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History of Napoleon Bonaparte, 
and wars of Europe, by W,B, ... 

William B. Hewetson 

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Napoleon Bonaparte^ 


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TbMX bave appeared dming amd once tlw HeTolatum 

By W. B. HEWESTON, Esq. 


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To wiita the life of a lififlg person is generally a wo A of 
much diffipolty. Actions which take place, as it were, ia 
our sight, are judged of by men in a very different light; 
(ome approve, others condemn them, and all fiew them 
in a vpartial manner* We haye, however, endeavoured 
to keep clear, and have stated thing? as they occurred. 
The life of man is prone to change, and to undergo 
strange ^cissitodes ; but few, I believe, have undergone 
grater than the man whose life we now commemorate^ 
Were anj of our acqufiint^nces to be placed in situations 
such as be has been, it is hard to say how they would act; 
fhe trial is a great one, and recjuire? ahnost more than a 
man to go through it. 

The principal part of tlie volumes now offered to the 
puibUc, consists in accounts of warlike exploits, of *' mov- 
iDg- accidents by flood and field." In thfse Napoleon haa 
h»d a great share ; greater, indeed, than falls to the lot 
of man in general, and i^e has not shrunk from the " deal^ 
mg^ out the deadly blow." 

' Han IS but the sport of !^ortune, and often held op ii| 
a conspicuous manner as an example for others to profit 
by ; characters, in themselves originally but trifling, are 
aometimes brought upon the stage of life, and raised to 
mighty power through means, to us, apparently iippro* 
Vable, yet we see their elevation, and of coarse believe 
^' whaiever is is right ;^' for it is the wisdom of Providence 
which does it, to shew us what it can do when it chooses. . 
The timp about which we have been writing waa oo^ 
VOL. u a 


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pf great moment, and fall of stran{^ events ; all fiarop^ 
was in a state of convalsion, occasioned by the disturbed 
»tate of France, who shed her baleful influence where- 
ever she reached to ; ^he prevailed, and spread her de 
structive measures over both friends and foes; such days 
were not before seen in Europe, and Heaven grant they 
never may be again! 

'. From the commencement of the revolution, France 
Exhibits the picture of a nation torn by intestine feuds, 
land struggling against a myriad of united foes ; and 
great and victorious against Ibem all. Leaders of diffe- 
rent characters at times directed her councils for a while, 
but it was reserved for Napoleon Bonaparte to put an 
end to the confusion which prevailed withip her territory, 
to restore her to tranquillity, make her great among the 
nations of Europe, and increase her dominions to an al- 
most boundless extent The means by which t^iis wa^ 
effected were indeed great and new; and the efforts of 
the people were like^ those of giants ; but'.' their natura 
seemed changed, and thej fought as though they were 
another set of beings. 

* The more we consider the French revolution the mor^ 
we are lost in wonder at the scenes we have witnessed in 
its course ; and the events that have arisen from it are 
sufficient to make us regard it wilh wonder and 9 degree 
of astonishment. Throughout its changes Bonaparte haa 
acted a conspicuous part from his first appearance j 
many praise, and as many blame him, and betwixt both 
it is hard to gaess at the truth. That he has in many in- 
stances acted in a very strange way cannot be denied ; 
but he has in some cases been fortunate i^nd successful. 
V\s conduct in several cases merits condemnation ; ih# 
whole of it, with regard to Spain, is marked with much 
%|up|]city ; he at first appeared the friend of Charles ly. 



WouDd^himself into his secret thoaghts, and vfhen he bad 
the pover, left the unhappy monarch to bewail bis in* 
credulity in thns trnstilng io verse than a reed. The 
Prince of Peace* Don Manuel Godoy, alias the favourite, 
was a tool of Bonaparte, and, no doubt, purchased by 
inm, as his condact was evidently that of a traitor ; but 
the Spanish people found him out, and he was obliged 
to seek shelter in France from their rage. The King and 
his son were also in France, but more like prisoners than 
any thing else. The conduct of Charles the IVth. was 
Yery strange, he first abdicated his throne in favour ot 
Ferdinand, and afterwards denied it, accusing Ferdbiand 
of acting unworthily. 

The man who sits down to write a work, be it on what 
sabject it may, lays himself open to the attacks of the 
world, when once his work gets into circulation; he 
then becomes a butt for all to dart at, and must take his 
share of good or bad luck ; yet, among the many who 
peruse it, friends are found who will pardon his errors, 
and praise him where he really deserves it, and critics 
who will la^h with justice. -That I have deserved both of 
these, I will venture to afifirm, altliough it is a general 
maxim that man should say nothing in favour of himself. 
To merit those sort of friends I have been careful to 
adhere to what has been kno^n to have taken place^ 
and to state facts as they occurred, without adding to, 
or taking from them. Much has been written on tiie 
subject of the French revolution, and many writers have 
described it in very glowing terms ; but have they uU 
adhered strictly to truth ? That is a diCBcult question 
to be fairly answered, and many will say, No ; in whicli 
I most agree with them. But it is impossible to be 
otherwise than interested for or against what passes 
befm as^ and strikes on our senses, as though we were 



If PASrACff* 

a party in the matters thus enacted ; ttie hmntui niiid 
cannot be whoify free from prejudice, however mach il 
may be inclined to be so. 

The observations we have made on the character 6f 
Bonaparte have been dictated by trnth and candonr, at 
least we are of that opinion ; whether they are so^ bow-t 
ever» in reality, we leave to the pablic to judges and on 
that judgment we rely. We trust also, that the work ^ 
with which we now present them may be looked on in 
the way in which it was intended to be, namely^ for their 
amusement and information ; with this hope we for the 
present bid tiicm farewell, and trust that our next exer« 
tion will be more generally approved of. 


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>^0^*<^^^^^ ^ ^>^ ^ <^^i^ 

CHAPtfiR I. 

X HE puenKty of heroes in erery SLg6 lias been mucli 
descanted on by various writers, bat the anecdotes have 
usnally fiiiled of creating any extraordinary interest; 
they serve only to amuse weak minds^ and fill up a chasm 
in those whose understandings are limited ; we shall 
therefore compress those of Napoleon's infancy to as 
amall a compass as we can. 

Kapoleon Bonaparte was bora on the l<kfa of AuguM; 
1709, at AJaecio, a small town in the island of Corsica. 
He was the eldest son of Carlo Bonaparte^ a lawyer, of 
Italian extraction, by his wife LetitiaBAuiolini ; and it has 
been said, tiiat Greneral Paoli was his godfitfher. General 
Count Harboeuf was the early patron of Ni^oleon; he 
Ind conquered Corsica for the kingdom of France, and 
was appointed governor of the island* 

The elevation of individuals, whetiier by their merits, 
their crimes, or their mtrigues, has always aflforded the 
malignant an opportunity of calumny, and the curious a 
fiind of inquiry ; the one will f^lrge a foot, and the cre^ 
dttllty of the other pronounce it genuine and give it cur^ 
rency, and thus the vile and the virtuous are equally sub** 
jeet to misrepresentation and abuse* . Those narrattons, 
vox. I.— NO. I. B 

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KemoTal to. Brieone. 

therefore, which iadiscriminately impute to the family 
and connections of Bonaparte^ file commission of flag^rant 
and detestable crimes, and ido^rrigible depravity of hearty 
should be Ust^ned to with a catitioiid iresefye^aftdTsiic)! as 
elude enquiry as to their origin, or whose origin does not 
fully prove theur authenticity, we have no sufficient war* 
rantry tobelicfve. 

Whatever may be said of Bonaparte's illegitima«y is 
Kt present destitute of the authority necessary for the his- 
torian ; but be his origin what it ma)r, he became so much 
an object of the Count de MarboeuTs protection as to have 
Veen adnitted, by his inBnence with the Marechal de 
Segiir» the Frenoh Minister at War« as an Eltve du Roi^ 
into rEcok Rotate MUiiare, at Brienne, in the province 
of Chanpaigne. Here it was that he acquired a know« 
ledge of the military and political sciences, which he has 
since se well matnred by experience, and which has en- 
ttbled him to lead mighty armies to battle, and to con*' 
(|iMr ; #hich has brbught princes to bis feet to sue for die 
noBkinal {MMsession of their states ; which has procured for 
llim kingdoms that he has bestowed on those whom he 
chose to ereale soYereigns ; and which has given him the 
ilBconlf oiled and the absolute dominion of an empire tfiat 
lie raised to be the nugbtiest on the continent of Europe ; 
•nd seated hun ob Ihe throne ef.fhe most ancient and 
powerful dynasties of the eivffissed world. 

The school at Brienne was one of the thirteen Royal 
MiEtary Schools, or Colleges, which were established in 
various provinces of tiio kingdom of France, and they 
Were parUenlarly patronised by the two last sovereigns of 
the Bourbon family. These estabfishments were magnt-. 
licently endowed, and the pupils enjoyed every advan- 
tage which waa essential to their domestic convenience. 

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The most able masters saperintended their education^ 
andtbej were pri&cipalljeDcoiura^edto acquire a com- 
petent knowledge of the ancient and modem languages, 
geography, history, the mafhematics, and every branch 
of military science. 

JJEcole Jioyal MUitare, at Paris, was at the head of 
the other military schools in the provinces, and it was to 
this school that not only subordination was acknowledged 
by the pupils of the others, but to which they looked for- 
ward as the haven of all the youths of pre-eminent genius 
that the military schools of the provinces had educated. 

Bonaparte arrived at the Royal Military School at 
Srieane in the year 1779, being then only ten years old* 
At this earfy age, however, he discovered a peculiar tern? 
per of mind. He avoided the juvenile sports and amnse^ 
ments of the other pupils, and courted solitude and gloom ; 
■rithdcawiAg himself from their mirth, he devoted his at- 
In^ion to sedentary, rather than to active employments, 
and appeared entirely engaged in his own individual and 
retired pursuits. He seldom exposed himself to htt 
eobool-iellows ; for as he came only as a monitor, they rev 
poised his reprimands and railleries by blows, which he re^ 
ceived with indifference, returned with coolness, and never 
shunned by retreating from superior force. 

Jt does not appear, that on his first entrance at school, 
uny extraordinary acquirements of learned marked an in- 
jordinate desire of instruction or intenseness of applica- 
tion ; he seems to have neglected, if not altogether reject- 
itA» in his early years, the attainment of the Latin lan- 
guage. He soon, however, applied himself with earnest- 
Bess to the mathematics, the rudiments of which he was 
,tangbt by Father Patrault, a minim at Brienne. Fortifi- 
99t|op, imd «U tlie other branches of iiulitafy scienee and 


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Hu Kmplojment ia tbe Moan or Vacation. 

tactics, he studied with increasing ardour ; and these, 
with the readmg of history, principally of antient Boma 
and Greece, were his most delightful occupation* 

During the period which Banaparte continued at Bri- 
enne, a library was formed for the amusement and instruc* 
tion of the pupils, and which was to be under their entire 
direction. To give them proper notions of arrangement 
%^d order, their superiors left the distribution of the books 
and other affairs to the management of two of the boarders, 
chosen by their comrades. The calls of Bonaparte on one 
of these, who was appointed libirarian, were so often and 
so much more frequent than the apptieations of his com- 
panions, that the young man ^considered him tiresome, 
and sometimes lost his temper ; Bonaparte was not less pa^ 
tient nor less positive, and on these occasions extorted 
submission by blows. 

The hours of vacation between his attendance on tho 
preceptors of tlie school were spent in his garden, which 
he cultivated so assiduously as to preserve its interior in 
a state of order and cleanliness. Its boundaries became 
impervious, and enclosed a retreat that might have been 
coveted by a religioi^s recluse. Here, when his horticul« 
tural labours were ended, he retired to its harbours with 
his mathematical and scientific works ; and, i^urrounded 
by these and other books, chiefly on historical subjects, 
he meditated the reduction of the principles he had im- 
bibed to practice. He planned the attack and d«fenco 
of fortified places, the arrangement of hostile^^orps in ' 
order of battie, calculated the chances pf success on the 
one part, and of defeat on the other ; altered their position, 
and formed charges and victories upon papM*, and on the 
ground, which he afterwards realised with sneeass when 
directing the evolntioas of the French armias. Uis mih- 




His Emplojowot in tbe Hours of Vacation. 

^ry ardour was inoreased by bis faislonbat readiog ; bis 
enthusiasm was excited by the lives of thosejuicient legift<* 
kitors, heroes, and warriors, which are recorded by th^ 
Tenerabfe Plutarch, the splendour of whose actions ha¥« 
tpcl^sed tbe injustice at which they scHnetimes aimed, and 
which more frequently originated in tbe daring purposes 
of the iactioaa partisan, or in the desperate policy of tbe 
ho!d-£Bu:ed tyrant, than in the laudable design of the in^ 
trepid patriot, to free bis country from despotism; or, 
than in the resolution of the Chief of a free people, to 
preseria their independence^ and secure their govern* 
ment from treachery. Ihe life of the Marshal, Prince 
of Saxony, was also a frequent recreation to Bonaparte, 
after a cJose application to the mathematics. He per- 
sisted in all his studies with avidity. 

Tbe Belles Lettres were not any source of bis enter* 

fainnient; his sole and undivided attention was to milit 

tary acquirements, and a proficiency in the studies which 

form the habits of a warrior. Pc^te, or liberal accom- 

plisbments, be appeared to consider that a soldier should 

disdain. He had, doubtless, heard of the achievements 

of Marlborough in tbe field, and perhaps that he had 

also studied the art of pleasing, ** that by it he gained 

whoever he had a mind to gain ; and he had a mind to 

gain evei; body, because he knew that every body wato 

nutfe or less worth gaining." But it was not by graces 

illness of demeanor that. Bonaparte designed to wiu't 

what he coald not gain by mero force, he never sought 

to attain by a display of any endeavour to please ; what 

he conid not possess by bis power, be never relinquished 

the paiBuit of, but aoquiied it by stratagem, in which 

there was i^ seeing of his influence. He scorned the 

^its of it roortier, nor oven employed them where U 




Atmemncot to Conica. 

fnigfat have been supposed that no other attempt woskl 
«acoeed. All other means which power and the inge- 
Buity of an uncultivated mind would have devised, h^ 
%k&ed without hesitation. His comrades called him The 
Spartan, and he retained the name until he quitted 

• Bonaparte's attachment to Corsica was almost pro? er» 
bial. It was usual for the boys to receive the commu- 
nioq and be conirmed on the same day, and the cere** 
mooy was perCbrmed at the Military School by the Arch- 
bishop ; when he came to Bonaparte, he asked him, like 
the rest, his Christian name : Bonaparte answered aloud. 
The name of Napcdeon being unoommon, escaped the 
Archbishop, who desired him to repeat it, which Bona- 
parte did with an appearance of impatience. The mi-' 
nister who assisted, remarked to the prelate— << Napo- 
leon ! I do not know that saint"-**' Parbleu ! I believe 
it,** observed Bon^[>arte ; ** the saint is a Corsiean." 

Ills fellow pupils frequently initated him by calling 
him a French vassal : he retorted eagerly and with bit«- 
terness. He sometimes declared a belief that his destiny 
was to deliver Corsica on its dependence on France. 
Tlie name of Paoli he never mentioned but wifli re- 
verence, and he aspired to the honour of acUeving the 
Resign which the plans of that officer could not accom- 
plish. Gclhoa had added to the calamity of his country 
by surrendering it to France, and thqs exposed it to a 
subjection which it gallantly resisted, but to which supe* 
rior force compelled sulmiission. To the Genoese his 
hatred was inveterate and eternal ; a young Corsioan, on 
his arrival at the college, waa presented to Bonaparte 
by the other stndento as a Genoese, the floom of his 
younteuanoe instantly kiindled into rage, he darted upoq 




■ I ( I I 

His anmnen — Heads dlfierent Parties. 

the lad wrth vehemence, twisted Us hands m bis hair, and 
was only prevented usnig farther violence by the imme~ 
diate interference of the stronger boys, who dragged the 
lad away from his resentment. His anger rekindle^t 
against this yoatii for many weeks afterwards, as fre^ 
qaentty as he came near hhn. 

His manners were very remarkable; pride was the 
prominent feature of his character ; hki conduct was 
austere : if he committed an error, it was not the fiiult of 
a boy, it was the result of deliberation, and what would, 
n mature age, hare been deemed a crime. His severity 
never forgave the offences of his companions. His re- 
solves were snmoveahle, and his firmness in trifies tinc- 
tured his behaviour with obstinacy and eccentricity. Fre- 
quently engaged in qaarreb, he was often the greatest 
sulTercT, as he generally contended on the weakest side, 
and though he was mostly singled out as an object of re- 
Venge, he never complained to his superiors of iR treat-' 
ment. He meditated retafiation in sHence, and if he 
could not mffict a punishment himself, he disdained ap- 
pealing to an authority that could enforce it 

The boya of the school were, however, gradually fa- 
miliarized to Ms temper ; he wbuM not bend to them, and 
they wera contented to concede to him. He accepted 
tids acknowledgment of his superiority, without any ap* 
pearance of self gratulation, and although they could 
Hot esteem him for any of the milder virtues, they feared 
his inflexible nature, and allowed him either to induce 
In seclusion, or to associate with themselves as he nu|fht 
please. The insurrections of the scholars against the 
'masters were frequent, and Bonaparte was either at the 
head of each rebellion, or was selected to advocate their 
•Miphints. He was therefore generally solected a^ the 

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Chosen CapUia — DecUred unworthy to command hit Comradei. 

bader, and suffered severe chastasement* He often 
vindioated his conduct, but never entreated pardon. He 
listened to reproach and to reproof, to promises and to 
threats, without emotions of fear or surprise. He was 
"Mver humiliated by those punishments that were in- 
tended to disgrace him, and the ndllely of an ungenerous 
eomrade, or a powerfol superior, was equally received 
in sullen silence. He neither courted good-will nor feared 

. The meetings of the boys were on the plan of a mili- 
tary establishmept. They formed themselves into com- 
panies, each under the command of a captain and other 
officers., and the whole composed a battalion, with a colo- 
nel at its head. The officers were chosen by the boys» 
and decorated by the ornaments, usually attached to the 
French uniform, these distinctions of rank being con- 
ferred by the lads, were mostly the reward of some jpne- 
eminent virtue or ability ; they were, therefore, consider- 
ed by those who were so fortunate to obtain them, as* an 
b<Miourable insignia of merit. Bomqparte was unani- 
mously chosen, and held the rank of captain. He, how- 
ev^er, by no means courted their approbation ; for he wai 
soon afterwards summoned before a court-martial, which 
was called with all due formality, and, on charges being 
'proved against him, declared unworthy to conmi^nd 
those comrades whose good-will he despised. The sen- 
tence disgraced him to the lowest rank in the battalion^ 
he was stripped of tlie distinguishing marks of his com- 
laapd, but disdained to show that he was affected by th« 

The younger boys, however, were partial to Bona- 
parte's manners, for he sometimes encours^ed them in 
their sports, and occasionally pointed out some advantage 



AnfHf wjas m txftu^Ptr. 

Raises Fiehl Worfn^ torn* fintrenchraentt, ftc 

wbkAk » tkeir warlike plays bad been omitted ta be dc^ 
eupiedy bence be associated with them, and they voted 
luD» hf acekunatioQ, Hit iKrector of thehr ditenions. 
Tbiis» if lie felt regret for the loss of bis jurenSe mili^ 
tsaj rank, he was now reeonpensed by becomuig th4 
leader af Hm iads who sttboHtted to the authority ttfey 
kad bestowed .on hiniy aad vfikich attdiority soon extended 
itMif over all the yoQths iti the scbooL Without bein^ 
restricted to observe the niletf which are essentia! to^ mo^ 
dem nUitary daty, be ce«id now bring his forces into 
liM» field, and direet adl tiiefr operations. He availed him^ 
aelf of tiiia new conmlaiid, and he disciplined his edmrades 
to a new mode of warfhre. 

His ncti^ty repressed in Hkt only exercisis t6 wlneh hi 
was attached, Booiq»arte retired to his fovoinrite garden; 
resaned his foimer econfpations^ and appeared no more 
attioag his comrades rnitil tiie wmter of the year V799. 
The severity of tibe weather had driven him flrom his re^ 
lv«at» the snew had lam thick upon the ground, and d 
hard frost bad set iil^. Bonsq»arte ever fertile in expedi^ 
«Kts, determined to- open a winter campaign nptm a* new 
ylan. Hie modem art of war succeeded to the ancient 
Hftving been deeply engaged in the study of fortification; 
it was BStKirel ttat he should be desirous of reducing its 
tfMory to practice. He called his fottsw pupils around 
IA», and coRectaig their gardening impIettentSy he put 
kimself at their head, and they' proceeded to procure 
bffge qaanftlies of snow, which were brought to parti* 
arias spots in tiie great court of the school, as be drrede^. 
WWbt tbey trero thua oeoupied, he was busied in trsichq^ 
the bomidarfes of an extensive fortification ; they i^oa 
fmaed eatrenehaiefils, and afterwards eagerly engaged 
iacoreetittg forts, basti<ms, and redoubts of snow. Tb«t 

VOL. I — NO. J. a r^ 1 

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AnHual Ezamiiuitioii of tbe Popib. 

— — i ■ ■ ■ »■■■■■ _—..--■■■. ... - .j^-p .. . ■ » ■■ ■■ I I ■ J 

laboured with activity, and Bonaparte superintended their 

The whole of these works were soon compleated ac- 
cording to the exact rules of art. The curiosity of the 
people of Brienne, and even of strangers^ was excited by 
the report of their extent and scientific construction^ 
and they went in crowds during the winter to admire 
them. Bonaparte, by turns, headed the assailants and 
the opponents ; he united address with coun^e, and di- 
rected the operations with great applause. The weapons 
of the contending parties were snow balb, and he coatir 
j^ually kept up the interest by some mUitary manoeuvre^ 
which always surprised if he did not astonish. The en- 
counters were equally earnest with those of the summer 
campaign, but the arms were different The superiom 
now encouraged these games of the boys, by praising 
those who distinguished themselves. The sports conti- 
nued throughout the winter, and it was not until the sun 
of the month of March, 1784, had liquified the fortress, 
that it was declared no longer tenable. 

The rudeness of manners which Bonaparte displayed, 
and the violence of temper to which he was subject, were 
not at all softened ^r subdued previous to his quitting 
Brienne ; his paroxysms of passion had sometimes amount- 
ed even to fiiry, and his anger was often so sudden and 
w ulicontrolable that few of his comrades would venture 
^o hazard his displeasure. 

The annual examination of the pupils by the Royal In- 
spector General, M. le Chevalier de Renault, took pkce 
soon after. This officer found Bonaparte well veised 
In the art of fortification, and as he hinwelf owed his pre* 
ferment and his fortune to his talents, and to the nnivev- 
^ testimony of an honourable conduct, he knew well 


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His Arrival ^t the Militaijr CoHegeftt Paris. 

how to estimate the higenuity and ability which are tho 
result of inquiry and reflection, and he adjudged tihat 
Bonaparte's proficiency in nriUtary knowledge entitled 
him to be sent to U Ecole Royal Militaire at Paris. His 
masters, however, • represented to the inspectpr sevend 
occurrences un&vourable to his promotion, but without 
effect, and Bonaparte arrived at the Military College at 
Paris, on the 17th of October, 1784. 

During the time Bonaparte continued at the military 

^ school of Brieime, we have observed that he seldom 
courted the acquaintance of his fellow students, nor was 
induced to leave hb retreat either to afford or receive any 
of those Uttle offices of kindness which are congenial to 
the youthful disposition. If he quitted his professional 
duties or studies for the company of his comrades, it wat 
principally to check the exuberance of their playfulness^ 
or to contemn the objects of their sohcitude. His aver* 
sion to sociability was much increased by his excessive 
indulgence in habits of suspicion ; but if he feared trea- 
chery, he also avoided the possibility of being betrayed ; 

' he bestowed no confidence, -nor accepted any favours, 
fiis temper was overbearing and irritable. He often en- 
deavoured to control the actions of the other youtiis* 
Sometimes he excited their indignation by his sarcasms^ 
but never did he fear their vengeance, or shrink fironsi 
fixtvt endeavours to punish his iU- timed interference ; he 
bore their attacks with firmness, and repelled them M4lh 
equal violence, and with various success. No threats, 
either fW>ro his equals, or his superiors, nor no impend* 
ing danger appeared to appal him, and he seemed as iiH 
sensible to their applause as to their displeasure. Sternly 
independent, and confiding in himself alone, respecting 
UX^ talents in another winch he could not employ to \Ai^ 

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Hii Leiiure Hoon^-EDteri » Regiment of ArtUlery, 

pwajpurposes, intriguing where he could not commaad, 
jfinn in his resolves, inpatient of restraint; an4 disdainfii) 
pi anthority— his chsraoter when he left Brienne, was as 
revarkable for its turbolence, as for its ipflexihility, * 

To complete his knowledge of the mathematics, wa^ 
the principal object of Bonaparte at the Military College 
pf Paris. He laboured with unwearied diligence under 
the instructions of the celebrated ALonge. The corps of 
^tiUery and the corps of engineers were, at that time, 
the only oorps in France where merit was certain of pror 
motion, and in which interest had no influence, and into 
^ne of these he determined to enter as soon as he had 
fmtA the requisite probation* 

T^i^icxt were then about ^tei hundred pupils at this 
college, and from them he selected L^uristos, a yxmth of 
jpUc^lwatic temper^ and Dupont, a daring and fearless 
jnung nan, for his intimates. He had made one friend- 
ship at Brietme, bn^t which he never allowed to intenmyil; 
Jus profosoponal avocations: this was widli Faucelet de 
Bottrienae, who was, like himself, a student of theniathe^ 
matics, but of remarkably placid manners. 

The leisure hours of Bpnaparte at the college at Parity 
W^NTiS usually spent in pne of the bastions of a spiall fort, 
called " lien Brane/' idiich had been erected for tho 
use af pupils. Itwas there that he was often seen with 
|he works of Vauban, Mailer, Cohom^ and Folhard, open 
ll^foi^ hun, drawing plans for the attack and defenoe of 
lUp little fort, ancording to the vJi^ of the military art 

lIoBge hadso w^ qaaUfied Bonaparte by his care an4 
infeomlMMiy 'that, on his first examination, be passed 
Wil^ prai^» aod was allowed to enter the regyment of 
vtilfeiy it U Jere^iagairiAonat Auxone^ as Lientenant» 
in th^ MvA af fclr» 17^ w4 hp immtdiatcly ft^ 





Hit Diisatisfoction at U^e Narrownepiof his Income. 

•eeded to join the regiment 0is attenUoii to the theory 
of Jiis profession wa3 as anrexnittini;^ as ever; he devoted 
part of the njght to the stjidy of military det;ails, aad pa^t 
most of the day Id cooteinpj^tin^ afid exanuuio^ the fpr« 
tificaliojis of 4he ^^^rrbioji. In his occasional conversa- 
tioiis with the officers of the regiment, he expressed opi- 
nions which, were then considered as factious, both by 
thoseof the higher orders and those who were the parti- 
sans of royalty. His ill hamour was seldom concealed 
Against any regalations that abridged the privileges or 
checked the licentiousness of the people, and whether 
those regulations affected the indefeasible right of an in- 
dividual or a public body, or curtailed the excessei. 
which arose ontof the meiBcacy of the laws, or the laxity 
of their administration, he was equally adverse to this 
controllii^ power. * His opposition of sentiment to all 
thc^ measures of government was uniform, and unohange- 
arf^ie. by any endeavours to reason its inconsistency or its 

The death 4)f General Count Marboenf> m the year 
1786, deprived Bonaparte of his protection and in* 
0aence ; the advantages which he derived irom that ofV 
Seer's pecuniary assistance, were no longer attftinablej 
^4 his pay fis a Ueiitenant was scarcely adequate to supr 
port the appearance Ins rank required. His dissatisr 
fictioii was inpre^se^ by thi^ narrowness of his income* 
^d the oamerous factions which disordered all tho 
ff pV^ yof society in Fra^e^ induced him to await with 
liamhbn t ncr for some terrible convulsion of the stat^ 
fi^ ^ shopld opitfk % path to his military activity and pror 

It was miBf for a deeply reflective mind to imaging 
Itot 9 frcpt ahaiige of affidrs might take place^ and af 


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Origin of the Revolutioo. 

even tlie energies of power as well as its abuses were, 
when he felt or witnes;>ed either, the objects of his re- 
sentment, every circumstance which tended to counteract 
the operations of the Government he rightly considered 
would hasten the event he wished for. The numerous 
venal factions which divided alike the nobility,, the clergy, 
and the people of Paris, (he separation of their interests, 
and^tlie inordinate selfishness of the individuals which 
composed those bodies ; — ^these distraotions increased his 
hopes, and emboldened his language. 

^^^^^^^^^0<»»^0^^^0^^*0»^»^^ ^ ^^^^^^^»^^^^^^^ 


The great and mighty revolution in which fate had 
designeil this extraordinary youug man to perform a 
character more complicated and more important than 
ever was assigned to a single individual before, took its 
origin from the commencement of the reign of Louis XV, 
like the collecting elements of a tremendous volcano^ 
it silently continued to form its various combinations 
till its elective attractions were complete, when by a 
convulsive effort, it suddenly burst open the bosom of se-- 
crecy, and, rolling forth in torrents of trresistibie con* 
fusion, threw down the oldest empires, monarchies, and 
tiirones, in its impetuous course, without any apparen 
object, but &at of raising an obscure person to a rank 
little inferior to a Deity on earth. 


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Grandeur of Lqnis HIV, 

During Ike reign of Looia i&e XI Vth, France had been 
raised to tbe highest pitoh of grandeur that she bad 
lever seen, bat it was a grandeur by ^hioh the throne 
was exalted and the people depressed. The glory of tha 
king consisted in the pageantry of his court, rather than 
IB the opulence of his people, and the revenue-was ex* 
jMaded to disphiy the taste of the monarch, instead^of im- 
proving the eondition of the nation. 

At the death of Louis Xiy.he left the kingdom to his 
9on, an infant in the arms of his nurse, and the govern* 
ment devolved upon regents, and women, ^wbose fiivo- 
Jmis minds led them constantly to resort to expedients 
just snfBcient to extricate the nation from its temporary 
embarrassmeotSy but they never adopted any grand and 
prospective measure that was calculated for its future 
henefit When the king grew up, he seemed to out-run 
the contemptible manners of tbe court, by adding a de- 
gree of depravity to his own, which Ins exalted rank only 
aerved to render more pernicious; its bad exampla 
jnay very properly be compared to an orerwhelming 
lood that carries every thing before it* -^Aii orders of 
the French people were influenoed by tbe Segen^racy of 
their leaders, and every privileged class wte so anxious 
for the extension of its rights, that, in pursuit of their 
aeyerai usnipati(yns, they were all equally negligent of 
their duties. The clergy and the nobility endeavoured 
to outvie each other in the flattery they daily offered t» 
the throne» and they expeoted their adulation to he ' re- 
paid by the homage they exacted from tlie people* Rank 
and authodty was supposed to be the o&ly I'vrle of moral 
fitness; accordingly they established it as a maxim, that 
«i|he win of the kiqg was the only law/ and they 


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Loab XVI. ateends Ow Throne. 

teagiit the monarch to assigB no other reason for the 
most arMttary act, than, '' mo^ is onr pleasure/'. 

In addition to the ;enend Ut-hoinottr that arises out of 
Ae poverty and serrHity of a people nnder a de^otio 
l^ovemment, the people of France irere constantly im* 
fated by arbitrary arrests, under the aifthoritf otLeUrm 
de Cdckft, as well as by innanierable persecotions on nky 
count of religious opimons, and by sBi odiMB tax, knowtt^ 
in that ooant)7 by tiie name of Gebdk. Upon all these 
topi<5S the Utemry men of the day wer6 in tiie habit of 
Sttimadteriiftg' witlf great severity; 4M fliongh tliey 
ttigkt hav6 disetfrered something nearly as objectionribf» 
in mavy other countries of Europe, a variety of accidents- 
combrned tq £^ect their attention principalff to France. 
The king and his courtiers adhered pertinaciously to 
their system, but flfere was a public opiniott rising up 
i^^ainst them, whick only granted a truce until it should 
he able to strengthen itsclfl 

Such was the state of tfie kingdom, when; itk the year 
1774, Louis XVI. mounted the throne. He was a prhtce 
to whom the people looked up with much expectation^ 
as his conduct while dauphin had been most exemphiry. In 
the year 1770 he had married Marie Antoinette, daaghter 
of Maria Teresa, and sister to Joseph tSe lU. Emperor 
of Germany, a princess of an excellent capaoity add 
great dignity of mind, and which alliance might have 
been eihinetttly serviceable to the nation*, but Ibr ths 
egotism and seffinhness of the French, whicb constantly 
led them to be guilty of any meanness rather than 
to acknowledge a real obligation to any power but their 

If the young king and qnccn were not endowed irith 


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BoTy of the Noblei — CcDsures on the Qaeen. 

every virtoe, fhe^ could not be accused of any vice, and, 
luA tbej been bappily surrounded by a courti and a 
people as pure as themselves, tiieir reign might have 
been truly happy for themselves, and prosperous ibr 
their country : but the insolent arrogance of tfa« nobility^ 
and tike supercilious bigotry of the clergy; knew no 
bounds, and the sovereign was constantly restrained from 
indnlging the benevolence of his heart by those who 
would have been disgraced by the precedent; 
.. The education of their majesties had by no means 
taught them to husband the splendor with which their 
exalted rank enabled them to dazzle the eyes of their 
gatedj attendants : the innocent pre-eminence they pre« 
served just above the heads of the voluptuous nobles, 
excited the envy of ail the vicious and the vain, who 
nnceaangly, repine at the em'oyments of others, when 
the consciousness of crime destroys the relish of their 

TUs malignflnt spirit soon found' an opportunity of 
displaying itself. The queen being a foreigner, the 
most bitter censures might be pointed against her witli* 
eat wounding the national vanity of the French people 
fiir tiieir countiy, and therefore the heroes of the great 
aation commenced an attack upon her conduct^ and, by 
a series of tininterrupted calomnies, persuaded the vul- 
gar and ignorant rabble^ who knew no history beyond that 
df fbeir emi Fauxbourgs, that all the confusion of the 
siate bad been produced by tl&is one woman. 

(Srontastaooed as the country was^ the utmost vigour 
and promptitude were required of the government. Un-' 
finrlmiately, the king possessed neither, and the system 
of patching and mending, adopted in the former reign, 
aw still purimed. 

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Cmises of the Wretchethiets fuaon^ the People. 

• Had the king possessed an iBflexibility- of Diind, iie 
might easily have secured the Idogdom against the dan- 
gers' wUch nenaced it, for he saw the necessity of a 
more oeconomical arrsmgement, and on that account ap' 
pointed Turgot his minister of finance. WisdtHn, inte- 
grity^ and beneyolence, marked the progress of this ad«> 
iniiHBtration, which at once restored the puMic credit and 
rednced the grieyances of flie peopto; but the proQ^^y 
and dissipation of the great raised such violent clamours 
against the prudent restraints of this minister/ that tiie 
king was persuaded to dismiss him ; and he was followed 
hj a succession of those artificial great men, who ima^ 
gine that all evils may be remedied by dbying the disor*^ 
ders of the moment. 

' A firm and enterprising prince, in the cireumstaneei^ of 
lioub the XVItfay would have benefited greatly by tho 
general state of Europe. At the commencement of Ins 
reign, England, the only power firom whom France could 
expect any cause of quarrel, was engaged in sueh nnme« 
reus disputes with her Indian and American colonies, 
that she could have nothing to apprehend firom thai 
qumrter. The kings of Prussia and Sweden, as well as 
the Empress Catherine, had made such various reforms in 
their several states, that the public were universally pre- 
pared for amelioratiofis and improvements, and &e wkolo 
body of the hterati had so fiir committed themsehw 
upon the reforms necessary in France, that ttey could 
not, with any decency, have opposed the ^onreotion •f 
such abuses as the French monarch mig^ havo been de* 
termined to ttkeU 

' The princqpai oauses of the general wretchedness fluit 
afflicted FVance, were the feudal system, and the piivi* 
leges and exemptions chiimed by the- nobles and #!• 

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Peniiciou laflMaoe •€ tbe Nvbtea and Clerf^. 

saBaaBsaBm^KXi ■ , i i wr ggag— » 

clergy, who oppressed the people by the most severe ae- 
lions of senrices aft4 tythes» whibt they oould not them- 
•elves be foi^Md to contribate towards tbe burdeas of tbe 
steie* The eiroanistaiiees ef tb« oonatry required that 
those isMi Mm ities, the Usnrpfttic^ns of barbaroiul times, 
Aosid bttve been abolished, and fhht tbe huids of both 
those classes AonM have become chargeable with an im* 
post for the soppinrt of tbe public reyentie. 

Joseph the lid. brotber-in-Iaw of the king, was a 
prinoe of a most enlightened and benerdent mind, do- 
YOtIng erery ho«r of bis life to tlie service of bis country, 
and exerting every effort to rescue bis people from the 
^preMJien of the aristocratieal ud ecclesiastical bodies. 
Tie jnflaeace of those two orders was nearly as perakiotti 
in Oermafly m it was in Franoe, and the emperor would 
bsqppily bave united his efforts witb those of Louis to hare 
effected tft« iuAependenoe of ttieir people, and a general 
tsktation m tbeir reiq>ective states. M. Targot bed re- 
commended ttose measures to tbe hing; but the selfishness 
and Ingofry of tbe nobles and tba clergy deterred him 
from foRewing this wise counsel. 

An undefined animosity bad existed for ages between 
fiiugland and Prance, wblch was always more powerdtl in 
the latter people against the English than in the people of 
England against the French. The American celonies had 
determined to dissolve the bond that connected them 
witfi the' mother country, and to declare themselves inde- 
pendent of tbe crown of Ebgl«td. Every argument wed 
to justify fbi» violent separation was calculated to teach 
the discontented that they migbt throw off their allegtance 
Widi impunity, and a prrfdent monarch should have seen 
that he was most sedulously caHed upon to guard against 
th^it introduction into his empire ; bat the CQurt of 

P 2 

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Fraooe joioi AmericB. 

France was so strongly tempted by the opportunity of 
bumbling an old antagonist, that it seemed to overlook all 
consequences, and injudiciously lent its aid to achieve 
Che triumphs of rebellion. One of the American leaden 
was admitted at Paris in tbe character of ambassador, 
and large armies and fleets were fitted out an4 sent to the 
continent of the new world, where they fought side by 
side with those- who maintained that taxation was a frauc} 
—that both tlie nobles and clergy were like locusts, that 
devoured the fruits of the earth — and that kings themr 
selves were nuisances, whose dominions they were fighting 
to get rid of. 

The forces of America and France acted in ooiyunction 
for nearly six years, and when the French troops em- 
barked for their own country, they returned to tell their 
comrades and neighbours at home, that the king's supre- 
macy was a vulgar error, for that they had been assisting 
o people to overthrow the established law, and to reduce 
tlie burthens of taxation by governing themselves. 

Whether or not America would have succeeded in se- 
curing her independence without the co-operation of 
Francfe, has occasioned diversity of opinion ; but as the 
king had contributed largely to its actual acquirement^ 
his share of eclat was Very considerable* It is not in the 
French character to look beyond the gliiter of tlie mo- 
ment, and therefore neither the king nor the people saw 
the immediate cpn^equences of their sublime^^peculations* 
M. Necker, the then minister of finance, had, during 
tbe war, say9 » respectable writer, ** attempted the brilT 
liant paradox of defraying t)ie expenses without burr 
jdening the people by new t^es « He had raised loan^ 
on the annual savings obtained by a reduction of the pubr 
J/c expenditure, and he would have been entitled to tlie 




Failure of the Caisse d*E90ompte. 

eternal gnititade of the country, if that reductioQ had 
been real; bat in spite of all the plausible representations 
of the minister, the revenue continued to be forestalled 
from jear to year, and the ruin of ^e celebrated Caisse 
d*E$compte was the consequence of its reUa^pe up^n its 
paper transactions with the government. 

As the aflbirs of France were greatly influenced by the 
fidlnre of this pitiful bank, it will be necessary in this 
place to give some account of it. It was formed in 1776, 
about the time of M. Neckei^s appointment, by a com* 
pmiy of private persons, and its capital was fixed at 
S(M),00(X. sterling. Its professed design was to diseount 
fciUs at short dates, at the rate of 4 per cent, per annum ; 
but iMs interest bemg evidently not eqoivalent to the 
capital sunk by the proprietors, they were allowed to 
issue notes to the amount of their capital, and, as they 
were not suspected of any intrigue with the government, 
bywldcblhey could be rendered incapable of converting 
into spede at any time all the notes they might so issue^ 
tbeir paper was in high credit. 

As this discount 'office arose with the minister, there 
is much reason to suppose, notwithstanding the veil of 
mystery in which the whole transaction is involved, that 
St was used by him as one of the shifts by which he con- 
trived to postpone the catastrophe of the government; 
for it only contmued its payments a few months after his 
dismissal. The stock was considerably above par, and 
tte credit of the Caisse d^Esc&mpte wholly unsuspeoted'i 
when every province was suddenly shocked by the news 
that it had stopped payment. Scarcely had the spirit of 
dKseontent, which this event occasioned, dissemuiated 
filseU^ when the bankruptcy of the govenimeni was als# 


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Abolition of the Torture. 

antiouiKed^ by returning, ufipaicU the biiis that had been 
ckKwn upon it for paying the army in America. 

A new expedient wasatteny^ted to raise the aredk of 
the Caisse (tEscompte* The kingp was prevailed on to 
extend hia protection to the eompaQy, and four aucceMire 
edicts were passed^ by wbich the baaks in Paris were 
ordered to receive Ub notes as currency. A lottery was also 
establisbedy with a stock of one aiilion sterlin^^ the tie^ 
kets of wUch were dade purchaseable in the Uko notes» 
and an avraHgeawnt was laiade for the payment of the billa 
jdrawB in America* By such means a temporary conr 
fidenee was eiscited ; bat an inquiry was afloat of too se- 
rious a nature to be satisfied by mere expedients. An 
ttkleative observer saw aU the seeds of commotion seat** 
tering themselves abroad, thrcmgh every familyi and into 
«very bosom, and the only siil^t left for speculation^ 
was the manner in which it would commence.r 

In defiance of the chiUish attachment of the people to 
}1. Neeker> the king f^ppointed M. de Fieury in his situ* 
atton» and then M. d'Ormesaon. M. Calonne^ who, be- 
side an acknowkriged ability possessed the most refined 
and pohihed nmnaera, followed afterwards. Nothing can, 
hovev^r, satisfy a people who are determined only to be 
satisfied in a certain way, and the king should have made 
las elactiony either to have given them all they wished, or 
16 h»v^ temporised no longer. 

There is no Feaeon to doubt but the king was disposed 
t» relax the severities of the government, and to imr 
prove the eondition of the people. Sow he abolished the 
torture, whieh had been practised, till his time, m his 
dominions, and he also commuted the punishment oi 
^kiath, which had been inflicted for certain offences m 


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TnstiM with Aqiefficfr^HoItend «iv) KoplMd. 

die army for one lets cruel, but m^m exemplary — l«boar 
in the gaUies. Hit mBd and iexiUe dispoiiCion would 
probebfy iia?e kidaDed him tp b»ve conceded every 
point that justice and freedom could have required of 
hm, bmi he happened to have been either fupported or 
opposed fay wiae and tenpenite men. Tb^ queep, and 
die rest of hia fiuniiy^ it is «aid» urged him to adhere to 
tfaaea priaciplaa of fula he b%d received from bis an* 
eeston; but ha acted mildly ar i^baiiuately n^ he acted 
aceardhig to hia own rah, or th«t of other^--vbe it so*^ 
his misfortunes entitle him to pity ; yet there can be no^ 
iiSfviA hat }» mif^t huve saved himself, if he had pes- 
aasaad fimmass eiaough to have decided for either ic^ 
poliara or JihcTty. 

' To saemre the good-wifl of the peoplo « tre^ vmr 
entered in|o vith America, by vhich it mm itipulatad 
that the 8l»tea shoiild raunhurso the sums Uiat Franca 
had expanded no their aoconiit duHnff ih^ war^ and tb^ 
whol0 apaont (18 aoillicai of livras) was to be paid by 
aMMMd inatabnents in Ivalv^ yewra, A treaty ofTensive 
and defensive was entered into with Holland, as was 
alao a commereiid timty with Sof i«ad. ]Bvery tiling 
fidod af iii abjaat Th^ most iH-natured qw^tru^lioni^ 
were pot Hpon every attempt to caacili^to# fmd which, 
iutead of mcra«iiag8aii9botiw« •onrod-oaly to aggravatf 
the general disoonient* 

Afliidat the general .lermQiit th» pri9«ip)M ^ ib« Anw 
ikinKeTahition wans «aaUy to h^ dvicov«red ^ the gener 
t9ua cry of Ubarly roftannded ercyy where s but the ida«# 
Mnwyed by it ware M diffeiwt ^ the »umer^tt4 aitur 
aliaaa af tha {>en»B« by «1iom it wps wsh^ed. Franca 
e<«tained a vast number of enlightened statesmen i yai aa 
lof the pojHilatioa wasas ignanmt nsauparsta* 




CompartsoQ of the Parliaments of France and Bni^bmd. 

tion and poverty could make theni. Instead, therefore, of 
erecting a sublime system, fbat should ameliorate the condi* 
lion of ally without operating oppressively < upon any, the 
generality of Frenchmen understood nothing more by 
liberty than the removal of some particular burden, by 
which each was more immediately affected. Every one, 
hoirever, complained of some sort of grievance; and 
though the gratification of one would have b«en an a^ 
fliction to another, yet, as neither precisely knew tii 
neighbour's definition of the term Mberty, it became a 
common watch-word for them all. 

In this season of sordid infatuation, the king was eblig-* 
•d to contract for a trifling loan, the demands for ^MxSt^ 
had been of the most honourable and legitimate kind. 
The explanation of tii» minister was, that several dis- 
putes had arisen in some of the neighbouring states, in 
consequence of which large armies had assembled on fha 
French frontier, and it had been tiiought necessary t» 
take all the precautions that such an occasion required; a 
large sum had also been expended upon the fmrtifioations 
of Cherbourg. 

The parliaments of France were not exactiy like those 
of England, alth6ugh they did not differ so much as ha# 
been imagined. They were not chosen by tiie peojde as 
Iheir legislative representatives, but their sanction was 
nevertheless necessary to give authority to the laws, and 
especially those for raising money. In England the go- 
Tcmment of France was always considered a despotism^ 
yet the ministry, in the king's name, was obliged to go 
to parliament for the supplies^ and the people were not 
obliged to submit to any ordinance that the parHanMls 

Those parliaments cmisisted mostly of bnryeni, loid in 




RenoDttnuioe from Uu Parliament to the Kiof . 

general were obsequioas enough to tbe longs will ?. bat 
numy instances had' happened in which they had sacri« 
ficed their politeness to their patriotism, and principally . 
at the conchision of the late reign, when the parliament 
of Paris determined to resist some intolerant measures of 
the CSaiboIic clergy, and incnrred the displeasure of 
Lonis XVth. in consequence. So firmly was this body 
deterouned to maintain its prerogatives, that they also 
reflised to register the edicts which the king issued to raise 
new taxes, and were joined in the same determination by 
the parliaments of Brittany, Grenoble, and others, all of 
iriMm were sent into exile, and continued there till they 
-were* recalled by Louis XVI. at his ascension to the 

Having shewn so much firmness at a period when the 
ight of philosophy scarcely rose jabove the poUtical ho* 
mon, a greater degree of submission coukl not be ex^ 
pected from them at a time when that ferment had dif- 
fosed itself far enough to question the propriety of every 
existing estabUshment. Reform was now called for by 
•very body, but nobody could see exactly how it ought 
to be began ; and, in their apprehension that they should 
miss their object, a disposition to suspect and quibble 
arose amongst all ranks. This made the attainment of 
tiieir objeet more diflicult, by inviting a contentious strug-^ 
gle of the passions to attend at a deliberation which ought 
only to have been entered upon by the most cool and 
temperate reaso«»er. 

A jealousy of this kind alone could have induced tlio 
parliament of Paris, to have remonstrated with the king 
for contracting the loan above alluded to. The amount 
1VAQ only three millions tiiree hundred and thirty thou* 
pounds, and it w:as not pretended that anv par( of 

9QU I.— MO. 2. R 

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I '^ ■ -■ ^ 

The King's Opponltion to ttiB Parliament. 

It had befen improperly appropriated; When tBfe depii>^ 
tation Awaited on the kiDg* tor ami6uttee the- qoemiou^ conh 
plaint, he assume<f a degree of Hauteur not nsoal in hH» 
manner, assuring the assembly that he wouM be efteyed> 
and ordered them to register his edict withotit fiirther de- ' 
lay. The parliament complied ; but they passed a reso«« 
lution, ** That public economy was the only genuine 
source of abundant revenue^ the only mean9 efproTidiitg: 
for the necessities of the state, and restoring the credit^ 
t^hich borrowing had reduced to the brink of ruin." 

The king should have been satisfied with Ae subibisfflott 
that granted him all he asked, and^ hare snfi^red the 
spirit of t'he parliament to hsrve ventedr itself in- a written' 
bravado ; but, on (he contraryy he was so weak as to send' 
for the deptitationyand ordered the resoiution to be erased 
from their records ; and, as a strong mark of his displea** 
^re, dismissed one of their officers, who was most active 
in promoting tlie resolution. At the same time he ob* 
served, ** That though it was his pleasure that the par- 
liament should communicate by ifs respectful repriesentcH 
tions whatever might concern the good of the puMcj, yet 
he never would allow them so far to abuse his eletnency, 
as to erect themselves into the censors of his government*'* 

The violence of this doctrine tailght the patriots Aat- 
they must not venture any further resistanice until lii^. 
could strengthen themselves, and the minister Was so well 
aware of the determined refractoriness of their dispositk)n»- 
that he made no attempt at conciliation. In this situa^ 
tion, to impose new taxes was impracticable ; to eon-* 
tinuc borrowing would hasten destruction ; to rely upoar 
Economical reforms would be found wholly inadeqimte ; 
and he declared, that it would be impossible to plaee ikef 
finances on a solid basis but by a genera! reform of all 



A«l>: WAR^ OF EUROPE. ' ^ 

WPgg== I ■ ,1 I II » 

Mte^og of the Notables. 

■ '■ja- ■ . '■ -■ — ■ ^■-. - . ■■■■ , „a a 

iiiat wai vicious in the state* It was a dilemma of no 
oonunon kind, and the instruclioDs of history were neces? 
sary to^ide him thfougph the difficulty. 
^ Hke antient and legitimate assembly of the nation waf 
called ibe stalesrgeneral, but they bad not mot sinoe the 
times of Loms the Xlllth ; and the supercilious anroganc* 
«f the court woidd not be likely to agree to a convopation 
that would be sure to demand seipe concessions in favor 
of the people^ 

Under those pircumstonces M. Calonne recpmrnendei 
the conventipn of another assembly^ which bad occasiiinK 
sily been substituted for the states-general^ This was 
known by the title of the Notables^ because they con- 
sisted of persons of the greatest notoriety, selected by the 
king^ and summoned t^ attend him as a sort of extra 
council. Writs w^re issue4 for calling this assembly^ 
and they were to meet on the 29th ^f Januaiy, 1787, to 
the nuB»ber of 140. When they arrived at Paris, the 
mimister w|tt not ready to lay his pins before them, and 
the meeting did not take place till the 28d of February, 
AnM>ngst them were seven princes of the blood, with the 
principal nobility, ecclesiastics, military men, and law* 

M. Calonne displayed the state of tlje kingdpm to the 
assembly, and accounted for the deficiency of the revenue 
to the tipie that he entered upon the administration, 
which he proposed to provide for by a territbrial impost, 
something like the land-tax in England, and several' 
alterations in the mode of managing the internal' taxation 
already established. 

. The spirit of the measures that he recommended w^e. 
that no rank or older of men were^ be exempted, and 
■ . . .. B 2 ' 


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^Xhe MJouteriJails. find letiret io ISofland. 

to make an inquiry into the possessions of th6'> ^^r^gf, 
in order that they might he assessed with an equitable 
proportion of the public burdens. Such a proposition to 
such an assembly, was like asking k*obbers for justice, and 
cupidity for a generous spirit The Notables not only 
refused to sanction these taxes, but also denied the neces- 
sity of any increase of the revenue whatever, M. de 
Brienne, Archbishop of Thoulouse^ was sanguine in op- 
posing these measures, and he was very warmly seconded . 
by M. de Mirabeau, who also received great aid from th« 
talents and influence of M. de la Fayette. 

An opposition so unprincipled may be characterized 
as a very cunning mode of tormenting a minister ; but 
tiiere are few who will look on it, even in appearance, as a 
struggle for liberty. It was an opposition of a most fac- 
tious and sordid kind, and no stronger proof of the stu- 
pidity of the French can be necessary, than that they 
could confound it with the cause of freedom. Mirabeau, 
La Fayette, and the archbishop, were called upon to 
adopt a plan of equal taxation, which was to relieve tlie 
people from oppression ; in opposing this measure^ they 
owned themselves the champions of despotism, and yet 
they persuaded their infuriated countrymen that they 
were the only true heroes of the rights of man ! 

The design of the minister to equalize the public bur- 
dens, and, by reudering the taxes general,, make the load 
bear easier upon the lower classes of the people, was, 
clearly, just and patriotic;' but it unitecl the higher orders 
against him, and the event was such as might be expected ; 
. the intrigues of the nobility, clergy, and magistrates. 
raised so loud an opposition to him, that, finding it ioi- 
possible to stem the torrent, he not only -resigned, but ro^ 
tired to England from the storms of persecution, 


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State of other Countries — Govcroraentof Holland. 


Though ihe conflicts of opinions ran high in FraiiM 
at this time, the attention of parties was turned from their 
own affairs, by the events that were passing in other 

The people of England had resisted an obnoxious im- 
post upon retail shopkeepers, which the minister had ap- 
parently resolved to maintain against all opposition. 
Hits tax seemed indirectly to sanction the unjust prin* 
ciple of exemption, and it was censured with so much 
severity, that it was abandoned, after a struggle of almost 
two years. 

• In HoHaaid a contention of a different kind agitated the 
public mind. The government was nominally vested in 
tile Prince of Orange, as Stadtholder, or head of the 
states ; but was really lodged in the power of the states- 
general, or congress, consisting of representatives from 
the seven provinces. All affairs of general consequence 
were directed by this body, while those of internal admi* 
nistration were entirely under the directioij of the burgo- 
masters. Both those classes had, by a frequent return 
to power, and by an artful combination, transformed 
themselves into an hereditary aristocracy, for they could 
prevent the representation gomg out of their own families^ 
,« void nothing was wanting to change them into an heredi- 
tary government, but the removal of the Stadtholder. To 
Una imnister (fdr he was nothing else) they allowed just 


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State of Parties in Holland. 

power sufficient to leave him open to blame in case of 
misfortune, but not sufficient to entitle him to praise ii) 
case of success. 

Wealth, power, and insolence, were the trinity of 
these wretches ; and. becausa England refused to gratify 
their cupidity by sanctioning the illegal trade they car^ 
ried on with her enemies during the American wai", under 
the mask of neutrality, they consequently becaa^ the 
eneinies of England, and revcBge as natarally threw theoft 
tnta the arms o£ France. 

i Then it was that the two parties were formed in Hal* 
{and, wbich have since been distinguished as the French 
and English parties. A long and &Torite object of tba 
TVeoeb court had been to estabMsh a supreme contnol in 
liie aflbirs of Holland, and the patriots, as diose people 
atyled themselves, might, in their present infuriated 
state of mind, he bought at an easy price. Louis had» 
therefore, encouraged their factious opposition, and 
the Stadtholder, through necessky, allied hioiself to fh^ 

It is almost unnecessary to say, that by the spirited 
conduct of the Princess of Orange, and a small armj 
dfepat^hed by her brother the King of Prussia, tboM 
denagogues were sent back to their shops and thmr 
bams. l%ey had resolved to maintam their ol^ect by 
ibrce of arms, and ordered their general, the Bhingmvv 
of Salm, to defend the country against the Prussiana and 
English ; but, when he told them that it wouM requivo 
money, it seemed that all their patriotism waa left ai 
home^ for they expeeted their supplies to be sent by tbo 
King of France ; and ipccordingly, when the Prussians 
arrived at Utrecht, there weve neither cannon^ ; 


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tion, proTisions, soldiers, nor even workmen, to repauT 
the fortifications. As to the gfeat men tiiemselves, itber 
Aingrave says, that instead of being at Alphen, vherer 
they were all to rally, and be ready when called for, 
every one iraagfaied, or at lea^ assigned, a plausible rea^ 
son to prove that his presence was abselcrtely necessary at 
his own house. 

• Whilst ibese opeftttions were going on, a scene of a 
Afferent kind wds preptuing in Belgium. The emperor 
Joseph, amofig the plans he adopted for the benefit of hi» 
people, disclaimed all submission to the authority of the* 
pope in secular concerns ; and he suppressed many mo^ 
nasteries, and reguliated others. 

• The people of Bclgiuni were then, as they stfll are^ 
the most stupid bigots up6n the continent ,* and as that 
was the strong-hold of the priesthood, the good emperor 
began his reforms there first He declared Ostend a firee 
port, and raised it to great importance in a short time« 
The Scheldt he could not navigate, as it had been btock-* 
aded by the treaty of Westphalia, and several powenf 
threatened bim with a war, if he attempted to use his owk 
river contrary to their iniquitous pretensions. He, how^ 
ever, mtended to have opened a canal from Antwerp, 
through Bruges and Ostend, to the sea, sufficient for ther 
navigation of large ships; but before his plan was arrang- 
ed, the clergy so far perverted the minds of their besotted 
followers, that tliey rallied around them in rebellion 
agaljist that monarch, who was hourly exposing himself 
to tip assassination and intrigues of the court and clergy 
of B<ttne,- for the sake of his people. 

The bigoted Belgians, beaded by their maddened 
priests^ armed themselves in defence of the antiquated 


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Louis holds a 3ed of Jiutiee. ' 

corruptioDSy which ^had exhausted all llicii resources^ 
and spread desolation and misery over their whole 
country. They rejected ali the liberal cflTorts of their 
benefactor, and annoyed his government by their 
treasons, till the priests had contrived to poison him, 
and secured the wages of their treachery by the vilest of 

The assembly of the Notables gave the paurties an im- 
portunity of trying their strength, and the result was un- 
favorable to the court. Beside what took place upon* the 
revenue, the state prisons and leitres de cachet werm 
made subjects of animadversion. 

The Archbishop of Thoulouse made himself very po- 
pular by his opposition to M . Calonne's plans, and the 
Ling, in the hopes of being instructed in what was satis- 
lactory, appointed this prelate to the ministry; but, in 
place of adopting a new system, when the Notables wero 
dismissed, he pursued almost the same steps as those he 
had complained of, and the states-general were loudly 
called for by the whole nation. 

A strong aversion to calling an assembly of representa- 
tives, seems to have made the king stretch his authority 
to its utmost, to convert the parliament into abject tools 
of submission* Edicts were handed to them, as if the 
subject had undergone no discussion, and they were re- 
quired to grant the new taxes. The parliament refused 
in the most positive terms ; and Louis, as the last resource 
of his absolute authority, held a bed of justice, and com- 
pelled them to enrol the impost 

These beds of jus'tice were but seldom resorted to in 
the most despotic times, and even then it was like the last 
solemn appeal to the king s authority. He was seated 


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' ' lNt» WAKS OP EtJROPCl; 83 

^ Braithiiient of the PuUanMBt. 

on his throne in the parliament, and the ehrohaent took 
place by his order, as the supreme head of the refractory 

^ The parliament, though defeated, was ndt inbdued; 
and, on the following day, the members entered a formal 
protest against the proceedings^ declaring, ** That the 
edicts were enrolled, contrary to their resolutions, by 
the king's express command'-that they neither (Jught to 
have, nor should have any force— -and tiiat he who should 
presume tb carry them into execution, should be ad||udged 
a traitor, and cbndeianed to the gallies;'' This spirited 
declaration left the king no other alternative; than either 
proceeding to extremities in support of his authority, or 
reiinqaishing it altogether. 

Since the commencement of the genehQ diiscdntent, the 
capital was filled with large bodies of troops ; and, about 
a week after the parliament had entered the protest, an 
oflScer of the guards was sent; at break of day, with 
« party of soldiers, to each melnber, to signify the king's 
command, that he should immediately proceed tb Troyes^ 
a city of Champagne, about seventy miles from Paris^ 
without speaking or writing to any person out of his 
own houie before hi^ defiartui^e. These orders vrere 
aQ ob^rved at th^ sanfe moment^ and, before the citizens 
of Paris knew of the transaction, tiieir representatives 
were afaready on tiie road to th^ place of their banish-^ 

Banishment had ho ttthet effect on the parliament 
fhriak to confirm the ihembers hi their resolution ; but 
several of the other parliaments evinced a degree of 
spirit that cobfouikded the courty and paralysed all Ita 
ineaaurei. Hie parKametft of GrenobU immediaiely at 

VOL. 1.— MO,3. V F 


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Tbe Kims IPT^ '^^ Parliament. 

tttcked the Diost po^oHui engine tke government pos- 
^^Mcd for enforcing ^bedienoe to jts mandates, by de- 
claring it to be a capital crime for any person to attempt 
to ttjecntd ifctiers tle.boichei vriAm its jurisdiction. The 
cmiy Btep ften necessary to commence a civil war in ib» 
eottnti^ vrais, to pass a decree of outlawry against tho8# 
who had cansed the e^e of tbe parliament of Paris. The 
kibg did not wish to* provoke such a measure, aad he 
theiefere recsD^d Ibe parliament. 

Sieve¥al economical regulations had taken place in the 
h>yal household; but tiie pubhc expenditulre stiH fiur ex- 
ceeded the revenue^ and it was evidently impoi^tble for 
the. government to proceed without some very extra<Nrdi- 
nary resources being opened for its supply. 

About the tniddte ot* November, 1787, in a full meeting 
of tbe parliament, the king entetred the assembly^ at-* 
tended by all the prinoes,. dud a great number of the 
peers of France,' and addressed them in a speech of un* 
common length, filled wi& pitifessions of regard* for th0 
f)eople, bht, at tbe same tiikie, strongly expressrve of the 
obedience he expected to his oolnqumd for registering the 

Louis pA}btfbIy imaghied that the dread of the banish- 
•ment, from which the members had been so lately re- 
•callod, would hate ihsuredthe acquiescence of the assem* 
bly ; but, no sooner had the members permission to de« 
fiver their sentitpents, than he was convinced that their 
Spirits were whoiiy unsubdued. A debate tbok place, 
wHidh wus edntlnued for nine honrs^ when the kiiig. 
Wearied by censtmit opposition, and chagrined at the 
fi^edoms used, suddenly rose, and ordered die edkt'to be 
registered without furthey delay* Hits was most untiSp 


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Duke of Orleans and Two Meoiberi baaUbed. 

pectedly opposed by- tbe Duke of Orlecms, who^ cpn- 
«»iviiig it ^a infriiigement of the rights of parliaments 
protested ag^OMt the whole proceedings of the day, as 
toeing thereby null and void. THiou^h the king could iio( 
^oQceid his astonishment and displeasure at this bold and • 
decisive step» he repeated his orders, anfji immediately 
afterwards quitting the assembly, departed for Versailles. 
On (he departure of Jiis majesty, the parliament CQ|ifirme4 
the protest of the Duke of Orleans, and declared, that as 
their deliberations had been interrupted they considered 
the whole business pf the day as of no effect 

The agitation Qf the king w;as excessive ; he could not 
suffer such an attack upon his ppwer with impunity^ al- 
though he might lament the impetuosity which had in- 
slaced hjm to provoke it. Accordingly, a letter was the 
next day delivered to the Duke of Qrleani^ commimdin^ 
him to retire tp one of his country seats^ au4 to receive 
no company there except lus own iamily* At the same 
time the Abbe Sabbatiere and M. Freteau, both members of 
the parliament, who had distinguished themselves in the 
debate, were seized, upder the authority of kttres 4^ 
focheif apd sent to distant prisons. 

These despotic ineasures excited the indignation of tlie 
public^ On the following day th|s parliament waited on 
the king^ and expressed their astonishment and concern 
that a prince of the blood was exiled, and two of their 
members imprisoned, for having dechred before him 
what their duty and consciences dictated, and at a time 
when his miyesty had declared that he came to take the 
sense of the Assembly, by a plurality of voices. The 
king's answer was reserved, forbidding, and unsatis- 
factory, and increased the resentment of the p^Kptmcnt ; 

F 2 


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The Ktog orderi their Release* 

yet the members acted with more moderation upon this 
than upon an^ other occasion, for they assembled and 
ipe^tered the edict for the loan, which was the cause of 
the unfortunate dissension* 

. The ling was so pleased with the unexpected generosity 
of the parliament, that lie immediately ordered the two 
members to be released from prison,, and to be confined 
to their own country-seals. L6uis, who when left to pur- 
sue his own inclinaitions, adopted conciliatory measures, 
did not long hesitate. In the' beginning of the year 1788 
he recalled the Duke of Orleans to court, who soon after 
Bad leave to retire to England, and he permitted the two 
exiled members to return to the capital. 

Hie parliament, however, did not confine their deli- 
berations to the breach of their privileges ; they considered 
the despotic use mode of the lettres de cachet as quite in- 
compatible with ilie freedom of Rebate, and they fol- 
lowed the example of their fellows of Grenoble, m de- 
claring against the legality of these instruments, and Louis 
was again insti^ted to measures of severity. Messrs. 
4'Espremenil and Monsambert, whose bold harangues 
had pressed most closely on the royal dignity, li^eco 
doomed to experience its immediate resentment A body 
of armed troops surrounded the hotel in which the ps^- 
liament were convened, while Colonel Degout entered the 
assembly, secured the persons of the obnoxious members^ 
ind conducted them to different prisons. 
'' This exertion of arbitrary power called forth a remon-* 
atrance from the parliament, which in boldness exceedjed 
til the representations of that assembly. They de- 
clared that they were more strongly confirmed, by e.very 
prpcecdingy of the innovation aimed at the constitution* 


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The Cour Pl^niere. 

*' Buty me,*' added they» " tbe French nation will never 
adopt the despotic measures to which you are advised, 
and whose effects alarm the most fidthful of your ma- 
gistrates. We shall not repeat all the unfortunate cir- 
camstasces that afflict us ; we shall only represent to you, 
with reqpectful firmness, that the fiindamental laws of 
the kingdom must not be trampled upon, and th^tj/our 
mUharity can only be esteemed, so long as it is tempered 
witk justice.'* 

The parliament called loudly for tbe states-general to 
be assembled. Every effort was used to avoid assembling 
them, as if the king had known the ultimate object of* 
the patriots, but could not prove it by satisfactoiy evi* 

If tbe ministry were not among the best of men, they 
were certainly not the most contemptible. — ^They could 
appreciate the exact condition of the kingdom, and they 
contrived, as a kind of dernier resort, a council the most 
suitable to the then situation of the country that could 
have been devised. It was founded upon better princi* 
pies, and was to afford a new and better system of juris- 
prudence than the kingdom had hitherto been governed 
by, and at the same time that it would have avoided the 
inischie6 of tlie states-general. M. Lamoignon, keeper of 
the seals, was the author of this arrangement, which was 
to be called the Cour de Pleniere, and was to be composed 
of princes, peers, magistrates, and military men, and to 
include some of the best characters of the nation. 

The parliament of Paris protested against the appoint* 
ment, and declared they never would assist at any deli- 
|>eTation at such an assembly. The contest between the 
parliament wd the court was so violent, tha); while the 


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RemonstniDres a^^simt the Ce«r Pl^hiere. 

former was sitting, a regiment of soMiers was ordered to 
fiurround the house. The members sent ont for beds and 
provisions with seeming indifference, and it was thonght 
necessary to proceed to greater severities to bring theni 
to submission. An officer was ordered to seisie the most 
spirited, and shut them up in prisons, which order Was 
executed ; but a solemn protest being entered against 
these proceedings, his majesty was advised to shut |ip 
the place of their deliberations, and to suspend all the 
parliaments throughout the kingdom. 

Deputations arrived from the parliaments of Grenoble, 
Thoulouse, &c. with remonstrances against the Cour 
Plentere ; these were sent to the Bastille without cere^ 
mony, which caused partial insurrections in many parts 
of the country, and convinced the court that reliance was 
not to be placed on the troops ; numbers of the peopio 
were killed in tliese skirmishes, but, in general, they kept 
their ground, and the parliaments expressed their indig* 
nation and resentment in the most glowing language, 
^he necessity of assembling the states-general was urged 
from all parts of the kingdom ; and Louis saw that no 
other means were left him of saving the country from flie 
calamities of a civil war. In the mean time the popai^* 
lar party lost no time in strengthening itself: inflam- 
matory writings were distributed among the people^ an4 
placards were stuck upon the gates and public buildings, 
charging the people with cowardice for submitting to 
the arbitrary measures of the government. The vilest 
censures were poured upon the royal family, chiefly 
upon the quern, who was charged with stimulatiu]^ 
every violent proceeding ; and enigmatical sentences^ 


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Jk»D i^AM OW WtiOPE. i0 

Tbe StateMSeiieral ordeied to be atsembled. 

writtM and «tlic^A printed, ejMsitiiiy the people to 
mvalt, ynn libenlly djistributed and read vkh avi- 


▲t tbie tioie the conflicts lusnmed a new appearance 
tfery iasy, and a week in France produced as many 
^erenls as an age elsewhere. Hie king resolved to gratify 
At -wish of the nation by Bummoning the states-general : 
a diange of ministry took place, and the favorite, M. 
JKecber, was leealkd 'to office ; yet the lower orders of 
4itt peofia, who were always devotedto their savereign. 
Heft only treated these inendly measnres with indifference^ 
4Mit beoame feroeion&ly insolent to the authority and per* 
^mxk of their king. 

An arret was issued by the king, in August 1788, to 
JiasMaable stbe stateS'general in the ^priiq^ of the foUowiqg 
.jfiar, 'and -the tnteiral was employed by the clubs in ri- 
iMung the plana imd pvqparing them for execution. 

•By efery considerafte person the assembling of tbe 
<states<fgeiieral was regarded as the most important a)ra in 
the hbtoiy of France. The fibrst question. related to the 
^Bundier of whidi it should consist, and this iS^ Necker 
v^ too politic lo determine of himself, he therefore, once 
mors, summoned the notables, and applied to them for 


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Violent Storm in Fnooe. ' 

advice; but this meroeuery body, who neither cared for 
king nor pe<^le, tfauiking they could preserve thehr 
own priviiegesy only increased the difficulties by a &v 
\olous adherence to precedents that" were no longer ap^ 
plicable to the circumstance* It was at last settled, by 
declaring that the number should be twelve hundred, and 
that the commons, or tiers etat, as they were called, 
should be equal to the other two estates together. This 
arrangement equally satisfied tlie king and the people^ 
but it was far from agreeable to the sordid disposition of 
the aristocracy or the clergy : their pride was roused to 
the highest, to learn that one, hundred thousand nobles^ 
and eighty thousand priests, were not considered of more 
consequence than twenty-five milUon of plebeians ! aAd if 
the privileged orders thought themselves degraded, the 
dabs were busily prepared to increase their mortificatioik 

During the time of tiie elections the spirit of discon- 
tent and tumult, which prevailed all over France, was 
augmented by a scantiness of the necessaries of life, little 
short of a famine, which was occasioned by a violent 
storm ; and, like the great revolution that was then pre- 
paring, this event was the most tremendous of the kind 
that ever happened in Europe. 

Oh the morning of Sunday, tlie 13th of July, 1788, 
most of the extensive kingdom of France was involved in 
solemn darkness, which was succeeded by a dreadfbl 
cnmmixture of hail, rain, thunder, lightning, and wind, 
unitmg their fury to destroy every appearance of com^ 
vintage, and vegetation. Dismay and horror diffastfif 
themsehres through the land, as if die consumikiation 
of ail things was fast approaching ; and Che people, 9U 


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The Kins meets the Statet-General.^ 

their way to charch» were so beaten by the tempest, that 
they feH prostrate on the earthy now converted into Jl 
quagmire^ by tfie concussion of the elements. Hie da- 
mages occasioned by the fanyricane> were supposed td 
amoont to fonr millions sterling, and tiie misery it hi* 
lltcted upon the people was of the most distressing kind. 

To alleviate the distresses of the unhappy sufferers, th4 
King ordered the profits of a lottery, amounting to twelve 
hnndred thousand livres, to be divided amongst them; 
and forgfkve fhem all the taxes for a year, iVom the timo 
of their calamity: the benevolence of the Duke bt Or- 
leans was also veiy exteiksive. Not only did this deso- 
lating cTent promote the revolution by tfab distress it oc- 
casioned^ but it gave the people opportunities of forming 
tumultuous assemblies, that the governlhent C6uld not re- 
strain: what cruel measures of police could censure tt» 
people for endeavouring td get bread ? Their business 
called them to* the bakiii^s shops, and inuftnurs upon a 
particular subject easily received a more general appli- 
bation ; so (hat every street became a pUbQc forum, wber<» 
ufen^ women, and children, indiscriminately mixed to* 
gether to arraign the Conduct of the court* 

At Itng&k the period arrived, that was fondly expected 
hj the great mass of the people, to end all the disorders 
and tumults of the kingdom. His Majesty met the States- 
General on the 4th of May, 1789, in one assembly, and 
left them, without remarking the contention that was ia 
embryo, relative to voting in separate chambers. ' 

*the Abbe Sieyes prevailed upon the conmions to 
allar their style and put an end to the dispute, for the 
general satis&ction of the people. His inotloa was, 

VOL, 1.— MO. 2. o 


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Naeional AMembly formed. 

** ITiat they should declare themaelyes the representative^ 
of the natioDy and that the two orders could be consi- 
dered in no other light than as deputies of- coiporations^ 
vho could only have a deliberate voice when they assem- 
bled in a national character with the national represen- 
tatives/' This measure was adopted unanimously ; and 
the character of States-general was lost in that of '' Tho 
National Assembly/' which instantly became the uncon- 
trollable sovereign of the country* 

Every pretension to distinct legislative power was anni- 
hilated by this decree ; and all opposition to it was looked 
on as a-sort of rebellion : all the moderate men, therefore^ 
of the two ordersi joined the National Assembly. 

A regular royal, noble, and clerical combinatioii wa# 
ihen formed, with a view to overthrow the National Assem- 
bly i but aU their proceedings were so contemptiblo, that 
they should hitve been ridiculed for their folly rather thaft 
punished for their wickedness* Measures were takeA Sat 
colleoting a large number of troops round the metropolis^ 
and it was meant to station a considerable body o&^them 
between Paris and Versailles, where the Assembly met; 
but, instead of suffering the sittings to continue till tho 
troops had arrived, their session was closed by a ]party of 
soldiers taking possession of their chamber. Tbis impo- 
litic step prepared both the Assembly and the citizens 
for the attack that was about to be made upon their rising 
liberties, altbougb it produceci none of the advantages 
the combination expected from it ; foir the Assembly mei 
immediately, in a tennis-court, and there swore to eac^ 
other, ** Never to separate till they had formed a new 
Gdnstitution T 


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Klo; l)plds a Rojal Sension. 

Frepamtiofls were made by tiie patriotic clubs for 
training tiieir fiiends in diflTerent parts of the kingdom in 
llitt use ef florms, smd a'^ert time would bave fnrnisfaed a 
body powerftll enoug^li to have made a diversion in fiivor 
of the Assc^bly,in case attempt hful been made to arrest 
them. Sadi a precantien was UBneGessary^ for the mem- 
bers again took quiet possession of their own chamber, 
and the govortmient seemed to possess no other f&nctton 
than that of flurnishing means to the Assembly to secure^^ 
^its triumph* 

* •' ^The Kiag was persuaded to hold a Royid Session, and 
fte three orders were summoned to attend him, as if no 
dispute had hiypened. They all met in the great hall; 
as <m the first day of tiie conTOcattoa : the two {>ri- 
tileged orders entei^ at the great *gttes, the same as'his 
Vsjjeiity, and were seated at their ease in the chief places* 
which were assigned^ to them, ^diilethe represeiitatives of 
die poe^e were obliged to squeeze in at a back door,' 
and wer£ detained many teunfin the rain, lill ^* their 
lordships^ and *' their "VeV^enees" ^ere seated! An 
i^peech was delivered b^ the l^ing upoii the"" occasion;- 
suited only to the ds^ktfst ages of political s<Mrvilify, and 
incompatible" with the opinions adopted 'by the whole 
people* He began '&y lamenting the disputes that' had 
taken place about the form of the' meetihg, and insisted 
upon* the Isrdetii 'being kept separate, for which purpose 
he flesired the Commons to annul the famous decree by 
Wfidch they had constituted the National Assembly, — a 
snbniisslon that it was a great folly to expect ; for if they 
fonid theft no - other power could dissolve them, it wan 
not hkely that they would commit suicide upon theio^^ 

G 2 


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RcMlvtiaii of MImbeMk 

aelves, e^paoiany as they contfaraed to be joined by de- 
serters ft^Uk the other two ofders* Loaie did not fiul lo» 
esanre Aem of hie oo-operotniB to improye the laws and 
the oenditkw of Ifco people, bat he piNNBiBed nothiag epe^ 
cific ; and be aheohitlsfy tetoBtA bm asiBeat to some of 
tfaehr noet fiivoriteipii^ieete. Hia pnaoipal' viah^seened 
to foe to impreas Ihe AsanMjr Wfth ia^ease of his own 
grealiiott, aad that whafoyer good was doiie» they would 
fme it tohis MtJre eoadeaeeasion. The Cohbxmhis liateaad 
to him with silent indignation, which be raised to the Hw 
higiiest dagi^e^ by coaUMu^imt iia-defHities to bneak iip» « 
nnnediaiely npott his dtopartwcb and to tpepmx^ on the^ 
foDowittg day« %o tfieir feUpeoti/f 4 ch/nabens. 
: His Miyttt/s hfiBiwsai wit instant iabeyed by the 
nobles attdclelgy^ <battfae GetaawiaMi Mo^aioed notion- 
lass, dtliQtigh the werkiaM w«ert) busied in taking dowB 
die thnnte and other d«slMratmil.. AaMMt the aw&l si^ 
lenoe that enanjbd. If ..^e-Aneaa, Gwnd Mas^rof the C^ 
reBMAies, aj^ioaobed, imd eigiiified that the ku\g had 
ordered them to.rotire: bmt be, as .w#U as the war)anen» 
was atnick with mwe upon yeoeivfaiig a savera rebuke 
Sfmm the Caoat dd Mlrabeaa, who had gi«atly distw-! 
gwdied hitnaelf by ihe vigor <of his iaind» and the power 
of his elofoeBoe. ^ We know, for we ham heard/ 
said Mhrabeau, *^ what they have ai^jgested to the Kiof^ 
but who made ye« the oi]gan between him «ad the States- 
Oeneral? ¥o«! who baiye neither ^eat^ norri^e, np9 
right to epesi your tips hei^ ; hew dare you to brii^ hia 
discoarse to onr vecoHectiani However, to avoid erery 
^>ecie8 of equivocation and deb^, if yon are osdared Ui 
f jcpd us from tius plaoOi you "viU do well te get orderf 


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Tlie People rejaiced—H<a tiie lUyal Family with acclamationi . 

fer the cmplofaNfflt of a autabla force, far wa will onlj 

quit it at tfae point cf tik bft;^Mfet." 

' lie attualifiii of the asftemUy dictated twe reM^iitions. 

^vkieh 'vetfe paistid ttndiuiDdafrly ; die ^hm^ '^ that Ubev 

penMad v their Cmaer declaratioBfi,''---.aiid Uie othar» 

** that Ike peiwiiia of the deputies were Mcred aad ia* 

tnlahle.'" Una spiriied e^&dnct made many of tba 

BobkB, ti^getfier w&di the DuJce of Orieao^ joki tbe as- 

mahhf^ the ibUowi^g: day ; and ea die 27th of J«u^ 

l^r dfl^B ifter the Toyml flnfitigiB^ Ui'e King reooonaezided 

^a reaHUBiQg naAber of the ^o wdeiti te MAite with Iha 

'EhMigh thii iMtcadittiaBt by forbiddii^ and recaat* 
■ i w i dh y a naian id 40 idairt a period, was evident^ tha 
people did wt Appear to doubt Oe aiiioerity of the pro- 
eeedittf. The Mars apread with the greatest rapidity; 
and tbe iilhabitants of VersaiHea^ eeneideriDg that Louia 
had acoomplidied the salTalioa aad fa^ppiBesa of tbe na- 
tio»» ran io Ae piOaoB aiid aidated the rdyal&nuly wUk 
lepeatedaMlaudtiiiiA of gratitiMle. M. Necker also, who 
was tfcaagb to have advised his Majesty to adopt this 
eaaciiiittoffy nieaBiirD, was hailed ns the warmest friend of 
Am «aaiftfy, and the joyfal day was ooaicluded by a ge- 
aend iHaiaiBatiait. 

The pvUio soar loahed wkh Anxious expectation to 
dM Idbors lof the Natiaital Aaseaiibly, as it w«is hnpossibla 
tD appeae aay iegid objectioii to their proceedings: In 
flw interim all mthority was» in aoaie manner, suspend* 
ed: their endeaaofs *wefe ahieiy directed to the 6moar 
lioa of Ml new eoaatitntiai, and the general persuasion 
ttat the ^xistiDg laws w^ere lo be aboKsfaed in toio, taught 
Ae rude and unthinking to daapise tfarm^ aud Ibe ad- 


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Ttae Marquis Valadi. 

ministratioii of the police doubted whe^er they cooid en** 
force what was thus generally declared to be vicioiu. 

Unfortunately, at this time neither of the parties wera 
rfncere urith each other : .part of the Assembly intended 
to convert the monarchy into a republic ; but they could 
not have avowed their design at first, because the people 
-would have rejected so desperate and unjust a measure^ 
in a manner that must have precluded the possibility of 
ks being repeated, and tiierefore their deteisiination was 
to drive the King to extremities, so that, by degrees, he 
Blight become odious to the people. At the same tim«p^' 
the court never meant to grant the Assembly all the lilmrtf . 
Aat was pronused to it, and tbe apparent compUauce 
with its. wishes was merely a stratagem to allay the un*. 
easiness of the populace, and put the Assembly off its* 
guard for a period, during which a force might be col* 
leeted able to crush them altogether. 

Among the fervid imaginations that took their flight 
upon this occasion, was that of the Marquis de Valadi^ 
«n officer who had served in the French guards^ and 
among the savages of America had learned that his owb 
manner of life was so much better than what any one else 
could display, that be would cut the throats of one half of 
mankind, if by so doing he could force his system upon 
the ether. This gentleman was a wairn admirer of the 
new cause «f liberty, because it released him firom Qm^ 
pmnfbl necessity of consulting the comforts and conveni* 
ences of others ; and, being one of a cabal that now met 
at the residence of the Duke of Orleans, he invited at 
many of bis ooon-ades to the entertainment as he conld prer 
Tail upon to attend. The reception these truant soldiery 
met withy was of the most cordial and flattering ki|i4 


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And WARS oi fetRon. 47 

People join to releaie tome Soldien. 

and munben were enoouraged to foDow their example; 
tiie cfaanns of liberty were somided in the ears of the 8ol« 
diers, and they were pathetically implored not to aasist in 
aheddia; the blood of their fellow-^itizena. From thoso 
feaats the visitors were conducted in procession through 
the city. Mid every seduction of female charms and good 
cheer, which the Immense revenues of the Palais Royal 
seuld provide, were plentifully distributed, to allure them 
iuto an approbation of the measures of the Assembly. 

Soon after the Assembly had united, a circumstance 
'hq>pened which strongly marked the character likely to 
be ttsaumed by the revolution. Some soldiers of the 
Frenc^h giiards were imprisoned in die Abbey of St. Ger<» 
main> who, vpoa learning the disorder .that prevailed in 
different coips, wrote to tlie Palais Royal, and, with 
tiie confident gaiety natural to the French, described 
themselves as having been arrested for their attachment to 
the people, and that they were then sufferers in the cause 
of fiberty. The letter was read by one of the oratorSi of 
whom many were now constantly seen lecturing to crowds 
in the public walks; and, in the intoxication of the mo« 
mcnt, the whole multitude resolved upon liberating their 
feilow-citi2ens : the patriotic soldiers, the bludgeon, the 
pickaxe, and the crow, were put in requisition^ and a 
motley multitude proceeded to distribute justice, without 
preserving even the forms of trial ! 

The consequence from such t tribunal should havo 
keen apparent to every sober man in France ; it could aa 
easily inflict punishment as proclaim liberty ; and the 
dMger arising ifroln such a state of things, ought to have 
m^ed tvery honest man ug»pit tfao^a i|-reguUr proceed-^ 


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48 HISTORT or rfAI»OLE0» B<yifAi>ARTfi, 

The Asfemblf recommends Moditnitloii. 

No effectual resistance wad made at the prison, and t 
party of dragoons, ordered out upon tlii^ occasion, ar- 
rived just time enough to see the released soldiers bomd 
in triumph as the heroes of ihe day. The generosity of 
a moh-goverDment burst upon them with such urresistiblo 
charms, that they could not resist joining in the catalcade, 
and the success of this attempt encouraged the frantie 
malcontents to inflict the severest penalties in the samo 
despotic manner. 

Accounts of these proceedings were laid before ffao 
Assembly, who endeavoured to preserve as much respect 
for the public authority as they could, without provoking 
the hasty disapprobation of the rabble. The soldiers 
were not imprisoned for their politics, but for difibrent 
crimes, yet it would have been dangerous to have contra^ 
dieted the vociferations of the mob ; it was now a powerful 
despot, and, like the most imperial tjTant, would not 
allow itself to be mistaken : the Assembly, therefore, sub** 
missively. recommended as the most convenient compro- 
mise between order and disorder, that the rioters should 
keep the prisoners under care till the Eing could be pre« 
vailed upon to send a pardon for them. By this, the 
shadow of authority was preserved, though the substance 
had departed. 

The court made no objection to this, as the forces 
that had been ordered to march to the capital were now 
approaching so fast, that a few days, it was thought^ 
would transfer the public authority (roih the weapons, 
of the discontented and the disorderly to the point of 
the Sayonet. Most of the foreign troops in tho 
king's pay were upon their march, and the frequent 
disturbances afiTorded a pretence for establishing & 


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The Kin]^ propftet to renOTe the Parliament. 

eamp in the neighboiirfaood of Paris. Several rae^smges 
w€re Mot to the King upon this subject by the Assetnblyi 
but he assured them that his only object ifas to restore 
tnmqaillity* The UDeasiness of the members increased; 
and the King answered their complaints in a way that 
only served to increase their suspicions* '« The troops/' 
said be, '' are indispensably necessary in Paris, but yon 
may remove your rittings to Noyon or Soissons, in which 
ease I will rcpanr to Compeigne/' This proposal cculd 
not poflsiMy be acc^tedi as it would have placed the 
Assembly between the princes in Paris and those on tl^ 
frontiers, while it would have excluded all assistance 
from their friends in the capital. 

CHAPtfili V. 

