Skip to main content

Full text of "The History of the Life of Marcus Tullius Cicero: In Three Volumes"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at jhttp : //books . qooqle . com/ 



v. a 







Marcus Tullius Cicero* 


Vot. n. 



H I ST O ^Y 


L I F__.E 

of i/?7 

Marcus Tullius Cicero. 

<» ■ " ■ ■ 


I , I MM 

Hunc igHur fp$Bemus. Hocpropqfitumjit nobis exemplum, 
flit ft profecijffh fetal, cut Cicero valde placebit. 

QyiNm. Inftit. 1.x. i. 



PrincipalLibrary-kccpcr of the Univcrfity of Cambridge. 

Bmm wmmm mw^p^wp—*^— —^ — — m u i m^ w ■ ■.-■■i n . . ,^ 

The Eighth Edition, 

I N D N: 
Printed for W. Strahan, J. Rivington, R. Baldwin, 
R. Horsfield, W. Johnston, C. Rivington, 
T. Davies, and J. Knox. 




■•■■> • [«■] - 




L I F £ 

O F 




Icero's return was, what hfe himfelf a. Urb.696. 

truly calls it, /A* beginning if a new life Cic. so. 

to him [a\ ; which was to be governed D Coff - 

, L J . , i- j *P. Cornell 

by new maxims, and a new kind op us lentu- 
policy ; yet fo as not to forfeit his old chara&er. lus Spin* 
He had been made to feel in what hands the C J H ^ 9 
weight of power lay, and* what little dependence ^ s metel-" 
was to be placed on the help and fupport of his lusNejoi. 
Ariftocratical friends : Pompey had ferved him on 
this important occafion very fincsrely, and with the 
concurrence alfo of Caefar ; : fo as to make it apoint 

[a] Aherius vita; qnoddani and applied afterwards by the 

nutiunV-ordimur, [ad Att. 4. facred Writers to the renova- 

1 .] In another place, he calls, tionofour nature by Bap* 

his reftoration to his former tifm, as well a» oar reflora- 

dignity, vetAtyYtvseUv, [ad tion to life, after death, in 

Att. o. 6. ] or a new birth ; the general rcfqrreftion; 

a word borrowed ^probably Matt. xix. 29. Tit. ill. 5. 
fr#m the Pythagorean fchool, 

B v of 

2 The History of the Life 

A. Urb. 696. of gratitude, as well as prudence, to be more ob- 

Cic. 50. fervant of them than he had hitherto been : the 

P •? ofl ' ,. Senate, on the other hand, with the Magiftrates 

v% I^h'tu- * n d the honeft of all ranks, were zealous in his 

tui SriH- fraufe-, And the Ctmful Lentulus above all feemed 

tkir, to make It the fole end and glory Vf bis adminlfir*- 

^ C Mitil" **•* W' This uncommon confent of oppofite 

tviNsroft" parties in promoting his reftttation, drew upon 

him 4 variety of obligations* which muft needs often 

clajb and interfere with each other \ and which ic 

was his part (till to manage fo, as to make them 

confident with his honour, hisfafety, his private, 

and his public duty : thefe were to be the fprings 

and motives of his new life \ the hinges op which 

his future condutt was to turn; and to dojuftice 

feverally to them all, and affign to each its proper 

weight and meafure of influence* required his ut- 

moft (kill and addrefs [c\ 

The day after his arrival, on the fifth of Sep- 
tember* the Confuls fummoned the Senate, to 
give him an opportunity of paying his thanks to 
them in public for their late fcrvices $ where, 
after a general profelfion of his obligations to them 
all, he made his particular acknowledgments to 
each Magiftrate by name, to the Confuls \ the 
Tribuns 5 the Prators : he addrefied himfelf to 
the Tribuns, before the Prators ; not for the dig- 
nity of their office, for in that they were inferior, 
but for their greater authority in making laws j 
and confequently, their greater merit in carrying 

[4] Hoc fpecimen virttftis, tiones, ut modern teftpore in 
hoc indicium animi, hoc lu- omnes verear ne vix poiCm 
men confulatus fui fore puta- gratus videri- Sed ego hoc 
rit, fi me mihi, fi meis, fi meis ponderibus examinabo, 
ReipuJ). rcddidifTet.— Poll non jolum quid caique de- 
led, in Sen. 4. beam, fed ctiam quid cujuiV 
1 fr] Sed < l uia fep e Concur- que interfit, & quid a me co» 
fit, propter aliquorum de me jufqut texrpus pofcat* Pro 
mentorum inter ipfos con ten- PIai;cio. 33. 



liis law into effect. The number of his private A. Urb. 696. 
friends was too great to make it pojfibk for him to Cx 50. 
enumerate pr thank them all\ fo that he confined ? c Co<r - 
bimfelf la the Magiftratts* with exception only to Vi °t^rv\ 
Pompey fd] 9 whom for the eminence of his cha- lvs Spi W / 
rafter, though at prefent only a private man, he TH * R t 
took care to diftinguifh by a perfonal addrefs and ^- Cf ctLt ~ 
compliment. But as Lentuius was the firft in TviN* po^ 
office, and had lerved him with the greateft af- 
fc&ion, fo he gives him tbefirfifbareofbispraife^ 
and in the overflowing of his gratitude ftiles him, 
the Parent and the God of bis life and fortunes [e] t 
The next day he paid his thanks likewife to the 
people, in a lpeech from the Roftra; where he 
dwelt chiefly on the fame topics which he had 
ufed in the Senate, celebrating the particular 
merits and fervices of his principal friends, efpe- 
cially of Pompey \ whom he declares to be the 
greateft man for virtue, wifdom, glory , who was 
then living* or bad lived, or ever would live •, and 
that be owed more to him on this occajion, than it 
was even lawful almoji, for one man to owe to an* 
other [/]. 

[</J Cum perpaucs nomi- <vart mo>tt/em. [PHn. Hill. 

narim gracias eghTem, quod 2. 7.] Thus Cicero, as he 

omnes enumeran nullo modo calls L'*tulus here his God, Co 

poflent, fcclus aacem eflfct on other occ.fions gives the 

quenquam praeteriri. — ib. 30. fame appellation t* Plato. 

Hodierno autem die nomi* Deut He nofter Plato—- [ad 

natim a me Magiftratibus (la- Att. 4. 16.] to exprefs the 

tui gratias effe agendas & de highelt fenfe of the benefits 

privatis uni, qui pro falute mea received from them. * 

muaicipta, coloniafque adi- (/] Cn. Pompeius, vir 

iffet. — Poft red. in Sen. 12. omnium qui funt, fuerunt, 

* - [<] Princeps P. Lentuius, ertfnt, princeps vktute, fe- 

parens ac Dtus noftrae vitae, pientia, ac gloria. — Huic 

fbrtunse, "&c. ib. 4.' It wa< a ego homini, Qairites, tantura 

kind of maxim among the debeo, quintum hominem ho- 

ancients j that to do good to a mini debere vix fas eft. Poft 

mortal, was to be a God to a red. ad Qa.r. 7. 
mortal, ZWj eft mortal, ju- 

B 3 Both N 


4 ^ f&e History of the Life 

A. Urb. 696. Bot h thefc fpeechcs arc ftill extant, and a pa£ 

Cic 50. fage or two from each will illuftrate the temper 

P c C RNELi- anc ^ difpofuion * n which he returned: in foeaking 

• ys^ENTu-to.the Senate, after a particular recital ot the fcr- 

Lus SpiN-*vices of his friends, he adds, c< as I have a plea- 

ther, « f urc j n enumerating thefe, lb I willingly pafs 

^s^Me C telI" ovcr in fllcncc what others wickedly adted 
iu'sNepos. " againft me : it is not. my prefent bufinefs to re- 
member injuries ; which if it were in my power 
to revenge,. I (hould chufe to forget ; • my life 
" fhall be applyed to other purpofes : to repay 
44 the good offices of thofe who have deferved it 
44 of m€\ to hold faft the friendfliips which have 
44 been tried as it.were in the fire ; to wage war 
44 with declared enemies j to pardon my timo- 
44 rous, nor yet expofe my treacherous friends ; 
44 and to balance the mifcry of my exil by" the 
41 dignity of my return— [g}" To the people 
he obferves ; " that there were four 'forts of ene- 
44 mies, who concurred to opprefs him : the'firft, 
ic who, out of hatred to the Republic, were 
44 mortal enemies to him for having faved it : 
" the fecond, who, under a falfe pretence of 
u friendfhip, infamoufly betrayed him : the third, 
41 who, through their inability to obtain what 
ct he had acquired, were envious of his drgni- 
u ty i. the fourth, who, though by office they 
44 ought to have been the guardians of th« 
44 Republic, bartered away his fafety^ the peace 
44 of the City, and the dignity of the 'Empire, 
V which were committed to their truft. Twill 
44 take my revenge, fays .he, on each of them, 
44 agreeably to the different manner v of their pro- 
" vocation ; on the bad Citizens, by defending the 
44 Republic ftrenuouGLy on my perfidious friends, 
t 4 by never trufting them again •, on the envious, 
44 by continuing my fteady purfuit of virtue and 
[?] Foft red. in Sen.^ 

Uc glory; 


** glory 5 on thofe Merchants of Provinces, J>yA: Urb. 696. 
u calling thdm home to give an account of their c,c - 5°- 
" adminiftration : but I am more follicitous how p £°^ u 
4C to acquit myfelf of my obligations to you, for u $ \lewtu- 
" your great fervices, than to refent the injuries lus Spin. 
" and cruelties of my enemies : for it i* much ™.**> 
" eafier to revenge an injury than to repay a us^tVL 1 - 
" kindnefs, and much lefs trouble to get the ^viJJfipps. 
" better of bad men than to equal the good [£]." 7 

This affair being happily over, . the Senate had 
leifure again to attend to public bufinefs ; and 
there was now a cafe before them of a very ur- 
gent nature, which required a prefent remedy; 
an unufual fcarcitfof corn and provifions in the 
City, which had been greatly encreafed by the 
late concourfe of people from all' parts of Italy y 
on Cicero's account, and was now felt very fe- 
verely by the poor Citizens : They had born it 
with much patience while Cicero's return was in 
, agitation ; comforting theipfclves with a notion, 
that if he was once reftored, plenty would be re- 
ftored with him \ but finding the one at lad ef- 
fected without the other, they began to grow 
clamorous, and unable to endure their hunger 
any longer. 

Clodixjs could not let flip fo fair an opportu- 
nity of exciting fome new difturbance, and creat- 
ing frefh trouble to Cicero, by charging the ca- 
lamity to hisfepre: for this end he employed a 
number of young fellows to run all night about 
the ftreets, making • a lamentable outcry for 
bread; and calling upon Cicero to relieve them 
from the famine to which he haid reduced them ; 
as if he had got fome hidden ftore or magazine 
of corn, * fecreced from common ufc [i]. He 


[hi] Poft red. ad Quir. 9. ad imperitorum animos inci- 

[/] Qai facilitate oblata, tandos, rcnovgturum te ilia 

B 4 flmefta 

A.Urb. 696. 

Cic. eo. 


fcs Lbntu- 
ius Spin* 




7U RlSTOftT^/^ Lift 

ftnt his mob alfo to the Theatre, in which the 
Prater Caciliu^ Ciceto's particular friend, was 
exhibiting the Jpollinarianjbews^ where they raif- 
ed fach a terror that they drove the whole com* 
pany out of it : then, in the fame tumultuous man- 
ner, they marched to the Temple of Con cor D f 
\ whither Metellus had fummoned the Senate ; but 
\ happening to meet with Metdlus in the way, 
they preiently attacked him withvolliesof ftones * 
with forne of which they wounded even the Coq- 
ful irimfelf, who, for the greater fecurity, im- 
mediately adjourned the Senate into the Capital* 
They were led on by two defperate Ruffians, 
their ufual Commanders, M. Lollius and M. 
StrgRu, the firft of whom had in Cloditis's Tri- 
bunate undertaken the talk Of killing Pompey ; 
theiecond had been Captain of the Guard to Ca- 
tiline, and was probably of his family [k]\ but 
Clodius, encouraged by this hopeful beginning, 
put hirftfelf at their head in perfon, and purfued 
the Senate into the Capitol* in order to difturb 
their debates, and prevent their providing any 
relief for the prefent evil ; and above ail, to ex- 
cite the meaner fort tofome violence againft Cicero. 

ftnefta latrotfnia ob annonae • 
canfam putavifti. Prodom, $. 
Quid? puerorom ilia con- 
curfatia no&urna? num a te 
ipfo jnftituta me frumentum 
fiagitabant? Quafi vero ego 
aut rei frumentariae praefuif- 
fero, aut compreflum aliquod 
frumentum tenerem. lb. 6. 
' [It] Cum homines ad The. 
atrum primo> deinde ad Se- 
natum concurruTent impulfu 
Clodii. Ad Att. 4- 1. 

Concurfus eft ad Tern plum 

Concordiae fa&us, Senatum 

' iliuc vocante Metelio — qui 

funt homines a Q^ Metelio, 
in Senatu paJam nominate a 
quibus ille fe lapidibus appe- 
titum, etiam percuffum effe 
dixit.— Quis eft ifte Lollius? 
Qui te Tribuno pleb. — Cn* 
Pompeium intericiendum de- 
popofcit. — Quis eft Scrgius? 
armiger Catilinas, ft i pa tor tui 
corporis, fignifer feditionis— 
his atque hujufaodi ducibui, 
cum tu in annonae caritate in 
Confules, in Senatum— re- 
penttoos impetus comparares^ 
*-*Pro dom. 5* 



But he fbon found, to his great difappointment, A. Urb. 696. 
tbat Cicero was too ftrong in the affedtions of the Cic. 50. 
City to be hurt again fo foon : for the people p c ^„ tI -_ 
themfelves few through his delign, and were fo vs LintJ- 
provoked at it, tbat they turned univerfally again/} lv* Spin- 
b$m> and drove bim out of the field, with all bis mer- J , "*» 
cenaries* when perceiving that Cicero was not vsMitil- 
prefent in the Senate* they called out upon bitn by lv^Nep*^ 
name with one voice* and would not hi quieted till 
it came in per Jon to undertake their caufe* and pro- 
pcfe fotne expedient for their relief He bad kept 
bis boufe all tbat day* and rejbhed to do Jo* till be 
jaw the ijfue of the tumult * but when he under- 
flood that Clodius was repulfed* and tbat his pre- 
face was univerfally required by the Confuls* the 
Senate* and the whole People* be came to the Senate* 
Houfe* in the midji of their debates* and being pre- 
fently ajked bis opinion* propofed, tbat Pompey 
Jhotdd be entreated to undertake the province of re- 
faring plenty to the City ; and* to enable him to ent- 
ente it with efeff* Jhould be invefted with an abfo- 
tute power over all the public Jiores and corn-rents 
of the Empire through all the Provinces : the motion 
was readily accepted* and a vote immediately pajfed*. 
tbat a law Jhould be prepared for that purpofe* and 
offered to the people [/]. All the Confular Senators 


\I\ Ego vero domi me te- folum fine ullis copiis, ac 

nui, quamdiu turbulentum manu, verum etiam cumpau- 

tempus fuit — cum fervos tu-> cis amicis.— lb* 3. 
0$ ap rapinam, ad bonorum Ego dcni<jae - a populo 

caedem paratos - armatos e- Romano univerfo, qui turn 

tiam in Capitolium tecum ve- in Capitolium convenerat, 

nifle conftabat— fcio me do- cum ilio die minus valerem, 

mi manfifle— pofteaquam nominatim in Senatum voci- 

mihinonciatumeft, populum bar. Veni exfpertatus ; muf- 

Romanum in Capitolium 1 — tis jam fen ten ti is dictis, ro- 

conveniiTe rainiftros antem gatuj fum fen ten tiam ; dixi 

fcflerem tuorum perterritos, Reipub. faluberrimam, mihi 

partimamiffis gladiis, partim aeceflarium. lb. 7. x . 

areptis diffugiflej veni non Fa&am 

8 The H i s t o A y of the Life 

A. Urb. 6g6.were. abfent except Mefala and Afranius : tbey pre- 
C r '£°' ten ^ l0 & e a f ra *d of the mob ; but the real caufe 
P.CoRNELi- was C ^ c ' r unwillingncfs to concur in granting this 
us LiNTu-commiflion to Pompey. The Confuls carried 
lus Spin- the decree with them into the Rcftra, and read it 
q H q* 9 , publickly to the people ; who on the mention of Ci- 
us \AiT*l'- cero ' s name J tn which it was drawn, gave an uni- 
hpsNzros.vcrfalJbout of applaufe\ upon which, at the defre 
of all the Magiftrates, Cicero made a fpeecbto tbetn, 
fetting forth the reafons and neceffity of the de- 
cree, and giving them the comfort of a fpeedy 
relief, from the vigilance and authority of Pom- 
pey [»]. The abfence however of the Confolar 
Senators gave a handle to reflefl: upon the aft, 
as not free and valid, but extorted by fear, and 
without the intervention of the principal members ; 
but the very next day, in a fuller Houfe* when all 
tbofe Senators were preftnt, and a motion was made 
to revoke the decree, it was imanimovfly rejected [n\ ; 
and the Confuls were ordered to draw up a lay/ 
# conformable to it, by which the whole admimftra- 
tion of the corn and provifions of the Republic tvas 
to be granted to Pompey for five years, with a power 
of cbufing fifteen Lieutenants to affift him in it. 

This furnifhed Clodius with frefh matter of 
. abufe upon Cicero : he charged him with ingra- 
titude, and the defertion of the Senate, which had 

Fa£ium eftS. C. in meam, • recitaridodediflet, habuicon- 

fententiam, ut cum Pompeio cionem Ibid, 

ageretur, ut earn rem fufci- [»] At enim iiberum Sena- 

peret, lexque Ferretur. .Ad tits judicium propter metum 

Att. 4. i. non fuit. Prodom. 4. 

[m] Cum abeflent Confu- Poflridie Senatus frequens, 

lares, quod tuco fe negarent & omnes ConAilares nihil 

pofle fententiam dicere, prsc- Pompeio poftulanti negatunt. 

ter Meffalam & Afranium. Ad Att. 4. I. 

Ibid. Cum omnes adefient, cosp- 

Quo S. C. recitato, cu.m turn eft referrrde inducendo 

. continue more hoc infulfo & S.C. ; ab univerfo Senatu re- 

novo pjaufum, meo nomine clamatum eft. Pro dom. 4. 

• always 

of M< tVLLlVS CICERO. 9 

always been firm to bim> in order to pay his court to A. Urb. 696. 
a man, who bad betrayed him: and that he was fo Cic. 50. 
filly \ as not to know bis own firengtb and credit in f C C 
the City, and how able he was to maintain bis au~ ' v% L tHTV l 
thority without the help of Pompey [p\. But Cice- lus Spin- 
ro defended himfclf by faying, " that they muft ™* R> 
" not expect to play the fame game upon Mro ^s Metil- 
" now that he was reftored^ with which they lu^Nepos. 
u had ruined him before, by railing jealoufies 
n between him and Pompey : that he had fmarted 
11 for it too feverely already, to be caught again 
" in the fame trap •, that in decreeing this com- 
" million to Pompey, he had difcharged both 
<c his private obligations to a friend, andhispub- 
" lie duty to the btate ; that thofe who grudged 
" all extraordinary power to Pompey, muft 
cc grudge the vi&ories, the triumphs* the ac- • 
c< ceflion of dominion and revenue, which their 
<c former grants of this fort had procured to the 
" Empire; that the fuccefs of thofe Ihewed, 
c< what fruit they were to expeft from this [p~\" 
But what authority foever this law conferred 
on Pompey, his creatures were not yet fati§fied 
with it; fo that Meffius, one of the Tribuns, 
•propofed, another, to give him the additional 
power of raifingwhat money ^ fleets, and armies he 

[0] Tune es ille, inquit, ftitutum pofle labefadtari, 

quo Senatus carere ncn po- quibus antea ftantem pcrcu- 

' tcit? — quoreftituto, Senatus • lerunt-— data merces eft erro- 

auftoritatlm reftitutam puta- ris mei magna, ut me non fo- . 

bam us ? quam primum adve- lam pigeat ftulthias meae, fed 

mens prodidifti. • lb. z. etiam pudeat. lb. n. 

Nefcit quantum au&oritate Cn. Pompelc « maxima 

' valeat, quas res gefTerit, qua terra marique bella extra Or- 

dignitate fit refticurus. Cur dinem efTe commtfla : quaram 

ornat earn a quo defertus eft ? rerum fi qnem pceniteat, ettm 

lb. 11.' ' ' vi&orise populi Romani ne- 

[p] Definant homincsiif- cefle eft poenitere. lb. 8. 

dtm machinis fperare me re- 


10 TfcHxsTOltY oftbeLife 

A. Urb. €96. thought Jit 9 with a greater command through all the 
Cicca Provinces* than their proper Governors bad ip 
PC iac ^ Cicero's laws fecmcdmodcft in cotpparifon 

iiLMTT"^ ^ Meffius's: Pompey pretended to be content 
lus Spin- with the firft, whilft all his dependents were 
ther, pufliing for the laft 5 they expe&ed that Cicero 
^•%tel- wou ^ comc ovcr .t° them; but he continued 
jiusNifos" filcnt, nor would (lira ftep farther •, for his affairs 
were ftill in fuch a ftate, as obliged him to aft 
with caution, and to manage both the Senate and 
the men of power: theconclufionwas, that Cicero's 
law was received by all parties, and Pompey named 
him for hisfirjl Lieutenant, declaring that beJbonU 
conftder him as a fecondfelf and aft nothing without 
his advice[q\. Cicero accepted the employment* on con- 
dition that he might be at liberty to ufeor refign it at 
pleafure, as be found it convenient to bis affairs [r] : 
but he foon after quitted it to his Brother, and choie 
to continue in the city ; where he had the pleafure 
tp fee the end of his law effc&ually anfwered: for 
the credit of Pompcy's name immediately reduced 
the price of vi&uals in the markets •, and his vigor 
and diligence in profecuting the affair foon efta- 
blifhed a general plenty. 

Cicero was reftored to his former dignity, 
but not to his former fortunes ; nor was any fatif- 
fadtion yet made to him for the ruin of his 

[f ] Legem Confules con- mus ; Se eo magis quod de 

fenpferunt— alteram Meflius, domo noftra nihil adhucPon- 

qua omnis pecuniae dat potef- tifices refponder* nt. — 
tatem, & adjnngit claffem Se . IHe legatos quindecim cum 
exercitum, & majus imp en-, poftnlaret, me principem no- 

um in provinciis, quam fit rainavit, 8c ad omnia me air 

eorum, qui eas obtinent. Ilia terum fe fore dixit. Ad 

noftra lex Confularis nunc Att. 4. 1. 
modefta videtur, haec Meifii [r] Ego me a Pdmpeio le- 
non ferenda. Pompeius il- gari itaium pafius, ut nulla 
lam velle fe dicit ; Familia- re impedirer, quod ne, fi v el- 
res banc. Confulares duce lem, mihi effet integrum. — 
Favonio fremunt, nos tace- lb. 2, 



houfes and eftaccs : a full rcftitution indeed had A. Urb. 696. 
been decreed, but was referred to his return ; Cic. 50. 
which came now before the Senate to be con* p c JJJ llI . 
fidered and fettled by public authority, where it u« Lmrvl 
met ftill with great obftruftion. The chief difc lvs Spik- 
ficulty was about his Palatinhoufe* which he va* ^J 11 "* 
lued above ail the irft, and which Clodius, fo%]S£ill 
that reafon, had contrived to alieniate, as he hoped, LV9 n»f<m! 
irretrievably; by demolilhing the Fabric, and 
dduating a Temple upon the area to the Goddefs 
Liberty : where, to make his work the more com- 
plete, he pulled down alio the adjoining portico 
of Catullus y that he might build it up anew,, of 
the fame order with his Temple.; and by blend* 
ing the public with private property, and confe- 
crating the whole to religion* might make it im» 
poffiWe to feparate or reftore any part to Cicero; 
fince a confecration, legally performed, made the 
thing confecrated unapplicable ever after to any 
private ufe. 

This portico was built, as has been laid, on the 
fpot where Fulvius Flaccus formerly lived, whole 
boofe was publickly dcmolifhed, for the treaibn 
of its matter ; and it was Clodius's defign to join 
Qcerts to it under the fame denomination * as the 
perpetual memorial of a dijgrace and puni/bment in* 
fttiked by the people j>]. When he had finifhed the 
portico therefore, and annexed his Temple to it, 
which took up but a fmall parr, fcarce a tenth* \of 
Cicero's houfe* he left the reft of the area void, 
in order to plant a grove* or walks ofpkafure upsn 
it* as had been ufual in fuch cafes ; where, as it 
has been obferved, he was profecuting a particu- 
lar intereft, as well as indulging his malice in ob- 
ftrufting the reftitucion of it to Cicero. 

[/] Ut domus M. TuIJJi pablice conftitute conjunct* 
Cicconi* com domo Folvii ctfc vidoator. Pro dam. 38. 
fclacci ad memofiain pcenat 


12 • T&e History of the Life '* 

jk^Urtutyl. The affair was t6 be determined by A&* college 
C Co*L°" ^ ■Pw^'j who where the Judges in all cafes relac- 
P. Cornell * n g t0 religion : for the Senate could only make 
. vs Lbntu- a provifional decree, that if the Priefts discharged 
,lus Spin- the ground from thefervice of religion, then the Con-* 
Q^CMciLi'f u ^^ 0U ^ ta ^ ean $**&* of the damage, and make 
us Met el- * contrast for rebuilding the whole at the .public 
tusNEPo*. charge, fo as to rejiore it to Cicero in the condition 
in which be left it [/]. The Priefts therefore of 
all orders were called together on the laft of Sept 
tember, to hear this caufe, which Cicero pleaded 
in perfon before them : they were men of the 
firft dignity and families in the republic ; and 
there never was, as Cicero tells us, fofull an ap- 
pearance of them in any caufe, fince the foundation 
of the City': . be reckons up. nineteen by name 5 a 
great part; of whom were of Conftdar tank [*]• 
His. firft care, before he entered into the merits 
of the queftion, .was. to remove the prejudices* 
which his enemies had been labouring to inftill, 
tin the account of his late condud in favor of 
Pompey, by explaning the motives, and (hew- 
ing the neceffity'of it-, contriving at the fame 
tithe to turn the odium on the other fide, by run- 
ning > over the hiftory of Clodius 9 s Tribunate, and 
painting 9II its. violences in the moft lively colours; 
but the queftion on which the caufe fingly turn- 
ed, was about the efficacy of the pretended confecra-. 
tion of the houfe, and the dedication of the Temple : 
to (hew the nullity therefore of this a6t, he en- 
deavours to overthrow the very foundation of it, 
?* and prove Clodius's Tribunate to be original-? 

• M Q^i ft ftftulerint reli- craconftituta, quorum eadem 

gionem, aream praeclaram eft antiquitas, quae ipfius ur-r 

habebimus: fuperfkiem Con- bis, ulla de re, ne de capite 

fules ex S, C. aeftimabunt. — quidem Virginum Veftalium, 

-AdAtt.4. 1. tam frequcna collegium judi 

• [«]-Nego unquam poft ft- caffe. De Harafp. refp. 6.7/ 

c/M.rtlLLlVS CICERO.' i$ 

" ly null and void, from the invalidity of bis A. tJrb. 696. 
" adoption, on which it was entirely grounded :" c £ £°- 
he fhews, " that the fole end of adoption, which p cowl* 
«< the laws . acknowledged, was to fupply the v * Lbntu- 
4 * vr$nt of children, by borrowing them as it tvs s*i»- 
" were from other families ; that it was an eflfen- ^"jtcfu- 
" rial condition of it, that he who adopted had ^ 8 m«t«iT- 
" no children of his own, nor was in copditioa tuiNiros. 
u to have any : that the parties concerned were 
" obliged to appear before the Priefts to figaify 
cc their confent, the caufe. of the adoption* the 
" circumftances of the families interefted in it, 
, CI and the nature of their religious rites ; that thf? 
■? Priefts might judge of the whole, and fee that 
," there was no fraud or deceit in it, nor any di£ 
" honour to any family or perfon concerned: 
" that nothing of all this had been obfefved in 
"the cafe of Clodius: that the Adopter was not 
" full twenty years old, when he adopted a Se~ 
* c nator, who was old enough to be hia father: 
" that he had no occafion to adopt, fince he had 
• c a wife and children, and would probably have 
"more, which he muft neceflarily disinherit by 
" this adoption, if it was real ; that Clodius had 
f c lio other, view, than, by the pretenctof an 
" adoption, to make himfelf a Plebeian and 97*- 
" bun, in order to overturn the ftate ;' ;hat the 
" a6t irfelf, which confirmed the adoption, was 
" ijulland illegal, being tranfadted while vBibii- 
" lus wfrs ;obierving the Aufpices, which was 
" contrary, to exprefs law, and huddled over m 
?• three hours by Csefar, when it ought to have 
*' been publifhed for three market days fuccef- 
f ' fively, it the interval- of nine days each [#] : 
f € that if the adoption . was. irregular and illegal; 
\\ as, it certainly w^s, the Tribunate muft neqds 

[*] Prodom. ij, 14, 15, 1$. 
L "» ' " " be 

14. The History of the Life 

•A.Urb.696. « be fo too, which was entirely built upon it: 
C c *4t°* ** ^ ut g rant * n 8 f ^ c Tribunate after all to be valid, 
P.Coknbli-" tecaufe fome eminent men would have it fo, 
*s Lentv- " yet the ad made afterwards for his banifhment 
i*» Spih- w could not pofiibly be considered as a law, but 
O^Cjbcili-" u * privilege only, made againft a particular 
»s MrrtJ " pcrlbn ; which the facred laws, and the laws 
lUftNiros. €i of the twelve Tables had utterly prohibited : 
44 that it was contrary to the very conftitution of 
44 the Republic, to punifh any Citizen either in 
44 body or goods till he had been accufed in 
4< proper form, and condemned of fome crime 
' * 4 by competent judges : that Privileges, or laws 
.." to in Aid penalties on (ingle perfom by name, 
*f without a legal trial, were cruel and pernicious, 
** and nothing better than profcriptions, and of 
44 all things not to be endured in their City [y]. 99 
Thai in entering upon the queftion of his houfe, 
he declares, h that the whole effeft of his refto- 
4 * ration depended upon it; that if it was not 
44 given back to him, but fuffered to remain a 
44 monument of triumph to his enemy, of grief 
« and calamity to himfelf, he could not confider 
44 it as a reftoration, but a perpetual puniihment : 
44 that his houfe ftood in the view of the whple 
44 people ; and if it muft continue in its prefent 
44 ftate, he (hould be forced to remove to fome 
44 other place, and could nfcvcr endure to live in 
44 that Cityj, in which he muft always fee tro- 
4C phies crefted both againft himfelf and the Re- 
*• public : the houfe of Sp. Melius," fays he, 
44 who affe&ed a Tyranny, was levelled ; and 
iC by the name of MquimUum % given to the place, 
44 the people confirmed die Equity of his punifh- 
44 inept: the houfe of Sp. Caffius was overturn- 

[y] lb. "17. in privos ho- quid eftinjuftius? DeLegib. 
nines It get ferri boluerant; 3. 19. 
id eft enim pjrivikgium : qua . 

3 " « d 

of M. fULLtUS CICERO. i$ 

il ed alfo for the fame caufe, and a Temple raif- A. Urb. 696. 
*' ed upon it to Teilus: M. Vaccus's houfe was c,c 5°- 
" confifcated and levelled; and, to perpetuate p Co"r°neli- 
u the memory of his treafon, the place is ftill u S Lentu- 
Cf called Vaccus's nieadpws: M* Manlius like- lus Spim- 
Cc wife, after he had repulfed the Gauls from the TH p Rf 
" Capitol^ not content with the glory of that ' us^T l £ L L- 
<c fervice, was adjudged to aim at dominion ; fo iusNipos. 
" that his houfe was demolifhed, where vou now 
lc fee the two groves planted : muft I therefore 
" fuffer that . purriftiment, which our Anceftors 
44 inflicted as the greateft, on wicked and traite- 
" rous Citizens •, that posterity may confider me, 
€c not as the oppreflbr, but the author and captain 
" of the Confpiracy [z] ?" When he comes to 
fpeak to the dedication itfelf, he obferves, " that 
" the Goddefs Liberty, to which the Temple 
u was dedicated, was the known ftatue of a cele- 
u brated ftrumpet, which Appius brought from , 
" Greece for the ornament of his ^Edilefhip : and 
iC upon dropping the thoughts of that magiftra- 
ct C Y> g ave to his brother Clodius, to be advan- 
" ced into a deity [a] : that the ceremony was 
" performed without any licence or judgement. 
" obtained from the College of Priefts, by the 
" lingle miniftry of a raw young man, the bro- 
" ther- in-law of Clodius, who Had been made 
" Pfieft but a few days before ; a mere novice 
u in his bufinefs, and forced into the fervice \b]\ 
n but if all had been tranfafted regularly, and 
" in due form, that it could not poflibly have 
" any force, as being contrary to the (landing 
u laws of the Republic : for there was an old 
ce Tribunician law, made by Q^Papirius, which 
" prohibited the confecration of houfes, lands, or 
* c altars, without the exprefs command of the 

r«] Pro dom. 37, 38. [b] lb. 4J. 

E«]Ib. 43 . 
Vol. II. . C - cl people $ 

6 tbe History ef tbe Ltfe 

1- «kirh was not obtained, nor evert 
A.U.b.6,6." P^P^^L^cfentcafc [c]: that great 
Ck. jo. " pretended in the proem ^ u p fe 

Co<t cc ^gard had always been paid I to this law in je 
P. Co.kel,. u JJgJinfanoa of the graveft kind: that Q^ 
v» Lintw- venu «» lu "^ Cenfor eroSed a Statue of Con- 
iv, Stm- « Marcius, the ^ nlor » "'t'T,, _ ltv w h lc h C. 

« upon which M. Amuius, ™ * £ h t 

« «J«. anfwer in the name of the College, that 
gave aniweriu b name ^ 

" Un ? f t !S P r n U b%eir authority, they 
- ^d he ^ed w u b y t ^ de _ 

M rtGl ittoia alfo, a vefta*. 
« dicate them Lfb ™* ^d a i itt l e temple, 

" vi T' K dC S R^k : upTn which S. Julius 

44 U u ndC p^ W oVdtr of the Senate, confuted 

" the Prstor, 7pl: efts f or whom P. Scaevola, 

" ^fpil^^cu that what Li- 

U ^ WdeSed in a public place, without 

" C,n,a rder of the P oplef could not be confi- 

" T y Tt toed: FoThat the Senate mjomed 

« dered as lacreu . i ■ j an d to efface 

I'. t^K'any of the ^«* "J."?' 
« Ihich fad. a fonton ^iXS 

.. diAJL. . d« .mpurc «2£* 
::S%r h ;cut«hem an a m on g »o m en ) h U a- 

[( ] 1'ro dom. 49- , M Ib ' S'» 53-.„ dle d 


" died over the whole ceremony in a blundering, a. Urb. 696. 

u precipitate manner, faultering and confounded C £'J°' 

"in mind, voice, and fpecch; often recalling p q^ elu 

44 himfelf, doubting, fearing, hefitating, and us Lentu- 

44 performing every thing quite contrary to what lus Spih- 

44 the facred books prefcribed: nor is it ftrsrige, J rH p R * 

€C fays he, that in an aft fo mad and villainous, ^ s ^"^1 

44 his audacioufnefs could riot get the better of lusNepqs. 

"his fears: for what Pirate, though ever fo 

44 babarous, after he had been plundering Tem- 

M pies, when pricked by a dream, or fcruple of 

* religion, he came to confecrate fome altar on . . 

44 a defert ftiore, was not terrified in his mind, on 

44 being forced to appeafe that Deity by his pray- 

44 ers, whom he had provoked by his facrilege ? 

44 In what horrors then, think you, muft this 

44 man needs be, the plunderer of all Temples, 

44 houfes, and the whole City* when for the ex- 

" piation of fo many impieties, he was wickedly 

44 confecrating one fingle altar [*] ? Then after a 

44 folemn invocation and appeal to all the Gods, 

44 who pecularly favoured and prote&ed that City, 

44 to bear witnefs to the integrity of his zeal and 

44 love to the Republic, and that in all his labours 

M and ftruggles he had conftantly preferred the 

44 public benefit to his own, he commits the 

44 juftice of his caufe to the judgement of the 

44 venerable Bench." 

He was particularly pleafed with the compo- 
sition of this fpeech, which he publifhed imme- 
diately; and fays upon it, that if ever he made 
any figure in fpeaking, his indignation, and the 
fenfe of his injuries, had infpired him with new 
force and fpirit in this caufe [/]. The fentence . 


[e] Pro dom.* 54, 55. a nobis ; & fi unquam in di- 

[/] Acta us eft accurate cendo fuiraus aliquid, aut 

C 2 etiiai 


A.Urb. 696 

Cic. co. 


P. Corns Li 

us Lentu 

lus Spin 



The H 1 s T o R Y of tbe Life 

of the Priefts turned wholly on what Cicero had 
alledged about the force of tbe Papirian law ; viz. 
that if be, who performed the office of conjuration* 
\ bad not been fpecially autborifed and perfonally op* 
pointed to it by tbe people, then tbe area in quefiion 
might, without any fcruple of religion, be reftored tot 
Cicero. This though it feemed fomewhat eva- 
sive, wasfufficient for Cicero's purpofej and bis 
friends congratulated him upon it, as upon a clear 
viffory ; while Clodius interpreted itftill in favour 
of himfelf, and being produced into tbe Roftra, by 
his Brother Appius, acquainted the people, that 
the Priefts bad given judgement for him, but that 
Cicero was preparing to recover poffejfton by forces 
and exhorted them therefore to follow him and Ap* 
pius in the defence of their liberties. But his fpeech 
made no impreflion on the audience ; fome won* 
dered at bis impudence, others laughed at his folly* 
and Cicero refolved not to trouble bimfelf, or the 
people about it, till tbe Confuls, by a decree of the 
Senate, bad contracted for rebuilding tbe portico of 

The Senate met the next day, in a ftill houfe, 
to put an end to this affair; when Marcellinus, 

etiamfi unquam alias fuimus, 
torn profefto dolor & magni- 
tudo vim quandam nobis di- 
cendi dedit. Itaque Oratio 
jurentuti noftrae deberi non 
poteft. Ad Att. 4. 2. 

[g\ Cum Pontiles decref- 
fent, ita,finequepopulijuflu, 
ncque plebis fcitu, is qui fe 
dedicate diceret, nominatim 
ci rei prefedlus eflet ; nequc 
populi juflu, neque plebis 
icitu id facere juflus eflet, vi- 
deri ppfft fine jeligione earn 
partem areas roihi reftitui. 

Mihi facia ftatim eft gratu- 
latio: nemo enim dubitat^ 
quin domus nobis eflet adju- 
dicate. Turn fubito ille in 
concionem afcendit, quam 
Appras ei dedit: nunciat jam 
populo, Pontifices fecundum. 
fe decrevifle; me autem, vi 
conariin poffeffionem venire; 
hortatur, ut fe.& Appium fe- 
quantur, & fuam hbertatem 
lit defendant. Hie cum etianv 
illi in fimi parti m admiraren- 
tur,partim irridcrent homing 
amentiam. Ad Att. 4, z r 



one of the Confuls cleft, being called upon to A. Urb. 696; 
fpeak firft, addrefled himfelf to the Priejls, and Ck -5°- 
defiredthem to give an account of the grounds and p c c ' 
meaning of their fentence : upon which Lucullus, ^s Lsntv" 
in the name of the reft, declared, that tbePriefts jlvs Spin- 
were indeed the Judges of religion* but the Senate of thbr, 
the law-, that they therefore bad determined only^ Q J? clLl \ 
what related to the point of religion* and left it to ^ s nimjk 
the Senate to determine whether any objlacle remain- 
ed in point of law: all the other priefts fpoke 
largely after him in favor of Cicero's caufe : when 
Clodius rofe afterwards to fpeak, he endeavoured 
to waft the time fo, as to hinder their coming to 
any refolution that day; but after he had been 
{peaking for three hours fucceflively, the aflembly 
grew fo impatient, and made fuch a noife and 
hiffing, that he was forced to give over: yet 
when they were going to pafs a decree, in the 
words of MorceUinus* Serranus put bis negative 
upon it: this raifed an univerfal indignation * and 
a freih debate began, at the motion of the Two 
Confuls, on the merit of the Tribun's intercejfwn^ 
when after many warm ipeeches, they came t to 
the following vote ; that it was the refolution of 
that Senate* that Cicero 9 s boufejhould be reftored to 
him* and Catulus's portico rebuilt* as it bad been 
before* and that this vote Jhould be defended by all 
the Magijlrates* and if any violence or obftruttion 
was offered to it* that the Senate would look upon it* 
as offered by him* who bad interpofed bis negative. 
This daggered Serranus, and the late Farce was 
played over again ; bis father threw himfelf at his 
feet, to beg him to dejift* be defired a nigbfs time ; 
which at firft was refufed, but on Cicero's re- 
queft, granted; and the next day he revoked his 
negative, and, without farther oppofition, .buffer- 
ed the Senate to pals a decree, that Cicero's da- 
C 3 mage 


Tie H 1 8 T or Y of tbe Life 

A. Urb. 696. magejbould be made good to bim, and bis bvufes re- 

P CorVrli- The Confuls began prefently to put the de- 
usLENTu-cree in execution-, and having contracted for the 
tus Spin- rebuilding Catulus's portico, fet men to work, 
J? H Z %9 upon clearing tbe ground, and demolijhing what bad 
v s MeteV- to** built by Clodius : but as to Cicero*s buildings 
lviNifos. it was agreed to take an eftimate of his damage, 
and pay the amount of it to himfelf, to be kid 
out according to his own fancy : in which bis 
Palatin boufe was valued at fixteen thoufand pounds % 
bis Tufculan at four tboufand •, bis Formian only 
at two tboufand. This was a very deficient and 
(harmful valuation, which all tbe world cried out 
upon*, for tbe Palatin boufe had coft him, not long 
before, near twice that fum : but Cicero would 
not give himfelf any trouble about it, or make 
any exceptions, which gave the Confuls a handle 
to throw the blame upon bis own modejly, for not 
remonftrating againjl it, andfeetning to be fatisfied 
with what was awarded: but the true reafon was, 
as he himfelf declares, tbat tbofe, who bad dipt 
bis wings, bad no mind to let them grow again \ and 
though they had been bis advocates when abfent, be- 
gan now to be fecretly angry, and openly envious of 
him when pre/en t [/']. 

0] Ad Att. 4. 2; . 

[$] Nobis fupcrficiem aedi- 
um Confutes de confilii fen- 
tentift aeftimarunt HS. viciet; 
cetera valde^ illiberaliter ; 
Tufcolanum villain quingen- 
tis millibus; Formian urn du- 
centis quinquaginta millibus; 
quae seftimatio non modo ab 
©ptimo quoque fed etiam a 
plebe reprehenditur. Dices* 

quid igitur caufae fuit ? Di- 
cunt llli quidem pudorem 
meum, quod neque negaf im, 
neque vehementius poftula- 
rim. Sed non eft id ; nam 
hoc quidem etiam profuiflet. 
Verum iidem, mi Pomponi, 
iidem inquam illi, qui miba 
penuas inciderunt, nolunt e- 
afdexn renafci. Ibid. 



But as he was never tovetuous, this affair a. Urf>. 696. 
gave him no great uneafinefs ; though, through Cic - S°- 
the late ruin of his fortunes, he was now in fuch p i^ 1 * 
want of money, that he refolved to expofe bis Tuf ^ 3 l"xtv- 
ctdan Villa to fale\ but loon changed his mind and lus Spin- 
built it up again with much more magnificence * " BR » 
than before; and for the beauty of its fuuation, us Mbt'el- 
and neighbourhood to the City, took more plea- lus Nepos. 
fare in it ever after, thap in any other of his 
country feats. But he had fome domeftic griev- 
ances about this time, which touched him more 
nearly; and which f as he fignifies obfeurely to 
Atticus, were of too delicate a nature to be explained 
by a Utter [k*\ : they arofe chiefly from the petu- 
lant tumor of his wife, which began to give hinV 
frequent ocCaiions of chagrin ; and, by a leries of 
repeated provocations, confirmed in him that 
fettled diljgufl:, which ended at laft in a divorce. 

As he was now reftored to the pofleflion both 
of his dignity and fortune, fo he was defirous to 
deftroy all the r public monuments of his late dif- 
grace ; nor to fuffer the law of bis exil to remain, 
with the other acts of Clodiufs Tribunate, hang- 
ing up in the Capitol, engraved, as ufual, on 
tables of brafs: watching therefore the opportu- 
nity of Clodius's abfence, be went to tbe Capitol, 
witb a ftrong body of bis friends, and taking the 
tables down conveyed them to bis own boufe. This 
occafioned a fharp conteft in the Senate between 
him and Clodius, about tbe validity of tbofe afls ; 
and drew Cato alfo into the debate •, who, for * 
the fake of bis Cyprian commiffion y tbougbt bimfelf 
obliged to defend their legality againjl Cicero; which 

[£]Tuteulanumprofcripfi: txvqwdrspa funt. Amamur a 
faburbano non facile careo.— fratre & filia. Ibid. 
Caetera, quae me follicitant, 

C 4 created 

22 The History of the JJfe 

A. Urb. 696. created fame little coldnefs betwen them* and gave no 
C r ' (r° # ^ ma ^ P^ ea ^ re to t ' le common enemies of them 

vs Lbntu- But Cicero's chief concern at prefent wa£, 
Lirs Spin- how to fupport his former authority in the City, 
ther, anc j provide for his future fafety * as well againft 
vs Mmi". t ^ ie ma ^ ce °^ declared enemies, as the envy of 
iusNepos. pretended friends, which he perceived to be grow- 
ing up afrefh againft him: he had thoughs of 
putting in for the Cenforjhip * or of procuring one 
of thofe honorary Lieutenancies* which gave a 
public character to private Senators ; with intent 
to make a progrefs through Italy, or a kind of* 
religious pilgrimage to all the Temples* Groves '* and 
f acred. places* on pretence of a vow* made in bi$ 
exile* This would give him an opportunity of 
fliewing himfelf every where in a light, which 
naturally attra&s the affe&ion of the multitude, 
by teftify ing a pious regard to the favourite fuper* 
ftitions and local religions of the Country ; as thp 
Great, in the fame Country, ftill pay their court 
to the vulgar, by vifiting the fhrines and altars 
of the Saints, which are moft in vogue: he 
mentions tbefe proje&s to Atticus, as defigned 
to be executed in the fpring, refolving in the 
mean while to cherifh the good inclination of the 
people towards him, by keeping himfelf perpe- 
tually in the view of the City [m\. 

Catuh^s portico* and Cicero's houfe, wererifing 
again apace, and carried up almoft to the roof 5 
when Clodius, without any warning, attacked 
them, on the fecond of November* with a band of 

[I] Plutarch in Cic. Dio. forum proximi Confulqs ha* 

P- 100. berent, peterc poffe, aut Vo- 

[m\\Jt nulla re impedirer, t^vam Legationem fumfifTc 

quod ne fi vellem mini eflet prope omnium Fanorum, lu- 

integrum, aut fi comitia Cen- sorum. Ad At*. 4. $* 



firmed men, who demoHJhed tbe portico* and drove A. Urb. 696. 
tbe workmen out qf Cicero's ground, and with the Cic. 50. 
fiones and rubbifb of tbe place began to hotter §{uin- p,Cor^eh* 
tus*s boufe, with whom Cicero then lived, and vs LektuI 
at laft fet fire tp it\ £> that the two Brothers, lus Spin* 
with their families, were forced to fave thetnfelves TH p Rf 
by a hafty flight. Mito had already accufed vs Until 
Clodius for his former violences, and refolved, ivjttepot, 
ifpoffible, to bring liim to juftice : Clodius, on 
the other hand, was fuing for the Mdilefbip, to 
fecure himfelf, fpr one year more at leaft, from 
any profecution : he was fure of being condemn- 
ed, if ever he wa3 brought to trial, fo that what- 
ever mifebief be did in the mean time was all clear' 
gain, and could not make bis caufe tbe worfe [»] : «' 
he now therefore gave a free courfe to his natural 
fury ; was perpetually fcouring the ftreets with his 
incendiaries, and tbreatning fire and /word to tbe 
City itfelf, if an ajembly was not called for tbe 
eleSion ofJEdiles. In this humour, about a week 
after his laft outrage, an tbe eleventh of November 9 
happening to meet with Cicero, in the facred 
ftreet, he prefently affaulted him with ftones, . 
sluts, and drawn fwords : Cicero was not prepar- 
ed for the encounter, and took refuge in the 
Veftibule of the next houfe; where his attend- 
ants rallying in his defence, beat off the &ffail- 
ants, and could eafily have killed tbeir Leader, but 
that Cicero was willing, he fays, to cure by diet, 
rather than Surgery. The day following Clodius 

[»] Arjnatis hominibus an- inde juflu Clodii inflammata, 

te diem III. Non. Novemb. infpe&ante Urbe, conje&is 

cxpulfi funt fabri de area ignibus.-^ — Videt, d omnes 

noftra, difturbata porticos Ca- quos vult palam occideri t, ni- 

tuli — Quae ad tectum poene hilo foam caufam difficiHo- 

pervenerat. Qninti fratris rem, quam adhtic fit, in ju- 

dotnus primo fratta conjedtu dicio futuram. Ad Att. 4. 

lapiduni, ex area noftra, de- 3. 

5 attacked 

24 " Wr History of the Life 

A. Urb. 696. attacked Milo 9 shoufe, with fwot din band, and lighted 

Cic co. Flambeaus ', with intent to ftorm and burn it : but 

P Corne 1- ^*° was ncver unprovided for him ; and Q^ 

us Lent^u- Flaccus, Tallying out with a ftrong band of ftouc 

lus Spin- fellows, killed feveral of his men, and would have 

t her , tffoj Clodius too, if be bad not bid bimfelfin the in- 

us Met'bl- ner a P artmn *s of P. SyUa's boufe, wbub be made 

lusNefos. ufeofon this occafion as his Fortrefs [0]. 

The Senate met, on the fourteenth, to take 
thefe diforders into confederation -, Clodius did not 
think fit to appear there ; but Sylla came, to clear 
himfelf, probably from the fufpicion of encou- 
raging him in thefe violences, on account of the 
freedom which he had taken with his houfe \f\. 
Many fevere fpeeches were made, and vigorous 
counfils propofed-, Marcellinus's opinion was, 
that Clodius Jhould be impeached anew for thefe lafi 
outrages ; and that no ekftion ofMdilesfhould befuf 
• fered, till be was brought to a trial: Milo declared, 
that as long as be continued in office, the Conful Me~ 
tellus Jhould make no eleilion ; for be would take the 
aufpices every day, on which an affembly could be 
- held-, but Metellus contrived to waft the day in fpeak- 
ing, fo that they were forced to break up without 
making any decree. Milo was as good as his word, 
and, having gathered a fuperior force, took care 
to obftruft the ele£tion 5 though the Conful Me- 

*[<?] Ante diem tertittmld. det— Milonis domum prid. 

Novemb. cam facra via de- id. expugnarc & incendere 

fcenderem, infecutus eft me ita conatus eft, ut palam hora 

cam fuis. Clamor lapides, quinta ' cam (cutis homines, 

fuftes, gladii ; hsec improvifa eduftis gladiis, alios cum ae- 

omnia. Difceflimus in vefti- cenfis facibus adduxerk. Ipfe 

bulum Tertii Damionis : qui domum P. SylLae pro caftris 

erunt mecum facile operas adeamimpugnationemfump- 

aditu prohibuerunt. Ipfe oc- ferat, &c. Ad Att. 4.3. 

cidi potuit, fed ego diaeta [/] Sylla fe in Senato po- 

curare incipio, chirurgiae taj- ftrjdie Idns, domi Clodius, lb, 



tdlus employed all his power and art to elude his A.Urb. 696. 
vigilance, and procure an aflembly by ftratagem 5 Cic 50. 
calling it to one place, and holding it in another, p C C 
fometimes in the field of Mars, fometimes in the ' vs lentu- 
Forum; but Milo was ever beforehand with him y lus Spin* 
and, keeping a conftant guard in the field, from "■*» 
midnight to noon, was always at hand to inhibit ^s MbtelI 
hisprocedings, by obnouncing, as it was called, or lu*N*poj" 
declaring, that he was taking the aufpices on that 
day; fo that the three Brothers were baffled and 
disappointed, though they were perpetually ha- 
ranguing and labouring to inflame the people 
againft thofe, who interrupted their aflemblies and 
right of eledting ; where Metellu? sfpeeches were 
turbulent, Appius 9 s rajb, Clodius's furious. Cicero, 
who gives this account to Atticus, was of opinion, 
that there would be no eleftion ; and that Clodius 
would be brought to trial, if he was notfirft killed 
by Milo ; which was likely to be his fate : Milo, 
fays he, makes no fcruple to own it 5 being not de- 
terred by my misfortune, and having no envious or 
perfidious counfellors about him, nor any lazy Nobtes 
to difcourage him : it is commonly given out by the 
other fide, that what he does, is all done by my ad- 
vice-, but they little know, how much condiKR, as 
well as courage^ there is in this Hero [y]. 


M Egregios Marccllinus, inter viam obtulerie, occifum 

omnes acres; Metellos ca- iri ab ipfo Milone video, 

lurania dicendi tempos ex- Non dubitat facere ; pre fe 

emit: condones turbulentas fertj cafam ilium nofkrara 

Metelli, temeraria Appij, non extimefcit, &c. 

fariofiffimae Clodri: haec ta- " Meo confilio omnia illi 

men fumma, nifi Milo in fieri querebantur, ignari quan- 

Campam obnunciaflet, Co- rum in illo beroe effet animf, 

mitia futura.— Comitia fore quantum etiam confilii.. ■ 

non arbitror; rerum Publi- AdAtt. 4. 3. 

lim, nifl ante occifus grit, * J*. B. From thefe facls it 

fore a Milone puto. Si fe appears, that what is faid 


26 Tie History of the Life 

A.Urb.696- Young Lentulus, thefon of theConful, was, by the in tercft of his father, and the recommen- 
P. Cork ell <kti° n of his noble birth, cbofen into the College of 
v$ LiNTUr Augurs this fummer, though not yet feventeen 
%vs Sfw- years old * having but juft changed bis puerile for the 
G*Cm 1 maH bl (mn M : Cicero was invited to the in- 
v s Mbt^bl " auguration feaft, where, by eating too freely of 
-LvsNETOB.Jbme vegetables, which happened to pleafe his pa- 
late, he was feized with a violent pain of the 
bowels, and diarrhoea \ of which be (ends the 
following account to his friend Gallus. 

Cicero to Gallus. 

" After I had been labouring for ten days, with 
" a cruel difordcr in my bowels, yet could not 
" convince thole, who wanted me at the bar, 
*' that I was ill, becaufe 1 had no fever, 1 ran 
" away to TufcuUtm ; having kept lb ftrid: a faft 
€< for two days before, that I did not tafte fo 
" much as water : being worn out therefore with 
" illnefs and fafting, I wanted rather to lee you, 
" than imagined, that you expefted a vifit from 
<€ me : for my part, I am afraid, I confefs, of 
u all diftempers ; but efpecially of thole, for 
** which the Stoics abufe your Epicurus, when 
" he complains of the Jbrangmj and dyfentery ; 
€C the one of which they take to be the effeft of 

above, of Clodins's repealing and bad entered upon bufi- 
the JEUam mndfnfiam £*uv, nefs ; for it was ftUl unlaw- 
and prohibiting the Mam~ ful, we fee, to convene an 
fixates from obftra&ing the Aflemblv, while the Magi- 
Aflemblies of the people, is ftrate was in the ad of on- 
to be nndexfiood only in a (erring the heavens, 
partial Jenfc, and that his [r]Cui funerior annns i- 
new law extended no farther, dem & virilem P*tris & prx- 
than to hinder theMagifbates textaai popnli judicio togam 
Jromdiflbhringan Aflembly, dederit. Pr. Sext. 69. it. 
after it was actual!/ convened Dio. 1. 39. p. 99. 

M gluttony i 


u gluttony; the other of a more fcandalous in- A. tfrb. 6g5. 

" temperance. I was apprehenfive indeed of a c £- 1°" 

w dyfentery ; but feem to have found benefit, ei- p # Cornblx- 

" ther from the change of air, or the relaxation us Lbntu- 

" of my mind, or the remiflion of the difeafe **» Spih- 

" itfelf : but that you may not be furprifed, how <£ H c* r CILI . 

" this fhould happen, and what I have been y s Mete*- 

" doing to bring it upon me; the fumptuary viNepos* 

" law, which feems to introduce a fimplicity of 

u diet, did me all this mifchief. For fince our 

"men of tafte are grown fo fond of covering 

" their tables with the productions of the Earth, 

u which are excepted by the law, they have 

" found a way of drefling mufhrooms, and all 

"other vegetables, lb palatably, that nothing 

"can be more delicious: I happened to fall 

" upon thefe at Lentulus's Augural flipper, and 

" was taken with fo violent a flux, that this is 

" the firft day on which it has begun to give me 

" any eafe. Thus I, who ufed to command 

" myfelf fo eafily in cyfters and lampreys, was 

(( caught with belt and mallows ; but I fhall be 

* more cautious for the future : you, however, 

w who rauft have heard of my illnefs from Ani- 

" cius, for he faw me in a fit of vomiting, had 

u a juft reafon, not only for fending, but for 

" coming yourfelf to fee me. I think to ftay 

"here till I recruit myfelf; for I have loft 

" both my ftrength and my flelh; but, if I once 

"get rid of my diftemper, it will be eafy, I 

" hope, to recover the reft {>]." 


['] Ep. Fam. 7. 26, defcribed in this Letter feem* 

N. B. Plinjr fays, that the to coma fo very near to it, 

fw»w, by which he is fup- that he muft be underftood, 

pofedtomeantheCholic,«w*j rather of the name than o* 

■* known at Rome, till the the thing ; as the learned D/. 

*'£» ofYibtrius: butthe.caft Le Clerk has obfcrved in t\% 


28 The H I S T 6 R V of the Life 9 

A.Urb.696. King Ptolemy left Rome about this time* af- 
Cic. 50. ter he had diftributed immenfe fums among the 
Coff. Great, to purchafe his reftoration by a Roman 
vs°L*vTV' arn y* The people of JEgypt had fent deputies 
lus Spin- alfo after him, to plead their caufe before the Se- 
ther, nate, and to explain the reafons of their expelling 
Qj ^bVel- *" m •• but l ^ c King contrived to get them all 
tusN*pos".affaffinated on the road, before they reached the 
City, This piece of villainy, and the notion of 
his having bribed all the Magiftrates, had railed 
fo general an averfion to him among the people, 
that he found it advifeable to quit the City, and 
leave the management of his intereft to his 
Agents. The Conful Lentulus, who had obtain- 
ed the province of Cilicia and Cyprus % whither he 
was preparing to fet forward, was very defirous 
to be . charged with the commiflion of replacing 
him on his throne ; for which he had already 
procured a vote of the Senate : the opportunity of 
a command, almoft in fight of JEgypt, made 
him generally thought to have the beft preten- 
fions to that charge; and he was affured of Cicero's 
warm affiftance in foliciting the confirmation of 

In this fituation of affairs the new Tribuns en- 
tered into office: C.Cato, of the fame family with 
his numefake Marcus, was one of the number ; a 
bold turbulent man, of no temper or prudence, 
yet a tolerable fpeaker, and generally on the 
tetter fide in politics. Before he had born any 
public office, he attempted to impeach Gabinius of 

ftiftory of Medicine* Plin. the cenfure, which the Stoics 

L 26. 1. Le Cler. Hiil. par. pafFed upon it, would make 

2.I.4. fe&. 2. c. 4. one apt to fufpeft, that fome 

The mention likewife of diforaers of a venereal kind 

the Svrtpixa TaW ot the were not unknown to the 

Strangury of Epicurus, and ancients. 



bribery and corruption ; but not being able to get an A, Urb. 696.. 
Audience of the Prators, be bad the bardnefs to Cic. *o. 
mount the Roftrq, which was never allowed to a p c ^ ff ' 
private Citizen, and, in a fpeech to the people, ' V8 Lbntu^ 
declared Pompey Dictator: but his prefumption tvs Spin- 
had like to have coft him dear* for it raifed fuch THER » 
an indignation in the audience, that be bad much ^jJ^il- 
difficulty .to efcape with bis life [/]. He opened lusNepo*! 
hisprefent magiftracy by declaring loudly again!):. 
King Ptolemy, and all who favoured him ; Spe- 
cially Lentulus ; whom he fuppofed to be under 
fome private engagement with him, and for 
that reafon was determined to baffle all their 

Lupus likewife, one of his collegues, fum- 
moned the Senate, and raifed an expectation of 
fome uncommon propofal from him : it was in- 
deed of an extraordinary nature ; torevife and an- 
null that fumed aft of C<efar*s Confulflnp, for the 
dhifion of the Campanian lands: befpoke long and 
well upon it, and mas beard with much attention ; 
gave great p'aifes to Cicero, with fevere reflexions 
on C<efar, and expoftulations with Pompey, who , 
was now abroad in the execution of his late com- 
million: in the conclufion he told them/ that 
he would not demand the opinions of the particular 
Senators, becaufe be bad no mind to expofe them to '• / 
the tefentment and animojity of any •, but from the ill 
humour, which he remembered, when that a&firji 
faffed, and the favour, with which be was now 
heard, he could eajily colleft the fenfe of the Houfe. 

M Ut Cato, adolefcens teftatem fuam facerent, in 

nulhus confilii, — vix vivus concionem adfcendit,&Pom- 

effugeret ; quod cum Gabi- peium privacus Didatorera . 

»ium de ambita vellet poftu- appellavit. Propius nihil eft 

«fc neque Practores diebus • fadtum, quam ut oecideretur. 

aliquQtadiri poflcnt, vel po- Ep. ad Quint. Frat. i. 2. 


30 72* Hi* t ok v of the Life 

A. Urb. 696. Upon which Marcellinus faid, that be muft wot 
Cic £0. conclude from their filence, either what they liked or 
C C difliked: that for bis own part, and be might anfwer 

V3 Lehtu- *°°* be believed, for the reft, be ehofe to fay nothing 
lus Svm-on the fubjeSt at prefent, becaufe he thought^ that 
ther, the caufe of the Campanian lands ought not to be 
**v?M ClLlk brought upon tbeftage, in Pmpefs abfence. 
tvs NspoV. This affair being dropt, Racilius, another 
Tribun, rofe up and renewed the debate about 
Milo's impeachment of Clodius, and called upon 
Marcellinus, the Conful ele&, to give his opi- 
nion upon it : who, after inveighing againft all 
the violences of Clodius, propofed, that, in the 
rjl place \ an allotment of Judges fbould be made for 
the trial; and, after that, the election of Miiles^ 
and if any one attempted to binder the trial, that be 
Jbould be deemed a public enemy. The other Con- 
ful eleft, Philippus, was of the fame mind -, but 
the Tribpns, Cato and Caffius, fpoke againft it, 
and were for proceeding to an elehion before any 
ftep towards a trial. When Cicero was called 
upon tofpeak, he run through the whole feries of 
Clodius 9 s extravagances, as if he bad been accufing 
him already at the bar, to the great fatisfaSion of 
the affembly: Antiftius, theTribun, feconded him, 
and declared, that no bufinefs Jbould be done before 
the trial \ and when the hoiife was going univer- 
fally into that opinion, Clodiufs began to fpeak, with 
intent to waft the reft of the day y while his Jlaves 
and followers without, who had fixed the ftep s and 
avenues of the Senate, rat fed fo great a noife of a 
fudden, inabujingfome of Mtld*s friends, that the 
Senate broke up in no fmall hurry, and witbfrefh in- 
dignation at this new infult \u\ 


[«] Turii Clodius rogatus — deinde ejus operas repente 
died} dicendo eximcrc coepit a Grarcoftafi & gradibtis c!a- 



There was no more bufincfs done through 
ike remaining part of December, which was taken 
up chiefly with holy days. Lentulus and MeteU 
ius, whofe confullhip expired with the year, fet 
forward for their fevcral governments ; the one 
for Cilicia, the other for Spain : Lentulus com- 
mitted the whole diredtion of his affairs to Cicero ; 
and Metellus, unwilling to leave him hrs enemy, 
made up all matters with him before his departure, 
and wrote an affe&ionate letter to him afterwards 
from Spain 1 in which he acknowledges his fer* 
vices, 'and intimates, that be bad given up bis • 
brother Clodius, in exchange for his friend/hip [x]. 

Cicero's firft concern, on the opening of the A. Urb. 697. 
new year, was to get the commiffion, for refioring Cic - 5 "• 
King Ptolemy, confirmed to Lentulus ; which c S? 
came now under deliberation : The Tribun, Ca- LI " Wi Lbk- 
to, was fierce, againft reftoring him at all, with tulus 
the greateft part of the Senate on his fide 5 March- 
taking occafion to confult the Sibylline books, on l^Marciv^ 
the fubjeft of fome late prodigies, hie chanced to Philip- 
find in them certain yerfts, forewarning the Ro- *vt. 
man people, not to replace an exiled King of Egypt \ 
with an army. . This was fo pat to his purpofe, 
that there could be no doubt of it's being forged ; 
but Cato called up the Guardians of the books into 
the Roftra, to teftify the paffa%e to be genuin\ 
where it was publicly read and explaned to the 
people : It was laid alfo before the Senate, who 
greedily received it ; and, after a grave debate on 
this fcruple of religion, came to a refolution, that 
itfeetned dangerous to the republic, that the King 

roorem fatis magnum fuftu- nium difceffimus. Ad Quint, 
ferunt, opinor in Q^Sexti- Fr. 2. 1. 
Hum & amicos Milonis in- [#] Libcnterque commu- 
citatae*; eo metu inje&o re- tata perfona, te mi hi fratrts 
pente magna querunonia om- loco cfle duco. Ep. Fam> 5. 3. 
Vol. II. D Jhouli. 

j2 /The History of the Life 

A. Urb. 6 9 j-Jbould he rejiored by a multitude [y]. It cannot be 

Cic ci. imagined, that they laid any real ftrefe on this 

Cn C C6rne- admonition of the Sybil, for there was not a man 

lius Len- either in or out of the Houfe, who did not take it 

'tulus for afiftion: but it was a fair pretext for defeat* 

Marcbl- j n g a prqjeft, which was generally difliked: 

LM*** IUS They were unwilling to gratify any man's am- 

Philip- bition, of vifiting the rich country of ASgypt, at 

pus. the bead of an army ; and perfuaded, that with* 

out an army, no man would be follicitous about 

going thither at all [z]. 

This point being fettled, the next queftion 
was, in what manner the King Jbould be re/lored: 
various opinions were propofed ; Craflus moved, 
that three EmbaJJaders y cbofen from tbofe who Bad 
feme public command* Jbould befent on the errand ; 
which did not exclude Pompey: Bibulus propofed, 
that three private Senators ; and Volcatius, that 
Pompey alone Jbould be charged with it : but Ci- 
cero, Hortenfius, and LucuUus, urged, that Len- 
tuluSy to whom the Senate bad already decreed //, 
and who could execute it with moft convenience , 
Jbould reftore him without an army. The two firft 
opinions were foon over-ruted, and the ftrug- 
gle lay between Lentulus and Pompey. Cicero* 
though he hadfome reafon to complain of Lentulus, 
fince bis return* particularly for the contemptible 
valuation of his houfes, yet for the great part, 
which he had born, in reftoring him, was very 

[y] Senatus religions ca» [«] Hcctamen opinio eft 

, luraniam, non religione fed popoli Romani, a tub invidii 

malerolentia, & ilhos regise atone obtredatoribns nomen 

largitionis invidia compro- indu&umj&* rtbginss, nott 

bat. Ep, Fam. i« i. tarn at te unptdiie&t, qoam 

De Rege Alexandrino fac-. at nequis, propter exercitui 

turn eft 5. C. am mmitituSm cajpidttatem, Alexandrian! 

nam rtJ*ri, ftricmUfim Rtipmk. Vtftet in, £p> Fan. 1 . 4. 
vtJeri. Ad Quia. Ft. u a* 

5 . defirous 

dfM.tULttUS CICERO. 33^ 

defirous t;o ffrew his gratitude, *nd rcfolved to A. Urb. 69;. 
fupport him with all hi? authority; Vempty % who Cic 51; 
had obligations alio to Lentulus, a6ted the Tame C|f ^[* 
part towards him, which he ;had done before to* liuiLbn* 
wards Cicero; by his own conduct and profcf* tulvb 
fioos, hi famed to have Lentulus's intereft at heart; March- 
p by the qmduR of <*// bis friends* feemed defiroUs l. Ma itciua 
to procure the employment far bimfelf\ while the Phil-ip- 
Kwgs 4g**t$ and Creditors, fancying that their ™$, 
bufincfs would be ferved the moft effectually by 
Pompcy, began openly to follkit y and even to bribe 
forbim [a]* Bus. the Senate, through Cicero's 
influence, ftood generally inclined to Lcntulus •, 
and after a debate, lyhich ended in his favour, Ci- 
cero, who had been the. manager of it, happening 
tofupwitb Pumpey that evening \ took occafion to prejs 
him with much freedom net to fuffef bis name to 
be ufed in this cmp&tion \ nor give a handle to bis 
tnimitt % ft* repnacfang bim with the defer til* of a 
friend,, as well as an ambition, of engrojfmg alt 
power to himfelf Pwtfey feemed tombed with the 

[a] Craffus tresjegatos <te- ferri volant. Ep. Fam. i. i. 
cernit, ' nee cxdudit Pom- Reliqui cum eflet in Sense- 
peium: cenfet eniin etiam. tti contentio, Lentultfne an 
ex iis, qui cum imperio funt. Pompeius reduceret, obtinere- 
M.Bibulus treslegatosexiis, caufam Lentulus videbatur. , 
qui privati funt. Hiiicaflen- — In ea re Pompeius quid ve- 
tinfitur reli^oi , con Tula res, lit nOn defpicio : familiare* 
prscter Servlhum v qli omni- ejus quid cupiant, otnnes ri* 
no reduci negat oportere, 6c dent. Creditores vero Regis 
VoIcatium,<Jai decernitPom- aperte pocunias fuppeditant* 
pcio. — . contra Lentulura. Sine du- 

Hor^nfii it mea k Luculli \ bio res remota a Lentulo vi- , 
fententia^£3f:illoS:(!J,(juod., detur, cum magna meo do- 1 
te re ferent<e factum eft, tibide- . lore : quamquam multa fecit*, 
cernit, .n,t redticas regem. — ^ . quare fi fas effet* jure ei fuc* ' 

Regis causi A qui fun t qui cenfere poflerous. Ad Qgin. 
velint, qui pauca funt, om- if Fr, s. 2. r 

aes rein ad* Pompeiuni at- " ' . 

D a temonjtrancs) 

34 The History of the Lift 

A. Urb. 697. rmonftrance, and profejfed to have no other thought 
C £J 1 ' tot *f firving Lentulus, while his dependents conti- 
C». Coilki- nue *0l t0 *flfo* as t0 convince every body that bt 
livsLin- could not befincere \b\ 

Twtm When Lentulus's pretentions fecmed to be 

Marcil* j n a hopeful way, C. Cato took a new and cf- 

L#MAR J Ii;i fe6tual method todifappoint them, bypropoftng* 

Philip- law to the people \ for taking away bis government 

»vi. and recalling him borne. This ftroke furprized 

every body ; the Senate condemned it as fa&ious*, 

and Lentulus's fon changed bis habit upon it y in 

order to move the Citizens, and hinder their 

offering fuch an affront to his Father The 

Tribun, Caninius* propofed another law at the 

fame time, for fending Pompey to jEgypt: but 

this pleafed no better than the other ; and the 

Confute contrived, that neither of them fhould 

be brought to the fuffrage of the people [c]. 

Thefe new contefts gave a fre(h interruption to 

Ptolemy's caufe •, in which Cicero's refolution was, 

if the commiffion could not be obtained forLen- 

tulus, to prevent its being granted at leaft to Pom* 

py 9 andjavt tbemjelves the dijgrace of being baffled 

[&] Ego eo die cafb apud quod jam omnibus eft aper- 

Pompeium cccnavi : nattuf- turn, totam rem iftam jam- 

que temp us hoc magis ido- pridem a cerris hominibus, 

neam, quam unquam antea non invito Rege ipfo— 1& 

pofl-tuum difceflum, is enim corruptam. Ep. Fam« 1. 2. 
dies honeftiflimus nobis fue- [c] Nos cum maxime con* 

rat in Senatu, ita Aim cum filio, ftudio, labore, gratia, 

iHo locutus, ut mihi viderer de caufa regia niteremur, fu- 

animum ho minis a1> omni a- bitoextorta eft nefariaCato- 

lia cogitatione ad tuam digni- nis promulgatio, quae ftudia 

tatem tuendam traducere : noftra impediret, k animos 

quern ego ipfum cum audio, a minore cura ad fummum 

prorfus eum libero omni fuf- timorem traduceret. Ibid. J» 
picione cupiditates : cum au- Sufpicor per vim rogatio* 

tern ejus familiares, omnium nem Canimum perlaturum. 

ordinum video, perfpicio, id Ad Quint, a. 2. 



by a competitor [d] : but the Senate was grctwn fo a. Urb. 697. 
fick of the whole affair, that they refolved to Ci *\5 l 
leave the King to fhift for himfelf, without in- c ( ^ fl " 
terpofing at all in his reftoration ; and fo the tioiLw^ 
matter hung ; whilft other affairs more imereft- tOlus 
ing were daily rifmg up at home, and engaging Marcel- 
the attention of the City. . L.Marci vs 

The eleftion of Mdiles y which had been indu* "philip- 
ftrioufly poftponed through all the laft fummer, *vs. . 
could not eauly be kept off any longer : the City 
was impatient for i{s Magiftrates : and efpecially 
for the plays and (hews, with which they ufed to 
entertain them ; and feveral alfo of the new I*ri- 
buns being zealous for an ele&ion, it was held at 
hftontbe twentieth of January \ when Clodius 
was cbofen Mdile* without any oppofition ; fo 
that Cicero began once more to put himfelf upon 
his guard, from the certain expectation of a fu- 
rious JEdilefhip \e\. 

It may juftly feem ftrange, how a man fa 
profligate and criminal, as Clodius, whofe life 
was a perpetual infult on all laws, divine and hu- 
man, fhould be fufFered not only to live without 
punilhment, but to obtain all the honors of afrt* 
City in their proper courfe \ and it would be na- 
tural to fufpeft, that we had been deceived in 
our accounts of him, by taking them from his 
enemies, did we not find them too firmly fup- 
ported by fads to be called in queftion : but a 
little attention to the particular character of the 

[/| Sed vereor ne aut erl- propejamdelatumvidetur.— 

piatur nobis caufa regia, aut Ne, ft quid oon obtinueri- 

deferatur. — Sed ft res coget, mus, repulft efle videaraur. 

eft quiddam tertium, qood Ep. Fam. i. 5. 

non— mihi difplicebat ; at . [*] Sed omnia fiunt tardio- 

neque jaccre Regem paterc- ra propter furiofse jEdilitatis 

ttur, nee nobis repugn an ti- expe&atibnem. Ad Quint, 

bus, ad earn deferri, ad quern a. a. 

D ? man* 


36 The HisTOJty of the Life 

A. Urb. 697. man, as well as of the times; in which he lived, 
Cic. 5 1. will enable us to folve the difficulty. Firft, the 
Cm ^CoitirE- ^P' cn ^ or °f ^ IS frnuty* which had born a princw 
1. LiwsLiii-pal (hare in all the triumphs of the Republic, 
tulus from the very foundation of its liberty, was of 
Marcel - great force to proteft him in all his extravagances ; 
t Marciui ^°fc w ^° know any thing of Rome, know what 
Philip- a ftrong impreffion this Gngle circumftance of il- 
rvi, luftrious nobility would necejfarily make upon the 

people ; Cicero calls the nobles of this clafs, Pr*- 
tors and Confuls eleff from their cradles, by a kind 
1 of hereditary right 1 who/every names were fufficient 
io advance them to all the dignities of the fiate [/]. 
Secondly, his perfonal qualities were peculiarly 
adapted to endear him to all the meaner fort : 
his bold and ready wit ; his talent at haranguing; 
his profufe ex pence; and his being thefirit of his 
family, who had purfued popular cneafures, 
againft the maxims of his Anceftors, who were 
all ftern afiertors of the Arifiocratical power. 
Thirdly, the contrail of oppofite fa&ions, who 
- had each their ends in fupporting him, contri- 
buted principally to his fafety : the Triumvirate 
willingly permitted, and privately encouraged, his 
violences ; to make their own power not onjy 
the lefs odious, but even neceffary, for corjtroul- 
ing the fury of fuch an incendiary \ and though 
it was often turned againft themfelves, yet they 
chofe to bear it, and diffemble their ability of re- 
pelling it, rather than deftroy the man, who was 
playing their game for them, and by throwing 

[/] Non idem mihi licet, Brat oobilitate ipfa, Man- 
quod iis, qui nobili [jenere da conciliatricula commea- 
sat! font, quibus omnia po- datus. Omnes Temper bonl 
puli Romani beneficia dor- nobilitati favemos, &c,— - 
jnieotibus deferuntur.— ■— la . Pr, Sm. 9. • 
Vexr»5. 70. l 



the Republic into confufion, throwing itof courfe A. Urb. 697. 
into their hands r the Senate, on the other fide, Cic - J 1 - 
whofe chief apprchenfions were from the Trium- Cfr S? 
virate, thought, that the rafhnefs of Clodius might L \ v ^l'. 
be of fome ufe to perplex their meafures, and itir tulvs 
up the people againft them on proper occafions ; Marcel- 
or it humoured their fpleenat leaft, to foe him of- L L ^^ lvs 
fen infulting Pompey to bis face {/]. Laftly, all, piji LIP . 
who envied Cicero, and deflred to leilen his au- pus. 
thority, privately cherifhed an enemy, who em- 
ployed all his force to drive him from the admi- 
niftration of affairs: this accidental concurrence 
of circumftances, peculiar to the man and the 
times, Was the thing that preferred Clodius, 
whofe infolence could never have been endured 
in any quiet and regular ftate of the City. 

By his obtaining the Aidikfhip, the tables 
were turned between him and Miloi the one 
was armed with the authority of a Magiftrate ;, 
the other become a private man ; rhe one freed 
from all apprehenfion of Judges and a trial ; the 
other expofcd to ail that danger from the. power 
of his antagonift : and it was not Clodius' s cuftom 
to neglefik any advantage againft an enemy, fo 
that he now accufed Mild of the fame crime, of 
which Mik) had accufed him ; of public violence 
and breach of the laws in maintaining a band of 
Gladiators to the terror of tie City. Milo made 
his appearance to this accufation, on tbi fecond cf 

[g] Videtts igitur homU in deHcits qwidam optimi vi- 

nem per fe jpfum jam pridetrj ri viperam iilam veqenatam; 

affli&um ac jacentero, pernir ae peftiferam habere potue-* 

ciofis Qptirriatum difcordiis. rijnt ? Quo tandem deceptf 

excitari. — Nc a Republica ipunereYVoto, inquilirir, eife 

Rsipub. pefti* amoycrcttir, qui hi «oneione detrahat d* 

reftiterant : etiam, ne caufam Pompeio, JXe Harufp. Refp, 

diceret: etiam np privatus ' 24, 
effet etiamne in finu'atque 

D 4 February \ 

38 The Hi st or v of the Lift 

A. Urb. 6tf. February ; when Pompcy, Craflus, and Cicero 
C q^ 1 ' appeared with him; and M. Marcellus, though 
Cn. Cornb- Clodius's CoUegue in the AdiUfbip, /poke for him at 
liusLen- Cicero's defire-, and the whole palled quietly and 
tulus favorably for him on that day. The fecond 
Litu5 BL " hearing was appointed on the ninth ; when Pom- 
^•Mahcivs P e y undertook to plead his caufe, but no (boner 
Philip- flood up to fpeak, than Clodius's mob began to 
'V s - exert their ufual arts, and by a continual clamor of 

reproaches and inveitives, endeavoured to binder 
him from going on, or at leaft from being beard: 
but Pompey was too firm to be baffled •, and 
Jpoke f&r near three hours, with a prefence of mind 
which commanded fiUnce infpite of their attempts. 
When Clodius rofe up to anfwer him, Milo's par- 
ty, in their turn, fo difturbed and confounded him, 
that he was not able to fpeak a word ; while a 
number of Epigrams and Lampoons upon him and 
bis Sifter were thrown about, and publicly rehear fed 
among the multitude below, fo as to make him quite 
furious: till recollecting himfelf a little, and find- 
ing it impoffible to proceed in his fpeech, he de- 
manded aloud of his mob, who it was, that at- 
tempted to ftarve them by famim ?' To which they 
prefently cried out, Pompey : he then afked, 
who it was that defired to be fent to M^ypt ? 
They all ecchoed, Pompey : but when he afked, 
who it was that they themf elves had a mind to fend? 
They anfwered, Craflus: for the oldjealoufy 
was now breaking out again between him and 
Pompey ; and though he appeared that day cn Mi- 
lo's fide, yet he was not, as Cicero fays, a real well- 
wifher to him. 

These warm proceedings among the chiefs, 
brought on a fray below, among their partifans ; 
the Clodians began the attack, but werrrepulfed by 
the Pompeians-, and Clodius himfelf driven out of 



the Roftra : Cicero,' when he few the affair pro- A. Urb. 697. 
cede to blows, thought it high time to retreat, and. Ck. 5 *. 
make the beft of his way towards hoxe* but no c ^"* 
great harm was done* for Pompey, having cleared *"| VS °£"r 
the Forun^ of his enemies, prefently drew off his 
forces, to prevent any farther mifchief or fcan- 
dal from his fide [h\ 

The Senate was prefently fummoned, to pro* 
vide fome remedy for thefe difordersj where 
Pompey, who had drawn upon himfelf a freih 
envy from his behaviour in the /Egyptian affair* 
was feverely handled by Bibulus, Curio, Favonius, 
and ethers 5 Cicero chofe to be abfent* fince be mujt 
either have offended Pompey \ by faying nothing for 
bim> or the boneft party y by defending him. The 
fame debate was carried on for feveral days -, in 






[b] Ad diem IIII. Non. 
Febr. MUo affuit. Ei Pom- 
peius advocatus venit. Dix- 
it Marcel I us a me rogatus. 
Honefte difcefiimus. Produc- 
ts dies eft in IIII. Id. Feb. 
-A. IX IIII. Idem Milo af- 
fuit. Dixit Pompeius, five 
voluit. Nam ut furrexit, o- 
perae Clodianae clamorem fuf- 
tulerunt : idque ei perpetaa 
oratione contigit, non modo 
nt acclamatione, fed ut con- 
vicio & maledi&is impedire- 
tur. Qui ut peroravit, nam 
in eo fane fortis fuit, non 
eft dcterritus, dixit omnia, 
atque interdum etiam filen- 
tio, cum auttoritate perege- 
rat; fed ut peroravit, fur- 
rexit Clodiui ; ei tantus cla- 
mor a noftris., placuerat enim 
referre gratiam, ut neque 
mente, neque lingua, neque 
ore confifleret. — Cum omnia 

maledicla, turn verfus etiam 
obfeeniffimi in Clodium & 
Clodiam dicerentur. Hie fu- 
rens & exfanguis interroga- 
bat fuos in clamore ipfo, qui* 
eflet, qui plebem fame ne- 
caret ? Refpondebant operas, 
Pompeius. Quia Alexandri- 
an* ire cuperetr* Refponde- 
bant, Pompeius. Quern ire 
vellent? Refpondebant, Craf* 
fum. Is aderat turn Miloni 
animo non amico.-- ■ ■ ■, 

Hora fere nono, quafi fig- 
no datq, Ctodiani noftros 
eonfpufare cceperunt, Exar- 
fit dolor, urgere iHi ut loco 
nos moverunt. Fa 61 us eft a 
noftris impetus, fuga opera- 
rum. Eje&us de Roftris Clo- 
dius. Ac nos quoque turn 
fugimus, ne quia in turba.— 
Senatus vocatus in Curiam, 

Pompeius domum. Ad 

Quint. Fr. 2. 3. 


40 *The History of the Life 

A. Urb. 697I which Pompey was treated very roughly by the 
Cic. ci. Tribun Cato ; who inveighed againft him with great 
Q ^\ %m fiercenefs, and laid open bis perfidy to Cicero, to 
*ivtLBN- *bm be paid the bigbeft compliments, and was 
tulus beard with much attention by all Pompefs enemies. 
Marcel- Pompey anfwered him with an unufual vehe- 
L MAiic'ivt mencc *» anc * refleBing openly on Craffus, as the au- 
Philip. tbor oftbefe affronts, declared, that be would guard 
pus. - bis life witb more care, than Scipio Africanus did, 
wben Carbo murdered bim.—— — Thefe warm cx- 
preffions feemed to open a profpe&of fome great 
agitation likely to enfue: Pompey confulted 
with Cicero on the proper means of his fecdrity ; 
and acquainted him with his apprehenfions*/** 
defign againft bis life*, that Cato was privately fup- 
ported, and Clodius furnijbed witb money by Craf 
Jus \ and both of them encotmaged by Curio, Bibulus, 
and the reft, who envied bim \ that it was neceffary 
for bim to look to bimfelf, Jince the meaner people 
were wholly alienated, the nobility and Senate gene- 
rally difaffeSed, and the youth corrupted. Cicero 
readily conferred to join forces with him, and 
tofummon their clients and friends from all parts of 
Italy: for though he had no mind to fight his 
battles in the Senate, he was defirous to defend 
his perfbn from all violence, efpecially againft 
Craffus, whom he never loved: they refolved 
likewife to oppoie, with united ftrength, all the 
attempts of Clodius and Cato againft Lentulus and 
Mlo [*]. Clodius, on the other hand, was not 


[1] Neque ego in Sena- die nihil perfedtam. — Ad 

turn, ne aut de tantis rebus die II. Id. — Cato eft vehe* 

tacerem, aut in Pompeiode- menter in Pompeium invec- 

ffcndendo, nam is carpebatur tus, & eum oratione perperua 

a Bibulo, Curione, Favonio, tanquam reusn accufavit. De 

' Servilio filio, animos bono* me multa me invito, Cum 

ram offenderem. Reainpo- mea fumma laudc dixit, 

ftenim diem dilata eft.— Eo Com illiua in me perfidiam 


ofM. rULLIUS CICERO. 41 $ 

!cfs bufy in muftering his friends againft the next A. Urb. 697. 
hearing of Milo's caufe: but as his ftrength was Cic. *i. 
much inferior to that of his adverfary, fo he bad~ ^? ff ' 

no expectation of getting him condemned^ nor any liusLewI 
other view, but to teaze and harafs him[k]: for tulu» 
after two hearings, the affair was put off by fe- Marcel- 
veral adjournments to the beginning 0/ May* from ^ , marcuu 
which time we find no farther mention of it. Philif- 

The Conful, Marcellinus, who drew his *vs. * 
Collegue, Philippus, along with him, was a re- 
folute oppofer of the Triumvirate, as well as of 
all the violences of the other Magiftrates : for ' 

which reafon, he refolved to fufFer no aflcmblies 
of the people, except fuch as were neceflary for the 
eleftions into the annual offices : his view was, to 
prevent Cato's law for recalling Lentulus^ and the 
mvnftrous things* as Cicero calls them, which fome 
were attempting at this time in favour of &efar. 
Cicero gives him the chara&er of one of the belt 
Confyls that he bad ever known, and blames htm 
only in one thing \ for treating Pompey on all occa- 
ftons too rudely*, which made Cicero often abfent 
Trimfelffrom the Senate, to avoid taking party eitbtr 

increpavit, audirus eft magno Curione, Bibulo, cseterifque 
£lentio maievolorum. Re- V fuis obtre&a tori bus confirma- 

fpondit ci vehementer Pom- ri : vehementer effe providen- 

peius, CrafTumquedcfcripfit; dom ne opprimattir, concib- 

dixitque aperte, Ce munitio- nario illo popolo, a fe prope 

rem ad cuftodiendam vitam alien a to, nobilitate inimica, 

fuam fore, quam African as non aequo Senatu, Javeiitute 

faiffet, quern C. Car bo inter- improba ; itaque fe comparat, 

etnifTet. Itaque magna? mi- homines ex agris arceffit. Q- 

hi res moveri videbantur, peras a u tern fuas Clodius 

Nam Pompeius haec intelli- confirmat. Manns ad Qui- 

git, mecuntqae communicat rinalia paratur. IneomuJto 

inficlias vitee fu« fieri: C. fumos fuperiores, &c. Ad 

Catonem a Craflb fuftentari; Quint. 2. 3. 

Clodio pecuniam fuppedka- [&] Vid. Dio. p. 99. 
lis otrumque & ab eo-& a < • •<•'• 

. . on 


42 The H 1 $ t o r y of the Life 

A. Urb. 697. on the one fide or the other [/]• For the fupport 
Cic 51. therefore of his dignity and intercft in the City,. 

r C?"* he refumed his old talk of pleading caufes; which 
*'iu°LiN~- was always popular and reputable, and in which 
tulus he was fure to find full employment. His firft 
KJarcbl- cau f c was the defence of L. Beftia, on the tenth 

L L MA U R S cIu• ^ Fcb^uar y , ^° y a f tcrthc d ^grace of a repulfe 
Philip- from the Prsetorfhip in the laft election, was ac- 
cufed of bribery and corruption in his fuit for it% 
and, notwithftanding the authority and eloquence 
of his advocate, was convi&ed and banifhed. He 
was a man extremely corrupt, turbulent, and fe- 
ditious; had always been an enemy to Cicero; 
and fuppofed to be deeply engaged in Catiline's 
plot •, and is one inftance of the truth of what Ci- 
cero fays, that be was often forced, againft bis willy 
to defend certain perfons, who bad not deferved it of 
him, by the interceffion oftbofe who bad\m\ 

C/bsar, who was now in the career of his 
victories in Gaul, fent a requeft to the Senate •, 
that money might be decreed to him for the payment 
of bis Army \ with a power of cbufing ten Lieu- 
tenants, for the better management of the war, and 
the conquered Provinces \ and that bis command 

[/] Conful eft egregins 
Lentulus, non impediente 
Collcga : fie inquam bonus, 
ut meliorem non viderim. 
Dies comitiales exemit om- 
ues. — Sic legibus perniciofif- 
iimus obfiftitur, maximeCa- 
tonis— Nunc igitur Catonem 
Lentulus a legibus removit, 
& eos, qui de Carfare monftra 
promulgarunt. — Marcellinus 
autem Joe uno mihi minus 
iatisfacit, quod eum nimis 
afpere tra&at, quanquam id 
Senatu non invito facie : quo 

ego me libentius a Curia, Se 
ab omni parte Reip. fubtra- 
ho. Ad Quint. 26. 

[«] A. D. III. Id. dixi 
pro Beftia de ambitu apud 
Praetorem Cn. Domitium, in 
Foro medio, roaximo con- 
ventu. Ad Quint. 2. 5. 

Cogor nonnunquam homi- 
nes non optime de me men- 
tos» rogatu eorum qui bene 
meritiiunt, defendere. £p. 
Fam. 7. 1. Vid. Philip. Xf. 
5. Salluft. 17. 43. Plutar. in 
. Cic. 



fhould be prolonged for five years more. The de T A. Urb. 697. 
mand was thought very exorbitant; and it feem- c l c \i u 
fed ftrange, that, after all his boafted Conquefts, Cn. Corki- 
he fhould not be able to maintain his army with- musLek- 
out money from home, at a time when the trea- tulus 
fury was greatly exhaufted •, and the renewal of Marcel^ 
a com million, obtained at firft by violence, and L# Marciu* 
againft the authority of the Senate, was of hard Philip- 
digeftion. But Carfares intereft prevailed, and ™s. 
Cicero himfelf was the promoter of it, and pro- 
cured a decree to his fatisfa&ion ; yet not with- 
out difgufting the old patriots, who flood firm to 
their maxim of oppofing all extraordinary grants : 
but Cicero alledged the extraordinary fervices of 
Cdfar -, and that the courfe of his viflories ought 
not to be checked by the want ofneceffary fupplies, 
while be was fo glorioufly extending the bounds of 
the Empire, and conquering nations, whofe names 
bad never been beard before at Rome : and though 
it were poffible for him to maintain bis troops with- , 
out their help, by the fpoils of the enemy ', yet thofe 
fpoils ought to be refervedfor the fplendor of his Tri- 
umph, which it was not juft to defraud by their . 
unfeafonable parfimony [n]. 

He might think it imprudent perhaps, at this 
time, to call CaeTar home from an unfinifbed war t 
and ftop the progrefs of his arms in the very 
height of his fuccefs ; yet the real motive of his 
conduct feems to have flowed, not fo much 
from the merits of the caufe, as a regard to the' 

[«] Ilium eaim arbitrabar , Et quas regiones, quafque 
etiam fine hoc fubfidio pecu- t gentes nulla? nobis, an tea lit- 
nix retinere exercitum prae- terse, nulla vox, Milja faxna 
da ante parta, et belluro con- notas fecerat, has n oiler Im- 
ficere pofTe: fed decus illud perator nofterqu^ exercitus, 
& ornamentttm Trinmphi mi- Sc populi arma per- • 
nuendum noflra paxfimonia agraru&t, Vc Proy. Conful. 
000 putavi. XI. 13. 




44 ¥&i Hutokv^^ Life 

A^tfrb. 697. condition of the times, and his own circutnftafl* 

Cic ci. ces. For. in his private letters he owns, " that * 
Ch*Cornb-" tl,c ma * cv °I encc and. envy of the Arift6crati- | 
lius Lew- " cal chiefs had almoft driven him from his old 
tvlu« " principles : and though not fo far as to make 
Marcel- « f^m forget his dignity, yet fo as. to take a 
L*1marciu$ 4C P ro P cr care °f his fafety ; both which might 
44 be eafi'y confident, if there was any faith or . 
44 gravity in the Confular Senators : but they 
" had managed their matters fo ill, that thofe 
" who were iliperior to them in power, were be- 
V come fuperior too in authority •, fo as to be able % 
<c to carry in the Senate, what they could not 
44 have carried even with the people without vio- 
44 knee: that he had learnt from experience* • 
44 what he could not learn fo well from books, 
44 that as no regard was to be had to ourlafety* . 
" without a regard alfo to our dignity \ fo the coo* . 
44 fideration of dignity ought not to exclude the 
4 * care of our fafety [0J." In another letter he lays, 
44 ~ tharthe ftate and form of the government was 
44 quite changed; and what he had prapqfed to-^ 
44 himfelf, as the end of all his toils, a dignity and ' 
44 liberty of atting and voting was quite loft and 
44 gone •, that there was nothing left, but either 
4 * meanly to aflent to the few, • who governed 


[e] Quorum malevolentif- 
fimis obtre&atonibus nos fci- 
ta de vetere ilia no lira, din*' 
turnaquc fententia prope jam 
effe depulfos : uon nos qui* 
dem ut noftra; dignitatis fi- 
ims obliti, fed at Ji abeam us 
radonem aliquando etiam fa- 
Joris. Poterat utroraqwe pra> 
clare, fi effet fides, ft gra- 
vitas in hominibus Gonfula- 

Ham qui plus opibus, ar-^ 

mis # potentia valent, profe* 
cifle tantum mihi videntnr 
ftuttitia & incoaftantia adver* 
fariorum, ut etiam audtorita*. 
te jam plus vaferent. — quod 
ipfe, litteris omnibus a.pue- 
filia deditus, experiundo ta* 
men magis, quam difcendo 
cognavt ;— neque falutis no* 
ftrae rationcm habendam no- 
bis effe fine dignitate, neque 
dignitatis* fine fehite* Ep* 
Fam. 1. 7. * ' 

* all; 




all; or weakly to oppofe them, without doing A. Urb. 697. 
any good: that he had dropt therefore afi Cic -5* % 
fc thoughts of that old Confular gravity and c Q °& 
" charadter of a refolute Senator, and refolved „^°£*'I 
<c to conform himfelf to Pompey's will ; that his tulus 
cc great affe&ion to Pompey made him begin to Marcil- 
" think all things right, which were ufeful to L h ^^ B 
" him j and he comforted himfelf with refleft- Ph^lipV* 
" ing, that the greatnefs of his obligations would 
" make all the world excufe him, for defending 
cc what Pompey liked, or, at leaft* for not op- 
pofing it ; or elfe, what of all things he moft 
defired, if his friendfhip with Pompey would 
permit him, for retiring from public bufinefs, 
** and giving himfelf wholly up to his books [/]." 
But he was now engaged in a caufe, in 
which he was warmly and Ipecially intercfted, the 
defence of P. Sextita, the. late Tribun. Clodius y 
who gave Cicero's friends no rcfyite) having him- 
felf undetaken Milo, affigned the profecution of 
Sextius to one of his confidents, M. Tullius Al- 
binovanus, who accufed him of public violence*, or 
breach of peace in bis Tribunate [q]. Sextius had 


M Tantiun enim animi 
inau&io Sc menercnle amor 
erga Pompeium apucl me va- 
let, at, quae illi utilia funt, 
Sc qtue ille vult, eawilii om- 
nia jam Sc re&a Sc vera vide- 
antur — Me quidem ilia res 
confolatar, quod ego is fum, 
cui vel maxitne concedant 
omnes, ut vel ea defend am, 
quae Pompeius velit, vel ta- 
ceam, vel etiam, id quod 
mihi maxime lubet, ad no- 
ftra me ftudia refefam litte- 
raram ; quod profelta faciam, 
fi mibi per ejufdem amici- 

tiam licebit. — • 

Quae enim propofita fue- 
rant nobis, cum Sc bonoribus 
amplifjiims, et laboribus ma»- 
imis perfon&i effemus, dig,, 
nitas in fententiis dicendis, 
libertas ia Rep, capeflenda'; 
eafublatatota; fed nee mihi 
magis, quam omnibus. Nam 
aut aiTentiendum eft nulla 
cum gravitate paucis, aut fru- , 
ftra difieritiendum. Ibid. 8. 

If ] 05* cum omnibus falu- 
tis meas defenforibus bellum 
iibi cfle gerendum judical*- 
lunt. Pr. Sext. 2. 


4^ The Wmtoky of the Life 

A.Urb.697. been a true friend to Cicero in his diftrefs; and 
Ciccu born a great part in his reftoration; but as in 
.„ 9? cafes of eminent fenricc, conferred jointly by 

husLem- niany, every one is apt to claim the firft merit, 
TULua and expedt the firft (hare of praife j fo Sextius, 
Marcbl- naturally morofe, fanfying himfelf negle&ed or 
L. Marcivs not fu ffi cient ty ^quited by Cicero, had behaved 
Philip- vei 7 churlifhly towards him fince his return : but 
*t/s. Cicero, who was never forgetful of paft kind- 

nefifes, inftead of refenting his perverfenefs, hav- 
ing heard, that Sextius was iridifpofed, went in 
per f on to bis boufc* and cured him of all bis jealou- 
ftes % by freely offering ajjiftance and patronage in , 
pleading bis taufe [r]. 

This was a difappointment to the profecu- 
tors : who flattered themfelves, that Cicero was 
fo much difgufted, that he would not be per- 
fuaded to plead for him *, but he entered into the 
caufe with a hearty inclination, and made it, as 
in efFed it really was, his own [j]. In his fpeech, 
which is ftill extant, after laying open the hiftory 
of his exil, and the motives of his own condud, 
through the whole progrefs of it^ he (hews ; " that 
" the onely ground of profecuting Sextius was, 
44 his faithful adherence to him, Or rather to the 
" Republic ; that by condemning Sextius, they 
ic would in effeft condemn him, whom all the or- 
16 ders of the City had declared to be unjuftly ex- 
41 pelled, by the very fame men, who were now 
44 attempting to expell Sextius : that it was a 
* 4 banter and ridicule on juftice itfelf, to accufe a 

[r] Is erat sger: domum, fimique 8c ijpfi 8c omnibus vi- 

Ut debuimus, ad eum ftatim deremur : itaque facie m us. 

venimus; eiqae nos totos tra~ Ad Quint, z. 3, 

didimus* idque fecimus pra*- [/jP. Sextius eft reus non 

ter hominum opinionem, qui fuo fed meo nomine, &c. 

nos {i jure fucceniere put*- Pr. Sexu 13. 
bant* ut humaniffimi gratif- 

c < man 



" man of violence, who had been left for dead A. Urb. 697. 
" upon the fpot, by the violence of thofe who Cic, I f - 
" accufed him ; and whofe onely crime it was. c S?" - 
" that he would not fuffer himfelf to be quite JiusLin- 
,c killed, but prefumed to guard his life againfc tulvs 
c; their future attempts." In fhort, he managed Marcel* 
the caufe fo well, that Sextius was acquitted, and r ^ V' m 

* 1 n 1 lift • L.. MARCIV3 - 

in a manner the molt honorable, by the unanimous Philif- 
fitffrages of all the Judges -, and with an univerfal *u*. - 
applaufe of Cicero 9 s humanity and gratitude [/]. 

Pompey attended this trial as a friend to Sex- 
tius ; while Caefar's creature, Vatinius, appeared 
Rot onely as an adverfary, but a witnefs againft 
him : which gave Cicero an opportunity of la(h- 
ing him* as Sextius particularly defired, with all 
the keennefs of his raillery, to the great diver/ton of 
tbeaudience> for inftead of interrogating him in the 
ordinary way, about the fadts depofed tn the trial, 
he contrived to teize him with a perpetual fe^ies 
of queftions, which revived and cxpofed the ini- . 
quity of his faltious Tribunate, and the whole 
courfe of his profligate life, from his firft appear- 
ance in public; and, in fpite of all his impu* 
dence, quite daunted and confounded him. Vati- - 
nius however made fome feeble effort to defend 
himfelf, and rally Cicero in his turn; and 
among other things, reproached him with the . 
bafenefs of changing fides, and becoming Cafar's % 
friend, on account of the fortunate ft ate of his af- 
fairs: to which Cicero brifkly replied, though 
Pompey himfelf ftood by, that he ftill preferred 

[/] Sextius nofter abfolu- eft— Scito nos in to jndicio 
tus eft. A. D. II. Id. Mart, confecutos efle, at omnium 
& good vehementer interfuit gratiffimi judicaremur. Nam 
Reipub.nullamvideriinejuf- in defendendo homine mo- 
moat caufa difleniionem pfle, rofo cumulatiffime fatisfeci- 
omnibus fententiis abfolu tus mus. Ad Quint. 2. 4. 

Vol. H. E the 


48 The History^/ the Life 

A.Urb. 697. the condition of Bibulufs Conful/bip 9 which Vatinius 
C \ C \J X - thought abjell and miferable, to the victories and 

C N C CokNE- tr i um pbs of all men wbatfoever. This fpeech 

! livsLbn- againft Vatinius is ftill remaining, under the title 

tulus of the interrogation •, and is nothing elfe but what 

>Iarcel- cj cero himfelf calls it, a perpetual inveffive on the 


L. Marcius Magiftracy of Vatinius^ and the conduit of thofe 
Philip- who fupported him [u] . 

In the beginning of April, the Senate grant- 
ed the fum of three hundred thoufand pounds to 
Pompey, 10 be laid out in purchasing corn for the 
ufe of the City ; where there was ftill a great fear- 
city, and as great at the fame time of money : ib 
that the moving a point fo tender could not fail 
of railing fome ill humour in the afiembly ; 
when Cicero, whofe old fpirits feemed to have re- 
vived in him, from his late fliccefs in Sextius's 
caufe, furprized them by* propofing, that in the 
prefent inability of the treafury to purcbdfe the Cam- 
panian lands, which by C*far*s aSt were to be di- 
vided to the people, the a£l itfelffhould be reconfider- 
ed, and a day appointed for that deliberation : the 
motion was received with an univerfal joy, and a 
kind of tumultuary acclamation : the enemies of 
the Triumvirate were extremely pleafed with it, 
in hopes that it would make a breach between 

[«] Vatinium, a quo pa- 
lam oppugnabatur, arbitratu 
noftro concidimus, Diis ho- 
rninibufque plaudentibus.— 
Quid quseris; HomcTpetUr. 
lans, & audax Vatinius val- 
de perturbatus, debilitatuf- 
flue difceflit. Ibid, 

'Ego fedente Pompeio, cum 
lit laudarct P. Sextium in- 
troiiffet in urbem, dixiflet- 
^n$ tefti* Vatijiius, mcfortu- 

na & felicitate C Caefam 
commotum, illi amicum efle 
ccepiflej dixi, xneeam Bibuli 
fortunam, quam Hie affti&am 
putarct, omnium triumphis 
victoriifque anteferre. — To- 
ta verointerrogatio mea nihil 
habuit, nifi reprehenfionem 
illius Tribunatus : in quo 
omnia di&a funt Hbertate, 
animoque iiiaximo. Ep. Fam. 



Cicero and Pompey-, but it ferved only for aA.Urb. 697. 
proof, of what Cicero himfelf obferves, that it c £- **• 
is very bard for a man to depart from bis oldfenti* q k comi- 
ments in politics ', when they are right andjuft [#] . l 1 us Lb n - 

Pompey, whofe nature was Angularly referv- tulus 
ed, exprefied no uneafmefs upon it, nor took Ma * cbl " 

.*•#•• r>* 1 1_ 1/ J LINUS, 

any notice of it to Cicero, though they met and l. Marcius 
fupped together familiarly, as they ufed to do : Philxp- 
but he fet forward foon after towards Afric, in "•• 
order to provide corn ; and intending to call at : 
Sardinia, propofed to embark at Pifa or Legborn % 
that he might have an interview with Caefar, who 
v?as now at Luca, the utmoft limit of his Gallic . 
Government. He found Csefar exceedingly out of 
humor with Cicero; for Craffus had already 
been with him at Ravenna, and greatly incenfed 
him by his acount of Cicero's late motion ; which 
he complained of fa heavily, that JPompey pro- 
mifed to ufe all his authority, to induce Cicero 
to drop the purfuit of it ; and for that purpofe 
fent away an exprefs to Rome, to intreat him, 
not to procede any farther in it till his return ; 
and when he came afterwards to Sardinia, where 
bis Lieutenant, Q. Cicero, then refided, he en- 
tered immediately into an expoftulatiori with him 
about it, " recounting all his fervices to his 
" Brother, and that every thing, which he had 
" done for him, was done with Casfar's confcnt j 
41 and reminding him of a former converfation 
" between themfelves concerning Csefar's afts, 

[x] Pompeio pecunia de- Ad Quint. 2. $• 
creta in rejn frumentariam Nonis April, mihi eft Sc- 
ad HS cccc. fed eod^m die natus aflenfus, ut de agro 
vehementcr aftum de agro Campano, id i bus Maiis, Tre* 
Campano, clamore Senatus quenti Senatu referretur, 
propc concionali. Acriorem Num potui magis in arcem 
caufam inopia pecuniae facie- illius caufa invadere. Ep. 
bat, & annonse caritas.— - Fam. 1. 9. 

E 2 " and 




L. Marcius " 
Philip- " 

PUS. (( 


50 TCbe History $f the Life 

A.Urb.697. « an( j w jj at Qui ntus himfclf had undertaken for 
Cofl? 1 " ^ ls ^ r6t ^ cr on r hat head*, and as he then 
Cn. Corni- c< made himfelf anfwerable for him, fo he was 
liusLbn- " now obliged to call him to the performance 
" bf thofe engagements : in Ihort, he begged of 
him to prefs his Brother' to fupport and de- 
fend Csefar's intcrefts and dignity, or if he 
could not perfuade him to that, to engage 
" him at lead, not to ad againft them [y ]. H 

This remonftrance from Pompey, enforced 
by his Brother Quintus, daggered Cicero*s refo- 
lution, and made him enter into a frefh delibera- 
tion with himfelf about the meafures of his con- 
du£t ; where, after calling up the fum of ail 
his thoughts, and weighing every circumftance, 
which concerned either his own or the public 
intereft, he determined at lad to drop the affair, 
rather than expofe himfelf again, in his present 
fituation, to the animofity of Pompey and Csefar j 
for which he makes the following apology to his 
friend Lentulus : " that thofe, who proteffed the 
" fame principles, and were embarked in the lame 

j>] Hoc S. C. in fententi- 
am meam fatto, Pompeius, 
cum xnihi nihil oftendi/Tet fe 
cfTe offenfum, in Sardiniam 
& in Africam profectus eft, 
eoque itinere Lucam ad Cae- 
farem venit. Ibi multa de 
mea fententia queftus eft C as- 
far, quippe qui etiam Ra- 
vennae Craflum ante vidifiet, 
ab eoque in me eflet incen- 
fus. Sane molefte Pompeium 
id Ferre conftabat : quod 
•go, Cum audiflem ex aliis, 
maximeex fratre meo cog- 
jiovi; quem cum in Sardinia 
paucis poll diebus, quam iai- 

ca difceflcrat, conveniflet. 
Te, inquit, ipfumcupio: nU 
hil opportanius potuit acci- 
dere : nifi cum Marco fratre 
diligenter egeris, dependen- 
dum tibi eft, quod mihi pro 
illo fpopondifti: quid multa? 
Queftus eft graviter : fua me- 
nu commemoravit : quid e- 
giflet faepiJfimedea&is Casfa- 
ris cum meo fratre, quidque 
fibi is de me recepittet, in 
memoriam redegit; feque quae 
de me* falute egiflet, volun- 
tate Cte&ris egifle, ipfum 
meum fratrem tcftatiw eft. 

" caufc 


<c caufe with him, were perpetually envying and A. Urb. 697* 
" thwarting him, and more difgufted by the fic,ci. 
" fplendor of his life, than pleafed with any Cn ^™* 
* c thing which he did for the public fervice; liusLbnI 
" that their own pleafure, and what they could tului 
u not even diflemble, while he was a&ing with Parcel- 
" them, was to fee him difobliee Pompey, and T V/!Y1\. 
" make Caefar his enemy; when they, at the Philif- 
u fame time, were continually carefling Clodius rvs. 
" before his face, on purpofe to mortify him : 
" that if the Government indeed had fallen into 
" wicked and defperate hands, neither hopes nor 
u fears, nor gratitude itfelf could have prevailed 
" with him to join with them ; but when Pom- 
" pey held the chief fway, who had acquired it 
u by the moft illuftrious merit •, whofe dignity 
46 he had always favoured from his firft fetting 
" out in the world, and from whom he had re- - 
u ceived the greateft obligations •, and who, at 
" that very time, made his enemy the common 
" enemy of them both •, he had no reafon to ap- 
a prehend the charge of inconftancy, if, on 
M fome occafions, he voted and afted a little 
w differendy from what he ufed to do, in complai- 
c< fance to fuch a friend : that his union with 
4< Pompey neceffarily included Csefar, with 
" whom both he and his Brother had a friend- 
" fliip alfo of long {landing ; which they were 
" invited to renew by all manner of civilities and 
" good offices, freely offered on Csefar's part: 
" that after Casfar's great exploits and victories, 
" the Republic itfelf feemed tq intcrpofe, and 
44 forbid him to quarrel with fuch men: that 
" when he flood in need of their afliftance, his 
" Brother had engaged his word for him to 
cc Pompey, and Pompey tp Casfar-,. and ho 
E i *' thought 

52 The History of the Life 

A. Urb. 697. " thought himfelf obliged to make good thofc 

Cic. 51, « engagements \z\" 
Cn.Corni- This was c ^ e g encra l ftate of his political be- 
liusLen- haviour : he had # a much larger view, and more 
tulus comprehenfive knowledge both of men and 
Marcel- things, than the other chiefs of the Ariftocraqy, 
L. Mar ci its Bibulus, Marcellinus, Cato, Favonius, &c, 
Philip- whofe ftiffhefs had ruined their caufc, and 
*vs, brought them into the prefent fubjedtion by alie- 

nating Pompey and the Equeftrian order from the 
Senate: they confidered Cicero's management of 
the triumvirate, as a mean fubmiflion to illegal 
power, which they were always oppofing and ir- 
ritating, though ever fo unfeafonable -, whereas 
Cicero thought it time to give over fightings when 
the forces were fo unequal \ and that the more pa- 
tiently tjjty fuffered the dominion of their New Ma- 
jors, the more temperately they would ufe it [a] j 


[*] Qui cum ilia fentirent 
in Rcpub. quae ego agebam, 
fcanperqoe feniifient ; me ta- 
men non fatisfacere Pornpeio, 
Cseia/emque inimicifiimum 
mihi futurum, gaudere fe aie- 
bant : hoc mihi dolendum, 
fed illud multo magis, quod 

immicum/meum fie am- 

plexabantur fie me prae- 

fente ofculabantur— Ego fi 
ab im pro bis 8c perditis civi- 
bus Rempub. teneri videbam 
—-Non modo praemiis — Sed 
ne periculis quidem ullis 
compulfus — Ad eoruni cau- 
fam me adjungerem, rre fi 
fumma quidem eorum in me 
merita conftarent. Cum au- 
tern in Repub. Cn. Pompeius 
princeps efiet— meumque in- 

imicum unum in Civitate ha- 
beret inimicum, non putavi 
fajnam inconftantiap mihi per- 
tiraefcendam, ii quibuTdamin 
{ententiis paullum meimmu- 
taiTem, meamque voluntatem 
ad fummi viri, de meque op- 
time meriti dignitatem ag- 
gregaflem, &c. Gravifiimo 
autem me in hac mente im- 
pulit, 8c Pompeii fides, quara 
de me Casfari dederat, 8c fra- 
tris mei, quam Pompeio, Ep, 
Fam. 1.9, 

[a] Neque, ut ego arbi- 
tror, errarent, fi cumi pares 
efle non poflent, pugnare de- 

Commutata tota ratio eft 

Senatus, judiciorum, Rei to- 

tius publicav Otiam nobis 



being perfuaded, that Pompey, at leaft, who A. Urb. 697. 
was the head of them, had no defigns againft the Cic $}• 
public liberty, unlefs he were provoked and dri- S? 

r . , J l r V- r> 1 • Ctf. CORN*- 

ven to it by the perverfe oppofinon of his ene- liusLbw- 
mies \b\ Thefe were the grounds of that com- tulus 
plaHance, which he now generally paid to him, Marcel 
for the fake both of his own and the public quiet : L Marcivs 
in confequence of which,' when the appointed Philip- 
day came, for confidertng the cafe of the Campa- rvs. 
nian lands, the debate dropt of courfe, when it 
was underftood that Cicero, the mover of it, 
was abfent, and had changed his mind : though it 
was not, as he intimates, without fome ftruggle 
in his own breaft, that he fubmitted to this ftep, 
which was Kkely to draw upon him an imputation 
of levity (YJ. 

His daughter, Tullia, having now lived a 
widow about a year, was married to afecond buf- 
band) Furius CraJJipes\ and the wedding Feaft held 
at Cicero 9 s boufe, en the fixtb of April : we find 
very little faid, of the chara&er or condition <*£ 
this Craffipes; but by Cicero's care in making 
the match, the fortune which he paid, and the 
congratulation of his friends upon it, he appears 
to have been a Nobleman of principal rank and 
dignity [4]. Atticus alfo, who was about a year 


exoptandnm eft: quod ii, iimuro abalienarunt. Ibid, S. 
.qui potiuntur rerum, praefti- f4] Ep. Fam. i. 9. 
turi videntur, ii quid am ho- [rj Quod Idibus Sc po- 
minespatientiuseorumpoten- ftridie fuerat di&um, de A- 
tiara ferre pOtuerint.Dignita- gro Campano a&um iri, non 
tern quidem illam confularpm eft aftym. In hac caufa mi- 
fords et conftantis Senatbris, hi aqua haeret. Ad Quint, 
nihil eft, quod cogitemus. ' %. 8. 

