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TO T « « 

PEACE of PARIS, in 1763. 


Series of Letters from a Nobleman to his Son. 

A New EditioNj carefully cottt£ked. 


L O N D O Nt 

Priflted for G. 6. J. aod J. Robinson, Pateraofler row % and 
Ab Hamhtok, jaot Falcon-Gourtf Flcet-ftraet» 1789* 

7112 M^ W* 

ASIOl. UWO* f!L 


t i 

= ti 




ft TMB 


e V T H K 

Hiftory of Modern Europe.: 

P A R T II. 

From the Peace of Westphalia* in 1648^ to the 
P£ACJ£ of Paris, in 1763. 


Cemral View of the Affairs of Europe^ with a particular 
Account oftbofe of England^ fr^m the Re/^ratim of Charles II. 
In 1660, to the TrifU AUiance^ In i668. 

x66oTNTRODUCTORYrcflcaion8 . ^ x 

X Great popularity of Charles IL of England at hit reftoi^- 

tion, and eminent political fituation among the powers of 

Europe • - • % 

His libenine and accommodating charader * • 3 

He forms his privy council fnom among all ^nies and (e^ 4 

His prudent choice of his principal fervaacs - ibid* 

The Earl of Clarendon^ Chancellor and Prime MiniiW ibid. 

General a6l of indemnity • • . c 

Trial and execvtion of the regicides - ibid. 

Seatc of the church - •> 6 

Diflblution of the Convention Parliament • ihid. 

t66z New Pkr&unent farourable to epiTcoi^acy «nd aionarchical 

power • . • - ^ 

JHofVnlformitj - - • ibid. 

Repeal ol the AA fiir IVienniat I\irUiunenit» «. ibid. 

A z Rigoor 


A.D. Page 

1661 Rigour of the High-churcb party • * g 

1662 Prclbytcrian clergy ejc£tcd - - ibid. 
This impolitic meafure unites the Proteftant IMileoters in a 

common hatred of the church - . ibid. 

The King and his brother the Duke of York, being fccretly 

Qatholics, form the plan of a general toleration g 

Declaration to that purpofe . . ibid. 

The plan of toleration oppofed by the Parliament^ and laid 

afide - - . . ,q 

Preibvterians perfecuted m Scotland « ibid. 

King s marriage r • • 1 1 

Sale of Dunkirk - - . . ibid. 

1664 War with the United Provinces - • 12 
State of the affairs of that republic • 1 3 
Character of the penfionaiy De Wit - ibid. 
Great naval preparations ot England and Holland 1 4 

1665 Dutch defeated by the Engliih fleet under the Duke of York 1 1; 
Plague rages in London - * 16 
France and Denmark league wittk the United Provinces aga'mft 

England - - - - ibid. 

1666 Memorable fea iight of four days - i^ 
After various turns of fortune, the Dutch fleet, under de Ruyter 

and young Tromp. forced to retreat by the Englifli, com- 
manded bv Prince Ruperr and the Duke of Albemarle 19 
The Hollanders infulted in their harbours - 20 

Fire of London - - - 21 

$tate of religion in Scotland - - 22 

Infurre£tion of the Prcftytcrians - 23 

"Baxtlt of Pcntland Hills - - 24 

The rebels routed, and the Prefbyterian prifoners treated with 
feverity - - - ibid. 

State bf Ireland - - - 25 

. 1667 A€t of the Englilb parliament prohibiting the imporUtion of 
Irifli cattle - -• . 26 

That law ultimately beneficial to Ireland - 27 

Negbciatjons at Breda - - ibid. 

The Dutch fleet under de Ruyter, takes poflcffion of the mouth 
of the Thames - • - 28 

Burning of the (hips at Chatham - ibid. 

Conftemation of the city of London - 29 

• Ptace of Breda - - - ibid. 

^ Impeachment and banifhment of the Earl of Clarendon 30 
His character * - - - 31 

Retf%fpe6Hve view of the fbte of France and Spain ibid. 

. CharaAer of Lewis XIV. - ■ . j2 

His munificence, fplendor, and popularity . ibid. 

Dangerous ^atneu of the French monarchy » ibid. 


1667 Examples of the arrog;ance of Lewis XIV. • jl 
He retiifes to pay to England the honburs of tlie flag ibid. 
His claims upon the Spanifli monarchy • 3^ 
Feeble adminiiiration of Mary Anne of Auftria, Queen Regent 

of Spain - -^ - ibid. 

The lung of France inTadet the Spanifh Netherlands, and 

makes himfelf mafter of many places • 3 j 

All Europe filled with terror at the rapid progrefs of hit arms 


1668 Triple Alliance the confequence of that terror - 36 
France and Spain equally difpieafed at the terms of this league 

Treaty of Aix-la Chapelle - • jg 

Independency of Portugal acknowledged - ibid* 

Thtgimral Viiwofthe Affair i of Europe contimaJf from the 
Treaty of Aix'la'Chapelle^ in 1668, to tbi Peace ofNimi* 
t^en^ in 1678. 

Ffeamble • . « • ^o 

Retrofpe^iive^ view of the affairs of Hungary - 41 

The Hungarian nobles reTolt^ and crave the afliftance of the 
Turks . • - ibid. 

S669 The Turks make themfelves mafters of the ifland of Candia 4a 
Lewis XIV. meditates the conqueftof the United ProvixKres it). 
Charles IL of England gives up his mind to arbitrary couadU 

Concludes ^fecret Treaty with France - 44 

1670 Mock Treaty intended to conceal the real one -^ 49 
Death of the Duchefs of Orleans' - • ibid* 
Rife of the Duchess of Portfmouth - 46 
The French monarch makes himfelf mafter of Lorrain 47 
The King of £ngland obtains a large fupply from his Parlia* 

ment • - • ibid. 

1671 Scill neceffirous, he (huts the Exchequer - ' 48 
• The Duke of York declares himfelf a Catholic - ibid. 

Charles II. exercifes feveral a^s of arbitrary power 49 

167a Attempt upon the Dutch Smyrna fleet • . ' ibid. 

France and England declare war againft Holland 50 

Great preparations both by fea and land - gt 

Defenceleis Hate of the United Provinces - ibid. 

Account of William III. Prince of Orange - 52 

He is appointed commander in chief of ther feroes of the re* 

public • - * 11 

h y Dt 


l6j2 De Wit and de Rttf ter with ninety-one Dutch flitpt of w«r, 

give battle to the combiued fleets of France and EnglaDd^ 

commanded by D'Edreet and the Duke of Yotk [May 99.] 54. 

Defperate valour of the Earl of Sandwich • ibid, 

Funous combat between de Ruytcr and the Duke of York q 5 

The Dutch admiral ultimately compelled to feck fafety in flight 

Lewis XIV. enters the United Provinces at the head of a great 
army, and advances to the banks of the Rhine • 56 
Famoas pafTage of that tiver [June la.} • 57 

Rapid progFeto of the French arms^ * jg 

Diurafted date of the United Provinces - ea 

The iluices opened, and the couiuiy laid under water ibicL 
The Prince of Orange declared Sudtholder [July 5.] 60 

Maifacre of the de Wits • - ibid,. 

Magnanimous behaviour of the Prince of Orange 6z 

Heroic refolution of the Dutch - • 6z 

The Kings of France and England endeavour to corrupt the 
young Stadtholdcr ... ibid. 

He rejc£^s all their tempting offers - 63 

Circumftances tkat contributed to fave the republic of Hollaud 


1673 Meeting of the SngliAi Parliament «> 64. 
The Kins's decUtatioo of liberty of conicienee ibid. 
He finds bimfelf under the neceffity of recalling it 6c 
Thcr«/f^/? • - - ibid: 
Three indecifive engagements between the Dutch fleet, con<^ 

. diluted by De Ruyter and Van Tromp, and the combined 

fleets of France and England - 66 

Sprague, the £ngli(h rear-admiril, drowned In attempting to 

ihift his flag - - - ibid. 

The Dutch obliged to retreat^ in the third engagement, by 

the valour of Prince Rupert and the Earl of Oilbry 67 

The French had little fhare in the a^on * ibid. 

Lewis XI V.i obliged to abandon hia conquefh in the United 

Provinces - ^ - ibid,. 

Tlie Emperor and the King of Spaih fign an anianoe with the: 

Sutes General - • .68 

1674 Peace between England and Holland • 69. 
Cbailes II. offiera hia mediadon to the contending powera. 

Sir William Tempte appointed ambafiador from England to the 
States - - - ibid. 

(Tis conferenee with the King before his departure 7 1 

He combats the arbitrary principles of Chat les ibidl 

The King feems to be convinced by his argumenta 7^ 


1674 Hk fidb ite SttM ni Adir affict cq;er Car tbe pcofccoioft of 

thewir - - . yt 

V%uiUM ■■111*1 rf Lmm XIV, /3 

HkCBienFiaiickCoiBtBt ndfabdoct the whok province ib. 
jBfeodhr, boK indedfive Witk of Sutlii , in wkkh dK Prince 

of Orange greadj difiiagmiliei himfetf - 74 

He takes Giave, the laft toam trbkh the FroDdi iield b aoT 

of tlie Seven ProTiacea • • ibid« 

Rapid pn^reis of Tarenoe • • ^j» 

His crudties in the Pakdnate - • Ibul 

2675 The Prince of Condi able to fain no a d v ami^a over die Prince 

of Orange in Flindan • • * 76 

Materlj movemenu of Mooiieuciili and Toranne^ on Ae &ie 

of Giennany « ^ « ibid. 

Tuienne killea by a cannon-ball • jj 

The French r etr e at before Montecuculi •» ibul. 

Treres taken by the ponMeraiet « «> 7S 

Misfonuoes of^the SLing Sweden, who had beaa^ induced to 

take part with France • ^ ibid* 

1676 The King of England concludes a new fecret Treaty with 

Lewis XIV. * - fa 

He becomes a penfioner of France - ibid* 

The Prince of Orange obli^ to raife the fiq;e of liaeflricht 80 
The lonperialifts take Philipflmrg - ibid. 

Lewis XIV. grows formidable by fea - ibid* 

The French fleet defipats the Spaniards and Dutgb off Palermo, 

inSkily - - 81 

J>each of De Ruyter • « ibid. 

Coogrefs at Nimegoen - • iUd«^ 

1677 ^^^^ fucceis of the French arms • 81 
Valeociennes taken by aflault • • 85 
The Prince of Orange defeated at Mont Ca0el, aod-Qan^tiraT 

and St. Omers reduced ^ ^ r ^ -> ^ ibia. 

The Englifli Commons folidt the King to enter intp a lesgine^ 

•fenfiye^xA defenjhe^ ijfith the $ute8 Geperaf qf ^ United 

rrovinces - - - 84 

Charles, conformable to his fecret engagements with France, 

i)roroguet the parliament, in order to evade their ^ucflt ilH4* 
His prodigality and difineenuoufners • 8e 

Difiradeoand declining ftate of Spain • ibid* 

Her misfortuncfs increafe on every £lde, in Flanders, Sicilyt 

andCatslonia • - - 86 

The Duke of Luxemburg obliges the Prince of Orange to raife 

the fiege of Charleroy • • ibid. 

Marefchal Creaui defeats the views of the Duke of LorraiOf and 

makes himfelf matter of Fryburg - 87 

A 4 ~ jExJiaufted 

.^ C a N T E N T S 

A.D. Ffge 

1677 ExBaufied &»tt of France, in confequence of her great naval 

and military effortt - - - g- 

Charles If. or England encourages propolaU of marriage from 

IVilltam III. 'prince of Orange to the Lady Mary, eldeft 

daughter of the Duke of York . . gg 

William comes over to England . ' ibid. 

His prudent i^ackwardnefs - . ibid, 

. His marriage - - . - 80 

Plan of a general pacification • . . ." ibid. 

J67B Farther progrefs of the French arms - 00 

Intrigues of Lewis XIV, in England and in Holland ibW. 

Venality of Charles n. and of his parliament 91 

Van Beveming,. the Dutch ambaflador, (igns at Nimeguen a 

feparate treaty with France - g^ 

All the other powers obliged to accept the conditions di^bted 

by Lewis XIV^. - - . . ibid. 

Stipulations in the treaty of Nimeguen . ibid. 

Ine&^nal atttthptt w lehder it vmd 


Vail power of the French monarch . ibid 


Englandjfram the P^pi/b PUt, in 1678, u tbt Drnth of 
Charles IL with a retrofpiSiivi View of the Affairs of 

Great terror of popery and arbitrary power in England 04 
,. Retrofpcdlive view of ihe affairs of Scotland - ibid. 

'1668 Various meafures tried, in order to bring the people bver to 
epifcopacy • . [, - n - 

Their horror againft that mode of worfliip rem^tfs ihiai 

Wild enthuGafm of the Prelby terian teachers - 96 

1669'Defpotic adminift ration of the Earl of Lauderdale ' ibid. 

He renders the King's authority abfolute in ScotUnd ' . ibid. 
^670 Severe law againft conventicles ' ' 97 

'* They continue to be frequented - - ibid. 

Landlords required to engage for the conformity of their te* 
. . nanb - - - ibid. 

1678 Eight thoufand Highlanders quartered on the gentlemen of the 
weflern counties, for refuting to fign bonds to that pur- 
port . - ^ - - 08 
Their barbarous rapacity and unfeeling violence ibid. ' 
Lauderdale orders home the Highlanders, and procures a vote 
of an affembly of the nobility, gentry, and clergy of Scot- 
. land, in favour of hit adminiftration « 99 
' England thrown into confiernarion by the rumour of a Po^JI^ 
Fht - - . ibid. 
Account of Titus Oates, the chief afior in this horrid impof. 
turc ... ibid^ 

AJX Paft 

idySCiundter of Dr. Tongue, his patron - too 

The King flights his pretended difcoTeries • ibid. 

Pacquef of forged letters addrefled to Bedingfield| the Duke of 

York'k oonfclbr - - loi 

Tongue and Oates examined before the privy council ibid. 

SttbOance of Oaies's evidence - loa 

Sir George Wakeman, the Queen's phyfician ; Colemtfi, late 

lecrcuij to the Duchefs of York, and other catholics taken 

iiiCDCu|tod7 - • ibfd. 

Kzaroinacion of Coleman's i>apers - 103 

Marder of Sir Edmundibury Godfrey - ibid. 

Advantage taken of this incident, in order to inflame the popu* 

lar frenzy . - 104 

His dead body ezpofed to view, and his funeral celebrated with 

great poinp a«id iiarade • ibid. 

Ad univerfal beliei of the Popifli Plot prevails, and the whole 

kingdom is filled with the moft frightful apprehenfioas tibid. 
The £arl of Danby oprns the flory of the Plot in the Houfe of 

Peers - - i€c 

Cares examined at the bar of the Houfe of Commons ibici. 
Several Peers committed to the Tower, and impeached of high 

trrafon on his evidence • 106 

Co1eman,'and many other catholics executed ibid. 

^tmTtfi AB - - 107 

Oates rewarded with a penfion, has guards appointed for his 

prote^on, and is confidered as the faviour of the nation ibid. 
Accufation of the Lord Treafurer Danby, by Montague, thr 

£ngtt(h ambaflador at the court of France loD 

Evidence produced againfl him • ibid* 

An impeachment voted in the Houfe of Commons, and articles 

exhibited in the Houfe of Peers « X09 

His defence - - ibid* 

A majority of the Lords vote againft his commitment ibid. 

The Commons infift on it - - ibid. 

1679 The King diflblves the Parliament in order to fave his Mi<- 

nifter - - no 

Me entreats hb brother the Duke of York, to conform to the 

eflabliflied worOiip ; and on his refnfal, commands him to 

retire to the continent - - ibid. 

Chara^r of James, Duke of Monmouth, natural fon of 

Charles n. - - in 

He is fluttered by the Earl of Shafte(bury with the hopes of 

fucceediog to the crown - ibid. 

The King makes a folemn declaration of the illegitimacy of 

Monmouth • - 1 1 a 

The new Parliament no lefs violent than the former, and coo* 

fills nearly of the fame members - ibid. 



1679 The Commons revive their profecution of Danby 1 1 ^ 

He furrenders to the Black Rod, and is committed to tho 

Tower ^ - - iij 

Charles, in order to foothe the Commons, changes his minU 

flers, and admits many popular leaders into the privy- 

council - . ibid. 

The Commons remain diifattsfied - 114 

They frame a bill for excluding the Duke of York from the 

fucceifion to the crown, and continue their profecution of 

Danby - - ibid* 

Difpute between the Lords and Commons - lie 

The King makes it a pretext for diflblviog the Parliament ibiol 
Charaderof the late Parliament • 116 

A€t o£ HiAaa Corpus pafled by it » ibid. 

The rage againft popery in England encopragea the Scottiih 

Covenadters in their fanaticifm i ij 

Mitrder of Archbilh Sharp • ibid. 

The Covenamera more (everely per&cuted ibid. 

They have rccourfe to arms - 118 

Are routed and difperled by the Duke of Monmouth at Both* 

well bridge • • ibid. 

Monmouth ufcs his vi^lory with moderation ibid* 

The government of Scotland committed to the duke of Torkf 

who perfecutes the Covenanters with unfeeling ri^vr 119 

Spirit cHF party ftill rages in England • ibid. 

Riie of the names of H^hig and Torj • ibid. 

x68o New Parliament more violent than either of the two former ib. 

The Commons bring in a biU for excluding the Duk^ of York 

from the throne - 120 

It paifes the Lower Hpufe, but is reje<^ed by the lords ibid. 
The Commons enraged at their dtfappointraem, revive the im« 

peach men t of the Popifli Lords * ibid. 

Trial, condemnation » aud execution of the earl of Stafford lat 
Not fiitisfied with this facrifice, the Commons continue to difo 

cover their ill humour in many fadious votes and furious 

refolu'ions • - iia 

1681 The king diflblves the Parllsroent - ibid. 

Pcribnal chara^cr of Charles IL • \\M^ 

Review of his Public condu^ - 123 

The violence of the Commons increafes the nuoaber of liit 

friends among the people • - ibid. 

The king fummons a new parliament to meet at Oxford 1 14 
Petition a^ainft its fitting at that place * ibid. 

The elcdions every irhere carried in favour of the Whigs 1 1 J 
Confidence of the popular leaders - ibid* 

Firmoeis and vigour of the king • 1 26 


A.D. Pf0i 

liSi The Commons, not OTer-awed, difcorer the ikme TioleQce at 
formerly ; they reTive the impeachment oF Dsnbj, the in- 
quiry into the Po|nii Plor» and the Bill of Exclahoa 126 
The kmg pe mits one of his minifters to make them a propoGI 
for excluding the Duke of York, Hithont breaking the line of 
fucceffion • ibid. 

Il&ey rejed it with (iifdain - 1 27 

The kingt thinking he hsd now a (iificie&t apology for fuch a 
meafure diflblres the Parliament • ibid* 

Conilematioa of the popular leaders - itud* 

Charles concludes a lecret mooey-treat^ wkh France, in order 
to enable him to govern without parhamenury fuoplies, and 
publi&es a declaraion in vindication of his conoiifl toward 
the Parliament - - 128 

Addrcfles full of loyalty and duty pour in from all the legal. fo* 
cietics in the kingdom - ibid. 

The king makes a tyrannical ufe of this fuddcn reToliicion oC 
the fentimenu of the nation in his Esvour ibid. 

He perfecutes the Prefbycenans, and other ProteSant ^ilTen- 
tcfs - - 129 

Jufticepenrerted for their punishment ibid. 

i69t Writ ot j^«0 Warranf iiTufxi againfl the city of LondiHiy and 
its charter declared forfeited • 1^0 

1M3 Charter reftored under certian reftridions ibid* 

Almoil all the corporations in England, indmidated at the fate 
of the capital, furrender their durters, and receife new ones, 
ftbricated by the court - - ibid. 

A perfod defpotifm is eftabliflied • 151 

Confpiracy for the reftoration of the freedom of the eeniUttftion^ 
commonly known by the name of the Ryt-boups PUl ibid. 
Hegular plan for an infurre^on formed ibid. 

The Plot diicovered - - 132 

Lord Rufleil and Algernon Sidney, two of the pripcip^l coi^ 
fpirators executed - ibid. 

The king uniTerfalty congratulated on his elcape frpm this 
danger, and the dodriqe of unlimited paffiv^ obedience 
opeol]|r taught - - 133 

The Univerfity of Oxford pai&s ft folemn decree ia favour of 
abfolttte monarchy - • ibid» 

S6S4 The perfecution of the Proteftant Scaaries renewed ; the per* 
▼erfion of judice carried to a ftill mater exceff » and the 
Duke gf York leftored to the office of liigh Admiml, without 
taking the Teft - - 134 

The absolute authority of the king feems complete : yisi even in 
that hekrht of l\is powfr» he is U&d to hate projedma-change 
of raeaiurei '^ * ibra» 


iLD* Page 

1685 Sudden illnefs and death of Charles 11. • 134. 

Sketch of his chara^r - • 13c 

Conjedures concerning his religion - 1 34- 

L E T T E R XV. 

General View of the ^Affairs on the Continent^ from the 
Peace of Nimegueny in 1678, to the League of Augfhurg^ 
in 1687. 

1678 Lewis XIV. fupports a vafl army in time of peace, and a^s as 
if abfoluie matter of Europe - 137 

He eftabliQies arbitrary tribunals, for re-unitioe fuch territo- 
ries as had anciently depended upon any of his late con- 
queila - - ibid. 

b68i Gets pofTcfllon of Strafburg, by flratagem 1 38 

His arrogance in regard to the Low Countries ibid. 

1683 He blockades Luxemburg - ibid. 
Affairs of the empire - . , *39 
Tekeli, the head of the Hungarian malcontents, calls in the 

Turks to their affiftancc ; and he and the Grand Vizier, 

Kara Muftapha, invade the imperial dominions with two* 

* great armies - • ibid. 

The Emperor Leopold abandons his capital ibid* 

The Grand Vizier invefts Vienna - 14a 

The Duke of Lorrain, the imperial general, fo fortunate as to 

prevent the Hungarians from forming a junction with the 

Turks - - ibid. 

John Sobiefki, King of Poland, comes to the relief of Vienna ib. 

The Turks are defeated with ^reat (laughter, and abandon the 

fiege with the ucmoft precipitation, leaving behind them their 

tents, artillery, and baggage - 141 

They are again defeated in the plain of Barcan, and all Hun* 

gary is recovered by the imperial arms ibid. 

1684 The king of France makes himfelf mailer of J^uxemburg, Cour- 

tray, and Dixmude • ibid. 

He concludes an advantageous treaty with Spain and the empire 

atRatifbon - - 14a 

Great naval power of Lewis XIV. . ibid. 

He employs it honourably, in humbling the piratical States o£ 

Barbary - - ibid. 

He alfo humbles the Genoefe, for having fuppljpl the Algcrines 

with ordnance and ammunition - 143 

The £k>ge of Genoa, and four of the principal fenators. Tent to 

VerOullei to implore the clemency of the French monarch ib. 
Olonr and greatnefs of Lewis XIV« now at their height 144 
He niftains an irreparable lofs in the death of Colbert, hit 

prime miniller ^ • ibid. 


i.D. Page 

Vkw of Colbert'ss adminiftration of the finances s 44 

r6S$ He encouraged the induftry and ingenuity of the French Pro* 

te&uits - - 14c 

They are perfecuted after his death - ibidl 

Revocation of the edi^ of Nantes [0£t. 23*] ibid. 

Cruel and impolitic regulations and ordinances, relative to the 

perfecuted Protcilants - 146 

1686 All the anifices of prieftcrafty and all the terrors of militai^ 

execution ineffedually employed for their converfion ibtd. 

They make their efcape into foreign countries, and carry with 

them their wealth, and their ilcill in ingenious manufaAures ib« 

1687 Lewis XIV. quarrels with Innocent XI. and triumphs over hit 

Holinefs. - - 147 

He awakens the refentment of the Emperor Leopold 148 

A league formed at Augiburg by the Continental Powers, for 

retraining the ambition of die French monarch ibM. 


Great Brit tan and Ireland^ during the Reign of James IL 

Introductory reflexions - - 149 

168^ King James begins his reign with a declaration of his reibludoa 

to maintain the eftabliflied religion and government ibid« 
IMfcovers his intention of overturning both 1 50 

His imperious fpcech to his firft parliament 151 

The Engliih Commons fettle on him» during life, the fame re- 
venue enjoyed by the late kin|^ at the time of his death ij t 
The Scottidi Parliament no lefs liberal and complaifant ibid. 
A confpiracy againft the authority of James formed in Holland, 

by the Dukes of Monmouth and Arjjryle 153 

Argyle lands in Scotland, and puts himfelf at the head of his 

clan - - 154 

He imprudently delays to march into the low part of the country 

until the king's troops are aifemblcd ^ ibid. 

He is deferted by his followers, made prifoner, and immediately 

executed. - - '^J 

The Duke of Monmouth, in the mean time, lands in the Weft 

of England, is joined by a large body of adherents, and af- 

fumes the title of king - ibid. 

He atucks the king's h)rces under 4he Earl of Feveriham. at 

Sedgemoor, nearBridgewater - 1^6 

Is defeated, and made prifoner - ^ ibid. 

His behaviour during his confinemenr, and at his execution 1^7 
Cruelty of the Earl of FeverQiam, after his victory ibid. 

And of Colonel Kjrk - bid. 

Frightful fevcrity of Chief Juflice Jeffcrict 1 5 8 



1685 Two liundred aitd fifty rcbci priibners executed i^g 

The king rewards the inhumanity of Jelleries wkh a peerage 
and the office of Chancellor • i jp 

He augments ihe number of regoliir forced, and difpenfei with the 
TelV A6t| in favour of fome Roman Catholic officers ibid. 

The Commons vote an addrefs to the king agaitiii his difpenf- 

ing power - - 160 

9686 He repeatedly proroguet, and at lad difTolves the Parliament ib. 

Demands in Yam from the Scotiiili Parliarx^ent fome indulgence 
for the Roman Catholics in that kitigdom ibid. 

Attempts to fupport his difpeating power by the authority of 
Weftminfter-hall - 161 

Eleven out of the twclre judges declare in farour of it ibid. 

James now publicly countenances the Catholics, and placet 
many of them at the Council Board • 162 

Re rofpedive view of ihe affairs of Ireland ibid. 

Talbot, a violent Papifl, created Earl of Tyrconnel, and ap* 
pointed Lieutenant-general of the King*« forces in that kiog- 
4omy difmilfes three hundred proteilant officers, and a great 
number of private men, under pretence of new modelling the 
army - - i6j 

He is named Lord-lieutenant \ and the Irifli Proteftants, leeing 
all civil authority and military power transferred into the 
hands of their religious enemies, are appreheufive of a new 
maifacre - - ibid. 

•687 The King re-cftabliflies the court of High Commiffion, and 
iifues a DeUratien of general Indulgence^ or Uherty rf Con* 
fcknce " by his fovc reign authority, and alfolute power,** to 
his fubje^s of all religions • 164 

He difpatches the Earl of Cafllemain to Rome, in order to re* 
concile his kingdom?, in form, to the Holy See ibid« 

Gives the Pope's nuncio a public audience ibid. 

Four Popifli biOiops confecrated at the kind's chapel ibid. 

The Mouks appear at court in the habits of their rc^dive 
orders - - 165 

The king attempts to introduce Roman Catholics into the 
church and univerfities - ibid. 

Fefufal of the univerfity of Cambridge - ibid. 

Affair of Magdalen College, Oxford • 166 

It occafions univerfal difcontent, and gives a general alarm to 
the clergy - - 167 

The king endeavours to gain the Proteftant DIflenters, and to 

form a coalition between them and the Catholics ibid* 

|683 With this view, he iffues anew his Declaration of Indulgence^ 

and orders it to be read in the pulpit by all the efUblilhed 

clergy • • ibid* 


l6tt Saacroft, ArchbUhop of CMimbmj aad bcWUbap^ ^ 

afftinft ibe readinr of it • * i6t 

They are committtd to the Tower • . itUL 

Tried, and acquitted - • 169 

Joy of tbc people on that occafiod - 170 

The violence and bigotry of JanKS oonttiaey and abrsi the 

whole nadon - - 171 

The queen delivered of a foo - 17a 

The birth of the Prince of Wales npmfnfuti as (app^tdafm.* ih. 

Coalition of Wigs and Tories, £ot reiU>ring and fecorin? the 

Bnglilh conflitutioa - ^173 

William Prince of Orange is invited over so hold the reia*. id 

government, and deliver the natioD fron poperj aad art ira* 

ry power - - ibid. 

This flattering reqoeft £iTaofcd by the kagor of Aoglh«rg ibid* 

Other circumiboces oootribute to Cscilitate the invafioo of the 

Prince of Orange - - 174 

Infatuated fecuriry of King James - 17c 

Both the £ogli(h fleet and army inCsded with the Cfuu of Sf* 
loyalty - - 176 

James collet his forces - ibid. 

He endeiTours to appeaie the nation by civi omce fli o n s 177 

He reflores the charter of London, and the charters of all the 
corporations in the kingdom - ibid* 

His coodud not confiflent « ^ ij9 

Preparations of the Prince of Orange - ibid* 

He pau to fea with fifty fliips of the line, fifty frigstei and fii e^ 
mipSy and five hundred tranfports, carrying fihcea tbouiaod 
land forces [Od. 19.] • ibid« 

Is driven back by a ibrm to Helvoetfloys 179 

Agnn puts to fea, and lands withoot c^ipofition in Torbay 
[Nov. 3.] - - ibid* 

The EoglUh fleet, under Lord Dartmoodi, <&fperfed by a vio- 
lent mrm - - ibid. 

The Prince of Orange publiflies a declaration, knlng forth the 
grievances of Gieat Britain and Ireland^ ;uid lus purpoTe of 
relieving them • • 180 

It is received with ardour ; bat few peribos of any <Bflin^ioa 
join William for (bme days - 181 

The example being ihewn by the gentiy of the counties of De- 
von and Somerfet, an aflbctatioo is formed for his fupport, 
and all England is ibon in commotion - i8a 

The king, who had arrived at Sali(bury, u dcfertcd by the chief 
officers of his army, and among othen, by Lord Chur. 
cbiU . . 183 

On his amval in London he finds disc hu favourite daughter 
Anne, Princels of Densiaifc, had wididfMm boiclf along 
with Lady Chnichill • 1 84 

A.D. Pago 

1688 Overwhelmed with forrowt confternation, and terror, Jamoa 

fends the Queen and the Prince of Wdes into France, and 

prepares to follow them in perfon - 184 

With that intention, he quits his palace at midnight, and throws 

the Great Seal into the river Thames 18 c 

Infurrc£tion of the populace in London Ibid. 

Bifhops and Peers aflembie in Guildhall, and ered themfelfces 

into a fupreme council - ibid, 

Thev execute feveral functions of royalty, and invite the Prince 

or Orange to fenle the afiairs of the kingdom 186 

William readily accepts the offer, and advances to Windfor ibid. 
He there receives the unwelcome news, that the king had been 

fcized in difguife at Feverfliam - ibid. 

{ames re-enters his capital, amidft the loudeft acclamations i8j 
Icceives at midnight a meifage from the Prince of Orange, hit 
lbn*in law, ordering him to quit his palace, and Wriliam's 
Dutch guards take indantly pofTeflion of it ibid* 

The king removes next morning toRochefler under a guard ib. 
He iliH meditates his efcape to France, notu ithftanding the 
warm remonikances of the £arl of Middleton, Lord Dun- 
dee, and other fit m adherents - • 188 
Accompliflies his dcfign, and arrives fafe at Ambleteufe in Pi* 
cardy , acccmpanied by his natural fon, the Duke of Beiivick 

Chara-^cr of James II. - iXn 

William arrives at Whitehall - ibid. 

Receives addreffirs from all orders of men 190 

Summons a Convention for the fettlement of the kingdom 191 
Progrefs of the Revolution in Scotland - ibid. 

1689 The Scoftifh convention declares the throne vacant, and in- 

vites the Prince and Princefs of Orange to take poffcfSon 

of it - • 192 

Proceedings of the EngliOi convention • ibid. 

Difputes concerning the Original Contra^ between the King and 

People - - ibid. 

Both Houfes admit the exigence of fuch contrad, and refolve. 

That King James had broken that contract 1^3 

Difpute concerning the vacancy of the throne ibid. 

Arguments on both fides - 194 

The two Houfes declare the throne vacant 195 

Difpute relative to the perfcn who (hall fill it ibid* 

The Prince and Princefs of Orange declared king and Queen of 

England » - - iq6 

Instrument of Settlement • - . - ibid. 

The grand ftruggle between Privilege and Prerogative finally 

terminated, and the limits of the Englifh cooftitution fixed 1 97 
Suffident provlfion not n^e againfl the corrupting i^fluexce oi 

the crown - • . • 198 




Greai BrUmm mul Ireland from tbi Rivolutlcn in t688, //// 
th€ AJfaffinaiion Pl»t^ in 1696. 
I6S9 IntrodiiADry rcfledionft - . Ip9 

New Icfwrarion of parties • • ibtd* 

Ckander tA the Wbigfi Toriet, tod Jacobites joo 

Ad of Tftkratioii - • . 101 

The Fte%teriaii religion ic-efliMiflied ift Scotland ibid. 
Scaeirflrtlaad . * - . iUd. 

Tiut Idogdom preCrnred in the iotereft of Jamet IL by tb# 

earlot'TjrrcooDc), hit Lord*lieateoaDC • aos 

Tjrcoond raifet a great bodf of men • S05 

The Protefianti, fearing a general inafllicf»« throw themff Kca 

uiD Loodonderry, and other firong placet ibid* 

King lames laodt in Irelandi fod it received by the Catholicff 

with the warmed expreffioiit of loyalty and affe^on 204 
Huannv is rcinfurced with ieven battaliont of French Vtoom 

He aflembles the Irifli Parliamenti and repeals the A(X of 

Settkinaent . • • Ibid. 

Piflet an A6t of Attainder againft all abfcoftdioi; Proteftantt, 

and declares Irtland independent of the Eoglifh crown 20; 
The Engliih Parliament paifet an aA of general indemnity ib* 
King William declares war againft France tbid. 

Father progreft of the ambition of Lewis XIV, ibiJ. 

England accedes to the League of Augiburg 206 

LoM Dundee animates the Jacobite party in Scotland^ and coU 

ledsan army of Highlanders for the fupportof their caule ib. 
General Mackay is fent againft him with a body of regular 

troops • « • • ibid* 

Bittleof Killicranky - - 209 

Glorious vidory gained by the HighUmders ibid. 

Death and charadler of Lord Dundee 208 

His army difperfei, aikd all ScoUand fubmits to the auchoricy 

of William IIL - - - ibid. 

Siege of Londonderry by King James - ibid. 

Gallant defence of the ProteibnM • 200 

Cruel expedient of the Marquis de Rofen • ibicU 

The place is relieved, and the fiege rtifed ibid. 

1690 King William lands in Irtland • • 2x9 

Battle of the Bogrne [ Julv I ] ' - - i^jd- 

Death of the Duke of Schomberg • itid. 

King Jamet defeated^ and his army difperled ai \ 

He imprudently rtcumt f» France - ibid. 

Vol. IV. n Lewis 

A.T>. TfsLgf^ 

1690 Lewis XIV. inilead of furnifliing him with a new arm)'« fends 
rranfports to carry oflf the French troops 2 i r 

Afliamcd of their defeat^ the Irifh Catholics colle6t courage, 
smd every where make a gallant refiftancc ibid. 

King William invcfls Limerick in |>erfoDy and is compelled 
to raife the (icge - • - 213 

Returns to England in difg^uft, and commits the rcdudion of 
Ireland to lord Churchill, created earl of Marlborough ib. 
Marlborough leduces Corkc and Kindle before the clofe of the 
campaign - • - • - 214 

1^91 Siege of Athlone . - • ibid. 

The town gallantly taken by Baron Ginckle, ibid. 

Ginckle defeats the Irifli army, under Sc Ruth,, al Aghrim^ 
and in veils Limerick • - -215 

It capitulates, and all Ireland fubmits to the arras of William ib» 
Affairs of England - • - 216 

Kin|^ William difgufted with the ConTcntioa Parliament ibid. 
He diflblres it« - - - - 217 

The new Parliament, which confifts almoft wholly of Torief^ 
fettles on William the revenue of the Crown for life ^ ibid. 
The difcontcnccd Whigs enter Into cabals with the Jacobites ib* 
1691 Maflacre of Gknco - - - 218 

It fliocks all Europe, and enables the adherents of James to> 
render odious the government of Wil4iim it^ 

An infurrccTion concerted in favour of the dethroned moaafch ib* 
An army of twenty thoufanJ liifh and French troops Mis down 
toward the coail cif Normandy, in order to co-operate with 
the infui gents - - - ibid* 

James and hts natural CoOi the Duke of Berwick, arrive in the* 
French camp - - - 220 

Famous fea.ii,q:ht off La Hogue - - 221 

. The French fleet, under Tourville, totally defeated a«id ruined 
by Admiral Ruffell, and the projedWd invaiiun rendered a^ 
bortive - - - • ibid. 

1693 Corruprion of the Englifli Houfe of Commons 222 

1694 Bill paffed for Triennial Parliaments - ibid* 
Heath and chnr<i6ter of Queen Mary - 223 
Coufplracici I'oimed againli the life and authority of William 

The moll dangerous of tbofe condudkd by Sir George Berke- 
ley - - - - ibid% 
The Affiffinaiion Plot i* discovered, and fcveral of the con- 
fpiratnrs arc execurcd - - 225 
William's government mere firmly eflablifhed ibid. 
Admiral RuiTcUfprcads icrros along the French coaft 226 
J^ame* II. freing: the denjrns of his aiihcreots finally broken, 
cellnqitifhrs all hopes of recovering the Englifli crown ibid- 

L- E T- 


L E T T E k XVIit. 

Tibe Military TranfaiUom en the Ctntimnt^ from the Begin^^ 

ntng •ftbt War thatfolUwtd tht Leagui of ^tu^fbur^^ t9 

tbe Peace cf Ryfwick in 1 6971 and of Carlowitz^ in 1699. 

t6SS Introductory view of the Date of the coatetsding powers 21/ 

1619 Vigorous esertiooi of Lewis XIV. - 228 

He lays the Palatinate wade with fire and fword ihi J« 

Finds himfelf infeiior to the allies, though he h'lC fourhuDiircd 

thoufatid men in the Geld - - 229 

The French army in Flaodcrsy under the M«rcfchal d*Hu- 

mtcrs, defeated atWalcourt, by the Prince of Waldec ibid* 

The Turks, (he allies of Francef »re routed in three fucceilivcf 

cngagenents, by the Imperialifts under the prince of B lien 2 30 

1690 Progreffl of the Mare&hal de Catinat in Italy ihid. 
Dutch defeated with great (laughter, by the Marcfcbal de 

Luxemburg, in the battle of Fleur us ^ • 231 

Death and chara^r of tbe Duke of Lorrain ibid^ 

His letter to the Emperor on his death-bed 2 \ z 

Rapid Progrefs of the Turks in Hungary ibid« 

Sea-fight oflfBeachy •bead - • • 133 

The French fleet, under ToUnrille, defeats the combined fleets 

of England and Holland « • 2^4. 

1691 Inactive campaign in Flanders - •> ibid. 
Tbe Turks totally routed at Salankeman by th:r tmperialifla 

under the Prince of Baden • 23^ 

1692 Namur taken by Lewis XIV. in fight of the allied amsyt un- 

derkinr William . . ^ ibid. 

Battle of bteinkirk • • - . 2^6 

The allies defeated by the French - ibid^ 

The Imperialifls take great Wurradin from the Turks 2^7 
1493 Lewis XIV. appears with great pomp in Flanders ibicl^ 

But fuddenly returns to Vcrf^&iUes, and fends part of his army 
lutoOermany - - - 238 

Conjedures concerning the canfe of (b unexpe^ed a meafurc ib. 
Battle of Neerwindin - • «• 2^0 

Strong pofition of the allies • • ibid. 

They areattacked by the French army^ under Luxemburg 240 
And routed with great daughter, in (pite of their moil vigor- 
ous efibrts, dircQed by the courage and conduct of Wil- 
liam - - - - 24 1 
Cruelty of -he French in Germany - * ibid< 
NSIitmry operations in Catalonia and Piedmont 24s 
The Marcfcbal de Noailles takes Kofes • ibid. 
Battle of Marfaglia » . « ibid. 
The French army in Italyt under the Marcfcbal de Catinaty 
defeats the tUses» commaodtd by the duke of Savoy a 41 

n a Nam 

C O N: T E N T g. 
A.D. Ptgr 

1693 Naval affairs - - • 243 
The French frigates ind privateers dlftrefs the Englifh and* 

Dutch trade - - - ibid. 

Tourville captures and deflroys great part of their Smyrna 

fleet - - - • 2^ 

France afRidled with a dreadful famine • ibid» 

1694 The allies retake Huy - .- - 24c 
Marcfchal dc Noailles fbrecs the paflage of the river Tcr, and 

defeatft the Spaniards - • ibid. 

Death of the IXike of Luxemburg - ibid. 

i69S«King William retakes Namur » - 246 

Progrefs of the Turks, under Muftapha II. 247 

1696 Coogrefs opened at Ryfwick • - ibid. 

1697 Peace concluded there^between France and the allied power8248 
Stipulations in the treaty of Ryfwick • ibid.. 
Battle of Zanta • - -^ . * 24^. 
The Turks totally routedby the Imperialills under prince Eu- 
gene - . ... ibid.. 

1699 Peace of Carlomtz, between the Grand Seignior and the Cbrif-^ 
tian powers - - - 25a 


Progrefi of Society h Europe^ from the Afiddle of the Six* 
teentb to the End of the Sevenoeenth dntury. 

Preamble - - - • aci 

Fraocis L by encouraging hdies to appear publicly at the 

French court, familiarizes the intercourfe of the fexea ilnd. 
I/icentioufncfs refulting from that familiarity 25a.* 

The court of France little better than a common brothel,iluring 

the regency of Catherine of Medicis • ibid*. 

Elcgent fcnfuality of the court of Henry IV%. ibid^ 

The ladies become more fparing of their favours 25 3. 

Gallantry formed into a fydcm during the reign of Lewis 

XIII. - . . • ibid^ 

Becomes altogether romantic during the regency of Anne o£ 

Auftria - - • - ibid,. 

The ladies appear openly at the head of faAiooSt adorned with- 

the enfigns of thek party - . ^ • 254 

French manners atuin their higheft poHfli during die rcfign of 

Lewis XIV^ - - - - 255 

Account of the origin of duelling - - 2^6 

The pra£Hce, though pernicious and abfuMrd^ attended with- 

fome beneficial confequcnces • • ibid!» 

Rapid progrefs of aru and literature in France %id» 

Obfervations of the French Academy on the CO- 2^7 

CharaAer <^f the more early Frmch: w^ritcf^ . «r ibid.. 


K9. Tagc 

Sttte of Sculpturei painting, and mufic, during the reign of 
Lewis XIV. - . . .258 

The progrefs of tafte and politeDefs flow in the North of Eu- 
rope - - - - ibid. 

Influence of the Reformation in awakbga freedom of thinking 

Hife and (Hffufion of the doArine of tohnaimt 260 

The ancient Heathens not generally perfecutors l6t 

The Srdt Chriitians inclined to perfecution - ibid. 

They pradtife it, as foon as invefted with the citU power 262 

The papal fupremacy authorifes it - - 263 

Ari^t to extirpate e^n^ byj^rce umTerfally admxttedi eren 
after the Reformation - - - ibid. 

jLuther, Calviot Cranmer, Knox, perfecutors 264 

More liberal opinions difiufed in Get many and the United 
Provinces after the Pc^cc of Wcftphalia - ibid. 

Copernicus had difcovered, before that era, the true fyflem 
of the heavens . , . ^65 

.Galielo confirms and extends the difcoverles of Copomxcus ib. 

The influence of the Reformation on government and manners 


The people in every Proteibnt country acquire new privile^ 


The pbpifh clergy become more leaf«ied| and lefs exception- 
able in their morals - - - 267 

Inftitution of the order of Jefuits, for the fupport of the jarif- 
di^on of the Holy See - - 268 

•Chancer and condud of that order - - 269 

The Jfefttiis acquire the chief dire^jon of rhe education of youth 
in everv Catholic kingdom, and become confeffors to mdft 
Catholic Princes • - - ibid. 

They ad as miffionaries, and obtain a licence to trade with the 
nations they fcek to convert - - ibid. 

Open warehoufes in difiKrrent parts of Europe, where they vend 
their commodities ... 270 

Propagate a fydero of pliant morality, which judifies every 
crime, and tolerates every vice ' - ibid. 

Revive thofe dodrines that tend to exalt ecclefiadical power 
on the ruins of civil authority - . 27 1 

. The chofen ibldiers of the Pope, they confider it as th^ir pe- 
culiar fun^on to combat the opinions of the Protcllants^ 
and to check the progrefs or the ReformAMun ibid. 

rSiate of manners and literature iu £ngland during the rcigii of 

Elizabeth - - - - 27a 

Charadter of Spenfer's Ftniy l^en - - ibid. 

m of the writings of Shakfpeare, with reflexions on 

4he Three Unities *- - - 27} 

a 3 Poc^S 

A.P. Pa»B 

Pocti and profe writers, during the rcign of James !• 274 
Hooker> CamJcu, RaWit^h - - ibid. 

F'-irfax, Flcrcher, johnfon, Drjy*on, Daniel a:c 

Exirafl fro:.. Drayton's Barons Wars - ibid. 

•—— from Dauicl'u CW^^^ ,- • ^76 

ProgrcTsof the pol te arts in £ngland| dating tbe tranquil part 

of th^ reign of Charles I. - - 277 

Obftri^deJ bv the fpirit of fadtioa and bnaticirm ibia. 

Account of George Fox, founder of the fe^ of j^olim 278 
^travagancicf of hit earlv followers • ibid* 

T^\d{^rn\o\x% enthufiarn) or James Nay lor • 279 

Origin cf t be n^me of Quakers » • aSo 

Fundainenral principles of that feA • ibid* 

Civil and religious peculiaritiea of the Qgakert aSx 

Thvir riipplicity in drefi • • 28a 

Their pacific charader - « ibid. 

The force and coinp^fs of the En^lifli langoa^e firftiutly tried 

in the difputes hetwcfn the King and Parliament 283 

The gcniua of John Mliton awakened by thofe difputea ibid* 
Character of his Paradiji Ltfi • • ibid. 

— of the Davideli of Cowley • ibid. 

JExtracl from Cowley's Odt to Isihrrty - 28^ 

Chara^cr of Waller, with an cairadtfrom fait poem, enritled 

X\it, Summer Iflandi . «. • ibid. 

— ofDr)den, Lee, and Otwav • 285 

Licentious manners of the courtiers of Charles II. 280 

The fitme licentioufnefs infe^ the poets and painters ibid. 
Of fir Peter Lcly and the dramaric writers ibid. 

A bettertaile pbtervablein the latter productions of Dry den 287 
Charader of Dryden, as a profe-writer, aud of Clarendon, 

1 emule, and Tillotfon - - ibid. 

Frop:re(s of the fcienccs in England during the Serentcenth 

Century - • . - ibid. 

Chan.£ler oF Bacon, Harvey, andHobbes • 288 

EQahliflimenc ot the Rtt-^ol Smriety - ibid. 

Wilkins, VVallis, and Boyle, make many difooTtrips ill ma« 

thematics and natural philofophy - 289 

3battefbtiry frames a benevolent fyfiem of morals ibid, 

Difcoveries of Newton and Locke - 290 

^efi^dlions on fpepticlfm and exceffire refinement 291 

A general View of the Affairs ef Ettrope^ from the Peace $f 
Ryfwick to the Grand AiUance^ iff 170 if 

^97 IntroduAory obfervations - - 291 

^f aui|h luccelfion ^ • « ib)<U 


t€f7 V4M | ii i—w* T m, ana umj —w^^^ q^^ « 29« 

1699 Sccosd P miiBMi Trorj bec««m Es^ami^ H-fhTi^ .iai 

Attn«f AeNoffikof Eopope • 190 

AoeooBC of Ae pbn dF P^iXBr L «f Re&, jft c f x ;^ ur- 

vncdtkeGfctt ibid. 

la order m mcqalx^ At arc o£ gjmt r mbi^ aad vic& a wr of 

carrjias back to bk peoptc c^ Mppfovancs of Bare p«- 

BftiedDatiQOS»br<|aicibBdBaxamiiBCx%Tafr, aad Tiits 

Gcnuaj, Eiisia«i,«dHoih«! 297 

NercconHioRufii, afieraaablSEXKeof two jws 29$ 

Eattnmtowtk aBbooe Mb cue klB^ of ^jLa^ aad Deaoork 

ag^iB]iCbafiesXII«af Swdm, jcciabtsnuaark}' ibtd. 

Charles hoc dziccricefied ac c^ povcrU onrf i ukiaLi fanned 

rf^o Tbe Dnes iowade cbe Docbj of iMim ibid. 

The ycmg Vutg of S«cdcD« aCicd bj a Dwcb and EngliAi 

IboadnMi, invades DesoBark • 3CO 

And invcftf Copenbagen boib bjr lea azxi land ibid. 

Tbe king of Deomaik, in order m (ave bit ca^iitai, is obC|:cd 

to %» cbe treaty of TraTcodil tot 

Acconnr of cbe fectlement 01 ibe Scoriib adooT at Darien ib. 
The Englifli and Spaiuards becoine jealous ot ibat (etdemeac 

Its otter niin, and tbe rage of tbe Scots • ^03 

The people cf Rngtand dil^tisncd with Ac iccoad Paut*tioQ 

Treat/ ibid. 

Tbe Efcpetor refuies to acoede to it 504 

ChacksU. of Spain makes awill in faroarof tbeduke of An* 

joo, grandiba of Lewis XIV. 3oe 

f ^1 The fucceffioo to the crofim of Eo^nd (crtled on the Prioceft 

Sophia^ Ducbefii Dowager of Haoofver, ami ibc heirs general 

of her body, bang Pruteftants • • ^06 

This fectiemcnt of tl^ croim accompanied with certain limiu* 

tions ... . ibid. 

Deadi of tbe Khig of Spain - - 307 

The Dttke of Anion croamcd at Ifadrid, onder tbe name of 

Philip ¥• . ... ibid. 

Apology of Lewis XIV. for allowini; his grandfon to acccpc 

the SpaniibfacceiBon. in vioUtiooof the Panition Treaty 308 
King WilUamand cbeScates-geoeral conceal their refcntmcnt ib. 
The Spaiuards refign themlclircs entirtly to the guardianfliip 

of the French mooaich « - • 309 

The king of England aod tho States find it nccdliirx to uc- 

Juu)w£dge the Duke of AnjoU| as biwful fovcrcign of Spain 

*4 350 


A.D. P«g« 

i^i The Emperor Leopold aloae difputes the tiiie of Philip V. to 
the Spanish fuccelHon - - 310 

He lends an army into Italy, under Prince Eugene, in order 
to fupport hit claim to the Duchy of Milan - 311 

The French compelled to retire beyond the Oglio . ibid. 

Repuli'ed with great lofs at Carpi - ^ 311 

Fruitleis negociations of England and Holland with France ib. 

Grand Alliance figned by the Plenipotentiaries of the Em« 
peror, the king of £ngland| and the Sutes Generid of the 
united Provinces - • « 313 

The avowed obJeAs of that alliance - • ibid • 

Retrofpe^vc view of the affiiirs of the North of Europe ibid. 

Battle of Narva - • - 314' 

Charles XII. defeats the Ruffians with great flaughter ibid. 

The Cz^r Peter not difcouraged by this (Ufafier ibid. 

Rapid progrefs of the King of Sweden - j i g 

He defeats the Poles and Saxons in the nei((hboarhcod of Ri|;a, 
and advances Co Mittawt the capital of Courland ibtd« 

Forms the proje^ of dethroning Augufius II. King of Poland, 
by means of his own fubje&s - - 316 


Europe from the Beginning of the General War^ in 170I9 to 

the offers of Peace made by France^ in 1706, andtbe Union 

of England and Scotland* 
Death of James II. • • • 317 

Lewis XIV. in violation of the treaty of Ryfwicki acknow* 

ledges the fon of that unfortunate monarch King of Great 

Britain and Ireland, under the tide o\ James III. ibid. 
King William recais his ambaflador from the court of France^ 

and orders the French £n voy to quit his dominions 3 1 8 
1702 The EnglifU Parliament enters warmly into the refemment and 

views of William • • • ibid. 

His death and character • • * 519 

He preferved £nglaod from popery and arbitrary poorer, but 

laid the foundation of her national debt • 320 

Acceffion of Qyeeo Anne • • • ibid* 

She declares her refolution to purfue the obje^b of the Grand 

Alliance • - - - 321 

G reat abilities of her minifters^Godolphin and Marlborough ib. 
War declared againft France (on the fame day) at London, the 

Hague, and Vienna - • - ibid* 

The fmperialifts on the Upper Rhine, under the Prince of 

Badan, dofeated by the Frenchi commanded by the Mar<» 

iiuis de Villars • • • 322 

z " Mafterly 




I okr er beta a Frcadi 

I7C3 TW Diile ae Sicvvr ami de Kay of Foicasal wa u tW 

• j*i 


I «rx]b 3ii<?rfi&il \iasi, Ik adiao the loycw 

0|ii. IIMI1 ia A afar, I jAt, jdJ fliaden • Im. 

Tbc ErEpenr BikcB kb £an Ckadcs aCjK cbe dde of Ks^ 

otSoMiB • "» • 5^ 

B it iJtrt !■ Sopdjad iJ—CBwd by the JacohMCi 550 

Aiccaikzi of Toiy priacfto ia FiiglMd - ibi4« 

l704T1ic Wki^obaiBa&Jiciatbtftdmioiiniioti j^f 

MaribonMi^ ■■irlifi it iDGcimaBT vidi ibe alfiedsmr 5 ;< 
Fonas a ioocdoo a.tb Piici^e Eaigeac • * ibtd* 

Bttikoi'Bkabcia - - - 3lj 

Frccch aad Baraitaas dcfettcd ahb ^mt lliu^ht«r t j^ 

li^onaat coolcqc^cDOCS of tbe mnconble vidiHT obtiincj by 

tbc coaiBuciaics • • • )5? 

Tbejafclc&iaocdffaliaFlaiMlerP, aadioSpain ibuL 

la Iialjj tbe campai^ b faroiiEibk tocbe iMKdc of BoorboD 5:6 
Operabcm hjfct - - it^ 

Gibfsltartabea by tbe EnvBfr Lilon - *l* 

Obft':Datefi»-fightoffMaksa • . ibi/^ 

1705 The Wkig intefei piwJominainiD the Eogiifli Pirliatinent 55S 
IXbrdcn ia Fnace occafioncd bj the Camiiands, a reixminc 

ofcbcHogoaoiSywbohadukcB refuge in the Cerecnes 3^9 
The Coailards reduced to obcdieace bj the Duke of Ber« 

wick - - - - • 3^0 

Lewk XIV. takes Tigoroot Heps for repell]D|r the pro«;rrfs of 

the confedcfaies, under the vidarious Mariborongh ibid« 
The death of the Emperor Leopold, who it fucceeded by his 

ibo Jo&ph^ makes ao altenuion m the (yftcm of the'con- 

iederates • - - . «^i 

No memorable eoterpriie e&ded in Fboden during the« 

The Frcoch mamtam thar fupenonty m Italy ibid. 

Tbc Archduke Charles, fupportcd by tn Englift ^d Dutch 

I fleet, makes great progreis in Spaia 3^2 


IJ05 He takes Barcelona, and the province of Cataloniay with almoft 
che whole kiDgdom of Valencia, fubmks to bim 34a 

Interefiing particulnrs of the liege of Barcelona 34 j 

Lewis XIV» refolves to act with vigour at the fame tkne, im 
Italy, Flanders, and in Spain - • 544 

1706 Villeroy commands his army in Flanders • 34$ 

Battle of Ramilies . . • ibid* 

The French detested by the confederate army, under the 
Duke of Mariboruugh - - 346 

The conquefl of Brabant, and of the greater pan of Spani& 
^ Flanders, toe co«fequcnce of this r'lhory ibid* 

Siege of Turin - - • • 347 

Prioee Eugene advances to the relief of the place 34S 

He attacks the French lines • • 349 

And routs and difpcrfes their army • 350 

The French and Spaniards forced to raife the iiege of Barce- 
lona ... «. ibid* 
The Archduke, fupported by an Englifli and Portuguefe army^ 
enters Madrid, and is there proclaimed King of bp^n, under 
the title of Charles III. • - • ^^1 
Forced to <|ttit that city - • - idmL 
The illands ^f Majorca and Ivica takeo by the EogUfli fleet, 
under fir John Leake • • - 3^2 
RetrofpeAive view of the affairs of the North and Baft of £ii« 
rope ...» ibid. 
Charles XII. of Sweden, in confequence of his refolution of 
dethroning Augufius II. King of Poland, makes himfelfmaf* 
ter of Warfaw, [A. D. 1702} and enters into a negociation 
with the Polilb malecontenu - • 3^3 
Battle of GltlTaw - - • 354 
The army of Auguftus totally routed • ibid. 
Charles XII. breaks his thigh-bone - 35 j 
He again defeats the fovoes of Auguftus, [A. D. 1 703] at Pul- 
tawfk - . • - ibid. 
ThePoUdi diet, aflemhled at Warfaw. declares Auguftus^* in- 
**' ca[nble of wearing the crown of Poland," and the throne 
▼acant, [A. D. 1704! - " 35^ 
Staniilaus Lecziniki, Palatine of Pofnania, eleded King^ 
throu^^h the influence of the Swediik monarch 357 
The Czar Peter incrcafes in pmver and elory 35ft 
He builds the city of Pcterlburg, which he makes the feat of 
his court . - - • 3S^ 
Sends fixty ihoufaod Ruffians into Poland, in order to reftore 
theautboriry of Auguftus - - 3^ 
The Rullians defeated, and driven beyond the Borifthenes bv 
the king of Sweden . . • ibid* 
*/^BiiiticofTravaaftad£Fcb. 13] - * 3^1 

AO. Fage 

f^o6 Tkt Sax<9D troops of Aogufiut, under Schu!lembef^, <!efemtdl 
ivirh great flaughter by the SweUcf, commaiKled hy Maref- 
chal Renfcbilii - • - • 361 

Charles XII. enters the electorate of Saxony, the hereditafy 
principality of Auguftus, and comijeU him to crate peace ib. 
He obtains it, but on the nioil humiliating terras 36a 

Tiie march of the Kihe^ of Sweden into Germany awakens the 
hopes and fears of all Europe . - ibid* 

Lewis XIV. having in vain cooned the alliance of the Nor- 
thern conqoeror, whofe mind was wholly bent upon ham* 
bliog the Czar, fues to the confederates for peace $6% 
His terms, though e^ Jituble, rejedkd - ibidl 

The confederates reloUe, <* That no peace (hall be made 
** with the Houfe of Bouibon, while a prince of that houfe 
** cominuei to (it upon the throne of Spain*' 364. 

The objc^ of the Grand Alliance, by this refolution, in (bioe 
meafure changed - - - . 36^ 

Uirioir between England and Scotland • 366 

A nicies of that Union ... 36 j 

Equivalent paid to Scdtland - - 368 

The Scots dffaiisfied - . - ibid. 

Pride and patriotifm of Andrew Fletcher of Salton 369 

The Union bene(icial to both kingdoms - 370 


7ii g^tral Vjiw of Europe continuid^ from the Rtfufal of 
the Offift of Pence made by France ^ in 17069 to the Coa^ 
firenies-Md at Gertrttjdenberg^ in 1710. 

liewis XIV« endiaTours to fupoly his want of money by idh* 

ing bills upon the Minr, and refoluiely prepares himfclf to 

repel the efforts of h's victorious enemies - -371; 

17^7 The confederates make themfelvcs maftcrs of Mil.m, Modena^ 

and all the Stmnifh dominions in Italy - . ibid. 

Operations in Spain • - 3^2 

Battle of Almanza ... ibid. 

The French and Spaniards, commanded hy the Duke of Ber* 
wick, gain a complete vi^ry over the confederates 373 

Rapid progrefs of the arms of Philip V, ibid. 

Marefchal Villars enters Germany with a French army, and 
penetrates as far as the Danube - « 374 

Charles XH. quarrels with the court of Vienna . ibid. 

His imperious demands - - * 375 

The Duke of Maiiborough vUits him in his camp at Alt- 
Ranftadt ... ibid. 

Particulars of that ittterricHr -» • 376 


C O J^ T E N T S* 
A.l>. Page 

§707 The King pf SMreden» baTUig obttincd hb demands, repaiut 
the Oder • ... ^yS 

Siege of Toulon by the confederates, under Prince Eugene 
and die Duke of Saroy • • 377 

They are obliged to abandon the enrerprafe ibid. 

The failure ofthii enterprife, and the misfortunes of the con- 
fedemtes in Spain, furnifli the entmies of Marlborough and 
Godolphin, at the Englifh court, with a pretext for diC 
crediting theirmeafurcfl - • 3^S 

Intrigues of Mrs. Mafiiam and Mr. Secretary Harley ibid* 

37C8 Theie intrigues encourage Leu'is XIV. to make an attempt in 

favotfr otthe Pretender - • ^9 

It proret abortive - - ibid. 

The French army in Flanders more aumerous thaa that of the 
confederates • • * 380 

Battle of Oudenarde [July 11] - • 381 

The French defeated by the Duke of Marlborough ibid. 

He is joined bv the Imperialills, under Prince Eugene 382 

They undertalie the fiege of Lifle {Aug. 22.] ibid. 

That imj)ortant place is forced to lurrender [0&. at.] 383 
, The affinrs of the confederates continue to decline in Spain 3 84 

Operations by (ea - • - 385 

^ Sir John Leake, with on Englifli fleet and armyt reduces the 

iilands of Sardinia vnd Minorca - - ibid« 

The Emperor Jofeph bumbles the Pope and the Italian States 


Godolphin and Marlborough, haTing expelled Harley from 
the Englifli cabinet, fliengthen their adminiftration, by 
iliartdg the emoluments of government wkh the diffatisficd 
Whigs - - • - ibid. 

Lord Somera made Prefident of the Council, and the Earl of 

Wharton Lord Lieutenant of Ireland • ^87 

1709 Advantageous terms of peace offered by Lewis XIV. ibid« 

Haughtily reje^ed by the confederates 388 

The l)uke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene inved Tournay 


They reduced it and beCege Mons - 390 

Villars takes poll in the neighbourhood ivitb the French army 


Battle of Malplaquet - - - ^91 

The French obliged to. quit the field - • . 3pz 

Dreadful flaughter on both fides 
The French oblij 
Mons furienders 
The ImperialiOs defeated in Upper Alfiiee 3<;f3 

And the Englifli and Portugueie io Spain ibicL 

The Kio|; oi France renews his applications for peace, and 


A.D. Vwgt 

1709 RctrofpcAivc view of ihe pro^refs of Charks XII. 39^1. 

He drives the Ruffians [A- D. 1708] a fecondtime out of Po- 
land - . - . ihid. 
Slights the Caar*s pro)H>raU of peace ibid* 
Attempts to march to Mofcow through the Ukraine ^9$ 
Pailes the river Difnia in the face of the enemy ibid* 
Is dliapp(unted in the aifiihnce of the CoiTacks 306 
Difaftcrs of Lewenhaupr, his Genera] . ibid. 
Ifisarmy fufi«rs incredible hardlhips from hunger nni cold 397 
He arrives f May ic] in the neighbourhood of PUlcowa ibid. 
JLays fiege to the place - - - 39S 
The Czar advances to its relief - - ibivl. 
Battleof Pultowa [July ii.j - - ibid. 
The King of Sweden vanquifhed, and h'ls army utterly ruined 

He erca|)es to Bender, a Turki(h town in Moldavia 39^ 

Important confequenees of the defeat of Charles XIT. ibid. 
He cndeavowrs to engage the Turks in a war widi Ruflia40O 


HTff General View of Europe carried forward y from the Open- 
ing of the Confer encei at Gertruydenherg^ to the Treaties of 
Utretcht and Rajiadt. 
xyxo Humiliating concellions of Lewis XIV. - 404 

Infolent demand of (he deputies of the Staites General ibid. 

Conferences at Gertruydcnherg broken off 40^ 

Prince Eugene and the Dake of Marlboroueh reduce Doway, 
Bethune,St. Venant, and Aire, in fi^ht of the French armr 
under Villars ... ;bi<u 

The Spaniards defeated bv the Generals Stanhope and^Starem* 
berg in the battles of Almanara and SaragoiDi 403 

Charles III. enters Madrid at the head of hisridorious armv 


He is forced a fecond time to abandon that capiul to his rival 
Philip V. - . . 404, 

nve thoufimd Britiih troops, under General Sunhopc, mads 
priibners by the Duke de Vendome - • ibid.^ 

Battle of Villa Viciofa - • 40 j; 

Scar e m b eT g , with an inferior force, obliges Vendome to re- 
treat - ^ - - ibid. 

Continues his march into Catatonia^ • ibid. 

Intrigues in the court of England .. • 406 

Oncftt power of Marlborough and Oodolphia * ibid. 

Theiroopularity begins to declina - 407 

The Tanet ttke adftnuge of that change of }iumout in the 
pcopW • . . - 408 

A.D. pjige 

1710 They rcprefcot tVic church and nvmarchy as in danger from 

diiienters, and m^n of levelling principtf s 40^ 

Thif dodlrinc pu>pagated from the pulpit jirith great vchc^ 

rocncc by Dr. Hcory Sacheverelt - 400 

Hh famous ferroon before the Lord Mayor of London ibid. 
It is printCil^ and fells rapidly * - 410 

He is impeached and taken into cudody - ibid. 

Anxiety of the people for his fate - - 411 

His trial - - . ^ ibid. 

He is found guUty, but (lightly puniflied • ibid. 

His exultation and thnt oF the populiice - 412 

Change in the Englifh miniHry - - ibid. 

Godolphiti removt d f'om the head of the treafury ibid. 

HaFley made Chancellor of the Exchequer, and St. Jchn Se> 

irrctary or Stare - - - 415 

The Duke ot Marlborough alone permitted to retain his em- 
ployments - • • ibid. 
His complicated chnrader • - ibidt 
His intriguesf and thofe of liarl'^yi created Earl of Oxford^ 

and appointed Lord Trcafurcr - • 4 14 

The Fretendcr is encouraged to write to his fi(ler» Queen Anoc 

Oxford fecretly a friend to the ProteHan^ Succeflioa 41c 
And Godol;<hin to the Pretender -' . 416 

Their contradidtory conduct, iu confequence of their political 

(ituations . - - " - ibid. 

New ac^ mini A rat ion introducfd with a new parliament ibid. 

Tories potieff a majority in the Houfc of Commons 417 

17 1 f Liberal tu PI- lies voted for the fupport of the war ibid. 

Death of the Emperor Jofeph changes the political fiate of 

Europe - - - 418 

The Archduke Charles fuccecds to the Imperial throne and the 

dominions of the Houfr of Auflria - ibtd4 

Bold plan of opcratirus, lormcd by Marlboroughi obflru^led 

by the Emperor's death - - ibid. 

He takes Bouchain in fight uf the French army under Villars^ 

afc^ r attempting in vain to bring on an en^pigement 4 1 9 
Starembcrg maintiilns with ability the caufe of the conic derates 

in Spain - - - . • ibid. 

Seerrt treaty negociaied between the couns of- France and 

England - - - • 420 

Accidentally di(cover«d» and gives general alarm lo the allied 

powers - - - - . ibid« 

The people of England filled with indignanon at the prelimi- 
nary articles in that treaty - - 421 
The more moderate Tories take pan with the populace and 

Che Whigs • • T ' n ib^^ 


A.D. ^ Rgc 

1711 The BritiAi miDifiry fupported by the ableft writen la tbe 

kiDgdom - - - - 422 

Queen's fpeecb to the Parliament - ibid* 

Lurds vuic, ♦• That no peace can be fafc or honourable^ 

** fhould Spain and the Indies be allo^-ed to remain with 

*• any branch of the Houfe of Bourbon.** ibuL 

The Duke of Marlboroui^h (by whofs influence chiefly ihi« 

vote \\»d Ivecn procured) deprived of his cmploymcnu, and 

twelve new Peers created) in order to fccure a ma^odty ia 

the Houfe or Lortis - - - 4iij 

Cabals of the Wiiigs, in confeqnence of that flretch of the royal 

prerogative - - - . ibid* 

The Tories ostert all the force of wit and latire againd their 

poiiticu) adrerfaries - - 424. 

Sratt of the difpute between the parties - ibl 

The Duke of Marlborough, by puflnng France oil the fide 

of Flanders, took the mod efiedual way of depriving the 

Houfe or Bourbon of the Spanifli throne - 425 

Another campaigAy had the confederates continued uniteiC 

would probably have enabled him to penetrate to Parh ib.. 

The change in the Engiiih councils greatly to be lamented 

No ftop ihould have been put to the career of vi«5tory, until the 
Houfe of fiourbon had been completely humbled ibid» 

Arguments of the Whigs againll a premature peace 437 

Divtfion which might IlKive been nrade of the Spanifli monar- 
chy) in order to prefenre a due balance of power in Europe 

Prince Eugene invited over to London by the Whigs 428 
He hopes to embarrafs the Britifli miniftry with fplendid. offera 
from the Imperial court, for the eontinuaoce of the war ib. 
1712 The Tories had fcrcured a majority in both Houfes of Parlia- 
ment before his ;irrival [ Jan. 5. ] - 429 
Hepropofes m»n^ defperate eipcdients for depriving the To- 
nes of the admintftration - - ibid. 
Thofe expedients prudently re^cfled by the leaders of the 
Whigs ... - ibid. 
Barrier treaty brouj^ht before the Houfe of Conmaoftt 430 
Lord Townihend, who had ncg6ciated that treaty, declared an 
enemy to the Queen and kingdom « ibid. 
Correfpondence ot both the late and prelent miniftry with 
the Pretender - - - 4^1 
Their different views - - - ibid. 
The poKcy of England during this period an object of philo* 
fophtccuiioiity • - - 43 a 
Conferences for a general i^eace opened at Utiech( ibid. 
]>eath of the Princes of the blood of France 43 % 


A.IX ' Page 

l^ii Apprchcnfioof of the confederates, left the crowns of France 

aod Spain, in confequencc of that mortality, (houhl be 

united upon the head of Philip V. - 435 

Deceitful proceedings of the Britifli rtiinidry 434 

They are ubli}<ed, on the death vf the French princes, to in^ 

Uru^ their pienipotemiarits to infill on foiiie ilipulaticn for 

prcvtxuing the union of the French and SpaniQi monarchies 


Diffcrenr propofals made to Philip V. - 44 jj 

He prefers the certain pofieflion of the Spaoifli crown to the 

cvcniunl fucceifion to that of France - ibid. 

Lewis XIV. relu6lantly confects to the renunciation of hit 

grandfon - - . 436 

That renunciation rfgiffered in the books of the Parliament of 

Paris^ and folcmnly reccir^ bjr^ the Aates of Caflile and 

Arragon . . * • ibid. 

The Queen of England fecretly agrees to a fufpenfion of arms 

Examination of the pro^^rtfs of the campaign ibid. 

prince Eugene propol'es to attack the French army under Vil- 

larsy in hopes ot concluding the war with a fpkndid vidory 

Hbpurpofe defeated by the hefitation of the Duke of Qrmond, 

who commanded the firitifli forces* and who had orders not 
to aft offenfively - - - ibid. 

Ignominy of this cruel inaflivity, and the treachery pf the 
firitifii miniftry, fet forth ia a letter from tha Sutcs of the 
United Provinces ... 43^ 

It would hare been lefs diflionourable, and more advantageous, 
to have concluded at once a feparate treaty with France 441 

Prince Eugene reduces Quefnoy, and fends a detachment to pe^ 
nerate into the heart of France - - 442 

The Duke of Ormond m^kes known to the generals of the allies 
the ceffiuion •f arms between France and England ibid. 

He feparatcs the Britifli forcesiirom thofe of the other confede- 
rates - - - . 443 

Prince Eugene xnvefts Landracy - - ibid* 

Villars routes at Deoain a detachment from the allied army ib. 

The ficld-dcpittics mf the States oblige Prince Eugene to raife 
the (lege of Landracy - • . - 444 

Villani» having taken Marchrennes, where the principal maga- 

zinescf the confederates were depofitedp recovers fucceffireiy 

Do way, Qucfnoy, and Bouchain - - iMd. 

17 1| The Dutch, madefenfibleof their perilous fituation, accede to 

the planof pacification fettled betweenFranceand England ^5 

Their example is followed by the DukeofStn>y and the King 
of Portugal • , - * ibid. 



171 J And the Emperor^ finding himfelf unable to fupport anv mili- 
ury operations in Spain, agrees to the evacuation ot Cata- 
Ibnia - - 445 

Queen Anne folicited by the Jacobites to take forae ftep in fa- 
vour of the Pretender - - ibid. 

The £iirl of Oxford renders all their fchemes for that purpofe 
abortnre - - 4^6 

Bilt continues to forward the negociations for peace, as neceflary 
fbr thd fecurity of his own adixiiniftration ibid. 

Treaties between the different powers figned at Utreccht 
[March 31.] -i - ibid. 

Subilance of thofe Treilttes - 447 

The Emperor rafhly refohes to continue the war alone 440 

Progreis of the French army, under VUlars cfn the Rhine ibicl. 
f jf 14 Treaty of Raftadt [March 6.] . 4^0 

The .King of Spain accedes to the general pacification ibid. 

Siege of Barcelona by the duke of Berwick - 45 1 

The place is uken by aflaulr, after a defperate conflict [Sept 11.] 

^he Catalans are dUarmed, and ftript of their ancient privi- 
leges - • ibid. 


GrMi Brltmnifr§m tbi Piaa ofUtrecbti to tht Supfrtffion tf 
tbi RiMBon^ in 1715) witbjome Auount of tbi Affairs of 
Ftma^ ami tbi Intriguts jff tbi Court of St. Gtrmains. 

^713 Tfie peace ofUtretcht raifes the hopes of the Jacdbltet 4C5 
Ketrofpedive view of their Intrigues in &vour of the Pretender 


He is iblicited by Us filler. Queen Anne, to change his reli- 

gion . - i 454 

A zealotit Roman Catholic, he makes a matter of confdence of 

idhering to Popery, regardlefs of all political confiderationt 

The Earl df Oxford, fecretly a friend €0 the ProteftalU Succei^ 
fion, aroufds the Jacobiiet, under various pretences 4j6 

The peace of Utrecht generally difliked by the people of Eng- 
land, and particular exception taken againft the eighth and 
sunth articles in the Treaty of Commerce with France 457 

Piurport of thoie articles • 45 S 

The Whigs iblicit the Eledor of Hanover to come over in 
perfon, or to fend the EleApral Prince, his foD, into Eng- 

Vol, IV. " b fhi 


iLD. Ftge 

171 3 The Jacobites had formed a dcfign of bringing over the Pre- 

tender - - 459 

1714 The duke of Ormond and other adherents of the houfe of Stuart, 

vefted with the command of the army 460 

One hundred thoufand pounds offered by Parliament for apprcr 

bending the Pretender, iliould hp land in Great Britaia 


Oxford removed from the head of the treafury, becaufe of the 

langour of his meafures in favour of the excluded Prince 

Death and charadter of Queen Anne - ibid* 

(Tcorge, £le6h>r qf Hanover, proclaimed King of Grps\t Britain 

His arrival, and t)ie maxims of his policy - ibidf 

He places the adminiflration wholly in the hands of the Whigt 

Commitue ofSecrecyy appointed to enquire into the negociation^ 

relative to the peace of Utrctcht - 465 

Ix)rd Bolingbroke, the Earl of Oxford, and the duke of Ormond, 

impeached of hii^h treafon - ? ibid. 

Boiingbroke and Orpnond abfcond - ibid* 

Oxford is committed to the Tower - ibid. 

His manly behaviour, ^nd mafierly defence • 466 

The Tories in general inclined to facobitifm * 467 

The heads of the party» both in England and Scotland, hold a 

fccrct corrcfpondencc with the Pretender ibid. 

The French court declines taking any part in his affairs 468 
Mifcondu6tof the Duke of Ormond, who had undertaken to head 

the Engliih Jacobites * • ^^r^ 

He makes his efcape into France . \h\i. 

Death and chara6terQf Lewis XIV, - 470 

Duke of Orleans appointed regent during the minority of 

Lewis XV. - - ' ibid. 

He afie^Sls privately tp efpoufe the interefb of the Houfe of 

Stuart - . 471 

••Ij The QcottiHi Highlanders impatient to take up ^rms in fupporc 

of the Pretender's caufe - . v ibid. 

Account of thofe mountaineers • ibid. 

The Highlanders vajue thpmfelves oti never having been fub» 

3e6led to the law of any conqueror . « 479 

, pif ided into a variety pf tribes or Clans, under hcrediury chiefs 

The people of every Clan bear of their chief, and are 

fiippoicd to beallied to him by blood - 473 

. The HTghbnderi habituated to the ufe ®f arms, bytheperpe* 

tual wars between the Clans ' - ibid, 

^ * Thqr 


A.D. Pug* 

tyij Their weapons, and manner of fighting * 47^ 

Their drefs - - ^ ibid. 

They form a regular confederacy for the reftoration of the fa- 
mily of Stuart - - ^ 475 

The Englifh Jacobites, though lefs prepared, invite thfe Pre- 
tender to land in the neighbourhood of Plymouth 476 

He takes meafures for that purpofe, in concert with the Dulce 
of Ormond - - ibid. 

The Earl of Mar fets up the Pretender's ftandard in the north 
of Scotland, and raifes the Highlanders • 477 

He makes himfelf mafter of almofl all the country beyond the 
Forth - - - 47 g 

The heads of the Englilh Jacobites, taking into cuftody, andthci 
whole plan of the rebellion in the Weft of England broken ib« 

Infurreftion of the Jacobites in the North of England 479 

EngliOi rebels joined by a body of Highlanders ibid. 

A£t without harmony or rigour, and are compelled to furrendec 
at Prefton in Lancafliire « 480 

Progrefs of the rebcUioh in Scotland • 48 c 

Battle of SherifFMuir [Nov. 1 3.] - ibid. 

The Highlanders break the left wing of the royal army 482 

The right wing of the King's forces, commanded by the Duke 
of Argyle, defeats the left of the rebels - ibid. 

The Earl of Mar decamps in the night with the main body of the 
rebel army, and ruins by his mifcondu^ the affairs of the 
Pretender - - 483 

Several Highland Chiefs declare for the eftabliflied govern- 
ment ^ - ibid. 

The Clans difperfe on the approach'^of winter - 484 

The Pretender lands between Aberdeen and Invernefs [Dec, aa.J 


Finding his caufe defperate, he reimbarks at Montrofe ibid. 

1716 The whole country fubmits to the King's forces under the Duke 

of Argyle - - ibid. 

Reflexions on the fuppreffion of this rebellion 48c 

R ebel prifoners executed • - ibid« 


Rujfia^ Turkey y and the Northern Kingdoms^ from the Defeat 
§f Charles XI L at Puitowa, in 17O9, to the Death of 
Peter the Great ^ in 1 725. 

Xjog Conqoefts of the Czar - - 486 

Intrigues of the King of Swoden at the Court of Conftantinople 

ba Qcaexoua 


A.BU Eaga 

X7P9 Genierous maxim pf the Turkilh goverament in regard to the 

treatment of royal refuges - ^ - 487 

Agreeable to this maxim » Charles XII. is accommodated with 

all things fuitable to his rank - 48S 

He hopes to be fopn able to l$ad a Turkifh army againft the 

Czar - - ibid« 

^710 The Grand Vizier gained by the money of Peter, makes the 

Sultan, Achmet III. lay aiide all thoughts pf a war with 

Jlu^a - - ibid. 

Through the intrigues of Popiatowiky, the friend of Charles, 

the Turkiih miniHer is banifhed to Caflfa in Crim Tartary 

" ' ' 48? 

Tb? new Qr^nd Vi^ier, Nuxpan Kupruli, not ipore favourable 
tp thp views' of the IJipg of Sweden - 490 

But fupples him liberally with money, ai^d advifes hjm tp return 
to his own dominions - . ihid. 

Charles continues his intrigues, obilinately refqfing to return 
without a Turkifli army • - ' ibid. 

Triumphal entry of Peter the Gre^t into Mofcow 491 

The Grand Vizier Kupruli difmilTed*, and the feal of ^he Ot- 
toman Empire given to Baltagi* Mahomet, BaflM^w of Syria 


The Sultan, refolves upon a war with |luffia, and orders 

Baltagi to aflemble an army of two hundred thoufand men 

' ibid. 
Ruffian ambaflador committee to the Caflle of the Seven 

Towers [Nov, 29] - - 493 

Origin of this pradbce of treating Chridian ambafTadors ibid, 

' Preparations of" the Czar for commencing hoftilities 494 

I/Ii Turkiih forces tevicv\ed iti the plains of Adrianople 499 

The Czar forms an alliance with Demetrius Cantemir, prince of 

Moldavia - - ibid. 

He paflls the Neider, and reaches the Northern banks of th^ 

Pruth "- ^ - ibid. 

The Grand Vizier advances againft him wi^h an army of two 

hundred and fifty thoufand men - 496 

His perilous fit uation* ^ - - ibid. 

Through the interpofition of the Czarina, Catherine, he con- 

feius tp a npgociatipn - - 4^7 

Concludes a treaty with the Turks, and is permitted to retire 
' With his army - - 498 

rjThe King of Sweden arrives in the Turkifh camp, as the Czar 

is marching off - - • 499 

]Bis rage at the t|j^aty, and infolent behaviour to the Grand 

Vizier* - - . . v ibid. 

. ' ^ Th« 


I jij The Grand Vizier, Battagi, difgraced through the intrigues of 
Charles and Poniatovdky - - 500 

The new Grand Vizier yet lefs difpofed to favour the defigns of 
the king of Sweden - - ibid'. 

I7IZ The Sultan, Achmet III. fends him a letter requiring his depar- 
ture - ' ^ - ibid. 
He evades the requeft, and continues his intrigues ;oi 
ti defired to prepare indantly for his return hon>e ibid. 
He pleads the want of money to pay his debts • ibid* 
Is fumiflied with twelve hundred purfes, and demands more 

17x3 The Sultan's fpeech in the Divan on that fubjed ibid. 

The Bafliaw of Bender ordered to compel the king of Sweden to 
depart - - 50a 

Charles obfHnately refufes, and prepares to defend himfelt^ 
with three hundred Swedes, againil an army of Turks and 
Tartars - ^ - C04 

His littk camp is forced, and he is made pnfoner ibid# 

He Ilill hopes^ in his confinement^ to rerum at the head of a 
Turkifliarmy 1 - joj 

Renews his intngues, and keeps his bed fourteen months, under 
pretence of ficknefs -^ - 506 

State of affairs in the king of Sweden's dominions coy 

His General Steenbock defeaU the Danes and Saxons ibid* 
Bums Altena « - coS 

His apology for fo doing • • ibid* 

Lofes the fruits of his vi^ory, and is obliged to take refuge ia 
the Duchy of Holflein - - coo 

Deplorable flate of that Duchy - ibid. 

Intrigues of the Baron de Groertz - cio 

He forms the fcheme of eflabliihing a neutrality in theSwedtfh 
provinces of Germany - • ibid. 

Progrefs of the arms of the Czar Peter - 511 

1^14 He ^ains a complete victory over the Swedes by fea, and makes 
himfelf mailer of the ifle of Oeland - ibid. 

Enters Peterfburg in triumph, and makes on that occafion, a 
fpeech worthy of the founder of a great empire ^ ix 

Roufed from his lethargy by the meafures of the fenate of Swe- 
den, and defpairing of being able to make the Porte take arms 
in his favour, Charles XII. (ignifies to the grand Vizier his 
defire of returning through Germany to his own dominions 

provided with a convoy of fizty loaded waggons, and three 
• hundred horfe, he arrives on the frontiers of Germany, 



A.D. , , . ^ Page 

whence he proceeds in difguife to Stralfund m Fomerania 


1714 He immediately difpatchcs orders to his Generals, to renew the 

war againft all bis enemies with frcfli vigour - 513 

1715 The multitude of thofc enemies opprcfs him ^^14 
The Pruffians, Danes, and Saxons bcfiege Stralfund ibid. 
They make themfelvcsmaftersof the Iflcof Ufdomc, and invade 

the Iflcof Rugen - - 5^5 

17 16 Charles attempts to expel the invaders • 516 
Is defeated and obliged to fave himfelf by flight ibid^ 
He defends Stralfund with dcfpcrare valour 517 
Finding it untenable, he Is induced to quit it ibid« 
The garrifon capitulates [Dec. 17 •] - ibid. 
The Baron dc Goertz becomes the prime miniver and favourite 

ofthe king of Sweden - - 518 

The king of Sweden, to the aftonifhment of all Europe, in- 
vades Norway, and makes himfelf mafler of Chriiftiana 


Meanwhile Wifmar, the only town that remained to him on 

the frontiers of Germany, fur renders to the Danes and Pruf< 

fians ^ - - ibid. 

New intrigues of the Baron de Goertz - 519 

He is taken into cuftody in Holland, and Count Gillemburg, 

the Sweiij0i ambaflador is thrown into prifon in England 


J717 They are f^t at liberty - - ibid. 

17 18 Chartes XII. undertakes a fecond expedition into Norway, and 

fits down before Fredericklhall - 520 

His death aud charader • . ibid# 

The Senate of Sweden orders the Baron dc Goertz to be ar- 

rcfted - - C2i 

He is condemned and executed for malc-admimflraiion ibid# 

2719 Ulrica Eleanora, filler of Charles XH. is elected Queen of 

Sweden - - ciz 

She relinquiflies the crown to her hulband, the Prince of Heffe, 

who is chofen king by the States - ibid* 

1720 Tranquillity of the North rcftored by different treaties ibid. 

17*1 Peace between Sweden and Ruflia - 5^3 

The Czar retains pofleiSon of the provinces of Livonia, Ef- 

tonia, and Ingria, with port of Carelia, and part of Finland 

Peter henceforth aflumes the title of Emperor, which is acknow- 
ledged by all the European powers . ibid* 
lyzt His Per^n expedition • • ibid. 
The extent of his dominions ^ « jbid* 
8 He 

1732 He eUablUhes a board of trade, and encourages manufa^uiet 

His wife regulationt • . i^^ 

General char«i6ler9 as a (bvercign • ^' 

Proceedings agaioft his fon, Alexis - ib;^^ 

Death of that Prince - • ^^ 

Inquiry concerning its caufe - • ^27 

Czar's Declaration - « ^^g 

1 7 as Death of young Peter . jj^j^ 

of Peter the Great - . ^' 

He is fucceedtd by the Emprtfs, Catharine I. - i^*^ 

His Panegyric in the form of an Epitaph - ^ -^ * 




O F 



From the Peace of Westphalia, in 1648, ta 
the Peace of Paris, in 1763. 


Jgemr^l View of the Affw% of Evkope^ with a partuu-- 
lar Account of tb$fe ofEuGLASD^from the Refloration 
£^ Charles II. In 1660, to the Triple Alliance^ in 

NO prince ever had it more in his power to letter 
have rendered himfclf the favouriic of his ^^^ , 
people, and his people great, flourilhing, a,^) ,^^ 
and bappyt than Charles II. of England. They had 
eencroufly reftored him to the regal dignity, without 
impofing any new limitations on bis prerogarive. 
But their late violences, and the torrent of blood 
which had been (bed, too flrongly demondrated their 
dread of popery, and their hatred of arbitrary fway, 
to permit a fappofition, that they would ever tamely 
Vol. IV. . B fuffcr 


VART n. fuffer any trerpaf$ on their cifil or religious liberti 
iL0^1i66i. I'<l«ft*^«^c of *^ ^^^^^ of juftice or of gratitude, t 
jmprudenciet of his grandfather, the fatal catalbrop 
of his father, and ten years of ezcluGon, exile, a 
adferficy, were farely fufficient to have taught hi 
moderation ; while the afieAionate expreiEons of Ic 
alty and attachment, which e?ery where faluted I 
earsi demanded his mod warm acknowledgments. 

With loyalty, mirth and gaiety returned. Th 

gloom which had fo long oferfpread the ifland, gc 

dually difappeared with thofe fanatical opinions th 

produced it. And if the king had made a prop 

ufe of his political fituation, and of thofe natural at 

acquired talents which he lb abundantly poflefled|; ] 

might have held, with a high hand, the balance.^ 

Europe, and at the fame time have reftored the EngSI 

nation (to ufe the memorable words of my Iprd Qj 

rcndon) to its primitive temper and integrity i to •*! 

<< old good mannerSf its old good humour, andi 

'^ old good nature.** But an infatuated defire of p 

verning without controul, and alfo of changing ll 

religion of the two BritiQi kingdoms, accompflMI 

with a wafteful prodigality, which nothing conkl fl|| 

ply, loft him by degrees the hearts of his fabjfcfi^ 

we fhall have occafion to fee, and inftead of die i 

ter of Europe, made him a penfioner of France. 

Charles was thirty years of age when he aC 
ed the throne of his anceftors ; and, confiderin|[ ] 
adverfe fortune, and the opportunities he had enjo 
of mingling with the world, might have been nj 
pofed to be pad the levities of youth and the int 
perance of appetite. But being endowed with1 
ttrong conftitution and a great flow of fpirits, with I 



figure and an engaging manner, animal lore LETTER 
Ql his predominant paffion, and amufement his- |_ , _ „ / 
xcupation. He was not, howeTer, incapable a. d. 1660. 
plication to bufinefs, nor unacquainted with af- 
dther foreign or domeftic ; but htfing been ac« 
aedy daring his exile, to li?e among bis cour* 
IS a companion rather than a monarch, he loved 
nlge, even after his reftoration, in the pleafures of 
pged (bcietj as well as of Unreftrained gallan- 
lad bated erery thing that interfered with thof« 
rile avocations* His example was contagious t 
k fienfualitT infeBtcd the court } and prodigality, 
idiery, and inreligion, became the chara£lerif4i 
i tkc younger and more faihionable part of the 

At Idog himfelf, who appears id ha?e been little 
sdie influence of either moral or religious prin- 
Hi eoolicions of his own irregularities» could eafily 
fm the deviations of others, and admit an excufe 
WKffjttcm of opinions. Hence he gained the 
Ipit by indulgence^ at the fame time that he 
fc to iatter, by attentions, the pride of religion 
firtue. This accommodating character, which 
■ill his whole reign was Charles's chief fuppoft^ 
ttnufed the higheft idea of his judgment and 
itiality. Without regard to former di(lin£tions, 
knitted into his council the mod eminent men of 
vties; the Prefbyterians equally with the Royal- 
bred this honour. Nor was he lefs impartial in 
iftribotion of honours* Admiral Montague was 
mly created earl of Sandwich, aud Monk duke of 
■arle, promotions that might have been expected ; 

I* Burnet, toK i. book li. 

B 2 but 


FART II. but Anneflcy was created earl of Anfjlefcy;; Afhlcy 
A. D. 1660, Cooper, lord Afliley j and Dcnzil Hollis, lord Hollis. 

Whatever might be the king's motive for fuch s 
conduct, whether a d^Citc of lafting popularity, or 
merely of ferving a temporary purpofe, it muft be al- 
lowed to have been truly political, as it contributed 
not only to bani(h the remenabrance of paft animofi- 
ties, but to attach the leaders of the Prefbyterians; 
ivho, befide having a principal (hare in the Reftore* 
lion, were formidable by their numbers as well as by 
their property, and declared enemies to the Indepen* 
dents, and other republican fedaries. But the choice 
which Charles made of his mintders and principal fcF- 
vants more efpecially prognoflicated future happineft 
and tranquillity, ; nd gave fincere pleafure to all the 
true friends of the conftitation. Sir Edward Hyde, 
created earl of Clarendon, was 'made lord chancellor* 
He had been bred to the law, pofleflcd great talentF^ 
was indtfatigable in bufincfs, and very fit for the 
place of prime minifter. The marquis, created duke 
of Ormond, lefs remarkable for his talents than his 
courtly accompliftiments, his honour, and his fidelity^ 
was conftitutcd fteward of the houfhold ; the carl of 
Southampton, a man of abilities and integrity, was 
appointed lord treafurer, and Sir Edward NicholiS 
and Mr. Morrice fecretarics of (late. The fecretaries 
were both men of learning and virtue^ but little ac- 
quainted with foreign affairs*. 

These minifters entered into a free and open cor* 
refpondence with the iead<ng members of both houfes; 
in confequencc of which ibc Convention (as the aflcm* 
bly that accompiiibed the Rcfloation had been hithcf:* 
to called, by being fummoned without the king*8 au* 

%, fiuroctj vuL i« book ii. 



tboritj) recciTcd the name of a parliament. All ^UT^^ 
joridical decree^ pafled during the commcnweallh or \_ ^ ^f 
proccdorfliipy vcreaffinncd; and an jtcX i.f indemnity ^*^' *'*^* 
vas pa&d 9 conform -ble to the king's declaration from 
Breda. In that declaration Charles had wiely re- 
ferred all cxcepMons to the parhairent, which excluded 
fiich as had any immediate h^nd in the late king's 
death. Oolj fix of the regicides, however, with four 
others, who had been abettors of their treafon, were 
czccated* The reft made their efcane, were pariion- 
edy or confined in different prifons. They all be- 
haved with great firmnefs. and feemed to confider 
themfelves as martyrs to their civil and religious prin- 

Lambert and Vane, though not immediately con- 
cerned in the late king's death, were alfo attainted. 
Lambert was pardoned, in confequence of his fubmif- 
fioo; but Vane, on account of his prefuroptuous be- 
haTioor during his trial, was executed ^. The fame 
lenity was extended to Scotland ; where only the 
maiquis of Argyle, and one Gufhery, a feditious 
preacher, were executed. Argyle's cafe was thought 
peculiarly hard ; but as Guthery had perfonilly in- 
fulted the king, as well as purfued a conduct fubver- 
five of all legal authoritVi his fate was lamented only 
by the wildeft fanatics >• 

Notwithstanding thefe expiatory facrlfices, 
Charles's government was, for a time, remarkably 
mild and equitable. The firfl meafure that excited 
any alarm was the a<St of uniformity. 

Had the convention-parliament, from a jealoufy 
of royal power, exaded any conditions from the king, 

Sp State Trials^ vol. ii, 4. Id. ibid. 5. Bunret, ubi fup. 

B 3 01 


PART II. on ji'is rcftoration, the cftabliftimcnt of the Pre(byt 
A, D, 1660. "3n difciplinc would certainly ha?c been one of 
them ; not only becaufe more favourable to civil li- 
berty than epifcopacy, in the opinion of the peoplei 
but more conformable to the theological ideas of the . 
greater number of the members. No fuch (lipula- 
tion, however, having been rcquiredf the church of 
England had good reafon to expe£l that the hierarchy 
would recover its ancient rights, and again appeair 
with unditniniflied fplendour, as well as the monarchy. 
Charles* to whom the bufmefs of religion waf wholly 
left, though inclined to revive epifcopacy, was at a 
lofs how to proceed. The Prefbyterians, from their 
recent fervices, had claims upon his gratitude, and the 
epifcopal clergy from their loyalty and former fuffer- 
ings, in confequence of their attachment to the roya| 
fiaufe. As he wiQied to gain all parties, by difoblig- 
ing none, he conduced himfelf with great modera* 
tion. At the fame time that he reftored the ejeAed 
clergy, and ordered the Liturgy to be received into 
the churches, he ifTued a declaration, in which he 
promifedy That the bifhops (hould all be regular an4 
conftant preachers ; that they fhould nq^ confer or* 
^ination, or exercife any jurifdiAion, withont the ad« • 
vice and affiftance of Pteibyters, chofen by the dior 
cefe; that fuch akerations fhould be made in the 
Liturgy as would render it touHy unexceptionable | 
and that, in the meantime, the epifcopal mode of wor« 
(hip fhould not he impofipd on thofe who v^rere unwil^* 
ing to receive it ^. 

Such was the ftate of the church at the diffdufioQ 
3^c« «9» of the convention parliament; which, while it guards j 
cd the legal rights of the crown, lately fo violently iq« ^ 

^ Farl. Hip. vol. xziii* 


videdi never loft fight of the liberty of the fubje£l, LBTTBR 
hot maintained the happjr medium between high pre- ^ -^- „ _f 
logatire and lieentioui freedom. The new parlia- AD. 1661. 
ment was of a very diflPerent complexion. The ^ 
lofalifts, feccmded by the influence of the crown, had 
preraDed in moft eledions. Not above feventy mem- 
bers of the Preibyterian party obtained feats in the 
hoafe of commons ; and tbefe not being able either 
to oppofe or retard the meafures of the court» monar- 
diy and ejnfcopacy were now as much exalted as thej 
had formerly been deprefled. ^ 

An ad was Immediately pafled for the fecurity of 
the king's perfon and government, containing many 
fevere daafes ; and as the bifhops, though reftored to 
their fpiritual authority, were ftill excluded from par- 
fiament, in confequence of a law pafled by Charles I. 
immediately before the cifil wars, that a£l was now 
cqiealed, and they were permitted to refume their 
ieats in the houfe of lords. But what moft remark* 
ably manifefted the zeal of the parliament for the 
church and monarchy was the A& of Uniformity, 
and the repeal of the Triennial A£V. Inftead of 
die exaft ftipulatlons of the latter, a general claufe 
provided, that parliaments (hould not be interrupted 
above three years at moft. By the A£^ of Unifor- 
mity it was required, that every clergyman, capable 
of holding a benefice, fhould poflTefs epifcopal ordina* 
don ; (hould declare his aflent to every thing con« 
tained In the Book of Common-Prayer \ (hould take 
the oath of canonical obedience, abjure the Solemn 
League and Covenant, and renounce the principle of 
taking arms againft the king, on any pretence what** 

7, Id. Ihid^ 

B 4 Tiivs 


FART 11. Thus was the church rcinftatcd in her former 
A.D. i66a. power and fplendour ; and as the old perfccuting laws 
fubfifted in their full rigour, and even new claufes of 
a like nature were now enadcd, all the king's promifet 
of toleration and indulgence to tender confciences, i« 
his declaation from Breda, were thereby eluded and 
broken. The more zealous of the Pre(byterian cler- 
gymen, however, refolved to refufe the fubfcriptiody 
be the confequences what they might ; though there 
18 no doubt but they flattered themfelves, that the 
biOiops would not dare to expel fo great a number of 
the mod popular preachers in the kingdom. But in 
this hope they were deceived. The church anti- 
cipating the pleafure of retaliation, had made the 
terms of fubfcription rigid, on purpofe to difguft all 
the fcrupulous Prefbyterians, and deprive them of 
their livings' ; and the court beheld, with equal fatif- 
faflion and aftonifliment, two thoufand of the clergy^ 
in one day, relinquifli their cures, and facrifice their 
intereft to their religious opinions. 

This meafure, which united the Proteftant dif- 
fenters in a common hatred of the church, and 
roufcd in the church a fpirit of intolerance and per* 
fecution, was peculiarly impolitic and imprudent* 
as well as violent and unjuft ; more efpecially 
as the opportunity Teemed fair for taking advantage 
of the rcfcntmcnts of the Prefbyterians againft 
the republican fe^iries, and to draw them, without 
perfecuting the others* by the cords of love into 
the pale of the church, inllead of driving them back 
by^fevtfe ufage into their ancient confederacies. A 
fmall relaxation in the terms of communion would 
certainly have been fuiHcicnt for that purpofe. But 
S. Bomct, YoL i» book ii. 



^he topi family atid the Catholics, whofe influence letter 

was great at court, had other views, with which the * -^ j 

nation was then unacquainted, and which it mud now A.D. i66a. 
be our buCoefs to unfoM. 

Charles, during his exile, had not only imbibed 
ftrong prejudices in favour of the Catholic religiony 
but had even been fccretly reconciled in form to the 
church of Rome 9. His brother, the duke of York, 
however, was a more fincere convert, James had 
zealoufly adopted all the abfurd and pernicious prin- 
dples of popery; and as he had acquired a great 
afcendant over the king, by his talent fur bufinff^, 
the feverities in the A£b of Uniformity had been 
chiefly fuggefted by him and the earl of Briftoi, alfo 
a zealous Catholic and a favourite at court* SenGble 
that undifguifed popery could claim no legal indul- 
gence, they inflamed the church-party againft the 
Preibytcrians: they encouraged the Prefbyterians to 
ftand out; and when, in confequence of thefe artifices^ 
thcj faw fo numerous and popular a body of the 
dergy ejcfted, they formed the plan of a general to- 
leration, in hopes that the hated feci of the Catholics^ 
might pafs unobferved in the crowd, and enjoy the 
fame liberty with the reft. 

The king, who had this meafure more at heart 
than could have been expelled from his feeming in- 
diflference to all religions, accordingly iflucd a decla- 
ration, under pretence of mitigating the rigours con- 
tained in the Aft of Uniformity. After mentioning 
the promifes of liberty of confcience contained in 
his declaration from Breda, he added. That although, 
ia the firft place, he had been zealous to fettle the 

^. Baroet, bookx* 



FARTH. uniformity of the church of Englandf which ha 
JM>Vi66z. fljoold ever maintain ; yet in regard to the penalties 
upon thofe who do not conform thereonto, through 
fcruple of confcience, but modeftly snd without 
fcandal perform tbvir devotions in their own way^ he 
Ihould make it his fpecial care, fo far as in him lay, 
without invading the freedom of parliament, to incline 
the members to concur with him in framing fuch an 
a£l for that purpofe, as might enable him to ezercKe 
with more univerfal fatisfa£tion that difpcnfing power, 
which he conceived to be inherent in him '^ The 
parliament however, alarmed at the idea of a dif* 
pinfing p^wir in the crown, and having a glimpfe of 
the objed for which it was to be exercifed, came to 
A refolution. That the indulgence propofed would 
prove mod pernicious both to church and ftate; 
would open a door to fchifm, encourage fa£lion, diC» 
turb the public peace, and difcredit the wifdom of the 
legiilature". And the court, having already gained 
fo many points, judged it neceflary to lay afide 
for a time the projeA of toleration. In the mean 
time the eje£ted clergymen were profecuted with un- 
relenting rigour ; fevere laws bein^ enaded, not only 
Ugainft conventicles, but againft any nonconforming 
teacher coming within five miles of a corporation. 

Thb Prefliyterians in Scothnd did not experi- 
ence more favour than thofe in England. As Charley 
^ had made them no promifes before his reftoration, he 
refolved to purfue the abfurd policy of his father 
and grandfather, of eftabliOiing epifcopacy in that 
kingdom. In this refolutlon he was confirmed by hit 
antipathy againft the Scottifli eccleGaftics, on ac- 
count of the infults which he had received white 

|o. Keanci*! Migjftri p. 850^ xz. Part. Hljt. vol. xxiii. 



^mongft them. He therefore replied to the earl of ^^^^ 
Xaoderdale, with more pertneb than judgment, when k^^.^^^^ 
preSed to eftablifli pre(bjrtery, that, «* it was not a re- ^^' ^^^'^ 
ligion for a gentleman i*' and he could not agree to its 
farther continuance in Scotland'^ Such a reafon 
might hare fuiced a fop in his drefling-room, or a 
joUj companion over bis bottle, 'but was ?ery un« 
worthy of the head of a great monarchy* The confe- 
quences were fuch as might have been forefcen. A 
▼aft majority of the Scottifli nation looked up with 
horror to the king and his minifters, and ezpofcd them* 
felres to the moft fevere perfecutions rather than re- 
linquiih their form of worlhip". 

. Certain political meafures confpired with thofe 
of religion to diminifh that popularity which the 
kmg had enjoyed at his reftoration. His marriage 
with Catherine of Portugal^ to which he was chiefly 
prompted by the largenefs of her portion '^ was by 
ao means agreeable to his fubjeds, who were defirous^ 
above all things, of his marrying a proteftant prin- 
cefs. The fate of Dunkirk to France, in order to 
fopply his prodigality, occaGoned univerfal difguft'^ ; 
and the Dutch war, in which he is faid to have en- 
gaged with a view of diverting part of the parliamen- 

IX. Burnet, toL i. book ii. 13. I<L ibid. 

14. He received with her five hnndred thonfand pounds fierlicg, the 
SBttkmeiit of Bombay in the Eaft Indies, and the fortrefs of Tangier 
fo the ooaft of Africa. 

15. The fale of Dunkirk, though ftigpnatizcd as one of the worft 
Bieafurcs of Charles's rdgu, was more blameable as a mark of mean- 
ncfii in the king than (m account of iu detriment to the nation. The 
charge of maintaining that fbrtrcfs was very great, and the benefit 
arifing from it fmaU. It had then no harbour to receive vefielt 
of burden ; and Lewis XIV. who was a judge of fueh acquifitions, 
and who firft made it a good fea^port« thought he had made a hard 
bargain, when he paid fuur hundred thouiand pounds for iu 1/- 


12 TH E H I S T O R Y OF 

^ART n. tary aids to the fupply oF his own profuHons, contri- 

}-L''Z^^ butcd ftill farther to increafe the public diflatisfaaion. 
A.D. 1662. ^ 

The particulars of that war it mud now be our buG- 
nefs to relate. 

The reafons afli^^ned for commlncing hoftilities 
againft the United Prgvinces were, the depreHationa 
committed by the fubje£ls of that republic upcn the 
Englifli traders in different parts of the wo^ld- But, 

^ unfortunately for Charles, thefc depredations, though 

fufficient to call up the keened refentment^ had all 
preceded the yeai 1662, when a treaty of league and 
alliance had been renewed between England and the 
States. This circumftance, however, was overlooked 
in the general jealoufy of the Hollanders; who, hj 
their perfevering induftryi as well as by other means^ 
bad of late greatly hurt the foreign trade of the Eng- 
lifli merchants. The king was refolved on a war, 
from which, in confequence of his fuperior naval 
force, he hoped to derive vaft advantages: and being 
warmly fecondtd in his views by the city and parlia- 

A^J>.i6C4. nient, fir Robert Holmes was fecretly difpatched 
with a fquadron to the ccaft of Africa ; where he not 
only expelled the Dutch from Cape Corfe, to which 
the Englifh had fome pretenfions, but feized their fet« 
tlements of Cape Verde and the ifle of Goree, together 
with fcveral trading vefiels. Another fquadron failed 
foon after to North America, with three hundred men 
on board, under the command of fir Richard Nithola% 
who took poffeflion of the Dutch fettlement of Nova 
Bclgia, afterward called New York, in honour of 
the dukf 4 who had obtained a grant of it from his 

16. Kinjr James*! Memoir J. This territory, as lying within the line 
of the Lnglifli difcovcrifs, had been formerly granted by James 1, to the 
earl of Sterling; but it had never been planted, except by the Dutch. 



Since the death of William II. prince of Orange, letter 
who attempted, as we have already fecn, to encroach ^_ _ , ^ 
on the liberties of the republic of Holland, the Dutch, A. 0,1664. 
conformable to their perpetual ediffl, had ele£led no 
ftadtholder. The government had continued wholly 
in the hands of the Louveftein, or violent republican 
party, who were declared cnefhies againft the houfc of 
Orange. This ftate of the affairs of the United Pro- 
vinces could not be very agreeable to the king of Eng- 
land, who mad naturally .deGre to fee his nepheW| 
William III reinflated in that authority poffcffcd by 
bis anceftors. He is even fufpe£led of a defign, ia 
coDJunflion with his brother, of rendering the young 
prince abfohite, and bringing the Stales to a depen- 
dence on England, Is it ai leail certain, that the fa- 
mous John de Wit, penfionary of Holland, who was 
the foul of the republican party, and veiled with al- 
moft di£tatorial powers, afraid of fome fuch defign^ 
bad, foon after the Rcftoration, entered into clofe al- 
liance with France'^ This has fince been thought 
bad policy : and it mud be owned, that De Wit's an- 
tipathy againd the family of Orange led him into 
meafures not always advantageous to his country; but 
it ought at the fame time to be semembered, that nei- 
ther the genius of Lewis XIV. nor the refources of 
the French monarchy were then known. 

De Wit, equally diflinguifhed by his magnani- 
mity, ability, and integrity ; and who knew how to 
blend the moderate deportment of the private citizen 
with the dignity of the miniderof date — de Wit, who 
had laid it down as a maxim, that no independent 
ftate ought ever tamely to fuffcr any breach of equity 
from another, whatever their difparity in force, when 

17. Bafna^f, Temple. Burnet* 
8 informed 


the plague, which carried off near an hundred thou*- 
fand perfons in London in one year. The melan- 
choly apprehenfions occafioned by this calamity, add- 
ed to the horrors of war, were increafed by the prof- 
peft of new enemies. Lewis XIV. was obliged to 
affift the Dutch, in confequence of his alliance with 
de Wit and 'the States ; and the king of Denmark^ 
who was jealous of the naval power of England, en- 
gaged to furnifh thirty (hips in fiipport of the fame 
caufe, for an annual fubfidy of fifteen hundred thou- 
fand crowns*'. De Wit, however, who was now 
blamed as the author of the war, did not trufl to thefe 
alliances. He not only forwarded the naval prepara- 
tions, but went on board the fleet himfelf; and fo cx« 
tenfive was his genius, that he fooa became as much 
mafter of fea affairs, as if he had been bred to them 
from his infancy. By his courage and capacity, he 
quickly remedied al! the diforders occafioned by the 
late misfortune; infufcd new confidence into his party, 
and revived the declining valour of his country- 
men **• 

In order to balance fo formidable a combination, 
Charles attempted, but without fuccefs, to negociate 
an alliance v^ith Spain. Confcious, however, that * 
Lewis could have no ferious purpofe of exalting the 
power of Holland, and dated with recent fuccefs, he 
was not alarmed at the number of his enemies; though - 
every fliore was hoftile to the Englifli feamen, from 
the extremity of Noiway to the coaJl of Bayonne. A 
formidable fleet of feventy-eight fail of the line, com- 
manded by the diike of Albemarle and prince Rupert, 
fecmed to juftify the confidence of the king. But un- 
fortunately this force was divided in the mc;nient of 

21. LtU lyMflradeu 22. fiaiJQage. 



danger. It having been reported, that the duke of Beau- LETTER 
fort had entered the Channel, wkh a French fleet of |_„,^!,.,/ 
forty Ciil, prince Rupert was detached with twenty A. D. i665. 
fail to oppofe him. Meanwhile the Dutch fleet, to 
the somber of ninety fail, commanded by de Ruyter 
and Trompy had put to fea ; and Albemarle, not- 
withftanding his inferiority, rafhly fought an engage- 
ment **. But his valour atoned for his temerity. The 
battle that enfued is one of the mod memorable in the 
annals of mankind ; whether we conGder its duration, 
or the defperate courage with which it was fought. 

Four days did the combat rage, without any ap- 
pearance of Talour flackening on either fide. The 
Datch had the advantage in the adion of the firfl: day; 
yet Albemarle, in engaging de Ruyter, had (hewed 
himfclf worthy of his former renown. Two Dutch ad- 
mirals were flain, and three Englifh (hips taken. One 
Datch (hip was burnt. Darknefs parted the comba- 
tants. Next morning the battle was renewed with 
redoubled (iercenefs ; and the Dutch were ready to 
give way, when they were reinforced with fixteen ca- 
ptul (hips. The Englifh now found that the mod 
heroic valour cannot counterbalance the fuperiority of 
numbeif, againft an enemy not defedive either in 
courage or conduft. Albemarle, however, would 
yield to nothing but the interpofition of night; and, 
although he bad loft no (hips in this fecond adion, he 
found his force fo much weakened, that he refolved to 
take advantage of the darknefs and retire. But the 
vigilance of the enemy, and the (battered condidon 
of his fleet, prevented him from fully executing his de- 
ftgn. Before morning, however, he was able to make 
foroe way; audit was four in the aftemooni before de 

^l* CkrviiwU X^ifc. Comtin, of Buktr. 

Vol. IV. C Buyter 


* Ruytcr could come up with bim. His difabled (hips 
, were ordered to make all the fail poflible, and keep 
a-head, while he himfelfclofed the rear with fixteen of 
the mod entire, andprefented an undaunted counten- 
ance to the Hollanders. Determined lo peri(h fooner 
than to ilrike, he prepared to renew the adlion. But as 
he was fenfible the probability of fuccefs was againft 
him, he declared to the earl of Ofibry, fon of the duke 
of Ormond^ who was then on board with him, his in- 
tention to blow up his (hip rather than fall into the 
hands of the enemy: — and that gallant youth ap- 
plauded the dcfpcrate rcfolution. But fortune refcued 
both from fuch a violent death, at the fame time that 
it faved the Englifh navy. A fleet being defcried 
before the a£lion was renewed, fufpenfe for a time rc- 
ftrained the rage of the combatants. One party con- 
cluded it to be the duke of BeaulTort, the other Prince 
Rupert, and both rent tlie fky with their (houts. At 
length, to the unfpeakable joy of the £ngli(h, h was 
difcovered to be the Prince. Night prevented an iin* 
mediate renewal of the aftion, but next morning the 
battle raged with more intenfencfs than ever. Tlirough 
the whole fourth day the conreft remained doubtful; 
and toward evening both fleets, as if weary of carnage, 
retired under a thick fog to their refpe£live har- 
bours '♦. 

But the Englifh admirals were men of too high 
valour to be fatisfied with lefs than viftory. While 
they fent the difabled (hips to diflPerent docks to be 
refitted, they remained on board their own. The 
whole fleet was foon ready to put to fea, and a new 
engagement was eagerly fought. Nor was it long 
denied them. Ruyter and Tromp« with the Dutch 
14. BsJbage. Clorendoo. Heath. 



fleet, conGlling of about eighty fail j had potted them- LETTER 
felfes at the mouth of the Thames, in hopes of being ^ -^- i_ f 
joined by a French fquadroui and of riding trium- A. d. 1666^ 
phant in the Channel. Tkere they were defcried by 
the Englifli fleet under prince Rupert and Albemarle. 
The force on both fides was nearly equal. The Dutch 
bore toward the coatt of Holland^ biit were clofeiy 
purfued. At length they formed themfelves in oidcr 
of battle, and a terrible cohfliflb enfued. Sir Thomas J°Jy *?• 
Allen, who commanded the Englifli white fquadron, 
attacked the Dutch van with irrefillible fury, and 
killed the three admirals who commanded it. Tromp 
engaged, and defeated fir Jeremy Smith, admiral of 
the blue ; but unfortunately for his countrymen, by 
purfaing too eagerly, he was utterly fcparated from 
the Dutch centte, where his aflittance was much 
Wanted* Meanwhile de Ruyter, who occupied that 
dangerous ftation, maintained with equal conduct and 
courage the combat agalntt the centre of the Englifli 
fleet, commanded by Rupert and Albemarle. Over- 
powered by numbers, his high fpirit was at latt 
obliged to fubmit to a retreat, which he condu£ted 
with the greateft ability ; yet could he not help ex- 
claiming, in the agony of his heart, ** My God! 
<< what a wretch am I, to be compelled to fubmit to this 
" difgrace ! — Among fo many thoufand bullets, id 
*« there not one to put an end to my mifcrable life ?'* 
Tromp too, after all his fuccefs, was obliged to yield 
to the combined efforts of the Englifli red and blue 

Though the lofs futtaincd by the Dutch in this 
engagement was not very confiderable, it occafioned 
great conftemation among the provinces. The de-* 

%S* Ibid. 

C z feat 


PART IT. feat of their fleet filled them with the moft melanchoL 
A^^^TcbO. 'y apprehenfions. Some of thefc were foon realized. 
The Englifli, now abfolutc mafters of the fea, rode 
in triumph along the coaft, and infulted the Holland- 
ers in their harbours. A fquadron, under fir Ro- 
bert Holmes, entered the road of Vlie, and burnt two 
men of war and an hundred and forty rich merchant* 
men, together with the large village of Brandaris; the 
whole damage being computed at feveral millions Iter- 
ling «^ 

The fituation of de Wit was now truly critical. 
The Dutch merchants, uniting themfelves with the 
Orange faction, violently exclaimed againft an ad- 
miniftration, which, as they pretended, had brought 
difgrace and ruin on their country. But the firm and 
intrepid mind of dc Wit fupportcd him under all his 
difTiculties and diftrefles. Having quieted the pro- 
vinces cf Holland and Zealand, he gave himfelf little 
trouble about the murmurs of the reft, as they con- 
tributed but little toward the public expencc. The fleet 
of ;he republic was refitted in an incredibly fliort time, 
aiul n^'ain fcnt to fca under dcRuyter; and the kingof 
Traiicc, though plenfcd to fee England and Holland 
weakening each other's naval force, haftencd the \ 
filling of the duke of Beaufort, left a fccond defeat J 
fhould oblige his friend de Wit to abandon his dan- j 
gerous ftatlon^?. Such a defeat would certainly fl 
have happened to one, if not to both fleets, had | 
not a violent ftorm obliged prince Rupert to rctiie in- ? 
to St. Ileiijn's, Wliile he remained there, repairing ^ 
the d-nva;:es he had fuftained, dc Ruyter, who bad ' 
taken ftit Iter in the road of Boulogne, returned home 

iC. CI.irwi:d'jn, Heath a;. Bafnage. Lc Cicrc 



with his fleet in a fickly condition. The duke of Beau- Letter 
fortf who came too late to form a junflion with the » - - _f 
Dutch admiral, pafled both up and down ihe Channel ^•^- ^^^^ 
without being obferved by the Englifli fleet ; and 
Lewis XIV. anxious for the fafety of his infant navy, 
which be had reared with much care and indudry, 
difpatched orders to Beaufort to make the bed of his 
way to Bred *\ 

The fame florm which, by fea, prevented prince 
Ptupert from annoying the French and Dutch fleets, 
promoted a dreadful calamity on land. A fire broke 
out, at one in the morning, in a baker's (hop near ^*^P*' *• 
London-bridge, and had acquired great force before 
it was obferved. The neighbouring houfes were 
chiefly compofed of wood; the weather had long been 
remarkably dry ; the flreets were narrow, and the 
wind blew violently from the ead : fo that the flames 
fpread rapidly from houfe to houfe, and from ftreet 
to ftreet, till the whole city was in a blaze. Terror 
and condernation feized on the didra£led inhabitants; 
who confidered the conflagration, fo fad following the 
plague, as another vifitation from Heaven, on account 
of the crimes of the court; or as a confpiracy of the 
papifts, in conjun£lion with France, for the extirpa- 
tion of all true religion. Sufpicions even extended to 
the royal family ^9. Three nights and three days did 
the flames rage with increafing fury : on the fourth 
day, the wind falling, the fire ceafed in a manner as 
wonderful as its progrefs. Of twenty- fix wards, 
into which the city was divided, fifteen were burnt 
down; four hundred dreets and lanes, and thirteen 

:8. Clarendon I Lift^ Ceniln, of Baker » 29. fiurnct, book ii. 

C 3 • thoufand 


thoufand houfes were deftroyed ^^ But this calami- 
ty^ though feverely felt at the time, has eventually 
contributed to the health, fafety, and future oonve* 
jiiency of the inhabitants of London, by the judicious 
method oKcrved in conftrufting the new build- 
ings 5«; and^ what is truly remarkable, it does not 
appear that, .during the whole conflagration^ one life 
was Io(t either by fire or otberwife. 

Though the moll judicious hiftonans leave us no 
room to fuppofe that cither the catholics or the court 
had any concern in the fire of London, the very fuf- 
picion of fuch a confpiracy is a proof of the jealoufy 
entertained of the mcafures of government. This 
jealoufy was chiefly occafioned by the fcvcrities cxer- 
cifed againfl the Frefbyterians and other non-conform« 
ifts, who ftill compofcd the majority of the people of 
England ; and by the fecrct favour (hewn to the Ca- 
tholics, who, though profcribed by many laws, feldom 
felt the rigour of any. 

The non-conformifts in Scotland were, if poflli- 
ble, ftill more harfhly treated. In confequence of the 
introduftion of epifcopacy, a mode of worfliip ex- 
tremely obnoxious to the great body of the Scottifli 
nation, three hundred and fifty pariQi churches had 
been at once declared vacant. New minifters were 
fought for all over the kingdom, and the churches 
filled with men of the mod abandoned charaders. 
No candidate was fo ignorant or vicious as to be le- 
jcfted. The people, who were extremely devoted to 

50. JT/fffl- Jares^s Mem. Clarendon t Life, Burnct, ubi flip. 

3 T • The ftreets were not only made wider, and more regular than 
formerly, but the houfes were formed of Icfs combufiiblc materials, the 
life of lath and plaidcr being prohibited. 



tkcir former teachers (men remarkable for the auftc- letter 


liry of their manners and their fervour in preaching) ^_ ,— ._f 
could not conceal their indignation againft thefe in- A.D.i66fc 
truders, whofe debaucheries filled them with horror. 
They followed the ejefted clergymen to the woods 
and mountains, where multitudes aflVmbled to liften 
their pious difcourfes ; and while this pleafure was 
allowed them, they difcovcred no fymptoms of fedi- 
tion. But when tlve Scottifh parliament, which was 
wholly under the influence of the court, framed a law 
againft conventicles, (imilar to that fevere a£l paiTed 
in England, the people took the alarm : — and the 
cruelties and oppreflions exercifed in enforcing this 
law, at lafted roufed them to rebellion ^*. 

The inhabitants of the weftcrn counties, where 
religious zeal has always been more ardent than in any 
other part of Scotland, rofe in arms, to the number 
of two thoufand, and renewed the Covenant-. They 
conducted themfelves, however, in a harmlefs and in- 
offenfivc manner, committing no kind of violence, 
nor extorting any thing by force ; and they publifhed 
a manifefto, in which they profeflTed their loyalty and 
fubmiilion to the king, and only deCred the re-e(la- 
bU(hment of Prelbytery and their former minifters. 
As mod of the gentlemen of their party in the Weft, 
had been confined oxf fufpicion of an infurrc£tion, 
they marched toward Edinburgh, in hopes of being 
joined by fome men of rank ; but finding tbemfelves 
deceived, many difperfed, and the reft were marching 
back to their own country, when they were attacked 

32. Not only fuch as frequented conventicles were puniflicd to the 
otmod rigour of the law, but when it was found that the head of any 
family did not regularly go to chureh, foldicrs were quartered upon 
^m, till he paid a due attendance. Burnet, book ii. 

C4 hj 


by the king's forces, and routed at Pentland Hills. 

A.a'i666. ^ confiderabic number of prifoners were taken, and 

^'-^v. 28. treated with great feverity : ten where hanged on one 

gibbet at Edinburgh, and thirty-five before their own 

doors, in different parts of the country 33. 

*All thefe men might have faved their lives, if 
they would either have renounced the Covenant or 
difcovered any of their affbciates ; but, though moftly 
perfons of mean condition, they adhered inviolably to 
their faith and friendfliip. Maccail, one of their 
teachers, fuppofed to have been deep in the fecrets of 
his party, was put to the torture, in order to extort a 
confciTionj but without efie£t. He bore his fuflferings 
with great conilancy, and expiring under them, feem- 
cd to depart in a tranfport of joy. •* Farewell fan, 
** moon, and ftars,*' faid he ; — " farewell kindred and 
♦' friends ; farewell weak and frail body ; farewell 
^* world and time: welcome eternity, welcome an- 
** gels and faints, welcome Saviour of the world,, and 
** welcome God the judge of all ^* V* Thefc words 
he uttered with a voice and manner that made a great 
impreflion upon all that heard him, and contributed 
not a little to inflame the zeal of his partizans. Con* 
venticles continued to be attended in defiance of all 
the rigours of government, though thefe were extend- 
ed to a degree of feverity that was difgraceful to hu« 

The (late of Ireland was no lefs deplorable than 
that of Scotland ; but the miferies of the Iri{h pro* 
cceded from other caufcs. Thofe it muft now be our 
buCnefs to trace. 

Cromwell having expelled, without di(lin^on,all 
(he native Irifli from their three principal provinces 

33. Burnet, vol. i, book ii« ' 34. Id. ibid. 



Munftcr, Leinftcr, andUIftcr, had confined them to ^^™^^ 
Connaught and the county of Clare. Andalthoughthofc ^ - f 
who had tlius been expelled were generally Catholics, 
many of them were altogether innocent of the maffacre 
which had drawn fo much odium on their country- 
men of that religion. Several Proteftants too, and 
the duke of Ormond among the reft, who had uni- 
formly oppofed the Irifh rebellion, were alfo attaint- 
ed, bccaufe they had afterward embraced the king's 
caufe againft the parliament. To all thefe unhappy 
{}xScT€vSf fome relief feemed due after the Reftora- 
tion; but the difficulty was, how to find the means of 
redrcffing fuch great and extenfive grievances. 