MuTtJAt explanations and jealousies, frequent parox-^ 
^sms of frenzy, and various attempts to form a new con* 
stitntion, brought the proceedings of the National As* 
^embly down to the eleventh of July, when the elements 
of restless discord began to lour on the expanse of politi- 
cal combination, witii such a menacing aspect, tbat the 
imagination became bewildered by the vast catalogue of 
miaefies that were announced, and the mind seemed to 
stagger beneath the weight of its own conjectures. The 
Count de Mirabcau had expressed himself so forcibly on 
the ^ymptoitis of a dangerous conspiracy on the part of 
the court against the deliberations and existence of th# 

VOL, I.— NO, 8. H n ] 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

60 HrsTORY or napoleon soNiirPARTe, 

■ ' ■■ ■■■— ^f^etO m. l I ■-. ■ ■ ■ I III ■■ ■ I ^.■■■■ I I ^^^^ 

^ The Miniatry difoilticd. 

AMembly» that the popular part}* looked to him as a de« 
liverer, and the court evidently began to hasten its pre- 
parations for some desperate explosion. 

The confidence of the Assembly and the people had 
reposed for some days upon one point only : M. Necker 
was considered the firm friend of liberty ; and it was 
thought impossible that any hostile measures could bo 
attenq>ted, so long as he remained in the ministry ; the 
court endured rather than employed him» and his dis* 
missal from offiee was resolved upon» the moment tho 
force was thought suflScient to triumph over the public 
voice. *' The ministry is dismissed^ and Necker is sent 
into exile!*' was echoed by every voice throughout 
Versailles^ and the most unfeigned sorrow was depicted 
on every countenance. A new administration was ap« 
pointed, composed of the most violent enemies of liberty* 
and every one expected that the foreign troops would 
receive orders to seize upon the Members of the Assembly 
without delay.^ 

Such important intelligence would, upon ordinary og« 
easioos, have been circulated throughout Paris in a few 
hours ; but all the Ingh roads and direct ways had become 
so barricadoed, that no person, not even the post, could 
pass to convey tilie news. It arrived circuitously, and by 
slow degrees ; and when it was first related, it was treated 
as a report, wickedly invented to excite confiision: at last 
it reached the Palais-Royal, in a shape that would no 
longer admit of a doubt. The minister was gone no one 
knew whither, and the representatives of the people 
might be already incarcerated in the dungeons of the 
state. It is impossible to describe the agitation that in* 
•tantaneously convulsed the whole people of Paris. It 
was a mixture of indignation and grief huiried on irope- 



'1)10 If Alts OF EVROPl. 51 

CaoBlll* ndBM^aliiu — ^the Prince of Lambete. 

taously by all the aajdeties of doabt Pleasure could no 
longer please* and tbe least indication of joy was consi- 
dered as a crime. All the theatres were immediately 
closed, by order of the people. 

« Tbe busts of Necker and the Duke of Orleans were 
carried about the streets, covered with crape, and the 
air resounded with their names. It was even suggested, 
that the Kmg sboohl be dethroned, and the Duke of Or<* 
leans appointed his successor, as the certain means of 
effiecting the > return of their iavorite. The bells of ih^ 
choFches were tolled, and the people were collected in 
crowds upon the bridges, and in all the open places of 
the city, where the most- fanciful and loquacious inflamed 
their indication with aatieipatiens of military vengeance 
and exacutioBs, to which the late tumults had exposed 

The Palais-Royal became the grand rendezvous, and 
was the most convenient spot for rallying ril the forces of 
the city, as well on account of itjs being nearly in the mid* 
die of' Paris, as of the ready access it aflTorded to all d«« 
acrqptions of people. In one place, Gorsas, an obscure 
schoehnaster, with Ciceronian eloquence, was stimulating 
his audience ; and in another, Camille Desmoulins, an ad* 
▼ocate cyf considerable talents, was irritating the passions 
of the. multitude by every species of theatrical flourish 
that his imagination couU suggest. With a pistol in 
each hand Camille was vehemently harrangning, to prove 
that no man's life and liberty were secure for a single 
hour : when a report was circulated, that Ae Prince of 
IiMnbeac, in his march, bad strudc an old man with his 
sword* No pains were taken to examine whether the 
raport was true or &lse ; or whether, if true, the Prince 
hid been aliflnlated by anger, or a humane dtsirt of 

H 2 

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The People defeat a Reg tment, 

■ ■■■ I ^ ■ . —a— acBasaa^ 

paving the aged person from being trampled nnder bis 
horse's feet: a skirmish bad ensued between the troops 
and the people, and a uniyersal cry of ^' To arms! to 
arms T impelled every creature to the field of action* 

The Prinoe was found by the rallying citizens at thQ 
head of his cavalry, near to a spot where a new bridge 
was to be erected. Scarcely had they reached the ground^ 
when they seized upon the stones> and, rushing impe* 
tuously upon the soldiers, broke theur ranks, and threw 
them into the greatest confusion. The French guards, 
alarmed by the sound of muske^^ rushed from their 
quarters, and putting thepis^^s under the omnmand of 
the Marquis de Valadi, flew .to the relief of their country* 
inen. The foreign regiment was discomfited, and with* 
drew ; whilst the citisens, flushed W& victory, and gain- 
ing confidence from their numbers, were emboldened to 
undertake the most desperate emerprises. 

In the evening of the 12th of July, the cavalry W6r» 
driven out of Paris, and it was hourly expected thsl 
]\(^^lr^^a1 Br^lio, who held the command of all the corps • 
in the neighbourhood, and who was t^ttached to the niost 
despotic principles, would attempt to reduce the city*: 
The silent hours of night were chased away by th# 
clangour of alarums, and the different rude weapons that/ 
an irregul^ multitude could collect from the various ' 
domestic and pianufacturing purposes to which thsj. 
were usually appUed^ every house became a fortress, aa4 ' 
every citizen a ^14ier. Morning arrived, but the Mas* 
shal did not make l^ii^ fppearaneel All wm smyense, 
but the mysterious delay h^ »o .tqndeacy to restett the 
public tranquillity. It w9s evident that no motive oooM 
retard the interference of govemssent hul a desise t» 
mature its plana^ and as the danger weiiM ineiuase by th# 

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Thej mrck toaitack the Battillc 

—aeaagai j ■ i r : 

length of time required to strengthen their meat oreSi no 
time Wtt to be k>st in prep«ring^ to meet them. 

Tlie shops were all shot, and business entirely stopped^ 
^Pbe electors of Paris were spontaneously formed into a. 
jMrqnsionary f overoment, and the final issue of the e^/t^ 
%tMi was impatiently expected. 

Dnring the night of the Idth, means of correspondeneo 
vere fbond between the Assembly and the Provisionary 
HqnicipaEty of Paris, when it was discovered that M. do 
FiesseOes, the Mayor of Paris^who professed himself the 
fiiend of the citizens, was secretly taking measures to be- 
tray them into the. power of Bro^o. An- intercepted 
oonespondence proved, that the Marshal intended to en* 
ter the city on the following evening, when the people 
shovid be overcome by excessive ihtign^, and be too 
weary to resist the allurements of sleep. Hostilities were 
» to commence wHhtn a few hours, and, by gaining the 
i of the Marshal, his defeat might be secured. 

Thcf BttStine, at oac^ Hie fortress and the prison, was 
the first object of the citizens. It was there that all the 
wielKtes of the eoaH l^ould fix fbem head-quarters : it was 
there that both the depoties and their constituents woultl 
be stowed away in cavema and in cells. On the morning 
of ttietteoior^e FouBTEsifTH otJvLT, 1789, an army 
of forty &onsand deapenidoes, whimsicatly armed with ol^ 
fenaiveiDstnimentl of^veiy description, intermingled with 
a few Jrandred of soldiers, comqienced their march, voc(« 
feinting Ihreagfaont the city, *' To the Baslffle! to the 
9i«tiUe r They first attacked the Jfopital des Imalides, . 
where a large magasne of arms was kept Scarcely any; 
resislnce wan aMepnptad, the magiksrine was stripped, and 
tlM i^tlerinf alma twr? d4 to o^rtri the$e raw reeruitt 
into poofideat spldierSr 


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The Baitille taken bj the Feopleb 

: ^hen they arrived at the Bastille, a deputation from 
the Provisionary Municipality demanded admission in the 
ficune of the people. Dq Lannay, the gOYernory was in a 
most critical situation — his duty to his sovereign for^ 
bidding him to yield to any other power, and his duty 
to his countrymen forbiddiog him to shed blood in tmf 
avoidable case.-rHe demanded a parley. " Deliver the 
keys !" was vociferated by the multitude. He hesitated^ 
A shower of stones and fire of musketry might hasten bis 
decision ! the experiment tried, and the goyemor re* 
solved to stand a siege. Every attenipt to effect a breach 
&iled of success, .and many of the people were killed* 
At length a private soldier got over the guard-house, aDil> 
forced the first draw-bridge, by means of a hatchet, while 
others broke open the outer gate, and entered the oourt. 
These were soon repulsed and driven out of the court by 
the garrison. The conflict became most bloody, and tbe 
issue doubtful. The bodies of the wounded lay scattered' 
Qn the ground, and the fury of the people iAcreased even 
to madness. 

At this critical moment two detachments of soldiers 
arrived, headed by two non-commissioned officers, and 
these were followed by a numerous train of volun^eera, 
treaded by a cttixen Hulin, who had induced a number of 
tiie French guards also to join the people. This aoces- 
fion of strength invigorated the whole body ! They set fire 
to some waggons of straw, and, by then* means, burnt and 
destroyed ^le outworks. Several pieces of cannon were 
now brought to play upon the building ; and the .castle^ 
after a few hours' resistance, was at length taken by stoniL 
The news dartad through Paris as rapidly as the rays of 
^e su, a^d on^ i^nbroK^ sbput deobured tbo rapturoM 
joys of the multitttde. 


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Death of McatTB. De LaooAy, Ue Lotme, and Fletiellca. 

gssass=aas=acsaa= a i „■ i i , i , «i . u -JL- 


Afteb the taking of the Bastille, every individual^ 
frbether as spectator or assailant, began his own rektion 
of the transaction, and it^was reported, that the governor 
had decoyed a number of the people within the gates, 
and that, when he had them in his power, he cruelly put 
them to death. Of a man already the object of their ha- 
tred, on account of the situation he held, no stronger pro- 
tence was required for making him a signal example of 
Tengeance. — ^There is no reason to believe that the report 
was true ; as, if it had, the besiegers would not have 8u& 
fered him to have existed a moment after they had sur* 
rounded him with their pikes ; he was, however, not only 
considered as a prisoner of war, but they were proceeding 
with him to the Hotel de Vilie, to deliver him to the 
magistrates, when the spirit of unrestrained power found 
that (human victims were necessary to its continuation; 
end the mob fell instantly upon their prisoner, and 
bked him to pieces. M. de Losme^ an inferior officer^ 

M. de Flesselles, the Mayor, shared the same fate ; 

having no other trophies of their renown, these fero- 
dealers in human blood, mounted the bleeding 
of the Mayor and Governor upon their long 

p, 'and' bore them in savage procession through the 

'■ Natmal Assembly, during this conflict, were not 
nditioa either to assist or discourage any measures 


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The AftSembly made acquaioted vith the Nevi* 

yeaaMgeaaeaas a i i , ■ ' ' ssssssssbssbsssssbs i i i laMcaag 

of the populace. Various reports of the intentions of the 
court, as alarming as they were unfounded, were circu-" 
lated. At one moment the members were all to be seized, 
and, after being condemned as rebels, wer^ to suffer tor- 
tare ; at another, the soldiers were marching, with a hun- 
dred pieces of cannon, to batter their hall to ruins, and 
burj the members in the rubbish ! Some members exerted 
their ebquence to inspire fortitude and unanimity in the 
Assembly ; and a remonstrance was sent to the King, om 
the general state of affiurs, in consequence of the change 
in the ministry. The King answered in a style too 
proudly, and the Assembly passed a string of resolutions^ 
declaring (bat no confidence whatever could be r^osed 
in the. new ministry; and resolved not to a4|ouni ercvk 
during the night« 

The perilous situation of the Assembly, induced them Ut 
turn their attention to the completion of the new consti^ 
kition; and a committee was, therefore, appointed, on 
the 14th of July, to report upon it without delay. At 
this moment. Viscount de Noailtes unexpectedly ap-» 
peared in the hall ; he had escaped, he said, from Paris^ 
and, with great difficulty, had contrired to pass the pa^ 
troles. When he quitted Paris, the whole city had 
armed itself from the HopUal des InoaUdeSi and the 
Bastille was besieged, fie had not waited for the iss^de $ 
and only knew, that the troops destined for the Ckic# p 
de Mars were expected every moment to relieved tkHc 
tress, which conid not be efiected without delilgiffio 
city in blood. ea^ 

. The whole Assembly was appalled at the drea^iie 
telligcnce. " Let us fly to the relief of our fcPV-j 
zens!" cried some of the members: '^ I^ef u 
burst into the presence of Uio Ki^g," exclaimed « m x$$ 

Digitized by VjOOQ Id 


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Tb* If e#i cMveyed to IA« Rlng^ 

** and odl upon Mm to behold iht froHB of hill conncite s 
it k Mir titne that ho Bboakl d«<3ide whether he will b# 
tli^ km^ or tho m^rddrer of th« p«o)[>I(i T 

A deputntion had beeti didpatohod to the Kifigf, but had 
aot ittttfned, although tha bail of the Atsemblr wa» 
scarcely four hundred yards from the palace. DafiAg 
Aia ii^rvai, a depiitatioa arrived from the electors (now 
the iMgistfatea) of Parii, to th« AMombly ; th<tlr report 
waa eoBiethiiig aiore preoiee tiiaii that of de NoaiUe«i but 
the reeolt had not ttaoBpired when they oame away< 
The Kmg's aaswer arrived ; it waft uaimportaot aiid tta^ 
nea&mg, auch ae it mght have been had he not been 
conscious of the oalamities of his oountry. In fine^ a 
third messenger reaohed the Assembly from Parish and a 
tiitrd deputation was seat to the King. 

His Majesty was then retired to resti but moments 
were bow too precious to be wasted, in useless ceremony. 
The Duke de lianoourt ingenuously related the alarming 
aspect of afibirs to the King, and, in a candid and friendljr 
BMUiner, explained to him the personal danger io ^^^lioh 
he was expoBed* His Majesty was soon oonnnoed that 
die Monicipaiity of Paris, with a hundred thousand tncdi 
in annsi woaUl be able to send an army to Veitailbs 
saflfaiientto take Urn prisoner in bis own palace* No 
SMtf e tiOM was to be lost in temporiaingi *' What a ter^ 
vible revolt r exclaimed the King. '* No, Sire T^ ob- 
served the Duke, ** it is no revolt, but a great Evolu- 
tion ; the nation demaads only the inviolability of its re- 
presentatives : when your Majesty's troops shall have 
bft the National Aasambly to the freedom of ito discus- 
siaas, there wiH not be fbond a discontented sut^ect in the 

The Gout d'Artoia, one of the Kiag^s brothers, had 
vox. h — NO, a. * 

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The Kioff goef to the Awembly 

■- i. . — ii Ill .1, .1 ,11 ' - ^^^^— 

incarred the severest animadversions of the people^ in 
Consequence of the haateur of his manners : he was still 
adverse to conciliatory measures. '' As for you, Sit,^ 
said de Ldanconrt, ** a price is set upon your head ; I 
have myself seen the act of proscription posted up in th» 

This painful inteliigence spread the greatest dismay and 
consternation throughout the whole court The prince 
saw that his only security was in a precipitate flight ; and 
the ministers followed his example with such rapidity, 
that they escaped before the accounts of the revolution 
could encourage the provincial patriots to close the bar* 
riers of the towns through which they passed. 

The Duke de Liancourt having obtained the King's 
assurance that he would attend the Assembly, he comr 
municated the intelligence shortly before bis Majesty 
was ready to proceed. The Assembly resolved that the 
King ought to be received with silence. The visit was 
wholly unpremeditated on both sides, and no prepara- 
tions were made for it. Without a body-guard, or any 
of the ensigns of royalty, the sovereign of the first em* 
pire in the world, who only a few days before had been 
attended to the same hall by llie proudest race of nobles, 
and a long retinue of most magnificent attendants, now 
entered the Assembly, uncovered, and unsaluted by the 
slightest ceremonial, to implore protection against a law 
less rabble. 

Though the countenances of the members were not 
calculated to inspire the King with much confidence; 
yet he addressed the Assembly without any apparent 
embarrassment. He exhorted them to use their utmost 
endeavours to re-establish tranquillity ; and assured the 
Aasembly, that he relied upon them in this momentous 




' He leaves the Hall, applauded by the People. 

crisis irith the utmost confidence. At these words many 
demonstrations of joy barst forth from the seats occupied 
by the nobles and the clergy ; most of the commons sat 
silent and unmoved: it was not enough that they had 
liorabled the King, they must also attempt to degrade 
him, and their efforts to surmount the despotism of the 
monarchy, became converted into a desire to exercise a 
despotic power over the Sovereign himself. *' I know,** 
continued the King, ** that unjust prejudices have been 
conceived ; I know that false reports have been propa- 
gated, but is not my known character a suflScient answer 
to those mahgnant cafaimnies? I come," added he, " to 
declare to you, that I and my people are the same : my 
whole trust is in you ; assist me to secure the salvation 
of the state. I have commanded the troops to retire ; and 
I exhort yoti to assure the capital of tlje sincerit}- of my 

At the conclusion of this speech the hall resounded 
with reiterated bursts of applause ; and after the presi- 
dent had assured his Majesty that tbe Assembly would 
take the most eifectual measures for restoring the public 
peace, the members all arose, and conducted the King 
to his palace. 

When the King appeared, accompanied by the Assemr 
Hy, the air was rent by shouts of joy, and blessings 
were poured upon his head, as if he were regarded as the 
deliverer of his people. The whole manner of the King 
seemed to be changed ; and now that he had, as it were, 
escaped firom the restraints of despotic pomp, he became 
eager, to answer every one that pressed about him, and 
heard' with the utmost affability the details which they 
were anxious to give of what had happened. Accordine 
fo appearances^ both the King an9^he people had becpmf 
free, and were both conaequentiy happy. 

I 8 Digitized by Google 


~ He arrives at the Hotehde Ville. 

■■■■■ I I*'' ■■ . ■ 

The National Assembly now possessed the sovereiga 
power in all ito plenitude. A deputatioD, of eighty 
members, was dispatched from tiie Aasembly to the car 
pita! ; and Mr. Bailly, who had been their president, wa« 
appointed Mayor of Paris. The Marquis de la Fayette, 
who bad also been president of the Assembly, was made 
commander of the national guards, and M. Necker, being 
recalled by the Asse.mbly, rcsuniedhis situation m m^ 

The same prudence that induced the King U visit tbo 
>4tional Assenibly, prompted him to vi^it the ciqpital, 
^d his journey was attended with equal ^uccess^ Oq 
his approach to Paris he was met by M. de la Fayette, at 
the head of the national guards ; ^ mixed multitude of 
the citizens of Pari9> irregularly armed with different 
weapons, and shouting, ** Vive la Nation T indicated 
no disposition to treat him very respectfully. When his 
Majesty arrived at the Hotel d€ Ville, he was entreated to 
wear a cockade^ that the people had assumed, as the 
ensign of their triumph ; and, as he evinced no objectiony 
the mob became somewhat reconciled to him, He was at 
one time, however, very near overturning all th^ effects 
of his good-nature ; for one of the electors addressing 
him in a style of republican freedom, he was puzzled for 
an answer ; but the Mayor adroitly stepped forward and 
relieved the King from the dilemma, by answering in hi^ 

The conduct of Louis upon this, as upoi^ most pthei: 
occasions, displayed a high degree of benevolence an4 
goodness of heart ; he seemed to indulge all the wishes of 
the people ; and his conciliatory manners pcodoced sudi 
an effect upon the multitude, that when be appeared at 
«ne of the windows, a general, acclamatioi^ of ** Vive 1$ 


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Iosu(qcleqcy of Passports. 

Rot r resounded from all quarters, in spite of the ettoiU 
of some malignant and unprincipled men, who mixed 
amongst the crowd, with a determination at all events to 
excite hatred against him. 

The propagation of falsehood, and the various alarms 
excited by ialse reports, gave the triumphant party an 
opportunity of creating so much goroemment^ that they 
had places and offices to bestow upon the most insignifi* 
WdX pf their retainers.; and there was scarcely a street in 
P^ris but had its governor appointed, to tell the citizens 
when they might be permitted to go abroad, and when 
tliey should be obliged to stay at home. This mischief 
iras, however, much increased by the circumstance of 
the government being so divided, that what was law in 
one district, was not law in another; and the characters 
md fortunes of the people might be exposed according 
45 they were in this or that section. Before any one could 
go abroad, it was necessary that he should be furnished 
with a card of civism from the municipality of his section ; 
k»ut 9 person might be an object of calumny in one dis- 
trict, who was known to be wholly innocent in another ! 
^d as no one was ever certain that, bis passport would 
pot beguile him to ^ spot where ignorant ofGciousness 
might be waiting to place him within the fangs of suspi* 
cion, the most quiet and peaceable of the citizen9 saw no 
safely but in shutting themselves up in secret, and goard*- 
ing their very looks from being construed intq symptomf 
pr treason against tbc inclinations of the mpb. 


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Measures to attack the Clergy, 


Most oF the princes of France imitated the measures 
adopted in the capital, and the jealousies of* the people 
were roused upon the most trifling occasions, so that per* 
sons were constantly exposed to the greatest dangers, and 
numbers of individuals, of every class, found their only 
safety in emigrating from their country. 

News every day arrived of the most dreadful crimes 
being committed in all parts of the kingdom, and these 
were suffered to continue without restraint, the Court and 
the Assembly being both influenced by the same base mo- 
iivc, a desire to attach all the odium to the other. 
. Tlie clergy now saw the ineflScacy of their system, of 
directing the attention of the people to the ceremonies of 
f eligion, instead of its precepts ; for no sooner were these 
people released from the burthen of restraint, than they 
appeared to be evidently without the least moral influence. 
Forged letters, in the name of the National Assembly, and 
forced edicts^ in the name of the King, were used, call* 
ing upon the people to withhold the tythes, to destroy 
the palaces, and bum t}ie castles of their landlords and 
their priests : incitements like these were hardly wanting, 
for the we^ ceremonies of the church of Rome had 
abandoned the morak of the French to the guardianship 
of the bayonet, which being now no longer apprehended, 
fin the effebts of animosity and revenge began to shew 




The Life of M. Beozeval demamlcd. 

itself, wUbt ruin and desolation spread throughout the 
kingdom; more pcurticularly in Dauphin^, Burgundy, 
Britany, and FrancheCompte, where the finest buildings 
irere reduced to ashes. 

The blood of M. Benzeval was loudly called for. This 
gentleman had commanded the Swiss troops, and it was 
said that he had written to M. de Launay, to defend the 
Bastille to the last, though no such letter was ever au« 
thenticated. M. Necker, who was greatly attached to 
tfab officer, wished to employ the popularity he had ac-. 
paired among the people to soften their resentment ; and 
on Ua first visit to Paris, after his recal, he took occasion 
to implore the Municipality, above all things to let their 
proceedings be guided by goodness, mildness, and justice, 
and to pass a general amnesty, by which the errors of 
HL Benzeval, and other misguided persons, might be for- 
given, and an end put to those disgraceful scenes, a re- 
petition of which, he added, would render him incapable 
•f longer serving the public. 

Tlie minister's eloquence produced such an elTect on 
Hke magistrates, that they immediately acceded to his re- 
quest, and dispatched orders to Villenaux, where M. Ben- 
seval was confined, to set him at liberty. Necker, pleased 
at the triumph his virtuous endeavours had gained over 
tlie factiooa disturbers of the public peace, hastened to 
comnutticate the joyful tidings to the King: however, 
be bad scarcely arrived at Versailles before every thing 
tbat had beien done was counteracted. 
. T)be crowd, who had assembled at the Hotel de Ville, 
liad loudly a^qplauded the mimster's sentiments, and apr 
l^oved the act of oblivion by the most enthusiastic shouls^ 
Imt the apirit of equivocation shortly discovered that the 
•lectors had not been appointed to the magistracy by any 


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A new ConttHutional Code» 

written law, and thef eibi«6 that they had no autfaarity to 
prevent the shedding of blood ! The . legions of tomal- 
tuOtts rabbi«» at whose call the Municipality had been 
formed, and who had hailed them as the guardians of 
liberty^ so long as they were regarded as acooinplices in 
the murders that were perpetrated, now began to treat 
them as usurpers, whose arroganoe and presuttiption da- 
served the most exemplary punishment. They wer« 
looked on as rebels, who had put tliemseives in opposition 
to the national representatives. Alarum bells were rung: 
to call the people together, and preparations were mado 
ibr besieging them in the town-housei Less terrific means 
would have induced them to repeal their docrees ; and 
accordmgly flresh couriers were dispatched to continna 
the arrest of M. BenzevaK 

This act of submission was very gradously nooived ; 
yet they could not forgive M. Neckar for occasioning^ 
this instance of presumption, though their own proceed- 
ings proved how much they were convinced that such a 
measure was undoubtedly necessary. 

The attention of the National Assembly was prinoipallf 
directed to the formation of a new constitutional code^ 
until the 4th of August, when the distressing aocoonta 
that arrived from all parts of the country, obliged it to 
consider of the most effectual means of restoring traaquit 
lity to the kingdom. A more important sittiag nevar 
was held, than that which occupied the Assembly on tba 
evening of that day. The enormities which had boaii 
committed in almost every village, were such aa tiireat- 
ened the destruction of the whole body ; and alt tha 
feelings of selfishness and patriotism, of fintitade and 
fear, united to make some sacrifices necessary to the publfo 


by Google 


Abolltfan of Pnidal SerTteet.--AppoiiitiiieDt of a oew Ministry. 

• Tlie most awimiili^ debates tliat ever gave interest to 
any public proceedings continued, with scarcely any in* 
terliBssioa, till tbe evening of the fitb of Aagiist, when a 
decree of enancipation was passed, by which eveiy class 
of the oonnnntty received an ^qnal ehum to public jus- 
tice, and was relieved from aneqiud cantribvtio&s to tibe 
public burdens. To complete die whole proceediags, and 
lo give an air of soleiaaitf , the King was eompHmented 
vHh the iattering title of ** Restorer of French liberty r 
and the deputation havidf waited upon hiai with the 
decarees, be invited the Assembly to accompany him to 
sing Te Deum iipon the oocasioB. 

Hie oppesition to the new oonslittttion was now greatly 
fedooed ; for the decrees of the Assembly abolished feu^ 
dal services and manorial jurisdictions^ as well as the 
game laws, with the exclusive rights of chase,' ef fldang, 
of free* warren, and all those mischieft which the pea« 
santry had been obliged to suffer from the game of their 
privileged neighbours. The clergy were compelled to 
give op their tythes, after having voluntarily resigned 
their parodriid fees, and resolved in no ease to bold 
pluralities ! It was also decreed^ That the nation should 
discontinue die contributions which it had paid to the 
dnirch of Borne ; and every chartered ri^ and Spetia' 
privSege, which divided France into sepafaie prtivinces 
sad cofporations, was superseded by the concise dedanif 
tinn, Dmt Feanee should henceforth olily be Inhabited by 
ene people» who should be known by no other appell»* 
tien thail that of French Citizens^ 

The civility of the Assembly to the King in the Iftto 
pm se eding, induced him to appoint a new ministry, in 
"viach he was so thr fortunate, that l|to choice was ap-* 
pmvedefi yet the government -./as in no condition to 

VOL. I. — NO. 8. K 

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Contractors refuse the Loan.-;>Patriotic CootribatioB. 

proceed, for the old malady in the finances was yet un- 

An opportonity was again offered of saving the country^ 
and was again destroyed by tiie little passions of that 
soi'disant august Assembly. M. Necker presented him* 
self in their hall^ as minister of the finances^ and recjnested 
their sanction to a loan of thirty millions of livres, as a 
measure of ..indispensable necessity; and eveiy motive of 
sound polioy should have induced the meinbers to have 
given the most unqualified assent to the proposition, in 
order to have secured that confidence firom the monied 
interest which it was willing to give, and which the pro- 
ceedings of the Assembly had at that period done nothihg 
to .'shake ; but humbling the minister, as a punishment 
for the notions that he seemed to entertain of their autho- 
rity, by asking a favour of the Municipality of Paris, was 
too precious to be neglected, and they declared their utter 
want of confidence in him, proposing other terms upon 
which they would have the loan contracted for, Tlio 
result was, that they betrayed their total ignorance of finan- 
eial afihirs, and the contractors would advance no loan 
upon any terms whatever. 

Public credit was now so far depressed, that the royal 
family were even obliged to send their plate and trinkets 
to be coined into cash, to pay the current expences of their 
household. The state was to be saved by a patriotic con- 
tribution, and the members began the farce in the Assem- 
bly, by suddenly presenting all their shoe-buckles, ear* 
rings, breast-pins, and other trinkets, to contribute to the 
national treasury. 

The efiect of this general donation was, that ydhm it 
came to be cast up, it fell so. far short of what was ex- 
pected, that it insensibly left the unpression upon every 




Bold Measure proposed by the Miniiter. 

^ne*s mind, that something remained to bo done, and 
caused the minister to propose the boldest measure that 
perhaps ever was attempted, even in tl^ most despotic 
states. TUs extraordinary proposal was nothing less 
than Aat every man should pay ihe fourth of his income, 
by instalments, in the course of three years, to the sup- 
port of the state. 

Oppressive as this edict evidently was, it was adopted 
by those veiy people who had been assembled to correct 
the extravagance of the court when the Kmg required 
the loan of a few miUiottS ; but the patriots were now in 
power, andtbey resorted to a new doctrine, suited to 

Hough tins tax was smoothed with the appellation 
of a patriotic gift, and every person was to state his in« 
come, the Assembly were not inclined to rely upon it as 
tiieir only resource ; they took it up as a kind of supple- 
mentary aid, to help the government on tiH Aey should 
have effected the constitution ; but this was greatly de^ 
layed by the different mterests that prevailed in the legis* 
lative body.. 

There was a third party still more base and hypocri- 
tical than either the -royalists or republicans, because it 
was endeavouring to make instruments of both, for pur- 
poses too dtsgracefnl to be mentioned. To this facti<Hi, 
Mhabeau, and many of the professed republicans, be-* 
longed, whose principal object was, to e£fect the over- ^ 
throwof the reigning family, and to place the Duke of 
CMeans upon the throne. — Each faction was desirous of 
rendering the constitution subservient to his particular 
views ; and such was the obstinacy with which every 
part was contended, that it was not tffl tiie 3rd of Sepr 




QnesCioB for UduUdk tlie Authority of the Kiof. 

. tember ITDl, tbat it was ready to be laid before the 


.Among tbe debates which created the most violent 
0Mteiitbn» waa the question for limiting tbe authority 
of the Mwareh* The republicans were i'or redueing him 
to a meive cypher, in order to afford an excuse for de- 
posKDg him as a useless appendage of the government; 
while 4heAristocrats» and the friends of rational liberty, 
wished to allow him a negative upon all proceedings of 
tbe legislature, in order to correct any violent measures 
tbat might pass« A vote of that nature being abi(K>st es«» 
sential to the very stile of King, tbe Orleans Ihotion were 
as zealous for it as the Royalists ; and Mirabean adopted 
a singular arti6cei to conceal his plans from the mob of 
Paris, who coasidared him a staunch republican, who^ 
after delivering the most eloquent orations in the Assembly 
in iavonr of tbe Veto, withdrew before the qoestion wan 
pmty that his name might not appear among the printed 

\ Constant scenes of riot could not fail to become matter 
of the most serious alarm to the King, especially as the 
obstmacgr of the mob triunqphed over the efforts tiwt were 
exerted to subdue them ; it was, therefore, no impolitio 
resolution diat he adopted, of sending to tbe Assembly 
to declare, that it was not Us wish to have the absolute 
veto, and proposed a suspensive veto, which should 

1 pos^ne laws during a first and second legislature, bul; 
which should bo withdrawn, if a third should vote for ita 

. TUs wag generally approved, but it did not seeura 
Ibn King th^ least repose ; for those cold-blooded. calcu- 
fatinf patriivta had oUier schemes in jiew» whioh - iu:^ 


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Royal Aneot tvitiibeld. 

duced tbem to grant him the prerogative, merely to betray 
turn into their power. 

Two great objects of the revolntion were not. yet 
hrongfat forward ; and as they wonld not only create a 
violent opposition throughout France, but also excite the 
hostile interference of foreign powers, they co«ld not b« 
attempted till some pretence was found for retainisp 
the royal family^ as hostages to be offered up to popular 
vengeance in case of opposition. 

The royal assent about this time was withheld from a 
decree that had been laid before the King for his veto, 
and daring this e^ntfnl period, the iriends of the court 
were unfiortanate enough to afford the factious leaders 
an opportunity of exciting a great degree of agitation 
amongst their, followers, by a feast that was given at Yer* 
saiUes to the officers of a regiment lately arrived, at whioh^ 
under the exhilirating influence of the bottle, they shewed 
a strong dislike to. the oondiict of the Revolution. Thet 
King and Queen were prevailed upon to present the 
Dauphin to tUs party, and the visit was received with 
aach raptures of enthusiastic loyalty, that it is ex- 
temely probable some improper words said actions might 
have been witnessed, which themselves would not have 
approved in the moments of sobriety. No such allowance 
opuld, however, be admitted by the virtuous members of 
tlie Assembly : — ^the national cooxade, they said, had 
be» trampled on, and Mirabeau declared, that if tbe 
Assembly would proaonnce, that the '* King^s pei*soa 
only was saved," he would " accuse tiie Queen of en« 
<»oungiBg these outrages." . 

No reascming could be heard among the clamours of the 
revolution : myriads of the Parisians, consisting of tli» 
t abandoned persons of both sexes, marshalled in bodies^ 

Digitized by V:iOOQIC 


Lonii and liii Family brooicht Prisooen to Parii. 

and proceeded, oo the fourth day after the banquet, to the 
palace at Versailles, and in the most horrid procession 
that, perhaps, was ever witnessed in any age or country, 
, brought the King and all his unhappy family prisoners to 
Paris. To describe this wicked and bloody attempt 
would be deviating from our purpose ; but poiiterity may 
form some idea of it, on being informed that the Queen 
was attacked in her bed-chamber, which was only de* 
fended by a single centinel, who had scarcely time to call 
0ut, " Save the Queen, for I alone am here to defend her 
Ufb against two thousand tygersT when he was trampled 
undeir foot by the relentless cannibab. The streaming 
heads of two of the life-guards were carried on pikea 
before their Majesties' coach, in order to give them every 
degree of pain that barbarous cruelty could invent, and 
the wanton cry of " give us bread !" was chosen to assail 
the ears of that prince, whom they had been more than two 
years endeavouring to reduce to misery. 

Among those who most regretted the turn wluch affairs 
had now taken, were La Fayette, Mounier, and Lally 
Tolendal; the two latter of whom urged their friends to 
the inutility of any iurther struggle, now that aU the 
Conns of justice were wholly overthrown, and the Assem- 
bly would be obUged to follow the King to Paris, where 
every man's life would be held at the mercy, not of those 
whom they looked on as their fellow-citisens, but of the 
sanguinary ruffians of that degraded city. The royal 
A^Iy looked upon themselves as splendid prisoners, at 
victims ready to be sacrificed whenever occasion should 
require it ; the monarchy was therefore virtuaUy destroyed; 
and, having crossed the Rubicon, it was not necessary to 
l^t any longer. 
, *:|1i^. first step the ministers took, and which was lika 




EodNlastioil Property declared tbe Property of the NAtioo. 

throirii^ out a tub to a whale, was the abolition of a 
tax» *wliidi Louis tbe XVIth had been anxious to abolish* 
This tax was a duty of nearly sixpence on a single pound 
of salty and was held by tiie people in such abhorrence, 
that no measure could ha?e been more popular, except 
the remission of the tobacco duty, which was repealed at 
the same time. 

The leading party in the Assembly surprised all Europe^ 
and eveu great part of their own colleagues^ by a pro- 
posal to seize upon all the lands and revenues of tho 
chureh, in order to pay off the national debts, and relieve 
the people firom the burthens that so heavily pressed upon 

This business came forward at the end -of October ; 
but though ihe subject was of great importance to tiio 
clergy, as well as to all the principal families, by being 
related to that body, the opposition to the pr<^osal was of 
little efiect, and a decree passed on the 3d of November, 
by which all the ecclesiasticill property in the kingdom 
was declared to be the property of the nation, and every 
minister of public worship was to receive his salary out 
of the public purse, like a clerk in an office ! The sup* 
pression of monastic establishments followed this ; but it 
is higUy creditable to the Assembly, that, in seizing those 
revenues, provision was made, that as many of the resi- 
dent nuns and friars as were disposed to continue, should 
bave their stipends allowed them during their lives. 

The seizing of the church lands had so much wisdom 
in it, that it was of itself sufficient to secure a revolution ; 
it instantly became the trading stock of the government 
— a bank that might be considered inexhaustible ; and to 
give the monied interest a colour for sanctioning the 
■MMTO^ a new kind of p^er money was issued by tlie 

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Assip»t»--Order of Nobikiy aboliilied<^£BiKtftdoiM. 

fii ' ' " 

Assembly apon its credit These drafts were called as* 
aigiDits> and the property itself that was seised or forfeiu^d 
to the state, was called national domains. The creditors 
of the state were paid in assignats or drafts upon the 
national domains, so that the great debts of the countfj 
guaranteed an immense army for the defence of the revo* 
lotion ; for by this means the nation would find purchasers 
for her domains, and be able to pay her drafts ; but if the 
ancient order of things were to be restored, the pubifo 
creditor would suffer as fonneriy. 

Having ventured upon this the most haaardous of all 
their measures^ the Assembly abolished the whole order 
of nobility, at a single sitting, by a laconic decree, that 
henceforth there should be no distinction of orders in 

Both the nobles and clergy felt their losses more than 
they should ; for, in fact, the salaries of the clergy, ak 
aettled by the legiriatnre, were not illiberal; and, as to 
the nobles, they should bove seen, thai a very few years 
of peace would have made the demagogues themselves 
#mutous of restoring distinctive badges, for the sake of 
maintaining their own rank. 

Emigrations became so common, that not less than six 
thousand bmded estates were advertised for public sale» 
for which no purchasers could be found ; and so much 
property had been conveyed to forei^ countries, that the 
demand for ^ome of tlie principal articles of manufacturo 
was sensibly diminished, insomuch, that some of ibe 
trading cities were shortly ruined. 

The conduct of the Assembly towards tte King bad 
been a nusture of msolence and respect 3 tkej had eviiii» 
oed a resohition ndt to let him exctcise bis prerogativa 
of the FUo^md yet affected to consider hisasseAlaa 




Tbe Kiog arretted ^oioi: to St. Cload. 

* T ' * ' '■ ' ■-■.-"' - ' ' ' "*" 

absolutely necessary ; so that, after a variety, of argu- 

menis, be was forced to appear in the Assembly, and 

.J^rofess his determination to support the new order of 


The Clergy were commanded to signify ttcir assent to 
Ae spoliation of the Church, by an oath, although at 
variance with tlie whole system of their education and 
habits. Most of the conscientious Ciei^ refused to 
take this iniquitous oath, and many of these persons 
attached themselves to the King, as sulTering with hidl 
tnder the same \ranton persecution. 

That the Kmg was disposed to prove that he Was realty 
a prisoner, or that he designed nothmg more than to 
ascertain the length of his chain, cannot now be deter- 
mined ; but on the 18th of April, 1791, he took the reso- 
lution to ride with his family to St. Cloud, a palace at a 
sbort distance, in order to spend the Easter holidays. 
The journey was hardly began wheii the Royal Travel- 
lers were arrested by the mob, and the soldiers joined in 
Ihe outrage, upon the pretence, that they considered 
iheir country in danger. 

Such an insult,, of so glaring atid unprovoked a nature^ 
could not fail to rouse their indignation, and the King 
repaired to the Assembly on the following day, to com- 
plain. TT^ey heard the complaint wiih apparent respect, 
and taciily ceni^nred the proceeding, by passing a decree 
to authorise a prosecution of the journey, but not a 
word was said about punishing the officious wretches wh« 
bad usurped the po Wer of the Magistracy. 

This event was impoitant, as it occurred at a period 
wben the Emigrant Princes were about to attack the Re- 
Tohtionists, with a view to restore the antient despot- 
ism, and led the King to think, that his own reputation 

VOL. I. — NO. 4. . L 

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The Kinip'i Reflections. 

required Um to disavow itny participation in these hostile 
preparations; he therefore lost no time in notifying to 
all foreign courts, that he had assented to tibe new order 
of things, and ** that he and the National Assembly were 
united together by the most sacred obligations.'' 



JLouKS knew that his brothers wished to restore the mo" 
aarchy with its unlimited power, and he also well 
knew that the object of the patriotic factions was to seek 
A fair pretence for overthrowing the last of the Monarcly 
altogether; whichever of the parties might succeed was 
to him of less consequence than any other person ; for 
there could* be litUe doubts but the commencement of 
the struggle would be a signal for offering him up as its 
victim. His distance from his brothers precluded him 
ffom desiring tiiem to abandon an olgect, in which tfajci^ 
birth-right was involved, and the increasing. frenzy of 
the National Assembly prevented him from expecting 
any thiqg like a more moderate course from them. Sur* 
rounded by evils on every side^ where is the man that 
would not have sought a place of safety! No people 
but tl^e inconsiderate French would have been surprised 
that tiie Royal Family had escaped from Parisi much less 
iMnre attributed it to the worst of motives. 


by Google 

ANI> WAlta OF EURQP8« 75 

The llayal Famity Icaye Paris— T faeir Anreit ai Tttcmitt. 

On the 2l8t of June, 1791, the commaiiduit pf the 
castlM^f the Thnilleries was' met by one of the house- 
hold* who infonned him, that neither the King, Qaeen, 
X)aqph]n, nor the Princess Elizabeth, were to be found ; 
the news was generally known aboat nine in the momihg, 
and Paris was in the greatest confusion. 

The National Assembly met early, and the President 
communicatied the intelligence, upon which H« Mont* 
morin, the Minister for Foreign affairs, was ordered un- 
der arrest, upon suspicion of his having assisted the es* 
cape of the family. 

Beports were immediately circulated, that the King 
was gone to put hin»elf at the head of an army to invade 
his people, and the iBrontiera were ordered to be put in a 
state of defence. Couriers were despatched to all the de- 
partments, with orders to arrest every one who shpuld at- 
tempt to quit the kingdom^ and to seize property of every 
kind that might be found crossing the frontiers. Yetj 
severe decrees were passed against every person who 
liad assiBted m rescuing the King« and an address was 
prepared, to assure the country at large; that the Assem* 
^y woold maintain their posts with firmness and energy. 

Two days were thus spent in fruitless coiyecture, and 
no discovery made as to the circumstances of the de- 
parture, or the road the family had taken, when a mes* 
fmiger arrived at the bar of the Assembly, with tidingf 
^hal ^ Royal Family had been arrested at Varennes^ 
Md were detained in custody thcre^ till the orders of the 
representatives of the people should be known. 

Hie Assembly thought, it necessary to have the chief 
jwtruaienl of the detention of the Royal f*ngitives brought 
iMfarethem, by a4eputation of the Municipality of Paria. 
00 l^egan Uareeilal by stating, that his name waa Drou^l^ 


Digitized by V3OOQ IC 


They are broni^ht back to Paris— Lbuis »' Explanatioo. 

that be had fonnerly been a dragoon in the regiment of 
Conde, but was actually post-master of St. Menehoifd. 

On the 21st of June, at half past seven in the eveifing» 
two carriages, and eleven horses, stopped to bait at hid 
house. He fancied he recognized the Queen, and, 6b^ 
serving a man at the back part of the carriage, his cu- 
riosity had led him to examine him closely, when the re- 
semblance of the countenance, with the effigy of the 
king on an assignat of fifty livres, was so apparent, that 
lie no longer doubted. 

These carriages were escorted by a detachment oT 
dragoons, which succeeded a detachment'of hussars, un- 
der the idea of protecting treasure. The escort excited 
his particular suspicion, but being alone, and fearful of 
exciting a premature alarm, he suffered the carriages to 
dejpart, and then, by a cross road, arrived at the next 
stage befbce them, and had the national guard called out, 
to stop the carriages. 

The Assembly appointed three Commissioners to es^ 
cort the prisoners to Paris, and among the few creditable 
things that they did, in the course of their session, they 
^ook every proper precaution upon this occasion to pre- 
vent their Majesties being exposed to the brutal attacks 
of the multitude. 

When measures were adopted for guarding the palace 

witfi greater strictness, a commission was appointed to 

examine the Royal Fugitives, as to the motives of their 

fisght, upon which Louis declared, that he was very fiir 

.from desiring to conceal them. 

The Eang explained, that his reasons for undertaking 
the journey arose from the outrages to which ht and hia 
ttunily had been constantly exposed, not only on the 18th 
of April, but subsequent to that period, which led fafaft 




The KiD#: accepts the Constitution. 

to judge, that be could not with safety continue in Paris, 
where every branch of his house, but particularly the 
Queen, was daily insulted. He chose to quit it at mid« 
night, to avoid interruption, but he had no intention of 
passing the frontiers. He intended to reside for a short 
time at Montmedy, because, being a fortified place, h» 
could have been visited by his family without molestation. 

The Queen's vfaidication was simple and natural ; she 
declared, that as her husband had determined to remove 
bimself and family, it was impossible that she could ad" 
mit the thought of separating from him and .her children: 
and both added, that their attendants were ignorant of 
their intention, till they received their orders to depart 

The King's return to the capital made no alteration in 
the proceedings of the Emigrant Princes,- whose number 
was now strengthened by the addition of Monsieur, who, 
having quitted Paris at the same time as the King,. had 
fortunately escaped, by taking another road ; but, as it 
was reported that troops were raising in his Majesty's 
name, he thought proper, in a letter to the National As- 
sembly, to disavow any participation in their project 

When the constitution was completed, it was pre- 
sented to the King, for his acceptance; and though a 
simple Aye or No would have been a sufficient answer 
upon the occasion, he not only accepted it as it stood, 
but entered into its merits, and pointed out djeficiencies, 
being desirous of seeing those parts which he approved 
accompanied by others that should be worthy of them. 

After stating a variety of reasons, that *had induced 
him to desire a reform of abuses, which he had discovered 
soon after the commencement of his reign, he concluded 
his address nvith the following manly and paternal obser* 
vation, for the consideration of the Assembly. 


by Google 


Ilif Speech to the As^eiobly on that occasioBu 

'' I accept then the Constituticm ; 1 engage to maintain 
K %t tiopQ, to def(i|i4 it againat attacks froni abroad, and 
^ QW«e it to be exeeuted by all. the means which it puts 
yt^ my pow^, 

'' While I shall fiuthfoUy employ all the means that are 
mtruikted ti^ me« no reproach can be laid on me; and the 
nation, whose interest alei^e ought to be the supreme 
mifi^ will explain iX^ by those means which the Gon- 
etiltt^ hM reserved to it. 

*' Bat, gentlemi^ for the seenrity of liberty, for Ijie 
UidEridaal hftHriie«Nl of i^ Frenchmen, there are into- 
resli, in which an mpemna da^ prescribea to us t^ com- 
bine all our eftvrta; these int^ests are, respeatfor the 
laws, the pe^tabHshnwAt of ^rder, and the re-union of 
aH the dtieeni. Now th»t the Constitution it definitively 
aettied, Frendimm ttring under the same laws, ought to 
know no enemica but tfewe who infringe theiffc Oiseord 
and anarchy ate our eonmon enemies ; I will oppose 
them with all my p/awer; it is necessaxy that yon and 
your siicccsseflps aecend me widi energy, that the law 
may equaUy paraAeeA all thetse who submit their ccDdnct 
io it«-that all thoas whom the fears of persecution and 
trmblehave driven ^m their country, may bo assured 
of inding," at tkeir retun, safety 9nd traoquillitya I 
.sp«ak not of thaae who have been solely influenced by 
Iheir attachment to sie«~Can you vegard them as cr^ 
•biinalst As to thoae, wha» by personal iaiiujries, have 
brought upon themaelveA the prosecution of the laws, I 
ahaB f rove in my owdnet to theq^ that I am the King 
i^tatt the Frenok iSipied) Lopis.'' 

- P, §*-»•** I Wiis of opimon. Gentlemen, that I ought 
to, pronounce my sokmnr ncceptanceof the Constitution 


by Google 


Joj of the Aisemblj— Kmbassj to the £mi|;raot Princes. 

in the very place hi which tt was formed ; m cdusequence 
1 shall come in pei^oii to-ftioitOw, at noon, fo the l^a- 
iional Assembly.'' 

This Address was received by the Assembly, as tf they 
had recovered a proper sense of the decorum necessary 
to be observed towards the chief Magistrate of a great 
people. The reading Kras fallowed by Uie most lively 
and enihtisiitttio {ilaudits, ftnd the sh6u& of '< Vke le 
j^r were as general imd as loud as in the most splen- 
did times ^f the Monarchy. The intoxication had 
scarcely ceased, when the Assembly decreed that alt 
persons under ftrrest Should be immediately released-— 
that aO prosecutims cftttied oh Against persons for acts 
eommitted in consequetice of the Revblution, should be 
inmiedisttely sapereeded-^-that passports should be no 
longer necessary to enable French citizens to enter or go 
oat of the kingdom, and that k deputation of sixty mem- 
bera ^bottld wait upon the King with the decree, and ex- 
press tl»e satisfaction which his acceptance of the Constl- 
tntioA fasid dinif^d. 

At the smne time the Assembly £spatched an embassy 
fo the Eiougrant Printees^ invi^g them to return to (heir 
ooontry, where they should enjoy all the blessings of the 
Constitntion^ and tesuriag them, that they should bb 
protected from every onfrage by the Legislative Body. 
!nieir refbssll served to re-kindle the resentment of the 
peilple, wbidi afterwards burst tbrth more violently than 

A more eventful period never occurred in the annals 
wf niaidkhid liian the moment of which w^ speaL Tt was 
wot Aerely a privlfege — a territory — a crown, or a suc- 
ifegBittn, bnt the sifbversion of the right^, the thrones^ 
mti te most antient eApires of Europe, that depended 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Fnrf of the Populace roach abated. 

upon the rejection or acceptance of a single proposals 
The labours of the Assembly had^ in fact, closed, whea 
the Constitution was completed, and they were to be 
succeeded by a body of men entirely new ; for they had 
decreed that not one of their own members should be re^ 
chosen. The character of the new Assembly might be 
influenced by the conduct of the Princes, for if they 
evinced a spirit of moderation, moderate men might pre* 
dominate in the elections ; but if discord were likely to 
continue, the turbulent and boisterous only would ap^ 
pear either as candidates or electors. 

The elections concluded. The old, (or as it was called^ 
the Constituent Assembly) dissolved itself upon the body 
of new legislators, taking possession of the hall on the 
30th of September, 1791 : and, in giving up their re* 
cords, communicated the pleasing intelligence to their 
successors, that they left a surplus of thirty-five millions 
in the national treasury^ of which eighteen millions were 
in specie. 

The King had gained much popularity, and the public 
fiiry had much abated ; for upon his entering the hail, 
At the dissolution of thajj^sembly, it was ordered that 
no chair should be seated by his^ except that of the 
President, and they condescended to stand and remaia 
uncovered, while his Majesty delivered his speech* Hie 
Assembly was not singular in these civilities, for their 
Miyesties not only ventured abroad without meeting with 
insult, but were, on these occasions, greeted by various 
testunonies of returning loyalty* 

The Assembly having finished the routine necessafjr 
to their formation, a deputation of sixty members wa» 
appointed to acquaint the King that they were about to 
proceed to business^ and, being admitted to his Mf^esty^ 




Lacooic Speech to tiie King from the A«8em|)Iy. 

M • Ducastel, their orator, said, '' Sire, the National As' 
aembly is definitively constituted, and has deputed us to 
infoim yoor Msyesty of it" Dry and laconic as this ad* 
dress was, the author did not fail to. meet with ft 
reprimand on his return to the Assembly, for using such 
servile expressions as '' Sire," and ** Majesty/' 

Two years correspondence had cemented an union 
amongst all the clubs in France, which rendered it easy 
fi>r an opinion to be propagated, and an unity of action 
to be effected throughout that vast empire in a few days; 
and the zealous Republicans availed themselves of this 
opportunity to inform the whole country, that it waa 
aboat to be plunged into a most destructive and bloody 
war, of which the Royal Family, if not the sole cause/ 
alone the otyecL 



The conduct of the King and Queen was of the virtuous 
and honorable kind, and every real firiend of liberty must 
bave approved it, but it was the misfortune of France to 
have fidlen under the government of a set of canting by-' 
|M»crites,' who were any thing,* and every thing but what 
they pmfessed to be, and who knew no more of {latriotisiri 
tfaao the proper opportunities upon which they might 
Yeature the usurpation of its name. 

Tlie signal for plunging the country into a series of 

VOL. I.— NO. 4. M 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Folty of Anaetaanit Glootg. 

troubles was, a decree of oattawrjr agaiaat the Kkig'» 
Brothers and the Emigrants, His Majesty had not 
abandoned the hope of inducing' the Prinoes to li^n to 
i^eason, and he refused his veto to the decree, witii a de^ 
sign to issue a proclamation, which he hoped would an^ 
swer the purpose in a less offensive manner. 

Mobs now paraded to the Assembly, and interrupted 
the business, upon pretence of offering addresses and 
giving advice, tod these wretches were invited to the 
honours of the sitting by legions at a time I 

No limits were known, at which the extravagant no^ 
tions and practices of the people ought to stop ; Ana* 
ofaarsis Cloots, a Prussian refugee, m a fit of madness^ 
took it into his head to attire in theatrical dresses a motiey 
group, consisting of vagabonds, whom he hired for the 
purpose, and' of patriots, whose brains were boiling with 
republican fury, and had the boldness ia introduce them 
to the Assembly, as ambassadors from the oppressed peo« 
pie of different, nations, who had appointed him their 
orator, and demanded the interference of the nation to 
aid them in throwing off the yoke of their tyrants. 
*' Let us march," said this enthosiast, '* at the head of 
two millions of men; we will plant the tree of liberty 
every where, and deliver twenty nations from the fangs 
of despotism." The Assembly thought it an honour to 
have received the homage of these rhodomontade c^ 
nions, and accordingly invited their grotesijue visitors to 
the honors of the sitting. 

The want of combination amongst the Combined 
Powers afforded an opportunity of preparing for the wttr« 
and the Jacobins exerted themselves, to stinuilata flieir 
partisans to enter into the army, in which they were s« 
saccessful^ that full two millions of fighting men were 



▲Nf> WAM 09 SUEOPi^. 83 

^tmmmmasaBssasss ■ i ' i . i ... 

War declared asaiast Germany. 

^■HP^^aacaBsa '■ -' -— —. .■..-^ ', n" ■■ '..t'..j r. "" ' '.i.i^BBagag 

ready to march, whenever their leaders were disposed to 
conduct them to the field of battle ; and as troops coa- 
tiMed to mena«e ' the ftontiers notwithstanding the par 
cific dectaratioas of some neighbeunDg ooiirts^ in anr 
awer to the temonstruiGes, the Assembly urged his Mar 
jesty to make vigorous preparations for war, and large 
armiea were accordingly collected. 

Supposing that^' no danger was to be apprehended from 
a sodden attack, ttie Assembly would forget how much 
the effects of a well drawn manifesto might be frustrated, 
if they should cominence the attack before they had in- 
volved the dispute in so much doubt, as to make it a 
natter of contest who were tJhe original aggressors. Pre- 
liminary negoctations were therefore opened, imd the 
necessary charges on both sides exchanged, when the 
Assembly declared war against the Emperor, as King of 
Bohemia and Hungary, on the 20th of April 1792* 

After what we have seen pervading all ranks, and par- 
ticularly the troops, it is surprising how any officer could 
be wiMing to trust himself in the field at the head of such 
a rabble ; perhaps some acted from the necessity of 
either obeying orders, or of being punished as deserters; 
others, relying upon their own patriotism and the purity 
of their intentions, might bid defiance to the malice of 
calumny, md others might assume commands with a 
view to co-operate with the invading armies in restoring 
the internal peace of their country. 

Whatever motives may have influenced General Dil- 
lon, the first officer who marched to attack the enemy, 
wiU perhaps never be known; for, having marched out 
of Lisle on the 28th of April, at the head of 3000 men, 
with a design to attack Toumay, he was opposed by the 
Austrian General Happencourt and a body of nine 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Murder of General Uillon. 

liundred Austrions, who no sooner appeared, than an 
universal cry of ** Treason !" impelled them to a shame- 
fill retreat, in which they abandoned all their artillery 
and baggage. The General, who used every exertion to 
rally his followers, had scarcely re-entered lisle, when 
the cowards instantly pierced his body witii a thoasand 
bayonets ; and, to increase their guilt, they not only 
bung a priest and an olBScer of artillery, without provo- 
cation, but they hang the whole of the Austrian pri- 
soners, whom they had captared, and with the ^ same 
lawless barbarity. 

Powerful artnies were quartered on the diffiferent fron- 
tiers, the generals and officers of which were all looked 
on as Aristocrats, and daily risking to be butchered in 
the same' mutinous manner, while the King and his Mi- 
nisters, surrounded by person^ of tiie same description 
at home, were publicly insulted by them as traitors, who, 
by fair appearances, were betraying the country to the 
enemy. A member of-ihe Assembly, M. Brissot, had 
the audacity to give authority to the accusation, by ac- 
cusing the King in a journal, which he himself pub- 
lished, and his example encouraged one of his followers, 
Condorcet, to write a threatening letter to the King, 
grounded upon his own ignorant suspicions. 

The jealousies and suspicions, incident to a state of 
violent commotion, operated more fatally upon tliose 
who indulged them, than all the evib of which they were 
so apprehensive could possibly have* done, if they had 
happened to have had the manliness to meet them boldly. 

After the war had commenced, the post of govern- 
ment was so much so the post of danger, that they only 
considered themselves safe who found some pretence of 
retiring ; and such was the licentiousness that prevailed^ 




The Kins deprived of his Body Giuurdf. 

that those who retired and those who succeeded^ were 
alike subject to unqaalified abuse, as if serving the pain 
Uc constituted a traitor. 

Tlie Assembly hastened to pass such rash and hasty 
decrees as they knew the Eling could not sanction, with 
a view to irritate the mob against him for the exercise of 
his veto; and their refined policy led them to decree^ 
tfiat the King should dismiss a corps of Swiss guards^ 
which did duty at the palace. As was foreseen, the King 
refused his assent, and he was inunediately accused, of 
keeping a guard to fight against the tiberties of the peo* 
pie ; and those beings, in the shape of men, acted ex«> 
actly as if the family of the Sovereign was the only one 
in the kingdom that should remain unprotected. 

The Constituent Assembly deprived the King of his 
body-guards ; ^d, after the numerous sacrifices he had 
made to moderate his persecutors, some of his friends 
advised hhn to part with these troops, as a few compa* 
nies of fhem were to do duty with the National Guard, 
which was to receive charge of the Palace. It is likely, 
that an adherence to his first resolution would not have 
been of the least advantage tQ his Majesty's family ; but 
his comphance with the clamour of the people did not 
procure it an hour's repose, for reports were circulated 
so rapidly, that the most cautious were forced into the 
streets, to swell the riotous assemblies, by this mere alarm, 
and the Palace* was incessantly surrounded by persons, 
waiting to seize some of the household, whom they !se- 
lighted in duckiog in the adjoining water. The Queen 
happening one ds^y to be at a window, to take the iresh 
air, she was v^ry much affected at seeing' a priest and 
an old officer dragged along by the unfeeling rabble, 
merely because they were suspected of being Aristocrats ( 




War declared a|;aiiwit Fraooe bj Germaoy— Change of Ministry. 

ium} h^t feelings being, looked on as a Ubel upon the free- 
dom of the people, a caimomer of tke national guardt 
after having addressed her in the vilest language, added, 
*' tiiait he hoped qne day to have the pleasure of carrj- 
ing her head upitfi his pike." 

. War was now declared against France by the Emperor, 
the Kkiig of Pr«ssia» and many of the small states of Ger* 
]imny« and some .skirmishes had occurred, in which the 
French had been generally unsuccessful, so that popular 
fury was fed every day. 

A means, of security which Louis adopted* with a firm* 
nesSf that ibr the moment staggered his enemies, was 
dismissing the Republican Ministry, of which Brissot 
was the head, to clear the way for the friends of limited 
monarchy^ headed by La Fayette. 

Though this change seemed to weaken the Republi* 
<»ms, it served to arouse their energies, and occasion 
jQresh plots against the Court ; and the enmity between 
the friends of liberty aad the Republicans became every 
day more open. 

. The idea of beiuy sent back to their former obscurity 
operated so powerfully upon the Republican factions, 
that they were determiued to destroy the remains of li- 
berty, and to establish a reign of terror instead of the 
Constitution, to the purpose that whenever they might 
find it coBvenienI to prevent any virtuous o{5position, 
th^ey might slie4 the blood of the person, without his be- 
lt^ able to shelter himself under the law. They divided 
thenuielves into different parties, amongst the ignorant 
and desperate class who frequented the clubs and riotous 
'Hfsemblies, and by artful insinuations, persuaded the 
(bolish people that they should always enjoy an idle life ; 
f^f t^« when the Monarchy should be overthrown, the 


by Google 


Pvt\ef agaiMC tk« Kiafr^ML Petion. 

property of tbe nch sbottld be divided aaoBgtt them, or* 
as BrisBOt said, '' the reign of iiktrtf should be beaifr: 
cial to its friends." 

By such in&moas devices, multitudes of wretches col- 
lected about the Assembly, to demand the deposition of 
the Xing, under pretence of petitioning the members. 
At tbe head of one of those gangs appeared a fellow, 
named Santerr^, who styled himself commander of the 
citizens of St Antoine, a suburb of Paris chiefly inha- 
bited by vagrants, blackguards, ond Aieves ; and he was 
suffered to pass through the hall, followed by an armed 
rabble, bearing every device that could indicate their 
nefanons designs. One earned a scroll, which pro- 
fessed to be, " Advice to Louis XVI. ;'' and another^ 
that the ** People were tired of suffering/ But, that 
they might not be misunderstood, another bore the con- 
clusive admonition, ''Tremble, tyrant! thy hour is 

M. Petion, the Mayor of Paris, who had been chosen 
by the interest of the Brissotines, always took care to be 
away when any of those scenes were to happen ; and if 
moderate men complained of tlieir being allowed, he af- 
fected to discredit them, and treated tbe complaints as 
attempts to calumniate the people, and indicative of a 
conspiracy against liberty; in consequence he became 
very popular with the rabble, and could lead them as 
he pleased. He was a principal in the Brissotine party* 
and his conduct is a strong proof of the criminal designs 
of those men ; for if they possessed the smallest regard 
to liberty or justice, they would have effected their pur- 
pose by law, instead of the sanguinary violence of a mob, 
and the matter of their having rejected the law, is a proof 


by Google 


Santerre heads m Rabble. 

that the King had not i^iolated it» and that they had no 
ground for deposing . faim but their own determination to 
aeize the government. 

»#»»#^>#^^»^#^#^##^<^^>*>^#»»**^»^*^*^'»*^<^»'»^ » '»» 


The terrible 20th of June at length arrived, and some of 
flie Municipality, who were not yet corrupted, informed 
the Assembly, that the populace were collecting with 
the des(ign of proceeding to some violent breach of the 
public peace, and that nothing short of some strong inter* 
ference of the legislature could avert the danger. The 
friends of nioderation moved for a decree to forbid the 
assembling of armed bodies of people, and to prevent 
them from surrounding either the Palace or tlie Assem* 
biy; but this was scouted, as trenching upon tlie Ma- 
jesty of the people ; and Santerre, accompanied by Le- 
gendre, a butcher, led their gangs through the city, 
and, under pretence of going to petition the King, cot* 
lected all the elements of crime and confusion in one 
mass, with an intention to bury the unfortunate Monarch 
and his family in irrevocable ruin. 

As some severe examples had taken place among the 
soldiery, in consequence of what had happened at Lblc ; ' 

and, as the army in general shrunk from the excesses of 
the Republicans, hopes were kept np that a guard might 
be depended upon for the protection of the palace. | 


by Google 


Almmimg tltiMMJonof tlw KIbi:. 

When tlia mob began the alrtaek, it was long before they 
gained adaittaBca ; bat tbey had foar pieces of cannoo^ 
and as the aoldien ^ere strictly ordered not to fire upon 
the pe^^le, rMstance be^^ame as miachieTOQS a3 in every 
ease in wUch the iil-faled Louia had been advised to at- 
tempt it* The assailants were provided with hatchets, 
oi>ow8, &c. and Ihcy broke down the gates said ^on of 
the TliaiUerieSy and pointed their artillery against the 
hall allotted to the guards/ Miien the King presented him* 
wM, attended t^ the Princess Elizabeth, his sister, who 
refused to quit him. A iew of the National Guards sur* 
rounded his Majesty^ determined to defend him^ or pe^ 
itsh la the attempt. 

The room uras crowded with a multitude of men, wo* 
men, and children, venting the usual ones of sedition; 
They insisted that be should withdraw his veto firom 
the decrees against his Brothers and the Clergy, and 
Legendre, in an insolent «id brutal address, demand* 
ed the King's attention: *' Hear us, StrT said he» 
<^ for it is your duty so to do. — ^You are perfidious. 
—You have always deceived us ; you deceive us still ; 
but, beware, for the people are tired of seeing them- 
aelves made your laughing-stock !* To which his Ma- 
jesty oahnly replied, Aat he regulated his conduct by 
flie Constitution^ 

The resolution of the King^ and his fetr fidthfiil guards^ 
iBsanned the multitude of their ferocity, and flte greater 
part satisfied themselves with pouring out execrations 
and abuse upon the X^rincess Elizabeihj wherm they took 
Ibr the Queen. Others insisted upon the King putting , 
•a a red cap; which was one of die emblems of liberty 
assumed by tiieso madmen« Tlie Kmg not only put it 
^ with much ^^parent good humour, but tiie Queen 

VOL, I.— NO. 4. N 




The Mayor arrifct* but too late. 

having since joined him with a resolution to die by his 
side, he put one also on the Dauphin, whom her Majesty 
presented to the rabble. The effect was such as mig^t 
have been expected from such an assemblage. The King 
and Queen discovered no signs of tyranny, and as th« 
leaders could not misconstrue what the people could 
judge of by the evidence of their senses, the volatila. 
crew were willing to admit that the Monarch and his fii« 
mily were very civil people ; ** Oest Men humettr was 
echoed by the crowd, and, alter ranging through tha 
apartments, the curiosity of most was satisfied. A few 
attempted to push through the guards, but did not suc- 
ceed ; and it should not be forgotten, that though this 
multitude amounted to perhaps forty thousand, no jn- 
stance of robbery occurred ; and, except breaking a few 
mirrors and glasses, very little damage. 

When the tumult was almost over, Petion, and a de- 
putation from the Legislative Body, arrived at the Pa- 
lace, just to save appearances ; but the King felt no ob- 
ligation to them, for the Mayor had been twice sent for, 
before he thought it necessary to take the trouble of at^ 

It appears that his Miyesty evinced no symptom of 
fear. A grenadier asked him the question. '' No,^' ho 
answered, '* put your hand upon my heart, and feel if it 
betrays any signs of fear." . 

The King appeared satisfied that he should, at some 
future period, fall a victim to the fury of the populace^ 
about which, however, he seemed indifferent; but th^ 
fate of his family caused him great uneasiness : even hit 
anemies admit, that he was' both an affectionate husband 
and a tender father. When he was advised to the adop* 
lion of more vigorous measures, he replied as follows c 




Genena la Fayette appears before the Assembly. 

** Oh! if my wife and children were not with me, it would 
so&n appear that I am not so weak as is imagined, but 
what zDouU become of them, if the measures to which you 
allude^ should Jbil^ His chief consolation, under hid 
sorrows, was, that if his blood were shed/ it would pro* 
faably appease the rebels, and redeem his fiunily from 

General la Fayette appeared in Paris. A letter of tht 
10th had been accompanied by one to his Majesty, in 
which he pledged himself to hun, to^defend him against 
Ae violence of the &ctions; and, upon learning what 
insults had been oflfered to the Sovereign on the 20th, he 
proved his noble soul to be stimulated by that high ho- 
nour which becomes a freeman and a soldier, and flew 
to support, in person, the justice which he had asserted. 

M. la Fayette was received by the King witii open 
arms, and the National Guards conducted him in triumph 
to and from the Assembly ; but it was clear, that the ci- 
tizens of Paris were not disposed to second his spirited 
endeavours. In tiie Assembly he was listened to with 
cold respect, while he declared tiiathe had agreed on 
such measures with Marshal Ltickner, that his absence 
from the army could not be of the least injury, and he 
presented fafanself before them in his own name, and that 
of his indignant troops, to demand justice against the 
guilty authors of the disgraceful scenes at the Palace on 
the 20th. Resolution was apparent in every word he 
spoke, and the Jacobins knew tiiey were not yet able t# 
provoke him openly ; they suffered hun to withdraw, 
drily replying, by their President, that they had ** sworn 
to maintain the laws, and knew how to defend them." 
Some very severe remarks were made on liis conduct, 
fmd a republican member (Gaudet) moved that inquiry . 

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The King confirms the Majorca dismiMal. 

should be made of the Minuter of War, whether he had 
allowed M. la Fayette to quit the army. Thk motioD 
was rejected^ and the General's address was then referred 
to a committee, and many persons wore desirous of 
marking it with their decided ^probation ; addresses to 
that purpose were received from various parts of the 
country^ and one of them had even twenty thousand sig* 

At this trying period, tlie friends of the King and the 
Constitution seem to have acted with as little fffmness as 
before, yet they were not inactive^ A. superior council 
had htea formed for scmie tonei in Paris^ styled the Di- 
rectory of the Pohoe ; the imparity were nroderate meQ» 
and had called upon the Mayor, as well as upon the A»» 
sembly, to prevent tlie disorders of tlie SOtb, without ef- 
fect ; tbey therefore exerted their own wtbority, and 
suspended bun as soon as order was in some measure re- 

The King did not asrist the efforts of his Mends with 
that determined steadiness which the boldiiess of his ene- 
mies demanded. He had most- sharply reproached P^ 
tion, and he should not have alfo<M3ed mny conqilaisanee ^ 
but he began a sort of coquetry with the Assembly,, by 
referring the matter to them. Th^ declared thait they- 
had no wish to do the King's duty, and would only in* 
terfere in case of an appeal. The King confirmed this 
dismissal, an4 the Assembly immediately restored the 

On the arrival of General la Fayette on the fh>ntieis. 
be foond the measures o£ the enemy in great fonfard* 
^ess, and a sense pf the danger which threatened the 
jceuntry afibcted ail its iriends. Under this impression 
a member arose in fhf A^sembly^ «n the 7lh of July, and 




run r^ hi ■■ i i ■ ■ ■ — . -f ■» ^ 

;Thft KiBff 60M to tii« UalU 

conjured thom to sacrifice their oirn private views^ and 
to be<»onie fiieads for the sake of their country. ** Let 
all/' said he, " Who discover faults in the Constitution, 
display a spirit of acconnnodation to each otlicr, and let 
OS swear that we will unite to maintain it as it is/' 
Scarcely were the last words uttered, when the two sides 
(Republicans and Constitutionalists) arose, threw their 
hats up, shouted applauses jBrom every side, the two 
parties embraced, and swore immortal union, taking their 
seats ladidereHtly, as a sign of endless harmony ! 

TfaMB lAinutas of this event wore ordered to be inune- 
diately transmitted to tiie King, and directions were 
given to communicate this glorious issue to all the citi- 
zmxs. Such, indeed, was the wonderful combination of 
events which crowded on at this period, that M. Gamot, 
who has since been looked on as the completest Repub- 
lican, stood up in defence of the King's authority, and 
moved, that the judicial powers should be especially 
cbargcd to redouble tbeir vigilance and authority. 

On the- return of tli« deputation, who had waited on 
the £jng, the Bishop of Lyons reported, that his Ma* 
jes^, after hearing tbe extracts of the minutes read, an- 
swered, '' That it was in>possible for bim to hear news 
BO dear to his heart, and tliat he yielded to his strong do- 
mt of coming to the Assembly, to testify all the joy 
with wUch this bad inspired him." 

The King soon after entered the hall, amidst conti- 
nued shouts of '' Long live the King I-— Long live I li- 
berty !" — and in tiie fiibess of his heart, declared his 
MUuou» hope that the end of this union would make 
France survive the dangers which threatened her. The 
Assembly replied by an address, in which it said that 
it '* already $a» in (h§ candour qf hii proceeduigs t/ie 




■ ~ ' - — ^ — ' - * 

The Assembly decrees the Comitry in danger. 

omens of success.** The plaudits of the galleries were 
equally loud with those of the Members; and yet it would 
scarcely be credited, that only one Sabbath had passed, 
when these very people assailed this very King with the 
heaviest accusations that violence and bitterness could 
invent. A new scene of riot was at hand, under the 
mask of a national fete, or grand confederation, to cele- 
brate the 14th of July. Deputies from the different de- 
partments were to perform in the drama ; care was to be 
taken that such of these visitors, as might not happen to 
be sufficiently corrupted, should not return home with- 
out being possessed of all the firebrands of strife that 
might yet be wanting to inflame the sober hamlets of die 
country, to make them as licentious as the metropolis. 
Brissot and his party threw off the mask which they had 
assumed for a few days, and after a torrent of declama* 
tion, in which he declared, that the danger lay in the^ 
Palace, the Assembly decreed concisely, " The Coun- 
try is IN DANGER,*' and two Addresses, filled with alarm, 
were drawn up, and sent to the armies and the dqrart-' 

Dissipation and idleness were so long prevalent, that 
the number of debtors and poor was considerably in- 
creased, and many thousands, not originally corrupt, 
became so in the unfeeling hope of being able to ruin 
their landlords^ and creditors, by overthrowing royalty. 
The wounding the King^s feelings was resorted to in 
every shape, and as the late triumph of the Mayor af* 
forded a great opportunity, die mob used every mean» 
to insult the King and liis friends with shouts of ** Long* 
live Petion ! — Down with royalty, &c." 

Whilst the last remains of Royalty were brought into 
•ontempty they were also snccessftd in assuring the peo» 




The Duke of Brunswtok*s M aoifetto. 

pie that the Court prevented the success of the French 
arms, by its intri^es with those combined against 
France. In this they were in some degree sanctioned by 
the Combined Powers themselves, who, instead of march- 
ing as they shoald have done, with a strong column into 
the heart of the country, while it was yet undefended, 
continued issuing their feeble threats upon the frontiers. 
" It is not in the success of their arms,'' said the Ja- 
cobins, " that the enemy places his hopes ; it is in the 
intrigues of the Thuilleries. It is the army of couriers 
that pass between Coblentz (the hcad^quarters of the 
emigrant Princes) and the Court, whom alone we have to 
fear, and not the soldiers of Brunswick." 

A Manifesto was circulated tlirough France, signed by 
the Duke of Brunswick as Generalissimo. — This Mani- 
festo declared the intention of the Emperor and King of 
Prussia to restore order to France — to restore the King 
to his power, and release the Royal Family^ to protect 
all persons who submitted to the King— that all persons 
found in arms should be punished severely — all the mem- 
bers of the assembly and others responsible with their 
lives — it threatened the most exemplary punishment on 
every one who controlled the King, or, as it is said, held 
him in subjection—it promised that the troops of the 
I>uke of Brunswick should observe the strictest disci- 
pline, and treat all well-disposed subjects witli mildness 
— ^and called on the people to suffer them to enter the 
kingdom, and give them every assistance. 

Itt an additional declaration, he resolved to punish the 
people of Paris if the King should be insulted, and states, 
in case of the B^yal Family being carried off, all places 
which did not oppose their passage^ should be sub- 


by Google 


Tbe Kin|:*s Letter to the Atsembly, disavowinjc the Manifesto. 

ject to the severest penalties, and that no place of re- 
treat was to be the choice of his most Christian Majesty, 
unless it was eSected under the offered escort. 

r#v ^«####w^# ^^■»9*^*^-* ^#^^^<^^<^^«^^ ^^^^0^ *»<>'*■ 


Nothing, during the whole course of the Revolution, 
did so much mischief as publishing tJiis wretched Mani- 
festo ; for it made no difference whatever between the 
sober well-meaning friends of limited monarchy and the 
all-destroying Jacobins, who threatened even life itself witii 
unlimited destruction. '^ Who then, do these combined 
armies come to favour,** swd every considerate French- 
man, " but the friends of a worn-out despotism, which 
I can only recollect with abhorrence V ITie conclusion 
was perfectly natural. " This enemy must be repelled, 
and then the friends of liberty may be able to establish a 
free constitution." 

On the 3rd of August, two days after this Manifesto 
had been read in the Assembly, the King wrote to that 
body, and, rather injudiciously, suggested tlie possibi- 
lity of its not being genuine, disavowing all its senti- 
ments, and promising every thing that they could ex- 
pect of him. His declarations were now at an end, 'his 
promises useless. A motion was made to print his Let- 
ter and send it td the eighty-three departments, but tho 


by Google 



Petion*a Petition creates violeat agiUti on io Ibe Assembly. 

previous question was instantly passed, . aniidst the shouts 
of the galleries. 

Thariot said, that the King had written this Letter be* 
cause he knew that the Municipality of Paris were going 
to demand his deposition, Petion appeared at the head 
of a gang, and pretended he came from the forty-eight 
sections of Paris, to demdnd the King's exclusion^ from 
the throne, and that responsible ministers should be ap- 
pointea until the election of a new king in a national 

He supported this petition by a sketch of what he 
caUed the King's conduct since the Revolution, which, 
he said, proved him to be an enemy to the people, to the 
laws, and to France. The petition created a most vio- 
lent agitation in the Assembly, so that the president was 
obliged to adjourn the sitting ;■ and, in the evening, the 
Assembly resolved to determine the question on that day 

All busmess, save treason, ceased in Paris, from the 
3rd of August; and the leaders of the National Assembly 
were busy in passing decrees that should favor tlie in- 
surgents: patroles of the rabble were also placed, by 
Petion and Santerre, so as to prevent the possibility of 
the King's tscapt. Matters being arranged for carrying 
the decree into execution, on the day before the Assem- 
bly had resolved to pass it, the palace was atUoked on 
the 10th of August As many of the leading members of 
the Assembly were desirous of aiding in the assault, who 
at the same time wished to be concealed, it was resolved 
that the riot should not commence till after dark : it was 
not till eleven o'clock that Danton called, " To arms 1 to 
arms !" and all the belb were rung, to proclaim the city 
ia a state of insurrection. 

VOL. 1.-— NO. 5. Q 

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The Pftlaoe attacked bjr the Mob. 

The city of Paris had little to do in the affair: the 
chiefs of the parties counted upon thirteen or fourteen 
thousand of tlieir own ruffians in the metropolis, and 
they had about five thousand more firom the depart* 
ments ; many were soldiers who had been drummed out 
of their regiments for their crimes, and many galley-* 
slaves : of tliese classes were the femous Marseillois, and 
Federates of the West, as they were called, who had 
been brought to Paris to assist at the (Ste on the I4tk of 
July ; and, by mixing themselves in every part of the city^ 
' end keeping up a constant noise, they collected a great 
number of idlers round them, which, to a spectator, 
made them appear more numerous than they were. 

The conquest of the palace was not affected so easily 
as it had been on the 20th of June; for though the at« 
tack commenced at one in the morning, it was nine be" 
fore the outer gates were forced. Son^e preparations had 
been made for resistance, but, like every effort of the 
tinfortunate Louis, it was more an attempt at resolution 
than resolution itself. Beside a part of die Swiss guavd 
find a few of the national grenadiers, who were resolved 
to defend the constitution, there was a considerable body 
1 of Royalists, who had resolved to subdue the traitors or 
perish in the attempt, the whole amounting to near tliree 
thousand armed men. A body of this kind, headed by 
a bold and intrepid chief, would have amply secured a 
victory, if they had attacked the insurgents, instead of 
femaining cooped up in the palace. 

W&eu the outer gates were forced, the assailants were 
met by the King's guards, who, by a close 6rft, drove 
them back, and obliged them to leave font pieces of can* 
tkon behind them. The Swiss formed m the great cour^ 
y^kihi tlie cannpn played upon the palace, and had al* 




The Royal Family go to Uie Atsembly. 

B^ady pierced tke roof; the boflies of the slain were 
strewed eft every side, and the folly of resistance became 
evident ev^ moment; for, in the multitude of advisers^ 
■p OM had the oonmumd. The defenders of the palace 
peen heeame a tnnmltuots crowd, with no advantage 
#ver Aeir adversaries, and much inferior to them ki 
Mmber. They ftUed, and they felU for want of a c^m* 
loander ; they were overpowered by nnmbefs, and th» 
trinnphant haribarians enjoyed the sport of catting them 
Ip pieces and dragging their mangled carcases in thehr 
horrible prooesmons. Ail the Swiss fonnd wwre irim- 
manly pnt to death in cokt blood, and their remaitta 
(exhibited fixed at the end of pikes 1 About Unpse ^Mh 
sand personSi on both )iides» lost their lives in this attach; 
and more would have suffered, but that a part of tha 
^ards hadesoorted the Royal Kmnly to the]Assemhly« 
• liouis seems to have |^ saeh an aversi(qii to the shed* 
lling of Mood, timt he expose^ himself to ^the most vat 
>rarrantable treatment, simply becanae tiie offenders eat 
rtilated uponhb foribearsnce. The danger was greater 
and more presiring than ever ; this every one ef his fiienda 
and ftmiiy knew; and it is smyrismg, that, after the 
length that the Assembly had gone, he did net dosriy 
see, ttathemnst ekherbe driven from his thrann orfighyt 
jB ddenoe of it Yet he does not appear ta have had 
audi a view of the strigect; for, when he w^s Mfewad hjr 
Ae Qoeen and the Prineess his sister, m the midit of 
their brare defenders ; after he had heard the dreidftl 
howKngs of a thonaand toagttes bellow ^onC tha ones of 
^ deposition T and ^deathr after the nobles and giiaitts 
had satisCed him of victory, and the Queen had rondvad 
to die by his s!Be ;: he took tfM nnaeconntable resolatiott, 
^fthrawmghhasrif and family ifita «e«ra»iaf thejila* 

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The Royal Family confined in the Temple. 

tional Assembly, lest he should be supposed to violate 
the constitution ; and, previous *to his leaving the pahce, 
gave positive orders not to fire upon the people ! 

A series of singular events had placed him now in 9, 
most distressing situation. The members of the Assem** 
bly, to which he had retreated, thought no business of 
so much consequence as passing the decree of Deposit* 
tion ; but they could not proceed to business in the King's 
presence, because it was . contrary to the eonstitutioii ; 
this gave a pretence for forcing the Boyal Family into a 
comer, where the secretaries kept thdr books, which 
deprived them even of the poor consolation pf ex^ 
changing thoughts, and subjected them to the cruel state 
of a prison, while it was alleged that their persons wer^ 

Fourteen hours of mortification and pain being thus in* 
flicted upon their helpless captives, the low pride qf these 
narrow-minded repubiicana became satiated with thus exr 
arcising their tyranny, and they decreed that the execur 
tive- power should be taken from the King, and that ha 
and his family should be confined in the Temple. T9 
increase tbe pain of the family, orders were issued that 
Fetion sboold go in the same carriage, to take them t0 
prison; this traitor not only insulted them by his adr 
vice on thtiir journey, .but occarionally ^topped the car* 
riage, that they might hear the ^eeches of the infamous 
orators who irritated the people ag^nst tbem by tlieir 
foul ealumniea. 

; The Revolution took a tarn which seemed to dispel 
the hopes of all good men. The ' Assembly was about to 
dissolve ; for a National Convention wa» appointed to as- 
aemUe on the 20th of September, to constitute a Repub- 
-Jic, and little hope remained that this Assembly woal4 
not long have the power of d^ng mischief. 

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Bonaparte leaTet Corsica, and retnrof to PlEurii. 


At Ae time the Notables met, in the year ITS?^ the 
discontents in Fans were extreme, and they increased ra- 
pidly until the year 1789, when the takings of tiie BastiDa 
began the Revolution. 

No individual in France had remained careless of its 
affairs, and many, who were not natives or inhabitants, 
partook, either by education or the possession of pro-^ 
perty in that nation, or by acquaintance or relationship 
with its inhabitants, or from other causes, a lively into* 
rest in the disagreements between the government and 
the people : a great number, who were desirous of cabnij 
otMerving, or hastening or delaying the hnportant con* 
sequences that were expected, hurried td the spot, at 
tfiey were urged either by curiosity or interest. 

Some of those, who had eagerly crowded to the Frendi 
capital, expected to derive pprat advantages from a rup- 
ture with the Court ; among them was Napoteon Bona- 
parte: he had quitted the regiment of artillery shortly 
after Che death of his patron. Count Marbceuf, and retired 
home to Corsica; he found his mother a widow, in very 
indifferent circumstances, and several chfldren depending 
•n her exertions for support : Napoleon might not have 
added to her incumbrances, though it is not very likely 
that he afforded her relief. The education of a soldier 
and the mauners of the army an not calculated to be of 

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OpportooMgr Affijrded NspoleoDof diahigtfithihc hiBlseir, 
■ ■ .. j^ 

service to him in any employment of any kind that the 

trifling island of Corsica could offer. 

During the time Bonaparte remained with his mother 
lie applied mach to study ; but though he returned to his 
books with fresh ardour^ it was principally because . the 
experience he had had aa an oflfcer^ had confirmed his 
fondness forliii^ profession ; he did not labour with that 
strict attention that he had done early in Bfe at Brienne, 
Ifatwith«taij§ing the exercise and amusemeots, im which 
lie ailerwards took such ^tive part, his epnstitution suf- 
fered much from long ipaption during the time he va3 at 
school: his form was calculated to resist fatigue, and pos-t 
aessed much strength, but he bore the appearance of de- 
licate heakb ; his despondency of promotUm in the King's 
army heightened the melanctoly of his appeai^no^^ but 
I^s character imparted a sternness to his countenanco 
that was not so agreeable as remarkable in a Tery yo«Dg 

. From the prinrnples which he had early avowed, it waa 
leaspnabie to believe that he would declare against th« 
King, Steady in his passion for military glory, he di4 
not slip so favourable an opportunity as the discontent! 
iC Paris afforded^ Af signalizing iiiasctf in &?imr of some 
one party, Amind such as hi# fiNrces itself into wtio^ 
fiKMB difficult situations. He seized, widi enthusiasm, 
the sense of that deeree which acknowledged no distiac* 
tiea of raiJe, althoqgh some might have tlicii ooiycqtared 
thai it was likely to iifjuFe his ftituni firospeots. 

It cannot be believed thal^ possessing these sentiments, 
Bonaparte eould consider Louis XVI, as ^beftlberef hia 
people; and the moi» so when he knew dM4 nnkappy 
priaoe's tbrone was encircled hy flfitlerers, who were all 
«jterestad in snftportiB^ the greatest t^q^ee— that TQf9l 




■ "i .1 ^ I I e e 

CoffimiMionert from the Attembiy arretfedby •nier of La Fayette. 