Amifla eft culoa eorum, qui * (Y) De noftra Tullia—* 
a Sehatu & ordinem conj unc- fpero nos cum Craffipede eon- 
tiffimum,. & hominem cjarif. tecifle. lb. 4. 

v E 4 Qgo4 

54 . ^tbe Histo*y of the Life 

A. Urb. 697* younger than Cicero, was married this fpring to 
C^-5 1 ' Pilia, and invited him to the wedding \t\. As 
C». CoRNE- t0 *"$ domeftic affairs, his chief care at prefenc 
i.\usLbn- w^as about rebuilding three of his houfes, which 
tjjlus were demolifhed in his exil ; and repairing the 
..Marcel- ,. e ft, ^^ t jj at a lfo of his Brother, out of which 
L. Marciu's they were driven in the laft attack of Clodius : 
Philip- by the hints, which he gives of -them, they all 
* us » feem to have been very magnificent, and built 
under the dire&ion of the belt Architedts : Clo- 
dius gave no farther interruption to them, being 
forced to quit the purfuit of Cicero, in order to 
watch the motions of a more dangerous enemy, 
Milo. Cicero however was not without a lhare 
of uneafinefs, within his own walls ; bis Brother's 
wife and his own, neither agreed well with each 
$ther 9 nor their own bujbands : Quintus's was dif- 
pleafed at her hufband's flaying fo long abroad ; 
; and Cicero's not difpofed to make hers the hap- 
pier for {laying at home. His Nephew alio* 
Toung Quintus, a perverfe youth, fpoiled by a 
mother's indulgence, added' fomewhat to his 
trouble ; for he was now charged with the care 
of his education, in the Father's abfence ; and 
had him taught, under his own eye, by ^yrannio^ 
a Greek M^ftpr ; who, with feveral other learn-? 
<d men of that country, was entertained in his 
houfe [/J. 


Quod mihi de Filia & dc ponium in ejus nuptiis eram 

Crafllpede gratularis— Spero- coenaturus. Ad Quint. 2. 3* 
que & opto hanc conjun&io- [/] Domus utriafque no* 

nem nobis voluptati fore, fbum aedificaturftrenue. lb. 

Ep. Fjiiri. i. 7 * %. Longilium rederaptorem 

Viaticum Craflipes praeri- cohortatus Aim. Fidem mihi 

pit. Ad Att. 4. 5. faciebat, fe velle nobis pla- 

[e] Prid. Id. hsecfcripfian- cere. Domus erit egregia. 

|c lucem. Eo die apud Pom- lb. 6. 



Kino Ptolemy's affair was no more talked A. Urb. 697. 
of; Pompey had other bufinefs upon his hands, Cic. 51. 
and was fo ruffled by the Tribun, Cato 9 and the Qv c° r N e- 
Qmfuly Marcellmus, that he laid afide all thoughts LI usLen- 
of it for himfelf, and wilhed to ferve Lentulus in tulus 
it. The Senate had paffed a vote againft rejloring Marcel- 
him at alh but °»* °f tbe TribunS inhibited tbmfrom L \£™' lVM 
proceding to a decree •, and a former decree was Philip- 
a&ually fubfifting in favor of Lentulus • Cicero **•• 
therefore, after a confultation with Pompey, fent 
him their joint and laft advice ; " that by his 
" command ,of a Province, fo near to Mgypt* 
" as he was the beft judge of what he was 
** able to do, fo if he found himfelf Mafter 
** of the thing, and was affured of fuccefs, he 
41 might leave the king* at Ptolemais, or fome 
" other neighbouring City, and procede with- 
" out him to Alexandria % where, if by the in- 
*' fluence of his fleet and troops he could ap- 
" peafe the public diffenfions, and perfuade the 
" Inhabitants to receive their King peaceably, 
" he might then carry him home, and fo reftore 
" him according to the firft decree ; yet withbut 
<c a multitude, as our religious men, fays be % 
" tell us, the Sibyl has enjoined — that it was the 
" opinion however of them both, that people 
" would judge of the fad by the event : If he 
a was certain therefore of carrying his point, he 
" fhould not defer it i if doubtfull, (bould not 
" undertake it : for as the world would applaud 

Qaintus tuos, paer opti- Quhitus tuas, auod perlevi- y 

mus, eraditar egregie. Hoc ter commotus nierat, defuit. 

nunc magis animadverto, — Maltum is mecum fermo- 

euod Tyrannio docet apud nem habuit Sc perhnmanum 

me. lb. 4. de difcordis muherum noftra- 

A. D. VIII. Id. Apr, rum.— Pomponia autem c- 

Spoiifalia Craffipedi pnebui. tiam de te cjuefta eft. lb. 6, 
Huic convivio puer optimus, 


Cic. ci, 
Cm. Cornb 


l"i kus, 


56 The H 1 s t o R Y of the Life 

A. Urb. 697.1c hj mj ^ h e effcfod \ t w j t h eafe, fo a mifcar- 

" riagc might be fatal, on account of the late 

" vote of the Senate, and the fcruple about re-* 

" ligion [g]» But Lentulus, wifely judging 

the affair too hazardous for one of his dignity 

and fortunes, left it to a man of a more defpe- 

L. Marciu* rate chara&er, Gabinius; who ruined himfelf 

Philip- foon after by embarking in it. 

The TribunXato, who was perpetually in* 
veighing againji keeping Gladiators, like fo many 
ftanding armies, to the terror of the Citizens, had 
lately bought a band of them, but finding himfelf 
unable to maintain them, was contriving to part 
with them again without noife or fcandaL JMilo 
got notice of it, and privately employed a perfon, not 
one of his own friends, to buy them ; and when they 
were purcbafed, RaciSus, another Tribun, taking 
the matter upon himfelf and pretending that they 
were bought for him, publijhed a proclamation, that 
Cato's family of Gladiators was io be fold by auEtion \ 
which gave no fmall diver/ton to the City [b]. 

v Mito^s 

[^] Te pcrfpicere pofle, 
qui Ciliciam Cyprumque tc : 
neas, quid efficere 8c quid 
confequi poffis, &, fi res fa- 
cultatem habitora videatur, 
ut Alexandriam atque^Egyp- 
tuni tenere poflis, efle & tuae 
8c noftri imperii dignitatis, 
Ptoiemaide, aut aliqao pro- 
pinquo loco rege collocato, 
te com clafFe, atque exerdtu 
proficifci Alexandriam : ut' 
cum earn pace, praefidiifque 
firmaris, Ptolemaeus' redeat 
inregnum: ita fore, ut per 
te reftituatur, quemadmo- 
dum Senatus initio cenfuii ; 
tc fine mUltitudine reduca- 

tar, quemadrnodum homines 
religiofi Sibyllas placere dix- 
erunt, Sed haec fententia fie 
& illi 8c nobis probabatur, ut 
ex eventu homines de tuo 
confilio exiftimaturoa videre- 
mus.— Nos quidem hoc fen- 
tubus ; fi exploratum tibi fit, 
pofle te *egni illius potiri ; 
non efle cunclandum : fi du- 
bium, non efle conandum, 
8cc. Ep. Fam. 1. 7. 

[£} Ille vindex Gladiato r 
rum 8c fiefliarioram. emerat 
— Beftiarios— Hos alere noq 
poterat. Itaqae vix tenebat. 
Sen fit Milo, dedit cuidanj 
non familiari negotium ? aui 


Milo's trial being put off to the fifth of May, A. Urb. 697, 
Cicero took the Benefit of a ftiort vacation, to c ^i 1- 
make an excurfion into the Country, and vifit Clf corne- 
his eftates and Villa's in different parts of Italy. JiusLen- 
He fpent five days at Arpinum, whence he pro- tvlus 
ceded to his other houfes at Pompeii and Cum*\ Ma*cil- 



and ftopt a while, on his return, at Antium, where l.Mar— 
he had lately rebuilt his houfe, and was now dif- Philip- 
pofing and ordering his library, by the direftion pus - 
of Tyrannio; the remains of which 9 he fays, 
were more conjiderable than he expefted from the 
late ruin. Atticus lent him two of his Librarians 
to afjift his own, in taking Catalogues, and 
placing the books in order ; which he calls the 
infufion of a foul into the body of his houfe [/]. 
During this tour, his old enemy, Galpinius, the 
Proconful of Syria, having gained fome advan- 
tage in Judaa again/} Ariflobulus, who had been 
dethroned by Pompey, and on that account was 
raifing troubles in the country, fent public letters 
to the Senate to give an account of bis vi3ory>. and 
to beg the decree of a thankfgiving for it. His 
friends took the opportunity of moving the af- 
fair in Cicero's abfence, from whofe authority 
they apprehended fome obftru&ion $ but the Se- 

fine fafpicione emeret earn theca ; quorum reliquiae xnul- 

femiliam a Catone : quae ft- to meliores funt, quam pu- 

mulatque abdufta eft, Raci- tar am. Etiam vellum mihi 

Hus rem pate fecit, eofque ho- mittas de tuis Librariolis dijos 

spices fibi emptos.eflc dixit aliquos, quibus Tyrannio uta- 

— & tabu lam profcripfit, fe tur glutina tori bus, &a^caete- 

femiliam Catonianam ven- ra adminiftris. Ad Att. 4. 4* 
diturum. In earn tabulaxn Poftea vero quam Tyran- 

Jnagni rifus cpnfequebantur. nio mihi libros difpofuit. 

Ad Quin. 2. 6. mens addita videtur meis ae- 

[*} Offendes defignatio- dibus : qua quidem in re, % 

nem Tyrannionis mirificam mirifica opera Dionyfii & 

in librorum meornm Biblio- Menophili tui fuit. lb. 8* 

2 'natci 

58 The History of the Life 

A. Urb. 697. nate, in a full Hoafe, flighted his letters and re- 

Cic - J 1 - je&ed his fuit: an affront, which had never been 

Cn C <J rne- °ff erc d before to any Prpconful. Cicero was in* 

liusLen- finitely delighted with it, calls the resolution di*> 

tulus vine, and was doubly pleas'd for its being the 

Marcel- j ree an ^ g enu j n judgement of the Senate, without 

L. L Marcius an yft ru ggte or i^fittence on bis part ; and reproach- 

Philip- ing Gabinius with it afterwards, fays, that by this 

pus. a ft the Senate had declared, that they could not 

believe that be* whom they bad always known to 

be a traitor at home, could ever do any thing abroad, 

, that was ufefull to the Republic \ k]. 

m Many prodigies were reported to have hap- 
pened about this time, in the neighbourhood of 
Rome: horrible noifes under ground* with clajhing 
of Arms-, and on the Alban hill a little Jhrine of 
Juno* which flood on a table facing the eafi, turned 
juddenly of itfelf towards the north. Thefe terrors 
alarmed the City, and the Senate confulted the 
Harufpices, who were the public Diviners or 
Prophets of the State, fkilPd in all the Tufcan 
difcipline of interpreting portentous events ; who 
gave the following anlwer in writing; that fup- 
plications muft be made to Jupiter* Saturn, Nep- 
tune , and the other Gods: that the folemnfhews 
and plays bad been negligently exhibited and polluted: 
f acred and religious places made profane : Embajfa- 
dors hilled contrary to right and law : fait if and 

[k] Id. Maiis Senates fre- lira.- Ad Quin. 2. 8. 

quens ilivinos fuit in SupplU § 4. 5. 
catione Gabinio deneganda. Hoc flat a it Senatus, cum 

Adjurat Procilius hoc nemini frequens fopplicationem Ga- 

accidifle. Foris valde plau- binio denegavit — A prodi- 

ditur. Mihi cum fua fponte tore, atque eo, qucm praefen- 

jucundum, turn jucundius, tern hoftcm Reipub. cognof- 

qood me abfente, eft enim fet, bene Rempub. gen non 

$lA*pt»h judicium, fine op- pctriffe. De Prov. Coniul. 

pugnatioue, fine gratia no- 6. 
* oaths 


oaths difregarded: ancient and hidden facrifces care* A. tJrb. 697. 

lefsly performed* and profaned that the Gods Cic I u 

gave this warning, left by the difcordand diffenfion c p 
of the better fort* dangers and deftruftion fhould fall L 'ius Len- 
ttpon the Senate and the chiefs of the City , by which tulus 
means the provinces would fall under the power of a Marcs L * 
Jingle perfon, their armies be beaten* great lofs en* l^Marciv 
fete, and honors be heaped on the unworthy and dif- Philip. 
graced [/]. *u*. 

One may obferve from this anfwer, that the 
Diviners were under the Direction of thofe, who 
endeavoured to apply the influence of religion to 
the cure of their civil diforders: each party in- 
terpreted it according to their own views : Clo- 
dius took a handle from it of venting his fpleen 
afrelh againft Cicero; and calling the people to- 
gether for that purpofe, attempted to perfuade 
them, that this divine admonition was deftgned par- 
ticularly againft him* and that the article of the 
facred and religious places referred to the cafe of his 
houfe, which after afolemn confecration to religion, 
was rendered again profane , charging all the dif 
pleafure of the Gods to Cicero's account, who affeSed 
nothing lefs than a tyranny, and the opprejfton of their - 
liberties \tn\. 

Cicero made a reply to Clodius the next 
day in the Senate; where, after a (hort and gene- » 
ral inve&ive upon his profligate life, " he leaves 
w him, he fays, a devoted viftim to Milo, who 
" feemed to be given to them by heaven, for 
u the extinction of fuch a plague; as Scipio 
" was for the deftru&ion of Cartbagf: he de- 
" clares the prodigy to be one of the mod ex- 
" traordinary, which had ever been reported to 

[/] Vid. Argum. Manu- fponH Dio. 1. 39* p. 100. 
tii in Orat. de Harufp. re- [»»] Dio. Ibid. 

" the 

6d TJbe History of the Lift 

A. Urb.697. c< the Senate; but laughs at the abfurdity ofap- 

Cicji. « plying any part of it to him; fince his houfe, 

o„ 7? - " * s he proves at large, was more foleranly 

lius Len- cleared from any fervice or relation to religion, 

tulus " than any other houfe in Rome, by the Judge- 

Marcel- « mcnt f t he Priefts, the Senate, and all the 

L. L Ma?ciui <c orders of the City [»]." Then running through 

Philip- the feveral articles of the anfwer, 44 he (hews them 

pus. « all to tally fo exaftly with the notorious afts 

4C and impieties of Clodius's life, that they could 

" not poffibly be applied to any thing elfe. 

44 That as to the fports, faid to be negligently 
44 performed, and polluted, it clearly denoted the 
44 pollution of the Megalenjian play, the moft 
44 venerable and religious of all other fhews; 
44 which Clodius himfelf, as iEdile, exhibited 
44 in honor of the mother of the Gods ; where 
44 when th e Magiftrates and Citizens were feated 
44 to partake of the diverfions, and the ufual 
44 proclamation was made, to command all flaves 
<€ to retire ; a vaft body of them, gathered from 
44 all parts of the City, by the order of Clodius, 
44 forced their way upon the ftage, to the great 
44 terror of the aflembly ; where much mifchief 
/ 4C and bloodflied would have enfued, if the 

44 Conful Marcellinus, by his firmnefs and pre- 
44 fence of mind, had not quieted the tumult : 
"and in another reprefentation of the fame 
cc plays, the flaves, encouraged again by Clo- 
44 dius, were fo audacious and fuccefsfull in a fe- 
44 cond irruption,*- that they drove the whole 
44 company out of the Theater, and poflefled 
44 it intirely to themfelves [0] : that as to the 
cc profanation of. facred and religious places ; it 
<c could not be interpreted of any thing fo aptly, 

[*] De Harufpic. refpon- [o] Ibid. 10, 11, 12, 13. 
% lis. 6. 

41 as 



" as of what Clodius and his friends had done : A. Urb. 697. 

"for that, in the houfe ofQ^Seius, whicK he C ^ # I'" 

<l had bought after murthering the.owner, there Cw c rhr- 

" was a chappel and altars, which he had lately liusLrh- 

" demoliftied : that L. Pifo had deftrbyed a cele- tulus 

" brated chappel of Diana, where all that neigh- March- 

" bourhood, and fome even of the Senate, ufed l. Marciu* 

" annually to perform their family facrifices : Phtlif- 

" that Serranus alfo had thrown down, burnt, * us * 

11 and profaned feveral confecrated Chappels, and 

" raifed other buildings upon them [p ] : that as 

" to Embaffadors killed contrary to law and right ; 

" though it was commonly interpreted of thofe 

" from Alexandria* yet other Embaffadors had 

" been murthered, whofe death was no lefs of- 

" fenfive to the Gods ; as Theodofins, killed 

lc with the privity and permiflion of Clodius •, and 

" Plator, by the order of Pifo [q] : as to the vio- 

iQ lation of faith and oaths* that it related evidently 

4< to thofe Judges, who had abfolved Clodius; 

u as being one of the moft memorable and fla- 

<€ grant perjuries, which Rome had ever known ; 

iC that the anfwdr itfelf fuggefted this interpreta- 

" tion, when it fubjoined, that ancient, and $c- 

" cult facrifices were polluted* which could refer 

<c to nothing fo properly as to the rites of the 

" Bona Dea* which were the moft ancient and 

" the moft occult of any in the City •, celebrated 

" with incredible fecrecy to that Goddefs, whofe 

<€ name it was not lawful -for men to know •, 

" and with ceremonies, which no man ever. 

u pried into, but Clodius [r]. Then as to the 

" warning, given by the Gods, of dangers* likely 

M to enfue from the diffenjions of the principal 

0] Ibid* 1 a, 15, , [ r ] Ibid, 17, 18. 

[f] Ibid, ifa 

— ^ Citizens* 



62 The History of the Ufe 

A- tjrb. 697. 4C Citizens ; that there was no man fo particularly 
Oc. ji. <c a £jj vc ^ j n promoting thofe diflenfions, as Clo- 
Ck. Corne- " dius-, who was perpetually inflaming one fide 
liusLen-" or the other; now purfuing popular, now 
• ttulus * Ariftocrafical meafures ; at one time a favorite 
*J!iNVs> BIi ~ U of the Triumvirate, at another o£ the Senate ; 
L Ma*cius cc whofe credit was wholly fupported by their 
Philip- " quarrels and animofities. He exhorts them 
pus. «* therefore in the coijclufion, to beware of falling 
into thofe miferies, of which the Gods fo evi- 
dently forewarned them ; and to take care 
efpecially, that the form of the Republic was 
not altered •, fince all civil contefts between great 
and powerfull Citizens muft ncceffarily end, 
either in an univerfal deftruftion, or a tyran- 
ny of the Conqueror : that the ftate was now 
in fo tottering a condition, that nothing could 
preferve it but their concord : that there was 
no hope of it's being better, while Clod i us re- 
mained unpuniflied : and but one degree left 
of being worfe, by being wholly ruined and 
enflaved ; for the prevention of which, the 
Gods had given them this remarkable admo- 
nition; for they were not to believe, what 
was fometimes reprefented on the ftage, that 
any God ever defcended from heaven to con- 
verfe familiarly with men ; but that thefe ex- 
traordinary founds and agitations of the world, 
the air, the elements, were the ooely voice 
and fpeech, which heaven made ufe of •, that 
thefe admonifhed* them of their danger, and 
pointed out the remedy •, and that the Gods, 
by intimating fo freely the way of their fafety, 
had fhewn, how eafy it would be to pacify 
them, by pacifying onely their own animofi- 
ties and difcords' among themfelvcs." 







. About the middle of the fummer* and be- A.Urk 697. 
fare the time of chufing new Coqfuls* which w^s Cic * I u 
commonly in Auguft, the Senate began to deli- Cfj c g * _ 
berate on the Provinces, which were to be affign- liusLen- 
ed to them at the expiration of their office, The tulus 
Confular Provinces, about which the debate fingly Marcel- 
turned, were the two Gauls, which Caefar now l.Marciu* 
held; Macedonia, which Pifo; and Syria, which Phili*-* 
Gabinius pofieffed. All who fpoke before Cicero, * us> 
excepting Servilius, were for taking one i or both 
the Gauls from Cafar \ which was what the Se- 
nate generally defired : but when it came to Ci- * 
cero's turn* he gladly laid hold on the occafion 
to revenge himfelf on Pilo and Gabinius \ and 
exerted all his authority, to get them recalled 
with fbrae marks of difgrace, and their Govern- 
ments affigned to the fucceeding Confuls : but as 
for Gefar, his opinion was, that his command 
fhould he continued to him* till he had fnijhed the 
war, which he. was carrying on with fuch fucceft, 
and fettled the conquered countries. This gave no 
fmall offence \ and the Conful Philippus could 
not forbear interrupting and reminding him, that 
he bad wore reafon to be angry with Cafar, than 
with Gabinius bimfelf; fince Cafar was the author 
and raifer of all that Jlorm, which had oppreffed 
him. But Cicero replied, that, in this vote, he 
was not purfuing bis private refentment, but the 
public good, which bad reconciled him to C*far\ 
and that be could not be an enemy to one who was 
defervingfo well of bis country: that a year or two 
more i^ould .complete bis conquefts, and reduce alt 
Gaul to a ftate of peaceful fubjettion: that the caufe 
was widely different between Cafar and the otheif 
two-, that C<efar's adminiftraticn was beneficial, 
profperous, glorious to the Republic ; theirs, fcan- 
dalous, ignominious^ hurtful to their fubjefts, and 
Vol. II. F contemptible 


64 Tie Hi ST OK Y of the "Lift 

A: Urb. 697, contemptible to their enemies.* I n fhort, he 

Cic ci. managed the debate fo, that the Senate came 

w c I!r ne fully into his Sentiments, and decreed the rcvo- 
tius Leh" wtfwi of Pifo and Gabinius [s]. 
tulus He was now likewife engaged in pleading two 

Marcel- confiderable caufes at the Bar; the one in de- 

L Ma fc civs fencc of Corne,ius Balbus » the other of M. Cae- 
Philip- Mus. Balbus was a native of Gades in Spain, of 
a fplendid family in that City, who, for his fide- 
lity and fervices to the Roman Generals in that 
Frovince, and efpecially in the Sertorian war* 
bad the freedom of Rome conferred upon him by 
Pompey, in virtue of a law, which autborifed him 
to grant it to as many as be thought proper. But 
Pompey's aft was now called in queftion, as ori- 
ginally null and invalid, on a pretence, that the 
City of Gades was not within the terms of that al- 
liance and relation to Rome, which rendered its 
Citizens capable of that privilege. Pompey and 
Craffus were his advocates, and, at their defire, 
Cicero alfoj who had the third place, or poll of 
honor afligned to him, to give the finifhing hand 

[j] Itaque ego idem, qui 
nunc Confulibus iis, qui de- 
fignati erunt, Syriam, Mace- 
doniamque decerno— Quod fi 
eflent illi optimi viri, tamen 
ego mea fententia C. Caefari 
nondum fuccedendum puta* 
rem. Qua de re dicam, Pa- 
tres conferipti, quod fentio, 
atque illam interpellationem 
familiariflimi mei, quapaul- 
lo ante interrupta eft oratio 
mea, non pertimefcam. Ne- 
gat me vir optimus inimicio- 
rem debere effe Gabinio, 
quam Cs&ri; oxnaem eniot 

illam tempeftatem, cui cefle- 
rim, Caefare impulfore atque 
adjutore efle excitatam. Cui 
fi primum fie refpondeam, 
me communis utilitatis habe- 
re rationem, non doloris mei. 
—Hie me mens in Rempub. 
animus priftinus ac perennis, 
cum C. Catfare reducit, re- 
conciliat, reftituit in grati- 
am. Quod volent denique 
homines exiitiment, nemini 
ego poflum efle bene de Re* 
publica merenti non amicus. 
Vid. Orat. de Prorin. Conf. 



to the.caufe [/]. The profecution was projedted, A. Urb. 697, 
not fo much out of enmity to Balbus, as to his C )?jL lm 
Patrons Pqmpey and Cadar; by whofe favor he Cn Q ' RNUm 
had acquired great wealth and power; being at musLbk. 
this time General of the Artillery to Caefar, and tulus 
the principal manager or fteward of all his afiairs. Marcbl- 
The Judges gave fentcnce for him, and con* l, March™ 
firmed his right to the City ; from which foun- Ph ni- 
dation he was railed afterwards, by Augufius, to tfre "•• 
Confulate itfelf: his Nephew alfo, Young Balbus x 
who was thade free with him at the fame time, ob- 
tained the honor of a triumph, for his victories 
over the Garamantes ; and, as Pliny tells us, they 
were the onely inftances of Foreigners, and adopted 
Citizens, who bad ever advanced tbemfelves to ei- 
ther of tbofe honours in Rome [«]. 

C&lius, whom he next defended, was a 
young Gentleman of Equefirian rank, of great 
parts and accomplishments, trained under the 
difcipline of Cicero himfclf ; to whofe care he 
was committed by his Father, upon his firft in- 
troduction into the Forum: before he was of 
age to .hold any Magiftracy, he had diftingutthed 
himfelf by two public impeachments \ the one of 
C. Antonius, Cicero's collegue in the Conful- 
ftrip, for confpiring againft tbefiate\ the other of 
L. Atratinus, for bribery and corruption. Atra- 

[/] Quo mihi djfficilior octano genitorum ufus illo 

eft hie extremus perorandi honore. Hid. N. 7. 43. 
locus. — Sedmoseftgerendus, Garama caput Garaman- 

non modo Cornelio, cujus e- turn : omnia armis Romania 

go voluntati in ejus pcriculis fuperata, Sc a Cornelio fialbo 

nullo modo decile DoiTum ; triumphata, uno omnium ex* 

fed ctiam Cn. Pompeio. Pr. terno curru & Quiritfum jure 

Balbo. 1. 2, &c. donato : quippeGadibus nato 

^ [it] Fuit & Balbus Come- Civitas Rom. cum Balbo 

lins major Conful— Primus majore jpactuo data eft. lb. 

exteraoruro, atque ctiam in 5. $. 

p % tinus's 

66 The H I s T o R Y of the hifi 

A. Urb. 697. tinus's fon was now revenging his Father's quar* 
c ~ m J l • rel, and accufed Callus of public violence* for being 
Cn. Corne- concerned in the ajfdjjination of Dio, the chief of 
tius Len- the Alexandrian embaffy % and of an attempt to poy- 
tulus fonClodia, the Jifter of Clodius: he had been this 
Marcel- L a( jy» s Gallant-, whofe refentment for her favors 
L. Marcius flighted by him, was the real fource of all his 
Philip- trouble. In this fpeech Cicero treats the charac- 
Pusi ter and gallantries of Clodia, her Commerce with 
Calius, and the gaieties and licentioufnefs ofyoittb, 
with fuch a vivacity of wit and humor y that makes 
it one of the mod entertaining, which he has left 
to us. Gelius* who was truly a libertine, lived 
. on the Palatin bill, in a houfe which he hired of 
Clodius, and, among, the other proofs of his ex- 
travagance, it was objefted, that a young tnan % 
in no public employment ; Jhould take afeparate houfe 
from bis Father, at the yearly rent of two hundred 
and fifty pounds: to which Cicero replied, that 
Clodius > he perceived, bad a mind to fell bis houfe, 
by fetting the value of it fo high ; whereas, in truth, 
it was but a little paultry dwellings of fmall rtnt; 
fcarce above eighty pounds per annum [*]. . Cadius 
was acquitted, and ever after profefied the high- 
eft regard for Cicero; with whom he held a 
correfpondence of Letters, which will give us 
occafion to fpeak more of him, in the fequelof 
the Hiftory. 

C*cero feerris to have compofed a little 

Poem about this time, in compliment to Gsefar': 

4 and excufes his not fending it to Atticus, " be* 

" caufe Caefar prefled to have it, and he had re- 

" ferved no copy : though, to confds the truth, 

[x] Surqptus unius generis telligo P. Clodii infulam effe 

obje&us eft, habitations : renalem, cujus hie in aedicu- 

triginta millibus dixiflis eum lis habijet, decern, u% opinor, 

habitare. Nunc d em urn in- millibus. Pro Cselio. 7. 

5 !! ** 


" be fays, he found it very difficult to digeft the A. Urb. 697. 
" meannefs of recanting his old principles. But c £- 1 1 • 
" adieu, fays be, to all right, true, honeft councils : Cn c ° 01 [ n| . 
" it is incredible, what perfidy there is in thofe, liusLen. 
" who want to be Leaders, and who really ?_ ULUS 
" would be fo, if there was any faith in them. JJ^" L ' 
" I felt what they were to my coft, when I was j,, Marcius 
" drawn in, deferted, and betrayed, by them: Philip- 
" I refolved Iftill to aft on with them in all PV f* 
" things j but found them the fame as before; 
cc till by your advice I came at laft to a better 
u mind. You will tell me, that you advifed me 
41 indeed to a<5t, but not to write ; 'tis true 5 but 
" I was willing to put myfelf under a neceflity of 
" adhering to my new alliance, and preclude the 
< c poffibility of returning to thofe, who inftead 
44 of pitying me, as they ought, never ceafe en- 
" vying me. — But fince thofe, who have no 
" power, will not love me, my bufinefs is to 
" acquire the love of thofe who have : you will 
'* fay, I wifh that you had done i! long ago ; I 
" know you wiftied it ; and I was a mere Afs for 
not minding you [j]. w 



[y] Urgebar ab eo, ad rem. Iidem erant, qui fo- 

qaem mifi, & non habebam erant. Vix aliquando te 

exemplar, quid? etiam, (du- auQore refipivi. Dices, ea 

dum circumrodo, quod devo* te monuifte, quae face rem, 

random eft) fubturpicula mi* non etiam ut fcriberem. E- 

hi videbatur wu;»&/«; fed go mehercule mihi neceffita- 

valeant re&a, vera, honefta tern volui imponere hujus no- 

confilia^ Non eft credibile, vse conjun&ionis, nequami- 

quae fit perfidia iniftis princi- hi liceret labi ad illos, <jui e- 

pibus, ut volunt efle, Sc ut tiam turn cum miferen mei 

eflent, ft quicquam haberent debent, non definunt invi- 

fidei. Senferam, no ram, in- dere. Sed tamen modici fu.- 

duclos, reliclus, projedhisab imus virotecth ut fcripfi > 

tis: tamen hoc erat in animo, Sed quoniam qui nihil pof-, 

WcumiU in Rep., cpnfenti- funt,*ii me amare nolunt, 

F 3 deniat 

68 ¥b* History^/ the Life 

A.Urb. 697. In this year alfo, Cicero wrote that celebrated 
'Cic. 51. letter to JLucceius, in which he preffes him, to 
Coflr. ^ attempt the biftory of bis tranfaSions : Lucccius 
TiusLen- was a man °f eminent learning and abilities, and 
rvtvs had juft finiftied the biftory of the Italick and Ma- 
Marcbl- r i an ri v jl warsr> with intent to carry it down 
L L Maiicius thn^gh his own times, and, fn the general re- 
Philip- lation, to include, as he had promifed, a parti- 
»u$, cular account of Cicero's a£ts : but Cicero, who 
• was pleafed with his ftile and manner of writing, 
labours to engage him in this letter, to poftponc 
the defign of his continued hiftory, and enter di- 
rectly on that feparate period, " from the be- 
" ginning of his Confullhip to his reftoration ; 
ci comprehending Catiline's confpiracy, and his 
* c own exil." He obferves, " that this fhort 
" interval was diftinguifhed with fuch a variety 
c< of incidents, and unexpefted turns of fortune, 
" as furnifhed the happieft materials, both to 
" the flail of the writer, and the entertainment 
" of the reader ; that, when an author's atten- 
" tionwas confined to a fingle and feleft fubjed, 
" he was more capable of adorning it, and dif- 
** playing his talents, than in the wide and dif- 
" fu five field of general hiftory. •, but if he did 
4C ndt think the fadts themfelves worth the pains 
" of adorning, "that he would yet allow fo much 
" to friendftiip, to afife&ion, and even to that 
u favor, which he had fo laudably difclaimed in 
" his Prefaces, as not to confine himfelf fcrupu- 
*■' loufly to the ftrid laws of hiftory, and the 

44 rules of truth. That, if he would under- 

4 * take it, he would fupply him with fome rough 

demus operam, ut ab iis, qui num fuiffe. Ad Att. 4, 5. 

f>o/Tunt,dilieamur. dices,vel- Scribis poema ab «o no- 

em jampridem. Scio te vo- Aram pre ban. Ad Qgiot. a. 

JpiiTe, & me afinum gcrpna T 15, 

i " memoirs, 


u memoirs, or commentaries, for the foundation A. Urb. 697. 
" of his work -, if not, that he himfelf Ihould be c |? - I ,B 
" forced to do, what many had done before c». C<mini- 
" him, write his own life; a talk liable to liusLen- 
c< many exceptions and difficulties ; where a tulus 
" man would neceflarily be reftrained by mo- Marcil- 
" defty, on the one hand, or partiality on the l. L Marciu$ 
" other, either for blaming, or praiiing him- Philip- 
<c felf, fo much as he dcferved, &c. [z]" ***• 

This letter is conftantly alledged as a proof 
of Cicero's vanity, and exceffive love of praife: 
but we mud confider it as written, not by a philo- 
fopher, but a ftatefman, confcious of the great- 
eft fervices to his country, for which he had 
been barbaroufly treated ; and, on that account, 
the ftiore eager to have them reprefented in aa 
advantageous light: and impatient to taftfome 
part of that glory when living, which he was 
fure to reap from them when dead ; and as to the 
pafiage which gives the offence, where he prefles 
his friend to exceed even the bounds of truth in bis 
praifes ; it is urged onely, we fee, conditionally, 
and upon an abfurd or improbable fuppofition, 
that Lucceius did not think the a3s tbemfehes really 
laudable^ or worth praifing : but whatever excep- 
tions there may be to the morality, there can be 
none to the elegance and compofuion of the let- 
ter; which is filled with a variety, of beautifull 
fentiments, illuftrated by examples, drawn from 
a perfedt knowledge of hiftory ; fo that it is juft- 
ly ranked among the capital pieces of the epifto- 
lary kind, which remain to us from antiquity. 
Cicero had employed more than ordinary pains 
upon it, and was pleafed with his fuccefs in it : for 
he mentions it to Atticus with no fmall fatisfac- 

[«] Ep. Fam. 12. 

F 4 tion 9 

yo Tie History of the Life 

A. Urb. 697. tion, and wifhed him to get a copy of it from 

Qic 51. their friend Lucceius. The effedt of it was, 

c , ^?"' that Lucceius undertook what Cicero dejrred, and 

xius°L*n~ probably, made fome progrefs in it, fince Cicero 

tulus fent him the memoirs, which he promiled, atnd 

Marcel- Lucceius lived many years after, in an uninteiv 

x tV! -V.«. rupted friendfhip with him, though neither this; 

Philip- nor any other of his writings had the fortune t6 

pus.- • be preferved to fucceeding ages [a], 

All people's eyes and inclinations began now 
to turn towards Caefar, who by the eclat of his 
vi&ories, feemed to rival the fame of Pompey 
himfelf; arid, by his addrefs and generofity, gain- 
ed ground upon him daily in authority and in- 
fluence in public affairs; He fpent the winter 
tx>Luca\ whither a vaft concourfe of all ranks 
feforted to him from Rome. Here Pompey and 
Craffus wefe again made frifcnds by hiih ; and a 
projeft formed, that they Jhould jointly feize the 
Confuljhip for (be next year, though they bad not 
declared them/elves Candidates, within the nfual 
time; L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, a pfofefled 
enemy, was one of the competitors; who thinks 
ing himfelf fure of fuccefs, could not fbrbear 
bragging, that he woitideffeft, tivben Conful, what 
loe could not do when Prat or, Yefcind Cafat*$ bEls, 
end recall him from his Government [b] ; which 
fnade them refolve at all hazards to defeat him, 

. [«] JEpiftolam, Lucceio confulatus Candidates palam 
quam mifi— fac ut ab eo As- minaretur, Confulem fe ef> 
mas : valde bell a eft : eum- feclurum, quod Praetor ne- 
que ut adpfoperet adhorteris, quiflet,adempturumqueei ex- 
it, quod mihi fe ita fadnrum erritus. Craffum Pompeium- 
refcnpfit, agas gratias. Ad que in crbem Provinciae fu» 
Att. 4. 6. Lucam extraftos compulit, ut 

Tu Lucceio librumnoftrum detrudendi Domini caufa al- 

dabis. Ibid. 11. terurn Con fu latum petereot, 

[£] Sed cum L. Domitius Sueton. J. Caef. 24. 



What greatly favored their defign was the ob- A. Urb. 697. 
ftinacy of the Tribun,, C. Cato ; who, to revenge C * C J u 
himfelf on Marcellmus, for not fuffering him to Clf ; c i N E. 
hold any affemblies of the people* for promulgating musLenI 
his laws, 'mould not fuffer the Confute to bold any* tulus 
for the choke of the Magiftrates [c]. fhe frium- ™£™^ 
<oirate fupported him in this refolution till the l.Marciu« 
year e expired, and the Government fell into an Philip* 
Interregnum ; when by fa&ion and violence, and rog * 
the terror of troops poured into the City, they 
extorted the Confulfhip out of the bands ofDomitius 9 
andfecured it to tbemfelves [d]. This made Pom- 
pey generally odious, who, in all this heigth of 
greatnefs, could not defend himfelf from the 
perpetual railleries and infults of his adverfaries* 
which yet he bore with lingular temper and pa- 
tience. Marcellinus was conftantly alarming the 
City with the danger of his power ; and as he 
was haranguing one day on that fubjeft, being en- 
couraged by a general acclamation of the people; 
cry out* Citizens, fays he, cry out while you may\ 
for it will not be long in your power to do fo with 
fafety [e]. Cn. Pifo alfo, a Young Nobleman, 
who had impeached Manilius Criipus, a man of 
-Praetorian rank and notoriously guilty, being pro- 
voked by Pompey's protection of him, turned 
his attack againft Pompey himfelf, and charged 
him with many crimes againft the Spate; being 
aflced therefore by Pompey, why he did not 

[c] Conful— dies comitia- Conful faerit, Confulem fieri 
les exemit— C. Cato non poffe? &c. Ad Att. 4. 8. 
concionatus eft, comitia ha- Vid. Dio. p. 103. 
beri non fiturum, fi fibi cum [e] Acclamate,inquit,Qui- 
populo agendi dieseflentex- rites, acclamate, dum licet : 
empti. Ad Quint. .2* 6. jam enim vobis impune face- 
ts Quid emm n °c miferU re non licebit. Val. Max. 6. 
us, quara eum, qui tot an- *2« 

nos, quod habet, defignatus 


j2 Ibt History of the Life 

A.Urb. 698. chufe to impeach him rather than the Criminal, 
Cic 52. he replied briflcly, that be would give bail to 

C Pompei-^*^ a tr **^ without raifing a civil war, be would 

■ vs Mac-" f oon bring him before bis Judges [/]. 
nus II. During the continuance of thefe tumults, 00 

MXicinius ca 0oned by the ele&ion of the new Confuls, Ci- 
Crass vs ccfQ rct j re d mt0 fa countr y . where he (laid to 
the beginning of May y much out of humor, and 
difgufted both with the Republic and himfclf. 
Atticus's conftant advice to him was, to confult bis 
fafety and interejl, by uniting bimfelfwitb the men 
of power 1 and they, on their part, were as con- 
stantly inviting him to it, by all poffible affu- 
rances of their affe&ion: but in his anfwers to 
Atticus he obferves; iC that their two cafes 
" vr t cve very different; that Atticus, having no 
" peculiar character, fufFcred no peculiar indig- 
** nity; nothing but what was common to all 
u the Citizens ; whereas his own condition was 
u fuch, that if he fpoke what he ought to do, he 
" fhould be looked upon as a madman; if what 
" was ufefull onely to himfclf, as a Have ; if no- 
, u thing at all, as quite oppreffed and fubdued: 
€< that his uneafmefe was the greater, becaufe he 
Ci could not fhew it without being thought un- 
" gratefull — (hall I withdraw myfelf then, .fays 
" be r from bufinefs, and retire to the port of 
" eafe? That will not be allowed to me. Shall 
■" I follow thefe Leaders to the wars, and, after 
" having refufed to command, fubmit to be 
" commanded ? I will do fo ; for I fee that it is 
** your advice,' and wifh that I had always fol- 

[/] Da, inquit, praedes quam de Manilii capite, in 

Reip. te, fi poftulatus fueris, concilium judices jnittazn. 

civile bellum non excitatu- Ibid. 
nu»; etiam de tuo prios, 

" lowtel 




u lowed it: or (hall I rcfumc my pofts and enter A. Urb. 69*. 
ic again into affairs? I cannot perfuade myfelf to c £. $*. 
€C that, but begin to think Philoxenus in the Cn p^Pir- 
'* right; who chofe to be carried back to pri- us Mag-" 
** fon rather than commend the Tyrant's hus II. 
<c verfes. This is what I am now meditating* M^J* 1 ^* 
<c to declare my diflike at leaft of what they are 
* doing [g]» 

Such were the agitations of his mind at 
this time, as he frequently fignifies in his let- 
ters: he was now at one of his Villa's, on the 
delightfull fhore of Bai<e y the chief place of re- 
fort and pleafure for the great and rich ; Pompey 
came thither in Aprils and no fooner arrived, than 
he fent him his compliments, and fpent his whole 
time with him : they had much dtfcourfe on publie 
affair s y in which Pompey expreffed great uneqfinefs 9 
and owned inmfelf diffatisfied with his own part in 
them-, but Cicero, in his account of the conver- 
fation, intimates fome fufpicion of bis fmcerity [b} m 


[g] To quidem, ctfi cs 
natura ToAirnedct tamen nul- 
lam habes propriam fervitu- 
fem : communi fueris no- 
mine. Ego vero, qui, fi lo- 
quor deRepub. quod oportet, 
infanus, fi quod opus eft, fcr- 
vus exiftimor, fi taceo, op- 
preJTus fecaptus; quo dolorc 
efle debeo ? quo Aim fcilicet 
hoc etiam acriore, quod nc 
dolcre. . quidem poftum, ut 
non irigratus videar. Quid 
fi cefliye libeat & in otii por~ 
tunVcdnfugere? Nequicquam. 
Imnjo etiam in bellum & in 
caflra: ergo erimus hva&o), 
qui rayo) efle noluimus ? Sic 
faciendum eft; tibi enim ipfi, 

cui utinam Temper paruiflem, 
fie video placere. Reliqui 
eft, Xr&flav Uka%stf ravrap 
tJfffjLBt; non mehercule pof- 
fum : & Philoxeno ignofco, 
qui reduci in career em ma- 
luit. Veruntamen id ipfum 
mecum in his locis commen- 
tor, ut ifta improbem. Ad 
At. 4. 6. 

The ftory of Dionyfius the 
Tyrant of Syracufe, and Phi* 
loxenus the Poet, is told by 
Diodorus Siculus. Lib. 15. 

P- 33 1 - 

[b\ Pompeius in Cama- 

num Parilibus venit: mifit 

ad me ftatim qui i&lutem 

nunciaret: ad cum poftridie 



fhe HiSTOJty of the Life 


A.Urb.698. In the midft of this company and divcrfion, G- 

Cic. 52. cero's entertainment was in his ftudies y for he ne- 

Coff. vcr refided any where without fecuring to him- 

c "v, mIg*- fdf the ufe of a s ood librar y : hcrc he had th * 

ws II. command of Faujius\ the fon of Sylla, and fon-in- 
jkf.Lxciwiw law of Pompey; one of the beft colle&ions of 

Crassvs Jtaly \ gathered from the fpoils of Greece, and 
efpeciaffy of Athens* from which Sylla brought 
.away many thoufand volumes. He had no body in 
the houfe with him, but Dionyfius, a learned 
Greek flavt* whom Atticus had made free, and 
who was entrufted with the inftrudlion of the two 
young Cicero's* the fon and the Nephew: with 
this companion* he was devouring books* Jince the 
wretched ftate of the public had deprived him, as be 
tells us* of all other pleafures, I had much rather* 
fays he to Atticus, be fitting on ymr lit tie bench* 
under drift o tie's pi&ure* than in the Curule chairs 
of our great ones** or taking a turn with you in 
your walks* than with him* whom it muft* I fee* 
be my fate to walk with: as for the fuccefs of that 
walk* let fortune look to it* or ' fome God* if there 
be any* who fakes care of us [i]. He mentions in 

wane vadebam-— Ad Att. 

Nos hie cum Pompeio fui- 
. mus : fane fi-bi difpftcens ; 
ut loquebat*r; fie eft enim 
in hoc hotnine diceadum. — 
; In nos vero $iaviffime effufus ; 
venit etiam ad me in Cama- 
num a fe. lb. 9. 

[i ] Ego hie pafcor Biblio- 
* theca Faufti. Fortafle tu pu- 
-tabas his rebos Puteolanis & 
Lucrinenfibus. Ne ifta qui- 
dem defiant. Sed mehercule 
a ceteris oble&ationibus deb- 
tor & vojuptatibus propter 

Rempub. fie Uteris fuftentor 
& recreor ; maloque in ilia 
tua fedecula, quam habes fab 
imagine Ariftotelis, federe, 
quam in iftorum fella curuli, 
tecumque apud te ambulare, 
quam cum eo, quocum video 
efle ambulandum. Sed de 
ilia ambulatione fors videret, 
aut fi qui eft, qui curet Deus. 
lb. 10. 

Nos hie voramus literal 
cum homine mirifico, ita me- 
hercule fentio, Dionyfio. lb. 


tf M. TUL L IUS C1CER 0. y$ 

the fame letter a current report at Puteoli, thai a. Urb. 698; 
King Ptolemy was refiored\ and defires to know, cic ;5 2; 
tvbat account they bad of it at Rome : the report c £°* 
was very true; for Gabinius, tempted by Ptole- usm"-* 
my's gold* and the plunder of Mgypt\ and en- nus II. 
couraged alfo, as Ibme write, by Pompey bimfelf M.Liciniu*. 
undertook to replace him on the Throfie with C RASIUS 
his Syrian Army 5 which he executed with a high 
hand, and the deftru&ion of all the King's ene-» 
mies ; in open defiance of the authority of the Senate, 
and the direction of the Sibyl: this made a great 
noife at Rome, and irritated the people to fuch a 
degree, that they refolved to make him fceltheitf 
difpleafure for it very feverely, at his return [4 j. 

His Collegue Pifo came home the firft from 
his nearer Government of Macedonia ; after an 
inglorious admifiiftration of a Province, whence no 
Confular Senator had ever returned, but to a tri- 
umph. For though, on the account of feme 
trifling advantage in the field, he had procured 
himfelf to be fainted "Emperor by his amy, yet the 
occalion was fo txmtempttble, that be durji not 
fend anyletttrs upon it to the Senate: but after ap^ 
prating the fubje&s, plundering the allies, atrd 
lofing the beftpart of his troops againft the neigh- 
bouring barbarians, who invaded and laid wafte 
the country, he ran away in difguife from a mu- 
tiny of the fcldiecs, whom he difbanded at laft 
without their pay \l]. When he arrived at 


116, 1 

Vid. Dio. 1. 39. p. Ut ex ea previncia, quse 

*&c. fuit ex omnibus una xnaxhne 

[/] Ex qua aliquot Praeto- triumphalis, null as fit ad So* 

no imperio, Confulari tjui- natum litteras mittere aufus. 

dem nemo rediit, qui incolu- — Nunckisad Senatum mifius 

mis foerit, qui non triumpha- eft nullos, lb. 19, 
rit. InPifota. 16. 


jb The History of the Life 

A. Urb. 698. Rane> he ftript his Fafces of their laurel, and en^ 
Cic 52. tered the City obfcurely and ignomkiioufly, wkh- 
Coif. out an y other attendance than his own reti- 
usMAG-" nue W- On his firft appearance in public, 
vvs II. trufting to the authority of has fon-in-law, Cseiar, 
M.Liciniu8 he had the hardinefs to attack Cicero, and com- 
Crassus p^^ tQ t fe senate of his injurious treatment of 
' him : but when he began to reproach Mm with 

the difgrace of his exit, the whole Affembly inter- 
rupted him by a loud and general, clamor [»]. 
Among other things, with which he upbraided Ci- 
cero, he told him, that it was not any envy for 
what he had done* but the vanity of what be lad 
faidj which bad driven him into exit; and that a 
Jingle verfe of bis % 

Cedunt arma Tog*, concedat laurea tingk*, 

was the caufe of all his calamity; by provoking 
Pompey to make him feel, how much the power 
cf the General was fuperior to that of the Orator: 
he put him in mind alio, that it was mean and 
ungenerous to exert bis fpleen onely againjt fucb* 
whom be bad reafon to contemn* without dating to 

Mitto de amifla maxima quam fuerit defertior. — 23. 
parte exercitus— 20. Cam tu — detra&am e cru- 

Dyrrhachium ut venit de- entis fafcibus lauream ad por- 

cedens, obfeffus eft ab iis ip- tarn Efquilinam abjecifh.— 

fismilitibus-^Quibuscamja- lb. 50. 
ratut affirmaflet, fe, quae de- [»] Tune aufus es meum 

berentur, poftero die perfolu- difceflum ilium — maledi&i 

turum; domum fe abdidit: & con turn eliae loco ponere? 

inde nofte intempefta crepi- Quo quidem tempore cepi, 

clatus, vefte fervili navem Patres confcripti, frudtum im- 

•confcendit — 38. mortalem veftri in me amo- 

[«] Sic ifte— Macedoni- ris— qui non admurmuratio- 

cus Jmperatof in urbem fe ne, fed voce & clamore ab- 

intulit, ut nullius negotiate- jecli hominis— petulantiam 

ris obfeuriffinw reditus ua- fregiftis. . lb* 14. 



meddle with tbofe, who bad more power, and where A. Urb. 698. 

bis refentmeni was more due [o\ But it had been cic * i 2 - 

better for him, to have ftifled his complaints and Cn p£J, F1 „ 

fuffercd Cicero to be quiet; who exafperated by Js Mac-* 

his imprudent attack, made a Reply to him up- mus II. 

on the (pot, in an Inveftive fpeecb % the fevereft M.Licinius 

perhaps, that was ever fpoken by any man, on n*** 8 ** 

the perlbn, the parts, the whole life and conduit 

of Pifo ; which, as long as the Roman name fub- 

fifts, muft deliver down a moil deteftable cha- 

raftcr of him to all pofterity. As to the verfe, 

with which he was urged, he ridicules the abfur- 

dity of Pifo's application of it, and tells him, 

" that he had contrived a very extraordinary pu- 

" nifliment for poor poets, if they were to be ba- 

€C niflied for every bad line : that he was a Critic; 

" of a new kind; not an Ariftarchus, but a 

" Grammatical Phalaris; who, inftead of ex* 

€C pungine the verfe, was for deftroying the au- 

« € thor : that the verfe itfelf could not imply any 

" affront to any man whatfoever: that he was 

" an afs, and did not know his letters, to ima- 

" gine, that by the Gown, he meant his own 

" gown ; or by arms, the arms of any particu- / 

" lar General; and not to fee, that he was 

" fpeaking onely in the Poetical ftile ; and as the 

" one was the emblem of peace, the other of 

" war, that he could mean nothing elfe, than • 

iC that the tumults and dangers, with which the 

" City had been threatened, muft now give way 

" to peace 2nd tranquillity : that he might have 

[0] Non ulla tibi, inquit, Paullo ante dixifH me cant 

invidia nocuit, fed verfus tui. iis conflxgere, quos defpice- 

— Haec res tibi flu&us illos rem ; non attingere eos, qui 

excitavit — Tus dicis, inquit, plus polTcnt, quibus iratus ef* 

Toga, fummum Imperato* le debcrem, Ib.^9, 30, 31. 
itm <cflk ceiTurum. — 

" #u«k 

JL Urb. 69S. " ftuck a little indeed in explaining the lattef 

Cic. 52. " part of the verfe, if Pifo himfelf had not 

Coff. « helped him out 1 who, by trampling his own 

us °Mag- <c kwel under foot at the Gates of i?***;, had 

vus II. " declared how much he thought it inferior to 

.M.Liciuins" every other kind of honor-* — that as for 

Crassus « pompey^ i t was fiiiy to think that* after the 

" volumes, which he had written in his praifc, 

, " one filly verfe fhould make him at laft his ene- 

" my : but that in truth, he never was his en$- 

46 my; and if, on a certain occafion, he had 

' " {hewn any coldnefs towards him, it was all 

" owing to the perfidy and malice of fuch as 

" Pifo ; who were continually infufing jealoufies 

" and fufpicions into him, till they had removed 

44 from his confidence all who loved either him, 

44 or the Republic [>]." 

About this time, the Theater, which Pom- 
pey had built at his own charge, for the ufc and 
ornament of the City, was folemnly opened and 
dedicated : it is much celebrated by the ancients, 
for it's grandor and magnificence : the plan was 
taken from the Theater of Mytilene, but greatly 

[p] Quoniam te non Arif- rem, nifi tu expedites. Nam 

tarchum, fed Grarnmaticum cum tu-*-detra&am e cruen- 

Phalarim habemus, qui non tis fafcibus lauream ad por* 

notam apponas ad ' malum tarn Efquilinam abjecifti, in- 

verfum, fed poet am armis dicafti, non modo ampliffi- 

profequare— Quid nunc te, ma?, fed etiam minima? lau- 

Afine, literas doceam ? Non di lauream conceffifle r- Vis 

-dixi hanc togam, qua Aim Pompeium ifto verfu inimi- 

.amiclus, nee arma, feu turn cum mihi effe fac"fcunv*-Pri- 

& gladium unius Tmperato- mo nonne compenfabit cum 

ris : fed quodpacis eit infig- uno veriiculo tot mea volu* 

ne & otii, toga; contra au- rnina laudum fuarum ? Vef- 

tern arma, tumultus ac belli, traefraudes,— veftrae crimina- 

more poctarum locutus, hoc tiones infidiarum mearum — 

intelligi volui, bellum ac tu- effecerunt iit ego excluderer 

multnm paci atque otio con- — &c. In Pifon* 30, 3 1 . 

cefliirujn— in altero— haere- 


ofM.rtJLLlUSCICEkO. 79 . 

enlarged, fo as to receive commodioufly forty A. Urb. 69*. 
tboufand people. It was furrouncjed by a Portico, to Cic; 52. 
jfcfor /A* company in bad weather, and bad a Curia, Qs ^™* 
or Senate^boufe, annexed to it • With a Bqftlica alfo, ^"s Mac-* 
or grand Hall, proper for the fittings of Judges, nus II. 
or any other, public bufinefs : which were all M.Licimim 
finilhed at Pompey 9 s toft, t and adorned with a great jj R ASSVi 
number of. Images, formed by the ableft mafters, of 
men and women, famed for t fomething very remark- • 
able or prodigious in their lives and characters [j ]; 
Atticus undertook the care of placing all thefefta- 
tues, for which Pompey charged Cicero with his 
thanks to him [r] : but what made this Fabric the 
more furprifing, and fplendid, . was a beautiful 
temple, erefted at one end of it .toVtnus the Con- 
yuerefs •, and fb contrived* that the feats of the The* 
ater thigbt ferve as flairs tb the Temple. This was 
defjgned, it is (aid* to avoid the reproach of mak- 
ing f° V a ft an expence for the nieer ufe of luxury % 
the Temple being fo placed, that thpfe who came to 
the Jhews 9 might feem to come to worfhip the God* 
defs [>]: 

. [q] Pompeius Magnus in Gcll. X. 1. Vid. Tertull. d* 

ornamentis Theatri mirabi- Spedtat. 

les famo pofuit imagines ; ob Dion. Caflius mentions it 4 * 

id diligentius magnorurh ar- as a tradition, that he had 

tificum ingeniis elaboratas : met with, that this Theater 

inter <juas legituf Eutyche, a was not really built by Pom- 

viginn liberis rogo illata, e- pey, but by his Freedman, 

nixa trigirita partus; Akip- Demetrius, who bad made! 

pe, Eleph^ntum. Plin. H. himfelf richer than his maf r 

7.3. ter, by attending him in hit 

[r] Tibi etiairi gratia* a- wars ; and to take off the 

gebat, quod flgna compo- envy of railing fo vaft an; 

nenda fufcepiffes. Ad Att. eftate, laid out a confidcra- 

4. 9. t>le part of it upon the The- 

['] Quuni Pompeius, in- ater, and gave the honor of 

quit, sdem Vidlonae dedica- it to Pompey. Dio. p. 107. 

turns effet, cujus gradus vi- Sene'c. dc Tranq. Anixn. c. %• 
cem Theatri cfient, fee. A. 

Vol. U. G At 

8o t The History of the Life 

A<Urb.6c/&. At the folemnity of this dedication, Pompcy 

Cic.52. entertained the people with the moft magnificent 

1 c £°"- fhews, which had ever been exhibited in Rome: 

, "Vs Mag-" ** *^ e Theater, were Jtage plays, prizes of mu/ic 9 
tjus I J* wreftling, and all kinds of bodily exercifes: in the 

M.LrciitJus Circus, borfe-races, and huntings of wild beafts for 
Crass us £ vt j a y S f uiee jfi ve j^ ^ i n which five hundred horn 
were killed*, and on the laft day, twenty elephants: 
wbofe lamentable bowling, wh:n mortally wounded^ 
taifedfueba eomwiferathri in. the multitude, from a 
Vulgar notion of their great fenfe and love to man, 
that it defireyed the whole diver/ion oftbejhew, and 
drew) cUrfes oti Pompey bimfelf, for being the author 
of fo much crteelty [/], So true it is, what Cicero 
obferves of this kind of prodigality ; that there 
is no real digriity or lofting honour in it ; that it fa- 
tiates, while it pleafes, and is forgotten, as foon 
as it is over [«]. It gives us hpwever a ge- 
nuin Idea of the wealth and grartdor of thefe 
principal fubje&s of Roffie; who, from, their pri- 
vate revenues, could raife fuch noble buildings, 
and provide fgclv (hews, from the feveral quar* 
ters of the world, which no monarch on earth i* 
now able to exhibit; 

[/J Magnificefrtifluna veto Verflis confargeret, dirafqire 

Pojnpeii noftri munera in fe- Pompeio, quas ille max luit, 

cundo Confiilatu. De Off. z* pesnasiroprecaretur— Plin.I. 

l6.*« ^ 8. 7. Vid. Dio, I. 39. p. 107. 

Pompeii quoque altera It. Plutar. m Pomp.. 
Confiilatu, dedicatione Tem- [a] In his in fining Aim p- 

pli Veneris Victricis, pugna- tibus, nihil nos magnopere 

vere in Circo yiginti Ele- mirarb; cum nee neceffitati 

phantes— — Amifla fuga* fpe fubveniatur, n«c digfiitas au- 

mifericordfam vulgi inenar- geatur : ipfaque ilia deledta-^ 

- rabili habitii -que rentes fup- tio multitudmis fit ad breve 

plicavere, quadaxn fefe la- exiguumque tempus in qua 

jnejitatiorfe compldrantes," tamen ipfo, una cum fatietate 

tanto populi dolore, ut obli- memoria quoque moriatur 

v tus Imperatbiis -Flens uni- voluntatis. De Off. 2. 16. 


bfXtfULtJXJS, tiCERO. Si 

Cicero, contrary to his cuftom, was prefent A. Urb. 698; 
at thefe fhews, but of -compliment, to Pdmpey, c, i'"| i# 
land gives a particular account of them to his CN.PokPBxi 
Friend M. Marius, who could not be drawn by us Mac- . 
them from his btioks and retreat in the country, kus If. 
« The old aftors,/*^ he, who had left the ftage, ^JJj^J 4 
" came oh to it again, in honor to Pompey, but j^ 
u for the fake of their own honor, ought rathet 
u to have ftaid away* our friend ^fopus ap- 
" peared to be quite funk and worn out ; fo that 
w all people feemfcd willing- to grant him his qui- 
u etus i for in attempting to raifc his voice, 
" where he had occafion to fwear, his fpeech 
" faultered and failed him-^-^-In the other 
" plays; the vaft apparatus, and crouded machi- 
u neryi which raifed the admiratien of the rnob* 
•' fpoiled the entertainmerit: fix hundred mules; 
" infinite treasures of plate; troops of Horle and 
u foot fightiiig oil the ftage f < " >The huntings 
tc indeed were magnificent^ but what pleafure to 
j* a man of taft, to fee a poor Weak fellow torn 
u td pieces By a fierce beaft; di* a noble beaft 
" ftruck dead with a fpeat: the laft' day's (hew 
" of Elephants, iriftead of delight* raifed a ge- 
" neral coiripafiion, and an opinion of fome re- 
<( lation between that animal and man : but left 
" you fhould think me wholly hdpipy; in thefe; 
" days of diterfioni I hive almoft burft myfelf 
" in th£ defence of your friend Gallus Caninius t 
" if the City would be as kind to me, as they 
" are to ^fdpus, I would willingly quit th4 
" ftage^ to live with you, and fucK as you, in A 
kl pofite and liberal eafe^ff]" 
The City continued for a great part of thii 

fummer without it's annual Magiftrates : for th4 


[*] Ep. Fain. 7. 1 

G i tle&idns* 

82 The H i s t o R y of the Life 

A. Urb. 698. elections, which had been poftponed from the 
Cic cz. laft year, were ftill kept off by the Confuls, till 

C P e - ^ e y cou ^ f ctt fe t ' iem t0 t ' lc * r m i n ds, and fecure 
us Mag-" them to their own Creatures : which they effeft- 
nus II. ed at laft, except in the cafe of two Tribuns, who 

M.Licinius flip t j nt0 the office againft their will: but the 
^RAssua ^^ j.gjjjjrjjj^ig repulfe was, of M. Cato from 
the PratorJhif r which was given to Vatinrus ; from 
the beft Citizen, to the worft. Cato, upon his 
return from the Cyprian voyage, was compli- 
mented by the Senate for that fcrvice with the 
offer of the Pr&torjhip^ in an extraordinary man- 
ner [y]. . But he declined the compliment, think- 
ipg it more agreeable tcfhis chara&er to obtain 
it in the ordinary way, by the free choice of the 
people : but when the election came on, in which 
he was thought fure of fuccefs, Pompey broke up 
the affembly, on pretence of fomewhat inaufpicious 
in the heavens ', and* by intrigue and management \ got 
Vatinius declared Prator* who had been repulfed the 
yeat before with difgracefrom the Mdilefhip [z] : but 
this being carried by force of money, and likely 
to produce an impeachment of Vatinius, Afra- 
' niiis moved for a decree, that the Prators fhould 
not be queftioned for bribery after their election; 
which paffecf againft the general humor of the 
/ Senate; with an exception onely, of Jixty days y 
in which they were to be confidered as private men. 
The pretence for the decree was, that fo much 
of the year being fpent, the whole would pafs 
without any Praetors at all, if a liberty of im- 

. [jp] Cujus minifterii gratia 1. Plutar. in Cato. 
Senatus relationem interponi f«] Proxim a dementi sefpf- 

jubebat, ut Praetoriis Comi- fragia— quoniam quern ho- 

tiis extra ordinem ratio ejus norem Catoni negaveru/it, 

haberetur. Sed ipfe id fieri Vatinio darecoa&i funt. Val. 

paffiis non eft. Val. Max. 4. Max. 7. 5. Plut. in Pomp. 



peaching was allowed: from this moment, fays A. Urb.69*. 
Cicero, they have given the exclufton to Cato; and, C £\£ 2, 
being majlers of all, refolve that all the world ^*#Cn.Pompei- 
know if [a]. us Mao- 

CicekoV Palatin bbufe, and the adjoining "usIL. 
Portico of Catulus were now finifhed; and as A^cJamS" 
and bis brother were the Curators likewife of the n # 
repairs of the Temple of Tullus [b]> fo they feem 
to have provided fome Infcriptions for thefe 
buildings in honor ^nd memory of themfelves : 
but fince no public Infcriptions could be fetup,. 
unlefs by public authority, they were apprehen- . 
five of an oppofition from Clodius. Cicero men- 
tioned the cafe to Pompey, who promifed hia 
affiftanqe, but advifed him to talk alfowith Craf- 
fus, which he took occafion to do, as he attend- 
ed him home one day from the .Senate. Craflus 
readily undertook the affair, and told* him, that 
Clodius bad a point to carry for bitnfelf by Pompefs 
help and his, mid that if Cicero would not oppofe 
Clodius y he was perfuaded that Clodius would not 
difturb him\ to which Cicero «mfented+ Clodius's 
bufmefs was to procure one of thofe free or ho- 
norary Lieutenancies, that be might go with a public 
cheer aSer to Byzantium, and King Brogitarus, to 
gather' the money, which they oweci him for p^ft 
fervices.- As it is a mere money matter, fays Ci- 
cero, I fhall not concern my f elf about it, whether I 
gain my own point or not, though Pompey' and Craf- 

\a] A. D- III. id. Maii S. eiflent. Eo die Catonem pla- 

C. fattum eft de ambitu in ne repudiarunt. Quid mul- 

Afranii fententiatn. Scd ta ? Tcnent omnia, ldquc ita 

xnagno cum geraitu Senatus. omnes intelligere volunt. Ad 

Confulcs mon font perfecuti Qtiint. 2. 9* 

corum fentcntias : qui Afra- [b] Quod JEdcs T^lluris 

nio cum e/Tent aflenfi addi- eft curationis meae. Delia- 

xlcrnnt, fit Praetores ita crea- rufp. refp. 14. 

jremiir, ux dies LX* privati 

P 3 /** 

$4 *fbe History of the Life 

A. U/b. 698. fus bave jointly undertaken it: but he feems to 
Cic 'J z ' ^ avt Qbtained what he defired, fince, befides the 
Cn'p - ^tended Jnfcrmtiens, he mentions afta\uealfo of 
.^mI""'^ prot&iTj which to had affualty erffid at the 
.»us 11. Temple ofTellus [*], 
^Licinivs TiEBONrius/one of the Tribuns t in the in- 
jCrassu* terc ft' f ^ Triumvirate^ published alaw,/*r 
^ the alignment of Provinces ti the Confids for the 

term" of five years : to Powpey, Spain an4 Afric ; 
to Craffus^ Syria, and the Parthian war ^ with a 
power tf raiftng what forces they thought fit : and 
tjbut dejat^s commtffion Jhouty be renewed alfo for 
five years more. • T t h<* W was oppofed by the ge- 
nerality of the Senate; and, above all, by Cato 9 
Favonius, and two of the Tribuns, C. Ateius Ca- 
pito and P. Aquilius Gallus: but the fuperior 
force of the Co'nfuls and the other 'tribuns pre- 
vailed," and cleared the ^Forum by violence of all 
fhelr opponents. "' " ' 

TH^wno'fooner pafled, than Crfcffus began 
to prepare for his Eaiffero expedition; and was in 
luchh^ft to fet forward^ that he left Romp above 
two montfes before the expiration of hfc Confulfhip : 
bis eagernefs to involve the Republic iii a delpe- 
rate war, for yhich the PdrtUans had given ho 
pretext, w?is generally dettfted by thi City ; the 

[c] J\^ujta nodfce. cum Vi- pcium confeqai. Putare fe, 

bullio veiii ad Pompeiurtu » ego eum nop itypedirem,; 

Cumque ego Vgiffera de iftis pojfe me adipifci fine conten- 

opcribtts & imcriprio'riibuV, tibne quod* vellum — &c. *Ad 

per mihi benigne refpondit, Qgint- 2 * 9< 

s — Cum Crai& ft dixit Ibqui Vkeddlta-eft mihi pervetas 

velle, trnhjljae,' nt idem fa- Epiftola-^— in g\ia de Md* 

cerem ftafiti Oafffom Coh- Tclfiiris, & de pbrticu Catii- 

fiUem ex'Stnata Homum re- lime admones. 'fit : utrum- ; 

duxi : fufcepit rem^diihque (jue diligenter. Ad Telluris 

c$c quod &i<5diufc hoc teiji- etiam tUain' ftatuam locavi. 

yore cttperetfc^ & pet Pojji- lb.' 5. 1. • 

tribun Ate'lus declared it impious, and prohibited by a. Urb. 698. 
ell the dufyitis\ and denounced, direful imprecations Cic.52. 
Myfajfk it$ "bat finding Craffus determined to c *p^ FEI . 
irferdi in defiance of aft religion, lie waited for ^,' s Mac-" 
him at the gates of the City, and having drejjed vvs II. 
up u little altar, ftaod ready with afire andfacrifice M Liciniu* 
to devote~ him to deftruSHon [d]. Atiius was after- £* AS5tt * 
boards twrntd out of the Senate by Jppius, when bt 
was Cenfor, for falftfyihg the aufpkes on tins oc- 
tafion\ but the miserable fate of Craffus fupport* 
cd the credit of them •, and confirmed the vulgar 
opinion of the inevitable force of thofe ancient rites % 
in drawing down the divine vengeance on all, who 
frefunted to contemn them [e]. Appius was one 
of the Augurs : and the onely one of the College, 
toliomaintained the truth of their auguries , and the 
fealHy of divination^ for which be was laughed at 
by the rejl- 9 who charged him alfo with an abfur- 
dity, in the reafbn, which he&bfcribed, for his 
Ceitfure upon Ateius, viz. that he hadfalfified the 
mfpkesi tind brought a great calamity on the Roman 
people: for if the auj r picet ', they faid, were falfe % 
thfy could not pqffiMy have any ejfeS, or be the caufe 
of that calamity [/]. But though they were un- 
doubtedly forged, it is certain, however, that 
they had a real influence on the overthrow of 

\d] Bio. 1. 39. p. 109. Soranqm A ugu rem efTe dice- 

Plut. in CrafT. bant. Qui bus nulla videba- 

[e] M. Craflb cjnid acci- tar in Auguriis aut Aufpiciis 

derit, videmus, dirarum ob- pnefentio. lb. 47. 
iluhciatione negle&a. De In quo Appius, bonus Aa- 

bivin. 1. 16. gur— non (atis fcienter— 

(/] Solus enim jnultorum Civem egregium, Ateiuro, 

annorum memoria, non de- cenfor notavit, quod enien- 

cantandi Augurii, fed divi- titum aufpicia fubferipferit. 

nandi tenuit difciplinam : — Quae fi falfa fuiffet nullani 

ffitm irridebant Col legs tui, adferre potuiflet caufam cala- 

^imque turn Fifidam, torn mitatis. lb. 16. 

4 Q 4 CraflTus f 

8§ ^Historyc/ tSt Life 

A. Urb 698. Crafllis : for the terror of them had deeply pok 

Cic. 5*, . feflfed the minds of the lbldiers, and made them 

Coff. turn every thing which they faw, or heard, to 

us Mac- an omn °f thtir ruin\ ' fo that when the enemy 

nus IL appeared in fight, they were ftruck with fuch a 

M.JbiciNius parii^, that they had not courage or (pirit enough 

CuAsaus j € ^ tto m ake a tolerable refiftance, ; ' ' ' " 

"] ' * Crassus was defirous, before he left Rome, tp 

be reconciled to Cicero : they had never been real 

friends, but generally oppofufc \n party -, ancj 

Cicero's early engagements with Pompey kept 

him of courfe at a diftance from Craffiis r their 

coldnefs was ftili encreafed on account of Cati- 

lineV plot, of which CfafTus was ftrorigly fufpedt- 

Jed ; and charged Cicero with being the author 

of that fufpicion: they c&rfied^t however on both| 

fidesr with muchdecency ; out of regard to Craf- 

fus*s fob,' Publius, a prpfeflefd admirer and difci- 

pld of Cicero ; till an accidental debate in the 

Senate blew up their fecfet grudge into an opei> 

quarrel. ■»• The debate was' upon Gabinius, whom 

Craflus- undertook to defend, with many fevere 

refleftions upon CiceVo ; ^ho replied with ho lefs 

acrimony j artdgaVe a free vent id that old refent- 

mtnt of Craffits's many injuries', which had been ga- 

' thering, he lays, fever at years, 'but lain dormant fa, 

long, that he took it to be extinguijhed, till, from this 

accident, it burjl out into a flame. ; The quarrel 

gave great joy to the chiefs' of the Senate-, whof 

highly applauded Cicero, in hopes to embroil 

him with the Triumvirate: but Pompey labored 

hard to make it tip, and Ca?far alfo by letter ex- 

preffed his urieafinefs; and begged it of 

Cicero, as a favor, to be reconciled with CfaffuS : 

fo that he could not hold our againft an intercef- 

fion fo powerfull, and fo well enforced by his 

affection to young CraJJus : their reconciliation was 

• ■ . v . , . ..... confirmed 

tf-M. XULLiUS CICERO. 8jr 

^confirmed by mutual profeflions of a fincere friend- A. Urb. 698. 
Jbip for the future; and Craflus, to give a public Cic. 52; 
Ufiimony of it to the City '/ invited himfelf jujt be- ^ pomVbi- 
fore bis departure^ to fup with Cicero ; who enter- \ yt AG ~ 
tained him in the gardens of bis fon-in-Iaw, Craf- nus II. 
ftpes [g\. Thefe gardens were upon the banks ^ M.Licinius 
the Tiber 7 and feem to have been famous for their 9r R A8 "* 
beauty and fituation [A] : and are the only proof, 
which* we meet with, of the fplendid fortunes and 
condition of Craffipes. 

Cicero fpent a gre^t part of the fummer in 
{he couqtry, ii) ftudy and retreat; pleafed, he 
Fays, that be was out "of the way of thofefquabbles 9 
where be muft eithr have defended what he dtoLnot 
approve^ or deferted the man whom he ought not to. 
forfake [i]l * In this retirement, he put the laft 
hand to his Piece, on the Complete Or at or , which 
fie lent to Atticus, and promifes alfo to fend to 
JLentulus; telling him, that he had intermitted his- 
did tajk of orations^ and betaken himfelf to the milder 

[g] Repent jnam ejus Ga- 
binii<le?enfionem— -— §i fine 
ulla mea cqntumelia fufcc- 
piflet, tuliflem: fed cum me 
Jiifputanfem, non laceflentem 
jaefiffet, »- exarfi non folum 
prafenti, teredo, ' iracundia 
(nam ea tarn vehe mens for- 
tafle non fuiffet) fed cam in- 
clufum illud odium multa- 
rum ejus in me injuriarum*. 
quod ego efFiidifTtf me ompe 
arbitrabar, refiduum tamen 
infeiente \me fuiffet, omne 
repente apparuit — Cumque ' 
rompeius ita contendiffet, ut 
nihil unquam magis, ut cum 
Craflb redirem in gratiam ; 
Caefarque per literas maxima 
fe moleftia ex ilia contentione 

aire&um oftenderet : habui 
non tempbrum folum meo- 
rum rationem, fed etiam 
naturae. Craflufque ut quafi 
teftatapopulo Rpm. eflet nof- 
tra gratia, paene a meis la- 
ribus in provinciam eft pro- 
fe&us. Nam cum mihi con* 
dixiflet, coSnavit apud me in 
mei Generi Craffipedis hortisr. 
— Ep. Ffcm. i. 9. 

[b] Ad Quint. 3. 7. Ai 
Att. 4. 12. .- 

. {*] Egoafuifle me in alter- 
cationibus, quas in Senatu 
facias audio, fero non mo- 
lefte ; nam aut defendiffem 
quod non placeret, aut defu- 
ifTem cui non oporteret. , Ad 
Att. 4. 13. 



§g The H i>$ t or Y*f the Life 

A. Urb. $98. *»</ jw//*r yfoafcj ; in which besbadfmijbed* to bh 

Cic.p. fatisfaBum, three books* Iy*wagrfii&abgue* on the 

Coff. f u ij e 3 of the Oram* in Jtriftitte^ Manner $ -which 

us Mag- wou ^ be °f*fe *° * ,J M.^^ Lmtutus* J>eht% 
nus II. drawn* not in the ordinary way vf the fcbdols* and 
MXiciniusj^ fay pMtJwl of precept s^ but comprehending a'l 
that the ancients* and efpecially Jrijhtle and Ifocrate^ 
had taught on the Injtitution of an Orator [#J- 

The three books contain as matvy Dialogues, 
upon the character and Idea of the perfeEt. Orator : 
the principal Speakers were P. Crafius, and M. 
Antonius * perfons of the firft dignity in the Re* 
public, and the greateft Maftens or Eloquence, 
which Rome had then known: they were near 
forty years older than Cicero* and the firft Romans 
who could pretend to difpute the prize df Oratory 
with the Greeks * and who carried the Latin 'tongue 
to a degree of perfection, winch left little or no room 
for any farther improvement [/]. " Th« deputation 
was undertaken */ 4pe defor^ and for the infiruc^ 

[1] Scripi* etiam, {ttftfti 
ab orationibus dijungo me 
fere, referoque ad manfueti.. 
ores mubs) refcripfiigiturA.- 
rillotelco more, quemadmo T 
dum quidemvaliii, tr«s libros 
in diipuUtione & dialogo de 
Oratore, quos arbitror Lcn- 
tulo t.ito son fqre inutiles. 
Abhorrent enim a communis 
bus prajceptis : ac ox^nem 
antiquarum, & Ariftoteleam 
& ffocrateam rationem Ora- 
tpriam compledtaatur. Ep. 
Fam. 1. 9. 

[/] Craflos quatuor tc 

triginta turn habebat annos, 
totidemque anrris aiihi aetate 
prasifobat— Trienftio ipfo mu 

Dorquam Antonius, quod id : 
circo pofni, ut dicendi latine 
pritna Qta?imta$ qita «tate 
extitiflet, poflet riotari; Be 
istelligeretur, jam ad fom- 
jnum p*nfe erffc {rcrdtrftaih, 
ut co nihil ferme qurfquani 
addere poCet, nifi qui a Phi* 
lofbphia, a jure civilly abhi- 
ftoria fuiflet inftruclier. Brut, 

Nunc ad Antoniutu, Cfak 
fumque perveniinus. Nam 
ego fie exiftittto hos Oratores 
fbifle maximos : & in his 
prirattin cam Graecof am glo- 
ria latine dicendi copiarii ar- 
quatafli. Ifo. 250. 



fionjof two young Orator x of great hopes* C. Cot ta A. Urb. 698, 
and P, Sulpicius* whp y/ere then beginning to Cic -I 2 - 
Sorjfh #t the Bar: Cicero himfelf was not prefent Cllt p°jJ7p EI-l 
4/ it* but being informed by Cqtta* of the principal U8 Mag- " 
beads and general argument of the whole* fupplied wus 11. 
the reji from 'bis own invention* agreeably to /^M.Licikiui 
different Jtile'apd manner* which thofe^ great mm jj* AS5US 
were known to purfue* and with defign to do honour 
to the memory of them both* but sfpefially .of Craffus* 
who bad been the director of his early Jludies ; and 
to whom he affigns the defence of that ndtion, 
which .he himfelralways entertained, of the cha- 
racter qf a confummate Speaker [m). 

Atticus was excedingly pleafed with this 
treatife, and commended it to the Ikies; but ob- 
jected to the propriety of difiniffing Sc^vola from 
the difptftatjon, after he had once beep introduced 
into the Jirfi dialogue. Cicero defends hirnfelf by 
the example of their God* Plato as he calls him, 
in his book on Government * where the Scene, 
being laid in the houfe of an old Gentleman, Ce- 
phalus, the old rnqn* after bearing a part in the 
jirjl conversation* excufes himfelf* that he muft go 
to prayers* and returns no more , Plato not thinking 
it fuitabfy tq tbe, character of his age* to be detained 
in the Company though fo long a difcourfe: that* 
with greater reafon therefore^ be bad ufed the fame 
caution in the cafe of Scavqla ; fince it was not de- 
cent to fuppofe aperfon of his dignity \ extreme agc % 

[ni] Noa enim, qui ipfi rum fermone adumbrare co- 

fermoni non ibterfaiflemus, nati De Orat. 3. 4. 

& quibus C. Cotta tantum- Ut ei, (Craflb) & fi nequa- 

modo locos, ac fen ten tias hu- quam parcm illius ingenio, 

jus difputationis tradidiflet, at pro noflro tamen itudio^ 

quo in genere orationis u- merit am gratiam debitamque 

trumque Oratorcm cognove- referajnus — Ibid,— • 

ramus, id ipfum fuinus in po- ' 

90 Ihe H i story of the Life 

A. U rb. 698. and infirm healthy /pending feveral days fucuffwely 
Cic. 52. in another man's boufe; that tie firft day's dialogue 
Coff. related to bis particular profeffion, but the other two 
vs Mac-" turned chiefly on the rules and precepts of the art % 
kus II. where it was not proper for one of Sc<evola 9 s temper 
M.Licinius an £ fharq£ltir to ajjiji onely as a hearer [n\. / This 
Crassus ac j m irable work remains intire, a finding monu- 
ment of Cicero's parts and abilities ; which, while 
it exhibits to us the Idea of a perfeft Orator, 
and marks but the way, by which Cicero formed 
himfelf to that chara&er, it explanes the reafoa 
likewife why no body has fince equalled him, or 
ever will, tilt there be found again united, what 
will hardly be found fingle in any man, the fame 
induftry y and the fame parts. 
' .Cjcero returned to 'Rome, about die middle 
of November,* to affift ax Milo's Wedding, who 
married Faufta, a rich and noble Lady, the 
daughter of Sylla the Dictator [o]{ with whom, 
as fome writers fay, he found Salluft the Hijlorian 
in bed not long after \ and had hm fpundly lafbtd, 
hefore he difmiffed him. ' The Cbriiuls^ fompey 
and Crafllis. having reapeft all the fruit, which 
they had propofed from the Confulfhip,' of fecur- 
ing to therfif elves the Provinces, which they wanted, 
were not much concerned about the choice of 
their fucceflbrs ;' fo that after poftponing the elec- 
tion to the end of the year, they gave way at 
laft to their enemy, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus j 
being content to have joined with hjm their 
friend, Appius fclaudius Pulcher, ' 

. [«] Quod in iis libris, - Cephalum, Iocupletem & 

fjaos laud as, perfonam defi- feftivum fenem, quoad pii- 
eras Scaevolse. Non earn mus ille fermo haberetur ad 
temere dimovi, fed feci idem, eft in difpUtando Senex— &c, 
quod in votSMz Deus ille Ad'Att. 4. 16. 

J»p#er, Plato. Cum in Pi- [o\ Ad Att. 4. 13. 5. 8. 
*aeeum Socrates veniiTot ad * •• ■; ■ 



As foon as the new year came on* Craflus'sA. Urb. 699. 
enemies began to attack him in the Senate : their ^ c 53* 
defign was to revoke his commiffion, or abridge £ Domiti- 
it at leaft of the power of making war upon the us Aheno- 
Partbians: but Cicero exerted himfelf fo ftrenu- barbus, 
oufly in his defence, that he baffled their attempts, A - C £ AUDI - 
after a warm conteft with the Confuls themfelves> cher! L " 
and feveral of the Confular Senators. He gave 
Craffus an account of the debate by letter, in 
which he tells him, that he had given proof not 
onely to bis friends and family, but to the whole 
City, . of the Jincerity of bis reconciliation ; and af ' 
fures him of bis refolution toferve him, with all bis 
pains, advice, authority, and inter eft, in every thing 
great or fmall, which concerned himfelf, his friends^ 
or clients ; and bids him look upon that Letter as a 
league of amity, winch on his part Jhould be invio- 
lably cbferved [p]. 

The month of February being generally em- 
ployed in giving audience to foreign Princes and 
Embaffadors, Antiochus, King of Comagene, a 
territory on the banks of the Euphrates [q], pre- 
ferred a petition to the Senate for fome new ho- 
nor or privilege, which was commonly decreed 
to Princes in alliance with the Republic: but 
Cicero being in a rallying humor f made the pe- 
tition fo ridiculous, that the houfe rejected it, and 
at his motion, referved likewife out of his jurifdic- 
tion one of bis principal Towns, Zeugma; in which 
was the chief bridge and pajfage over the Euphra- 
tes. Caefar, in his Confulfhip, bad granted to this 
King the honour of the Pretext a, or the robe of the 
Roman Magifirates -, which was always difagree- 

[/] Has Hteras velim ex- cipio, fan&iffime efle obfer- 
iftimes foederis habituras efle vaturum— Ep. Fam, 5. 8. 
vifn, non epiftolae; meque [y] Ep. Fara. 15. J, 3, 4/ 
ca, que tib\ promitto ac re- 




92 £&* Mi st oft Y of the Life 

A. Urb. 699. *Me t0 t ^e nobility, who did' not care to fee 
Cic. 53. thefef petty Princes put upon the fame rank with 
Coin themfelve^; fo that Cicero, calling out upon the 
vs Aheno- nobks * will you,- fays he* who refufed the Pr*tex- 
barbus, td to the King of Bbftra* fuffer this Comageniari 
A- Claudi- to .ftrut irt purple! But this difappointment'was 
us PuL " not more mbrtifying to the King* than it was td 
the Conftils> whofe beft perquifites were drawn 
from thefe compliments," which were always re- 
paid by rich prefehts; fo that Appius, hvbd had 
beeto lately reconciled to Citero, and* paid a particu- 
lar court to him' at this time, applied to him by At- 
tkiis, and their common friends y to fuffer the peti- 
tions of this fort to p'afs qliietly, nordejtrvy the ufuat 
harvejl of tbt mvnth, and' make it quite barren ti 
frith [r]. 

Cicero made* aft exfcuffioh this fpring tq, vi- 
fit his feveral feats and eftates in the country! 
and, in his Cumlan Villa, began a Treatife on 
politics •, or on the beftftate of a City, and the du^ 
ties of a Citizen: he calls \i a great' and laboHout 
work, yet worthy of bis pains, ij he could fuccede in 
it\ if not, I fhall throw it, fays he, into that 
fea, whuh is now before me, and attempt fometbing 
elfe, fince it is impofjible for the to be idle. It was 
drawn up in the'fornri of a dialogue, in which the 
greateft perfohs of the old Republic were intro- 

[r] De Comdgeno Rege, qiiam erat adeptifc Caefare 

4juod rem totam difcuiTeram, Confule, ma^nonooiinum ri* 

roihi &per ie & per Poihpo- fd catillatus — -Vos autern 

nium blandhetr Appius; Vi- homines nobiles, qtii Boftre* 

det enim, fi hoc genere di- numPranextttuninOtffereba* 

cendi utar in cscteris, Febru- tis, Comagenum ' feretis ?-t* 

arium fterilem fuiurum. E- Multa dixi in ignobilem Re- 

unique Iuti jocofe fatis : ne- gem, quibus tottis eft explo- 

'que folum illud extorfi oppi- ius. Quo genere commotuJ 

dulum, quod erat pofituin in Appius "totum me ampkxa- 

Euphrate, Zeugma; fed pra;- tur. Ad Quint. z. I "2.* 
urea togam ejus praetexum, 

. of M.rULLIUS CICERO;. . $ 3 

duced, debating on the origin arid befc conftitu- A. Urb. 699.. 
tion of government} Scipio* Ladius, Philus, Cic. 53. 
Manilius, Wc. [j]. The whole was to-be dif-. j^ 11 - 
rributed into nine; books, each of them the fub- u 8 ahbnoI 
jed of one, day's difputation : when he had finiih- barbus, 
ed the two firft,, they were read in >bis Tufculan A* CIardi- 
Villa to fome of his friends; where SaUuft, who us *y l- 
was one of the company, advifed him to change 
his plan, and. treat 'the fubjeft in his own perfon, 
as Ariftotle had done , before bim^ alledging, that 
the introduction of tbofe ancients, infiead vf adding 
gravity r gave an air of Romance to the argument y 
which would have the greater weighty wbendeliver- 
ed from.himfelf\ as being the work, not of a little 
Sophifti or contemplative Theorift, but of a Confu- 
lar Senator j and State/man,, converfant in the 
greateft affair s y and writing what his own practice, . . 
and the experience of many years, bad taught him to 
be true. Thefe reafons Teemed very plaufiblc.. 
and made him think of altering his fcheme ; ef* 
pecially fince, by throwing the icene fo far back, 
he precluded himfelf from touching on thofe im- 
portant revolutions of the Republic, which 
were later than the period, to which he confined 
himfelf: but, after fome deliberation, being un- 
willing to throw away the two books, already 
finifhed, with which he. was much pleafed, he 
reiblved toftick to the old plan, and. as he had 

[/]- Scribebam ilia,- quae Hajic ego, quaxn inflitni, 

dixeram •groftiW* fpiffum de Repub. difputationexn in 

fane opus 8c operofum i fed Africani perfonam & Phtli, 

ii ex fentlntia fucceflerir, be- & Lselii k Manilii contuli, 

neerit opera pofita; fin mi* &c— Rem, quod te non fa* 

nus, in illud ipfiim mare de- git, magaam complexes Aim 

jiciemfu,quodfcribentesfpec- & gravem, & prurimi otii, 

tamus; aggrediemur alia, quod ego max ime egeo. Ad 

quoniam qoieCcere non.pof- Att. 4. 16. 
fumcu. . lb. 14. 




94 . The History of the Life 

At Urb. 6§g>, preferred it from the firft, for ibefake of avoiding 

C1C.C3. offence, fo he purfued ic without any other alte- 

L Domiti- rat * on * l ^ an * at °^ Cueing the nujnber of 

us Aheno" books from nine to fix • in which form they were 

BARsus, afterwards publilhed, andfurvived him forfeveral 

A. Claudi- a g eSj| though now Unfortunately loft [/].' 

From the fragments of this work, which ftilf 
remain, it appears to have been a noble perform- 
ance, and one of his capital pieces ; where all the 
important queftioris in politics and morality were * 
difcuffed with the greateft elegance and accuracy- 
of the origin of Society ; the nature of law and obli- 
gation ; the eternal difference of right and wrong \ 
of jujlice being the onely gdod polity \ or foundation 
either of public or private profperity : fo that he 
calls his fix books, fo mdny pledges, given to tbepuB- 
Ik, for the integrity of his condufi [it]. The 
younger Scipio was the principal fpeaker of 
the Dialogue, tvhofe part it Was to affert the 

\t] Serrao antcm in novem 
& dies Sc librosdiftributus de 
optimo llatu civitatis 8c de 
optimo civei — Hi libri, cum 
inTufculano inihilegerentur, 
audienteSalluftio; admonitus 
fum ab illo, nml to majore 
audtoritate illis de rebus dici 
poffe, fi ipfe loqueref de Re- 
pub, prefertim cum eflem, 
non Heraclides Ponticus, fed 
confularis, Sc is, qui in maxi- 
mis verfatus in Repub. rebus 
efTem : qua? tarn antiques ho- 
minibus attribuerem, ea vi- 
fum iri fiftaefle. — Commo- 
vit me, Sc eo magis, quod 
maximos motus noftrae civita- 
tis attingere non poteram, 
quod erant inferiores, quam 
iilorum actas qui loquebant'ur. 

Ego aixtehi id ipfam turn e- 
raxn fecutus, ne in noftra 
tempora incurred offen-j 
defeni quern piam: Ad 
Quint. 3. 5. 

This will folve that varia- 
tion which we find in his own 
account of this work, in dif- 
ferent parts of his writings: 
and why Fannius, who in 
fome places is-declared to be 
a fpeaker in it, [Ad Att. 4. 
16. Ad Quint. 3. 5.] is de- 
nied to be fo in others ; be- 
ing dropt, when the number 
of .books was contracted. 

[»] Cum fex libris; tan- 
quam prsedibus me ipfuni 
©bftrinxerim, quos tibi tarn 
valde probari gandeo. Ad 
Att. 6. 1. 


cfM.rtfLLIUS GICERO. g $ 

Vieelknce of the Roman conftituthn, preferably to A. Urb. 699, 
that of all other ftates [x] : who, in the fixth book, Cjc. 53. 
under the fiSHon of a dream, which is ftill preferv- L< D ° M ' ITI . 
ed to us, takes occafion to inculcate the doSrine us Aheno 
if the immortality of the foul, and a future ftate> in barbus, 
a manner fo lively and entertaining, that it has A - c i; AU ° x ~ 
been the (landing pattern ever fince to the wits chbiu L * 
of fucceeding ages, for attempting the fame me* , , 

thod of inftilling moral leffons, in the form of 
dreams or vifions. 

He was now drawn at laft ihto a particular 
intimacy and correfpondence of Letters with Cas- 
far; whorhad long been endeavouring to engage 
him to his friendQiip, and, with that view, had 
invited bis brother ■, Qpintus, to be one of bis &eu- 
tenants in Gaul\ where Quintus-, to pay his court 
the bettet to his General, joined heartily in prefix- 
ing his Brother to an union with him, inftead of 
adhering lb obftinately to Pdfnpey, who, as he 
tells him, utas neither fo JSncere, nor fo generous 
a friend as Cafar [y}. Cictro did not diflike the 
advice, and expreffed a readinefs to comply with 
it, of which Balbus gave an intimation to Csefar, 
with a Letiir, alfo inclofed, from Cicero bimfelf\ , 
but the packet happening to fall into water, the 
Letters were all deftroyed, except afcrap or two 
rf Balbus's, to which Caefar returned anfwer; 
/ perceive* that you bad written fmewhat about 
Gceroy which I could not make out\ but as far as 
lean guefs, it .was fometbtng rather to be wijhed 9 

[*] Ancenfes,cuminillis [j] De Pompeio aflentior 

de Repub. libris perfuadere tibi, vel tu potius jnihi, nam, 

videatur Africanus, omnium utfeis, jampridem.iftumcan- . 

Rerumpub. noftram veterem to Csefarem. Ad Quint. 2. 

illam fuifle op ti mam.— Be 13. 
Leg. 2. x. vid. Jb. I. 6.9. 

Vol, II. H than- 

96 the History of the Life 

A* Urb. 699, than hoped for [«]. But Cicero fent another cojty 
Cic. 53. of the fame Letter, which came fafe to his hands* 
Coir. written, as he fays, in the familiar Jtile 9 yet with* 
vs Ahbno- out departing from his dignity. Caefar anfwered 
barbus, him with all imaginable kindnefs, and the offer 1 
A. Claudi- f every thing, in which his power could fervC 
tHEii^" ^im* tc ^ n 6 ^im, bow agreeable his Brother 9 scorn* 
party was to him, by the revival of their old affec* 
tion ; and Jince he was now removed to fuch a di- 
Jlance from him % he would take care y that in their 
mutual want of each other \ be Jhould have caufe at 
leaft to rejoice, that his Brother was with him rd~ 
ther than any one elfe. He thanks him alfo^for fend- 
ing the Lawyer Trebatius to bim 9 and fays upon it 
jocofely, that there was not a man before in his ar* 
my y who knew how to draw a recognizance. Ci- 
cero, in his account of tfeis Letter to his Brother, 
fays ; " it is kind in you, and like a Brother, 
" to prefs me to this friendfhip, though I am 
" running that way. apace myfelf, and (hall do, 
• c what often happens to travellers, who riling 
u later than they intended,, yet, by quickening 
<c their fpeed, .come fooner to their journey's 
<c end, than if they had fet our earlier ^ fo I, 
* who have over-flept myfelf in my obfervance 
" of this man, though you were frequently rouf- 
" ing me* will correfl my pad lazinefs by mend-* 
V* ing my pace for the future."— —But as to his 

[z] Illc fcripfit ad Bat his verbis. Dc Cicerone vi- 

bum, fafciculum ilium Epif- deo te quiddam fcripfifle, 

tolarum,in quo fuerat & mea quod ego non intellexi; 

& Balbr, totum fibi aqua ma- quantum aatem conje&wa 

did urn efte : ut ne illud qui- confequebar id erat hujufmo- 

dem fciat, meam fuifle ali~ di, ut magisoptandum,quam 

quam epiftolam. Sed ex fperandum putarem. Ad 

Balbi epiflola pauca verba Quint*. 2. 12. 
intellexerat, ad quae refcripfit 


b/M. TULL1US CICERO. ^ 97 

feeking any advantage or perfbnal benefit from a. Urb. 699. 
this alliance, believe me, fays he, you who know Cic. 53. 
me\ I have from him already what I moft value, ^off. 
the affurdnce of his affe£iion, which I prefer to all L us , amnoI 

the great things that he offers me [a]. In an- uarbus, " 

other letter he fays; / lay no great Jlrefs on his A. Claudi- 
promifes, ttiant mo farther honors, nor aefire any us PoL " 
new glofy, and wifh nothing more, but the conti- CHBR * 
finance of his ijleem, yet liveftill in fuch a cr>urfe of 
ambitim and fatigue, as if I were expefthtg what 
I do not really defire [b], 

Bxtt though he made no ufe of Caefar's gene- 
rofity for himfelf, yet he ufed it freely for his 
friends ; for befides his Brother, who was Cjc- 
far's Lieutenant, and Trebatius, who was his 
Lawyer ; he procured an eminent poft for Orfius, 
and a Regiment for Curtius; yet Caefar was 
chiding him all the while for bis refervednefs in 

[a] Cunt Carfarie Literis, quidem, at omnia mea fhidia 

refcrtis oriini officio, diligen- in ilium unum confcram, &c. 

tia, fuavitate— Quarum ini- Scd mihi crede, quern 

tiunreft, quam fuavis ei tuus nofti, ^uod in iftis rebus ego 

adventus ruerit, & recordatio plurimi aftimo, jam habeo : 

Yeteris amoris ; deinde fe ef- — deinde Caefaris tantum in 

fe&irniB, ut ego in medio me amorem, quern omnibus 

doiore ac defiderio tui, te, his honoribus, quos meaie 

cum a me abefTes, potiffimnm expeclare vult, antepono.— 

fccum cflfe latarer. -- Trebati- Ad Quint. 2. 15. 

am quod ad fe mHerim, per [J] Promiffis iis, quae of- 

falfe & humaniter etiam gra- tendit, non valde pendeo \ 

tias mihi agit: negat enim in nee honores fitio, nee defide- 

tanta multitudine eorum, qui ro gloriam : magifque ej us vo- 

una eflent, quempiam fuiiTe, luntatis perpetuitatem, quam 

qui vadimonium concipere promiflbrum exitum expecto. 

poflet. Vivo tamen in ea ambitione 

Quare facis tu quidem fra- & labore, tanquam id, quod 

terne, quod me hortaris, fed non poftulo, expeftexn. lb. 
mehercule currentem nunc^ 3. 5. 

H 2 ajking 

9& The H i s T o it y of the Life . 

A. Urb. 699, ajking [c]. His recommendatory Letter of Trefi 

Cic 53* batius, will fhew both what a (hare he poffefled 

L Domiti- at c ^ s ** me °f Csefar*s confidence, and with what 

ixsAHENo- an affe&ionate zeal he ufed to recommend hit 

•arbus, friends. 
A. Claudi« 

ThI*. 1 " " ciccro t0 C « fer Emperor, 








" See, how I have perfuaded myfelf to con- 
fider you as a fecond felf •, not onely in what 
affedts my own intereft, but in what concerns 
my friends: I had refolved, whitherfoever I 
went abroad, to carry C. Trebatius along with 
me •, that I might bring him home, adorned 
with the fruits of my care and kindnefs : but 
fince Pompey's ftay in Rome has been longer 
than I expe&ed, and my own irrefolutiori, to 
which you are no ftrangcr, will either wholly 
hinder, or at leaft retard, my going abroad at 
all •, fee, what I have taken upon myfelf: 
I began prefently to refolve, that Trebatius 
fhould expedl the fame things from you, 
which he had been hoping for from me •, nor 
did I allure him with leis frankneis of your 
good will, than I ufed to do of my own : but 
a wonderfull incident fell out, both as a tefti- 
mony of my opinion, and a pledge of your 
humanity; for while I was talking of this 
very Trebatius at my houfe, with our friend 
Balbus, your Letter was delivered to me •, in 
the end of which you faid ; as to M. Orfus % 
whom yon recommended' to me> I will make him 
even King of Gaul, or Lieutenant to Lepta ; fend 

[c] M. Curtio Tribur.atum Casfar nominatim Curtio pa- 

ab eo petivi. — lb. 2. 15. Ep. ratum effe refcripfit, meam- 

Fam. 7. 5. que in rogando verecundiam 

Dc Tribunatu — mihi ipfo objurgavit. AdQuin. 3. f. 

" me 


,c me another therefore* if ympleafe* whom I may a. Urb. 699+ 
u prefer. We lifted up our hands, both I and Ci fj3- 
" Balbus ; the occafion was fo pat, that it feem^ L £ ofl - 
" ed not to be accidental, but divine. I fend ^3 AhbhoI 
a you therefore Trebatius; and fend himfo, as bar bus, 
< c at firft indeed I defigned, of my own accord, A. Claudi* 
a but now alfo by your invitation : embrace him, us Pu? " 
" my dear Csefar, with all y*ur ufual courtefy ; 

* and whatever you could be induced to do for 
" my friencjs, out of your regard to me, confer 
cc it all fingly upon him, I will be anfwerable 
** for the man ; not in my former ftile, which 
" you juftly rallied, when I wrote to you about 
" Milo, but in the true Roman phrafe, which 

* men of fenfe ufe; that there is not an honefter t 
c< worthier* modifier man living: I muft add, 
" what makes the principal part of his chara&er, 
" that he has a lingular memory, and perfeft 
" knowledge of the civil Law* I alk for him, 
" neither a Regiment nor Government, nor any 
" certain piece of preferment; I afk your bene- • 
u volence and generality* yet am not againft 

* the adorning him, whenever you fhall think 
" proper, with thofe trappings alfo of glory : in 

* fliort, I deliver the whole man to you, from 

* my hand, as we fay, into yours, iiluftrious 
u for viftory and faith. But I am more impor- 
" tunate than I need be to you •, yet I know 
** you will excufe it. Take care of your health, 
cc and continue to love me, as you npw do [d].' 9 

Trebatius was of a lazy, indolent, ftu- 
dious temper ; a lover of books and good com- 
pany ; eagerly fond of the pleafures of Rome ; 
and wholly out of his element in a Camp : and 
bcc^ufc Cflefar, through the infinite hurry of his 

y\ Ep. Fam. 7. 5. 

H 3 affain, 

ipo Tbe H i s to r y of the Life 

A. Urb, 699. affairs, could not prefently admit him to his ft- 
c £* 5> miliarity, and prefer him fo foon as he expe&ed, 

L Dom'iti- ^ e wa5 tlre ^ °* ^ c drudgery of attending him, 
us Ahi*q- and impatient to be at home again. Under thefe 
iarbus, circumftances, there is a feries of Letters to him 

A. Clausi- f TQm Cicero, written not onely with the difin- 
c«er! L " terefted affeftion of a friend, but the folHcitude 
even of a parent, employing all the arts of infi- 
nuation, as well of the grave, as of the facetious 
kind, to hinder him from ruining his hopes and 
fortunes by his own imprudence, " He laughs at 
" his childifh hankering after the City ; bids him 
" reflect oh the end, for which he went abroad, 
" and purfue it with conftancy, obferves from 
• c . the Medea of Euripides, that many had ferved 
" themfelves and the public well, at a diftance 
•* from their Country ; whilft others, by fpend- 
%% ing their lives at home, had lived and died 
•' inglorioufly; of which number, jays be, you 
<c would have been one, if we had not thruft you 
i v c< out ; and fince I am now adting Medea, take 
* c this other leflbn from me, that be* who is not 
" wife for bimfelf is wife to no purpofe [*]." He 
rallies his impatience, or rather " imprudences 
#< as if he had carried a boncf, not a Letter to 
" Caefar, and thought" that he had nothing to 
** do but to take his money, and return home; 

[e] Tu modo ineptias iftas gerent, propterea funt im- 

Se dcfideria urbis & urban ita- probati. 

lis depone : $ quo confilio 

profe&us es, id afljduitate & Quo in numero tu certe 

virtute confequere.— fuifles, nifi te extrufiflemus— 

& ^uando Medeam agere 

Nam mi|lti fuam rem bene ccepi, iUud Temper memento, 
geflere & poplicam; patria qui ipfe fibi fapiens prodefle 
procul. . .non quit, nequicquam fcpitv 

}A*hi, quei domi aetatem a- Ep. Fam. 7. 6. 

** not 


w not recolle&ing, that even thofe, who foliow- A. Urb. 699* 
" ed King Ptolemy with* bonds, to Alexandria, Si c 'J 5 * 
" -had not yet brought back a penny of mo- L Denim. 
" ne Y [/]• You write me word, fays be, that u s Ahkno- 
* 4 Caefar now confults you; I had rather hear, barbus, 
" that he confults your Intereft [g]. Let me A - Claud?- 
| ft die, if I do not believe, fuch is your vanity, cHEm. L " 
" that you had rather be cgnfulted, than enrich- 
* ed by him [b]" By thefe railleries and perpe* 
tual admonitions he made Trebatius afhamed of 
his fofmefs, and content to ftay with Caefar, by 
whofe favor and generofity he was cured at laft 
of all his uneafinefs; and having here laid the 
foundation of his fortunes, florifhed afterwards , 
in the court of Auguftus, with the charadter of 
the moft learned J-awyer of that age [*"]. 

C^sar was now upon his fecond expedition 
into Britain ; which raifed much talk and expec- 
tation at Rome, and gave Cicero no fmall concern 
for the fafety of his Brother, who, as one of 
C*far*s Lieutenants, was to bear a confiderable 
part in it [k]. But the accounts which he re- 
ceived from the place, foon eafed him of his ap- 
prehenfions, by informing him, that there was 
nothing either to fear or to hope from the attempt 

[/] Subimprudens vide- lb. xi; 
bare; tanquam enim fyngra- [b] Moriar, ni, qua? tua 

pham ad Imperatorem, non gloria eft, puto te malle a 

epiftolam attulifles, fie, pe. Caefare confuli, quam inau- 

cunia ablata, domum redire rari. lb. 13. 
properabas. Nee tibi in men- [/]— Nifi quid tu, dodle 
tern veniebat, eos ipfos, qui Trebati 

cum fyngraphis venifTent A- DifTentis.— Hor.Sat.2.1. 79, 
lexandriam, nummum adhuc [>f] Ex Quinti fratris lite 

nullum auferre potuifle. lb. ris fufpicor jam eum efle in 

17' Britannia: fufpenfo animo 

lg] Confuli quidem . te a expefto quid agat. Ad Att. 

Casfare fcribis; fed ego tibi 4. 15. 
ab illo confuli vellem.— — 

H 4 no 

io* The History tf the Life 

A* Urb. 659. no danger from the people, nofpoils from the Couth 

C c'P' tr y W' * n a better t0 Atticus, we are in fufi 

L. Douni-P**/** fys he, about the Britijhwar: it is certain, 

viAheno that the accefs of the IJland isftrongfy for tiffed * and 

bar bus, it is known alfo already* that there is not a grain of 

*v« C PuL DI 'fi ver * n **> nor an 3 *bi n S e V e ^Jlaves* of whom 
cher. * y° u W *H fcarce expeff <wy* I dare fay* Jkilled in 
tnufic or Letters [»]. 'In another to Trebatius; 
I hear* that there is not either gold or filver in 
the IJland: if Jo* you have nothing to do but to take 
one of their chariots* and fly back to us [»]. 

From their railleries of this kind on the bar* 
harity and mifery of our IJland* one cannot help 
reflefting on the furprifing fate and revolutions 
of Kingdoms: how Rome* once the miftrefs of 
the world, the feat of ^rts, empire and glorj% 
now lies funk in floth, ignorance, and poverty; 
enflaved to the moft cruel, as well as to the 
mod contemptible of Tyrants, Superjliiion and 
religious Impojlure: while this remote Country, 
anciently the jeft and contempt of the polite Ro- 
mans* is become the happy feat of liberty, plen- 
ty, and letters; flouriflhing in all the arts and re- 
finements of civil life-, yet running perhaps the 
lame courfe, which Rome itfelf had run before it; 

[/] O jucundas mihi tuas lad jam cognitum eft, neqne 

de Britannia literas ! Time- argenti fcripulum efle ullura 

b,am Qceanum, timebam lit- in ilia infula, neque ullam, 

tus Infula*. Reliqua non e- fpempraedse, nifiexmancipi- 

quidem contemno. Ad is; ex quibus nullos puto 

Quint. 1. 16, te Uteris, aut mufic;s erudites 

De Britannicis rebus Cog- expe&are. Ad Att. ±. 16,. 
novi ex tuis Uteris, nihil efle [»] In Britannia nihil efle 

nee quod metuamus, nee quod audio neque auri neque ar- 

gaudeamus. lb. 3 1. genti. Id fi ita eft, efledam 

[;//] Britannici belli exitus aliquod fuadeo capias, & ad 

expe&atur. Conflat enim nos quam primum recurras. 

aditus infulac munitos efle Ep. Fam. 7. 7 
mirincis molibus. Edam il- 


*fM. rUL LIUS CIC ERO. 105 

Gom virtuous induftry to- wealth; from wealth A. Urb.699, 
to luxury; from luxury to an impatience of dif- Cic - j3- 
cipline, and corruption of morals ; till by a total T 1 ^ p "* 

1 1 1' r c ' 1 • L. DOMITlw 

degeneracy and lots of virtue, hemg grown ripe usAheno- 
for deftru&ion, it falls a prey at laft to fome har- barbus, 
dyoppreflbr, and, with thelofs of liberty, lofing A. Cbaud^ 
every thing elfe thftt is valuable, finks gradually us Pul " 

• • • • • 1 u L T ■ CHBB t 

again into its original barbariim. 

Cicero taking it for granted, that Trebatius 
followed Caefar into Britain, began to joke with 
him upon the wondetfull figure that <? Britijh 
Lawyer would make at Rome ; and* as it was bis 
frofejfton to guard other people's fafety, bids him be- 
ware that be bimfeif was not caught by the Britijh 
charioteers [o]. But Trebatius, it feems, knew 
how to take care of hknfelf without Cicero's ad* 
vice; and when Casfar patted over to Britain, 
chpfc to ftay behind in Gaul: this gave a frefli 
handle for raillery ; and Cicero congratulates bim % 
v upon being arrived at laft into a country, 
" where he was thought to know fomething; 
** that if he had gone o^fer alfo to Britain, there 
" wpuld r\ot have been a man in all that great 
" Ifland, wifer than himfelf.— " He obferves, 
'* that he was much more cautious in military, 
" than in civil contefts ; and wonders, that be- 
" ing fuch a lover of fwimming, he could not be 
c ? perfuaded to fwim in the Ocean 5 and when 
" he could not be kept away from every fhew 
" of Gladiators at T^ome, had not the curiofity 
" to Tee the Britijh charioteers: he rejoices how- 
ct ever, after all, that he did not go \ fince they 

[0] Mira enira perfona in- dicifli, in Britannia ne ab 
duci poteft Britannici Juris elTedariis decipiaris caveto. 
confulti. Ep. Fam. 7. xi. lb. 6. 

"To, qui cseteris cavere di- 

«< fhould 

104 Tie H i s T o r y of the Life 

A. Urb. 699. " Should not now be troubled with the imperti- 
Cic. 51. « nencc of his Britilh ftories [p]" 

CofE. Quintus Cicero, who hfld a genius for 

us Aheno- poetry, was projecting the plan of a poem, upon 
bakbus, their Britijh expedition, and begged bis Brother's 
fk. Clau di- affiftance in it: Cicero approved the defign, and 
us Pul- o5f crV ed upon it, that the nature and fituation of 
places fo Jirange, the manners of the people, their 
battles with them, and the General himfelf defar, 
were excellent fubjefts for poetry \ but as to his qffift- 
ance, it was fending owls to Athens : that Quin- 
tus, who had jmijhed' four Tragedies infixteen days, 
could not want either help or fame in that way, after 
his Eleftra and the Troades [j]. In other letters, 


[/] Eft, quod gaadeas, te 
IB ifta loca venifle, ubi ali- 
quid fapere viderere: quod 
ft in Britanniam quoque pro- 
fe&usefles, prore&o nemo in 
iila tanta infula te peritior 
fiiiilet— Sed tu in re militari • 
multo es cautior quam in ad* 
vocationibus : qui neque in 
oceano natare vokiifti, homo 
jtudiefifiimtt natandi*. neque 
fp^dace efledarios, quern an- 
tea ne Audabatam quidem 
defraudare po tetanias, lb. x. 

hk Britanniam teprofe&um 
non efle gaudeo, quod & 
labore caruifti, & ego te de 
iliis rebus non audiam. lb. 

The little hint here given, 
of Trebatius's love of /nvim- 
ming% adds a new light and 
beauty to that paflage of Ho- 
race, where the Poet intro- 
duces him, advifmg, tofivim 
tkrice cro/i the Tiber, to cure 

the want of fleep; the advice, 
it feems, being peculiarly a- 
greeable to his own practice 
and character. 

-ter un8i 

Tranfnanto Tiberim,fomno qui-* 
bus eft of us alto. 

Sat. 2. 1. v. 8, 

[f] Te vero ti-rtfeaip fcri- 
bendi egregiam habere vi- 
deo. Quos tu fitus,quas na- 
tures rerum & locorum, quos 
xnores,quas gentes, quas pug' 
nas, quern vero ipfum Irape- 
ratorem habes? Ego te li- 
benter, ut rogat, quibus re- 
bus vis, adjuvabo, & tibi 
verbis, quos rogas, yxavvt 
tU Arrets mittam. Ad Quint, 
2, *6. 

Quatuor Tragcedias, cum 

xvi diebus abfolvifle fcribas, 

tu quidquam ab alio mutua- 

rU't & kAj®- quaeris, cum 


%J& PUL- 


he anfwers more feriouQy •, that it was impofjibU A. Urb. 699, 
to conceive, how much he wanted IHfurefor verfify- C £*p m 
ing: that to write verfes required an eafe and cbear- L ^^ 1Tlw 
fultnefs of mind, which the times had taken from v* AhenoI 
tim% and that his poetical flank was quite extin- barbus, 
guijhed by the fad profpett of things before them [r]. A * Claudia 

He had fcnt Caefar his Greek Poem, in three 
looks, on the hiflory of bis ConfulJhip\ andC«far*s 
judgment upon it was, that the beginning of it 
was as good as any thing, which be bad ever feen 
in that language, but that the following lines, to a 
certain place, were not equal in accuracy and fprit % 
Cicero defires therefore to know of his Brother, 
what Cafar really thought of the whole ; whether the ' 
matter or the ftile difpleafed him ; and begs that be 
would teU him the truth freely ; fmce whether Ca- 
far liked it or not, he Jbould not, he fays, be a jot 
the lefs pleafii with bimfelf [s]. He began how- 


Ele&ram & Troadem fcrip- 
fcrispi— lb. 3. 6. 

N. B. Thefe four Trage- 
dies, faid to be written \n 
fixteen Jays, cannot be fup- 
pofed to have been original 
produ&ions, but tr an flat ions 
from fome of the Greek Po- 
ets, of which Quintus was a 
great Matter; finifhed by him 
in haft for the entertainment 
of the Camp : for the word 
Troadem in the text, the name 
of one of them, (hould moft 
probably be TroaJes, the title 
of one of Euripides'* Plays; 
as the EleSra alfo was. 

[r] Quod me de faciendii 
verfibus rogas, incredible 
eft, mi frater, quantum ege- 
am tempore— Facerem ta- 

soen ut poffem, fed— opus 
eft ad poema quadam ammi 
alacritate, quam plane mihi 
tempora eripiunt — lb. 3. c. 

De verfibus — deeft mihi* 
opera, quae non modo tem- 
pus, fed etiam animum ab 
omni cura vacuum defiderat ; 
fed abeft etiam IvteciatiLh 
— ^.&c, lb. 4. 

[j] Sed heus tu, celari vi- 
deor a te, quomodonam, mi 
frater, de noftris verfibus Cae- 
far ? Nam primum librum 
fe legiiTe fcripfit ad me ante: 
& prima fie, ut neget fe ne 
Graeca quidem meliora legif- 
fe; reliqua ad quendam lo- 
cum ladu/xwTsp*. Hoc enin* 
utitur verbo. Die mihi ve- 
rum, num aut res eum aut 

ig6 The History of the Life 

A, Urb. 699. ever another Poem, at his Brother's earned re* 

Cic *£ 3% queft, to be addrefled to Caefar, but after ibme 

t twI".... proerefs was fo diiTatisfied with it, that he tore 

i/sAh*no-ic [/J: yetQuintus ftill urging, and figmfying, 

bar bus, that be bad acquainted Qafar with the defign, he 

At Claudi- was obliged to refume it, and actually finilhed an 

cbb*/*" ^P c P cm * n b onour *f C*fo r > which be promifes 
to fend as foon as he could find a proper convey-* 
ance, that it might not be loft, as Quint us' $ Tragedy 
of Erigone was in coming from Gaul ; the onely 
thing, fays he, wbicb bad not found a fafe paffage % 
Jtnce Cafar governed that Province [«]. 

