively in milling and distilling; he also operated a tan- 
nery and other industries. In the local militia he held the rank 
of captain, and in the War of 1812 marched as far as Boonsboro 
with his company. After disposing of his property at Leitersburg 
he removed to Hagerstown, where he owned the Antietam House, 
a hotel that occupied the present site of the Hotel Hamilton. He 
died in that city on the 12th of February, 1859. Captain Byer 
was a member of the Lutheran Church. 

Frederick Byer, M. D., was bom on the 12th of November, 
1805, the son of John and Catharine (Study) Byer. After com- 
pleting his medical education he located at Leitersburg in the 
practice of his profession, and here he died on the 14th of October, 
18o5. He married Catharine, daughter of Frederick and Rose 
Ann Elizabeth (Lantz) Ziegler, and they were the parents of throe 
daughters: Margaret K., deceased wife of Col. B. F. Winger of 
Greencastle, Pa.; Elizabeth V., deceased wife of Charles E. Ways, 
of Baltimore, Md,. and Helen, deceased. 

Daniel Lowman was born July 5, 1788, and died January 
31, 1875. lie was a distiller by occupation, and was em- 
ployed at tlic different distilleries in the neighborhood of Leitcrs- 
liurg. He resided at that village the greater part of his life, and 
there he died. In politics he was a Whig, and in church connec- 
tion a Lutheran. He was a soldier in the United States Anny 
during the War of 1812, having enlisted in a cavalry company 
from Washington County. He married Catharine Leiter, daugh- 
ter of Andrew Leiter, the founder of Leitersburg, and widow of 
John Leiter, and their children were Andrew; John C; Barbara, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 275 

wife of William Johnson; Daniel S., and Elizabeth, who married 
John Barnhart. Andrew and John C. removed to Wabash, Ind. 

Daniel S. Lowmax was born on the 11th of May, 1828, the 
son of Daniel and Catharine (Leiter) Lowman. He obtained his 
education at the school house west of Leitersburg, and learned 
the trade of tailor under Jonathan Humphreys and Thomas At- 
kinson. After completing his apprenticeship he worked as a 
journeyman for Stephen 6. Stahley several years. In 1849 he 
embarked in business individually at Leitersburg. Here he has 
lived all his life, and is one of the oldest native residents of the 
village and District. In 1849 he married Caroline, daughter of 
James and Eleanor (Burkhart) Lytle, and to this union wero 
horn the following children: Alvin il., of Wallula, Wash.; Com- 
modore F., of Mechanicsburg, Pa.; James D., of Seattle, Wash.; 
Catharine, wife of William Stickell of Hagerstown, and William, 
of Seattle, Wash. Mrs. Lowman died in 18G4 and in 1866 he mar- 
ried Elizabeth Summer; their children were Nettie, wife of Harry 
Forney of Hagerstown and Charies A., of Grand Forks, British 
Columbia. Mr. Lowman has been a member of the Lutheran 
Church since 1849 and is a Republican in politics. 

George Poe was born near JeflFerson, Frederick County, Md., 
October 7, 1791. It is known that his mother's family name was 
Willard. Adam and Andrew Poe, the celebrated Indian fighters 
of the Ohio valley, are supposed to have been his father's brothers, 
and it is thought that he was descended from the Poes who orig- 
inally owned the site of Leitersburg, but this can not be positively 
stated. Left an orphan at an eariy age, George Poe was brought 
up by H. B. Hockman, who lived near Antietam creek at the 
farm owned by the heirs of the late Henry G. Clopper. When the 
house on this farm was built he assisted the nail maker, and thus 
gained his first experience at blacksmithing. In early manhood 
he was also employed at a gun-barrel factory on the creek near 
Hockman's. In 1816 he entered into partnership with Andrew 
Leiter in blacksmithing near Leitersburg, and in 1826 he pur- 
chased the old Leiter homestead west of the village and engaged 
in business individually. Several years later he removed to Funks- 
town, Md., where he conducted a similar establishment, manufac- 
turing the iron-work for the Hagerstown jail and iron frames for 



276 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

locks on the Chesapeake and Ohio canal. He again returned to 
Leit-ersburg and engaged in blacksmithing, which he subsequently 
relinquished and made farming his occupation the remainder of 
his life, operating successively the Shiess farm, now owned by 
Daniel Oiler; the Jacob Barr farm, now owned by Samuel Hartle, 
and the Ziegler farm, then a tract of four hundred acres, after 
which he returned to his own property and resided thereon until 
his death, February 14, 1869. On the 7th of May, 1818, he mar- 
ried Catharine, daughter of George Ziegler, who was bom August 
5, 1797, and died January 11, 1861. Their children were Barbara, 
who married John Lambert; Mary, who married Peter K. Harter; 
James E.; Elizabeth, who married Ephraim Hartle; Sophia; 
Oliver; Martha; Isaiah; Helen, widow of John W. Bell; Samuel; 
Mark Z., and David A., all of whom grew to maturity except 
Samuel, who died in infancy. George Poe was a Whig, and was 
elected county commissioner as the candidate of that party. He 
was also nominated for sheriff. After the dissolution of the Whig 
party he became a Eepublican. He was a member of the German 
Baptist Church. 

Oliver Poe was born in Leitersburg District, November 9, 
1827, the son of George and Catharine (Ziegler) Poe. He re- 
ceived a common school education. In 1855-50 he was at Canton, 
111., whence he returned to his native District, where he wns 
engaged in dealing in country produce from 1856 to 1862. He 
operated one of the Ziegler farms in 18()2-6i:, and from 1864 to 
1878 he was employed as farmer and teamster by Samuel Strite. 
lie was engaged in farming in Leitersburg District from 1878 to 
1802, wlien he leased the farm of John M. Hess in Washington 
Townsliip, Franklin Count}', Pa., where he now resides. In 1800 
he married Susan, daughter of Archibald and Isabel (Gower) Mc- 
Afee, and tli'jir children are George A.; Minnie ^I., wife of Al))ort 
Martin: L\i]pli G., a miner in British Columbia; Charles E.; Mary, 
wife of Georire Krei)s; Annie, wife of Harry Wisliard; Edith, and 
David. ^Ir. Poe is a lie[)u1)liean in politics. 

^yiARK Z. Poe was ])orn in Leitersburg District on the 22d of 
Aj-ril, 18]o, thf son of (JefH'ge and Catharine (Ziegler) Poe. lie 
ol)t:iined his cducatic^n at tlie local schools, and was reared to 
a.i^rirulturrd [in suits. In 1S7 3 ho entered the internal revenue 
serxice of llu^ United States govv-rnnient as ganger and store- 



BIOGKAPIIICAL SKETCHES. 1^77 

keeper in the district embracing Western Maryland, continuing 
in the service fourteen years. In 1878 he married Clara Virginia, 
daughter of David 6. and Elizabeth (Ziegler) Martin, and their 
children are Buth and Mary. Mr. Poe is a Republican in politics 
and an active supporter of his party. 

David A. Poe was bom in Leitersburg District, October 14, 
1842, the son of George and Catharine (Ziegler) Poe. He ob- 
tained his education in the schools of his native District. In 1864 
he located at Galesburg, 111., where he was employed as clerk by 
George V. Dietrich. In 1875 he removed to Essex, la., and en- 
gaged in the lumber and coal business, which he has since con- 
tinued. In 1877 he married Miss Bessie Ferguson Soutar, a 
native of Dundee, Scotland, and they are the parents of three 
sons: James Ferguson; George David, and Robert Bums. Mr. 
Poe is a member of the Presbyterian Church and in politics a 
stanch Republican. 

CiiABLES E. Poe, V. S., was bom in Leitersburg District, May 
3, 1868, the son of Oliver and Susan (McAfee) Poe. He received 
his education at the Leitersburg schools. After an extended 
course of private study in veterinary science he began the practice 
of his profession in 1888, and gradually acquired experience and 
the confidence of the community. On the 19th of November, 
1894, he received the ceriJficate issued by the Maryland State 
Board of Veterinary Examiners. He located in Leitersburg in 
1893 and has since given exclusive attention to his profession. 
In 1893 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Maybcrry G. and 
Sietta (Stover) Freed, and they are the parents of one child, 
Howard R. The Doctor is a Republican in politics. 

Stephen Martin was born in Lancaster County, Pa., January 
14, 1777, the son of Adam and Dorothy (Holbrenner) Martin. 
The family settled in Lancaster County early in the eighteenth 
century. Adam Mariin was born on the 7th of October, 1750, 
and died in Leitersburg District, January 22, 1837. His father 
was Hans Stephan ^Martin, a native of Germany, who settled in 
Lancaster Countv in 1751. Dorothv Holbrenner was a native of 
the !Middletown valley in Frederick County, Md. Stcplicn ^fartin 
camo to Leitersburg District in early manhood. In 1817 ho pur- 
chased from Christian Good, his father-in-law, the farm of 220 
acres near Martin's school house upon which he resided until his 



278 HISTOBY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTBICT. 

death. Here he erected the present substantial improvements, 
now owned by Daniel W. Durboraw; he also established and op- 
erated a distillery. In 1829 he bought the mill property near 
Leitersburg now owned by Samuel Strite and this he also owned 
until liis death. As a business man he was energetic and success- 
ful, and his operations as farmer, miller, and distiller were among 
the most extensive in the District. He was a Whig in politics 
and a member of the Refonned Chuivh. His death occurred on 
the 29th of August, 1839. His wife Barbara, nee Good, was bom 
on the 31st of October, 1788, and died on the 27th of March, 1853. 
Stephen and Barbara (Good) Martin were the parents of the fol- 
lowing children: Catharine, who married Lewis Tritle; Elizabeth, 
who married Benjamin Garver; Ann, who*married John Kissell; 
Barbara, w^ho married John Martin and after his death Joseph 
Skinner; David G.; Samuel F.; Susanna; Stephen G.; Adam B., 
and Lydia, who married John F. Ziegler. David G. operated the 
farm in Leitereburg District after his father's death and subse- 
quently engaged in the grain and flour commission business at 
Baltimore. Adam B. was a soldier in the Mexican War and cap- 
tain of Company H, Sixth Maryland Volunteers, in the Civil 
War; his brother, Stephen G., was sergeant of this company. 

Christian Shank was born in 1778, probably in Lancaster 
County, Pa., where his father, John Shank, resided in 1784 nnd 
doubtless earlier. Before the close of the century John Shank 
removed to Washington County, Md., and located between 
Leitersburg and Smith&burg near Buena Arista school house on 
the Old Forge road. He died about the year 1818 and his surviv- 
ing children were Andrew; John; Christian; Henr}-; Jacob; Abra- 
ham; Daniel; Anna, who married Christian Newcomer, and Ma;r- 
dnlcna, who married Peter Witmer. John Shank, Sr., was a 
^lonnonite in faith. He has numerous descendants in Washing- 
ton and Franklin Counties and in the West. 

Cliristian Shank was a tailor by trade and pursued that occu- 
pation for many years. In 1812 he purchased from John Barr 
130 acres of land in Leitersburg District, now owned by Henry 
L. StntQ, Athalinda Boll, John C. Miller, and Edward ]\L \Yh\tQ. 
In 1H20 he l/uilt the stone house nn the farm of Henrv L. Strite 

« 

and here he died in the spring: of 1855 at the age of soventy-.-ix 
years, six months, and thirteen days. His first wife was Sophia, 



BIOOnAPHICAL SKETCHES. 279 

daughter of Frederick and Susanna Hersh, and their children 
were Henry; Jonas; Christian; John; Jacob;rrederick; Noah, and 
Sophia, who married Henry Myers. Henry, Jonas, Christian, 
and Jacob removed to Putnam County, Ohio, and John to Bed- 
ford County, Pa.; Frederick was a life-long resident of Leitersbui-g 
District, and Noah now resides at Hagerstown. The second wife 
of Christian Shank, Sr., was Elizabeth Myers. He was a member 
of the Mennonite Church and trustee of Miller^s church from the 
time of its erection until his death. 

Frederick Shank was born in Leitersburg District, Novem- 
ber 9, 1817, the son of Christian and Sophia (Hersh) Shank. His 
education was obtained at the local schools. In 1841 he began 
farming on his father's land, residing near the Leitersburg tuni- 
pike. He was also engaged in farming near Huyett, Md., Green- 
castle, Pa., and in Leitersburg District at the farm owTied for 
many years by Levi Fox. Li 1848 he located upon his father's 
farm near Miller's church, which he operated as tenant until the 
latter's death, when it became his property; here he died on the 
let of October, 1863. In 1840 he married Susan, daughter of 
Peter and Mary (Reiff) Eshleman, and their children were Mary, 
who married John Strite; Noah E.; Elizabeth, who married John 
Lesher; Christian, and Peter. Their mother died on the 9th of 
April, 1854, and in 1855 he married Mary, daughter of John and 
Anna (Crider) Lesher; the children born to this imion were Anna, 
who married Daniel Lehman; John, and Susan, who married 
Henry Myers. Frederick Shank was a member of the Mennonite 
Church, in which he held the office of trustee. 

Noah E. Shank was bom near Huyett, Washington County, 
Md., August 10, 1843, the son of Frederick and Susan (Eshleman) 
Shank. His education was obtained principally at Rock Hill 
school. In 1868 he began farming as tenant on the farm near 
Miller's church formerly owned by his father; this he operated 
until 1873, after which he was engaged in farming near Eshle- 
man's school house two years. In 1875 he retired from farming, 
and has since resided at Wingerton, Pa. In 1887 he purchased 
the farm near Miller^s church which he has since owned. In 1807 
he married Mariha, daughter of Joseph and Elizabeth (Strite) 
Strite. Mr. Shank is a member of the Mennonite Church and a 
Republican in politics. 



280 lUaTOBY OF LEITEBSBUBG DISTBICT. 

Daniel V. Shank was born in Cavetown District, Washington 
County, Jld., March 23, 1858, the eon of Isaac B. and Elizabeth 
(Ungcr) Shank and grandson of Daniel Shank, whose father, 
John Shank, removed from Lancaster County, Pa., to Washington 
County, Md., in the last century. He received a common school 
education and was reared to agricultural pursuits. In 1886 he 
engaged in farming in Leitersburg District on the farm of 103 
acres of which he is the owner and here he has since resided. In 
1880 he married Clara L., daughter of Daniel and Rebecca (Eine- 
hart) Spessard, and their children are Clarence A.; Virgic L., and 
Howard H. Mr. Shank is a member of the Lutheran Church and 
in politics a Eepublican. 

Bexjamin Hartuan was bom on the 11th of Jwiuary, 1788. 
He removed from Juniata County, Pa., to Leitersburg District, 
about the year 1810, and here he resided for some years. His 
death occurred at Cavetown, Md., January 13, 1853. He was a 
tailor by trade. He married Judith, daughter of Jacob and Ju- 
liana Leiter, and their children were George; Benjamin; Andrew; 
David; Jacob; William; Rebecca, who married George Bowers; 
Catliarine, who married Joseph Kimler; Dorothy, who married 
Jonathnn Bitwser; Elizahoth, who married Charles Martin, and 
Julia, who married Samuel Mentzer. 

Bf:xJAMiN' Hartmas was born in Leitersburg District in 1S13. 
the pon of Benjamin and Judith (Leiter) Hartmnn. He was a 
farmer iiy occupation and was engaged in this business in Leiters- 
burg District for some years; at the time of his death, July Sf^, 
1875, he was tenant on the farm of Governor Hamilton near Hn- 
gerstown. Ho married Rosanna Bell, and their children woa' 
ITcIl'H, wlin married Albert Suman; Frederick; Daniel; Andrew: 
Samuel; Julia Ann; Joseph, and Catharine, wife of William Trt- 
vinger. Mr. Ilartman was a member of the Lutheran Church. 

Samuel IIaht-Man' was boni in Leitersburg District, April 20. 
1845, the son of Benjamin and Rosnnna Hartman. He ohtaine^l 
a common school education and served an apprenticeship to thi' 
milling business at Brown's Mills, Pa., under his uncle, Andrew 
Hartman, by whom he was subsequently employed at the Ohl 
Forge mill, which he afterward operated. Fr^uu 18(j7 to ISSO lu' 
was employed as a farm laborer. In isso he operated the Old 
grtnership with George II. Bowman, after which 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 281 

he was employed for three years by the Kemps in their 
mill at Breathedsville. He was then engaged in farming 
until 1896, with the exception of two years and a half, when he 
was t^U collector on the Sharpsbnrg turnpike. Since 1896 he 
has operated the Morning Star mill in Leitersburg District and 
served as postmaster at Startown. In 1867 he married Sarah A., 
daughter of Philip and Mary (Hill) Warfield, and their children 
ore Kofcjella; Benjamin C; Frederick P.; Emory W. McC; Cath- 
arine; Samuel S.; E. Emma; Charles; Harvey, and Cora M. Mr. 
Hartman is a member of the German Baptist Church; he is inde- 
pendent in politics. 

John Minor was bom on the 28th of October, 1790, the son 
of William Minor, a native of Germany w^ho settled in Washing- 
ton Township, Franklin County, Pa. He learned the trade of 
tailor under his father and pursued this occupation for some 
years. He married Phoebe, daughter of George and Catharine 
(Winters) Burkhart, and their children were Henrietta, who mar- 
ried Jacob Ho vis; Catharine, who married Samuel Frey; Chris- 
tina, who married William Anderson; Frank; William; John; 
George; David; Jacob; Louis; Oliver; Henry, and Washington. 
John Minor, Sr., died on the 4th of June, 1847. He has numer- 
ous descendants in Leitersburg District. 

Major Joseph Trovinger was bom in Washington County, 
Md., December 11, 1790, the son of Christopher and Barbara Tro- 
vinger. Christopher Trovinger was probably a native of Ger- 
many, but he resided in Pennsylvania as early as 1773; he w^as a 
weaver by occupation and was so employed in Cocalico Township, 
Lancaster County, in 1780. Prior to 1790 he removed to Wash- 
ington County, where he pursued this occupation until his death 
in 1821. He owned sixty-eight acres of land on the Hagers- 
town and Leitersburg turnpike near Ziegler's mill, and here he 
resided. Joseph Trovinger succeeded to his father's farm and 
business; he usually operated five looms in the manufacture of 
blankets, table linen, bagging, etc. In the War of 1812 he served 
as a private in the companies of Captains Cushwa and Snyder. 
On the 23d of June, 1819, he was commissioned as captain in the 
Eighth Regiment, Maryland Militia, of which he was major in 
1827. For a number of years he was connected with the county 
militia organization, in which he was a popular and efficient oflfi- 



282 HISTOBY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

cer. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Henry and Barbara 
Clopper, and their children were John; Samuel; Elizabeth, de- 
ceased wife of David Kershner; Daniel; Barbara; Joseph; Benton; 
Annie, deceased wife of Henry Hartle; Emily, widow of Henry 
Fimk; Frank; Catharine, widow of Cornelius Middlekauff; Nancy, 
wife of William Shiess, and Martin L. Major Trovinger was a 
member of the Lutheran Church and a Democrat in politics. His 
death occurred on the 17th of May, 1851. 