&vour was the only road which led to miiitftry preTer- 
menty and that corrupt minaters and an effMunate eonrt 
opposed an insuperable barrier to genuine merit iiiien it 
dared to approach the throne ; he expected, in conunoii 
with every other subaltern officer who possessed no in- 
fluence at conrty or who had no means to purchase it» 
very little distmotion. Faithfid aenrioe was often repaid 
by a cross of St Louis ; an empty honour, which equally 
decked a faithful defender of ttie fltate, or the parasite of 
a needy courtier. 

Bonaparte continued at Paris until the year 1790, when 
the disputes of the Corsicans occasioned some troops to 
be organiae4 in that island, and he was appointed to the 
command of a battalion of national guards at ^accio, 
lu8 native town; litde service, however, was required of 
these levies, and Bonaparte had sufficient leisure to pur- 
sue his military studies. He war which took place be- 
tween France and the combined powers opened a large 
field for obaervation; the manoeuvres^ of the opposing 
armies, to admirably detailed at that period, gave him 
an opportunity, whieh he ardently seized, of examining, 
correcting, and maturing that system of wariare that has, 
by its activity and resources, assisted in conquering some 
of the finest provinces of Europe. 

The Ajssembly failed in arresting La Fayette : that ge- 
neral imprisoned their commissioners on their arrival at 
Sedan ; and, on th6 night of the 18th of August, he re- 
•olved to leave the army he commanded, which had al- 
ready manifested their discontent at his conduct. Before 
morning he, was on his horse, and, with seventeen com- 
panions, quitted the French territories'*. 

* They had not, however, travelled many mile* before they 
were arrested by an AusUian patrole, and conducted to Li»- 


by Google 


La Fayette and his Family in the Fortrcs9 of Olmutz. 

This great man was forsaken by those, very people for 
whose happiness he had exerted all his abilities : his life 

embourg; they were afterwards separately imprisoned ai 
WeseL La Fayette here fell sick with fatigue and mortifica-^ 
fion, and hb life was despaired of. The King of Prussia inti-^ 
mated to him, that his situation should be ameliorated if h« 
would draw up plans against France. La Fayette spurned 
Ae proposal with scorn : himself and bis companions M'ere 
conveyed, in a waggon, to Magdebourg, where they remained 
during a whole year, in a dark and humid vault, strongly 
barricadoed. He was afterwards removed to Neiss, with 
some others, to be delivered up to Austria, and was, sooa 
after, immured in the dungeons of Olmutz. By the contri^- 
Vance of two American gentlemen La Fayette escaped, but 
was soon retaken. 

His captivity now became more rigorous, and his malady 
increased with great violence. Neither .himself, nor any of 
his fellow-prisouers, had received any information during 
their confinement respecting their families; Madame La 
Fayette was imprisoned at Paris, and hourly expected to be 
led to the guillotine. Robespierre fell, her life was pre^ 
served, and, some time afterwards, she was released. At the 
end of 1795 she had sufficiendy recruited her strength to 
attempt the execution of a project she had long meditated^ 
She went to Vienna, with her two daughters, and obtained an 
audience of the £mperor, who would only allow her to share 
the horrors of her husband's prison. She entered the fortress 
of Olmutz with her two lovely daughters, where they, were 
treated with the greatest inhumanity. Her health soon be^ 
came so much injured, that she requested permission to visit 
Vienna for a week, to breathe the fresh air, and consult « 
physician ; hi two months* she was informed that tliis permia^ 
sion was allowed her, on condition that her daughters 
were confined in an apartment by themselves, and that 
she herself should never enter the prison again. She ii>- 
ttantly wrote a positive refusal of this indulgence, whicb^ 
in reference to her husband's imprisonment^ concludes 




Dumourier appoioted ComioaDder^n-chier. 

was preserved from their fury by his retreat; and, 
when he claimed the pity of the world, he fell under the 
vengeance of a combination of sovereigns. 

When the Assembly were acquainted with La Payette'^ 
escape, they nominated Dumourier commander-in-chief. 
He had been minister at war, and at that time appeared 
very well disposed towards the King ; but, after La 
Fayette escaped, he^ affected counter-revolutionary sen^- 
timents, and by those means obtained the confidence of 
the Republicans ; Marshal Luckner also attached him- 
self to the rising party, as well as Biron, Montesqttieu, 
Kellerman, and Custine. Commissioners were to ascer^ 
tain the opmions of the generals, and their report Was 
successful. The appointment of civil officers, to be with 
the armies and in the garrisons, and to assist at the coun^- 
cib of war, was a measure which served the Assembly 
most egregiously, when it required accurate information 
respecting the troops, their operations, and the officers 
who commanded in chief. 
, The great talents of La Fajette had checked the whole 

thus : *' Whatever^ then, may be the state of my own health, 
and the inconvenience attending die stay of my daughters in 
this place, we vrill most gratefully take advantage of the 
goodness bis Imperial Migesty has expressed towards us, 
by the permission to share in all the miseries of his captivity.'' 
The unhappy sufferers complained no more, although they 
continued to inhale an air so infected by a common sewer 
imder the window of their dungeon, that the soldiers, on 
ppening the door, were accustomed to apply their hands to 
their noses. They were not liberated until Bonaparte inter* 
fered in their behalf in 1797. In September they quitted 
their dungeons : La Fayette, with his family, retired to Ham-, 
burgh, and in the beginning of 1800, Bonaparte peixnitted 
ihem to return to France. 

VOL. I.— NO. 5. P 

Digitized by GoOgk 

Loapry and Verdao raireiider to the Combined Anniei. 

■ ,.- ■ ■! _JX. • ^ ■ - . II _ ■ 

Austriaa and Prussian armies, ahhough he had not more 
than twenty thousand men under his command. He be- 
ing no longer opposed to the enemy, the combined armies 
resolved to advance as far as possible into France. Tliey 
bombarded Longwy with such violence for fifteen hours 
as threatened to bury it in ruins, and the town capita* 
lated. The Assembly ordered a court-martial to sit on 
the magistrates who surrendered it, and they were exe» 
cuted. - 

Verdun was next invested ; it was in want of every 
thing ; the enemy had a secret correspondence with the 
inhabitants ; — the town was considered untenable, and the 
municipal officers advised its surrender.' Although the 
garrison was only two battalions, Beaurepaire, the com- 
mander, determined to hold out as long as possible ; but 
finding all his efforts useless, and his coUeagues wanting 
to capitulate, he drew a pistol firom his belt, in the midst 
of a council of war, and discharged it against his tem- 

The consternation at Paris, when it was known that 
Longwy and Verdun had surrendered, was immense«^ 
All were alarmed, lest the rqport should be true, that 
the Duke of Brunswick would be in the neighbourhood 
of Paris; Danton, howerer, the Minister of Justice, 
whilst despair was seated on eveiy countenance, declared 
there were at least 80,000 stand of Inarms' in Paris. He 
proposed that they should be delivered «p, nod a body 
of volunteers raised and equipped with Ihem. Has was 
decreed, and that all who were not incapable should be 
ready to march, lliese steps exhilarated the fiiOing spi- 
rits of the Parisians, and they crowded to put them into 
It was supposed thb volunteers would be enrolled im 


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I, , ■ I I 

Fvj of the Popolaoe— MatMore of Priofti and 9wi« Oflleert . 

fbe districts to wfaich they belonged, bat somethiitg else 
was in tiew. Alarm guns were fired at two o'cloek in 
tbe morning of the 2nd of September; the tocsin was 
Bounded ; the coontry declared to be in danger^ ttari tk« 
.people invited to meet in the Champ de Mars, friini 
whence as was said, they were instantly to niorch against 
the common enemy. Myriads were collected ; «id wfaeof 
the resolations of the Assembly moved by Danten, camtt 
to be understood, the universal cry was, '' To arms, cb* 
tizens ! to arms ! the enemy is at hand. Every garrisoo 
has fallen! every garrison has betr^fed as! We are in 
the hands of traitors !^ During this sort of frenzy, news 
was spread that 4000 French troops sent to reinforce 
Verdun, had treacherously been led into ambuscade, and 
crueDy cut to pieces. The fury of die populace was 
raised to its utmost height-—'' We have no one to tnist 
to, and we must face the enemy !** they exclaimed—* 
" We are to be slaughtered like sheep, and shall we not 
turn upon our haters? — ^Tothe Abbaye! and the two 
Cannes ! Let evecy traitor suffer I'' Sach were the propo- 
sals in the hall of the Jacobins, and such the exclamations 
of the furies that crowded the streets i The Cardinal de 
Rochefoucault, .and *aboat 130 (some say 320) priests 
were handed out of the prison, two by two, into the 
street Vaugerard, and there put to death in cold blood ; 
for the strong pleas of innocence and age were of no 
avail* lli^y wreaked their vengeance on the unfbrtonate 
Swiss officers who were confined in the Abbye prison. * 
These acts of guilt were attended with the solemn mockery 
of a jtiiy of nine Italians and three Frenchmen ; but 
their fate was determined previous. It was said before 
their execution, Ilfiut le largir, <' He must be set at li- 
berty ;''*but alas \ it was only to be led through ranks of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Matiacrei contiou^d — Murder of the Prfncen de Lamlafie. 

ra£Bans» |o be methodically cat to pieces, or run through 
the body with countless pikes. The Swiss officers were 
all murdered, their commander-in-chief alone, M. d'Affry, 
had the good fortune to escape, owing to a mistake of the 

The ladies of the Court, who had been imprisoned on 
the day on which the palace was attacked, were mur- 
dered in '' La Forced The princess de Lamhalle was 
one, a woman of the mQSt exquisite [^accomplishments 
both of body and mind. When summoned to appear be* 
fore the tribunal, she was ei\joying that repose which 
her melancholy situation too often denied her, She be« 
eame a victim to the cru^l rage of the populace; for as 
she came out of the prison, filled with horror at the sight 
of the number of dead bodies which she had to pass over, 
% ruffian struck her widi a sabre on the ba<?k part of her 
head, which caused a violent efiusion of blood; her 
bowels and her heart were taken out, and her head placed 
on a pike. Other circumstances attended her death, ac- 
companied with such acts of savage indecency, that if 
they could be related, they would appear as incredible ai 
they are dreadful. 

AHer glutting themselves in tliis cruel way, the mob 
formed a bloody cavalcade ; the heads and bodies of those 
most inimical to them were fi?(ed on pikes, and borne 
through the streets for a considerable length of time. At 
last they stopped at the Palais Boyal, and the remains 
of the victims were exposed to a surrounding mob ; pre- 
viously, however, shewing to the Queen tiie mutilated 
limbs of the Princess Lamballe, More than five thou- 
sand persons perished in this massacre. 

Tlie force of the French commander-in-chief at this 
period, it is said, did not pqual that under the authority 


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Dmooarier reioforoed. 

of General Clairfait; bat in this moment of suspense* the 
B^litaiy genhis of Domoarier barst forth with great- splen- 
d<Mr: bj^ the wonderful maaoeavres and stratagems which 
hia hiTentive mind was preparing for execution, . he re- 
solved to divide his strength. To Galbaud* who was 
stationed at a pass in the forest of Argonne, which Bu- 
mourier lool^ed on as of the first importance to the issue 
of the campaign, he sent Dillon (4th of September) with 
considerable reinforcements. Just at this time it wias 
abandoned by Galbaud, as impossible to be retained ; 
bat when he saw the supplies which had been sent him, 
he returned to its defence with renewed vigour; and it 
proved, in a manner, to France, what Thermopylae had 
been to Greece. Dumourier, in the mean time, took the 
post at Grand Pre under his own protection. It was 
soon contested for by the enemy ; and as he could not 
ret£n it against the furious attack of such a force as he 
had to contend with, he retreated to St. Menehoud, a 
strong town, situated about twenty-six miles W. S. W. of 
Verdun. The Austrians lost a great number of men, to* 
gether with prince Charles de Ligne. 
. Bournonville joined Dnmourier, with fifteen thousand 
men, as well as Kellerman, with the army under his com- 
mand. (September 20) Dumourier now found himself in a 
eondition to put an end to the incursions of the enemy. 
Kelierman, at the head of sixteen thousand men, repulsed 
a greatly superior division of the enemy, and rendered all 
their stratagems abcilive. The Duke of Brunswick at the 
head of the Prussian troops, endeavoured to surround Ge- 
neral KcUerman, and thus cut off his retreat, it'hc should be 
vaoquished ; but, the cautious eye of Dumourier disar- 
ranged all his plans, 
Jp spitp of the reinforcements which Dumuuricr had 




The Dnke of Brmuwick demamlt bo Armiftice. 

SO lately jeceif ed, hit foree was still scarcely one-tfaird 
^rliat the enemy could muster. They were hi possessiov 
of Varemoies, and their can^ on (he heights of La Limw 
was considered unpregnabte. The French army, there^ 
lbre» had no retreat in an easterly, vesterty, (ir northerly 
direction, and the roads to the south, at this season of 
the year, were nothing but mire. These reasons IikewiM> 
discouraged th^ enemy from an active perseverance. Tber 
great importance of the pass which Ditton so nobly de-' 
fended, has been noticed. It prevented the Dnke of 
Brunswick from arriving at Paris in the way he at first 
intended, and it i^peared to him almost imposrible to 
make the French abandon it. In this situation no otheif 
alternative was left him than to attempt a tedious route by 
the way of Varennes and Grand Pr6, which would have 
added at least fifty miles to his march ; a sad addition, 
since his troops were to much dispirited, and almost 
starving. They were seized, too, with a dreadful dis«. 
temper, which, in its ravages proved more destructive 
than ^the weapons of the French, and it was rendered 
more violent by the improper use of unripe grapes, in* 
stead of bread, of which, it is reported, they Were en* 
tirely deprived for the space of four days. 

In so melancholy a state, the Duke of Brunswick do* 
manded an armistice. It is worthy remarking how a 
change of circumstances induces a man to act incon* 
sistent In July the Duke published his (amed Mani- 
festo; and, in September, he declared his willing- 
ness to acknowledge the very constitution against, 
which he had taken up arms. He is reported to have 
said to Dumourier, respecting tfie King; " Make him 
** your King, under the strictest limits. Do not content 
** yourselves with tying him up like the King of Bug* 




H« etaoi^ef Fmaot^Yetdnn ic^teko. 

I hJBi a King of the MahratteB— make Um a 
V Stadlhelder-HOfdce him the principal tax-gatherer of 
** the GOimtr]r----give him only a place«-fhis is all we ask, 
** and then we shall have a pretext for retiring * 
. The Prossian army inunediBtely after eracuated France, 
and their exampla was followed by the troops of Austria 
and Hesse CasseL On leaving the entrenched oamp on 
the heights of La Lone, the French fonnd abont three 
hnndred horses half devoured, so dreadfidly in want had 
the enemy been of provisions. 

Soon after die Fr^ieh retook Verdon, and they fol* 
lowed up their conquest by the re-cqpture of Longwy, 
(October 22) under (reneral Valence, and Franoe being 
tbus'^fireed firon the allied aripiies^ the Assembly decreed 
the country no longer in danger. 



Whbm Royal^.was suspended, the Assembly placed the 
government in the hands of seven Ministers, who were 
denominated the Executive Council, and in those were 
included the Republican ministers of Ijouis, by whose 
dvVBiissal he had so much offended the Assembly and lbs 
ehibs. ' 

The season for the meeting of the Convqntion came at 
last ; every one looked to it witii anidety for flie resto* 
ration of luurmony. and order. 


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112 history' OP NAPOLEON BONAt»ARTE, 

Royalty abolUbcd by the ConrentioD. 

On the 21st of September, the National Asseinbly re- 
signed its functions, and gave up its power to the Con-^ 
vention, by an address of renunciation, and an assurance 
that they would serve as an advanced guard of the new 
legislature. The Convention chose Petion their presi- 
dent ; and, . having decreed that the laws should be con- 
tinued .in force, and the usual taxes •demanded, CoHet 
d'Herbois rose, and said, that the Convention ought not 
to adjourn, till it had decreed the total abolition of Roy-* 
alty in France. Deputies rose to demand that the ques- 
tion might be instantly pnt. M . Bazire exclaimed against 
the ardoor which seemed to have taken possession of tiieir 
minds, and besought them to argue a question of so much 
magnitude with the dignity that became ihem. His ad- 
vice was looked on as the duU prudence of a vulgar mind^' 
unworthy the practice of philosophers of superior light, 
and the National Convention briefly decreed, that ** Roy- 
alty is abolished in France." Loud applauses, and ex- 
clamations of " Vive la Nation !*' following the decree ; 
minutes of the sitting were ordered to be sent to the De- 
partments, and to the armies, as well as to be proclaimed 
throughout Paris. 

At the next Sitting M. Condorcot was elected Vice- 
president, and the Convention decreed : 

1. That all public acts should be datec^ the first year 
of the French Republic. 

2. That the seal of the country shall be changed, and 
have for a legend, " French Republic.'' 

9. That the National Seal shall represent a woman, sit- 
ting on a bundle of arms, and holding a pike in her hand,' 
with a cap of liberty upon it, and upon the exergue, the 
words^ " Archives of the French Republic." 

4. That no petitioners shall be admitted to the b^ till 
the eireninff sittmsr. ,^ i 

• • Digitized by LiOOgle 


TiolMt DiipBtc* of the Parties. 

Those decrees liaving passed, a debate ensued, irhich 
tended to guide tke judgment, as to the chwacter of the 
proceedings likely to be adopted by the convention. A 
motion was made, Tliat all citizens, without distinction^ 
aire eligible to vacant places ; and that all* the members of 
the judiciary bodies, now in the eatercise of their, fonc- 
tions, shall be changed. 

Several foreigners were among the members; amongst 
them was Anacharsis Cloots, and the ringleaders of many 
*gangs of rioters; snch as Legendre, the butcher, who 
had assisted Santerre in breaking into the Palace, and in- 
sulting the King on the 20th of June ; and Tallien, who 
signed the order for assembling the assassins of Paris to 
murder the unhappy prisoners on the 3d and Sd of Sep- 

Now diat the King was no longer in their way, the par* 
ties began to'disfrfay themselves in their violence and 
abuse of each other. The Brissotins, though fully as 
treacherous as the Robesperians, and the Orleanites^ were 
not so cruel ; and, as they kept the government in their 
own power, they, had no view in encouraging the bloody 
scenes which had so long disgraced the country. 

Viohnt disputes took place between the parties, and 
(Ixmvet,) a man as vain as tiie rest, but not equally con-» * 
tminated with guik, publicly noted Marat, Robespierre^ 
and Chaboty as leaders in the massacres, and conspirators 
gainst the new government No doubts were held of the 
truth of theaccusations; bad they been remarked properly 
by those in power, tiie distnrbor^ of the public peace might 
have got some respeot.for the laws ; but Brissot resorted 
to the cowsfiUy and illusive practice of moving the order 
of the day. 

This corruption of the leaders of every party prevented 

Vol. 1.— N9. 5« 9 


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The Dotcby of Sav^y sunreoders lo tbo French. 

the Convention, as it had done the NatioD&l AsBembly^ 
from using any means adapted to enforee obedience to> 
the laws. . The members flattered tbe lieeptiousnes^ of the 
mob contrary to their consoiences, because they were not 
independent enough to harangue in defence of justice : 
and the country became the seat of vice, to an immense 
extent; or, as one of the republican members of the Con- 
vention expressed himself, ** an immeasurable mass of 
crimes, unknown to the most savage nations, burst fortli 
as a torrent, whose dikes were broken, and, spreading 
itself over a vast empire, threatening to. deluge : the whole 

To such a state did France jarrive very soon afte^ the . 
Convention had assembled; yet this did not hinder it» 
friends in other countries from presenting congratulatory ■ 
addresses, and exerting themiselves to give every effect to 
its measures: this conduct would seem very strange^ 
but for the following considerations : first, .that most of 
the powers of Europe had been so fast approaching to . 
despotism, that the people hardly saw the means of keep- 
ing freedom but by some desperate measure, and» se- 
condly, that as they were not witnesses of the crilHes com- 
mitted in France, but merely heard of theHi (hfougfa 
those powers, whose injustice towards La Fayette^ and 
the real friends of liberty, made them totally unworthy of 

On the 26th of September the Convention was ac- 
quainted that the Bnchy of Savoy had surrendered their 
country to the French troops, in hopes of passing under 
the government of France. It was one of the first prin- 
ciples of the Revolntion, that no wars conld be justified, 
save those of defence ; and that France should, not keep 
the dominions- of her neighbours as conquests: but, like 


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The EiBignmU ordered to quit Fnuioe. 

all their iSne theories^ this was too stfoiig for t&e patriots 
to registy and jn. a very short tinie it was decreed that 
Savoy should fo|rm an eighty^foorth ttepartment of France, . 
vMipr the title of MofU Blanc*] General Montesquiea had 
been accased as a traitor^ and a decree of dismissal issued, 
of course, in the hasty naimeir that the Convenlion did 
their bosiiiess ; when Qeneral Montesquiea's ietter was 
read, staling bis entrance into Savoy, although it was 
tot^ly apart ^m charges exhibited agaiast him, the de- 
cree of dismissal was recalled ; so that every oQ^r was 
instantly taught, that innocence was no security^ unle$s 
-crowned by success; and guilt no fi|ult, if covelred by a 
triumph ; and the doetrine was soon carried to its utmost 
extent, by bxiogiag all the generals to pillage the tertito- 
ries contiguous to France, or shed their blood under the 
guillotine* The fiews of the Conveation towards their 
neighbours by degrees unfolded themselves, and they 
were only interrupted to invent some new scourge to aflUct 
.their own people. 

H If aay emigrants now returned to their n&tive country, 
in the idea that they would procure -the support and pro- 
t0Qtion of their fellow-citizens ; but the CoQventipa issued 
a decree, which we niust consider as uaneeessarily severe. 
It was folly to suppose, that a few obscure individuals, 
seeking shelter idiere they w6re bom, could have influence 
enoi^ to overturn the constitution of France ; and yet 
they Wtfe commanded to quit the kingdom (27 September) 
in twen^-four hours, or to be put t6 death, should they 
not oemply. 

During this time the armies shewed a degree of courage, 
and fought with that success tliat dismayed the oldest 
military councils of Europe. Tbionville resisted ail the 
Austrian attempts to reduce it during the whole ca*n- 



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ThioDVille resists the Auttriaiis. 

paign. This sQiaU^ bat strongs place, was commanded 
by^Gcnerd Wimpsen, "wbiy when suttimoned- to surren- 
der, replied: ** Yau may destroy the fortress, and not 
leave one stone upon another ; but you cannot bum tbe 
ramparts." An anecdote' concerning the siege of this 
place detlerres notice, as it described the fixed resohttion 
of its defenders^ Having gotten a quantity of forage in 
one of their sallies, they made a wooden horse for 'Uie 
inspection of the enemy, with a box hanging from his 
neck filled with hay, bearing ^this inscription : When this 
' horse hfis eaten this hay, then the city of Thionville wiQ 
surrender. They kept their word. The general resisted 
the attacks of a force which amounted to about twenty- 
eight thousand men, and in different successful sallies he 
did them immense misehief. He was- at last relieved by 
the retreat of the combined powers, when he and his gal- 
lant troops received those marks of gratitude and esteem 
to which their gallant conduct justly entitled ihem« The 
most remarkable siege which distinguished this campaign 
was that of Lisle, a strong fortified tovm of French Flan- 
ders. The enemy looked on the* possession of the city as 
oi^ the greatest importance to their undertaking, and its 
redaction was thought worthy of the greatest profusion 
of men and money. It was besieged about the beginning 
of September^ and on the 23d of that month the Assembly 
received a declaration from ks defenders, that they would 
bury themselves under the ruins of the town soonw'than 
ftbandon their post.** 

Six days afterwards (29th September,) it was sanmoned 
to surrender by the Dukc'of Saxe-Teschen, who received 
from the council-general this spirited reply : *' We have 
renewed an^oath to be true to the nation, or to die at our 
post. We will not be guilty of perjury." The eonsc- 


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urn WARS OF EUROPE. '117 

Tlie Siege of Lille rmlMd. 

quences of thb deolaratioii could easily be foreBeen. 
jlie Awtikii batteriefl weve dupectlsr opened upon it, and 

. levoUed for a week, aganst timt part of the* town inlia- 
bited by the lower ord»s of. the ootmnuiiity, no doubt 
ta render thou rdbcMians od aocbuirt •of* their sufferings, 
nnd^by tiiifl meaw dbtaia a oapitnlatkm when- the popu- 
lace became superior to tbe magistrateft. Hie Duke'd 
idea was exlraaely n^<MHil; but after mOk an immense 

. Wjwte^of amm tin itkwi , as?aciimtnitfir« continued for a 
week, mqst have. occMisioned, .teibund, that the people 

. were as \^jjb1 aslMr mafiaHates^ So^finr were any symp- 
toms jsf mjUinyjf rem being' disbsvefod/as the Duke sup- 
posed/tbe. keysvoC the dty were hiing up^on the tree 
of liberty in the centfeiof tiie gveat sqaarg, accompanied 
w%tk a solemn 09A9 that. Jie.idio should take tiiem down, 
with an 'idea of capitutatm, mstantly put to 
4ealh. The magistnitea and: .military divided themselves 
into distinct companies, each of windi had its pecnliar 
duty, and. efen the womeaand children employed them- 

. aelves in presenting the fatal eflhcts w)iich resulted from 

• tbe enemy's bombasdment The city was sadly shattered 
by the instruinents of death 'tbat were almost incessantly 
thrown into it; and they preferred taking refuge in cellars 
and vaults, ratber than capitulate. As if moved by one 
soul, the inhabitants of these houses which were reduced 
to ruins, found a shelter in those which still remained 

. habitable. 
• Fnuling that nothing, however horrible, could induce 
vtfaem to surrender, the Austrians raised the siege after a 
i^ombardment of* seven days. The lorn sustained by tbe 
city of lisle did not exceed five' hundred : and of this 
vomber, nearly three*foui*tbs were women and children. 
This is the more remarkable, as, besides their batter- 




The f fen ck Fleet •ttacic Onaglte. 

|ng trains the- Austrians iare stated t6 hare IbrowB 6^000 
\)pDib3| aadiMfOOO red-hbt shot into Haa impovtamt plaoe. 

The mmies in tha south: were stili more rapid in ' aiic- 
K^gs. General Anselm, bred an eoclesiaitiey cressed the 
Var on the 28lth of September, and co^^ratiog^ with 
Admina TrugueC, who had a fleet of nhie tfaft of the 
lin^f he took possesaian of Nice, a sea-poit town, iu* 
touted at th6 month of the Vir» deaerted by the garrison 
pf Fie^montf se, wJbenaver the ■ vicleriotts republicans 
inade their appearanne. This mode was followed by 
Villit Eraaoa, Ibmfeslban, aml:the wMb of that tmitory ; 
. hot, Qwiig to the impradenee of Ifae General, and to the 
Irani of cdrder which the anny disooyered, the troops 
gliye general disgust, and tbdr reputation was regarded 
. vritb contempt lUs cizcnmatatiee was ao sorely felt by 
the National Gonrention, being ao different to the recep* 
tipn of Montesquieu, that Anselm was deprived of Us 
militaiy rsnkf and confine^ in prison for several years. 

The Admiral of the French fleet raiaed the popular, 
hati^ against that country, by an net of severity gene« 
rally looked on as uqustifiable. He had dispotched ^ a 
flag of trace, on hia arrival fitOnagb^ with apradam-P 
aUon to the inhabitants^ that the French naiion were anxi* 
ous to be their friends, T|iia was taken to their ma* 
gistratea by ope of his captains. At a ^at distance the 
Admiral went in anotlier boat, wifliout an officer, and 
gave strict orders to the fleet not to approach the sho^i^ 
that no alarm might be given. The people at first dis- 
covered no hostile diiq[>osition towards the captam, but 
when he addressed them on the purport of hia mission, 
which they looked on as wanting tliem to rebel against 
their government, he was saluted by a shower of maski> 


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AND WARS OP ElWOI^lii 119 

Geoeral MoAtetquiea retires from Coxniiwod* 

try, the effect of which was, that Marshal ^Lahouliere's 
aid-de-camp, two midshipmen, and four aeamen, were 
killed, and the captain, with the a4jutant-general of thd 
land forces were wounded. Tliis raised the indignation 
of the Admiral; and he would take no apology from the 
magistrates, as it appeared to him that such conduct 
would admit of no excuse. His boat being placed out 
of danger, he directly gave orders to the squadron to drop* 
their anchors and opeq a tremendous fire against the town. 
It was, likewise, attacked from the shore by Jf arshal 
Lahouliere, and, after it was plundered by the conquerors, 
it was set on fire in seyeral parts. 

The haughty spirit of the French began iiow to skew 
itself towards Geneva* The taking of Savoy, gave great 
alarm to the neighbouriiig states, and the aristocrAtical 
party in Geneva were under weighty apprehensions. 
They wished for a garrison of 1,600 men from tlie other 
Swiss cantons, while the French contended that Geneva 
ahoidd be under the inspection of their own republic. 
The Con^entioii likewise had an eye to the republic of 
Geneva, as the Swiss garrison, appeared to give m\ich of- 
fence. Monlesquiem appeared before the ciipy, but his 
tesolutioBivas totally subdaed. The aristocrats overcame 
ids resolves, and caosed him to exceed hi3 orders, by 
exhibiting the olive branch of peace; the consequence 
vas, the Swiss garrison was disbanded, and the French 
general withdrew his troops. By this conduct, General 
Monteaqaiea became a mark for fresh calumny, aud va* 
fious chaises were preferred against hun ; be fancied he 
should recieve no justice if he consented to atrial, and 
that every action of his life would be misconstrued by 
Ins enemies; he therefore retired into Switzcrkuid. 


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130 HISTORY or 

- .Operations of General OiKifflr. > 


We now take a view of the condact of Custme on tlie 
tapper Rhine, whose glorious career has few parallels in 
military tactics. AMien he began hts course of victory * 
on the 39th of September, the dreadftil state of the roirds, 
and die great quantity of rain which had fallen, made it 
extremely diflScult for him to muster his forces at Landau. 
He began his march, faowerer, in the face of every op* 
position, and arrived at Spires on the following day. 
Tlierc he found the Austrlans prepared to give him a 
warm reception. Their right was defended by a risiufi;' 
ground, and their left by thick hedges. These positions 
did not prevent him from giving lliem battle, and ho 
compelled them to retire within the city. Here they 
tliought themselves secure, but tiie triuaiphant Custinc 
soon taught them otlierwise. Finding that it would be 
delaying tii«e to force the gates by his artillery, he pro- 
posed to his troops to cut them down with axes, which 
was adopted, and quickly aGCompKsfaed. The army 
made a passage for themselves, and suffered more tiuok 
they could have done, had they not been so precipitate. 
Thf. enemy, from' the houses whure they had taken shelter, 
poured a most tremendous fire on them ; but the general^ 
cool in the midst of danger, found means to dislodge- 
them by his artillery and howitzers, and in a short time: 
took entire possession of the city. Three thousand pri- 
soners, a prodigious quantity of artillery and kawkseci^ 
were the fruits of this conquest. 




Spires and Fnnkfort taken by the Repoblican Troops. 

A division of Custine'« sunny, untier General Neavig- 
ner, took Worma^ andtlie &U of Spires almost instandy 
followed. They conquered so rapidly, that the enemy 
i^ere unable to secure their stores and ammunition, im« 
mcDse quantities of which fell into the hands of the victors*. 
By order of M. Custtne, the Biriiop of Spires, with the 
chapter and the nm^strales, were obliged to pay large 
sums fbir the benefit of the Republican troops* This 
conquest only sharpened the appetite of the Crenersd and: 
his array for fresh g^ry. He reached Menta on the I9tli 
of October, veoA although the garrison at this place con- 
sisted of six thousand men, the very next day he sum^ 
moned the Governor to surrender. One day only was 
asked, in order to prepare a definitive answer, and yet a 
heavy fire was kept up from the garrison. Tliis gave 
rise to a second and more peremptory message from M. 
Cusdne, which had tbe*wished-for effect. The town 
capitulated, and the troops marched out with the hof 
nours of war, but under this e?> press condition, that they 
should not appear in arms against the French Repufolio 
BO' long as tile war continaed.**»Frankfort was the next 
place he attacl^d, of which he took possession on the 
S8d of the same month. A large sum was exacted from ' 
tiie magistrates of this city, for it had been a very active 
place in affonUng {detection to the Emigrants* The 
"sum demanded is stated to have been fifteen hundred 
thousand florins. 

' M. Custine's ambition was not satisfied with his rapid 
^eonquests, splendid as they were, for he meant to have 
•marchied to Coblente, had not an unforeseen disappoint- 
ment ameif. Coblentz was a nest of enmity against the 
'IVetteh Repttblio ; it was bis resolution to have directed 
^his vengeance against it, .had he got the reinforoemenia 

VOLt I,— NO, 6» E 

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General Cnt tine'i object deieaced. 

under General Kellerman, of whose slow movements he 
loudly complained. He wanted him to advance towards 
Treves, and Coblentz, by way of the rivers Sorre and 
Moselle, leaving only a small detachment to keep watch 
over the Prussians. Kellerman exculpated himself from 
these charges, by declaring, that, since he had not the co- 
-operation of M. Dumourier, General Valence and himself 
could muster only twenty-nine thousand men between 
them; a force, totally unable fo force its way through 
fifty-five .thouamid Prussians. And he deemed it trea« 
oherous and itnpnlitie to leave the firontiers of Franco 
again exposed to the enemy. 

• General Gustine, thus finding it impossible to go oh 
with his favorite object, continued in the cbace of glory 
through the doBunions ^ the Prin6e of Hesse. He was 
doomed, however, to suffer a change of fortune, l^ho 
Prussians, Hessians, and Austrians joined, so that it was 
impossible for him to end the campaign as he began it. -* 

General Dumourier was now about to make a more 
splendid figure in the field of battle than ever. He con- 
sulted with the Convention about the r^^lations required 
in the armies, and to put them on a proper footing for 
the| next campaign. His ardour in the pursuit of glory 
and victoiy was such, that he remamed only four days at 
Paris about tUs important business* when he departed to 
join the araiy. His chief object was the conquest of such 
of the Netherlands as belonged to Austria*. Since the 
enemy were obliged to raise the siege of lisle, they were 
constantly forced to reti^at before the victorious arms of 
the Bepublic; butonce beyond the frontiers, theya(reed« 
if possible, to stop their career, when within their own 
territories. The chief object for this ms^ter was to concen- 
trate their strenig;th, since they had been so soattered ift 




DaoKNirier defeaii tbc Anitrmnt at Bomo. 

*'■■'• ■ ■' I 

almost every dicection, while retreatiBi|^. This imoe 
performed, they determined to act upon the defensive^ 
and prevent the Republican commander from advancing 
into their territories. Dumourier found that the Aus- 
trians were resolved .to put an end to his career ; for, at 
the village of Bossn, where the^ had taken a most excel- 
lent position, they shewed they were disposed to dispute 
his progress. An action commenced (4th November) 
between the hostile armies, and victory was not. slow in 
declaring for. the French. The Austriann bad between 
eight and ten thousand men ; they lost one hundred and 
fifty killed, and two hundred made prisoners. Dnmou- 
vier's loss was only twenty men. He admits that his ar- 
tillery was superior to the enemy, and that the ardour 
4if his cavahry was irresistible. 

It is just to observe, that the Aust'^ians had n6t the 
most distant idea .of so sudden an attack from Dumourier. 
The officers of note had prepared a sumptuous enter- 
tamment, like men who had nothing to fear, little sup- 
posing it was so shortly to becimie the properly of the 
French commander. His stay was short, having more 
interesting plans in his eye, and he le/l Bossu on the 
next morning, at an early hour. He marched towards 
Mens, and soon came in sight of the enemy's force, 
posted on the heights of Gemappe. Their right was de- 
fended by that village, and their left by an almost im- 
]»enetTabl*^ wood. This favourable position, made still 
more so by the help of the river Lorneau and a strcmg 
fortification of three tier of cannon, in all about one 
Imndred pieces of heavy artillery, seemed to defy the 
most formidabie attacks, and might have instilled disnniy 
even to view it from a distance. But Dumourier was 
proof against fear; and neither the dreadful roar of c^- 

B 2 . 


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The fiMDooi Battle of Geowppe* 

nen^ Bertheawihl explosiooof libelLs, ootild lessen his 
fortitude* It rose beyohd all opposition ; hia presence 
of mind never abandoned him, and he commanded sol- 
diers whose conrage equalled his own, altiioag«h theiir 
experience was di^ubtless inferior. The first qiiaUfic»- 
iion was all they required with such a general ; they were 
thiefly young men, fall of fire and spirit, whose eagei^ 
ness to have a close engagement with the enemy it was 
almost impossiUe to restrain. In fact, it was not the wisk 
nor the interest of the General to check it. He was de* 
lighted t^ behold it, and all the restraints he laid upon if, 
were only intended to increase its violence. Dumourtei^s 
situation being evidently disadvantageous^ stationed in k 
sort of valley, and the enemy on the heights, he had no 
great hopes of success from his artitfery, as it would b^ 
very difficult, in the hurry of an engagement, to point 
them so as to do any material injury. ArtiUery in an 
t>peB plain, and cMefly directed agaiai^ an enemy on an 
eminence, is at best but an uncertain way of fighting, 
and of this the General was convinced after a three honrs 
trial. A general engagement took place on the 8th, and 
a dreadful cannonade continued till ten. It was evident 
to Dumourier, that no decisive step could be eflfectod by 
tlie artillery, which he allows was equal to that of the • 
Austrians, for which reason he resolved to abandon the 
use of them for the present, and use the bayonet. On 
going through the troops which composed ftis line, he 
was glad to perceive tlieir former inpatient zeal con- 
tinued unabated. 

. To accomplish his designs he ordered Adjutant-General 
TTiuvehot to attempt the village of Carigtion, which it 
Nvas necessary to posses^, that he might assail Gemappe 
from that quarter, while, he informs us, that a heavy 


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£galit6* Onlto «>f Orleftiu, has a Gommaod Ibere. 

fire of artiUeiy was kept up on the enemy's right The 
.£reiich army did not exceed 30;000, while the Austrian 
troops are stated to have amounted to upwards of 20,000^ 
inchiding 900A davalty^ Other accounts say the* Freaoli 
amounted to 40,000, and; ihff Austrians to SS^OOO. Dm 
TaiHgoard^ Ibnniiig. the 'right wing of thi^ .army, waa 
commanded by > Generals Dam{)ierre and BoumonviUea 
with whose talents and attachment to their country thp 
.-world is acquainted. The ctotre was entrusted to 8te- 
tenboffe^ Desporets, Droaet, and Sgalite, (tl^e presexiyt 
Duke of Orleans.), and of .whom US. Oumourier spoke i|i 
.terms of great praise.. Tfaas Geberal had ooo} valouic, 
the more remarkable, as he w^s young» a time at whicii 
«oohess aadJdeliberatioa are not dO oftea evinced as 
fiery' intrepidity. The first redoubt was an easy cojoh 
quest, and carried with but little^ hazard. But by the 
numerous obstructidns which presented themselves, thi» 
Commander ia Chief observed his centre would be lA 
.danger, as the. enemy were marching all their cavaky 
into the plain, for the purpose of flanking Pumouiier'a 
.columns. He despatched lieutenapt-General Egalite to 
counteract tiiis manoeuvre of tlie Au^trians; and, suo- 
eeediflg in this, be led them on to attack the second tier 
of cannon. Fearfal that the force under Egalite would 
not be sufficient to carry this redoubt, ho fortunately 
came to his assistanoe himself, witii the third regiment of 
chasseurs and the sixth of hussars, and not only checked 
the enem/s cavalry, but a formidable foe, that threa- 
tened thekr total ruin. 

Dumourier observed. Boumonville's cavalry in a stale 
of confusion when be visited the right wing, owing to 
the General's absence at the head of his brave infantry. 
end the first and second redonbts in posSessioA of the 


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- The Freodh Traopt aaxirat to attack Mom. 

French. The commander inX;hief rallied the disordered 
CKvebj, who vigorously aincked tfie enemy^ by this 
•time approached to the right &ank of the repablicaii 
army. They had no reason to be prou^ of their success, 
for, aRhough every effort was wed to force the Parisian 
volunteers, they were received by them wiA the greatest 
bravery and fortitude, killing sixty of them at the first 

The left wmg got possession of the village of 6emappe» 
and the centre were masters of the second redoubt, as 
already mentioned. It was yet necessary to bring the 
•enemy to action on the heights, which was of shorter 
continuance than those that preceded it; for the rapid 
and almost unparalleled successes of the Republicans in 
so short a time had dismayed the Austrians. The Com- 
mander in Chief found it impossible to express his con* 
tent with the gaUant conduct of his troops and th^ 
Generals upon this remarkable occasion. Although the 
men were strangers to proper nourishment fer three days, 
and were unable to prepave their soup on this dreadful 
day, they exclaimed, almost with a degree of disrespect, 
ihat they would march against Mens, which they were 
resolved to carry by storm. M. DuQiourier promised 
them that satisfaction on the following day ; and he was 
delighted to remark, that neither hunger nor fatigue re- 
pressed their ardour and intrepidity. He designed to 
draw a line round the city, and attack it in several places 
at once. But his preparations were found to be unneces- 
sary, for the panic* struck Austrians evacuated Mons on 
the night before, laavmg only a garrison behind them of 
400 men, who likewise retreated about nine on that evenr- 
ing, locking the gates of th^ city. In place of wanting his 
batteries to bombard the town, as he at first expectecU 


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i=«=g^=g I III ii3Bggaagsggsargggaa> 

Valour of Baptiste, Damowier*! Valet 

ttie maigitftrates were ready to invite him, the inhabitants 
having broken down the gates, barricaded by the Aus- 
trians on their leaving them. General Dumourier, whose 
generosity was equal to his miKtaiy valonr, on having 
the keys of the city, made this reply: " that tfie French 
came as brothers and friends, to engage them to keep 
their gates constantly shut against their ancient oppres- 
sors, and to defend the liberty they had now acquired.'' 

This battle, one of the most memorable ever fought^ 
completely decided the fate of the Ketherlands. The 
loss of the Austrians on the 6th of November, has been 
estimated at no less than 4000 killed and wounded, ^ ith 
a number of prisoners, whilst the French had no more 
than 900 kilkd, according' to Dumourier's own account, 
although it is likely that the difierence was not so great. 
Tbk day was reiparked by some acts of individual va« 
lour, which will be remembered by the admirers of forti- 
tude to the latest posterity. Baptisle, General Dumou- 
licr^s yaleVde-chambre, rallied five squadrons of cavalry 
and two battalions of national guards, and rushed in, 
sword in hand, to the ^entrenchments of the enemy, and 
totally dislodged them. The aid-de-camp appeared at 
Ihe bar of the Conveutioji with despatches from the 
General in Chief, and, like a son of Mars,, introduced 
himself as foIlo\^ :-^ 

-^^ I can a soldier^ not an orator-^the soldier of a Re* 
pubfican army should never open his mouth but to bite- 
off the end of his cartridge ; but I offer t6 the just admi- 
ration of the ConvQDtion the brave Baptiste, General 
Dumourier^s valet-de-chambre, who forced the enemy, 
sword in faitfid, to quit their entrenchments. Th^ 
General having asked him what reward he wished 


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• BaptUte prescotetl at Che-Bar of the Conveation. 

fer, he replied, tlie honour of wearing ilie national uni* 

When Baptiste advanced to tlie bar, tlie hall resounded 
with bursts of applause* He was three times embraced 
by lientenant-Colonel Lioure, by whom he was intro* 
iluced, wlilch caused the plaudits to be renewed, when 
tiie President thas addressed him : — 

"Brave citizen, you have raised yourself to, the rant 
of a first defender of- the French Republic ; till you re- 
ceive the reward which it owes you, enter the temple of 
the laws, amidst our acclainations. The legislators are 
happy to find among them orit of the brave conquerors 

TIic President embraced him, and tlie scene finished 
with marks of sa,tisfaction and joy. * 

General Dumourier resolved- to follow up these glorious 
victories by getting farther into the enemy's country ; and 
from Mons he marched towards Brussels. The rear of 
the enemy, to tlie amount of 10,000 men, he found 
posted on the heights of Anderlecht, three miles West- 
ward of that city, under the command of the Prince of 
Wirtemberg. He met with strong opposition, which 
lasted upwards of six hours. The Prince, after a great 
loss in killed and wounded, retreated and joined the main 
body of the army, while the French Commander in Chief 
entered (14th November) Brussels in triumph. 

Tournay, Malines, Ghent, and Antwerp, opened 
their gates to the French. General Valence took Loti- 
vain and Namur, after a slight opposition on the part of 
the Austrian Commander, on the 2d of December, and 
the General^ Biron and Miranda were equally victorious. 




Dumoorier defeafii the AvtCriiui General Stany. 

Hie French fleet entered the port of Ostend on the 15th 
of- the previous month ; and, with the exception of Lux* 
emburgh, the Republicans were masters of the Austrian 
Nedierlands before the end of the year 1792* Dumou- 
rier received proposab for an armistice from the Prince 
of Saxe Teschen, in behalf of General Clairfait; he sent 
it to tlie Executive Council, and returned for answer, 
Aat he should in the mean time continue his campaign. 
He followed up his rapid marches and conquests, by pur- 
suing the enemy into the territory of liege. He pro- 
ceeded (21st of November) with 5000 men to Title- 
Bont, behind which place he found the army of the ene* 
^j encamped, their advanced guard consisting of be- 
tween 3 and 4000 men. 

Having gained Tlrlemont, he advanced the next daj 
towards Liege, and on the 27th he fell in with the rear- 
ward of the Imperial troops, close to the gates of the 
city, in force about 12,000 men, commanded by General 
Staray. A bloody contest ensued, and the Trench were 
victorious, forcing the enemy to give up no less than six 
villages and a strong entrenchment. The Austrians lost 
about six hundred men killed and wounded, with their 
general, a prodigious quantity of artillery, and a number 
of prisoners and deserters. 

This great general's design was, after his triumph at 
Gemappe and the conquest of Belgium, to increase his 
laurels by overcommg HoUand also, and his army being 
leinforced with 60,000 Dutch and Brabanters, to take 
the Austrian army in the rear ; and, by dictating a peace 
on the field of battle, enable France to arrange her 
constitution and settle her own tranquillity. This de- 
sign was overturned by the spirit of the Maratists, who 
preached the necesmty of removing the General^ fearfdl 

VOt, I, NQ. 6. » Digitized by Google 


Louis the XVItIv accased. 

■ r ■ \ n 

lie should gain more popularity than they thought coiir 
sistent with their cloct^in^ of equality. The war minia-* 
ter, M. Pache, under the influence of this sanction^ cii^ 
minally neglected Dumourier's army. The brave troops 
were in want of the common necessaries of life, at th<t 
tune immense sums were voted in the Convention toi 
grant them relief. 

The result was, that upwards.of 15,000 men were ia 
the hospitals, upwards of 25^000 deserted through miseiy 
and di3gusty and more, than 10,00Qi horses died of iuyge 

The factions towards l^ch otl^er were influenced by 
far different motives. The Brisotines had the govem<* 
roent, the Jacobins the passions of the mob; and tho 
Orleanites the way of corrupting the partizans* of 
both by money. Tlieir power was so equal, that, im 
spite of their hatred of each other, their rancour boiled 
in their bosoms, and exerted its efforts to vent itself, un- 
til its vehemence became too strong for r<^straint ; and 
then it eOected an uniworthy unioU;. betwixt them all td 
renew, their projects against their feeble king,, who wa% 
defenceless and within their power* The cowsu^ds be*-^ 
gan their attack by judging him on (he very ground on 
which they agreed to the motion for.brii^ii^' him to, 
trial ; namely, that *' a decree of, acousation.sbvttld pass 
" against tlie principal traitpr^ Louis* Xy{ f in fact, hm 
was usually spoken of ju .alidebatos, as l4>uis the /traitor ; 
and in this spiiit thty began a ^process ofj^a^passiniatfteii^ 
which they sought to evader c^^^^Ui^r it miAH* th#r 
tnock forios of a trjaU . 

Tlie appearance of TQctitude was endewtoiMred to bo, 
preserved by this. speeches made about jus^^s yetwhen^ 
Mapnel moved .that w^qever. u^fl^rtook th«< defenQ9'0f 



Hb is ti'leB aii?l fairad gniffy. 

Jjityahi ^ofiU be fmt Utfdefr Vke protec/ttoYi of Ihb Iav» 
tliey answered him by mui^Mrs and hpottegs ; and those 
who did defend him were sent to the scafifold. Mannel 
khn^lfy HnA fceVsftht, who looked on the p^ocfeediilg as 
h cohspikMy^ c^dtanit ttiihrdef , tti^y g^illolihed also. 

On the 11th of December the kin^ was b'roa^ht to the 
Imkt, and ^as perfaill^ 10 ohnsie M. M. Diesez'e, Tron- 
bbet, afid M&teBheH>esi ik dejfenders. The trial lasted 
ttkty^blir 4ieLjs, nd beings imti^fibd Ih^y ha\l played the 
forc^ len^ enoiifh, th(9 Convenlioa |[>roBoikneed tuni 

The same cordiality did not previ^I 6i to die seiitence 
as lAUk rej^ard to the verdict. The Brissotines, less san- 
punary than their antagonists, were so well satisfied with 
having obtafaied his powet, that they did not trtsfa to take 
liis.Iifey irhibt Oileanij mtd i|obesJ[)ierre iraro bent on 
Mkkg satisfied With nothing short Of his blood. 

Wbet tbe J»r0^ei «efift/ ^as redd, which had the ail« 
#wers of ay the tiiefnbers to the <|u^stioti, What punish^ 
Ptent thall he sttfit f even the blobd hottnd^ of the 
Convention were struck with h<Nrror, when tiiey heard 
that iPhilip Eg^M, duke of Orleans, the King's own re- 
lation, Md the eifily one whose word had the slightest in« 
flnenoe with the people, had votM for death ! 

Ott the roll there was a lAajoiity of five for deatb* 
When tito fittid deei^n was properly ascertained, tb6 
JhresMenf, with a sotemn tone of voice, and with his bead 
imeevered> said, 

" In consequence of this, I declare, that the punish- 
** ment decreed by the National Conv(;ntLon ^ against 
** iiouis Capet is death/' 

The King's couneil- Wer^ agaiil admitted to the bar, 

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s :;: 

Digitized b 



He appeals to the Nation. 

and M. Deseze read the copy of a letter to the Coavea« 
tiOD, in the King^s hand-writing. 

'* I owe it to my honour, I owe it to my fanuIy»'not to 
** subsu)ribe to a sentence which declares me guilty of a 
'' crime of which I cannot accuse myself. In eofut" 
** quenee, I appeal to the Nation from the sentence of its 
** Hepreseniatives ; and I commit, by these presents, to 
** the fidelity of my d^hiders^ to mal^e known to the 
*' National CouTention this appeal by all 'the means in 
'< their power ; and to demand that mention of it be 
" made in the minutes of their sittings. 

(Signed) *' Louis.*' 

When he presented this letter, M • Deseze exclaimed* 
with his usual flow of eloquencci ** Do not afllict France 
** by a judgment that will appear dreadfitl, when fiye 
«« voices only were thought enough to carry it" He 
then beseeched the Convention to refer their judgment 
to the tribunal of the people. '* Ton liave either for- 
" gotten or destroyed,'' said the fascinating M. Tron- 
chet, " the lenity which the law allows to criminals, of 
** requiring at least two thirds of the voices to constitute 
<< a definitive judgment." The last effort that they 
could make in favour of the fallen Monarch, was to ask 
a respite, and delay the execution of the sentence ; but 
this was likewise refused. The members were merely 
to give a simple yes or no ; and at midnight, tiie 19th of 
January, there I4>peared for the respite 310, and against 
it 880 ; majority 70 for immediate execution. 

Louis entreated a respite for only three days, that he 
should not be hurried away without a propef preparation 
for this awful change ; but, with a degree of sa?age bar^ 




Takes leave if the Qaeen and bis Familj. 

barity, which will be remembered to their atter dis- 
grace whik time endures, the Convention refused his 

The sentence was not finaUy determined before tvm 
o'clock, and the decree was ordered to the Executive 
Council, who Wjere directed to notify it to Xiouis, and to 
have it executed within twenty-four hours afterwards; 
and to take all means of Safety and police that might np* 
pear to them requisite during the execution. 

Roland, Claviere, Monge, Le Brun, Pache, and Garef. 
were the Council, who ordered the execrable Santerre 1» 
procure 1200 of the greatest ruffians of Paris, armed wltii 
sixteen rounds each, to form round the carriage of the 
helpless Monarch, and by noon on the 21st to drag hia 
to the scaffolds 

^ Paris was illuminated on the 20th, and no person per- 
mitted to go at large in the streets. Bodies of armed 
men patroled in every district of tliat immense metropo- 
lis; the sound of coaches ceased, the streets deserted^ 
and the city buried in an awful silence. About two 
o'clock in the morning of (he fatal 21st, voices were 
heard through tlie gloom of lamentation and distress ; 
but wbeMe they came or what they were, no one has ever 

This, with many other things, alarmed the people. 
The unhappy Monarch passed all Sunday in preps^ring 
for his change. His coolness and patience evinced great 
eminence of soul ; but the parting of his family was too 
painful to tlie feelings of humanity ! The Queen hung 
round his neck in delirious anguish; the Princess Royal 
{^rasped bis hand ; the Dauphin caught bis knees ; and 
Madame Elizabeth bathed his feet with her tears. The 
Queen was at last taken from him in a state of insensibi^ 




Conducted to the Beaffold. 

lity, wliicb flhc did not recover from b^Ore two o clock 
on Monday aflemoon. Hie Kiag^ on thiB sad spectacle^ 
shewed all the affection of a husband, a father, a brother ; 
and> seeming* to be more affected by the affliction of diose 
so dear and so beloved than by bis own imsfortanes, con* 
soled them in the most soothing manner* Having gono 
through this trying scene, he now prepared to meet his 
God« The conversation which he was aQowed to hold 
with his confessor, if i% said, was pious, sensible, an4 
animated ; and his hope was full of- immortality. He 
protested his innocence, and forgave his enemies from his 
heart. On Monday morning as the clocks struck eighty 
he was summoned to his fate. He was conducted to a 
coach belonging to the Mayor of Paris, in which wero 
two soldiers of tlie gend'armerie. He was attended by 
hb Confessor, and aided to step into the carriage by toe 
or two of the sentinels, who were at the gato of ths 

•, The place of execution was filled with an. immenss 
crowd of people, and large bodies of horse and foot were 
there to awe the multitude. The most deadly silence 
prevailed, while the coach advanced slowly towards ths 
scaffold. Louis mounted it with fortitude, a film step» 
and unaltered countenance. He was attended on the 
scaffold by his confessor, and two or three municipal offi- 
cers. He looked apouiMi upon tlie people with a compia- 
cent countenance, and was preparing to address thcm» 
when the ruffian Santerre cried oat, *' No speeches I 
**, come, no speeches !" and suddenly the drums beat* 
aad trumpets sounded. He spoke, bnt the only cxpi*ea« 
sions that could be disttnetly heard, were these: 

'^ I forgive my enemies : may God ibitgive them, and 

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l^td-^J^^'tf^U^Ut't. ;; /k. ..,* .•>'..;vi^ .<./#U.. 


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Al^D \V^A»9 OF EUROPB. 135 

Hif Death aod Chsraeter. 

iwt lay mj innooeut blord to the charge of the nation ! 
GimI blessmy people,** 

The confessor went on his knees, and implored th« 
King's blessing, mho gave it with sm affertionate embrace. 
The unfortunate Monarch then placed Iris head upon th«f 
block with wonderfdl serenity, and ceased to live in this 
world ! Before his execution, he wrote to the National 
Convention, entreating to be buried near his father in the 
cathedral of Sens, in the department of Yonne, 82 miles 
south-south-east of Paris, and 35 west-south-west of 
Troyes, capital of the department of Auhy. They 
passed to the order of the day. He was buried in the 
cemetery ground of the new Magdelain, about 800 feet 
north of the place of execution, and his grave filled with 
quick lime. 

The understanding of Louis was far beyond medio« 
crity; he had acquired. a great fund of knowledge by 
reading; his memory was very tenacious ; and his judg« 
tatfnt in arranging what his memory had retained, was 
fmqnently dispkiyed in a way that was highly creditablo 
to him« Ofi the state and interests of France and the 
powen «f .EQiope» he wa& by no means at a Ioks. His^ 
%m*%$A geogK^iywvre hid favourite studies. To the 
fomM h«* paid, much' attention; ^^^ ^^ proficiency in 
th0 laHerwtti* so greati that the instructions to the 
navi^atot Ferouse; were ' drawn up by his own hand: 
he was ioMigUied to be the beat geographer in bis king* 
Aiga^ and: he ocoasiooaUy practlited aome «£ tlie mechani- 
cal arts. 

Jiiftt, beoeficent^ a good husband, a good fatlier, and a 
k>«6f of his. paople; he would, had he lived at a time 
kaa t«j>iiknl» when tlia higher tdonts are not required 

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Roland resignf his OAoe. * 

ff _ I . 'i I I ■ 

itt a ruler, have done hooour to a throne.; Tlie fiuth in 
which he had been educated, he followed with sincerity 
8Bd warmth, but with no mixture of uncharitable zeaL 
On the goodness of the Deity he relied. That relianco 
gave him consolation in the latter part of his reig^, and 
fortitude in the hour of death* He resorted to it for sup- 
port, and it made him triumph over slander, captivi^^ 
and the grave. 


Their unhallowed project was scarcely finished, wlien. 
fte short-^sighted Republicans discovered, that in despite 
of all their sanguine expectations and their guilty la«^ . 
hours, the RepubHc could not exist a single day. Iliey. 
bad just Kved long enough to soil their consciences with 
the blackest crimes, and when they fancied to reap the 
reward of their guilt, they found tiieir peace of mind ex- 
changed for ceaseless chagrin and remorse. Hie mmister 
Roland wrote a letter of resignation to the Convention 
two days after leading the King to the scaffold, and in 
the interim ipade up bis accounts, and declared his re- 
solution never to sit in the council again, for the mem^ 
bers were guilty of misapplying the public money. 

The Convention accepted the resignation of Roland, 
and though the minister of war, Pache, who had misap- 
plied the supplies for the arrny^ was obliged to remove^ 




AND WARS of? EtJROI*E. 137 

^ ■ '■ ' -,■,■'■"■...' 

Bad Conduct of (he French Government 

^ ' ' ... ■ - ^ 

to appease that anny, he had accomplices enough to gei 
him appointed Mayor of Paris. 

A great patt of Europe were induced to imagine 
th^ power of France could not last ; for, added to the 
troubles by which she appeared to be committing sui^ 
cide upon herself, it was understood that the combined 
powers had formed a partition treaty, by which France 
was to be dismembered, and most of her territories di\id« 
ed amongst the hostile powers ; and one of the mos£ 
powerftil states of Europe (England), assisted by Holland^ 
Spain, and Naples, had shewn a disposition to join the 

The French government's conduct was marked by 
tQch injustice and aggression, that its own partizans would 
hitTe been^ ashamed of defending it, if they had time to 
veflect : but the English ministry made use of so many 
imneaessary measures of provocation, that it caused art 
obftftnate denial of its just complamts^ which could only 
be maintained by its otm foolish irritations. The admi-'- 
nistration was in the hands of a set of quacks^ who 
Ihoaght themselves able to play off the talents of great 
War-minister8> and had been deceived in several plans 
to display fheir genius in this way ; had they allowed 
this opportunity to pass by unimproved, the probability 
was^ that another might not offer ; and then, notwitli- 
standing their vast abilities^ they might be transmitted 
to posterity with no more fame than their plodding pre* 
decessorsi The executive council in vain gave such a 
commentary [upon the decree of fraternization as would 
have defeated its end ; in vain they offered to leave the 
affair of the Scheldt to the Belgians and the Dutch. The 
English government, though it had to do with furies, 
whose rage could be calmed only by soothing treatuK^Qt, 

V01..I.-.N0.6. T o,,.edbvGoogle 


Damourier refitt Jiis Armjr. 

those to bluster rather than conciliate ; and the result was» 
that the Convention said that this government was resolved 
to go to war at all rates^ and therefore published its own 
declaration of war against both England and Holland oa 
the 2d of February 1793. 

The success of the Republican armies on the frontiers 
was not so quick as it had been. The Prussians had 
fixed on the recapture of Frankfort, and, from the ill- 
will the inhabitants bore the French, they succeeded with 
great ease. 

Custine was not cast aown by the surrender of Frank** 
fbrt and Mentz ; but resolved to stop the progress of th* 
enemy. The Prussian army was 50,000 strong, and Cus- 
tine could only muster 23,000; yet he maintained his 
ground and secured a retreat into a wood ; from whencs 
he could annoy the enemy, and prevent his advancing 
into the country. 

General Dumourier, when the Low Countries wers 
subdued, turned his thoughts to the discipline of tbs 
army, and the supply of its wants ; he was also busied 
with a negociation with the English government, to pre- 
vent the war extending to England or Holland. He not 
only wished to keep at peace with tliose powers, but to 
obtain their good offices to assist the means he meant to 
adopt for the release of the Royal Family, and restoring 
order in France. 

When hostilities actually commenced, Holland was an 
object of attention to the French [Republic, as its con* 
quest would give them a marked superiority ^over the bel- 
ligerent powers. It has been thought that Britain and 
Holland relied ^on the defection of Dumourier, or they 
would not have begun hostilities in so hasty a manner. 
J lis plan seems to have been, to advance with a body of 





AND ^ARS OP 15VR0PE. 13?) 

Dumourier enters Holland. 

troops posted at Moerdyk, and coveriD^ that place, as 
also Gertniydenberg, six miles farther north than Breda, 
on the right, and Bergen-op-Zoom, Sternberg, Klandert, 
and WiHiamstadt on the left, to get into Holland by the 

Damourier, mean time, ordered General Miranda to 
march towards Maestricht, with a part of his army, to 
annoy it with red-hot balls and bombs, but not to attempt 
a siege at such a season of the year ; and on being told 
4iat the CoBunander-in-Chief was beyond M6erdyk> ho 
waft to leave the siege to the conduct of General Valence^ 
who was coming from I^uris, and lose no time in poshing 
on to Nuneguen. 

Generri Dumonrier, bibfore be attempted to penetrate 
into Holland, published an address to the people of that 
oooptry, whom he called Batavians, and entreated them 
to rid themselves of what he called a tyrannical yoke — . 
the government of the Stadtholder. His force consisted 
of twenty-one battalions, only two of them troops of the 
line, amounting, by his own account, to 13,700 men, in- 
cluding cavalry and light troops. He entered the terri- 
tories of Holland on the 17th of February, and Breda was 
blockaded by his right dii^ision, under General d'Arcon, 
while he ordered Oolonel Itc Clerc, commander of the 
left, to blockade Bergeniop-Zoom. The out-works were 
abandoned, and Breda was inundated. On the 23cl, Du- 
mourier sunnnoned Governor Byladd, the commander of 
Breda to surrender, and this not being complied with, he 
mounted four mortars, and as many howitzers, when a 
heavy bombardment continued for some hours, but 
ceased towards evening. It was renewed next day on 
the part of the Frenoh with great vigour, when the Go- 
vernor thoat^ht it best to surrendev 

T 3 

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General Clairfait compels the French to retreat. 

Klundert, (a strong fortified town, about 14 miles N. W, 
of Breda, and 16 N. £. of Bergen-op-Zoom) was defended 
by the Governor with the greatest gallaatry, but as he 
bad no more tlian 150 men, it was impossible to hold out 
against the force of the enemy, and he surrendered, Th# 
next objects of Dumoarier's attention were Williamstadt 
^d Gertruydenberg, the former was attacked by a de» 
tuohnient under the conuaaod of General Bemeron, mA 
M. d'Ar^on wa^ ordered to attack the latter, which h# 
compelled to surrender on the 4tb of March. General 
BemeroQ carried on the ttege of Willianstadt and Ber« 
gen-op^Zoom with great vigour aaaisted by Le Clerc, 
while the Commander-in-Chief was about to transport hia. 
army from Moerdyk to Dort, (a distance of about 11 
miles), by means of boats which be got at Gertruyden- 
hetf, but there ihb brilUant successes of M. Dumourier 
were ordained to finiah* 

Although the army was shamefully neglected by tho 
war«>minister, it was still strong and rei|>ectablf ': this in- 
duced Miranda to go on with the siege of Maestricht with 
vigour, having the command of a large body of men, 
irhile Gencr^ Le None encamped his troops at Herve, a 
\illage about nine miles from Liege. General Valence's 
outposts extended to Aix-la-Chapelle and the banks of 
the Roer. The Austrian General (Clairfait), having 
made the passage of this river on the 1st of March, came 
to an engagement with the French forces on the side of 
Dum, (about 16 miles £• of AiXf'la-Chapelle) obliging 
them to retreat to Alderhaven, with the loss of 2000 men. 
twelve pieces of eannon, tUrteen ammunition waggons, 
and the military chest. The FreQch were the next day 
attacked by the Archduke, who took their batteries and 
nine pieces of cannon. 


by Google 


Miranda forced (o retreat. 

The Prince of Saxe Cobourg obtained a victory over 
tbem, by compelling' them to abandon Aix-Ia-Chapelle, 
and retreat near Liege, leaving behind them 4000 killed 
on the field, 1600 prisoners, and 20 pieces of cannon* 
After a defeat like this, it was not likely that General 
Miranda woald continue the siege of Maestricht, or in 
fact find it practicable, as he was informed next day^ 
that the enemy were marching towards Wyck, on the 
other side of the river, 35,000 strong, undoubtedly with 
a view to grant every assistance to the garrison. He 
could scarcely withdraw the 9000 troops stationed thef'e, 
tinder the command of General Leucneiir, before tlie i!d« 
vanced guard of the enemy attacked them. The bom- 
bardment was, however, continued, and much injnry 
done the town from the flames. But General Miranda 
ordered a retreat at night, his artillery being sent before, 
under the escort of 4000 men, arrived safe at Tongres, 
the enemy finding it impracticable to overcome this rear- 
guard. At Tongres, he was forced to retreat to Hans 
and St Tron, where he joined General Valenoe, who 
was compelled to desert Liege. 

M ^^ jj ^ jjj i j^f rrr < rrr' — *'"***^**^*****'^'*** 


TflS eondnct of the Convention and its ministers w^ so 
disgusting to the Commander-in-Chief, that he would no 
longer carry the horrors of war into foreign states, for the 




The French raise CoDtfibutioiii to Rruisels. 

* - ' , ■ ' .■ - 

ke of strengthening pow^r, which appeared to roscu^ 
itiona from the will of a single despot, to place them 
ider the caprices of a milUon of tyranU, who would 
bmit to no rule. 

The first sound of French liberty had oanght the Bel- 
inSy and nothii^ was talked of among them but of b»- 
1^ incorporated with France. Republican delight waA 
pt amongst thenii for some while, by an assurance that 
iy would be relieved from the burdens imposed by th« 
nperor, and that their brothers, the French, were ind- 
eed to rescue them from the yoke, out of mere kind* 
ss. But the Commissioners of the Convention gave a 
rious example when they came to Brussels ; for they 
Led very heavy contributions to pay the expenses of 
\ delivering armies. These and other outrages com* 
Lied in Belgia^ Dumourier says, not only took the af- 
tions of the people from France, but made it unsafe to 
irter an army among them. 

the French forces met with a great resistance from the 
itch and English troops, which now arrested their pro- 
»s, and as the British gun-boats could act in the Hol- 
ds Diep, and Bies Boso&, the General retreated, lest 
should get between the Hollanders and tlie incensed 

Pumourior^Ant to Uege,,whflre .tlwiJlyQPit^ received 
I with every mark of joy, hoping that they would Ke 
to conquests under bun equally glorious as Gcmappe. 
s strength and tigour of the French army were not now 

same, and the xg^x^ they so re joiced to see again, 
( not the same Dumourier who conquered the Ne- 
rlands. Oh A^ 15th of March the Austrians resolved 
eehice Tirlemont ; the French had only 400 men there, 

they fought with fury before they surrendered, and 


by Google 


The French defeated at Neenriodeo. 

the Aostrians were the next day obliged to evacuate it^ 
1>j Dumourier in person^ and retreated towards St. Tron. 
On the 18th an engagement was foaght at Neerwindpn» 
which lasted, with increased fury on both sides« from 
•even in the morning till five in the afternoon^ whon the 
Fi^ch were unable to cope with Uie enemy any longer^ 
and the Austrian cavahy completely routed them. The 

' BepubUoans' courage on this occasion is said to Jiave hbea 
Tery grea^ and the skill they exhibited; but they had to 
fight with superior numbers of well^discipfined troops. 
If. Dumourier attributes this da/s loss to Miranda^ who 
commanded the left wing, to a blunder of General La 
Marcfae, and tiie jealousy of Valence. 
' The loss of the French in this battle, Dumourier esti* 
nates at 9000 men, with a number of canntfn ; while be 
elates the lo^s of the Austrians at 1400. To add to this, 
Ae army was farther weakened by the loss of 6000 men 
who deserted towards Brusseb and France* 

The BepubUcan army conducted tbeur retreat with a 
great degree of order and regularity, making it nearly a 
kmd of Victorf, tUl they got to Oodsenhoyen, a league 
to the southward of .Tniemont* Here they formed ia 

' erder of battle, but the hostile armies rested aH night 
wpoft tfaehr arms^ On the 90th M* Dumeurier took pes- 
iession of the heights of'Cumttch, near Hrlemont, and 
thus gaTe him a means of carrying off his magazines. 
' On the 22d Dumourier experienced a soTere attadk 
ftmn the enemy at Louvain. The battle was remarkably 
sanguinary, and a da/s fighting terminated in the defeat 
ef the Imperial troops, who lost an immense number of 
men in killed and wounded. Previous to this action tlxe 
Xepublican Commander-in-Chief had sent Colonel Montt 
jeye to the Prince of Coboerg, to negociate a treaty re- 




Mectinirof Dumoorler aod Colonel Mack. 

specling the woaoded and prisoners* of which he thii9 
»peaks: ** He saw Colonel Mack, an officer of great nM>« 
rit, who remarked to Colonel Mon^oye, that it might b# 
advantageous to both parties to agree to a suspansion of 
arms. Dumonrier, who had careAiUy considered tht 
state of his army, sent Mon^oye to Colonel Mack on th» 
22d, to know if he would come to Loiavain* and state tha 
same to Dnmonrier* He came that evening. Some ar* 
tides were verbally agreed to : First, that neither army 
diould attack the other. Secondly, that the French should 
retire to Brussels without any opposition* And lastly* 
that Dumourier and Colonel Mack should meet after tlM, 
evacuation of Brussek, to settle any articles tiiat might 
be deemed necessary." Whether it arose from an idea 
tiiat Dumourier was not to be trusted^ or from some otbaif 
cause, cannot with accuracy be known, but the Impo« 
nalists paid no respect to the verbal stipulation, for, uih . 
der the command of Glairfait, they attacked the advanced 
guard at Pillenberk, and compelled the French general t» 
quit Louvain. Dumourier, on this defeat, conveyed Ua 
wounded, sutfd the flour meaiit for his troops, in boats (9 
Mechlin; and performed his retreat to Brussels in tba 
night, or he would have repented most bitterly of Ub 
late alliance. He spoke in terms not very honourable t^ 
the Austrians on this occasion ; that, if he had neglected 
the above precaution, he believed, ** that in spite of the 
stipulation agreed to by Colonel Mack, they would most 
likely have seized this opportunity to destroy the French 
army.'' He continued to regard bis promise, and he ad<* 
mils that the Prince of Cobourg observed some regard tor 
it, by continuing at Louvain three days longer, watehinf 
the rear-guard of the French only by small detachmenta 
at a time. Dumourier marched through Brussels on the 




Geneiml Miranda •rdered to be arrested* 

25th of March, and the citadel of Antwerp (about 26 
miles north of Bnumeb) was the only place of which he 
coald retain the possession. Here he placed 2000 men, 
with provisions for six months, in order to keep up a 
conmiunication with the troops left at Breda and Gertruy- 
denberg. It was his meaning to hare formed beyond the 
frontiers of the Republic, by Namar, Mons, Toumajr, 
Courtray, Antwerp, and Breda, to enable him to put 
his army in a more commanding situation ; but he says 
that the evacuation of Namnr having broken this line, he 
was completely disconcerted in his plan. 

On his arrival at Ath, he received an order from the 
Convention to arrest General Miranda and the Colonel 
of the 73d regiment of infimtry; but, though he com- 
plained of Mh^nda, he knew the violent temper of the 
present legislators too well to execute such orders. 
Colonel Mack arrived at Ath on the same day, and 
another c<mference occurred, the j-esult of which was, 
** That the French army should still remain in the posses- 
sion of Mens, Toumay, and Courtray, and not be harassed 
by the Imperial army ; that G^eneral Dumourier, who 
stated to Colonel Mack his view of marching against Paris, 
should, when they were ready, r^;iilate the Imperialists, 
who were to be as auxiliaries in their phm ; that should 
Dumourier want no assistance, an event greatly to be 
desired, the Imperialists should advance no fiurther than 
the frontiers of France, and the evacuation of Belgium 
should repay this condescension : but if Dumourier was 
unable to efTect a limited monarchy (not a counter-revo^ 
hition,) he should state the number of troops which the 
Imperialists must fhmish in aid of the plan, and those to 
be entirely under Dumourier^s direction. 
If be was thus unequivocal in the deelaratioa of his 
VOL, i,«-NO, 7. V n } ^ 

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Damourier esplAins bis Sentiments. 

mteutions to Colonel Mack, he was full as plain to the 
three commissioners from. Paris, who came to ascertain 
his views concerning the ruling government of France, 
though their real reason was to converse with him about 
the affairs of the Netheriands. When the deputies 
arrived at Toumay he was in company with Madame 
SiUery, young Egalite, General Valence, and others. 
It was reasonable to suppose that the meeting between 
him and the Commissioners woold not be carried on with 
much moderation, chiefly so, as the General was re- 
solved to conceal his designs no longer. He exclaimed 
bitterly against the cruelty and bad policy of the Jaco- 
bins, considering them the cause of all the misfortunes 
which came upon the country. He exclaimed, '' They 
will ruin France, but though they call me a Csesar, a 
Cromwell, or a Monk, I will try to save it." The Com- 
missioners did not think it prudent to prolong the alter- 
cation, but the next day they returned, fully intent on 
discovering, if possible, how far he meant to push the 
matter, and what kind of government he wished in 
France, but they found it proper to disguise their senti« 

. The most candid declaration of his own sentiments, 
and what he meant to do for the salvation of France, 
was made by Dumourier* He very plainly called the 
members of the Convention a horde of ruffians, whom he 
thought of with the greatest abhorrence ; the volunteers 
of Paris he called poltroons, and predicted that their 
efforts would be finally ineffectual. " As for the rest,"* 
he continued, ** tiiere yet is a party« If the Queen and 
her family are threatened, I will march to Paris — ^it ia 
my fixed re8olutipn--4Uid the Convention shall not exist 
three weeks longer,''^^ On being questioned as to the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The GoDventioD order Dumoarier to be snpt neded. 

. jneans he would employ » he gave them to know that he 
was the steady advocate of a limited monarchy ; and that 
he would certainly be in Paris in three weeks ; for his hav-» 
ing succeeded so well in such a villainous cause, had mado- 
him uneasy ever since the celebrated battle of Gemappe. 

On the return of the Conunissioners to Paris, they 
stated their conversation, and the Convention ordered 
Diimourier to be superseded in the chief command by 
M. Boumonville, who went with four Commissioners ap- 
pointed to arrest him. The Commissioners did not go 
directly to the camp, but they forwarded a message to 
M. Dumourier, to meet them at lisle, and answer those 
charges which had been preferred against him. With« 
out appearing to have any suspicions of danger, he re- 
plied, that the situation of the army was such, il required 
his presence and attention; as the troops in Antwerp had 
deserted the place, and he had been compelled to order 
the garrisons of Breda and Gertruydenberg to capitulate, 
on the condition that they were to return back to France ; 
he, himself, in order to occupy the camp of Maulde, 
having raised that of Toumay. At the same time he or- 
dered General Miaczmski, who commanded at Orchies, 
to march to Lisle, and arrest the Commissioners sent to 
apprehend him. Miaozinski incautiously discbsed the 
object of his. mission, which he prudently should have 
concealed, as it was evidently a dangerous measure. The 
consequence was, that as he entered Lisle the gates were 
shut behind him, he was arrested, conveyed to Paris, 
condemned and executed, by that sanguinary tribunal, 
the National Convention. Dumourier was baffled in his 
efibrts to gain possession of Conde and Valenciennes, by 
the two Generab Ferrand and Ecuyer, both strong in the 
Republican interest, though they owed their elevation in 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


He seises the tour Commissioners Prisoners. 

the army entirely to General Dumourier. " Ferrand,* 
says the General,. ** was at that age when he could not 
well have been suspcoted of fanaticism ; he had exclaimed 
Tiolently against anarchy and jacobin principles in times 
past, but he lost his opinions and his gratitude together. 

It was a bold attempt to arrest a general of Dumourier's 
extraordinary talents at the head of his army, as the Com- 
missioners had no reason to belieye that his army was dis- 
affected to him. On the 1st of April they went to M. 
Dumourier's head-quarters at St. Amand, and, on being 
introduced to the General, they candidly unfolded the ob- 
ject of their mission. After a conversation of some hours, 
Dumourier found it impossible to gain them to his plans, 
or convince them of the wickedness of the Jacobins ; he 
gave a signal to some soldiers who took them into cus- 
tody, and requested General Clairfait to confine them 
at Toumay, his then head-quarters, that their lives 
might be answerable for any iiyury done to the persons 
of the Royal Family of France. 

) On the evening of the 2nd of April he published an 
addresS) and on the 3rd repaired to the camp to explain 
its contents to the soldiers, and they approved his designs. 
Next day he set out for Cond6, leaving the care of St. 
Amand to General Thouvenot; but on the way he re- 
ceived the most humiliating intelligence, by an officer, from 
his confidential fheni General Neuffly, that the soldiers 
were nearly in a state of open rebellion, and that he would 
not advise him to proceed, as his life might be in danger. 
On the road he passed a body of volunteers going the same 
way that he was, but they offered' him no molestation. 
Ho had scarcely received the message of his friend firom 
the officer, when a detachment of the volunteers, having 
quitted the high way, and ronning towards bim with 




Dumonrier qiiiu the Republican Service. 


threatening, countenances, shouted, " Stop ! stop T 
There was no time to deliberate, in the midst of the 
Hfreatest danger ; he mounted a horse belonging to a ser- 
vant of General Egalite (then Duke de Chartres), and 
with the greatest difficulty escaped, the whole body 
having fired upon him at once. 

The General proceeded by the Scheldt to the territory 
of the ImperiaUsts ; where he helcl a conversation with 
Colonel Mack, and passed the night in preparing the 
proclamatioti of the Prince of Cobourg, which was issued 
the 5th of the month, accompanied by one of his own. 
The General placed great reliance on his influence with 
the troops, for at this meeting it, was agreed that when 
M. Dumourier got Cond6, it was to be given over to the 
Austrians to be used as a magazine, should the French 
Commander-in-Chief feel it necessary to apply for as- 
sistance to the Imperialists. Dumourier's manifesto re- 
capitulated the services he had done to his country ; and 
he related the unpardonable neglect of his army during 
the former winter by the War Minister. He omitted not 
the barbarous conduct of the Jacobins towards the best 
offiicen of the RepubUc, and especially towards himself. 
He detailed the reasons by which he was governed in ar> 
resting the Conunissioners, and insisted that necessity 
called for this step ; and gave a most accurate descriptiem 
of the evils which would inevitably come upon Franccj 
unless they estabUshed a rational constitution. He closed 
this paper by exhorting the people of France to restore 
the constitution of 1789— 90, and— 91, which they had 
sworn to maintain; solemnly protesting he t^pearo^iii 
arms for no other purpose, which being done, he wcM^ft 
rtnga all public employment and eiqoy in retireMBl| 


by Google 

Other Geoerelt follow him. 

tlie pleasing thought, that he had giFen happiness to hit 

Besides the Generab Valenc6, Egalit6, and Thoavenot, 
Colonels Thouvenot and Moon^oye, and Madame de 
Sillcry, who quitted the Republic "with M. Damourier, 
he was followed by a regiment of dragoons, and the 
principal part of the hussars of B^rchiny; but the chiaf 
part of the army were soon taught to look on him as a 
traitor, and submitted to General Dampierre, who sue* 
ceeded him in the command. 


DuMovRiBR*s loss was not the principal embarrassment 
the Republic met with. The people in many of the 
Western and Southern departments of France, arose in 
open rebellion against the tyranny of the Convention* 
The disorganizing spirit of the Jacobins was such, that 
they paid no regard to the prejudices 'or the delicacy of 
the people ; but, under the name of fenaticism, they per- 
secuted every thing that was decent and regular. The 
zealots in religion were shocked by frequent processions 
of lewd women, heathenishly attired as goddesses, ready 
to receive the devotions of their licentious worshippers. 
The friends of virtue were outraged in every relation by 
the members of the legislature, who, both by their prao- 


by Google 



La Veadee opposes the Repablfc 

tices aud laws, gave every facility to dissolutions of the 
Inarriage contract; and the }overs 4)f order vi^ere cha- 
f cined at the increasing practices of casual cohabitation 
and irregular intercouse. Novelty seemed to be tlie 
ruling principle of the goyemment, and the guillotine 
the only argument it condescended to use for the con- 
viction of the people. Resistance to such a system be- 
came a sacred obligation, and the persecuted priests took 
advantage of the public feelings, to arm their flocks, in 
various parts of the country, into powerful amues against 
the Convention. 

La Vendee was the first department that opposed the 
Republic, and there the Royalists collected in great 
numbers ; but they acted more under the impulse of pas- 
sion than from any regular plan. A few troops were 
sent against them, and they were dispersed ; although it 
was known that sixty out of the eighty-four departments 
were highly disaffected. The Royalists are not to blame 
on this account, if it be true, that the courage of the Just 
is less than the desperation of the unjust : for they were 
panic-struck with the unheard-of cruelties of the Jacobins. 

It was reported to the Convention, that 800 of these 
counter-revolutionist prisoners were taken on the left 
bank of the Loire, and that all immediately were mas* 
sacred in cold blood. This v^as looked on perfectly re- 
gular, for the Convention meant every Royalist found 
with arms to be shot.; and if without them to be guil- 
lotined. A system of terror was established, and a man 
was fearful lest his own thoughts should escape him; 
and the Convention established a praying inquisition* 
called the Revolutionary Tribunal ; by which they often 
executed persons whose thoughts were detected by the 
aukward means they toek to conceal them. 



by Google 


; ■ ■■.■■ it "i;.. .M.,-..... -J,,. , „■ I..M. ,■■..,. „,: ' ■: t-b i— .-i m^ 

The BovrboD Family ordered under Arrest — Conf ress held at AntivM'p. 

The Convention decreed, that all the Bourbdn family 
should be detained as hostages for safety of llie commis- 
sioners, not excepting the ci-devcM Duke of Orleans. 
This Prince, tho first of the blood-royal of France, and 
the richest subject iu Europe, debased himself to the 
lowest whim of the multitude, and when they used the 
vmversal cry of " IHierty and equality," he applied for 
leave to change his princely style, and to be called Phi- 
lippe Egalite. By his arts and his money ho had ac- 
quired great popularity] and a seat in the Convention; 
but when it was discovered that he had befit thus low 
with the ba^ desire of lengthening out a shameful life, 
and with a view to pfaice the crown on his own head, they 
determined to put him aside ; and the first decree was 
shortly followed up by that which ordered all the Bour- 
bon family under arrest 

As the Convention was taking the most adequate mea- 
sures for recovering what it had lost, the Combined 
Powers were collecting all their foliy, with a design (if 
it can be said they acted with any design) to lose what 
advantage tliey had gained. Generals Neuilly, Dumas, 
Bemcron, and sevei^ other officers and soldiers, joined 
Dumourier, where they united with the Austrians, and 
proclaimed the son of Louis King, by the title of Louis 
XVn. and thus explained their views to satisfy those 
who might wish to join them. A Congress took place at 
Antwerp, of the coalesced Princes, which was attended 
by the Prince of Orange, the Duke of York, Prince Co- 
bourg. Lord Auckland, the Spanish, Prussian, Neapo- 
litan, and other ministers, from their several courts ; and 
this Congress was so flushed with their nominal conqtMSts, 
that they obliged Prince Cobourg to recal lib proclami- 
ti«n of the 5th ; and broke their fkith with the Frenck 




» — _■ ' 11- - .^l- ■ ■! . I .1.- I it III I I _ . H- 

General Dampierre kUlcd. 

Genera^ trpm too great a confidence in their own power. 
The moderate men in France now saw no alternative, 
bat submiasion to the reigning gOTemment, or to the 
ancient and hateftil despotism ; the fonaer most oonreot 
itself in time ; the latter they knew would become worse, 
and they left the Cmnbined Powers to follow their own 
plana, and joined with the Convention to defend the 
country. General Dumourier and the officers with him 
withdrew into retirement, and most of the sdUieni found 
means to return to France. 

The Austrian General stated that the armistice was at 
an end; and large bodies of Fjiglish, Hanotrerian, and 
Prussisin troops having arrived, it was fixed on to at- 
tack the French frontiers in ten different points at once, 
and advantages were gained in the time that was em- 
ployed in re-organizing the French armies. 

General Wunnser was appointed to the siege of Lan- 
dau, and Prince Cobourg invested Condi; but the views 
of the Allies were chiefly devoted to Yalenciepmes, where 
the French General Dampierre was anxiow to find pro- 
tection for a camp he was about to form. The Dtd:e of 
York, with the British and Hanoverian tro^s, took the 
direction at this important post, which was curried on 
with much credit to the British arms ; as, after % long 
contest, the enemy was compelled to give vip his cwf, 
and leave both Cond6 and Val^ciennes to the besiegers. 

Geneial Dampierre was killed in one of those actiona ; 
and. his death was a great loss to the French, as most of 
their best generals were either under arrest^ or driven 
from the army on groundless suspicions and accusations^ 
yet the soldiers defended their garrisons with superior 

General Custine h^d been much dissatisfied with the 

VOL. I. — NO. 7. X 

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General Guitine complaiof of his Troops. 

conduct of the soldiers^ and took up a great deal of time 
in restoring discipline in his army, without much effect. 
He was obliged to remain on the defensive ; but, assisted 
by General HoiTchard and a few other able ofiicers, he 
defended this frontier from the advance of the enemy. 
He had been forced to use some severe examples of mi- 
litary execution in his camp; yet^ after attempting to 
surprise the Prussians at Sembacb, he stated to the Con- 
vention, that he could have no success widi such troops. 
** Our artillery/' said he, ** did wonders, and the battle 
was Ih ouir favour; but as ourin&ntry was forming, our 
cavalry rode up towards them, and a battalion of our 
troops taking them for the enemy, they ran away. I did 
all I could to stop them, but in vain, and as they run off 
they fired at our troops and behaved like cowards." 