The mod valuable lands in Ireland had been already 
meafared put and divided, cither among the adven* 
torcTS who had lent money to the parliament for the 
fupprefiion of the popifli confpiracy, or among the 
foldiers who had accomplifhed that bufinefs. Thefe 
men could not be difpofleiTed *, becaufe they were the 
moft powerful, and only armed part of the inhabitants 
of Ireland ; becaufe it was neceflary to favour them, 
in order to fupport the Proteftant and Englifh intercft 
in that kingdom ; and becaufe they had generally, with 
feeming zeal and alacrity, concurred in the king's Re^ 
ftoration. Charles, therefore, iflued a proclamation, 
in which be promifed to maintain their fettlement ; 
and he at the fame time engaged to yield rcdrefs to 
the innocent fufferers ^^ 

There was a confiderable quantity of land ftill un- 
divided in Ireland ; and from this and other funds, it 
was thought pofiible for the king to fulfil his engage- 
ments, without difturbiiig the prefent landholders. A 

35. Ctfte*$ Li/e o/ilfc Duh of OpnonJ, vol. ii. Hume, vol . vii. 



A. D. 1666. 

PART If. Court of Claims was accordingly ercfled, conGfting 
altogether of Englifh comrnKTioners^ ^vho had na 
connexion with any of the parties into which Ireland 
was divided ; and the duke of Ormond, being fup- 
pofed the only pcrfon whofe prudence and jufticc 
could compofe fiich jarring interefts, was created lord- 
Jieutcnant. The itumber of claims prefented fpread 
vniTcrfal anxiety and alarm ; but after a temporary 
ferment, all parties fcemed willing to abate fomewhat 
of their pretenfions, in order to obtain ftability. 
Ormond intcrpofed his authority to that purpofe. 
The foldiers and adventurers agreed to relinquifh a 
fourth o£ their pofledions : all thofe who had been 
attainted on account of their adherence to the king 
were rcftored, and fomc of the innocent Catholics'*. 

In confi^quence of this fettlement, Ireland began 
to acquire a degree of compofure, when it was dif- 
turbcd by an impolitic a6V, pafTed by the Englifh par* 
)iament» prohibiting the importation of Irifti cattle 
into England. Ormond remonftrated ftrongly againft 
that law. He faid, that the trade then carried on be- 
tween England and Ireland was extremely to the ad- 
vantage of the former kingdom, which received only 
provifions^ or rude materials, in return for every fpc- 
cies of manufadure ; that if the cattle of Ireland were 
prohibited, the inhabitants of that ifland had no other 
commodity with which they could pay England for 
their importations, and muft therefore have rccourfc 
to other nations for a fupply ; that the induftrious 
part of the inhabitants of England, if deprived of 
Irifli provifionS) which made living cheap, would be 
pbiiged to augment the price of labour^ and thereby 

36. Id. ibid. 




render their manufactures too dear to be exported lstter. 
With ad?antage to foreign markets n. _ , ^ 

The king was fo well convinced of the force of 
thcfc arguments, that he ufed all his intercft to op- 
pofe the billi and declared that he could not give his A. D. 1667, 
aflcDt to it with a fafe confcience. But the commons ^^ * * 
were obftinate, and Charles was in want of fupply : 
he was therefore impelled by his fears of a refufal to 
pafs it into a law ^*. The event, however, juftified 
the reafoning of Ormond. This fevcrc law brought 
great diftrefs upon Ireland for a time ; but it has 
proved in the iflue beneficial to that kingdom, and 
hurtful to England, by obliging the Iri(h to apply 
with more induftry to manufa^ures, and to cultivate 
a commercial concfpondence with France. 

These grievances and difcontents in all the thiee 

kingdoms, and the little fuccefs in a war from which 

the greateft advantages were expected, induced the 

king to turn his thoughts toward peace. The Dutch, 

whofe trade had fuffercd extremely, were no lefs dif- 

pofed to fuch a meafure ; and after fome ineffeduai 

conferences, held in the queen-mother's apartments 

at Paris, it was agreed to transfer the negociation to 

Breda. The Englifh ambafladors, lord HoUis and 

Henry Coventry, immediately defired, that a fufpen- 

fioo of boftilities (hould be agreed to, until the feve« 

ral claims could be adjufted; but this propofal, feem- 

ingly fo natural, was reje£led through the influence of 

the penetrating de Wit. That able and a£live minif- 

ter, perfe^ly acquainted with the chara£lers of the 

ccmtending princes, and with the (ituation of affairs 

is Europe, had difcovered an opportunity of (triking a 

37. Carte, nbl fup. 3$. iW/. HiJI. vol xziii. 



blow, which might at once reftore to the Dutch the 
honour loft during the war, andfeverely revenge thofe 
injuries which he afcribed to the wanton ambition and 
injuftice of the Englifti monarch. ^ 

The expence of the naval armaments of England 
bad been fo great, that Charles bad not hitherto been 
able to convert to his own ufe any of the money 
granted him by parliament. He therefore refolved to 
fave, as Ut as poilible, the lad fupply of one million 
eight hundred thoufand pounds, for the ptyntent of 
his debts. This fum, which was thought by his wifeft 
miniilers too fmall to enable him to carry on the war 
with vigour, afforded the profufe and needy monarch • 
a pretence for laying up his firft and fecond rate (hips. 
Nor did that meafure appear highly reprehenfible^ as 
the immediate profpefl of peace feemed fufficient to 
free the king from all apprehenfions of danger from 
his enemies. But de Wit, who was informed of thil 
fupine fccurity, protradted the negociations at Breda, 
and hadened the naval preparations of Holland. The 
Dutch fleet under de Ruyter, took pofTeflion of the 
mouth of the Thames ; while a fquadron commanded 
by Van Ghent, aflided by an ead wind and a fpring 
tide, after reducing Shecrnefs, broke a chain which bad 
been drawn acrofs the river Medway, and deftroyed 
three fliips Rationed to guard it; advanced as far as 
Chatham, and burned the Royal Oak, the Loyal 
London, and the Great James, all firft rates, and car- 
ried ofl' the hull of the Royal Charles ♦^. 

The deftru£lion of the (hips at Chatham threw 
the city of London into the utmoft cooilcrnation.. 

30. Barr.age. 40. ClarcnJons Lrfe. Khg 'Jojues^s Mem, Captain 
D(ru.^la««, who commaiidwd'on board the Royal Oak, poriflicd in the 
flames, tliough he had an cdy opportunity of cfeaping. ** Never wa» 
it known,** faid he, *<that a Douglas quitted his poft without orders !** 
Temple, vol. ii. 

9 It 


It was apprcheoded the Dutch would next fail up the I.ETTF.R. 
Thames* and that they might carry their hoftilitics . * f 
cTcn as far as London-bridge. Nine (hips were funk A.V. 1667. 
at Woolwich, fi?c at Blackwall ; platforms were 
hoilt in many places, furniflied with artillery ; the 
country was armed, and the train-bands of the city 
were called out. Thefe precautions, and the diflicult 
narigation of the Thames, induced de Ruytcr to ilccr 
his coarfe to the weftward. He made a fruitlcfs at- 
tempt upon Portfmouth, and alfo on Plymouth ; lie 
retomed to the mouth of the Thames, where he was 
not more fuccefsful $ but he rode triumphant in the 
Channel for feveral weeks, and fpread univerfal alarm 
along the coaft *♦. 

These fears, however, were foon difpclled by the 
figning of the treaty at Breda. In order to facilitate July 10. 
that meafure, fo neceflary in his prefeiit diflrefled 
fituation, Charles had inftrufled his ambaflTadors to 
recede from thofe demands which had hitherto ob- 
ftra^lcd the negociation. No mention was now made 
of the reftitution of the ifland of Poleronc in the Eafl 
Indies, which had been formerly infiflcd on ; nor was 
any fatisfaftion required for thofe depredations, which 
had been affigned as the caufe of the war. England, 
however, retained poflcflion of New York ; and the 
£ng1i(h fettlement of Surinam, which had been re« 
dttced by the Dutch, was ceded to the republic ^\ 

But this pacification, though it removed the ap- 
prehenfions of danger, by no means quieted the dif* 
contents of the people. All men of fpirit were filled 
with indignation at the improvidence of government, 
and at the avarice, meannefs, and prodigality of the 
king, who in order to procure money to fquander upon 

41. Id. ibid. 42. CUrcndoo, ubi Tup. 


A.D. 166;. 



PART II. his pleafures, had left his kingdom cxpofed to infut^ 
and difgrace. In a word, the ihanneful concluGon of 
the Dutch war, totally difpellcd that delirium of joy, 
which had been occafioned by the Rcftoration ; and 
the people, as if awaking from a dream, wondered 
why they had been picafcd. 

Charles, who amid all his diffipations ^ffcffdg 
and even employed a confiderable (hare of political 
faf^acity, as well as addrcfs, refolved to attempt tfie 
recovery of his popularity, by facrificing his mini* 
(Icr to tlie national rcfentment. The plan in part fuo- 
cccdcd, as it feemed to iiulicate a change of meafures^ 
at the fame lime that it prcfented a grateful offering 
to an offended people. 

Though the earl of Clarendon had for fome time 
loft the conflJcnce of his fovereign, by the aufterity 
of his manners, and the l"j verity of his rem on ft ranees, 
he was ftiil eonfidercd by tlie public as the head of 
tlie cabinet, and rc!;a riled r.s tlie author of every un- 
popular me.^.furc fince the llcftoration. The ktng^s 
marringc, in uhich hz Ljd merely acquiefced ; the 
fale cF Dunkirk, to wliich he had only given his 
aG'enr, as one of the council •, the Dutch war, which 
he had oppofed ; and all the ptrrfccuring laws againft 
the difi'v;rent fccfl-iries, were unive;faily afcribed to 
him. Tkc Catholics \::\c\v him to be the declared 
enemy of their princlivlcs, both civil and religious : 
f.) tliat he was expcfed, one way or other, to the 
hj^rcd of every part;/ in the nation. This general 
odiem aUcrded the kin:^; a pretence lor depriving him 
of the fcrah , and difmiifing him from his councils | 
and the parliament, to whom Charles ungeneroufly 
gave the hint, firll impeached, and then baiiiflicd 



K'at^. Ccdfdcas of hLs own ionoccncci and unwil- l.rrTln 
lir^ CO di ^Ljb the mnquillitT of the ftatc, the chan- > , - .^ 
cslljr tn^c CO dcfcccc, but quiccly fubmiitcd to his A. U. it»*»7« 
f-,..^ry_ And this cmcl treatment of fo good a lui- 
nlJler, by a tind 01 uci: combination of prince and 
pecpli, is a ^liirg example of the ingratitude of the 
one, ac-i of the ignorance and injufticc of the other; 
for if Clarendoa was not a great, he was at lead ati 
oprigfat, and ercn an able ilatefmnn. lie was, to 
nfe the words of his friend Southampton, *• a ti nc 
** Protsflact, and an honeft EHgli(hman ;*' c<]uaIJy 
attentife to the jud prerogatives of the crown, and 
to the conftitotional liberties of the fubje(f>, whatever 
errors be might be guilty of either in foreign or do- 
meiiic politics. 

The king's next meafure, namely the Triple Al- 
liance, was no Icfs popular, and more dcferving of 
praifie. Bat before I fpeak of that alliance, wc mud 
take a view of the (late of France and Spain. 

Lewis XIV. who aflumed the reins of govern- 
ment nearly at the fame time that Charles I[. was 
reftored to the throne of his anceftors, poflcfled every 
quality that could flatter the pride, or conciliate the 
affedions of a vain-glorious people. The manly 
beamy of his perfon, in which he furpafled all Jiig 
courtiers, was cmbelliflied with a noble air; the dig- 
nity of his behaviour was tempered with affability 
and politenefs ; and if he was not the greacefl king, 
he was at lead, to ufc the words of my lord Boling- 
broke, •* the bcft aftor of majefty that ever filled a 
" throne *♦." Addided to pleafure, but decent even 

4V ^i»g James*t Miwu'n* CUrtndons Lift, 44. l^ttirt m tU 



in his fenfualiiics, he fct an example of elegant gal- 
lantry to his fubjcdls; while he dated their vanity, 
and gratified their paffion for flicw, by the magnifi- 
cence of his palaces and the fplendour of his public 
entertainments. Though illiterate himfclf, he was a 
munificent patron of learning and the polite arts; 
and men of genius, not only in his own kingdom, 
but all over Europe, experienced the foftering influence 
of his liberality. 

Dazzled with the lullre ef fo many {hining qua- 
lities, and proud to participate in' the glory of tbcir 
young fovereign, the French nation fubmitted with- 
out murmuring to the moft violent ftretches of arbi- j^ 
tnry power. This fubmiflive loyalty, combined 
w ith the ambition of the prince, the induftry and in- 1 
genuity of the people, and her ovirn internal tran- 
c]uiiiity, made France, which had long been diftra£led 
by c!oiric:{lic factions, and overfliadowed by the gran- 
deur of the Spanifn monarchy, now appear truly for- 
ni,luablc to the neighbouring kingdoms. Colbert, an 
• ai*d active minilUr, had put the finances into cx- 
c::l:ent order ; enormous fums were raifed for the 
public fcrvicc; a navy was created, and a great ftand- 
i.'i;^ army fi:?portcii, wiihcut being felt by that po- 
pulous anJ cxtenfive kingdom. 

Cc N ^ c r o us ofhis power and his rcfources, the French 
monarch and early «:;ivcn fymptomsof that haughty fjri- 
lit, that rcfllcfs ambi;ion, and infatiable thirft of glory^ 
which fo long diflurbed ilie peace of Europe. A quar- 
rel havini; ivappcr-cd, in London, between the French 
and SpaniHi jjiihaiTadors, on account of their claims 
to precedency, Lewis threatened to commence ho(li« 
liticF, unlt'L tilt fuperioiity of his crown was acknow- 
ledged s 


ledged ; and was not falisfied till the court of Madrid letter 

fent a folemn cmbafTy to Paris, and promifed never y_ -^-i_v 

more to revive fuch claims. His treatment of the pope A. D. 1667. 

was (till more arrogant. Crcqui, the Fcench ambaf- 

lador at Rome, having met with an afFront from the 

guards of Alexander VII. that pontiff was obliged to 

punifli the offenders, to fend his nephew into France 

to z(k pardon, and to allow a pillar to be erefled in 

Rome itfelf, as a monument of his own humiliation. 

Nor did England efcape experiencing the lofty fpiric 

of Lewis. He refufed to pay the honours of the flag; 

and prepared himfelf with fuch vigour for refillance, 

that the too eafy Charles judged it prudent to defift 

from his pretenfions. " The king of England/' faid 

he, to his ambaffador d'Eftradcs, ^* may know the a- 

*^ mount of my force, but he knows not the elevation 

•• of my mind. Every thing appears to me contemp- 

•* tiblc in comparifon of glory ♦'.'* 

These were (Irong indications of the charaflcr of 
the French monarch, but the firll meafurc that gave 
general alarm was the iuvafion of the Spanifli Nether- 

Though Lewis XIV. by the treaty of the Pyre- 
' aces, had folemnly renounced all title to the fuccefTion 
of any part of the Spanifli dominions, which might 
occur in confequence of his marriage with the infanta 
Maria Therefa, he had ilill kept in view, as a favourite 
objcfl, the eventual fucceflfion to the whole of that 
monarchy; and on the death of his father-in-law, 
Philip IV. he retraced his renunciation, and pre- 
tended that natural rights, depending on blood and 
focceffion, could not be annihilated by any extorted 

45. D' EJlmdtt LetUrs, 

Vpi, IV. D deed 


PART 11. deed or contraft. Philip had left a fon, Charles II. 

A.D.1667. o^ Spaini a fickly infant, whofe death was daily ex« 
pecked ; but as the queen of France was the ofispriog 
of a prior marriage, (he laid claim to a confiderable 
province of the SpaniOi monarchy to the exclufion 
even of her brother. This claim was founded on 
a cuftom in fome parts of Brabant, where a female 
of a firft marriage was preferred to a male of a 
fecond, in the fucceflion to private inheritances; and 
from which Lewis inferred, that his queen had ac« 
quired a right to the fovereignty of that important 

Such an ambitious claim was more fit to be ad* 
jufted by military force than by argument ; and, in 
that kind of difpute, the king of France was fenfible 
of his fuperiority. He had only to contend with a 
weak woman, Mary Anne of Auftria, queen-regent 
of Spain, who was entirely governed by father Nitard^ 
her confeiTor, a German Jefuit, whom (he had placed 
at the head of her councils, after appointing him grand 
inquifitor. The ignorance and arrogance of this prieft 
are fufficiently difplayed in his well known reply to 
the duke of Lerma, who had treated him with difre- 
fpeft : *• You ought to revere the man," faid he, 
^* who has every day your God in his hands, and 
•* your queen at his feet ^.^ 

Father Nltard and his miftrefs had left the Spa- 
nifh monarchy defencelefs in every quarter. But had 
the towns in the Low Countries been more ftrongly 
garrifoned, and the fortifications in better repair, the 
king of France was prepared to overcome all difficul* 
ties. He entered Flanders at the head of forty thou« 

46. Voltaire, SUtUf chap.vii. 




{and men : Turenne commanded under him ; and letter 

LooToisy his minifter for military affairs, had placed ^_ -^ / 

hrge magazines in all the frontier towns. The Spa- ^'^' >^^"- 
aiards, though apprifed of their danger, were in no 
condition to refift fuch a force. Charleroy, A the, 
Tournay, Furnes, Armentiers, Coutray, and Douay, 
imnaediately furrendcred ; and Lifle, though well for- 
tified, and fumifhed with a garrifon of Cx thoufand 
men, capitulated after a fiege of nine days. Louvois Aug. 27- 
adrifed the king to leave gairifons in all thefc towns» 
SLnd the celebrated Vauban was employed to fortify 
them *7* 

A PROGRESS fo rapid filled Europe with terror and 
confternation. Another campaign, it was fuppofed, 
night put Lewis in pofTeffion of all the Low Coun- 
tries. The Dutch w^erc particularly alarmed at the 
profpeA of having their frontier expofcd to fo power- 
ful and ambitious a neighbour. But, in looking a- 
round them, they fa w no means of fafety : for although 
tbe emperor and the German princes difcovered evi- 
dent fymptoms of difcontent, their motions were 
flow and backward ; and no dependence, the States 
thought, could be placed on the variable and impo- 
litic councils of the king of England. Contrary to 
all cspeftation, however, the Englifli monarch re- 
vived to take the firft flep toward a confederacy, 
which fliould apparently have for its objcft the re- 
ftnining of the power, and the ambitious pretenfions 
of France. 

Sir William Temple, the Englifli refident at Bruf- 
f^I«j received orders to go fecretly to the Hague for ^ p j^^g 

4? Id. ibid. The citadel df Liilc wat the firft fort conftru(^cd ac- 
^wdiiig to his new principles. 

D a this 


PART II. jj^jg purpofe. Frank, open, firiccrc, and fupcrior to 
A.D,i66S. ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^irts of vulgar politicians, Temple met in 
de Wit with a man of the fame generous fentiments 
and honourable views. He immediately difclofed his 
mader's intentions ; and, although jealoufy of the 
family of Orange might infpire de Wit with an 
averfion againft a ilrif^ union with England, he pa- 
triotically refolved to facrifice every private confldera- 
tion to the public fafety. Lewis, dreading a general 
combination, had offered to relinquifli all his queen's 
rights to Brabant, on condition either of keeping the 
conqueds he had made lad campaign, or of receiving 
indead of them Franche-Compte, Aire, and St. Omers. 
De Wit and Temple founded their treaty upon that 
propofal : they agreed to offer their mediation to the 
contending powers, and to oblige France to adhere to 
this alternative, and Spain to accept it ♦*. A defenCve 
alliance was at the fame time concluded between 
England and Holland ; and room being left for the 
acccfTion of Sweden, which was foon after obtained, 
that kingdom alfo became a principal in the treaty. 

This alliance, which has always been confidered 
as the wifed meafure in the difgraccful reign of 
Charles II. redored Ejigland to her proper ftation in 
the fcale of Europe, and highly exalted the confe- 
quence of Holland. Yet it is fomewhat furprifing, 
that the fame confederacy which was concerted to put 
a dop to the conqueds of Lewis XIV. did not alfo 

48. Temple at firft infilled on an oiFenfive league between England 
and Ho.Iar.d, in order to oblige France to rclicquilh all her conqueib; 
but this de Wit confidered as too flrong a meafure to be agreed to by the 
States. The French monarch, he faid, was young, haughty, and 
powerful : and if treated in fo mperious a manner, would ezpofe hhn- 
feir to the greatcll cxtrcroiticsr thcr than fubmit. Temfles Memtirs^ 
part f. 



require a pofitive renunciation of his unjuft prcten- letter 
fions to the Spanifli fucce(Eon*, for if his former re- t_. ^,-..^ 
nonciations were no bar to the fuppofed rights accru- ^'^' '^'^^» 
ing to Maria Therefa, his queen, on the death of her 
£ather, Philip IV. they could be none to the rights 
that would accrue to her and her children on the death 
of ber brother Charles, whofe languifhing (late of 
health left no room to hope that he could ever live to 
haTe offspring. But our furprife on this account 
ceafest when we are told, that the king of England 
was a£luated by no views of general policy ; that to 
acquire a temporary popularity with his fubjeAs, to 
ruin de Wit, by detaching him from France *, and, 
in confequence of his fall, to raife the family of 
Orange, were Charles's only motives for (landing 
forth as the head of the Triple Alliance ^\ It gave 
however, at the time, great fatisfa£lion to the con« 
tra^ng powers, and filled the negociators with the 
highcft joy. " At Breda, as friends!"— cried Tem- 
p»cj—«< here as brothers!" and de Wit added, that 
now the bufinefs was finiflied, it looked like a mi- 
racle '^ 

France and Spain were equally difpleafed at the 

terms of this treaty. Lewis was enraged to find 

limits fct to his ambition; for although his own cfTcr 

was made the bafis of the league, that offer had only 

been thrown out, in order to allay the jealoufy of the 

neighbouring powers, and to keep them in a Rate of 

inaftion, till he had reduced the whole ten provinces 

of the Low Countries. Spain was no Icfs ciir.iti>ricd 

at the thought of being obliged to give up io many 

unportant places, on account of fuch unjud claims 

49* Affiii. A Ccimi'lf, torn. ii. Sec alfo Macph.rfoii's IlrJI, if 
'^"*«», ToL L ar.d Dairy n-:plc*« A^-^sni, :=. TtrK'lct M-.-r* part i, 

D 3 and 


PART II. 2i\A unprovoked hoftilittes. At length, howerer» 
Xr5^i668, both agreed to treat, and the plenipotentiaries of all 
the parties met at Aix-la-Chapellc ; where Spaiii, 
from a confcioufnefs of her own weaknefs, accepted 
of the alternative offered by France, but in a way 
that occafioned general furpfife, and gave much un« 
eafinefs to the Dutch. Lewis, under pretence of en- 
forcing the peace, had entered Franche-Comte in the 
month of February, and reduced the whole province 
in a few weeks. Spain chofe to recover this provincCi 
and to abandon all the towns conquered in Flanders 
during the laft campaign ^' ; fo that the French mo- 
narch ftill extended his garrifons into the heart of the 
Low Countries, and but a (lender barrier remained to 
the United Provinces. But as the Triple League 
guarantied the remaining provinces of Spain, and the 
emperor and the German princes, whofe interefti 
appeared to require its fupport, were invited to 
enter into the fame confederacy, Lewis, it was 
thought, could entertain no views of profecuting his 
iionqueOs in the quarter which lay moft expofed to bis 

Other circumftances fcemed to combiiic to enfure 
the balance of Europe. After a ruinous war of al- 
moft thirty years, carried on by Spain, in order to 
recover the fovereignty of Portugal, and attended 
with various fuccefs, an equitable treaty had at laft 
been concluded between the two crowns, in confe* 
quence of which the independency of Portugal was 
acknowledged '^. Being now free from fo formidable 

a foe, 

51. Id. ibid. 

f^i. This treaty, which was coiithiJcd through tlie mediation of the 
king of England, and to wlilch a body of Englifti troops had greatly 
contributed by thtir valour, was partly coxinccled with a very lingular 



a foe, Spain might be expcQed to exert more Tigotn* LZTTEft 
in defence of her pofleflions in the Low CsuRtries ; f...^..Jl^ 
and the fatisfa&ion expreflfed in England on accoant ^•^ i^iw 
of the bee treaty, promifcd the mod hearty cone or- 
rente of the parliament in every meafcrc that Ihoiild be 
propofed for confining the dangerous gre«tne£i of 

But the bold ambition of Levb XiV. aided by 
die pernicioos policy of the faithJcGi Charles, fooa 
bibke through tU reftraints ; and, as we fiiall after* 
ward have occaGon to fee, fet at defiance more for- 
midable confederacies than the Triple Alliance. 

Alphonfo VL (fon of tht ftmoat cz\e cf En^izi^f vbo 
U CBOoiira|;ed the Portogoefe to (hake <£ the Sf «:.2i jr. k^, lai «rbo 
«u rewarded with the crown) a weak aod prcfil^c pi&^« K^ 'dEiroA- 
<d ha (iii^edA hj faffering hixafcif to be ^rrrerccc hj the mcac coapa* 
' tfmafhUplcafares. His quecs, daoghtsr cf 'JLs, <i;Jbe of KenMiiri. 
VtnAedby the more a^ceable qaalities of LI- brorhn-, D<% Pedro^ 
Mmk ku bed, and fled to a sncx^erx. She acr'.:f£d him of cebilitf 
^ochgfbodfand mind, fued for a divorce, aod pat htritM, m the oseaa 
^"M, mder the proteclion of the charch A laSdor. C^ztd C-.'c 'Krtz :hci 
AJphoQlb, who was confined in the ifhsd of Terccra ; 7/ his bro- 
ther, who imnediately married the qutcc, W2,i der.'ired rcg*nt of tr.e 
lunfdomia theaflembly of the Su:?«. (Vertot Hnl Jt la Re^, dm 
Fat.) Don Pedro, a prirce of aSiIitir% wa« prep irir.jr toafT-n with 
vigovr the independency of iiii ojoritry, whcsi: waicf::.'::i;fb;'ibx treaty 
in dk beginning of the y^ar i C. 3. 


r:£=; ::. 

:r: Tcu!- 

• .^ t"!- ' 

-e!::: c: C«nixj, widb 

,« .U ,.. 

'zr.z o: 

: bcjri, 

. unliT tht duke of B 

::. Eu: ss no c:: 

:er CL: 

if:iin rr'r.zz ioiicaCed 


PART :*. :h:-:"--:£ T:r.:z=r:;5, ur.der :hi: sb'.f and crpcria 
^Tj;.,.,^ grntri:, r-i n?w biufgri Ciniii for upward of 
ysirs. B-: ".e ::n:.e :: :hf Cr-fiies was long 1 
and L-.s irc.-r vr'r'zh iz:^itz thtni csunguifl 
Thca;:!- :h.i i:':r.i \ri5 :-ru:ci cze ci the chief 
warivs c: Cl-r:.:,-rc:.-s azi:"- - «: ir.r.icls, no ga 
cczzt^t'zzY hii b-iir. frrzisi :r: i-^ ii'fencc. 
peps i"i u-J iL.j:h:s c: Mi :a vc.-- the onir allk 
the Vcns::ir.5 s^ ihr ^hc.e r.iTal and mil 
fjjrwc cf tr.i eirr':r;. A: iingcb, hovi 
L«-.v:a XIV. \vh::fs i:vc c: glcry had ciade him a 
the c.T.r^irc: airiirfi :h« TcrJts crsn in Hungary, 

A. D.I 56:. a 


cxa-rple, thsfj f-jwcurs firvcd opIt :o retard the i 
quell of ihi: ir.irc.-un: ii!icd. The cuke of B 
fort was Cjiin In a :al> ; acd die capiral being rcdi 
Sept. I*. to a hcip cf ruin*, furrerdered ro KupruU '• 

Turks, during this I'ejie, d:fcov;reJ great knowk 
of the military an ; and MorcGni, the Venetian 
irJril, snd Montbrur, who co'rmar.ied the troo| 
the republic, made a!t :he exertions and took adi 
cage oi all the circuciilAncvSy that teemed polEbk 
valour and conJucl^ in oppciitlon to fuch fupcrioi 

These diftant operations did not a moment di 
the attention of Lewis from his fdvourite pioj 
tht coaqneft of the Low Countries, which he n 
cuiTTtr nvith the initfioB of HoUand. But, in 

it fcemed 1 
I faoipili^ Triple AlfancT,, 



conciliated kings, and reftored tranquillity to Ea- i.etter 

A.U. i66«. 

Thesi were unpardonable affronts in the eyes of a 
jOQDg and haughty monarch, furrounded by minions 
and miftrefles, and ftimulated by an infatiable third of 
glory. But ^t^hilft Lewis was making preparations 
fbrchaftifing the infolence of the Dutch, or rather 
for the conquefi. of Holland, his love of fame waf 
ittraQed by a new ohjefl, and part of his forces em- 
ployed agalnft an enemy more deferving the indigna- 
iba of the Moft Chrljiian King. 

The Turks, after a long interval of inaclion, were 
again become formidable to Europe. The grand vi« 
zicr, Kuprulii who at once dire£led the councils and 
oonduded the armies of the Porte, had entered Hun- 
gary at the head of an hundred thoufand men, in 
1664; and although he was defeated, in a great bat- 
tle, near St. Godard upon the Raab, by the imperial 
troops, under the famous Montecuculi, the Turks ob- 
tained a favourable peace from Leopold, who was 
threatened with a revolt of the Hungarians. The 
Hoogarian nobles, whofe priTileges had been invaded 
by the emperor, flew to arms, and even craved the 
afliftance of the Turks, their old and irreconcilable 
enemies. The rebels were quickly fubdued by the 
vigour of Leopold. But the body of that brave people 
who had fo often repelled the infidels, and tilled, with 
the fword in their hand, a country watered with the 
Uood of their anceftors, were dill diflatisfied ; and 
Germany itfclf, deprived of fo ftrong a barrier as Hun- 
gary, was foon threatened by the Turks. 

In the mean time Kupruli turned the arms of the 
Porte againlt the Venetians ; and an army of fixty 



PART ir. thoufand Janizaries, under that able and experienced 

a7d7i668. general, had now bcGegcd Candia for upward of two 
years. But the time of the Crufades'was loilg paft, 
and the ardour which infpired them extinguiihed. 
Though this ifland was reputed one of the chief boU 
warks of Chriftendom againft the infidels, no general j 
confederacy had been formed for its defence. The 
pope and the knights of Malta were the only allies of ; 
the Venetians againft the whole naval and military ' 
force of the Ottoman empire. At length, howevcTi 
Lewis XIV. whofe love of glory had made him aflift 
the emperor againft the Turks even in Hungary, fent , 

A. D. 1669. ^ ^^^^ ^''^"^ Toulon to the relief of Candia, with fe« 
ven thoufand men on board, under the duke of Beau- 
fort. But as no otHer Chriftian prince imitated hit 
example, thefe fuccours ferved only to retard the coa« ; 
queft of that important ifland.' The duke of Beau* ■ 
fort was flain in a fally ; and the capital being reduced a 

8ept. i(. to a heap of ruins, furrendered to Eupruli'. Thei 
Turks, during this fiege, difcovered great knowledge 
of the military art ; and Morofini, the Venedan ad* 
miral, and Montbrun, who commanded the troops of 
the republic, made all the exertions, and took advan* 
tage of all the circumftances, that feemed poflible for 
valour and condu£t| in oppofiuon to fuch fuperior ar« 

These diftant operarions did not a moment divert: ^ 
the attention of Lewis from his favourite proje^ 
the conqueft of the Low Countries, which he meant: 
to refume with the invafion of Holland. But, in or* 
der to render that proje£b fuccefsful, it feemed necelL' 
fary to detach England from the Triple Alliance. Tl 
was no difEcult matter. 

3. Volt»irc, ubi fup. Hcnault, 1669. 



SiircE the exile of Clarendon, which had been letter 


preceded by the death of JSourhampton, and was foon ^--'j 
feBowcd by that of Albemarle, Charles II. having A.ai6n<;. 
ao man of principle to he a check upon his condu£t, 
tad given up his mind entirely to arbitrary counfels. 
Thefe counfels were whotly direAed by five perfons, 
^ commonly denominated the Cabal, in allufion to 
' tbe initial letters of their names ; Clifford, Afhley, 
Buckingham, Arlington, and Lauderdale : all men of 
abilities, but deftitute of either public or private vir- 
tue. They had flattered Charles in his defire of ab- 
firfute power, and encouraged him to hope that he 
mighc accompHSi it by a clofe connexion with 
Trance \ Lewis, they fiiid, if gratified in his ambi- 
tion, would be found both able and willing to defend 
. the common caufe of kings againil ufurping TubjeAs ; 
lot the conqueft of the United Provinces, undertaken 
Iff two fuch potent monarchs, would prove an eafy 
cntcrprife, and eiTeflually contribute to the attain- 
BKDt of the great purpofe defired ; that, under pre- 
teoce of the Dutch war, the king might levy a mili- 
tary force, without which he could never hope to 
anintain, or enlarge his prerogative; and that, by 
iiibdning the republic of Holland, a great ftep would 
be made toward a deCrable change in the Englifli go- 
terament ; as it was evident the fame and grandeur 
tf that republic fortified his majefty's fadious fubjefls 

4. Charles's defirc of abfolute power feenis to have proceeded more 
im a love of cafcy and an indolence of temper, than from any in- 
Atttioo to opprefs his fubjc<5l4. He wiihcd to be able to raife the ne- 
oAry fiipplies without the trouble of mana<;ing the paHiament. But 
■kiiprofoiloD was boundlcfs, and h'n ncceflities in confequcncc of ic 
^ great, it may be quediontd whether, if he had accomplifhcd his 
life|he wouU not have loaded h-s people with taxes beyond what they 
ttoUeafjly bear. At any rate, the attempt was atrocious; was trcafou 
fuaH the couHirutioii, and ought to be held in eternal dctciUtioD. 



PART II. in their attachment to what they vainly termed the£^ 
k^D^^bq ^'^*^ ^"^ religious liberties ^ 

But although fuch were the views of the king, ancX 
fuch the fentiments of his miniftersi fo confciou8wa# 
Charles of the criminality of the meafures he meant 
to purfue, that only two of the unprincipled mein* ^ 
bers of the Cabal were thought fit to be traded with jjl 
his whole fcheme ; Clifford and Arlington, both le- m 
cretly Roman Catholics ^. By the counfels of thefe 
men, in conjunction with the duke of York and fomc 
other Catholics, was concluded at Paris* by the lord 
Arundel of Wardour, a fecret treaty with France | 
in which it was agreed, not only that Charles (hoald 
co-operate in the conquefl; of the Low Countries, and ] 
in the dedrudlion of Holland, but that he (houldpfXH : 
pagace, to the utmod of his power, the Catholic faith 4 
in his dominions, and publicly declare himfelf a con* "^ 
vert to that religion 7. In conGderation of this laft 
article, he was to receive from Lewis the fum of two 
hundred thoufand pounds, and a body of troops, in 
cafe the change of his religion (hould occafion a r5> 
bellion in England; and, by another article, a large 
annual fubfidy was to be paid him, in order to enable 
him to carry on the war, without the afliftance of 
parliament ^ 

On purpofe to concert meafures conformable to 
this alliance, and to conceal from the world, and 
even from the majority of the Cabal, the fecret treaty 
with France, a pompous farce was a£led, and an im- 

f. Boling. Siud. Hlfl. Hume, vol. viix. 6. King James* s Memmt* 

7. The time when this declaration (hould be made, was ieft tD j 

Charles; who, at the profpecft of bting able to rcnnite his kingdoms to^ \ 

the Catho'ic church, is faid to have wept for joy. King Jsmui Mmi . 

S. King Jameti ubi fup. See alfo Dalrymplc's Append, , : 



portant negociation managed by a woman of twenty- letter 
fire Lewis^ under pretence of vifiting his late con- y_ , , -1 , f 
qocfts, bat cfpccially the great works he was ere£ling A. D. 16/O. 
. at Dankif k, made a journey thither, accompanied 
vith his whole court, and preceded or followed by 
t&irty thoufand men ; fome deflined to reinforce the 
ganifbns, fome to work on the fortifications, and 
otben to level the roads ^ The princefs Henrietta 
Maria of England, who had been married to the duke 
of Orleans, brother to Lewis XIV. and who wa» 
equally beautiful and accompli (lied, took this oppor- 
toiiity of viiiting her native country, as if attra£):ed 
by its vicinity. Her brother Charles met her at Do- 
ver; where was concluded, between France and Eng- 
land, t mock treaty, perfe£lly fimilar to the real one, 
except in the article of religion, which was totally 
omitted; and where, amid fedivity and amufcment", 
it was finally refo!ved to begin with the Dutch war, 
u a prelude to the eftabliflimenc of popery and arbi- 
trary fway in Great Britain '^ 

Soon after that negociation, which gave ilic highefl: 
fatisfaciion to the French, and was fo difgraccful to 
the £rigli(h monarch, died his fifter, the duchtfs of 
Orleans, the brighteft ornament of the court of Ver- 
tiWtSf and the favourite of her family. Her death 

9. Voltaire, Steele, chap. ix. 

10. XiMT yame/s Mem, Conference at Dover, Bcfidehiscage^ncfd for 
the coDqueH of Holland, I^ewis was afraid, if Charles fhould begin 
with a declaration of his religion, to which he fecnied inclined, that it 

, night create fuch troubles in England as would prevent him from re- 
ceiving any afliftance from that kingdom ; acircumftance which weigh- 
ed more with the French monarch, iiotwithftanding Ins bigotry, than 
the prcpagatioo of the Catholic faith. (Du^rympU's Ajip. rJ:x.) The 
dakc of Vork, on the other hand, was for bcgiriiiirjg with Vvligion, 
forefecing that Lewis, after fcrving his own purpofcs, would no lon- 
ger trouble himfelf about England. King James" Mem, 



PARTIL was fudden, and not .without violent fufpicions oE 
J^-j^ poifon ; yet did it make no alteration in the condu£k 
of Charles* Always prodigal, he hoped, in confix 
quence of this new alliance, to have his neceflitict 
amply fupplied by the generofity of France and the 
fpoils of Holland. And Lewis XIV. well acquainted 
with the fluctuating councils of England, had takcQ 
care alfo to bind the king to bis interefts by a tic^* 
yet ftronger if poflible, than that of his wants— by 
the enflaving chain of his pleafures. When the do* 
chefs of Orleans came over to meet her brother at 
Dover, (he brought among her attendants, at the dc» 
fire of the French monarch, a beautiful young lady of 
the name of Querouaille, who made the defired im** : 
predion upon Chailcs. He fent her propofals : hit \ 
offers wrre accepted ; and although the fair faTou- ' 
rite, in order to preferve appearances, went back to \ 
France with her miftrefs, (he foon returned to Eng* 
land. The king, in the iirft tranfports of his pailloay 
created her duchefs of Portfmouth ; and as he con* 
tinned attached to her during the whole future pait of 
his life, (he may be fuppofed to have been highly in- 
ilrumental in continuing his connexions with her na« 
tive country. 

Lewis, now fure of the friend(hip of Charles, 
and having almoft completed his preparations for, 
the ir^rafion of the United Provinces, the chief ob» 
jeA of their alliance, took the fird (lep toward the ac« ; 
complifhmcnt of it. There were two ways of lead- 
ing an army from France into the territories of the 
republic : one lay through the Spanlili Netherlandt» 
the ocher through the dominions of the German 
princes upon the Rhine. A voluntary pafTagc througl^ 
the former was not to be expeded 3 to force it ap- 
; pcare<^ 


peaied dangerous and difficult ; it was therefore re- ^^J^^ 
folvcd to attempt one through the laiter. The petty ,_„ -Ij 
princes upon the Rhine, it was prcfumcd, might l>c a. d. 1670. 
Ciyrrupted with eafe, or infuited with fafcty ; but as it 
was neceflary firft to enter the territories of the duke 
of Lrf>iTain, whofc concurrence Lewis thought it ioipof- 
fible CO gain, on account of the memory of former in- 
jurieSy he refoWed to feizc the dominions of a prince 
vhom he could not hope to reconcile tohi^ views. He 
accordingly gave orders, in breach of the faith of 
treaties^ and in the height of fecurity and peace, to 
tbe marefchal de Crequi to enter Lorrain with a pow- Sept. ao« 
erfal arhiy. The duchy was fubdued in a (hort time i 
ind the duke, deprived of all his territories, took re- 
fuge in the city of Cologne. 

This cntcrprife, which feemed only a prelude to 
farther violences, gave great alarm to the continental 
powers, though ignorant of its final purpofe; and 
Lewis in vain endeavoured to juftify his condufb, 
by the allegation of dangerous intrigues at the court 
of Lorrain ". Charles IL though under no appre- 
henfions from the ambition of the French monarch, 
took advantage of the general terror, in order to demand 
a large fuppiy from his parliament. He informed the 
two houfes, by the mouih of the lord-keeper Bridge- 
nan, that both France and Holland were arming by fea 
and land, and that prudence di«flated fimilar prepara- 
tions to England. He urged befide, the neceflity he 
was under, in confequence of the engagements into 
which he had entered by the Triple Alliance, of main- 
taining a refpeflable fleet and army, in order to tn- 
aUe him to preferve the tranquillity of Europe. De- 
lved by thefe reprefentations, the commons voted a 

^|. Smitt d$ Meziray. Hcoault, vol. ix. WoXtdATt^ ubt fnp. 



PART IT. fupplf of near three millions fterling"; the larj 
that had ever been granted to a king of England, : 
furely for the mod deteftable purpofe that ever 
abufed people voluntarily aided their prince. 

A. D. 1670. 

But ample as this fupply was, neither it nor 
remittances from France were equal to the accui 
lated necefTuies of the crown. Both were lofl in 
myfterious vortex of old demands and new profuGc 
before a fleet of fifty fail was ready to put to 
The king durft not venture again to aflemblc the j 
liament ; for although the treaty with France was 
a fecret, though the nation was ftill ignorant of 
treafonous defigns againfl the religion and libertia 
his fubjeds, the duke of York, the prefumptivc 1 
of the crown, had at laft declared himfelf a Catho 
A.D. 1671. and an univerfal alarm was fpread of popery and 
bitrary power. Some new expedient was, thercfc 
neceflary, in order to raife money to complete 
naval preparations ; and, by the advice of fir Thoi 
Clifford, one of the Cabal, who was rewarded for 
pernicious counfels with a peerage, it was refdlvec 
llmt the exchequer ; to pay no money advan 
upon the fecurity of the funds, but to fecurc all 
payments that (hould be made by the officers of 
revenue, for the public fervice ". 


I J. Journals, 0<7.24, 1 670. This liberal grant i»a fufficicnt pi 
that if Charles had aiftcd conformable to the wilhcs of his people 
'would have had no rcafon to accufc the parliament of pariimony ; 
may be confidcred as a final refutation of all apologies for his con 
fuunded on fuch a fuppolition. 

13. Thchardflxips attending this meafurc will better be nnderf 
by a Ihort explanation. It had been ufual for the bankers to carry t 
money to the Exchequer, where they received intcreft for it ; an 
advance it upon the f<?curity of the funds on which the parliar 
had charged their fupplies, and out of which they were repaid, whei 
money wai levied upon the public. One million four hundred tliou 



The (hotting of the Exchequer occafioned univcr- Letter 
\ fil coDfliernation, and even ruin in the city : the ■ — ^^ 
Ittoken failed, the merchants could not anfwer their A.D. 167a, 
lilli, and a total ftagnation of commerce was the 
coofeqaence. The king and his miniders, however, 
leaned to enjoy the general confufion and diftrefs. 
ChirieSy in particular^ was fo much elated at being 
lUe to fupply his wants without the afliftance of par- 
FiameDt, and fo confident of fuccefs in the war with 
Holland, which he thought could not la ft above one 
campaign, that he grew perfe£tly regardlefs of the 
cofflplaintsof his fubje£ls; ^ifcovered ilrong fymp- 
tonu of a defpotic fpirit, and exercifed feveral a£is 
of power utterly inconGltent with a limited govern- 
nent '^. But his firft hoftile enterprife was ill calcu- 
lated to encourage fuch hopes, or fupport fuch arbi- 
trary proceedings. Before the decla ration of war, an 
iofidious and unfuccefsful attempt was made upon the 
Dotcb Smyrna fleet, valued at near two millions (ler- 
ling, by an Engliih fquadron under iir Robert Holmes. 
And Charles had the infamy of violating the faith of 
treaties, without obtaining fuch advantage as could 
jnftify the meafure on the principles of political pru- 

Though the Dutch were not ignorant of the pre-^ 
parations of England, they never thoroughly believed 
they could be intended againft them, before this adl 
of hoftility, which was immediately followed by a 
declaration of war. As Lewis had taken offence at March r. 
certain infolentfpeechesyand pretended medals^ Charles, 
after complaining of a Dutch fleet, on their own 

\ had been advanced upon the faith of the monej-bllU palTed in 
dK hi icffion of parliament, when the exchequer was (hut. R . Coke» 
14. Rapin, vol ii. foL edit. Humei vol. vli. Macpheifon, vol« i. 

Vol. IV. E coaft. 


coad, not (Iriking the flag to an Englifli yacht, 
mentioned certain ahujive pWures^ as a caufe of quiH- 
rel '^ The Dutch were at a lofs for the meaning of 
this lad article, until it was clifcovered, that a por- 
trait of Cornelius dc Wit, brother to ihe penGonarf, 
painted by order of certain magiflrarcs of Dort, and 
bung up in a chamber of the town-houfe, had given 
occafion to the complaint. In the back ground of that 
piflure, were drawn feme (hips on (ire in a harbourt 
which was conftrued to be Chatham, where dc Wit 
had reully diflinguifheci himfclf. But little did he or 
his countymen think, that an obfcure allufion to that 
atfl of open hoflility would roufe the refentment of 
England '^ In a word, rcafons more falfc and frivo- 
lous were never employed to juilify a flagrant breach 
of treaty. 

The French monarch, in his declaration of war, 
'afTcfled more dignity. He did not condefcend to 
fpecify particulars ; he only pretended that the inib- 
loncc of the Hollanders had been fuch, that it did 
not con 11 ft with his ghry any longer to bear it. ITicf 
hnd incurred his difplcafure, and he denounced veiw 
peance. This indignant language was ill fuited to 
deliberate violence and injufticc; but the haughty 
Lewis had now completed his preparations^ and hb 
ambition was flattered with the mod promifing viewft 
of fucccfs. 

Never had Europe beheld fuch a naval ind mill* 
tary force, or fo extend re a confederacy, Cncc the \ 
league ot Cambray, as was formed for the deftruc- ^ 
tion of the republic of Holland. Sweden, as well at, 
England, was detached from the Triple League, by 

15* '^i'le Dcchrjtiw, 1 6. Hume, vol. vii. Vvltttie ^Hciiv 

chap. ix. 


M O D E R N E U R O P E. 51 

the intrigues of Lewis, in order to be a check upon iettfr 
the emperor. The bifliop of Munftcr, a warlike and ,_ -' ji 
rapacious prelate, was engaged by the payment of A. D. 1672. 
fubfidies and the hopes of plunder to take part 
with France. The clcftor of Cologne had alfo agreed 
to z& offeniively ngainft the States; and having con* 
figned Bonne and other towns into the hands of 
Lewis, magazines were there erefted, and it was pro- 
pofed to invade the United Provinces from that 
quarter. The combined fleet of France and Eng- 
land, amounting to upward of an hundred fail, was 
ready to ravage their coafts ; and a French army of 
to hundred and twenty thoufand choice troops, com- 
manded by the ableft generals of the age, was pre- 
paring to enter their frontiers. 

The Dutch were in no condition to refifl fuch a 
force, cfpccially by land. The fecurity procured by 
the peace of Weftphaiia; the general tranquillity, in 
confequence of that treaty; the fubfequent connec- 
tions of the States with France ; the growing fpi- 
fk of commerce; and even their wars with England, 
had made them negleft their military force, and throw 
aO their ftrength info the navy. Their very fortifi- 
cations, on which they had formerly reflcd their ex- 
iftence, were fuffered to go out of repair i and their 
finall army was ill difciplincd, and worfe commanded. 
The old experienced officers, who were chiefly de- 
foted to the houfe of Orange, had been difmifTed 
doTiDg the triumph of the rigid republican party, 
and their place fupplied by raw youths, the fons or 
kiofmen of Burgomafters, by whofe interefl that party 
was fopported. Thefe new officers, relying on the 
Cfcdit of their frieuds and family, paid no attention 
10 their miliary duty. Some of them, it is faid, 

E 2 were 


svsr alfnvcL tr isne Iv oc^vies, to who 
in&l ran i£ zSur sav **. 

Zii VrT« Tawr imiiTiir nf ias crTor, in 
ur mink=iir ns. ^ Tart of scaties, actem 
i'??rAv 111% imuisL, aii£ iDTsiEe a rrfpcdaUe i 
r-z= rr tsxr nrgjurr sE ics coBsnr, in this < 
'^ ^r£> luE r«=rr fnmK^kl vLkh he an 
1.^ nLL: s*e vs loon^r sj d^ Onnge J 
vcsr a i^Vi n ns niftair i r.nS sjcae die defc 
hxr IT ne gncTiiir; jou* tbar power, whii 
=rt=it= T-o: Tie nHnnc'rirs of the State 
«:z£>4r: :r::t£m=jr ■tmriifhiVfe, It the popvl 
at xr-ss;^ Trmirs- ^«iliiaiL HI- sow in the I 
t^:=L: x:zr a: US ac:, an£ wio had ahead] 
iismr ir^i^^wTRt IT "The ctss: cmaStts, whic 
vssr. z:iui:;;nix&rr h« ao^ve set. For thefe ^ 
T7vik2ir «^ lur i ini; jn^c&tt^ lo lus geoen 
Ti-r^nr Trai- ic TTc i w^irw confooos of tl 
::«r.^ic: i.Tinziz: if hs «wa pBtJt had gii 
— s*.!? ar ^^7^!i-TT- ^tmscoBy asd iaftruded 
-•'. ns: rmncsie* n* ^rvtrnmal aDd foand poi 
r -.^r CI iTTutsr nor cKue vt {cmng his ecu 
j.-r. miu^ guu^iji uT fiiTtft^ eTC7 ihiow the 

T rr -rrr.atii «f '^^.'T^rr *^i ihbcrto bcci 

T*rimipi-iic i*iit rr Lij c&tiimrca. Thoi 
-^..^i !«■ 1.11^ uau. jai£ Briiiicnbu'gh, t 
Tr Tzjn ^Jisrr i^ nuiri£. rr sSjirz iSizr the i 
jfififon ic bat rci-T&i }a$ Tzlclczlcn cf dc 
SRTre« at zxt^ Sglts for Lis airancemen 
wrMi!r ssur iT nil achnvmr wzs frrrcmcly 

ir* ^Ztssi^ TcB^iift, TiibuET- it. lb; 



to tbc genias of the Hollanders. Grave and filent, lettei^ 
cfea in youth} ready to bear, and given to enquire ; , ^^' , 
dcftttate of brilliant talents, but of a found and A. D. 1671. 
ieady underftanding ; greatly intent on bufinefs, lit- 
jdt inclined to pleafure, he ftrongly engaged the hearts 
;t(all men. And the people, remembering what they 
\^mKd to his family, which had fo glorioufly protedled 
fkem againft the exorbitant power of Spain, were 
• Mums of raiGng him to all the authority of his 
|:JKcftors; as the leader whofe valour and conduft 
alone deliver them from thofe imminent 
with which ihey were threatened '9. In con- 
of this general predileAion, William was 
ited commander in chief of the forces of the 
c, and the whole military power was put into 
fkmds* New levies were made, and the army was 
ted to the number of feventy thoufand men. 
troops could not of ^ fudden acquire difci- 
or experience : and the friends of the prince 
lipcre ftill diffatisfied, becaufe the Perpetual £di£t, by 
Hviiich he was excluded from the ftadtholderihip, was 
JK yet revoked. The ftruggle between the parties 
Mtinocd ; and by their mutual animofities, the vi- 
mm of every public meafure was broken, and the ex« 
ccotion of every proje£l retarded. 

In the meantime de Wit, whofe maxim, and that 
his party, it bad ever been to give the navy a 
lycfeience above the army, hailened the equipment 
^ikc fleet *, in hopes that, by (Iriking; at firit a fuc- 
IttUoi blow, he might be able to infpire courage into 
ikdi&nayed States, as well as to fupport his own 
IpcSaing authority. Animated by the fame hopes, 
% ftoyter^ bis firm adherent, and the greateft naval 

19. LcClcrc Temple. Voltaire. 

E 3 officer 



PART II. were even allowed to fcrvc by depaties, to whom thq^ 
y^"^ afligncd a fmall part of their pay '7. 

De Wit, now fenfible of his error, in relyiog 
too implicitly on the faith of treaties, attempted to 
remedy thefe abufes, and toraife a refpe^iaUe military 
force for the defence of his country, in this danger 
ous crifis. But every propofal which he made for 
that purpofe was oppofed by the Orange faf&Ob 
who afcribed to his mifcondud alone the defenodefi 
ftate of the republic; and their power^ which had 
increafed with the difficulties of the Statett wat 
become extremely formidable, by the popularity of 
the young prince, William III. now in the twent/* 
fecond year of his age, and who had already gtfCft < 
ftrong indications of the great qualites, which after- ; 
ward diftinguiflied his a£live life. For thefe cpialities^ 
William was not a little indebted to his generous and 
patriotic rival, de Wit ; who, confcious of the pte* 
carious fitu^tion of his own party, had given die 
prince an excellent education, and inllru£led him in 
all the principles of government and found policy^ in 
order to render him capable of ferving his country, if 
any future emergency (hould ever throw the govern* 
mcnt into his hands *'• 

The conduft of William had hitherto been highly 
deferving of approbation, and fuch as could not fid 
to recommend him to his countrymen. Though en* 
couiaged by England and Brandenburgh, to which 
he was allied by blood, to afpire after the ftadthol* 
derfliip, he had exprefled his refolution of dependiif 
entirely on the States for his advancement. The 
whole tenor of his behaviour was extremely fuitaUe 

tj. UCkrk. Tcmpk. Vokaire. iS. Ibid. 

3 to 


to the genics of the Hollanders. Grave arj J Clcn:. 
efm in yooth; readr to bear, and gircD to cni^Lire ; 
de&o£e cf briliianr ri!cnrs, but cf a f^tisd 2ai jTd :t^: 
fteady cndeniacd'ng; gre^tlr intes: on bu:lnrf>, il:- 
de icdised to p-eafurt, he ftronglrcngagfathc hrarts 
of al! men. And the people, reaier^bcricg whi: they 
wed to his i^tnujt vLich had fo gloriouCy p-oiecled 
dion againft the escrfaitan: pover of Spair, wer? 
defirotts of niung him to all the anthoriry c: Lis 
aocefiors; as :be leader vhofe Tk^our and ccrid^il 
CQttU alone delirer rhem froni ihcfe inixnxcs: 
iangtrs with which ihey were threztezied''. Is ccn- 
feqnencc of this general predxieclicnj Winiam was 
appointed commaader in cLief of the forces of t!*^ 
jcpvbiic, and the vbolc muitarr power was pu: in:o 
Us hands. Xev leries were made, and tbe ancr -sras 
completed to the cnmbcr cf UTcnry :hoaficd mer. 
Bat nw troops conld noc of a fuddcn acquire difcl- 
jSat or experience : and the friecds of the prince 
were ftiil diSatisficd. becanfc the Perpetual Edid, bj 
viiidi be was ezcloded from the ftadihoMerihipi was 

■oc yet reroked. The ftroggle between the pi:tjes 

oontinoed ; and by their motnal animofiiies, the t>. 

gov of cTcry public mcafore was broken, aad the ex- 

ccntioD of erery projecl retarded. 

In the meantime de Wit, wbofc maxim, zzi that 
of his pany, it bad ever been to gire the navy a 
preferen ce abcre tbe army, ha&esed the equipmeist 
of tbe Sect ; in hcpes that, by ftrikicg a: £r:i a fi:c« 
ecfefal blow, he might be abie to ccur«ge Inio 
tbe diiinayed State*, as well as to fupp^n Lis cvn 
declining authority. Aiumated by tbe fair«e hcpes, 
ic ftoyter, his firm acherec:, and tbe grea;r& n^ral 

IS- LcCxn. Tsaf4c. Vucun. 

E 3 officer 


officer of his age, put to fta with ninety-one men of 
war, and forty -four frigates and 6refliipS| and failed 
in queft of the enemy. 

The Engllfli fleet, under the duke of York and 
the earl of Sandwicli, had already joined the French 
fleer, commanded by count d'Edrces. With this 
junflion the Dutch were unacquainted, and hoped to 
take fignal vengeance on the Engiifi) for their per-> 
fidious attempt on the Smyrna fleet. When de Ruyter 
M»7 *S. came in fight, the combined fleet, to the number of 
an hundred and thirty fail, lay at anchor in Solebaj. 
The earl of Sandwich, who had before warned the 
duke of the danger of being furprifed in fuch a pot 
ture, but whofe advice had been flighted as favouring 
of timidity, now hadened out of the bay } where 
the Dutch, by their firc-fliips, might have deftroyed 
the whole naval force of the two kingdoms. Though 
determined to conquer or perifh, he fo tempered his 
courage with prudence, that the combined fleet was 
evidently indebttd to him for its fafety. He com- 
manded the van; and by hi'^ vigour and difpatchy 
gave the duke of York and d'Eilrees time to difengage 
tbemfelves. Meanwhile he himfelf, ruOiing into bat* 
tie with the Hollanders, and prcfcnting a front to every 
danger, had drawn the chief attention of the enemy. 
He killed Van Ghcrnr, a Dutch admiral, and beat off 
his (hip, after a furious engagement : he funk an- 
other (hip, which attempted to lay him aboard, and 
two fire-fliips that endeavoured to grapple with him. 
Though his own fliip was much (battered, and of one 
thoufand men (he carried, near fix hundred lay dead 
on the deck, he Qill continued to thunder with all 
hh artillery, and to fet the enemy at defiance, until 
fcjzed on by a third fire-fhip more fortunate than .the 



two former. The ruin of his gallant fliip was noy in- ^^^j^^^ 
CTiuble; but although fenfible of the- confcquences of ^,^ ^^-, _ f 
mnaining on board, he refufe.i to make his cfcape'®, ^'^' ^^'^' 
So drep had the dukc'b farcafm funk into his mind, 
that a brave death, in thofe awful moments, ap- 
peared ro him the only refuge from ignominy, fincc 
his utmoft efforts had not been attended with vic- 

During this terrible conflift, between Van Ghent's 
^Hrifion and the earl of Sandwich, the duke of York 
and de Ruyter were not idle. The duke bore down 
«pon the Dutch admiral, and fought him with fuch 
fory for two hour.«, that of thirty-two anions in 
vbich that hoary veteran had been engaged, he de- 
clared that this was the molt vigoroufly difputed. 
Night put a (lop to the doubtful conteft. Next 
morning the duke of York thought it prudent to re- 
tire*'. The Dutch, though much difabled, attempted 
loharrafs him in his retreat : he turned upon them, 
and renewed the fight. Meantime fir Jofeph Jordan, 
• who had fucceeded Sandwich in the command of the 
van, or blue divifion, which had hitherto been only 
paiually engaged, having gained the weather-gage of 
the enemy, de Ruyter fled, from a fenfe of his danger, 
and was purf«ed by the duke to the coafl of Holland. 
As the Englifii hung clofe on* his rear, fifteen of his 
difabled (hips could only have been f«ived by a fudden 
fog, which prevented all farther confequences **• 
The French bad fcarce any (hare in this aAion ; and as 

20 Bumct. Tcniple. King James, in hi^ Memoirs, make? no men- 
Cioo of any difagreement with the earl of Sand wick ; but thi&fi cnce is 
faielj infufficlent to weigh againft the general tcflimony of other co- 
temporary writers. It was a ctrcumilancc not to his honour, and there- 
fore likely to be concealed. His account of the battle fcems in other 
jcijpcds very accurate. zu Kimg Jai^eis Mtm. 22. Ibid. 

£ 4 back- 


backwardnefs is not their national chzxzdtcti&iCy it was 
univerfally believed, that they had received orders to 
keep at a didance, while the Englifli and Dutch were 
weakening each other: an opinion which was coo* 
firmed by all the fubfequeni engagements during the 

It was certainly honourable fo^ ^hc Dutch to have 
fought with fo little lofs, the combined fleet of France 
and Enghnd; but nothing lefs than a complete tic- 
tory, and not perhaps even that, could have preferred 
the credit o( de Wit, or prevented the executioiLof 
thofe fchemes which were formed for the ruin of hit 

The king of France having divided his army,confift« 
ing of an hundred and twenty thoufand men,into three 
bodies, had put them all in motion about the be- 
ginning of May. The firfl beheaded in perfon, aflift- 
ed by the famous Turennc; the prince of Conde led 
the fecond ; and Chamilli and Luxembourg, who were 
to a^ either feparately orconjun£lly, commanded the 
third. The armies of the clcftor of Cologne and the 
biOiop of Munfler appeared on the other fide of the 
Rhine, and divided the force and attention of the 
States. Too weak to defend their extenfive frontier, 
the Dutch troops were fcattercd into fo many towns, 
that no confiderable body appeared in the field; and 
yet a (Irong garrifon was fcarcely to be found in any 
fortrefs. Orfoy, Wefel, Rhimberg, and Burackt 
were taken almofl as foon as inveded, by the French 
June 9- generals. Groll furrcndered to the bifiiop of Man- 
fter ; and Lewis, to the univerfal conilernation of the 
Hollanders, advanced to the banks of the Rhine *l. 

a J. Voltaire, SucU, ckap. iz. Henaulti i^yt. 



The paflage of that rifcr, fo mach celebrated by letter 
the flatterers of Lewis XIV. had in it nothing ex- |_ _^^ , jf 
traordinary. The extreme drynefs of the feafon, in A. D. 167s. 
addition to the other inisfortunes of the Datcb, had 
much diminiflied the greateft rivers» and rendered 
many of them, in fome places, fordable. The 
French cavalry, animated by the prefence of their Jnne i:, 
prince, and prote£ltd by a furious difcharge of artiU 
lery, flung themfelves into the Rhine, and had only 
a few fathoms to fwim: the infantry, with the king at 
dieir head, pafled quietly over on a bridge of boats ; 
and as only a few Dutch regiments, without any can- 
non, appeared on the other fide, the danger was very 
fmall ^K 

Tbe attempt, however, was bold, and its fuccefs 
added greatly to the glory of Lewis, and to the terror 
of his arms. Arnheim immediately furrendered to 
Tarenne; andSchenck, which had formerly fuftatned 
s 6ege of nine months, was reduced by the fame great 
commander, in lefs than half the number of days, 
Nimegneny and a number of other towns^ were deli- 
vered up on the firft fummons ; and the prince of 
Orange, unable to make head againft the victorious 
enemy, retired into the province of Holland with his 
fmall and difcouraged army. The progrefs of Lewis, • 
like tbe courfe of an inundation, levelled every thing 
before it. Tbe town and province of Utrecht fent 
deputies to implore bis clemency. Naerden, within 
nine miles of Amfterdam, was reduced by the mar- 
quis of Rochfort; and had he taken pofleflion of 

24. Id. ibid. The ootioa which genenlly prerailed of this paiTiige 
at Fuw wat» that all the French forces had pafled theRhine by fwim- 
mungf im the hce of an army entrenched on the other fide, and amidd 
th« fre of artillery from aa imprefnable fortrciii called the Tboius, 
▼oIlMre, obi fiip. 


PARTIL Muyden, the keys of which were delivered to feme 

AA>.i67i. of ^'J* advanced parties, but recovered by the magi* 

ftrates» when the moment of terror was over, Am* 

fterdam itfelf mud have fallen, and with it perhaps 

the republic of Holland. 

But this opportunity being neglcQcd, the States 
had leifure to lecollcft themfelves; and the fame am^ 
bitious vanity, which had induced the French mo* 
narch to undertake the conqueil of the United Pro* 
vinces, proved the means of their preferYation. 
Jwie 25. Lewis entered Utrecht in triumph, furrounded by a 
fplendid court, and followed by a gallant army, all 
glittering with gold and filver. Poets and hiftorians 
attended to celebrate his exploits, and tranfmit the 
fame of his victories to podericy. In the courfe of a 
few weeks, the three provinces of Gueldres, Utrecht^ 
and Overyflel had fubmitted to his arms : Friefland 
and Gaoningen were invaded by his ally, the biOiop 
of Munder^ fo that the redudlionof Hollaiul and Zea- 
land feemed now only necefTary to crown his enter* 
prize. But he waded in vain parade at Utrecht the 
feafon proper (or that purpofe. 

In the meantime, the people of the remaining 
provinces, in dead of colle£ting courage and unani- 
mity from the approach of danger, became dill more 
a prey to fa£iion, and ungovernable and outrageous 
from their fears. They afcribed all their misfortunes 
to the unhappy dc Wit, whofe prudence and patriot- 
ifm had formerly been the objedl of fuch general 
applaufe. Not only the bad date of the army, and 
the ill choice of governors was imputed to him, but, 
as inftances of cowardice multiplied, treachery was 
fufpeded ; and his former connexions with France 
being remembered, tbe populace beliered thkt be and 




his psuty had conrpired to betray them to their am- letter 
hitioiM enemy. Under this apprehenfion, and per- ^^i^- 
haps from a hope of difarming the refentment of the ^^f^*-^, 
king of England, the torrent of popular favour ran 
ftrongly toward the prince of Orange, who, nou 
vithftanding his youth and inexperience, was repre- 
fented as the only perfon able to fave the republic. 
The PenHonary and his partizans, however, unwilling 
to lelinquifli their authority, ftill oppofcd the repeal 

of the Perpetual Edid; and hence the diftraded 

coonfels and feeble efforts of the States. 

Amsterdam alone, amid the general defponden- 
cy, feeroed to retain any degree of courage or con- 
duA. The magidrates obliged the burgefTes to keep 
AtiCt watch ; the populace, whom want of employ- 
ment might engage to mutiny, were maintained by 
regular pay, and armed and difciplined for the pub- 
lic defence. Ships were (lationed to guard the city by 
fea; and, «s a lad refource, the fluices were opened, 
and the neighbouring country was laid under water; 
without regard to the fertile fields, the numerous vil- 
las, and flourifhing villages, which were overwhelm- 
ed by the inundation *H All the province followed 
tbe example of the capital. 

But the fecurity derived from this expedient was 
oot fufficient to infufe courage into the deje£ted States. 
The body of the nobles, and eleven towns, voted to 
iend ambafladors to the hoftile kings, in order to fup- 
plicate peace. They offered to furrender Maeftricht, 
and all the frontier towns which lay beyond the li- 
mits of the Seven Provinces, and to pay a large fum 
Ipward the expences of the war. Fortunately for the 

25. Voltairei Siitlcj chap. iz. Ttm^Us Mem. part ii. 



republic and for Europe, thefe conditions were rejeded. 
Xiewis, in the sibfence of Turenne, liftened to the vio^ 
lent counfeU of his minifter Louvois, whofe unreafon- 
able demands threw the States into a dcfpair that over- 
came their fears. The demands of Charles were not 
more moderate. The terms, in a word, required by 
the tv7P monarchs wopld have deprived the common- 
wealth of all fccurity, by fea as well as by land, and 
have reduced it to a ftate of perpetual dependence. 
Tet were the Province9 ft ill agitated by the animofities 
of faftion. Enraged to find their country enfeebled bf 
party jealoufy, when its very political cxiftence was 
threatened, the people rofe at Dort, and forced their 
magiftrates to fign the repeal pf the Perpetual ^i^ 
Other cities followed the example, and the prince of 
^o'y 5- Orange waj tieclared Stadtholder. 

This revolution, fo favourable to the defence of 
the republic, ^as followed by a lamentable tragedy. 
The talents and virtues of the penfionary dc WJt 
marked him out as a facrifice to the vengeance of the 
Orange party, now triumphant. But popular fury 
prevented the interpofition of power. Cornelius de 
Wit, the penflonary's brother, who had fo often 
fervcd his country with his fword, was accufed by a 
man of an infamous charaAer, pf endeavouring to 
\)Xihc him to poifon the prince of Orange. The 
accufation, though attended with the moft impro« 
bable, and even abfurd circum (lances, was greedily 
received by the credulous multitude, and even by 
the magiftrates. Cornelius was cited before a court 
of judicature, and put to the torture, in order to ex- 
tort a confcffion of his crime. He bore with the moft 
intrepid firmnefs all that cruelty could infii£l: hut 
he was (bript notwithftanding of his employments^ 
and featenced to banifhment for life. The penfionaryjt 



mho kad fupported his brother through the whole pro- letter 
fecuciooy refolvcd not to defer t him in his difgrace. ^ ^ 
He accordingly went to his prifon, on purpofe to ac- a.D. 1672. 
company bim to the place of his exile. The figtial 
Iras given to the populace. They broke open the pri- 
Ibn doors: they pulled out the two brothers; and 
wounded, mangled, and tore them to pieces ^; exer- 
ci£ng on their dead bodies a£ls of baibarity too hor- 
rid to relate. 

The maflacre of the de Wits, by extinguifhing 
for a time the animofities of party, gave vigour and 
ooanimity to the councils of the States. All men, 
from fear^ inclination, or prudence, concurred in 
paying the mod implicit obedience to the prince of 
Orange; and William, worthy of that heroic family 
from which he was defcended, adopted fentiments 
becoming the head of a brave and free people. He ex* 
borted them to rcjcSt with fcorn thofe humiliating con- 
ditions demanded by their imperious enemies; and, 
by his advice, the States put an end to negociations 
which had ferved only to deprefs the courage of the 
citizens, and delay the afliftance of their allies* He 
ihewed them that, aided by the advantages of their fitu* 
ation, they would ilill be able, if they abandoned not 
tbcmfelves to defpondency, to preferve the remaining 
provinces, until the other nations of Europe, made 
fenfiUe of the common danger, could come to their 
relief. And he profeiTed himfelf willing to undertake 
their defence, provided they would fecond his efforts 
with' the fame manly fortitude, which they had fo 
often difcoTcred under his illuftrious predeceflbrs. 

The fpirit of the young prince feemed to infufe 
idelf into every breafl. The peopte, who lately en- 

li. temfHt Mm, part ii. See alfo Burnet, Baiha^e, Le Clerc, 
4ic ^mxOti^ N«. 704. preferred in feveral Htftorieit 



tertained only thoughts of yielding their necks to Tub* 
jcflion, now bravely determined to rcfift the haughty 
vidtor, and to defend that remnant of their native foil^ 
of which neither the arms of Lewis nor the inunda-^ 
tion of waters had as yet bereaved them. Should 
even the ground on which they might combat fail 
them, to ufe the forcible language of Hume, they 
were Aill refolved not to yield the generous ftrife ; 
but flying to their fettlements in the Eaft Indies, erecl 
a new empire in the South of Afia, and preferve alive^ 
even in the climates of flavery, that liberty of which 
Europe was unwonhy *7. They had already concerted 
meafures, we are toM, for executing this extraordinary 
refolution ; and found, that the (hips in their harbours 
adequate to fuch a voyage, were capable of carrying 
fifty thoufand families, or about two hundred thou- 
fand perfons *'. 

No fooncr did the confederate kings perceive the 
new fpirit with which the Dutch were animated, than 
they bent all their efforts to corrupt the prince of 
Orange. They offered him the fovereignty of the 
province of Holland ; to be held under the protec- 
tion of France and England, and fecured againft the 
invafion of foreign enemies, as well as the revolt of 
his own fubjefts. But William, from motives of pru- 

17. Hl/I. £ng. vol. viL 

28. Buriict, book li. Voltn.irc, 5/«/tf, chap. jx. 7*he rcfle(^ion« of 
Voltaire on this fubjcft arc truly ingenious and ilriking " ^XjnilenUniy 
the emporium and the magazine of Europe, fayi hcy wherein commerce 
and the arts are cultivated by tliree hundred thoufand inhabitanti» 
wouM foon> in that event, have become one vaft morafs. All the ad- 
jacent lands, which require inimcnfc cxpcnce, and many thou(and«of 
men, to keep up their dykes, would again have been overwhelmed by 
that ocean from which thoy had been gained, leaving to Lewis XIV, 
only the wretched glory ol having deflroyed one of the fincft,and moft 
extraordinary monuments of human ioduftry." Id. ibid. 



dencci if not patriotifm, rcjcQcd all ,fuch propofals. LETTER 
He was fenGblc that the fcafon of danger was over, ^ ^- _f 
and that the power which he already enjoyed by the A.D, i6;i. 
fuffirage of his countrymen, was both more honour- 
able and lefs precarious, than that uhich mud depend 
on princesy who had already facriGced their faith to 
their ambition. He therefore declared, that he would 
fooner retire, if all his endeavours fhould fail, and pafs 
his life in hunting on his lands in Germany, than be- 
tray the truft repofed in him, by felling the liberties 
of his country *9. And when aflced, in a haughty 
tone, if he did not fee that his country was already 
ruined, he firmly replied, '• There is one way, by 
** which I can be certain never to fee the ruin of my 
** country ; and that is, to (\iG in difputing the lad 
*• ditch '- !'' 

The Dutch, however, were much difappointed in 
finding, that the elevation of the prince of Orange 
to the dignity of Stadtholder had no influence on the 
ixieafures of his uncle, the king of England. Charles 
perfifted in his alliance with France. But other cir- 
cumftances faved the republic. When thehoftilc fleets 
approached thecoaft of Holland, with an army on board 
commanded by count Schomberg, they were carried 
back to fca in fo wonderful a manner, and afterward 
prevented from landing the forces by fMch ftormy 
weather, that Providence was believed to have inter- 
pofed miraculoufly to prevent the ruin of the Hol- 
landers" ; and Lewis, finding that his enemies ga- 
thered courage behind their inundations, and that no 
farther progrcfs was likely to be made by his aims 
doring the campaign, had retired to Verfailies, in or- 
der to enjoy the gloiy of his fuccefs, which was pom- 

29. Trm^/, Mm. part u. 30. Bumct, book ii. 

31. I<i.ihi(L 


64 tfe[EHI5TORTOF 

poully difplayed in poems, orations, and triumphal 
arches. Meanwhile the other ftates of Europe began 
to difcovcr a jcaloufjr of the power of France. The 
emperor, though naturally flow, had put himfelf in 
motion ; the eIe£ior of Brandenburg (hewed a difpo- 
fition to fupport theSutes; the king of Spain had 
fent fome forces to their aififtance; and, by the rigor- 
ous eflbrts of the prince of Orange, and the profpeA 
of relief ftom their allies, a difierent face of aflairs be- 
gan foon to appear. 

Of all their friends or allies there Was Hone cm 
whom the iDutch reKed more firtnly for relief than the 
Englifli parliament, which the kin^s neceflities 
Feb. 4. obliged hhn at laft to convene. But that aflembly 
was too much occupied with domeftic grievances to 
have leifure to attend to foreign politics. Chaxles» 
among his other arbitrary meafures, had iflTued a ge- 
neral Declaration of Indulgence in religious matters, 
by which the Catholics were placed on the fame foot- 
ing with the Proteftant fe£laries. The purpofe of this 
meafure was eafily forefeen, and excited a general 
alarm. A remonftrance was framed againft fuch an 
exercife of prerogative : the king defended his mea- 
fure, and the hopes and fears of all men were fuf- 
pended, in regard to the iflue of fo extraordinary an 
aflPair. BeCde his ufual guards, the king had an army 
encamped on Blackheath, under the command of mar- 
ihal Schomberg, a foreigner. Many of his officers 
were of the Catholic religion ; and he had reafon to 
expeA that his ally, the king of France, would fup- 
ply him with troops, if force fhould become necefl^ary 
for reftraining his difcontented fubje£ts, and fupport- 
ing the meafures they bad, by common confent, agreed 
to purfue. 




But Charles, although cncourjged by his mtnlfters i^etter 
to proceed, was ftartled when he approached the dan- ^_- -'j. 
gerous precipice! and the fame love of eafe which had ^' ^' '^^^' 
led him to defire arbitrary power, induced him to re- 
tra£l the Declaration of Indulgence, when he fawhow 
much hazard and difficulty there would be in main- 
taining it. He accordingly called for the writio^, March 7. 
and broke the feals with his own hand''. But the 
parliament, though highly fatisfied with this compll- 
ance, thought another ftep neceffary for the fecurity 
of their civil and religious liberties. They paffcd an 
aft called the Test : by which all perfons, holding 
any public office, beGdea taking the oaths of fupre- 
macy and allegiance, and receiving the facrament ac- 
cording to the rites of the church of England, were 
obliged to abjure the do£trine of tranfubflantiation.. 
Even to this bill the king gave his aflcnt ; and the par- 
liament, in recom pence for thefe conceffions, granted 
him a confiderablc fupply for his extraordinary occaficns^ 
as they expreffed themfelves, difdaining to mention a 
war which they abhorredj?. 

But Charles, though baffled in his favourite projecl, 
and obliged tacitly to relinquifli the difpenfing power 
of the crown, was (liil rclblvcd to perfevcre in his 
alliance with France ; in the Dutch war, and confe- 
<]aently in all che fccret dcHgns which depended on 
fuch pernicious meafurcs. With the money granted 
by parliament he was enabled to equip a fleet, th« 
command of which wns given to prince Rupert, the 
duke of York being fct afide by the 'left. Sir Edward 

32. Echard. Burnet. Rapln. The people were fo much elated at 
till* Ti^ory over the prerogative, that they exprefied with bonfires and 
ii«nminatioD$ their tuniuUucuii joy. Ibid. 

33. Journal, M&r>;h, 1673. ^chard, vol. iii. Burnet; book iil. 

V L. IV. 



PART II. Sprague and the eail of Oflbry commanded under ilic 
A^D^ib??'. P'i'^ce. A French fquadron joined them, commanded 
by d'Eftrees and Martel. 

The combined fleet failed toward the coaft of 
Holland, where three indecifive battles were fought 
with the Dutch, under de Ruyter and Van Tromp. 
The lady however, claims our attention on account 
of its obftiuacy. Tromp immediately fell along the 
fide of Sprague, and both engaged with incredible 
obftinacy. Tromp was compelled once to flnft his 
flagi Sprague twice to quit his (hip; and, unfortu- 
nately, as the Englifli admiral was paflTmg to a third 
{hip, in order to hoiil his flag, ai)d renew the difpute, 
a (hot (truck his boat, and he was drowned, to the re- 
gret even of his enemies. But the death of this gal- 
lant officer did not pafs unrevenged. Van Tromp, 
after the difafter of Sprague, was lepulfed, in fpitc 
of his mod vigorous cfTorts, by the intrepidity of 
the carl of Oflbry' '• 

In the mean time a furious combat was maintatnrd 
between de Ruyiei and prince Rupert. Never did 
the prince acquire more deferved honour ; hiscondufl 
being no Icfs confpicuous than his valour, which (hone 
with didinguifhed lu(tre. The conted was equally 
obftinate on both fides, and viftory remained long 
doubtful. At length prince Rupert thicw ihe enemy 
intofome confufion ; and, in order to increafc it, fent 
among them two fiie-fliips. They at once took to 
flight; and had the French, who were maders of the 
wind, and to whom a figna! was made, borne dowci 
upon the Dutch, a decided advantege would have been 


Cartels U/t •f tbt Duke tf Orwmd, fiurchet, p. 404. 



gained. But they paid no regard to the Cgnal. The LETTER 
Englifliy feeing themfelves neglected by their allieSi ^ '"^ 
therefore gare over the purfuit ; and de Ruytcr, with A.0. 1673. 
little lofs made good his retreaL3^ The vidory, as 
ufualy was claimed by both Gdes. 

While the Dutch, my dear Fhiltp, thus conti« 

Diied to defend themfelves with vigour by {^^ fortune 

was ftiU more favourable to them by land. Though 

the French monarch took Maeftricht, one of their June 19^* 

ftronged bulwarks, after a fiege of thirteen days> no 

other advantage was obtained during the campaign. 

Naerden was retaken by the prince of Orange ; and 

the Imperialifts, under Montecuculi, after having in 

vain attempted againft Turenne the paflage of the 

Rhine, eluded the vigilance of that able general, and 

iat down fuddenly before Bonne. The prince of 

Orange» by a condu£t no Icfs mailerly, leaving behind 

him ihe other French generals, joined his army 

to that of the empire. Bonne furrendered, after a Nov. xtj 

ihort Cege. The greater part of the deflorate of 

Cologne was fubdued by the Dutch and Germans ; 

and the communication between France and the 

United Provinces being by that means cut off, 

Lewis was obliged to recall his forces, and abandon 

his conquefts with the utmoft precipitation'^. The 

very monuments of his glory were not completed, 

when be returned in difgrace : the triumphal* arch at 

the gate of St. Denis was yet unfini(hed, after all 

caafe of triumph had ceafed'^ 1 

A CONGRESS, under the the mediation of Sweden, 
held at Cologne during the fummer, was attended 

35. Burchet. Bafnaf^. Echard. Kennet* 3^. Hcnanlt, %6j4^ 
37. Voltaire, SissUt chap. X. 

F z with 


PART IL With no fucccfs. The demands of the confederate 
ir.Dri673 '^^^K* ^^^^ originally fuch as muft have reduced the 
Hollanders to perpetual fervitude \ and although ihey 
fifnk in their demandSi in proportion as the affairs of 
the States rofe, the States fell ftril lower in their 
offers : fo that it was found impofiible for the parties, 
without fome remarkable change of fortune* ever to 
dgree on any conditions. After the French evacuate 
Holland) the congrefs broke up. No longer anxious 
for their fafcty, the States were now bent on revenge. 
Their negociations at the courts of Vienna and Madrid 
were approaching to a happy conclufiou. The houfe 
of Auftria in both its branches was alarmed at the 
ambition of Lewis XIV. and the emperor and the 
Catholic king publicly figned a treaty with the U-> 
nited Provinces before the clofe of the year. Forget- 
ting her ancient animoTities againfl the republic, in 
ihe recent injuries which (he had receired from the 
French monarch, Spain immediately ifllued a decla- 
ration of war ; and by a ilrange reverfe in her policyy 
defended the Dutch againO France and England^ by 
whofe aid they had become independent of her power ! 

The boundlefs ambition of Levris XIV. toge- 
ther with the dark defigns and mercenary mcait- 
nefs of Charles II. which led him to a clofe alliance 
with France, had totally changed the fyftem of Eu* 
ropean policy. But a run of events, which ic was 
not in the power of the confederate kings to reverfe^ 
at lad brought things back to what is now cfteemed 
their natural order. The (irft of thefe events was the 
peace between England and Holland. 

When the Englifh parliament met» the commons 
difcoveted fuch (trong fymptoms of difcontentat the late 
meafiures of gOYcrnmenti that the king, perceiving he 



cd B c ip e a BO fttpplf for carrying on the war, ilkesi ^^^^\^^ 

(Ur advice in re^rd to peace. Both houfes thiiiiieil x_, -„.| 

Ittifor kis coQdefcenfion.and unanimoufly concurred \ **• »^* ♦» 

ia didr advice for a negociation. Peace wan tie* 

Cflidbr-T conduced with Hollanif, by the mur^ui« 

<k Ffcfno, the SpanlQi ambalTador at the court i»^ 

Loosen, who hid powers for that purpofe, and added 

the infiaence of hts own court to the other icuroim 

which had obliged Charles to llden to teiins. The 

coiMUtbns^ though little advantageous» were hy no 

flKaos degrading to England. The honour of iho 

lag was relinqui(hed by the Dutch; all polTrllioua 

we.-e mutually reftorcd ; new regulation* of tmdo 

were made, and the republic ngreed to pay the J(ing 

near three hundred thoufand pounds toward rciaiburf- 

iDg the eipcnce of the wai^*. Charles bound him* 

firlf to the States, by a fecret article, not to allow the 

EnglKh troops in the French fervicc to be recruited, 

bat would not agree to recall them. They amounted 

to ten thoufand men, and had greatly contributed to 

the rapid fuccefs of Lewis ^9, 

Though the peace with Holland relieved the 
king from many of his difFicuhicSi it did not rcOore 
him to the confidence of his people, nor allay the jea- 
loofy of the parliament. Senfible of this jealoufy, 
Charles, who had always been diffident of the at* 
Cicbment of his fubje^ts, dill kept up his conne£lioria , 
with France* He apologized to Lewis for the (lep 
be had taken, by reprefenting the real (late of his 
afiairs; and the French monarch, with great com- 

58. Arikies rf Peau in the Journals 9/ tin Lord*. 
39. Hdbic, Tol. ▼«. The king'f partiality Co France prevented a 
Arid CBXQtion of hit cngag ement relatiTtf to the rccruidug of thefe 
14. Ibid. Set lUb Dalrysiple*s Afpttti, 

F 3 plaifanc^ 


plaifance and good humour, admitted the validity of 
his excufes. In order ftill farther to atone for defert- 
ing his ally, Charles offered his mediation to the 
contending powers. 

Willing to negotiate under fo favourable a 
mediator, the king of France readily acceded to the 
offer. As it was apprehended, however, that, for a 
like reafon, the allies would be inclined to refufe it, 
fir William T«fmple, whofe principles were known 
to be favourable to the general interefts of Europe, 
was invited from his retreat, and appointed ambaflai- 
dor from England to the States. Temple accepted 
the office. But rcfle£ling on the unhappy iflue of his 
former fortunate negociationsi and on the fatal tuin ' 
of couiifels which had occafioned it, he refolved, 
before he fet out on his embaffy, to acquaint himfelf, 
as far as poffible, with the king's real fentiments in 
regard to thofe popular mtafures which he feemed to 
have refumed. He .therefore took occafion, at a pri- 
vate audience, to blame the dangerous fchemes of the 
Cabalt as well as their flagrant breach of the mod 
folemn trcaties^^. And when the king feemed dif- 
pofed to vindicate their meafures, but blamed the 
means employed to carry them into execution, that 
excellent minider, no lefs prudent than patriotic, en- 
deavoured to (hew his fovereign how dif&cult, if not 
smpodble, it would be, to introduce into England 
the fame fyffem of religion and government that was 

4Q. The Cabal was now In a manner difloWcd. Clifford wai dead : 
tnd Aihiy, orated earl of Shafeibury, had gone over to the p«pa!ar 
party, in order to AToid the danger of au impeachment, wben he found 
the king wanted conrage to fupport his miniftcrs in thole meafuret 
which he had himfelf didated. Buckingham, in confeqnence of his 
wavering and inconfident oondud, was become of Onall accowit ; but 
I«»lidcr4ale and Arlington were iUU of ibme weight. 



; i&Ktke «»if«Tfal bent of the t.«TrKK 
i«fc; A« many, who .pp«Ka J^ 
m w€^fi CD aO rciigtions, would m oppoftt ^'^' ***^' 
tfac hmmi^£^am of pcfcry^ as they were fenfible il 
GOoAd aor be c&Ari vithoct military force, aiul rh<»t 
the £mbc (BflCTy vkich tboaid enable the lung to bring 
dboar tadi a deange, voald ahb make him matter of 
diczr dvil Ebeitiesi tha;, in France^ it W4$ only ne« 
cdEwy for a ki^ lo gain the nobility ami cicrgyi ai 
fhc pcatuTtSy having no land, were as inrignificaiit at 
oar women and children : — Whereas, in KngUtuii a 
great part of the boded property W4S in the hinds of 
ibe yeomanry or lover gentry, whofe hearts werr 
high with cafe and plenty, while the inferior orders in 
France were dtfpirited by opprrflion and wanti ihut 
a king of England, Gnce the abolition of the feudal 
policy, could neither raife nor maintain an army, ex* 
cept by the voluntary fupplies of his parliament j that 
granting he had an army on foot, yet, if compofrd 
of EngliOimen, it would never be induced to fervts 
ends which the people fo much hated and fcarrd i that 
the Roman catholics in England were not the hun- 
dreth part of the nation, and in Scotland not the two 
huodreth; and it feemed againll all common fcnfe to 
hope, by any one part, to govern ninety nine, who 
were of different humours and fentiments i that, fo- 
reign troops, if few, would fcrvc only to inflame 
hatred and difcontent ; and how to bring over at oncef 
and maintain many (for no lefs than rbreefcore 
thoufand would be neceflary, to fubdue the fpirit and 
liberdes of the nation), was very hard to imagine^'. 

These reafoniogs Temple endeavoured to enforce 
bj the authority of Goucvilie, a French ftatefmaa^ 

41. a^i^/Jto.paftii.clisp.i« 

F4 who 


PART II. ^ho bad rcGded fome time in England, and for wbofo 
A. D. 4674. jodgmcnt he knew Charles had great refpeA. ** A 
*^ king of England," faid Gourville, on hearing of 
our difienfions, *' who will be the Man of his Ptaple 
*' is the greateft king in the world ; but if he will be 
•* fomcthing more, by God! he is nothing at all." 
The king, who had liftened with impatience zt firft, 
feemed now open to conviftion ; and laying his hand 
on Temple's, faid with an air of fincerity — '* And I 
« • will be the Man of my Pcopii*^ !'» 

When Temple went abroad, he found a variety of 
circumflances likely to defeat the purpofe of his em- 
bafTy. The allies in general, independent of their 
jcaloufy of Charles's mediation, exprefled great ardour 
for the continuance of the war. Spain had engaged 
Holland to (lipulate never to come to an accommoda- 
tion, until all things in Flanders were rtftored to the 
fame fituation in which they were left by the Pyre- 
ncan treaty ; the emperor h-ij hi);h preienfions on Al- 
face; and although the Dutch, opprefTed by heavy 
taxes, mi^ht be ilefirous of peace, they could not, 
without violating ?.ll the principks of honour and po* 
licy, abandon thofc allies to whofe protection they 
had fo lately been indebted for their fafety. The 
prince of Orange, who had vaft influence in their 
councils, and in whofe family* they had jud decreed 
the ofEce of ftadtholder to be perpetual, was befide 
ambitious of military fame, and convinced, That 
it would be in vain to negociate till a greater imprcf- 
fion was made upon France, as no equitable terms 
could otherwife be expeftcd from Lcwis*^ The 
operations of the enfuing campaign did not contri- 
bute to this tfftGt. 

4£. 14. ibid. 43 Tipxnple, ubi. fup. Voltaire, SUcle, chap. z. 




aC Europe hr tfcc TigcMir unmi 
He IimI three grc«t armies in the y_ , - ^ 

on the £de of GermanTi oie A« U. i»;4. 
the firoDtiersof Rouflilloni 
I the head of a fourth, entered Tranche 
Comity wmd fobdoed the whole province in fix 
vctb. The cakng of Bcfac^on was matter of great 
trioftph to the French mcnarch. He lofcd fiegcs, 
aa^is (aid to hawc undcrftood them well ; but he ne- 
verbcficged a town without being morally cenain of 
nHB|( it. LouTois prepared all things fo effectually* 
rite troops were fo well appointed, and Vauban, who 
CDododed mod of die fieges, was fo great a mafter In 
tbe art of taking towns, that the king's glory was per* 
feaiyfafe. Vauban direded the attacks at Bcfan* 
(00, which was reduced in nine diys, and became the 
capital of the province ; the univerfity and the feat of 
goremment being transferred to it from Dole^^ 

Nothing of importance happened in Rouflillon : 
but in Flanders. the prince of Conde, with an inferior 
army, prevented the prince of Orange from entering 
France by that quarter ; and, after long avoiding an 
engagement, from motives of prudence, he attacked 
the rear of the confederates, when an opportunity of- 
fered, in a narrow defile near Seneffe, a village be« 
tween Marimont and Nivelle; threw them into con* 
fufion, and took great part of their cannon and bag- 
gage. The prince of Orange, however, lefs remark- 
abk for preventing misfortune than for (lopping its pro* 
gfefs, rallied his difordered forces ; led them back to the 
charge; pufhed the veteran troops of France; and 
obliged the great Conde to exert more defperate cf* 
forts, and hazard his perfon more than in any aAion 
during his lifcj though now in an advanced age, and 

4^ Id. ibid. Henault, j$j^. 

though . 


though he had been peculiarly diftinguiOied in youth 
by the impetuofity of his courage. William did not 
expofe his perfon lefs* Hence the generous and can- 
did reftimony of Conde, forgetful of his own behavi- 
our: ** The prince of Orange has acted in every 
^* thing like an old captain, except in venturing his 
** life too much like a young foldicr*V 

The engagement was renewed three feveral times ^ 
and, after fun-fet» it was continued for two hours by 
the light of the moon. Darknefs at laft, not the flack- 
nefs of the combatants, put an end to the conteft, and 
left the viftory undecided^*. Twelve thoufand men 
lay dead on the field, and the lofs on both fides was 
nearly equal^'. In order to give an air of fuperiority 
to the allies, and to bring the French to a new engage* 
ment, the prince of Orange beGeged Oudenarde ; but 
Souches, the imperial general, not being willing to 
hazard a battle, he was obliged to relinquifli his en- 
terprife^ on the approach of Conde. Before the clofe 
of the campaign, however, after an obftinate fiege, he 
took Grave, the laft town which the French held in 
any of the Seven Provinces^*. 

TuRENNE, who. commanded on the fide of Ger-> 
many, completed that high reputation which he had 
already acquired, of being the greateft general of his 
age and nation. By a long and hafiy march, in order 
to prevent the jun£tion of the difit;rent bodies of Ger- 
man troops, he paiTed the Rhine at Philipfburg, and 
defeated ths old duke of Lorrain and Caprara, the im- 
perial generali at Sintzheim. With twenty thoufand 
men, he pofiefied himfelf of the whole Palatinate, by 
driving the allied princes beyond the Neckar and the 

45. Templif Mem. ptrt ii. chap. L 46. Id. ibid. 

47. Voltaire, SUdt, dup. xi, 4^. Tcmpk, ubi fup. 


MO D E R N E U R O P E. 75 

Maine They tctanlcd howcrcr, during his abfcncc ^^^ 
in Lomin> with a prodigious army, and poured into t_,-,^-.,7 
AibKf where they meant to pafs the winter. He A. D, 1474- 
came back upon them unexpe&edly i routed the Impe- 
riaUftt at Mulhaufen, and chafed from Colmar the e* 
kAor of Branderburg, who commanded the troops 
of the allied princes. He gained a farther advantage 
at Tarkheim ; and having diflodged mil the Germanst 
obliged them to pafs the Rhine* But the glory of 
(0 many vi£iories was ftained by the cruehies com- 
mitted in the Palatinate ; where the elector beheldj 
from his caAle at Manheim, two cities and five and 
twenty towns in flames^, and where luft and rapine 
walked hand in hand with 6re and fword. Stung with 
rage and revenge at fuch a fpe£bcle, he challenged 
Torenne to fingle combat. The marefcbal coolly 
replied, that he could not accept fuch a challenge 
without his mafter's leave ; but was ready to meet the 
Palatine in the field, at the head of his army, againft 
any which that prince and his new allies could bring 

These events infpircd the people of England with 
the mod melancholy apprehenfions, but gave finccrc 
fatisfadion to the court j and Charles, at the requeft 
of the king of France, prorogued the pariiamenr, 
which was to have met on the loth of Odober, to 
the I3tb of April in the following year, left the com- 
mons fliould force him to take part with the United 
Provinces. One hundred thoufand pounds was the 
price of this prorogation''. 

Lewis, notwithftanding his fucccffes, was alarmed 
at the number of his enemies; and therefore, befide 

49. Vokaire, Siede, chap. xi. 50. Tgmfie's Mm. part ii. 

^uDdrjmf^tAtttid. Macphcrlbn,JaSf.JJnfccbip.iv. 



purchafing the neutrality of Englancti he endeavour*, 
ed, though in vtin, to negociate a peace with Hol- 
land. The events of the next campaign (hewed that 
hia fears were well founded. Though he made vaft 
preparations, and entered Flanders with a numerous 
army, commanded by himfclf and the prince of Gon- 
dii he was able to gain no advantage of any confe- 
quence over the prince of Orange, who oppofed him 
in all his motions. Neither party was willing, without 
fome peculiarly favourable circumftancc* to hazard a 
general engagement j which might be attended with 
the utter lofs of Flanders, if viftory declared for the 
French, and with the invafion of France if the king 
(hould be defeated. Difguftcd at his want of fucccfs, 
Lewis returned to Vcrfiilles about the end of July, 
and nothing memorable happened in the Low Coun- 
tries during the campaign. 

The campaign was ftill lefs favourable to France in 
other quarters. Turenne was oppofed, on the fide of 
Germany, by his celebrated rival Montecuculi, who 
commanded the forces of the empire. The objefk of 
Montecuculi was to pafs the Rhine, and penetrate 
into Alface, Lorrain, or Burgundy; that of Tu- 
renne, to guard the frontiers of France, and difappoint 
the fchemes of his antagonift. The moft confummate 
{kill was difplayed on both fides. Both had reduced 
war to a fcience, and each was enabled to difcovcr iljc 
defigns of the other by judging what he himfelf would 
have done in like circumftances. Turenne, by poft- 
ing himfclf on the German fide of the Rhine, was en- 
abled not only to keep Montecuculi from pafling that 
river, but to fcize any opportunity that fortune might 
prefent. Such a happy moment he thought he had 
difcerned, and wzs preparing to take advantage of it, 
by bringing the Germans to a deciGic engagement, 
5 and 


and bis own generalfliip and that of Montecaculi to t letter 

final trial, when a period was pot to his life by a can- ^_^^J_^ 

non-ball, as he was viewing the pofition of the ene* a.d. 1675. 
mjf and taking meafures for ereding a battery^*. 

The conftemation of the French on the lofs of 
their general was inexpreOible. The fame troops chac 
a moment before was affured of vidiory, now 
thought of nothing but flight. A difpute relative to 
the command between the count de Lorges, nephew to 
Turenne, and the marquis de Vaubrun, was added to 
their grand misfortune. They retreated : Montecu* 
culi preiTed them hard; but, by the valour of the 
Englifh auxiliaries, who brought up the rear, and the 
abilities of de Lorges, who inherited a confideraUe 
ihare of the genius of his uncle, they were enabled to 
repafs the Rhine, without much lofs. Leaving the 
army in Flanders, under the command of Luxem- 
bourg, the prince of Conde came with a reinforce^ 
ment to fupply the place of Turenne ; and though he 
was not perhaps, in all refpedls, equal to that con- 
fummate general, he not only prevented the Germans 
from eflablifhing themfetves in Alface, but obliged 
them to repafs the Rhine, and take winter-quarters in 
iheir own country^'. 

Before the arrival of Conde, however, a detach* 
ment from the German army had been fent to the 
fiegc of Treves ; an cnterprife which the allies had 
greatly at heart. In the mean time the marefchal dt 
Crequi advanced with a French army to the relief of 
the place. The Germans, whom he defpifed, leav^ 
ing part of their forces in the lines, advanced to meet 

5». Temples Mem, part ii. chap. i. Henault, 1675, Voltiirc, SUtle 
. <^ tu 53. Id. ibid. 



PART n. bim with the main body, under the dukes of Zell and 
A. 0/167?.^ Oznabrug, and totally routed him. He efcapcd with 
only four attendants,, and throwing himfelf into 
Treves^ determined to periih rather than furrender 
the town. But the garrifon, after a gallant defence, 
refolving not to fall a facrifice to his obftinacy, capi- 
tulated for themfelves ; and becaufe he refufed to fign 
the trticlesi they deliTcred him into the hands of the 

The king of S.w^dcn, who ha4 been induced by 
the payment of large fubGdies to take part with 
France, was ft ill more unfortunate this campaign 
than Lewis. The putch, the Spaniards» the Danes, 
became at once hia enemies. He was defeated by the 
cleAor of Brandenburg, whofe territories he had in« 
Tadedi and loft all Pomerania. Bremerfurt was taken 
by the troops of Brunfwic Lunenburg j Wolgaft, by 
thofe of Brandenburg ; and Wifmar fell into the hands 
of the Dancs^^. 

It was now the crifis for the king of England by a 
vigorous concurrence with the allies, to have regained 
the confidence of his people and the refpedt of all Eu- 
rope. He might have fet bounds for ever to the power 
of France, and have been the happy indrument of 
preventing all thofe long and bloody wars, which 
were occafioned by the difputes in regard 10 the Spa- 
niOi fnccefiion, as well as thofe which have been the 
confequence of a prince of the houfc of Bourbon being 
eftabliflied on the throne of Spain. Charles was not 
ignorant of the importance of his fituation i but, in* 
Aead of taking advantage of it» to reftrain the ambi^ 
tion of Lewis XIV. he thought only of acquiring 

54. Vokiirc, vbi fup. 55* ^^' ^ BrvMmrg^ 

monef ' 



money to fquauder upon his pleafuresi by felling his LETTER 

neutrality to that monarch ! A new fccrct treaty was ,,^ _' | 

accordingly concluded between ihe two kings, by A, D. 1^176. 
which they obliged themfelves to enter into no trea- 
ties without mutual confent ; and in which Charles 
farther ftipulates, in confideration of an annual pen* 
fion^ to prorogue or difiblve his parliament, (hould it 
attempt to foice him to declare war againft France'^* 

Thus fecure of the neutrality of England, Lewis 
made vigorous preparations for carrying on the war 
in Flanders, and was early in the field in perfon. 'lie 
laid ficge to Conde in the month of April, and took it 
by tiorm. fiouchaine fell into his hands by the mid* 
die of May ; the prince of Orange, who was ill fu;^ 
ported by his allies, not daring to attempt its relief* 
on account of the advantageous poGtion of the French 
army. After facing each other for fome time, the two 

56. HouTJgny to Lewis XIV. Jan. q, and Feb. 17, 1676, in Dalrymplet 

AffemJ, The proofn that Chirlet wat a penfiouer of Prance, do not reft 

Iblclf opon thefe Lecten. They are alfo to be found in King Jamt/i 

Mtm. and the DoMby Paftrt, Bolingbroke feemir to have been pcrfcdly 

acquainted nriih them ; and very juftly obferve8,That Charles II. by this 

meannefn, whatever might be his motives for fubmitting to it, <* efta- 

" biiiheJ the fuperiority of France in Europe." (Letier* on the Shdy 

•f Hrjtry.) Unprincipled as the miniilers of Charles were, it is with 

pleaf'ire that we learn from Kouvigiiy*s difpatches, not one of them 

hrartilf concurred in this infanioua treaty. ** Hence,'' fays he tohis maf- 

tcr,*( your majcfty will plainly fee, that ima/l EnglanJ^ there is •n!y the 

'* k'mg and the duke of Tori^ who emhrace your interrfls with afeffion f* 

(Feb 17, 1676.) And in a future letter he adds, in confirmation tf this 

lingular exception, <' I can anfwer for it to your majefty, that there are 

*' none of your rurm/idjefit who tvijh you hetlirfnccifty in ailywr undtr* 

" ^'^th than th^* /«■• priiugtx but it is alfo true, that you cannot 

" cmliipoii any, but thele/tM/rMm/i»in aUEngUmtir' (Jan. a8, 1677.) 

The imbaiIador*s only fear therefore was, that Charles might be 'VrdtiM 

** uitotheySr«/»NWff#i of h\%pe9pU /'* And the p insion was cfteemed a 

necdiiry •« ntw tje^ to bind him to th« inUrf^ oifrMitce, Rouvigny, 




PART II. armies withdrew to a greater diftancei as if by mo* 
A.D.76''6 *^*^ confent, neither chufing to hazard an engage* 
ment. Th« king of France, with his ufual avidity 
of praife, and want of perfeverance, returned to Ver* 
failles, leaving the command of his army to Maref<* 
chal Schomberg : and the prince of Orange^ on the 
departure of Lewis, laid ficgc to Maeftricht. The 
trenches were opened toward the end of July^' and 
many defperate aflaults made, and feveral outworks 
taken ; but all without efFcA. The place made a gal* 
lant defence; ficknefs broke out in the confederate 
army ; and on the approach of Schomberg, who had 
already taken Aire, the prince of Orange was obliged 
to abandon bis enterprife'\ The taking of Philipf* 
burg, by the Imperialifts, was the only fuccefs that 
■attended rhe'arms of the allies during the campaign. 

Fran'ce was no lefs fucccfsful by fea than by land* 
Lewis XIV. had very early difcovered an ambition 
of forming a powerful navy : and during the war be- 
tween England and Holland, in which be was engag* 
ed, his fubjcfts had acquired in perfcflion the art of 
(hip-building, as well as the mod approved method 
of conducing feu-engagements, by means of fignals, 
faid to have been invented by the duke of York. An 
accidental circumftance now afforded Lewis an oppor* 
tunity of difplaying his naval (Ircngth, to the aflo* 
nilhment and tenor of Europe. 

Messina in Sicily had revolted from Spiin; and 
a French fleet) under the duke de Vivonne, was fent 
to fupport the citizens in their rebellion. A Dutch 
and Spani(h fquadron failed to oppofe Vivonne ; but| 
after an oblUnate combat, Meflina was relieved by 

57. Templet JlfrnWri, part ii. 



Ac French, Another engagement cnfued near Au- LETTER 

gufla, rendcicd famous hy the tleath of the gallant dc , -„f 

lluycer, and in which the French had alfo the advan- a. D. io;i;, 
tage- A third battle^ more decifive than any of the 
former, was fought off P'lermo. The combined 
fleet, to the number of twenty-feven fnips of the 
line, nineteen gallies, and four (ire- (hip?, was drawn 
up in a line without the mole, and under cover of the 
fordfications. The difpofition was good, and the ap- 
pearance formidable ; yet Vivonne, or rather du 
Quefne^ who commanded under him, and was a great 
naval officer, did not hcHtate to venture an attack With 
a fquadron inferior in (Irength. The battle was fuf- 
tained with great vigour on both fides *, until the 
French, taking advantage of a favourable wind, fent 
(bme firc-fhips in among the enemy. All was now 
confufion and terror. Twelve capital fliips were funk, 
burnt, or taken ^ (ivc thoufand men loil their lives i 
and the French, riding undifputcd mailers of the 
Mediterranean, endangered the total revolt of Naplcti 
and Sicily ^'« 

A CONGRESS had been opened at Nimegucn in the 
beginning of the year ; but no progrefs, it was found, 
could be ipade in negocintion, till the war had tnkcn 
a more deciftvc turn. The difappointment of the al- 
lies, in the events of the campaign, had now much 
damped their fanguine hopes ; and the Hollanders, on 
whom the whole weight of the war lay, feeing no pro- 

fp^ of a general pacification, began to entertain 

thoughts of concluding a fcparate treaty with France. 

They were loaded with debts and harrafTi-d with 
^^cs; their commerce languiihcd ; and, exclufivc of 

tlie difidvantages attending all leagues, the weaknefj of 

5S. Le Clerc. vol. ii. Vultairct, clt?.p. si. 

Vol. IV. (1 th« 



PART n. the Spaniards, and the diviCons and delays of the 
]r£''j^'yA Germans, prognofticated nothing but difgrace and 
ruin. They themfelves had no motive for continuing 
the war, befide a deCrc of fecuring a good frontier 19 
Flanders ; yet gratitude to their allies inclined tbem 
to try whether another campaign might riot produce 
a peace that would give general fatisfa£lipn. And 
the prince of Orange, aduatcd by ambition and ani' 
mofity againft France, emleavoured to animate them 
to a ftcady perfeverance in their honourable refolur- 

In the mean time the eyes 6{ aH parties were turn* 
ed toward England. Charles TI. was univerfaHy allowed 
to be the arbiter of Europe ; and ik> terms of peace 
which he would have prefcribed could hare been re-* 
fufed by any of the contending powers. The Spa- 
niards believed, that he would never fufFer Flanders 
'to be fubdued by France ; or, if he could be fo faT 
loft to his own intered, that the parliament would 

A.v 1677 f^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ P^'"' ^'^^^ ^^^ confederates 59. The 
F«:b. 15. parliament was at lafl aiTembled, in order to appeafe 
the murmurs of the people, after a recefs o( upward 
of twelve months. Difputes about their own rights 
engaged the peers for a time, and the comnK)ns pro* 
ceeded with tamper, in taking into conGderation the 
date of the navy, which the king had recommended 
to their attention* Every thing feemed to promife a 
peaceable and eafy feflion. But the rapid and unex- 
peAed progrefs of the French ar^isfoon difturbed this 
tranquillity, and dire£led to other obje£ls the delibera* 
lions of both houfes. 

Lewis, having previoufly formed large magazines 
In Flanders, had taken the field in February. Attend- 

59. TefnfU*i Mem, pitt ii. cbip. it. 



td by his brother the duke of Orleans, his miniftcr ^^,Jf^ 

Louvoisy Vauban, and five marcfchals of France, he V— v-*^ 

undertook the Cege of Valenciennes 5 and by the ' ' "* 

jtidictous advice of Vauban, who recommended an 

aflault to be made In the morning, when it would be 

Icaft czpe£tedj in preference to the night, the ufual 

time for fuch attempts^ the place was carried by fur- March 17; 

prifc^. Cambray furrendered after a fliort Cegej 

and St. Omers was dofely invefted, when the prince 

of Orange, with an army hadily aflembled, marched 

to its relief. The fiege was covered by the dukes of 

Orleans and Luxembourg ; and as the prince was de« 

termined to endeavour to raife it, be the confeqUences 

what tbey might, an obftinate battle was fought at April ii^ 

Mont Caflel } where, by a fuperlor movement of 

Luxembourg, William was defeated, in fpite of his 

moft vigorous e6Forts, and obliged to retire to Ypresi 

His behaviour was gallant, artd his retreat mafterly 1 

bat St. Omers fubmitted to the arms of France ^^ 

Jt7STLY alarmed at fuch extraordinary fuccefs, the 
Eoglifli parliament prefented an addrefs to the king^ 
reprefenting the danger to which the kingdom was 
cxpofed from the greatnefs of France, and praying 
diit he would form fuch alliances as (hould both 
fecure his own dominions and the Spanifli Nether-^ 
lands, and thereby quiet the fears of his people* 
The king returned an evafive anfwer, and the com- 
mona thought it necefl'ary to be more particular. 
Tliey ehtreated him to interpofe immediately in fa^ 
vonr of the confederates ; and^ in cafe a war with 

6%. Voltaite, Sletk, cKtp. xii. 

6x. ttmplit Mem, part ii. chip. ii. In attempting to .rally hli 
^^pcricd troops^ the prince ftruck one cf the nuM^-afs acrofs the 
to with hii fword. " Rafcal!"— cried he, «« I wiU fct a mark ou 
" yn at prcfenty fhtt I aia/ kang jv afterward.*' Id. ibid. 

G 2 France 


PART IL France Ciould be the confcqucnce of fuch intcrfe- 
A.D. 1677. rence, they promifed to fupport him with all necefl 
fary aids and fuppHcs. Charles, in his anfwer, art- 
fully exprefled his defire of being firfi put in a c%ndi^ 
tion to accomplijh die defi^n of their addrefs. This was 
underftood as a demand for money -, but the commons 
were too well acquainted with the king's connexions 
with FrancCi to hazard their money in cxpedation of 
alliances which they believed would never be formedf 
if the fupplies were granted before hand. Inftead of 
a fupply, they therefore voted an addrefs, in which 
** they befought his majefty to enter into a league, 
<• offenfivfy and defenjive^ with the States General of the 
** United Provinces, againft the growth and power 
•* of the French king, and for the prefervauon of the 
^* Spaui(h Netherlands ; and to make fuch other alli- 
<< ances with the confederates as (hould appear fit and 
<< ufeful for that end **." They fupported their ad- 
vice with arguments ; and concluded with afluring 
the king, that when he (hould be pleafed to declare 
fuch an alliance in parliament, they would moft chear- 
fully fupport his meafures with plentiful and fpeedj 
fupplies. Pretending rcfentment at this addrefs, as 
an encroachment on his prerogative, Charles made an 
angry fpeech to the commons, and ordered the par- 
liament to be adjourned. 

Had the king, my dear Philip, been prompted to 
this meafure (as an author, no wife prejudiced againft 
him, very juftly obferves) by a real jealoufy of his 
prerogative, it might merit Come applaufe, as an in* 
dication of vigour \ but when we are made acquainted 
with the motives that produced it, when we know 
that it proceeded from his fecret Engagements with 

62. Journali, May, a5,,i6r7. 



France* and his difappolnttnent in not obtaining a ^^IJf^ 

Jarge Iiini to dtdipate opon his plcafures, it furnlflies ^_- -^ 

a sew inftanoe of that want of finccrity which dif- ^ ^' *^*'* 

gnoed the character of Charles^'. When he thus 

urged the commons to ftrengthen his hands for war« 

he had actually ibid his neutraitty to France, as I 

faa¥e already had occafion to notice ; and had he o!>» 

tained the fupply required for that end, he would no 

doubt have found expedients to fcreen his condu£k, 

witfaoat entering into war, or even breaking off his 

private 'correfpondence with Lewis. But to make an * 

tffetffivtZTkAdifenJiViaUt€mctyR\xYi thtCofifetierates thecfft- 

dflffv of a fupply, he forefaw would deprive him of the 

fuTit fmhfidy, and throw Iiim upon the mercy of his 

commons, whofe confidence he had defervedly loft, 

and whofe fpirit he wasdcfirous to fubdue. Confider* 

ing bis views, and the engagements he had formed, 

he sQed with prudence \ but both were unworthy of a 

Inog of England. 

While Charles, lolling in the lap ofpleafure, or 
wafting his tioxe in thoughtlefs jollity, was thus in- 
glorioufiy facrificing the honour of his kingdom and 
the interefts of Europe, in confideration of a con- 
temptible pcnfion from a prince to whom he might 
have given law, the eyes of his Cubje£ls were anxiouf- 
ly turned toward the political fituation of the con- 
tending powersi and the events of rhe campaign. In 
fipsiD, domeftic faclion had been added to the other 
misfortunes of a kingdom long declining, through the 
weaknefs of her councils, and the general corruption 
of her people. Don John of Audria, natural fon of 
PbiUp IV. had taken arms againd the queen-rcgcut, 
V^ advanced toward Madrid ; and, although difap* 

63. MsurpherfoOj Hifl, JBriL chap. i. 

G 3 pointed 



FART H. pointed in his expe£b;ition9 of fupport, he returned 15 
ATi) 167 '. Saragoffa, foriync foon after faroyred liU ambition. 
The young king, Charles II. efcaping from hia mon 
ther, ordered her to be (hut up in a convent at Tole- 
do, and declared Don John prim^ minifter. But the 
hopes entertained of his abilities were not anfwered 
by the event. The misfortunes of Spain increafed 
on every fide. 

In Catalonia Monterey was defeated 3 Bracamoole 
loft the battle of Foramina in the kingdom of Sicily | 
and Flanders, in confeqoence of the capture of Vt- 
lenciennesi Cambray, and St. Omers^ was laid open 
to abfolute conqucft. The prince of Orange, in or« 
der to atone for bis defeat at Cafiel, fat down before 
Charleroy i but oq the appearance of the French «r<r 
my, under marefcbal Luxembourgi he was forced t9 
laifc thefiege^i^. Williamj though poffcfied ofcon- 
fiderable talents for war, was inferior to rhis experi- 
enced general; and feems always to have wanted that 
happy combination of genius and (killj which is ne- 
ceflary to form the great commander. 

On the Upper Rhine, Charles V. duke of Lor- 
raln, who had fucceeded his uncle rather in the title 
than in the territory of that duchy, commanded a 
body of the allies. The prince of Saxe-Eifinach, at 
the head of another army, endeavoured to enter AU 
face. But the marefcbal de Crequi, with an inferior 
force, defeated the views of the duke of Lorrain, 
though an able officer. He obliged him to retire from 
Mentz ; he hindered him from cro(Eng the Maefe \ 
he beat up his pofis, he cut off his convoys; and bav* 
ing gained an advantage over the allies, near Cokerf- 

6^ ^cllfoDi torn. Hi. 


htrg^ he dored the campaign on that fide wiih the ^?JJ^* 
takiBf of Friburg. The baron de Montclar, who de- ^, ,^- y 
ftoded AHaoCi was 00 lefs fuccersful. After yariout ^.D. 16:7. 
moveroeBltf he inclofed the troops of the prince of 
Sase-Eifinach within his own, and forced them to 
capitolaic sear Straiburg^^. The king of Sweden^ 
howtfer, was not equally fortunate with his iilultri* 
oos ally; he had ftill the worll in the war^ notwith* 
ftandiagi the uking of Elfeinbourg, and a Tiftorf 
guned over the king of Denmark. His fleet was 
twice defeated by the Danes, and the eleAor of Bran* 
denburg took from him the important fortrefs of 
Stettin «^* 

Do&tVG the rapid progrefs of the French arms in 
Flanders, ferious negociattons had been begun be- 
tween Lewis and the States General of the United 
Provinces, and an eventual treaty was actually con- 
doded; by which ;iH differences were adjuftedi and 
nothing wanting to the reQoration of peace, but thfe 
concurrence of their rcfpeftive allies. The misfor* 
tones of the confederates, and the fupine ixid I (Terence 
of England, feemed to render peace neceflary to 
them. But had they been fufficiently acquainted with 
the ftate of France, they would have had fewer ap- 
prebenfions from the continuance of the war. Though 
viQorioos in the field, (he was exhaufted at home. 
Thefucceflles which had rendered her the terror of her 
ncighhours, had already deprived her, for a time,' of 
dK power of hurting them. But the ignorance of 
AiDkind continued their fears ; the apprehenfions oi 
Evope remained ; and Lewis derived more glory from 
fcis imaginary than from his real force. 

^5- M- ibid. Voltaire, SUOe, chap. iH 66. Mem. Je Srandtnlurg. 

G4 These 


PART 11. These apprchcnfions were very great in England. 

A.D. 167T ^" parliament thejr were made fubfervient to the pur* 
pofcs of ambition and faQioHi as well as of patriot* 
ifni ; and they awakened dangerous difcontents among 
the people. Murmurs were heard from all ranks of 
men. Willing; to put an end tb diflatisfaftions that 
dillurbed his repofey Charles made a new attempt to 
gain the confidence of his people. His brother's bi« 
got ted attachment to popery, and his own unbappj 
connections with France, he was fenfible bad chiefi j 
occaGoncd the lofs of his popularity. To afibid the 
profpedt of a Froteftant fucceOion to the throne, 
and procure a generaf peace to Europe, could not 
therefore fall, he thought, of quieting the mixids of 
his fubjeds. He accordingly encouraged propofals of 
marriage from the prince of Orange to the lady 
Mary, his brother's eldeil daughter, and prefumptiv^ 
heirefs to the crown, the duke of York hping then 
no male ifiue, and the king no legitimate offspring. 
By fo tempting a match be hoped to engage the prince 
entirely in his intcrefts ; and to fanAify with Wil- 
liam's approbation fuch a peace as would fatisfj 
France, and tend to perpetuate his own conue£\ions 
with Lewis. 

William came orer to England at the clofeof the 
campaign ; and whatever might be his motives for 
fuch a conduct, he z&cd a part highly deferviog of 
applaufe, whether we examine it by the rules of pra* 
licnce or delicacy. He refufed to enter upon buGnefs 
before he had been introduced to the lady Mary ; de- 
claring that, as he placed great part of his faappincfs 
in domcftic fatii:fa£iion, no confideration of intcreft or 
policy could ever induce him to marry a perfon who 
vas not perfectly agreeable to bim. The lady Mary, 

MOD E R N E U R O P E. 89 

whom he found in the bloom of youth, and very amU 
able both in mind and pcrfon, exceeded his higheil 
hape$'j but he ftill refufed to concert any meafures A.o. i6>o« 
for the general peace, until his nmrriage (hould be 
concluded. His allies, who, as things flood, were likely 
to have hard terms, would otherwife, he faid, be apt 
to fufpeft that he had made this match at their cod. 
" And I am determined," 4ddcd he, *« it (hall never 
•* be faid, that I fold my honour for a wife*7|" 
Charles^ who affeded to fmile at thefe pun£liIios, 
perfifted in his refolucion of making the peace pre- 
cede the marriage ; but finding the prince inflexible, 
he at laft confented to the nuptials, which were ce« 
lebrated at St. James's to the inexpreilible joy of the 

Tins matrimonial alliance gave great alarm to the 
king of France. A junftion of England with the 
confederates, he concluded, would be the immediate 
confequence of fo important a (lep, taken not only 
without his confent, but without his knowjege or par- 
ticipation. Charles, however, endeavoured to quiet his 
apprehenfions, by adjourning the parliament from the 
lliird of December to the fourth of next April ; a term 
late for granting fupplies, or forming preparntions for 
wai**. In the mean time the king, the prince of 
Orange, the lord-treafurer Danby, and fir William 
Temple, held confuhations relative to a general peace ; 
and the earl of Feverfham was difpatched to France 
vidi conditions fufficiently favourable to the allies^ 
Aod yet not diflionourable to Lewis. 

Two days only were allowed the French monarch 
for the acceptance or refufal of the peace, and the 

kj, Ttm^lis Mem. part ii. ckap. \m, 6S. DMrymplc: Append. 



March 9, 
4^ p. 1678. 


EngliDi ambaflador had no power to negoeiate« 
But be was prevailed on to ftay feme days longer^ 
and returned at lad without any pofitive anfwer* 
** My ambaiTador at London," faid Lewis, *' (hmll have 
<< full powers to finifti the treaty to the fatiafaAion of 
** the king. And I hope my brother will not break 
** with me for one or two towns^9." The French an* 
baflador declared, that he had leave to yield all the 
towns required, except Tournay ; and even to treat 
of fome equivalent for that, if the king thought fit« 
Charles was foftened by the moderation of Lewis, 
The prince of Orange, who had given vigour to the 
Engliih councils, was gone ; and delay focceeded de* 
lay in the negociations, until the French monarch, 
having taken the field early, made himfelf mafter of 
Ghent and Ypres, after having threatened Mons 
and Namur^^'. 

These conquefts, which completed the triumph of 
France, filled the Dutch with terror, and the EngUlh 
with indignation* But Lewis managed matters fo art- 
fully in both nations, that neither proved a bar in the . 
way of his ambition. Through his intrigues with the 
remains of the Loveftein party in Holland, he increafed 
the general defire of peace, by awakening a jealoufy 
of the defigns of the prince of Orange on account of bit 
eagemefs for continuing the war. In England, be 
not only maintained his connexions with Charles, bat 
gained Xo bis intereft many of the popular members 
in both houfes of parliament, who were lefs afraid 
of the conqued of Flanders than of trufting the king 
with an army to defend it. So great, however, wa^ 
the ardour of the people of England for war, that 
both the king and parliamsnt were obliged to give 
way to it. An army of twenty thoufand men, to the 

C9. Ttmfita Mem. part 11. chap. ill. 
cl^ap. lii. 


7c. Id. Ibid. Yoluirc, SietU^ 



aftoDifliment of Earopei was completed in a few let tee 
veeks; and part of it was fcnt over, under the ^ , ,- .j 
duke of Monmouibi to fecure Oftend. Meanwhile A.D.i6:t. 
Charlcfy in confideration of the fam of three hun* 
dred thoufand pounds, fecretly engaged to dliband his 
army« and to permit Lewis to make his own terms 
with the confederates ; and the commons alfo, fwayed 
bj French influence, but ignorant of the king's en« 
gagCflsentSt and e?en deCrous to thwart his mca« 
fureit voted that the army ihould be difbaoded 7> 1 
Bafimefii fo complicated, in men of the moil exalted 
ftaikms, makes us almoft hate human nature; and 
the generous mindf in contemplating fuch a motley 
groupe, without regard to impofing names, beholds 
with equal indignation the penConed king and the 
hireling patriot '*• 

HATrNG nothing now to dread from the only two 
powers that could fet bounds to his empire, Lewis af« 
fumed the ftyle of a conqueror ; and, inftead of yield* 
ing to the terms offered by Charles, he himfelf die- 
fated the articles of a peace, which, by placing all the 
barrier towns of Flanders in his hands, left that coun- 

71. Ttmfles M*m. part ii. ch»p. iii. Dalrymj)!^*, Appendix, p. 157. 

7i* That fomc of the popular members in both houfcs of p arlUmrrt. 
receifed moiiej from the court of Prance, i^ a truth too ii<>t<>r'(>ii-. to 
bt deniedy though paiufql to relate. And to fay they ubrttc I r.o 
Sieafiirei which thej did not believe to be fur the good of their count rr, 
ii bit a poor apology for their venality. A fenatur who can be pre- " 
vailed 00 to accept a bribe, it it to be feared, will readily perfuade hlm> 
fcJfof the re^itudjjof anyroeafurc, for thefupport of which rhat bribe 
i*«ficred. Of thii brd Ru/TcU ferm^ to have been fully con vi n ct d ; for 
**»*htugh willing to co-operate with France, in order to prevent Chut la 
11. from becoming abfolute, (aifuon a<t informed that Ix:wi» XIV. began 
to difcover that fuch a change in the Englifh government would be 
^pioft hit iutereft) he was (lartled when told by Barillon, that li<t had 
*' a coniidcrable fum to diftributc in parliament tu ubAru^ the vote of 
" fopply." — ^ I (hoold be forry,'* faid he, ** to have any i§nmuni;atUH 
** with meM who can b^ jrainfii by tnonty,'* DMrymflr't /i/*/ffiJ. 



PART II. try open to his future inroads. This imperious prot 
A^D 16-8 cceding, and other aggravating circumftances, occa'* 
fioned great murmurs in Englandj and the king 
feemed at length difpofed to enter heartily into the 
war. But the confederates had been too often de« truft any longer to the flufluating counfels 
of Charles. Negociations for a general peace ad- 
vanced toward a conclufion at Nimeguen ; and at 
the emperor and Spain, though Icaft able to continue 
the war, feemed refolved to ftand out. Van Bevcming, 
the Dutch ambaflador, more prudently than honour- 
ably, figned a feparate treaty with France ^'. That 
treaty, which occaGoned much clamour among the 
confederates, was ratified by the States ; and all tha 
other powers were at lad obliged to accept the terms 
prcfcribcd by the French monarch. 