While Cicero was exprefiing no fmall difla-r 
tisfa&ion at the meafures, which his prefent fitu- 
ation obliged him to purfue, Caefar was doing 
every thing in his power, to make him eafy : be 
treated bis Brother with as much kindnefs, as if 
Cicero himfelf bad been Ins General j gave him the 
choice of bis winter quarters, and the Legion, 
wbicb be beft liked [#] : and Clodius happening to 
write to him from Rome, be Jhewed the Letter to 
Quintusy and declared that be npould not anfwer it j 

%apa*\$p non dele&at? Ni- folvam, habeo abfblutuni fua* 

hil eft quod vereare. Ego vc, mihi quidem uti ridetur, 

enim ne pilo quidem minus ?«<&' ad Csefarcm. Sed quse- 

meamabo. — -lb. 2. 16. rolocupletemtabellarium, ne 

[/] Poema ad Caefarem, accidat quod Erigonse tux; 

cfuod compoifiieram, incidi. cui foli, Csefare Imperatore, 

— — lb. 3. 1 . §. 4. iter ex Gallia tutum non fuit» 

[«] Quod me inftitutum lb. g. 

ad ilium Poema jubes perfi- [*] Quintum meum 

cere ; etfi diftentus turn ope- Dii boni ! quemadmoduni 

ra, turn animo fum multo traflat, honore, dignitate, 

roagis, quoniam ex epiftola, gratia? Non (ecus ac fi ego 

quam ad te miferam, cogno- eflem Imperator. Hibernamj 

vit Caefar me aliquid efle ex* Legionem eligendi optio de- 
orfom ; revertar ad inflitu- " lata commodum, ut ad me 

turn. lb. 8. fcribit. Ad Att 4. 18. 

(jhaod mc hortaris, ut ab- 



though Quintus civilly preffed bim not to put futh an a. Urb. 699. 
affront upon Clodius for their fakes [y] : In the Cic -53- 
inidft of all his hurry in Britain, he fent frequent L *j°"- 
accounts to Cicero, in his own hand, of his pro- ^ s AhenoI 
grefs and fuccefs, and, at the inftant of quitting barbus, 
the ifland, wrote to bim from the very Jbore, of A * Claud*- 
tbe embarkment of the troops, and bis having taken ua PuL " 
hoftages, and impofed a Tribute: and left be fhould QHt% * 
be furprized at having no Letters at the fame time 
from bus Brother, he acquaints him, that Quintus 
was then at a diftance from bim, dnd could not take 
the benefit of that exprefs : Cicero received all theft 
Letters at Rome, in lefs than a month after date, 
and takes notice in one of them, that it arrived on 
the twentieth day 9 a difpatch equal to that of our 
prefertt Couriers by the poft [z]. 

As to the news of the City this fummer, Ci- 
cero tells his Brother, " that there were fome 
" hopes of an election of Magiftrates, but thofe 
u uncertain; fome fufpicion of a Dictator, yet 
" that not more certain ; a great calm in the 
u Forum; but of a City, feemed to be quieted 
" rather by the effeds of age, than of concord : 

[y] * n 9 W primum eft dc Britannia reportabant. Ad 

Clodii ad Caefarem Uteris, Att. 4. 17. 

in quo Caefaris confilium Ex Britannia Caefar ad me. 

probo, quod tibi amantiflime Kal. Sept. dedit litcras : quas 

petertti veniam non dedit, nt ego acoepi A. D. JUL Sal. 

ttliam ad illam Furiam ver- Oftob. iatis commodas de 

bum refcriberet— Ad Quint. Britannicis rebus : quibus, ne 

3. 1 . §.' 4. admirer, quod a te nullas ac- 

[*] Ab Quinto fratre & a ceperim, fcribit fe fine te f«- 

Caefare accepi A. D. IX. ifle, cum ad mare accelferit. 

Kal. Nor. literas, confeAa Ad Quint. 3. 1. §.7 

Britannia, obfidibus acceptis, Cum hanc jam Epiftolam 

nulla prsda, imperata taraea complicarem, tabellarii a vo- 

pecunia, datas a littoribus bis venerunt ad D. XL Kal, 

Britanniae, proximo A. D. Sept. vicefimo die. lb. 4, i. 

VL Kal. Oftob. exercicum $. 5. 

" that 

tc8 TAe HisTofcYj/ 1 /^ Life 

A. Urb. 699. €C that his own conduft, as well in public, a& irt 
Cic. 53. " private, was juft what Quintus had advifed, 
Coff. «c fofter than the tip of his ear ; and his votes 
^s'ahbho- " in the Se nate foch > as plcafcd others, rather 
■arbus, " than himfelf. 
us Pul- cc Such ills does wretched war and difcord breed, 


€i that bribery was never carried (6 high, as at 
" this time, by the Confular candidates, Mem- 
" mius, Domitius, Scaurus, Meffala ; that they 
c< were all alike 5 no eminence in any ; for mo* 
€C ney levelled the dignity of them all i that 
4< above eighty thoufand pounds Was promifed 
" to the firft Tribe ; and money grown lb fcarce, 
€< by this profufion of* it, that intereft was rifcn 
4< from four to eight per Cent '[a]." 

Memmius and Cn. Domitius, who joined 
their interefts, made a ftrange fort of contract 
with the Confuls, which was drawn up in writ- 
ing, and attefted in proper form by many of 
their friends on both fides; by which, " the 
*• Confute obliged themfelves, to ferve them 
" with all their power in the enfuing ele&ion j 
*• and they on their part undertook, when cleft- 
" cd> to procure for the Confuls what Provinces 

I s - 


] Res Romane fie ft Tot***? J *typ*t rfKftot; H- 

b*nt, Erat nonnullafpes tpy^iW Eurijt. IketicL 
comitioram, fed inccrta: e- 

rat aliqua fufpido Di&atu- Ambitus redit irnmcmw, ntm- 

tm, neeaquidemcerta: fiim- quam par fait. Ad Quiet. 

mum otium fbtenfe; fed 3. 15. 

feneicentis magis civitatis, Scqucre me nunc in Cam* 

011am adquicfoentis* Senten- pum. Ardet ambitus : <r$- 

tm autem noftra in Senatu n* U fat tp«» ; fceriu* ex tri* 

nodi, magis ut alii nobis ente Idib. Quint, fa&um erat 

itiantur, quam nofmct beffibus — iloyft in nnllo eft, 

r fi,— pecunia omnium dignitatem 

exsequat— Ad Att. 4-15 

44 they 



u they defiredj and gave a Bond of above A. Urb. 699* 
" 3000/. to provide three Augurs, who fhould Cic -53- 
" teftify, that they were .prefent at making T £~' 
" a law for granting them thofe Provinces, us aheho- 
" when no fuch law had ever been made; and barbus, 
" two Confular Senators, who fhould affirm, A# Claudi- 
" that they were prefent likewife at pafling a de- us vu * 
w cree of the Senate, for furnifhing the fame 
" provinces with arms and money, when the 
" Senate had never been confulted about it [b]." 
Memmius, who was firongly fupported by C*~ 
far (YJ, finding fome reafon to diflike his bar- 
gain, refolved to break it, and, by Pompey's ad- 
rice, gave an account of it to the Senate. Pom- 
pey was pleafed with the opportunity of morti- 
fying the Confid Domitius; and willing likewife 
to take fome revenge on Appius, who, though his 
near relation, did not enter fo fully as be expeBei 
into bis tneafures [d] : but Csefar was much out of 
humour at tbis Jiep [e] ; as it was likely to raife 
great fcandal in the City, and ftrengthen the in* 
tereft of thofe who were endeavouring to re- 
frain that infamous corruption, which was the 

[&] Confutes flagrant in- Senatus qvidem fuiflet. Haec 

famia, quod' C. Memmius paclio non verbis fed no* 

candidates pa&ionem in Se- minibus 8c perfcriptionibus, 

nam recitavit, quam ipfe 8c multorum tabulis cum effe 

fuuscoropedtorDoaritiuscum fafta diceietur, prolata a 

Confulibus feciiTent, uti am- Memmio eft nominibu* in- 

bo H. S. quadragena Confu- du&is, auttore Pompeio— — ■ 

libus darent, fi eflent ipfi AdAtt. 4. 18. 

Confutes facli, nifi tres Au- [c] Memmium Caefaris 

gures dediflent, qui fe ad- omnes opes confirman t ■■ 

fuiiTe dicerent, cum lex cu- lb. 15. 17. 

riata ferretur, quae lata non • JV] D10. 1. 39. p. 118. 

cflet ; 8c duo Confulares, qui [<] Ut qui jam intelligo* 

fe dicerent in ornandis pro* bemua enunciationem illam 

vinciis confiilaribus fcriben- Memmii vaide Caefari difpli- 

do affui-Te, cum omnino ne cere— Ad Att. 4. 16. 

1 main 

no ' ¥be History of the Life 

A* Urb. 699. rtiain inftrnment of advancing his power. Ap- 

C p* 5 ** P* us never changed countenance* nor loJt x arty credit 

L. Domiti-^ '** difcovery* but bis collegue Domitius* who 

vs Aheko- affe&ed the charafter of a Patriot, was extremely 

sarbus, difcompofed* and Memmius* now growh defperate % 

A. Claudi- re joi ve d to promote the general diforder and the area- 

•che* 7 . 1 * tion of a Diffator [f]. 

Quintus fent his Brother word from Gaul, 
that it was reported there* that be teas prefent at 
this contrail: but Cicero aflufes him that it was 
. falfe, and that the bargain was of fucb a nature \ 
as Memmius bad opened it to the Senate* tbat no 
boneft man could bave been prefent at it [g\ Th6 
Senate was highly incenfed ; and to check the 
infolence of the parties concerned, pajfed a decree* 
tbat their conduit Jhould be inquired into by what 
they called a private or filent judgement ; where 
the Sentence was not to be declared till after the* 
eledtion, yet fo, as to make void the eledkion of 
thofe who fhould be found guilty: this they 
refolved to execute with rigor, and made an al- 
lotment of Judges for tbat purpofe : but fome of 
the Tribuns were prevailed with to interpofe tbeit 
negative* on pretence of hindering all inquifttions* 
not fpectally authorized by the people [£]. 


[/] Hie Appms erat i- modi enim pa&iones in ifla 

dejn ; nihil lane ja&urae. coitione fa&ae funt, quas po- 

Corraerat alter, & plane, in- ftea Memmius pate fecit, at 

quam, jacebat. Memmius nemo bonus interefle debut* 

autem— plane refrixerat, & rijt — Ad Quint. 3. 1. §.5. 

co magis nunc cogitare dicla- [h] At Senatus decrevit tit 

turam, turn favere juftitio & taciturn judicium ante comi- 

omnium rerum licentiae.—— . tia fieret — —Magnus timor 

I. 1 9. Candidatoram. Sed quid am 

.[#] Ql?od Tcribis te au- Judices — Tribunos pi. appel- 

difie, in Candidaterum Con- larunt, ne injuflu populi ju- 

fularium coitione me inter- dicarent. Res cedit, comi- 

fuifle, id falfura eft. Ejufi- tia dilau ex S. C. dum lex de 



T'Hts deteftabie bargain of forging laws and A, Urb. 699. 
decrees at pleafuvr, ki-which fo many of the firft ^JS* 
rank were concerned, either as Principals or wit- L# ^omiti- 
Defies, is alkdged by an ingenious French writer, „ s ahbno- 
as a flagrant inftaoce of that Libertinifm* whkb bakbu*, 
bofiemd the deftruSHon of Rome [*]. So far are A - Claudi- 
private vices from being puilic fatufits, that this "*,"" 
great Republic, of all others the moft free and 
floriihing, owed the lo& of its Liberty to nothing 
dfe but a general defe&ion of its Citiz* ns, from 
the probity and discipline of their ancestors. Ci- 
cero often foretells their approaching ruin from 
this very caufe* and, when he bewails the wretch- 
dnefe of the times, ufually joins the wfckednefs of 
their morals, as the genuin foorcc of it [*]• 

But leftthefecorrupcCandidatesfliouklefcape 
without puniihment, they were all publicly im- 
peached by different Profecutors, and the City 
was now in a great ferment about them ; fince, 
as Cicero fays, either the mm or the law muft ne- 
ceffarify ferijh : yet thy will alt, fays he, he ac< 
quilted •, for trials are now managed fo corruptly, 
that no man will ever be condemned for the future, 
unlefsfor murder [ / ]. But Q^Scsevola, one of 

tacito judicio ferretur. Venit veteran dignitatem & liber- 

legi dies, Terentius inter- tatem vindicaturus. £p. 

ceffit. Ad Att. 4. 16. Fam. 2.5. 

[/]' Confiderations furies [/] De ambitu poftulati , 

caufes de la grandeur, &c. funt omnes, qui confulatum 

it Remains. C. X. petant - Magno re* in motu 

[*] His prsefertim moribus eft. Proptera quod aut ho- 

atque temporibus, quibus ita ininum ant legum interitus 

prolapfaRefp. eft, ut omnium oftenditur- Ad Quin. 3. 2. 
opibus refrasnanda, ac coer- Sed omnes abfohrentur, 

cenda fit. De Divin. 2. 2. nee pofthac quifquam dam- 

Qni fit Remp. afHiaam Sc nabitur, nifi qui bominem 

oppwffiun miferis tempori- occiderit. Ad Att. 4. 16. 
bus, ae^erditis moribus, in 

Vol. II. 1 th^ 

U2 We History of the Life 

A. Urb. 699. the Tribuns, took a more effectual way to nior- 

Cic. 53. tify them, by refolving to bipder any eleftion of 
Coff. Confuls during his Magiftracy; in which heper- 

usA°HEN T o*fc vcred » and b y his authority difohed all the af 

ba*bus, f whites, convened for thai purpofe [«].. The 
A. Cl au di- Tribunician Candidates however were remarkably 

us Pul- niodefk this year : for they made an agreement 
among themfelves, which they all confirmed by 
an oath, " that in profecuting their fcveral in- 
" terefts, they would fubmit their condudt to 
" the judgment of Cato, and depofit four thou- 
" fand pounds apiece in his hands, to be for- 
" feited by thofe, whom he fhould condemn of 
" any irregular pra&ice. . If the eleftion proves 
s " free, fays Cicero, as it is thought it will, Catp 

" alone can do more than all the Laws and all 
" the Judges [»]." . 

A great part of this year was taken up in pub- 
lic trials : Suffenas and C. Cato, who had been 
Tribuns two years before, were tried in thfe be- 
ginning of July, for violence and breach of peace 
in their Magiftracy, and both acquitted: but 
Procilius, one of their. Collegues, " was con- 
" demned for killing a Citizen in his own houfe: 
" whence we are to colleft, fays Cicero, that our 
" Afeopagites value neither bribery nor elec- 
" tions, nor interregnums, nor attempts againft 
" the State, nor the whole Republic, a rufh : we 

[m] Comitiorum quotidie petituros : apud cum H. S. 

iinguli dies tolluntur obnun- quingena depofuerirat 5 ut 

ciationibus, magna voluntate qui a Catone damnatus effet, 

bonorum — Ad Quin. 3.3. id pcrderet, & competi tori bus 

ObnunciatidnibusperScae- tribueretur—Si comitia, ut 

volam interpofitis, fingulis p titan tur, gratuita fuerint; 

diebus— Ad Att. 4. 16. , plus unus # Catopotuerit,quam 

[«] Tribunhii Candidati omnes quidem judices. lb. 

juraruntfe arbitrio Catonia 15* Ad Quin. 2. 15. 

" muft 

o/M.rVL LI US CICERO. 113 

" muft not mufther a man indeed in his own A. Urb.699. 
" houfe, though that perhaps might 'be done Cic -53- 
" moderately, fince twenty-two acquitted Pro- y 9°": . \_ 
" cilius, when twenty-eight condemned him \/\ n ^ s Akeko- 
Clodius was the accufer in thefe impeachments : bah bus, 
which mfcde- Gato, as foori as\be was acquitted, A.Claudi- 
fiek a reconciliation with Cicero and Milo [il It 

was not Cicero's bufinefs to rejeft the friendlhip 
of an adtive and popular Senator ; and Milo had 
occafion for his fervice in his approaching fait f<?r 
the Confulfhip. $ut though Cicero had no con- 
cern in thefe trials, he was continually employed 
in others, through the reft of the fummer : " I 
" was never, fays be, more bufy in trials than 
" now ; in the worft feafon of the year, and the 
c * greateft heats, that we have ever known 5 
<c there fcarce pafles a day in which I do not de- 
" fend fome [q]" Befides his Clients in the 
City, he had feveral towns and colonies under 
his patronage, which fometimes wanted his help 
abroad, as the Corporation of Reate did now, to 
plead for them before the Conful Appius, and ten 
CommiffwnerS) in a coiitroverfy with their neigh- 
bours of Inter amna y about draining the lake Veli- 
nus into the RiiJif Nar, to the damage of their 

[0] III; -Non: Qaint. Saf- ' [p] Is tamen & mecum & 

fenas & Cato abfoluti : Pro- cam Milone in gratiam redi- 

cilios condemnatus. Ex quo it. lb. 16. 

iatelie&um eft, rpicayiiora- [f] Sic cnim habeto nun- 

ylraq* ambitum, comitia, in- ouamme a caufis & judictfs 

terregnum, majeftatem, to- aiftri&iorem fuifle, atque id 

tain deniqne Remp. flocci anni tempore graviffimo, ft 

aon facere. Debemus patrem caloribus maximis. AdQuint. 

familias domi fuae occidere 2. 16. 

nolle, neque taniem id ipfum Diem fcito efle nullum, 

abunde. Nam ablblvcrunt quo aon dico pro reoV lb. 3. 

22, condemnarunt a8*»— 3. 
Ad Alt. 4. 15. 

I z grounds. 

us Pul- 


j 14 $h* Hijto,** tf tH Life 

A. Utb.6gp. grounds. He retuped from this caufc in the 
C r P' m *d& °^ ^ ApoVinarian jbeys ; and, to fe&ve 
L. Doi^tx- bMelf from tHc fatigue of his journey, went di- 
va Ahino- re&ty to the theater, where he wt received by an 
ja»bus, univcrSal clap : in the account of tfhiph to Atti- 
A. Clac0i- CUSf £c adds, hut this you are not to, take notice of, 

ckB»! L * 4** *?* *fid*nfati tyfeifM *W&W*g it {rj. 
B* now alfo defended fylefiuh one of Qe- 
^r 5 Lieutenants, wfo cohr from Gai*l ?* ^l^^ 
iQ take his trial : then Drufus, accqfed pf preva- 
Tteating or ktraytpg ? ca$fc> which ho kf4 * W- 
tafyn to4tfen&\ of which he yvas acquitted by a 
wjerity eudy of four vofa* : After that Vatiaius, 
fhe laft year's Prator 9 and JEraUws Seaurus, one 
of the Coniular Candidates, acwjid of plundering 
the Province of Sardinia 0] i and about the fame 
tiqie likpwifc his old friend, Cp. Phurcitis ; who 
had entertained higi {bgeocrouflyin his esil, and 
being npw chofen JJLdik* w accufed by a dif- 
qppointed Competitor, M. Latercnfis, of bribery 
qna corruption. All tfcefe were acquitted, but 
the Orations lor them are loft, ewept chat for 
PJancius ; which remains a perpetual monument 
of Cicero's gtatitudc : lor Planciws haying ob- 
tained the Tribunate from the people* a* the ft* 

M Raattni roe ad fua Drufiwesatde piwarica- 

9%nT«t duxeront, at ageicm tiout^afcfokitaa, in fiuama 

caufam contra Interamnate* oaatoor Antenim-- Eodem 

-r- R edii Ron»am— Veni in cie poft meridiem Yaikiom 

JpeQaciiIujn * primam att- aderam de&nfenu % ea res 

na # *<$uaUali ptaofo, (fed facilis ■ i ■ Scaaiijadyiam 

bffene curarit; ego incptut ftatim exeaeebitnr, csi nos 

qui fcripfcxim)— -Ad Att. nan detrimas. Ad Qgin. 2. 


npb*, e 

Mef&asdc&afldhaftiifa . Scaornm beneficio. dc&n- 

, e legation* mrocatas fionit valda obligari.— ft. 

— — Dcinde me expedio ad 3* u §• 5. 
Drafum, inde ad Scaorum. 
-^ Ibid. 

5 ward 

of M. TULLIVS CTCkRO. lis 

wanf of hi* fidelity to Gicero; did not bfelme A; tJrB; 6%. 
himfelf in that poft, with the fame affcdion 4 td &&£$• 
him *s4jtfof*, but fcems ffudkmflv ta ha*e flight- L $ru'rt 
idhitn; Mite feveral of his Gollegites, dnd efc vsAHttitl 
pecially Rat!Kus r tbtre exerting all t&eir power in BXaiui» f 
the defbtvt df bis f&Jb* and dipnty [/]. Yfct Ci- *• CtAVDf- 
cero freely undertook his caufe, and as if no *„£ L ~ 
eoldneft Had intervened, dHpdayed the mferit of 
his fenrices in the maft pathetic ahd afffeftirtg 
manner 5 4nd tefcufcd firm from the hands of a 
powerfiifl accufer; and his oiirn particular friend, 
44 Drafts'* trial was hdd in the mornifn*; fronfr 
a which, after gdmg home to write 4 *!* Let- 
u ters, he ms obliged to nettirn to Vatiriiui's in 
u the afternoon :* which gives us a lj>ccimen of 
the hurry in which he generally lived, and oB 
the Rtde time which he had to fpend upon his' 
private affkirs, or his ffcudies; and though her 
was now carrying on fevefal great works of the 1 
learned" kind, " yet he had no other lfeifarfc, ht 
M tells ttr> for meditating and compofitrg, but 
4 * when He was taking. * fett tutn* in his gar- 
" deny, for the exencrfe df his* body : and re* 
" frefhment of Ms vdfc* [>]." Vatinius 1 had 
been cfae of Bis fitrceft erienrties 5 was in a per- 
petual oppofitiori to hirri irr politics ; and, like 
Bcftia mentioned' above?, a' ladjtutas, profligate/ 
abandoned Libertine: fo that the defence ofhini 
gave a plaufible handle for fame cenfure upon 
Cicero: fcut his engorgements with Pampey,, aid 
efpecialfy his new fnendfbip with Csefar, made it 
neceffary to embrace? all Cafar's friends \ among 

[ / ] Nega* Tribmiaf ori> moras, fee Pro Pkocio 32, / 

Planaiqttkqiiam&tniifiead'* [0] Ita quicquid conncio 

jumentidigmtatimee. Ac- ant cbgnito in aoiboiatutots 

qae hoc loco, quodterifimc fere tempttt can&ra. Ad 

facere potes. L. Racilii — Quint. 3.3. 
4ivina in me merita comme- 

I 3 whom . 

1x6 T6e History of the Life 

A. Urb. 699. whom Vatinius was moft warmly recommended 

Ci cn$?' to- him. 
L. DoMiTi- Cabin jus being recalled, as has been (aid, 
us Ah en 6- from his government, returned to Rome about 
bar bus, the end or September : he bragged every where 
A. Claud 1- on fa journey, that he was going to the demand 
chhr?^ °f a triuvtpbi and to carry on that force, conti- 
nued a while without the gates ; till perceiving 
how odious he was to all within, he Ji ok privately 
into the City by night, to avoid the difgrace of 
being infuli.ed by the populace [*]. There were 
three different impeachments provided againft him : 
the firft, for treafonable practices againft the Jlate-> 
the fecond, for the plunder of his province ; the 
thir& for bribery and corruptions and ib many 
perfons offered themfelves to be profecutors, 
that there was a conteft amang them before the Prae- 
tor, bow to adjujl their fever al claims [y ].. The 
firft indidtment fell to L. Lentulus, who accufed 
him the day after he entered the city, " that, 
" in defiance of religion and the decree of the 
m " Senate, he had reftored the King of Mgypt 
*/ with an army, leaving his own Province naked, 
" and open to the incurfion of enemies, who 
" had made great devaftations in it." Cicero* 
who had received from Gabinius all the provoca- 
tion, which one man could receive from an- 
other, had the pleafure to fee his infolent adver- 

[*] Ad urbem acceflitA.D. Tjj] Gabinium tres adhuc 

xii. Kal. Oft. nihil turpius, fattiones poftulant : &c. Ib. 

nee defcrtius. Ad Qu. Fr. i,§. 5. 

3/1. §.c. ^ Cum frfec fci?bebam ante 

Cum Gabinius, quacunque lucem, apud Catonem erat 

veniebat, triumphuiri fe po- divinatio in Gabinium fata- 

ftulare dixiffet, iubitoque 00- ra, inter Memmium, &Tu 

no* Imperator no&u in ur- Neronem, & C. & L. Anto* 

htm, -hoftinm plane, inva- fcios. Ib, z, - 

ffflft Ib.z, 

u. y > -.*.-. fary 

of MsTULLrlUS CICERO, 117 

fyy .at hi* feet 5 and was prepared to give him A-.Urb.699. 
fuch a reception, as he deferved: but Gabinius . , Ci ^53- 
durft not venture to fhew his head for the firft / J" 011 ' 
ten days, till he was obliged to come to th§ Se- ,) s ^heJo* 
nate, in order to give them an account, accord- barbis, 
iBg to> cuftom* of tbefiaieofbis Province^ and A. Claudi- 
the troops, wbick be. bad left in it; as foon as he us PuL " ' 
had told his (lory, he was going to retire, but. 
the Confuls detained him,- to anfwer to a com- 
plaint brought againlt him by tbe Publicans, or 
Fartmrs of tbe revenues^ who were attending at . 
the door to jmke it good. , This drew on 4 de- 
bate, in. which Gabinius was fo urged and teized 
on all fides, but efpeeially by Cicero, that, trem- 
bling with pajjionj and unable to contain bimfelf, he 
called Cicero abmifhed man: upon which, fays 
Cicero, in a Letter to. his Brother, " nothing . 
44 ever happened more honourable to me : the 
" whole Senate left their feats to a man, and 
with a general clamor ran up to his very face ; 
*' while the Publicans alfo were equally fierce 
" and clamorous againft him, and the whole 
" company behaved juft as you yourfelf would 
". have done [z].". . j 

. Cigbro had been deliberating for fome time, 
whether be Jbould not accufe Gabinius bimfelf - 9 but 
out of regard to Pompey % was content to appear 

[z] Interim ipfo decimo voce exulem appellavit. Hie, 

die, quo ipfum oportebat ho- O Dii, nihil unquam honori- 

ftium numerum & mllitum ficentius nobis accidit. Con- 

remmciare, in re hsefit, fum- furrexit Senatas cum clamore 

ma in frequentia : cam vel- ad unum, fie at ad corpus , . 

let exire, a Confulibus re- ejus accederet. Pari clamore 

tentuseft; introdu&i publi- atque impetu publicani.Quid 

cani. Homo undique a&us, quaeris ? Omnes, tanquam ii, 

cam ameinaxime vixlnerare- tu effei, ita fuerunt.— lb. f 
tur, nan talit,& me uementi 

I 4. onely 



A. Urb. 699. 

Cic. 53. 


L, Domiti- 

us Ahbno- 


A, Claudi- 
us Pul- 

%%e Histor? ef tbt Lift 
ondy as a wilntfs agarinft him [a] ; and when 
the trial was over, gives the following account 
of it to his Brother. 

u Gabinitts is acquitted: nothing was ever 
" fo ftupid, as his acufer J>ntu)tis ; nothing To 
«' fordid as the bench : yet if Pompey had not 
u t^ken incredible pains, and the rumour of a 
" Di&atorfhip had not infufed feme apprehen- 
*« fions, he could not have held up his head 
c< even agamft Lehtuius : fince with fuch an ae* 
* c cufcr, and fuch Judges; of the feventy-two, 
c< who fat upon him, thirty-two condemned 
c< him. The fentence is fo infamous, that he 
feems likely to fall in the other trials ; efpe- 
daily that ef, plunder; but there's rto Repub- 
lic, no Senate, no Juftice, no dignity in any 
of us : what can I fay more of the Judges ? 
There were but two of theijn of Praetorian 
rank, Domftius Calvinift, who acquitted him 
fo forwardly, that all the world might fee it; 
and Cato, who as foon as the votes were de- 
clared, ran officioufly from the Bench, to car- 
ry the firft news to Pompey. Some fay, and 
particularly Salluft, that I ought to have ac- 
cufed him : but Ihould I rifk my credit with 
futh Judges? What a figure (hould I have 
made, if he had efcaped from me. But there 
were other things, which influenced me: 
Pompey would have confidereq it as a ftrug- 
gle, not about Gabinius's fafcty, but his own 
dignity : it rniift have made a breach between 
us : we ftiould have been matched like a pair 
" of Gladiators ; as Pacidiaaqs, with &ferniQUs 






[a] Ego tamen me teneo 
sb accufando vix mehercule. 
St4 Utpcn teneo> vel quod 

nolo cum Pompeio jmgnare 1 
fatii eft, quodiaftat de Milo* 
w.— lb. 3. a. 

«« the 


" the S**nilt\ he would probably have bin 6ff A. Urb. 699. 
"one ef my ears, or been reconciled at kaft CiC *& 
« with Clodius«— for after all the pains, which L §£m 
u I had taken to ferve him \ wheft I owed ho- ^ Ah*no- 
" thing to him, he every thing to me; yet he baksos, 
<c would not bear my differing from him in pub- A - ^J^*** 
" lie affirirs, to fay no worfe of it; and when ^JJ 1 ' 
" he was Ie& powerfull tfiart he is at prefenr, 
" Ihewed what power he had againft me,' itt my 
" florflhing condition; why fhould J now, 
" when I have toft even all defire of powtr, 
tt when the Republic certainly has none; when 
" he alone has all ; chufe him of all men to 
« contend with ? for that muft have been the 
" cafe ? I cannot think that you would have 
" advifed me to it. Salluft fays, that I ought 
" to have done either the one or the other; 
" and in compliment to Pompey have defended 
" him ; Who begged it of me indeed vrfry car- 
« c neftly-— A fpecial friend this Salltrft! to wifh 
" me to involve myfelf either in a dangerous 
" enmity, or perpetual infamy. I am delight- 
" ed with my middle way; and when I had 
<c given my teftimony faithfully and reKgioufly, 
" was pleafed tp hear Gabinius fay, that if if 
u fhould be permitted to him to continue m the 
* City, he would make it his bufinefs to give 
" me fatisfa&ion; nor did he fo much as inter- 
a rogate me — [*}." He gives the feme ac- 
count of this trial to his other friends ; " how 
" Lemulus a&ed his part fo ill, that people 
" were perfuaded that he prevaricated — and 
" that Gabinius's efcapc was owing to she iftde* 
" fatigable induftry of Pompey, ami the corrupt 
" don of the Bench [4 M 


[t] Ad Quiat. 3. 4/ [c] Qaodnodo ergo abfo- 



A. Urb. 699, 

" *3f- JE3- - 


L. Domiti- 



>%he HistorV of the Life 

About the time of this trial there happened * 
a terrible inundation of the Tiber > which did much 
damage at Rome : many houfes and (hops were 
carried away by it, and the fine gardens of Cice- 
ro's fon-in-law % Craffipes % demolijbed. It was all 
A- Claud 1- charged to the abfolution of Gabinius, after his 
«her U . L ~ daring violation of Religion, and contempt of the 
SybiPs books: Cicero applies to it the follQwing 
paflage of Homer [d]. 

As when in autumn Jove bis fury pours % 
And earth is loaden with incejfant Jhowefs * 
When guilty mortals break tb % eternal laws* 
And Judges briVd betray the righteous caufe t 
From their deep beds be bids the rivers rife f 
And opens all the flood-gates of tbejkies. 

Mr. Pope, II. 1 6. v. 466, 

But Gabinius*s danger was not yet over : 
he was to be tried a fecond time, for the plunder 
of his Province ', where C. Memmius, one of the 
Tribuns, was his Accufer, and M. Cato his 
Judge, with whom he was not likely to find any 
favor: Pompey preffed Cicero to defend bim y 
and would not admit of any excufe; and Gabi- 
nius's humble behaviour in the late trial was in- 
tended to make way for Pompey's follicitation. 
Cicero ftbod firm for a long time : Pompey % fays 
he, labors bard with me y but has yet made no im- 

lutus?— Accufatorum in- 
credibilis infamia, id ell L. 
Lentuli, quern fremunt om- 
nes praevaricatum • . deinde 
Pompeii mira contention Ju- 
dicum fordes. ' Ad Att. 4. 
[d] R$nae, & maxime 

Appia ad Martis, mira pro- 
luvies. Craffi pedis arnbula- 
tk) ablata, horti, tabernae 
plurinia?. Magna vis aqute* 
ufqne ad pifcinara publicam. 
Viget illud Honieri— Cadit 
emxn in abfolutionemGabinii 
—Ad Quint. 3. 7. 



preffiotu, nor, if I retain a grain of liberty, ever A. Urb.699; 
williey, ... Cic.^. 

Oh! e'er that dire difgrace fhall blaft my fame, ^ 8 ^° H M E ITI * 
Overwhelm me earth //. 4. 2 1 8 . B A R B " S NQ " 

but Pompey's inceffant importunity, backed by i, s Pul-- 
Csefar*s eameft requeft, made it vain to ftruggle cher. 
any longer \ and forced him againft his judge- 
ment, his refolution and his dignity, to defend 
Gabinius ; at a time when his defence at laft 
proved of no fervice to him j for he was found 
guilty' by Cato, and cortdemried of courfe to a. 
perpetual banifhment. It is probable, that Ci- 
cero's Oration was never published, but as it was? 
his cuftom ro keep the minutes or rough draught 
of all his pleadings, in what he called bis Commen- 
taries^ which were extant many ages after his 
death [/]-, & St. Jerom has preferved from 
them a fmall fragment of this fpeech; which 
feems to be a part of the apology, that he found 
himfelf obliged to make for it ; wherein he ob- 
ferves, u that' when Pompey's authority had 
tf once reconciled him to Gabinius, it was no 
14 longer in his power to avoid defending him ; 
u for it was ever my perfuafioB, fays be, that » 
" all friendfhips fhould be maintained with a re- 
" ligious exa&nefs ; but efoecially thofe, which 
" happened to be renewed from a quarrel: for in 
" friendfhips, that have fuffered no interruption, 
" a failure of duty is eafily excufed by a plea of 

[e] Pompeins a me valde De Gabinio nihil fuit faci- 

contendit de reditu in gra tiara, end urn iftorum, &c. rorg jxot 

fed adhuc nihil profecit : nee %&vu. II. 4. 218. 
fi ullam partem libertatis te- [/] Quod fecifle M. Tul- 

nebo, proficiet.— Ad Quin. lium Commentariisipiiusap- 

3. 1. $. 5. paret. Quin til. 1. x. c. 7. 

. jf " ** iqadvertencyi 


lift T&e Histo*y of the Life 

A. Vrb.Sgg. Cf inadvertency, or, at the worft, of negligence; 
Gi f- 53- « w hcreas, if after a reconciliation any new of- 

1. Smiti- " fence ** &* cn * * ncvcr P*®* &* negligent, 
u» Am no-* butwilfull; and is not imputed to imprudence, 
bahbus, « &*/ to perfidy [f ]" 

A lP". UDI " T H B ProconfoU Lentutos, who refided ftill 
in Cilicia, having had an account from Rome, of 
Gccro's change of conduit, and bis defence of Vati- 
nius, wrote a fort of expoftulaiory Letter to him, 
to know the reafensofk* telling him, that be 
bad beard of bis reconciliation mtb Cafar and Ap* 
fins \ for which be did not blame bim 5 hut mas at 
a lofs bow to aeeount for bis new friendfbip with 
Craffus ; and above all, what it was* tbatindnced 
bim to defend Vatimus. This gave oceafion to 
that long and elaborate anfwer from Cicero, al- 
ready referred tot, written before Gabinius's trial; 
which would otherwife have made his apology 
more difficult, in which he lays opett the motives 
and progrefs of his whole behaviour from the 
time of his exil— 44 As to the cafe of Vaftioius, 
" he fays, as foon as he was chofeit Praetor, 
" where I warmly oppofed him in favour of Ca- 
44 to, Pompey prevailed with me to be recoir- 
44 tiled to him; and Caefar afterwards took fur- 
44 prizing pains with me to defend him ; to 
" which I contented, for the lake of doing what, 
" as I told the court a* the trial* tbe Para/ite, in 
44 the Eunuch, advifed the Patron to do : 

44 Whenever fbe talks of Pb*dria x do you pr* 
" fently praife Pamphila, 6?r. fc I begged of the 
" Judges, that fince certain perfons of diftm- 
44 gurfhed rank, to whom I was much obliged, 
44 were fo fond of my enemy, and aflfeftcd to 
4ft carefs him in the Senate before my face, 
a with all the marks of familiarity * and fince 
It] Vid. Fragment. Orationum. 

" thc 7 

gf #. TVLLIUS CICERO. i* 3 

" they had their Publius to give me jcaioufy, I a. Urb. 6q±. 
" might be allowed to have my Publius alio, to Cic - 53- 

" teixe them with ia imy turn ." Then as to ^ £ 1T _ 

hfc general conduct, he makes this general de- us ahen^ 

fence 1 u that the union and firmnefs of the bar bus, 

w tameft, which fuhfifted when Lentulus left A - Cla »"- 

" Romty confirmed, fays bt % by my Confulfhip, "af^ 1 *" 

u and revived by yours, is now quite broken 

" and deferted by thofe who ought to have 

" fupporled it, and were looked upon as Pa- 

V triots ; for. which reafbn, the maxims and 

(C meafures of all wife Citizens, in which clafs I 

" always wifh to be ranked, ought to be changed 

" too: for it is a precept of Plato, whole au- 

" thority has the greatcft weight with me, to 

".contend in public affairs, as far as we can pcN 

" iuade our Citizens, but not to offer violence, 

either to our Parent or our Country If I 

" was quite free from all engagements, I fhould 
? aft therefore as I now do •, fhould not think it 
" prudent to contend with £> great a power; 
" nar if it could be effc&ed, to extinguifh it in 
*' <Wr pnefeiit circumftances - y nor continue al- 
" ways in one. mind, when the things thcmfelvcs 
" and the fentiroents of the honeft are altered; 
" fincc a perpetual adherence to the famemcafurcs 
" has never been approved by thofc, who know 
M beft bow to govern eftates : but, as in failing, 
" it is the buiioefs of art to be directed by the 
" weather, and fbolife to perfeverc with danger i» 
" the courfe, in which we fct out, rather than by 
" changing it, to arrive with faicty, though later, 
" where we intended -, fo to us, who manage 
" public affairs, the chief end propafed being 
" dignity with public quiet, our bufinefs is not 
" to be always faying, but always aiming at the 
" lame thing, Whstsfore if all things, as I 

" laid, 

us Put- 

124 The History of the* Lift 

A. Urb. 699. <c fiud," were wholly free to me, I fhould be the 

Cic. 53. « fame man that I now am : but when I am in- 

Coff. « v j te( j to t fc s cor idufl: on the one fide by kind- 

us Ahbno* " neffes, and driven to it on the other by injuries, 

barbus, 44 I eafily fuffer myfelf fo vote and aft what I 

A ;5^y DI " " take to be ufeful both to myfelf and the Re- 
H P u bUc; and I do it the more freely, as well 
" on the account of my Brother's being Csefer's 
" Lieutenant* as that there is not the leaft thing, 
44 which I have ever faid or done for Ca?far, but 
" what he has repaid with fuch eminent grati- 
44 tude, as perfuades- me, that he takes himfetf 
44 to be obliged to me ; fo that I have as much 
44 ufe of all his power and intereft, which you 
44 know to be the greateft, as if they were my 
44 own : nor copld I otherwife have defeated the 
48 defigns of my defperate enemies, if to thbfe 
44 forces which I have always been matter of, I 
4C had not joined the favor of the men of power, 
4< Had you been here to advife me, I am per- 
44 fuaded, that I fhould have followed the lame 
44 meafures : for I know your good nature and 
44 moderation ; I know your heart, not onely 
""■the moft friendly to me, but void of all ma- 
44 levolence to others; great and noble, open 
44 and fincere, fcfr. [by* He often defends him- 
felf on other occafions by the fame allufion to the 
art of failing ; " I cannot reckon it inconftancy; 
44 fays be, to change and moderate our opinion, 
44 like the courfe ef a fhip, by the weather 6f 
44 the Republic -, this is what I have learnt, have 
44 obferved, have read; what the records of 
44 former ages have delivered, of the wifeft and 
44 moft eminent Citizens, both in this and. all 
44 other Cities •, that the fame maxims are not 
44 always to be purfued by the fame men ; but' 
[£] Ep. Fam. 1. 9. 


of M. rULLIUS CICER 0. 125 

* c fuch, whatever they be, which the ftate of the A. Urb. 639. 
* Republic, the inclination of the times, the C £'J*' 
<c occafions of public peace require : this is what ^ Dq MIT |. 
". I am now doing, and (hall always do— [/]." us Ah e no- 

The trial of C. Rabirius Pofthumus, a per/on BARBU V 
of Equeftrian rank, was an appendix .to that of A y S C p *£!*•" 
Gabinius. It was one of the articles againft CHBR# " 
Gabinius, that be bad received about two millions 
for reftoring King Ptolemy \ yet all his eftate, 
which was to be found, was not fufficient to an- 
fwer the damages in which he was condemned ; 
nor could he give any fecurity for the reft : in 
this cafe, the method was to. demand the defi- 
ciency from thofe through whofe hands the ma- 
nagement of his money affairs .had patted, and 
who were fuppofed to have been fharers in the 
fpoil: this was charged upon Rabirius, and that 
be bad advifed Gabinius to undertake tbe rejloration 
of tbe king, and accompanied him in it, and was 
employed to follicit tbe payment of tbe money, and 
lived at Alexandria/^ tbat purpofe, in tbe King's 
fervice, as tbe public Receiver of bis taxes, and 
wearing tbe Pallium or' habit of tbe country. 

Cicero urged in defence of Rabirius, <c that 
" he had born no part in that tranfa&ion ; but 
" that his whole crime, or rather folly, was, that 
u he had lent the King great fumms of money 
" for his fupport ztRome-, and ventured to truft 
" a Prince, who, as all the world then thought, 

[/] Neque enim inconflan- tatibus monumenta nobis & 

tis puto, fehtentiam tanquam liters prodiderunt : non fem- 

aliquod navigium atque car- per ealdem (ententias ab iif- 

fum tx Reip. tempeftate dem, fed cjuafcunque Reip. 

moderart. Ego vero hxc flatus, inclinatio temp or am, 

didici, bsec vidi, haec fcrip- ratio concordia? poitularet, 

ta legi : haec de fapientif- efle defendendas. Quod ego 

funis & clariffimis viris, .& & facio, & femper faciam.— - 

in hac Repub. & in aliis civk Pro Plancio. 39. 



«6 He Hist oky of tie Life 

A. t?rb, $997* was going to be reftorcd by the authority of 
C J£S3- "«• the Ita*?* people: that the necefiity of going 

L. Domitx- M to ^S/f $ *> r |he recomrj of that debt, was 
vsAhbno- <$ thefeurec of all his mifcry: where he was 
iarbus, * forced to take whatever the King would give 

A n. C Pm 1,,,,li orimpofe: that it was his misfortune to be 
** otyigecHo commie hiinfelf to the power of an 
« arbitrary Monarch : that nothing could be more 
« mad than for a Roman Knight, and Citizen 
" of a Republic of aH others the meft free, to 
« go to any place, where he rouft needs be a 
" flave to the wiliof another; that all who ever 
" did fo, as Plato and the wifeft had fometbnes 
«• done too haftily, always fuflfered for it $ this 
«* was the cafe of Rabirius : neceffity carried 
" him to Alexandria ; his whole fortunes were 
44 at ftake [*] ; which he was fo far from im- 
" proving by Ms traffic with that King, that he 
44 wa9 ill treated by him, imprifoned* threatened 
44 with death, and glad to run away at bft with 
44 the lofsof aH: aod at that very time, it was 
44 wboHy owing to Cae&r's generality, and rc- 
44 gard to the merit and misfortunes of an old 
44 friend, that he was enabled to fuppouc his for- 
44 mer rank and Equcftrian dignitfy~-[/J,* Ga- 
binios*s trial had fo near a relation to this, and 
was fo often referred to in it, that the Profecu- 
tors could not omit fo fair an opportunity of ral- 
lying Cicews fc* the part which he had a&ed in 
it : IVfemfnius obferved, that the Deputies ^Alex- 
andria had the fame reafonfor appearing for Gabi- 
nius % which Cicero, had for defending hm 9 the 
command of a mafter^Hoy Menmius, replied Ci- 
cero > wy reafon for defending him, was a reconcili- 
ation, with fom\ for lam not ajhamed fo own* that 
■ my quarrels an mortal* my friwdfhvps immcrtAl: 

[i] ?tv Rtbir. &, 9, [/] Ib - *5- 



and if you imagine** thut I undertook that caufe for a. UVb. 690. 
fear of Pomp}* J** neither know Pompey, nor ihe\ Cic 53/ 
for Pompey would neither defire it of me againft my L j§~ 
will, nor would I, after I bad preferred the liberty V5 AhVwo* 
of my Citizens* ever give up my own [»]. barbits, . 

Valerius Maximus reckons CiceroV defence AXlau&i- 
of Gabinius and Vatinius, among the %reat and 

laudable examples of humanity, which the Roman 
Hiftory furhiftied ; as it is nobler, he fays, to con- 
quer injuries with, benefits, than to repay them in 
kind, with an obftinacy of hatred [»]. This turn is 
agreeable, to the defign of that writery whole view 
it fcemsto 6e, in the colle&ion of his ftoriesj. to, 
give us rather what is ftrange, than true \ and to 
chefs up fads a3 it were into fables, for t.he fake 
of drawing a moral from them : for whatever Ci- 
cero himfelf might fay for it, . in . the florilhing 
ftile of an oration, it is certain, that he knew and 
felt it to be, what it really was, an indignity and 
difhonour to him, which, he was forced to fubmit 
to by the iniquity of the times^ and his engage- 
ments with Pompey and Csefar, as he often la- 
ments to his friends in. a very paflionate ftrain ; 
IamqffliSed, fays he, my deareft Brother, I am 
affliBed, that there is no Republic, nojuftice intri-. 
*h\ that this feafon of my life, which ought to fio- 

[m] Ait etiam metis fami- ilium & me vehementer igno* 

Haris, eandem caufam Alex- ras. Neque enim Pompeius 

andrinis fuifle, cur iaudarent me fua caufa cjuidquam fa- 

Gabiniura, quae mihi fuit, cere voluiflet mvitum; n*-. 

cur eundem defenderem. Mi- que ego, cui omnium civium 

hi, C.Memmi, caufa defen- hbertas, cariflimafuiflet, m.e- 

dendi Gabinii fuit rcconcili- am projeciffem— Pro L'. Ra- 

atio gratia. Neque vero me bir. Poft.12. 
pcenitet, mor tales inimicitias [n] Sed hujufce generis 

fimpittrnas amicitids habere. . humanitas etiam in M. Cice-. 

Nam fi me invitum putas, ne rone praecipua apparuit, &c. 

Cn. Pompeii animmaofFen- Val. Max, 4. 2. 
derem, defendiffe caufam, & 

Vol. II. K rifh 


ia8 Tie U i st o r y of the Ltfe 

A.Urb. 699. ri/bH the authority of tie Senaiqrian cbara8er y is 

Cic 53. either wafted in tbt drudgery of the Bar ^ or relieved 
L 'Bomiti- *b h dmeftitftvd*** \ that what I batoe ever been 
us Ahbno- fimdoffrom a boy, 

B4RBUS, # 

A, Claudi- iff wary vtrtuous aa and ghrtouLftnfe 
vs-Pvi- ToJhinetbeJirJlandfcft—~-+ 


& fljjBtfJ/y /<?/£ * **/ |wr* ; that my enemies are partly 
not oppofed, partly even defended by me% and net* 
ibtr what I love % nor what I haie % left free to 

Whilb Defer was engaged in the fyritijb ex- 
pedition^ his Daughter Julia, Pompey's wife, died 
ih child-bed at Rome, after fhe was delivered of a * 
fbn, which died alfo foon after her. . Her lofs j 
was not more lamented by the Hufband and ' 
Father, who both of them tenderly loved her r 
than by all their common friends, and well-wilhers 
to the public peace ; who confidered it as a fource 
e( frelh difturbance to the ftate, from the ambi- 
tious views and fclaftiing interefts of the Two 
Chiefs ; whom the life of one fo dear, and the 
relation of Son and Father fecmed hitherto to 
have united by the ties both of duty and affec- 
tion [p\ Csefar is faid to have born the news of 

[0] Angor, mi fuaviffime me partim non oppugnatos; 
fatter, aagor, nullam efle partim eciam effe defenfew; 
Remp.nullajudicia,noftrum- meum non modo animum, 
«jue hoc tempos artatis, ^uod fed ne odium quidem efle Ii- 
in ilia Senatoria au&ontate berum^-Ad Qjrin. 3. 5. 
florere debebat, aut forenfi [/] Cum medium jam, 
labore ja&ari, aut domefti- ex invidia potential male co- 
ds fitteris fuftentari. Mud bseretrtis inter Cn. Pompei- 
vero quod a puero adama- ' urn & C. Csefaretii, concor- 
ram, diae pignus, Julia uxdr Mag- 
bliv «p<iuf/v, uat trtipoxtv ni deceffit Filius quoque 

*Hl±*vm akAuv* parvus, Julia natus, intra 

II. t. 208. breve rpatium obiitr Veil, 

totam occidifle ; inimicos a Pat* zl 47. Val. M. 4. 6. / 


rfM. rULLIUSClG&RO. ia 9 

her death with an%ntommon firmnzfs [q] : It is cer- A. Urb. 699* 
tain, that flic had lived long enough to ferve all Cit *i3' 
the ends, which he propofed from that alliance,' L domiti. 
tod to procure for him every thifig that Pom- u S Ahbno- 
pey*s power could give : for while Pompey, for- bahhus, 
getfuli of his honor and intercity was fpending A - Clavdi. 
his time ingiorioufly at horpe,- in the carefles of *£ J R u m L " 
•a young wife* and the delights of Italy \ and, as 
if he had been onely Casfar's agent, was continu- 
ally decreeing frefti honors, troops, and money 
to him ; Gtfar was purfuing the direft road to - 
Empire ; training hit Legions in all the toils and 
difriplinc of a bloody war; himfctf always at 
their head, animating thekn by his courage, and 
rewarding them by his bounty •, till from a great 
and wealthy Province* having railed money 
enough to corrupt, and an army able to conquer 
all who could oppofe him, he fecmed to want 
nothing for the vaft execution of his defigns, but 
a pretext to break with Pompey* which, as all 
wife men fbrefaw, could not long be wanted, 
when Julia, the cement of their union, was re- 
moved. For though the power of the Trium- 
virate had giv^n a dangerous blow to the liberty 
of Rome, yet the jealoufies and feparate interefts 
of the Chiefs obliged them to manage it with . 
fome decency 5 and to extend it but rarely, be- 
yond the forms of the conftitution j but when- 
ever that league fhouid happen to be diflblved, 
which had made them already too great for pri- 
vate fubjefts, the next conteft of courfe muft be 
for dominion, and the fingle maftery of the Em- 

M Cfcftr — cum aadivit mnnera. Senec. Confol. ad 
deceiSile £Ham — inter ter- Helv. p. 116. 
own<Kflm.Jmpemoria obSt • 

K 2 On 


130 *£be Hi story of the Lift 

A. Urb. 699. On the fecond of November, C. Pontinius 
C r*<£ 3 ' triumphed over the Mobroges, he had been Praetor, 
L. Domiti- w ^ cn Cicero was Confuh, and at the end of his 
us Aheno- Magiftracy obtained the government of that part 
barbus, .of Gaul, which having been tampering with Ca- 
A. Claudi- t jjj nc j n j^ confpiracy, broke o\it foon afterwards 
UL- ' into open Rebellion, but was reduced by the vi- 
gor of this General For this fervice, he de- 
manded a Triumph, but met with great oppofi- 
tion, which he furmounted with incredible pa- 
tience: for he perfevered in his fuit for Jive 
years fucceffhely, refiding all that while, accord- 
ing to cuftom, in the fuburbs of the City, till he 
gained his point at lad: by a kind of violence. 
Cicero was his friend, and continued in Rome on 

})0rpofe to afl'ift him ; and the Conful Appius 
erved him with all his power % but Cato protefted, 
that Pontinius Jhould never triumph while he livedo 
though this, lays Cicero, like many of bis other 
threats, will end at loft in. nothing. But the Prae- 
tor Galba, who had been his Lieutenant, having 
procured by ftratagem an aft of the people in his 
favor, he entered the city in his Triumphal Cha- 
riot, where he was fo rudely received and op- 
pofed in his paffage through the ftreets, that be 
was forced to make his way with his fword* and 
tbefiaughter of many of his adverfaries [r]. * 

In the end of the year, Cicero consented to 
be one of Pompefs Lieutenants in Spain * which be 

•\r\ Ea re non longius, lius Praetores aperte, & Q^ 

quatn vellem, quod Poiuinio Mucius Tribunus— Sed crit 

ad Triumphum volebam ad- cum Pontinio Appius Conful. 

efle: etenim erit riefcio quid Cato tamen affirmat, fe vivo 

negotioli, &c. Ad Quin, 3.5. ilium non triumphare, id ego 

Pontinius valt A. D. IV. puto,* ut multa ejufdemy ad 

Non. Novemb. triumphare,. nihil recafurum— Ad Att. 4. 

Huic obviam Cato & Servi- 16, It. Dio. 1. 39. p. 120. 



began to think convenient to the prefentfiate of bis A. Urb; 699* 
affairs, arid refolded to fet forward for that Pro-. Cic. 53. 
vince, about the middle of January [s]: but this j£^ TI . 
leaned to give fomc umbrage to Caefar, who, u S aheno- 
by the help of Quintus, hoped to difengage him barbu*; 
gradually from Porripey, and to attach him to A. Claupi- 
himfelf ; and with that view had begged of him us Pvl * 
in his Letters, to continue at Rome [/], for the CHBR * 
fake of ferving himfelf with his authority in all 
affairs which he had occafion to tranfadfc there ; 
fo that, out of regard probably to Caefar's uneafi- 
nefs, Cicero foon changed his mind, and refigned 
bis lieutenancy : to which he fcems to allude in 
a Letter to his Brother, where he fays, that be 
bad no fecond thoughts in whatever concerned C* far •; 
that be would make good bis engagements to bim % 
and being entered into his friendjhip with judgement \ 
was now attached to him by affeStion [«]. 

He was employed at Casfar's defire along with 
Oppius, in fettling the plan of a mod expenfive 
and magnificent work, which Caefarwas going to 
execute at Rome, out oftbefpoils <?/Gaul ; * new 
Forum , with many grand buildings annexed to it ; 
far the area of which alone, they had contrafted 
to pay to the feveral owners, about five hundred 
tboufand pounds ; or y as Suetonius computes , near 
double that furnm [#]. Cicero calls it a glorious 

[s] Sed hcus *tu, fcripfe- pat Qporrltxs; habere poffljm 

nimne tibi me cfle legatum in Caefaris rebus— Vidcor id 
Pompeio; & extra urbem' judicio faccre. Jam enim 

quideih. fore, ex Td, Tan. vi- debeo : fed tamen amore 

ium ell hoc mihi ad multa Aim incenfus — Ad Quin. 3* 

quadrate— Ad Att. 4, 18. 1. §. 5. 

W Quod mihi tempus, ~[x] Forum de manubiit 

Romac praeferrim, ut ifteme inchoavit ; cujus area fuper v 

rtgat, manenti, vacuum of- H. S. millirt conftitit. Suet^ 

fcnditur ?— Ad Quiir. 2. 15. J. Cacf. 26. 

(«] Ego vero nullas z*jri- 

K 3 ft tu 

A. Claudi 


132 The H istor yy the Life 

AiV1b.699.ptMt of work, and fays, that the partitions, or en~ 
Cic. 53. dofures of the Campus Martins, in which the Tribe* 

L Dom iTi- ^' '* w "* wr * *^ '* ^ *** new $ f mar ^^ 
vs Areno- «*'/£ 4 roeflikewife of the fame, and ajtatefy Por- 

1 arbui, //V0 carried round the whole, of a mile in Circuity to 
winch a public Hall or Town-houfc was to be 
joined '[7]. While this building was going for- 
ward, L. JEmilius Paullus was employed in raft- 
ing another, not much inferior to it, at his own 
expence : for he repaired and beautified an ancient 
Bafilica in the old Forum ; and built at the fame 
time a new one with Phrygian columns, which was 
called after his own name ; and is frequently men- 
tioned by the later writers, as a Fabric of won- 
derfull magnificence, computed to have coft him 
three hundred thoufand pounds [»]. 

A. Urb. 700. 
Cic. 54. 

The new Tribuns purfued the meafures of 
their predeceflbrs, and would not fuffer an elec- 
tion of Confute-, fo that when the new year 
came on, the Republic wanted its proper head : 
in this cafe the adminiftration fell into the hands 
of an Interred", a provifional Magiftrate, who 
muft neceflarily be a Patrician, and cbofen by the 
body of Patricians, called together for that pur- 

[y J Itaqtie Caefari* amid 
(me dico & Oppium, dirum- 
pans- licet) in monument 11m 
iliud,quod tu tollerc laudibns 
folebas, ut Forum laxarem us, 
& uique ad Libertatis atrium 
explicaremus, confumfimus 
H. S. Sexcenties : cum pri- 
vatis non poterat tranfigi mi- 
nore pecunia. Efficient us 
rem gloriofiffimam. Nam in 
Campo Martio fepta Tribu- 
tis comitiis marmorea fcimus, 

& tcda famuli, eaque einge* 
mas excelfa porticu, ut mille 
palfuum con6ciatur. Simnl 
adjungetur huic open, villa 
etiam puhlica— Ad Alt. 4. 

[z] Paullus in medio Fo- 
ro Bafiltcam jam paene texuit, 
iifdem antiquis colnmnis : il- 
lam autem, qnam lotavit, 
facitmagnificentiffimam. Ni- 
hil gratius illo monumento, 
nihil gloriofius— Ibid. 



oofe- by the Senate [a ]. His power however was A. Urb. 70* 
but fbort-iived, being transferred, every five day s> Cic. 54* 
from one Interrex to another \ till an ele&ion of ' 
Confuk could be obtained j but the Tribuns, 
whofe authority was abfolute, while there were 
no Confuls to controul them, continued fierce 
againft any ele&ion at all : fome were for reviv- 
ing the ancient dignity of military Tribuns \ but 
that being unpopular, a more plaufible Scheme 
was taken up and openly avowed, of declaring 
Pompey t)i£lator. This gave great apprehenfions 
to the City, for the memory of Sylla's Difiator* 
jhipi and was vigorously oppofed by all the 
Chiefs of the Senate, and efpecially by Cato : 
Pompey chofe to keep himfelf out or fight, and 
retired into the country, to avoid the fufpicion 
of affe&ing it. " The rumor of a Didtatorfhip, 
" fys Cicero^ is difagreeable to the honeft j bus . 
" the other things, which they talk of, are, 
" more fo to me - 9 the whole affair is dreaded, 
" but fl*gs : Pompey flatly difel aims it, though he \ 
11 never denied it to me before: the Tribun Hir- 
" rus will probably be the promoter : good Gods l 
" how filly and fond of himfelf without a rival ? 
" At Pompey's requeft, I have deterred Cralfu* 
" Junianus, who pays great regard to me, from 
" meddling with it. It is hard to know whe- 
" ther Ppmpey really defires it or not 1 but if t 
" Hirrus jfltir in it, he will not convince us, that 
" he is averfe to it [A]." In another Letter 1 

" Nothing 

[«| Vid. Afcon. argument, negatvelle: antea ipfe mini 

in Milon. — nonnegabat. Hirrus audlor 

[t>] Rumor pigtatoris in fore, videtur. O Dii, quam 

jucundus bonis : mihi etiam ineptus, & quam k amans fi- 

tnagis quae loquuntur. Sed ne rivali! CraiTum Junianum* 

tota res & tinietur & refri- hominem mihi deditum, per ~ 

gefciu Pompeius plane fe me deterruh. Velit, nolh, 

K 4 fcire 

134 Tie History of the Life 

A. Urb. 700. « Nothing is yet done as to the Di&atorlhip ; 
Cic.54. ^ Pompey is ftill abfent ; Appius in a great buf- 
* c tie; Hirras preparing to oppofe it; but feve- 
< c ral are named as ready to interpofe their nega- 
" tive : the people do not trouble their heads 
" about it ; the Chiefs are againft it.; I keep my- 
" felf quiet [f] " Cicero's friend, Milo, was ir- 
refolute how to a£t on this occafion ; he was 
forming an intereft for thcConfulftiip , and if he 
declared againft a Diftatorfhip* was afraid of mak- 
ing Pompey bis enemy ; gr ifbefhould not help the 
opponents, that it would be carried by force ; in 
both which cafes, his owfi pretenfions were fure 
to be difappointed : he was inclined therefore to 
join in the oppofuion, but fo far onely as to re- 
pell any violence [d]. 

The Tribuns in the mean time were growing 
every day more and .more infolent, and engrofling 
all power to themlelves ; till Q. Pompeius Rufus, 
the Grandfon of Sylla> and the moftfattious ejpoufer 
of a Diflator, was, by a refolute decree of the Se- 
nate, committed to prifon: and Pompey himfelf, up- 
on his return to the City, finding the greater and 
better part utterly averfe to his Didatorfhip, yield- 
ed, at laft, after an Interregnum of -fixmontbs, thatCn. 
Domitius Calvinus, and M. Mejfala y fhould be de- 
clared Confuls [e\ Thefe were agreeable likewife 
to Csefar : Cicero had particularly recommended 

fcire difficile eft. Hirro ta- [ d ] Hoc horret Milo*- & 

men agente, nolle fe non fi ille Dictator faft us fit, paene 

probabit— Ad Quint. 3. 8. diffidit. Interceflbrem dic- 

[c] De Diftatore tamen taturaefi juverit manu &pra% 

aftum nihil eft. Pompeiir- iidio fuo Pompeiiim metuit 

abeft: Appius mi feet : Hir- inimicum ; fi non juverit, ti- 

rusparat: multi intercefib- met, nepir vim perferatur— 

rcsnumerantur: populus non lb. 8. 

carat: principes nolunt : ego [*] Yid. Dio. 1. 40. p« 

quiefco — lb, o. 141. 


of M.TUL LIU 'S CICERO. 135 

Meffala to him ; of whom, he lays in a Letter A. Urb. 700* 
to his Brother ; As to your reckoning Meffala and C £ £** 
Cahinus fure Confuls, you agree with what we Q Vm Dqmi- 
tbink here ; for I will be anfwerable to Gefar for tius Cal- 

mffaUm *?&;;* 

But after all this Buftle about a Dilator, there L A . 
feems to have been no great reafon for being 
much afraid of it at this time : for the Republic 
was in fo great a diforder, that nothing lefs than 
the Dictatorial power could reduce it to a tolera- 
ble ftate : fome good of that kind might reafon* 
ably be expe&ed from Pornpey , without the fear 
of any great harm, while there was fo fure a 
check upon him as Caefar •, who, upon any exor« 
bitant ufeof that power, would have had the Se- 
nate and all the better fort on his .fide, by the 
Jpetious pretencd of aflprting the public liberty : 
Cicero therefore judged rightly, in thinking, that 
there were other things, which might be appre- 
hended, and feemed likely to happen, that, in 
their prefent (ituation, were of more dangerous 
confequence than a DiSatorJbip. ^ 

There had fcarce been fo long an Interregnum 
in Rome, fince the expulfion of their Kings -, dur- 
ing, which, all public bufinefs, and efpecially all 
judicial procedings, were wholly interrupted: 
which explanes a jocofe pafiage in one of Cicero's 
Letters to Trebatius •, if you bad not already, fays 
he, been abfent from Rome, you would certainly 
have run away now : for what bufinefs is therefor 
a Lawyer in fo many Interregnums ? I advife all * , 
my Clients, iffuedin any aSion, to move every In- 

[/] Meffalam quod cer- nione diflentitis. Ego Mef- 
tam Confulem cum Domitio falanT Caefari praeflabo— Ad 
numeratus, nihil a noftraopi- Quint. 3. 8. 


136 lie H i s T o R Y of tbe%,ifk 

A. Urb. 700. terrex twice far more time : do not you think* that 
Cic. 54. / have learnt the law of you to good purpoft [g\ ? 

Cw C Domi- ** E now * )e S an a correfpondcncc of Letters 
Titrs Cm- w "h Curio, a young Senator of diftinguiftied 
vinus, birth and parts, who upon his firft entrance into 

M *\j LERI " l ^ e Forum k ac * been committed to his care, and 

\\ MsssA - was at this time $u*ftor in 4fia. He w*s pof- 
fcfled of a large and fplendid fortune, by the 
late death of his Father •» fo that Cicero, who 
knew his high fpirit and ambition, and that he 
was formed to do much good or hurt to his 
country, was defirous to engage him early in the 
interests of the Republic ; .and by inftiHing great 
and generous fentiments, to inflates him with a 
love of true glory. Curio had fent orders to his 
agents at Rome, to proclame ajbew of gladiators in 
honor of his deceafed Father : but Cicero ftopt the 
declaration of it for a while, in hopes to difluade 
him from fo great and fruitlefs an expence [£]. 
He forefaw, that nothing was more likely to 
corrupt his virtue than the ruin of his fortunes; 
or to make him a dangerous Citizen, than pro- 
digality : to which he was naturally inclined, and 
which Cicero, for that reafon, was the more de- 
firous to check at his firft fetting out : but all his 
endeavours were to no purpofe -, Curio refolved 
to give tbejhew of Gladiators ; and by a continual 
profufion of his money, anfwerable to this be- 
ginning, after he had afted the Patriot for fome 


[g] Nifiante Roma pro- civiledidiciflcPEp.Faoi^.if. 

fe&us efles, nunc earn certe [b] Rupae Studiura non de- 

relinqueres. Quis enim tot fuitdeclarandorum munerum 

interregnis Jurifconfultum tuo nomine: fed nee mihi 

defiderat? Egoomnibus, unde placuit,nec cuiquam tuorum, 

petitur, hoc confilii dederim, <juidquam te abfente fieri, 

At a fingalis Interregibas bi- quod tibi, cam venifles, non 

nas advocationes poftulent. eflet integrum, &c. Ep. Fam. 

Satifne tibi videor abs te jus ±. 3, 



time with credit ami applaefe, was reduced attaft A.Vtb. 70* 
to the neceffity of felling kimfetf to Ctffar. C Co£ 4 * 

The r3 is but little of politics in thefe Letters, C|l p 0JtI ^ 
befides fome general cotfipl&iaw, of the loft and T iua Ca*- 
dtfpefsti fidtt of the RepukMc: in one of them, J"*™' 
after reckoning up the various fubjefts of Epifto* v' 8 Mil- 
iary writing •, pall I joke with you then, fays hie, ^ 
in my Letters t On my ooHfcience, there is not a C«- 
Hun, Ikelkve, who em laugh in thefe times; or 
fiall I write fomothing ferious * But what can Cice- 
ro Write ferioufiy to Curio, unkfs it be on the Re- \ 
public ? where my cafe at prefent is fueb, that I 
have noinclination to write, what I do not tbink~[Q* 
In another, after putting him in mind of the in- 
credible expectation which was entertained of 
him at Rome *, " not that I am afraid, fays be, 
" that your Virtue fhould not come up to the 
" opinion of the public; but rather, that you 
" fine! nothing worth caring for at your return; 
" all things are. fo ruined and oppreffed; but I 
"queftion whether it be prudent to fay fo much 
u — It is your part, however, whether you retain 
" any hopes, or quite defpair, to adorn yourfelf 
" with all thofe accomplifhments, which can 
" qualify a Citizen, in wretched times and prt>- 
" fligpte morals, to reftore the Republic to its 
" ancient dignity [jfc].° 

The firft news from abroad after the inaugu- 
ration of the Confuls, was of the mifefable death 

[*] Joceroe tecum per lit- ca, qua mon fimrio, vclira. 

teras? civera oiehercoJe aon fcrlbere— lb. 4. 

puto effej. qui temporibus his [^4] Non quo vercar ne tua 

ridere pofct. - An gravius ali- virtue opinioni bominum non 

quid fcribara ? Quid eft quod respondeat : fed mehercule, . 

peffit gtavker a Cicerone ne cam vcaeria, non habeas 

fcribi ad Curionem, ni fi de jam quod cures: ita funtom-, 

Rep. ? Atque in hoc genere nia debilitate jam prope &* 

tec mea caufa eft, ut neque exft£n&a, fee. lb. 5. 

138 *fl>e History of the Life 

A. Urb. 700. of Craffus and bis f on Publius, with the total defeat 

c i£J4* of bis army by ibe Partbians. This was one of 

Ci. Dam-*^ GF**^ blows that Rome had ever received 

tius CAL-fram a foreign enemy, and for which it was ever 

vinvs, after meditating revenge : the Roman writers ge- 

M, ^ tim, "nerally imputed it to Craflus's contempt of tbcAu- 

la. %K ffices \ as fome Cbriftions have fince charged it, 

to btsfacrikgious violation oftbe Temple of Jerufc- 

lem, which he is faid to have plundered of two 

millions ; both of them with equal Superftition 

pretending to unfold the counfils of heaven, and 

to fathom thofe depths, which are declared to be 

unfearcbdble [/]. The chief and immediate con* 

cern, which the City felt on this occafion, was 

for the detriment that the Republic had fuffered, 

arid the danger to which it was expofed, by the 

lofs of fo great an army ; yet the principal . rhif- 

chief lay in what they did not at firft regard, 

and feemed rather to rejoice at, the lofs of Craffus 

bimfelf. For after the death of Julia, Craflus's 

authority was the onely means left of curbing 

the power of Pompey, ajid the ambition of Cae- 

far* being ready always tofupport the weaker, 

againft the encroachments of the ftronger ; and 

keep them both within the bounds of a decent 

refpedb to the jaws : but this check being now 

taken away, and the power of the Empire 

thrown, as a kind of prize, between two; it 

gave a new turn to. their fever al pretentions ; and 

created a frefli competition for the larger Ihare ; 

which, as the event afterwards (hewed, muft nc- 

cefiarily end in the fubverfion of the whole. 

a [/] M. Craflbquidaccide- deftined to deftrudtion, God 

rk, videmus dirarom obnan- did caft infatuations into all 

ciationc negte&a. [De Dio, his councils, for the leading 

I. 16.] him thereto Prideanx. 

* Being for his impious fa* Conned. Par* %• p. 362. 
crilege at Jcrufalem juftly 


oftt. TULLIUS CICERO. 139 

PuBtius Crassus, who perilhed with his Fa- *• U*. 700. 
ther in this fetal expedition, was a youth of an Ci Q Q ^ m 
amiable chara&er; educated with the ftrifteftc w . Domi. 
care, and perfcdUy inftrufted in all the liberal tic* Cal* 
ftudies ; he had ready wit and eafy language ; 1 J r, « U5, - 
was grave without arrogance, modeft witlnwt ^iJJ"^ 
negligence, adorned with all the accomplifhments la. 
proper to form a principal Citizen and Leader of 
the Republic: by the force of his own judgement 
he had devoted hirafelf very early to the obfer-* 
vance and imitation of Cicero, whom he perpe- 
tually attended, and reverenced with a kind of 
filial piety. Cicero conceived a mutual aSe&ioh 
for him, and obferving his eager third of glory, 
was conftantly inftilling into him the true 'notion 
of it, and exhorting him to purfue that fure path 
to it, which his anceftors had left beaten and 
traced out to him, through the gradual afcent of 
civil honors. But, by ferving under Csefar in the 
Gallic wars, he had learnt, as he fancied, a 
fhorter way to fame and power, than what Cices- 
ro had been inculcating ; and having fignalized 
himfelf in a campaign or two as a foldier, was in 
too much hafte to be a General; when Csefar fent 
him at the head of a thoufand horfe, to the af- 
fiftance of his Father in the Parthian war. Here 
the vigor of his youth and courage carried him 
onfofar, in the purfuit of an enemy, whole 
chief art of conqueft confifted in flying, that 
he had no way left to efcape, but what his high 
fpirit difdained, by the defertion of his troops, 
and a precipitate flight; fo that finding himfelf 
oppofed with numbers, cruelly wounded, and 
in danger of falling alive into the hands of the 
PartbianSy he chofe to die by the fword of his 
Armour-bearer. Thus while he afpircd, as Ci- 
cero fays, to the fajne of another Cyrus or Alex- 
3 ander, 



14© Tbt H 1 s t o a y of th Lift 

A. Uifc. j<*. aflrier* £* /rf/ fbert of that glory % which mgfty of 
Cic.j4- bis Predetejfm b«l reaptd> frm # fWfjfion of 

C*. Do«i~ boMurs, conf&rtd iy tbtir <(mtry> as a rmmrd if 

." .t.i v t Gal tbur fernices («t ] : 
vinu*. Bv the death of X<mng Crqfus, 4 place became 

*** ^M tBRI vacaiu '** *bc College of dugurst for which Cicero 
1 AIE,SA " declared himfelf a Candidate : bc* was any one 
fo hardy as to appear .^gainft hirp, except Htrrus, 
/£* Triiun, who tf oftiag to the popularity f his 
.office <and Pompty's favor, had the vanity to 
pretend to it : but a Competioh fo unequal iw- 
jufbed matter of raillery only to Ckero; who 
was chofen without any difficulty or ftruggle,with 
she uvammous approbation of she wbokaody [»]. 
ThisvCoHrge, from the laft regulation of it by 
Sylla, confifted of fifteen, who were all perfons 
of the firft diftindion in Rome: it was a prieft- 
bood for We, of a character indelible; which no 
crime or forfeiture could efface : the Priefts of all 
kinds were originally cbofen by their CoHegcto-, 
jilt Domitius, a Tribun, about fifty years before, 
transferred the choice of them to the people; 
whofe authority was held to be faprente in facrcd, 

[m] Hoc magis fan Pub* effe duceret, quasi majores 

lio deditus, quod me quan- ejus ei tritam reliquifieat. 

qaam a puentia fetnper, ta- Erat etrim cum inftitutus op- 

men hoc tempore maatime, time, tua plane perfe&eque 

ikut alteram p area tern & erudittM. Iteratquc Sc inge- 

obfervat & diligit. [Ep. Fam. niiim fatis acre, & oratioav 

5 . S . ] nOn iaelegan s copia : prse ter- 

P. Craifam ex ©mni nobi- eaque fine arrogairtia gravis 

Irtateadolcfcentcmditexiplu- tti& videbatur, & fine zcgni- 

"rimum, Sec. [lb-. 13. i6\J tie verecundu*, &c. Vid. 

Cum P. Craflb, cum initio Brat. p. 407. It. Plut. in 

setatis ad amicitiam ft me- CrafT. 

am contuliflet, f»pe egiflfe [»] Qgom^do HirrwH pu- 

me arbitror, cum com ve- fas Auguranu tqi compctito- 

/'hementifiraie hortarer, ut e- xem—Ep. Fam. 8. 3. 
am laudit viam rettiHimam 



as well as civil affairs [0]. This aft was revcrfed A. Vtb. 700* 
by Sylla, and the ancient, right reftored to the c |^i+' 
College!} but Ltbienus, when Tribun, in Ci- Cw °g£ Mtj 

us Mess a- 

ccro's Con&iftiip, recalled the law of Domitius, tiusCal- 

to facilitate Caefar's advancement to the High- yaws, 

Priefthood : it was necefiary however, tbat every M *„y^^"* 

Candidate jbcnld be nominated to the people by two 

Augurs ', who gave afdemn teftimony upon oath, of 

bis dignity and fitnefs for the office : this was done 

in Cicero's cafe by Pompey and Hortenfius, the 

two rooft eminent members of the College -, : and 

after the ele&bn, he was inftalled with ail the 

ofual formalities by Hortenfius [p]> 

As in the laft year, lb in this, the fa&ions of 
the City prevented the choice of Confab; the 
Candidates, T. Annius Milo, Q^Metellus Scipio, 
and P. Plautius Hypfsus, puihed on their feverai 
interefts with fuch open violence and bribery, as 
if the Confulihip was to be carried ondy by mo- 
ney or arms [j]. Clodius was putting in at the 
fame time for the Practorfhip, and employing ali 
his credit and intereft to difappoint Milo, by 
whofe obtaining the Confolfhip, be was fore to be 
edipfed and controuled, in the exercifeof bis fubor- 
dinate magiftracy [r], Pompey was whoHy averfe 
to Milo, who did not pay him that court, which 

\f) Atque hoc idem de ex- 
tern Sacerdotis Cn. Domiti- 
us TriBunus PL tulit, lie. 
De Leg. Ag. 2. 7. 

[p] Quo enim tempore me 
Augurem a toto Collegio ex* 
petitum Cn. Poiftpeius & Q^ 
Hortenfius nominaverunt ; 
neque enim Hcebat a pluri- 
I^qs nonuD.ari.— Philip. 2. 2. 

Cooptatum me ab eo in 
collegium recordabar,in quo 

juratus judicium dignitatis 
meae feceraj : & inaugara- 
turn ab eodem, ex quo, au- 
guram inftieutis in parentis 
euxn loco cokre debebam. 
Brut, init.— 

[q] Plutar. in Cato.— — 
[rj Occurrebat ei, man- 
cam ac debilcm Praetufam 
fuam futuram. Confute Mile** 
ne.— Pro Milon. 9.,. 


142 ?be H x s t o R y of the JJft 

A.Urb. 700. he expefted, but Teemed to affeft an indepen- 

cic \£*' dency, and to truft to his own ftrength* while 
Cw. Domi- *^ c ot ^ cr two competitors were wholly at his de- 

tiusCal" votion : Hypfeeus had been bis Stumor* and al- 

vinus, ways his Creature*, and he dcfigned to make 
M " ^m LERI " Scipio bis Father-in-law* by marrying his daugh- 

W3ME35A- tcr Cornelia, a Lady of celebrated accompiifh- 
ments, the widow of young Craffus. 

Cicero, on the other hand, fervedMilo to the 
utmoft of his power, and ardently wiihed his fac- 
cefs : this he owed to Milo's conftant attachment 
to him, which at all hazards he now refolvcd to 
repay : the affair however was likely to give him 
much trouble, as well from the difficulty of the 
opposition, as from Milo's own condu£t, and un- 
bounded prodigality, which threatened the ruin 
of all his fortunes : in a Letter to his Brother, 
who was ftill with Caefar, he fays, ** Nothing 
44 can be more wretched than thefe men and 
44 thefe times : wherefore fince no pieafure can 
44 now be had from the Republic, I know not 
44 why I fhould make myfelf uneafy : books, 
44 ftudy, quiet, my Country houfcs, and above 
44 all, my children are my.fole delight : Milo is 
44 my onely trouble : I wifh his Confulfhip may 
44 put an end to it ; in which I will not take left 
44 pains, than I did in my own ; and you will 
44 afiifl: us there alfo, as you now do : all things 
44 ftand well with him, unlefs fome violence de- 
44 feat us : I am afraid onely, how his money 
" will hold out : for he is mad beyond all bounds 
44 in the magnificence of his fhews, which he is 

— <c now preparing at the expence of 2 50000/. 

4< but it (hall be my care to check his inconfide- 
44 ratenefs in this one article, as far as I am able, . 
44 &c. [s]» 1 H 

[s] Itaque ,e* Rep. quoniain nihil jam voluptatis ca- 



In the heat of this competition, Curio was 
coming home from Afi*y and expe&ed fhortly 
at Rme ; whence Cicero fent an exprefs to meet 
him on the road, or at his landing in Italy > with 
a moft earneft and preffing Letter to engage him 
to Milo's intereft. . 

M. T. Cicero, to C. Curio. 

" Before we had yet heard of your coming A.Urb.701. 
c< towards Itafyj I fent away S. Vdlius, Milo's Cic * 55- 
" friend, with this Letter to you : but when 
" your arrival was fuppofed to be near, and it 
u was known for certain, that you had \cfrj4fia 9 
" and were upon the road to Rome, the impor- ' 
" tance of the fubjed left no room to fear, that 
" we (hould be thought to fend too haftily, 
" when we were deQrous to have it delivered tQ 
" you as loon as poffible. If my fervices to you, 
" Curio, were really fo great, as they are pro- 
" clamed to be by you, rather than confidered 
u by me, I fhould be more rcferved in aflcing, 
" ir I had any great favor to beg of you : for it 

pi poteft : cur ftoraacher, paret. Cujus in hoc uno in* 

nefcio. Litteras me & ftu- confiderantiam & ego faftine- 

dianoftra, &otiam; Villas- bo, ut potero— Ad Quint. 3. 

que dele&aat, maximeque 9. 

pucri noftru Angit unus Mi- Cicero had great reafon for 

lo. Sed velim nnem aiFerat the apprehennons, which ht 

Confulatusrinquoenitarnon expreffeson account of Milo's 

minus quatn fum enifus in extravagance: for Milo had 

aoftro : tuque iftinc, quod . already waded three eftates 

facis,~adjuvabis. De quo cae- in giving plays and (hews to 

tera (nifi plane vis eripuerit) the people ; and when he 

re&e funt : de re familiari ti- went foon after into exil was 

meo. found to owe ftill above half 

•^^ , 1 »■*•.«!. a million of our money. 

*i mtnlu »« It an**r~ pi$ n . 1. 36. 15. Afcon. Ar- 

Qui ludos H. 9. CCC. com- gum. in Milon. 

Vol. IL L "gees 

144 2& HnTORy of the Lift 

A,Urb. 701. c< goes hard with a modeft man, to aflc any 

Cic. 55. « thing confickrablc df onfe, whom he take's to 
cc be obliged to him ; left he be thought to de- 
44 mand, rather than to afk : and to look upon 
44 it as a debt, not as a kiadfieft. Buc fincc your 
44 fervices to me* fo eminently difpfayecS in my 
" late troubles, are known to all to be the greateft; 
1 " and it is the pare of an ingcnUous mind, to 
44 wifli to be more obliged to thofe, to whom 
44 we are already much obliged^ I made no 
44 fcruplc to beg of you by Letter, what bf all 
4< things is the mdft important and heceffaiy to 
" me. For I am not afraid left Tftould not 
" be able to fuftain the weight of all yobr fa- 
c< vors, though ever fo tiumerous ; being confi- 
44 dent, that there is none fo greats 'which my 
" mind is not able, both fully to donfain, and 
4C amply to requite and illnftratcr. I ftrte placed 
41 all my ftudies, pains, care, imfuftry, thoughts, 
«* and, in ftiort, my very foul, onMilcft Conful- 
4< (hip, and have refolved with myfeHy to ex- 
44 pect from it, not only the common frtoit of 
« 4 duty, but the praife even of piety rrtor was 

44 any man, I believe, ever fo follicitous, for his 

45 own fafety and fortunes, as t am for his lio- 
44 nor-, on which I have fixed all my views and 
4 * hopes. You, I perceive, can be; of luch fcr- 
4C vice to him, if you pleafe, that we fhall have 
4 * no occafion for any thing farther. We have 
iC already with us the good wiflies of all the 
* c honeft, engaged to him by his Tribunate; 

. 4< and, as you will imagine alfo, I hope, by his 
4t attachment to me : of the populace and the 
4C multitude, by the magnificence of his (hews, 
4C and the generofity of his nature : of the youth 
" and men of intereft, by his own peculiar cre- 
* 4 dit or diligence among that fort : he has all 


44 my afliftanc* like wife; which though of little A.Urb.701. 
4< weight, yet being allowed by all to be juftand Cic< 55- 
44 due to him, may perhaps be of fotne influence. 
4C * What we want, is a Captain and Leader, or 
4< a Pilot,, as it were, of all thofe winds; and 
44 wef e we to chufe one out of the whole City/ 
44 we a\ujd not find a man fo fit for the purpofe 
44 as you. Wherefore, if from all the pains, 
<c which I arri now taking for Milo % , you can be- 
46 lieye me to be mindfull of benefits ; if gratq- 
44 fail\ if a good man - 9 if worthy in fhort of 
44 your kindnefs; I. beg of you to relieve my 
44 prefect follicttude, and lend your helping hand 
44 to my praife •, or, to fpeak more truly, to my 
4C fafety. As to T. Annius himfelf, I promife 
<c you, if you embrace him, that you will not 
44 find a rnan of a greater mind, gravity, con- 
44 ftancy, or of greater affection to you : and as 
** for* ntyfclf, you will add fuch a lufter and frefli 
•" dignity to me, that I fhall readily own you a 
4C to* have Ihpwn the fame zeal for my honor, 
44 which you exerted before for my prefervation. 
" Jf J was not fure, from what I have already 
46 laid, that you would fee how much I take my 
€< duty to be interefted in this affair, and how 
44 much it concerns me, not only to ftruggle, 
" but even to fight for Milo's, fuccefs, I fhould 
44 preft ypu ftill farther-, but I now recommend 
44 and throw the whole caufe, and myfelf alfo 
" with it, into your hands; and beg of you, to. 
• 4 ^flUre yourfelf of this one thing ; that if I ob- 
cc tain this favor from you, I fhall be more in- 
*' debted akqoft to you, than even to Milo 
4ff hupfclf ; fince royfafety, in which I wasprin- 
" cipally.affifted by him, was not fo dear,, as 
i€ the piety of fhewing my gratitude will be 
" agreeable to npe^ which I am perfuaded, I 

L z " (hall 

146 rfbe History of the Life 

<A.Urb.7oj. " (hall be able to effeft by' your afliftance. 

Cic. 55. 4c Ad j eu [,] » 

The Senate and the better fort were generally 
in Milo's intereft: but Three of the Tribuns 
were violent againft him, Q^ Pompeius Rufus, 
Munatias Plancus Burfa, and Salluft/i* Hiftoricn\ 
the other feven were his faft friends, but above 
all M. Cselius, who, out of regard to Cicero, 
ferved him with a particular zeal. But while all 
things were proceding very proiperoufly in his 
favor, and nothing feemed wanting to crown his 
fuccefs, but to bring on the election, which his 
adverfaries, for that reafon, were laboring to keep 
back •, all his hopes and fortunes were blafted at 
•once by an unhappy rencounter with his old ene- 
my Clodius, in which Clodius was killed by bis 
fervants^ and by bis command. 

Their meeting was wholly accidental, oa the 
Appian road, not far from the City ; Clodius 
coming home from the country towards Rome\ 
Milo going out about three in the afternoon-, the 
firft on horfeback, with three companions, and 
thirty fervants well armed j the latter in a chariot 
with his wife and one friend, but with a much 
greater retinue, and among them fome Gladia- 
tors. The fervants on both fides began prefent- 
ly to infult each other \ when Clodius turning 
brifldy to fome of Milo's men, who were near- 
eft to him, and threatning them with his ufual 
fiercenefs, received a wound in his (houlder, from 
one of the Gladiators; and after receiving feveral 
more in the general fray, which inftantly enfued, 
finding his life in danger, was forced to fly for 
Ifeeker into a neighbouring Tavern. Milo heat- 
ed by this fuccefs, and the thoughts of revenge, 

[/] Ep. Pam. z. 6; 

3 &nd 


and rebelling, that he had already done enough A.Urb. 70 r. 
to give his enemy a great advantage againft him, Cicr - SS- 
if he was left alive to purfue it, refolved, what- 
ever was the <;onfequence, to have the pleafure 
of deftroying him, and fo ordered the houfe to , 
be ftorrned, and Clodius to be dragged out and 
murdered : the matter of the Tavern was. like- 
wife killed, with eleven of Clodius's fervants, 
while the reft faved themfelves by Bight : fo that 
ClodiusY body was left in the road, where it fell, 
till S. Tcdius, a Senator, happening to come by, 
took it iip into his Chaife, and brought it with ; 

him to Rome \ where it was expofed in that con- 
dition, all covered with blood and wounds, to 
the view of the populace, who flocked about it 
in crowds to lament the mifcrablc fate of their 
Leader. The next day the mob, headed by S. 
Clodius, a kinfman of the deceafed, and one of 
his chief Incendiaries, carried the body naked, fo 
as all the wounds might be feen, into the Forum, 
and placed it in the Roftra ; where the Three 
Tribuns, Milo's enemies, were prepared to ha- 
rangue upon it in a ftile fuited to the lamentable 
occafion, by which they inflamed their mercena- 
ries to fuch a heigth of fury, that fnatching up thp 
body, they ran away with it into the Senate-houfe, 
and tearing up the benches, tables, and every 
thing combuftible, drelTed up a funeral pile upon 
the fpot, and, together with the body, burnt the 
houfe itfelf, with a Bafilica alfo, or public Hall 
adjoining, called the Porcian * and, in the fame 
fit of madnefs, proceeded to ftorm the houfe of 
Milo, and of M. Lepidus, the Interrex, but 
were repulfed in both attacks, with fome lofs [»]. 


[«] Quanquam re vera, fu- 1 6. c. 5. 
era't pugna fortuita. QuintiL *eatiV*«— faav t* 4>»«'H t#- 

L 3 Aiuty<xv1&* 

148 ; TBeHisroR* oftbeLife 

A. Urb. 701, These extravagancies raifed great indijgftktldn 
Cfc- s$- in the City ; and gave a turn 'in favor «Mflo j 
who looking upon himfelf as undone, w*fc me- 
ditating nothing before, but a voluntary mh 
but now taking courage, he ventured to appear 
in public, and was introduced into the Rofira by 
CJlius •, where he made his defence to the people ; 
and, to mitigate their refentment, drftributed 
through all the Tribes above three pounds a man, 
to every poor Citizen. But all his pains and ex- 
pence were to little. purpofe •, for the three Tr&ans 
Employed all the arts of party and fa&ion t© keep 
up the ill humor of the populace ; and what was 
more fatal, Pompey wbuld not be brought into 
any meafures of accommodating the matter ♦, fo 
that the tumults ftill encreafing, the Senate paf- 
fcd a decree, that th/ Interred dfjtfted by the kru 
buns and Pompey, fhould take care, that the Re- 
public received no detriment •, and that Pompey, in 
particular, fhould raife a body of troops for the 
common fecurity, which he prefently drew toge- 
ther from all parts of Italy, In this confufion, 
the rumor of a Diftator was again biduflriimfly re- 
vived, and gave a frefh alarm to the Senate-, who, 
to avoid the greater evil, refolved prefently to 
create Pompey the Jingle Conful: fo that the Inter- 
rex, Servius Sulpicius, declared his eleEtion accord- 
ingly, apex an Interregnum of near t<wo months {*], 

Afvl4«fcv!©* airi % tC rpau- poena eflet, exturbari tabcr- 

fis!G% ti vt ptyiyvoiloy &$itoj- nam jufiit.—Ita Clodros la* 

cwbat. Die 1. 40. p. 143. tens ex trad us eft, multifque 

Milo, ut cognovit vulnera- vulneribus confe&us — &c. 

torn Clodium, cum fibi pe^ Vid. Afconii Argum, in Mi- 

riculofiuaillud etiam,vivoeo, Ion. 

futurum intelligent, occifo [*] Vid. Dio. ibid. & Af- 

autem magnum Jblatium eflet con. Argum. 

habiturus, etiam ft fubcunda 


of tf. TULLIUS CICERO. j 49 

Bqm^ey applied himfelf immediately to calm A. Urb. 701. 
the public disorders, and .published feverai new r c * c - 5S- 
Lams, prepared by himfor that purpofe : one of p*',^*" 
them was, to appoint a fpecial commijfton to in- WagnJIL 
quire intoClpdius's deaths the burning df the Senate- Sine Collega. 
bot{fe 9 and the attack on M. Lepidus \ and to ap- 
point an extraordinary Judge, jof Confular rank, 
to prefide in it: a fecond was, againft bribery and 
corruption in elections, with the inflation of new 
4ndfpvertr penalties. By thefe laws/ the method 
of trials was altered, and the length of them li- 
mited : three days were allowed for the examine 
tion of witpeffes,, and the fourth for the fentence ; on 
yvbicb the accufir was to have tyoo hours oneiy, U 
enforce the charge ; the Criminal three for his de- 
fence [y]: which regulation Tacitgs fedms to 
confic\er, as the firft ftep towards the ruin of th\ 
Roman eloquence \ by impqftng reins, as it v>ere\ 
upon its free and ancient courfe [a]. Caelitfs op. 
pofcd his negative to thefe Laws, as being rather 
privileges than Laws, and provided particularly 
againjl Milo : but ; he was foon obliged to witn*- 
drawit, upon Pompey's declaring, that bewoufcl * 
fupport them by force of Arms. The three Tribuns* 
all the while, were perpetually haranguing, and 
terrifying the City with forged ftories, • of maga- 
zines tf arms prepared by MUo, for maffacring hit 
enemies, and burning the City \ and produced theit 
creatures in ibe Roftra, to vouch the txutb of thefy 
to the people: they charged him particularly with 
a dejign againft Pompey'j life ; and brought one Li- 
cinius, a killer of the viilims for facrifice, to\dt- 
clare that Milo's fervants ' had confeffed it to bimip 
their cups, and then endeavoured to kill bim, left 

[j] Ibid. impofuitque veluti fraenos c- 

£ z J Primus tertio Confu- loquentize— &c. Dialog, cle 
lata <Cp. Pompeius aftrinxit Orator. 38. 

x L 4 be 

150 The Hi stort of the Life 

A. Urb. 701 . befhotild difcover it : and to make bisftory the more 
Cv K Pom- cre ^^ foevocd a flight wound in his fide* modi by 
piius " him/elf^ which he affirmed to have been given by 
Macn. III. the ftroke of a Gladiator. Pompey himfelf con- 
Sine Collega. firmed this fa A, and laid an account of it before the 
Senate \ and by doubling hb guard affefted to in- 
timate a real apprehenfion of danger [a]. Nor 
were they lefs induftrious to raife a clamor againft 
Cicero ; and, in order to deter him from pleading 
Milo's caufe, threatened him alfo with trials and 
profecutions ; giving it out every where, that 
Clodius was killed indeed by the band of Milo, but 
by the advice and contrivance of a greater man [b]. 
Yet fuch was his conftancy to his friend, fays 
"Afconius, that neither the lofs of popular favor, 
nor Pompefs fufpicions, nor his own danger, nor 
the terror of arms, could divert him from the refold 
Hon of undertaking Afilo's defence (VJ. 

B u t it was Fompey's influence and authority, 
which ruined Milo [d]. He was the onely man 
in Rome, who had the power either to bring 
him to a trial, or to get him condemned : not 
that he was concerned for Clodius's death, or 
the manner of it, but pleafed rather, that the 

[a] Andiendas Popa Lki- lb. 18. 

nius, nefcio qui de Circo [c] Tanta tamen conftaotia 

maximo, fervos Milonis apud ac fides fuit Ciceronis, at non 

fe cbrios fadtos con fe fibs efle, populi a fe alienatione, non 

deintcrficiendo Cn. Pompeio Cn. Pompeii fufpickmibas, amicorum fen- non periculi futuri metu,— 

tentiarem defertad Senatujn non armis, quae palam in 

—Pro Milon. 24. Milonem fumpta erant, de- 

{£J Scitis, Judices, fuifle, terreri potuent a defenfione 

qui in hacrogatione fuaden- ejus. Argum. Milon. 

da dicerent, Milonis man a [J] Mijooem reum non 

csedem efle faftam, confilio magis invidia facti, quam 

vero majoris alicujus : vide- Pompeii damnavit voluntas. 

licet me latronem & ficarium. Veil, P. 2, 47. 
abje&i homines defcribebant 



Republic was freed at any rate from fo peftilent A. Urb; 70 u 
a Demagogue ; yet he refolved to take the bene- Ch^Pom- 
fit of the occasion, for getting rid of Milo too, P e, us 
from whofe ambition and high fpirit he had caufe Magn. III. 
to apprehend no lefs trouble. He would not sine Collcga. 
liften therefore to any overtures, which were 
made to him by Milo's Friends ; and when Milo 
offered to drop his fuit for the Confuljhip, if that 
would fatisfy him, he anfwered, that he would 
not concern bimfelf with axy matfsfuing or defifting* 
nor give any objiruftion to the power and inclination 
of the Roman people. He attended the trial in 
perfon with a ftrong guard to preferye peace, and 
prevent any violence from either fide: there 
were many clear and pofitive prdofs produced 
againft Milo, though fome of them were fuppo- 
fed to be forged : among the reft, the Vefidl vir- 
gins depofed, that a woman unknown came to them* 
in Milo's name, to difebarge a vow, f aid to ke made 
by bim, on* the account ofClodius's death [<?]. 

When the examination was over, Munatius 
Plancus called the people together, and exhorted 
them to appear in a full body the next day, when 
judgement was to be given, and to declare their 
fentiments in fo public a manner, that the cri- 
minal might not be fuffered to efcape *, which 
Cicero refle&s upon in the defence, as an infult 
on the liberty of the Bench [/]. Early in the 
morning, on the eleventh of April, the (hops were 
all (hut, and the whole City gathered into the 
Forum; where the avenues were poflefled by 
Pompey's foldiers, and he himfelf fcated in a con- 
fpicuous part, to overlook the whole proceding, 

ft] Vid. Afconii Argum. licere vobis, quod /entiatis, 

in Milon. libere judicare. Pro Mil. 26, 

[/] Ut intclligatis contra Vid. Afcon. ibid, 
hefternam illam concipnera 


p£3 rfbe History of tfo Lift 

A.Urb.701. a&d hinder all disturbance. The aceufars were, 
Gic. 55. ^^ jfppi US9 the Nephew of Qodius, M. Ante- 
peius* 1 " dus, and P. Valerius* who, according to the 
Ma cm HI. new law, employed two tours, in fopporting 
Sine CoHega. their indi&ment. Cicero was the onely advocate 
on Milo's fide ; but as fooij as he role up to fpcak, 
he was received with fo rude a clamor by the Ch- 
dians, that be was much difcompofed and daunted at 
Us firft fetting out\ yet rtcovend fpirit enough to 
go through his fpeecb of three hours ; which was 
taken dawn in writing, anipuhlifhed as it was de- 
livered ; though the copy of it now extant is Tup- 
pofcd to have been retouched and corrected by 
him afterwards, for a prefenr to Milo in his 
cxilfxf. ■ ■ " - 

In the council of Milo's friends, feveral were 
of opinion, that he ftiould defend himfelf, by 
avowing the death of Clodius to he an off of public 
benefit: But Cicero thought that defence' too de- 
fperatei as it would difguit. the. grave, by open- 
ing fo great a door to licence ; and offend the 
powerfully left the precedent fhould be extend- 
ed to themfelves. But Young Brutus was not fo 
cautious; who, in an .oration, which he compo- 
fed and published afterwards in vindication of 
Milo, maintained the killing of Clodius to he right 
iandjufty and of great fecvice to the Republic [h]. 
It was notorious, that on both fides, .they had 
often threatened death to each other: Clodius ef- 
J>ecially had declared feveral times both to the 

[g] Cicero, cum inciperet cu*ffi?t, ita defendi crimen, 

dkere, acceptus eft acclama- interna Clodium pro Repub. 

itione Clodianoram — itaque fuiiTe, quam formam M. Bru- 

non ea, qua folitus crat, con- tus fecutus eft in ea oratione, 

ftantia dixit. Marret autem quam pro Milone compofuit, 

ilia quoqae except a ejus Ora- & edidit, quam vis non egiflet, 

tio — Afcon. Argum. Ciceroni id non placuit 

[b] Cum quibufdam pla- Ibid. 



Senate and the people, that Milo ought to bekilled- 9 "A. Uft.701. 
and thai 1 if the Confuljhip tould not be taktnfrom c ^*S; 55- 
bim r bis life could ; ana I when Favonius ajked him , N £ , I ^ M " 
orice^ what bdpes he could have of playing bis mad Magn, III. 
pranks^ while Milo was living $ be replied^ that in $»* Collcga. 
three jr four days at moft % he fhould live no more : 
which was Ipoken juft three days before the fatal , 
rencounter, and attefted by Favonius \i\ Since 
Mi]o ttten was charged with being the contriver 
of their meeting, and the aggreflbr in it, and fe- 
veraVteftimonies were produced to that purpofe, 
Cicero chofe jto rifk the eauie on that iflue ; in 
hopes to perfuade, what feenied to be the moft 
probable, that Clodius affually lay in wait for 
Milo, -and contrhed the time and place ; and that 
Milo* $ part was but a neceffary aft of fetf defence. 
This appeared plaulibie, from the nature of their 
equipage, and the circumftances in which they 
met: for though Mito's Company was the more 
numerous, yet it was much more encumbered, 
and unfit for engagertfent, dian his admerfary's ; 
he bimfelf heing in a chariot with bis wife, and all 
her women along With him \ while Clodiuswitb bis 
followers were on horfebac%\ as if prepared and 
equipped for. fighting {kj. He did not preclude 


[*] Etenim palam diflita- [#] Iirtefim com fcimt 

bat, confulatum 'Miloni eripi Clodlas— iter 'fdkime~**ie- 

aon pdfle, vftam pdfle, Sig- ceffariom— !Mtk»i .effe <La- 

Bificavit hoc fiepe in $enatu ; mmam-^Rama ipfe profeo 

dixit in condone , Quiae- tus pridie eft, ut ante fuum 

tiam Pa von 10, quaercnti fcx fond urn, quod re intdle&tmi 

eo, qna-fpe fureret, Miloae eft,dnfidias Miloni colloca- 

*ivo ? ftefpondit, tridito «il- net— Milo autem.cum in Se* 

lum, -ad foinmum quatriduo nam ftiiflet eDTlie, quoad Se- 

periturum. ProMtf.^ natus dimifTus eft, Jpmuin 

Poft diem tertium gefta fes venk, cakeos i& •vdltiroenta 

eft, quam dixerat. lb. 16; xhutavit : paullifper, duni fe 


15+ 22f HistoXy of the Life 

A. Urb.7oi.hi m fclf however by this from the other plea, 

CN? 1C poM- W ^ IC ^ he often takes occafion to infinuate, that 

*hius if M*lo bad really deftgned and contrived to kill Clo- 

M ac n. III. 2^ be would have deferved honors injiead pf pu* 

Sin * Colle Z*-niJhment 9 for cutting offfo defperatc and dangerous 

an enemy to tbe peace and liberty of Rome [/]. 

In this foeech for Milo, after he had fhewn 
the folly or paying fuch a regard to the idle ru- 
mors and forgeries of his enemies, as to give 
them the credit of an examination, he touches 
Pompey's conduft and pretended fears 9 with a 
fine and mafterly raillery ; and from a kind of 
prophetic forefight of what might one day hap- 
pen, addrefies himfelf to him in a very pathetic 

manner. " I could not but applaud, fayshe % 

" the wonderfull diligence of Pompey in thefc 
" inquiries : but to tell you freely, what I think ; 
" thofe who are charged with the care of the 
" whole Republic, are forced to hear many 
" things, which they would contemn, if they 
" were at liberty to do it. He could not refufe 
" an audience to that paultry fellow, Licinius, 
" who gave the information about Milo's fer- 
" vants 1 was fent for among the firft of 

uxor, ut fit, comparat, com* 
moratus eft— obviam fit ei 
Clodius expeditus in equo, 
nulla rheda, nullis impedi- 
xnentis, nullis Graecis Comi- 
tibus, fine uxore, quod nun- 
quam fere ; cam hie infidia- 
tor,— (Milo)— cum uxore in 
rheda veheretur penulatus, 
magno impedimenta, ac mu- 
liebri & delicatoancillarum & 

puerorum comitatu Pro 

Mil. 10. it. 21. 
[I] Qvamobrein fi cruen* 

turn gladium tenens clama- 
ret T.Annius, adefte, quaefo, 
atque audite cives : P. Clo- 
dium interfeci : ejus furores, 
quos nullis jam legibus, nullis 
judiciis fxaeuare potersmus, 
hoc ferro, atque hac dextra 
a cervicibus veftris repuli, 
&c— — Vos'tanti fceleris ul- 
torem non medo honoribus 
nullis afficietis, fed etiam ad 
fupplicium rapi patiemini? 
Pro Mil. 28 -&c. 

" thofe 


thole friends, by whofe advice he laid it be- A, Urb. 701. 
fore' the Senate-, and was, I own, in no fmall Cic - 55- 
condensation, to fee the Guardian both of me p E ' IUS ° M ~ 
and my Country under fo great an apprehen- Magn. III. 
fion; yet I could not help wondering, that Sine CoJJega. 
fuch credit was given to a Butcher ; fuch re- 
gard to drunken (laves ; and how the wound 
in the man's fide, which feemed to be the 
prick oncly of a needle, could be taken for 
the ftroke of a Gladiator. But Pompey was 
(hewing his caution, rather than his fear ; and ' 
difpofed to be fufpicious of every thing, that 
you might have reafon to fear nothing. There 
was a rumor alfo, that Caefar's houfe was at- 
tacked for fevcral hours in the night: the 
neighbours, though info public a place, heard 
nothing at all of it 5 yet the affair was thought 
fit to be enquired into. I can never fufpeft 
a man of Pompey's eminent courage, of be- 
ing timorous *, nor yet think any caution too 
great in one who has taken upon himfelf the 
defence of the whole Republic. A Senator 
likewife in a full houfe, affirmed lately in the 
Capitol, that Milo had* a dagger under his 
gown at that very time : Milo ftript himfelf 
prefently in that mod facred Temple ; that, 
fince his life and manners would not give him 
credit, the thing itfelf might fpeak for him, 
which was found to be falfe, and bafely forged. 
But if, after all, Milo mull (till be feared •, it 
is no longer the affair of Clodius, but yoijr 
fufpicions, Pompey, which we dread : your, 
your fufpicions, I fay, and fpeak it fo, that 
you may hear me. — If thofe fufpicions (tick 
fo clofe, that they are never to be removed ; 
if Italy mud never be free from new levies, 
nor the City from arms, without Milo's de- 

" ftruAion; 

\i^6 'T£v Hisroikr of tfa Itife 

.A.Uik.701. u ftru&k>nj he would Jtot ftruple, frck is h« 

Cic. 55. « nature ar>d his principles, to bid adteo to his 

phiiu " Country, and fubnait to a voluntary e*iU but 

M A qn. III." at taking leave,, he would call upon Thee, 

Sin* College, " O Thou Gxeat One! as he now dees y te con- 

" fider how uncertain and variable the condition 

" of life is: how unfeulcd and incorfftaut a 

, " thukg. fortune ; whafr urfairitfuHnefs jjierp is 

u in friends-, wha* difltaittiatioo fuited to. times 

" and circum fiances ; wfaax defer turn, what 

cc cowardice in our dangers, wen of thofe*. who 

* " are deareft to u& : the*e wiU; theirs will, I 

." fay, be a time, a*d the day will cer&inty 

" come, when yw, with firfety ftiU, I hope, 

" to your, fortunes, though changed -per haps by 

" fome turn of the common times, which, as 

(c experience fliews^ wiU often happen to us all, 

u may warn the affe&ion of the friendlieft, the 

" fidelity of the worthkft; the courage of the 

" bravcft man It* ing, He. [m]" 

Qftbe one and fifty judges* who/at upotKMilo, 
thirteen onely acquitted, and tbitty-eigjht con- 
demned him ; the votes were ufually give© by 
ballot; but Cato, who abfolved him, chofc to 
give his voce opeiilyj and, " if he had done -it 
" earlier, fays Velkius y would. have drawn: others 
" after hint ; fmce aU were convinced, that- he, 
" who was kilted, was, of all who had ever 
" lived, the moft pernicious enemy to Ws 
" Country, and to all good men [/*]." Mflo 
went into exil at Marfeilles, a few days after his 
condemnation-: his debts were fo.great, that he 

[to] Pro. Mil. 24, 25,26. plum, probirentque ewn ci- 

[»] M,. Cato palain lata vem occifura, quo nemo per- 

ablolvit fententia, quam fi niciofior Reip. neque. bonis 

mattirrus tuliflet, nondefuit iaunkior vixerat, •—*-— -Veil. 

fctot, qui fequaxcfltftr cxew* P< 2* 47./ 



was -glad to retire, the. fooner fKQm;thchi^rt\^^V^7d%. 
nicy of his creditors ; for whofc fitis&dion, his Cj p*p $ *; 
whole eftate was fold by public auftiom Here ^zw^- * 
Cicefo ftill oontimjed his care for him,., and in. MA.<w..!in. 
concert with Milo's friends, ordered One id his KwCoBq^* 
wife's freedmenv Philotimus, to affift at the fait, 
and to purchaft the greateft part of the eflfe£b> 
in order to dilpofe of them afterwards to the 
beft advantage, for the benefit of Milo and bis 
wife Fatffta> if any thing could be f avid for them. * 
But his ihtended fcrvice was not fo well rdjihed 
by Milb, as he cxpefted-, for Philotimus was 
fafpefted of playing the knave, and fecreting 
part of the efifefts to his own . ufc ; which gave 
Cicero great uneafinefs •, fo that he prcflfed Atri- 
cus and Caefius to inquire into the matter very 
narrowly, and oblige Philotimus " to give fa- 
" tisfaftion to Milo's friends 5 and to fee efpe- 
•" ciaUy, thkt his oiwn reputation did not fuffer 
" by the . rbanagement of his fervant [p]" 
Through this whole ftruggle about Milo, Pom- 
pey treated Cicero with great humanity : he aP 
figned him a ". guard at the trial; forgave all 
" his labors for his friend, though, in oppofitioh 

[0} Cottfilioffl meura hoc egoei coram dixeram, xnihj- 

fi^rat^primmn utin poteftate que ille receperat, ne fit it*- 

nolfra res efTet, be inum ina- vito Miloue in bonis Ad 

his emptor & alienus manci- Att. 5. 8. it. 6. 4. 
niis, qm permultafecum ha- Quod ad Philotimi libeiti 
. bet, fpoliaret : deinde ut officium & bona Milonis at- 
Fauftae, cui cautum ille vo- tinet, dedimus operam ut & 
luifletj ratum efTet. Erat Philotimus qnam htmeirifirnie 
etiam illud, ut ipfi nos, fi Miloniabfenti,ejufquenecef- 
quid fervari poffet, quam fa- fariis fatis faceret, & fecun- 
cillime fervaremus. Nunc dum ejus Jidem & fedulita- 
rem totam perfpicias velim ^- tern exiflimatio tua conferva- 
Si ille queritiir Si idem retur.— <— Ep. Fam. 8. 3. 

Faufta vult, Philotimus, ut 

" to 

158 Tie H 1 s t o R Y of the Life 

A. Urb. 701. €i to himfelf v and (0 far from refenting what be 
Cic. 55.^ « jy^ would not fufier other people's refent- 
*niv+° Um 4i ments to hurt him [p]. n 
Macn.III. The next trial before the fame Tribunal, and 
Ql^« cili - for the fame crime, was of M. Saufeius, one of 
tusScmo. Milo's confidents, charged with being the ring- 
* leader in farming the boufe, and killing Clodius: 
he was defended alfo by Cicero, and acquitted 
onely by one vote : but being accufed a fecond 
time on the fame account, though for a different 
fad, and again defended by Cicero, be was ac- 
quitted by a great majority. But Sex. Clodius, the 
Captain of the other fide, had not the luck to 
efcape fo well-, but was condemned and ba- 
nifhed with feveral others of that fa&ion, to the 
great joy of the City, for burning she Senate-bouje, 
and the other violences committed upon Clodius's 
death [q\. 

Pompey no fooner publifhed his new lam 
againji bribery \ than the late Confular Candidates, 
Scipio and Hypfaeus, were feverally impeached up- 
on it 1 and being both of them notorioUlly guil- 
ty, were in great danger of being condemned : 
but Pompey, calling the body of the Judges to- 
gether, begged it of them as a favor, that out 
of the great number of ftate Criminals, they would 
remit Scipio to him : whom, after he had refcued 
from this profecution, he. declared bis Collegue in 
the Confuljhip, for the lajifive months of the year ; 
having firft made him his Father-in-law by mar- 
rying his daughter, Cornelia. The other Can- 

[/] Qua Hamanitate tulit Cum me confilio, turn au&o- 

contentionem meam pro Mi* ritate, cum armis deniquc 

lone, adverfante bterdum texit fuis— -lb* 3. 10. 

a&ionibus fuis ? Quo ftudio [q] A (con. Argum. pro 


providit, ne quae me illius Mil on, 
teraporis invidia attingeret ? 

tif m. ruLLius ck£kdi i& 

didate, Hypfaeus, was left to the mercy of the A.tJrbiyoh 
law, and being likely to fare the worfe for Sci- Cl £ ^?" 
pio's cfcape, and to be made. a facrifice to the Cn. po*- 
popular odium* Jie watched an opportunity of peius 
accefs to Pompey* as be was coming out of bis ^ j; GN * . n J* 
batb 9 and ibr&wing bimfelf at bis feft, implored ^ s ^,"^1 
bis proiWion : but though he had been his i^*/ 1 LvsScjpte} 
tor, and ever bbfequious to his will, yet Pom- 
pey is faid to have thruft hirtt away virith great 
haughtihefs and inhumanity, telling him coldly, 
that be would onefy fpbii bis /upper by detaining 

Before the ertd of the year, Cicfcro had 
fome amends for the lofs of his friend Milo, by 
the condemnation and banifhmeht of Two of tbe 
Tribuns, the common enemies of them both* 
Q^Pompeiws Rufus, and T. Munatius Plancu$ 
Buria, for the vioientei of tbeir Tribunate ', and 
turning the Stnate-boufe. As lboh as their office 
fexpired, Caelius accufed the firftj and Cicero 
himfelf the fecond ; the onely caufe, excepting 
that of Vefres, in which he evfcr afted the part 
of an Accufen But Burfa had deferved it> both 
for his public hehaviour in his offifce, and his 
perfonal injuries to Cicero ; who had defended 
and preferved him in a former trial. He de- 
pended on Pompey's favirig hind •, and had n6 
apprehenfion or danger^ Snce Pompey undef- 

[r] Cm astern Pompeias fuiim inorai-etui-, tefpondit— 

4}uam infolenter ? Quibalneo Hie vero P. Scipionem, So- 

' egreflas, ante pedesluos pro- cerum fuum, legi dijs ji oxi am , 

ftratum Hyplsam ambitus q uas *pfe tulerat, in maxima 

ream & nopilem viram & fi- quidem reoriim U illultriuni 

fci amicam^jacentem reliquit, ruink, tnuheris loco a Judici- 

contumeliofa voce proculca- busdepofcere Val. Max; 

tarn. Nihil enim earn aliud 9. $* it. Platan in Pomp. 
kgete, <juam tjt convivium 

Vot. II; M tOpfc 

j6o TAe H i s t o r V of the Life 

A. Urb. 701. took to plead his caufe, before Judges of his 
c £'i*' own appointing ; yet by Cicero's vigor in ma- 
Cn. Pom- na g* n g the prolecution, he was condemned by an 
peius unanimous vote of the whole bench [j]. Cicero 
Macn. III. was highly pleafed with this fuccccfs, as he figni- 
us C Mrtrl- ** es * n a ^ ctter to k* s fr' cn ^ Marius, which will 
lusScipio. cxplane the motives of his conduft in it. 

44 I know very well, fays be^ that you rejoice 
44 at Burfa's fate, but you congratulate me too 
44 coldly : you imagine, you tell me, that for 
44 the lbrdidnefs of the man, I take the lefs 
44 pleafure in it : but believe me, I have more 
" joy from this fentence than from the death 
44 of my enemy : for, in the firft place, I love 
44 to purfue, rather by a trial, than the fword ; 
44 rather with the glory, than the ruin of a 
44 friend ; and it pleafed me extremely, to fee, 
44 fo great an inclination of all horreft men on 
44 my fide, againft the incredible pains of one, 
44 the moft eminent and powerful: and laftly, 
41 what you*will fcarce think poffible, I hated 
44 this fellow worfe than Clodius himfelf : for I 
44 had attacked the one, but defended the other: 
44 and Clodius, when the fafety of the Republic 
44 was rilked upon my head, had fomething 
44 great, in view, not indeed from his own 
44 ftrength, but the help of thofe, who could 
44 not maintain their ground, whilft I flood firm: 
44 but this filly Ape, out of a gayety of heart, 
44 chofe me particularly for the obje<5t of his in- 
44 vedHves ; and perfuaded thofe, who envied 
4C me, that he would be always at their fervice, 
44 to injult me at any warning. Wherefore I 
44 charge you to rejoice in good earneft * for it 

[j] P!r.ncum, qui omnibus plaufu condemnatus — — 
fenientiis maximo veftro Philip. 6. 4. ' 

-i 4€ is 


44 is a great victory, which we have won. No A - V rb - 7°« • 
44 Citizens were ever ftouter than thofe who Co£ 5 ' 
44 condemned him, againft fo great a power of Cn. Pom- 
44 one, by whom themfelves were chofen Judges: PEI *s 
c< which they would never have done* if they q^c""™' 
44 had not made my caufe and grief their own. y S m^lI 
44 We are fo diftra&ed here by a multitude of lusScipio* 
44 trials and new laws, that our daily prayer is. 
44 againft all Intercalations, that we may fee you 
44 as fooh as polfible [/.]" 