Martin L. Trovinger was bom on the 22d of January, 1847, 
the son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Clopper) Trovinger. He re- 
ceived a common school education and learned the trade of wagon 
maker at Middleburg, Pa., under his brother Daniel. He pur- 
sued this occupation at Wingerton, Pa., five years, and subse- 
quently at his present residence, where he located in 1881. In 
addition to this property of thirty-one acres he also owns the 
farm of sixty-eight acres formerly owned by his father. In 1876 
he married Missouri A., daughter of Benjamin and Mary (Snyder) 
MiddlekauflF, and their children are Lester M., deceased; Jennie 
M.; Joseph B. and Emory L., both deceased; Alice R., and Lelie 
G. Mr. Trovinger is a Democrat in politics. 

IIkxuy Clopper was the ancestor of the several families of 
this name in Leitcri?burt; District. He was a German, and pnil»- 
ably a native of the Fatherland. Authentic information regard- 
ing his histor}^ begins with his residence in Antrim Township, 
Franklin County, Pa., where he lived about one mile north of 
Wingerton on the Greencastle road directly opposite the Hollo- 
well church and school. His name is sometimes spelled ^'Glabf^r," 
"Klaber," and "Klopper.'' He married Barbara, daughter of Ja- 
cob IJitter, a pioneer of Leitersburg District, and their children 
wore Jojin; Henry; Samuel; Jacob; Joseph; Elizabeth, who umr- 
ricd Joseph Trovinger; Barbara, who married Peter Eummel, and 
^larv, who married James Glenn. Their mother, who was born 
^farch 1,"5, 177(5, died December 8, 1858, and is buried at Jacobs 
church. Other members of the family are doubtless buried there. 
Several of the sons appear to have had a strong predileoti'n for 
military tactics, Ilonry, Samuel, and Jacob having risen to th.? 
rank of captain in the militia. 

Jonx ('LorPKK was born in Antrim Township in 1790, the son 
of nenry and Barbara (Bitter) Clopper. In 1830 he purchased 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCUES. 283 

from the executors of Simon Lecron twenty-six acres of land, now 
the property of his son, Simon Ciopper; he improved this land 
find here he resided for many years. He married Nancy, daughter 
of Simon Lecron, and their children were Rose Ann, who mar- 
ried John Beaver; Simon; Ilenry; David; Rebecca, and John. 
Mr. Ciopper adhered to the Reformed Church and was a Democrat 
in politics. 

Joseph Clopper was born in Antrim Township, Franklin 
County, Pa., July 22, 1813, the son of Henry and Barbara (Ritter) 
Ciopper. He learned the carpenter trade and worked at it in his 
native township until 1852, when he bought the farm in Leiters- 
burg District now o^\^led by his son Upton and located thereon. 
In 1867 he purchased the saw-mill, plaster-mill, etc., east of Lei- 
tersburg on the Smithsburg road and here he resided until his 
death, August G, 1876. His wife, whose maiden name was Mar- 
garet Ridenour, died January 26, 1871, at the age of fifty-eight 
years. They were the parents of the following children: Frank- 
lin; Upton; Sarah E., who married Benjamin Stouffer; Margaret 
A., who married Joseph Martin; Athalinda, who married D. J. D. 
Hicks, and Barbara C, who married Jeremiah Young. Joseph 
Clo])per was a life-long Democrat. He was a member of the 
Lutheran Church and an elder in the Leitersburg congregation. 

Henry Clopper was bom in Franklin County, Pa., April 4, 
1801, the son of Henry and Barbara (Ritter) Ciopper. He was 
a carpenter and undertaker by trade, and was first engaged in 
business at HoUowell near Wingerton, Pa. In 1846 he purchased 
from Matthias Kayhoe the farm and saw-mill adjacent to the 
Marsh turnpike now owned by his son-in-law, Jacob A. Snively: 
here he erected the present improvements and operated the mill 
and farm until 1862, when he located in Leitersburg District, 
where he died on the 1st of March, 1879. In 1832 he married 
Elizabeth, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Neusbaum) Graeber, 
and their children were John H., deceased; Elizabeth G., widow 
of John S. Petrie; Sydney K.; Nancy, wife of Jacob A. Snively; 
Barbara, wife of William A. Lohr, and Mary, wife of Lewis !My- 
ers. While a resident of Pennsylvania Captain Ciopper was con- 
nected with the militia and thus acquired the title that was al- 
wavs thereafter associated with his name. He was a member of 
the Lutheran Church and a Republican in politics. 



284 HISTORY OF LEITEBSBUBG DISTRICT. 

Simon Clopper was bom November 24, 1823, the eon of John 
and Nancy (Lecron) Clopper. He began life as a farm laborer, 
and was employed in this capacity by F. C. B. Wihns seven years. 
After locating upon his present property he developed thereon 
a valuable deposit of building sand, and for fifteen years was en- 
gaged in hauling it to Hagerstown. He married Nancy, daughter 
of Daniel Light, and their children were Mary E.; Anna R., who 
married Louis Snyder; Susan C; John D., a farmer in Illinois; 
Sarah J., deceased wife of Jacob Weigand; George W.; Jacob H.; 
Alice A.; Ida M., who married Emory McKee; Charles M., prin- 
cipal of schools, Cavetown, Md.; David E., a practicing physician 
at Argentine, Kans.; Lucinda; Olivia, and Alvey G. Mr. Clopper 
is a member of the Christian Church and a Republican in politics. 

Henry G. Clopper was bom in Washington Township, 
Franklin County, Pa., August 10, 1829, the son of Samuel and 
Catharine (Gordon) Clopper and grandson of Henry Clopper. 
Samuel Clopper was captain of a militia company at Waynesboro 
during the War of 1812. After the death of his wife he removed 
to Middleburg, Pa., and there Henry G. was brought up, obtain- 
ing a limited common school education. He worked as a farm 
laborer until his marriage, after which he purchased a small prop- 
erty in Maugansville, and there he resided until 1869, when he 
bought the farm of fifty acres on Little Antietam creek in Leiters- 
luirg District whereon he lived until his death, November 5, 1891. 
In 1855 he married Margaret E., daughter of George and Catha- 
rine (Welty) Petre, who was bom May 26, 1835, and died March 
]3, 1895. Their children were George H.; Samuel G.; Henry A. 
^r.; Welty H.; Amy K., who married Clinton Deibert, and Louis 
E. Mr. Clopper was a member of the German Baptist Church 
and in politics a Democrat. 

Uptox Clopper was born in Antrim Township, April 4, 1841, 
tlio son of Josepli and Margaret (Ridenour) Clopper. He was 
hrriu/zht up in his native township and in Leitersburg District 
and obtained a limited common school education, having at- 
tended school but five months after he was eleven years old. In 
18T0 he enp:aged in farming as tenant on his father's farm in Lei- 
tersburg District; this farm he purchased in 1878, residing 
thereon until 1892, when he erected his present residence in Lei- 
tershiirir and removed to that village. In 1869 he married Anna 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 285 

Margaret, daughter of John and Margaret (Flaugher) Lowman, 
and they were the parents of the following children: Effie Flor- 
ence; Joseph Mcllenry, and John, all deceased, and Annie Mar- 
garet. Joseph had choeen the ministry of the Lutheran Church 
as his career in life, but died in early manhood. Mr. Clopper has 
been a life-long Democrat. He is a member of the Leitersburg 
Lutheran Church, in which he has served as member of the coun- 
cil for some years and as superintendent of the Sunday school 
since 1883. 

Daniel Jacobs was bom near the village of East Berlin, 
Adams County, Pa., in 1787, the son of Samuel Jacobs, a native 
of Switzerland, whose parents were among the first settlers in 
that locality. Here he was brought up, and after his marriage he 
began farming in the Pigeon hills. While thus engaged he was 
induced by his father-in-law, Henry Myers, to rent a farm he had 
purchased in Leitersburg District. Subsequently he purchased 
this farm, which is now owned by his great-grandson, J. H. 
Hykes; here he erected the present improvements and resided 
until his death in 1838. He married Eve, daughter of Henry 
Myers, and of the children bom to them the following grew to 
maturity: Mary, who married Jesse Hykes; Barbara, who married 
Jacob Hykes; Daniel, who was engaged in farming at Welsh Eun; 
Isaac, and Henry M. Mr. Jacobs was a member of the River 
Brethren Church, and meetings for worship were frequently held 
at his house. 

Isaac Jacobs was bom in Leitersburg District, June 26, 182(), 
the son of Daniel and Eve (Myers) Jacobs. He obtained a com- 
mon school education and was one of the pupils at the first school 
taught at Bock Hill. In 1850 he began farming in Leitersburg 
District where Joseph Wingert now lives. In 1852-54 he was 
engaged in farming at Beaver Creek. In 1854 he purchased the 
farm of 117 acres in Leitersburg District upon which he resided 
until his death, September 27, 1897. The present improvements 
upon this farm were erected by him. In 1850 he married Mary 
Ann, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Mowen) Jacobs, who sur- 
vives him. Mr. Jacobs was a member of the River Brethren 
Church. 

Peter Lehman (original orthography, ^Teman") was the emi- 
grant ancestor of the Lehman family of Leitersburg District. He 
17 



286 HISTORY OF LEITERSBCKG DISTRICT. 

was born iii Switzerland near Lake Geneva (Leman), and his par- 
ents were followers of Menno Simon, the Reformer. Owing Vj 
religious persecution he emigrated to America in 1717 and lo- 
cated in Lancaster County, Pa. Here he purchased and owned 
for years what is known as the "county farm,'^ adjoining the city 
limits of Lancaster. In 1720 he purchased what has ever since 
been called "Tlie old Lehman homestead," located three miles 
west of Lancaster at Rohrerstown on the Pennsylvania railroad. 
This farm, one of the finest in Lancaster County, is now owned 
l)y Samuel 0. Frantz, a descendant of Peter Lehman, the emi- 
grant, who died here in 1744. Here his son, John Lehman, was 
born in December, 1743, and lived until his death, July 25, 1824. 
He was known as "the hunter." He made frequent journeys to 
the warm springs of Virginia for the benefit of his health, and 
was accustomed to stop at Cresap's stone fort, near which his 
descendants afterward located. These journeys and his himting 
excursions brought him into frequent contact with the Indians, 
whojic language he s])oke and \s^th whom he always maintained 
the most friendly relations. He married Anna Baer, who was 
born April 2, 1752, and died in August, 1804. Their son, John 
Lelnnan, Jr., was Imm April 28, 1783, and died March 28, 1823. 
He married Elizabeth Baer, who was born April 17, 1785, and 
died January 28, 18G8. They had three children, viz., Jacob B.; 
Eliza, who married Samuel Frantz, and John Lehman. The lasi 
named was born April 12, 1809, and died September 10, 1851. 
lie was a member of the Pennsylvania legislature in 1836-37, and 
liis son, ITcnry C. Lehman, was a member of that body in 18^)2- 
63 and .subsequently recorder of deeds for Lancaster County. 

Jacob B.Lkiiman was bom at Bohrerstown, Lancaster County, 
Pn., on the 28th of Fel)ruarv, 1805, the son of John and Elizabeth 
(Baer) Lehman. On the 15th of April, 1828, he married Barbara, 
dan^^htcr of Henry and Elizabeth (Good) Funk, who lived a short 
distance west of Waynesboro, Pa., on the Greencastle turnpike. 
"Mr. and ^Irs. Lehman made their wedding journey to Lancaster 
Conntv on horseback, and in later years she was accustonKxl t • 
relate that for one whole day she carried an umbrella throiicrh 
the rain. After residiujG: in Lancaster County four years they re- 
tuin(.'(] to Waynesboro in 1832, and in 1833 Mr. Lehman boufrht 
from Joseph Gabby, trustee for the Bench heirs, a tract of 414 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 287 

acres, now embraced principally in the farms of Jacob B. Lehman, 
Abraham Lehman, and Samuel Hykes. In 1837 he made an addi- 
tional purchase of sixty-three acres adjacent to the Marsh turn- 
pike and now owned by Abraham Lehman. In addition to this 
land he also owned the mill property on Marsh run near the 
Marsh turnpike, which he purchased in 1854. His death oc- 
curred on the 4th of August, 1866, and that of his wife, who jvaa 
born on the 3d of March, 1809, May 18, 1872. She was a mem* 
her of the Beformed Mennonite Church, to which her husband 
also adhered. They were the parents of the following children: 
Henry F.; Eliza Ann, who married John W. Garver; John; Nancy, 
who married John N. Hoffman; Jacob B.; Barbara, who married 
Dr. L. B. Bowland; Abraham; Christian; Samuel, and Susanna, 
deceased, who married Ezra Rowland. 

Henry F. Lehman was bom in Lancaster County, Pa., 
February 23, 1829, the son of Jacob B. and Barbara (Funk) Leh- 
man. When he was four years old his father became a resident of 
Leitersburg District; here he was reared, and attended Paradise 
school. In 1854 he engaged in farming on the land attached to 
the old Sprigg mill, purchased by his father at that time, and 
here he has since resided. He leased the mill in 1858, and milling 
has since been his principal business. In 1866 he purchased the 
mill and farm; he has rebuilt the former and enlarged the latter, 
erected two dwelling houses on the property, and conducts an ex- 
tensive business. In 1854 he married Sarah, daughter of William 
and Elizabeth (Watts) Stewart, and they are the parents of the 
following children: William B.; Harvey, who died in childhood; 
EfBe, and Howard S. Mr. Lehman is a member of the Beformed 
Mennonite Church. 

John F. Lehman was bom near Waynesboro, Pa., January 
28, 1833, the son of Jacob B. and Barbara (Funk) Lehman. He 
received his education at Paradise school. After farming for 
some years in Leitersburg District he located near Hagerstown 
in 1888, and there he has also been engaged in farming. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth A., daughter of Daniel and Esther (Middlekauff) 
Middlekauff, and their children are Claggett M., deceased; Emma 
F.; Annie !M.; Minnie K.; Maud; Elizabeth M., and John W. 

Jacob B. Lehman was born in Leitersburg District, July 27, 
1837, the son of Jacob B. and Barbara (Funk) Lehman. His 



288 HISTOBY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTBICT. 

education was obtained at Paradise school. In 1866 he engaged 
in farming as tenant on his father's farm. In 1869 he purchased 
the farm of 172 acres upon which he has since resided, and here 
he has erected the present improvements. He married in 1869 
Mahala, daughter of John and Susan (Fasnacht) Wallick, and 
they are the parents of the following children: Gertie C; Charles 
F.; Amos, deceased, and Walter E. Mr. Lehman is a Republican 
in politics. 

Abraham Lehman was bom in Leitersburg District on the 
?Oth of July, 1842, the son of Jacob B. and Barbara (Funk) Leh- 
man. He was bom and reared at his present residence and at- 
tended Paradise school. In 1863-64 he was a student at the Penn- 
sylvania State Normal School, Millersville, Pa. He had taught 
at Welty^s church during the preceding winter, and in 1864-67 
he taught the Paradise school. In 1868 he purchased the farm 
of 150 acres upon which he has since resided and upon which his 
father lived and died. Here he began farming in 1870 and has 
since been engaged in this business. In 1871 he married Anna 
v., daughter of Jacob and Eliza (Ryder) Stouffer, and their chil- 
dren are Annie; Jessie; Mary; Catharine; Ruth, and Elsie. Mr. 
Lehman is a member of the Reformed Mennonite Church. 

Christian Lehman was born on the 16th of November, 1844, 
in Leitersburg District, the son of Jacob B. and Barbara (Funk) 
Lehman. lie obtained his education at Paradise school, and 
learned the milling business under his brother, Henry F. From 
18()1) to 1875 he operated as a tenant the farm of his father-in- 
law in East Hagerstown District now owned by D. A. Cost. In 
1875 he bought Freedom Mills on Antietam creek a mile north 
of Leitersburg, which he operated until 1884, and owned until 
it was destroyed bv fire. Since 1888 he has rented the farm con- 
nected with tlic mill property of his brother, Henry F. In 180T 
he married Mary E., daughter of Peter and Susan (Schindcl) Mid- 
dlokauff, and their children are Harry M.; Elva Grace, wife of 
Denton Sneekcnberger; J. Elmer; Leroy K.; L. Blanche, and 
Nellie E. ^Ir. Lehman is a member of the Reformed Mennonite 
Cluirch. 

Samt'el Lictimax was born in Leitersburg District on the Hth 
of April, 1847, the son of Jacob B. and Barbara (Funk) Lehmnn. 
He was reared in bis nntive District and attended Paradise schoM. 
In 1871-72 he operated as tenant the farm of his brother Henry 



BIOGBAPUICAL SKETCHES. 289 

F. at the Marsh ilills; in 1873-7G he farmed near Roxbury, Wash- 
ington County; in 1877 he resided in Leitersburg District at Free- 
dom Mills; in 1877-82 he rented the farm of Peter Middlekauff 
near Paradise school. In 1883, in partnership with his brother 
A])rahaTn, he purchased the farm of 174 acres in Antrim Town- 
ship, Franklin County, Pa., whereon he resided from 1883 to 
1897 and in which he still retains an interest. In 1897 he re- 
moved to South Towson, Baltimore County, Md., where he is 
farm superintendent for Joseph Eieman on his estate near that 
village. In 1870 he married Annie C, daughter of Peter and 
Susan (Schindel) Middlekauff, and their children are Cora M., 
wife of John W. Kisecker; Ella A.; J. Norman, and Roy B. Mr. 
Lehman is a Republican in politics. 

William B. Lehman was bom in Leitersburg District on the 
13th of April, 1855, the son of Henry F. and Sarah (Stewart) 
Lehman. lie obtained his education at the local schools and 
learned the milling business under his father, with whose busi- 
ness he has been responsibly connected since reaching manhood. 
In 1888 he married Sarah A., daughter of John and Catharine 
(Lantz) Hauptman and their children are Dora E.; Edith; Lottie; 
W. Barton; Lester, and Stewart. Mr. Lehman is a Republican 
in politics. 