The principal of thefe terms were. That Lewis. 
befidc Franche-Compte, which he had twice con- 
quered, (hould retain poffefEon of Cambray, Aire^ 
St. Omcrs, Valenciennes, Tournay, Yprcs, Bou- 
chainc, Caflel, Charlcmont, and other places ; that he 
(hould reftorc Macflricht to the States, the only place 
belonging to the United Provinces which he now re- 
tained ; that Spain fhould be again put in pofTeflion 
of Charleroy, Gudenard, Aeth, Ghent, and Lim- 
bourg ; that the emperor ihould give up Fribourg to 
France, and retain Philipfbourg ; that the eleflor of 
Brandenburg (hould reftore to Sweden his conquefts 
in Pomerania, and "that the treaty of Weftpbalia 
(hould remain in full force over Germany and the 
North 7*. The duke of Lorrain was the only prince 
who refufed to be included in the peace of Nime- 
guen : he chofe rather to become a foldier of fortune^ 

73. TenpWs Mm. part ii. chap. iii. 74. Haluault, an. 167?, 

iMirrt. ii £raiJink»irg, Voltaire, Sltekf chap. xii. • 



«nd to command the imperial armies, than to accept letter 
his dominions on the conditions propofed by Licwis. ^ ^"^' 

The prince of Orange was fo much enraged at this 
peace, that he took a very unwarrantable ftep to break 
it. He attacked the quarters of the duke of Luxem- 
bourg at St* Denis near Mons, after the treaty was 
figned, and when the duke repofed on the faith of it» 
in hopes of cutting off the whole French army 7$. But 
he gained no decided adrantage ; and this bold vio- 
lation of the laws of humanity, if not of thofe of na- 
tions, was attended with no other confcquence than 
the lofs of many lives on both (ides. 

The king of England alfo, difgufted with Lewis, 
and aihamed of having been fo long the tool of a mo* 
narch to whofe ambition he might have given law^ 
endeavoured to perfuade the States to difavow their 
ambaffador, and refufe to ratify the peace. But the 
Dntch , had made too good terms for themfelves to 
think of immediately renewing the war; and Charles, 
though denied the flipulated bribe for his ignominious 
neutrality, foon returned to his former connexions 
with France ?*• 

Thus, my dear Philip, was Lewis XIV. highly 
exalted above every other European potentate. He 
had greatly extended his dominions, in defiance of a 
powerful confederacy ; and he had fecured very im- 
portant conqucfts, by treaty. His minifters, in ne- 
gociating, had appeared as much fuperior to thofe of 
other nations, as his* generals in the field. He had 
given law to Spain, Holland, and the empire: his 
arms had humbled his mod formidable neighbours, 
and his ambition threatened the independency .of all. 

75. VdtairCi nbi fop. Bttract, book lii. 76. Ii§,hyvifUi Append. 


A.D. 167I. 


PARTii. bribe for filcnce ; and thofe teachers who were fettled 
1^0^x669. *° ^^^ vacant churches foon found their popularity de* 
cUne, when they delivered only the fimple do£)rinetf 
of Chriflianity. By ceafing to rail againft the chorch 
and ftate, called preaching to the imes^ they got 
the name oi dumb dogs ^ who were fuppofed to be afraid 
to bark*. The churches were again deferted, for 
the more vehement and inilammatory difcourfes of 
the (ie!d : preachers and conventicles multiplied daily 
in the Weft ; where the people, as formerly, came 
armed to their places of worfliip* 

When this fanaticifm was at its height, Lauder* 
dale was appointed commiilioner to the Scottifh par* 
liament, which met on the 19th of O&ober. The 
zealours Prefbyterians, the chief afTertors of liberty, 
were unable to oppofe the meafures of the court ; 
fo that the tide ran Arongly toward monarchy, if not 
defpotifm. By one zQ. it was declared. That the right 
of governing the church was inherent in the king ; 
and by another, the number of the militia (elUbliflied 
by the undue influence of the crown about two years 
before) was fettled at twenty-two thoufand men ; who 
were to be conftantly armed, regularly difciplined, 
and held in readinefs to march to any part of bis ma- 
jefty*s dominions, where their fervice might be re- • 
quired, for the fupport of his authority, power, or 
greatnefs'. Thus was Charles invefted with abfolute 
fway in Scotland, and even fumiflied with the meant 
of becoming formidable to his Englifh fubje&s^ whole 
liberties lie wiflied to fubdue. 

/.n.iCyo. A SEVERE aft againft conventicles followed thefe 
arbitrary laws, on which Lauderdale highly valued 
himfeir, and which induced the king to make blm 

2. Id. ibicU 3. Burnet, ubi Tap. 




folcminiftcr for Scotland. Ruinous fines were im- Ietteh 

pofed on the Prelbyterians, who met to worfbip iti ^^^'' 

Aottfeii and field-preachers and their hearers were to 

i^puniflied with death. But iaws that are too fevere 

defeat their own end. The rigours exercifed againil 

cooreoticles in Scotland, inftead of breaking the fpirit 

of tbefanaticsi ferved only to render them more obfti- 

nate; to increafe the fervour of their zeal, to bind them 

more dofely together, and to inflame them againft 

tbe eftabliflied religion. The commonalty every 

where in the low country, but more efpecially in the 

wefiern counties, frequented conventicles without re* 

ferve ; and although the gentry themfelves (eldom vi- 

fired thole illegal places of worfhip, they took no 

meafurea to reprefs that irregularity in their inferiors^ 

whofe liberty they feemcd to envy. In order to pre- 

veot this connivance, a bond or contrad was tendered a.D. t^jh 

to the landlords in the Weft, by which they were to 

engage for the good behaviour of their tenants } and 

m cafe any tenant frequented a conventicle^ tbe land** 

lord was to fubje^ himfelf to the fame fine that could 

by law be eza£led from the oSendet\ 

But it was ridiculous to give (znGtion to laws by 
vohmury contracts ; it was iniquitous to make one 
nan anfwerable for the condu£t of another, and it was 
Illegal to impofe fuch hatd conditions upon men who 
bad no way offended'. For thefe reafons tbe greater 
jHUt of the gentry refufed to fign the bonds required } 
umI Lauderdale, enraged at fuch firmnefs, endeavour 
:d to break their fpirit by an expedient truly tyrannic 
ral. Becaufe the weftern counties abounded in con* 
mticles, though otherwire in a ftate of profound 
leace, be pretended that they were in a ftate of adusil 

4. Barnet, toI. iL 5. Hume, tol. triu. 

VoC. IV. H rebellion. 


PART II. rebellion. He made therefore an agreement vith fom 
A. D. 1678. Highland chiefs ta call out their followers* to ib 
number of eight tbou&nd ; who, m conjundlion wit 
the guards, and the militia of Angus, were fenc t 
liTe at free quarter upon the lands of fuch gentl^aie 
as had reje£ted the bonds. 

At the weftern counties were the moft popoloM 
and the moft induftrious in Scotlaad, and the H^ 
landers the men lead civilized, it is omkc caff 1 
imagine than to defcribe the havoc that enfited. A 
army of Barbarians, trained up m rapine and violeno 
unaccuftomed to difcipline, and averfe from die n 
ftraints of law, was let loofe among a fet of fcaph 
whom they were taught to regard as the enemiu 1 
their prince and their religion. Nothing efcaped the 
ravenous hands : neither age, nor fex, nor inncceni 
afforded proieAion. And left the cry of ao opprefli 
people {hould reach the throne, the council forbad 
under &vere penalties, all^ noblemen and gentlemen 1 
landed property to leave the kingdom^ 

Notwithstanding this ferere ediA, the duluc 
Hamilton, with ten other noblemen, and about fif 
gentlemen of diftinAion, went to London, and la 
their complaints before the king* Charles waa (hoc! 
ed at their narrative, but he took 00 efie&ual means 
remedy the grievances of which they complaiae 
*^ According t# your reprefeatation,'' (aid he, ** Lai 
** derdale has been guilty of many bad tbiogi 10 i 
'^ government of Scotland y but I cannot find that! 
<< has, in any things aded contrarf to my interefi 
What muft the intcrefts of a king be^ wljien they s 
uncoQnefted wkh the welfare of his people I ' 

6./ BiuiisvvbL & 



Meanwhile Lauderdale ordered home the High- irrrEB 
hadm^ and taking advantage of the abfence of the ^^^^-^ 
dtfitisfied noblemen and gentlemeo, he fummoned a A.D.167] 
eoDvention of eftates at Edinburgh. Ahd this aflemblyt 
to the eternal difgrace of the nation, fent up an addrefs 
lo the king approving of Lauderdale^s government. 
Bat ai the means by which that addrefs was procured 
vtre well known, it ferved only to render both the 
knig and his minifter more odious in Scotland, and to 
tpmA vniverfal alarm in England ; where all meii 
concladcdj that ast in the neighbouring kingdom, the 
very voice of liberty was totally fupprefledi and 
grievincet fo rivetted that it was become dangerous 
even CO mention them, every thing was to bt feared 
from the arbitrary difpofitkm of Charles. If, by a 
pMeftant church, perfecution coald be carried to fuch 
rstrcmeSf what, it was a(ked» might not be dreaded 
from the violence of popery, with which the king- 
dom was threatened ?^and what from the full cfta« 
blifliment of abfolute power^ if its approaches Were fd 
tynnnical i — Such were the reafonings of men, and 
fiich their apprehenfions in England, when the ru* 
mour of a Popifli plot threw the whole nation into a 

TftB chief a£lor in this hotrid impoflure, which 
occafioned the lof& of much inndcent blood, was a 
needy adventurer, named Titus Cites, one of the 
moA. profligate of mankind. Being bred to the churchy 
bp obtained a fmali living, which he was obliged to 
abandon on account of a profecation for perjuiy. Hi 
was afterward chaplain on board a man of war^ but 
was difmtlTcd for an unnatural crime^. In his necefliA 
tyj be came to London, the former fcene Qf his dc* 

7. Bvnf t, vol. li. 

H a bauciicfici, 


100 TH E H I ST-O R Y O P 

PART II. baucheriesy where he got acquainted with Dr. Tongne, 
^VdMI-S. * ^"y divine, who for feme time fed and clothed 
him. Tongue himfclf was no pcrf^ft charadcr, be- 
ing a man of a credulous temper, and of an intriguing 
diipofition. A lover of mifchief, to fpread fcandal 
vas his chief amufement, and to propagate the ru- 
mour of plots his highefl delight. Bj his advice 
Oate?> whom he found to be a bold impudent feHow, 
agreed to reconcile himfclf to the Romifli commanioD» 
in order to difcover the deGgns of the Catholict con- 
neclcd with the Englifh court; to go beyond fejt 
and 10 enter into the focicty of the Jefuitt. All thefe 
dire£tions Oates implicitly followed. He becmme a 
pnpiil ; viG^ed difTerent parts of France and Spiio; 
refided feme time in a fcminary of Jefuits at St. 
OmerSt bu: was at laft difmifled on account of 
bad behaviour, by that politic body, who nercr 
fcem to have trufted hioa with any of their fc- 

Oaies, however, fetting his wicked imagination 
at wgrk, in order to fupply the .want of materiala, re- 
turned to England burning with refentment againft 
the Jefuits, and with a full refolution of forming the 
(lory of a Popifh plot. This he accompliOied in con- 
junQion with his patron. Dr. Tongue ; and one Kir- 
by, a chemift, and -Tongue's friend, w^s employed 
to communicate the intelligence to the king. Charlet 
made light of the matter, but defired to fee Dr. 
Tongue; who delivered into his bands a narrative 
oonfifting of forty-three articles, of a confpiracy to 
murder his majefty, to fubvert the governmenty and to 
re-eftablilh the catholic faith in England. The.ktng^ 

** 9. Burnet; ubifup. Sec x\£o DtuSft Mm, £c^rd» Kcnnet, and 
Junct IL 1^78. 


M O D E R N E U R O P E. loi 

Tttnng haftxly glanced o?cr the paper, ordered him to ^^.y^* 
Ottj it to the lord-treafurer Danby, who treated the ^^^.^..^^^L^ 
ia/brmation more ferioufly than it fcemcd to deferve. A. 0.1678, 
Fetthe plot, after all, would have funk into oblivion, 
<R| account of )he king's difregard to a tale accom- 
paojcd with fuch incredible circumflances, had it not 
ieen for an artful contrivance of the impoftors, that 
pve Co the whole a degree of importance of whieh it 
mg noworthy. 

Tongue, who was continually plying the king 
with firefli information, acquainted the lord-trea- 
/urer^ by letter, that a .packet, written by Jefuits, 
coBceming the plot, and direded to Bedingfield, con- 
ScOar to the duke of York, would foon be delivered. 
Danby, who was then in Oxfordfhire, haftened to 
court ; but before his arrival, Bedingfield had carried 
the letters to the duke, proteding that be did. not 
know what they meant, and that they were not the 
hand-writing of the perfone whofe names they bore. 
The dilke carried them to the king ; who was farther 
confirmed, by this incident, in his belief of an im- 
pofture, and of the propriety of treating it with con- 
tempt. But the duke, anxious to clear his confeflbr 
And tke followers of his religion from fuch an horrid 
accufation* infifted on a thorough inquiry into the 
pretended confpiracy before the council. The coun- 
cil fat upon the bufinefs : Kirby, Tonprue, and Oates 
were brought before them ; and although the narrative 
of the latter was improbable, confufed, and contra- 
di£lory, the plot made a great noife, and obtained 
fuch univerfal credit, that it w<is confidercd as a crime 
<• difbelieve it. 

The fubftance of Oates's evidence was, That he had 
been privy, both at home and abroad, to many con- 

II 3 i'altatinn^ 


WAMTV. fohitioM iBMmg the Jefiaitt for the aflaiEnatioo oC 
^jxxi"^ Charles II. who, tfaejr £ud» kid deceiTcd them ; that 
Gt0fe and Ktktnng, the one an ordained Jefoity the 
other a hj brotherj were at firft appointed to (hoot 
the kingy but that it had afterward been refolted Mi 
take him off hj potfon, bj bribing fir George Wake* 
man, the queen'i pbyfician, and a papift i that aumy 
Jefttits had gone into Scodandi in difgoiib) to diftraft 
the goTemment of that kingdom, by preaching fisdi* 
tion in the field-conventiclets that he hinfelf had 
affifted at a confultation of Jefuits in London, where 
it waa refolved to difpatch the king bjr the dagger, by 
fliootitig, or bj poifon; and that, when'he Waabn^ 
%n eolleding evidence for a full difcovery, he wtt 
fufpe£lf d, and obliged to feparate himfelf from them, 
in order to fave his own life 9. 

Th$ letters fent to Bedingfield wpre prodnced» in 
fupporc of this evidence -, and although tbey bore at 
evident marks of forgery as the narrative of impoC- 
ture, the council iflued orders for feizing fuch aecufed 
perfons as were then in London. Sir George Wake* 
man was accordingly apprehended, together with 
Coleman, late fecretary to the duchefs of York| 
X«anghorne, an eminent barrifter at law, and eight 
Jefuits, among whom was Pickering'^ Thefe ftepa 
of the council dill farther alarmed the nation : the 
eity was all in an uproar ; and apprehei^fion and ter* 
ror every where prevailing, the moft abfurd 66tiona 
were received ascertain fa£ls. 

But this ferment would probably have fubfidedt 
and time might have opened (he eyes of the pobli^ 

t 9. Burnet, io^ ubi fupra. Sec aUb OateaU Narrative, 

f >o. Id. Ibid. 


foaittttendie iapoftore, hid it noe been for letter 
coaii cobtenl drcamftancet, which put the realicf ^^^^' 
ef afftpili pbi beyood difpote, in the opinion of nioft a. d. i 6;t« 
ma^ Am order had been given, by tho Icrd-trea* 
fiBcr, toidze Coleman's papers* Among thefe were 
IboK copies of letters to father la Chaife, the 
kinj^s confefibr, to the pope's nnncio at 
> and to other Catholics abroad ; and as Cole- 
% weilc man, and a wild enthnfiaft in the 
i fiuth, he had iofinoated many extraordinary 
to his correfpondents, in a myfterious lan« 
concerning the conrerfion of the three Britilh 
kingdoiDS, and the total ruin of the Proteftant reli- 
^on, which he termed peftilent herefy. He founded 
his hopes on the zeal of the duke of York, and fpoke 
in obfcure terms of aids from abroad, for the aca)m* 
^fliment of what he denominated a gkri^us W9rk*\ 

Tii£SE indefinite expreflions, in the prefent ftate 
of men's minds, were believed 10 point di(lin£lly at 
all the crimes in Oates^s narrative 1 and as Coleman's 
Jetters for the laft two yean, which were fuppored to 
contain the unfolding of the whole plot, had been 
conveyed out of the way before the others were 
fcized, full play was left for imagination. Another 
incident completed the general deluflon, and rendered 
the prejudices of the nation incurable. This was the 
murder of fir £dmond(bury Godfrey, an a£tivc 
juftice of the peace, who had taken the depofition of 
Oates relative to his firft narrative. He was found 
dead in a ditch near Primrofe Hill, between London 
and Hampftead, witli his fword thrud throu(;h his 
body, his money in his pocket, and the rings on 

11. Umtint Lt$Urs» 

H 4 ]its 


PART 11. hu fingers. From thefe iaft circumAaaces it was ii^* 

bers : it was therefore univerfally afcribed to the re« 
fentxnent of the Catholics ; though it appears, that he 
bad alwajs lived on a good footing with that b€tp 
and was even intimate with Colemau at the time that 
be took Oates's evidence **• 

All poflible advantage, however, was taken of tbit 
incident, in order to inflame the popular phrenzj* 
The dead body of Godfrey was expofcd to view for 
two whole days : the people in multitudes croudcd a« 
round it ; and every one was roufed to a degree of rage 
approaching madnefs, as well by the mutual conta- 
gion of fentiments, as by the moving fpe£lacle. His 
funeral was celebrated with great pomp and parade ; 
the corpfe was conduced through the chief ftreets of 
the city ; fcventy-two clergymen walked before, and 
above a thoufand perfons of di(lin£lion concluded the 
proccflion behind **. To deny the reality of the plot, 
was now to be reputed an accomplice ; to hefitate 
was criminal. All parties concurred in the delufion, 
except the unfortunate Catholics ; who, though con- 
fcious of their own innocence, began to be afraid of a 
maflacre fimilar to that of which they were accufed. 
But their terror did not diminifh that of others. In* 
vafions from abroad, infurreflions at home, confla* 
grations, and even poifonings were apprehended. 
Men looked with wild anxiety at one another, as if 
every interview had been the Iaft. The bufineb of 
life was at a (bnd : all was panic, clamour, and ron» 
fuGon, which fpread from the capital over the whole 
kingdom; and reafon, to ufe the wprJs of a philofo«- 
phical hiftorian, could no more be heard, in the pre-' 

I*. Buroct, voL ii. 13. North. 

M O D E R N E U R O P E. 105 

(rat agiratioii of the human mind, than awhUper in LETTER 
tbe midft of the mod violi^nt hurricane'^. ^ ^-w 

Du&iNG this national ferment the parliament was 
aflembled; and the carl of Danby, who hated the 
Catholics, who courted popularity, and perhaps hoped 
that the king would le more cordially beloved by the 
nation, if his life was fuppofed to be in danger from 
the. Jefait3, opened the (lory of the plot in the houfe 
of peers. CharleSywho wifhcd to keep the whole 
matter from the parliament, was extremely difpleafed 
with thi& temerity, and faid to his minifter, '^ You 
** will find, though you do not believe it, that you 
*' have given the parliament a handle to ruin your- 
** fclf, as well as to difturb all my affairs : and you 
•* will certainly live to repent it !" Dauby had af- 
terward fufficicnt r^afon to revere the fagacity of hi9 

The cry of the plot waf^ immediately echoed froni 
the upper to the lower houfe. The authority of par- 
liament gave fanClion to that fury with which the 
people were already animated* The commons voted 
an addrefs for a folemn fad, and a form of prayer 
▼a^ framed for that occafion. Gates was brought 
before them } and finding that even the femblance of 
truth was no long-r ncceflary to g:iin credit to his 
fi£Uons, he made a bolder publication of his narrative 
at the bar of the houfe, adding many new and 
extraordinary circum (lances. The mod remarkable 
of thcfe were, That the pope Having refumed the fove- 
'rignty of England, on account of theherefy of prince 
*H people, had thought proper to delegate the fu- 
F'Jm<: power to the fociety of Jcfuits ; and that de 

14. Home, vol. viii. 



PART It OKtrai general of that order, in confequence of the 
JLV^t^ii. P^P^' P^U ^^^ fupplied all the principal offices, both 
civil and military, with Catholic noblemen and geti« 
tlemen, many of whom he named. On thia ridica- 
lou8 evidence, the earl of Powis, with the lords 
Stafford, Arundel, Peters, and Bellafis were commit- 
ted to the Tower, and foon after impeached for high 
treafon: and both houfcs voted, without one diflent« 
ing voice, ^^ That there has been, and ftill is, a Jatim*. 
*< ahli and belliji Plot, contrived and carried on by 
<* papifts, for murdering the king, fubvprting the 
<< government, and deftroying the Proteftant re* 
" ligion«»?*' 

Encouraged by this declaration, new informers 
appeared. Coleman and a number of other Catholics 
were brought to trial, whofe only guilt appeared to 
be that of their religion. But they were already con- 
demned by the voice of the nation. The witnefles in 
their favour were ready to be torn in pieces ^ and 
the jury, and even the judges, difcovered ftrongfymp* 
toms of prejudice againft them. Little juftice could 
be expedcd from fuch a tribunal. Many of thofe 
unhappy men died with great firmnefs, and all pro- 
telling their innocence to the lall'^; yet tbefe £>- 
lemn teftimonles, after all hopes of life had failed^ 
could not awaken compaflion for their fate in the 
breafl: of a (ingle fpe^lator. They were executed 
amid the fliouts of the deluded populace, who feemed 
to engoy their fufierings. 

From the fuppofed conrpirators in the popifli plot, 
tlie parliament turned k$ views to higher objeAs* A 

25. Jaurnalj.O&vhcr^it 1678. 16. Biimet,Tol. ii. 



Uhni intTOdaced, b j the cofBrooiis, for t new Teft, 

fvrtkb/iij^tfyywasdeiioihintted iJ^^bfTf; and ail die 

liicoberBt who ktfnred this teft, ^ere to be excluded Ari>- i^7t* 

Am both li0ofcf • TbeUUpafled the lower hoare, 

widMNK o|i|R>fition» and wis feot up » khe brda. 

The dttke o£ York moved in the houre of peers, that 

an eziDeptioQ might be admitted in his farour ; and 

wkk gieat earneftiiefsy and eren with tears in hia 

cyOi^ he faid, he #as n0# to throw himfelf on theilr 

Undiiefiii in the greateft concern be eoold have iti 

fhil world. He d#elt mnch on his duty to the king« 

and kii sea! for the ptrofpct-ity of the nation ; and he 

(bleoittly proteftcdi that whatever hts religion might 

he, it fliould be only a ptivM thing between God and 

his own fool, and never (hould influence his public 

condnQ. This exception being agreed to« the bill 

waa returned to the conimons; and, contrary to all 

expeQatioo, the amendment Was carried by a ma« 

jority of two votes »^ 

Thb rage againil popery, however, continued; 
tod waa in nothing niore remarkable than in the 
fDCOnragement given by the parliament to informers. 
(>atea» who, granting his evidence true, muft be 
vqrirded aa an infamous fcoundrel, was recommended 
by the two houfes to the king. He was rewarded 
with a penfion of twelve hundred pounds a year; 
guards were appointed for his protedtion } men of the 
firft rank courted his compnny, and he was called the 
Saviour of the nation. The employment of an in* 
former became honourable ; and, befide thofe wretchea 
who appeared in fupport of Oates's evidence, a man 
high in office aflumed that chara£ter. 

17. 7tf»r»tf//, Nov.iJ, i6;a. 



PARTH. Montague, the Englifli ambaflador tt the court 
A.D. x67?« of France, difappointed in his ezpe£lation of being 
made fecretary of (late, returned without ieave, mnd 
took his feat in the lower houfe. He had beendeepljr 
concerned in the money negociations between Charles 
and Lewis. On the late difagretment of thefe nvo 
princes, he had been gained by the latter ; and now, 
on the failure of his hopes of preferment from the 
court of England, he engaged, for one hundred thou* 
land crowns, to difgrace the king, and to ruin his 
minifter, who was become peculiarly obnoxious to 
France ''• Danby, having fome intimation of this 
intrigue, ordered Montague's papers to be feized ; but 
that experienced politician, prepared againft the polli- 
bility of fuch a circumftance, had delivered into fure 
bands the papers that could mofl; tffc€tm\\j fenre his 
purpofe. The violence of the minifter afforded a 
kind of excufe for the perfidy of the ambaflador. 
Two of Danby's letters were produced before the 
houfe of commons. One of thefe contained inftroc- 
lions to demand three hundred thoufand pounds a 
year, for three years, from the French monarch, pro- 
vided the conditions of peace fliould be accepted at Ni- 
meguen, in confequence of Charles's good ofiices; and, 
as Danby had forefeen the danger of this negociation, 
the king, in order to remove his fears, had fubjoioed 
with his own hand, that the letter was written by his 
exprefs orders '9. 

This circumdance rather inflamed than allayed 
the refentm^rnt of the commons, who naturally con- 
cluded, that the king had all along aded in concert 
with the. French court, and that every ftep which he 

1 8. DalrympU's Append, p. 1 9 3. X9. Jottrnalj, Dcc, 149X678. 

Spa alfo Danby Pa/ers, 



had takcDy in conjunSion with the allies, had been '^.T?^ 
iiluibry and deceitful. It wa3 immediately moved, (>/VXi 
That ihcrc is fafBcient matter of impeachment againft a.D.i678, 
the lord-treafurer -, and the qucftibn was carried by a ' 
conGderable majority. Danby's friends were abafiied, 
and his enemies were elated beyond meafure with 
their triumph. The king himfelf was alarmed : his 
Secret negociations with France, before only fufped^ed) 
were now afcertained. Many who wiflied to fupport 
the crown were afhamed of the meannefs of the 
prince, and deferted their principles in order to fave 
their reputation. 

The articles exhibited againft the treafurer were 

fix in number ; and confifted, befide the letters, of 

various mifmanagements in office, moft of which were 

either frivolous or ill founded. Danby, upon the 

whoIe> bad been a cautious minifter. When the im- 

peadunent was read in the houfe of peers, he rofe and 

fpoke to every article. He (hewed that Mootaguet 

die informer againft him, had himfelf promoted with 

ardour the money-negociations with Lewis« He 

cleared himfelf from the afperfion of alienating the 

king's revenue to improper purpofes : and he infifted 

particularly on his known averfion againft the inte- 

tefis of France ; declaring, that whatever compliances 

be might have made, he had always efteemed a con- 

naaaa with that kingdom pernicious to his matter 

aod deftru£tive to his country *^. The lords wenc 

immediately into a debate on the queftion i and, upon 

adivifion^ the majority were againft the commitment 

o( Daoby* The commons however infifted, that he 

fluMiUl be fequeftered from parliament and committed. 

A violent conteft was likely to enfue; and the king» 

a^. ywrw.'/ rftbi l^rds^ Dec z 5, 1678. 



PART IL who thought himfelf bound to fopport his Biiiufter« 
iLD.i67tt. ^^ ^^ ^^ hopet of ending the difpate by gentle 
J>A.ft5. meanf, firft prorogued, and aftcrwaid diffdfed the 

This was a defperate remedy in theprefent critical 
ftate of the nation, and did not anf«rer the end pro* 
pofed. It afibrdcd but a temporary relief^ if it may 
tot be faid to have increafed the difeafe. The new 
parliament, which the king was under the oeceflity 
of aflembling, confided chiefly of the moft liolent of 
the former members, reinforced by others of the fame 
principles. The court had exerted its influence in 
vain: the eIe£Uons were made with all the prqo* 
dices of the times. The king's connexions with 
France had alienated the aflFcAions of his fubje£b i 
but the avowed popery of the duke of York was a 
flill more dangerous fubje£l: of jealoufyaaddifcootent. 
Senfible that this was the fatal fource of the greater 
part of the misfortunes of his reign, and forefeeiag 
the troubles that were likely to be occafioned by the 
violent fpirit of the new reprefentatives, Cbariea 
conjured his brother to conform to the eftablilhcd 
church. He even fent the archbi(hop of Canterbury 
and the biibop of Winchefter to perfnade him, if 
pofible, to become again a Proteilant ; and on fiadiBg' 
all their arguments loft on his obftinaey, he defired 
him to withdraw beyond fea, in order to appeafe the 
people, and to (atisfy the parliament that popifli conn* 
fels no kmger prevailed at court. This propofid the 
duke alfo declined, as he apprehended that his retiring 
would be conftrued into an acknowledcgment of guilt} 
but when the king infifted on his dcpartiure, aa a ftep 
neccflary for the welfare of both^ he obeyed, aftea 
engaging Charles to make a public dcdarf^tion of the 

6 iBe- 


lU^timacy of the duke of Monmouth. He went LETTEK 
firft to Holland^ and then to BrufleUy where he fixed ^^^y^ 
his rcfidcncc". A.D.1679! 

jAM£t duke of Monmouth, natural ion' of 
Charles II. by Lucy Waltersi and bom about ten years 
before the Reftorationi poflefled all the qualities that 
can engage the affcAions of the populace, with many 
of thofe that conciliate the favour of the more dif- 
ccraing part of mankind. To a gracefulnefs of per- 
fbn» which commanded refped, he joined the moft 
wiooiog affibility ; by nature tender, he was an enemy 
to cruelty : he was conftant in his firiendfliips, and 
jult to his word. ACtive and vigorous in his confti- 
tntiouy he excelled in the manly exercifes of the field. 
He was perfonally brave, and loved the pomp, and 
the very dangers of war} but he was vain even t9 a 
degree of folly, vcrfatile in his meafures, and weak in 
bis uoderftanding. This weaknefs rendered him a fk 
tool for the earl of Shaftcibury, the moft able and 
unprincipled man of his age, and who had lately 
diftinguiflbed himfelf as much by his oppofition agaiuft 
the court, as formerly by the violence of his coun« 
fcis in iu favour, while one of the Cabal. That bold 
and arcb-{)oIitician had flattered Monmouth with the 
hopes of fttcceediDg to the crown. A ftory had even 
bcto propagated of his legitimacy, in confequence of 
a (ecret contraft of marriage between the king and 
his mother. This ftory was greedily received by. the 
multitude : and on the removal of the duke of York 
horn the kingdom, and the profpe£t of his being ex- 
cluded from the fucceflion by the jealoufy of parlia* 
mcnt| it was hoped that Monmouth would be declared 

21. Bnmli vol. ai> Juaei II. 1679. 



prince of Wales But Charles> in order to cut ofFall 
fuch expedatioiiSi as well as to quiet his brother's ap» 
prehenfionsy made a folemn declaration before the 
privy council, that he was never married to any wo- 
man but the queen ; and on findin;^ that Monmouth 
continued to encourage the belief of the lawfulnefs of 
his birth, the king renewed his protedation, and made 
it particular againd Lucy Walters**. 

The fubfequent events of this reign, my dear Phi- 
lip, furnifh abundant m:ttter for the memorialifti'bu}^ 
the druggie between the king and parliament except^ 
ed, they have little relation to the line of general hif- 
tory. I fliall, therefore, pafs them over fiightl^^ of- 
fering only the mod important to your notice. One 
could wi(h that the greater part of them were erafed 
from the Englifli annuls. 

The new parliament, no way mollified by the dif- 
xniflion of the duke of York, difcovercd all the vio- 
lence that had been feared by the court. The com* 
mons revived the profecution of the earl of Danby : 
they reminded the lords of his impeachment; and 
they demanded juftice, in the name of the people of 
England. Charles, determined to fave his minidefi 
had already had the precaution to grant htm a pardon. 
That he now avowed in the houfe of peers ; declaring 
that he could not think Danby in any refpcfl criminal^ 
as he had a£led in every thing by his orders. The 
lower houfCy paying no regard to this confefTion, im« 
mediately voted, that no pardon of the crown could 
be pleaded in bar of an impeachment by the commons 

az. Kcoaeti vol. uL Huxne, vol vili. 

MOD ERlJ fi^U ROPE. iij 

of England *^ The lords fccmed at firft to adhere to letter 
the pardon, but yie^ded at lad to the violence of the y_ -^A_g 
commbns; and Danby, after abfconding for a time, ^'^' i^9» 
furrendered to the Black Rod, and .was committed to 
the Tower, 

Charles, in order to footh the commons, made 

a fliew of changing his meafures. Several popular 

leaders of both houfes were admitted into the privy 

council; particularly fir Henry Capel, lord Rufiell, 

the earl of Shaftefbury, and the vifcounts Hallifaz 

and Fauconberg, who had dlftinguiOied themfelves 

by their oppolition to the court. The earl of Efiezy 

a popular nobleman, was advanced to the head of the 

treafary, in the room of the earl of Danby ; and the 

earl of Sunderland, a man every way qualified for 

foch ah office, was made fecretarjr of ftate. 

Bt thus placing ihe mod violent patriots, cither 
real or pretended, in his fervice, the king, hoped to 
regain the afTeflions of his parliament. But he was 
miferably difappointed. The commons received his 
declaration of a new council with the greateft indif« 
ference and coldnefs; believing the whole to be a 
trick, in order to obtain money, or an artifice to 
induce the country-party to drop their purfuic of 
grievances, by difarming with offices the violence of 
their leaders. They therefore continued their deli- 
berations with unabating zeal i and refolved, without 

23. The prerogative of mercy had been hitherto underilood to be 
altogether Qolimited in the crown; fo that this pretenfion of the corn- 
moot was perfedly new. It was not, however, unfuitable to the genius 
of a monarchy flridly limited ; where the king's minifters are fuppofed 
to be accounuble to the national aflembly even for fuch abufcs of 
|oirer as they may commie by orien from their maftcr. 

Vol. IV. 1 


PART II. one diffcnting voice, " That the duke of York's bcin| 

AD "^^79. ** ^ papiftj and the hopes of his coming, as fuch^ t 

** the crowHi has given the greateft countenance ani 

'* encouragement to the plots againft the king an( 

«* the Proieftam religion**. 

This being conGdered as an introductory ftep to tbe 
eventual exclufion of the duke from the throne) 
Charles, in order to prevent fuch a bold meafuve, laid 
before the parliament certain limitations; which] 
without altering the fucceflion to the crown, h( 
thought fufficicnt to fecure the civil and religtoui 
liberties of the fubje£l. The limitations propofcc 
were very important : they deprived a popifh fucceflb: 
of the right of beftowing ecclefiaftical pronQOtions 
and of cither appointing or difplacing privy counfel 
lors or judges, without the confent of parliament 
The fame precaution was extended to the militar 
part of the government ; to the lord-lieutenants an* 
deputy lieutenants of counties, and to allofficers o 
the navy*'. 

These ample concedions, which in a manner an 
nihilated the power of the crown, were rcjcQed witi 
contempt by the commons. They brought in a bti 
for the total exclufion of the duke of York, and tlie 
continued their profecution againft Danby. The 
refdvcd. That the pardon which he claimed was ill^ 
^nd void ; and, after fome conferences with the lord 
on the fubje£t, a day was fixed for his trial. Pre 
parations were alfo made for the trial of the popifl 
lords in the Tower. 

Iti^JmmaUy AprU 97, 1679. S5. Ibid. May xo. 



In the mean time a furious difpute arofe between ^^Jrlf^ 
the two houfes, occaConed by a refolution of ihe i ,^mym^^ 
commonst ** That the lords fpintual ought not to ^*^' '^'^^* 
^ have any vottm any proceedings againll the lords in 
*' the Tower'*.*' This refolution involved aqueftion 
ofoofmail importance, and was of peculiar confe- 
<iucnce in the prcfcnt cafe. Though the bifliops were 
anciently prohibited by the canon law, and afterward 
byeftablifhed cuftom, from afliliing at capital trial.% 
they generally fat and voted in motions preparatory 
tofuch trials. The validity of Danby's pardon waa 
firft to be debated ; and although but a preliminary, 
vas the binge on which the whole mud turn. The 
coffimons, therefore, infifted upon excluding the bi-» 
ihopii whom they knew to be devoted to the court : 
the bfds were unwilling to make any alteration in 
the forms of their judicature : both houfes adhered to 
their refpeflive pretenfions : and Charles took advan- 
tage of their quarrels, fird to prorogue, and then to 
difolve the parliament; fetting afide, by that mea- 
fare, the trial of his minider, and, for a time, the Bill 
of ExcluGon againft his brother ^s 

Though this parliament, my dear Philip, is re- 
ptd&enfible on account of its violence and its credulity ; 
and although fome of its members feem to have been 
afiaated by a fpirit of party, and a (Irong antipathy 
againfl the royal family» while others were influenced 
by the money of France, or the intrigues of the 
prince of Orange, the greater number were animated 
by a real fpirit of patriotifm ; by an boneft zeal for 

26, Jmmalt, May 17. 

17. Danby and the popifh lords, Stafford eiccpted,whofefate I fhall 
ittve occafioo to relate, after lying in the Tower till 1684, '^^^ admit- 
ttd to bftil 00 petition, 

I % their 


PART II. their civil and religious liberties- Of this the Ex- 
V Z\^ ^ clufion Bill and the Habeas Corpm Aft arc fufficicnt 

A. U, 1079* 

proofs. The latter, which particularly didinguiOies 
the Englifli conftitution, can never be too much ap- 

The perfonal liberty of individuals is a property of 
human nature, which nothing but the certainty of si 
crime committed ought ever to abridge or reflrain. 
The Englifli nation had, accordingly, very early and 
repeatedly, as we have feen, fecured by public adts 
this valuable part of their rights as men; yet fome« 
thing was dill wanting to render perfonal freedom 
complete, and prevent cvafion or delay from minif- 
ters and judges. The aft of Hobeat Corpus, paiTed laft 
feflion, anfwered all thefe purpofes, and does equal 
honour to the patriotifm and the penetration of thofe 
who framed it and carried it into a law. This aft 
prohibits the fending of any Englifh fubjeft to a pri- 
fon beyond fea; and it provides, that no judge (hall 
refufe to any prifoner a writ, by which the gaoler is 
direfted to produce in 'court the body of fuch prifoner, 
and to certify the caufe of his detainer and commit* 

The general rage againfl: popery, and the fuccefs 
of the country-party in the Englifh parliament, raif- 
ed the fplrit of the ScottiOi Covenanters, and gave 
new life to their hopes. Their conventicles, to which 
they went armed, became more frequent and numer- 
ous; and though they never afted ofFenfively, they 
frequently repelled the troops fent to difperfc them. 
But even this fmall degree of mo«ieration could not 
long be prcfeived by a fct of wild enthufiads, who 
thought every thing lawful .for the fupport of their 
godly cuiifc J who were driven to madnefs by the 



opjireaHNis of a tyrannical governmenti and flattered, 1. nri u 

by tlieir friends in England, with the profjK-rt of re- , ^^^' ^ 

Eefirom their troubles. A barbarous violence in- A.D. ir. «. 
oeafed the load of their calamities. 

Sharpe, arcbbifliop of St. Andrews, was de« 
ferfcdly obnoxious to the Covenanters. Having been 
deputed by the Scottifli clergy at the RcHoratiun, to 
manage their intcreds with the king, he had brtraycd 
diem. He foon after openly abandoned the Prelhy- 
teriao party ; and when epifcopacy was eftabliflied in 
Scoibnd, his apoftacy was rewarded with the dignity 
of primate. To him was chiefly entruded the con* 
dud of ecclefiaftical aflTairs; and, in order to rccom- 
nend himfclf to the court, he perfecuted the Cove* 
oantersi or non-conformifts, with unrelenting ri- 
goar. It was impoflible for human beings to fufler fo 
fiiany injuries, without being (limulated againd their 
author by the keened emotions of indignation and re- 
Tenge. A band of defperate faniiiics, farther influenc- 
ed by the hope of doing an acceptable fervice to 
Heaven, way- laid the archbidiop in the neighbour- 
hood of St. Andrews; and, after fiing into his coach, 
difpatched him with many woundb*'. 

This atrocious action furnifhed the minidry with 
a pretext for a more fevere perfecution of the Cove- 
junters; on whom, without didin£lion, they threw 
the guilt of the murder of Sharpe. The troops quar 
tered in the wedern counties received orders to dif- 
perfey by force, all conventicles, wherever they 
flioold be found. This feverity obliged the Conve- 
nantcrs to aflemble in laree bodies; and their fucccfs 
in repelling the king's forces, emboldened them to fct 

%0» Banict,vol. i'u Wodrow, v.L ii. 

I 3 forth 


PART II. forth a declaration againft epifcopacy, and publicly to 
A.D.1679. ^^^^ *^^ 3^s of parliament which had aftabliflied that 
mode of ecclefiaftical government in Scotland. They 
took pofTeflion of Glafgow, and cftablifticd.a kind of 
preaching camp in the neighbourhood ; whence they 
jflucd proclamations, declaring that they fought 
againd the king's fupremacy in religious matters^ 
againft popery, prelacy, and a popifli fucceflbr ^\ 

Charlfs, alarmed at this infurre£iion, difpatched 
the duke of Monmouth, with a body of £ngU(h ca- 
valry, to join the royal army in Scotland, and fubdae 
the fanatics. Monmouth came up with the Cove- 
nanters at BothweUbridge, between Glafgow and 
Hamilton, where a rout rather than a battle enfued, 
and the infurgents were totally difperfed. About fe- 
ven himdred of thefe perfecutcd and mlfguided men 
fell in the purfuit, and twelve hundred were made prU 
ibncrs. But, the execution of two clergymen except- 
ed, this was all the blood th:it was fhed, Monmouth 
ufed his vi6lory with great moderation. Such pri- 
ifoncrs as would promife to live peaceably, in future, 
were difmi fled. 

That lenity, however, unfortunately awakened 
the jealoufy of the court. Monmouth was recalled 
and difgraccd j and the duke of York, who had found 
a pretence to return to England, was entrufted with 
the government of Scotland. Under his adminiftration, 
the Covenanters were expofed to a cruel perfecution; 
and fuch puniftiments were infli£ted upon them, even 
en frivolous pretences, as make humanity (hudder, and 
would disfigure the charafter of any prince lefs marked 
with feveritics than that of James* He is faid to have 
been frequently prefeiit at the torturing of the un- 

' "30. Id. Ibid. ' ■ 



faappjr Griminalsi and to have Tiewed their fuiFeringa LETTEE 

with as much unfeeling attention, as if he had been 
contemplating fome curious eiperiment^'. 


While thefe things were palling in Scotland, a 
new parliament was aflembled in England, where the A.D. ii8o» 
fpirit of party dill raged with unabated fury. In* 
flead ot Pititiomrs 2nd Abhorren (or thofe who applied 
for redrefs of grievances, and fuch as oppofed their 
petitions) into which the nation had been for fome 
time divided, the court and country parties came now 
to be difUngutthed by the ftill prevailing epithets oi « 
Whig and Tory. The court party reproached theif 
antagonifts with their affinity to the fanatical conven« 
cideis in Scotland, who were known by the name of 
fFbigs ; and the country party pretended to find a re* 
femblance between the courtiers and the popi(h ban- 
ditti in Ireland, to whom the appellation of Tory was 
affixed }^ Such was the origin of thofe party-names» 
^ which will, in all probability, continue to tlie lateft 

The new parliament difcovered no lefs violence than 
the former. The commons voted. That it is the un- 
doubted right of the fubje£ts of England to petitioa 
the king for the fitting of parliament and the redrefs 
of grievances; and they refolved, That to traduce 
fuch petitioning is to betray the liberty of the people, 
to contribute to fubvert the ancient conftitution, and 
to introduce arbitrary power. They renewed the 
vote of their predecefibrs, laying the whole blame of 
the Popifli Plot on the religion of the duke of York ; 
and they brought in a bill for excluding him from the 

31. Burnet} toL ii. This account of the apathy of Jamcj is con** 
|nned Hy hit letters in Dalrymple's Apptnd, part i. 
ts. Burnet, vol. vu Hume, vol. viii. 

1 4 thronCf 


PARTn. throne. This bill was paflcd, after a warm debate ^ 
JtD?i68o. ^^ carried up to the houfe of peers; where Shaftcfr^ 
bury and Sunderland argued powerfully for it, anc3 
Halifax no lefs ftrenuoufly againft it. Through th^ 
forcible reafoning of the latter, who difcoYcred an 
extent of abilities, and a flow of eloquence which ha<f 
never been exceeded in the Englifh parliament, the 
bill was reje£led by a conGderable majority of the 

Enraged at this difappointment, the commons 
difcovered their ill humour in many violent and un-* 
juftifiable proceedings. They profecuted the Abhor* 
rers, they impeached the judges, and they perfecuted 
all the moft intimate friends of the duke of York. At 
laft they revived the impeachment of the popiOi lords 
in the Tower, and Gngled out the vifcount Stafford 
as their vi£lim. He was accordingly brought to trial ; 
and although labouring under age and infirmities, he 
defended himfelf with great firmnefs and prefence of . 
mind, exhibiting the moft (Iriking proofs of his inno^ 
cence. Yet, to theaftonifliment of all unprejudiced 
men, he was condemned by a majority of twenty- 
four voices. He received with furprifc, but refigna- 
tion, the fatal verdicl ; and the people, who had ex- 
ulted over his convi£lion, were foftened into tears at 
his execution, by the venerable fimplicity of his ap- 
pearance. He continued on the fcafTold to make 
earnefl; proteftntions of his innocence, and exprefled a 
hope that the prefent delufion would foon be over. A 
filent afTent to his afTeverations was obferved through 
the vaft multitude of weeping fpeftators; whilft fomc 
cried, in a faultering accent, *' We believe you, my 
f* Jjord!" The executioner himfelf was touched with 

53. Burrct, vol. ii. Jumcs 11. 163^. 

8 the 


Ac paenl fjinpaihT. Twice did he rufpend the ^y^,** 

Uov, after nifing the faul ax ; and when at laft» by \_ j^ 

idiM cSafty he ferercd that nobleman's head from A.U«*^<«. 
kb body, all the fpcdaton feemed to feci the 

The czecotion of Suffbrd opened, in fome mea* 
(nCi the eyes of the nation, but did not diminifli the 
rioknceof the commons. They dill hopedi that the 
Uogfs Qigent neceflities would oblige him to throw 
Umfelf wholly upon their generoficy. They therefore 
koiight in a bill for an aflbciation to prevent the duke 
of Torky or any Papift, from fucceeding to the 
crown; and they voted, That whoever had advifed liit 
m^eftj to refufe the Exclufion Bill were enemies to 
the king and kingdom. Nor did they (lop here. They 
itfolfed^ That until a bill to exclude the duke of A.ai6Sf# 
York flioold pais, the commons could grant the king 
no fupply» without betraying the trud repofed in them 
by their conftituents. And that Charles might not be 
enaUed, by any other expedient, to fupport the govern* 
mentg and preferve himfelf independent, they farther 
refolvedy That whoever fliould thereafter advance 
money on the cudoms, excife, or hearth-money *, or 
wfaoerer (hould accept or buy any tally of anticipa- 
tion upon any part of the king's revenue, (hould be 
adjudged to hinder the fitting of parliament, and be- 
come refponfible for his condu£t at the bar of the houfe 
of commons ^'. 

Having got intelligence of thcfc violent proceed- 
ings, Charles came to a rsfolution to prorogue the 
parliament; for although he was fenfible, that the 
peers, who had rejeded the ExcluGon Bill, would 
mil continue to defend the throne, he faw no 

34. Baniet, toI. ii. Hume, vol. viii* 35* Journals, Dec. 

|68o, and Jan. 1681. 



hop* of bringing the commons to any better temper^, 
and was perfuaded that their farther fitting could onlyr* 
ferve to keepfa£lion alive, and to perpetuate the gene- 
ral ferment of the nation. When they received infor- 
mation of his dcCgn, they refolved, That whoever 
advifed his majefty to prorogue his parliament, for 
any other purpofe than to pafs the Bill of Ezclnfioni 
was a betrayer of the king ; an enemy to the Frotef- 
tant religion, and to the kingdom of England; a pro- 
moter of the French interefl, and a penfioner of 
France ^. This furious refolution, and others of the 
fame nature, determined the king inftantly to diflblTC 
the parliament, inftead of proroguing it. 

Both parties had now carried matters fo far^ that 
n civil war feemed inevitable, unlefs the king, con* 
(rary to his fixed refolution of not interrupixng the 
line of fucceflion, (hould agree to pafs the Bill of £x« 
cluHon. Charles faw his danger, and was prepared to 
meet it. A variety of circumftances, however, con- 
fpircd to prcfcrvc the nation from that extremity, and 
to fling the whole powers of government finally into 
the hands of the king. 

The persoal character of Charles, who, 
to ufe the words of one who knew him well, with 
great qulcinefs oi conaption^ pUafantnefs of w/V, and va* 
riety o( knowledge J •* had not a grain of pride or va- 
•' nity in his whole compofition '%" had always ren- 
dered him the idol of the populace. The moft affa- 
ble, bed bred man alive, he treated his fubjeds like 
noblemen, like gcntlcme'n, like freemen j not like 
vniTals or boors. His proff flions were plaufible, and 
his whole behaviour engaging; fo that he won upon 
the hearts, even while he lo{^ the good opinion of his 

36. Jcumsh, JiD, 10, 1681. 27. Sir WiliiAm Temple. 



foijt&9f and often balanced their judgment of things LETTU 
hj linfk per final inclination »*• \^-'!-_i 

Thi^sb qualities, and this part of his condu£^| ' ' ^* 
went a great way to give the king hold of the affec* 
tioni of his people. But thofe were not all. In his 
jmblic condud too be ftudiedi and even obtained a de- 
gree of popularity ; for although he often embraced 
xneafares inconfident with the political interefts of the 
nation^ and fometimes dangerous to the liberty and 
religion of his fubje£ls» he had never been found to 
perfevere obftinatcly in them, but had always return- 
cd into that path whidi the general opinion feemcd to 
point out to him. And, as a farther excufe, his worll 
meafures were all afcribed to the bigotry and arbitra« 
Tj principles of his brother. If he had been obftinatt 
in denying, to the voice of his commons, the Bill of 
jEzcIufion, he had declared himfelf ready to pafs any 
other bill, that might be deemed neceflTary to fecure 
the civil and religious liberties of his people during 
the reign of a Popifli fucceflbr, provided it did not 
tend to alter the defcent of the crown in the true line* 
This, by the nation at large, was thought no unrea- 
fonable conceilion ; and» if accepted, would have ef- 
feflually feparated the king from the duke of York» 
unlefs he had changed his religion, inftead of uniting 
them together by a fear made common to both. But 
the dye was thrown ; and the leaders of the Whig 
party were refolved to hazard all, rather than hearken 
to any thing (hort of abfolute excluflon 3^. 

This violence of the commons increafed thenumber 
of the king's friends among the people. And he did n»^ 
fail to take advantage of fuch a fortunate circumdance^ 

38. Boliogbrokfy Difntatitn on fartlet, 39. Burnet, voL ii. 



PAi^T rr. jn order to ftrcngthen his authority, and to difconcerr 
JLD i6g ^^^ defigns of his enemies. He reprefented to the zeaV- 
OI16 abettors of rpHcopacy, the multitude of Prcfbyte* 
rians and oiher fcdlaries who had entered into the Whig 
party, both in and out of parliament; the encouragement 
and favour they met with, and the loudnefs of their 
clamours againft popery and arbitrary power; which| 
he infinuatcd, were intended only to divert the atten* 
tjon of the more moderate and intelligent part of the 
kingdom from their republican and fanatical fiews. By 
thefe means, he made the nobility and clergy appre- 
hend, that the old fcheme for the abolition of the 
church and monarchy was revived; and that the fame 
sniferies and opprefiions awaited them, to which they 
had been fo long expofcd during the former, and yet 
recent ufurpations of the commons. 

The memory of thofe melancholy times alfo unit- 
ed many cool and unprejudiced perfons to the 
crown, and begot a dread left the zeal for civil liberty 
(hou)d ingraft itfelf once more on religious enthufi- 
afm, and deluge the nation in blood. The king him- 
felf feemed not to be totally free from fuch appre- 
hcnfions. He therefore ordered the new parliament 
to affcmble at Oxford, that the Whig party might be 
deprived of all that encouragement and fupport, which 
they might otherwife derive from the vicinity of the 
great and faftious city of London. The party them- 
felvts aflbrded a ftriking proof of the juftice of the 
king's fears. Sixteen peers, all violent £xclu(k)nift8, 
with the duke of Monmouth at their head, prefented 
a petition againfl the fitting of the parliament at Ox- 
ford ; ** where the two houfes,** they faid, " could 
*• not deliberate in fafety ; but would be expofed to 
** the fwords of the Papifts and their adherents, of 
•i^ whom too many had crept into his Majefty's 

" guards*" 


^ guards *•/* Tbcfc infinuations, which fo evidently lit f Et. 
pointed at Charles himfclf, were thrown out merely ^^ '^ 
to inflame the people, not to perfuadc the king of the A. D. 1681. 
terror of.the parliament 'y and, inftead of altering hi? 
itfolution, they ferved only to confirm him in the 
propriety of it. 

In aflembling a new parliament, fo foon as two 
nonths after the difTolution of the former, Charles 
had little expedation of meeting with a more favour- 
able difpofition in the commons. But he was defirous . 
to demonftrate his willingnefs to meet that national 
afiembly ; hoping, if every method of accommodation 
ihould fail, that he would be the better enabled to 
jttllify himfelf to the mafs of his people, in coming to 
a final breach with the reprefentative body. The com- 
mons, on their part, might readily have perceived, 
from the place where they were ordered to meet, that 
tbc king was determined to a£l with firmncfs. But 
they Hill flattered themfclves, that his urgent neceffi- 
ties and his love of eafe would ultimately make him 
yield to their vehemence. They therefore filled the 
whole kingdom with tumult and noife. The elcftions 
went every where againft the court j and the popular 
leaden, armed, and confident of vidory, came to 
Oxford attended by numerous bands of their parti- 
zans. The four members for the city of London, in 
particular, were followed by large companies, wear- 
ing in their hats ribbons, in which were woven the 
blood-ftirring words. No Popery ! no Slavery I The 
king alfo made a (hew of his ftrcngifc. He entered 
Oxford in great pomp. His guards were regularly 
rouftercd; his party collefted their force; and all 
things, on both fides, wore more the appearance of 

40. Kcnnet, vol. liif James II. i63i. 



FARxn. hodile oppofition than of civil deliberation or dc* 
\rT^ bate ^*. 


Charles^ who had hitherto addrefled his pailia* 
inent9 in the mod foothing language, on this occaGon 
afTumed a more authoritative tone. He reproached 
the former houfe of commons with obdinacy, in re- 
jt£ling his proffered limitations : he expreffed a hope 
of finding a better temper in the prcfent : and he af- 
fured both houfes, that, as he (liould ufe no arbitrary 
jjovernment himfclf, he was rcfolved not to fuffer ty- 
ranny in others ^*. The commons were not over-awed 
by this appearance of vigour. As they confided chief- 
ly of the fame members that fat in the lad parliament^ 
they chofe the fame fpeaker, and difcovered the fame 
violence as formerly. They revived the impeachment 
ef Danby^ the inquiry into the Fopidi Plot^ and the 

The king, who was offended at the abfurd bigotry 
of his brother, and willing to agre^ to any meafure 
that might gain the commons, without breaking the 
line of fuccefiion, permitted one of his miniders to 
propofe, that the duke of York (hou'd be banidicdj 
during life, five hundred miles from England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland) and that, on the king's deceafe^ 
the next heir, namely the princefs of Orange, fhould 
be cordituted regent, with regal power. This, as 
lord Bolingbroke humoroufly obfcrves, was furely 
not to vote the lion in the lobby into the houfe : it 
would have bten to voce him out of the houfe and 
lobby both, and only to fuffer him to be called lioa 
dill *^. But the pad difappointments of the popular 
party, and the oppofitiou made by the court, had 

4r. Kennct, vol. ili. 42. JoMrntJt of the Lords ^ March 21, 

j6Si» 43. DiftrtatiM tn Portia, Lett. vii. 



found their temper to fuch a degree, that no method ^JJ[?^ 
of excluding the duke, but their own, could give ^ i j -mf^ 
them (atisfadion. The king's propofal was, there- A.D,i68li 
W, rejected with difdain ; and Charles, thinking he 
bd now a fufficient apology for adopting that mea- 
bre^ which he had forefeen would become necef- 
farjr, went privately to the houfe of peers, and dif- 
folied the parliament ^^. 

A SUDDEN clap of thunder could not more have 
aftonlflied the popular party, than did this bold (tep. 
Prepared for no other but parliamentary reCftancCp 
they gave all their towering hopes at once to the 
wind) and the great bulwark of oppofition, which they 
had been fo long employed in raifing, quickly vani(h* 
ed into air. They were made fenfible, though too 
late, that they had miftaken the temporizing policy of 
Charles for timidity, and his love of eafe for want of 
vigour. They found, that he had patiently waited 
Qotil things fhould come to a crilis; and that, hav* 
ing procured a national majority on his fide, he had 
fet his enemies at defiance. No parliament, they 
knew, would be fummoned for fome years; and dur^ 
ing that dangerous interval, they forefaw that the 
court would have every advantage over a body of 
men difperfed and difunited. Their fpirit left them 
with their good fortune : fears for themfelves fuc« 
ceeded to their violence againft the crown. They 
were apprehenfive that a prince, whom they had of- 
fended and diftrefled, would ufe his viAory with ri- 
gour. And they were not deceived. 

From this time forward, the king became more 
fcvere in bis temper, and jealous in his difpofitipn. 
44. Barnet, toL |i. 


FART ir. He imraediatcly concluded a fccret money-treaty wft^ 
AD^i68i^, France, in order to enable him to govern without par-^ 
liamentary fupplies*^; and he publiflhed a dcclara-^ 
tion, iu vindication of his late violent meafure. That 
detlaration was ordered to be read in all the churches 
and chapels in England : the eloquence of the clergy 
feconded the arguments of the monarch : addrefleSj 
full of ezpreflions of duty and loyalty, were fent to 
him from all the legal focieties in the kingdom ; and 
the people in general feemed to congratulate their fo* 
▼ereign on his happy efcape from pailiaments**! The 
do£lrines of paflive obedience and non-refi(tance were * 
revived; and the bench and the pulpit feemed to con- 
tend with each other, which could fliew moft zeal 
for unlimited power in the crown. 

This was a ftrange and fudden revolution in the 
fentiments of the nation: yet, had the king pulhed 
his vi£l:ory no farther, had he been contented to en* 
joy his triumph without violence or injuftiee, his pad 
conduA might have admitted of fome apology, and 
the abettors of the prerogative might have awakened 
refefttmcnt without kindling indignation. But Charles 
was unfortunately at the head of a fa£lion, who feemed 
to think that the hour of retaliation was come ; and 
as he had formerly temporized to quiet his enemies^ 
he now judged it neceffary to give way to the vehe- 
mence of his friends. In order to gratify the efta- 
bliOied clergy, a fevere perfecution was commenced 
againft the Prefbyterians, and other ProteAant fee* 

i^^. Dalrymplt » Append, James II. i68i« 

.46. This remarkable change, as Burnet very jadicioufly obfertest 
Ibews how little dependence can be placed on popular humours; which 
«< have their ebbings and their flowings, their hot and cold fits, almoft 
<« as certainly as fcas or fevers.*' ^//?. ofbU Own Timts^ vol. ii. 



taries who bad been the chief fupport of the Exdu- letter 

uMiiSs in the houfc of commons % and the whole gang ^ ' ^ 

ofipici, informers, and falfe witnefles, who had been A.D. i68t« 

Tttaioed by the popular party, in order to eftablifii 

the reality of the popiOi plot, and whofe perjuries 

isd proved fatal to fo many catholics, were now en- 

Gftcd by the court, and played ofiFas an engine again tl 

tbcir former patrons. The royalifts, to ufe the ex- 

picflion of a nervous writer, thought their opponents 

ta much covered with guile, that iftjttjiicc iikU became 

jitft in their puniOiment ^7. 

Evert other fpecies of retaliation but this, my 
dear Philip, may perhaps be vindicated, or admit of 
Ibme excufe. Let force revenge the violences com- 
mitted by force : let blood ftream for blood ; let the 
pillage of one party repay the depredations of another ; 
let the perfecuted, in their turn, become perfecutors, 
and the faggot mutually flame for the purgation of 
martyrs : — thcfc are but temporary evils, and may 
foon be forgot ; but let not the fountain of juftice be 
poifoned in its fource, and the laws intended to pro* 
te£t mankind become inftiuments of de(lru£tion. 
This is the greateft calamity that can befal a nation, 
Danune and peftiience not excepted, and may be con-^ 
fidered as the laft ftage of political d?generacy. 

In thofe times of general corruption and abje(St fer- A. D. 1681. 
vility, when all men Teemed ready to proilrate them- 
felvea at the foot of the throne, the citizens of Lon- 
don lliU retained their bold fpirit of liberty and inde- 
pendency. The grand jury had judicioufly rejeftcd 
an indi£tment againft the earl of Shaftefbury on ac- 
cotmt of the improbability of the circumftances, after 

47. Macphcrfon, HiJI. Brit, chap. vi. 

\oL. IV. K perjury 


perjury had gone its utmoft length. Enraged at tbii 
difappointmenti the court endeavoured to inflttence 
the ele£tion of the magiflrates, and fucceeded ; bat 
as that contefti it was perceived, might be to renev 
every year^ fomething more deciGve was refolved upon. 
A writ of ^0 fVarraniovfzs accordingly iflued againft 
the city : that is, an enquiry into the validity of a cor- 
poration charter, which is prefumed to be defedive, or 
to have been forfeited by fome offence, to be proved 
in the courfe of fuit. And although the caufe of the 
city was powerfully defended, and the offences plead- 
ed againft it of the moft frivolous kind, judge- 
A.D.1683. mcnt was given in favour of the crown ^•. The al- 
dermen and common-council, in humble fupplica- 
tion, waited upon the king ; and Charles, who had 
now obtained bis end, agreed to reftore their charters 
but on fiich terms as would put the proud capital en- 
tirely in his power. He refervcd to himfelf the op'- 
ftobation of the principal magiftrates ; with this fpe- 
cial provifo, that fliould his majefty twice dffapproTC 
of the lord-mayor or fhcriffs eledled, he might, by 
his own commilTion, appoint others in their room. 

Filled with confternation at the fate of London^ 
and convinced howinefTeflual a conteftwith the court 
would prove, moft of the other corporations in Eng- 
land furrendcred their charters into the king's hands, 
and paid large fums for fuch new ones as he was pleaf- 
ed to frame. By thefe means a fatal ftab was given 
to the conftitution. The nomination of all the civil 
magiftrates, with the difpofal of all offices of power 

48. Soon after the Revolution, thU judgment wai reverred bjad 
of parliament ; and it was at the fame time enaAed, that the privi- 
lege* of the city of London Ihall never be^orfeited by any ddiaquency 
whatever in the member* of the corpontion. Sut. 1 W, and M. 


M 6 D E R N E U R O P E. 131 

Or profit, in every corporation in ihe kingdom, was in letter 

a manner vcftcd in the crown ; and as more than three- ^^ ^ -^/ 

fbunhs of the houfe of commons are chofen by the A*^* z^^J* 
boroughs, thb court was made fure of an undifputed 
majdrity. A perfedb defpotlfm was eftabliQied. 

Ik fuch times, wheii it was become dangerous eten 

to complain, reG (lance ipight be imprudent ; but no 

attempt for the recovery of legal liberty could bs 

crimina], in men who had been born free. A pro- 

jc€t of this kind had for fome time been entertained 

by a fct of determined men, among whom were feme 

of the heads of the Country Party, though Various 

€aa(es had hitherto prevented it from being brought 

to maturity ; particularly the impeachment of the 

cart of Sbafteibury, the framcr of the plot, and his 

unexpedcd departure for Holland, where he foon afte^ 

died. But the aeal of the confpirators, which had 

begun to languifli, was rekindled by the feizure of the 

corporation charters, and a regular plan for an infur- 

rcAion was formed. This bufinefs was committed to 

a council of (ix ; the members of which were, the duke 

^f Monmouth, the king's natural fon, lord RufTdl, fon 

of the earl of Bedford, the earl of Eflex, lord Howard, 

the famous Algernon Sidney, and John Hambdcui 

grandfon of the illuftrlous patriot of that name. 

These men had concerted an infurreflion in the 
city of London, where their influence was great i in 
Scotland, by an agreement with the earl of Argyle, 
who engaged tobrmg the Covenanters into the field ; 
and in the Weft of England, by the adiftance of the 
friends of liberty in that quarter. They had even 
taken meafures for filrprifing tht king's guar^Js, though 
without any defign of hurting his perfon, the exclu- 

K a fioa 


PART II. fion of the duke of York, and the rcdreb of gricr- ' 
ancesi which they had found could not be obtained in 
a parliamentary way, being all tbey propofed by fif- 
ing in arms. Sidney and Eflex, indeed, are faid to 
have embraced the idea of a republic ; but Ruflell 
and Hambden, the more moderate and popular con- 
fpiratorsy had no views but the reftoration of the 
broken copftitution of their country* and the fc- 
curing of the civil and religious liberties of the 

While thefe important objeQs were in cootein- 
plation, but before any blow had been ftruck, or even 
the time fixed for fuch a purpofe, the patriotic con* 
fpirators were betrayed by one of their aiTociates, 
named Rumfey. Lord Howard, a man of nq prin- 
ciple, and in needy circumftances, alfo became evi- 
dence for the crown, in hopes of pardon and reward. 
Others of lefs note followed the infamous example. 
On their combined evidence fcveral of the confpirators 
were fcized, condemned, and executed. Among thefc, 
tiie mod didinguiflied were Ruflell and Sidney. Both 
died with the intrepidity of men who had lefolved to 
hazard their lives in the field, in order to break the 
fetters of flavery, and refcue ihen\felve» and their 
fellow-fubjcds from an ignominious defpotifm ♦^. 


40. Lord G^cy'uHifi. of the Pye HouftPla. Slate Tn'tt/s, ▼ol. Hi. Law, 
if not juilict:, wa& v.ol-ated in order to procure the condemtiatiou of Sid- 
ney, whdfe talents the kinjj feared. RulTcIl's pipularity proved uo left 
ratal to him. He wasuniTerfaiiy adored by the nation, and therefore » 
uecefTary vidim in foch times. Charles accordingly rcfiftcd evccy av 
tempt to (ave him ; for he fcorned, on bis trial, to deny his fhure in the 
concc: ted iTifurredlion. In vain did lady RuHVll, the daughter of the 
loyal and virtucus Southamptim, throw hcrfelf at the royal feet, and 
crave mtTcy for her hulband : in vain did the carl of Bedford offer an 
hundred thouf;;ud pound*, thrc ugh the medktioo of the all-prevaiiirg 


A. I) I 

U O D E R K E U R O r £. ft; 

MuugxmiL , vho lud obfcondcd, Turrenifcrcd on a iFrr^R 
pfomife of pirdon ; Efti put an end to his life in the ^^^ -',^ 
Xovcr; and fufficlcnt proof not being fouiul agiinll 
Hiaibden/o make his crime capital, he was loaded 
with an oorbirant fine ; which, as it was Wyond his 
abilicj to pay 9 wis equivalent to the fcntcnce of per* 
pemal imprifonment ^^. 

*X*BE defeating of this confpiracy, known by the 
name of the Ryc-km/e Piot^ contributed dill farther 
to ftfcogthen the bands of government, already too 
ftrong. The king was univerf^IIy congratulated on 
bit efcape ; new addrefles were prefcnted to him i 
and tbe do£trine of implicit fubmiflion to the civil 
magiftratCy or an unlimited paflfive obedience, was 
more openly taught. The heads of the univerfity of 
Oxford, under pretence of condemning; ceitain doc- 
trines, which they denominated republican, went even 
fo far as to pafs a folemn decree in favour of abfolute 
monarchy. The perfecution was renewed againfl the 
Frotellant feflaries, and all the mod ^zealous friends of 
freedom, who were profecuted with the utmod fcvc- 

dechefs of Ponfoiuath, for the life of his fon. The khtp; was inrxor- 
■Ue. Aod in order to put a (lop to all farlhcr importutiiiy, he laid 
IB reply to the earl of Dartmouth, one of his favourite courtit^rr, und 
ferdRuITers declared enemy, but who yet advifcd a pardon -~—** 1 
" rauft have his life, or he will have mine!'* ( Dairy mple's y^Y.W. and 
Mem, part i.) " My death," faid RulTclljWith aconfolatory prcfcicncc, 
vhen he found hi^ fate was inevitable, " will he of niore fcrvicc to my 
coontry, than my life could have been !'* Id. ibid. 

50. BurDCt, vol. ii. The fevcrity of Charles, in punifliinj;; thcfc 
over-sealous friends of freedom, fecms to have been intended tci Hrikc 
terror into the whole popular party : and unfortunatily for the cri- 
OUDlIs, a confpiracy of an inferior kind, which aimed at the kin;.;'» life, 
beirg dtfcorered at the fame time, afforded him too good a pretext for 
hif rigour. The ajfajimuion p!^t was confounded, on all the iriaU, with 
that for an infurrf&'ftt, 

K 3 riiy. 


Part 11. verity. The pcrvcrCon of jufticc was carried to a 
ji^D^uil ^*^ greater cxcefs by the court j and the duke of Yoik 
was recalled from Scotland^ and reftorcd to the office 
of high admiral, without taking the Teft. 

This violation of an exprefs zGt of parliamcDt 
could not fail to give offence to the more difccmin^ 
part of the nation ; but the duke's arbitrary counfelf, 
and the great favour and indulgence (hewn to ibeCa* 
tholics, through his influence, were more gener^ 
caufes of complaint. He, indeed^ held entirely the 
reins of government, and left the king to purfue hp 
favourite amufcments ; to loiter with his mtftrefletp 
and laugh with his courtiers. Hence the celebntcd 
faying of Waller :—" The king is not only defirovi 
** that the duke (hould fucceed him, but is rcfolvcdj 
^' out of fpite to his parliament, to make him fcigii 
** even in his life-time." 

Apprehensive, however, of new confpiracies, or 
fecreily (Iruck with the iniquity of his adminiftratioQ, 
Charles is faid feriouily ro have projefled a change of 
meafures. He was frequently overheard to remon* 
ftraie warmly with his brother ^ and on finding him 
obdinate in his violent counfels, he refolved once more 
to baniHi him the court, to call a parliament^ and throw 
A.D. 1C85. himfclf wholly on the aifeclions of his people. While 
revolving this idea, he was feized with a fit, refembliog 
an apoplexy s which, after an interval of reafon, car- 
ried him otr in the fifty-fifth year of his age, and not 
without fufpicions of poifoii J*. Thefe fufpicions fell 
not on the duke of York, but on fome of the ducbefs of 
Portfmoutb's Roman catholic fervahts ; who are fap- 
pofed to have been woikcd upon by her confeflbr^ to 

51. Ciirneti toI. ti. 



i flieliad cooi2fiiuiicate<2 the king's intcndoiis, or 
fcy tUc her ooofc&r had truAcd with the fccrct «». 

The pat liaes of Charles's chancer I ha?c lU 
itidy had occaficn to delineate. As a prince, he was 
wd of ambitioa, and deflitnte of a proper fcnfc of 
hb Jigokj, in relation to foreign politics. In regard 
todomeftic politics, be was able and artful, but mean 
ad difij^euDoos. As a hufband be was unfaithful, 
mi mcflk£tM of the qneen's perfon, as well as of the 
nfy€£k due to her charader. As a gentleman and 
co^paniony he was elegant, eafy, gay, and facetious 1 
lit Iftving little fenfibility of heart, and a very bad 
tpbion of human nature, he appears to hafc been in* 
c^ble of friendfhip or gratitude. As a loTcr, how* 
eier, he was generous, and feemingly eren afie£Uon* 
ate. He recommended, with his lateft breath, the 
dscbefs of Portfmouth whom he had loaded with bent- 
fits, and her fon, the duke of Richmond, to his bro» 
dier: and he eameftly requefted him not to let poor 
Nell ftanre ^^ !— This was' Nell Gwyn, whom the king 
liad formerly taken from the (bge ; and who, though no 
longer regarded as a miftrefs, had (till ferred to amufe 
hiffl in a vacant hour 54, So warm an attachment, in 
ius hft moments, to the obje£ls of an unlawful paf- 
fiofl, has been regarded, by a great divine and popular 
hiftorian, as a blemifh in the chara^er o( Charles. 
But the philofopher judges differently : he is glad to 
find, that fo profligate a prince was capable of any 

$1 Id. ibid. 53. Burnet, ubi fup. 

54. It may ieem fomewbat unaccountable that Charlcf, after To ]Mg 
SO acquauiitance, (hould have left Nell in fuch a neceflHtoui condition, 
ms to be in danger of flarving. But this requeft mud only be confi- 
dcred u a (blicitout cipreflioD of tenderneOi* 

K 4 fincero 

A. D. t%»>* 


PART II. finccrc attachment; and confidcrs even this fympa^lif 
with the objcfts of fenfuality, when the iHufions of 
fenfe could no longer deceive^ as an honour to his oie- 

The religion of Chailes, and his receiving the fa« 
cramenty on his death-bed, from Hoddkflon, a popiBi 
pried, while he refufedtc from the divines of the church 
of England, and difregarded their exhortations, have 
alfo afforded matter of reproach and altercation. But 
if the king was really a Roman catholic, as is generally 
beKevedy and as I have ventured to affirm on Tef||fDQ« 
$h]t authorities ^^> he could neither beUamedSbr con-> 
ceaKng bis religion from his fubje£b, nor for d|ing 
in that faith which he had embraced. If, as olhcra 
contend, he was not a catholic, his brother took a Teiy 
citraosdiBary ftep, in making him die in the RonvUh 
communion. But if he was (b weak» when Huddle* 
Aon was introduced to him by the duke of York, as 
to be unable to refufe compliance i if be agreed to 
receive the facramenc from the divines of the churcii 
of England, but had not power to fwallow the cle« 
ments ^S theCe clrcumflances prove nothing but his 
own feeble condition, and the blind bigotry of his bro* 
ther. The tvuib^ however, fcems to be. That CharleSt 
while in high health, was of no particular religion % 
but that, having been early initiated in the cathoUc 
faith, he always fled to the altar of fuperftitiouj when 
his fpirits were low, or when his life was thought ia 

Wr muft now, my dear Philip, return to the line 
of general hiilory, and examine the farther progrcfs 

rS' Burner, Halfax, Hume, Sec, h\ confirmation of thefe a%ithoriti«% 
f' t Paiillon's Le.Urr to Lfwis Xl\'. Feb. i8, 16S5, in Dalrymplc*6 Ap* 

^6. .Macj-Iurfor, Hijt Brli^ yA^ i. chap. iv. 


M O D E R K E U R O P E. nj 

of Ac aafaidoo of Levis XIV. b^fbf? «e cury lo««f 


A Gmtrtl Firm b/ it* Af^iin n th C/ir/t/c^ /^jn 
Ai P^ma 9f KiHEGC£N im 1678, u lix Ltjiriu tf 

AOGSBC&Gv 1687. 

TH E peace of Nlm^aen, as might have been UTl'tt 
fiDiefcen by the alGes, inftcad of feuing bounds ^J^l*. 
10 tbe ambicioQ of Lewis XTV. only left him leirure A.D. ni^s. 
to perfc£l ^bat fcheme of unirerfal monarchy, or ab* 
fbliicc foverclgnty in Europe at Icalt, into which he 
was-flattered by his poets and orators; and which, at 
lengthy roufed a new and more powerful confederacy 
againft him.^ While the empire, Spain, and Holland^ 
dUbanded their fupernumerary troops, Lewis ftill 
kept op all his ; in the midft of profound peace, he 
maintained a formidable army, and aded as if he had 
been already the fole forereign in Europe, and all 
cxher princes but his vaflals. He eftabliflied judica* 
tares for reuniting fuch territories as had anciently 
depended upon the three bilhopricks, Metz, Tout, 
and Verdun \ upon Alface, or any of his late con- 
qoefts. Tbefe arbitrary courts enquired into titles 
buried in the moft remote antiquity : they cited the 
neighbouring princes, and even the king of Spain, to 
appear before them, and to render homage to the king 
of France, or to behold the confifcation of their pof- 

No European prince, finec the time of Charlc- 
AP^ne, bad a£led fo much like a mafler and a judge 


FART 11. as Lewis XIV. The ele£lor Palatine, and the eleAo*^ 
^^~^^ of Treves, were divcftcd of the fignories of Falkenw^ 

bourgy GermarOieim, Valdentz, and other plao 
by his imperious tribunals ; and he laid claim to tl 
ancient and free ciry of Strafburg, as the capital c»f 
Alface* This large and rich city, which was miffarefii 
of the Rhine, by means of its bridge over that river, 
had long attraded the eye of the French monarch : 
and his miniftcr Louvois, by the mod artful condu£l> 
JLD.16S1. at laft put him in pofTeflTion of it. He ordered troops 
tp enter Lorrain» Franche Comte, and Alface, under 
pretence of employing them in working on the fortifi* 
cations in thefe provinces* But, according to con- 
cert, they all affembled in the neighbourhood of 
^>tra{burg, to the number of twenty thoufand roeoi 
and took pofleQion of the ground between the Rhine 
and the city, as well as of the redoubt that covered 
the bridge. Louvois appeared at their head, and de- 
manded that the town (hould be put under the pro- 
tedion of his mafler. The magillratcs had been cor- 
f upted, tlie inhabitants were all confternatidn : the 
city opened its gates, after having fecu|red its privi- 
leges by capitulation. Vauban, who had fortified fo 
many places, here exhaufted his art, and rendered 
Sirafburg the ftrongeft barrier of France '• 

Nor did Lewis behave with lefs arrogance on ttie 
(ide of the Low Countries. He demanded the coun* 
ty of Aloft from the Spaniards, on the moft frivo- 
lous, and even ridiculous pretence. His minifter^ lie 
(aid, had forgot to infert it in the articles of pe^c^f 
and as it was not immediately yielded to him, he 
A.D. 1633. blockaded Luxemburg\ Alarmed at thefe ambitioot 
pretcnfions, the empire, Spain^ and Holland, began to 

T. Nlj7. d* jtlfue^ Uv. xxiii. Voltaire, S'utk, chap. xuL 
cu: J, ubi fup. 



take meafures for reflulninc; the encroachments of letter 


France. But Spain was yet too feeble to enter upon a , . ' ^ 
new war, and the imperial armies were required io A-IXieSj. 
another quarter, to oppofe a more preffing danger* 

The Hungarians, whofe privileges Leopold had 
nvftt fttfficiently refpeded, had again broke out into 
rebellion ; and Tekeli, the head of the infurgents, had 
called in the Turks to the fupport of his countrymen. 
By the afliftance of the baOia of Buda, he ravaged Si-* 
leGa, and reduced many important places in Hungary; 
while Mahomet IV. the reigning fultan, was prepar« 
iflg the mod formidable force that the Ottoman em- 
pire had ever fent agninft Chriftendom* 

Leopold, forefeeing that the gathering ftorm 
would finally break upon Germany, beGde demanding 
tbe afliftance of the princes of the empire, concluded 
an offenCve and defenfive alliance with John Sobieiki, 
king of Poland. Meanwhile the grand vizier, Elara 
Moflapha, paiGng through Hungary, at the head of 
fifty thoufand janizaries, thirty thoufand fpahis, and 
two hundred thoufand common men, aflembled for 
Hic occafion, with baggage, and artillery in propor- 
tbn to fuch a multitude, advanced towards Vienna. 
The duke of Lorrain, who commanded tbe imperial 
{nces, attempted in vain to oppofe the progrefsof 
the invader. The Turks, under the grand-vizier, 
took the right of the Danube, and l^ekeli, with the 
Hungarians, the left. Seeing his capital threatened 
one every fide, the emperor retir<:d firft to Lintz, and 
afterwards to Paflau. Two thirds of tbe inhabitants 
followed the court ; and nothing was to be feen, on all 
(des, but fugitives. equipageS| and carriages laden 




PART If. iriih moTablcs '. The whole empire was tbrown m— 
^^''^r'^-^ to confler nation. 

The garrifon of Vienna amounted to about fifte 
thoufand men, and the citizens ab!e to bear arms t^ 
near fifty thoufand. The Turks invefted the town oib 
the J 7th of July ; and they had not only deftroyed 
the fuburbsy but made a breach in the body of tbe 
place by the firft of September. The duke of L^f- 
rain had been fo fortunate as to prevent the Hungari- 
ans from joining the Turks, but was unable to lend 
the garrifon any relief 5 and an aflault was every mo- 
ment expefled when a deliverer appeared. John So- 
bicfki, king of Poland, having joined his troops to 
thoMC of Saxony, Bavaria, and the Circles, made a 
fignal to the befitrgcd froui the top of the mountain of 
Calemberg, and infpired them with new hopes* Kara 
Muftapha, who, from a contempt of the Chriftians, 
had ncgle£led to pu(h the aflault, and who, amidft 
the progrefs of ruin, had wantoned in luxury, was 
now made feoGble of his miftake, when too late to 
repair it. 

The Chriftains, to the number of fixfy-four thou- 
fand, defcending the mountain, under the command 
of the king of Poland, the duke of Lorrain^ and an in- 
credible number of German princes. The grand vi- 
zier advanced to meet tl\em at the head of the main 
body of tlie Turk:(h army, while he ordered an aC- 
fault to be made uptn the city with twenty thoufand 
men, who were left in the trenches. The aflault 
failed ; and the 'i*urks being feized with a panic, were 
routed almoft without red (lance. Only five hundred 
of the vY^lors fell, and not above one thoufand of the 

3. A/mal I: l" Lx::>. oiu. ii. Barre, torn. x. 



mquflied. And fo great was the terror, and fo preci- ^^'J'^^*' 

pitatethe flight of the infidcli, that they abandoned not . 1^ 

•nljr tbeir teots, artillery, and baggage, but left behind ^' ^* **^3' 
Aemefen the famous ftandard of Mahomet, which was 
fait as a prefent to the pope ^ ! The Turks received 
another defeat in the plain of Barcan ; and all Hun- 
pry, on both fides of the Danube, was recovered by 
Ac inperial arms. 

The king of France, who had fupported the mal- 
contents in Hungary, and who encouraged the inva- ' 
loa of the Turks, raifed however the blockade of 
Lviemburg, when they approached Vienna. *^ I 
•* will never, faid he, «* attack a Chriftian prince, 
•* vhile ChriAendom is in danger from the Infidels '.^ 
He was confident when be made this declaration, tbat 
the imperial city would be taken, and had an army on 
tiie frontiers of Germany, ready to oppofe the farther 
prc^grefs of thofe very Turks whom he had invited 
thithei ! By becoming the protestor of the empire, he 
lioped to get his fon eleded king of the Romans ^ 
Sut.this fcheme being defeated, and the apprehenfions 
of Chriftendom removed, by the relief of Vienna and 
.the espulfion of the Turks, L£wis returned to the 
fiege of Luxemburg ; and reduced, in a (liort time, 
not only that place, but alfoCoutray and Dixmude. A. D. 1684. 

EvRAOED at thefe violences, the Spaniards de- 
cbred war, and attempted to retaliate. And the prince 
t>f Orange was eager for a general confederacy againft 
France; but not being able to induce his uncle, the 
king of England, to take part in it, he laid afidc the 
ded^n. The emperor, dill deeply involved in the 
war with the Turks and Hungarians, could make no ef- 

4. Id. ibid. 5. Voluire, Swlt, chap. zlii. 6. Vol- 

t^iircf ubi fup. 

8 fort 


FART n. fort on the fide of Flanders ; and the Spaniards alone 
^-"^^^ were unequal to the conteft in which, forgetting their 
weaknefsi they bad raflily engaged. A truce of twenty^ 
years was, therefore, concluded by Spain and the em- 
pire with France at Ratifbon. The principal aniclesoE' 
this temporary treaty were, That Lewis fliould reftore 
Coutray and Dixmude, but retain pofleffidn of Lux* 
emburg, Strafburg, the fortrefs of Kehl, and part of 
the reunions made by bis arbitrary courts cftablifhcd 
at Metz and firifac 7. 

The glory and greatnefs of the French monarch 
were ftill farther extended by means of his naval 
power. He had now raifed his lately created marine 
to a degree of force that exceeded the hopes of 
France, and increafed the fears of Europe. He had 
upward of an hundred (hips of the line, and fixty 
thoufand fcamcn *. The magnificent port of Toulon, 
In the Mediterranean, was conftrufted at an immenfe 
expence; and that of Breft, upon the ocean, was 
formed on as extenfive apian. Dunkirk and Havre^ 
de-Grace were filled with (hips; and Rochefort, in 
fpite of nature, was converted into a convenient bar* 
bour. Nor did Lewis, though engaged in no naval 
war, allow his (hips to lie ina£live in thefe ports. He 
fent out fqadrons, at difi^erent times, to clear the feas 
of the Barbary pirates : he ordered Algiers twice to be 
bombarded ; and he had the pleafure not only of hum« 
bling that haughty predatory city, and of obliging the 
Algerines to releafe all their Chriflian flaves, but of 
fubje£ting Tunis and Tripoli to the fame conditions 9, 

The republic of Genoa, for a flight ofi^ence, was 
no Icfs fcvcrely treated than Algiers. The Genoefe 

7. Dumonty Cor^» DipUm* torn. yu. 8. Voluire, S'ucU^ chap.- xiil. 
f . Id. Ibid. 

7 tvert 


^re iccuTed of having fold bombs and gunpowder to ^^^^^* 
tbcAlgerincs; and they had farther incurred the dif- ,_,,,--,^ 
pbforc of Lewis, by engaging to build four gallie$ A,D-i6S4- 
for the Spaniards. He commanded them, under pain 
of hisrefentment, not to launch thofe ^allies. Incenf- 
ed at this infult on their independency, the Genoefe 
piid no regard to the menace. They feemedeven de- 
firotts to (hew their contempt of fuch arrogance; but 
dieyhad foon occafion to repent their temerity. Four- 
teen (hips of the line, twenty gallies, ten bomb- 
fetches, and feveral frigates, immediately failed from 
Toolon, under old Duquefne ; and appearing before Ge« 
aoa, fuddenly reduced to a heap of ruins part of thofe 
ragDificent buildings, which have obtained for thac 
city the appellation of proud. Four thoufand men 
vere landed, and the fuburb of St. Peter d'Arena was 
kimt. It now became necefTary for the Genoefe to 
make fubmiflions, in order to prevent the total de- 
finition of their capital. Lewis demanded, that the 
Doge, and four of the principal fenators, (faould come 
and implore his clemency in h!s palace at Verfailles ; 
and, in order to prevent the Genoefe from eluding this 
£itisfa£lion, or depriving him of any part of his tri- 
vnpb, he infifted that the Doge, who (hould be fent to 
deprecate his vengeance, Ihould be continued in office, 
notwithftanding the perpetual law of the republic, by 
which a Doge is deprived of his dignity the moment be 
quits the city *^. Thefe humiliating conditions were 
complied with. Imperiale Lafcaro, Doge of Genoa, in a. d, m^. 
his ceremonial habit, accompanied by four of the prin- 
cipal fenatorsy appeared before Lewis in a fupplicating 
pofture. The Doge, who was a man of wit and viva- 
city, 00 being afked by the French courtiers what he 

xo. Voltaire, ubifvp. 



PART n. fiiw mod exuordinarf at Verfailles, verj poiate 
^j^S^ replied-" To fee myfelf here!" 

The grandeur of Lewis XIV. was now at iu bij 
eft point of elevation; but the fmews of his i 
power were already fomewhat flackened, by the dc 
of the great Colbert. That excellent miniftcFj 
whom France owes her moft valuable manufa^^ui 
her commerce, and her navy, had enabled bis naafl 
by the order and ccconomy with which he condu^ 
the finances] to fupport the moft expenfive wi 
to dazzle with his pomp all the nations of Euro; 
and to corrupt its principal courts, without diftrefl 
his people. He has, however, been accufed of 
fufficiently encouraging agriculture, and of pay 
too much attention to the manufadures conned 
with luxury. But thefc which, for a time, made 
her neighbours in a manner tributary to France^ 
was fenfible only could fupply the excefiive drain 
war, and the oftcntatious w^afte of the king% 
was not at liberty to follow his own judgment. 1 
ueceflTities of the ftatc obliged him to. adopt a temj 
rary policy ; and to encourage the more fumptu« 
manufa£lurcs at the cxpcnce of general induftry, : 
confequcntly of population. 

But in the profccution of this fyftem, wh 
though radically defcftive, was the beft that could 
adopted in fuch circumftances, Colhyt employed 
wifcft meafures. He not only eftablil)ied tbc naoft 
gcnious, and. leafl: known manufaflures, fuch as fil 
velvets, laces, tapeftrics, carpets ; but he eftablifl 
them in the cheapeft and moft convenient places, s 
encouraged, without diftindion, pcrfons of all i 
tions and all religions. Above the reft, the Huj 



M O D E R if E U R O P E. 145 

MMS} or Ftendi Proteftahts, feemed to claim his at* letter 
t«iitioo. Having long loft their political confequcnce, ■*^' ^ 
ihtj deroted thcmfehes chiefly to roanufaAures* a.d.i»85. 
They ererj where recommended themfelves by their 
iadaftry and ingenuity, which were often rewarded 
vith great opulence. This opulence begot envy^ 
onry produced jcalotify ; and foon after the death of 
Colbert, who had always protected and patronized 
tkm, thefe ufeful and ingenious fedaries, without 
die imputation of any crime, were expofed to a cruel 
nd impolitic perfecution, which reduced them to the 
uoelEty of abandoning their native country. 

This perfecution, whofe progrefs was marked by 
tbe nvteaiiom of the famou% £di£l of Nlntz, which 
liecared to tbe French Proteftants the free exercife of 
their religion, and was underftood to be perpetual^ 
dirows peculiar difgrace on the polifhed court and 
enlightened reign of Lewis XIV. Even before the 
fCfocation of that cdiGtf (o blindly bigotted, or vio* 
lent and fliort-fighted, were the French minifters^ 
that the Proteftants were not only excluded from all 
dvil employments, but rendered incapable of hold* 
iBg any ihare in the principal filk manufa£lories, 
thoogh they only could carry them on to advan- 
tage 'M 

One might think, from fuch regulations, that thofe 
iniiiifters had lived in the darkeft ages, or were dc^ 
fermined to rf&.Ae ftate. Nor were their ordi- 
nances, after rep^ling the Edid of Naniz, lefs impo- 
litic or abfurd. * They banifhed all the Proteftant paf- 
lors, without once fufpeAing the flock would follow 
chem; and when that evil was perceived, it was in« 

II. Mm, dt NtUUt^ par TAbb^ Millot, torn. i. 

Vol. IV. L cfleAually 


effisftorlly decreed, that fucl^as attempted to leave tbe 
kingdom (hould be fent to tlie gallics. There who 
remaiDed, were ptohibited CTcn the private eiercife 
of their religion on pain of deaths and, by a fingolar 
piece of barbarity, the children of Proteftanu were 
ordered to be taken from their parents, and committed 
to their nearefl Catholic relations; or, in default of 
thofe, to fuch ether good Catholics as the judges flumid 
appoint for their education. All the terrors qf mili- 
eu D.j686« tary execution, and all the artifices of prieftciaftf 
were employed to make converts; and fuch as re- 
lapfed, were fentenced to the mod cruel pnnilbmeDts. 
A twentieth part cf the whole body was put to death 
in a fhort time, and a price was fet en the heads of 
the red, who were hunt^cf like wiki beafts upon the 
mountains'*. By thefe fereritiesy in fpite of die 
guards that were placed on the frontiers, and every 
other tyrannical redraint, France was deprived of 
near fix hundred thoufand of her molt valuable inha- 
bitants, who carried their wealthi their induftry, and 
their (kill in ingenious manufadurcs into England, 
Holland, and Germany ; where Lewis XIV. fooiidf 
in his own fugitive, and once faithful fubjedt^ not 
only formidable rivals in commerce, but povrerfal 
enemies burning with revenge, and gallant foldiers 
ready to fet bounds to his ambition. 

But while Lewis thus perfecuted tbe French Prou 
teftants, contrary to all the principles of humanity 
^nd found policy, he was no dupe lio the court ct 
Rome. On the contrary, he did every thing in his 
power to mortify Innocent XI. a man of virtue and 
abilities, who now filled the papal chair. He canted 
«ccleGaftical difputes with him as far as poflible, with* 

I a. IdL ibid. Soc alTo VoUsire, Sinli, chap. zse&L 


oat tsparsitiog the Gallican cburch entirely from 
eteipeftoUc fee. In civil aflFairs, the conteft was ftill 
nnUv, and took its rife from a Gnguiar abufe. The A. D. 1687. 
mbaffiidors of popih princes at Rome extended what 
thef called tbtir piariers, or the right of freedom and 
a^imttt ^ > P^^ diftance from their houfes. This 
pemidoos' privilege rendered one half of Rome a cer^ 
tM refuge for all (brta of crimiiials; and, by another 
piirikgef. as whatever entered Rome^ under the fane- 
tSoQ of an ambafladoPs name, paid no duty, the trade 
tf the city fufiered, and the ftate was defrauded of its 
lAchoe. In order to remedy thefe abufes, Innocent 
ptevaOed on the emperor and the king of Spain to 
for^ fttch' odious rights ; and ap application to the 
bait purpofe was made to^e king of Francri entreat* 
iog him to concur with the other princes in promote 
iflgtbe tranquillity and good order of Romie, Lewis^ 
lAio was already diflatisfied with the pope, haughtily 
replied, that he had never made the conduft of others 
ah' esample to Mmfelf ; but, on the contrary, would 
lAd^cliimfelf an example to others^' ! He according- 
ly lent bit ambaiTador to Rome furrounded with guards 
and other armed attendants, and Innocent was aJ>le to 
oppofe hiih only with excommunications. 

This triumph over the fpxritual father of Chriften- 
dbm, was the laft infolt on the dignity of fovereigns^ 
wUdi Lewis XIV. was fuffered to commit with im- 
pmiity. The emperor had taken Buda from the Turks^ 
after an obftinate fiege : he had defeated them with 
great flaughter at Mohatz : he had entirely fubdued 
the Hungarian malcontents: he had even got the 
crowO'Of Hungary declared hereditary in the houfe of 
Auftria, and his fon Jofeph proclaimed king of that 

ij. Toltaire, ^Mdlr, eliap. lib*. 

L 2 country* 


PAKT n. country, 'fliough (lill engaged in hoftilities with tbe 
Alk]6l ^ I"fiJcl8, he had now IcifuTc to turn his eye towirdf 
France*, nor could be do it whb indifFerence. The 
fame vam-gloriout ambition which had prompted • 
Lewis to tyrannize over the pope, and to perfecute 
his Proteftant fubjefta. That, to ufe the language of • 
hit hiftorians, as there was onr king there might be 
but ON£ religion in the monarchy, and which juftly 
:ilarn>ed all Germany and the Nortb| at length airakco- 
cd the rerentmcnt of Leopold. 

A LEAGiJE had been already concluded by the 
whole empire at Augfburg, in order to rcRrain the 
eucroaclimtnts of France, and to vindicate the ob* 
jcds of the treaties of Wtdphalia, the Pyrenees, and 
Nimeguen. And an ambitious attempt of Lewis XIV* 
to get the cardii>a) de Furflcmberg, one of his own 
creatures, made ele£lor of Cologne, in oppofition to . 
the emperor^ at once fliewed the neceflity of (iich an 
^(Tociauon, aiui lighted anew the flames of war in 
Germany and the Low Countries. Spain and HoU 
1:md had become principals in the league ; Denmark^ 
Sweden, and Savoy were afterward gained i fo that 
the acceflion of England feemcd only wanting to ren- 
<ler the confederacy complete, and that was at lad ac- 
quired.— But, before I enter into particulars, we mvft 
take a view of the unhappy, reign of James IL and , 
the great change in the £ng)i(h cpnllitution .trilb; 
which it was terminated. 


O D E R N E U R O P E. 149 


Geeat Britain imd Irilakd, iwring tbi Rtign tf 
James IL 

C[ ARLES n. by his popular chancer amt tern* LKTTFr 
porifing policy^ bad fo generally reconciled the ' 
Englifli nation to his arbitrary adminiftrationi that 
the obnoxions religion, and even the blind bigotry of 
his brother, may perhaps be confidered as fortunate 
drcamftances for the Britifli conftitution. For had 
James II. been a Protefbnt, he might quietly hare 
cftabfilhed defpotifm in England ; or had he, as he 
formerly promifed, made his religion a private affair 
lietveen God and his own confcience, he might dill 
luvehren able to fubdue the fmall remains of liberty, 
and to eftablifli that abfolute government which he 
loved. But the juftice of thefe reflc£lions will bed 
appear from the fafts by which they were fuggefted* 

Thb new king, who was fifty years of age when 
he afcended the throne, be^an his reign with a very 
popular a£l. He immediately aflembled the privy 
council, and declared. That although he had been 
reprefented as a man of arbitracy principles, and 
though determined not to rtrlinquifli the jo ft rights 
and prerogatives of the crown, he was refolved to 
maintain the eftabliflied government, both in churcli 
and ftate, being fenfible that the laws of England were 
fuflicient to inake him as great a monarch as he could 
wifli'. This declaration gave f^rcat fatisfaflion to 
tbc councilj and was received with the warmed ap- 

|. printed Dc:hreUon. 

L 3 plaufc 


FART II. plaufe by the nation. As James had hitherto been 
/^^~^ confidered as a prince of unimpeached honour and 
finceriry, no one doubted but his intentions were coo* 
formable to his profeilions. ** We have now/' it was 
commonly faid, <' the word of a king} and a word 
•* never yet broken * !". It was reprefented at a 
greater fccuricy to the conftitutioo than any that lavs 
could give. Addreflfes poured in from all quarteif^ 
full not only of expreflions of duty^ but of the mofl; 
fervile adulation K 

But this popularity was of ihort continuance. The 
nation was foon convinced, that the king cither wa^ 
not fincere in his promife to preferve the conftitutioq 
inviolate, or entertained ideas of that conftitution TtTf 
difierent from thofe of his people, and fuch at couM 
yield no fecurity to their civil or religious libertiea> 
He went openly, and with all the enfigns of hit dig* 
nity, to niafs, an illegal worflup : he was even fb im« 
prudent as to urge others to follow his example : h^ 
fent an agent to Rome, in order to make fubmiffiont 
to the pope; and he levied taxes without the autho« 
rity of parliament K 

James, however, foon found the neceflity of af- 
fembling a parliament ; and, in confequence of the 

2 . Burnet^ book iv. 

3. The addrefs from the Quakers was, however, didingmihtd by 
that plainncls which has fo long chaiaderifed the fed. " Wc trc 
come/' (aid they, <* to teflify our forrow for the death of our good 
•• friciid Charles, and our joy for thy being wade our goTemor. We 
« are cold thou art not of the perfuafion of the church of Englaody 
<< any more than we ; wherefore, we hope, thou wilt grant ua the 
V fame liberty which thou allowcft thyfelf i which doings we wifli 
•* thee all manner of happinefs.*' 

4. Burnec, book iv, Ctfte'i Life tf Orwrn^f vol, iii. 



which the crown had acquired in the bo- ^vyT^* 
fooghst by the violation of the corporation-charters, y^^^^lf 
a famtfe of commons was procured as compliant as the /. D. i68^» 
bmA arbitrary prince could have wifhed. If they had 
been odierwife difpofedi the king's fpeech was more 
cakttlated to work on their fears than their affeAions, 
to inflame oppoiition than to conciliate favour, and 
fbongly indicated the violence of his principles. After 
rqieating his promife to govern according to the laws, 
and to preferve the edahliOied religion, he told the 
commons, that he pofitively cxpc£led they would 
giant him, during his life, the fame revenue which 
his broiber had enjoyed. '' I might ufe many argu- 
mentSt* iaid he, <* to enforce this demand ; the bene« 
^ fit of trade, the fupport of the navy, the neceffities 
^ of the crown, and the well-being of the government 
* itielf, which I muft not fuffer to be precarious : but 
** I am confident that your own confideration, and 
^ your fenfe of what is juft and reafonable, will fug- 
^ geft to you whatever might on this occafion be en- 
^ laiged upon. There is indeed one popular argu- 
** mcnt,'' added he, ^* which may be urged .againft 
^compliance with my demands. Men may think^ 
^ that by feeding me from time to time with fuch fup- 
'* plies as tbey think convenient^ they will better fecure 
*'frequine meetings efpatHament : but as this is the firft 
'* time I fpeak to you from the throne, I will anfwer 
*^ this argument once for all. I muft plainly tell 
** yon. That fuch an expedient would be very im- 
'^ proper to employ with me ; and that the bed way 
^< to engage me to meet you efteni is always to ufe me 

5. Jmndt^ May 19, 16S5. 

li 4 Tn> 


y^^Z^ * In return to this imperious fpeecb, which a Tpirited 
A. D. 1685. parliament would have received with indigaation^ 
both houfes prefented an addrefs of thanks, witho4t 
fo much as a debate ; and the commons unanimouflf 
yoted| ''That the revenue enjoyed by the late king^ 
*' ;it the time of his death, (haU be fettled on his pre- 
** fuit majeily, during life." Nor did the genero- 
fity of ihe commons Hop here. The king having de- 
manded a farther fupply for removing the anticipa- 
tions on the revenue, and other temporary parpofett 
they revived certain duties on wines and Tinegir^ 
which had been granted to the late |ting ; but whiclit 
having expired during the bad humours of his latter 
parliaments, had not been renewed- To thefe were 
added fqme impqfitions on tobacco and fugar i all 
whichf undpr the rigid oeconomy of James, rendered 
the crown, In time of peace, independent of the parlii- 
ment *. 

The Scottifli parliament went yet farther than tha\^ 
of Englanil. Both lords an>l commons declared their 
abhon c nee of all principles and pofitions derogatory to 
the \iing*s /acre J f/ufrimif/overet^tt J ahfokte authority % 
of which none, they faid, whether fingle peribns or 
colie£tive bodies, can participate but in dependence on 
him and by commiiCon from him. Theyoffered, in the 
name of the nation, to fupport with their lives and 
fortunes their prcfent fovereign and bis lawful heirs^ 
in the poiTeflion of the crown and its prerogativesiy 
againfl all mortal men : and they annexed the whole 
excife, both of inland and foreign commoditieS| for 
ever to the crowns 

6. James II. 1685. 7. Bfrnct, book iv. Home, vol tiii. 




Tail profafe .iberalicy of the parliaments of the LFTTKR 
two kingdoms, jipd ihc g-neral, and even abjcd fub- ^^J^I^. 
miffion of the two nations, gave the king reafon to a. D. 1685. 
believe that bis throne was as firmly eftabliflied as that 
of anf European monarch. But, while every thing 
remained in tranquillity at home, a ftorm wns gather- 
iog abroad to difturb his repofe; and which, although 
diffipated without much trouble, may be confidered 
ai a prelude to that great revolution which finally de- 
prifcd him of his crown, and condemned himfeif and 
iut pofterity to a dependent and fugitive life among 

Thi prince of Orange, ever (ince the propofed 
ettlufion of his father-in law^ had raifed his hopes 
to the Englifli throne. He had entered deeply into 
jotrigiies with the minifters of Charles IL he had en« 
QOariged the parliamentary leaders in their violent 
jOppojitionj and, unaccountable as it may feem, it 
appears that he fecretly abetted the ambitious views 
of the duke of Monmouth, though they both aimed 
at the fiime objc£l ^ It is at lealt certain that he re- 
ceived the duke with great kindtiefs, and treated him 
frith the higheft marks of refpefl:, after he had beea 
p^done4 by a fopd and induigetit father, for his un- 
natural (hare in the Rye-houfe plot, but ordered to 
leave the kingdom on a new fymptom of difaflfeAion ; 
that on the acceffion of James II. and when the prince 
of Orange was profeffing the (Irongeft attachment to 
bis father-in-Iawp Monmouth, Argyle, and other 
Englifh and Scottifh fugitives in Holland, were fuf- 
fered, under his fecrct prote£lion> to provide them- 
felves privately with necefTaries, and to form the plan 

8. See king }anieft*t Mm. in Maqphcrfon's Original Papnt, vol. 1. 
sod Count lyATAiix*! Nigtfiatitns^ torn. I. ii. iii. it. 



of an iflvafion, in hopes of roofing to irmi the di£i 
(atisfied part of the two kingdoms ^ 

AB.GTLE9 who was firft ready, (ailed for Scotland 
with three veflels, carrying arms and ammonition ; 
and, foon after his arrival in the HighlandSf he 
found himfelf at the head of two thooland men. 
But tbe'king*s anthority was too firmly eftabliflied ia 
Scotland to be fliaken by ftich a force. Early made 
fenfible of this, Argyle was afraid to Tenture into the 
low country ; where, if he had been aUe to keep the 
fields he might have met with fupport from the Cove- 
nanters. At any rate, be ought to have hazarded die 
attempt, before the ardour of bis adherents had Id- 
fure to cool, or his well-wi(hers time to difcrra his 
danger, inftead of waiting for an acceflion of ftrength 
among his mounuins. But bis fituation, it muft be 
owned, was at all times difcouraging. Government, 
apprifed of his intended invafion, bad ordered all the 
confiderable gentry of his clan to be thrown into 
prifon. The whole militia of the kingdom, to the 
number of twenty-two thoufand men, were foon under 
arms ; and a third part of them, with all the r^Iar 
forces, were now on their march to oppofe him. The 
marquis of Athol prefled him on one fide ; lord 
Charles Murray on the other ; the duke of Gordon 
hung upon his rear ; the earl of Dumbarton met him 
in front. His arms and ammunition were feized, his 
provifions cut of. In this defperate extremity, be 
endeavoured to force his way into the difaffedcd part 
of the weftqpn countries. He accordingly crofled tho 
river Leven, and afterward the Clyde ; but no per- 
fon (hewed cither courage or inclination to join him. 
His foUowersi who had fufiered all the hardflitps of 

9. Id. ibid. 


lad €i ^oCf gndoalij dcferted ; tnd be him* 
iUf bdag mMlr prifoocr, was carried to Edmburghi 
wad imoediatdT csecuted ca a former iniquitous a.i>.i*$j« 
. Two Eoglilh gentlemen excepted, hit 
bj difperfing thcmfelfes, efcaped punifli* 

f^AMWihV. tlie dnkc of Monmouthy accordinf 
to ^gromcQt. had landed in the Weft of England i and 
to fvftat was his pc^mlarity, that although accompani- 
jol onlj bf aboot ibiirfcoce pcribns, the oombtr of his 
^idbcpents fbon increaled to five thoufand. At the 
head of thefe, who were chiefly of the lower clafsi 
he entered Tannton ; where he was received with fuch 
cstraordinary exprelCons of joy^ that he iflued a de^ 
^aracioo ^rting the legitimacy of his birth, and 
aflomcd the *itle of king* From Taunton he march* 
fed lo Bridgewater, where he was received with equal 
•ffeQion, and proclaimed king] by the magiftratcs^ 
with all the formalities of their office. His fpllow- 
en iMwriy incrjK^fed ; and he was obliged every day^ 
(or Wfot fit arms, to difmifs great numbers who 
powded to his ftandard. He only, perhaps, needed 
coadn6t and abilities to have overturned his uncle's 
|hioi|e. ponfciotts of his want of thefe, as well as 
ci refoi^rces, the nobility and gentry kept at a di- 
fjbace. He fa^d no man of talents or courage, to ad« 
viTe with in the clofet, or to aflift him in the field. 
Lord Gray, his general of borfe, and whom he had 
fheweaknefs to continue in command, was to his 
own kQowled|e a coward ; and he himfelf, though 
peribnally brave, allowed the expedition of the 
people to bdguifliy ^ithput attempting any bold en* 
terprife M, 

10. BaiBtt. Wodroir. HaoK. sx. Bornct Kesnet* Ralph. 



PART II. NoTwiTSTANDiNG this imprudent caution» aod 
^^^^^ the nours of Argylc's mifcarriagc, Monmouth's fo^ 
lowers continued to adhere to him^ after all his hopes 
of fuccefs had failed, and when he had even thoughts 
of providing for his own fafety by flight. Roufed t^ 
a£lion by fuch warm attachment, and encouraged by 
the fvotftSt of feizing an unexpeAed advantage, be 
Jttly 5. • attacked the king's forces, under the earl of Fever- 
Iham, at Sedgemoor, near Bridgewater; and had it 
not been for his own mifconduft, and the cowardice 
of lord Gray, he might have gained a decifive vie- 
tory. Though Gray and the cavalry fled in the be* 
ginning of the adion, the undifciplined infantry gal« 
lantly maintained the combat for three hours ; and the 
duke himfelf, befides his errors in generalfliip, quitted 
the field too early for an adventurer contending for a 
crown '*• About fourteen hundred of the rebels wcrt 
killed in the battle and purfuit, and nearly an equal 
number made prifoners* 

Monmouth himfelf, with a fingle attendant, et 
taped to a conGderable diftance from the fcene of 
aAion ; but his horfe at length failing him, he was 
reduced to the necefllty of travelling on foot, and 
changed cloaths with a peafant^ in order to conceal 
himfelf from his purfuers. In that humble difgoife, 
he was found lying in the bottom of a ditch, covered 
with weeds. He had in his pocket fomejgrcen peas^ 
which had been his only food for feveral days ; and 
his fpirts being exhaufted with hunger and fatigue, 
he burft into tears, and behaved otherwife in a man* 
ner unworthy of his charadler. Even on his arrival i^ 
London, allured by the fond hope of life, he was io^ 
duced to make tbemeaneft fubmifliions, in order to pro- 
is. Burnet, book tT> 




pardon '' ; though he might haf e been fenfible, letter ^^ 
be greatnefs of his own offences, and the king's ,_^,^^__^.-. 
ing difpoGtiont that he could expe£l no mercy* A..D. 16S5. 
that hope failed him, he behaved with becoming 
r ; and difcovered great firmnefs and compo- 
; his execution, though accompanied with many 
circumftances '«• 

D James ufed his vidory with moderation, this 
ate fuppreflion of a rebellion in the beginning 

reign would hare tended much to ftrengthen 
thofity; but the cruelty with which it was 
nted, and the delufive fTo(pc€t» which it opened 

zeal for popery and unlimited power, proved 
lief caufe of his ruin. Such arbitrary princi- 
ad the court infufed into its fervants> that the 
I Feverfliam, immediately after the battle of 
moor, and while the foldiers were yet fatigued 
flaughter, ordered above twenty of the infur- 
to be hanged, without any form of trial. But 
ifbince of illegal feverxty was forgotten in the 
or inhumanity of colonel Kitk, whofe military 
tioDS were attended with cirQumftances of wan- 
ruelty and barbarity. On his firft entry into 
nx^ater, he not only hanged nineteen prifoners 
lit the lead inquiry into the nature of their 

but ordered a certain number to be executed 

he and his rompany (hould drink the kihg^s 
l; and ob{enring their feet to quiver^ in. the 

d ibi<t See alfo James IL 16S5. 

'tfockcd withpitjTy or unmaoned hj terror, at the noble prcfcnce 
Bumtht and the part he was to perform, the executioner (Inick 
ee tunes, without cffc£t ; and then threw afide the axe, declahn|r 
was unable to finifli the bloody office. The (heriffobliged hini to 
He attempt and the duke s head was atlaft feTeredfromhisbody. 



FART IE. agonies of death, be commanded the drama loi beat 
J^^^ and the trumpets to (bond, (aying he would gite them 
muCc to their dancing * 5 1 

Even the iohumanities of Blirk were exceeded bf 
the violence of lord chief juftice Jefierys i who (hew- 
ed the aftonifhed nation, that the rigours of law may 
equal, if not exceed, the ravages of military tyranny* 
A fpecial commiflion being i/Tued to this man, whole 
difpofition was brutal and arbitrary, and who bad 
already given feveral fpecimcns of his charafker^ be fet 
out, accompanied by four other judges, with a lavage 
joy, as to a full harveft of death. He opeaed hisxoah* 
miflion firft at Wincbefter, whence he prooeedcd'ts 
Dorcefter» Exeter, Taunton, and Wells, cwryin^ 
every whero along with him terror and conftemdoo* 
The juries, ftruck with his menace^i gavo their vtr* 
di£l with hurry and precipation ^ fo that man]^ indo- 
cent perfons are fuppofed )o have fuffercd. Aboot fife 
hundred prifoners were tried and condemned, io alU. 
of tbefe two hundred and fifty were executed ; the rd^- 
were tranfported, condemned to cruel whipping, or 

15. Burnet. Rennet. Ralph — One ftory, commonly toldofjfiuric, 
is'memontble in the hlftory of human treachery and barbtrity. A 
boaiitifttl yovnf^ maidtii bithedrsntestst thivwherirlf at hi»-fiEit« a^ft( 
pleaded for the life of her brother. The bmtaVfyraot, taflamed wick 
<tc(ir«, but not foftoied into pity, proihifed to ^rin^'hef rcqueft, pft^ 
Tided -file: WDuld yield 16 hUwUhctt ShfereliiAantli^ckaClplkdWith^dn* 
cnftl requeft, without rdle^ix^ that .the wretcliiriiaco«l^iiulBe4L 
was unworthy of credit or confidence. But fit^ had foon reafbn tv 
know it^t Aft6r paflfaig^tfae'in^t witn hidr/ thewautoti Wid pcrHnMi' 
favage ihewed her in the morning, from the bedi^rooai wiodow» that 
beloved brother, for whom ihd had facrlficed^htf londoeace,' biBgUlf 
on a gibbet, wMch he hadfecretiy ordered^'to be credMfor the ff»* 
pofe ! Rage, indifpntloD, and ddpair tooi it oate poflbffoanof bc^ 
6m1, and d€prlYc4 her f«r«vtr of biw fenta 



pennilted, at is laid, to porchafe their pardon of the LErrER. 
tynunical and proftitated chief-juftice '^ ^^^ 


Ai if deCroQS to uke upon himfelf the odium of 

dcfe ievere execudonSf the king rewarded the inhu- 

manitj of Jeffcryt with a peerage and the office of 

daacellor : and he took care, on the meeting of par- 

Uamenty more fully to open the ejres of the nationi kot: 9. 

and to realize all tbofe apprehenCons which had er- 

ciied the violence of the Exclufionifts. He plainly 

told the two houles. That thf militia, in which the 

nation trufted^ having been found, during the late 

lebdlion^ altogether infufficient for the fafety of go- 

vemmentf he had increafed the regular forces to dou« 

hie their former number ; and he demanded a frefli 

iiqiplf for the fupport of this additional force. He 

alio took notice. That he had difpenjid with the Te(t 

hSt^ in favour of fome Roman Catholic officers } and^ 

in Older to cut fliort all oppofition, he declared. That 

having employed them to advantage in the time of 

atod and danger^ he was determined neither to ez- 

pofe them afterward to difgrace, nor himfelf to the 

:of dieir iervice'^ 

Had James u£ed his difpenfing power without de«> 
itf no oppofition would probably have been 
to this dangerous exercife of prerogative by the 
ymCnit obfequious parliament. But to invade at once 
sht civil oonftitntion, to threaten the eftabliflied re* 
ligion, to matouin a (landing army, and to require 
die ooncvtrenca of the two houies to all thefe meafuresf 
amnlfil the bounds of their patience. The com* 

itf. ibid. WhftC rendered thefe feferidet lefii excnlkble was, That 
aoft oC the prifonen were peiibiM of low condition, who could neyer 
bife dtftarbed the tranquillity of Ootemmcnt. Sumet, hook iv. 
* 97, JmrmtU^ Vow. 9^ 1685. 

7 mons 





mons took into confideration his mijefty's fpeeeh: 
they proceeded to examine the difpenfing powet of 
the crown; and they voted an addrels to the king 
againft it. The lords appointed a day for taking the 
fpeeeh into confideration; and Jame8» afraid that 
they alfo would make an application againft his dif* 
penfing power, immediately proceeded to a proroga« 
tion : fo imperious was his temper, fo lofty the idea 
which he had entertained of his own authority, and fa 
iriolent the meafures fuggefted by his own bigotry and 
that of his priefts '^ ! By four more prorogations^ he 
continued the parliament during a year and a half; 
but having iu vain tried, by feparste applications, t» 
break the firmnrfs of the leading members, he at hft 
diiTolved that aflembly ; and as it was evidently iiti- 
poflible for liim to find among his Proteftant fubjeds 
a fct of men more devoted to royal authority, it was' 
univerfally concluded, that he intended thenceforth lo 
govern wholly without a parliament. 

The king's difappoiotment in England did not di« 
vert him from purfuing the fame defign in Scotland : 
and the implicit fubmiflion exhibited by the Scottilli 
parliament at its firft meeting flattered h:m with the 
mod pleafing hopes of fuccefs. But experience (bon 
convinced him, that thofe men who had refigned thtir 
political freedom, with fo much ferming indiflPetencey' 
were not to be perfdaded to endanger the Protefltaot 
faith. Though he demanded, in the moft foochiqf 
expreflions, fome indulgence for the RoiAan Csftbo- 
lies, and fupported this requeft with propofals of ad« 
vantage to tbe Scottifh nation, the parliament fbewed 
no inclination to jepeal any of the Penal Laws. It 

x8. Haxne, voL viil. 


.rTZ, bpvcrcsr, is Its rM yc u c^ diis «r.>K 
iuacii» IB CKCra^i of the i^acnd voice 
li|.'ifBTrTr hotw ci ike tvo ki:>^dc«i«« ^ccr- 
i to ujppan Las pmcp&j*^ of ^isfpcs^Bg irhh 
ftjo^ts sfsnft ieSmes, br tbc authi^ntr 
«f WcAmioifio-lttlL Wizh tbat txv, low JQ^hstt 
vec dUpUcf^, and M»en of more compuant lecrfttni 
zed ia ibdr roooi. A C£ie in point was pro« 
1} aad £r E^vard Hcrbeit, ]ord chief^jaftice of 
Ac Kiag** BcBch, spon the ISoe declared, 1 hat there 
was mmitM^ vhaievcr vith which the J&a/, as y«/^r/nr 
r wr, might oo: sH/fcn/f. This decifson was con-» 
bj clcTCD oot of the twelve judges. But the ar* 
&f lawyers, fouiided upon ancient precedents, 
hadno infitiCDcc open the iiLntiments of the nation. Men 
m gtoeral couli not diiiiaguiih between a difpenling 
aod a repealing power in the crown } and thcj juftly 
deemed it imrcafonaUc, that lefs anthoritj (hould be 
aocelarf to repeahthan to enacl any (latnte. If one 
penal law was difpenfed with, any other might under- 
go the fiime fate ; and by what principle could efen 
tbe laws that define property, be afterward fecured 
icom violation ? — The Teft A£l had ever been confix 
dered as the great barrier of the national religion un- 
der a Popifli facceiTor. As fuch it had been infifted on 
bf die parliament, as foch granted by the late king ; 
aad aa fach, duiing the debates concerning the Ex* 
dufioii Bill, it had been recommended by the lord- 
chaoceHor. By what magic then, it was afked, by 
what chicane of law, is it now annihilated, and rcn- 
deced of no ▼aridity '^'P 

19. Burnet. Wodrow. 10. Sir Robert Atkioi. Biimet. Hume. 

Vol. IV, M Foari- 


PART n. Fortified, however, wIththeopinionofthejiidge» 
jTZ^mi in favour of his difpenfing power» Jamet thot^tt 
himfelf now authorifed to countenance more openly 
his religious (nends. Tbe earl of Powis^ whh Ac 
lords Arundel, Bella(i8> and Dover, all zealous Catho* 
lies, and who had long managed in private the afiaiff 
of the nation, in conjundiion with Sunderland, were 
puhlicly received at the council-board. Bellafii, Cboo 
after, was placed at the head of the treafurfy and 
Arundel fucceeded Halifax in the office of privy-leal. 
The king's apoftolical enthuGafm, in a word, which 
feemed to have divefted him of common pmdenoe, 
made him To defirous of making profelytes, that all 
men plainly faw the only way to acquire his favour 
and con6dexKe was to embrace th« Cathdic faith* 
Sunderland a(Fe£tcd fach a change; and, in Scothm^ 
the earls of Murray, Perth, and Melford, were 
brought over to the religion of the court *'• 

These were hold advances ; but it was yet only m 
Ireland, where the majority of the people were al* 
ready attached to the Romifli communion, that tht 
king thought himfelf at liberty wholly to puU off the 
xnaflc, and proceed to the full extent of his zeal and 
violence. Immediately after the acceffion of Jamei, 
the duke of Ormond had been recalled from the go*. 
vemment of that kingdom ; and, on the fuppreffioa 
of Monmouth's rebellion, orders were fent to tht' 
lord's-juftices, under colour of preventing a^ like 
infurredUon, to recal the arms of the Iriih miliciat 
who were all Proteftants, and to depoGt them in dif- 
ferent magazines. Nor did the vigilance of govern* 
mcnt ftop here. Talbot, a violent papift, having 
been created earl of Tyrconnel, and appointed He** 
t u Bitmct, book iv. Jiaici n. 1616. 



tenant-general of the king's forces in Irelandi dif- ^xIT^*^ 
lliifled near three hundred Proteftant officers, and a \_^ -j-^ 
great number of private meh, undet pretence of neW^b A.D. i6t4. 
modelling the army. The earl of Clarendon went. 
mrer as lord-lieutenant ; but as he had refufed to ob« 
fige the king, by changing his religion, he foon found 
dial he pofiefled no Credit or iluthority. He was 
e?en a kind of prifoner in the hands of the general ; 
and at he gave all the oppoGtion in his power to the 
violent meafures of the Catholics, he was foon recall- 
ed, and Tyrconnel fubftituted in his place '^. The 
tuhappy Proteftants now (aw all the civil authority. 
It well as the military force, transferred into the 
haods of their inveterate enemies, and dreaded a re* 
sewal of the recent maflacres. Great numbers, filled 
with fuch apprehenGons, left their habitations, and 
came oter to England ) where the horror againft po*- 
pery was already roufed to the higheft pitchy by tb# 
frif^tful tales of the French refugees, who, in coo* 
IiN|iience of the revocation of the £di£l of Nanta, had 
\ led from the perfecutions of Lewis XIV« 

! Ali. the more moderate Caiholies were fenfible that 
thefe extravagant meafures would ruin the caufe tbef 
were meant to ferve. But the king was fo entirely go« 
vemed by the violent counfels of his queen, an ItaliatI 
and popifli princefs, and by thofe of father Petre 
his confeflbr, that the boldnefs of any meafure feemt 
to have been with him a fufficient reafon for adopts 
ing it. He now not only re-eftabli(hed the Court of 
High-commiffion, which had been aboliOied, as we 
have feen, by z€t of parliament, in the reign of his 
father, Charles I. but iflbed a Declaration of general A.t>,tii7l 
hdalgence^ or liberty of confcience, *^ by his fove^^ 

t%, Clareodon's Lmtn* Keonet voh iil. 

Ma [^ xeigQ 


P^RT IR " reign authority, and ahfilute power,'* to his fubje£b 
JSTd^Tos?. ®^ ^^' religions *'. Such an indulgence, though ille- 
gal, might have been conGdered as liberal, if the 
king's private purpofe, the more ready introdu^on of 
popery, had not been generally known. Yet fo great 
.M^s the fatisfaflipn ariGng from prefent eafe,^ and fo 
violent the animofity pf the Proteftant fe^aties ag^uo^ 
the eftabliflied church, that they every where received 
the royal proclamation with exprefiions of joy aod 
exultation *^. 

If the difienters were ever deceited in regard to . 
James's views^ he took care foon to open their eyeS| 
and to difplay his bigotry and imprudence to all Eu- 
rope. He publicly difpatched the earl of Caftlemain 
ambaflador extraordinary to Rome, in order to .ex* 
prefs his obeifance to the pope, and to reconcile hit 
kingdoms, in form, to the Holy See ; and although 
Innocent XI. very juflly concluded, that a fcheme 
conduced with fo much indlfcretion could not ppfflblf 
be fuccefsful, he fent a nuncio to England, in retom 
for the embafly. All communication with the pope 
had been made treafbn by ^€t of parliament : but fo 
little regard did James pay to the laws, that he gaire 
the nuncio a public audienge at Wiiidfor} and the 
duke of Somerfet being then in waiting, aa oxie ^of 
the lords pf the bed- chamber, w^ deprived of all 
his employments, becaufc he refufed to aChft at the 
illegal ceremony *5. The nunjcio afterward refidcd 
openly in London, Four Catholic biflipps ifere pub* 
licly confecrated at the king's chapel, and feut cot 
under the title of vicars apofloUcai to exercife the epi{^ 
copal fundion in their refpedlve diocefes* The Je« 

23. Burnet, book vt. 14. Id. ibid. %$* KcDiiet. IU^A» 




fsitt were permitted to ettd a chtpel and form a col- LETTER 
lege in the Savoy > the R^collcfta built a chapel in , ^"2' ^ 
LhiVoIfi^a Itin Fields; the Carmelitcfs formed a femi- A. D. 1687* 
oarj in the city ; fourteen monks were even fettled at 
St. James's; in different parts of the country, places 
of public worfhip were ere£led by the papi({s : and 
the teligious of the Romifli communion appeared at 
court in the habits of their refpeAive orders ^*. 