Soon after the death of Clodius, Cicero feems 
to have written bis Treatife on laws [u] ; after the 
example of Plato, whom of all writers he mod 
loved ta imitate: for as Plato, after he had 
written on government in general, drew up a bo- 
dy of laws, adapted to. that particular form of it, 
which be bad been delineating \ fo Cicero chofe to 
deliver his political fentiments in the fame me- 
thod [x] •, not by tranflating Plato, but imitating 
his manner in the explication of them. This 
work being defigned then, as a fupplement, 6r 
fecond volume, to his other upon the Republic^ 
was diftributed probably, as that other was, intd 
fix books: for we meet with fome quotations 
among the ancients, from the fourth and fifth; 
though there are but three now remaining, and 
thofe in fome places imperfefl. In the firft of 
thefe, he lays open the origin of law, and the 
fource of obligation ; which he derives from the 
univerfal nature of things, or, as he cxplanes it, 
from the confummate reafon or will of the fupreme 

t] Ep. Fam. 7. 2. nium,quiprincepsdeRepub. 

«] Vid. de Legib. 2. 17. conferipfit, idemque fepara- 

x} Sed ut virdottiflimus tim de legibus ejus, id mihi 

fecit Plato, atque idem gra- credo efle faciendum—— De 

viffimus Philofophorum om- Legib. 2. 6. 

M 2 God: 

162 Tie History of the Life 

A.Urb.70!. God[y]: in the other two books, he gives i 
ci M5- body of laws conformable to his own plan and 

Cw. Pom- ^ ca °f a well-ordered City [2] : firft, thofe 
pbivs which relate to religion and tie worjbip of the 
Maoh.III. Gods\ fecondly, thofe which prefcribe the duties 

*tfs A^et'ilT *** powers of tbefeveral Magiftrates, from which 

lvsScifxo! the peculiar form of each government is de- 
nominated. Tbefe laws are generally taken from 
the old conftitution or cuftom of Rome [a] ; with 
fome little variation and temperament, contrived 
to obviate the diforders, to which that Republic 
was liable, and to give it a ftronger turn towards 
the Arifiocratical fide [h] : in the other books 
which are loft, he had treated, as he tells us, of 
the particular rights and privileges of the Roman 
people [c]. 

Pompey was preparing an Infcription this 
fummetfor the front of the New Temple, which 
he had lately built to Venus the Conquerefs, con- 
taining as ufual, the recital of all bis Titles : but 
in drawing it up, a queftion happened to be 
ftarted, about the manner of exprefftng bis third 

[y] Hanc igttur video fa- 
pientiffimorum fuifle fenten- 
tiam, legem neque hominum 
ingeniis excogitatam, nee 
icitum aliquod effb populo- 
rum, fed aeternum quiddam, 
quod univerfum mundum re- 
geret, imperandi prohiben- 
dique fapientia, ita princi- 
pem legem illam k ultimam 
men tern efle dicebant, om- 
nia ratio ne aut cogentis aut 
vetantis Dei — Quamobrem 
lex vera atque princeps— — 
ratio eft refta fummi Jovis. 
lb. 2. 4. 

[*] Non autem quoniam. 

—qua; de optima Repub. fen* 
tiremus, in fex libris ante 
diximus, accommodabimu-s 
hoc tempore leges ad ilium, 
quern probamus, civitatis (la- 
tum—— lb. 3. z. 

[a] Et fi quae forte a me 
hodie rogabuntur, quae eoi* 
fint in noftra Repub. nee fue- 
rim, tamen erunt fere in more 
majorum, qui turn, ut lex, 
valebat. lb. 2. 10. 

[b] Nihil habui ; fane non 
multum, quod putarem no- 
vandum in legibus. lb. 3. 5* 

[*] lb. 3. 20. 



Ctmfuljbip ; whether it fhould be by Qonful Ter- A. Urb. 7 ©t. 
*««* or 3V//V. This was referred to the princi- C p*£ 5# 
pal Critics of Rome, who could not, it feems, Clf# p^ 
agree about it ; fome of them contending for the feius 
one, fome for the other ; y* that Pompey left it to Mac*. in, 
Cicm % to decide the matter, and to infcribe what Qt^« c,LI - 
he thought the beft. But Cicero being unwilling "usScim", 
to give judgement on either fide, when there were 
great authorities on botb, and Varro among 
them, advifed Pompey to abbreviate the word in 
queftion* and order TE RT. onely to be infcribed% 
which fully declared the thing, without deter- 
mining the difpute. Prom this fadt we may ob- 
ferve, how nicely exa& they were in this, age, in 
preferving a propriety, of language jn their pub- 
lic monuments and inferiptions [d], 

Amo NvG the other afts of Pompey, in this 
third ConfuIJbipi there was a new law againft bri- 
bery, contrived to ftrengthen the old ones, that 
were already fubfifting againft it, " by difquali- 
" fying all future Confuls and Prsetors, from 
" holding any province, till five years after the 
M expiration of their Magiftracies:" for this 
was thought likely to give fome check to the 
eagernefs of fuing and bribing for thofe great 
offices, when the chief fruit and benefit of them 
was removed to fucb a dijlance [e]. But before 
the Jaw paffed, Pompey took care to provide an 
exception for hi.mfelf, ** and to get the govern- 
u ment of Spain continued to him for five years 
" longer ; with an appointment of money for 
*' the payment of his troops :" and left this 
fhould giye offence to Csefar, if fomething alfo 

[/J This ffcory is told by Letter preferved by A. Gel* 
Tiro, a favorite Have and litis* 1. jo. I. 
frecdman of Cicero, in a .[*] Dio. p* 14** j 

M 3 of 

164 T&e History of the Life 

A. Urb. 701. of an extraordinary kind was not provided for 

C C P* ^ ,m » ^ e prop ^ a * aw ' to dtfp en f e Wlt b Cafar's 

Ck. Pom- abfence infuingfor the ConfulJhip\ of which Cae- 

peius far at that time feemed very defirous. Caelius 

Maon.III. was t h e promoter of this law, engaged to it by 

vs MBTEL- Cicero > at tbe J oint "Wft of Pompey and Ca- 
tvsScipio.far \f] \ and it was carried with the concurrence 
of all the Tribuns, though not without difficulty 
and obftrudtion from the Senate : but this urn- 
fual favor, inftead offatisfying Gefar, ferved one- 
ly % as Suetonius fays, to raife bis hopes and de- 
mands Jiill higher [g\ 

By Pompefs law, juft mentioned, it was pro- 
vided, for -a fupply of Governors, for the 
interval " of five years, in which the Confuls 
" and Praetors were difqualified, the Senators of 
" Confular and Praetorian rank, who had never 
44 held any foreign command, (hould divide the 
" vacant Provinces among themfelves by lot :" 
in confequence of which, Cicero, who was ob- 
liged to take his chance with the reft, obtained 
the Government of Cilicia, now in the hands of 
Appius, the late Conful: this Province included 
alfo Pijtdia 9 Pampbilia, and three Diecefes, as 
they were called, or DiftriSs of ARa y together 
with the I/land of Cyprus •, for the guard of all 
which, " a ftanding army was kept up of two 
** Legions, or about twelve thoufand foot; with 
4i two thoufand fix hundred horfe [b] :" and 

[/] Rogatus ab ipfo Ra- retur— Quod ut adeptus eft, 

venna; de Cselio Tribuno altiora jam meditans 8c fpei 

pleb. ab ipfo an tern f Etiam plerius, nullum largitionis, 
a Cnaeo noftro.— Ad Att. 7. ' aut offlciorum in<juemquam 

1. genos publice prfvatimque 

[g] Egit cum Tribunis omifit. Suet. J. Csef. 36. 

pleb. ut abfentifibi , [£J Ad Att 5. 15. 

petitio fecundiConfulatt^4a- 



thus one of thofe Provincial Governments, which A. Urb. 701. 
were withheld from others by law, to correct Cl *' 55* 
their inordinate paffion for them, was, contrary Cn p ' M _ 
to his will and expectation, obtruded at loft upon peius 
Cicero •, whofe bufinefs it had been through life Magn.iii. 
to avoid them [/]. . % C Me*tS£ 

The City began now to feel the unhappy ef- lu«Scxpiq" 
fe£ts, both of Julia's and Crajfus's death, from 
the mutual apprehenfions and jealouGes, which 
discovered themfelves more and more every day 
between Pompey and Ca?far : the Senate was ge^- 
nerally, in Pompey's intereft; and trufting to the 
name and authority of fo great a Leader, were, 
determined to humble the pride»and ambition of 
Caefar, by recalling him from his government; 
whilft Caefar, on the other hand, trufting to the 
ftrength of his troops, refolved to keep pofief- 
fion of it in defiance, of all their votes *, and by 
drawing a part of his forces into the Italic or \ 

Cifalpine Gaul, fo as to be ready at any warning 
to fupport his pretenfions, began to alarm all 
Italy with the melancholy profpeft of an ap- 
proaching civil war : and this was the fituation 
of affairs, when Cicero fet forward towards his 
Government of Cilicia. 

[*] Cum & contra vol tin* cum imperio in Provinciam 
tatem meam & prater opi- proficifci necefle eflet, £p. 
aionem accidiffet, ut mihi Fam. 3. 2. 

M 4 SECT. 


!T& ft i s t o R v of the Lrjfk 


IHIS year opens to us a new fcane in Cu 

Cic c6. JL cero s life, andpreients him in a character, 

Coir, which he had never before fuftained, of the Go- 

^p"iu S sRy writer of a?rovincc % zndGcnerahfanarmy. Thefc 


pius Mar- 

preferments were, of all others, the mpft ardent- 
ly defired by the great for the advantages which 
they afforded both of acquiring power, and. 
amafling wealth : for their command, though ac- 
countable to the {toman people, was abfolute and 
uncontroulable inthe Province 5 where they kept 
up ther ftate and pride of foverein Princes, and/ 
had all the neighbouring Kings paying a court to 
tbem, and attending their orders.. If their ge- 
nius was turned to arms, and fond of martial 
glory, they could never want a pretext for war^ 
fince it was eafy to drive the fiibje&s into rebel- 
lion, or the adjoining nations to a&s of hoftility 
by their oppreffions and injuries, till from the 
deftru&ion of a number of innocent people,, they 
had acquired the Title of Emperor^ and with it 
• the pretenfion to a triumph ; without which 
fearce any Proconful was ever known to return 
from 3 remote and frontier province [a]. Their 

opportunities • 

[a] While the ancient dif- 
cipline of the Republic fub- 
lifted, no general could pre- 
tend to a triumph, who had 
not enlarged the bounds of 
the Empire by his conqdeflsj 
and killed at lea ft five thou- 
sand enemies in battle, with- 
out any considerable lofs of 

his own foldiers. This was 
exprefsly enaded by an old 
law : in fupport of which a 
fecond was afterwards provid- 
ed, that made it penal for 
any of their triumphant Com- 
manders to give a falfe ac- 
count of the number of flain, 
either on the enemy's fide, or 


opportunities of railing money were as immenfe A*Urb. 70a. 
as their power, and bounded only by their own £*£ £?• 
appetites: the appointments from the treafu- Se*v.°Sui,. 
jy, for their equipage, plate, and neceffary fur- piciusRu- 
niture, amounted, as appears from fome in- * U8 » 
fiances, to near, a hundred and fifty tboufand ^^Ma** 
pounds [i]: and, befides the revenues of king- cillvi. 
doms, and pay of armies, of which they had the 
arbitrary management, they could exalt what 
contributions they pleafed, not oncly from the 
Cities of their own jurifdidion, but from all the 
flates and Princes around them, who were un- 
der the protection of Rome. But while their 
primary care was to enrich themielves, they car- 
ried out with them always a band of hungry 
friends and dependents, as their Lieutenants, Tri- 
tons, Pr<efe8s, with a crew of freedmen and 
favorite (laves, who were all likewifc to be en- 
riched by the fpoils of the Province, and the 
fale of their- matter's favors. Hence flowed all 
thofe accufations. and trials, for the plunder of 
the fubje&s, of which we read fo much in the 
Roman writers : for as few or none of the Procon- 
suls behaved themfelves with that exaft juftice, 
as to leave no room for complaint, fo the feftions 
of the City, and the quarrels of families, fubfift- 

theirown; and obliged them, General of any credit, who 

upon their entrance into the had gained fome little ad van - 

City, to take an oath before tage againft Pirates or fogi- 

the Quarters* or pabtfcTita« tives, or repelled the incur- 

furers, that the accounts, fions of the wild barbarians, 

which they had fent to the who bordered upon the di- 

Senate, of each number, ftant provinces, 
were true. [Val. Max. 2. 8. J [B\ Nonne HS. centies 8c 

But thefe laws had long been ottagies— (jnafi vafarii norai* 

negletted and treated as ob- ne~ exaeranotibiattributum, 

folete; and the honor of a Romxrnquaeftureliquifti?iii 

Triumph ufually gran ted, by Pxfon. 35. 

Intrigue and faction* to every 


i6S 7^ History jf^ Life 

A. Urb. 702; ing from former impeachments, generally excited 

c c & 6 ' *° mc or ot ^ er to revcn s e * e a ff ront * n ™4 ty 

Serv.°Svl- undertaking the caufe of an injured Province, 
piciusRu-and dreffing up an impeachment againft their 
™«» enemy. 

*u8 Cl maii-" ® ut w ^ atevc ^ benefit or glory this Govern- 
ed!, us! " mcnt fcemed to offer, it had no charms for Cice- 
ro: the thing itfclf was difagreeable to bis tern- 
per [c] 9 nor worthy of thofe talents, which were 
formed to fit at the helm, and fhine in the admi- 
niftration of the whole Republic: fo that he con- 
fidered it onely as an honorable exil, or a bur- 
then impofed by his country, to which his duty 
obliged him to fubmit. His firft care therefore 
was to provide, that this command might not be 
prolonged to him beyond the ufual term of a 
year ; which was frequently done, when the ne- 
ceffities of the Province, the character of the 
man, the intrigues of parties, or the hurry of 
other bufinefs at home, left the Senate neither 
leifure nor inclination to think of changing the 
Governor : and this was the more likely to hap- 
pen at prefent, thro* the fcarcity of magiftrates, 
who were now left capable by the late law of fuc- 
ceding him. Before his departure therefore he 
follicited all his friends, not to fuffer fuch a mor- 
tification to fall upon him; and after he was gone, 
fcarce wrote a fingle letter to Rome* without 
■ y r ging the fame requeft in the moft prefling terms : 

in his firft to Atticus, within three days from 
their parting j do not imagine, fays he, that I 

[c) Totum negotium non moribus, &c. Ad Att. 5. 10. 

eftdignumviribus noftris,qui Sed eft incredible, quam 

majore onera in Rep. fuftinere me negotii toedeat, non iabet 

& poffim 8c foleam. Ep. Fam. fatis magnum campum ille 

*** 1- . . tibi non ignotus curius animi 

O rem minime aptam meis mei.— lb. 15. • 



have-any other consolation in this great trouble, than A. Urb. 70s. 

the hopes that it will not be continued beyond the C p' fl 5 6 * 

year: many, who judge of me by others, do not take s E rv. Sul- 

me to be inearneft, but you, who know me, willufe piciusRu- 

all your diligence, efpecially, when the affair is to * V8 > y 

come on [d]. * W X; 

l j dius mar- 

He left the City about the nrft of May, attend- czllvs. 

ed by his Brother and their two Sons : for Quin- 
tus had quitted his commiffion under Casfar, in 
order to accompany him into Cilida, in the fame 
capacity of his Lieutenant. Atticus had dcfired 
him, before he left It;*ly, to admonifh his Bro- 
ther, to (hew more complaifance and affeftion to 
his wife Pomponia, who had been complaining 
to him of her hufband's peevilhnefs and churlifti 
carriage , and left Cicero fhould forget it, he put 
him in mind again, by a letter to him on the 
road, that fince all the family were to be together 
in the Country, on this occafion of his going 
abroad, he would perfuade Quintus to leave his 
wife at leaft in good humour at their parting : in 
relation to which, Cicero fends him the following 
account of what pafled. 

" When I arrived at Arpinum, and my Bro- 
" therwas come to me, our firft and chief difcourfe 
" was on you ; which gave me an opportunity 
" of falling upon the affair of your Sifter, which 
" you and I had talked over together at Tufcu- 
" lum : I never faw any thing fo mild and mode- 
" rate as my Brother was, without giving the 
" leaft hint of his ever having had any real 

[d] Noli putare mihi aliam q-edunt ex confuetudine alio- 

confolationem efle hujus in- rum. Tu, qui fcis, omnem 

gentismoleftias,nifiquod fpe- diligentiam adhibebis: turn 

ro non Iongiorem annua fore, fci licet, cum id agi debebit. 

Hoc me ita velle multi non lb. 2. 

" caufe 

170 Tie History of tie Life 

AwUrb.702. *• caufe of offence from her. The next morn* 
Clc 'i 6 ' ** "rog we left Arpinum ; and that day being a 
S**r. Svl- ** fcftival, Quintus wasobKged tofpend it atAr- 
ficivsRv- u canum, where I dined with him, but went on 
Fvs. " afterwards to Aquinum : Yon know this Villa 

W ' Cl im" " °^ ^is: as f°° n as we came thither, Quintus 
Zllv***' " f *d to h » wife » in the civilleft terms ; do you, 
44 Pomponia, invite the women, and I will fend 
" to the men : (nothing, as far as I faw, could 
41 be faid more obligingly, either in his words or 
44 manner:) to which fac replied, fo as we all 
44 might hear it, lam but. a fir anger here t*yfeif: 
€i referring, I gaefs, to my Brother's having fe&t 
*' Statins before us to order the dinner: upon 
44 which, fee, fays my Brother to me, what I am 
44 forced to bear every day. This, you will fay, 
44 was no great matter. Yes, truly, great 
44 enough to give me much concern ; to fee 
♦ 4 her reply fo abfurdly and fiercely both in her 
44 words and looks : but I difiembled my unea- 
44 finefs. When we fat down to dinner, flic 
44 would not fit down with us •, and when Quin- 
44 tus fent her feveral things from the table, fee 
44 lent them alt back: in fliort, nothing could be 
•* milder than my Brother, or ruder than your 
44 Sifter : yet I omit many particulars, which gave 
44 more trouble to me than' to Quintus himfelf, 
44 I went away to Aquinum 5 h& ftaid at Arcanum : 
44 but when, he came to me early the next morn- 
44 ing, he told me, that flie reftifed to lye with 
44 him that night; and at their parting continued 
44 in the fame humor, in which I had feen her. 
44 In a word, you may let her know frQm ine, 
44 that, in my opinion,, the fault was all or* her 
46 fide that day. I have been longer perhaps, 
44 than was neceffary, in my narrative* to let you 

" fee, 

ef M. TULL1US CICERO. t?t 

** fee, that there is occafion alfo onyour part for A. Urb. 70^ 
4< advice and admonition [e]. n ' cic, I 6 - 

One cannot help obferving from this lktie in- Se| ^ j 
cident,whatis confirmedby innumerable instances P i C iusRtf- 
in the Roman ftory, that the freedom of a divorce, fus, 
which was indulged without reftraint at Rome, M - Cl ^ u " 
to the caprice of either party, gave no advantage cbllvs?** 
of comfort to the matrimonial ftate ; but on the 
contrary, feems to have encouraged rather a mu- 
tual perverfenefs and obftinacy, fince upon any 
little difguft, orobftru&ion given to their follies, 
the expedient of a change was ready always to 
flatter them, with the hopes of better fuccefs in 
another trial : for there never was an age or 
country* where there was ib profligate a con- 
tempt and violation of the nuptial bond, or fo 
much lewdnefs and infidelity in the Great of both 
iexes, as at this time in Rome. 

Cicero ipcnt a few days as he patted for* 
ward, at his Cuman Villa, near Baias, where there 
was fuch a refort of Company to him, that he 
had, he fays, a kind of a Utile Rome about him : 
Hortenfius came among the reft, though much 
out of health, to pay his compliments, and wifh 
him a good voyage, and, at taking leave, when 
he alked, what commands be had for him in bis 
abfence, Cicero begged of him onely, to ufe all 
his authority, to binder bis Government from being 
prolonged to him [/]. In fixteen days from 
Rome, he arrived at Tarentum, where he had 

[f] Ad Att. ;. 1. ne pateretur, quantum eflet 

/] In Cumano cum ef- in lpfo, prorogari nobis pro- 

fern, venit ad me, quod mi* vinciam.— habuimus in Cu- 

hi pergratum fuit, nofter mano quafi pufillam Romam 

Hortenfius : cui, depofcenti tanta erat in his locis jnulti- 

mea mandata, caetera uni- tudo.— Ib. 2. 
verfe roindavi ; illud proprie, 


172 T&e History of the Life 

A,Urb. 702. promifed to make a vifit to Pompey, who was 
C Co<£ 6 ' talcin g l ^ c benefit of that foft air, for the re- 
Serv. Sul- covefy of his health, at one of his Villa's in thofe 
piciusRu- parts j and had invited and preffed Cicero to 
pus, fpend fome days with him upon his journey : 

divs Ma r- ^ c y P ro P°fcd great fatisfadtion on both fides 
cellus. from this interview, for the opportunity of con- 
ferring together with all freedom, on the prefent 
ftate of the Republic, which was to be their fub- 
je& 2 though Cicero expe&ed alfo to get fome lef- 
fons of tbe military kind, from this renowned 
Commander. He promifed Attic us an account 
of this Conference-, but the particulars being too 
delicate to be communicated by Letters, he ac- 
quainted him onely in general, that be found Pom- 
pey an excellent Citizen, and provided for all events, 
which could poffibly be apprehended [g]. 

After three days flay with Pompey 9 he pro- 
ceded to Brundifium; where he was detained for 
twelve days by a flight indifpofltion 9 and the expec- 
tation of his principal officers, particularly of his 
Lieutenant Pontinius 9 an experienced Leader, the 
fame who had triumphed over tbe Allobroges\ and 
on whofe fkill he chiefly depended in his martial 
affairs. From Brundifium, he failed to Aftium, 
on the fifteenth of June * whence partly by fea, 

[^]NosTarenti, quoscum ceffi libenter multos enim c- 

Pompcio Zi£t*6yv<; de Repub. jus prseclaros de Repub. fer- 

habuerimus ad te perfcribe- mones accipiam : inftruar e- 

mus— lb. 5, tiamconfiliis idoneis ad hoc 

Tarentum veni a. d. xv noftrum negotium. — lb. 6. 
Kal. Jan. quod Pontinium Ego, cum triduum cum 

ftatucramexpeclare, comino- Pompeio & apud Pompeium 

diffimum duxi dies eos cum fuifTem, proncifcebar Brun- 

Pompeio confumere : eoque difium. — Civem ilium egre- 

magis, quod ei gratum efle gium relinquebam, &adhaec, 

id videbam, qui etiam a me qua? timentur, propulfanda 

petierit, ut fecum & apud fe paratiffimum.— ib. 7. 

c/Tem quotidic : quod con- 



and partly by land, he arrived at Athens on the A..Urb.?o* # 
twenty-ft$tb \h\ Here he lodged in the houfe Cl Q oi ^' 
of Ariftus, the principal, profefibr of the Acade- Se*v.°SuL- 
tny : and his Brother not far from him, with piciusRu- 
Xeno, another celebrated Philofopher of Epicu- J us » 
rus's School : they fpent their time here very »iu* Wilt. 
agreeably; at home, in Philofophical difquifitions j cbllvs. 
abroad, in viewing the buildings and antiquities 
of the place, with which Cicero was much de- 
lighted : there were feveral other men of learn- 
ing, both Greeks and Romans, of the party ; ef- 
pecially Gallus Caninius and Patro, an eminent 
Epicurean, and. intimate friend of Atticus [/]. 

There Jived at this time in exil at Athena, 
C. Memmius, baniihed upon a convidion of 
bribery,, in his fait for the conful(hip ; who, the 
day before Cicero's arrival, happened to go 
away to Mitylene. The figure, which he had 
, bora in Rome, gave him authority in Athens; 
and the council of Areopagus had granted him a 
piece of ground to build upon, where Epicurus 
formerly lived,, and where there Jlill remained the 
old ruins of his walls. But this grant had given 
great offence to the whole body of the Epicureans* 
to fee the remains of their mafter in danger of 
being deftroyed. They had written to Cicero at 
Rome, to beg him to intercede with Memmius, 
to confent to a revocation of it 5 and now at 
Athens, Xeno and Patro renewed their inftances, 
and prevailed with him to write about it, in the 
moft effectual manner ; for tho' Memmius had 

[£] Ad Att. 5. 8, 9-. multum 8c Philofophia — fi 

(/'] Valde me Athenae de- quid eft, eft in Arifto apud 

le&arunt: urbs duntaxat, 8c quern era m, nam Xenonem 

urbis ornamentum, 8c homi- tuum — Qui n to concefTeram 

num amores in te, 8c in nos — Ad Att. 5. x. Ep. Fam. 2. 

qusedam benevolentia ; fed 8. 13. 1. 


174. fbi H i s r o k y rf tte Lift 

"A.Urb. 762. laid tfide his defign of building, the Artopagtks 

^Cojj? 6 ' would mt recall their decree without bis have '[*]. 

Si*v. Strt- Cicero's letter is drawn with much art and accu- 

ncivsRv- racy t he laughs at the trifling zeal of chefePbi- 

**•. iofophers, for the old rubhijb andpaukty tains of 

^ius'ma*.. ****** Fwnfo'i J** **rmfity preffes Mmtnius, to in- 

cell vs. ' dulgetbemin a prejudice, wntouBtd&rougbwak- 

nefsy mt wkkednefs ; and though tie pftrtefles aii 

titter diflike of their Phttofophy, yet ta *ecom- 

mends them, as bonefc agreeable s friendiy men, 

for whom he entertained the bigheft^fteem [/}. 

From this letter one may obfetfve, that the greateft 

difference in Philofophy made no difference of 

friendihip among the great of thefe times. 

There was not a more declared enemy to EfU 

turufs doSrine, than Gkem : he thought it de- 

ftfuftivc of morality and pernicious to Society 1 

but he charged this cenftqaenetto the principles^. 

not the Profcflbrs of them ; with -many df whom 

he held the ftridteft intimacy ; and found them 

to be worthy, virtuous, generous friends, and 

lovers of their Country : there is a jocofe Letter 

to Trebatitis, when he was with CaaTar tnGauU 

upon bis turning Epicurean* which will help to 

confirm this refle&ion. 

CiefcRO to Tre b a tiv^i 

" 1 was wondering* why yott had given evtf 
" writing to me ; till Panfa informed me, thai 

[i] Vifum eft Xenoni, & Ntemmio impetrari non pof- 

J>oft, ipfi Patroni, roe ad fet. Memnuus autem aedifi- 

Memmium fcribere, qui pri- candiconftliumabjeciflet, fed 

die quam ego Athenas veni, erat Patroni iratus, itaque; 

Mityknas profedlus erat, — fcripfi ad eum accurate — -Ad 

non enim dubitabat Xeno, Att. 5. 11. 
. ^uin ab Areopagith invito [}} Ep. Fam. 13. i. 

i " foti 


44 you were turned Epicurean. O rare Camp ! A. Urb. 702. 
44 what would you have done if I had font you c, £ £$• 
44 to Tarcotam inftead of Samerobriva ? I began SerV.°Sul- 
44 to think the worfe of you, ever fince you rjciusRir- 
" made my friend* Seius your pattern. But with * v *> 
44 what face will you now pretend to pra&ife the ^^Mar. 
44 Law, when you arc to do every thing for your cellus. 
44 own intereft, and not for your Client^ f and 
44 what will become of that old form, and teft 
c< of fidelity ; as true men ought to aft truly y with 
44 one another ? what Law would you alledge for 
tC the diftribution of common right, when no- 
<c thing can be common with thofe who mea- 
€C fure all things by their pleafure ? with what 
44 face can you fwear by Jupiter ; when Jupiter, 
44 you know, can never be angry with any man ? 
44 and what will become of your people oiUlu- 
44 bra ; fince you do not allow a wile man to 
44 meddle with politics? wherefore if you are 
44 really gone off from us, I am forry for it 5 
44 but if it be convenient to pay this compliment 
44 to Panfe, I forgive you \ on condition how- 
44 ever, that you write me word what you are 
44 doing, and what you would have me do for 
44 you here [»]." The change of principles in 
Trebatius, though equivalent in effeft to a change 
of Religion with us, made no alteration in Ci- 
cero's affedtion for him. This was the didtate 
of reafon to the beft and wifeft of the Heathens* 
and may ferve to expofc the raflhnefs of thofe 
zealots, who, with the light of a moft divine and 
benevolent religion, are perpetually infulting and 
perfecuting. their fellow Chriftians, for differences 
of opinion, which for the moft part are mere- 
ly fpeculative, and without any influence on life, 
or the good and happinefs of civil Society. 

\m\ Ep. Fam. 7. 12. 
Vol. II. N After 

ij6 T&e Hi sTolref the Life 

A. Urb. 702. Afte* ten days fpent at Athens, where FcfntJ- 
C ^-I 6 - nifls at laft joined him, Ckefo fet fart towards 
Serv.°Sul- ^ a * ^Jp 011 leaving Italy, h£ hart charged his 
piciusRu-frifendCselius with the taffc of fending him the 
Fus, riews of Rome ; which Csefms performed very 

^ Cl ^ u " pun&oafly, in a feries of Letters, which make 3 
^*™* R >aIuablepartin thecolleftioh of his /miliar Epi- 
filts : they *re polite and entertaining; fall of 
*rit and fpifit •, yet not flowing with that eafy 
turn, and elegance of expreflion, which we always 
find in Cicero's. The firft of them, with Cice- 
ro's anfwer, will give us a fpecimen of the reft, 

M. C/^lius t$ M. Cicero. 

44 According to my promife at parting, to 
%i &nd yo\i an accotmt of all the news of the 
44 Tottn, I have provided one to colleft it for 
44 you fa punctually, that I am afraid, left you 
41 fhoujd tnink nty difigence at laft too miptate: 
44 but I know how curious you are •, ancj how 
44 agreeable it is to all, whQ are abroad, to be 
41 informed of every thing that paflfcs at hotne, 
4 * though ever fb trifling. I beg of you, however, 
44 not to condemn me of arrogance, for deputing 
" another to this talk ; fince, as bufy as I now 
44 am, and as lazy as you know me to be in 
* 6 writing, it would be the greateft pkafure to 
44 me, to be employed in any thing that revives 
44 the remembrance of you : but the pacquet it- 
* 4 felf, which I halve fent, will, I imagine, rea- 
44 dily exepfe me ; fdr what Jcifure would it re- 
44 quire, not only to tranferibe, but to attend 
44 e*tn to the contents of it ? there are all the 
ftt decrees of the Senate, Edifts, plays, rumors: 
44 if the fample does not pleafe you, pray let me 
4 ^ Jcnow it, that I may not give yoq trouble, at 

4 * my 

hJFM. TULLtUS Citi&kbi ijj 

my cgft. If any thing important happens itt A; tfrb; 70^* 
the republic, above the reach of tbefe hack- C £^£ * 
ney writers* I will fend you an account of it s*rv. S*ji> 
myfeif; in what manner it was tntnfa&cd; piciusfcui 
what peculations are railed upon it ; what ef- * u !; 
fe&s apprehended: at prefent there is no b\ vs L nu*4 
great expeftatiori of any thing : as to thofe ru- cellu*; . 
mors, which were fb warm at Gum£> of a£ 
fembltng the Colonies, bey orld the Po y when I 
came to Rome, I heard not a fyllable about 
theim Marccllus too* becaufe he has not yet ' 
made any motion for a fuccefTdr to the twd 
Gauls, but puts it off, as he told me himfelft 
to the firftdf J»»*, has revived the fame talk 
concerning him, which was ftirring when w8 
were at Rom together. If you few Pompeyj 
as you defignfcd to do, pray fend me word iri 
what temper you foutf d him ; what coriverfa- 
tion he hod with yoti ; what inclination he 
ihewed ; for he is apt to think one thing, and 
fay another^ yet has not wit enough to con- 
ceal what he really means: As for CaJfarj 
there are many ugly reports about him ; but 
propagated onely in whifpers : fome fay, that 
he has loft all his horfe ; which I take indeed 
to be true : others, that the feventh Legion 
has been beaten •* and that he himfelf is be- 
fieged by the Bdfavaci % arid cut off from the 
reft of his army. There is nothing yet cer- 
tain ; nor are thefe uncertain fttfrifcs pablicty 
talked of; but among the few, whom you 
know, told openly, by way of fecrdts : Do- 
mitius never mentions them^ without tap- 
ping his hand to his mouth. On the twenty- 
firft of May, the mob cinder the Roftra, fent 
about a report, (may it fall on their own heads) 
which was warmly propagated through the 
N a M Fdruili 

178 .'' T&Histor y of thehife 

•A. Uib. 702. " Forum and the whole City, that you wef c 

Ci r a- 6, " killed u P on t * le roac * ^ Q^Poropeius : bm I, 

Sbrv° Sul- " w ^° ^ ncw *" m to b c l ^ cn at ^**#> ^^ * n ^ uc ' 1 

ficiusRv- " a ftarving condition, that I could not help pi- 

fus, "tying him, being forced to turn Pilot for his 

. M# Cl w UDI ~ " bread, was not concerned about it; and wilhed 

ciLLust*" " onc ty« ^ at ^ any real dangers threatened you, 

" we might be quit for this lie: your friend 

." Plancus Burfa is at Ravenna ; where he has 

" had a large donative from Caefar ; but is not 

44 yet eafy, nor well provided. Your books on 

44 government. are applauded by all people [»]. 

. M. T. Cicerg, . Proconful, to M. Cmiius. 

44 How. ! was it this, think you, that I charged 
44 you with ; to fend me the matches of Gladia- 
4< tors-, the adjournments of caufes; and Chref- 
4t tus's news letter; and what nobody dares men- 
44 tion to me when at Rome ? See, how much I 
"afcribeto you. in my judgement: nor indeed 
, 44 without reafon, for I have never yet met with 
"a better head for politics.; I would not have 
44 you write what pafies every day in public, 
4C though ever fo important, unlefs it happen to 
46 affeft myfelf : others will write it ; many bring 
44 accounts of it ; and fame itfelf conveys a great 
4 'part to me : I expeft from you, neither ,the 
44 paft, nor the prcfent ; but. as. from one, who 
44 fees a great j way before him, the future onely; 
44 that when I have before . me in your Letters 
44 the plan of the Republic, I may be able to 
"judge what a fort of Edifice it .will be. Nor 
44 have I hitherto .indeed any caufe to complain 
.** of you ; for. nothing has yet happened, which 

* .00 Epift, Fam. 8. 1. 

:• " y° u 


" you could forefee better than, any of us 5 efpe* A. Urb. 702. 
" daily myfelf, who fpent iever&f days with ci M 6t 
"Pompey, in^converfing on nothing elfe, but SFRV# ° g UL; 
" the Republic * which \& neither poffible nor ficius Ru- 
" proper forme to explane by Letter : take this * us » 
" onely from me •, that Pompey is an excellent M# Ql3 tF m 
"Citizen, prepared bom with courage and C ellus..> 
" counfil for all events^ which caft be fofcefeen : 
" wherefore, give yourfelf up to the man ; be- 
" lieve me, he torill embrace you ; for he now 
" holds. the- fame opinion with us, of good ahd 
" bad Citizens* After I had been ten days at 
" Athens, where our friend Gallus Caninius was 
*' much with me> I left it on the fixth of July, : 
" when I fent away this Letter: as learnedly 
" recommend all my affairs to you, fo nothing 
" more particularly, than that the time of my 
*'• Provincial Command be . not prolonged : this 
cc , h every thing to me ; which, when and how, 
" and by whom it is to be manged, you will 
f4 be the beft able to contrive. Adieu [e]" ■• ' . 

He landed at Ephefus on tbt twenty-feconi of 
July, after a flow but fefe paffage of fifteen days • 
the tedioufnefs of which was agreeably relieved 
by touching, on the way at feverat of tbeijlands of 
the Mgean Sea, of which he fends a kind of jour- 
nal to Atticus [/>]. Many deputations from the 
Cities of Alia, "and a great concourfe df pecrple 
came to meet him as far as Samos ; but a much 
greater ftill was expe&ing his landing at Ephefus :' 
the Greeks flocked eagerly from all parts, m fee 
a man fo celebrated through the empire,, for the 
fame of his learning and eloquence •, fo that all 
bis boaftingSi as he merrily fays, of many years 

f>] Ep. Fam. z. 8. d. xi. Ka1 ; Sext.— Ad Aiu$ 

[/>] Ephefum * venimus a. 13. vie}, it. ib. 12. 

N 3 ' ' ~ >^?» 

|9q $bt Hijbt OEV of the Life 

A. Urb. joz.p*ft> u>*r* now brought to tbe tefi [j]. After re^ 

Cie. 56. pofing himfelf for three ions at Ephcfus, he march- 

Co g ed forwvd towards his I&ovince.i and* on thclaft 

piVi'usRu-of July^* arrived at Laodioea, one of the Capital 

fus, Cities of his Jurifdiftion. From, this moment 

M« Clau- t h c daw of his Government commenced •, which 

MLLuf AK hc blc i & Attieus take notice 9f f th*t Jie might 

• ■ * know how t* sonipitf tbepretife extent of bit au- 


It was Cicero's resolution, in this Provincial 
Command, to praftifethofe admirable rules, which 
he had drawn up formerly for his Brother ; and 
from an employment wholly tedious and difagree- 
able to him to derive fr?(h glpry upon his cha- 
racter, by leaving the innocepce and integrity of 
his aclminiftration, as a pattern of governing to 
all fuscecjing Proconfuls. It had always been 
(he cuftom, when any Governors went abroad to 
their Provinces, that ths Countries through which 
ttypajfod, Jbwld defray all the charges of their 
'journey : but Cicero no (boner fet his foot on fa* 
reign ground, than be forbad all expence wbatfo- 
+ ever, pablic or priyat^ to be made either upon him- 
felf f or any of bis company ; which raifed a great 
admiration of him, m aU the cities of Greece [s]. 


[f] De concurfu legatie- [4] Ego-quotidie medi- 

nurti, privatorum, &demcre- tor, praecipio meis ; faciain, 

dibili iqaltftudine, quae mi* denique ut fumnia modeftia 

hi jam Sami, fed mirabilem & fumraa abftinentia munus 

in inodum Ephefi pratfto fait, hoc e$ traordinarium traduca- 

aut fe audifleputo— — exquo mus.— lb. 9. 

%c intefrigere certo fcio mul- Adhuc fumptus nee in me 

torum annorum oftentatione$ aat publice aat privatim, nee 

tneaa hoik la 4ifcjrimen clfe in quemquam comitura. Ni- 

addu^las— lb, 13, hil acciptur lege Julia, nihil 

[?] Lao^iceam veni prid, abhoFpite, penuafumeftom- 

Kat.Sextile$. Exhocdiecla* nibus meis ferviendum efle 

vum anni movetris, lb. ic. fama? mese. Belle adhuc. 

• " v '* ! "'' Hoc 


In Ada he did the fame; not fuffering his offi- A-IJrb. 70*. 
oers to accept what was due to them even by law ; Cic « &* 
forage and wood for firing* nor any thing elfe 9 but g BS y g 
mere boufe-room* with four beds \ which he remit- FicIyajLv- 
ted aUp, as oft as it was practicable, and obliged *us, 
them to lodge in their tents % and by bis example M - Cj *£y~ 
end conftan t exhortations brought his Lieutenants, £ g " ^ yf A * " 
TribunS) and Pr<ffeft$> fo fully info bis welfares, 
that they ali concurred with hnh he lays, wonder- 
fully ± in 4 jealous concern for his honor [/]. 

BeIng defirous to put himfelf at the head of 
his army, before the Seafon of aftion was over, 
he /pent but little time in vifiting the Cities of his 
jurifdiftion, referving tbeyvinitr months for fet- 
tling the civil affairs of the Province [u\. v He went 
therefore to the Camp, at tconiumw Lycabnid ? 
about the twenty jour tb of Jugitji\ yhere he- had 
jio lboner reviewed the troops, tKan he received 
an account frpm Afitiocbus % Xing of Cotfiagene, 
wfyich was confirmed from, the other Princes of 
tbofe part*, that the J>arthiw$ hadpqfled $>e £#- 
pbratt; witfr a mighty force % ift order to invade the 
Jiotmn territory under the conduct ofParcorus; the 

feoc anbnadverfurn Greco- quidquam; multislocis ne 

mm laude Sc multo fermone tedium quidem, & in trtb*N 

•celebratur. lb. 10. naculo manuerepleramque— • 

fto6 adhoc iter per Gri&- Ad At*, c- 16. 

*iam^uranacuraadmitetto«]e ' &t nujltis teruoqu* jnib~ 

fectatus. lb. 11. toatur ifi quemquamj id fit 

0] Levant** vbtftue civi- *tiam Jk jUgatprum Sc Tri- 

tates, qnod nullus £t fump- irawriim&Prefel^umdiU- 

tus in nof , neqae in Legtins* gfrtft** Nam panes mirijfice 

neqac in Qu*ftoreta, aeq»e ov^faMsw gtai* me* 

in quemquaro. Seito, aon —lb. i/v 

xnodo nos foenum, ant quod J>] Erat mihi in animo 

lege Julia dari fdetnon acci- iwfbtffQficUci ad cyercituni, 

pere, fed ne Hgna quidem, *£i?0fl monies reUqaos rei 

nee prater quatuor leaos, & mijiiaii dare, aihernos jurlf- 

jet^am, quemqaam accipere di#«*u^Ib. 14. 

N 4 &V 

182 .'72* His tor y of tie Lift y 

A. Urb. 70a. KiHgsfon. Upon this news, he marched towards 

C Co£ 6 " CMid** *9 fecure his province from the inroads 

Serv. Sul- of the enemy, or any commotions within •, but as 

piciusRu. all accefs to it 'was difficult, except on the fide of 

*v»» Cappadocia, an open country, and not well pro- 

wwiMai". v ided J he took his rout through that Kingdom, 

cellus. " and encamped in that part of it which borderea 

upon Cilicia^ near to the town of Cybiftra^ at the 

foot of mount Tat&us. His army, as it is faid 

above, confided of about twelve tboufand foot* and 

two tboufandjix hundred borfe 3 befides the auxiliary 

troops of the neighbouring ftates, and efpecially 

of Deiotarus, King of Galatia, the moft faithfuli 

jflhj of Rotne % and Cicero's particular friend ; 

whole whole forces he could depend upon at any 

yarning [*]. 

W h 1 l e he lay in this Camp, he had an op- 
portunity of executing afpecial commiffion, with 
which he was charged by the Senate; to take A-, 
fiobarzanes, King of Cappadocia* under bis parti- 
cular protection ; and provide for the fecurity of 
his perfoh and government : in honor of whom, 
the Senate had decreed,* what they had never 
done before to any foreign prince, that bis fafety 
was of great concern to ibe Senate and people of 

[x] In caltra veni a. d. Ciliciam dncerem— mihilit- 

-vii. Kali Sept. ad d. iii. exer- terae redditac font a Tarcon- 

citom luHravit. Ex his ca£- dimoto, qutfideiiffimusfocius 

-, tris cum graves de Par this trans Taurum Populi Rom. 

uuncii venirent, penrexi in -exiftimatur. Pacorum Oxodi 

Ciliciam, per Cappadoci* Aegis Par thor urn fijium, cum 

partem earn, q«a Ciliciam permagno equitatu tranfiffe 

attingit— Euphrates*, &c. Ep. Fam. 

Regis An tiochi Comageni 15.1. 

Legatts primi mihi nuncia- Eodem die ab Jamblicho, 

runt Parthorum magnas co- Phylarcho Arabum— Utters 

pias Euphratem tranfire cce- deeifdem rebus, &c. 

pifTc— -Cum exercitum in 


us Mar- 



Rome. His Father had been killed by the trea- A.Urb. 70*. 
chery of hk fubje&s, and a confpiracy of the Ci 5; i 6 ' 
feme kind was apprehended againft the fon : Ci- s**v.°Sul« 
cero therefore, in a council of his officers, gave piciusRu- 
the King an account of the Decree of the Senate, *us, 
and that in confequence of it he was then ready kA - CLAW - 
to affift him with his troops and authority in any OIUi 
meafures that fhould be concerted for the fafety 
and quiet of his kingdom— The King, after great 
profeffions of his thanks, and duty to the Senate 
for the honor of their decree* and to Cicero him- 
felf for his care in the execution of it, faid, that 
be knew no occajien for giving him any particular 
trouble at that time \ nor had any fufpicion of any 
dtfign againft his. life or Crown : upon which Ci- 
cero, after congratulating, him upon the tranquil- 
lity of his affairs, advifed hftn however, to re- 
number his Father's fate, and* from the admqftition 
of the Senate* to be particularly vigilant in the care 
of hisperfon* and fo they parted. But the next 
morning. the King returned early to the Camp, 
attended by his Brother and Counfellors, and 
with many tears implored the protection of Cice- 
ro, and the benefit of the Senate's decree, declaring* 
" that he had received undoubted intelligence of 
-" a plot, which thofe, who were privy to it, 
" durft not yentyre to.difcover till Cicero's arri- 
" val in the Country, but trufting to his audio- 
<c rity v had N now given full information of it ; 
" and that his Brother, who was prefent, and 
" ready to confirm what he faid, had been folli- 
" cited to enter into it by the. offer of the crown: 
« he. begged therefore, that fome of Cicero's 
" troops might be left with him for his better 
" guard and defence. Cicero told him, that un- 
*• der the prefent alarm of the Parthian war, he 
" could not poffibly lend him any part of his ar- 

J§4 . *ie Hist okv if ihi Life 

A: tir4>; 762; u #jy ; t i! atj g nce ^ confpifacy was detected, 

G Co!r S " ^ s own ^ orccs would be fufficient for prevent- 

StUv: sVl- u ing' the effe&s Of it ; that he {hould learrf to 

t>ic 1 u t Ru- c4 aft the King, by (hewing a proper concern for 

kusi . u hj s ^ rt Ujf^ an< i CKl » rt ^ rjC g^j pc^er in p$ m 

b* Mai*."" nifhing the authors of the plot, and pardoning 
bBtius: " dllthereft-, that he need not apprehend any 
" farther danger, whch his people Were acquaint- 
tt fed with the Senate's decfcce, and faW a 2tow» 
4( army (b near to them, and readytb put it iri 
" execution i" and having thtis encouraged and 
fcbriiforted the King) he marched towards C///Vw, 
and gavfc art account of this accident, and of the 
tnotfons of the Parthians, in two public Letters tt 
ike Cokfitls n*d the Senate : he added a private 
Letter dlfo to Cato, who was a particular favorer, 
afld Pafroli of Artabaf sahes, in which he inform- 
ed him* u that he had not onely fecu&cd the King's 
u j3erfon from any attempt* but had taken care* 
u that he (hould reign for the future with honor 
u and dignity, by reftoring to his favor and fer- 
11 Vice his old Councilors, whom Catd had re- 
4 * cGmnierated, and who had* been difgraced bf 
u the intrigued of his Court ; and by obliging* 
u turbulent young prteft or Bdhna^ who was 
u the head of fhe Matecontents, and the next 
u \n power to the Ring hitnfdf, 00 quit the coun- 

T*ii« King, Aridbar^aries* feems to have been 
pobr eveh <<p a proverb : 

teakcipiis hmples^ ept xris Cappadotum te£. 

Hot. Ep. L 6. 

for he had b^ft rriiferabjy £}ueezed and drained 
by the Roman Generals and Governors : to whom 

O] Ep, Facn. 15. 2, 3, 4i 



%4 owed v*ft fumms, either a&ually borrowed, A, Ufb ! ?of • 
pr ftipulated to be paid for particular ferviees. It £ofl? 
was a common practice with the Great of Rome, Sbrv. Sat, 
/* tend money at an exorbitant l interefi, to the Princes piciusRu-, 
and Cities, dependent on the Empire ; which was jJ us A 
thought an qfefull piece of policy to both fides-, D ' IVS \£^ m 
to the Princes, for the opportunity of engaging c*i4.vj.'" ; * 
to their ktferefts the rooft powerfull men of the 
Republic, by a kind of honorabje'penfton ; to 
the Rwims, for the convenieflce of placing, their 
money where it was fare to bring the greajeft re- 
turn of profit, The ordinary inteneft pf thefe 
Provincial loans was, one per Cent, by the wntb r 
with intmft upon inter eft: this was the taweft ; 
but, in extraordinary or hazardous cafta, it *vas 
frequently four times a$ much. Pompey received 
monthly from this very King, above fix thousand 
pounds fierling \ which yet taw fhort of his full 
intereft, Brutus alfo hfid lent him a very iarge 
furorp, and earneftly defined Cicero to procure the 
payment of it, with the arrears of intereft: but 
Pqmpey's agents were fo preffing, and the King 
fo needy, that though Cicero foUicited BrvMxis's 
affair very heartily, he had little hopes of getting 
any' thing for him: when Ariobarzanes came 
therefore to ofrer him the fame prefent of motiey, 
which he had ufually made to every other Gover- 
nor, he generoufly refuted it, and defired onely, 
fbat inftead of giving it to trim, it might be paid to 
Brum : but. the poor Prince was fo diftrrifed, 
that he excufed himfelf, by the neceflity, which 
he was under, of fatisfymg feme other more pref- 
fing demands; fo that Cicero gives a fed account 
of his negotiation, in along letter to Atticus,who 
had wafpiiy recommended Bruttis's interests tq 

c « I come 



186 Tie His tor y of the Life . 

A.Urb.702. " I come now, fays he, to Brutus-, whom Jay 
C c $' " ^ our aut h°rity J embraced with inclination, 

Sbrv.^ul- " anc * began even to love: but what am I 
piciusRu-" going to fay? 1 recall myfelf, left I offend 
fus, « you — do not think, that I ever entered in- 

M.Olau- it t0 any t hj n g more willingly, or took more 

" pains, than in what he recommended to me. 
" He gave me a memorial of the particulars, 
4C which you' had talked over with me before: 
" I purfued yourinftruftions exaftly : in the firft 
" place, I prefled Ariobarzanes to give that mo- 
€ * ncy to Brutus, which > he promifed to me : as 
c< long as the King continued with me, all things 
<c looked well, hut he was afterwards teized by 
" fix hundred oTPompey's agents; and Pompey, 
" for other, reafons, can do more with him than 
M all the world befides ; but efpecially, when it 
" is imagined, that he is to be fent to the Par- 
thian war : they now pay Pompey thirty-three 
Attic talents per month, out of the taxes, tho' 
this falls fhorc of a month's intereft : but our 
friend Cnaeus takes it calmly -, and is content 
to abate fomething of the intereft, without 
prefling for the principal. As for others, he 
neither does, nor can pay any man : for he 
has no treafury, no revenues : he raifes taxes 
by Appius's method of capitation : but thefe 
are fcarce fufficientforPompey's monthly pay: 
two of three of the king's friends are very 
rich *, but they hold their own as clofely, as 
either you or I — I do not forbear however to aik, 
urge and chide him by Letters : King Deiota- 
rus alio told me, that he had fent people to 
him on purpofe, to follicit for Brutus ; but 
they brought him word back, that he had real- 
ly no money: which I take indeed to be the 
cafe 5 that nothing is more drained than his 

" kingdom ; 



" kingdom ; nothing poorer than the King [z]." a. Urb. 702. 

But Brutus had recommended another affair Cic. 56. 
of the fame nature to Cicero, which gave him Co & 
much more trouble. The City of Salamis in Cy- ^ivsKu. 
prus owed to two of his friends,, as he pretended, pus , 
Scaptius. and Matinius, above twenty tboufandM. Clau- 
pounds fterling upon bond, at a moft extravagant diusMar - 
intereft; and he begged of Cicero to take their CBLLUS - 
perfons and concerns under his fpecial protection. 
Appius, who was Brutus's father-in-law, had 
granted every thing which was aflced to Scaptius; 
a Pr*fefture in Cyprus, with fome troops of horfe 9 
with. which he miferably harafled the poor Sala- 
minians, in order to force them to comply with 
his unreafonable demands 5 for be Jhut up their 
whole fen'ate in tbt council-room^ till five of them 
were fiarved to death with hunger [a]. Brutus 
labored to place him in the fame degree of favor 
with Cicero : but Cicero being informed of this 
violence at Ephefus, by a deputation from Salami*, 
made it the firft a<3: of his government to recall 
the troops from Cyprus, and put an end to Scap- 
tius's Prefecture, having laid it down for a rule* 
to grant no command to .any man who was con* 
eerned in trade, tfr negotiating money in the Pro- 
vince : to give fatisfaftion however to Brutus, ht 
injoined the Salaminians to pay off Scaptius 9 s bond, 
which they were ready to do according to the te- 
nor of his edift, by which he had ordered, that 
no bonds in bis province fhould carry above one pet 
Cent, by the menib. Scaptius refufed to take the 
money on thofe terms, infilling on four per cent. 
as the condition of his bond exprefled •, whicjiby 

[z. Ad Att. 6. r. clufum in curia fenatum Sa- 

[a] Fuerat enim Praefe&us Jamin^obfederat, ut feme fe- 

Appio, & quidem habnerat natores quinque morerentur, 

turmas Equituro, quibus in- —ibid. 


i§8 The Mis toA v of the IJft 

A.Urb. 702. computation almoft doubled the principal fumttii 

C q'£ 6 ' while the Salaminians, as they protefted to Cice- 

Serv. Sul- ro > c&u te not hav * P*M *be original debt, if tbey 

pic 1 us Ru- bad not been enabled to do U by bis help, and out of 

jj us * bis own dues* that be bad remitted to them % which 

Dius Ma*- amoufiii ^ to fomewbat more than Seaptiuis legal de- 

c4llui. ntand [b]. 

This extortion raifed Cicero's indignation ; and 
notwithstanding the repeated inftdnces of Brutus 
and Atticus, he was determined to over-rule it j 
though Brutus, in order to move him the more 
effectually, thought proper to confefs* wbut be 
bad all along diffembled, that tbe debt was rUllyhis 
own, and Scaptius onely bis agent in it [r ]. This 
furprized Cicero ftill more, and though he had a 
warm inclination to oblige Brutus, yet he could 
hot confcnt to fo flagrant an injuftice, but makes 
frequent and heavy complaints of it in his fetters 
to Atticus-* — " You have now, fays he, in onfe 
** of them, the ground of my conduct - 9 if Bni- 
" tus does not approve it, I fee no realon 
why we fhould love him j but I am furc, it 
will be approved by his uncle, Cato [d]" In 

[£] Ita^ti? ego, quo die mine, quara in vec~Hgali pr«- 

tetigi proVinciam, cum mihi torio ib; $. 2J. 

Cyprii LegatiEphefumobvi- [r] Atque hoc tempore ip- 

am veniffent; litteras mifi ut fo impingit mihi epiftolani 

equkes ex infu-la ftatim dece. Scaptius Eruti, rem iWam f«o 

derent— ad Att. 6. 1. confe- penculo c(k : quod nee mihi 

cerain, ut folverent centeft- umjuam Erutiis dixerat nee 

mis - ad Scaptius qua tern as tibi — ib. nunquam ex ilia 

poftulabat— lb. homines nori audivi illam pecuniam efle 

o»odo non recofare, fed etiasm futtn— ib. 

dicere, Tea me folvere. Quod [</] Habes ineam caufam : 

ehiiri Praetori dare confuef- quae fi Bruto non probatur* 

fcent, quoniam ego non acce^ nefcio cur ilium amemus : fed 

perafn, fe a me quodam mo- avunculo ejus certe probabi- 

So dare ; atque etiam miflttg tur. — lb, 5. zu 
fcfle aliqaanto id Scaptii no- 


of M.fUlLIUS CICERO, 183 

another; " If Brutus thinks that I ought to a!- A. \Jtb. ?r|. 
* c low him four per Cent, when by edict J hare c £- sfi- 
m decreed but onetbrtaigltall the province, ^nd SfuvfsuL- 
tc that to the fatisfadtion of the keeneft ufurcrs ; wciusftw- 
* c if he complains, that I denied a Prafe&ure ^tq ? v h 
" one, concerned in trade, which I denied, for ^^ m 
«' thatreafon, to your friend Lenius, and to Sex. ce^lus?** 
* c Statius, though Torquatus follicited for the 
* c one, and Portipey himfelf for the other, yet 
" without difgufting either of them ; if he takes 
*' it ill, that I recalled the troops of horfe out of 
<v Cyprus $ I fball be ferry indeed, that he I145 
'* any occafion to be angry with me; but much 
" mere, not to find him the man that I took 
* 4 him tp be— I would have you to kqow hQWr 
* 4 ever, that I hav6 not forgot what you intima? 
« ted tome in feveral of your Letters, that if I 
•* brought back nothing elfe from the province 
" but Brutus's friendship, that would be enough : 
* c kt it be 1q, fince you will have it fo j yet \t 
" moft always be with this exception ; as far a; 
* c it can be done, without my committing any 
* 6 wrong-* — [*]." In a third; *' How, my deap 
** Atticus! you who applaud my integrity anc} 
'* good ponduft, and are vpxed fomctirnes, yoij 

[*] Si Brutus putabit me ir^fci, fed rnuhp majortm, 

quatertoas centefimas oporra- ndn effe earn talem, qualeni 

ifle decernere, qui m tota fataflem — ^8ed ntent re iil- 

proviucia fingulas obferva- tejligcre.yqlui, mini nonex- 

rem, fraque edisfflem, idque cidifte iftud, qupd tu ad tae 

etiamacerbHfimisforoerarori- ouibuftlani Htteris (bripfifles, 

bus probaretur ; A praefe&u- p. nihil ariuddehacProvrncia 

ram negotiatori denegatam njfi ilHus benevolentiam de« 

queretuf,quod ego Torquato portaflem,' fflihi id fatis effe, 

noftro in tuo Lenjp, Pompeio Sic fane, quoniam itatir vis 

ipfi in S. Statio negavi, & lis fed tamen cum eo credo, 

probavi; fi cquites dedo&os quod fine peccato meo fiat— 

molefte ferel ; accipiam e- Ibid, 
quidein dolorem, mini iliuixi 

190 • ' tte History oftbeLtfe 

A. Urb.702. a fay, that you arc not with me; how can fuch 

c ^. c6. cc a thing, as Ennius feys, come out of your 
S**v? Sul- cc mou *h* to defire me to grant troops to Scap- 

piciusRu- 4i tius, for the fake of extorting money? could 

fus, *« you, if you were with me, fuffer me to do it, 

^'ius L Ma'r- " if 1 would ? " — l(1 rcaUy had done fuch a 
cillu8? R " " thing, with what face could I ever read again, 

<c or touch thofe books of mine, with which you 
" are fo much pleafed [/] ?" He tells him like- 
wife in confidence, that all Bonus's Letters to 
him, even when he was alking favors, were un- 
mannerly, churlijh, and arrogant \ without regard- 
ing either what, or to whom be was writing •, and 
* // be continued in that humor ; you may love him 

alone, fays he, if you pleflfe, youjhall have no rival 
of me ; but be will come, I believe, to t a better 
mind [g"\. But to (hew, after all, what a real in- 
clination he had to oblige him, he never left ur- 
ging King Ariobarzanes, till be bad fqueezed from 
him a hundred talents, in fart of Brutus* s debt, or 
about twenty tboufand pounds \ the fame fumm 
probably, which had been deftined to Cicero him- 


[ f] Ain* tandem Attice, gat aliquid, contnmaciter,ar- 

laudator integritatis &-ele- roganter, Axonw^rw* folct 

gantiae noftrc ? aufus es hoc fenbere ib. 6. 1 . 

ex ore tuo, inquit Ennias, ut Omnino (foli eniin famus) 
equites Scaptio ad pecuniam null us unquam ad me literas 
cogendam aarem, me rogare? mi fit Brutus— in quibus non 
an tu, fi mecum effes, qui eff«arrogans, £ieo<w*r$Tovalj- 
fcribis morderi te interdum quid— in quo tamen ille mi- 
quod non fimul fis, paterere hi rifum magis quam ftoma- 
zne id facere, ii vellem ? — chum moveie folet. Sedpla- 
& ego audcbolegere unquam, ne parum cogitat, o^uid Ten- 
ant attingere eos libros, quos bat, aut ad quem — ib. 6. 3. 
tu dilaudas? fi tale quid fe- [b] iruti tuicaufa, utfav- 
cero— ad Att. 6. 2. ^ pe ad te fcripfi, feci omnia 

[g] Ad me etiam, cum ro- — rAriobarzanes nQninPom- 




While he lay encamped in Cappadocia,. ex* A. Urb. %oz> 
pe&ing what way the Parthians would move, he Cl £ £?' 
received an account, that they had taken adiffe*s ERV- $ UL- 
rent rout, and were advanced to Antioch in Sy- picius Ru- 
ria, where they held C Caflius blocked up; and * u '» 
that a detachment of theni had a&ually penetra- ^\ ^a** 
ted into Cilicia, but were routed, and cut off by cellvs. 
thofe troops* which were left to guard the Country* * 

Upon this he prefently decamped,, and by great 
journies over mount "Taurus* marched in all haftc 
to poflefs himfelf of the pajfes of Amanus * a great 
and ftrong mountain, lying between Syria and 
Cilicia, and the common boundary of them both* 
By this march, and the approach of his army to 
the neighbourhood of Syria, the Parthians being 
difcouraged, retired from Antioch * which gave 
Caffius an opportunity of falling upon them in their 
retreat^ and gained a conftderable advantage* in 
which one of their principal commanders* Of aces* 
was mortally wounded [/], 

In the fufpenfe of the Parthian war, which 
the late difgrace of Craffus had made terrible at 
Rome* Cicero's friends, who had no great opi- 
nion of his military talents, were in Tome pain , 
for his fafety and fuccefs: but now that he 
found himfelf engaged, and pulhed to the nece£» 

peium prolixior per ipfura, cia in aquarum divortio divi- 
quam per me in Brutam — die — rumore advent us noftri, 
pro ratione pecuniae liber i us & Caffio, qui Antiochia tene- 
eft Brutus tra&atus, quam bat ur, animus acceffit, & Par- 
Pom pei us. Bruto curata hoc this timor inje&us eft. Ita- 
anno talenta circiter c. Pom- que eos cedentes ab oppido 
peio in (ex menfibus promif- Caflius infecutus rem bene 

fa cc. ibid. ^ geffit. Qua in fuga magna 

t [i] Jtaque confeftim iter in aultoritate; Ofaces, dux Par*. 

Cfliciam feci per Tauri py- thorum, vulnus accepit, eo- 

hs* Tarfum veni a. d. 1 1 1 . que interiit paucis poll die* 

Non. Od. inde ad Amanum bus. Ad Att. 5. 20. 

contendi, qui Syriam a Cili- , 

Vol. IL O fity 

194 1tbe History of the Life 

A. Ufb. 702. fity of aft trig the General, hefeems to hav*e want- 
ed- i^- ed neither the courage nor conduft of an expe* 
Sjerv.Svl- ranced Leader. . Th a Letter to Atticus, dated 
piciusRv- from his Camp \ " We are in great tfpirfcs, feyi 
fus # te "he, and is our counfils are good, 'haven6 

^• Cl ^ u " " cfiftniftof an engagement: wrarefted*dyefc»- 
cJl'lvs u camped, with plenty of provifions, and to 
" fight alttloftof CHirii; With a fmaH fcrtoy in* 
u fic&i, but, as I have teafon t6 befie*^, iitftoe*- 

* fy Well aflfefted to me; which 1 1h«l ^btfftfe 
M by theacceffion of t)eiotarus, whols up0ft : th£ 
** ro&d to join me: I have the allies more firmly 

* attached to me, than any G6vernor*evc!r had \ 
y *• they are womferfuBy taken wfth my eafineft 

•** arrdabftinence; we are making neW ftvies of 
** Citizens, and eft'ablilfiittg magazines : rftherfc 
€t be occafion for fighting, we fhallndt decline 
** it ; if hot, -fliaH defend ourfeltfes by the 

* itrength of our pofts : whetefore be of good 
" heart, for I fee as niuch as If you w?te with 
"* hie, the fympathy of your kc&r iftte[>}." 

But the danger 6f the Parthiahs being fe^erftr 
This ftafoh^icero refolved, that his labor fllbuld 
not be lbft, ahd his army difrftifled, without at- 
tempting fomethingof moment. The inhabitants 
"of the mountains, clofetowhickhenowlayj were 
a fierce, untamed race of Banditti or Freebooters, 
"M10 had never ftbmitted' to the^Roman £ower, 
but lived in perpetual defiance of it, truffir^g to 
-their forts and oaftles, which were fuppoied to 
be impregnable from thcftrength of : thefrt!t^«. 
Vion. He thought it therefore of too toalfilft^dN 
tance to the Empire, to reduce* them to a fiatc of 
4ubjeftion$ and, in order to <rortceal his dfefign, 
and take them unprovided, he drfcw offiiis^foftres 

[i] lb. .5. 1$, ', 

* on 

of M. rVLLIUS CICERO. 193 

on pretence of marching to the diftant parts of A - *J A £<*• 
Giifcias but after a day's journey ftopt fhorti J£J : 
and having refrelhed his army, ami left his bag- Serv.Sul- 
gage behind, turned back again* inthe night with piciusRu- 
the utmoft celerity, and Kfached Am*nu$ before "•• 
day on the thirteenth of Ottober. He divided his », ^m ar. 
troops among his four Lieutenant*, and himfelf, csllus. 
accompanied by his Brother* led up one part of 
them, and fo coming upon the natives by fuf- 
prize, they eafily killed or made them ah pit- 
fonera: they todkjt* firong forts, and burned f*o» 
ny nm* \ but the Capital of the mountain, Era- 
na, made a brave refiftance, and held out frot* 
break of day, to four in the afternoon. Upon 
this fuccefs Cicero was fainted Emperor •, and fat l 
down again at the foot of the hills, vthert he 
fpent five days in demolifhing the other ftrong 
holds, and wafting the lands of thefe Moon- , 
taincers. In this place his troops were lodged in 
the fame Cqmp which Alexander the Great had 
formerly ufed, when he beat Darius at Iffus\ and 
where there remained three Altars, as the monument 
of his viSory, which bore bis name to that day : a 
ri*c«mftance, which furniOied matter for feme 
pka&ntry, in his Letters to his friends at Rome [/]. 
O 2 From 

[/} Qui mons erat hofti- or, quam aut tu aut ego. Ibi 

urn pi en as fempiternorum. dies quinque moral: , direpto 

Hie a. d. 1 1 1. id us Oftob. & vaftato Amano, inde dif- 

ma^Aiim numerum hofti urn ceffimus.— Aj Att. 5. 20. 
oceidjmus. Caftella muni- Expedito exercitu itanoc- 

tifllma, nodurno Pontiniiad- tu iter feci, ut ad ill. Id. 

ventu, noftro matutino cepi* O&ob. cum lucifceret, in A- 

mus, incendknus. Impera- manamafcenderewi, diRribu- 

tores appellati Annus. Caftra tifque cohortibus & auxiliis, 

paucos dies habuimus , ea ip~ cum alii* Quiatus irator Le- 

fa, quje contra Darium ha- gatus, mecuzn fimul, aliis C. 

bueratapud Ifllim Alexander, Ponrinius Legatus, reliquis 

Iaperator baud paullo meli- M. Anneius, & M. Tullius 


194 T&Htsfdk y 'of the Life ^ •. 

A. Urk jot. From Amanus, he led his army to another 
Ci Cd^ 6# P art °^ ^ High-lands, the moid difaffe&ed to 
Sir v. SuL- the' Roman name, poffefled by a ftout and free 
piciusRu- people, who had never been fubjedt even to the 
FUS > King, of that Country. Their .chief Town was 

^mIr!" called Pindeniflum, fituated on a fteep and craggy 
cellui^ * hill, ftrongly fortified by nature and art, and pro- 
vided with every thing neceffary for defence: it 
was the conftaat refuge of all deferters, and the 
harbour of foreign enemies, and at that very time 
was expedking, and prepared to receive the Par- 
thians: Cicero, refolving therefore to chaftifc 
their infolcnce, and bring them under the Roman 
yoke, laid fiege to it in form ♦, and though he 
pufhed it on with all imaginable vigor, and a 
continual battery of his Engines, yet it coft him 
above Jtx weeks to reduce it to the neceffity of 
furrendering at difcretion. The inhabitants were 
fold for Jlaves, and when Cicero was writing the 
account from his Tribunal, he had already raifed 
about a hundred thoufand pounds by that fale: all 
the other plunder ■, excepting the horfes, was given 
to the foldiers. In his letter upon it to Atticus, 
the PindeniJJians, fays he, furrjndered to me> on the 
Saturnalia^ after a fiege of feven-and-forty days: 
but what, the plague, will you fay, are thefe Pin— 

deniffians ? I never heard of their name before 

How can I help that? could I turn Cilicia into M- 

Legati praeeflent: plerofqae occifa, cepimus, caftellaque 

nee opinantes oppreffimus — fexcapta: complura incendi- 

Eranam autem, quae fait non mus. ^ His rebus ita geftis, 

vici inftar, fed ur bis, quod caftrain radicibus Amani ba- 

crat Amani caput —acriter & buimus apud aras Alexandri 

diu repugnantibus, Pontinio quatriduum : & in reliquiis 

illam partem Amani tenente, Amani deJendis, agrifque va- 

ex antelucano tempore ufque flandis —id tern pus omnecoo- 

ad horam diei decimam, fumfimus— — Ep. Pain.15.40 

magna xnultitudine hoftium vid. ibid. 2. 10. 

" tolid 


folia or Macedonia ? take this however for certain, A. Urb. 70?. 
that no man could do more, than I have done, with ci £ L 6# 
fucb an army, &c. [«]. After this adtion, another s ERV# ° Sul- 
neighbouring nation, of the. fame fpirit and fierce- piciusRu- 
nefs, called Tiburani, terrified by the fate of Pinde- ***> 
nijfum, voluntarily fubmitted, and gave bojlages ; fo M \y^^ % 
that Cicerofent his army into winter quarters un- cbilui? 
der the command of bis Brother, into thoft parts of 
the province, which were thought the moji turbu- 
lent [»]. 

While he was engaged in this expedition, 
Papirius Paetus, an eminent wit and Epicurean, 
with whom he had a particular intimacy and cor- 
refpondence of facetious Letters, lent him fomc 
military inftruftions in the way of raillery ; to 
which Cicero anfwered in the fame jocofe man- x 

her: "Your Letter, fays he, has made me a 
" complete commander : I was wholly ignorant 
w before of your great flcill in the art of war $ but 

[tn~\ Confedis his rebus ad Qui (malum) ifti Pindenif- 

Oppidum Eleutherocilicum. fe ? qui font? inquies : no- 

PindenifTum, exercitum ad- men audivi nupquam. Quid 

cluxi: quod cum efletaltiffi- egofaciam? potui Ciliciam, \ 

mo & munitifOmo loco, ab Jttoliam, aut Macedonian* 

iifque incoleretur, qui ne Re- redderef hoc jam fie habeto, 

gibus quidem unquam paru- nee hoc exercituhic tanta ne* 

lffent: cum & fugitivos reci- gotia geri potuifle. — &c. — 

perent, & Parthorum adven- ad Att. y 20. 

turn acerriroe expe&arent : x Mancipia vaenibant Satur- ' 
ad exiftimaxionem imperii ' nalibus tertiis, cum haec fcri- 

pertinerearbitratus Turn com- bebam in tribunali, res erat 

primere eoruxn audaciam. ad H. S. cxx. lb. — 

— - vallo ic foffa circum- - [»] His erant finitimi pari 

dedi, fex caftellis, caftrifque fcelere & audacia Tiburani ; 

maximis fepfi, aggere, vi- ab his., Pindeniflb capto, ob- 

neis, turribus oppugnavi, u- fides accepi, exercitum in hi* 

fufque torment is mult is, mul- berna dimifi. Q^ Fratrem, 

tis fagittariis, magno labore negotio praepofui, utinyicis 

(neo-feptimo quadragefimo aut captis aut malo pacatis 

die rem confeci — £p f Fam. exercitus collocaretur. Ep. 

45.4. Fam. 15. 4. 

O 3 ^ perceive, 


A. Urb. 702. 
Cic. 56. 


Seitv. Svh- 


M. Clav- 
divs Mae- 


YX* History of the Life 
perceive, that you have read Pyrrhus and Ci* 

•peas. Wherefore I intend to follow your 
precepts, and withal, to have fome (hips inrea- 
dinefs on the coaft > for they deny that thfere 
can be any better defence againft the Parthian 
horfe. But raillery apart : you little think, 
what a General you have to deal with : for in 
this government, I have reduced to pra&ice, 
what I had worn out before with reading, the 
whole inftitution of Cyrus, 6f c . [0]" Thefc 
martial exploits fpread Cicero'* fame into Syria, 
^rhere Bibulus was juft arrived to take upon him 
the Command; but kept himfelf clofe within the 
gates of Antioch, till the Country was cleared of all 
tbefartbianst his envy of Cicero's fucce(s # and 
title pf Emmkor, made him impatient to pur- 
chafe the feme honor by the fcme fervke, >cn the 
Syrian fide of the mountain dmawt : but he had 
the misfortune to be repulfed in his attetnpt, with 
the intire lofs of tbefrjl Cohort , and feveral offi- 
cers \af diftin&io*> which Cicero tails an ugly iMw 
hibfor the time and the effett of it [p]. 

Though Cicero had obtained whathec^lfc* 
juft viftory at Amanus % and, in confeqoence of it, 
the appellation of Emperor, which he afibroed from 
this time ; yet be fent no pt&lic account of it to 
Rome, Till after tU affair jf Pwdenijfum, ah ex- 
ploit of fftoaeedat and importance* for which he 
cxpe&ed the honor of a 'Tbankfgiving, and began 
to entertain hopes even of a Triumph. His public 
Letter is loft, but that loft is Applied by a par- 


Ep. Fam. 9. 25.' 
[^J Erat in -Syria noftruin 
uomeo in .gratia. Venit in- 
terim Bibuks. Credo voluit 
appctflatiane h«c inani nobis 
c$e par, In eodim Amano 

ccepi't kureolam in muftaceo 
querere. At iHe cohortcm 
primam totam perdidit-^- 
fane plagam odiofem accepe- 
rar turn re torn tempore.—- 
Ad An. 5. 20. 


ofM. TULLim CfGERG. 197 

ticolar narrative of the whole adtion to a private A. Ur^. 702* 
Letter to Cato: the defign of paying this epra- Cic.JfO. 
pliment to Cato, was to engage his vote and con- s ?°^* 
currence f© the dficrte of the Supplication-, $nd by. 'xcIuiSi- 
the pains, which he takes tp obtain it, where he pus, 
was fure of gaining .his point without it, ftiews, M - £ L f »- . 
the high pijimaq which he fa^ad of Cato's autho r j^JJ A *" 
rity, aricj Ijqw defiroqs he was. to have the tefti- 
mony of it on his fide. But Cato was not to be 
moved from his purpofe by cppjpUment, or mor 
t'iyes of •friendfhip: he was an enemy by princi- 
ple to aU decrees of this kind, and thought them 
bellowed tpo cheaply, and proftituted to occa;- 
fioqs unworthy of them : fo th?t when Cicero's 
Letters came under deliberation, though he fpqkp 
wuh aH im^gipable honor and refpeft of Cicero t 
^nd highly extolled both his civil and military ad- 
win\ftratioiL> yet be voted again/} the Supplication j 
which was decreed however without ^ny other 
ditfepting voice, except that of Favonius, WJ19 
Ipyed always to mimic Cato, and of tjirru^ who 
had a perfonal quarrel with Cicero: yet wlien 
the vote was over, Cato himfelf ajjijfled in drawing 
up the decree \ and bad bit name infer ted in it$ 
which was the ufual mark of a particular appro- 
bation of the thing, and frieadjhip to theperfon 
in whofe favor it pafled [q]. But Cato's anfwer 
to Cicero's Letter will fhew the temper of thp 

. Ij) Nn/ic publice litteras ter iratus Hirrus- Cato aa- 

Romam mittere parabam. tem & fcribendo affujt--4b. 
Uberiores erunt, <juam fi ex Res ipfa declarat, tib) il- 

Amauomifiifem. Ibid. lam honorem fuppiicationia 

*Deinde.d^Txiuij}phQ,q|xem jucundum fuifTe, quod fcri- 

video, riifi keipub. tempora bendo affuifti. Ha*c enim 

impedient, tuTop/^o* ad Senatus confulta non ignoro 

Att. 7, 1. ab amiciflhnis ejus, oujua do 

£i porro a-fienXus ell unus, h on ore agitur, fcribi iolere. 

fiuniUari^ xi^is Favoniiw ; al- Ep. fam. 15. 6. 

O 4 man, 

198 The H 1 s t o R y of the Life 

A. Urb. 702. man, and the grounds on which he a&ed on this 
ci £I 6 - occafion. 

» JivsRv. M. Cato to M. T. Cicero, Emperor, 

pus, <c In compliance with what both the Repub- 

pi™ Mar- " ^ c anc * our P" vate friendlhip require of me, I 
czLhvs. " rejoice that your virtue, innocence, diligence, 
ci approved in the greateft affairs^ exerts itfelf 
iC every-where with equal vigor; at home in the 
<c gown, abroad in arms. I did all therefore, 
" that I could do, agreeably to my own judge- 
<c ment, when, in my vote and fpeech, I afcrib- 
" ed to your innocence and good condudt the 
u defence of your province, the fafety of the 
c< kingdom and perfon of Ariobarzanes 5 the re- 
cx covery of the allies to their duty and affe&ion 
<c to our Empire, I am glad, however, that a 
" Supplication is decreed ; if, where chance had 
c< no part, but the whole was owing to your con- 
♦' funimate prudence and moderation, you are 
*' better pleafed, that we fhould hold ourfelyes 
cc indebted to the Gods, than to you. But if you 
" think that a Supplication will pave the way 
" to a Triumph, and for that reafon chufe, that 
iC fortune fhould have the praife, rather than 
" yourfelf •, yet a Triumph does not always fol- 
" low a Supplication, and it is much more ho- 
u norable than any Triumph, for the Senate to 
" decree, that a Province is preferved to. the 
" Empire by the mildnefs and innocence of the 
«* General, rather than by the force of arms, 
" and the favor of the Gods. This was the pur- 
" pofe of my vote ; and I have now employed 
" more words, than it is my cuftom to do, that 
•' you might perceive what I chiefly wifli to tefti- 
u fy, how defirous I am to convince you* that in 
cc regard to your glory, I had a mind to do what 


€ S I took to be the.moft honorable for you ; yet A.Urb. 701. 
** rejoice to fee that done which you are the c *5; 5 6 - 
*' mod pleafed with. Adieu, and ftill love me; Serv.°Sul- 
f< and agreeably to the courfe, which you have piciusRu. 
c * begun, continue your integrity and diligence ™s, 
" to the allies, and the Republic [r]. ^^MaV 

* CiESAR was delighted to hear of Cato's ftiff- CELI .u$. 
nefs, in hopes that it would create a eoldnefs be- 
tween him and Cicero ; and in a congratulatory 
Letter to Cicero, upon the fuccefs of his arms, 
and the Supplication decreed to him, took care to 
aggravate the rudenefs and ingratitude of Cato [j]. 
Cicero himfelf was highly difgufted at it ; efpe- 
cially when Cato foon afterwards voted a Supplica- 
tion to bis Son-in-law, Bibylus, who bad done much deferveit. Cato, fays he, was Jhamefully 
malicious \ he gave me what I did not ajk, a cha- 
racter of integrity, juftice, clemency \ but denied me 
what I did— yet this fame man voted a Supplication 
of twenty days to Bibulus ;- pardon me, if I cannot 
bear this ufage—[t] yet as he had a good opinion . 
of Cato in the main, and a farther fuit to make 
to the Senate, in the demand of a Triumph, he 
chofe to diflemble his refentment, and returned 
him a civil anfwer, to fignify his fetisfadtion and 
thanks for what he had thought fit to do [«]. 

Cicero's campaign ended juft fo, as Caclius 
had wiflied in, one of his Letters, to him ; with 
fighting enough to give a claim to the laurel-, yet 

[f] Ep..Fam. !<;. $. piter fuitmalevolus. Dedit 

[i] Itaque Caefar iis litte- integritatis, juftitiae, clemen- 

ris, quibus mihi gratulatur, tiae, fidei testimonium* quod 

& omnia polKcetur, quo mo- non quserebam, quod poftu- 

do ex a 1 tat Catonis in me in- lab am, negavit — at hie idem 

gratiffimi injuria ; ad Aft. 7. Bibulo dierum viginti. Ig- 

2. ' nofce mihi, non pofTum haec 

[/] Aveo fcire— Cato quid fcrre — ibid. — 

agat: qui quidem in me tur- [«] Ep. Fam. 15. 6. 


aco Tbe HisTQiY of t&e Ljfe 

A. Urb. 7*2. without therijk of a battle with the Parthums [*}• 

Cl ^Jff' During thefc months of a&ion, he foot away the 
Sprv. 8ul- two young Cicero's, the fon and nephew, to King 

pic i us &u- DeiotarusV court, under the conduit of ibe Kkfg** 

FU *' ./**> who came on purpofe to invite them: thtf 

^v^Ma V* were kc P c *^*^y t0 thei * bQ oks and egeroUes, 
cELLUi. * **d made great proficiency in both ; though She 
' mt *f /Am, as Cicero leys, wanted the hit, the 
, tf£ir *£# J^w**' 'J** 3Fi*r Dionyfius attended 
them, * won a/ £twf/ learning and probity, but, 
as his young pupils complained, horribly pqffbm? 
ate [y]. Deiotarus himfelf was letting forward 
to join Cicero with ail his forces, upon the firft 
news qf the Parthian irruption: he had with him 
thirty eohorts, of four hundred mm each, armed* 
and Mfctpliued after the Roman manner, witk two 
ihoufaud borfe: ' but the Parthian atom being over, 
Cicero fent Couriers to meet hirji on the road, in 
order to prevent Us marching to no pmptfe* fo far 
from bis -own dominion [z] : the old K.'mg how- 
ever ftems tp have brought the children back 

.{*] Vt tyttt&l i|a «ft; ypl- aitfam a*«*nt «*b> ftpeutef ir 

fe& eaun, aif, tantuxojnodp rafci. Sed homp pec dpc- 

uthaberemnqgotiiquodeflet tior, nee fan&iqr fieri potefl. 

ad laureolam latis. Parthos lb. 6. i. 

times, quia xliffidis copiii [*] M&i tameotfttW ©e- 

ijpftri^t £p/fan?.2. ia 8. 5. jotaro conuenie, ut ilk in 

[^J Cicerones noftrosDe- ppei$caftrisefTetcum>amnibu3f 

iotarus Alius, quj Rex a 5e- fins copiis, tiabet autem co- 

nato appeHatos eft, fcewn in lionea quack^feaaiiasaoftra 

regnum. Dum in seftivis nos armatura triginta ; equitum 

Oftemus, }U\m jweris iocum duo millia^ip. 

cge be)U(W<Mdwimu£.A4 . J)t\g^u\u^ confeii?fn jam 

Att. 5.17- # ad me wenientpm cujp magog , 

Cicerone* pusri ao*an* in- & froio^quitajtii & pedUat* 

te* fe, d&unt, exescentur : 4c cum pmnijbus &is tujpjis, 

fed alter— frjeBJ? /Jget, alter certiorem feci, non videri 

qajearibus -*- Pionyfiu^ mihi effe caufam cur abeflet a reg- 

quidemin amoribus eft. Pueri »Ot^— pp. Ean*. 4^*4^ 

3 *g ain 

of M. TULL I US C ICER O. to i 

(gain iflrfttrfQn, for the opportunity ofpayinghis A.Urkjo* 
forftpJnxttnts, and" fpending feme time with hb q^ 
friend; &*, by what Cieero intirortea, they ap* sjsuv. Sut- 
pear*o h&ve had an interview [*], «civ^u- 

T« « remaining ipaw v( Cicero'i Government * us » 
was (employed in the civil affair s of the Province: p # iv 7ma*- 
where his whole care was toeafethe feveral ei* celi.v«. 
lies flftd diftruft* * of that wcefiive load of debts, 
in which the avarice and rapacioufnefc of former 
gptfernptt .had involved them. Jrfe laid it down 
fyrthe <6xt rvte of his adn)imftration, not toftif* 
fer eay money to he expended either upon himfelf or 
his -qf/xer* : And when one of hisLieutenant*, L. 
Xulttus, in pafling through the country, emSei 
cnefy the forage and firing, which was dm by 1&W\ 
and tb*t but -wee a <£ty, mi net, <w uli Others bad 
imtefprt* from wery $<mn and VMhge through 
wfahikeypoffcd* jbewa$r»iich<»ifcof humor, *nd 
could not help complaining of it* *r <? jfcm upon 
his Government, fince none of his people hefides bad _ 
taken even * jingle fartbmg. All die wealthier 
Cities of the Province ufed to pay to aH their 
Proconfuh krge contributions for being exempted 
frtmfurmfimg wnter ~ quar t wUi&e amy : Cyprus 
done paid yearly on this Angle aqcouRtfw hun- 
dred talents, or about forty tboufimd pounds : bttf 
Ckejo jemiued tbU whale xm <o theafe whicii 
alone naode a vaft revenue ; and applied ail eke 
cuftdmary -perqurfites of his office to the relief of 
die ppprefled Province: yet for all his iervices 
and generofity, which amazed the popr people, 
he would accept ato honors, but what were mere- 
ly verbal ; prohibiting all expenfive monuments, 
as Statues* Ttf$les> brazen horfes, &c. which, 

{*] Djeiotfirus mihiflfl«»m,&e. ad Att. 6. -i, 5. 21. 


802 Tie Histor y of the Life - 

A.Urb.yoi/by the flattery of Afia> ufed to be ere&ed of 
Cl c ff* cour k t0 a ^ Governors, though ever fo corrupt 
SbrvTsul- and pppreffive. While he was upon his vifita- 
piciusRu- tionof the Afiatic Diftfi&s, there happened to b<* 
fus, a kind of famine in the country ; yet where-ever 

M. Clau- jj C came h e not 0n i y provided for his family at 
his own expence, but prevailed with the Mer- 
chants and Dealers, who had any quantity of 
corn in their ftore-houfes, tofupply the people with 
it on eafy terms [b] ; living himfelf, allthe while, 
fplendidly and hofpit ably, and keeping an open t'able y 
not onelyfor all the Roman officers* but f be Gentry j 
of the Province |Yj. In the following Letter to ] 
Atticus, he gives him a fummary view of his j 
manner of governing. , 

4< I fee, fays he, that you are much p leafed I 
" with my moderation and abftinence ; but you 
** would be much fo, if you were with me; 
" efpecially at Laodicea •, where I did wonders at ' 

[£] Cave pntes qnicquam ex infala (non vTspCoAixw; fed j 

homines magis unquam efle* veriffimeloquorjnummusnul- 

miratos, quam nullum terun- lus me obtinente erogabitur. 

cium, me obtinente provin- Obhaegbeneficia, q tubus ob- 

ciam, fumtus fa&um effe, nee v liupefcunt, nullos honores 

in Rjemp. nee in quemquam mini, nifi verborum, decerni 

meortun, praeterquam in L. fino. Stasias, fana* Tifyirva, 

Tullium, Legatum. Is caete- prohibeo— ib. 

roqui abftinens (fed Julia lege Fames, quae erat in hac 

tran titans, femel tamen in mea Afia, mihi optanda fue- 

diem, non ut alii folebant He. Quacunque iter feci, 

omnibus vicis) facitut mihi ;nulla vi,— au&oritate & co- 

e&cipiendus fit, cum terun- hortationeperfeci, ut &Gre- 

cium nego fumtus factum, ci & Cives Romani, qui fru- 

Praeter eum accepit nemo, 'mentumcomprefleran;, niag- 

Has fordes a noftro Q/Titin- num numerum populis polli- 

nioaccepimus — ad Att. 5.21. cerentur — ib. 

Civitates locupletes, ne in [f] Ita vivam, ut maxi« 

fciberna milites reciperent, mos fumptus facio. Mirifice 

magnas frcunias dabant. deleftor hoc inftituto. Ad 

Cyprii talenta Attica cc. Qua Att. 5. 15. 

« the 


"the feffion?, which I have juft held, for- the A.Urb.70*. 
*« affairs of the Diocefes, from the thirteenth of -Cic. 56. 
<c February to the firft of May, Many cities are s R ^g 
" ^wholly freed from all their debts; many great- P i C iusRu- 
€C ly eafed; and ail, by being allowed to govern fus, 
'< themfelves by their own laws, have recovered M - Cl * u " 
" new life. There are two ways, by which I JJ£l21"" 
cc have put them into a capacity of freeing, or 
c< of eafing themfelves at lead of their debts; 
" the one is by fuffering no expence at all to be - 
" made on the account of my government. 
cc When I fay none at all, I fpeak not hyperbo- 
" lically ; there is not fo much as a farthing : it 
" is incredible to think, what relief they have 
" found from this fingle article. The other is 
ct this ; s their own Greek Magiftrates hadftrange- 
*' ly abufed and plundered them. I examined 
" every one of them, who had born any office 
" for ten years paft: they all plainly confeffed; 
" and, without the ignominy of a public con- 
" vidion, made reftitution of the money, which 
4< they had pillaged : fo that the people, who 
C6 had paid nothing to our farmers for the prefent 
<c Luftrum, have now paid the arrears of the 
" laft, even, without murmuring. This has 
" placed me in high favour with the Publicans, 
<c a grateful fet of men, you'll fay : I have really 
" found them fuch — the reft of my jurifdi&ion 
" fhall be managed with the fame addrefs ; and 
" create the fame admiration of my clemency 
" and eafinefs. There is no difficulty of accefs 
" to me, as there is to all other Provincial Go- 
u vernors; no introduction by my Chamber- 
" lain : I am always up before day, and walking 
" in my Hall, with my doors open, as I ufed 
" to do, when a Candidate at Rome : this is 
" great and gracious here; though not at all 

" troyblefom 

3©4 fbe Ki**OKY <tf tb* Lift 

A.Urb. 702. " trooblefom to me, from my old habit and 

Sa&v*s"vL- This a*^ ^ of governing gave no finall 
piQiveAu. umbrage to Appius* who ccrofideml it as a rc- 
pus, proach upon himletf, and fen t fbvaral querulous 

U omUkl Lctterr toCkttOf becaufc he had roverfed fonlfc 
ciwuv*? " of. his Gonffiunums c u Afld no wtoiider, £kyc Cice- 
44 ro, that he it difpkafed with my manner, for 
" what can be mora unlike, than his admin iftra- 
** tkm and mine? under htm the Province was 
" drained by cxpences and cxa6bians^ under me, 
^ not a penny levied Jbr public or private ufc: 
44 what fhall I (ay of his Frcfedbs, attendants, 
*« Lieutenant*? of their plunders, rapines, »ju- 
** ties ? whereas now, there is nocafinglefami- 
** ly governed with fuch order, difcapline, and 
** modtfty, as my Province. TJiis fame of Ap- 
44 pius^fricods interpret ridiculouily; as if I was 
** taking pains to exalt my own charaftw; in 
" order to depreft his; and doing all this, not 
* for the lake of my own credit, butofki«<Iif- 
** graoe[/3" But the tnuth was, that from 
the time of his reconciliation with Appjos, he 
had a fincere ctefire to live on good terms with 
imn; as well owe of regard «o the fpkador 
ai his birth and fortunes, as to his great al» 
fiances % for one of his daughters was Married ro 
ftompey's fen, and another to Brutus [/]: fo 


Id] It. & 2. [ /J Ego Appim, ut tr- 

[e] Qgid eoim potfft ; eib cum faepe iocutus Com, -valJ« 

tamen diffimile,quam iflp im- diligo. Mcque ab eo diligj 

perantc,exhauftamcflcfiimp- ftanrntroeprum effe, uciimui- 

fcibus ^rjadhuis^ovinOiain^ t&tem d epofui«u*, ftf oft— tj am 

aobweamobtiaentibiWinum- -rae Pompeii totnm eile-fciJ : 

xnum milium efle erogajum Brutum a me amari iatellir 

nec privatim necpublice, &c. gis. Quid eft caufse, cur 

— -ib. 6. t. jnihi non in optati? eft com- 


ofM, fULLIUS CICERO. *o 5 

*hot, tfabugh their principle* and maxhnt were A% W*. toft. 
totally different^ yet he cook scare t» do every C oli^ 
tbing with the greateft profeffions o£ honor and s E1LV . SuL ^ 
refped: towards Appius, even when he found it pigxus&v- 
heceflary to tefoind his decrees ; considering him*- F u s » 
felf onefy, hlfiys, «r * /«w** PAtfkia* ^^^Sm«- 
w to a cafe ofjicinofc when he found it neteffary ce^lv^' 
-to change the method of curt, and when the Patient 
bud been brought fom by evacuations*, and MooeUleb- 
***&> to apply ail kinds of lenitive end reft&mg 
medicines [g\ 

Asfoon as the Gowmtnetit of -Cilicta was al- 
lotted to him, he acquainted Appius with k by 
Letter, begging of him, that, asno man cttuldfuc- 
ctdetartvoitbanmfrwdly dtfpg/kum thorn Urn- 
folfi fo A$tptus would deliver up the Provmce to him y 
in facb.a condition, as one friend would cxpeft tvmt- 
cewe it' from another [b~\ : in anfwer to which, 
<2Lpf>iu6» having intimated foore defixae of an in- 
terview,. Cicero took occafion t&prefe it with 
much earneftnefs, as a thing of great fervice to 
them both; and that it might not be defeated, 
gave him an account of all his ffcageB and mo* 
tions, and offered to regulate them in fuch a 
manner, as to make the place of their meeting the 

piefti hdminem, floittntcm Att. 6. I. 
anate, opibus,honoribus, in- [&] Cum contra volunfea- 

genio, liberis, propinquisaf- tern meam — accidiflet, ut 

nnibus, amicis. —- -Ep.Fam. mihi cum impetio m Provin- 

2. 13. ctain ire fcetdle elftt- -hsec 

[g] Ut : fi Medicos, cum una confolatio ocourfebat, 

agrotus alii medico traditus quodnequetibiamicior,quaai 

fit, irafci velitei medico, qui ego fum, quifquam poflet 

fibi fucceflerit, ft* quae ipfe in fuccedere, neque ego ab ullo 

cutsndo contHtuerit, tautet provmciamaccipere,quimal- 

ilk. Sk Appius, cum 1$ &- let earn mihi quasi maxime 

^«.p«r»o? p*o¥in€iam««rarit, aptamexpKeaumquetradere, 

ianguinera miferit, &c. aid £c. Ep.Fam. 3.3. 

206 fbe H tb t o ft Y of the Life 

A. Urb. joz. moft agreeable to Appius's' convenience: but Ap- 

C c"ff 6 P* us ^ n S difgufted by the firft edi&s which Ci- 
Sbrv? Sul- ccro publiflied, refolved for that reafon to difap- 

pic/usRu- point him* 9 and as Cicero advanced into the Pro- 

rus, vince y retired Jlill to the remoter parts of it, and 

M. Clav- contrived to come upon him at laft fo fuddenly, 
dius Mar- ,/>.,, r , A n 

cellus. t™ 1 - Cicero had not warning enough given to go 

out and meet kirn ; which Appius laid hold of, as 

a freflr ground of complaint againft Cicero's 

pride, for refuting that common .piece of refpeft 

to him [#]. 

This provoked Cicero to expoftulate with 

him, with great fpirit " I was informed, fays 

" he, by one of my Apparitors, that you cqm- 

" plained of me for not coming out to meet you : 

" I defpifed you, it feemq, fo as nothing could 

f< be prouder when your fervant came to me 

" near midnight, and told me, that you would 

" be with me at Iconium before day, but could 

"not fay, by which road, when there were 

" two; I fent out your friend Varro by thedne, 

€< and Q^ Lepta, the Commander of my Actil- 

" lery, by the other, with inftru&ions to each 

c< of them, to bring me timely notice of your 

" approach, that! might come out in perfon to 

cc meet you. Lepta came running back prefently 

" in all hade toacquaint me, that you had already 

" paffed by the Camp; upon which I went di- 

" re&ly to Iconium, where you know the reft. 

*' Did I then refufe to come out to you ? to Ap- 

" pius Claudius ; to an Emperor ; then, ac- 

" cording to ancient cuftom ; and above all 

- [i]-rine libenter ad cam Appias nofter, cum mead- 

. partem provincial primum ventare videt, profe&us eft 

elTe venturum, quo te maxime Tarfum ufque Laodicea— ad 

* velk arbitrarer,<&c — ib. 5. Att, 5. 17. 


m. TULLius cicero. 207 

" to my friend? I, who of all men am. apt to A. Ufb. 702. 
" do more in that way than becomes my digni- Cl £ & 
" ty ? but enough of this. The, fame man told ser v.° Sul- 
" me likewifc, that you faid, What! Appius piciusRu- 
" went out to meet Lentulus; Lentulus to Ap- * v *> 
** pius ; but Cicero would not come out to Ap* ^iv* Ma** 
" pius. Can you then be guilty of fuch imper- c *Litr», 
" tinence? a man, in my judgement, of the 
" greateft prudence, learning, experience ; and 
*• I may add politenefs too, which the Stoics 
" rightly judge to be a virtue ? do you imagine, 
" that your Appius's and Lentulus'sare of more 
" weight with me than the ornaments of virtue ? 
" before I had obtained thole honors, which, in 
" the opinion of the world, are thought to be 
" the greateft, I never fondly admired thofe 
" names of yours : I looked indeed upon thofe, 
" who had left them to you, as great men ; but 
" after I had acquired, and born tjie higheft 
" Commands, fo as to have nothing more to dc- 
" fire, either of honor or glory, I never indeed 
* € confideredmyfelfasyour fuperior, but hoped, 
♦' that I was become your equal: nor- did Pom* 
fC pey, whom I prefer to all men, who ever 
" lived, nor Lentulus, whom I prefer to my- 
" felf, think otherwife : if you however are of 
V a different opinion, it will do you no harm to 
" read with fome attention what Athenodorus 
" fays on .this fubjeft, that you may learn where* 
" in true nobility confifts. But to return to the 
" point: I defireyou to look upon, me,, not one* 
<c ly as your friend, but a moft affeftionate one : 
<c it (hall be my care by all poffible fervices to con^ 
" vinceyou, that I am truly fo : but if you have 
" a mind to let people fee, that you are lefs con- 
" cerned for my intereft, in my abfence, than 
Vul. IL P 1« my 

*o8 The H I s t o kr df tie 3%fe 

A.Urb. 702; "* my pains for yours defervtd, I fret you fioM 
c ^ c ^ 6 - '* that trouble; ■• : 

Serv. Sut- 

picivsRu- i( For I have friends enough to fervt and save 
fus, - « jg^ m* **4 mn6)**d above aMSneat Jove. 

M. CtAir- tt% » • *»* 

~.*. \>r - *D«,I« I74« 


"but if you are naturally querulous, yon fball 
4< not ftill hinder my good offices audwtihes for 
" you : all that you will do, is to make me lefs 
" follicicous how. you take them. I hase writ- 
** ten this with more than my ufuat freedom, 
" from the confeiotrfhefs of my duty and afiec- 
" tion, which being contra&ed by choke and 
" judgement, it will be in your powerto prefetve, 
" as long as you think* poper* Adieu [k]" 

Cicbro's Letcerfcto Appius make one book 
of bis familiar Epijlles, the greateft part of which 
are of the expoituktfcry kind, on the fubye& of 
their mutual jealoofies and complaints: in this flip- 
pery ftate of their friendship, an accident happeaed 
at Rome, which had like to have put an end to it. 
His daughter Tullia, after parting from her fe- 
cond hufband Craflipes, as it is ptobabLy thought, 
by divorce [/], was married in her fitthor^ abfence 
to a thirds P. Cornelius Dolabelia: feveral parties 
had been offered to her, and among them Ti. 
Claudius Nero, who afterwards married Livia, 
whom Auguftus took away from him : Nero made 
his propofals to Cicero in Cilicia^ who referred 
him to the women, to whom he had.kft the 

[k\ Ep. Fam. 3. 7. # . him as the only S#rat$r,.he- 

J7] What confines this fides Hirrus, to whom he did 

notion is, that Craffipesap- ' not think (it to write about 

pears to have been, alive at the affair of his Suffhcatiou* 

this time, and under Cicero's Ad Att* 7. i. 

difpleafure: who mentions 



management of that affair : but before thofe A. Urb« 703. 
overtures reached them, they had made up the C p'£ 6- 
matchwkh Dohbella, being mightily taken with skrv?Sul; 
bis contphnfant andobfiqidous addrefs [m\. He *iciusRu* 
vi2& zvidoter mm oi Patrician defeent^ andof great * u v 
ports and poUtentfs 5 but of a violent, darings **■ %**£?* 
ambitious temper, warmly attached to Caefar ; ,c*i,lu«? R * 
and by a life of pleafure and espence, which the 
prudence of Tulha, it was hoped, would correct, 
greatly difbeffed in his fortunes; which made 
Cicero very uneafy, when he came afterwards to 
know it [*]• Dolabella, at the time of his mar- 
riage, for which he made way abb by the divorce 
efbisfirfi wife [0], gave a proof of his eqtcrpri- 
fing genius, by impeaching Appius Claudius, of 
praSices againft tbeftaie, in bis government of Cr- 
Hcia 9 and of bribery and corruption in bis fuit for 
the Confuljbip. This put a great difficulty upon 
Cicero, and made it natural to fufpeft, that he 
privately favored the impeachment, where the 
Jceufir was bis fon~in-Iaw : but in clearing him- 
felf of it to Appius, though he diflembkd a little 

[/»] Ego dnm in proviocia qu* *oii ferenda. Ad Att. 

omnibus rebus Appium orno, 7.3. 

fubito Aim fadtus accufatoris Dolabellam a te gaudeo 

ejus focer -— fed crede miki prima m landari, deihdc c- 

nihil rainospotaram ego, qui tiam amari. Nam ca qua 

de Ti. Nerone, qui mecvm fperas Tullis mea prudentia 

cgerat, certos homines ad pofTe temperari, fcio cui us 

nmlieres miferam, qui Ro- epiftolae refpondeant. Ep. 

team venerunt fa&is fponfa- Fam. 2. 15. it. 8. 13. 

Kbns. Sed Jioc fpero melius. Hac oble&abar fpeeula, 

Mulieres quidem valde intel- Dolabellam meum fore ab iis 

Kgo dele&ari obfequio & co- moleftiis, quas liberate fu* 

nutate adolefcentis. — Ad contraxerat,liberum— ib. 1$. 

Att. 6. 6. [^flludmihioccurritjquod 

[n] Gcner eft fuavis— - inter poftulationem, St norni- 

qiianrumvis vel ingenii, vel nis delatronem uxor a D^la- 

numanitatis ; fatis. Reliqua bella difceffit— Ib. 8. 6* 

P 2 perhaps 

fiio W* His tor y of the Lift 

Ai Urb. 702. perhaps in difcUuining any part or knowledge of 
Cic. 56. t hat match, yet he was very fiocere, in pro- 

Sbrv ° Sul- f c ^ in g himfelf an utter ftranger to the impeach- 
ficiusRv. ment, and was in truth greatly difturbed at it. 
f u s, But as from the circumftance of his fucceding to 

M Cl m UDI " Appius in his Government, he was of all men 
isllvu *~ d* mo & capable of ferving or hurting him at the 
trial; fo Pompey, who took great pains to fkreen 
Appius, was extremely defirous to engage him 
on their fide, and bad thoughts of fending one of 
bis forts to him for that purpofe : but Cicero faved 
them that trouble, by declaring early and openly 
for Appius, and promising every thing from the 
Province that could poffibly be of fcrvice to him; 
which he thought himfelf obliged to do the 
more forwardly, to prevent any fufpicion of trea- 
chery to bis friend, on the. account of bis new alii* 
ance [p] : fo that Appius, inftead of declining 
a trial, contrived to bring it on as foon as he 
could ; and with that view, having dropt his 
pretenfions to aTriumph, entered the City, and 
offered himfelf to his. Judges, before his Accufer 
was prepared for him, and was acquitted without 
any difficulty of both the indictments. 

In a little time after his trial he was chofen 
Cenfor* together with Pifo, Cdfar's father-in-law, 
the laft who bore that office during the freedom 
of the Republic. Cladius's law, mentioned a- 

[)>] Pompeiusdiciturvalde nunciata, non majore'equi- 

pro Appio laborare, at eti- dem ftudio, fed acrias, aper- 

am .putent alterutrum de filiis tius,iignificantius dignitatem 

ad te miflurum. Ibid. tuam defendiflem— nam ut 

Poll hoc negotium autem vet us noftra fimultas antea 

£ temeritatem noftri Dola- ilimulabat me, ut cave rem 

bellas deprecatorem me pro- ne cui fufpieiouem ficle re- 

illius periculo praebeo — lb.' reconciliata? gratis darem:fic 

2. ' 3. a a affinitas novam curam affert 

Tamen hac mihi affinitate cavendu lb. 3. iz. 

* . V i •' * hove. 


bove, which had greatly reftrained the power bf A. Urb. 702. 
thefc Magiftrates, was repealed the laft year by Cl £ oj 5 r 6 " 
Scipio, the Conful, and their ancient authority sslkv. Sul- 
reftored to them [j], which was now exercifed piciusRu- 
wkh great rigor by Appius : who though really * U I» 
alibertin, and remarkable for indulging himfefr p IU8 L ^"" R . 
in ail the luxury of life, yet by an affeftation of cellus. 
feverity, hoped -to retrieve his chara&er, and 
pafs for an admirer of that ancient difcipline, for 
which many of his anceftors had been celebrated. 
Cselius gives a pleafant account of him to Cicero'; 
" Do you know, foys he,, that the Cenfor Ap- 
" pius is doing wonders amongft us, about fta- 
cC tues and pi&iires, the number of our acres, 
" and the payment of debts ? he takes the Cen- 
c4 forfhip for foap or nitre, and thinks to fcaur • 
c< himfelf clean with it ; but he is miftaken ; for 
u while he is laboring to waih out his ftains, he 
u opens his very veins and bowels, and lets us 
" fee him the more intimately : run away to us 
"by all the Gods, to laugh at thefe things: 
w Drufus fits Judge upon Adultery, by the 
" Scantinian law : Appius on ftatues and pic- . 
"tures [r]. M But this vain and unfeafonabte 
attemptof reformation, infteadof doing any good, 
ferved onely to alienate people from Pompefs 
caufe y with whom Appius was ftri&ly allied : 
whilft his Collegue Piio, who forefaw that ef- 
fect, chofe to lit (till, and fuffer him to difgrace 

[q\ Dio t p. 147. Nam fordes clucrevult, vc- 

[r\ Scis Appium Cenfo- nas fibi omnes & yifcera a- 

rem hie oftenta facere? de perit. Curre per Deos, & 

fignis & tabulis, de agri mo- quam primum naec rifum ve- 

do, & aere alieno acerrime a- ni. Legis Scantiniae judki- 

gere? perfuafum eft ei, Cen» urn apud Drufum fieri. Ap- 

furam lomentum aut nitrum pium de tabulis & fignis age- 

*ffe. Errare mihi videtur. re. — Ep. Fam. 8. 14. 

P 3 tie 

i 212 7& Hi s¥j>r*V *f fbeXife^ 

I A. TJrb. jvi.tbe Knights and (Senators at. plea/are, which hexttd 

j cic -5 6 - with great freedom, and amopg others, tuned 

( bervSul- Stllu ^ tbe &&""* out of the Senate, and was 

1 Tieivs&v- hardly retrained /from putting the fame affront 

fus, upon Corio, which addodftHi more friends and 

M.Clau- ftrength to Cir&r 0]. 

af&ir, that engaged all people's thoughts, w4s 

the expectation M a breach between Cscfar and 

Pompey, which ieeraed now uaavoidafale, and in 

which all men were beginning to take part, and 

.ranging themfbtaes on the one <fide or the other. 

On JPompey's .there nas a great majority of the 

Senate and the Mqtfhiatas, with the better fort df 

-*// ranks : oto€*fiu*^att the criminal andobnotekus, 

all iPbe bad fufered punijbment or deferved it ; tie 

■greattft part of Jbe yeutb % And tbe City mob ; fbme 

*f tbe popular frihuus, and all mho were opprejftd 

n»itb debts ; <&ko bad a Leader fit for their pvrpoft, 

daring* andiaeil provided, and wanting nothing but 

a cauje. This is Cicero's account ; and Cadius's 

-is much , the fam£; lfto % &ys he, that P empty 

, -vrill have tbe &tnate> and all who judge of things % 

•Cxpor, all who Jive in fear and unea/inefs ; bat 

.there is no comparifon between their. armies [/]. Cae- 

far had put an end to the Gallic war, and reduced 

the whole Province to the Reman yoke : bat 

Fs] Dip. L 4p. f* t$ft. , cattfam folam ilia csufa son 

/] Hoc video, cum ho- habet, caeteris rebus abundat 

mine, audaciffimQ, -paratif- ad Att. 7. 3. 

moque negotiom efle : on- In hac difcordia video, 

fles damnatos, omnes igno- Cn f Pofnpeiumfenatani y qui- 

~minia affedtos, omnes dam- queresjudicant, fecum hahi- 

'naticrrre ignominiaquedignos turum : ad Casfarem omnes, 

iliac facere. Omnem fete qui cum timore ant mala fpe 

juventutem, omnem Mam ur- vivant ad Caefarem accefTa- 

T>anam ac perditam pflebem ; ros. Exercitum conferen- 

Triburnos valentes— omnes, dum non effc. Ep. Fam. 8. 

qui acre alieno premantur— 14. 

3 though 

fhpugh hijs p^omaii^ok.w^^ear expiring^ fe&. Urb-^ofc 
{cemed toh^ye pp though^ o£ giving it up^ a&4 ^'■S 6 *' 
returning $6 thp condition of a private fubjsft : Jl* s**v.° S«i^ 
pretend^. ## ^ c^:^P*Mb h* feA *f.k* *kivb&£ 
P* r **4 .V!i$' s : /VWi.SfywifMy whi& Pornpfy fus, 
&/i /£* Province of Spain, prolonged to biip.fpr M# Ct ^" 1 - 
fivtycar* [^ , Ti» -ftqgte,- m the. mejyi^e, c£lxis*T 
in order to rnake him <&fy y had confentgdl ty/** 
few /*£* fkf Cptfuljhip, wfi/b^t coming tafueifar it, 
tnperfw : felt yihen that did P9t i^tftfyhujv tha 
Conful, -Jyf, jM^rcellus, on? of his jfercpibifPCri 

re&Iy, a$ appoint him .4 fyectfor y 0nd fine* the 
war WQS #t sfn tndy &^ligf.%iw to dtfband fas 
troops^ ^nd^to cym fiktwtft *&jp*Kfon to fat for [tpt 
(^nfyd^^^pr ,-f a al^^^'^ffdfim^t^^jifta 
hs QdlonipfJb^jf^ the P^t- this f elated particular- 
ly to a ftiyprite Qolowj^ wbifk Cdfar, when Gqh- 
fuJ, ha$ 'fci\\$f!i : At Cemm* \at tbe foot of tb? A^ % 
wi/b tbe frfedow.jf thf Qty-gpanted to it by tbe¥q» 
tiuiw Uiu {*}< r A\\ th^pfter Colonie3 on tfyat 
£de pf tjfj3' J^q h^d'Veforg obtained from. Popi* 
pey's father tb^rigbU afL<$t?uw r that i% ^free- 
dom of._Rori)6 to thofe wjio had born an, annual 
Magifiracy in ; fherfl : but M. Marcellus r out of a 
lingular eomity to Gagf^r, : f vjould allQw ao fuch 
right to bis Colony ef Cowufiz md having, caught 
a certain Cpmenfian Mqpjfaafa who was acting 
(be Citizen ai Rome, he prderpd hin\ to tie fei?ed 4 
and publicly wbipt \ an indignity, from which pll 
Citizens were exempted by law, bidding the n\an 
$o and /hem Jbefe marks of bis* fiitizenfbip to C#* 

[«] Caefari autem perfua- ditionem, lit ambo exercitus 

fum e#, fe falyum efle noa tradant. . Ibid, 
ppfle, fi ab exercitu rcceiTe- [x] Suetoni. J. Caef. c. «8. 

fit. Fcrt illam tamen con- Strabo, 1. 5. 326. 

• P 4 fori 

Cic. c6. 


Serv. Sul- 



M, Clau- 
dius Mai.. 


214 T&*Histor y of the Life 

A '/^ rb * 2°*"' J^ r Cj^l- Cicero condemns this aft as violent and 
™~ r unjuft; Marcellus, fays he, behaved Jbamefully in 
the cafe of the Comenfian: for if the man bad never 
been a .Magiftraie^ be was yet of a Colony beyond 
the Po y fo that Potnpey will not be lefsjbock'd at it 
than cJfar bimfelf [z]. 

TU b other Confu£ Serv. Sulpicius, was of a 
more candid and moderate temper ; and being 
unwilling to give fuch a handle for a civil war, 
oppofed and over-ruled the motions of his Col- 
legue, by the help of fome of the Tribuns : nor 
was Pompey himfelf dHpofed toprocede fo vio- 
lently, or to break with Caefar on that foot ; but 
thought it more plaufible to let his term run out, 
and his command expire of itfelf, and fo throw 
upon him the odium of turning his arms againft 
his Country, if he (hould refolve to aft againft 
the Senate and the laws. This counfil prevailed 
after many warm cohteftations, in which thefum- 
mer was chiefly fpent, and a decree was offered 
on the laft of September, " That the Confuls 
" eleft, L. Paullus and C. Marcellus (hould 
" move the Senate on the firft of March, to fct- 
" tie the Confular Provinces; and if any Ma- 
" giftrate fhould interpofe, to hinder the effeft 
<c of their decrees, that he (hould be deemed an 
il enemy to the Republic •, and if any one aftu- 
€C ally interpofed, that this vote and refolution 
* 4 (hould be entered into the Journals, tobct:on- 
€i fidered fome other time by the Senate^ and 
ft< laid alfo before the people." But four of the 
Tribuns gave their joint negative to this decree* 
C. Caslius, L. Vinicius, P. Cornelius, and C. Vi- 

W A Ppian- 2- 443- 
[*] Marcellus fxde de Co- 
men fi : etfi ille Magiftratum 
Aon geflerit, erat tamen tranf- 

padanus. Ita mihi videtur 
nori minus (tomachi noftro, 
ac Caefari movifle. Ad Att. 
5. 11. 



bius Panfa. In the courfc of thefc debates, Fam- A - V rb - 7°** 
pey, vyho affefted great moderation in whatever Cl £ fr 
he faid of Cafar, was teized and urged dn all s BKYa S y L . 
fides to make an explicit declaration of his.fen- piciusRu- 
timents. When he. called it unjuft to determine * u *» 
any thing about Caefar's Government, before the p,„ mae- 
fr^ of March, the term prefcribed to it bylaw, celivi* 
being afked, " What, *f any one ihould then 
" put a negative upon them,- be /aid* there wa$ 
" no difference whether Ca?far jefufed to obey 
" the decrees of the Senate, or provided men 
" to obflrud them : What, fays another ', if he 
€C fiiould infill upon being Confttf, and holding his 
"Province too? What, replied Pompey* if my 
" (on ihould take a ftick and cudgel me [a] ?" in- 
timating the one to, be as incredible, and as tm? 
pious as the Other. 