The Combined Powers do not appear to have used 
any efforts to make any of the factions overthrow the 
rest; and it does not appear that any of them sought to 
secure itself by the help of the Combined Powers ; yet 
fhey failed not to accuse each other with as much keen- 
ness as if they were certain of each others guilt. 

The struggle between them began upon a discussion 
in the Convention relative to handing General 'Miranda 
over to the Revolutionary Tribunal, which the Brisso« 
tines were bent on preventing by denouncing Marat 
himself. He was charged with inciting the people to 
massacre ; to which he only replied by a declaration of his 
Republican principles and his love for the people, of 
whose attachment he protested tiiat he ^^uld soon satisfy 
the Convention; and, accordingly, a most tremendous 
uproar took place in the galleries, which hindered an} 
irther discussion. As soon as the debate could be re- 
sumed* his arrest was decreed. Thus for the Brissotines 




Debates in the CooTention — ^Trinmph of the Jacobins. 

"weTe trhimphaiit, but the decree against i General Mi- 
randa passed also. The next day Petion moved for the 
repeal of latter decree ; ** Miranda/', he said, ** was 
sacrificed by Dmnoarier, only for having the courage 
to denounce him four days before his treachery was .re- 
vealed." Tins opinion would have been supported by 
the Maratists^ if their accusations had had. any other 
foundation than mere caprice; but they. hiMi thrown em- 
barrassments and discord in the way of both Dnmourier 
and Miranda from the same motives, and * therefore de- 
claimed against shewing lenity to conspirators^ The gal- 
leries, at the same time, applauded their sanguinary doc- 
trines, and hooted those members who spoke' in favour 
of PetionV motion. The debate could not proceed until 
the military hacl cleared the hall; when Petion's motion 
' was lost by the order of the day. 
* Afterwards a greater triumph was gained by the Ja- 
cobins, upon the acquittal of Marat on the charges of 
exciting to murder and carnage, andijoining to cUssolve 
the Convention. The hall was attacked on the 24th of 
April, by a mixed assemblage of those petitionerii who 
had been headed by Petion, Santerre, &c. who asked 
permission to file through the Assembly, to shew their 
joy at the acquittal of the "Friend of the People.'* 
Leave being given, the visitors took possei^ion of the 
vacant seats, and a general shout of, " Lspg live the 
Nation! long live Marat P welcomed him to his place, 
where he was conducted by a large body of municipal 
#fRcers and gcns^d'armes. 

The piiblic mind being strongly agitated by vague re- 
ports of dangers and conspiracies, which nobody could 
trace, but which every body was sure would complete th^ 
ruin ofcvcry family in France ; an alarm was given, atfour 

X 2 

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Ad loMiTcciion pre vested. 

o*cIock in the morDing of the 3l8t •£ May, by tbe Ung^/ 
of guhB, mad the sotuidiiig of the tocsu. TUs iraar thor 
Qonnion tagnal of iiuNurreetioii audi •btnii ; and it alwayic 
threw the city into tiie graadaest eoaftiaion. Those only- 
in the lecret knew tiie dengere to be apprehended^ or 
how they were to approach or be avoided. The Con-r 
vention would be the rallying point in tUa case, as the 
palace had fonnerly been ; asd, if the opposition should- 
not be safficientiy powerful, a few inflammatory speeches 
from the fiaurtien might arouse thenr partisans to rash 
upon the'victims and massacre them out of hand; in*, 
which event, Ae ceremony of false aecitsati<Hi weald be. 
spared, and Ae risk of aeqaitlal avoided* Snch was the- 
plan of Marat, but it lailed ; for there were at Paris a 
number of armed volunteers from the departments which 
the Brissotines represented, who mired amongst the 
crowd, and by their presence deterred the cowardly Pa- 
risians fWrni proceeding to Ihehr usual acts, of outrage. 
In the Coniventioo the greatest uproar prevailed; and 
the only fhct that ooold be dearly understood, was, thai 
the administration and the poliee were divided, and thi^ 
each party MMpended the other, and disputed its ordeA 
whenever it got the majority; and every spectator saw, 
that whichever shooid muster stroHgeM wouU charge the 
ether with iht coui^Mracy. Marat demanded a decree of 
accusation against the Brissdtinea, aa accomplices of Da^ 
laourier, though nothing could be worse bud. The mob 
would net defliio thenr charge so aioeIy« they would give 
no reason for demanding their heads but havmg ** in* 
cun^d their displeasure." Deputations were sent to 
pacify the p<^op]e, and prevail cyn them io let the Con- 
rentioii go on with its deliberations. It was impossible 
to get u hearing ; the members were insulted, imd no 




Parlies formed in Fnnce. 

antirer could be had but the cry of ** Aconse them ! acr 
mm lbe«i T At kit, wtm by tBifigae and deispair, tbo 
weak mea joined the bad, and a decide was passed, t# 
put Iweaty'-fiNir of the representatiYes. and iiiini3ters over 
to the RevohitkiRary TribuaaL Three of them^ however^ 
had been fticlnded in the. nnntber, beoaofe they had said 
something to ofilbnd Legendre the batcher; QJ\i Marat 
ioteroeded to ha^e them dismissed, whioh reduced th^ 
whole to twenty -one. 

Brery one nidw-saw that the very shadow* of liberty 
had flown; and that if the nu^joiity of the Convention 
had tiie means o£ stiUing the voiee of the. minority, tb^ 
system of representation was at an end : and pany 
thousands resolved to resist the osnrpation of the o)igap- 
ohy ; and powerful parties were formed in varioas parts 
of France, in order to assist the pR>scribed depati^ in 
restormg the Republic 

Experience had not been so advantageous to those de* 
puties as bright have been expected ; notwithstanding 
the intrigues to which they had frequently resorted, when** 
ever ibef had been determined to gain the point over the 
Royalists,' tiiey had no eonoeption of seeing the sao^e 
arts prsietised against ^themselves; and therefore n^^^y 
of them weakly miagined that they should be perfectly 
secure in their own innocence. Boyalists they were no^ 
and traitors they were not; this they could easily .proye^ 
whether they appeared before the Revolutionary Tribur 
nsd or before their constituents in their several depart- 
ments ^ and thus some chose to throw themselves upon 
their trial, and others into the arms ot their friends. 

Having thus set «them upon a defence which should 
oblige them- to avoid all connection with the Royalists^ 
the Jacobins appointed commissaries in every place, to 




ScTcral Dcparcmentf declare airainst the Convention. 

charge them with a new and undefined orime» caUeU Fe* 
dendism ; the guilt of which they could magnify in prcK 
portion as the people were ignorant of its nature. 

Petion, Gaudet, Gorsas, and many others, travelled 
into the western departments in disguise, and they dis- 
covered, that, though they were generally acquitted of 
royalism, great prejudices were held against them as fe- 
deralists. They saw, for the first timci the extent of 
their delusion. 

About twenty of them arrived at Caen, in Calvados, 
where they found the brave defender of Thionville (Ge- 
neral Wimpfen), at the head of 2000 men, in the centra 
of eight departments . which had declared against the 
Convention. Those who had overthrown the Bastille 
on the 14th of July, and the palace on the 10th of Au- 
gust, were seeking a, shelter firom the scaffold, and they 
found themselves in the midst of an empire : here Gorsaa 
found courage without the aid of liis eloquence, and Pe- 
. tion found soldiers without the aid of intrigue: here were 
senators drawn from the seat of legislation ; and here waa 
a people in want of a government ! Circumstances were 
made for them; they were not called upon for any extra- 
ordinary eflbirt ; the only thing required of them was» to 
have followed their good fortune without going out of the 
ordinary course* A declaration of their union, and a 
protest against the proceedings of tlie Convention, would 
ha? e brought all the western departments under their 
banners; and the possession of Evreux, which General 
Wimpfen would have secured with 10,000 troops, would 
have assisted them to have cut off the supplies from Paris, 
and shut it from the coast They might then have tri- 
umphed over the Convention, and saved their country 


by Google 


The People (hreateo to inarch a^iait Parii. 

from what they looked on as the greatest of fcvils ; bbt 
their political bigotry would not permit this. They sus- 
pected that both General Wimpfen and his partisans were 
Royalists, and they could not fight for justice in com- 
pany with Royalists, without sharing it with them when 
it was obtained ; — an idea as shocking to a Republican, 
as it would be for a Christian to admit an unbeliever into 
the same heaven with himself. 

This caution forced the Deputies to undertake another 
journey, m hopes of raising an army all of their own 
opinions ; but they were so long in reaching Bourdeanx, 
that troops were sent before them, and the people were 
dispersed for want of leaders : nothing was left but pro-, 
jects of escape, and these generally iailed ; except Lou- 
vet (who was probably the least guilty amongst them) 
they all fell into the hands of ther Jacobins, or perished 
of hunger in their hiding-places. 

The people arose in some parts in very great numbers; 
and, in many instances, were able to send deputies to tho 
Convention in defiance of its armed force, threatening to 
march against Paris unless their representatives were li- 
berated. Angers, Bourdeaux, Lyons, RocUbrt, Nantes, 
Caen, Marseilles, Toulon, St. Malo, and all the^ surround* 
ing districts, were ready to proclaim Louis XVII. and 
the Constitution of 1789, as soon as a standard could 
have been erected for them in a central point ; but th# 
Princes did not appear, and the Combined Powers neg- 
lected them ; so that the Convention, by the fear of its 
police and the power of its army, prevented any regular 
eorrespondence being kept up between them. 


by Google 


France to be attacked in federal points. 


The different powers bad three piMt tar the march to 
Paris; one was to direct the prineipal opanitioiia aiponst 
the departments of the North and of CSalais; Ihaaaoottd, 
to force their way by the Seine, and the mens conti* 
guous to it; by which it wonld be easy to oenvey all the 
stores and heavy arfiBery; and the third was, to take ad- 
vantage of the c<Hifiision into which the surrender of Va- 
lenciennes, &e. had thrown the Republic, which bad led 
to the execution of a number of generals and officers, 
and to proceed with a very strong fbree firom thence to- 
wards the capital. In either case, Spain was to penetrate 
on the side ef the Pyrennees, and Prussia on that of the 
Rhine. The first proposition was adopted ; and the 
Austrians were to reduce Cambray, while the Duke of 
York besieged Dunkirk; this gave the Convention all 
the advantage it required, which was time to place all 
the resources of the Republic in the management of un- 
doubted Jacobins. 

The Commissioners with the army could discover the 
talents and principles of the officers, and they did not 
scruple to raise a subaltern to a command, at the expense 
of his superior officer, if they saw the least preference. 
General Custine, who undertook the unpopular task of 
reforming the vices of his army, was so much disliked, 
that he would not attack the Combined Armies, so long 
as they were satisfied t^ waste their time in battering 




Caitin* guillotioed^The Uttke of Tork^rrivei before Dunlcirk. 

down fortresses. He was aware the time which they 
lost would be of the greatest advantage to him in exei«- 
Ming the hordes of vecmits which hourly arrived from 
tiie departmettts ; and that a few weeks would enable 
liOD to rsoover all that was lost by the retreat of Ihimoit* 
rimr. The reasonings of the Commissioners were not so ; 
liiey fancied that in a short tone the Combined Powers 
wooU recover their senses^ and flie lives of ibrty or fiily 
Oamsand anfiscipGned sokBers were nothing ; they would 
put twiee that number in ti^aimng to supply their places ; 
and if the general would not attack the enem/s works 
with the army he had got^ they would appoint some ge- 
neral that wouUL His objections Were of no urdi), and 
only tended to prove that he was ail Aristocrat, by his at^ 
lachmeat to an eld system, and they bad hhn arrested ott 
the chasge of aiding the enemy by his manoeuvres and 
delays s no regard was had to his former services and 
viclories. Without delay, Gepend Houchard was ap- 
pointed Commailder-in-C%iefy and Custine was guillo- 
tined as a tnritor. 

The Duke of Tork got before Dunkirk on the 9Scfa of 
August The naval force, which was to have acted widi 
his Boyal Highness, did not arrive in time; and the 
French ooUected troops from the armies of the Ittnne and 
Moselle before the British were ready to begin (be attack. 
On die 7th of September, therefore. General Houchard 
sallied firom the garrison, and, supported by his gun^boats, 
totally routed the besieging army, and took the principal 
part of the artillery and stores. 

Most of the powers were now disheartened at their iB- 

suceess ; and as- it was thought that England was loudest 

^ in fanning the arrangements, they looked on her to pay 

a great share of their expenses, as a reward for their fiir* 

VOL. I.^NO. 7. Y n ] 

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Saogttioarjr Sfiepf of the CoiiTCDtion. 

ther co-operation. Engiandy on the other hand, Wlui 
more earnest in the contest, as she was driven further 
from the object ; for, as the war was undertaken by her 
Ministers, they would have made any sacrifice sooner 
than acknowledge a defeat Some naval advantages were 
obtained, and arrangements were making, by which th» 
French Colonies in the East and West Indies were to b« 
placed in the hands of Great Britain by their commanders ; 
this induced the Ministry to subsidize most of the powers 
of Europe; and thus it was' resolved to try the event of 
another campaign. 

- 'Scarcely a town or village of France escaped the hor- 
rors of military execution. Aristocrats, Royalists, Priests, 
or Federalbts, were thought to be concealed all-over the 
country, and the most sanguinary decrees were voted by 
the Convention against these wretched persons, and those 
who assisted them. Children were hurried to execution 
for strivmg to save their parents from the scaffold ; and 
wives for domg acts of kindness to their husbands under 
sentencec Passengers could not travel without their 
passports were witnessed at every [turnpike ; nor could 
any inhabitant retire to rest till he had given the police a 
list of every one under his roof. Every means were con- 
trived to afford an excuse for destroying the people, as 
if the Convention had consiited of monsters, who only 
took pleasure in shedding of blood ; yet was the exampk 
of Brutus, and that more recent one of their own heroic 
countryman, Paris, lost upon these pusillanimous Frendi- 
men; and it was left to a young female to inflict justice 
upon the leader of these wretches. 

Charlotte CordS, from Caen, in tiie* department of 
Calvados, formed the design of ridding her country firom 
the rule of Marat, whom she looked on as the greatest 




Charlotte Cord^ mnrden Marat. 

nfonster^upon earth, although she was certain that her 
life would answer for the undertaking. Eager to exe- 
cute her designs, she wrote to him on the 12th of Juljt 
stating that she had business of the last importance to 
communicate, on which the safety of the country de« 
pended. Having received no answer to this request, she 
applied a second time thus : '^ Have you received my 
letter? if you have received it, I rest on your politeness. 
It is enough that I am unfortunate to claim your atten-r 
tion." On the 18th, in the evening, she was admitted, 
and tibe conversation turned on the alarming state of 
Caen, and the views of the Deputies who had there taken 
shelter. Marat remarked that the traitors should soon be 
i^prehended, and pay for their rebellion with their beads 
upon a scaflTold. This speech fired the heroic Charlotte 
with ungovernable rage ; and, finding a •• propitious 
moment to accomplish her designs, she plunged a dagger 
to his heart The commission of this deed gave her no 
fear ; she left the house perfectly tranquil ; and on being 
told, when arrested, that she would inevitably be put to 
death, her conduct shewed the most sovereign contempt. 

She was tried on the same day before the Revolutionary 
Tribunal, and the firmness of her answers and the cou- 
rage of her conduct created general admiration. She j 

looked on the host of her judges with thkt conteqipt that 
shewed what Utde justice she tfiought was to be obtained 
from them. " Where was the necessity of bringing me 
before you?" said she ; *' I thought I should be given up 
to the rage of the Parisians, and be torn to pieces by 
Unem ; I hoped that my head, stuck at the top of a pike, 
would have preceded Marat on his state bed,- to be a ral- 
lying point to Frenchmen, if there are still any worthy 
•f being called so ; but if I am not to be so 'h«nii»ured,' 

T 2 

^ J 


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The Qiieea remoTed fron the Teniple. 

ny memory will soon be hoMwred by aii FraMce." Aeat^ 
te»oe 4>f death was uMtaBdy pnoiuMHicedi^ aad eke was 
guillottiied die Mme day. 

. Tbe YvC^e of this one damsel was ef more use to the 
CflMse «f mankind, th^fl all wko raised their puny strengtii 
against Uiat infamous Convention. 3he inspired her 
eoun^men with that resentment whieh, as k will be 
seen, lUfilled her own prophecy. Her &te was hardly 
pronounceit when a young man, filled with deiigbC «t 
her courage, enlreated the ju^es to aec^ him for her, 
and to be guiMotined instead of her. His prayer they 
would not grant, but they sent him to the guiMotine along 
with her. A m^nfoer of the Con¥ention (Adam Lux), 
penetrated equally, hastily wrote an omtioB in honour of 
the action, wfaerem he proposed to erect a staKne to her, 
inscribed. Greater than Brutus. His head also they eat 

Out of about 37,-600 victims seeured in the different 
prisons of the Repufoiic, they for some time overlooked 
tlie Queen and her children. The spokesmen of the 
Gommittee, Barrere, the greatest eoward fai all Franee, 
the most complete poltroon in aH Europe, now asked 
the Convention fo make the proper Mrrangements for 
sending her Majesty to the guillotine in the most ^de- 
grading manlier that could be invented. Accordingly, at 
12 o'clock at night, on the 1st of August, two oAiceiu 
went to the Temple, in a hackney coach, to remove her 
from that place to the common prison. The removal * 
was marked with systematical crulety. She was not al- 
lowed the least notice, but was obliged to ^el out of bed, 
and deliver up every thing she had to tiie officers, which 
was only 25 louis and her pocket-book. They alkwod 
her to bid farewei to lier sister Elizabeth and her d«a|;lH 








l.vJit, r.u'-'h. Il/^fu ;'Jt,rmi,i .Hi* X<A,> .". /«•.,<' ,!^.-u..i- / .m, Jo.^-./, .1, A") t,- /i. 7-frw „,/ ,;•,./■ /V'/r^ .<• f.tUn.kv A.fAr. 

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Tbe Queen tofHij^r tefore tb« RevotuCionary Tribanal— Her death. 

ter, but refti&ed her seeing her son, alledgiug as a reason, 
that ^ he was imioceiit, and would not suffer ;*' clearly 
telling her that both tiie Princess Buoabeth and tbe Prin- 
cess Royal would follow her to the guillotine. 

When she was two months at the Conciergerie, in a 
cell eiglit feet square, half under ground, with nodiing 
irat a bag filled with straw to sleep upon, and a soup diet; 
llie innocent, the generous, the dignified, the perse- 
cuted, Mana Antoinette, Queen of France, daughter of 
Maria Theresa, and sister of the Emperor Joseph, waa 
taken before the Revolutionary Tribunal, to hear its pre- 
determined sentence. It would be a jest to talk of a trial, 
for no such thing took place in France for two years 
from the 10th of August 179S. The sentence of the 
Queen, and of every other person that 'was passed in that 
period, whether of acquittal or condemnation, was de- 
termined by those infamous judges before tfiey came into 
court, without any regard to tiie evidence, whatever it 
might be. 

The death of this Princess happened anndst the shqirtt 
of the Parisians, and aH the courage and gallantry of tbe 
great nation was collected to overwhehn and insnk a 
feeUp, defenceless woman! Three people were disco- 
Ycred dipping their handkerchiefs in her blood ; they 
were immediately arrested ;— what became of them is un- 
known, they were never liberated, but they were never 
executed, at least not publicly. 

Barrere proposed to the Convention a decree for 
obliging every person to deliver in a true statement of his 
whole property, and how it had been acquired; "in 
order that the Oommittee of Public Safety might raise a 
loan without oporessing the poor.^ Ilie amount of this 


by Google 


Different Clatsei of Parties io the AtMmblj. 

■ ■ 1 I I ■ r !■ ■ -i-.JULi_i. 

loan was only twelve millions ; but, though the wise 
Committee laid it so low, the waiy members of the Con- 
vention saw its consequences so clearly, that they wished 
the reporter would re-consider his motion before he 
pressed it upon the Assembly. In fact there were some 
delicate feelings, by which part of the leading Jacobins 
were governed, that tiie Committee did not reckon on ; 
and, those not being of a kind to admit of explanation, 
kept them bhmdering on many occasions, when their 
measures did not meet with approbation. 
^ The Jacobins consisted of two very different classes 
of men. One of those classes openly avowed their 
object, and publicly confessed their , determination to 
wade to it, even though it was through seas of blood. 
To this class belonged Marat, Barrere, Robespierre, 
Danton, Camot, Billaud Varennes, Collet Herbois, and 
all tile members of the Committee. The distinction be- 
tween this class and the Republicans was, that the latter 
would not accomplish its object, by bloodshed, till they 
had passed laws which would cover their iiyustice and 
sanctify thiBir guilt ; whereas this first class of Jacobins 
wanted no cloak at all, and looked on the law as an un- 
necessary obstacle. The second class were quite cordial 
with the first in their resolutions to accomplish their ob- 
ject, whatever it might require. Of this class was San- 
terre, Tallien, Legendre, Liecointre, the Hebertists, and 
a great part of the Convention, who had given way to 
many expensive habits, which they could not continue, 
if they were not allowed " to profit by the reign of li- 
berty," and this would be impossible, if the inquiry pro- 
posed by the Committee were to be set on foot. 
A word to Barrere to re-oonsider his motion, was all 


by Google 


Sir Cbarlei Grey reinforce! ttie Duke of York. 

that could be done upon tlie subject ; and if the Committee 
were too dull to take the hint ;— why, then, said Tallien, 
" patience." No other 4>art of the plan was objected to ; 
and it was decreed, tnat all single men and widowers, 
of the age of 18 to 25, should march to the armies, and 
men of all ages put in requisition: that married men 
should forge arms and transport provisions ; the women 
make tents and clothes, attend the hospitals, and maka 
lint of old linen ; and the old men should require them- 
selves to be taken to the public squares, to excite cou- 
rage in the warriors, to preach hatred of kings, and the 
onity of the Republic : that the national buildings 
should be turned into store-houses ; the ground of the 
cellars be washed with ley, to extract saltpetre ; that all 
horses, carriages, muskets, fowling-pieces, and arms of 
eyery kind, should be given up for the use of the Re- 
public: that all the plate of the churches should \ft 
coined for the national treasury, and all the bells c^t 
into cannon; and that the members named to enfo/ce 
these decrees * should be invested with unlimited aui^o- 
rity. 1 

A reinforcement was sent to the Duke of York, u|der 
Sir Charles Grey, which enabled the Allies to-ma^e a 
stand in Flanders longer than the French expected i and 
they thou^t it proper to strike terror into the Array, 
and to urge it to the mo^t desperate exertions byA new 
example of severity. Barrere, therefore, moved w leava 
to have General Houchard guillotined ; " becauie, said 
he, '' he is exposed to strong suspicions ; irst, that 
** when he defeated the English, he did not d^ive them 
'' into the sea ;. secondly, that when he surr^ded the 
" Dutch he did not cut them to pieces ; thir/(ly, that he 
** sent no aid to the troops at Cambray; end, foQrthl)r« 


by Google 


Gen. Honchard— the Duke of Orleans & twenty-oiieBrissotlaes gnillorfaieil. 

** that when he retreated from Henin^ he exposed hia 
" rear to great danger." It need hardly be added that 
Hoachard was guillotined. Marshal Lnckner followed 
him soon after, as also Madame Roland, because she re- 
fesed to tell the place of her husband's concealment; 
then Philippe Egalit6, Duke of Orleans, and twenty«one 
of the Brissbtines. This number bemg completed, al- 
though Petion, Roland, and .many others, were yet at 
large, still it was imagined the Convention was not pro- 
perly purified, and fiftyrfour more of the members were 
arrested, who were guillotined^ whenever the Committee 
found those executions answer its purposes. 

Looking on England as the principal in the war, the 
Committee of Public Safety adopted such a conduct to- 
wards it as should irritate it beyond measure. Barrere 
occasionally made pompous speeches for the purpose of 
Enouncing the English government. Billaud Varennes 
thought the worst thing that could be done, was to talk 
of a descent upon England, and to insult both the govern- 
ment and people by bad language. " We must attack 
^ lome in Rome itself,'^ said he ; let the fate of Car- 
** ttege be the fate of England, and let her proud capi- 
*' tsf be levelled to the dust T and, soon afterwards, a 
meaadre of great malice, not against the government but 
the people, was adopted ; all English goods and manu- 
focturvs were strictly forbidden throughout France, which 
it was >ainly supposed would turn all the manufacturers 
of Bimingham, Sheffield, Manchei^ter, and Glasgow into 
beggars, and thus ruin the country. The British navy, 
however, was so successful, and opened such channels of 
commerce, that this stupid decree was scarcely felt ; and 
the trade oT England increased so much, that more mer* 
chants and olliers made fortunes in England between tho 




State of the Slaves in the Colonies. 

years 1796 and 1800, tkan ever were made in any age or 
country in the same space of time. 

The Convention was daily hearing of some new disas* 
ter happening to the trade and commerce of France, un* 
til it was nearly mined. Decrees were passed for giving 
liberty to the slaves ; and they were not only freed from 
their iniquitous slavery, but their rude minds had imbib- 
ed, in about two years, as many raw notions about liberfy 
an*! equality as it would take a century to digest. The 
poor beings were not merely informed that their masters 
were tyrants and oppressors, but they were left without 
a guide, as to the moral obligations laid on them by 
their new condition ; and as it never struck them, that in 
recovering their rights, they were bound to perform du- 
ties, they thought freedom from service meant freedom 
from labour ; and by literally constructing the doctrines 
they had been taught, they hoped to share land as well 
as Uberfy with their masters. Idleness and want soon 
spread among all the black tribes m the West Indies ; and 
they began to pillage the whites, which being resisted, 
many shocking slaughters took place ; the repetition of 
which, the constituted authorities were unable to pre* 
rent. Various applications wore made to the mother 
country by the planters, but the Commissioners appoint- 
ed by Grovemment, were as wOd in their notions of Uber- 
ty as the legislators themselves, so that the planters saw 
no chance of a proper system being settled ; and, at last, 
the Convention found that the Colonies had invited the 
English to taiLe possession of them. 

VOL, Ii<— NO. 8. z 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Marseilles offered to lie surrcBuvrej^ 


By. an a^eement entered into between certsun Commis- 
SLoqers firoi^ Toulon and Mars^ill^9 on behalf of their fel> 
low citizepSy and Ijprd Hood on behi^lf of Great Britain^ it 
was agreed that they should be given up by the inhabi- 
tants to the ij^oglish, to faif kept until peacp should take 
.place; and in case of the Alonarchy being- restored^ then 
to bb returned to France. 

, The fulfilling of tJhose conditions a;s \q, Ma]:9eille4, wa^ 
prevented by the Republican General Carteau taking: 
possessipn of it before the J^ritish troops arrived* ToUj- 
lon fell into, the pow^r of Lord Hood ;. apd-in that dis* 
tant region the British government begaji a co-operation 
Ti^ith the Royalis^y which alinost exhaus)ted tl^e hopes of 
that pa.triotic b9dyy and was the cayse of fixing the des- 
tiny of France, by displaying the ^i)!, and bringing into 
public notice that extraordinary genius^ which ^.t eyeiy 
moment since th^t period has. influenced the Hero of 
these pages. 

After a resistance from the French fleet in tlve harbour 
of Toulon^ which was ^ai^sed by a differenpe bet>E|reeii 
Admirals 'logoff ^nd St. Julien^ its coromapders, part 
of the English troops were l^ded ; but they l^ad, scarce- 
ly got possession of the place, and the fleet, when Barras 
and Freon, the two National Commissioners at MarseiDes, 
made immense exertions to regain Toulon. The Con* 
ftntion Mgerly assisted^ by sending immense sums 



AKt) WARS 6F feVROPE. 17 1 

The Bni^lih poBieii ToqIod. 

fi the dotfOfAti D^piavtaeiits,- 16 tme ad tcpiip a nmiH 
ber of new bftttiUem. 

The French and English troops had some skiraiiahes^ 
which ended in ttfe j^eticb getting on^ of tiie ad^aneed 
posts, and obligih^ ihe Goales^d Forces to shetor 
thenselves ^iOkih iHt fcM^fs thai ph)teoted the place. 
Tlie English ra^ed wdHtH bk all tbe heights; and sap- 
jAed ftem with tii6 caniio^ df the low^t decks <rf tin 
French Hne of hiMe iMpfst, and reinforcemenii df 
S|>aniidiy Sarfiniad^ ai^d l^icSKan troops ^imved to the 
sncconi' of the garrisoii; 

Bsih*as, and Freoi, Gotainisi^iotfers from the Conveflh 
Gxm, c6tlccted aiD the jMitg men in l^eqtfiiilion ; they hiA 
an immense qoanfity of HhSntrf, sM 85,61)0 troops word 
otdered froin Lyons. Each^ ettinf 4as bufy itt attacking 
and defending detached points ; trild the' ke^ts of La 
Orasse were defended by Hhfb/y eAimAi, dhig|fed ^ a 
veVy difficnlt ascent with gresit Idboa^ mS ^oulderfat 

On th6 aoth ef Septembeir tibe Pr^nclr mMkeA Fort 
Faron' «td succeeded. Of siith colss^qaen66 ITds' thitf 
pniSt, ^ch -wbA abtodoned by the Spainislk ^arri96iif, tfitfl 
ft WfdT eveh tlien cdicula^ed to renAnr flie posiiesin6A ei 
1Pouf6tt pf^'^'sorfons. "A cotintil i]iittV6ffift«eIy ^seaiMed, 
bM it w1^ ddf^rmia^d io re^jjroksj^s' the redottbt. A se- 
vere engagement was foaght, and* the French at length 
abaMotiedr Fa^bn ; litit' ihtnre than a fdnrlh of tbehr num- 
ber relkmedtd besdf-qnarters ; for those who escaped the 
bidtet or bsaiydnet, were killed in escajiinig over the preci- 
{iices'iH tiieir ffightf. The English afteirwards destroyed 
tffro new 6'afterie^ \diidfi^^re IflLely to dtanoy tiie fleet ; biit 
sb ^eat'wa^ fli6 (tfdbur 6t^ ft^tA, that a detachment 
utid^r (SiEiieral Lapoy|ie stormed^ ibe bti|^ dT Cape 

a S 


by Google 


Bonaparte appvointed General. 

Bran. The success of this event, gained by superiority 
of numbers, rendered the fate of the garrison daily more 
doubtiuL . 

A reinforcement arrived from Gibraltar, under the 
Qonuniand of lieutenant General O'Hara, who had been 
made Governor of Toulon; and afterwards, by a commis- 
sion under the great seal of England, he, and Lord Hood, 
and Sir Gilbert Elliot, were appointed . Commissioners 
Plenipotentiary of his Britannic Miyesty. Dugommier 
was Commander in Chief of the French army : he had 
distinguished himself by his victories over the forces of 
ihe King of Sardinia, and the soldiers were much attach- 
ed to him. The Deputies furnished cannon, ammuni- 
tion, and provisions in abundance : whatever the be- 
siegers wanted, was had by instant requisitions ; and the 
deeds of the Republican troops were witnessed and re- 
warded by the representatives of the people. Large 
bodies of troops arrived from Lyons, and invested the 
city with cheering hopes of success. 

An immense body of artillery was opposed to the great 
naval arsenal of the South. The conquest or surrender 
of this arsenal it was resolved, should be made at any rate. 
The magnitude of the service required it should be en- 
trusted to an engineer worthy of the occasion; and the 
Deputies deliberated cautiously before they nominated a 
person to the situation. 

Napoleon Bonaparte, who had re-entered the corps 
of artillery, and served as a lieutenant, was recommended 
by his countryman Salicetti, the Deputy from Corsica, 
and one of the National Commissioners with the army at 
Toulon, to Barras, who promoted him to the rank ot 
General, and gave him the command of the artillery des- 
tiaed to reduce the arseaaL The event warranted the 


by Google 


Gencrai O'Han takeo by the Frencb. 

prudence of the appokitmeiit, for Bonaparte contributed, 
by his military talents^ greatly to decide the iate of Tou- 
lon and of France. 

Napoleon's first operation iras decisive of success. 
Seeing that the possession of Malbousqnet, cme of 
the outposts of Toulon, would enable him to bombard 
the town and arsenal, he opened a battery of heavy can- 
non and mortars on the height of Arenes, which annoyed 
that position amazingly, by an incessant fire of shot and 
shells. Governor O'Hara seeing the necessity of taking 
immediate steps for the security of so important a post, 
determined to destroy the new works, which were termed 
the Convention Battery, and carry off the artillery. 

Having procured some seamen from the fleet, to de- 
fend a post, from which he meant to withdraw some Bri- 
tish soldiers; at five o'clock in the morning of the SOth 
of November, a corps of 400 British, 300 Sardinians, 
600 Neapolitans, 600 Spaniards, and 400 French, march- 
ed from the town, under the command of Sir David 
Dundas. Although they weTe obliged to cross the new 
river on one bridge only, to divide into four columns to 
march across oliye grounds, divided by stone walls, and 
to ascend a considerable height, cut into wine terraces, 
they surprised the redoubt ; but in place of forming upon 
and occupying the summit of the hill, agreeable to orders 
and military prndence, after having done all the objects 
of the expedition, they eagerly followed the French 
troops, ascended other distant heights, and at last were 
compelled to retreat, by the French, who profited by their 
disorder, and compelled them to give up the advantages 
they first obtained. General O'Hara, who mounted the 
battery when the French were dispossessed, tad when he 


by Google 


The Freoch yrtrf niebes^M. 

thought the abject of the day was obtained^ alfived In 
time to witnese the reYerse, and to be wounded and made 
prisoner by the French. His woond, though not dan^ 
gerous, had bled much* and by thi*^ with the eirertioni 
he had used, he was so fnuoh ifeakened that he could 
not retire siany paces with the trdops, but domed to be 
left by two eoldiefs Who were assisting him, and whom 
he ordered to proceed and sa^^e themselves. 

The expeolatiotiB of the heaiegtts were much raised 
by this event ; they began to make nearer approaches to 
the town; and by means of their batteries, not only tir 
, tacked seTsrel ialportamt po«ts» but threatened a general 
assault The geeniaon was m an akrmmg situation ; the 
French anMy, whioh was near 40,009 itoen, was hourly 
iBcresMig, aad eommanded by an iafrepid and able ge- 
neral; mA. their hMeflies were managed under the di- 
rection of Bottaparte, who^ though a mere youth, dis^ 
played the mioit etel and dannftteea cMrage. Hie alKed 
troops never exoeedM 12,M0 raak aad file, and iTefo 
much daninshed iy disease and death : ttey were con^ 
posed of ft¥e diffeMit natiens, frem wheM a firm co-ope 
ration could nv^ flrom die d^Esreufce o# thek hngaage 
and other eauaes^ be expected, fhese hteul fo defend a 
otrcomferenee of fifteen aiifes, iMdudfa^ eight principal 
and intermediaee peeta^ which alone required 9000 meil. 

At two o'cbok ib the morning of die ITCh of Decem- 
bicr, the Freneb epaned two new bMteries on Fort Hut- 
gaave ; abd ftem diese and fk« fovtaey oneii, kept lip a 
very haairy oamiotfaide, which Iffle'd ifittAy and destroyed 
the vrorics. The weather being rtttny, tiiey secretly as* 
semblcd^alarg^ body of troops, with which they stortii'- 
ad the worka, and entered with fixed bayett^t^, on tii<^ 


by Google 


Taaloo retoWed to be ev^ujited. 

*iA^ dpku^^ by the Spaniards^ ou wliicii the Britisb 
m4 other troops were <»b)jg€!4 to retire tewards tke ^re 
9f Balaqnief . 

An attacl^ took pkce w oil the posts heM by the gs^ry 
riMNDL on the mott^taiii of Fioroii. They were repufee^* 
however, hn the east side, by i^bout 700 men^ ooBimaQded 
fay Colonel Jemagnai^, a Piedmontese^ o^er, who porish^ 
ed on the occasion ; bat they penetrate^ by the back of the 
«aoi|iitain, although 1800 feet higb» w^ deemed inac« 
oessible, so as to ooecqpy the side whj^ejb^ overlooks Ton- 
Vw. The Engliah troops behaved themselves, with great 
tiravery; while the Fretich, trusting to ^eir numbers, 
eharged with unusual intrepidity< and success. The 
Sleputy Arena, who was a Ceraiean, led one of Ifceir 
eelumns ; and General Cenrofii, a sulueot of the Kiog of 
Sardinia, greatly distuiguiAhed hiMi^eIf• The 9fiw Gene- 
ral Bonaparte, signalwed Umself by a prenaptitucle of 
exertion which masked him as one of the aUsst ca»di« 
dates for military gbry. It is said, that m ^ hesA of 
1|i0 engagement, Banqu. foniid ftuJt with tiie djreetien of 
a giiB» whioh. had been pointed undser the ocd^r oC Boa»> 
parte ; (he young General reqn^stods he would aMead 10 
Us duty, am a National O0mB|i8sil»|ier, ^ I witt do my 
dsity,^ said h^^ ^ aooon&ng to my own judgiiMl^ and 
be aaswerablB for the oonseqiieBeee witk my hefti.'' 
Nothing was cafMbb of indnning Um to fbreg« ai^ pu« 
pote wfaiich he hadphumed. 

A 009mI of flag and geAeral officers was held* irik# 
thought it impracticable to. segain the- posis they bid 
lost; and, as the tow» wae qot tenable, while Ih^ re^ 
main^' in possession of the enemy, it waSi de^laramied 
thai TbutoB should: be evaouated. The tBeope. Witfei 

. Digitized 

by Google 


Groat Distress of the fnhabitaiits. 

therefore witlidrawn, and, in the course of the evening 
of the 17th of December, the Combined Fleet took up a 
new station ii^ the outer road. Early next morning the 
sick and wounded, and the British fi<^ld artillery, were 
sent off; the Neapolitans having left their post without 
orders, embarked at noon ; and steps were taken to with- 
draw the British, Piedmontese, and Spaniards, amount* 
ing to about 7000 men, during the night. 

The retreat was to be effected. as quick as possible, for 
the enemy commanded the town by their shot and shells, 
and also some of the ships. The Allies removed their 
shipping out of the reach of the shot and shells, with 
which they were annoyed without intermission, till ten 
at night of the 19th of December, when the town was 
set on fire in different places by the Allies, as well as 
part of the shipping, after which they made a hasty re- 
treat, and the Republicans occupied it next morning at 
three o'clock* Much property and a number of yesseb 
were left an easy prey to the conquerors, but the inhabi- 
tants were in a situation truly deplorable. When they 
saw Aat flight was resolved on, they repaired in crowds 
to the shores, and entreated that protection whioh tin 
crown of Britain had pledged itself to grant them. Seve- 
ral eflbrts were made to get thousands of them to the 
sUps, yet it was impossible to avoid leaving multitudes be* 
Und to suffer the tortures whioh would doubtless be made 
use of'on them by their enraged countrymen. Numbers 
wen seen to take away their own lives, thinking that a 
more easy method of finishing existence than what they 
had to look for from the Republicans ; others threw them- 
selves into the water, making many firuitless attempts to 
reach the Biitish vessels. The flames spread with wonderful 


by Google 


Toulon .restored to France. 

rapidity^ and the ships set on fire were every instant in 
dbugsr of blowing up, and buryini^ all around them in 
tolal destruction. 

But if the land shewed so much horror, it was no less 
dreadUd on boatd tbs ships. These they filled with 
groups of er^ry sort, men, women, and children, old 
Bhd y^uAg, and of all natiofls. They had on board the 
flick fram the hospitak, and the festering wounds of those 
yet andrest, were dreadfully offensive as well as danger^ 
ous. So horrible a sight was perhaps only exceeded by 
the compiainrts and ories of multitudes for their husbands, 
fktliers, or dnldren, who had been unatoidably left on 
#liore« No language conld do justioe to this melancholy 

To the miseries already mentioned, there was an al- 
most real fiMnine, as the food on board was not nearly 
sufficient for such a multitude, and .almost unfit for use. 
Thirtf-one sbqM of the Une were found at Toulon, thir* 
teen wvre left behind, none burnt in the harbour, and one 
at Leghovn, bendes four more which Lord Hood bad sent 
to Brest and Rocbefort, with 6000 seamen belonging to 
France, wliom be tkoagbt it dangerous to trust to. The 
French acquired more than one hundred pieces of cauGoi^ 
four hundred oxen, sheep, and hogs, with gi^09i quanti- 
ties of forage^ and every species of provision. 

Thus, after a siege of about three nnrnths, and an in- 
oeaamtassaukfor five successive days Bind nights, Toulon 
vrjas restored to FraoMse. The French had provided 4000 
ladders for an assanlt ; but, on the etaouatidny^ey en- 
tered it at sev^n o'clock, on the l&th of December, 1793. 
• Some, who hod aided the Allies, remained behimt 
and perished, either by their own hands or tfia guillo- 
tine. At Toulon, as well as at Marseittes, the moat cmel 

VftJ.. I.— NO. fiL A A 


by Google 

Great Disturbances %t Lyoni. 

punishments were inflicted on the Royalists^ and the vic- 
tory was stained by the most terrible and indiscriminate 
carnage. The population became daily and visibly de- 
creased by the constant slaughter of the people. The 
principal habitations were destroyed by workmen, in* 
vited from the neighbourhood to demolish the town. 
The name of Toulon was changed for that of Port de h 
Montague; and a grand fete was celebrated at Paris in 
honour of the event, at which the members of the Con* 
vention walked in procession. 

The. genius and talents of Bonaparte were discovered 
.by this siege : it was a stage worthy of his action, and 
the recollection of his exertions at this important time, 
was favourable to his future advancement in the armies of 
the Republic. 

A sanguinary conflict took place at Lyons ; but the 
people of this place [acted vdth more caution, for they 
professed the strongest attachment to the Convention^ 
while they were collecting troops with, the greatest ac- 
tivity, to repel any force that might be sent against them^ 
whenever they thought proper to shew their insurgency. 
The chief people were persons who had got wealth by 
trade and manufactures, who were desirous to eqjoy 
thtur property in ease and safety, and cared but little 
about the triumph of liberty. Many nobles^ and a crowd 
of emigrants and priests were there; and the crimes of 
those who took on themselves the name of patriots, served 
to excite in Liybns a powerful insurrection. 

Laupel, a constitutional priest, and Chalier, the mayor, 
gained over the populace by bribes and largesses. Hie 
vaults under the town-house "were stufled with prisoners ; 
and the towsmen thought that plunder, captivity, and 
periiaps death, would be their lot. Thw fears, wen 


by Google 


> The Major put to Death. 

augmented by the disaficcted, who said that tfie Jacobins- 
only waited the arrival of some troops from Kellerman, 
to commence a slaughter of Uie Royalists by preventing 
their escape^ and then handing them over to the na- 
tional axe. 

Their fears being thus heightened, caused them to 'at- 
tempt the destruction of those from whom they appre- 
hended such evils. The sections met, under the idea of 
adopting plans of general safety, and seized on the 
arsenal. Excesses usual on insurrections, excited by one 
party wishing to produce desperation in the other, were 
committed without remorse. The municipality, which 
was devoted to the Convention, took^shelter in the town- 
house ; but, in the night of the 29th of May, they were 
taken out by the enraged people, and the mayor was de- 
posed and put to death. 

Two Commissioners from each uf the sections of* Mar- 
seiOes were appointed. All Provence followed the ex- 
ample, and the insurrection became formidable. It was 
settled that a congress should be held at Bourges, and 
that two representatives and a battalion from each district 
should assemble there. The Convention were acquainted 
with these events, amt General Cartaux was sent from 
the army of Italy, at the very period when two battalbns 
from Marseilles and Aix^ destined for Lyons, teok pos- 
session of Avignon. They however abandoned that 
place, and the river Durance separated the forces of 
each party. 

Villeneuve-Tourette, formerly a colonel in the regi- 
ment of Artois, was appointed General, and being joined 
by the troops from Toulon, gave Cartaux battle. They 
at first were successfhl, but the conventional troops hav- 



Lyons prepares for Defence. 

ing bees increaBed, tbey were triumpbant, and the prin* 
cipal cities were reduced to their own reiBooroes* 

Hie army of Mameiiles^ under Villeneave, occapied 
the heights. The M arseillese were not onantmoui ; 
many of the sections stated their wish to accept the new 
constitution, so suddenly framed, by the Jacobins ; and 
the difference was so violent, that the blood which 
was spilled offered a prelude to what was expected to 

The Jaeobins' hopes were increased by VilleneuTo 
being driven from the heights, which were attacked and 
carried by General Cartaux. Villeneuve, with 500 of 
his troops, the municipal officers, and a .number of citi* 
zens, took shelter in the city of Toulon, and Marseilles 

Lyons now depended on the strength of its own citi^ 
zens ; they had sought to esci^ the storm, by accept- 
ing the new constitution, Hey sent deputies to the 
Convention, but they were recMved with strong disple*? 
sure, and saved themselves from imprisonment hy flight, 
A messi^e was sent them, that ** they must deliver up 
their ne^ magistrates, if they expected mercy; the bkiod 
of the patriots shed by them demanded vengeance." 
These oflbrs were rejected, and the inhabitants prepared 
for an ebstinato defence. Hiey were in want, hnwever, 
of cannon, for Keilerman had got aH their erdnaaoe, 
under tiio view of supplying Ae army of Ilaiy. Th$ 
townsmen were undisciplined ; they were chiefly the &* 
thers of families, who tremUed for Iheir wives and chil- 
dren, and their property ; and aldiough an tpsmense 
body were in arms, not more than 10,000 eonld b^ de- 
pended on. The Jacobins contiBned withiii the wsdis 


by Google 


\ttacked by tbe Republtcao Forces. 

reiohite and deteniimed, and the populace was entirely 
under their command. 

^ Precy, formerly a colonel in the constitotional guards 
of the Kin^y was elected Crenend by acclamation. The 
fortifications were improved, and cannon cast; and suck 
was tbe general sentiment, that, while the young were 
in arms, the Women and old men worked at the redoubts, 
and encouraged the wani(Hrs. 

The army designed for the attack was nearly 10,000 
troops of the line, 8000 cavahy, several battalions of na- 
tional guaitls letied in the neigbbouring departments^ 
600 artillerymen, and 20 battering guns, besides mortars. 
The usual plans' of a siege were had recourse to; and, 
besides the arms of tbe besiegers, their success was 
assisted by the poorer inhabitants, who not only brought 
intelligence into the camp of the Republicans, but di« 
rected their negoeiations by means of signals. 

A tremendous shower of bombs and red-hot balls was 
poured in, and the city was set on flre in forty-two 
pheea in a night. It was threatened also by famine ; 
and two columns of armed citizens sallied out to procure 
com, one was cut off, except five, who got back into 
the town, and their leader, Servand, was shot. Tbe re- 
sistance was obstinate ; Dubois Grance, the deputy, was 
recalled to account for bis conduct. The besiegers had 
some advcmti^es, but famine being added to the miseries 
of war, die citizens, after a siege of fifty-five days, in 
which they shewed the most h^oic courage, yielded ^to 
f« enemy, against whom valour was unavailing. 

Collet d'Herbois, Coutfaon, Sec. were the new depu* 
ties, and they wouM not grant any terms till the leaders of 
tbe tumult were given up. The chiefs, therefore, both 
civil and military, many of the principal inhabitants, and 


by Google 


The Convention vote the Destruction of theXiCz* • 

those proscribed by the Jacobins, to the number of 2000 
sallied from the city, to seek a home in a foreign land. A 
few waggons with the remnant of their scanty fortunes, and 
some four-pounders accompanied the fugitives. Amongst 
them were a great number of females, resolved to follow 
their husbands, and, with their children, to share their 
fate. On entering the defiles of St. Cyr and St. Germain, 
they were surrounded by near 50,000 men: they per* 
formed prodigies of valour; only SOO men and women 
escaped with lif^p ; they were mostly covered with wounds, 
And were moved from dungeon to dungeon until they 
suffered by disease and punishment. About sixty, how- 
ever, succeeded in obtaining an asylum with the .neigh- 
bouring peasantry. 

' A fourth part of the city was destroyed by the besieg- 
ers. The Commissioners ordered the demoUtion of tho 
principal buildings. The Convention voted that the city 
should be destroyed ; that this ancient city should not be 
called by its former name ; and that a column should be 
built upon its ruins, to attest its crimes and its punishr 

The sufferings of the wretched inhabitants were never 
surpassed. Measures were really taken to transport 
numbers to another place ; and the Deputy Freron, when 
he entered the town, ordered guillotines to be erected, 
and announced that " terror was the order of the day.** 
He was surpassed in cruelty by Collet d'Herbois : this > 
ruffian's pro-consulship in the south was one scene of 
bloodshed. A J;^and of Parisian Jacobins, and a column 
of the revolutionary army marched in before him. The 
process of the national axe, did not suit his impatient 
vengeance ; and the bayonets of the infantry, and some- 
tirne^ th0 sabres of the cavalry, were used to abate his 


by Google 


The Calendar altered by the CoBfeiiCkm. 

insatiable tliirst of carnage. Even these did not answer 
his horrid purposes with sufficient celerity, and grape- 
shoty and the fusilades of the troops, daily strewed the 
great square of the city with the dying and the dead, and 
flooded the town with the blood of the unhappy inhabi- 
tants. . 



The Convention ainused themselves with altering tiie 
Calendar, dividing^ the year into twelvemonths of thirty 
days each, and conferring on the five intercalary days 
the epithet of sans-culottides, afterwards complementary 
days. Each month was divided into three decades, or 
periods of ten days, and tiie tenth was appointed to be 
a day of rest. They decreed the Republican year to 
commence on the 23d of September, the anniversary of 
the Convention entering upon its functions, and began 
ihe Republican era from that day, dating all their public 
acts subsequent to that period 

Year of the French Republic. 

Hie autumnal months were called, 

23 September, Vendemiaire 
28 October, Brumaire 

22 November, Ffimaire 


by Google 

French Setttrmeiits la the Batt laleenby Ittt British. 

The winter months were called, 

22 December, Nivose 

21 January, Pluviose 

20 February, Ventose 

The spring months were called, 

22 March, Germinal 

21 April, Floreal 
21 May, Prarial 

The sammer months were called, 

20 June, Messidor 

20 July, Thermidor 

r 19 August, Fructidor. 

The days of each decade were called in its oraer pri* 
medi, doudi, up to decadi, and the complementary days 
w«re to be kept as national fetes* 

It was enacted, .that every priest found in arms against 
the interest of the Bepablic should be punished as a trai- 
tor ; and that all priests under sixty years of age, should 
be banished to French Guiana, if they had not taken the 
oaths fixed by the constitution. 

On the 7th of November, the Republican bishop of 
.Paris, M. Gobet, his vicars, and som^ other mem- 
bers of the ecclesiastical body, entered the hall of the 
Convention, where they made a solemn surrender of 
tiieir offices, and abjured the christian . reUgion at the 
same time. 

The campaign was not in favour of the Allies, for 
though the British took fort Jeremie, Cape Nicola Mole, 
and Pondicherry, with all the settlements of the French 
on the coast of Coromandel ; yet the Republicans in 
Europe were more successful, and as they had the for- 




nm HoptkHcMi Mbat Cknma ^fkrwmer. 

midable liaes at Weissembui^ and on the Lauter, fidnt 
hopes of success were held by the Austrians of taking 
Landau* General Wnnnser loYeUed all his streiifth 
against these, and on the 13th was permittod to penetrate 
them* The town of Weissemborg made a BMre resolute 
oppositkHi than Lanterbu^g had done, and it did not 
eapitalate till the end of October, whioh cost the An* 
fttrians about 800 men* This victory made the enemy 
push im to Strasburgb, where the Bepublicans were 
again beaten on the 2&th, when the Austrian General 
made himself master of Wansenau. On the S7th he was 
warmly engaged by the French, but they suffered most 
severely, ms their loss has been counted at 9000 men ; 
tUs encouraged Wurmser to invest Ldoidau. PiebegtUf 
formerly a Serjeant of artillery, conceived aa ecceeUeut 
plan finr eonquering Alsace; he was well seconded by 
Hoche, who bad also wielded a halbert before he grasp- 
ed a truncheon^ 

Oil the 21st, Wnnnser was defeated by the Republic 
Otns, irho compelled him to retreat ; and their vietori- 
one march was almost to the gates of Hagenau. The 
amy of Ihe Moselle formed a junction with the army of 
the Rhine ; and the Prussians were defeated near Saar* 
iifiick ; their loss was consderable. The enemyHi camp 
at Blieacastte was takcm by the Freseh on the following 
day ; imd, without allowing them to recover from dieir 
aiahn, they went towards Deux Fonts, under the cele- 
brated General Hoche« By the skill and gallantry 'of 
dns ofiber, the heights of Milleback and Homback were 
soon subdued, and the Prussians found that Deux Ponts 
was no longer tenable. 

TU Republicans sufficed severely by making a vio 
leri aitack on the Duke of Brunswick in the vicinity of 

vox, I. — NO. 8. B B 


by Google 


Picliegni ap^inted to the Aimy of the North. 

JLauter; but thejrsoon had an ample compensation from 
the victories of Picbegru, who, on the 8th of December, 
took all the redoubts of the enemy which defended Hi^o* 
nau, at the point of the bayonet. The 22d was also glo- 
rious for the French, who made great havoc of the Allies 
in forcing them from Bischoilers. The Republicans fol- 
lowed the fugitives as far as the heights of Wrotte, where 
they were said to be strongly fortified ; yet nothing could 
resist the ardour of the French. Pichegru attacked them 
with his artillery, but finding that this proved ineJSectual, 
and that the ardour of his troops wanted sbmething more 
decisive, he marched up to tlie entrenchments, which- he 
completely carried after a strong resistance of three hours, 
and got possession of. all tlie posts which the Allies had 
abandoned, and triumphantly entered Weissemburg on 
the 27th of the same month. General Wurmser retreated 
to the Rhine, and the Duke of Brunswick fell back to 
protect Mentz. 

The siege of Landau was raised, when it was reduced 
to the greatest distress ; and, by a career of victories, the 
French easily got Kaiserslautem, Grermersheim, and 
' Spires. Such was the animation inspired into the Repub- 
licans by the active measures of the twoyoung generals^ 
who now maintained the glory of their country, that the 
name of the French army struck terror into their ene- 

' The command of the northern army was given to Gen. 
Pichegru ; but as Jourdan was declared to have retired 
with honour to hknself, and with the gratitude of his 
country, nothing excluded him from subsequent authori- 
ty, and* he was soon after named to the command of the 
army of the Sambre and the Mouse. The French were 
formidably prepared near MaroUes, and thek artiUcry 


by Google 


The British and the French Rojalitts. 

galled the outposts of the Allied Powers ; but the enemy 
having crossed the Sambre in great force^ vigorously at-^ 
tacked their redoubts, put great numbers of the Bepub^ 
licans to the sword, and made SOD prisoners. 

The courts of London and Vienna had united to make 
the most violent struggle in the common cause, and Colo- 
nel Mack, an officer in the Emperor's confidence, was 
sent to I^ndon to arrange the campaign with the British 
ministry. Whilst the other powers were ofii&ring the most 
generous sacrifices, the King of l^ussia, who had, one of 
the ^jrst, tempted them into the contest, was base enough 
to tamper with the RepubUc for a separate peace ; and 
by saying he would withdraw firom the confederacy, ex- 
torted a subsidy of 52,0001. per month from the Dutch 
and English Governments, besides an immediate pay- 
ment of 300,000L 

The French were to force their way through Namur 
and the district of Liege, to attack the Austrians with a 
great force near Toumay, and besiege Cond6, .Quesnoy, 
and Valenciennes ; but this plan was unfolded by an offi- 
cer who deserted to the Austrians. The opening of the 
campaign was delayed to an advanced period of the 

The British government consented to aid the Royalists 
in Britanny. The troops for this purpose were to be 
commanded by the Eiiri of Moira. But whilst they were 
encamped near Southampton, the situation of the British 
army in the ^Netherlands, made his Lordship comply with 
a very urgmit request from the ministry, to land a rein- 
forc^nent in the Low Countries; he so fiir succeeded, 
that he defeated, both at Aloste and Malines, a considera- 
ble French force, which would otherwise have annoyed 
the Duke of York's army, liiose, however, to whom 

B B 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The Duke of York commanil* the British Army. 

these succours were inteildedt were subdued by the vic- 
torious Bttpublicana before the eari could reaok them. 

The people of Noimotttiery in the isle of 'that name, 
bad remarkably strengthened their fortificationa ; but 
they seemed to hare kio&ed on their cause as desperate, 
for they voluntarily surrendered the town before the Re- 
publican army arriyed near their batteries. It was ex- 
pected th«it the sanguinary dispositions of the Bepubhcans 
wodd use these unhappy men with uncommon acTerity, 
hnving been an muok aeeustomed to shed human bbod. 
fire hundred wer6 abet at Nantz, as the guillotine was 
net theui^t suffimntly eKpeditious. Multitudes were 
dispatched by. grapeshot^ or sunk in barges, accprding 
to their conqueror's whim, and it is stated tiiat more than 
4000 suffered ia a single pit. 

'The number of 780,000 men were ready to take the 
field against the enemy, esolusiTe of the second requifth< 
tion. Against this immense multitude the Allies could 
only bring 356,090, exclusive of the aid they mi^ht get 
from Spain, Portugal* Sardinia, and Naples* Prince 
Gobonrg had 140JBQO men under hia cominand ; the Duke 
of York 40,000 ; the Dutch army 20,000; Austrians on 
the Rhine 60,000 ; Prussians 64,000 ; troops of the enk- 
pire, 20,000; and the Enugrants under Cond6, 12,000 

His Heyal Highness the Duke of Yofk took the com- 
mand of the British forceSk He accompanied the Aus- 
tria General Glair&it, to Videnciennes, to hold a coun- 
cil of war, along with Prince Saxe Cobourg ; and, after 
canyassing the most proper sleps to be adopted, each re- 
turned to his head^quarters. The Rep;iblican troops, 
at the close of the month, i^peared in West Flanders, 
and gave battle to the out^posts at Gateau, Beauvais and 


by Google 


The Emperor of Germany commandfl the Allies. 

Aofennes ; bat tbe Austrian cavalry^ which then appear- 
ed, ootnpeUed the enemy to retreat, with the loss of about 
900 men, while that of the Anstfiaos was Only 190. A 
pCtf-t of the Republican army haviag^ snipriMd the Hes- 
sttins stationed atTenbreiril, between Werwick and Ypres, 
gM in the rear of the Hanotvrian piquets, and cnt ott 
their retreat. Bat, a considerable ^aee BrtMsig trwxk 
Menin, the French rethred with precipitatiDB, after ful- 
filling the object ibey had in view. 

As dkfputes hail arkeift mnong the Ihriiv^s in the Com- 
bined Artny, a^ to what rank they ihonld hold, it was 
resolf ed that the Emperor in perMH should be Com- 
martdet-tat-Ghief ! and on Ins aniyal at Brusseb, in April, 
he was complimented by the States with the title of Di|ke 
of Brabant Tliis wi» i^ended with the most solemn 
marks of flattery and adfilatidn. The keys of the gates 
of Louvain were presented to his Imperial Majesty, bear- 
ing this faiscription : " Cmseir adesi^ Jhetnent CMliT — 
^ GsBsar is present, the Gauls shall tremble T On his 
arrival at ValeAciennes, the Combined Army received 
Irim with every mark of joy, and was reviewed by him 
on fhc heights above Cateau, and marched, in eight co*- 
Im^iM, on the following day, toirarda the small but 
sttottg tflTwn of Landrecy. PHuce Christian, of Hesse 
Darmstadt, commanded the first column, consisting of 
Atistrians and iDuteh, whose destbation was Catillon, 
which, fiffcer soti^ resistance, they obliged to surrender. 
Crcneral Alvintzy, who commanded the second ooliunn, 
obliged the enemy to quit their entrenchments at Ma- 
:fiinguer, Oisy, and Nouyion, taking the forest of the 
last-mentioned name. Tlie third column, commanded by 
the Emperor in person and the Priwce of Cobourg, . had 
i(s share of su<5cess, in tbe reduction of the two villages 




The BritUh defeat the RcpuMicans. 

Aibouviile and Wassigoy, and the advslQced guard got 
possession of Grand and Petit Blocus. JJhe fourth and 
fifth columns were commanded by the Duke of York^ one 
by himself, and the other by Sir William Erskine. The 
village of Vaus, witii the works which defended it, and 
, the Republican entrenchments in the ]Krood of Bohain^ 
were marked for th^n. 

. His Royal Highness was persuaded that the enemy had 
a very strong position; he determined, if it co«ld be 
done, to turn their right wing, and commanded the whol# 
column to march forward, under cover of the high 
ground, while a proper number of cavalry was to deceive 
the French, and divert them from the object he had in 
view. When the action began, the fire of the Republi- 
cans was very brisk ; but on seeing that they could not 
retain their position, they retreated, when a part were 
cut off in the wood, and the remainder retired towards 
the main army by the village of Bohain. The forces 
under Sii* William Erskine were no less victorious. The 
three remaining columns, commanded by the Prince of 
Orange, did not come to action with the enemy, as they 
were only meant to watch the French on the side of Gam- 
bray. These successes of the AlGes enabled them to lay 

' siege to Landrecy, which was entrusted to the charge of 
the Prince of Orange. 
The Psince of Cobourg had part of his troops at 

^ Blocus and .Nouvion, formerly mentioned, which the 
Republicans attacked on the 21st, but by the assistftnco 
of the Duke of York, with five battalions of Austrian, 
and the brigade of British cavalry, under Sir Robert 
Lowrie, they were driven from Blocus, while victory 
was in their favour at Nouvion, having forced General 
Alvintzy to retreat. The French were collecting troops 




General Pichepu defeats the Allies. 

from the camp of Caesar, near Cambray, where the Duke 
of York sent General Otto, with some cavalry, to ascer- 
tain their strength, and offer them battle, if he should 
think it advis^abie ; bat, finding their force was far su- 
perior to his own, he declined an engagement till the 
morning of the 24th, when he received reinforcements • 
in consequence of which he was, at length, victorious, 
forcing the enemy to quit the field in great confusion/ 
with the loss of 1,200 men and three pieces of cannon. 
The loss of the Allies was little short of that of the enemy ; 
for, on the following day, the Duke of York was at- 
tacked by the French at all points, but they were, how- 
ever, forced to yield to the British commander, after an 
obstinate resistance. The Combined Powers suffered 
very severely in this battle, but we find no statement of 
it upon record. 

The French may now be considered as having begun 
the campaign ; for the attack was so general as to reach 
aloi^ the frontiers finom Treves *to the sea, a distance of 
about 180 miles. Tlie column under the command of 
the Emperor was attacked by the Bepublik»ns, without 
effect These skirmishes were only stratagems to deceive 
the Combined Powers, and preyent them fron^ under- 
standing the design of the RepubUcans. The Austrian 
general Clairfait, having joined at Moocron with the Ha- 
noverian troops, resolved to act upon the offensive, when 
he should receive his expected increase of six bi^talions 
of Austrian infantry. These designs did not esciqpe Gre- 
neral Pichegru, by whom they were disconcerted; for 
that officer attacked the post at Moucron, which, after a 
warm resistance by the Allies, was obliged to surrender. 
Courtray yielded to the French, which produced the eva- 
cuation of Menin ; that place, from the victories acquired 



Lmirtcg mrraiderB to the Allies* 

ky the eii^ny» h^vuig daspaired of relief. The j^arrison, 
whkh was of four baitatioBs of Hanoverians, and four 
companies of Enkigrants, fought through the RepublicaR 
troops, and retreated, with little loss, to Ingelmunster. ' 

^»»^^^0^ »^^^^»#^S»^^»»^»^»^^S»^ ^^*St^0^ 


Lakdrbcy surrendered to the Combined Powers kite 
days. With such fury had the plaee b^en attacked, tliat 
only two houses escaped the vengeance of the cannon tX 
the end of the siege. Two hundred of Ae inhabitants 
lost their Kves, and 1200 of the garrison ; th6 remainder 
of the soHiers were iftade pnaonera of war to the nmabor 
of 4400 men. The RepublioMis, however, were trinan- 
phant towards Treves, with the amy rf the MeseHie. 
It was ordered to march from IiOBgway towards Arkm, 
in order to intercept ail oonmtunieatiQn between Luxem- ' 
bourgh and Treves, with the countries of Liege and N»- 
mur ; this was executed with spirit iky Qetteatal Jourdan. 
He entirely defeated General Beanlieu* The battle lasted 
two days, according to tiie French General, and the car- 
nage on eiAer side was dreadfhl; but there is no an* 
thority fbr the number of killed, wounded, or prisoners* 

A severe engagement took place between the Duke of 
York and a Republican Army of 30»000 men, at Toumay. 
The right flank of the Combined Army was meant to be 
turned by the French ; but they were unsuccessful, for 


by Google 


ne Rnperor Joiiii the Duke 0f Toilr. 

tke regiment, coiMnaiided by Prince KftumtE, and po»ted 
in aireod, yepidsed thett Willi Ion. Foiled in ftas at- 
Umpi^ tbej ioagirt to ferce llie center of the Dnke's 
army, and attacked ft iffitfa gtettt jntrepiditj, in fhe face 
of the powerfnl artillery by lAadk it was defended. Baft 
the Repub lica ns retreated with the loss of 9000 men. 

General Gkirfifft made a conqnest over (he enemy, and 
obliged Ihem to take shelter ih Gonrtray; bat he was . 
quickly forced to netreat across the Heule, and to con- 
tinue it towards Tbielt ; where he protected Ghent, 
BmgeSy and Ostend. 

Tlie northern Republican army crossed the Sambre, 
and took Binche ; winch obliged General Kaanitz to re- 
treat, and station himself betwixt that place and Rouve- 
roy, in order to defend Mons against an attack from that 
qaarter. The French were determmed to dislodge him; 
and tbey attacked him on the 14th of May, with tiieir 
usual impetuosity; but fortune smiled on their antago- 
msts, who obliged them to repass fhe Sambre with the 
loss of 5000 men, and a few pieces of cannon. Thi^ 
cdated the Emperor, as he thought it had secured him 
that part of the country; for this reason be resolved 
to march to'die assistance of his Royal Highness the Duke 
of York, at Toamay. The forces of the Emperor, the 
Ihike, and General Clairfait were to join, and act against 
tiie line of fte Republicans, and. in this grand attack it 
was thought tfiey would be able to drive tiie enemy oat* 
of Fhnders. This was, however, disconcerted, owing to 
aome illicit correspondence with the people of Lisle ; and 
Ae French possessed the secret ere it was fit for eicecution. 

The Combined army, in five columns, began its march 
on the 16fli, in the evening ; two of tiie columns were 
tfieant to force the passages of the Marque ^ and^ making 

TOL. i.^iro, 9# c c 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


gg=gg8ggaa—i ^ 
The Dake of York rouU the Repablicam. 

aoeaa av itr n t • ■■ ■ ■ ' i ■ — ■ , ■ ■' \ ■ ,i,:jm ,\ > . ' s 

a vigorous attack on the French posts on the river, were 
to protect the three columns which remained. ' But it * 
was so late before they could attain their object/ and the ^ 
men so much exhausted, that they relinquished the exe- 
cution of the rest of their plan. ^ The column on the 
right, under General Basce, was as fully unfortunate ; for 
the Republicans at Moucron, being much more numerous 
than he had supposed, he did not think it prudent to giv9 
them battle, but resumed his former position at Warco- 
ing. The column under General Otto had more success/ 
as they drove tlie enemy from Waterloo, and forced their 
way towards Turcoing. The Duke of York likewise re- 
pulsed the Republicans, made them evacuate Lannoy, 
and marched on to Roubaix ; but he did not judge it ne^ 
cessary to proceed forward, being unacquainted with the 
situation of the columns on his right and left. The Duke - 
having acquainted the Emperor with his designs, the 
British forces were ordered to march forward and attack 
Morveaux, as his Majesty was compelled to co-operate 
with General Clairfait'. The Republicans were routed 
from their works at Morveaux by the intrepid General 
Abercromby; and the affairs of the 17th might be said 
to finish with success to the Combined Powers, but it wag 
of short duration. 

The French attacked Turcoing on the morning of 
the 18th ; it was commanded by Colonel Devay,. 
and the Duke of York sent two battalions of Aus- 
trians in order to make a diversion in that quarter; and 
they were strictly ordered to join the army, if pushed ; 
but, tlirough some mistake, they joined the Colonel at 
Turcoing, so that a chasm was made in the right of the 
Duke s forces, of which it was to be expected the Re- 
publican General would take advantage, A body of 
K>,000 French jere seen advancing from -Lisle, and 




The AUies defeated by the French. 

another, having made General Otto abandon his position 
near Waterloo, attacked 'the British forces in the rear. 
The^ troops under the command of the Duke, unable 
to stand against the enemy, gave way, and the Duke 
iras forced to fly to join Greneral Otto, with whom he 
remained, on account of the distressed situation of his 
own army. It is hard to say with whom the blame should 
rest ; the Allies are charged with a want of vigour and 
firmness, while tiie Austrians blame the Hanoverians, who, 
they say, " were the first to retreat. They caused the 
greatest confusion ; their cavalry not only destroyed their 
infantry, but ^threw all into such disorder, that they were 
a prey tp the pursuing enemy." 

Agreeable to one acoimnt, the loss of the Allies in this 
aflbir amounted to 3000 men ; a number we cannot think 
*' exaggerated, when we consider that the loss of the British 
alone has been reckoned at not less than 1000 men, and 
43 pieces of cannon. Two columns under his Imperial 
Mfigesty and the Prioee of Saxe Cobourg, were also de« 
feated with loss, whUe General Clairfait could afford no 
assistance, as his . army was divided from tlie rest by 
the Ly^. These unfortunate events again decided the fate 
of the Netherlands, and diffused consternation through- 
out the whole couutiy ; nor were a few Imperial procla* 
mations able to support the spirits of the Emperor's sub- 
jects. The scattered troops of the allies being collected^ 
they were again attacked by the Republicans on the 22d, 
with a force of about 100,000 men, designing, if possi- 
ble, to turn the right wing against the out-posts ; the 
French at first succeeded, but a support being sent under 
Greneral Fox, that able officer made the Allies maintain 
their position. Tliis dreadful contest lasted from five in 
the morning till nine at night, when victory was in favoui* 

c c 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Alternate ▼icU>ric9 of t^ dUferant Powen. 

of the Combined Powiera ; imd tke Fre&eh findiiig 
sitaation no longer tenable* withdrew in tiie nigiit, and 
marched baok towards Lble. Their siq^poeed Um ia at 
most incredible, being aUted at 12,000 BseB. Thna the 
French were defeated for the moment in their plan of 
forcing the Scheldt, and investing Toumay« General 
Pichegru commanded on this occasion* and his skiU was 
displayed in the position of his army. The right and 
left MTings, with the rear, were guarded fay a wood^ ae 
that it was impossible for cavalry to do them the least 

General Beaaliea marched into the dncby of BoaiDea» 
attacked and took the town of that name, conquered ei 
large body of the French stationed there, and gave up 
the town to plunder. The Repnbiicaas lost about 19N 
men killed, 800 prisoners, and 6 pieces of cannon. 

The French were successfully attacked by Genersl 
Kaunitz on the ^tk ; and he, coming on them by 8ur> 
prise, forced them to retreat with speed, leaving behind 
them 50 pieces of cannon. Their loss in killed has been 
stated at 3000, and 9000 prisoners, while that of tiie 
Austrians has been called trifling. The Republican^ 
were also beaten at Keyserslautem by Marshal Moilen- 
dorf; he surprised their entrenchments, and put numbers 
to the sword. 

These partial victories, however, gave no lasting ad^ 
vantages to the allied interest When Beaulieu was doing 
no more than trifling in Bouillon, Jourdan invaded tiie 
duchy of Luxembourg with an army of 40,006 men, 
and directly got possession of Arlon, which obliged Beau- 
lieu to give up his late conquest, and retreat with speed 
to defend Namur. 

AVhen Jourdan was able to stop the communication 


by Google 

The AUiet i»pidljr dcfeaieO. 

httweM GbaifWoi and Bmssela, be thoughi to lay siege 
tir tike Aurmer phms bat tbe Priaee of Oraafe attack- 
ed bim md <ibiigAd biia ivith great l64B la rai^e tha, 
tfif^e Md vecroea tbe Sambre* The Ft eaeb seon re- 
liwtod tbeir atepa with 60^000 omq, aod destroyed a 
atromg :frodrk wUeb had been thrown ap £np the defence 
ef ChailefoL Thia iraa a place of very great mpoT** 
teBBe ia the opiaioii of the Conbined Powers, whioh 
■ade tie Prince of Saxe Cobonrg undertalte its relief by 
every mean in hia power. At the wish of the Prince oS 
Orange and Oenend Beanhea^ he went with the princir^ 
pal part of tha OonfaiBfld Axmy and made a junction 
^m tha troops Badar thasa oSfiera on the 21th at Nivel- 
les, situated »7 milea Noirth.nortb.weat ef Charleroi, and 
» North-east by Eas« of M«is. Hie chief part of Joar- 
dan's army was atTen^leuve, Gosaelies^ and Fleurus, in 
«rder to covet the siege of Gharkroi. The Kepublican 
posts were attacked on the 26th in the morning, and de- 
fended with- fary tiB the afternoon was fiwr advanced. At 
length, vietory smiled on the French, who gained a signal 
advantage over the AHios, and forced them to retreat U> 
HaHe with graat loss. They continued thek victorioua 
career towards Brussels^ and made Cobonrg retreat from 
Halle ; and Cliarteroi snrr^dered by capitulation. 

Defeat now followed upon the heeb of the Allies with 
an astonishing degree of rapidity. Ypres was besieged by 
a KepubUcan Army of 30,000 men, and th«r operations 
were defended by another of 24,000 strong- Looking on 
this place as the key to West Flanders, the Allies deters 
mined to spare no expense in guarding it from the ene- 
my ; but General Clairfait, in wanting to make the enemy 
raise the siege, was three times defeated within five days, 
after fighting at the head of an army which kept its 


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' - ' ~ ■ ■ ' y 

The Republicans defeat the Spaniard!. 

.' ■ ■ ■ - ' ' - ■ 'f ■ ss^agqy 

ground like a wall of brass ; and,, at last, was obliged to 
make a precipitate retreat, in tlie greatest conAision to 
Ghent, about 44 miles. distant ; where he learned, that 
there was no further intercourse between that place and 
Oudenarde. Ypres, after a gallant resistance, surrender* 
ed to the Bepublicans under General Moreau on the 17tli 
of June, on terms, it is, said, not always held out by the 
victors to the conquered. On the defeat of the Austrian 
General Clairfoit, the interest of the Combined Powers 
was every day more desperate. General Walmoden was 
obliged to abandon Bruges to the Tictorious RepuUicaas* 
' who were received by the magistrates on the 24thof Jiuie^ 
with the greatest cordiality, after signing submission to 
the armies and sovereignty of the French. Republic. 

On the side of Spain the Republicans were equally 
brilliant. In the vicinity of St Jean de Luz, ten miles 
South- west of Bayonne, an aotion was fought, in vrhidi 
the French were conquerors, having dispersed or taken 
prisoners three regiments, and an Irish one from Ultona 
was entirely destroyed. The Spaniards abandoned Bou- 
lon, and their camp at Ceret, in the month of April ; and 
soon after. General Dagobert took Urge], a town situated 
near the East borders of Spain, in the province of Cata- 
lonia, about 85 miles North-northvwest of Barcelona, the 
capital. He found the citadel able to hold out for a 
length of time, and the bridge having been destix>yed» 
he was obliged td wait for reinforcements, during winch 
liiBC he was shot by a cannon ball, and General Dugom- • 
roier succeeded him. One victory gained by the French 
BOW was generally the prelude of anotlicr. On the 1st 
of May they obtained a victory near Ceret, on the borders 
of Spain, the fruits of which were 2000 prisoners, the 
astonishing number of 200 pieces of cannon, and tho 


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. 1M1> WAKS or KUHOPC. 109 

^ictariei of Ike Brituh in the West lodiei. 

Spanish .camps, mag^azities, and equipage, lliis was fol- 
kwed by a blow mo/^ terrible to Spain, their principal 
aitey being ahnost wholly destroyed, and their baggage 
and artillery taken by the conquerors. At CoUioure^ 
about 15 miles Sonth-east of Perpigtian, 7000 Spaniards 
laid down their arms before the Repablicans. 

St. Elmo was quitted by the Spanish forces on the 23d 
of May, and port Vendies surrendered to General Dugom- 
mier. Equally successful were the RepnblicanI in Italy, 
and vietoiy followed aU the^ir movements. In Piedmont 
akme they took 60 pieces of cannon and 2000 prisoners 
besides quantities of provisions and stores, and a manu* 
fJMtory of cloth of great value. Neither the Alps nor 
the Pyrenees had obstacles to check the Republicans. 
General Dumas, who commanded the aimy of the Alps, 
followed a superior enemy through the most dangerous 
places, and got possession of the Sardinian artillery and 
aagaeines, after many bloody conflicts. 

The victories of the British in the West Indies, were 
as rapid as those of the French on the Continent of Eu- 
Wfe, owing to the ^ skill and courage of the two brave 
commanders. Sir John Jervis and Sir Charles Grey ; so 
that time was not granted the enemy even to put them- 
solves upon their guard ; ,and, before it could reasonably 
be supposed that (me island was reduced, they appeared 
in full force before another. On the conquest of Marti- 
nico the troops were instantly embarked for St. Lucia, 
whieh fell into the hands of the British on the 4th of 
April. The enemy lost a great quantity of stores and 
artillery ; but the subjugation of the island was accom- 
plished without much carnage on either side. 

Here the commander-in-chief left Colonel Sir Charles 
Oordon ; and on the day on vhich be finished the reduc- 


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GoadftlMpe fiiiveMtert to nm BrMtb. 

tioa ef St. Lacki, he embarked liis troops and rcdamed 
to Marfmioo* Ob ike 6ih and Tth^ ik$ tand ftrocs ^Mm 
rcBMyved to the ttaBSpertB ; «iid m Ike Mi, « det»di^ 
neat Wi sent to reduoo the smdl islttds cded Am 
Samts, (situated on the South of Omdaloupe,) wUeh tha^ 
executed with ibe grescte^t gaUoayirf ittid^ispslch. Tw» 
of 4he^ ships, the Boyne and file Toteran, amdiosed oa 
the momin; of &e t(Mi off Poia<r^a-P«trcu iii Gmds* 
kmpe, and thoagii 4e troopiji were not aH anv^d. Sir 
Charles Gnsy resoWed to make a land^ at Qosiei' Btff 
Ae next movning', \4ieii his 4roaps were covered 4ky tho 
{^ns of llie Winchelsea, iriiioh Lord OaiCos ittit up M 
dose to the French batteries, that they abandoned 4ieas 
iratii precipitatfon. Next day, (the I3<h,) at 4hre in tho 
morning', Sir Charles toe^k the Foft caHed Ftenr 4'Bpoo, «t 
fte point of the bi^yonot, and tttts got temiDdiate posses* 
lion of Grmde Terre ; this was feUowed on the 20Ch by 
the conquest of Bassotorve, (sitoaitod 'On the S< m<h m sit 
ef "Ae island,) which surnendored hj capitolation. It is 
staled that tiie mnmber of men at Gaaidrioape, ^paiifiedl 
to bear arms, amounted to 9677, of winch Iho 'eumf 
are said 'to hare lost 232 m kiHod, wounded and prioa^wa 
at Fleur d'Epee, and Ae Brithdi about 80. Tbo Con^ 
Biandor-in->chief returned agsnto Maninioo, and lA At 
command of Guadalevpe wiitb Geneval Dondaa. 

One ekeomstaiee of Hbs perM wsis, the bad faam^o* 
moot of the Bk'iHish Navy, whkh made ths Frenehfumo^ 
o>ar merdhant vessels so muei, 4iat, in the monti mt 
May, tiKsy took 00 sail, wUbt our 'capteres wero A 
BMSt nothing; anong others, they <ook«igbt Westl»* 
diamen, and the Ui^n packet, with a yast qmrnlntf of 

This metiMd of annoylDg o^r tade waa strattfe^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Battle of «lie tnt of Jime. 

abandoned by the French; and their tMudety ibr « coi>* 
voy, expected every hour from Anierict> irith the tich 
produce of their West-India island*, made the ConTefl* 
tioB order a fleet of 26 soil of tlie line (in May) to put to 
sea from Brest in order ho protect it. The feoamaad waa 
given to Admiral YiUaret Joyeuse ; and he had on board 
one of tlie representatives of the people, J^Sto Bon St. 
Andre, as a Commissioner, or spy upon the Admiraf* 
conduct. As Lord Hove, the !&iglish Commander, had 
information of this rich convoy, he pnt to sea in the 
same month, with 26 sail of ttie line. On the S91b, the 
British admiral saw the French fleet; but it was at a 
great distance from him, on his weather bow. When 
they came quite in sight of each otber^ and within reach 
of shot, the 20ih and following days were taken up witli 
a^ number of manoeuvres and skirmislies till the 1st of 
June, when his lordship forced the enemy to a close ao^ 
tton, after having got what mariners call tfieir weather- 
gage, lliis wonderful naval engagement was fought on 
both sides with the most determined bravery; but the 
Britidi tars were superior to the Republican sailors^ 
both in knowledge and discipline. In manoeuvring be^ 
fore the grand attack, several of the French ships were 
much dami^ed, and, at best, they could in no sense be 
thought fit to cope with the British commander. 
' Some ships in both fleets had their masts completely 
carried away ; and die numbers who were slain, or 
otherwise perished, make humanity shudder. The Le 
Vengeur of 74 guns was sunk, and all hands on board 
perished. The patriotic sentiments of tlie crew 
will probably command the admiration of the latest 
posterity. When the guns upon the lower deck were 
completely under water, tliey continued firing those of 

VOL. !•— NO. 0. D D 

■ Digitized by V:iOOQIC 


Tin Britisli Fleet victoriovt. 

the upper tier ; and when going into eternity, they made 
the air resonhd with the cries of ** Vive la Republique ! 
" Vive la liberty, et la France T About an hour after, 
the engagement became -general and bloody ; the Repub- 
lican Admiraly who was engaged with the Queen Char- 
lotte^ crowded off, and his example was followed by aU 
that were able to carry sail. The British fleet were also 
much disabled, since many of the French ships escaped 
after they had struck; and two of them in particular 
had no difficulty in getting clear off with a small sail on 
a battered foremast Six out of the twenty-six were 
taken into Plymouth by the British Admiral ; so that the 
loss of the Republicans on this memorable day, amount* 
ed to seven sail of the line, including the unfortunate Ije 
Vengeur which went to the bottom. TPhe British had 
272. .men killed, and 787 wounded. The loss of the 
French must have been great, and has been reckoned at 
1900 in killed and wounded. This was thought at the 
time to be the most sanguinary and best fought actions 
that ever took place on the ocean. 

The French, upon the whole, were no great losers by ' 
this battle, for they gained the object for which it was 
undertaken. But a iew days after it was fought, the 
rich American convoy arrived in safety,' consisting of 
160 sail, whose cargoes were moderately valued at fiv« 
millions sterling, exclusive of a vast quantity of naval 
stores and provisions which they had on board* 


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All Foreignert, expeHed the ComcBtioo. 


The political state of France evinced the greatest powen 
pf human energy^ and every thing was done to direct 
the State against the danger which threatened it. A mili* 
tary Commission was formed under Carnot and others^ 
;vrh6 suited themselves to the spirit of the times* 
. Such miracks, if we may so call them» were acted by 
this people, that they seemed to know no political weak* 
ness» as if they adopted it as an infallible mami* 
^' That a nation to be great 'tis sufficient that she wiUs it." 

Tlie sections of the Brissotinea and the Jacobins siSl 
continued at variance, tlie latter were Christians^ 
and thought that power in the hands of the former^ 
rould be as dangerous to them as if in the BoyaKsta, 
and Robespierre resolved to take advantage of this pioa| 

All foreigners were expelled from the ConYention^ and 
the people taught that they had been so ofteti deceived^- 
anew Ibe of conduct was best to be adopted. Danton, 
unconscious of the danger of himself and his friends, 
entered the tribune, and recommended confidence in the 
Committee, Nineteen of his Colleagues were, however, 
l^nillotined in a shorter space than an Equitabfe Court 
yrould have taken to look over their papers* 

Ilis friends little thought they would so soon becomor 

{he victims of the same hasty judgment The Conven-i 

tion were informed, (31st March,) by Liegendre that fouif 

of their members were arrested ; " Danton is one of them ; 

D n 2 


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Executioa of DaotoD. 
i » ■ ■ - ' ■ ■ 11 ■ - ■■■ 

*' I know not the others ; you should hear them ; I am 

'' pure, and so I believe is Danton." This gave offence to 
Robespierre, who exclaimed at Legendre's not seeming 
to know the others, a^d he. moved the previous question^ 
which was carried. 

I A decree of arrest being confirmed against Danton, La- 
eroiXy Phitippeanxy Camille Desraoulins, and Herault 
Sechelles, tiiey were brought before iixe Revolutionary 
Trilraiia!. None appeared to be agitated. The wit of 
Danton di8c<Hi€6rted the Judges, and he tlirew small baUs 
about the size of a pm in tlieir fietces. All the prisoaeis 
asked for Robespierre to be present, but he excused 
Iiimself under the view of assassination. They were 
sentenced at two, and in three hour» afterwards brought 
out to the guillotine. Danton suffered last, and turned 
kimself up to the dreadful axe ¥rith such magnanimity 
thatibe spectators were penetvated with respect. 
< Danton is described as a man of abilities and oloquenoe^ 
trained to the law. His person was tall, rather corpulent, 
and bat few could look at him without being prepos^ 
sessed in his favour. Many counter revolutionary 
diargcs wese alledged against him, but were never prov- 
ed* Whett in the prison of the Conciergerie, he thus 
exclaimed, ** lis better to be a fisherman than govern 
'' men ; the fools as they see me pass to the scaffold will 
^ cry, ^ Vive la Bepublique.' Last year I had the Rc- 
'' volutionary Trftunal instituted ; I beg pardon ; it was 
^ to prevent the nassacresof September.*' 

Danton is thought to have been the planner of the at- 
tack upon the palace on the 10th of August, which dread- 
fiii outrage was executed by the ruffian Westerman, and 
they both ptsrished in one day on the same scaffold. 

At this period- Fouquier TinviUe, the public accuser. 


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The PtmouB £liiahelh tried and executed. 


devoaikded that the aiater of the ci-devant King^ should be 
gpirea up to the BevotntioBary Tribunal. • The Pdocess 
£iizabeth was accordingly sent to the prison of the Con^ 
Qfejqg^ie en the 10th of May, and appeared before her 
judge's. The trial vas of the same hasty kind wUch had 
always distinguished this bloody court, being composed 
•f a few absurd questions put to the prisoner: she 
bad neitheir advocates nor witnesses of airy description 
vhatcTer, and was condemned to the guiSotsne without 
lortbeir ceremony. 