Nothing now remained for Jame^s, \^bo had al- 
ready transferred almoft every great office, civil and 
mtlitary, in the three kingdoms, from the Proteftants, 
to their fpiritual enemies, but to throw open the doors 
of the church and univerfities to the Catholics : and this 
atrempt was foon made. The king fent a tetter to the 
▼ice-chancellor of Cambridge, commanding the unU 
TCrfity to admit one Francis, a monk of the order of St. 
BcnediA, ' to the degree of mafter of arts, without ex« 
ai£Hng the ufual oaths. The univerfity refufcd ; and 
the Idpg, after fufpending the vice-chancellor, deGfted 
firom any farther attack upon that feminary *7. gut the 
compliant temper of the univerfity of Oxford, which 
hadjin a formal decree, made profefiion oi pajftve obi" 
diiucif gave James hopes of better fuccefs there, though 
he carried (UU higher his pretenfions. 

The prefidentfhip of Magdalen college, one of tlie 
richeft foundations in Europe, having become vacant^ 
a day was appointed for a new ele£lion ; and one 
Farmer, a recent convert to popery, was recommended 
by a royal mandate, accompanied with a di/pen/ation 
from the ufual oaths. The fellows of the college en- 
treated the king to recall his mandate, or recommend 
fome perfon of a lefs exceptional character than 

16. Jimcill. 1686 and i68r* 27- Kennet. Ralph. 

M 3 Farmer 1 


PART It Farmer; but the day of election arrifing before they 
JLD^iSfjp ^^^^^ ^y ^^^h ^bey cbofe as their preCdent Dr« 

Hooghy a man of learning, virtuCj and fpirit, who 

bra?ed the threatening danger^ 

A ciT AT xoK was ifiued for the members of the coU 
lege to appear before the Court of High Commiffion, 
in order (o anfwer for their difobedience. The mat- 
ter came to a regular hearing } and fuch articles of 
folly and vice were proved againft Farmeri as juftified 
the fellows in rcje£ling hioij without having r^oourfi? 
to the legal difqualificarions under which he laboured* 
The commiflioners, howeveri proceeded to the depriv 
▼ation of Dr. Hough, and a new mandate was iflued ii| 
favour of Parser, lately created bilhop of Oxford; a 
man of difiblute mqrals, but who, like Farmer, bad a^ 
toned for all his vices by his willingnefs to embrace the 
Romifli religion. The college replied^ that no new e<^ 
le£lion could be made till the^ former fhould be Ugalfy 
annulled* A new eccleGadical copfimiflion was iflued 
for that purpofe s and the commiflionersi attended by 
three troops of horfe^ repaired to Oxford ; expelled the 
refra£lory prefident and all the fellows, except two, who 
had unifgrrnly adhered to the king's mandate, and 
inllalled Parker in the prefidentfliip of Magdalen 
college *», 

Of all the a£l8 of violence committed during the 
tyrannical reign pf James II. this may perhaps be coq* 
Cdered as the mod illegal and arbitrary. It accord«i 
ingly occaQoned ^iniverfal difjpontept, and gave a ge? 
neral alsrm to the clergy. The churchi tl^e chief 
pillar of the throne, and which, during the two laft 
reigns, had fupported it wifh fnch qn(ha]cen 6rinne(s i 
the church, which had carried the prerogative fo b>gh| 

18. Bumct, h%ok !▼. M3. Account by Pr» Smitbi tp. M9cphefibO| 

MjfJBiH^yolu Hume, vpl, Tii*. 



coftdkere t» 
asm balance tDilus rere** 
I he had wwloaly loafed^ 
i the Pioceftaat diiailef^ aai 
caaTiirtwi between uien and Ac 
iCadioGca. Widi that view, he took occafion 
fireqaendy to extol the benefits of colecadoo» and to 
dcfaiai againft die fefcrities of the dmrch of Eq|« 
lad. He conuaanded an inquiry to be made into all 
Ae oppfcfire profiecntioiis whicb the diflenteis had 
Ihlefod, as a prelade to jielding them fecnrity or re* 
dic&i and bv means of that afcendcQCj which the 
crown had acquired OTer the corporations, he every 
where thinft them into the magiftracj, under Tarioua 
ptctcnoesy in hopes of being able to procure a parlia* 
ment that would give its fandion to the repeal of the 
Teft AR and the penal laws againft nouconrormity ^K 
He aflfeded to place them on the fame footing with 
the Catholics ; and, in order to widen the breach be* 
iween them and the church, whofe favour he defpaired 
•f recovering, but whofe loyalty he never fufpe^led^ 
be iflued anew his Declaration of Indulgence, and 
ordered it to be read in the pulpit by ail the efta« A.D, i6SU 
h(i(hed clergy 3^ 

Th48 eruer was conGdered, by the whole ecclefla- 
ftical body, as an infult on the hierarchy, ?nd an 

29. Bfmct, book iv. 30. Id. ibid. See alfo Kennct. Ralph. 


M 4 inGdioui 

1^8 T H E H I S T O R T O F 

infidious attempt to drag tbem to.diigracc; for z$ thft 
penal laws againft non-coDformifis had, in a great 
meafure, been procured by the church, the ciesgf 
were fenfiblej that any countenance which ihcf OMgbt 
give to the difpenGng power would be r^ai;dcd tt 
a deferting of their fundamental principles. Tkfy 
determined, therefore, almofl univerfally, rather to 
hazard the vengeance of the crown, by difobedieocCf 
than to fulfil a command they could not approve, aodi 
expofe therofelves, at the fame time, to the certiiii 
lutred and contempt of the people. 

Conformable to this refolationf Md ^tb i| 
view to encourage every one to perfevere in it^ 63^ 
t>i(hops, namely, Lloyd of St. Afaph, Kea of Bath, 
and Wells, Turner of Ely, Lake of Chichefterj^ 
White of Peterborough, and Trclawney of Briftot, 
met ptivately with Bancroft, -'archbifbop of Canter- 
bury, in his palace at Lambeth^ and concerted th^ 
form of a petition to the king ; befeeching him not to 
infift upon their reading the declaration of indulgenoe^ 
as being founded on a prerogative repeatedly declared 
illegal by parliament!'. Enraged at this unexpeAed 
oppofition to his favourite meafure, James not only 
refufed their requeft, bi^t ordered them to be com- 
mitted to the Tower, on their refufing to give baii 
for their appearance before the court of King's Bench, 
to anfwer for what waS denominated an biglf mifdq^ianof^ 
and afterward profccuted as a -libel. 

James was not infenfible of the danger of pur- 
fuing this tyrannical profecution, though his pride 
would not allow him to defift. But the circumftance« 

3r. Sec the petition itfclf, ap. Hume, vol. viii. p. 266. 



Catholics excepted, yet was he, by a lingular LETTER 
ttteoationj incapable of fo much as remitting his ^_j^ _ , _f 
^eoce in the purfuit of them!-r-He immediately ^•©•i^SS, 
dUphced the two judges, who had given their opinion 
k favour of the bifliopc, and fupplied their feats 
vith men of more accommodating principles. He 
Vaed orders to the ecdefiaftical commiffioners to pro» 
I fccote all the clergy who had not read his Declaration 
I of Indulgence s that is, the whole body of the church of 
Eogbnd, unlefs about two hundred, and even thefe 
obeytd bis conunand but imperfeAly. He fent a 
BBttdate to the new fellowB, whom he had obtruded 
n lifagdalen College, after expelling the former, to 
dUk for prefident in the room of Parker, lately 
dceeafed, one Giflbrd, a doftor of the Sorbonne ; and 
be u hid to have nominated the fame perfon to the 
fee of Oxford 17 i 

Such violent and repeated infringements of the con- 
ftitndon could not fail to alarm the whole nation* 
The moft moderate minded men could afcrlbe the 
Ung's meafures to nothing lefs than a fettled fyftem 
Id introduce his own religion and an unlimited power 
in ibe crown ; and the only confolation to all men was 
ihc advanced age of the king, and the profpefl of a 
pffoteftant fucceflTor, who would replace every thing on 
ppdept foundations. This conGderation, together 
witb ^he great naval and military force of James, 
kept tbe more ardent fpirits from having immediate 
recoyrfe to a;ms } and the prince of Orange, who ftill 
ipaintained a fecret corrcfpondence with the £ngli(h 
malcontenfts^ and was ready on any emergency to 
obey tl^e c^U of tbe nation, feemed to have laid adde 
^ thoughts of ;ui open rupture, and to wait patiently 

37, Buroct. Ralph. Hume* 



^^y^^ for an eTcnt that could not be very diftant|— die deaA 

i, of the king. 

A.D. 1688. 

But tliefe bopesy both at Iiome and abroad^ wera 
fuddeniy biaded, by the unexpected birth of a prince 
of Wales. From a fon» educated by foch a father^ 
nothing could be expeAed but a continuance of the 
fani^unconftitutional meafures. People of all raoltf 
took ttve alarm, as if a regular plan bad been fotumi 
for entailing popery and arbitrrary power on them and 
their diTcendanta to the lateft pofterity. Calumny 
went even To far, though 'the queened delivery was at 
public as thi! laws of decency would permitt a> to 
afcribe to the king the deGgn of impofing upon the 
nation a fuppofititious child, who might fupporti after 
the death of James, the catholic religion in his do* 
minions. And the prince of Orange did not £itl to 
propagate the improbable talc ; which, in the prefent 
ftate of men's minds, was greedily received by the po* 
pulace both in England and Holland. 

Under thefe apprehenfions, many of the £ng« 
Hfli nobility and gentry, and fome of the principal 
clergy, invited the prince to come over and affift 
them with his arm^, in the recovery of their confti- 
tutional rights. In this invitation men of all parties, 
civil and ecclefiadical, concurred. The Whigs^ con- 
formable to thofe patriotic principles which had led 
them to urge with fo much violence the ExcluGon 
Bill» were zealous to expel from the throne a prince^ 
whofe condii£t had fnlly juftified all that their fears 
had predi(fled of his fuc(. cfllion : the Tories, enraged 
at the preference fliewn to the Catholics, and the 
church inflamed by recent injuries, refolved to poll 
down the idol that their own hands had made, and 



which they bad blindly M^orfliippcd. Their eyes being LEITER 
now opened, they faw the ncccffity of reftoring and fe- n_,- ^-^ , _> 
coring the conftitution. And the protedant noncon- ^ ^- *^^^ 
fcrittiftsy whom the king had gained by his indulgence, 
{odged it more prudent to look forward for a general 
•oleratidff, to be eftablifhed by law, than to rel^ any 
longer on the infidious careflTes of their tlieological ad- 
TcriTatiet. — Thus, my dear Philip, by a wonderful 
coolitibni was fadion for a time filenced ; all parties 
iaeriiieing, on this occafion, their former animofities, 
tp the apprehenfion of a common danger, or to the 
ftofe of a common intereft ^ ^ The Revolution, even 
in its beginning, was a national work) and patriot- 
ifflOf under the guidance of political wifdom, fuggefted 
tBe glorious plan. 

Not fatisfied with a formal invitation, feveral 
Sngli(h noblemen and gentlemen went over to Hol- 
faittd, and in perfon encouraged the prince of Orange to 
mttempt their deliverance from popery and arbitrary 
power* The requeft was too flattering to be flighted. 
WilKtni, from the moment of his maniage with the 
Itdy Mary, had always kept his eye on the crown of 
Bii|;tind ; though he had a complicated fcheme of po- 
ficyco conda£t, and many interfering Interefts to re- 
eoncile on the continent. Happily all thefe interefts 
confptied to promote his pvopofed enterprize. Tlie 
kkgvc of Aogfburg', formed to break the power of 
FVance, could not aecomnlifli its objcft without the 
iotf flton of England. The houfe of Auftria, therefore, 
In both its branches, and even Innocent' X[. who 
then filled the papal chair, preferring their political 
views CO their zeal for the catholic faith, dounte- 

3!. For • more full account nf thi« coalition, fee BoliDgfrook'tJD^r- 
J^artiaj Let. vii. ai)d IJumC; vul. tiii. 



Imt, not onlf the Di 
irtD- Tbeir apprdi 
tbc tvo montrchs, for 
.-^rftant rrltpion, frcmed now 
:t^ »iliic(t nones wrrc propagiicd 

■ :*ae<Ko*t occftfioned by thcfc f«rs beta 
-t Etiglini populace, or merely to men 
V, Jjtmes might fljll bare bid dcfiaitce 
tus ro»-in4avr. But, nnbappilf for 
.lit ovonarchf boili the fleet and araif 
. rii i»irh the Tame fpirit of difloyatty* Of 5 
,. received fome morlifying pTcof^^ whca ^ 
\v wa* brought bim, from his miniAer itt \ 
.^4t be mufl foon cxpcft a formidiblc iiitt- 
Siacci had nt Uft acknowledged^ that tbtf 
^ 4tt tbcir PiTil preparations wns to traofpoft 

7Wi oti Junvcs cooM rcnfoinbly c?:pc£t no 
(itrf, he was much affe^ed with the oct 
. paki «i^d the letter dropt from hh hand' 
^Uittmof povrer vauiflKdi and he found hii 
.\u tf^^ tv^k of a frightftil precipice, whkb hi 
cOAceakd from hU view by the tlluf 
He mi* faw the ticcefnty of pro*|i 
u^ >, ftt ^tW 35 of cndc^vounng co i 
1ki^n% 4if ht$ pcoptc. He imciudis 
nbWi 3iid hi» armf tc 
He f«« fen- trrop9 frt 
mi to hifi no (mali fa^ 




4, Kttttir* *ot ^ 


\Abtd the utmoft eagernefs for every preparation for ^^^ 
var. The commerce of the Datch with that kingdom ^ , -„ f 
had hitcly been diminiihed one foarth^ by unuTual re- A.D.i6Jt. 
ftri&ions: their religious rage was kindled by the 
cnicltics inflided on the Proteftants by Lewis, in con- 
ftqneoce of the relocation of the EdiA of Nantz : the 
tenors raifed by the bigotry of James in England 
had alio fpread to Holland ; and the enthuGaftic zeal 
of thefe two potent monarchs for the catholic faith 
waa reprefented, in both countries^ as the certain ruin 
of the Proteftant caufe, nnlefs reftrained by the mod 
flgorons exertions — by the united efforts of all the 
members of the reformed communion ^'. 

While one half of Europe thus combined againft 
the king of England^ while many of his own fubje£ls 
were determined to oppofe his powerj and more to di- 
veft him of his authority, James, as if blinded by def- 
tiny, re pofed himfclf in the mod fupine fecurity, and 
difregarded the repeated accounts of the preparations 
conveyed to his ears. In Tain did Lewis XIV. who 
.had early received certain information of the defigns of 
the prince of Orange, attempt to roufe the infatuated 
Qooarch to a fenfe of his danger : in vain did he ofier 
hit Md. Deceived by his ambaffador in Holland, and 
betrayed by his minifter, the earl of Sunderland^ 
Jamea bad the weaknefs to believe, that the rumour of 
an invafion was only raifed by his enemies, in order 
to frighten him into a clofer connexion with France, 
and to complete, by that means, the defe^ion of his 
fflbje£ls^\ Nor was this jealoufy, though carried to 
an unprudent height, utterly without foundation ; 
lor when Lewis took the liberty to remonftrate with 

4f.Banict,9'Av«iii,«bif»p. 4t»D'ATattx,tosi.iT. Jametlf. 



fARTH. the States, by his ambaflador D'Ataux, againft thcif 
^!^£f^t& preparations to invade England, not on\j the Dutch 
but the Englifli took the alarm. Their apprehen- 
fions of a league between the two monarchs, for the 
deflruAion of the groteftant religion, feemed now to 
be confirmedi and the wildeft ftories were propagated 
to that purpofe^'. 

Had the defeftion occaHoned by thefe fears beta 
confined to the Englifli populace, or merely to men 
in a civil capacity, James might (till have bid defiance 
to the defigns of his fon-in-Iaw. But, unhappily for 
that mifguided monarch, both the fleet and army 
were infcAed with the fame fpirit of difloyalty. Of 
this he had received fome mortifying proofs^ when 
certain advice was brought him, from his minifter in 
Holland, that he mud foon eipeft a formidable inva« 
Srpf. 23. Con, as the States had at lad' acknowledged, tkat the 
purpofe of all their naval preparations was to traofpoit 
forces into England. 

Though James could reafonably expcft no other 
intelligence, he was much afTeAed with the news : 
he grew pale, and the letter dropt from his hand**. 
His delirium of power vanifhed; and he found hira« . 
ftlf on the brink of a frightful precipice, which had 
Hitherto been concealed from his view by the illuGons 
of fupcrftition. He now faw the neceflity of provid* 
ing for his fafety, as well as of ende?.vouring to con* 
ciliate the affe^ions of his people. He immediatelj 
ordered his fltet to be aflembled, and his army to^be' 
fccroiicd with new levies. He fent for troops froiif 
Scotland and Ireland; and to his no fmall fatis- 

43. Id. ibid. See alTo Humc; toI. vlli. 44. Hume, voL viii. 




Hi found his land-forces amount to forty thou- letter 

.. XVI. 

Bicn*'. ^ ^ ^ 

>R was the king lefs liberal of his civil concef- 
thao vigorous in his military preparations. He 
ilready iflued writs for the meeting of parlia« 

on the 27ch of the enfuing November. He 
ved thefe with a declaration^ That it was his fixed 
»(e to endeavour to edabliih a legal fettlement 
I univerfal liberty of confcience for all his fub- 
; that he had refolved to prefenre inviolate the 
:h of England : and he protelled, that it was his 
tion Roman catholics (hould remain incapable 
^ing in the houfe of commons. He gave orders 
t lord- chancellor, and the lord-lieutenants of the 
al counties, to replace all the deputy-lieutenants 
ittftices^ who had been deprived of their com- 
ms for their adherence to the Ted and the penal 
againft non-confor mills : he reftored the charter 
indon, and the charters of all the corporations in 
ingdom : he annulled the court of ecclefiaftical 
aiflion : he reinflated the expelled preGdent and 
vs of Magdalen college ; and he invited again to 
ouncils all the bifliops whom he had fo lately 
:uted and infulted, afluring them, that he was 

to do whatever they (hould think neceflary for 
ecurity of the protedant religion and the civil 
I of his fubjecls ^^ 

IT thefe conceflions, though important in them- 
s» were made too late to be allowed much merit ; 
»eing generally fuppofed to be extorted by fear, 
were cJldly received by the nation. Nor was 
oadud of the king, in other Tt(pt(X$f anfwerable 

45. James U.- 16SS. 46. Gazetitf, paflim. 

>L. IV. N to 


to fuch conciliating meafures. He recalled the writi 
for the meeting of parliament, without ifiuing anf 
new ones ; a ftcp which created univerfal fufpicion of 
his fincerity, and begot a belief that all his concef- 
fions were no more ihan temporary expedients. He 
(hewed, however, a laudable zeal for his own honouri 
in obtaining a legal proof of the birth of the prince of 
Wale^ ; but by an imprudence approaching to in&* 
oa. 15. nity, the heir of the crown was baptized in the Romifli 
communion, and the pope, reprefented by his nuncto^ 
flood godfather to the boy ♦7. 

Meanwhile the prince of Orange continued Ul 
preparations. A powerful fleet was ready to potto 
ftra : the troops fell down the Maefe from Nimegueo: 
the tranfports, which had been hired at diflTercntponii 
were fpeedily aflembled : the artillery, armsy amrotmi* 
tion, provifions, horfes, and men were embarked ; and 
William, after talcing formal leave of the States, and 
calling God to witnefs, that he had not the leaft in- 
tention to invade, fubdue, or make himfelf matter of 
the kingdom of England ! went himftlf on board^. 
His whole armament, which failed from the Brilk 
and Helvoetfluys, on the 19th of 0£lol>er, conCfted 
of fifty (lout fliips of war, twenty-five frigates, and 
an equal number of fire-fhips ; with five hundred 
tranfports, carrying about fifteen thoufand land-forcei| 
including five hundred and fifty-fix officers, Adoiini 
Herbert, who had left the fervice of James, led tbe 
van ; the Zeland fquadron, under vice-admiral Evert* 
zen, brought up the rear; and the prince of Orange, ia 
perfon, commanded in the centre, carrying a flag with 
Englifh colours, and his own arms furrounded witk 
thefc popular words : — ** The Protestant Reli* 

47* Buraeti book iv. Junes II. 1688. 48. Ncovilk, torn. i. 

*^ CION 

MO D E R N E U R O P E. 179 

ON and Ac Liberties of England.** Under letter 
nfcription was placed the appoCte motto of the # i^X^!^ 
zom^lHixi'^Je maintien^raii " Iwillmainuin*>P* a.D.i63S. 

Eiit great embarkation, the mod important which 
for fome ages, been undertaken in Europe, was 
e completed, when a dreadful tempeft arofe at 
•wed, and drove the Dutch fleet to the northward, 
ftorm raged for twelve hours, and the prince was 
ed to return to Helvoetiluys. But he foon rcpair- 
s damage5, and again put to (ea. An cad wind 
rd him down the Channel ; where he was feen 
both (hores, between Dover and Calais,* by vad Nor. 3. 
itades of anxious fpefiatorf , who feJt alternately 
xtremes of hope and fear, mingled with admira- 
at fuch a aicgnificent fpe6tacle. After a prof* 
is voyage, he landed his army in Torbay, without 
mailed oppofition either by fea or land '*. 

BE fame wind, which favoured the cnterprize of 
lince of Orange, confined the Englidi fleet to its 
coad. Lord Dartmouth, who was inviolably 
led to James, lay near Harwich with thirty-tight 
of the line, and twenty-three fn'gates; a force 
ient to have difconccrtcd the defigns of William, 
X)uld pcfri'oly have put to fea : fo that the fuccefs 
c glorious Rtvolution may be faid to have de- 
ed upon the winds I The deftrudion of the Dutch 
even i»!>er the landing of the prince, would 
difcoura^cd his adherents, and proved fatal to 
nderiakin;^. Senfible of this, Dartmouth came 
e Torbay, with a fixed refolution to attack the 
inders, as they lay at anchor. But his fleet was dif- 
d by a violent ftorm, and forced to return to Spit^ 
^ in fuck a Qiattered condition as to be no more 
r fervice that feafon ''. Little wonder if, after 

Bsmct, book iv. D*Avaiix, torn. iv. Rapin, t»1. ii. fol. edic. 
Id. il>id. ^x., book iv. Torrvi'^toti'mATtm, 

U a fuch 


fuch fingulaily fortunate circUmflanccs, William's 
followers began to confider him and themfelves as the 
peculiar favourites of Heaven ; and that even the 
learned Dr. Burnet could not help exclaiming, in the 
words of Claudian, 

O fiimium dlUSli Deo cut niUitat ather^ 
Et conjurali veniunt ad ciaffica vifitL 

•* Heaven's darling Charge! to aid whofc great deGgn 
•• The fighiing (kies and friendly winds combine." 

Thb prince of Orange, immediately on his landing, 
difperfed a printed Declaration, which had been alrea- 
dy publiflied in Holland, and contributed not a little 
to his future fuccefs. In that elaborate performance, 
written originally in French by the penlionary Fagcl, 
and tranflated into Englifli by Dr. Burnet, the princi- 
pal grievances of the three Britifli kingdoms were enu- 
merated ; namely, The exercife of a difpenftng tad 
fufpending power ; the revival of the court of ecciefi- 
aflical commiflion ; the filling of all offices with catho- 
lics ; the open encouragement given to popery, by 
building every where pbces of worflilp, colleges, 
and feminaries for that feet ; the difplacing of judges, 
if they gave fentence contrary to the orders or the 
inclinations of the court ; the annulling the charters 
of all the corporations, and thereby fubjefting elec- 
tions to arbitrary will and pldfure ; the treating of pe- 
titions to the throne, even the moft modeft, and from 
pcrfons of the higheft rank, as criminal and feditious; 
the committing of the whole authority in Ireland, 
civil and military, into the hands of papifts ; the af- 
fuming of an abfolute power oi^er the religion and 
laws of Scotland, and openly exafling in that king- 
dom an obedience without referve. He concluded 
with protefting, that the fole objeA of his expedition 
5 was 

M O D E R K E U R O r E. i<i 

was ♦o fXTXxre 2 rcirrfs cf iJitic gricTancc^ ; to c<^< a ^ , . 
Ic^ aad free fjmir.oacd, thit inijhi pro- ' \vr 
vide for ihe i.bzr.j sr.o ucurlty of :hf r.aiivM% 2:^i .^ ^^^7; 
exAinine the prcrt's ct irt \^pu:r\?X'; ci the prince ot 
Wales, in rcgarJ id vr\..c'.\ he cxpreli't J the moll vlo- 
Lut fu.picions''. 

Tilz'JZH :hif i:-c'-r:;i::r. \V3? rccclvcil wlih arJcur 
bj die n«:i3r.^ the ^ rlr.ce, for feme time after his l^nd- 
iug, codlii net bo:.:c of his good fortune. A great iIe.U 
of raia hzving fj!lc::, the roads were rcin^cred alinoft 
iropailibie ; and he poucfied neiilicr cattiC nor carriages 
fofficient to conrev the baggage oi his army. He di- 
ic£ted| however, his encumbered march to Exeter i 
bnt without being joined by any pcrfon of eminence, 

52. The proi>r^ produced by James, in fupport of the birth of h»t fon* 
tttiore an cxtracrcl:::3r)' cori.j i, to wl.ich the iorvU hodi i'piiitual .inj 
temporal were fur:n:orc<!, :.i;J;it whicJi the bmiir. ynr ;itul.'.!v\rmru 
tf tAodoOy and ail the jud^^r- wcr;- prcfeiit, were !is llronjj an.!?!)- thut 
can perhaps Ic i^roduc^d to cAabtii>. fuch a he}. Vvt if ui:y lUtubiH in 
regard to this matter ciiirid ft ill un .iln in the moO pri jiuiIikI luinil, 
sbe deelaration of the dul;c of Ccrwii-I:, the king's u itiir.)l ft^n, nnd a 
mao of unimpcached veracity, wouM be fiitUctcnt to romovo ibrni. ** I 
" conldfpeak knowiup^ly t)n ihr iu^jtcl," lays hi-, ** fcir I was jiiereni \ 
•* »nd,notwithflanilin;: myrefpccfl i.ud i.ttuchnux'.t r<. ilic Ivliij;, I coiilil 
*• never have confentcd r> fo iit:cft.ihle ari acfllon, as thr.t uf ntrmhn in^r 
** a fuppofititious chiid, in order to dcpi ivc the true hcirn of the rrowii. 
*" Muchlefi Ihould I have cuntiniud, -^{i-^r the king\ dc:itli, rn fiippurt 
•* the prctenfioiis of an impoftcr : hoinMir and confcienft* wonltl huvc 
*' rcftrained me." (Mem. o/tK' J\de ef Bet-tvidt^ written by hinu'tlf, 
vol. i.p.40.) I'he anfwerof Anne princtfs of D:-nmark ( fuiy 4, 1688), 
to the queiUons of her filKT Mary priucef> of Oranjjc, relative ti) tli.* 
birth of the prince of Wales, isftill more fatisfa<5kory. 1 hmi^jh fccn»- 
inglj difpofed to favour the idea of an inipofture, ihe enumerates fo 
puticolarlyy even to indelkacyy the c:rci;irjlances attendinjr the ip»ecu'» 
^tUvtry, and the pcrfons of both fcxes prcfent at it (who were many, 
and of high rank), that it is truly aftonifhinjr William ihould afterward 
have afligned the illegitimacy of the prince of Walen an one of \m 
reafont for landing in England. (Dalrymp. ApptnJ. p;irt ii.) >ce far- 
ther on this much contcftcd fubjedl, a Letter from Dr, Hugh Chimhcr- 
hyne H iU Pr'uKtJi Sophiay ubi fup. 

N 3 Cither 

lit T II E H I S T O R T O r 

f ART II. either on his way, or for eight days after his arrival at 
A.D i68S ^^*^ place. His troops were difcouraged : he him- 
felf began to think of abandoning his enterprize \ and 
aflually held a council of his principal officerF, to 
deliberate whether he (hould not reimbark ''. Impa- 
tient of difappointment, he is faid even to have pub- 
licly declared his refolution to perniit the Englifh na- 
tion to fettle their own differences with their king; 
and to dire£l his father-in-law where to puniflij bf 
tranfmitting to him the fecret correfpondence of his 
fubjcfts *♦. 

The friends of the court exulted mightily at the 
coldnefs of William's reception ; but their joy was of 
(hort duration. One Burrington^ having (hewn the 
example, the prince was fpeedily joined by the gentry 
of the counties of Devon and Somcrfet, and an aflbci- 
ation was figncd for his fupport. The earl of Abing«« 
ton* Mr. RufTeil, fon of the earl of Bedford^ loid 
Wharton, Mr. Godfrey, Mr. Howe, and a number 
of other perfons of di(tin£lion, repaired to Exeter. 
All England was foon in commotion. Lord Ddamere 
took arms in CheQiirc ; the city of York was feized 
bv the carl of Danby ; the earl of Bath, governor of 
Plymouth, declared for the Prince ; and the carl of 
Devonfliire made a like declaration in Derby. Every 
day difcovcred fome new inftance of that general con- 
federacy into which the natioti had entered againft 
the meafures of the king. But the mofl dangerous 
fymp:om, and that which rendered his affairs defpe- 
rate, was the defc£lion of the army. Many of the 
piincipal olFiccrs were infpired with the prevailing 
fpiritof the nation, and difpofcd to prefer the interefls 
of their country to their duty to ihcir fovereign. 

53. D»ile of SerwJck'i Jl£r«r. Tol. t. 34. Da/ymffes Appni, 

6 Though 

M O D E R N E U R O P E. 183 

Though ihcy might Iotc James, and hare a due ^Jlf^ 
fenfe of the favours he had conferred upon them» \_, j' r 
they were ftartled at the thought of rendering him A. D. 1688. 
aBfolutc mailer not only of the liberties, but even of 
the lives and properties of his* fubje£ls ; and yet tbis» 
they faw, muft be the confequcnce of fupprcfEng the 
numerous infurrsAions, and obliging the prince of 
Orange to quit the kingdom* They therefore deter- 
mined rather to bear the reproach of infidelity than 
to run the hazard of becoming the inftruments of 

The example of defertlon among the officers was 
let by lord Colcheftcr, fon of the earl of Rivers, and 
by lord Cornjiery, fon of the earl of Clarendon. 
The king had arrived at Salifbury, the head -quarters 
of his army, when he received this alarming intelli- 
gence $ but as the foldiers in general feemed firm in 
ihdr allegiance, and the officers in a body, exprefled 
their abhorrence of fuch treachery, he refolved to ad« 
vance upon the invaders. Unfortunately, however, 
for bis affairs, the Dutch had already taken pofTcflion 
of Azminfter. A fudden bleeding at tlie nofe, with 
which he was feized, occafioned a delay of fome days ; 
lod* farther fymptoms of defe£lion appearing among 
the officers, he judged it prudent to retire toward 
London. Lord Churchill, afterward the great duke 
of Marlborough, and the duke of Grafton, natuial fon 
of Charles II. who had given their opinion for re- 
maining at Salifbury» fled under cover of the night to 
the prince of Orange. Succeffive misfortunes poured 
in on the unfortunate monarch. Trelawney, who 
occupied an advanced pofl at Warminfter, defertcd 
vith all his captains, except one. Prince George of 
I^mark, the king's fon-in-law, and the young duke 
9f Ormond, left him at Andover. Every day dimi« 

N 4 nifhed 


PART n. niflved the number of his officers ; aad to increal 
A.D. i68g. hi^ aceomulated misfortunes, he found, at his arrivs 
Nov. 16. in London, that his faTOurite daughter, Anne, prio 
cefs of Denmark, had fecretly withdrawn herfelf tbc 
night before, in company with lady Churchill^*. All 
bis firmnefs of mind left him : tears darted from hii 
eyes ; and he broke out into forrowful exclamationSf 
e«p^effi?e of his deep fenfe of his now ]oft condition^ 
^* Grod help me," cried he, in the agony of his heartj 
*< my own children have forfaken me !^ 

Henceforth, the condu£i of the infatuated Jamei 
is fo much marked with folly and pufiltanimity, as ti 
dived his character of all refpe£t, and almoft his M 
ferings of compaflion. Having aflemSled, as a lal 
refource, a council of the peers then in London^ he il 
fued by their advice, writs for a new parliament, an 
appointed the marquis of Halif;)x, the earl of Notting 
ham, and lord Godolphin, his commiflioners to trea 
with the prince of Orange. Tliinking the feafon fc 
negociation pad, William continued to advance wit 
his army, at the fame time that he amufed the com 
miflioncrs. Though he knew they were all devote 
to his caufe, he long denied them an audience. Me^c 
while James, diftraftcd by hib own fears, and alarmc 
by the real or pretended apprehenfions of others, fci 
the queen' and the prince of Wales privately ihl 
France, and embraced the extraordinary refolution < 
Dec. 10. following them in perfon. He accordingly left h 
palace at midnight, attended only by Sir Edwai 
Hales ; and, in order to complete his imprudence an 
dcfpair, he commanded the earl of Feverfham 1 
difband the army, recalled the writs for the meetin 

<; c. Burnet> book iv. Puke of Berwick's Mm. vol i. James H. x6l 


of die pmrliamenr, and threw the great- leal mto the £ZTm 
Thiinca'M ^^J^ , 


If James had deliberately refolved to pkice the 
JviDce of Orange on the throne of Englandt he coaM 
^ hare purfued a line of conduct more efie^lmal for 
that purpofe. BcHdes the odious circumftances of 
fftking refuge with the heir of the crown in a coua- 
tfydtftingoiihed for popery and arbitrary power, and 
recalling the writs for a free parliament, the anarchy 
lod diforder which enfuedj on the fuddcn diflblotion 
; of goternment, made all men look up to William as 
the Satiotir of the nation. The populace rofe in 
Londotiy and not only deftroyed all the popifli cha- 
pels, but even rifled the houfcs of the ambaiTadors of 
atbolic piinccs and dates, where many of the papifts 
liad lodged their moft valuable effefts. Riot and de- 
nftation CYcry where prevailed. The whole body of 
Ae people, releafcd from the reftraints of law, felt 
one general movement ; and new violences were ap- 
prehended from the licentious foldiers, whom Fever-' 
(bam had diibanded, without cither difarming or pay« 
ing them $'. 

Ik order to remedy thefe evils, and reftore public 
tranquillity, an office which fccmed now beyond the 
power of the civil magiftrate, fuch of the bifhops and 
peers as were in London aflembled in Guildhall; and 
ereding themfelves into a fupreme council, exe- 
cuted all the funftions of royalty. They gave di- 
reAions to the mayor and aldermen for keeping the 
peace of the city : they ifiued their commands, which 
were readily obeyed, to the fleet, to the negle£led 

56. Id. Ibid. 57. Ralph. Home, 



PART n. army of Jamet , and to all the garrifons in Enghn 
^r|;^TL^ They ordered the militia to be raifed ; and they pi 
lilhed a declaration, by which they unanimoufly ] 
felvedy to apply to the prince of Orange to fettle t 
affairs of the nationi deferred by the king, throa 
the influence of evil counfellors. 

William was not backward in afluming that a 
thority, which the imprudence of James had devoli 
upon him. He exercifed, in his perfon, many a^ 
of fovereignty ; and, in order to make his prefbn 
more welcome in London, be is faid to have pro{ 
gated a report, that the difl)anded Irifli had tak 
arms, and begun a general mafTacre of the prot 
tants. Such a rumour at lead was fpread all over t 
kingdom^ and begot univerfal confternation* 1 
alarm bells were rung, the beacons fired ; and nc 
fancied they faw at a diftance the fmoke of the bui 
ing cities, and heard the dying groans of thofe vi 
were flaughtered by the enemies of their religion 
Nothing Icfs than the approach of the prince 
Orange and his proteftant army, ic was thoug 
could fave the capital from ruin. 

William had advanced to Windfor, when he 
ceived the unwelcome news, that the king had bi 
feized in difguife, by fome fifhermen, near Feverfli 
in Kent, on fuppofition that he was fome popifli prii 
or other delinquent, who wanted to make his efca 
This intelligence threw all parties into confufi* 
The prince of Orange fcnt orders to James, nor to 
proach nearer to London than Rocheder. But 
meflenger miflcd him on the way, and he once m 

S9« Hill. Dcfcrt. p. 91. RapiD> vol. ii. foL edit. 



entered his capital amid the loaded acclamations of letter 


joy. The people forgot his mifcondufl in his mif- ^ -^- _f 
fortnnci, and all orders of men feemed to welcome his A.D. 1688. 

This, however, was only a tranfient gleam before 
loew (lorm. Scarce had the king retired to his bcd- 
dttnber, when he received a meflage from theprince^ 
Mring him to remove to Ham, a houfe bolonging to 
Ik duchefs of Lauderdale ; and the following nighty 
• he was going to reft, the Dutch guards, without 
farther notice, took poflcfEon of his palace, and dif- 
phced the LngliCh, to the great difguft of the army, 
ttd 00 inconfiderable part of the nation. James feC 
m next morning, by permii&on, for Rocheftcr, in 
ptefeiencc to Ham, under a Dutch guard ; and al- 
though convinced, that he could not do a mote ac* 
ceptable fervice to his rival, and thnt he had under- 
nted the loyalty of his fubjeds, he dill refolved to 
nake his efcape to France. 

The earls of Arran, Dumbarton, Ailefbury, 

litchfield, and Middleton, the gallant lord Dundee, 

and other ofRcers of di(lin£lion, who had aiTembled at 

Socheftcr, argued ftrenuoufly againft this refolution. 

They reprefented to the king, that the opinion of 

mankind began already to change, and chat events 

woold daily rife in favour of his authority. *' The 

^ qucflion. Sir,'' urged Dundee, with all his generous 

ardour, ** is whether you will ftay in England or fly 

" 10 France ? Whether you ihall truft the returning 

" zeal of your native fubjcfts, or lely on a foreign 

'• power ? — Here you ought to ftand. Keep poffcf- 

60. Burnet, book iv. 

«• fion 

i88 T H E H I S T O R Y O F 

PART II. ** Con of a part, and the whole will fubmit by ^mdc 
V'^^Tn* ^* grecs. Refume the fpirit of a kiog •, fummon f gut 
** fubjefis to their allegiance : your army, thougA 
'^ difbanded, is not annihilated. Give roe yoar coin* 
•' miffion, and I will collcft ten thoufand of your 
" troops : I will carry your ftandard at their head 
*^ through England, and drive before you the Dutch 
** and their prince.'* James replied, that he beliere^f , 
it might be done, but that it would occafion a cifU 
war ; and he would not do fo much mifchief to a pec" 
plc who would foon return to their fenfes. Middletoft» 
who faw the fallacy of this opinion, prefled him to 
(lay, though in the remoteft part of his kingdon* 
•* Your majefty," faid he, " may throw things into 
** confufion by your departure, but it will be only the 
*' anarchy of a month : a new government will foon 
'* be fettled ; and then you and your family aie ruined 

But thefe animated remonffaraLces coold not in^ 
fpire with new firmnefs a mind broken by apprehen- 
fion and terror. Afraid of being taken off cither by 
poifon or aiTif&nation^*, and mortified at his prefent 
abje£l condition, James continued to medicate his cf« 
cape ; and as the back-door of the houfe in which be 
lodged was intentionally left without any guard, he 
found no difficulty in accompli thing his deGgn. He 
Pec. 23. privately withdrew at midnight, accompanied by hb 
natural fon, the duke of Berwick, and wcnr on board 
a large (loop, which waited for him in tbe river Med* 
way. After fome obftrudlions, he fafely arrived at 
Ambleteufc, in Picardy ; whence he haftened to St% 

61. Macphcrfon*5 Or/f ina/ /*^/fri, 1688. 62, James II. 





Ccrmaiw, where the qoeen and the prince of Wales letter 
tad arri?cd the day before ^'. t^ ^^ !\^ 

A.D. 16S8. 

Thus, my dear Philip, ended the reign of James II. 
t prince not deftitute of virtue or abilities, bat who, 
n jou have feen, was fo enfla?ed by the Romifii fu- 
|Krftftion, and blinded with the love of arbitrary 
pover, that he obftinately violated the civil and reli- 
; giow conftitution of his country; and was, there- 
fore, juftly deprived of the throne. Who had a right 
to fill that throne? is a queftion which we (hall after- 
vard have occafion to difcufs. In the mean time, I 
fBuft carry forward the progrefs of the prince of 
Onnge ; obferving, by the way, that whatever ref- 
Craints might have been impofed on the regal autho- 
rityi which had been abufed, the king's defertion of his 
peqde, though in fome meafure deferted by them, 
oolf could have occafloned the utter lofsof hiscrovvn, 
or have changed the line of fucceflion. 

The fame day that James left Whitehall, William 
arrived at St. James's. It happened to rain very hea- 
rSy, and yet great numbers came to fee him. But, 
after they had flayed long in the wet, he difappolnted 
rliem. Being an enemy to (hew and parade, perhaps 
from a confcioufnefs of his ungraceful figure, and 
dead to the voice of popular joy, he went through the 
park to the palace ^'. Even this trifling incident help- 
ed to alter the fentimencs of the people ^ and being 
now coo^, they judged more impartially. They con- 
fidered it as an unnatural thing for the prince of 
Orange to waken his father-in-law out of his fleep, 
and force him from his own palace, when he was ready 

6 3. Duke of Berwick*! Mem. Tol. i. James II. -uSSS. 
V4. Burnet, book iv. 



FART IF . to fubmit to every thing : they began CTcn to fu( 
A^ID^ 61^. ^^^' ^^'* fpicious undertaking would prove to be o 
difgulfed and drjigncd ufurpation *5. The public be 
however, waited upon the prince^ and exprefTed 
2eal for his caufe : and, among others, the genth 
of the law, with old ferj^ant Maynard at their h 
who, when William took notice of his great age 
faid he mud have outlived all the lawyers of his i 
wittily replied, *' I (hould have outlived the la 
** felf, if your hignefe had not come ovcr'^P* 

The only thing that now remained for alLps 
was the fettlcment of the kingdom. With this \ 
the peers met in their own houfe ; and the prince 
before them his Declaration, as the foundatio 
their deliberations. In the courfe of debate it 
urged, That the king, by withdrawing, had div 
himfelf of his authority, and that government 
had fufFcred a demife in law ^7. A free parliament 
therefore, declared to be the only means of obtain 
legal fettlement ; and the refult of the whole wa^j 
an addrcfs (hould be prefented to the prince of Ors 
defiring him to aflume the adminiftration of goi 
xnent, and to fummon a convention. The offer 
too alluring to be rcjefted ; but William, cautio 
all his proceedings, judged it (till ncceflary to ftrer 
en the refolution of the lords with the auihori 
the commons. For that purpofe, a judicious ex] 
cnt was fallen npon. All the members of the i 
laft parliaments, who were in London, were invit 
meet| together with the lord mayor, the court c 
dermen, and fifty members of the coramon-cou 
This mixed aflembly, which was regarded as the 

65. Id. Ibid. C6. Burnet, book Iv. 

67. Clarendoo*t^Mr;iDec. 26, i683. 

M O D E K N E tJ R O P E. 191 

equal rqpKfentauon of the people that could be ob- lftter 
tained in the prcfcnt emergency, unanimoufly voted ^—^1^ ^ 
an addrcfs, the fame in fubftancc with that of the A.D.i683. 
lofds ; and the prince, fupported by fo great a part of 
the nation, difpatched his circular letters to the vari- 
<ms boroughs, counties, and corporations in England^ 
for a general cieftion of rcprcfentativcs^^ 

While the Revolution thus approached to matu* 

ritf in England, the people of Scothnd were not idle 

fpeAators. The Prefbyterians in that kingdom, who 

kad long been perfecuted and opprefTed, compofed the 

bulk of the nation ; and as the prince of Orange was 

of their perfuafion, the mod fervent prayers were 

offered for his fuccefs, as foon ns his defigns were 

known. He had undertaken to deliiner Scotland as 

veil as England ; and, in order to facilitate his 

view$| the popular party, on receiving bis Declara* 

tion, diflblvcd the few regular troops that remained 

in the kingdom, and aflumed the reins of govern* 

mcnt. Thirty noblemen, and about eighty gentle- A. 0.1689. 

men, repaired to London ; and, forming themfclves 

into a kind of convention, requeded the Prince to 

take into his hands the adminiilration of Scotland. 

He thanked them for the truft they bad repofed in 

him, and fummoned a general convention to meet at 

Edinburgh. This aflembly being regarded as illegal 

by the more zealous Royalifts, they took little (hare 

in the ele£lions ; fo that the popular party, or the 

Whigs, were returned for mod places. The pro- 

ccedings of the members of the ScottiQi convention 

were accordingly bold and deciHve. They ordered, 

by proclamation, all perfons between the age of fix« 

6S. Buniet| ubi fup. Echard, ml iij. 


Jan. 7. 


PART n. teen and fixty to be ready to take arms: th 
Ir^^^T^ 8*^^ ^^^ command of the militia to Sir Patrick Hun 
one of their mod a£live leaders : they raifed eig 
hundred men for a guard, under the earl of Levc 
they impo^it^red the Duke of Hamilton^ their preGde: 
to fecure all difafie£led and fufpcded perfons ; a 
without amuGng themfclves with nice diftinAioi 
and the latent meaning of words, they rcfolfcd, •* TI 
^ king Jamesi by mal-adminiOracion, and by his abi 
•* of power» had forfthed his right of the crown." Tin 
therefore declared the throne vacant^ and invited ti 
Prince and Princefs of Orange to take pofleffion of i 
though not without due attention to their civil and r 
ligioua rights ^'>. 

In the mean time* the Englifli convention h 
niet \ and after a long debatC) the commons came 
the following memorable refolution :— ^' That ki 
^ James IL having endeavoured to fubvert the cc 
^ ftittttiony by breaking the Original Contra^^ betwe 
^^ Xing and Pe$pli ; and having violated the fane 
^ mental laws, and withdiawn himfelf from i 
^ kingdom, his abdicated the government ; and tl 
** the throne b thereby become vacant '^,^* This i 
ibtation was carried np to the houfe of peers, when 
met with much oppoGtion, and many warm deba 
enfued. The moft curious of thcfe was, ** Whet! 
^* any oiiginal contraA fubfifted bttwcen the ki 
**tnd the people?"— a queftion more fit for i 
fchools than a national aflembly, but which the V( 
of the commons had rendered.necefrary. Argumc 
Slay furely be produced from reafon, to prove 

69. Balcarnt's JiftKutis »/ ile Convention. Burner, l>ook iv. t. 

70. Journah, Jan. 28, 16S9. 



kind of tacit coinpa£l between the fovereign and the LETT£R 
fuljcft; but fuch a compact has fcldom had any • , ' f 
aQoal exiftence. The £ngli(h national charterSi A.v^M^ 
kowcYer, feemed to realize fuch a compa£l : and thefe 
charters had all been recognifed and confirmed by 
tbe Bill of Rights i a folemn and recent rranfa£tion 
between the king, the nobles, and the reprefcntatives 
of the people. The majority of the lords, therefore, 
declared for an Original Contraft ; and the houfe 
I ahnoft conftantly refoWed, That James had broken that 


j The oppofition, however, did not end here. The 
•lords proceeded to take into confideration the word 
ab£caiedf contained in the vote of the commons ^ and, 
after fome debate, agreed that difcrudKn^z more pro- 
per. The next and concluding queftion was, " Whe- 
" ther king James, having broken the original contract ^ 
^* and diftrud the government, the throne is thereby 
" vacant P*' This queftion was debated with more 
warmth than any of the former ; and, on a divifion, 
it was carried by eleven voices againft a vacancy. 
The vote of the commons was fent back with thefe 
amendments ) and as they continued obftlnatc, a free 
conference was appointed between the two houfes, in 
order to fettle the controverfy. 

Never perhaps was there a national debate of 
more importance, or managed by more able fpeakers. 
The leaders of the commons contended, that although 
the word deferted might be more fignificant and intel- 
ligible, as applied to the king*s withdrawing himfelf, 
it could not, with any propriety, be extended to his 
violation of the fundamental laws. The managers 

71. Jwrnali o/tbt Lnis^ Jan. 30. 

Vot. IV. O for 


PART n. for the lordS) changing their ground, infifted, Tliae 
A.d/»689. adn^*tting the king^s abufe of power to be equivalent 
to an abdication, it could operate no otherwife than 
his voluntary refignation, or natural death, and could 
only make way for the next heir ; who, though they 
did not najme him, they inCnuated, being yet an in* 
fant in the cradle, could have committed no crime: 
andnojuft reafon, they thought, could be affigned, 
why, without any default of his own, he (hould lofe 
a crown to which be was entitled by his birth. 
The leaders of the commons replied. That the oath of 
allegiance, which binds the fubjeft to the heirs of the 
king as well as to himfelf regarded only a natural de« 
niife, and that there was no provrfion in law for a ci« 
vil demife, which feemed equivalent to an attainder; 
that although upon the death of a king, whofe admi- 
mftration had been agreeable to the laws, many and 
great inconvenicncies would be endured, rather than 
exclude the lineal fucceflbr; yet when, as in the prc- 
fcnt cafe, the people, on the principle of felf-preferv- 
ation, had been obliged to have recourfe to arms, in 
order to dethrone a prince who had violated the con- 
ftitution, that the government i everted, in fome 
meafure, to its firft principles, and the community 
acquired a right of providing for the public welfare by 
the moft rational expedients. 

The members of the convention might furciy 
cftablifli a new precedent, as well as their anceftors. 
Never could a more fair reprefestation of the people 
be obtained; and the people, it muft be allowed, 
though they cannot deliberate in a body, have a right, 
on every revolution, and whenever their conftita- 
tional liberties are invaded, to chufe their own go- 
vernor^ as well as the form of govcmmene under 
5 wfaick 


^iP'Iiich the? dcGre to live, unlcfs the monftrous doc- LETTER 


trine of man^ made for one fliould be revived. The i^,^^ mj 
twohoufeS) however, parted without coming to any A. D. 1689. 
condofion; but as it was impoffible for the nation to re- 
mam long in its prefent Hate, the majority of the lords, 
in confeqaence of the defertion of fome Tories to the 
Whig party, at laft agreed to pafs the vote of the com- 
•ons^ without any alteration or amendment ^\ 

This grand controverfy being got over, the next 
qiieflioo was, ^^ Who (hould fill the vacant throne 7' ? 
.The marquis of Halifax, in order to recommend 
liimfelf to the future fovereign, moved that the crown 
flxmld be immediately conferred upon the Prince of 
Orange. The earl of Dauby, his political rival, pro- 
pofed to confer it folely on the Princefe *, and others 
contended for a regency. William, who had hitherto 
behaved with great moderation and magnanihiity, 
avoiding to interfere in the debates of either houfe, 
anddifdaining even to bedow carefles on thofe mem- 
bers whofe influence might be ufeful to him, now 
perceiving that he was likely to lofe the great ohjcSk 
of his ambition, broke through that myfterious re- 
ferre, and feeming apathy, in which he had been fo 
long wiapt. He called together Halifax, Sbrewfbury, 

72. y»ttrnali of the Lords, Feb. 6. 

73. Dnringall thefe debates, it feems £>mcwhat extraordintry, that 
no enquiry was made concerning the birth of the prince of Wales; 
more cfpccially asfuchan inquiry had been exprefsly mentioned by the 
prince of Orange in his Declaration. The reafoos afligned by Bnrnet 
for this negled, though planiibTe, ane by no means conclufive. (Hi/, 
OvH Timet, book iv.) The only fubflantial reafon fur fuch omilDon 
fecms to be. That the Whigs finding it impradlicable to prove an impof- 
turc, even by prefumptive evidence, judged it prudent to let the mat- 
ter reft in obfcurity. 

O 2 Danby, 


PART II. Danby, and fome other leading men, and told tben»»^ 
A. D. 1689. ^^^^ l>c had heard fome were for placing the goyerrx* 
ment in the hands of a regent. He would not, he 
faid, oppofe the meafure ; but he thought it neceflarjr 
to inform them, that he would not be that regent. 
Others, he added, feemed difpofed to place the Prin- 
cefs fingly on the throne, and that he fhould reign by 
her couitefy. This he alfo declined ; declaring, that 
he could not accept of an authority, which (hould 
depend on the will or the life of another ; that no man 
could efteem a woman more than he did the Princefs 
Mary, but he could not ** think of holding any thing 
by apron-ftrings !" and therefore, if they did not 
think fit to make a different fcttlement, that he would 
return to Holland, and concern himfelf no more in 
their affairs 7*, 

This threat, though not deemed to be altogether 
fincere, had its weight. Both houfes voted, " That 
•* the Prince and Princefs of Orange (hould be de- 
«* clarcd King and Queen of England;" and a biU 
was brought in for that purpofe. In this bill, or In- 
ftrument of Settlement, it was provided, lliat the 
Prince and Princefs fliould enjoy the crown of Eng- 
land during their natural liveb and the life of the fur- 
vivor, the fole adminiftration to be in the prince; 
that, after the death of both, the throne (hould be 
filled by the heirs of the body of the princefs ; and 
that in default of fuch iffue, Anne, princefs of Den- 
mark, and the heirs of her body, (hould fucceed, be- 
fore thofe of the prince of Orange, by any other wife 

74« Bornet, book iv. 



but the princcfs Mary :». The Inftrument of Settle- ^^/j^"- 
menr, befides regulating the line of fuccefliony alfo i^ , ^^„, jr 
provided againll the return of thofe grievances, which ^•^' '^^9« 
bad driven the nation to the prcfent extremity ; and, 
although it ought to have been more full on this head, 
it declared, and efTeclually fc'cuted from the future 
(ocroachments of the fovcrcign, the moft cflential 
rights of the fubjcd. 

Thus, my dear Philip, was happily terminated the 
peat ftruggle between Privilege and Prerogative, be« 
iwctn the crown and the people ; which commenced, 
as you have feen, with the acceffion of the family of 
Stuart to the throne of England, and continued till 
their excluHon, when aimed a century had elapfed. 
The Revolution forms a grand sera in the Englifh con- 
ititution. By bringing on Uie decifion of many im« 
poirtant queftions in favour of liberty, and yet more by 
the memorable precedent of depofing one king and ef- 
tabliihing another, with a new line of fucceilion, it 
gave fuch an afcendant to popular principles as has 
put the nature of our government beyond all contro- 
vcrfy. A king of England, or of Britain, to ufe the 
words of my lord Bolingbroke, is nov^r ftriftly and 
properly what a king (boukl be^ a member, but the 
fapreme member or head of a political body ; diftind): 
from it, or independent of it, in none. He can no 
longer move in a different orbit from his people ; and, 
like fome fuperior planet, aitradi, repel, and direfl 
their motions by his own. He and they are parts of 
the fame fyllem, intimately joined, and co-operating 

75. Journals of the Lordst Feb. 7, 1689. Sec alfo the luftnimcDt, or 
aS. icfc-lf. In this a<5l was infcrted a claufc, difabling all papiilfl, or fuch 
as fliould marry papifls, from fuccecding lo'the cro^fV'n; andanothcraU- 
folviog the fubjedls, in that cafe^ from their allegiance. 

O3 together J 


PART IL together ; zEting and zGted upon, limiting aqd limif* 
A. D. 1689. ^^> controuling and controuled, by one another : and 
when he ceafes to {land in this relation to them, he 
ceafes to ftand in any. The fettlements, by virtue 
of which he governs, are plainly original c9ntraBs : his 
inftitution is plainly conditional ; and he may forfeit 
his right to allegiance^ as undeniably and efie&ually, 
, as the fubje£l of his right to proteSiion f\ 

But thefc advantages, fo much and fo dcfervcdly 
praifed, and which can never be too highly valoedi 
» ferve at prefent only to convince us of the imperfedHon 

of all human inftitutions. Happily poifed as our go- 
vernment is, and although the people of this ifland have 
enjoyed, fince the Revolution, the mofl perfe£l fyftem 
of liberty ever known among mankind, the fpirit of 
patriotifm (which, as it gave birth to that fyftem, can 
alone prefcrve it entire), has continued to decline; and 
the freedom, though not the form of our conftitution, 
is now expofed to as much danger from the enflaving 
influence of the crown, as ever it was from the inva* 
Cons of prerogative or the violence of arbitrary power. 
The nature of this influence, and the mode of its ope- 
ration, as well as its rife and progrefs, I (hall af- 
terward have occafion to explain. 

We (hould now return to the affairs on the conti* 
nent ; but, for the fake of pcrfpicuity, it will be pro- 
per firft to relate the efforts made by James II. for 
the recovery of his crown. 

"G. Dilatation ea Parties ^ Let. ix. 




Crkat Britain andltiti.AUDt/raiH the Reoohaim 
in 1668, till the Affefftaatimt Pkt in 1696. 

THOUGH the Revolution, as we have already letteh 
feen, my dear Philip, was brought about by * 

a coalition of parties, not by a fa£lion5 though a.D.i6S^, 
Whig and Tory» united by the tyrannical proceedings 
tf James, contributed with their joint efibru to thac 
event, the moft glorious in the annals of liberty, yet 
this union was but the union of a day. No fooner 
were the Tories freed from the terror of arbitrary 
power than their high monarchical principles began 
to f^turn* It was the prevalence of thefe principles 
in the Englifh convention, which occafioned thofe 
warn and contentious dlfputes in regard to the va* 
cancy of the throne and the original contract ; and 
which, but for the obftinacy of the Whigs, and the 
firaincfs of the prince of Orange, would have render* 
cd the great work in which the nation was engaged 

Though difpofed to nothhig lefs, as a body, than 
the reftoration of James, the Tories, enflaved by their 
political prejudices, were ftartled at the idea of break* 
ing the line of fucceflion. Hence the ridiculous pro- 
pofal of a regency. And a party, (ince properly dif- 
tingutfhed by the reproachful appellation of JacobitHy 
(ccretly lurked among the Tories 5 a party, who from 
their attachment to the perfon or the family of the 
dethroned monaVch, and an adherence to the mon- 
ftrotts do^ines of paflive obedience and of divine in* 

O 4 defeafible 


LRT n. dcfcafibic hereditary right, wiftied to bring back iht 
J^'J^ king, and invariably held, that none but a Stuart 
could juftly be invcAed with the regal authority. Of 
this opinion were all the bigotted high- church men and 
Catholics in the three kingdoms. Among the Whigs, 
or moderate churchmen and difTenters, in like man- 
ner, lurked many enihufiaftic Republicans j who 
hoped, in the national ferment, to cffc(\ a diflblution 
of monarchy. 

The conteft between thefe parties, fomented by 
the ambitious views of individuals, which long dif-? 
tra£ied the Englifii government, and is not yet fully 
compofed, began immediately after the Revolution, 
and threatened the fudden fubverfion of the new efta- 
blKhment. The Glent rcferved temper, and folitary 
difpofition of William, early difguded the citizens 
of London * ; and the more violent Tories, who had 
lofl: all the merit which their party might otherwife 
have claimed with the king, by oppofing the change 
in the fucceflion, were enraged at feeing the current 
of court-favour run chiefly toward the Whigs. The 
hope of retaining this favour, and with it the prin- 
cipal offices of the ftate (of which they had been fo 
long in pofTeflion, and to which they thought them- 
fclves entitled, by the antiquity of their families, 
and their fuperiority in landed property) was pro- 
bably their leading motive for concurring in a revo- 
lution which they were fenfible they could not pre- 
vent. But, whatever their motives might be for 
fuch co-operation, they had juftly forfeited all title 
to royal favour, by their fubfequent condudl:, not on- 
ly in the eflimation of William, but of all the zea- 
jpus lovtrs of their country. They reverted to an, 

1. Burner, book v. 



cicnt prejudices and narrow principles, at a crifis ^^^f *" 

«hen the nation was ready to embrace the mod en- x^, -,,/ 

larged way of thinking, with refped both to religion ^•^' *^^5* 
aad government. 

The church alfo was enraged at the general tolera* 
tion which William, foon after his acceflion, very 
prudently as well as liberally, granted to all his pro<» 
teftant fubjcfbs ; and dill more by an attempt which 
he made toward a comprehenHon in England ; while 
the whole epifcopal body in Scotland took part with 
the Jacobites, In confcquence of the re-e(labli(hment of 
the Preibyterian religion in that kingdom. This efta- 
blifliment the ScottiQi convention, which confided 
chiefly of Prefbyterians, had demanded. They con^ 
ne&ed It intimately with the fettlement of the crown^; 
and their fpirit, in To doing, deferves to be admired; 
But William had little to fear from that quarter. 
The Prefbyterians, who compofed about three-fourths 
of the inhabitants of Scotland, were not only able 
to defend the new fettlement, but willing to do it at 
the hazard of th?ir lives. The (late of Ireland was 
very different. 

The great body of the people in that kingdom 
were Roman Catholics. The earl of Tyrconnel, a 
violent Papift, was lord-licuicnant ; and all employ- 
ments, cif il and military, were in the hands of the 
fame feci. Yet this man, who had induced the infa- 
tuated James, by working on his civil and religious 
prejudices, to invade the privileges of the Irifti cor- 
porations, in the fame manner as thofe of England 
bad been attacked by Charles II. and who, under the 
plaufible pretence of relieving fome diflreflfed and 

2. Burnet; abi fup. 



PARTH. mlly injured papifts, had prepared a bill for deftioy- 


iog the whole fettlemeiit of the kingdom, as eflabUfli- 
ed at the Reftoratiooy and which would hare giren to 
the crown the difpofal of almoft all the lands in Ire- 
land ; this apparently zealous Catholic, and piouilf 
loyal fttbjefly is faid to haTC traiteroufly made an offer 
of his government to the prince of Orange ' ^ and 
William is faid to have politically refufed it^ that he 
might have a decent pretext for keeping up an army, 
in order to fecure the obedience of England, and that 
he might be enabled, by Irifli forfeitures, to gratify his 
Englifh'and foreign favourites^ ! 

But one who lived at the time, who was no friend 
to William, and who had every opportunity of know- 
ing the charaAer and examining the adminiftration of 
Tyrconnel, declares that his firmnefs preferved Ire« 
land in the intereft of James, and that he nobly rtitOL" 
ed all the advantageous offers which were made to in- 
duce him to fubmit to the prince of Orange ^ : and 
the general tenor of his condud):, as well as the tefti- 
mony of other cotemporary writers, feems to prove. 
That the propofals which he fent to the Prince were 
only intended to gain time, that he might be enabled 
to put his government in a better ftate of defence, 
and procure afliftance from France ^ William, how- 

3. Dalrym pie's Apptni, 4. Macphcrfon's Hiji. of Brit. toL i, 

5. Duke ef Berwick Mtm* i. 

6. In rcafoningfo circunifUntially on this fubjcdl, I am lefs inflii- 
CBC«d by any dcfire of vindicating the conduca of William or of Tyr* 
conncl, than of (hewing the infufficicncy of thofc wiginal ^apert^ which 
have been fo liberally produced of late years, to alter our opinion of the 
eftablifbed charaacrs of men : for, as in the prefent cafe, Tyrconnel's 
•fftr to mrrticiau with William is no pnpfoi his being a trsiior to Jame^z 
fo, m moll otlicr cafes, our ignorance of the motives of the partica ought 
to make us fufpcnd our judgment on fuch doubtful or fufpicious evi- 


dioi^h fomewhat fiiipicious of his fineerity^ LETnUt 
did not IHght the advances of tbe lord-lieotcnant : he . ^ ^ ^ ^ 
difpatched general Hamilton, his countryman and A. D. 1689. 
ffieods to treat with him. Hamilton betrayed hit 
trnft 7 : Tyrconnel, in conformity with his real viewsj 
levied a great body of troops, which having no re- 
friar pay, were left to live upon the plunder of the 
ProleftaDts ; and thefe unhappy people, roufed by op- 
pieflhm, and fearing a general maflacre, flew to arms, 
md throwing themfelves into Londonderry, Innifldl* 
fing, and other places of flrength, hoped to be able to 
bold out till they (hould obtain relief from £ng« 

In the mean time James, who had been received 
with marks of the mod cordial affediion by Lewis 
XIV. either from a fympathy of religious fentimcntSy 

^eiice. At any rate, thefe abortive itrtri^es, and infidious anecdatiot, 
which bare been brou<;ht as a charge againft fo many othcrwife uoful- 
lied reputations, are fitter for the chronicle of fcandal, or the memoin 
of individuals, than the page of general hiftory, which they can fenre 
only to contaminate and perplex. Little farther attention fliall, there- 
fore, be paid to them in the body of this work ; which has chiefly for 
ki objcd mp^rtantroenU, with their caufes and confeqnences. 

To throw a ihade over the brightcft chara&ers, cannot furely be a 
defirable employment for a liberal mind ; yet have fonie men of talents 
undertaken this invidious talk, and profecutcd it with unwearied in- 
duftiy. Thef who love to contemplate human nature on the dark 
Ede, will find fufficient food for their paflion in Dalrympk's Apptmdix^ 
and Macpherfon's Original Pafen. Happily, however, thefe papers, 
contrary to the apparent purpofe of the compilers, fumi(h arguments 
for the advocates of freedom, as well as the abettors of defpotifm. I 
have acccordingly ufed them as a counter-pddbn. 

7. This treachery was attended with a very ftriking circumftance. 
Sir William Temple's fon, who was fecretary at war to king WUiiam, 
having engaged himfclf for the fidelity of Hamilton, was fo much 
mortified at hisdcfedion, that he put an end to his own life, by leap- 
ing out of a boat into the Thames. Clarendon's Di^ry, 

3. Burnet. King. 




or with a view of making him fubfervienc to his am* 
bition, was preparing to make a defcent in Ireland. 
PrefTed by the folicitionsi and encouraged by the 
favourable reprefentations of Tyrconnel, he accord* 
ingly embarked at Bred^ early in the fpring, and land- 
^arch IX. cJ fafely at Kinfale, with only twelve hundred meOi 
all his native fubjefts, one hundred French officers and 
fome gentlemen of di(tin£kion ^. Seven battalions of 
French troops were afterwards fcnt over 9. But thefe) 
and all bis Irifli forces, were by no means fufficient to 
oppofe the veteran army of William* 

James and his adherents, however, had other 
ideas of the matter. Elated at the prefence of a 
prince, who had loft two kingdoms from his predi- 
Ie£kion for their religion, the Irifli catholics everf 
where received him with the higbeft demonftratioos 
of joy. But this rage of loyalty, by involving hiffl 
in meafures fubverfive not only of the Proteftant in- 
tcreft, but of all the laws of juftice and humanity, has 
difgraced his charader, and proved highly injurious to 
hiscaufe. Having aflemblcd a parliament, conGfting 
chiefly of Catholics, a bill was pafled for repealing the 
Aft of Settlement, by which the Proteftants were fe- 
curcd in the pofleflion of their cflates ; and, in orJcr 
to complete the ruin of the whole feft, an aft of at- 
tainder was afterward pafled againft all ProtcftantSi 
male and female, who were abfent from the kingdom i 
who did not acknowledge the authority of kinjr James, 
or who had been any way connefted with rebels from 
the firft day of Auguft in the preceding year '». The 
number of Proteilants attainted by name in this aft 
amounted to about three thoufand. Another violent 

8. James II. 1689. 9. Duke of Berwick's Mam. \o\, i. 

10. JJurnct. Ralph. King. 


& was pafied, declaring Ireland independent of the ^^J'^^ 
^nglifli parliament ' '. ^ uO' 

A*D. 1689. 

While James was thus attempting to eftablifli his 
lathority in Irelandi by flattering the prejudices of 
he natives, William was engaged in managing the 
£ngli(b parliament, and in conducting that great 
fyftem of continental policy, of which he had been 
b long the centre. To both thefe ends the violence 
of the Iriih Catholics, their influence with the de- 
dironed monarch, and his throwing himfelf into their 
hands, conrributed not a little ; and William, [in or- 
der ftill farther to quiet and unite the minds of men^ 
as well as to promote his own views, recommended to 
the parliament an z(X of general indemnity, and pro<- 
cured an addrefs for a declaration of war againft 
France. Both propofals were readily embraced. In- 
flamed with ancient and hereditary hate, and roufed 
hy recent jealoufy, the Engllfh nation had long been 
defirous of turning its arms againft Lqwis XIV. and 
the fuppofed attachment of James to the French inte- 
reft, his bigotry not excepted, had been the principal 
caufe of his ruin. Had he acceded to the league of 
Aug(burg, he would never have loft his crown. 
Threatned by that league, and willing to ftrike the 
feft blow, Lewis had fcnt an army Into Alface, and 
made himfelf mailer of Philipfburg in 1688. This 
violence, which was immediately fucceeded by others, 
alarmed the emperor, Spain, Holland, and all the 
confederate powers on the continent. They faw the 
nccefTity of having immediate recourfe to arms ; and 
^e interpofition of France in the affairs of Ireland^ 
/urniflied William with a good pretence for throwing 

II. Ibid. 


PMLT II. ibe whole weight of Enghnd into the hoOile ( 
^-^'^^1^ The confederacy was now complete. 

But the critical fiate of his new dominions c 
off the artentioo of William, for a time, frmn 
cotttinential fyftem. The duke of Gordon ftiU 
out the caftle of Edinburgh for James r and tin 
coont Dundee, the fonl of the Jacobke party in i 
kmd, having colle^d a fiinaH but gallant am 
HigManderS) threatened with fobjedion the ^ 
nortlieim part of the Idngdbm. Dundee, who 
pnbliclf d»favowed the authority of the Scottifb 
tention, had been declared an out- law by thu 
feihbly; and general^ Mackay was fent againft 
with a body of i^ular troops. Lord Murray, fc 
the marquis of Athol, bad laid fiege to the caft 
Blair, wl^icb was held by fome of the adherieiil 
James. Sir Alexander Maclean, by Dundee^s 
der, marched againft Murray, and forced hin 
raife the fiege. But this event did not decide the 
teft. Mackay, who had hitherto contented hii 
with ob(lru£ting the progrefs, or watching the 
tions of the Highlantiers, rcfolved to reduce the 
puted caftle, and put himfelf in motion for that 

Apprised of the defign of his antagonift. Dm 
fummoned up all bis enterprifing fpirit, and by fo 
marches arrived in Athol before him. Next mor 
Jq17 17* he was informed that Mackay's vanguard, conCi 
of four hundred men, had cleared the pafs of I 
cranky ; a narrow defile, formed by the fteep fie 
the Grampian-hills, and a dark, rapid, and deep r 
Though chagrined at this intelligence, Dundee 
not difcoiiccerted. He immediately difpatched 



:ander Maclean to attack the enemy^s a<}vanced LETTKlt 
', with an equal number of his chn, while he x^3I^ 
elf fhoold approach with the main body of the A. d. 1639. 
ilanders. But before Maclean had proceeded* a 
y Dundee received information that Mackay had 
Jied through the pafs with his whole army. He 
tnauded Maclean to halt, and# boldly advanced 
his faithful band^ determined to give battle to 

I^ckait's army, conGftitig of four thoutand five 
Ired foot, and two troops of horfe, was formed m 
I battalions, and ready fos a£lion, when Dundee 
e in view. His own brave,, but undifciplined 
ywers, of all ranks and conditions, did not exceed 
e thoufand three hundred men. Thafe he in- 
dy ranged in faodile array. They ftood inac- 
(bff Oeveral hours in fight of the enemy, on the 
p fide of a hill, which faced the narrow plain 
re Mackay had formed his line, neither part; 
Sng to change their ground. But the fignal for 
le was no fooner given, than the Highlanders ru(fa- 
own the hill in deep columns ; and having dif- 
gcd their mufltets with eflPeft, they had recourfe 
le broadrword, their proper weapon, with which 

furioufly attacked the enemy. Mackay 's left 
I was inftanrly broken, and driven from rhe field 

great flaughter by the Macleans, who formed 

right of Du'ndee^s army. The Macdonalds,.who 

pofcd his left, were not equally fuccefsful : Qolon 

Haftings's regiment of Englifh foot repelled their 

; vigorous eflTorts, and obliged theni to retreat. 

Sir Alexander Maclean and Sir Evan Cameron, 

le head of part of their rcfpeflive clans, fuddenly 

led this gallant regiment in flank, and forced it to 

way, or cut it in pieces. 


^G& T H E H IS TO R Y O J 

^PARTii. Thb vidory was now complete. Two thou&nd 
Mackay's army were flain ; and his artillery, b^^ 
gage, ammunition, provifions, and even kingWil 
liam's Dutch ftandard, fell into the hands of the Higl 
landers. But their joy, like a fmile upon the cheek 
death, delufive and infincere, was of (hort duratioiri 
Dundee was mortally wounded> in the purfuit, bj:i 
snulket ihot. He furvived the battle, but expiia 
fodn after, and with him peri(hed the hopes of Jamil 
in Scotland. The caftle of Edinburgh had already 
furrendered to the convention ; and the HighlandeOi 
difcouraged by the lofs of a leader whom they kml 
and almoft adored, gradually difperfed themfelves,anl 
returned to their favage mountains, to bewail him ii 
their fongs '^« His memory is (till dear to them : he 
is confidered as the laft of their heroes ; and his namCf 
even to this day, is feldom mentioned among them 
without a figh or a tear ?. Dundee, indeed, appean 
to have been a very extraordinary man. Befide 
great knowledge of the military art, the talent of feix- 
iog advantages, and the moft perfe£t recolle£liofl in 
in battle, he poflcfled, in no common degree, thatdil^ 
tinguifliing feature of the heroic charafter, the power 
of influencing the opinions of others, and of infpiring 
them with his own ardour. 

Fortune did not prove more favourable to the 
aflfairs of James in Ireland. His moft important cnicr- 
prife was the fiege of Londonder.y* Before this 
town he appeared in perfon, with a large army, com« 
manded by the marefchal de Rofen, de Maumont, 
general Hamilton, the duke of Berwick, and other of- 
ficers of di(lin£tion* But fo bold was the fpirit of 

12. MS. ^vvowi// in Dalrymplc and Macphcrfon. ThofeofMaf 
pherfon are chiefly followed in this narration. 13. Macpherfoo. 



inhabitants^ that, inftcad of tamely furrendcring, LETTEH 

giDantly repelled -all attempts to reduce the ^_ ^ '^ 

e, and CTcn annoyed the bcficgcra with their fal- A.D. x689« 

At lengthi however, weakened and diftrefled 
'amine, and diminifhed in number by peftilencet 
too common attendant, they were reduced almolt 
Icfpair. In order finally to complete their depref- 
t in this frightful extremity, marefchal de Rofen, 
be abfence of James, colle£ted all the Proteftants 
he neighbouring country, to the number of four 
ht thoufand, without di(lin£lion of age, fez^ or 
idition, and cruelly placed them between his lines 
I the walls of the town ; where many of them were 
iered to peri(h of hunger, from a perfuafion that 
: bcGeged would either relieve their friends or fur- 
tder the place. But this barbarous expedient had 
fnch efFe£l : it ferved only to confirm the inha- 
ants in their refolution of holding out to the laft 
kn« Happily, before their petfcverance utterly 
led, a reinforcement arrived from England with 
imnnition and provifions, and the befiegers thought 
)per to abandon the undertaking '♦. 

The difficulties of James now crowded faft upon 
n. Soon after the failure of this cnterprizc, the 
rcfchal, created duke of Schombcrg, landed in Irc- 
d with ten thoufand men. But the impracticable 
:ure of the country, his inacquaintance with it, and 
: declining fcafon, prevented that able and expcri- 
:ed general from making any progrefs before the 
»fe of the campaign. During the winter, however, 
}ugh his troops fuffered greatly by difeafe, he gain- 
fbme advantages over the Irifh ; and William, in 

14. Kiag. Burnet. Duke of Berwick. Jamti II. 1(89. 

Vol. IV. P order 


^Par t it. order to quicken his operations,' and put at once an < 
A.D. 1690. to the war, came over in pcrfon, with a fiefli an 
the beginning of next fummer. 

JameS) on this occafion, embraced a refolution t 
has been confidered as rafli, but worthy of a fofere 
contending for his lad kingdom. Though his ar 
was inferior in numbers as well as in difcipli 
to that of his rival, he determined to put all to 
hazard of a battle. He accordingly took pofton 
fouthern bank of the Boyne, and extended his tro< 
in two lines, oppofed to the deep and dangerous fo: 
of that river. No pofuion could be more advantaj 
ous. A morafs defended him on the left, and in 
rear lay the village of Dunorc, where he had 
trenched a body of troops. But all thefc circu 
flances, Co favouiable to James, did not difcour: 
William from fecking an engagement. After bav 
reconnoitred the fituation of the enemy, he refolv 
contrary to the advice of Schomberg, to attack th 
ju'y I. next morning, though under no ncceflity of runn 
fuch a ri(k. His army accordingly pafTed the th 
in three diviCons, one of which he headed in pcrf 
Schombcrg, who led another, was killed foon a( 
reaching the oppofite bank, but not before he I 
broken the Irifli infantry. The Iri(h cavalry, coi 
mauded by general Hamilton and the duke of Be 
wick, behaved with more fpirit, charging and rc-chs 
ging ten times. But even they were at lad obliged 
yield to fuperior force. General Hamilton was ma 
prifoner j and James, who had fliewn fomc courage, I 
no condu£i, thought proper to retreat toward DuU 
under cover of the French auxiliaries, who had nei 
been put into diforder* His lofs was but fmall, not < 
ceeding fifteen hundred men y yet was the vi£lory co 

M OD E R N E U R O P E. 213 

I^WfTEK Tifiting Dublin, William advanced with LETTER 

\x\% '^pvhole army to invcft Limerick; into which the ^^^ * . 

icc^aiins of Jameb's infantry had thrown tbemfflvcs, A.p. 1690. 

^bilfi the cavalry, under the command of Berwick 

atid Tyrconnel, kept the field, in order to convey 

foppltcs to the garrifon. Limerick is (ituated on the 

Shannon, where that river is broad, deep, and rapid* 

Part of the town ftands on the Munftcr fide, part on 

an ifland in the Shannon, and the caftlc on the fide of 

Qiarc. Thefe three divifions were united by two 

bridges. William, not daring to croft the Shannon 

i in the face of the enemy's cavalry, invefted Limerick 
only on the fouth fide ; fo that it was in no danger of 
Wng diftrefled for want of provifiona. Aware of this 
difadvantage, he attempted to carry the place by (lorm, 
^ter having made a practicable breach in the walls. 
Bntalthough ten thoufand men, by a kind of furprize, 
made their way into the town, the Irifh charged them 
with fuch fury in the ftreets, that they were driven 
out with great flaughter*'. Chagrined at his failure Aoguftjo. 
in that afTault, which cod him near two thoufand men, 
William raifed the fiege in difguft, and returned foon 
after to England *\ 

But this rcpulfe, though inglorious to the Bntifh 
monarch, afforded (hort relief to the adherents of the 
dethroned prince. Lord Churchill, created earl of 
Marlborough, who may jullly be denominated the 
eril genius of James, arrived foon after in Ireland, 
with five thoufand frefh troops. More a£^ive and 
eoterprifing than William, and even, perhaps, nN 

17. Duke of Berwick's Mem. vol. i. 

18. Id. ibid, ** He gave out, through Europe," fays the duke of 
Berwick, ** that continual rains had been the caufe of his abandoning 
*' the enc<Tprize ; but I can affirm that not a drop of rain fell for above 
<( a mmth before^ or for three weeks after." Mm. voU i. 

P 3 ready 


PART II. CbanneL All this was nearly true ; and a dcfccnt i 
A.'oliCQo, England, in favour of James, might certainly hai 
been made to great advantage, while it was in tb 
power of the French fleet to have prevented the n 
turn of William. But the flight of ihat unfortunat 
prince from Ireland, had fo difconraging an afpefl 
and Lewis XIV. placed fo little faith in the perpctai 
* rumours of infurreOions and difcontents in Englaoc 
that he was refolved net to riik an armyinfacha 
enterprize. He, therefore, lent a deaf ear to a 
Jamcb's propofdls for an invafion. He even refufe 
liim a fmall fupply of ammunition for the remains i 
the army in Ireland, faying, that whatever fbould I 
fcnt thither would be fo much loft '*. As a proofs 
his fincerity, he difpatthed tranfports to bring off h 
own troops. And James labouring under the deepc 
mortification and felf-condemnation, was made fevcf 
\y fenfible, when too late. That a prince,- who dcfci 
his own caufe, will foon fee it deferted by all t 

The Trifh, however, thout^h abandoned by \ht 
Icing and his grand ally, did not refign themfelves i 
defpondency, or attempt by fubmifllons to concilM^ 
the clemency of their invaders. Seemingly afliamc 
of their mifbelwviour at the pafl'iigc of the Boync (fo 
It does not defervc the name of a battle), and anxiou 
to vindlcrite their rcput uion, they every where mad' 
a gnllant refiflance; a circumftance which contribtttci 
not a little to aggravate the torn^enting reflcflionso 
James, by convincing him, that his adverfe fortun 
was more to be afcrlbf^d to his own imprudence tha 
to the difloyalty of his fubjedls, or their want of acj 
in his fcrvice. 

|6. James IL 1690. 



^9TEK vifiting Dublin, William advanced with LETTER 
to^ ^^Rrhole army to invcll Limerick; into which the . ^^^* ^ 
lemains of Jamcb's infantry had thrown themfflves, A.9. 1690. 
'AWtt the cavalry, under the command of Berwick 
and Tyrconnel, kept the field, in order to convey 
{applies to the garrifon. Limerick is fituated on the 
Shannon, where that river is broad, deep, and rapid* 
Part of the town (lands on the Munder Hde, part on 
anilland in the Shannon, and the cadie on the fide of 
Clare. Thefe three divifions were united by two 
bridges. William, not daring to crof^ the Shannon 
in the face of the enemy's cavalry, inverted Limerick 
only on the fouth fide; fo that it was In no danger of 
being diftrefled for want of provifions. Aware of this 
difadvantage, he attempted to carry the place by (lorm, 
after having made a pra£licable breach in the walls. 
Btttalthough ten thoufand men, by a kind of furprizc, 
nade their way into the town, the Irifh charged them 
with fuch fury in the ftrcets, that they were driven 
out with great flaughter '\ Chagrined at his failure Auguftjo. 
in that aflaulr, which coft him near two thoufand men, 
William raifed the fiege in difguft, aud returned foon 
after to England *\ 

But this repulfe, though inglorious to the Britifh 
monarch, afforded (hort relief to the adherents of the 
dethroned prince. Lord Churchill, created carl of 
Marlborough, who may juilly be denominated the 
eril genius of James, arrived foon after in Ireland, 
with five thoufand frefh troops. More adive and 
coterprifing than William, and even, perhaps, nl- 

17. Dalce of Berwick's Mem, vol. i. 

18. Id. ibid, « He gave out, through Europe/' fays the duk« of 
Berwick, ** that continual rains had been the caufe of his abandoning 
** the enc^Tprize ; but I can affirm that not a drop of rain fell for above 
f ' 1 mmth before^ or for three weeks after." Mm. voK i. 

P 3 ready 


ready more deeply (killed in the whole machin 
war, he reduced in a few weeks Corke and Ki 
though both made a vigorous defence; and h 
put his army into winter- quarters, he return 
England covered with glory at the clofe of the 
paign '9. 

Ireland, however, was by no means ye( 
dued. Athlone» Galway, Limerick, and other ] 
A.D. 1691. ftiii held out. Athlone was bcfieged in the begii 
of next campaign by baron Ginckle, who comm: 
the forces of William. And by an effort of bol 
and vigour, to which hiftory fcarce furniOies 
rallel, the place, though (Irongly garrifoncd, wa 
ried by dorm and^ furprize between two and thi 
the afternoon ; and although the IriQi army la] 
camped behind it, and the afTailants, who ha( 
Shannon to ford, were bread-high in water 
they advanced to the breach ! — St. Ruth, who 
manded the Irifli army, and whom Lewis XIV. 
fcnt over for that purpofe, at the requcft of J; 
filled with (hame at his own fatal negligence, < 
mined to hazard a battle with the enemy; ai 
recover his reputation, or lofe the kingdom an* 
life in the attempts He accordingly took pc 
Aghrim, where be waited the approach of Gir 
An obftinate engagement enfued, in which the fo 
of the day remained long doubtful, but at lad dec 
9gaind St. Ruth. He was killed by a cannon-ba 
bringing forward hie body of rcfervC) apd his arm; 
totally routed ***. 

19. Ralph. King. Duke of Berwick. ^ 

10. Ibid* The duke of Berwick i& by no mczn$ of opinio! 
^ the crowa of IrcU94 dep^dcd on iUc o|}poxtuae fall of St. : 


The remains of the Irifli forccsi and the garrifon letter 
of Galvay, took refuge in Limerick, which was a . _ . 
fecood time befieged by a great army of Englifli and A.D, 1691. 
fottign troops ; and Tyrconnel being dead, the duke 
of Berwick recalled, and the impoflibility of fupport- 
ing the war evident, the place capitulated, after a 
'Ecge of fix weekSf and all Ireland fubmitted to the 
inns of William *»• The terms granted to the garri- 
fon were highly favourable, not only to the befieged 
I bnt to all (heir countrymen in arms. It was agreed 
tbat they (hould receive a general pardon ; that their 
cftates ihould be reftored, their attainders annulled, 
>nd their outlawries reverfed ; that Roman Catho- 
Bcs (hould enjoy the fame toleration, with refpe£t to 
religion, as in the reign of Charles II. that they 
fcoold be rcftored to all the privileges of fubje^ls, on 
n^crely taking the oaths of allegiance ; and that fuch 
^ chofe to follow the fortunes of James, (hould 
be conveyed to the continent at the expence of gc- 
▼crnnnent **. 

Between twelve and twenty thoufand men took 
^vantage of this lad article, and were regimented 
by the dethroned monarch, but paid by the king 
of France. Among the moft diftinguifhed of thefc 
icfugces was major-gcnen^l Sarsfield, whom James 
had created earl of Lucan. He had rendered him- < 

On the contrary, he declares, that the battle was already loft, and 
thinks it impuffible for St. Ruth to have rcAored it with his body of 
rcfervc, which confifted only of fu f4uadron8. Mem, vol. i. 

21. Burnet. Ralph. Duke of Berwick. ii. Articles of Ca- 


r 4 fcif 


fcif fcr J popular in Ireland by oppoGng the nu 
rate counfels of TyrconncI, and was higMy oxa 
in bis own opinion, as well as in that of hit cc 
try men, by bis fuccefs in feizing a convoy on 
way to the Englifli camp before Limerick. He y 
fays the duke of Berwick, a man of an amazing 
ture, utterly void of fenfe, very good naiured^ 
▼ery brave *'• — We muft now return to the afiiui 

William, whofe firft care it had been to gel 
Convention converted into a Parliament, was ; 
difgufted with that afTembly, to which he owed 
crown. The obligations on one fide, and the c) 
of gratitude on the other, were indeed too grea 
afford any rational profpc£k o( a lading harmi 
and other caufes confpired to excite difcord. 
Convention Parliament, which confiftcd cbiefi 
Whigs, the ever watchful guardians of liberty 
fufcd to fettle on William the revenue of the ci 
for life. Notwithftanding their good opinion ol 
principles, they were unwilling to render him i 
pendent : they, ihereforei granted the revenue 
for one year. The Tories took advantage of thi 
triotic jealoufy, to render their rivals odious tc 
Ling; who, although educated in a republic, wa 
turally imperious and fond of power. They n 
fented the Whigs as men who were enemies to k 
government, and whom the circumftances of the i 

{^3. ikfoi. voli. 


OT\\y bid thrown into the fcale of monarchy. And I.ETTEIL 
William, who had publicly declared. That a king , _'^- ^-' . _f 
Vitliout a peroQancnt revenue was no better than ^ A. 0.1691. 
pBgeant, and who confiflered fo clofe a dependence 
on his fubjc£l8 a& altogether inconfiftent with the tCm 
gal authority, readily lillcncd to fuch infinuations; 
uid) in order to emancipate himfeif, diflblved the 

The new parliament, which confided almoft whol- 
ly of Tories, not only fettled the revenue of the 
crown on William for life, but granted liberal fu|i- 
pKc8 for carrying on the war in Ireland, amd on the 
continent. In ihofe votes the Whigs concurred, that 
^hcy might hot feem to deftroy the work of their own 
hands. But the heads of the party were highly dlfla- . 
tisfied, at feeing that favour, and thofe offices, to 
^hich they thought themfelvcs entitled by their paft 
fcrviccs, bellowed chiefly upon the Tories. They 
entered into cabals with the Jacobites, and even held 
^fccret correfponcicnce with the dethroned monarch *5# 
The Prcibytcrians in Scotland, oflinded at the refer- 
Tuion of patronage, or the power of prefenting minif- 
ters to the vacant Kirks, made by the king, in the pro- 
pofed eftablilhment of their religion, alfo joined in 
the (ame intrigues. But William, by permitting his 
commiflioner to agree to any law, relative to their ec- 
cleAaftical government, that fhould to the majority 
of the general aflcmbly feem mod eligible, entirely 
quieted their difcontents ; and, in fome meafure, dif- 

24- Barnct. Ralpb. %$» Dalryxnplc'$ j1/>ffnd. Jarac* TI. 




FART II. concerted the dcfigns of the difguftcd Whigs in Enj 

^■■N^"— ^ land, with whom they had entered into the moft h 

^ ' timate connexions, and who hoped to make ufe of tl 

fanatical fury of the Scots, in difturbing that fettli 

ment which they had fo lately founded ^. 

The adherents of James, however, were ftill nt) 
merous in the North of Scotland i and William, Jby 
frightful example of feyerity, feemed determined I 
awe them into allegiance, or to roufe them to fon 
defperate zQ, of hoftility, which might jufiify a gem 
ral vengeance. 

In confequence of a pacification with the Higl 
landerSy a proclamation of indemnity had been iffoc 
to fuch infurgents as fhould take the oaths to the kii 
and queen before the laft day of December, in the ye 
1691. The beads of all the clans, who had been in arc 
for James, ftriftly complied with the terms of the pr 
clamation except Macdonald of Glenco: — and 1 
. negle£t, in fuffering the time limited to elapfe, was o 
cafioned rather by accident than dcCgn. His fubmfflic 
was afterward received by the (herifF, though nc 
without fcruple. This difficulty, however, being gc 
^ over, he confidered himfelf as under the protcAiop c 

the laws, and lived in the mod perfect fecurity. Bi 
ruin was ready to overtake him for his unpardonabi 
delay in tendering bis allegiance. William, at the inft 
gation of Sir John Dalrymple, his fecretary for Scoi 
land, figned a warrant of military execution again 
^F^' ^^^** Macdonald andhis whole clan. And it was put in fon 
by his countryman Campbell, of Glenlyon, with tl 
mod fayage barbarity, accompanied with a breach ( 

a6. Burna. Balcarrss. Macphcrfon. 

6 hofpitalit; 



bo(pltaIity. Macdonald himfelf was (hot dead with two LETTER 

builWts in the back part of the head, by one Lindfay, v--v--L^ 
anoflBcer whom he ha4 entertained as his gueft : his ^D. i69z« 
tenants were murdered by the foldicrs to whom they 
had given free quarters : women were killed in de- 
fending their tender offspring ; and boys, in implor* 

; ing mercy, were butchered by the the officers to whofe 
fajccs they clung *7 ! — ^Near forty perfons were mafia- 
cred, and many of thofe who efcaped to the mountains 
periOied of hunger or cold. All the hoafcs in the 
niley of Glenco were reduced to aflies ; the cattle 

, ^erc driven away, and with the other moveables di- 
vided as fpoif among the officers and foldicrs*^ Never 
wasflsilitary execution more complete. 

This cruel maflacrc, which (hocked all Europe^ 

c<mld not fail to roufe the refentment of the Jacobites 

i» general, but more efpecially of the Highlanders; 

^nd the difiatisiied Whigs made ufe of it, in order to 

^der odious the government of William. An infur- 

^cQion, in favour of the dethroned monarch, was pro- 

jeded both in England and Scotland. James himfelf 

had taken all the ileps, which his own prudence or the 

advice of his friends could fugged, to render his return 

agreeable to his former fubjeds ; and Lewis XIV. en« 

cooraged by favourable accounts from Britain^ bt* 

gan fcrioufly to think of an invafion. An army of. 

twenty thoufand Irifti and French troops, under the 

marefchal de Bellafons, fell down toward the coaft of 

Normandy. James, attended by the duke of Berwick, 

nrrived in the camp, between Cherburg and La Hogue. 

Tbfte hundred tranfports were^ afiembled at Breft ; 

and every thing was ready for the intended em- 

27. Emqmiry iitt§ th Majfatn §/ Giau§, Siatt TraBt^ vol. iii 
^. Ibid. 



PART II. barkation, when an unfortunate concurrence of cir- 
JLTKieoL cumftanccs defeated the whole enterprize '*. 

Lewis, vi£lonous by fea as well as land, bad ap» 
pointed a powerful nnval force to fupport this inva^ 
fion. But the Toulon fquadron« confiding of thirty 
fail, comnnanded by d' Eftrees, was prevented, by con- 
trary winds, from joining the Bred fleet, under Tour- 
irille. Meanwhile the alarm of an iuvafion had fpread 
to England^ and the earl of Marlborough, and feveral 
other perfons of Icfs note, were fent to the Tower, on 
fufpicion of holding a treaionable correfpondence with 
their dethroned fovereign '<?• Admiral Ruflfell was 
ordered out with the Englifh fleet \ and haviag form- 

29. Stuart Pjffrjt 1692. Dakc of Berwick*s Mem. vol. i. 

30. The earl of Mariboruugh certainly hcIJ a fccrct correfpondence 
with James; but that unfortunate monarch never belief cd him to be 
iinccre : he fofpcdcd h'.m of a dcfign to betray his Tovercign a fecond 
time. Admiral Ruflcll feems alfo to bavecnturd into thefe intriguei ; 
and James had no better opiniun of his fiiiccrity. He was apprthcn- 
iive that RuOcd, as a man of republici^n principles wanted ooly to im- 
hinge the government, and to dcbalc the crown in the perfon of fsUeo 
majcfty. James II. 1691. Sec alfu Dalrymple^s y#//>M^. and MMpher- 
fon's Ori^nal Fapert, 

But whatever opinions RufTelfSnij^ht hold, or whatever vieiri be 
might fccrctly entertain, hi* corJud proves him to have been an able 
and faithful fcrvant 10 his country. Nor does anyone feature in hi* 
chtrader or clpcnrnftance in his life, affi'id us the fmalkft room to be- 
lifive^ whatever we may be told by the aliaflinsof public virtnCy that he 
could ever ferioufly intend to betray that country, and his tmfl as an 
EngUfli p.dmlnil, by carrying over the fleet under his command to the 
dethroned monarch, while apapift and pcndoner of Lewis XIV. The 
ambitious and intriguing gcjjius of Marlborough, his original treach- 
ery to James, and his long and intimate corrcfptndcnce with his for- 
mer mafler an3 bcnefa&or whom he had betrayed, leave us mmr in the 
dark with rel'ped to his ultimate diTigns. He appears to have bad nei- 
ther moral nor political principles, uhen they interfered with hisata* 
rice or ambition ; and it fccnis certain that, from zeal for the fervice 
of James, or an averlion agahifl W iiliani, he defeated, by his fccrct 
intelligence, an expedition a;rain{l Prefl, under admiral RulEcU, in 
1694. ^r^ar^/'tf^ri, May, 1694, James II. 1 694, 

«C,.2i*».* /J. 

^yi^n tu^/uUtM 4^J^^nM9*jcc/ttf2MsUf^ijm%mm^>^ 

May 19. 


cd a jun£lion with the Dutch fquadron, he dire£led bis ^^""^^ 
courfe for La Hogue. Off that place, about four n_ ^-'^ 
o^clock in the morning) he difcovcred Tourville ; who, \J^'J^^^* 
though fcnfible of the fuperioriiy of the enemy, re- 
folved to hazard an engagement, in order to vindicate 
himfelf from an afperfion that had been thrown on 
his courage by M. de Seignelay, minifter for the ma- 
rine. He accordingly bore down in the Royal Sun, 
of one hundred and four guns, upon RuiFell, in the 
Britannia, of one hundred guns. The reft of the 
French fleet fell in with the EngtiOi line, and a hot 
engagement enfued, in which the Dutch had little 
Ihare. The two admirals plied their guns very warm- 
ly from eleven till one ; when Tourville, being dif- 
abled, was towed ofFby his boats, and five freOi (hipsi 
with a furious fire, covered his retreat ''• 

' A FOG, which fell about four in the afternoon, pre- 
ferved the French fleet from inflant and inevitable ruin. 
But they were not fuffered toefcape without lofs. Four 
of Tourville's (hips, which bad been fet on fire during 
the engagement, blew up during the night. Next morn- 
ing the chace was renewed ; and the Royal Sun» the 
Admirable, another firft rate, and the Conqueror, an 
eighty-gun fhip, were deftroyed near Cherburg. The 
day following, thirteen line of battle (hips, which had 
foDght fafety by running afliore at La Hogue, were 
burnt, together with twenty tranfports, laden with 
military (lores 33. James, to the utter confufion of 
hia hopes, beheld from the (hore this deftra^ion, 
which it was not in his power to prevent, and which 
toully broke the force of the French navy 33, 

31. RuflcU*8 Lfttgr to N9iiingbam,]\xr\t 2, 1691. 3X. Ibid. 

33. •* Ah !*' — exclaimed the unfortunate monarch, with a mixture 
of admiration and regret, at feeing the French fleet fet on fire,— 
** none but my brave Engliih tari cooldhaTCperfgnncd fo gallant an 
ftftioar' D^ir/mjie's ii../^. 

9 Thb 


The adherents of James in England, howevefi 
were not difcouraged. They conGdered the failure 
of the invafion as an accident, which might foon be 
repaired, and continued to difturb the government 
with their intrigues. Thefe intrigues, the perpetual 
oppoGtion between the Whigs and Tories, and the 
neccflTity of large fupplies to fupport the war on the 
A.D. 1693. continent, gave rife to two great and growing evils, 
intimately connefted with each other ; the national 
debt and tlic corruption of the houfc of commons. 
At the fame time time that William, by a pemicions 
funding fydem, was loading the (late with immenfe 
fums, borrowed to maintain his continental connec- 
tions, he was liberal of the public money to his fer* 
vants at home ; and employed it with little ceremony, 
to bring over his enemies, or to procure a majority 
in parliament. 

In order to put a (lop to this corruption^ fo far as 
it a6*e6ted the reprefcntatives of the people, a bill was 
brought in for Triennial Parliaments ; and William 
A. D. 1(94. found himfelf under the necef&ty of pa(nng it, or of 
loGng the vote of fupply, with which it was made to 
go hand in hand. He was beGde afraid to exert the 
influence of the crown, in defeating a bill of fo much 
confequence to the nation 5 more efpecially as the 
queen, whofe death he was fenfible would weaken his 
authority, was then indifpofed 3\ A Gmilar bill, as 
we have already feen, was extorted from Charles I. 
but repealed, foon after the Reftoration, in compli- 
ment to Charles II. To this imprudent compliance 
may be afcribed the principal diforders during that 
and the fubfequent reign. A houfc of commons^ c- 
Icftcd every three years, would have formed fuch a 

34. Buroet, book v. 



ftrong bulwark to liberty, as mud have ba£9cd and letter 
difcouraged all the attacks of arbitrary power. The . ^'_f 
more honed and independent part of the comma- A. D. 1694. 
niry, therefore, zealoufly promoted the prefent law ; 
whicbs while it continued in force, certainly contri- 
bnted to Item the tide of corruption, and to produce 
a more hit reprefentation of the people. How it 
came to be repealed^ I (hall afterward have occafion 
to notice. 

Thb queen, as William had apprehended, died foon 
after the pafling of this important bill. Mary was a 
woman of great equality of temper, and of no fmall 
Ihare of underdanding. She was a fincere protedant ; 
and by her exemplary piety, the purity of her man- 
ners, and even by her notable indudry, die contri* 
buted much to reform the court, which had been ex- 
tremely licentious during the two former reigns. Nor 
was die deditute of political addrefs ; which, in the 
abfence of her hud)and, die employed in fuch a man- 
ner as to conciliate the affe£lions of all parties. But 
here her praife mud ceafe. She poflcfled few fliining ' 
virtues, or elegant accomplidiments. And the cha- 
ra£h:r.of an obedient wife, fo judly her due, is diadcd 
by the reproach of being a cruel Gder, and an unfeel- 
ing daughter ; who entered the palace of her father* 
loon after he had been forced to leave it, and afcended 
his throne with as much gaiety as if he had been an 
enemy to her exidence, indead of an indulgent parent, 
and the fountain of her blood V I 

William appeared to be very much affli£lcd at 
the death of the queen ; and, however little regard he 
might have for her engaging perfon, from the cold- 

35. BuTDCt, book, IT. V. 



FART IF. ncfs of his own difpaGtion, his grief was poflibly fin- 
ILp.'iOoi! ^^^^* ^^^ °P^" *"^ agreeable deportment, and hef 
natural alliance to the throne, had chieily contributed 
to reconcile the minds of men to his government. The 
Whigs could forgive her every breach of filial duty, 
on account of her adherence to the proteflant rcKgion 
and the principles of liberty ; and even the Tories 
were ready to afcribc her feeming want of fympatby 
with her father's misfortunes, to an obfequious fub- 
miflion to the will of her hufband. With her all na- 
tural title to the £ngli(h crown expired, on the part of 
William ; and although his authority, fupported by 
the aA of Settlement, was too firmly eftablifhed to be 
immediately (haken, the hopes of the Jacobites began 
daily to rife, and confpiraccs were formed againft his 
A.D. 169;. life, as the only bar to the reftoration of James, and 
the fuccefGon of his fon, the titular prhice of Walef^ 
whofe legitimacy fcemed now to be put beyond alt 
queftion, by the queen's undifputcd delivery of a 
daughter ^^ 

The mod dangerous of thefe confpiraciet, coo* 
duftcd by Sir George Barclay and other violent Jaco* 
bites, was intimately connefied with a plan for an in-' 
furreOion in England, and an invaHon from France. 
A. D. 1696. The duke of Berwick was fent over to forward the in* 
ifurrc^lion. But the Englifti nobility and gentry in the 
inetreft of James, though warmly difpofed to fcnrc 
him, very prudently refufed to take arms until a body 
cf troops fhould be landed to fupport them. Finding 
them obftinate in this refoiution, and being informed 

56. At the princ fsof Denmark had long held a Secret corK^pOBd" 
CUC6 wiih her father, and o))Cainad his pardon for her undutiful con' 
dtt^y it wasprefunicd (he wonld not oppofehif rcftoratioD, by plead' 
faij^her par]:2mcntary title to ^.f fuccci£-'n. 



bFtbe tonrpincy agatnft the life bf WilHaiii, the duke LETTIK 
immcdiatclj returned to France, that he might not ^^"' ^^ 
be confoonded with men, whofe atrocious purpofe had a. D. 1^9^ 
aoooooedton with hiscommiflion ; though he thought 
liimfdf bound in honour, he tells us, not to difluade 
them irom it n j 

Ik tbe mean time the troops, intended for the Ih^ 
VifioOf were aflembled at Dunkirk and Calais. Four 
Imdrcd tranfports were coUeded, and eighteen men 
of war were ready to efcort them. James himfelf Wat 
on his way to Join the army, when he was met by the 
duke of Berwick, after his return from England. 
Though he could not blame the caution of his friends, 
be was not a little mortified at it, at Lewis XIV. had 
^K>fitively declared, that he would not allow his troops 
to embark before an infurreflion had afiually taken 
j^ce. The difconfolate princCi however, proceeded 
to Calais^ in anxious expe^ation of the iffue of the 
afiaffination plot ; from which, though undertaken 
without his authority, he hoped to derive advantage 
in his prefent diftreffing circumftanceSk Like a drown- 
ing mariner, he caught at a flippery rope, and reded 
hit defperate fortune on the point of a ruffian's fword« 
Bat his fufpenxre and cmbarrafiment were foon re<» 
MOftd« The plot was difcovered ; feveral of the con- 
^irators were feized and executed, and all EngLnd 
was thrown into a ferment. The current of public 
optoion was fuddenly changed. Even many of thofe, 
who hated tbe perfon, and difliked the government of 
William, were (hocked at the idea of a barbarous at- 
tempt upon his life ; and his ihtone, which fccmcd 

37. Mfm. vol. i. 

Vol. IV. Q^ Ijtely 


PART II. lately to (hake to its bafc, was now mofc firmly eftab- 
J^,"^. liftiedthancvci*. 

Admiral Ruffell, on the firfl certain intel]i|rence 
of the projc6ied invafion, was oidercd to repair to the 
Downs. Having hoifttd his flag on board the Vic- 
tory, he coUeded with incredible diligence and dif- 
patch, a fleet of fifty fail, with which he appeared be- 
fore Calais : and although he found it impra£licable 
to deftioy the French fliipping, or greatly to injure 
the town, he fpread terror all along the coaft, and coo- 
vinced the enemy of the neccility of attending to their 
own fafety, inftcad of ambitioufly attempting to in- 
vade their neighbours '^ Thus were all the hopes of 
James and his adherents blafted, by what the French 
termed his malignant stab. Covered with fliamc 
and confufion, and overwheloaed with difappolntment 
and dtfpair, he returned to St. Germains ; where^ 
laying afide all thoughts of an earthly crown, he tam- 
ed bis views folely toward heaven. Lewis XIV. who 
was an accomplifhed gentleman as well as a magiiifi«i 
cent king, treated the dethroned monarch, on ererj 
occafion, with much tendernefs and refpe£l. Ba< 
fome of the French courtiers were lefs poHte than 
their fovereign. " There," faid one of them^ in the 
hearing of James, *^ is a fimpleton, who has loft threv 
♦* kingdoms for a mafs ^® P* 

2$. Burnet, book v. Duke of Berwick's Mem» vol. i. Jamet II. 
1 fiC)(i. Amid all thefe corfpiracics, againd his ptrfon and governmcnc, 
William difcovcrcd a cool cturagc, ivhich do€» great honour to hit me- 
mory. On fonie uccafi'Ufi he difphyed even a generous magnanimity 
tliat chinit admiration. He not only pardoned but continued in em- 
ployment fome of his principal lervants, after making them fenfibic 
that he tvas acquainted with their intrigues! — And he was rewarded 
Tilth tlar lidclity whicli fuch heroic confidence dcfervcd. 

39. id. ibid. 49. Voltaire, 5/>.'/^, chap. xiT. 



Wt (ball fee, in the courfc of events, Lewis hlmfclf ^^5^* 

obliged to abandon the caufe of this ropl refugee^ and \_ ^-,j 

to acknowledge the nght of William to his dorni* ^ ^« '^^* 


Tbi Military Tranfa^Uns on the Coniimnty from tbi Bi^ 
ginming of the War that fillowtd the Leagui of 
Augsburg, to tht Peace f/RrswiCK, in 1697, 
^Carlowitz, \n \b^^. 

I HAVE already had occafion to obfervei that letter 
Lewis XIV. threatened by the powerful confe- ^^^ y 
deracf formed in confequence of the league of Augf- a.D. x68I. 
bug, made himfelf mafter of Philipfburg and other 
phces, in 1688, as a prelude to more vigorous ezer- 
dons; and that the alliance againft him was com- 
fldedy by the acceflion of England, in 1689. I have 
aUb had occaGon to notice^ that the emperor Leopold, 
the fnppofed head of this alliance, having fubdued the 
arioontents in Hungary, had got bis fon, Jofeph, pro- 
fraclaimed king of that country, and the Hungarian 
i declared hereditary in the houfe of Auftria. 

That revolution was not accompliflied without 
tbe fliedding of much blood, both in the field and on 
the fcafibld. Leopold, the prote£lor of Chriftendom, 
and the aflertor of the rights of nations, was himfelf 
a tyrant and a perfecutor. He was ftill engaged in 
boftilities with the Turks ; but the taking of Bel- 
grade by aflault, joined to his other fuccefles, enabled 
him to take part in the war againft Lewis, whofe vain- 
glorious ambttioo had alarmed all Europe. Befide a 

Qji ^calouff 


PART II. jealoufy for the liberties of Germany, Leopold had 
ArD.'i6S8. Other motives for entering into this war. He was 
fenfible, that the Mtjl Chri/lian King^ while perfccat^ 
ing his own proteftant fubjefls, for not conforming to 
the cbruch of Rome, had fupported the Proteftants in 
Hungary! that he had incited tliem to take arms ia 
defence of thofe heretical opinions, which he abhor- 
red ! and that, by his intrigues, he had even encou- 
raged the Infidels to invade the Hcly R:man Empire^ 
the great bulwark of the Chriftian world ! 

The French monarch, trufting to his great re- 
fourccs, prepared himfelf to repel the {torm which 
his ambition had raifcd, with a vigour proportioned 
to the occaflon. He alTembled two armies in Flan* 

A. D. i4S9, ders : he oppofed a third to the Spaniards in Catt* 
Ionia *, and in order to form a barrier on the Gde of . 
Germany, he laid wafte the Palatinate with fire and 
fword, after having made himfelf mailer of its prin- 
cipal towns. This barbarous policy, which has been 
juftly and feverely blamed, can never be held in too 
much detellation. Men, women and children, were 

FcVruarr, driven in a fcvcre fcafon, out of their habitations^ to 
wander about the fields, and to peri(h of hunger and 
cold; while they beheld their houfes reduced to a(heS| 
their goods feized, and their poffeffions pillaged by the 
rapacious foldiery.^' The terrible execution began at 
Manheim, the feat of the ele£lors; where not only 
the palaces of thofe princes were rafed to the groondi 
but their very tombs opened in fearch of hidden tiei- 
fures, and their veherable duft fcattered in the air '• 
* " Twice, during the reign of Lewis XIV. was this fins 
country defolated by the arms of France ; but tb# 
flames lighted by Turenne, however dreadful, werf 

T. Voltaire, SiecU, chap, zv, KainiQlt, 1689. 



only like fo many torchesj compared with the pre- ^y^f ^ 
{Sent frightful confiagrationj which filled all Europe |_ -.'ji 
with horror. a. d. 1689. 

Nor did that cruel expedient, fo dirgraceful to the 
tharadicr of the French monarch, anfwer the end 
pfopofcd : it ferved only to increafe the number and 
the lancour of his enemies. Though Lewis had 
near four hundred thoufand men in the field, he found 
himfclf inferior to the allies. Eleven thoufand Englifli 
troops, commanded by the earl of Marlborough, 
augmented (the army of Spain and the United Pro- 
vinces, in Flanders, to near fifty thoufand men. The 
Qexm^xiic body, united under the emperor, aflembled 
three formidable armies, befide that oppofed to the 
Turks ; namely, one under the ele£lor of Bavaria, 
who commanded on the Upper Rhine ; another, and 
the main army, led by the duke of Lorrain, who 
aSed on the Middle Rhine ; and a third, condufled 
bjdieele^ior of Brandenburg, appeared on the Lower 

The duke of Lorrain, palling the Rhine at Cob- 
lentx, and the Mofelle at Alcketi, purfued his march 
through the foreft of Saon, and laid fiege to Mentz; 
wkilc the eleGor of BranJenburg, with his own 
troops, and thofe of Weflnhalia, inveftcd Bonne. 
Both places were taken : and the French, under the 
inarefchal d'Humiers, though determined to remain 
on the dcfcnfive in Flanders, were brought to an 
engagement by the princs of Waldcc, and worftcd ac 
Walcourt *. Nor was Lewis more fuccersful in Citii- 
lonia, where his troops were driven back to iluir 
»^ frontiers by the duke de Villa Hcrmofa } who, 

2. Id. Ibid. 

Q 3 puifuing 


PART II. purfuing marefchal de Noailles, laid Rouffillon 
iro^^g^ under contribution, and obliged him to abandott 
Campredon, which he had taken in the beginning of 
the campaign '• The fame bad fortune that feemed 
to perfecute France, fell with dill greater weight 
upon the Grand Seignior, her ally. The prince oC 
Baden, who commanded for the emperor on the Gd^ 
of Hungary, defeated the Turks in three fucoeffift 
engagements. He forced their entrenchments on the 
banks of the Morava, he routed them at Nifla, and 
he obtained a complete vidory at Widin * i fo that 
the mod Chriftian king, who had expeded a great 
diverfion of the imperial forces by the InfidelSi now 
found himfelf obliged to rely on his own arms. 

4.D. 1699. The enemies of France were ftill more numerous 
during the next xampaign, but her generals were 
t)etter chofen. The duke of Savoy having joined the 
allies* it became neceflary for Lewis to fend an vmj 
into Italy. This army was committed to the oiarefT 
chal de Catinat, who united the fire of a hero to the 
coolnefs of a philofopher. Bred to the law, in which 
he would have excelled, he had quitted that profeffion 
in difguft, and rifen to the higheft military rank, by 
the mere force of merit. He every where (hewed 
himfelf fuperior to his antagonift ViAor Amadeus, 
though reputed an able general, and completely ic^ 
feated him at Staffarada. In confquence of this 
vi£tory, Saluces fell into the hands of the French ; 
Suza, which commanded the pafles between Daaphine 
and Piedmont, was taken ; and all Savoy, excq>t the 
fortrefs of Montmelian, was foon reduced K 

3. Mtm, ie NomiUtt torn L 4. Barre, tom.x. 5. Voltaife. 
9wr«fc, chap. !▼• Hainault, 1699. 



Ths«£ui s fttccefs attended the arms of France on LErrER 
Ac frontiers of Spain, where all Catalonia was thrown ^ j- '* 
into confafion ; and Luxembourg, who united the A. D. 1690. 
•ondoA of Turenoe to the intuitive genius of Condc, 
s ganre a new turn to her affairs in Flanders* Being 
I foddenlf joined by the marefchal de Bouffiers» he ad- 
▼aooed againft the Dutch and Spaniards, under the 
prince of Waldec ; and an obllinate battle enfued, at 
Fleuros, near Charleroy ; where, by a bold and de« 
dfive motion of his cavalry, he gained a complete 
but bloody vi£lory* Covered from the view of the 
enemy by a riCng ground, the French horfe fell upon 
the flank of the Dutch, while engaged in front with 
the infantry. The Dutch cavalry were broken, and 
fled at the iirfl; (hock *, but their infantry flood firm, 
aod performed fignal feats of valour. Seven thou- 
(and were killed on the fpot, before they gave way ; 
and Ltixerpburg declared, that the Spanifli infantry 
did not behave with more gallantry at Rocroy ^ 

Nothing memorable happened during the cam* 
paign on the French fide of Germany. The ina£lion 
of the allies in that quarter may partly be afcribed 
to the death of the duke of Lorrain. This gallant 
prince, whofe high fpirit induced him to abandon his 
dominons, and become a foldier of fortune, rather 
than fttbmit to the hard conditions offered him by 
Lewis XIV. at the peace of Nimeguen, had greatly 
diftin^ihed himfelf on many occafions, and was be- 
come a confummate general. His injuries feem al- 
ways to have been uppermoff in his mind» except 
while engaged againft the Infidels, when religion was 
predominant. He threatened to enter Lorrain at the 
head of forty thoufand men before the end of the 

6. Voltaire, SUeU^ chap. xv. Hamault, 1699. 

Qj^ fummer j 


Takt XL futnmer ; a circuroftance which appears to hffe ^Ven 
A^Di^idQo. '^^^ ^° *^* report of his having been poifoned by the 
emiflraries of France. His letter to the emperor Leo« 
pold, his brother-in-law, written on his death-bed^ 
ftrongly marks his chara£ier. <^ I am going," bj% 
he, '* to give an account, to a more powerful Mafter^ 
** of a life which I have devoted chiefly to your fer* 
*^ vice. Remember that I leave behind me a wifet 
^* who is nearly related to you i children, who have 
*< no inheritance but my fword, and fubje&s who are 
*' in oppreflion ^ i" 

The Turks were no lefs fuccefeful this campaign 
than the French. Exafperated at the lofs of their 
armies in Hungary and the neighbouring provincesy 
they had demanded the head of the gr^nd viskr, 
which was granted them ; and the new vizier, be- 
ing a man of an a£live difpofition, as well as (kilful 
in the military art, made great preparations for 
carrying on the war with vigour. Nor did he 
ncgledl the arts of policy. The Vaivode of Tran- 
fllvania having died lately, he prevailed with the 
Grand Sejgnior to declare Tckcli, the chief of the 
Hungarian malcontents, his fucceHbr. This rcvo- 
lution^ and the fucccfles of Tckcli, obliged the prince 
of Baden, who commanded the imperial army in 
Hungary, to march into Tranfilvania. During his 
abfence the Turks took Niffi, Widin, and even Belr 
grade ; which was carried by affauir, after a bloody 
fiegc, in confcqucnce of the blowing up of the pow^ 
dcr magazine. All Upper Hungary, beyond the 
Tibifcus, fell into their bands ; and thcy-took winter-r 
quarter? in that country^ with every prufpeft of im- 

7. Duke of Berwick's JWjrw. vol. i, 



yroriog their advantagCB, as foon as the feafon would letter 
pcnnit •• |_ ^,-^^ 

.0961*0. A 

Amid the misfortunes of the allies during this 
catDpaign, we ought not to omit the defeat of the 
oombioed fleet of England and • Holland, by the 
Fftochi an erent whicb^ in fpeaking of the affairs 
4>f Great Britain, I have already hinted at, but found 
DO opportunity to defcribe* The fcene of a£tion lay 
off Beacby-head ; where the fleet of France, under 
ToonriUe^ was with diffidence attacked by two mari^- 
time powers, who had long contended fingly for the 
ib?ereignty of the ocean. 80 great, indeed, had the 
Pfjertions of Lewis been in raiGng his navy, that the 
allies were inferior to Tourville, botli in the (ize and 
the number of their (hips; but their ikill in fcaman- 
fliip, and the memory of their former exploits, it was 
hoped would make up for their deficiency in force* 
Ic happened, bcnrcver, other wife* ' 

After the hoftile fleets had continued five days 
in fight of each other, the earl of Torrington, who 
cootimanded in chief for the allies, bore down upon 
the enemy ; in confequence of exprefs orders to ha- 
zard a battle, which he had hitherto carefully avoided. 
The Dutch fquadron, which formed the van of the 
combined fleet, was engaged with the van of the 
Freach about eight o'clock in the morning ; and the 
blue divifion of the Englifli, before nine, attacked the 
rear of the enemy with great vigour. But the red 
divifion, which formed the centre, and which Tor- 
rington condudcd in pcrfon j did not come into adlion, 
till an hour later ; and even then at fuch a diftance 
from the Dutch, as to permit their whole divifion to 
$. Barre, torn. z. Heifs, lib. ill. 

6 be 


be furrounded by the French. Though the Dotcb 
fought with great courage, moft of their (hips weic 
difablcd ; three of the line were funk in the engage- 
ment, and three burnt in the flight. Befide many 
brave feamen, two of thrir admirals, and federal cap- 
tains were flain. The Englilh, who were in the 
aflion, fuffertd extremely. The French (hips were 
well manned, their fire was regular and rapid, and 
their management or the fails during theaflion flulfal 
and expeditious. Their ignorance of the courfe of 
the tides« and their purfumg in a ^ine, only coiild 
have prevented them from totally bi caking the naval 
force of England and Hollind 'K Ln this unfortunate 
battle, the allies lod eight (hips of the line, and feve- 
ral others were rendered utterly unfit for fervicc *•• 
But it was attended with no farther confequences of 
any importance. 

A.D.1691. '^'^^ progrefs of the French, during the next 
campaign, was not equal to what might have beed 
expeftcd from their vidories in the foregoing ; nor 
was the fucccfs of the allies anfwcrabie to their hopes. 
Though Lewis in perfon took Mons, in the b^in- 
iiingof April, in defiance of king William, who had 
placed himfelf at the heal of the confederate armyi 
the fummer was fpent in a (late of inadtivity, and 
pa(red without any memorable event on the (idc of 
Flanders. On the frontiers of Germany the war Itn- 
gui(hcd ; and although the French were fuccc'sful in 
Catalonia, they had no rcafon, on the whol<*, to boaft 
of their good fortune, 'i he conquefts of Catinat in 
Italy were checked by prince Kugene and the yoang 
duke of Schomberg \ who repulfed him at Coni, ia 
Piedmont, and obliged him foon after to repafs the 

<). TorringtoD'i Zi«Mrr /0 Caermariben^Yi^^ X, 1690. Kcnnct* Ralph* 
Burnet. 10. U)id. 



Fa. MeanwUie the Turks, on the fide of Hungary, letter 
loft all the adfantages which they had acquired, ia ^^.^i^ 
the preceding campaign. They were totally routed, A.D.i69i« 
by the prince of Baden, at Salankeman, with the lofs 
of twenty thoufand men ; and the grand vizier, the 
iieraikier, and mod of their principal officers being 
isittp the remains of their army found it neceflary to 
ftek Ihelter beyond the Saave '^ 

William and Lewis, the following fpring, fet A. d. 169s. 
out on the fame day to join their refpcclive armies, 
and the higheft hopes were formed on both fides* 
Lewis fat fuddenly down before Namur, with an* 
army of forty-five thoufand men; while Luxemburg, 
with another army, covered the fiege of that import- 
ant place, which is fituated at the conflux of the 
Sambre and th^ Maefe. The town was ftrong, the 
citadel was deemed impregnable : the garrifon con- 
fiftcd of ten thoufand men, under the prince of 
Barbafon ; and the famous Coehorn defended in per- 
Ion a new fort, which bore his name, while Vauban 
direded the attack. The eyes of all Europe were 
tamed toward Namur, where two great kings con- 
tended for glory and conqueft. William advanced to 
the relief of the place, with an army of eighty thou* 
fand men ; but the ilrong pofition of Luxemburg, on 
the l>anks of the Mehaign, which ran between the 
two armies, and the unexpected rains, which had not 
only fwelled the dream, but formed into morafles che 
adjoining fields, deterred him from hazarding an en- 
gagement. Meanwhile Lewis, having taken the 
town, preflcd with vigour the fiege of the new fort j 
and Coehorn, after an obflinate defence, was obliged 
to capitulate. The fate of the citadel was foon 

II • Voltaire, SictU^ chap. xv. HainauU, 1691. Bute, torn, x. 
9 after 


PART II. after decided, and Lewis returned in triumph to Vcr- 




In order to recover that reputation^ which be had 
loft by Dot fuccouring Namur, William endeaYonr- 
cd to furprife tbe French army» under Luxcmburgi 
at Steinkirk. The attack was chiefly made by tbe 
BritiQi troops, in columns. They prefied witb amaz* 
ing intrepidity upon the right wing of the enemyi 
notwithftanding the difadvantage of ground^ broke 
their line, took their artillery, and, if properly fap- 
ported, would have gained an undifputed vidory. 
But William and his Dutch generals not only failed 
to fecond the efforts of thofe brave battalions witb 
freOi troops, but to charge the enemy's left wing, 
when their right was thrown into diforder '*• In con- 
fequence of thefe miftakes, the battle was totally loft. 
The Englifh, negle£led by their allies, and lefc to UxU 
tain alone the whole (hock of the houfliold troops of 
France, led by Luxemburg, and encouraged by tbe 
pre fence of the princes of the blood, were at length 
obliged to give ground, and almoft all cut in pieces. 
Nor was the lofs of the French lefs confiderablc. Par- 
tial as the engagement proved, above ten thoufand 
men fell oj both fides, in the fpace of two hours; 
and the veteran Luxemburg decbred, that he was 
never in fo hot an adion '♦. William's military cha- 
raftcr fuffcred greatly by this battle, and the hatred 
of the Englifh againfl the Dutch became violent in 
the highcft degree *^ ** Let us fee what fport thefe 
f* Englifh bull-dogs will make !" was the cool far* 

12. Vo'tT'.irc, 5W^, chap. XV. Halnault, 1691. Barrr, torn. x. 

1 3. Dakc of Herwlck*8 Mtm. vol. i. 14. Id. ibid. J 
15. Burnet, book v. 



ciftical rq>Iy of count Solmes, when 'ordered to ad« letter 
vance to the fupport of the Britifli troops, xviii.^ 

A. D. 1692. 
Tbc allies were lefs unfortunate in other quarters. 
The French, by exening their whole force in Flan- 
den, left their own country expofed. The army 
ttoder the marefchal de Catinat, being too weak to 
icfift the duke of Savoy, that prince entered Dau- 
phine, and fufficiently revenged himfelf for the in- 
fiilts which he had received in his 'own dominions, 
daring the two preceding campaigns. He ravaged 
the country, he reduced the fortified towns, and fick- 
ncft <»ily prevented him from acquiring very impor- 
tant conquefls ''''• Nothing of any confequence hap* 
pencd on the Rhine, though the French had rather 
there the advantage. The affairs of the allies went 
better on the borders of Hungary. Great Waradin, 
after a long blockade, was taken by the Impeiialifts ; 
and chofe diforders, which ufually attend the misfor- 
tnaet of the Turks, involved the- court of Conftanti- 
aopk in blood. 