Ci cb ro's friend Caeliu$ obtained the ALdilt- 
fhip this Summer from his : Competitor Hirrus, 
the fame who had oppofed Cicero in the Augu- 
rate, and whofe difappointment gave occafion to 
many jokes between them in their Letters [A]* In 
this Magiftracy, it being cuftomary to procure 
wild beads of all kinds from different parts of the 
Empire for the entertainment of the City, Calim 
begged of Cicero to fupply him with Panthers from N 
Cilicia, and to employ the Cybarites, a people of 
his Province famed for hunting, to catch tbeto: 
fur it would be a refleSion uponyou, fays he, when 
Curio bad ten Panthers from that Country, not to 

[a] Cum interrogaretur, quit alius, & Conful efle & 

fiqui tumintercederent : dix- exercitum habere volat ? at 

it hoc nihil ihtereile, utrum ille quam clementer. Quid 

C. Csfar Senatui dido audi-* fi filius meus fuftem mihhm- 

ens futorus non effet, an pa* pingere volet? Ep. Fam, 8. 8* 

raret, qui Sen at urn decernere [?] Ep. Fam. z, 9, 10. it. 

non pateretur. Quid fi, in- 8, 2, 3, 9. 


2i6 Vie History of tie Lift 

A. TJrb. 70s, kt m have man} mere. He recommends to him 

^ jr * at ** ^ to1c tim * ^* Feridiu*, a Roman Knight, 

SiritvTsW **o had an Eftat* in Ciltcia, charged with feme 

- pititJB R»- ftrvices or quit-rent to the neighboring Cities, 

fus, which he begs of him to git djfcbargtd, fa ns u 

^utM- ^i* ^ lands free (>] : he fecms alfo so have de* 

ciittj« A . " firefi Cicero's content to his levying certain con- 

tribUrions upon the Okies of his Province, to* 

w&ds defraying the- exftnee of bis ftxys at Rme \ 

t prerogative, which die ASdiles always claimed, 

attfb fetnetimts ffradtfed ; though it was denied 

to the ft by feme Governors, and particularly by 

Quincm Cicero tfe Afia» upon tfre advice of his 

brother [4]i in anfim to all which Cicero re- 

plied* * c that he was forry 10 find that his adttons 

" were fo much in the dark, that ir was not yet 

(( known at Rome, that not a farthing had bceij 

* exacted in his itamnce, except for the pfcy- 
<"«ieni of juft debts : that it was nattier fit fot 
** hW) to extort monty, nor for Cadiu* to take 
t* fe, if it were defigned for hiiiafeif y and adnio* 
*> nlfhpd hin>, who had undertaken the part of 
^ ^eeufing ot&evs, ' to live hknfelf with more cau- 

* tion—afld as to Panthers, that it was not con- 
** Meat with his character to impofe the charge 
^ of Jlutiririg thein upon jhe poor pdop4e [*].* 

* ^t Fen .fitters unniba* [4 Ad Qaiirt. Frat 1. 1. 
^4cPaBtharilfcripfi.Tiir- §, o. 

pe tibi erit, Patifcum Curio- [*] Rdcripfi, me molefle 
ill decern Pan theras mififle, ferre, fi ego in tenebris late- 
tenon multis partibusplares, rem, nee aadiretur Romx, 
^cc.^Bp'. Fawn/S. 9. iiallamintnc&prcmiu&anam- 
■ M. Widiam-- tibi com- mum nifi ia as alien vm ero- 
meaio. • Agrot <juo* /ru&u- gari ;docaiqufc aec nrihi con* 
arioe habent civitatet, vuJt eiisare pecuasam licere, nee 
taobetxfkio, quod tibi feci, iHi capere; monvique eum, 
It & kooeftum fa&a srt, an- fee. ad AttT 6. r . 

munes efle— ib. 


o/MfVLLTTJ&CICEnO. zvj * 

BcrtthmJgh he would riot break his rules for the A.Urb.70*. 
-fekc of h*s friend* yet he took cate to provide C q^ 6 * 
Panthers, for him at his own expencb, and fays Serv? Sul- 
pkaiantfy upon it, tbAttieBe&smtdedJbd am- piciusRu- 

fintemfilam were laid in hisTrwinctforawfvtber ^iu^m^r * 
CetQtun but tbmfahes [/]. , .. cellus**" 

Curio iikewife otasaiaed the Tribunate this 
Swrntf>er r Which he fought with fto fatar dcfigd, 
a* rfidfty Imagined, tbato for th6 opp^rtuhity of 
mortifying Caftr, agaiuft whom he head hkherto 
adfced with great fiercenafc [£]. Bitt Ckgnvwbo 
knew ftepi the tamper and view* of them both, 
hw? fcij(y:ft would be to matoejup matters between 
tfutt*VT#6k- 1 occafion ta write a •' cangrajtnbuocy 
Letters Vim upon this advancement, inwhicfi ... 
he eatterishiwi with great -grav*^ <*t04OO$cter 
** ifito whfot adangeroite crSrs his Tribbnaue had 
tl fallen, not by chance, bot bis own. choice; 
" vfim violence of tko times, What: variety of 
"dangers, hung over tie 'Republic, howuacer- 
"taiii^ events of things wene, how change- 
"able m*** ftiirtds, how much treachery and 
M fatthood in human itfe^he begs ofhnn there-, 
Ci fore «o beware of entering into any new coua- 
" fik, bmro purfue and defend, what he him- 
" felf thought right, and not fuflferhknfetfto be 
" drawn aWay by the advice of others u *-^ref<rriiqj 
without dotlbt to M. Antony, tike chief compa- 
nion and corrupter of his youth : in the conda- 
ficta, he conjures him, to " employ his prefent 

£/"] DePantheris,pereos, • Ep. Fam. 2. 11. 

Suiveaaxi.foleat, agiturmau- [g] $ed ut foera & volo, 
ato meo diligenter Ted mi- & ut fe Fert ipfe Cirao, bo- 
ra papcitas eft : & eas, quae nos & feirattmi irialet. To- 
Tout, v'alde aiunt queri qucjd " tus ut nunc eft* hoc fcatutk. 
nihil cukjuam infidiarum in — ib. 8, 4. 
mea provincia nifi fibi fat. , 

" power 

2i8 • The Histor YtftbeLife 

*' power to hinder his Provincial trouble from 
" being prolonged by any new aft of the Se- 
" nate"— [b] Cicero's fufpicions were foon con- 
firmed by Letters from Rome ; whence Caelius 
fent him word of Curio' j changing fides, and de- 
claring bimfelf for Cafar : in anfwer to which, 
Cicero fays, the lajl page of your Letter in your 
own-band really touched me. What do you fay ? is 
Curio turned advocate for Cafar ? who would heme 
thought it befides myfelf* for let me die, if I did 
not expeHttl Good Gods, bow much do Hong to be 
laughing with yen at Rom[i) ? 

A.Urb.703. Tre new Confuls being Cicero's particular 
C CoiP frkrok* he wrote congratulatory Letters to them 

L.iEMiLivs both upon their ele&ion, .in which, he begged /&? 
Paullus, concurrence of their authority to the decree of bis 

C Cla J~ fupplicatian 5 and what he had more at heart, that 
cellu^*" dty wwld notfuffer any prolongation of his annual 
term+Jn which they readily obliged him, and 
received his thanks alfo by letter for that favor [k]. 
It was expefted, that fomething decifive would 
now. be done in relation to the two Gauls, and 
the appointment of a fucceffor to C*far± fince 
both the Confuls were fuppofed to be his enemies: 
but all attempts of that kind were ftill fruftrated 
by the intrigues of Caefar ; for when C, Marcelhts 
began to renew the fame motion, which his kinf- 
man bad made the year before, he was obftru<3- 
ed by bis Collegue Paullus, and the Tribun Curio, 
whom C*far bad privately gained by immenfe bribes, 
to fuffer nothing prejudicial to bis intcreft to pats 
during their Magiftracy [/]. He is faid to have 

[&] Ep. Fam, 2. 7, ret prater me ? nam ita vi- 

. [/'] Extrema pagella pupu- vain, putavi— ib._i3* 
git^ me tuo chirographo. [i] Ep. Fam. 15. 7, io # 
Quid ais ? Caefarem nunc de- 11, 12, 13. 
fendit Curio ? quis hocputa- [/J Sueton. J. Cxf. 29. 


of fa fULLIUS CICERO. 219 

given PauHus about three hundred thoufand pounds, A. Urb. 703. 
and toCurio much more [ni]. The firffc wanted it to cid - 57- 
defray the charges of tbofe fplendid buildings, L J?°f\ 
which he had undertaken to raife at his own coft : Paullu^* 
the fecond, to clear himfelf of the load of bis C. Clau-' 
debt*, which amounted to about half a million [n\ : D,Us Ma *- 
for he had wafted his great fortunes fo effeftually CELLU8 " 
in a few years, that be bad no other revenue lefi t 
as Pliny fays, but in the hopes of a civil war [o\. 
Thefe fa&s are mentioned by all the Roman 

Momentumque fuit mutatus Curio rerum, 
Callorum captus fpoliis fe? Cefaris auro— 

Lucan. 4. 810; 
Caught by thefpoils of Gaul andC<efar*sgoId 9 
Curio turttd traitor ', and bis country fold. 

and Servius applies that paffage of Virgil, Vendi- 
dit hie auro palriam, to the cafe of Curio's felling 
Rome to Csefar. \ 

Ci c e r o in the mean time was expe&ing with 
impatience the expiration of his annual term, but 
before he could quit the Province, he was oblig- 
ed to fee the account of all the money, which 
had pafled through his own or his officers hands, 
ftated and balanced 5 and three fair copies provid- 
ed, two to be depqfitedin two of the principal G- 
ties of bis Jurifdiftion, and a third in the Treafury 
at Rome. That his whole adminiftration there- 
fore might be of a piece, he was very exact and 
pun&ual in acquitting himfelf of this duty, 
and would not indulge bis officers in the ufe of any 

Xm\ Appian. 1. ii. p. 443. buerit, praeter difcordiam ' 

[n] Sexcenties Settertium principum. Plin. Hi&. 1. 36. 
sens alieni. Val. Max, 9. 1. 15. 
[0] Qui nihil in cenfu ha- 


A. Urb. 70,3. puWk money beyond the legal titne f or above the 
C c'i 7 ' Aitnm prefcribed by law, as appears from h\s 

L. jBmili* Letters to fome of them who defined it £p}. Oqt 
u$ Paul- of the annual revenue, which was decreed to 
t*u*t him for the ufe of the Province^ be remitted to 

C |>ius Mar. th * T***!™? *M that be ba * m **$**&&> t* &* 
cellus? amount of above eight hundred thcufand ' pwtds. 
" This, fays he, makes my whole company 
"groan; they imagined* that it fhould have 
" Been divided among themfclves, as if I ought 
" ro have been a' better manager for the treafu- 
44 ries of Phrygia and Cilicia, than for bur own. 
44 But they did not move me ; for my own ho- 
44 nor weighed with me the moft:. yet I have 
44 not been wanting to do every thing in nay 
44 power that is honorable and generous to them 
" all [j].» 

H 1 s laft concern was, to what hands he fhould 
comttit the Government of his Province upea 
his leaving it, fince there was no fucceObr ap- 
* pointed by the Senate on account of the heals 
among them about tbe cafe of Caefer, which dif- 
twbedatttheif debate*, and interrupted »J1 other 

[p\ Laodict* me prsxJcs 

acceptoruia ' arbitior omius 
JjubHcae pecuniae^nihil eft, 
quod in ifto genera cniqoam 
poftm coaunodaiCy&c. J£p. 
Run,?. 17. 

Jllud quideipeejte factum 
eft, quod le* jubebat, at a- 
pud daee cmtetes, Lftodiecn- 1 
fen, & Apimjienfem, que 
* robirmaxixnx videfasuunr^ 
rationcs confectas & cbnfoli- 
datas deponeremus, &q. ib, 
J. 20. 

• {?] Cum etrim re&tmi & 
gloriofum putarem ex annuo 

fumptii, qfii mifei decretvs 
eflej. Me C. Oelio Qgcfto- 
ri reUneuere aqnuum^peferje 
in aeranum ad H. S. cis. in* 
gtnwiit ucftra cohoro, omac 
illud p«teD* diftrifeti fibi o- 
pprtere : ut ego amiciar in- 
venirer Phrygura aut Cili- 
eum aranis-, qaafft neftro* 
Sod me 00a nrnveram ; nffs 
mea laus apud m# plurismw 
vahiit. Nee tamen quicquam 
honorific in quemquajn fieri 
pmcit, qtiod pratarmifeiim. 
Ad Att. 7. 1.. 



bi|(ine& He had no opinion of his QyaaiftOf* A * Urb. yo|. 
C. Cgilius* a young man of noble birth, but of ^£ £ 7 ' 
ho great virtue or prudence ; and was afraid \ af- ^ ^^^ 
tcr his glorious adminiftratiQn, that by placing fi> u« Paul-" 
great a truft in one of his chara&eF, he fl*ouki L ™« 
cxpofe himfelf to fome cenfurei But he had no jJiwi i«a . 
body about him tffuperm rank, who was willing cbllus?*~ 
to accept it, and did not care tp force it upon hts 
Brother, left that might give a handle to jfyfptk 
bim effoms interefi or partiality in the dma\f\^' 
He dropt the Province therefore, after feme de- 
liberation, into Caelius's hands* and fet forward 
immediately upon his journey towards Italy. 

But before he quitted Afia, he begged of Atti- 
cqs by Letter to fend him a particular detail of all 
the news of the City — /< There are odious re* 
?* ports, fays he, about Curio and Paullus; not 
" that I fee any danger while Pompey ftaads* 
* c or I may fay indeed, white he fits, if he has 
u but his health; but in truths I am lorry for 
" my friends Curio and Paullus. If you are now 
u therefore at .Rome, or as foon as you come 
<c thither, I would have you fend me a plan of 
u the whole Republic, which may meet. me on 
" the road, jhat I may form myfelf upon it, and 
" refolv* what temper to afiume on my coming 
" to the City: for it is Tome advantage not to 
< 4 Come thither a mere ftraoger [s}* w We fee 


M Ego de ^lOvincia de- A Qoinfo frat*e imptettari 

cedeiis Qraftotem Casliun* non poterat : quern tamea fl 

ffffi}>oftiiprovincia.Puerum? felfqoil&m, dkerent, iniqtw, 

ttqaies. At Quaeftorem ; at non me plane poll annum-, itt 

fiobilem adolelcentem ; at Senatns voluiflet, de provin- 

enmittm fere exemplo. Ne- ciadecefiiffe,qtionmm alteram 

que erat fuperiore honore u* me reltquiftem. Ep. Fan*. 2. 

fas, qnem praScerem. Pon- 15. vid. it. ad Att. 6. 5, 6. '■ 
tinius muito ante difcefferat. [0 Hue odiofa afferebtm* 


22* ¥be H i s t o r y of the Life 

A. Urb.703.what a confidence he placed in Pompey, on 
C c{? 7 * ^om i 1 *!^ *eir whole profpeft either of peace 
L.iEMiMui withCasfar, or of fuccefs againft him, depended: 
Paullus, as to the intimation about his health, it is expref- 
C. Clau- fed more ftrongly in another Letter; All our 
dius Ma*- fap iSf f a y S he, bang upon the life of one man, who 
is attacked every year by a dangerous fit of fick- 
nefs [*]. His conltitution feems to have been pe- 
culiarly fubjedt to fevers ;. the ffequent returns of 
which, in the prefent fituation of affairs, gave 
great apprebenfion to all his party \ in one of 
thofe fevers, which threatened his life for many 
days fucceffively, all the Towns of Italy put up 
public prayers for bis fafety 5 an honor, which 
had never been paid before to any man, while 
Rome was free [u]\ 

Upon taking leave ofCilicia, Cicero paid a 
vifit to Rhodes, for thefake % he fays, of the chil- 
dren [*]. His defign was to give them a view 
bf that flourilhing Iflc, and a little exercife per- 
haps in that celebrated School: of eloquence, 
where he himfelf had ftudied with fo much fuc- 
cefs under Molo. Here he received the news of 
HortenJius % s death [y] 9 which greatly affedted him, 

tur deCurione, de Paullo: 
non quo ullum perici/lum vi- 
deam itante Pompeio, vel e- 
tiam fedente, valeat modo. 
Sed mehercule Curionis & 
Pattlli meorum familiar ium 
vicem doleo. Formam igi- 
tur mihi totius Reip. fi jam es 
Romae, aut cam eris, velim 
mittas, quae mihi obviam ve- 
rjiat. Ex qua me fingere pof- 
fum, &c. ad Att. 6.5. 

£/] In uniushominis,quot« 
annis periculofe agrotantis, 
anima, pofitas omncs noftras 

fpeshabemus ibid. 8. 2. 

[u] Quo<juidem tempore 
univerfa Italia vota pro lalu- 
te ejus, jprimo omnium avi- 
um, fufcepit Veil. Pat. 

2. 48. Dio, p. j 55. 

[x] Rhodum volo puero- 
rum caufa. Ad Att. o. 7. 

[y] Cum e Cilicia dece« 
dens Rhodum veniffem, & 
eo mihi de Q^ Horteniii mor- 
te efTet allatum; opinione 
omnium majorem animo cepi 
dolorenv— • Bf ut. inii. 



by recalling to his mind the many glorious drag* A. Urb. 70/, 
gles that they had fuftained together at the Bar, c, £ 57- 
in their competition for the prize of eloquence* L.JEmiiv'i 
Hortenfius reigned abfolute in the Forum, when Paullv*, 
Cicero ftrft entered it ; and as his fuperior fame c * Clau - 
was the chief fpur to Cicero's induftry, fo the "■■"■**** 
fcining fpecimen, which Cicero foon gave of him*- 
felf, made Hortenfius likewife the brighter for it, 
by obliging him to ^exert all the forcfc of his ge- 
nius to maintain his ground againft his young Ri- 
val. They patted a great part of their lives in a 
kind of equal conteft and emulation of each 
ether's merit: but Hortenfius, by the fuperiority 
of his years, having firft paffed through the ufual 
gradation of public honors, and fatisfied his am* 
bition by obtaining the higheft, began to relax 
fomewbat of bis. old contention, and give way to the 
charms ofeafe and luxury \ to which his nature ft rong- 
ly inclined him [2], till he was forced at laft, by 
the general voice of the City, to yield the poll of 
honor to Cicero ; who never loft fight of the 
true point of glory, nor was ever diverted by 
any temptation of pleafure from his fteady courfe 
and laborious purfuit of virtue. Hortenfius pub- 
lifhed feveral orations which were ex^nt long 
after his death ; and it were much to be wiflied, 
that they had remained to this day, to enable us 
to form a judgment of the different talents of 
thefe two great men : but they are faid to have 
owed a great part of their credit to the advan- 
tage of his aftion, which yet was thought to have 
more of art. than was necejfary to an Orator, fothat 
his compofitions were not admired fo much by the - 

[z] Nam is pod Cotifula- mum rerum abundaotia vo- 

tum— fummum illud fuum luit beatius, ut ipfe putabat, ' 

fiudium remifn, quo a puero remiiliUi ccrte vivcre. Brut. 

( fuerat incenfus $ atque in om- p. 44 J. 

Vol. II, Q^ Reader, 

£24 * The H i st oriT of the Life 

4.Urb. 703: Reader \ as they bad been by the Hearer [a] % white 
C JC fF* Cicero's more valued produ&ions made all others 
L.-dEMiLius°f * at kind lefs fought for, and copfequendy*, the lefs carefully prefcrved. Hortenfius however 
C. Clau- was generally allowed by the Ancients, and by 
GiLLus" "Cicero himfelf, to have poffeffed every accom- 
phfhment, which could adorn an Orator; ele- 
gance offtile\ art of competition ; fertility of inven- 
tion ; fweetnefs of elocution ; gracefulnefs of a3i- 
on \b\ Thefe two Rivals lived however always 
with great civility and refpedt cowards each other, 
and were ufually in the fame way of thinking and 
a&ing in the affairs of the Republic; till Cicero, 
in the cafe of his exil, difcovcred the plain marks 
of a lurking envy and infidelity in Hortenfius : 
-yet his reientment carried him no farther than to 
lome free complaints of it to their common friend 
Atticus, who made it his bufinefs to mitigate this 
difguft, and hinder it from proceding to an open 
breach ; fo that Cicero, being naturally placable, 
lived again with him after his return on the fame 
eafy terms as before, and lamented his death at 
this time with, great tendernefs, notonely as the 
private lofs of a friend, but a public misfortune 
to his Country, in being deprived of the fervice 
and authority of fo experienced a ftatefman at fo 
critical a conjuncture [VJ. 


. [a] Motus & geflus etiam gentes non invenimos— — 

.plus artis habebat, quam erat Quint, xi. 3. 

Oratori fads. Brjit. 425. di- [£]EratinverborumfpIen- 

' cebat melius quam fcripfit dore elegans, compofitionc 

Hortenfius. Orator, p. 261. aptn*, facilitate copiofus.:— 

Ejus fcripta tantum intra nee preterm ittebat fere quic- 

/amamfum, quidiu princcps quam, quod erat in cauft— 

Oratorum-^ exifHmatus eft, vox canora & fuavis.— JJrut. 

ho viffime , quoad vixit, fecun- 425. 

dus ; uY apparent placuiffe a- [e] Nam & ainico amiflb 

liquid «o dicente, quod Ic- cum confuetudine jucu^da, 

':. "" ' 1 turn 


From Rhodes he parted on to Ephefus, A. Urb. 703. 
whence he fet fail on die firft of OHober, and af- Cic - 57- 
tor a tedious paffage landed at Athens on the L ^Jilius 
fourteenth [d]. Here he lodged again in his old p A ULl , J£ 
quarters, at the houfe of his friend Ariftus. His C. Clau-' 
Predeceflbr, Appius, who pafled alfo through diusMar - 
Athens on his return* had ordered a new Portico CELLV * m 
or Vefiibule to be built at bis coft to the Temple of 
the Eleuftnian Ceres ± which fuggefted a thought 
likewife to Cicero of adding lome ornament of 
the lame kind to the Academy ^ as a public monu- 
ment of his name, as well as of his'affe&ion for 
the place : for be bated, he feys, tbofe falfe in- 
scriptions of of ber people's ftntues [*], with which ' 
the Greeks ufed to flatter their new Matters, by 
. effacing the old titles, and infertbing tWm anew 
to the- great men of Rome # He acquainted At- 
ticus with his defign, and defirfcd his opinion 
tip&n it : but in all probability, it was never exe* 
"cuted, fince his ftay at Athens-was now very ftiort, 
and his thoughts wholly bent on Italy : for as all 
his Letters confirmed to him the certainty of a war, 
in which he muft neceffarily bear a part, fo he 
was impatieht to be at home, that he might have 
the clearer view of the ftate of affairs, and take 

turn multorum officiorum verfis ventis.ufi effemus— 

conjun&ionemeprivatumvi- Ep. Fam. 14. 5. 

debam— *ugebat etiam mo- [e] Audio Appium *po<jrv- 

kfliam, quod magna fapien- Haw, E leu fine facere. Ntim 

tiom civium bonorumque pe- inepti faerimus, fi nos quo- 

nana, vir egregias, conjunc- que Academise fecerimus ?-— 

tiffimufque mecum confilio- — — equidem valde ipfas A- 

rum omnium focietate alie- thenas amo. Volo efTe all- 

niflimo Reipub. tempore ex- quod monumetrtum. Odi fal- 

tindus— Brut. ink. fas inferiptiones alien arum 

[d] Prid. Id. Oflob. A the- Statuarum. Sed ut tibi pla* 

nasvsaimus, cum fane ad- cebit.— Ad An. 6. z. 

Q^i ' > ' his 

226 ' The His tor y of the Life 

A- Urb.703;. his meafures with 'the greater deliberation [/]. 

Cic. ^7' Yet he was not ftill without hopes of peace, and 

L jEmimus l ^ at ^ ^ lou ^ ^ e a ^ e to n^ake up the quarrel bc- 

Paullus, tween the chiefs ; for he was, of all men, thebeft 

C Claudi- qualified to effedfc it, on account not onely of his 

.us Mar.- aut hority, but of his intimate friendlhip with 

csllvs. ^ em ^^ ^ whofeverally paid great court to him 

at this time, and reckoned upon him as their (wn y 

and wrote to him tiitb a confidence of his being a 

x determined friend [g]. 

In his voyage from Athens towards Italy, Tiro, 
one of his flaves, whom he fopn after made free, 
happened to fall lick, agd was left behind at Pa- 
trae to the care of friends and a phyfician. The 
mention of fuch an accident will feem trifling to 
thpfe who are not acquainted with the chara&er 
and excellent qualities of Tiro, and how much we 
are indebted to him for preferving and tranfmit- 
ting to pofterity the precious colleftion of Cicero's 
Letters, of which a great part ftill remain, and 
one of them wrijtten to Tiro himfelf, 
fevcral of which relate to the fubjeft of this very 
ilhefs. Tiro was trained up in Cicero's family, 
among the reft of his young flavc?, in $very 

ff] Cognovi exmultorum — Ad Att. 7. 3. 

annconim litteris— ad arma . [g} Ipfum tames Pompei- 

rem ipeclare. Ut mihi cum um feparatim ad concordiam 

yenero, diffimulare non lice- hortabor. lb. 

at, quid fentiam. Sed quum * Me autcm uterque nume- 

fubcun'da fortunaeft, eociti- Vat fuum. Nifi forte ftmulat 

us dabimus dperam ut venia- alter. Nam Pompeius non 

niup, quo facilius de tota re- dubitat (vere enim judicat) 

deliberenius. — ■ — Ep. Fara, ea, quas de Repub. nunc fen- 

14. 5. tiat, mihi valde probari. U- 

. Sive enim ad concordiam triufqueautemaccepilitteras 

res adduci poteft, five ad bo- ejufmodi— ut neuter qucm- 

11 oram victoriam* uriufve quam omnium pluris facere 

rei me aut adjutorem efle ve- quam me videre|ur# lb. 7. i • 

lim, aut certe ncn cxpertcm. . 

: .. kind 

of x M. TULLIUS CICERO. 227 

kind ofufefull gnd polite learning, ai^d being a A. Urb. 76$. 

youth of fingular parts and induftry, foon became Cl £ 57- 

an eminent Scholar, and extremely ferviceable to L.Muilixn 

his mafter in a}l his affairs both civil and domeftic. Paullus," 

"As for Tiro, fays he to Atticus, I fee you ^- Cuu -. * 

" have a concern for him : though he is won- DIUS Mar " 

** derfully ufefull to me, when he is well, m ' , ' " 

?c every kind both of my bufjnefs, and ftudies; 

" yet I wi(h his health more, for his own huma- 

ic nity and rnodefty, than for any fervige which- 1 

" reap from him .[£]." But his Letter to Tiro 

hitnfelf will beft fhew what an affe&ibnate mafter 

he was : for from the time of leaving him, he 

neyer failed writing to him by every meflfepger or 

fliip which palTed that way, though it were twice 

Qr thrice a day, and often fent one of his fervants 

exprefs to bring an ac?pun^of his health : the Hrft 

pf thefe Letters will give us 3 notion of the reft. 

M. T. Cicero to Tiro. 

* I thought that I fhoujd have been able to 
f< bear the wapt of you more eafily ; but in truth 
" I cannot bear it : and though it is of great im- 
" portance to my expeded honor, to be at Rome 
" as foon as poffible, yet I feem to have commit- 
<c ted a fin when I left you. But fince you were 
" utterly ^gainft proceding in the voyage till 
" your health was confirmed, 1 approved your 
" refolution : nor dp I now think otherwife, if 
" you continue in the fame mind. But after you 
" have begun to take meat again, if you think 

[b] 'De Tirone video tibi vel ftudiorum meorum, ta- 
curae cfle. • Quem quidem e- men propter humanitatem 
go> & fi mirabiles utilitates & modefliam malo falvum, 
roihi praebet, cum valet, in quam .propter ufum meum, 
pmni genere vel negotiorum ' Ad Att. 7. 5. 

Q^3 " that 


228 Tie History yfibe Life 

A. Urb. 703. " that you (hair be able to overtake me, that » 
Cic. 57. " left toyourconfideration. I have Tent Mferio 

t ^ o(r# «. c * to you with inftru&ions, either to come with 
Paullds, * you to me as foon as you can, orir you fhouW 

C. Clau- " ftay longer, to return inftantly without you. 

-diusMar-« Affure yourfelf however of this, that; as far 
f* as it can be convenient to your health,' 1 ! wiih 
" nothing more than to have you with me ; but 
" if it be ncceflary for the perfecting your reco- 
" very, to ftay a while longer at Patrse ; that I 
** wifh nothing more than to have you well. If 
* c you fail immediately, you will overtake me at 
4 * Leucas : but if you ftay to eftablifh your he* lth v 
** take care to have good company, good ^rea- 
** ther, and a good veffel. Obferve this one 
4C thing, my Tiro, if you love me, that neither 
c< Mario's coming, nor this Letter hurry you. 
c ? By doing what is moft conducive toyoarhealth, 
" you will do what is moft agreeable to me: weigh 
€C all tbefe things by your own difcretion. I want 
" you •, yet fo as to love you \ my lpve makes 
ct me wilh to fee you well ; my waht of you 
*' to fee you as foon as poflible : the firft is the 
" better 5 take care therefore, above all things, 
cc to get well again : of all your innumerable ler- 
46 vices to me, that wiU be the' moft afcceptable 

u the third of November [i]. 9 * * 

By the honor, that he mentiohssfl the Letter, 
he means the hon&r rfa Triumph, which his friends ' 
encouraged him to demand for 1ii$ fuccefs at A- 
manus and Pindeniffum : in writing upon it to 
Atticus, he fays, " confider what you would ad- 
** vife me with regard to a Triumph to which 
" my friends invite me : for my part, if Bibulus, 
** who, while there was a Parthian in Syria r ne- 

|f]-Ep. Fam. 16. u 

Diu$ Ma*» 


erar. tuliius cicero. *2 9 

cc ver fet a foot out of the gates of AntiochV A* V rb - 7°* 

" any more than he did upon a certain occafion c £ -P- 

" out of his own houfc, had not foilicited *L.Muiti\s % 

" Triumph, I Ihould have been quiet; but now Faullus, 

" it is a fhame to fit ftill [*]," Again, " as to a Q ^*?\ 

" Triumph, I had no thoughts of it before Bi- 

" bolus's moft impudent Letters, by which he 

" obtained an honorable fupplication. If he had 

" really done all that he has written, I fhould 

" rejoice at it, and wifh well to his fuit ♦, but for 

u him, who never ftirred beyond the walls, 

41 while there was an enemy on this fide the Eu- 

4C phrates, to have fuch an honor decreed.; and 

" for me, whofe army infpired all their hope* 

" and fpirits into his, not to obtain the fame, 

" will be a difgrace to us ; I fay to us ; joining. 

" you to myfelf : wherefore I am determined to 

" pufli at all, and hope to obtain all [/]." 

After the contemptible account, which Ci- 
cero gives of Bibulus's conduct in Syria, it muft> 
appear ftrange to fee him honored with a fuppli* 
cation, and afpiringeven to a Triumph: but this* 
was not for any thing that he himfelf had done* 
but for what his Lieutenant CaOius had perform-, 
ed in his abfence againft the Parthians ; the fuc- 
cefs of the Lieutenants being afcribed always to 
the aufpices of the General, who reaped the re- 
ward and glory of it : and as the Parthians 'wtta 

[i] Ad Att. 6. 8. tern Aiit, non extulerit* ho r 

[I] De triumpho, nulla nore augeri, me, in cujus ex-^ 
me cupiditas unquatn tenuit ercitu fpem illius exercitul*' 
ante fiibult impudentiffimas habuit, idem noli aflequi, dfe* > 
littetas, quas ampliffima fup- d ecus eft noftrum ; noftniiriy, 
plicatioconfecutaeft. A quo inquam, te conjungehs. Ita*i 
fi ea gefta funt, quselcripfit, que omnia experiar, &, ut 
gaudereni & honori faverem. iperp, allequar,— -**Ad A*U 
Nunc ilium, qui pedem por- 7. 2. 
ta, quoad hoftis cis Euphra- 

Q^4 - Jfle 

230 735* History of t&e Life 

A. Urb. 703. thcmoft dangerous enemies of the Republic, and 

C CoF" *k e more particularly 4readed at this time for their 
L. JEmilius ^ atc defeat of Craffus, fo any advantage gained 

Paullus, againft them was fure to be well received at Rome, 
C. Clau- an< j repaid with all the honors that could reafon- 

SSSfT abJ y «* demanded. 

Whenever any Proconful returned from his 
Province with pretentions to a Triumph, bis Faf- 
ces, or Enjigns of Magiftracy y were wreathed vAtb 
laurel : with this equipage Cicero landed at Brun- 
difium en the twenty-fifth of November, where 
his wife Terentta arrived at the fame moment to 
meet him, fo that their firft falutation was in the 
great fquare of the City. From Brundifium he 
marched forward by flow ftages towards Rome, 
making it his bufihefs on the road to confer with 
?U his friends of both parties, who came out to 
falute hirn ; and to- learn their fentiments on the 
pfefent (late- of aflairs 5 from which ht foon per- 
ceived, what of all things he mod dreaded, an 
univerfal difpofitkki to war. But as he forefaw 
the confequences of it more coojy and clearly 
than -any of thetri, fo his firft refolution was to 
ppply all his endeavours and authority to the me* 
diation of a peace. He had not yet declared for 
either fide, not *hat he was irrefolute which of 
them to chufe, for he mas determined within him- 
ftlf to follow Powpey-, but the difficulty was, how 
to a& in the mean time towards Csefar, fo as to 
avoid taking part in the previous decrees, which 
Were prepared againft him, for abrogating bis com- 
maniy and obliging him to difband bis, forces on fain 
of being declared an enemy : here he wifhed to 
ifond neuter a 'while, that he might aft the me- 
fifcjpr with the bettfr grace and effect [»]. 

:M JJjrundifiim! venimgs vij. Kal, D^cemb.— Terentia 

„.*'•' *' • . ** - ' vcro, 



In this difpofuion he had an interview with A. Urb. 703. 
Pompcy on the tenth of December^ of which he Ci qJI' * 
gives, the /Rowing account :. " We were toge- l. jEmimu* 
" ther, yijyj £*, about two hours. He leaned Paullus. 
" to be extremely pleafed at my return ; he ex- c - Cl * u " 
" horted me to demand a Triumph; promife.d DIUS A *" 
" to do his part in it ; advifed me not to appear 
c * in the Senate, before I had obtained it, left I 
" fhould dilguft any of the Tribuns by declaring 
" my mind : in a word, nothing could be more 
" obliging than his whole difcourfe on this fub- 
" jeft. But as to public affairs, he talked in 
" fuch a (train as if a war was inevitable, with- 
" out giving .the leaft hopes of an accomrooda- 
" tion. He«faid, that he had long perceived 
" Caefar tQ be alienated from him, but had re- 
" ceived 3 yery late inftance of it* for that 
" Hirtius came frQm Casf^r a few days before, 
" and did not coipe to fee him ; and when Bal- 
u bus pramjfed to bring Scipio an account of 
''• his bufinefs, the next morning befofe (Jay, 
" Hirtiqs was gone back again to C?efar in the 
" night : this he takes for a clear prpof $f Cae- 
" far's refQlution to break with him. - In (hort, 
" I have no other comfort but in imagining, 
" that he, to whom even his enemies have 
" voted a fecond CpnfuMhip, and Fortune given 
ct the great^ft power, will not be fo mad as to 
t; put ajl (his to hazard : y?t if he begins to 

vera, quae quidem eodem Cn. Pompeio aflentio— -ib. 3. 
tempore ad portam Brundifi- Nunc incido in difcrimen 

nam venit, quo ego in por- ipfum,—daburtt operam, ut 

turn, mihique ofcvia in Foro eliciant fententiam meam — 

fait. Ibid.—— tu autem de noftro ftatu co- 

Mihi wa§Q? unum erlt, gitabis ; prim urn quo artifi- 

quod a Pompeio gubernabi- cio taeamur benevolentiam, 

far— die. M. Tulli Vwiofia. Qxfaris ib. 1. 


232 The History of the Life 

A. Urb. 703, c * rufli oh, I fee many more things to be appre- 
C c llr " tended l ^ n I ^are venture to commit to writ- 
L. JEmilius " * n g : at prefent I propofe to be at Rome, on 
Pavllvs, " the third of January [»}." 
C. Claudi- Therb is one little circumftance frequently 
cellus AR " touched in Cicero's letters, which gave him a 
particular uneafinefs in hisprefent fituation, viz. 
bis owing a fumm of money to C*far 9 which he 
imagined might draw fome reproach upon him, 
fince he thought it dijbonorable and indecent^ he 
fays, to be a debtor to one, againjt whom we were 
atting in public affairs : yet to pay it at that time 
would deprive him of a part of the money which 
be bad refervedfor bis Triumph \o\. He defires 
Atticus however very earneftly to fee it paid, 
which was done without doubt accordingly, fince 
we meet with no farther mention of it: it does 
not appear, nor is it eafy to guefs, for what oc- 
casion this debt was contracted, unlefs it was to 
fupply the extraordinary expence of his buildings 
after his return from exil, when he complained 
of being in a particular want of money from that 
general diffipation of his fortunes. 

Pompe y, finding Cicero wholly bent on peace, 
contrived to have a fecond conference with him 
before he reached the City, in hope^to allay his 
fears, and beat him off from that vain projeft 
of an accommodation, which might help to cool 
the zeal of his friends in the fenate : he over- 
took him therefore at Lavernium, and came on 

[»] Ad Att. 7. 4. eft, quod fblvetidi font nom- 

[0] Illud tamen non d«fi- mi Caefari, & inftrumentum 

nam, duraadeflete putabo, triuxnphi eo conferendum, 

de Ca?fari* nomine rogare. Eft enim <fyiop$ov, <ivJiT<*r 

ut confaftma relinquas. lb. rtvoujvs %p$o^sthirnv eflc.— 

5- 6 \ . . lb. 7. 8. 

Mihi autem mokftiffimum. 



with him to Formia?, where they fpent a whdle A.Urb.703. 
afternoon in a clofe converfation. Pompey ftrong- C Q m J 7 ' 
If difcouraged all thoughts of a pacification, de- L. jEmi'hus 
claring, " that there could be none but what Paullus, 
" was treacherous and dangerous; and that if C 
" Caefer fliould <5tfband his army, and take the JJJjJJ**' 
* ConfoKhip, he would throw the Republic into 
" confufion: bat he was of opinion, that when 
ct he 'underftood their preparations againfl: hito, 
w he would drop the ConfuMhip, fend hold faft 
" hvs army : but if he was mad enough to come 
w forward and aft offenfively, he held him in ' 
*' utter -contempt from a confidence in his own 
M troops, . and thofe of the Republic* The^ 
" had got with them the copy of a fpcech, 
u which Antony, one of the new Tribuns, 
" made to the people four days before : it was 
€i a perpetual irivettive on Pompey's conduit 
u from his firft appearance in public, with great 
* 4 complaints againft the violent ^nd arbitrary 
" condemnation of Citizens, and the terror of 
" his arms. After reading k over together, 
u what think, you, fays Pompey, would Gaefar 
" himfelf do, if in poffeflioti of the Republic* 
** when this paultry, beggarly fellow, his Quas* 
" ftor, dares to talk at this rite ? on the whole, 
" Pompey feemed not oneiy not to defire, but 
M even to dread a peace [ p]. n 

Cicero however would not dill be driven 
from the hopes and purfuit of gn accommoda- 
tion ; the more he obfertred the difpofition of 
both parties, the more he perceived the neceffity 
of it : the honeft, as they were called, were dis- 
united among themfelves : many of them difla* 
tisfied with ft>mpey ; all fierce and violent; and 

M lb. ?> *. 

3> . denouncing 

234 Tl> e HisTORY^/fe Life 

' denouncing nothing but ruin to their adverfaries \ 
he clearly forefaw, what he declared without fcru- 
ple to his friends, " that which (ide foever got 
4C the better, the war muft necefifarily end in a 
" Tyranny -, the onely difference was, that if 
" their enemies conquered, they fhtiuld b$ pro- 
" fcribed, if their friends, beflaves." Though 
he had an abhorrence therefore of Caefar's faufej 
yet his advice was, to grant him his own terms, 
rather than try the experiment of arms, " and 
w prefer the moll unjuft conditions to the jufteft 
* c war: fince after they had. be?n arming him 
" againft themfelves for ten years paft, it was.coo 
*' late to think pf fighting, when they had made 
" him too ftrong for them [y]." 
A. Urb. 704. This was the iumm of his thoughts and coiun- 

Ci r £ 8 " ^* s * ^^ en ^e * rr i ve d at Rome on the fourth of 
C. Clau- January-, where he found the two new Confuls 

dius Mar- intirely devoted to Pompey's interefts. On his 

cellus, approach towards the City great multitudes came 

*us ' l" tu" out to mcct ^ m Wlt ^ a ^ P°®kle demonftnftions Crus. P^ honor : bis loft Jiage was from Tompefs villa 
near Alba^ becaufe bis own at Tufculum lay out of 
the great road, and was not commodious for a public 
entry : on bis arrival, as he fays, be fell into tit 
very fame of civil difcord % and found the war in 

[q] De Repub. quotidie vias. lb. 7. 7. 
magis timeo. Non enim bo- Ad pacem hortari non de- 

'i ni, ut putant, confentiunt. fino, quae vel injufta utilior 

Quos ego Equites Romanos, eft, qnam juftiffimum bcllom. 

quos Senatoresvidi, qui acer- —lb. 7, 14. 
rime turn caetcra, turn hoc Maflem tantas ei vires non 

iter Pompeii vituperarent. dediiTet, quam nunc tarn va- 

Pace opus eft,ex vi&oria cum lend rcfifterit. lb. 7. 3. 
raulta mala, turn certe Ty- Nifi forte haec illi turn ar- 

rannus exiftet.— — lb. 7. 5. ma dedimus, ut nunc cum 

Urfi vi&us eris, profcri- bene parato pugnaremus. lb* 

J>erej fi viceris, tamen fer- 7.. 6, ' 


Sf M. rtJLLIUS CldER O. <<z$5 

effect proclamed [r] : for the Senate, at'ScipioVA. Urb\ 704. 
motion, had juft voted a decree, " thatrCaefar 9 ic# ***• 
" fhould difmifs his army by I certain day, or c S off- j 
" be declared an enemy, and when M. Antony d JUS mxr- 
<c and Q^Caflius, two of the Tribuhs, oppbfed . cellus, . 
" their negative to it," as they had done to. I,#( r? RNBiri * 
every decree propofed againft Caefar, and ctrold ^ sC N R T / s ] 
not be perfuaded by the intreaties of their'friehds, 
to give way to the authority of the Senate; they 
proccded to that vote, which was the laft re- 
fort in cafes of extremity, ** that the Gonfuls, 
" Praetors, Tribuns, and all who were about the 
" city with Proconfular power, fhould take care 
" that the Republic received no detriment/* 
As this was fuppofed to arm the Magift rates 
with an abfoliite power, to treat all men as they 
pleafed, whom they judged to be enemies, lb 
the Two Tribttns, together with Curio, imme- 
diately withdrew tbemfelves upon it, and fled in dip 
guife tq Cajafs camp, on pretence of danger and 
violence to their perfons, though none was yet offered 
or dejigned to them [/J. 

M. Antony, who now began to make a 
figure in the affairs of Rome, was of an ancient 
and npble extra&ion •, the Grandfon of that ce- 
lebrated ftatefmah and orator, who loft his life 
in the maffacres of Marius and Cinna: his Fa- 
ir]' Ego ad urbem accefli [j] Antonius quidem no- 
prid. non. Jan. obviam mini fter& Q^Caffius, nulla vi ex- 
fie eft proditum, ut nihil pof- pulii, ad Caefarem cum Cur;- 
fit fieri ornatius. Sed incidiin one profecli erantj poftqa 
"tyfamflammamcivilisdifcdr- quam ienatus Confulibufi, 
diae vel potius belli ■ Praetoribus, Tribunis plebis 

Ep. Fam. 16. 11. & nobis, qui Proconfules fu- 

Ego in Tufculanum nihil mus, negotium dederat, ut 
hoc tempore. Devium eft curaremus, ne- quid Kefp. 

■*tf« dir«»l^, &c. ad, Att, detrimenti caperet Ep. 

7' 5. Fam. 16. u. 


2 36 ' 72* H i s t oft ^ of the Lfe 

A. Urb.704, ther, as it is already related* had been honored 
C Co^ g w ^ one °* ^ mo ^ iroportattt commiffions of 
C. ClVu- * c Republic; but after an inglorious difcharge 
oiusM^r- of it, died with the character of a corrupt, op- 
cBtxvs. preffivc, and rapacious Commander* The Son, 
u^LiNTu- ^^4 * n d* discipline of fuch a Parent, whom 
jlus Crus. he loft when he was vefy young, launched out 
at once into all the excefs of wot and debauche- 
ry, and, wafted his. whole patrimony before be bad 
put on the manly gown v (hewing hioifelf to be the 
genuin Sod of that Father, who was born, as 
Salluft fays, to fqttwd&r money, without ever em- 
ploying a thought on bufintfs, till a profent n&effity 
urged him. His comely perfon, lively wit, in- 
finuating addrefs, made young Curio infinitely 
fond of him * fo that, in fpight of the com- 
mands ©f a fevere Father, who.had often turned 
Antony out of doors, and forbidden him his 
houfe, he could not be prevailed wish to fbrfake 
his company ; but fupplied him with money for 
Jiis frolics and amours, till he had involvedhim- 
fttf on his account in a debt of fifty tboufand 
pounds. This greatly affli&ed old Curio - % and 
Ckern was called in to heal the diftrefs of the fami- 
ly, whpm the Son entreated, with tears in his . 
eyes, tp intercede for Antony, as well as for 
himfelf, $nd not fyffer them to be parted ; but 
Cicero hailing prevailed with the father to make 
lib fen eafy. by discharging his debts, advifed 
him to infill upon it as a condition, and to en* 
force it by hia^ paternal power, that he fhould 
Tiave «o farther commerce with Antony [/]* 


[/] Tenefke memoria Prae- domini poteftate, quara t« in 

textatum te ^ecoxi/Te ? - r — Curionis. Qaoties te pacer 

'nemo unquam puer empjus ejus domo (no ejecit ? — — 

libidini* cauA tarn fuit \n fcifne mede rebus mibino* 

" tifiimis 

tfM. rULLWS C/C£fra 237 

This, laid the foundation of an early averfion iq A. Urb. 704. 
Antony to Cicero, encreafed ftill by the perpe- C q'£*' 
tual coorfe of Antony's life, which fortune hap- c. qJ^£_ 
pened to throw among Cicero's inveterate ene- dius Ma*- 
mies : for, by the fecond marriage of his mcv cbllus. 
ther, he -became fon-in-lawtQ that Lentulus, who *<- Co * NBL *- 
was put to death for confpiring with Catiline, by L £ 4 Qrv£" 
whom he was initiated into all the cabals of a trai- 
terous fa&ion, and infe&ed with principles perni- 
cious to the liberty of Rome. To revenge the 
death of this father, he attached himfelf toClo* 
dius, and during his Tribunate^ was one of the mi- 
nifters of all his violences; yet was dete&ed at 
the fame time in feme criminal intrigue in his fa- 
mily, injurious to the honor of his Patron [«]. 
From this education in the City, he went abroad 
to learn the art of war under Gabinms, xh6 moft 
profligate of all Generals ; who gave him the 
command of bis borfi in Syria* where he fignalized 
his courage in the refkration^ if King Ptolemy* 
and acquired the fid& taft t>f martial glory, in 
an expedition undertaken againft the, laws and re- 
ligion tf bis Country [*]. - JFrom Egypt, in/lead 


tiffimjsdicere?recordare tern- li : patri perfuafi, at aes alie- 

pus Mud, cum Pater Curio liiim filii diffolveret, &c. — 

moerens jacebat in le&o; fi- [Philip. 2. 18.—] M. Anto- 

lius fc. ad pedes meos pro- nius, perdundx pecuniae ge- 

fternens, lacrymans te mihi nitus, vacuufque curis, nifi 

v commendabat, orabat, ut te inftantibos. SallufL Hiftor. 

contra patremfuum, & H. S. Fragm. 1. iii. 

foagies peteret defenderem : W.Te domi P. LentuJi 

tantum enim fe pro te inter- educatum [Phil. 2. 7.] 

ceffiffe ; ipfe autem amore Intimus erat in Tribunatu 

ardens confirm^bat, quodde- Clodio ejus omnium in- 

fiderium tpi difcidii rerre non cendiorum fax — cuj us etiam 

poffet-T^-quo ego tempore domi quiddam jam turn mo- 
tanta mala florentiulmas fa- , litus eft, &c. ib. 19. 

nuliae fedavi vcl potius fuftu- [#] Inde iter Alexandria 


238 The Hi s tor V of the Life 

A. Urb. 704. of coming borne, where his debts would not Aiffer 

C c"tf* 8 * *" m to be ca ^ y ' ^ e went t0 ^fa into Gaul, the 
C Clait- f urc ^fuge of all the needy, the defperate, and 
- dius Mar- the audacious : and after fome ftay in that Pro- 
cellus, vince, being furniftied with money and credit by 
L u s Untu." Cae ^ ar » he returned to Rome to fue for the Quze- 
lusCrus." ftorfhip [v]. Caefar recommended him in a 
preffing manner to Cicero, " entreating Mfti to 
" accept Antony's fubmiffion, and pardon him 
" for what was paft, and to affift him in his 
-" prefent fuit : with which Cicero readily com- 
" plied," and obliged Antony fo highly by it, 
that he declared war prcfefctly againft Clodius, 
" whom he attacked with great fiercenefs in the 
" Forum, and would certainly have killed, if 
" he had nof found means to hide himfetf un- 
" der lbme flairs." Antony openly gave out, 
" that he owed all this to Cicero's generality, to 
46 whom he could never make amends for for- 
•* mcr injuries, btit by the deftruftion of his ene- 
44 my Clodius [«].* Being chofen Quseftor, 
he went back immediately to Caefar, without ex- 
pecting bis lot, or a decree of tbe Senate^ to ap- 
point him his Province: where, though he had 
all imaginable opportunities of acquiring money, 
yet by fquandering, : as faft as he got it, hie came 

am, contra fenatus au&ori- cuftoditus fum a te, to a me 

tatem, contra Rempub. 8c obfenratus in petitioneQna?- 

Teligiones : fed habebat da- Harae, quo quidem tdfipore 

cem Gabiniumj &c. ib. P. Clodium — inforocscona- 

[y] Pritis in ultimam Gal- tos occidere — itapraedicabas, 

liain ex i£gypto quam do- te non ertiftimare nifr ilium 

mum— -veniiii e Gidiia ad interfeciffes, tin quant mfln 

Qua-fturam petendam. — ib. -pro tuis in me injuries fatis 

— vid. PlutaT. in Anton. efft faclurum— it/, 20. 

[«] Acceperam jam ante Cuni fe ilie fugiens in fc£- 

Csefaris littera*, ut mihi fa* larum tenebras abdidiffet,&c. 

tisfieri patercr a te— • poUea pro Mil. 15. 

a fecond 

ofM. rULLlUS CICERO.^ 239 

a fecond time empty and beggarly to Rome y to put A^Urb. 704. 
in for the Tribunate •, in which office, after the Cic. 58. 
example of bis friend CUrio> having fold himfelf c ^off. 
to Carfkr, he Was, as Cicero fays, as much the o IU8 u ^ R . 
caufe of the enfuifig <toar y as tielen <Was of that of cellus, 
Troy [a]. L.Cornbli- 

It is certain at leaft, that Antony's flight gave Z^q*™~ 
the immediate pretext to it, as Cicero had foretold : 
* Caefar, fays be, will betake himfelf to arms, 
11 either for our want of preparation, or if no 
" regard be had to him at the election of Con- 
" fuls •, but efpecially, if any Tribun, obftrud- 
M ing the deliberations of the Senate, or exciting 
11 the people to fedition, ftiould happen to bp 
" cenfured or over-ruled, or taken off, or ex- 
cc pelled, or pretending to be expelled, run 

" away to him [£]" in the fame Letter he 

gives a fhort, but true ftate of the merit of his 
caufe : u What,y*jtf be, can be more impudent ? 
" You have held your government ten ye^rs, 
" not granted to you by the Senate, but extort- 
" ed by violence and faftion: the full teriji is . 
" expired, not of the law, but of your licentious 
" will : but allow it to be a law ; it is now de- 
w creed, that you muft have .a fucceflbr: you 
" refufe, and fay, have fome regard to me : do 
" you firft fhew your regard to us : will you 

[a] Deinde fine fenatus caufa belli, &c— PhiL a. 

confulto, fine forte, fine lege 21,22. 

ad Caefarem cucurrifti. id [b] Aut addita caufa, fi 

tnim unum in terris egefta- forte Tribunus pleb. fenatum 

lis, serig alieni, nequitia?,per« impediens, aut populum in* 

ditis vitae ratio ni bus perfu- citans, notatus, aut fenatut 

giumefleducebas— advolafti confulto circumfcriptus, aut 

egens ad Txibunatuih, ut in fublatus aut expulfus fit, di- 

eo Magiftratu, fi pofles, viri cenfire ie expulfum ad (e 

tui fimilis effes - ut Helena coafugerit— ad Att. 7. 9» " 
Trojanis, He ifte hulc Reipub. 

Vol. II. R' "pretend ' 

240 $he H i s t or Y of the Life 

A. Urb. 704." pretend to keep an army longer than thepeo* 
c ^$ 8 * " pie ordered, and contrary to the will 01 the 

C. Clau- " Senatc M ? " but £*!**** ftmgtb lay not in 
Dius Mar- the goodnefs of bis caufe> but of his troops [i\\ a 
cillus, confiderable part of which he was now drawing 

1-Coeneli- t0 g Ct her towards the confines of Italy, to be 

US LENTV- & , . ^ o. '• ,, 

Lus Cnvs. reac ty to cnter lnt0 a" 100 at an y warning: the 
fight of the Tribuns gave him a plaufible handle 
to begin, and feemed to fan&ify his attempt; 
but " his real motive, fays Plutarch) was the 
" fame that animated Cyrus and Alexander be- 
'" fore him to difturb the peace of mankind; 
cc the unquenchable thirft or Empire, and the 
" wild ambition of being the greateft man in 
" the world, which was not poffible, till Pom-, 
" pey was firft deftroyed [*]." Laying hold 
therefore of the occafion, he prefently paffed the 
Rubicon, which was the boundary of his Province 
on that fide of Italy, and marching forward in 
an hoftile manner, poflefled himfelf without re- 
fiftance of the next great Towns in his way, A- 
riminum, Pifaurum, Ancona, Aretium, &c [/]. 
In this confufed and difordered ftate of the 
City, Cicero's friends were folliciting the decree 
of his Triumph, to which the whole Senate figni- 
fied their ready confent: but " the conful Len- 
" tulus, to make the favor more particularly his 

[c] Ibid. it. Ep. Fam. 16. quod paullo ante decretam 
•11. eft, ut exercitum citra Robi- 

[d] Alterius ducis caufa conem, qui finis eft Galliae, 
jnelior videbatur, alterius e- educeret ? — Philip. 6. 3- 
rat firmior. Hie omnia fpe- Itaque cum Caefar amen- 
ciofa, illic valentia. Pom- tia quadam raperetur, &— 
J>eiumfenattfsau6toritas,Cse- Ariminum, Pifaurnm, An- 
farem militum armavit fidu- conam, Arretium occupavif- 
cia. Veil. Pat. 2. 49. fet, Urbem reliquimus— 

[f] Plutar. in Anton. Ep. Fam. 16. 12. 

[/] An ille id faciat, 

« own 


" ownf, defired that it might be deferred for a A. Urb. 704. 
" while, till the public affairs' were bettpr fettled, c £. 5 8 - 
" giving his word, that he would then be the c £° a'u. 
"mover of it himfelf [g]." But Caefar's fud-. diusMar- 
den march towards Rome put an end to all far- cell us, 
ther thoughts of it, and flruck the Senate with L,C ° RNEL1 ' 
fuch a panic, that, as if he had been already at lusC*u«? 
the gates, they refolved prefently to quit the 
City, and retreat towards the fouthern parts of 
Italy. All the principal Senators had particular 
diftrids afligned to their care, to be provided 
with troops, and all materials of defence againft 
Csefar. Cicero had Capua, with the infpeftion of 
the Sea coafi from Formic : he would not accept any 
greater charge for the fake of preferring bis autho- 
rity in the tajk of mediating a peace [h] ; and for 
the lame reaibn, when he perceived his new Pro- 
vince wholly unprovided againft an enemy, and 
-that it was impojftble to bold Capua without afirong 
Garrifon, be rejignedbis Employment , and ebofe not 
to aa at all [i]. 

R 2 Capua 

[$] Nobis tamen inter has praefum a Fortius. Nullum 

turbas Senatus frcquens flagi- maj us negocium fufcipere vo- 

tavit Triumph um ; fed Len- lui, quoplusapud ilium meae 

tulasConful, quomajusfuum litters cohortationefque ad 

beneficium faceret, fimul at- pacemvalerent.Ep. Fam. 16. 

que expediflet quae eflent ne- 12. 

ceffaria de Repub. dixit fe [1] Nam certe neque turn 

relaturum. Ep. Fam. 16. 11. peccavi, cum imparatamjam 

[h] Ego negotio praefum Capuam, non folum ignaviae 

non turbulento; vult enim dele&us, fed etiam perfidiae 

me Pompeius efTe, quern to- fufpicionemfugiens, accipere 

ta haec Campana & mariti- nolui — ad Att. 8. 12. 

ma ora habeat iriffnorov,' ad Quod tibi oflenderam, cum 

quern 'ele&us & fumma ne- a me Capuam rejiciebam ; 

gotii referentur. Ad Att. 7. quod feci non vitandi oneris 

11 ' % caufa, fed quod videbam te- 

Ego adhuc oras maritime neri illam urbem fine exer- 


242 The History of the Life 

A. Urb. 704. Capua had always been the common femlna- 
C r $' r y or P* ace °f educating Gladiators for the great 
C. Claud x- mcn °^ R° me » where Caefar had a famous fchool 
us Mar- of them at this time which he had long main- 
cellus, tained under the beft mafters for the occafionsof 
L u?L R,,ELI ^ s P u ^ c ^ cws * n the City, and as they were 
*ua Caus" veI 7 numerous and well furnifhed with arms, 
there was reafon to apprehend that they would 
break out, and make fome attempt in favor of 
their matter, which might have been of danger- 
ous confequence in the prefent circumftances of 
the Republic ♦, fo that Pompey thought it necef- 
fary to take them out of their fchool, and diftri- 
bute them among the principal Inhabitants of 
the place, ajfigning two to each mqfter of a family, 
by which he fecured them from doing any mif- 

While the Pompeian party was under no 
fmall deje&ion on account of Pompey's quitting 
the City, and retreating from the approach of 
Caefar, T. Labienus, one of the chief Com- 
manders on the other fide, deferted C*far> and 
came over to them, which added fome new life 
to their caufe, and raifed an expectation that 

citu non pofle— Ep. Cic. ad powers Eccleftaftical, carried 

Pomp. Ad Att. 8. 1 s. with them, in their original 

As Cicero, when Procon- ufe, the notion of a real an- 

fal of Cilicia, often men- thority, andjarifdiSion. 

tions the Diocefes that were [r] Gladiatores Csfaris, 

annexed to his government, qui Capuae fun t— fane com- 

[Ep. Fam. 13. 6j.] fo in modePompriusdiftribirit,bi- 

this command of Capua he no* flnguiis patribos famila- 

calls himfelf the Epifcopus of rum. Scutorum in ludo 100 

the Campanian coaft : which fuerunt eruptionem fadon 

fhews, that thefe names, fuifTe dicebantur— fanemol- 

which were appropriated af- turn in co Reip. provifom A 

terwards in the Chriilian Ad Att. 7. 14. 
Church to characters and 



many more would follow his example. Labie- A.Urb.704. 
nus had eminently diftinguifhed himfelf in the ci £ 5, 8 * 
Gallic war, where next to Caefar himfelf, he had c clau- 
born the principal part; and by Caefar's favor, divsMar- 
had raifed an immenfe fortune : fo that he was cellus, 
much carefled, and carried about every?where L- c ^ rn eli- 
by Pompey, who promifed himfelf great fervice *y S c*™* 
from his fame and experience, and efpecially 
from his credit in Caefar's army, and the know- 
ledge of all his counfils : but his account of 
things, like that of all defertors, was accommo- 
dated rather to pleafe, than to ferve his new 
friends ; reprefenting the weaknefs of Cafar's 
troys, fkeir aver/ion to bis freftnt dejigns^ the dif* 
affeSion of the two Gauls, and difpofition to revolt 5 
the contrary of all which was found to be true 
in the experiment : and as he came to them (in- 
gle, without bringing with him any of thofc 
tfoops with which he had acquired his reputa- ' 
tion, fo his defertion had no other eifeft, than 
to ruin his own fortunes, without doing any 
fervice to Pompey '[/]• 

But what gave a much better profpe& to all 
honed men, was the propofalof an accommoda- 
tion, which came about this time from Cxfar •, 

U] Maximam autem pla- (Pompeius) non dubitantem 

gam accepit, quod is, qui de imbecillitate Caefaris co- 

hwmam au&oritatem in il- piarum : cujus ad vent u Cnae- 

lijis exercitu habebat, T. La. us nofler multo animi plus 

bienus foetus fceleris effe no- habet. lb. 7 . 1 6. 

Mt : reliquit ilium, & no- Nam in Labieno parum eft 

tifcum eft : xnultique idem dignitatis. lb. 8. 2. 
fe&uridicuntur. Ep. Fam. 

'o« 12. ' f orth in arrn^ t 

Aliq uan turn animi videtur Cafareis Labienuj <rat; npn£ 

attuliffe nobis Labienus— ad tramfuga <vil{s ^— - 

Att «7 : *3- . JyUQan sS . 3^5, 

Labicnum Cecum habet 

R 3 who 

244 We History of the Life 

A.Urb.704. who while he was pufliing on the war with in- 

C Co^. 8 credible vigor, talked of nothing but peace, 

C. Clau- and endeavoured particularly to perfuade Cicero, 

diusMar- m that he had no other view, than to fecure him- 

cbllus, " fetf from the infults of his enemies, and yield 

vsL?nt L u-" thc firft rank in the ftate to Pompey (>]." 

iujCjlvs. The conditiohs were, " that Pompey fhould go 

" to his government of Spain, that his new le- 

f^vies Ihould be difmiffed, and his garrifons 

cc withdrawn, and that Caefar fhould deliver up 

" his Provinces, the farther Gaul to Domitius, 

<c the hither to ConGdius, and fue for the Con- 

" fulfhip in perfon, without requiring the privi- 

4 * lege of abfence/* Thefc terms were readily 

embraced in a grand council of the Chiefs at 

Capua, and young L. Caefar, who brought them, 

was fent back with letters from Pompey, and the 

addition onely of one preliminary article, " that 

* c Caefar in the mean while fhould recall his 

" troops from the Towns, which he had feized 

" beyond his Jurifdiftion, fo that the Senate 

* € might return to Rome, and fettle the whole 

" affair with honor and freedom [»]." Cicero 

was prefent at this council, of which he gave an 

' account to Atticusj " I came to Capua, Jays be, 

" yefterday the twenty-fixth of January, where 

[m] fialbus major ad me traditurum. Ad Confutatus 

fcribit, nihil malle Casfarem, petitionem fe venturum ; ne- 

quam, principe Pompeio, ft- que fe jam velle, abfente fe, 

ne metuo vivere. Tu, puto, rationemfuihaberi.Ep.Fam. 

hsec credis. Ad Att. 8, 9. 16. 12. ad Att. 7. 14. 

[a] Ferdnturomnino con- Accepimus conditioner; 

ditionesabillo,aut,Pompeius fedita, ut removeat praefidia 

eat in Hifpaniam ; dilettus, ex iis locis, qua; occupavit, 

qui funt habiti, & praefidia ut fine metu de iis ipfis con- 

noftra dimittantur : fe uJteri- diitionibus RoraaeSehatus ha- 

orem Galliam Domitio, cite- beri poflet. Ibid. 
riorum Confidio Noniano— 

« I met 


c I met the Confuls, and many of our order : A. Urb. 704. 
'they all wifh that Casfar would ftand to his c £'£ 8- 
1 conditions, and withdraw his troops : Favp- c ciav- 
' nius alone was aguinft all conditions impofed diusMar. 
c by Csefar, but was little regarded by the cehus, 
c Council: for Cato himfelf would now rather l -Corneli- 
c live a flave, than fight ; and declares, that if ^usCru^." 
c Csefar recall his garrifons, he will attend the 
1 Senate, when the conditions come to be fettled, 
and not go to Sicily, where his fervice is 
more neceffary, which I am afraid will be 
1 of ill confequence there is a ftrange va- 

* riety in our Sentiments j the greateft part are 
'of opinion, that Csefar will not ftand to his 
' terms, and that thefe offers are made onely to 
c hinder our preparations : but I am apt to think 
c that he will withdraw his troops : for he gets 
'the better of us by being >made Conful, and 
5 with lefs iniquity, than in the way which he 
c is now purfuing ; and we cannot poflibly come 
' off without fome lofs 5 for we are fcandaloufly 
' x unprovided both with foldiers, and with money, 
18 fince all that which was either private in the 
x City, or public in the treafury, is left a prey 

During the fufpence of this treaty, and the 
expe&ation of Caefar's anfwer, Cicero began to 
conceive fome hopes that both fides were relent- 
ing, and difpofed to make up the quarrel -, Cae- 
frr, from a reflexion on his raftinefs, and the 
Senate on their want of preparation : but he ftill 
fufpefted Caefar, and the fending a meflage fo 
important by a perfon fo infignificant, as young 
Lucius Cafar, looked, he fays, as if be bad done it 
b way of contempt, or with a view to difclame it, 

[0] Ad Att. 7, 15.. 

R 4* elpccially 

246 Sfife Historv^^ Life 

A. Urb. 704. efpccially, when after offering conditions, which 

C Co& 8 ' wcrc ^ely'to ^ accepted, he would not fit ftill 

C. Clau- t0 wa it an anfwer, £0/ continued bis march with 

diusMar. /£* fame diligence* and in the fame bqftile manner \ 

cellus, as before [f]. ' His fufpicions proved true; for 

us LinVuI by letters, which came foon after from Furnius 

Lus Crus. and Curio, he perceived, thai they made a mere Jefi 

of the Embafjy \<f\. 

It fcems very evident, that Caefar had no 
real thoughts of peace, by his paying no regard 
to Pompey's anfwer, and the trifling reafons 
which he gave for flighting it [r] : but he had 
a double view in offering thofc conditions ; for 
by Pompey's rejecting them, *s there wasreafon 
to expeft from his known averfion to any treaty, 
he hoped to load him with the odium of the war: 
or by his embracing them, to flacken his pre- 
parations, and retard hisdefigh of leaving Italy; 
whilft he himfelf, in the mean time, by following 
him with a celerity that amazed every body [s]> 


[/] Speroinpraefentiapa* fermone aliquo arrepto pro- 

cem dos habere. Nam & il- mandatis abufus eft — ib. 13. 

lum furoris, & hanc noftrum [a] Accepi litteras tuas, 

copiarum fuppoenitet. Ib. Philotimi, Furnii, Corionis 

Tamen vereor ut his ipfis ad Furnium, quibus irridet 

(Caefar) contentus fit. Nam L. Caefaris legationem.— 

cum ifla mandata dediflet L. ib. 19. 

Caefari, debuit efle paullo [r] Csef. Comment, dc 

qnietior, dam refponfa refer- Bell. Civ. I. 1. 

reqtur. Ib, 7. 17. [s] O celeritatem incredi- 

Caefarem quidem, L. Cae- bilem ! — ad Att. 7. 22. Cicc- 

fare cum mandatis de pace ro calls him a monfter of vi- 

miflb, tamen aiunt acerrime gilance, and fcelerity 

locaoccupare ib, 18. [ib. 8, 9.] for from his paf- 

L. Caefarem vidi— ut id ip- fage of the R nbicon, though 

fu^mihiillevideaturirriden- he was forced to take in all 

^ di caufa fecifle, qui tantis de the great Towns on his road* 

rebus huic mandata dederit. and fpent feven days before 

qifi forte non deditr & hie Corfinium, yet in lefe than 

, V* ■ ••-• ■, • two 


might chance to come up with him before he could A. Urb. 704. 
embark, and give a decifive blow to the war ; Cl £- £?• 
from which he had nothing to apprehend, but c. Clau- 
it's being drawn into length. " I now plainly dius Mar- 
" fee, fays Cicero, though later indeed than I cellus, 
" could have wifhed on account of the aflurances l * Co - r,| s l i- 
" given me by Balbus, that he aims at nothing Lus Cr/usI 
" elfe, nor has ever aimed at any thing from the 
" beginning, but Pompey*s life £/]." 

If wc confider this famous pajfage of the Ru~ 
bicoHj abftraftedly from the event, it feems to 
have been fo hazardous and defperate, that 4 

Pompey might reafonably contemn the thought 
of it, as of an attempt too rafli for any prudent 
man to venture upon. • If Caefar's view in- 
deed had been to poflefs himfelf onely of Italy, 
there could have been no difficulty in it : his ar- 
my was undoubtedly the beft which was then in 
the world; fluftied with victory, animated with 
zeal for the perfon of their Genera], and an over- 
match for any which could be brought againft it ' . 
into the field : but this fingle army was all that 
he had to truft to ; he had no refource : the lofs • 
of one battle was certain ruin to him ; and yet he 
muft neceflarily run the rifk of many before he. 
could gain his end : for the whole Empire was 
armed againft him ; every Province offered a 
frefh enemy, and a frefh field of aftion, where 
he was like to be expofed to the fame danger as 
on the plains of Pharfalia. But above all, his 

two months he inarched [/] Intelligo ferius equi* 

through the whole length of dem quam vellem, propter 

Italy, and came before the epiftolas fermonefque fialbi, 

gates of Brundifium before fed video plane nihil aliud 

Pompey conld embark on the agi, nihil actum ab initio, 

9*h of March. Ad Att. 9. quam uthunc occideret. Ad 

l h Att. 9. 5. 


248 fbe History of the Life 

A. Urb. 704. enemies were matters of the fea, fo that he could 
ci v 5 8 - not tranfport his forces abroad without the hazard 

C. Clau- of their being deftroyed by afuperior fleet, or of 
dius Mar- being ftarved at land by the difficulty of convey- 
cellus, }ng fupplies and provifions to them: Pompey 

L " C ? R ^ L J" relied chiefly on this fingle circumftance, and 
lus Crus." was perfuaded, that it muft necejfarify determine the 
war in bis favor [«] : fo that it feems furprifing, 
how fuch a fuperiority of advantage, in the hands 
of fo great a Commander, could pofiibly fail of 
fuccefs •, and we muft admire rather the fortune, 
than the conduft of Caefar, for carrying himfafe 
through all thefe difficulties to the poffeffion of 
% the Empire. 

Cicero feldom fpealcs of his attempt, but 
as a kind of madnefs [#], arid feemed to retain 
fome hopes to the laft, that he would not per- 
fift in it: the fame imagination made Pompey and 
the Senate fo refolute to defy, when they were in 
ho condition to oppofe him. Caefar on the other 
hand might probably imagine, that their ftiff- 
nefs procededfrom a vain conceit of theft ftrength, 
which would induce them to venture a battle 
with him in Italy •, in which cafe he was fure 
enough to beat them : fo that both fides were 
drawn farther perhaps than they intended, by 
ifliftaking each other's view. Oefar, I fay, 
might well apprehend, that they defigned to try 
their ftrength with him in Italy ; for that was 
the cOnftant perfuafion of the whole party, who 
thought it the beft fcheme which could be pur- 
fued : Pompey humored them in it, and always 
talked big to keep up their fpirits ; and though he 

[n] Exiftimat, (Pompeius) fima cura Tuit. lb. 10. 8: 

qui marc teneat, eum neccffe [*] Cum Caefar amentia 

rerum potiri— itaque oavilis quadam raperetur— Ep.Fam. 

apparatus ei Temper an tiquif- 16. 12. 



few from the firft the neceffity of quitting Italy \ yet A. Urb. 704. 
he kept the fecret to hirnfelf, and Wrote word at C p\£ 8 " 
the fame time to Cicero, that bejhould have a c.Clau- 
firm army in a few days, with which be would divsMa*- 
march againji defar into Picenum, fo as to give cbllus, 
them an opportunity of- returning to the City [jO* L ^lh" L JI 
The plan of the war, as it was commonly under- LU5 c*us/ 
flood, was to poflefs themfelves of the principal 
pofts of Italy, and aft chiefly on the defenfive, 
in order to diftrefs Caefar by their different armies, 
cut off his opportunities of forage, hinder his ac- 
cefs to Rome, and hold him continually employ- 
ed, till the veteran army from Spain, under 
Pompey's Lieutenants, Afranius, Petreius, and 
Varro, could come up to finifh his overthrow [2]. 
This was the notion which the Senate entertained 
of the war ; they never conceived it poffible that 
Pompey fhould fubmit to the difgrace of flying 
before Caefar, and giving up Italy a prey to his 
enemy: in this confidence Domitius, with a 
very confiderable force, and fome of the princi- 
pal Senators, threw hirnfelf into Corfinium, a 
ftrong town at the foot of the Apennine, on the 

[ji] Omnes nos «Tpo*$»- tionibus flare noluerit, bel- 
ies, expertes fui tanti & lum paratum eft :— tantum- 
taa i&uUtati confilii relin- xnodo ut eumintercludamas, 
qaebat. *Ad Att. 8. 8. ne ad urbempoffit accedere: * 

Pompeius — ad me fcribit, quod fperabamus fieri pofTe : 

paucisdiebusfefirmum exer- dileclus enim magnos habe- 

citum habiturum, fpemque bafflus— ex Hiipaniatjue {ex 

affcrt* fi in Picenum agrum legi ones & magna auxilia,A- 

ipfe venerit, nos Romam re- franio& Petreio ducibus, ba- 

dituros efle. lb. 7. 16. bet a tergo. Vidctur, fi in- 

[*] Sofcepto aatem belk), faniet, pofle opprimi, modo 

ant tenenda fit orbs, aut ea ut urbe falva— Ep. Fam. 16. 

reli&a, ille commeatu &re-. 12. 

liquis copiis intercludendus Summa autem. fpes Afra- 
*-ad Att. 7. 9. mum cum magnis copiis ad- 
Sin autem ille fuis condx- ventare«~ad Att. 8. 3. 


250 Tbe HisTORYjf tbe Lift 

A. Urb. 704. Adriatic fide, where he propofed to make a (Und 
C r" £ 8 ' againft Csefar,and flop the progrefs of his march ; 
C. Clau- but ^ e 1°^ a ^ k" ls troops in the attempt, to the 
diusMa*- number of three Legions^ for want of knowing 
cellus, Pompey's fecret. Pompey indeed, when he 
*™ Lmu- ^ aw W ^ at Domitius intended, prefled him earneft- 
lusCrus. " ly» by feveral Letters, to come away and join 
with him, telling him, " that it was impoffible 
" to make any oppofition to Caefar, till their 
" whole forces were united ; and that as to him- 
€C felf, he had with him onely the two Legions, 
<c which were recalled from Caefar, and were not 
" to be trufted againft him.; and if Domitius 
" fhould entangle himfelf in Corfinium, fo as to 
" be precluded by Caefar from a retreat, that he 
<c cculd not come to his relief with fo weak an 
" army, and bad him therefore not to be fiir- 
€C prized to hear of his retiring, if Caefar Ihould 
* c perlift to march towards him [a] :" yet Do- 
mitius, prepoflefied with the opinion, that Italy 
was to be tbe feat of the war, and that Pompey 
would never fuffer fo good a body of troops, and 
fo many of his bed friends to be loft, would not 

Suit the advantageous poft of Corfinium, but 
epended ftill on being relieved*, and when he was 
a&ually befieged, fent Pompey word, howeafily 
Ctfar might be intercepted between their two ar« 
mes \b\ 

[a] Nos disje&a manu pa- mit. ad Att. 8. 12. 
ies adverfaris effe non pof- [£] Domitius ad Pompei- 

fumus. um— mit tit, qui petant at- 

: Quamobrem nolito com- que orent, ut fibifubveniat: 
motveri, fi audieris me regre- , Caefarem duobus exercitibus, 
di, fi forte Caefar ad me ve- « & locorumanguftiis.uiterclu- 
iiiet, — etiam atque etiam te di pofle, frumentoque prohi- 
hortor, ut cum omni copia beri, &c. 
qnamprimum ad me venias. Caef. Comment de Bell. 
—•vtf . Epift. Pomp, ad Do- Civ. 1, i. 


of M. TULL1US CICERO. 251 

Cicero was as much difappointed as any of A. Urb. 704. 

the reft •, he had never dreamt of their being Cic. 58. 

obliged to quit Italy, till by Pompey's motions c £°* m 

he perceived at laft his intentions* of which he di US Mar- 

fpeaks, with great feverity, in feveral of his Let- cellus, . 

ters, and begs Atticus's advice upon that new L-Corneli- 

face of their affairs ; and to enable Atticus to "us cYus" 

give it the more clearly, he explains to him in 

ihort what occurred to his own mind on the one 

fide and the other. " The great obligations, 

" fays he, which I am under to Pompey, and 

c * my particular friendfhip with him, as well as 

c< the caufe of the Republic itfelf, feem to per- 

€t fuade me, that I ought to join my counfik 

€C and fortunes with his. Befides, if I ftay be- 

xc hind, and defert that band of the beft and 

* c moft eminent Citizens, I muft fall under the 

c< power of a fingle perfon, who gives me many 

* c proofs indeed of being my friend, and whom, 

" as you know, I had long ago taken care to 

<c make fuch from a fufpicion of this very ftorm, 

<c which now hangs over us ; yet it (hould be 

" well confidered, both how far I may venture 

•• to truft him, and fuppofing it clear, that I 

" may truft him, whether it be confident with 

" the charadter of a firm and honeft Citizen to 

" continue in that City, in which he has born 

€ * the t greateft honors, and performed the great- 

<c eft afts, and where he is now inverted with 

" the moft honorable Priefthood, when it is to be 

" attended with fome danger, and perhaps with 

" fome difgrace, if Pompey (hould ever reftore 

" the Republic. Thefe are the difficulties on 

" the one fide; let us fee what there are on the 

" other : nothing has hitherto been done by our 

ct Pompey, either with prudeace or courage; 

1 I may add alfo nothing but what was contra- 


252 The History of the Life 

A. Urb. 704. " ry to my advice and authority : I will omit 

C c S Jr* " ^ • ft°ri es » how he firft nurfed, raifed 

C. Claudi-" anc * a "n e d this man againft the Republic 5 

us Mar- " how he fupported him in carrying his laws by 

cellus, « violence, and without regard to the Aufpiees; 

L w Lmt"- " h0W he addcd the farthcf Gaul t0 his Govcrn - 
lu.s Crus. " ment, made himfelf his fon-in-law, affifted as 

Augur in the Adoption of Clodius, was more 

zealous to reftore me, than to prevent v my 

1 being expelled ; • enlarged the term of Caefar's 

1 command, ferved him in all his affairs in his 

1 abfence, nay, in his third Confulfhip, after 

: he began to efpoufe the interefts of the Re- 

; public, how he infilled, that the ten Tribuns 

; (hould jointly propofe a law to difpenfc with 

• his abfence in fuing for the Confulfhip, which 
; he confirmed afterwards by a law of his own, 

* and oppofcd the Conful Marcellus, when he 
: moved to put an end to his government on the 

firft of March : but to omit, I fay, all this, 
; what can be more difhonorable, or {hew a 
greater want of conduft than this retreat, or 
f rather fhamefull flight from the City ? what 
conditions were not preferable to the neceffity 
of abandoning our-country ? the conditions, 1 
confefs, were bad-, yet what can be worfe than 
this ? but Pompey, you'll fay, will recover 
the Republic; when ? or what preparation is 
there for it ? is not all Picenum loft ? # is not 
the way left open to the City ? is not all our 
treafure both public and private given up to 
the enemy? in a word, there is no party, no 
forces, no place of rendezvous for the friends 
of the Republic to rcfort to ; Apu]ia is chofen 
for our retreat 5 the weakeft and remoteft 
part of Italy, which implies nothing but de- 
fpair, and a defign of flying by the opportu- 

" nicy 



nity of the fea, &V. [c]. In another Letter, A.JJrb.704. 
there is but one thing wanting, fays he, to c ' c, j 8, 
complete our friend's difgrace •, his failing to £. claudi- 
fuccour Domitius : nobody doubts but that diusMar- 
he will come to his relief; yet I am not of cell us, 
that mind. Will he then defert fuch a Citi- L £ ™ M ™ m m 
zen, and the reflt, whom you know to be LUS Crus." 
with him ? efpeciaJly when he has thirty co- 
horts in the Town : yes, unlefs all things de- 
ceive me, he will defert him : he is ftrangely 
frightened ; means nothing but to fly ; yet 
you, for I perceive what your opinion is, 
think, that I ought to follow this man. For 
my part, I eafily know, whom I ought to fly, 
not whom I ought to follow. As to that 
faying of mine, which you extoll, and think 
worthy to be celebrated, that I had rather be 
conquered with Pompey, than conquer with C<e- 
far j 'tis true, I ftill fay fo ; but with fuch a 
Pompey as he then was, or as I took him to 
be: but as for this man, who runs away, be- 
fore he knows from whom, or whither ; who 
has betrayed us and ours, given up his coun- - 
try, and is now leaving Italy ; if I had rather 
be conquered with him, the thing- is over, I 
am conquered, &c. [d]" 
There was a notion in the mean while, that 
universally prevailed through Italy, of C<efar*s 
cruel and revengeful temper* from which horrible 
effe&s Were apprehended : Cicero himfelf was 
ftrongly poflefled with it, as appears from many 
of his Letters, where he feems to take it for 
granted, that he would be afecond Phal'aris* not 
a Pififtratus ; a bloody* not a gentle Tyrant. This 
he inferred from the violence of his paft life:* the 

M Ad Att. 8. 3. [d] Ad Att/8.7. 




254 tte Hi s tor y of the Life 

A. Urb. 704. nature of bis prefent enterprize 5 and above all, 
C crt* 8- f rm *** e c ^ araSer °f hi* friends and followers ; 
C-Clau- w ^° wcre » generally fpeaking, a needy, pro- 
Divs Ma*- fligate, audacious crew ; prepared for every thing 
cBLLys, that was defperate [e]. It was affirmed likewife 
' with great confidence, that he had openly de- 
clared, that be was now coming to revenge the 
deaths of Cn. Carlo, M. Brutus, and all the other 
Marian Chiefs* whom Pompey, when ading un- 
der Sylla, had cruelly put to death for their op- 
pofition to the Syllan caufe [/]• But there was 
no real ground for any of thefe fuipicions : for 
Ca?far, who thought Tyranny, as Cicero fays, 
the greateft of Goadeffes, and whofe fole view it 
had been through life to bring his affairs to this 
crifis, and to make a bold pufh for Empire, had, 
from the obfervation of paft times , and the fate of 
former Tyrants, laid it down for a maxim, that 
clemency m viBory was the beft means of fe curing 
tbeftability of it [g]. Upon the furrender there- 
fore of Corfinium, where he had the firft oppor- 
tunity of giving a public fpecimen of himfelf, he 

[/] Iftumcujus tytAopitfpfc 
times, omnia teterrime fac- 
turumputo. Ad Att. 7. 12. 

Incertum eft Phalarimne 
an Pififtratum fit imitaturns 
— ib. 20. 

^ Nam caedem video fi vice- 
rit— - & regnam non modo 
Romano homini fed ne Per. 
fe qnidem tolerabile— ib. 
10, 8. 

Qui hie poteft fe gerere 
non perdite ? vita, mores an- 
te fada, ratio fufcepti nego- 
til, focii -ib. 9. 2. it. j. 19. 

[/*] Atque eumloquiqui- 
dam au0c»1iK<i{ narrabant ; 
Ca. Carbonis, M. &aii fe 

poena* perlequi, &c. Ad Att. 
9m !\ m 

Igj T>)v fear ■ {Xtyltpif met 
£%i*v Tvpaw/3*. Ad Att. 7. 

Tentemus hoc modo, fi 
poflumus, omnium volnnta- 
ces recoperare, & diuturna 
vidtoria uti : quoniam reliqui 
crednlitate odium efFugerc 
non potuerunt,neq;vi&onam 
diunus tenere, prater ununa 
L. Sy Ham, quern imitatums 
nou Aim. Haec nova fit ra- 
tio vincendi ; nt mifericordia 
& libera litate nos muniantus. 
— Ep. Caefaris ad Opp. Att. 
9. 7. 


1 ■ * 


Hiewed a noble example of moderation, by the A. Urb. 704. 
generous difmiflion of Domitius, and all the 0- Cic. 58. 
tber Senators who fell into bis bands -> among whom c £™* 
was Lentulus Spinther, Cicero's particular iiu^ Mar- 
friend [£]• This made a great turn in his favor, cillus, 
by eafing people of the terrors, which they had L.Cormm- 
before .conceived of him, and feemed to confirm ™ ^o*™* 
what he affe&cd every where to give out, that 
be fought -nothing by the war but tbefecurity of Ms 
per/on and dignity. Pompey, on the other hand* 
appeared every day more and more defpicable, 
by flying before an enemy, whom his pride and 
perverfenefs was laid to have driven to the neceC- 
fity of taking arms — " tell me, I beg of you, 
" lays Cicero, what can be more wretched, than 
" for the one to be gathering applaufe from the 
" worft of caufes, the other giving offence in ' 
cc the bed ? the one to be reckoned the preferver 
" of his enemies, the other the defertor of 
cc his friends ? and in truth, though I have all 
" the affedion which I ought to have for our 
" friend Cnacus, yet I cannot czcufe his not 
" coming to the relief of fuch men ; for if he 
" was afraid to do it, what can be more paultry ? 
" or if, as fome think, he thought to make 

his caufe the more popular by their deftruc^ ,. 

tion, what can be more unjuft? &c. [t]. n 
From this firft experiment of Csciar's clemency, 

[h] Ca»f. Comment. L I. quamvisamemus Cnaeumno- 

Plutar. in Caef.— — ftrum ut & facimus & debe- 

[/] Sed obfecro te, quid mus tamen hoc, quod tali- 
hoc raifcrias, quam alterum bus viris non frbvenit, lau- 
plaufus in fcediffima caufa dare non Doffum. Nam five 
quaerere; alterum offenfiones timuit quid ignavius ? five, 
in optima ? alterum exifti- ut quidam putant, meliorem 
mari confervatorem inimico- fuam caufam illorum caede 
rum, alterum def<?r$prem a-, fore putavit, quidinjuftius? 
micorum ? & mejiercule —ad Att. 8. p. 

Vol. II. S Cicero 


256 #be History «/ the Life 

A. Urb. 704, Cicero took occafion to fend him a Letter of com* 

°c &*' pl -Mncilt » am * *° thank him particularly for hi* 

C Clau- generous treatment of Lentulus, who when Com 

oius Max- ml, had been the chief author of his reftoration ^ 

ciu.u*. to which Caefar returned the following anfwer. 


Lua C*cs~ Csefar Emperor to Cicero Emperor. 

« You judge rightly of me, for I am thqr 
** roughly known to you, that nothing is farther 
« c removed from me than cruelty; and gs I have 
*' a great pleafure from the thing itfelf, fb I re- 
" joice and triumph to find my aft approved by 
** you : nor does it at all move me, that thofe, 
** who were difmified by me, are faid to be gone 
** away to renew ths war againft me : for I de- 
** fire nothing more, than thajc I may always aft 
* * like myfelf; they like themfelves, I wijh that 
" you would meet me at the City, that I may 
ct ufe your counfil and affiftance as I have hither- 
** to done in all things. Nothing, I aflure you, 
" is dearer to me than Dolabella ; I will owe 
" this favor therefore to him : nor is it poffible 
** for hiip indeed to behave otherwife, fuch is 
u . his humanity, his good fenfe, jnd his aflfcpr 
*' tion to me. Adieu [£}." 

When Pompey, after the unhappy affair of 
Corfinium, found himfelf obliged to retire to, 
Brundifium, and to declare, what he had never 
before dire£Uy owned, hit defign of quitting Italy, 
and carrying the war abroad [/] * he was very 
defirous to draw Cicero along with him, anq 
wrote two Letters to him at Formise, to prefi 
fcim to come away 4jreftlyi but; Cicero, already 

[k] Ad Att. 9, 16. deniqtj^ rae certio^em confilif 

[/] Qiii anriflp Corfinio fni feci^.-^-ib. 9. 2, 

a TCWk 

of M. TUL LI US CICER&. i$f 

mUch out of humor with him, was difgufted ftill A. Urb. 704, 
the more by his ihort and negligent manner of c |?'|^ 
writing, Upon an occafion fo important \tn] : the c £° xtr- ' 
fecond of Pompey's Letters, with Cicero's an^ ^os Ma"m 
fwer, will explain the prefcnt ftate of their '*£ cellus, 
fairs, and Cicero's fentjments ypon them, J-.Cor*eli* 

Cn. Porppeius Magnus ProconfuJ %q M. Cipprp 

" If you are in good h#tith, I rejoice : I read 
11 your Letter with pktffure : for I perceived in 
" it your ancient virtue by your Concern for the 
" common fefety. The yonfujs are come to 
" the army, which I had in Apulia: I e^rneftty 
" exhort you, by your Angular and perpetuaj 
u affe&ion to the Republic, to come alfo to uSj 
* that by our joint advice w* may give help anq 
u relief to the affii&ed ftate. I would have yog 
'• make th£ Appian way your road, and come 
" in all hafte to Brwndifium, Take care of you? 
" health." • . 

M. Cicero Emperor to Cn. Magbus Proconfot 

" When I fenrthat letter, which was deli* 
" vered to you at Canufium, I had no fufpicioii 
,c of your crofling the fca for the fervice of thd 
41 Republic, and was in great hopes, that we , v 
H Ihould be able, either to bring about an ac* 
lc commodation, which to me feemed the mod 
M ufcfol, tor to defend theRepubliq with thegreat* 
M *ft dignity in Italy, Jij: jhe mpan time, be* 

W Epiftolarum Pompeii fcribendo diligentiam volui 
Q«arum, jjuas ad me mifit, tibt notam effc : carum ex* 
* c ?%ntuua, racamquc in empla ad ^ mjft*Jb. $, 11; 

5* Vfo 


*5& The History of the Life 

A.Urb.704*" fore my Letter reached you, being informed 

Ci 5: £ 8 * " of your refolution, by the inftru&ions which 

C. Claudi- w 7°^ ^ cnt to ^ Confuls, I did not wait till I 

us Mar- " could have a Letter from you, but fetoutim- 

cellus, « mediately towards you with my Brother and 

L-C L*" LI " our c *"ldren f° r Apulia. When we wiere come 

lw» Ciw! " to Theanum, your friend C. Meffius, and ma- 

' " ny others told us, that Caefar was on the road 

" to Capua, and would' lodge that very night at 

" Atfernia : I was muchdifturbed at it, becaufe, 

a if it was true, I not onely took my journey to 

" be precluded, but myfelf alfo to be certainly 

" a prifoner. I went on therefore to Cales with 

<c intent to ftay there, till I could learn from 

44 /Efernia the certainty of my intelligence : at 

•' Cales there was brought to me a copy of the 

" Letter, which you wrote to the ConfulLentu- 

" lus, with which you fent the copy alio of one 

" that you had received from Domitius, dated 

" the eighteenth of February, and fignificd* 

w that it was of great importance to the Repub* 

" lie, that all the troops (hould be drawn foge- 

* c ther, as foon as poflible, to one place ; yet 

<c fo as to leave a fufficient Garrifon in Capua* 

cc Upon reading thefe Letters, I was of the fame 

" opinion with all the reft, (hat you were re- 

cc jblved to march to Corfinium with all your 

" forces, whither, when Cadar lay before the 

" Town, I thought it impoffible for m£ to come. 

" While this affair was in the utmoft cxpeda- 

cc tion, we were informed at one and the lame 

<€ time both of what had happened at Corfinium, 

" and that you were a&ually marching towards 

" Brundifium : and when I and my Brother re- 

(< folved without hefitation to follow you thither, 

* c we were advertifed by many, who came from 

" Samnium, and Apulia, to take care that -we 

ۥ did 


€C did' not fall into Caefar's hands, for that he was A. Urb. 704. 
44 upon his march to the fame places where our ^M 8, 
44 road lay, and would reach them fooner than c# 
44 we could poffibly do. This being the cafe, it inus Mai* 
44 did not fecm advifeable to me, or my Brother, c*llus, 
44 or any of our friends, to run the rifk of hurt- L ^^""t 
44 ing, not onely ourfelves, but the Republic, L y f c*us* 
44 by our rafhnefs: cfpecially when we could not , 
44 doubt, but that if the journey had been fafe 
44 to us, we fhould not then be able to overtake 
44 you. In the mean while I received your Let- 
44 ter, dated frbm Canufium the twenty-firft of 
44 February, in which you exhort me to come in 
44 all hafte to Brand ifium : but as I did not receive 
44 it till the twenty-ninth, I made no queftion 
44 but that you were already arrived at Brundi- 
" fium, and all that road Teemed wholly fliut 
44 up to us, and we ourfelves are furely intercept- 
44 ed as thole who were taken at Corfinium : for 
44 we did hot reckon th?m onely to be prifoners, 
" who were actually fallen into the enemy's bands, 
" but thofe too pot lefs fo, who happen to be 
44 enclofed within the quarters and garrifons of 
44 their adverfaries. Since this is our cafe, I 
" heartily with in the firft place, that I had al- 
44 ways been with you, as I then told you when 
44 I relinquifhed the Command of Capua, which 
44 I did not do for the fake of avoiding trouble, 
44 but becaufe I faw that the Town could not be 
44 held without an army, and was unwilling 
44 that the fame accident fhould happen to me, 
44 which to my forrow has happened to fome of 
44 our braveft Citizens at Corfinium: but fince it 
44 has not been my lot to be with you, I wi(h 
44 that I had been made privy to your counfils : 
44 for I could not poffibly fufpeft, and (hould 
14 fooner have believed any thing, than that for 
S3 • •• the 

$U , IfkeU i$t (*** 6f the Lifi 

/UU'b,4<ty. <{ the good of the Republic, under fuch a Lea* 

£. Qlau-. " ground in Italy: nor do I now blame youf 
jpiirs M4 * T * c conduft, but lament the iFate of the Republic * 
' cellus, " an j thoilgh I cannot corrtpreheftd what it is 

viXSH " wfcic k ? ou ^^ c f^wed, y^ I * m not **** 

±i?i Cnys. ' - Ws perluaded, that you . have done nothings 
* * but with the greatefl: reafcvn You remember* 
" I believe* what my opinion always was j : firft, 
5 C to. prefcrve peace even on Bad conditions * then 
u alpqyt leaving the. City ^ for as toltaly* you 
u hew imi mated a tittle to me about it : but I 

V do 4ot take. upon myfelf to think, that my 
fc advice ought to have.been follpwed : 1 follow* 
*< ed yours *, nof that for the fake of the- Repute 
41 lic r of- which X d^fpaired, aod, which is. now 

V overturned* {b/jp fcot to be railed^in 
* c , witno^t. a civil ^nd mbft. perniciq^s war: I 
!* faiight you 5, d-fired to be vfizh you ; : nor will 
" I opiit the fijjll opportunity Vhicji offers of 
ic - eroding it. I eafxly perceived, through all this 
¥ affair,- that I #d not fatisfy thofeAvho. are fond 
k of fighting: for I made np Jcrviple to own, 
<* that I wifhed for nothing fo much as peace j 
^ Hoi but that I Jiad the fape apprehenfions 

V from, it as. they * but I thqught them mpra 
*♦ tolerable, than * cu41 war ♦, tbeh, after the war 
^* was b^gun, wh?a \ faw that conditions of 
? c peace were offered to yoti, and a full and ho- 
i*. norabie anfwer given to them* I began to 
^ weigh and deliberate well upon my own con** 
<6 dud, which, confideriiig your kindnefs to me, 
•*■ I fancied that J (hould. eafily explain to you* 
'* fatisffivflion t t recolk&cd that I was the onely 
" man* who, for the greateft fervices to thepvb* 
$< .lie, had fuffered a moft wretched ftnd cruel pu* 
H niflnncnt; that I wa*. the onely one, who, if J 

■■"■'• "offended 

of M.rtJL LltlS CICERO. a6t 

4c offended Hini, to whom at the very time when A. Urb. 704. 

c< we were in arms againft him, afecond Con- c £. 58* 

u fulfliip and moft fplendid Triumph was offer- c Q^ Vm 

<c ed, fhould be involved again in all the fame diusMar- 

** ftrugglesj fo that iriy perfori feemed to ftand cell us, 

u always expofed as a public mark to the infults L ^f ?***"" 

" of profligate Citizens: nor did I fufpeft any ^aCauiT 

" of thefe things till I was openly threatned with 

" them, nor was I fo much afraid of them, if 

ct they were really to befall me, as I judged it 

<c prudent to decline them, if they could ho- 

u neftly be avoided. You fee in fhort the ftate 

" 6f my condudfc while we had any hopes of 

u peace ; what has finee happened deprived me 

u of all power to do any thins: but to thofe 

" whom I do not pleafe I can eauly anfwer, that 

<c I never was m6re a friend to C. Gaefar than 

M they, nor they ever bettjer friends to the Re- 

u public than niyfelf : the onely difference be* 

" tween me and them is, that as they are ex* 

" cellent Citizens, and I not far removed froitt 

c< that chafa&er, it was my advice to proceed 

u by Way of treaty, which I underftood to be 

u approved alfo by you ; theirs by way of arms * 

<c and fince this method has prevailed, it ihaU be 

u my care to behave ntyfeif fo, that theRepub- 

" lie may not want in me the fpirit of a true 

*' Citizen, tK>r you of a friend. Adieu [*].* 

The dilguft, which Pom pey's management 
had given hiril, and which he gently intimates 
in this .Letter, was the trtjc reafon why he did 
hot join him at his time; he had a mind to deli- 
brate a white longer, bf fore he took a ftep fo 
decifiv'e : this he owns to Atticus, where, after 
facQtmtirig all the particulars of his own «*jdu£t* 

"\ (»]*Ad Att. 8. it. ' 

S 4 ' / '^Kich 

262 The HiSTORYoftBe Life 

A. Urb. 704. which were the moft liable to exception, he adds, 

C p* 5. 8 ' I have neither done nor omitted to do any things 

C. Clav- which has not both a probable and prudent txcufe— 

pius Mar- and in truth was willing to confider a little longer y 

cellus, w b at was right and fit forme to do [*]. The 

us Li" t"I c ^* ground of his deliberation was, that he (till 

Crus. thought a peace poffible, in which cafe Pom- 

pey and Canar would be one again, and he had 

no mind to give C*far any caufe to be an enemy to 

him, when he was become a friend to Pompey/ 

While things were in this fituatiort, Caefar 
fent young Balbus after the Conful Lentulus, to 
endeavour to perfuade him toftay in Italy, and re- 
turn to the City j by the offer of every thing that 
could tempt him: he called upon Cicero on his 
way, who gives the following account of it to 
Atticus : " Young Balbub came to me on the 
" twenty-fourth in the evening, running in all 
xi hafte by private roads after Lentulus, with Let- 
u tersand mftrudtions from Caefar, and the offer 
*' of any Government, if he will return to Rome: 
" but it will have ho effefi: unlefs they happen 
*• to meet: he told me that Caefar defired no- 
*' thing fo much as to overtake Pompey ; which 
" 1 believe; and to be friends with him again; 
*' which I do not believe •, and begin to fear, 
" that all his clemency means nothing elfe atlaft 
'*• but to give that one cruel blow. The elder 
" Balbus writes me word, that Caefar wifiies no- 
il thing more than to live in fafety, and yield 
*" the firft rank to Pompey. You take him I 
• 4 fuppofe to be inearrieft [p]. n 

Cicero feems to think, that Lentulus might 

. [e] Nihil pratcmiftum eft, mini effet, diotius cpgitare 

quod non habeat fapientem malui— ib. 8. 12. 

exeu£uonein-& plane auid • [f>~\ Ad AtU 8 9. 
feitum, k quid faciendum * '' 

1 kyf 


have heen perfuaded to flay if Balbus and he had met A. Urk 704. 
together ; for he had no opinion of the firmnefs Cl £ £?• 
of thefe Confute, but fays of them both on ano- c. Clmt- 
ther occafion, that they were more eafily moved by , dius Mar- 
entry wind, than a feather or a leaf He received cillus, 
another Letter foon after from Balbus, of which L ^ ^** K T "" 
he fent a copy to Atticus, that be might pity bim 9 * LUS q rus 3 
he fays, to fie what a dupe they thought to make of 
him [j]. 

1 Balbus to Cicero Emperor. 

" I conjure you, Cicero, to think of fome 
" method of making Caefar and Ponopey friends 
u again, who by the perfidy of certain perfons 
H are now divided : it is a work highly worthy 
" of your virtue :' take my word for it, Qelar 
" will not onely be in your power, but think him- 
" felf infinitely obliged to you if you would 
" charge yourfelf with this affair. I lhould be 
" glad if Pompey would do fo too; but in the 
" prefent circumftances, it is what I wifh rather 
" than hope, that he may be brought to any 
a tefths : but whenever he gives over flying and 
" fearing Csefar, X (hall not.defpair, that your 
" authority may have its weight with him. Cse- 
u far takes it kindly, that you were for Lentu~ 
" lus's flaying in Italy, and it was the greatefl: 
" obligation which you could confer upon me: 
" for I love him as much asLdo Caefar himfelf: 
w if he had foffered me to talk to him as freely 
" as we ufed to do, and not fb often Ihunned 
" the opportunities which I fought of conferring 
" with him, I fhould have been lefs unhappy 

[?] Nee tire Confules mo- mcam doleres, cam me dcri- 
vent, quiipfi pluma aut folio dcri vidcres. lb. 8. 15. 
faciliaj moveiKur— lit vkem ' 

" than 

£$4 tk#t*tO&1t 6f tk frff* 

4l tirb. f 64.. " tliaii I now am : for affure'yqur felf that no 

%*i 8i 1* inan ca n be more affli&ed than 1 to fee one, 
C. CiAU. u vho is dearer to me than myfelfi a&ing his 

ttvsMA*-" part fo ill in his ConfuUhip, that he fectns to 

tcttus* «« be any thing rather than a Conful i but fhould 

i?t** tu- ■** be ** dif P° fed ** ftJloW y° ur ad ™*» and take 
• *£»e*fet.~" T^f worc * forCaefer's good intentions, and 
# " pafs the reft of his CoofuHhipat Rome* I 
u fhould begirt to hbpei that by your authority 
*« and at his motion, Pompey and Cadfar may 
M be made one again with the approbation even 
ki of the Senate. Whenever this can be brought 
u about* I fhall think that I have lived long 
u . endugh : you will entirely approve* I am Aire, 
u nrhat Caefar did *t Corfiniumi in art affair of 
u that fort* toothing could fall out better, than 
" that it fhould be trajiia&ed without blood* I 
u am eitfemely. gkd t that my Nephew's vifit 
u toss agreeable to yVu ; as to what he faid 
u bh Ca?&r*s parti abd What Caefat's hitefetf 
u *rote tb yoUj I know Caefar to bfe very fin- 
u cfere in it* whatever turn his affairs may 
•'take {*•],* 

CiesAnat the lame time was extremely folfc 
fcltoua* hot fo much to gain Cicero, for that was 
AtiJfc to be etpe&ed* as to prevail with him toftani 
kadet. He wrote to him feveral times to that 
JbffinS:* and employed all their common fridnds to 
btttfs him with Letters on that head [/] : who* 
&y fa* 9 keeping fuch a diftance at this time from 
itampey * iinaginirtg that they had mackfome 
imprefllon, began to attempt a fecond point with 
him, vis. tt> perflate bifn to come tack to R&mf, 

fr] Ad Att. 8. i$. tjubd quieriih : ofrattjue ut iii 

I s J QfiQd quaeris quid Cse- co per fevered. Balbas mi- 
liar ad tat icripferit. Qdod jior haec eadem mandkta. lb; 
fejte • gnatiiTimum fibi eUTe 8 k x t * 


6$d%ffifi i* tbc wHcilsofthe Senate % which Ce&r 4^^- fP|? 
dcfigncd to fumthon , at his return frojtxi following y caff N 
JPompey : with this view in the hurry of hjs march c. ct A v- 
jtowards fcrundifium, Caefar fent him the follQW- p'ivs Ma*. 
ing Letter. . " C 1 LLUS * 

Cap4r Eniperor to Cicero Emperor*. t Vs c*v«/ 

" Wtfap I 6ad tut juft time to fee our fr f iend 

V Furhius* nor could conveniently fpeak with* 
* 4 or he^riiimi tyai in h^fte, and Qn .my m^rch* 
*< haivjng Tenjp the Legions before me, yet I could 
cc not pafs by without writing, and fending him 
u tQ you witfr my thanks : though I have often 
." paid this duty.befofe, and fcem likely t9 pay 
kc it oftrier, yoitfljierve it fo well of inc. I de* 
cc fijc of you in a Qpcial manner, that, as I hope 
^ to be in the City fliortly, I. may fee you there, 
* c antj hay? the benefit of your advice,* yqwia- 
u tereftj youf authority, your affiflance in all 
u thijms. " : ; But to return to the point : you will 
*' p&rdoft the hafte and brevity of my L<?ttec* 
u aod learn the reft from. Furniu3." To ^hich 
Cicero anfwerect 

Qjcero Emperor to Cselar Emperor/ 

' f c XJpon reading your Letter, delivered to ffle 
u by Furnivis, in which you prefled me to come 
w to the City,, I did not fo much wonder at what 
" you there intimated of your defife to ufc my 
f v advice arid authority, but was at a lofi to find 
c . c out what you meant by my intercft, and affift- - 
11 ance :. yet I flattered myfelf into a perfuar s 

V .fion. that out of your admirable, and Angular 
**' wifqom, you were defirous to. enter into fo me 

me^fures for cftabjifhing the peace ajid conr 


266 72* HiSTORYj^/fo Life 

A.tJrb,7C4. ** cord of the City; and in that cafe I looked 
C c" $* " ^P on m y temper and chara&er as fit enough 
C. Ciau- ** to be employed in fuch a deliberation. If the 
dius Mail* 4c cafe be fo, and you have any concern for the 
cbllus, « fafcty of our friend Pompey, and of recon- 
• l « LimtuI " cilin E him t0 yourfelf, and to the Republic, 
xu* taus." " you will certainly find no man more proper for 
44 fbch a work than I am, who. from the very 
44 firft have always been the advifer of peace 
ic both to him and the Senate ; and fince this 
44 rccourfe to arms have not meddled with any 
* c part of the war, but thought you to be really 
44 injured by it, while your enemies and enviers 
44 were attempting to deprive you of thofe ho- 
44 nors, which the Roman paople had granted 
44 you. But as at that tim# f was not onely a fa- 
vorer of your dignity, but an encourager alio 
of others to affift you in it ; fo now the dig- 
** nity of Pompey greatly affefts me : for many 
44 years ago I made choice of you two, with 
44 whom to cultivate a particular friendfhip, and 
44 to be, as I now am, moft ftriftly united,. 
u Wherefore I defire of you, or rather beg and 
44 implore with all my prayer*, that in the hurry 
44 of your cares you would indulge a moment to 
44 this thought, how byyourgenerofityl maybe 
44 permitted to (hew myfelf an honeft, gratefull, 
44 'pious man, in remembering an aft of the 
44 greateft kindnefs to me* If this related onely 
44 to myfelf, I fhould hope ftill to obtain it from 
44 you: but it concerns, I think, both your honor 
46 and the Republic, that by your means I fhould 
44 be allowed to continue in a fituation the beft 
" adapted to promote the peace of you two, as 
44 well as the general concord of all the Citizens. 
* 4t After I had fent my thanks to you before on 
» the account of Lentulus j for giving fafety 
" " 44 to 

of M. fULLIUS CICERO. 267 

cl to hrm who had given it to me; yet upon A.Urb.704. 
<c reading his Letter, in which he expreffcs the Cic. $&. 
u mofl: gratefull Senfe of your liberality, I took c £°^ _ 
€c myfclf to have received the fame grace from d^Mar- 
" you, which he had done : towards whom, if cellvs, 
u by this you perceive me to be gratefull, Jet it L. Cornell 
* c be your care, Ibefeechyou, that I may he. fo ™ L cVv«~ 
u too towards Pompey [*)." 

Cicero was cenfured for fome paflages of this 

Letter, which Caefar took care to make public, 

viz. the compliment on Cafar's admirable wifdom ; 

and above all, the acknowledgement of bis being 

injured by bis adversaries in the prefent war: inex- 

cufeof which, he fays, " that he was not forry 

" for the publication of it, for he himfelf had 

" given feveral copies of it; and confidering 

u what had fince happened, was pleafed to have 

" it known to the world how much he had al- 

" ways been inclined to peace; and that, in urg~ 

" ing Oefar td fave his Country, he thought it 

" his bufinefs to ufe fuch expreffions as were the - 

" mod likely to gain authority with hrm, with- 

w out fearing . to be thought guilty of flattery, 

" irk urging him to an aft, for which he would . 

" gladly have thrown himfelf even at his 


He received another Letter on the fame fub- 
jeft, and about the fame time, written jointly -by 

[/] Ad Att.9. 6, 11. videbar alio modo facilius 

v] Epiftolarrrrneam quod moturus, quam fi id, quod 

pervulgatam fcribis efle non earn hortarer, convenire ejtis 

teromolefte. Quia etiam ip- fapientise dicerem. Earn fi 

fe muftis dedi defcribendam. admirabilem dixi, cum eu}a 

Eaenim&acciderunt jam & ad falutcm patriae hortarer, 

impendent, ut teftatum efle non fum Veritas, ne viderqr 

veltm de pace quid fenferim. affentiri, cui tali in re luben- 

Cam. autem earn hortarer, ter me ad pedes abjeriflen}, 

c waprseferumhominem,nou &c. lb, 8. 9. 

' Balbus 

. s68 The History of tie Life 

A.Urb.704. Balbas and Oppius, two of Carfares chief cotU* 

C Co S ff!* M * nt3# ! 

fc.*ClAVDI« v . ' '' ■ 

vs Mar- Balbus ana Oppius to M. Cicero* 


t.CoRNBLi- w XrtE advice, nottmely of little men, fuch 
i*** Cau«. ** wc arc » but cven °* w greateft, is gene- 
- 4 * rally weighed, not by the intention of the 
u giver, but the event •, yet relying on your hu- 
" manity, we will give you what we cake to be 
" the beft in the cafe about which yon wrote td 
" us •, which, though it fhould not be found pfru- 
4C dent, yet certainly flows from the utmoftfote- 
" lity and affe&ion to you. If we did not know 
ic from Caefar himfelf, that, as foon as heCBtfce* 
*« to Rome, he will do what in our judgement 
** we think he ought to do, treat about a rceon* 
** ciliation between him and Pottipty, wf flkdtold 
"give over exhorting you to come and takd 
i€ part in thofe deliberations j that by your hslp, 
u who have a ftrift friendihip with them both, 
the whole affair may be fettled with eafe and 
dignity: or, if on the contrary, w« believed 
that Caefar would not do it, and knew that h$ 
was refolved upon a war with Pompey, wd 
*' Ihould never try to perfuade you, to take arm* 
againft a man to whom you have the grtateft 
obligations, in the fame manner as we have al- 
ways entreated you, not to fight agaihft Caefar, 
* 4 I5ut fince at prefent we can dndjf guels rather 
** than know what Caefar will do, we have no* 
** thing to offer but this, that it does not feeiri 
cc agreeable to your dignity, or your fidelity, fo 
u well knowri to all, when you are intimate with 
'* them both, to take arms ag^unft either; and 
this we do not doubt but Caefar, according ttf 
his humanity^ jritt Wgbly aj>j*o*£ ; yet if .ytn* 

" jpdge 





tfM. TULLIUS CIC$R0, f$9 

* judge proper, we will write to him, to let us A. U?b. 79^ 
H know what he will really do about it ; gad if ^Q^jfi* 

•* he returns us an anfwer, will prefently fend c clav**- 
u you notice, wh*t we think of it, and give *n/ s Ma*I 
€| you our word, that we wiUadvife onely, what 9^hVh 
•« we take ?o be' moft fuitable to your honor^ot L ^J J"-^ 
l f to Cselar's views ; and are perfijsded, thatjCae- w gj«j * 
* ; far, out of his indulgence to hrs friends, will v • ~* 
" be pleafed with it [*].» Thjs joint LetteF 
was followed by a feparate one frpm Balbu$. 

Bajbus to Cicero Emperor. 