IIow\\RD S. Lehman was born in Leitersburg District, August 
11, 1872, the son of Henry F. and Sarah (Stewart) Lehman. He 
obtained his education at the local schools, at Wolfs Business 
College, Hagerstown, and at the National Normal University, 
Lebanon, Ohio. He spent the year 1803 in the West, employed a? 
n rolling chair attendant at the World's Fair, Chicago, as clerk 
at Seward, 111., and in travelling through various States. He is 
now employed by his father in the sales department of their busi- 
ness. In politics he is a Republican. 

John Laiim, a native of Germany, was born on the 4th of Feb- 
ruary, 1781, emigrated to America, and eventually found his way 
to Leitersburg District, where he purchased land in the vicinity 
of Leitersburg before the founding of that village. He was a 
carpenter by trade but also engaged in farming; he built the pres- 
ent residence of Mrs. Charles A. Armour in Leitersburg and here 
for some years he conducted a hotel. He married Elizabeth Wag- 
aman and their children were Samuel; John; George W. L.; Eliza, 



290 HISTOBY OF LEITEBSBUBG DISTBICT. 

who married Humphrey Hicks; Catharine, who married 

Snyder; and Nancy, who married Jacob Wolfinger. John Lahm, 
Sr., was a member of the Lutheran Church and in politics an ar- 
dent Democrat. His death occurred on the 6th of Noveral)er, 
1838. - 

Gexebal Samuel Lahh was bom in Leitersburg District, 
April 22, 1812, the son of John and Elizabeth (Wagaman). Lahm. 
He attended the local schools in his boyhood, but early evinced 
the ambition and capacity for larger educational opportunities. 
After obtaining the necessary preparatory instruction he entered 
Washington College, from which he graduated in 1834. In the 
following year he entered the law office of 0. H. Smith at Con- 
nersville, Ind., and after six months of assiduous study was ad- 
mitted to the bar. In 1836 he located in Canton, Ohio, where 
he resided until his death, June 16, 1876. 

Shortly after he located at Canton Mr. Lahm was elected to 
membership in the Lyceum, a local debating society, and here 
his political career may be said to have begun. As an orator he 
was forcible and convincing and combined in eminent degree the 
qualities of the popular stump-speaker. For many years his ser- 
vices in this capacity were always in demand in every important 
Ohio campaign. His ability was equally apparent at the bar. He 
enjoyed a large and lucrative practice and during the period of 
his prime there were few cases of importance in the local courts 
in which he was not concerned. In politics he was an unswerving 
Democrat. He was twice elected prosecuting attorney for Stark 
County, serving from 1837 to 1841. In 1842 he was elected to 
the Ohio Senate, in which he served two terms, and in 184o he 
was elected to Congress by a large majority over his opponent. 
During his congressional term he delivered a speech on '^Slaven' 
in the Territories**' which was aftenvard adopted by the National 
Democratic Conimittee as a campaign document. He was a per- 
sonal friend of Stephen A. Douglas and worked hard for his nom- 
ination for President at the Charleston convention. He was an 
active promoter of the State militia, in which he rose to the rank 
of brigadier-general. lie was a member of the Lutheran Cluirrli. 

Ci''neral Lalim was twice married. His first wife was Almira 
Wcl'Ster Brown, datighter of Daniel and Uebecca (Chadwick) 
r)n>wn, and a relative of Daniel Webster; they were the parents 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 291 

of five children: Daniel Edward and John Marshall, both of 
whom entered the Federal army and died in the service from ill- 
ness caused hy hardship and exposure; Helen R., wife of William 
B. Greenwood; Frank S., of Paris, France, where he has resided 
for some years as the representative of an American manufactur- 
ing house, and Charles H., who is engaged in the wholesale fur 
business in New York City. His second wife was Henrietta Fa- 
bcr, daughter of George and Margaretta (Myerly) Faber and 
granddaughter of Rev. John Theobald Faber, justly regarded as 
one of the Fathers of the Reformed Church in America; they 
were the parents of three children: Almira, wife of T. M. Hard- 
ing; Henrietta M., and Alice K. 

George Kessixger was bom on the 14th of June, 1781, in 
Beaver Creek District, Washington County, Md., the son of a 
German immigrant who was a pioneer settler in that locality. He 
resided in his native District until 183-1, when he purchased a 
farm in Leitersburg District, and here he lived until his death, 
August 11, 1863. In 1810 he married Barbara Ruch nee Garber, 
and their children were Christina, who married Henrj- Bentz; 
Michael; Catharine; George; Mary M.; Mary Ann; Solomon, and 
Lydia, who married Daniel Beard. Mrs. Kessinger was born June 
30, 1780, and died February 5, 1834. Mr. Kessinger was a mem- 
ber of the Lutheran Church. 

George Kessinger was bom in Beaver Creek District, Au- 
gust 7, 1815, the son of George and Barbara Kessinger. He came 
to Leitersburg District with his parents in 1834. In 1843 he en- 
gaged in farming as tenant on his father's farm, which he subse- 
quently purchased, and here he resided until his death, March 29, 
1897. In 1843 he married Catharine, daughter of Andrew and 
Elizabeth (Musselman) Shank, and their chihlren were Elizabeth; 
Barbara, wife of Amos Bell, and Catharine J., deceased. Mr. 
Kessinger was a member of the Lutheran Church, in which he 
served as elder and deacon. 

Immaxuel Martin was born in Frederick Countv, Md., nn the 
11th of !March, 1807, the son of David and Catharine Martin. 
Their children were Christiann, who married Peter Hoover: Jo- 
seph; Daniel; Jeremiah; John, and Immanuel. Joseph and Jere- 
miah remained in Frederick County; Daniel and John located in 
Indian Spring District, Washington County. The old Martin 



292 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTRICT. 

homcestcad, which is still owned by a member of the family, is 
pituated on Owing's creek one mile south of Graceham; here Im- 
manuel Martin was born, and here he began farming in partner- 
ship with his brother Joseph. About the year 1836 he rented 
the farm of Jacob Barr in Leitersburg District, now owned by 
William H. Hoffman. In 1848 he rented the farm of Jacob E. 
Bell, now owned by Joseph Martin, his son; here he resided for 
some years. From this farm he removed to that now owned bv 
Tmnianuel and Kate E. Martin, his son and daughter, and here 
he lived until his death, October 23, 1887. When he came into 
Leitersburg District he was a poor man, but at the time of his 
death he was one of its wealthiest citizens. It is worthy of notice 
that all the land he acquired is still owned by his children. In 
politics Mr. ^lartin was a Whig until the dissolution of that party, 
after which he became a Republican. He was a member of the 
Lutheran Church. He married Amie Doyle, daughter of Wil- 
liam Doyle, and their children were Samuel; Mary and David, 
both deceased; Christian; Kate E.; Joseph; Henry; John, de- 
cease<.l; Immanuel; and Frank, deceased. 

Samuel Martin was born in Frederick County, Md., Septem- 
ber 10, 1831, the son of Immanuel and x\mic (Doyle) Martin. At 
an early aire lie was broiitzht 1a' his parents to Leitersburg Dis- 
trict, wliere he was reared and obtained a common school educa- 
tion. In 1853 in partnersliip with Jacob Shank he purcliased 
from vSamuel Etnyer a freight wagon and team of draught 
horses, and for six niontlis engaged in freighting between Leiters- 
burg and Frederick. He then sold his interest in the business tv 
his partner, and during the next two years was employed as a 
farm laborer. In 185() he rented from Al)ram Horst the fami 
near Jacobs church now owned Ijy Daniel Hoover, and here he 
resided until 1894, when, liaving purchased his present property, 
wbicli enil)races one of the coldest mill sites on Antietam creek, 
he b'cated thereon. In 1853 he married Letha Ann, daughter of 
Anthony and Kose Ann (Brooks) Snyder, and their children 
arc Laura K.. doocased; ]\Iartha V., wife of Charles XiufTer: Wil- 
liam G.: AllKTt C: Alice Mav, wife of Walter B. Newcomer; An- 
nio ^^largaret, wife of Isaac Ilelfrick; Samuel C; Charles E.; J. 
neiirv; Ida ]\1., wife of Charles Bovnc Ids; Kmanuel T., and Car- 
rie (x. 'Mr. ^lartin is a member (^f the Lutheran Church, in which 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 293 

he has held the office of elder and deacon. He is a Democrat in 
politics, and was once the candidate of his party for county com- 
missioner but was defeated. 

Joseph Martin was bom in Leitersburg District, August 11, 
1840, the son of Immanuel and Amie (Doyle) Martin. He re- 
ceived a common school education and was reared a farmer. In 
1879 he began fanning individually as tenant for his father, from 
whom in 1887 he purchased the farm whereon he now resides. 
Here his parents located in 1848, and here Mr. Martin has ever 
since lived. He also owns a farm in Antrim Township, Franklin 
County, Pa. In 1879 he married Margaret A., daughter of Jo- 
seph and Margaret (Ridenour) Clopper, and their children are 
Nora G..; Annie; and Boy N., deceased, ilr. Martin is a member 
of the Lutheran Church, and in politics he is a Republican. 

Hexry Martin was born in Leitersburg District, June 11, 
1842, the son of Immanuel and Amie (Doyle) Martin. His edu- 
cation was obtained at the local schools. In 1880 he began farm- 
ing individually as tenant on the farm where he has since re- 
sided. This was then the property of his father, and he pur- 
chased it after the latter's death. In 1870 he married Mary E., 
daughter of Floyd N. Webb, and their children are Naomi K., 
wife of J. Melvin Spessard; Charies F.; Bessie A.; Victor; Jennie, 
deceased, and Harry W. Mr. Mari;in is a member of the Lu- 
theran Church and in politics a Republican. 

George A. Snotterly was a native of Lebanon County, Pa., 
and a miller by trade. lie died in 1827 and is buried under the 
Lutheran church at Greencastle. At the time of his death he 
was employed at the Broadfording mill and owned a small farm 
in that vicinity. He married Susan, daughter of George and 
Catharine (Winters) Burkhart, and their children were Susanna, 
who married Philip Beaver; Catharine, who married Jacob 
Beaver; George; Sophia, who married George Shiess; Henry, and 
John. After her husband's death Mrs. Snotterly returned to the 
vicinity of Jacobs church. She was born June 2G, 1788, and died 
June 20, 1847. 

George A. Snotterly was bom June 13, 1819, and died Oc- 
tober 20, 1871. He lived at the Furnora pro]x»rty near Rock 
Forge for some years, but in 1857 he purchased the land near 
Jacobs church now owned by Mrs. Joseph Creager and built the 



294 HISTOBY OF LEITEK8BUKG DI8TK1CT. 

present house thereon, and here he lived until his death. He 
married Henrietta Cramer, and their children were Susanna, 
who died in childhood; J. Burkhart; S. Melvin; George A.; Anna 
PL, who married John Barkdoll; Alice L., who married William 
BarkdoU; Mary J., who married John Holtzman; Daniel M.; and 
^Margaret K., who married Freeland W. Anderson. Mr. Snotterly 
was a member of the Lutheran Church and a Democrat in politics. 

Henry Sxotterly was bom December 25, 1824, the son, of 
George A. and Susan (Burkhart) Snotterly. As a farm laborer he 
was employed by many of the prominent farmers in the vicinity 
of Leitersburg a generation ago— the Gabbys, George M. Beall, 
etc. He worked for Christian Horst continuously eighteen years. 
In 1848 he purchased land from Lyday and built the brick house 
near Antietam creek in which he lived until his death, 
March 13, 1898. He married Ann R., daughter of John and 
Susan (Miller) Cramer, and their children were John A.; Susan, 
deceased; Sarah E., who married Otho Kahl; David W., deceased: 
Oscar A., and Ella M., who married William Baker. Mr. Snot- 
terly was a member oi the Lutheran Church and a Democrat in 
politics. 

Jacob Hykes was bom near East Berlin, Adams County, Pa., 
Xoveml)er 29, 1813, the son of Samuel Hykes, a farmer and life- 
long resident of that locality and a minister in the River Brethren 
ChureJi. He died at an advanced age, leaving sixteen children, 
and has numerous descendants in Lancaster, York, Adams, and 
Franklin Counties. The Hykeses of this locality are descended 
from two of his sons, Jesse and Jacob, of whom the former located 
near Middleburg, Pa. Jacob Ilykes came to Leitersburg District 
in 183G and entered the employ of Daniel Jacobs upon the farm 
now owned by his grandson, J. H. Hykes. Four years later, hav- 
ing married his employer's daughter, he rented this farm. Several 
years later he purchased the farm now owned by his son, Isaac 
Hykes, and there he died, September 24, 1889. His wife, whose 
maiden name was l^arhara Jacobs, was bom May 12, 1821, and 
died August 17, 1895. Their children were Mar}', who married 
Henry Miller; Martha, who married William G. Young: Eve, di»- 
censcd; Tsaar', and Jacob ^[., deceased. ]\Ir. Hykes was a member 
of the Eiver Brethren Church, and for some vears his housi^ 
was the place of worship for the scattered members of that faitli 
in this locality. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 295 

Isaac Hykes was bom on the 22d of October, 1843, in Lei- 
tersburg District, the son of Jacob anfl Barbara (Jacobs) Hykes. 
Pie was reared on his father^s farm, and obtained a common school 
education. In 1865 he began farming on the farm where he was 
bom and reared and here he resided until 1897. He bought this 
farm in 1869 and sold it in 1896 to his son J. H. In 1889 he pur- 
chased the property upon which he now resides and which was 
previously owned by his father. In 1865 he married Mary Louisa, 
daughter of J. Henry and Catharine (Butler) Weaver, jand they 
are the parents of two sons, William Harvey and Jacob Henry. 
Mr. Hykes is a Republican in politics. 

Jacob M. Hykes was born in Leitersburg District, May 11, 
1853, the son of Jacob and Barbara (Jacobs) Hykes. He obtained 
his education at the Rock Hill school. In 1874 he bought from 
his father the farm on which he resided until his death, March 
29, 1894. This farm is now the property of his widow, Mrs. Mary 
A. Hykes, to whom he was married May 9, 1872. She is the eld- 
est daughter of David and Elizabeth (Horst) Strite. In politics 
Mr. Hykes was a Republican. 

W. Harvey Hykes was bom in Leitersburg District, Novem- 
ber 15, 1865, the son of Isaac and Mary Louisa (Weaver) Hykes. 
He obtained a common school education. In 1888 he began 
farming as tenant on the farm of 132 acres whereon he has since 
resided, and which he purchased from his father in 1891. In 
1887 he married Margaret, daughter of Casper and Martha (Sei- 
ders) Linderman, and they are the parents of one child, Annie. 
Mr. Hykes is a Republican in politics. 

William H. Hykes was born near Chambersburg, Pa., April 
12, 1868, the son of Samuel and Mary (Sollenberger) Hykes and 
grandson of Jesse Hykes, who removed from East Berlin, Adams 
County, Pa., to the vicinity of Middleburg, Pa. In 1872 his 
parents located in Washington Township, Franklin County, Pa., 
and here he was reared, obtaining his education at the local 
school and at Waynesboro. In 1893 he began farming as tenant 
on his fa therms farm in Leitersburg District, and in the same year 
lie married Esther S., daughter of Jacob and Esther (Hoover) 
Sollenberger. In 1897 he relinquished farming and located in 
Stnrtown, Md., where he now resides. Mr. Hykes is a Republican 
in politics. 



296 HISTORY OF LEITER8BUBG DISTRICT. 

Philip Beck was born in Wurtemberg, Germany, March 23, 
1798, and emigrated to America in 1817, landing at Baltimore 
in destitute circumstances. His first regular employment was ob- 
tained at a wool-carding establishment in Frederick, Md., where 
he also worked in a brewery several years. Leaving Frederick he 
went to Waynesboro, Pa., and secured work at the distillery of 
Tobias Funk near that place on the old Hagerstown road. He 
subsequently operated this distillery and also that of Henry Funk, 
after which he was in business as a butcher in Smithsburg and 
Waynesboro. Near the latter place he purchased a farm and 
resided thereon several years. In 1841 he removed to the farm 
of Daniel Winter, his father-in-law, and thence in 1849 to a tract 
of 324 acres in Leitersburg and Chewsville Districts, which now 
constitutes the farms of his sons, David and Daniel; here he re- 
sided until his death, March 30, 1891. He married Susanna, 
daughter of Daniel and Elizabeth (Ridenour) Winter, and their 
children were David; Elizabeth, deceased, who married George 
A. Beard; j\Iargaret, Catharine, and George, all of whom died iD 
childhood; Daniel, and Benjamin. Mr. Beck was a member of 
the Lutheran Church and in politics an unswerving Democrat. 

Daxikl Beck was born near Waynesboro, Pa., May 26, 1838, 
the son of Philip and Susanna (Winter) Beck. His ednc-atini 
was o])tained at the public school near Beard's church and at 
Smithsburg. In 1861 he engaged in farming as tenant on his 
fathers farm. This extensive tract having been divided he 1;^- 
cated in 1866 upon tliat part on which the new buildings wore 
erected, and here he has since resided. In 1861 he married Cath- 
arine, daughter of Joshua and Louisa (Black) Sheley, and th^ir 
surviving children are Laura K.; Daisy R., and Max D. Mr. Beck 
is a Democrat in politics. In 1876 he was one of the assessors 
for tlio district composed of Leitersburg, Chewsville, Ringgold. 
Cavctown, and Beaver Creek Districts. 

Isaac II. Dukbohaw was born in Hamilton Township, Frank- 
lin County, Pa., February 18, 1796, the son of Thomas and 
Elsie (Bartholow) Durboraw. His education was obtained at the 
h^cal schools and at the Chaniborsburg Academy, where he stud- 
ied higlier mathoniatics and Latin. After teaching four years 
at ]\Iercer?burg he came to Lciterslnirg District at the uri:rent 
request of Stephen Martin and took charge of the Longmeadows 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCnES. 297 

or Mfirtin's school. He also taught at Beard's church, and then 
relinquished this profession to engage in merchandising at 
Chewsville. After operating for six years the Winter mill, owned 
by his father-in-law, Daniel Winter, he bought a farm near An- 
tietam Junction in Washington Township, Franklin County, Pa., 
where he resided ten years. He then returned to Washington 
County and resided at the farm now owned by Oliver F. Lantz 
in Ringgold District until his death, October 23, 1873. In ad- 
dition to this farm he also owned and operated the Winter or 
Durboraw mill and the farm now owned by his son, Daniel W. 
Durboraw. In 1833 he married Catharine, daughter of Daniel 
and Elizabeth (Ridenour) Winter, and their children were Ellen, 
wife of Richard Furley; Eliza; Daniel W.; Martha, wife of Manoah 
Metz; Margaret, wife of Jesse H. Haugh; Isaac, and Lydia, wife 
of Preston S. Vogle. Mr. Durboraw was a member of the Pres- 
byterian Church and in politics a Whig and Republican. He was 
county surveyor of Washington Coimty from 1855 to 1857. 