Elated with his pafl fucccfTes, Lewis XIV, A.D.169: 
opened the next campaign with great pomp in Flan- 
ders. He went thither in perfon, attended by his 
whole court, and appeared at the head of an army of 
one hundred and twenty thoufand men. Nothing lefs 
was expected from fuch a force than the entire con- 
queft of that fine country. But Lewis, influenced 
by motives which have never yet been fufficiently ex- 
filuned, fuddenly difappointed the hopes of his friend?, 
and quieted the fears of his enemies. He fcnt part 
of his army into Germany, under the Dauphin; and 
leaving to Luxemburg the conduA of the military 

16. 7h44i, £ufft^ J 692. Hainatik, fub an. 



PART II. operations in Flanders, returned to Verfiulles wA 

^"^'^ his court '7. 

A.D. i6q3. 

A.D. 1693. 

This. unexpected meafure has been afcribed to the 
flrong pofition of the allies at Parks, near Louvaio, 
nfhere king William had judicioufly encamped his 
army, in order to cover Bruflcls, and by which he is 
fuppofed to have difconcerted the defigns of the French 
monarch. But William, who had only fifty thoufimd 
men, would not have dared, as the duke of Berwidi 
very juftly obferves, to wait the approach of fo fape- 
lior a force as that under Lewis s or, if he had, he 
mud have been overwhelmed; and Bruflels^ Li^e, 
and even Maeftricht muft have fallen >'• This, adds 
the duke, makes the king's departure, and the divifion 
of his army, the more unaccountable. A flight in- 
difpofitioo, and the anxiety of Madame de Mainie« 
non (his favourite miftrefs, who accompanied bin) 
for the health and fafety of her royal lover, proba- 
bly faved Flanders ; though Lewis himfelf, in a letter 
to the marefchal de Noailles, afcribes his fodden 
change of meafures to a defire of peace, and a con- 
vidion that it could only be procured by vigorous ex* 
cnions in Germany »>• 

The duke of Luxemburg, with the main body of 
the French army, after having attempted in vain, by 
a variety of mov*ements, by taking Huy and threat- 
ening Licge» to bring the allies to an engagement, 
refolved to attack them in their camp, when they 
were weakened by detachments. He accordiq^jT 
quitted his pod at Hellicheim, fuddenly croflfed the 
Jaar, and advanced toward them by forced marches. 

17. Hurnet, book ▼. Dukc of Bfrwick, voL i. 18. Dnkeof 

Bci v> Ick> Mem. vol. u 19. Ulitm, dt NHUffu, tom. i. 

M O D E R N E U R O P E. 239 

▼an was in fi^ht before they were advIfeJ of hU LETTER 
oach ; but as it was then almoil eveningi William '^ 

It have retired In the night with fafety, had he A.D.i685. 
depended upon the (Ireiigth of his pofition and 
bravery of his troops. The river Geete bounded 
right, and ran w nding along his rear. On the 

and in the front of the left was the brook of 
den. A thick, hedge covered part of the front o£ 
right wing. The village of Neerwinden, with 
uictiments before it, was fituated between the 
end of the hedge and his centre, the tight joining 
Geete. The village of RomfdorflF Rood farther 
inced, oppoft^d to the front of the left wing, and 
entrenchments before it ftretched to the brook of 
den. A line ot entrenchments extended them* 
» behind the two villages, and behind thefe the 
y of the allies was formed. Their whole front 

covered with one hundred pieces of cannon 9 
eb, by being advantageoufly placed on an emi« ^ 
X, commanded all the approaches to their line *\ 

HE duke of Luxemburg, on the evening of his ar« 
:, diflodged a detachment of the allies, pofted in the 
ge of Landen, which ftood aivanccd before the 
•k of that name. Between this village and that of 
ifdorff be placed forty battalions in the night : 
irmed his centre of eight lines of horfe and foot 
mixed ; and his horfe, on the left wing, were 
red to extend themfelves to the Geete, oppoGng 
r line to the thick hedge which covered the ene- 
I right* About five in the morning this arange- 
t wat completed : a cannonading took place on 
fides, and the duke of Berwick, with two other 
cnant-generals, Rubantel and Montchevreuilj 

20. Jkbm, de Ftyfuitru Dcnrick's i^fiiv. ubi fup. 



PaHTII. were ordered to begin the atuck ; Rubaotel^ on the 
u- >^--^ entrenchments to the right of Neerwinden^ with two 
A.D.1693. brigades} Montchevreuil, on the left, with theCune 
number s and the duke of Berwick on the Tillige, 
with other two brigades. The village projeQed oat 
beyond the plain ; fo that the duke of Berwick, wbo 
was in the centre, attacked firft. He forced the allies 
to abandon their pod : he drove them from hedge to 
hedge, as far as the plain, at the entrance of which he ' 
formed again in order of battle. But the troops det 
tined to attack on his tight and left, inftead of fol^ 
lowing their inftrudions, thought they would be kb 
expofed to the enemy's fire by throwing themfcifei 
into the village ; in confequence of which attempti 
they got at once into his rear ; and the allies, per- 
ceiving this blunder, re-entered Neerwindcn by the 
right and left, now entirely unguarded. A terrible 
confli£i enfued. The four brigades under Rubantel 
^ and Montchevreuil were thrown into confuGon, isd 
driven out of the village y and the duke of Berwicki 
attacked on all fidei, and unfupported, was taken 

Ld KBmrkrg, however, was not ititimidatcd bf 
this difaftcr. He made a fecond attempt upon Neer^ 
winden, and fucceeded . His troops were again ei^eliedi 
and a third time took pofleflion of the village. The 
battle now raged with fury on both fides. William 
twice led the Englifli infantry up to his entrenchmeotii 
which the enemy endeavoured to force ; but nothing 
could refift the impetuofity of the French. Their 
centre being reinforced by the right wing, opened a 
way for their cavalry into the very lines of the allies. 
They flanked the Engliih, they broke the German 

21. Id. ibiil. 



and Spanifli horfc ; and WilHam, when bnwclj ad- ^xvm ^ 
tancing to the charge, with part of bis left wing, had y, ■y a 
the mortification to fee his right driven headlong into ^^' '^3« 
Ae Geete. All was now tumult and confnfion. 
Terror and flight every where prcTailed ; and befide 
diofe who funk in the general flaughter, many were 
drowned in the river. Twelve thoufand of the allies 
lay dead on the field ; two thoufand were made pri- 
fimers; and Gxty pieces of cannon, and eight mortars, 
with about fourfcore ftandards, and colours, fell into 
the hands of the French ^\ Yet Luxemburg, after 
all, gained little but glory by the vidory at Neer- 
winden. Eight thoufand of his heft troops were 
flain in battle, and his army was fo much weakened 
by the number of the wounded, that be could take no 
advantage of the conflernation of the enemy. During 
fix weeks he continued in a (late of ina£lion, and 
Charieroy was the only conqueft he afterward made« 
before the clofe of the campaign *^. ^ 

On the fide of Germany, the French ftained the 
glory of their arms by a£l8 of cruelty and barbarity. 
Chamilly having taken Heidelberg by ftorm, put the 
foldiers and citizens promifcuouily to the fword ; and 
when the maflacre ended, rapine began. The houfcs 
were burnt, the churches pillaged, the inhabitants flript 
naked, and the perfons of the women expofed to vio- 
lation, without refpe£t to age or condition *K This 
(hocking tragedy excepted, nothing memorable hap« 
pened in that quarter. The Germans, fenfible of 
their inferiority, ftudioufly avoided a battle; and the 
Dauphin, after croffing the Necker, and difperfing 
a vain manifefto, containing humiliating terms of 

21. Burnet. Ralpb. P. Daniel. Duke of Berwick. Hainault. 
VoIuire« 13. lUd. 24. B«rre. Heift. Voltaire* 

Vol. IV. R peace, 


^ARTii. peace« returned without laurels to Vcrfaillcs*'. The 
A.D. 1693. war in Hungary produced no fignal event. In CaU- 
Ionia, the marefchal de Noailies took Rofes in figbt 
of the Spanifti army, and would have acquired more 
important conquers, had he not been obliged to toA 
a detachment into Italy ^^ « 

The militarj operation8» on the fide of Fiedmonti 
after having languifhed throughout the fummer, were 
terminated by a decifive aflion^ toward the end of 
the campaign. The duke of Savoy, at the head of 
the confederates, had invefted Pignerol. Meanwhile 
the marefchal de Catinat, being reinforced with ten 
thoufand men, defcended from the mountains, and 
feemed to threaten Turin. Alarmed for the fafety 
of his capital, the duke raifcd the Gege of Pignerol, 
and advanced to the fmall liver Cifola, where it pat 
fes by Marfaglia. Refolving to engage Catinat, he 
fent away his heavy baggage. The two armies were 
foon in fight of each other, and the French genaal 
did not decline the combat. The imperial and Hed* 
montefe cavalry, commanded by the duke in perfon, 
compofed the right wing of the confederates; their 
infantry, confining of the troops of Savoy, and thofe 
in the pay of Great Britain, were ftatioced in the 
c^tre, under the famous prince Eugene; and the 
Spaniards, led by their native officers, formed the 
left wing. The French a£ted in an unufual manner. 
They received, as they advanced, the fire of the 
Spaniards; then fired, charged them with fixed bay- 
onets, and afterward fword in band. The whole left 
wing of the allied army was inftantly broken, and 
thrown in confufion on the centre, which fuflained the 
battle with great obdinacy. The centre, however, 

!$• Ibid. s6. Mem, de NhuIUm, torn, i^ 




was al length obliged to give way, and a complete LETTER 
tiQory remained to the French. ficGde their can- ^ , ^- ] f 
Ml and light baggage, with a great number of colours ^ ^* '^>3- 
ladftandardf, the allies loft eight thoufand men in the 
idion *7, * Among many perfons of diftin£iioni who 
fell or were taken, the young duke of Schomberg was 
mrtally wounded and made prifoner. 

Nor were the French Icfs fuccefsful in maritime 
afiairs. Though the (hock which their navy had fuf- 
tained oflP la Hogue, the foregoing fummer, render- 
ed them unable to face the combined fleet of England 
and Holland, they made up in diligence what they 
wanted in force. The Englifli nation had, with rea- 
fon, complained of the little attention paid to commerce 
ever flnce the beginning of the war. Though powerful 
fleets were fent to fc:a, and fome advantages gained on 
that element, trade had fuiFered much from the frigates 
and piivateers of the enemy. The merchants, there- 
fore, refolved to keep their ricbeft fliips in their feveral 
harbours, till a fufficient convoy could be obtained : 
and fo great was the negligence of government, that 
many of them had been, /or eighteen months, ready to 
fail *^ I Their number accumulated daily. At length 
the whole combined fleet was ordered to condu£^, as 
far as might be requifite, four hundred merchantmen, 
confiAing of Englifli, Dutch, and Hamburghers, 
bound for the diflferent ports in the Mediterranean, 
and generailly known by the name of the Smyrna Fltet. 
They accordingly put to fea, and proceeded fifty 
ieagoes beyond Ufhant ; where they left Sir George 
Rooke, with a fquadron of twenty-three fail, to convoy 
the traders to the Straits. 

%j. Mam, de f^u^uteres. Europe Hiji. torn. ii. a I'An. X693. 
2 5. Burnet, bwok # 

R 2 MiAK- 


PAiTir. Meanwhile the French fleet, under ToanriUe, 
A. D. 1693. had taken ftation in the bay of Lagos, and laj in 
that place till Rooke and the multitude of rich TeflSrb 
under his condudl appeared. Deceived by falfe intel- 
ligence concerning the ftrength of the enemy, the 
Englilh admiral prepared to engage; but fuddenly 
perceiving his miftake, he flood away with an eafy 
fail, ordering the merchantmen to difperfe mod (hift 
for themfelvcs. The French came up with the ftcm- 
mod (hips, and took three Dutch men of war. About 
fourfcore merchsntmen were taken or deftroyed in the 
different ports of Spain, into which they had run, ta 
order to a? oid falling into the bands of the enemy* 
The objeft of the voyage was totally defeated, and 
the lofs in (hips and cargo amounted to twelve hun- 
dred thoufand pounds *'. 

But Lewis XIV. amid all his viQories, had the 
mortification to fee his fubje^ls langui(hing in mifery 
and want. France was aiRided with a dreadful fa- 
mine, partly occafloned by unfavourable feafons, part- 
ly by the war, which had not left bands fufficient to 
cultivate the ground ; and notwithftanding all the 
provident attention of her minifhy in bringing fup- 
plies of corn from abroad, in regulating the priice and 
f urnidiing the markets, many of the peafants peridied 
of hunger, and the whole kingdom was reduced to 
poverty and diftrefs'*'. 

William, apprifed of this diftrefs, and ftill thirft- 
ing for revenge, rejef^ed all advances toward peace, 
and haftened his military preparations. He was ac- 
cordingly enabled to appear early in Flanders mt the 

29 Burcbct'i Nnal Hijl, Buroet. Ktlph. 30. Vokairb 

iitiUt chap. x^. 



bead of z great and finely appointed army ; but the fu« lkttfr 
perbr genius of Luxemburg, wiih an army much in- J* ^ 

ferior^ prerented him from gaining any confiderable a. D. 1694. 
adTintage* The retaking of Uuy was the only con- 
queft he made during the campaign. On ihe Upper 
Rhine, in Hungary, in Piedmont, no event of any con- 
feqoence happened ^\ On the Cde of Spain, the war 
was carried on with more vigour. The marefchal de 
Noailles* having forced the paflage of the river Ter, in 
Catalonia, defeated the Spanilh army entrenched on 
the farther bank. Gironne and Oftalric fell fuccef- 
fively into his hands; and he would have made himfelf 
mafter of Barcelona, had not admiral Ruficll, with 
the combined fleet, arrived in tlie neighbouring feas, 
and obliged the French fleet to take (helter in Tou- 
lon '*• White Tourville and d'Eftrees were blocked 
up in that harbour, the French fea-ports upon the 
Channel were bombarded, though with no great 

The glory and greatnefs of Lewis XIV. were now 
not only at their height, but verging toward a de- 
cline. His refources were exhaufted : his minifter 
Lottvois, who knew fo well how to employ them, was 
dead ; and Luxemburg, the lad of thofe great gene- 
rals, who had made France the terror of Europe, 
died before the opening of next campaign. Lewis 
determined, therefore, to z€t merely on the defenfive 
In Flanders, where the allies had aflTembled an amaz- 
ing force. After fome heCtation, he placed maref- 
chal de Villeroy at the head of the principal army, 
and intruded the fecond to Boufllers. Namur on the 
right, and Dunkirk on the left, comprehended be- 

31. Daniel. Burnet. Ralph. Duke of Berwick. 31. A/m. 

dc Ntailiet^ torn, i, 33. Burnet. Ralph. Burchet. Voltaire. 

R 3 twecn 


PART n. tween them the extent of country to be defended by 
^^P^j^-** the French. Toarnay on the Scheld, and Yprcs, 

near the Lys, formed part of the line. Boufflcrs 
* was ordered to aflemble his army near Mons, to co» 

ver Namur ; and Villcroy ported himfelf between the 

Scheld and the Lys, to proteA Tournay, Yprcs, and 

Dunkirk »♦. 

King William, who took the field in the begin-- 
ning of May, fonnd himfelf at the head of an army 
much fuperior to that of France. In order to amnfe 
the enemy, and conceal his real defign upon Namur, he 
made fome artful movements, which diftrafied the at- 
tention of Villeroy, and rendered him uncertain where 
the ftorm would firft fall. At length having com- 
pleted his preparations, and formed his army into 
three bodies, he ordered the cleiSlor of Bavaria, with 
one divifion, to invcfl Namur. He himfelf, at the 
head of the main body, was encamped behind the Me- 
haign, and in a condition to pafs chat river, and fuf- 
tain the ficge, if neccflary; while the prince of Vau- 
demont, with an army of obfcrvation, lay between 
theLys and the Mandcl, to cover thofc places in Flan- 
ders which were mod expofcd ^'. Namur, into which 
marefchal Boufflcrs had thrown himfelf with fefen 
regiments of dragoons, in order to reinforce the gar- 
rifon, made a vigorous defence : but it was at laft 
pbliged to furrendcr; and the citadel, which Ville- 
roy attempted in vaic to relieve, was alfo taken '*. 
Lewis XIV. in order to wipe off this difgrace, and 
to retaliate on the confederates for the attacks made 
by the Englifli on the couft of France, commanded 
Villeroy to bombard Brufiels; and the prince of Vaude- 

34. Mum, dm FemquUres,' 35. KaDc*s Ctm^Migm, Mtm.if 

ffk^uifres, 36.. Id. ibid. 



mont had the mortification to fee ereat part of that letter 
city laid in roin3, without being able cither to prevent ^_ '_^ 
or avenge the wanton deftruftion ^ '. A. D. 1695. 

The military reputation of William, which had 
fuflfiered greatly during the three foregoing cam- 
painst was much mifed by the retaking of Namur. 
But the allies had little fuccefs in other quarters. No 
event of -any importance happened on the fide of Ita- 
ly, on the Upper Rhine, or in Catalonia. On the 
fide of Hungary, where peace had been expefted by 
the confederates, the acceffion of Muftapha II. to the 
Ottoman throne, gave a new turn to affairs. PoffeflT- 
ed of more vigour than his predeccflbr, Achmet II. 
Muftapha rjcfolvcd to command his troops in perfon. 
He accordingly took the field ; pafTed the Danube ; 
ftormed Lippa 5 fcized Itul ; and falling fuddenly on 
abody of Imperialifls, under Veterani, he killed that 
officer, difperfed his forces, and clofcd with fuccefs a 
compaign which promifed nothing but misfortune to 
the Turks ^\ 

The next campaign produced no (ignal event any 
where. France was exhaufted by her great exertions ; 
and, the king of Spain and the emperor excepted, all 
parties fcemcd heartily tired of the war. Lewis XIV. A.D. 1696- 
by his intrigues, had detached the duke of Savoy from 
the confederacy : he tampered with the other powers : 
asd a congrefs for a general peace, under the media- 
tion of Charles XI. of Sweden, was at laft opened, 
at the caftlc of Ryfwick, between Delft and the 
Hague. The taking^f Barcelona, by the duke of Ven- 
dome. Induced the king of Spain to liften to the pro* 

37. Pake of Berwick*! Mm, vol. i, 
3a. Btrre. Heifi. 

R 4 pofab 


PART I!, pofalsof France ; and the emperor, after reproaching 
A.D itfoT. ^^^ allies with dcferting him, found it necefiary to ac- 
cede to the treaty. 

The conceffions made by Lewis XIV. were very 
conGderable; but the pretenfions of the boufe of Bour* 
bon to the Spanifli fucceflion were left in full force. 
Though the renunciation of all claim to that fuccef- 
lion, conformable to the Pyrenean treaty, bad been 
one great objefl of the war, no mention was made of 
it in the articles of peace. It was ftipulated, That the 
French monarch (hould acknowledge William to be 
lawful fovereign of Great Britain and Ireland, and 
make no farther attempt to difturb him in the pof* 
feffion of his kingdoms ^9 • that the duchy of Lux- 
emburg, the county of Chiney, Charleroy, Mons, 
Aeth, Coutray, and all places united to France by the 
chambers of Metz and Brifac, as well as thofe takeq 
in Catalonia, during the war, (hould be redored to 
Spain ; that Friburg, Brifgaw, and Philipfburg, (hould 
be given up to the emperor ; and that the duchies of 
Lorrain and Bar (hould be rendered back to their na* 
tive prince*'. 

^q. Lewisi we aratold, difcovered much reludlance in fubmittiog to 
this article; and that he might not feem altogether tp defert the de- 
throned monarch, propofed that hi* fun fhuuld fucceed to the crown of 
England, after the death of William j that William, with little hdkta-« 
tlon, agreed to the re^ueft ; that he even fulemnly engaged to procure 
the repeal of the A6t of Settlement, and to obuin another ad, declaring 
the pretended prince of Wales his fucceffor. But James, it is added, re- 
jedcd the offer; protefting That fhould he himfelf be capable of con-t 
fcntinp tofych a difgraccful propofal in favour of his (on, he might juftly 
be rtproachcd with departing from his avowed principles, and with 
iuiiiii>g monarchy, by rendering clcdivc an hereditary crown. DffSt 
di: Aff^rc^ litranj^c a VerfailUs. James II. 1697. Macphcrfon, //^. 
J5r';t. vol. li. 40. Dumoot, Ccr/, Di^lom. torn. yiii. 



Scarce had the emperor acceded to the treaty of letter 

Ryfwick, which re-eftabliflied tranquillity in the , '^ 

North and Weft of Europe, when he received inteU A. a 1697. 
ligence of the total defeat of the Turks, by his arms^ 
at Zenta ; a fmall village on the weftem hank of the 
TfaeyiTe, in the kingdom of Hungary. The celebrat- 
ed prince Eugene of Savoy had fucceeded the ele£)or 
of Saxony in the command of the Imperial ifts, and 
to his confummate abilities they were indebted for 
their extraordinary fuccefs. Muftapha 11. command- 
ed his army in perfon* The battle was of (hort do^ 
ration, but uncommonly bloody. About twenty thou- 
fand Turks were left dead on the field ; and ten thou* 
fand were drowned in the river, in endeavouring to 
avoid the fury of the fword. The magnificent pa« 
vilion of the fultan, the (tores, ammunition, provi- 
fions, and all the artillery and baggage of the enemy, 
fell intQ the hands of prince Eugene. The grand 
vizier was killed, the feal of the Ottoman empire ta* 
ken, and the Aga of the janizaries, and twenty-fevea 
bafliaws, were found among the (lain ^'. 

This de^ifive vidory, though followed by no llrik« 
ing confequences, by reafon of the declining feafon^ 
broke the fpirit of the Turks; and the haughty Muf- 
tapha, after attempting in vain, during another cam- 
paign, to recover the laurels he had loft at Zenta, agreed 
to liften to propofals of peace. The plenipotentiaries 
of the belligerent powers accordingly met at Carlowitz, 
and (igned a treaty ; in which it was ftipulated, that 
all Hungary, on this (ide the Saave, with TranfyU 
vania and Sclavonia, (hould be ceded to the houfe of 
Auftria; that the Ru(nans (hould remain in po(ref- 

41. BarrCi UiJI, df AUemagne, tom. x. Lift •/ Fringe Eugene, 



A.]>. 1699. 

PART II. feflion of Azoph| on the Palus Maeotis, which had 
been taken hy their young fovereign Peter I. af- 
terward ftyled the Great ; that Caminiec (hould be 
reftored to the Poles $ and that the Venetians, who 

]uu 26. y^^^ diftinguifhed themfclves during the latter yeart 
of the war, (hould be gratified with all the Morea, 
or aneient Feloponnefus, and with feveral places in 
I>almatia ♦*. 

Thus, my dear Pbilipi was general tranquillity 
again reftored to Europe. But the feeds of fu- 
tare difcord, as we fhall foon have occaGon to notice, 
were already fown in every corner of Chriftendom. 
It was but a deluGve calm before a more violent (lorm. 
It will however aflbrd us leifure to carry forward tbo 
Progrtfs of Society. 

4%. Durount. Corf. Diphm, torn. viii. Voltaire, Hifi, JRu^ toI i. 




The Pfgnfs of Society in Europe from the middle 
of the Sixteenth to the End of the Seventeenth Century, 

AB O U T the middle of the fixteenth century, as ^""^ 
we have formerly feen \ Society had attained a \_, ^-..i/ 
▼cry high degree of perfeftion in Italy. Soon after 
rhat sera, the Italian dates began to decline, and the 
other European nations, then comparatively barba* 
rous, to advance towards refinement. Among thefc, 
the French took the lead : for although the Spaniib 
nobility during the reign of Charles V. and thofc pf 
his immediate fucceflbrs, were perhaps the mod po- 
lifhed and enlightened fet of men on this fide of the 
Alps, the great body of the nation then was, as it flill 
continues, funk in ignorance, fuperftiiion, and bar- 
barifm. And the fecluded condition of the women, in 
both Spain and Italy, was a farther barrier againft true 
politencfs. That grand obftruftion to elegance and 
pleafure was efFedlually removed, in the intermediate 
kingdom, by the gallant Francis I. Anne, of Brit- 
tany, wife of Charles VIII. and Lewis XII. had in- 
troduced the cuftom of ladies appearing publicly at 
the French court : Francis encouraged it ; and by fa- 
miliarizing the intercourfe of the fcxes, in many bril- 
liant affemblles and gay circles, threw over the man- 
ners of the nation thofc bewitching graces that have fo 
long attra^ed the admiration of Europe. 

But this innovation, Hke moft others in civil life, 
was at fird attended with feveral inconveniences. As 

J. PartL Letter Iv. 



PART II. foon as familiarity had worn off that rcfcpc£l, approach- 
ing to adoration, which had hitherto been paid to the 
women of rank, the advances of the men became more 
bold and licentious. No longer afraid of offending, 
they poured their lawlefs paflion in the ear of beauty, 
and female innocence, unaccuftomed to fuch felicita- 
tions, was unable to refift the feducing language of 
love, when breathed from the glowing lips of youth 
and manhood. Not only frequent intrigues, but a 
grofs fenfuality was the confequence ; and the court of 
France, during half a century, was little better than a 
common brothel. Catharine of Medicis encouraged 
this fenfuality, and employed it as the engine for per- 
fcfting her fyftem of Machiavelian policy. By the 
attraflions of her fair attendants, fhe governed the 
leaders of the Hugonot fadion^ or by their inGdious 
careiTes obtained the fecrets of her enemies, in order 
to work their ruin ; to bring them before a venal tri- 
bunal, or to take them off by the more dark and com- 
mon inftruments of her ambition, poifon and the fti- 
letto. Murders were hatched in the arms of love, and 
maiTacre planned in the cabinet of pleafure. 

On the acceflion of Henry IV. and the ceffation of 
the religious vvtirs, gallantry began to aflume a milder 
form. The reign of fenfuality continued, but it wat 
a fenfuality mingled with fentiment, and connected 
with heroifm. Henry himfelf, though habitually li- 
centious, was often in love, and fometimes fooliflily 
intoxicated with that paflion, but he was always a 
king and a foldicr. His courtiers, in like manner^ 
were frequently diflblute, but never effeminate. The 
fame beauty that ferved to folace the warrior after his 
toils contributed alfo to infpire him with new cou- 
rage. Chivalry feemcd to revive in the train of liber- 




tinifin ; and the ladies acquiring more knowledge ^^Jtkr 
and experience* from their more early and frequent v.-v-^ 
intercourfe with our fcx, became more fparing of their 

Gallantry was formed into a fyftem during the 
reign of Lewis XIII. and love was analyfed with all 
the nicety of metaphyHcs. The faculties of the two 
fexes were whetted, and their manners poli(hcd» by 
combating each other. Woman was placed beyond 
the reach of man, without the help of grates or 
barr. In the bofom of focicty, in the circle of amufe- 
menty and even in the clofet of aflignation, (he fct him 
at defiance ; and while (he liflened to his fond re- 
requeft, (he was deaf to his fuit, unlefs when prefent- 
ed under the flinflion of virtue, and recommended by 

This tender fentiment, fo much talked of in 
France, and fo little felt, was fublimed tq an enthu- 
fiaftic pa(rion, during the regency of Anne of Audria, 
and the civil wars that disfigured the beginning of the 
reign of Lewis XIV, Then all things were conduced 
by women. The ufual time for deliberation was mid- 
night, and a lady in bed, or on a fopha, was the foul 
of the council. There (he determined to fight, to ne- 
gociate, to embroil, or to accommodate matters with 
the court *, and as love prefided over all thofe confult* 
atiooSf fecret averfions or attachments frequently pre- 
pared the way for the greatcft events, A revolution in 
the heart of a woman of fa(hion, almoit always an- 
nounced a change in public affairs ^. 


s. Every one hav! her department and her dominion. Madame de 
M«ntbazor, fair afiJ .ih^wy, governed the duke of Beaufort) Madamt 



PART 11. The ladies often appeared openly at the head of 
faAionSf adorned with the eniigns of their party ; vi« 
fited the troopsi and prefided at councils of war, while 
their lovers fpoke as ferioufly of an aflignation, as of 
the iflue of a campaign. Kence the celebrated verfes 
of the philofophical duke de Rochefoucault to the du- 
che(s of Longueville : 

Pour mer iter fan cceur^ pour plain a fes biauxyiux^ 
J^aifait la guerre aux roisje Paureit fait aux dUuxt 

" To merit that heart, and to pleafe thofe bright eyes, 

<* I made iKar upon kings, Td have warr*d 'gainfk the ildes!' 

Every thing connected with gallantry, how infigni- 
ficant foever in itfelf, was confidered as a matter of ijn« 
portance. The duke de Beliegard, the declared lorer 
of the queen-regent, in taking leave of her majefty 
to take upon him the command of an army, begged as 
a particular favour that (he would touch the hilt of 
his fword. And M. de Chatillon, who was enamour- 
ed of Mademoifelle de Guerchi, wore one of her gar- 
ters tied round his arm in battle 3. 

But this ferious gallantryi which Anne of Audria 
had brought with her from Spain, and which was fo 

de Longueville, the duke of Rochefoucault ; Madame de Chatillon, 
Nenif)urs and Conde ; Madamoifelle de Chevreufe, the Coadjutor, af- 
terward Cardinal de Retz; Madcmuifelle de Saujon, devout and tendery 
the duke of Orleans; and the duchcfs of Bouillon, her hufband. At the 
fame time Madame de Chevreufe, lively and warm, rctigned herfelf to 
her lovers from tafte, and to politics occafionally ; and the princefs Pa- 
latine, in turns the friend and the enemy of the great Coudr, fay means 
of her genius more than her beauty, fubjc^ed all whom (he Jcfired to 
pleafe, or whom (he had either a whim or an interefl to perfukde. Bfu 
fur le Cbaraffere, Ut Mnitn, ei VEfprit des Femma JsHt lex dijfertmt SUtiap 
par M. Thomas de TAcademie Francoife. 
3. Mem. de Mmi, MottrfuiU. 

5 con* 


contrary to the genius of the French nation, ▼aniflied LETTER 
with the other remains of barbarifm on the approach ^,^J^^ 
of the bright days of Lewis XIV.^ when the glory of 
France was ;it its height, and the French language li- 
terature, arts, and manners were perfeded. Eafe was 
•flbciated with elegance, tafte with fafliion, and grace 
with freedom. Love fpoke once more the language of 
nature, while decency drew a veil over fenfuality. 
Men and women became reafonable beings, and the in- 
tercourfe between the fexes a fchooi of urbanity ; 
where a mutual dcflre to pleafe gave fmoothnefs to 
the behaviour, and mutual efteem, delicacy to the 
mind and fenfibility to the heart ^* 

Nor. was the refinement in manners during the 
reign of Lewis XIV. confined merely to the inter* 
coorfe between the fexes, or to thofe habits of general 
pditeoefs produced by a more rational fyitem of gal* 
iantry. Duels, as we have frequently had occafion to 
obferfe, were long permitted by the laws of all the 
European nations, and fometimes authorifed by the 
magiftrate, for terminating doubtful queftions. But 
Ungle combats, in refentment of private or perfonal 
injuries, did not become common till the reign of 
Francis L who, in vindication of his charader as a 
gentleman, fent a cartel of defiance to bis rival, the 
•emperor Charles V. The example was contagious. 

4. That j>a1]aotry which, roving from obje^ to objcdt, finds no gra- 
tification but in variety, and which charmderlf€9 the prefent French 
mmimert, was not introduced till th« minurity of Lewis XV. ** Then/* 
fays M. Thomas, a new court and new ideas changed all things. A 
Mdcr gallantry became the faihion. Shame wcs mutually communi • 
caced, and mutually pardoned ; and levity joining itfclf toexcefs, form- 
ed a corruption at the fame time deep and frivoJou*, which laughed 
at every thing, that it might blufh at nothing." EJf4l fur U Cbarce* 
ten J k,C, ittStmmet dans dtfftrtnU Sieclu, p. 150. 



PART II. Thenceforth every one thought himfelf entitled to 
draw his fword, and to call on his adverfary to make 
reparation for any affront or injury that feemed to 
touch his honour. The introdudion of fuch an opi- 
nion among men of fierce courage, lofty fentiments, 
and rude manners, was produ£live of the mod fatal 
confequences, A difdainful look, a difrefpeAfui 
word, or e?en a haughty (Iride, was fufficient to pro* 
yoke a challenge. And much of the beft blood in 
Chriftcndom, in defiance of the laws, was wantonly 
fpilt in thcfe frivolous contefts ; which, toward the 
clofe of the fixteenth century, were fcarcely lefs de- 
flrudlive than war itfelf* But the pra£)ice of duelling, 
though alike pernicious and abfurd, has been followed 
by fome beneficial efTefls* It has made men morere- 
fpeftable in their behaviour to each other, lefs oftentji* 
tious in converfation, and more tender of living cln- 
radlers, but efpecially of female reputation ; and the 
gentlenefs of manners introduced by this reftraint, at 
the fame time that it has contributed to focial bappi- 
nefs, has rendered duels tbemfelves lefs frequent, by 
removing the caufcs of offence. 

The progrefs of arts and literature, in France, kept 
pace with the progrefs of manners. As early as the 
reign of Francis L who is defervedly (lyled the Faibir 
ef thi French Mufes^ z better tafte in compofition bad 
been introduced. Rabelais and Montaigne, whofe na- 
tive humour and good fenfe will ever make them be 
ranked among the greateft writers of their nation, 
gave a beginning to the French profe ; and French 
verfe was gradually polifhed by Marot, Ronfard, a^ 
Malherbe, while profe received new graces from Vio» 
ture and Balzac. At length Corneille produced the 
Cid and Pafcal the Provincial Letters. The former 


KlOOERKfitrROPE. ^57 

iftill jnftly admired as a great effort of poetical letter 
feniosy both with regard to (lyle and matter; and 
he latter continues to be univerfally regarded as m 
Bodel of profe coopofitioDi as well as of delicate 
ttkry and found reafoniug. 

.The OhfervotiQns of the French Academy on the 
'2idf are a ftriking proof of the rapid progrefs of u(le 
n modem times, as the Cinna of the fame author is 
)( tbe early perfe£ljon of the French ftage. Thefe 
^bfenrations were made at the defire of cardinal 
lichelieut who had eflcblifhed, in 1635, that Jca* 
Itmj tf Sciincis and Bilk Lettrei \ and who, not fatis- 
itd wjyth being reputed, what he certainly was, the 
DoflTpenetrating ftatefman in Europe, was alfo ambi- 
ious of being thought what he was not, the mod ele- 
;ant poet in France. He was more jealous of the fame 
»f Corneille than of the power of the houfe of Auftria^ 
Ad aflairs (lood flill while he was concerting the cri* 
icifioion the Cid^, 

That criticifm contributed greatly to the im« 
>iOTement of polite literature in France. Comeille 
ras immediately followed by Moliere, Racine, Qui- 
laut, Boileau, La Fontaine, and all !the fine writers 
^ho ihed luftre over the early part of the reign o£ 
^ewis XIV* llie language of the tender paffions^ 
ittle underftoood eren by Corneille, was fuccef^fully 
lopied by madame de la Fayette in her ingenious no- 
els, and afterwards no lefs happily introduced on the 
tage by Racine \ efpecially in his two pathetic tra- 
ledieSf Pbidra and Andromache. The glaring figures 
)t difcourfe, the pointed antithefis, the gingle of 
rordsj and every fpecies of falfe wit and falfe refine* 
oeotA which prevailed duiing the former reign, 

5. Foatf 0«Ue» iMrM. i/r /'yfftfi/. /ra/if. 

Vol. IV. S were 


PART II. wtre baniflied with the romanlic gallantry that fcad 
^ ^" "^ introduced them : and coinpofition» tike noanners^ ic* 
turned in appearance to the (implidtf of natui^ 
adorned but not difguifed by art* Thie elegaat fim- 
plicity is more particularly to be foond in the tng^ 
dies of Racine, the fables of La Fontaine^ and the co- 
medies of Moliere, whofe wonderful talent for ridi- 
culing whatever is aficded or incongruous in behiv^ 
our, as well as of expofing vice and folly, ooBtriboled 
not a little to that happy change which now took plaoc 
in the manners of the French nation. 

The fame good tafte extended itfelf to all the fine 
arts. Several magnificent edifices were nified in the 
moft corred ftyle of archite^ure ; fculpture was per- 
feded by Girardon, of who feflcillt he mattfoleofli of 
cardinal Richelieu is a lading monument i PoniBn 
equalled Raphael in fome branches of painting, while 
Rubens and Vandyke difplayed the glories 4st the 
Flemilh fchool ; and Lulli fct to excellent riu6c the 
fimple and paflionate operas of Quinaut. France, and 
the neighbouring provinces, toward the latter part of 
the fcventeenrh century, were what Italy had been a 
century before, the favourite abodes of claOical elc^ 

The progrcfs of tafte and politenefs was lefs rapid 
in the North of Europe, daring the period nnder re- 
view. Germany and the adjoining countries, from the 
league of Smalkald to the peace of Weftpbalia, were a 
perpetual fcene either of religious wars or religions 
difputes. But thefe difputes tended to enlighten tk 
human mind, and thofe wars to invigorate the hanun 
chara£ter, as well as to perfe£l the military fdence; 
an advantage in itfcif by no means contcnaptiblet u 


MbD£RN£UkOP«. ^59 

the iicience is not only neceflary to prote£l ingenuity IbTteA 

tgainft force, but intimately conoe£^ed wich feveral 
Otbers conducive to the bappinefb of mankind. All 
|hc powers of the foul were roufedi and all the emo- 
tions of the heart called forth. Courage ceafed to be 
a&- enthuGaftic energy or rapacious impulfe : it be- 
cane a (teady effort in Tindicatiou of the deareft inte* 
vefts of focidtf . No longer the Haves of fuperftition» 
cf Uind belief, or blind opinion, determined and in- 
telligent men firmly aflerted their civil and religious 
fights. And Germany produced confummate generalSj 
found politicians, deep divines, and even acute philo- 
fophers, before (he made any advances in the BcUeS 
Zjettres* The reafon is obvious. 

The revival of learning in Europe had prepared the 
minds of men for receiving the dodtrines of the Refor* 
OMtion, as foon as they were promulgated ; and inftead 
of being ftartled when the daring hand of Luther drew 
a&de, or rather rent the veil that covered edabliOied 
errors, the genius of the age^ which had encouraged the 
attempt, applauded its fuccefis. Even before the ap-^ 
pearance of Luther, Erafmus had confuted, with great 
eloquence and 'force of reafoning, feveral tenets of the 
Romilh church (though it does not appear that he had 
any intention of oveiturning the eftablifhed fyftem of 
religion), and expofed others, as well as the learning of 
the fchools, with much wit and pleafantry, to all the 
(catik of ridicule. Luther himfelf, though a ftranger 
to elegancy or tafte in compofition, zealoufly pro- 
,j(Dotcd the ftudy of ancient literature, as nccefiary to 
a right underftanding of the fcriptures^ which he held 
. Dp at the ftandard of religious truth* A knowledge 
of the Greek and Latin languages became common 
among the reformers : and though in general little 
capablf of relilhiDg the beauties of the daflics, thef 

S 2t infcn^ 


I6d tHEHIStORtO<^ 

FART II. inCenbly acqaired, by penifing 'tbem, a clcarncfSi c 

y-^'-^ reabning and a freedom of thinking, which not onl 

enabled them to triompb orer thdr antagoniftt, bi 

to inveftigate with accuracy feveral moral and polh 

cil fiibjedlsw 

These, inftead of pofite literature, employed tl 
Aooghts of thofe, who were not altogether immerf 
in theological controverfy ( and the names of Grotii 
and Pufiendorf are ftill mentioned with refpe£h Tb 
delineated, with no fmall degree of exa£lnefs, the grc 
outlines of the human character, and the laws of d 
feeiety ; it was referred for later writers, for Smi 
and Fergufon, Montcfquieu and Helvetius, to coi 
plete the piQure. Their principles they derir 
|>artly from general reafoning, and partly from t 
political Cruation of Europe in that age. In Gi 
many ahd the United ProvinceSft Froteftants and C 
tholics were every where blended ; and the fatal e 
pericnce of the deftru£live effefts of perfecution, f 
any profound invcdigation, feenis firfl to hare fv 
gcfied the idea of mutual toleration, the mod impo 
ant principle eftabliflied by the political and conti 
vcrfial writers of the fevcnteenth century. TWs ft 
je£t demands particular attention. 

In the prefent age it may feem incredible, and mc 
e^cialiy in England, where the idea of toleration 
become familiar, and where its beneficial eflfeAs : 
felt, that men (houM ever have been perfecui 
for their fpeculative opinions ; or that a method 
terminating their differences, fo agreeable to them 
and charitable fpirit of Chriftianity, did not imi 
diately occur to the contending parties. But in or 
to be able to judge property of this matter, we n 


M O D £ R N E n R O P E. 261 

txanfport ottrrdTCfi back to the fixteenth centuryi letter 

when the faorcd rights of confcience and of private 
judgment, •obvious as thejr now appear^ were Iktle 
undejftood; and when not only the idea of toWaiion, 
but even the word itfelf in the fenfe now affixed to it^ 
was unknown among Cbrifiians. Tbe caufe of fuch 
fingularitj deferves to be traced. 

Among the ancient Heathens, whofe deities were 
all local and tutelary, diverfity of fentiments concern^ 
ing the objefl or rites of religious worfhip feems to 
have been no fource of animofity ; becaufe the ac* 
knowledging of veneration to be due to any one God» 
did not imply a denial of the exiftence or power of any 
odier God* Kor were the modes and rites of worfhip 
eflabUflied in one country, incompatible with thofe of 
ocber nations. Therefore the errors in their theological 
iyftem were of fuch a nature as to be confiftent with 
concord i and notwitbdanding the amazing number of 
their divinities, as well as the infinite variety of their 
ceremonies, a fociable and tolerating fpirit fubfifted 
almofl univerfally in the Pagan world. But when 
the preachers of the Gofpel declared one Supreme 
Being to be the fole obje£l of religious veneration, and 
f refcribed the form of worOiip mod acceptable to hini, admitted the truth of it, confequently held 
(]rer J jother mpde x>f Cfsligion to be abfurd and impi- 
<His. Hence the zeal of the firft converts to the Chrif- 
tian faith, in propagating its doflrines, and the ar- 
dour with which they endeavoured to overturn all 
other forms of worfhip. That ardour, and not, as 
pomaionly foppofed, their religious fyflem, drew up- 
on them the indignation of the civil power. At 
length, as formerly obferved, Chriftianity afcended 
the throne of the Csefars^ and the Crofs was exalted in 

S3 the 


a6t T Ht E H I S T O R ir F 

pARTn. j|jg Capitol \ But although numbcw, imitating tte 
example of the court (which confined its ftvoon 
chiefly to the followers of the new religion), crowded 
into the church, many dill adhered to the aticient 
worfliip. Enraged at fuch obftinacy, the minifters of 
Jcfus forgot fo far the nature of their own miffioni 
and the means which they ought to haTe employed 
for malting profelytes, that they armed the imperial 
power againft thofe unhappy men ; and as they couU 
not perfuade> they endeavoured to compel them to 

In the mean time, controverfiesi concerning articles 
of faith, multiplied among the Chriftians themfehea ; 
and the fame compulfive meafures, the fame puniih- 
ments, and the fame threatenings, which had been 
diredled again (I infidels and idolaters, were alfo made 
lufe of againft heretics, or thofe who differed from the 
eftabliihed church in matters pf worfliip or dodrine. 
Every zealous difputant endeavoured to intereft the 
civil magiftrate in his caufe, and feveral employed, in 
their turn, the fecular arm to crufh or extirpate their 
opponents '. In order to terminate thefe difTenfionr, 
which every where defolated the Chriftian world, as 
well as to exalt their own confc^quencc, the bifliopsof 
^ome put in their claim to infallibility in explaining 
articles of faith, and deciding finally on all points of 
controvcrfy : and, bold as the pretcnfion was, tliey fo 
far impofed on the credulity of mankind, as to get it 
recognifcd. Perhaps a latent fenfe of the neceflity of 
univcrfal freedom, or of fome fixed ftandard, in mat- 
ters of religion, might aflift the deceit. But however 
that may have been, it Is certain that the remedy was 

6. Part |. Lett. i. 7. Molheim, ff!f. Mccl^, TqL i. Robcit- 

f?>0, //(/?. CharUs V. book »i. 8. Id. ibid. 



WOift ditn the difeafe. If wars aod bioodflicd were ^'^^^^ 
die too comnon effe^ls of the diTcrfity of opinioos |_„ ,/ 
arifiog from different ioterprctitions of fcripture, and 
of hereditaiy princes femetimes embracing one opi- 
nion, fometimes another, a total ex tin A ion of know- 
ledge and inqairy, and of every noble virtue, was the 
confeqaenceof the papal fupremacy. It vras held not 
only a refifting of truth, but an z€t of rebellion againft 
the fti^cred authority of that unerring tribunal, to deny 
my do&rine to which it had given the fan£tion of its 
approbation } and the fecular power, of which, by vari- 
ous arts, the popes had acquired the abfolute diredtion 
in every country, was inftantly exerted to avenge both 
crimes. A defpotifm more complete was eftablifhed 
than that of the Romifli dominion, and moredebafing, 
as we have feen, than any fpecies of civil tyranny. 

To this (piritual defpotifm had Europe been fub* 
jtGted for feveral centuries^ before any one ventured 
to call in queftion the authority on which it was 
fiDunded. Even after the aera of the Reformation, a 
right to extirpat grror by force was univerfally al- 
lowed to be the privilege of *^hore who pofleflcd the 
knowledge of truth i and as every (e£i of Chrilli- 
ans believed that was their peculiar gifr, they all 
claimed and exercifed, as far as they were able, the 
prerogatives which it was fuppofed to convey. The 
Roman Catholics, as their fyftem reded on the de- 
ctfioos of an infallible judge, never doubted but truth 
was on their fide, and openly called on the civil power 
to repel the impious and heretical innovators, who had 
rifcn op againft it. The Proteftants, no lefs confident 
that that dofirine was well founded, required, with 
equal xeal, the princes of their party, to crufti fuch 
as prefumed to difcredit or oppofc it -, and Luther, 

S 4 Calvin, 


TKKT n.^ Calvin» Cranmer. Knox, the foander^ of the rcfioAh 
ed Church in their refpe£live countriet^ inAiSttdf i| 
far as tney had power and opportunity, the Ikine po* 
niihments that were denounced againft their own dif» 
ciples by the church of Rome, on Tuch is called in 
qoeftion any article in their feveral creeds 9. Nor 
was it till toward the clofe of the feventeenth century^ 
when the lights of philofophy had difpellcd the mifts 
of prejudice, that toleration was admitted under ita 
prefent form ; firft into the United Provinces, and 
then into England. For although, by the Pacificatioa 
of PafTau, and the Recefs of Auglburg, the Lutherans 
and Catholics were mutually allowed the free exer- 
cife of their religion in Germany, the followers of 
Calvin yet remained without any prote£iion from the 
rigour of the laws denounced againft heretics. And 
after the treaty of Munfter, concluded in more 
liberal times, had put the Calvinifts on the fanfie foot- 
ing with the Lutherans, the former fanguinary laws 
flill continued in force againft other feds. But that 
treaty, which reftored peace and tranquillity to the 
north of Europe, introduced order into the empire, 
and prepared the way for refinemetir, proved alfo the 
means of enlarging the fentiments of men, by afibrd* 
ing them leifure to cultivate their minds ; and Gtu 
many, alike free from civil and ecclefiaftical tyranny, 
beheld, in procefb of time, tafte and genius fiourifli 
in a climate deemed peculiar to lettered induftry and 
theological dulnefs, and her fame in arts and fcicnces 
as great as her renown in arms. 

Even before this aera of public profperity» the lamp 
of liberal fcience had illuminated Germany, on fuh* 
jccts the moft remote from religious controverfy. Co* 

^. Robertfoni vbi fup* 


M O D E R N E U R O P E. 265 

|ej"iiiciit had difcovered the true theory of the heavens, UTTTEK 
vliich was afterward perfedled by our immortal New- ^^ * ^^ 
ton I that the fan, by far the greateft body, is the 
centre of our planetary fyftem, difpenGng light and 
ktat, and communicating circular motion to the other 
p^nets. Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter^ 
and Saturn, which move around him. And Kepler 
bad afcertained the true figure of the orbits, and the 
proportions of the motions of thofe planets ; that each 
phnet moves in an ellipGs, which has one of its foci 
' In the centre of the fun ; that the higher planets not 
only move in greater circles, but alfo more ilowly than 
diofe that are nearer ; fo that, on a double account| 
Aey are longer in performing their revolutions. 

Nor was that bold fpirit of inveftigation, which 
the Reformation had roufed, confined to the countrief 
that bad renounced the pope's fupremacy, and the 
llaviih do£lrines of the Romifli church. It had 
reached even Italy; where Galileo, by the invention, 
or at leaft the improvement, of the telefcopci coa* 
firmed the fyftem of Copernicus. He difcovered the 
mountains in the moon, a planet attendant on the 
earth; the fatellites of Jupiter ; the phafcs of Venus; 
the fpots in the fun, and its rotation, or turning on 
its own axis. But he was not fuffered to unveil the 
myfteries of the heavens with impunirj\ Superftitioa 
took alarm at feeing her empire invaded. Galileo 
was eited before the Inquifition, committed to prifon, 
and commanded folemnly to abjure hie herejies and ab^ 
fttriliiiis i in regard to which, the following decree, an 
eternal difgrace to the brighteft age of literature in 
modem Italy, was pafled in 1633. '* To fay that 
<< the fan is in the centre, and without local motion, 
<^ is a propofition abfnrd and falfe in found philo<» 

" fophff 


PAUTilx' '« fophjy and even heretical^ bcfng exprdslj coi 
^"^"^ " trary to the Holy Scripture ; and to fay that d 
<* eanh is not placed m the centre of the unirciii 
^* nor immovable^ but that it has fo much as a diu 
^ nal motion, is alfo a propofition falfe and abfv 
** in found phiIofophy» as well as erroneons in tl 

•• faith r 

Th£ influence of the Reformation on goTenunei 
and manners, was no lefs confpicoous than on |rfiik 
fophy. While the fovereigns of France and Spai 
rofe into abfolute power, at the expence of their ui 
happy fubjeAs, the people in e?ery Proteftant ftii 
acquired new privileges. Vice was deprefled by tk 
regular exertions of law, when the fan£luaries of tt 
church were abolifhed, and the clergy ihemfelvi 
made amenable to puni(hment. This happy infli 
ence extended iifelf even to the church of Ron 
The defire of equalling the reformers in thofe talen 
which had procured them refpeft; the neceOityof a 
quiring the knowledge requifite for defending the 
own tenets, or refuting the arguments of their opp 
nents, together with the emulation natural betwe< 
two rival churche?, engaged the popifli clergy to a] 
ply thcmfelvcs to the ftudy of uftful fcience ; whit 
they cultivated with fuch ailiduity and fucceis, th 
thCy gradually grew as eminent in literature, ; 
they were formerly remarkable for ignorance. Ar 
the fame principle, proceeding from the fame fourc 
hath occafioned a change no lefs falutary in the 

Various caufes, which I have had occaffon 
enumerate in the courfe of my narration, had co 
turrcd in producing great licentioufnefs, and even 
8 tot 


tdCal diflolackm of manners among the Romilh •ccltfii- 
aflict. Lntber and his adherents began their attacks 
upon die church with fuch vehement invedives agatnft 
thefe, that, in order to remove the fcandal, and filenot 
tbofe declamations) more decency of conduA was found 
neceflTary. And the principal reformers were fo emi- 
ntnXy not only for the purity but even auftericy of 
their manners^ and had acquired fuch reputation a- 
mong the people on that account, that the popilh 
clergy muft have foon loft all credit, if they had not 
endeavoured to conform, in fome mcafure, to the ftan* 
daid held up to them. They were befide fenfible^ 
that all their aflions fell under the fevere infpe£tion 
of the Proteftants, whom enmity and emulation 
prompted to obferve, and to difplay the fmalleft vice 
or impropriety in their condu£k, with all the cruelty 
of revenge and all the exultation of triumph. Hence 
they became not only cautious to avoid fuch irregu- 
larities as muft give offence, but ftudious to acquirt 
the virtues that might merit praife. ' 

Nor has the influence of the Reformation been felt 
only by the inferior members of the RomiAi church : 
it has extended to the fovereign pontiffs themfelves. 
Violations of decorum, and even trefpafles againft mo^ 
rality, which paficd without cenfure in thofe ages, 
when neither the power of the popes, nor the venera* 
lion of the people for their charafler had any bounds i 
when there was no hoftile eye to obferve the errors in 
their condu£l, nor any adverfary zealous to inveigh 
againft them, would now be liable to the fevereft ani- 
inadverHon, and excite general indignation and honor. 
The popes, aware of this, inftead of rivalling the 
courts of temporal princes in gaiety, or furpaffing 
/Lbem in licentippfnefsi have ftudied to ^ume man- 

t6S T H E H IS TOR Y O r 

rA&T a nen more fnitable to their ecclefiaftical charaaer; ami 
by their humanity, tlieir love of literaturei their mode* 
rationi and even their piety, have made fome atonement 
to mankind for the crimes of their predecefibrs. 

The Head of the church of Rome, however, not 
willing to reft what remained of his fpiritual empire^ 
merely on the virtues and talents of its fecular mem- 
bersi inftituted a new monaftic order, namely that of 
the Jesuits; who, inftead of being confined to the 
filence and folitude of the cloifter, like other monks, 
were tsoght to confider themfeives as formed for a£tion ; 
aschofen foldiers who, under the command of a general, 
were bound to exert themfeives continually in the fer* 
Tice of Chrift, and of the pope, his vicar on earth. To 
give more vigour and conctrt to their efforts, in oppot 
ing the enemies of the Holy See, and in extending its 
dominion, this General or head of the order was inveft^ 
ed with the moft defpotic authority over its members; 
and that they might have full leifure for fuch fervice, 
they were exempted from all monaftic obfervances. 
They were required to attend to the tranfa£lions of the 
^reat world, to ftudy the difpofitions of pcrfons in 
power, and to cultivate their fricndfhip *•. 

In conffquence of chefe primary inftru£iion5, which 
infufed a fpirit of intrigue into the whole fraternity, 
the Jefuits confidered the education of youth as their 
peculiar province : they aimed at being fpiritual 
guides and confefTors : they preached fiequemly, in 
order to attra£l the notice of the people \ and they fet 
out as miflionaries, with a view to convert unbeliev- 
ing nations. The novelty of the inftitution, as well 
as the Angularity of its objeAs, procured the fociety 

to. C^mfie Itiniiu, par M, 6t Mooflar. D' Alemberti/Mr U Dtfirua» 
itt Jtfmtt, 


MODERNEUftO^E.' tdf 

many admirers and patrons. The Generals and other LETTER 
officers had the addrcfs to avail themfclvcs of every cir- |_„^,-^f 
camftance in its favour; and, in a Ihort timei the 
aumberi as well as the influence of its members, was 
Tery confiderable. Both increafed wonderfully ; and 
before the beginning of the feventcenth century, only 
fizty years after the inilitution of the order, the Je« 
fuits had obtained the chief dire£lion of the educatioa 
of youth in every catholic country in Europe. They 
had become the confeffors of moil of its monarchs ; 
a fun£llon of no fmall importance in any reign, but 
under a weak prince, fuperior even to that of miniften 
They were the fpiritual guides of almoft every perfon 
eminent for rank or power, and they poflefled the 
higheft degree of confidence and intereft with the pa- 
pal court) as the molt zealous and able aflertors of its 

Thi advantages which an a£live and enterprifing 
body of priells might derive from thefe circumllances* 
are obvious. As they formed the minds of men in 
youth, they retained an afcendant over them in their 
more advanced years. They poflefled at difierent pe- 
riods, the diredion of the mod confiderable courts 
in Europe ; they mingled in all public afi^irs, and took 
part in every intrigue and revolution. Together with 
the power, the wealth of the order increafed. The Jc- 
fuits acquired ample poiTcflions in eVery popifh king* 
dom ; and under pretext of promoting the fuccefs of 
their miflion?, and of facilitating the fupport of their 
miffionaries, they obtained a fpecial licence from the 
court of Rome, to trade with the nations which they 
laboured to convert ''. In confequence of this per* 

IX. ffift, in yf/vitJ, torn. iY» 



FART IL miflioDy they engaged in an extenfive and locratif 

comoierce, both in the £aft and Weft Indies, and they^ 
opened wareboufes in different parts of Europe, m 
they vended their commodities. Not faiisfied 
trade alone, they imitated the example of other 
mercial focieties, and aimed at obtaining fettlcments- 
They acGordingly acquired poiTeflion of a large aocf 
fertile province io South America, well known by the 
name of Paraguay, and reigned as fovcreigns over 
three or four hundred thoufand fubje£ls» 

Unhappily for mankind, the vaft influence which 
tlkC Jefuits acquired by all thefe different means, was 
often exerted for the mod pernicious purpofes. Every 
Jefuit was taught to regard the intereft of the order 
as his principal obje£l, to which all other con6den- 
tions were to be facrificed ; and as it was for the hon- 
our and advantage of the fociety, that its membeis 
ibould poflefs an afcendant over perfons of rank and 
power, the Jefuits, in order to acquire and prelerre 
fuch afcendant, were led to propagate a fyilem of ie«- 
laxed and pliant morality, which accommodating it- 
felf to the paflions of men, juftifies their vices, tole- 
rates their imperfedions, and authorifes almoft every 
a£lion that the mod audacious or crafty politician 
could wifh to commit **. 

In like manner, as the profperity of the order wis in- 
timately conne£led with the prefervation of the papal 
authority, the Jefuits, influenced by the fame principle 
of attachment to the intirefii of their yiaV/y, which may 
ferve as a key to the genius of their policy, have been 
the moft zealous patrons of thofi: dodrines which tend 

IS. M. de Moadar. obi fupo 

J« O D E R N £ U R O P E. 271 

- to exalt ecdcGaftical power on the ruins of citiI go- LETTER 
fcrnment. They have attributed to the court of 
Rome a jurifdiQion as extenfive and abfolute as was 
claimed by the mod prefumptuous pontiffi during the 
dark ages : they have contended for the entire inde- 
pendence of ecclefiaftics of the civil magiftrate j and 
they have publilhed fuch tenets concerning the duty 
of oppoling princes, who were enemies to the catholic 
fiith, as countenance the moil atrocious crimesi and 
tend to diflblve all the ties which connect fubje£ls with 
their rulers '^ 

As the order derived both reputation and authority^ 
from the zeal with which it ftood forth in defence of 
the Romifli church, againft the attacks of the cham* 
pions of the Reformation, its members, proud of this 
diftinQion, have conHdered it as their peculiar func- 
tion to combat the opinions, and to check the progrefs 
of the Proteftants. They have made ufe of every art^ 
and employed every weapon againft the reformed 
religion : they have fet themfelves in oppofition to 
every gentle and tolerating meafure in its favour ; and 
they have inceflantly (lirred up againft its followers 
all the rage of ecclefiadical and civil perfecution. 
But the Jefuits have at length felt the lafli of tlut 
perfecution, which they (limulated with fuch unfeeling 
rigour ; and« as we (hall afterward have occaGon to 
fee, with a feverity which humanity muft lament, 
notwjthftanding their intolerant fpirit. 

While Paul III. was tnftrtuting the order of Je. 
fuits, and Italy exulting in her fuperiority in arts and 
letters, England^ already feparated from the Holy See^ 

tj. Id. ibid. 


ayi THEillStORYOP 


anii| like Germany, agitated by theological difpvteif 
was groaning under the civil and religious tyranny of 
Henry VIII. This prince was a lover of letteiif 
which he cultivated himfelfi and no lefs fond of die 
fociety of women than his friend and rival Francis t. 
but his controverfies with the court of Rome, and the 
fanguinary meafures which he purfued in his domefiic 
policy, threw a cloud over the manners and the ftn^ 
dies of the nation, which the barbarities of his daugV 
fer Mary rendered yet darker, and which was notdif* 
pelled till the middle of the reign of Elizabeth. Then 
the Mufe, always the firft in the train of literatare^ 
encouraged by the change in the manners, which be- 
came more gay, gallant, and (lately, ventured onoe 
more to expand her wings; and Chaucer found a 
fucceflbr worthy of himfelf, in the celebrated Spenfer. 

The principal work of this poet is named the Faitj 
^ien. It is of the heroic kind, and was intended as a 
compliment to queen Elizabeth and her courtiers* But 
inftead of employing hiflorical, or traditional charac- 
ters, for that purpofe, like Virgil, the mod refined flat* 
terer, if not the fined poet of antiquity, Spenfer makes 
ufe of allegorical perfonagcs; a choice which has con- 
tributed to confign to neglect one of the moft truly poe- 
tical compofitions that genius ever produced^ and 
which, notwithdanding the want of unity in the fable, 
and of probability in the incidents, would otherwife 
have continued to command attention. For the de- 
fcriptions in the Fair j ^an are generally boI4 and ftrik* 
ing, or foft and captivating ; the fliadowy figures are 
(Irongly delineated ; the language is nervous and ele- 
gant, though fomewhat obfcure, through an afie£btion 
of antiquated phrafes ; and the verfification is harmoni- 
ous and flowing, fiut the thin idlegory is ererj wbert 
2 fcca 


toca through ; the images are frequently coarfe ; and the LETTER 
(xtiavagaiit manners of chivalry, which the author has 
bhhfuUy copied, confpired to render bis romantic fic- 
doos litde interefting to the clailical reader, whatever 
pkaftire they may afford the antiquary ; while an ab- 
furd compound of Heathen and Cbriftian mythology 
complete the difguft of the critic. He throws afide the 
poem with indignation, confidered in its whole extent, 
after making every allowance for its not being iinifti- 
edy at a performance truly Gothic ; but ht admires parti- 
cular pft0age8 : he adores the bewitching fancy of Spen« 
fer, but laments his want of tafte, and loaths his too 
often filthy and ill-wrought allegories. 

Shakspeare, the other luminary of the virgin* 
reign, and the Father of our Drama, was more happy in 
hid line of compofition. Though unacquainted, as is 
generally believed, with the dramatic laws, or with any 
model worthy of his imitation, he has, by a bold de- 
lineation of general nature, and by adopting the fo« 
lemn mythology of the North, witches, fairies, and 
gbofts, been able to zScCt the human mind more 
ftrongly than any other poet. By ftudying only the 
heart of man, his tragic fcenes come dire£lly to the 
heart ; and by copying manners, undifguifed by fa- 
fhion, his comic humour is for ever new. Let us not 
however conclude that the Three Unides, time, place, 
and aAion or plot, didated by reafon and Ariftotle, are 
nnneceflary to the perfe^on of a dramatic poem j be- 
canfe Shakfpeare, by the mere fuperiority of his genius, 
has been able to pleafe, both in the clofet and on the 
fiagc, without bbferving them. 

Theatrical Reprefentation is perfe^ in propor- 
don as it is natural ; and that the obfervance of the 
Unities contributes to render it fo, will be difputed by 
no cride who underftands tht principles on which they 

Vol- IV- T arc 


PART a. 2rt founded. A dramatic perfonnaooe^ in wfaidi the 
'^ Unities are obfenred, muft therefore be bcft cakulateik 
for nprefenMi^H ; and confeqvently for obtaining its 
end, if otherwife well conftmdled, hj proYoldni; mirthi 
or awakening forrow. Even Shakfpeare's foenes woalA 
have acquired double force, had they proceeded in an 
unbroken fucceflion, from the opening to tbe dofe oE 
every a&* Then indeed the fcene may be fbi&ed to 
any diflance conGftent with probability, and any por- 
tion of time may elapfe, not de(lru£liTe of the wuty 
of the fable, without impairing the tSkSt of the le- 
prefentation, or difturbing the dream of reality i for as 
the modem drama is interrupted four timcSf wludi 
feem neceflary for the relief of the mind, there can be 
no reaibn for confining the fcene to tbe fame fpot dar- 
ing the whole piece, or the time exa^ly to thai of the 
rcprefcntation, as in the Grecian theatre, where tbe 
a&ors, or at leaft the chorus, never left the A^e. 

The reign of James I. was diftinguiflied by the 
labours of many eminent authors, both in profe and 
▼erfe, but moftly in a bad tafte. That propcnfity to 
falfe wit and fluperfluous ornament, which we have fo 
frequently occafion to regret in the writings of Sbak- 
fpcare, aiid which feems as infeparably conneQed with 
the revival, as fimplicity is with the origin of letters, 
infe£led the whole nation. The pun was common 
in the pulpit, and the quibble was propagated ftom 
the throne. Hooker's Eccle/tofllcal PaUty^ however, 
Camden's Annals of^uten EUzaUtb^ Ralegh's ICprj 
of tbe tVorld^ and the tranilation of the Bible sow in 
ufe, are (Iriking proofs of the improvement of oar 
language, and of the progrefs of Englilh profe. 

Fairfax's tranflatlon of Taflb, and fome oftho 

tragic fcenes of Fletcher excepted, the ftyle of noM 

of xht poets of this reign can be mentioacd with en- 

I tire 

If O D £ R N £ U R O P £/ 275 

\Sre vffnJbMk m. Johnlbn, though born widi t veia LSrreR 
of g en iM c homoar, thoagh pcrfc£lly acquainted with ^ .^ „ ^ 
tW andeot claffics, and jK>(refled of fufficient tafte to 
xdUh their beauties, is a rude mecbaoical writer. And 
die paems of Drayton, who was endowed with a fer- 
&geniiis» with great facilitj of exprcflion, and a 
hfpj defcriptive ulent, are thickly befpangled with 
d the fplendid faults im conapoCtion. 

As an example of Drayton's bed mannrr, which 
if little known^ I ihall give an extra£b from the fixtb 
\ look (d hig BoTMu /fkrs. 

** Now waxii^ late^ and after all tbcfe thin£;s, 
f> ** Unto her chamber is the queen withdrawn 13, 
r «i To whom a choice muiician plays and fingf, 
" Repofing her upon z^a/e of lawti» 

** Iq night-attire divinely glittering, 
'' As the approaching of the cbearful dawn ; 
** Leaning upon the bread of Mortimer, 
** Whofe voice more than the muficpleasMhcr car* 

*^ Where her fair breads at liberty are let, 
•* Where vhlet^veins hi curious htauches flow ; 

** Where Venus' fwaos and milky doves are fet 
** Upon the fwelliog mounts of i/rrr^ffyii^fU 14 ;'' 

13. IfabcUa of France, widow of Edward IL of £figlaiid. 

14. Perhaps the iogeoUiis tracers ol Poetical Jmiutitm maydlfcovera 
reiemblance between thofe glowing verfes and two lines io Mr. Haj« 
ley's juIUr admired foonet, in the Triumphs of Tim(nr : 

** A bofom, where the Uite miand'ring veim 
1* Sheds as fuft lulbe throsgh the lucid f now ^* 
And it will not require microfcopic eyes to difcover wlience Mr. Oray 
eaaght the idea of the fined image in his celebrated hilloric Ode, after 
jia|i4»og the following lines of Drayton. 

** JBsrMtp, whofe fairicat^iath been/amous Uwf , 
** Ltt thy fair Uilldings Jkrixtt a dtadlyfitmi^ 

*< And to the air complain thy grievoas wrong, 
«• Mttpimg atitjigmrt of king Edward's wound:* 

JBanns Warty book T, 

Ti Where 


PART ir. ** Where Love, whilft he to fport himfelf doth gtt, 
V^'V***' •' Haih loft his courfe, nor finds which way to go, 
** Inclofed in this labyrinth about, 
*♦ Where let him wander Aill, yet ne'er get out. 

«* Hcrloofc gold hair, O gold thou art toobafe! 
^* Were ic not fin to name thofe (ilk threads hair, 

** Declining as to kifs her fairer face ? 
* But no word's fair enough for thing fo fair. 

^< O what high wond'rous epithet can grace 
*' Or give lue praifes to a thing fo rare ? 

•' But where the pen fails, pencil cannorihew it, 

** Nor can't be known, unlefs the mind do know :r* 

•* She lays thofe fingers on his manly cheek, 
'* The gods pure/ceftreSf aud the darts of love f 

«• Which with a touc/j might make a tjfger meek^ 
** Or the main Atlas from hii place remove ; 

«« So foft, fo feeling, delicate, and fleck, 
** A« Nature wore the lilies for vi glove ! 

As might heget life where was never none, 

•* And put afpirit into X^at fiintiejl Jlone ^5 /** 

Daniel, the poetical rival of Drayton, afTedbtt 
write with more purity ; yet he Is by no means free 
from the bad tade of his age, as will appear by a Cn- 
glc ftanza of hia Civil IVor^ a poem fccmingly wriltctt 
in emulation gf the Barons TVars. 

•* O War! begot in pride and luxury, 
«* The child of Malice and revengeful Hate ; 

•• Thou impious'good^ and good- impiety^ 
«* Thou art the rovL-re^aer of a JIate / 

15. Who ctn read thefe anin^ated ftanzat, andnpt be filled widfif 
dignation at the arrogant remark of Warburton ?— ^* Selden did nottf 
** dain even to comment « very^tnliMgry p9*t^ one Michael Praytflfi^ 
i'r//. to hit edit, of Shakfpeve. 


7tiimfi'jm^io9axjgt of nen'a iniquity ! 

rp Hferdi corrupdons defjpenite ! 

J there no means* but that %fin-Jiclt lanJ 

ifuft be let hkod by fuch a b^fterout band ?" 

FRIVG the tranquil part of the reign of Charles I. 
tafte began to gaiin ground. Charles himfelf 
n excellent judge of literature* a chafte writer, 
patron of the liberal arts. Vandyke was careff- 
oonrty and Inigo Jones was encouraged to plan 
public edifices, which do fo much honour to hiA 
iry; while Lawes, and other eminent compofers, 
e fervice of the king, fet to manly mu(tc fome 
fineft Engliih yerfes. But thatfpirit of fa£lion and 
icifmp which fubverted all law and order»and cermi- 
in the ruio of tbe church and monarchy! obftmc* 
he progrefs of letters, and prerented the arts 
attaining the height to which they feemed faft 
ling, or the manners from receiving the degree 
<li(h, which they muft foon have acquired, in the 
int aflemblies and public feftivals of two perfons 
icb elegant accompliflimcnts as the king and 

^ the Independents, and other bold fanatics, who 
»n the ruins of the church, and flourilhed under 
lommonwealth, I have formerly had occafion to 
, in tracing the progrefs of Cromwcirs ambition, 
one vifionary fe£t, by reafon of its detachment 
civil and military affairs, has hitherto efcaped 
lotice ; namely, the fmgular but refpeftable bo- 
f Quakers. The founder of this famous feft 
9ne George Fox, born at Drayton in Lancafliire, 
^24, the fon of a weaver, and bred a (hoemaker. 
I naturally of a melancholy difpofition, and hav* 
arly acquired an enthofiaftic turn of mind, he a*- 
T 3 bandoncd 


PART 11. bandoned his mechanicat profeffiont and broke off ail 
V^V^^ connexions with bis friends and familyi about tbe 
year 1647^ ^ben every ignorant fanadc imagined be 
could invent a new fyftem of religion or government; 
and delivering bimfelf wbolly up to (pirituad eontcmph- 
tionsi he wandered through tbe country clothed ia a lea» 
thern doublet, avoiding all attachn>ents» and frtqueit- 
ly pafled whole days and nights in woods and gloomy 
cavernSf without any other companion but his Bible. 
At length beSeving hirofelf filled with the fiune di- 
vine infpiratioOf or iftward ligbt^ which bad guided 
the writers of that facred book, he confidered all ex* 
temal helps as nnnecefiary, and thought only of il- 
luminaciag the breads of others, by awakening dkit 
hiddtn ffrk of the Divinity which, according to tho 
doftriive of the Myfiics, dwells In the hearts of.all meo. 

Proselytes were eafily gained in thofedaysof 
general fanaticifm, to a doXrine fo flattering to bo* 
man pride. Fox accordingly foon found himfdf fir* 
rounded by a number of difciples of both fexes$ wbo, 
all conceiving themfelves actuated by a divine im<t. 
pulfe, ran like Bacchanals through the towns and vil- 
liiges, declaiming againft every fixed form of worfhip, 
and affronting the clergy in the very exercife of their 
religious fun£lions. Even the women, forgetting the 
delicacy and decency befitting their charader, bore a 
part in thefe difofders; and one female convert, more - 
fliamelefs than her C(lers» weut (lark nakiJinto Whi^-^ 
hall chapel, during the public fervice, when Crom-^ 
\iell was prefent, being moved by the fpirit, (he faid^ 
to appear as ojign to the ptopU '7, 

But pf all thefe new faoatia, who were fometiaotf 
thrown into prifons, fometimes into mad-houfes^ th^ 


mod extraTtgaat was James Naylor, a man of talents^ letter 
who had been an officer in the parliamentary armj^ ^'^' 
and was one of the 6rft encouragers of George Fox. ^ 
Ebted with the fuccefs of his eloquence, in which 
he excelled all his brethren, and flattered with a re- 
fembfamce between his own features and the common 
pistes of Jefus Chrid, he fancied hrmfelf transform* 
ed into the Saviour of the World. He accordingly 
affumed the chara£ber of the Meffiah, and was blaf- 
phemoufly ftyled by his followers, the Prince of Peaa^ 
die mly higotUn Stn of God, the fairefl among an thow- 
fmul^^ /—Conformable to that ^chara£ier, he pre« 
(ended to heal the (ick, and raife the dead. He was 
miniftered unto by women \ and, in the pride of his 
heart, he triumphantly entered Briftol on horfe-back, 
attended by a croud of his admirers of both fexes, 
who, along with (hrubs and flowers, fpread their 
garments before him, exclaiming with a loud voice, 
<< Hofanna to the Highcft ! holy, holy, holy. Lord 
«< God of Sabaoth '9/' For this impious procef- 
Gon be was committed to prifon by the magiftrates, 
and afterward fent to London, where he was feverc*» 
ly punilhed by the parliament, and by that means re- 
fiored to the right ufe of his underftanding. But what, 
in this romantic inftance of fi^natical extravagance 
chiefly merits attention is. That the heads of the great 
council of the nation fpent between ten and twelve 
days in deliberating, whether they ihoui.d confider 
Naylor as an impoftor> as a maniac, or as a man di* 
vinely iofpired *® I 

Fox and his difciples, while under the influence of 
tbat enthuCaftic fury^ whichs befide other irregu- 
larities, prompted (hem> on every occaflon, to deliver 

18. Id. ibid, 19. Life and Trial of Saylor. 

50. T^awloc, vol ir. 

T 4 their 


PART IL tbeir fuppofed infpiritions, without regard to time, 
place, or circumftancei were often (b copioufly filled 
with the fpirit, that, like the priefters of the Delphic 
God, their whole frame was violently Jhaken in poor- 
ing it out ; a circumftance which contributed to con- 
firm the belief of their being afluated by a divine im« 
pulfe, and procured them the name of ^uakers^ by 
which they are ftill known. But thefe wild traof- 
ports foon fubCded, and the Quakers became, as at 
prefeiit, a decent and orderly fet of men, diQ;ingtti(h« 
ed only by the civil and religious peculiarities which 
continue to charadlerize the fed. Thofe peculiari- 
ties are of fufficient importance to merit our notice 
in tracing the progrefs of fociety, and delineating the 
biftory of the human mind. 

All the peculiarities of the Quakers, both fpiritnal 
and moral, are the immediate confequences of their 
fundamental principle ; *< That they who endeavour 
** by felf-converfe and contemplation to kindle thai 
** /pari ofbiovenly wifdom which lies C9ncealedin the minds 
«« of all men (and is fuppofcd to blaze in the bread of 
<< every Quaker), will feel a divine glow, behold an 
•< effufion of light, and hear a cocleftial voice, pro- 
<* cceding from the inmoft receflcs of their fouls ! 
** leading them to all truth, and affuring them of 
«* their union with the Supreme Being *".'* Thus 
confecratcd in their own imagination, the members 
of this k(X rcjeft the ufe of prayers, hymns, and the 
various outward forms of devotion, by which the pub-r 
lie worfliip of other Chrillians is diftinguiflied. They 
neither obferve fcftivaJs, ufe external rites and cere- 
monies, nor fuffer religion to be fettered with pofi- 
tive inditutions ; contemptuoufly flighting even bap<» 

21. Barclays if/c/9^, &c. 


at -aivQK iRinflin) ; 
' jiiieft, or yhkr wi i Ii i 'b , AD Ak 

■■■1 "^^'" 19 aipcsK in tiKB Bli.rtni|i^ « ^"^ 
hn.* iBfiiusj^ *" will padone to xulodc fmi 
• InoH^ Jb bkborih^ lut .vnEaKSBy jdi^ psnon ift 
Mi C2fanB dvelk, jmd iw ^item Ik %ai»?* 
vtt^fttrs ixave ulicii occc tnnmiTiwc MMHuhuttty 
. with die ijpmt, and id diMliiitiiiii& tepaaaStj^ 
fjkp oo ibiDc Qccafifms^ kom xxcs iiave hoot fe 
B fclf- c n menip igtign» or j JtR'nmr at intwttJ «^ 
p liar iKX a iiif k cSukan ham hocm aide. Al 
1 £ieiit, or taqBc&d dcir «*"*"p^ oahf 
£gbs, and iianrovfol iooksi. On «tber oc* 
DSy nasj have vansuy ^xikczi at ance, as if ii]r«> 
ke iiacBoe of an kaikj iniy. 

HE hmc fplniiul pnAe^ and bR»tlicr}y fenfe of 
fitjy vhsch didatrd the rdigioos f]fftcia of Hbc 
ie$3 ilfo govern tbczr ooodad in regard ro civil 
rs« Di£daming to appear recovered in the pre* 
z of any human bdng, or to exprcfs adulation or 
rence by any word or motiony diey fet it naught 
be forms of cinlity, invented by polilhed nations^ 
all the fervile proftfationa demanded by ufurping 
deor, which can have no pbce among the truly il* 
inatcd. In like manner they refufe to confirm their 
1 teftimony with an oath ; a falemnity which they 
ider as an infalt on the integrity of that Spirit of 
th, with which they believe themfelves animated, 
mplc notice is all their homage^ ind a plain af- 
ativc their ftrougeft afleveration. 

a But 

aSa T H E H I S T O R Y O F 

FART II. But two of the moft ftiilu iritieft of the 

^^'^^"' Quakers yet remain to be noticed. lo c««afeqiience of 
their fandaDiental principki which leads to a total de- 
tachment from the fenles* to a deteftation of woridty 
vanities) and of every obje^i that can dirert the mint 
from internal contemplation, they ftudioufly sfoid ail 
the garnicnre of dreiS} even to an unneoefiary button or 
loop ; all the pomp of equipage, and all the lusnrietof 
< the uble. No female ornament, among this fed, aHoiet 

the eye, no fafhion or varied colour of attire ;— no 
female accomplifliment, no mufic, no dancing indtei 
to fenfuality ! — though now no longer foaufterc as for^ 
merly ; when beauty in its rudeft (late was confider- 
ed as too attraAive, and the pleafure that nature has 
wifely connedied with the propagation of the fpecies> 
the ehafte endearments of conjugal love were rq;atd- 
ed with a degree of horror I 

The crowning civil peculiarity of the Quakers t* 
their pacific principle. Unambitious of dominioia^ 
and (hocked at the calamities of war and the difafier^ 
of hoftile oppofition, they carry the mild fpirit of tfa^ 
gofpel to the dangerous extreme of perfonal tun-refifi^^ 
ance ; literally permitting the fmiter of one cheek t^ 
inflict a blow on the other, and tamely yielding tuc^ 
the demands of rapacious violence all that it ca^^ 
crave ! How diflFercnt in this refped, from the Mil^ 
lenarians, and other fanguinary fefiaries, who fo loa^ 
deluged England with blood ** ! 

12. Even after the refloration of Charles IL i iinall hody of the KC ^^ 
lenarians made a defperate effort to diflurb the {ovemmcot. Ruflu^'l 
forth coinj>lctcly armed, under a daring fanatic named VenocTy w^** 
)iad often confpired againft Cromwell, and exdahniogy « No Kii^ t^'* 
Christ !'* they triumphantly paraded the ftreets of London for te^*' 
hours ; and before they could be fully maftered, as they fought t»^ 
only with courage but concert, many ^ivci were lofL Bsniet, J^' 
Qw» Timcjf hwX ii. 


M O D E R N E U R O P E. 2^3 

DuRiHC tbofe tines of h€tion and hnvAdtm^ letter 

haweTCTY appeared many nien of vaft abilities. Then 
the force» and the compars of our language, were firft 
folljr tried in the public papers of the king and par* 
liament, and in the bold eloquence of the fpeeches of 
the two parties. Then was roufed, in political and 
theological controverfjr, the vigorous genius of John 
Milton, which afterward broke forth, with b much 
luftre in the poem of Paradi/e Loflg uncjueftionably 
the greateft eflFort of human imagination. No poet, 
ancient or modern^ is fo CubUme in his conceptions 
as Milton ; and few ha?e ever equalled him in botd- 
nefs of defcription or ftrength of expiefliofu Tet let 
us not, in blind idolatry, allow him the honour, 
vhich be feems to arrogate to bimfdf, and which 
bas feldom been denied hinn, of being the inventor of 
oor blank verfe. In the tragedies of Shakfpearc are 
'cveral paflages as harmonious as any in the Paradife 
Loft, and as elegantly corre£t : though it mud be 
fitted, that Milton invented that variety of pauiies» 
^hich renders £ngli(h blank verfe peculiarly proper 
'or the heroic fable ; wheie rhyme, how well con- 
fttuQed. foever, is apt to cloy the ear by its mono- 
tony, and weaken the vigour of the vcrfification, by 
^ neceffity of finding final words of fimilar founds. 

Th£ truth of this remark is fully exemplified in 
the DavicUis of Cowley ; a work by no means defti-* 
^tc of merit, in other refpe£ls» la favour of the 
^^^^Udler poems of this author, which were long much 
^mired for their far-fetched metaphyfical conceits, 
Mttle can be fald ; unlefs that they are occafionally 
^ifiinguifhed by that vigour of thought and exprefiion 
Peculiar tQ the trouble^ ^^^cs in which be .wrote, 




f^^^^, tbpfc that immediately preceded and followed the 
death of Charles L He thus begins an Ode tp !&• 

<< Freedom with Virtue ukes her feat : 
*' Her proper place, her only fcene, 
<< Is in the golden mean. 
** She lives not with the Poor, nor with the Great t 
•* The wings oUhcfc Neccflity has dipt, 
'* And they Vein Forrune^s B rid well whipt 
<^ To the hborious taflc of bread ; 
'* Theft are by various tyrants capdve led. 
'* Now wild Ambition, with imperious force, 
** Rides, reins, and fpurs them, like th' unruly horfe; 
*^ And iervile Avarice yokes them now^ 
** Like toilfome oxen, to the plow : 
^* And fometimes Lufl, like the mi/guiding Ugbt^ 
** Draws them through all the labytinths of night«" 

But although the Englifii tongue, during the cirit 
vars, had acquired all the flrength of which it is ca- 
pable, it dill wanted much of that delicacy which 
charadlerizes the language of a polifhed peopIC} and 
which it has now fo fully attained* Waller, whofe 
taftehad been formed under the firft Charles, and who 
wrote during the brighteft days of the fecond, is one of 
the chief refiners of our verfificatipn, as wtW as lan- 
guage. Of this refinement the following elegant lines, 
compared with thofe of any of our preceding poetSf 
will fuinifli fufHcient proof. They contain a wi(h of 
being tranfported to the Bermudas, or Summer IJlaniu 

" O how I long my carelefs limbs to lay 
<* Under the plantain's (hade ! and all the day 
^* With amorous airs my fancy entertain, 
** Invoke the Mufes, and improve my vein. 

" Ne 

XIX. ^ 


«* No paffion there in my free breafl fliall moTe, UTTER 

^' None but the fweetedi bed of paiHons, love ! 

♦• There while I fing, if gcnilc Love be by, 

** That tunes my lute, and winds the firings fo high, 

^ With the fweet found of SaccharKTa's name 

" 1*11 make the lifteniog favages grow tame." 

Waller was followed in his poetical walk bj 
Drydeii} who united fweetnefs with energy, and car- 
ried £ngli(h rhyme in all its varieties to a very high 
degree of perfeAiou; while Lee, whofe dramatic 
Ulent was great, introduced into blank Terfe that 
fokmn pomp of found,, which was long much afFe£ted 
by our modem tragic poets ; and the pathetic Otway 
(in regard to whom Lee feems to (land in the fame re- 
lation as Sophocles does to Euripides, or Comeille to 
Radne) brought tragedy down to the level of do« 
medic life, and exemplified that fimplicity of verfifi- 
cation and expreflion which is fo well fuited to 
the language of the tender paflions. But Otway, in 
oihcr refpcfls, is by no means fo chafle a writer ; nor 
was the reign of Charles II. though crowded with fo 
many men of genius, the sera either of good t^fte or 
elegant manners in England. 

Cbarles himfelf was a man of a focial temper, 
of an eafy addrefs, and a lively and animated conver- 
fation. His courtiers partook much of the charader 
of their prince : they were chiefly men of the world, 
and many of them dtflinguiflied by their wit, gallan- 
try^ and fpirit* But having all experienced the info- 
leace of pious tyranny, pr been expofed to the neglefl 
of poverty, they had imbibed, under the preiTure of 
adverfity, the mod libertine opinions both in regard 
to religion and morals. And in greedily enjoying their 



FAETIL g^d fortune, after the Reftoratkm ; in letallating 
^^ felfifluiers, and contrafting the language and the man- 
ners of bypocrify, they fiiamefully violated the lawi 
of decency and decorum. Elated at the retnni of their 
fovereign, the whole royal party ^itflblved in thought- 
lefs jollity ; and even many of the Tepublican8» but 
efpecially the younger fort and the women^ were glid 
to be releafed from the gloomy aufterity of the cooii* 
monwealth. A general rehxation of mannen took 
place. Pleafure became the uniyerlal objed, and loie 
the prevailing tafle. But that love was rather an ap- 
petite than a palEon ; and though the ladies fiicrificcd 
freely to it, they were never able to infpire their par- 
amours either with fentiment or delicacy. 

The fame want of delicacy is obfervable in the lite- 
rary produ£lion8 of this reign. Even thofe intended 
for the ftage, with very few exceptions, are fliock- 
ingly licentious and indecent, as well as disfigured by 
extravagance and folly. Nor were the painters more 
chafte than the poets. Nymphs bathings or volnpta- 
oufly repofing on the verdant fed, were the commoD 
objeds of the pencil. Even the female portraits of 
Sir Peter Lely, naked and languiQiing, are mote 
calculated to provoke loofc deiire, than to imprefs the 
mind with any idea of the refpedaUe qualities of the 
ladies they were intended to reprefent. It may there- 
fore be feriouily quedioned, whether the difblnte, 
though comparatively poliifaed manners of this once 
reputed Auguftan age, were not more hurtful tt %• 
terature and the liberal arts In England, than die cast 
and fanaticifm of the preceding period. 

A BETTER tafte in literature, however, begin tb 
diicover itfelf in the latter produfUons of Drydep \ 



ic greattr part of whofc Fables, M/alom and AdtU . ^^^* 
fbil^ Aiamnuir^i Fiofi^ zsA feveral othcf pieces^ \^ -^ j 
rrittcn toward the clofe of tlse ferenteetiih century^ 
re jttftly confidered, notwithftauding fome neglU 
encies, as the moft mafte riy poetical compofitions in 
vrhogoage. The fame good tafte extended itfelf to 
fifter art. Purcell, the celebrated author of the Qt'- 
hna Brisaunicuff JEet the principil lyric, and the aire 
1 two of the dramatic pieces of Dryden^ to mufic 
rorthy of the poetry. 

Drtden, daring his latter years, alio greatly excel* 
:d in profe ; to which he gave an e%(e and energy^ not 
> be found united in Clarendon or Temple, the two 
loft celebrated profe writers of that age. Clarendon's 
rords are well chofen and happily arranged ; but his 
nrit, and even his fenfe, is fre<)aently loft io the 
ewildering length of his periods. The ftyle of Tem^ 
k, though eafy and flowing, wants force. The fer- 
lons, or Chriftian orations of archbifhop Tillotfon, 
ave great merit, both in regard to ftyle and matter. 
)ryden confidered Tiltotfon as his mafter in profe- 

The fciences made greater prqgrefsin England, dur« 
[ig the courfe of the fevcnteenth century, than po* 
lie literature. Early in the reign of James L Sir 
brands Bacon, who is joflly conGdered, oa account 
f the extent and variety of his talentSp as one of the 
AOtft extraordinary men diat any nation ever pro- 
ceed, broke through the icholaflic obicufity of the 
get like the fun from beneath a cloud, and (hewed 
sankind the neceflity of thinking for themfelves* in 
rder to become truly learned. He began with taking 
view of the various objc£ls of human knowledge : he 
ivided thefe objeAs into claiTcs ; he examined what 



f^ART V. was already kdownt in regard to each of tbem ; 

A.a x686. ^ drew; up an immenfe catalogue of what yet 
mained to be difcoyered. He went e^en fartlMcr 
(hewed the ncceflity of expcrimenta] phyGcsj an 
reafoniog experimentally on moral fubjefls* U 
did not greatly enlarge the bounds of any partic 
Icience himfelf, he was no lefs ufefully employee 
breaking the. fetters of a falfe philofophy, and < 
duAing the lovers of truth to the proper methoi 
Ciilti?ating the whole circle of the fcienccs. 

That liberal fpirit of inquiry which Bacon bai 
wakened^ foon communicated itfelf to his countryn 
Harrey, by reafoning alone, without any mixtun 
accident, difcovercd the circulation of the bl99d\ anc 
had alfo the happinefs of eftabliftiing this capital 
corery, during the reign of Charles I. on the a 
folid and convincing proofs. Pofterity has added 
tie to the arguments fuggefted by his induftry and 

Soon after the Redoration, the Royal Sociity 
founded \ and its members, in a few years, made m 
important difcoveries in mathematics and nat 
philofophy, in which Wilkins, Wallace, and Be 
had a great (hare. Nor were the other braoi 
of fcience negleded. Hobbes, already diftinguii 
by hit writings, continued to unfold the priiKiple 
policy and morals with a bold but impious freed 
He reprefents man as naturally cruel, unfocial, 
unjuft. His fyftem, which was highly admired i 
ing the reign of Charles II. as it favours both tyra 
and licentioufnefs, is now defervedly configned to 
livion •, but his language and his manner of reafon 
are dill held in eftimation. 



xiiirTisBURT, natorallf of a benorolent temper, LETnz 
with the debafing principles of Hobbes, and ^^^_^ 
capcfvated with tbe generous Tifions of Plato, brought 
to 1 if^t an enchanting f jftem of morals, which everf 
Crittxid to humanity would wi(h to be true. And what - 
ii ISO finall nutter toward its con6nnttion, if it has 
ttOC always obtained the approbation of the wife, it 
hs^m feldom failed to conciliate the aflent of the goodi 
vbo are generally willing to believe, that the Dtvi* 
tity has implanted in the human bread a fenfe of right 
ancl wrong, independent of religion or cuftom ; and 
that Tirtoe is naturally as pleaGng to the heart of man 
n beauty to his eye. 

While Shaftefbury was conceiving that amiable 

theory of ethics, according to which beauty and gsod 

&re united in the natural as well as in the moral world, 

which embroiders with brighter colours the robe of 

'prii^gt And gives mufic to the autumnal blaft ; which 

Kconciles man to the greateft calamities, from a con- 

^dion that all is ordered for the bed, at the fame 

time that it makes him enjoy with more fincerc fatif- 

faSion the gifts of fortune, and the pleafurcs of fo- 

dcty, Newton, leaving behind all former aftronomers, 

(brveyed more fully, and eftablifhed by demonihra- 

tioii that harmonious fydem of the univerfe, which had 

been difcovered by Copernicus ; and Locke, no lefs 

wonderful in his walk, untwiAed the chain of human 

ideas, and opened a villa into the myfterious regions 

of the mind. 

The philofophy of Newton, all founded on expe- 
riment and demondration, can never be fufficientlj 
admired 1 and it particularly merits the attention of 
every gentleman, as an acquaintance v^ith the prio- 
Vol, IV. U clple 


PART n. ciplc of grovitatUn^ or with the theory of light ztoid' 
-*^^^ lour St would be fufficient to (lamp an indelible matkof 
ignorance on the moft refpedlable charadler. But the 
difcovery of Locke, though now familiar, That all our 
IDEAS are acquired by fenfamn and refleBian^ aiui 
confequently, that we bnughi ncm into tbi world vMh 
f/j, has hod a more ferious influence upon the opinions 
of mankind. It has not only rendered our reafonings 
Concerning ihe operatUns of the Human underftanding 
more di(lin£); ; it has alfo induced us to reafotf con- 
cerning the nature of the Mind itfelf, and its Tarious 
powers and properties^ In a word,^ it has ferved to 
introduce an univerfal fyftem of fcepticifm, which has 
ihdken every principle of religion and morals. 

But the fame philofophy which has unwifely called 
in queftion the divine origin of Chriftianityi and even 
the hinge on which it refls, the immortality of the 
foul ; that philofophy which has endeavoured to cut 
off from man the hope of heaven, has happily con- 
tributed to render his earthly dwelling as comfortable 
as pofTible. It has turned its refearches, with aii in« 
quifitive eye, toward every objecl that can be made- 
fubfcrvicnt to the cafe, pleafure, or conveniency oE* 
life. Commerce and manufadures, government and^ 
police^ have equally excited its attention. The arts^ 
both ufeful and ornanvental, have every where beem 
difleminated over Europe, in confequcnce of this net^' 
manner of philofophifing \ and have ally unlefs we 
ftould perhaps except fculpture, been carried to » 
higher degree of pcrfe£iion than in any former period 
in the hiftory of the hunoan race. Even here, how- 
ever, an evil is difcerned :— and where may not evils> 
cither rei»l. or imaginary, be found ? Commerce and 
the arisS arc Ajnpofcd to have introduced luxury aod 
cfl'crv.: r.'.cy. Bui :j certain degree of luxury isnecef- 


Al d D E R N E U A 6 P E. 29t 

ISrjf to give aaivitjr to a ftatc ; and philofophers have LETTER 
^tbt yet afbertaincd ^hcre trufe refinement ends, and 
^Bfeinioacy br Vicibus lutarjr b^gifis; 


Jl gikiralView of the Affairs of EiiaoPBi from ihg 
Peace o/Kl^s'wlCK to the Grand JUlidntip in lyoj, 

AS we approach toward out own times, the ma- letter 
teriaU of hiilory grow daily more abundant ; ^ J^^:^ 
and confquchtly a nicfer fcleftion becoriies neceflkry, * * ^^* 
ill order ta prefcrvc the memory from fatigue. I 
Ihalli therefore^ endeavour to throw into (liadc all 
unprodu£kive negociations and intriguftsi as well as 
Miihpbttant eventSj and to comprehend under one 
ikw the general tfanfa£tions Of Europe^ during the 
ttiftiing bufy period. Happily the negociations in re- 
gard to the Sp^tnifli fucceffion, and th^ war in which fo 
i^any of the great powers of the Sooth and Weft af- 
teihrard engaged, to prevent the union of the crowns 
of France and Spain under a prince of the hpufe 
df Bourboni are highly favourable td this dcfign. In 
like manner, the affairs of the North and the Eaft are 
Cmplified, by the long and bloody conteft between 
Charles XII. and Peter the Great ; fo that I hope to 
be able to bring forward^ without confdCon, the whole 
at once to the eye. 

The firft objeft, after the peace of Ryfwick, 
which engaged the general attention of Europe, was 
the fettkmcnt of the Spanifh fucceiCon. The declin- 
ing health of Charles II. a prince who had long been 
in a langttifhing condition, ar)d whofe death was dally 
tipe£kfd» gave new fpirit to the intriguea of the com* 

U a peti- 


PART II. pctitors for his crown.. Thefe competitors were Lewii. 

AM^ufr XrV. the emperor Leopold, and the eledor of Ba^a-. 
ria. Lewis and the emperor were in the fame degree 
of confanguinity to Charles, both being grandfons of 
Philip IIL The Dauphin and the emperor's eldeft (ott 
Jofeph, king of the Romans, had therefore a double 
claim, their mothers being two daughters of Fliilip 
IV. The right of birth was in the houfe of Bourboui 
the king and hia fon the Dauphin being both de- 
fcended from the eldeft daughters of Spain ; but the 
imperial family afierted, in fupport of their claim, be* 
fide the folemn and ratified renuciations of Lewis 
XIIL and XIV. of all title to the Spanifh fucoefion,. 
the blood of Maximilian, the common parent of bot)i- 
branches of the houfe of Auftria— -the right of tfoie 
rcprefentatlon.' The eledor of Banraria claxmed» as. 
the huiband of an archduchefs, the only furviyiogcbikki 
of the emperor Leopold) by. the infanta^ Margaret, ^ie?. 
cond daughter of Philip IV« who had. declared HEA. 
dcfcendants the heirsiof his crown, in preference to 
thofe of his eldeft daughter, Maria Therefai; fotbat 
the fon of the ele£lor, in default of ifluo by Clurles IL 
was entitled to the whole Spanifh fuccefllon, unlcfaxhc 
teftament of Philip IV. and the renunciation of Maria 
Thercfa, on her marriage with the French monarch, 
were fct aCde. 

Beside thefe legal titles to inheritance, the gene- 
ral interefts of Europe required that the prioce of 
Bavaria (hould fucceed to the Spanifh monarchy. 
But his two competitors were obftinate in their claims; 
the elector was unable to contend with either of them ; 
and the king of England, though fufiiciently difpofed 
to adopt any meafure for preferving the balance of 
power, was in no condition to begin a new wai* From 

a laud« 


i laudable, but perhaps too Tiolent jealoufy of utter 
IBxerty, the Englifh parltamcnt had pafled a vote, foon ^ ^1^ 
aAer ttie peace of Ryfwick, for reducing the army to ^^* i^7- 
leven thoufand men, and thefe to be native fubjeAs* ; 
in confequence of which, when fopported by a bill, 
tiie'king, to his great mortification, was obliged to dif« 
mifs even his Dutch guards* 

Thus circumftanced, TVlUiam was ready to liften 
to any terms calculated to continue thef repoie of Eu* 
tope. Lewis XIV. though better provided for war, 
was no lefs peacably difpofed ; and fenfible, that any 
attempt to treat with the emperor would be in- 
effsAual, he propoGed to the king of England a par* 
tition of the Spanilh dominions, at the fame time 
diat he fent the marquis dllarcourt, as his ambafla- 
dor to the court of Madrid, with a view of procuring 
the whole. Leopold alfo fent an ambaflador into 
6(flun, .where intriguer were carried high on both 
fides. The body of the Spanifli nation favoured the 
Iteeal fncceflion of the houfe of Botflbon ; but the 
^oeen, who was a German princefs, and who, by 
means of her creatures, governed both the king and 
kingdom, fupported the pretenlions of the empe* 
rer :-"-and all the grandees, connedied with the court| 
were in the fame intereft. 

Meanwhile a treaty of partition was figned, A.D. 169S. 
through the temporizing policy of William and Lewis, 
liy England, Holland, and France. In this treaty 
St was ftipulated. That, on the eventual demife of 
the King of Spain, his dominions ihould be divided 
among the competitors for his crown in the following 
inanner. Spain, her American e^ppire, and the fo.r 

|. 'Jmtrn^h Pcc 26, 1697. 

U 3 vc-j 

a94 TH E H IS T QR Y p F 

PART ir. vereignty of the Neth.ei:land8, were adignied tp ih^ 
A^D.z698. ckdoral prince pf Bavaria; to the Dauphioy jtbe 
kingdopi of Naples ^nd Sicily, the ports oo the Tu^ 
can fliore, and t|ie marquifatp of Final, in Italy ; and 
on tl^e fide of Spain, the province of Guiptifcoa^ with 
all the iSpan^fli territpries beyond the Pyrenees, on the 
mountains of Navarre, ^1^^$ and Bjfcay. To tbf 
archduke Charles, the emperor's fecoud fon^ wa9 
allotted the dukedom of Milan *. 

Thi: contracting powers mutually engaged to keep 
the treaty pf partition a profound fecret during d^ 
life of the king of Spain. But that condition, though 
ne€e0ary» Fas npt cafily tp be pbfcnred. As the a* 
Towed defign of tl>e alliance was the preferratipn of 
the repofe of Europe, it became neceflary to com* 
municate the treaty to the emperor, and to gain hit 
confent to a negociation, which deprived ]iim of the 
great obje£l of his ambition. This difficult talk wa^ 
undertaken by William, fron^ a perfuaGpn of hi^ 
own influeace yi^ith Leopold. In ^he mean time ii|* 
telljgeiipe pf the treaty \iyas privately conveyed froni 
Hollaiic) to Madrid. The Spanilh minidry were fill- 
ed with indignation, at finding a divifion of their 
inonajrchy made by foreigners, apd tbat even during 
the life of ttheir fovereign. Ti^e king itnmediately 
called an extraordinary council, to deliberate on fo 
unprecedented a t|ranfa£^ion ; and the refult, contrary 
to all expediation, but perfectly conformable to the 
laws of found policy, was a will of Charles II« con* 
ftituting the eledoral prince of Bavaria his fole heir, 
agreeable to the teftament of Philip IV. in favour of 
the defcendants of Margaret, bis fecond daughter, 

a« Dc Torcy, vol. L Voltaire, Si^, cbap. ivi. 



to the litter exdoGon of the oflfspring of Maria The- ^^^^ 
fftfai her eldcft fifter, and the whole boufe of Bour- 
boDy alfo excluded by the Pyrenenan treaty '. 

The king of Spain unexpcQedly recovered from . 
his iUnefS} in fome degree, and the hopes and fears of 
Earope were fofpended for a time. . Meanwhile Eng*- 
land and Holland had every reafon to be pleafed with 
the will, which was infinitely more favourable to 
a general balance of power than the partition treaty ; 
bat the fudden death of the eleAor prince of Bava* pa). 8. 
ria, not without ftrong fufpicionsof poifon, revived A. D. 1699, 
sdl their former apprehenfions. . Lewis and William 
again negoclated, and a fecond treaty of partition was 
privately ligned, by England, Holland, and France^ 
nocwithftanding the violent remonftrances of the court 
of Madrid againft fuch a meafure. 

By this treaty, which difiered materially from the 
former, it was agreed, that on the eventual deceafe 
of Charles 11. without iflue, Spain and her American 
dominions (hould defcend to the archduke Charlesy 
fecond fon of the emperor ; that Naples, Sicily, the 
marquifate of Final, the towns on the Italian fliore^ 
and the province of Guipufcoa, (hould fall to the (hare 
of the Dauphin, together with the duchies of Lorrain 
and Bar, which their native prince was defired to exf 
change for the duchy of Milan ; and that the county 
of Binche (hould lemain, as a fovereignty, to the 
prince of Vaudcmont ^. In order to prevent the union 
of Spain and the imperial crown in the perfon of one 
prince, provifion was made, That in cafe of the death 
of the \ivg of the Romans, the archduke, if raifcd to 

3. Yolwi«i l^id. 4- Dc Torcy, ▼ol. i. 

U 4 that 

396 T H E H I S T O R T i9 r 

PART u. that digDiCj, (hould not fucceed to the Spanifli throne. 

2^^^^ I» JiJ^c manner, it was particularly ftipolatedj That 
no Dauphin ov king of France (hould erer wear the 
crown of Spain ; and a fecrct article provided againft 
the contingency of the emperor's refuGng to accede 
to the treaty, as well as againft any difficulties that 
might arife, in regard to the exchange propofed to the 
doke of Lonrain ^. 

From thus providing for the repofe of the South of 
Europe, the attention of William was fuddenly called 
toward the North, where two of the moft extrz" 
ordinary men that ever appeared upon the ftage of hu« 
man life, were rifing into notice ; Peter I. of Ruffia, 
and Charles ]$II. of Sweden. Peter, whom we (hall 
afterward have occaGon to conGder in the character 
of a legiflator, had already rendered himfelf formU 
dable by the defeat of the Turks, in 1696, and 
the taking of Afoph, which opened to him the domi* 
nion of the Black Sea. This acquiGtion led to mors 
extenGve views. He refolved to make Ruffia the 
centre of trade between Europe and AGa : he projcfQed 
a junction of the Dwina) the Wolga, and the Taoais, 
by means of canals ; and thus to open a paflage 
from the Baltic to the Euxine and Cafpian feas, and 
from thefe feas to the Northern Ocean *• The port 
of Archangel, frozen up for almoft nine months in 
the year, and which cannot be entered without a long, 
circuitous, and dangerous paflage, he did not think 
fufficiently commpdious ; he therefore refolved, to 
build a city upon the Baltic Sea, which fhould be* 

5. DcTorqr, ubifup; 6. Voltaire's ^5lffi;.A2^ torn, i, 

•ompofcd frum the moft avtkeatic qgAterialf, chit&j furniihcd by the 
c^Kt ol rctcrllmr^lu 




oome the loagazine of the North, and the capital of ^^JJ^^ 
hit eztcaifife empire 7. 

SkvXAAL princesi before this lUuftrious barbarian^ 
di%iifte4 with the purfuits of ambition, or tired with 
faftainiog the load of public affairs, had renounced 
their crowns, and taken refuge in the (hade of indo- 
lence, or of philofophical retirement \ but hidory af- 
fords no example of any fovereign, who had divefted 
himfelf of the royal charaAer, in order to learn the 
art of governing better : that was a ftretch of mag« 
qaaimity referred for Peter the Great. Though aU 
moft deftitute himfelf of education, he difcovered, by 
the natpral force of his genius, and a, few conver« 
iatioos with ftrangers, his own rude date and the fa* 
▼age condition of his fubjeds. He refolved to be* 
come worthy of the charader of a man, to fee men, 
ai|d to )uve men to govern • Animated by the noble 
ambition of acquiring inftrudion, and of carrying 
back to his people the improvements of other nations^ 
be accordingly quitted his dominions, in 1697, as a 
private gentleman in the retinue of three ambafiadorsy 
whom he feAt to different courts of Europe. 

As foon as Peter arrived at Amfterdam, which was 
the frft place that particularly at|m£ted liis notice, he 
applied himfelf to the ftudy of commerce and the 
mechanical arts i and, in order more completely to 
acquire the art of (hip-building, he eiltered himfelf as 
a carpenter in one of the principal dock^yards, and 
laboured and lived, in all refpe^s, as the common 
journeymen. At his leifure hours he ftudied natural 
philofophy, navigation, fortification, furgery, and 
fttfh other (c^enccs as may be ncceffary to the fove- 

7, Id. ibid. 


A.D. 1699, 



PARTII. i^>gn of a'barbaroas people. From Holland be pait 
ed over to England, where he perfefted him(df im 
the art of (hip^buildlng. King William^ In order to 
gain his favour, entertained him with a naval revieWf 
made him a prefeot of an elegant yacht, and permit- 
ted him to engage in his fervice a number of inge- 
nious artificers. Thus in(lru£kcd, and attended by 
feveral men of fcience, Peter returned to RuiEa, af- 
ter an abftnce of near two years, with all the ufcfol, 
and many of the ornamental arts in his train*, 

Thb peace of Carlowitz, concluded foon after the 
return of the czar, feemed to afford him full leifate' 
for the profecution of thofe plans, which he bad 
formed for the civilization of his fubje£ls. Bat Peter 
was ambitious of th^ reputation and the fortune of a 
^nqueror. Thp art of war was a new art, which it 
was neceffary to teach his people ; and valuable ac« 
quifition?, be thought, might eafily be obtained, by 
joining the kings of Poland and Denmark againft 
Charles XII. of Sweden, yet in his minority. Befide, 
he wanted a port Qji the eaftcrn (hore of the BaltiC| 
in order to facilitate the execution of his commercial 
Ichemes. He therefore refolved to make himfclf ma* 
fter of the province <if Ingria, which |ic3 to the norths 
eaft of Livonia, and had formerly been in the poffef- 
fion of his anceftors. With this view, he entered 
into a league againft Sweden with Frederic Auguftus, 
cleAor of Saxony, who had fucceeded the famous So- 
biefki in the throne of Poland *• The war was be- 
gun by the l^ing of Denmark i who, contrary to the 
fgtith qf trc4tieS| invaded the territories of the duke 

8. Voltaire, ubi fup. 9. Voitaire's ffij. Chmrtu XIl% 

founded entircl J on the orig^al information. 


of Hdftein Gottorp, who had married a fifier of tETTER 
Pliarles^U. Sr^W 

In thefe ambUioas proje£b the hoflile princcf 
were encouraged^ not only by the youth of the king 
of Sweden, who had fucceeded bis father^ Charles XI. 
m 1697^ when only fifteen years of age, but by the 
little eftimationi in which he was held by foreign 
courts. Charles, however, fuddenly gave the lie to 
public opinion, by difcovering the greateft talents fo? 
war, accompanied with the inoft epterprizipg and he- 
roic fpirit. No fooner did the occaGon call, than his 
bold genius began to (hewJiiifelf. Inftead of being 
^fcoocerted, when told of the powerful confederac]^ 
that was forming againft him, he feemed rather to 
rejoice at the opportunity, which it would afibrd him 
of difplaying his courage. Meanwhile he did not 
negle^l the qeceflary preparatiofis or precautions. He 
Irene wpd the alliance ^f Sweden with England and 
{lolland 9 and be fjcnt an army into Pomerania, to be 
leady to fuppoit tlu: duke of Holfteiut his brother-^9. 

On Holftein the ftprm firft fell. The D;|n^s, M 
jby the duke of Wurtemburg, and encouraged by thp 
prefence of their fovercign, invaded that duchy; A.D. 179^ 
3nd after taking fome inconGderable places, invefted 
Tonnin|;ep, while the RufEaqs, Poles, and Saxons* 
entered Livonia and Ingria. The moment Charles 
jras informed of thinnvafion of Holftein, he refolved 
to carry war into the kingdom of Denmark. He ac- 
cordingly left his capita], never more to return thi* 
iber* and embarked with his troops at Carlfcroon ; 
kavix;g apppinted an extraordinary council^ chofen 

JO. Ubif^p. 



from the fenate, to regulate afiain dormg his abfence* 
The Swediih fleet was joined at the mouth of the 
Sound, by a combhied fquadron of Engli(h and Dutch 
xnen of war ; which William, as both king of Eng- 
land and Stadtholder of Holland, had fent to the af« 
£(lance of his ally. The Danifli fleet, unable to (ace 
the enemy, retired under the guns of Copenhagen, 
which was bombarded % and the king of Denmark, 
who had failed in his attempt upon Tonningen, was 
himfclf cooped up in Holftein, by fome Swedifli fri* 
gates cruifing on the coaft. 

In this critical feafon, the enterpriGng fpirit of the 
young king of Sweden fuggefted to him the means of 
finifhing the war at a (blow. He propofed to befiege 
Copenhagen by land, while the combined fleet block*, 
ed it up by fea. The idea was admired by all hii 
generals, and the neceflary preparations were made 
for a defcent. The king himfelf, impatient to reach 
the (bore, leaped into the fea fword in hand, where 
the water rofe above his middle. His example wai 
followed by all his officers and foldiers, who quickly 
put to flight the Dani(h troops that attempted to op* 
pofe his landing. Charles, who had never before 
been prefent at a general difcharge of muflcets loaded 
with ball, aflccd major Stuart, who ftood near himi 
what pccafioned the whidling which he heard. '\ It 
*< is the found of the bullets,'' replied the major, 
•« which they fire againft your majefty." Very well !*' 
faid the king : — ** this fhall henceforth be my 

Ths citizens of Cppenhagen filled with confier- 
nation, fent a deputation to Charles, befeeching him 

II. VoiairCy ubi fap« 

I sot 


not to bombard the town. He on horfeback received ^^^* 
the deputies at the head of his regiment of guards* i_ -^— ij ^ 
They fell on their knees before him j and he granted ^- ^' *7o<?# 
their reqiieft| on their agreeing to pay him four hun- 
dred thoufand rix-dollars. In the mean time the king 
of Denmark was in the moft' perilous fituation ; prefled 
by land on one fide, and confined by fea on the othen 
The Swedes were in the heart of his dominions, and 
his capital and his fleet were both ready to fall into' 
their hands. He could derive nahopes but from nego«- 
ciatfon aud fobmiffion. The king of England ofiered* 
his mediation : the French ambaffador alfo interpofed' 
his good ofiices ; and a treaty» highly honoiirable to 
Charles, was concluded at Travcndale, between Den- 
mark, Sweden, and Holftein, to the exdofion of 
Rttflia and Poland «*• 

Wiriifi William was in this manner feeoring the 
peace of foreign natiojis, the moft riolent difcontenta 
prerailed in one of bisown kingdoms. The Scots, in con«^ 
feqaence of an aft of parliament, agreeable to powcrr 
granted by the . king to his commifiioner, and con« 
firmed by letters patent under the great fea1| for efta* 
bliOiing a company trading to Africa and the Weft In* 
dies, wifli very extcnfive privileges, and an exemption 
from all duties for twenty-one years, had planted, in 
1698, a. colony on the ifthmus of Darien, and found- 
ed a fettlement, to which they g:\ve the name of New 
Edinburgh. The whole nation built on this projcft 
the moft'extravagant ideas of fuccefs; and, in order 
to fuppcrt it they had fubfcribcd the very large fum' 
of four. hundred thoufand pounds fterling'3. The 
fituattoo of the fettlement, it muft be owned, was 
well cbofen; and, two hundred thoufand poimds of 

IS. Hip.iuNndj torn. ^. 13. Bsrnet, book yi. 


nut uisTOJtt Of 

tlie monef being raifed, much m^^ hzvt hcttt i€i* 
fonaUj expe£ked from the perfeTeringand enterprifio^ 
fpirit of the peoples animated by the hope add tbtf 
love 6f gold» 

But the promifeof the futufe greatnefii of New 
Edinburgh) the intended capital of New Caledofliai 
proved its ruin. Its vicinity to Porto Bello and Car- 
thagenai at that time the great marts of the Spaniards 
in America, and the poflibility which its Ctuation 
afforded of cutting off all communication between 
thefe and the port of Panama on the Soath Sea^ 
whither the treafures of Peru were annually con- 
veyed, filled the court of Madrid with the moft 
alarming apprehenCons. Warm remonftrances were 
accordingly prefented, by the Spanifh ami>airador at 
the court of Englimd, on the fubjcft. The Englifli alfo 
became jealous of the Scottilh colony. They were ap- 
prehenfivethat many of their planters, allured by the 
profpefk of gold mines, with which New Caledonia 
was faid to abound, and the hopes of robbing the Spa^ 
niards with impunity, would be induced to abandon 
their former habitations, and retire thither; that fliips 
of all nations, to the great detriment of the English 
trade with the Spanifli main, would refort to New 
Edinburgh, which was declared a free port } that the 
Buccaneers, and lawlefs adventurers of every deno* 
mination, would make it their principal reftdesvous, 
as it would afford them an eafy paffage to the coafts 
of the South Sea, and by that means an opening to all 
the trearures of Mexico and Peru*4, 

Influenced by thefe conGderations, and afraul 
of a rupture with Spain, William fent fecret orders 

14* Id. ibi4» 



to the gOTcmor of Jamaica, and to the govcrsors of ^^tter 
all the other EDglifli fettlements, to hold no commu^ ^_ J , ^ 
nication with the Scottifli colony; nor, on any pie- A. D. 1709* 
fence whatlDerer, to fupply them with arms, ammu- 
xiitJOD, or provifiont "• Thus deprived of allfup«» 
port in America, and receiving bat Sender fuppliea 
from Europe, the mirerable remnant of the Scottilh 
iettlers ih Darien were obliged to furrender to the 
Spaniards. Never, perhaps, were any people fo mor- 
tified, as the Scots at this difafter. Difappointed in 
thcfir golden dreams, and beggared by their unfcMrtu* 
nate eflbrts, the whole nation was inflamed with rage 
and indignation againd William ; whom tbeyaccufed, 
in the moft virultm language, of dnplieity» ingrati- 
tude, and inhumanity. Proper leaders only were 
wanting to have made them rife in arms, and throw 
off his authority. 

KoR were the people of England in a much better 
humour. Apprehendve the fecond partition treaty 
might involve them in a new continental war, they 
loudly exclaimed againft it, as an impudent invafion 
of the rights of nations. And the powers on the con- 
tinent, in general, feemed equally difiatisfied with 
that treaty. The German princes, unwilling to be 
concerned in any alliance which might excite the re* 
ientment of the houfe of Auflria, were cautious and 
dilatory in their anfwers: the Italian dates, alarmed 
at the idea of feeing France in poflTeiTion of Naples, 
and other diftrids in their country, (hewed an aver- 
.fion againd the partition-treaty : the duke of Savoy, 
in hopes of being able to barter his confent for fome 
confiderable advantage, aife£led a myderious neu- 
trality : the Swifs cantons declined acceding as gua« 

X j. Burnet, ubi fop. 



^ART It fanteef ; and the emperor ezprefled his tftonllhnieiiry 
A^D^r^. that znf difporal flioald be made of the Spamfh mo^ 
fiafchf, without the confent of the prefent pofleflbr 
and the ftates of the kingdom. He> tbeiefere, tefaki 
to figti the treaty, until he (hould know the fimti^ 
menti of his Catholic Majefty, On a traniadim ii 
lirhlch the interefb of both were To deeply comJerUcdi 
remarking, That the contracKng powers, in attMpN 
ing td cbnoipel him, the rightfut heir, to aceept of a 
fart of htfl inbmtanci by a time limited; were at onoe 
guilty of a flagrant violation of the hwa of jofiiee and 
decorum "*» 

' Leopold, in a word, rejefted the treaty of parti- 
tion, becaufc he expefied the fucceiCon to the wliol^ 
Spaniih monarchy; and though Lewis XIV. bad 
figned it, in order to quiet the jealoufy of his nd^ 
hours, and had engaged, along with the Danplun, 
not to accept of any will, teflfament, or donation 
contrary to it, he was not without hopes of fopphni- 
Ing the emperor in that rich inheritance. The incli- 
nations of the king of Spain pointed toward the 
houfe of Auftria \ and, enraged at the projeAed parti» 
tion of his dominions, he a£lually nominated the 
archduke, Charles, his univerfal heir. But the hearts 
of the Spani(h nation were alienated from that honfe^ 
by the arrogance of the queen and her rapacioixi 
German favourites, and the court of Vienna took 
no care to condliate their aficQions. On the other 
hand) the marquis d'Harcourt, the French ambaA' 
dor, by his generofity, affability, and infinuating ad- 
drefs, contributed greatly to remove the prejudices 
entertained by the Spaniards againft his nation^ a&l 

1^. DcTorcy^ Bumct. l^ltaire. 

. gained 

wjrrciful party to his maftcrt infcfcft at the ^11^* 

f adrid *'. x^y<J 

A. u. 1700^ 

Spanlfh grandee^, as a body, were induced 

the claims df the honfe of Bourbon ; but its 

is wctc the clergy. Cardinal PortocarrerO^ 

p of Toledo, taking advantage of the fnpef* 

eaknefs Of his fovereign, reprefented to him^ 

ce only could maintain the fucceflion ehtire) 

hottfe of Auftria was feeble and ethauftcdi 

any prince of that family muft owe his chief 

> deteftaUe heretics. He ad vifed his Catholid 

however, td donfult the Pope on this import-* 

Ekl and Charles, notwithftanding his (icknefs^ 

stter with bis own hand, defiring the opinion 

fallible judge. Of acafe Of coDfcience, In-^ 

IL made an affair of (late« He Was fenfiblc^ 

iberties of Italy In a great meafure depended 

iraining thc^powcr of the houfe of Auftiia t 

ore declared, in anfwer to the detout king, 

laws of Spain, and the welfare of all Chriften- 

uircd him to give the ptefefencc to the family 

on. The opinion of his Holinefs was fupport* 

at of the Spanith clergy; and Charles, think- 

falvation of his foul depended on following 

ice, fecretly made a will, in which he annulled 

nciations of Maria Therefay and nominated 

5 of Anjou, fecond fon of the Dauphin, his 

in all his dominions '^. The preference was 

this young prince, in order to prevent any 

1 Europe at the union of two fuch powerful 

ties, as thofe of France and Spain ; to pre* 

r Spadifli monarchy entire and independent^ 

iflice to the rights of blood. 

:y, vol K YoKWre, Sirek, chsp. x!. 18. U. ibid. 

IV. X Though 


TnorcH this will of the king of Spain was oor 
made known to any of the rival powetSf the Spaoilh 
fnccelliony aa the death of Charlea IL was hourly cs» 
peded, engaged the folicitude of all. Bot Ihe acteii«v 
iion of William, the grand mover of the Ettropean 
fyftem^ was ealled oflF, before that event took piace^ 
to thtfinciffUn of England, in confequenee of the fad- 
den death of the duke of Glouccfter» the only forvl* 
▼ing child of the pi inceis of Denmask, and the Uft 
male heir in the Proteftant line; Catholics wcie ex- 
cluded from fuccecding to the Englilh croww by the 
former K€t of Seulement : it therefore became ne- 
ceflary now to proceed to Proteftant females \ and ai 
there remained no probability of William or tbe 
princefs of Denmark having any future ifloe, the 
A. D»i70r. eventual fucceflion to the crown was fettled, by aA oC 
parliament,, on the princefs Sophia, ducheft dowager 
of Hanover, and tbe heirs general of her body, being 
Proteftants '*• She was grand-d»ughter of James I. 
by the princefs Elizabeth, married to the unfgrtimate 
eledor Palatine, who was ftript of his dominions by 
the emperor Frederic IL 

This fettlement of the crown was accompanied 
with certain limitations, or provlfions for the (ecurity 
of the rights and liberties of the fubjeO, which were 
(uppofed to have been overlooked at the Revolution* 
The principal of thefe were. That all affairs relativs 
to government, cognifable by the privy council^ 
(hould be fubmitted to it, and that all refoludoof 
therein taken, (hould be Cgned by tbe members wko 
advlfed or confented to them ; that no pardon (hootf 
be pleadable to any impeachment laid in parliament ; 
that no perfon, who (hould poflefs any office onder tb^ 

19. JtKnmL, ApeU 14^ 1701. 

^9 or receive a penfion from the crown, (hoold be 
able of fitting in the boofe of commons ; that the 
imiffions of the judges flioald be rendered perma- A.D. xtom 
t, and tbeir fiJaries be afcertained and cftablifhed^ 
J in the event of the crowii defcehding or being 
isferred to a foreigner^ the £ngli{h nacioti (tiould 
be obligdd, without the coiifent of parliamenty to 
T into any war, for the defence of territories not 
ending en the kingdom of England; and that 
ifoeyer (hould come to the poflefBon of the throne^ 
lid join in communion with the church of £ng« 

That time the Englidi were thus fettling tlie fiic* 
on to their crown, and coolv providing for the 
rity of their liberties, all the free ftates on the 
inent were thrown into alarm, by the death 0^ 
rles II* of Spain, and his will in favour of the 
!e of Boutbon. Lewis XIV. feemed at firft to 
ate, whether he (hould accept the will, or adhere 
he treaty of Partition. By the latter, f'rance 
Id have received a coofiderable acceflion of tetri- 
and have had England and Holland for her zU 
againft the emperor y by the former, flie would 
the glory of giving a mafter to her ancient rival, 
the profpefi of dire£ling, through him, the Spa- 
councils, at the hazard of having the emperor, 
and, and Holland for her enemies. This dan- 
was forefeen ; but Lewis could not refift the 
:y of pbcing his gtandfoli otl the throne of 
Q. He accepted the will by the advice of his 
icil *' ; and the duke of Anjou, with the univerfal 
mt of the Spanifh nation, was crowned at 
rid, under the name of Philip V. 

to. Ibid. ii. DeTorcy, torn. L 

Xa The 


The French monarch, in order to juftify hbeondoA 
to the Icing of England and the States-general of the 
United Pro? inces, who affcfted to be highly offended 
at his breach of fiiith, very plauGbly urged. That the 
treaty of Partition was not likely to anfwer the ends 
for which it had been negociated ; that the emperor 
bad refufed to accede to it i that it was approved by 
'none of the princes to whom it had been coounimi* 
cated; that the people of England and HoHaod had 
exprefied their diffitisfa^on at the profpeA of kaag 
France put in polTeffion of Naples and Sicily ; thai 
the Spaniards were fo determined againft the divifioo 
of their monarchy^ that there would be a necefity 
of conquering them^ before the treaty could be 
executed ; that the whole Spanifli fucceffion wouM 
have devolved upon the archduke Charles, if France 
had rejeded the will| the fame courier, who brought 
It, having orders to proceed innsediately to YiernUf 
with fuch an offer, in cafe of the refufkl of the 
court of Ver£uUes ;. that the confervation of the 
peace of Europe, was what his moft Chriftian majefty 
eonfidered to be the chief objeA of the contradiflg 
parties ; and that, true to this principle, he had onlf 
departed from the words, that he might the better 
adhere to the fpirit of the treaty **. 