11 Immediately gfter I had lent the eon?* 
" mon Letter frotp Oppius and myfelf, I re? 
" ceived one from Caeiar, of which I have fcnt 
M you? copy $ whence you will perceive ho^y 
" defjrous he is of peaqc y and to be reconpUe4 
* s with Pompey, and how far removed from all 
" Noughts of cruelty. It gives me an estreip? 
u joy, as it certainly ought to do, to fee him iij 
M thefe fentiments. As to yourielf, your fide- 
a lity, and your piety, J am ijuirely of the femg 
•• mind, my. dear Cicero, with you, that yoij 
" cannot, confidently with your character anjj 
*' duty, bear arms againft a man to whom yo\j 
*' declare yourfdf fo gready obliged : that Cadar 
" will approve this reftrfution, I certainly know 
• ' from His fingulaf humanity ; and that yoi| 
" will perfe&ly fatisfy him, by taking no part 

* in tfe war againft him, nor joining yourfelf 
•" to his adverfaries; this he will think fufficient ? 
" not pnely frpm you a perfon of fuch dignity 
" and fplendor, but has allowed it even to me, 
-* floj to be found ir> tjiat c#jtip wbicfr is Ufceljr 

Or] Ad Att. 9. 8» 

* 19 ■ 

270 tte Hi.sto R.y of the Life 

A. Urb. 704; " to be formed againftLentulus and Pompey,from 
c £- J 8 * " whom I have received the greateft obligations : 
C. Clau- €c lt was enough, he faid, % if I performed my 
dius Mar- " part to him in the City and the gotim* .which 
cellus, « I might perform alfo to them if I thought, §t: 
L, ?L R entv^ " w^refore I now manage all LentukwS tBairs 
T«s Civs! " at Rome, and difcharge my duty, my Aridity, 
# 4C my piety to them both: yetintruthldonQttake 
44 the hopes of an accommodation, tKopgfi.j*ow 
44 fo low, to be quite defperate, finCe Gratfif in 
44 that mind in which we ought to Wflh Him : 
44 one thing would pleafe me, if you think it 
44 proper, that you would write to him, atftlfle- 
€4 (ire a guard from him, as you did from Pom- 
44 pey, at the time of Milo's trial, with iwr ap- 
44 probation : I will undertake for him, ifrnght- 
44 ly know Csefar, that he will fooner pay a rc- 
44 gard to your dignity, than to his own intereft. 
44 How prudently I write thefe things* I £now 
44 not ; but this 1 certainly know, that whatever 
44 I write, I write out of a Angular love and af- 
44 fe&ion to you : for (let me die, fo as Ctefar 
44 may but live) if I have not fo great anefteem 
44 for you, that few are equally dear to me. 
46 When you have taken any resolution in this 
44 affair, I wifti that you would let me know it, 
44 for I am exceedingly follicitous that you fhould 
rt difcharge your duty to them both, which in 
t fC truth I am confident you will difcharge. Take 
44 care of your health [y]" 

The offer of a guard was artfully infinuated ; 
for while it carried an appearance of honor and 
refpeft to Cicero's perfon, it muft neceffarily have 
oiade him Caeiar's prifoner, and deprived him of 
the liberty of retiring, when he fpund it proper, 

[y] Ad Att. 9. 8. 



oui of Italy : but he wa$ too vttffe to be caught A. TJrb. 704. 
by it, or to-be moved ih any manner by the Let- Cip. 58. 
ters themfclves, to ehtertain the leaft thought of a Q^ m 
going to* Rome, firtce to affift in the Senate, oiusMae- 
wheh Pompey and the Confuls were driven out ceilus, . 
of it, was in reality to take part agaiflft them. L.Co»in- 
What gave him a more immediate uneafinefs, *.£"?" 
was the daily expedition of ari interview with LV$C ™ U 
Cafcfir himfclf, who 2 was now returning from 
Brundifium by the road of Formbe, where he 
then refined: for thbugh he would gladly Have 
avoided hrdi, if he cduld have contrived to do it 
deceWly, yet to leave the place juft when Caefar 
wais coming %o it, could not fall of being inter* 
pretdd a* a particular affront : he refolved there- 
fore to wait for httn y and to aft on the occafion with 
a firtimtfs and gravity, which became bis rank and • 

Tut* mfct a$ he expected, and he fent At- 
ticus the following iccounr of what paffed be- 
fwteft themf : * Nfy difcotirfe with him, fays he* 

* W& fuchr as would rather make him think 
" wtfl of me than thank me. I flood firm in 
" refufmg to go to Rotate ; but was deceived in 
u ertpeffinrg to find him eafy; for I never faw 

* any one fefs fb : he was condemned, he faid* 

* by my judgement * and, if I did not come* 
iS other* would be the more backward : I told 

* hflrr that their cafe was very different from 
" mine. After many things faid on both fides* 
a he bad me come however and try to make 
w - peace : (hall I do it, fays I, in my own way? 
" dor you imagine, replied he, that I will pre-' 
u fcribe to you ? i will move the Senate, then, 
" fays I, for a decree againft your going to Spain* 

* or tranfpforting your troops into Greece, and 
" fay a great deal befides in bewailing the cafe of 

Vol. II. T *• Pompey : 

. 27 2 The History tf the Life 

A. Urb. 704. « Pompey : I will not allow, replied he, fiich 

Coir 58 C< ** n g s t0 ** ^ a ^ : k * thought, fays I, and 

C. Clau- <c for that reafon will not come; becaufel muft 

piusMar-* 4 either fay them, and many more, which 1 

citrus, 44 cannot help faying, if I am there, or not come 

v! TlbntuT"^ aU - T ^ c rcfult was * that t0 ftift offthc 
\v Crw$"" difcourfe, he wiflied me to confidcr of it; 

" which I could not refufe to do, and fowe 
" parted. I am perfuaded, that he is not plea&d 
<c with me ; but I am pleafed with myfelf ; which 
" I have not been before of a longtime. As 
" for the reft; good Gods, what a crew he has 
** with him ! what a hellifh band, as you fall 
" them !-^— what a deplorable affair ! what de- 
" fperate troops ! what a lamentable thing, to fee 
ic Servius's fon, and Titinius's, With many more 
" of their rank in that camp, which befieged 
<( Pompey ! he has fix legions ; wakes at all 
" hours; fears nothing ; I fee no end of this ca- 
" lamity. His declaration at the laft, which I 
4< had almoft forgot, was odious ; that if he was 
% * c not permitted to ufe my advice, he would ufe 
" fuch as he could get from others, and purfue 
" all meafures which were for his fervice [«]." 
From this conference, Cicero went dire&ly to 
Arpinum, and there invefted his fon, at the age 
of Jixteen^ with the manly gown : he refolved to 
carry him along with him to. Pompey's camp, 
and thought it proper to give him an air o£ man- 
hood before he enlifted him into the war : and 
fince he could not perform that ceremony at* 
Rome, chofe to oblige his countrymen, by ce- 
lebrating this Feftival in his native City [a], 

[zl Ad Att, 9. 18. pinipotiffimum togamparara 

[a] Ego roeo Ciceroni, dedi, idque municipibus no-. 
quoniam Roma caremus, Ar- ilris fait gratan— ib. 19. 


While Cfcfaf was on the road towards Rome, A, Urb. 704. 
young Quintus Cicero, the nephew, a fiery giddy c ^* i 8- 
youth, privately wrote to him to offer his fer- c of^ Vm 
vice, with a promife of fomc information con- d IUS Mar- 
cernmg his uncle; upon which, being fent for cellus, 
and admitted to an audience, he allured Csefar, L«Co»«eli- 
tbat bis Uncle was utterly difaffelted to all bis mea- J„ SE2." 
fur t$ y and determined to leave Italy and go td Pom- 
fey. The boy was tempted to this rafhnefs by' the 
hopes of a conjiderable prefent, and gave much un- 
cafinefc by it both to the Father and the Uncle, 
who hadreafon to fear feme ill confequence from 
it [b] : but Csefar defiring ftill to divert Cicero 
from declaring againft him, and to quiet the ap- 
prehenfions which he ftiight entertain for what 
waspaft, took occafion to fignify to him in a kind 
Letter from Rome, that he retained no refentment 
of bis refufal to come to the City, though Tullus and 
Smius complained, that he bad not fhewn the fame 
indulgence to them— ^ridiculous men, fays Cicero, 
wk, after fending their fons to beftege Pompey at 
Brimdtfium, pretend to bejcrupulous about going to 
the hnate [c\. 

CiG%Ro*s behaviour however and refidence in 
tbofe villa's of his, which were neareft to the fea, 

[b] Litterasljus ad Caefa- * [c] Csefar mihiignofcitper 

rem miffas ita gf%viter tuli- litter is, quod non Rom am 

ous, at te quidem tfclaremus vcnerim, fe feque in optimam 

7— tantum fcito po* Hir- partem id accipere dicit. Fa- 

tiom conventum, arceffihun, cile patior, quod fcribit, fe- 

ab Caefarc ; cum eo de rftoo cum Tullum&Serviumquef- 

toimo ab fuis confiliis alie- tos efle, <juia non idem fibi* 

niffimo, fcconfiliorelinquen- quod mihi remififlet. Homi- . 

diltaliam—ib. 10. 4, 5, &c. nes ridiculos, qui cam filios 

Qaintum puerum accept mififlent ad Cn. Pompeium 

vehementer. Avaritiam vi- circumfidendum, ipfiinfcna- 

<fco fuiiTe, & fpem magni turn venire dubitarent^ lb. 

congiarii. Magnum hoc ma* 10. 3. 

lameft.-ib. 10.7. 

T 2 i gave 

t 7 4 tr^Risro»Y£f tie Lift 

A. Urb. 704. g»ve rife to a ptfnoral report chat he was waiting 

Cic 58. gnrfy for a wum! to cany him over to Porapcy* 
C C* - u P° n w Wch CaBferfent him another preffingLet* 

us Ma". " kr, **try* if ptiffible* to dUfuade him from that 

CELL US, ftep. 


™ 8 % N ™" Caafar Emperor, to Cicero Emperor. 

(( Thpugh I never imagined that you would do 

. <c anything rafttly or imprudently, yet moved by 

44 common report, I thought proper to write to 
44 you, and beg of you byotir mutual afl*ft»n f 

44 that you would not run to a declining caufe, 

" whither you did not think fit to go while it 

44 ftood firm. For you will do the greateft injn- 

44 ry to our friend&ip, aad confuk but ill for 

4C yourfelf, if you do not fdllow, where fortune 

44 calk: for all things feem to have fuccededraoft 

44 profperoufly for us, mofc unfortunately for 
44 them: nor will you be thought €6 havefcifow- 

c€ ed thecaufe, (fince that was the fame, when 

44 you chofe to witbdrawyourfelf from thetrcoun- 

€C cils) but to have condemned fome ad of mine j 

44 jhan which you can do nothing that could 

% " affed me more fenfibly, and what I beg by 

4t the rights of our friendfliip, that you would 

44 not do. Laftly, what is more agreeable to 

" the charader of an honeft, quiet man, and 

, 44 good Citizen, than to retire from civil broils ? 

€i from which fome, who would gladly have 

44 done it, have been deterred by an apprehen- 

44 fion of danger: but you, after a full teftimony 
m 4C of my life, and trial of my friendfliip, will 

* *« find nothing more fafe or more reputable, than 

44 to keep yourfelf clear from all this contention. 

!! The 16th of April on the road [<*]." 

[d ] Ad Att. x. 8. 

1 , Antony 


Antony alfo, whom Caefar left to guard A. tJrb. 70^ 
Italy in His abfence, wrote to him to the fame Ck. e8. 
purpofe, and on the fame day, c ctfv* 

DIU3 Mah- 

Antonius Tribun of the people and Proprtetor, to cell*;*, 

Cicero Emperor. L. Cornell 

* If I had not a great efteem for you, and 
" much greater indeed than you imagine, I 
" Ihould not be concerned at the report which 
<c is fpread of you, efpecially when I take k to 
il be but falfe. But out of the excefs of my *f~ 
" feftion, I cannot diffemble, that even a report* 
" though falfe, makes fome impreflion on me. 
" I cannot believe that you arepriepanng^5 crofs 
" the fea, when you have fudi a v&lue for Dola- 
11 bella, and y.our daughter Tultia, that exeel- 
" lent woman, and are fo much valued by us all, 
w to whom in truth your dignity and honor are 
" almoft dearer than to yourfelf: yet I did not 
" think it the part of a friend not to be moved 
" by the difcourfe even of ill-defigning men,' 
" and wrote this with the greater inclination, as 
K I take my part to be the more difficult on the 
,f account of our late coldnefs, occafibned rather 
u by my jealoufy, than any injury from you. 
" For I defire you to affure yourfelf, that no- 
tt body is dearer to me than you, excepting my 
tt Csefar, and that I know alfo that Caefar 
(< reckons M. Cicero in the firft clafe of his 
" friends. Wherefore I beg of you, my Ci- 
" cero, that you will keep yourfelf free and un- 
determined, and defpife the fidelity of that 
" man who firft did you an injury, that he might 
" afterwards do you a kindnds; nor fly from 
11 him, who, though he fhould not love you, 
" which is impoflible, yet will always defire to 
" fee you in fafety and Splendor. I have fent 
T 3 i! Calpurnius 

tj6 The History of the .Life 

A.Urb. 704. " Calpurnius to you with this, the moft inti- 

^'I 8 * <c mate of ray friends, that you might p*ceive 
C. Claw- " l ^ c E rcat concern which I have for your life 

pivsMar-" and dignity [*].* 

cellus, Caelius alfo wrote to him on the fame fub- 
LCorneli* : e ^ j >ut fi n( ji n g by fome hints in Cicero's an- 

. VS L.ENTU- J „ ' f * ° rv 11 

iu3 Caws. f wcr f *at he was a&ually preparing to run away 
to Pompey, he fent him a fecond Letter, in a 
mod pathetic, or as Cicero calls it, lamentable 
jtrain [/], in hopes to work upon him by alarm- 
ing all his fears. 


Caelius to Cicero. 

BttfiNG in a confternation at your Letter, 
f< by which you (hew that you are meditating 
" nothing but what is difmal, yet neither tell 
<c me dire&ly what it is, nor wholly hide it from 
w me, T presently wrote this to you. By all 
*• your fortunes, Cicero, by your children, I 
** beg and beleech you, not to take any ftep in- 
" jurious to your fafety : for I call the gods and 
* c men, and our friendfhip to witnefs, that what 
* c I have told, and forewarned you of, was not 
* 4 any vain conceit of my own, but after I had 
" talked with Csefar, and underftood from him, 
w how he refolved to a£t after his viftory, I in* 
f< formed you of what I had learnt. If you 
*' imagine that his conduft will always be the 
*' fame, in difmiffing his enemies and offering 
* c conditions, you are miftaken: he thinks and 
" even talks of nothing but what is fierce and 
* 4 fevere, and is gone away much out of humor 
* 4 with the Senate, and thoroughly provoked by 
" the oppofition which he has met with, nor will 


VJ IbM. fcriptam mifcrabiliter — ib. 

M. C*liJ tpiftolam *. o, 

« there 


" there be any room For mercy .Wherefore, if you A. Urb. 704, 
u yourfelf, your onely fon, your houfe, your C ^I 8, 
" remaining hopes be dear to you: if I, if c qlav- 
" the worthy man, your fon-in-law, have any diusMar- 
" weight with you, you fhould not defire to ceh.u8, 
" overturn our fortunes, and force us to hate w^f ^""* 
u to relinquifli that caufe in which our fafety lus cru»." 
" confifts, or to entertain an impious wilh againft 
" yours. Laftly, reflect on this, that you have 
" already given all the offence which you can 
" give, by ftaying fo long behind ; and now to 
" declare againft a Conqueror, whom you would 
" not offend, while his caufe was doubtful; and 
" to fly after thofe who run away, with whom 
" you would not join, while they were in coq- 
u ditiqn to refift, is the utmoft folly. Take # 

" care, that while you are afhamed not to ap- 
<c prove yourfelf one of the beft Citizens, you 
€l be not too hafty in determining what is the 
" beft. But if I cannot wholly prevail with 
" you, yet wait at leaft till you know how we 
" fuccede in Spain, which, I now tell you,, will 
" be ours as foon as Caefar comes thither. What 
" hopes they may have when Spain is loft, I 
" know not-, and what your view can be in ac r 
" ceding to a defperate caufe, by my faith \ 
" cannot find out. As to the thing, which you 
<<J difcover to me by your filence ^bout it, Caefar 
** has been informed of it; and aifter thefirftfa- 
" lutatjon, told me prefently what he had heard 
" of you : I denied that I knew any thing of 
" the matter, but begged of him to write to 
" you in a manner the moft effe&ual, to make 
u you ftay. He carries me with him into Spain ; , 
u if he did not, I would run away to you where- 
" ever you are, before I came to Rome, to difc 
u pute this point with you in perfon, and hold 

T 4 " you 

Zj% *Thi H i s t o R y of the Lffe . 

A. Urb.704. " you feft even by force. Confider, Cicero, 

C *c £** " a 8" n anc * a 8 a * n > l ^ at y° u ^° not utx ^ T h rul & 

CClau- " both you and yours j that you dp not know? 

diusMae- " incly and wiUingly throw yourfelf info diffir 

cellus, «* cutties, whence you fee no w»y to ejtricatp 

wLim"! " 7 0Urfe ^ But ^ cith ? r thc reproaches of the 
Crvs. " " tetter fort touch you, or you cannot bear rhp 
44 infolence and hayghtinefs of a certain fet of 
«' men, I would, advife you to fhufe fome pl?c$ 
' ** remote from die war, till thefe contefts he 

^ over, which will foop be decided: if you do 
"this, I (hall think that you have done wifely^ 
« and you will not offend Csefar [g]" 

Caelius's advice, as well as his practice, vas 
grounded upon a maxim, which he had before 
advanced in a Letter to Cicero, that in a public, 
diffenfion, as long as it was carried on by civil m? 
• tbods. % one ought to take the honefterfide^ but when 
if came to arms y tbejironger •> and to judge that tfa 
heft which \vas the fafefi\b\ Cicero was not oS 
his opinion, but governed himfelf in this, as he 
generally did, in all other cafes, by a contrary 
rule ;* that where our duty and our fafety interfere, 
wejhould adhere always to what is right* whalaw 
ganger we incur by it. 

Curio paid Cicero a friendly vifit of two days 
about this time on his way towards Sicily, the 
command of which Caefar had committed to 
him. Their converfation turned on the pph*p- 
py condition pf the times, and the impending 
iniferies- of the war, in which Curio was open, 
*nd without any referve, in talking of Csefcfs 

[g\ Ep. Fam. 8. 16. cernetur, honcfUorem ftqai 

[Ij Iliad te noil sgrbitror partem : obi ad bellum & 

fugere ; qain Homines in dif- caftra ventum fit, firmiorem : 

fenfionc domefti^a debeant, & id melius ftatuere, quod 

. quamdiu civilitcr fine armis tutius-fit. Ep. Fam. 8. 14. 

1 v ' views 


yicws: *' tjc exhorted Cicew 4» chufe fomoA.yrb. 704. 
*' jociitral place for Jiis iptreat.5 afiured him, that <■*£• J?* 
*' Qeftr would be pleafed with it $ offered him c. Clmt- 
*' all kind of accommodation and fcfe paffage p;vs Ma*- 
*' though Sicily •,. made not th* kaft doubt, but c*n.v*, 
«* that Caefar would foon< be mafter of Spain, ^JiStE 
" and then folbwFompey wifh his whole force 1 X y S cn§i 
u and that Fompcy's death would be the eqd of 
* c the war : but confeffed withal, that he iaw 

* no profpedfc or glimmering of hope for the 
f c Republic : faid, that Caefar wa$ fa prowked 
* c by the Tribun MeteUus at Rome, that he 
" had a mind to have killed him, as many of 
<l his friends, advifed* that if he had done it, 
18 a great daughter would have enfued; that 
<c his clemency flowed, not from his natural 
" difpofition, but becaufe he thought it po- 
" pular ; and if he once loft the affe&iQn$ of 
" the people, he would be cruel: that he wa$ 
" difturbed to fee the people fo difgufted by his 
" feizing the public treafure •, apd though he 
" had refolved to fpeak to them before he left 
" Rome, yet he durft not venture upon it fop 
" fear of fome affront, and weflt away at laft 

* much difcompofed [1]." • 

Tot leaving the public treafw ft Rom * ptey 
to Cjfar, is cenfured more than once by Cicero, 
as one of the blunders of his friends [k] : but it 
is a common cafe in civil diflenfiow, for the 
honefter fide, through the few of difcreditijig 
their caufe by any irregular aft, to ruin it by aft 
unfeafonable moderation. The public money 
?as kept in the Temple of Saturn. 5 and the Con- 
tois contented themfctaes with carrying away the 
keys, fancying, that the fan&ity of the place 

ft] AdAtt.x.4. [i] lb, 7.. 12, 15;. 


280 ^History of the Life 

A. Urb. 704. would fecure it from violence; efpecially when 

C Co^. 8 ' *** g rcatc * P art °^ lt was a f 1 ^ of a [acred hnd % 

C. Clau- fa a P art h *be laws for occafions onely of the laft 

Dius Ma*- exigency, or the terror of a Gallic invafton [/]. 

cellu8, Poropey was fenfible of the miftake, when it 

L VS iTeKt"^ WaS t0 ° I**** aIld fcnt inftmai0nS t0 tiie C ° n - 

lvs Cnus." fuls to go back and fetch away this facred trea- 
fure : but Caefar was then fo far advanced, that 
they durft not venture upon it ; and Lentulus 
coldly fent him word, that be bimfelf Jbould firfi 
march againft Cafar into Piccnum* that they might 
be able to do it witbfafety [m]. Caefar had none 
of thefe fcruples ; but as foon as he came to 
Rome, ordered " the doors of the Temple to 
'* be broken open, and the money to be feized 
" for his own ufe-, and had like to have killed 
a the Tribun MeteRus,'* who trufting to the 
authority of his office, was filly enough to at- 
tempt to hinder him. He found there an im- 
menfe treafure, <c both in com and wedges of ' 
•* folid gold, refcrved from the fpoils of con- ' 
4< quered nations from the time even of the ' 
<€ Punic war: for the Republic, as Pliny fays % " 
" had never been richer than it was at this ' 
" day f »]." « 

v Cicero was now impatient to be gone, and " 
the more fo, on account of the inconvenient u 
pomp of bis Laurel, and USors 9 and ftile of « 
Emperor ; which in a time of that jealoufy and « 
diftraftion expofed him too much to the eyes of 
the public, as well as to the taunts and raillery 

■ ' ^ 

- [/] Dio. p. 161. ipfe in Picenum— ad Att. 7. fDl 

[*C. Caflius— - attulit u. ^ 2 P| 

mandata ad Confides, ut Ro- OJ Nee fuit aliis tempo- * ' 

mam venirent, pecuniam de ribus Refpub. locuplctior. ^ 

JandUore serario auferrcnt— Plio. HiA. 33. 3. f 

Cpnful refcripfit, ut priua Ul 

. ' ' '/ • ] 


of bis enemies [o]. He refolved to crofs the fea A. Urb. 704. 
to Pompey 5 yet knowing all bis motions to be c j$- 5*- 
narrowly watched, took pains to conceal his in- c ^ ^^ 
tention, elpecially from Antony, who refided at diusMae- 
jthis time in his neighbourhood, and kept a ftridt cbllus v 
eye upon him. He fent him word therefore by ^Corhim- 
Letter, that he had, «« no defign againft Caefar ; JJ^qJ^" 
<c that he remembered his friendfhip, and his 
cc fon-in-law Dolabella* that if he had other 
" thoughts, he could eafily have been with 
" Pompey; that his chief reafon for retiring 
" was to avoid the uneafinefs of appearing in 
" public with the formality of his Lidtors [^j.* 
But Antony wrote him a furly anfwer; which 
Cicero calls a Laconic Mandate* and fent a copy 
of it to Atticus, to let bimfee, he fays, bow ty- 
rannically it was drawn. 

" Howfincereis yourw*y of a&ing? for 
" he, who has a mind to ftand neuter, ftays at 
" home ; he, who goes abroad, feems to pafs a 
" judgement on the one fide or the other. But 
" it does not belong to me to determine, whe- 
" ther a man may go abroad or not. Caefar has 
" impofed this talk upon me, not to fuffer any 
cc man to go out of Italy. Wherefore it figni- 
'* fies nothing for me to approve your refoluti- 
Ci on, if I have no power to indulge you in it. 
" I would have you write to Caefar, and aflc 
, u that favor of him : I do not doubt but you 

[0] Accedit etiammolefta fcripfiflem, nihil me contra 

hasc pompa li&orum meo- Caeiaris rationes cogitare ; 

rum, nomenque imperii quo meminifle me genen mei, 

appellor,— fed incurrit hacc meminifle amicitix, potuifle 

noftra lauru* non folum in o- fi aliter fentirem, efle cum 

culos,fcdjametiaminvocu- Pompeio, me autem, quia 

las malevoloram ■ Ep. cum li&oribus invitus curfk* 

Jam 2. 16. rem, abeflc velle— ad Atu 

01 Cum ego fapiffime z. 10. 

^ « win 

Z$t 72* History of tie L#e 

A. Urb. 704. *« wiil obtain it, elpecially finqe you prornife to 

Cl r £* $i retain a regard for purmendfhip {?]." 
C. Cl au- . After this Letter, Antony never came to fee 

pjus Ma^- him, but fent an excufe, that be was ajbamed to 

cELLUj, fa it y becaufe he took him io be angry with bim 9 
^^EKTy- & vin B him to underftand at the fame time by 

lv» Cjlui. Trebatius, that be bad /fecial orders to obfirve Ms 
motions [r]. 

Thise Letters give us the moft fcnfible 
proof of the high eftrem and credit in which 
Cicero florifhed at this time in Rome: when 
In a oonteft for Empire, which forte alone was 
to decide, we fee the Chiefs on both fides fo 
folliritous to gain a man to their party, who 
had no peculiar (kill in arms or talents for war: 
-but his name and authority was the acquisition 
which they fought \ fince whatever was the fate 
of their arms, the world, they knew, would 
judge better of the caufc which Cicero efpoufed. 
The fame Letters will confute likewife in a great 
aneafurethe common opinion of his want of 
refoiution in all cafes of difficulty, fince no man 
could ihe w a greater than he did on the prefent 
"occafion, when agaiaft the importunities of his 
friends, and all the invitations of a fuccefsfuH 
power, he cjiofe to follow that caufe which he 
thought the beft, though he knew it to be the 

Durinc Caefar's: abfence an Spain, Antony, 

whp had nobody to controul him at home, 

♦ gave a free courfe to his natural difpofitkws and 

indulged himfelf without referve in all the ex- 

fa] Ad Att. x. to. i&vit* lb. ar. i*. 

[r] Nomijiatim de top fiht Astoniiu^ad me mjfit, is 

impera&un dick Amounts, pudo*e detonation ad inenoa 

nt£m&-&men ipfe adho^vi- venifle, quod me £bi fiiccerw- 

derat, fed hoc TrebatuMiay. fere putarcC-4b,Xt 15. 


6fM. TULLIUS GlCEkO. ±S 3 

cds of kWdftcfr and luxury. Cicero defcribtng A.VA.J04* 
his ufual equipage in travelling about kafly, fays, Cic 5 1 
** he carries with him in an open CHaife the c £°* m 
4C famed A&refs Cy theris ; his wife follows in a niv^MAa- 
^ fecond, with (even other cfofe Litters, foil of cbllu*, 
« c his whorw and boys. See by what baft hands £.Cor«eli- 
<c we fell; arid doubt, if you can, whether Cae- »-«I*MTy. 
* far, let him cotae ranquifhed or victorious; LUS * us * 
** will riot Aiake cruel work amongft us at hii 
*' return. . For my part^ if I cannot get a fhip t 
•* I wiH take z boat to tnmfport myfelf out of 
* 4 their reach -, but I fhaB tell you more after I 
" have had a difference with Antony [*].** A- 
mong Antony's other extravagancies, he had the 
infoleitce to appear forrtetimes in public, with bis 
tniftrefs Cytberis in a Chariot drawn by Lums. Ci- 
cero alluding to this, inaLettertoAtticus, tells 
him jocofely, that be need net he afraid of Antony's 
lions [/] ; f6v though the beafts Were fo fierce, 
the mafter himfetf was very tame, 

Pliny fpeaks of this faft, as a defigfted infuU 
en the Rofnan peopk\ as if by the emblem of the 
Lions, Antony intended to give tbem to underftand* 
that the fiereeft fpirits oftbem would be forced to 
fubmit to the yoke [*] : Phitarch alio mentions it ; 


[1] Hie tame* Cytkcridcm fcribam cum ilium convener© 

fecum le&ica aperta portat, — ib.x. 10. 
altera uxorem : feptem prae- [/] Tu Antonii leones per* 

urea conjundae le&iae font timefcas, cave. Nihil eft illo 

amicarom, an amicorum? nomine jucundiu*. Ik. x« 

vide qaam turpi leto perea- tj. 

mas : 8c dubita, fi petes, qain [»] Jago fabdidit eos , 

ille feu vi&at, feu vidor re* primufqae Romas ad currant 

dicrit, csedem fa&orus fit. junxit Antonius; & quidem 

fgo vero vel lintriculo, fi civili bello com dimicatum 

navis non erit, eripiam me ex eflct in Pharfalicis campia f , 

jftorom parricidio. Sod plora non fine oftento quodam tem- 


284 "The History of the Lift 

A. Orb. 704. but both of them place it after the bank of 
C cJr * Pbarfalia y though it is evident from this hiftt of 
C. CtAupi-k g* vcn ty Cicero^ that it happened long be- 
vb Mar* fore. 

cbllus, Whilst Cicero continued at Formisc, deli- 
^^*" w x " berating on the meafures of his conduit, he 
iv» CAVs.f° rme d feveral political the/cSs, adapted to the 
circumftanccs of the times, for the amufemenc 
of his folitary hours : " Whether a man ought 
44 to ftay in his country, when it wa? pofleflcd 
44 by a Tyrant : whether one ought not by all 
€C means to attempt the difiblution of the Ty- 
44 ranny, though the City on that account was 
44 expofed to the utmoft hazard : whether there 
44 was not caufc to be afraid of the , man who 
• * 4 fho^ld diflblve it, left he fhould advance him- 
<c felf into the other's place; whether we (hould 
44 not help our .country by the metjiods of peace, 
44 rather than war: whether it be the part of a 
" Citizen to fit (till in a neutral place, while, 
44 his country is qppreffed, or to run all hazards 
44 for. the fake of the common liberty: whe- 
44 ther one ought to bring a war upon his city, 
46 and befiege it, when in the hands of a Ty- . 
44 rant : whether a man, not approving the dif- 
44 folution of a Tyranny by war, ought not to 
4i join himfelf however to the beft Citizens : 
44 whether one ought to aft with his benefaftors 
44 and friends, though they do not in his opi- 
4C nion take right meafures for the public inte- 
44 reft: whether a man, who has (lone great 
44 fervices to his country, and for that . reaibn 

pornm, generafus fpiritosju- ftipra monftra etiam illaraot 
gam fubirc illo prodigio fig- caiamitatam fait. — Phn. 

nificante: nam quod ita vec- Hift. 16. 8, 
t«s eft cum mima Cytheride, 

44 has 


cc ' ha* been envied and cruelly treated, is ftillA.Urb.7d4. 
€< bound tocxpofe himfelf to frefti dangers for C q^ 9 
€€ it t or may not be permitted at laft to take c. Claudi. 
c< care of himfelf and his family, and give up dii>sMar- 

<c all political matters to the men of power cbllus, 

cc by exercifing myfelf, fays be, in thefe queftions, „ £ "*£ 
" and examining them on the one fide and the LV8 Crus. 
€< other, I relieve my mind from its prefent an- 
<c xiety, and draw outfomething which may be 
" ofufetomc[*]." 

From the time of his leaving the City, toge- 
ther with Pompey and the Senate, there pafled 
not a fingle day in which he did not write cne or 
more Letters to Atticus [ j] f the onely friend whom 
he trailed with the fecret of his thoughts. From 
thefe letters it appears, that the fumm of At- 
ticus's advice to him agreed intirely with his 
own lentiments, that if Pompey remained in Italy , 
be ougbt to join with him \ ifnot^ Jbouldjiay behind^ 
and expett what frejh accidents might produce [«]. 
This was what Cicero had hitherto followed ; 
and as to his future conduit, though he feems 
fometimes to be a little wavering and irrefolute, 
yet the refult of his deliberations conftantly turn- 
ed in favor of Pompey. His perfonal affedtion 
for the man, preference of his caufe, the re- 

[x] In his ego me conful- Alteram tibi eodem die 

tationibus cxerceps, different banc epiftolam di&avi, & 

in utramque partem, turn pridie dederam mea maim 

graece tarn latine, abduco pa* lorgioiem— ib. x. 3. 

rumper animum a moleftiis [«] Ego quidem tibi noa 

& t£ *phw* ti delibero. Ad Jim au&or, fi Pompeius lea- , 

Att. 9. 4. liam relinquit, te quoque 

[y] Hujus a u tern epiftohe profugere, fummo enim.peri- 

non folnm ea caufa eft, ut ne culo facies, nee Reipub. pro* . 

quis a me dies incermittetur, deris ; cui quidem pofteiius . 

quin dem ad ce Uttcras, fed poteris prodtfle, fi manfeiis 

— ib. 8. 12/ v — ib. 9. 10. 



A* Urb* 704 
Cic. <* 
C. Clau- 
dius Mail- 


iv $ Cittrt. 

proache$ of the tetter fdrc, Vha tegs* to tiffifiire 
his tardinefs, and above all, Ms grdtitiu&fto fa- 
vors ncAw&y which had ever die gfeateft wtight 
widt hiniy made bim refolve at aft adve*ituft& to 
rvm after hiiw v and thotfgh be was difpfeafedf With 
hi? management of the war, atiwitbou* my topes 
ofhhfuccets {a} ; thoogto bet knetr htrfr btfofe to 
bo nopotiPkkto* mid now ppsetood him, tit fays, 
to be no general*, yet with att his fttfki, he could 
not endure the thought of deferring him* nor 
hardly forgive hiffifelf for iUyiftg fo ictofg behind 
him : " For as in tare, fay* he, any thteg* dirty 
" and indtfcttrt in a miftreft Will ffiBe i« for the 
" prefent* fa the deformity of Ptirttptf* con- 
" dad pat me> oat of homo* with hi«; but 
" now that he is gone, my Jove revives, and 
* I cannot bear hfe abfence, £ste £*] " 

Wffxr held htW ftift si wfctle ktogtf WW tbt 
tears of Bis family, aid ibo YMonfttdikes of bis 
daughter falRa* f who' entreated hfeft to rtOffortth 
the ijjfa oftbo Spaftljb &at y andurgtdlt etitbe 
advic* of Aniens [c]. He Watf paffion^l^ ffcnd 
of thisdawighcer; and with g#eat#cafoh ; forflie 
was a woman of fiifguAaraccoitipIiflimeftts^ WidK 

{a] Injgrati atottau crimen 
horreo— ib. 9. 2, 5, 7. 

Nee mehercule hoc facio 
Rcipub. caufa, quatm' fandi- 
ci» delctam poto, fed nequis 
me putet fogratum in eum, 
qui me levavit iis incommo- 
du, quibui ipfe affecerat— 
ib. 9. 19. 

Fortunae funt committenda 
omnia. Sine fpe conamur 
ulla. Si melius quid accident 
rairabimur*— ib. x. 2. 

[£] SlCUt |y ToTf *pan«wx<» 

alienant immundae, infulfse, 

indeCora? : fie ntf ilBto-fiig&v 
negligentiaeqne deformitas a- 
vertit ab amore^-nunc e- 
mergff aritpt, nunc defide- 
rium ferre i&onr pdflum. JB. 
9. 10. 

[rj Sed cam ad me me* 
Tullia fcribat, oraris, at qmJ 
in Hifpania ggratur expe&tnr, 
& femper adferibat idem ri- 
deri tibi— ib. x. 8. 

Lacrjnha? meorum me in- 
terdum molliunt, precantiam, 
ut de Hif^aniifrcxpeaemus— 
ib._x. 9, , 


o/M. r&LltUS CICERO. 287 

the utmoft ^flfeft^orr and piety to film : fpeaking A. Urb. 704, 
of her to Atticus, 4 * how admirable, fays he, is Ck. c?. 
* her viftae ? how dbes fhe bear the public ca- c J* *- 
" lamity? hew' her domeftic difgvifts? what a d XU sMar- 
'* grcatnefs of minddid/fheihew at my parting csllu* 
•' from them? in-fpight qfthe tendernefi of her J^ **" 1 - 
.* lave, fhe wifljes- me txrdq nothing but wh*t ^Crus"" 
w is-' right, aqdfor my honor ''frf-]." Bbt as to 
the affair of Spain, he anfwered, "• that what- 
" ever was the fate of it, it could not alter' the 
11 cafe with regard iorhimfelf j for if Caefar (hould 
"be driven one of it, his journey to Pdmpey 
•* would be left welcome and reputable, fince 
" Curio himfetf would run over to him : or if the 
" war was drawn into length, there would be no 
" end of waiting: or hftly, if Pompcy's army 
11 ihould be beaten, infteadof fitting ftill, as they 
" advifed, he thought juft the contrary, and fhould 
M the rather chuie to run away from the violence 
" of fuch a vi&dry. He refolved therefore, be 
" fay** to aA nothing craftily: but whatever be* 
,c came.of Spain, to find out Pompey as foon as 
" he could, in conformity to Solon's law, who 
" made it capital for a Citizen not to take part 
" in. a civil diffenfion [>}." 

[d] Cujus quidem virttw trahitur b;llum, quid expec- 

mirifica. Quomodo ilia fere jero, aut quamdiu ? relin- 

publicam cladem ? quomodo "quitur, ut fi vincimur in Hif- 

domefticas tricas? quantum pania, qatefcamus. Id ego 

autem animus in difceffu no- contra puto: ittum enim vie 

ft'o? fit W y>i, fit fumma torcm relinquendum magis 

ctfnhi"* tamen nos recle fa- puto, quam viftom— ibid.— 

cere & bene audire volt. lb. Aftute nihil fum adurus ; 

x.8. , fiat in Hifpania quidlibet. lb*. 

['] Si pelletur, quam gra- x. 6. 
tus aut quatn honsftu* turn erit Ego vero Solonis— legem 
adPompeiomnofteradventus, negligam, qui capite fanxit, 
cum ip&im Curionem ad ip- ii qui in feditione non alter- 
am tranfiturum patem ? fi utrius partis fuiflct' — ib. x. 1* 

Vol. H. , U Before 

. ±88 Tie History of tie Life 

A.Urb. 704. Before his going off, Senrius Sulpicius fenf 

C| c - 5*« him word from Rome, that be bad a great dtfirt 

C Ci/au- to bwe a conference with bim> to confult in com- 

dius Mar- men what meafures they ought to take* Cicero con- 

- cellus, fented to it, in hopes to find Servius in the fame 

L v? Lek^u^ m * n< * w himfel£ and to have his company to 

lvs Ckvb~. Pompey's camp: for in anfwer to his meflage, he 

intimated his own intention of leaving Italy \ and 

if Servius was not in the fame refolution, advifed 

him tofave bimfelftbe trouble of the journey, though 

if be bad any thing of moment to communicate y be 

would wait for bis coming [/]« But at their 

meeting he found him fo timorous and defpond- 

ing, and fo full of fcruples upon every thing 

which was propofed, that inftead of preffinghim 

to the fame conduit with himfclf, he found it 

Jieceflary to conceal his own dcfign from him : 

" of all the men, fays he, whom I have met 

" with, he is alone a greater Coward than C. 

" Marcellus, who laments his having been 

(c Conful; and urges Antony to hinder my 

" going, that hehimfelf may ftay with a better 

" grace [g]" 

Cato, whom Pompey had lent to poflefs 
himfclf of Sicily, thought fit to quit that poll 5 

' [/] Sin autem tibi homi- tes, in quo non fit conjonc- 

fii prudentiffimo vidotur utile turn connliam mora cam meo, 

effe, nos colloqui, quanquam fuperfedeas hoc labore itinc- 

loogius ctiara cogitabam ab ris — ib. 4. 2. 

urbe difcedere, cujus jam e- [g) Servti confilio nihil 

tiam nomen invitus audio, expeditur. Omnes captiones 

tamen propius accedam— — in omni fententia occurrunt. 

£p. Fam. 4. 1 . Unum C. Marcello cognovi 

Reftat uc difcedendum pu- timidiorem, quern Coniulem 

tern;, in quo rcliqua videtur fuifle poenitet — qui etiam 

effe deliberatio, quod confili- Antonitfm confirmative dici- 

um in difceftu, qua? loca fe» tur ut me impediret, quo 

qu^mur— fi habes jam flacu- ipfe, credo, honcitius.— Ad 

turn, quid tibi agendum pu- Att. x. l$. 



end yield up the Ifland< to Curio* who came like- A* Urb. 704* 
wife to feize it on Caefar's part with a fuperior Cic. 58. 
force. Cicero was much fcandalized at Cato's c £™ 
condudt, being perfuaded that he might have di^Mar- 
held his pofieffion without difficulty, and that cillui, 
all honeft men would have flocked to him, efpe- L - c ° RN1LI - : 
daily wben Pompefs fleet was fo near to fupport *£ g c*™f 
him: for if that had but once appeared on the 
coaft, and begun to a£t> Curio himfelf, as he 
confefled, would have run away tbefirft. Iwijb y 
lays Cicero** that Cotta may bold out Sardinia as it 
isfaid. be will: for jffo 9 bow bafe will Cato's a& 
appear \b\ 

In thefe Circumftances, while he was pre- 
paring all things for his voyage, and waiting 
onely for a f^ir wind,- he removed from his C«- 
man. to bis Pompeian Villa beyond Naples^ which, 
not being fo commodious for an embarkment, 
would help to lejjen the fufpicion of bis intended 
fi& [']• Here he received a private meflage 
from the Officers of three Cohorts, which were 
in garrifon at Pompeii, to beg leave to wait upon 
him the day following, in order to deliver up 
their troops and the town into his hands •, but 
inftead ofliftening to the overture, he fl'pt away 
the next morning before day to avoid feeing them; 
fince fuch a force or a greater could be of no fer- 

[*] Curio mecum vixit— — -utmam, quod aiunt, Cotta 
Siciiiae diffident, fi Pompeius Sardiniam teneat. Eft cnim 
navigareccepiffet— ib. x 7. rumor. O, fi id fnerit, tar- 
Curio— Pompeii claflcmti- pemCatonem!— ib. x. 16. 
jacbat; quaefieflet, fedeSi- [i] Ego at minaerim fuf- 
cilia arbituram lb. x. 4. pkionem profc6liotii8,—pro- • 

Cato qui Siciliam tencre fedas fum in Pompeian um 

sullo negotjo potuit, & fi tc- a. d. 1 1 1 1 Id. Ut ibi effem, 

naiiTtt, omnes boni ad cam dam quae ad navigandam o- 

k contuliflent, Syracufis pro- pus effent, pararentur, lb. 
totaeft a, d.g.Kal. Mali 

U 2 vice 

290 .-Mr History cf the Lift 

AjJrb.704- vice there v and he was appreheoftve thai it was 

Q It* defigncd enely as a trap tor him [ife]. 
C. Clavdx- Thus purfaing at laft the riefult of aU his de- 
cs Mar- liberation^* and preferring the confidetation of 
ch-lvi, d ut y to that of his fafety, he embarked to fcl- 

U v^Utvtvr low Pottl P^y » and *l»ugh fr Qrn tho nature of 
iyi CayJthe'mr, he plainly faw and declared, * diet it 
" was a contention onely for rule ; yet he 
« thought Pompey th$ modefter, bonejkr and 
«* jufter King of the tm » and if he did ftot con- 
( < quer, that the very name of the Roman peo- 
" pie would be extinguifhed* or if he did, that 
" it would ftill be after the manner and pattern 
Cl of Sylla, with much cruelty and blood [/]." 
With thefe melancholy refleftions he fet fail on 
tbeelevsnlbofjune [m] % " rufaing, as he tells 

" «* us, 

[i] Cum ad villain venif- 
fem, ventora eft ad me, Cen- 
tqriones trium Cohortium, 
quae Pompeiis funt, me velle 
poitridie; haec mecum Nin- 
nius softer, velle eot mibi fe # 
& oppidum tradere. At ego 
tibi poftridie a villa ante lu- 
cem, ut me ornnino illi non 
viderunt. Quid enim erat 
in tribus cohortibus ? quid fi 
plares, quo apparatu ?— & fi- 
mul fieri poterat, ut tentare- 
mur. Omnem igitur fufpi- 
cionem fufluli — ibid. 

[/] Dominatio quadita ab 
utroque eft lb. 8. 11. 

Regnandi eontentio eft ; in 
qua pulfus eft modeftior Rex 
& probio* & integrior; & 
is, oui nifi vincit, nonten po- 
puliRomani deleatur nectife 
eiU fin autem vincit Sylla- 

no more, exemploqu* vincet 
— ib.x. 7. 

[«]a.d. 1 11. Id. Jon. £p. 
Fain. if. 7* It is remark- 
able, that among the reafons, 
which detained Cicero inlu- 
ly longer than be intended, 
he mentions the tempefiuws 
weather c/tbe Equinox, end 
the calms that futctdgd it ; yet 
this was about, the end of 
May [ad Att. x. 17. 18.] 
which (hews what' c ftrange 
confafion there was at this 
time in the Roman Kalendar ; 
and what ncceffity for that 
reformation of it, wlpch Cav 
far foon after effected, in or- 
der to reduce the computation 
of their months to the regular 
courfe of the l feafons from 
which they had (b widely va- 
ried • Some of the commeo- 


" us, knowingly and willingly into rokihtary A. Urb. 704. 
" deftrudkion, and doirtg juft what cattel do • ci £ **- 
" when driver! by any fdrcc, running after thdfe c# cl Atx- 
" of bid own kirtd ; for as the ox, fays be, fol- dius Mar- 
" lows the herd, fo I follow the honeft, or cellus, 
M thofeatleaft, who are called fo, though it be l -^rhbLi- 
11 to certain ruin [*]." As to his brother Quih- J„ £"" 
tus, he was fo far frotri defiring his company jn 
this flight* that bepreffed him ioftay in Italy on 
account of his perfonat obligations to Csefar, arid 
the relation he had bqrn to hint : yet Quintus 
would not be left behind; but declared, that be 
would follow bis Brother, ivbitberfoever be Jbould 
lead, and think that party right which he Jbould 
tbufefdr htm [0]. 

What gave Cicero a more particular abhor- 
rence of the war, into which he was entering, was, 
to fee Pompey on all occafions affefting to imi- 
tate Sylla, $nd to hear him often fay with a fu- 
periot air, could Sylla do fitch a thing, and cannot 
I do it? as if determined to make Sylji's vidtoiy 
the pattern of his own,.. He was now in much 
the fame circumftances in which that Conqueror ' 

taton, for want of attending Hum. [pro M. Marcfel. {.] 

fo this, caufe, are ft ran gel ^ <}oid ergo aa&rtfs cs? idetn, 

puzzled to account for the quod peeude?, cjtiae difpulfse 

difficulty ; and One of thern iui generis fequuritur greges. 

ridiculouOy imagines, that Ut.bos armenta, fie ego, oo- 

by the t((uino7t\ Cicero co- ncs yiros, stiU eos, quicurique 

v f«tly means Antony, Who dicehtuf boni, fdquar, etiam. 

afed to make his days and flYuent— ad Att. ?. 7^ 
ngktt equal,' by deeping as \o] Fratreiri — fociuni hii- 

much as he 'waked. jos fortune efle non efat £- 

[fi] Eg6 prudens ac fciens gutim : cui magis e'tiarh Cae- 

ad pfcfteni ante dedos pofi- fat Irafcetur. Sed iirfpetrafe 

tamtumj)roifeclu3.[Ep. Fam. hon poffum, ut rhaneat, [ib. . 

6.6.] 9. 1.] frater, quicqutd imhi 

Pradens & fciens tanquam placeret, id *efluirt fe* gutafe < 

ad interittttn ttterem volunta- aiebat. Ib. 9/6/ • ( 

U3 had 

292 Tie History of the Life 

A.Urb. 704. had once been; fuftaining the caufe of the Se- 

Cic 58. nate by his arms, and treated as an enemy by 

C Claw- ^^ w ^° P ^^ Italy % and as he flattered 

diusMar- himfelf with the fame good fortune, fo he was 

cbllui, meditating the fame kind of return, and threaten- 

L.Corkeli- j n g ru i n ^j profcription to all jiis enemies. This 

his CrJ7 fr c q u ^ntly (hocked Cicero, as we find from many 

of his Letters, to confider with what cruelty and 

. effufion of civil blood the fuccefs even of his own 

friends would certainly be attended [p\ 

We have no account of the manner and cir- 
cumftances of his voyage, or by what <x>urfe he 
fleered towards Dyrrhachium ; for after his leav- 
ing Italy, all his correfpondence with it was in 
great meafure cut off, fo that from June, in 
which he failed, we find an intermiffion of about 
nine months in the feries of his Letters, and not 
more than four of them written toAtticus during 
the continuance of the war [q]. He arrived 
however fafely in Pompey's camp with bisfon, 
bis brotbtr* and nephew, committing the for- 
tunes of the whole family to the iffiie of that 
caufe: and that he might makefome amends for 
coming fo late, and gain the greater authority 
with his party, be furnijbed Potnpey, who was 
in great wans of money, with a large fumm out of 
bis ownftockfor tbe fublic fervice [rj. 

M Qu&m crebro illud, [r] Etfi cgeo rebus omni- 

Sjffapotuit, eg* non fotro?— bus, quod is qnoque in an- 

Ita SylUturit animus ejus, gufiiiseft, quicum fumas, cui 

& prefer jfturit dia. [Att. 9. raagnam dedimas pecaniam 

x.] Cnaeus nofter Syllatti rtgni mutuam, oninantes nobis, 

fimilitudinem concupivit, $f- confiituiis rebus, earn rem e- 

&•« cot Afy«0. [ib. 7.] ut non tiam honore fore. [ib. xu 3.] 

oominatijn fed generatim fi quis babuimus facilitates, 

\ ? profcriptio eflet informata. cas Pompeio turn, cum id vi- 

Jb. xi. 9. debamur fepiemer facere, 

[f] Yid. Ad Att, xi. J, 2, detulimus. lb. 13. 



i But as he entered into the war with reluc-A. Urb. 704* 
I tance, fo he found nothing in it but what in* Cic - 5 8 - 
I creafed his difguft : he difliked every thing which c q^* Uw 
I thsy bad done, or defigned to do\ faw nothing good diusMar- 
amongjt them but their caufe; and that their own cbllui, 
counfels would ruin them : for all the chiefs of ^ Cornell'. 
the party trailing to the fuperior fame and au- ™ s £J" # " , 
thority of Pompey, and dazzled with the fplen- 
dor of the troops, which the Princes of the Eaft 
had font to their afliftance, allured themfelves of 
vidory; and, without refle&ing on the different 
charadker of the two armies, would hear of no- 
thing but fighting. It was Cicero's bufmefs there* 
fore to difcourage this wild fpirit, and to repre- 
fent the hazard of the war, the force of Csefar, 
and the probability of his beating them, if ever 
they ventured a battel with him : but all his re- 
monftrances were flighted, and be himfelf reproach- 
ed as timorous and cowardly by the other Leaders : 
though nothing afterwards happened to them, but . 
what be bad often foretald [/j. This foon made 
him repent of embarking in a caufe fo imprudently 
conduced; and it added to his discontent, to find 
hiqjfelf even blamed by Qato for coming to them at 
all I and deferting that neutral poll, which might 
have given him the better opportuuity of bring- 
ing about an accommodation [/], 

In this difegreeable fuuation he declined all 
employment,, and finding his counfils wholly 

['] Qjippe mi hi nee quas hil adverfi accidit non praedi- 
accidunt, nee qua* aguntur, cente me. lb, 6. 
alio moio probantur. [ib. [/] Cujus memeifa&i poe- ' 
xi ? %.] nihil bdni praeter nltuit, non tam propter peri- 
caufam. [Ep. Fam. 7. 3.] ifa- c'ulura roeum, quira propter 
que ego, quern turn fortes illi vitia multa, qua: ibi offendi, 
v iri, Domitii Sc,htmvfti 9 timi- quo veoeram. Jb. 7. 3.— ' 
<tom effe diceban*, &c. [ib. 6." Flutar. in Cic. . 

28.]quoquidero inbello, ni- 

U 4 flighted, 

294 2fo H i s 1r o * y df the Life 

A. Urb. 704. ijighted, refumed His nfoal way of raillery,, ttid 

C r' & 8 " tc ^ e cou ^ not diffuadc fey his authority, «n» 

C CiMir* deavaured to make ridiculous by bxsjejls. This 

dius Mar gave ocafion afterwards to Antony, in a (peech 

cellus, to the Senate, to cenfure the levity of his beh* 
L# L ? Ri L EtI - vlour m ^ c*l**mi? °f a civil wiw, and to rcfled 

Crus! y n0ft °^cly upon his fears, but the tuifeafonableneft 
alfo of his jokts : to which Cicero anfwered, " that 
iC though their camp indeed was full of care 
" and anxiety, yet in circumftances die moft 
" turbulent, there were certain moments of re* 
" taxation, which all men, who had any hum*» 
" nity in them, were glad to lay hold on : but 
" while Antony reproached him both with de* 
" je&ion and joking at the fame time, it was a 
" fure proof that he had olafcrved a proper tetn* 
* " per and moderation in them both [«]." 

[u] tpfe Fugi adhuc omnc ly arived from Italy, and 

jnunusto'magis, quoditani- informing them of a ftrong 

hil pottratagi, atmihi &meia report at Rome, that Pompey 

rebus upturn effet. [ Att. xi. was blocked up by Cetfar j tad 

4.] Quod autem idem mcefti- you faild hither therefore, 

"tiam mean? reprchendit idem faid lie, that you might fee it 

jocum ; mag no argumento with your own eyes. And e- 

eft, me ia atroqae faiile ven after their defeat, when 

mode ratura. Phil. 2. i6< Nonnius was exhorting them 

Some of Cicero's fayings to courage, becaufe there 

pn this occafion are pre- were fewen eagles fiill lift in j 

ftrrved by different writers, Pompey* s tamp ; you encourage , 

When Pompey put him in well, faid he, if we were to 

mind of his coming fo late to Jight with Jackdaws. By 

them : how can / come late, the frequency of thefev (pie- | 

faid he, when 1 find nothing netic jokes, he is faid to have j 

in readtnefs among you F — and provoked Pompey fo fax as to | 

tipon Pompey *s alking him tell him, / wijh that you ' 

farcaHically, where his'Jon*in- would go over to the other fide, 

{aw DolabeUa was ; he is that you may begin to fear us. 

with your Father-in-law, Xt* Vid. Macrob. Saturn. 2. 3. 

pl|ed he. To a perfon new- Plutar. in Cicer, 


ofM. TULLIlfS CICERO. i 95 

Yqvhg Brutus was alfo in Ponfrpey's eafftp, AvUrb, 704* 
where he diftinguifhed himfclf by a peculiar- Ci* s?. 
zeal : which Cicfero mentions as the 4nWe re- c §t aw- 
markabfe, becaufehe had always prtfeffeddrt/r- ^ IU8 Ma " r . 
rcconciieable haired to Pempty, us if* iht rmrieter if ce^ub, 
bis Fotber[x]. But hefcuawedthfec*tife> *K*.tlw L * c ° RK * I ' x - 
man 5 facrificing all his rSftmtmenta toifce fervite * ' j r CrVs" 
of his country* and looking now upon Pbrnpey 
* the Genetolif tht R^pubik k and the -defender of 
their common liberty. 

During the cotiiifc of this war Cicero ncvet 
fpeaks of Pompey's conduit but as a perpetual/tic* 
ceffwn ef blunders. His firft ftep <f having Italy ' 

was condemned indeed by all* but particularly by 
Atticus ; yet to us at this diftance, it fcems not 
onely to have been prudent, but necefitoy [y~]. 
What (hocked people fo much at it was the dis- 
covery that it made of his weaknefe and want of 
preparation ; and after the fecufcity which he had 
all alon^ affected, and the defiance fo oft declared 
againlt his adverfary* it made him appear con- 
temptible to run away at laft on the firft approach 
qf Csefar : " Did you ever fee, fays Cselius, a 
w more filly creattore than this Pompey of yours; 
" who, after raifing all this buftle, is found to 
" be fuch a trifler ? or did you ever tead or hear 
" of a man more vigouroufc in action, mope tern- 
" perate in vi&ory, than our Carfar [r] ?" 


[*] Biotus amicus In tfaufa Ate. 7: 13. 

verfatur acriter. Ad A*t. xi. Si ifte ftaliam rdinquet, 

4- faciet omniftd mate, & tit ego 

Vid. Plutar. in Brut, fc cxiftimo faoyiaw, &c. ib. 9. 

Pomp. !0. 

[y] Q"o«»» dux q« an » [*] Ecqtend&tuhominem 
&fya1<J7»los, tu quoque ani- inepciorem quam tuum Cn. 
madvertis, Ctti nc Picenatjui- Pompeium vidifti? qui tan- 
dem nota funt: quam autem tas tUrbas, qui tarn nugax ef- 
fine coocilio, res teftis. Ad fet commorft? exqtiem au- 

296 lb* H i s t o * y gf the Life 

A- Urb. 704. Pompey had left Italy about a year before 
Cic. $8. Caefar found it convenient to go after him ; dur- 
Coff. j n g w ]f ic ii time h c had gathered a vaft fleet from 
Dius Ma*- *N ** maritime States and Cities, dependent on the 
cillvs, Empire, without making any ufe of it to diftrefs 
L.Coinbli- M eM my who had no fleet at all : he differed Si- 
U$ L c»vsf ca 7 and Sardinia to fall into Gefar's hands, with- 
LV * * out a bbw ; and the important town of Mar* 
feilles, after having endured a long ffege for its 
affeftion to his caufe : but his capital error was 
the giving up Spain, and neglefting to put him- 
fclf at the head of the beft army that he had, in 
1 a country devoted to his interefts, and commodi- 

ous for the operations of his naval force: when 
Cicero firft heard of this refolution, he thought 
it monftrous [a] * and in truth, the committing 
that war to his Lieutenants againft the fuperior 

f'enius and afcendant of Caefar, was the ruin of 
is beft troops and hopes at once. 
So mb have been apt to wonder, why Caefar, 
after forcing Pompey out of Italy, inftead of 
eroding the fea after him, when he was in no 
condition to refift, fhould leave him for the fpace 
of a year to gather armies and fleets at hisleifure, 
and ftrengthen himfelf, with all the forces of the 
Eaft. But Caefar had good reafons for what he 
. did : he knew that all the troops, which could 
be drawn together from thofe countries, were no 
match for his ; that if he had purfued him di- 
re&ly to Greece, and driven him out of it, as he 

tem Qaefare noftro acriorem cia, Rhodo, &c. ad inter* 

in rebus agendis, eodem in dudendos Italia commeatus 

vi&oria tempcratiorem, aut — comparator— ad Ate. 9. 9. 
legifti aut audifti? Ep. Fam. Ngnciat ^E^ypturo—cogi- 

8. 15. tare; Hifpamum abjeciife. 

[*] Omnis haec claflis A- Monftra narrunt— — ad Ate. 

Jtxandria, Colchis, Tyro, Si- 9. 1 1 . 

done, Cypro, Pamphyla, Ly - 



had done out of Italy, he fhould have driven 
him probably into Spain, where of all places he 
dfefired the lead to meet him ; and where in all 
events • Pompey had a fure refource, as loog as it 
was poflefled by a firm and veteran army; which 
it was Csefar's bufinefs therefore to deftroy in the 
firft place, or he could expert no fuccefs from the 
war; and there was no opportunity of deftroy ing 
it fo favorably, as when Pompey himfelf was at 
fuch a diftance from ir. This was the reafon of 
his marching back with fo much v expedition to 
find, as he laid, an army without a General, and 
return to a General without an army [h] m The 
event (hewed, that he judged right; foF within 
forty days from the firft fight of his enemy in 
Spain, he made himfelf matter of the whole 
Province |7}. 

After the reduction of Spain, he was ere-? A. Urb, 705. 
ated DiSator byM. Lepidus> then Praetor at Rome, ck '59* 
and by his Dictatorial power declared himfelf c £° ,^ s 
Conful, with P. Servilius Ifauricus; but he was cJesar 11. 
no footier invefted with this office, than he P. Sbrvili- 
marched to Brundifium, and embarked on the ** Vatia 
fourth of January, in order to , find out Pompey. 8 A wk ' cuu 
The carrying about in his perfpn the fupreme 
dignity of the Empire, added no fmall authority 
to his caufe, by making the Cities and States 
abroad the more cautious of afting againft him, 
or giving them a better pretence at leaft for open-* 
ing their gates to the Conful of Rome — [d\ m Ci- 
cero all this while defpairing of any good from v 

[h] Ire fe ad ^xercitum [</] IIH fe dataros negaret 
fine dace, & inde reverfarum neque portas Confuli prasclu- 
ad ducem fine exercitu. Sue- faros. C*C Comm. 1. 3. 
ton. J. Caef. 34. 590. 

[c] Caef. Comment. I 2. 

the ' 


&?8 TJbi HisTftRV if the Life 

A. Urb. 705. th* war* had been Ufing all his endeaVoiirfl to 
Ci c £ 9 ' difpofe hit friends to peac*, till Pomfrcy focbad 
. Julius zn Tf ?**&& mention of it in countil* deciding, 
ksAR II. that be valued neither life nor country, for whtxh 
Servili- be muft be indebted to C*far 9 as the world mujt take 

Uaviiqv* *** * a f € tQ be > fi mU be ***** *** conditions in bis 
SAVKlcvs \prefent circumflances [#]. He was fcnfible that he 
f had hitherto been acting a contemptible part, and 
done, nothing equal to the great ndtiie which he 
had acquired in the world ; and was determined 
therefore, to Retrieve his honor before he laid 
dowh his arms, by the deftru&iOn of his adver- 
ftry, Or to perifh in the attetapt* 

During the blockade of Dyirhachium, it 
was a current notion in Ofar's army, that Pmk- 
fey would draw off bis troops into bis fhips, and 
remove the war to fome diftant place* Upon this 
Dolabella, who was with Csefar, fent a Letter to 
Cicero into Pompey's Camp, exhorting him, 
" that if Pompey ftiould be driven from thefe 
" quarters, to feek fome other Country, he would 
" fit down quietly at Athens, or feny City itmotc 
" froth the war : that it was time to think of his 
" own fafety, and be a friend to himfelf, rather 
." than to others, that he had now ftHty fatisfied 
" his duty, his friendihip, and hib engagements to 
u that party, which he had efpoufed in the Re- 
" public : that there was nothing left* but to be, 
" where the Republic itfclf now was, rather than 

['] . Defptrmt vi&orUm, ingteffum in fermenefel Pom* 

primsm ccepi fuadere pacem, prims iaterpellavit, & loaui 

cujus fueram Temper au&or ; plura prohibuit. Quid mini, 

deinde cam ab ea fententia inquit, aut vita aut civitate 

Pompciw Yalde ttbhorr eret. optls eft, qttam be&gficio Cae- 

Ep» Farti. 7. 5.' fans habere videbor? Csf. 

Y ibttllius ^— de Caefaris Coin m, 3. 596. 
snandatis agere inftituit;. earn 


ofM. fULLlVS CICERO. ±w 

c< by following that ancient one to be in none at A. Urb. ;pj. 
4C all — ft and that Casfar would readily approve Qi qJ?' 
€i this conduA f/1 :" but the war took a quite c. Julius^ 
different turn; and inftead of Pompefs running Oesar «„ 
away from 'Djrrbacbitm^ Oefar, by an unexpeft- p - Servili- 
cd defeat before It, was forced to retire the firft; is AV ltcvt. 
and leave to Pompey the crectft pf purfuing him^ 
as ,oi a kind ef $ight towards ^facedonia. 

While the two armies were thus employed ^ 
Caslius, now. Praetor at Rome, trufting to his 
power* aqd the fUccefs of his party, began to 
publifh feveral Violent and odious laws, efpecially 
one for the cancelling of all debts [g\: Thb raifed 
a great flame in the City, till he was over-ruled 
and depofed from his magiftracy by the ConfuJ 
Servilius, ^nd th'e Senate: but being made defpe- 
rate by this affront, he recalled, Milo from his 
cxil at Marfeilles, whom Caefar had rcfufed to 
reftore ; and, In concert with hirri^ refolved to' ' 

raife fame public commotion in favor of Pompey. 
In this difpqfftion he wrote his lafr Letter to Ci- 
cero; in wh(ch, after an account of his conver- 
sion, and the fervice which he was proje&vng, 
** You are aflfeep, %s he, and do not know how 
€< open and weak we are here : what are yoy do- 
" ing ? are ypu waiting for a battel, which is 
€€ fure to be agdinft you ? I am not acquainted 
<c with your troops ; but ours have been long ufed 
" to fight hard > and to bear cold $nd hunger with 

[/*] Iliad autem a te peto, ei Reipob, quam ta probabas 

ut, fi jam ille evitaverit hoc Reliquum eft, ubi nunc eft 

perkulom, Sc fe aUdidcrk in Refpub. ibi fimus porius, 

claftero, ta tais rebus confu- quam dam veterem illam fe* 

las: & aliquando tibi potius quamur> fimus in nulla. Ep. 

quam cuivis, lis amicus. Sa- Fam. 9. 9. ' 
tis fattum eft jam a tc vel [g ] Csef. Comment, 3. 

officio, vel familiaritati ; fa- 600. 
tisfadum etiam partibos, & 

« ea%. 

3©o The History of the Life 

A. Urb. 705. " eafe [£]." But this disturbance, which began 

C r* P' t0 ^ rm •" **%.» was f°° n ended by the death 
C. Jut iv s °^ t ' lc Authors of it, Milo and Cselius •, who 

Cjesar II. perifhed in their rafli attempt, being deftroyed 

P. SuviLi- by the foldiers, whom they were endeavouring 

us Vatia t0 debauch. They had both attached themfclves 

iauricus. yCF y car jy tQ t ^ c j ntcrc (j s W( j t jj C authority of 

Cicero, and were qualified ,by their parts and for- 
tunes to have made a principal figure in the Re- 
public, if they had continued in thofc fentiments, 
and adhered to his advice •, but their paffions, 
pleafures, and ambition got the afcendant •, .and 
through a factious and turbulent life hurried 
them on to this wretched fate. 

All thoughts of peace being now laid alide, 
Cicero's next advice to Pompey was, to draw the 
war into length, nor ever to give Csefar the op- 
portunity of a battel. Pompey approved this 
counfil, and purfued it for fome time, till he 
gained the advantage above-mentioned before 
Dyrrhachium ; which gave him fuch a confidence 
in his own troops, apd fuch a contempt of Car- 
fair's, * ft that from this moment, fays Cicero, 
" this great man ceafed to be a General ; op- 
c * pofed a raw, new-raifed army, to the moft. 
" robuft and veteran Legions •, was fhamefully 
c( beaten «, and, with the lofs of his Camp, forced 
cc to fly away {done [*]." 

[£] Vos dormitis, nee haee Pompeios valde abhorreret, 

adhuc mihi videinini intelli- fuadere inftitui, utbellumdu- 

gere, quam nos pateamtu, & ceret : hoc interdum probabat 

quam nmus imbecilli— rqaid, & in ea feotcmia videbacur 

, iftic facitis? praeliura expec* fore,&fuiffetfortaiTe,nifiqua- 

tatis, quod firmiflimum eft > dam ex pugna coepiffet militi- 

vcftras eopias non novi. Nof- bus fuis confidere. Exeotem- 

tri valde depugnare, & facile pore vir iUe fummus null us 

algere & efurire confaeverint. Imperator fuit : vidua turpif- 

Ep. Fam. 8. 17. lime, emiflis etiam caftris, fo? 

[i] Cum ab e« fententia to fugit. Ep, Fam. 7. 3. 



d/M.TULLiUS C ICE HO. 301 

Had Cicero's advice been followed, Defer A/Urb^oj. 
muft inevitably have been ruined : for Pompey's C ^£ 9 * 
fleet would have cut off all fupplies from him by c . j ULIUS 
fea ; and it was not poffible for him to fubfift long Cjeia*. I{. 
at land; while an enemy, fuperior in number of P- Sirviu: 
troops, was perpetually haraffing him, and wafc- ^^cwt. 
ing the country: and the report every where 
fpread of his flying from Dyrrhachium before a 
victorious army, which was purfuing him, made 
his march every way the more difficult, and the' 
people of the country more fhy of affifting him : 
till the defpicable figure, that he feemed to. make, 
raifed fuch an impatience for fighting* and afiu- 
rance of vi&ory in thePompeian chiefs, as drew 
them to the fatal refolution of giving him battel 
at Pharfalia. There was another motive likewife 
fuggefted to us by Cicero, which feems to have 
had no fmall influence in determining Pompey 
to this unhappy ftep ; his fuperftitious regard to 
cmens i and the admonitions of Diviners \ to which 
his nature wasfirongly addifted* The Harufpices 
were all on lys fide, and flattened him with eve- 
ry thing that was profperous t and befides thofe 
in his own camp, the whole fraternity of them 
at Rome were fending him perpetual accounts of 
the fortunate and aufpiciousfignjfUations which they 
bad obfervedin the entrails of their victims \k\. - 
But after all, it muft needs be owned, that 
Pompey had a very difficult part toad, and much 
lefs liberty of executing what he himfelf ap- 
proved, than in all the other wars, in which he 
had been eitgaged. In his wars againft foreign 

, [&] Hoc civili bello, Dif dida Pompeio? etenim 

unmortales ! — - quse nobis ille admodum extis. & often- 

in Grasciam Roma* refponfa tis movebatur. De Div. 2. 

Harufpicum mifla flint ? quae 24. 


j02 $&e HiSTft R V *f the Life 

A. Urb.705. enemies^ his power wasabfelute, and althk mo- 

C r'i/^' tjons depended on hteown will-, but in this, be- 

Q. £°tius **** ***"* x "*g 9 art ** Pwriees of the Eaft, who 

Casar II. attended him in perforf, ht bad with him kihis 

P. Shrvili- Camp altti&ft all the chtef M&giftrates atodSena- 

8 *who h$d commanded arrnfos; aijd ebtained'tri- 
utnpta, find expected d (hare in all his counfiis, 
and that in their e^mMtxi danger, no frep fhouM 
betaken,* but by tteir iommoa advice: and as 
they were wider na engagement to his eaufe, but 
what wisl voluntary, fe they were neceflarily to 
be humordd, left through-dlfguft they QiavM de- 
fort it. Now thefe were all uncafy in' their pre- 
fent fituaeion, and lclftged ti> be at home in the 
enjoyment ©£ their eftates and henors; and hav- 
ing a confidence of victory from the number of 
th^ir troops, and the reputation of their Leader, 
were perpetually teizing Pdmpey to the refolution 
of a battel •, charging Tiim wi'th a defign to pro- 
traft the war, for the fake of perpetuating his au- 
thority; ahd calting him another Agamemnon, 
who was proud of folding fo many Kings and Gene- 
rals under bis command [/] ; till, being unable to 
withftand their reproaches any longer, he was 
driven by a kind of fhame, and againft his judge- 
ment, to the experiment of a decifive a&ion. 

Caesar was fenflble of Porftpey's difficulty, 
and perfuaded, that he could not fupport the in- 
dignity of [hewing himfelf afraid of fighting ; and 

(Vl Ka) %r1 rals cevrbv /3«- Mflitcs Otiam, focil mo- 

*i**x £ . Aycctx.iiJ.vovx xa^hv- ram, Principes ambitam do- 
t*w» Zn xxxefvO' Bwihfat. qu in Q?.ep*8a»t. Hor. I. 4. 

3<« t$» vokfaoy fa%%9 i H'e& 2. DlQ. p. 1S5. Hut. « 

rmv 04xstcof hoy«yy&Vi ^ li»f$«r Pomp 
Hfvavrotq* App. p. 470 



from that aflurance expofed himfclf often more A. Urb. 705. 
ralhly than prudence prould otherwife juftify : for c £- 59» 
his befieging Pompey at Dyrrhachium* who was c Junius 
matter or the lea, which fupplied every thing to cvesa* IL 
him that was wanted, while his own army was P. Sbrvili- 
ftarving at land ; and the attempt to block up i* AV V * T y K 
entrenchments fo widely extended, with much 
fmaller numbers than were employed to defend 
them, muft needs be thought rafli and extrava- 
gant, were it not for the expectation of drawing 
Pompey by it to a general engagement : for when 
he could not gaia that end, his perfeverance in 
the liege had like to have ruined him, and would 
inevitably have done fo, if he had not quitted it, 
as he himfclf afterwards owned [«*]. 

It muft be obferved likewife, that, while Pom- 
pey had any walls or entrenchments between him 
andCabfar, not all Caeftr's vigor, nor the courage 
of his veterans, could gain the leaft advantage 
againft him 5 but on the contrary, that Csefar was 
baffled and difappointed in every attempt. Thus 
at Brundifium he could make no impreffion upon 
the Town, till Pompey at full leifure had fecur- 
ed his retreat, and embarked his troops : and at 
Dyrrhachium, the onely confiderablea£tion,which 
happenecj between them, was not onely difadvan- 
tageous, but almoft fatal to him.Thus far Pompey 
certainly (hewed himfelf the greater Captain, in 
mot buffering a force, which he could not refill in 


[m] Caefar pro natara fe- patente maria omntbat copiis 

rox, > & conficiendae rci capi- abondarent ?) nunc expugna* 

dus, oftentare aciera, provo- done Dyrrhachii irrita, &c. 

care, laceffere ; nunc obfidi- Flor. 1. 4. c 2. 

one caftrornm, quae fedecim 'OfioAtfyc/ rt y.Cxyiv»extiP 

ffiilliom vallo obduxerat ; (fed vpbq &vfia%(* tyc&QTtUvw 

quid his obeilct obfidio, qui &c. App. p. 468; 

Vol- It X the 

304 The H 1 s t o k y of the Life 

A. Urb. 705* the field to do him any hurt, or cany any point 
C r' & 9 ' a g a "^ h* m » ^ ncc thft depended on the flail of 

C. Julius ^ c General. By the help of entrenchments he 
Cjesar 11. knew how to make bis new raifed foldiers a 

F. Servili- match for Csefar's Veterans 5 but when he was 

us Vat 1 a f j rawn t0 encounter him on the open plain, he 
sauricits. f^gf^ a g a * m ft infuperable odds, by deferring bis 
proper arms, as Cicero fays, of caution, counfil, 
and authority f in which berwasfuperior, and commit- 
ting bis fate to /words andjpears, and bodily ftrengtb* 
in which bis enemies far excelled him [»]. 

Cicero was not prefent ac the battel of Phar- 
felia, but was left behind at Dyrrhachium much 
out of humor, as well as out of order : his dis- 
content to fee all things going wrong on that fide, 
and contrary to his advice, had brought upon him 
an ill habit of body, and weak ftate of health ; 
which made him decline all public command; but 
he promifed Pompey to follow, and continue with 
him as foon as his health permitted [0] ; and as 
a pledge of his finceruy, fent his fon in the mean 
while along with him, who, though very young, 
behaved himfelf gajlandy, and acquired great ap- 
plaufe by his dexterity of riding and throwing tbeja- 
velin, and performing every other part of milita- 
ry difcipline at the head of one qf the wings of 

** [«] Non iis rcbm jrcgpa* [0 Ipfe fogi adhvc <mve 

bamus, qurbus valcre potent- munus, eo magb, quod ni- 

mus, confilio, aultaritate, hil ita poterat agi, nt mibi k 

•caufa, qua? erant m nobis (u- -meis rebus aptumjeflet— me 

periora ; fed lacertis & ?irU conficit ibliicitudo; *x qua 

but, qaibus pares non fuimua, etiam fumma infiEmitas .cor* 

Ep. Fam. 4. 7. poris ; qua levata, ,ero 

Dolebamque pilis & gla- co, qui jwgOMum gerit, eft- 

diis, nonconfiiiis nequeaoc- que in magna ipe— «ad Alt. 

toritatibus noftris de jure pub- xi, 4, 
lico difceptari— Ep. FaiD.6,1. 


Horfe, efwhifh Pompey had given him the torn- A. Urb. 705. 
mand\p\ Cato ftaid behind alfo in the Camp Cic. 59. 
at Dyrrfiachiqm, which be commanded with fif- c T Cq<r# 
teen Cohorts, When Labienus brought them the c^A* *it. 
neyvs of J?ompey's defeat; upon which Cato of- p. Sbrvjm- 
fered the command to Gicero as the fuperior in us Vatia 
dignity; and upon his refufal of it, as Plutarch lsAVKlcy u 
tells us 4 young ?ompey was fo enraged, that be 
'Arevfbis fword 7 and would have killed him upon the 
fpot, if Cato bad not prevented it. This fed is 
not mentioned by Cicero, yet feems to be refer- 
red to in his fpeech for Marcellus, where he fays, 
that in the very war 9 be bad teen a perpetual offer- 
tor of peace, to the hazard even of bis life [q]< 
But the wretched news from Pharfalia threw them 
all into fuch a confirmation, that they prefently 
took (hipping, and dilperfed themfelves feverally, 
as their hopes or inclinations led them, into the dif- 
ferent provinces of the Empire [r]. The great- 
eft part who were determined to renew the war, 
went diredly into Afric, the general rendezvous 
of their fcattered forces: whilft others, who 
were difpofed to expeft the farther iflue of things, 
and take fuch meafures as fortune offered, retir- 
ed to Achaia : but Cicero was refolved to make 
this the end of the war to himfelf\ and recom- 
mended the fame condudt to his friends : declar- 

[p] Quo tamen in bello ^ [?] Malta de pace dixi, & 

cam te Pompeius alae alteri in ipfo bello, eadem etiam 

pnefeciiTet, magnam laadem cum capitis mei periculo fenfi. 

& a fammo viro & ab cxer- Pro Marcell. 5. 

citu confequebare, equitando, [r] Paucis (ane poft die* 

,jiculan46, imni militari la- bus ex Pbarfalica fuga veniftb 

bore tolerando: atque ea Labtenum: qui cum interi- 

quidem tua lans pariter cum turn exercitus nunciaviflet.— 

Repub. cecidit. be Offic. 2. naves Aibito perteniti con- 

13. fcendiftis. DeDivin. 1.32, 

X 2 ing, 

306 , T& Hi story of the Life 

A. Urb. 705. ing, that as they had been no match far Cajar^ when 
Cic. 59. intire^ they could not hope to beat hm y wbenjhat- 

C fuuvs tere * an ^ ^ ro ^ en M : anc * ^° ?^ tcr a miferable 
Casar II. campaign of about eighteen months, he commit- 

P. SERviLi-tcd himfelf without hefitation to the mercy of 
ys Vatia t h c Conqueror, and landed again at Brundifium 
18 AUR,CU8 - about the endof Oaober. 

[1] Hunc ego belli mihi fia&oi (■periores fore, £p. 
finem feci ; nee patavt, cam Fam. 7. 3. 
integri pare* noa fuifiemus, 


of M. T&ZLIUS CICERO. 307 


CICERO no fooner returned to Italy, than A.Urb, 706. 
he began to re9e&, that he had been too Cic, 6p. 

hafty in coming home, Ipefore the war was de- ^ T Coff - 

'• , j «t • • j-. 1 C.Julius 

termined, and without any invitation from the cJesar 

Conqueror; and in a time of that general licence, Di&ator IT. 
had reafon to apprehend fomeinfult from the fol- M * Anto- 
diers, if he ventured to appear in public with bis £"[? Ma * - 
Fafces and Laurel; and yet to -drop them, would 
be a diminution of that honor, which he had re- 
ceived from the Roman people, and the acknow- 
ledgement v of a power fuperior to the laws : be 
condemned bimfelf therefore for not continuing a- 
broady in fome convenient place of retirement, till 
be bad been fent for > or things were better fet- 
tled [*]. What gavie him the greater reafon to 
repent of this ftep was, a meffage that be received , 
from Antony j who governed all in Caefar's ab- 
fence, and with the fame churlifh fpirit, with 
which he would have held him before in Italy 
againft his will, leemed now difpofed to drive 
Urn out of it ; for he fent him tbe copy of a Letter 
from Cafar, in which Cselar fignified, " that he 
" had heard, that Cato and Metellus were at . 
" Rome, and appeared qpenly there, which 
" might occafion fome difturbance: wherefore 

[/] Ego vero & incaute, iiflem: minus accepifleffl do- 

ut (cribis, & celerius qoam loris : ipfnra hoc non me an. 

oportoit, feci, &c. Ad Att. gcrct. Brandifii jacere in 

M. 9. ojnnes partes eft moleffom. 

Quire 'voluntatis me meae Propius accedere, ut fuades, ? ; • 

nunquam pcenitcbit, confilii quomodo fine lidoribus, quot •* 

pcenitet. In oppido aliqoo populus dedit, poflum? qui 

nullem" refediffe, quoad ar- mihi incolumi adimi non 

ceflerer. Minus fermonii fub- poflunt. Ad Att. xi. 6. 

X? « he 

J0&- flfite.H itr 6kY of tbe Life 

A.Urb.706. u he ftriftly injoined, that none (hould be fuf* 

C r'ir ' " k rcc * t0 come t0 ^ ta 'y without a fpecial licence 
C.Julivs V from himfelf. Antony theifefdre defired Ci- 
Cjesai Die-'* cero to excufe him f fince he could not help 

tatorll. *' obeying Caslar'a commands: but Cicero fent 

W *i A $"m " L# Lamia to *«•"»! that Ca2&r **d o rdc,v 
Pirtt Eg '* ^ Ddatodk to write to him to come to Italy 
V - ' as foon as he pkafed $ and that he came upon 

" the authority of Dolabella'a Letter :" Jo that 
Antony in the Edift, which he publifhed to *x* 
elude the Pempeians from Italy, excepted Citer* ty 
flame 2 which added ftill to his mortification v 
fince all his defirc was to be connived at onely, 
or tacitly permitted, without being perfmeitf diflw* I 
fttijhedfrom the reft ef bis party [u]. * 

JJ u t he had fevcral other grievances of a do* I 
taeftic kind, which concurred, alio to make him 
unhappy : his Brother Quintus,*ith his Son, after 
their efcape from Pharlalia, followed Casfaf iAco 
Alia, to obtain* their pardon from him in perfon. 
Quincus had particular reafon to be afraid of has 
rdjcntmenr, on accdunt of the relation which he 
had born to him, as one of his Lieutenants 
in Gaul, where he had been treated by hird with 
great generofity* fo th*t Cicero bitoftif vwtld 
have dsjjuaded him from geiqg Ovet to Pmpey, tut 
<vu!d not prevail: yet in this common calamity, 
Quintus, in order ty make bis own peace the 
more eafiJy, rcfoived ta. throw all the bfamg 
upon his Brother, and for that purpofe made it 

[*] Sed quid ego de lidta* palam, Arc. Tdm iile fldi~> 

ribus, qui p*nc ex Italia de- xit ita, ntme tocjpefet &Xe*- . 

ccdere urn juffus } nam ad rat lium nominatim. Quod fane, 

mifit Antoaius excmplttnff nellem. . Pdteiat enhn £ae 

£»fcris ad ie literarum* in nomine, re ipfa exripn Q 

quibus crat, fe aodifle, Ca» muleas entree offenfiones J-«* 

{ooem & L. MeteiUm k It** ib, 7 



the fubje&of alibis Letters and Speeches to Gefar's A. Urb. 706Y. 
friends, to rail at bim in a manner the moft inbu- cic - 6 °. 

<*»>**» Coir. 

Cicero was informed of this from all quarters, Cjbsar Ok- 
and that young Quintos, who was fent before to- tator II. 
wards Ca&far, bad read an oration to Ms friends, M - A *]? m 
<tobicb be bad prepared to /peak to bim again/this £*™ u * 
Uncle. Nothing, as Cicero fays, ever happened 
more flocking to bim\ and though he had nofmall 
diffidence of Caefar's inclination, and many ene- 
mies labouring to do him ill offices, yet his greatv 
eft concern was, left his Brother and Nephew 
lhould hurt themfelves rather than him, by their 
perfidy (#]. For under all the fenfe of this pro- 
vocation his behaviour was juft the reverie of 
theirs: and having been informed, tbatC*farin 
a certain conwfation, bad charged bis Brother <#itb 
being the (fflbor of their going away to Pompey? he 
tookoccafidn to write to him in the following 
terms : 

c * As for my Brother, I am not left felicitous 
" for his fefety, than my own ; but in my pre- 
44 fent fkuation dare not venture to recommend 
« c him to you : all that I can pretend to, is, to 
" beg that you will AOtr believe him to have ever 
** done any thing towards obftrudting my good 
4< offices? ami affection to you % but rather, that 

f*l OS'titu* mifit filiam — ipfi enim illi pntavi per* 

son Johim M deprtcatorem, nidofnm fore, fi ejus hoe % 

4cd etiam accafatorem mei— taatum fcelas percrebuiiTet— 

neque vero defiftet, ubican- ib. 9. 

2ae «ft omm* in me mate* Qointom filiam— votonien 

idn confine. Nihil mihl fibi oftendifle orationis, quant 

anqaam- tarn incredibile ac- apud Caefarem contra me cf- 

cidif, nihil in his malis tarn fet habiturus — malta podea 

ace>bum*— ibid. 8. Patrig, confimili fcelere Pa* 

Epiftolasmihi legeruntple- trem effet locutom, ib. 10. 
naj omnium in me probror urn 

-,-. X4 "he 

3io The History of the Life 

A. Urb. 706. " he was klways the ad viler of our union, and 

Cic. 60. « the companion, not the leader of my voyage: 

C ?vivt " wherefore in all other refpedts, I leave it to 

Cjesar " you to treat him, as your own humanity, and 

Didator II. " his friendfhip with you require -, but I entreat 

M. A "?? m " you in the moft preffing manner* that I may 

Equiu " not ^ ^ c cau ^ c °* tuning ^ m with you onany 
* " account whatfoever [y y 

He found himfelf likewife at this time in ibme 
diftrefs for want of money, which in that feafon 
of public diftradfcion, it was very difficult to pro* 
cure, either by borrowing or felling : the fuipm, 
which he advanced to Pompey, had drained him : 
and his wife, by her indulgence to ftewards, and 
favorite fervants, had made great wafte of what 
was left at hpme: and inftead of faving any 
thing from their rents, had plunged him deeply 
into debt •,. fo that Atticus's purfc w*s tfce chief 
fund which .he had to. trail tofor hU prefept fup* 
port [»]. 

Th% conduct of Dol?bella was a farther mor- 
tification to him * who by the fi&ion of an adop- 
tion into a plebeian family, had obtained the tri- 
bunate ,.this year, and was railing great tumults 
and diforders in Rome, by a law, which he pub- 
liihed, to expunge all debts. Law$ of that kind 
had been often attempted by defperate tor ambi- 
tious Magistrates; but were always detefted by the 
better fort, and particularly by Cicero, who treats 
them as pernicious to the pact and profperity of 

[y] Com mihi litters a fit, nnde nobis fnppeditentur 

Balbo xninore miffae eflent, fumtus neceflarii. Si qoai 

Caefarem exiftimare, Quin- habuimusfacultatci , eas Pom- 

turn Fratrem lituum mete pro* pcio, turn, cam id videba* 

ftaionit fuiffe, fie cnim fcrip- mur fapientcr facere, detali- 

££-*-ad Ait, xi. ia. mas. lb. 13, ?, **, &c. 

fzj Vclim confiderej ut 


of M. rULLIUS CICERO. 3 u 

ftates, and fapping the very foundations of civil So* A.Urb.706. 
defy, by deftr eying all faith andcredit among men [a\ m Cic. 6o. 
No wonder therefore that we find him taking this c f offm 
affair fo much to heart, and complaining fo hea- ca»a"d!c- 
vily, in many of his Letters to Atticus, of the tatorIL 
famed a8s of bis Son-in-law, as an additional fource M. A* jo. 
4a$itlimanddifgrcuetohim\b\ Dolabellawas J™ 5 m * 
greatly embarrafled in his fortunes, and while he 
was with Casfar abroad, feems . to have left his 
wife deftitute of neceffaries at home, and forced 
to recur to-her Father for her fubfiftence. Cicero 
likewife, either through the difficulty of the times, 
or for want of a fufficicnt fettlement on Dolabel- 
la's part, had not yet paid all her fortune j which 
it was ufual to do at three different payments, with- 
in a time limited by law: he had difcharged the 
two firft, and was now preparing to make the third 
payment, which he frequently and preffingly re- 
commends to the care of Atticus [c]. But Dola- 
bella's whole life and character were fo entirely 
contrary to the manners and temper both of Ci- 
cero and Tullia, that a divorce enfued between 
them not long after, though the account of it is 
delivered fo darkly, that it is hard to fay at what 
time, or from what fide it firft arofe, 

[«J Nee enim nlla res ve- horreo, prasfertimkpc genera 

bemcDtius Rempub. continet, — ib. 14. i$ r &c. 

quam fides; qua efle nulla [r] Dedotc, quod fcribis, 

poteft, nifi erit neceflaria fo- per omnes Deoa te ©bteftor, 

kitie rerusi. <rredicari#n» &c at totam rem fufcipias, & il* 

de Offic. 2. 24. * lam miferam mea culpa*—— 

[*] Quod me audis badi* taeare meis opibus, fi quae 

oretyefle animoj quid putas, font* tun, quibo* tibi noa 

cum videas acceffiifead fupc- moleftom . tat facultaubiu. 

riores segriturjines praeclajat Ib. xi. 2. 

geoeriaaioncs?— ad Att. xi. De penfione ajte*a, orotc, 

iz, omnicQim coofideraquid far 

Etfi omnium confpe&um ciendum fit.*~ib. xi. 4. 


3i* T&HistC*? of the L$e 

A. Urk 706. In thefe circumftanccs Tullia paid her father' 

dc 60. a vifit at Brundifiumon the thirteenth of June: 

Goff ' .but h« great love for her made their meeting 

C^ar Die- onc ty *** morc a ^^ tt g to him in that abje& 

tatof II. ftate of iheir fortunes: 4( I was for far, fays he, 

M. A»to- .«c ft^ taking that pteafare Which I ought to 

tVit MaR * ** ^ ave c * onc f ron1i, t ' ac vfotwe, hwitamty, and pU 
* tt '' iC ety of an excellent daughter,, that I was ex- 
M ceedingfy grkved tb fee fo defetving a Crea- 
" torte iff fuch aw unhappy condition, not by her 
•* OWA, bat tthofty by my feok : I few no rea^> 
" (on t&erefore for keeping her longer here, in 
(< fhi$ our commow ^ffliftion : but was witting » 
" fetid her back to hefr mother as foon as ffie 
** would content to it [d]. n 
Ac 8*ui$difiuu* he reeeived the nerfs of Pom- 

pey's dea*h, which did not forprife him, as we 
find fwtti the fttort re&oftion that he makes upon 
»: u A* to Pdmpey'sertd,. fays he* I never had 
'* anydettbc abaft it: for the loft and defperate 
♦* ffote of hi* affairs had fa poflefied the minds 
" of ail the king* and ftatetf abroad, that wfci- 
" therfawer he- went, I took vt for granted: that 
" this wuuld brhis face: I cannot however help 
" grieving^ it* for I knewhimtobeanhoneft, 
" grave, and worthy man [e]. n 
Tars Wte the flwrr and true efutfafter of the 

£/f Tutftt nftte ** fte Vis [>] De Pompeii exitumihf 

nit prid. Pd. Jufr.— Eg© att- dubium- nttnqtiain fuit: tanta 

tem e* tpTmtf virtue*, Mtaftfe* cnim defperafifo rerum eja$ 

lwafte, pietatc #on-ntode eaitf omnium Kegum & popnlc- 

voluptatcm iiem ctfpi, (JiiflBi rum aniraos occupant, tit 

capere e*fiftgufefl fifia^debui, cfuocuitque veniflet, hoc pu-> 

fed etiam incredibil* fufttdo* earem futurum. Nott pofium 

lfere affe&ov tale fog&Mbm ejus cafum non -doiere : bo- 

ia tam ftrifera for tuna verfafri. minem enim integrum & ca& 

— ib. xh 1^7. Ep. Fam. *^ t turn & gravem cognovi. Ad 

11. Att. xi. 6. 


o/M.rULLIUS CICERf). 31 j 

man fronjioncwhopcrfedly knew him; not heigh* a. Orb. 70& 
tented, as we ibmetimes find it, by the finning co- Cic. 60* 
lars of his eloquence; nor depreffed by the darker ^ , c<,ff \ 
ftrobes of W^rcfcmtnent. Pornpcy had earW £>™ %+ 
quired the fur name of the Gr<at 9 by that fort or me* two* II. 
rit T which r from the confutation of the Republic, M. A "*°"'. 
neceflkrily made him Gub at •, a feme and fuccefe 1"^. ^ 
in war, foperior to what Rome had ever known £ ^ 
in the moft celebrated of her Generals. He had 
triumphed at three feveral times over the three 
different parts of the known world* Europe* 
Afia, Africa, and by his victories had alnnoft 
doobied the extent, as well as the refemiesf of 
the Roman dominiort ; for as he declared to the 
people 6H his return from the Mitbridatic war, 
be bad found the Leffer Afia the boundary, but left 
it $bt middle of their Empire. He was about Jin* 
years older than C*far - y and while Casfar mwnerfed 
inpieafares, opprefled with debts, and fufpt&ed 
by all honeft men, was hardly able tafhewhrs 
bead; Pompey was fiorifhing in the height of 
power and glory, and by the confent *f aU pas- 
ties placed at the head of the Republic This: 
was the poft that his ambition feemed to akn at, 
to be the firft man in Rome* the leader, not the 
Tyrant of bis Country : for he more than once had 
it in his pofwer to have Made himfelf the matter 
of it without any rifle , if his virtue or hia phlegm 
atteafthadnotrcftrained him: bat be lived ma > 

perpetual expe&atkm of receiving from the gift 
of the people, what he did not care toferze by 
force ; and by fomenting the difofdro df the 
City, hoped to drive them to the necfcffitytf 
creating him Di&ator. It is an observation of ail 
the hiftoriins, that while Cafer made 110 dif- 
ference of power, whether it was conferred at 
Hfurped: whether over theft who loved, ortbefewb* 
1 feared 

314 S'be Hi st or y of the Life 

A. Urb.706. feared bim\ Pompey feemed to value none but 
Cic. 60. w h at was offered ; nor to have any defire to govern^ 
q ju^us bit with the good will of the governed. What lei- 
Cjesa* Aire he found from his wars, he employed in the 
Diaator IL ftudy of polite Letters, and efpecially of elo- 
*** A 3 K mV <l ucncc * '• which be would have acquired great 
Equit. * 8 fame 9 if his genius bad not drawn him to the more 
dazzling glory of arms : yet he pleaded feveral 
caufes with applaufe, in the defence of his friends 
and clients ; and fome of them in conjun&ion with 
Cicero. His language was copious and elevated ; 
his fentiments juft •> his voice fweet ; his aftion 
noble, and full of dignity. But his talents were 
better formed for arms, than the gown: for 
chough in both he obferved the fame difcipline, 
a perpetual modefty, temperance, and gravity of 
outward behaviour ; yet in the licence of camps, 
the example was more rare and {hiking. His 
perfon was extremely graceful!, and imprinting 
refped: 5 yet with an air of referve and haughti- 
fiefs, which became the General better than the 
Citizen, His parts were plaufible, rather than 
# great; fpecious rather than penetrating ; and his 

view of politics but narrow-, for his chief inftru- 
ment of governing was, diffmulation\ yet he had 
not always the art to conceal his real foitiments. • 
As he was a better foldier than a ftatefman, fo 
what he gained in the Camp he ufually loft in the 
City ; and though adored, when abroad, was of- 
ten affronted and mortified at home ; till the im- 
prudent oppofition of the Senate drove him to 
that alliance with Craflus andCsefar, which prov- 
ed fatal both to himfelf and the Republic. He 
took in thefe two, not as the partners, but the 
minifters rather of his power ; that by giving 
them fome fhare with him, he might make his 
own authority uncontroulable : he had no reafon 


of M. fULLIUS CICERO. 315 

to apprehend, that they could ever prove his Ri- A. Urb. 706. 
vals 5 fince neither of them had any credit or Cl E^ *J?- 
chara&er of that kind, which alone could raife c. j ULI ug 
them above the laws ; a fuperiorfame and expe- Cjesar 
riencq in war, with the militia of the empire at 1 J )ldator rr * 
their devotion: all this was purely his own 5 till ^ # ^T?" 
by cherifhing Caefar, and throwing into his hands jl^Lt. *** 
the onely thing which he wanted, arms and mili- 
tary command ; hp made him at lad: too ftrong 
for himfelf, and never began to fear him, till it 
was too late: Cicero warmly difluaded both his 
union and bis breach with Cafar ; and after the 
rupture, as warmly ftill, the thought of giving 
him battel : if any of thefe counfils had been fol- 
lowed, Pompey had preferved his life and honor, 
and the Republic its liberty. But he was urged 
to his fate by a natural fuperftition, and atten- 
tion to thofe vain auguries, with which he was 
flattered by all the Harufpices : he had feen the 
fame temper in Marius and Sylla, and obferved 
the happy eflfe&s of it : but they afTumed it one- 
ly out of policy, he out of principle. They 
ufed it to animate thiir foldiers, when they had § 

found a probable opportunity of fighting ; but 
he, againft all prudence and probability, was en- 
couraged by it to fight to his own ruin. He faw 
all his miftakes at laft, when it was out of his 
power to corredt them; and in his wretched 
flight from Pharfalia was forced to confefs, that 
he had trujled too much to bis hops *, and that Ci- 
cero bad judged better •, and feen farther into t things 
than be. The refoliition of feeking refuge in 
fegypt, finiflied the fad Cataftrophe of this great 
man : the Father of the reigning Prince had been 
highly obliged to him for his prote&ion at Rome, 
and restoration to his kingdom : and the Son had 
fent a confiderable fleet to his afliftancc in the 


3i6 TbeHisr ory of the Life 

A. UrK 706. prdent war: but in this ruin of his fortune*, 

Cic. 60. what gratitude was there Co be expe&ed from a 

c °ff- Court, governed by Eunuch and Mercenary Greeks? 

CjbsaVdIc-^ whofe politics turned, not on the honor of 
tator II. the King, but the eftabiilhmeftt of their own 

M# An m°" P° wer » w hi c h was likely to be eclipfed by the 
Eqafc. s 'admiffion of Pompey. How happy had it been 
for him to have died in that ficknefs, when all 
Italy was putting up vows and prayers for bis fafe- 
tyf or if he had fallen by the chance of war on 
the plains of Pharfalia, in the defence of his 
Country's liberty, he had died (till glorious, 
though unfortunate : but, as if he had been re- 
ferved for an example of the inftability of human 
GreatneJs, he, who a few days before command- 
ed Kings and Confuls, and all the nobleft of Rome, 
was fentenced to die by a council ofjaves ; mur- 
thered by a bafe defertor ; caft out naked and head- 
lefs on the Egyptian ftrand 5 and when the whole 
earthy as Velleius fays, bad fcarce been fufficient 
for bis vitiorics, could not find ajpot upon it atlajt 
for a grave. His Body was burnt on the ftore 
by one of his freedmen, with the planks of an 
old fifhing-boat ; and his afbes being conveyed to 
Rome, were depofited privately by bis wife Cor- 
nelia in a Vault of bis Alban Villa. The Egyp- 
tians however raifed a monument to him on the 
place, and adorned k with figures ofbrafs, which 
being defaced afterwards by time, and buried aU 
moft in fand and rubbijh, was fought out and re- 
stored by the Emperor Hadrian [/]. 

if] Hujus viri faftigium dem faceret mpppmenta vie- 

tantia anaibus fortuaa extqlit, torfe. [Veil. P. 2. 40.] Ot 

Ot primom ex Africa, ke- ipfe in conci^&e dixit,— Afi- 

rom tx Europa, tertio ex A- am ckimam pmviociarwn 

fia triampharct : £ quot par- accepiffe, mediam patriae red- 

CC8 tenrarum Orbw font, toti* didifle. [Plii. H. 7. a6. Flar. 


0/M. <tUL L IUS C IC ER 0. 3 17 

On the news of Pompey*s death, Cafar wasA.TJrb. 7^.6. 
declared DiQapar the ftcond time in bis abfence* Cic. 60. 

and,™- ■ 

C. Julius 
C/esar Die- 

piffet, quae ego ante inulto tatorlJ. 

provideram pads, concor-M. Avto* 

diae, compofitionis au&or «f- ni us Mag. 

jfe non deititi ; mcaque ilia Equiu 

3. 5.] Potentbe quae honoris 
causa, ad cum deferretur, non 
at ab co 'ocenparetur, cupi- 
diffimos. £Vell. P. 2. 29. 
Dio. p. 17$.] Meqs autem 
aqualis Cn. Pompeius, vir ad 
omnia Sum ma natus, roajo- 
rem dicendi gloriara hajbuif- 
fet, nifi cum majojris glorias 
cupiditas ad bellicas faudes 
abftraxiffet. Erat oratione fa- 
tis amplus: iem prudenter 
videbat: a&favero ejus ha- 
bebat 8c in voce magnum 
fplendorcm, & in motu fum- 
mam dignitatem. [Brat. 3^4. 
tvid. it. pro Balbo. 1,2.] For- 
ma excel(ens, non ca, qua 
flos commendatur setatis, fed 
ex dignitate conftanti. [Veil. 
B. 2. 29.] Ulud 08 probum, 
ipfumque honore eximiae 
fronds. [Plin. Hift; 7. 12.] 
Solet enim aliud fentire & 
loqui, neque tan turn valere 
ingenio ut non appareat quid 
•cupiat. [Ep. Fam. 8. 1.] II- 

le aluit, Auxit, axm&vit 

tile Calliae ulterioris adjunc- 
tor illc provincial propaga- 
tor; ille abfentis in "omnibus 
adjutor. [ad Att. $. 3.] alu- 
erat Caefarem, cundem re- 
pente timere cceperat. [ib. 8.] 
Ego nihil pnetermifi, quan- 
tum facerc, nitique potui, 
.quin Pompcium a Csefaris 
conjuncttone avocarem-^— 
idem ego, cam jam omnes 
opes 8c fuas 8c popuii Roma- 
ni Pompeias ad Caefarem de- 
JtyU&t, fcroque ea fentire we* 

vox ex nota multis. Utiqajn, 
Pompei, cum Caefare fotie- 
jatem aot n usque to coiffes, 
a.ut jiutiquam du'.emjfles ?— 
haec mea, Antonj, & de Pom- 
peio & de Repub. ' coniUia 
fuerunt : quae ft valuhTent, 
Refpub, daret. [Phil. 2. 10.] 
Muki tfife*, me & initio ne 
conjungeret fe cum Caefare. 
monuifle Pompeium, 8c poftea, 
ne fejungeret, &c. [Ep. Fam. 
6. 6.] Quid veiofingularisilJe 
vir ac paene divinus de me 
fenferit, fciunt, qui earn de 
Pharfalica fuga Paphnm pro- 
fee uti font: nunquam ab eo 
mentio de me nifi honorific* 
—cum me vidifle plus fatere- 
tur, fe fperaviffe meliora* 
[Hb. 15] Qui,fi mortem turn 
obiiffet, in ampftffimis fbrto- 
nis occidiflet; is propagati- 
ore vi{& quot, qjiaAta^ quam 
incredibiles iraufit calamita- 
tes? [Tufc. difp. 1. 35.] la 
Petofiaco Iittore, imperib vi- 
liffimi Regis, coduIhs fpado- 
num, 8c ne quid malis defit, 
Septimii defcrtoris fui gladio 
trucidatur. [Flor, 4. 2. 52] 
iSgyptum petere propofuk, 
memqr beneiiciorum quae in 
Patr*m ejus Ptolcm»,— qui 
turn regoabat, contulerat — 
Princeps Romani n<wiHtM, 
iipperio, arbitrioque -*gyp- 
tii mancipii jugulami eft-— 

gi8 Tie His tor y of the Life 

A. Urb. 706. and M. Antony bis Majier of the Horfe, who by vir- 

Cic 60. tuc of that poft governed all things abfolutely in 

C. fuLius * ta ty' Cicero continued all the while at Brundi- 

citAR fium, in a fituation wholly difagreeable, and worfe 

Diaator II. to him, he fays, than any puntjhment : for the air 

M. Anto- of the plate began to affect bis health, and to the 

E^it. uneqfinefs of mind added an ill ftate of body [g]: 

yet to move nearer towards Rome without leave 

frotn his new Mailers, was not thought advife- 

able ; nor did Antony encourage it ; being pleafed 

rather, we may believe, to fee him well mortified: 

fo that he had no hopes of any eafe or comfort, 

but in the expectation of Caefar's return •, which 

made his flay in that place the more neceflary for 

the opportunity of paying his early compliments 

to him at landing. 

But what gave hjm the greateft uneafinefs was, 
to be held ftill in fufpence, in what touched him 
the moft nearly, the cafe of his own fafety, 
and of Caefar*s difpofition towards him : for 
though all Caefar's friends allured him, not onely 
of pardon, but of all kind of favor - 9 yet he had 
received no intimation of kindnefs from Caefar 
himfelf, who was fo embarrafled in Egypt, that 
He had no leifure to think of Italy, and did not 
fo much as write a Letter thither from December 
to June 1 for as he had rafhly, and out of gaiety, 

in tantum in illo viro a fie Vict rant. Igttur fortuna ip- 

difcordanrc fortuna, nt cut fins&Urbis 

modo ad vidoriam terra de- Servatnm vi&o caput abftulit. 

fuerat deeffet ad fepulcuram. Juv. x. 283. 

Veil. Pat. 54. vid. Dio. p. \£\ Quodvis enim fuppli- 

186. it. Appian. 2. 481. cium levins eft hsec permanfi- 

onc.— Ad Att. xl 18. 

Provida Pompeio dederat .Jam enim corpore vix fut 

Campania febres tineo gravitatera hujus cccli, 

Optandas. Scd multse nrbes, qui mihi laborem affert, ia 

St publica vota dolore— ibid. iz. 



as it were, involved himfelf there in a moft de- a. Urb. 706. 
fperate war, to the hazard of all his fortunes* he Cl 'c 60. 
was a/hamed, as Cicero fays [b] y to write any thing c . Cofl * 
about it 9 till he had extricated himfelf out of that cJesar 7 ' 

difficulty. Ditfator II. 

His enemies in the mean time had greatly M An m°" 
ftrengthened themfelves in Africa, where P. Varus, £* ^ *' 
who firft feized it on the part of the Republic, 
was fupported by all the force of King Juba % 
Pompey's faft friend, and had reduced the whole 
Province to his obedience ; for Curio, after he 
had driven Cafo out of Sicily, being ambitioui to 
drive Varus alfo out of Afric, and having trans- 
ported thither the beft part of four legions, which 
Caefar had committed to him, was, after fome lit- 
tle fuccefs upon his landing, intirely defeated and 
deftroyed with his whole army in an engagement 
wkh Sabura, King Jubcts General. 

Curio was ayoung nobleman of fhining parts; 
admirably formed by nature to adorn that cha- 
ra&er, in which his father and grandfather had 
florifhed before him, of one of the principal 
Orators of Rome. Upon his entrance into the Fo- 
rum, he was committed to the care of Cicero : 
but a natural propenfion to pleafure, ftimulated 
by the exampleand counfils of his perpetual com- 
panion Antony, hurried him into all the extra- 
vagance of expence and debauchery : for Antony, 
who always wanted money, with which Curio 
abounded, was ever obfequious to his will, "and 
miniftring to his Lufts, for thp opportunity of 
gratifying his own : fo that, no boy puf chafed for 
the ufe of kwdnefs, was more in a MaJler*spower 9 

[b] flle cnim ita videtur Nee poft idos pecemb. ab 

Alexandriam tenere, ut eum illo datas ullas littera*. lb. 

W*i€«ti*m pudeat dc illis 17. 
"bus. lb. xi. 15/ 

Vol. IL Y than 

320 T6e History of the Life 

A. Urb. yc6Jban Antony in Curio's. He was equally prodigal 
Cic. 60. of his money, and his modefty ; and not only 
Coff. f ^jg own ^ but f ot h cr people's : fo that Ci- 
p^" 1 [xJi C .cero alluding to the infamous effeminacy of his 
tatorll. life, calls him in one of his Letters, Mifs Curio. 
M# An m°" ** ut w ^ cn * c father, ty Cicero's advice, had 
EquiL g * obliged him by his paternal authority to quit the 
# familiarity of Antony ; he reformed his condud, 
and adhering to the inftruttions and maxims of 
Cicero, became the favorite of the City * the 
Leader of the young nobility; and a warm af- 
fertbr of the authority of the Senate, againft the 
> power of the Triumvirate. After his Father's 
death, upon his firft taft of public honors, and 
ad million into the Senate, his ambition and thirft 
N of popularity engaged him in fo immenfe a pro- 
digality, that to fupply the magnificence of bis 
Jbezvs, and plays, with which he entertained the 
City, he was foon driven to the neceflity of fell- 
ing himfelf to Csefar* having no revenue left, as 
Pliny fays, but from the difcord of bis Citizens. 
For this he is confidered commonly by the old 
writers, as the chief injlruwent, and the Trumpet, 
as it ivere, of the civil war •, in which he juftly 
fell the firft vi&im - 9 yet after all his luxury and 
debauch, fought and died with a courage truly 
Roman ; which would have merited a better fate, 
if it had been employed in a better caufe : for up- 
on the lofs'of the battel, and his beft troops, 
being admonifhed by his friends to fave himfelf 
by flight, he anfwered, that after lofing an amy, 
which bad been committed to him by Cafar, be could 
never jhevo bis face to him again \ and fo conti- 
nued fighting, till he was killed among the laft 
of his foldiers [*J. 


[/} H*mJ mlinm tanta civem tulit indok Rim. Loan 4 ; 

814. u„i 


Curio's death happened before the battel of a. Urb. 706; 
Pharfalia, while Csefar was engaged in Spain [k] : Cic. 60. 
by which means Afric fell intirely. into the hands c ^ ofl * 
of the Pompeians; and became the general ren- c^ESA^Dic 
dezvous of all that party : hither Scipio, Cato, tator IF. 
and Labienus, conveyed the remains of their M - Anto- 
fcattered troops from Greece, as Afranius and g 1 ^ *^ # 
Petreius likewiie did from Spain; till on the * W * 
whole they had brought together again a more 
numerous army than Caefar's, and were in fuch 
high fpirits, as to talk of coming over with it in-* 
to Italy, before Caefar could return from Alexan- 
dria [/]. This was confidently given out, and 
expected at Rome; and In that cafe, Cicero was 

- Una familia Curionum, in fubjecit facem— [Veil. P. 2. 

qua trcs continua ferie Ora- 48.] 

tores extiterunt. Plin. H. 7. Sluid nunc Roftra tibi frofont 

41. tttrbata, ftrumque 

Natnram habuit admira- Undt Tri burnt/ ia pltbeius Jigni- v 

bilem ad dicendum. Brut. Jtr arct 

406. Arma dabat f9fulis $ &c. 

Nemo unqaam puer, emp- Lucan 4. 800. 
tus libidinis caufa, cam fuit 

in domini poteftate, quam W At Carlo, nanquam amif- 

inCurionis. [Philip, a. 18.] fo excrcitu, quern a Caefare 

duce filiola Curionis. [ad Att. fldci fuae commifliim acce- 

1. 14] perat, fe hi ejus coufpedum 

Virnobilit, eloquens, an* reverfurum, confirmat; at- 

dax, fuac alienaeque & fbrtu- que ita pjaelians interficitur. 

nae & pudicitise prodigus — Caef. Comm. de Bell. Civ. 2. 
cujus animo, voluptatibus vel 

libidinibus, neque opes ullae [i] Jntejaces, fuam iira du- 

neque cupiditates fufficere ces Pharfalia confert, 
poflent. [Yell. P. 248.] ' Spetlandumqut tibi btlium cj<vi- 

Nifi meis puer olim fide- It ntgatum ejl. 

liflimis atque aroantiflimis Lucan ib. 
confiliis paruiffes. [Ep. Fanv 

*• 1.] [/] fi autem ex Africa 

Bello autem civili — non jam afFuturi videntur. Ad 

*Uu»majorem quam C. Curio Att, xi. 15, 

Y 2 furc 

322 The History of the Life 

A.Urb. 7o6.fure to be treated as a defertor; for while C*far 

Cic 60. looked upon all men as friends, who did not aS 

Coff. a jrainft bhn, and pardoned even enemies, who 
C. Julius A • 1 ■_• * • j 1 ji 

cisAR fubmitted to his power •, it was a declared law on 

Dictator II. the other fide, to confider all as enemies^ wbo 

M. Anto- were M aSually in tbeir Camp [mi] : fo that Cicero 

Eqoit. M * 8 ^ ac * not ^ in 8 now to Wl ^» either for himfelf, or 
the Republic, but in the firft place, z peace, of 
which be bad ftill fame hopes [n~] 5 or dfe, that 
Caefar might conquer; whofe vi&ory was like to 
prove the more temperate of the two : which 
' .makes him often lament the unhappy fituation 
to which he was reduced, where nothing could be 
of any fervice to bim y but what be bad always ai- 
borred \o]. 

Under this anxiety of mind, h was an addi- 
tional vexation to him to hear, that bis reputation 
was attacked at Rome, for fubmitting fo haftily to 
the Conqueror, or putting himfelf rather at all 
into his power. Some condemned him for not 
following Pcmpey, fome more feverely fot not 
going to Jfric, as the greateft part had done; 
others, for not retiring, with many of bis party to 
Acbaia \ till they could fee the farther progrefc 
of the war : as he was always extremely fcnfible 
of what was faid of him by honeft men, fo he 
begs of Atticus to be his advocate ; and gives 

[m] Teenim dicercaudie- iignificas, togis ine fperait 

bamus, nos omnes adverfa- quod obtandum vix eft— ad 

riosputare, nifi qui nobifcum Att. xi. 12.— -» 
tffent; te omnes, qui contra [0] Mihi cum omjua fast 

te non eflent, tuos* Pro Li- * intolerabilia ad dolorem, turn 

gar. xi. it. ad Att. xi. 6. maxime, quod in earn can- 

[»] Eft autem, unum, fam venhTe me video, ut ea 

quod mihi fit optandum, fi fola ntilia mihi eJTe videantur, 

quid agi de pacepoflit : quod quae femper nolui/ Ad Att. 

nulla equidem h*beo in fpe: xi. 13, 
fed quia tu leviter interdum 

i him 



him fame hints, which wight be urged in his A. Urb. 706. 
defence. As. to the firft charge* for not follow- c ^' *?° - 
ing Pompey* he fays, " that . Ppinpey's fate c i„2iv» 
<* would extenuate the omiffion of that ftep: Cbsai 
" of the fecond, that though he knew many Diftator II. 
" brave men to be in Afric,yet it washisopinion, M - An ££" 
" that the Republic neither could, nor ought to E(mL ** 
* 4 be defended by the help of fp barbarous and 
" treacherous a nation: as to the third, hewifhes 
cc indeed that he had joined himfelf to thgfe in 
" Achaia, and owns them to be in a better con- 
iC dition tji^i himfelf, hecaufe they were many 
" of them together ; and whenever they retiarn- 
" ed to Italy, would be reftored to their own 
" at Once :" whereas he was confined like a pri- 
foner of war to Brundifium % without the liberty of 
ftirring from it till Caefar arrived [p]. 

Whil* he continued in this uneafy ftate, 
fome of his friends at Rome contrived to fend 
him a letter in Gefar's name, dated the ninth of 
February from Alexandria^ encouraging him to lay 
afide all glomf apprehenfipns, ana expeS every 
thing th&f w#s kind and friendly from kirn : byt it 
was drawn* *» terms fo flight and general, that in- 
ftead of giving him any fatisfaftion, it made him 
onely fufpeft, what he perceived afterwards to 
be true, that it was forged by Balbus or Opfnus, 
on purpofe to raife his fpirits, and adminifter 

[f] Dicebai debuiiTe cam externum eft eorum, qui in 

Pompeio proficifci. Exitus Achaia funt. Ii tamen ipfi, 

illius minuit ejus officii pne- fe hoc melius habenr, quam 

tenniffi reprehenfionem. — nos, quod & mulci funt uno 

Sed ex omnibus nihil magis in loco, & cum in Italiam 

defideratur quam quod in venerint, domum ftatim ve- 

Africam non ieriqi. , Judieio nerint. Haec tu perge, ut 

hocfum ufus 9 non efle bar- facis > micigare & probare 

baris auxiliis fallaciffima? gen- quam plurimis. Ad Art. xi. 

tis R«npub< defendendam— 7. 

Y a fomc 

324 tte Hist ok y tftbe Life 

A. Urb. 7C6. fomc little comfort to him [j]. AH his accounts 
Cic. 60. however confirmed to him the report of Caefar's 
Coff. clemency and moderation, and his granting par- 

C. JULIUS , ./ . iit_^ii. Br » 

Cjesah Die- d°n without exception to all who aiked it •, and 

titer II. with regard to himfelf, C*far fent Quintufs vi- 

M * Ai m°" ****** Le* ters t0 ^ a Ums, w *b or fcr* to jhew them 

Bit. ' t0 Pi*** ™ a P ro6f of his kindnefs and difiike of 

* Quintus's perfidy. But Cicero's prefent defpon- 

dency, which interpreted every thing by his fears, 

made him fufpeft Cafar the more, for refufing 

grace to none-, as if iuch a clemency muft needs 

be aflfe&ed, and his revenge deferred onefy to a 

feafon more convenient: and as to bis Brother's 

Letters, he fancied, that Cafar did not fend them 

to Italy, becaufe be condemned them, but to make his 

prefent mifery and abjeR condition the more notorious 

and defpicable to every body [r]. 

But after a long feries of perpetual mortifica- 
tions, he was refreshed at laft by a very obliging 
Letter from Csefar, who confirmed to him the 
full enjoyment of his former Jiate and dignity, and 
bad him refume his fafces andftile of Emperor as 
before [s]. Caefar's mind was too great to Men 


If ] Ut me ifta epiftola ni- km reddidit Balbi tabdjarfus* 
hil confoletur; nam & tori- — quod ne Casfar quidem ad 
gue fcripta eft et magnas fufr iftoa vidtfur miffitfe, quafi 
yicionea habet, non effe ab quo illius improbitate offen- 
1U0— ad Att. xi. 16. oeretur, fed credo, ati no- 
Ex quo intelligis, illud de tiora noftra mala effent,— ib, 
litteris a. d. v. Id. Feb. datia 22. 

(quod inane effibt, etiam fi [j] Reddita? mini tandem 

verum effet) non verum effe. funt a Carfare litters lads li- 

}b. 17. berales. Ep. Fam. 14. 23. 

^ [r] Omninp dicitar nemi- .Q?i ad me ex Mgjpto lit. 

ni negare: quod ipfura eft teras mint, at eflem idem, 

fafpeclnm; nptionem ejus dif- qui fuiffem: qui cum ipfe 

fcrri T Ib. 20. imperator in toto imperio 

Piligeut^r mihj fafcicu* populi Romani onus effet, 

of M. rULl^IUS CICERO. 325 

to the tales of the Brother and Nephew \ and in- A. Urb. 70& 
ftead of approving their treachery, feems to have c * c \£°' 
granted them their pardon on Cicero's account, c j°^ # IUS 
rather than their own; fo that Quintus, upon the c]esar Die 
trial of Caefar's inclination, began prefently to tatorll. 
change his note, and to congratulate with bis Bro- M - Aw J?' 
tber on Caefar's affeftion and efteem for him [/]. j^e. 