Daniel W. Durboraw was bom March 17, 1838, at the Dur- 
boraw or Winter mill, then operated by his father, Isaac H. Dur- 
boraw. He was educated principally under the tuition of his 
father. In 1866 he began farming as tenant on the farm where 
he has since resided, in addition to which he also owns the adja- 
cent farm, both tracts aggregating 234 acres. In 1862 Mr. Dur- 
boraw married Martha, daughter of James and Mary (Haugh) 
Slick, and their children are Mamie, wife of Dr. Jacob H. Wish- 
ard of Leitersburg and Emma, wife of Jacob A. Strite, attomey- 
at-law, Chambersburg. Mr. Durboraw is a member of the Re- 
formed Church and in politics a Republican. 

Israel Sexger was born in Washington Township, Franklin 
County, Pa., September 17, 1801, the son of John Senger, a na- 
tive of Germany, who immigrated with his two brothers, one of 
whom located in Lancaster County, Pa., and the other in Rock- 
ingham County, Va. John Senger lived for some years near 
Union school house, Washington Township, on the farm now 
owned by David R. Miller. Israel Senger succeeded his father 
in possession of pert of this farm and resided thereon until 
1840, when he purchased from Jacob Bell the farm in T^eiters- 
l.urg District now owned by the heirs of the late John Eshleman, 
and here he lived until his death, January 5, 1849. In early man- 



298 HISTORY OF LEITEESBUHG DISTRICT. 

hood he was employed by Dr. Fahrney of Beaver Creek as team- 
ster, and while a resident of that locality he married Catharine 
Emmert. Their children were John; Lydia, who married Benja- 
min Stouffer; Leonard; Samuel; Catharine; Andrew; Elizabeth, 
who married Josiah Fahrney; Israel, and David. Israel Senger. 
Sr., was a member of the German Baptist Church. 

Leonard Senger was bom in Washington Township, Frank- 
lin County, Pa., August 16, 1827, the son of Israel and Catharine 
(Emmert) Senger. He received a common school education and 
was employed on his father^s farm imtil 1856, when he made a 
journey to Illinois. After his return he was employed by John 
DayhoflE at Rock Forge eighteen months. He resided in Franklin 
County, Pa., from 1861 to 1864, and in Preble County, Ohi:^ in 
1865; since the latter date he has resided upon his farm in Leiters- 
burg District. In 1858 he married Catharine, daughter of George 
and Rachel (Hafner) Wiles, and their children are Mary; Annie, 
wife of Charles Martin, and Emma, deceased. Mr. Senger is inde- 
pendent in politics. 

Jonas Rowland was bom in Washington County, Md., May 
23, 1809, the son of Jacob and Elizabeth (Wolf) Rowland, and 
grandson of John Rowland, who lived near the College of St. 
James and the Marsh German Baptist church. Left an orplniii 
at an early age he was reared by his uncle, David Wolf, and by 
Joseph Emmert, who lived east of Hagerstown on the Leitersbiirg 
turnpike. After his marriage he began fanning three miles from 
Hagerstown on the Downsville turnpike, but several years later he* 
located in Leitersburg District at the farm owned by Daniel X. 
Scheller, and here ho lived until his death, April 22, 1863. lie 
married Ann, the only child of Samuel and Margaret (^lentzer) 
Gilbert, of whom the former was born April 18, 1784, and died 
July 12. 1838: the latter was born Januarv 31, 1793, and died 
March 22, 1839. Mr. and Mrs. Rowland were the parents of tho 
following children: Daniel G., a farmer at Peabody, Kan.: 
David W., of Centerview, ^fo.; Margaret A., wife of Daniel X. 
Schellor: Jonas, deceased; John, who died in infancy; Lewis B.. 
dentist, Hagerstown: Abraham S., a farmer of Washington 
Countv: ^fartin, who died in infancy: Ezra, a farmer in Ea^t 
Hagerstown District; and Samuel D., whn died in childhood. Mr. 
Rowland was a member of the German Baptist Church, and tlic 



BIOGRAPniCAL SKETCHES. 299 

Longmeadows or Kowland's church was originally built by him. 
Two of his sons, David W. and Abraham S., are ministers in this 
church, in which Daniel G. also holds the office of deacon. 

De. Lewis B. Rowland was bom in Leitersburg District, 
June 19, 1843, the son of Jonas and Ann (Gilbert) Rowland. He 
received a common school education, and after a brief experience 
in teaching began the study of medicine, but relinquished this 
and located at Hagerstown, where for five years he was engaged 
in the agricultural implement business. In 1878 he began the 
study of dentistry and has since been engaged in the practice of 
this profession. In 1885-8G and 1890-91 the Doctor was in 
Florida, where he designed to engage in orange culture, but the 
"freeze'' of 1890 resulted disastrously to his groves and he re- 
linquished the project. In 1865 he married Barbara A., daugh- 
ter of Jacob B. and Barbara (Funk) Lehman. The Doctor is now 
a Republican but formerly affiliated with the Prohibition party, 
by which he was nominated for county commissioner and for 
councilman in Hagerstown. He has traveled extensively in the 
United States and Canada. 

Peter Middlekauff was bom on the 13th of December, 1807, 
the son of David and Elizabeth (Sailor) Middlekauff, who resided 
near Hagerstown on the Cavetown turnpike at the farm owned 
by Captain Kahler. He obtained his education principally at a 
school taught by George Hoffman near Zion Reformed church in 
Hagerstown. When he reached manhood he engaged in farming 
on his father's farm and after the death of the latter he kept hotel 
in Hagerstown one year. He then bought a farm west of Hagers- 
town and resided thereon twenty years, after which he located at 
Hagerstown and engaged in business as a brewer eight years. 
On the 1st of April, 1865, he removed to Leitersburg, where he 
was associated with George W. Pole in the mercantile business 
for several years, and after relinquishing this he lived a retired 
life. In the days of militia musters he was a lieutenant in Cap- 
tain Hollingsworth's company, and during his residence at Lei- 
tersburg he served as mayor and was also justice of the peace for 
many years. In 1831 he married Elizabeth Wolf; one child was 
bom to them, Simon P., of Canton, 111. Mrs. Middlekauff died in 
1S32, and in 1835 he married Catharine, daughter of John and 
Cntharino (Lyon) Petrie. Their children were Hiram D.; John 



300 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

P.; Solomon S.; Mary E., wife of John A. Bell, and Catharine 
A., widow of Scott Ziegler. Mr. Middlekauff died on the 4th of 
March, 1892, and Mrs. Middlekauff on the 14th of January, 1887. 
He was a Democrat in politics and a memher of the Reformed 
Church, in which he held the office of elder. 

Hiram D. Middlekauff was bom near Hagerstown,Md., June 
28, 1837, the son of Peter and Catharine (Petrie) Middlekauff. 
He obtained his education at the public schools and the Hagers- 
town Academy. In 1861 he succeeded his father in the brewing 
business at Hagerstown, which he conducted four years. In 1865 
he engaged in fanning in partnership with David F. Nigh. In 
1867 he rented from his father the farm in Leitersburg District 
which he now owns, and which he operated until 1892, when he 
removed to Leitersburg. In 1867 he married Lydia A., daughter 
of George and Rachel (Hafner) Wiles, and their children were 
George; and Harry, Katie, and John, all deceased. Their mother 
died in 1875, and in 1876 he married Lavanda H., daughter of 
Philip and Barbara (Snotterly) Beaver, and their children were 
Hiram D. and William A., both deceased. Mr. Middlekauff is a 
member of the Reformed Church, in which he has held the offices 
of deacon and. elder. He is a Democrat in politics and was once 
the candidate of his party for county commissioner. During his 
residence in HagerstowTi he was president of the Junior Fire 
Company. 

George W. Middlekauff, A. M., was bom at Leitersburg, 
June 5, 1869, the son of Hiram D. and Lydia A. (Wiles) Middle- 
kauff. After completing the course of study at the Leitersburg 
Grammar School he entered Franklin and Marshall College in 
1888, graduating in 1891. In the following year he was pro- 
fessor of mathematics at Palatinate College. In 1892-93 he was 
a post-graduate student at Johns Hopkins University. He was 
principal of the Leitersburg Grammar School in 1893-94, and 
since the latter date he has been connected with the public schools 
of Waynesboro, Pa., as assistant principal of the High School. 
Mr. Middlekauff is a member of the Reformed Church and a 
Democrat in politics. 

Samuel Nigh was born near Hummelstown, Lancaster 
County, Pa., Novemher 10, 1809, the son of Henry Nigh, whose 
ancestors were of French Huguenot origin and wrote the name 



\ 




LONGMBADOWS ChURCW. 



BIOGEAPHICAL SKETCHES. 303 

"Noyes'^ or "IsTye/^ At an early age he removed with his father's 
family to Letterkenny Township, Franklin County, Pa., where he 
was reared and obtained a common school education. In 
early manhood he was employed at brick making and farm labor 
at Waynesboro, Pa., whence he removed to Leitersburg District, 
of which he was a resident until his death, June 22, 181)1, a period 
of more than fifty years. Here he was variously employed at 
fence-making, farm labor, etc,; for eighteen years he o\^Tied the 
present farm of Mrs. Slargaret Leather, and for some years before 
his death he resided in the immediate vicinity of Leitersburg. He 
married Lydia Mort and their children were John W., deceased, 
a carpenter by occupation; Samuel T., a mechanic of Springfield, 
Ohio; Susan, deceased wife of Jacob Lowman; David F., and 
Kate, wife of Samuel F. Lowman. Mr. Nigh was a Whig in poli- 
tics and aftenvard a Republican. 

David F. Nigh was bom in Leitersburg District, June 9, 1841, 
the son of Samuel and Lydia (ilort) Nigh. He received a com- 
mon school education, principally at Pleasant Hill school, of 
which his father was one of the trustees when the first school 
house was erected at the present site. He was reared a farmer 
and first engaged in this business in partnership with Hiram D. 
Middlekauff; in 1865 they operated the Joseph Gabby farm near 
Leitersburg. In 1866 he rented individually the fann of John 
Strite, which he operated at different times a total of sixteen 
years, residing in the meantime at Leitersburg, where he owned 
a property of twenty-five acres; he also farmed one year in Wash- 
ington Township, Franklin County, Pa., and one year at the 
Scheller farm near Ziegler's mill, from which in 1889 he removed 
to North Bellevue, a tract of 275 acres near Hagerstown owned by 
the Hamilton estate, which he has since operated. In connection 
with farming Mr. Nigh has also been engaged in raising 
thoroughbred stock and is recognized as one of the leading breed- 
ers of Holstein Friesians in Western Maryland. In 1864 he mar- 
ried Mary J., daughter of Philip and Ann (Snotterly) Beaver, and 
their children are Ida K., wife of Joseph Barkdoll; Annie B., wife 
of Otis Smith; May L., wife of Harry Lehman; Charles B., a 
farmer in Wilson's District; Edward B.; Albert C; W. Keller, 
and Emma L. Mr. Nye is a member of the Lutheran Church 
and a Republican in politics. 
18 



301 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

Joseph Barkdoll was bom on the Gth of March, 1810, near 
llinggold, Md., the son of John and Christina (Hevel) Barkdoll, 
and grandson of Peter and Sophia (Kruper) Barkdoll, the an- 
cestors of the Barkdoll family of Kinggold District. Peter Bark- 
doirs sons were Jacob; John; Peter; Joseph, and George; he alsu 
had several daughters. The subject of this sketch obtained his 
education at the local school in Slashersburg, a village now re- 
garded as part of Kouzerville, Pa. As a young man he worked 
for some years for Daniel Mickley, who resided near Harbaugh's 
church. In 1837, at Mr. Mickley's request, he leased his farm 
near Upton, Franklin County, Pa., and here he lived nine years. 
In 1846 he rented the Old Forge farm in Chewsville District 
from David M. Good and operated it five years. In 1851 he re- 
moved to the farm of Dr. William Ragan, now owned by Daniel N. 
Scheller, and after one year here and one year on one of the 
Ziegler farms he purchased in 1853 his present farm at Beard's 
church, whereon he resided eighteen years. In 1871 he bought 
the farm near Leitersburg which he still owns, and here he als ' 
lived eighteen years. In 1889 he retired from farming and ha* 
since lived in Leitersburg. In 1835 Mr. Barkdoll married Susan, 
dau.u:liter of Nicholas and Rovsanna (Augustine) Steffey, and 
their children were John B.; N. Frank; James P.; Joseph S.: 
G('nr<re P.. who died in infancy; M. Amanda, and Malinda B. Mr. 
B.'ukdi 11 hns ])een a memljer of tlie Lutheran Church for sixty 
venrs, havin^: been confirmed at Greencastle in 1837. lie hr.s 
served as deacon and elder in Beard's Church and elder in the 
Leitersl}urg Church. In i)olitics he has been a life-long Denn'- 
crat. 

William Barkdoll wa?j })i.rn in Pinfrirold District, Washinu- 
ton County, ^Fd., March 20, 1854, the son of Henry and Julia 
Ann (liO^T-rs) r):^,rkdoll, ^rpandson of Jo?e[>h Barkdoll, and great- 
grandson of Peter Barkdoll, from whom the Barkdoll fnmilv of 
Eingg(i]d and adjacent Districts is descended. Joseph Barkdoll 
was the first l)lacksmith at Binggold, and ])uilt the third house 
in that village. He died on the 25th of March, 1874, at the a^re 
of eightv-five vears. ITenrv Barkdoll also resided at Rinjrjrolri 
for some years and was eni])]oyod at the carpenter trade, but is 
now a resident of Wasliington Township, Frnnklin County, Pa.. 
where he has l^een enira^jed in farming:. William Barkdoll '-h- 



BIOGBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 305 

tained a common school education and was reared in his native 
village. Here he learned the trade of blacksmith under BarkdoU 
Brothers; after completing his apprenticeship he worked for the 
Frick Company in Waynesboro three years, after which he oper- 
ated the blacksmith shop at Rock Forge one year. In 1885 he 
rented the Rinehart farm adjacent to the Forge and engaged in 
farming and sand hauling. He purchased this farm in 1890 and 
has since operated it. In 1879 he married Alice L., daughter of 
George A. and Henrietta (Cramer) Snotterly, and their children 
are Frank L.; Alice M., who died in infancy; Ettie M., and Grover 
C. Mr. Barkdoll is a Democrat in politics. 

Henry L. Yesler was born in Leitersburg District, December 
31, 1810, the son of Henry Yesler and grandson of Andrew Leiter, 
the founder of Leitersburg. In 1830 he located at Massillon, Ohio, 
where he was employed in a saw-mill nineteen years. He went 
to Portland, Ore., in 1851, and thence to Marysville, Cal., where 
he engaged in mining. The vast undeveloped region on the shores 
of Puget Sound now attracted his attention and in 1852 he found 
his way to the future site of Seattle, then a hamlet of five cabins. 
The town, of which he was the virtual founder, was laid out in 
1853 and received its name in honor of Sealth, a friendly Indian 
chief. Here in 1853 he built a saw-mill, the first on the Sound, 
and for many years the principal industry of the incipient city. 
He also embarked in various other enterprises and with the 
growth of the place his property increased enormously in value. 
Through the passing years he amassed a large fortune and at his 
death he was one of the wealthiest citizens of his adopted State. 
He was twice elected mayor of Seattle and also served in other 
responsible civil oflBces. At Massillon he married Sarah Burgcrt, 
who died in 1887. In 1890 he married Minnie, daughter of John 
Gagle, a former resident of Leitersburg District. 

CnRiSTiAX C. Spessard was born on the loth of Januarv, 
1815, the son of John Spessard and grandson of Michael Spessard. 
Michael Spessard was born in December, 1750, and died in April, 
1825. Several years prior to his death he located in Chowsville 
District where Melvin Spessard now lives, and in this locality he 
has numerous descendants. John Spessard was bom on the 6th 
of March, 1791, and died on the 13th of May, 1878. He acquired 
the lands in Leitersburg District formerly owned by Jacob 



306 HISTOEY OF LEITEBSBUBG DISTRICT. 

Lecron; his son Christian C. succeeded to the possession of part 
of these lands and resided thereon until his death, April 29, 1890. 
In 1837 he married Mary Hershey, who died in 1845; their chil- 
dren were Jacob; Quincy; David, and Mary E., wife of Jacob 
Stover. In 1847 he married Mary, daughter of John Newman, 
and their children were John D.; Laura C, and Maitha J., wife 
of Samuel Boward. Mr. Spessard was a member of the United 
Brethren Church and a Eepublican in politics. 

Benjamin F. Spessard was bom in Chewsville District, May 
27, 1844, the son of Peter and Matilda (Reed) Spessard and 
grandson of Michael Spessard. Peter Spessard was four times 
married and was the father of twelve children, of whom the sub- 
ject of this sketch was one of the youngest. He was reared in his 
native District and attended the local schools. In 1868 he began 
farming as tenant on the farm of Elizabeth Hari:le. In 1874 he 
purchased the farm whereon he has since resided and upon which 
he has erected the present improvements. In 1867 he married 
Catharine, daughter of Jacob and Amelia (Creager) Hartle, and 
their children are Kenney 0.; Jacob M.; Geri;rude A.; Clayton I., 
a student at Franklin and Marshall College; Emma K.; Mary 0.; 
Edith E., and Sallie. Mr. Spessard is a member of the Reformed 
Church and in politics he is a Republican. 

Rev. Kenney 0. Spessard, A. M., was born in Leiter^- 
burg District, June 30, 1868, the son of Benjamin F. and Catha- 
rine (Tlartle) Spessard. After completing the course of study at 
the Lcitersburg schools he entered Franklin and Marshall Col- 
lo;j:e, Lancaster, Pa., from which he graduated with the Class oi 
1S91. Entering the Theological Seminary of the Reformed 
Church at that city in the same year he graduated in 1894 and at 
once entered upon his duties as pastor of the Reformed Church 
at Union J>ri(lge, Md. In 1895 ho married Miss Rosalie Weaver, 
of Martinsburg, W. Ya. 