; Bobespierre fed his yanity by taking the lead at a pro- 
fession in hononr of the Supreme Being. And the auk ward 
joy which he shewed in return for this flattery; gave the 
malevolent an opportunity of calling him an ambitious' 
conspirator, who meant to usurp the sovereign power. 
Attempts were soon made to assassinate some of his par« 
ty, and he was foolish enough to exalt himself into a ser- 
irantof the Most High, and mounted the tribune to thank 
God that he and his party as faithful servants to their 
country, ware accounted worthy of the daggers of ty- 


Though the majority held all the authority of France 
IB dieir own hands, and could send Bobespierre to the 
guillotine with as much ease as they had sent Danton and 
hundreds of others, they were fearftil of the JFacobtn* 
Club, which was totally devoted to Bobespierre, as aho 
of the Conttnittee of Public safety. The policy, Aere- 
fore, was to create jealousy between the Committee and 
tbe Club^ by representing the latter as a check upon the 
Govenunent. Tbe bait succeeded ; the Committee thought 
to see its rival annihilated in its fiivour, and Bobespierre 
feared that he must sacrifice one of his supports, or he 
could not secure either. His wish was in ftivour of the ' 




Robetpierre ordered into arrost. 

Club« for by their assistance he could overthrow the 
Committee, and .form another, devoted soleljr to his. iar-: 

To the Chtb, Robespierre declared his relmnoe «ti their 
zral and good opinion, and his friends strove to get are* 
sdation passed in favour of his patriotism. Tbispro* 
daced false accusations; and it was soon reported thaA he 
was arming his partisans against the Convention. Bil- 
laud Varennes declared it was resolved in the Jacobn 
Club to murder a number of the representatives, and a 
violent speech against tyrants ended with a charge 
against Robespierre, that the words probity and -virtue^ 
were in his month, but be put those qualities und^ 
fpot by his practice. . 

~ These charges so deeply impressed the mind of Ro-» 
bespierre, that he rushed towards the tribune to vindi* 
cate hi^iself, but he was not listened to. A multitudo. 
of voices shouted, *' Down ivith the tyrant, down with 
the tyrant!" ~ 

After Tallien had ended a speech against him, hft 
moved that the sittings of the Convention should be per- 
manent till the Revolution was completed ; that Robes- 
pierre and his gang should be instantly airested ; and it 
was resolved that Henriot, the commander, and his wholp 
staff, should be all arrested. 

Robespierre still endeavoured to defend himself ; but 
so violent was the Convention now, that he was not al- 
lowed to be heard. Couthon and Le Bas used every 
means to protect him, but in vain 5 and when they failed, 
they voluntarily entreated to be included in the decree 
of arrest When this passed the Convention, an usher, 
was directly ordered to take Maximilian Robespierre into 
safe custody. He hesitated to obey, but, Robespierrn 




Robefpiem Cfcapei to tlie Hotel de Vtlle. 

gmng a signal of obedience, he followed him out of tb6 
halL Tlie administrator of police^ one of their parti- 
sansy reAised to admit them at the Luxembourg, and 
tbey were taken to the Hotel de Vilie. 

Henriot found means to escape ; but his troops were 
not hear^ in the cause, his artillery excepted. He form- 
ed them in three divisions ; one to protect the Hotel de 
Ville, another against the Committee of Public Safety, 
and a third to operate against the Convention. Robes- 
pierre and his companions in the Hotel de Viile formed 
tliemselves into a Convention, and pronounced the repre- 
sentatives of the people to be traitors to their country. 
Iliis was the most alarming moment since the begin- 
ning of the Revolution. The most worthy inhabitants 
•f Paris imagined their destiny turned on the event of 
this day ; and taking advantage of the alarm bell, they 
roosed the citizens by the cry of Vive la Convention ! 

The representatives of the people iii the Convention, 
were very active ; for, on hearing of the escapee of Robes- 
pierre and his associates, they voted them outlaws and 
tndton, and some of their meitkbers were chosen to lead 
the people against the usurpers. A proclamation was 
issued^ urging the inhabitants to defend their liberties and 
national representation. 

The members of the Convention appointed to com- 
mand the people, found themselves able to attack tiie 
Hotel de Ville, where the outLiw and his associates bad 
taken shelter. Bourdon de FOise appeared at the Pkce 
die Greve, and read the proclamation issued by the Con- 
wention ; on bi^ getting into the hall in complete armour, 
the rebeb were deserted in 'their greatest danger, and 
turned their own weapons on themselves, but most were 
pnevented from their designs. Robespierre fired a pistol 


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Robeipierre and others exeotttfMf. 

in his moutb, which wounded him ia the jaw, while a 
gens d'anne wounded him in Us side. His broiher brok* 
a leg and an ann by jumping but of a window ; Le Baa 
shot himself upon the spoL 

The ci-devant commander of die troops endeavoured 
to bring them to defend the traitors ; but by the ohmour 
of some persons in the streets, he was thrown oat of the 
window. The rebels were taken before the Revolu- 
tionary Tribunal, and, as it was not difficult to make ottt 
their persons, the process was easy, iThey, with Hidt 
numerous associates in villainy, were condemned to die 
in the Place de la Revolution, where the blood of the 
unfortunate Louis XVI. of his penitent consort, and 
of many innocent persons, had been shed. On the 28lh of 
July, at seven in the evening, they were escorted to th^ 
place of execution, attended by a greater number df 
people than ever assembled on a similar occasion. Bat 
nothing can' justify the transports which were seen in 
every face, while the people werd unamm^us in ex- 
claiming, *' Ah, the Villains ! Live the Republic ! Live 
•'the Convention!" The faces of Maximilian Robes- 
pierre, Gontfaon, and Henriot, attracted the populdoe, as 
they were covered with blood and wounds. 

« ^v»^s»^sr».y<»»^^#^ # »^#» 


The bat(]eof Fleurus seemed decisive of the (ate of the 
Netherlands. It was fought on the very ground on 
which the French had discomfited the AIHes a century 



fkb . *» REraju^^ r-iAr 




by Google 

AA'*<rARS OF £t;ROi>£. 409 

Bnisflels larreDden to the Freoch. 

before, and Jourdan, with Republican troops, was the 
rival of ihe Mafsnal Loiembour^h. A balloon was ele- 
vated^ to wjiicb £tienne, Adjatani-fienferal of the army, 
was attached, and he corresponded with the French Ge- 
neral during tlie action, and acquainted him of every 
fresh position taken by (he enemy. He conveyed his* 
informatioh by notes fastened to a:n arrow. The loss of 
the Coinhined Forces was very great. They retreated id 
all quarters, and leu Bruges, Toiirhay, Mons, Onde- 
itarde, Bircrssels, and eveni Namur, unprotected. 

The I)uke of Tork retreated fromToumay to Renaix, 
and General Wahnoden left Bruges. Earl Vtoira, how- 
ever, gave the British' Commander iii Chieif mlnch assis- 
tance, after be had rebiilsed the French at Alost, wiiero 
Lieutenant Colonels Doyle and Vandeleiir distinguished 
theinselvex - 1 1 af Malines, where he forced theiii to re- 
tire, after t!;cy had attacked the outposts of the Ciuke hi 
front of the candl leading from Brussels to Antwerp. 

The Prince.of Saxe Cobourg, however, was determin- 
ed not^ to give up the ancient domain of tile House ot 
Austria without a severe struggle. !flte collected the re<-' 
miiki of the. army, whicli the French attacked aloid forced 
from Mons. Tie rear guard 6t the AHies quitted tne 
^own 6y one gat'e^ while the van of the French entered 
hy imother. The Prince fortined iimself^ at Soigiiies, 
and made the post as strong as tha{ oP Jemappe. The 
French, l^owever, braved the fire of the immense ai€t 
lery, and shewed their excellent discioline by being 
Beedless of the slaughter wEici ensnecL 't^eir victory 
was completed' (Lmidst a ioffiEIe cariiage. The' Aus^ 
^ans quickTy passed throtig^h Brussels : the ihihabitaht^ 
saw their flight with satisfactioh. iiey opeoed t^ei^ 
gates to tho French wit& t&e greatest joy, anfl prochum- 

roU I.— KO. ft » B rn^^n]o 

Digitized by VrivjOv IC 


Genenl Clatrfait defeated. 

ed their anion with the Republic, which was so eminently 
victorious. Oudenarde, Ghent, and Ostend, joined ui 
these exaltations, and the sovereignty of the Low Coun- 
tries was lost to Austria, probably for ever. 

The French armies of the North, Sambre, and Mease, 
joined at Brussels, and got an immense quantity of stores 
and magazines, during their rapid career. The luxuri- 
ant crops of the Netherlands were on the ground ; and 
the Republicans levied heavy contributions of money and 
com. Nieupdrt resisted till the .19th, though, during 
the blockade, it was dreadfully bombarded by an army of 
dO,000 men. 

The Prince of Orange was stationed at Waterloo ; but 
on account of the strong reinforcements which the enemy 
were constantly receiving, found the post at Waterloo 
no longer tenable, and retreated across the Dyle witk 
great loss. He fixed his head-quarters at Niel,-. where 
the French did not suffer him to remain long. The Stadt- 
holder invited the Dutch to give every tenth man to save 
his country and humble France ; but his subjects listened 
with coldness and indifference. 

General Kleber marched from Brussels to LioUvain, on 
the 15th of July, with one division under his command ; 
to favour which movement Lefevre and others continued 
their march in the front of the Dyle. At a place called 
the Iron Mountain, General Clairfait endeavoured to stop 
the enemy, but was defeated with the loss of 6000 men 
in killed, wounded, and prisoners. The Abbey of Flo- 
, rival was seized upon by Generals Dul).ois and Lefevre,. 
while Kleber attacked Louvaih, which, after a gallant 
resistance, was obliged to surrender. In' the rapid re- 
treat towards iTirlemont, the Austriians lost a prodigious 
number of men in killed and taken prisoners, . 

. Digitized 



The Territory of Liege taken bj the French, 

. Namurwas evacuated ill the night of the IGthbyVOene'- 
ral Beaulieu, land on the 20th the keys were oJSered at 
Qie bar of the Convention. 

; llie femous pass at the town of Lier, defended by 
General Wahnoden, was forced, and a trumpeter dis- 
patched to Antwerp, to announce their design of ent*- 
ing that city. On the 34th they got possession of Ant-* 
wcrp without opposition, and found immense magazilnes 
of hay with thirty pieces of cannon; altiiough the cdm* 
bined powers had destroyed magazines of forage. at their 
departure valued at half a million sterling. 

By the retreat of the Austrians from Lonvain,^ the 
iprbole territory of liege was exposed to the intrepid 
Jourdtn. He pressed &e enemy to Maestricht, when his 
advanced gix^Ltd marched, on the 27th, towards the river 
J^r, while the combined army was stationed before liege, 
where it defied the cannonade of the French for som6 
^e, but at length retreated with loss^. The Bepublicans 
entered liege, while the Allies entrenched themselves on 
the height Qf Chartreux. ' 

The Allies abandoned Fort LQIo on the river Scheldt^ 
ai^d General Moreau took the island of Cadsand, in which 
were seventy pieces of cannon, one-third , of which were 
brass, a great quantity of tents and waggons, with, 
military and other stores. General Almain summoned 
the garrisoQ of Sluys ; but Vanderdugan repliedl, ** the 
honour pf defending a place like Sluys, that of command- 
ing a brave garrison, and the confidence they repose in 
me, arc my answer." This brave ojfficcr bore the attacks 
of the besiegers till the 25th of August, at which time he 
surrendered. The garrison were made prisoners, btil 
H^ ]French general allowed them to march out with the 
bonours of war, in testimony of their K*^'''** ^f^*(^^ 


CoDtioaed Suoceu of the French Armiei . 

1^ ^ 

'Pk9 W^^ ^f' ^^ BliUie and AfQ^elle i^ere abo yioto- 
Mipr%. Jl^ W^pumry battle ens)Die4 at Spirp9> and vifs- 
tory seemed doubtfal. The next d^j the Fri^fi^lf attack* 
^ the Phi^sians witb ^eater v^qur, and ffter 9fi^pn at- 
t|p^8 Gariie4 the posts w)i^h the Pmssians bad fort|fie4 
o|i ^ f9P of piatobetgy acooi^ited the loftiest pipiintaqi 
ip Uie (^rrite^ 9f I^PPX ]Popft, TTie ^pul^Uc^ U^Jf. 
piii^ i(«iM> Resides a^upnmtion, va^^os, horses, vf^ ^ 
ni}D4>er ff prisoners. The Prussian troops, qoqE)n)^e<| 
^iy |hf Pr^p? pf Hqhenlojje, retrp^ted t^ f djckhf^flfeji, 
At Tripstadt, after a bloody qontest, the Frepch werp 
viotoqous, and took two bowits&ers^ if|t|) g\x pieces of 

llie Freqch attacl^ed every pof t of the ^nemy froi|i 
Jif^e^st^t to the Phine, a 4i$tance of ^venteen mil^^ 
ajong' the rpv^r X^etu^cB. A- cannonade began at two 
p'clock fn^ cqntinued till e^ht in the evening, when the 
troops pf the JBfiperor retreated witi) ^xeat pf ecipitationi 
a^d pa^^^d pyqr .fte Bhi^ie^ while the Prussians retreated 
towards Guntersblam, and a part towards Mentz. Kei- 
serslautep siirrendered - to the French without oppo* 

Treves^ Lf^idrecy, Valenciennes^ Qucsnoy, and Condf , 
f<pU into the bands of the French. Hie Republicans 
found Id these places an immense quantity of stores of 
eyery deifory)tion« with upwards of 500 pieces of cannon^ 
and plenty of musquets and ammunition. It is stated^ 
mt not less that 3,000,0001. bad been expended on the 
fprtiSca^ons of Valenciennes by his Imperial Majesty. A 
ti»oi;^s^4 emigrants were here delivered up to t^ieir^im* 
IJI^cc^m ^pantrymen. 

Tbfi Bfit^I{ amy, on retreating from Antwerp, march* 
^^WMlBpffik ^e f]|g;ht fBolnin^ passed t)irough tbf 

Digitized by'VjOOQlC 

AND jy^BB Qg EpyQpgt ai3 

The Duke of Tork retreats across the Mease. 

icitjr Qfi the 4tb of August, and the left inarched round i^ 
Iff Of 4f? \9 occupy a pps^^op about four {niles distant, to 
^^9Pfn^ W|Jli ||ie ^ri^opr Tl?« Ppi??© of Or^ge was 
4)l€Q9Pfei) in fnili^ ' t^e town and garrison in the best 
- $td^^ of f}pf$Hf ^ yfhio\i it w^ believed woujd be power- 
fully assisted by ti^ Pul^p of Tprk^ army^ consisting of 
^,QPPfi{e|i. Thp Difkip, however, retreated from Breda 
^T^df S.gi3-)p-Di^ ^ ittie enfl of A^^t; ^th little or 
Bo opposition from the enemy. 

. Geifpr^l Pichegru w^ ^t the head of 80,000 men. Tha 
]^jepyt)Uc^s fiirpf4 ^ village of Bpxtel on the 24th, with 
tftpir. advanced gufurd. Qis Rpyal Higbniess retreated 
§cr9S9 the ^epse 09 t}i^ 16t)i» and took. a position about 
li^ee miles from Qrayc. In these attacks the Dutch say 
^ the 41Iips lost 2000 men, and add, that the Buke of 
'Ypr^L's {^treat gave so «asy a parage into Holland, tliat 
an eiffmjr.of v^qh le33 courage tbui th^ French, woifhi 
Ip^y^ f eqdily undertaken it. 

Thp ^ripcc of Cobojirg u^ed aU his efforts to rouse the 
^rptes of Germany to m^e « desperate effort in vindica- 
tion of Gennanic liberty. He allowed that the resourcea 
ja( the Fjrench were ipexbau^tible, q^4 ^^if forces innu- 
merable. |Ie deolared, that if they did not assist in re- 
pelling t|ie inv£^4^> be wquUI pass the Hhine, a^d leave 
the|n and their property to be plundered by the R^pub- 

Tbi9f however, was not the time for ifisujpg.mapifea- 
4)»ef, wIm^Q tJ^e French were so eminei^^y yictorioi^ip 
^j^^i fiyerj ^uart^f ; but th^ Emparpr loojeed on Aiiu- 
t^ ander the same necessity to try the e;9(p^rinient H^ 
i»dmitt^4 that his resources w^e total^ ^adequate tp 
4S9mbat such ^a tncmy with any chajpce of success. He 


by Google 


.■! ■ I. I ,-, ' I. .li t 

The FreochteDter Aiz-la-Chapelle. 

felt indignant at his Prussian Majesty, for accepting a 
subsidy from Great Britain^ and omitting to fulfil his 
compact. He stated that so strong were the French 
armies, and so inconceivably rapid their march, that he 
was under the necessity of withdrawing his forces, and 
employing them to defend his own dominions. 

The Prince of Saxe Cobourg was dismissed from his 
command, and bid farewel to bis army in a most pathetic 
* address. 

The Austrians, under General Latour, were stronglj 
entrenched near liegc, and two strong camps were occu^ 
pied by 18,000 men on the river Aywaille, whose banks 
were also defended by very steep rocks; The Republicans 
carried all at the point of the bayonet, and took the camps 
at full charge. The loss of the Austrians here was very 
considerable. General Clair&it, then between liege and 
Maestricht, sent eighteen battalions to support Latoor, 
by which opportune assistance ho collected the scattered 
remains of his army. The Firench again gave battle on 
fhe next day, and he was obliged to retreat to Herve, after 
losing all his artillery. 

^ General Clairfait retreated to Juliers, and the French 
made their triumphal entry into Aix-la-Chapelle. 

His position at Juliers was taken with that judgment 
for which he has always been eminently distinguiished ; 
but the French crossed the Roer, and gave battle to all 
the posts of the brave, but unfortunate Austrian com- 
mander. The conflict was terrible, and continued four 
days, but victory was ^in favour of the Republicans. 
Claiifait, unable to maintaui the oombat, and having suf* 
fered great bss, took advantage of a fog, and effected 
his retreat Juliers immediately surrendered, and the 




___ ' ^ " r 

The Army of the Rhine oonitaotly Tictorioni. 

arsenal* was found abundantly supplied. The Austiian 
genend retlreated in the greatest confusion, and he lost 
niunbers of men both in retreating and fighting. 

, Cologne was taken by the French on the 6th of October, 
and they were welcomed by the inhabitants with every 
demonstration of joy. 

. CoUents was odious to the Republioaas, as being ear- 
liest IB sheltering the emigrants. The Allies were busied 
f&r two months in throwing up very formidable redoubts 
before it. In October General Jourdan sent General 
Marcean to Coblentz, with his division; he fell in with 
4ie Hussars of the Alliies op the 22i, when he boldly en- 
l^ed ihpm, kiUed vast numbers, and took fifty prison- 
era. On the following day he took the redoubts with his 
iaSuktrf, by assault, and the Austrians repassed the 
BUne in confusion. The Republican army of the Rhine 
was going on from victory to victory. Frankendal 
lielded to the Freneb on the 17th of October, and the 
next day they triumphantly entered into Worms. The 
mns^ of the^ Moselle took Bingen, from whence the siege 
of Mentz may be said to have been begun. 



' Fort Crevecoeur and Bois-Ie-Bue fell into the hands of 
the Republicans, 


by Google 

ilG HisTORt OF inxvoLtari AcMA^artc, 

JL 6dt!fh colamti defe&ted. 

After the takings bi Bois-le-Dbc, Gen^nS PMhi^gttf 
asked for leav^ of absetfce fiponi tts aiUy, Iffir b^WA btt^liq|. 
been mach }Djare^. He had cotnibstMted dtnKfi^ two a6^ 
live campcugns, wiffidat ifem^ oii6d bieateii. Thfi (Sen- 
Veution granted his reqtfeit, zHA nomiiteted GMMI 
Moreau to succeed him. 

The Duk^ of To^k states, that oA il!(i ISBi- m ]I«(>«Ih 
licans attaclled aA Ae advanced posts on Us ^'f^t^Ai§ 
with gre&t force, aihd tTiat die |[yost t6 Hth left bTtfiffr 87tif 
regiment was fotHtQ, which 6l>T7^ed Madoy H6pe lo retiM 
on {he dylLe alonfg l!he Waial, i^Utfar b6 did M some titev 
and did not meet w^ mach opposifkii Arott ft^ eneidyi 
His Itoyat Highness then adds, ^^ unibi^taniite^, kdfM 
ever, a strong b6dy of d^e enem/f hnss^s, bdii|; irib^ 
faked for the'corpi^ of jfloh^n, the regiment dFdweUhfliem 
(o come on nnmolestd'd, wh6n tbb bossani lAiMdMfel) 
attacked; and the Aar^owi^si of fhe djfke, #MA» M 
every o(h6r occ^ion^nlti&rt haVe allbrded ar sb^uiSty' ter A< 
infantry, m thi^ in^taAce adted a|^aiiM them, «l tti^ 
were drfveri off it by thd eAem/^ chaCrge.^ OP the Wft 
regiment only th^ raafof iDid My men* €^ckpiA the dt^ab** 
tations of the field of battle. General Picbegru says, that 
he made 600 prisoners, besides 69 emigrants, and took 
four pieces of cannon. Three hundred of the unforta* 
nate emigrants were also cut to pieces. 

The French having made the passage of the Hense, 
in order to attack the left wiog of his army, on the 4th 
of November Gen^nri^WfttfActi'MmMered a sortie from 
Nimeguen, under Major-General de Buigh, consisting of 
800Q men^ inchiding Dutch, Bi9tidl> and Hanaveriaos. 
By the official returns the Republicans lost about SOOmen. 
aud that of the Allies, independent of the Dutch^ was 




EvMMCioa of NinMgttM by th» Bvhfiib. 

£!•• The intrepid C^neral de Burgk, nrho ooiiiiiiaiided» 
WQS woHoded* TUi ofeeked Ae d«»igi» of the FrenoU 

liie t«iwii was te be deserted on the evenings of the 7tl| 
•f October* The Hasoverian and British troops effeeted 
a retreat in a tolerable manner ; but their harry in de^ 
stroying- the bridge before the Dntch troops couhl reach 
it, prodnced the most fatal eftots to the Allies. Finding 
it on ftre, they sought to pass Ate river over the great 
fiying bridge ; but no sooner had tiiey got upon it, than 
it swung round, either owing to tike Republican artiUery 
having out the ropes, by whidi it was kept in one po- 
sition, or from a mistake of the troops, who, tliinking 
that the enemy had possession of the bridge, fired upon 
it for a length of time. The issue was, fliat they perish* 
ed by shot, or m the river, or were taken by thd Repub- 
licans, who then had possessioik of Nimeguen. General 
Miehaud obtained the possessioA of Phflippine, on the 
Scheldt, and of Sas^de*6hent. 

Hie French passed the House, and General Kleber 
summoned Ments, but wi&out etbet In spite of two 
sorties, the batteries were completed in less than two days, 
with some sti'ong works on the Idmberg. Hie Republic 
can artiUery was increased by'thirty pieees of cannon. 
General Kfeber a second time summoned the town, and 
wlien the trumpeter left Ae gates the besieging army 
poured shot and shells m the town, and continued it dur- 
ing the night In the whole circumference of Hit city it 
was not easy to find a spot that could be looked on as a 
place of safety ; many public and private boiUtngs were 
wholly destroyed, and nothing was heard but the dismal 
groans of ftkt wounded and &e dying. 

This dreadfid spectacle lasted for three days; at the 

VOL. I.— NO, 10, f W rr^c^n]f> 

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BeUegaide Minreoden to tbe French. 

end of which time. the governor, overpowered by the sup- 
plications q( the miigistrates and people, offered to pego- 
ciate with General Kleber, and the city surrendered by ca- 
pitalatioii on the 4th of November. The garrison weft 
made prisoners of war, and were not to bear arms against 
France till regularly exchanged^ 

The army of the Eastern Pyrenees was commanded by 
General Doppet, who marched w the 14th of June from 
Puycerda to Campredon, which he made his head-quar- 
ters, after -he had become master of Tonges and Ribes« 
At Ripoll he attacked a manufactory of arms, which the 
Spaniards had established there, and added a great quan- 
* tity of them to his military stores. Th^ siege of Belle- 
garde was carried on, to relieve which place Count do 
rdnion made a bold attempt, after being reinforced by 
foreign battalions lately come from Africa. The Repub- 
licans at first gave way, but returned to the charge, soon 
took the heights, ^rom which they were driven, and 
finished the defeat of the Spaniards, who.left 2S00 dead 
in the field. 

Bellegarde surrendered to General Dugomnner on tbe 
SiOth of the. ensuing month, the garrison of which con- 
sisted of. 6000 men. On the day following Count de 
rUnion made a very gallant attempt to retake it, but was 
forced to give up every idea of succeeding after losing 
600 men, and four pieces of cannon. Here the victori* 
ous career of General Dugommier ended, by a victory 
he gained over the Spaniards and emigrants at Spouilles. 
Great havoc was made of the unfortunate emigrants ; but 
a thousand Spaniards and Portuguese obtained quarter as 
prisoners of war^ While General Dugommier was di- 
recting the operations, he was killed by a sliell. The 
same montl^ Count da YtltMU a&d three other Spanish 




: The FreacH deflect the Spaaludt. 

Generals were killed near St. Fernando de Figneres. This 
place cost the Spanish court an enormons sum. of money, 
and six months were spent in erecting batteries f<Mr its 
defence, all mounted with pieces of very heavy artillery« 
Their strength here was 40,000 men,' and their entrench « 
ments remarkably strong. These great works, which 
took them six months to complete, were carried by the . 
Republicans in three hours ! 

The array of the Western Pyrenees was fUUy as sue* 
cessfiil ; for the redoubt of M^ Louisa, the camp of 
St Jean de Lu£, and the fort of St. Barbe, were stormed 
and taken in the^course of a day by Delaibrde, general 
ef division. The Spaniards lost a vast number of men in 
kiHed, besides tents, cannon, and prodigious quantities of 
smmunition and small arms. The villages of Bera and 
Lessaca also fell ihtd the power of the French : these were 
a most valuable acquisition, as they contained oitensi/e 
granaries 'to support the army. 

• A division of the Republicaq apnyp commanded by 
General Moncey, took the port of the passage ; the day 
following St. Sebastian' was invested, and surrendered 
by capitulation ; ihe garrison were made prisoners of war. 
No sooner were these places reduced, than two ships, 
laden with powder, ball, wine, and other article^, not 
knowing of the surrender, entered the port of the pas- 
sage, and were a prey to the Republicans, who pushed 
their advanced posts as far as die gates of Tolosa. 

The Spaniards strove to rally their scattered forees, 
but all their efforts against the victorious Republicans 
were of no aval, for 0000 of them Were beaten by 600 
French! at which time, however, 150 of* the Walloon 
guards deserted to them, a matter which makes it probar- 
ble that the Republicans were as much indebted for vie* 

F V 2 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Sncoeufnl Atteclcof ttie French on F«rt Fleor d'Epte. 

lory to Che disaffection of the SpanifordB as to th^ Ofwft 
intreptdily. They had a liae of posts of forty he^tK 
yMch the Fronch attacked in twelve places at once» and 
did not wait to be assaulted by the eneaiy. The Spani- 
ards were strongly fortified, but the Repnblicana earrie< 
their entrenchments near Beddaditz, Gubeg, and Villa- 
nenva, and their works, which had taken np more than a 
year, were totally demolished. 

The British forces in thb West Indies, too weak to 
conquer th.e French islands, were exioeediBjgly dect>eased 
by disease, and Migor General Pandas died at Goadn* 
loupe, after a few days iHness. But this did not tenni- 
nate the misfortunes of Aitaib k India. A French squa- 
dron tqqieared off Fort Fleur d*Ep6e on Ifce Si, of June^ 
of two ships of 50 guns each, one of 40, one firigate, and 
five tran^^orts. 

The coriimandani of that place, Coknel Drummond, 
was much deceived about the actual force of the Repob* 
Itcans, when he computed them at 900 men. Owing to 
this mistake, he agreed to the earnest ia^ortanity of 
Hit royalists, to be sent against them ; . and a detadn 
ment of 180 volunteers, under the command of Captain 
JtrDowall, of the 43d regiment, were sanguine enough 
to suppose that they should surprise them at the village of 
Cozier, where they were posted ; but the first fire made 
the Reyalisis retreat, v^ few of whoi|i returned to 
the fort. The French sent thirteen boats fiill of men an 
the 5lli, and attacked Fort Fleur d'Bp6e the next day, 
which they took by assault, and made the Brilah garri- 
son retreat to Fort Louis with much loss ; but this pboe 
was not thonght tenable, so that Cdonel Drummcnd re- 
treated U> Basseterre. 

Victor HogUes, a man calculated for desperate attonpto 



ANB WkZS OF timoFS. 221 

Tktoc HiiiBes arms the people of tolour. 

being entrusted by the Convention with discret^naiy au* 
tberilyj proceeded to put the island in the best st^tej^^;* 
feiioe: he i^soed the decree relative to the emancipa* 
tioB of the slaves^ funuBhed a body of tbem -withannour 
and appttpelp and equipped many . of th*e mulattoes, oa 
whom he thought he could depend. Sir Charles Grey 
was equaHy as diligent; he assembled all the troops Jie 
could at the shortest notice^ and sailed from St Kitt's for 
Gfuukd^npe^ where he arrivedon.the 19th of June^ mider 
cover of the British fleet. 

•He best tro^qps ouiuu>t expect success when they are 
to contend with greatly superior numbers, inflamed by 
Tiolent passions. Sir Charles was assured of this ; and 
as tiie laioy season had bfigatt^ he resohed, if possible, 
to finish the campaign by a decisive blow ; he diipaudn 
od Brigadier General Symes» trith three battalions of 
gruBudievs and light .ufiuitiyy and a battalion'Of sailon^ 
to begin an attack upon Poini-a*Petre, and try to take it 
by sorpiise. Owiag to an em>r of the guide, they got 
to the strongest side, and were exposed to tbe fire of the 
Bepubiicans in a pbce where sealing ladders were of no 
use. Their retreat was retarded by a continued firing 
firom the houses : the 'British (General, and two other 
oflicers of rank, were wounded, and €00 men were losL 

Sir Charles Grey sent a detachment of troops and sea^ 
men to cover the retreat of the unfortunate division.— 
They retired to Gozier, and embarked part of the forces. 
The town and shipping were attempted to be destroyed 
by batteries of heavy artillery, and mortars, and the gun- 
boats battered the fort at Point-arPetre aiid La Flenr 
d'Epee* Victor Hugnes made such able dispositions, 
that although not a military man, he gained a decided su- 

Digitized by 



Guadaloupe restored to fYimce^ 

The Admiral and the General, who had retired to Mar- 
tinique, awaited in vain the . assistance they sought fiiom 
England, and resolved to adopt a defensive warfare, imtil 
they should arrive. TTicy were in hopes that the naval 
force at Salee would render Basseterre secure. The 
watchful spirit of the enemy was predominant, for a 
landing was eifected, during a dark night They seia?- 
ed on Petitbourg, and basely killed many of the sick and 
wounded, and annoyed the English posts, and the 
men of war, with red-hot shot so well, that General Gn« 
ham unwillingly agreed to capitulate, and the British 
troops were allowed the honours of war. No terms 
could be obtained for the white and free people of co- 
lonr, although ihey had taken the oath of allegiance to 
bis Britannic Majesty ; a covered boat only was granted, 
in which some of the Royalists were taken to a place 
of safety : the remainder, who proposed to cut their way 
through tlie ranks of th^ir countrymen, suffered as rebels, 
by the guillotine, or perished by the musketry of those 
who made them, prisoners. 

Thus aided by a small force from France and a (ew 
fines, annulling slavery, Cruadaloupe was restored to 
FVance ; and if the humanity of Victor Hugues was as 
conspicuous as his talents, he would have been surpass* 
ed by few men of the present times. 


by Google 


The CoBvcntioii divided Into Faotioot. 


Thb ConTentioD was divided into factions. The Jaoo- 
bin Ciab oontiiiiiedy and acted on the same system that 
R4>bespierre had planned. The Moderatists were name-* 
rems, but did not possess energy enough to preserve their 
power. A number of the members of the Convention 
wefe'e denounced by Taliien and otKers^ of having been 
the tools of Robeipierre, and for not destroying his power 
when they 'had the means. The articles^ twenty-six in 
number, were separately discussed, and declared calum- 
nious. This decision re-established the power of Bar* 
lere, ice. at tfie expense of TaUien and others, and it was 
i^teed between. tiie parties that neither should disturb 
the harmony of the Convention by accusing the other. 

This was, however, near being interrupted, in con* 
sequence of an attempt made to kill TaUien by a pistol 
shot, which wounded him. The Jacobin Club was moved 
to be sui^essed, but the majority wished to suspend 
die motioD tiD the report of the state of France was made, 
aiid in tte mean time a report of Tailim's health was to 
be insertad in the bnlletin and read every day. 

The inflaeace of the Jacobin Club visibly declined. 
Addresses were presented and satires published against 
flieBi. Cambaceres read an address in the Convention, 
urgii^ Ae necessity of the people relying on their, re^ 
presentatives; it invited them to seek out modest men, 
who ponrted i|o envbytnents, but practised Eepublican 


by Google 


virtues without pride. This address was received and 
ordered to be printed and circulated. 

The whims of the Revolution yet continued, and the 
Convention allowed the citizens of the National Institu- 
tion of Music, to euter their haU, and play several 
pieces composed by Jean Jacques Rousseau. These mu- 
sicians appeared to have been of no common talent, for 
they prevailed em the Convention to «lleiid.*t&em in a 
|irocestion» and to celebrate a ftstivtf tk konou^^ of the 
dtiMii of Geneva. ^ 

The Jacobins felt that their stmiglkms goitf^; ik^j 
raM>lved» however, to mke one efcrt te lec^vei: th^if 
aacendaney. Ths day befoie the Ooinmifttee» which ,^^^ 
appointed tx> examine into tiia state of die popvilar »p^ 
cieties, gave in their report, the " Societf ef Defeadere 
^ of the Republic, one and indivisible^" ttttiog %% tht 
ci-devant Jacobins, did bomage to the Addffeis pf tli« 
Convention te the people, feUoitated it on the dflBtni#r 
tioa of the reign of terror, and added, that^ ia taking 
iheir present naine, they aimed at eo-oper^ting ia iBr 
atr^cting the people in dieir rights and duties. The 
Contentiea ordered honourable mention of this, and ii^ 
sertton in the bulletin. The Jacobins did not e^^ot. 
this, they looked to the reaction of thw Ad4irea8 ; but; 
at all events they hoped now to stand wdi with the pei^ 
pie. The Convention en the next day veacivedl the lar 
port on the societies. The galleries and hall weie 
crowded, and the streets were strongly guarded aad pa-* 
faded by patroies. It was presented by Dehaae, who 
staled by what measia the societies and daha hpid kept 
their aacendancy, and (uroposed, that aU eerrsqioB^ea^ 
eies between societies shbuld be prohibited ; that aiL pe^ 
titioDs ^ addressee should ^ uidi^ida^y •igM^t ^kat 



ANi> WARS'*OF £UROPE. 224 

"* • t' '' I . II I ' n 1 ' , ssssasssaati 

Milder meararei used by the Coo?eatioii» 

' '■ • ■ ' ' . " "■ ' ■■' ' . ' ' " ' ■ ' ■ '** 

'tiiosei who, ds presidents or secretaries, should sign 

ibem itt^a coOective Bame should be imprisoned, and that 
descriptiYe li^ts of t&« members of each society should 
be given to the different municipalities. The decree 
'passed, and popular societies should from tfaenceforfh, 
be lodked on as legally abolished. 

The Conyeuti6n how investigated the cause of the 
cruelties Which had been committed in La Vendee ; thej 
fouo'd that it arose in the conduct of the Robespier* 
reaii foction, and the representative Carrier, who was de-^ 
nounced, dnd executed, with two members of the Revo^ 
lutionary Committee of Nantz. This bold man's de* 
-,rfence was ingenious, an honourable testimony of his 
abilities, but a wicked memorial of the cruelty of hit 
lieart. Others were tried and acquitted. Justice was 
tempered with mercy. A pardon was offered to the in- 
surgent Royalists, if they threw down their arms within 
a month, in their respective communes. Commissioners 
were nominated to visit the various places in a state of 
rebellion, in order to effectuate the objects of the pro* 
'cldmafion, and the most promising consequences followed. 
This influence was not simply beneficial in the interioi'f 
it spread itself beyond the territories of France, and the 
Convention daily got accounts of the aid it gave the 
French armies in their progress. The Flemish and Ger* 
Inan cities threw their gates open to those who conquer^ 
bd in the nkme of the Republic to extend the blessings of 
Kberty, and whose vi<?toHe8 were meant to further tilie 
ilnion of all Nations, iii one universd sentiment of free;;' 
dom and Happiness. The subjects of those powers jst 
#&f with tlie Republic rejoiced in the destructipn^of the 
system of revdlutiotiary tyranny that had fettered France* 

VOL. I. — NO. 10. O O 


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The Stad (holder visit! Amsterdam id dispiise. 

^ ITie people, wBom, under Robespierre, they would 

' force as conquerors, now courted them and looked on 
tlieiTi as their deliverers' and their brethren. 

The states of Friesland agreed to acknowledge the Re- 
public of France, to end their connnection with Great 
Britain, and sign a treaty of peace and alliance with the 
Convention. In other provinces also, resolutions were 

' passed, clearly inimical to the Stadtholder's government. 
Republican sentiments shewed themselves so plainly in 

' Amsterdam, that the government of Holland, on the 17thy 
positively forbad all popular discussions on political 
subjects, and the presenting of petitions or memorials 
on any account whatever. Soon after this, the Stadt- 
holder went to Amsterdam in disguise, to ascertain the 
true state of the public mind. His situation wa« very 
distressing. He had published many spirited addresses 
to the people, but was unable to instil into them a spirit of 
resistance. The opposite party would subject the coun-* 
try to a foreign power rather than join in any way to 
secure its independence. 

Many respectable citizens of Amsterdam drew up a 
petition, and presented it to the magistrates early in Ho* 
vember. It stated the sudden appearance of die heredi* 
tary Prince of Orange and the Duke of York in that 
city, which, they affirmed, had n6 other object in view 
than to check the deliberations of their High Mighti* 
ncsses, to induce them to receiye British troops, and to 
consent to a general inundation. The petition condemiH 
ed such measures, and if they did m)t desire to receive 
the French, they were not inclined to stop the subjuga<- 
tion of Holland by the only methods that could be pro- 
perly adopted wiUi that yiew. The petition was success^ 


by Google 


Tlie French croas the Meuie. 

fill ; the magistrates n^ould not attempt the iaundation, 
and many of the petitioners, who were arrested, were 
taken from prison in triumph. 

Though the Republicans did not advance with their 
usual rapidity, the Combined Powers found it very dif- 
ficult to act upon the defensive. Numbers were cut 
off by disease, while the hospitals were in want of 
assistance and suitable medicines. The militaiy were 
without clothing and shoes, and the sudden changes ok 
the weather at this eventful period, caused a putrid fever, 
which made the most dreadful destruction. 

The republicans made an attempt to cross the Waal, 
firom Nimeguen, upon four rafts, two were sent to the 
bottom by the British troops, another drove towards that 
side ^occupied by the Dutch, and the fourth got back in 
safety. They tried the passage of the river above Nime-> 
giien, both in boats and on rafls, to the amount of 5000 
men ; 200 of them surprised an Hanoverian piquet at 
Fanneren, took a battery, spiked three pieces of cannon, 
and threw another into the river without losing a single 
man. But another body of French Iroops was allowed 
by the Austrians to reach the middle of the river £m- 
merick, when they opened a dreadful fire from their bat- 
teries, and drowned the most part of the troops. On the 
15th, however, the French were befriended by a most 
intense frost, which made both the Meuse and the Waal 
passable on foot within a week ; and the French march- 
ed a strong column across the Meuse on the 27th, near 
Ihe village of Driel. The right wing, which reached 
firom Nimeguen to fort St Andre, was to keep a watch- 
ful eye on the Combined Powers, and the centre took 
possession of the Bommel Waert and Langstraat, while 
the left wing forced the lines of Breda, 
o G 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

S28 , mrroRT of napoleon bonapartb, 

Th« DttfeiHf Y«nneAV» the British Army. 

The' Dutch, muible to retain Bommel, attempted to 
cross the Waal; but the Republicans defeated them. 
The ice over the Waal was so strong, that heavy artil- 
lery could be taken across it with ease and safety. The 
Republicans instantly proceeded to take possession of 
the Tieler Waert, between the Waal and the Leek. Hie 
Allies, fearing for Culenber^ and, Gorcum, selected the 
following troops : ten battalions of British infantry, six 
squadrons of light cavalry, and 150 hussars of ^ Rohan, 
and gave the chief comniand to Major-general David 
Diindas; with these, amounting in all to about 6500 
infantry and of 1000 cavalry, the Allies drove the 
French from Wardenberg on the 80tb, and marched to- 
wards Thuyl, which they attacked with greajt impetuosity, 
and altiiough it was defended by thp batteries of Bom- 
mei, which flanked it with a nqmber of men who 
were stationed for its defence, the British forces, carried 
it with the bayonet, and forced the French to cro^ the 
river, with the loss of four pieces of cannon, and a' con- „ 
siderable number of n^en. A reinforcement of Austrian 
troops induced the Allies to try their strength with, the Re- 
putlican arjny. But General Piche^u opposed, them 
with too formidable a force to accomplish .their, yic^ws, 
and all their exertions were unable to ensure the. victory. 

The Ibuke of York left the British army, and retjurn-. 
fed to London,' which announced that the Court of St, 
jJames's thought the conquest of Holland by the French 
unavoidable. While the Duke of York held the chief* ' 
command, the army was in a wretched condition, and it , 
jDOuld not be thought that its situation wou|d be bettered,^, 
when ^nder a foreigner (General Walmoden.) Patriotic . 
subscriptions were raised in England, to supply the array 
friljh Qanpel vests, and other necessaries essential in that 




Gcnefal Pichegin crof lei the W aal io force, and takes Utrecht. 

country. The dreadftil state of the sick and wounded be- 
came hopeless and appalUng ; and it was common in the 
annjr on a man being taken to the hospital, .to. say» '« thai 
** he was sent to.the shambles.*^ 

**<*#«**^**# 0^^^^m m^*'^^^^ 


I^^s AlUe9 oaUed aconiwtt of wear ondie 4tb of JaMW9# 
1795^ at which it was resolved to f^re up their pc^iti^na ; 
on the river Waal. They, spiked' all the heavy caiinoa 
whwb Ihey could not taksoaway* .and destroyed qnaBti^ 
tief of ammumtion. On the .^th» howerer, a skinntsk 
took place with the tropps «ndar General Dundas/and^ ^ 
duwgl ^^ 4ay«.the British^ and French, repnl^edl each^- 
oth^r .90 less tbaii fo v time«» 

Geneiiil ]Pi«iiegfi| crossed the Waal with 70^000 meiit^ : 
aii4 ' attwked the position occupied by Geaeral WffaM*'^. 
dei|» betireeiirNiivegQmand Amiheiia; The Allies^ wcra 
defeated. Unprepared for resistance, or for flighV.the]^. 
wei9 obliged to tak0 shdtor in opefi ahadsyor in the open 
ahr,i, «ft tbiSv. inol^m^Bit, season^ .#nd in their netmal -vast, 
nun^h^ /of 9kex^ iHromeii»»»and children, -were firooen to 
death. The French took Utrecht without opposition, * 
forthe troops in of Great. Britain had retired 
^y the way f»f Ameiffbct. to ,2olphenix .Rotterdaia aniK.. 




The Prince of Oraoge aad Family quit Holland. 

rendered on the ISth^ and Dort followed it on the next 

The Princess of Orange and the younger female 
branches of the family escaped on the 15th, with the.plate, 
jeweby and whatever eke of value they could carry off. 
The Stadtholder and the hereditary Prince of Orange 
did not leave Holland till the 19th» the day on which 
Dort surrendered to General Pichegru, His Serene 
Highness got into an open boat at Scheveling, having 
only three men with him who were acquainted with row« 
ing, but he arrived at Harwich on the 21st in safety. 
The Stadtholder did not leave the Hague without much 
opposition; for the French party insisted he should bo 
responsible for all the troubles of the country. He was 
indebted to the fidelity of his horse body guards, and a 
regiment of Swiss, for his escape; they fired upon the 
people, and his flight was secured at the expense of the 
lives of some of the most forward patriots. 

Dr. Kraayenhoff, who had been banished for his anti* 
stadtholderian sentiments, arrived at Amsterdam on the 
17th of January, with a letter firom the Republican com- 
mander in chief, that the people should be prepared to 
receive the French army ; and on the 19tb that valuable 
city was taken possession of by only thirty hussars. In 
eveiy square the French planted the tree of liberty, 
and decorated the Dutchmen's hats with tri-coloured 
cookadep. . 

On the 20th CreMeral Pichegni marched into Amdtei^ 
dam with 5000 men. A proclamation was issued the day 
before, declaring to the world, " That the United Pro- 
vinces were firee and independent ! 

The surrender of Amsterdam was ibllowed by Leyden 
and Hsorlaem. On tiie 90tb of January the French' took 

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The. BrenPh Army enter Amvterdam. 

. l^ssession of Flushing, Middleburgh, and the island of 
Wakheren. By order from the states, Breda and Wil- 
liamstadt opened their gates to the HepubKcans, by whom 
they were besieged. 

Bergen-op-Zoom was garrisoned by 4000 men, in which 
was included the (Wth regiment, belonging to Great Bri- 
tain ; but the States General, having ordered every gar- 
flsoaed town to submit to the French, in consequence of 
. the Stadtholder^s abdication, produced its immediate ca- 
pitulation. The Governor, however, wished that the 
British regiment might be allowed to return home ; the 
French General would not comply, and they were kept 
prisoners of war. The entire province of Zealand sub- 
mitted to General Michaud. 

The French Generals asked for a large supply of pro- 
visions and clothing for the soldiers, and the French Re- 
public pledged itself to pay the value. A proclamation 
issued by the Stated-General at the Hague, stated that 
this demand was made in the language of an ally. It was 
by the prudence and humanity of Pichegru, that these 
changes m Holland were so ably effected. The Frendi-en* 
tered Amsterdam in small divisions ; and the whole way 
from the river Waal to that city, was covered with officers 
and men, who looked more Kke travellers than warriors. 

The British army was, during this time, pursued by 
the Bepublicam army, consisting of more than 30,000 
men* General Abercrombie conducted the retreat welt, 
but his troops were in a miserable condition, and wanted 
ahnost evejry thing they should have had. The occasional 
thaws. delayed his progress, and made his situation much 
more deplorable, for his half-iamished troops were ofteh 
obliged to get through mire and water that reached nearly 


by Google 


The BritUb Army cnterk at Braneo foi< Engliad. 

ta their knapsacks. Numbers of • 4he sick were left -be- 
hind id their. route; and^itts^tfaeii^t tiiat from^l^MJO 
mea, of which thearniy consisted when they bogsn'tlie 
retreat* it was reduced to half that nutaiber in liie foegte- 
niog of February- In the march from Amersfbrt SOO- men 
were frozen to deatii, besides grcHt numbers of wometa 
and children. It took 160 wag^gons to teni^Te tife 
sick. Many, who wefe ideapable of being r^moted^ 
were left behind. At last, on the 12th of Febnmry/liib 
Army crossed the Emms at Bheine, and proseooted dieir 
march without' interruption till the 24th of the mcmdiy it 
wluch time the posts of Nieiidiuys and Velthuys* chiefly 
defended by Emigrants, were forced by the RepubUoans. 
The division of the British army under Lord Cathoait 
(who had taken a more westerly route), was doomed to 
suffer much more, his rear being continually harassed I7 
the advance of the Republicans. He everywhere tiiet 
with losses from the unpopularity bf the Orange interest 
The British army arrived at Bremen on the S7tii and 
28th of March, and remained there till the 10th of Aprils 
when they embarked for England. 

The campaign on the Rhine shewed notiiing V€iry brit 
liant. The Republican troops coDtitiued a long tteio m 
a state of inactivity ; they however took Fort du Rhin^ 
iriuch protected Manheim. TJje surrender of Manfaeim 
saved it from the horrors of a bombardment. The troopk 
whicli had been' occupied at Fort du BJhin, rdmforeed 
tiiose before Mentet but the siege did not takei plac^ tiB 
Ibe ensuing sunimer. 

The French penetrat<^l into the north-east part of the 
bishoprick of Munster, and ailer a dreadiiil en|pa^ment 
they became mast^ts of Bentheiiii« On (he 81st of Marok' 


by Google 


Uopanlleled Suopetfei of the RefMiblicini. 

they beat the A^trians with much loss^ and $xed them- 
selves at Binen. The Combuied Powers appear to faaro 
lost all their energy, whilst the succesi^ of the French w^ 

The French thought ijhe port of Roias, jin Qat^onia, ^ 
place of great importance ; but before its ireduqtioQ it 
yms xiecessary to get possession of Fort Bont^j^, whic^ 
comn^anded the bay ; an object which the Republicaiiiii 
gained with the ntmost valour and intrepidity. Thp 
great floods, from the melting of the snow, with ibices- 
sant rains, delayed the operations of the besiegers, and 
they were inactive for twenty-three days. It beiQ|^ im- 
possible to open the second parallel, a stropg battery >vqb 
.erected, and on the 3d of January they began the att^cfc 
upon the city. The garrison embarked in the njjghtf 
leaving only 540 men to defend the city, who iostantiy 
surrendered. On the 5th of May, 9000 Spaniards hav- 
ing appeared on the side of Sistellia, and shewed an in- 
tention to surround the RepubUcans, were routed 
with great /slaughter. 

Were we to enumerate the various victories of the Re- 
publican armsi we should swell our work much beyond 
its intended limits. We shall therefore briefly state, thai 
Camoti a member of the Committee of Public Safety, 
appeared at the bar of the Convention, and gave in a long 
list of victories^ which was ordered to be printed and cir« 
culated to the armies of the Republi^, as a stimulus to 
further exertions. This account, though highly exag-* 
fr^rated, was equally surprising, as they were achieved 
during a period of only seventeen months* 

In the year 1795 (I4th March) an action was fought in 
the Mediterranean^ between a British fleet, commanded 
by Admiral Hotham, consisting of 14 sail of the line m^ 

VOL. I. — NO, 10, H H 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The Capture of two French Line or Battle Ships by Admiral Hotham. 

three frigates, and a Republican fleet of 15 sail of the line 
and three fingates. When the hostile fleets had come in 
^ight of each other. Admiral Hotham gave the signal for 
a general cjiase the next day, when one of the French 
line of battle ships was seen without her topmasts, of which 
the Inconstant availed herself, and attacked, raked, and 
harasb-ed her dreadfully, till the Agamemnon came up, 
when the French ship was quite disabled. But the British 
vessels being at a great distance from their own fleet, 
were obliged to leave her, when they saw more of fbe 
enemy's ships coming to assist her. 

On tlie morning of the 14tli they discovered the disa- 
bled ship towed by anotlier, so far to leeward of their 
own fleet as to give a chance that they might be cut off. 
For this purpose nothing was left unattempted, and the 
French were so situated as to give them up for lost, or 
come to a general engagement. They made a weak at- 
tempt to support them ; tliey were cut ofl^ by tlie Bedford 
and Captain, and deserted by the main body of the fleet. 
The captured ships were la Ca-ira of 80 guns, and fe 
Censeur of 74. 

Admiral Cornwallis, with five ships of tlie line, and 
two frigates, fell in, on the 7th of June, with a fleet of 
merchant ships, convoyed by three ships of the line and 
six frigates ; and altliough the ships of war made their 
•scape, he was lucky enough to capture eight merchant- 
men, laden witli wine and military stores. But, on the 
16th, near tlie Penmarks, a signal was made from the 
Pliaeton of an enemy's fleet in sight, which consisted 0f 
thirteen sail of th« line and two brigs, besides a cutter 
and 3everal frigates ; a force which it would have been 
madnoss to attempt to face. The wind changed in fa- 
vour of the encBiy, so that, by niue o'clock^the next morH* 




^rd Bridport captures three French L!ne of Battle Ships. 

ing, the ships in front of llie enemy's lino began firing 
upon the Mars^ who kept up a running fire the whole day, 
as did the rest of the British fleet. Admiral Cornwallis 
escaped from this dangerous situation "by an excellent 
manoeuvre; he threjw out signals of a large fleet of British 
ships being at hand, so that the French Admiral did not 
think it prudent to pursue him, and he escaped with very 
little loss. 

This fleet was« on the 23d of the same month, attacked 
by Lord Bridport, who had a fleet of fourteen sail of the 
line and eight frigates. On the 22d, about day-break, a 
signal was made by the Nymph and Astrea, that an ene- 
my's fleet was in sight ; but the British Admiral seeing 
they had no intention to bring him to an action, hove out 
a signal for chasing them with four of the swiftest sailing 
ships, which was continued during tlie whole day and 
the ensuing night, but they were almost becalmed. They 
came up with the Republican fleet on the morning of the 
23d, when an action took place at six o'clock, and lasted 
till three p the afternoon, when the British Admiral took 
the Alexander (formerly belonging to England), the For- 
midable, and the Tigr6. Being close in with the shore, 
his lordship was unable to extend his conquest, and found 
it attended with much difficulty to keep those he had 
already captured. The rest of the enemy's squadron got 
safe into TOrient. The Iqss of the British in this action 
has been stated at 31 men killed, an4 H^ wounded; that 
of the Republicsms is unknown. 

An event of great importtfnee to the interest of France, 
and fatal to that of the Combiner! Powers, took, place ; for, 
en the 10th, it was announced to the Convention, that the 
Committee of Puhhc Safety had made peace with the 
(Jrand Duke of Tuscany. Three days after, tbe Cout 

n H 2 

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Peace witb the Grand JOuke of Tnscaay ratified. 

Tention diftcaBsed the merits of this treaty, when some of 
the violeot Moantain party denied the cemp^tency of the 
Committee to negooiate a peace unknown to the Conren-f 
tion ; but it was determined, that all which obstructed 
the establishment of peac« was highly impolitic, and 
against the prosperity of the nation. The competency 
df the Gonmiittee was acknowledged almost unanimouslj, 
and the treaty ratified amidst the plaudits of the members 
and spectators. 



Tk t Fr^ch Convention, on the laM day tf Ihe year 1794, 
ctiMidered a decree ftat had been pttaed, that no quarter 
should be giren 16 British^ H<Qk>yeritti, or Spamsh troops, 
and whidi of course w'ould 6ot allow the French troops 
to take the sorMJider^f ady «f those nations^ but con- 
signed the ittdividQalil, #hd stied ttf {be Reftarblicans for 
liiercy, to deliberate Mau^tftf . Tbe C^nteition passed 
fills decree hk ^ jhH idea, fliit they shooM be able ter 
flestroy as well as subdue ikiStt efie^c»; hid, id spits 6C 
the exertions of the Commissienefs who attended the 
al^es, it wa* approved by Vevy few df the soldiers, and 
it evinced no extraordinary eMH hi ftkvMr ^f Ae JEl^nb- 
Kcad artos. He same Convention in which this decree 
9Sfpt^ and by whoai it waa declared a Uw, took advan* 



AND VTAM or EVROPB; * 337 

Pieaee tinned bttwtea Frmtbe and ProMit. 

tage <yf its wei^Uffils to regain their credit for humanitj^ 
by repeaKbg^ it Somto of flie members Dsade ioitg speeohev 
on the occabiott, and its repea^ was decreed with as lonA 
and general plandrts as it had passed. 

llie annrtersary of the death of the Kii^ was kept si 
festival itk the Thnillerieir. A soaft>kl was raised before the 
Statue of Liberty; the President of the Coaveation made 
a speech; the populace exchiikied» ^' Vite la Repubttque t 
Vke la Cortoention f and a general discharge of artillery 
finished the ceremony. 

A disagreement which had taken place between tii4 
Prussian and Austriaii commanders and their troops, arbsil 
to a great height, and was much increased by a report 
circulated throagh Switzerland by a Prussian agent, that 
the court of Serlia had concfaded a treaty of peace with 
the French Republic, lliis gained credit; and it was so 
much applauded, oriSo little blamed, that anegociatioB 
^as actually opened at Basle by thi^e agents from the 
King of Prussia, and by a plenipotentiary, publiol^ 
avowed as such, whoiA M. Bartfaelemy iMt at Baskf. 
' It is supposed that this negociation would have b6M 
retarded, if not brokefi off, had Aot the Committee of 
Public Safety agreed to the admissioii of seci^ atfide^L 
After being warmly disdussed by botb parties, it was 
finally signed ; a treaty favourable to France, sino^ thai 
country got all it desired. To the Ktog of frttsm It iraa 
not 90 favourable, since he thereby lost the fxp^^MOsAj 
of taking the lead in a^ustiag aild ahringing tiie irffilifii 
of the continent 

llie peace with l^ssia wftii instantly fbftowed by a 
treaty of peace with the court of Madrid, nrossia Imv- 
mg withdrawn from ih» coalition, the ti'oops of the Re^ 
piibbc were hastily nfturching toWirds tte e^itid of th^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Peace ■igned between France and Spain. 

Spanish dominiotts, so that the Spanish Cabinet found it 
Becessary to order M. d'Yriarte to come, to immediate 
terms i^ith the enemy. So hastily was th^s matter con- 
ducted, that peace was concluded between M. d'Ynarte 
and M. Bardielemy, at Basle, before General Servaa 
from the Committee of Public Safety, and M. d'Iranda, 
frcMn the court of Spain, had a single meeting at Bayonne, 
the place appointed to meet at. It was signed by M , 
Barthelemy and M. d'Yriarte on the 22d of July ; by virtue 
of which the French surrendered all their conquests on 
the territories of Spain, and restored all the artillery and 
ammunition they took in the conquered towns, cities, or 
garrisons; and Spain restored all their possessions in 
the island of St. Domingo. The French Republic also 
agreed that the King of Spain should mediate for Portu* 
gal» Sardinia, Naples, and the Duke of Parma, with all 
the princes of Italy. The Dutch RepubUc was included 
iu the treaty, so that a severe blow was aimed at the 
power of Great Britain in the West Indies, and its 
naval schemes in the Mediterranean were much an* 

Switzerland kept a neutrality during the various chan* 
ges of the French Revolution ; but many of tiie canton^ 
i^hewed a disposition in no way friendly to the Republican 
cause. Basle did not acknowledge France till the treaty 
was signed between it and Prussia; for, from tiie 10th of 
August 1792, till that time, M. Barthelemy was only known 
there as a private individual. The Chancellor of Basle, 
M. Ochs, was active in bringing about a iriendly recon- 
ciliation between France and Prussia, and in his house 
the treaty with Spain was signed. The rapid manner ia 
which the forces of the Republic proceeded from victory 
to victory powerAiUy effected the political sentiments of 


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Execution of Fouquier Tinvillc and others. 

the Swiss cantons^ many immediately expressing tlieir 
attachment to the interest of France. 

At this time M. Fouquier Tinville, the president of 
the late revolutionary tribunal, three of the judges, the 
pnblic accuser, and eleven of the jurors, were found 
guilty of injustice and cruelty, and executed in the Place 
de Grave. These horrible men had lists of proscription 
daily made out, and those who executed them, if they 
^d not find those named in the lists within the houses, aK 
^ays took care to bring away their number, without re- 
gard to their persons. Hie committee of Nantz seized 
all who were rich, and men of talents and humanity. The 
scenes of execution at this place were horrid in the ex- 
treme; in one of the prisons were 800 women^ and as 
many children, in want of every thing ; they were shot 
in crowds, and drowned in the river Loire in lighters and 
vessels crammed with the unfortunate victims. The ac- 
counts given by those who were concerned in these dread- 
ful transactions ' are hardly credible. One would almost 
th'mk that the human race had changed its character, and 
degenerated into worse than brutes. 

Hie evidence given on the trials of those who held the 
reins of power at Nantz was heart-breaking ; women at 
the latest period of their time, and infants, were put into 
the lighters to be drowned. This mode of execution the 
wretch Carrier and his associates used to laugh at, and 
call National Baptisms, Immersions, an4 Bathings. . At 
one place one of the witnesses saw the bodies of seventy- 
five women, firom the age of fifteen to eighteen, lying 
uncovered : but the soul sickens at the recital of scenes, 
such as are described even by those concerned in them. 

Soon after the execution of these ruflians an insnrrec* 
tion was organised in Paris ; the streets were posted with 




Iniurrecfionat Paris and Tooioo. 

bilJi», charging the Convention with keepu^ biref^d from 
the people. The generde was beat to arm^^ the Cooe 
.v,ci>tion met, and the utmost tumult ensued* Tbe in^ur^ 
^ents rushed int9 the hall of the Convention, and t)ie 
faUerics were in an uproar ; Ferimd, o^e f^ U>e repre- 
sentatives, wfis assafsoated, ai^d J^s head placed op a 
pike. AUuo&t ^1^ thp i^efnbers left tbeae horrible 9GaDes; 
the kyr w,ho stayed were tjhe irieigul^ of the Jacobins, and 
JBEpmediately, at the re(;|eu^t of the triumphant faction, 
{tass^ 8e.yeral decrees ftgainstt the moderate parly* In 
ithe ^erno^, J^awever, the lurmed force of Paris drove 
out the iasurgei^ts^ Tl^e prefident thanked Hie cdtizens 
for sa\^ng the Convention, and their first business was to • 
Repeal the decFc^0 demanded during the tumult, and to 
^dopt measles for punishing t)ie coospirators. In the 
^mean time it was decreed, that some of the deputies, 
who h^d favoured the inanrgents, should be arrested^ 

The Jacobins w.ere not subdued: the man whf mur^ 
dered Ferrand was taken, a^d condeomed to death. On 
jhis way to execution he was rescued by Uie sam culottes 
of tlie Fauxbourg de St. 4^ntovKe. An anned force mariched 
against ^le suburb, aud .9 conflict ensued; the militoy 
wece compelled to retire ; b^ at jast they made Ihe in- 
habitants su^ren^er the fssassin, and tgiye up their nrms 
and caniK>n. A military .c9mi9isi^on having jbetm foined, 
many of the i^ers :\(rere tried and executed.- 

The insurrectioii 4^ not, ho^i^eyer, confine itself to 
l^aris ; it broke out a$ Toulon, fund the ni»nrg<fnt3 t<HMk 
Aeir way to\^ards j^arseilles ; tJbiey w^'^g k^w^ytti ii^r-* 
ceptedif and up\mi:4s o;f 3)00 7<yulonese pri|b9pers ^ajpen tp 
Mwseilles. The re^lt FdS i\ififi^^ f^mispifwi ^ "E^vifi^ 
nnd f^ttaching lit tp the niterc^t^ of ^ {Uipyi^Ue. 
. Paring 4hi$ y^ear died ^ i^ortungte Kop fnd kwtfifr 




Death of the Daaphin. — The Princess delirered to the Emperor. 

parent of Louis XVI. who had been for a long time in a 
bad state of health. Ever since the auttunn of 1792, he ^ 
had been detained a prisoner in the Temple. Confine- 
ment brought on a swelling in. his knee and left wrist, 
which caused a fever, that ended his life on the 9th of 
June. It has often been said, that he was poisoned by 
order of the Convention ; but as no confirmation of such 
a report ever reached as, we are induced to suppose his 
deatli was natural. The Convention soon after offered to 
liberate the Princess, the only surviving branch of that 
unfortunate family, in place of the ibur commissioners 
who were arrested by General Dumourier. The Empe- 
ror of Germany agreed with this proposal, and the Prin« 
Cess was delivered at Basle to the Austrian envoy, the 
Commissioners at the same time being restored to their 

The disturbances by which Paris was lately convubed, 
^md ^the factions apparent even in the bosom of the 
Convention, seemed to demand a system of government, 
the executive power of which might be efficient to tri'* 
nmph over opposition, and quell insurrection in the bud* 
The Convention were constantly busied in forming a new 
constitution, and on the 23d of June it was presented by 
the Committee of Eleven, when all the articles were sepai< 
rately discussed. Some were sent back to the Committee; 
for their further examination. The Convention restored 
the Primary AiisembHes ; and the whole system might be 
said to have been totally changed. After two months the 
Convention declared, on the 23d of August, that the 
constitution was completed, and they sent it to the Pri- 
mary Assemblies for their acceptanceand confirmation. 

From this constitution the greatest hopes were enter- 
tained. The Republicans looked on it as a defence 
VOL. I.— NO. 11, I I 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


DetcrtptkNi of Conica. 

against the encroachoneiits of powerfal individuab on the 
libortieB of tko people, and as securing the eiyoyment of 
every political privilege. 


Having detailed the leading events of the revolution, we 
win just give a short discription of the island which 
claims the birth-place of the Hero of these pages. 

The island of Corsica claims the notice of the historian, 
as being that country which gave birth to Napoleon 

Corsica is situated in the Mediterranean sea, and di- 
vided from the island of Sardinia by the Straits of Boni- 
fkcio ; it is about 170 miles east of Toulon, 100 miles 
south of Genoa» and 80 miles soutli west of Leghorn. It 
m 150 miles in length from north to south, and from 40 
to 50 miles in breath ; it is about 500 miles in circum- 
ference, and is bordered by many bays and promon- 

The atmosphere is pure and healthy^ and it is one of 
the most temperate countries- in the south of Europe^ 
The harbours are very numerous ; on the north it has 
Conturi ; on the west St Fiorenzo, Isola, Rossa,. Calvi« 
and Ajoccio ; on the south Bonifacio ; and on the east 
Porto Veccliio, Bastia, and Maoinajo. A chain of moun- 
tains rises beyond Aleria, stretching across the island 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


DescripUoo of Corsica. 

from east to west, but not dividing it ni equal parts, al^ 
thougk the great division of Corsica is into the Di qua 
dei Monti, the country on this side the moontains, an<) 
the jDi la dei Monti, the country on the other side the 
mountains, reckoning from Bastia: the coast is diversir 
iied by mountainous' rocky hills, covered with vines^ 
olives, and mulberries, . and by plains with rich waving 
lands, abounding with corn and pasturage : the province 
of Balagna may be called the garden of Corsica ; near 
St. Fiorenzo, however, are some low marshy grounds^ 
nvhich render that town very unhealthy ; the interior of 
the island is, in general, mountainous, but interspersed 
with fruitful vallies and large tracts of inhabited wood- 
land. The farmers live in yiUages, so that there i# 
scarcely a detached farmhouse to be seen. 

The island is extremely well watered ; it has iqany 
lakes and rivers, but the rivers are not navigable, their 
i)urrents are very rapid, and the torrents, after great 
rains, bring down fragments from the mountains larga 
enough to dash a vessel to pieces; their prodqoe is ooa^ 
fined to trouts and eels, but oa the c^ast are sturg^ntf 
and pilchards of exquisite taste, and remarkably fint 
oysters^ The animals of the island are horsee of a Tety 
fmall breed; asses, and «inles, Tevy smalU but strong} 
and bla^k cattle, which are larger m pioportionp bat they 
give T«ry little mi&, and their flesh is toii^; the natives 
use oil instead of butter, but in some parts, make quan- 
tities of cheese. Goats browse on the hiU^^ wd the Aeep 
are very fine, the pairtwe being •d^>ted to thit smaller 
aniina]8, Hbe forests abn«nd with deer, and m animal 
like a stag, with homii Bke a^ ram; li is wiU and. GaUe4 
» wtfroU V» OorsbaDs delight as himlbig tibe itiM 

I i2 


by Google 


DescripcioD of Corsica. — Ajacdo the birth place of Napoleon. 

boar« for which they have a breed of dogs peculiarly 
excellent; they have hares and foxes, but neither rab- 
bits nor wolves; they have plenty of birds and game, 
and no poisonous animals. The forests are extensive^ 
with every kind of forest trees ; pomegranate trees grow 
to great perfection, as well as the mulberry. The grain 
is wheat, barley, rye, and millets honey is obtained in 
vast qufmtitids, but the taste is rather bitter. In the 
island are mines of lead, iron, copper, silver, alum, and 
saltpetre; granite, porphyry, jasper, and rock chrystal 
are very abundant ; and quantities of coral are fished up 
on the coast* 

Bastia, which is on the east side of the island, is re-< 
garded as the capital of Corsica ; it has a fine appear- 
ance from the sea, being built on the declivity of a hill: 
its castle commands the town and harbour ; its cathedral 
is not remarkable^ but the church of St. John is a fine 
building; the port, however, cannot b6 entered by ships 
of war. Gorte is in the centre of the island, and is proper* 
]y the capital; it is situated partly at the foot and part- 
ly on the declivity of a rock, in a plain, surrounded by 
mountains of a prodigious height, and at the confluence 
of the rivers Tavignano and Restonica. Upon' the point 
of a rock which rises above the rest, is the casfle, with 
only one winding passage to climb up to it, and where 
imhf two persons can go abreast; this town has a univer- 

« Ajaccio OB the west side of the island, and the hand- 
somest town, gave birth to Napoleon Bonaparte ; it has 
many good streets and beantifiil walks, with a citadel and 
palaoe. The inhaUtants of Ajaccio are tiie genteelest 
and bestbred people ii| the island; it has the remaina of 


by Google 


4ND WARS OP fUROPE. . 245 

Deteriptioo of Conici. 

a colony of Greeks, who settled there in 1077. The hai^ 
bonr is wide, safe, and commodioos, and has an excellent 

Caivi has nothing remarkable but a large and conre- 
nient harbour. Corsica has several other toims, but 
tliose are the principal. 

The Greeks called this island Callista and Cymns ; the 
Romans knew it by its present name ; it was first inhar 
bited by a colony of PhenicianSy and afterwards by the 
Phoceans, the Etruscans, and the Carthagenians snoces* 
siTcly ; then the Romans, who settled two colonies here* . 
After the fall of the Roman empire, it passed throngk 
the hands of the Goths, the Chreek Emperors, the Lom* 
bards, and the Saracens. 

. In the eighth century, Corsica was conquered by 
Charles Martel, who gave it to the See of Rome, by 
whom it was transferred to the Pisans, and from whom 
it was conquered by Genoa. The Genoese used the 
natives so tyrannically that they were often in a state of 
iTebellion, which, however, for want of a leader, was 
soon suppressed*' 

Henry IT. of France, assisted by Solyman the Magni- 
ficent, Emperor of the Turks, invaded the island in the 
year 1563, and were joined by the insurgent inhabitants; 
but the Genoese, assisted by Charles V. of Spain, pre* 
Tented their success. The war was finished by an ac- 
commodation honourable to the Corsicans. The power 
of the Genoese was mtolerable ; they used all the rigour 
dmt arbitrary power could inflict, and practised eveiy 
sort of extortion and cruelty ; they degraded the noble 
fiimilies, sent crowds of native to the gallics for trifling 
offences, prohibited all foveign trade with the natives, 
sad placed over them needy adventurers for governors. 




Description of Corsica. — Theodore Baron Neiiboff. 

wfaote desp^cate foytunea rendered then haogbty^ atari- 
dmm$p fuid tyrumiQal. 

The Corsicans were despised, oppressed, and plunder* 
«d ontil the year 1729, when a poor woman being unable 
to pay to a Genoese coUeetor a PaoU, (a piece of money 
of about the value of five pence English currency), her 
effects were seized. The inhabitants espoused her cause ; 
m conflict ensued ; they became masters of the capital, 
and proceeded to elect military chiefs. The Genoese, 
wiable to conquer them alone, solicited, and obtained 
the powerful assistance of the Emperor Charles VI. The 
Corsicans were again compdled to enter into aa accom* 
raodation with their tyrants ; on condition, however, that 
the Emperor would ratify the treaty, which was signed 
in 17da 

This treaty was violated the next year, and the Corsi- 
caas again took up arms. They chose for their general, 
Giafien, a military chief in the last insurrection; and 
with bim associated Giaeento Paoli, a gentleman of good 
ftnily, of distinguished merit, and the father of the ce- 
lebrated General Pascal Paoli. Duriugf this war, in the 
year 1796, Theodore Baron Neidioff appeared in the 
island, with assurances to the Corsicans of very power*r 
ftit asaistanceft This sbgular man was of the county of 
Marck, in Westphalia. He was educated in the French 
serviecy and travelled into England, the Netherlands, and 
Italy. He was a matt of abilities and address ; and hav« 
ing an idea of becoming king of Corsica, he went ta 
TuMS, where lie obtained a supply of money, arms, and 
ammunition. He then repaired to Leghorn, and wrote a 
letter to the Coraican ehiefe, Giafferi and PaoU, offering' 
great assistance to the nation, if they would elect bim 
their king. From the favourable mrnner in which this 




Theodon pwclalmed Kia^ of Coniea. 

i^iioatioa wai recdvecU he landed in Corsica in the 
npting of ?786, He was a man of a vefy stately appear^ 
anee, and the Torkish dxem, whidi he wore, added to 
the dignity of his oiein. He bvonght with him abont 
1000 zechiaa of TVmus^ beaidea arms and ammunition* 
His mauners were so engaging, and his promisee of fb« 
reign asaistanoe so plaustUe and magnifieent, that ho 
was immediately proclaimed king. He assumed ereij 
mark of royal dignity, had his goarde and officers of 
state, eonferred titles of honour, and coined money, both 
silver and copper. He blodied up the Genoese fortifiea* 
tions, and was neither inactive nor unsucoessftii in his 
warbke operations ; but the assistance he had promised 
not arriving, tiie Corsicans shewed marks of disapprobfr* 
tion. In eight months after his election he found it ex- 
pedient to, leave them; assuring them that he would go 
himself in search of the long expected succours ; and, 
having settled a plan of government in his absence, he 
qaitted the island in November. The courts of Great 
Britain and France had forbidden their subjects, by pro- 
clamation, from giving any assistance to the Corsicans. 
He went, therefore, to Holland, where he got credit to 
a great amount from several rich merchants, who trusted 
him wkh cannon and other warlike stores, under the 
charge of a supercargo. With these he retnmed to 
Corsica in 1789 ; s^d, on his arrival, says the] Historianf 
of Corsica, *' he put to death the supercargo, that he 
^ migta^ not be troubled from demands being made upon 
•* him."'— The French, however, were so powerfol in the 
island, tliat, although Theodore threw in his supply of 
warlike stores, he was afraid to venture his person, the 
Genoese having set a high price upon bis head. He 
ahose, therefore, to give up his throne, and to sacrifice 




Theodore tbrown ioto prison in Enfland.— His Death. 

hi» ambition to his safety. After experiencing great 
changes of fortune, he came to England; but his sitaa* 
tion here grew wretched, and he was reduced to such 
distress as to be thrown into prison for debt. 

The late Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford, greatly in- 
terested himself in procuring a [subscription in favour of 
the unfortunate Theodore, and a very handsome sum 
was produced* 

He was, at last, freed from prison by an act of insol* 
vency, in consequence of which he made over Corsica 
fot the benefit of his creditors, and it was actually regis- 
tered accordingly. He died soon after, and was buried 
in the church yard of St Anne's, Soho, where a plain 
monument is erected to him^ with the follpwing inscrip- 

Near this place is interred Theodore, King of Corsica, who 
died in this parish^ December 11, 1750, immediately after 
leaving the King's Bench Prison, by the benefit of an act 
of insolvency ; in consequence of which he registered his 
kingdom of Corsica for the benefit of his creditors. 

The Grave, great Teacher ! to a level brings 
Heroes and beggars, galley-slaves and kings ; 
But Theodore this Moral learn*d, ere dead — ) 
Fate pour'd its lesson on his living head, C ' 
Bestow'da kingdom^ and deny'd him bread. J 

Theodore left a son, who lived many, years in this 
^ country, under the name of Colonel Frederick, and who 
shot himself in the year. 1796, in great distress of^mind^ 
occasioned by the indigence of his circumstances, under 
the portal of Westminster Abbey. The Colonel had a 
spHf an officer in the British army^ who was killed ia 
the American war. 





Paoli formi a re|:ulBr ■vitem of administration. 

The Genoese now applied to the French King, who 
sent an army into the island in 1788, and in 1740 ef- 
fectually reduced it. At the end of the year 1741, the 
French having more important objects in view, withdrew 
their forces from the island, alter having put the 
Genoese in complete possession of it. Bat the moment 
that the French had left the island, the Corsicans re- 
sumed their arms ; and, from that period, the war con- 
tinued under different chiefs till 1756, when Pascal Paoli 
was elected to the chief command. Great Britain had 
ordered her subjects to give no aid to the Corsicans; 
but^ in 1745, from a revolution in her political connec- 
tions, some English ships of war, with a Corsican chief 
on board, were sent into the Mediterranean^ as auxilia- 
ries to the King of Sardinia. Tliese ships attacked 
Bastia and Fiorenzo,, of which they put the Corsicans in 
possession. At the peace, however, in 1763, a severe 
proclamation was issued by the British court, in which 
thes<i brave islanders were styled rebels. Paoli had the 
address to engage all ranks to provide what was neces-^ 
sary for carrying on the war with spirit, and drove the 
Genoese to the renlotest comers of the island. He cor- 
rected innumerable abuses, and formed a regular sys- 
tem of administration i He civilized the manners of the 
Corsicans, established a university^ and settled schools 
ia every village of the kingdom. He encouraged the 
Corsicans to' apply to agriculture, Qommerce, and civil 
occupations, Mhich had been interrupted by the long 
continuance of the yrar. The nation became firm and 
united ; and, had not tlie French again interposed, the 
Corsicans would have entirely driven the Genoese from 
the island. But, when Paoli was on the point of sue- 
cesslully terminating the war, the Genoese in 1764 

VOL. I. — NO. 11. K K ^ _. Pnnal(> 

Digitized by VJiOVjyiC 


Paoli retires to Encrland. 

made a treaty with the French, by which the latter en- 
gaged to garrison the fortified towns of Corsica for the 
lenu of four years. In 1767, the Genoese sold theur 
sovereignty to the French King, who, to tlie garrisons 
already in Corsica, sent a powerful body of troops, un- 
der ' the command of the Count de Vaux. Flattermg 
manifestoes were published to induce the Corsicans to 
become subjects of France ; but filled with the love of 
liberty, they defeated the French in several engage- 
ments. Fresh troops being sent from France, the con- 
test at last became too unequal ; the natives, reduced by 
their victories, were impelled to submit ; and ii> June 
1769, the brave Paoli, forced to abandon his country to 
its fate, embarked on board an English ship, landed at 
Leghorn, and, going soon after to London, lived there 
many years, protected and supported by the British 

Corsica being thn» subdued, the French commander 
new modelled the government of the island, which was 
•placed under the parliament of Provence. The natives 
quitted their counti^y in great numbers ; while the most 
intrepid of those that remained, took shelter in tlie 
mountainous parts, and seized every opportunity of 
iJilling upon their enemies, when separated into small 
parties; and they put to death all the French that fell 
into their hands. As nothing could overcome the spirit 
of the natives, the most dreadful cruelti(*s were exer- 
cised upon all who were made prisoners ; and by the 
year 1778, when the French King, who had enslaved 
tlicse islanders, declared himself the protector and guar- 
dian of the liberties of America, which in the end 
proved so fatal to himself, the poor, friendless and de- 
*<rWd Cowicaos were n'early extirpated, 

* Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Corsica decreed to be the 83d Departmeot of Fraoce. 

The revolution of France in 1789, caused at last a 
change in the political aspect of Corsica. From the time 
when it was conquered^ this island was retained in sub- 
jection only by military despotism. They never con^- 
finned the infamous contract by which a nation was 
transferred from the dominion of Genoa to that of Fr^ce. 
The meeting of the states general at Versailles had kin- 
dled in the bosoms of these brave men the hopes of being 
reinstated in their rights. These hopes were followed by 
a rumour that they were once more to be given to the de- 
tested dominion of Genoa; or at least that they were to 
be kept as a servile appendage to a land of freedom. In 
such a state of doubt the passions of the multitude are 
easily excited. They proposed to form a national guard ; 
the citizens of Bastia assembled for that purpose in the 
church of St. John ; the army marched to disperse them, 
and in the contest some lives were lost In this state the 
island continued^ when deputies (among whom was Pas- 
cal Paoli, who had just revisited his native country) ap- 
peared at the bar of the National Constituent Assembly^ 
entreating in the name of the people of Corsica, that 
they might be irrevocably united, by a del^ree of the 
legislature, to the French nation, as a constituent part of 
the empire* This request was too reasonable, and too 
flattering to the Assembly, not to be directly complied 
with ; and Corsica was decreed tow be an eighty-third de« 
partment of France* This was followed by a motion of 
the Count de Mirabeau (who regretted that his youth had 
been disgraced in sharing in the conqaest of this island) 
to restore all who had emigrated, except for civil crimes, 
to their rank, their rights* and their property. The illus- 
trious Paoli, who had so often appeared as the general in 

K K 2, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The Corticans dissatisfied with the Measures of the ConveotioD. 

chief, was naw satisfied to be commandant of the national 
guard at Bastia. 

In the year 1790, Bonaparte got the command of a 
battalion of national guards at Ajaccio, ^d did duty in 
his native town, until he re-entered the corps of artillery, 
and for his services at Toulon received the rank of gene- 
ral. This instance of wisdom and liberality in the first 
National Assembly bf France, who, when they renounc- 
ed all views of war and conquest, seemed desirous of 
establishing the blessings of real liberty, seemed to pro- 
mise a lasting connection between France and Corsica. 
But when this Assembly was dissolved, their successors 
were men of very inferior talents and characters, and 
guided by less enlightened views. The events which fol- 
lowed the revolution of the 10th of August 1792, were 
not calculated to ensure the attachment of the Corsicans 
to the new RepubUc. Dissatisfaction with the measures 
of the French Convention, and particularly with those 
which evinced an intention to overthrow all religion, be- 
came so manifest, that it soon excited suspicion and { 
roused to violence. On the 2d of April 1793, the po- ' 
pular society of Toulon accused General Paoli to the 
Convention, as a supporter of despotism. They stated 
that the general, along with the administrators of the de- 
partment, had inflicted every hatdship upon the patriots, 
and favoured the emigrants and rdractory priests. They 
demanded that he should fall under the avenging sWord 
of the law. The Convention decreed, that General Paoli 
and the, Attorney General of Corsica should be ordered 
to the bar to give an account of their conduct. 

The Convention received a letter from the commist 
pipners sent to Corsica to arrest General Pagli, that ihey 




Con ica tnntferred to the Domioion of Great Britain. 

thought it not prudent to attempt it for the present, and 
in the same month a letter was read from the General, re^ 
gretting that his extreme old age and bodily infirmities 
made it impossible for him to cross the sea and travel 
200 leagues bj land, to appear at the bar of the Conven- 
tion, but offering to retire from his country, if it were 
thought necessary to the safety and peace of Corsica, lu 
October, however, Paoli sent to Lord Hood for a few 
ships, to co-operate with him against the French in the 
island, and to attack the redoubt at Fomill, a post about 
two miles from the town of Fiorenze. Captain Linzee, 
however, failed, from false information being given him 
respecting some cannon, which annoyed him from the 
town, and also from the want of ardour in the Corsicans, 
who had agreed to storm the posts on the land side : as, 
however, they never made the least movement to effect that 
service during the action, the whole force of the enemj 
was directed against the British. 

In May, 1794, Lord Hood got the surrender of the 
town and citidal of Bastia, from Gentili the comman- 
dant, and in July the union of the island of Corsica to the 
crown of Great Britain was formally concluded. Gene- 
ral Paoli assisted tliis measure by a very spirited addrcM 
to the people. The town of Calvi surrendered on the 
10th of August, after a siege of fifty-one days. Sir 
Gilbert Elliot was appointed Viceroy, and met the first 
parliament of Corsica on the 9th of February, 1795. 

Thus was the country, which gave birth to Napoleon 
Bonaparte transferred to the dominion of Great Britain^ 
at a time when the world was astonished by the pro- 
gress of the French arms ; when the plans of the British 
Government itself were frustrateid by the subjugation of 




*'.-ny parte arrested.— Hii Release — aod Arrival at Paris, 

Holii'.' -*, and aiuiosl every country on the continent 
distressed in its means and resources. 


* Bonaparte, after the siege of Toulon, where his actions 
were so conspicuous, and where he got the rank of General, 
was sent to Nice, but was arrested there by Befiroi, the 
deputy, who first displaced him from his command. He 
was accused of being a Terrorist, and being sanguinary 
towards the persecuted inhabitants : he was soon released, 
but lost his command in the artillery, although not dis- 
charged the service : he was offered a command in the 
infantry, but refused to accept it. 

While he stayed at Nice the war offered materials of 
great value to a mind so filled with military enthusiasm : 
be was constantly employed, and spent much of the night 
in stddy. 

When firee from arrest, he went to Paris to state his 
complaints. -Aubry, the representative, then at the 
head of the military department, refused him any more 
than the commission in the infantry he had been offered. 
Bonaparte demanded his discharge, which was refused : 
he then asked permission to retire to Constantinople, pro* 
bably with a view of serving in the Turkish army, but 
this was likewise refused. 


by Google 


Bonaparte^in London. — His Eoibarrassments. 

In the year 1794 he got the command of an expedition 
against Ajaccio, his native town, in the island of Corsica, 
in which, however, he was repulsed by Masteria, a rela- 
tion, who was at that time in the British service, and had 
servedander General Elliot at the siege of Gibraltar. The 
object of the expedition being defeated, he returned to 

It has b«en stated, that Bonaparte solicited a commis- 
sion in the British army, which has as often been denied. 
It is however certain that Bonaparte was in England, but 
the object of his appearance here is n^t known. He 
lodged in the Adelphi, and remained in London but a 
short time. This information was procured from General 
Miranda, who says he visited him in England at the time. 
We state the circumstance on the authority of that Gene- 
ral, the last time he was in this country, before his expe- 
dition to South America : it is likely, that the time when 
Bonaparte was here, was the middle of the year 1798 ; 
for the Convention suspecting him, whilst he com- 
manded in Corsica, of tampering to surrender the island 
to the English, the deputies le Courbc, St. Michael, and 
two others, ordered his arrest : he quitted the array in 
consequence, and perhaps came to England immediately, 
and departed in time to be present at the siege of 

After Bonaparte had been removed from the artillery, 
and his ill success before Ajaccio, he remained in great 
obscurity, and laboured under much pecuniary embar- 
rassment: his friends were not numerous, and he was 
often obliged for five or six livrcs to M. Guerin, a mer- 
chant at Marseilles ; but the assistance he received 
from others was even still more trifling. Ilis pros- 
pects were shaded by adversity, and he had no cer- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


— _-. L — ■■ 

ObjectioDf to the new Constitution. 

lain expectation of either employment or supporti when, 
at the latter end of the year 1795, he had again hopes of 
being called into action. £- 

Whilst the forty-eight sections of Paris seemed unani-* 
mous in theur acceptance of the new constitution. Qn9f~ 
six of them rejected the decree that two-third^f^e 
members of the Convention should be re-elected foB the 
new legfelature, and the decree which ^declared, thM if 
the departments did not re-elect two-tliirds, tlie Conve^i- 
tion would form an elective body, and supply the defici- 
ency by its own nomination. These two obnoxious laws 
were denominated the laws of the 5th and 13tb Fructidor 
(22d and 30th August), and were sent into the depart- 
ments with the constitutional act. The scene of horror 
and tumult which prevailed in Paris was dreadful. The 
warmest debates took place, and the spirit of the Parisians 
was imitated by- many of the departments. 