Cicero was now preparing to fend bis Son to 
wait upon C*far 9 who was fuppofed to be upon bis 
journey towards borne \ but the uncertain accounts 
of his coming diverted him a while from that , 

thought [u]\ till Csefar himfelf prevented it, 
and relieved him very agreeably from his tedious 
refidence at Brundifium, by his fudden and un- 
expedfced arrival in Italy ; where he landed at 
Tarentum in the month of September-, and on 
the firft notice of his coming forward towards 
Rome, Cicero fet out on foot to meet him. 

We may eafily imagine^ what we find indeed 
from his 1 Letters, that he was not a little difcom- 
pofed at the thoughts of this interview, and the 
indignity of offering himfelf to a Conqueror, 
againft whom he had been in arms, in the midft 
of a licentious and infolent rabble : for though 
he had reafon to expeft a kind reception from 
Caefar, yet he hardly thought bis life* he fays, 
worth begging ; fince what was given by a Mafter, 
mirbt always be taken away again at pleafure [*]. 
Y 4 But 

effc me alteram paffas eft: a cogjtabam. lb. 17. # 
quo— conceflbe fafces laurea- De illius Alexandria dit- 
tos tenu, quoad tenendos pa- ceffu nihil adhuc rumoris, 
tavi. Pro Ligar. 3. contraque opinio — itaque nee 

[/] Sed mSii valde Qain- mitto, nt conftitaeram, Ci 
tua gratulatar. Ad Att, xi. ceronem— ib. 18. 
23. [*] Sed non adducor, 

[«] Ego cam Sallaftio Ci- quemquam bonum ullam (a- 
ceronemad C«&rem mitterc lufcm mitt tanti fuiffc pu- 


326 The History of the Life 

A.Urb. 706. But at their meeting, he had no occafion to lay 

Cic 60. .or do any thing that was below his dignity: for 

C I C °m u s C*/**' n * fooner Jaw him, than he alighted and ran to 

Cjesar embrace him \ and walked with him alone* converf- 

Sidator very familiarly for fever al furlongs [y]. 

M - An ™* From this interview, Cicero followed Csefer 

Emife. ag " towarc ^ s Rome :* he propofed to be at Tufculum on 

the feventb or eighth ofOEtober j and wrote to his 

wife to provide for his reception there, with a 

large company of friends * who deftgned to make fonu 

ftay with him [z]. From Tufculum he came after* 

wards to the City, with a refolution to fpend his 

time in ftudy and retreat, till the Republic fhould 

be reftored to fome tolerable ftate 5 cc having 

" made his peace again, as ht writes to Vano> 

* c with his old friends, his books, who had been 

" out of humor with him for not obeying their 

" precepts ; but inftead of living quietly with 

M them, as Varro had done, committing himfelf 

" to the turbulent counfils and hazards of war, 

*' with faithlefs companions [<*]." 

On Caefar's return to Rome, he appointed P. 
Vatinius and j£. Fufius Calenus > Confuls for the 
three laft months of the year ; this was a very un- 
popular ufe of his new power, which he conti- 
nued however to pra&ife through the reft of his 
jeign ; creating thefe firft Magiftrates of the State, 
without any regard to the ancient forms, or re- 
courfe to the people, and at any time of the 

tare,_ut earn peterem ab 1U0 quam in urbom venerim, »-. 

.—ad Att. xi. 1 6. diife ctfm veteribus amicis, 

Sed— ab hoc ipfo . quae id eft, cum librit noftxis in 
dantur, ut a Domino, rurfus gratiam— -igaofcimt mi hi, re- 
in ejufdem font potentate, Ib« vocant in confuetudinem pri* 
%o. ftinam, teque, quod In ea 
. [>] Plutar. in Cic* permanferis , fapieatiorem , 

[z] Ep. Fam. 14. 2*. quam me dicuut fuifte, &c. 

, [*) Scito cairn me pofU*. Ep. Fain, 9. i, 

year j 


year-, which gave a fenfible difguft to the City, A. Urb,7o6. 
and an early fpecimen of the arbitrary manner Cic * &>• 
in which he defigned to govern them. c P^ 

About the end of the year, Caefar embark- Cjesak* 
edfor Afric, to purfue the war againft Scipio, Dictator II. 
and the other Pompeian Generals, who, affifted M# Anto - 
by King Juba, held the poffeflion of that Pro- l^™* 
vince with a vaft army. As he was facrificing 
for the fuccefs of this voyage, the vittim hap- 
pened to break loofe and run away from the Altar \ 
which being looked upon as an unlucky Omen, 
the Arufpex admonijbed bim not to fail before the 
winter folfiice : but he took fhip dire&ly in con- 
tempt of the admonition ; and by that means, as 
Cicero lays, came upon bis enemies unprepared ; 
and before they bad drawn together all their 
forces, [b}. Upon his leaving the City, he de- 

[4] Quid? ipfe Caefar, 

cum a Summo harufpice mo- 
neretur, ne in Africam ante 
bruraam tranfmitteret, nonne 
tranfmifu? quod ni fociflet, 
ooo ia loco omnes adverfari- 
oram copiae convenient — 
dc Divin. 2. 24. • 

Cam Immolanti aufngiiTet 
hoftia profeftionem adver- 
fus Scipionem .& Jubam non 
diftulit^-Sueton. Jul. Caef. 
59- . 

Hhtius, in his account of 
this war, fays, that Caefar 
embarked at LUyb*um for 
Afric** tbe tthoftbe Kalends 
ofj*** [de Bell. Afric. init.] 
that is, on the zjtb of our 
December ; whereas Cicero, in 
the pafTage juft cited, de- 
clares him to have palled 

oyer before the Solftice, or 
the (horteft day. But this 
feemiog contradiction is in- 
tirely owing to a canfe al- 
ready intimated, the great 
confuiion that was introduced 
at this time into the Roman 
Kalendar, by which the 
t months were all tranfpofed 
from their ftated feafons 5 fo 
that the zytb of December, on 
which, according to their 
computation, Caefar embark- 
ed, was in reality coincident, 
or the fame with our %tb of 
Q8obtr % and consequently a- 
bove two months before the 
Solftice, or (horteft day. All 
which is clearly and accurate- 
ly explaned in a learned dif- 
fertation, publiftied by a per- 
fon of eminent merit in the 

328 Tbe History of tbe Life 

A. Urb. 707. clared himfelf Conful, together with M. Lepidus 

Cic 6 1 • for the year enfuing ; and gave the government of 

C Iu° ff u tbe H itber Gaul t0 M% Srutus i °f Greece* to Servius 

Cje"ar U IIL Sulpicius\ the firft of whom had been in arms 

M.jEmiliui againft him at Pharfalia; and the fecond was a 

Lepidus. favorer likewife of the Pompeian caufe, and a great 

friend of Cicero, yet fcems to have taken no part 

in the war [*]. 

The African war now held the whole Empire 
in fufpenfe * Scipio's name was thought ominous 
and invincible on, that ground : but while the ge- 
neral attention was employed on the expe&ation 
of fome decifive blow, Cicero defpairing of any 
good from either fide, cfhofe to live retired, and 
out of fight ; and whether in the City or the 
Country, {hut himfelf up with his books; which, 
as he often fays, bad hitherto been tbe diverfion 
cnely, but were now become tbe fupport of bis 
life [J\. In this humor of ftudy he entered into 
a clofe friend (hip and correfpondence of Letters 
with M. Terentius Varro; a friendfhip equally 
valued on both fides, and at Varro's defire, im- 
mortalized by the mutual dedication of their 
learned works to each other ; of Cicero's Academic 
Quefiions to Varro \ ofVarrfstreatife on tbe Latin 
Vongue y to Cicero. Varro was a Senator of the 
firft diftin&ion, both for birth and merit ; efteem- 
ed the mofi learned man of Rome \ and though now 
above fourfcore years old, yet continued JIM writ- 
ing and publijbing books to bis eighty-eighth year [*]. 

Univeriity of Cambridge, [d] A qnibas ante* de» 

who chutes to conceal* his lectationem modo petebamut, 

name. See Bibliothec. Li- nunc vero etiam Jalutem. Ep. 

terar. N Q VIII. Lond. 1724. Fam.,9. 2. 
4to. 0] Nifi M. Varroncm fci- 

[r] Bratnm Gallia? prsefe- rem oftogdimo octavo vitas 

cit; Sulpicium Gracciae. Ep. anno prodidiffe, &c. Plin. 

Fam. 6. 6. Hift. 29. 6. 



He was Pompey's Lieutenant in Spain, in the be- A. Urb. 707. 

ginning of the war; but after the defeat of A- Ck. 61. 

franins and Petreius quitted his arms, and retired c t^^ t 

to his ftudies; fo that his prefent circumftances C/esar IIL 

were not very different from thofe of Cicero ; M.JEmhtvt 

who in all his Letters to him, bewails with great Lbpxdus « 

freedom the utter ruin of the ftate ; and propofes, 

" that they Ihould live together in a ftrift com- 

cc munication of ftudies, and avoid at leaft the 

l * fight if not the tongues of men ; yet fo, that 

c * if their new Matters Ihould call for their help 

** towards fettling the Republic, they fhotild run 

" with pleafure, and aflift, not onely as archi- 

" 'teAs, but even as mafons to build it up again; 

" or if nobody would employ them, (hould 

cc write and read the beft forms' of government; 

" and as the learned ancients had done before 

" them, ferve their Country, if not in the Se- 

" nate and Forum, yet by their books and 

" ftudies, and by compofing treatifes of morals 

" and laws [/]." 

In this retreat he wrote his book ofOratorial 
Partitions, or the art of ordering and diftributing 
the parts of an Oration fo, as to adapt them in 
the beft manner to their proper end, of moving 
and perfuading an audience. It was written for 
the inftru&ion of his fon, now about eighteen 
years old, but feems to have been the rude 
draught only of what he intended, or not to have 
been finifhed at leaft to his fatisfa&ion ; fince wq 

[/] Non deefle fi quis ad- ToA/rsfe? ; 8c fi minus in cu- 

hibere volet, non modo at ria atqne in foro, at in lie- 

Archite&os, verom etjam ut teris 8c libris, ut do&iffimi 

fabros, ad xdificandam Rem- veteres fecerunt, navare 

pub. & potius libenter accur- Rempub. 8c de moribus & 

rere : fi nemo utetur opera, legibus qaserere. Mihi haec 

tamen 8c fcribere 8c iegere videntur. Ep.Fam.9- 2. 


33© *fl>e History of the Life 

A. Urb. 707. find no mention of it in any of his Letters, as of 
Cic. 61. all his other pieces which were prepared for the 

c'lu^u. P ublic - 
Q&%k%\\\. Another fruit of this leifure was his Dia- 

M.jEmilius logue on famous Orators* called Brutus; in which 
L* ? 1 o u t . he gives a (hort chara&er of all, who had ever flo- 
rilhcd either in Greece or Rome* with any reputa- 
tion of eloquence, down to his own times j and as 
he generally touches the principal points of each 
man's life, fo an attentive reader may 6nd in it 
an Epitome* as it were, of the Roman Hiftory. 
The conference is fuppofed to be held with Bru- 
tus and Atticus in Cicero's garden at Rome* under 
the Statue of Plato [jj]j whom he always ad- 
mired, and ufually imitated in the manner of his 
Dialogues; and in this ieems to have copied 
from him the very form of his double title ; Bru- 
tus* or of famous Orators * taken from the Speak- 
er and the fubje£t, as in Plato's piece, called 
Phadon* or of the Soul. This work was intend- 
ed as zfupplement* or a fourth book to the three* 
which be had before publifhed on the complete 
Orator. But though it was prepared and finilh- 
ed at this time, while Cato was living* as it is in- 
timated in fome parts of it, yet, as it appears 
from the preface, it was not made public till the 
year following t after the death of his daughter 

As at the opening of the war we found Ci- 
cero in debt to Cafar* fo we now meet with fe- 
veral hints 'in his Letters of Caefar*s being indebt- 
ed to him. It arofe probably from a mortgage, 
that Cicero had upon the confifcated eftate of 
fome Pompeian, which Csefar had feized: but 

[g] Cum idem placuiflct Platoni* Statuam confedimoi 
Jllis, tarn in pratulo, propter —Brat; 28. 

< of 


of what kind focvcr it was, Cicero was in pain A,. Urb. 707. 
for his money: " he faw but three ways, he fays, Cic * 61. 
44 of getting it; by purchafing the eftateatCae- c F°^ vs 
<c far*sau£Hon; or taking an affignment on the cJesar Iir. 
<c purchafer; or compounding for half with the M.^Emilius 
** Brokers or Money-jobbers of thofe times; ^**i*> u «* 
«* who would advance the money on thofe terms. 
€c The firft he declares to be bafe, and that he 
<c would rather lofe his debt, than touch any 
* 6 thing confifcated : the fecond he thought ha- 
€C zardous; and that nobody would pay any thing 
<f in fuch uncertain times : the third he liked the 
" beft, but defires A tticus's advice upon it [b]" 
He now at laft parted with bis wife Terentia 9 
whole humor and condudt had long been uneafy 
to him : this drew upon him fome cenfure; for 
putting away a wife, who had lived with him 
above thirty years, the faithfull partner of his bed 
and fortunes $ and the mother of two Children, 
extremely deafr to him. But (he was a woman 
of an imperious and turbulent fpirit ; expenfive 
and negligent in her private affairs ; bufy and in- 
triguing in the public; and, in the height of her 
huiband's power, feems to have had the chief hand 
in the diftribution of all his favors. He had eafi- 
ly born her perverfenefs in, the vigor of health, 
and the florifliing date of his fortunes; but in a 
declining life, foured by a continual fucceffion of 
mortifications from abroad, the want of eafe and 
quiet at home was no longer tolerable to him : the 
divorce however was not likely to cure the diffi- 
culties, in which her management had involved 

[hi] Nomen illud, quod a die: (quis erit, cui credam ?) 

Caefare, tres habet conditio- — aut Ve&etii condirionem, 

nes ; aut emtionem ab hafta ; femifle. #x«%|w igitur. Ad 

(perderc malo: — ) aut dele- Att. 12.3. 

gationem a mancijpe, annua 


332 ftte HiSTORYoft&e TJfe 

A.Urb. 707. him : for (he had brought him a great fortune* 
Cic. 61. which was all to be rcftored to her at parting : 
Coff. ^jg mac j c a fccond marriage neceffary, in order 
Cms akIII. t0 rcp** 1 " the ill ftate of his affairs ; and his frierids 
M.i^Minusof both fexes were bufy in providing a fit match 
Lepidus. f or him : feveral parties were propofed to him, 
and among others, •* daughter of Pempey the 
Great ; for whom he feems to have had an incli- 
nation : but a prudential regard to the times, and 
the envy and ruin under which that family then 
lay, induced him probably to drop it [/]. What 
gave his enemies the greater handle to rally him 
was, his marrying a handfom young woman, 
named Publilia, of an age difproportionate to his 
own, to whom he was Guardian : but fhe was 
well allied, and rich 5 circumftances very conve- 
nient to him at this time ; as he intimates in a 
Letter to a friend, who congratulated with him 
on his marriage. 

" As to your giving me joy, fays he, for what 
V I have done, I know you wi(h it : but I ihould 
iC not have taken any new ftep in fuch wret.ched 
c< times, if at my return I had not found my pri- 
" vate affairs in no better condition than tfrofe of 
cc the Republic. For when through the wick- 
ct ednefs of thofe, who* for my infinite kindnefs 
" to them, ought to have had the greateft con- 
" cern for my welfare, I found no fafety or eafe 
<c from their intrigues and perfidy within my 
** own walls, I thought it neceffary to fecure my- 
" felf by the fidelity of new alliances againft the 
*' treachery of the old £*].* 

• \*JEL SAK 

p] De Pompeii Magni fi- fcrlbis, poto nodi. Nihil 
lia tibi refcripfi, nihil me vidi foedias.— ib. 12. 11. 
hoc tempore cogicare. Al- [*] Ep. Faxn. 4. 14, 
teram vero illam, qqam tu In cafes of divorce, where 



GffiSAR returned vidtorious from Afric about A. Urb. 707. 
the end of July, by the way of Sardinia, where Cic. 61. 
he fpent fome days : upon which Cicero fays c j~ off# 
pleafantly in a Letter to Varro, be bad never feen Cm^axIIU 
tbat farm of bis before, which, though one of the M.jEmiuus 
worft tbat be bos, be does not yet defpife [/]. The Lepidus. 
uncertain event of the African War had kept the 
Senate under lbme referve ; but they now began 
to pufh their flattery beyond all the bounds of 
decency, and decreed more extravagant honors 
to Caefar, than were ever given before to man ; 
which Cicero oft rallies with great fpirit 5 and be- 
ing determined to bear no part in that fervile adu- 
lation, was treating ^bout the put 'chafe of a Houfe 
at Naples, for a pretence of retiring ftill farther 
and oftner from Rome. But his friends, who 
knew his impatience under their pfefent fub- 
je&ion, and the free way of fpeaking, which he 
was apt to indulge, were in fome pain, left he 
fhould forfeit the good graces of Caefar and his 

there were children, it was luft, and Mejfala for her third. 

the coftom for each party to Dio Caffius gives her a 

make a fcttlement by will on fourth, Vibius Rtifus ; who 

their common offspring, pro* was Confnl in the reign of 

portionable to their feveral Tiberias, and valued himfelf 

eftates: which is the mean- for the poffeflion of two 

ing of Cicero's preffing At- things, which had belonged 

ticusfo often in his Letters to the two greateft men of tho 

to pat Terentia in mind of age before him, Cicero's wife, 

making her will, and depo- and C*far % s chair, in which* 

fiting it in iafe hands. Ad he was hilled. Dio. p. 612. 

Att. xi. ai, 22, 24: xii. Hieron. Op. To. 4. par. 2. 

18.— p. 190. 

Terentia is laid t a have It- [/] Iliad enim adhuc prae- 

ycAxothezgtoianhundredand diam faam non infpexit : nee 

thru years [Val. M. 8. 13. nllnm habet dcterius, fed ta- 

Plin. H. 7. 48.] and took, as men non comemnit. Ep. 

St Jerome fays, for her fecond Fam. 9. 7. 

Wl f jUUUIC 1AJ0, •*#• mw »www— — 

huiband, Cicero's enemy,, $ai- 


334 5^ History of the Life 

A. Urb. 707. favorites, and . provoke them too far by the 

C r" <r l " keennefs of his raillery [m\. They prefied him to 

C Julius accommodate bimf elf to the times \ and to ufe more 

CjesarHI. caution in his difcourfe j and to refide more at 

M.jEmilius Rome, efpecially when Caefar was there, - who 

Lbpidus. yrQyJd interpret the diftance and retreat which he 

affected as a proof of his averfion to him. 

But his anfwers on this occafion will (hew the 
real date of his fentiments and conduft towards 
Caefar, as well as of Caefar's towards him : wri- 
ting on this fubjed to Papirius Partus, he fays ; 
ct You are of opinion, I perceive, that it will 
" not be allowed to mt\ as I thought it might 
" be, to quit thefe affairs of the City : you tell 
" me of Catulus, and thofe times ; but what 
" fimilitude have they to thefe ? I myfelf was 

[/»] Some of his jefts on 
Csfar*s adminiftration are 
ftill preferved ; which (hew* 
that his friends had reafon e- 
uoogh to admontfh him to 
be more upon his guard. 
C»far had advanced Labe- 
rius, a celebrated mimic a£hr % 
to the order of Knights: bat 
when he ftept from the Stage 
into the Theatre to take his 
place on die Equeftrian ben- 
ches, none of the Knights 
would admit him to a feat 
among them. As he was 
inarching off therefore, with 
difgrace, happening to paf* 
near Cicero, / would make 
room for you bere 9 fays Cicero 
on our bench, if we were not 
already too much crouded 1 al- 
luding to Cfefar's filling up 
the Senate alfo with the 
fcumm of his creatures, and 

even with Grangers and bar- 
barians. At another time, 
being defired by a friend, in 
a public company, to pro* 
cure for his fon the rank of a 
Senator, in one of the Cor- 
porate Towns of Italy, be 
fall borne it, (ays he, if you 
fLuft % at Rome, but it 'will 
bf difficult at Pompeii. An 
acquaintance like wife from 
Laodieea, coming to pay his 
refpe&s to him, and feeing 
a&ed, what buiinefs had 
brought him to Borne, fatd, 
that he was fent upon an em- 
bafljr to Caefar, to intercede 
nvitb him for tbe liberty of bis 
country \ upon which Cicero 
replied, if you fuccede % you 
fhall be an Embajador alfo for 
us. Macrob. Saturn. 2. 3. 
Sutton, c. 76. 

" unwilling 


unwilling at that time to ftir from the guard A. Urb. 7 of. 
of the ftate; for I thai fat at? the helm, and C p\£ ,# 
held the rudder ; but am now fcarce thought c £°^ s 
worthy to work at the pump : would the Se- Cjrsxr 1U. 
nate think you pafs fewer decrees, if I fhould M.^mihui 
live at Naples ? while I amftill at Rome, and *-»pidus. 
attend the Forum, their decrees are all drawn 
at our friend's houfc j and whenever it comes 
into his head, my name is fet down, as if pre- 
fent at drawing them ; fo that I hear from Ar- 
menia and Syria of decrees, faidtobe made at 
my motion, of which I never heard a fyl- * 
lable at home- Do not take me yi jeft; 
for I aflure you, that I have received Letters , 

* from kings, from the remoteft parts of the 
earth, to thank me for giving them the title 

' of King; when fo far from knowing, that 
any fuch title had been decreed to them, I 

4 knew not even, that there were any fuch men 
in being. What is then to be done ? why as 

' long as our mafter of manners continues here, 

' I will follow your advice; but as foon as he is 

• gone, will run away to your mufhrooms, 

Ik another Letter, " Since you exprefs, fays 
' he, fuch a concern for me in your laft, be af- 
c fared* my dear PaetUs, that whatever can be 
( done by art, (for it is not enough to ad with ' 

6 prudence, (brae artifice alfo muft now be em- 
ployed) yet whatever, I fay, can be done by 
art, towards acquiring their good graces, I 
have already done it with the greateft care * 
nor, as I believe, without fuccefs ; for I am 
" fo much courted by all, who are in any de- 

[*] Ep. Fam. 9. 1$. ?ra- tbt mw Titks, which the 
fitlusmorum, or Mafter of the Senate had decreed to Cs- 
t*hUt manners, was one of sar. 

Vol. II. Z ! c gree 

336 The History^ the Life 

A. {Jrb.707. " grce of favor with Csefar, that I begin to fan- 
Cic. 6 1. « C y that they love me : and though real love is 
C IuliVs " not ea ^ diftinguilhed from falfe, except in 
.CJesablIII. iC the, cafe of danger, by which the fincerity of 
M.JEadiiivi ct it may be tried, as of gold by fire; for all 
Lepidvs. c« other marks are common to both ; yet I have 
J 4< one argument to perfuade me that they real- 

c< : ly love me ; becauTe both my condition and 
" theirs is fuch, as puts them under no tempta- 
€c tion to diffemble : and as for him, who has 
cc all power* I fee no reafon to fear any thing ; 
" unlefs that all things become of courfe uncer- 
" tain, when juft ice and right are once deferted: 
M nor can we be fure of any thing, that depends 
« c on the will, not to fay the paffion of another. 
<c Yet I have not in any inftance particularly of- 
" fended him,, but behaved my felt all along with 
u the greateft moderation : for as once I took it 
" to be my duty, to fpeak my mind freely in 
cc that City, which owed its freedom to me ; fo 
" now, fince that is loft, to fpeak nothing that 
" may offend him, or his principal friends : but 
" if I would avoid all offence, of things laid fa- 
" cetioufly or by way of raillery, I muftgive 
" up all reputation of wit; which I would not 
" refufe to do, if I could. , But as to Caefer 
€C himfelf, he has a very piercing judgement; 
" and as your brother Servius, whom I take to 
" have been an excellent Critic, would readily 
€C fay, this verfe is not Plautus's, that verfe is ; 
« c having formed his ears by great ufe, to di- 
" ftmguifh the peculiar ftile. and manner of dif- 
" ferent Poets ; fo Caefar, I hear, who has al- 
cc ready coUe&cdfome volumes of Apophthegms, 
" if any thing be brought to him for mine, 
<c which is not fo, prefently rejefts it : which he 
" mw does the more eafily, becaufe his friends 


cc live almoft continually with me ; and in the A. Urb. 707. 
44 variety of difcourfe, when any thing drops Cic. 6i. t 
44 from me, which they take to havefomehu- c £°^, s 
44 mor or fpirit in it, they carry it always to him, cjesar HI. 
44 with the other news of the Town, for fuchfyLiEwinus 
44 are his orders: fo that if he hears any thing Lefidus. 
44 befides of mine from other perfons, he does not 
44 regard it. 1 have no occafion therefore for your 
44 example of iEnomaus, though aptly applied 
44 from Accius: for what is the envy, which 
44 you fpeak of? or what is there in me to be 
44 envied now? but fnppofe there was every 
44 thing: it has been the conftant opinion- of Phi- 
44 loibphers, the onely men in my judgement, 
44 who have a right notion of virtue, that a wife 
44 man has nothing more to anfwer for, than to keep 
44 bimfelf free from guilt ; of which I take my- 
44 felf to be clear, on a double account 5 be- 
44 caufe I both purfued thofe meafures, which 
44 were the jufteft : and when I faw, that I had 
44 not ftrength enough to carry them, did .not 
44 think it my bufinefs to contend by force with 
44 thofe who were too ftrong for me. It is 
44 certain, therefore, that I cannot be blamed, in 
c< what concerns the part of a good Citizen : all 
44 that is now left, is not to fay or do any thing , 
44 foolifhly and raftily againft the men in power; 
44 which I take alio to be the part of a wife man. 
44 As for the reft, what people may report to be 
44 faid by me, or how he may take it, or with 
44 what fincerity thofe live with me, who now fo 
44 affiduoufly court me, it is not in my power to 
44 anfwer, I comfort myfelf therefore with the 
<4 confeioufnefs of my former condudt, and the 
44 moderation of my prefent ; and (hall apply 
46 your fimilitude from Accius, not onely to the 
44 cafe of envy, but of fortune j whish I cQnfider 

Z 2 " as 


A. Urb. 707 
Cic. 61. 



Lepidus. cc 

The H 1 s t o r v of the Life 

" I fup with them." In another Letter he tells 
him, " that as King Dionyfius, when driven 
" out of Syracufe, turned fchool -matter at Co- 
CjesarIH. " rinth, fb he, having loft his kingdom of the 
M.jEmilius « Forum, had now opened a School— to which 
T he merrily invites Paetus, with the offer of a 

" feat and cufhion next to himfelf, as his U(h- 
" er [q]" But to Varro more ferioufly, 4t I 
" acquainted you, fays be, before, that I am in- 
" timate with them all, and aflift at their coun- 
" fils: I fee no reafon why I fhould not — for 
" it is not the fame thing, to bear what rnuji be 
" born, and to approve what ought not to be ap- 
cc proved* 9 And again 5 " I do not forbear to fup 
" with thofe who now rule : what can I do J 
" we muft comply with the times [r]." 

The onely ufe which he made of all this favor 
was, to (kreen himfelf from any particular cala- 
mity in the general mifery of the times ; and 
to ferve thofe unhappy men, who were driven 
from their country and their families, for their 
adherence to that caufe, which, he himfelf had 
efpdufed. Csefar was defirous indeed to engage 
him in his meafures, and attach him infenfibly 

[q] Hirtiam efco Be Dola- 
hellam dicendi difci pulps ha- 
beo, coenandi magiffros : pu- 
to enim te audifle— illos a- 
pud me declamitare, me apad 
cos coenitare. lb. 1 6. 

Uc Dionyfius Tyrannus, 
cum Syracufis pulfus eflet, 
Corinthi dicitur ludum ape* 
ruiffe, fie ego— amiflb regno 
forenfi, ludum quad ha- 
bere coeperim— -fella tibi erit 
in ludo, tanquam Hypodi- 
dalculo, proxima : , cam pul- 

vinus fequetqr. lb. 18. 

[r] Oftentavi tibi, me iftis 
efle familiarem, & confiiiis 
eorum interefle. Quod ego 
car nolim nihil video. Non. 
enim ell idem, ferre ii quid 
ferendum eft, & probare, ii 
quid probandum non eft. 
lb. 6. 

Non deiino apod iftos, qui 
nunc dominant ur, coenitare. 
Quid faciam ? tempori fer« 
viendum eft, lb. 7. 



to his interefts : but he would bear no part in an A. Urb. 707. 
adminiftration, eftablilhcd on the ruins of his Cfc. 61. 
country; nor ever cared to be acquainted with^ T Coff * 

1 • rr • • • 1 ^ 1/ ^ j • C JULIUS 

their affairs, or to inquire what they were doing : Cmsak IIL 
fo that whenever he, entered into their counfils,M.^MXL>us 
as he fignifies above to Varro, it was onefy when Lepidus. 
the cafe of fome exiled friend required it ; for* 
whofe fervice he fcrupled no pains of folliciting; 
and attending even Caefar hitinfelf ; though he 
was fometimes (hocked, as he complains, by the 
difficulty of accefs, and the indignity of waiting iti 
an Anticbamber ; not indeed through Caelar's 
fault, who was always ready to give him audi- 
ence ; but from the multiplicity of his affairs, by 
whofe hands all the favors of the Empire wtrt 
difpenfed [/). Thus irt a Letter to Ampius, 
whofe pardon he had procured,—" I have fol- 
4< Hcited your caufe, fays be y more eagerly than 
c< my prefent fituation would well juftify : fop 
44 my defire to fee you, and my conftant lovft 
4t for you, moft afiiduoufly cultivated on your 
<c part, over-ruled all regard to the prefent weak 
* c condition of my power and intereft. Every 
" thing that relates to your return and fafety is 
<c promifed, confirmed, fixed and ratified : I 
4C faw, knew, was prefent at every ftep: for 
" by g0od luck, I have all Caefar*s friends en- 
4< g a ^ ta me by an old acquaintance and 
c< friendfhip : fo that next to him they pay the 
44 firft regard to me: Panfa, Hirtius, Balbus, 
" Oppius, Matius, Poftumius take all occafions 
<c to give me proof of their lingular aflte&ion. 
" If this had been fought and procured by me, 

[;] Quod fi ttrdius fit nia petuntur, adttus ad eum 
quam volumus, xnagnis oc- difficiliores fuerunt.-^— Ep. 
cupationibus ejus, a quo om- Fam. 6. 1 3. 

Z 4. "I fhould 


A. Urb. yo 

Cic. 61. 








«*• ' 

TOt ttftbeUfe 

v**^ 71 * as things nowftand, 

,. ' ^^/bwm : but I ^ v ^ done no * 

* \,\r/ew of fcrving the times; I 

• ' k 0*j of long ftanding with them 

"^crgave over folliciting them on 

f ^jf: 1 found Panfa however the 

* 4 of thetn all to ferve you, and oblige 

% * ""the* has not onely an intereft, but au- 

*£^wirhCrfiur, 6>V. [/]." 

^r while he wis thus carefled by Caefafs 

Mends, he was not lefs followed, we may ima- 

JiaCf by the friends of the Republic : thefe had 

% w *ys looked upon him as the chief patron of 

thek liberty ; whofe counfils, if they had been 

foiJowed, would have preierved it ; and vhofe 

authority gave them the only hopes that were 

Jeft, of recovering it : fo that his houfe was as 

much frequented, and his levee as much croud- 

cd, as ever ; fmcc peopU now flocked* he lays, t* 

fee a good Citizen, as a fort of rarity \u\. In 

another Letter, giving a lhort account of his 

way of life, he fays, " Early in the morning, I 

C€ receive the compliments of many honeft men, 

€C but melancholy ones ; as well as of thefe gay 

<c Conquerors ; who (hew indeed a very offici- 

€< ous and affe&ionate regard to me. When 

€c thefe vifits are over, I {hut myfelf up in my 

* c Library, either to write or read : Here fbme 

M alfo come to hear me, as a man of learning ; 

44 becaufc I am fomewhat more learned than 

ft they : the reft of my time I give to the care 

of my body : for I have now bewailed my 

\*\ *r 6 * I2v folebat, qaod quafi avem al- 

« \"} Cum falutationi nos bam, videntur bene fentien- 

o«aimut tmjcorum; que fit tern civcm vidcre, abdo me 

»oc euam frequentius, qoam in Bibliothecam, lb. 7. 28. 

«' country, 



" country longer, and more heayily, than any A. Urf>. 707; 
" mother ever bewailed her onely Son £*]•" Ciff. 61. 

It is certain, that there was not a man in the c T Cofl * 
Republic fo particularly engaged, both by prin- cisAR^III. 
ciple and interefi, to wifli well to it's liberty, or M. JEmilivm 
who had fb much to iofe by the fubverfion of Lspidus. ~ 
it as he : for as long as it was governed by civil 
methods, and flood upon the Foundation of it's 
laws, ' he was undoubtedly the firft Citizen ii? it ; 
had the chief influence in the Senate ; the chief 
authority with the people: and as all his hopes 
and fortunes were grounded on the peace of his 
country, fo all his labors and ftudies were per- 
petually applied to the promotion of it : it is no 
wonder therefore, in the prefeht fituation of the 
City, opprefled by arms, and a tyrannical pow- 
er, to find him fo particularly impatient under , 
the common mifery, and expreffing fo keen a 
fenfe of the diminution of his dignity, and the 
difgrace of ferving, where he had been ufed to 
govern. ' / ' 

Cjesar, on the other hand, though he 
knew his temper and principles to beirrecoqcile- 
able to his ufurped dominion, yet out of friend- 
ship to the man, and a reverence for his charac- 
ter, ifeas determined to treat him with the great- 
eft humanity : and by all the marks of perfonal 
favor to make his life not onely tolerable, but 

H Haec igkur eft nunc not etiam qui me audiunf, 

vita noftra. Mane feluta- quafi doftam hominem, quia 

mus domi & bonos virosmul- paullo fum, quara tjfi, doc* 

tos, fed triftis, U hos lastos tior. Inde corpora omas 

vidor«; ' qui me quidem tempua datur. Pattiam f - 

pecofficiofe & peramanter ob- luxi jam gravius & diutiu* 

fervaiit. Ubi falutatio de- quam ulla mater unicum filfc 

fluxit, litteris me involvo, nm. Ea. Fam.9. 20. 
aw fcribo aut lego. Veni- 

a caf y 

1344 ' 22* HisTORYoftfo Life 

&. Urb. 707. eafy to him : yet all that he could do, had no 
Ck. 6i. other effeft on Cicero, than to make him think 
C Tulius anc * fytik fometimes favorably of the natural 
cJbsarIII. clemency of their mafier\ and to entertain fomc 
Jyf.&MiLius hopes from it, that he would one day be per- 
Lppidui. f ua d e d to reftore the public liberty : but exclu- 
sive of that hope, he never mentions his go- 
vernment, but as 4 real Tyranny j or his perfon 
in any other ftile, than as the opprefibr of his 

But he gave a remarkable proof at this time 
of his being no temporifer, by writing a book in 
praifeofCato ; which he publilhed within a few 
months after Cato's death. He teems to have 
been left a Guardian to Cato's Son ; as he was 
al(b to young Lucullus, Cato's Nephew [y] : and 
this teftimony of Cato's friendfhip and judge- 
ment of him, might induce him the more readi- 
ly to pay this honor to his memory. It was a 
matter however of no fmall deliberation, in what 
manner he ought to treat the fubjeft : his friends 
advifed him hot to be too explicit and particu- 
lar in the detail of Cato's praifes ; but to con- 
tent himfelf with a general encomium, for fear 
, of irritating Caefar, by pufhing the Argument too 

far. In a Letter to Atticus, he calls this, " an 
cc Archimedean problem ; but I cannot hit upon 
** any thing, fays he^ that thofe friends of yours 
€< will read with pleafure, or even with pa- 
f< tience 5 befides, if I fhould drop the account 
<c of Cato's Votes and Speeches in the Senate, 
€fc and of his political conduit in the State, and 
€< give a flight commendation onely of his con- 
" ftancy and gravity, even this may be more, 
% ± than they will care to hear : but the man can- 

[y] Ad Att. 13. 6. Pc Finib. 3. 2. 


c/M. TVLLIUS CICERO. ' 34 £ 

€c not be praifed, as he deferves, unlefs it beA.Urb. 707. 
<c particularly explaned, how he foretold all that Cic. 61. 
€c lias happened to us ; how he took arms to c 9 off ' 
€ * prevent its happening ; and parted with life ci^R HI. 
<c rather than fee it happen [z]" Thefe wereM.iEMiLius 
the topicsi which he refolved to difplay with all Lifidui. 
his force 5 and from the accounts given , of the 
work by antiquity, it appears, thathehadfpared 
no pains to adorn it, but extolled Carts virtu* 
andebarafter to thejkies [*]. 

The book was foon fpread into all hands; 
and Caefar, inftead of expreffing any refentment, 
affedted to be much pleafed with it; yet declar- 
ed, that he would anfwer it : and Hirtius in the 
mean while, drew up a little piece in the form 
of a Letter to Cicero, filled with obje&ions to 
Cato's cbarafter, but with high compliments to Ci- 
cero bimfelfs which Cicero took care to make 
public, and calls it a fpecimen of what Cafafs 
work was like to be \b\ Brutus alfo compofed 
and publifhed a piece on the fame fubjeft ; as 
well as another friend of Cicero, Fabius Gal- 

[2] Sed dc Catone v?6- contenderit, & fa&a ne vide- 

ChniLo, 'Apxtptisiov eft. Non ret, vitam reliquerit. Ad 

affequor ut fcribam, quod Att. 12. 4. 
tui convme non modo li- [a] M. Ciceronis libro, 

benter, fed etiam aequo ani- quo Catonem coelo aequavit, 

1110 legere poffint. Quin e- &c. Tacit. Ann. 4. 54. 
tiam fi a fentenciis ejus die* [£] Qualis futura Ac Cae* 

tis, fi ab omni voluntate, fan's vituperatio contra lau- 

coniiliifque quae de Repub. dationem meam perfpexi ex 

habuit, recedam; 4,aw^que eo libro, quern Hirtius ad 

velim gravitatem conftanti- me mifit, in quo colligit vj- 

amque ejus laudare, hoc ip- tia Catonis, fed cum maxi- 

fum fit. Sed vere mis laudibus meis. Itaque 

laudari ille vir non poteft, m}fi librum ad Mufcam, ut 

nifi haec ornata] fint, quod tuis librariis darer. Volo 

ille ea, quae nunc funt, & eum divulgari, &c. Ad Att. 

futara viderit, & ne fierent 12.40. it. 41. 

2 lus : 

542 Tie Histout of the life 

A.Urb. 707. " I fhould have no reafon, as things nowftand* 

C C ff 1- ' " to ^P 60 * °^ m 7 P a ' ns : ^ ut * **ave c * ODC nc *" 

C. JuLiirs c< ^^ ft S with the view of fcrving the times; I 

CjESAniu. " had ao intimacy of long {landing with them 

M.Xmiliui « all, and jufrer gave over folliciting them on 

Upxpus. « yoar b^jf. 1 found Panfa however the 

" readied of them all to ferve you, and oblige 

" me ; who has not onely an intercft, but au- 

" thorny with C«far, &c. [/]." 

But while he wds thus carefied by Caefafs 
friends, he was not lefs followed, we may ima- 
gine, by the friends of the Republic : thefe had 
always looked upon him as the chief patron of 
their liberty ; whofe counfils, if they had been 
followed, would have preferred it ; and whofe 
authority gave them the only hopes that were 
left, of recovering it : fo that his houfe was as 
much frequented, and his levee as much croud- 
cd, as t\zv\ Smczpetpie now fioeked^ he fays, /* 
foe a geod Citizen* as a fort of rarity [«]. In 
another Letter, giving a ftiort account of his 
*ray of life, he fays, " Early in the morning, I 
* € receive the compliments of many honeft men, 
«' but melancholy ones ; as well as of thefe gay 
u Conquerors ; who (hew indeed a very offici- 
" ous and affe&ionate regard to me. When 
* c thefe vifits are over, I (hut irtyfelf up in tpy 
* Library, either to write or read : Here fome 
" alfo come to hear me, as a man of learning ; 
" becaufe I -am fomewhat more learned than 
- " they : the reft of my time I give to the care 
of my body: for I have now bewailed my 


[/] lb. 6. 12. folebat, quod quafi avem al- 

\ju] Cum falutationi nos bam, videntur bene fentien- 

dedimui amicorum; quae fit tern civem videre, abdo m$ 

hoc etiam frequentius, quam in Bibliothecam, lb. 7. 28. 

« c country, 


" country longer, and more heavily, than any A. Urb.707; 
" mother ever bewailed her onely Son £*]•" Ciff * 6u 

It is certain, that there was not a man in the c £ ofl - 
Republic fo particularly engaged, both by prin- cmu^UL 
cjple and intereft, to wifli well to it's liberty, or M. JEmuvM 
who had fb much to lofe -by the fubverfion of I*i*ii>u«. 7 
it as he : ibr as long as it was governed by civil 
methods, and flood upon the Foundation of if* 
laws, - he was undoubtedly the firft Citizen in it ; 
had t^e chief influence in the Seriate; the chief 
authority with the people: and as all his hopes 
and fortunes were grounded on the peace of his 
country, fo all his labors and ftudies were per- 
petually applied to the promotion of it : it is no 
wonder therefore, in the prefeiit fituation of the 
City, opprefled by arms, and a tyrannical pow- 
er, to find him fo particularly impatient under . 
the common mifery, and expreffing fo keen a 
fenfe of the diminution of his dignity, and the 
difgrace of ferving, where he had been ufed to 
govern. ' * 

Cjesar, on the other hand, though he 
knew his temper and principles to be irrecoqcile- 
able to his ufurped dominion, yet out of friend- 
fliip to the man, and a reverence for his charac- 
ter, was determined to treat him with the great- 
eft humanity : and by all the marks of perfonal 
favor to make his life not onely tolerable, but 

[*] Haec igltur eft nunc unt etiam qui jne audiunt, 

vita noftra. Mane filutt- quafi do&uxn hominem, quia 

inasdomi&bonos virosmul- paullo fum, quara *£fi, doc- 

tos, fed triftis, & hos lstos nor. Inde corpon omtfs 

victore* ; ' qui me qnidem tempos datur. Patriam e- 

perofficiofe & peramanter ob- luxi jam gravius k dtutius 

fervant. Ubi falntatio de- qaam ulla mater unicum filfc 

flaxit, litteris me involve, nm. Ea. Fam.9. 20. 

aut fcribo aut.fcgo. Venir 


350 72* History of the Life 

A.Urb. 707. iC ning of thefe miferies, or ever fince the public 
Cic. 61. «« right has been decided by arms, there has 

C Jvlivs C * not ^ n g ^ ecn done Glides this with any dig- 
C/bsarIII. c< nity. For Csefar himfelf, after having com- 

M.^milxus " plained of the morofenefs of Marcellus, for 
Lipiovt. « f Q ^ ^ji^ it> and pra if^i J n t he ftrongeft 

€< terms the equity and prudence of your con- 
c€ dudfc, prefently declared beyond all our hopes, 
<c that whatever offence he had received from 
<c the man, he could refufe nothing to the inter- 
€< ceflion of the Senate. What the Senate did 
4C was this : upon the mention of Marcellus by 
<c Pifo, his Brother Caius having thrown him- 
* c fclf atCarfar's feet, they all rofe up, and went 
<c forward in a fuplicating manner towards Ca?- 
€€ far: in fliort, this day's work appeared to me 
*• fo decent, that 1 could not help fancying that 
cC I law the image of the old republic reviving : 
€t when all therefore, who were afked their opi- 
46 nions before me, had returned thanks to Cse- 
€i far, excepting Volcatius, (for he declared, 
c€ that he would not have done it, though he 
*' had been m Marcellus's place, I, as foon as 
41 I was called upon, changed my mind { for I 
cc had relblved with myfelf to obferve an eternal 
* fC filence, not through any lazinefs, but the lofe 
y <c of my former dignity •, but Caefar's greatnefs 
. " of mind, and the laudable zeal of the Senate, 
cc got the better of my refoiution. I gave thanks 
€< therefore to Csefar in a long fpeech, and have 
€C deprived myfelf By it, I fear, on other occa- 
<c fions, of that honeft quiet, which was my 
" onely comfort in thefe unhappy times : but 
" fince I have hitherto avoided giving him of- 
" fence, and if I had always continued filent, 
€C he would have interpreted it perhaps, as a 
€c proof of my taking the Republic to be ruined, 

" I (hall 


" I fliall fpeak for the future riot often, or rather A. Urb. 707* 
" very feldom ; fo as to manage at the fame C^-^ 1 ' 
" time both his favor, and my own leifure for c , °" ys 
«ftudy[>]." cisARlIL 

Cesar, though he faw the Senate unanimous M.jEmiliu* 
in their petition ibr Marcellus, yet took the pains Lepidus. 
to call for the particular opinion of every Senator 
upon it : a. method never pra&iied, except in 
cafes of debate, and where the houfewas divided: 
but he wanted the ufuai tribute of flattery upon 
this aft of grace ; and had a mind probably to 
make an experiment of Cicero's temper, and to 
draw from him efpecially fome incenfe on the oc- 
cafion ;. nor was he difappointed of his aim ; for 
Cicero, touched by his generofity, and greatly 
plqafed with the aft itfelf, on the account of his ' 
friend, returned thanks to him in a fpeech, which, 
though made upon the fpot, yet for elegance of 
diftion, vivacity of fentiment, and politenefs of 
compliment, is fuperior to any thing extant of 
the kind in all antiquity. The many fine things, 
which are faid in it of Caefar, have given fome 
handle indeed for a charge of infincerity againft 
Cicero : l but it muft be remembered, that he was 
delivering a fpeech of thanks, not onely for him- 
felf, but in the name and at the defire of the* Se- 
nate, where his fubje£t naturally required the em- 
bellilhments of Oratory ; and that all his compli- 
ments are grounded on a fuppofition, that C<efar 
intended to rejlore the Republic : of which he enter- 
tained no [mall hopes at this time, as hejignifies in 
a letter to one of C*far*s principal friends [n]. This 
therefore he recommends, enforces, and requires 
from him in his Ipeech, with the fpirit of an old 

W Ep. Fam. 4. 4. curae & effe, ut habeamus a- 

[»] Sperare tamen videor, liquam Rempublicam. Ep. 
^*feri, collegse noftro, fore Fain. 13. 68, 

Vol. II. A a Roman j 

35* the History of the Life 

A- Urb. 707. Roman ; and no reafonable man will think it 

Cic. 61 • ftrange, that fo free an addrefs to a Conqueror, 

Coff. j n t h e heigj^h 5f a ii hi s power, (hould want to be 

CiE sail III. tempered with feme few ftrokes of flattery. But 

M.^milius the following paffage from the oration itfelf will 
Lepidus. juftify the truth of what I am faying, 

" If this, fays he, Caefar was to be the end 
44 of your immortal a£ts, that after conquering 
44 all your enemies, you fhould leave the Repub- 
44 lie in the condition in which it now is; con- 
44 fider, I befeech you, whether your divine vir- 
44 tue would not excite rather an admiration of 
44 you, than any real glory: for glory is the il- 
44 luftrious fame of many and great fervices either 
44 to our friends, our country, or to the whole 
44 race of mankind. This part therefore ftill re- 
44 mains ; there is one aft more to be performed 
41 by you to eftablifh the Republic again, that 
44 you may reap the benefit or it yourfelf in peace 
44 and profperity. When you have paid this 
" debt to your country, and fulfilled the ends of 
" your nature by a fatiety of living, you may 
" then tell us, if you pleaie, that you have Jived 
" long enough : yet what is it after all, that we 
<c can really call long, of which there is an end? 
*' for when that end is once come, all pad plea- 
cc fure is to be reckoned as nothing, fince no 
" more of it is to be expe&ed. Though your 
44 mind, 1 know, was uever content with thefe 
4< narrow bounds of life, which nature has af- 
i4 figned to us, but inflamed always with an ar- 
cc dent love of immortality : nor is> this in- 
44 deed to be confidered as your life, which is 
44 comprized in this body and breath ; but that, 
" that, I fay, is your life, which is to florilh in 
44 the memory of all ages : which pofterity will 
44 cherifh, and eternity itfelf propagate. It is to 

C4 this 


this that you muft attend; to this that youA.Urb. 707. 
muft fdfrn yourfelf: which has many things Cic.61. 
already to admire, yet wants fomething ftill, c ^ off * 
that it may praife in you, Pofterity will be cJbsarHI. 
amazed to hear and read of your commands, M.ifcMiLivi 
provinces ; the Rhine, the Ocean, the Nile* Lipidus. 
your innumerable battels, incredible vidories, 
infinite monuments, fplendid triumphs : but 
unlefs this City be eftabliflied again by your 
wifdom and counfils, your name indeed will 
wander far and wide, yet will have no certain 
feat or place at laft, where to fix itfelf. There 
will be alio amongft thofe, who are yet un- 
born, the fame controveriy, that has been 
amongft us ; when fome will extoll your ac- 
tions to the ikies ; others perhaps will find 
fomething defective in them ; and that one 
thing above all, if you fhould not extinguifh 
this flame of civil war, by reftoring liberty to 
your country.: for the one may be looked up- 
on, as the (ffe& of fate, but the other is the 
certain adt of wifdom. Pay a reverence there- 
fore to thofe judges, who will pafs judgement 
upon you in ages to come ; and with lefs par* 
tiality perhaps than we; fince they will neither 
be biafled by afieltion or party, nor prejudiced 
by hatred or envy to you : and though this, as 
fome falfely imagine, fhould then have no re* 
latioh to you, yet it concerns you certainly at 
the prefent, to a& in fuch a manner, that no 
oblivion may ever obfcure the lufter of your 
praifes. Various were the inclinations or the 
Citizens, and their opinions wholly divided : 
nor did we differ onely in fentiments and wifhes* 
but in arms alfo and camps : die merits of the 
caufe were dubious ; and the contention be* 
1 tween two celebrated Leaders: many*doubted 
A a 2 " what 


Roman j and no reafonabie *£* M 6 
^ .v- f« frPP an addrefs Fpu 4 

in the hcigth of all his power, *>^ gf g 

A-Urb. 707 



/> LI ? T \ tempered vnthfome few ftrok# ^ fj g 
i5KSJ2; the following paffage fiam, frfr f J f rf 

ILIU1 the following f^SV T/f*^ Alt* 
>u S > iuftify the truth of what If ^ -^ g 9 J 

3 -Ipthisfayshe 0^fA ; 
" of your immortal aO ft ft'/ ^ ^ ; • 

« all your enemies, %\%$\ p.\. ; 
« lie in the conditio i 1 1 •£ £ , : r 
« Hder, I befeech : jj * J \ ; aiiitution 

« tue would not, ^ \a f ^y , the Greeks; 
" you, than an; f\y ^ hndred mi 

" luftrious fair-, ^ one m0re t0 them 

" to our fries jer odd , wh i c h v/as 

« ■ race of w aate ; and to fill up the 

.ewife or intercalated, after the 
creeks, an extraordinary month 
jays, every fecond year, and twenty 
lourth, between the twenty third and 
<« rr° tTt ^ ^ of February [p] : he committed 
j of intercalating this month and thefuper- 
ce jrary day, to the College of Priefts ♦, who in 
€ jeefs of time, partly by a -negligent, pardy a 
;lJ perftitious, but chiefly by an arbitrary abufeof 
/heir truft, ufed either to drop or infert them, 
as it was found moft convenient to themfelves 
or their friends, to make the current year longer 

\o\ Pro M. Marcell. 8, 9, ccpt that Feftus (peaks of 

jo. fame days under the tide of 

[p] This was ufually called Mercedoniae, becaufe the 
IfiLeicalaris, though Plutarch Merces ox wages of work- 
gives it the name of Merce- men were commonly paid 
don ins, which none of the upon them. 
Jtein&n writers mention, ex- 

^> *H7JL L IUS CrC ERO. 35$ 

%p <*^ * us Cicero, when harafled by A. Urb. 707, 

^ ^» ^J> fading; prayed, that there cic « 6l * 

*SP s ^ " lengthCn Si ^ ig " e > C - J™« 

>\- ^^4V ^^ ^^ P reffed AttlCUS C^SARIIL 

J? <£* <*>*<* ^O *nt any intercala-M.MMihiv* 

% ^^dSiZr&^+* ' ^tprotradthis Li»»«* ■ 

ft K^*}* ?tr ** <<* per- 

■£ ^V4£i V ■* a P^tence 

^"4^» *^V going over to 

w> Ming introduced the 

.ied, in the computation 
.iiat the order of all their- 
.ofed from their ftatedfeafons ; 
as carried back into Autumn, the 
cO Summer: till Caefaf refolved to 
.co this diforder by abdifhing thefource 
*e ufe of intercalations 5 and inftead of the 
+r to eftablilh the . Solar year, adjufted to the 
*a& meafure of the Sun's revolution in the Zo- 
diac, or to that period of time, in which it re- 
turns to the point, from which it fet out : and as 
"&» according to the Aftronomers o£ that age, 
was fuppofed to be three hundred and fixty five 
« a P> and fix hours 1 fo he divided the days into 

[?] Quod inftitutum peritc Per fortunas primum illud 

* Numa pofterioram Pontili- praefulci atque pnemuni quae- 

cam neglfgentia diffojutam fo, ut fimus annui ? nc inter* 

«*• De Leg. 2. 12. vid. caletur quidem. Ad Att. 5^ 

^nforin. de die Nat. c. 20. 13. it. q. 

Macrob.Sat. 1. 14. [/] Leviffime enjin, quia 

L r ] Nos hie in mukitudine de intercalando noh obtinue- 

. c elebritate judiciorum — rat, transfugit ad populum & 

lta ^eftinemur, 'ut quotidie pro Caefare Toqui ccepit. Ep.' 

vota%iamu3 ne intercaletur. Fam. 8. 6. Dio. p. 148. 
E Pfiun. 7 .2. 

A a 3 twelve 

354 5T&» Hi s to r y of the Life 

A.Urb.707. " what was the beft ; many what was conveni- 
Cl c P' " cnt; man y w ^ at was decent j lome alfo what 

C. Julius " was ,awfu1 ' &c - l°V 

CjesarIII. But though Caefar took no ftep towards re- 
M.JEuiLivs ftoring the Republic, he employed himfelf this 

Lifjdvs. f ummer i n another work of general benefit to 
mankind ; the reformation of the Kalendar; tyac- 
tommodating the courfe of they ear •, to the exaS courfc 
cf the Sun\ from which it had varied fo widely, 
as to occafion a ftrange confufion in all their ac- 
counts of time. 

The Roman year, from the whole inftitution 
of Numa, was lunar-, borrowed from theGreeks; 
amongft whom it confifted of three hundred ani 
fifty four days : Numa added one more to them 
to make the whole number odd, which was 
thought the more fortunate •, and to fill up the 
deficiency of his year to the meafure of the folar 
courfe, inferted likewife or intercalated, after the 
manner of the Greeks, an extraordinary month 
of twenty two days, every fecond year, and twenty 
three every fourth, between the twenty third ani 
twenty fourth day of February [p] : he committed 
the care of intercalating this month and thefuper- 
numerary day, to the College of Priefts % who in 
procefs of time, partly by a -negligent, partly a 
fuperftitious, but chiefly by an arbitrary abufeof 
their truft, ufed either to drop or infert them, 
as it was found moft convenient to themfelves 
or their friends, to make the current year longer 

[*] Pro M. Marcell. 8, 9, ccpt that Feftus fpcaks of 

10. fome days under the title of 

' [p] This was ufually called Mercedoniae, becaufe the 

Imercalaris, though Plutarch Merces or wages of work- 

£>ves it the name of Merce- men were commonly paid 

donius, which none of the upon them, 
Roman writers mention, ex- 

of M. TVL L IUS CIC ERO. i5 $ 

or fhortcr [g]. Thus Cicero, when harafled by A. Urb. 707, 
a perpetual courfe of pleading; prayed, that there cic - 6l * 
might be no intercalation to lengthen his fatigue - 9 c j Coff " 
and when Proconfulof Cilicia, preffed Atticus cJesarIIL 
to exert all his intereft, to prevent any intercala-M.Mmhivs 
t ion. within the year ; that it might not protradt his L* P1DU ** 
government, and retard^ his return to Rome [r]. 
Curio,, on the contrary, when he could not per- 
fuade the Priefts to prolong the year of his Tri- 
bunate, by an Intercalation^ made that a pretence 
for abandoning the Senate, and going over to 
Ca?far [/]. 

This licence of intercalating introduced the 
eonfufion above-mentioned, in the computation 
of their time : fo that the order of all their- 
months was tranipofed from their ftated feafons ; 
the winter months carried back into Autumn, the 
Autumnal into Summer: till Caefaf refolved to 
put an end to this diforder by abdifhing thefource 
of it, the ufe of intercalations \ and inftead of the 
Lunar to eftablilh the Solar year, adjufted to the 
exadt meafure of the Sun's revolution in the Zo- 
diac 9 or to that period of time, in which it re- 
turns to the point, from which it fet out : and as 
this, according to the Aftronomers o£ that age, 
was fuppofed to be three hundred and fixty five 
day s, and fix hours ^ fo he divided the days into 

M Quod infHtatum perite Per fortunas primum illud 

a Numa pofterioram. Pontifi- praefulci atqoe pnemuni quae- 

cam negligentia diflbjutam (o, at fimus annui ? ne inter* 

eft. De Leg. 2. 12. vid. caletur quidem. Ad Att. 5. 

Cenforin. dedie Nat c. 20, 13. it. 9. 

Macrob. Sat. 1.14. [/] Leviffime enjin, quia 

[r] Nos hie in mukitadine de intercalando non obtinue- 

Sc celebritate judiciorum — rat, transfugit ad populum & 

ha defttnemur, ut qaotidie pro Caefare loqui ccepit. Ep.' 

vota faciamus ne intercaletar. Fam. 8. 6. Dio. p. 148. 
Ep. Fam. 7. 2. 

A a 3 twelve 

356 T&* H i s t o * y of the Life 

A. Urb. 707. twelve artificial months, and to fupply the defi- 
Cic/61. ciency of the fix hours, by which they fell fhort 
c T C ° ff s °^ c ^ c Sun's com pl ctc courfc, he ordered a day 
Cmm*IU. t0 b intercalated after every four years, between 
M.iEMaivs the twenty third and twenty fourth of February f/J. 
Lhpid u$. jj ut to make this new year begin; and pro- 
cede regularly, he was forced to infert into the 
current year, two extraordinary months, between 
November and December ; the one of thirty 
three j the other of thirty four days \ befides the 
ordinary intercalary month of twenty three days, 
which fell into it of courfc •, which were all ne- 
, cefiary to fill up the number of days, that were 
loft to the old year, by the omiffion of interca- 
lations, and to replace the months in their pro- 
per feafons [*]: All this was efFe&ed by the care 
and {kill of Sofigenes, a celebrated Aftronomer of 
Alexandria, whom Cacfar had brought to Rome for 
that purpofe [#] : and a new Kdlendar was formed 
upon it by Flavius a Scribe, digefted according 
to the order of the Roman Feftivals, and the old 
manner of computing their days by Kalends, Ides, 
and Nones ; which was pubiiflied and authorized 
by the Dictator's Edi&, not long after his return 
ftom Affic. This year therefore was the longeft, 
that Rome had ever known ; confiftingof J$ffer* 
months, or four hundred and forty five days, and is 
called the laft of the confufion [y] \ becaufe it in- 

[/] 'fhis day was called riis nobis temporum ratio 

tlijixtuj, from its being a congruerer, inter Novembrem 

repetition or duplicate of the & Deceipbrem menfem adje- 

Sixth of the Kalends of March, cit duos alios : fuitque is an- 

which fell always on the bus— xv, meofium cum Inter- 

24th ; and hence our Inter- calario, qui ex confuetndine 

t alary or Leap-year is dill call- eum annum inciderat. Suet. 

t&.BiJJextile. J. Qef. 40. 

[»] OH autem roagis 'in M Piin. Hift. N, 18. 35. 

pofterum ex Kalendis Janua- [y] Adnitente fibi M, Fla- 


troduced tbcjuiian> crfolaryear 9 with the com- A. Urb. 707. 
mencement bf the enfuing January ; which con- Cic. 61. 
tinucs in ufc to this day in all Chriftian Countries, c £°^ $ 
without any other variation, than that of the old cJesar lit 
and new fiik—\p£\* M.^Bmilius 

Soon after the affair of Marcellus, Cicero had Lbfidus. 
another occafion of trying both his eloquence 
and intereft withCasfar, in the caufe of Ligarius \ 
who was now in exil on the account of his hav- 
ing been in arms againft Caefar, in the African 
war 9 in which he had born a confiderable com- 
mand. His two Brothers however had always 
been on Caefar's fide ; and being recommended 
by Panfa, and warmly fupported by Cicero, had 
almoft prevailed for his pardon •, of which Cicero 
gives the following account in a Letter to Liga- 
rius himfejf. 

Cicero to Ligarius. 

?' I woqlfi have you to be aflured, that I em- 
?* ploy my 'whole pains, labor, care, ftudy, in 

vio fcriba, qui fcriptos dies oned by a regulation made 

fingulos ita ad Di&atorem by Pope Gregory A. D. 1582* 

demit, ut & ordo coram in- for it having been obferved, 

vcniri facillime poflet, & in- that the compuution of the 

vcntb, certus flatus pcrfeve- Vernal Equinox was fallen 

raret— -eaque re* fafiuni eft, bacU ten days from the time 

tit annus confufionis ultimus of iU Council of Nice, when 

in quadHngentos qaadraginta it was found fo be on the 

tresdiestenderetur. Macrob, z\ft of March % according to 

Sat. 1. 14. Dio. 227. which all the feftivals of the 

MXdaoBiv* makes this Church were then folemniy 

Kr to confift of 4^3 days, fettled; Pope Gregory, by 

hefhouldhave fald 44;, the advice of Aftronomers, 

fince, according to all ac- caufed ten days to be entire- 

CQonts, ninety days were add* ly funk and thrown out of 

e^to the old year of 355. the current year, between 

0] This difference of the the 4th and 15th of O&o- 

•foani nwofiik was occafi- ber. x 

A *\ 4 ^ procuring 

358 T&e H i s t o r v of the Life 

A, Urb. 707. <c procuring your reftoration : for as I have ever 
Cic. 61. «c h ac j t j )e greateft afFe&ion for you, fo the fin- 

C. Julius 4< S u ^ ar piety and love of your Brothers, for 
CasarIH. u whom, as well as yourfelf, I have always 

M.Ataiiiut " profefled the utmoft cfteem, never fuffer me 
1*ii»ipus. <c to ne gi c & an y opportunity of my duty and fer- 
«* vice to you. But what I am now doing, or 
44 have done, I would have you learn from their 
44 Letters, rather than mine ; but as to what I 
44 hope, and take to be certain in your affair, 
44 that I chufe to acquaint you with myfelf: for 
44 if any man be timorous in great and dange- 
44 rous events, and fearing always the worft, ra- 
44 therthan hoping the beft, I am he \ and if this 
44 be a fault, confefs myfelf not to be free from it j 
44 yet on the twenty-feventh of November, when, 
44 at the defire of your Brothers, I had been 
44 early with Caefar, and gone through the trou- 
44 ble and indignity of getting accefs and audi- 
44 ence ; when your Brothers and relations had 
*« thrown themfelves at his feet, and I had faid, 
44 what your caufe and circumftances required, I 
44 came away perfuaded, that your pardon was 
44 certain : which I collefted, not onely from 
44 Caefar's difcourfe, which was mild and gene- 
44 rous, but from his eyes and looks, and many 
44 other figns, which I could better obferve than 
44 defcribe. It is your part therefore, to behave 
44 yourfelf .with firmnefs and courage; and as 
44 you have born the more turbulent part pru- 
44 dently, to bear this calmer date of things 
41 chearfully: I fhall continue ftill to take the 
44 fame pains in your affairs, 3s if there was the 
46 greateft difficulty in them, and will heartily 
4f fupplicate in your behalf, as I have hitherto 
44 done, not onely Qaefar himfclf, but all his 

y friends, 


<c friends, whom I have ever found moft affe&i- A.XJrb.jo7* 
" onate to me. Adieu [*]." c £ p* 

While Ligarius's affair was in this hopefull c j^liv 
way, Q^Tubero, who had an old quarrel with c^ESARlir t . 
him, being defirous to obftrudt his pardon, and M.-<Emihu« 
knowing Caefar to be particularly exafpqrated J H* ?IDU *« 
againft all tbofe, -0^0, through an obfiinate averfion* 
to bim y bad renewed the war in Afric^ accufed 
him, in the ufual forms, of an uncommon zeal 
and violence in profecuting that war. Caefar 
privately encouraged the profecution, and or- 
dered the caufe to be tried in the Forum, where 
he lat upon it in perfon, ftrongly prepofiefied 
againfiftthe Criminal, and determined to lay hold 
on any plaufible pretence for condemning him : 
but the force of Cicero's eloquence, exerted with 
all his flcill in a caufe, which he had much at 
heart, got the. hjettcr of all his prejudices, and 
extorted a pardon from him againft his will 

The merit of this fpeech is too well known, 
to want to be enlarged upon here : thofe, who* 
read it, will find no reafon to charge Cicero with 
flattery : but the free fpirit, which it breaths, in 
the face of that power, to which it was fuing 
for mercy, muft give a great idea of the art of 
the fpcaker, who could deliver fuch bold truths 
without offence ; *as well as of the generality of 
the Judge, who heard them not onely with pa- 
tience, but approbation. 

u Observe, Caefar, fays he, with what fide- 
" lity I plead Ligarius's caufe, when I betray 
" even my own by it, O that admirable clemen- 
" cy, worthy to be celebrated by every kind of 
* c praife, letters, monuments! M. Cicero de- 
l\ fends a criminal before you, by proving him 

[«] Ep„ Fara. 6. 14. 

V not 

360 The History of the Life 

A. Urb. 7P7- " not to have been in thofe fentiments, in which 
Cic. 61. « he owns himfelf to have been ; nor does he 
Coff. cc y Ct £ ear y5 ur f ecr et thoughts, or while he is 
Ca/arIII. " pleading for another, what may occur to you 
jA.JEuiLiv* " about himfelf. See, I fay, how little he is 
Lepipus. " afraid -of you. See with what a courage and 
«• gaiety of fpeaking your generpfityan^wifdom 
" infpire me. I will raife my ypice to fttch a 
f c pitch, that the whole Roman people may hear 
" me. After the war was not onely begun, 
" Caefar, but in great meafure finiihed, when I 
€< was driven by no neceflity, I went by choice 
iC and judgement to join myfelf yvith thofe, who 
" had taken arms againft you. Before whom do 
" I fay this ? why before him, who, though he 
" knew it to be true, yet reftored me to the Re- 
€C public, before he had even feep mei who 
" wrote to me from Egypt, that I lhould be 
" the fame man, that I had always been ; and 
cc when he was the onely Emperor within the 
4C dorpinipn? of Rome,' fuffefed me to be the 
c< other ; and to hold my liurelled Fafces, as long 
4< as I thought them Worth holding— {¥]. Do 
c< you then, Tubero,' call Ligarlus's conduct 
€C wicked? for what re&fon ? fince that caufe 
4< has never yet been called by that naihe : fome 
" indeed call it miftake, others fear ; tlofe whd 
" fpeak more feverely, hope, ambition, hatred, 
" obftinacy • or at the worft, raflinefs; but no 
" man, befides you, his ever called' it wickednefs. 
" For my part, were I to invent a proper and ge- 
4C nuin name for our calamity, t lhould take it 
" for a kind of fatality, that had poffefied the un- 
" wary minds of men; fo that none can think it 
? ftrange, that all human counfik were oveiS 

[*] ProLijar, 3 . ' 

> * rulecj 


f* ruled by a divine neceflity. Call us then, if A. Urb.707. 

c ? you pleafe, unhappy ; though we can* never Cic 61. 

•* be fo, under this Cpnqueror 5 but I (peak not c £?*• 

** of us who furvive, but of thofe who fell ; cmsakUL 

f c let them be ambitious ; let them be angry ; M.<£milius 

* c let thrtnbeobftinate; out let not the guilt of L ?*ipu^ 

*f crime, of fury, ofparricidej eyer be charged 

ic on Cn. Pompey, and on many of thofe whb 

€C died with him. When did we ever he^r any 

C4 fuch thing from you, Caefer ? or y^liat other 

cc view had you in the war, than to defend 

* 4 yourfelf from injury ? — youconfidereditfrom. 

« 4 the firft~ not as a war, but a feceflion j nqt as 

« 4 an hoftile, but civil difienfion: where both 

€4 fides wifhed well to the Republic j yet through 

* 4 a difference, partly of counfils, partly of in- 

€4 clinations, deviated from the common good : 

*f the dignity of the Leaders was almoft equal ; 

44 though not perhaps of thofe who followed 

44 tHem : the caufe was then dubious, fince there 

44 was fomething which one might approve on 

44 either fide;' but now, that muft needs be 

44 thought the beft, which the Gods have fa- 

*« vorcd i and after the experience of your cle- 

44 mency; who can be difpleafed with that viftory, 

44 in which no man fell, who was ndt actually in 

44 arms [r] ?" :) J - 

Th e Speech was foon made public, and greedi- 
ly bought by all : * Atticui was extremely pleafed 
with it, and very induftrious in recommending it; 
fothat Cicero fays merrily to him by Letter, 
44 You have fold my Ligariin fpeech finely: 
44 whatever I write for thefuture, I will make you 
44 the Publifher :" and again, " your authority, 
44 I perceive, has made my little oration famous: 


362 The History of the Life 

A. Urb. 707. « for Balbus and Oppiui write mc word, that 
Cl C In" " t ' ie y are won( krfully taken with it, and have 
C. Julius c< ^ ent a copy to Casfar \d\"' The fuccefe, 
C/rsarIII. which it met with, made Tuberoafliamed of the 
M.^milius figure that he made in it ; fo that he applied to 
*riDus. ci cero< to h avc fomething inferted in his favor, 
with the mention of bis wife, and feme of bis fa- 
mily, who were Cicero 9 s near relations : but Cicero 
excufed himfelf, becaufe tbefpeecb was got abroad, 
nor bad be a mind, he fays, to make any apology for 
Vubero's conduit [«]. 

Ligarius was a man of diftinguifhed zeal 
for the liberty of his Country : which was the 
• reafon both of Cicero's pains to preferve, and of 
Csefar's averfenefs to reftore him. After his re- 
turn he lived in great confidence with Brutus,* 
who found hirp a fit perfon to bear a part in the 
confpiracy againft Caefarj but happening to be- 
taken ill near the time of it's execution, when 
Brutus, in a vifit to him, began to lament, that 
he was fallen fick in a very unlucky hour \ Ugarius, 
ratfing bimfelf prefentiy upon his elbow, and taking 
Brutus by the band, replied ; Tet JIM, Brutus, tf 
you mean to do any tbing worthy of your f elf lam 
well [/] : nor did he difappoint Brutus's opinion 
9f him, for we find him afterwards in the lift of 

[dj Ligarianam ' proclare colam roififfe. lb. 19, 
vendidifti. Pofthac quicgi?')^ ( [e] Ad Ligarianam de ax-, 
fcripfero, tibi praeCQnium de- . ore, Tuberonb, & privigna, 
feram. Ad Att. 13. tz. heque poiTum jam addere, 

Ligarianam, ut video, prae- eft en im res per vulgata, De- 
clare aud>oritas tua commen- que Tuberonem vofo deferfn 
davit. Scripfit en'in ad me dere. Mirifice eft enim ty« 
B4bus & Oppius, mirifice fe a«/t<©-. ' lb. 20, 

probare, ob eamque caufam [/] Plutarch, in Briit, 
ad Cse'arcm earn ie oratiun- 



In thie end of the year, Ca?lar was called away 
in great haft into Spain to oppofe the attempts 
of Poropey's Sons, who, by the credit of their 
father's name, were become matters again of all 
that Province ; and with th$ remains of the 
troops, which Labienus, Varus, and the other 
Chiefs, who efcaped, had gathered up from Afric, 
were once more in condition to try the fortune of 
the field with him : where the great danger, to 
which he was expofed from this laft effort of a 
broken party, (hews how defperate his cafemuft 
have been, if Pompey himfelf, with an intire 
and veteran army, had firft made choice of this 
country for the fcene of the war. 

Cicero all this while pafled his time with lit- A. Urb. 70S. 
tie fatisfa&ion at home, being difappointed of Cic. 62. 
the eafc and comfort, which he expe&ed from c T £ ofl * 
his new marriage : his children, as we may ima- Cjesar** 
gine, while their own mother was living, would Diftator IIL 
not eafily bear with a young mother-in-law in the M.^Emilius 
houfe with them. The Son efpecially was pref- Ma^Equit 
fing to get a particular appointment fettled for 
his maintenance, and to have leave alfo to go to 
Spain, and make a Campaign under ' C<efar ; whi- 
ther his Coufin Quintus was already gone : Cice- 
ro did not approve this projedt ; and endeavoured 
by all means to difluade him from it ; reprefent- 
ing to him, that it would naturally draw a juft 
reproach upon them, for ndt thinking it enough to 
quit their former party ■, unlefs they fought again/} 
it too i and that be would not be pleafed to fee bis 
Coufin more regarded there than himfelf-, and pro- 
mifing withal, if he would confent to ftay, to make 
him an ample and honorable allowance [g\ This 


If] Dc Hifpania dooattnli; primum idem, quod tibi, 

364 Tife H 1 « t o R y of the Life 

A. Urb, 708. diverted him from the thoughts of Spain * though 

Cic. 6z. not from the defire of removing from his Fathfcr^ 

Coff. an( j taking a feparate houfe in the City, with a 

Cjbsa"d!c- diftinft family of his own : but Cicero thought 

tator ill. it bed to fend him to Athens, in order, to fpend 

M.iEMiLius a f ew years in the ftudy of Philofophy, and po- 

M P1D E *oit ** te J-* 1 ^™ * atl( ^ t0 ma ^ c &* P r opbfai agreeable, 
*** qcu ' offered him an appointment, Ji*/ to**A/ *#tf&e 
him to live as fplendidly as any of the Roman Nobi- 
lity \ who then reftded there * Bibulus y Acidinusi or 
Mejfala [b]. This fcheme was accepted, and 
foon after executed : and young Cicero was lent 
to Athens, whhtwo of his Father's Freedtnen, L: 
Tullius Montanus y and Tullius Marcianus 9 as the 
Intendants andCounfellors of his general con du6t, 
while the particular dire&ion of his ftudies was 
left to the principal Philofophfers of the place ; 
and above all to Cratippus, the chief of the Pe- 
ripatetic ScGt [*]. 

In this uneaiy date both of his private and 
public life, he was opprefled by a new and riiofl: 
cruel affii&ion, the death of his beloved daughter 
Tulfia ; which happened foon after her divorce 
from Dolabella ; whofe manners and humor were 
intirely difagreeable to her. Cicero had long been 
deliberating with himfelf and his friends, whether 
Tullia fhould not firfi fend the divorce \ but a pru- 

me vereri vituperationem : quos Athcnis faturos audio, 

non (atis efle fi haec anna majores fumptuj, faduros* 

reliquiiTemus ? etiam contra- quam quod ex eis mercedi- 

ria* deinde fore lit angerq~ bus accipietar. lb. 32* 
tur, cam a fratre familiarita- (*J L.Tnllram Montanum 

te & omni gratia vineeretur. noili, qui cam Cicerone pro* 

- VeL'm magis liberalitate uti fe&useft. lb. 52* ; 3. 
mca quam fua libertate.— ~ — Quanquam te, Marce fell, 

Ad Ate. 12. 7. annum jam audientem Cra- 

[h] Prasflabo nee Bibnfam, tippam, &c. De Off". 1. I. 

nee Acidinum,ncc Meflalam, it. 2. 2. 

2 dential 


dential regard to Dolabella's power, and intereftA. Urb. 70*. 
with Caefar, which was of ufe to him in thefc Cic. 62, 
times, feems to have withheld him [k]. The c j^f* 
cafe was the fame with Dolabelk, he was willing cjesak 
enough to part with Tullia, but did not care to DiclatorTIL 
break with Cicero, whofe friendfl}ip was a Credit M.^Bmilius 
to him ; and whom gratitude obliged him to ob- jjj* 1 e^, 
fcrve and reverence ; fihce Cicero had twice de- 
fended and preferved him in capital caufes [/] : 
fo that it feems moft probable, that the divorce 
was of an amicable kind-, and executed at iaft by 
the confent of both fides : for it gave no appa- 
rent interruption to the friendfhip between Cice- 
ro and DolabeHa, which they carried on with 
the fame fhew of affe&ion, and profeffions of 
rcfpett toward each other, as if the relation had 
ftill fubfifted. 

Tullia died in childbed, at her bujbantfs 
boufe [ni] ; which confirms the probability of 
their agreement in the divorce: it is certain ( at 
lead, that fhe died in Rome \ where Cicero was 
detained j he fays, by the expectation of the birth \ and 
to receive the firft payment of her fortune back again 
from Dolabella, who was then in Spain : fhe was de- 
livered, as it was thought, very happily, andfuppo- 
fed to be out of danger -, when an unexpe&ed tura 
in her cafe put an end to her life, to the inexpref- 
fible grief of her Father [»]. We 

[£] Te oro ut de bac mi. tatio multitudinis, ignore Si 
fera cogites— melius quidem metuend us iratus eft, quics ta- 
in peffimis nihil fait difcidio men ab ilia fortaflc nafcetur, 
— nunc quidem ipfe vidctur Ep. Fam. 14. 13. 
denunciare — placet mihi igi- [/] Cujus ego falutem duo-r 
tur, & idem tibi nuocium re- bus capitis judiciis fumma 
tnitti, &c. Ad Att. xi. 23. contentione defendi— — — Ep. 
vid. ib. 3. fam. 3. 10. 

Quod fcripfi de nuncio re- [m] Plutarch in Cfc. 

mittendo, quae fit iflius vis [»] Me Roma; tenuit om- 

jioc tempore 9 & quae conci- nino TuiiLe mese partus ; fed 


3 66 


Cic. 62. 
C. Juliu* 


Dilator III. 



Mag. Equit. 

<Tbe His tory of the Life 
We have no account of the iffueof this birth, 
which writers confound with that which happened 
three years before, when ftie was delivered at the 
end of feven months of a puny male Child: but 
whether it was from the firft, or the fecond time 
of her lying in, ic is evident, that (he left a Son 
by Dolaklla, who furvived her, and whom Cice- 
ro mentions more than once in his Letters to At- 
ticus, by the name of Lentulus [0] : defiring 
him to vifit the Child^ and fee a due care taken 
of him, and to affign him what number offervants 
he thought proper [/>]. 

Tullia was about two and thirty years old 
at the time of her death ; and by the few hints 
which are left of her charadber, appears to have 
been an excellent and admirable woman : Ilie was 
moft affeftionately and pioufly obfervant of her 
Father { and to the ufual graces of her fex, hav- 

cumea quemadmodum fpe- 
ro, ikiis firma fit, teneor ta- 
men, dum a Dolabellae pro- 
curatoribus exigam primam 
penfionem.— -Ep. Fam. 6. 

[0] The Father's names 
were Publius Cornelius Len- 
tulus Dolabella ; the two laft 
being furnames acquired per- 
haps by adoption, and diftin- 
guifhing the different bran- 
ches of the Cornelian family. 

[f] Velim aliquando, cum 
erit tuurn commodum, Len- 
tulum puerum vifas, eique de 
mancipiis, qua? tibi videbi- 
tur, attribuas— ad Att. iz. 

Quod Lentulum invifis, 
valde gratum. lb. jo.— vid. 
e.tiain 1 8. 

N.B. Mr. Bayle declares 
himfelf furprized, to find Af- 
conius Pad. fa iU informed of 
the hifiory of Tullia, as to tell 
us, that after Ptfos death, fie . 
ivas married to P. Ltntulus, 
and died in child-bed at bis 
houfe : in which fljort account, 
there are contained, he fays, 
two or three lies. But Plu- 
tarch confirms the fame ac- 
count ; and the iniftake will 
reft at lad, not on Afcouiu.*, 
but on Mr. Bayle himfelf, 
who did not reflect, from the 
authority of thofe Ancients, 
that Lentulus was one of 
Dolabclla's names, by which 
he was called indifferently, as 
well as by any of the reft. 
See Bayl. Did ion. Auk. 
Tullia, no:, k. 



Jng added the more folid accomplifhments of A. Urb. 708. 
knowledge and polite letters, Was qualified to be S^'i? 2, 
the companion as well as the delight of his age \q % j ul ' 1us 
and was juftly efteemed not onely as one of the Cjesar. 
beft, but the moji learned of the Roman Ladies. £?*? tor IIL 
It is not ftrange therefore, that the lofs of fuch a^™**™ 
daughter, in the prime of her life, and the molting. Equic- 
comfortlefs feafon of his own, ftiould affeft him 
with all that grief, which the greateft calamity 
could imprint on a temper naturally timid and 

Plutarch tells us, that the Pbilofopbers came 
from all parts to comfort him ; but that can hardly 
be fcrue, except of thbfe, who lived at Rome, 
or in his own family ; for his fiift care was, to 
fhun all company as much as he could, by re- 
moving to Atticus's houfe ; where he lived chief- ' 
ly in the Library; endeavouring to relieve his 
mjnd, by turning over every book, which he could 
meet with on the fubjeti of moderating grief [q\ : 
butifinding his refidence here too public, and a 
greater refort to him than he could bear, he re- 
tired to Aftura, one of his feats near Ant;ium ; 
a tittle ifland on the Latian fhore at the mouth of 
a river of the fame name, covered with woods and 
groves, cut out into Jbady walks ; a fcene of all 
others the fitteft tq indulge melancholy, and 
where he could give a free dpurfe to his grief. 
w Here, lays he, I live Withcnit the fpeech of 
." man: evety morning early 1 hide myfelf in 
Cl the thickeft of the wood, and never coma 
" out till the evening : next to yourfelf, nothing 
" is fo dear to me, as this iblitude : my whole 
€t cptiverfation i$ with my books 5 yet that is 

[f] Me mihi non defuiffe fcriptum eft, qno& ego aoa 
ta t«ftis es 9 nihil enim de domi tu* legenm. Ad Att. 
Jooerore minaeado ab alio 12. 14. 

Vol. II r B b *• fometime* 

368 The History of the JJfe 

A. Urb.708. " fomctimcs interrupted by my tears, which I 

Cic 62. " refift as well as I can, but am not yet able to 

Coff. „ do much [r]. ff 

CjesaT* Atticus urged him to quit this retirement, 

. DirtatorlXf . and divert himfelf with bufinefs, and the com- 

M.iEMiLius p an y of his friends; and put him gently in 

Nf ! °E S uit minc *> * at » by afflifting himfelf fo immQderate- 
a S- <1 U1 • jy^ ^ y^Qujj h urt hi s character, and give people 

* a handle to cenfure his weaknefs : to which he 
- 'makes the following anfwer. 

" As to what you write, that you are afraid, 
<c left the excefs of my grief fliould leflen my 
" credit and authority j I do not know what 
c< men would have of me. Is it, that I fliould 
" not grieve? that is impoffible: or that I 
" fliould not be opprefled with grief? who 

."" was ever lefs fo? when I took refuge at 
** your houfe, was any man ever denied a£- 

* " cefs to me? or did any one ever come, who 
" had reafon to complain of me ? I went From 
" you to Aftura : where thofc gay fparks, who 
" find fault with me, are not able even to 

' " read fo much as I have written: how weft, 
" is nothing to the "purpofe, yet it i« of a kind 

. " which no body could write with a ^ifordered 
n mind — I (pent a month in my gardens aboot 

\ c VRbme; where I received' all who came, with 

• ec the fame eafinefs- as before. At, this very mo- 
* € ment, while I am employing my whole time 

in reading and writing, thofe, who are with 
me, are more fatigyed with their leifure, than 


" '[r"\ In hac Tolitddine careo folituriine. In ea mihi om- 

; -omnium colloquio, cumqoe nis {ttmb 'eft ctfm Ef ten's; 

, nape in illvam me abM ^eiim punts iiterpfjltt-flttus ; 

denOun fc^fperam, non expo . cui repqgqg quoad pol&m, 

inde*ante vefperum. geefn- • fed.adhgc fQift noa Aww s - 

, dum te, nitul mihi amicus lb. ic. 

2 "I with 

6f M. TUL L I U$ CICERO. $fy 

*k I with my pains. If any 9ne afks, why I am A. Urb. zoS. 
*f not at Rome ; becaufe it is vacation time : why c *c. 62'. ' 



** not in fome of my villa's, more ftitabte to- c ,""• 
" the f?afbn ; becaufe I could not cafily bear fo cI^ar* 
" much company. I am, where he, who has Diiutprllt 
" the beft houfe at Baiae, cbufes to be, in this M; ^ MILIV > 
«* f»rt of the year. 'When I come to Rome, no Mi? P fiut 
c< body (hall fin^i any thing amifs, either in my : • *-* 
V looks, or difcQurfe : a? to that chearfujriefs, 
€t with which uy$ "ufed to feafon the mifeny of 
*' fhefe jimes, Jhaye ir*dpcd for ever ; l?ut 
" will never p$t with my cpnftancy and firm- 
*' nefe, either.of mindorfpeech, £s?f. [/]." 

All hU other friends were very officious like* 
wife in making their compliments of condolence, 
and aginiiniftring argurqepts of comfort tp him : 
amoijg thp r?ft, Casfar hiii)(e}f, In . the hurry of 
his affairs ip Spain, wrote him a Letter $n the 
occafion, dated from Hifpali^ the lafi $fAfiril [/}. 
Brutus wrote another, fo friendly and afftfliwqtd, 
thtf it greatly &ov(dhim [u] : Lu<*eiu$ ajfo, on? 
of the moft efteemed writers of that agje, fen* 
him tyro 3 the fjrft tocondpfo tfcp fecpnd toex- 
poftplate with hUn for perfevering, to chenfh an 
unrpanly apd ufelefc gj: ipf .[>] : but , the following 
Letter of Sej*. Sujpicius is thought t<? be a £)£%*♦ 
pieee of t^e poijfetetqry kinwi, 

Ser, &4picius ,tg ,M- T. Cicero. 
* c I was exceedingly concerned, as indeed f 
tt ought to be, to hear of the death of your 

t*} Ad Ait. 1 2. 46. & prudenter Aamioe, mill tatf 

[f] ACjgjtjpe Ikiffras ^ taiR«p i^ihi lacrupaf aetata* 

<Jepi conjolatopas, datas pricl. nine. fo. .12. 13. 

JUL'Maii^ ftiipali. /d' Art. ' [x] yd. Ep. Fam. 5. 1 3^ 

13,20. ^ 14. ' 

M -Butt* jfrte&e v icript?* - • ■ 

B b 2 : " daughter 

gjo The Hi6TORY^^ Life 

As Urb! 708. " daughter Tull ; a ; which I looked upon as af 

Cic. 62. " 4f affli&ion common to us both. If I had been 

Coff. *« yf\th you, I would have made it my bufinefe 

C. Julius <c to conv i nce y 0l , 5 w ^ at a rca j (hare I take in 

fMaaiorlll. " y our g r ^f. Though that kind of confola- 
M itMibiui " tion is but wretched and lamentable, as it is 
Lbpjdvs tt t0 ^ e perfoj-nied by friends and relations, who 
Mag. Eqoit. «« are overw helmed with grief, and cannot en- 
' 4C ter upon their tafk without tears, and feem to 
44 want comfort rather themfelves, than to be 
44 in condition to adminifter it to others. I re- 
44 folved therefore to write to you in fhort, what 
$t - occured upon it to my own mind : not that 
44 I imagined, that the fame things would not 
44 occur alfo to you, but that the force of your 
* 4 grief might poffibly hinder your attention to 
44 them. What reafon is there then to difturb 
44 yourfelf lb immoderately on this melancholy 
44 occafion ? confider how fortune has already 
44 treated us ; how it has deprived us of what 
44 ought to be as dear to us as children ; our 
* 4 country, credit, dignity, honors. After fo 
44 miferable a lofs as this, what addition can it 
, * 4 poffibly make to our grief, to fuffer one mif- 
* fortune more ? or how can a mind* after being 
•* exercifed in fuch trials, not grow callous, and 
C€ think every thing elfe of inferior value ? but 
44 is^it for your daughter's fake that you grieve ? 
44 yet how often muft you neceffarily reflect, as 
•* I myfelf frequently do, that thofe cannot be 
44 faid to be hardly dealt with* whofe lQt it has 
44 been in thefe times, without fufiering any af- 
iVfliftioh to exchange life for death. For 
4C what is there in our prefeht circumftances that 
44 CQuld give her afcy great invitation to live ?' 
44 what bufinefs ? what liopes ? what profpeft 
44 of comfort before her^ was -it to pafs her 
.. w . 4 fdays 


." Bays in the married ftate, with fome young a. Urb. 708. 

%c man of the firft quality ? (for you, I know, Cic 62. 

44 on the account of your dignity, might have c T Coff# 

4C choferi what fon-in-law you pleafed out of all qmsa***- 
44 our youth, to whofe fidelity you might fafely DiaatorUI. 

~ 4C have trufted her,) was it then for the fake of M.iEiwiLius 
44 bearing children, whom fhe might have had ^* FI £ U Jjj t 
46 the pleafure to fee florifliing afterwards, in ag * < * m * 

4 < the enjoyment of theirpaternal fortunes, and 
4< rifing gradually to all the honors of the ftate, 
44 and ufing the liberty, to which they were 

•• c born, in the prote&ion of their friends and 
<c clients ? but what is there of all this, whicji 
44 was not taken away, before it was even given 

■<* to her ? but it is an evil, you'll fay, to lofe 
44 our children. It is fo ; yet it is much greater 
44 to fqffer, what we now endure. I cannot 
46 help mentioning one thing, which ha$ given * 

' 4C me nofmall comfort, and may help aMb per- 
« c haps to mitigate your grief. On my return 
44 from A'fia, as I was failing from ^Egina to- 
44 wards Megara, I began to contemplate the 
44 prbfpedt of the countries around me 1 ^Egina 
44 was behind, Megara before me •, Pirseeus on 
44 the right ; Corinth on the left : all which 
44 towns, onCe famous and florilhing, now lie 
4< overturned, and buried in their ruins : upon 
4C this fight, I eould fiat but think prefently 
44 within myfelf, alas ! how do we poor mortals 
46 fret and ve* ourfelves, if any of our friends 

' 4C happen to die, or to be killed, whofe life is 
44 yet fo. Ihdrt, when the cardafles of fo many 
44 noble cities lie here expofed before me in one 
44 view ? Why wilt thou not then command 
44 thyfelf, Servius,. and remertiber, that thou 
44 art born a man ? Believe me, I was not a lit- 
41 tic confirmed by this contemplation : tfy the 

B b 3 " force 

%yt The H i stok y vf the Lift 

A.Urb. 708." force of it therefore, if you pleafe, upon 

Cic. 62. " yourfelf* and imagine the fame profpett be~ 

Cofc <« f ove y 0ur own C y CS> jj ut to C ome nearer 

Cjesar" u home v when y6u confider how many of our 
-Diaatorlil." greatcft men have perilhcd lately at once; 
U.JEmhivs" w hat deftru&ion has been made in the Em- 
^ B "°g s ui , c< pire; what havock in all the Provinces ; how 
*' "" can you be fo much (hocked to be deprived 
" of the Meeting breath of one little Woman i 
u who, if (he had not died at this time, muft 
u neceflarily have died a few years after, fince 
w <c that was the condition of her being born. 
<c But recall your mind from refleftbns of this 
** kind, to the confideration of yourfelf; audi 
u think rather on what becomes your charadgr 
." and dignity: that your daughter lived, as 
" long as life was worth enjoying, as long as 
c '.fhe Republic ftood; had feen her Father 
* Phetor, Conful, Augur ; been married to the 
" hobleft of our youth ; had tafted every good 
" in life; and when the Republic fell, then 
" quitted it : what ground is there then, either 
" for you, or her, to complain of fortune on 
" this account ? In (hort, .do not forget, that 
*< you are Cicero ; one, who has been ufed aK 
f< ways to prefcribe and give advice tQ others ; 
- cc nor imitate thofe paltry Phyficians, who pre* 
4< tend to cure other people's difeafes, yet are 
v " not able to cure theirown ; but fuggeft rather 
* w to yourfelf the fame leilbn, which you would 
iC .give in the fame cafe. There is no grief fo 
" great, which length of tune will not alle- 
*' viate; but it would be fhamefuli in you to 
*' wait for that time, and not to prevent it by 
" your wifdorn: befides, if there be any feafe 
.?• in the dead, fuch was her love and piety to 
" you> that fhe muft be concerned to fee, .haw 

" much 



cc mu^h youafflidt yourfelf. Give this therefore tp a. Urb. 708. 

€t the deceafed; give \uo your friends % give it to ac * 6 ** 

Cc your Qpuntry •, that it mayligve the benefit of c £°^ s 

€c your affiance and advice, whenever there (hall casar 

f4 be occalipn. Laft]y,fince fortune has now made, DiaatorilF. 

44 it neceffary to us to accommodate our(elvestp^-^ M!LIi;8 

H our prefent fituation -, do not give any onp a Ma^Equk/ 

44 handle to think, that you are not fo much 

44 bewailing your daughter, as the ftate of the; 

44 times, and the viftory of certain perfons. \ 

" am afliamed to write any more, left I fhouict 

44 feem to diftruftyour prudence ; and will add 

44 therefore but one thing farther, and conclude, 

44 We have fometimes feen you bear pofperity 

44 .nobly, with great honor and applaufe to your- 

44 fclf ; let us now fee, that you can bear ad- 

44 yerfity with the fame moderation, and with T 

f 4 out thinking it a greater burthen, than yoij 

44 Qught to do ; left in the number of all youy 

f 4 other virtues, this one at laft be thought to 

44 be wanting;. As to myfelf, when I under- 

44 (land that your mind, is grown more calm and 

44 comppfed, I will fend you word, how all 

cc things gq on here, and what is the ftate of 

* 4 the Province. Adieu [y]." 

His anfwer to Sylpicius was the fame in effedt 
with what he gave tP all his friends ; " that bis 
44 cafe was different frdm all the examples, x 
" which he h$id been collc&ing for his owa 
44 imitation, of men, who had born the lofs of 
" children with firmnefs 3, fince they lived ia # 
44 tiqaes when their dignity in the ftate was able 
" in great meafurc to compehfate their misfor* 
" tune : but for me, fayf be, after I had loft all 
!! thofe ornaments, which you enumerate, and 

p,]EpFam. 4 . s . 

B b 4 « which 


274 STfe History/^ Life 

A. XJfb. 708. u which I had acquired with the utmoft pains, 

Cic 62. " I have now loft the oncly comfort that was 
Coff- «c i c f t t0 me- j n t his ruin of the Republic, 

Cjzsa** U m y thoughts were not diverted by ferving 

Didator in. <c either my friends or my country : 1 had no 
JA.JEuilivs <« inclinatipn to the Forum ; could not bear the 

fc5 Bri £ U8 't <c ^S^ of" drc Senate-, took myfelf, as the cafe 

*%' V 1 • <C J n trUt h Was< tQ h ave | ft a ]l ^ f rU i t f m y 

c< induftry and fortunes : yet when I reflected, 
u that all this was common to you, and to ma- 
u ny others, as well as to myfelf; and wasfor- 
4< cing myfelf therefore to bear it tolerably 5 I 
" had ftill in Tullia, fomewhat always to recur 
c< to, in which I could acquiefce ; and in whofc 
" fweet converfation I could drop all my cares 
4< arid troubles : but by this laft cruel wound, 
" all the reft, which feemed to be healed, are 
* broken out again afrefh : for as I then could 
* 4 relieve the uneafinefs, which the Republic 
C4 gave me,, by what I found at home ; fo I 
** cannot now, in the afflidion which I feel at 
cf home, find any remedy abroad; but am dri- 
u ven, as well from my houfe, as the Forum ; 
" fince neither my houfe can eafe my public 
€C grief, nor the public my domeftic one [z\. n 
The remonftrances of his friends had but lit- 
tle efFeft upon him ; aV the relief that he found, 
ivas from reading and writing, in which he con- 
tinually 'employed himfelf ; and did what no 
man had ever dohe before him> draw up a treatife 
$f confolation for himfelf; from which he pro r 
fefles to have received his greateft comfort j 
Though he wrote it, he owns, at a time 
when, in the opinion of the Philofophers, he 
was not fo wife as he ought to have been : 

[*] Ep. Fam. 4, 6. it. ad Att. iz. 28. 

" but 



of M.rULLtVS CIQERO. 3^ 

but I did violence, fans fa, to my nature 5 to A, Urb.708, 
make the greatncfs or my Jbrjrow give place Cic 62, 
to the greatnefs o£the medicine- though I c f Coff ' 

aflcd. againtt the advice of Chryfippus, who ^Cjesar 
c< difiuades the appficatioh of any remedy to Dilator HI. 
•'« the firfl: aflaults of grief M." fti this work iJ-AiiLrtrt 
he chiefly imitated Grantor, the Academic* who ^ag! Eq!dt. 
had left a celebrated piece on the fame fubjeft 5 
yet bt infvrted #lfo whatever pleafedhim, from any 
other aqthor\wbo had written uj>oh it \b] \ *il- 
luftratingliis precepts all the way, by examples 
from their qwn hiftory, of the mojt eminent Ro- 
mans of both feyes, who had born the' fame mis-' 
fortune with a remarkable conftancy. This book 
.was much read by the primitive Fathers, efpeciaUy 
Laftantius j to whom we are obliged for the few 
fragments, which remain of it : for, as the Cri- 
jics have long fince obferved, that piece, which 
we now fee in the colledliori of Kis fc writings,* un- 
der the title of Confolation, is undoubtedly fpu- 
rious, r 

I a] Feci, quod ante me tjuafi tumores animi rtmc- 

nemo, ut ipfe me per litteras dram adhibere, id nos feci- 

confolarer — affirmo tibi mus, naturaeque vim adtuli- 

fiullam confolationem efle ta- mus, ut magnitudini me- 

lem. Ad Att. 12. 14. it. ib. dicinae dolor is magnitudo 

*8. . concederet. Tufc. Difp. 4. 

Quid ego de confolatione 29. 
dicaox? quae mibi quidem [6] Crantorem fequor. 
ipii fane aliquantum mede- Plin. Prasf. Hid, N. 
tar, cseteris item multum il- Neque tamen progredior 
lam profuturam puto. De longius, quam mihi do&if- 
Div. 2. 1. fimi homines concedunt, quo- 
la confolationis libro, quern rum fcripta omnia,, quascun- 
io medio, (non enim fapien- quae fum in earn fementiam 
tes eramus) mcerore. & dolore non legi folum— fed in mea 
conferipftmus : quo4que ve- etiam fcripta tranftuli. Ad 
tat Chryfippus, ad recentes "Att. 12. 21. ic. 22. 


37G JikHisTORY of the Life 

h. Urb. 708. But the defign of this treatifc was, not onely 
C Coff U t0 f c ^ cvc ^ s own inind, * >ut t0 confecratc the 
C- Julius virtues and memory of Tullia to all poftcrity : 
CicsAR nor did his fondnefs for her ftop here -, but 
t P*J ftWrIII *fuggefted*the prdjeftof a more efle&ual con- 
l^it 1 " fecration, by building a Temple (o bpr, and ereft- 
J** Eqnit. ing Her into a fort of Deity,- It was an opi- 
nion of the Philofophers, which he himfelf con- 
ftantly favored, and in his prefent circumffcnees 
particularly indulged, €C that the fouls of men 
4C were or heavenly extradtion : arid that the 
*• pure and chaft, at their diflblution from the 
f* body, returned to the fountain from which 
" they were derived, to iubfift eternally in the 
<c fruition and participation of the Divine Na-i 
44 ture ; whilft the impure and corrupt were left 
~ <c to grovel below in the dirt and darknefs of 
cc thpfe inferior regions/' He declares there- 
fore,' ** that as the wifdom of the ancients had 
cc confecrated and deified many excellent per- 
c< fons of both fexes, whofe Temples were then 
" remaining ; the progeny of Cadmus ; of Am- 
c . c phitryon ; of Tyndariis ; fo he would perform 
" the fame honor to Tullia j who- if any crea- 
<c ture had ever deferved it, was or all the moft 
44 worthy of it. I will do it therefore, fays be y 
44 and confecrate thee, thou bett and moft learn- 
c * ed of women, now admitted into the affem- 
c * bly of the Gods, to the regard and veneration 
" of all mortals [*]." -■...-..•*.. 


[c] 5Non emxn omnibus 3- cere ^ocuerunt; caflos antem 

li fipicntes arbitrari font €- aminos, poros, integros, xn- 

undem curfum in ccelum pa- comiptos, bonis etiam ftodiis 

tere. Nam vitiis & fcelcri- atque artibus expohttw, leni 

bus contaminates deprimi in quodam ac facili Upfa ad 

tenebras, atque in cceno ja- jpeos, id eft ad naturam fui 


Int his Letters to Atticus we find the ftrongeft 
cxpreffions of his refolutioh and impatience to Tee 
this defign executed : u l will hav$ a Temple, 
" fays be ; it is not poffiBIe to divert me From 
" it— if it be not finifhed this fummer, I fhall 
" not thiilk myfelf clear t>f guilt— I am more 
" religioufly bound to the execution of it, tfrar) 
" any man ever was to the performance of his 
" vow [»J.* He fcems to have defigaed a F*» 
brie of great m&gnifkence ; for he had fettled 
the plan with his Architeft, and cotitrafted for 
Pillars of Chian marble, with a fculptor of that 
Iile; where both the work and the materials 
were the moft efteemed of any in Greece]*]. 
One reaToh, that determined him to a Itcmpky 
rather than a Sepulchre* was, that in the one he 
was not limited in the expenfc, whereas in the 
other he was cohfihed by law to a certain fumm, 


A. Urb. 798^ 

C. JuLIU* 

Dictator tTf, 

LepIdui * 
Mag. Eqtrt* 

fimflem pervokre — Pragm. 
ConfoVat.'ex Laaantio— 

Cain veJo Sc mares & fbe- 
minas collates ex hotaini- 
bus in Dfcordm nilmcro effe 
videamue, & etoruni 1 in urbi- 
bus atque agris adgaftiffima 
templa Vfencremur, afentfe^ 
nor e&rain fapientiat, quo- 
rum in£enlis & invefttis otti- 
tiem vitato tegibus & inftitu- 
tis fctcultam corfftitutimqne 
kabemas. Quod & ufhim 
unquam animal confecran- 
dum fait, illudprofefto'fcrtt. 
SiCadmi, aut Ampbiti-yflnis 
progenies, aut Tyndart in 
todum tollefifta fama fait, 
b"uic Ideal hiffos certe di- 
eandus fell. tQijfifd quhiem 
faciamj tie^dc omnium op- 
timato doattfimaniquc, ap- 

prbbatiHbils Dlis rjJfu, fa>eo- 
rum ccetu locatam, ad opi- 
ttionem omnium mortalium 
confecrabo. Ib.— vid. Tufc. 
Difo. I. i.e. xi, 12/30, 31. 

(d] Fanam fieri tfolo, rie- 
qae mini erui poteft. [Ad 
Att. 12. 36.] RedeoadFa- 
num, nifi hacaftate abfolu- 
tum erit— fcelere me libera- 
turn non putabo. [ib. 41.] 
Ego ate majore religione, 
quam qoifquam fuit ullius 
voti, obftri&um puto. Ib. 43. 

[/} Dfc Fano illo dico— 
neque de genere dubito, pla- 
cet enim mini Cluatii. [ib. 
18.J Tu tamen cum Apella 
Chio confice de columnis, 
[ib. 19.] vid. Win. Hift. N. 



A, Urb. 708. 
Cic. 62. 


C. Julius 

• Cjeiar. 


" Itoj. Equit, 

• Tfc* History gf the Lift 

which he could not excede,' without the forfei- 
ture of the fame fumrn alio to the public;, yet 
this, as he tells us, was not the chief motive, 
but a refolution, that hfe had taken, of making 
a proper apotbeqfis [/}. The onely difficulty 

•'"?•■-/*•••.' - - * was 

[/ Nunquam mihi venit 
in mentem, quo plus tnram- 
tani in monumentom effet; 
quam nefcio quid, auod lege 
conceditur, untundem po~ 
polo dandum effe : quod non 
magnopefe mbveret,* nifi ne- 
fcio quomodo, ' &ioyw (or- 
tafle. Nollem illud ullo no- 
' mine nifi Fani appellari. 

tAtt. 1 a. 35.] Scpulavfimf- 
tudinem effugere. non tan) 
t propter poxuun Jegis ftudeo, 
' qoam at maxime affeqaar 
Ixobitxn. lb. 36. 
K This fact feems to confirm 
what the Author of ti^e book 
of Wtfdom obferves pn the 
origin of Idolatry ; that it 
wa^owing to the fond affec- 
tion of Parents, feeking to 
do honor to their deceafed 
children. c lht Father, fays 
he, offreffed with an unex- 
pected grief for the fudden 
4eatb of bis child, after mak- 
ing an .image of him* began to 
ivo/Jbip him as a God, though 
he was but * bad man, and 
enjoined certain rites and myfte- 
ries to bisfeivants and depen- 
' dents. [Wi/d. x*v. 15.] But 
it was not Cicerp's real 
thought after all to e^alt his 
daughter into >a Deity: he. 
knew it to be abfuid, as he 
often declares, to pay divine 


honors to doaj mortals \ and 
fells us, how their very Pib- 
licans had decided that qoef- 
tion in Beeotia Z; for when the 
lands of the Immortal Gods 
were excepted odt of their 
hate, by the law of the Cen- 
Jfrs, .they denied, that any 
one could bg deemed, an immor- 
tal God, <wbo bad once 'been a 
mnn% audf&madt the lauds of 
Jntphsaraus audEropbonius fey 
the fame taxes moitb the rejl. 
fdeNat. Deor. 3.^19.] Yet 
in a political view he fomc- 
times recommends the wor- 
ihip of thofe fons of men, 
whpm their eminent (ervices 
to 'mankind had advanced to 
tfce rank of inferior Gods, 
as it inculcated, in a man- 
ner the 1 moft fenfible, the 
doctrine of the SouPs* Immor- 
tality: [deLeg. tl xi.] And 
fince a tempfe was the msft 
antitnt may of doing honor 
to thofe dead, who had de- 
ferved it 5 [Plin. Hift. 27.] 
he confidered it as the moft 
effectual method of perpe- 
tuating the memory and prai- 
fes of Tullia; and , was will- 
ing to take ihe benefit of the 
popular , fuperftition, and 
. follow the example of thofe 
Antients, -who had poliihed 
and civilised human life, by 
» ' - confecxatin? 


was to find a place that fuited his purpofe: his A. ifrb. 708. 
firft thought was to pur chafe certain gardens cfofs c £< £ 2 ; ' 
the Tiber \ which lying near the city, and in the c j^nxs 
public view, were the moft likely to draw a re- c^sar 
lbrtof votaries to his new Temple: " hepref- DiaatorriL 
44 fes Atticus therefore to buy them for him a t**^ MILIUS ' 
<c any rate, without regard to his circumftances; i^l'sqak. 
* 4 fince he would fell, or mortgage, or be con- 
44 tent to live on little, rather than be difap- 
4< pointed : Groves and remote places, be fays, 
44 ircre proper onely for Deities of an eftablifli- 
44 ed name ^nd religion; but for the Deification 
44 of mortals, public and open fituations were 
44 neceflary, to* ftrike the eyes, and attract the 
44 notice of the people." But he found fo ma- 
ny obftruftions in all his attempts of purchafing, 
that to lave trouble andexpence, Atticus advifed x 
him, to build at laji in one of bis own villa's ; to 
which he feemed inclined, left the fummer 
fhould pafs without doing any thing : yet he was 
jrrefolute ftill, which of his villa's he fhould 
chufe; and difcouraged, by reflefting on the 
change of majlers> to which all private eftates 
were expofed, in a fucceffion of ages; which 
might defeat the end of his building, and de- 
ftroy the honor of his Temple ; by convert* 
ing it to other ufes, or fuffering it to fall into 
ruins [g]. 


confecrating fuch patterns of font in infinita pofleritate~- 

virtue to the veneration of illud quafi conlecratum re* 

their fellow Citizens. Vid. manerepoffit. Equidem jam 

Mongault. Not. Act. nihil egeo ve&igalibus, & 

12.18. parvo contentos «fie poflum. 

[g] Sed ineunda nobis ra- Cogito internum trans Tibe- 

tio eft, quemadmoduin in rim hortos aliquos parare, 

omni mutatione doxninorum, & quidem ob banc caufain 

^ui innunerabiles fieri po(- jnaximc* nihil enim video 


$8b fhf HistqAV qf tie Life 

4* Urb. 708. But after all his cageraefc acd fcllieittide 
Ck. 62. about thU yiw^rfr, it was never actually built by 

C. Juliu* him » fi ^ wc ** n( * no m* ** 00 °^ lt fa an y <* 

Ci£sXR the ancient writers * which could not have beta 

DtfatorlH. omitted, if a fabric fo memorable had ever been 

M.JEMIUU. eroded [*]. It is likely, that as his grief e*a- 

U*g. EquiCt P° ra fcd» *&<* his mind grew more calm* he be- 

g?0 to confider his projeft more pbtlefbphicaUy; 

and to perceive the vanity of expeding any laft- 

ing glory from fuch monuments, which time it- 

felf, in the courfc of a few ages, muft neeeflarily 

deftroy : it is certain at leaft, that as he made no 

Hep towards building it this fummer, fo Cadar's 

death, which happened before the next, gave 

frefh obftru&ion to it, by the hurry of affairs, in 

which it engaged him; and though he had not 

ftill wholly dropt the thoughts of it, but conti- 

mied tp make preparation, and to fet apart a 

fund for it [;'] ; yet in the fliort and bufy icene 

?\voi .tam ceJebre eff« peflet. yet when it was removed in- 

ad Att, 13. 19,] .Dehors, to the Gty, it mouldered 

etiain atqoe etiam t« rogp, away in three days. But 

[ib. 22.3 tJt £epe locotiji*- this was Qnely the hafty con. 

mufi^comrautatipnes domino- je&ute of fome learned men 

rani refarmifio. [jb, *6\] Co- of that time, which, for want 

kt>rijt4tem req ¥ iro. ib, 27. of ajithof tar to fupport it, 

Gelius Rhoajgimw foon vanjihed of itfelf j for 

tells us, that in the time of no mfcriptroh was ever pro- 

Sixtus the 4th, there was duced to confirm it, nor has 

feiu>4 near Rome on the Ap- it been mentioned, that I 

plan way, over-againft the know of, by any other an* 

Tomb of Cicero, the bedy rjior, that there.waa any fe- 

ef a woman, whofe hair was poichre of Cicero, on the 

duffed np in network- of Aj>pjan way— — vid. Caeh 

ge4i, and which, from the Rtod. Legion, antiq. I. 5. 

kifcription, was thought to c. 24.. 

be the body of Tullia. It [r] Quod ex iflis froftnefis 

was intife, and fo well pre- refcus r?ceptnm eft, id ego 

i«rved ; by Jjftfces, as to have ad illad fanum fepofitum pa- 

feif«i«diio<njuiyfrwBtijiie|. *bam. Ad Att. 15, ic. 

: ' '•'■■ q£ 


of life, which Remained to him* he never had A* Urb. 70&. 
leifure enough 'to carry it into execution. , C q^ u 

He was now grown fo fond of folitude, that c. Julius 
all company was become uneafy to him; arid Cjesar 
when his friend Philippus, the Father-in-law of Dk&itQrfIL 
Odavius, happened to come to his villa in that £*"*£"* 
neighbourhood, he was not a little difturbed at Magrftyrit. 
TtFm>m the apprehenfion of being teized with 
hi* vifits ; and he tells Atticus, with forbe plea- 
faftr, that be had called upon him onely to pay a 
Jhort compliment, and went back again to Rome, 
without giving him any trouble [4]. His wife 
Publilia alfo wrote him word, that her Mother 
and Brother intended to wait upon him, and that 
Jbe would come along with them, if be would give 
her leave ; which (he begged in the mod earneft 
and fubmiffive terms — but his anfwer was, that 
he was more indifpofed than ever to receive compa- 
ny, and would not have them come: and left they 
Ihotfld come without leave, he defires Atticus to 
watch their motions* and give him notice, that be 
might contrive to avoid them [/]. A denial fo 
peremptory confirms what Plutarch fays, thai 
bis wife was now inMJgrace with him, on account 
of her carriage towards bis daughter, and fot 
feeming to rejoice at her death: a crime, which, 
in the tendernefs of his affliction, appeared to 

[i] Mihi adhuc nihil pri- lilio ad me venturam, & fe 

us fuit hac folitadine, quam una, fi ego paterer : orat 

vereor, ne Philippus tollat : multis & fapplicibus verbis 

hcri enim veiperi venerat. ut liceat, 8c ut fibi refciibam 

lb. 12. 1 6. — refcripfi, me etiam grja- 

Qood eram Veritas, non viuseffeaffedum, quam turn, 

obtnrbavit Philippus: nam cum ilii dixiflem, me folum 

ut heri me falutavit, ftatim effe velle, ' quare nolle me 

Romam profeftos eft. lb. 18. hoc tempore earn ad me ve- 

(Vj Publilia ad me fcrip- mire te hoc nunq rogo 

% matrcm foam cum Pub- ut explores; lb. 32. 


The Histo r,y of tffe Life 

A. Urb. 708. blm lb heinous, that he could not bear the 

Cc. 62. thoughts of feeing her any more ; and though it 

Coff. was inconvenient to him, to part with her for- 

Cm**** tune at this time, yet he refolved to fend her a 

DitizvorlU. divorce, as a proper facrifice to the honor of 

.M.jEMiLiusTuiiia [ w j # 

Lepidus Brutus likewife about this time took a rcfo- 
*■ * * lution of putting away his wife Claudia, for the 
fake of taking Porcia, Bibulus's widow* and bis 
Uncle Cato y s daughter . But he was much cen- 

/ lured for this ilep * fince Claudia had no ftain 

upon her chara&er ; was nobly born ; the Sifter 
of Appius Claudius ; and nearly allied to Poxn- 
pey ; fo that his Mother SeruMa, though Cato's 
oiftcr, feems to have been averfe to the divorce, 
and ftrongly in the intereft of Claudia, againft 
her Niece. Cicero's advice upqn it was, that if 
Brutus was refolved upon the thing, hejhould do it 
out of band, as the bed way to put an end to 
people's talking ; by fhewing, that it was not 
done but of levity or complaifance to the times, 
but to take the daughter of Cato, whofe name 
was now highly popular [»] : which Brutus foon 
after complied with, and made Porcia his wife. 
There happened another accident this fum- 
ftier, which raifed a great alarm in the City, 
the furprizing death of Marcetlus, whom Caefar 

[ml This affair of Publi- de Bruto : qjaanquam Nicias 

]ia*s divorce, is frequently re- confectum putabat: fed di- 

ferred to, though with fame vortiam non probari. — Ad 

/ obfeurity. in his Letters ; and Att. 13. 9. 

we find Attic as employed by Brutasrfi quid— curabis nt 

him afterwards to adjuft with fciam. Cui quidem quam 

the Brother Publilius, the primum agendum puto, prx- 

time and manner of paying fertim fi ftatuit ; fermuocu* 

back the fortune, Vid. ad !um enim omnem aut reftinx- 

Att. 13. 34.47 : 16. 2. erit aut fedarit. It>. ro. 