Jacob Tkttle was born in Franklin County, Pa., January 31. 
1^!1 7, the son of Philip and Martha (Hege) Tritle. He was reared 
on his father's farm and was engaged in farming throughout his 
active life, excepting the years 18o2-57, when he owned and oper- 
ated the Rock Forge saw-mill. In 1857 he bought a farm on 
Little Antietam east of Lcitersburg and here he lived thirtv-one 
years. In 1888 he removed to Lcitersburg, and there he resided 



I 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 307 

until his death, May 5, 1891. In 1839 he married Sarah, daugh- 
ter of John Mentzer, and their children were Daniel M., deceased; 
Mary A.; Elizabeth 0., who married Jacob B. Stoner, and Mar- 
tha J., who married John D. Spessard. Mr. Tritle was a member 
of the Lutheran Chruch, in which he served as elder and deacon 
and as Sunday school superintendent for many years. In politics 
he was a Republican. 

Matthias Hoffman was a native of Germany and came to 
America at the age of seven years with his father, one sister, and 
two brothers. The family located at Baltimore and there he 
was reared. When he reached manhood he entered the employ 
of Christian Hoover, who owned eight hundred acres of land 
near Ringgold and hauled the surplus produce of his extensive 
farm to market at Baltimore, as was customary at that period. 
Hoffman entered his service as wagoner; subsequently he married 
one of his daughters, who inherited as her portion of the parental 
estate the farm south of Ringgold now owned by John S. New- 
comer. Here he lived until his death in 1838. His children 
were Henry, who married Susanna Snively and reared a family 
of eleven children; Christian, who married Nancy Newcomer, and 
reared a family of seven children; Jacob, who married Magdalena 
Stouffer and reared a family of ten children; Mary, who married 
Daniel Shank, and Nancy, who married Peter Barr. The first 
Matthias Hoffman was a Mennonite, and to this faith his family 
generally adhered. He is buried at the old Hoover graveyard in 
Ringgold District, although no stone marks his grave and its 
location can not be exactly determined. 

Matthias Hoffman was bom in Ringgold District, Washing- 
ton County, Md., May 16, 1819, the son of Henry and Susanna 
(Snively) Hoffman. He received a limited education at the local 
schools. In 1847 he began farming individually as tenant on a 
farm of two hundred acres belonging to the Lawrence estate, sev- 
eral miles from Hagerstown on the Western turnpike. Here he 
continued ten years. He then operated successively the Van Lear 
farm of two hundred acres near Williamsport three years, the 
Springfield farm of throe hundred acres in the same locality three 
years, the Van Lear farm one year, and the !Mt. Etna farm of 
five hundred acres in Beaver Creek District ton yonrs. During 
the Civil War he was located on the Springfield farm and ox- 



308 HISTORY OF LEITEESBUBG DISTRICT. 

perienced severe losses. In 1872 he purchased the fann in Lei- 
tersburg District whereon he resided until his death, April 10, 
1890. As a farmer he was eminently successful. The farms he 
operated were among the most extensive in Washington County 
and under his management invariably improved in fertility and 
productiveness. Mr. Hoffman was a Republican in politics and 
a member of the German Baptist Church, holding the office of 
deacon in the Antietam congregation. In 1843 he married 
Nancy, daughter of Jacob and Magdalena (Stouffer) Hoffman, 
and their children were Catharine, wife of John Detrow; Mag- 
dalena; Isaac H.; William H.; John W.; Emma S., wife of E. 
Keller Mentzer; Aaron V.; Anna Florence, wife of George Oiler; 
Ella M., wife of Aaron Newcomer, and Etha C, wife of Ferdinand 
S. Gilbert. 

Isaac H. Hoffman was born near Hagerstown, Md., June 13, 
1850, the son of Matthias and Nancy (Hoffman) Hoffman. His 
education was obtained principally at the Williamsport schools. 
In 1871 he engaged in farming in Ringgold District; here he con- 
tinued six years, and then he successively operated the McAtee 
farm in Williamsport District five years, the Blair farm (adjoin- 
ing that last mentioned) eiglit years, and the Springfield farm 
four years. In 1894 he retired from farming and engaged in the 
grocery business at Williamsport, which he has since continued 
with fair success. In 1871 he married Anna, daughter of Jt^hn 
and Magdalena (Toms) Sensenbaugh. In politics Mr. Hoffman is 
a Republican. 

William II. Hoffman was born near Hagerstown, Md., June 
9, 1853, the son of Matthias and Xancy (Hoffman) Hoffman. He 
received a common school education. In 1873 he superintended 
for his father the farm purchased by the latter in Leitersburg 
District, and here he was also employed during the next two years. 
From 1870 to 1S79 his father leased the adjacent farm of Dr. I. 
X. Snively in Washington To\vnsbi]\, Franklin County, Pa., and 
here he acted as fann superintendent during that period, after 
which he leased the same farm and operated it individui^lly iliree 
years. He tlien located in Ilnrbantrirs valley, Frederick r.»initv, 
Md., and here he was enira^ed in farniinfr two years. In 18Si he 
leased the Wiles farm near Wavnesboro, which he has since 
operated. In 1897 he purchased the farm in Leitersburg Dis- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 309 

trict formerly owned by his father. Mr. Hoffman married in 
1870 Mary C, daughter of Samuel II. and Dorothy II. (Wolf) 
Pryor. He is a member of the Lutheran Church and a Repub- 
lican in politics. 

John W. Hoffman was born near Hagerstown, Md., Decem- 
ber 21, 1856, the son of Matthias and Nancy (Hoffman) Hoffman. 
He was reared near Williamsport and at Mt. Etna and received 
such educational advantages as the local schools afforded. In 
1880 he engaged in farming in Clearspring District, where for 
eleven years he operated as tenant the Potts and Roth farms. 
In 1891, his father having died, he returned to the home farm 
in Leitersburg District, and here he has since resided. In 1879 
he married Emma V., daughter of Daniel and Nancy (Gehr) 
Rowe, and their children arc Etha M.; Bruce V.; Orvil K.; Charles 
H.; John W.; Mary, deceased; Daniel B.; Nancy M., and Emma 
Ruth. Mr. Hoffman is a member of the German Baptist Church, 
in which he holds the office of deacon in the Antietam congrega- 
tion. In politics he is a Republican. 

William Logan was born in Leitersburg District in 1822. His 
educational opportunities were exceedingly limited, as he never 
attended school more than six months in his life. After a brief 
experience in merchandising at Leitersburg he was appointed col- 
lector of State and county taxes for Washington County in 18 19, 
after which he was successively elected sheriff and clerk of the 
orphans' court and appointed postmaster of Hagerstown, in 
which position he died on the 30th of August, 1878. He possessed 
in an eminent degree the qualities of the successful politician 
and had a larger personal acquaintance in Washington County 
than any other man of his generation. In 1860 he married Mrs. 
^largaret Ogle nee Freaner and their children were Edward E., 
deceased; William; and James, deceased. 

Solomon Middlekauff w^as born in Washington County, Md., 
November 9, 1823, the son of Jacob Middlekauff and grandson 
of Leonard Middlekauff, who came from one of the southeastern 
counties of Pennsylvania early in the present centurj' and pur- 
chased the Bellevue tract of more than a thousand acres north of 
Hagerstown on the Middleburg turnpike. Part of this land, now 
owned by the estate of the late William T. Hamilton, passed from 
Leonard Middlekauff to his oldest son, Jacob, who was also sue- 



310 HISTORY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT.' 

ceeded in the ownership of part of it by his son, Solomon, the 
subject of this sketch. Here he lived until 1876, when he pur- 
chased the farm in Leitersburg District now owned by Joseph M. 
Bell, whereon he resided until his death, April 4, 1896. In 1848 
he married ^Fary, daughter of Daniel and Rachel (Houser) Miller, 
and their children were Amelia, who married John S. Watkins; 
Samuel: Martin L.; Daniel J., and William. Mrs. Middlekauff 
died on the 8th of April, 1896. In politics Mr. MiddlekauflE was a 
Democrat. 

Samuel Middlekauff was born near Hagerstown, Md., July 
26, 1851, the son of Solomon and Mary (Miller) Middlekauff. He 
obtained his education principally at the schools of Hagei?- 
town and was reared to agricultural pursuits. In 1885 he began 
farming individually as tenant on his father's farm, which he 
operated until 1897, when he leased the Wolfinger farm. In 1885 
he married Helen K., daughter of Isaac G. and Catharine 
(Swailes) Leiter, and they are the parents of three children, Frank 
L.; Charles C, and Mary 11. Mr. Middlekauff is a member of the 
Lutlieran Church and in politics a Democrat. 

Jacob Kahl was born near Scotland, Franklin County, Pa., 
the son of Jacob Kahl, a native of Germany and a blacksmith 
bv trade. lie owned four hundred acres of land near Scotland. 
His familv consisted of ten children, all of whom moved to the 
West except Jacob and Louisa, who married Jacob Xeff. Jacob 
Kahl learned the trade of blacksmith at Chambersburg and be- 
came a nia.^er of his craft. He came to Leitersburg in 1845 and 
was eni|>loyod by George Poe two years, after which he purchased 
frnni Jacob Kissell the })lacksinith establishment now owned bv 
Wilfred L. Florv. This he conducted eleven years, after which 
he was eini)l(nTd bv Ilenrv Oaks at Antietam Junction twentv 
years. After leaving Leitersburg he resided near that village on 
the (Jrcoiuastle road and afterward at the present residence of 
his son Anraiid, where be died, Xovomber 13, 1889. He married 
Catharino flyers, and tlieir cliildren were Albert: Otho; Aurand, 
and Olivia, d.'fcascd. 

Ottio K.mil was lorn in Leitersburg District, June 18, IS.").'). 
Ill" son of Jat'ob and Catharine (flyers) Kahl. He attended 
sclmnl at Lcitorsl'iirg and Xew Harmony and learned the trade 
of blaoksniith nnd;.T bis father, {;fter which he was emidoved 1 v 

I. • • 



BIOGHAPHICAL SKETCHES. 311 

Nathaniel Churchman at Park Hill and by John Watkins at 
Cearfoss. In 1880 he purchased his present property, and here 
he has established and conducted a successful blacksmithing busi- 
ness. In 1876 he married Sarah E., daughter of Henry and Ann 
(Cramer) Snotterly, and their children are Delia; Ira S.; Bertha 
M.; Clyde E.; Nannie G.; Herman S. C; Meta H., and Rea Grace. 
Mr. Kahl is a member of the Lutheran Church, and in politics he 
is a Democrat. 

William Anderson was bom in Franklin County, Pa., in 
1827. As a young man he was employed as a farm laborer at 
various places in his native county and in Washington County, 
Md. In 1861 he enlisted in Captain William Fiery^s Company 
(Company B, First Begiment, Potomac Home Brigade), and 
served imtil the close of the war, pari:icipating in numerous en- 
gagements in Maryland and Virginia. At the close of the war 
he returned to Leitersburg District, purchased land near Bow- 
man's mill, and built the house in which he lived until his death, 
June 1, 1892. He married Christina, daughter of John and 
Phoebe (Burkhart) Minor, and their children were Mary; Free- 
land W., and Flora. Mr. Anderson was a Republican in politics. 

Freeland W. Anderson was bom in Leitersburg District, 
October 15, 1854, the son of William and Christina (Minor) An- 
derson. He obtained his education at Martin's school. From 
1874 to 1877 he was employed as a fann laborer near Springfield, 
Ohio, and from 1877 to 1880 in Leitersburg District. In 1880 
he established a grocery and confectionery at Leitersburg, which 
he continued three years. From 1883 to 1891 he was employed 
at Waynesboro, Pa., where he resided for several years. He then 
returned to his native District, where he worked at farm labor 
until 1896, when he purchased the property of forty-five acres 
whereon he has since resided. In 1881 he married Margaret K., 
daughter of George A. and Henrietta (Cramer) Snotterly, and 
they are the parents of one child, Marcy B. Mr. Anderson is a 
Republican in politics. 

James Slick was born in Carroll County, Md., in 1813, the son 
of John Slick. In his father's family there were three sons: 
James, John, and Jeremiah, of whom the two last named removed 
to Lanark, 111., and one daughter, Elizabeth, who married Jona- 
than Baldwin. James Slick learned the milling business under 



312 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTRICT. 

George BufHngton in his native county, whence he came to Lei- 
tersburg District, where he w^as employed as miller by John Byer 
and Henry Funk. Here he died, December 22, 1844. He mar- 
ried Mary X., daughter of Paul and Elizabeth (Reck) Haugh, and 
their children were Martha, wife of Daniel W. Durboraw; Emma, 
deceased wife of John W. Nigh, and Milton J., publisher of the 
Mercersburg Journal, Mercersburg, Pa. Mr. Slick was a mem- 
ber of the Reformed Church, and at the time of his death he was 
superintendent of the Sunday school at Jacobs church. 

Floyd N. Webb was boni in Cavetown District in 1818, the 
son of William and Mary Webb, and grandson of William Webb. 
He obtained a common school education and learned the trade of 
tinner, at which he was employed in Smithsburg until about the 
year 1850, when he removed to Leitersburg; here he continued 
in business until his death, November 10, 1863. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of John and Julia Weagley, and their chil- 
dren were Julia; Mary E., wife of Henry Martin; John W., who 
was constable of Leitersburg for some years; Virginia, who mar- 
ried Samuel Summers; Charles F., and LawTcncc T. Mr. Webb 
was a member of the Lutheran Church. 

William Reynolds was born near Chewsville, Md., November 
14, 1820, the son of Samuel Reynolds. After his marriage he 
resided in Philo, ^Id., one year; in 1847 he located in Leitersburg 
District at the present residence of Martin C. Funk, and here he 
was engaged in farming until his death, August 10, 1887. In 
1845 he married Sarah, daugliter of George and Barbara (Protz- 
man) Bowers, and their children were Ihifus; Ellen, deceased; 
Keninnis; Samuel II., and Ida J., wife of Martin C. Funk. Mr. 
Reynolds was a nicml)er of the Bcformed Church and served for 
some years ns superintendent of the Sunday school at Beard's; in 
polities he was a Eepublican. 

Jacob Xkkdy was born in Ringgold District, January 23, 1S21, 
the Son of Jacob and ^largaret (Schutter) Needy and grands'Mi 
of Henry Xoedv, who wns a comb-maker 1)y trade and lived near 
Ila^erstown. Jacol) Necdv, Sr., wns a weaver and lived at Greens- 
burg (Philo). dvint^ at the aixe of thirty-six, June 20, 1829. Jacob 
Xeedy, the subject of this sketch, obtained a limited education 
at the common schools. He learned the trade of carpenter and 
was employed at this vocation several years, residing: at Smiths- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 313 

hiirg. He first located at his present residence in 1856; in 1869 
hc' purchased it and here he has since lived. In 18-45 he married 
Malinda, daughter of Eli and Catharine (Teatian) Gallagher, and 
their children are Catharine, wife of Jerome Stanch; Margaret, 
and Philip. Mr. Needy is a Democrat in politics. 

Levi Fox was born in Washington Township, Franklin Coun- 
ty, Pa., June 14, 1822, the son of Abraham and Susanna (Riddle- 
sperger) Fox and grandson of Christian Fox, a native of Switzer- 
land, who emigrated to Pennsylvania, served two years in the 
Revolutionary War, and is buried at Salem Reformed church. 
The subject of this sketch first engaged in farming in 1849 as 
tenant on a farm owned by his father. In 1853 he purchased 
from Henry II. Snively the farm on Antietam creek now owned 
by Isaac Xeedy. The farm continued in his possession until 
1895. In 1847 he married Barbara A., daughter of Isaac and 
Elizabeth (Shelly) Ilershey, and of the children born to them 
the following are now living: Abraham; Mandella, widow of 
David Mortar; John, and Ezra. Mr. Fox is a member of the 
German Baptist Church and in ])olitics a Republican. 

SoLOMOX Stephey was born near Smithsburg, Md., June 14, 
1824, the son of John P. and Mary A. (Protzman) Stephey and 
grandson of Andrew Stephey, a native of Germany and a farmer 
by occupation. John P. Stephey, who was also a farmer, was 
l)om on the 11th of October, 1794, and died on the 12th of No- 
vember, 1849. Solomon Stephey learned the trade of cooper in 
early manhood and was employed at this occupation forty years, 
lie resided at Leitersburg from 1839 to 1858, when he purchased 
the property whereon he has since resided. In 1848 he married 
Catharine Oiler, and their children are Mary E., wife of Joseph 
Barkdoll; J. William; Edward E.; Susan V.; David il.; Laura K., 
wife of James Barkdoll; Lewis B.; Frank F., and Annie R. All 
of the sons, with the excci)tion of Lewis B., are located at Troy, 
Ohio. !Mr. Stephey is a member of the Lutheran Church and 
a Republican in politics. 

Lewis M. J. Leather was born January 22, 1825, at Fred- 
erick, ild., the son of John and Susan (Leather) Leather, both 
of whom were natives of Frederick, where the family is still num- 
erously represented. His father died before he was born and he 
was reared among strangers, receiving a limited education. He 



314 HISTOHY OF LEITEBSBUHG DISTRICT. 

was first employed in Leitersburg District by David M. Good and 
afterward by Christian Strite, for whom he hauled flour and whis- 
key. In 1851 he purchased the property now owned by Abram 
Minor, and erected the present improvements thereon. In 1872 
he removed to the property upon which he resided at the time 
of his death, April 6, 1881. In 1850 he married Margaret, daugh- 
ter of David and Charlotte (Ridenour) Kaetzel. Mrs. Leather is 
a native of Strut, a small village near the post-town of Litzel- 
stein and not far from the city of Metz, in Lorraine, Germany. 
She emigrated to America in 1846 in company with her brother 
Christian and sister Charlotte, their brother Philip having pre- 
viously found his way to the United States. Mr and Mrs. Leather 
were the parents of the following children; Kate, who married 
George Flora; Mary, deceased; Christian P.; Agnes E., who mar- 
ried Daniel Beard; Alice, who married John Stouffer; Annie; and 
David, deceased. Mr. Leather was a member of the Lutheran 
Church and in politics a Republican. 

Peter K. Habter was born near Beard's church in Chewsville 
District, Washington County, Md., June 26, 1826, the son of 
David Harter. His mother's family name was Koontz. The 
Harter family is of German origin; its emigrant ancestors origin- 
ally settled in Pennsylvania, whence David Harter removed to 
Washington County; here he was engaged in farming and died 
at Grecnsburg. Peter K. Harter was also a farmer by occupation, 
and resided in his native county all his life with the exception of 
one year, whicli he spent in the West. For twenty-three years 
he operated as tenant the farm of Abraham Strite, afterward 
owned by Henry M. Jacobs. He then purchased the property 
now embraced in the farm of his son-in-law, Edward M. White, 
and here he resided until his death, December 30, 1894. He mar- 
ried Mary, daiigliter of George and Catharine (Ziegler) Poe, and 
their children were George A., president of Delaware College, 
Newark, Del.; James P., secretary of the National Building and 
Loan Association, Hagerstown; David, deceased; Anna E., de- 
ceased; Mary C, wife of Edward M. White, and Harvev, deceased. 
Mr. Harter was a member of the Lutheran Church and an officer 
in the congregr.tion at Leitersburg. In politics he was a Re- 
publican. 