During these transactions, the primary assemblies of 
almost all the departments of the Republic signified 
their acceptance of the constitution, the decrees being 
blamed by some, and approved by others. This gave an 
opportunity to the Convention to declare, that the ma- 
jority of each department was in favour of the decreed ; 
this was disputed by the sections ; who, having got leave 
to inspect the* records, insisted that the majority, if their 
voice was fairly ascertauied, would be in favour of a new 
legislature ; because they discovered that where a vbok 
primary assembly were unanimous for repealing the de- 
crees, it was marked by the Convention as a single voi^ 
alihough some of them consisted of 1500 or 2000 persons^ 
But the simple truth did not meet the views of, either* 
Th# Convention received the deputations with haugbts* 
nesa^ and contempt, and often denied them admittance. 




The CoQveatloo declares iltelf io a state of permaneDcy. 

»*■'=»= ^ ' ' »>— .^r^ — ,^ 

The langnage of the sectioDs and the schemes they 
seemed resolved to adopt, made the Convention claim 
the protection of a military force from the committees 
of government The idea that no soldier would attack 
the 1^ or rights of a fellow cslizen, made the people of 
Paris pay little attention to the military preparations of 
the legisIaUire. Means were declared to be necessary to 
hring the Convention within the bounds of reason and 
justice ; and they were pamted as a body of tyrants and 
assassins^ still containing the mnrderers of the 2d of Sep-^ 
tember, the conspirators of the 31st of May» the ap-^ 
planders of the assassination of the Gironde> the asso« 
ciates of the Mountain chiefs, and the act6rs of the d^ 
cemviral tyranny, 

) This language was comparatively moderate. The re* 
estabUshment of revolutionary tribunals was strongly re* 
commended ; and it was proposed that every deputy 
akould stand a trial, and iko more evidence be required 
against him than his public conduct. 
. The arrests passed by the sections were annulled^ and 
tlie commanders of the armed force were ordered not to 
obey them. The Convention decbured itself in a state 
of permanence, and matters seemed to be fiuit coming to 
a crisis. 

At seven o'clock in the evening, a municipal officer 
appeared with sis dragoons, and two trumpeters, on the 
Place dtt Theatre Francois, to publish the decree, and, 
at the smne time a crowd rushing from the theatre, in- 
ereased that without, and hissings and hootings inter- 
rupted the ceremony; one of the heralds was attacked,^ 
and the flambeau he held extinguished. The Convene 
lion ordered the deputies to secure the electors who 
^voald not obey the law which ordered tke dosing of the 

V0I.,I.-H0.11. L L Digitized by e^OOgle 


I i r r"1f 

General Meaott euperoeded io hit oommaad of the Paris troops. 

assemblies. The electoral body, however, waited for 
the decree of the Convention to separate ; for when the 
troops arrived, the place of meeting was empty. 

The Convention issued a proclamation, which stated, 
that " after having exhausted all paternal means* they 
^' were resolved to put an end to the shameful struggle, 
** between the general 'will of the people and a handful 
** of Royalists." — " Friends to the laws ! defenders of 
*' hberty !" it concluded^ ** listen to the voice of duty, 
** and as soon as the cry of ' Aid to the law !' shall be 
*' heard, join the banners of virtue ; at the sight of you 
*' the conspirators will fly, and peace and happiness will 
" be raised upon the ruins of faction.^' 

The Convention continued to order troops into the 
metropolis, and mingled with them some hundreds of 
the Terrorists who were confined in prison, from their 
mortal antipathy against the sections. Such a guard 
was loudly exclaimed against by the sections ; for 
they conceived it a signal for the return of a govern- 
ment hke that of Robespierre. General Menou, who 
commanded the military force of Paris, was despatch- 
ed to where the sections met^ to effect their disper-^ 
sion, or take away their arms. The Deputy; who 
was chosen to visit the sections, and General Meno« 
had long conferences with them, when they said they 
would gladly . lay down their arms, if the Convention 
would disarm the Terroristsr ; but, as they had no 
authority to come to terms with the • sections, the 
troops were withdrawn on both sideB^ which offended 
the Convention, and for whieh General Mepou was 

Barras, who was charged witli the directicm of ibe 
.armed force, was appointed in his place, and W dete^ 

Digitized by V:iOOQIC 


Barras succeeds Menou, and appoints Bonaiiarte second in command. 

mined to avail himself of the assistance of a - general in- 
whom he could confide. Who could be better qualified 
them Napoleon Bonaparte, who had served at Toulon 
with such success, as to confirm that opinion he enter* 
tained of his talents, ^ich had made him appoint him 
a generalt there was no time for hesitation; he sent 
immediately for Bonaparte, and gave him the second 
command of the Conventional troops then in Paris. 

The sections beat to arms, and appeared more serious 
in the military preparations. The inhabitants were, 
alarmed at midnight by the sound of drums, and a knock- 
ing at almost every door, with the incessant cry of ** To 
'^arms, to arms, citizens! every one to his section*— 
''liberty or. death!" This produced no material efiect, 
as the people did not think that the assault was to be at 
night. About noon, however, the next day, the people 
were again in motion, in order to march their forces 
against the ThuiUeries. 

. The troops of the Convention reached from the Pont 
Neuf, along the quays on the right bank of the Seine, 
to the Champs Elysees, and continued to the Boule* 
varda; the people occupied the Rue St. Honore, the 
Place de Vendome, St. Roch, and the Place du Palais 
Royal. The Convention deceived the people, in the 
morning, by sending to the sections, and in receiving 
and agitating propositions for peace, whilst they gain- 
^d time to reinforce their positions, and encourage the 
troops to fire on the people when ordered. The debates 
in the Convention, and messages and letters to General 
Danicau, who commanded the troops of the Parisians^ 
l^pt the people dispussi^g instead of fighting ; and, to 
their astonishment, the post of the citizen? at St. RocH 

L L 3 

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Dreadfol tlaai^hter io Park. 

was suddenly fired upon in the Ckil de Sac Dftupbin, 
and a dreadliil scene of sbnghter began. 

The citizens on the Northern side of the river were 
in close -and terrible combat, those on the opposite were 
endeavouring to reach the Cbnventiott by the qiiaynof 
Voltaire, though the cannon of the Convention, which 
defended each end of the bridge, presented to their 
view a most threatening appearance. Tbe^ conflict on 
the one side of the river was not long ; for the com^ 
mander of the column having tried to force the passage 
without artillery, and but ill provided with ammanition, 
a discharge of musketry was made, which quickly dia* 
persed his followers : the artOleiy was commanded b j 
Bonaparte. The battle near the Thailleries, where the 
Convention was sitting, raged vrith great fury, the can- 
non being frequently seized by the insurgents, and as 
often retaken by the national troops. Though the sec* 
tionaries had no artillery, they made a gpiUant oppositicii* 
and, after many repulses, still returned to the charge, 
and did not retreat till after a bloody conflict of four 
hours, Witban two hours, the firing of the cannon was 
heard again, which did not snd till midnight, when the 
troops of the Ccmvention wer6 masters of the field oT 
battle, and routed the cHizens at every post The church 
of St Roch, and the Pahis d'Egaliti, were forced ; the 
gates were opened by the cannon, and the people who 
had sought refuge irithin the wafls, were slaughtered. 
The few deputies who were in the Convention, staid in 
their places, with their president at their head. Many of 
the otiiers , mixed wHh tike troops witiiout The aumbei' 
of people Wain on this memorable day> has b^ep sUtsd 


by Google 



by Google 

Digitized by 



■■ ■ ■ ^ ■■ I I I- 

The National CooTention dissolved. — ^TKeir actions. 

—■p- •• sssssss nr""'-r, . . "■■■ . ^ ■ ■,■■ ir ■ -wi 

BarraSy having had the chief command, received att 
the honours and the credit that the Convention fixed ta 
the services of the day. The distinguished share that 
Bonaparte had in the affair, was eclipsed by the sup#* 
rior pretensiln of his superior. The unpopularity of 
the measure was not likely to endear him to the Paii* 
iriatts ; but he acquired notice, «nd Barras was at length 
so well pleased with his conduct, that he took an eariy 
opportunity of rewarding him. • 

A commission of five members, was appointed t» 
consider the most effectual means for saving the country; 
and as this had been almost a watch word for carrying 
into efi^ct some revolutionary measure, it caused on ftM 
account a great degree of alarm. 

The report given in by the commission, recomnend- 
ing the sitting of the Convention ta be permanent^ Waa 
annulled ; and, on the day fixed by law, the 27th Octo- 
ber, the president declared that the National Convention 
was dissolved. 

This Convention continued 87 months and four days 
sitting, tfiey put to death the successor of an hundred 
kings, and, in one day, broke that sceptre, for which 
fourteen centuries had procured almost a religious vene- 
ration ; they made France an armed nation, and sent a 
million and a half of men into the field, who defeated 
the combination of all the great powers of the continent, 
and subdued Holland. They enacted 11,210 kws»«nd, 
300 conspirators, and 140 insurrections were denoimc- 
ed, and 18,613 persons ended their lives by the guiUo- 
tine. Th6 civil war at Lyons cost 81,200 men, ^d tliat 
at MarseUles 729. At Toulon 14,825 lives were diatrpy- 
ied ; and in the South, after the fall of Bobespierre, 740 
jMividuals perished^ The war in La Vendee caused 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The Executive Directory elected. 

the de9tractioxi of 900,000 men, and more than 20>000 
dwellings. Four thousand seven hundred and ninety 
persons committed suicide, through terror or tlie dread- 
ful enormities that were committed ; and 3400 women 
died of premature deliveries, from tho ^ame cause ; 
20,000 human beings perished of famine, and 1550 were 
driven to incurable insanity. In the colonies 124,000 
white men, women and children, and 60,000 people of 
colour were massacred, and two towns and 3200 habita- 
tions burnt. The loss of men by the war alone, is esti- 
mated at upwards of 800,000, and 123,789 Emigrants, 
were for ever excluded from entering France. These 
were the events that happened during the time of that 
Convention, which closed its sittings, by decreeing, that 
the punishment of death should be abolished at the ter- 
mination of the war I 

*»»»-0^^^*'»*0*-*'*^:»^*'*^»^^ ^ ^^^^*.^'^0 0^***^^^» 


, The Convention finished its sittings, by electing itself 
into a body, to complete the members wanting in the 
Council of Five Hundred. On the Council of Five 
Hundred and the Council of Ancients being formed, 
they retired to their respective halls. The Council of 
Ancients appointed Larevelliere Lepaux, their president; 
and the Council of five hundred elected Danon for their 
president A list of 60 names was given to the Coun- 
cil of Ancients, firom which they w^re to elect an B3(fi^ 

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BoDBiMTte wUiU tbe Director Camot. 

cutive Directory of five persons, and Ije|>aax, Letoor* 
near, Rewbel, Sieyes, 'and BarraSi were declared duly . 
elected. Sieyes declined the office, and Camot was 
appointed in his room. 

The palace of the Luxembourg was fixed on as tbe, 
residence of the Executive Directory, and was to be 
named the Palace of the Directory. The dress of the 
Directors was very magnificent ; the constitution de- 
creed that they should wear it at all times when they 
gave audience ; the legislative authorities were also ha- 
bited in their halls in very showy dresses. 

When the Directory were [inaugurated, Bonaparte, a& 
General of the armed force of Paris, waited on each of 
the five Directors. Gamot, who succeeded Sieyesy lived 
at the top of a house beneath the ruins of the Luxem- 
bourg, his official apartments not being ready; it wa^ jn 
a Monday that Bonaparte presented himself, the day 
when a celebrated writer regularly visited Carnot. This 
person was singing an air, accompanied by a young lady 
on the piano-forte. Tiie appearance of Bonaparte, a 
little well-made olive complexioned youth, amid five or 
six tall young men, who paid him great attention, was 
a great contrast : he entered the room and bowed with 
an air of ease and self possession, and the author in 
question asked Camot who the gentlemen were* The 
Director answered, ** the General of the armed force of 
'' Paris, and his aids-de-carap." His being unlike such 
Generals as Santerre or Rossignol was striking. " What 
** is his name V said the author, '' Bonaparte.'^ " Has 
^* he great nulitary skill T " So it is said." '* What 
*' has he ever done that is remarkable ?" *' He is the 
** officer who commanded the troops of the Convention 
•< on tbe day of Vendemiaire*" The inquirer was one 




The British ref ol«« to attempt a detoeat oa the French coast. 

•f Hbe electors af VeDdemiaire ; be retired to an obsciire 
pert of the room, tod looked on the new visitor in 
Aouglitfiihiesd and silence. 

Boniq^arte seeing the young ladj stiU at her instni- 
ment, and the company taken np with luni> said, " I 
** have stopped year amusements ; some person was 
" singing, I beg I may not interrupt the party." The 
Director apologized ; the General insisted, and after two 
€>r throe national airs were played, he rose, and took his 
kave. When he departed, the conversation turned on 
Bonaparte, and Oamot predicted from this short inter- 
view, ^at the young Geneial, would not long retain a 
command that an aspiring genius would consider only 
as a step to future fame and glory. 

* Barras was not wanting in discernment ; and he, there* 
fore, duly valued the exertions of Bonaparte in the 
business of the sections ; be saw that he was fitted for 
a station in which vigilance and activity were essentially 
requisite, and he procured faim the command of the 
army of the interior; the high rank of this appointment 
was attended with adequate emolumcots, and carried 
wilb it considerable influence. 

In this year, 1795, La Vendee was again in a state of 
nsurrection ; the Vendean chiefs were suqpected, a cor^ 
leqpondenee with the English was iiUercepted, Charette 
and Stofllet issued a manifesto on the pan of ikt Ven- 
deans, and civil war again seemed inevitable. 

The British government, convinced that if France en* 
joyed all ber strength, she would be too power&l for 
her opponents, resolved to attempt a descent on her 
coasts. 'Regiments of Emigrants were raised, which 
were recruited partly by the unfortunate Toolonese, who 
were saved from the massacre in that city, and by vo- 




KxpeditloB to Qoiberoo. 

■■ ■ 

lunteers from amongst the French prisoners: M. de 
Poisaye had the command of the expedition ; and the 
gallant Count de Sombreuil and Count d'Hervilly vo^ 
lonteered their services on this occasion, hoping to re- 
store tranquillity to their distracted country. 

The expedition was provided with liberality^ and from 
the judicious equipment of their army, and the great sup- 
ply of arms and stores, whith they could distribute 
on their landing, they had no doubt of the most favourable 

When they were a fortnight at sea, the fleet anchor^ 
ed in the bay of Quiberon, imd about 2500 men landed 
-on the morning of the 27th June, before whom 200 Re* 
publicans appeared to make a stand, but were easily put 
to flight. Multitudes of peasants came from all quarters 
to see the army, and were much pleased with the ex- 
pedition. They were supplied with large quantities of 
different necessaries, and upwards of 28,000 muskets 
were distributed among them. 

The fort of Quiberon surrendered to M. d'Hervilly. 
It was afterwards settled in a council of war, to remove 
the main army within the peninsula and fort of Quibe- 
ron, while M. Vauban, who commanded some regular 
troops and Chouans, was to continue in his station at 
Camae, on tlie north-east of Quiberon Bay, about six 
miles south-west of the town of Auray. On the 3d and 
4th of July, the Republicans attacked the Chouans, 
when tlie Emigrants found it impossible to keep them to 
their posts. The wretched people of Carnae and its vi- 
cinity were filled with terror at the departure of the Emi- 
grant army. The Republicans had procured the best in- 
telligence respecting their antagonists, and they were no 
sooner within the peninsula than they attacked all their 

▼ot. I.— NO. 1% MM 

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The Emisnuitt defcmted 4C Qifiberoli. 

other posts. Part of the Emigrants were saved by the 
British boats, while the rest were porsaed under the 
canifon of the fort 

The €oByention despatched Bladl and TaHien to raise 
the neighboaring departments, whilst General Hoche 
•rgahised an army ; he obliged the Emigrants to retire 
under fort Penthie\Te, whilst he occupied the village of 
St Barbe, and entrusted General Lemoine to construct 
strong works on the heights of St Barbe, which is so 
situated that it commands the communication. Almost 
every person in the EmigrsEnt army began to discover 
the Aeceessity of a retreat 9 but the contusion increased 
in a (rightful degree. By order of M. de Puisaye and Sir 
J^B.- Warren/ the whole of the provisions on board the 
transports were disembarked ; and these provisions^ 
destined for the army, were given away among the 
hordes of useless €houans who crowded the peninsula. 
Bf. Ae Puisaye's army, consisting of Emigrants, Chouans^ 
and British, amounted to 12,000 men, of which 5000 
were to raise the blockade, by attacking the B«pub- 
licans at St. Barbe. The Emigrants carried the two first 
camps, and the Repubhcans, under General Humbert, 
retreated with apparent confusion ; bu^ on attacking 
the third, two masked batteries were opened on them, 
auid a terrible slaughter ensued. To aid their retreat, 
tlie Emigrants threw away their arms, their knapsacks, 
and their very shoes, but it is likely that none of them 
would have escaped, if the firing from the British fleet 
had not stopped the pursuit of the Republicans. Many 
nobles were left dead on the field. General d'HerviOy, 
was badly wounded, and the Republicans took three 
pieces of cannon. 

lioche attacked Fort Penthicvre with SOOOmmi, led oa 




The Royallits attack tbe island of Noirmoutier and are repuUed. 

by Generals Humbert and Valle, aided by numbers of 
deserters from the Royalists ; 900 men scaled the rocks, 
and, being assisted by part of the garrison, got posses- 
sion of one of the advanced works, and planted the tri- 
coloured flag; the entrenched camps were forced, and 
M. de Puisaye being wounded, retired on board one of 
the English vessel ; but the Royalists rallied under the 
gallant Sombreuil, who wished to hold out until the 
liTomen and children, who were throwing themselves 
into the sea, had obtained an asylum on board the Eng- 
lish fleet 

It was impossible to resist the Republicans: «ome of 
the chiefs endeavoured to escape in the boats sent ( 
their succour; the firing recommenced, and the unhappy 
Emigrants were IbrQed either to perish by the swords of 
the victors, or the waves of the sea. The accomplished 
Sombreuil, the bishop of Do], with the clergy who fol^ 
lowed him, and almost the whole of the Emigrant offi- 
cers, were taken and guillotined. Most of the privates^ 
except the Chouans, effected their escape. 

The defeat of this expensive expedition did not satis* 
fy England that the sulijugation of France was impossi- 
ble. The fleet of Sir John B. Warren continued oflT 
the coast of Britany the remaining part of the year, not 
without hopes of doing something extraordinary in for 
vour of the Royalists. A council of war being held in 
42uiberon bay, it was resolved td attack the island of 
Noirmoutier, which was formeriy held by the people of 
Vendee. It was attacked, and the assailants were re- 
pulsed with considerable loss. The extravagance of this 
lUtempt with such a force was obvious, against a fortress 
^efepded by 120 pieces of cannon, and 15,000 oi€9v 

U Hf^ 


by Google 


The city of Manheim taken by the Republican troops. 

The isle of Dieu, however, was taken possession of, and 
the British cruisers kept the coast in continual alarm. 

The campaign in Flanders began by the siege of Liox- 
embourg, which surrendered to the Bepnblicans on the 
7th of June. This has been reckoned one of the 
strongest fortifications in Europe. Its garrison was 
10,000 men, commanded by the celebrated Marshal Bent 
der, and all supplies were cut off before it capitulated. 
The army of the Sambre and Mouse, under General 
Jourdan, crossed the Rhine near Dusseldorff, and got 
possession of it, and invested Mentz, after the Austrians 
had taken a strong position on the Lahn, between the 
towns of Nassau and Diesbourg. The array of the 
Hliine and Moselle, under General Pichegru, passed the 
river opposite Manheim, which fine city was taken pos- 
session of by the Republicans, 

The army under the command of Jou'rdan, forced 
the posts of the Austrians on the Lahn, crossed 
the Maine, and 3Ientz was completely blockaded. A 
division of General Pichegm's army had orders to take 
ground that might prevent the junction of Glairfait's 
army wilh that of Marshal Wurmser, who was marching 
in great force to relieve Manheim, in order to prevent its 
surrender ; but the French cavalry having plundered the 
peasantry, the Austrians surprised them. The ground 
was disputed with great obstinacy, but the Austrian 
troops, by following up their success^ caused the whole 
division of the enemy to fall back on Manheim. This 
suggested to the Republican Generals the idea of giving 
up their pursuit ; and Jourdan saw that his station was 
no longer tenable ; for fhe enemy had attacked his reaft 
aoid took a considerable part pf bis artilleiyf 


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The Avstrians defeat iht Fiepcb. 

Prince Uohenlohe of Prussia saqprised the Republi- 
cans at Keiserslauteni ; but the Plrussians making inune* 
diate restitution^ the treaty then on foot, was continueiL 
Hobenlohe is charged with having encouraged Clairfait 
tQ attack the Republicans by the information he gave 
respecting their position and the weakness of their force. 
The French were surprised ; and General Jourdan was 
forced to raise the siege of Mentz and conunenoe a re* 
Iveat. The army of the Sambre and Meuse was ^imme* 
diately pursued by the enemy» when Gkiirfait had col- 
lected his scattered forces along the Neckar ; at which 
time General Pichegru crossed the Rhine^ in order to 
reinforce the army on the left, leaving a strong garrisoo 
at Manheim* The army under General Jourdan was 
hotly pursued by Clairfait, and, after a variety of skir- 
misheSt retreated to Dusseldorff, where it first crossed 
the Rhine. The garrison of Mentz received strong m- 
infbrcementSf and the Austrians, in no manner alarmed 
for its safety, two of their divisions crossed the Rhine, 
and attacked. the remainder of the French army en- 
trenched before that place, and exerted their strength 
to no purpose for several months. The Republicans 
fought with fiiry and desperation for a long time, but 
were, at last, forced to relinquish all their posttf, their 
artillery having been seized by the enemy, and their 
works demdished. 

The Austrians bow were masters of the whole coim- 
try from Landam to the banks of the H oseOe ; at which 
ditical time. General Joardan assembled ail the Repub* 
Iican forces on the left side of the Rhine ; and, leaving 
a strong party at Dnsseldorff, he advanced, and check- 
ed the Austrians in that quaiiar. The town of Manf- 
liieim was yiolen^ aasauHed by the Austrians, and wai 






Embargo on Dutch ships in British Ports. 

nearly destroyed by fire. The French garrison sarren* 
dered prisoners of war, to the amount of 8000 men. 
In the Palatinate, the Austrians were in possession of the 
whole country from the Rhine, in a direction north* 
west, through Landai; to Deux Fonts, and from that 
quarter their conquest extended north to the country 
akmg the Moselle as for as Treves. He Republicans 
made a most furious assault upon the Austrians, every 
inch was disputed in the keenest manner, but they suc- 
ceeded in lini].ting the boundaries of the Austrians ; and 
a cessation of hostilities was agreed to for three moutUs. 
The army of Italy acted on the defensive, as the com- 
bined forces were much superior, although the rigour of 
the season prevented any very active operations. 

The Cabinet of St. James's, after the conquest of 
Holland, and the treaty signed between that country and 
France, laid an' embargo on all Dutch ships in British 
ports, and five men of war, and sixty sail of other vessels 
were detained ; an order for reprisals was fdso granted 
against the ships, goods, and subjects of Holland. 

The Dutch factories in Asia were taken by the British 
government ; its power was thus increased in the Eastern 
world, and tiie Cape of Good Hope was taken by an 
expedition under Vice Admiral Sir George Keith Et 

The islands of Grenada, Dominica, St Lucia, and St 
Vinpenf s, in the West Indies, were, however, powerfiiUy 
incited to rise against the British government; and the 
decree for emancipating ^the slaves, was carefiilly pro* 

\ Victor Hngues landed a body of troops in the island 
ef St Lucia, in the montii of April 1795; these wers 
joined by the people of polonr, and the old French U^ 





The Weit India itlaodi excited to insurrectioa by Victor Hugnes. 

habitants, who got accessions of strength from the negro 
slaves. General Stuart, who commanded in the island,, 
attacked Sonffriere, occupied by the rebels, and fell into 
an ambuscade, -but from which he fortonately escaped* 
Two days afterwards he gave them battle at Souffnere, 
but was defeated with the loss of 200 men, and a num- 
ber of officers. This obliged the British troops to shelter 
themselves withm the fort, and they abandoned the whole 
island in the month of July. 

Grenada was also encouraged by Victor Hugnes, who 
sent a number of men for that purpose from Guadaloupe, 
and the Lieutenant Governor and many inhabitants were 
made prisoners, and the French kept possession in the 
island. To add to the miseries of the colonists the in- 
surrection was^ followed by the yellow fever, which caus- 
ed more havoc than the sword. 

The subjugation of Dominica was projected by Victor 
Ungues, and the French inhabitants of that island, and 
a detachment from Guadaloupe, were joined by a great 
number of negroes. One company of regulars only 
was stationed on this island, and must have fallen into 
the power of the insurgents, had not the British inhabi- 
tslnts with invincible fortitude, obliged them to suiren- 
der. Many executions of the French inhabitants follow- 
ed, and several disaffected were sent to England. The 
island of St. Vincents was also in insurrection ; the Bri- 
tish troops were repulsed by the Caribs in two actions, 
who were not totally subdued at the end of the yean 

Jamaica also had a share of these colonial calamities. 
A terrible fire broke out at Montego Bay, which did 
much mischief, and reduced the greater part of the 
town ; ihe Maroon Indians took up arms, and a melan- 
choly war ensued. Bloodhounds were sent for (rom 




The Ceaieur and a number of Merchantmen taken Irf the French. 

Caba to hant down the unhappy negroes, and the policy 
of the British government has^ in this instance, been 
much questioned both at home and abroad. 

The British Mediterranean fleet of about sixty sail of 
merchantmen, homeward-bound, under the protection 
of three ships of the line and four frigates, waa over* 
taken by a French fleet of nine sail of the line and a 
number of Irigates, off Cape St. Vincent, commaBded 
by Admiral Richery, whe had left the port of Toulon 
only a little time before. When the British commodore 
saw the French squadron making towards him with a 
press of sail, he made llie signal for the fleet to disperse* 
In the mean time, the Republican Admiral dispatched Us 
frigates to prevent the escape of the merchant idiips. 
The Bedford and the Formidable, as weU as the frigates^ 
effected their escape, but the retreat of the Censeur o( 
74 guns was entirely cut off, and near thirty of the mer-' 
ehantmen fell into the hand^ of (the French, 
y During these transactions, the happy terminatios ot 
civil war in La Vendue seemed approaching ; for Stefflet 
and Chare tie where captured and shot, and their fi>llower» 
submitted to the Constituted Authorities^ 



JostPHiKE La Paoeeie, when twenty-two years of age^ 
carried the Viscount Alexander de Beauhamois, Sligor 
in a royal French regiment of in&ntry ; both were de- 



AXb WARS 6t EURdPE. 273 

General BeauharnoU i^uilloiincd. 

scended iVom noble families, both uatives of Martinique, 
knd both educated in France. The fortune of the beau- 
tiiiil Josephine was a pleasing^ addition to the slender in- 
come of the youthfCil Viscount; their expenditure was 
liberal ; and, having been introduced at court, their rank, 
their manners, and the elegance of their entertainments, 
ensured them the best company in Paris. 

At the beginning of the Revolution, M. de Beauhamois 
ilras chosen, by the nobility of the baliwick of Blois, a 
deputy to the States-General, or National Assembly*; 
and, in June 1791, he was elected their president, and in 
that capacity signed the proclamation to the French peo- 
ple on the jourhf^y of the King to Varennes. He 'served 
under General Biron in April 1792, and bore the rank 
bf Adjutant-General whbn the French were defeated 
near Mons. H0 succeeded Custine in the command of 
the army of the Rhine ; was suspended by the deputies 
in August 1793, and soon after arrested witli his wife. 
He was consigned to the guillotine on the 23(1 c^f' July 
1796; if Robespierre had not followed him, a few days 
after, Madame Beauharnois would also have perished on 
the Republican s^aflTold. In one of the 36 lists of per- 
sons destined by Fouquier Thionville to feed the guiIlo> 
tine for 36 successive days, appeared the name of Ma- 
dame dc Beauhamois ; another list contained the name of 
Barras. On the 12th of AlEigust 1794, she was released 
by Legendre. Barras had the national seals taken off 
her house, in the Rue de Victoire, a few weeks after, and 
honoured her with his protection, by sqjouming in her 
hotel, until October 1795, when his being chosen to the 
office of Director, required that he should make use of 
the splendid suite of apartments allotted to him in the 
palace of the Luxembourg. 

VOL. I.— NO. 12. N U 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Bonaparte appoiated Commander in Chief & marries Madame Beauhanioti* * 

' BarraSy dignified as one of the chief magistrates oi 
France, found it inconvenient to continue his intimacy • 
with Madame Beauhamois; had their attachment been 
mutual, it was either easOy subdued, or it had suddenly 
subsided, for the lady agreed to an arrangement, which 
shewed her obedience to the wishes ^f her friend, and 
the self command that she had acquired over her own 
feelings ; she agreed to give her hand to Napoleon Bo* 
naparte, the General of the interior, if the General could 
be brought to offer her his vows of conjugal affection* 
The plan was formed, and Barras proceeded to provide 
his mistress with a husband, and his friend with a wife. 

The army of Italy had no leader ; Camot displaced 
General Scherer for habitual intoxication. Bonaparte 
having shewn his talents both at Toulon and on the 13th 
Vendemiaire, Barras recommended him to Camot, as 
most likely to serve the Republic ftdthfully in Italy. 
Carnot's high opinion of the genius of Bonaparte, se- 
conded the nomination. Barras offered to Bonapaite, 
Madame Beauhamois, and 300,000 livres, and Caraot 
offered him the army. Barras t6ld him tiie lady and the 
army were equally necessary to a youthful and' aspiring 
General ; his friendship, gallantry, and ambition, were 
roused, and as the terms of the offer signified, tliat nei* 
ther could be gratified without the other, he obliged hi& 
friend Barras, and became the husband of Madame 
Beauhamois, and Ck)mmander-in-Chief of* the army of 

Bonaparte arrived at head quarters early in the spring 
of }796. lie lived familiarly with the soldiers, marched, 
on loot, at their head, suffered their hardships, redressed 
their grietances, and acquired, by attenlioA t? their de- 
sires, their esteem and affection. His umj ws« tery in> 





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,__ * _ 

The Battle of Monteootle. 

ferior in point of nnmbcrs to that of his enemies : — ** Bat* \ 
if we are vanquished," said he, ^' I shall have too much 
^— if conquerors, we stand in need of nothing.** 

Tie Austrians and Piedmontese occupied all those 
parts of the Alps, which coBunand the river of Genoa. * 
The French had their right supported hy Savona, and 
their left towards Montenotte, while two demi-brigadei» 
were much advanced in front of their right at Voltri. 

After seme time spent in movements intended to de- 
ceive the French, hostilities were commenced by tho 
Imperialists. Beaulieu ordered 10,000 men to attack the 
post of Voltri. General Cervoni with 3000 men retreat- 
ed in the night, in great order, to the church of Our 
JjBdj of Savona, and Bonaparte covered him with 1500 
men, posted expressly in the avenues of Sospello, and on 
the heights of Verraggio^ On the 10th Beaulieu, witii 
15,000 men, attacked and drove in all which supported 
the centre of the French, and at one o'clock of the day 
was before the redoubt of Montenotte, the last of their 
entrenchments. In spite of repeated charges this redoubt 
arrested the progress of the enemy. The chief of brigade, 
Bampon, who commanded these 1500 men, made his 
soldiers take an oath to perish in the redoubt, and, for 
the whole night, kept the enemy at the dist^ce of pistol* 
shot* In the night time. General Laharpe, took post 
Ibehind the redoubt, and Bonaparte, followed by the. 
Generals |Berthier and Massena, and the Commissioner 
Salieetti, brought op his centre and his left, at one 
o'clock in the morning, by Ahara, on the flank and rear 
of the Austrians. On the 11th, at day break, Beaulieu 
and Laharpe attacked each other with vigour, and van* 
ous success, when Massena appeared, deaKng death and 
tenor on tlie Austro-Sardinians, where General Argtn* 
V N 2 

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' . - ■ ■ ■ = :^ 

Bonaparte suiniKonsieB General Povera. 

teau commanded. The enemy's Generals, Koccaviup 
and Argenteau, were wounded, and the rout was com? 
plete. Fifteen hundred men were killed, and 2500 mado. 
prisoners^ of which sixty were officers ; several standards 
werjB also taken* The French made themselves masters 
of Carcara on the 12th, and also of Cairo. 

ipeaulieu was yet able to send assistance from bis right 
wing to the left of the Austro-Sardinian army. Bona- 
parte changed his head-quarters to Carcara on the 12th, 
and ordered General Liaharpe to march to Sozello, ii^ 
order to threaten the eight battalions of the enemy sta- 
tioned -thprc, and on the day following by a rapid and 
cjonqealed march, to get to. the town of Cairo, white 
Geueral Massena was to gain the heights of Dego, at the 
time that the Generais 'Menaud and Joubert occupied 
one of the heights of Biestro, and the otiier the position 
qf St Marguerite. This movement following the battle 
«f Montenotte, placed the French army on the other sidfl 
of the Alps. 

General Augereau forced Millesimo, while the Gene^ 
rals Menaud and Joubert drove the enemy from all their, 
posts, and surrounded a corps of 1500 Austrian pen^*. 
diers, commanded by Laeutenant-General Povera, a 
knight of the order of Maria Theresa, who gallantly re- 
tired to the mountain of Cossaria,*and entrenched him-: 
self in an old castle extremely strong, on account of its 
position. Augereau ordered his artillery to advance, 
when a cannonade was kept up for several hours. In the 
course of the day, Bonaparte, vexed at finding his march 
checked by a handful of men, ordered General Povera 
to be summoned to surrender. He requested to speak 
with the Commander-in-Chief, but a lively cannonade 
i»{}mmencing on the right wing of the Frcuchi liindcrvd 




That General surrenden. . 

\k\m from going to Povera, who treated with Geueral 
Augereau for several hours ; Augereau, at length formed 
bis men into four columns, and advanced against the 
castle. Joubert entered the enem/s works with seven 
paen, when, being wounded in the ""h^ad, he was thrown 
pn the ground ; his soldiers thinking him dead, his column 
relaxed. The second column, under General Banel, ad- 
vanced in silence, when ihp General was killed. The 
third column, under Adjutant-General Quenin, who was 
9lso killed, was in like manner disconcerted. 

Night coming on made Bonaparte fear, that the ene- 
my would attempt to make their way sword in hand : he 
therefore made dispositions to prevent them. 

Next momjng the hostile armies faced each other ; the 
French left/ under Augereau, keplrGeneral Povera blocker 
aded ; several of the enemy's regiments strove to pene* 
irate tbp centre of the French, but were repulsed by 
Gene^td Menand, who was then ordered to fall l>ack on the 
right wing. Before noon General Massena extended his 
line beyond the enemy's left, which occupied the village 
pf Dego, strongly entrenched. The French pushed 
their light troops as far as the road leading from Diego to 
Spino. General Laharpe's division marched in three 
close columns ; the one on his left, under General Gausse» 
crossed the Bonnida, and attacked the right of the ene- 
my's left wmg ; General Cervoni, with the second column* 
ako passed the Bonnida, covered by one of the French 
batteries, and advanced against the enemy; while the 
third column, under Adjutant-General Boyer, turned a 
ravin» and cut off their retreat The enemy had not 
time to capitulate; and the French columns, spreading 
terror and death, put them to the rout. General Povera, 
frith the corps be commanded at Cossariai surrendere4 




The Direeforj write to Bonaparte. 

prisoners of war. By this victory the French acquired 
Jtmb seven to nine thousand prisoners^ and the enemy 

On the 15thy Beaulien, with the flower of his army, at^ 
lacked the village of Dego and carried it Massena, when 
ht had formed part of his troops began the attack, bat was 
repulsed in three attempt^. Crcneral Cansse was not more 
finrtunate; he attacked the enemy, and was on the point of 
ebargiBg with the bayonet, when he fell mortally wound- 
ed. In this situation, observing General Bonaparte, he 
collected his strength, and asked him if Dego was retaken, 
—"The posts are ours," replied the Greneral.— ** Then,** 
saidCausse, " Vhe la Rep^blique 1 I die content." The 
aflhir, however, was not yet decided, and it was already 
two o'clock in the afternoon. Bonaparte ordered a demi-r 
brqfade to form under General Victor, whilst Adjutant-^ 
General Lanus, rallying a demi-brigade of light infantry, 
threw himself on the enem/s left. These movements 
eanied Dego ; the cavalry completed the rout of the ene* 
vy, who left 600 dead and 1400 prisoners* G^ineral 
Biuwa took the post of San-Giovanni, which commands 
the valley of tbe Bormida. General Angerean, having 
drove the enemy flrom the redonbts of Montezemo, comr 
oranieated with the valley of the Tanaro^ which Serra<f 
rier^s division had afaready occupied. 

The Directory, in their despatches to Bonaparte, ex^ 
fimacA what they felt, in finding they had chosen him 
to condnct tiie army of Italy to victory. **To-d^, 
General T said they, ** receive the tribute of national 
gratitude ; merit it more and more, and prove to Europe^ 
that BeanUen, by changing the scene of action, has nof 
changed his opponent ; that, beaten in the north, he shall 
he constantly defeated by the brave army of Italy; 




Geoenl Masieoa croisei tht Tanaro. 

aad that, with such defenders, liberty shidl triamph over 
the impotent eflbrts of the enemies of the Republic.'* 

General Laharpo*and the chief of brigade, Rampon, 
also receiTed honourable testimonies of tlie regard which 
the Directory had of their exertions, 
) The movements of Oenerab Augereau, Bayrand, and 
Joobert, obliged the enemy to evacuate the entrenched 
camp during night General Serrurier entered Ceva, in 
which was a garrison of between seven and eight hundred 
men. The heavy artillery had not been able to keep 
peace with the army in the mountains, and were not yet 
arrived. The Piedmontese army, driven from Ceva, 
took a position at the confluence of the Cursaglia. On 
the 20th Serrurier attacked their right by the village of 
SL Michael, and, passing the bridge, compelled them, 
after three hours fighting, to evacuate the village; but 
the Tanaro not being fordable, the division destined to 
attack their left could harass them only by its riflemen. 
General Serrurier therefore retreated: the enemy's po- 
sition was formidable ; surrounded by two deep and im- 
petuous rivers, they had destroyed all the bridges, and 
erected strong batteries on the banks. Both armies re- 
ciprocally sought to deceive each other by false manoeu- 
vres, to conceal their real intentions. 

General Massena crossed the Tanaro near Ceva, and 
occupied the village of Lezegno. Guieux and Fioreila, 
generals of brigade, took the bridge of the Torra. Bona- 
parte meant to bear down on Mondovi, and compel the 
enemy to change the field of battle ; but General Colli, 
dreading the issue of an action, which must have been 
decisive on so extended a line, retreated. At day-break 
the two armies were in right of each other, and the en- 
gagement began in tha viUage of Vico, General Guieux 



180 HISTORV of napoleon BONAPARTE, 

Tbe King of Sardinia sues for Peace. 

bore down on the left of Moudovi, while the Generals 
Fiorella and Dammartin carried the redoubt which covers 
ed the enemy *s centre; the Sardinian army abandoned 
the field of battle^ and on that evening the French en- 
tered Mondovi. The enemy's loss amounted to 1800 
men, of whom 1300 were prisoners. 

The enemy crossed the Stura, and took a position be- 
tween Coni and Charasco. The French entered the 
town of Bena. General Serrurier, on the 25tli, marched 
to la Trinite, and cannonaded the town of Fossano, the i 
head quarters of General Colli. General Massena ad- j 
Tanced against Cherasco, and drove in tlie enemy's grand 
guard. Eonaparte sent General Dujard, and his own aid- 
dc-camp, Marmont, to reconnoitre the place^ and plant 
howitzers to beat down the palisades. The enemy evaca- 
ated the town and repassed the Stura. This victory was 
of tlie greatest consequence ; for, besides supporting the 
right wing, it gave an ample supply of subsistence. The 
French threw bridges of boats across the Stura^ and Fos- 
sano surrendered to Serrurier. General Augereau march- 
ed against Alba, which surrendered, and threw several 
bridges of boats across the Tanaro, to enable the army 
to pass the river. 

Irhe King of Sardinia, shut up in Turin^ detemuDed 
fo treat for peace. General Colli, commander-in-chief 
of his army, addressed a letter to Bonaparte, stating, that 
as the king had sent plenipotentiaries to Genoa to treat 
for peace, under the mediation of the court of Spain; he 
thought the interests of humanity required, tliat hostilities 
should be suspended during the dependence of the nego- 
ciation. He therefore proposed an armistice, in order 
to prevent the effusion of human blood. Bonaparte re- 
plied, that the Executive Directory preserved the ri^ht 




^ BoDaparte addresses his Army. 

of treating ibr peace ; it was therefore uecesaary that tb^ 
plenipotentiaries of tbe King should repair to Paris^ or 
wait at Genoa the arrival of those whom the French go- 
vernment should send thither. He further obderved^ 
that tbe military position of the two armies prevented 
every unqualified suspension of arms ; and although he 
was, convinced that his government was disposed to grant 
reasonable conditions of peace fd hill majesty, yet he 
could not arrest his march. There was, [however, he 
remarked, a means by which General CoDi might attain 
bis purpose, conformable to tbe true interests of his courts 
and which would prevent an effusion of blood ; and that 
was to put into his possession two of tbe threfe fortresses 
of Coni, Alexandria, or Tortona; they could then wait 
tbe issue of negociations, which probably might be pro- 
tracted. A peace was granted to the unfortunate mo- 
narch : he surrendered Exilles, Tortona, Coni, Alexan- 
dria, and Cbsiteau Dauphin, as the pledges of bis faith,- 
and relinguisbed Savoy and the county of Nice for 

Bonaparte immediately after this addressed his army 
from bis head -quarters at Cherasco; be there stated to 
them the great things they had done in the short space of 
fourteen days, and the magnanimity they preserved under 
the different privations they experienced ; that, destitute 
of every thing, they had supplied every thing, and with- 
out shoes, and often without bread, had peribrmed ha- 
rassing marches ; he theti promised them the conquest of 
Italy, but on the express condition that they did not pil- 
lage or plunder ; that they were coming as friends $uid 
brothers, and to dictate ai peace that would indemnify 
,tlieir country for what it had s^icrificed. He tells them, that 
those guilty of marauding shall be instantly shot, but that 

VOL. T.— NO. 12. o o r- T 

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Bonapaite advaiioes to the Po, 

he in general sees them obedient and sub^iissiye ; and 
cMehides by stating^ that the French come to break the 
chains of the Italians, and as enemies only to those 
tyrants who ensUve them. 


4LvT£R signing the armistice with die King of Sardinia, 
on the 29th of April, Bonaparte marched his army to- 
wards the Po. Masseua had reached Alexandria, and 
seized on the magazines, which the Anstrians had 
sold to the town. On the 6th of May the army of 
Italy took possession of Tortona; they found here more 
than one handred pieces of brass cannon, and im- 
mense magazines.^ Ceva and Coni were in an equal 
state of defence, and liberally provisioned. Thus the war 
supported itself, and the successes of the French furnish-^ 
ed them with the means of making new conquests. The 
stipulations of the fourth article of the armistice, induced 
the general of the Austrian army to believe that Bona- 
parte wished to cross the Po at Vaienza ; but Bonaparte 
hastened by a forced march to Castel San-Giovanni with 
5000 grenadiers and 1500 horse. Andreossi, chief of 
battalion of artillery, and Adjutant-General Froutin, with 
iOO dragoons, reconnoitred the Po as for as Placenza, and 
took five bouts loaded with rice, on board of which were 
300 sick, and all the army medicines. On the 7tb, at 
nine in the morning, Bonaparte reached the Po, oppo- 
tite Placenza. Two squadrons of hussars on the oppo- 
HJte side of the river seemed determined to dispute ttie 
f^ttftsn o «, Tlie French troops got into the boats, and landed 




Bonaparte sends Pletorei of Cwngg^o to Paris* 

t>a the other side, when the enemy's cavalrj retted. Hie 
divisions of the army passed the river in the course of the 
day. In the mean tiiae BeaaUeu, acquainted irith the 
march of the Fr^noh, was convinced of the useleesneaa qf 
his entrenchments on the Tesino,. and his redoubts at 
Pavia. On the 8th at noon Bonaparte heard that a di- 
vision of the enemy wfta near ; he advanced, and finind 
them entrenched in' the ^hge of Fbmbio, with SO piieces 
of cannon. After a spirited resistaBce, the Aostiians re- 
treated, and were porsned as far a» the Adda. 

Another body of the Imperialistsreached Codogna, the 
head quarters of General Laharpe, at two in the mofter 
ing, and drove in the French videttes. General Liaharpe 
ordered a demi-brigude to advance, when the enemy 
were drove back and disappeared ; but Laharpe was kil- 
led by a ball. General Berthier went directly to Codog- 
na, pursued the enemy, and took Casal, with a vast 
quantity of baggage. The passage of the Po was a great 
operation, as in many places that river could not have 
been passed in two months. This alarmed all Ihe states 
of Italy, and the Infant Duke of Panna signed an armisr 
tice with Bonaparte. 

In this he engages to pay afaititary contribution of 
2,000,000 livres French money ; to furnish 2300 draught 
horses and harness, and others for the officers and the ca- 
valry ; to give up twenty pmntings, and lodge a quan- 
tity of wheat and oats, and furnish 2000 oxen for die 
French army. 

Bonaparte informed the Birectory of his intention of 
sending to Paris, as soon as possible, the finest piotures 
of Correggio, and amoi^ others a St. Jerome, said to be 
bis mtfster^f iece. ** I conless,'' observed Bonaparte, 
#^ Iba saint has chosen m unlucky moment to arrive at 

o o 2 ^ , . 

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PasMige of the Bridge of Lodi. 

** Paris ; but I hope you will grant him the honours of 
" the mufteum." 

The Senate of Venice ordered Louis XVIII. to quit 
its territories, and the Grand Duke of Tuscany sued for 
favour. The King of Naples sent to Genoa to make 
peace, and all the sea ports of the Peninsula were shut 
sgaihst the Englisb. The road to Milan, which was 
opened to the French, was not sate until the Austrians 
were driven from the hanks of the Adda. Bonaparte 
had so disposed the march of his divisions, that, in less 
than three hours^ he could unite them ; but Beaulieu had 
placed the Adda between himself and the French, and 
waited for them at the end of a bridge, 100 toises in 
length, fuid he hoped to stop their progress by covering 
it with a numerous firtiUery. This bridge lay at the 
town of Lodi ; it was at the head of it, on the side next 
thp city, that Bpnaparte was to plant, under a sh6wer of 
grape-shot, two pieces of cannon, to prevent the enemy 
from breaking it down, whilst a colunm was forming to 
caney tb^ pass. The French entered Lodi, and Beftulieu, 
with his whole army, and SO pieces of heavy cannon, de- 
fended the passage of the bridge. Bonaparte formed all 
his artillery, and the cannonfide was kept up for many 
hours with great vivacity. The troops formed in close 
colunm with a battalion of carabineers at their head, fol- 
lowed by all the grenadier battalions, at charge^step, 
amidst reiterated aoclMnations of ** Vi^p la B^publique F' 
They shewed themselves at the bridge ; but the Austrians 
kept ^f so tremendous % iire, that those who advanced 
fell by colninna; they retreated* but were ralEed, and the 
slaughter was again dreadfol ; a second time they retreated* 
but Bonaparte was immoveable in his determination ; again 
they darted forfraitit over thfd^ bodies of t|iehrcoiniades, 




Defeat of the Aastrians at Lodi. 

and the Generals Berthicr, Massena, Cervoni, Dallemagne* 
the chief of brigade Lasnes, and the chief of battalion 
Dapat, placed themselves at the head of the column, and 
passed the bridge ; the Generals Rusca/ Augereau, and 
Bayrand, with their divisions, passed the Adda, a few 
ir/iles below Lodi, when the French began to force tho 
bridge, and attacked the Austrians suddenly in the rear, 
wheii they thought the French only on one side of the 
river, and this decided the fortune of the day. The line 
of artillery was instantly carried, Beaulieu's order of 
battle broken, and the French troops spread terror and 
death in every direction ; the hostile army was dispersed, 
though the Austrian cavahy strove to protect the retreat 
of the infantry, and chiirged the French. The Imperial* 
ists lost 20 pieces of cannon, and between two and three 
thousand men, killed, wounded, and taken prisoners. 
The brave, but unfortunate Beaulieu, with the remains 
of his army, took reiuge under Mantua, and abandoned 
Pizzighitone, Cremona, and all tlie Milanese, to the 
French* Bonaparte, in his dispatches to the Directory, 
after stating this memorable battle, observes. That al- 
tfiough the French had been engaged in many warm 
contests, none approached the terrible passage of the 
Bridge of Lodi ; the French pursued the Austrians as 
far as Pizzighitone, and entered it on the 12th, after a 
brisk cannonade, and took about 400 prisoners. Cremo- 
na surrendered to them, and the vanguard of Bonaparte 
took the route to Milan, and entered it on the l&th, hav- 
ing received the submission of Pavia, where they found 
immense magazines of the Imperial army. The conquest 
of Lombardy might now be regarded as complete ; for, 
idthough the castle of Milan stiU held out, the tri-colour- 
fi flag floated from the Lak£ of Como, and the frontiers 


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""' Archduke and Dnchess leave their Capital. 

€f the GrisoDSy as lar as the gates of Parma. Such ra- 
pid Miccess, in so short a time» made some days of repose 
necessary to an army so much engaged. Hie Aostrians 
lad quitted Milan soon after the news of the battle of 
Lodi ; and, when the French were about to enter tho 
city, a deputation of the inhabitants carried them the 
hty of its gates* The court of the Archduke departed, 
S9IS the Archduke and Duchess shewed great sorrow at 
^ttiog their capital; the streets and squares, through 
which they passed, were crowded with people, who 
abewed neither ^oy nor sorrow, and few of the nobility 
attended the court in its flighty The people collected 
in great crowds to witness the entry of the French, and 
irimost all wore the national cockade ; the Imperial arms 
were taken s^way from most of the public buildings, and 
many of the nobility took the arms off their carriages. 
On the 14th of May, the tree of liberty was planted in 
the grand square ; (md on the same day, General Mas- 
aeoa entered the city with his troops. A deputation with 
Ibe Archbishop, went out to meet him; upon entering, 
he clapped the keys, which had been given him, one 
i^ostthe other, in token of rejoicing. 

Bonaparte's entry was extremely brilliant ; the nobility 
mid gentry of the city went ont to meet him in their most 
splendid carriages, and returned in the procession, amidst 
the shouts of an immense populace ; the carialcade went to 
the Archducal palace, where be was to lodge, with seve- 
ral bands of musicians, playing patriotic tunes, and 90on 
afbr his arrival, he sat down to a dinner of two hundred 
covers. The day was concluded by an elegant ball* 
where the ladies vied with each other in patriotism, by 
wearing the Frendh national colours in ever)' part of 
their dress. The next day, Bonaparte received visits 




^ A large coDtributimi leried on Lombardy. 

from the citi2end, and in the evemng there was a con- 
cert of vocal and instrumental music at the theatre. AH 
the chests which contained tilie property of the Arch- 
duke and the city, were emptied into the French coffers, 
' and a splendid fete was given the day after, with much 
enthusiasm, which finished in the evening with a general 
illumination ; the whole was tennitiated by sending dts 
putations into the different towns and villages, to. instruct 
the people in the principles of liberty and equality. '^ 

A proclamation was issued by Bonaparte to the peo- 
ple of Lombardy on the 80th Floreal, or 2lst of May, 
stating, " That the French people looking on the peo- 
*' pie of Lombardy as their brethren, had a right to ex- 
*' pect a just return, and he, therefore, should impose a 
*' contribution of 20,000,000 livres, to be raised in cqud 
*' proportions, by the different districts of Lombardy : 
«' the necessities of the army,'* says he ** require it,. 
•* and it is a small sum for a. country so fertile.'' 

Twenty-one standards of the Austrian and Piedmontese 
armies had been already sent to Paris, aiid presented to 
the Executive Directory. These were received in a 
public sitting, amidst the acclamations of '* Vive la Be- 
" publique T and the day on which Bonaparte entered 
Milan, the ambassadors of the King of Sardinia signed 
at Paris, the definitive treaty oi peace between that so- 
vereign and France. The government, anxious to en- 
courage the ardour of the troops, by publicly acknow- 
ledging their services, decreed the; celebration of a Fete 
des Victoires, on the 29th of May, and it was observed 
at Paris. ^ - ' . ^_P' 

Great preparations were made in the Champ de Marr 
for this grand ceremony. Several ornamental statues 
were erected, and military ensigns festooned together in 




_ # 

F^te des Y ictoirei celebrated at Paris. 


various parts of the fields added to the dignity of tlie 

The constituted authorities irere on a mount raised in 
the middle, and lai^e bodies of cavalry and infantry 
were ranged round them. An immense crowd assem- 
bled ; the Directory advanced to the sound of rousic» 
and after a profound silence was observed, the decree 
was read, and the i»'esident of the Directory addressed 
the crowd in an appropriate speech ; discharges of ar- 
tillery, and music continued after the ceremony to ex- 
hilarate the people, and forming themselves into dancing 
parties, the day was spent in mirth and festivity. 

While these feats were acted on the banks of the Seine, 
Bonaparte, faithful to his plan of activity, made dispo* 
sitions to attack the castle of Milan and preparing to 
pursue the remains of the Austrian army, meditated an 
attack on the dominions of Rome and Naples. On the 
20th of May, he published an energetic Address to his 
brethren in arms. 

He states to them that they came Uke a torrent from 
the Apennines, and dispersed all who opposed them; 
that Piedmont had made peace with France, Lorobardy 
hoisted the Bepablican flag, and the Dukes of Parma 
and Modena owed their political existence to their gene- 
rosity. That nlttch, however, remained to be done; 
forced marches to perform, enemies to conquer, laurefs 
to gather, and injuries to avenge ; he points out to tbem 
his plan of rousing the Soman people, to restore the 
capital, and thus have the glory of renovating the finest 
part of Europe; and that the French, free and respect- 
ed by the worid, will give Europe a glorious peace, and 
that they wiU return to their homes* 


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The IralfatM Hue ajc^inst the French. 


TkE Dake of Modena was more alarmed as the Frencli 
proceeded: he, therefore, wished for peace, aad pur- 
chased an armistice of Bonaparte at a most excessive 
price; he agreed to pay to the French Repablic 
7,500,000 livres Frmich money; to famish 2,500,000 
Uvres in provisions and military stores, for the French 
army; and to deliver up 20 paintings taken from his 
gallery, or his dominions, to be selected by persons nomi« 
nated by the French. 

General Despinoy, the French comniandant of Milhn^ 
observing ofi the 24di, that the people were collecting in 
the suburbs of the city^ on the side of Pavia, ordered 
some troops to march there^ whom the rebels attempted 
to disarm; bat the French detaclmient^ having wounded 
and taken some of them, put the rest to flight This 
moyement took place at the same moment at Vareza* 
Pavia, and Lodii The tocsin was sounded in the comn 
try; the peasants assassinated Ae persons employed ifi 
the administration ; and the garrison left at Pavia, hav- 
ing been surprised in their quarters^ were disarmed. 

Bonaparte set oat flrom Milan on the 24th, to repair to 
Lodi^ leaving on)y at Milan suiBcient troops to blockade 
the eastlei Scarcely had he reached Lodi, when Gene- 
ral Despinoy kifbrmed hlsi, that three hours after his de* 
parture the tocsin was sounded in Lombardy, mid that it 
was indostrioosly ciroiilaled that Nice was taken by the 
JB^JWi, the igrmy cff Cond^ arrived by Switzerland, on the 

▼01. !•— NO, 18. p P n } 

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Bonaparte orders the village of BioAttcu to be burned. 

borders of the Milanese, and Beau lieu, reinforced with 
60,000 men, was on his march to Milan. Everywhere 
the people were called on to arm against the French ; the 
nobles had discharged their domestics, telling them, that 
equality did not allow the contiuaance of their servi-* 
ces ; and all the partisans of the house of Austria, the 
sbirri, and agents of the customs, appeared in (he front. 
The inhabitants of Pavia, reinforced with five or six 
thousand peasants, invested the citadel, in which there 
were only 300 French. 

At Milan, the people tore down the tree of liberty, 
and trampled tlie national cockade under foot. General 
Despinoy, the commander, mounted his horse, whilst 
patroles put the populace to flight. The gate Icadm^ to 
Pavia was still in the hands of the rebels, who expected 
the peasants, whom tliey meant to introduce into the 
city ; to force them to submission, a terrible charge was 
made,- and this restored tranquillity, but the city was 
given up to pillage for 24 hours. 

When Bonaparte was acquainted with these proceed- 
ings, he hastened back with 800 horse, and a battaUon ef 
grenadiers. When he arrived at Milan, h^ ordered a 
number of hostages to be arrested, and those to be shot 
who were taken in arms ; at the same time acquainting 
tlM archbisliop, chapter, monks, and nobles, that they 
were responsible for the public tranquillity. Order 
being re-established at Milan, Bonaparte proceeded to 

The chief of brigade, Lasnes, attacked Binasco, wbieb 
seven or eight hundred armed peasants seemed determin- 
ed to defend; he charged them^ and, having killed about 
too, dispersed the rest. Bonaparte ordered the village 
to btt burned, which exhibited a horrible spectacle, and, 




The people take the castle of Pav4a. 

as he says^ extorted many a sigh from the General. He 
then sent the archbishop of Milan to Pavia, with the 
following proclamation : 

*' Milan, 6 Prairial, 4th year, 
(25 May, 1796.) 
** A mis-kd mnltitade, dcstitate of the means of re- 
** sistance, have been guilty of the greatest excesses in 
*' several commanes, contemning the Republic and the 
«< brave army triumphant over so many kings. This 
** inconceivable frenzy merits pity ; the unhappy peo- 
** pie are led astray, only to conduct them to ruin. The 
'' General in Chief, faithful to the principles the French 
^ nation have adopted, who do not make war on the 
^ people, earnestly wishes to leave a gate open to re* 
^ pentance ; but those who, in 24 hours, shall not lay 
<■' down their arms, and take anew the oath of obedience 
" to the French Republic, shall be treated as rebels, and 
** their villages burned. May the terrible example of 
^ Binasco mak« them open their eyes ! its fate shall be 
<' that of all the towns aAd villages which persist in 
« xevolt" 

•'(Signed) bonapabte« 

At day-break, the General reached Favia, when the 
rebels were driven back. The place was filled with a 
multitude of people, and in a state of defence ; the 
castle was taken, and the French troops were prisoners. 
The General made the artillery advance, and after some 
discharges, summoned the insurgents to submit, and have 
r-ecouTce to French generosity ; but they answered, that 
wb*le Pavia had walls, they ' would not surrender. Ge- 
nerd Dammartiii formed the 6th battalion of gr«nadiars 

"^ r- T 

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Bonaparte orders the monidpaiitj to be shot. 

in close coliunn, with two eight-pounders in their van; 
and each man having a hatchet, the gates were barst 
open, on which the multitude dispersed, and songM 
safety in caves and on hoqse-tops, attempting, by thraw-r 
i^g down tiles, to dispute the entry of the troops into 
the streets. '' Thrice," said Bonaparte, ^' had the order 
" to set fire to the city eiq>ircd on my hp%^ when the gta* 
** risen of the castle arrived, and hastened with m«i of 
*' joy to embrace their diliverers. Their names w«r« 
** called over, and none were fbmid missing ; if th« 
^' blood of a single Frenchman had been abed, I had rc- 
*' solved to raise on the ruins of Pavia a colmnn, oil 
'* which these impressive words were to be ioserSM^d, 
/'Here stood the city of Pavia T Bonaparte ordered 
the whole municipality to be shot, and 900 hostages to ht 
arrested, and sent immediately into France* Tha 
pumshmeots of Bonaparte for insurrection were tra» 
mendoos; the village of 9inaspo burned, Milan given 
tip to pillage, and many of its principal infaabitanta put 
to death ; the municipality of Pavia shot, aflber the city 
being taken, were terrible examples of his severity. 

Bonaparte issued a proclamation, stating, that the 
nobles, the priests, and the stents of Austria, had led 
astray the people of these delightful countries ; that 
the French army, as genei^ous as brave, weuld treat as 
brethren the peaceable natives, but that it would be ter- 
rible as the fire of heaven to rebels, and tp the Tiliagea 
that gave them protection. He, therefore, declared all 
those villages in a state of r«»belliim which' had not com* 
plied with his order on tlie 25th ; and ordered the Gpeoe- 
rals to march against them the troij^B accessary to sap- 
preas the insurgents, to set fire to them, and to shoot, oa 
tfie spot, all w|po had anas in Hwhr haada. All priaatii 

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Tbi MiTtoeie etamm hita» «t the Theatre. 

and noblefl, in the refaellioas communes, were to be ar* 
rested as hostages, and sent into France ; every TiDago 
where the tocsin was sminded was to be instantly burnt { 
and the Generals were responsible for the exeeutien of 
the order. The Tillages, where a single Frenchman was 
asBaasiaated, were to pay three times the sam they- an- 
ani^ paid to the Archduke, untfl they gave up die 
asaaasin. Every man found with a musket and ammuai* 
tion, was te be immediately shot, by order of the Gene* 
nd eamnumding the jurisdiction.' Wherever concealed 
arms were found, the place was to pay thrice its usual 
i^venne by way of fine ; and every house where a nms« 
ket was found, was to be burnt, unless the proprietor de» 
ehired to whom it belonged. All the nobles and rich 
persons who excited the people to revolt, were to ba 
taken as hoslagesi and sent to France, and a part of 
their revenues confiscated. 

Bonaparte attended the theatre at Milan, at die rqpre« 
seatatioa of Hetastasio^s opera of Oato ; and ^the nh 
dience, as if anxfous te regain the esteem of a man^ 
whose austerity was equalled only by his power, ap« 
plauded every sentence which they chose to apjriy to 
bim, and a crown of laureb was phiced on his head. 

Venice did not recognize a sister in the FVencfa B^ 
public, but saw in it a democracy, to which her aristo* 
eracy was less aecammodating than to Baparora aod 
Kings. Iiresohiteas to what side she should take, and 
unwiRing to engage in war, she tiiought a aewlrati^ 
trould save her from danger, and perhaps only looked oa 
the success of the French in her tenritories, as the means 
of delivering her the sooner fipoiQ both <hem antf tiie 

^onaparte had been at Brescia, nmking' dii^esitions'ta 

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n — i n , .^H 

The AustriaiM driveo out of Italy. 

ioduce Beaulieu to believe, that be meant to tarn him 
by the head of the lake, in order to cut him off from the 
road to the Tyrol, by way of Biva. At two in the mom* 
iag, all the divisions were in motion, and marched to- 
wards Borghetto, where Bonaparte intended to cross the 
Mincio : they crossed that river and engaged, when the 
Anstrians fotight with the utmost bravery, and retreated 
only after performing acts of the greatest intrepidity: 
the Austrians lost 1500 men, and 500 horse, in killed and 
prisoners ; among the latter was Prince Cato, Lieutenant- 
Crcneral in the army of the King of Naples, and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Neapolitan cavalry. The French 
also took five pieces of cannon, two twelve-pounders and 
three six-pounders, with seven or eight waggona loaded 
with warlike stores. At Ca3tlenuovo many magazines 
were taken, part of which, however, had been burnt 
Thus the Austrians were driven out of Italy, and the 
French advanced posts reached the mountains of Ger- 
many. In these engagements nothing could equal the 
courage of the French troops^ but the gaiety with which 
they made their rapid marches, singing alternately songs 
in praise of their country and of their loves. 

The division of General Massena took Verona, which 
had been thp refuge of Liouis-Stanislaus, brother of the 
last King of the French, and of his little court of Emi- 
grants, to whom the Venetians had given a ready recep- 
tiott. Charles de la Croix, the French minister for 
fifeign affairs^ wrote to Quurini, the minister of the Re- 
public of Venice, that he was astonished such a permis- 
sion had been given to the fugitive Prince, who having 
stated the matter to the Senate, they returned for answer, 
that this Republic of Venice had not transgressed a|^nst 
a proper respect to the Republic of France ; that the aQ^ 




Looif, the Brother of the late Kin^, quits Verooa. 

cient Committee of Public Safety expressed their satis- 
ihctioD, that the ci-devant Count de Prorence remained 
in the Venetian state, rather than any where else, and 
they relied that the Directory would not act against the 
sentiments and principles of the Committee. This ex- 
planation seemed to give satisfaction, but the victories of 
the French army having made a great impression on the 
Senate of Venice, the Marquis Carletti was desired to 
signify to the brother of Louis XVI. that he must quit 
the territory with all possible expedition. To this noti- 
fication, for which he was not in the least prepared, " I 
will go but under two conditions:—!. Let the golden 
book be brought me, in which the names of my family are 
inscribed, that I may strike mine out with my own hand. 
2. Let the armour be delivered to me, which my ancestor, 
Henry IV. presented to the Republic, as a token of 
friendship.'' Botli requests were refused, and he soon 
after quitted Verona. 

The life of this Prince, while he continued at Verona, 
was singularly regular. At eight in the morning, he was 
dressed, and wore the insignia of the orders to which he 
belonged; he passed much of the morning in writing, 
and was visible only to his chancellor ; his table was fru- 
gal ; after dinner be gave audience to a few, and then 
. shiit himself up in his chamber, where he was frequently 
beard to walk in great agitation. . Towards the evening 
he generally grew more calm, and had a small party of 
his courtiers, who read to him, and conversed. Ho 
never went out, nor paid any visits, either in Verona or 
its vicinity. He constantly read the Moniteur, and other 
French newspapers, and went by the name of the Count 
de Lille. Whenever any of his courtiers called him by 
the title of majesty he was observed to sigh heavily. 

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Tbe Fnoch ioveit MwtM. 

Bonaparte removed to Verona on the third of June, 
ivbere he left a strong garrison, to secure the three braflges 
across the Adige at that place. General Beaulieu was 
sncceeded by Marshal Wurmser* who had indeed not 
been mach more fortunate^ but who had ^ected more* 

After the action at Borghetto^ the passage of the Miii- 
cioy the taking of Peschiera, and the flight of the enemy 
into the Tyrol, the French invested Mantua, which r^ 
quired a formal siege, and they had few means wherewith 
to undertake it. Meaning to penetrate into the Tjrolese, 
Bonaparte addressed a manifesto to the warlike people of 
these lofty mountains. He informed them, that he was 
about to cross their territory, to compel the court of Vi- 
enna to a peace, as necessary to Europe as to its own sub- 
jects. It was their own cause he was to defend, for they 
had been harassed by a war, undertaken to gratify tbe 
passions of a single family. 

He promised that every thing should be paid for ; but 
threatens them with destruction if they take up their arms 
against him, and vows vengeance against the towns and 

^#««^#^«^^^# ###»» » e»»«i*#»^^#.»»<»»#^»#»###^*^ 


Ns w commotions took place in the Imperial Fiefs, which 
border on the states of Genoa^ Tuscany, and Piedmont ; 
the coiiinumications of the ariny with the river of Genoa 




General Au^ereau crosses the Po. 

were menaced, the convoys attacked^ and tbe couriel^ 
assassinated. It was necessary also to keep an eye on th6 
castle of Milan, and cBtrj on the siege of Mantaa; Tlie 
greatest activity was hardly sufficient for the many opera* 
tions that were required. 

General Lasnes entered the Imperial Piefs willi 1200 
horse, arrested and shot the chiefs of the revolt, and 
burned their habitations. The same severity was dis^ 
played in the environs of Tortona; a proclamation was 
issued and strictly executed. All the seigrieurs faoldmg 
Imperial Fiefs, were to repair in person to Tortona, there 
to take the oath of obedience^ to the' Bepublic ; and if 
within five days after the publication of the order they 
had not done so, their goods were to be confiscated. The 
inhabitants were to carry to the military agent at Tortona, 
within twenty-four hours after notice, the sum of tiie 
military Qontribution, which Was to be enhaneed one-* 
tenth for each day's delay of payments All persons, after 
tbe space of forty- eight hours, found Irith arms or am- 
munition, were to be shot All the bells which sounded 
the tocsin were to be tak«|^down rfi-om their steeples^ 
and broken to pieces, within twenty-four hours after the 
proclamation ; and those who neglected to do so, to be 
considered as rebels, and their villages burned^ 

General Augereau having crossed the Poat Bofgdfbfte, 
arrived at Bologna on the 19th, where he found 400 of 
the Pope's soldiers, who were made prisoners. Bona- 
parte left Tortona on the 17th, and arrived on the 19th 
at Modcna, whence he sent orders, by Adyutant-General' 
Vignole, to the garrison of Urbino, to surrender prisoners 
of war ; after this he continued his march to Bologna, 
where he arrived at midnight. The French took in Fort 
Urbino 90 pieces of cannon, hi excellent condition, SOO^ 

VOL. I.— NO. 13. C Q Digitized by Google 


j_ ■ - ■ ; . I.I, i 

The French enter the Gtznli Duchy ofToscaoy. 

niuskets, aad provtsious for 600 men ibr two months. 
Fort Urbino was encircled by a wall with covered bastions^ 
and surrounded by ditches full of water, having a covered 
way newly repaired. It was commanded by a knight of 
Malta, with 300 men, who were taken prisoners. At 
Bologna the cardinal legate was taken, with all the offi- 
cers of the etat-major, and four standards. The cardinal 
legate of Ferrara was also taken prisoner, with the com- 
mandant of that fort, who was Ukewise a knight of Malta. 
In the castle of t'errava &ere were 114 pieces of ca&non.' 
The twenty paintings which were to be furnished by 
Parma, were on their way to Paris ; and among them 
the celebrated one of St. Jerome, so highly esteemed that a 
million Itvres was offered to redeem it. The paintings from 
Modena was also on the road, and the citizen Barthelemy 
was employed in selecting about filly of tlie paintings of 
Bologna, while others were engaged at Pavia and Bologna 
in collecting plants and other objects of natural history. 

After taking Bologna a French division proceeded to 
Ferrara and Faenza, whose submission promised that of 
Romagna } a column of the French army also marched 
ixom Reggio, across the Apennines, to Pistoia, and threa- 
tened to advance to Rome by t^e way of Florence. This 
intelligence threw the court of the Grand Duke into the 
greatest akurm ; Manfredini, his prime minister, was sent 
to Bologna in great haste, to state to the French General^ 
that as a passage through Tuscany had been denied the 
troops of Naples, it would be unjust to violate a territory 
the Allies had respected, and with which France was at 
peace. The Grand Duke, however, could not hinder 
the French entering his territories, and could only get a 
promise from Bonaparte, that he would not enter Flo- 
rence. The Frebch army marched rapidly towards Lieg* 

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p They take Potiession of Le|:honi. 

horn : it is likely that Man! redini had not this expedition 
confided to him; but Bonaparte, on reaching Pistoia, 
acquainted the Grand Dake of the circumstance by a 
letter, wherein he observ'ed that the fla^ of the French 
Republic was hourly insulted in the port of Leghorn, the 
property of the French merchants violated, and every hour 
marked by some attempt against the French, as contrary 
to the interests of the Republic as to the law of nations. 
The Executive Directory had often coinplained to th« 
minister of his Royal Highness, at Paris, who had been 
forced to avow the impossibility his master found in 
checking the English, and keeping neutrality in the port 
of Leghorn. The Directoi^y, therefore, felt it their 
dqty to repel force by force, and make their commerce 
be respected ; and had ordered him to send a division of 
the army under his command, to take possession of Leg- 
* horn ; he had therefore the honour to inform his Royal 
Highness, that a division of the army would enter that 
city on the 28th, but would conduct itself agreeable to 
the principles of the neutrality it was to maintain ; and 
the flag, the garrison, and the property of his Royal High- 
ness, and his people, would be scrupulously respected. 
The General was idso to assure the Grand Duke of the 
wish entertained by the French Government for a cpn- 
tinTtation of the firiendship which united the two states, 
and of its convicton, that his Royal Highness, witnessing 
the excesses committed by the English ships, and, unable 
to prevent 'them, would applaud the measures adopted 
by the Directory. 

Bonaparte left' Pistola to join the column abeady at 
the gates of Leghorn, An English frigate, on going out 
ef die harbour, was fired at, but without eSect* A few 
^mtn before the French troops arriyedi more than forty 

9 9^ Digitized by GoOgk 


Bonaparte entertained bjr the Grand Duke. 

English ships, fully laden, left Leghorn, The General 
ordered the Chevalier Spannochi, gavemor of the citjr 
for the Grand Duke, to be arrested ; he i^ras eonducted 
to Florence, mid sept tp prison by order of the Grand 

Bonaparte ordered seals to be put on jdl the English 
magazines^ A stropg garrison, under General Vaubois, 
was left in Leghorn, Sonaparte, with Berthier, and a 
part of the 6tat major, passed through Florence, and was 
fsntertained by the Grand Duke very superbly* It has 
been already mentioned, that, pn the !^th« General 
Bonaparte had directed the consul of the French Repilb^ 
lie at Leghorn, tp put s«als pn all the magazines belong^ 
ing to the English ; he was also ordered to take similar 
measures! as to those appertaining to .the Emperor, the 
Empress of Russia, and ip general all the princes or 
Subjects of states with whom the French were at war ; 
and to emplpy every means necessary to discover the 
merchandise deposited in the Jiouses of the different mer- 
chants at liegliom, and take possession of them. 

While Bpnaparte was at table with the Grand Duke at 
Florence, a courier brought sews of the taking of the 
pastle of Milan, with 2800 prisoners, 150 pieces of can- 
non, 20|000 pounds of powder, and a great qusuitily of 
useful stores* If the ypun^ sovereign pominally s^ved his 
dominions, his feelings muot have sufiered by entertain- 
ing in his palace a genera^ whose ffunily had been reck.^ 
oned among his subjects, who left a gariison in Leghonii 
and who destroyed all the commercial interconme he* 
f ween his friends the English an<i the only port in Us 
dominipns, 9e was even obUigedf to punish the governpi 
of his principal town, because, no doubt,, lie had bee« 
^9 obedient tp hi« master. Tlie redootiw of tke cnstle 




siy^— ■ ' — - I M . ■ I ' l ■ ■■■„-.■-" , T '■; I ' I j-.i. ■ ■ aaaz^gg 

An Argdstice concliKkd with the Pope. 

of Milan, annouDced now, must have given additional 
chagrin to the Grand Duke. When the conmuMioner, 
Salicetti, passed through Florence, two days after Bona* 
parte, he received an invitation from his Royal Highness, 
which he declined. 

An armistice was concluded with the Pope, on cont 
dition that his Holiness should send to Paris, to obtaiQ 
from the Executive Directory a definitive peace, hy of- 
fering reparations for the losses suffered by the Frencb ia 
his territory. That the ports belonging to the Pop» 
should be shut against the vessels of those at war with ik» 
Republic, and t>e open ta French sUps^ That the Aeiidi 
array should oontinae i» possession of the legfitions of 
Bologna and Fcrtanu That tiie eitidel of Ancona sbo«14^ 
be given to Ac French irittoii five day% with its artiUirjr 
and store. ' That the Pope should give up to the Fvench 
Rqpoblic one hundred paintings, b«sts, vases^ or statuei^ 
IB the choice of commisswries^ wbo should be sent 1^ 
Rome ; among tfiese articles, the bust ia braaae «f Jumh 
Brutus, and that in naiMtof K«vcu0 Bni«u% both pjSMPed 
in the Capitnt shoiUd bo partieiilaily comprised; mi 
also five bnadred manuscripts, to be aefeded by 4be mM» 
ccmmisaaries* And ttat the Pope should pay la IUmi 
French Republic 31,000,000 of livres, French moosj, of 
whieh ISjSOO^OOO Kvf es shoiM he in specie^ or g([fld and 
sibei ingols^jmdtho rmiiawig ^SOOjOOO m 
■ierehandfl»» horaas» «r vaam^ m ahoAhl ba 
by Ihe agMUs of ttetRopsblio. 




Forto-Femjo, io the Island of Elba, rarrenden to the British. 


On the 9tfa July 1796, a British sqaaJiron appeared off 
Porto-Ferrajo, on the island of Elba, and summoned it 
to surrender. Ne](t morning a strong detachment effected 
ft landing/ and took possession of the top of an adjacent 
biU, where they erected a battery, which commanded 
the town. Two letters were sent to the goyernor by two 
ofBcers, accompanied by a drum, one from Sir Gilbert 
Elliot, and another from M sgor Duncan, who commanded 
tte expedition. The Governor called an assembly, and 
bdving laid before it the contents pf the letters, the reso- 
lution adopted was» that the place being in want of pro* 
visions, and without a force able to eope with their aa* 
tagOBists, it would be most adriseable to surrender on 
conditions. Next day these were proposed tb the Britisb 
eonmander, and finally accepted: the conditions were 
five in number; and the terms most scrupulously ob* 

' i 'The French General, unwilling, in the sequel^ to have 
his policy confounded with that of the second-rate statesr 
man, to ^om he was opposed, directed his attentiM to 
the deliverance of his natiye c^untiy by means of a 
Mcret expedition. To effect the reduction of Corsica 
seems to have b^n the chief object in first taking pos- 
session of* Leghorn, although Bonaparte, no doubt, like- 
wise meant by this measure to dsetroy die British com- 
merce carried on in that port. The garrisons o( Corsica 





Conica sunciMlerf to the French. 

belonging to Great Britain had been in a miserable^state 
for months previous %o its being evacuated, insomuch 
that the soldiers were obliged to continue in their quarters. 
The Viceroy was arrested as he made the tour of the 
island, and only liberajted on the express condition, that 
he should withdraw his forces from the interior parts of 
the country. The inhabitants refused to pay the duties, 
or in any manner to acknowledge the authority of the 
British government The Republicans from leghorn 
carried thither supplies of provisions, and gave them iu« 
structions as to their future conduct. On getting intel- 
ligence that the British troops seriously meant to evacu- 
ate the island. General Qontili, the commandant at Leg- 
horn, despatched Casatta with a body of men, who effect- 
ed a landing on the 18th of October: the day following 
he was joined by a large body of partisans of France, at 
whose head he began a rapid march towards Bastia, where 
he arrived on the 20th, and made himself master of the 
heights. Powerfully aided by the inhabitants, he sum- 
moned the commander of the fort to surrender to the 
French Republic, allowing him but one hour to delibe- 
rate. The garrison, alarmed at the idea of being ^cut off 
from the sea, hastily got on board their ships. General 
Casatta took several hundred prisoners, a great portion 
pf whom were emigrants, and got possession of seyeral ^ 
magazines. From Bastia the Republican General pro- 
ceeded to St. Fiorenza, with two pieces of cannon, and 
succeeded in reducing the town. He made most of the 
garrison prisoners, and took some mortars and pieces of 
cannon, which the English had not time to spike. 

Tlie British squadron moved beyond the reach of the 
Republican cannon ; and the Viceroy, with the troops 
he had carried off from Bastia, took refuge in Porto- 

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Peace Ukes plaoe beiwwn Franoe and Naplek. 

Fem^ The French took prisoneni the garrison of 
Sonifaoio, wUch wns foUowed by the oaptnre of Ajaccio ; 
myi the whole iiknd bocame subject to the Repnblioens, 
after the anrival of Gentili in person, at the bead of the 
whole Corsican refugees on the continent* Umis were 
the British dfiven from the Mand of Corsica, and obliged 
to give up the Gulph of St. Fiorenzo, where they did 
considerable iiyury to the French RepubKc. Some ships 
of war couU not be got out of the port of Ajaccio, but 
were burnt by the French. A minister was directly sent 
bom the Republic, to give to Coisica another eonstitu- 

A treaty of peace was signed between Ae Republic 
and Naples ; it was mutnally agreed, that neither of the 
powers should furnish troops, ships, money, or other 
ossbtauce to their enemies, under any pretext whateycr,; 
and that the earliest oppurtunaty shouM be embraced for 
ooDcluding between them such a commercial treaty as 
migfat be for the advantage of both. His Majesty, the 
King of the two Sicilies, pledged himsetf to keep the 
strictest neutrality with respect to the whole of the heU 
ligeneot powers, and admit none of their ships of war 
into any of its ports, if Ihey exceeded fb^ur in number. 
His ports were to be open to «H tradmg vessels of the 
Republic, but tlieir ships of war wwe to be restricted tffr 

Bomqmrte formerly granted an amistiee to Ae Dtfke 
of Parma, which was now to be turned into « treaty ef 
pcac«t Under the mediatim of the Kmg of Spun, and in 
the person of the Uanfms del Gampo, his plenipoteft-* 
tiary mt Paris. This treaty was nearly tlm eame us that 
between France and the King of the Two Sicittes. The 
Suke was to gvmX » free passage Ihiwugb bis 4eniinioa» 




The Pope wav«n In hii eoiidoet 

te tbe troops of the Aepublic, but to refase the same 
privilege to the forces of any of the Combined Powers 
at war with France. Hie Pope was not so soccessful in 
treating with the Republic ; for, aldiough he was totaDy 
unable ta contend with so formidable an enemy, when 
Marshal Wurmser gained any success, he disdained to 
treat with France ; but, when Bonaparte was every- 
where triiunphant, he changed his tone and behaviour ; 
the Directory, therefore, did not tUnk proper to close 
with his Holiness till they had humbled him stiit more. 

Wurmser had collected in the T^rrol the Wrecks of 
&e Austrian army, and received powerful reinforce- 
ments, while Bonaparte was employed in his expedition 
to Leghorn and against the States of the Pope. Aftet 
die engagement of Borghetto, tbe Imperialists retreated' 
to the mountains, with an intent to dispute the passes of 
tbe Tyrol ; they fortified thehr lines from the lake of GSarda 
to the Adige with infinite labour. Massena ordered 
General Joubert to attack the Imperialists by flie Bo^ 
chetta di Champion ; the French climbed up the rocks* 
killed 100 mea^ and took 200 prisoners, with 400 tents 
and all the baggage. During this, tbe chief of bat« 
taUon^ Recce, baring carried the important pest of Be« , 
lona, killed 300 men, and took 70 prisoners, tbe^ Aus' 
IfiaM abandoned their entrenehfflettts.r Such wae the 
event of the first battle between the two armies sine# 
tjie new €reneral assumed the commands 

Some days after insurrections appeared in the Romag'^ 
nn. General. Augereau ordered a body of troops to set 
•ut, with caniMNft and waggons amply supplied. A nu- 
laeroas phalanx presented themselves, and were attBck<< 
cd i>y ttie Bepabliean troops, at twp points, the one oft 
tba^ds of Imobi, and the oAier on tbe side of Argenta^ 

VOL. I- — NO. 13, BR r" T 

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Mantua clo««ly^ betiffcd. 

The defence was terrible ; but after an eogagemeat of 
three hours, disorder took place amongst the insurgents, 
and part were cut to pieces, and part saved themselTes 
by flight ; the town of Lugo was surrounded, and de*- 
livered up, for three hours, to be piUaged by the troops. 
Every individual found in arms was put to death. The 
army returned with an immense booty ; and Bologna ex- 
hibited one of the richest fairs that had been witnessed 
for many years, the plunder being exposed there for sale. 
The siege of Mantua was hotly pressed forward ; tha 
garrison made a roost gallant resistance. Abeat4000 
men, on the 16th of July, sallied from two of the gates^ 
and drove in all the French advanced posts, and retreat- 
ed into the city. On the 18th General Murat and Ad- 
jutant-General Vignole, with 2000 men, were to attack 
the right of the Austrian entrenched camp ; while 6e- 
neral D'Allemagne^ with a strong column, attacked the 
}eft. Andreossi, chief of battalion of artillery, with five 
gun-boats gave a false alarm to the enemy, and, by 
drawing theur fire, enabled the Generals d'Altemagno 
and Murat to carry disorder into the enemy's ranks. 
During this, Chasselonp, chief .o^ br^;ade of engineers, 
under a fire of grape-shot from the ramparts, directed 
the opening of the trenches. The batteries of St. 
George, Pradelhi, and La Favorite, began to play against 
tlie fortress. Soon after the batteries opened, several 
parts of the town were on fire ; and the custom-honae, 
the palace of Colloredo, and several caveats, were re- 
duced' to ashes. At day-break, the Austrians made a 
sHlIy under a dreadfbl fire from the ramparts ; but the 
Repttblieans, posted behbd banks, and occupying every 
place which could protect them finom the enemy's fire^ 
vaited for them in silence, and annoyed them from 





' . . " * ^ . ■ ■-. . .- I ■'■■■■' " '■ »»^ 
TJie Freodi Mvopolw in Italy. 

GOttoealed sitaatioDS ; the ImperisdisU Tetoroed within 
theiralb» and the French, in the following night, su^ 
ceeded in complecting their trenches. 

General Berthicr, had summoned the OoTemor to snr- 
fender, ohserring, that as he was attacked on.all-sidei?,.h# 
conld not long defend the town, and that an ilWjadged 
obstinacy woald entirdy min the unfortunate city; the 
laws of' war, therefore, prescribed to him to surrender 
it; but» if he dionld persevere in his resistance, be 
would be responsible for the blood thus uselessly shed, 
and for the destruction of the place ; a conduct, which 
should compel the French General to treat him with all 
the rigours of war« The Count Canto Dlrles, General 
Conunandant, answered, that the laws of honour and of 
duty compelled him to deTend the city entrusted to his 

Fiel4 Marshal Wmmser directed a column towards 
Sala, from which {dace, and from Brescia, he dislodged 
4ie IVench, whibt another division of ins army compel- 
led tbe French army to evacuate Verona, and raise Ae 
riege of Mantua; by these successes the Austrians gain- 
ed 'an -immense quantity of artillery and stores, which 
tiie Frendi left behind them. 

Bonaparfb had the art of inspiring his troops wilb an 
embosiasm which nothing could resist; yet his severity 
rendered the French so unpopular in Italy, that before 
Bonaparte left the siege of Mantua, the PVench army was 
^erywhere received with execration and insult ; they 
were refused waggons to convey the sick and wounded 
to Iheb quarters, and many died. on the roads; the pea- 
aants insulted them in the agonies of death ; their super, 
stilion represented the French as infidels, whom it was 
their duty to drive from their countKy. 


B K 2 


by Google 


Bonaparte (unitt tlM waal ooadiitioD to hit despatches. 

In lii» despatches to the Direotory» Banaparte ontted 
Ibe common fonn of conclosion, ** Saint et respect:"--- 
** Salut" only appeared to his deapatobfs, whilst ttM) 
«ther Creaerah closed theirs in the osual vmj. Roederer, 
a pmcipsll jouiuafisty expressed his fears at the crttiGal 
situation in wlneh the Repnblic ifas placed, and cited 
the examples of Sylla, Marins, and GsMar, who conquer* 
ed the liberties of their country by dispersing amoBg 
their armies the treasures they had.ilmassed. 

The victories of Wurmser placed the French armies 
in a very delicate situation* On the 1st of August^ the 
army advanced, while the Austrians detached a force to 
Castigliona, where General Valette had be«n left with 
1800 men to defend that imporlant post, and to keep the 
diWsion of Wurmser at a disttoce ; but Valette wsn 
completely defeated, and escaped with only half his 
troops to Monte^Chiaro. Bonaparte, vecxed by the isaue 
of this affair, instantly suspended General Valette. 