(»] A te expe&o fi quid 



had lately pardoned. - He had left Mitylene, a. Urb. 708. 
and was come as far Is Piraeus, on his way Cic. 62. 
towards Rome ; where he fpent a day, with his ■ T Coff - 
old friehd and collegue, S$rv. Sulpicius, intend- qmsa*** 
ing to purfue his voyage the day following by Dictator III. 
fea; but in the night, after Sulpicius had taken M.jEmiliws 
leave of him, on the twenty -third 'of May, he h ErX £ US - 
was killed by his friend and client, Magius, who * g ' ,UIL 
Jiabbed Umfelf inftantly^ with the fame poignard: 
of which Sulpicius lent the following account to % 

Serv. Sulpicius to M. T. Cicero. 

cc Thou'gh I know that the news, which I 
«• am going to tell you, will not be agreeable, 
4C yet fincc chance and nature govern the lives 
44 of us all, I thought it my duty to acquaint 
44 you with the fad, in what manner foever it 
44 happened.* On the twenty-fecond of May I 
44 came by fea from Epidaurus to Pirseeus, to 
** meet my collegue Marcellus, and for the fake 
44 of his company, fpent that day with him 
44 there. The next day, when I took my leave 
44 of him, with defiign to go from Athens into 
44 Boeotia, to finifh the remaining part of my 
44 jurifdi&ion, he, as he told me, intended to 
44 fet fail at the fame time towards Italy. The 
44 day following, about four in the morning,- 
44 when I was preparing to fet out from Athens, 
44 his friend, P. Poftumius, came to let me 
44 know, that Marcellus was (tabbed by his 
44 companion P. Magius Cilo after (upper, and 
44 bad received two wounds, the one in his fto- 
44 mach, the other in his head near the ear, 
44 but he was in hopes ftill, . that' he might live ; 
44 that Magius prefently killed himfelf ; and 

Vol. II. C c " that 

384 T&Histqily qftbeLtye 

A.Urb.708. " that Marcellus fcnt him n> inform me of the 

Ci r (T 2 " ca ^ e * anc * t0 ^ c ^ ire » x ^*t I wou ^ briag feme 
C. Julius " Phyfcians to him. I gpt ibme together im- 

Cjesar " mediately, and went away with them before 

Diflatorlll. " break of day : but when I waa c$me near Pi- 
M.^Emilxus a raBCUSi Acidinus's boy met me with a note 

Maglsqoit. " fr° m **is matter, ifi which it was figoified, that 
" Marcellus died a little before day* Thus a 
" great man was numbered by a bafe villain; 
" and he, whom his very enemies had fpared 
<4 on the account of his dignity, received his 
'* death from the hands of a friend. I went 
" forward however to his tent, where I found 
" two of his freedmen, and a few of his (laves ; 
" all the reft, they &id, were fled, being in a 
" terrible fright, on the account of their matter's 
" murther. I was forced to carry his body with 
" me into the City, in the fame Jitter in which 
" I came, and by my own ferv*nt$ ; where I 
" provided a funeral for him, as fpiendid as the 
" cqndition of Athens would allow. I could 
" not prevail with the Athenians to grant a 
'* place of burial for him within the City; they 
" laid, that it was forbidden by their religion, 
" and had never been indulged to any man : 
" but they readily granted, what was the moft 
" defireable in the next place, tQ bury him in 
" {my of their public Schools, that I pleafed. I 
.."chofe a place therefore, the noWcft in the 
" Uniyerfe, the' School of the Acadmy^ where I 
" burnt him ; and have fince given orders, that 
".the Athenians fhould provide a Marble Mo- 
" nument for him in the fame place. Thus I 
" have faithfully performed to him* both when 
<c living and dead, every duty, which our part- 
" nerfliip in office, and my particular relation 
5 " to 


<c to him required. Adieu. The thirtieth of A. Urb. yt>& 
" May from Athens |>}." . Cic. 6a„ 

M. Marcejllus w*s the head of a family, c f^ ws 
which, for a fiicceflion of many ages, had made cJesar 
the firft figure in Rome, and was htmfelf $dorn- Diflatorilf. 
ed with all the virtues, that could qualify him to M.^mijiu* 
fuftain that dignity, which he derived from his ^ E * ! g*^ 
noble apceftors. He had formed himfelf in a 
particular manner for the Bar, where he fdOn 
acquired great fame-, and, of all the Orators of 
his time, feems to have approached the rteareft 
to Cicero himfelf ", in th^ <;ha$a£ler of a complete 
Speaker. Hi* manner of fpeaking was elegant % 
ftr.ongy and copious ; wifih a fweetnefs of voice, 
and propriety ofattion, that aided a grace and fas- 
ter to every thing that he Jaid. He was a conftant 
admirer and imitator of Cicero, of the fame prin- 
ciples in peace , . and on the fame Jide in war ; fo 
that Cicerp laments his abfence, as the lofs of a 
companion and partnet, in their common ftudies 
and labors of life. Of all the Magiftrates, he 
was the fierce^: oppofer of Caefar's power, arid 
the moft a&ive «o reduce it : his high fpirit, and 
the ancient glory of his.houfe, made him impa- 
tient under the thought of receiving a matter ; 
and when the battle of Pharfalia feemed at laft 
to have impofed 6ne upon them, he retired to 
Mitylene, the ufual retort of men of learning > 
there to fpend the reft of his days in a ftudious 
retreat, remote from arms, and the hurry of 
war -, and determined neither to feek, nor to 
accept any grace from the Conqueror. Here 
Brutus paid him a vifit, and found him, as he 
gave an account to Cicero, as perfeSly eafy and 
happy under all the mifery of the times, from th$ 

[0] Ep. Fart. 4. 1 z. 
% C c 2 confcioufnefs 

386 The History of the Life 

A. U»b. 708. confcioufnefs of bis integrity , as the condition of ba- 
de. 62. man Uf e ccu f J heat\ furrounded with the principal 

C I^l^u Scholars and Philofophers of Greece, and eager 
Cjesar * n ^ c purfuit of knowledge ■, fo that in departing 
Diaator III from him towards Italy, be feemed y he faid > to 

M.iEmilius fa roinr bimfelf into exiL rather than leaving Mar- 

Magius, who killed him, was of a family 
which had born feme of the public offices, and 
had himfelf been 9$uaftor [q] ; and having at- 
tached himfelf to the fortunes of Marcellus, and 
followed him through the wars and his exil, was 
* now returning with him to Italy. Snlpicius gives 
no hint of any caufe, that induced him to com- 
mit this honid faft: which, by the immediate 
death of Magius, could never be clearly known. 

[<y] Mihi, inquit, Marcel- 
lus fa is eft notus. Quid igitur 
de illo judicas ?— -quod habi- 
turus es fimilem tui — ita eft, 
& vehementer placet. Nam 
.& did left, & omiflis cseteris 
fiudtis id egit unum, fefeque 
quotidianis commemationi- 
bus acerrime exercuit. Ita- 
que k leclis utitur verbis & 
frequentibus ; & fplendore 
vocis, digoitate motus fit 
fpeciofum & iiluftre, quod 
dicicur ; oniniaque fic.fuppe- 
tunt, ut ei nullam deeffe vir- 
tiitem oratoris putem. Brut: 

Dolebam, Patres conferip- 
ti,— illo senmlo atque imi;a- 
tore flu di or urn meorum, qua- 
fi quodam focio a me & co« 
mite diftra&o — quis enim eft 
illo aut nobilitate, aut probi- 
tate, aut optimarum artium 
fl<idio, aut innocentia, aut 

ullo genere laudis pnelian- 
tior ? - pro Marcel. 1 . 

Noftri ej>im fenfus, ut in 
pace Temper, fie tu^n etiam in 
bello congruebant. la. 6. 

Qui hoc tempore ip r o — »n 
hec communi uoftro Sc qaafi 
farali malo. cqnfoletur, fe~ 
cum confeientia optima? men* 
lis, turn etiam ufurpatione ac 
rencvat'one dedrinae. Vidi 
enim Mitylenis noper viruro, 
atque ut dixi, vidi plane vi- 
rum. Itaque cum eum a&tea 
tui fimilem in dicendo vide • 
rim ; turn vero nunc docYifli- 
mt) viro, t'bique ut intellcxi 
amicuTimo Cratippo, inftruc- 
turn omni copta, inulto vide- 
bam fimiliqrem. Brut. ibid, 
vid. . Confolat. ad 
Helv. p. 79. 

(?) Vid. Pigh. Annal. A. 


of M. rVLLIUS CICERO. 387 

Cicero's conje&ure was, that Magius, m oppreffedA. Urb, 708.. 
with debts, and apprehending fome trouble qn that Cic. 62.* 
/core at his return, bad been urging Marcellus, c ^ ofl - 
who was his fponfor for fome part of them, to fur- Jje^aii 
nifh him with money, to pay the whole ; and by re- Diftator HI. 
ceivihg a denial, was provoked to the madnefs ofM -/Km in us. 
killing bis Patron [r]. Others afiign a different J^" 1 ™[ Ut 
reafon, as the rage of jealoufy i and the impatience 
of feeing others more favored by Marcellus, than „ 
himfelf (>]. 

As fbon as the news reached Rome, it raifed 
a general con fter nation : and from the fufpicious 
nature of the times, all people's thoughts were 
prefently turned on Csefar, as if he were private- 
ly the contriver of it ; and from the wretched 
fate of fo illuftrious a Citizen, every man began 
to think himfelf in danger : Cicero was greatly 
fhocked at it, and feemed to confider it, as the 
prelude of fome greater evil to enfue ; and A t- 
ticus fignifying his concern upon it, advifes him 
to take a more particular care of himfelf, as %eing 
the onely conjular Senator lejt, who flood expofed 
to any envy [/ ). But Csefar's friends foon clear-, 
ed him of all fufpicion ; as indeed the faft itlelf x 
did, when the circumftances came to be known, 
and fixt the whole guilt of it on the fury of 

E r ] Quanquam nihil habeo micorum ab eo fibi praeferri. 

quod dub 1 tern, nifi ipfi Ma- Va'. Max. g. v i i. 
gio quae fuerit caafa amentia?, [r] Mintme miror te & 

P*o quo quidem etiam Soon- graviter ferrc de Marcello, & 

for bunii fa&us eft. Nimi- plura vereri periculi genera, 

rum id fuit. Solvendo enim Quis emm hoc timeret, quod 

Don crat. Credo eum a Mar* neque accidcrat an tea, nee 

cello petiiffe aliquid, & ilium, videbatur nirura ferre ut ac- 

ut erac, conrVaitius refpon- cidere poller. Omnia igitur 

difle. Ad Att. 13. 10. • m-cuenda, &c. Ad Ate. 13. 

^ ['] Indignittrs atiquem a- fo. ♦ ' • 

C c 3 There 

388 The H 1 s T o R Y of the Life 

A. Urb. 708. There appeared at this time a bold ImpoA 
Cic. 62. tor> who began to make a great noife and figure 
C. Ju°liu* in ^ ta, y» ty affuming the name, and pretending 
Ctrsar to be the Grand/on of Onus Marius : but appre- 
DidhtorUJ. hending that Csefar would foon put an end to 
AMBmilius kj s pretentions, and treat him as hedeferved, he 
mV^Equk. ^ ent a Poetic Letter to Cicero, by fome young 
fellows of his company, to juftify his claim and 
defcent, and to implore his prote&jon againft the 
enemies of his family j conjuring him, by their re- 
lation ; by the poem, which he bad formerly written 
, in praife of Marius •, by the eloquence of L. Crajfus* 
bis mothers Father ', whom be bad likewife cele- 
brated, that be would undertake the defence of bis 
caufe: Cicero anfwered him very gravely, thai be 
eould not want a Patron, when bis Kinfman C*efar, 
fo excellent and generous a man, was new the Mafter 
of all; yet that be alfo Jhould be ready to faver 
him [»]. But Qefer, at his return, knowing him 
to be a eheat, baniftied him out of Italy ; fince 
inftead of being, what he pretended to be* he 
was found to be onely a Farrier, whofc true 
name was Herophilus [xj. 

Ariarathes the Brother and prefamptive 
* heir of Ariobarzanes, King of Cappadocia, came 

[»]Hcri— quidam Urbani, hominis Jiberaliffimi ; me ta- 
ut videbantur, admemanda- menei futurum— ad Act. 12. 
ta & litteras attulcrunt, a C. 49. 

Mario, C. F. C. N. multis [*] Herophilus Equarius 

verbis agere mecumpcr cog- medicus, C. Mariana fepties 

nationem, quae mibi fecum Confulera avum fibi vendi- 

eflet, per eum Marium, quern cando, ita fe cxtulit, at co- 

fcripfiffem, per eloqaentiam lonias veteranorum coraplures 

L. Craffi avi fui, ut fe defeo- H municipia fplendida, colle- 

derero— refer ipfi nihil ei Pa- giaque fere omnia patronum 

trono opus efle, quoniam Cse- adoptarent — caeterum decre- 

faris, propinqui ejus, omois to Caeiaris extra ItaU&m tele- 

potcftas cflet, viri optimi & gatus, &c, Val. Max. 9. 15. 



to Rome this year •, and as Cicero had a partial- A.Urb. 708. 
lar friendfhrp with his family, and, when Con- Cic. 61. 
fill, had, fyy a decree of the Senate, conferred c i£°^ 
upon his Father the honor of the Regal Title ; he cJe^a* US 
thought proper to fend a fervant to meet him on Bi&uorin. 
the road, and invite him to bis houfe: buthe was M.^miliui 
already engaged by Seftius, whofe office it then M^Equit. 
was, to receive foreign Princes and Embafladors 
at the public expence \ which Cicero was not dif- 
pleafed with in the prefent ftate of his domeAic 
affairs ; be comes^ fays, he, / guefs to purchafe 
fame kingdom of C<efar $ for be has not at prefent a 
foot of kind of bis own {j] m 

Cicero's whole time during his folitude -was 
employed in reading and writing : this was the 
bufinefis both of his days and nights : it is inert- 
dible^ he fays, how much be wrote, and bow little 
he fief t : and if be bad net fallen into tbat way of 
fpending bis time* befbouldmt have known what to 
do with himfelf \z\ His ftudies were chiefly 
Philofophical, which he had been fond of from 
his youth, and, after a long intermiflion, now 
refumed with great ardor; having taking a refclu* • 
tion, to explane to his Countrymen in their own 
language whatever the Greeks had taught on ' 
every part of Philofophy whether fpeculative or 

[y] Ariaratbes Ariobarza- tudo eft, invito cum per lib- 

ni filius Romam venit. Vult, teras, ut a pud roe diverfetur. 

opinor, regnnm altquod e- Ad Atr. 13. 2. 

mere a Oefare: nam, q*o [*] Creciibile non eft, 

roodo wine eft, pedem M quantum fcribam die, quin 

ponat in fuo non habet. Om- eciam no&ibus. Nihil enim 

aino eum Seftius nofter paro- fomni. lb. 26. 

chus pabjicus occapavtt : Nffi mi hi hoc venhTet in 
quod quidem facile patior. . meniem» fcttbew ifta nefcio 

Verumtamen quod mihi Aim- quae, quo verterem me non 

mo beneficio meo, magna ha be rem. lb. 10. 
cum fratribus • illius necefli- : 

C c 4 practical : 

390 Tb Uli &t ok v of the Illfe 

A. Urb. 708. pra&i cal : u For being driven, as he. tells us, 

Cl r ff 2 " " ^ rom t ' lc public adminiftration, he knew no 

C. Julius <€ way fo efFe&ual of doing good, as by inftrudt- 

Cjesah " ing the minds, and reforming the morals of 

Diaacorill. *« the youth ; which, in the licence of thofe 

*i ^i*u8 U$ " **me* f wanted every help to reftrain and cor- 

MatEqoit. ** rc & them. The calamity of the City, jays be, 

44 made this taflc neceffary to me : fince, in the 

44 confufion of civil arms, I could "neither de- 

14 fend it after my old way ; nor, when it was 

* Ci impoflible for me to be idle, could I find any 

44 thing better, on which to employ myfelf. My 

44 Citizens therefore will pardon, or rather thank 

44 me ; that when the government was fallen into 

44 the power of a fingle perfon, I neither wholly 

44 hid, nor affiifted myfelf unneceffarily ; nor 

44 a&ed in fuch a manner, as to feem angry at 

44 the man, or the times ; nor yet flattered or 

44 admired the fortune of another fo, as to be 

44 difpleafed with my own. For I had learnt 

44 from Plato and Philofophy, that thefe turns 

44 and revolutions of ftates are natural ; fome- 

44 times into the hands of a few, fometimes of 

44 the many, fometimes of one : as this was the 

44 cafe of our own Republic, fo when I was de- 

44 prived of my former poll in it, I betook my- 

44 felf to thefe ftudies, in order to relieve my 

44 mind from the fenfe of our common miferies, 

44 and toferve my country at the fame time in the 

44 beft manner that I was able : for my books 

44 fupplied the place of my votes in the Senate •, 

44 and of my fpeches to the people •, and I took 

44 up philofophy, as a fubftitute for my manage- 

44 ment of the ftate [*]." 

[a] Divin. z. 2.— dc Fin. 1,3. 



Hb now publvfhed therefore, in the way of A, tJrb. 708; 
dialogue, a book, which he called Hortenfius, C J5/ 6z - 
in honor of his deceafed friend : where in a de- c r^fus 
bate of learning he did, what he had often done Cjesa** 
in contefts of the Bar, undertake the defence of Dictator m. 
Pbilofopby againft Hortenfius, to whom be affigmd^^^ 1 ^^ 9 
the pari of arraigning it [*]. It was the reading Mtg.^aiu 
of this book, long fince unfortunately loft, which 
firft inflamed ScAuftin, as he himfelf fometfhere 
declares, to tbeftudy of the Chrifiian Pbilofopby : 
and if it had yielded no other fruit, yet happy, it 
was to the world, that it once fub lifted, to be 
the inftrument of raifing up fa illuftrious a con- 
vert and champion to the Church of Chriji \c\ 

He drew up alio about this time in four hooks, 
a particular account and defence of the Pbilofopby. 
of the Academy \ the fed, whicji he himfelf fol- 
lowed ; being, as he fays, of all others^ the mofi 
confiftent with itfelf and the leaft arrogant, as well 
as mofi elegant [d]. He had before publilhed 
a work on the fame fubje & in two books ♦, the 

[£] Cohortati fumus, ut «d to di (courage his difciplei 

maxime potaimus, ad Philo- from reading them at all ; 

fophise ftudium eo Jibro, qui and declared, that ho bad not 

eft inferiptus, Hortenfius— taken either Qcero or Mart, 

de Oiv. 2. I. or any beat ben nuriter into bit 

Nos autcm univerfae Philo- bands for above Jif teen years: 

fophiae vituperatoribus re- for which his adverfary Ruf- 

fpondimus in Hortenfio. Tuf. finus rallies him very fevere- 

Difp. 2. 2. ly. Vid. Hieron. Op. Tom. 

[r] rt is certain that attt be 4. par. 2. p. 414.. it. par. 1. 

Latin Fathers made great ufe p. 288. Edit. Benedict — 
of Qcere's writings ; and ef- [d] Quod genus philofo* 

pecialJy Jerom, who was not phandi minime arrogans, 

(b graceful as Anftin, in ac- maximeque & conftans, & c 

knovvJedging the benefit; legans arbitraremur, quatnor 

for, having conceived fome Academic is libris oftendimus. 

fcruples on that fcore in his DcDirin. 2. 1. 
declining age, he endeavour. 


39« The HisroRYoftbe Life 

A. Urb.708. one called Catulus, the other ^aicuUus, but con- 
C C* ff* fidering that the argument was not Jutted to the 
C. Julius characters, of the fpeakcrs ; who were not particu- 
C/e6ar larly remarkable for any ftudy of that fort, he 
DiaatorllL W as thinking to change them to Cato and Brutus: 
*Lbpxd« , s IUI whcn Atti ^ us happening to fignify K> him, that 
Mag. Equit. Varro bad exprcjfcd a defire to be infers ed in fame of 
bis writings, he prefently reformed his fchcone, 
and enlarged it into four Books, which he addreff- 
ed to Varro % taking upon himfdf the part of Pin- 
lo, of defending the Principles of the Academy ; and 
affigning to Varro that of Antiacbus ; of oppoQng 
and confuting them; and introducing Atticua as 
the moderator of the difpute. He finifhcd the 
whole with great accuracy * Jo as to make it a 
prefent worthy of Varro ; and if be was not de~ 
ceivedy he fays, by s partiality and felf-love tot 
common infucb cafes* there was nothing on the fub- 
jett equal to it* even among the Greeks [tl. All 
thefefour books, excepting part of the firft, are 
now loft 1 wbilft the fecond book of the firft edi- 
tion, which he took fome pains to fupprefs, re* 
mains (till intire, under it's original Title of Lu- 

He publifhed likewife this year one of the 
nobleft of his works, and on the nobleft fubjefi: 
in Philofophy, his treatife called, de Finibus, or of 
thecbiefgood and ill of man 9 written in Arijtotle's 

s W Erg ^ aa 'A**hu***' aD hominibus nobiliffimis ab- 
*>,,, *i« qua homiaes* nobilet ftuti; traoftuli ad noftrum 
ilii quidam, fed nullo modo (bdalem, & ex duobns librjs 
pfeitoiagi, nimis acute lo- contuli in quatuor— libri qui- 
qauBUir, adVarronem tranf- dem ita exieruot. (nifi rae 
feramu*— Catulo & Lucullo forte communis QtKaurS* de- 
alibi repQMfluis.-«Ad Att. cjpit) ift in tali genere ne 
13,12* apud Grascoi quidem quic- 
Quod ad jae de Varrooe qeatn fimile* lb. 13. vide 
fcripferas, totam Academiam it. ib. 16, 19. 



Planner £/]; in which he cxplaned wkh great A. Urb. 708/ 
elegance and, perfpicuky, the feveral opinions of Cic. 62. 
all the ancient fefts on that moft important quef- c 9 offm 
tion. It is there inquired* he tells us, what is the cJbsar 
chief end, to which all the views of life ought to he DiaatorjIL 
referred, in order to make it happy : or what it is, M.jEmilhts 
which nature purfues as the fupreme good, andjhuns \lll*£I!fa 
as the worft of ills [g]. The work confifts of 
five books : in the two firft, the Epicurean doc- 
trine is largely opened and difcuffcd ; being de- 
fended by Torquatus, and confuted by Cicero, 
in a conference fuppofed to be held in his Cuman 
Villa* in the prefence of Triarius, a young 
Gentleman, who came with Torquatu9 to vifit 
him. The two next explane the doSrine of the 
Stoics, aflerted by Cato, and oppofed by Cicero, 
in a friendly debate, upon their meeting acci- 
dentally in Lucullus's Library. The fifth con- 
tains tne opinons of the old Academy, or the Pe- 
ripateticks, explaned by Pifb, in a third dialogue, 
fuppofed to be held at Athens, in the prefence of 
Cicero, his Brother Quintus, Coufin Lucius, and 
At tic us. The Critics have obferved fome im- 
propriety in this laft book ; in making Pifo refer 
to the other two dialogues, of which he had no 
fhare, and could not be prefumed to have any 
knowledge \b\ But if any inaccuracy of that 
kind be really found in this, or any other of his 

[/} Qose aatcm his tern- vivcndi, relteqae facieadi 

poribus fcripfi. *Apttp\i*sior confilia referesda. Quid fe- 

morem habeot—- ka confeci quatur Datura, ot fummuiq 

5[uiaquc iibroa Tip) «wA»r— ox rebus expetcndis ; quid fu- 

ib. 19. giat tit cxtremum maloram. 

[$] Tom id, <jood bis Ji- De Fin. 1 . 4 

oris qu*ritur, quid fit finis, {£] Vid, Prafat. 
quid cxtremum, quid ulti- Lib. de finib. 
mum, quo fine omnia bene 

Davis ia 

394 The HisroRYoftie Life 

A. Urb. 708. works, ic may reafonably be cxcufed by that mul- 

Cic. 62. ttplicity of affairs, which fcarce allowed him time 

CoiT. t0 wr j^ much lefs to revife what he wrote : and 

Cje&ar* in dialogues of length compofed by piece-meal, 

DituioElII.'and in the Abort intervals of leifure, it cannot 

M.^Emilius f eem ftrange that he Ihould fometimes forget his 

LY^e'im artl ^ a '> to refume.his proper chara&er; and 

* " enter inadvertently into a part, which he had, 

afligned to another. He addrefTed this work to 

Brutus, in return for a prefent of the fame kind, 

which Brutus had fent to him a little before* a 

treatife upon virtue [*]. 

Not long after he had finilhed this work, he 
publilhed another of equal gravity, called his 
Tufculan Difputations ; in five books alfo, upon 
as many different queftions in Philofophy, the 
moft important and ufeful to the happinefs of 
human life. The firft teaches us, hew to contemn 
the terrors of deaths and to looh upon it as a blef- 
Jingy rather than an evil: the fecond, tofupport 
. pain and affliffion with a manly fortitude: the third, 
to appeafe all our complaints and uneqfincjfes under 
the accidents of life : the fourth, to moderate all 
our other paffions : the fifth, to evince the Sufficien- 
cy of virtue to make man happy. It was his cuftora, 
r in the opportunities of his leifure,. to take fome 
friends with him into the country 5 where inftead, 
of amuling themfelves with idle fports or feafts, 
their diverfions were wholly fpeculative ; tend- 
ing to improve the mind, and enlarge the under-* 
ftanding. In this manner he now {pent five days 
at his Tufculan Villa, in difcufling with his friends 
the feveral queftions juft mentioned : for after 
employing the .mornings in declamiog and rhe- 
torical exercifes, they ufed to retire in the after- 

(1) De Finib. I. 3. . 



noon into a Gajlery, called the Academy, which A.Urb^ot. 
he had built for the purpofe of Philofophical con- . cic - 6 *' 
ferenccs : where, after the manner of the Greeks, c . Coff- 
he held a School, as they called it, and invited c^sar" 
the company to call for any fubjeft, that they Dictator III. 
defired to hear explaned; which being propofed M.^mjlius 
accordingly by fome of the audience, became m" Rquir 
immediately the argument of that day's debate. °" 
Thefe five conferences or dialogues he colle&ed 
afterwards into writing, in the very words and 
manner in which they really pajfed, and published 
them under the title ofhisTufculan Deputations, 
from the name of the Villa, in which they were 
held [*]. 

He wrote &lfp a little piece, in the way of a 
Funeral Encomium, in praife of Portia , the Jijler 
of Cat o, and wife of Domitius Ahenobarbus, Cas- 
ter's mortal enemy ; which fhews how little he 
was (till difpofed to court the times. Varro and 
Lollius attempted the fame fubjeft •, and Citero 
dejires Atticus to fend him their compofitions : but 
all the three are now loft : though Cicero took 
the pains to revife and correct his; and fent 
copies of it afterwards to Domitius the Son, and 
Brutus , the Nephew of that Portia [/]. 

[£] In Tufculano, cnn narrantcs exponimus, fed *if- 

dTent completes raecum Fa- dera fere verbis uc ad urn dif- 

miliares — ponere jubebam, putatumque eft. lb. 2.3. 

de quo qnis audire vellet; ad 33. 
id aot ledens aut ambulant [/] Laudationem Porcise 

diTpmabatn. Itaque dierum tibi mifi correciam: ac eo 

quinqu; Scholas, ut Grzci properavi ; ut fi force auc 

appellant, in totidem libros Domitio alio aot Broto mit- 

contuH. Tufc. Difp. 1. 4. teretnr, hec miiteretur. Id 

Icaque cum ante meridiem ii tibi erit commodum, mag- 

diclioni operam dedifiemus — nopere cures velim j & velim ' 

pod meridiem in Acadtmiam M. Varronis, Lolliique mic- 

defcendimns : in qua difpu- tas laudationem. Ad Ate. 

tationem habitam non quafi 13. 48. it. ib. 37. 


396 tte Histoky cft&e hjfe 

A.Urb.708. Gd&SAR continued aH this while in Spain, 
Cic. 62. purfuing the Sons of Pompey, and providing for 
C Tu^u l ^ c ^ uture P eace an <* Settlement c^f the Province ; 
Caesar 18 whence he paid Cicero the compliment of fend- 
Diaator III. ing him an account of his fuccefs with his own 
M.-Emilius hand. Hirtius alfo gave him early intelligence 

MaiTquit °f tbe &/*** ™*flk ht c f &* two pothers ^ which 
was not difagreeabie to him : for though he was 
not much concerned about the event of the war* 
and expefted no good from it on either fide, yet 
the opinion, which he had conceived of the fierce- 
nefs and violence of the young Pompeys 7 efpecially 
pf the elder of them, Cnseus, engaged his wiflies 
rather for Csefar. In a Letter to Atticus, Hir- 
tius, fays he, wrote me word, that Sextus Pom- 
pey had withdrawn himfeif from Corduba into the 
hither Spain •, and that Cmeus too waified, I know 
not whither \ nor in truth do Icare\jn\ : and this 
indeed feems to have been the common fentimenc 
of all the Republicans : as Caffius himfeif, writ- 
ing to Cicero on the fame fubjecf; declares ftiU 
more explicitely ; " May I perillb, fays be y if I 
ct be not follicitous. about the event of things in 
" Spain •, and would rather keep our old and cle- 
" ment mafter, than try a new and cruel one* 
" You know what a fool Cnaeusis; howhetefoi 
" cruelty for a virtue : how he has always thought, 
" that we. laughed at him ; I am afraid left he 
'• fhould take it into his head to repay our jokes 
" in his ruftic manner with the fword [n]. 99 

You NO 

x [m] Hirtiui ad me fcrip- dementeftt ddmiftucn htbt- 

fif, Sex. Pompeium Corduba re, quara novum & crtfdtlcm 

exiffe, & fugifle in Hifpa- etfperiri. Scis, Crraeo* quam 

niam citeriorum ; Cnasum fit fatww ; fcis qoopjodo era- 

fugifle nefcio quo, nCque e- delitatem virtiitem patct ; 

mmcoro. Ad Art. 12.37. fcis, quam fe tamper a nobis 

[«] Pereaxn, nifi follicitns dcrifum putet 
fwa i ac malo vcterem ac Vereor, 


Young Qiiintus Cicero, who made the cam- A. Urb. 70S. 
paign along with Caefar, thinking to pleafe his £* c - 6 «- 
company, and to make his fortunes the better c S oSr ' 
among them, began to play over his old game, cJ^ar 7 * 
and to ahufe his uncle again in all places. Cicero, Ditfator HL 
in his account of it to Attitus, fays, " there is W.Muiliv* 
" nothing new, but that Hirtius has been L EPl £ US - 
i4 quarrelling in my defence, with our Nephew ag * qmc " 
a " Quintus, who takes all occafions of faying 
" every thing bad of me, and efpecially at pub- 
4< He feafts 5 and when he, has done with me, 
" falls next upon his father: he is thought to 
w fay nothing fo credible, as that we are both ir- 
€< reconcilable to Qefar ; that Cafar Jhould trufi 
" neither of us ; and even beware of me : this 
" would be terrible ; did I not fee, that our King 
■" is perfuaded that I have no fpiritleft [0]." 

Atticus was always endeavouring to mo- 
derate Cicero's impatience under the prefent go- 
vernment, and perfuading him, to comply more 
chearftiily with the times ^ nor to rejeft the 
friendfhip of Gsefar, which was fo forwardly of-" 
fered to him: and upon his frequent complaints 
of the flavcry and indignity of his prefent condi- 
tion, he took occafion toobferve, that Cicero 
could not but own to be true* that if to pay a par- 
ticular court and obfervance to a man, was the mark 
<fjlwvery 9 tbofe in power feemed to be fiaves rather 

Veteor, ne not ruftice gla- Pattern; nihil sutem ab eo 

diovtlic Mftvx1>rp^ai. £p. tarn &toirle;<a<; dici, quam a- 

Fam> 15. 19. lieniffiioos nos effe a Carfare; 

[0] Novi fane nikil, nifi £dem nobis habendam non 
Hiuium cum Quinto acerri- effe ; me vero ca vend erm- 
ine pro me litigaffe ; omni- <po€t?h» vjp, nifi viderem fcire 
bus cum locis facere, maxi- Regem, me auimi nihil ha- 
meque in conviviis; cum bcre— AdAtt. 13. 37* 
muha de me, turn redire ad 
. x v to 

398 The History of the Life 

.A. Urb. 70?. to him than he to tbm [ />]. With the fame view 
C Coff 2 ^ c was now P rc ^ n ? kim, among h is other works, 
C Julius to think of fornething to be addreffed toCaelar : 

Cjesar but Cicero had no appetite to this talk ; he faw 
iL?j| al0rI11, ^ ow difficult i* wou W be to perform it withobe 

I epidus 11 * kerning his chara&er, and defcending to flattery; 

Mag Equit. yet being urged to k alfo by other friends, he 
drew up a Letter, which was communicated to 
Hirtius andGalbus for their judgement upon it, 
whether it was proper to be fent to Csefar. The 
fubjedt feems to have been fome advice, about 
rcftonng the peace and liberty of the Republic ; 
-and to diffuade him from the Parthian war y 
which he intended for his next expedition, till 
he had finiihed the more neceffary work of 
fettling the ftate of things at home : there was 
nothing in it, he fays, but what might come from 
the beft of Citizens. It was drawn however with 
fo much freedom, that though Atticus feemed 
pleafed with it, yet the other two durft not ad- 
vife the fending it, unlefs fome paflages were 
altered and foftened ; which difgufted Cicero fo 
much, that he refolved not to write at all ; and 
when Atticus was dill urging him to be more 
tomplaifant, he anfwered with great fpirit in two 
or three Letters [j]. 

[p] Et frm«hercu1e, ut tu fcis ita nobis eflc vxfum, at 

iatelligis, magis mini ifti ifti ante legcrent. To igitur 

ferviunt, fi obleivare fervire id curabis. Sed nifi plane 

eft. AdAtt. 15.49. intelljget sis placere, mitten- 

[? ] Epiftolam ad Csefarem danoneft. AdAtt. it. 51. 
mitti video tibi placere— mi- De Epiftolaad Caefarem, 

hi quidem hoc idtm maxi- KtHpiua. Atque id ipfum, 

me placuit, & eo magis, quod ifti aiunt ilium fcribere, 

quod nihil eft in ea nifi opti- ie 9 nifi conftitutis rebus, no* 

mi civis ; fed ita opt im?, ut Parthos, idem ego 

tempora t quibus parere om- fuadtbam in ilia epiftola— 

nes toaitixoi praccipiunt. Scd ib. 13.31. 



. " As for the Letter to Qfefar, fays Jbe 9 1 a. Urb. 768. 
44 was always very willing, . that thfey fhould firft Cic. 62. 
44 read it : for otherwife I had both been want- ^ Coff - 
44 ing in civility to them ; and if I had happened casa*** 
44 to give offence, expofed myfelf alfo to dan- DiOacorlir. 
44 ger. They have dealt ingenuoufly and kindly M.^Emiliij* 
44 with me, in hot concealing what they m** 1 ^!*- 
44 thought : but what pleafes me the moft is^ a ^' ^ ll * 
44 that by requiring fo many alterations, they give 
44 mean excufe for not writing at all. As to the 
44 Parthian tfar* what had I to confider about 
46 it, but that which I thought would pleafe him* 
44 for what fubjed. was there elfc for a Letter, 
44 but flattery ? or if I had a mind to advife, what 
44 I really took to be the beft* could I have been 
44 at a lofs for words ? there is no ocicafion there- 
44 fore for any Letter : for where there is no 
44 great matter to be gained, and a flip, though 
44 not great, may make us uneafy, what reafon 
4< is there to run any rifle? efpecially, when it is 
u natural for him to think, that as I wrote no- 
tc thing to him before* fo I'fhould have writteri 
44 nothing now* had not the war been wholly 
46 ended : befideS, t am afraid left he fhould 
44 imagine, that I fent this as a fweetner for 
44 my Cato : in ihdrt, I was heartily afhamed of 
44 what I had written ; and nothing could 
44 fall out more luckily, than that it did not 
u pleafe [r]." . 

Again* 4t As for writing to Caefar, I fwear 
44 to you* I cannot do it: nor is it yet the fhame 
41 of it that defers me* which ought to do it the 
46 moft 5 for how mean would it be to flatter, 
V when even to live is bafe in me ? but i^ is not, 
*' as I was faying, this fhame, which hinders 

[[r] Ad. Att. 13. 27. 
Vol. II. D d 4 < rile, 

400 The Hi s to it y of the Life 

A.Urb.708. " me, though I wifh it did; for I ftiould then 

' ,Ci r <r " *** w ^ at * ou gh c to be; but I can think of 

C Julius " not hing to write upon. As to thofe exhorta- 

CiE»An " tions, addrefled to Alexander, by the eloquent 

Diftatorlll. « and the learned of that time, you lee on what 

M.iEMiLiua « points t hey turn : they are addrefled to a youth, 

Mag! Equit. " inflamed with the thirft of true glory, andde- 

" firing to be advifed how to acquire it. On an 

" occafion of fuch dignity, words can never be 

" wanting ; but what can I do on my fubjed ? 

" .Yet I had icratched, as it weFe, out of the 

" block fome faint refemblance of an image: 

•* but becaufe there were fome things hinted in 

<c it, a little better than what we fee done 

" every day, it was difiiked. I am not at all for- 

•* ry for it •, for had the Letter gone, take my 

4C word for it, I (hould have had caufe to re- 

** pent. For do you not fee that very (cholar 

€€ of Ariftotle, a youth of the greateft parts, and 

€C the greateft modefty, after he came to be call- 

4< ed a king, grow proud, cruel, extra vagapt? 

€i Do you imagine, that this man, ranked in the 

" proceffions of the Gods, and inflirined in the 

<c fame Temple with Romulus, will be pleafed 

" with the moderate ftile of my Letters ? It is 

« c better that he be difgufted at my not writing, 

" than at what I write : in a word, 1st him do 

4< what he pleafes; for that problem, which I 

" once propofed to you, and thought fo difficult, 

" in what way I Jbatt manage him* is over with 

* €< me: and, in truth, I now with more to feel 

" the effeft of his refentment, be it what it will, 

" than I was before afraid of it [j]. M <c I beg of 

" you therefore, fays he, in another Letter, lit 

" us have no more of this; but fhew ourfelves 

[j] Ad Att. 13. 28. 

tf at 


<c at leaft half free, by our filence and re- A. UA. 70)8. 
« treat [*]." : Cic 62, 

From this little fa&, one cannot help refleft- c £^ $ 
ing on the fatal effe&s of arbitrary power, upon cjbsa* 
the ftudies and compofitions of men of genius, DiaatoHIL 
and on the reftraint, that it neceffarily lays on the M.-Emilivi 
free courfe of good fenfe and truth among men. j^*' Equk. 
It had yet fcarce fhewn itfelf in Rome, when we 
fee one of the greateft men, as well as the great- y 
eft wits which that Republic ever bred, cm- 
barrafled in the choice of a iubjeft to write upon •, 
and for fear of offending, chufing not to write 
at all : and it was the fame power, which, from 
this beginning, gradually debated the purity both 
of the Roman wit. and language, from the per- 
fe&ion of elegance, to which Cicero had advan- 
ced them, to that ftate of rudenefsand barbarifm 
which we find in the productions of the lower 

This was the prcfent. ftate of things between 
j^sefar and Cicero; all the marks of kindnefs on 
Caelar's part; of coldnefs and referveon Cicero's. 
Csfiur was determined never to part with his 
power, and took the more pains, for that reafon, 
to make Cicero eafy under it: he feems indeed 
to have been fomewhat afraid of him •, not of 
his engaging in any attempt agaihft hi? life-, but 
leftby his iniinuations, his railleries, and his au- 
thority, he fhould excite others to fome aft of 
violence: but what he more efpecially defired 
and wanted, was to draw frQm him fome public 
teftimony of his approbation *, and to be recorn^ 
mend by his writings to the favor of pofterity, 

['] Obfecro, abjiciamus, mus; quod aflcquemur & ta- 
Jfta ; & ft miUbcri faltem fi- cendo* 6c Jatcndo— ib. 3 1 . 

Dd2' ClCE^O * 

4<« -Tie H I s t o r V of the Life 

A. Uib. 708. Cice ro on the other hand, perceiving no ftep 

Cic 62. taken towards the eftablilhmentof the Republic, 

Coff. b ut more anc j more rca fon everyday todefpairof 

C/e'sVr * i f » g rcw ^^ more indifferent to every thing elfe: 

Diaator III the rfcftoration of public liberty was the onely 

W.i£MiLius condition, onwhichhe could entertain any friend- 

LEPI Eflait ^P with Cae ^ r ' or thin ^ and *P ea k of him with 
*.ag. i^qiu . ^ rc fp C & . without that, no favors could oblige 

him ; fince to receive them from a matter, was 
an affront to his former dignity,, and but a fplen- 
did badge of fervitude : books therefore were his 
onely comfort ; for while he converfed with them, 
toe found himfelf eafy, and fancied himfelf free. 
—Thus in a Letter to Caffius, touching upon 
the mifery of the times, he adds, " What isbe- 
" come then, you'll fay, of Philofophy ? \jVhy, 
44 yours is in the kitchen ; but mine is trouble- 
** fame to me :. for I am alhamed to live a flave-,. 
" and feign myfelf therefore to be doing fome- 
44 thing elfe, that I may not hear the reproach 
•« of Plato [*]." 

During Caefar's ftay in Spain, Antony fee 
forward from Ijaly, to pay his compliments to 
him there, or to meet him at leaft on the road 
in his return towards home: but when he had 
, made about half of the journey, he met with 

fome diipatehes, which obliged him to tvarn back 
in all haft to Rome. This raifed a new alarm in 
the city •, and especially among the Pompeians, 
Mrho were afraid, that Casfar, having now fub- 
dued all oppofition, was refolved, after the ex- 
ample of former Conquerors, to take his reyenge 
in cool blood on all his adversaries * and had fent f 

[*] Ubi igitur, inquies, cio tne alias res agcre, ne 
Philofophia ? Tua quidem in cortvicium Platonis audiam, 
culina ; mea moldla eft* Pu- Ep. Fam. 15, 18. 
dct enim fcrvire. Itaque fa- 

3 AntOR}' 


Antony back, as the propereft inftrumcnt to ex- A. Urb. 708. 
ccute fome orders of that fort. Cicero himfelf c * c# *?*• 
had the fame fufpicion, and was much furpriz- c# jy h m lVM . 
ed at Antony's fudden return 5 tillBalbus and Op- Cjesa* 
pius eafed him of his apprehenfions, by fending Didator III. 
him an account of the true reafon of it [x] : which., MJEuiiivt 
contrary to expe&ation, gflv£ nouneafinefs at lait Mag* Equit. 
to any body, but to Antony himfelf. Antony - 
hacj bought Pompey's Houfes in Rome and the 
neighbourhood* with all their rich furniture, at 
Cafar's aufiton, foon after his return from -Sgypt ; 
but trufting to his interefl with Csfar, and to the 
part, which he had born in advancing him to 
his power, never dreamt of being obliged to 
pay for them; butCaefar, being difgufted by the 
account of his debauches, and extravagancies in 
Italy, and refolyed to (hew himfelf the fole maf- 
ter, nor fufferanycontradi&ion to his will, fent 
peremptory orders to L. Plancus, the Praetor, 
to require immediate payment of Antony, or 
•elfe to levy the money upon his fureties, accord- f 

ing to the tenor of the bond. This was the 
<caufe of his quick return, to prevent that dif- 
grace from falling upon him, and find fome 
means of complying with Caefar's commands : it 
provoked him however to fuch a degree, thar in 
the heigth of his refentment, he is faid to have 
entered into a defign of taking away Gefar's life ; 
of which Caefar himfelf complained openly in the 
Senate [y\. 

D d 3 The 

[*] Heri cum ex aliorum id que tibi placuifle, ne per- 

Jitteris cognoviffem de An to- turbarer. Illis egi gratias. 

nii adventu, admiratus fam — ib. 19. 

nihil cffe in tuis. Ad Ate. • [j "] Appcllatus es de pecu- 

12. 18. nia, quarn pro domo, pro 

De Antonio Balbusquoque hortis, profeftionedebebas.— 

ad me cum Oppio conferipfit, & ad te & ad praedes tuos mi- 

•"'•'' litcf 

404 N TAe Hist cry of tie Life 

A.Urb. 70S. The war being ended in Spain by the death 

Cic. 62. ofCnaus Pompey % and the flight ofSextus, Gefar 

C Julius finiflied his anfwer to Cicero'j Cato in two hooks, 

Cjesar which he font immediately to Rome, in order to 

Di&atorlir. be publifhed. This gave Cicero at laft the argu- 

M.jEmilius mentof a Letter, to him, to return thanks for the 

Mae Eouit £ reat c * v *lity w ^^ which he had treated him in 
s ' ™ ' that piece ; and to pay his compliments likewife 
in his turn, upon the elegance of the compofi- 
tion. This Letter was communicated again to 
Balbus and Oppjus, who declared themfelves ex- 
tremely pleafed with it, and forwarded it dire&ly 
to Caefar. In Cicero's account of it to Atticus, 
u I forgot, fays he, to fend you a copy of what 
* c I wrote to Caefar : not for the reafon, which 
" you fufpeft, that I was afham£d to let you fee, 
" how well I could flatter: for in truth, I wrote 
cc to him no otherwife, than as if I was writing 
<$ to an equal ; for I really have a good opinion 
" of his two books, as I told you, when we 
* ** were together ; and wrote therefore both with- 

<f out flattering him •, and yet fo, that he wiH 
• c read nothing, I believe, with more plea- 
" fure [>]." 


lites mifit [Phil. 2. 29.J deferretur ad Dolabellanj: 

Idcirco urbem terrore no&ur- fed ejus exemplum mifi ad 

no, Italian* multorum die- B album & Oppium, fcripfi-t 

rum metu perturbaili— ne L. que ad eos, ut cum deferii 

PJaucus prides tuos venderet ad Dolabellam jaberent mcas 

— [ib. 31.] Quin his ipfis litteras, fi ipfi exemplum pro- 

temporibus do mi Caefar is per- baflent ; ita mihi refcripfe- 

c»ffor ab ifto miflas, depre- rant, nihil unquam fe JegifTe 

Jpenfus dicebatnr efTe cum fi- melius. Ad Att. 13. 50* 

ca. De quo Caefar in Sena- Ad Caefarem qaam mifi. 

ttt aperte in te invehens, epiftolam, ejus exemplum fu- 

qoeftus eft-rib. 29. git me turn tibi mittere } nee 

[*] Confciipfi de his li- id fuit quod fufpicsris, at me 

bris epiftolam Oeferi, qa» pudeiettui — nee mehercule 



C/esar returned to Rome about the end of A.XJrb. yoS. 
September * when divefting himfelf of the Con- Ci £ **• 
fulftyp, he conferred it on jj>. Fabius Maximus, q Fa ^ i " U9 
and C. 'TreboniuS) for the three remaining months of Maximus, 
the year [_a\. His firft care, after his arrival, was C. Tribo- 
to entertain the City with the mojt fplendid triumph N l us# 
which Rome had ever feen : but the people in- 
ftead of admiring and applauding it, as he ex T 
pedted, were follen and filent •, confidering it, 
as it really was, a triumph over themfelves : pur- 
chafed by the lofs of their liberty, and the de- 
ftruftion of the belt and nobleft families of the 
Republiq. They had before given the fame proof 
of their difcontent at the Circenfian games \ where 
C<efar*s Jlatue, by a decree of the Senate, was 
carried in the proceflion, along with thofe of the 
Gods : for they gave none of their ufual acclama- 
* tions to the favourite Deities , as they palled, left 
theyjbould be thought to give them to Gefar. Atti- 
cus fent an account of it to Cicero, who fays in 
anfwer to him, Tour Letter was agreeable, though 
tbefhexv was fo fad — the people however behaved 
bravely y who would not clap even the Goddefs Vilto- 
ry for the fake of fo bad a neighbour \b\ Caefar 
however to make amends for the unpopularity 
of his triumph, and to put the people into good 
humor, entertained the whole City foon after 
with fo me thing more fubftantial than {hews ; two. 

fcripfi, aliter ac fi *?*« Uw nos noviffimos menfes. Suet. 

Iftowvque fcriberem. Bene J. Caef. 76. 
enijn exiftimo de illis libris, [£] Suaves toas littenu ? 

ut tibi coram. Ieaque fcrip- etfi acerba pompa— populum 

fi fc &KoA«te«urMc» Sc tamen vero praeclarum, quod prop- 

.fie, tit nihil eum ex 1 ft i mem ter tarn malum vicinum, ne 

le&urum libentius. lb. 51. Vi&onae quidem pioditur. Ad 

[a] Utroque anno binos Att. 13.44. 

Qoofules fubftituit fibi in ter* 

D d 4 . public 

a S The History of the Life ' 

A.Urb. 70S. public dinners, with plenty of the moft efieemei 
Cip. 62. and cofily wines, of Chios and Falernum [<:]. 
c °fl"- Soon after C^far's triumph, the Conful Fabius, 

*M ax'mVs onc °^ his Lieutenants in Spain, was allowed to 
C 1r«bo- triumph too for the redudlion of fame parts of 
xius; that province, which had revolted -, but the mag- 
nificence of Cadar made Fabius's triumph appear 
contemptible ; for his models of the conquered 
Towns, which were always a part of the ihew,' 
being made onely of wood, when Csefar's were of 
Silver or Ivory,. Chryfippus merrily called them, 
the cafes onely ofC<*fat*s Towns [d], 

Cicero refided generally in the Country, and 
withdrew himfelf wholly from the Senate [e] : 
butonCaefar's approach towards Rome, Lepidus 
began to prefs him by repeated Letters, to come 
• and give them hisafiiftarice; alluring him, that 
both he and C<efar would take it very kindly of him. 
He . could not guefs^ for what particular fervice 
they wanted him, except the dedication offomeTem- 
ple, to which the prefence of three Augurs was ne- 
ceffary[/]. Eut whatever it was, as his friends had 
loqg been urging the fame advice, and perfuading 

[r] Quid non & Caefar 3. Dio. 254. 
Di&ator triumphi fui ccerra [*] Cum his temporibas 
vini Falcrni amphoras, Chii non fane in fenatum ventita- 
cados in convivia diftrtbuic ? rem— Ep» Fam. 13. 77. 
idrm in Hifpanienfi, triirm- [/*] Ecce tibi, orat Lepi- 
pho Chium & Falernum dc- dus, ut vcni2m, Opinor Au- 
dit. Plin. Hift. 1 1. t 5. gures nil habere ad Tem- 

Adjecit poll Hifpanienfem plum efFandum. Ad An. 13. 

vidtonam duo prandia. Su- 42. 

econ. 38. * Lepidus ad me heri — lit- 

- [//] Ut Chryfippus, cum tcras mifit. Rogat magno- 

in tnumpho CsefdYis eborea pereutfimKalend. in Senate, 

©ppida eflent tranflara, & pod me & (ibi & Casfari vehemen- 

dies paucos Fabii Maximi lig- ter gratum effe fad u rum— • 

nea, thecas effe oppidorum ib. 47, 
Cxfaris dixit. Quintil. 6. 



him to return to public 'affairs, he confcntcd at A. Urb. 70*.- 
laft, to quit his retirement and come to the City, c £' p'. 
where foon after Caefar's arrival he had an oppor-q Fabius 
tunity of employing his authority and eloquence, Maximus. 
where he exertedthem always with the greateft c - Trebo- 
pleafure, in the fervice and defence of an old Nlys * 
friend. King Deiotarus. 

This prince had already been deprived by 
Gefar of part of his dominions, for his adhe- 
rence to Pompey, and was now in danger of lo- 
sing the reft, from an accufation preferred againfl: 
him by his Grandfon, of a defign pretended to 
Have been formed by him againfl Cafafs life, 
when Crefar was entertained at his houfe, four 
years before, oh his return from Egypt. The 
charge was groundlefs and ridiculous; but under 
his prefent difgrace, any charge was fufficient to 
ruin him; and Csefar's countenancing it fo far, 
as to receive and hear it, (hewed a ftrong preju- 
dice againfl the King •, and that he wanted onely 
a pretence for ftripping him of all that remained 
to him. Brutus likewife interefted himfelf very 
warmly in the fame caufe ; and when he went to 
meet Csefar, on his road from Spain, made an 
Oration to him at Nic<ea> in favor of Deiotarus, 
with a freedom which ftartled Caefar, and gave 
fiim occafion to refleft on what he had not per- 
ceived lb clearly before, the invincible fiercenefs 
and vehemence of Brutus *s temper [g\ The pre- 
fent trial was held in Ccefar's houfe -, where Cice- 

[g] Ad Att. 14. 1. The tas met Caefar on his laft re- 

Jciuits, Catrou and Routtle, turn from Spain, and when 

take Nicea, where Brutus he was not able to prevail 

made this fpeech, to be the for Deiotarus, Cicero was 

Capital of Bitbynia, Deiota- forced to undertake the caufe • 

rus's kingdom : but it was a as foon as Caefar came to 

City on the Ligurian coift, Rome. Vid. Hill. T011M7. ' 

ftill called Nice, where Bra- p. 91. not. 

Ut ' ro 

4X>8 "The H i $ t o R y of the Life 

A. Urb. 708. ro fo manifeftly expofcd the malice of the accufcr, 
C Coff*" an< * z ^ c i nnoccnce °f l ^ e accufed, that Caefar, 
Q. Fabius being determined not to acquit, yet aftiamed to 
Maxim us, condem him, chofe the expedient of referving 
C. Trebo- j^j fcntence to farther deliberation, till he fhould 
* IU8# go in perfon into the Eaft, and inform himfelf 
of the whole affair upon the fpot. Cicero fays, 
that Deiotarus, neither prefent nor abfent, could 
ever obtain any favor or equity from C<efar : and 
that as oft as be pleaded for him, which be was 
always ready to do, be could never perfuade Caefar to 
think any thing reafonable that be ajkedfor him [b]. 
He fent a copy of his oration to the Kings and, 
at Dolabella's requeft, gave another likewife to 
him : excufing it, as a trifling performance, and 
hardly worth tranfcribing ; but I had a mind, 
fays he, to make a flight prefent to my old friend 
and boft, of coarfe fluff indeed, yet fucb as bis pre- 
sents ufually are to me [/]. 

Some little time after this trial, Caefar, to (hew 
his confidence in Cicero, invited himfelf to fpend 
a day with him, at his houfe in the courtry-, 
and chofe the third day of the Saturnalia for his vi- 
fit-, a feafon always dedicated to mirth and feaft- 
Ingamongft friends and relations [*]. Cicero gives 


[*] Quis enim cuicjuam lega*, ut caufam tcnuem & 

inimicitior, quara Deiotaro inopem, nee fcriptione mag- 

Cafarr— a quo nee prafens, no opcre dignam. Sed ego 

nee abfena Rex Deiotarua hofpiti veteri & amico mu- 

quidquam aequi boni ixnpe- nufculum mittere volui levU 

travit— ille nunquam, fern- denfe, craflb filo, cojufmodi 

per enim abfenti affui Deio- ipfius folent effe munera. Ep, 

taro, quicquam fibi, quod Fam. 9. 12. [*] This Feftiral, after 

quum dixit videri. Philip. Caefar's reformation of the 

2. 37. KaJendar, began on the 17th 

[/] Oratianculam pro Dei- of December, and lafted three 

*taro, quam requirebas— — days. MaCrob. Saturn, i.x. 

tibi mifi. Quam velim fie 



Atcicus the following account of the entertain- A.Urb. 70& 

ment, and how the day paffed between them : Cic. 6*. 

" O this gueft, fays he, whom I fo much dread- Q 9 off# 

" ed ! yet I had no reafon to repent of him; for maximus, 

" he was well pleafed with his receptions When C. Tauo-* 

" he came the evening before, on the eighteenth, *i v *' 

" to my neighbour Philip's, the houfe was fo* 

" crouded with foldiers, that there was fcarce a 

" room left empty for Caefar to fup in : there 

" were about two thoufand of them: which gave 

" me no fmall pain for the next day : but Barba 

" Caftius relieved me ; for he affigned me a 

u guard, and made the reft encamp in the field: 

" fo that my houfe was clear. On the nine- 

ic teenth, he ftaid at Philip's till one in the after* 

" noon ; but faw nobody ; was fettling accounts, 

" 1 guefs, with Balbus ; then took a walk on 

" theftiore, bathed after two-, heard the verfes 

w on Mamurra ]7] ; at which he never changed v 

[t] Mamurra was a Ro- Cicero's in this fliort account 
man Knight, and General •/ of it : bat it mull be reman* 
the Artillery to Cafarin Gaul; bered, that their villa's were 
where he raifed an immenfe adjoining to each other on 
fortune, and is faid to have the Formian coaft near Ca- 
been the firft man in Rome, jeta ; fo that when Caefiu? 
who incrujlid bis houfe with came out of Philip's at one, 
***rkl* 9 and made all bis pi I- he took a walk on the (bora 
lurs 0/ /did marble* [Plin. for about an hour, and then 
Hift. 36. 6.] He was fe. entered into Cicero's ; where 
verely lathed, together with the bath was prepared for 
Cseffir himfelf, for his ex- him, and in bathing he hear* 1 
ceiftve luxury, and more in- Catullus's verfes $ not pro- 
famous vices, by Catullus; duced by Cicero, for that 
whofe verfes are (till extant, would not have been agree* * 
and the fame probably that able to good manners, but by 
Cicero here refers to, as be- fome of his own friends, who 
ing firft read to Caefar at his attended him, and who knew 
houfe. Vid. Catull. 27, $e. his deiire to fee every thing. 

The reader perhaps will that was publifhed agaiaft 

not readily underfland the him, as well as his eatineb 

time and manner of Caefar* s in flighting or forgiving it. 

f*Jfixgfrom Philips houfe to 

" countenance 

41P Tie H i 1 s t o r y of the Life 

A. Urb. 708." countenance ; was rubbed, anointed, fat dowa 

Cic. 62. « to table. Having taken a vomit juft before 

O F°biu " ^ c cat an< * ^rank f rce ty» an ^ was vcr y chear- 

Maximus, c< ^l W : ^c Supper was good and well ferved: 

C. Trebo- 

nius. c< But our difcourfe at table, as we eat, 

*' For taft andfeafoning ftill exceirdour meat [»]", 

46 Befides Caefar's table, his friends were plenti- 

" fully provided for in three other rooms; nor 

" was there any thing wanting to his freedmen 

" of lower rank, and his (laves ; but the better 

c . f fort were elegantly treated. In a word, I ac- 
* c quitted myfelf like a man : yet he is not a 

4< gueft to whom one would fay at parting, 
" pray call upon me again, as you return : once 

£jw] The cuftom of taking 
a vomit both immediately be- 
fore and a/ter meals, which 
Cicero mentions Caefar to 
have done on different occa- 
sions, [pro Deiot. 7.] was ve- 
ry common with the Romans, 
and ufed by them as an in- 
ftrument both of their luxu- 
ry, and of their health : they 
vomit, fays Seneca, that they 
may eat, and eat that they may 
vomit. {Conful. ad Helo. 9.] 
By this evacuation before 
eating, they were prepared 
to eat more plentifully ; and 
by emptying themfelves pre- 
' fently after it, prevented any 
-hurt 1 from repletion. Thus 
T/itelliuy, who was a famous 
glutton, /j /aid to have pre- 
ferred brs life by con fi ant *uo- 
mitsy while he deftroyed all 
his companions, who did not 
iife the fame caution : [Sue- 

ton. 12. Dio. 65. 734.] And 
.the practice was thought f© 
effectual for ftrenghcening the 
constitution, that it was the 
conftant regimen of all the 
Athlete, or the profcfied 
Wreftlers, trained for the 
public mews, in order to 
make them more robuft. So 
that Caefar's vomiting before 
dinner was a fort of compli- 
ment to Cicero, as it intimat- 
ed a refolution to pafs the 
daychearfully, and to eat and 
drink freely with him. 

[a] This is a citation from 
Lucilius, of an Hexameter 
verfe, with part of a fecond, 
which is not diftinguiftied 
from the text, in the editions 
of Cicero's Letters. 

fed bene cs8o et 
COpdito fermone bono, t$ fi 
quarts lib enter. 



€C is enough: we had not a word on bufinefs, A. U/b. 708. 
*« but many on point* $f literature : in fhort, he ^ c ^ 2 * 
H was delighted with his entertainment, and paf- n Fa^ius 
u fed/the day agreeably. He talked of fpeqd- Maxim us/ 
" ing onedayatPuteoli; another at Baiae: thus C: T*"o- 
" you fee the manner of my receiving him; NIUS ' 
11 fomewhat, troublefome indeed, butnotuneafy 
" to me. I fliall flay here a little longer, and 
u then to Tufculum. As he pafled by Dolabel- 
€c la's villa, his troops marched clofe by his 
<c horfe's fide, on the right and left ; which was 
c< done no where elfe. I had this from Nicias [0]." 
On the laft of December, when the Conful 
Trebonius was abroad, his Collegue Q^ Fabius 
died fuddenly ; and his death being declared in 
the morning, C. Caninius Rebilus was named by 
Caeiar to the vacancy at one , in the afternoon ; 
whofe office was to continue oncly through the 
remaining part of that day. This wanton profana- 
tion of the fovereign dignity of the Empire raif- 
$d a general indignation in the City; and a Con- 
folate lb ridiculous gave birth to much raillery, 
and many jokes which are tranfmitted to us by 
the ancients [p] ; of which Cicero, who was the 
chief author of them, gives us the following fpe- 
cimen, in his own account of the fad:, 

Cicero tp Curius. 

" I no longer either advife or defire you to 
" come home to us ; but want to fly fomewhi- 
" ther myfclf, where I may hear neither the 
" names nor the afts of thefe fons of Pelops. It 
" is iqcredible, how meanly I think of myfclf, 

{*] Ad Att. 13. 52. 
/>] Macrob. Saturn. 2. 3. t>lo, p. 236* 

" for 

412 tte History cf tie Life 

A. Urb.708. <c for being prefent at thcfe tranfaftions. You 
Cic. 6t. « jiad furely an early forefight of what was com- 

O ¥°*i 1 " L n 8 on ' % w ^ cn y pu ran awa y ^ om l ^ s p' ace: 
MAzmvf 9 <c f° r though it be vexatious to hear of fuch 

C. Trebo- cc things, yet that is more tolerable than to fee 
mus. €€ t hcm. It is well, that you were not in the 
" field, when at feven in the morning, as they 
<c were proceeding to an election of Quaeftors, 
" the Chair of Q^ Maximus, whom they called 
C€ Conful [j], was let in its place: but, his 
* c death being immediately proclamed, it was 
" removed; and Cxfar, tho' he had taken the 
M aufpices for an affembly of the Tribes, 
fC changed it to an affembly of the Centuries ; 
44 and, at one in the afternoon, declared a new 
" Conful, who was to govern till one the -next 
" . morning. I would have you to know there- 
44 fore, that whilft Caninius was Conful, nobody 
" dined % and that there was no crime committed in 
" bis Conful/bipj for he was fo wonderfully vigi* 
" lant, that through his whole adminiftration iv 
" never fo much as fief t. Thefe things feem ri- 
" diculous to you, who were abient, but were 
M jrou to fee them, you would hardly refrain 
c< from tears. What if I fiiould tell you the 
c< reft ? For there are numberlefs fads of the 
* fame kind ; which I could never have born, 
4< if I had not taken refuge in the port of Philo- 

[? ] Cicero would not al- trance inter the Theater, his 

low a Conful ef three months Officers, according to cuf- 

fo irregularly chofen, to be torn, proclamed his prefence, 

properly called a Conful : nor and ordered the* people . to 

* did the people themfelves ac- make way for the Cq«fiti j the 

knowledge him 1 for, as Sue- whole affembly cried oat, be 

tonius tells us, [in J. C*f. u ne Conful. 

80,] when upon Fabius's en- 



c fophy, with our friend Atticus, the companion 
** and partner of my ftudies, &c. [r]." 

C/esak had fo many creatures and depen- 
dents, who expected the honor of the Confuljhip 
from him, as the reward of their fcrvices, that 
it was impoffible to oblige them all in the regular 
way, fo that he was forced to contrive the expe- 
dient of fplittfng it, as it were, into parcels, and 
conferring it for a few months, or weeks, or even 
days, as it happened to ftfit his convenience: and 
as the thing itfelf was ncSw but a name, without 
any real power, it was of little moment for what 
term it was granted ; fince the ftiorteft gave the 
fame privilege with the longeft, and a man once 
declared Conful, enjoyed ever after the rank and 
chara6ter of a confular Senator [/). 

On the opening of the new year Caefar en- A. Urb. 709. 
tered into his fifth Confuljhip, inpartnerfhipwith Ci £ *l* 
: M. Antony : he had promifed it all along to Do- c Julias 
labella, but, contrary to expectation, took it at C/esar V. 
laft to himfclf. This was contrived by Antony, M. Anto- 
who, jealous of Dolabella, as, a rival in Cagfar's 1UUS " 
favor, had been fuggefting fomewhat to his di£ 
advantage, and laboring to create a diffidence of 
him in Caefar 5 which feems to have been the 
ground of what is mentioned above, Cafafs 
guarding himf elf fo particularly , when he pajfed by 
his Villa. Dolabella was fenfibly touched with 
this affront, and cattle full of indignation to the 
Senate ; \yhere, not daring to vent his fpleen on 
Caefar, he entertained the aflembly with afevere 
fpeech againft Antony, which drew on many 
warm and angry words between them ; till Caefar, 
to end the difpute, promifed to refign the Con- 

[r] Ep. F^m. 7- 30. [i] Vid, Die. p. 240. 

3 lulfhip 

414 TZ* Hi s t o r y of the Life 

A. Urb. 709. fullhip to Dolabclla, before he went to the PaY- 

C Cff^ tbianwar: but Antony protefted* tkat by bis aU- 

C. Julius t bcrit j as Augur* be would difturb that eleSlion* 

Cesar V. whenever itjhould be attempted [t\* and declared, 

M. Anto- without any fcruple, the ground of his quar- 

NIU$# rel with Dolabclla was, far having caught bim in 

an attempt to debauch bis wife Antonia, the 

daughter of his uncle; though that was thought 

to be a calumny, contrived to color his divorce 

with her, and his late marriage with Fulvia, the 

widow of Clodius [«]• 

C;£SAR was now in the heigth of all his glory, 
and dreffed* as Florus, fays, in all bis trappings* 
like a viftim dejiined to Jacrifice [x]. He had re- 
ceived from the Senate the moft extravagant ho- 
nors, both human and divine, which flattery 
could invent; a T^emple^ Altar* Prieft ; his Image 
carried in proeeffion* with the Gods* his Statue 
among the Kings * one of the months called after bis 
name* and a perpetual Diftatorjhip [y]. Cicero 
endeavoured to reftrain the excefs of this com- 
plaifance, within the bounds of reafon [z] * but ill 
vain, fincc Casfar was more forward to receive, 
than they to give -, and out of the gaiety of his 
pride, and to try, as it were, to what length 
their adulation would reach ; when he was aftu- 

[/] Cum Czefar oftendif- fas es, quod ab eo forori & 

fet, fe priulquam proficif- uxor! cuae ft u prom oblatum 

ceretur, Dolabellam Confu- effe compeniTes . Phil. 2. 

lem effe juffurum — hie bonus 38. 

Augur co fe facerdotio prae- [*■] Quae omnia, velut in- 

ditum effe dixie, ut comitia . fulte, in deftinatam morti 

ajufpiciis vel impedire vel vi- vidimam congereb*mur. 1. 

t*are poffet, idque fe fa&u* 4, 2. 92. 

rum affeveravit. Phil. 2. 32. [ j] Flor; ibid. Sueton. J. 

[*] Frequentiffuno fena.u Caef. 76. 

— hacc tibi effe cum Dob- [ z ] Plytarch. in Caef. 
bclla caufam edit dicere au* 


t>f ? M. TULjLIuS ClCERd. 415 

ally poffeflcd of every thing, which carried with A.tJrb.yc^ 
it any re&l power, was not content ftill without ci 5; £*• 
a title, which could add nothing but envy, and q % j w °ti/s 
popular odium; and wanted to be called a King. Ljesar v.* 
Plutarch thinks it a ffrangfe inftance of folly in M - Atfxo. 
the people to erldurc with patiehce all the real WIU5# v 
effe&s of Kingly gotoernthent, yfct declare fuch ah 
abhorrence to the name. But the folly was hot 
fo ftrange in the people, as it Was in Csefar : it is 
natural to the multitude to be governed by names 
rather than things 1 ; and the cohftatit art of par- 
ties to ketep up that prejudice'; but it Was unpar- 
donable in fo great a man, as Caefar, to lay fo 
much ftrefs on a tide, which, fo far from being 
an hofror to him, feemed to be a diminution ra- 
ther of that fuperior dignity, which he already 

Among die other tomplimfchtt, that Were paid 
to hitn, thete was l a neto fraternity of Luperci iri- 
ftituted t6 his honor, ind balled bV his name; 
6i which Antony was the head. YoUng Quin- 
tus Cteefo was one of this fociety, with the con- 
tent of his Father, though to the diHatidfa&ion 
of his Untie ; who eonftdefred it* not oriely as a 
low piece of flattery, but an indecency for a 
young man of family, to be engaged in ceremc- 
nies fo imniodeft of runnihg naked and frantic 
about the Streets' [a]. The Feftival was ' held 
about the middle of February ; and Caefar, in bis 
triumphal robe, feated bimfelf in the Roflra, in a 
golden Cbair y to fee the div^rfion of the running ; 
* where, in the midft of their fport, the Conful 
Antony, at the head of his naked crew, made him 

M Qttintus Pater quar- nat duplici dedecore cumo- 
turn vel potius milefimum latam domum. Ad Ace. I *^J_ 
nihil fipit, qui Jxtetur Lu- 5. .» 

pcrco^filio& Ststio, at cer- ^ 

Vol, II. E e tU 

416 TJbe History of the Life 

A. Urb. 709. the offer of a Regal Diadem, and atmpted to put 
Cic. 63. it upon his head ; at the fight of which a general 

C Iu°nj5 & oan t S 1u ^f r(m *bt whole Forum \ till upon Cae- 
GesYr V. f ar * s flight refu&l of it, the people loudly tefti- 

M; Anto- fied their joy, by an universal Jbout. Antony 

* ,BfS - however ordered it to be entered in the public 

a£ts, that by the commando/ the people, be had 

offered the Kingly name and power So C*far 9 and 

that defar would not accept it [b]. 

While this affair of the Kingly Title amufed 
and alarmed the city, two of jhe Tribuns, Ma- 
rullus and Cafctius, were particularly a&ive in 
difcouraging every ftep and attempt towards it : 
they took off the Diadem, ' which certain perfons 
had privately put upon Caefar'j Statue in the Rof- 
tra, and committed thofe tp prifon, who were 
fufpedted to have done it •, and publicly punifhed 
others for daring to falute him in the Jlreets by 
the name of King ; declaring, that Cafar bimCelf 
refufed and abhorred that title* This provoked 
Cseiar beyond his ufual temper, and command of 
himfelf \ fo that he accufed them to the fenate, 
df a dejign to raife a f edition againjt him, by, per- 
fuading the City, that he really affefted to be a King; 
but when the afiembly.was going to pafs the fe- 
vered fentence upon them, he was content with, 
depofing them from their Magijtracy, and expelling 

[Si] Sedebat in Roftris col- fit in Faftis ad Lupercalia, C. 
lega tuus, amiclus toga par- Caefari, Diftatori pcrpcttro 
pvirea, in fella aurea, coro- tA. Antonium Confulem pd- 
natus: adfeendis, accedis ad puli juffu rcgnum detulute, 
fellam — diadema oftendis : Csefarem uti noluiffe. [Phih 
gemitus to to fore— tu diadc- 2. 34.] Quod ab co ira re- 
ma imponebas cum plangore pulfum erat, ut noa offenfus 
populii ille cum plaufu reji- videretor. Vdtt. P. t. $6* 

ciebat— at enim adferibi juf- 



them from tie Senate [r] : which convinced people A. Urb. 709. 
ftill the more, of his real fondnefs for a name, cic - 6 3* 
that he pretended to defpife. c f- ofl - 

He had now prepared all things for hisexpe- CxbaiV. 
dition againft the Parthians ; had Tent his legions M Anto-* 
before him into Macedonia * fettled the fucceffion WIU *- 
of all the Magiftrates/<?r two years to come [d] ; 
appointed Dolabella to take his own place, as 
Conful of the current year 5 named A. Hirtius 
andC. Panfa, for Confuls of the next; and D. 
Brutus, and Cn. Plancus, for the following year: 
but before his departure, he refolved to have the 
Regal Title conferred upon him by the Senate, 
who were too fenfible of his power, and obfe- 
quious to his will, to deny him any thing : and 
to make it the more palatable at the farrie time to 
the people, he caufed a report to be induftrioufly 
propagated through the city, of ancient prophecies 
found in the Sibylline books, that the Parthians 
could not be conquered* but by a King, on the 
ftrength of which, Qotta* one of the Guardians 
ofthofe books* was to move the Senate at their next 
meeting* to decrte the title of king to him [e\. 
Cicero fpeaking afterwards of this defign, fays, 
it was expelled that feme forged teftimonies would 
be produced, tofhew* that he, whom we had felt 
in reality to be a King* Jhould be called alfo by that 
name* if we would befafe : but let us make a bar* ' 
gain with the keepers of thofe Oracles* that they 
bring any thing out of them* rather than a King * 

{c\ Sueton. J. Caef. 79. L. Cottam Quindecim virnm 

Dio. p. 245. A pp. 1. 2. p. fententiam ditturum j utquo- 

496. Veil. P. z. 68. warn libris fot ilibus confine* 

[</] Etiamric ConfuIe8 Sc retur, Parthos non nifi a Rc- 

Tjibunps plebis in bieoniunit ge pofTe vinci, Cgefar Re# 

quos ille voluit* Ad Atfr appellarctur. Succop. c. 79. 

14. 6 Pio. p. 247. 

\e] Proximo autcm Senatu, 

E e a which 

418 The History of the Life 

A. Urb.709. which neither the Gods nor men will ever endure 

C Co<?. 3 ' tgMrt.Romelf]. 
C. Julius One would naturally have expe£ted, after all 
c^sar V. the fatigues and dangers through which Csefar 
M. Akto- jj a d made his way to Empire, that he would have 
niVK chofen to fpend the remainder of a declining 
life in the quiet enjoyment of all the honors and 
pleafures, which abfolute power, and a com- 
mand of the world could beftow : but in the 
midft of all this glory, he was a Granger dill to 
eafe : he faw the people generally difaffc&ed to 
him, and impatient under his government; and 
though amufed a while with the fplendor of his 
ihews and triumphs, yet regretting feverely in 
cool blood the price that they had paid for 
them; the lofs of their liberty, with the lives 
of the belt and nobleft of their fellow Citizens. 
This expedition therefore againft the Parthians 
feems to have been a political pretext for remov- 
ing himfelf frorq the murmurs of the City * and 
leaving to his Minifters the exercife of an invi- 
dious power, and the tafk of taming the fpirits 
of the populace; whilft he, by employing him- 
felf in gathering frefii laurels in the Eaft, and ex- 
tending the bounds, and retrieving the honor of 
the Empire, againft its mod dreaded enemy, 
might gradually reconcile them to a reign, that 
was gentle and clement at home, fuccefsfull and 
glorious abroad. 
But his impatience to be a King defeated all 

£/] Quorum Tnterpres no- tiftibus agamu% ut quid vis 

per falla quxdam hominum pocius ex illis libris, quant 

lama di&urus in Senatu pa- regem proferant 9 quern Ro- 

tabatur, enm 9 quem re rera mac pofthac nee Dii nee ho- 

jegem habebamus, appellan- mines efie patientur. De 

dum quoque effe Regem, fi Divin. 2. 54. 

falvi die vellemui— cum An- 



Iwsproje£ts, and accelerated his fate; and puflbedA Uxb. 709. 
on the pobles, who had confpired againft his life, . c £* p* 
to the immediate execution of their plot 5 that c t^ius •-> 
they might fave theoifelves the ftiame of being Cjesar V. 
forced to concur in an aft, which they heartily M « Anto- 
detelited Jjfl : and the Two Bonus's in particular, N ' u '•• - 
the honor of whofe houfe was founded in the 
extirpation of Kingly Government, could not but 
confider it as a perfonal infamy, andadifgraceto 
their very name, to fuffer the reftoration of it, 

There were above fixty ferfons faid to be en- 
gaged in this confpiracy [b] 5 the greateft part of 
them of the Senatorial* rank ; but M. Brutus, 
and C. Caffius were the chief in credit and au- 
thority ; the firfjt contrivers and movers of the 
whole defign, 

M. Junius Brutus was about one and forty 
years old ; of the moft illuftrious family of the 
Republic •, deriving his name and defcent in a 
diredt line from that fifft Conful, L. Brutus, who 
expelled Tarquin, and gave freedom to the.Ro- 
XBan people [*'].. Having loft hi§ Father whep 


r J.&) Qy* cau ^ a conjuratis gainft it, wliTch feem to be 

frit maturandi deflinata ne- very plaufible. Yet while. 

gotia, ne afTemrri necefle ef- Brutus lived, it was univer- 

fet. Suet. J. Csef. 80. Dio. fally allowed to him. Ci- 

p. 24.7- cero mentions it in his pob. 

[£] Confpiratum eft in earn lie fpeeches, and other writ- 

a Sexaginta ampliua, C. Caf- ings, as a fa&, that no body 

fio, Marcoque & Decirao Bru*- doubted ; and often fpeaks 

to principibus confpirationis. of the Image of old Brutus, 

Suet. 18. which Marcus kept in his 

[7] Some of the ancient houfe among thfcfe of kit An- 

wncers call in que (lion this ceftors : and Atticus,' who 

account of Brutus's defcent ; was peculiarly curiqas in the 

particularly Dionyfius of Ha- antiquities of the -Roman fa- 

licarhafius, the moft judici- milies', ' drew up Bhitufs ge- 

Ous and critical of them, who malogy for him, and deduced 

•aUedges feveral arguments a his fucceffiou fe«m that did' 

v £ c 3 * mt Hero t 

4*0 T6i H 1 S t 6 % * 6f tht Llfi 

jLTJxb. 709. vrrjf youngs he ww train*d With great cart By 

Cic. 63. his uncle C*t6* in all the ftuditt of polite letters, 

0>C cfptcially of etaityftflctf aftd Phifcrfbphft and un- 

Cmm V. dtt thfe difcipline of foth * Tutor, imbibed a 

M. a«to- warm love fdr liberty and tirtue. He had e*- 
mui. cellent parts, And eqad irtduftry, ahd acquired 
an early fame sit the bar* wtere he pleaded fe- 
veml catrfes of great importance, and was es- 
teemed the moft eloquent and leanicd of all the 
young nobles of his age. His manner of {peak- 
ing was Coffe&) el'egartt, judicious, yet wanting 
that force and eopibufaefs* which is required in 
a confummati 0rator. But Philofophy was his 
favorite ftudy ; in Which, though he profefled 
himfelf of the more moderate fe£ of tt?e old Aca- 
demy, yet from a certain pride and gravity of tem- 
per, he aflfefted the feverity of the St die ^ and to 
imitate his uncle Cato ; to which he was wholly 
unequal : for he Was of a mild, mercifull, and 
companionate difpofition ; averfe to every thing 
cruel : and was often forced by the tendernefs of 
his nature to confute the rigor of his principles. 
While his mother lived in the greateft familiarity 
with Caefar, he was conftantly attached to the 

Hero, in a direft line through vilia, cannct be fuppofed 

all the intermediate ages frdm to have commenced, till ma- 

father to fon. Com. Nep. ny years after Brutus was 

vit. Att. 18. Tufcul. Dftp. 'born; or not till Caefar hid 

4» i . loft his firft wife Cornelia, 

He was born in the Con- whom be married wheb he 

fulihip of L. Cornelius Cinna was very young, and always 

III. and Cn. Papirius Carbo, tenderly loved ; and whole 

A- U. 668. which fully con- funeral oration he made when 

futes the vulgar ftory of his he was Quttfior, and confe- 

being commonly believed to quently thirty years old. Vid. 

be CmfotPs fin, fince he was Sneton. J. Caef. c. i, 6, 50. 

hut fifteen years younger than it. JBrut. p. 343. 447. & Con 

Caefar himfelf: whofe fajni- radi notes. 

Uatity with hi* mother Scr- 



6ppofite party, and firm to the interefhof liber- A. Urb. 709. 
ty : for the fake of which he followed Pompey, c * c * <? 3- 
whom he hated, and adted on that fide, with a c j^,"^" 
diftingutfhed 2eal. At the battel of Pharfalia, Cjesar y; 
Cafefaf gave particular orders to find out and pre- c - Anto- 
fcrve Brutus ; being defirous to draw him from NIU8# 
the purfuit of a caufe, that was likely to prove 
fatal to him : fo that when Cato, with tjic reft 
Qf the Chiefs j went to renew the war in Afric, 
he Was induced by Caefar's generofity and his mo- 
ther's prayers, to lay down his arms, and return 
to Italy. Casfar endeavoured to oblige him by 
all the honours which his power copld beftow t 
but the indignity of receiving from a Matter, 
what he ought to have received from a free peo- 
ple (hocked him much more than any honors 
could oblige; and the ruin, in which he faw hi$ 
friends involved by Csefar's ufurped dominion,* 
gave him a difguft, which no favors could com- 
penfate. He obferved therefore a diftance and 
' refer ve through Caefar's reign -, afpirefl to no (hare 
of his confidence, or part in hiscounfils, arid by 
the uncourtly vehemence, with which he defend- 
ed the rights of King Deiotarus, convinced Cse- 
far, that he could never be obliged, where he 
tdid not find himfelf free. IJe cultivated all the 
while the ftri&eft friendlhip with Cicero, whofe 
principles, he knew, ^rere utterly averfe to the 
meafures of the times ; and in whofe free conver- 
fation, he ufcd to mingle his own complaints on 
the unhappy ftate of the Republic, an4 the 
wretched hands into which it was fallen ; till 
animated by thefe conferences, and confirmed by 
the general difconteqt of all the honeft, he fqrm T 
led l the bold defign of freeing his Country by the 
deftruftiori of Csefar. He had publicly defend- 
ed Milo's aft of killing Clodius, by a maxirri, 
E £ 4 yhich 

4*4 The H i s t o R r tf the Life 

A. Urb, 709. which he maintained to t>e uniyerfally true, tbaf 

C Coff 3 *W € * w ^° ^ ive * n ^fonce of the laws, *nd cannot 

C. Julius i* brought to a trials ought to betaken off without 

Caesar V. a trial. The cafe was applicable tQ Ca?far in % 

M. Antq. much higher degree than to Clodius; whofc 

lrIU * , power had placed him above the reach of the 

law, and left no way of punifhing him, but by 

an affaffination. This therefore was Brutus's mo- 

pve 5 and Antony did him the juftice to fay, 

that he was the onely qne of the confpiracy, <wb$ 

entered into it out of principle ; (bat the reft, from 

private malice* rofe up againft the man, be alone 

againft the Tyrant [*]. 

C, Cas^ius was defcended likewise from a 

]■ family, not lefs honorable ctr ancient, norlefe 

\\ zealous for the public liberty, th^n Brutus's ; 

•whofe Aijceftor, Sp. Caffius, after a triumph 

I • of three confulfhips* is faid to have been con- 

a: cletnned, and put to death, by his own Father, 

' • £• for aiming at a dominion. He fhewed a remark- 

;-i able inftance, when a boy, of his high fpirit and 

'"% love of liberty; for he gave Sylla's Son, Faafius, 

> }\ 4 box on the ear, for bragging among bis fcboaU 

- ( J [i] Natura admirabili», Sc [Brut. 15.] torn Brutus — ita- 

l ' :l ejquifita do&rina, & fingu. que dolco & illius confilio & 

, -3./ laris'induftria. Cum enim in tua voce populum Rom. care- 

[l-['' : < rhaxirais caufw verfatus efles re tamdiu. Quod cum per fe 

urir^ -*-[Brut. *6.] quo magis tu- dolendum eft, turn muito 

13 ti * _ um, Brute, judicium pi obo, rnagis confideranti, ad quo* 

v y \-\ ' "" qui eorum, id eft, ex vet en ifta non tranflata fint, fed ne- 

y\ ";., ••; - academia, philofophorum fee- fcio quo paclo deveuerinc. 

1 .p** tam * ccutus es » q n <> rinn in [Brut. 269] 

*'" ti 1 ... dd&rin* Sc praeceptis difle- , 'aaa* 'Av1«rfu y# v*) toa- 

:.;; ' "" rendi ratio conjungitur cum tiq 2l*£ccu AlyoiT;©*, «« pfafe 

• ; .:/: :: fuavitate dicendi & copfa. uotlo BpS-rov IrAtdat Kaiau* 

yir/ [Brut; 219.] Nam cum in* p h Tpoa%bt»la. tq icCiLTttftft 

ambularem in Xyito.— M. ad' ual rf fpattvoixtwp naXtS r$s 

me Brutus, ut confueverat, *?<&»$— vid. Pint, in Brat* 

1 cum T. Pompocio venerat — p. 997. it. App, p, 498. 

-■' * 'I * " *• " . . * ' fellows, 


' fellows, of bis Father's greatnefs and fibfakte ptw- A. Urb. 703. 
er 5 and when Pompey called the boys befpre Cl 5; p m 
him, to give an account of their quarrel, he de- c. Julius 
clared in his prefence, that if Faujtus Jbould dare CjesarY- 
to repeat the words, be would repeat the blow. He M - Anto- 
was Quaeftor to Craffus, in the Parthian war, WIUS * 
where he gready fignalized both his courage and 
(kill*, and if Crafius had followed his advice, 
would have preferved the whole army ; but after 
their miferable defeat, he made good his retreat 
into Syria with the. remains of the broken legi- 
ons : and when the Parthians, fluftied with fuc- 
cefs, purfued him thither fooh after, and block- 
ed him up in Antioch, he preferved that City 
and Province from falling into their hands ; apd, 
watching his opportunity, gained a confiderable 
vi&ory over them, with the deftruftion of their 
General. In the civil war, after the battel of 
Pharfalia, he failed with feventy Ships to the 
coaft of Afia, to raifefrefh forces in that country, 
and renew the war again ft Csefar; but, as the 
Hiftorians tell us, happening to meet with Cav- 
iar eroding the Hellefpont, in a common paflage- 
boat, inftead of deftroying him, as he might 
have done, he was fo terrified by the fight of 
the Conqueror, that he begged his life in an 3b*, 
je£t manner, and delivered up his fleet to him: 
But Cicero gives us a hint of a quite different 
ftory, which is much more probable, and wor- 
thy of Cafiius; that having got intelligence 
where Caefar defigned to land, he lay in wait.fbr 
him, in a bay of Cilicia, at the mouth of the 
river Cydnus, with a refolution to deftroy him; 
but Gefar happening to land on the oppqfite Jboar be- x 
fore he was aware, fo that feeing his projedt 
blafted, atid Caefar lecured in a country where, 
all people were declaring for him, he thought it 

' beft 

424 JJSfHl$TOKYgf tbi Lift 

A. Urb. 709. bfeft to make his own peace too, by going over 
Ck. 63. to him with his fleet. He married Tertia, the 
C. 'Tuli tfi ^ cr °^ Brutus » an( * though differing in temper 
Casar V. and philofophy, was ftri&ly united with bim in 
M. Anto- friendship and politics ; and the conftant partner 
viys. pf all his counfils. Hd was brave, witty, learn- 
ed t yet paffionate, fierce, and cruel ; fo that 
Brutus was the more amiable friend^ be the more 
dangerous enemy : in his later years he deferred 
the Stoics, and became a convert to Epicurus- 
whofe do&rine he thought more natural and rea- 
fonable ; conftarkly maintaining, fhat the pUa+ 
fure $ which their fnafter recommended, was to be 
found onefy in the habitual pr office of juftice and 
virtue 1 while he profeffed himfelf therefore an 
Epicurean, he lived like a Stoic * was moderate 
in pleafures, temperate in dier, and p. water- 
drinker through life. He attached himfelf Ver£ 
early to the obfervance of Cicero ; a; all tlia 
young Nobles did, who hid any thing gfeat Or ' 
laudable in view t this friend(hi£ >yas confirmed 
by a cortfonAtty Of their fentiments in the civil 
war, aftdiflCsefaf'a reign? during ^hich, feve- 
x^al Letters J>affed between them, written with a 
freedom and familiarity, Which is to be found 
only in the moft intimate cOrrefpond^nce. In 
thefe letters, though Cicero rallies his Epicurifm, 
and change of principles, yet he allows him to 
have adted always With the greateft honor and in- 
tegrity, and pleafantly fays, that hefhould begin ta; 
think that fell h have more nerves, than be imagined,; 
jince Caffius bad embraced it. The old writers affign 
feveral frivolous reafons of difguft, as the motives- 
of his killing Caefar : that cJfar took a number of' 
lions from him, which he bad provided for a pub- . 
#c fhew\ that he would not give bim the Confut- 
fin§\ that be gave firtitus the more honorable Prae- 


tfftjhip in preference id bit*. But we heed not ^-Prb. 709. 
took farther 4 for' the true motive* thin to his ^;| 3 ' 
fttfipct arid principles,: for his natuffe wa$ fingu-c. Julius, 
tett\f impetuous afrd violent; inpatient of con- ejEsxitV. 
tradition, and ftiuch rhore of fubji&ioh ; and M - AllT0 - 
paftiOriately fond of glory, virtue, liberty : it was " l? s * 
frdtt* thgfe qualities, <hac Caefar apprehehded his 
danger $ fchd ¥htn admoniffied to bewafe of An- 
tony and Dtflabella, lifcd to fay, that it ivas not 
the gay * tht cutlet, arid the jovial, wbont be badcanjh 
to fear, hit the thoughtful, the p alt, and the lean ; 
faedning Brittus dtidCaJ/tus [/]., 


£/] C. Caffius in ea faml- 
fia natus, qtr& iron modo do- 
minatnm, fed ne potentiam 
quidem cujufquam ferre p6- 
tait. [Phil. 2. 11 J Qaem n- 
bi prim am rriagirfratu abiit, 
damnatmnqt]4 conftar. Sunt 
qui patrem a&orem ejus fup- 
plicii ferant. Bum cognita 
domi caofa verberafle ac ne- 
caffe, petuliumque filii Cereri 
coYifecraflfle. [Liv. 2. 41.] 
Cujus filfam, Fauftum, C. 
Caffius condifcipulum faum in 
fchola, proFcriptionem pater- 
nal laadafitem — colapho 
yercuffit. [Val. Ma*. 3. 1. 
vkh Plotar. in Brut.] ReK* 
quias legionum C. C.aflius — 
, Quaeflor confervavir, Syriam- 
. que adeom popnliRomatfi po- 
tefttfc rctinuit, ut traafgreflbs 
in eum Parthos, felici rerum 
evenw. fugaret ac funderet. 
iVcll.Pat.2. 4 6.rt.Phil.xi.i4.] 

fvytf *v ct*6pa ttaipf ytvt&xt 
p&fikov* vi X&eeiov rb$ Toto- 

<fvv\vft$v\ct, fxtiZ 9 »c %Gp&$ «*• 
feir vto^»}m», 5 3* «»t«5 law- 

TetpcLTxiovIt «apa&b£» &s«pof 

fialavir. [A pp. 2. 483. it. 
Dio. 1. 42. 188. Sucton. J* 
Caef. 63.3 C.Caifius^-fine his 
clariffimis viris hanc rem in 
CiHcia ad oflium ftumlnia 
Cydni c6nfeciflfet,fl ffie ad £ahi 
ripam, quarh cOftftituerat, mm 
ad contrariam naves appulif- 
fet. [Phil. 2. I i.l c quibut 
Brutam atnicam habere nral- 
les, inimicum magis timers 
Caffium. [Veil. P. 2.72.] fa- 
v $v vero, & irafaUttv virtate 
jultitia, tm ««a£ ,parari f & 
verum & probabHe eft. Ipfe 
enim Epicurus — dicit. & 

Zwtidto Kw* [Ep. Fam. 15. 
19.] Caffius tota vita aqnani 
bibit. [Senec. 547.3 Quan- 
quahi quicum lo<|uor ? cum 
uno fortiffimo vlro ; qui po- 
ilea quam forum auigiffi, 

4*6 i The HistoRYoftie Life 

A. \Jrb.\og. The next in authority to Brutus and Caffiu*, 
Cl QoP m t ^ iOU Sf 1 VCI 7 different from them in chara&er,. 
C. Julius were Decimus Brutus, and C. Trebonius: they 
C^sm V. had both been conftantly devoted to Cadar; and 
M. Anto- wcrc fingularlv favored, advanced, and entrulled 
NIUS# by him in all his wars •, fo that when Caefar 
marched firft into Spain, he left them to com- 
mand tbefiege of Mar f titles, Brutus byfea, Tre* 
bonius by land', in which they acquitted them- 
felves with the greateft courage and ability, and 
reduced th?t ftrong place to the ne6eflity of fur- 
rendering at difcretion. Decimus was of the 
lame family with his namefakc, Marcus ; and 
Caefar, as if jealous of a name, that infpired an 
averfion to Kings, was particularly felicitous to 
gain them both to his intereft -, and feemed to 
have fucceeded to his wifh in Decimus; who for- 
wardiy embraced hisfriendlhip, and accepted all 
his favors * being named by him to the command 
of Gfalpine Gaul, and to the Confulfbip of the fol- 
lowing year, and the ficond fair of bis eftate, 
in failure of the firft: He feems to have had no 
peculiar charadter of virtue, or patriotifm, nor 
any correlpondence with Cicero, before the aft 
of killing Caefar; fo that people, inftead of ex- 
pecting it from him, were furprifed at his doing 
it : yet he was brave, generous, magnificent, and 
lived with great fplendor, in the enjoyment of 
an immcnfe fortune ; for he kept a numerous band 
of Gladiators, at his own expence, for the divert 
fion of the City •, and after Csefar's death, fpent 
about four hundred iboufand pounds of his own 

nihil fecifti uiii pleniflimutfl [Ep. Fam. 15. 16.I Differen- 

ampliflimae dignitatis. It* ifta do confulatum Camuin offeii- 

' ij)fa alpha metuo lie plus derat. £Ve)l. P; 2. 56. \L 

Nervorum fit, quam ego puta- Plat, in Erut. A pp. 408.] 

fim, fi modo earn tu probai. 


ofM. fULLIUS CICE&O: 427 

money, in maintaining an army againft Anto- A. Urb. 709. 

TREBdKius had no family to boaft of, but c. junu$ 
was wholly a new man, and the creature of Cae- C*sar V. 
far*s power, who produced him through all the M - Anto. 
honors of the State, to his late confulfhip of three N ! us# 
months : Antony calls him the Son of a Buffoon*, 
but Cicero, of a fplendid Knight: he was a rrian 
of parts, prudence, integrity, humanity; was 
converfant alfo in the politer arts, and had a pe- 
culiar turn to wit and humor : for* after Csefar'a 
death, he publilhcd a volume of Cicero's /dyings* 
which he had taken the pains to colled; upon 
which Cicero compliments him, for having ex- 
planed them with great elegance, and given them 
a frefli force and beauty, by his humorous man- 
ner of introducing them. As the Hiftorians 
have not feggefted any reafon that fhould move 
either him or Decimus to the refolution of killing 
a man, to whom they were infinitely obliged * fo 
we may reafonably impute" it, as Cicero does, to 
a greatnefs of foul, and fuperior . love of their 
country, which made them prefer the liberty of 
Rome to the friendfbip of any man\ and chufe ra- 
ther to be the deftroyers y than the partners of a 
Tyranny [»]. 


O] Adjc&ts etiam confi- Vid. Carf. Comm. de Bell, 
liariis coed is, familiar iffi mis civil. 1. 2. Plat, in Brut. App. 
omnium, & fortuna parturm p. 497, 518. Dio. 1. 44. 247* 
ejus in fummum eve&ia fafti- &c. D. Brutus— cum Casfaris 
gium, D. firuto & C. Trebo- primus omnium amicorum 
mo 9 aliifqueclarinominis vi- fuiffet,' iuterfc&or fuit. Veil. 
ris. [Veil. P. 2. 56.] Pluref- P. 2. 64. 
Que percurforum in tutoribua t [»] Scurrse filium apoellat 
nlii nominavit : Decimum ' Antonibs. Quafi veto igno- 
Brutum ctiam in fecundis fee- tus nobis fuerit fplendidus 
rcdibua. [Suetoc J. Carf. 83J Equea Romanus Ticbonjipa* 


428 We History of the Life 

A.Urb. 7Q9* The. reft of the conspirators were \>*n\yy*ubg 
C c'£ h mn> °^ no ^ e bloody eager, to revenge the ruin 
C. Julius °f thc * r fortunes and families •, partly mengbfeure* 
Cbja* V. and unknown to the public [p] * yet whofe fidelity 
14. Antq- and courage had been approved by Bnjtys a&<i 
mug. Caflius. Tt was agreed by them all in council 
to execute their defign in the Senate, which was 
fummoned to meet on the Ides, pr fifteenth of 
March : they knew that the Senate would ap* 
plaud it when done, and eyep aflift, if there was 
occafion, in the dping it [p ] ; and there was a, which peculiarly encouraged them* 
and fceraed to be even ominous 5 that it happened 
lobe Pompefs Senate Houfe, in which their attempt 
was to be made ; and where Caefar would confe- 
quently fall at the foot of Pompey*s Statue, as a 
juft Sacrifice to the manes of that great man £?]. 
They took it alfo for granted, that the City 
would he generally on their fide, yet for their 
greater fecurity, D. Brutus gave orders, to arm 
bis Gladiators that morning, as if for /owe public 
Jhew, that they might be reacjy, on the firft rio- 
ter. [PAH. 13. 10.] Trebo- 16.] Quilibertatcm populi 
mi — conliliumj iogenium, Roman i unius araiciriae prse- 
fcumanitatem, innoccntiam, pofuir, depulforque domina- 
magnitudinem animi in pa- tus t quam particeps effe ma- 
tria libcranda quis ignorat? luit. Phil. 2.1 1. 
[Phil. xi. 4.] liber ifte, quern [*J In toe hominibus, par- 
mini piifiAij quanuzn hahe* tim obfeuris, partial adotef- 
declarationein amoris tui? centibus, &c. Phil. 2. 11. 
primum, quod tibi facetum [>] &q r£ 9 0*\«v1«v, «/ W 
vicletar quicquid ego dixi, ^ TrpofxaBoitr, T/>ofivW:> ot< 
quod aliis fortaile non kern : ftoisv ?bv *pylv> cuusra^o- 
deinrfe, quod ilia, five faceca pivuv. App. 499. 
funt, five fie iiunt narrantc [/>] Poftquam Senatus idi- 
te venudiflima. Quio etiam bus Martiis in Ponipeii cu. 
antequam ad me veniatur, ri- xiam edi£us eft, facile Urn- 
fus omnis pa^ne confumitur, pus & locum pretulerunt, 
&c.{fcp. pam. 15. 21. it. 12, {Sueton; 80.] 

tice f 


tice, to fecure the avenues of the Senate, and de- A. Urb. 709: 
fend them from any fudden violence & and Ponh c * • *>3- 
ptfs Theatre which adjoined to bis Senate-boufe> c jy^ius 
being the propepeft place for the cxercife of the d®** V, 
Gladiators, would cover all fufpicion, that might M. Anto- 
ptherwife arife from them. The pnely delibera- N1US * - 
xloti that perplexed them, and on which they 
Were much divided, was whether they (hould not 
kill Antony alfo, zndLepidus, together with G*for>, 
efpecially Antony ; the more ambitious of $he 
two, and the more likely v to create frefh dan- 
ger no the commonwealth. Caffius, with a ma- 
jority of the company, was warmly for killing 
him : but the two Brutus 9 s as warmly oppofed, 
and finally over-ruled it : they alledged, " that 
" to Ihed more blood than was neccflary, wouJd 
" difgrace their cauie, and draw upon them an 
** imputation of cruelty; and of adting not as 
<c Patriots, but as the Partizansof Pompey ; not 
• c fo much to free the City, as to revenge them- 
f c felves on their enemies, and get the dominion 
cc of it into their hands." But what weighed with 
them the moft, was a vain perfuafion, that Anto- 
ny would be tradable, and eafily reconciled, as. 
foon as the affair was over: but this lenity proved 
their ruin ; and by leaving their work imperfeft, 
defeated all the benefit of it ; as we find Cicero af- 
terwardsoften reproaching them in his Letters [r]. 
Many prodigies are mentioned by the Hifto- 
rians to have given warning of Caefar's death [s] : 
which having been forged, by fome, and 

[r] Plutar. in Caef. App. Fain, x. 28. 12. 4. ad Brut. 

2. 4§9, 502. Dio. 247, 24$. 2. 7. 

Qaam vellem ad ilias pul- / [/} Se<T Caefari futura ca;-, 

cherrimas epu'as xne Idibus des evidentibus prodigiis de- 

Martiis invuaffes, Reliqui- nunciata eft, &c. Sneton. 81. 

arum nihil haberemus. £p. Pint, in vit. 

3 credufoufly 


C. JuLifos 
CjesA* V. 


^36 irtr History cf the Ltfe 

A. Urb.709. crcduloufly received by others, were copied, « 
PS- ufual, by all, td ftrike the imagination of their 
readers, and raife an awful attention to an event; 
in which the Gods were fuppofed to be interefted. 
Cicero has related one of the mod remarkable of 
them * " that as Csefar wis facrificirig a little be- 
44 fore his death, with great pomp and fplendor; 
" in bis triumphal rotes and golden chair, the vie- 
44 tim, which was a fat Ox, was found to be 
44 without a heart : and when Caefar feemed to be 
44 (hocked at it, Spurinna, the Harufpex, admd- 
44 nifhed him to beware, left through a failure, 
44 in council, his life ftiould be cut off, fince the 
44 heart was the feat and fource of them both. 
44 The next day he facrificed again, in hopes to 
44 find the entrails more propitious 5 but the liver 
* of the bullock appeared to want its head, 
44 which was reckoned alio among the direfull 
44 omens [/].* Thefe fa&s, though ridiculed 

[/] Dc Div:n. 1. 51. 2. 
16. Thefe cafes of vi&ims 
found fometixnes without a 
heart $r Uvtr 9 gave rife to a 
curious queftion among thofe 
who believed the reality of 
this kind of divination, as the 
Stoics generally did, how to 
account for the caufe of fo 
Grange a phenomenon. The 
common folution was, that 
. the Gods made fuch changes 
inftantaneoufly, in the mo- 
ment of sacrificing; by an- 
nihilating or altering the 
condition of the entrails fo, 
as to make them correfpdnd 
with the circumitances of the 
Sacriiicer, and the admoni- 
tion which they intended to 
give. [ De Div. ibid.] But 
this was laughed at by the 

Natnralifb, as wholly nriphi- 
lofophical, who thought it 
abfurd to imagine, that the 
Deity could either annihilate, 
or create 5 either reduce any 
thing to nothing, or form 
any thing out of nothing; 
What feems the mofl pro- 
bable, is, that if the fads 
really happened, they were* 
contrived by Cssfar's friends, 
and the heart conveyed away, 
by fome artifice, to give 
them a better pretence of 
enforcing their admonitions, 
and putting Caster upon his 
guard againft dangers, which 
they really apprehended, 
from quite different reafons, 
than the pretended denoncia- 
tions of the Gods* 

.- by 


fey Cicero, were publicly affirmed and believed A. Urb. 709; 
at the time -, and feem to have railed a general Cic - 6 3- * 
rumor through the City* of Tome fecrct dan- c ^fus 
ger that threatened Caefar's life* fo that his CiESAR V. 
friends being alarmed at it, were endeavouring M. Anto* 
to inftill the fame apprehension igto Qefar him- NIUS# 
fclf ; and had fucceeded fo far, as to fhake his 
refolution of going thatxlay to the Senate, when 
it was a&ually affembled by his fummons in Pom* 
pey's Senate-houfe * till D. Brutus, by rallying 
chofe fears as unmanly and unworthy of him, 
and alledging, that his abfence would be in- 
terpreted as an affront to the affembly, drew > 
htm out againft his will to meet his deftined 

In the morning of the fatal day, M. Brutus 
and C. Caflius appeared, according to cuftom, in 
the Forum, fitting in their Pr&tori&n Tribunals* 
to hear and determine caufes ; where, though 
they had daggers wider their gowns, they fat 
With the feme calomels as if they had nothing 
upon their minds* till the news of Csefar's 
coming out to the Senate, called them away to 
tbe performance of their part in the tragical ad * 
which they executed at laft with fuch refolutioft, 
that through the eagernefs of (tabbing Caefar, 
they wounded, even one another [#]. 

Thus fell Caefar on the ultbrated Ides */ 
March ; after he had advanced himfelf to a 
heigth of power, which no Conqueror had ever 
attained before him ; though to raife the mighty 
Fabric, he had made more defolation in the world 
than any man perhap*, who ever lived rn it. He 
tifed to fay, that bis ctnqueft iri~Gaul bad cojt a* 

(«] Phttar. in J. Oaf. 
x\ lb. in Brut. App. 2. 505. 

Vol. II. B i hut 

432 ^be History of the Life 

A. Urb. 709. bout a million j and two hundred tboufand lives [y]? 
Cic 63. and if we add the civil wars to the account, the^ 

C 1u°ujs cou ^ not fco ^ * c Rc P u ^ c muc h k&, in the 
CjksVr V. wore valuable blood of its beft Citizens : yet 

M. An to- when, through a perpetual courfe of fa&ion, vio- 
***** lence, rapine, (laughter, he had made his way at 
laft to Empire, he did not enjoy the quiet poffef- 
fion of it above five months [z]. 

He was endowed with every great and noble 
quality, that could exalt human nature, and give 
a man the afcendant in fociety : formed to excell 
in peace, as well as war, provident in counfil; 
fearltfs in aftion ; and executing what he had re- 
folved with an ataaziftg celerity: generous be- 
yoftd meafure to his friends ; placable to his ene- 
mies ; and for parts, learning, eloquence, fcarce 
inferior to any man. His orations were admired 
for two qualities which are feldom found toge- 
ther, Jlrengtb and elegance: Cicero ranks him a- 
mong the greateft orators, that Rome ever bred : 
and Quintilian fays, that be [poke with the fame 
force with which be fought \ and if he had .devoted 
bimfelf to the bar, would have been the onely man 
capable of rivalling Cicero. Nor was he a matter 
onely of the politer arts ; but converfant alfo 
with the moft abftrufc and critical part of learn- 
ing ; and among other Works which he publifh- 
ed, addrefied two books to Cicero, on the Analogy 
. bf language, or the art of fpeaking and writing 
eorre&ly [a\. He was a moft liberal Patron of 


[y\ Undecie* ccntena Sc [z] NcqueiilitantoVifo-< 

nonaginta duo hominum mil- plufquam quinquc menfium 

Iia occifa prseliis abeo— quod principalis quids contigit— 

ita effe confeflus eft ipfe, beU Veil. Pat. 2. 56. . 

lorum civilium ftragem non [a] It was in the dedica- 

prodejido. Plin. Hilt. 7, 25, lion of chit pitce to Cicero, 



wit and learning, wherefoever they were foijnd ; A. Urb. 709. 
and out of his love of thofe talents, would readi- Cc: ^3- 
ly pardon thofe, who had employed them againft c £°*|" Wf 
himfelf : rightly judging, that by making fuch Cjesar V. 
men his friends, be Jhould draw praifes from tbeC. Ahtq- ' 
famt fotfntain, from which be had been afperfed. KIUS - 
His capital paffions were ambition and love of 
fleafure ; which he indulged in their turns to the 
greateft eycefs : yet the fifft was always predomi- 
nant ; to which he f ould eafily facrifice all the 
charms of the fecond, and draw pleafure even 
From toils and dangers, when they miniftred to 
his glory. For he thought tyranny, as Cicero 
fgys, the greateft of GoddeJJes ; and l>ad frequent- 
ly in his mouth a verfe of Euripides, which ex- 
preffed the image of his foul, that if right and 
Jujlice were ever to be violated, they were to be bior 
lated for the fakp of reigning. This was the chief 
end and purpofc of his life \ the fcheme that he 
had formed from his early youth ; fo that, as Cato 
tnjly declared of him, be came with fqbriety and 
meditation to tb$ fubverfion of the Republic. He 
ijfed to fay, that there were two things necejfary f 
to acquire and to fupport power y foldiers and money ; 
which yet depended mutually on each other : * 
•with, money therefore he provided foldiers ; and 
with foldiers extorted money : and was of all meii 
the moft rapacious in plundering, both friends 
4nd foes ; fparing neither Prinfe nor^ State, 
nor Tempky. nor even private perfon^ who were 
known to poffefs. any (hare of treafure. His 
great abilities would neceffarily have m$de him 
oaeof the firft Citizens of Rome 5 but cjifdaining 

that Caefar paH hici the of oil triumphs, as it was mor? 

compliment, which Pliny gh*ious to extend the bounds of 

mentions, of his having ac- the Roman wit, than of tbtir 

quired a laurel, fcperior to that Empire. Hift. K. 7. 30. 

F f 2 thev 

434 22* History^ the Life 

A.Ufb. 709. the condition of a fubjcft, he could never re#, 
Cic. 63. fill he had made himfelf a Monarch. In a&ing 
this lad part, his ufual prudence feetned to fail 
him i as if the heigth to which he was mounted, 
had turned his head, and made him giddy : for, 
by a vaiaoftentation of his power, he destroyed 
the {lability of it ; and as men ftiorten life, by 
living too fad, fo by an intemperance of reigning, 
he brought his reign to a violent end [£]. t 
It was a common question after his death, 
and propofed as a problem by Livy, whether it. 
was offervice to the Republic y that he had ever 

C. Julius. 


M. Anto- 


XV] De Caefare & ipfe ita 
judico — ilium omnium fere 
Oraterom latin* loqui ele- 
gantiffime— & id— multis lit* 
terisi & lis qnidem recondi- 
tis Sc exquintu*, fummoque 
ffadio ac diligentia eft confe- 
cutus.— [Brut. 370.] C. vero 
Caefar fi toio taatum vacaffet, 
non alius ex noflris contra 
Ciceronem nominaretur, tan- 
ta in ep vis eft, id acumen, 
5a concitatio, ut ilium eodem 
aninao dixiiTe, quo belhvit, 
appareat. [Quintil. x. 1 .] 
C. Caefar, in libris, quos ad 
14. Ciceronem de Analogia 
conferipfit— [A.Qell. 19. 8.] 
Quia etiam in maximis oc» 
cupationibus cum ad te ip- 
fom, inquit, de ratione la- 
tine loquendi accaratiffime 
feripfcrit^ [Brut. 370. vid. 
it. Sueton, 56.] in Carfare 
hstc font, mitis, clemenfque 
nfttura — accedit, quod 1 miri- 
fice ingeniis excellentibus, 
quale tuam eft, deledtatur — 
codem font* fe hauftmum iiv- 

telllgit Iaudcs fuas, e quo fit 
leviter afperfus. [Ep. Jam. 6. 
6«3 T*jr M* ftty/^irr &%' t~ 
%nv rvpawifo. [Ad Att. 7.. 
ii.Jiffe aiitem in ore fern - 
pergrxcos vexfusde PhoeniifU 

Nam fi<v tola* dum eft jus, reg* 

standi gratia 
Violatidum eft : aliis rebus pte- 

tatem colas. 

' [Offic. 3. 21.3 

Cato dixit, C. Caefarem ad 
evcrtendam rcmpublicam, fo^ 
briom acceffifle. [Quintil. 1. 
8. 2.1 Abftinentjajn nequeio 
Imperiis neque in Magiftra- 
tibus praeftitxt — in Gallia fa- 
rm, templaque Deum donis rc- 
ferta expilavit : urbes diruit, 
facpius qb praedam quam de* 
licium — cvidentiffimis rapi- 
nis, ac Sacrijegiis onera bel- 
lorum civilium — faftinuit. 
[Sueton. c 54. vid. it. DioV 
p, *o8,] 

•• * ' i 



$*en born [c]. The queftion did not turn en tbeA.Urb, 709, 
fimple merit of his a&s, for that would bear ns C n'£ im 
difpute, but on the accidental eflfefts of them ;c. Jumus 
their producing the fettlement under Auguftus, Cje$a* V. 
land the benefits of that government \ which was M - A " TQ ' 
the confequence of his Tyranny, Suetonius* muu 
who treats the characters of the Csefars with that 
freedom, which the happy neigns, in which he 
lived, indulged, upon balancing the exa&fumro 
*/ bis virtues and vices* declares him, on the 
whole, H haw beenjuftly killed [4] : which appears 
to have been the general fenfe of the beft, the 
wifcft and the moft difinterefted in Rqmc, at the 
time when the faft was committed. 

The onely queftion which feemed to admit any 
difpute, was, whether it ought to have been com* 
nutted by thofe, who were the leaden in it [£]% 
fome of whom owed their lives to Cefar \ and 
others had been loaded by him with honors, to a 
degree, that helped to encreafe t he popular odium; 
particularly D. Brutus, who was the mdft cherUh- 
ed by him of them all, and left by his willy the 
feconihdr of bis efiate [/]. For, of /fa ffW 
Brutus' s, it was not Marcus, as it is commonly 
imagined, but Decimus, who was tht favorite, 
and wbofepart in tie con/piracy furprtTtd people ibt 
tnoft [g\ But this circumftancc ferved bnely for a 
different handle to the different parties, forjtggra* 

[f] Vid. Senec. N«rtnr. dendum earn judkaret. Se- 

Qusetf, 1. 5. 18, p. 766. »ec. de Benef. L 2. 20. 

[d] Praegravant tamen cae- [/] Appifcn. z. 51?. 
tera ia£ia, di&aque ejus, ut [g] Etfi eft enim Bxuto- 
& abufus dominatione & jure rum commune fa&um fc laudji 
caefus exiiliractur. Sue ton* focietas aequa, Decimatamen 
c. 76. iratiores erant ii 9 qui id fac- 

[e] Difputari de M. Bruto turn dolebaat, quo minus ah 
(blet, an debuerit accipere a eo rem illam dicebant fieri 
P. Julio vitajn, cum occi- debuifle. Philip, x* 7. 

L vating* 

43$ TfoHl utory^/^ Life 

A- Urb ? T©9t vating either their crime, or their merit. Csefarfs 

Cic. 63. friends charged them with bafe ingratitude^ for 

C. Twmus killing *«* Benefaftor, and abufing the power 

ci:sAR V. which he had given to the deftru&ion of the 

M. Anto- giver. The other fide gave a contrary turn to 

kivs.- ^ . extolled the greater virtue of the men, for 

not being diverted by private confiderations, 

from doing an alt of ^public benefit : Cicero takes 

it always in this view, and fays, " That the Re- 

" public was the more indebted to them, fbr 

'* preferring the common good, to the friend- 

" fhip of any man whatfeevcr ; that as to the 

<f kindnefs of giving them their lives, it was the 

€C kindnefs onely of a Robber, who had firft 

44 done them tne greater wrong, by ufurping 

44 the power to take it : that, if there had been 

€i any ftain of ingratitude in the a£t, they could 

* c never have acquired fo much glory by it ; and 

* c though he wondered indeed at fome of them 

« 4 for doing it, rather than ever imagined, that 

44 they would have done it; yet he admired 

€C them fo much the more, for being regardlefs 

** of favors, that they might fhew their regard 

M to their Country [£}." 

Some of Casfar's friends, particularly Panla 

and Hirtius, advifed him always to keep a (land- 

• ing guard of Praetorian Troops, fbr the defence 

of his perfon ; alledging, that a power acquired by 

arms muftnecejfarily be maintained by arms : but his 

[h] Quod eft alittd bene- Quo etiam majorem * et 

ficiura — • Jatrcmum, nHi ut Refpub. gratiam debet, qui 

cbmmejnorare poffint, lis fe libertatem popuH Romani u- 

dedifle vitam, qaibus non ad- nias amicitis praepofttit, de- 

emerint? quod fi eflet be- pulforqne 'dominants quam 

ncficium, nunquam ii qui il- particeps effe malak— adm\- 

lum jnterfecerunt, a quo e- ratusfuraobeamcaufam.qood 

rant fervati,— tantum eflent immemorbeneficiorum, me- 

gloriam confceuti. Phil. 2. 3. nor patriae fuifPtt. — ib. 1 1.