George A. Harter, M. A., Ph. D., was born in Leitersburjz 



BIOGHAPHICAL SKETCHES. 315 

District, Xovember 7, 1853, the son of Peter K. and ilary (Poe) 
Ilarter. He was reared in his native District and attended the local 
schools, after which he was for a brief period a student at the 
National Normal University, Lebanon, Ohio. He was then en- 
gaged in teaching several years. In September, 1874, he entered 
St. John's College, Annapolis, Md., from which he was graduated 
in 1878 with the degree of B. A. Immediately after graduation 
he was appointed tutor in mathematics and Latin at that insti- 
tution and continued in this position until 1880, when he ac- 
cepted the principalship of the Leitersburg Grammar School. 
He was elected principal of the Washington County High School 
in 1881; this position he resigned in 1885 to accept the professor- 
ship of mathematics and modern languages in Delaware College, 
Newark, Del. In 1888 he was made professor of mathematics 
and physics in 'that institution; in 189G he was elected President 
of the College by the board of trustees and has since performed 
the duties of this responsible position with ability and success. 
He received the graduate degree of M. A. from his alma mater 
in 1880 and that of Ph. D. in 1892. In 1882 Professor Harter 
married Ellen S., daughter of Eev. James J. and Catharine B. 
(Simpson) Graff, of Annapolis, ild., and they are the parents of 
one child, Elinor. The Professor is a member of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. 

James P. Harter was born in Leitersburg District, October 
27, 1850, the son of Peter K. and Mary (Poe) Harter. He ob- 
tained a common school education and engaged in teaching in 
1873, continuing in this profession eight years. He taught two 
years at New Harmony in Leitersburg District, two years in the 
intermediate department of the Leitersburg schools, one year at 
Funkstown, and three years at Mt. Union in Leitersburg District. 
In 1881 he accepted the position of assistant postmaster in the 
Hagerstown postoffice under Mrs. William Logan, who was post- 
mistress at that time, and was retained in a similar capacity by 
her successors, William S. Schwartz and William P. Lane. After 
ten years of service in this position he was commissioned post- 
mpster of Hagerstown on the 1st of April, 1891, and served the 
full term of four years. In 1895 he became manager of the Herald 
Publishing Company and editor of the Herald and Torch-TAqht 
and Morninfj Herald, the official Republican papers of Washing- 



316 HISTOHY OF LEITERSBURG DISTRICT. 

ton County. In September, 1897, he retired from journalism to 
accept the secretaryship of the National Building and Loan Asso- 
ciation. Mr. Harter is a Kepublican in politics and takes an ac- 
tive interest in the affairs of his party. In 1888 he married Alice, 
daughter of Jacob and Amelia (Smith) Heyser of Chambersburg, 
Pa., and their children are James; Mary, and Alice. Mr. Harter 
is a member of the Reformed Church. 

Joseph Wishard was born in Washington Township, Frank- 
lin County, Pa., October 8, 1828, the son of Jacob and Rachel 
(Myers) Wishard. In 1852 he engaged in farming as tenant for 
Joseph Gabby. In 1854 he purchased the property whereon he 
has since resided. It was then uncleared land,' and has been re- 
duced to cultivation and improved by him. In 1852 he married 
Rebecca, daughter of Jacob and Loris (Shamhart) Holbrenner, 
and their children are Sarah J., wife of Banner Day wait; Anna 
M., wife of David C. Hoover; Ellen M., wife of Simon Sheffler; 
Laura V., wife of Harry Flegel; William E., and Harry X. ]\Ir. 
Wishard is a Democrat in politics and a member of the Lutheran 
Church. 

" Joiix Kriner was born in Washington Township, Franklin 
County, Pa., September 26, 1829, the son of Michael and Annie 
(Fritz) Kriner and grandson of Peter Kriner. Both his father 
and grandfather were weavers by occupation. The latter lived 
in Adams County, Pa., the greater part of his life, dying at C'a- 
toctin Furnace, Frederick Countv, ^Id., at the sl^o of ninetv-ninu 
years. Michael Kriner lived at Rock Forge twenty-three years, 
and died in Franklin County, Pa., at the age of seventy-seven. 
John Kriner received a limited education and in his earlv man- 
hood was employed as a farm laborer and wood cutter. He also 
worked on the construction of the Leitersburg and Waynesboro 
turn]>ike. Later he learned the trade of post-fence making, at 
which he was employed thirty-eight years, and during this period 
he constructed thousands of ])anols in Washington and Franklin 
Counties. In l.S-19 he married Julia Ann, daughter of Samiiol 
and Eva (Pottorf) Feigley, r.nd they have one child, Ann Rebec-en. 
wife of Peter Swisher, of Pa^o County, la. ^Ir. Kriner is a meni- 
lu^r of the Lutlieran Church, and in politics a Democrat. 

JosEPnrs Grouxd was born on the r)th of July, 1830, the son 
of Joseidi and Barbara (Peel) Ground, who resided in Washing- 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 317 

ton County near the Antietara creek and the Cavetown turnpike. 
Here he was reared and obtained his education at the local schools 
and the Hagerstown Academy. In 184G he began his business 
career as clerk in the grocery store of Wilfiam Knode at Hagers- 
town. Within a brief period Knode removed to Baltimore and 
engaged in the wholesale commission business, and Mr. Ground 
continued in his employ in that city. In April, 1849, he went 
to California via Cape Horn. There he spent one year, princi- 
pally at Mokalumne Hill, Calaveras County. In 1850 he re- 
turned home via the Panama Isthmus, New Orleans, the Missis- 
sippi and Ohio rivers, reaching his destination before his twenty- 
first birthday. He again went to Baltimore and entered the 
employ of Samuel Ormdorf & Company, wholesale grocers, first as 
salesman in the city and then as travelling salesman and collector 
in Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, and Southern Pennsylvania. He 
was one of the pioneer drummers of the day. In the spring of 
1853 he engaged in general merchandising at Leitersburg, and 
here he has been in business continuously at the same location to 
the present time. Mr. Ground is a Democrat in ix)litics and has 
been an active supporter of the organization and the principles of 
his party. In 185G he was a candidate for the House of Delegates 
but was defeated with the entire ticket although he received a 
higher vote than any of his associates. Mr. Ground married 
Mar}% daughter of Lewis Ziegler, and they are the parents of four 
children: Barry, who died in childhood; Maud Z.; Mary, deceased 
wife of Levi Z. Leiter, and Lewis J. 

Lewis J. Ground was born at Leitersburg, September 29, 18G2, 
the son of Josephus and Mary (Ziegler) Ground. After complet- 
ing the course of study at the local schools he prepared for col- 
lege at Swithin C. Shortlidge's Academy, Media, Pa., and entered 
Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., in 1881, graduating from that 
institution with the Class of "85. He then studied law under the 
preccptorship of Alexander Neill and was admitted to the Wash- 
ington County bar in 1887. He was secretary of the Planters' 
Mutual Insurance Company from 1889 to 1891, and justice of the 
peace from 1892 to 1896. In politics Mr. Ground is a Democrat. 

Daniel N. Scheller was bom near Upton, Pa., June 30, 1831, 
the son of Christian and Catharine (Xewcomcr) Schcller and 
grandson of Daniel and Elizabeth (Long) Scheller. Daniel 



318 HISTOBY OF LEITEBSBUBG DISTBICT. 

Scheller, who was born in 1762 and died in 1829, removed from 
Lancaster to Cumberland County in 1804 and thence to Franklin 
County several years later. Christian Scheller was bom in IT 98 
and died in 1872. Daniel N. Scheller became a resident of Wash- 
ington County in 1844, when his father located near Cearfoss. 
Here he began farming in 1856. In 1862 he purchased the farm 
now owned by Henry Baer and resided thereon four years, when, 
having sold it, he again rented his father's farm near Cearfots. 
He purchased the farm whereon he now resides in 1868, and in 
addition to this he also owns a farm in East Hagerstown District. 
In 1855 he married Margaret A., daughter of Jonas Kowland, 
and their children are Anna; 'Kate; Christian R., a practicing 
physician at Hagerstown; Daniel M., a grocer in that city; Samuel, 
and Margaret. Mr. Scheller is a member of the German Baptist 
Church, in which he holds the office of deacon and trustee. 

Wilfred L. Flory was born at Smithsburg, Md., April 10, 
1832, the son of David and Mary A. (Lambert) Flory and grand- 
son of John Flory, a native of Germany and a mason by trade but 
a farmer by occupation; he operated for some years the Old Forge 
farm in Chewsville District now owned by B. F. Winger, and 
tliere he died. David Flory was a mason by trade and pursued 
that occupation at Smithsburg. There Wilfred Flory was 
brought up; his educational advantages were very limited, as he 
never attended school after his ninth year. He learned the trade 
of blacksmithing under George W. Lantz at Leitersburg in ISol- 
53. From 1853 to 18G5 he was employed in Frederick County, 
Md., and Franklin County, Pa., principally at Catoctin Funiacj, 
Fnnnittsburg, Five Forks, Sahillasville, and Foxville. In 18G5 
ho located at Leitersburg and engaged in business at his present 
location. In 18T2 he began to give instruction in vocal music, 
and for some years conducted classes at various localities in Wash- 
ington, Frederick, and Franklin Counties. Professor Florv is a 
popular and successful instructor and has done much to stimulate 
the study of music. In 1853 he married Sarah A., daughter of 
Jacob and Sarali (Seiford) Lyday, and they are the parents of the 
following children: Henry A., deceased; M. Alice, wife of Louis 
McDowell; J. Lambert, deceased; Sarah K.; Elmer E., a medical 
student at Houston, Tex.: Annie J., deceased; George E., a 
])hysician by i)rofession; Lillie F., and William C, of Zanesville, 



BIOGBAPHIOAL SKETCHES. 319 

Ohio. Mr. Flory is a member of the Lutheran Church and a Ee- 
publican in polities. 

Geokge a. Cbesslek was bom in Southampton Township, 
Franklin County, Pa., November 11, 1833, the son of Joseph Q. 
and Sophia (Clippinger) Cressler, and grandson of Adam and 
Elizabeth (Hoover) Cressler. The parents of Adam Cressler, 
whose mother^s maiden name was Holloway, immigrated to Penn- 
sylvania from Strasburg, Germany. Adam Cressler was a soldier 
in the War of 1812. He was a mason by trade and laid the foun- 
dation for the old Lutheran and Eef ormed church at Shippens- 
burg. Later in life he became a farmer. He was bom on the 
8th of May 1781, and died October 19, 1863; his wife was bom 
July 12, 1786, and died on the 16th of August, 1864. Joseph 
Cressler, their son, was bom June 14, 1809, and died March 17, 
1875. His wife died April 26, 1849, in her thirty-sixth year. 
George A., their oldest child, was reared in his native township 
and in the adjacent township of the same name in Cumberland 
County. He obtained his education at the local schools and at 
the Shippensburg Academy. In 1859 he engaged in famiing on 
the old homestead of his family. Here he continued five years, 
and after farming four years in Cumberland County he purchased, 
in partnership with David Cleaver, the Paradise farm of 410 acres 
and has since resided thereon. In 1859 he married Mary C, 
daughter of David and Mary L. (Ferree) Cleaver, and their chil- 
dren are David W.; Mary E.; Joseph A.; George W.; Minnie F.; 
Ida M., and Alberta B. Mr. Cressler is a member of the Re- 
formed Church, and in politics a Republican. 

Casper Lixderman was bom at Waltdorf, Saxe Meiningen, 
March 24, 1834, the only child of Adam and Elizabeth (Harpst) 
Linderman. He obtained his education at his native place, where 
he also learned the trade of shoemaker. In 1854 he emigrated 
to America, arriving at New York in August of that year. Thence 
he went to Quincy Township, Franklin County, Pa., where his 
uncle, John Harpst, resided. After working at his trade in Lei- 
tersburg six years he purchased in 1863 the property whereon he 
has since resided. In 1862 he married Martha, daughter of Mi- 
chael Seiders, and their children are William A. ; Margaret, wife 
of W. Harvey Hykes; Ida, wife of George Barlop, and John. Mr. 
Linderman is a member of the German Baptist Church. 
19 



320 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTRICT. 

Levi L. Ridenour was bom near Edgemont^ Md., September 
24, 1836, the son of Samuel and Elizabeth (Flora) Ridenour and 
grandson of George Ridenour, a native of Germany, who located 
near Edgemont, where he lived until his death. Levi L. Ride- 
nour received a common school education. He was employed by 
David Hoover as farm superintendent from 1863 to 1880; in 1880 
he purchased the property formerly owned by Samuel Stephey 
and here he resided three years, after which he rented for four- 
teen years the farm owned by the heirs of Jonas Bell. In 1897 he 
returned to his own farm, which now comprises forty acres. In 
1862 he married Malinda, daughter of Samuel and Mary A. (Gar- 
ver) Stephey, and their children are Emma, wife of David Myers; 
Samuel H.; Clinton S.; Barry 0., deceased; Charles B.; Calvin C; 
Naomi V., and David M. Mr. Ridenour is a member of the 
Lutheran Church and a Democrat in politics. 

John Summer was bom near Williamsport, Md., July 9, 1834, 
the son of John and Sarah (Rowland) Summer and grandson of 
Andrew Summer, who removed from Lancaster County, Pa., and 
located in Washington County, Md., west of Hagersto^vn near the 
Western turnpike. John Summer began farming in 1859 in 
Williamsport. District. In 1862 he purchased the farm of fifty- 
six acres near Leitcrsburg whereon he has since resided. In 1857 
he married Ann !M. E. Bachtel, daughter of George and Barbara 
(Stephey) Bachtel, and the following children were bom to this 
union: Benjamin R.; Alvey B., deceased; Emma J., wife of Albert 
Stoner; Charles C, deceased; Barbara E., wife of Barr}- 0. Shank; 
Sarah E., John G., William J., and Edward C, all deceased; 
Thomas II.; Anna M., wife of William Hartle, and Mary M., wife 
of William S. Rinohart. Mr. Summer is a member of the Chris- 
tian Church and a Democrat in politics. 

Benjamin E. Summer was bom near Williamsport, Md., 
August 31, 1858, the son of John and Ann M. E. (Bachtel) Sum- 
mer, lie was brought up in Leitersburg District and attended 
the Leitersburg schools. In 1880-81 he was a student at Eaton 
& Burnett's Business College, Baltimore, Md. After clerking at 
Hagerstown six months he opened a store at Leitersburg in 1881; 
later in the same year he removed to Quincy, Pa., where he has 
since conducted a general mercantile business. In 1882 he mar- 
ried Ida ^Ir.y, dnuglitor of John S. and Mary (Dumbaugh) Duey, 



\ 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 321 

and their children are Almeda V.; Walter C; Harris N.; Ruth and 
May, both deceased. Mr. Summer is a Democrat in politics and a 
member of the Lutheran Church. He was postmaster at Quincy 
from 1884 to 1888. 

Henry F. Unger was bom in Cavetown District, Washington 
County, Md., February 23, 1837, the son of Frederick and Eliza- 
beth (Fishach) Unger. His father was bom near Wittenberg, 
Germany, and emigrated to America at the age of seventeen. He 
learned the trade of miller with Lewis Tritle near Smithsburg, 
Md., and pursued that occupation during his active life, eventu- 
ally purchasing the "Bed mill" near the reservoir in Cavetown 
District. He and his wife were members of the Reformed Church 
at Cavetown, where both are buried. Their children were Cath- 
arine; Nettie, who married James Stevenson; William; Henry F.; 
Elizabeth, who married Isaac Shank, and George B. Henry F. 
was reared in his native District and obtained his education at the 
Smithsburg sch6ols. He began farming in 1874 as tenant on his 
father^s farm, which he operated seventeen years. After a resi- 
dence of two years at Chewsville he purchased in 1893 the farm 
of ninety acres upon which he has since resided, and here he is 
extensively engaged in grape and berry culture. In 1868 he 
married Susan, daughter of Cornelius C. and Maria (Kimler) 
Eeese, and of the children bom to this union the following are 
now living: Cora, wife of Walter Shilling; Emma, wife of Harvey 
Lantz; Louis R.; Xettie M.; Zada E.; Lester D.; Henry E., and 
Max C. Mr. Unger is a Democrat in politics. 

John L. Gilbert was bom near Greencastle, Pa., June 12, 
1840, the son of David and Elizabeth (Lecron) Gilbert. He was 
reared in that locality and in Leitersburg District, to which his 
father had removed, and obtained a common school education. 
From 1865 to 1875 he operated as tenant his father's farm in 
Leitersburg District on the Greencastle road. In 1875 he pur- 
chased the farm near Miller's church now owned by Daniel W. 
Martin, to whom he sold it in 1894. He resided here until 1898, 
when he removed to Waynesboro. He subsequently returned to 
Leitersburg District, and here he died, Febmary 7, 1895. In 
1864 he married Mary, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Sum- 
mer) Strite, who survives him, with the following children: Louis 
DeLoy, pattem maker, Waynesboro, Pa.; Daniel Clayton, attor- 



322 HISTOBY OF LEITEBSBUBQ DISTBIOT. 

ney-at-law, Hagerstown, Md.; Myrtle E., and David Allen, who 
has taught several school terms in his native District and in Wash- 
ington Township. Mr. Gilbert was a member of the Beformed 
Church. 

George W. Coss was bom in Chewsville District, August 9, 
1841, the son of Samuel and Dorothy (Bowers) Goes and grand- 
son of John Coss, who once resided near Williamsport but re- 
moved to West Virginia, where he lived and died near the Ohio 
river opposite Marietta. Samuel Coss returned to Washington 
County; he was a blacksmith but farmed for some years near 
Beard's church, where he died in 1888. George W. learned the 
trade of blacksmith under Philip Warfield. After a residence of 
three years at Farmersville, Ohio, he located in 1865 at his present 
place of business, adjacent to Martin's school house. In 1863 he 
married Georgetta S., daughter of George W. and Elizabeth 
(Stockslager) Lyday, and their children are Louis C; Florence E., 
wife of Charles Worden; George A.; Emma K., wife of Frederick 
Hartman; Samuel W.; Mary D., wife of Pierce Ziegler; Frances 
E.; Nettie S.; Delia L., and Ralph. Mr. Coss is a member of the 
Beformed Church and a Democrat in politics. 