The two armieb faced each other on the morning of 
the* 3d. The Imperialists, not waiting the attack of the 
French, suiroiilided the advanced guard of General Mas- 
aena, near Castigliona, and took General Pigeon prisoner, 
with three pieces of flying ailillery. The French had 
Ilppes <tf penetrating the Austrian Une, alid' the latter 
extended it .in order to surround the French; the Ijupe- 
riaUsts were thrown into disprder, and retreated to Salo; 
but that place bemg in the handa of the Fiiencb> they 
wandered through the mountains^ and many of them ▼era 
taken. Meaatiae General Augereau took Gaslig^oaay 
and during the day. maintained several obstinate actions 
with the enemy, who fought with great braveiy. 

General Wurmser assembled the remains of bis araiy# 
and drew up between the viHage of Scanello^ which snp^ 




■li t t ■ ■■ ■ I 

He deceives an Austrian column Co raneoder. 

ported his right, and La Cbiesa, which covered his left* 
Bonaparte hastened in person to Lonado, to be certain 
of the number of troops he could detach from it; but 
on arriving there, a messenger summoned the comman- 
dant at Lonado to surrender, which was completely 
surrounded. Bonaparte had recourse to stratagem ; 
there were but a few hundred men at Lonado, and tfie 
place must have surrendered ; he ordered the messenger 
to be brought before him, and his ejes uncovered. Bo- 
naparte told him» that if his General indulged the hope 
of taking the CoHkHUME^der-in-Chief, of the army of Italy, 
bo had oftly to advance; that he ought to know that 
officer was at Lonado^ as every one knew the Republican 
araqr was a4 that place ; and that all the officers belong- 
ing to the division should be responsible for the insult 
he had been guilty ef towards the General in Chief. He 
then tokt the mess^ger, that if bis division did not, with- ' 
in eigkt tntnates, ligr down their arms, he would have no 
mercjr. The officer was confounded at seeing the Ge- 
neral, and reinnied with his answer. Preparation wa^ 
now affected to be made for attacking the enemy, when 
the whole column of 4000 men, with four pieces of can- 
non, and throe tftandards^ laid down their arms. An in- 
stance of the 8uc4)e8afiil termmatioii of an affair, occa- 
sioned by an extnKHrdinafjF presenoo of mind in a criti- 
lial moment* 


by Google 


AcliTity of Bonaparte.— Verooa sammoneil by the Freodi. 


^ "Bonaparte being satisfied of the destructiori of aU tht 
hostile corps from Gavardo and Salo, on the 5th of Au- 
gust, ordered the whole army to make a retrogade move- 
ment, whilst Genera! Serrurier's division advanoed fiv«n 
Marcaria, in order tq turn General Wnrmscr's left. This 
movement had, in some degree, the desired effect, and 
Wurmser extended his right wing to observe their reiEur. 
General Augereau attacked the enemy's, centre, wUle 
Massena attacked the right ; the cavalry,' under Gencsial 
Beaumont, proceeded to the right, to^ support the light 
artillery and infantry. The French were viotorioas, and 
obtained 18 pieces of cannon, and 190 amnmnition wag- 
gons. The Austrians lost in killed, wounded, and pri- 
soners, about 2000 men. The activity of Bonaparti 
during the last week, had been inoessaDt, and, il is said, 
that hd had no sleep di^ring all that period. 

Augereau and Massena forced the Auatrians to raise 
{he siege of Peschiera, and to abandon the line of the 
Mincio. On the . 7th, Augereau passidd the Mincio at 
Peschiera, while General Sorrurier advanced to Yeront 
and got there at ten at night, the very moment the divi- 
sion under General Massena had recovered its former 
position ; the rear guard <^ the Austrians was yet at 
Verona, the gates of which were shut, and the draw- 
bridges raised. Tlie Proveditor of the Venetian B«- 
public being summoned to open them, answered, that he 
could not comply within two hours ; Bonaparte ordered 





Marsbal WurmserraiseA the blockade of Maniua. ^ 

* ^- - ■ — -« 

the gates to be burst open with camton-sliot. The 
Prench seized all stores in the place, and resumed their 
former position, while the Imperialists retreated through 
the Tyrol. The blockade of Mantua being raised by 
Wurmser, its garrison destroyed the works of the French . 
and carried into the place 140 pieces of heavy artillery, 
which the latter had left in their trenches/ with provisions 
for a considerable period. 

On the news of the successes of the Austrians, it was 
thought that victory ^had abandoned the Republican 
standards. Much agitation was produced at Cremona, 
Casal Maggiore, and two villages in the environs of this At Cremona, after the surprise of Brescia, it 
was suggested to preserve the tree of libei^ty, to hang on 
it those who had assisted in planting it At Casal Mag • 
giore, the Commandant, as be was going to embark, was 
insulted. His embarkation was strongly opposed, and, 
in trying to escape, he rushed into the river, and there 
met death. On the 21st of July, the French garrison in 
the citadel of Ferrara, suddenly left it, having spiked 
their cannon, and thrown into the river what ammuni- 
tion they could not carry off; tranquillity was maintain- 
ed until the arrival of tbe Vice-Liegate, which caused as 
much surprise as the departure of the French troops. 
His entry was modest, but having replaced the Papal M 

arms, the Municipality and national guards repaired in- 
stantly to the place, when they were again pulled down, 
and replaced by those of the Republic. On the news oi 
the victories of the French, the Vice-Lega^ returned to 
Rome ; by the armistice concluded at Bologna, that city 
^d Ferrara were to continue in the possession of the. 


, On the 9tb, a courier arrived from General Berthier, 


by Google 


The blockade of Mantua again undertaken by the French. 

to the Gitizen Miot, at Florence, and sent forward bj the 
latter to the Chevalier Azzara, the Spanish Ambassador 
at Rome. He brought news very favourable to the 
French ; but the general prejudice took him to be a man 
sent on purpose from Rome, to prevent any credit being 
paid to the former reports. In the afternoon, two 
Frenchmen were insulted ; the minister Cacault wanted 
to despatch a courier to Paris, to acquaint the Directory 
of these indecencies, but the Chevalier Azzara urged him 
to forbear, and promised to use every means to obtma 
proper satisfaction. The French minister, Gaeadt, 
positively demanded, that the government should punish 
those wlio had insulted the French commissaries. The 
chief of them, a huntsman of Cardinal Altieri, esexp' 
ed ; the goverment determined rigorously to maintain 
the edict published to guarantee the safety of th^ 

At Genoa, some new miraclts announced that the end 
of the successes of the Republican armies was at ia'tt 
arrived, and that they were on the eve of being expelted 
from Italy; and the Italians, friendly to Austria, eoii' 
gratulated themselves therewith. Hie French army 
harassed €reneral Wurmser in his retreat, who fixed his 
head quarters on the other side of IVent, after buming 
some of the flotilla he had established on the Lake of 
Garda, and evacuating Riva. This gave the French 
time to restore order in the army, and to exchange ib* 
prisoners, whom the successes of the Imperialists had oh* 
tatned. After some very obstinate encounters, llio 
blockade of Mantua was again commeneed, by the divi' 
sirm of General Ssdiugnet. 

The Directory received the standards taken -by tfat 
AHtty of It^ly ; on which occasion the Citioen DtitailK^ 



AMD WARS Ot KtJR6»&. 313 

^ ^— — — -"^— "T -^cmi 

If aMOTii enteis Traot, 

e- ■ ■ I ■ I II I nil 

Aid-de camp ol General Bcrtliier, wws charged with pro^ 
senting tham. 

Tlie President of the Direetory expressed the liv^ 
satisfaction with which the Executive Directory received 
tfiese trophies of victory^ *' Brave warrior T said he, 
^* return to yoar companions in arms ; tell them that the 
** national gratitude strives to emulate their services, 
** and that they may reckon on the esteem of their fellow^ 
" citiaens, as well as on the admiration of posterity." 

Hw Austrian army, however, prepared to revenge its 
disasters ; but its bravery was again forced to yield ta 
tfie genius of Bonaparte. The French went to Verona, 
where they heard that the Imperialists had marched with 
two-tliirds of their forces towards Bassano, and with th^ 
other third occupied Alia; they marched forwi»'d, aad^ 
on the 4th of September, an engagement began with 
Massena's division, and the head of the coluQin of Ge«» 
neral Vaubois, advancing from Torbola, attacked the 
Imperialists on the right bank of the Adige, in the village 
of SerraviHe ; the contest was dreadftil on both sides ; 
the two divisions of the French anny, separated by the 
Adige, seemed emulous of each other; every individual 
of the army performed prodigies of valour ; and the 
enemy, after two hours hard fighting, quitted their posi- 
tion at Marco, on the left of the Adige, and retreated to 
Roveredo, availing themselves of all the defensive posts 
which the ground afforded- them. 

Vaubois' . division crossed the Adige, and effected its 
junction, and Massena entered Trent, after exchanging 
a few cannon shot with the enemy's rear guard. Bona^^ 
parte, finding that tiie Imperialists held a strong position 
at Lavis, behind the river Lavisio, on the road to Botsen, 
attacked the Austrians in person with his vteguard. Hie 

VOL. 1.— NO. 14, ' » 8 n } 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The French General iiines a Proclamatiim to the Tyrolese. 

progress, however, was stopped by the gallant defence 
of the enemy; but Vaubois* division arriving, the pas* 
sage of the bridge was effected, and the entrenchments 
in the Tillage were forced. 

Before the French General entered the Tyrol, be 
issued a proclamation, stating, that the French army were 
victorious, and came as friends into their country, with 
every intention of doing good, and enjoining them to sub' 
mit ; that their religion and property should be respected, 
but that all found taking part against France should suffer 

On Bonaparte's arrival at Trent, he arranged an ad* 
ministration f6r the Principality ; he ordered that ail 
acts should be in the name of the French Republic. All 
strangers holding public employments, were obliged to 
quit the territory of Trent in 24 hours, and the Council 
were to replace them by natives of the country. The 
Commandant- General of the place was to hold the office 
of Captain of the city, and the Council was charged 
with the execution of the decree on their responsibility. 

^^■*0^**^0^*^^^^0^*^^ ^ ^^'*^^^^^^^^ ^ *^^^^^*^^^ 


Tu£ hopes of the campaign were now centered in the 
Archduke Charles, and all the blunders of the war were 
to be repaired by the taknts of this. Prince; it was 
ktoown that the French had considerable supplies iroat 




The Archduke Chsrlei conraiaiidi the Aui triao annj. 

the armies of the North and of the Rliine, to reinforce 
the army of Italy, but this was looked on as a favourable 
circttmstance, which would render victory more certain 
vhere it was meant to seek it : and so few doubts woko 
entertained of the speedy subjugation of France, that 
the Combined Powers only permitted the armistice to 
continue, till fine weather should enable them to take a 
pleasant march to Paris. j 

On the 23rd of 'May 1796, the Austrian Commander^ 
in Chief, informed General Jourdan, that the armistioe 
mas to cease, and that hostilities would commence on the 
last day of that month. General Jourdan accordingly 
marched with the army of the Sambre and Meuse, when 
General Marceau repulsed the Austrians on the right 
bank of the Nahe^ and the French General Championet 
-was equally isucceasful 'at Nidder Diebach. General 
Kleber, on the same day, marched towards the Sieg, and 
on the 1st of June, obtained a victory .over the Austrianf, ) 
who lost 2400 men, indnding wounded and prisoners. . j 

The Archduke pursued Lefebvre on the 16th, and 
Creneral Kray, with 32 squadrons o( light horse, and ten 
battalions of infantry, a ciHps of riflemen, and a nam- , 
ber of- artillery horse, marched towards Cologne and 
Dusseldorff. General Kleber was defeated, bat passed 
the Sieg in the night, and continued his route to Dussel- 
dorff, while Jourdan crossed at Neuwied with the rest of 
bis army, the Archduke having given him but little trou- . 
ble during his retreat. 

Marshal Wurmser was attacked by General Moreaii ; 
he was stationed between Frankendal and the Aehut, his 
front protected by a canal, and his left wing by the Re- 
bach. The French passed the fortifications, with the 
't:irater up to their chinsy in defiance of a tren^endous firo 





Geaenil Deuix ordered to eog^ift the Auttrians. 

of miuketry and caHBOB ; tkey engaged the Austrians 
witk un^xanipled ifit^f)Qosity» took their front works, 
aad made bridges for the passage of their cavalry ; the 
▲ustrians were defeated^ and obliged to take shelter u- 
def the cannon of Maaheim. The most part of the 
Austrian forces having gone towards die Lower Rhine, 
to pursae General Jourdan, orders were sent by the Di- 
rectory to General Moreau, to cross the river, which he 
effected 61 the 34th. The RepubKcans carried all the 
works in the islands of the Rhine with the bayonet, and 
with sndi rapidity, that the Austrians could not destroy 
the bridges which kept ap their conunnmcation with 
their different divisions ^ and they fell into the hands of 
the French. 

General Laroche ^nade himself master of tlie MottQ< 
tain of Knubis, said to be the highest of tiie groape 
eedled die Black Mountains, taking two standards, two 
pieces of cannon, and 400 prisoners. Next day Frei* 
burgh was ^sarried by General Saint Cyr, wilih the bayo^ 
|Mt. The march of the Republican left wing was alwajrs 
inftermpted by conflicts with the enemy ; but at <)st, the 
Imperial General La Tour made a Tig<oro«s oppositioi, 
bwt widioHt effoct; on the same day, Bibrach, in the 
valley of Kintzig, was tak<en possession of by General 
Feiraiot. Possessed of FVeiburgb, General Moreaa could 
acft against the left wing of the Archduke s army, and cut 
0ff his communication with the Prince of Conde. It 
also laid open to him the territory of the Dnke of Wir- 
temberg, and the roads which led to the Austrian maga- 
oines at ViUengea and RotfawieL 

General Desaix bad orders to engage the Austrians at 
Bastadt on the 4th of July. To oblige them to abandon 
i^astadt by tornihg their left. General I^eo9qrbe cittacM 




The Frcoch eater FnmkinL 

ihem between Olbach and the mountains, while General 
JDecaen was ordered to seize, if possible, on the bridge 
of Kuppenheim^ and dislodge tfaem from the mountains ; 
and, ailer aa obstinate conflict of three hours, the Re- 
publicans forced them to abandon Kuppenheim. The 
left side of the river was stiU possessed by the Austriaos 
near Olbach ; tbe passage was forced by the French in* 
fienlry, who also attacked the wood of Nidderbichel, and 
after a contest of three boors they were successful, while 
another demi-brigade of infimtry took possession of the 
^woods near Ottersdorff. Both wings of the Austrian 
army being neariy surrounded, were under the necessity 
of seeking shelter by repassing the Murg. The French 
anade 1900 prisoners, but their own loss was perhaps 
gaarc eonsideimbk, as the Anstrians, from tlieir positiofi, 
<:ould act widi greater advantage. 

General Desaix began liis operations willi the left wing 
by attecking the village of Malscfa, where he fought from 
■aine in die morning till ten at night, when he took the 
ifWage» and made S08 prisoners. The loqperial army 
iwas checked by Suzamie and Delmas, stationed between 
Ifiuohentem aad Ettiingen, in defiance of the eiforts of 
Prince Charles, who headed them in person. 

The right wnq^ of the Bqpublican anny proceeded to 
tlie plains of the Maine, and the left took its station 
befcm Frankfiirt. The magiatrales weore sumnMncd to 
surrender, which was stremto«sly opposed by the Aus- 
trian garrisQBi. Tfa Frensh began a boBriwrdment, when 
nany parts of Ae city being suddeidy in flames* the gar- 
rison agreed to sumnder, and the Republicans on the 
next movning entered in triumph* 

The Archduke Charles was eagerly pursued by tbe 
]^pobMcanSy and sqpon learning liiat the French meant 


by Google 



The Aaetriaos driven from Statguard. 

to cat off his coinmunicatioti with General Frolich and 
the Prince of Cond6» who were marchfaig to Stutguard, 
the Archdake deemed it expedient to retire to Vahingen* 
Morean posted some troops at Bniphsal, to watch the mo* 
tions ef the enemy ia Philipsburg and Manheim. Gene* 
ral St. Cyr, after an obstinate conflict, drore the Austria 
ans from Statgnard. His next object was to make them 
abandon their posts in the rear of that town ; the attack 
commenced at four in the i^raoon with nnconunon se* 
verity^ against General Baillet and Prmce John of Lichr 
ienstein. The former defended himself most gallantl| 
till evening, when, as the RepuUicans conld occupy the 
ground on the right flank of the Prince of Lichtenstein, 
the fire of their musketry crossed in their ranks, orden 
were sent to General Devay, then on his march, to com« 
forward with the utmost dispatch. He arrived whenths 
troops under the command of the Prince of lichtensteio 
were in danger of being totally destroyed, and con^^ 
led the Republicans to retire. The Prince gallantly efr 
fected the passage of the Neckar on the 19th, and en- 
camped his troops at Felbach, that he might keep up a 
communication with Ulm, without experiencing any iia- 
portant opposition. 

The Archduke, with a considerable part of his annyi 
marched from Nordlingen, crossing the Eger, to goani 
the roads to Donawerth. The Rep^iblicans compelled 
General Hotze to abandon his position on the 8th, but 
the attempts against Greneral Biese were defisated. Tbe 
Prince of Cond6 had retired to Monnheim, where bi^ 
Itoyal Highness was informed of the critical situation of 
Wartensleben, who durst not hazard an engagement with 
General Jourdan, to which the Republican commander 
wished if possible to force hinu General MLoreananivej 


by Google 


The Ardidok^ refreati to Donawertb. 

on the 9th, and next day came to an engagement with 
the left wing of "the amy of General Hotze, which they 
fought widi the utmost fury» obliging his advanced posts 
to give way. On the 11th the Archduke made prepara- 
tions for a general attack on the Republicans ; his prin- 
cipal army was in three columns or divisions, the centre 
being commanded by the Prince of Furstenberg, the right 
wing by General Hotze, and the left by La Tour. The 
centre and left were to engage the same divisions of the 
Republican army^ while the division under General Riese 
repulsed them in the vicinity of Laningen, continuing its 
route with a few to reach the rear of Mt)reau's station. 
It was settled that a strong advanced guard should ma- 
noeuvre on the left wing of the French army, to compel 
them to abandon the heights of Umenheim. The battle 
took place on the 10th, at seven in the morning, when 
the Austrian army repulsed the advanced guard of the 
Republicans ; but the division which proceeded to 
TJmemheim was under the necessity of retiring. By this 
the right flank of General Hotze being exposed, ho was 
obliged to iall back to Forcheim ; but tlie Prince of Fur- 
stenberg and General La Tour were enabled to maintain 
the advantages they had acquired. The conflict was 
tdbst desperate, and continued seventeen hours ; but when 
the Archduke was strengthening his right wing to bring 
it again into action, he received intelligence that War- 
tensleben was obliged to retreat towards Amberg, and 
that a 'division of General Jourdan's army had reached 
Numberg, with the intention of uniting its strength to 
the forces under General Morcau ; this made his Royal 
Highness conclude, that if he should be finally defeated 
the consequences might be alarming. He thercibre re- 
Inctantly dotermined to decline an attack, although Gen. 



by Google 



The Victoriei of the French €a«se UoeauocM in Vlemuu 

Kicse faad proceeded successfully to Haydenkeim, \>J 
obliging the French Etat-Major-Genecal to retreat to Ko< 
nigsbron, and got possession of four leagues of country 
in the rear of the French army. At the approach of day 
the Austrians began their retreat towards Donawerth. 

The Archduke arrived at Donawerth on the 13th. 
There he passed the Danube and encamped his ariny at 
Baio, behind the Acha, eight miles east-south-east of 

The Republican General brought his troops to Dillin* 
gen and Laningen, to pass thp Danube, as the Austrians 
had made it impracticable to cross at any other place. 
Meanwhile General Ferinot took the route to Bregaots, 
where he seized a number of mortars, one howitzer, 22 
pieces of cannon, 40 large barges, and 40,000 sacks of 
oats, flower, and barley. By these wonderful movemeots 
the Bepubliccms established a communication between 
the armies of the Sambre and Meuse, the Bhine and 
Moselle, and the army of Italy under General Bonaparte. 

The Archduke determined to march to the relief of 
Wartensleben, whom Jourdan had pursued almost to 
Batisbon; Wartensleben, however, retreated towards 
Wurtzburg. On the 24th the garrison of Koeniogstiea 
surrendered by capitulation : here the victors found 9n 
immense quantity of military stores. 

The Victories of the French gave great uneasiness to 
the court of Vienna, as eadi day was more calamitottt 
than the former one, aiid tbe very throne of Gemmj 
seemed tottering to its basLsi. The destruction of hii 
armies in Italy, and the progress of Jourdan and Moreao» 
made a strong impression on t}ie mind of tbe Emperofy 
Mhose government now seemed to lie at tbe mercy ^ 
France; yet was that prince forced to wiluess furtbc' 


by Google 

AN1> WARS oy EUROt»E. 32t 

Several GermaB Princei make Peace with F|WKe. 

disasters in tbe degradation of the Princes of the em« 
pire, who were now ^compelled to make peace on any 

A treaty of peace was concluded on the 6th of August^ 
between the Dake of Wertemberg and France, whicti 
was ratified by the legislative body. By virtue of this 
treaty the Republicans got all his rights and revenues on 
the left side of the IUune» and his Serene Hig^ess en- 
gaged to banifib ftom his territories all Emigrants- and^ 
exikd priests. 

An anoistice was ooaolnded between France and the^ 
fircle of Saabia» on the 27th of July, by wbieh it agreed: 
to fbniish the Repnblie with money and stores. A treaty 
4if peace between the Marquis of Baden and France was 
ntified at Paris on the 22d of August The ElectxMr of 
Biifaria sent ambassadors to tpeat witk General Momait, 
while the. Dint of Ratisbon. gave, much alarm, by resolv«- 
ing to> lajic before his Imperial Mi^esty its wishes for » 
gtnefal pacifieation. The Repnblie, however, did not 
grant an armistice to any of these states, without obtain-^ 
ing very Tabiable considerations for the most trifling con- 
ceasions; and no neutrality, no truce, no peace, was ob- 
buned by the weaker powers, without heavy contribu* 
of this nature. 

voi, I.««.HO. 14. T T 

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Tbe Circle or Francoma pay a Tery heavy Cofitribatioo, 


The contributions levied by General Moreau were veiy 
eiicessive, but Jourdan was muoh more extravagant in 
bis demands on the Deputies of Franconiay with whoB 
General Emouf concluded an armistice. The Circle was 
to pay 6,000,000 of livres to the Republic, and fanusb 
necessaries for the army t&the amount of 2,000,000 more; 
to be paid in the space of forty-five days. Soon after the 
Deputies were astonished at a letter they received from 
General Emouf, statmg that the business of the annistice 
was contrary to the sentiments of the Commander Id 
Chief, who declared it null and void; and when Jourdaa 
was requested to explftin bis designs, he refused to re- 
turn any satisfactory answer. 

A sense of danger seemed to inspire the cabinet of Vi- 
enna with a degree of energy suitable to the occasion, 
and instead of eking out their resources, as if to male 
them sufficiently durable, it began to collect them with^ 
i^iew to render them sufficiently powerfuL The Arck- 
duke having abandoned Donawerth, occupied a stronf 
position behind the Lech, where it joins the Daottbe, 
but having imformation that a division of the Republicans 
under General Bernadotte was^ marching towards Batis- 
bon, while Jourdan's army was directly in front of War- 
tensleben*s, his Royal Highness marched troops along tbe 
right bank of the Danube, leaving Qeneral La Tour to 
watch Moreau, while be himself meant to pass the river 




Tlie Aostrians retreat to Sultxbach. 

at Ingolfltadt, to act against Joardan, while General War- 
tensleben was to engage him in front. ' He passed the 
Danube on the 17tb, both at Neuberg and Ingolstadt, in 
which last fortress he placed a very strong garrison, not 
merely to protect his own rear, but also to annoy the leR 
4ank of Gemeral Moreau, should he put in execution his 
intention of marching to Ratisbon and Landslmt. 

General Jourdan ordered Lefebvre to engage the right 
•flank of the Austrians encamped at Sultzbacfa, where a 
large body of troops, with a powerflil tarain of artillery, 
had been stationed by General Wartensleben. Lefebvre 
succeeded in forcing the Austrians to abandon the heights 
after a gallant resistance. The Republican centre was 
•charged with the attack on the enemy's front before 
Saltsbach, and General ' Ney, to facilitate this object, 
marched with the vanguard from Herspruck towards 
Soltzbach, by the only road that was practicable for the 
conveyance of artillery. The distance was twenty-two 
miles, the whole road being flanked by lofty mountains, 
which enabled the Imperialists to do incredible mischief 
to the Republicans. 

General Ney gave orders to attack the woods with the 
bayonet, while his right wing, to deceive the, Austrians 
as to the ultimate point of attack, was ordered to ascend 
the hill. The Imperialists under General Hohenlohe 
began a heavy fire fi'om the woods but the French troops 
entering it, the Austrians, unable to resist, left them the 
possession of it. (Seneral Jourdan changing his position, 
ordered General Colaud's division to support his van» 
guard, which, with the Generals Ney and Grenier, en- 
abled the right wing of the Republican army to turn the 
left of the Austrians, and made them retreat to SuKzbach, 
their strongest, though only remaining position. 

T T 2 

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Digitized b 


The Aastriani SBtnat m the N4^U 

SulUbacb was wholly iaaccMsible in firoB(t» die Akiris 
pi it were defended by aiiiUery and isahmiry. A «mU 
plain on the kft of the rock, being encircled lotk veali, 
the position^of the Be^blicans prevented &eir reaohtag; 
4ty except through a narrow deffle. As it did not strike 
the Anstrians that their left was in danger, tiiey negledt- 
ed to take possession of a hamlet, environed with toes 
and hedges, as well as of that part of the wotkl beyend 
the plain. This did not esoape General J4mrdan, who 
ordered General Ney to occupy the hamlet with light ia- 
iantry, and Grenier was to get possesaion of the wood at 
the head of a brigade. The Austrians, on being aade 
acquainted with these mancenvres, endeavoured to re^ 
cover the wood, but General Grenier compdkd Ihen Is 
fall back towards the rock. The phiin beiag held by the 
ftepublicans they oommettced a heavy canaonadiBg 
against the enemy. 

The heights on the left were at length reached by 
General Lefebvre, where the enemy fought with the moil 
determined bravery. The troops by which the {^ce was 
defended retreated in the night, which prevMited l^ 
fisbvre from pursuing them ; but as he was now anaster 
0(f idle heights, the forces could encamp on the fieU of 

Championnet and Bonneau proseed ou to Amberg t« 
eheok tlie progress of the Austrian troops statiDned is 
that quarter, and icame up with tlie enemy on the heights 
of Poperg. They were directly attacked by Cham^n- 
net and BonnesM, who forced them to retreat to Amberg 
afteranobstiiiale«ngagteientafiveliw hoars. General 
Wartensleben changed his head-quarters in the nigkt 
towards ScfawartnenfoM, heUnd the Mab; and on the 
next day the division under Ckaioral Grenier, m«rcbe4 




The Aicbduke pfewei on Geneial Jdardaa. 

to Amberi^, and made tin AuslriaiM recross the Wils» 
one of the feeders of flie Nab. 

On liie 18th, in the evening. Prince Charles was in- 
formed of General Wartensleben's being forced to 
abandon Amberg, and retreat across the Nab. Two days 
after he reached Hemmau, with Us right column, which 
gave him the command of the road to Ratisbon, &xid al- 
lowed him to annoy the right flank of General Jonrdan's 
army, which had marched towards the Nab. On the 
S2nd, the Archduke's advanced g^ard engaged the French 
under General Bemadotte, who had taken a position 
near the village of Teining. The Republican forces 
were obliged by the Austrian General Nauendorf, to re- 
treat to Neumarck, from which place he was driven the 
next day, by the Archduke ; he retreated to Numberg, 
^hich left the right flank and the rear of General Jour- 
dan's army totally exposed ; and the military talents of 
Prince Charles enabled him to profit by the valour of his 

The Archduke and General Wartensleben pressed 
upon General Jourdan on the 24th ; the latter moving 
against the front, and the former against the flank of his 
army ; which most have been fbflowed by a decisive 
battle, had not the Republican Commander-in-Cbief 
been induced to retreat. Genera] Bemadotte evacuated 
Nuniiberg, and, in great kaste, marched on towards For* 
cheim, while the Austrians at L«uff made it inqtossible 
for Jourdan to carry that passage. General Kleber re- 
treated towards PegnitE, where he received the orders of 
General Jonrdaa to march directly for Pondenst^, 
where be arrived at midaight. The Archduke having 
despatched Nauendarf by the way of Ratisbon, to co- 
operate widi Genoxd La Tour, to threaten the left flank 


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Genenl Joardan still retreats. 

of MoreaUy contiiiaed his pursuit of the French Coidi- 
mander-in-Chief. By the skilful movements of th« 
Archduke, Jourdan, on the 29th, found it necessary to 
retreat to Bamberg, where he took possession of both 
sides of the Bednitz. He was pursued by the Archduke, 
but his retreat was well covered. 

General Moreau sought to gain intelligence of the 
miovements of the Austrians along the Danube ; but it 
. does not appear that he was acquainted with the sad re- 
verses experienced by General Jourdan. General De- 
saix had orders to attack the enemy at Ingolstadt, on tlie 
Ist of September, and oblige them to destroy the bridge ; 
the Republicans were attacked by the enemy at day- 
break, when La Tour was reinforced by detachments 
from the Prince under General Nauendorf, who, on his; 
march, defeated the French, and forced them to take 
shelter in a wood. This was followed by a desperate 
battle, when the Republicans were enabled t6 repulse La 
Tour with great loss. 

' An officer was sent to acquaint .the Commander in 
Chief with the state of affairs, but he lost his way, and 
Moreau's army were not engaged ; the issue of the cam- 
paign might have been quite different, had Iiloreau 
brought his forces into the field. 

General Jourdan arrived at Schweinibrth, whither he 
had retreated by forced marches* Prince Charles reach- 
ed Bamberg on the 31st, crossed the Maine on the 2nd 
and 3rd of September, and soon got possession of Wurtz* 
burg, to which place General Jourdan used every exer- 
tion to arrive before them, and was only three leagues 
from it, on the day it was taken possession of by Gene* 
r^il Uotze. Jourdan made a dreadfol attack on the ad- 
viinced guard of General Hotze, but could not make anv 




^> II ■ ■ .1.1 . r . j_. 

Geeeral Maroean wounded. 

impression on their line, and returned to his camp at 

General Wartensleben was to pass the bridge at Det« 
telbachy and engage Jourdan's centre, while General 
Kray was charged with turning his left wing. The at- 
tack was begun by the troops under General Stzarray, 
but the Republicans made him fall back, and deprived 
him of his first position. Wartensleben crossed the 
river with his cavalry, and came to action with the left 
wing of the French. Jourdan weakened his right wing, 
in order to strengthen his left, and thus enabled Stzarray 
to resume his former station. The left of Jourdan's 
'army was repulsed by the Austrian cavalry, and obliged 
to take refuge behind the wood: his left-wing was im* 
petuously attacked by numbers superior to his own, and 
Jourdan again commenced a reireat, and again expe* 
rienced misfortunes. ' 

The retreat was committed to the youthful atid gal- 
lant General Marceau, to be covered from the enemy, 
till the Republicans were able to evacuate the defiles of 
Altenkirchen. Some French chasseurs in a wood, firing 
upon some Austrian hussars, Marceau arrived to recon- 
noitre the ground, with an officer and some artillery. A 
Tyrolean chasseur recognised his rank, and discharged a 
carbine at him, the contests of which passed through bis 
body. The General descended from his horse ; was 
taken to Altenkirchen, and carried through the columns 
by the grenadiers. On the next day, Altenkirchen was 
occupied by the enemy's advanced guard ; and when the 
Austrian General, Haddick, was told of the circumstance, 
he sent the wounded French General a guard of safety, 
accompanied by General Kray. This ancient warrior 
could not avoid shedding tears; he was opposed t« 


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UU death awl burial. 

Mairceau Utr two years past; aiid» ia the oiidflt of Gonr 
flicty these two generous minds only waited for peace to 
manifest their sentiments. Hopes of saving Marceaa 
were still kept ap» and Prince Charles'ft princqpal snrgeoo 
exerted himself to the utmost* in vain. In the morning 
the symptoms were more daogeroas; the General was 
seised with a heaviness in his head, and expired about 
six o'clock. The Austrian regiments of Barco and 
Blankenstein, who knew him on the field of battle, die^ 
puled the honour of paying him the last offices; but 
they were prevented, as the French officers attending 
bim, prevailed upon Prince Charles to allow his remains. 
iB be given to his brethren ia arms. The Prince request- 
ed» that the Austrians might be acquainted with the 
moment of his interment, to join with the French in per- 
fcrming the last military honours; his body was inter- 
red in the fortified camp at Coblentz, under the dischaig^ 
of the artillery of both armies, 

Marceau had well served the Republic in the field; his 
oomrados, and their oiemies, both admired his bravery 
and honoured his memory, and the solemnilies, which 
the contending armies assisted to heighten; were heard 
of at Paris, and listened to with enthusiastic attention ; 
and the Parisians fancied tilat the respect paid to* the de- 
ceased B«pubUcan General, was a homage, to tha genios 
and glory o£ the Bepuhlic. 


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The Frenclr re-cross .the Rhine. 


The Republicans having re-crossed the Rhine at three 
different places, the Archduke detached a Ibrce towards 
Ukareth and the Sieg,. taking the route towards the 
Maine* with the remainder of his ibrces, which river he 
pressed on the 25th9 to commence hostilities against 
General Moreau, leaving a sufficient force between 
Mayence and Francfort. After tlie defeat of Jourdan^ 
Moreau could not possibly penetrate farther into Bava^ 
ria nor remain for any time in the places he then occu- 
pied ; and Prince Charles could send larger reinforce- 
ments to General La Tour in proportion as Jourdan re- 
tired from the Danube and the Maine. The coolness and 
talents of Moreau had room for exertion, and were, per- 
haps never exceeded on any similar occasion. 

The hostile armies engaged on the 7th of September 
near Mainbur ; the Austrians were defeated by the cen- 
tre of the Republican army, and 500 of them taken pn-> 
soners. Three days after. General Moreau commenced 
a retreat taking the route towards Meuberg, and a num- 
ber of bloody conflicts took place. When he was hard 
pressed by the Austrians, he united his forces in one 
body, and fell upon them with such fury that be forced 
them to retire, and fell back by degrees towards the 
Rhine. A detachment from the Archduke, strengthened 
by troops l^om Manheim and Philipsburg, attacked Ge« 
neral Sherer on the 18th, who was stationed at Bruchsal, 
and obliged him to retreat to KehU Here ihe Repu|^li« 

?0L. !• — NO. 14» V u 


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The Anstrians driven from Kehl 

caus were again attacked by all the iorces the enemy 
could collect, who succeeded in getting as far as the 
head of the bridge, over the Rhine, where they were 
checked by the batteries of that place, and were thrown 
into the utmost confusion. The works of importance 
remained with the Republicans, who drove the Austrians 
from the town of Kehl by a tremendous fire. The na- 
tional guards of Strasburg, were ordered by General Mo- 
reau to secure Kehl, the bridge and the forts on the isles 
of the Rhine, as of the utmost importance in his retreat 

Moreau engaged the Austrians near Steinliausen, in 
the most furious manner, and La Tour was near being 
totally ruined, although he met the Republicans with all 
his force. Prince Charles directed his march along the 
right bank of the Rhine, with a view to cut off the re- 
treat of General Moreau, and arrived at Radstadt on the 
5th of October* To annoy the Republican army in its 
retreat, a body of Austrians were stationed between the 
Neckar and the Danube, as well as to cover all the passes 
of the Black Forest and mountains. 

As General Moreau had sufficient time to think of his 
farther retreat, he took tlie route of Stockach with the 
principal part of his army. All the defiles in his flank 
and rear were occupied by the Austrians, while the rapid 
movements of the Archduke evinced a determination to 
destroy the bridges on the Rhine, prior to his arrival 
there. Nothing but the greatest'courage and intrepidity 
were able to extricate tlie French from theur situation, 
for ail communication with France was totally cut off. 

To force tlie passage of tlie Black Forest the Repub- 
licans had yet to accomplish; the centre of the French 
army made a violent attack on the Austrians, stationed ia 
tb« Val d'fiofer, a most terrific defik, narrowed bv loftf 


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General Warteosleben daogennif I j wounded. 

mountaiDS for several leagues, nor more in some places 
than ten fathoms wide. The right and left wings soon 
cleared the defile, without any loss, and reached Frei<- 
burg on the 13th, takuig possession of Watdkirch on the 
ensuing day, and ranging themselves along the heights 
on the right bank of the Eltz, while the convoys and 
baggage binder the protection of the right wing, passed 
by the way of the Forest towns. On finding that it was 
not practicable to prevent fh^ retreat of General Moreau, 
La Tour proceeded to join Prince Charles near Hom*- 
berg, and the Prince of Conde and General Frolich pur- 
sued the French, while retreating through the Black 
Forest and mountains. The Archduke having united his 
forces, gave battle to the left wing and centre of the; Re- 
publican army. Wartenslebc^, with the centre division, 
was to force the heights behind Martinsell ; and General 
Petrasch, with the left wing, was ordered to march to 
Emendingen. L^ Tour, who commanded the right, had 
a terrible opposition, being repeatedly repulsed in his ati* 
tempts on Kinsingen, till the Arcbdtike with the grena- 
diers, made himself master oi the village. Upon this 
occasion. General Wartensleben was dangerously wound? 
ei in the arm, while bringing the centre into action. 

The Austrians attacked Nimborg, or Newenbnrg, but 
without any important efiecL The next day> General 
Morton retired towards Huninguen, where a large bridge 
was established. His position was formidable, his right 
wing touching the Rhine, his left at Kandern, and his 
centre division at Schlingen, where he meant to remain 
for some time, if the Austrians did not make him alter 
liis resolution. The Imperial army moved on the 23rd 
iu four columns: those commanded by the Prince of 
Conde and the Prince of Fnrstenber{^ were to manq^uvre 

V V 2 

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General BoiinumWlle appointed to oommtnd. 

fto as to prevent the Republicuis from sdiiding troops 
from their left; the others, under La Tour' and 'Naneii*^ 
dorf, were to attack the left wing, and endeavour to tort 
their flank. After an obstinate conflict, which lasted till 
night, the Republicans retreated te Altingen, and passed 
ih» Rhine at Auningnen, without anj opposition from 
Ifae enemy. This last movement ended a retreat, which 
can scarcely be equalled m history, imd whicfh will trand^ 
oiit the talents of General Moreau to posterity with tm* 
fading glory and honour. 

lUness having^ made General Jourdan resign the com^ 
mand, it was given to General Boumonville, Comman* 
der in Chief of the northern army. 

The Austrians made many spirited eflbrts to gain po$» 
session of Kehl, and the bridge of Huninguen, but were 
atill repulsed ; the Archduke durst not leave the Brisgaw 
exposed to General Moreau, and the conquest of KeU 
was of the greatest importance to secure his troops wtii^ 
in winter quarters. 

The Archduke resolved on a regular siege ; and open- 
ing his trenches on the 25th of November, he commenced 
a cannonading, which lasted fifteen days without inter- 
val. A second attack was made upon it on the 25lh of 
December, wben its defence became doubly dangerous 
and difficult, the intercourse with Strasburg beino- cut 
off by breaking down the bridge*, and rendering the 
boats totally useless. After finishing their second parallel, 
the Austrians attacked and carried the Republican camp 
and the battery which defended it. The French were 
again raflied by General Lacombe ; and, that they might 
fight with determined valonr, he destroyed the bridges to 
t>revent their return. This had the effecl, and Uiey de- 
feated ^ Austrians with much loss. 

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Kehl surrenderi to the Aintriaiis. ^ 

Hie artillery of the Austrians was now ti»o dreadful 
for the Republicans to withstand ; they had no commu- 
nication with the opposite bank, bxA no hope of any re- 
lief. General Desaix proposed a capitnlation to Ihti 
Archduke, and he signed it, allowing the French 94 hours 
to carry off their artillery and stores. 

Hie surrender of Kehl ended this desperate cunpttgtt 
on the Rhine, at the conclusion of which it appears, that 
the hostile nations had more respect for each other than 
they had previously entertained. Both had fought wMi 
so much valour, as left it doubtful whedier most honour 
was dtie to the conquerors or tiie vanquished, and te 
struggle had been kept up without either side committn^ 
any act of cruelty or perfidy dishonourable to the cbi^ 
racter of the bravest soldier. 

» #«#^#4M^^4>^^4N»«#4>^ #^## MAr«>tf ^#»# 


The long defence maiiftained by the garrison of Kehl, 
diverted the attention of the Archduke Charles fromthe 
affairs of Italy, whence he intended to follow Wurmoe r, 
to stop the career of. the victorious Bonaparte, and the 
French Oovemment took this interval to increase tlie 
strength of their brave army. The want and wretched- 
ness of which the troops had such reason to complain, 
during the whole of the war, seemed now to disappear, 
^d from this time, quitting the simplicity and virtue of 


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CoDfideooe of the Army in Bonaparte. 

a Republican Leader, the seeds of ambitioo were sewn in 
the breast of the great General. 

Every soldier was now rewarded to the full extent of 
his services, and, instead o( the proud character of a 
public Creditor, found himself under daily obligations to 
that General, by whom alone he judged bis comforts 
were increased. Every individual gave praise to the 
Commander-in-Chief, as the restorer of all order, the 
provider of all good, and the object of their adoration 
and their hope. 

'- The stem language of the Republicans were softened by 
the manners of the candidate for a crown, and the views and 
conduct of Bonaparte were guided entirely by bis own in- 
terest. Vdiatamomentto cherish the ambition of an ardent 
and aspiring mind ! Placed at the head of armies, whose de- 
votion would have made them follow him in the most roman- 
tic expeditions, hfuled by all the world as the victor over 
the greatest generals of the universe, who were obliged 
to acknowledge their admiration of his talents and their 
submission to his arms ; he must have been more or less 
than human who would have refused to take to himself 
the advantages that the state of things offered to him, for 
the mere sake of having his forbearance and virtue jre- 
corded by the few who would have Md sense enough to 
discern it. 

"^ The retreat of the armies from Germany left Bonaparte 
without hope of any movement in his favour in the, Tyrol, 
which he expected from Moreau ; but if he had no hope 
from co-operation he had no fear from a rival ; and hav- 
ing completed his arrangements for th% campaign ia 
Italy, he prepared to frustrate the attempts that the Ans- 
trians were making to preserve Mantua ; and Field-Mar- 
ehal Murmser, with all his misfortunes^ persevered nutb 

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General Wuiroser escapes the French.. 

aconstancy which procured him greater glory . than has 
been gained by all the German Generals who preceded 
him in Italy. 

A rapid march of twenty leagues in two days discon* 
certed the Imperialists. On the 8th the army was in 
motion, and near the village of Solagna fell in with the 
Aastrians. Augereau and Massena about seven in the 
morning began the engagement ; the ImperiaUsts wero 
at length rented, when General Murat sent cavalry in 
pursuit otf them. The French marched to Bassano, which 
was still occupied by General Wurmser, and his head- 
quarters. General Wurmser and the treasure of the army 
' escaped' ^pnly by a moment. In six days the French 
fought two battles, and came to four engagements.; 
they took twenty-one standards, and several thousand 
prisoners ; and tliough they fought in defiles, they ad- 
vanced in these six days upwards of forty-five leagues, 
and took seventy pieces of cannon, with their waggons 
and equipments. 

Marshal Wurmser fled to Montebello, between Vi- 
cenza and Verona. On the 9th Augereau proceeded to 
Padua, and took part of the baggage of the Austrian 
army, with 400 men who escorted it ;. his intention was 
to cnt off Wurmser's retreat to Trieste. • Massena march- 
ed from Vicenza the same day, to advance to the Adige 
and cross it at Ronco. Bonaparte on leaving Trent had 
left General Kilmaine at Verona, with orders to plant 
artillery on the ramparts, but his force was unable to 
controul a populous town and repulse a numerous army, 
who would spare nothing to render them masters of so 
important a post. General Wurmser defiled the whole 
night of the 9th along the Adige, which he crossed at 
Porto- Legnago. On the 10th Kfassena passed the Adige 


by Google 

Matmoot lent to Parit with Tropbiet. 


ui Ronco : at day-break on the 11th Botiapfurfe direotfid 
Geueral Massena, who bad Grossed the Adige ddring Ae 
night, to march to Sanguinetto to obstruct the pHasage 
of tile AUstrians from Porto-LegAag^o to Mantua, and, 
by placing them between two fires, ciq;>tiire General 
Wurmser and all his army. General Sahnguet, who 
was before Mantua, was directed to send 5000 men to 
get possession of Governolo, a point whereby the Aai- 
trians might escape ; they were also to occupy Castellare, 
and destroy all the bridges on the river Tavone as far as 
Ponte Molino. General Murat, with a detadmient W ' 
light horse, arrived at Cerea, and falling in with Wuna* 
ser's division, defeated some squadrons of cavafapf. GeiM- 
ral Pigeon, who commanded Massena's advanced gnaid, 
finding the cavalry engaged, pushed forward Ins l^ht in- 
fantry to sustain tliem, and took possession of a bridge 
across which the Austrians were obliged to pass. Wunn- 
ser immediately made his dispositions, and having de- 
feated the French advanced guard, retook the village and 
bridge of Cerrea. Bonaparte, attracted by the cannonade, 
hastened to the spot, but the moment was lost. 

The Citizen Marmont, aid-de-camp of General Bosir 
parte, conveys to Paris twentj-two standards taken fi^ 
the Imperialists ; he was presented to the Directoiy ^ 
the Minister of War, in presence of a crowd of citixesSr 
whom the ceremony had attracted. 

Marmont then addressed the Directory by observiDff 
that 'the twenty-two standards he presented were tabf 
in fourteen days. The victories of the aitny of Italy mH 
a sure pledge of its affection for the Republic ; it* be* 
how to defend the laws and how to obey, them, as weB 9$ 
ti> combat external enemies. '* Deign," added be, *' to 
consider it as one of the firmest columns of liberty ; 9i 


by Google 


Great pejoicinct at Bologna* 

believe, that while the soldiers composing it exist, the 
government will have intrepid defenders." 

RevelUere Lepaux, President of the Directory, made an 
impressive reply, and presented him with a pan* of pistols,. 

A peace was negociated, or rather accepted . by the 
Duke of Parma. This yras highly advantageous to the 
French, who required every thing that could be asked, 
and received every thing that was required. 

Reggio was in arms, and expelled the troops of the 
DuKe of Modena that formed its garrison ; Ferrara and 
Bologna sent deputies to ofTer their assistance. The Re- 
gency that governed the states of the Duke of Modena 
Bince -his flight began to repair the fortifications of his 
capital, but the French entered the town on the 8th of 
October, declared the armistice broken by the sovereign 
of Modena, and took under their protection the people 
of that city and of Reggio. 

In a sitting at Bologna, called by the French, it was 
decided, that the senate as well as its individual members 
should receive and give only the title of Citizen. On the 
16th of October the tree* of liberty was planted in the 
grand square, amidst the joyous acclamations of Viva la 
Mepublica Franceses and a grand illomination took place. 
Some persons, however, occasioned a tumult, during 
which there were several excesses ; but Bonaparte having 
arrived, published a proclaipation, in which he stated, 
that the constitution and the national guard would forth- 
with be organised. He declared himself the enemy of 
tyrants, but above all, the sworn foe of villains, plun« 
derers, and anarchists; and that he was determined. to 
order those to be shot who violated social order. . 

Ferrara joined in every measure to establish a republic 
can :uhninistration ; and at Genoa the French solemni^d 

VOL. I.— NO. 15# X X 


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II 'f"- '■ It 

Bonaparte writes to General Berthler aod Cardinal Matthei. 

die auniversajry of the fifth year of* the Republic. Dis- 
contentfty howeyer, were shewn in many parts of Italy ; 
die inhabitants of the Imperial Fiefs were again tempted 
to fnsurrection against the French, who had entered these 
Fiefs to the number of 1000 men. The Gonyeyance of 
powder and other warlike stores into the Fiefs, had ex- 
cited suspicions, and Bonaparte ordered the Governor of 
Tortona to send a detachment to the Flefii. Hie par- 
ticulars of this expedition are unknown, but many per- 
sons were taki^n in arms, and shot, and depots of arms 
and stores were discovered. ^The French were annoyed 
jki the mountainous parts of tff Ontserrat : the convoys des- 
tined for the French armies were often dispersed, and 
General Dujard of the artillery had been killed. Bona- 
parte, however, caused the malcontents to be defeated 
&tii p^t to flight ; scarcely a day passed without num- 
bers of them being shot. 

fionapatte, in a letter to General Berthier, published 
at Milan, mentioned that ht was informed several Geno- 
ese merchants had left Genoa, and takei\ refuge in Milan, 
pretending that the French vfere to bombard Genoa ; be 
directed that they should leave Lombardy immediately, 
and retvtm home, as it was bis wish to prevent the ma- 
kvotebt fit)m disturbing the Genoese people, to whom 
he owed obligations, on account of the grain they had 
fohiishcd in a time of scarcity, and the friendship tiiej 
had always shewn towards the Republic. 

Prom a similar motive Bonaparte wrote a letter to 
Ctntbnal Matthd, in which, after observing tiiat the CI^ 
^msttinetsk the latter was placed in were truly novel, he 
stated, to (bh cause alone he wished to attribute the es* 
t^tttisil ^fkiMi eommitted by him. The moral and chris- 
tian ^virtuat, vvUch the world acknowledged in the Ca^ 


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Rojalty abolished ia Loiiit>ardy. 

^Unal, made the General desire h^ inrould returo to his 
£ocese» and assure the ministers of religioq, w4 tb^ dif* 
ferent congregations, of the special protectip^ tb^ Frencli 
General woold grant them wbibt tbey forjbo^e to inter* 
meddle in politics. He also ordered that the unifonq^ of 
the legions of the Cispadane cities should be the same as 
that of the Milanese, and ordered gl) strangers, priests ^ 
well as seculars, employed under the regal govenpaentg 
and in the service of the ArcbdnLe and Emperorp to le^ye 
the Milanese in fifteen days, wdess they had been em- 
ployed for upwards of fifteen yeans^ The (Joiwutt^e of 
GoTemment of Lombardy published iipr^^lwn^n in 
the name of the Frenob Bepubli^^ fbolishpng fqij^Bitj for 
ever, and no one was to hi9!9P jaiqr titl^ but that ^£3lizan| 
or that conferred by his nfficp or pisgifeAsiwf .. 

Tbns did ;Bon^part«t^ by hi^ iw^^rly a^Wgipiplap 
secure the infliien<;e of Francefp thoffo #atef if^Mk ^ 
bad cQiiqu^red withb^ ampef^ 


Bonaparte hearing.that an Anstriaja corps watfidYancf 
jng and had encamped on the Pjava, detached General 
Vassena to Bassano on the Brenta, with ordera to retre^lt 
to Vicenza the instant the enen^ passed the .Piayfu He 
als6 ordered General Vaubois to attack ,th0 4>1isjiif^lpo8tll 
in the Trentiui and above all to drive jtben^ froia the^ 

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General Aogereaa beats the Autriant, 

positions between tiie Lavisio and the Brenta. Hie at- 
tack was on the 2d, ^hen the French made a very spi* 
rited resistance; Crenend Gnienx carried St. Michael, 
and burnt the enemy's bridge ; but the Austrians ren- 
dered abortive the attack of the French on Segonzano, and 
the 85th demi-brigade suflTered greatly. Bonaparte or* 
dered Segonzano to be attacked, and at the same time 
hearmg that the Imperialists had passed the Piava, he 
pressed forward with Augereau*s division; and having 
Joined the division of MiEunena at Vicenza, marched on 
the 5th to meet the Austrians, who had passed the Brenta. 
Hie action was obstinate and bloody, but success in- 
clilied to the French, who kept the field of battle, while 
the Austrians repassed the Brenta. 
^ The 'Austrians attacked General Vaubois, and threat- 
' ened to turn him in several points'; this forced him to 
retreat to La Pietra. On the 7th an obstinate battle en« 
sued, in which the French took two pieces of cannon, 
and 1900 prisoners, but on the iqiproa^ of night, a panio 
aeized part of the troops. On the 8th this dirision had 
a position at JSjyqli and La Corona, by means pf a bridge 
which Bonaparte had thrown over the river. 

The General in Chief arrived with troops at Verona on 
the 8th at noon. On the 11th he learnt that the Austrians 
were encamped at Villa Niova'; the troops advanced from 
Verona, and fell in with their vanguard, who were rolited 
and pursued by General Augereau for three miles an^ a 
half. On ^e 12th the French found themselves in pfei- 
sence of the enemy; they >ngaged them instantly, and 
the attack was made with skill and gallantry, Massena^s 
division attacking their leil, and Angereau's their right ; 
th6 success of both was complete; Aiigereau took tl^ vit- 
)age 6f Caldero and 200 prisoners ; Massena flanked tho 




The French Troops pass the Adif e. 

Imperialists, and took five*pieces of cannon ; but ^erain, 
which fell in torrents, having changed suddenly into a 
kind of hail, driving into the faces of the French troops, 
favoured the enemy. The Austrians succeeded in re^ 
taking the height, and at night both armies kept their re- 
spective positions* 

Bonaparte knowing that the Imperial army under Field 
Marshal Alvinzi^ approached Verona, to form a junction 
with the column of 'his army in the Tyrol, defiled along 
the Adige with the divisions of Augereau and Massena, 
and threw a bridge of *bo«(t8 across at Ronco, where the 
French passed the river.. The General had hopes of ar- 
riving in the morning at Villa Nova, and taking the ene* 
my's park of artillery and magazines, and attacking them 
in flank and rear. The head-quarters of General Alvinzi 
were at Caldero; but liaving intelligence of the move-p 
ments of the French, he had sent a regiment of Croats, 
and some Hungarian regiments, into the village of Ar^ 
cola, a post extremely strong, in the midst of marshes 
and canals. 

.^ Before day-break the divisions of Massepa and Augc^ 
reau completed the passage of the Adige, and advanced 
on two causeways that traverse a morass for several miles. 
The column .commanded by Massena first encountered 
jand jirove in the Austrian advanced posts, while that 
mdet Augereau, after having compelled their posts 
to fall back, was stopped at the village of Areola, now 
keld by the Imperial troops. A canal that flanked a 
dyk« on the side of the vilhge hmdered the French from 
turning it, and to get possession of it they had to pass 
under the enemy's fire, and cross by a small bridge, upon 
which the imperialists kept up a terrible fire iVom the ad- 
jacent houses, which they had fortified. The French 




Battle of Areola. 

troops made maDy efforts to carry the bridge, but 
vere ^iH^pubed. It was in vain that their generals threw 
themselves at the head of the columns, to induce them to 
pass the little bridge of Areola ; this proved only injuri- 
ous to themselves ; for they were ahnost all wounded, and 
several carried out of the field. Augereau, taking a stand* 
ard, advanced to the bridge, where he remained for 
several minutes, without causing any effect : it was how* 
ever, absolutely necessary to pass this 'bridge, or march 
several leagues, which would have destroyed the whole 
operations. Bonaparte, apprised of the diflSeulties of 
Augereao, ordered General Guieux to cross the river 
Adige nnder the light artillery, at a feny two miles be- 
low Rooco ; be was then to bear down on Areola and 
turn k ; but this march was long, and the day far ad- 
vanced. It was liowever necessary to carry Aroola td 
get on the enemy^s rear; Bonaparte, therefore, hastened 
to the spot ; he asked the soldiers if they still were the 
conquevors of Lodi ! His presence cfiused an enthusiasm 
among the troops, and confirmed him in his deaise to 
risk (he passage ; he leaped off his horse, and seizing a 
standard rushed forward at the head of the grenadiers to* 
wards At bridge, crying, ** Follow your General T Ik 
oolamn had nadied mthin thiufy paces of the taidge* 
when the tenible fin of the Austriaas made it seooiL 
Gtenerals Vignole aad li^snes wene wounded, and Mairoot 
the Geaaral's aid^de-canp, was killed. Bonaparte was 
thrown from his Imrseintoaanrsh, from whence lie got 
out widi difficulty 4inder ithe eimm/s fire; he mounted 
again, aad ike ^ohima nllied ; but the Imperialists did 
not advance to take advamtage of dim iortanate.tnomeBt» 
as they ahduld have doae« 
The French renounced ihe ^lenign of £>r|Bng 4he tilisge 




The French Tictorioas at Areola. 

in front, and to wait the ar^ral of General Guieux, who 
succeeded in carrying the village, taking four pieces of can- 
Hon, and a great nnmber of prisoners The Austrian Gene- 
ral persevered, and Bonaparte thought it fit to evacuate 
the village, on learning that the Imperialists had removed 
all their stores to Vicenza, to advance towards Ronco. 
On the 16th the Austrians attacked the French in all di- 
rections : the column of General Massena defeated the 
enemy, and pursued them to the gates of Caldero, taking 
1500 prisoners, with six pieces of cannon and four stand- 
ards. Augereau's column repulsed the Austrians, but 
could not recover the village of Areola. A judgment 
may be formed of the firmness displayed on both sides, 
Irom the attacks at this village, where several Generals 
vrere wounded. The same evening Bonaparte, with a 
column carrying facines, adv^ced to the canal to effect 
a passage, but found it impracticable from the rapidity 
of the current. 

The Austrians' left was supported by the marshes, and 
kept in check the French right by their superrior num- 
bers. Bonaparte ordered Hercules, the officer of his 
groides, to select twenty-five men of his company, and, ad- 
vancing along tiie Adige, turn all the marshes which sup- 
ported tlie Austrian left, and fall afterwards at full gal- 
lop on the enemy's backs, making several trumpets sound. 
This manoeuvre was quite successful ; the Austrian infan- 
try gave way, but still made resistance, when a small 
column of eight or nine hundred men, with four pieces 
of cannon, succeeded in putting them to the route. 
General Massena marched straight to the village of Ar- 
eola, which he took, and pursued the enemy near the 
village of St. Bonifacio. 

Bonaparte wrote to the Director Caniot, and expressed 




Bonaparte takes possession of Beri^mo. 

bis hope of being abb in ten days to address him from 
Mantua. " Never/' said he, " was afield of battle so 
valorously disputed as that of Areola ; scarcely have I 
any generals left; their courage and devotion to their 
country were without example.'' 

Never was an army in a more critical situation than 
that of Bonaparte upon this occasion; the Imperialists 
made the greatest efforts, and had brought from the Aus- 
trian states all their disposable forces ; and by these 
means they were enabled to form in Italy a new army, 
more considerable than the two ahready •xtirminated, 
before the succours sent from France to Bonaparte 
could join his army ; it required all the genius of that 
General, and the zeal of his brethren in arms, to tri^ 
umpk over the cool courage and bravery of the Austrian 

However great the loss sustained by Alvinzi may have 
been, his army was far from being destroyed : driven 
into the mountains, it was difficult to attack him, and 
Bonaparte could not forget that Mantua still held out in 
his rear. The point was to keep Alvinzi in check, and 
exclude him all the passes by which he could communi- 
cate with Mantua. General Vaubois advanced to Bivoli, 
but the Imperialists drove him beyond Castel Nuova. 

A sortie was made from Mantua on the 23d, but 
General Kilmaine obliged the troops to return, and took 
200 men, a howitzer, and two pieces of cannon. Marshal 
Wurmser commanded in person ; it was the third time be 
had made a sally, and each time with indifferent success. 

Under an idea of having received offence from the 
Government of Venice, Bonaparte took possession of 
the citadel o& Bergamo. General. Baraguey d'Hilliers, 
commandant of Lombardy, issued a proclamation^ stat- 


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iiND WARS bF EtJRoFE. . 34d^ 

The Standards taken at Areola presented to the Directory. 

■_ j^ „ ■■ I , I ,..i. / ,,,i. I 

ing that he v^as constrained to occupy the town and 
citadel, to anticipate the enemies of the French Repoblic« 
and keep the seat of war at a distance from the habita- 
tions of the Bergamese; 

The army of General Alvinzi was on the Brenta, and 
in the Tyrol, while that of the Republic stretched along 
the Adige, having an adyanced guard in front of , Verona. 
Mantua was reduced to the last extremity, as the garri- 
son fed only on horse flesh, whilst General Bonaparte^ 
relying on its surrender, was occupied with his cor- 
respondence, and in preparing for the ensuing campaign* 

The standards taken at Areola arrived, and were rer 
eeived by the Executive Directory -in a puUBc sitting; 
The Minister of War presented Lamarois^ chief of bat- 
talion, and aid-de-camp of General Bomaparte; who, 
afler a long harangue, filled with encomiiUns on bis com- 
mander, and his brothers in arms, was answered in the 
same style. " Return," said the preside^nt, ^* to those 
brave warriors, tell them the marble of ihe Pantheon 
awaits their names, and that they are already engraven 
on the hearts of all true Frenchmen." 


A PRELIMINARY Step to peace wfis taken, afterthein- 
•(illation of the Directory gave tfie French Ooveniflimt a 

• VOL. I<— KO. 16. Y V rc^c^n\f> 

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Lord Malnetbmy Airifes at Paris to treat for Peace. 

settled form ; a message had been delivered ta PariiameBt 
from his Majesty of England, stating the satisfisu^tion with 
which he saw a change of system in France^ which he hoped 
would remove all that might hinder a general pacification, 
and an application was made to the French Government^ 
Sept. 9, for pisssports for a British Envoy to go to Paris, 
to make overtures for peace. Lord Malmesbnry made his. 
entry into Paris, as Plenipotentiary of the King of Great 
Britain, on the 24th of October 1796, and the next day 
had his first conference with the Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, The negociation was not began under very fa- 
vourable auspices,' for the Directory took occasion to 
declare, that they doubted the sincerity of . the English 
Government, and ^us shewed a disposition on their 
part opposite to conciliation. 

The Britbh Minister stated the willingness of his court 
to remove all obstacles to the desired object, that might 
arise out of mere forms ; and that it was willing to take 
for the basis of peace the principle of restitution. Thi» 
was sufiicient to shew, that England did not carry on the 
war to increase her own power at the expense of her 
Allies, and that she desired peace, even at the expense 
of her conquests, if France would make a similar sacri- 
fice. The Directory rejected this with the most insolent 
disdain; they had bound thenlS^lve^ by law not to abao- 
don their conquests ; and all that could be drawn from 
tlie discussions that took place between their Minister 
and Lord Mahuesbury, was, that they were determined to 
keep what tliey had taken, and receive back what titer 
had lost. The English negociator declared, that he had 
not powers to admit this principle, upon \\Widi the 
French Minister, Charles de la Croix, haughtily ordered 
l^ia to go home and fetch them, and to take care ih»t 




The NefocUtioo broke off— A French Fleet reachei Ireland. 

Beither be, nor any of the persons he brouglii with nim, 
were found in Paris after the expiration of fi>rty*eight 
hoars. . 

Scarcely was the negociation broken off before the 
French sent a force against Ireland, to act with a power- 
fill body of the natives, who were to declare that country 
independent of Great Britain. The body of Irish unit^ 
for this purpose had despatched Lord Edward Fitzgerald 
and Mr. Arthur O'Connor, as their ambassadors extraorn 
dinary to the Directory of France, to obstruct the nego- 
eiatton with Lord Mabnesbury; and these persons, wit|t 
the French Greneral Hoche, settled the plan of an attack 
on Ireland, flrom which the Directory hoped to reap great 
advantage. Eighteen sail of the line, and thirteen firir 
gates, were fitted out at Brest, to convey troops lo t}ie 
western coast of Ireland. The armament put to sea m 
December, but was overtaken by a storm, which dis^ 
parsed the greatest part of the fleet, and obliged it to re> 
turn to port in a very shattered state. Eight sail only 
reached Ireland, where, unable to learn the destiny of 
their commander and the rest of the fleet, they remained 
only three days, and then quitted Bantry Bay, without 
attempting to land. 

How came they not to land ? The truth was, that the 
Irish wished to establish an independent republic for 
themselves, and they only wanted the French with a small 
force to act as auxiliaries ; whilst the Fraich wanted lo 
make a conquest of Irehmd, that they might either keep 
it to annoy Great Britain, or barter it with thi^t power for 
better conditions of peace ; hence was the desire of Franco 
to land a force to suppress the Irish and expel the 

fifm this difference of opinion, the Irish leaders did 
J Y 9 

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Digitized b 


Tbe Court of Rome arms. 

not instract their frienda to assist their Allies in landing, 
and the French cpminaiidcr would not land a force he 
knew to be unequal to the designs of the government 
from whom he had received bis instructions. The fleet 
returned into port, after encountering two very violent 
Storms, in whidh three ships of the line mid three frigates 
foundered, with the greatest part of their crews. 

The Court of Rome bad armed* and advanced towards 
die Romagna the few troops it could keep on toot, with 
an intention, as was suspeotedt to dtsinrb the states which 
had declared tbemselves free. It appeared to be the wish 
of the Emperor, diatWurmsersbouM escape from Mantua 
with bis garrison, by throwmg hinnelf into tbe territprie* 
pf the Pope. Bonaparte drew from bis army a body of 
troops, tQ assemble at Bologna, and form a moveable 
column: and, as they arrived fai different directions, this 
gave them tbe appearance of a corps amouDtiog to up? 
wards of 15;000 men. Rome was apprebeosive that this army 
was meant to act against her, and this belief produced 
the desired effect The eye of Bonaparte wiw on the Po, 
the Adige, the movements of the entmy» and tbe txtt- 
tions ef General Wurmser^ either to effect a junction or 
escape, and orders were given to the «rmy to be ready 
for action* ^ 

The Commander m Chief arrived at Bologna witb.20QO 
men, to make an impressioa on the Coutt t>f Rome, and 
^ause It to adopt a pacific system : he also opened a oe- 
goeiation with the Grand Duke of Tbacany, relative to 
^e garrison of Lieghom ; and thought his presence at 
Bologna would bring this affair to a condosien. Tbe 
General was informed that the enemy were in motion oo 
all their line, and that the Austrian division at Padaa lisd 
on tbe 8tb, attacked the advanced-guard of General Av 


by Google I 


Bonaparte arrives at Verona. 

gereau, al Bevilaqua, in front of Porto Legnago. The 
officer whp commanded that advanced guard retired to 
Porto Legnago; but hia spirited resistance gave him 
time to advertise the whole French line of the enem/s 

Bonaparte ordered the column he had assembled to set 
out by a forced march, to reinforce General Augereau's 
division, and oppose the enemy's enterprises on the 
J^wer Adige. He himself set out for the blockade of 
Mantua, and after giving the necessary orders, proceeded 
from thence to Verona, where he arrived at the moment 
the Imperialists atUcked in force the advanced guard of 
Massena s division posted at St Michael. The contest 
was severe, but in two hours the Austrians were r^« 

Hie Austrians threw a bridge across the river at Aut 
guiari, by which their advanced guard passed; and on 
the same day Bonaparte learned that General Joubert was 
forced to evacuate La Conma, to assume a position in 
front of Bivoli. The General bad intelligence that the 
enemy commenced a lively cannonade on the Adige, be- 
tween Ronco and Porto-Legnago. The forces in front of 
General Joubert left no doubt as to the intentions of the 
Austrians. It was evident that Alvinai wished to pene- 
trate by Rivoli with his principal forces, and in this di- 
recticm to reach Mantua. Bonaparte formed his resolu- 
tion, and put in motion a part of the division of General 
Massena. He ordered the troops under General Rey, at 
Desanzano, to advance in different columns to Rivoli, 
and set out in person with all his etat-major for that 
place, which he reached at midnight. General Bona- 
parte having assumed the command, directed JToubert to 
resume the position in front of the plateau of Rivoli, and 




I k 

EogafemeDt at Rivoli. 

particularly the post of San- Marco, which had beeq 
' eracoated. This was the onl; point by which the enemy 
could advance their cavalry and artilleiy, between the 
* Adige and the lake of Garda. 

The Commander-in-Chief spent the night in viewing^ 
the ground and the position of the Imperialists, who oc« 
cupied a formidable line, neariy 20,000 strong, their 
right at Caprino, and their left behind San-Marco. Al- 
vinzi had formed his plan of attack, when he hoped to 
surround General Jouberf s division. This he now strove 
to execute, ¥rithout a suspicion of the arrival of the 
French General in person, or of the reinforcements 
The order to retake the small posts in front of the plateau 
of Rivoli, occasioned a fire of musketry between the ad- 
vanced posts ; but the re-capture of San-Marco by the 
French, at five in the morning, brought on a general 
battle, which gaye unejisiness to Alvinsi, as it retarded 
his plan of attack. 

One of tfio Austrian columns proceeded to the plateau 
of Rivoli, with an intent to carry it, and in this direction 
threatened to tnm the right and centre. Bonaparte 
ordered General Lecterc to charge the Imperialists if they 
carried the plateau; a detachment of dnigoona was to 
flank the Austrian infantry, who attacked the French 
centre. Jonbevt sent some battalions firom the heights of 
San-Marco, who threw themselves on the plateaa, and 
tiie Imperialists were driven into the valley of the Adige* 
leaving a great number of dead, and part of their artil- 
lery. The Austrian column which had been on its march 
to turn the French, and cut off their retreat, formed be? 
bind Rtvoli, and covered all the heights between the 
Adtge and the Lake of Garda, so that the French line 
was pompletely tnrned. The Austrians, confident of 




The Amtrian Column taken Pritonert. 

success, exclaimed, 'VWe have them!" and advanced 
with fury to carry the eBtrenohments of- Rivoli, but were 
repulsed in three .different attacks; meanwhile Bonaparte- 
had planted »four pieces of light artillery, that cannonad* 
ed the right of the Austrian line. The troops under 
Generals Brune and Mounier, advanced in three columns 
and attacked the right wing of the Austrian line.. In on 
instant the whole Austrian column, consisting of 4000 
men, were taken prisoners. 

Bonaparte having ,no intelUgence of General Angereau, 
thought his communication with Verona might be inter- 
cepted. The Imperialists still had La Corona ; Joubert 
was to attack that place, and he directed the troops which 
Joubert could spare to proceed towards Verona and Cas* 
tel Nuovo, and set out for the latter place, where he learn- 
ed that the Austrian column of 10,000 men, under Gene- 
ral Provera, had crossed the Adige under the fire of anu* 
merous artillery at Anguiari, and that General Guieux, 
who guarded the Adige in that quarter, was obliged 
to retire to Ronco. Having arrived at Villa Franca, 
he ordered four demi-brigades to advance from that place ; 
and concluding that Augereau, if not defeated, was 
following Provera, he proceed'ed to Roverbella, where 
he arrived wiUi his reinforcements. 

Bonaparte hastened to St. Anthony, and gave orders 
la attack Provera on the 16th. This General unable to 
make himself master of St George by main force, and 
having' no intelligence of Alvinzi's army, could oaly in- 
dulge a hope of engaging the French with advantage, 
when acting with a poweifiil sally of the garrison of Man* 
tua. Bonaparte laboured to prevent this, and surround 
the column of Provera. General Scrrurier, witli 1500 
men, proceeded to J^a l^avoritc, whilst Gc^ieral Victor 



General Proveim iiirreiiden to the French. 

attacked and turned General Provera'stroops, and Gene^ 
ral Miolis who occupied St George, made a sally so 
fortanatelVf that Provera found himself and bis column 
completely surrounded ; on which this gallant General 
and the remainder of his column surrendered at dis* 

General Aivinzi*s army was now quite enfeebled ; with- 
in four days the Republicans had fought two pitched 
battles, six inferior actions, and took nearly 25,000 
prisoners, with twenty standards, sixty pieces of cannon^ 
with their waggons, and all the baggage of General Pro- 
vera^s column, besides killing or wounding about 6000 
mcki. General Rey was to conduct llie prisoners to Gre- 
noble by detachments of 8000 men, one day's march from 
each other, under the escort of the S6th demi-brigade 
and a squadron of cavalry. All the troops performed 
wonders. ** The Roman legions," said Bonaparte in his 
despatches, '' are reported to have marched twenty-four 
miles a* day. Our brigades, though fighting at intervals, 
march thirty.** 



The division of General Augereau proceeded to Padua; 
and advanced to Oitadella, from whence the Austriaas 
fled at its approach. General Massena, who had left Vt'* 
cenza to drive the Austrians from Bassano learned on 




The Aastrians retreat. 

the 26tb, that they bad evacuated that place in the nighty 
and proceeded to Carpenedolo and Crespo ; he therefore 
directed General Menard to file along the right bank of 
the Brenta to Carpenedolo and ordered another party^ 
with two pieces of artillery, ta proceed to this village by 
the left bank of the Brenta ; these troops came np with 
the Imperialists near Carpenedelo^ when an action took 
place on the bridge, but the latter were forced to retreat 
leaving dOO dead, and 900 prisoners. General Joubert 
marched after the Austrians, who fled into the Tyrol, 
where he encountered their rear guard, and, at Avio, 
after a slight action, took 900 prisoners. 

The Imperialists retired to Mori and Torbola, their 
right covered by the lake, and their left by the Adige. 
General Murat embarked with 200 men, and landed his 
troops at Torbola. General Vial, with the light infantry, 
after a severe march through the snow, turned tlie po- 
sition of the Aastrians, and obliged 450 men and twelve 
officers to surrender. General Joubert entered Roveredo, 
and the Austinans having fortified the pass of Galliano, 
famous by the victory which the French gained there on 
their entering the Tyrol, seemed to dispute their en- 
trance into Trent. General Beliard strove to turn the 
right of tlie Austrians, while General Vial routed them^ 
and arrived at Trent, where he found 3000 sick and 
wounded the Austrians had left behind them in their 
flight ; several magazines were also taken at this place. 
General Massena ordered two demi-brigades to advance, 
and attack the castle of La Scala, but its defenders fled 
on the approach of the French, and left a part of their , 
baggage behmd them. 

The gallant but unfortunate Wurmser had often sallied, 
but had always been overcome ; yet his valour gained 
VOL. I. — NO. 15. z z 

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Mantua surrenders to the Freuch. 

him the admiration of the enemy he fought ^ith ; the 
siege which he sustained is said to have cost the Emperor 
22,000, and the French 24,000 men, and at last was 
abandoned through the pressure of famine and disease. 
On the 2d of February 1797 a conference was held be- 
tween Generals Wurmser and Serrurier, to settle the 
articles of capitulation, when it appeared that the hospi- 
tals were crowded with sick, and ail th<i horses were de- 
voured by that part of the garrison who had survived tlie 
dreadful conflicts without, and the horrors within the, 
walls. On this occasion Bonaparte shewed the gene- 
rosity of a soldier towards Marshal Wurmser, a veteran, 
seventy years of age, who, after losing the greater part 
of his array, and the country of the Tyrol, conceived the 
project of taking refuge in Mantua, though distant irom 
it five da;s march ; and who attained this object in spite 
of the efforts of Bonaparte to prevent him. 

The citadel was taken possession of the 3d of February : 
the Austrians marched out with the honours of war, but 
became prisoners. General Wiirmser was exempted with 
bis whole suite, the general officers, the etat-major, and 
whoever else the brave veteran thought proper to nomi- 
nate. He was allowed 100 cavalry, six pieces of cannon 
and their waggons, and 500 persons of his own chusing; 
and the 700 men who^accompanied him were not to act in 
a hostile manner against tlie French Republic for three 
months. News of this surrender was helu-d with the most 
avdy joy at Paris, and the constituted authorities used 
every means to give eclat to the event. 

On the 18th of February the Executive Directory re- 
paired to the ball of public audience, and the standards 
taken in the late engagements were -introduced amidht 
tht shouts of ** Vive Fa Bepublique !" These were pre- 




Angereaa presents the Standards to the Directory. 

ceded by the Minister of War, with the Chief of Squa- 
dron, Bassieres, who was entrusted by the General in 
Chief to present them to the Directory. The minister, 
after stating in his address, that the army of Italy still 
presented new monuments of. its glory, informed the Di- 
rectory, that they now saw the trophies of its last suc- 
cesses—the standards of Alvinzi and of the captive Pro- 
vera. "At this moment, " said he, " 30,000 of these 
Austrians, who had flattered themselves with compelling 
us to repass the Alps, climb those Alps themselves ; but 
they climb them— vanquished, disarmed, and prisoners !" 

On the 28tb, whilst musicians performed favourite airs, 
a dischargeof artillery announced the arrival of sixty stan« 
dards taken at Mantua, and of General Aagereau, charg- 
ed with presenting them to the Directory. He entered 
amidst, universd acclamations and reiterated cries of 
*• Vive la Republique !'' and was preceded by sixty vete- 
ran warriors, each with republican pride carrying an Aus- 
trian standard. The General was presented to the Di- 
rectory by the Miniater'of War, who addressed htm in a 
flattering speech. 

There was great impatience to hear the General. Near 
him stood bis father, a veteran whose martial appearance 
seemed still to breathe ardour of battle; and his brother, 
who, as aid-de-camp, was the companion of his toils* 
Near him was a brother of General Bonaparte (Jerome), 
twelve years of age ; every one sought to recognise in 
tliis youth traits of the conqueror of Italy. A profound 
silence prevailed, when General Augereau addressed the 
Directory. He tells them that the army of Italy charges 
him with being the organ of its sentiments, and its at- 
tachment to the constitution ; that it will justify the re- 
putation it had gained; that the preservation of Mantua 

z z 3 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


BoMparte addresses the Army. 

V. as the great hope of the Aasirians in Italy — its numer- 
ous garrison, the fame of its general, its ample supplies 
all fostered this idea — but the. army of Italy took posses- 
sion of it for the Republic ; that they have devoted them- 
selves to the constitution, and will endeavour to give 
tlie Republic that peace so desirable to every one. 

The President of the Directory stated the satisfaction 
they felt, and the pleasure experienced by all French- 
men, on seeing within that circle the honourable trophies 
presented by one of the heroes of Areola. " Brave 
General !" continued he, " inform your brethren in 
arms, that their exploits, now crowned by the capture 
of Mantua, have excited an universal enthusiasm, which 
has reduced to silence the implacable enemies of their 
country ; carry to them the tribhte of our gratitude in the 
name of the triumphant Republic, that delights lo reckon 
them among her firmest supports^" 

General Bonaparte, who knew the value of a compli- 
ment in season, would not let this opportunity slip of 
paying his court to the amqr> he ^therefore addressed 
them in a proclamation ; in which he details their ex- 
ploits^he tells them that they have proved victorious in 
fourteen pitched battles and seventy engagements — had 
taken more than 100,000 prisoners, 500 field pieces, and 
2000 large cannon ; tiiat the countries they took have 
paid the army, and tha^ they besides had sent home thirty 
millions. He tells them Uiat the Kings of Sardinia and 
Naples, the Pope and the Duke of Parma, are^iow 
leagued with them ; that the Emperor alone was opposed 
to them, and that they are to seek for peace in the states 
of Austria ; and concludes by telling them to remember 
HmX they are carrying liberty to the brave l{ungarians« 


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Intercepted Letter the Cease oflireakii^ the Armistioe. 


An ardent mind, like thatof Bonaparte, could not want 
opportonities of indulging its ambition. The Papal 
States could now be invaded without any apprehensions 
being entertained from a too extensive dispersion of the 
Republican troops; and an intercepted letter from the 
Pope's Secretary to the i^i^uncio at Vienna, gave a pre- 
tence for breaking the armistice that ,had been con- 
cluded. ''. 

BoD£^arte wrote to Cardinal Matthei, saying, that as 
the court of Rome wished for war, she should have it ; 
that to destroy the temporal power of the Pope he had 
only to wish it He tells him to advise his hoUaess— the 
FVench Govemment allows > him to receive proposals of 
peace, and all may be settled. The Cardinal in answer 
says, that his Holiness had always sought to maintain 
peace, and had suffered much from his wishes ; that the 
saceess of his army in Italy had mbled the French Go- 
vernment; that they required of the Pope to sacrifice his 
conscienoe, by the destruction of all that was the basts of 
relifian and morality ; that the Court of Rome must pre- 
pare for war-«his aimy was formidable bat not invinci- 
ble ; that they wish abo for peace, and will be happy to 
make one in the great affair of pacification. 

On the 5th of January 1797, Bonaparte recalled the 
French minister from Rome, and wrote the following 


by Google 


The Pope suptflicates Tor Peace. 


** Tlie influence of foreigners at Rone will be its ruin : 
the words of peace which J charged you to carry to hit 
holiness, were stifled by men to whom the glory of Rom* 
is nothing. You are witness how much I desired to avoid 
the horrors of war; but the letter which I send you, and 
of which I have the original, will convince you of the 
perfidy, blindness, and obstinacy of the Court of Rome. 
Whatever may happen, J entreat you tp assure his Holi- 
ness, tbat he may remain at Ropie without any inquie- 
tude ; as the first minister of religion, he shall find pro- 
tection for himself and the Church. My great care shall 
be to introduce no change in the religion which is esta- 
blished. . •^ 


' General Victor was ordered to Rome^ which he began 
by taking Imola, and then Fuenza, Forli, Cezena, Ba< 
venna, 8cc. with as little di£Bculty. The Papal troops 
attempted to fortify themselves upon the Lenis ; bat in 
place of trusting to their own courage, their hopes were 
grounded dp the blessings of St. Peter and St. FauL 
Victor was not to be charmed into submission, and he 
drove them fbrward, " like chaff before the "jnnd" A 
general terror spread through the ecclesiastical states; 
all ranks sought to escape with their property into Na- 
ples, and the Pope despatched four plenipotentiaries 
with a letter to Bonaparte, praying for peace. 

This letter, with ita answer, will sh^w, that if oar 
hero knew how to flatter, when it would aerve his tan)« 
be himself was not insensible to flattery. 


by Google 


The Pope writes to Bonaparte. 


** Dear Son, health and apostolic benediction ! . 

** Desiring to terminate amicably our differences with 
the Freach Republic, by the retreat of the troops which 
jou command, we send and depute to you, as our Pleni- 
potentiaries, two ecclesiastics, tlie Cardinal Matthei, 
who is perfectly known to you, and M. Galeppi; and 
two seculars, the Duke Louis Braschi, our nephew, and 
the Marquis Gamillo Massiuo, who are invested with our 
full powers to concert, promise, and subscribe such con- 
ditions as we hope wil^be just and reasonable, obliging 
ourselves, under our faith and word, to approve and 
ratify them in a special form, in order that they may be 
valid and inviolable in all, future time. Assured of the 
sentiments of good-will which you have manifested, we 
have abstained from removing any thing- from Rome, by 
which you will be persuaded of the entire confidence 
which we repose in you. We conclude by assuring you 
of our most perfect esteem, and presenling you with 
the paternal apostolic benediction. 

-Pius,P. P.VI.^ 

Given at St. Peter, in Rome, the 12th February 1797, 
tlie 22d year of our Pontificate. 

Bonaparte, General in Chief of the Army of Italy, to 
Ills Holiness the Pope. 

Head' Quarters at Tolenlino, I Ventose, 5lh Year. 
" Most Holy Father! 
" I ought to thank your Holiness for the obliging 
things contained in the letter, which you have taken the 
trouble to write to me. 


by Google 

Peace concluded between the Pope and France. 

** The peace between the French Republic and yonr 
.Holiness is just signed. I felicitate myself on being able 
to contribute to your personal safety. 

'' I entreat your Holiness to guard against the persons 
now at Rome, who are sold to the courts^ the enemies of 
peace, or who suffer themselves to be guided exclusively 
by the passion of hatred, which the loss of territory en- 

** Europe knows the pacific inclinations and the virtue 
of your Holiness. The French Republic will be one of 
the truest friends of Rome. 

" I send my aid- de-camp, chief of bj^'gade, to express 
to your Holiness the perfect estei^ and veneration which 
I have for your person, and to entreat you to confide in 
the desire which I have to give you, on every occasion, 
the respect and veneration, with which I have tue honour 
to be, 

** Your iqost obedient servant, 

" Bonaparte." 

The peace between the Republic and the Pope was 
ratified by the latter, and confirmed by the French Go- 
vernment : it settled that there should be peace, amity, 
and good will between the Republic and his HoUoess, 
and that the latter revoked all consent, by writing or 
promise, given to the coalition against the Republic, 
abd to every treaty of alliance, ofiensive or defensivCt 
with any power or state whatever. It was agreed that 
ships of war or corsairs of the powers armed against tbe 
BepubUc should not enter, during the present war, into 
the ports or roads of the ecclesiastical state. He Be* 
public should enjoy, as before the war, all the prerogfl* 
tives which France had at Rome. Tbe Pope renounced 


by Google 

AND Wkns OF EUROPE. 361 

Termi ai^reed to by the Pope. 

/ ■■ ■ • ' I, ■ ..a 

all rights to the territory of Ayignon^ the Comtat Ve- 
naissiu and its dependencies^ and gave the Repablic, all 
his rights to the territories^ known by the names of the 
Legations of Bologna, Ferrara^ and Romagna; he engaged 
to pay to the treasurer of the French army^ before the 5th 
of March, the snm of 15,000,000 of livres Toomois, 
10,000,000 in specie, and five in diamonds and other 
precious articles, out of the sum of about 16,000,000 
still remaining due on the 9th article of the armistice, 
signed at Bologna on the 21st of June fast, and to fur- 
nish to the army 800 cavalry horses equipped, 800 draft 
horses^ besides oxen, buffaloes, and other produce of 
the territory oPSLchurch. The Pope engaged to pay 
to the Republic fimoney, diamonds^ or other valuables, 
the sum of 15,000,000 tivres Toumois, '10,000,000 in the 
montS of March, and 5,000,000 in that of April follow- 
ing. The article of the treaty of armistice concerning 
the manuscripts and objects of the arts, was to be com- 
pleted with all promptitude. The French army was to 
evacuate the whole of the territory left to the Pope^ when 
the articles relating to the payments should be accom- 
plished. His Holiness agreed to disavow by his minister 
at Paris the assassination of Basseville, Secretary of Le- 
gation, and to pay the sum of 300,000 livres to those 
who suffered by that deed : he engaged to set at liberty^ 
those in confinement for their political opinions« The 
General in Chief was to suffer his HolinessV troops, who 
were prisoners of war^ to return home ; and it was agreed, 
that sundry articles of minor consideration were to bo 
obligatory for ever on his Holiness and his successors* 

Bonaparte appears ti;^have understood the art of inter* 
fering where his interfiBrence was not asked. The little 
republic of Santa Marino had given the General no cause.. 

VOL. I.— no* 16. S A 




Bonaparte tends an Embassy to San Marino. 

to quarrel with it, yet it did not escape his notice ; he at- 
tacked it by a shower of favours ; and under an idea of re« 
moving any uneasiness this free state might suffer from 
the contiguity of the French army, he sent to offer it his 
protection. Citizen Monge was introduced to the two 
Captain Regents of that Republic, and addressed them 
in a long speech, in which he told them, that he came 
on the part of General Bonaparte in the name of the 
French Republic, to assure that of St. Marino of peace 
and friendship ; that if any part of their frontiers was 
disputed, or any part of the neighbouring states was 
necessary to them, he requested |k|| would let him 
know ; as the French Republic wa»l|y;er to prove her 
friendship, and he congratulated hiniselt on being th« 
means which procured him the opportunity of testifying 
the veneration tliey inspired in all the friends of liberty. 