Thovgh thefe reafons were by no means fatisfac" 
tory to William or the States, they cautioufly con- 
cealed their refentment, as tbey were not in a condi- 
tion to fupport it by any decifive raeafurr. And it btt 
been aflTerted, with fome appearance of truths Thtt^ 
if they had permitted Philip V, peacably to cnjof 
the Spanifh throne, he would have become, in a few 
years, as good a Spaniard as any of the preceding 

zt, Bvrsct, book vi. De Torcy, torn. i. 



PhilipSy «nd hare utterly excluded the influence of LETTER. 
French councils from the adminiftration of his go- ^ ^j 
Temment; whereas the confederacy that was after* A.D. r;^!. 
ward formed againft him, and the war by which it 
was followed, threw him wholly into the hands of 
the French, becaufe their fleets and armies were 
neceflary to his defence, and gave France a fway 
OTer the Spanifh councilsy which (he has ever fince 
sctaiacd *'. 

I%aAift, however, be confefled. That, independent 
of prejudice or paflion, war was become unaToid- 
able. The fecuring of commerce and of barriers, the 
preventing an union of the ttvo powerful monarchies 
of France and Spain in any future period, and the 
preferving, to a certain degree at leaft, an equiUbrium 
of power, were matters of too much moment Co 
England, Holland, and to Europe in general, to be 
jrefted on the moderation of the French, and the 
vigour of the Spanifli councils, under a prince of the 
lioufe of Bourbon, and a grandfon of Lewis XIV. 
yet in his minority. Aware of this, and confcious 
of their own inability to defend their eztenfive do^ 
minions, the Spaniards refigned themfelves entirely to 
the guardianOiip of the French monarch. The Re^ 
^ency commanded the viceroys of the provinces to 
obey his orders : a French fquadron anchored in the 
port of Cadiz ; another was fent to the proteftion of 
the Spanifli fettlemeats in America; and, under pre* 
tence that the States were making preparations for 
war^ the court of France was impowered to take 
poflfeffion of the JDutch barrier in Flanders'^. 

13. Minijtaolu^ Skid ^ the ffiJl.amiSitiiffMiir^. %i. Mm. 


rA»T II. The cleaor of Bavaria, uncle to Phiy|> V. iikI 
April 17 pi governor of the Span i(h Netherlands, introduced on 
the fame d^y, apd at the fame hour, French troopc 
)oto all the barrier towns in Flanders, and feized upon 
the Dutch forces that were in garrlfon, to the number 
of twenty-t^o battalions. Overwhelmed with con- 
fternation ^t this event, efpecially when they reflet- 
cd on their own defenceleb cpndition, and ific faciUty 
of an invafion from France, the States inftantly 
agreed to acknowledge the new king of Sp|ins and 
the French monarch, on ri^ceiving a letter to tmR pyr- 
pofe, ordered their troops to be fet at liberty *5, 
The king of England (till continued obftinate ; bqt 
)iaviog in vain attempted \o dra^ the parliaooept, 
which confided chiefly of Tories, ai^d is fuppofed (q 
have been uQder thp influence of French gold, if|to 
bis hoftilc views, he at Istft foqnd it neceflTary to a^ 
knowledge the duke of Anjou as lawful foverei|;n of 
Spain, though Lewis refufed to give any other fecu- 
rity for the peace of Europe than a renewal of the 
Jreaty of Ryfwick ^6. 

The pmperpr now, of all the great powers of Ea« 
f ope, alone continued to difputp the title of Philip V. 
Though J.cppold pretended a prior right to the whole 
3panilh monarchy, he determined at firft to confine 
|iis views to a parr, and fixed upon the duchy of 
Milan, i|i^hich he claimed as a fief of the empire^ 
He accordingly ifTued his mandate to the inhabitants^ 
(:omm^nding their obedience on pain of being con*-^' 
lidered a» rebels. But iY\c prince of Vaudentont^ 
goverrior of that duchy, had already fubmitted him-^* 
felf 10 the new king of Spain, conformable to th^^ 
|vill of Charles 11. A body of French troops, atfl 

Sj. Duke, of Bprwick*s Mm, voL u Bnraetibook vL 26. Id. ibtJT^ 


if peqaifidoa, had entered the Milaaefe territoiy. 

}icfe were fooa followed by a powerful anujr ; aad 

le duke of Savoy, whofe daughter Philip had mar«> iLDi 17^. 

edj in order to llrengthen his intereft on that Cde^ 

-as declared captain-general of the whole. 

Thb emperor, however^ was not ditcovraged bf 
lefe Tormidable appearancesy from purfuiog his claim 
) tlie dttchy of Milan. He feat an army of thirty 
pubt^ men into luly^ under prince Eugenct who 
teed xhe paflage of the Adige, along which the Fienck 
pops wjcre pofted ; entered thotr entrenohments at 
arpii and obliged them to corer themiUfts behind 
e Mincio ^. In confequence of this advantage, 
id others by which it was followed, the Imperial- 
3 became mafters of all the cpuntry between th^ 
dige and the Adda : they even penetrated into this 
rritory of Brefciano, and the French found it oe» 
jBry to retire beyond the Dglio ?', 

T^K marefchal de Catinat, who was fecond In 
mmand, began to fufpe^l that all the misfortunes 
the French, in the field, could not proceed from 
e fuperior genius of prince Eugene. Hp became 
^btfitl pf the fidelity of the 4^1^^ of Savoy, and 
mmunicated bis fofpicions to Lewis XIV. who, not 
inking it poffible that his interefts could be be* 
lyed by a prince fp intimately conne£led with his 
nily», ?fcf ibpd thefe furmifes to impatience or pri* 
te difgufty ^nd fent the marefchal de Villeroy to 
perfede Catinat. Anxious to fignalize himfelf by 
[ne great a&ion, Villeroy, in concert with the com- 
ander in chief, attempted to furprife the Imperialifts 
(heii camp at Chiari^ but the duke of Savoy hav« 

7. Mem* dt Feitjfmtrmf %t. Voluire, 9i«/r, cUp. irii, 

X4 ing 


FART lU ing acquainted prince Eugene of this defign, and o( 
A^D^nd. ^^^^ difpofition of the intended at^cky the Frencli 
were repulfed with grpat lofs *9. 

DvRiNO thefe opi^rations in Italy, (he Englilban4 
Dutch were engaged in fruitlefs negociations with 
France ; which were continued rather to gain time^ia 
order to make preparations for war, than with aoy 
hope of prefierf ing the peace of Europe* At laft tbe 
departure of the French ambaflador, D*ArauZf firoiii 
the Hague, put an end to eren the sippear^noe of a 
fiegociation ; and the fuccefles of tbe emperor, thowli 
by no means decifivej made his caufe be viewed ^k 
a more fafoarable eye. I)e had already fecurad the 
iBle£kor of Brandenburg, throtigh the channel of hif 
ytnity, by dignifying him with the title of King of 
Pruffia» The Qern^an princes, in general, were in- 
duced to depart from their propofed neutrality* The 
king of England, though ftill thwarted by his pailia? 
pient, had refolved upon a war ; and the king of Den« 
mark, gained by a fubGdiary treaty^ was ready to 
aflift him with a body of troops 3^. 

In proportion as Leopold obferved the increafe of 
the inclination of the maritime powers for war, be 
rofe in his demands with refpeft to the terms of the 
proje6ted alliance. He at one time feemcd determined 
tobefatisfied with nothing lefs than the who}e Spanifli 
monarchy ; but finding William and the States refo- 
lute againd engaging in fuch an ambitious proje£l, be 
moderated his views, and came into their propo-, 
fals. They would only undertake to procure for him 
the Spanifh dominions in Italy, and to recover Flan- 

2'). Mtrryn^ HiJLrt Poliiifue, Cow/m. P. Daniel. Hepaolt^ tem. iv 
JO. BiirncL Voltaire. I«ambcrtL D« Torcy. 



den, u » barrier tot Holland. Matters being that LETTER 
adjoftedy the famous treaty, gcncnilly known by the y^^Lj 
aame of the Grand AlliancBj was figned by the a.d. 1701. 
plenipotentiaries of the emperor, the king of England, ^P'* 7* 
;and the Sutes-general of the United Provinces''. 
The avowed obje^is of this treaty were, ** The pro- 
^ curing fatisfa^ion to his Imperial Majefty in regard 
V to the Spanifli fucceflion i the obtaining of fecurity 
^ to the Englifh and Dutch for their dominions and 
^ commerce ; the preventing the union of the two 
^ great monarchies of France and Spain; and the 
^ hindering the French from pofleffing the Spanifh 
^* donunions in America." It was alfo ftipulated^ 
That the king of England and the States might re- 
tain for themfelves, whatever lands and cities they 
fliould conquer in both Indies '*. And the contraA- 
ing powers agreed to employ two months, in attempt* 
ingto obtain, by amicable means^ the fatisfaQion, and 
iecnrity they demanded. 

While this confederacy, which afterward light- 
ed, with fo much fury, the flames of war in the 
fouthem parts of Europe, was forming, the north- 
eaft quarter was deeply involved in blood. Charles 
XIL of Sweden no fooner raifed the fiege of Copen- 
hagen, ii^ cpnfequence of his treaty with the king of 
Denmark, in the year 1700, than he turned his arms 
againft the Ruflians^ who had undertaken the fiege of 
Narva» with eighty thoufand men. Charles, with 
only eight thoufand men» advanced to the relief of the 
place i and having carried, without difficulty, all the 
out-pods^ he refolved to attack the Ruffian camp. As 
foon as the artillery had made a breach in the en- 
trenchments, he accordingly ordered an aflault to be 

31. Ibid. 31. ,yide 7r««#jr> »rt. vL 



r t^I/j ^^^ ^^^ fcrcwcd bayonets, under favour of 3 ftorm 
A.ai7oj. of fnow, which the wind drove full in the faec of 
the enemy. T^e Ruffians, for a lime^ flood the (hock 
with 6rnme(s ; but, after an engagement of three 
hours, their entrenchments were forced on aU fidei, 
with great daughter, and Charles entered Nirva iq 
Iriamph 33. About eight thoufand of the eoeioy 
were killed in the a&ion ; many were drowned in the 
Narva, by the breaking down of a bridge under the 
fugitives ; near thirty thoufand were made prifonen i 
and all their magazines, artilleryi and baggage, fell in- 
to the hands of the Swedes >^, Charles difmifled all 
bis prifoners, after difarming them, except the officcrsi 
whom he treated with great generoGty. 

The czar was not prefent in this battle. He bad 
imprudently, though perhaps fortunately, left his 
camp, in order to forward the approach of another 
army, with which he hoped to furround the king 6{ 
Sweden. When informed cf the difafter bcfon 
Narva, he was chagrined, but not difcoi^ragccl. ^ I 
**knew that the Swedes would beat vis,^ Cud he; 
** but in time, they will teach us tp become their 
•* conquerors 34. »* Conformable Xo this opinion^ 
though at the head of forty thoufand men, in (lead of 
advancing agaiuft the vi^qr, he evacuated all the 
provinces he had inv^d^d, ai^d led back his raw troops 
into his own country y ixrbere he employed himfelf in 
difciplining then), and in civilizing his people, not 
doubt iog hn% be iJiQuld one day be able to ciufh his 

Tic the mf^n time the king of Sweden, having 
paflfed the winter at Narva, took the field as foon as 

3 J. VoHaire, J3Jf cf ChmrUt XIU 3^ Id. ibid. 35. Vdl- 


M O D E R N E U R O P E. 315 

Ac (eaSon would permit, with all the towering hopes better 
of a youthful conqueror. He entered Livonia, and > ^ ' ^ 
appeared in the neighbourhood of Riga, which the^x. 
king of Poland had in yain beiieged the preceding 
campaign. The Poles and Saxons were pofted along 
the Donat which is very broad at that place ; and 
Charles, who lay on the oppofite fide of the river, 
was under the neceffity of forcing a paflage. This be 
eSefledy although with mucl> difficulty i the Swedes 
being driven back into the river, after they had 
formed themfelves upon the land. Their young king 
rallied them in the water i and leading them to the 
charge in a more compa^l body, repulfed marefchal 
Stenau, who commanded the Saxons, and advanced 
into the plain • There a general engagement enfued, 
and the Swedes gained a complete but bltfody vie* 
torys^. The enemy loft near three thoufand men, 
widi all their artillery and baggs^e. The lofs of the 
Swedes was very confiderable, the duke of Courland 
having penetrated three times into the heart of the ' 

](ing^s jguards 9^f 

Immediately after this vi^^ory, Charles ad- 
vanced to MittaUf the capital of Courland. That 
city^ and a)l the (owns in the duchy, furrendered to 
him at difcretion. His expedition, thither was rather 
^ journey than a military enterprize. From Courland 
he pafled into Lithuania, conquering every thing in 
\fin progreft ; and he is faid to have felt a particular 
(ztish/Edon^ when hq entered in triumph the town of 
Birzen, where Auguftus king of Poland, and the 
czar Peter, had planned his deftrudlion but a few 
inonths before 3^ It was here thar, under the ftimu- 

36. Volutre, HiJ. CbarUt XII. Parthenaf, Eif, foltg. torn, u 
j7. Id. ibi<L 38. ypltairfi ^bi fnp. 




lating infiaence of refentmenr^ he formed the great 
projed of dethroning Auguftus, by means of hb own 
fubjeds. That prince had been accuftomed to govern 
defpotically in Saxony) and fondly imagining that 
he might exercife the fame authority in Poland, as in 
his hereditary dominionsi he loft the hearts of hit 
new people. The Poles murmured at feeing their 
towns enflaved by Saxon ganifons, and their frontien 
covered with Rui&an, armies. More jealotis of their 
liberty than ambitious of conqueft, they confidered 
the war with Sweden as an artful meafore of the 
court, in order to fumifli a pretext for the introduc- 
tion of foreign troops 39. 

Chakles XIL refolved to take advantage of tbefc 
difcontents, and fucceedcd beyond bis fondeft hopett 
But in the profecution of this, and his othei^ ambif 
tious proje£%s, we muft leave him for a time, in ordcf 
to contemplate a more important fccne of a£tioi^ 

39. Paithen, Hiji, P#A^. torn, u 




tVMn%/rmtbiiigifmh^$/tbiG4mrmi^ar, 1*1701, 
i9 the Offers •fPioci made hy Frahcb, in 1706, and 
tbeVmos ^England ani Scotland, 

NOTWITHSTANDING the alliance which the lett» 
king of England had concluded with the empe- . ^^h m 
ror and the Statefr-general, it may be queftioned whe- A.D. z7oo, 
tber be coold bate pre?auled upon his people to en* 
gage heartily In a new continental war, bad it not 
been for an unforefeen meafure, which roufed their 
relentment againft France. Soon after the Cgning of 
the Grand Alliance James II. died at St. Gcrmains; Seps^ tSi 
and Lewis XIV. in riolation of the treaty of Ryf* 
wick, acknowledged the fon of that unfortunate prince 
king of Great Britain and Ireland, under the title of 

Whethsr Lewis was induced to this metfure by 
generoGty of fcntiment, or what the French writers 
term the elevation and fenJibiUtj efbit great foul; by the 
fears of the widow of the deceafed prince, feconded 
by the entreaties of Madame de Maintenon, or by 
political motivesi is a matter of rery little confe« 
quence. It is probable, however, that he was partly 
influenced by political confiderations ; that, believing 
war to be unavoidable, he hoped, by thus encourag* 
ing the Jacobites, able to difturb the Englifli go- 
remment ; efpecialiy as the declining health of Wil- 
liam made his death be regarded as no diftant 
event, and the party in favour of the dire£l line of 
focceflSon was ftill powerful in all the three Britifh 
kingdoms. But whatever might be the motive of the 

French monarch for fuch ^ meafure i whether it 



PART n. fpning from weikoefs, generoGtf, or felfiflineft. It 
k^D.vjou hurried him into a war^ for which he was lerj little 
prepared, and which reduced him, in a few years^ 
from the higheft pinnacle of gTandeur» to the4oweft 
ftate of defpondencj. France, exhanfted by her 
former effbns, had not yet had time to recover new 
ftrength \ and Spain, languifhing under ev«ry kind of 
political malady, was only a load upon her (houldera. 
But the fupply of the precious metals, which (he was 
fufiered, by the negligence of the maritime powers, 
to procure from the SpanKh dominions in America, 
and particularly from tbofe on the South Sea, enabled 
her to maintain the contdl much longer than would 
have been poflible for her merely with her own inter- 
nal refources '• 

The marquis de Torcy attempted in vain to apo- 
logize to the king of England for the condu£l of hii 
mafter : the affront to William was too flagrant to 
be patiently borne. He inftantly recalled his am- 
bafTador from the court of France, and ordered the 
French envoy to quit his dominions. Nor did tbs 
Englifh parliament, to which William made a fpeech 
well fuited to the occafion, difcover lefs refentmeot 
at the infult offered to their fovereign, and to them* 
(elves, by the French monarch ; in prefuming to 
declare who (hould be their king, and in naming a 
perfon excluded from the fuccefHon by an zCt of the 
LD.T702. whole legiflature. They paiTed a bill of attainder 
Jan. 2. agaihfl the pretended prince of Wales, for afluming 
the title of king of England ; and alfo a bill to oblige 
all perfons» holding any oIEce in church or (late, to 
abjure his claim to the crown. They entered warmly 
into the idea of the war, which was eagerly defired 

I. Boliogbroke, SUt. rftht Blfl. mii S$tU •/ Ew^* 


^ tbe peopfe i nited fonj f boofiuid men for h^ ^'Sl^ 
fiemcc^ a^eeabk to the tenns c£ tbe Grand AUknce^ \^^y^^ 
and an cq«al nambcr Sot the 0217. And they pre- AJX 170a. 
ficstcd an addrcCi to the throne, rcqnefting the kii»g 
10 infiert in tbe treaty an article, which was readily 
aidMcd to by the contraQiPg powers. That no peace 
flbonld be ooncloded with France, until reparation 
was made by the French monarch for tbe indignity 
•fieied to his majefty and the Engliih nation* in own* 
iBg and declaring the preunded prince of Wales king 

William, thas fopported rn his farourite fthenAet 
by the onanimous Toice of his parliament and people* 
was making vaft preparations for opening the enfuing ^ 

campaign, when a fall from his horfe threw him into 
a fever, which pat a period to his life, but not hit 
bcrid deCgns >. He was a prince of great vigour of 
mind, firmnefs of tcmperi and intrepidity of fpirit ; 
bnt nngmceful in his perfon and addrefs, difguftingly 
cold in his manner, and dry, filent, and folitary in 
bis htrnioor. To a happy concurrence of circum- 
ftances, and a (leady perfeverance in his plans, rather 
than to any extraordinary talents, either in a civil or 
military capacity, he owed thkt high reputation smd ex« 
tenfive influence, which he fo long enjoyed among the 
princes of Chriftendom. He was, however, an able 
politician, and a good foldicr, though not a great com* 
mander. He has been feverely, and juftly blamedj for 
thofe intrigues* which he employed to dethrone his 
uncle and father-in-law. But as William's heart 
feems to have been as dead to the fympathetic feel- 
ings, as his foul was infenfible to the charms of lite- 
rature and the beauties of the elegant arts, it is poflU* 

^. Buract, book vl. Jwrtiah, Jaa, to. 1701. 3. BiirBet,«birttp, 



r A&T n. ble tliaty while gmdini^ the gfett political fyfiem, hi 
i^vfijou nught be led hj the lUafians of amlmion, mider the 
appearance of principle, to think the ties of bloody 
and even the right of inheritancci a neceffary iicri^ 
&e tQ the welfiire of Europe and the inrerefta of the 
reformed religion. England, at leaft, was obliged to 
him for abetdng her caufe, in her grand ftmggle for 
liberty and a Proceftant Succeffion. But (he has dearly 
paid for thofc bleflingSj by being inrolvcd in waftiflg 
foreign wars, partly indeed rendered neceflary by 
the fupineneCi of her two preceding princes» bai 
in which (he ought naturally to hare had no coo- 
cern ; by the introdudion of the infamous praffice 
of corrupting parliaments, in order to engage tbem te 
fupport thofe wars i and by their unavoidable conii0» 
quence, a grievoos national debt, which, daily aeon 
mulating, and augmenting the weight of goTcmiHeBtf 
threatens us with the worft of evils K 

The death of tbe king of England threw the alliei 
into tbe utmoft conflernation, and occafioned the 
higheft joy at the court of France. But that joy was 
of Ibort duration. Tbe quiet fuccefBon of Anne, 

4. A certain proportion of public debt, by increaCng circulation, tod 
creating a new fpccies of money, alwap ready to be employed ia aof 
beneficial imdertaking,by means of hs transferable quality, and yet pro* 
facing feme profit, even while it lies idle, is foppofed to be of adrift- 
tage to a trading people. But what that proportion may be, no politic 
dan has hitherto pretended to determine. It is however certain, tbst 
tbe nationaldebt of England haslong exceeded, not only allcalcnhdoHf 
•f commercial benefit, but what it was thought, as late as the middle if 
the prelentcenttiry, the kingdom could poffibly bear ; and that the eno^ 
■Kms taies, levied to pay the intereft of that debt, by enhancing thi 
price of the neceflaries of life, of labour, and confe^ently of every 
fpecies of manufadure, have hurt the falc of our cosunoditics in fott^ 
markets; have firengthened the enfiaving icfiupice of the crowa, byiii' 
crcafing the number of iu dependents, if not broke in fome meafure tht 
frtc Ijpirk of tbe people, by mvltlplyiiig thdr neceffltics. 



prittcefs of Deomark, cldeft furvmng daughter of letter 
James IL to the Englith tbrotie, conformable to the « ^^'' , j f 
A6t of Settlement^ and her early declaration of her A.D. not. 
relblutioii to purfue the objeds of the Grand Alii. 
aooe, rc?i?ed the fplrits of the confederates } while 
the choice of her mini&crs,' and tbe rigour of their 
meafuresy bUfted all tbe hopes that Lewis and the 
court of St. Germains had founded on the deceafe of 
William. Lord Godolphin was placed at the head of 
the treafury \ and the earl of Marlborough, whofe 
eldeft daughter was married to Godolphin's fon^ and 
whofe wife had acquired an abfolute afcendant over 
the queen, was appointed commander in chief of the 
EngliOi forces in Fianders, and immediately difpatch* 
cd CO Holland, in the chara£ler of ambafiador extra* 
ordinary to the States '• 

Thus conne£led by family intereft, as well as po- 
litical views, thefe two great men condu£led with har« 
mony the affairs of England, and even acquired a 
more decided influence on the continent than had 
ever been poflcffed by William. They not only kept 
more compa£t and entire all the parts of that vail ma- 
chine, the .Grand Alliance, but communicated a more 
rapid and vigorous motion to the whole. The earl 
of Marlborough fucceeded in every part of his nego- 
ciation with the States: he animated them to a full 
exertion of their (Irength ; and gained fo far on their 
confidence, that they raifed him to the chief command 
of their troops. All the allies engaged, with alacrity, 
to furnifli their feveral quotas ; and war was declared 
againll France^ on the fame dayy at London^ the 
Hague, and Vienna « 

5. Baraet, book nu €. 14. ibi4> 

Vol. IV, X Th» 


-PART n. The firil campaign, however, was not diftinguMbcd 
A.D^i7ox. ^y •"' S""^*^ CTcnt. In Italy, the Imperialifts, «ndcf 
prince Eugene, being outnumbered by the combined 
armies of France and Spain, gained no advantage. 
There Philip V. (having left the government of hit 
new kingdom in the«hands of the queen^ afRfted by a 
council, and pafled into Naples) nominally commaiid* 
ed in perfon^ ; and but nominally, all the operatioas 
being really direded by the duke de Vendome. His 
prefence, however, infpired confidence into hit troops; 
and prince Eugene was not only forced to rtife At 
blockade of Mantua, but in fomc degree worftei^ in an 
attempt to furprife Vendome near Loaxzra K 

The Imperialifts were not more fuccefsful on tbe 
Upper Rhine ; where the prince of Baden^ tbovgh 
elated with the taking of Landau, was defeated st 
Fridlengen, by the marquis de Villars, immediittly 
after created a marefchal of France. •• I have heard,'' 
fays Voltaire, *< marefchal Villars declare more than 
'* once, that as he was marching at the head of hisia- 
*' fantry, after the battle was gained, a voice called, 
** fVe arc undone ! On hearing this, all his trodf| fled. 
** He ran after them, crying, Come back^ my/riaids! 
•* the victory is ours. Long live the king ! The trembling 
*^ foldiers repeated. Long live the king I but contiBoed 
'* to fly : and the marquis found the utmoft difficulty 
* •' in rallying the conquerors ♦." On fuch trivial dr- 

7. The ptrting of Philip an^ his jtsong queen, himfelf MymuifiVii 
preceded hy many ftrugglcs of tenderncfs. One day, while both vcif 
bathed IB tears, this amiable and accomplilhed princefs hearing fMM of 
the covrtien aflc the king, if he (hould pais the night with her, all kr 
fcnfibility was roufed, her prdence of mind for£»ok her, and flw pifi«- 
ately exchdmedy <* Oh, my God! of the (hort time that remain ttt 1^ 
WmiM they cot off even the nights?** MM-drATMcC^ t«n.& 

•• HaiaaaUf 1702. 9. SUtU^ chap. sviL 




cumlUnces often depend the iflue of the greateft letter 

battles* Had a fingle regiment of Imperialifts appear^ ^^ ' ^ 

cd during this panic, the French, fo lately TiftoriouSj A. D. 1702. 
would hare been totally routed. 

The houfe of Bourbon was lefs fortunate on the 
fide of Flanders. The allies began the campaign with 
the ^ege of Keyfcrfwaert, which the eledlor of Co- 
logne had placed in the hands of the French, and 
which furrendered after a fiege of two mouths. 
The duke of Burgundy, who commanded the French 
army, having under him marcfchal Boufflers, it was 
€ipe£ted would either have attempted the relief of 
.that important place, or have invefted feme other; 
.but, by a flrange piece of mifcondu<ii, he lay almoft 
totally inactive during the whole fiege, and till the 
carl of Marlborough arrived to take the command 
of the allied army^^ Marlborough^ who was no lefs 
prudent than afiive, and who may be faid to have 

' «nited the enterpiifing fpirit of the hero to the cau- 
tion and forefight of the confummate general, refolv- 
rcd iaimediately to attack the duke of Burgundy : and 

• had he not been reflrained by the timidity of the 
field-deputies of the States, he would have gained 
a complete viftory over the French**. Though thus 
confined in his operations, the Englifli commander 
contrived by mafterly movements, by marches and 
coonter-marches, to throw himfelf between the enemf 
and the principal towns of Spanifli Guelderland; 
where he reduced fucccffively, and without molcfta- 
tion, Venlo, Ruremonde, and Liege ; conquefts of the 

10. Dmke of Berwick^ Mem. vol. i. 11. Burnet, book vJi. 

Duke of Berwick's Mem. vol. i. « Wc were polled in fiich a nmnner," 
hifi the dttke of Berwick, *< that we flionld have been beaten without 
'*• betog able to (ir : our left being veiy high, and our right funk Inio 
c a CHl-ik'fac betweea two rhrulett." Mem. ubi fup, 

Y 1 greateft 


FaRTII. greatcft importance, as by the acquifition of thofc 
A. D 170^. places the navigation of the Maefe was opened^ and ft 
free communication with Macftricht *. 

The operations at fea were even ^ore favourable 
to the allies, than thofe hj land ; though* not in all 
refpedls equal to their hopes. The confederate fleet, 
under Sir George Rooke, con lifting of fifty Eoglifli 
and Dutch (hips of the line, with twelve thoufimd 
troops on board, commanded by the duke of Ormond, 
appeared before Cadiz, and fummoned that city to 
furrender to the houfe of Auftria, or run the hazard 
of an attack from fuch a formidable armament. But 
the governor paid no regard to this threat. The place 
was much ftronger than the beHegers expeAed ; fo that 
the duke of Ormond found it neceflary to re-embark 
his troops after they had taken fort St. Catherine, 
made an unfuccefsful attempt on fort Matagorda, 
and pillaged port St. Maiy, contrary to bis ezprciii 
erders. His next attempt was more fortunate. 

The confederate?, after leaving Cadiz, failed for 
Vigo, where the galleons, under convoy of twenty- 
three French fliips of war, commanded by the count 
de Chateau- Rcnaud, were juft arrived from America. 
As the wealth on board thefe galleons was confidcr- 
cd as the chief rcfoarce of the Spanifh monarchy, 
and even of the whole houfe of Bourbon, Lewis XIV. i 
exptcling to (hare in it, the utmoft precaution had J 
been taken to fccurc them ^3. They were carried op \ 
into a bafon, through a narrow entrance, oA fide of i 
which was defended by a fort, the other by plat- 
forms mounted with cannon. A boom was thrown 
he mouth of the bafon, and within the boom 

Id« ib'.d. J3> Mm, de NuUU*^ torn, ii 



yt FrcBch fqoadron was drawn up. But all thefe letter 

>ftacle8 were not fuScient to difcourage the confc- ^^^ 

u^teSy when animated by the hopes of fo rich a A. 0.1701. 

>oty. The doke of Ormond having landed part of 

IS troops, toolrthe callle : the boom was broken by 

le fleet ; and the French admiral perceiving, that all 

rtber refiftance would be vain, fet fire to his (hips. 

he galleons followed the defperate example ; but the 

ngHlb and Dutch were at hand, to extlnguifli the 

aines. Six fliips of war were taken^ ftven funk, and 

ine bornt. Of thirteen galleons, nine fell into the 

ands of the conquerors, and four were deftroyed \ 

Dd although the greater part of the treafure had been 

inded^ and carried to Lago, the booty was immenfe, 

id the confternation of the houfe of Bourbon ex* 

cffivc '♦. 

Before intelligence of this important blow ar* . 
ived in England, both houfes of parliament had con 
ratulated her majefty on the fuccefs of her arms, 
nder the earl of Marlborough^ who was foon after 
reated a doke, and liberal fupplies were voted for 
arrying on the war. The good humour of the par-* 
ament was incrcafed, by the news of the dedruc- 
ion of the enemy's fleet at Vigo: the hopes of the 
ation ran high ; the mod vigorous preparatioos were 
lade, and the affairs of the allies every where wora 

very favourable afpcft. The duke of Savoy, who 

14. Id. lb. Burnct| book vii. Lives of the AdmiraU^ Vol. iii. 
,ewu XIV. who coQibincd, with the mod infatiable and bloody aim« 
itiony a tonge mixture of piety and rtfignation, writei thus in a con<- 
»latory fetter to the queen pf Spain, then at the head ef the governn 
lent :^** Events are in the hands of God, who often draws good out 
of what we confidcr as our greatrd misfortunes. If ft is pufllbie to 
prcrrent the bad effcds of that difadcr which has happened, your m^ 
jcfty his prevented them." Mm. tU NmUUj, torn. ii. 

V 3 *. had 


PART L haj }^^^ long wavering, openly defertcd the interefts 
of France and Spain, and concluded a treaty with 
the emperor, to the adonifliment of the hoofe of 
Bourbon; he being not only a grandfon of Lewis 
XIII. b^t father-in-hw to the duke of Burgundy, and 
Philip V» From motives of intereft, Peter VI. king 
of Portugal, alfo united himf^lf to the confederated «^ 

To the defcAion of thofe two princes, the French 
afcribed their fubfequent mitfortunes in the war. 
Lewis XIV- however, made great preparations for 
opening the next campaign, and was by no nieaxis> 
wanting in fi^ccefs. Meantime the elcAor of Bavaria, 
thp firm ally of France, catricd on hoftilities with vi- 
gour in the heart pf Gerpiany. He took Neoburg, 
p(i the Danube, ^arly in the feafon : he defeated the 
Imperialifts at PaflTau ; and having taken Burgkn^ld 
A^rii u- and Ratifbon, was joined at Dutlingen by marefchal 
Villars. Afterward difappointed in an attempt to 
enter Tyrol, and open a communication with the 
French army in Italy, he rejoined Villars in Suabia. 
They croffcd the Danube j and Villars undcrftanding 
that the count de Styrum, at the head of twenty thou- 
fand mrn, was on his march to join the formidable 
army of the prince of Baden, near Donawert, faid 
to the eleftor, M We muft prevent this : w^ muft ad- 
•« vance, and attack Styrum.'* The ele^oc hetitatcd, 
and fai4 he would confult with his miniders aqd 
generals. Ml am your miniftcr and general!'* re- 
plied Villars: — ** Cai^ you vyant any other counfel 
** than mine, when tne queflion is about giving bat- 
«« tie?"— Full pf apprthenfions for his dominions, 
the c'.t^ftor wa^ (lill avcrfe from the marcfchars pro- 
pofal, aii^ not a little difplcafcd at his fifeedom. 
15, Burnet. Voltaire* 


*«WclH" faid Villars, "if your highncft will not I^ttee 
«* fcizc lhi« opportunity with your Bavarians, I will ^ _ '_ [^ 
" engage with the French only :— it muft not be loft.*' ^.0.1703* 
He accordingly ordered his troops to march i and 
the eleAor, though filled with indignation, found 
himfelf under the neceflity of fighting againft his 
judgment *\ They attacked the enemy in the plains 
of Hochftet, and gained a complete vi£lory. Three Sapc to* 
thoufand of the Imperialifts were killed j four thou* 
fand were made prifoners i and all their artillery and 
baiggaee fell into the hands of the conquerors. Th^ 
viftorious army put the eledior of Bavaria in pofief* 
Con of Augfburg \ and the road to Vienna being thus 
laid open, the emperor trembled in his capital '7. 

The conftemation of Leopold was, in fome mea* 
(orCy excufable. The duke of Burgundy, who com<* 
manded the French army on the fide of Alface, har^ 
ing under him the marefchals Tallard and Vauban, 
had made himfelf mafter of Old Brifac ; and Taliardt 
before the end of the campaign, not only retook 
Landau, but defeated, with great flaughter, an army 
of the allies, under the prince of Heffc, who was ad* 
▼anciog to its relief >^. In Italy, where Starembcrg 
commanded for the emperor, the duke de Vendome 
difarmed, by furprife, the troops of the duke of 
Savoy \ reduced Barfillio, defeated Vifconti, and took 
pofleifion of the territories of the duke of Mode* 

The French were left fucccfsful in the Nether- 
bnds ; where the duke of Marlborough, having con- 
certed meafures with the States, was enabled to ap- 

1 6. Thefc particuUrt are related by Voltairt, from the mamifcripi 
Mfmoirt »/ Mmrt/cbalFUiart, written by |uxn(elf. SuOe, chap. xtu. • 

I7« Id. IbiO, 1^ Sumct^ V«Uair«. flfoavU. 19. thid. 

^ 4 pea? 


pear earlj in the field, He opened tbe campaign 
with the fiege of Bonne, a ftrong city in the circle of 
the Lower Rhincy and the urual refidence of fbo 
cledor of Cologne. That prince, brother to tbi 
4sIe£lor of Bavaria, had placed Bonne^ with his otha 
dominions, in the hands of the French at the begin- 
ning of the war. Though gallantly defended by tbc 
marquis d'Alegre, it was forced to furrender, after t 
^^f 15* (lege of twelve days. But notwithftanding this early 
fuccefs, and the fuppofed weaknels of the eneiny» 
Marlborough found it impracticable to penetrate into 
Flanders; the French army, under the marefchali 
Boufflers and Villcroy, keeping cautioufly within 
their lines, and the Englifli general not judging it 
prudent to attempt to force them *^, He therefore 
fnarchcd back toward the Maefe, where he took 
Huy and Limburg. And GueldreSy after a blo^ade 
and bombardment of near eighteen months^ alfo fur* 
rendered to the allies ^% 

These acquifitipnS) however, were by no means a 
balance to the advantages of the enemy in other 
quarters ; more efpecialiy as the operations pf the 
allies at fea, duiing the fummer, had been languid 
and undeciCve ; in feme refpc£ks unfortunate ; and 
their negligence fo great, that the SpaniOi treafure 
from the Havanna, the joint produce of the mines of 
Mexico and Peru, had arrived fafc, under convoy of 
a French fleet, and furni(hed the houfe of Bourbon 
with frefh refources for continuing the war. But the 
confederates were not difcourage^ by their lofles^ 
nor by an infurre£lion in Hungary, which fpread 
devaftation to the gates of Vienna. The Englifli 
parliament, feized with a kind of military fury, voted 

so. Duke of Berwick's Afov. vol. x. Burnet, boekvii* 21* Id. M. 



Ae moft liberal fappliet for the enfuing campaign ; LETTER 
and the emperor, emboldened by the alliance of Por- u,.^-^ . 
toiplf from which a paflage might be opened into the A.D.i7f>3. 
heart of the difputed monarchy, made his Ton Charles 
aflbme the title of King of Spain, he himfelf and the 
King of the Romans renouncing all claim to any part 
of the facceflion. Immediately after this ambitions 
ftep the archduke fet out for the Hague. From Hoi* 
hndt he pafled over to England ; where he was treat- 
cd^th great refpe£l, and conduced to Lifbon by a 
powerful fleet, having on board a confidcrable body 
of land forces *^ 

While the queen of England was exerting herfelf 
with fo much vigour in a foreign quarrel, in which 
lier fubjeds were little interefted, the greateft dtf* 
orders prevailed in her own dominions. The ferment 
in Scotland, occafioned by the mifcarriage of the fet- 
tiencent at Darien, had never yet fully fubGded ; and 
although that kingdom readily acknowledged the 
queen's authority, the hotted jealoufies there preraiU 
ed, among all ranks of men, refpedling the independ- 
ency of their crown, and the freedom of their com- 
mcrce. Thefe jealouGes were fomented by the inCdi- 
ous arts of the Jacobites, and the intrigues of the court 
of St. Germains, aided by a political overfight. 

When the Englifh legiflature fettled the fucceCon 
of the crown on the houfe of Hanover, king William 
had negle£led to take the fame precaution in regard to 
Scotland ( fo that the fucceflion to that crown was (till 
open. This circumftance was now eagerly fcized by two 
fets of men :— by the adherents of the houfe of Stuart, 
wbo ho|)ed to bring in the pretended prince of Wales i 

tt Surnet. Voltaire, 



sod by fome real patriots, who meant to make ofe of 
it, in order to refcue their country froQ\^ that abje£^ 
dependence, and even ilavery, into which it had 
fiaDen, and in which it had continued, ever fince iti 
native foTcreigns had added the weight of the crova 
of England ro their ancient prerogative. Befide theie 
men, many olheri, who were well difpofed toward 
the proteftanc fucceffion, zealoufly oppofed the fettle* 
ment of the Scottiib crown on the defcendants of thci 
prineefs Sophia, before the ratification of certain aiw 
ticles, which (hould provide for the independency of 
the kirigdonii or unite it intimately with England ^^ 

Nor wag the Englifh natbn free from difcOo* 
tents. The queen, by throwing herfeif entirety intt 
the hands of the Toriesi had roufed the rcfcntmeai 
of the Whigs, who were in a manner profcribed, and- 
debarred from office: and an ardent defire of aooom- 
plilhing tlie purpofe of the Grand Alliance, which 
they themfelvcs had formed, only had prevented then 
hitherto from obftru£ting the meafures of gofem* 
Bient. But their patience, under neglci^, waa at laft 
worn out: they became jealous, and not without 
reafon, of deiigns agalnd the Proteftant fucceffioni 
The Tories, intoxicated with their good fortune, had 
revived ail the exploded high monarchical and high* 
church principles ; and conje£iuring that the queca 
muft naturally be difpofed to favour the fucoe(fion of 
her brother, feveral of her miniftert held ft iccret 
correfpondence with the court of St. Germaina, and 
hopes were even entertained by that court of obtan* 
ing 3 fpeedy repeal of the AQ. of Settlement ^« 

In order to forward thefe views, and to 
the ruin of their political opponents, the Tories pre* 
S3. LocUort*! Mm, Bimet, book tiK 14 5te«i« J^^fm. 


A* D. i^j^' 


ndcdy tbal both tbe diurch and monarchy were in 
^g^> f^^^^ ^^^ preralence of republican and pref« 
f terian principles ; and a bill againft occaGonal con- 
>nnity, which would have excluded all diflenters, 
od confequently a great number of the Whigs^ from 
11 civil offices and public employmeots, was twice 
refented to parliament, and as often rejeQed *^ The 
iJare of this favourite meafure, and feveral other A.D. 1701^ 
rcamftances, indicating the (Irength of the Whigs^ 
doced Marlborough and Godolphia> who are faid to 
ave been Tories, and even Jacobites in their hearts, 
» conceal their fentiments, and feek fupport from 
lac powerful party. They forefaw a formidable op« 
>fition, and perfuaded the queen, that it was necef* 
ry to difpel the ftorm, by bringing fome of the ^ 

ore moderate Whigs into adminiftratidn, and dif« 
ifltag a few of the moft violent Tories *^» Mr. Har- 
y^ fpeaker of the houfe of commons, afterward cre- 
ed earl of Oxford, and reputed a Whig, becaofebred 
diflenter, was accordingly appointed' fecietary of 
ite, in die room of the earl of Nottingham ; the of- 
» of comptroller-general was beftowed on his friend, 
[r. Manfel ; and, at his recommendation, Mr. St. 
iliQ, fince better known by the title of lord Vifconnt 
oliogbroke, was advanced, while very yoang, to the 
tcrative place of fecretary at war *7, 

This expedient, however, would have been found 
fufficient to fecure the miniftry againft the vio-, 
ncc of the Whigs, had not the extraordinary fuc- 
fs of the next campaign G)enccd all oppofition* 
iarlborough having concerted with the minifters of 
e States, during the winter, the plan of operations, 
t opt early in the fpring ^o carry it into execution. 

;• fiproety b«ok vii. %^^ Haiwvtr Paftrii ifo^ a^r Ibid. 



As the fuccefs of the two foregoing campaigtis, bf 
making the allies fxiafters of the Maife and Spaniih 
Guelderland^ had provided a ftrong barrier for the 
United Provinces, the EngUfli general propofcd to 
march into the heart of Get many \ in order to pro* 
teft the emperor^ now alraoft beficged in his capitali 
by the Hungarian malcontents, on one fide, and by 
the Fiench and Bavarians, on the other. In purfu- 
ance of this deGgn, but under colour of penetrating 
into F/ance, he ordered the confederate forces to 
inarch towards Coblentz, where he joined them. 
Crofling the Rhine at that placcj and fucceffively the 
Maine and the Neckar, he was met by prince Eugene 
at Mondelfheim. 

The refuli of the conference between thefe two 
great generals, was a jun£lion of the allied amy 
tinder Marlborough, with the Imperialifts, com* 
manded by the prince of Baden. That jun£lion being 
Jiuie s. effe£led, Marlborough forced, though with tbe kit 
of five thoufand men, the ele£tor of Bavaria's en- 
trenchments near Donawert, and obliged him to quit 
the field. In confequence of this vi£lory, the aUict 
^ot poflcfRon of Donawert, and obtained a frccpaf* 
fage over the Danube. But as they were incapable, 
for want of m^igazines, either .to continue long on tbe 
banks of that river, or to penetrate into Bavaria, 
their fituation was become very precarious, and thcf 
Eagerly wlfhcd'to give battle ; when the enemyi being 
reinforced with thirty tfioufanj men, under marefcbal 
Tallard, refolved to afford them the opportunity they 
defired. Before the engagement, the duke of Alart 
borough was alfo joined by prince Eugene, with 
twenty thoufand men, from the Upper Rhine ; and, 
in order to free himfelf from the timid or treacherous 



connfelt of the prince of Baden, he prcTailed on him JLETTER 
to befiege Ingolftadt. The oppofing armies were ^ _^ ,^ 
now nearly equal, each confiding of about eighty A. 0.1704^ 
thoniand men**. Bat the French generals, Tallard 
and Marfin, though men of experience and abilitie8» 
were much inferior to thofe of the allies i [and the 
eledor of Bavaria, though a brave prince, could not 
be confidered as a commander. 

The French and Bavarians were advantageouflf 
pofted on a hill, having the Danube and the village 
of Blenheim on their right : on their left, an exten- 
five and thick wood, from which ran a rivulet, along 
■ their front into the Danube. This rivulet, in its 
coarfe through the plain, formed an almoft continued 
anorafs, the paflage of which might have been ren* 
dered very difficult, if it had been properly guarded. 
Twenty-eight battalions, and twelve fquadrons of 
dragoons, were thrown into the village of Blenheim : 
eight battalions were alfo placed In another village 
toward the centre*; in order to fall, in conjun£lioa 
with thofe at Blenheim, upon the rear of the enemy^ 
when they (hould pafs the rivulet. Their line, which 
oonlifted chiefly of cavalry, was weakened by thefe 
detachments; and by an unaccountable negligence, 
the allies were permitted not only to pafs the brook^ 
hot to form without oppofition *'• 

MAaLBORoucH, who Commanded the left wing of Aagnft ij, 
the allies, having firft paflTcd the brook, ordered the 
two Ullages to be attacked by the infantry, while he 
himfelf led his cavalry againd thofe of Tallard. The 
attack on the villages proved unfuccefsful ; the £ng- 

18. Mm. 4m Marf. di ftttfMhrtt. •9. U ibid. See ijfo Kam't 



♦ART n. ii(}| and Heffians being repuHedi after three fooceffive 
A.D. 1704. attempts. The French horfe, however, in fpiic of thdr 
moft vigorous efforts, vrere obliged to give grosod. 
They retired behind the 6 re of ten battalions, which 
Tallard had ordered to advance to their relief. But 
thefe alfo were broken hj the EngliOi foot. Marl- 
1>orough charged home with his horfe 1 and drove tbe 
French cavalry with fuch precipitation from tbe fiddi 
that moft of thofe who cfcaped tbe fword were drowned 
In the Danube. The ten advanced battalions of the 
enemy's foot were, at the fame time, charged 00 al 
fides, and cut in pieces. Tallard himfelf was taken 
prifoner, together with many other officers of di^ 

Meanwhile prince Eugenci who commanded tke 
right wing of the confederates, after having been tbrice 
repulfed, had broken the French and Bavarians, under 
the eIe£torand Marfin; and though they could Icarce 
be faid to have been routed, they no fooner heard of 
Tallard's defeat, than they left the field, with Cfery 
snadc of hurry and difgrace. The twenty-eigfit bit* | 
talions of foot, and twelve fquadrons of dragoons, in 
the village of Blenheim, all veterans, and tbe beft 
troops in France, were now abandoned to their buc 
After a vigorous, but ine£Fe£luat (ally, they fouDd 
themfelves obliged to furrender at difcretlon '^•-^odi^ 
my dear Philip, was the famous battle of Blenhei0t 
in which tbe French and Bavari;ins, including kiDed 
and taken, loft near forty thoufand men* llieir aof' 
cquiqage, bsggage, artillery, and every tr<^hy ibit 
can diftingui(h a complete vidory, fell into the haadl 
of the conquerors. Thefe trophies, however, were not 
acquired without conGderable lofs of blood. The allkl 

|0 Pcnquicrci. Burnet. Vokaire, ji. Ibid. 


bad five tboufand men killed, and near eieht thooland letter 

j^j.. XXL 

wounded »». ^ ^_ ^ 

A. D. gjQ^ 

As no modern Tidory, between diiciplmed armies^ 

was ever more decifive than this, none could be fol* 

lowed bf more fudden or important confequences* 

The emperor was relieved from his fears ; tfa« Hun* 

garian malcontents were over^awed; and the con« 

quefts and dominions of the elector of Bavaria fell| at 

onccy into rhe hands of Leopold, who revenged fe-> 

verely on the fubjefls of that prince, (be eicefles 

wbich had been committed on his own. An extent 

of feventj leagues of country was expofed to all the 

ravages of war. Broken, ruined and difperfed, the 

forces of Lewis XIV, left a free and uninterrupted 

march to the confederates from the Danube to the 

Rhine; and the wretched remains of that army, 

which at the beginning of the feafon had fpread ter« 

tor 10 the gates of Vienna, was obliged to take (belter 

within tbc frontiers of France. The vigors crofled 

Ae Rhine : they entered Alface ; and the important 

- fertrefles of Landau and Trierbach furrendered to 

.'Aem before the clofe of the campaign '*• 

Bnr the fame good fortune, which attended the 
arms of the confederates in Germany, did not extend 
Id every fcene of operations. In Flanders, during 
thb femmer, the war being merely defenGve, pro* 
HUi no event either brilliant or important. On the 
SMugnefe fide of Spain, the archduke, who had 
afinsed the title of Charles IIL was able to make no 
'^rogrefs. On the contrary, Philip V. alTifted by the 
dole of B< rwick, carried the w^r into Portugal ; took 
ferera^ placts, and defeated all the attempts of the 

|i. Ibid. 3t. Voltaircr Tio4aL BHract. 



?ARTiL allies to mvadc Caftilc^*. In Italy, the campaigo 

A* IX 1704. P^^^c^J "PO" *^c whole, favourable to the houie 

#f Bourbon. The cadle of Suza, the city of Pignero^ 

Veicelli, Tvrea» and San(ano, were reduced by Vco* 


The operations at Tea during this memorable year, 
were fcarcely lefs important than thofe by land* The 
combined fleet of England and Holland, which carried 
the archduke to Lifbon, having failed in an attempt 
upon Barcelona, where a party was fuppofed to hare 
been formed for the houfe of Audria, appeared before 
Gibraltar ; and that ftrong fortrefs, hitherto deemed 
impregnable, was taken at the firft afllault. Aftoniflied 
at the intrepidity of the Englifh Tailors, who afcendcd 
the mole fword in hand, the governor immediatdy 
furrendered the place ; which was committed to tlie 

)3. Nutwithftandiug thcf;.' important fenncfs, the dike of Benrid 
was recalled. Of this matter, he ^Wet the following curioiit accwK. 
*' The duke of Gramont, the French minUUr at Madrid* had takes it 
^ into his head that he was to govern there asdefpotically u the cardi- 
** nals Richelieu ani Mazarine had formerly done in Frmnce. I h ad M 
*' obje&ion to thi«, with refpcd to the ciril department, but in fht 
" military, I was refolred that he fhould not have the fame fway ; thiab 
** ing it rcafooablc that 1 fhould be confulted in every thing, and efeo 
*' that my plans (hould be adopted, a« I mulbe anfwarable for the foc- 
** eels of the whole. From thefe contrary humours it followed, thit 
*■ Gramont took upon him to srder cvjxy thing,' without confukiogor 
** communlfating with me ; and I, on the other hand, fteady to mf 
*^ principle, rcfufed'fo execute any entcrprize of which I did not a|>* 

* prove.** The duke*s recall was the coiifcquence of this conunend^bk 

When the marcfchal dc Telle, who fucccededto the chief command ia 
Spain, airived at Madrid, he n.itural'y enquired of the queen if ihehad 
■ot rcafon to be fatisfied with the campaign which tha doke of Berwick 
kadtnade. She faid he was mnch efleemed, and hid rendered grett Ha^ 
vice to the kingdom. " Why then,'* aufwered Tefft, **liaTe yaikid 
•* him reoallcdf" — " If I mu^ tell you,*' replied the qttcen pecfilhiy, 
« he ik a great obranate devil of ao Engliihm*n, who will alwmy»hifC 

* his own way.*' Berwick's HfM. torn. i. S4* HuuUl 1704- 



care of the prince of Hcfle Darmftadt^ for the queen letter 
of EDgland* ^s. 

Nor uras the acquifition of this great key of the 
Mediterrahean, the only advantage refulting from the 
entetprife. Part of the Spanifh army employed in 
Portugal being withdrawn, for the purpofe of re« 
taking Gibraltar» a (top was by chat means put to the 
progrefs of l^hilip V. who might otherwife hare ad- 
vanced to the gates of Li(bon ; and the French fleets 
to tiie nuitiber of fifty*two Ihips of the line, under 

X the count de Touloufe, coming to the aid of the be* 
tiegers, was defeated off Malaga, by the combined 
deet, comtnanded by Sir George Rook and Calem* 
berg, the Dutch adinlraU Thb force on both fides was 
marly equal, and the battle was obftinate and bloody^ 
ttibogh no (hip was either funk or taken. This was 
piartly owihg to the interpofition of nighty and partly 
to the ihifting of the wind, which enabled the French 
to elude all the endeavours of the confederates to 

) renew the engageitient ^ \ Lewis JtlV. affe£ted, how- 
ever, to claim the vidory. But it was obvious to alt 
J^orope, that the combined fleet kept the fea ; and 
that the French took refuge in their own port8» in^ 
ftead of lending any alliftance to the Spaniards before 

Thesb fortunate events, but more efpecially the 
memorable viAory obtained at Blenheim, which was 
juftly afcribed to Engli(h valour, difl^ufed a general 
joy over the nation. This joy communicated itfelf to 
the reprefentatives of the people, who granted very 
liberal fuppli'es for profecuting the war, with the ut« 
fnoSt readinefs i and the whole buCnefs of parlia* 

^ ^P Bnroct. bosk HL Lhes iftbt Mmralr, toI. ill 36, Id. ibid. 

ifot. TV. Z ment 

A. 0.1704* 


ment was not only condu£led with harmony but car* 
JLD. 1704. ricd forward with zeal and expedition. Pleafed wiiS 
the humiliation of the boufe of Bourbon» the Wbigii 
inftcad of oppofing the miniftry, ufed every endea- 
vour to engage the duke of Marlborough in their 
caufe ; and Godolpbiu, either from policy, or princi 
I^e, threw himfelf eiKirely into their hands. 

▲.0.170^ jj'he queen di^Ived the parliament^ and tk, 
WhigSf whofe principles recommended them to the 
independent part of the kingdom, having the conn- 
tenance of government, and the fupport of the mo- 
neyed intereili obtaine'd a decided majority in the new 
boufe of commons. The eledlions went generally m 
their favour, notwithftanding the clamour raifed by 
the Tories of the danger of the church, and the growth. 
. of Prefbytcrianifm. Both houfes now paiTed a votc^ 
That the church was in a fafe and flouri(hing con^ 
dition, and that whoever (hould fugged that the 
e(tabli(hed religion was in danger, was an enemy to 
she queen, the church, and the kingdom. TEef 
alfo, to the great difappointment of the Tories, al- 
ready mortified by the foregoing Vote, repealed two 
fevere laws againll the commerce and people of Scot- 
land, in order to inuuce the parliament of that king- 
dom to fettle the crown on the boufe of Hanover, U 
well as to liften to propofals for a treaty of union with 
England '7 ; meafures highly neceflary to the welfare, 
of both kingdoms, and elTential to the fecurity of the 
Proteftaat Succcffion* 

WuiLB the Englifli parliament was taking tKbIc 

piudent fteps for Cecuring the peace of the ITngdoini 

' as wcU as for profecuting the war with vigouri FrirtNt 

37. Joiroali xyo5, tamtc, bodt vii. 


waj cot onlf dq>rciTed bf external misfortimcs, bat letter 

dlilradcd by internal commotions. Though the Hu* . ^^^* , 

gonots were chieflj exterminated, or induced, from A«I>. t^$. 

modves cf fear or intereft, to conform to the eftab^ 

liflied religion, bj the rewards that were held out to 

them, and the fevere perfecudon which they had fuf« 

fcred, both before and after the revocation of the edi£k 

of Nantes, yet many of them had taken refuge in the 

Cerennes, a ipountainous country in the fouth of 

France, where they led a favage life along with the 

rude natives, under the name of Cami(ards, and en* 

joyed their religion in a ftate of barbarity. Like 

zealots of all feds, when ignorant and perfecutedt 

they believed themfelves to be the peculiar favourites 

c^ heaven, and laid claim to th^ bighed gifts of in« 

fpiration. They had their prophets and propheteSes^ 

who atiume j an abfolute authority over them, and are 

faid to have excited them to the mod atrocious cruel« 

ties, both againft the catholics and the refrai^ory part 

of their own fed>^ 

Al* length, encouraged by thefe viflonaries, by tbcir 
ii\creaGDg numbers, and by the promifes of the con* 
federates, the Camifards, on the commencement of 
the war, in 1701, began to mingle politics with their 
religion^ They demanded " liberty of confcience^ 
^* atid an exemption from taxes f " and took arms to 

3S. Dttke of Berwick's Man, vol. i. " I kave heard marefchal 
** Vtllieri rclite/* fays Voltaire, <* that, aflcing Cavalier, the mod con- 
* (Iderable of their chiefi, How, at his years, being little above twenty, 
'* he could acquire fo much authority over a headllrong undifciplined 
^rabble? he replied, that whenever they refufed to obey, his pru« 
^ ph^edi (known among them by the name of the Great MsryJ was 
** tnftantly feized with a fit of iafpiratioui and condemned tiie refrac* 
** tory to the puniihment of death, without any form of triaL Ad4 
** having myfclf," adds the hiftorian, << put the fame queftion ttt Cavft* 
** iicr^ he retwmcd the fune anfwer.** Sifth^ ch^p. SOii. 

Z 2 fupport 


PART IT. fupport thcfr prctcnGons. Several generals were fent 
A^d7i7C)S- ^E^^"^ tbeni) with various fuccefsi and among othert 
the celebrated roarefchal Viilars ; who» after making 
them fenfible of his power^ entered into treaty widi 
them, in I704. But they* fufpe£ling the Gncerltj of 
the court, broke off the negociation^ when it was al« 
mod finlfhed } and Viilars being recalled, in order to 
enter on a more important fcene of aiUon, the duke 
of Berwick was difpatched againft them, bn his return 
from Spain. As feveritj was now become as oeccC> 
fary as it was formerly impolitic, the duke eiercifed 
it without rcfervcj and foon reduced the Cami&rdi 
to obedience '9* 

Lfiwis XIV. although dedltute of that fnpeiior 
magnanimit7 which is never vainly elated, and wUdi 
can calmly look down on the higheft fuccefs^ pofleflcd 
in an eminent degree that Chriftian fortitude wUd 
enables the foul to bear misfortunes with compofnis 
and refigilation. Though accuftomed to vidiory, he 
received the intelligence of the ruin of his army tt 
BIenheim5 without any marks of confuGon, and took 
the moft vigorous fteps for repairing his lofs, as well 

39. For thti feverity, the dttke of Berwick makes the fbllowinf muh 
* ly apology ; ** Affiftcil by the un^erftanding and mdvicc of M. * 

« BafyaUe, one of the mo£L fcniible men in Prance, 1 made it my W* 
«< linefs to prevent every thing that might tend to excite coiiiiii»tiooi,asA 
,<* declared* That I came neither at a perfecutor nor a xnifBonary, bit 
«* with a refolution to do equal juftice to every one ; to protcA all wht 
<* (hould behave themfelvoi at faithful fubjedt of the king, and topif 
«( flifli with the ixtmoft rigour thofe who fliould dare to oppofe bill** 
<« thority.— I know," idds hci *' that attempts have been madcioma- 
«< ny countrien, to blacken our proceedings againft thefe people ; bat I 
u can protefb as a man of honour, that there is no fmn of criaitt sf 
4« which the Camifards had not been guilty. To rebellion, facrilcge, 
*< murder, theft, and liccntioufnefs, they joined the moft unbcaid il 
« cruelties ; fo far even as to have priefts broiled, to rip out the hawA 
M tf pregnant womeoi and to roaft their children !*' Atoi. ftL I 



checking the progrefs of the vidortous enemy. 
i end of the campaign, however, he found that 
I been (Iript of great part of his former con« a. p ijos^ 
» But France, and even Flanders, was ftiil cnt- 
and at he underftood that the duke of Marl- 
g;h intended, next campaign^ to carry the war, 
: MofeUe» into the heart of hia domioions, b^ 
>led, on that Odei s^n army of Seventy thoufand 
under the cpmmand of marefcba) Villars* The 
[h general having crofled the Mofelle and tbo 
in the month of M^y, paiTed the defile of 
en, and advanced to Delft. But not being joined 
le prince of Baden, as he expe£ted, he was 
td to retreat : and fo maRerly was the condudl of 
rs, bis antagonid, that he was not able to efFe£t 
enterprise of confequen^e during the c^n^r 

HOUGH the emperor Leopold, iivfaofe death mad« 
lange in the political fyftcm of the confederates^ 
fucceeded lu the imperial throne by his fon Jov 
, King of the Romans, a prince of greater vi- 
and abiliries* the fluggiflinef* of the Germanig 
, and the obdinacy of the prince of Baden^ 
ented the allied army from making any progrefa 
be fide of Flanders. In Italy, the French ftill 
itained their fuperiorJty. The duke de Vendomc 
Villa France and Verue ; he rep\ilfed the Impe* 
fts, under prince Eugene, in attempting to force 
paiTage of the Adda, at the bridge of Caflano | 
tl^e duke of Savpy, no longer able to keep the 
I, was obliged to (hut hinafclf Hp in Tuifinj^ with^ 
any profpeft of jrelief*S 

^. Su^et Voltaire. Haijiault« ^r, n>id. 

Z 3 Ths 

341 T H E H I S T O R y O F 

PART 11. The conftdcrates were more fortunate in Spain. 
A^D.^'iTol, '^^^ marcfchal dc Teflc, after lofing a vaft natiober 
of men, was forced to raifc the fiegc of Gibraltar; 
and he had alfo the mortification, a few days before 
he abandoned the cntcrprize, to behold a French fleet 
that was come to his affi (lance, under the famous de 
Fontis, defeated^ and chiefly taken or deflroyed, by 
an Englifli fquadron, commanded by fir John Leake. 
Encouraged by thefe favourable events, the confede- 
rates entered the enemy's country, on the frontiers of 
Beira and Alantejo, an(^ reduced the princrpal placet 
in the province of Eflramadura. In other 'quarters 
they were ftlU more fucccfsfol. An Englifli 'fleeti 
conduced by Sir Cloudcfly Shovel, carrying five 
thoufand land forces, under the celebrated earl of Pe« 
terborough, being joined at Lifbon by Sir John Leaice 
and the Dutch admiral Allemande, and reinforced 
with Tome troops from the confederate army in Por- 
tu'galj took on board the archduke, and failed for the 
coaft o{ Catalonia, where he was fuppofed to have 
many friends. ' Alarmed at the appearance of fuck a 
formidable force, the Spaniards, in general, declared 
for the houfc of Aullria. The fortrefles of Lerida 
and Tortofa were yielded without a blow : Barce- 
lona, though furnifl'.ed with a garrifon of five thou* 
fand men, under the duke de Popoli, was obliged to 
funender, and almoll the whole kingdom of Valen- 
cia, as well as the province of Catalonia, fubmittett 
to Charles 111.^* " * 

The particulars of the (i.fge of Barcelona, . as re-i 
iated by Voltaire, are too much for the honour of this 
country to be emitted by. an EngliOi hiftorian. The 
earl of Peterborough, fays he, a man in every rcf- 

42. Burnet, book tU. Mem, ic Xo^iUti^ torn. ii. 

. . - pcft 

A.i> ;: 


peSt mtsbua^ tbcfc icaij^tniry heroes tbic :hf 
Spooiirtfs hare rcprdcntcJ ia their romjuicc$, |>t%>« 
pofcd CO Ac pricce of UciTc Djrii;;uut to xoTce« 
fwocd 10 iuad« ihc trktrtochmcais which c^nusd foct** 
Mooqoaj and ibc :ova. Fb;: courrpriz^ was acconi* 
iMtgfj cxsaued with fucccfs } but with ihc ku ot the 
fame pnnce of HciE:, who was killed iu the attack. 
The ganiUMiy however, ftill held out ^ when a bomb, 
dixcclcd at M jotjouf , happening to eater the powder* 
m^azinct it blew up with a tenible exploJion, and 
.the fere inftaBtJj furreodercd. The town foon after 
offered to capitsViite » aiid the duke de PopoU, tht 
gotemor, came to the gate, iu order to adjuil the arw 
tidts with Peterborough. But before they were 
figaed, tomoltaovs (hoots were beard, ^* You be« 
f • tray as P' exclaimed Popoli. •* WhiUl wc» with 
^ hobour and fincericy^ are here treating with you, 
^ your troops hare entered the town by the ramparts, 
^^ and are murdering, plundering, and committing 
•* crcry fpecles of tiolcnce." 

" You arc millaken,'* replied Peterborough ;-• 
^* Thefc muft be the troops of the prince of D«irm(ladt. 
y There is only one expedient left to fave your town.: 
« allov me freely to enter it with my En^liftimen. J 
^^ will foon omke all quicf, and come back to conclude 
** the capitulation." Thefe words he uttered witl^ 
. w air of dignify and truth, which, joined to a fenlc 
.of prelcnt danger, induced the governor to comply. 
Attended by fomp of his olEccfS, he hailencd into 
theftreets, where |be licentious foldiery, but more ' 
efpecially the Germans and Catalans, were pillaging 
the hotifes of the principal inhabitants. He drove 
them from their prey : he obliged them to give up 
ff^n tl)e bpoty they had fciae4 j and he happily ref- 

^ i cued 


FARTlL cued from their hands the duchefii dePopoIi, wlien 
JLD^ij9S. ^" ^^^ P^*"* ^' being difhonourcd, and reftored her 
to her hu(band ^K In a word, after having qadled 
every appearance of diforder in the town, he re- 
turned to the gate, and finilhed the capiti^lation with 
the governor; — to the utter a(loni(hment of the 
Spaniards, at finding fo much honour and geneiofitj 
xti a people, whoni they had hitherto been acciUlofli^ 
to confider only as mercilefs heretics ^^. 

Thesb acquifitions, and fplendid acbievement|4|i 
Spainj fo flattering to the pride of the EngliOi na* 
tion, made the people, and even the pailiaiiieiity 
eager to profecute the war, notwithftanding the foall 
fuccefs in other quarters. Nor was the hoofis d( 
l^ourbon lefs difpofed to vigorous meafures. The 
check given to the confederates on the MofellCt joioel 
to the rapid progrefs of the French arms in Italy, bav* 
ing elated anew the fpirit of Lewis XIV. he raihff 
refolved, during the enfuing campaign, to a£^ offioi- 
fively in the Low Countries ; at the fame time that 
he (hould drip the duke of Savoy of his dominionif 
fupport his grandfon in Spain, and maintain an army 
an Germany. And to all thefe attempts be was per- 
haps equal, had the abilities of his generals been ade- 
quate to the number and the valour of his troops, 
iflis hopes in regard to Savoys at lead, were by no 
means prefumptuous. The duke of Berwick hid 
taken Nice in the beginning of the year: andVcn- 
dome having defeated the Impcrialifts at Calcinate, 
* '^ ' in the month of April, ordered Turin to be invefted. 
On the fide of Germany, marefchal Villars ju(tified 
the confidence of his m after, by driviog the prince of 

43. SucU, chtp. zix. 44* I^* i^^d. Bornet mcntioof this ti* 

mult, but ioa hianBer fdmewhat different. ^Hjft, Otvm Times, booktii.) 
Hcwatiiufriczid tuthecarlofPctcrboro»gh« * 


M O D E R N t tJ R O P E. 345 

B^den before him % and had not hts army been weak-» letter 
eoed by detachments, in order to fupply the SofTcs oc- .^_ J^ 
c^fioned by the mifcondu£l of other commanderss he A.D. tjoJ^ 
Hiight haTe penetrated into the heart of the empire ^K 
The ardour of marefchal Villeroy, in Flanders, led 
llie way to the fntore misfortunes of Lewis. 

* The duke of Marlborough, having made every pre- 
)^rati(m for a vigorous campaign, joined the united 
army of England and Holland, between Brochloen 
mud Groflwaren, oh the aoth of May. Marefchal 
ViUefoy, with a fuperior army, bad advanced to 
Tirlemont ; and, ambitious of entering the lifts with 
Ifarlborottghj he precipitately puflied forward to 
Ramillies. On gaining the heights, where rifes the 
Little Geete, he perceived the nllies in full march 
toward him, and immediately formed his army in 
order of battle. The Geete, and an impafiable morafs 
running along its banks, covered his left wing, and 
prevented it alike from being attacked and from charge 
ing the ^nemy : the village of Ramillies, fituated in 
a plain near the fource of the Geete, was oppofed be- 
fore his centre, which confided entirely of infantry : 
the village of Tavieres, on the banks of the Mebaign, 
covered his right wing ; and an open and level (pace, 
between Tavieres and Ramillies, about a mile and a 
half in length, was filled with an hundred fquadrons 

Such was the difpoCtion of the French forces in 
the battle of Ramillies, and fuch the ground on which 
It was fought. Marlborough, perceiving the defefts 
of that difpoGtion, ordered a feigned attack to be made 

45. Barrc, Hjft, d'JUemagnf, torn. z. Voltaire, SiecU, chap. xu. 
Bumct, book vii. 46. Mem, in Mar^, de FtfuUru. 

■ ' ' on 


TART n. on the left wing of the enemy ; and although this wu 
i-IT-^ ^ utterly iropradicablc. it fenrcd to confufc ViilcroVi 
and tp prevent him from bringing the troops of that 
wing to fupport his centre, on which the £Dgli(h gc-> 
neral fell with all the foot that compofcd his owb. 
The Dutch infantry, under Auverquerque, attacked 
at the fame time the enemy's right wing. But the 
French dill making a gallant refiftance, Marlborough 
ordered all his cavalry to advance to the charge i aoA 
in lefs than half an hour, the whole centre of the 
enemy was broken and routed. The right wing aUb 
gave way before the Dutch, and confufion, (laughtcri 
and flight every where prevailed 4>7. A complete 
▼i^ory remained to the allies, who took one huodicJ 
pieces of canoon, one hundred and twenty militaif 
trophies, and a great quantity of baggage, with tbe 
Io(s of little more than two thoufand mcttt while the 
French loft near twenty thouland ^. 

The total conqoeft of Brabant, and almoft aB 
Spanifli Flanders, was the ipamediate confequence d 
this viflofy. Louvain, BruiTelSy Antwerp, Gbeab 
Qudenarde, and other places, furrendercd at difcrp* 
ticn. Oftcnd, fo famous for its long fiege in the ht 
century, pqt (he fitit (lop to the progrels of the con- 
federates. It was forced, however, to capitulate, 
after a fiege of ten days. Even Menin, forti6ed ac* 
cording to the moft perfed rules of art, and defended 
by a garrifon of fix thoufand men» furrendered ia 
. three weeks ; and the operation^ of the campa^ ^ttt 
concluded with the taking of Ath and DendernMmdlb 
the French not daring to attempt their relief <9^ 

47, Id. ibid. 4S. Burnet, book vii, Voltaire^ Sucle, du^ v^ 

49. Vaiuire, «bi fup. 

M O D E R N E U R O P E.. 347 

The confcqnences of the battle of Ramillies wete letter 


iSot confined to Flanders : they extended even to luly, ^ ^^_ ^ 

!B^here Lewis XIV. hoped ihc taking of Turin would A-^* »7o^ 

afford fome cpnfolation for his lofTes in other quartei^ 

The fiege of this large and important city was com* 

mitred to the dpke de Feuilladc, fon-in-law to Cha« 

iiillardt the minider for war, who furnifhed him witl^ 

^ery thing that could poflibly contribute to render 

pch an undertaking fucce(sful ; with one hundred and 

orty pieces of battering cannon ; one hundred and tea 

bonfand bullets \ one hundred and fix thoufand car- 

pucles of one fort, and three hundred thoufand of 

mother i twenty-one thoufand bomh^ ; twenty-fevea 

bonfand feven hundred grenades; fifteen thoufand 

a|rt of earth ; thirty thoufand inftruments for pioneer- 

igy and one million two hundred thoufand pounds o£ 

owder; befide a vaft quantity of lead, iron, tin, 

opqsy fulphur, &ltpetre> and every thing requifite for 

miners ^^. The preparations, in a word, were fuch at 

tartle the imagination ; and Feuillade, being a man of 

ffirage and adiviry, conduAed the operations witk 

^ur, but contrary to all the rules of art. Having 

legiin the attack on the (Irongefl: fide, and negiedied 

forround the whole town, the inbabirancs of the 

iDvotry could fend fuppiies, both of men and provi* 

fOfitf to the garrifon ; fo that all the ardour which he 

kewedi '" many repeated afiaults, ferved only to di« 

siuifli the number of the befiegers^'. The place, 

jQwevfir,^ muft at length have been taken, notwith* 

Wing the blunders of Feuillade, but for one of 

lofe great events on which depend the fate of nations. 

^KiNCE Eugene was fo fit^ated, that it was thought 
could not advance to fuccour Turin« He was on 

5c. Voltaire^ SUcfe, chip. 4x. 51. Id ibid. 



PART II. ihe ead fide of the Adige ; and as that river> on the 
J|;^JJ^77o6. ^^^ ^^*» ^** fortified with a long chain of entrench* 
ments^ the paflage feemed impradicable. The be* 
fiegers confided of forty-fix fquaarons and an hun- 
dred battalions. VendoRie, in order to favour tbdr 
operations, remained ftationed on the banks of the 
Adige, from the 13th of May to the 20th of Jooe. 
He had with him feventy batt;iIions and fixty fqoad- 
rons ; and, with this force, he did not dovbt but be 
fhould be able to obftrud the approach pf prince £a« 

BuT| unfortunately for the affairs of the boufeef 
Bourbon in Italy, Vendome was recalled, to coUeS 
the broken remains of Villeroy's army in Flanden; 
»nd, if poflible, to item the tide of misfortune in tbt 
quarter. Before his departure, however^ he had bai 
It impoTible to prevent prince Eugene fran padf 
the Adige, and even the Po. He was facceedcd ii 
the chief command by the duke of Orleans, nepbev 
to Lewis XIV. aififled by the marefchal de Msrfia» 
and other experienced oflicers. As prince Eugene hi 
pafled the Po, in fpite of Vendome, he crofled tbeff ' 
Tcnaro, in fight of the duke of Orleans. He rwkf* 
Carpi, Corregio, and Reggio; and having ftolaili 
march upon the French, he was joined, near Aiv 
by the duke of Savoy, who not chuiing to (butbinid 
^p in his capicaK had taken refuge in the vallictd 
Lucerne, ^mongft his proteftant fubjefts, the VsAi^ 
and occafionilly annoyed the bcfiegers with a 
body of cavalry. '*. 

NoTHiKG now remained for the duke of Orleil 
but to join Feuillade at the camp befo^ X 

52. Voltaire, ubi fcp. Burnet, ^ok vii 


3e Eugene folk 4 him thidier, with all etpedU 
detennioed ta raifc the ficgc* It therefore be* _ 
; aeoeflaury for the French now to reiblTe^ whether A.D/i7ok 
ftoaid watt for the enemy in their lines, or mirch 
lod meet him in the field. A oooncil of war wai 
rdingly called, confifting of the marcfdud. dc 
Sn, the duke de Feuilladei Abbergotti, St. Vrt^ 
t, and other lieutenant-generals. ^ If we remain 
our linesi'* faid the duke of Orleans, *' we (bail 
rtainly be defeated. They are fifty miLea i(i 
tent; and our numbers, though great, are not 
Sclent to defend them. The Doria, which ruqs 
rough our camp, will prevent our troops from 
»eedily fuccouring each other. And, in wait- 
ig for an attack, the French lofe one of their 
eateft advantages; that vehemence, and thofe 
ft movements of ardour, which fo often deter- 
ine the events of war. It is therefore, my epU 
ion, we ought to march againft the enemy/* All 
lieutenant-generals, with one voice, replied, "Let 
) march I" but the marefdhal de Marfin produced 
»rder, figned by the king, commanding them not 
flfer, but to wait for battle '*• 

HAT order, with which the duke of Orleans was 
ged to comply, hurt his pride, and confufed the 
fures of the French generals ; who, being of dif- 
nt opinions, difputed long, without coming to any 
d determination, how to aCt. Meanwhile prince 
;ene, having made bis difpoGtions, fell fuddenly on 
r entrenchments ; and» after an obfiinate druggie 

. Id. ibid, ft wai thit timidity of the co«rt of VeifaUlet which 
: prince Eugene fay» in a complimentary letter to the doke of 
borough, that he <' £elt th« effedi ff the V^ctlc <if Ramilliei, ercii 
lulj.*' Burnet^ book Tii, 



of two hoursy entered their campt drove them (Mk 
ftll their pofts, and took their cannon, baggaget sow 
munition, and military cheft: The duke of Oricaoi 
was flightljr wounded, and th^ marefchal de Marfia 
mortally* The whole French army ^#28 Touted and 
difperfiKi ; and, although the number of the killed did 
not'exceed three thoufand, fuch was the terror of tk 
fugitives, that they retreated immediately toward 
Pignerol, and made the bed of their way into Das- 
phiny '^ : fo that the houfe of Bourbon loft, at ooe 
blow, the duchies of Milan and Mantnai the priacf- 
pality of Piedmont, and eventually the kmgdom of 

The confederates, notwithftanding fome onfavottiv 
ble circumftances, were no lefs fuccefsf ul in Spain. Tbe 
archduke Charles having eftabliftied hirofelf in thit 
kingdom, during the winter, by the afliftance of die 
Englifli troops, under tbe earl of Peterborough, Philip 
V. and the marefchal de TafTe, advanced againft him 
in the fpring, with an army of twenty tboufand meo i 
and obliged him to take (belter in Barcelona, which 
they befieged, while the count de Touloufei with a 
French fleet, blocked it up by^ fea. F*ort Montjooy 
was taken ; and the French and Spaniards were pre* 
paring for the aflault of the town, a praflicable breach 
being already made, when Sir John Leake, widi a 
fuperior fleet, appearing on the coa(t, the count de 
Touloufe judged it prudent to retire in the oight. A 
reinforcement was thrown into the place ; and Phi(j|p 
V. and the marefchal deTafle raifed the Cege with the 
utmoft precipitation and difordef, leaving behind thea 
their cannon, their provifions^ and their implemeptt 

S4. Bimeti Voltaire^ Ftu^iucrct^ Hslaattlu 

M O t) £ R N E U R d P 1 35* 

•f war, with all their fick and woanded men'*', letter 

This difordcr was partly occafloncd by an almoft tcnai ^_^^ 

eielipre of the fon^ whichhappcncd as tbey were mah:h<& A, D. 1706^ 
hig off, and completed the confufion of the fuperftiti'^ 
I Spaniards '^ 

Whilb Philip V. was returning in difgrace to his 
capitali with his broken and ruined army, the Englifll 
and Portuguefe, having entered Eftramadara with 
forty tboufand men, under the command of the earl 
of Galway, and the marquis de las Minas, made them** 
felves mafter of Alcantara, Cividad Roderigo, Sala« 
manca, and the port of Efpinar. And the duke of 
Berwick, who was again appointed to the chief com- 
nand in Spain, being too weak to obftrud their pro- 
grcfs, they direded their march, and penetrated, with« 
out reiftance, to Madrid. Philip was obliged to re- 
fliOTe, with bis court, to Burgos : and the Englifh and 
Portoguefe, on the fame day that they entered hir 
capital in triumph, received intelligence, that the 
count de Santa Cruz had delivered Carthagena and, 
die gallics into their bands. 

The archduke was proclaimed king of Spain, under 
die name of Charles III, and had be advanced imme* 
diately to the feat of power, the Spanifli crown would 
L^ IttTC been transferred for ever from the boufe of Bour- 
; boo. But he loitered unaccountably ia the neigh* 
^ bourhood of Barcelona, while the EngliOi and Portu- 
E* guefe difiblved in floth and debauchery at Madrid. 
t la the mean time, Philip V. having coUefled a fupe<* 
^- rior army, Galway and las Minas were forced to quit 
r Aat city. The duke of Berwick hung dofe on thei? 

59. Mim* 49 KmOfi, tsv* it. Bttmee, Wok Tit. Ihh •/BtnM'i 
▼olr !• %^. B«r9ft, abi fvp. 



retr» and gained fome advantages over tbem i yet tbef^ 
having eflfeaed a janQion with the earl of Peta- 
bpiough and Uic arcbdukei pafled fafcly into the 
kingdom of Valencia^ and difpofed their qnartcn in 
fuch a manner as to cover the kingdoms of Arragoa 
and Catalonia, and preferve, at tlie fame time, a free 
c^i^nce into Caftile. Canhagcna, however^ vas ro- 
taken before the clofe of the campaign. B«t that lofr 
ippas more than balanced by the acqaifition of the 
iflands of Majorca and Ivicai which the Englilh ficet» 
imder Sir John Leakcj fabjeded to the dominioa of 
Charles m '7. 

Da RING thefe important tranfa£lions in the Sooth 
and Weft of Europe, the affairs of the North sad 
Eaft had undergone a cpnGderable change* Tbe pro- 
grefs of that revolution it muft now be our bofioeii to 
trace ; as it began, about this time> to tbieatep tke 
confederates bj its confequences* 

Charles XIL of Sweden, agreeable. to that rdb- 
lution which he bad formed of dethroning the king of 
Poland, by means of the difcontents of his own fab- 
je£l8, entered into a fecret correfpondence with Ba- 
jottlky, the cardinal-primate, who was aftive in roiit 
ing the jealoufy of the nobles ; fo that Auguftos IL 
found, on calling a diet, which broke up in a tnmak 
tuous manner, in February 1702, that the maleconteots 
compefed the majority of that afiembly. The ienate 
was not more loyally difpofed. Willing, thoreCoiCb 
to humble himfelf before the Swedifh. monarch, ia» 
ther than fubmit to the infolenb demands of his faAi- 
Otts fubje£lsi Auguftus attempted fecretly to trcik 

57. AlMi.d^A«fi^, toODuiLBamet, bookviLi^lr ^JBtwUh 


M O b E R N E U R O P E. 353 

With that prince. But Qiarlcs, fafpefting his defign, lsfter 
and (iill burning wiih revenge, obftinatcly refufed ^ ^ '_ ' ^ 
to fee the countefs of Koningftnark, a Swedilh lady» i^.D.1706. 
who was intrufled with the negociation, while he re* 
ceived with the highed marks of refpe£l an embafTy 
from the fenate. He aflured the deputies, that he 
took armd againft Augudus and the Saxons, not againft 
the Poles, whom he fliould ever efteem his friends and 
Allies. But inftead of agreeing to a conference, as the/ 
propofed, he only told them bluntly, that he would 
confer ^with them at Warfaw '*. 

Charles accordingly marched toward that capi- 
tal, which opened its gates to him on the tirft fum- 
ilions. The Polifli nobility had chiefly retired to 
their country feats, and the king to Cracow. While 
AnguftuB was there aflembling his forces, the cardi« 
nal- primate, whofe treachery was yet undifcovered^ 
appeared among the few perfons of di(lin£tion who 
ftill adhered to their fovereign, and intimated to 
him, that the king of Sweden was believed to be 
tery well inclined to liften to terms of accommoda- 
tion. And he humbly begged leave to wait on the ter- 
rible warrior for that purpofe. His infidious offer 
Vas accepted, and he and count Leczinfki had an 
audience of Charles in the neighbourhood of Warfaw. 
They found the Swedifh monarch clad in a coat of 
coarfe blue cloth, with brafs buttons, large jack-boot8» 
and buck«fkin gloves that reached to his elbows* 
After they had talked together (landing, for about a 
quarter of an hour, Charles put an end to the confe- 
teilce, by faying aloud, <^ I' will never grant the 
" Poles peace, till they have elefled a new king ^9 »'» 
The primate, who expe£led fuch a declaration, ordered 

58. Voluipc, Hifiorytf Ckirhs XIJ. 59. Id. ibid. 

Vol, IV. -"A a it 


PARTir. it to be notified to all tbe Palatines; afluring themi 
AdV^ ^^^^ *' ^*^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ concern, but reprefcntin^i it 
the fame time, the abfolute neceflitjr of complying 
with the requeft of the conquering Swede. 

Augustus, on receiving this intelligence, bw 
that he mud either relinquifli his crown» or refolve 
to preferve it by force of arms: and he took the 
mod vigorous meafures for appealing to the decifion 
of the fword. Having (trengthened his Saxon guards, 
on which he placed his chief dependence, with ib§ 
fuccours of the nobility of the palatinate of Cra- 
cow, who ilill remained faithful to him, and alfo 
with that body of Folifh troops which bofe thck 
name of the Jrmy of the Crown^ he marched in qneft 
of the king of Sweden. Nor was he long in meet* 
ihg with his antagonid, that prince having already 
taken the field with the fame hodile views* The 
contending kings met in a fpacious plain near 
Gliflaw, between Warfaw and Cracow. Aoguftui 
led about twenty-four thoufand men, Charies littk 
above half that number, yet he advanced to tbc 
charge with intrepidity ; and although the king of 
Poland performed every thing that could be expe£led 
from a gallant prince fighting for his crown, he wan 
defeated with great flaughter. Thrice did he rallf 
his troops in perfon, and attempt to redore the battle, 
but in vain; all his efforts were fruitlefs. The Saxofli 
only could be faid to fight for him. The Poles, who 
formed his right wing, gave ground in the beginning of 
the engagement. Some fled through fear, others from 
difafFeflion. The valour and good fortune of Charles 
prevailed. He gained a conaplete vidory, with all 
the honours that could attend it : he took pofleffioo of 
the enemy's camp i and their baggage, their cannon, 



A.D. 1706* 

and even the military cheft of Auguftus^ fell into his ^\ 
hands ^''^ 

The king of Sweden halted not a moment on the 
field of battle. He dirc£led his march inftantly to Cra- 
^ cow, which furrendered without firing a gun. Deter- 
mined (liH to purfue Auguftusy in order to prevent 
his afiembling a new army, Charles quickly kft that 
city; but his thigh-bone being broken foon after, in 
confeqaeoce of the fall of his horfe, he was confined 
to his bed for fix weeks. During this interval of re- 
pofe, the king of Poland aflemblcd a diet at Lublin ; 
where, by his affability, engaging manner, and fine ac« 
compHfliments, he in a great meafure recovered the 
affe^ions of bis fubjecls. All the Palatines fwore thac 
they would continue faithful to their fovereign. Thef 
agreed to maintain an army of fifty thoufand men for 
bis defence ; and they refolved, that forty days ihould 
be allowed the king nf Sweden finally to determine, 
whether he was difpofed to peace or war. *'. 

Before the expiration of that term, Charles being 
able to go abroad, overturned all the refolutions of the 
diet at Lublin, by one aflembled at Warfaw. Mean- 
while, having received a ftrong reinforcement from 
Pomerania, he marched againd the remains of the 
Saxon army, which he had defeated at Gliflaw, and 
which had been collected and recruited during his 
confinement. He came up with the enemy on the 
firft of May 1703, at a place named Pultaufk. Ge- 
neral Stenau commanded the Saxons, who amounted 
(to ten thoufand men. The Swedes confided only of an 
equal number j yet fo ^reat was the terror (truck by 
the arms of Charles, that one half of the enemy fled 

00. Putlieiuiy, mjl. Pol'iz. lib. iv. Vokaire, Bif. Omrlti XIU 
ku Voltairei ubi Tup. 

A a 2 at 


at his approach, and the red were Toon routed and 
ATD.'i/od. difperfed. AuguAus himfelf retired to Thorn, an 
ancient city on the Viftula, in Folifli PruflEa. 
Charles followed him, and beGeged the placei which 
furrendered within a month ; but the king of Polaod 
had found me^ns, before it was regularly ioTeftedf to 
cfcape into Saxony ^'» 

TdE diet at Warfaw, through the intrigues of the 
£ardinal-primate, now declared, << That Auguftos, 
** eleflor of Saxony, was incapable of wearing the 
*^ crown of Poland C* and all the members, with <me 
voice, pronounced the throne to be vacant, on the 
14th of February 1704. It was the intention of 
the king of Sweden, and the wifli of the diet, to 
raife to the throne James Sobiefki, eldcft fon of the 
late king ; but that prince being taken prlfoner^ toge* 
ther with his fecond brother, Conftantine, white 
hunting in the neighbourhood of Breflaw in Sile- 
fia, by a party of the Saxon dragoons, the crown of 
Poland was offered to a younger brother, named Alex- 
ander, who reje£led it with a generofity perhaps 
unexampled in hiftory. Nothing, he fai4, (bould 
ever induce him to take advantage of the misfor* 
tune of his elder brothers ; and he entreated Charles 
to employ his vi£):orious arms, in reftoring liberty to 
the unhappy captives ^i» 

This refufal, and the misfortune which led to 
it, having difconcerted tlie meafures of the Swedilh 
monarch, his minifter, count Piper, who was as great 
a politician as his mafter was a warrior, advifed Charks 
to take the crown of Poland to himfelf. He repre- 
sented how eafy it would he to accomplifh fuch a 

6: / P«rth. im. JMg. Ub. v. (3. Id. ibid. 



fcheme, with a viftorious army, and a powerful party letter 
in the heart of the kingdomi which was already fub- ^.^.^^ • 
dued: — and he tempted him with the title of *^ De- AD.ijui. 
•• fender of the Evangelical Religion ;'' an appellation 
which flattered the prejudices of the northern con- 
queror. What Guftavus Vafa had eflefted in Sweden, 
might be accompliflied, the count affirmed, with the 
greateft facility, in Poland ; the e(labli(hment of the 
Lutheran religion, and the enfranchifement of the 
people, now held in the mod M]tQt flavery by the 
tiobilitj and clergy. Charles acquiefced in the pru- 
dent propofal for a moment; but, blinded by the 
itlnfions of romantic glory, he afterward told his mi- 
nifter, that he had more pleafure in giving away, than 
in conquering kingdoms 1 He accordingly recom- 
mended to the choice of the Polifh diet, aifembled at 
.Warfaw, Staniflaus Leczinfki» Palatine of Pofnania, 
who was immediately raifed to the throne ^\ 

What time Charles XII. was thus impofing a king 
on the yanquiflied Poles, and the Danifh monarch 
durft not prefume to create him any difturbance; 
while the new king of Pruflia courted his friendfliip, 
and his antagonift Auguftus was forced to take refuge 
in his hereditary dominions, the czar Peter was grow- 
ing every day more formidable* Though he had given 
the king of Poland but little immediate afliftance, he 
had made a powerful diverfjon in Ingria ; and was 
now not only become a good foldier himfelf, but had 
inftni£led his fubje£is in the art of war* He had able 
engineers,^ well ferved artillery, and experienced ofH<r 
cers ; difcipline was edabliflied among his troops ; and 
he had acqqired the great fecret of fubfilling his ar- 
iqaies. In confequence of tbefe improvemeniS| he iQo\ 

^4. Voluirc, Bifi^ CbarUi XJl^ liy. lii. 

A 3 3 Nam 


Narva by afTault, on the 2ifl of Auguft 1704, after a 
regular iicgc, during which he haH prevented it frnm 
receiving any fuccours, either by lea or land. Nor 
vas this his only glory. The RuflTians were no fooner 
mafters of the city, than they began to pillage it, and 
abandoned themfelvcs to the moi\ enormous barbari- 
ties. The czar flew from place to place, to ftop the 
plunder and carnage ; and having killed two foldicrSi 
who refu fed to obey his orders, be entered the town* 
houfe, and laying his fword, yet recking with gore, 
upon the table, faic! to the magiftrates, *^ This wca 
** pon is not ftained with the blood of your fcUow- 
*^ citizens, but with that of my own pcoplCi which 
" I have ihed to favc jour lives **." 

Had Peter always paid the fame attention to the 
rights of humanity, his character would have ftood 
fairer in the annals of hi (lory. And for his honour it 
rr.\.\il be recorded, that at the fame time he was thus 
favit)g one city from dcflrudlion, he was enaployed in 
creeling another, not far from Narva, in the heart of his 
iiiw conqucfls; namely Peteriburg, which he aficr- 
v/^rd made the place of his refidencc, r/nd the centre 
of his rrade. That city is fjtuated between Finland 
and Ingria, in a maidiy ifland, around which the 
Neva divides itfclf into fcvcral branches^ btfore it falls 
into the Gulph of Finland. 

This defert and uncul'.lvalcd ifland, which, during 
the fliort fummcr in ibofc regions, was only a heap 
of mud, and in winter a frozen pool, into which there 
was no'cntrance on the land fidvi, but through pathlcfs 
forefts and deep morafTcs, and which had been the 
haunt of wolves and beats, was filled, in 1703, with 

65. Vuliairc, Iljt, Euj\ chap. xii. -////?. Cbarlu XII, liv. iii. 



: three hundred thoufand men^ whom the czsu* letter 
{ht thither from other paits of his dominions. -~[ _ f 
peafants of Aftracam, and ihofe #ho dwelt on the A. D. 170^. 
iers of Chinai were tranfported to Peterfburg { 
the czar was obliged to clear foreftt, to make 
p to drain marfhcs, and to raife mounds before 
could lay the foundations 6( his future capital, 
whole was a violence upon nature. Peter was 
mined to people a country, that did not feem de* 
i for the habitation of men^. and neither the 
iation that demolifhed his wprlu, nor the fterility 
le foil| nor ^he ignorance of thp workmen, 
ren the mortality which carried off near two hun- 
thoufand men in the beginning of thp Qf>dertak- 
rould divert him from his purpofe. By a proper 
>ution of favours, he drew many Grangers to the 
:ity I bellowing lands upon fome, houfes upoti 
B, and encouraging, by the mod liberal rewards, 
of every defcription. Above all, he rendered 
of agalnfl the utmoft efforts of his enemies s fo 
the Swedifli generals, who frequently beat his 
5, as we (hall have occafion to fee, were never 
to hurt this infant eftablifliment. Petetfburg 
ned in perfect fccurity amid the 4eflru£livp wa? 
lich it was furrounded ^^, 

4ILE the czar was employed In ereding a new 
il, and in creating, as it were, a new people, he 
eld out a helping hand to the fugitive Augu(lu8» 
had again found his way into Poland ; bad re- 
Warfaw, and been obliged a fecond time to a- 
>n it. Peter invited bin) to Grodno, in order to 
rt meafures for retrieving his affairs. To that 
Auguftus repaired in December 1705 s and being 

66. Id. ibid. 


no longer afraid of exafperating the Poles, by the in- 
troduSion of foreigners into their countrji as ther 
had already done their word againfl him, it was re- 
folvcd that fixty ihoufand Rufllans fhould attack the 
Swedes in their late conquefts. This prodigious force 
foon entered Poland; and dividing inio feveral bodies, 
laid wade with fire and fword the lands of all the Pa- 
latinesi who had declared for Staniflaus. An army 
of Coflfacks alfo entered the Polifli territorieSi and 
fpre'ad defolation on c?ery {ide» with all the furj of 
barbarians. And general Schullemberg, who had dif- 
tinguiflied himfclf by the paflage of the Oder, in Gght 
of the king of Sweden, and by a retreat efteeihed 
equal to a vi£lory, even by Charles himfelf, was ad* 
vancing with an army of Saxons ^. 

If fuccefs had depended upon numbers» theSwedift 
monarch muft now have been cruflied* But his ufoalt 
good fortune, the efTeA of his adive and enterpriCng 
fpirity (till attended him. The Rudian armies were 
attacked and defeated fo fad, that the lad was 
routed before it hrid heard of the di fader of the firft. 
Nothing could dop the progrcfs of the conquering 
Swedes, or equal thtir celerity. If a river iiiierpofedi 
they fwam acrofs it ; and Charles at the head of hi$ 
cavalry, marched thirty leagucsin twenty- four hours '"*• 
Struck with terror at fuch rapid movements, whidito 
them appeared altogether miraculous, and reduced to 
a fniall number, by their various defeats, the Ruffians 
retired beyond the Bo.idhcnesi leaving Auguftus tQ 
his fate ^K 

67. Voltaire. CorJtn. Puffcnd. Panhcnay. 68. Eraj 

folcUcr leading a horfe in his haiid to mouut wfitn hi* own was tiiid. 
VoUairc, Ni/I. Cbarla XIL liv. iii. 69. Id. iliid. 


M O D E R N E U R O P E. 361 

In the mean time Scbullcmbcrg, having repafled LETTER. 
the Oder, offttrei battle to marefchal Renfchild, who \_ , ^ , ' f 
was reckoned the king of Sweden's beft general, and A. D.i7o6, 
called the Parmenio of the Alexander of the North. 
Tbcfe two great commanders met on the 13th of Fcb- 
rnarjr 17069 at a place called Travanflad. Renfchild had 
only thirteen battalions, and twenty-two fquadrons, 
making in all about ten thoufand men; Schullembcrg 
had more than double that number, yet was he de- 
feated with great daughter. iSeven thoufand BuIEans 
and Saxons were killed on the fpot ; eight thoufand 
were made prifoners ; and all their artillery, baggage, 
ammunition, and provifions, fell into the hands of 
tic vi£lors ^**. No quarter was granted to the Ruf- 

In order to put an end to the troubles of Poland, 
\ijiere, by leafon of its defolate ftate, his army could 
00 longer fubfift, Charles now propofed to carry the 
War into the hereditary dominions of Auguftus. He 
accordingly direAed his march toward Silefia ; pafled - 
Ibe Oder; entered Saxony, with twenty-four thou- 
£ind men ; and having laid the whole country under 
contribution, pitched hit camp at Alt-Ranlladt, near 
the plains of Lutz'en, rendered famous by the memor- 
able yi£lory and death of Guftavus Adolphus. Un- 
able to contend with fo powerful an adverfary, already. 
in the heart of his dominions, Auguftus was under the 
neceffity of fuing for peace. He obtained it, but on 
the moft humiliating terms ; being forced to renounce 
for ever all ptetenfions to the crown of Poland, and 
to acknowledge Staniflaus lawful fovereign of that 
kingdom ^S When his plenipotentiaries endeavoured 
to procure (ome mitigation of the rigour of thefe 

70. Bifi. in Hord^ tom, ii, Voltaire, ubi iap. 71. Voltaire, Hip, 
Ch. JKZT. liv. ju. 



PART II. conciltions, they were conftantly anrwcred by count 
A.D.'rjcfi. ^'P^^ ** Such is ihc will of my mafter ; and he never 
" alters his refolution 7- 1" 

The march of the king of Sweden into Genraafj 
his vidories during the courfe of the war, and the 
arbitrary manner in which he had depofed Augoftos* 
filled all Europe with hopes of his friendfhip, or ap-> 
prehenGons from his power. France courted his al- 
liance with an ardour proportioned to the diftreficd 
fiate of her aiFairs. Offended at his grofs violation 
of the privileges of the Germanic body, the diet at 
Ratiibon (hewed a difpodtion to cieclarc him aq enemy 
of the empire; but the emperor Jofeph, dreading the 
ciFe£ls of fuch a meafure, employed all his influence to 
oppofe it, at the fame time that he endeavoured foftca 
to any refentment whlph it might ^xcite in the brcaft 
of the northern conqueror, by flattering his pridct 
Charles was pleafed with thefe attentions, without bef 
ing fwayed by them* Wholly occupied with the grot 
proje£l of hprnbling his other ancagonift, the czar 
Peter, and even of reducing hitn to the fame abjeft 
condition into which b^c had already brought Augu(lui| 
he tiiffcg^rded all the felicitations of France, and 
feemed to f.ivcur the views of the emperor, without 
having any atidchmcnt to his iiitcrcft. 

Lewis XIV. thus difappointed in his hopes of par 
gaging the king of Swcticn in his caufe, and broken 
in fpirit by mbfonunes, began fcriouily to think 
of putting an t nd to a war, vvhich had brought accu« 
niulattd difgrnce upon his arms, and the deeped d;f- 
trefs upon his fubjeds. Having privately made fome 
ineSeclual apj lications to the mioIAcrs of {lolUpdi 

71. Id. ibi4« 

M O D E R N E U R O P E. 363 

icrcfolvcd publicly to manifcft bis earned defirc of ^'^JX^^ 

cace •, and ordered, for that purpofe, the clc£kor of ^_ ^^f 

avaria to write letters to the dalce of Marlborough A. 0.1704, 

id the fielddcputirs of the States, propofing a general 

i^jgrefs* As a proof of bis fincerity, he mentioned 

once the facrifices he was willing to make. He offer- 

1 all the Spanifh dominions in Italy to the archduke 

harfes 5 10 the States, a barrier in the Netherlands j 

nd to tlic duke of Savoy, a compcnfation for the 

?afte made By the war in his territories. In return 

or fuch libeial conccflions, he demanded, that the 

leQorate of Bavaria (hould be reUored to its native 

•rincc, and that Philip V. (hould be allowed to poffcft 

ipain and her American dominions^; or, in the 

)fty language of the proud Caftiiianf , Spain and the 


The confederates, by concluding a pes^ce on tbef^ 
rmsi and others which they might have di£tated^ 
ut efpecially the perpetual difunion of the crowns of* 
ranee and Spain, would have obtained the chief ob- 
GLb of the Grand Alliance ; yet was the offer, though 
rely a fufficient foundation for entering upon a nego- 
ition, wantonly rejeded, and Europe de (lined to re- 
aini for many years longer, a fcene of carnage, con* 
Gon, and didrefs, in order to gratify the p'afiions of a 
w ambitious and felfilh men. The duke of Marlbo- 
agh was fond of the emoluments as wellas th« glory of 
ir : prince Eugene, befide being under the influence 

;. Burnet, book Tii. 74. This mode of fpeakirg feemt 

lave bceo introduced, when the Spaniards were in pofleflion of the 
tngnefe fettlements in India, where all other Europeans were long 
iidered as intruders ; and when Spain averted an exclufive right t6 
whole American continent, as well as to the contiguous iflands, to 
ich flic gaTc the name of the H^tfi India, Hence too, by a ftiU more 
culous vanity, the Spaniih monarchi dill aflume the tide of *« King 
f the E^ft and Weft indies." 



PART n. of Gmllar motives, was aflintcc! bjr an implacable re- 
JtD?73o6, fcntmcnt againft France ; and the penfionary HciuCos, 
who led the councils of the dates, yielded to hisowo 
intereft, while he aclcd in fubferviency to thofe tvo 
generals. Thefe were the three great fprings that 
now directed the Grand Alliance : and the motioo 
communicated by their joint impulfe, was accelcratd 
by the tonent of vidlory. The views of the allio 
extended with their fuccefles. Having humbled 
France, they afpired at the conqueft of Spain, b 
was accordingly refolved, That no peace {hooM be 
made with the houfe of Bourbon, while a prince of 
that houfe continued to fit upon tbeSpanilh throne'^ 


75. *' I do not remember/* fays my lord Bolingbroke, vof **ftdm 
** memtary drdaratiw for tntimiimg the wr till Philip V. fhottld beih 
** i^rwwJ, before the year 1 706 : anil thee fuch a declaration wafji^ed 
** ncccflaiy to fccond the refolurion of our mini Acrs and our aUktitt 
** departing from the principles of the Grand Alliance, and in propefiif 
«* iwt only the reJi'iffcn of the French, but the comquefi of the SpanlM 
^ moiiarchy, at the objrd of the war.*' fSicUb rfthi Hlf, miJSUk^ 
£ur pe.) And, little faith as is placed in the hiftoricat teftimonytT 
Bolln;!:i)rokf, he fecnl^ here t'l have truth on his fi*lc, notw ithftandinf 
what ha* been advanced to the cortnry by I ord Walpole ; whorndca- 
vt urs to pro\T:, '1 liur although the kin;; of England, and the State*- 
general of tkc United Province?, hud atkiiowledijcd Philip V. to he 
lawful king of rpain. in virtue of the will of his prcdecefior Charles 11. 
iJie ftrimary ohj*\:f r( the Grand AlU-iiice was to drpriw him f/th ihrtPt •/ 
ti'iU KiagJom, and placed upon it a prince of the houfe uf Ad: ria. 
fAnfxver to the LjUer Parf of L^id BiL'rbi ote* t Letter* omttrStMJy ffHif^ 
Ury.) That fuch was the aim of the imperial family is very certain; 
hut Knj»1apd and H<.lland, as I have already had ncc:if»on td ftew, 
( Let. XX. ) rcfufed to engage for \k\ much. In afterward goxni; tlut 
krgth, they confequcntly altered, or enlarged their plan. What i» 
farther necefl-iry to be obftrvcd on this intricate fubjc5t,may be fouad 
in the reflexions introdutSlory to the negociations at Utrecht (Letter 
X XIII J Though a well-trriher to the caufe of the Confederates I fcora 
to conceal their errors or inconfiilcneles. No fiipubtioa was originaiiy 
made, in any article of the Grand Alliance, that a prince of thehcufe 
•f Bourbon ftould not bt allowed to fu on tic throne of Spain, orirrt 
poffefi, togctluT with that kingdom, the Spar ilh doniiniuBs in Americ*. 

M O D E R N E U R O P E. 365 

$, my dear Philip, were the objcfts of this con- ^^^o* 
f in a great meafure changed 5 and, in order t-,«^<-— ^ 
i a true judgment of the whole, you muft A-D-iyoA 
r very attentively the new plan, and compare 
the original plan of the Grand Alliance, re- 

to the general interefts of Europe, and the 
lar intcrcft of your own country. You will 

think, be of opinion. That the war was wife 
I before this change, bccaufe ncccfTary to main- 
it equality among the powers of Europe on 
their peace and common profperity depend; 
t It was unwife and unjufl, after this change, 
unnecefTary to fuch end, and dire£ked to 
ad contrary ends. After this change, it be- 

war of paflSon, of ambition, of avarice, and 
ate intcreft, to which the general interefts of 
s were facrificed fo entirely, that, if the terms 
I on by the Confederates had been granted, fuch 
fyftem of power would have been created as 
ave expofed the balance of that power to devia- 
not inferior to thofe which the var vms origi- 
itendcd to prevent 7<^. 

ILST we reprobate this ambitious fcheme« coo* 

in a general view, we find particular occafion 

ent the fate of Great Britain in the midft o£ 

le acceflion of Savoy andPortosBl to the Oiand AlIiaQce, the 
ates began to extend their riewa ; and, in conie^ueocc o£ the 
of the war, from 1703 to 1706, was formed the refolution, 
ade thefe obfervations ncceffary. 

le emperor Jofqih, who died a few ytart after, WM then with* 
ifTue. And the union of the kingdoms of Spain and Hungary, 
GernEian and Italian dominions of th^ houfe of Aoftria, in the 
the archduke Charles, fupporied by the wealth of the Atnerkaa 
rould have been no lefs dangerous to the liberties of Eurupe^ 
ent of the Weight of the imperial crown, tlian tTic union of the 
ad Spaai(h BMuarchics ^indor Fbllip V, *«r -hit dirfirdndancs. 



^ARTII. triumphs that have been founded fo high. Viaorici 
A* D.ijU^ that bring honour to the arms, may bring fliame Co 
the councils of a nation. To win a battle, to taket 
town» is the glory of a commander* and of an annf. 
Of this glory we had a very large (hare. Bot tbe 
wifdom of a nation is to proportion the ends (be pro* 
pofes to her intered and her (Irength. Great BrituB- 
neither expe£led nor defired anything bejond wbt 
file might have obtained, by adhering to the fill 
principles of the Grand Alliance. But (he washorricd 
into thofe of the new plan by the caufes which I hate 
already mentioned } by the prejudices and tbe ra(hne(i 
of party i by the influence which the fucceflles of tk 
arms of the Confederates gave to our miniAers, Godol- 
phin and Marlborough ; and by the popularity, if I 
may fo fpeak, which they gave to the war itfelf. Tkc. 
people were unwilling to put an end to a cooteft tlial; 
afforded fo many occafions of public rejoicing, and fo 
wide a range for national pride. 

TH£Engli(b miniftry, however, though thus lavift 
of the blood and treafure of the nation, in fupporc of 
unneceflary foreign wars, were by no means negligent 
of its internal tranquillity and happinefs. That UNiox 
of England and Scotland, under one legiflature, whidi 
had, as we have feen, been often attempted in nii> 
was at lad accomplifiied, after long and warm <i^ 
bates between the commifTioners of the two kingdomsi 
and, in confequence of it, all difputes concerniog ik 
Scottifh crown were fortupately prevented. 

Thb principal Articles in that famous treaty aret» 
the following puiport : ** That the two KiogdooH' 
^< of England and Scotland (ball be united ioSB^ 
*' 0M£, by the nam^ of GREAT BRITAIN & 


M O D E R N E U R d P fi. 367 

*« That the Succession to the United Kingdorfi ^J^™^ 

* (hall remain to the Princefs Sophia, Duchcfs ^....^-Lj 

* Dowager of Hanover, and the Heirs of her Body, a. D. 170^- 
' being Pr^/£/7fl»/j;— And that all Papifts^Sind Perfons 

* marrying Papijis^ fliall be excluded from, and for ever 

* incapable to inherit the CroWK of GkEAT Bri- 
' TAIN, or any part of the Dominions thereunto be- 

* longing J 

" That xht whole people of Great BritXin (hall 

* be reprefented by one Parliament, in ^YixcYiJixtcen 

* Peers, zt\d forty-five Commoners, chofen for Scor- 
** LAND, (hall^/ and votei 

•* That the Subje^s of the United Kingdom (hall 
■• enjoy an entire freedom and Inter courje of Trade and 
" navigation^ and reciprocal communication o( zWodicr 
•• Rights, Privileges, and Advantages, belonging to the 
''Sobjeds of either. Kingdom j 

*• Th A t the Laws in regard to Public Right, Policy, 
•* and Civil Government, (hall be the fame throughout 
•• /A^ wAo/^ United Kingdom ; but that «o alteratknjhall 

* i/ /nj^^ in the Laws refpefting Private Right, un- 
^ lefs for the evident utility of the Suhje^s refiding in 

* Scotland \ 

'* That the i2/^A/5 and Privileges of the Rotal 
'* Boroughs in Scotland (hall not be a£feded by 
'•the Union; 

«» That the Court of Sesstoii, or Collbce 

* of Justice, with all the other Courts of Judlcaturg 
« in Scotland (hall remain as conjlitutedbj the Laws 

* of that Kingdom^ and with the fame Authority and 

•* Pfivllegej 


** PrfUilcges as bcfdre the Uhiok ; rubjed neteretie- 
*' lefs fo fuch Regulations as may be nuulehj the Par" 
" /;>7f^«/ of Ctlzat Britain.'* 

Beside thefe general and permanent Articlesi k 
was particularly ftipulated. That the fum of three 
hundred and ninety-eight thoufand pounds^ granted 
by the Englifh parliament, (hould be paid fo Stot* 
land, as an equivalent for that Jugmentafson of the 
Cuftoms and Excife, which was become neceflary 
*< for preferving an equality of Trade throaghoot the 
^* United Kingdom," and which would be afplicabk 
toward the Payment of the Public Debt of Englandi 
contra£ted before the Union \ this fum to be applied, 
partly toward the extinffion of the National Debt of 
Scotland, partly toward the indemnification of the 
Adventurers in the African and Indian or Darien 
Company ; and the refidue, after the Reimburfemeni 
of fuch individuals as might fuffer by the Reduffion 
(or rather Elevation) of the Coin of Scotland to the 
Standard oi EscLAt9D^ in encouraging Filberies and 
ManufaAures in that Kingdom '7, 

Though this treaty, all circumftanccs conGdered, 
w&s neither difhonourable nor difadvantageous to 
Scotland, yet was i< zealoully oppofed, not only by 
the adherents of the ezcHuied family, whofe partieular 
inteteft it was to obftruft fuch a meafure, but alfo by 
many independent members of the Scottifli parlia* 
ment, on principles of mere patriotifm. Of thof(^ 
the moft firm and refolute was Andrew Fletcher of 
Salton ; a man of a cultivated genius, of a warm 
tettipef, a lofty courage, a bold eloquence, and an 

77- Sec Defoc*« ffijl, •ftbt Umim\ where the Article* are printedtt 
Ur^e, with aQ the ar^menu iw ao4 ^g^H them. 


li O D E R N E U R O P E. - 369 

nicomiptlble integrity. Finding all bis efibrts in- letter 

effcclaal, to prevent the paffing of the A€t of Union, .^^^j 

tnd believing it impoflible that a majority of his A.D 1706. 

coanirymen could ever have been brought to con- 

JTem to the annihilation of their ancient monarchy 

without the influence of Englifli gold, he refolved 

to quit the kingdom, that he might not (hare in their 

ireproacb, by condefcending fo far as to live among 

tbem. On the day of his departure, his friends 

crowded around him, intreating him to (by. Even 

sifter his foot was in the (lirrup, they continued their 

foticitations, anxioufly crying, '^ Wilt you forfake 

^ your country?" He reverted his head, and dart- 

ing on them a look of indignation, keenly replied, 

*' It is 0&ly fit for the daves that fold it !'' then leaped 

into the faddle, and put fpurs to his hoife ^^ 1 leaving 

the whole company (Iruck with a momentary humilia- 

tioir, and (blind to the extravagance of his condu£l) at 

a lofs which moft to admire, the pride of his virtue or 

the elevation of his fpirit. 

That fome of the evils, foretold by the Scotti(h 
patriots at the Union, have fince overtaken their 
coontrymen, cannot be denied ; particularly the ac- 
cumulation of taxes, in confequence of the growth of 
the Eogliih national debt, which then amounted only 
to about twenty millions, and the multiplication of 
the herd of infolent revenue o(ficer8. Tet have the 
Scots, from that aera, enjoyed more happinefs, as a 
peoplCj and rifen to more wealth and confequence, as 
individuals, than they could pofiibly have attained in 
their difunited (late. 

6S. Thit toecdote the Author had from the late Pat|ick, lord 

Vol. IV. ' Bb Noa 


PART 11. Nor has England rcafon to complain of the Uflioiu 
iLD. r-o6. '"'l^*^ ^f turbulent neighbours, flic has gained, bf 
communicating her privileges to the Scots, hardy 
foldier^to flght her battlesi and induftrious workmen 
in every branch of manufafiure. She has fecured 
for ever the undivided fovereignty of Great Britain, 
and the liberties of EnglKhmen, againft the ufarpa^ 
tions of foreign or domeftic ambition, by making the 
confervation of that fovereignty, and thofc libertief| 
the common intereil of all the brave and free fabjedt 
of the United Kingdom. 


^e Oeneral Viiw <?/ Europe continued^ from iht Ri* 
fufal cftlc Offers cf Peace made by Fr A N C £, /it 1 706. 
to the Conferences i.cld at GertrUTDENBERG, in 

LETTER T EWIS XIV. finding all bis ofFcrs of peace rejcfled 
XXII, JLj with diftlaia by the confederates, prepared bim- 

A. D. i7cC- f^^f ^o brave, once more, that dorm which he could 
not difpcl. In order to fupply the want of moncji 
he ilTued bills upon the mint, to a very large amount, 
in imitation of the exchequer bills circulated by the 
Englilh government; but, by refufing to rake thofe 
bills in payment of the taxes, he threw them into 
fuch difcrcdit, that, after every expedient to raift 
their value had been tried, they remained at a dif* 
count of more than Bhj per cent. He was therefore 
obliged, on the failure of this defperate rcfoarcci 
which augmented the didrefs of his people at the 
fame time that it weakened their confidence in iki 


crown, to continae the prafticc of burthcnfomc Ibans,. ^S^IJ?*^ 
Btid to anticipate ihe royal revende '• 

A.U. i:5l(. 

But htwiif hotwithdariding thefe difad^ntages, 
ivas enabled to make Very cotiGderable preparation^, 
for oppofing the eflFbrts of his vi£iorious enemies. 
He extended a line of militia along the coafts of the ^^ p^ ^^^^ 
Channel, add the (hores of the Mediterranean : he 
formed an army in FlanderSj under the duke de Ven- 
dothe ; another was colledled by marefchal Villars, 
in the neighbourhood of Strafburg ; a body of men 
was ordered to aflemble in Na?errei a fecond in Rouf- 
fillon ; ahd large reinforcements were fent to the army 
of the duke of Berwick in Spain *. Thef: reinforce'- 
ments were partly furntflied in confequence of frefli^ 
but not unezpeded, difafters in Italy. The French 
troops, to the number of fifteen thoufand, being 
obliged to evacuate Lombardy, by a capitulation 
Cgned in the beginning of M^rch, ^ere difpatched to 
the aflidance of Philip V. Modena and Milan fur- 
rctidered fuccbfllvely to the allies: the whole kingdom 
of Naples was reduced ; and the few places in the 
dominions of the duke of Savoy, that were ftill held 
by French or Spanifli g;^rrifonSj fell one by one before 
the clofe of the campaign 3. 

The fortune of the war was very different in Spain. 
There the allies, more through their own mifconduft 
than the ftrcngth of the enemy, received a dreadful 
<»verthrow. Charles III. pretending that Catalonia 
was in danger, feparatcd himfelf, with a large detach- 
iTficnt, from the principal army, commanded by the 
carl of Galway and the marquis de las Minas; who, 

I , Voltaire, Sitdt^ chap, xxriii. Fi/itncei, 2. Contin. Hi/l dt Fratiti, 
par P. Daniel. Berwick's Afiv. vol. i. 3. Id. ibid. Voluire, 

SkcU, chap. XX. 

B b 2 having 

372 T H E H 1 S T O R T O F 

?ART 11. hating exhaufted all their proTifions in Vaknda, al- 
)^^^~q\ tempted to penetrate into New Caftile. With thti 
▼lew, they pafled the river Xucar, and marched to- 
ward Almanza. The duke of Berwick, who was jaft 
arrived at that place, faefitated not a moment to give 
them battle. Ignorant of the fuccourt he had re- 
ceived, the confederates eagerly advanced to tlic 
charge, flufhed with former vi^oriesi and animated 
with hopes of new fuccefs. The a£lion (bon bcciffle 
generalf and the field was obftinately difputed. The 
EngHfli and Dutch infantry penetrated through the 
centre of the enemy, and proceeded as far as the walls 
of Almanza. Meantime the French and Spanift 
cavalry, on the right wing, twice broke the horfe of 
the allies, and were as often repulfed by their foot, 
under colour of which the horfe rallied. In order to 
overcome this difficulty, the duke of Berwick ordered 
a body of infantry to advance to the affiftance of his 
cavalry on the right. A vigorous charge was given, 
by both horfe and foot at the fame time. The left vring 
of the allies was totally routed: and their righ^ 
which had hitherto maintained its ground, hang 
flanked by the right of the enemy, was broken and 
difperfed ; while their gallant infantry in the centre, 
where they had carried every thing before them, in 
attempting to retreat, on feeing the defeat of their 
two wings, were fufroundcd by the enemy's cavalrj, 
and almoft all cut to pieces ^ 

No vi£lory was ever more complete than that gained 
by the duke of Berwick at Almanza. Five thoufaod 
of the Confederates were (lain, and near ten thoufand 
made prifoners. Among the iatter were fix major- 
generals, as many brigadiers, twentyc^ lonels, and a 

4. Duke •£ Berwick's Mem, vol. i. Buraet book viL 



poportional oumber of inferior officers, faid to amount ^ELT?* 
to eight hundred. AH the artillery of the vanqui(hed, %.«.*v-«^ 
mod of their baggage, with one hundred and twenty ^.D. 1707. 
colours and ftandards, fell into the hands of the 
▼i&ors '• Las Minas, who was run through the arm^ 
and who had feen his miftrefs, fighting In the habit of 
ao Aaia|K)n, killed by his fide, efcaped to Xati?a ; and 
the earl of Galway, who had received two cuts in the 
face, ftopc not his flight till he arrived at Tortofai 
near the mouth of the Ebro ^. 

The dule of Orleans, who aflumed the command 

of the French army the day after the battle of AU 

* manza, did not neglc£l the opportunity which fortune 

y^ and the abilities of the duke of Berwick had procured * 

y Uiiiy of retrieving the affairs of his family in Spain, 

^ He reduced the city, and recovered the whole king- 

^ dom of Valencia : he direded his march into Arragon^ 

^ and reduced Saragofi^ and Lerida under the domi- 

/; nion of Philip V. before the clbfe of the campaign | 

[ while Charles III. either loitered in Catalonia, or 

made unimportant excurfions toward the frontiers of 

RouffiUon 7. 


5. Dolce of BerwicVt Mem. vol. i. 6. Hi/. Gem. ^ EJ^a^e. Mod^ 

tWw. Bif. vo! vij. foL edit. 7. Duke of Berwick, ubt 

<%ip> " I muft not here omit,*' fays this intclUgeot obfenrer of maik» 

- iKtod, '« a lingular circumAance. I'hc count dc U Pucbia, who com* 


*• phantom formed by magic art. In this perfuafion, the clergy 
^* went in procei^on upon the ramparts ; and from that eminent fitua- 
** tion, after a number of prayers, cxorcifcdthe pretended fpedres that 
^ were in fight !— It is not a little furprifing, " adds he, •< that tho 
^« people conld be fo credulous as to adopt fuch an idea. But they 
9 were (601^ undeceived by the huiTars of U^e srmy of the doke of 
8^3 ?Orlw»i 


FART u. The aflfairs of the confederates did not wear a more 
A- D.1707. favourable afpeft in Germany. The continoance of 
the rebellion in Hungary^ combined with the ha- 
bitual ina£liyity of the court of Vienna, and the 
fluggifhnefsof the German princes, bad aimed ezpofed 
the empire to calamities as great as thofe from which 
it was relieved by the battle of Blenheim. The mar- 
grave of Bareith, who had fucceeded tQ the coaunasd 
of the Imperialifts on the death of the prince of BadeOy 
was in no condition! in the early part of the campa%0| 
to oppofe the French, under marefchal Villars s who, 
having pafled the Rhine at Strafburg, forced the lines of 
the Germans at Stolhoffen, laid the dachy of Wortem- 
burg under contribution, entered Suabia^ and pcne<: 
treated to the Danube!* 

But the fuperiority of the French, in the heart ol 
Oermany, was not the only danger which the empire 
had now to fear. Charles XII. who had remained in 
Saxony during the winter, found fome plaufible pre* 
tences for quarrelling with the court of Vienna | and 
although all reafonable fatisfaflion was given hioDi oa 
the fubjcft of his complaints, he continued to urge 
them with an obftinacy fuitable to his charader. From 
complaints he proceeded to demands; requiring dial 
the Proteftants in Silefia Oiould be indulged with th^ 
free exercife of their religion, according to the trcatf 
of Weftphalia ; that his Imperial Majeily (hould r^ 
linquifh all pretenCons to the quota which the klag 
of Sweden was bound to fumifli, by the tenure oa 
which he pofleflTed bis German dominions s and that 

<* Orleans; who having brlDcIy purfucd to the gates of the 6ti% 
** a party of the count de la Puebia*s cavalry, cut off fome of tbcir 
«* heads !" Mem. vol. i. 
8. BarrCf fftjl. </* dUemoffu^ tosu x« Bumet, book tu. 




SvetfiA xnny, in its retoni tliro«|f^ ^xSl*' 

Ea imo Polaody fboold be miinuiaed at the t_ j- f 

(c of die court o£ Vienna ♦. ^^ *T > 

'he queen of England, ihcngh fenfible the em* 
v vas not in a fimation to rcfafe thofe imperioas 
ands, was afraid that the pride of Jofcph might 
come his attention to the interefts of the allies '\ 
f therefore, ordered the duke of Marlborough, 
» was no Ids a ftatefman and a coortier than a 
rral, to repair to Saxony, and attempt to foothc 
king of Sweden. When the duke arrived in the 
dVh camp at Alt-Ranftadr, where he was receired 
I the refpeS due to his charaSer, he paid Charles 
\y handfome compliments, to which no anfwer was 
mcd, but which had notwithftanding perhaps the 
red cffcQ. He went even fo far as to tell the northern 
lueror, that he fliould efteem it a peculiar happi- 
, could he have an opportunity of learning, under fo 
It a commander, thofe parts of the military fcience 
ch he did not yet underiland ! And having acquir.» 
by a long courfe of experience, the art of diving 
• the cbara£lers of men, and of reading their mo(t 
et thoughts in their looks and gefturcSf he foon 
overed the inclinations and viows of th^ king of 
:den. In the pieafure with which he talked of the 
ories of the alliesi Malborough perceived bis aver-* 
againfl France ; \yhile the kindling of l\i8 eye at 
name of the czar, and a map of Ruflia lying upon 

Cettizfi, PufFend. lib. vii. Burnet, book vii. 
. The emperor, it s^ppears, vras by oo means fo haughty u the 
1 imagined ; for, when the pope complained of hit reftoring thp 
:hcs to the Proteftants, he facetioufly replied, " Had the king of 
ireden propofed that I fhould become a Lutheran myfelf, IknownoC 
liat might have bccu the confequcnce.** Ji^m% de JStratifkakfj^ 

Sb4 bu 


his table, made this profound politician intioiatelx 
acquainted wiih the future defigns of Charles* He 
therefore took leave, without making him any pro* 
pofals; fenfible that his difputes with the emperor 
eould be eafily accommodated, as all his demands 
would be granted ''. England and Holland accord* 
ingly guarantied the promifes of the court of Vienna; 
and the czar having entered Poland, the king 6t 
Sweden repafled the Oder, in queft of new Ti£tone% 
and in hopes of foon returning to hold the balance of 

In Flanders, no event of any importance happened 
during this campaign, nor any thing memorable at fea* 
I'be duke de Vendome prudently avoided an a£lioO| 
and made his movements with fo much jadgment, 
that Marlborough found no opportunity of attackiif 
l>im to advantage '^« The naval operations were chiefif] 
confined to the Cege of Toulon. 

TH£redu£^ion of the Spanifli dominions in Italyi 
and the capitulation figned at the beginning of the 
campaign 9 in confequence of which the French army 
abandoned Lombardy, having left prince Eugene and 
the duke of Savoy perfectly difengaged^ a plan was 
formed by them, in conjun<9ion with the maritime 
powers, for invading France from that quarter, and 
of reducing Toulon or Marfeilles ; an enterprize 
which, if attended with fuccefs, it was hoped would 
put a final clofe to the war. The prince and the duke, 
after having for feme time amufed the enemy, by i 
feint upon Dauphin y, in order to conceal their real 
deCgn, accordingly turned off toward the Ihore of the 

Ti. *< Tbcfe particulars/* fays Voltaire, *< I had from thcduchdioC 
*' Maslborcngh." /f//. C^. A//, liv. iii« ii. Buiaet. bopkfii. 



edkemncan | forced the paflagc of the ri?CT Var ; ^^J™ 
oceeile4 along the coaft of Provence ; and arri?edy ■ -,j-\j 
a long and difficult macch, before Toulon ; while ^'Pj'^* 
r Cloudefly Shovel, with a formidable fleet, attended 
eir motions, fuppUed the army with neceflariess and 
locked op the town by fea h. 