William H. Stevexsox was bom in Cavetown District, Wash- 
ington County, Md., November 19, 1842, the son of Joseph and 
Nancy (Grove) Stevenson. Joseph Stevenson was a shoemaker 
by occupation and conducted that business near Sraithsburg, 
where he lived until his death. His family consisted of eight 
children: John, who died in infancy; James A.; Elizabeth A., who 
married William Eidenour; Benjamin F.; Susan, who married 
William Weaploy: William IT.; Sarah, and Ann E., who married 
Hczekiah Deibert. William H. Stevenson received a common 
school education and learned the trade of shoemaker under his 
father, after which he pursued this avocation fifteen years. In 
1877 he located upon the property formerly owned by the DayhoS 
family; this he purchased in 1878 and here he has since resided. 
In 1876 he married Catharine, daughter of Samuel Dayhoff and 
their children are Joseph S., a graduate of Juniata College, Hunt- 
ingdon, Pa.: M. Edith: Henrys H.; Sudie K.; Bertha May; H. Wil- 
bur, and Ernest L. Mr. Stevenson is a member of the German 
Baptist Church and a Prohibitionist in politics. In 1864 he en- 
listed in Company D, Fifth ^Mar^'land Volunteers, participating 



BIOGBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 323 

in the operations around Eichmond and Petersburg until the 
close of the war, when ho was mustered out at Fortress Monroe. 

David B. Shoemaker was bom at Ringgold, Md., March 17, 
1843, the son of Michael and Mary (Newcomer) Shoemaker and 
grandson of John Shoemaker, who removed from Hanover, Pa., 
to the vicinity of Einggold and thence to Dalesville, Ind., where 
he has numerous descendants. There he died, January 22, 1865, 
aged eighty-eight years and twenty-three days. Michael Shoe- 
maker returned from the West and located south of Einggold, 
whence he removed to Cearfoss, Md., in 1855, to Welsh Run, Pa., 
in 1860, and to Upton, Pa., in 1864. David B. Shoemaker's 
early life was passed at the places mentioned, where he attended 
the local schools. In February, 1865, he enlisted in Company F, 
Seventy-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and served six months. 
In 1870 he began farming at Welsh Eun, and two years later he 
located upon the Ziegler farm in Leitersburg District, which he 
has since operated. He also owns a farm of 178 acres in Washing- 
ton Township, Franklin County, Pa. In 1867 he married Sarah, 
daughter of John and Elizabeth (Brant) Miller, who died od the 
2d of Januar}', 1890, leaving the following children: Amy; 
Frank; David; William; Clara; Harry; Nora; Allen, and Ella. 
Mr. Shoemaker is a Reformed Mennonite in faith and inde- 
pendent in politics. 

David Barxhart was bom in Leitersburg District, May 14, 
1843, the son of Jacob and Mary (Beckman) Bamhart. His 
father was bom on the 8th of June, 1813, and died on the 28th 
of August, 1882; his mother, who was a daughter of John and 
Ann (Beck) Beckman, died when he was six years of age and he 
was reared in the family of Joseph Leiter of Leitersburg, under 
whom he learned the trade of carpenter. His education was ob- 
tained at the village schools. In 1867 he entered into partner- 
ship with John Middlekauff in the business of contracting and 
building. Two years later this partnership was dissolved; during 
the ensuing two years he was in partnership with James Leiter, 
and then for a period of eighteen months with J. Freeland Leiter. 
Since 1873 he has been in business individually, employing at 
times as many as ten workmen. Many of the later improvements 
of the District and adjacent region have been erected by him. 
He built the Greensburg Lutheran church, and was also respon- 



324 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBQ DISTRICT. 

aibly concerned in the remodelling of the Lutheran churches at 
Leitersburg, Beard's, and Smithsburg. In connection with his 
business as carpenter and contractor he also conducts an under- 
taking business. In 1865 Mr. Barnhart married Annie K., daugh- 
ter of Samuel and Ruth Ann (Swisher) Bowers, and their children 
are Mary; Annie R., wife of Charles G. Leiter; George W.; Joseph 
L., deceased; M. Maud; D. Benton, and Charles F. Mr. Bamhait 
is a member of the Lutheran Church at Leitersburg, in which 
he has held the office of deacon. He is a Democrat in politics, 
and has served as postmaster of Leitersburg from 1884 to 1888 
and from 1892 to 1898. 

Oliver K. Kxode was bom near Funkstown, Md., August 10, 
1843, the son of Louis A. and Catharine (Gagler) Knode and 
grandson of Jacob Knode, a life-long resident in the vicinity of 
Boonsboro, Md. He obtained a common school education, and 
was reared to agricultural pursuits. In 1872 he engaged in farm- 
ing, at which he was employed until 1898, with the ex- 
ception of the year 1882. He farmed successively eight years 
near Clearspring, three years north of that village, two years in 
Wilson's District, one year at St. Paul's church, and four years 
in Wilson's District. In 1891 he purchased a farm in Funks- 
town District and resided thereon until 1895, when, having 
bought the farm near Ivcitersburg owned for many years by Levi 
Fox, he located thereon and here he resided until 1898, when he 
sold it and removed to Leitersburg. In 1871 he married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of William and Mary (Brewer) Beard, and they 
are the parents of one cliild, Eva D. Mr. Knode is a member of 
the Lutheran Church, and in p(^litics a Republican. 

Daniel J. I). Hicks was bom near Welsh Run, Franklin 
County, Pa., August 4, 1844, the son of John and Elizabeth 
(Speck) Ilicks. His father was engiiged in merchandising during 
his active business life, principally at the Marsh (Wingerton), 
Wolsli Run, Cenrfoss, and Camp Hill. He died on the 28th of Xo- 
veniber, 1868, leaving six children, viz., John M. L., a farmer near 
Greencastle; Ann Elizabeth, wife of Joseph Neibert, of Broad- 
fording, Md.; Daniel J. D.; William B., a farmer in Iowa; Mary 
C, wife of Andrew Cunningham, of Cearfoss, Md.; and David L. 
S., a farmer at Athens, 111. Daniel J. D. was reared at Welsh 
Run and Camp Hill and obtained his education at the local 



BIOGBAPHIOAL SKETCHES. 325 

schools. After reaching manhood he learned the trade of miller, 
at which he was employed thirteen years — five years at the Dei- 
trich mill east of Leitersburg, one year at Martin's mill three 
miles south of Greencastle, one year at the Broadfording mill, 
three years at Strite's mill, and three years at George Bell's mill. 
In 1879 he removed to Leitersburg, and here he has since resided, 
with the exception of one year. After relinquishing milling he 
was variously employed until 1891, when he was elected secretary 
of the Planters' Mutual Insurance Company of Leitersburg. This 
position he has since held, ^nd the present prosperous condition 
of the company may be fairly attributed in large measure to his 
administration. In 1871 he married Athalinda, daughter of 
Joseph Clopper. Mr. Hicks is a member of the Lutheran Church 
of Leitersburg, in which he has held the office of deacon and 
assistant superintendent of the Sunday school. In politics he is 
a Prohibitionist. 

Lewis H. Myers was bom at Leitersburg, March 19, 1847, the 
son of Henry and Airy (Douglas) Myers and grandson of Jacob 
Myers, a millwright of Hagerstown. Jacob Myers had three 
sons: John, who died in Virginia; Jacob, who was successfully en- 
gaged in the milling business at Canton, Ohio, and Henry, a team- 
ster by occupation. Left an orphan at an early age by the death 
of both his parents, Lewis H. was reared in the families of his 
uncle, Frederick Ziegler, and brothers-in-law, Jacob Kahl and 
Daniel Crumb. He obtained a common school education and 
learned the trade of miller under William Crumb, after which he 
was employed for one year at Bowman's mill east of Leitersburg, 
then operated by Daniel Mentzer. From 1873 to 1880 he oper- 
ated the saw-mill of Captain Henry Clopper on the Marsh 
turnpike. In 1880 he purchased the farm of forty-three acres 
upon which he has since resided. In 1870 he married Mary H., 
daughter of Captain Henry and Elizabeth (Graeber) Clopper and 
two children were born to them: Airy Lula, deceased, and Her- 
man W., a teacher by profession. Mr. Myers is a member of the 
Lutheran Church and a Republican in politics. 

John H. Ditlow was bom at Pinesburg, Washington County, 
Md., September 1, 1848, the son of Henry and Susan (Grove) 
Ditlow, the former a native of Lancaster County, Pa., and the 
latter of Washington County, Md., where the Grove family is 



326 HISTOBY OF LEITEKSBUKO DISTEIOT. 

numerously represented in the vicinity of Pinesburg. In Lan- 
caster County Henry Ditlow was a miller, but after his remoYal 
to Washington County he became a farmer. His family consisted 
of the following children: Sarah, who married Richard Johnson; 
Vianna, who married John Cook; William; Matilda; Susan; John 
H.; Annie M., who married James Lowry; David, Malinda, and 
Amanda, all deceased. John H. Ditlow obtained his education 
at the Pinesburg local school. He began farming in 1874 near 
Maugansville, Md. From that locality he removed to the vicinity 
of Cearfoss, and thence in 1890 to the Deitrich farm in Washing- 
ton Township. In 1892 he located on the Eshleman farm, which 
he has since operated. In 1879 he married Emma, daughter of 
Daniel and Maria (Creely) Besecker. Mr. Ditlow is a member of 
the Evangelical Church and in politics a Republican. 

William G. Young was born in Montgomery Township, 
Franklin County, Pa., November 25, 1852, the son of George M. 
and Catharine (Rhoads) Young, and grandson of George Young, 
who lived and died near Frederick, Md. He was reared in his 
native township and received a common school education. In 
1883 he began farming near Cearfoss on the farm owned by David 
R^iff. In 1884 he i)urchased the farm of seventy-five acres upon 
which he has since resided, and in 1891 he crecteii the ]>rescnt 
bam thereon. In 1883 he married Martha C, daughter of Jacob 
and Barbara (Jacobs) Hykes, and their children are Jacob I. and 
Harr}' L. Tn politics Mr. Young is a Republican. 

Gkouge H. ]^owman was born at ]\Iapleville, Wasliinsrton 
County, 'Md., December 3, 1852, the son of Samuel and Catharine 
(^face) Bowman and grandson of Henry Bowman, who was a 
farmer near Bencvola, ^Id. Samuel Bowman was also a farmer 
and reared a family of three sons and six daughters, George H. 
being the yoiintjcst. Ho obtained a common school education 
and in his early manhood worked at blacksraithing one year. He 
sen^d an apprenticeship of three years under John Clark, miller, 
at Bencvola, Md., after which he was employed by John Xico- 
demus at his mill near Ilohrersville several months. He then 
leased the Bishop mill near Smoketown and engaged in business 
individually for one year. The next year he was emploved as 
miller by John Harp near Ellerton, Fnnlerick County, Md.. and 
the next by Philip T^oub at l>caver Creek in a similar capacity. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 327 

after which he operated the Old Forge mill seven years. In 
1886 he purchased the mill in Leitersburg District which he has 
since operated. This property he has improved in various ways, 
particulariy by the introduction of the roller system in 1896. Mr. 
Bowman married in 1892 Ida V., daughter of Amos and Caro- 
line (Hoover) Warvel, and their children are Bessie M.; Minnie 
P.; Virginia E.; Amos E.; Samuel, and Floyd. Mr. Bowman is a 
member of the Unit^ Brethren Church, and in politics a Re- 
publican. He holds the position of postmaster at Mills. 

William H. Keeps was bom in Washington Township, Frank- 
lin County, Pa., June 25, 1854, the son of William B. and Susanna 
(Stover) Kjeps and grandson of William Kreps. William Kreps 
conducted one of the first hotels at Leitersburg, and afterward 
taught school for some years in Leitersburg District, where he 
held the office of justice of the peace. He was subsequently post- 
master at Cavetown, Md., where he was one of the first trustees 
of the Eeformed Church. William B. Kreps was engaged in 
merchandising at WaTOesboro, Pa., at the commencement of the 
Civil War, but relinquished his business to enter the army. He 
held the rank of lieutenant in Company G, Seventeenth Pennsyl- 
vania Cavalry, from which he was transferred to the recruiting 
service with the rank of captain. After the war he was in the 
Pennsylvania railroad service for some years and also conductjed 
a hotel at Harrisburg. William H. Kreps received a common 
school education and learned the trade of tinsmith imder Martin 
& Stover at Hagerstown, Md. After completing his apprentice- 
ship he located in Bice County, Kansas, where he was engaged 
in farming three years. In 1880 he returned to Washington 
County and in partnership with his brother, James B., operated 
the farm in Leitersburg District which he purchased in 1887 from 
the heirs of Solomon Hartle. He was engaged in the livery busi- 
ness at Hagerstown from 1882 to 1889. In 1891 he located on 
his farm, which he sold in 1893, and in the same year he pur- 
chased the farm near Miller's church whereon he now resides. 
In 1887 he married Emma, daughter of Daniel and Mary (Mick- 
ley) Bell, who died August 28, 1887, leaving two children, Wil- 
liam Earl and Mary Emma B. In 1891 he married Flora, daugh- 
ter of Joseph and Mary (Bell) Martin. Mr. Kreps is a Republican 
in politics. 



328 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBO DI8TBICT. 

Edwabd M. White was bom in Antrim Townfihip, Franklin 
County, Pa., May 16, 1855, the son of John and Maiy J. (Beall) 
White. His ancestry is traced to John White, an English im- 
migrant, and an early settler near Upton, Franklin County, Pa., 
who married Jane Marsden, of Adams County, Pa., and they 
were the parents of three children: Edward; Matthew; and Jane. 
Edward White, who succeeded to the parental farm near Upton, 
married Mary Lawhead, and they were the parents of four sons 
and four daughters. One of the sons, John White, the father 
of Edward M., is a retired farmer and resides at Greencastle, Pa. 
His maternal grandfather was George Mordecai Beall, who re- 
sided near Jacobs church on the farm now owned by Daniel 
Hoover about the years 1837-47. He was from Frederick County, 
Md., and was the son of George Mordecai Beall, an English im- 
migrant. Mr. White received a common school education. In 
1880 he engaged in farming in Antrim Township as tenant on 
the farm of 240 acres lately purchased by Isaac Shank. After 
operating this extensive farm eleven years he purchased in 1891 
the farm in Leitersburg District upon which he has since re- 
sided. In 1889 he married Kate, daughter of Peter K. and Mary 
(Poe) Harter. Mr. 'White is a member of the Presb}i:erian Church 
and in politics a Republican. 

Jacob H. Wisiiard, M. D., was bom near Williamsport, Md., 
on the lOtli of November, 1856, the son of Samuel and Sarah 
(A^androaii) Wishard. The original home of tiie Wishard family 
is the farm now occupied by David Shank on Antietam creek in 
Washington Township, Franklin County, Pa. Samuel Wishard 
was born here, and is now a resident of his native township, al- 
though he began bis active business life as a farmer near Leiters- 
burg and subsequently operated the extensive farm of 0. H. Wil- 
liams near AVillianisport. lie also owned a farm near Cavetown 
and resided thereon, and it was at the schools of that village and 
of Smithsburg that the Doctor obtained his early education. From 
1873 to 1877 he was located in Illinois and Iowa. In the winter 
of 1870-77 he was a student at the High School of Rock Falls, 
m., and in 1877-78 at Ziegler's school in Greencastle. In 1878- 
79 he taught school at Eouzerville, Pa., and in 1879 he began 
the study of medicine under the percept orship of Dr. Daniel 
Eoyer, of Shady Grove, Pa. In 1880 he entered Jefferson Medical 



\ 



BIOOBAPHICAL SKETCHES. 329 

College at Philadelphia, graduating in 1883, after which he at 
once located at Leitersburg, where he has since been engaged in 
the practice of his profession. In 1887 he married Mamie, daugh- 
ter of Daniel and Martha (Slick) Durboraw, and their children 
are Mary D. and Walter H. The Doctor is a Eepublican in poli- 
tics, and is a member of the Washington County Medical Society. 

Samuel McH. Cook was bom at New Franklin, Pa., May 14, 
1858, the son of George A. and Juliana (Beaver) Cook. The emi- 
grant ancestor of this family was George Adam Cook, who was 
bom on the 22d of June, 1719, the son of John George and Mar- 
garet Cook, of Oberlistadt^ Hesse Daraistadt. He landed at 
Philadelphia on the 30th of May, 1741, bringing with him a letter 
of recommendation from Eev. John Christopher Schlosser, the 
Beforaied pastor at his native place. After a residence of several 
years at York, Pa., he located in 1745 on a tract of two hundred 
acres at the headwatera of Antietam creek in Franklin County, 
Pa. Here he died in 1785, leaving a landed estate of twelve hun- 
dred acres. The line of descent from the Gemian ancestor to 
the subject of this sketch is as follows: John George Cook, of 
Oberlistadt. George Adam Cook; bom, 1719; died, 1785. George 
Cook; bora, October 23, 1751; died, September 22, 1842. (Jeorge 
Cook; bora, October 28, 1787; died, August 19, 1857. George 
Ankeny Cook; bom, November 24, 1819; died, August 8, 1861. 
Samuel Mc H. Cook, the subject of this sketch. After the death 
of his father his mother removed to Chicago with her family. In 
1870 they returned to Franklin County, where she died, after 
which he was received into the family of his uncle, Frank Lyday, 
at Waynesboro. His education was obtained at the public schools 
in Chicago and Waynesboro, and also at Meyerstown, Pa., where 
he was a pupil in 1874-76. In 1876 he entered the employ of 
Isaac Jacobs in Leitersburg District, of which he has since been 
a resident. He rented the farai of Mr. Jacobs from 1880 until 
1886, when he purchased the faraa of seventy-five acres upon 
which he has since resided. In 1878 he married Barbara, daugh- 
ter of David and Elizabeth (Schriver) Jacobs, and they are the 
parents of two children: Minnie V.; and Charies D., deceased. 
Mr. Cook is a member of the Lutheran Church and a deacon in 
the Jacobs congregation. He is a Prohibitionist in politics. 

Alveh L. Stockslaoeb was bom near Punkstown, Md., April 



330 HISTORY OF LEITERSBUBG DISTRICT. 

27, 1862^ the son of Martin L. and Caroline Sebecca Stockslager. 
John Stockfilager, the emigrant ancestor of the family, was bom 
in Hesse Cassel, Germany, January 18, 1763; he located in the 
vicinity of Hagerstown where George Stockslager now resides, 
and lived to the age of one hundred years, dying on the 9th of 
May, 1863. He married Barbara Loudenslager and among the 
children bom to them was Jacob, the father of Martin L. and 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch. The latter obtained 
his education at the public schools of Funkstown. He began 
farming in 1886 in Leitersburg District and here he has 
since resided. In 1885 he married Mary C, daughter of John 
W. and Elizabeth (Moser) Murdock, the former a native of Ayr- 
shire, Scotland, and the latter of Thurmont, Md. Mr. and Mrs. 
Stockslager are the parents of three children: Martin L.; John 
L., and Leroy. Mr. Stockslager adheres to the Lutheran Church 
and is a Democrat in politics. 

Samuel Diller was bom near Newville, Cumberland County, 
Pa., November 9, 1866, the son of Francis and Mary (Burkholder) 
Diller. Francis Diller was bom on the 14th of August, 1825, and 
died on the 19th of April, 1886; Mary (Burkholder) Diller was 
bom on the 25th of July, 1835, and died on the 26th of Novem- 
ber, 1895. In 1872 they located in the vicinity of Scotland, 
Franklin County, and there Samuel Diller was reared and at- 
tended the local schools. From 1885 to 1894 he was employed 
as a farm laborer in the vicinity of Chambersburg. In 1895 he 
rented the farm of Mrs. Fanny Strite in Leitersburg District, 
which he has since operated. In 1894 he married Lucy E., 
daughter of Abraham and Fanny (Huber) Strite, and they are 
the parents of one child, Albert F. Mr. Diller is a member of 
the IMennonite Church and a Eepublican in politics. 

John H. Diller was born near Scotland, Pa., February 20, 
1874, the son of Francis and Mar}- (Burkholder) Diller. He was 
reared on his father's farm and obtained a common school educa- 
tion. After his father's death he was employed in the vicinity of 
Chambersburg and Scotland until 1896, when he located in Lei- 
tersburg District. In 1896 he married Maggie M., daughter of 
Abraham and Fanny (Iluber) Strite. Mr. Diller is a member of 
the Mennonite Church and a Eepublican in politics. 



BIOGBAPHIOAL SKETCHES. 331 

Daniel W. Mabtin was bom in Washington County, Mi, 
March 7, 1872, the son of Abraham and Barbara (Wingert) Mar- 
tin. He is descended in the sixth generation from David Martin, 
who emigrated from Switzerland to Pennsylvania in 1743 and 
settled in Earl Township, Lancaster County, Fa. The line of 
descent is as follows: David; George; Abraham; Abraham, who 
was bom May 4, 1799, and died August 18, 1889; Abraham, who 
removed from Lancaster County in 1866 to Washington Coimty, 
Md., where he has since resided; and Daniel W. He was reared 
on his father's farm and obtained a common school education. Li 
1894 he purchased the farm of fifty-eight acres upon which he 
has resided since 1895. In 1893 he married Rebecca, daughter 
of Jacob and Martha (Strite) Shank, and their children are 
Menno; Bhoda, and Jacob. Mr. Martin is a member of the Men- 
nonite Church and a Republican in politics. 



INDEX. 



Addition to Cumberlaad . . 1 
Agricultural Development . ( 

Allamangle ] 

All That% Left i 

Anderaon, Pi-eeland W. , , . 3 

Anderson, William 3 

Antietam Creek 9, : 

Antietam Hundred I 

Antietam Lutheran Church .1 

BarkdoU, Joseph 8< 

Barkdoll, William S< 

Barnhart, David 3! 

Beck, Daniel 21 

Beck, Philip 2: 

Bell, Albert 2 

Bell, Andrew 87, 2 

Bell, Anthonr 88, 2 

Bell, Cyrus D. 2 

Bell, Daniel 197, 2i 

Bell, David 21 

Bell, Emerlcfc C 2 

Bell, Ezra K 2 

Bell, Frederick 195, 21 

Bell, George 199, 21 

Bell, George, M. D 21 

Bell, Henry P 21 

Bell, Herbert C 2 

Bell, Jacob 206, 2 

Bell, Jacob E . .2) 

Bell, James A 2 

Bell, JoaoD 21 

Bell, John 198. 2 

Bell, John A 21 

Bell, John W 2( 

Bell, Jonas 21 

Bell, Joeeph M 2( 

Bell, Lewis 21 

Bell, LewliJ 21 

Bell, Martin L 2 

Bell, Merris F. 21 

Bell, Peter ... 88, IBS, 197, 11 

Bell, Samuel 21 

Bell, Simon P 21 

Bell. Upton 2( 

Bell, William F 2' 

Belt, Thomas 89, 2! 

Biographical Sketches ... II 

Booneboro 

Boundaries, Adjustment of . i 

Bouquet, Henry '. 

Bowman, George H SI 

Bridges ) 



Brown's Grief ■ 40 

Burkhart, Christopher 86, 91, ItW 

BurKhart, George 107 

Bui-khart, George P 167 

Burkhart, George W. . ... 187 
Burkhart's Establishment . 87 

Burkhart's Lot 86 

Byor, Frederick 274 

Bver, John 2T4 

Carding Mills 101 

Cemeteries HI 

Charlton. John 27, 158 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal . 16 

Cheater 29 

Churches IIS 

Civil Wor 12, 66 

Clearspring 18 

Clopper, Henry 2SS, 283 

Clopper, Henry G 2M 

Clopper, John 2S2 

Clopper, Joseph 288 

Clopper, Simon 284 

Clopper. Upton 284 

Conococheague Creek .... 9 
ConococheajJ'ue Manor ... 10 
Cort, Rov. CvruB, quoted . . 22 

Coss, George' W 823 

Cook, Samuel McH 329 

Cresap, ThomM ... 21, 26, 166 

Cressler, George A 81» 

Cumberlatui 40 

Cumboiland Road ■ 16 

Curabfrland Valley 9 

Darling's Sale 27 

Dayhnff, Jacob 271 

Dayhofl, John 272 

DayhofT, John S 278 

DayhofT, Samuel 272 

Deceit 26 

Diller, John H 880 

Dilter, Samuel 380 

nistill.n-ies 96 

Dlstriot Boundaries ST 

District Erection 66 

District Politics 60 

DHlow Joh^H 826 

Downin^-'H Lot 28 

Downing, Robert . . .28, 65, 69 

Douglass, William SB 

Dry Spring 86 

Durboraw, Daniel W 29T 

Durboraw, Isaac H. ... 296 



334 



HISTORY OP LEITERSBURQ DISTRICT. 



Elysian Fields 88 

Emerick, Ludwipr 278 

Eshleman, Peter 258 

Farm Buildings 63 

Father's Good Will 38 

Fithian, Philip V., quoted 16, 79 

Flory, Wilfred L 818 

Fogler, Frederick 86 

Forbush, George 26 

Fort Frederick 11 

Fox, Levi 313 

French and Indian War .10, 68 

Funkstown 17 

Gabby, John 86, 216 

Gabby, Joseph 217, 283 

Gabby, William . . . 41, 66, 216 

Garyer, Benjamin 227 

Garver, Beniamin F 228 

Garver, Christian .... 79, 226 

Garver, Cyrus 228 

Garver, Daniel 228 

Garver, Isaac 227 

Garver, Jacob 227 

Garver, Melchor 229 

Garver, Samuel 84 

German Immigration . . .10, 61 

Gilbert, Jacob 94 

Gilbert, John L 821 

Gladfelter, Edward 67 

Golden Rod Council, Jr. O. U. 

A. M Ill 

Good, Christian 192 

Good, David M 193 

Good, Jacob . 26, 36, 64, 191, 192 

Great Rocks 40, 48 

Ground, Josephus 816 

Ground, Lewis J 317 

Hafner, Albertus 34 

Hagerstown 16 

Hagerstown and Waynesboro 

Turnpike Company .... 88 
Haldimand, Frederick . . 23 

Hall, Thomas B 24, 64 

Hancock 17 

Hart, Thomas 23 

Barter, George A 314 

Barter, James P 316 

Barter, Peter K 314 

flartle, Clinton W 172 

Bartle, George 30, 69, 168,169,170 

Bartle, George F 173 

Bartle, George S 172 

Bartle, Harry L 173 

Bartle, Harvey J 172 

Bartle, Henry 172 

Bartle, Jacob 170 

Bartle, John 169 



Hartlfe, Levi ni 

Bartle, Samuel ....... 171 

Hartle, Sebastian 169 

Bartle, Solomon ... . . 171 

Bartman, Benjamin 280 

Hartman, Samuel 280 

Beck, John 269 

Bicks, Daniel J. D 824 

Bill, Ira, quoted 20 

Hockman, Benij B 87 

Boffman, Isaac H 808 

Boffman, John W 809 

Boffman, Matthias 807 

Boffman, William H 308 

Borst, Michael 269 

Boward Lodge, I. O. G. T. .111 

Buckleberry Ball 36 

Bughes, Daniel 40, 96 

Bunt for Timber 86 

Bykes, Isaac 296 

Bykes, Jacob 294 

Bykes, Jacob M 296 

Bykes, W. Barvey 296 

Bykes, William H 296 

Independent Order of Ameri- 
can Mechanics Ill 

Indian Occupation, .... 9, 19 
* ' Jacob Miller's School 

Bouse " 149 

Jacobs Church School . . . .147 

Jacobs, Daniel 286 

Jacobs, David 179 

Jacobs, George 176, 179 

Jacobs, Henry 176, 178 

Jacobs, Isaac 286 

Jacobs, John .179 

Jacobs Lutheran Church . 76, 117 

Jacobs, Martin ! 173 

.Tacobs, Michael . . . . 176, 180 

Jones, Chatham 56 

Kahl, Jacob 310 

Kahl, Otho 810 

Kessinger, George 291 

Knode, Oliver K 324 

Kraumer, Samuel 94 

Kreps, William B 327 

Kriner, John 316 

Lahm, John 289 

Lahm, Samuel . 290 

Lambert, George . . 28, 160, 161 

Lambert, George B 162 

Lambert, George P. . . . . .162 

Lambert, Jacob 161 

Lambert, John J 162 

Lambert's Park ...... 28 

Lantz, Christian . 26, 92, 217, 218 
Lantz, George 218 



INDEX. 



335 



Lantz, George W 218 

Lantz, Oliver F 219 

Lantz, Samuel 219 

Leather, Lewis M. J 818 

Lecron, Lewis 226 

Lecron, Samuel 226 

Lecron, Simon 225 

Lehman, Abraham 288 

Lehman, Christian . . . . 288 
Lehman, Henry F. ... 93, 287 
Lehman, Howard S. ... 289 
Lehman, Jacob B. . . . 286, 287 

Lehman, John F 287 

Lehman, Peter 286 

Lehman, Samuel .... 288 

Lehman, William B 289 

Leiter, Abraham . . 84, 188, 185 

Leiter, Andrew 184 

Leiter, Benjamin F 187 

Leiter, Christian . 82, 188 

Leiter, Isaac G 188 

Leiter, Jacob 81, 69, 180, 184, 185 
Leiter, James Freeland . . .188 

Leiter, John 183 

Leiter, Joseph 181, 186 

Leiter, Joseph G 190 

Leiter, Levi Z 189, 190 

Leiter, Peter 184 

Leiter, Samuel 185 

Leitersburg 102 

Leitersburg Postoffice .... 68 
Leitersburg Schools . . . .148 

Linderman, Casper 819 

Little Antietam ... 19, 25, 26 

Logan, William 809 

Longmeadows 21 

Longmeadows German Baptist 

Church 139, 801 

Lowman, Daniel *Z74 

Lowman, Daniel S 275 

Lutheran Churches . 10, 118-188 

Marsh Run 19 

Marsh Turnpike Company . 89 

Martin, Daniel W 881 

Martin, Henry 298 

Martin, Immanuel 291 

Martin, Joseph ....... 298 

Martin, Samuel 292 

Martin, Stephen 277 

Martin's School 144 

Mason and Dixon's Line . . 45 

Mentzer, Christian 282 

Mentzer, Clarence E 287 

Mentzer, Daniel 230 

Mentzer, Daniel E 286 

Mentzer, E. Keller 287 

Mentzer, Jacob B. ..... 235 



Mentzer, John . . 87, 55, 229, 280 

Mentzer, John W 282 

Mentzer, Joseph P 286 

Mentzer, Joseph S 285 

Mentzer, Samuel 231 

Mentzer, Walter S 286 

Methodist Episcopal Church 141 
Middlekaufif, George W. . . 800 
Middlekauff, Hiram D. ... 800 

Middlekauff, Peter 299 

Middlekauff, Samuel . . . .810 
Middlekauff, Solomon .... 809 

Military Record 62 

Militia Musters 64 

Miller, Jacob 81, 55, 252 

Miller, John 258 

Miller. John C 254 

Miller, Lewis 258 

Miller, Michael . 25 

Miller, Victor 260 

Miller's Mennonite Church 186, 145 

Mills 90 

Mills Postoffice 68 

Minneola Tribe, I. O. R. M. . Ill 

Minor, John 281 

Mt. Union School 158 

Myers, Lewis H. ...... 825 

Neal's Bottom 86 

Needy, Jacob 812 

Newcomer, Benjamin .... 255 

Newcomer, Jacob 255 

Newcomer, John 254 

Newcomer, John B 256 

Newcomer, John N 255 

Newcomer, Joseph M 256 

Newcomer, Samuel 256 

Newcomer, Walter B. . . . 256 
New Harmony School . . . .158 

Nicholson's Gap 74 

Nicholson's Gap Roads . . 74-81 

Nigh, David F 803 

Nigh, Samuel 800 

Official Representation ... 61 

Paradise School 150 

Perry, Joseph .... 27, 84, 165 

Perry's Retirement 84 

Planters' Mutual Insurance 

Company 108 

Pleasant Hill School .... 152 

Poe, Charles E 277 

Poe, David A 277 

Poe, George 29, 80, 276 

Poe, Mark Z 276 

Poe, Oliver 276 

Population and Wealth ... 62 

Postal Facilities 68 

Presidential Campain, 1840 . 59 



336 



HISTORY OF LEITEBSBXJBG DISTBIOT. 



Presidential Vote, 1840-96 . 61 

Public Road8 16 

Railroads 15 

Reformed Churches . . . 10, 183 
Reformed Mennonite Church 140 

Reifif, John 26 

Rench, John 25, 98, 224 

Revolutionary War . . . 11, 68 

Reynolds, William 812 

Rich Barrens 88 

Ridenour, Levi L 320 

Ritter, Jacob 82, 191 . 

River Brethren Church . . . 140 

Roads 72 

Rock For^e 96 

Rock Forge Postoffice .... 68 

Rock Hill School 152 

Rowland, John 261 

Rowland, Jonas 298 

Rowland, Lewis B 299 

RuthrauflP, John ... . 127, 257 

Salisbury Hundred 56 

Santee, J. W 258 

Scant Timber 88 

Scheller, Daniel N 317 

Schlatter's Journal, quoted . 10 
Schnebley, Henry, . . . . 83, 39 

Schools 148 

Schriver, Henry . . 88, 220, 221 

Scott, John 37 

Sengor, Israel 297 

Sanger, Leonard 298 

Shank, Christian 278 

Shank, Daniel V 280 

Shank, Frederick 279 

Shank, Noah E 279 

Sharpsburj? 16 

Shiess, Peter 32, 165 

Shoemaker, David B 323 

Sights, Wendell 38 

Skipton-on-Craven . . . . 26, 44 

Slavery 54 

Slick, James 311 

Smithsburg 17 

Snell, Henry 79 

Snell, Philip 36 

Snotterly, George A 293 

Snotterly, Henry 294 

Solmes, Henry 37 

SpcBsard, Benjamin F. . . . 306 
Spessard, Christian C. ... 305 

Spessard, Kenney 306 

Sprigg, Joseph 23 

Sprigg, Thomas 24, 222 

Sprigg's Paradise . . . . 24, 54 
Startown Postoffice 68 



Stephey, Solomon 813 

Stevenson, William H. ... 822 
St- James' Reformed Church, 

Leitersburg 188, 163 

Stockslager, Alveh L. ... 329 

Stoner, Benjamin 270 

Stoner, Cyrus 270 

Stoner, David 38 

Stoner, Jacob 270 

Stoner, Jacob B 271 

Stoner, John 269 

St. Paul's Lutheran Church, 

Leitersburg 109, 129 

Strite, Abraham .... 2-16, 248 

Strite, Abraham C 260 

Strite, Andrew C 261 

Strite, Christian 246 

Strite, Daniel M 251 

Strite, David 246 

Strite, D. Franklin 252 

Strite, Franklin M. ..... 250 

Strite, Henry L 261 

Strite, John ... 36, 244, 245, 247 

Strite, John A 249 

Strite, John C 251 

Strite, John F 250 

Strite, John S 249 

Strite, Joseph 246, 248 

Strite, Samuel 245, 247 

Strite, Samuel M 250 

Summer, Benjamin R. . . 320 

Summer, John 320 

Tanneries 100 

Taylor, Ignatius 39, 243 

Temporary Line (1739) ... 40 
The Farmer's Blessing ... 39 

The Forest 33 

*' The Hollow House " . . . . 143 

The Resurvey on Poe's Part 
of Well Taught ...... 31 

The Resurvey on Well 

Taught 30 

Tipton's Run 19, 37 

Tritle, Jacob 306 

Trovinger, Joseph 281 

Trovinger, Martin L 282 

Turkey Buzzard 39 

Turnpikes 87 

Uuger, Henry F 321 

United Brethren Church . . 140 

War of 1812 12. 64 

Washington County : Bounda- 
ries, 9 ; Settlement, 10 ; Erec- 
tion, 13 ; Public Buildings, 13 : 
Hundreds, 13, 14 ; Election Dis- 
tricts 14 



INDEX. 



337 



Webb, Floyd N 812 

Well Taught 29 

White, Edward M 328 

Williamsport 17 

Wishard, Jacob H 828 

Wishard, Joseph . ... 816 
Wolfinger, Alexander M. . . 243 

Wolfingrer, Charles B 240 

WolfiDger, Charles 1 248 

Wolfinger, Daniel G 289 

Wolfinger, Daniel IT 242 

Wolfinger, Daniel S 240 

WollinfJ^er, David L 241 

Wolfinger, George H 241 

Wol finger, Jacob 289 



Wolfinger, John 242 

Wolfinger, Levi B 242 

Wolfinger, Michael ... 82, 288 

Yesler, Henry L 806 

Young, William G 826 

Ziegler, Charles C 269 

Ziegler, David 266 

Ziegler, Frederick 98, 99, 268, 267 

Ziegler, Frederick K 265 

Ziegler, George 261, 262 

Ziegler, George F 266 

Ziegler, Greorge S 262 

Ziegler, George W 264 

Ziegler, Jacob A 262 

Ziegler, Lewis 264 



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