UNFORTUNATE1.T for the allie8, only two hours 
fore prince Eugene appeared with the van of the 
nperialifts, the French had found means to throw 
ght thoufand men into Toulon. They had taken 
Dffefiion of all the eminences that commanded the 
ty ; and the confederates, in attempting to gaia 
lefe, were either repulfcd with great flaughter, oc 
}Uged to acquire and maintain them, at a (till greater 
cpence of blood. Difcouraged by circumftance^ 
» adverfe, by the bad condition of their army, the 
-ant of concert in their operations, and apprehenfive 
F being furrounded by a fuperior force, as the French 
rere in mouon on every fide, the duke of Savoy and 
rince Eugene judged it prudent to abandon their en« 
:rprife, though ftnfible that the hopes and fears of all 
urope hung fufpended on its iffue ^^. But this ex- 
edition, though finally unfuccefsful, was extremely 
etrimental to France. The confederates, in their 
afiage and return through Provence, ruined a vaft 
itent of country. And the detachments drawn from 
le army of marefchal Villars, in order to fuccour. 
!*oulon, obliged him to relinquifti all his high ptoje&s 
I Germany, and to repafs the Rhine, iuftead of ad- 
ancing beyond the Danube '^ 

The failure of the attempt upon Toulon, however, 
be inadUve campaign in Flanders, and the misfor- 

13. Id. ibid. Voltaire, SUfU, chap. xx. 14. Burnet, book vii« 

olt^, ttbi fup* " " 15. Barre. Burnet. Voltaire. 



tunes of the confederates in Sp3?n, furnifhcd the 
enemies of the duke of Marlborough and of rhe lord 
treafurer Godolphin with plaufiblc pretexts for difcre* 
diting their mcafureg : and intrigues were formed for 
overturning their adroiniftration. Thefc intrigues 
were cbicl]y condudlcd by Mr. Secretary Harley^ 
who had acquired a very confiderable (hare of the 
queen's confidence, by fluttering her political prcn 
judices ; and who, in order to ftrengthen his own 
iixteredy had fecured the fupport of Mrs. Maflianiy a 
new female favourite, who had partly fupplanted 
the duchefs of Marlborough in the affections of the 
queen '^ ; or rather in that afcendant, though ihe 
did not ufurp the fame abfolute domiaion, which the 
duchefs had c(Ublilhed over the mind of her tixoid 

Apprised of the fcheme that was formed for their 
ruin, Marlborough and Godolphin complained of 
Harley's intrigues to the queen-, and not meethig 
with a fatisfa£iory anfwer, they both threatened to 
rcGgn their places^ and abfented themfelves from die 
A.D. 17CS. cabinet council. The council was ftruck with coo- 
fternation. Even the fecretary (hrunk from the load 
that was ready to fall on his (houlders. And the queen^ 
from fear not regard, recalled her minifters, and dif- 
miffed Barley, whofe fortune his friend Sti Johoj 
fecretary at w^r, and others chofe to follow, by reGgn* 
ing their places ; yet not without hopes of having it 
one day in their power to govern the councils of 
their fovereign by foftering her affedion for the 
excluded branch of her family, and incrcaCng her 
fecret avcrfion agaxnft the fucceflion of the houfc of 
Hanover '7. 

16. Burnet, book yii. 17- W. Ibid, Sec alfo SsMtti 




Tu I s divifion in the EngliQt cabinet, and the dif- LETTER, 
contents in Scotland, occafioned by the Union, en- ^ '^ 
couraged Lewis XIV. to make an attempt 'in favour A«D. 170^ 
pf the pretended prince of Wiles^ whom he had 
acknowledged hj the title of James III. not doubting 
but he fhould be able, at lead, to create fuch diftrac*- 
tions in Great Britain as would weaken the efforts of 
the allies in Flanders. To that attempt Lewis was 
farther incited by the eager folicitations of the Scot- 
tifli JacobiteSf who offered to raife and equip thirty 
thoaiand men, at their own expencc, and to furnifli 
them with provifions until they could march into 

Ik confequence of thefe magnificent promifes, the 
Pretender, under the name of the Chevalier de St. 
George, fajied from Dunkirk on board a French fleet, 
commanded by M. de Fourben, with between five 
and fix thoufand land forces, ten thoufand mufkets^ 
and a fupply of other implements of M^ar* Their pur« 
pofe was to enter the Frith of Forth, and land iti the 
pcighbourhood of Edindurgh. But, through the ig- 
norance or inattention of their pilots, they overfhot 
t|icir*deftination ; aiid before they could recover their 
miftake. Sir George Byng, with a fuperior Engliffi 
fleet, had taken poffeflion of the Frith >9« Seeing 
now no profpefk of fuccefs, and afraid of the capture 
gfhiJ whole fquadrpn, the French admiral returned to 
Dunkirk, with the lofs of only one (hip, but to the 
utter confufion of the hopes of the Pretender and his 
adherents, both in France and Great Britain*^. 


l8. Hook's Negociafions, 1 9. Burnet, book f'lu Duke of Berwick's 
M^m. Tol. i. 20. It is truly amufiiig to obfenre the eztraTagance of the 
Jacobite writers in Ifcaking of this intended iDvafion. The 7 confidently 
affirm, That if the Pretender could have landed in Scotland, with only 
tlic appcyuce of an army, he would fuon have been enabled to march 



PART 11. The Englifli miniftry, in concert with the parlU* 
A-DjiyoS, mcnt, took the mod rigorous meafures for repelling 
the intended inTafion, as well as for continuing the 
war. And no fooner bad all apprebenfions of danger 
ceafed, than the duke of Marlborough, the great 
pillar of the nation^ and the chief fupport of the 
Grand Aliiancei went over to Flanders, in order to 
command the confederate army, in conjun£lioo with 
prince Eugene ; who, in the beginning of the cam- 
paign, had headed a feparate army upon the Rbine. 
The French army, commanded by the duke de Yen- 
dome in the name of the duke of Burgundy, though 
more numerous than that of the confederates, ftudi* 
oufly avoided an a£lion, or any hoftile attempt i until 
Wt ^ ^^ treachery, under the appearance of furprife, they 
got pofleflion of Ghent and Bruges. The duke of 
Marlborough, accufed of being privy to this treachery, 

into England, in fpite of all oppofition ; wad by the jnn&ion of his Eo|f« 
lifli and Scottifli adherents, to have given law to a princefs, who wn 
giving law to Europe ! Nay, they do not fcruple to declare that the 
queen's affedion for her brother was fo great, that op his approach, with 
a refpedable force, flie would readily have confented to the breaking of 
the Union) and tq his immediate acceflion to the Scottiih crown, thatflie 
might have a more certain profpedl of tranfmitting to him the crown 
«f England j not refle6):Ing that his natural right to both crowns wai 
preferable to her?, and therefore ^at any attempt to claim either, ut 
her life-time, nuift have excited the higheft jcaloufy. TheCune writers, 
In the madncfs of rage at their cruel difappointment, even aiTert that 
lewis XIV. gave Forben pofitive orders not to land the troops which 
he had ordered him to embark ; though hy their emharkation, whichhe 
was under no neceflity of ordering, and the voyage to Scotland, io coo* 
fcquence of it, he hazarded (he lofs of a very confiderable armament ! 
(See Macphcrfon*8 Hifl. 9/ Great Britain, vol. ii. where the reveries of 
all the Jacobite writers may be found.) Thefe arc ihockiagabfurdities: 
but it is the unhappniefs of party writers in general, and particularly of 
the abettors of the rights of the uufortunate family of Stuart, to pay 
little resjard to truth, to reafon, or probability, in the vehement prof<K 
cution of their arguments ; to the proofs fo\quk4 OB fa^, or thof<; 
arifing from cir^umihnc^s. 


M O D E R N E U R O P *. " 381 

demonftrated by his condu^ the injuftice of the IETTER 
afperGon. Though not yet joined by prince Eugene's |_. _ ' * 
army, but afllfted by the advice of that confummate A.D. i;ct. 
general, he pafTed fhe Scheld, by a forced march, and 
came up with the enemy near Oudenarde. They 
could no longer decline a battle ; and their fituation 
and fuperiority in numbers feemed to iufuK them 

The Scheld, and feveral inclofures, covered ihc 
left wing of the French army. A morafs lay along the 
boftile front ; and on a riHng ground, on their right, 
the enemy placed their cavalry, interlined with parties 
of foot. The infantry of the allies, advancing acrofs t„j j,. 
the morafs, were received with grca' firmnefs by the 
French foot. But the Britifti cavalry broke the 
French horfe at the firft (hock, and the foot inter- 
mixed with the fquadrons were cut in pieces on the 
fpot. Meantime the French infantry behind the 
morafs had ftood their ground againd all the efforts of 
the confederates. In order, however, to avoid being 
flanked by the BritiOi cavalry, now triumphant, they 
(heltered themfelves in the inclofures on the banks of 
the Scheld ; and, although the approach of darknefs 
prevented the defeat from becoming general, the fears 
and mifconduft of the enemy yielded to the allies all 
the advantages of a complete vi£lory. So great was 
their panic and confufion, that, while the confedei^tea 
expefied nothing but a rw^newal of the aftion next morn- 
ing, the vanquifhed retreated by five difTercnt routs in 
the night; and that difgraceful and diforderly fliglit, 
by breaking the fpirit of the foldicrs, rendered all the 
operations of the French timid, during the reft of 
the campaign*'. Though they preicrved their 

II. Fcut^iilcfcf. Burnet* VoUairc. 



cannon and baggage, they loft by this defeat abcmf 
twenty thou (and men : they had five thoufand killed^ 
nine thoufand taken prtfoners, and near fix thoufand 

Immediately after the battle of Oudcnarde* tbe 
French were reinforced by a ftrong detachment, 
under the duke of Berwick, from the Rhine ; and 
the Confederates were joined by prince Eugeoe'i 
army, which efcorted a grand convoy. Thia convoy 
the duke of Berwick, whofe troops arrived 6rft, pro«* 
pofed to attack ; but that propofal, as well as every 
other which be made during the campaign, was re« 
je£ied by the duke de Vendome, either from jealoofy 
or timidity ''. In confequence of the fafe arrival of 
the convoy, and the troops that guarded it, the Ccge 
of Lifle, the principal city in French Flanders> and 
the fecond in the dominions of Lewis XIV. the key 
of the kingdom, fortified with all the art of Vauban, 
AwgiAiz* was undertaken by prince Eugene $ while Marlbo- 
rough lay encamped in the neighbourhood, in order 
to prevent the «nemy from interrupting the opera- 
tions, and to forward the ncceflary fupplies to ihc 
befiegcrs ^*. 

No town was ever, perhaps, more vigorouDy at- 
tacked or defended than Lifle ; into which the marc- 
fchal dc Boufflcrs, an old experienced officer, had 
thrown himfelf, with feme of the belt troops of 
France. The garrifon confided of about twelve 
thoufand men, the befiegeis of at lead thirty thoa- 

3 2, Burnet, book vii. PuVc of Berwick's Mem, vol. i. 23. D*^' 
of Berwick's Mem. vol. i. As none of thcfc propolaU were embraced 
It is impoflible to fay, what fucccfs might have attended them ; but Bti- 
litary men, in general, fccm to bt of opinion, that ir.oft of the ttcafirfi 
fug^gcfled were highly worthy of btiug adopted* 24- BuTDrt. 

book vii. Tukc of Berwick, vol, i. 



land. Ncwic of the works ware carried without an ok- otter 
ftinate ftruggle ; and fcarcc were the aflailants mafters ^^^ "^ ^^ 
of one place, when they were driTen from another, KJk iTot* 
and In danger of loGng all their former advantageSy 
gained at a prodigious expence of blood and ralour. 
Yet ftill they pcrfercred, and by perfeTcrancc ad- 
vanced their progrefs. Meanwhile Vendome en* 
dcavoured to diftrefs them by cutting oflF their conToyt. 
But in that ferrice he mod unaccountablf failed, at 
well as in all his attempu to relieve the place % fo that 
BouAers, alter a gallant defence of two months, was 
obliged to furrender Lifle* He retired into the citadcl» 
which was alfo forced to capitulate, and Ghent and Qd. a|* 
Bruges were recovered before the clofe of the cam- 

No event of any importance happened in Germany 
during the fummer* The cle£lor3 of Hanover, and 
Bavaria, who were oppofed to each other on the Upper 
Rhine, not being in a condition to a£t wkh ciTcfl in 
the field, employed themfelvcs chiefly in fortifying 
their lines ; a precaution fuggeilcd by a mutual con- 
fcioufnefs of their weaknefs^^v On the fide of haly, 

S5. Id. ibid. The duke of Berwick particulirly invcftlgates the caufci 
of the capture of Ltfle. And it appears, if his !i(ivicc had been follovv- 
td, that the convoys of the confederates would have been cHedually cut 
6ff, and perhaps prince Eugene, and even the duke of Marlborough, de- 
feated, hy the aififtance of troops that might have been drawn ou: of tlie 
Deighboaringgarrifons, without their knowledge, torcinforce an -dlicady 
ftroDg army, by which they were iu( rounded ; and which couid, with 
iiich reinforcement, have amufcd tlie one, while it gave battle to the 
other. It alfo appears, on the fame author ity, thac M-rlbcroujyh, nn oi ic 
occafion, would have totally defeated Vcndon:e, if he had not ^'\n pre- 
vented from hazarding a battle by the field-depi.ties uf the f5t ates. Sc* 
the Jhth of Ber'wuk's Mem. vol. i. and the Lf-tUi: vx tl e end of th;: 
volume, which contain many curious particulars in the rj.iliiary linf, 
and fully iiiullrate the principal cvtfnt* cf the campaign i.n Flanders in 
-J7«8. 26. Barrc; /;V.\ d' AHer.a'^nt^ toint x. Buruct, baok vii. 



where much vras ezpe£led, fome advantages were 
gained by the aHies» but nothing fignal was performed. 
The duke of Savoy who, befide is native troops, 
had in his army twenty thoufand men in the paj of 
Great Britain and the States, had fornf^d great and 
extenfive projects. He defigned to pafs tbrough the 
territories of the Swifs, to join the troops of the 
empire in Alface, and. to penetrate into France oa 
that fide. But he was fo vigoroufly oppofed by ma* 
refchal Villars, that he was happy in having opened 
ft paflage into the enemy's country, and fecorel 
his own dominions againfl: the fature invafioDS of 
the French on the mod expofed fide, by making 
himielf mafter of Exilles, La Feronfe^ and Fe» 

The confederates were yet lefs fucctrsful !n Spain* 
There the houfe of Bourbon had two armies in the 
field, on the fide of Catalonia ; one under the dole 
of Orleans* another led by the duke de NoaiOes: 
ind a third army in Eftremadura, commanded by the 
marquis de Bay. Though Charles III. had not a 
fufEcient force to enable him to face the duke of 
Orleans in the field, the latter was prevented, by the 
unprovided condition of his army, from making fuch 
progrefs as might have been feared. He tooki 
liowever, Tortofa in the month of July | add Dania 
and Alicant, in the province of Valencia, fiell into, 
the hands of the French before the clofe of the cam- 
paign. The duke de Noailles, oppofed by the prince 
of Darmftadt, performed nothing of importance^ 
except providing his troops with provifions at the ex* 
pence of the Catalans } and the feafon of a£Uoni 

ty. Boroct. ubi . fup. Stait ofEnn^^ \ yof • 



on the Gdc of Portugal, was pafTed in a ftate of ab- xxu. 
toluce inaftivity **• 

The operations by fca were attended with very 
conGderable fuccefs^ on the part of the confederates. 
Sir John Leake, having carried to Catalonia (he 
priQcefs of Wolfenbuttle, whom Charles III. had 
efpoufed, took on board fome troopS) and diredled his 
<H>urfe to Cagliaria, the capital of Sardinia. No 
iboner did the EngHQi fleet appear than the monks^ 
gained by cardinal Grimani, who was in the ir^tereft 
of the houfe of Audria, ran in bodies to the ftreets 
and public places, holding the crucifix in their hands^ 
and aflured the inhabitants, who flocked around 
them. That God had made ufe of heretics to give 
them a better mader. This made fuch an imprelTion 
on the populace, that the viceroy was forced to accept 
of fuch terms as the invaders chofe to grant ; and the 
^bole ifland fubmitted without drawing a fwotd *'• 
The fame admiral, affided by major-general Stan- 
Impe^ alfo took the ifland of Minorca 3°; a conqueft. 
In itfelf.Iefs valuable than Sardinia, but of more 
importance to England when at war with Spain, 
on account of the excellent harbour of Mahon, 

%3, Hifi, ^Efpagne^ torn. ii. Mem, dt NoailUs^ torn it. But the 
'generals, who there commanded^ and whofe coiidud in the field was fo 
litllc worthy of praifc, gained great credit by a wife and humane convene 
tioD, that can neyer be enough admired. Theyagrccd, that the peafanti^ 
on the CronHers of Spain and Portugal, Ihould not be difhirbed, by the 
bi0OffS of cither party, in cultivating the foil, or in feeding their cattle ; , 
and that the war fliould, for the future, be confiJcred asfubfifting only 
between regular armies, or men in military fcrviiC, and not between 
the private inhabitants of the two kingdoms. Id. ibid, 

29. HiJi.d'Efpagne^ tOm. ii. State of Europe ^ 1 708. 30 Id; 


VoLi IV. C c an4 


ART ir. 

. 1>.I7C8. 

PART ir. and the ttrong caftle of St. Philip, bj which it is 

The redu£lion of thofe iflands, which, in conjunc- 
tion with the fortrcfs of Gibraltar, ga?e the maritiiBC 
powers the abfolute command of the MediterraQeao. 
induced the Italian States to fubmit to certain anti- 
quated claims of the emperor Jofcph, that thej would 
otberwife have rejeAed with difdain. Even the pope, 
who had hitherto adhered to the interefts of Philip V. 
and who had raifed an army for the defence of theco- 
clefiaftical (late, no fooner heard of the furrenderof 
Bologna to the Imperialids, and that an Englifh fleet 
was ready to bombard Civita Vecchia, than he pro* 
mifed to acknowledge Charles III. as lawful kbg of 
Spain, in order to prevent Rome itfelf from being again 
facked by the barbarians of the North )' ; fof as fach 
the Italians dill confidered the Englilh and Germans. 

The death of the prince of Denmark, the queen 
of England^s hulband, which happened during thefe 
tranfadions abro;idj made no alteration in the ftate 
of Englifh politics ; on which his feeble genius, and 
unimportant charaQer, had never had any influence. 
The great fuccefs of the campaign confirmed the af- 
cendant that Marlborough and Godolphin had ac- 
quired, in confequence of thj expulfion of Harley 
from the cabinet : and they found means to reconcile 
the diflfatisfitd Whigs to their mcafurbs, by divid- 
ing with the leaders of that party, the power and 
emoluments of government. The eail of Pembroke 
was appointed to the place of lord high admiral, 
vacant by the deceafe of the prince of Denmark i 
lord Somers, who had been out of office ever fincc 

51. Btunet, book vu. StMe of E^repe^ 170S. 


M » fe R M E U R O P E. 387 

'^cprWcd of the Great Seal by king William, was letter 
made prelldent of the coancil; and the earl of ^ -\j 
WhartoD) a man of vaft abilities bat Void of any A.D.i7ot. 
fteady prineiple, was declared lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland '^. Thefe jadicious pronfiotions contributed 
to . prefertre that unanimity, which had hitherto 
appeared in parliament, and which produced the 
molt liberal fupplies for continuing the war* Seven 
millions were roted for the fervice of the enfuipg 
campaign, and ten thoufand men were added to 
the eftabHfliment ofj the preceding year 3'. The 
Dntch alio agreed to an aogmentatidQ of their 

While the confederates were taking fuch vigo^ 
tons meafures for the profecution of hoftilities, feriouS 
propofals were made by the French monarch for 
redoring tranquillity to Europe. A rariety of cir* 
oimftances, the defeat at Oudenarde, the taking of 
Lifle, a famine in France ; tlie coufequent.failure of 
refources % the difcontents of the people ; and a want 
^f harmony among the fervants of the crown, induced 
Lewis XIV. to offer terms of peace, at once adequate i 
to the fuccefs of his enemies, and fuitable to the 
melancholy lituation of his own affairs. He agreed 
to yield the whole Spanifh monarchy to the houfe 
of Audria, without any equivalent; to cede to the A.D.i7of 
emperor his conquefts on the Upper Rhine) to 
give Fumes, Ypres, Menin, Tournay, Lifle, Conde^ 
and Mabeuge as a barrier to Holland ; to acknow* 
ledge the elector of Brandenburgh as king of Pruflla i 
the duke of Hanover, as ninth eledor of thd 
empire; to own the right of queen Anne to the 

js. Id. ibid, 3|. JtunuUt, Kov. 1708^ 

C c 2 Brltifli 


^^J^^ BritiQi fhrcme \ to remove the Pretender from tbe 
A.P.I709, dominions of France; to acknowlege the focceffion 
to the crown of Great Britain in the Proteftant 
line; to reftore every thing required to the duke 
of Savoy; and to agree to the ceflions made to the 
king of Portugal^ by hia treaty with ihe confe* 
derates '♦. 

' But thefe terms, fo honourable as well as advan* 
tageous to the allies, and humiliating to tbe boufe 
of Bourbon, were rejected by the plenipotentiaries 
of the confederates, the duke of Marlborough, prince 
Eugene, and the penGonary HeinGus, from tbe fame 
motives that had led them to rejc£l the propofab 
made by France in 1706; their ];erfonal interefts, 
their prejudices, and their pafllons. Lewis was 
not permitted to form the mod diftant hopes of peace^ 
without furrendering the ftrongeft towns in his 
dominions, as pledges for the entire evacuation of 
the Spani(h monarchy by his grandfon. The marquis 
de Torcy, who was employed in the negociatioo, 
went beyond his powers in making conceffions ; bat 
all in vain : in proportion as he yielded, the plenipo- 
tentiaries of the confederates rofe in their demands. 
I Conference followed conference without effc£l. At 
laft the penGonary Heinfius framed forty pre- 
liminaries, as the ultimatum of the allies; and al- 
though every one of thefe articles, beGde being hard 
in itfelf, was exprefled in the moft d/6latorial lan- 
guage* France agreed to thirty- Gve of them. The 
other five were lejefted with difdain by Lewis, not- 
withGanding the diGreGed Gate of bis kingdom, 
and tbe evils which he apprehended from the con- 
l^uance of the war^^ He threw himfeif upon bis 

J4« Printed Freliouasriei* 35. M- dc Terty, torn. 1. 


M O D E R N E U R O P E. 389 

people, explained his own ample conceflions, and ^LETTER 
the haughty terms propofed by the allies. The ^^_ _^ . 
pride of the French nation was roufed. They rcfolvcd A. D. 1709. 
to make new efforts in fupport of their humbled 
monarch ; and the very famine, which occafioned fo 
moch mifery, proved of advantage to the (late in 
this neccfiity, as many young men who wanted bread 
became foldiers 3*. 

As foot! as the conferences for the re-eftabli(hment 
t>f peace were broken off, the army of the alliefj 
imoanttng to above an hundred thoufand men/ com- 
manded by prince Eugene and the duke of MarU 
borough, was formed on the plains of Lifle. Ma- 
refcbal Villars, who had been called to the command 
of the French forces in Flanders, as the lad fupport 
of his Gnking country, occupied a ftrong poft be- 
tween Couriere and the town Beihun. Thofe places 
covered his two wings, and he was defended in 
front by the villages of la Baflee and Pont Avendin. 
By this pofition of his army, he covered the cities 
of Doway and Arras ; the redu£lion of which would 
have opened a paffage for the allies into the heart 
of France* After advancing within two leagues of 
his camp, and viewing his fituation, the generals of 
the confederates not judging it prudent to attack 
him, fuddenly drew off their troops, and fat down 
before Tournay, one of the ftrongeft and mod 
incient cities in Flanders. The citadel, conftru£led 
with all the (kill of Vauban, was yet' ftronger than 
the town. But with fo much vigour and addrefs 
vere both attacked, that the place itfelf was taken 
In twenty-one days; and the ciude), into which 

36 V»lta}re> SUcU^ chap. zx« 

C c 3 thf 


PART II. the governor bad retired with the remaios of hi^ 
^1^^^^^, garrifon, was forced to furrender at the end of i^ 
month 37, 

The confederates no fooner found themfeliet 
mafters of Tournay, which they had been permit- 
ted to reduce without any annoyance from the enemfn 
than they formed the deCgn of beCeging Mons. Thcf 
accordingly purfued the nc^effary fteps for that por- 
pofe i while Villars, having embraced the bold refo- 
lution of proteAing or relieving the place, paflcd tlie 
Scarpe» and encamped between that river and the 
Scheld. Difappointed in his hopes of arriving at Moas 
before the main army of the allies, under prince Ett- 
gene and the duke of Marlborough, the French ge« 
neral took pofleflion of a ftrong camp about a leapie 
diftant from the invefted city, determined to giveaU 
poQible difturbance to the operations of the bcCegers. 
His right extended to the village of Malplaquet, which 
lay behind the extenCve and impenetrable wood of 
Saart: his left was covered by another thick wood| 
and his centre was defended by three lines of trencbeSi^ 
drawn along a narrow plain i the whole being fecured 
by a fortification of trees, which had been cut down and 
parried from the neighbouring wood«, furrounded with 
all their branches )^. 

The generals of the confederates, elated withpaft 
fuccefs, or perfuaded that Mons could not be taken 
yrithofUt diflodging tlie enemy, refolved to attKk 
Villars in that (trong pofltion, although his army was 
little inferior to theirs, each amounting to near one 
hundred and twenty thoufand combatants* In confe* 

^7. Kinc* 3 Camfatgnt, Life 0/ Marlkrou^, 38« JM^ir 



quence of this refolution, they advanced to the charge letter 
early in the morning, both armies having prepared ^^ J^j 
themfelvcs for adion during the preceding night. The ^^- i7o9- 
Britifh troops were oppofcd to the left, the Dutch to 
the right, and the Germans to the centre of the French 
army. Marefchal Villars placed himfelf at the head 
of his left wing, and committed the charge of his 
right to Bottfflcrs; who, though a fenior officer, 
condefccnded to a£b under him, that he might have 
an opportunity of faving his country. After an 
awful paufe of almoft two hours, the engagement 
vras begun ; ancl the firing, in a moment, extended 
from wing to wing. Few battles, in any age, 
bave been fo fierce and bloody, and none had been 
fo long contefted, fmce the improvement of the art 
of war, in confequence of the invention of gun- 

The Britifli troops, led by the duke of Argyle, 
having pafled a morafs, deemed* impracticable, at- 
tacked with fuch fury the left of the enemy, ftationed 
in the wood, that they were obliged to retire into the 
plain behind it; where they again formed, and re- 
newed their efforts. Meanwhile the Dutch, under 
count Tilly and the prince of Orange, were en- 
gaged with the right of the French army ; and ad- 
vancing in three lines to the entrenchments, gave 
and received a terrible fire for the fpace of an hour. 
Some French battallions being thrown into diforder, 
were rallied and confirnted in their (lation, by the 
vigilance and courage of marefchal Boafllers; and 
the Dutch alfo yielding, in their turn, were brought 
back to the charge by the activity and pcrfcvcrancc 
of the prince of Orange, Enraged at this unexpeflcd 
ptsftinacy of the French in both wingSj and per<* 
C C 4 ccirinj 

39* T II E II I S T O R Y OF 

PART II. cciving that Villars had weakened his centre, i^ 
A.D.17C9. order to fupport hU left, prince Euf;cne determined ^0 
attack, in pcrfon, the entrenchments in front. He 
accordingly led on a body of frefli troop ; entered the 
enemy's line, flanked a regiment of French guard^ 
and obliged them to fly, Marcfchal Villars, in 
haftenlng to fupport his centre, was wounded, and 
carried o(F the field. But Boufflers, notwithfiandiag 
this misfortune, continued obflinately to maintaio 
the fight; and when he found he could no longer 
fuflain the united eflx)rts of prince Eugene and the 
duke of Marlborough, who (hewed that they were 
determined to conquer or periflii be made an excellent 
retreat ^\ 

The confederates, after all their exertions, gained 
little befide the field of battle; and that they pur- 
chafed with the lives of twenty thoufand mcn» The 
French did not lofe above half the number. But fo 
impofing is the name of vidlory, that the allies were 
fuflfered to invefl Mons, and to carry on their opera- 
tions without the fmallcll difturbance. The furreoder. 
of iliat important ^>lace put an end to the bufinefs of 
the campaign in Flanders***. 

The confederates were lefs fuccefsful in other 
cjuarters. The eleclor of Brunfwick, who commanded 
the army of the empire on the Upper Rhine, formed 
fome important fchemes, but found the imperial troops 
in no condition to fecond his views ; and count 
de Merci, whom he had detached with a confiderable 
body of forces, into Upper Alfacc, was defeated by 

39- I*>»d' 40. Duke of Bcrwick*5 Mm. yoI. ii. 

Voftairc, Siccie^ chap, xx. State 0/ Europe, 1709. 



ount dc Bourg, and forced to repafs the Rhine <*. letter 
lin difputcs between the emperor and the duke y ^__^^ ^ 
ivoy, relating to fome territories in the duchy A*I>*<^09. 
[ilan, rendered the campaign altogether ina£live 
ic fide of Dauphiny ♦*. In Spain, the chevalier 
;feld took the caftle of Alicant which was gal- 
1 defended by two Englifli regiments -, and the 
ifh and Portuguefe army, under the earl of Gal- 
was routed by the marquis de Bay, in the pror 
; of Eflramadura. On the other hand, count 
mberg, who commanded the forces of Charles 
in Catalonia, having endeavoured in vain to 
the marefchal de Bezons to an engagement, 
Balaguier in his prefence, and clofed the cam^ 
I with that fuccefsful enterprize *'. Nothing 
arable happened at fea. 

loUGH the misfortunes of France* during thig 
aign, were by no means fo deprefBng as flic had 
1 to apprehend, Lewis XIV, renewed his appli- 
is for peace, as foop as the feafon of a£lion was 

and conferences were appointed at Gcrtruyden- 
early in ihe fpring, in order to adjuft the terhis. A.D. 1710. 
t will be proper, before we enter into the par- 
rs of that negociation, to carry forward the 

of Charles XII, and his antagonift Peter the 

IE king of Sweden, after having aOied jn the im« 
is manner already related, quitted Saxony, ia 
mbcr 1 707, and returned, at the head of forty- 
thoufand. men^ to Poland \ where the czar h^d 

urnet, book vIL 42. Id. ibid, 43* Mem* ic 

, tom.iii. StuU of Europe^ X709« 


A.D. 1708. 


Fart II. attempted, though incffcflaally, to retrieve the afliirs 
of Auguftus, during the abfencc of Charles. Peter, 
who was ftill in Lithuania, retired on the approach 
of the conquering Swede, and direftcd his march to- 
ward the Boriflhenes or Nieper. But Charles w» 
determined that he fliould not cfcape, without hazard- 
ing a battle before he reached his own dominions. 

February 8. Having entered Grodno on the fame day that the 
czar left it, he therefore endeavoured, by forced 
marches, at that fevere feafon in a northern climate, 
through a counrry covered with moraffes, dcfertt, 
and immcnfe forcds, to come up with the enemy. 
Peter, however, fafcly paflcd the Borifthenes, not- 
wiihftanding this romantic purfait ; Charles baviog 
only the fatisfa^llon of defeating, after an obftinate 
engagement, an army of thirty thoufand Ruffians, 
flrongly entrenched, in order to ob(tru£t his progrefi, 
und which partly effected its purpofe ^^. 

But the czar, though now in his own dominioosi 
was not without apprehenfioi}S, in regard to the iffue 
of the conteft in which he was engaged ; he, therefore, 
fent ferious propofals of peace to Charles. ** I will 
^* treat at Mofcow !*' — fald the Swedifli monarch. 
** My brother Charlef,'* replied Peter, when in- 
formed of this haughty anfwer, ** always affe£ls to 
•* play the Alexander ; but he will not, I hope, find 
** in me a Darius ♦>'." ITiis anecdote flrongly marks 
the charafters of thefc two extraordinary men. 
Charles, as brave and confident as Alexander, but 
utterly void of forefight, attempted, without concert* 
ing any regular plan of operations, to march to Mof« 
^ow; and the czar took care to prevent him from 

44. Contin. PufTend. lib. vii. Voltaire, Wf, Ch. XJI, \iv, iip. 
^5. Voltaire, t^ji A:p. 



aching it, in the dirc£l line, by dcftroying the roads tSTTEX 
id defolating the country. t_ -^- '^ 

Thus thwarted in his favourite projeft of march-^ 
tg dircdily to the ancient capital of RuHia, and with 
is army much diminifhed by famine, fatigue, and 
irtial engagements, the king of Sweden was induced 

► attempt a pafl'age thither through the Ukraine, on 
ic invitation of Mezeppa, chief of the Coflacks; 
ho had taken a difguft at the czar, and promifed not 
%\y to fupply the Swedes witji provifions on their 
larch) but to furnifh them with a reinforcement of 
lirty thoufand men. Thefe were to join the Swedifh 
lonarch on the banks of the Difna ; where he ex- 
z6ttA alfo to be joined by general Lewenhaupt, whom 
r had ordered to march from Livonia, with a rein- 
ircement of (ifteen thoufand Swedes, and a large 
ipply of ammunition and provifions. Not once fu- 
)efting but every thing would correfpond to his wifli, 
le northern conquerer entered the Ukraine in the 
lonth of September, and advanced to the place of ren- 
szvous, in fpite of every obftacle, which nature or the 
lemy could throw iq his way. 

But fortune, at length tired of feconding the wild 
id inconfiderate enterprizes of the fool-hardy Charles, 
'as now refolved to punifti him feverely for his con- 
;mpt of her former favours. When he reached the 
Hfna, he found nothing but frightful deferts, inftead 
f magazines; and, indead of reinforcements, he 
iw a body of Ruilians on the oppofite bank, ready 

> difpute his paflage. Though his army was ex- 
aufted with hunger and fatigue, though ignorant of 
le fate of Lewenhaupt, and uncertain of the fidelity 
f Mazeppa, he determined to crofs the river in the 
ICC of the enemy, and effe£ted his purpofc with little 

'" \qU. 


PART II. lofs- Advancing dill farther into that defolate coim- 
"^^7^ ' try, he v/as at lalt joined by Mazeppa, who appeared 
rather as a fugitive prince, come to take refuge ia 
his camp, than a powerful ally, from whom he ex- 
pelled fuccours. In place of thirty, he was only i& 
compauied by about three thoufand men. The czar 
having received information of his intriguer, bad 
ordered his principal friends to be apprehended, and 
broken upon the wheel. His towns were i^educed ti 
afhes, his treafures fcized^ and his troops difperfed^^ 

This difappolntment was efteemed but a flight mif* 
fortune by the king of Sweden, who confidently ei« 
pedlcd the fafe arrival of Lewcnhaupt and his con?oy. 
Lewenhaupt arrived, but in a condition no lefs dcplcff- 
able than that of Mazeppa. After three fucccffife en- 
gagements with the RulEans, in which he diftinguiih* 
ed hlmfelf equally by his courage and condud, he hid 
been obliged to fet tire to his waggons, in order to 
prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy, and 
was happy to cfc.ipe with four ih'jufand men ; the 
wrctcl:cd remnant of his gallant army, exhauded with 
farigjc^, and read)' to pcriHi of hunger. Charles, 
who was in no con-litlon to relieve their nccelTitics, 
was now enrnelily prelTcd by hir minillcr, count 
Piper, to pifi; at leafl the depth of winter in a fmall 
town cf iht Ukraine, named llomana, and depend on 
the frif nlflfip of M.izeppa and the CoiVacks for pro- 
vificns ; or to repafs, without delay, the Difoa and 
the iioridhenes, and return to Poland, where his 
prefencc v/as ruuch wanted, and where his army might 
be C'>nvcnieRtIy puc into winter quarters. He re- 
jected both thefe propofals; and notwithftanding the 

4C. //^. i?,//. chap. xvii. Jliji. Ck§rla XIZ. \x^. iv. 



• of the feafon, and although his army was in a LETTER 
meafure deditute of Ihocs and even of cloathing, ^„ ,^- ,ji 
lermined to proceed. In this mad march, he had A. D. lyof. 
lOftifkation to fee two thoufand of his troopr 
of hungar and cold. Yet he ftill prcfTed forward ; 
ifter a variety of ob(lru£lions and delays, oc- 
cd by the hovering parties of the enemy, and the 
intenfe froft ever known in thofc northern re- j^^- j^^ 
he arrived in the neighbourhood of Pukowa, a 
Ruffian town, fituated on the river Worlklaw, 
eaftern extremity of the Ukraine*'. 

T of whatever extravagance Charles may be ac- 
» in marching this far, through a rugged and 
>£licable country, in a remarkably fevecc feafon^ 
nnot be blamed for endeavouring to make him- 
lafler of Pultowa. It was one of the magazines 

Czar, and well (lored with proviGons and other 
(Taries, of which the king of Sweden was in great 
But, be(ide being naturally (Irong, it was de« 
d by a garrifon of nine thoufand men i and Peter 
: no great diftaoce, with an army of fevcnty 
and, ready to attempt its relief. Thefe unfavour- 
rircumftancesNXiight have daggered the refolution 
[^xfar or a Marlborough ; but to Charles, whofe 

of encountering danger was even ftrongcr than 
affion for conquell, they were only fo many iri- 
ses to undertake the entcrprizc. He accordingly 
cd Pultowa with his half famifhed army, now 
:ed to twenty-fevcn thoufand men, eighteen 
and of whom only were Swedes ; and yet with 
fmall force, infaflTicicnt to cUt offthe communi- 
1 between the garrifon and the Ruffian army, 

47. Hifl. Rujf. ubi fup, 



PART II. he hoped not only to take the town, but to defeat and 
]^Q^'^ even to dethrone the czar, although his other dif- 
advantages were many. 

As Charles had been under the neccffity of Icaviog 
the greater part of his heavy cannon in the moraflet 
and defiles through which he paflfed, the regaltf 
progrefs of the fiege was flow. The garrifon bravdy 
repelled all attempts to carry the place by aflalt; 
and the king of Sweden was dangeroufly wounded in 
the h%el in viewing the works. Meanwhile the czar, 
having collected his forces, advanced to the relief of 
Fultowa, and made fuch a difpoGtion of bis army as 
ihewed that he was no novice in the art of war. 
Charles> though greatly indifpofed by his woond^ was 
fired at the approach of an enemy whom he difpifed. 
Betrayed by a falfe idea of honour, he could not bear 
the thought of waiting for battle in his entrenchments. 
Having appointed eight thoufand men to guard tbe 
lines before the town, he therefore ordered bis army 
to march iput, and attack the Ruflian camp, he him* 
felf being carried in a litten The Swedes charged 
Jmlt If. ^'^^ incredible fury, and broke the Ruflian cavalry. 
But the horfe rallied behind the foot, which remained 
firm I and the czar's artillery i^ade fuch bavock 
among the ranks of the afi'ailants, that, after a des- 
perate combat of two hours, the Swedifli army was 
utterly routed and difpcrfed. Nine thoufand of the 
▼anquiflied were left dead in the Beld, and about fix 
thoufand taken, together with the king's mih'tary 
cheft, containing the fpoils of Poland and Saxony* 
The remains of the Fiemifli army, to the number of 
twelve thoufand, were obliged to furrender on iht 
banks of the Boriftbenes, for want of boats to carry 
them over the river } Charles bimfelf| accompained by 



tliree hundred of his guards, with difficulty efcaping L£TT£R 

to Bcndar^ a Turkifli town in Moldavia 4'. ^^ \ f 

A. D. 1709. 

No viftory was ever attended with more important 
confequences than that gained at Pultowa, by Peter 
the Great. The king of Sweden loft, in one day» 
the fruits of nine years of fuccefsful war ; and that 
veteran army, which hand fpread terror over Europe^ 
was totally annihilated. The czar was not only re- 
lieved from all apprehenfions infpired by a powerful 
xntagonift, in the heart of his dominions, who 
threatened to deprive him of his throne, and to over- 
throw that grand fcheme which he had formed for the 
civilization of his extenfive empire, but enabled to 
Forward his plan of improvement by means of the 
induftry and ingenuity of his S wedifli prifoners, whom 
neceflity obliged to exert their talents in the mod 
remote parts of Siberia. The ele^or 6f Saxony, 
bearing of the defeat of his conqueror, protefted 
igainfl: the treaty of Alt-Ranftadr, as extorted from 
him by force, and re-entered Poland. His patron 
the czar, followed him. Staniflaus was forced to 
relinqui(h his authority, and Auguftus found himfelf 
once more in pofleflfion of the Polifh throne. Peter 
revived the ancient pretenfions of the czars to 
Livonia, Ingria, Carelia, and part of Finland ; Den- 
nark laid claim to Scania ; the king of PruQia to 
Pomerania ; and had not the emperor and the mari- 
time powers interpofed, the Swedifh monarchy would 
[lave been rent to pieces. 

During thefe tranfa^tions Charles XII. remained 
It Bender ; where, through his intrigues, conduced 

48. Voluirc, ubi fup. Iffji. du iVJrre/. torn, iL Contin. of Puffcndorf. 



by Poniatowfky, a Polifli nobleman who (hared his 
misfortunes, he endeavoured to engage the Turks in 
a war with RuflTia. In the profecution of ihofc in- 
trigues we mud leave him, and the C2ar in the more 
laudable employment of civilizing his fubje£):5, dtl 
we have terminated the memorable war between tlie 
confederates and the houfe of Bourbon^ in regard to 
the Spanifh fucceflfion. 


The General Fine o/EiJKO?E carried forward^ fr§Mtht 
opening nf the. Conferences at GertruydenberCj 
iQ the Treaties (/Utrecht and Rastadt. 

LETTER rin HO UGH the king of Sweden, during Ut 
^_ * j X profpcrity, (hewed no inclination to interfere 
A* D. 1710* in the difpute between France and the confederates^ 
Lewis XIV. had ilill expe£lations of being able to 
engage him in his caufe. Thefc expe^atlons were 
confiderably heightened by the keen indignation 
which Charles cxprefled at the emperor's open viola- 
tion of the treaty of Ah-Ranftadt, as foon as he re- 
covered from the terror of the Swedifli arms. The 
allies were, therefore, relieved from no fmall degree 
of anxiety, by the total riiin of that prince's affairs, 
and Lewis was deprived of the lad hope of defpond^ 
ing ambition. He accordingly offered the moft ad- 
vantageous terms of peace, in the preliminaries that 
were made the foundation of the conferences at Ger- 



As the principal Cicrificcf in tbcfc preliminaries 
were the £une widi thofe proffered hi 1 709, it will be 
unneceflarf to repeat them here; more efpccially as -A-^'-*?' 
they were not aecepted. Levis made additions to 
his conceflions, after the commeocement of the ne- 
godatioo. He agreed aot on! j to give up, as far as in 
his povcr, the Spaoifli monarcbyt without any cqoi« 
Talent, apd to acknowledge Charles III. lawful king 
of Spain, but to pay a fubfidy of a million of livres 
a mootb^ till bis grandfoo Philip V. flMuld be 
expelled. He relinquilbed even Alface to the em« 
peror ; and, as a fecority for the performance of the 
articles of the treaty, he engaged to deliver the for- 
tified towns of French Flanders, yet in his pofledioo^ 
into the hands of the allies. Buc the haughdnefs of 
the States, to whom prince Eugene and the duke of 
Mailborougb, fecure of the controuling influence of 
the peifionary Hein£us, bad induced the emperor 
and the queen of England to commit the whole ma- 
nagement of the negociation, encouraged their de- 
puties. Buys and Vander Dufleo, to rife in their de- 
OiandSf in proportion as the plenipotentiaries of 
France advanced in their conceSions. Thefe info- 
lent republicans went fo far as to infift, That Lewis 
XIV* ioftead of paying a fubOdy toward the war 
agaioft Philip V. Ihould aflill the cotifcderates with 
all his forces, to drive his grandfon from the SpaniOi 
throne ■• 

It was impoflible for the French monarch to fub- 
mit to fo humiliating a requifition ; and yet be was 
unwilling to break off the treaty. The conferences at 
Gertiuydenberg were, therefore, idly protraded, 
while the armies, on both fides, took the iieid. At 

r. 0B.Torcy, torn. i?. 

' Vol. IV. D4 length. 


PART II. length, the oiarefchal d'Uxelles and the Abbe de P<>- 

V'^ '~ ^' Hgnac, the plenipotentiaries of Lewis, returned to 

Vcrfailles, after having fent a letter to the penConarj 

HeinGus* declaring the demands of the deputies of 

the States unjuft and unreafonable ^. 

Is the mean time the confederates were making 
rapid progrtfs in Flanders. The duke of Marfbo- 
rough and prince Eugene, baring aflembled the al« 

May 5. lied army more early than was expefled, entered the 
French lines without refidance, and fat down before 
Douay. This city, (Irong in its fituation, but iB 
fortified^ was defended by a garrifon of eight tboo* 
fand men. Marefchal Villarsi who had now joined 
the French army, which he was deftined to com- 
mand, determined to attempt the relief of the place. 
He accordingly crofTed the Scarpe, and advanced 
within cannon-(hot of the allies ; but finding them 
ftrongly entrenched, and being fenGble that the loft 
of one battle might endanger the very exiftence of 
the French monarchy, he thought proper to abandon 

June %$• Douay to its fate '. It furrebdered after a Gege of 
three weeks. Viilars obfervcd the fame prudent cotk- 
duft during the remainder of the campaign, which 
was concluded with the taking of Bethune, St. Ve- 
nant, and Aire^ places of great importancei bot 
which were not acquired by the confederates witboot 
a vaft cxpence of blood. 

No memorable event happened in Germany iumf 
the fummer, nor any thing of confequence on Ac 
fide of Piedmont ; where the vigilance of the duke 
of Berwick defeated all the attempts of the allict 
to penetrate into Dauphiny, notwithftanding their 

t. Ibid* |. Duke of BcrwickV JMoi. vol iL 


M O I> E R N E U R O P E. 403 

Aiperior force. The campaign was more fraitful ifttfr 

of iacidents in Spain. ^,,^^«^ 

A. D. 1710 

The two competitors for the crown of that king- 
dom took the field in perfon^ and feemed determined 
to put all to the hazard of a* battle. They according- 
ly met near Almenara* There general Stanhope, who 
commanded the Britifli troopsi flew with his own hand 
the Spanifli general} Ameflaga, and routed the caval- 
ry of Philip V. while the count dc Staremberg put 
the infantry to flight. The Spaniards were again de- y . 
feated) in a more bloody engagement, at Sara^ofla. 
And in this vi£lory, which threatened to decide the 
fate of the Spaniih monarchy, the Britifli troops, un* 
der general Stanhope, had alfo the chief (hare. 

CHAfttES III. inflead of fecuring Pampeluna^ the 
only pafs by which French troops could enter Spain, 
marched direAly to Madrid, at^he head of his vie- 
torioas army s and Philip V. who had retired chiiher, 
was obliged to quit his capital a fecond time. The 
afpe£l of things there, however, was little flattering 
10 his rival. All the grandees had left the city ; and 
the Caftiiians, in general, feemed refolved to ihed 
the lad drop of their blood, rather than have a king 
unpofcd upon them by heretics ^ 

Meantime the duke de Vendome, whofc repu- 
tation was ftill high, notwithftanding his unfortu- 
nate campaign in Flanders, having aflumed, at the 
requeft of Philip V, the chief command of the forces 
of the houfe of Bourbon in Spain, its afl^iirs foon 
began to wear a new face. The Caftilian nobles 
crowded, with their followers, round the (landard oi 

4. Durnctt book vii. Hjfl. ^EJpaffu^ torn. ii« 

D d 2 a general 


f ^^ "• a general in whofe conduft they could confide. And 
A.D. 1710. Vcndomc'$ army, ftrengthcned by thefe brave volun- 
teers» was farther reinforced by thirty-four battalions 
of French foot, and thiny-one fqaadrons of horfe, 
detached by the duke of Berwick from Daof^ny. 
Another body of French troops, aflembled in Roof- 
fillon, was preparing to enter Catalonia, under the 
duke de Noailles ^ fo that the generals of the allies, 
ncgleftcd by the courts of Vienna and Great Britain, 
as well as by the States General, and at variance 
among thcmfelves, were forced once more to abandon 

The confederates now direded their march toward 
Catalonia, whither Charles III. fiad already retired, 
in order to prote£l that warlike province ^ and, for 
the benefit of fubfiHence, they divided their army 
into two bodies. Staremberg, with th^ main body, 
marched in front, and Stanhope, with five thou- 
fand Britifh troops brought up the rear. Not refleding 
that hope as well as fear gives wings to foldiers, the 
EngHQi general allowed hhnfelf to be furrounded by 
Vcndome^ in the village of Brihuega. He defended 
himfeif with great fpirit ; but the place being utterly 
(iediture of fortificationsi he was obliged to furren- 
dcr at difcretion, after a fliort but vigorous refiftanct ^ 
Nor was this all. 

Staremberg, apprifed of Stanhope's danger, had 
marched, though rcluftantly, to his rell-f, with the 
principal army. And this unwilling aid had almoftoc- 
cafioncd a greater misfortune than that which it failed 
to prevent. Staremberg had advanced too far to retreat 
Dec. 10. ^j^j^ fafcty in the face of the enemy. Vendome forced 

5. Id. it-id. 



him to an engagement at Vtlla Viciofa, about two letter 


leagues from Brihuega, the place of Stanhope's difaftcr. ,_ _' , 
Between the armies there was no proportion in num- A.D, 1719. 
bers, the allies being one half inferior to the French 
and Spaniards ; yet did Staremberg, one of the abled 
commanders in that military age, exert hlmfelf fo 
greatly, both as a general and a foldier, that ,the 
battle was fierce, obftinate, and bloody* The Spa<P 
niards, under Philip V. broke the left wing of the 
allies. But rheir right continued Erm in fpice of all 
the efforts of the French, while Staremberg made the 
centre of the enemy give way ; fo that Vendome judged 
a retreat neceflary, in order to avoid the danger of 9 
total defeat ^. 

The general of the allies however found, on muf^ 
tering his forces, that, in confequenCK of the cap<P 
ture of the Britilh troops, and the lofs of men dur- 
ing the a£lion, he was not in a condition to keep 
the fi^d. He was beGde in want of provifions, and 
bad no profpe£t pf fupply, at that late feafon : he 
therefore haftily decamped and continued his march 

into Catalonia, leaving to the vanquiOied all the 
advantages of a complete viAory t. 

These fucccflcs revived, in fomc meafure, the 
drooping fpirits of the hoofe of Bourbon i and, dur« 

6. Burnet, book Tii. Duke of Berwick, vol. ii. This aceonat of the 
battle of Villa Yiciola, though diflVrent from that of Cqmc hiftorians, 
is confirnjcd by a letter from Philip V. to his queeu, d^tedftt the camp 
<if Fucotcs, the 1 1 th of December, 1 7 «o. ** M. dc Vendome, •* fays he, 
(after iclitiog the prugreis of the aAion), " feeiag that our centre 
« was giving way, and that our left wing of cavalry made noimpref, 
** fimi upon their right, thought it time to propofe retreating toward 
** Tmija, and gave orders for that purpofc/* Nctcs^ No III. to vol. ii, 
of the £hiJk •fSkrwick's Mm, 

7, QnlU of Berwick, ubi ibp, 

D d 3 ing 


inp: the campaign, a revolution bad happened in the 
EngllOi miniilry, (lill more favourable to their aflEiirs. 
This revolution, with its caufts and conftquencesi 
merits our particular attention. 

Though the great influence of Marlborough and 
Godolphin had obliged their miftrtfs to difmifs Harley 
from her councils* they could not deprive him of that 
confidence which they tfaemfelves had loft, and at- 
tempted in vain to recover. He had frequent con- 
fuUations with the queen in private ; and, even while 
invifible, is faid to have embarrafled their meafores. 
Thefe interviews were procured by Mrs. Mafliaoi, 
the new favouritCi who had now entirely fupplaotcd 
the duchefs of Marlborough in the queen's afi^Aiont. 
3ut could the miniftry have retained the favour of 
the people, they might have difregarded the private 
partialities, and in fome mtafure the confidence of 
their fovereign. The duke of Marlborough had the 
fole difpofal of all military employments, and the 
earls of Godolphin and Sunderland of all dvU offices. 
They were in pofTcfTion of the whole power of the 
ftatc. And they had long ufed that power with b 
much judgment, ability, and efTed^, as to dilarai 
envy, filcnce faftion, and reconcile to their meafures 
all men, who did not labour under the maft incanbk 
political prejudices, or feel the fevereft pangs of dit 
appointed ambition. The body of the people looked 
up to them ns the worthy followers of king Wil- 
liam, our illuftrious deliverer ftx)m popery and s* 
bitrary power, in the grand line of liberty and oa* 
tional hono4^ ^ : (hey enjoyed the mod tmboondtd 

S. It has been fafhlonable, of late yeart, torepreftnt the r^p' 
William at a rtign of difgrace ; aad, io.fupport of that opialiia, m^ 


But popularity, however well founded, is in itfclf ^^JlXf^ 
of a ilippery nature. The favour of (he multitude \_, ^- / 
io every country, but more efpccially under free A.p. lyi*. 
governments, can only be retained by fomething 
ncw» They are totally governed by their hopes and 
feats 'y and thefe mud not be too long fufpended, or 
too uniformly reiterated, otherwife thty will loJTe 
their cStCt. The Englifli populace, during this 
triumphant period became fatiated even with fuccefs. 
Vi£lory followed yi£lory fo fad, and the furrender 
of one town was fo foon fucceeded by the taking of 
moother, that good fortune had ceafed to excite joy : 
and the roaring of cannon and the ringing of bells 
were heard with indifference. The people began to 
feel the weight of the taxes levied in order to fupport 
the war. And they obferved with concern, that in all 
the negociations for peace, while liberal concefliont 
were offered to foreign princes and dates, no ffipula- 
lion of any confequence appeared in favour of the 
queen of England ; who, after all her wade of b*ood 
and treafure, feemed to have only the glory of con- 
quering and giving away citres, provinces, and king* 
doms 9, 

drefs of the houfe of commonton the loeetixif^of the 6rft parliament of 
queen Anne is produced, iu which the duke of Marlborough is faid to 
have ** figualiy ntrintd the atuieat honour and glory of the finglifh na- 
Cton." But, independent of the doubtfulneft of thefe exprefltons, this was. 
the addrelt of a Tory parliament, and f r ameil by men who wereno friends 
to the Rerolution. The criminal intrigues, conne^ed with that glori. 
icma event, have nut been concealed by the Author of thefe Letters, nor 
the faults in the adminift ration of William. But admitting all thofe 
charges cvsn as urged by his enemies, his reign, though not h*^bly 
fortunate, mvft be allowed to have boln a ixign of vigour, of exertion, 
md a jealous attention to national honour ; which can never, perhapyj 
be p«rch?.fed at too high a price, and which had been fhimefully ne 
glc^Aed during theignoBiluiotts reigns of his two immediate predeccl* 
fop^ 9. IhiblkftUous of th^ Timet. 

D d 4 Trt» 


PART ri. The Tories, encouraged by the fucceftful intrigvts 
/i^^^jj^ of Harlcy, and this change of humiour in the pe^ylc^ 
which they had fecretly contribated to produce, bc^ 
gan to CDtercain hopes of once more holding the reint 
of government. In order to realize thefe hopes cbey 
attempted to m:ike ufe of an engine, which had often 
been played off againfl tbcmfelves. As the Whigs, 
who were now in poflTeflioQ of the adminiftrationi could 
no longer roufe the jealouGea and apprehenGoos of 
the populace on account of their citiI and religiooi 
liberties, which were fufficiemly fecured by the Re» 
volution and the A& of Settlemept, the Tories en* 
deavoured to awaken the fame fears, by toochiog 
another firing. Tbcy reprefented the church aad 
monarchy as in imminent danger, from difienters and 
men of levelling principles ; under which defcription 
they comprehended tbe whole body of the Whigs. 

This inflammatory do£lrine, as we have feen| 
hid been zealoufly propagated from the pulpit, 
by the high church party, ever fmce the beginning of 
the prefcnt reign. The vulgar, as may naturally be 
fuppofevl, gradually began to give credit to what they 
heard fo often, and fo vehemently urged ; for, not- 
withfiandlng the formal cenfure in parliament of that 
groundlefs opinion, it fiill continued to be propa- 
gated* And a champion was not wanting openly 
to brave fuch high authority, to improve on the 
feditious clamour| and even (o bring home (he charge 
to the minifiry. 

This bold fon of the church was Dr. Henry 
Snchevercll ; a man pf no fuperior talents, but who, 
hy his violence in railing againA the difleniers, oc- 
cafional conformifts, and the Whig-party in general, 
had recommended himfelf to the Tories and the 



majority of the cftablifhcd clergy. After having dit lhtter 
dngttifiied himfclf in the country, by fuch declama- ^ J'^l^_^ 
txonst he was called, by the voice of the people, to a A.D. x7io» 
cimrch ta the borough of Southwark, where he had 
m more extenfive field for propagating his feditious 
dodrines; and being appointed to preach in St. 
Paul's cathedral, on the 5ih of November, 1709, the 
anniverfary of the Gun-powder Plot, he delivered a 
fermon, before the lord mayor of London and the 
court of aldermen, into which he poured the whole 
ccrileAed venom of his heart. He not only inveigh- 
ed* in the mod indecent language, againft the dif- 
fenters, and the moderate part of the church of Eng* 
land, whom he dcnominiittd falfe brethren^ but threw 
out fevere and pointed reflections againd the prin- 
cipal perfons in power, and inculcated in (trong, and 
unequivocal terms, the flaviih and exploded do£trine 
of paflSve obedience and non-reCflance ; animating 
the people to (land up in defence of the church, 
which he declared was in imminent danger, and for 
which, he faid, he founded the trumpet, defiring them 
to put on the whole armour of God'* ! The majority 
of the court of aldermen being attached to the princi* 
pies of the Revolution, againft which thefe doctrines 
militated, refufed the ufual compliment to the 
preacher, of .defiring him to print hisfermon, and 
were even (hocked at the violence of the inveflive. 
But the lord Mayor, who was a zealous high-church- 
man, not only encouraged SacheveneU to publi{h his 
difcourfe, but accepted a dedication ftill wotq vio« 
lent and inflammatory than the performance itfSlf. ♦ 

The merit of both was magnified by the Tories, and ^ 

10. Burnet, book viL See alfo the Sermon ;tfelf among Sachc^e- 
leli't Dtlcourfeu 


^ARTU^. forty ihoufand copies arc faH to hare been circulated 
A.P. 1710. itt a few weeks ". 

No literary produ£lion ever perhaps attra£lcd b 
much attention as this fcurriloos fcrmon, which had 
no kind of excellence to recommend it except what it 
detived from the fpirit of party. It divided the 
opinions of the nation : and Sachevcrell hiinfelf, c». 
loiicd by the Tories as the champion of the cborclii 
now on the brink of ruin I and execrated by the 
Whigs as an enemy to the Revolution^ as an advocate 
for pcrfecution and defpotifm, and a devoted fiicnd 
to the Pretender, was thought of fufficient coofe- 
quence to be made the objcdi of a parliamentary pro- 
fecution. That was what he dcfired above all thiogSi 
and what the minillry ought (ludioufly to have 
avoided. But tbey allowed, en this occaGon, their 
padjon to overcome their piudcnce. Godolphia being 
perfonally attacked in tlie fermon, was highly irritat* 
cd again (I the preacher : and as the oflFeiice was not 
deemed puniHiable by common law, it was refoived 
to proceed by impeachment. Sachevercll was ac- 
cordingly taken into cuUody, by command of the 
houfc of commons: article;* N^ere exhibited agaiofl 
him at the bar of the houfc of lords, and a day was 
appointed for his trial , which to complete the folly 
of this impoiiiic nieafure, was ordered to be in Weft- 
minUer.hall, that the vholc body of the commocs 
n:i;;ht be preftnt '*. 

TirF people arc often -vrong in their judgment, 
bnr always juil in their compafTion, though thai 
Icntimcnt is fomciimcs mifpiaccd. Their ccmpif- 

XI., ub! fup. is. Bumet, book vU. 



fioB was Tovlcd for SicbcTcrd, whom ihey con&dsrw 
cd as «a inooctat r.clim » a mcritonoiis todiTuiuilt 
doomed to be crus'hcd by ilic arm of powcr» for aTd i^wx 
daiing :o trJ tlie traih. Tdcj forgot all his flanfk 
doArincs : they remcnibf red czlj his Tiolcnc dccli- 
oiations, in regard to the dinger of the ehurch and 
monarchy ; and they fav him expofei, a$ they ima* 
gined, to perfecation fcr hi> hooeft bolvincls. Thef 
wow bcOcTed more than they formerly feared. 
Neglccliog their private a Jair<, and all the eommoa 
avocations of nfe, their concern was turned wholly 
toward pablic welfare. Many, who feldom eiitercd 
the churchy trembled for the fafety of the eftabllflied 
fdigion. They wandered about in Glent amazementt 
anxioufly gazing on each other, and looking forward 
CO the trial of Sache««rell, as if the fate of the 
nation, or of nature had depended upon the awful 

When the day arrived, the populace aflembled in 
rad crowds, and attended the criminal to Weft« 
minfler-hall. During the whole courfe of his trial, 
which laded three weeks, they continued the fame 
attentions ; and, in the height of their frantic zeaf , 
they deftroyed feveral diflenting meeting-houfes, in* 
fulted a number of non-conformifts, feme Whig 
members of the houfe of commonSy and committed a 
variety of oth«r outrages* London was a fcene of 
anarchy and confufion. At lad Sacheverell was 
found guilty; but the lenity of his fentence, in 
confequence of the popular tumults, was confidered 
as a kind of triumph by the Tories. He was only 
fufpended from preaching for three ycar«, without 
being precluded from preferment, his fermon being 
prdercd to be burnt by the bauds of the common 



FART II. hangman '^ The famous decree of the UnWcrfiff 

A.D. JTia. ^Oxfoidf pafTcd in 1683, recognizing the doftrioe 

of paflive obedience and non-refidance, was alfo, bj 

a vote of the lordsy oidered to be burnt at the fame 

time •♦. 

The mildncfs of Sacheverell*ft punilbment was 
judly afcribcd, by the populace, to the timiditji 
not to the moderation of the miniftry. Proud of chfjr 
vidtory, they every where cxprefled their joy on tte 
occaGon, by bonfires and illuminations; and notvith- 
ftanding the vote of the lords, addrefTcs were fent 
from all parts of the kingdom aflerting the abfolote 
power of the crown, and condemning the doftrine of 
refiftance, as the refult of antimonarchical and repob* 
lican principles '*. Of thcfc principles the Whigi, 
as a body, were violently accufed by the heads of the 
Tories, who now wholly cngroflcd the confidence of 
their fovereign, and infpircd ber with jcalouGcs of her 
principal fervants. 

The queen herfelf, who had long aflPeded to adopt 
meifurts which flic was no: permitted to guide, was 
glad of an opportunity of freeing herfelf from that 
political cnpiivity in which (he was held by her 
popular and too powerful rpinifters. Sh^ accordingly 
took advanr:jge of this fudden and extraordinary 
chnngc in the fcntiments of the people, in order to 
bring about a total change of the perfons employed 
in the adminiflration of her government. The 
duke of Shrewfbury, who had di(\ingui(hed himfelf 
in the caufe of Sacheverell, was made chamberlaini 
in tlie roon^ of the earl of Kent : Godolphin received 

I 3. M. ibid. 14. Jcatnah of lie Lords, Mvcfa, fj\0% 

2 J. Bnmet, book yii^ 


an order to break liis (laff, as lord trcafurcr of Great L^tteh 


Britain: the treafury was put in commilBon ; and /^ ,— !_^ 
Harlejr, as a prelude to higher promotion, was ap- A. D. 1710. 
pointed chancellor of the exchequer ; while his friend, 
St. John, fucceeded Mr. boyle as fecretary of (late. 
The duke of Marlborough alone, of the whole party 
to which he belonged, remained in office : and 
that mark of diftinction he owed to his own high 
reputation, not to the favour or forbearance of his 
enemies. Though his fall was already determined on^ 
they were afraid that the temper of the people was 
not yet fufficicntly prepared for the removal of fo great 
z commander i^. 

Marlborough, whofe charafter is one of the 
moft complicated in modern hiilory, appears to have 
been fully fenfible of his own confequence, as well 
3^ as of the dangerous dcfigns of the new miniftry. At 
*- the fame time that be was making profeflions of at- 
tachment to thccourtof St. Germains '7, (though for 
' what purpofe it is impoflible to determine,) he wrote, 
in the following ftrong terms, to the elector of 
Hanover ; with the interefls of whofe family^ ho faid, 
he confidered thofe oihh country and of all Europe to be 
infeparably conneHed. " I hope," adds he, •* the Eng- 
•• lifli nation will not permit ihemfelves to be im- 
•* pofcd upon by the artifice of Harlcy and his nflb- 
*• ciates. Their condufl leaves no doubt of their 
•* defign of placing the pretended prince of Wales on 
^ the throne* We feel too much already their bad 
•• intentions and pernicious views. But I expcft to. 
•• be able to employ all my attention, all my credit, 
•* and that of my fricmU, in order to advance th^ 

16. Id. ibid. State o/2iir6/i, jyt9, iy, Stuart Pafert, 

" intcrcft 


PART II. CI Jntcrcft of the clc£leral family, and to prevent ilie 
▲•D. 1710. '' deftruAive counfels of a race of men, who eftablifli 
^* principles and form cabals, which will oiherwKc 
*^ infallibly overturn che proceftant fucccflioni and 
** with it the liberty of their country and thefreedcm 
•• of Europe '8." 

* The new miniftry were no lefs liheral in their dc« 
darations of attachment to the houfe of Hanovdf '9: 
and Harley, foon after appointed lord treafurer^ and 
created earl of Oxford and Mortimer, was perhaps 
finceie in his profeiTions. Bred up in tb« notions of 
the prefbyterians, to which he (lill adhered^ aad 
perhaps tin£lured with republican principles, he 
had only made ufe of the high church party as a 
ladder to his ambition i and alihough a fincerc friend 
to the Proteftant Succeflion, he was accu fed, from 
this circumftance, of abetting the hereditary defcent 
of the crown, and all the maxims of arbitrary 
power ***. 

In confequcncc of thefc appearances, the Pretender 
was encouraged to write to his fitter, quetn Anne, 
He put her in mind of the affeftion that ought to fubfift 
between two perfons fo nearly related ; he recalled 
to her memory, her repeated promifes to their com- 
irion parent: — ** To you,*' faid he, •* and to yod 
*' alone, I wifli to* owe eventually the throne of my 
*' fathers. The voire of God and of nature arc 
" loud in your car! the pre fcrvaiion of our family, 
" the preventing of inteftir.c wars, and the profperiry 
*• of our country combine, to require you to rescue 

1 S. Original Letters in the Hanovtr Paper x^ 1 7 1 o. 19 li 

i) i*l. 20. Stvari and Hanover Papers. See alfo Bolirp 

brQlL6*s Letter to Sir William Windham, and the Duke •fStrwUi'i Mem^ 
^ol. ii. 


*• mc from affli£lion, and yourfclf from mifery, ^^IL]!^^ 

** Though rcftraincd by your difficult ficuaftonj |_ \ .1 * 

•* I can form no doubt of your preferring a brother, A. D. 1710* 

** the iaft male of an ancient line, to the remoteit 

** relation ^e have in the ,worId. Neither you nor 

*< the nation have received any injury at my hands: 

*^ therefore. Madam, as you tender your honour and 

** happinefs — as you love your family, as you revere 

" the memory of your father— as you regard the 

** welfare and fafcty of a great people, I conjure you 

^ to meet me, in this friendly way of compoflng 

** our difference! — The happinefs of both depends 

^< upon your determination : — you have it in your 

** power to deliver me from the reproach that invari- 

*< ably follows unfortunate princes, and to render 

" your own memory dear to pofteriiy »'.'* 

But whatever elFc£l the warm remonflrances of 
a brother might have on the mind of the queen of 
England, the folicitaiions of his agents made no im« 
preffion on her prime minifter. Harley is faid even 
to have been hitherto ignorant of the fentiments of 
his mifttefs, in regard to the fucceflion of the crown* 
He knew that, with a natural jealoufy of her own 
authority, (he was averfe againit the appearance of* 
the legal fucceflbr in the kingdom } but a more inti- 
mate acquaintance, if not a more perfect confidence, 
only made him fenfible, that (he wiOied to leave, at 
bcr death, the fceptre in the hands of the Pre- 
tender '\ He was too far engaged, and too fond 
of power, to retreat. He hoped however, in Head 
.of injuring the procedant caufe, more effedlually to 

CI. Stuart Pa^iru 2). MS. in the pollclfion of Mr. 




^^^' fccurc, by his eminent ftatron, the fucceflion of the 
A.IX 171CX houfe of Hanover, and with it the religioo and 
liberties of bis country. He was, therefore, iiiidcr 
the neceffity of accommodating himfeif, in fome 
meafure, to the wild projeds of the more violent 
Tories, as well as of flattering the queen*s aflfiedion 
for her brother, by fecming to fecond her defigos in 
favour of that prince. And hence ibe great line of 
his poiirical conduA was in dire£l contradiftioo to 
his private opinions. 

In this refpeA, Oxfprd was exaflly in the ftne 
predicament with Godolphin, his predeceflbr io 
oflice ; who, though a Tory and a Jacobite, had 
been obliged, from the circumftances of the times, 
as we have feen, to place himfelf at the head of the 
Whigs, and was conGdered as the leader of that party 
by the world. But Oxford, without the fbong 
abilities of Godolphin, who was one of the abkfi 
ftatefman of any age or nation, had (till greater dif- 
ficulties ;ind more obftinate prejudices to ftruggle 
with. Even while uGng all his efforts againft the 
reftoration of the excluded family, and laying him- 
felf in the duft at the feet of the legal heirs of tbc 
crown, he was believed, not only by his countrymen, 
but by the court of Hanover itfelf, to be a firm friend 
to the Pretender. His profefRons were confidered 
as only fo many baits to deceive ; yet did he per- 
fevere in his principles, and in his endeavours to 
defeat all attempts to the prejudice of the Proteftaot 
Succeflion ! 

The new adminiftration, in England, was intro- 
duced with a new parliament; the former having 
been diiTolvedi in compliance with the warm ad* 



dreflcs of the high-church party. In the cleAion of -^^^yj^^ 
tlie members of this parliaixieiit the moil unw.irran- ^^^"yr^j 
tabic methods had been taken to keep oat the Whigs 5 ^•^' *7»^' 
and methodSf (lili more unjuftifiable, were taken to 
exclude the fmali number of that party who had found 
their way into ihe houfe. Petitions were prefented 
againd mod members fuppofed to favour the old mi« 
Diftry *?. The Toritrs, however, though now.poflefT- 
ed of a decided m4Jority on every motion, and though 
convinced that peace was e9ually neceflary to the 
- fafc enjoyment of their own power, and to the ex- 
ecution of thofc defigns which they had formed, in 
fiivour of the ex-Iu<lcd family, duril not yet venture 
to reveal their fc-iuinients to the nation. The new 
minillry, therefore, rcfolved to follow, for a time, 
their predcccflors in tlio line of hoftility. The moft A.D.171U 
liberal fupplies were accordingly voted for the future 
fupport of the war, as well as to make up for paft 
deficiencies: in all to the amount of near fifteen 
millions ^*. 

This appearance of vigour left the Wliigs no oc- 
cafion of murmuring at a change of meafurcs. But 
their complaints wo'jld have broken out on the 
firft fymptom of relaxation; and Harley and the 
Tories, in purfuing, contrary to their own inclina- 
tion, the hoftilc fyilem of the confederates, while 
jcaloufly watched by their political enemies, would 
have found thcmfclvcs involved in infurmountab^e dif- 
ficulties and embarraffmcnts. Happily for the Englifli 
miniilry, as well axi for the houfe of Bourbon, an unex- 
pec3:td event gave a new turn to the politics of Europe. 
This was the fudden death of the emperor Jofeph, 

13. Burnet, book vii. 14. Journalt 17 11, The exail 

fum raifcd aud pi^vided for was, i4,$7bS lyl* <9s. 8^ 

Vol. IV. li e whofc 


PART XL trhofe reign had been one continued flow of fucce&t 
AX)?i7i/ ^^ ^^® fuccccded, not only in all hi$ hereditary ho- 
nours and donninions, but alio in the imperial throoci 
by his brother Charles ; and as it was contrary to the 
fpirit of the Grand Alliance, that the fame perfoii 
(hould poifefs Spain and the empire, Harlej and his 
afibciates were no longer afraid to arow their pacific 
fentionents. The fears of mankind were in a moment 
changed : the liberties of Eorope feemed now to be 
in more danger from the power of the houfe of Auftiiaji 
than that of Bourbon* 

Meanwhile hoftilities were carried on in ererf 
quarter. Difpofitions had been made by the allies^ 
for taking the field early in Flanders i but the rigour 
of the feafon, and the unexpeded delay of feme rein* 
forcementSy prevented the duke of Marlborough from 
forming his army before the beginntng of May. Hit 
plan Mras, to open the campaign with the fiege of 
Arras and Cambray j the taking of which two im- 
portant places would have laid Picardy naked to the 
banks of the Somme. And the army originally def- 
tined for the fervice of the confederates would, in all 
probabiIity» have been fuf&cient to enable him to 
accomplrfh this great defign. But the death of the 
emperor, at the fame time that it opened a profped 
of peace, ob{tru61cd the operations of war. Prince 
Eugene being obliged to march toward tbe banks of 
the Rhine, with the greater part' of the German 
troops, in order to prevent tbe French and their par- 
tizans from taking advantage of that event, by dif* 
turbing the deliberations of tbe* electors aflembled at 
Frankfort, the duke of Marlborough was under the 
neceflity of limiting his views. But his rigour and 
activity were not dlmiaiihed. Though now inferior 



A.D. i7ii» 

In tiombei-s to the cncmyi he anxioufly fougbt a battle, ^xxnu^ 

in hopes of overwhelming his political adverfaries, 

or at leaftciofing his military exploits, with, a fplendid 

iridory. But the caution of marefchai Villars, who 

was flbrongly polled near Arleux, deprived the EngHfh 

conamander of any opportunity of acquiring this 

fatisfadiod. By the mod mafterly movements, how- 

~ trerj Marlborough eluded the vigilance of that able 

ii* general, and got within the French lines, without the 

1 fefs of a man. He fat down before Bouchain, in fight 

•of the enemy ; and concluded the campaign with the 

. taking of that important place *'. 

^ Nothing memorable, iil the military line, was 
^ fnnfz£ktA in Germany, prince Eugene having de- 
"£ feated the hoftile dcfigns of the French, the cleclors 
-£^. proceeded coolly to the choice of a new chief; ind 

fihe archduke, who had fo long contended for the 
trown of Spain, and even afTumed, as we have feeiit 
^ tlie title of Charles HI. was unanimoofly raifed to 
i^ the imperial dignity, by the name of Charles VI, 
- On the fide of Piedmont, the duke of Berwick, a^ 
r^ ftrmerly, fuccefsfuUy defended France againft the 
; :foirce8 of the duke of Savoy. In Spain, the taking 
;, Of Gitonne, by the duke de Noaiilos, and the raifing 
' ^f the fiege of Cardona, by Staremberg, in defiance 
^aif a greatly fuperior army, under Vcndome, were the 
tMlf events of any confequence. No aftion happened 
»t fca, nor any thing worthy of notice, except the 
failure of aii expedition, frotn Old and New England, 
, ^ainft Quebec, the capital of Canada, or New Fi nnce. 
' ^his emerprifc mifcarricd, partly from the late fca- 
•5wi at which it was undertaken, and partly from an 

25. Biimcti book vii. Suuof Eur^^, r;ir. 


E c 2 


PART IT. Ignorance of the navigation of the river St. LawrcKC, 
A. u 17x1. ^vhere ten tranrports, and two thoufand five huodtd 
men, were loft**. 

The general languor of the campaign, together 
with the elevation of the archduke, Charles, to ik 
head of the empire, infpired the Britifh miniftrj ml 
the houfe of Bourbon vi^ith the moft fanguioe haps 
of peace. They had even negociated fecrctlj danf 
the fummer : and preliminaries were privately iffiei 
at London, on the 27th of September, by MenagOi, 
the French agent, and St. John, the Engliih iea> 
tary. This infidious tranfaSion, fo difgracefol » 
Great Britain, being accidenully brought to lighti il 
the other allies were alarmed. They fiw themfchq 
ready to be defcrted by a power, which had been it 
chief fupport of the war. And though not aitogctiiff 
averfe again ft peace, they could place no con6\ieoci 
in the negociations of men capable of fuch difiifQ-, 
nulty ; and whofe fole ohjeift Teemed to be th«5 fcotf* 
ing to thcnifclves and ihcir adherents the emolumeM 
of office, by putting a fpecJy end to hoflilitics, inftoi 
of endeavouring to procure fjr their country and tht 
confcderites the fruits of fo many glorious viftoricSi 
acquirci! at an enormous ex pence of blood and trca- 
fure *7. " That,** fays M. dc Tor cy, fpeaking of 

a6. Id. ibiil. 27. This accufat'on is even io fo« 

meafurc, :idniitted by. St. John hin-feif, who was deeply coDceroeiii 
thcfc fccrct nc^o'j-ations. *' \ am atraid," fays he, ** that the 
** cipal fi-ii V. of (iur a.lio:.* w^a to h^vc the government of the fiiW; 
*' in our hands; that oTir prii.c'pjil v:e\vs were the conferratki 
" tiiift pi), ^rcat eniwltA »un'> to ourfelves and great oppeJtaaittCi 
•« of rcwarJirg rliofc w'ao h^d I;. Ip^d to raifc us; to break the bP# 
" of the NVhljj^, jdds he ; " to rci..Lr the-r fiipwrts (the Dntdii"^ 
*'■ die oihcr *ilic.) ufclcfs to ihcm, and to fill the employments of di 



kc fecrct popofal of the Engllfh miiiiftry to ne- LETTER 
ociate wiih France, \v*ulu>ut the intervention of t_„. - J/ 
lolland, "was like a(VIng a Hck perfon labouring A.o.i-jn, 
^ on/fer a long and dang-rous iilnef", if he would be 

Xhe preliminaries, when communicated to the 
(inifters of the confederate princes and Hates, fervcd 
llf to incrcare their jea'oufics and feus- The refig- 
icion of Philip V. was no longer infilled on. This 
llifiion particularly ofFenJed the emperor : anii count 
S GaUs» the imperial ambaHudor at the court of 
»ndon, in the heat of his zeal for his mafler's in- 
rcft, having publinied a copy of the articles in a 
rws-paper, as an appeal to tlie public, all England 
ftS thrown into a ferment. The people, always 
alous of national honour, were filled with indigna- 
on at the new minlftery, for negociating fecrcily 
ith France i a power whofe ambition had fo long 
Tquieted her neighbours, and whofe humiiiation had 
ten the declared objecl of the Grand Alliance. 
hey juftly fufpecled the court of finifter dcfignsj 
pecia'ly as the (lipulations in the piel'minarlcs 
:U infinitely below their cxpedlations i»ffer fo 
iccefsful a war. The more moderate Tories, 
ihamcrd of the meannrfs, if not the bafenefs of their 
:aders, alfo took part with the oiTencied allies ; and 
ic Whigs, while they viHowed the feafon for nego- 
atin2 to be arrived, execrated th^ movIe, and at- 
mpted to render odious the oicu by whom the nc- 
>ciation was conduced **. 

liagdom, dowa to the mcaneft, with Torica.'* fLitUr to Sir IFL" 
t IVittJham.) *' Peace," continues he, ** had been jud;;ed with 
reafon, to be the only folid foundatioQ whereupon wc could crcdt n 
Tory fyftcm." Ibid. 
1%, Publications •£ the timei. 

E c 3 Tai 


The Englifli miniftry, however, were not vithcRit 
their abettors. The pens of the moft eminent writen 
of the age were employed in vindication of fhdt 
meafures, and to rei.der contemptible their political 
enemies. Defended by fuch powerful advocates, and 
encouraged by the favour of their fovereign, they de^ 
terminated to fupport the preliminaries. The qaecQ 
accordingly told the parliment, on its iQeeting, in a 
fpeach from the throne, That, notxvitl^anding the 
arts of thofe that delight In war^ both time and place 
were appointed for opening the treaty of a geneni 
peace ; that ihe was refolved to improve and en* 
large, by the advantages to be obtained, the intereft 
of her fnbjecls in trade and comnierce ; and that 
(he would not only endeavour to procure all ici* 
jfonable fati&fa£)ion to her allies, but Co unite theai 
in the (Iriftcft engagements, in order to render per- 
manent the public tranquillity. The bed way hoir- 
ever, (he added, to treat of peace with effe£l, wastes 
make an early provifion for carrying on the war; ^ 
therefore demanded the ufual fupplie^, an4 recom* 
mended unanimity V. 

The fupplies were readily granted by the ccim- 
mons, who alfo echoed back the queen's fpeacb in 
an affcclionatc addrefs. The lords were lefs com- 
plaifant. They clogged their addrefs with a claofei 
*• That no peace could be fafc or honourable, (hould 
'* Spain and the Indies be allowed to remain with 
f' any branch of the houfe of Bourbon :** and this 
addition to the addrefs was carried, by a majortty 
of the houfe, in fpite of all the arguments trf* the 
^iniftry, who oppofed it with the whole weight of 
government. The queen returned an s^robiguoif 

29. yotimats, Dec. 7, 171X. 



anfwer to an addrcfs (o fubTcrfirc of bcr meafarrs ; ^^^.^ 
aod as the vote for the obnosioos claafe was known Wi ■»* ^ 
to have been procarcd chiefly by the influence and ^^•«:»»* 
intrignes of the duke of MaTlborough^ file (aw the 
ncceffity of depririog him of his employmentSy or 
of difmifling her minifter, and flopping the pro- 
grefs of the treaty of peace. Cbufing the 6rft of 
thofe alteroaUTeSf (he fent the duke a letter, telling 
him that (he bad no more occafioa for his ferrice i 
and in order to fecure a majority in the hoofe of 
lords, twelre gendemen* devoted to the court, were 
* created peer* ^\ 

This was an extraordinary ftretch of prerogative! 
and could not fail to give alarm to the independent 
part of the nobiliiy *, as it was evident, that the fove* 
fcign, by fuch an arbitrary exertion of royalty, could 
at all times over-rule their refolutions. But as law 
was on the fide of the crown, they were obliged to 
fpbmit to the indignity put upon them. The bodj 
of the Whigs were filled with confternation at thefe 
bold mcafures ; and as their leaders now difpaired of 
being able to reinftate themfelves in the adminidra- 
tion, by more gentle means, they are faid to have 
planned a new revolution. It Is at lead certain, that 
the heads of the party held frequent cabals with the 
Dutch and Imperial ambafTndors, as well as with the 
baron de Bothmar, envoy from the eledlor of Hano- 
ver, who prefented, in the name of his matter, a 
ftrong memorial againft the projected peace *, declar« 
ing, that the fruits of a glorious war would be loit, 
Ibouid Spain and the Indies be abandoned to the duke 
of Anjou V. And every method was taken, particu- 
larly by the e^rl of Sunderland and lord Hallifax^ to 

jObBaraet. Boyer, Swift. BoUoglirokc. si.IbkU 

£ e 4 imprcfi 


imprf!fs the people wh)) a Ix^liof, nor {ccminglj with- 
oiit renfvj/n^ r^^n the chioV . v.-w of ihc prefcnt miiiiftry 
was the rcftcrarion of li^e exc'uHeil family. They 
therefore afFiimC', rSnt iht- !*i' Succcihon uag 
in vi»\nger, ar»d Viij/.' the nci-Hity of fcnciing for the 
tlcdlor Ci Hanover or fon '*. 

On the other hand, the Tories employed al] the 
force of wit and fatire, of which they were la full 
poflKTion, againll their poliiicil advcrfariis; but cf- 
pcci^.lly to degrade the character, and ridicule ihc 
condu£l of the duke of Marlborough ; whofc difmif- 
(ion from the command of the army, after fuch ex- 
traorc'i: iry fucccfs. without fo much as an imputa- 
tion of mifljchaviour, in his military capacity, they 
were afr id would roafe the relentment of the nation 
againft the miniftcry. Their chief accufaiion againft 
him was, th.t, in order to favour his own operations 
in Flanders, to gratify his nmSition, and to glut his 
inor.Nnat;; avarice, he had ft^irved the war in Spain. 
Aliu.iir^ to the !i.renj;th of the I'Vench l>.irrier, :he/ 
ufc'd a vu'k; : phrr.*, \'hic!i m.:Jc' . i-jat iir.prciTio:! on 
the piTopK' ; mcy Tail, "^S t lo e'i!cav<nir to fuln ue 
France, by ait .cki:.g \.tr jii)*^ t-()^\ns on the f:ae 
of Flai;d'/r^, wib *' ? ^ivliig :!.c .,ull by the horir ;" 
tliai t'n- ti^'ops and r:r.>fa:c5 oi ilie l>>! i"i 'Icrait";, in- 
lUad oi bein^ cm;i«>y>d in ^ xp'.llir.u: Thilip V. Iron 
ttif tlione ''.' "^pu:-, ■•::.' .en ih'Own away on iin- 
inpcrta'it !;c^;cs, uiia ^-t •■.•:; upon aniv il irr.pi"i;- 
nable lir.cs ; ilia* prince /. j.t ric f::v. ing profitril like 
I\Lr!\' ^;':;;h, by ih'ic h(^ •• i'it*, l-iti united w:ih 
him in jtv'urncinj: il.( coun*^:!'- oi the St.^tcs, throngh 
the penruiKuy Ije i.fv^'- ; aiul that all three meaul 

32. /l/ifw m'e T§rfyf t Jm. i-. S:u.:rt Pj^crj, 171 I, 1711. 


M O D E R N E U R O P E. 425 

othin^, by the undcclfivc campaigns in FUnders, ^xTiif^ 
ut to protra^ the war, and to perpetuate their own ^ ^- f 
Dwcr, which was intimately conncflcd wilh it >*. ^'^' '^'** 

But now, my dear Philip, when the prejudices of 
arty have fubfided,. this accufation appears to have 
ten malicious and udjuft. It is generally agreed, 
: the fame time ic is admitted thoi'e generr«ls had an 
itcrtll and a pride ni prcfecut^ng the wa*-, That to 
afh France on the Gde of Flanders, was the moft 
Fcftual way of drpriving the houfc of Bourbon of 
ic Spanifli throne. . The diftancc of the confederate* 
om Spain; its vicinity to France; the neccflity of 
>nveyinp every thing thither by fea ; the (lerility 
f the country by rcafon of the indolence of the 
ihabitnnts ; and the oblHnate averfion of the Span- 
iards, in general, again fl a prince fupported by 
cretics, rendeicd it almoft impraflicable to conquer 
iat kingdom, as ^xperienee hud proved, after rc-^ 
eated vitlories. But Spain might have been com* 
ellcd to receive another fovereign without being ut- 
•rTy fubdued : the duke of Marlborough took the 
ue mcihod of dethroning Philip V. 

Though the breaking of the ftrong barrier of 
rancc in the Nethcrhnds had cod the conftderates 
luch blood and treafure, as well as time, the work 
as, at lengtli, nearly completed. Another campa-gn 
•ould probably have enabL-d them, had they con- 
nued unircd, to penetrate into France, and even to 
ikc pofTclTion of Paris •, fo that Lewis XIV. in order 
) fave his own kingdom, would have been obliged to 
:linquifh the fupport of his grandfon, and to pull him, 
I a manner with his own hands, from the Spanilh 

33. rarliamcHiary Debates^ and Publications of ihc Times. 



throne. Of this the king of France was as fenCble u 
the duke of Marlborough ^^: and hence his joy at the 
change of fentiments in the court of England, and 
the regret of the Whigs at the lofs of fo glorious an 
opportunity of advancing the interefts of their couotrji 
and of fully gratifying their vengeance againft that 

It iSy indeed} Gncerely to be lamented, and pof« 
libly may to the lateft poUerity, that fuch a change 
fliould have happened at this critical period* For 
however impolitic it might be, in the £ngh(h rnzai* 
flry, to continue the war, after the year 1706, as it 
furcly was after 1709, when all the objc<fts of the 
Grand Alliance might have been obtained s yet as 
the war was carried on afterward, at a vaft expence 
of blood and treafure, and with a degree of fucoEfsi 
which, if forefcen, would perhaps have ju(li6ed the 
profecution of it, no propofals of peace (hould have 
been lillened to, far lefsany dcilre to negociate^rrri* 
fy injtnuated by a French fpy •% till advantages equiva- 
lent to that additional expence had been offered. 
Since we had committed a juccejsful folly ^ to ufe the 
words of my lord Bolingbroke, it was folly not to 
profit by it to the utmoft. No (lop (hoiUd have been 
put 10 the career of vidory, until the hpufe of Bour« 
boa bad been completely humbled. 

It was on this ground that the Whigs now fo vio- 
lently oppofed the peace, and urged the necclBty of 
continuing the war, that they might have an oppor- 
tunity of recovering the adminifltation, and confe- 

34. Mem, de Torcy, torn. ii. 35, GauUicr, who was firft 

employed to fignify to the court of Verfaillcs the iccUnatioRs of th5 
Tory mtniftry towSird peace, wa« a catholic pricft, and a fgy for 
Fr4Uice in ^udcii. Aff*. 4c T^^^Xji ^^^ ii* 



fluently of vrefting the negociations out of the hands lkttfr 
of men, whom they confidered as enemies to the Pro- ^ , — . ', / 
tcftant SuccelBon, to the liberties of mankind, and to A. D. 1711, 
the common caufc of the confederates. They ad- 
mitted^ that the elevation of the archduke to the im- 
perial throne had made a material aUeration in the 
political ftate of Europe} that the power of the houfc 
of Auftria, which all centred in the perfon of the em- 
peror Charles, was very great ; but they affirmed, at 
the faipe time, that was no fuflicicnt rcafon for nego- 
ciating prematurely with the houfe of Bourbon, or 
accepting inadequate terms. 

England and Holland held the balance; and as 
they had chiefly contributed toward the fuccefs of the 
war, they had a right to be the arbiters of peace* 
In order to preferve the equilibiium of power, and 
tSt&xullj to prevent the union of the kingdoms of 
France and Spain in the perfon of the fame prince in 
any future time, Spain might be given, it was faid^ 
to the duke of Savoy ; the mod valuable of the Spa- 
nifli pofleflions in America, to Great Bi:itain; and 
Philip V. might be gratified with a principality ia 
Italy; after which there would dill remain enough to 
fatisfy the emperor and the States, without difmem- 
beringthe French monarchy'^. But whether we had 
left Philip, or placed any other prince on the throne 
of Spain, we ought to have reduced the power of 
France to a ftate of deprefBon from which it would 
not have recovered for generations to come. 

While the Whigs were occupied in contemplating 
thofe extenfive plans of policy, and encouraged in their 
fchcmes by the Imperial and Dutch mioiiters, little 

36. FalilicatioBi of the Timpi. 


428 T H E II I S T O R Y O F 

p.\RT Tl. wonilcr ihcy cmbraceii rafh rtfolutions, and adop'cd 

A.D. I7U. 

A.D. T71 

violent courifcls in order to obftru£l the negociaiion 
of a treaty, whit h was deflined to extin;iuifh all 
their hoptfs ; to flrikc the fvvord of conqucft from the 
hand of the confederates, and the wreath of vic- 
tory from their brows ; to depiive them of an op- 
portunity, that fcitune and valour bad confpired to 
produce, and which might never return,, of utierly 
breaking the power ot their ambitious enemies, and 
efl'e£tually fecuring the civil and religious liberties of 

As a Lift effort to recover their authority, and to 
prevent ihe ills they feared, the Whigs invited over 
prince Eugene to London. No lefs bold and in- 
teUigent as a politician, than able and. intrepid as 
H commander, he made no doubt of defeating the 
projcdled treaty of peace, by cmbarraffing the Bri- 
lifli miniftry, with fpltndid offers of advantage, pro- 
vidcd the queen would agree to continue the war. 
Among other things, lie meant to propofe, in the 
name cf the emperor^ that the imperial forces in Spain 
fiiould be aujmcnte*! to ilie number of thirty thoc- 
fand, and thut Great Britain fljOuM be put in full 
polTciTion of ilie commerce of that kingdom and of 
the Spanilh dominions in Anicrica >•. 

Buy, unfortunntrly for the VVhigc, as well as for 
the confederates, and for the grandeur and profperiiy 
of the united kingdoms, the duke of Marlborough was 
difmiffcd from all liis employments before the arrival 
of prince Eugene, and rendered incapable to fccond 
bis views. The commons, being chiefly Tories, were 
firm in their fupport of the miniflry ; and a majority 

37. Mtm. di Ttrey^ tom. ii. SiiMii Pa^ers^ l/IJ- 

M O D E R N E U R O P E. ^ 429 

bad. been fecurcd in the houfc of lords, by the intro- letter 


dudion of the twelve new peers. That great man ^_- -^ 
was therefore obliged to return to the coniinent, with- ^•^- *7^*' 
out being able to do any thing for the intered of the 
allies; though, during his flay in England, it is af« 
firmed th;it he fuggeded many dcfperate expedients, 
and fome violent, and even inhuman meafures, for de- 
priving; the Tories of the adminiftration ^*. But thcfc 
were all prudently rejtQed by ihc Hanoverian refi- 
dent and the leaders of the Whigs ; as an infurrec- 
tion, or popular tumult, if not finally fuccefsful, be- 
Gde the mifchief it might oihcrwife have occaHoned, 
would have endangered the Proteflanc SuccelCon. 
Thev refufed to employ any but legal means* 

During thofe ineffc£lual intrigues, the Englifh 
mitiiftry gamed a new vi£lory over their political ad- 
▼crfaries. Lord Townfhend, who had been employed 
in the negociations for peace, in 1709, had concluded 
a treaty with the States of the United Provinces, by 
which Liflc, Tournay, Menin, Dt)uay, and feveral 
places on the Lys and the Scheld, were guarantied 
to the Dutch as a barrier, at the end of the war. And 
they undertook to* guaranty, in return, the Protcjlatu 
SucceJJ!on\ to^/V/with their yf^r/j and ^r;72/Vj- the Prffum**' 
live Heirs of the Bt it:J/j Cmwn^ whenever that Sucafflon 
fliOuld appear to be in danger ^9. 

3S. Mem, de Torcy, torn. ii. Stuart papers^ '7 1 3. Hc is faid to have 
propol' d to fet Ore to London, ii» difi'crcnt places, in the night ; that, in 
li.c midtl of the- cor.fufioa. the rtuke ct Marlborono^li ihould appear ac 
tlic head of a paivy in arms ; that hc fluuV! fi.'f> pofTd's himlclf of the 
Tower, the Bauk, the Exchequer, and ti»cn fel/e tlic ptrfon of the 
qurcn; force ker todlffblvc the parliament, to call a rcw r.prcfcntativc, 
to malic* a free inquiry the claiidtHine corrcfpondoncc with Fi ancc» 
and to punifh the g li'ty with death. Id. ibid. 

I'j, I\fUm dc Torcy, toro. ii, Burnet, book vli. 



RT lU These engagements were perfcQly conformable to 
). 171a. ^^^ declared views of the late miniftry, who had rati- 
fied the treaty, but utterly inconfiftent with thofe d 
the prcfent, as well as with their fafcty* Thej were 
not ignorant that the Whigs, and perhaps even the 
States, pretended that this perilous period was already 
arrived. They were alfo fenfible, that France would 
with difficulty yield cities and towns that werexfleo* 
tial to their own defence. And being detera>ined to re^ 
move every obftacle that might retard the peace, they 
brought the Banter Treaty, and all the tran(a£ltoos 
relative to it, before the Houfe of Commons, under 
pretence that Townfliend had exceeded his inilroc- 
tions. The commons, entirely governed by the courti 
voted that feveral articles of the treaty were deftroc* 
live to the interefts of Great Britain i and therefore, 
that he who negociated and figncd the treaty, having 
no authority to infert thofe pernicious articles^ was 
an enemy to the queen and the kingdom. 

It is not a little furprifing, that at the fame dme 
the late miniftry were conclutiing this treaty, which 
had folcly for its objcd, on the part of Great Britain^ 
the fecurity of the Hanoverian fucceflion, Maribo* 
rotigb and Godolphin, who dircfted the meaforci 
Were fliil holding out hopes to the court of St. Cer'^ 
mains. Goclolphin is faid only to have regretted his 
fall, as it deprived him of the power of ferving efiec- 
fuillv the excluded family. *' Harley, I hope,'* faid 
he, " will rcftore the King," for fo he called the Pre* 
tender — " but he will make France ncceflary to that 
*^ meafure : I dcGgned to have done the bufincls a^ 
lone ♦».*• 

41. 5«M/# Pd/trtf 1709, 


HAmiMSoUGHy tlioagh perhaps k(s fiacerc lo X.CTTEK 
iuft piofeSoos* was more libenil in his promifes of y__ - *^ 
focceff. While he luminedt tbat he was not likely A. aim. 
lo be caplojed in conduding the peace, as be might, 
ip that cafe, be faid, hare done eflcntial fcrrice to the 
M caafic, be afliired the coart of St. Germiins, that 
sit eja tf the feofU vonld be pradually epateJ. ** They 
•« win fee thdr intercft,** added he, " in reftoring 
** their King. I percei?e fuch a change in his farour, 
^ dtat I think it impoDib?e but he muft fucceed s 
'* bot when be ihall fucceed, let there be no retrof* 
^ peS. All that has been done Gnce the RevolatioQ 

* maft be confirmed. His buGnefs is to gain all, hj 

* offending none. As for myfelf," continues MarU 
Kiroagb, *' I take God to witnefs, that what I ha?e 

* done for many jears^^ confcious that his original de- 
srtion of his benefa£lor could not be rindicatcdt 
' was neither from fpleen to the rotal Family, 
^ nor iliwill to their caufc, but to humble the power 
' of France; a fervice as ufeful to the King, «s it 
^ is beneficial to his kingdom ^V 

These extrads feem to prove, That although both 
ie late and the prefent minifters, Oxford excepted, 
itended to call the Pretender to the throne, their 
icws in regard to that meafure were very diflferent* 
The former meant to conne£l it with the aggrandifc* 
aent of Great Britain, and the humiliation of France ; 
he latter, to lean upon France for fupport. And for 
hat fupport they were wiih'ng to facrifice the honour 
nd intereft of the nation ; to defert the true fyflem 
f European policy, under pretence of oeconomy, and 
3 (ink into that ilate of abje£l dependence upon a 

41. Stuart Pa^rt^ !!• 


4^^ T H E H I S T O R Y O F 

P-iRT.II. rjyal power, which had difgraced the reigns of the 
j^J^ ,«,, fecond Charles and the fecoiid James. 

But fuch obfcrvaucns apart, my dear Philip, tlic 
politics of England, duiing this period, afford aa 
objefl for philofophic curiof.ty, to which there is 
perhaps no parallel in the annals of mankind. That 
Marlborough and Godolphin, the great leaders cf 
the Whigs, while purfuing with zeal the views cf that 
party, had always in contemplation the rc-cftabiiflj- 
ment of the family of Stuart ! and that Oxford, th: 
head of the Tories, and a reputed Jacobite, (hoald 
ftcure, by his addrefs, the fucceBion of the houfi of 
Brunfwick, without being able to acquire their con- 
fidence, and while he was known to be at bottom a 
Whi;; by the queen and the court of St. Gcrmains, 
whofo confiiicnce he was thought to poficfs, and whcfc 
views he was fuppofcd to proinotc^J! are (ingulor 
purticulars in the hillory of human nature. 

Jan. i8. While the En^lifli mijiidry were fmoothing at 

home the road to peace, general conferences were 

opened at Utrecht, for redoring tranquiliiiy to Eu- 
ro;^?. And the earl of StrnlFord and the biihcp of 
Briflo', the pknipoteiuaries of Great Dricaiu, in or- 
cler to reconcile the confederates to the ncgociation, 
declared thit the pieliminaries figned by Menager, 
and accented by St. John, to which thty artfully the nnnie of prcpcjalsy were neuher binding on 
the queen fjor her i:llics ♦. 'J his ileclaration corn- 
pofed the fpirits of the confederates in feme degree. 
But befcre any progrcfs could be made in the treaty, 
certain unexpefted incidents gave a new turn to tlic 
nc^;ociaiions, and alarmed queen Anne and her Tory 

43. Compare Stuart andHatnitcr Papers, 44, Burnet, Icok. tii. 


M O D E R N £ U R O P E. 433 

tniniftry for the fate of ihat peace which they had fo i.^ettek 
s&uch as hearti ^ , ^ 

A.I>. 17 ii* 

The Dauphin of France, the only legitimate {on 
of Lewis XIV. havinj^ died the preceding year, had 
been fuccecdcd in his title, as heir to the French 
monarchy, by his eldell fon, the duke of Burgundy. 
That prince alfo died culy in the prefent year ; and, 
in three weeks after, his fon, the duke of Brittany. Feb. 13, 
In confcquencc of this uncommon mortality, which 
bas been afcribed to the ambitious intrigues of the 
duke of Orleans, the duke of Anjou, a fickly infant, 
the fole furviving fon of the duke of Burgundy, only • 
ftood between the king of Spain and the crown of 
France. The confederates were, therefore, filled 
vith reafonabie apprehenfions, left that union of the 
two monarchs, which it had been the chief obje£k 
of the war to prevent, fliould at laft be completed, 
after all their fuccefles, by the death of a puny child, 
and the lukewarm ncf?, if not treachery, of a princi- 
pal ally. And the queen of England and her minifters 
were not a little at a lofs how to quiet iliefe well 
grounded fears* 

Extraordinary as it may feem, the BrlNfli mi- 
niftry had not hithenofuniiflied their pknipotcnwaries 
with inftruftions rclaiive to the SpaniHi fuccelTion ^*. 
Thefc were referved for a confidential envoy, in- 
tended to be joined with the two forrncr, and who 
bad been employed in the fecret negociations with 
France*'. Though the earl of Strafford and the bi- 
(hop of Bfiftol were Tories, and wholly devoted to the 

42. Swift'* Ili/f, oftieff^ur Ijl Vtan of ^sen Anne, 

43. Mr. Prior, fo well known by his fprightly poems, and who 
lud a principal Iharc in a.i the ncgociatioot relative to the peace of 

\0L. IV. F f court. 



PART II. court, it was not thought fafe to truft them witli a 
yry~^ matter fo injurioiis to the honour and the intereft of 

«• i*. IJII* 

their country. 

This deceitful mode of proceeding, altogether on* 
worthy of a great nation, which, as it had borne the 
chief burden of the war, might openly have didUted 
the plan of pacification, fuihciently juftifics the fii{^ 
picions of the allies, That the general interefts of the 
confederacy would be facrificed to the eagcmefs of 
queen Anne for peace j te the felfiOi motives of her 
minifters and her own views in favour of her fann 
thcr, the Pretender -, that become jealous of the coa- 
ne^on of the confederates with the Whigs and the 
houfe of Hanover, (he had entered into a private 
negociation with Lewis $ and was even willing, by 
favourable conditions, to procure fupport againft bet 
former friends, from a prince whofe power bad beea 
fo lately broken by her arms, and for whofe humilia* 
tion (he had eihaufted the wealth, and watered the 
earth with the blood of her fubje£ts I 

The death of the princes of France, however, 
by exalting the hopes and iiu rcafing the demands of 
the aiitcs, obliged the Britifh miniltry to depart from 
their refolution of fending a third plenipotentiary to 
Utrecht, (for purpofcs bell known to themfelves) and 
to urge Lewis XIV. as he valued the ble(Sngs of 
peace, to take fome public (lep, for preventing the 
crowns of France and Spain from being joined on the 
head of the fame prince. To this end they fug* 
gefted different alternatives, our of which the FrcDcb 
monarch mi^lit form a propofal that ought to fatisfy 
the allies. The principal of thofe were. That Fhibp 
V. (hould cither re(ign the ciown of Spaio, (a mea- 
fure that would be more acceptable to the confede- 


rates than any other) or transfer to his younger bro- let ier 
ther, the duke of Berry, his right to the crown of . '^ 

France; that, (hould Philip confent to the reGgna« A.D.i7i2. 
lion, his right to the crown of France would not 
only be preferved entire, but in the mean time Naples 
and Sicilyi the hereditary dominions of the houfe of 
Savoy, with the duchy of Montferrat and Mantua, 
flionld be ere&ed into a kingdom for him ; that all 
thofe territories (hould be annexed to France, on 
Philip's acceflion to that crown, except the illand of 
Sicily, which fhould, in fuch event, be given to the 
bottfe of Auftria; and that Spain and her American 
dominions (hould be conferred on the duke of Savoy, 
inftead of his own dominions, and in full fatisfa£lion , 

of ^U bis demands, as one of the confederates ^^» 

Philip V. as foon as the queftion was fubmitted 
to him, wifely preferred the certain pofleflion of the 
Spanifh throne to the precarious profpe£l of a more 
defirable fuccefTion, with all the appendages the con- 
federates could offer; but the befitation of Lewis 
XrV. in acceding to either alternative, evidently 
fliewed he had been flattered by the Britifh mini(lry» 
diat his grandfon (hould not be obliged to make a 
folemn renunciation of the crown of France, and yet 
be permitted to wear that of Spain and the Indies. 
•' A king of France," faid he, " fucceeds not as heir, 
** but as matter of the kingdom ; the fovercignty o£ 
•' which belongs to him, riot by choice^ but by iirtb* 
•• right : he is obliged, for his crown, to no will of a 
<< prior king, to no compa£t of the people, but to the 
^^ law ; and this law is etteemed the work of him who 
^' eftabltflies monarchies. It can neither be invali- 
5' dated by agreement, nor rendered void by renun« 

44 Mtm, de Torcy, torn, iu 

Ff2 "dation:. 

43^ T H E H I S T O R T OF 

PART II. " ciatlon : fliould the king of Spain, therefore, re- 
aTd^i-is. ** nounce his right, for the fake of peace, that aft 

" would only deceive himfclf, and difappoint ike 

" allies*'." 

Secketary St. John, who correfpondcd with the 
court of Vcrfaillcs on this delicjte fubjeft, admitted 
the French nation mijjht hold, with what jufUce he 
did not pre fume to fay, Thai God alone can, in any 
poffible inftancc, annul the law of fucccflfion, be the 
incoriveniencics to fociety ever fo great, but that, io 
Enghn:!, mod men were in another way of thinkings 
that even fuch as were mofl fuperllitioufly devoted 
to monarchy believed, that a prince might forego hit 
righr, by a voluntary renunciation ; and that the 
perfon, in whofc favour the renunciation was mnilf, 
might bs juftly fuppirtevl by ih^ princes who (hculd 
hippeii to hz gniraitees of ihe treaTy. In a word, 
he declared, that an end mud be put to all negocia- 
tiorj, unlefs the French mon.irch would accept the 
expedient propofv.*il. Lewli was; at hf^, under i::C 
neccirity of coir.pS'in;::-, and it was n?^rcc?.l, thu :h; 
rennnclation of ?W\\\p V. fr.ouK! le rc-i/tered :.\i' 
b'jckfi ot tlic ptirliirtienc of Puii?, and folcxr.-y re- 
ceived and ratilicd by the Cortes, or ilates cf C-ftiis 
and Arrngon ^''. 

4r. \\. iV;i. 4^. ^f-^- cl^ T-cy, ::b: T.p, Qj:-- \' -* 

ci; ci'ioi.s t'j i'.r y:-!i.iv-i.t,o!; ll:l^ft -^.cL, urc wry l"orv.l>!«.. *" ■■' 
•* cofiUririrM.' the '•^ .iu'i:v;tit)r'> ?. I'lKtt' i^' Tt? '-».'!" >:-j:.' .■ir.l'>-:c J," .*)» 
1-ic, *• it i> • O^r . 1 ti...r t/. y fhall o-i r.-t;.: 1 in tl- rr-i I .::.):^ " -::-»-'- 
** knri :;M:i::er, bt-tli iii riur.j^- ../•! Fr .:•; ; r.:i I :! ..: 1 1 irf.- k,r^ ■'-*"■*. 
•* r.^ we'll r.-i till th? other pow.TS i:!.g.'*g "d in the p-c \-:-.i w^r, fhiii V< 
** guara: rccb to the fame. Buttlic nature «*l"thV uriivi'.v:/' ;L-idiCi:. ** * 
*• i"u:h. r!-. -r 'i txc-iti-^ itf-'.f. Tiv2 :t:t«.rcH ..I'Sr.iin !»" t- » f-r;''*'" 
*' and, i'l Tr-.n. ,:, liic ptrions to wh«>.n ti;ai !"'uccfrK>r. i-to o.. •. .. *-* 
»* be TwaJv a^idpuwcrlui cnuu^h t j Y:n]iwatc their owl r:^I:c. * *- ** 

* *-4 


As foon as this important article was fettled, the 
queen of England agreed to a fufpenfion of arms ; 
and tlie immediate delivery of Dunkirk 10 the Brit»lh A. D. 17: 

June 5. 

troops, was the condition of tUat indulgence. Thele 
circumftanccs naturally lead us to examine the pro- 
grcfi of the campaign. 

The duke of Ormond being appointed to the com- 
mand of the Britifli forces in Flanders, and of fuch 
foreign troops as were in Britifh pay, in the room 
of the duke of Marlborough, the whole confederate 
army, amounting to an hundred apd twenty thoufand 
mcUf under prince Eugene, took the field toward ihe 
end of April. The French army, commanded by 
marefchal Villars, was flrongly pofled behind the 
Scheld. But as prince Eugene found that the enemy 

•« and SpJiin arc now more cfFcdually divided than ever ; and thus, hy 
** the bklfing of God, will a real balance of power be fixed in Europe, 
** aodrcmaio liable to as few accidents as human affairs can be exempted 
«• from." {Journalt, June 6, 17 1 2.) Unfortunately this has not been 
tlie cafe ; for although the monarchies of France and Spain have been 
hitherto divided, (not by the renunciation of Philip V. but in confc- 
qiience of the recovery of the young dauphin, afterw&rd Lewis XV.^ 
the two courts have generally been as intimately united in policy, as if 
the two crowns had Ixren placed en the head of the fame prince : and 
the extraordinary exertions of Great Britain, both by land and fca, which 
have far exceeded all human credibility in vigour, and all political calcu- 
lat:on of the expcncc fhc c»?nld poUibiy bear, only ccuLi have thusU ng 
preferved the liberties of Europe. 

Inftead of allowing Philip V. the ahcrn2tlvc/»f retaining; he crown of 
Spain, the BritKh m[nxftry ought to have infilled on his abft»lutc refig- 
natton of that crown, for the eventual fucceniunti> the crown of Trance, 
with the immediate poTclTion of tl»c kiu^om ofFcrcd him in Italy; 
efnccially ashis jrran'ifathcr, Lewis XIV. Tas ho hinilVlf informs u% in 
hisfpeachto the Cortes) would have agreed more roaJily to thia t»> 
his renunciation of I113 ri^ht to tlie crown of 1 imMvC, as it aff-jnicd a 
profped of extending the French monarchy. But that extcurion.fhould 
it even have taken place, (aswcnowccrtainly know it would nor) could 
not have proved fo dangerous to the liberties of Europe, a*» the Family 
Cmfi^acl bctW(;eo the two branches of the houfe of Bourbon. 

Ff3 had 


had not taken every advantage of their fituation, he 
made difpoGtions for attacking them, in hopes of 
concluding the war with a fplended victory ; or at leaft 
of forcing Villars to retire, and leave Cambray ex* 
pofed to a fiege. He accordingly communicated hit 
intentions to Ormond. And the hefitationof theEng- 
li(h general) to return a poGtive anfwcr, confirmed 
that penetrating genius in the fufpicions he had for 
fome time entertained, that the duke had orders not 
to a£l oflfenGvely ^7, Filled with indignation at a dif- 
covery fo fatal to is own glory, as well as to the 
common caufe of the confederates, the prince of 
Savoy made known his unhappy Gtuation to the field- 
deputies of the dates, and to the imperial miaifter at 
Utrecht. The dates fent immediately in(lrp£tioas 
to their ambaiTador at the court of London to rcmon- 
ilrate on the fubjefl. And the purport of thofe iiir 
flru£lions was no fooner known, than a motion wa 
made in the Houfe of Commons, for prefenting an 
addrefs to her majefty, "That fpeedy orders may 
** be given to her general in Flanders, to profc- 
** cute the war with the utmoft vigour, in conjunc- 
** tion with her allies, as the befl: means to obtain a 
•* fafe and honourable peace *\" A motion to the 
fame effe£l was made in the Houfe of Lords ; but 
the miniftry having now a decided majority in both 
houfcs, thefe falutary motions were reje<3ed with a 
degree of difdain, and the remonftrances of the Dutch 
ambaflador difregardcd. Ormond continued inadi?e. 

Nothing can place the ignominy of this cruel in- 
aftion, and the fhameful duplicity of the Britilh mini- 
dry, in a drongcr light, than a letter which the Slates 

47. Burnet bnok vii. Gen. Hlji, of Rural s^ lyu, 

48. Joutnalsf M^y zS, ijiz, 



rilterward fent to queen Anne. **It is impoiSblei" letter 
iy tlicy, «* but we fliould hcfurpri/ed and affll^ed^ by ^J^^liij 

* two declarations wc have lately received from your A.D. nn 
t^Hajefty: the firft, by the duke of Ormond, your 

* general, that he could umicrtakc nothing without new 
^ $riUrs from You j the other, by the bifliop of 

* Briftol, your plenipotentiary to the congrefs at 

* Utrecht, That, perceiving we did not aufwer as wc 

* 9Ught% the propofals which you had made Us, and that 
^ wc would not a^ in concert with your minijier on the 
^ fubjeSi ofpeace^ you would take your meafurcs apart \ 
**and that you did not look upon yourfelf to be now 

* under any engagements with Us-'* In regard to the 
Irft, add they, *• Have we not juft rcafon to be fur* 
^ frifedf after the ajfurance which your Majefty had 

given Us by your letters, by your miniders, and 
lafily by your general, the duke of Ormond, of 
your intenthn^ that your troops (hould be ordered to 
1 with their ufual vigiour^ when we 5nd a ftop put, 
hy an order in your Aiajcjiys name^ without our know* 
ledge, and certainly without the knowledge of your 
Other allies, to the operations of the confederate 
army ?-^ the fined and ftrongeft, perhaps, which 
has been in the field during the whole courfeof the 
war ; and this after they had marched, according to 
the refolution taken in concert with your Majejlfs ge* 
neraii almod up to the enemy, with a great luperi- 
ority both as to number and goodnefs of troops, and 
animated with a noble courage and zeal to acquit 
tbemfelves bravely ! — "We are forry to fee fo fine an 
opportunity loft, to the inedimable. prejudice of 
the common caufe of the High Allies* 

*^ Nor can we forbear telling your Majefty,** con» 

10^ tbeyi <* that the dedaratioQ made by the 

F f 4 « bifliop 


•* bifhop of Briflol, at Utrecht, has no lefs furprified 
*♦ Us, than that of the ciuke of Ormond in the aimy. 
<* AJI the props/a is hitKeno made to Us, on ihcfubjeSi 
•* of Peace were ccucbcJ in very general terms. In feme . 
<• of the lad cop.ftrenccs, it is true, your Majefty's 
** miniilcrs dem.inded to know whether ours were 
♦* fuinifhed with Tifi^/Ipoiuer, and authorifed \o dray/ 
•* up ^ I'LAN for the teace. But it had been juft, 
^' before fuch a th'no; was demanded of Us, that they 
^* had ccnvriunlcatcd lIic result of the ncgociations folong 
•• trcaitd oi beiwcfn yc:n Mojejlys m'ni'ijhrs end (hofe of 
M thr^y ; cr, at leafl, they fnouKi have told Us fjoni 
•* Majcdy's .hcjghiSy on a mailer which we ought to 
«* have concerted together. Yet had that plan related 
** only to your Majefty's intereft and ours, we (hould 
^* perhaps I.ave been in the wrong not to have come 
** iramediarifly into it; but as the plan in queflion 
*' concerned the intereft of all the Allies, and of al- 
** moft all Europe, wc had very ftrong apprchenfions, 
•* ^\^\.\\^^.partlcularncgoc\aUons\it,\^^ttn your Majefty's 
•' miniftc^rs and thofe of France, and the rcadincfs 
** with which we confentcd to the congrefs at Utrecht, 
*' mi^lit have given his Imperial M.ijefty and the other 
** Allies ground to entertain prejudicial thoughts, as if 
«* it h.^d been the intent'ionol your Majefty and of Us, 
** to abandon the Grand j'^I'iance sind the common caufe^ 
♦* by which they mi^ht have been pufhed on to Jepa^ 
«* rate rr.cafurcs. We thought thefe reafons ftrong 
** enough to juftify our conduft to your majefty on 
^* this head ; and as wc had nowife engaged io f///tT with 
«* your ]Maje«ly into a concert to draiL* up a Planol 
^* Vcacc^ "ji'ithoKt the parclp'itaiion of the other members 
♦< clxht Grand AlUancCylhc backivardnefs\ft\\7isc ftiewa 
♦* to that py cpoja I c^unoi be confidered as a contraven* 
^^- tion of OUR engagements J and| therefore, cannot 

« fcnrc 

M O D E R X E r R OP E. 441 

•fenc to X ^V-r=" *--* Mi-^'iT •vcn r:wrs^ with VSTTFa 

** rcfpeci to Us. i-^. t -:h. i: /a* L,- ^r .\r'r/\ bctwetn > ,- _f 

•• poseacirts ar.:.'.: .t th^ •'•"/: " sni v. ;c;^r r.vf of A.D.i7i4- 
*• tf..' jr.v, .'•-•/rr.- i.-i ' . - •:, ;rT of ihoff potcn* 

•• klra trc.Ti il: :h;:: :.•..,-.:"■•'*• i?:: i$ no tic among 
•• men that ?Ti\i:t :•:: jz .-"jr-t, 1 -.d wc k^oor of no 
•* cnc»;cfp::i:5 'Ju: could br rilicd on in time to 
•« come *♦. ' 

There wo^'J c^min!? have been more /rtfiii::-,'} 
and d':gnl:y^ rLoujh n?: mc>re rri:-; :t, and even more 
ad-jantage^ in odI * * conclaiir.g at oacc a (cpara;e 
treaty witi Fri:^„*, rbia ia b^crayi ; » rhc com;nan 
caufe by fucb ..':\ J\V c.j.V'rr. This St. John» who ^•as 
himfelf Qfcplr conccr:!cd in lliat ** double dealing/* 
▼cry candid if acknowledges. France, fays he« wocli 
have granted more to Great Britain for peace, than 
for a fufpenfion of hofiiiirics; and .jie allies* feeing 
no poflibiHt? of altering the meafures of queen Anne^ 
would neither have attempted to diilurb her counci!S| 
in hopes of inducing her to continue the war» nor have 
profecuted it themfelves with that intemperate ardour* 
which proved the caufc of their fubfequent misfor- 
tunes. " Better conditions would have been obtained 
*« for the whole confederacy ^"^ : " and the Britith minif* 
try, it may be added, inftead of the accumulated infamy 
ol treachery^ would only have merited the reproach of 
being guilty of sC flagrant violation of public 1'A1TH« 

During the altercation and fufpcncc occafioned by 
the inaQivity of the duke of Ormond, prince Eugene 

49. Printed LdUr^ prcfervcii In many p-.Tiocl; publicj:ion9, und 
particularly in the Monthly M^rrjryy for Jane 1712. 
5C. Bolin^brokc** SUub tftli HiJL and Stait cf Eutofc* 



Fart IT. la»d Gcgc to Qucfnoy ; and, in order to encotirage 
^'^'"^ ^ the confederates, and aftonifli the enemy, by a bold 
cntcrprife, he privately detached major-general Grove- 
(lein, with fifteen hundred choice troops, dragoont 
and hufiars, to penetrate into the heart of France. 
This officer^ having entered Champagne, paiTed the 
Noire, the Macfe, the Mofclle, and the Saar ; levied 
contributions as far as the gates of Metz ; fpread 
condernation even to Vcrfailles ; and after ravaging 
the country, and carrying off a rich booty, together 
with a number of hoftages, retired leifurely to- 
ward Traerbach. Meanwhile the fiege of Quefaoy 
was profecuted with fuch vigour, that the place was 
jjj- taken almoft by affault, and the garrifon furrendered 
prifoners of war 5*. 

The SB fucceffes greatly elevated the fpirits of the 
Dutch and Imperialifts, depreffed by the ina£Uvity of 
the duke of Ormond ; but when, inftead of an order 
. to co-operate with them againfl the common enemy, 
which they daily expected, he m<ide known to them 
a ceffation of arms between France and EngUnd, 
their former d^jedion returned. Their hopes, how* 
ever, were in feme meafure revived, when they un- 
dcrftood that the foreign troops in the pay of Great 
Britain refujcd to obey his command* This refufal re» 
duced the duke to a (late of the utmoll perplexity, 
and threw the Britidi miniflry into no fmail conder- 
nation. They had not only lod the confidence of the 
allies, but fallen under the didrud of the court of 
Verfailles. Th e king of France therefore thought pro* 
per to fufpend his mandate for the delivery of Dun- 
kirk, until " all the troops in the pay of Great Britain 
^< fliould quit the army of the confederates/^ But oa 

51. Buroet, book vii. Qcn, Hif, pfEanft^ 1712. 



>ofitive orders being fent to the duke of Ormond, to ^^f * 
* fiparate the Britijh forces from ihofe of the allies," y^ ■^— ^ 
tnd affurances given to the French monarch, by the ^^* ^7'** 
ncprefs command of queen Anne, that the confede- 
ites (hould receive no more of her money^ the fcruples 
yi Lewis were quieted. Ormond fulfilled his in- 
ftru£tions by retiring toward Ghent with the Britifh 
troops, and Dunkirk was delivered 10 brigadier Hill <\ 

The Brltifli forces had diflingui(hed themfelves in 
a remarkable manner, during the whole courfe of this 
celebrated war, and in almoft every battle gave the 
turn to vi£lory. Their example had perhaps been of 
yet greater fervice than their efforts, though thefe 
were cranfcendcntly heroic. Prince Eugene, how- 
ever, to (hew the allies, that he was dill able to pur- 
fic bis conquefls, notwithdanding the withdrawing of 
fo gallant a body of men, advanced to Landracy, and 
laid fiege to that important place. Villars received 
Orders to attempt its relief. The French general ac- 
cordingly put his army in motion, as if he meant to 
give battle to the main body of the confederates ; but, 
sifter making a feint of advancing toward their right, he 
turned fuddcniy off to the left, and marching all night, j^j- , . 
attacked unexpeftedly a detachment of fourteen thou- 
fand men, which had been placed at Denain, under 
tlie earl of Albemarle, in order to favour the pafTage 
of the convoys from Marchicnnes. This detachment 
\ras quickly routed, and almofl utterly deflroyed. 
Ipoor thoufand fugitives and men only efcaped to the 
|)riocipal army *^. Befide the lofs fuftained in the 
^^on, fifteen hundred men were drowned in the 
Scheld, and two thoufand fell into the hands of the 

5». Id. ibid. Dc Torcy, torn. ii. 53 Relation fcnt by the 

tiri of AlWmarle to the States, and other papers in the AIoaiLly Mer- 
fmj for July, Auguil, and September, 17 1 j. 

vi£lors I 


PART II. vifkors ; among whom was the carl of AlbemarlCi 

A.D, If IX. 

with many other ofBcers of diilindlion^^ 

Prince Eugene, who was marching to the affiftancc 
of Alberm.irle, in order to prevent this difaftcr, had 
the monification to arrive, when his aid could be of 
no ufc to his friends. In a fit of dcfpair, he ordered 
the bridges on the Scheld, near Denain, t« be attack- 
ed, and wantonly threw away the lives of a thoufaDd 
men ; for had the bri»^gts been abandoned to hinii 
he would not have been able to crofs the river, in the 
faciiof the French army ^^. He failed, however, in 
the attempt. Yet would he have continued the ficgc 
of Landracy, and might perhaps have become mader 
of the place, notwithftanding this check •, but the ficIJ- 
deputics of the States obliged him to relinquiQi the en- 
terprife, and retiie to Mons^^ Meanwhile Viliars, 
July 30. having taken Marchicnncs, where the principal maga- 
zines of the confedeiatcs were depofited j and being 
now uncQiitrouled madcr of the fielJ, reduced fuc- 
cefiTively Djway, Quefnoy, and Bouchain ^^. Thcfc 
conqucPtS clofe.i the operations in Flanders. No en- 
terprife of coTifcquence was undertakcDi during the 
ca»T.paign, in any other cjuaiter. 

The court of Vcrfyilles v.ns highly elated, by a 
fuccefs fo unexped^cd and extraordinary. Nor was 
the joy of the iiriiilh minilby, at the change of 
a (lairs in Flanders, Icfs finccre, though lefs public. 
They were fenfible that the body of the confederates, 
unlefs loft to all fcnfc of prudence, would no longer 
attempt to continue the war, fliould Great Britain 
dcf.rt the Grand Alliance; and confcqucntly the 
Vv'higs, their political enemies, already humbled, 

54. Id. Iliitl. C.S- Hiiltc of Pcrv.'ick's McH. voL u. 56. Hii>»^ 
57. Cci, Ii}Ji.rJ' Eur^r^ 171a, 



M O D E R N E U R O P .^. 445 

would become ftill Icfs formidable. In this conjee- letter 


tore they were not deceived. The eyes of ihe Dutch, ,_ _ j 
who had mod to apprehend, were firft opened to their A.D. 1713 
own perilous fituation, and to the neceifity of renew- 
ing the conferences at Uitecht, which had been for 
feme time interrupted. Inftead of prefcribing terms 
to the houfe of Bourbon, ihey no^v acceded to the 
plan of pacification fettled between Groat Britain and 
France. Their example was followed by tlie dukp of 
Savoy and the king of Portugal. And ihe emperor, 
though refolutc to continue the war, finding Ijiinfelf 
unable to fupport any military operations in ^ip;li^, 
agreed to the evacuation of Catalonia 5^ ; and, by 
that meafure, indiredly acknowledged the title of 
Philip V. 

During thefe approaches toward a general pacifi- 
cation, queen Anne was eagerly folicited by the 
Jacobites, to take fome ftep in favour of the Pre- 
tender. In order to quiet the fears of the Englifli 
nation, excited by his connexion with France, he had 
left St. Gcrmains the preceding fummer, and now re- 
fided at Bar, in the territories of the duke of Lorrain. 
And although the queen's jealoufy of her own autho- 
rity, and perhaps her natural timidity, heightened by 
the infinuations of Oxford, made her decline all pro- 
pofals for calling her brother into the kingdom, or 
repealing the Aft of Settlement, fhe was verj anxious 
to concert with Lewis XIV. fome plan for his ac- 
ceflion to the throne, after her death ^'\ What mea- 
farcs were taken for that purpofe, and how ilicy were 
fruftrated, I (hall afterward have occaGon to no- 
tice. It will, therefore, be fufficient at prefent to ob- 
fervei That the carl of Oxford artfully broke the de- 

58. Id. ibid. Dake of Berwick's Mem. vol ii. 59. Stujri 

Ta^i^ 171a, 1713. Duke of Berwick's Mtm, vol. ii. 



r ART IT. Cgns of the qucen^ and rendered abortive the fchemct 
A.D. X713. ®^ ^^^ Jacobites, by dividing their councils. 

Oxford, however, continued to forward the neg©* 
ciations for peace, as neceflary to the fecnrity of hii 
own power, which he hoped to prefenre during the fife 
of his miilrefs ; and as the declining health of the 
queen left room to believe that her death could be 00 
diftant event, it is not impofTible but the lord treafmcri 
in fecretly fupporting the parliamentary fettJement of 
the crown, might flatter hirofelf with the profpeAof 
extending his adminiftration even into the reign of her 
fucceflbr. From thefe, or fimilar motives, he defeated 
the intrigues of the Jacobites, at the fame time that he 
haflened the reftoration of tranquillity to Europe. 
And the treaties between the different powers, folong 
negociatcd, were at lad figned at Utrecht, on the 31ft 
day of March, in the year 17 13, by the plenipotcQ* 
tiaries of France, England, Portugal, Pruifia, Savoyt 
and the United Provinces \ the emperor refolviag to 
continue the war, and the king of Spain refufing to 
fign the ilipulations until a principality (hould be pro- 
vided, in the Low Countries, for the princefs OrGni 
the favourite of his queen '^^ 

The chief articles of this famous pacification were 
to the following purport : That, whereas the fecurity 
and liberties of Europe, can by no means bear the 
union of the crowns of France and Spain under one 
and the fame prince, Philip V. now eftablifhed on die 
SpaniOi throne, (hall renounce all right to the crown 
of France ; that the dukes of Berry and Orleans, tbe 
next heirs to the French monarchy after the infant ^ 
Dauphin^ (hall, in like manner, renounce all right 

60. Id. ibid. Attm, dt IMUeif XOOU iiU 




\o the crown of Spain, in the event of their ac- I-^tter 
xflion to thfi crown of France: That, in default |_ , - -*^ 
Df Philip V. and his male iffue, the fucceffion of A. a 1713. 
ipain and the Indies (hall be fecured to the duke of 
iftfoy; that th& ifland of Sicily (hall be inftantly 
ioded, by his Catholic majefty, to the fame prince^ 
rith the title of king ) that France (hall alfo cede 
o hiin the vallies of Pragelas, Oulz, Sezanne, Bar-^. 
loaache, and Chattatt-Dauphin> with the forts of 
Exilles and Feneftrelles, and reilore to him the dachy 
i Sa?oy and the county of Nice, with their de* 
cndencies : That the full property and fovereigntyof 
otb banks^ and the navigation of the Maragnon, or 
iver of Amazons, in South America^ (hall belong 
3 the king of Portugal : That Spani(h Guelderland, 
fith the fovercignty of Neufchatel and Valengin, 
lall be ceded to the king of PrufCa, in exchange 
vt the principality of Orange, and the lordfhips of 
Ihalons and Chaftelbelin, in the kingdom of Franct 
ad county of Burgundy, and that his regal title 
lall be acknowledged: That the Rhine (hail form the 
oundary of the German empire on the fide of France ; 
nd that all fortifications, beyond that river, claimed 
f France, or in the pofleflTion of his mod Chriftian 
lajefty, (hall either be relinqui(hcd to the empc- 
T or deftroyed: That in Italy, the kingdom of 
aples, the duchy of Milan, and the Spanifii terri- 
ries on the Tufcan (hore, (hall be ceded to the 
»ufe of Auftria ; that the fovereignty of the Spanifh 
etherlands (hall likewife be fecured to the houfe 
Auftria ; but that the elcftor of Bavaria (to whom 
zj had been granted by Philip V.) fhall retain the 
rereignty of fuch places as are Aill in his poflef- 
n, until he (hall be reinftated in all his German do- 
nions except the Upper Palatinate, and alfo be put 
pofeflTion of the ifland of Sardinia} with the title 


of king: That Luxemburg, Namur ami Charlcrof^ 
(hall be given to the Srates-general of the United 
Provinces, as a barrier, together with Mon9, Mcnin, 
Tournay, and other places already in their poflcflSon: 
That Liflc, Aire, Bethunc, and St. Venant, Oiallbe 
reftored to France: That, on the part of Great Bri- 
tain, the French monarch (hall acknowledge the tiik 
of Queen Anne, and the evenliial fucceflion of tk 
family of Hdnover to the Britifti throne; that tbe 
foriificalions of Dunkirk (the caufe of ni uch jealooff 
to England, and raifcd at vail expencc to France) 
(hall be dcmclKlKd, and the harbour filled up; tht 
certain places in North America and the Wei 
Indies fliall be ceded or reftored, by France to Gitil 
Britain ; namely the ifland of St. Chriflopher, vhtch 
had long been poflefled jointly by the French ami 
Englifti, but from which the French had been a* 
pelled, in 1702) ; Huiifon's Bay and Streights, {what 
the French had founded a fetrlcment, but witbort 
difpofTcffing tbe Engiifli, and carried on a rival trade 
during the war) ; the town of Placentia, in the ifland 
of Newfoundland, (where the French had been faf- 
fered to eflabliih thcmfelves, through the negligence 
of government) ; and the long difputed province of 
Nova Scotia, (into which the French had early in- 
truded themfelves, out of which they had been fre- 
quently driven, and which had been finally conquer* 
cd by an army from New England in 17 10): Thil 
the ifland of Minorca 3fnd the fortrefs of Gibralot 
(conquered from Spain) fliall remain in the pcficffifli 
of Great Britain \ and that the JJJientOi or coniradfa 
furnifliing the Spanifli colonies in South America wi4 
negroes, fliall belong to the fubje£ls of Great fti* 

tain, for the term of thirty years •'* 


6Xt Printed Treaties, lu the M^tbly Mtrnry. Tiadal's Ct^^ 


M O D E R N E U R O P E. 449 

That thcfc conditions, cfpecially on the part of lktter 
rcat Britain, were very inadequate to the fuccefs ^ J^[^ 
id cxpencc of the w^r, will be denied by no intclli- a.U. 171 j. 
nt man, whofc undcrftanding is not warped by po- 
ical prejudices ; and the commercial treaty, which 
as concluded at the fame time, between Fiance and 
igland, was evidently, as I fliall afterward have 
cafion to (hew, to the difadvantage of the latter 
ngdom. The other confederates had more caufe 
be fatisfied, and the emperor Charles VI. as much 
any of them : yet was he obdinate in refufmg to 
;n the general pacification, though two months 
ere allowed him to deliberate on the terms. But 
; bad foon reafon to repent his rafhnefs in refolving 
continue the war alone : for although he had pru- 
intly concluded a treaty with the Hungarian maU 
ntcnts, in confcquence of which twenty-two regi- 
ents of his 'rebel. fubjefls entered into his fervice, 
e imperial army on the Rhine, commanded by 
ince Eugene, was never in a condition to face the 
^nch under Villar?, who took fucccfTively Worms, 
»ire, Keiferlauter, and the imporrant fortrefs of 
indau. He forced the paiTage of the Rhine; at- 
Jced and defeated general Vaubonnc in his en- 
^nchmeiUs, and reduced Friburg, the capital of 
ifgaw, before the clofc of the campaign ^•. 

Unwilling to profecurc a dif^ftrous war, the cm- 
Tor began ferioufly to think of peace ; and confcrrri- 
s, which afterward terminated in a pacific Irca'y, 

fin, ^c. The AJJUmt*^ vs'r'.'u ]e^. r a hi^n*:^" '•'/•.»»;» V.'r»/J ♦/a/!-^ f/, 
: SpaoiA Main, prortd thi Tr.oii '<\i\x\'j^»".u^ -<;• :■ > U-r.-.t *.{ 
reat Britain. It wu, hc-wcrcr, tr. U itrit f.r * .*, p r* >i '.j<k,n, $itt 
iw prmltge haviog ban {arjrr-'.j «r .-tA Kr J /*-.:-?, 
ii . Voluxre, Siedg^ ctap. xxu* r,:r.f / /. ,r»; f^ , ; , j. 

Vol. IV. G g were 




were opened, between prince Eugene and marefchil 
Villars, at Raftadt. The terms of this treaty, wbidi 
was concluded on the 6th of March, 1714* were left 
favourable 10 the emperor than thofc oiFcrcd at 
Utrecht. The king of France retained Landaiii 
which he had formerly propofed to cede, together 
with feveral foitrefles beyond the Rhine, which he 
had agreed to demolifh. He got the electors of Ba- 
varia and Cologne fully re*eftabli(hcd in their do- 
minions and dignities ; the eleftor of Bavaria coo- 
fcnting to rclinquilh the ifland of Sardinia to 1 he em- 
peror, in return for tiie Upper Palatinate, and the 
kic»g of Fiance to acknowledge, in form, the electoral 
dignity of the duke of Hanover ' *. The principal ar« 
tides, in regard to Italy and the Low Countries, woe 
the fame with thofe fettled at Utrecht. 

About the time that the treaty of Raftadt was 
concluded, the king of Spain acceded to the general 
pacification j being perfuaded by Lis grandfather, 
Lewis XIV. to forego his abfurd demand in favour of 
the princefs Orfini. But Philip V. although now freed 
from all apprchenfions on the part of the confederates, 
was by no means in quiet pofllflion of his kir.^dcm. 
The Catalans were (lill in arms, aiid the inhabitants of 
Barcelona had come to a refolution of defending ihem- 
fclves to the laft extremity ; not, however, as has been 
rcprefented by fome hiftorians, from any romantic idea 
of eHablifhing an independent republic, but with a 
virw of prcfcrviniT their lives and their civil rights, 
all who had revoked bcin^T threatened with the jnfticc 
of the fword. Had the court of Madrid ufed a more 
moderate language, Barcelona would have capitulated 
immediately after the departure of the Imperialifts, 

61. Printed Treaty in the MMtbly Mercury ^ bV. 



lot as nothing was talked of by the Spanifli miniftcrs l-^T^if R 
nd generals but fevere retribution, the people became y/ ^- *j 
irious and dcfperate ^3, ^' ^* "7 14» 

Vast preparations were made for the reduflion 
f this important place. And the duke of Berwick, 
sing a third time inveftcd with the rliief command 
I Spain, fat down before it wiih an army compofed 
i fifty battalions of French, and twenty of Spnnilh 
)Ot, together with fifty.onc fquadrons of horfc; 
hilc another army, divided into different bodies, 
!pt the country in awe, and a French and Spanifh 
ret cut off* all communication with the town by fea. 
c had cighty-fevcn pieces of heavy cannon, fifteen 
lodred thoufand weight of powder, and everything 
fe in profuGng, that could be thought of for facili- 
ting a fiege. The garrifon of Barcelona confiftcd 

fixtcen thoufand men, and the fortifications were 
rinidable, cfpecially on the fide toward the land. 
be duke of Berwick m^de hi^ attack on the fide next 
9 fca, where the operations were more cafy, by 
ihn of certain eminences, behind which fcveral bat* 
lions might be phced under cover ; and where the 
rtains of the baftions being much raife<l, otTcrcd a 
r mark for the canaon of the beOegers ^*m 

After the trenches had been opened about a 
mth, a breach was mide in the Iji'llon of St, 
ara, and a lodgment clT^cled ; out tiC ^.Tiili-.*-* Aug. i j. 
TC foddenly driven from their p:>rt, wi !t Uti lofi 
a thoufand men. ThiJ misfortan'^, ar ! ^hc vi- 
rous rcfiftancc of the befiepred, d::^.rr..r\c\ tUc 
ikc of Berwick to hazard no mc:c p-rclal affacki* 

^3. Doke of Berwick'* 3fr«. ▼oL fi. ^4- W. i'v^'l. 

G g a He 


THE HISTORY OF He rcfolvcd to lay the front of the place fo complete- 
A.D. 1714. 'y Jcvcl, that he might enter it, as it were, in line of 
battle. And he accom{^i(hed his purpofe, by patience 
and pcrfeverance. But before he ordered the generd 
aflault, he fummoned the town to furrender. So 
great, however^ was the obftinacy of the citizenSi 
that| although their provifions were almoft ezhaaftdi 
though feven breaches had been made in the bodj of 
the place, and no probability remained of their receif« 
ing either aid or fupply, they hung out a flag of deS* 
Sept.^ii.' ance, and refufed to liften to any terms of capitnb- 
tion ! — The aflault was made and repelled with fury. 
At length, after (Iruggling from day-break till threeis 
the afternoon, and being driven from moft of thdr 
works, the inhabitants demanded a parley. It wil 
granted them. But they could obtain no condttiooib 
except a promife that their lives fliould be fafe^ anl 
that the town fhould not be plundered. That pio* 
mife was religioufly obferved by the duke of Benrid^ 
who had loil ten thoufand men during the fiegei 
the citizens about fix thoufand *\ All Cataioaiij 
fubmitted ; and the Catalans were di(armed| vA \ 
Itript of their ancient privileges. 

This, my dear Philip, to ufe the language of 11. 
elegant hiflorian, was the lafl flame of that great fo|. 
^ kindled by the will of Charles II. of Spain, wUck- 
had fo long laid wade the fineft countries 10 Ei^ j 
rope ^^» I ought now to carry forward the adfW J 
tures of Charles XIL and the aflairs of the Noitklj 
but perfpicuity requires, that I firft elucidate tkflfej 
intrigues, which we have feen gathering in tiiecwrti 
of England* 

65. Duke of Berwick, ubi fup. 66, Voltaire, SUcUt di^ 1 




GREiiT Britatk, from the Peace 0/* Utrecht, to 
the Supprejfion of the Rehellion^ in 1715, ivhhfome 
jtcCQunt of the /fffairsofFfiAscEy and the Intrigues 
of the Court of St. Gekmains. 

TH E peace of Utrecht, though in iifelf an un- I-Etter 
popular meafurci afFordcd the EngHfli mini- ^_^_^ 
firj a momentary triumph over their political adver* A- <>• ^i^z* 
fariesy and highly raifed the hopes of the Jacobites ; 
who flattered themfelves, that the redoration of gene- 
ral tranquillity would enable the queen to take fome 
cffedual ftep in favour of the Pretender, v/hofe in- 
terefts flic feemed now to have fincerely at heart. 
But it will be neceffary, my dear Philip, the better 
to ill uft rate jthis matter, to go a few years back, and 
colled fuch particulars relative to the court of St. 
\ Germains, as could not readily enter into the general 

j In the beginning of the year 17 1 1, the abbe Gaul- ^. 0. ,^,,, 
I tier^ who was employed in the fecret negociations 
; between France and England, waited upon the duke 
of Berwick, at St. Germains, with propofals from the 
earl of Oxford, for the redoration of the Pretender. 
Thefe propofals were in fubftance, That provided 
queen Anne (hould be permitted to enjoy the crown 
in tranquillity during her life, (he would fecure to 
her brother the pofTeflion of it, after her death ; and 
that fufficient flipulations (liould be Ggned, on his Hde, 
for the prefervation of the church of England and the 
liberties of the kingdom '• Thefe preliminaries be- 

|. Duke of Berwick*) ilffv. vol. it4 

G g 3 ing 


ing fcfled, fays the duke of Berwick, who conduced 
the affairs of tlic Pretender, we confulted on the means 
of executing the bufinefs 5 but the abbe could nor, it 
that rime, enter into any particulars, as the lord trea- 
furer had not yet fully explained to him his inten- 
tions. It was ncceffary, Oxford faid, that the peace 
fhould be concluded before the Englifh miniftry 
could venture upon fo delicate a mtafure ^ 

Meanwhile fuch of the Jacobites as were neareft 
the perfon of the quern, perceiving her inclinattooS| 
urged her perpetually to concert fome plan for the 
refloration of the Pretender. Sincere in her own at- 
tachment to the church of England, (he (ignified 
her dcfire that he fhould abjure popery, and place 
himfelf in a capacity of hang fervcd. But findin|; 
him obdinate, (he replied, when urged by the duke 
of Buckingham to alter the fucceflTion in his favoari 
•* How can I ferve him ? He takes not the Icaft 
•* ftep to oblige me, in what I moft deGre. Tott 
** know a p^pift cannot enjoy this crown in peace« 
«' But th example of the father has no weight with 
** the fon ; he prefers his religious errors to the 
** throne of a great kingdom. How, therefore, can I 
** undo what I have already done ! He may thank 
*' himfelf for his exclufion. He knows I love my 
** own family better than any other. All would be 
•* eafy, if he would enter the pale of the church of 

2, Id ihld. '* Thouj^h it appeared to mc,*' adds the duke of Ber- 
wick, " that one of thcfc points was no hindrance to the other; ycf, 
*' in orucr to fiicw that we would omit nothinj^ to promote the inicrcft 
** of the Pretender, and to give proofs of our finccrity, wc wrote to all 
" the Jacobites to join with the court. And their influence contributed 
•< grtatly to make the queen's party fo fuperior in the houfc of com- 
" nions, that every thipp was carried there according to her wiftev* 
This information is confirmed by the Stuart and Hanover Papert, 


M O D E R N E U R O P E. 455 

•• England. Advife him to change his religion ; as letter 
*• that only can turn the opinion of the people in bis x^^v. 
" favour J.'* A. D. 1713. 

The duke of Buckingham conveyed this anfwer to 
the court of St. Germains; and, at the fame time, 
feconded the requeft of the qifeen. But his argu- 
ments were all loft on the Pretender, who was a zea- 
lous catholic, and made a matter of confcience in ad- 
hering to his religion, in defiance of all prudential 
confiderations ^ ; an irrefragable proof of the moft 
incurable and dangerous weaknefs in a prince, how- 
ever commendable in a private perfon. For, as a 
fenfible writer obferves, if a king is not willing to go 
to heaven in the fame way with his people, they will 
fcarce acknowledge the legality of his authority on 
earth '• And a man who could relinquifli his hopes 
of a great kingdom, for a fpeculative point of faith, 
difcovered a fpirit of bigotry, that would have facri- 
ficed all civil engigements to the propagation of that 
faith. He was not fit to be truiled with power. 

The majority of the Tories, however, in their 
vehement zeal for the hereditary defcent of the crown, 
overlooked the danger of the Pretender's attachment 
to the RomiQi religion *, and aflared him. That 
ihould he only conform^ in appearance^ to the church 
of England, without the formality of a public recan- 
tation, they would endeavour to procure the imme' 
diate repeal of the Aft of Settlement ^. But Oxford, 
who never loft fight of the Protcftant SucceDion or 
the fccurity of his own power, aflurcd the duke of 
Berwick, by the abbe Gauliier, on his return to 

3. ^himrt Papers^ I712. 4. Id. ib-d. 

y Macphcrfon, Hiji. Brit. vol. 11. 6. Stuart Papers ^ 1711. 

G g 4 France, 


France, in 1712, That the Pretender muft ftiH bate 
patience ; that the Itaft hint of queen Anne's Inten- 
tions in favour of her brother would give the Wbigi 
occafion to exclaim loudly againft the court, and 
mi^^ht not only deftroy the ncccflary buGnefs of the 
peace, but perhaps occaGon a change in the minj- 
ftry, and even a revolution in the flate ; that itwaf 
befide n^ceflary to make fure of the army, the requi- 
fite (leps for which could not be taken till after the 
peace was Ggned, when it would be reduced,andfucb 
ofEcers only retained as could be depended 00 7. 

The plaufibility of thefe arguments quieted the 
Jacobites, and the court of St. Germains, for a time. 
But when the peace was c mcluded, and the army re- 
duced, yet no efFe£lual ftep taken in favour of the 
Pretender, his own uneaGnefs and the anxiety of ht% 
pnrtizans began to return. They prcQed Oxford to 
fulfil his engagements ; reprefenting to him. That, 
as there never could be a houfe of commons better 
difpofed to fecond the views of the queen, he had only 
to propofc the repeal of the A£t of Settlement, and 
it V onlcl immediately be voted. It was neccflary, he 
replied, to proceed more gently in the bufinefs; but 
that tbey might make thcmfelvcs cafy, as he was fc- 
licnfly at work in the caufe *. ** In this manner,'*. 
favs the duke of Berwick, ** did the lord-treafurer 
*' amufc us ; and it was difficult to prevent his doing 
•' fo. To have broke with him, would have proved the 
** utter ruin of our aft'airs, as he had the adminiftration 
" of England in his hands, and entirely governed 
'* queen Anne:. We were, therefore, forced io pre' 
•* tenrJ to truft him *, but we negledled not, at the 
** fame time, privately to concert meafures with the 

7. Duke of Berwick's Mm. vol. ii. %. Id. ibid. 


M O D E R N E U R O P E. 457 

f^ duke of Ormand, and other well afFf £led perfons, ^xxTv ^ 
?* that wc might be able to bring about ihc redoration u^>v^«i 
f« of the Pretender, if Oxford fhould fail us 9." A^' *7*1- 

Oxford, indeed, flood on fuch dangerous ground^ 
that he durd not undertake any bold meafure, whatr 
ever might be his inclinations. Equally diftruftcd by 
both Whigs and Tories, he was dcftitute of friends : 
bis whole fecurity confided in the jealoufy of the^two 
parties, and his whole buBnefs was to balance them. 
In order to filence the clamours of the Whigs, he 
prevailed upon the queen to declare, in her fpeech to 
the parliament, contrary to her own inclinations and 
to truth. That " the mod perfccl friendftiip fubfided 
!* between her and the houfe of Hanover," at the 
fame time that (he mentioned what die had done for 
(ecuriog the Protedant Succedion '% This declara- 
tion had the defired efTefl. But Oxford was lefs fuc« 
^efsful in other meafures. 

The peace was generally difliked by the people, 
apd all impartial men repiobated t^e treaty of com- 
merce with France, as foon as the terms were known. 
Exception was particularly taken againd the eighth 
and ninth articles, importing, *^ That Great Britain 
5* and France fliould mutually enjoy all the privileges 
^ in trading with each other, which either granted 
'^ to the inod favoured nation ; that all prohibitions 
'^ (hottld be removed, and no higher duties impofed 
«• on the Frepch commodities than on thofe of any 
•• other people/* The ruinous tendency of thefe ar- 
ticles was perceived by the whole trading part of the 
kingdom. ' It was accordingly urged, when a bill was 

9. 2fm, yoL ii. 10. Jouraali, Ap. 9, 1713. 



Part. IT. brought into the houfe of commons, for confirmlag 
A. I>.i7ii' *^^ni> ^^^3^ our tr^^t with Portugal, the m oft bene- 
ficial of any, would he Ioft» fhould the duties on 
French ?nd Portugucfe wines be made equal, the 
freight from Portugal being higher, and the French 
wines more generally agreeable to the tafte of the En- 
glifh nation. And if we did notconfvime the wines of 
Portugal, it was unreafonable to think the Portugaefc 
would continue to purchafe our manufaftures, in ba- 
lance for which we received, in bullion or fpecie, 
near a million (terling annually ; that we could expefl 
from France no equivalent for this lof$, as the French 
had eftabli(hed woollen manufafturcs, fufficrent not 
only to fupply themfelves, but even to rival us in 
foreign markets; that our filk manuracVure, which 
employed a number of people, and faved a vaff fom 
annually to the nation, would be ruined, (hould a 
free importation of filk ftuffs, from France, be per- 
mitted -, and like wife our trade to Italy and Turky, 
where we difpofcd of great quantities of woollen 
goods, in exchange for the raw material of this ma- 
nufaflurc ; that the ruin of our manufaflures of 
linen and p^per would alfo be the confequence of a 
free importation of thofe articles from France, as 
the chcipncfs of labour and pr^ovifions in that king* 
dom would enable the French to underfc^l ut^, even in 
our own markets *'. Thefe, and fimilar arguments, 
induced the more moderate Tories to join the Whigs, 
and the bill was rejcfted by a majority of nine votes. 

Encouraged by this fuccefs, and juftly alarmed 
for the fafcty of the Proteftant Succeflion, the Whigs 
endeavoured to awaken the fears of the people, by 
fcvcral virulent fpeeches in parliament againll the Pre- 

IX. FarL Debater^ X713. Burnet, bookvii. 




tender, at the fame time that they folicited the clefl:or letter 


of Hanover to corns over in pcrfon, or to fend the ^ — ^-Lf 
cleftoral prince to England. Both thefe propofals A, D. 1713. 
the cle(^or very prudently rejefted. But, in order to 
gratify, in fome degree, the ardour of his partizans, 
to embarrafs the Briiifli minlftry, and even to inti- 
midite queen Anne, he allowed Schutz, his envoy at 
the irourt ot LonJon, to demand a writ for the elec- A.D.1714. 
toral prlfice to Cu in the boufc of peers, as duke of 
Ctinbridjtre ". Oxford and his aflbciates were filled 
Vfiih confternation at a rcqueft fo unexpefted, and the 
queen ^as agitated with all the violence of paflfion. 
Her iciVnNocnt w^is increafed by the exultation of the 
Whi^^^. Seemmg to derive vigour from her very ter- 
ror, ihe ficv^Iared, That (he would fooner fuffer the lofs 
of her ciDwn, than permit any prince of the Houfe of 
Hanover ro come over to Britain to refide in her life- 
time. And Schutz was forbid to appear any more at 
court, under pretence that he had exceeded his in- 
ftru£tions 3. 

Whether the clcflor had ever any ferious inten- 
tion of fending his fon to England may be queftion- 
ed, though he reprefented, in a memorial to queen 
Anne, •• That for the fccurity of her royal perfon, 
** her kingdoms, and the proteftant religion, it feemed 
" ncceflary to fettle in Britain fome prince of the 
*« cleftoral family'*;** but it is certain that the Ja- 
cobites had formed a deGgn of bringing over the Pre- 
tender, and that he himfelf and his adherents enter- 
tained the mod fanguine expectations of his fpeedy 
exaltation to the throne. Thefe expeftations were 
heightened by the promtfed regulation of the army. 

II Hatwver Psptrt, ApriJ, I714. 1^. Id. ibid. 

14, Jiwiever Faftrt^ May, lyi^* 



The duke of Argyle, the carl of Stair, and all other 
officers of diftinaion, whom the Jacobites and more 
violent Tories fufpefted would fupport the A€t of 
Settlement, were removed from their military employ. 
ments ; and the command of the whole regular troops 
in the kingdom was vefted in the Kands of the duke of 
Ormond and his creatures, who were known to be 
well aflecled to the excluded family. 

This meafure, however, of which St. John, now 
created lord Bolingbroke, not Oxford, was the au- 
thor, is faid to have been didlated by a jealoufy of the 
ambitious defigns of the Whigs and the houfe of Ha-r 
nover (who are accufed of having formed a fcheme 
for feizing the reins of government) rather than by 
any attachment to the interefts of the Pretender. But 
be that as it may, we know that a rneafure fatal to the 
Pretender's views was adopted by the Britith mi- 
nillry, in order to quiet the fears of the eledlor, and 
to engage him to keep his fon at home ; queen Anne's 
fears from the family of Hanover being ultimately 
more than a balance for her afTedlion for her owp. 

Information having been obtained, by the vigi- 
lance of the earl of Wharton, that certain Irifli of- 
ficers were eniii>ing men for the Pretender, they were 
taken into cuftody. The people were alarmed, and 
the Whigs added artfully to their fears. The lord 
treafurer, in concert with the Whigs, wrought fo 
much on the natural timidity of the duke of Shrewf- 
bury, that he joined him on this occaGon; and, 
through their combined influence, the majority of 
the cabinet-council agreed to iflue a proclama- 
tion^ promiflng a reward of five thoufand pounda 



h«, a varm fries J, «d 2= iaf u'c^t ciarifi. A> I ^^y^^* 

»vereig]i« Dotwiibilzsdbs: the il'uilrious cients i-f , ^^.^ 

reign, (he i$ cntit'.cJ to !ir:!c praifc : Ih? po-VrJiJ A,iXa:»4* 
bcr vigonr of m-nd, fp'^fn.^.td ulsr.r.s ncr 2 v*cc;> 
etraiion into humaa ^^*:t<. A pr^ry to ih^ mctt 
aviog ticiiditr, and crnt-naill? go%cTTK.T bf f.i. 
riles, (he cui h«r«ii} be iViU to haie ever :h.^:.^": 
heridf, or to hare scctrd actoril'iig to her own .r.- 
ations. But as hsr popularity concealed :hc wcix- 
of her perton^l auih^ritj-, :he grcii ahi'.UK\< of 
principal ftiTzn's, to «hccn (he ow^d ;hj; p^pu »r- 
I threw a fple&did veil o«er the feeble qui].:!^) ot 
en Aone. 

)URINC an interval of her illnefr, wMch w^is a 
d of lethargic dozing, brought on by via!iMt ngU 
on of iniod, on account of the critical il ite of 

afifMrSt (he dcl;ve:ei th;: trcafurei's ilur 10 the 
:c of Shrcwibury. ThuC r.oblemen was attached 
:hc excluded faoiily j but his cauticn had hithcr:o 
ie him temporif::, and it was now too late to t^le 

effcdlual ftcp ia favour of the Pretender. The 
li:gs were highly elated at the near pri fpecl ot 
event, which thty flattered thcmfelvcs would not 
y dispel all their fears, in regard to the ProtciUnt 
celEon, but prove alike friendly to their power and 
heir principles. The Tories were dcprcflVd in an 
at degree 5 and the Jacobites were utterly difcon- 
rcd, all their projects being yet in embryo. Aui- 
:ed with the ardour of their party, and petb.ips 
a zeal for the welfare of their country, the dukrs 
Summerfet and Argyle boldly entered the courcil- 
mber, without being fummoned. Though their 
fence was little acceptable, and fo unexpected, thut 
ir appearance (illed the council with conllei nation, 



PART II. they were deCred by the timid Shewfbury to tate 
A*D.^7il! ^^'' places, and thanked for their readincfs to gitc 
tbeir afliftance at fucb a crifis. Other Whig mem- 
bers joined them ; and a multitude of the nobility 
and gentry being aflembled, as foon as the queen ex- 
pired, orders weie given, agreeable to the Aft of Set- 
tlement, to proclaim George, elector of Brunfwick, 
King of Great Britian'** A regency was appointed 
according to his nomination, his title was owned bf 
foreign princes and dates, and all things continued 
quiet in England until his arrival. 

Sept. 17. George I. afcended the throne of Great Britain iu 
the fifty -fourth year of his age ; and the fame pru- 
dence, which bad hitherto di(lingui(hed him, in his 
negociations with the Britifh courtf was confpicvous 
throughout his reign. In contradi(lin£tion to the un- 
generous and impolitic maxim, too frequently em- 
braced by the princes of the houfe of Stuart^ of truft- 
ing to the attachment of their friends, without re^ 
warding them^ and attempting, by favours, to make 
friends of their enemies, he made it a rule never to 
forget his friends, and to fet his enemies at defiance. 
Conformable to this mode of thinking, which he per- 
haps carried to exccfs, he placed not only the admini- 
(Iration, but all the principal employments of the 
kingdom, both civil and military, in the hands of the 
Whiji;?. The treafury and admiralty were put in corn- 
mi tTion ; the command of the army was taken from 
•Jie duke of Ormond, and reftored to the duke of 
T^Tarlborou^h; the duke of Argyle was made com- 
mander i:i chi;:f of the forces in Scotland ; the great 
Lai vvMS given to lord Cowper, the privy fcal to the 

i2. /j/v/r.v/v Mercury for July 1714. Tindal's Contiit. of Rapm%vol»i. 



tarl of Wharton, ami the government of IreUnd to 
the carl of Sunderland. Lord Townfhend and Mr. 
Stanhope were appointed fecretaries of (late j the duke A.D. 1714. 
of Somerfet was nominated mafter of the horfe, Mr. 
Pultoey fccrctary at war, and Mr. Walpole pay- 
imfter-general. A new parliament was called, in A.D. 1715. 
which the intercft of the Whigs predominated ; and 
a fccret committee, chofen by ballot, was appointed 
to examine alt the papers^ and inquire into all the 
negociations relative to the late pe^ce, as well as to 
the ceflatioti of arms, by which it was preceded. 

The Committee of Secrecy profecuted their tnquirf 
with the greaceft eagemefs ; and, in confequence of 
tbeif report, the commons refolved to impeach lord 
Bolingbroke, the earl of Oxford, and the duke of 
Ormond, of high-treafoo. The grounds of thefe im« 
pcachments were, the (hare which Oxford and Bo« 
lingbroke had in the clandeftine negociations with 
France, and Ormond's a£ling in concert with Villars^ 
after the fatal fufpenfion of arms '9. More timid, or 
confcious of fuperior guilt, Bolingbroke and Ormond 
nbade t^etr efc^pe to the continent, while Oxford 
continued to attend his duty in parliament, and was 
committed to the Tower. His behaviour, through- 
out the profecution, was firm and manly. When im- 
peached by the commons at the bar of the houfe of 
lords, all the arguments of his friends being found in- 
fttfficient to acquit him, he fpoke to the following 
purport* ** The whole charge againft me may be re-" 
** duced to the negociating and concluding the peace 
<< of Utrecht : and that peace, bad as it is reprefented, 
•* has been approved of by two fuccelBve parliaments. 
<^ As I always a£led by the immediate directions and 


19. Rtp^ri ofthi Cammittu of Stcncym 

Vol. IV. H h com- 


PART II. '« commands of the queen, my miftrcfs, and never of« 
A^ofivl- ** ^^^^^^ againft any known law, I am juftificdin my 
** confcicncc, and unconcerned for the life of an in- 
** fignificant old man ; but I cannot remain uncon* 
•' cerned, without the highcft ingratitude, for the rc- 
** puuiion of the bed of queens. Gratitude binds mc 
•* to vindicate her memory. 

«« Mt lords," added he, •* if minlfters of date, 
*' aQing by the immediate command of their fo- 
*^ vereign, are afterward to be made accountable for 
** their proceedings* it may, one day or other, be the 
^* cafe of every member of this auguft aflembly. I do 
** not doubt, therefore, that, out of regard to your- 
** felves, your lordfhips will give me an equitable hear* 
*' ing ; and I hope that, in the profecution of this en* 
•• quiry, it will appear I have merited not only the ifh 
•• duigenceyhui the hvoux of the prefeni government^/* 
The government feems at laft to have been made fen* 
fible of the truth of this aflcrtion ; for Oxford, when 
brought to his trial, after lying near two years inpri- 
fon, was difmifled for want of accufers, the commoai 
not chufing to appear againft him. 

To thcfe profecutions, which have been reprefcnted 
as vindictive, and the partiality of the king to the 
Wbigs, the rebellion that difturbcd the beginning of 
this reign has been afcribed ; but very unjuftly. The 
profroations were necelfary, in order to free the na- 
tion ^fom the imputation of having connived at a 
fnai..*iir'; l>reach of public faith: and if George I., 
hai lot thrown 1 imfelf into the hands of the Whigf. 
he .r.uft icon h-ve returned to Hanover. Of all the 

2 . Pa-r Hijl 1 7 15, 



parties in 'the kingdom, they only were fincerely at- ^^rv^ 
tached to his caufe, or could now be faid firmly to ad- y — ^^'-f 
here to the principles of the Revolution. The more ^'^' '7^i* 
moderate Tories might perhaps have been gained, but 
the animolity between them and the Whigs was yet 
too keen to admit of a coalition. Befide, fuch a co- 
alition^ though it might have quieted, in appearance^ 
fome faQious leaders, and produced a momentary 
calm^ would have been dangerous to the e(labli(hed 

The Tories were in general inclined to Jacobitifm. 
The heads of the party, both in England and Scotland^ 
held a Tecrct correfpondence with the Pretender j and, 
although no regular concert had been formed, a ten- 
dency toward an infurre£tion appeared among tbem^ 
from one end of the ifl^ind to the other, and the moft 
artful means were employed to inflame the body of 
the people, as well as to fecure particular adherents. 
The difbanded officers were gained by money ^<; 
fcandalotts libels were pubiifhed againft the elefloral 
family ; the Pretender's manifeftoes were every where 
difperfed : all the Whigs were brought under the de^ 
Icription of diflenters, and the cry of the danger of the 
church was revived » 

During thefe difcontents and cabals, which were 
chiefly occaGoned by the difappointment of the Jaco<^ 
bites and more violent Tories, in confequence of the 
premature death of queen Anne, the zeal and loyalty 
of the Whigs only could have fupported king George 
upon the throne of Great Britain ; and a fmall body 
of foreign troops was only wanting, to have made the 
cooteft doubtful between the houfe of Stuart and that 

11 Dake of Berwick*! Mtm^ vol iu 

Hh2 of 


PART n. ' of Hanover, Such a body of troops the duke of Or- 
A.D. 1715. roond, and other zealous Jacobites in England, eager- 
ly foHcited from the Pretender, as neceflTary to render 
their defigns in his favour fuccefsful. 

Convinced of the reafonablenefs of this demand, 
the duke of Berwick ufed all his intf uence, but in vain, 
to procure a few regiments from the court of Vet- 
failles *\ Lewis XIV. now broken by years and infir- 
mities, and Handing on the verge of the grave, was un- 
willing to engage in a new war, or hazard any meafure 
that might difturb the minority of his great-grandfon. 
He therefore declined taking openly any part in the 
affairs of the Pretender ; and the vigilance of the carl 
of Stair, the Britifh ambaflador in France, effefiually 
prevented any fecrei aids from operating to the difad- 
▼antage of his maften 

The Pretender, however, had ftill hopes of being 
able to afcend the throne of his anceftors, by means 
of his Englifli adherents, and the afliftance of the 
Scotti(h Jacobites, who had already provided them- 
felves with arms, and were ready to rife at his com- 
rtiand. His brother, the duke of Berwick, and the 
fugitive lord Bolingbroke, to whom he had delivered 
the feals, as fecretary of ftate, were lefs fanguinc in 
their expcftations ; yet they flattered themfclvcs, that 
fome bold ftep would be taken, which might encou- 
rage the court of France to interpofe in his favour. 
But the mifconduft of the duke of Ormond dilap- 
pointed all thefe hopes. 

Thts nobleman, after his imjpeachment, had re- 
tired to his houfc at Richmondi trhere he lived in 

* aa .Id. ibid« 



great ftate, and was furroundcd by the whole body of ^«^^^^ 
the Tories, of which he was fuppofed to be the head. \^,,^j 
He feemed to have fct up the ftandard againft his A.D. 1713. 
fovereign. And he affured the Pretender, he would 
bold his ftation as long as poflible ; and when he could 
maintain it no longer, that he would retire to the Nortli 
or Weft of England^ where he had many friends, »• 
mong whom he bad diftriboted a number of reduced 
oiHcers, and in one of thofe quarters begin an infur- 
re£tion. He had even fettled a relay of horfes, in 
order to proceed with more expedition, when the 
dangerous moment (hould arrive *^ fiut Ormond) 
though perfonally brave, was deftitute of that vigour 
of fpirit, which is neceffary for the execution of fuch 
an undertaking. When informed that a party of the 
guards had orders to furround his houfe and feize his 
perfon, he loil all prefence of mind, and haftily made 
liis efcape to France ; without leaving any indruc- 
tions for his friends, who were waiting for the fum- 
mons to take up arms, and eager to a£l under his com- 
mand *♦. 

The unexpefted flight of Ormond gave a fatal 
flab to the caufe of the Pretender. It not only dif- 
concerted the plans of his Englifh adherents, but con- 
firmed the court of Verfailles in the refolution of 
yielding him no open affiftance. If a man, on whofe 
credit the higheft hopes of the Jacobites refted, waa 
under the ncceffity of abandoning his country, with- 
out being able to ftrike a blow, the French miniftry 
very reafonably concluded, that the Tory party could 
not be fo powerful, or fo ripe for an infurrcdtion aa 
they had been reprefented. 

z^, Duke of Berwick*! JMkm. vol. ii. ^^, id ibid. 

^^2 Tfl» 



r^- The death of Lewis XIV. which happened foon 
after, farther embarrafTcd the Pretender's affairs. 
<* No prince,'* fays the duke of Berwick, ** was ever 
<^ fo little known as this monarch. He has been re- 
^^ prefented as a man not only cruel and falfe, but 
*^ dlQicult of accefs* I have frequently had the hon* 
f' our of audiences from him, and have been very bf 
<* miliarly admitted to his prefence ; and I can affirm, 
** that his pride was only in appearance. He was 
** bom with an air of majejly^ which ftruck everyone 
<* fo much, that nobody could approach him without 
** being feized with awe and rcfpedl \ but as foon as 
** you fpoke to him, he foftencd his countenance, and 
<' put you quite at eafe. He was the mod polite nan 
^^ in his kingdom : and his anfwers were accompanied 
•* with fo many obliging expreffions, that if he 
** granted your requeft, the obligation was doubled, 
^* by the manner of conferring it 5 and, if he refufed, 
** you could not complain *^." It was that air of 
majefty, mentioned by the duke of Berwick, which fo 
difconcerted the old officer, who came to aik a fa- 
vour of Lewis XIV. that he could only fay, in a faul- 
tcring voice, ** I hope your majcfly will believe I do 
** not thus tremble before your enemies !'' The cha- 
ri^fter of this prince I have already had occafion to 
draw, and to exhibit in various lights. 

The duke of Orleans, who was appointed, by 
the parliament of Paris, regent during the minority 
of Lewis XV. in contradiflion to the will of ihe 
dcceafed monarch, affefled privately to cfpcufe the 
interefls of the houfe of Stuart ; but the exhaufted 
flate of France, and the difficulty of maintaining 
his own authority againll the other princes of the 

. a;. Duke of Berwick** Mm, toI u. 



6lood, induced him publicly to cultivate a eood tin- I-HTTER 
derftandiDg with the courc of Great Britain, and , -, *_r 
CTcn to take, though with fceming reludlance, a)l A.D. 171^, 
the flepe pointed out by the earl of Stair, for defeat* 
ing the deCgns of the Jacobites. Of thofe the mod 
important was, the ftopping of fomc (hips laden with 
srms^and ammunition ; an irreparable lofs to the Pre* 
tender, as he could neither procure money, nor leave 
to haj op a frefh quantity of fuch articles in any 
other country **• 

Notwithstanding thefe dlfcouragements, the 
indigent reprefcntative of the unfortunate family of 
Stuart did not relinquifh his hopes of a crown : nor 
did his partizans, either in Englaiid or Scotland, abate 
of their ardour in his caufe. But ardour, unlefs go- 
Tcrned by prudence, is a wild energy, that often 
brings ruin on the party it was intended to ftrve. It 
required all the cool e^^perience of the duke of Ber« 
wick, and the great talents of lord Bolingbroke, to 
moderate the zeal of the Englifh and Scottifb Jaco- 
bites. The Highlanders were impatient to take up 
arms: they had entered into a regular concert for 
that purpofe : they knew their force ; and. confident 
of fucccfs, they entreated tho Pfetend<:r to place him- 
felf at their head, or at lead to permit them to rife in 
vindication of his juit rights. Some account mud 
here be given of this fingular race of men. 

The Highlanders are the reputed defcendantsof the 
ancient Caledonians, or original inhabitants of North 
Britain, and value ihemfelves on having had the rare 
fortune of never being fubjeded to the law of any 
conqueror. From the viftorious arms of the Romans, 
they too)( refuge in their rugged mountains^ and there 
%6. Id. ibid. 


continued to enjoy their independency, while that am- 
bitious people remained mailers of the fouthern parts 
of this ifland. Nor has the fword*of Dane, of Saxoa^ 
or of NormaUj ever reduced them to fubmiffion. 

But although independent, the Highlanders were 
by no means free. Divided into a variety of tribes or 
Clans, undcrr chiefs, who exercifed an arbitrary jurif- 
di£tion over them, the body of the people were in a great 
meafure flaves, fubje£led to the imperious will of their 
lords. And from that law of will, which it was the 
common intered and the pride of all the heads of Clans 
to fupport, there lay no appeal ; for although the High- 
land chiefs acknowledged the fovcrcigniy of the king of 
Scotland, and held ihemfelves bound to affifl him in his 
wars, they admitted not his controul in their private 
concerns : in their treatment of their own vaffals, or in 
their difputcs with hoiiile Clans. His mediation was 
all he could prefume to offer. Nor was that often ob- 
truded upon them ; the Scotlifh monarchs in general 
being happy, if they could prevent thcfc barbarous 
and predatory tribes from pillaging the more opulent 
and induftrious inhabitants of the Low Countries *'. 

Thb remote fituation of the Highlanders, and 
their ignorance of any language but that or their rude 
anceftors, commonly known by the name of Erfc, 
farther contributed to perpetuate their, barbarity 
and fl;ivery. They bad no means of making known 
their grievances to the throne, and few of becoming 

a?« Id pal!i;Uton of thcfe cniel inroads, it has bccD faid, that the Hign- 
landers havin«; l« t:i driven from the Low Country, byinvafion, have, 
from time iiyMtrmori.iI, thought tiiciiifclvcs '* ci.t.tltd to make rcpri/ilt 
•* upon the prt'pcrty of their invaders !" (DalrymplcS Mem. •/ Great 
JBritaim). The fame pica has been urjjcd by the American fava^ct, as an 
apology for pillaging the European fetticment^ and with more plaufibi- 
fity, as the xra of imvafiM is not immemoriuL 




acquainted with the benefits of civil government, wiih lettex 
the arts, or accommodations of civil life. x\iV. 


The fervitude of the Highland vaffals, however, 
was alleviated by certain circumft^nccs connefted with 
their condition. All the people of every Clin bore the 
name of their hereditary chief, and were fuppofcd to be 
allied to him, in different degrees, by the ties of blood. 
This kindred band', or admitted claim of a com- 
mon relation (hip, which in fmall clans was a ftrong 
curb upon the oppreffive fpirit of domination, and in 
all led to a freedom of intercourfe hi^^hly fl^xttering to 
human pride, communiAitcd to the vaflai Highlanders, 
along with the mod implicit fubmifllon to their chiefs, 
a fentimcnt of confcious dignity, and a feiife of n itu- 
ral equality, not to be found among the fubjefls of 
other petty defpots or feudal lords. And that idea of 
perfoual importance, as well as th-i complaifance of 
the Highland chiefs, wiS hcightcnea by the perpetual 
wars between the diflFerent Clans j in which every 
individual had frequent o^'portunity of difplaying his 
prowefs, and of difcovering his attachment 10 his 
leader, in the head of his family. The ties of blood 
were ftrengthened by thofe of intercft, of gratitude, 
and mutual eileem. 

Those wars, and theaftivc life of the Highlanders 
in times of peace, when they were entirely employed 
in hunting or in herding their cattle, (the labours of 
hufbandry among them being few) habituated them 
to the ufe of arms, and hardened them to the endurance 
of toil, without greatly wafting their bodily ftrength 
or deftroying their agility. Their ancient military 
weapons, in conjunAion with a target 


were a broad-fword, for cutting or thrufting at a di- 
ftaiice, and a dirk, or dagger, for ilabbing in clofe 
fight. To thefe, when they became acquainted with 
the ufc of 6rc-arj:is, they added a nfjufkct, which was 
hid afide in battle, after the Bid difchargc. They 
occafionally carried alfo a pair of piftols, that were 
fired as foon as the mufket was difchargod, &nd thrown 
in the face of the enemy, as a prelude to the havock of 
the broad-fword ; which was inftantly brandifhed by 
every arm, gleaming like the corrufcations of h'ght- 
ning, in order to infufc terror into the heart and to 
conquer the eye of the foe, and which fell on the head, 
or on the target of an antagonift, with the fliock of 
thunder. Want of perfevcrance and of union. Low- 
ever, has generally rendered the efforts of the Clans, 
as a body, abortive, notwithilanding their prowefs in 
combat, and expo fed them to the difgrace of being 
routed by an inferior number of regular troops. 

The drefs of the Highlanders was well fuited to 
thcr arms, to their moid mountainous country, and to 
their mode of life. Iiiftead of breeches they wore a 
lii-ht woollen jr^rmcnr, called ihe A7//, which came 
as lo^v as the knee; a thick cloth jacket ; a woilled 
plaid, fix yardb in lengtli, and two in breadth, wrap- 
ped loofcly round the body ; the upper fold of which 
refled on the left flioulder, leaving the right arm at 
full liberty. In battle they commonly threw away 
the plaid, that they might be enabled to make their 
movements with more celerity, and their ftrokes with 
greater force- They fought not in ranks, bu; in knots 
or feparate bands, condenfcd and 6rm. 

Such were the people, who under their numerouf 
^Licfiains^ had formed a regular confederacy, and 



were zealous to lake arms for the rcftoraiion of the 
familj of Stuart to the throne of Great Britain. 
Strongly prepoflcflcd in favour of the hcrcdiiary de- 
fcent of the crown, the Hi^hhndcrs could form no 
conception of a parliamentary right to alter the order 
of fucceiCon, from pjlitical coufideratioris. It con- 
tradicted all their ideas of kinglhip, an! e^en of clan- 
ihip. rhey thercfo.e thought rhemfw-lvts bound, by 
a facred and iadifpcnfub'c obligation, to re-inllatc in 
his lineal inheritance the excluded prince, or to perilh 
in the bold attempt. 

The Pretender's foiuhern friends were no !efs li- 
beral in their profcmons of zeal in his caufe. They 
prcfTed him to land in tht Weft of England ; where his 
perfon woi id be as fafo. ihey alFirmtd, as in Scotland, 
and where he would find aW other things ir.ore favour- 
able to his views, ddiou'^h i!icy had yet taken no de- 
cifive meafure-- tor a ge.^.r ra) inf arredlion ; though they 
flill continued to rtprcient arms and foreign troops as 
neceffary to fach a flcp, and were told that the Pre- 
tender was not only incapable of furnifliing them with 
cither, but aflurcd that he could not bring along with 
him fo many men as would be able to pioiedl him 
jgainft the peace-officers '7. 

In order to compofc the fplrlts of the Il-ghlanders, 
^ho feemed to fear nothing fo much, as tliat the bufi- 
ncfs of rcftoring their king would be taken out of 
their hands, and the honour appropriated by others, 
they were informed, that the Pretender was defirous 
to have the rifing of his friends in England and Scot- 
l^ind fo adjufted, that they might mutually affift each 

>7. ^olingbrokc*s Lii/cn to Sir Ifmiam fVhdben, ' 

pthcr 5 


other; and that it was very much to be wifhed all 
hoftilities in Scotland could be fufpcnded, until the 
Englifh were ready to take up arms **- A memorial 
drawn up by the duke of Berwick, had been already 
fcnt, by lord Bclingbroke, to the Jacobites in Eug* 
land, reprefc^nting the unieafonablcnefs of defiring 
the Pretender to land among tbem» before tbey were 
in a condiricn to fuppoit him. They were now re- 
quclled to coufidcr ferioufly, if they weie yet in fuch 
a condirion ; and aiTured, that as foon as an intima- 
tion (o th^it rurpofe fhould be given, and the time and 
place of hh>!in^ fixed, the Pretender was ready to 
put himfctlf at ihcir head. They named) as a landing 
pUce, the neighbourhood of Plymouth, ^nd faid they 
hoped the wcltcrn couniies were in a good podure to 
receive the kin^ • ; but they offered no conjedure at 
the force they could bring into the field, or thedepen* 
dcnce that might be placed in the perfons who had ea- 
glided to rile. 

Thi?, as lo«-d Bolinghroke very juftly obferves, was 
noi the anrwcT of men who knew what they were 
ahoiit. A !i:ile rr.oic prccir.ou was furely necclLry 
in (iiclating h nudagf, thu was e:cpc£led to be at- 
tcr.c'cd wiili fuch important confequcnce$. The duke 
of Ormond, hoAcvtr, fet out from Paris, and the 
Frt tender, fiom his temporary rcfidcncc at Bar, on the 
froTuitrs of Lorriiiu, in onier to join their .common 
friends. , Some aircnts wejc ftiu to the VVcIl, fonc 
to the North of Englanti, ;iiul others to London lo 
give notice that both were on their way. And their 
mutes were fo directed, that Ormond was to fail from 
the coafl of Normani^y a few days before the Prctcn- 
dtr arrived at S(. Malo, to which place the duke was 

s3. Id. ibid. 29. Boiif;gi>r«kc, ubi fup, 



to fend immediate notice of his landing, and of the l-EfT^'R 

profpeA of fuccefs '**. \— -v-*!^ 

A, D. 1715. 
But the Pretender's imprudence, and the vigilance 
of the Englifli government, defeated the defigns of 
his adherents in the Weft, and broke, in its infancy^ 
the force of a rebellion, which threatened to deluge 
the kingdom in blood. Governed by priefts aud wo» 
men, he had unwifely given, in the beginning of Sep« 
tember, a fecrct order to the earl of Mar, already ap- 
pointed his commander in chief for Scotland, to go 
immediately into that kingdom, and to take up arms '■• 
Mar, who had been fecretarj of (late for Scotlandt 
during the reign of queen Anne, and who had great 
influence in the Highlands, did not hcfitate a moment 
to obey. He inilantly left London, attended by lieu- 
tenant-general Hamilton, who had long fcrved with 
di(lin£lion in Holland and Flanders ; and as foon as 
he reached his own country, having afTembled about 
three hundred of his friends and vaflals, he proclaim- 
ed the Pretender, under the name of James VIII. of Scpc 6. 
Scotland, aiid fet up his (landard at Braemar, fum* 
moning all good fubje£ls to join him, in order to re* 
ftore their rightful fovcreign to the throne of his an- 
celtors, and deliver the nation from the tyranny of 
George, duke of Brunfwick, ufurper of the Britith 
monarchy '*. 

In confcquence of this proclamation, and a decla- 
ration, by which it was followed. Mar was foon 
joined by the marquifPes of Huntley and Tullibar- 
dine, the earls Marcfchal and Southclk, and all the 
hcadsof the Jacobite Clans. With their afllftancc, he 

50. Id. ibid. 31. Duke of Berwick's il/>i*. yoL li. ^%, !d. WM. 



P \RT n. was able in a fiw weeks, to colfca ^n army of near 
A.D.1715. ^^" thoufand men, well armed and accoutred. He 
took pofTeflion of the town of Perth, where he eftab- 
liflied his head-qaarters, and made himfclf mailer of 
almoft all that part of Scotland, which lica beyond 
the Frith of Forth. 

This was great and rapid fuccefs. But the duke 
of Argylc had already * received orders to march 
againft the rebels, with all the forces in North Bri- 
tain ; and the Pretender's affairs had fufFercd, in the 
mean time, an irreparable injury in another quarter* 
The jealoufy of goTcrnment being roufed by the on* 
advifed infurredion of Mar, the lords Lanfdown and 
Duplin, the earl of Jerfey, Sir william Windham, 
and other Jacobite leaders, who had agreed to raife 
the Weft of England, were taken into cuftody, on fuf- 
picion. The whole plan of a rebellion, in that part 
of the kingdom, was difconcerted. The gentlemen 
were intimidated, the people were over-awed ; fo that 
Ormond, when he landed, was denied a night's lodg- 
in|^, in a country where he cxpefted to head an army 
and re-eftablifh a king 3 J. He returned to France 
with the difcouraging news; but, as foon as the veflcl 
that carried him could be refitted, aftonifhing as it 
may fecm, he made a fccond attempt to land in the 
fame part of the ifland. Wh^t he could propofe, by 
this fecond attempt, his beft friends could never com- 
prehend ; and are of opinion, that a ftorm, in which 
he was in dinger of being caft away, and which forced 
him back to the French coaft, faved him from a yet 
greater peril — that of perifliing in an adventure, as 
full of extravagant raflinefs, and as void of all rca- 

I J3. Bolingbrohc't LeUer t9 Sir William IVinJ^am. 


M O D E R N E U R O P E. 479 

: meaning, as any of thofc which have rendered ^^^J!^^ 

ght of La Mancha immortal ^\ u. ^— "^ 

A,D. 171S 

; Pretender's affairs wore a belter appearance, 
ime, in the North of England. Mr. Forftcr, 
eman of fome influence in Nortliumberland, 
le lords Dcrwentwater, Widrington, and other 
e leaders, there took up armSf and aflembled a 
rable force. But as their troops conHHtrd 
of cavalry, they wrote to the carl of Mar to 
lem a reinforcement of infantry. This requeft 
adily complied with. Brigadi<;r Mackintofh 
dcred to join them, with eighteen hundred 
nders. In the mean time, having failed in an 
t upon Newcaftle, and being informed that 
itofh had already crofled the Forth, they march* 
hward to meet him. On their way, they were 
by a body of horfe, under the earb of Carn- 
nd Wintoun, the vifcount Kenmure, and other 
e leaders. They paffed the Tweed at Kclfo ; 
iving formed a jundion with Mackintofh, a 
. of war was called, in order to deliberate on 
iture proceedings. 

lis council, little unanimity could be expe£led| 
little was found. To march immediately to- 
he Weft of Scotland, and prefs the duke of 

on one Gde, while the earl of Mar attacked 
n the other, feemed the moft rational plan ; as 
)ry over that nobleman, which they could 
liave failed to obtain, would have put the Prc- 

at cnce in poflefSon of all North Britain, 
propofal was made by the earl of Wintoun, and 

34* Id ibid. 



Parth. agreed to by all the ScottiOi leaders ; but the Englifli 
j^^^., infiftcd OQ rcpafling the Tweed, aiid attacking gene- 
ral Carpenter, who had been fent, with only nine 
hundred borfe, to fupprefs the rebellion in Northum- 

From an uncomplying obftinacy, mingled with 
national jealoufy, the rebels adopted neither of thofe 
plans, nor embraced any fixed refolation. The Eng* 
liQi-infurgents perfiiled in their refufal to penetrate 
into Scotland. Fart of the Highlanders, equally ob« 
ftinate, attempted in difguft to find their way home; 
and the remainder rclu£lantly accompanied Mackin* 
to(h and Fofter, who entered England by the weftem 
border^ leaving general Carpenter on the left. 

These leaders proceeded, by the way of Penrith, 
Kendal, and Lancafter, to Prefton, where they were 
in hopes of increafing their numbers, by the riCngof 
the catholics of Lanca(hire. But before they could 
receive any confiderable accelBon of (Irength^ or ereft 
proper works for the defence of the town, they were 
informed that general Willis was ready to inveft it, 
with fix regiments of cavalry, and one bat»->!!?'^" of 
infantry. They now prepared themfclvcs for rcCd- 
V,>t ti. ancc, and repelled the firft attack of the kirrg*a troopi 
with vigour I but Willis being joined next day bp 
reinforcement of three regiments of dragoon;;, tindct 
general Carpenter, the rebels loft all heart, and fttr- 
rendered at difcretion »^ Several reduced oftcerfj 
found to htTc been in arms againft their foteieipif 
were immediately (hot as dcfertcrai the noblea^a 
tnd gtntkmea were Ctnt prifoncrs to Lottdon, id 



committed to the Tower ; while the common men ^-^TF^^ 
were confined in the caitle of Chefter^ and other fe» t-— y— i^ 
cure places in the country. A.D.x7i5- 

The fame day that the, rebellion in England was 
extinguiflied, by the furrender ofTorfter and his af- 
fociates at Prefton) the rebels in Scotland received a 
fe?efe (hock from the royal army. The carl of Mar, 
after having wafted his time in forming his army, 
with unneceflary parade, at Pe<th '', took a refolutxon 
to march into England, and join his fouthern friends. 
With this view he marched to Auchterarder, where 
he reviewed his forces, and halted a day, before he 
attempted to crofs the Forth. The duke of Argyle, 
who lay on the fouthern fide of that river, inftead o£ 
waiting to difpute the paflage of the rebels, marched 
over the bridge of Stirling, as foon as he was informed 
of their defign, and encamped within a few miles of 
jtbe earl of Mar, with his left to the village of 
Dombiaine, and his right toward Sheriff-Muir. His 
airmy confifted only of two thoufand three hundred 
infantry, and twelve hundred cavalry; that of the 
, rebels, of about nine thoufand men, chiefly infantry. > 

«^They came in fight of each other In the evening, and 
lay all night on their arms. 

At day-break Argyle, perceiving the rebels m u^. ^^ 
motion, drew up his troops in order of battle. But, 
ob the nearer approach of the enemy, finding him* 
lelf outflanked, and in danger of being furrounded, he 
was under the necefliity of altering his difpofition, by 
feizing on certain heights to the north-eaft of Dum« 
^'btaine. In confcquence of this movement, which 

37* Dake of Berwick's Mtm. vol. it* 

[^ VouW. li was 


PART II. was not made without fomc degree of confu(ioa» tbe 
J^q'~ left wing of the royal army fell in with the centre of 
the rebels, compofed of the Clans, beaded bj GIeii« 
garf, Sir Donald Macdonald's brothers, the captain of 
Clanronald, Sir John Maclean, Glenco, Campbelof 
Glenlyon, Gordon of Glcnbucket, and other chief- 
tains* The combat was fierce and bloody, and the 
Highlanders fecmed at one time difcouraged, bj the 
lofs of one of their leaders ; when Glengary, wanif 
his bonnet, and crying aloud, " RcTenge I rerengc !* 
they ruftied up to the muzzle of the mulketiof die 
king's troops, puflicd aCdc the bayonets with their 
targets, and matte great havoc with their broad-fwordf* 
The whole kfc wing of the royal army was infiamly 
broken and routed ; general Witham^ who commanded 
it, flying to Stirling, and declaring that all was k>ft. 

Meanwhile the duke of Argyle, who condnCbl 
in perfon the right wing of the royal army, conGftiAg 
chiefly, of horfe, had defeated the left of the rebdh 
and purfucd them wich great ilaughter, as far as (hi 
river Allen, in which many of them were drowned. 
This purfult however, though hot, was by no meaM 
rapid. The rebels, not with (landing their habitual 
dread of cavalry, the (hock of which their minner rf 
fighting rendered them little able to rcfift, frequendf 
made a Hand, and enJeavoureJ to renew the combat. 
And if Mar, who rcniaii:ed with the viftorious part of 
his army, had poU'efleJ any tolerable (hare of military 
talents, Argyle would never have dared to rcviCt \hc 
field of battle. He might even have been over- 
powered by numbers, and cut otF by one body of the 
rebels, when fatigued with combating the other. 
But no fuch attempt being made, nor the advantage 
W the left properly improved, the duke returod 



triomphiEDt ID Ac ibtac taf afiion ; and Mir, vliohad ^^^|* 
taken poft on Ac tap of a HU, vkk abosr five tboc* ^-^ ^ ^.^ 
fand rf the fovcr of Lis azsiT, boc only farebnrc to -^^^ *"^5» 
moieft the Uz^s uoops, bat tciir e d dsrii^ tbc loDov* 
ing niglitt and made tbe beft of hs vay to Penh '^« 
Next monnfig the dake of Aigrk, vfao had boea 
joined bj the lesiaias of hb left wing, percdrog that 
the rebels bad bred him the trooble of di&odgicg 
them^ drew cdT his army toward Stiriii^ carrying 
akmg with him tbe eoemy's artillery, bread»w2£;gonSt 
and many prifisDcn oi diftincHon ^*. The number 
killed was very confidcraMe, amonnting to near a 
tbooland men on each fide. 

This battle, thoogh by no means dectfite, proved 
fatal, in its confeqoences, to the afiairs of the Pre- 
tender in Scotland. LcM-d Lovat, the diief of the 
Frafers, who (eemed difpofed to join the rebels, now 
declared for the eftablKhed goTcmment, and feized 
upon the imporuot poft of Inremefs, from which he 
drore Sir John Madxnzie; while the earl of Suther- 
land, who had liitherto been oTcr-awed, appeared 
openly in the (ame caufe. Againft thefe two noble-> 
meoy Bifar detached the marquis of Huntley and the 
earl of Seaforth, with their numerous Taflals* But the 
I febd chiefs, inftead of coming to immediate a^lion^ 
i ibffered themfelves to be amufed with negociatioas ; 
I and both, after feme hefitation, retuyied to their 
tflegiancc under king George. The marquis o£ 
U^ulUbardine alfp withdrew from the rebel army^ 

^S- tamJom Gazettt^ Nov. XT, 1 715. Duke of Berwick's Afm. ToL U. 
gij(7wrnrf •ftbt BattU of DumUaim^ printed at Edinburgh in 1715, and 
^UpdaTt CW^/t. of Ripio, vol. tii. 

1^ Ibid* 

Ii« it 



Part ii. In order to defend his own country againft the friends 
^"5?7T^ ^^ government; and the ClanSj difgufted at tbcir 
' failure of fuccefs, difperfed oa the approach of winter, 
with their ufual want of perfcTcrance. 

The Pretender, who had hitherto refifted crery 
felicitation to come over, took the unaccoiuitable re- 
folution, ia this defperate ftate of his affiitrt» of bnd- 
l»c %u *"8 *" ^^* North of Scotland. He accordingly fet (ai 
from Dunkirk in a fmall veflel, and arrired at Petcfw 
head, attended only by fix gentlemen. He was met at 
Fetteroffe by the earls of Mar and Marefchai, and 
conduced to Perth. There a regalar council ma 
formed, and a day fixed for his coronation at Scone. 
But he was diverted from all thoughts of that vim 
ceremony by the approach of the duke of Argyle ; who 
having been reinforced, with fix thoufand Dutdi auxi- 
liaries, advanced toward Perth, notwithftandii^ die 
rigour of the feafon. 

As that town was txtterly deftitote of fortification^ 
excepting a Gmple wall, and otherwife unprovided for 
a fiege, the king's troops took pofiefBon of it, without 
reCdance. Mar and the Pretender had retired to Moo- 
trofe ; and, feeing no profpeft of better fortune, thej 
embarked for Fratice» accompanied wkh fcveral other 
perfons of di(lin£lion^^ General Gordon and eafl 
Marefchal proceeded northward with the main body 
cf the rebels, by a march fo rapid as to elude purfuit* 
All who thought they could not hope for pardon, em- 
barked at Aberdeen for the continent. The common 
people were condu£ted to the hills of Badenoch, and 
there quietly difmifled. The wbcde country f ubmitted 
to Argyle. 

4«. DakeoCBcrwid^iJUii^voLii. Tiadal"^ C««ivi. vbi fsp. 


A, D. 1716. 


Such, my dear Philip, was the iffuc of a rebellion, LET'qm-' 
which had its origin, as we have feen, in the intrigues ^_^^^ 
in favour of the Pretender, during the latter years of A.D 1716. 
the reign of queen Anne, not in the meafures of the 
new government, as rcprefented by the Jacobite 
- writers. Its declared objeft was the reftoration of 
^ the family of Stuart to the.throne of Great Britain; 
^ and that many inreUigent men have fuppofed, would 
I have been attended with fewer inconveniencies than 
I tbe accellion of the houfe of Hanover. But they who 
I nRe£iy that the Pretender was a bigocted papift, and 
r not only obitinately refufed to change his religion^ 
diongh fenGble it incapacitated him from legally fuc- 
ceeding to the crown, but ftudioufly avoided^ in his 
^' "Vtrj manifedoes, giving any open and unequivocal 
-'r jdnirancey that he would maintain the civil and reli- 
i giouB liberties of the nation, as by law ejlablljhed^^ y will 
■ £iid reafon to be of another opinion. They will 
ConGder the fuppreflion of this rebellion, which de» 
^^eated the defigns of the Jacobites, and in a manner 
itioguifhed the hopes of the Pretender, as an event 
tbe utmoft importance to the happinefs of Great 
iritain.—f'fhe earl of Dcrwentwater, lord Kenmurc, 
a few other rebel prifoners were publicly executed \ 

\ 41. S^ Boiingbroke*8 Letter to Sir IVUUam JVynaLtm, in which miny 
I proofs of the Pretender's duplicity anl bigotry are given. Whea 
jldnugfat of a declaration, and other papers, to be difp^ed in Great 
were prefented to him by hh fecretary, « he took exception 
'l^iaiiift fcreral paflages, and particularly againft thofe wherein a 
|f fromift of fecurjng the churches of England and Ireland was 
s. He was told, he faid, that he could nut in confcience make 
ifcch • promift.** The draughts were accordingly altered by hit 
I ; f and the mod material paffages were turned vnth all the 
iutacal prevarication imaginable** (Ibid.) In confequence of thef^ 
(tioiU, Boliogbrokc refufed to councerGgn the declaration. 

1*3 hat . 



pArt II. but no blood was wantonly fpilt, Thefe execution^ 
A.D. X716. were dilated by prudcncej not by vengeance. 

We mud now turn our eyes toward another quar- 
ter of Europe, and take a view of the king of Sweden 
and his antagonift, Peter the Great. The king of 
Sweden particularly claims our attention at this 
period ; as, among his other extravagant projedie, he 
had formed a defign of redoring th^ Pretenden 

* "XXV. 
A.D. 1709. 


flussiA, Turkey, and the Northern Kingdoms^ from 
the Defeat o/Ch aklesXUb atVu LTOvr A, in 1709. 
to the Death o/Peter the Great, in 1725. 

TH £ defeat of the king of Sweden at Pultowa, 
as I have already had occafion to notice, was 
followed by the mod important confequences. Charles 
XII. who had fo long been the terror of Europe, was 
obliged to take (belter in the Turkifli dominions, 
where he continued a fugitive, while his former rival, 
the RuOian monarch, victorious on every fide, rc- 
ftored Auguflus to the throne of Poland ; depofed 
Staniflaus, expelled the Swedes, and made bimfclf 
xnafter of Livonia, Ingria, andCarelia'. 

The circumftanccs attending thefe conqueils arc 
too little intereding to merit a particular detail. I 

(hall therefore pafs them over, and proceed to the in« 


I. Voluirc, Hiji. •fltujp4i, chap. xix. 


M O D E R N E U R O P E- 487 

trigues of Charles and Poniatowiki at the Ottoman ^^^y^* 
courts which guve birth to more ftriking events. I y_ — , / 
cannot help, however, here obferving, that the king A. D. 1710. 
of Denmark, having declared wir againft Sweden, 
foon after the defeat of the SwediOi monarch at FuU 
tovira, in hopes of proBting by the misforiuncs of that 
prince, and invaded Scania or Schoncn, his army was MircU lo. 
defeated with great flaughter, near Elunburg,. by the 
Swedifli militia, and :l few regiments of veteran*, un- 
der general Sieenbock* 

Charles XII. was fo much delighted with the 
news of this victory, and enraged at the cnemicrs that 
had rifcn up againft him in his abfcnce, that he could 
not forbear exclaiming on the occaO.on, '* My biare 
*< Swedts ! {hould it pleafe God that I once more 
••join you, Ve will beat them all!" He had then, 
indeed, a near profpe£l of being able to return to his 
capital as a conqueror, and to take fcvcre vengeance 
en his numerous enemies. 

It is a maxim of the Turkifli government, to con-f 
fider as facred the perfon of fuch unfortunate princes 
as take rpfuge in the dominions of the Grand Seigniori 
and to fupply them liberally with the conveniencies of 
life» according to their rank, while within the limits 
of the Ottoman empire. Agreeable to this generous 
maxim, the king of Sweden was honourably con* 
dufled to Bender} and faluted on his arrival, with a 
general difcharge of the artillery. As he did not 
chufe to lodge within the town, the ferafkier, or got 
vcrnor of the province, caufed a magnificent tent to 
be ere£ted for him on the banks of the Niefter* 
Tents were alfo ere£ted for bis principal atten^ 
fiaot$} and thcfe tents were afterwaiird Uansformed 


PART II. into houfes: fo that the camp of the unfortunate mo- 
'^-T^^ narch became infcnfibly a confiderable Tillage. Great 
numbers of itrangers rcrorted to Bender to fee him. 
The Turks aod neighbuuring Greeks came thither 
in crowds. All rcfpedled and admired him. His in- 
flexible refolution to abflain from wine, and his re* 
gularity in aflifting publicly twice a-day at divine 
fervice, made the Mahometans fay he was a true Muf- 
fulman, and infpired them with an ardent deCre of 
inarching under him to the conqueft of RulEa *. 

That idea ftill occupied the mind of Charles. 
Though a fugitive among Infidels, and utterly de(li« 
tute of rcfources, he was not without hopes of yet 
being able to dethrone the czar. With this view, 
his envoy at the court of Conftantinople delivered 
memorials to the Grand Vizier \ and his friend Ponia- 
towfki, who was always drefled in the Turkifli habit, 
and had free acccfs every where, fupported thefc 
folicitations by his intrigues. Achmet III. the reign- 
ing Sultan, prefented Poniatowfky with a purfe of a 
thcufand ducats, and the Grand Vizier faid to him, 
*' I will take your king in one hand, and a fword in 
** the other, and conduft him to Mofcow at the head 
•* of two hundred thoufand men 3.'* But the czar's 
money foon changed the fentiments of the Turkifli 
minlftcr. The military cheft, which Peter had taken 
at Pultowa, furnifhed him with new arms to wound 
the vanquifhed Charles, whofe blood-earned treafures 
were turned againft himfelf. All thoughts of a war 
with Ruflia were laid aGde at the Porte. 

The king of Sweden, however, though thus dif- 
comfitcd in his ncgociations, by means of the czar's 

1. I/ifi, Cbarhs Xn, Uv. ?. 3. Id. ibid. 


M O D E R N E U R O P E. 489 

golJ, as he had been in the field by the army of that ^^^\?^ 
prince, was not in the lead dejeftcd. 0>nvinced that ^^--^ 
the Sultan was ignorant of the intrigues of -the Grand A«I>-»7«^* 
Vizier, he refolved to acquaint him with the corrup^r 
tioaof his minider. And Poniatowflcy undertook the 
execution of this hazardous bufinefs. 

The Grand Seignior goes every Friday to the 
inofque^ or Mahometan temple, furrounded by his 
Solaks *f a kind of guards, whofe turbans are adorned 
with fuch high feathers as to conceal the fultan from 
the view of the people. When any one nas a petition to 
prefent, he endeavours to mingle with the guards, and 
holds the paper aloft. Sometimes the Sultan conde- 
fcends to receive the petition himfelf; but he more 
commonly orders an Aga to take charge of it, and 
caufes it to be laid before him on his return from the 
mofque. Poniatowfky had no other Siethod of convey- 
ing the king of Sweden's complaint to Achmet, 

Some days after receiving the petition, which had 
been tranflated itito the Turkifli language^ the Sultaa 
fent a polite letter to Charles,^ accompanied with a 
prefent of twenty- five Arabian horfes \ one of which^ 
having carried his Sublime Highncfs, was covered with 
a faddle ornamented with precious (tones, and fur- 
niflied with ftirrups of mafly gold. But he declined 
taking any (lep to the difadvantage of his minider, 
whofe condud he feemed to approve. The ruin of the 
Grand Vizir, however, was at hand. Through the 
intrigues of Poniatowfky, he was banifhed to KafTa 
in Crim Tartar y ; and the bull, or fealofthe em- 
pire, was given to Numan Kupruli, grandfon to 
the great Kupruli^ who took Caadia from ^be Vene- 



This new mtnifter, who was a man of incorruptible 
integrity, could not bear tbc thoughts of a war 
againft RuflLis which he confidered as alike unnecef* 
fary and unjuit. But the fame attachment to juf- 
tice, which made him aveife from making war upon 
the RulTians, contrary to the faith of treaties, in- 
duced him to obferve the r/ghis of hofpitality to- 
ward the king of Sweden, and even to enlarge the 
generofity of the Sultan to that unfortunate prince. 
He fent Charles eight hundred purfcs, every purfe 
containing five hundred crowns, and adyifed him 
to return peaceably to his own dominions ; either 
through the territoiies of the emperor of Germany, 
or in fome of the French veflrls which then lay in 
the harbour of Conflantinople, and on board of which 
the French ^mbaffador pficrcd to convey him to Mar« 

But the haughty and inflexible Swede, who ftill 
believed he fliould be able to engage the Turks in his 
projeft of dethroning the czar, obflinately rejcfled 
this, ^nd every other propcfil, for his qu'ct re- 
turn to his own dominions. He was conftantly em- 
ployed in nac;nifyin;]; the power of his former rival, 
whom he Ind long jlVeftcd to dcfpifc ; and his emif- 
iar'cs took c::rt', ar the fame time, to infinuate that 
Tear was amhiiious to make himfeif mailer of the 
Black iSea, to fubduc the Coilaclcs, and to carry his 
arms into C; i'li Tarrary *. But the force of thefe infi- 
nuation?, which fomctimcs alarmed the Porte, was gene- 
rally broken by the more powerful arguments of the 
Ruffian minifters. 

«*. Volla'rtr, 'i'l: T'^. Thcfc pirticulars thislivdy author had partly 
from PoiiiatowlKy himrcir, and paitiy from M. de Fcriol, the Freoct^ 

•j.'.l:.T..J;,r at ihc Poitc. 


While the obftinaq^ of the king of Sweden, in letter 
^efuGng to return to his own dominions, in any other ^^ ' 
characler than that of a conqueror, made his fate A. D. 1710. 
thus depend upon the caprice of viziers ; while he was 
alternately receiving favours and affronts from the 
great enemy of Chriftianity, himfdf a devout Chrif- 
tian ; prefenting petitions to the Grand Turk, and fub- 
liiling upon his bountv in a dcfcrt, the Ruflian monarch 
was exhibiting to his people a fpeflacle not unworthy 
of the ancient Romans, when Rome was in her glory. 
In order to infpire his fabjcGs with a tafle for mag- 
nificence, and to imprefs them with an awful refpe£l 
for bis power, he made his public entry into Mof- 
cow (after rcinftating Augullus in the throne of Po- * 
land) under feven triumphal arches, crefted in the 
(Ircets, and adorned with every thing that the climate ' 
could produce, or a thriving commerce furniOi. . 
Firfi: in proceflion marched a regiment of guards, 
followed by the artillery taken from the Swedes; 
each piece of which was drawn by eight horfes, cover- 
ed with fcarlet houGngs, hanging down to the ground. 
Next came the kettledrums, colours, and flandards, 
won from the fame enemy, carried by the officers 
and foldiers who had captured them. Thefe tro- 
phies were followed by the fineft troops of the czar; 
and, after they had filed off, the litter in which 
Charles XII. was carried at the battle of Pultowa^ 
all Blattered with cannon (hot, appeared in a chariot 
made on purpofe to difplay it. Behind the litter 
marched all the Sweiiifli prifoners, two and two; 
among whom was count Piper the king of Sweden's 
prime minifter, the famous marefchal Renfchild, the 
count de Lewenhaupt, the generals Slipenbach, 
Stackelberg, and Hamilton, with many inferior 
officers* who were afterward difpeifed through Great 



PART II. RuflTia. Lad in procelTion came the triumphant con- 
A.D X qucror, mounted on the fame horfc which he rode at 

the battle of Fultowa, and followed by the generals 
who had a (hare in the viGtoTy : the whole being dofcd 
with a vad number of waggonS) loaded with the 
SwediQi military (tores, and preceded by a regiment 
of Ruflian guards '• 

» • 

This magnificent fpeftacle, which augmented the 
veneration of the Mufcovites for the perfon of Peter, 
and perhaps made him appear greater in their eyes, 
than all his military atchievements and civil inftitu- 
tions, furniflied Charles with new arguments for 
awakening the jealoufy of the Porte. The Grand 
Vizier. Kupruli, who had zealoufly oppofed all the 
defigns of the king of Sweden, was difmifled from 
bis office, after having filled it only two months, 
and the feal of the empire was given to Baltagi 
Mahomet, bafiia of Syria* Baltagi, on his arrival at 
Conllantinople, found the intereft of the Swedilh 
monarch prevailing in the feraglio. The Sultana 
Walide, mother of the reigning emperor ; AU 
ICumurgi, his favourite ; the Kiflar Aga, chief of 
the Black Eunuchs ; and the Aga of the Janizaries, 
were all for a war againfl Ruilia. Achmet himfelf 
was fixed in the fame refolution. And he gave orders 
to the Grand Vizier to attack the dominions of the 
czar with two hundred thoufand men. Baltagi wa$ 
V*o warrior, but he prepared to obey ^ 

The firft violent (lep of the Ottoman court was 

the arreftiug of the Ruflian ambafiador, and commit- 

Vov. 29/ ung him to the caftle of the Seven Towers. It is the 

5. Voltaire's //^. 0/ Ri'Jfxa^ chap. xix. H\f, Charlts XXL liv. T» 
(. Id. ibiiL 



tuftom of the Turks to begin hoftilities with iriipri* Iette* 
foiling the miniftcrs of thofe princes againft whom 'u -^-,^ 
they intend to declare war, inftead of ordering them A.D. 17101 
to leave the dominions of the Porte. This barbarous 
cuftom, at which even favages would blufli, they pre-* 
tend to vindicate, on a fuppofition that they never un- 
dertake any but juft wars ; and that they have a right 
to punifli the ambafladors of the princes with whom 
they are at enmity, as accomplices in the treachery of 
their mafters. 

But the true origin of fodeteftable t praftice feema 
to be, the ancient and hereditary hatred and contempt 
of the Turks for the Chriftian powers, which 
they take every occaGon to fliew?; and the mean-* 
nefs of the latter, who from motives of intereft, and 
jealoufy of each other^ continually fupport a nomber 
of ambafladors, confidered as little better than fpies^ ..} 

at the court of Conftantinople, while the Grand Seig-* 
nior is too proud to fend an ambaflador to any court 
in ChriQendom. It is a difrefpe£l to the Chriftian 
name, and the office of refident, that betrays the 
honeft Muflulman into this flagrant breach of the lavir 
of nations ; a law which his prejudices induce him 
to think ought only to be obferved toward the 
faithful, or thofe eafl:cm nations, who, though not 
Mahometans, equal the Turks in ftatelincfs of man- 
nersy and decline fending any ambafladors among 

7. The infults to which Chriftiin traders in Turkey tre expofcd, even 
at this day, are too horrid to he mentioned, and fuch as the inordinate 
love of gold only could induce any man of fpirit to fubmit, however 
fmall piis veneration for the religion of the crofs. Confuli and am- 
bafTadori, though veiled with a public charader, and more im« 
mediately intltled M protean, arc QQt altogether exempted from 




PARTn. them, excq>l on cztraordi^irj occaGoos. In con- 

A.U. J7ii. fcqucncc of thcfc prejudices, or whaterer may have 

given rife to the pradlicc, the Ruffian ambafl^Ador was 

imprifoned, as a prelade to a declaration of war 

agalnft his matter. 

The Czar was not of a complexion tamely to fuflfer 
fucb an injury : and his power feemed to render fub- 
• miflion unneceflary* As foon as informed of the 

haughty infuk, he ordered his . forces in Poland to 
march toward Moldavia ; withdrew his troops frocd 
Livonia, and made every preparation for war, and 
for opening with Yigoor the campaign on the fron- 
dets of Turkey. Nor were the Turks negligent in 
taking meafures for oppofing, and even humUiog 
him. The Kan of Crim Tartary was ordered to 
hold himfelf in readinefs with forty thoofand meni 
and the troops of the Porte were collc£led from all 

Gained over, by prefents and promifes, to the 
interetts of the king of Sweden, the Kan at firft ob- 
tained leave to appoint the general rendezvous of the 
Turkifh forces near Bender, and even under the eye 
of Charles, in order more effcdlually to convince him, 
that the war was undertaken folely on his account. 
But Baltagi Mahomet, the Grand Vizier, who lay 
under no fuch obligations, did not chufe to flatters 
foreign prince fo highly at the expence of truth. He 
was fenfible, that the jealoufy of the Sultan at the 
neighbourhood of fo powerful a prince as Peter; at 
his fortifying Azoph ; and at the number of his (hips 
on the Black Sea and the Palus Mseotis, were the 
real caufes of the war againft Ruilia* He therefore 
changed the place of rendezvous. The army of the 



PoTtc was ordered to aflcmble in the cxtenfivc and ^^^^^ 

fertile plains of Adrianoplc, where the Turks ufually ^ ^-„i 

mufter their forces when they are going to make A.D.i7i*- 

war upon the Chriftians. There the troops that 

arrive from Ada and Africa, are commonly allowed 

to rcpofe themfclves for a few weeks, and to recruit 

their ftrength before they enter upon aftion. But 

Baltagi, in order to anticipate the preparations of the 

czar, began his march toward th^ Danube, within A.D.i7ii« 

three days after reviewing his forces. 

Peter had already taken the field at the head of 
a formidable army, which he muftered on the frontiers 
of Poland, and planned his route through Moldavia 
and Walachia ; the country of the ancient Daci, but 
now inhabited by Greek Chriftians, who are tribu- 
tary to the Grand Seignior. Moldavia was at thai 
time governed by Demetrius Canterair ; a prince of 
Grecian extrafiion, and who united in his chara£ler 
the accomplifliments of the ancient Greeks^ the ufe of 
arms, and the knowledge of letters. This prince fond- 
ly imagined ihaf the conqueror of Charles XII. would 
eafily triumph over the Grand Vizier, Baltagi, who 
had never made a campaign, and who had chofen for 
his Kiaia, or lieutenant general, the fuperintendant of 
the cuftoms at Conftantinople. He accordingly 
refolved to join the czar, and made no doubt but all 
his fubjcfts would readily follow his example, as the 
Greek patriarch encouraged him in his revolt* Having 
concluded a fccret treaty wiih prince Cantemir, and 
received him into his army, Peter thus encouraged, 
advanced farther into the country. He pjfTcd the 
Niefter, and reached at length the northern banks 
of the Pruth, near Jafli the capital of Moldavia «. 

S. V^ltairc'i Eip.RuJJian Emf, pajt il. chap, i. Hjji* Cbarla XII Ilr. r. 



lRT n. But the Ruffian monarch, by confiding in the 
jjf^^ promifcs ofthc Molchvian prince, foon found bimfeif 
in as perilous a fituation, on the banks of the Pnitb, as 
that of his riral, the king of Sweden at Poltowa, in 
confequence of relying on the friendlhip of Mazeppa. 
The Moldavians, happy under the Turkifh gorem- 
inent, which is feldom fatal to any but the grandees^ 
mnd affeAs great lenity toward its tributary provinces, 
tefufed to follow the ftandard of Cantemir, or to 
fupply the Ruffians with provifions. Meanwhile the 
Grand Vizier, having paffed the Pruth, advanced 
againft the czar with an army of two hundred and 
fifty thoufand men, and in a manner encompafled the 
enemy. He formed an entrenched camp before thenii 
the river Pruth running behind $ and forty thoofaod 
Tartars were continually harraffing them^ on the right 
and left. 

As foon as Poniatowlky, who was in the Ot- 
toman camp, faw an engagement was become in- 
evitable, he fent an exprcfs to the king of Sweden ; 
who, although he had refufed to join the Turh'fii 
army, becaufe he was not piermitted to command it, 
immediately left Bender, anticipating the pleafureof 
beholding the ruin of the czar. In order to avoid 
that ruin, Peter decamped under favour of the night ; 
but his defign being difcovered, the Turks attacked 
his rear by break of day, and threw his army into 
fome confufion* Tlie Ruffians, however, having 
rallied behind their baggage-waggons, made fo 
ftrong and regular a fire upon the enemy, that it was 
judged impraflicable to diflodge them, aftec two 
terrible attacks, in which the Turks loft a great num- 
ber of men. In order to avoid the hazard of a third 
attempt, the Grand Vizier determined to reduce the 



czar and hit crhauftcd army by fiimine. This w«i LFTTER 


the moft prudent mcafurc he could have adopted. The ^ ' ^ 

Ruffians were not only deflitutc of forage and pro- A.D. 17x1. 
vifions, bat eren of the means of quenching their thirft« 
Notwithftanding their vicinity to the river Pruth, 
they were in great want of water ; a body of TurlcSf 
on the oppofite bank, guarding, by a continual dif* 
charge of artillery, that predous neceflary of life. 

In this defperate extremi ty, when the lob of hii 
army feemed the lead evil that could bcfal him, the 
czar, on the approach of night, retired to his tent^ 
in violent agitation of mind ; giving poGtIve orders 
that no peribn whatfoever fhould be admitted to dif* 
turb his privacy — to behold his cxquiGte diftrefs, ot 
(bake a great rcfolution he had taken of attempting^ 
next morning, to force his way through the enemy 
with £xed bayonets. The czarina, Catharine, a 
Livonian captive of low condition whom he had raifed 
to the throne, and who accompanied him in this et« 
pedition, boldly expoGng her perfon to every danger^ 
thought proper to break through thofe orders. She 
Tcntured, for once, to difobey; but not from a 
womaniOi weakncfs. Catharine's mind alone roda 
out that ftorm of defpair, in which the profpeQ of un« 
avoidable death or llavery had funk the whole camp* 
Entering the melancholy abode of her hufband, and 
throwing herfelf at his feet, (he entreated the czar to 
permit her to offer, in his name, propofals of peaeCf 
to the Grand Vizier. Ptter, after fome hefitationt 
confented. He figned a letter which (he prefented to 
bim i and the czarina having made choice of ai| 
^^cer^ on whofe fidelity and talents (he could dependi 
^companied her fuit with a prefcnt^ according to tha 
^ftoai of the Eaft. 

Vol. IV. K k *« Lit 


" Let the czar fend to mc his prime minifter !" 
faid Baltagi, wiih the haughty air of a conqueror ; 
'^ and I (liail then confider what is to be done." 
The vice-chancellor, Shnfllroft*, immediately repaired 
to the Turkifli camp^ and a negociation took place. 
The Grand Vizier at firft demanded, that Peter, 
with his whole armyi (hould furrender prifoners of war. 
The vice-chancellor replied, That the RufGans would 
perifti to a man, fooner than fubmit to fuch dif. 
honourable conditions ; that his mader's refolotion 
was already taken : he was determined to open a paf- 
fage with the point of the bayonet. Baltagt, though 

^ little ikilled in military affairs, was fenfible of the 

danger of driving to dcfpair a body of thirty-five 
thoufand brave and difciplined troops, headed by a 
gallant prince. He granted a fufpcnGon of arms for 

^ *'' fix hours. Anil before the expiration of that term, it 
was agreed by the Ruffian minifter, That the czar 
fliould reftore the city of Azoph, deftroy the harbour 
of Tangarok, and demolifii the forts built on the Paluf 
Mcotis or fea of Zcbach ; withdraw his troops from 
Poland, give no farther difturbance to the Coffacks, 
and permit the Swcviilh monarch to return in:o his 
own kingdom ^. 

On thefe condiilons, Peter was allowed to retire 
with his army. The Turks fupplied him with pro- 
vifions ; fo that he h.ul plenty of every thing in hit 
camp, only two hours af-trr figning tlie treaty. He 
did not, however, a moment delay his retreat, aware 
of the danger of iracrvcnir.g acciilcnrs. Andjuftas 
he wai marching ofF, with drums beating and colours 
flying, the king of Sweden arrived impatient for the 

9* Id. ibid 



f5glu, and happy in the thought of having his enemy ikttcr 
in his power, Foniatowlky met him with a dejcdled ^ ' , ^ 
countenance, and informed' him of the peace. In- A. U. 17.4. 
flamed with rcfcntment, Charles flew to the tent of 
the Grand Vizier, and keenly reproached him with 
the treaty lie had concluded. •* I have a right,** 
. faid Baltagi, with a calm afpcft, *' to make cither 
" peace or war. And our law commands' us to grant 
•* peace to our enemies, when ihcy imploic our 
" clemency."—** And does it command you," fub* 
joined Charles, in a haughty tone, ** ro (lay the opc» 
•^ rations of war, by an unmeaning treaty, when you 
** might impofc the law of the conqueror i Did not 
•* fortune afford you an opportunity of leading the 
** czar in chains to Conllantinoplc !'* The Grand 
Vizier, thus prelTed, replied with an imperious frown, 
•* And who would have governed his empire in his 
•' abfence ? It is not proper that all crowned heads 
*^ (hould leave their dominions!'' Chailes made 
I anfwer only by a farcaflic fmilc. S-A-elling with in- 
dignation, he threw himself upon a fophn, and dart- 
ing on all around him a look of difdain, he (Iretched 
out his leg, and entangling his fp*ir in Baltagi's robe, 
purpofcly ^orc it. The Grand Vizier took no notice 
of this fplenetic infult, wliich he fccmed toconfider as 
ao accident ; and the king of Sweden, farther morti- 
fied by that magnanimous neelecl, fprungup, mount- 
ed his horfe, and returned with a forrowtul heart to 
Bender '^ 

Baltagi Mahomet, however, was foon made 
lenfible of his error, in not paying more regard to the 
elatiDS of Charles Xll. For although the Grand Seig- 

10. Hjfi' Charles XII. liv. ▼. Voltaire had all thcfc paruculars from, 
>jpmiatowflcy, who was prefent at thik interview. 

K k a nior 


PART 11. nior was fo well pleafcd with the treaty concluded with 
A.i).i7ki. ^^^ ^^^^ when the news firft reached Conftantinopkf 
that he ordered pubhc rejoicings to be held for a 
whole week, Pontatowflci and the other agents of 
Charles foon found means to perfuade him, that his 
intcrefts had been betrayed. The Grand Vizier was 
difgraced. But the minider who Tucceeded Baltagi 
in that high office was yet lefs difpofed to favour the 
ttews of the king of Sweden. His liberal allowance 
of five hundred crowns a day, befide a profuGon of 
every thing ncccflary for his table, was withdrawn, 
in confequence of his intrigues. All his attempts to 
kindle a new war between the Turks and Rufl^as 
proved ineffeflual ; and the Diyan, wearied oat with 
his perpetual importunites, came to a refolution to 
fend him back, not with a numerous army, as a king 
whofe caufe the Sultan meant to abet, but as a trouble- 
fome fugitive whom he wanted to difmi|2^^ attended by 
a fufficient guard. 

A. D. T71J. '^^ ^^^^ purport Achmet IIL fcnt Charles a letter; 

April 19. in which, after ftyling him the moj} powerful among the 
khigs zvho vjorjh'ip Jcfu^i brilliant In majejiy^ and a lever 
•f honour and glory ^ he very pofitively requires his de- 
parture. •' Though we had propofed/' fays the Sultan, 
*' to march our viflorious army once more againft the 
'* czar^ we have found reafon to change our refoln- 
'< tion. In order to avoid the jufl: refentment which 
" we had exprcfled at his delaying to execute the 
•* treaty concluded on the banks of the Pruth, andaf* 
<* tcrward renewed at our fublime Porte, that prince 
<< has furrendered into our hands the caftle and city 
^ of Azoph ; and endeavoured, t^irough the media* 
*' tion of the ambafladors of England and Holland, 
<< our ancient allicsi to cultivate a laftiog peace with 



** us. Wc have therefore granted his requcft, and de- ^^X}y'^ 
^^ livered to his plenipotentiaries, who remain with us 1^ ^- * 
** as ho(tages» our imperial ratification^ having firft A.D,i7it, 
<< received his from their hands* You mud, therefore, 
** prepare to fet out, under the proteftion of Provi- 
** dence, and with an honourable guard, on purpofe to 
<^ return to your own dominions^ taking care to pafs 
«* through thofe of Poland in a peaceable manner •■." 

Although this letter is fuflScicntly explicit. It did 
not cxtinguifli the hopes of the king of Sweden. He 
iliil flattered bimfelf that he fliould be able to involve 
the Porte in a new war with Ruflfia: and he liad a1* 
mod accompliOied his aim. He difcovered that the 
czar had not yet withdrawn his troops from Poland. 
He made the fultan acquainted wiih that circum* 
(lance. The grand vizier was difgraccd, for ncglcding 
to enforce the execution of fo material an article la 
the lare trenty ; and the RufTian ambaflador was 
again committed to the caftle of the Seven Towers. 
This florm, however, was foon diffipated. The 
czar*8 plenipotentiaries, who had not yet left the 
Porte, engaged that their mader (hould withdraw hit 
troops from Poland. The treaty of peace was re* 
newed ; and the king of Sweden was given to under- 
(land that he muft immediately prepare for his de* 

When the order of the Porte was communicated 
to Charles, by the baftiaw of Bender, he replied, that 
he could not fet out on his journey until he had re* 
ccived money to pay bis debts. The bafiiaw afked, 
how much would be neceifary. The king, at a vcn- 
lore, laid a tbonfand purfes. The bafhaw acquainted 

1^ YoltaMrc, HiJ. Ch. XfJ. lly. ti\ 

V;k4 tbf 


PART II, the Porte with this requcft ; and the fultan, inClead of 
JlI). 1712. * thoufand, granted twelve hundred purfes. " Our 
" imperial munificence," fays he, in a letter to the 
badiaw, ** halh granted a thoufand purfes to the king 
*' of Sweden, which (hall be fcnt to Bender, under 
** the care and conducl of the moft illuftrious Mchc- 
** met Ball:aw, to rcTr^.^/in in your cujiody until the dc- 
•* porture of the Swedifli monarch 5 and then be given 
*' him, together with two hundred purfes more, as 
'* maik of our imperial liberality, above what he de- 
<« mands." 

NoTWiTH5TAKDiN'Gthefl:ri£lncfsof thefe orders, 
Crothufen, the king of Sweden's fecretary, found 
iT>cans to get the money from the bafhaw before the 
departure of his mailer, under pretence of making the 
neccflary preparations for his journey ; and a few 
days after, in order to procure farther delay, 
Charles demanded another thoufand purfes. Con- 
founded at this requeft, the bafhaw flood for a mo- 
ment fpeechlcfs, and was obferved to drop a tear. 
*n fljail lofc my head,*' faid he, ** for having ob- 
*' ligcd your mnjcfiy !" and took his leave with a 
forrowful coun^ciiince. He wrote, however, to the 
Poite in his own vindication ; protefting that he did 
i.ot dcriiver the twelve hundred purfes, but upon a fo- 
Icmn prumife from the king; of Sweden's nliniilcF, 
that his n'>.i;l'jr would inllanily d:p.irt. 

The bnihaw's excufe was Juflained. The difptea- 
fure of Achmet fell v/l,oiiy upon Charles. llMvipg 
convoked an extraonlinary Divan, he fpokc to the {*A' 
lowing purport, his eyes flafliing with indignation: 
** I hardly ever knew the king of Sweden, except by 
<• his defeat at Pultowa, and th< requell he made to 
** me for an afyluQi \x\, my dominions. I have nor, I 

** believe, 

M O D E R N E U R O P E. 503 

'••believe, any need of his afTjftance, or any caufe to ^^^."^^ p^ 

** love or to fear him, Nevenheicfs, without being ^,^,^^_i 

*' influenced by any other motive than the hofpitaliiy A.D. 1712. 

" of a Muflulman, direfted by ivy natural gcnero- 

*' fity, which (beds the dew of beneficence upon the 

" great as well as the fmall, upon ftrangers as well as 

** my own fubjcfts, I have received, protected, and 

** maintained himfelf, his minifters, officers, and fol- 

*' dicrs, according to the dignity of a king ; and for 

" the fpace of three years and an half, havq never 

** with-held my hand from loading him with favours. 

** I hare granted him a confiderable guard to condudl 

•' him back to his own kingdom. He afkcd a thou- 

** fand purfes to pay fome debts, though I defray all 

*' his expences : inftead of a thoufand, I grantol him 

" twelve hundred purfes; and having received thefe, 

*' he yet refufcs to depart, until he (liall obtain a 

*' thoufand more, and a ftronger guard, although that 

•* already appointed is fully fuflicient, I therefore 

•* afk you, whether it will be a breach of the laws of 

** hofpitality to fend away this prince ? and whether 

•* foreign powers can rcafonably tax me with cruelty 

** and iiijuflice, if I (hould be under the ncccffity of 

'* uCng force to compel him to depart '• ?" 

All the members of the Divan anfwercd, That A-D. 171 
fuch a conduft v/ould be confident with ilie ilricled 
rules of jufticc. An order to that clTctl was accord- 
ingly fcnt to the bafliaw of Bender, wLt? immediately 
waited upon the king of Sweden, and made him ac- 
quainted with it. ** Obey your mafler, if you dare !" 
fiiid Charles, ** and leave my prcfcnce iiiflantly." The 
bafliaw did not need this infult to anlmarc him to his 
duty. He coolly prepared to execute the commauds 

12* III ibiil. 

Kk4 of 


PART n. of his fovcrcign j and Charles,, in fpitc of the earneil 
j^jy\ entreaties of his friends and fervants, refoWed, with 

three hundred Swedes, to oppofe an army of Turks 
and Tartars, having ordered regular entrenchments 
to be thrown up for Ihat purpofe. After fome hefita- 
tion, occafioned by ihc uncommon nature of the fcr- 
vicc, tlie word of command was given. The Turks 
marched up to the Swedilh fortifications, the Tartars 
being already waiting for them, and the cannon began 
to play. The little camp was inftantly forced, and the 
whole three hundred Swedes made prifoners. 

Charles, who was then on horfeback, between 
the camp and his houfe, took refuge in the latter, at- 
tended by a few general officers and dome(lics« With 
thefe, he fired from the windows upon the Turks and 
Tartars ; killed about two hundred of them, and 
bravely maintained his .pod, till the houfe was all in 
flames, and one half of the room fell in. In this ex- 
tremity, a centinel, named Rofen, had the prefence of 
mind to obferve, that the chancery houfe, which was 
only about fifty yards diftant, had a (lone roof, and 
was proof agaiaft fire ; that they ought to fally forth, 
take pofTenion of that houfe, and defend themfelves to 
the laft extremity. " There is a true Swede !" cried 
Charles, rufhing out, like a madman, at the head of 
a few defperadoes. The Turks at fifft recoiled, from 
refpeft to the perfon of the king ; but fuddenly re- 
coiiecVmg their orders, they furrounded the Swedes, 
and Charles was made prifoncr together with all his 
attendants. Being in boots as ufual, he entangled 
hmifclf with his fpurs, and fell- A number of janiza- 
ries fprung upon him. He threw his fword up into the 
air» to favc himfclf the mortification of furrendering 
it i and fome of the janizaries taking bold of his legs, 



asd DtLrri of uk arxn&, hr ttss casxied la tbtt manner 
to Lbe ba^» '» quaniCT* *\ 

Tbi biirhav ^Tt Gsariss his own iqiartineat« ml 
OTdcr£:d hixc id hz icrvzd as a kni^« bnt sot witboot 
tiling :b£ prccautiac td piant a i^nard of janizaries at 
the chaTTittrr dour. Kri:: dzT bs was coni}n£bd tiK 
ward Adrhainpk^ as a prironery 10 a cbarktt coverei 
with k^trki. On liis wzif he was infonned by the 
harzrs^ Fiibrkaca^ airbaSaoiir inun d>e &ike of Hal* 
ild::, ihar be wki ao: tiir ^xrJy OinlHan snonarck 
that W2S 1 priuma' Is tbe kaiuk of At T«rks ; duR 
his fncnd Smnii laitt, iiario^ come to fiiare his £or» 
tones, had faocn tsikcs iata cailodj, and was onlr a 
few miles ciBant, smicr a ^uard of faidieis ^>^ wer^ 
conindi&g iam to Smrier, ^ Rns to iua, my <kar 
*« FaWkiaf f" cnr d Cbar'^cs ; — ^^ dcirt bha nerer t^ 
** make peace wrii Aa|ra2^as» and affsre kiin duit oar 
'* affJrs win toco take a m9re tattering tcnu^ Fa-> 
briciiu ha&Aod tm eaecztc ki« commifion, a:tci)dc4 
bj a janizary J karis^ 6rft obtained leare frdm tbe 
b&fluw, wbo in perfca ooanundcd Ac gnani. 

So entirely was tbe kxi^ of Sweden wedded to lus 
own opini<MsSy tbat althoogb abandoned by all tbe 
wcFtidy Rript of great part of bis dominions, a fngi* 
tivc among tbe I'crks, whofe liberaiicy be bad abatei^ 
and now led cap:irc, uitboat knowing wbitber be 
was to be carried, he iliil reckoned on the favonia of 
fortooe, and hoped the Ottoman court woiUd fend 
him home at tbe bead of ao hundred thoo(and men I *-> 
This idea contiooed to occupy him during the wboln 
time of his con6nemenr« He was at firft committed 
to tbe caftle of Demirta(h, in the neighbourbood of 

B> yslfiairt, sbi fo^. 

T^ Adrlanoplci 

A,D. 171?. 



Adrianople ; but afterward allowed to re fide at De- 
motica, a little town about fix leagues diftant from 
that city, and near the famous river Hebrus, now 
called 'Merizza. There he renewed his intrigues; 
and a French adventurer, counterfeiting madncfs, had 
the boldnefs to prefent, in his name, a memorial to 
the Grand Seignior. In that memorial the imaginary 
wrongs of Charles were fet forth in the ftrongcft 
terms, and the minifters of the Porte accufcd of ex- 
torting from the Sultan an order, in direct violation 
of the laws of nations, as well as of the hofpitality of 
a MulTuIman— -an order in iifclf utterly unworthy of a 
great emperor, to attack, with twenty thoufand men, 
a fovercign who had none but his domeftics to defend 
him, and who relied upon the facred word of the fub- 
lime Achmet. 

In confcquencc of this intrigue, as was fuppofed, 
a fudden change took plate in the feraglio. The 
Mufti was depofed ; the Khan of Tartary, who de- 
pends upon the Grand Seignior, was baniOied to 
Rhodes, and the bafliaw of Bender confined in one 
of the iflaiids of the Archipelago. One vizier was 
dif;|;raccd and another ftrangled. But thefe changes, 
in the miniftry of the Porte, produced none in ihc 
condition of the king of Sweden, who ftill remained 
a prifoner at Demotica ; and, left the Turks fhould 
not pay him the refpeft due to his royal perfon, or 
oblige him to conHefcend to any thing beneath his 
dio^nity, he refclved to keep his bed, during his capti- 
>'i:y, Under pretence of ficknefs. This rcfolution he 
Ltpr for trn months '*. 

M. llifi. Cb, XIL liv. vii. 


M O D E R N E U R O P E 507 

While the naturally adlive and indefatigable ^^^I.^^ 
Charles, who held in contempt all effeminate indul- ^_ ^-^ ^ 
gcnces, and had fct even the elements themfelves at ^•^* '7'3* 
^ defiance, was wafting, from caprice, his time and his 
conftitution in bed, or harrafling his mind with fruit- 
Icfs intrigues, the northern princes, who had formerly 
trembled at his name, and whom he might ftill, by a 
different conduflb, have made tremble, were difmem- 
bering his dominions. General Steenbock, who had 
diftinguiflKd himfelf by driving the Danes out of 
Schonen, and defeating their beft troops, with an in-, 
ferior number of Swedish militia, defended Fomera- 
nia, Bremen, and all his mafter's poffeffions in Ger- 
many, as long as poflible* But he could not prevent 
the combined army of Danes and Saxons, from be- 
fieging Stade i a place of great ftrength and impor* 
tance, (ituated on the banks of the Elbe, in the duchy 
of Bremen. The town was bombarded and reduced 
to afties, and the garrifon jobliged to furrender, before 
Steenbock could come to their affiftance. 

The S wedifh general however, with twelve thoufand 
men,'purfued the enemy, though twice his number, 
and overtook them at a place called Gadcibufh, in the 
duchy of Mecklenburg, in December 17 12. He was 
fcparated from them, when he firft came, in fight, by 
a morafs. The Danes and iSaxons, who did not de- 
cline the combat, were fo pofled as to have this mo- 
rafs in front, and a wood in the rear. They had die 
ndvanlage of nurnbers and fituation ; yet Steenbock, 
notwithtlanning thcfe adverfc circumftances, paffed 
the morafs at the head of his troops, and began one 
of the moft furious arid'bloody battles that ever hap- 
pened between the rival nations of the Noiih. After 
jl defpcratc confli(ft of three hours the Danes and 



■^"^^^^ Saxons were totally routed, and driven off the field 
A. D. 1713. with great (laughter. 

But Steenbock ftaincd the honour of bis viftory, 
by burning the flourifliing, though defencclcfs, town 
of Altena, belonging to the king of Denmark. In con- 
fcqucncc of that fcverity, many thoufands of the in- 
habitants perifhed of hunger and cold. All Germany 
exclaimed againft fo fhocking an infult on humanity; 
and the minifters of Poland and Denniiark wrote to the 
SwediHi general, reproaching him with an a£J of 
cruelty committed without neceflity, and which cooU 
not fail to awaken the vengeance of heaven and eanh 
againd him. The enlightened but unfeeling Goth 
replied, That he revcr fliould have exercifed fuch 
rigour, had it not been with a view to teach the cnr* 
mies of Sweden to refpe£i the laws of nations, and not 
to make war, for the future, like barbarians. They 
had not only, he obferved, laid wade the beautiful 
province of Pomerania, but fold near an hundred 
thoufand of irs inhabitants to the Turks ; and the 
torches which had laid Ahena in a(hes, he aflSrmcd, 
were no more than a jufl retaliation for the red-hot 
bullets, VI hich bad wrapt in flames the more valuable 
ciiy of Stadc ^. 

Had th? king of Sweden appeared in Pomerania, 
while his fubjccls cariied on the war with fuch impla- 
cable rtre4)tmcnt, and even with fucccfs, againd thtir 
nunieioub enemies, he mi^ht perliaps have retrieved 
his ruinous fortune, ^is trcops, though fo widely 
fcparated from his perfon, were (liii animated by his 
fpirit. But the abfeiice of a prince is always prejudi- 
cial to hib adairs, and more efpecially prevents bis 
generals from making a proper ufe o( Uieir vi<£lorics. 

15. Id. ibii. 



Slccnbock loft, almoft inftantly, |thc |fraits of his ^?X^^^ 
▼alour and condu£l } which at a happier crifi8» would |_ , ^ -*,f 
have been permanent conquefts. Though vi£borioas> A. 0.1711* 
he could not prevent the jun£lion of the Ruffians, 
Danes, and Saxons, who obliged him to feek an afylun 
for himfelf and his gallant army iu Toningen, a for- 
trefs in the duchy of Holftein. 

That duchy was then fubjefted to the molt 
cruel ravages of any part of the North. The young 
duke of Holftein, nephew of Charles XII. and pre* 
fumptive heir to the crown of Sweden, was the natu- 
ral enemy of the king of Denmark, who had endea- 
voured to ftrip bis father of his dominions, and to 
crufli himfelf in the very cradle. The bi(bop of 
Lubeck, one of his father's brothers, and admini- 
ftrator of the dominions of this unfortunate ward, 
now beheld himfelf in a very critical fituation. His 
own territories were already exhaufted by continual 
cdntributions ; the Swedifh army claimed his pro- 
tedion ; and the forces of RulTia, Denmark, and 
Saxony, threatened the duchy of Holftein with im- 
mediate defolation. But that danger was feemingly 
xemoved by the addrefs of the famous baron de 
Goertz, who wholly governed the bi(hop, and was 
the moft artful and enterprifing man of his time ; 
endowed with a genius amazingly penetrating, and 
fiuitful in every refource. 

Go£RT2 had a private conference with general 
Steenbock, at which he promifed to deliver up to him 
the Fortrefsof Toningen, without expofing the bifliop- 
adminiftrator, his mafter, to any inconveniency : and 
he gave, at the fame time, the ftrongeft affurances to 
the king of Denmark, that he would defend the placo 
to ibc utmoft. The governor accordingly rcfufcd to 


Sio THEHISTORYOF t)pcn the gates ; but the Swedes were admitted partlf 
l^^y^^ within ilie walls, and partly under the cannon of the 
town, in confcqueuce of a pretended order from the 
young dttke, who was yet a minor. This indulgence 
howeyeri procured by fo much ingenious deceit^ 
proved of little ufe to the brave Steenbock, who was 
foon obliged to furrender himfelf prifoner of war, to- 
gether with his whole army *^ 

The territories of Hoiftein now remained at the 
mercy of the incenfed conquerors. The young duke 
became the objeft of the king of Denmark's ven- 
geance, and was doomed to pay for the abufe which 
Goertz had made of his name. Finding his origi- 
nal projedi thus rendered abortive, the baron formed 
a fcheme for eflabliSiing a neutrality in the SwediRi- 
provinces in Germany* With this view, he private- 
ly entered into a negociation, and at the fame time» 
with the feveral princes, who had fet up claims to any 
part of the territories of Charles XII. all which, the 
kingdom of Sweden excepted, were ready to become 
the property of thofe who wanted to (hare them* 
Night and day he continued paflTing from one pro- 
vince to another. He engaged the governor of Bre- 
men and Verdcn to put thofe two duchies into the 
hands of the eleftor of Hanover, by way of fequeilra- 
tton, in order to prevent the Danes from taking 
poiTcfTion of them for themfelves; and he prevailed 
with the king of Pruflia to accept, in conjun£tion 
with the duke of Hoiftein, of the fequeftratton of 
Stetin, which was in danger of falling a prey to the 
Ruilians ^^ 

t5. HiJl.o/theJ^MjtamEffi^.^Util.Qhz^.W. 1 6* Id ibid, ^ffm^ 
it Brattdiniuf^i torn. iL 


M O D E R N E U R O P E. 511 

In the mean lime the czar was pufhing his con- ISTTEX 
qucfts in Finland. Having mide a dcfccnt at El- i^^' \ f 
Cngford, the moft fouthern part of that cold and A. D.i;i> 
barren region, he ordered a feigned attack to be made 
on one fide of the harbour, while he landed his troops 
on the otheri and took poficfEon of the town. He 
afterward made himfelf matter of Abo, Borgo, and 
the whole coaft ; defeated the Strcdes near Taveftius, 
a pod which comm-inJed the Galf of Bothnia; pene- 
trated as far as Vaza, and reduced every fortrefs in 
the country. Nor were the conquefts of Peter con- 
fined to the land. He gained a complete victory over A. D. 1714* 
the Swedes by fea, and made himfelf maftcr of iheiflc 
of Oeland. 

These fucceflcs, but more efpccially his naval 
viftory, furniftied the czar with a new occafion of 
triumph. He entered Peterfburg, as he formerly 
had Mofcow, in procefiion, under a magnificent 
arch, decorated with the infignia of his conquefts. 
After that pompous ceremony, which filled every 
heart with joy, and infpired every mind with 
emulation, Peter delivered a fpeach worthy of the 
founder of a great empire. *' Countrymen^ anci 
•* friends,*' faid he, " is there one among you who 
*• could have thought, twenty years ago, that he 
" fhould fight under me upon the Baliick, in (hips 
•* built by ourfclves ? or that we fliould eftablifti 
** fettlements in thofe countries now conquered by 
"our valour and perfeverance ? — Greece is faid to 
•^ have been the birth-place of the arts and fciences. 
They afterward took up their abode in Italy ^ 
" whence they have fpread themfelves, at different 
•• times, over every part of Europe. It is at laft 
Vour turn to call them ours, if you will fecond my 

*' defigns, 


FARTn. ««dcfigns, by joining ftudy to obedience. The arts 
jllfjj^^^ ** and fciences circulate through this globe, like 
' <* the blood in the human body ; and perhaps they 
'^ may eftablilh their empire among us, in their 
** return back to Greece, their native country. I 
'* dare even venture to flatter myfclf, that we will 
^ one day put the nations mod highly civilized to 
** the blufl), by our poliQied manners and illuftrioos 
" labours '^^ 

.During thefe important tranfadions, (o fatal to 
the power and the glory of Sweden, Charles con- 
tinued to keep his bed at Dometica. Meanwhile 
the regency of Stockholm^ driven to difpair by the 
defperate ficuation of their aflPairs, and the abfence of 
their fovereign, who feemed to have utterly abandoned 
bis dominionSi had come to a refolution no more to 
confult him in regard to their proceedings. And the 
lenate went in a body to the princefs Ulrica Eleonora, 
the king's fifter, and entreated her to take the govern- 
ment into her own hands, until the return of her bro- 
ther. She agreed to the propofal ; but finding that 
their purpofe was to force her to make peace with 
RuOia and Denmark, a me-ifure to which (he kne\r 
her brother would never confent, on difadvantagcous 
terms, fhe rcfigned the regency, and wrote a full 
and circumftantial account of the whole matter to the 

Roused from his afilfled ficknefs, by what be 
confidered as a trcafonable atttmpt upon his authority^ 
and now defparing of being able to make the Port: 
take arms in his favour, Charles figiulied to the Grand 
Vizier his defire of returning, through Germanfi w 

1 7* Hj/f tftlfB R^JpoM Em^. part II. ch;^ t, 


M O D E R N £ U R O P £• 513 

his own dominions^ The Tarklfli mimfter neg1e£lcd letter 
nothing which might facilitate that event* In the . ^_ _\ 
mean time the king of Swedeni whofe principles A. u, 1714 
were perfeflly defpotic, wrote to the fenate, that if 
they pretended to affume the reins of govemment» he 
wonld fend then» one of bis boots, from which thef 
fliould receive their orders !— and all things being 
prepared for his departurcf he fet out with a convoy 
eonfifting of (ixty loaded waggons, and three hundred 

On his approacK \o the frontiers of Germany, the 
SwediOi monarch had the.fatisfa£Uon to learn, that 
the emperor had given orders he (liOuId be received, 
in every part of the imperial dominions, with the 
refpe£l due to his rank. But Charles had no incli- 
nation to bear the fatigue of fo much pomp and 
ceremony. He therefore took leave of hisTurki(h 
convoy, as foon as he arrived at IVgowitz, on the 
confines of Tranfilvania -, and aflembling his atten« 
daots, defired them to give themfelves no farther con« 
oem about htm, but to proceed with all expedition to 
Stralfuod in Pomerania. The king himfelf, in difguife, 
attended only by two officers, arrived at that place, af- 
ter making the tour of Germany. And, without con- 
Gdering the wretched (late of his affairs, he imme- ^ , 
^ diatdy difpatched orders to his generals, to renew the 
\ var againft all his enemies with fre(h vigour '\ 

^\ The approach of winter, however, prevented any 
3?1 •iiliury operations being profecuted until the fpriog. 

^ /7. ajf. tf CUrtts XIL Ut. Tii. « Thefc pirticulars," fays Vol- 

i ^^ * which are fo confident with the chanK^cr of Charles XII. wer« 

I ^ ^ •onmranicated to mc by M. Fabridui, and afterward confirmed 

H lL*^ ^^ cotmt Croifly, amballador from the regent of France to the 

,' *«teof$wcdca." Id ibid. 

I you IV. LI Meanwhile 



^ ^^ "^ Meanwhile the king of Sweden was employed in fc- 
A. D. 1715. cruiting his armies ; and in order to ftrengtben his in- 
tcreft, he gave his only TurviTing fitter, Ulrica Elco- 
nora, in marriage to Frederic prince of Hefle Cafld, 
who had dittinguifhed himfelf in the iniperial fer- 
Tice in the Low Countries* and was cfteemed a good 
general. But Charles, on the opening of the cam- 
paign, was furrounded by fuch a multitude of enemiet, 
that valour or condu^i without a greater force, could 
be of little fervice. The German troops of the 
cle£lor of Hanover, now king of Great Briuio, to- 
gether with thofe of Denmark, invefted the ftrong 
town of Wifmar, while the combined army of ProCi 
fians, Danes, and Saxons, marched toward Scral.'ood, 
to form the fiege of that important place* The czar 
was at the fame time In the Baltic, with twenty 
(hips of war, and an hundred and fifty tranfportSi 
carrying thirty thoufand men. He threatened a det 
cent upon Sweden ; and all that kingdom was in vna^ 
expe£ling every moment an invafion. 

Stralsund, the ftrongeft place in Poraerania, is 
fituated between the Baltic Sea and the lake of Fran- 
ken, near the Straits of Gella. It is inacceffible by 
land, unlcfs by a narrow caufeway, guarded by a 
citadel, and by other fortifications which were thought 
in)prr^nabie. It was defended by a body of twelve 
thoufand men, commanded by Charles XII. in pa- 
fon, and befieged by the kings of PrufTia and Den- 
maik, adiiUd by the gallant prince of Anhalt, with 
an a'-rpy three times the number of the Swedes. 
The allies were animated by a love of glory and of 
conqueft ; the Svvedrs by defpair, and the prefcnce of 
their warlike king. Unfortunately, however, for the 
latter, it was difcovered that the fca^ which, on one 


€de^ fecared Che Swedifli entrenchments, was at times I-^^^eh. 
fofdaUe. y- r^-j j 

A. D. 2715. 

Ik confeqnence of this difcoveiyy the Swedes were 
vnezpeOedly atucked at night. While one body 
of che befiegers advanced upon the caufeway that led 
to the ciudel» another entered the ebbing tide, and 
penetrated by the (hore into the Swedifli camp, be- 
fore their approach was fo mnch as fofpeded. The 
Swedes ihos furprifed, and aflailed both in flank 
and rear, were incapable of refiftance. After a 
terrible flaaghter, they were obliged to abandon their 
entrenchments; to evacuate the citatel, and take 
refuge in the town, againft which their own can- 
non were now pointed by the enemy, who henceforth 
puflied the fiege with unremitting vigour "• 

Iw order to deprive the king of Sweden and his 
little army of all fuccours, or of even the poffibility 
of efcape, the allies had begun their operations with 
chafing the Swedifli fleet from the coafls of Pome- 
rania, and taking pofieflion of the ifle of Ufedom, 
which made a gallant defence. They now reiblred 
to make themfelves mafters of the ifle of Rugen, op- 
pofite Scralfand, and which ferves as a bulwark to 
die place* Though fenfible of the importance of 
Rngen, and of the defigns of the enemy» Charles was 
not able to place in it a fufficient garrifon. Twenty 
tboaOuid men, onder the prince of Anhalt, were land- 
ed in that ifland, without any lofs. The king of 
Sweden haftened to its relief^ the (ame day, with four 
thottfiuid choice troops. 

PuTTiVG himfelf at the head of this (irnall body, Kotjc; 
and obferving the mod profound Glence, Charles au- 

af. ir:j. a. XII, lir, Tlli. M^. it Brac^sni...'^, torn, ii, 

L 1 2 vanced 


PART II. vanced »t midnight agaioft the invadett. But h€ 
A.D. lyic. di<l <>o^ fi^d ^b^'Q unprepared. The pr»iiee of Anbd^ 
aware what incredible things the nnfortanate monarch 
was capable of attemping, had ordered a deep Mk 
to be funk as foon as he landed, and fortified it widi 
cfaeranx dc frize. The king of Sweden, who march- 
ed on foot, fword in hand, was not therefore a little 
farprifedy wheni plucking op fomc Of the cheranx de 
frize, he difcovered a ditch. He was not, boweverj 
di(concerted. Haying inftantlj formed his refelo- 
cion> he leaped into the fofle, accompanied bjr die 
boldeft of his men, and atten»pted to force the enemy's 
camp. ^ 

The impemofity of the affauk threw the Danes 
and Fruflians at firft into feme confufion. Bat the 
contefl was unequal. After an attack of twenty 
minutes, the Swedes were repulfed, and c4>liged to 
repafs the foffc. The prince pf Anhalt purfoed them 
into the plain. There the battle was renewed with 
incredible fury, and ri&orj obftinatcly dtfpnted; 
until Charles had (een his fecretary, Grotfaofen, hH 
dead at his feet ; the generals* DardoflF and Daring, 
killed in hrs fight, and the greater part of his