The republic had preserved its liberty since the 5th 
century. The population did not exceed 5000 ; but its 
revenue was equalled by the simplicity of its govern- 
ment, and its power preserved its existence without 
allies. By virtue and independence they had got over 
all the intrigues which ' Cardinal Alberoni had excited 
against them ; and at the present time no power had tfat 
means or the inclination to disturb their tranquillity. 

The candidate for a diadem and an empire knew well, 
that whoever can be made to rely upon another, will be 
rendered unable to serve himself: in this view it appeared 
to the Regents ; but the proposition was corrupt, for it 
was impossible that so diminutive a state could speak its 
sentiments, surrounded by large armies; it temporised, 
and endeavoured, by flattering Napoleon, to prevail 
upon him to keep bis kindness to himself, and Itt then 


by Google 


Hit offered Friendship declined. 
■ ■ ■"'■"' --■"■» ■■'■ -- ■ - ' — 

The specious plan however did not answer the Gene- 
tal's expectations — ^they acknowledged the kindness of 
the Great Nation in thus noticing tbem^ but bid him tell 
the hero who sent him, that, satisfied with their medio- 
crity, they were afraid to accept the generous offer he 
had made of enlarging their territory, which might com- 
promise their liberty : that they felt the magnanimity of 
the conqueror of Italy, and would ever cherish the grati- 
tude they now experienced. 

This incident is far firom trifling, as it helps to unfold 
his character when it was little understood. Spite of the 
wisdom with wkioli these independent people had re- 
fused his offers, g*c|p his return from Tolentino, Bona- 
parte sent their state four pieces of cannon in the name 
of the French Republic, and directed a supply of corn, 
which they wished to purchase, to be delivered to them 

It is natural to remark, that the General had upwards 
of 1000 cannon he had no kind of occasion for, and that 
the state of Santa Marino had existed above a thousand 
years without feeling the want of them. Not so .the 
other part of the conqueror's generosity. A supply of 
com was a substantial good, which they had an occasion 
for, but their wish was to buy it, and they could afford 
to pay for it, better than those he pillaged could afford 
to part with it without money. Bonaparte would, how- 
ever, be generous ; yet the people of Marino ate his 
'' Dainties with reluctance, for they regarded them as 
deceitful meat." 

The General gained much fame from the literary 
world, by the means that he took to flatter the vanity of 
leanied men ; the village of Pietola b the ancient spot of 
Andes, where Virgil was bom, and was formerly part of 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Bonaparte asiittt his Family. 

the liberalities of Aagustus. It had probably suffered 
equally during the siege of Mantua as in the wars of the 
Triumvirate; but tbe conqueror of Italy was no lesrde* 
sirous of fame than Augustus : Virgil was in his recolleo* 
tion ; and Bonaparte gave orders, that the ancient patri« 
mony of the Mantuan Bard should be distinguished, and 
tiiat its inhabitants should be indemnified for all the losses 
they had sustained by the war« 

s • 


f Whilst Bonaparte was thus advancing bis fortune, his 
family seem to have been equally diligent His brothers, 
Joseph and Lucien, availed themselves of bis credit, and 
with Utile either of talents or property, obtained seats in 
the legislative body. Louis, his third brother, was ap- 
pointed a lieutenantrcolonel in the army of Italy, and 
Jerome, though a mere school-boy, was presented to the 
chief magistrates and people of France. Jt was perhaps 
policy that made t&e General appropriate a part of his im- 
mence riches towards raising his mother and sister firoio 
the mediocrity of their former station ; yet he is at least 
entitled to the merit of not having neglected a duty in 
tl^is instance; nor should it be forgotten, that he owes 
much of his success to the wise and judicious arrange- 
fnents of Madame Bonaparte, who kept his mind whoUl 
freed from domestic or family disappointments. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


- - ^^ ■ =aag=aaat 

The Arebdiike commaodt the Amtrian Army. 

The war lasted in Italy daring the winter. The det* 
traction of Alvinsi^s army making it neoesBary to fiwa 
another to cover the hereditary states^ the court of Vi« 
enna gave the command of this new army to the Arolh 
duke. His good fortnne on the Rhme, and the attach^ 
ment of the soldiery to his Royal Highness, gate every 
hope of success : but hk lanreb &ded before the formi* 
dable warrior he had to encomiten The weather, and Ao 
&tigae the troops had experienced, suspended further 
operations on the Rhme, Preparations were made for open* 
ing the campaign with decisive effect, and were hastened to 
second the invasfon^f Germany, wluch Bcmaparte medi- 
tated from the northern frontier of Italy. The army of tlio 
*3ainbre and Mouse was entrusted to the command of Oea. 
Hoche, while Moreau kept that of the army of the BUm 
and Moeslle. When Hoche assumed his command, lio> 
shewed tiie firmness of his mind by an act of wholesoiw 
severity ; he cashiered a great number of officers, and 
dismissed or arrested about one hundred commissariei» 
for extortions and dilapidations of various kinds, Ii^ 
Italy the greatest efforts were made to fornish the Arch* 
duke with a powerful army; and hostilities commenoed 
before Bonaparte made peace with the Pope. 

From the battle of Bivoli the anny of Italy occupied 
the banks pf the Piava and the Lavisio, while the Impe- 
rial army, under Prince Charles, held the opposite bank 
of the Piava, its centre behind the €ordeyoIe, and its 
rigfht supported by the Adige. On the 10th General 
Massena proceeded to Fehri,. and the Austrians evaca<r 
' ated CordcYole, and marched to Bellum. General Ser-r 
rurier^s division on the I2th crossed the Piava, opposito 
the village of Vidor, and having routed an Austrian 
^orps that opposed its passage^ advanced nqpidly to'St^ 





J ■ I - — . =m 

The FreBcb Army croia tbe Alpf. 

Salvador ; but the Austrians having inteUigence of that 
passage of the river, evacuated their caiiq> of La Cam* 
pana. (Greneral Massen^'s division having reached Bel- 
ham, pmnBued the Imperi^ists towards Cadore, ai^d ^or* 
jroonding their rear-gu^d, took 700 prisoners^ aipong 
whom was General Lasignan, who having disgraced hiph 
self by bis conduct towards the French sick at Brescia^ 
Jlpnaparte sent hini to France, withput (he liberty of be* 
jsg e:ichangedf \ 

• Tlie Directory had seconded every measure^to render 
pertain the success of Bonaparte, and procure a glorious 
pea€0 to the Republic. Whole divisipns were drawn from 
the armies on the Bhine, for Italy ; from the banks of 
this river they crossed part of the republic, and sur« 
mounted the barrier of thf Alps, till then thought imper* 
vious, but of which General Kellerman, by struggling 
against climate, the elements, and the seasons, had sue* 
i^eeded in maintaining the free passage. This march, the 
BMMt difficult ever effected on the continent by an armed 
isprps, during the winter season, without meeting any de- 
lay, and without being suspected, enabled them to contend 
in Carinthia with the men they had so often defeated oa 
the other side of the Rhine.. These reinforcements hav- 
ing joined the army of Italy, Bonaparte crossed the Tra- 
jamento, and shewed bis troops from the top of tb» 
None Alps, (a barrier, which no modem nation had 
hitherto passed), the basons of the Adriatic and of the 
Danube, in which last Vienna seemed to point out to 
them the object of their exploits. Scarcely had the caoH 
paign commenced, and scarcely in climates more fitvour* 
able would they have thought cf openidg it, when Bonih 
parte aU-e^dy threatened the states of Austria. Natoit 
was yet dormant in these black regions, when the inona^ 




Tke French take Gradisca. 

tains of the Tyrol and Carinthia were scaled. Prince 
Charles made a precipitate retreat^ very different from 
that of General Korean, who led back his army, parsned, 
but victorious, from the banks of the Danube to the bor- 
ders of the Rhine. 

General Serrurier advanced to Gradisca, filing along 
the heights that command the town. To prevent th« 
Imperialists from finding out this manoeuvre. General 
Bemadotte made the riflemen attack their entrenchments ; 
but the French soldiers adranced to the walls of Gradisca, 
where they were received by a very heavy discharge of 
musketry and grape-shot. Genera] Serrurier having 
gained the heights which commanded Gradisca, cut off 
every means of retreat to the garrison, who were also 
convinced of the inutility of defence. General Bema* 
dotte summoned the Austrian commandant to surrender 
in ten minutes. He observed, that the Governor had 
defended the town like a brave man, and gained the 
esteem of all military men by his conduct, and conclud- 
ed by informing him, that the grenadiers and chasseurs 
demanded loudly the assault. The Governor agreed to 
a capitulation, by which it was settled, that in a quarter 
of an hour after signing it the garrison should march out 
with all the honours of war, the olBScers keeping their 
swords, and to return home, on condition of not serving 
until exchanged. Three thousand prisoners, the flower 
of the army of Prince Charles, ten pieces of cannon, and 
eight standards, were the fruits of this operation. 

The taking of Gradisca had advantages of which the 
French General hastened to profit, and he issued a pro- 
clamation to the people of the province of Goritz, to 
prepare them for the expedition designed across their 


by Google 


The French tt^ll Tictorioni. 

On the 21st of march the French entered Goritz, tho 
Ajistrian army having retreated with such haste that thej 
abandoned 1500 sick, and all their magazines, which 
were taken possession of by the French. In these maga- 
zines were 680 casks of flour, each weighing three quin« 
tab, making in all 2040 quintals, besides what was iar- 
nished to the division of Bemadotte. 

General Guieux fell in with the Imperialists entrench- 
ed at Pufero, took two pieces of cannon and 100 prisoners, 
porsuing the rest into the defiles of Caporetto, as far as 
the Austrian La Chinse, leaving the field of battle covered 
with their dead. General Maasena approached Tarvis 
lirith his division; JBoniq>arte therefore hoped that i the 
2000 men whom General Guieux had pushed before htm» 
would fisdl into the hands of Massena. The General of 
division, Dugna, entered Trieste on the night of the 
23d. The French likewise got hold of the celebrated 
nines of Ydria, where they found much substance, and 
icarried it off m waggons. 

} General Massena on arriving at Tarvis, was attacked by 
an Austrian division from Chigenfurth, which had coow 
to assist the division that was surrounded ; but afler a 
hard conflict he put them to the rout^ taking a vast num- 
ber of prisoners, among whom were three Generals : the 
Emperor's cuirassiers, arrived from the Rhine, sufiereJ 
severely. Meanwhile General Guieux drove the colusui 
he had defeated ,at Pufero as far as Austrian La Cfaiosci 
a post well entrenched, but which was carried by assault 
General Kables, m person, defended La Chinse with 500 
^enadiers. By the laws of war these 500 men migU 
have been pujt to the sword, but this barbarous j-ight list 
always been disclaimed by the French. army. The hostile 
column, on finding La Chinse taken, fell into the middb 




More Staodardi tent to Paris. 

of the divisioB of General Massena, who made the whole 
of them prisoaers. Thirty pieces of camion, 400 wag- 
gons» 5000 men, and four generals, fell into the hands 
of the French. 

The division of Massena now oocnpied ihe defiles of the 
Hone Alps. The Imperialists had been so imprudent as 
to entangle in the Noric Alps all their baggage, and part 
of their army, which were of course taken. The battle 
at Tarvis was fought on a height which commands a yiew 
of Germany and Dalmatia. In many places to which the 
French line extended, the snow was three feet deep ; 
and the cavalry charging on the ice, sufiTered many acci* 

^***^0***-**» #^##i^#^^^#^»^^##^#«^^##^##«^#^^ 


The Directory wrote letters of thanks to each of th# 
Generals, and pointed out the service his division had 
rendered to its country ; the army answered these eulo- 
gies by meriting new ones* General Bonaparte sent to 
Paris twenty-four standards, twelve of which were taken 
from the troops of the Emperor in the late actions, and 
twelve from the forces of the Pope ; and the Adjutant* 
Oeneral Kellerman, who was wounded in a charge of 
cavalry, at the passage of the Tagliamento, was appoint^ 

VOL. I. — NO. 16. 3 B 




The Tyrol Mkmitt to the Fkench. 

ed to carry theoi. €reBeial Semirier ioon followed him 
with twenty-one Austriui and Venetian standards. 

Tke French column sent by Bonaparte to foree the 
submission of the Tyrol, and afterwards join him on the 
Drave, fulfilled their nissioD, and passed as conquerors 
a country which. Austria regarded as one of the strcngest 
bulwarks of her empire. The ditisions of Generals Jou- 
berty Baraguey d'HiilierSy and Dehnas surrounded an 
Austrian corps stationed on the Lavis. After an obstir 
nate engagement the French took 4000 prisoners, three 
pieces of cannon, and two standards, and killed nearly 
2000 men, most of whom were Tyrolean chasseurs. 

The enemy had manifested a disposition to maintain 
themselves on the Adige. General Joubert, with the 
division under his command, proceeded to Salurn. Ge- 
neral Vial passed the river to prevent the enemy from 
retreating to Botzen. The firing began with great 
wariKh, and General Dumas, who commanded the 
cavalry, pushed into the village of Tr^min, taking 000 
prisoners and two pieces of cannon. The wrecks of the 
Austrian column, under General Laudon, were unable 
to reach Botzen, and obliged to wander in the mountains: 
Joubert entered Botzen, and having detached a force to 
follow General Laudon, marched directly to Claufeo. 
The Imperialists availing themselves of the country made 
the best dispositions ; the attack was warm and well con- 
certed, and the issue long uncertain. The light infantry 
clambered up almost inaccessible rocks ; the centre of the 
Imperialists was penetreated, and obliged to give way, 
when the rout became general. In this action the French 
took 1500 prisoners. General Joubert arrived at Brixen, 
in pursuit of the Austrians, white General Dumas killed 
several of their dragoons with his own band, and received 




• Geoeial Clarke goci to VioBa and oiEen Peace. 

two slight cute of a sabre, his aid-de-caiap being at the 
same time dangeroasly woanded. At difiereat places 
the French found mi^;azine8 of eveiy kind, and 30,000 
qiuntab of flour. Through tbe whole of the Tyrol, Ca« 
rinthia, and Camiola, the Imperialists left behind them 
•their hospitids. 

Bonaparte pHUished a proclamation to tbe inhabitants 
of Carinthia, stating Aat the French army did not enter 
their country to conquer it, car to make any diange in 
4hehr religion,, manners, or customs; they were the 
fiiends of all nations, and particularly of the brave people 
of Germany* The Directory sent General Clarke to Vi« 
enna, as plenipottetiary, to negociate for peace; but 
the Imperial Court had declared it did not acknowledge 
the French Republic. General Clarke asked for a pass- 
port to go to the Emperor himself; bnt his miabters 
beaded that the moderation of the proposals which the 
General was charged to make, would induce his miyesty 
to conclude a peace. He invited them not to join in a 
contest against their sentiments, and to foraish such pro- 
visions as the French army might require ; declaring, 
that he would protect their religion, customs, and pro- 
perty, and not exact any contribution. Tbe imposts the 
inhabitants had paid the Emperor, would indemnify them 
for the losses attending the march of the French amy, 
and for whatever they might furnish. ) 

During this campaign Prince Chiles lost nearly 20,000 
men taken prisoners, and was now drivim from the Vene- 
tian territories ; frcmn the Higher and Lower Camiola, 
Carinthia, the district of Trieste, and the whole of the 
Tyrolese. Near Villach the French found a magaane of 
cast iron, cartridges, and powder, and mines of lead, 

8 B 2 


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Booaparte writes to the Archduke. 

Steel, iron, and copper ; and near Claffenfurth they found 
manufactories of arms uid cloth. 

On the 1st of April the division of General Massena, 
*;fonning an advanced guard, encountered the Imperialists 
in the defiles between Freisach and Neumark ; thoir rear* 
guar^was pursued by the French so rapidly, that the 
Archduke was compelled to bring back from his line of 
btfttle eight battalions of grenadiers, those who had taken 
Kehl, and who were now the hope of the Austrian army. 
The combat, which was between the flower of the Aus- 
train army and the veteran troops of the army of Italy, 
was one of the most furious that had bi^pened during the 
war. The Imperialists had a grand position, crowded 
with cannon ; but it protracted for a short time the 
defeat of their rear-guard ; their grenadiers were totally 
routed, leaving the field of battle covered with their dead, 
and firom five to six hundred prisoners. The Austrians 
defiled during tlie night, and the French entered Neu- 
mark, their head quarters being advanced the same day 
to Freisach. Here they found 4000 quintab of flour, and 
a quantity of brandy and oats ; they found also about tha 
same quantity of stores at Neumark. 

Credit is due to the French Greneral, that beings as he 
-was, on the point of arriving under the walls of Vienna, 
where a probable success might have given him the power 
of overturning for ever the throne of the house of 
' Austria, he should have offered pea^eu From his head- 
quarters at Clagenfurth, Bonaparte wrote to Priooe 
Charles. He telb him that hostilities had lasted for six 
years, and that all the continent but Austria bad made 
peace ; that the Executive Directory expressed its wish 
to bis Imperial Majesty to end the contest,, but that ti^esi 



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The Arebdnke*! Aniwer. 

overtures were defeated by the British-— he urges him to 
peace, and says he should be prouder of the civic crown 
due from his overture, than of all the glory likely to result 
from the most brilliant military exploits. ^ 

The Archduke replied, that though he made war, yet 
he wished for peace ; that in the state in which he was 
placed it did not rest with him to terminate the quarrebi, 
of tiie contending powers, but that he must wait for 
superior orders on so weighty a concern ; and that, what- 
ever may be the result, he begs the General to accept of 
Us esteem and consideration. 

While the French troops were on their march to Frei- 
each, the Archduke, by an aid-de-camp, requested a sus* 
pension of arms for four hours ; this was inadmissible \ 
as in four hours he would have joined General Spork, ta 
prevent which Bonaparte had hastened his march botk 
night and day. « 

In Vienna the most \iolent orders followed each other, 
with a rapidity tending to increase the alarm. Many 
withdrew themselves firom the horrors of a siege and left 
the town ; and though a number appeared ready to rally 
round the monarch, and unite to defend the country, ht 
could not be much encouraged by an attachment, whicli, 
had cost so dear to the noble volunteers of Vienna, who 
had faced the ahny of Italy to meet with death or surren* 
der prisoners. In vain was Prince Charles at the head of 
the Imperial armies ; he had been still more unfortunate 
than his predecessors, and every thing expected from hii 
talents had deceived their ultimate hopes. 

Bonaparte changed his head-quarters to Judenburg, 
and prepared for decisive measures ; but Lieutenant- 
General the Count dt BeOegarde, and Major-General 
Jtfonreldt wrote to him, und stated, that his Imperial 





An Armistice between the Fraieb and Aottriant. 

Majesty wished to coacnr in tenmnaiting a war that deso- 
lated the two nations. Frook the overture nade by the 
French General to Prince Chaiiea, the Emperor had de« 
pvted them to know the CreaeraTs proposals oa a matter 
cf snch importance. Persuaded of the desire and inten- 
tions of the two powers to end this dtsastroos war, las 
Iloyal Highness desired a saqpensiom of anas for ten days 
to facilitate the attainment of so desirable an object. 

Bonaparte replied to this applicoitioiiy timt, viewing 
Ihe position of the two armies^ a suspension of arms was 
disadvantageous to the French ; but if it opened a road 
to peace, so beneficial to the two nations, be would con- 
tent without hesitation to their request. The French Re- 
public had oAm evinced to his Majesty her wish to pi^ 
an end to this contest ; she was «tiH the same, and he did 
not doubt, from the conference he had wilb them, ftat 
peace would be at length re-established between the Be* 
public and his Majesty. 

The condition of the armistice entered inio by the 
French General and the Archduke on the 7th, provided, 
that there should be a suspension of arms between the 
French and Imperial armies, calculating firom the even- 
ing of fhe 7th to that of the 13(k By the second article 
the French' were to retain the following line :— The ad* 
Tanced posts of the right wing to keq;> possession of the 
position tiiey then occupied between Finme and Trieste^ 
and this line to be extended as far as Bastadt andlients. 
It was also stipulated that the suspension of arms should 
extend to the T^ol ; and that the Oenerab commanding 
the troops in that quarter should regulate together the 
posts they were severally to occupy. Hmrtiiilies wers 
not to take place in the l^rol until twenty-four hoais 
tdler the General in Chief should have resolved on it, and 



AND WARS ov £tmops. S76 

Fresll Eiicag«meDtf take place. 

in any case not until twonty*four hoars after the genetab 
commanding the Rrench and Imperial troops in the Tyrol 
should ho informed of the eiromnstanee* 

IVevions to tiie conelusion of this armistice the cam- 
jpoigii on the Bliino had beeaeommencedy General Hocho 
mforming General Wen|ecky that the armistice betweea 
the advanced posts was to cease en the IGth ; a similar 
notice was given by General Moreau to the Austrian con* 
mander on the Upper Rhine. Genera] Kray, who com- 
manded the left wing of the Austrian army, on the idea 

' that a convention was agreed on in Carinthia, requested 
permission io send an officer with powers to conclude 
an armistice. Hoche demanded the evacuation of the 
Lahn, and the cession of Ehrenbreitstein ; but the 
Imperial General thinking that the situation of the 
two armies did not authorise this, the conference was 

The Austrian left occupied a position ifa firotit of the 
bridge of Neuwied, having its right supported by the 

" village of Hotterdorf, and its left resting on Bendorf. 
The strength of the entrenchments presented a very for* 
mtdable aspect, and did honour to the veteran abilities of 
Creneral Kray. The Imperialists began the action with a 
lively cannonade, but the French infantry carried the vil« 
lage and the line of redoubts with fi^ed bayonets. The 
cavalry now decided the battie, and the Imperialists, 
thrown into disorder, were forced to retreat, leaving 
all the cannon of their batteries, several field-pieces 
and ammunition waggons, besides the principal part 
of their baggage, three or four standards, and 4000 

The Austrians had drawn a reinforcement of twenty or 
thirty thousand men from the Rhine, and sent them to 




The ArmtsUoe beoomet genenU* 

Italy. This weakened the Swabian line, and assisted 
General Moreaii, who effected the passage of the river by 
« coup de main. In the night of the 19th a body of 
troops crossed to the right bank in boats, sacceeded in 
re-establishing the bridges, by which the rest of the army 
passed the river, and commenced offensive operations. 
Several engagements took place daring the day, bat the 
Imperialists were defeated, and pursued to Offenburg ; 
and in the evening the RepabUcan flag waved on the bas* 
tious of that Kehl, which a French garrison, the year 
before, defended against the Austrian army. The Aus- 
trians lost almost every thing. Five French Generals 
were wounded; and, from the resistance made by the 
Im{>erialists, the loss of the Republican army was very 

Happy for the countries threatened with being the 
theatre of war, the suspension of arms between Austria 
and France saved them from the like calamities they 
sustained the last campaign, and promised to restore the 
repose of the continent. Bonaparte sent a courier with 
the news, who reached Gener^ Moreau's head-quarters in 
the night, and hastened along the French line to the head- 
quarters of General Hoche. A line of dcmarkation was 
agreed on, and a friendly intercourse established between 
the two «atiops« 


by Google 

i»tk WARS OF EUROPE. 377 

A French Deticbment laodi in Wales. 


' If the efforts of France w«re crowned with success upon 
the continent, nothing ever equalled the misfortunes that 
befel her exertions on the ocean ; and, even in port, the 
fthips of that nation were not always safe ; for such was 
the ardour of tlie English sailors^ that they often attacked 
^nd cut out vessels from under the batteries* On one* 
occasion only did the French gain a partial triumph in a 
similar attempt ; the coast of Devonshire was on the 22d 
o\ February thrown into alarm by the appearance of three • 
frigates, which entered the small harbour of Iliracombe, 
scuttled some merchant sliips, and attempted to destroy 
some other vessels. From this they soon departed, stand- 
ing across the channel towards Pembrokci They were . 
found to consist of two frigates and two smaller vessels^ 
steering from the British channel to turn St. David's 
head ; from whence they steered towards Fishguard^ and 
came to an anchor in a small bay, where they hoisted 
French colours and put out their boats. 

Near Fishguard they effected a debarkation on the 
morning of the 23d, when numbers of them traversed 
tlie country in search of provisions, plundering the houses 
they found abandoned^ but offered little molestation to 
the inhalbitants, who remained in their dwellings. This 
handful of invaders surrendered, however, to .Liordv 
ipawdor, at the head of about 660 men^ consisting of vo« 
innteers, * fencibles, and yeomen cavalry, rcmforced by a 
* VOL u — NO* 16. 8 c 

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Graod Na^al Adimi otf Cape St. Vidctet. 

Multitude of colliers, who augmented bis numbers^ with* 
out iucreasing his strength. 

When the frigates had completed the debarkation, they 
sailed for the coast of France, but. were captured on the 
9th of the ensuing month by the St. FIbrenzo and Nymphe 
bigates. They proved to be la Resistance, of 48 guns, 
and la Constance, of 24. The men landed were thought 
by some to be insurgents from La Vendee, whose princi* 
pies made it dangerous to place confidence in them. 
Others supposed them to be gally-slaves, and criminab 
collected from the prisons of Brest, and landed by way of 
insult, as if the French ^goverment meant to billet them 
en the enemy. This last received countenance from tha 
'debates in the French councils, who censured the minis- 
ter of maritie, and charged him with planning this mea* 
sure ; yet it is not entitled to believe, when we listen to 
the officer commanding the expedition, who declared he 
bad with him 600 of the best troops in France, veteraa 
and experienced soldiers. 

On the 14th of February a memorable action took 
place off Cape St. Vincent, between a squadron of 
British sliips of Var, under the command of Admiral 
Sir John Jervis, and a Spanish fleet, commanded by 
Don Joseph de Cordova. The difference between tht 
fleets was very great, the British being no more than fif- 
teen sail of the line, four frigates, a sloop of war,, and a 
cutter ; whilst the Spanish fleet consisted of twenty-sevea 
aail of the hne, and twelve frigates, the enemy's forc^ 
being more than twice the metal of the British Adoursl. 
The Spanish fleet Was perceived by the Minerva frigater 
on the night of the 11th, carrying tiie pendant of Com- 
Niodora N^on, on his Way to join A4miral Jfarvit, and 


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Defeat oethe Spaniih Fleet by Sir John Jervlt. 

OD the 18th they were bo near the British fleet that their 
«giial gauB were diitiactlj beard. 

The fleet nnder Sir John Jenrii recdred sisals to be 
ready for battle, and next moniing they were in perfect 
order. A liUJe past six the CaUoden gave notice of five 
aaU of the eneniy lying to the sonHi-wesI ; the fleet waa 
therefore directed to form in close order, and soon after 
M signal was made to prepans for an ragagement. The 
British Admiral made a signal to break the enemy's Iine» 
and sncceeded in passing through it Commodore Nel- 
son, in the Captain, of 74 engaged the Santissima Trim- 
^bda, supposed to be the largest j^np in the wtrld, though 
he was at the same time attacked by two other three- 
fleckers; he was, however, soon assisted. The Spanish 
41eet retreated in mndi confiision ; foar ^ thieir vessels 
were taken, the Sidvador del Mundo and San JTosef, of 
112 guns each, the San Nicholas, of 84, and San hiiro, 
of 74. The British loss is Mated at 800 men killed and 
wounded; while llie four captured ships lost 683. 

Sir John^Jervis displayed great skill and iovincibla 
courage during tins action, for he had to engage a fleet 
neariy twice as numerous as his own, and with more than 
twice his metaL The enemy discovered no wish to renew 
the contest, but went into port, and were blocked up by 
their gallant conqneror. The British ministry had not 
the news of ^tUs victory long heibre Sir John jTervis 
was created a British peer, under the title of Eari St. 

lliis victory enconraged the British Admhral to fit out 

an expedition agamst TeneriSe, to be commanded by the 

intrepia Nelson, now a rear-adnural. The squadron 

easily got possession of Sabta Cms, bnt the Spaniards 

8 c 2 



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Failure of the British at Tenerifie^Trinidad taken by tbe Bridih. 

came down in such numbers, that the British were oblige 
ed to betake to their ships in the best manner tiiey could. 
Admiral Nelson lost his right arm by a cannon hall, and 
Captain Bowen, with his first lieutenant, and the whole 
of the boat's crew, went to tbe bottom, a shell felling 
into the boat while they were rowing to the shore. The 
loss of the British amounted to near 900 killed and wound- 
ed, a carnage little inferior to tbe memorable 14th of 

Sir J. B. Warren discovered a French frigate in Ho- 
dierne Bay, with fourteen transports, laden with stores 
for the na^y of France. The British Commodore cap- 
tured eight, destroyed two, and drove on shore the con- 
voy frigate, called the Calliope. A corvette was driven 
on shore on the 11th, and a gun^boat was sunk at the en- 
trance into the bay of Sables d'Olonne, by tbe same nar 
valoffioer; and on the 27th he took five more prizes, 
near the mouth of the Garonne, richly laden with mili- 
tary and naval stores for the ships of war and privateers 
in the neighbouring harbours. 

This year was memorable for the reduction of Trini- 
dad, taken by the British troops under that lamented 
olBcer Sir Ralph Abercrombie, who went out with a 
squadron commanded by Rear-Admiral Harvey. The 
forces for this expedition were embarked at Fort Kojal, 
Martinique. Four days after the British came in sight 
of Trinidad,' standing towards the Oulph of Paria. The 
Spanish squadron was seen at anchor in Shagramus Bay, 
c<H)sisting of four sail of the line and one frigate. Next 
anorning the squadron of the enemy was disco ^red on 
fire, and aU of them except one were consumed t» ashea. 
•This fortunate change enabled the General to torn hk 
Vrhole attention to the attack of the town, which he be- 


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Attack OD Porto Rico^Matiny io theNsry. 

" ' - ■■■■'■ J 

came master of with little or no opposition. A oapitula- 

iion was next entered on by the Governor, and the wholo 

island surrendered to the King of Great Britam. 

An attempt made npon Porto-Bico, was not accom- 
panied with eqnal success. Admiral Harvey's fleet 
reached Porto- Bico, and anchored at Oongrejos Point. 
Tie troops under the command of Sir Balph Abercrombie 
were landed next morning, and met with little opposition 
from about 100 men ; but the town was strongly fortified, 
and the reduction of it appeared hopeless. After it was 
bombarded ibr some days without success, the General 
embarked his troops, having lost about 200 men. On 
arriving at Barbadoes, General Abercrombie told the 
Council, he was desired to raise some regiments of ne- 
groes, to be purchased from the different islands belong- 
ing to Great Britain. This was warmly opposed, from 
the idea that it was dangerous to arm the negroes. 

When the British navy was thus gloriously defendmg 
the empire, the sailors made a hostile demand upon their 
own Government, for enough of comfort and pay to en- 
able them to perform their duties. Earl Howe received 
letters in the month of February, from the crews of di& 
ferent ships, praying his Lordship to use his influenoa 
with Goveroment to grant them redress: but he con- 
sidered complaints coming from such persons wholly be« 
neath his notice. This was not forgotten by the sailors, 
on their return to port on the 31st of March, when their 
correspondence was diffused through the fleet, and a re- 
solution adopted, that they would never put to sea till 
they had accomplished their object. Matters continued 
thus till the 14th of April, when Lord Bridport was 
ordered to sail with the Channel fleet 

On Lord Bridport making the signal to put to scia« ha 







AlafHiiBir Aspeot of Ifae MwtiDj at PorUaoatlig— 

ftfHid M« ttuthority despiiaedlf ttod the diipt imwrning tbeir 
]rcr4« Md gtving iond ^heers^ left Uai »• hmmi to doubt 
—the best ordor iroi mmltiied, and diey diew up pe* 
titfM» nvibtck they presented im the Adnink present 
stotinif the exXenft of their demands as )o wfiges and pro* 
^isMW— -and they trusted their fequest would be taken 
into coBsideratiiHi befiire they were efdered to seaagyib^ 
iniless tfNS eiietny were haown to boot sea* 

li«rd Spencer anived at PortsMoolh in order to break 
fteir eonbinatkni — ^tho delegates fitHn the ships net on 
board Ihe Queen Charlotte, and after some prelimimMry 
natters liord Bridpoit ioU them be hod procured a fiiU 
pardon for ail inplioated, and they aU retanod to their 
ihity— 4mt Mr. Pitt, when iie aoLOvod an increase of paj^ 
ondtting to spectfy in Parlianiait his reason for such an 
application, this was considered by the seamen as a proof 
he did not mean to comply, and wh«B the signal was made 
io put to sea Ac whole fleet evinced their former dis- 

Admiral Colpoys resolved to hinder the delegates from 
coming on board the London, .and ordered the marines to 
fire ; bnt tiie crew of that ship pointed their guns aft od 
<be officers, and they were obliged reluctantly to sor- 

The mutiny, still confined to Portsmouth, assumed a 
BMst alanomg aspect ; and Lord Howe came with iiill 
powers to settle the disputes between Government and 
Ike sailors* He had with him an act of parliament, passed 
on Ike 0th, granting an additional idlowance, and the 
prdoo of his Majesty to all sudi as should immediately 
fetnm to Aeir duty and allegiance* The hi^pieet efieets 
were evident ; the delegates wenttotheGovemor^shoiiiO 
at Pcrtsmonth, and afterwards in processiim to the fleets 




and at (be Nore— Parker executed. 

aocompaincd by Lord Howe and his Lady, and a Dumbet 
of pe]iA>ii8 of distitootioB. Hie matinous flag was strack^ 
and the fleet made ready for patting to sea« 

No sooner had the spirit of mutiny ceased at Parts^ 
mouth, than the pleasure was turned into consteniafiap 
by a firesh mutiny in another quarter. The fleet in tlio 
North Sea and the ships at the Nore, insisted on the re** 
dress of other grievances. They appointed i BicharA 
Parker thek president, and eonflned cr sent ashore their 
principal officers. Many of their demands were looked 
on as totally inadmissible, and Government insisted on 
submission. A deputation from the Lords of the Admi- 
ralty went to Sh^^mess, and demanded unqualified sub- 
mission ; this was answered by insolence and rebellion. 
Desertion to the enemy was proposed, which was strongly 
rejected by Parker and others. The greatest loyalty waa 
shewn on the 4th of Jane in oelelnfaling his MajestyV 
birth-day. Some of the ships under the command of Ad- 
miral Duncan joined the mutineers at the Nore ; they 
then amounted to twenty^four sail ; the officers in many 
eases were allowed to mix with the men, and at last pre- 
iFailed on the greater body of them to desert tlieir dele- 
gatas. Piroclamation was issued in the King's name, 
Unreatening those who continued m the mutiny with ven- 
geance ; and they withdrew by degrees, till at last Parker 
was seised, delivered up, and sent to Maidstone to take 
Bis trial. He was condemned to die, and executed on 
board the Sandwich ; he bore his fate with great magna- 

:. Hm Dutch patriots had paid the French a'laige sum ta 
assist fliem in driving the Prince of Omnge out, and now 
^y oflSnred double that sum if they would tak« the&H 
a4lre0 MTI Bat Hennrar was too weU lodged to dumgo 





Bonaparte eomplains of VeDioe. 

Us quarters; yet he had no objection to the civilities 
tendered to him^ to aflTord the Batavian chiefs an oppor- 
tunity of shewing their good-nature. Bodies of troops 
*were marched into Holland, half starved and half naked, 
and when they were fed and olothed, were sent off, to 
make way for a fresh devouring race. The balance of 
accounts was every where struck between the old govern- 
ment and the new ; and •very person found, in a com- 
parison of comforts and advantages, that he had lost fiftT 
'^l^r.cent by the change. 


Bonaparte kept the revolutionary spirit alive in Urn 
south, but his were revolutions of power, not of principles. 
He had complained of the Venetian government favoo^ 
ing the Austrians, and acting treacherously towards his 
troops ; which a few may allow to be true, but otbei^ . 
may indulge some doubts, when they see the General 
take upon himself at once the character le Jugeet U 
Bapifreau. " Whatf said the General, in a letter to 
the Doge, '' did you think I would tamely suffer the inafr* 
saores excited by the Venetian Government? The blood 
of our brethren in arms," Continued, he '' shall be avei^** 
od.; and there is not a French batt^dion, charged^ widl: 
Aii vuiaion^ which does not feel three times the couisgt* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Maoifesto published ai^ainst Venice. 

and strength necessary to punish you< — the Republic of 
Venice has returned the blackest perfidy for the generous 
treatment she has received from France." He informed, 
his Serenity, that if he did not instantly adopt measures 

Jto arrest and deliver up, within twenty-four hours, the 
persons who, it was said, had assassinated some French 
soldiers^ war was declared. 

The Senate published a groclamation relative to thest . 
complaints ; their conduct, they said, had always been, 
and still was, so perfectly friendly towards the bellige- 
rent powers, and they did not think it necessary to pay 
any attention to the evil- disposed persons, who question- 
ed their sincerity : but as these enemies of tlie repubUc 
had spread the vilest slanders agains^t the sincerity of the 
Venetian Government, the Senate declared that their 
friendship witli France was not in the least altered ; the 
Senate, therefore, had no doubt but the French nation 
would repose that confidence in the republic of Venice 
which it had merited by its irreproachable conduct. 

On the 3d of May the General issued a manifesto, 
stating, that while the French were far advanced from 
Italy, and the prmcipal estabUshments of the aimy, the 
Venetian Government had armed 40,000 peasants, who, 
with ten regiments of Sclavonians, were organized into 
battalions, and sent to intercept, all communication be- 
tween tlie army and Lombardv. MiUtary stores were sent 
from Venice to complete the organization of these corps : 
his couDlrymen were grossly insulted and driven from 
that city, and offices given to those who had presided at 

^ the massacre of Frenchmen. The people of Padua, Vi- 
cenza, and Verona, were ordered to take up arms« to 
•econd the regular troops, omd at last to commence the 
new Sicilian vespers ; while the Venetian officers asserted 

TOt, I.— NO, 17. 8 t 

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Venice sobmitt to France. 

that it belongW to the Lion of St Hark to verify the Pro- 
verb, that " Italy is the grare of the French." The 
priests preached a cmsade ; and the priests in the state 
of Venice utter only the will of government The 6e'> 
neral then gives a detail of the assassinations committed 
in die towns and in the coontry. In this moomfiil list 
is the massacre of the sick in the hospitals at Verona, 
where 400 Frenchmen, he said, were thrown into the 
Ad^e. He required the French minister to leave Venice, 
and directed the generals of division to treat as enemies 
the troops of the Venetian Government, and trample in 
tiie dost the Lion of St Marie. 

The battalions, to inflict a signal vengeance on Venice, 
began tboir march,, and in a few days the whole Terra 
Fiiraa lay at the feet of the conqueror. Hie Veronese 
were punished with the greatest severity ; several thoa-- 
sands of armed peasantry, who contested the progress of 
the French divisions, were cut. in pieces, or dispersed. 
A body of Sclavonians, who had joined them, retired to 
a largo building or fort,, where was deposited, all their 
powder waggons and ammunition. This was soon blown 
into the air, and 500 Sclavopians literally annihilated ! 
The French detachment reached Verona, which imme- 
diately surrendered. 

The Venetian Government was now humble and ab- 
ject : it was resolved that the government should suspend 
all its fonctions, and that the republic should accept a 
provisional government from France. It was also decreed, 
that the magistrates of whom the French complained 
should be delivered up to be punished. A body of 
French troops took possession of the city, when a muni* 
cipality was modelled, and every thing formed on the de- 
mocratic regime. The liberty of the press (i. e.) a right 




Gen6a formed into the Lignrian Republic 

to praise Bonaparte and this government) was established, 
the Catholic religion was unaltered, and persons and pro- 
perty unmolested ; but the ships of war, and the stores 
in the arsenal, were taken possession of in the name of 
tlie French Republic. 

Genoa was attacked upon much the same grounds : 
that country, considering its vicinity to France, and the 
presence of the Republican army, could not escape that 
epirit of innovation which had electrified the rest of Eu- 
rope.' The French government pretended that it did not 
•punish the Genoese nobility for the aid they afforded the 
Imperial army when in their neighbourhood, and tlieir 
attention to the partisans of Austria. The people of 
Genoa bad imbibed the prinoiples of democratical liberty, 
and tumults had arisen between them and the adherents 
of the old government. This silly government unable 
to stem the torrent, sent beputiea to Bonaparte at Mon- 
tebello, where a convention was concluded on the 6th of 

The government of the Genoese Bepnblio acknowledg- 
ed the sovereignty to reside in the body of the citizens 
of its territory. The legislative power was entrusted to 
two representative councils, md ^e executive delegated 
to a senate often members, to be nominated by the coun- 
cils. Municipalities were established in the communes 
and districts, on the model of France, and a committee 
was charged with framing a constitution, and all the laws 
of the republic, with the reserve of doing nothing con- 
trary to the Catholic religion. The provisional govern- 
ment was to extinguish faction, grant general amnesty, 
and unite the people in rallying round the publio liberty. 
France agreed to give her protection, and even the assis- 
tance of its armies, to the Genoese republic, to facilitate, 

3 D 2 

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liord Malmesburj arrives at Lisle. 

if necessary, the execution of these articles, and main* 
tain the integrity of the territory of the repablic. This 
new modeUed aflfair was baptised ** Ligurian Republic.'* 

The negociations did not proceed with the activity 
chfu-acterising Bonaparte's measures ; but lie was busily 
employed in consolidating the new republics which his 
victories had founded in Italy. The Bolognese» Ferra- 
rese, Modenese, tind Romagna, were incorporated with 
Lombardy, and the Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics 
completely organized. 

Peace now seemed necessary, and fresh overtures were 
made to the French Government. 

Lord Malmesbury was again appointed plenipotentiai^ 
for Great Britain, and arrived at Lisle in the beginning 
of July. He exchanged his powers, and had his first 
conference on the 8th of that month, when he delivered 
in what bis court conceived to be the basis of negociation 
— tlie leading points of which were, that the state of the 
two countries before the war should be adopted as a pror 
per basis, every conquest to be restored not excepted by 
the present treaty ; and every conquest made by the 
British given up, except the islands of Trinidad, Ceylon, 
and the Cape of Good Hope. It was expected that the 
eSects of the Stadtholder should be restored, or some- 
thing given as a compensation for the loss of his heredii* 
tary dignities. No objection could be made to the pro- 
ject of the English Government ; it was perfectly liberal, 
and bore every mark of moderation and frankness ; but 
the majority of the French * Directory were little-minded 
men, who were used to such a habit of quibbling, that 
they could not discern the point where their true inter 
rests lay. 

Tfhe title of King of France, which the Kings of £ng^ 




II m 

Discastions of the Pleoipoteotiaries. 

land had borne ever since Henry the Vlth was crowned 
^t Rheims, they strongly objected to, and declared that 
the English could never be looked on as acknowledging 
tbe Republic till it was abolished. Tliey required com- 
pensation for the ships taken or destroyed in the port of 
Toulon, which was founded on a pretence, that they could 
only be kept by Britain as a deposit till the Republic was 
acknowledged ; and this being done, they were to restore 
them, or grant an indemnification. It was required of 
the British Ambassador to declare, whether his Oovern- 
ment had any mortgage upon the Low Countries, for the 
monies advanced to the Emperor, as the French Goveiii- 
ment would fulfil no such condition. Lord Malmesbury 
replied, ** That he was sure peace on such terms would 
not be accomplished." He used every argument to con- 
vince them of the error of introducing such topics so pre- 
maturely ; for, as the Directory had given no opinion of 
the leading principles of his object, it would be wrong 
to throw obstacles in the way of the negociation, ]^by 
such trifling diflRculties. As individuals, the ministers 
might feel his Lordship's reasoning, but their instruc* 
tions were so positive and precise, that they were forced 
to insist upon those points ; they, therefore sent for fur- 
ther instructions, which occasioned a great delay. Lord 
Malmesbury, on the I2th of August, was informed by- 
one of the Republican envoys, that the delay arose from 
the necessity of consulting with the Allies of tbe Republic, 
and that they would receive their final instructions in the 
course of a few days. On the 28th his Lordship was in^- 
formed, that the answer returned by Holland was so un- 
satisfactory, that it' was sent to the Dutch Ministers at 
Paris, who could not alter it to the wishes of the Direc* 


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Imponance of the NegochUton. 

tory without applying to their own government for fredi 

Important as the negociation would have been at any 
other time, the attention of all classes of people was so 
entirely engrossed in the contemplation of a violent con- 
flict that was evidently about to take place between the 
If'gislative and executive bodies at Paris, that scarcely 
any interest was taken in its progress, and few persons 
expected any advantages from its conclusion. The con- 
cussion now rapidly about to take place could not Ml to 
paralyze the resolutions of the Directory ; and the possi- 
bility of their overthrow left them undecided as to the 
ground upon which they should treat; nor could tha 
British Cabinet be more desirous of hastening the conclu- 
sion of a treaty, which might be disavowed by a new go* 
vernment in the course of a week* 

The public attention was now directed to Paris more 
snxiously than ever, and particularly so, as the world in 
general was wholly ignorant of the matters in dispute be- 
tween tbe different branches of the Government What- 
ever were the real and absolute designs of the contending 
parties, it is possible that they lie buried in the breasts of 
siNne few persons, who have not yet disclosed them to the 
public ; but as far as a close attention to passing eventSi 
and an impartial observation of the conduct and jnannen 
of the different persons concerned, will lead to a just de- 
ciMD» they were only such as a moderate share of pra- 
dmoe and good humour would have rendered subsern* 
Mftto thi$ cause of hberty. 

The spirit of moderation enabled a number of moderati 
aseu to obtain seats in the councils : those were anxioni 
to repair the evils which the violence of tiie revolutioB 


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Several Membert •rrested and sent to Cayeone. 

had occasioned* The re-estabiisbment of the Catholic 
religion, and the recal of the Emigrants, were objects 
they were resolved to effect, but the Directory looked oa 
those measures as incompatible with the duration of the 
Republic, and the existence of their own power. It was 
reported that a conspiracy was formed to establish roycdtyg 
and each of the parties made the same charge on its an- 
tagonist. The legtslatprs avowed, that if the wish of 
tlie people was to have royalty estabUshed, it ought to be 
restored ; and the Directory maintained that an attempt 
to take the public opinion upon such a question deserved 
the punishment doe to treason* The representatives of 
the people maintahM^, that if they oonldnot discuss every 
subject with equal freedom, the name of liberty was « 
mere mocLeiy ; and that a govemm^ent which suppressed 
firee discussion, whether they called themselves Republic 
cans or Royalists, were in fact tyrants ! The repres^ita- 
lives charged the Directory with wishing to establish the 
sovereign power in their own hands, and the Directory 
charged the representatives with a design to betray their 
constituents,by restoring Louis the XVIilth to the throne. 
The executive pow^ showed a determination to overawe 
the -councils by an armed force, and the legislators re- 
solved Uiat their dehberations should de free and unmo- 
lested, llie principles of the representatives were justi- 
fied both by reason and the laws ; but the Directory cui«^ 
tected a large armed force round Paris, contrary to the 
jprohibition of the constitution, and sonrounded the Le- 
gislative body, and picked out every representative who 
differed from them in opinion. General Augereau, who 
was to execute this despotic measure, conducted Pich^ 
gnk, the president of the Council of Five Hundred, and 
all the cthei* obnoxious. representatives, to the Teaiple, 


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Lord M.^fmesbory ordered to leiTe Lisle. 

from whence Ihey were - transported, without even th« 
form of any process in the shape of a public accasatico* 
Amongst those ordered for transportation were two of the 
Five Directors* Carnot made his escape, but the other 
Director (Barthelemy) with Pichegru, Willot, and sixty 
others, were sent off as exiles to Cayenne. 

The temper of the Directory with regard to tlie neg<K 
ciation, was nt>t long concealed after their triumph ; their 
ambassadors, wh6 had acceded to the principle of tlra^ 
treaty as laid down by the British Government, were re- 
called from Lisle, and two others substituted in tbeff 
place. These new ambassadors informed Lord Malmes- 
bury, that their powers were very eitensive, and hopc<I 
the business would be terminated in a short time, if his 
powers were as ample. On the 15th he was asked whethef 
he was possessed of powers which might enable him iff 
agree on the restitution of every possession taken from 
France or her Allies, and on being answered in the nega- 
tive, the French minister read a decree of the Directorj, 
by which he was ordered to depart in twenty<>four hoars, 
and fetch tlie necessary qualifications. Thus was the dsh 
tion a second time insaited in the person of its aAibassa- 
dor, by a government, whose captured possessions the 
English Government could have sold for a sum equal to 
its own national debt. 

As the Irish were making great efforts to procure aox* 
^liaries from France, and the Batavian Republic had bees 
making preparations for some naval expedition, the fleet 
under Admiral Duncan had blockaded the Texel tbo 
greater part of the summer. The English Admiral bal- 
ing left his station and proceeded to Yarmouth Boaih* 
Admiral de Winter, with the Dutch fleet, put losefc 
Captain TroUope, in the Russel, of 74 guns^ with a ta/ai 




Ses Fifht off the Cooit of Holland. 

squadron, was left to watch the enemy ; and on the 9th of 
October, a signal was made to Admiral Duncan off Yar- 
mouth Roads, that the enern/s fleet was at sea. The 
British fleet got under sail with astonishing rapidity. 
Captain Trollope's small squadron was perceived on the 
morning of the Utb with signals flying, to intimate that 
an enemy's fleet was to leeward. The fleet under the 
command of Admural de Winter, consisted of four ships 
of 74 guns, five of 68, two of 64, four of 56, and two of 
44 guns. Admural Duncan gave the signal for engaging, 
and was obeyed with the atmost alacrity, Vice- Admiral 
Onslow, in the Monarch, bearing down upon the rear of 
the enemy. Before one o'clock the battle commenced, 
when the British fleet broke the line of the enemy, and 
made it impracticable for them to reach the Texel, the 
land being about seven miles distant. Although all the 
masts of De Winter's ships went by the board, he only" 
struck' his coloiuaC^Fhen overpowered by numbers : it is 
aaid that not an officer was left upon the quarter-deck of 
the Dutch flagnship, but the Admiral himself, the whole 
of them being either killed or wounded. The Vice- Ad- 
miral's ship lost all her masts about tlie same time, and 
accordingly struck to Admiral Onslow's division. Before 
three o'olodL more of the enemy's fleet surrendered ; but 
Itt Admiral Duncan found himself no more than five 
jailes off the land, he was wholly employed in getting the 
disabled ships off the shore, and oould not ascertain the 
Aumberof prizes; and, as the wind blew strong on the 
land, tiie fleet was scattered, and some of the Dutch ships 
that had struck were enabled to effect their escape. The 
prises were eight ilups of the line, two of 56 guns, and 
MO of 44 ; the Delft of 56 guns foundered in ftight of the 
BritiA eoasC Mil a frigato f^ Iras kit A more san? 

▼oju I. — NO. 17* 8 « A 1 - 



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■ I I ■ I . I I II. I I. I, - I I ' a il 

Arfmiral Diincau defeats the Datch Fleet. 

guinary battle was never fought ; for in nine skips of 
Admiral Duncan's fleet, the killed and wounded exceed- 
ed 700, and the loss of the cold, but intrepid Dutch, 
must have been very severe. ITie flag ships of the ene- 
my lost not less than 350 men each ; and not a single ship 
among the prizes lost less than 100 men. The battle was 
fought so near the shore that thousands of spectators be- 
held the whole of it, without haviug it in their power to 
give the smallest relief. 

The gallantry of Admiral Duncan is justly entitled td 
applause ; but no part of his conduct is more deserving 
of commendation than his getting between the enemy and 
the land. This wa» a nfianoeuvre which none who wert 
before him had ever attempted, in circumstances so evi- 
dently criticaL When he returned home he was created 
Baron Duncan, of Lundie, in the country of Perth, and 
Viscount Dtmcan, of Camperdown/ from the place on 
the coast of Holland, off which his lordship gained the 
memorable victory. This glorious victory made every 
^^ heart rejoice ; when the news arrived a general illumina- 

tion took place throughout tlie kingdom, and the king 
went in state to St. Paul's cathedral ; the procession was 
attended by three waggons bearing flags, that had been 
taken from the French, Spaniards, and Dutch, during 
the war, and* these were severally borne to tlie altar by 
a flag-ofiiccr, who had been present when they were takeUw 
A number of officers and seamen attended, and all ranks 
felt the obligation tliey were under to the defenders of 
' their country. 

The Directory could not help venting their anger in » 
sort of bulletin war, to produce that artificial miscbief 
which arises out of a state of constant alarm.' It would bt 
•ndlessto recite all their declarationa of wsath and t<9^ 




Prodaowtlon of tbe Directorj, 

geaBce against this country ; one specimen will be suf- 
ficient to characterize the -whole. On the 26th of Octo^ 
ber 1797, the Executive Drrectory decreed, that there- 
should be assembled, without delay, an army, to be called 
idle Army of England, and to foe under the command of 
Citizen General Bonaparte. On the same day tbe Di« 
rectory issued a proclamation to the French people, which 
contains the following passages : — 

** It is at . London that the calamities of Europe are 
fabricated ; it is there that we must put an end to them. 
Crown at length your exploits by an invasion ot the island, 
whither your ancestors carried slavery, under William the 
Conqueror, and bring back thither the genius of liberty, 
which must land there at the same moment with the French. 
— A lawless enemy has repelled, in fact, all the overtures 
which could only tend to pacification. You know this 
enemy; your indignation fixes on and points him 
out by name— it is the cabinet of St. James's —it is 
the most corrupting and the most corrupted of tbe 
governments of Europe — it is the English govera* 

ment, ^The Great Nation will avenge the universe ; 

and for that purpose. Frenchmen ! more means than one 
present themselves to you ; the most worthy, and tl^ 
quickest, is a descent upon England. — ^Thus let the Arffy 
of England go and dictate terms of peace in London ! Go, 
gallant Republicans ! second the unsmimous wish of the 
nation ; go, and restore the liberty of the seas.— And since 
the British Grovcmment looks at this present moment with 
a ferocious smile on the calamities which have befallen 
the continent, and glories in its wealth, force it to pay 
its quota towards the expenses of the war.— Wliat a re- 
splendent glory is held forth to the Army of England; it 
is sufficient to point it out" 

3 ]? 2 

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Their Address ta BoMiiittrte. 

The President of the Directory, in an addren to Gene* 
ral Bonaparte, avowed senlimeiits which deserre particn* 
lar notice. 

** Peace," said he, ** restores order ; but, aboye aD, 
it will procure us the inexpressible advantage of being 
able to consolidate the Republican Government, and to 
enable you to give a blow to the insolence of England, to 
the conquest of which you are called* — Qo then, Citizen 
General ! crown so glorious a life by a conquest whioh the 
Great Nation owes to its insulted dignity,^— -^Let the con 
querors of the Rhine, the Po, and the Tiber, follow your 
steps — the ocean will be proud of conveying theuL He 
is an untamed slave who blushes at his chains-»-he invokes 
by his roarings the vengeance of the earth on the tyrant 
that oppresses his waves. — He will combat on your side— 
the elements themselves submit to the man who is free. 
Pompey did not disd&in to crush the pirates ; go ye, 
greater than that Roman I and chai« up that gigantie 
buccaneer, who tyrannizes over the sea ; go, and punisb 
in London outrages which have been too long qD" 

In order to give effect to this farce, a deputation of the 
merchants of Paris addressed the Directory in a style of 
gasconade quite in unison with (he tinsel professions of 
that government The deputation was introduced by the 
Minister of Finance, who in his speech told the Direc- 
tory, that '* the traders pf Paris came tp request the le-* 
gislative body to open a loan, of which the pr^nium 
should be bypotheticated upon our victorio6,-— rXhe loaa 
mfLV be called an English loan/' 


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Peace of Campo-Formio. 

The qpokesmaa of the deputation then delivered hi« 
address to the Directoiy^ which thus concluded :«^ 

" Citizen Directors ! the Merchants of Paris, of whom 
we believe ourselves <o be the organ, are anxious that 
yon should transmit to the Executive Body a message, to 
invite them to open a loan, which will afford a sure and 
ready means to effectuate a descent upon England. This 
Joan may be mortgaged upon an indirect imposition.** ' 

The President, Barraa, in a message, communicatiDg 
tills offer to the Council of Five Hundred, observed, that 
the fund of 40,000,000, to be raised in this manner, would 
be '' secured on the success of the grand operation which 
the Directory is now preparing." And, in the ConncS, 
Jean de Brie observed, that the standard of victory would 
soon ** proceed to punish Albion for its long catalogue 
of crimes against humanity.'* 

If any Briton does not feel his blood boil on the peru- 
sal of insults like these, he is a disgrace to the memory of 
those gallant heroes who conquered in the fields of Cressy, 
Agincourt, and Poictiers : but such insolent menaces can- 
not fail to excite emotions of resentment in the breast of 
every Briton, and to inspire them with a consciousness, 
that they are as aUe and as willing as ever to avenge the 
threats, and to puniali the temerity of their audacious in* 

From preliminaries, signed at Leoben, a definitive 
treaty was ratified between the Emperor and the French 
Republic, on the I7th of October, at Caropo Fonnio ; 
the Emperor gave np all claim to the Low Countries, 
which were to become a part of France, and to its pos- 
sessions in Italy, which were to form the Cisalpine Re • 
pui)|ic. In return Bonaparte gave to the' Emperor the 


by Google — 

Bonaparte retum to Paris. 

states lately the Republic of Venice, and wliich he had 
seized for the purpose of bartering away. 

The power of France was clearly and firmly established, 
and nothing could possibly deprive her of the Herculean 
staff which she now held in her grasp. Many differences 
yet remained to be adjusted between France and the Ger- 
man Princes and states; and to settle these points the 
treaty of Gampo Formio provided, tliat a congress should 
be held at Rastadt, consisting of plenipotentiaries from 
the different powers. Upon this congress much of the 
welfare of Europe depended, and moderate men looked 
up to it with much anxiety. 


When Bonaparte had thus ciowned his struggles by as 
advantageous peace, he returned to Paris. On his arrival 
lliere he was greeted "by every d68cri|>tion of persons, is 
a way the most flattering ; all exercised their ingenui^ 
to display some excellent feature, either of the person or 
the mind of this extraordinary hero, and among the va- 
rious conceits that his admirers hit upon, some laid claim 
to the quality of oracular prophesies. The General was 
in fashion, and who would tell the beau monde that it was 
mistaken! Bonaparte had done much for the country; 
and whoever might have gfoonds of complaint agaiast 
him, he hadm strong claim to the gratitude of the Frenetu 




Stricturei od his Talents. 

'J'lie manners of the General were calculated to gain 
faim the most aseful sort of popularity. Courted by all 
parties, he^ could easily select the most suitable confi* 
dents ; these he chose for their prudence and policy, ra- 
ther than their sentiments. It is not true that he was a 
Jacobin, or shewed any attachment to persons of that sect. 
Whether his name was ever enrolled in that club is very 
doubtful, and if it was, it was only in tiiat careless way^ 
by which some persons in this country became Free Ma* 
sons or Odd Fellows, without taking any interest in sucli 
societies^ The nearest character to that taken by Bona- 
parte at his arrival in Paris in 1797, is tliat of the Gen- 
tlemen Democrats in England, who, carrying their views 
no further than the overthrow of the existing govern- 
ment, do not condescend to mix with their inferior 
brethren, any more than is necessary to preserve them as 
tools, to be used as circumstances may require their ser- 

This temporizing policy of Bonaparte was advantage* 
ous to France ; for while he avoided any measures oflen- 
sive to die factions, they were quiet from a fear of mak- 
ing him an enemy to any premature effort. He would 
have gained little influence over the public mind, if his 
character had been like what it has been depicted in va- 
rious fabrications published in this country. The respect 
be acquired, arose from the punctuality with which he 
attended to his private and public duties, and which mac]« 
a reproof from him of so much weight, that every person 
was desirous of avoiding it. 

Bonaparte, like his family in general, has more good 
qualities than bad ones, and their bad ones are much less 
vicioos than Uiose of some families full as conspicuous, 
firom whom bttter might have been expected ; the con- 

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France at Peace wiili ibe CoDttBent. 

dact of the General had little of that ceremonious pc 
liteuess id it vhich is so prized by the admirers of the 
old courts, and his maimers ofteo led him to censure per- 
sons less attentiTe to their duties than he was to his own, 
iv'liich many construed into rudeness. No persons were 
niore sincere to the General than men of science and 
literature ; his victories had enriched the Museum of 
Paris with the principal curiosities of the world, and that ' 
capital was now the emporium of whatever was rare and 
valuable in the world of taste and science. | 

Soon after his arrival, the General was presented with 
a Us.t of the Ghefs'd'oeuvreft, and celebrated curiosities, 
which the victories of the Republican armies have pro- 
cured to France. 

The year 1798, found France at peace with all the 
powers on the continent, and her hostile attempts di« 
rected alone to Great Britain, except in the instance of 
Ehrenbreitstein, a German fortress, which was kept in a 
state of blockade till its fate should be decided by the ne- 
gociation at Bastadt» 

Seldom was rancour more malevolent than that which 
kept up the hatred of the French and English govern- 
ments towards each other, and it was more mischievous 
in its effects than furnishing mere newspaper and procla- 
mation gasconade. An English captain. Sir W. Sidney 
Smith, was taken prisoner on the coast of France, at* I 
tempting to cut out a French ship. This officer the Bri* { 
tish Government wished to exchange, but the French 
Government took this to be a faur opportunity of vexing 
their antagonists ; and they set up a pretence that Sii 
Sidney could not be considered as an ordinary prisoner d 
war, and should not be admitted into the ordiDsary ex* 
changes. No doubt remained with the Directoiy bit 


by Google 

AJ^D WARS Of £U]tO^£« 401 

Frencb prisoners in Eii|:laoil. 

tiiat this was an act of ipjustice^ and therefore directly 
apprehended, that the English Oovemment would take 
revenge, l>y iU-treating the French prisoners here* The 
anxions eye of the Directory was constantly upon the 
motions of the English administration ; their Agent was 
ordered to look out, and» failing to complain^ caused him 
to be suspected of neglect of duty. M. Chareti6 was jiot|t 
Jiad man, and by no means habitually quendous ; he ha^ 
constant access to his unf<Htunato countrymeui and rei> 
ceived ev«ry information as often as he wished ; he was 
in general, aatiafile^ and no ground of complaint arose 
that the Goyensmeni did not correct to Jus satis&ction. 
It was, however discovered, ihttt^ at Fahnouth, the Coa« 
liaeCor had supplied the prisoners wiih boeod inferior to 
-(he price Government paid, a ciroumsiance that buoyed 
<«p the Deputation of 11. Chaceti6, by giving him a itale 
to sMd over to his 'Govemmenl^ of winch the Directory 
made the most ungenerous use. When the cociduct of 
the Contractor was represented, he was punished, and 
means taken to prevent a repetition of the sane fraud; 
yet die Directory trumpeted the story forth in their ga* 
oettes and placards, to justify the wretched manner in 
which 4hey had treated tlie English prisoners, even be- 
fore they iiad any such excuse to make* A Frendiman, 
on arriving at Nantes, irom an English prison, saw it 
etruck against the walls^ that the French prisoners were 
fed upon dead dogs and cats, and were sometimes brought 
oiit, in great cuumbers^ and shot to amuse the people ; he 
declared that it was false, and that he was treated with 
extreme kindness ; but he was told to bo silent^ and not 
dare to contradict the Goveniment As the French sent 
an agent to look over their prisoners in England, so th^ 
British Government appointed Mn Swinburne, agent to 
▼oil* i« — NO* 17, 8 f 


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Eoji^lish priionert in France. 

attend to their prisoners in France ; but Mn Swinbnmn 
was not allowed access to the prisons^ nor to receive any 
information concerning them directly, but sack as the 
French Commissaries themselves chose to gtve« 

At a Committee appointed by the English Govemmenl, 
several persons were examined as to their treatment while 
prisoners in France^ It appears that little attention was 
paid to Ike comfort of those unfortunate people held in 
Fhmccy that their places of confinement were small, 
orowdedy and filthy, and their allowances poor «id scanty, 
while every article was cheap and plentiful near where 
ihey were confined. On their marches Grom where they 
were taken to^ the places appointed for their residence 
while they were detained, they were obliged to support 
the soldiers who conducted them out of their scanty pit- 
tance, and at night were lodged in a church on wet stzaw, 
and when their release was ordered, they were marched 
back, paying their own expenses. When this was report- 
ed to the Marine Minister at Brest by some English ofli> 
cers, he said, he believed all they told him, but that it was 
not in his power to remedy it or he would ; and he desir- 
ed them to apply to the French Commissary in London, 
for the difference of the deficiency in what they ought U 
have reeeived; not only were the provisions curtailed for 
those who were ill, but even for those who were lame. 

The French Commissary for prisoners Dfras examined 
before a committee held in London, as to the state ia 
which he saw the different prisons in England, and he 
gives the highest credit to the Government for the allow- 
ances they made to support the prisoners, and said that 
whatever faults there were, doubtless arose with the Con^ 
tractors ; at some places he did see articles supplied not 
by any means equal to the price that Govemmtnt paid 


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The French refuie an exchange. 

for them, but that on stating this to the Transport Board, 
under whose care the prisoners were, every attention was 
paid to his remonstrances. It, however, appears from 
the -aiinntes of the committee, that Mbnneur Chiureti6 
had [written to the Directory that the prison at Norman 
Cross was crowded to excess, and many irregularities oc- 
curred. This, however, he denied to the Committee, and 
it appeared from the evidence of the Medical Officers 
who attended, and two French Medical men who also as- 
sisted, that this was not the case. A great deal of cruelty 
and jealously existed relative to the prisoners of war in 
Fcance ; and was the occasion of many unpleasant cir- 
cumstances between the two nations, but the Co^mnitte.e 
resolved there was no fault to he found with those jn 

Those who have any doubt upon this suLgect should 
consult the Report at large, which enters into a general 
detail ; but we may observe in this place, that the Direc- 
tory knew, when it pressed for a general exchange of 
prisoners, that it threw an obstacle in the way, which 
freed the English Government from all blame, on accouot 
of the cartel being delayed ; it was insisted upon that 
the British should give up all claim to the number of pri- 
soners that they had a right to demand in exchange for 
Frenchmen Uberated on parole^ amounting to 7019, and 
also give up 4000 more, above what they expected to re- 
ceive any exchange for, before they could change Sir 
Sydney Smith for an officer of equal ranlsu 

This was what the Directory called .diplomatic skill, 
and it may be some time before the world will be 
guide4 by that pure virtue, which will be sufficient to 
despise the advantages gained by such successful cun- 
Jiing; it will cejttainly please Aany readers to tell them 

8 r2 

Digitized by Google 

IiMorKcHooiB the Payt-de-V«ad. 

that it was ttntsQccessfal ii| this case ; for soflbe Ettglisb 
rendents ki Holland contrived to find out tko price of a 
person near to Sir Sydney, and, by means of a svppl^ of 
money, enabled both Sir Sydney and his guard lo escape 
from the danger of his pursuers. 

******** »l*«»^^^S#^^ 


Wh iLsr this vexatious contest with the EngHsh Govem- 
ment went on, one, equally unjust, took place on the con- 
tinent The interftring hi the fiffhird of other g^ovem- 
ments had been evinced by the Directory, as stfongly as 
by Bonaparte in the case of St. Marino ; bilt Swifzerland 
)iad rejected any assistance, and resolved to remain inde^ 
pendent both of friends and foes. The subjugation of 
that country had been long considered by the Executive 
Phrectory, and its Accomplishment was only delayed by 
the influence of Camot and Barthelemy ; a principal rea- 
son why they were marlced out for banishment An in- 
surrection' in the Pays-de-Vaud was raised, by Pfench 
principles and French bribery, to justify entcfi^iug the 
country with an armed force, to aid the people to obtain 
their freedom, and purify theif govemftient General 
Schanenburg, with 15,000 men. Was ordered to rtiafch to- 
wards that country, to support the claittis of the peti- 
tioners in fhe Pays-de-Vaud with the bayonet A pro- 
clamation was issued by the Supreme Coutacil of ti^rtie, 
requesting the people of the Pays-de-Taud to Assemble 
in arms, to repeat thehr oath of allegiance, and not only 
to epntend for their ancient rights, but labour for their 




The GovemaieBt «r Bertte raiw* tm Armj. 

re-^establiabmeiit to the atmost of tliefr power* As ibm 
elttiDB of the iBsargeDts. is^ere not dhecUy attended to, 
an iDBorrection was the conseqnence. The iwurgenU 
took the fort of ChiHoB» and distarbaoces appeited in the 
southern districts ; the government of Berne inieant to 
bring the insnrgents to a sense of their doty by force of 
arms, and General Weiss was sent against thea with 
20,000 men. Whether the tardy morenenls of this^ 
general originated from design or not, we cannot deter* 
mine, yet they senred to confirm the disaffected in their 
perseverance ; and the arrival of the French general de- 
cided the fate of the country. The French general no 
sooner passed the boondaries than he sent an offieer to 
the Swiss commanders, with two hussars/to Yverdnn/ 
bnt on his return one of the hussars was killed at Hiiriens, 
Sobanenburg considered this as tantamount to a deelsira- 
lion of war, and his troops immedktely marched forward^ 
Hrlile those of General Weiss commenced a retreat, which 
placed the Whole Payfr-de-Vand in the hands of the French 
daring the month of February. Still the Government of 
Berne had some hopes of averting the hnpending destruc- 
tion; and to accomplish this object, they delivered up' 
the oentinek by whom the hussars had been killed, and 
ontered into fresh negociations. But it now seemed im- 
poflsibk) to prevent a war with France, although the Go- 
vennfteat used every means to ronse tthe people to con- 
tribute to dieir assistance i it was decreed that fifty-two 
deputiea should be added to the council, selected fron^ 
the ehief towns and commnnes, who proposed a radical 
nfotin of abuses in the existing government ; which 
laudable example was imitated by Pribourg, Laicerae, 
Solenre, Zuricb, and Sohauffbausen. In this state of af- 
^ra they nvgocialed with the Executive Directory of 

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The Amy of Switzertand retreats. 

France, but * continued a force of 20,000 men, under 
General d'Erlach, the rest of the cantons of Switzerhnd 
imishing about 5500 men. An armistice was concliided 
with Schauenberg in the Pays-de-Vaad, when General 
Bnme advanced to his assistance, and fresh troops front 
France entered Switzerland. Hie truc^ was to have ex- 
j^red OQ the 1st of March, but General d'Erlach de- 
manded his troops to be put in motion on the 26tfa of 
February, being apprehensive that their ardour would 
codi* This order was complied with, and the different 
posts were informed that hostiUties would commence oa 
the 1st of March. 

General Bnme agreed to protract the armistice or 
Iruce, for tfie space of thirty hours; and on the 2d 
#f March, the castle of Domach, situated on the nbrthem 
extremity of the Canton of Soleure, four miles and a half 
•Ml th of Basle, was attacked and canried by the Republi- 
cans, when 13,000 mcR proceeded to the walls of thai 
town, which surrendered to General Schauenberg. The 
bte of Fribourg soon followed, subnittiBg to General 
Brune, when the army of Switaserlaad was under the ne- 
cessity of retreating^ The advances of the iVench amy 
were seccmded by a spirit of disaffection, too apparent ia 
the army of General d'Erlach, and a proclamation was 
made by the Council of Berne, that the levy of the 
Landsthurm (rising in a mass) was ready for aetioD ; 
but it was a measure productive of pernicious ef* 
fects. When possessed of anas the people soon dis« 
solved their own government, established a pro tenh 
pore regency, stated their proceedings to Genial 
Bnme, and ordered the army to be dismissed, on con- 
dition that the French troops did not advance beyond 
Ibeir present positions* These concessions, however. 




Mutiny in tbc Army ofBwirterlaod. 

■ ^ . ■■■■ ■ ■■ ■ . .<^iipi 1 . . - ■ _ ,. i j_ 

met not the views of the Republican commander ; for he 
demanded that the town should be garrisoned by the 
aoldiers of France. Mutiny brook out in the army of 
Switzerland^ which put to death a nomber of their offi- 
cers, who were unfriendly ta their views ; it appean 
that no fewer than 11,600 men had abandoned this army. 
About 8000 of the regular troops were stationed at New- 
eneg, while 6400 maintained their station at FraaenbroN, 
to carry which General Schauenberg marched from So« 
leure with 18,000 men. Both places were attacked bj 
&e French on the ith of March, when the glorious resis- 
tance of the Swiss troops, stationed at Neweneg, seemed 
to portend a future victory ; but those at Frauenbron 
were under the necessity of retreating. Greneral d'Eriach 
lallyed bis troops at Uleren, four miles and a half south 
of Frauenbron, when another action took place, which 
also terminated in &vour of the Republicans. The 
Swiss again &ced the enemy at Grauboltz, about five 
miles north-east of Berne, but were driven to the very 
gates of the metropolis, ai)d totally defeated. In this en- 
gagement the Swiss are computed to have lost 2000 men 
killed and wounded, and the French not less than 1800. 

The city of Berne capitulated, and was entered in tri- 
umph on the evening of the 5di. The Swiss troops at 
Neweneg and Guminen, were forced to retreat ; the sol- 
diers lit the latter place put their officers to death in a fit 
of despau*, and the unfortunate General d'Eriach, was 
murdered by his own men, in escaping from the field of 
battle. The conquest of Berne led to the surrender of al- 
most all Switzerland, thou^ many parts of that fre^ 
country seemed determined to resist to the last extremity ; 
they defeated General Schauenburg, with the prodigious 
li^ss of 3000 men, after h* Imd assented to a treaty, obligr 




■ M l ■ » ■ I I ■■111 I I— ^.-^^^.-.^^-i^ , ■ ■ ■ in — 1^^ 

Bonaparte retttnii from ParU to Rattadt. 

ing liiiDAeJf not to take poftsession of the smaller cantons* 
It could not be supposed tbat the spirit of a few towns 
could resist the power of lai^e victorious armies. Hie 
French Generals prodaimed a new form of government ; 
and bj laying heavy contributions, and quartering troops 
upon the inhabitants, goaded them into submission to 
the new system, which was styled ^'Hie Helvetic Be- 

The French Govenunent with a prodigious army, «K 
perfect leisure^ found Utile difficulty in giving a strong 
appearance of sincerity to its threats of invading the 
British dominions. Bonaparte, who commimded that 
immense body of forces, called " The Army of England/ 
was sent to Radstadt, as the French Plenipotentiary to 
the Congress, which seemed to place the object of the 
.expedition at a great distance of time : the English Go- 
vernment, however, thought it made a very shrewd dif- 
covery, when it traced its destination to Irelimd; and 
circumstances occurred to strengthen the opinion. Bo* 
naparte continued at Radstadt just long enough to 6dA 
fault with some of the members, when he returned te 
Paris ; this proved that he was ready to go to Ireland, 
especially as at that time several persons, conneeted with 
the United Irishmen, were detected in a cart, upon the 
coast of Kenty with a design to engage the first host 
they could hire to take them over to France^ to present 
a Paper to the Directory, inviting it to send an army 
over to help a club of spouters in London to overturn the 
Government ! 

The ^United Irish were so impatient^ to put their plans 
in execution, that some of their leaders recommended an 
instant rismg. The situation of the Irish Government 
was every day more critical^ as they ooidd not be certain 


by Google 


Psrliament dnws op a Report on tbe Rebelhtnl 

where the blow was to be aimed, nor what means should 
be made ose of to render if teeffectaal : but the lAysterious 
designs of their leaders were graduaOy unfolded by secret 
information, and defensive measures were adopted. At 
Belfast, in the house of one Alexander, Col6nel Barb 
found two different Committees actually sitting. The 
minutes and papers were seized, among which were 
the printed Declaration and Constitution of the United 
Irishmen, and others of a similar tendency, which gave 
the fullest information respectmg their designs. The 
magistrates discovered mote papers, of equal importance, 
which explained their intentions, and corroborated every 
preTiotts discovery. The papers thus found i^ere sub- 
mitted to the Secret Committees of both houses of Par- 
liament, and each house drew up a report, in eonformity 
to the evidence they contained. The military force was 
augmented, the ^insurrection act was enforced ; some di- 
visions of the country were declared out of the King's 
peace, and vast quantities of concealed arms were seized 

It has been stated that some persons were arrested on 
the coast of Kent, going, or desirous of going, to France. 
Of these five persons, tbe greatest number were the mpst 
vain and giddy-minded that could have been chosen \6 
transact any human concern. Vanity alone led them to 
choose Whitstaple as the best road of going to France, 
for they might have got room in any of the vessels that 
take passengers to the continent under neutral colours, 
only they fancied themselves such great m^n, that they 
could not follow the usual track without being watched. 
One of them, O'Coigly, assumed the aur of a man of busi« 
ness ; he affected to have forgotten to put some tetters 
of the very first importance into the post, and sent off t^ 

VOL. I.— NO, 18, 3 o 

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Some People io Mancbeiter arretted. 

the next post two letters, one directed to Manchester and 
Dne to Amsterdam. This circumstance, which oar wise^ 
acres intended to shew the people that they had some- 
thing to do, put them upon inquiriug what that some- 
thing could be ; and the very sound of Amsterdam (not 
because it was an enemy's country, but because it was a 
gin country) made the Comptroller of the Customs think 
that there was something in this that led to the improve- 
ment of his fortune, and he transmitted the letters to the 
Secretary of State, who escorted our travellers to London 
instead of to Paris. 

The letter to Manchester was addressed to a manufac- 
turer there, who had shewn some kindnesses to O'Coigly, 
from a letter of recommendation which he had presented 
on his arrival from Dundalk, where he was an ofikiatiag 
priest i and it was resolved to set a watch upon the 
manufacturer and his friends,, to try if some circumstances 
could not be discovered that would afford a pretext for 
arresting them as traitors. One of the Manchester ma- 
gistrates selected a man to act as a spy upou the occasion, 
for i^ich he Vas qualified, by having acted as a sort of 
vaiet-du-place to O'Coigly at Manchester^ This man 
collected some few persons in the town, chiefly Irish, and 
persuaded them to get the oath printed, which the United 
Men in Ireland used to administer to each other. The 
manufacturer above alluded to, a tailor, aod a printer, 
who had printed the Irish oath, were all arrested. To 
give aclat to this proceeding, these persons were put in 
irons, and paraded to London, amidst the convoys -of 
loyal volunteers, who were called out at every stage be- 
tween Manchester and Lmdon, to take their share in the 

About this period the English ministers and the Engiish 

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SospensioD of the Habeas Corpus Act. 

newspapers began to make Bonaparte of consequence, by 
pefsonal abuse ; and it may be recollected, that the same 
press which opened its abuse against Napoleon, inserted 
calumnies enough to justify the arrest of forty or fifty in* 
habitants of London, under a pretence that they met se* 
cretly to learn the use of arms, and were in possession of 
dangerous weapons, to aid the enemy in case he should 
invade the kingdoni. 'Upon this charge the British Le- 
gislature suspended the Habeas Corpus Act, and many 
were consequently consigned to prison. 

Of those thus arrested some were known to be decid- 
edly ayerse to the French Government and the whole of 
its- measures ; and many were charged with no offence, 
but having attempted to Tisit their friends, thus suspected 
of being traitors. 

r#^#^^#^ » »#<»##^^##»<i»^^#»»^^^^#^^^^«#^»^^^^ 


Before we enter upon the rebellion which the spirit of 
the two countries produced in Ireland, we must observe 
that a system of co-operation had been adopted among 
the disaffected by means of descending committees, which 
enabled the supreme council rapidly to communicate its 
mstructioiis to the whole associated body. The execu- 
tive power communicated with the representatives of 
provinpes, which were four in number : Leinster, Mun- 
«ter, Connangfat, and Ulstor; these again communicated 
with the representatives of baronies, who also communi- 

3 o 3 

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Thd Members of tbe Iriib Directory. 

cated with the representatives of every hundred men asso- 
ciated in his barony ; and the representatives of handreds 
communicated with the representatives of tens ; which last 
held the oflSce of corporal in the malcontent army. Thus an 
immense population could be called into action by an in- 
visible agency ; and the attempts of government to sup- 
press this insurrection could not be very successful, un^ 
less it could secure the directing power. To thi^ tlie eye 
of government was directed^ and information was obtained 
where a meeting of Provincial Delegates would assemble* 
The police were thus enabled to seize in Dublin, four- 
teen of the principal representatives, with all their papers, 
plans, lists of names, &c. 

In forming the new government the Irish leaders had 
shewn themselvies the imitators of the Frencji. The su- 
preme power was lodged in a Directory, consisting of 
five men ; and they considered all persons attached to the 
established government as rebels, whose estates should be 
confiscated for the good of their new republic! Tlie 
Five Directors were, Lord Edward Fitzgerald, brother 
to the Duke of Leinster ; Mr. Arthur O'Connor, a de- 
scendant from Roderic O'Connor, king of Connaught; 
Mr. Oliver Bond ; Counsellor Emmet; and Dr. M'Nevin. 
Of these the three latter wert; arrested ; and Mr. O'Con- 
nor was -among the persons taken with O'Coigly on the 
coast of Kent. But th^ principal power remained ; for 
Lord Edward Fitzgerald possessed great military talents, 
and was adored by the Irish. The vacancies in the Direc- 
tory were filled up ; yet, as it was unknown how Govern- 
ment obtained its information, they could not prevent it^ 
getting intelligence of all the movements that were adopt- 
ed ; the new Directory were arrested ; and Lord Edward 
f>nly escaped by the peculiar disguise he assumed* and 


by Google 


Lord Edward Fitsgerald betrayed. 

the care he took to avoid attending any of the meetings 
in person. ': 

Frequent intern^ptions retarded the general rising ; it 
was the nuddle of May before they could make even a 
partial 'fittempt Both parties laid the highest importance 
on the services of Lord Edward, and were equally of 
opinion, that the success or miscarriage of the rebellion 
might depend upon his being able to place himself at the 
head of the United Irishmen. The moment at last ar- 
rived ; and notiiing remained but to give the final instruc* 
tions to those who were to lead the different bands against 
the King*s forces. liord Edward went to meet them at a 
cabaret in the- neighbouriiood of Dublin, where vanity 
led to the discovery of his lordship, and the derani^^e"' 
ment of all the plans of the insurgents. 

It is worthy of remark, that in Ireland, as well as ii| 
England and France, during the whole revolutionary 
struggle, those who declaimed agwnst rank and titles be- 
came reconciled to them when they were associated in 
any manner with themselves : it was no uncommon thing . 
to hear an apostle of equality claim the honour of hav- 
ing been within the sight or the heanng of some lord^ 
when he would have been covered with disgrace to have 
been surprised in conversation with an honest coblerv 
This was the case at the meeting of the Irish Chiefs ; the 
party had the air of a convivial company, and care was 
taken to disguise the person, and conceal the character of 
the Generalissimo ; but one of them, who perhaps never 
addressed a nobleman before, in the intoxication of his 
soul, directed some observation to his leader, whom he 
accosted by his title of '' Lord Edward." This was over- 
Jieard by a servant girl, and notice was given to the po* 
{ice, in consequence of which Govenuaeat traoed out his 



Lord Rdward Fitxgerald arreited— His desperate Resiftaooe. 

residence, and arrested tfie principal persons who were 
to act under him. 

' Having made sixch nse of their information as was 
tbonght necessary previous to securing Lord Edward 
Fitzgerald, Government ordered him to be taken inta 
custody on the 21st of May. An idea may he formed of 
what he would have done at the head of an army, front 
his having resisted three ofBcers who attempted to take 
him, one of whom he wounded, after having killed 
another, and defended himself against the third, till he 
received two wounds, of which he died in a few days. 
' The 23d of May was fixed upon for the general attack, 
and Lord Edward continued in Dublin, to head those 
corps which were to seize the castle, and alarm die whole 
country, in getting possession of the metropolis by a 
coup de main. Not a leader of consequence now re- 
mained with the insurgents, and their own zeal alone 
guided them in the interprise into which they were about 
to plunge. Unorganized as they were, it was resolved 
to attack the King's forces in their camp a few miles firom 
Dublin, and seize upon the cannon in that neighbour- 
hood. The town of Naaa was entered in defiance of 
the military, and several on both sides were kiDed and 

Hie rebellion was general in the province of Leinster, 
and the counties of Kildare, Wexford, and Wicklow 
were chiefiy occupied by the insurgents, by whom eveiy 
thmg was done to get possession of Dublin, that could be 
expected from a rabble, headed by bigoted priests. 
Hough greatly superior in numbers, the insurgents 
were kept at bay by the King's forces, and vigorous 
measures were adopted by the Government The nor- 
thern countries did not rise to second those of the wmA^ 


by Google J 


Mnriibf , m Priest heads tfie Intargenti . 

SO that the royal armies concentrated ^ tbemselves in de- 
fence of the chief pdinta of attack* 

Father John Murphy, a priest, pat himself at the head 
of the principal force, and with a large body of follow- 
ers formed a tolerably well fortified camp at Vinegar 
Hill I from whence numerous parties issued in irregular 
order, and committed the most wanton cruelties upon 
the persons a|id estates of those diiferiBg from them in 
opinion* In iheir predatory excursions they took many 
prisoners, chiefly protestants ; these were shut up within 
the camp, and were often brought out and cruelly butch- 
ered by pikes or bayonets, under pretence of their being 
about to escape ! Nothing could exceed the eathusiasm 
of this furious rabble ; and were it possible that numbers 
were c^>able of subduing regular troops, (as has been 
said with regard to the French) the United Irish must 
have triumphed over the King's forces ; but the rery first 
serious onset gave confidence to the Government and its 
friends, and destroyed the hopes of the rebels; multi- 
tudes of the insurgents Tell at the first charge, whilst the 
soldiers killed were comparatively trifling ; and the un- 
ruly assailants, once thrown into confusion, every effort 
to rally them was inefiectual ; they conld only save them- 
selves by flight. 

Though those who now managed the insurrection knew 
little of the correspondence that existed between their 
late Directory and that of France, there was an idea 
among them that a French armament was to co-operate 
in their enterprise. Great exertions were in consequence 
made to take the town and port of Wexford ; and this 
wa» done, owing to the impossibility of sending reinf<rrce- 
meuts in sufiicient time firom Dublin« 


by Google 


Tiie Rebels defeated at MewRoM. 

It was a &oIt bath of the Oovernment and the people » 
t]]at the smallest credit was given to the French ; for, though 
there were near 150,000 men in that army, artfully styled 
f* The Army ot England," not a single regiment made its 
appearance on the Irish coast While they kept Wex- ' 
ford the insurgents gained some advantages, which in- 
creased their uambers and inflamed their hopes. They 
determined on the capture of Ross, which was defended 
by 1400 eflPective men, besides artillery. The iitry of 
this contest resembled one of those savage straggles that 
occur among the barbarous hordes of Africa, rather than 
a battle between the armies of a civilised people. The 
assailants were 30,000 strong, and advanced upon the 
town, with horrid yells and the clattering of pikes, about 
five o'clock in the morning, equally inspired with re- 
ligion and whiskey ! ,They actually got possession of the 
town, an advantage they might have secured, was it not 
for the anarchy that prevaUed over the general body. 
They were soon entirely subdued by the potent draughts 
of strong drink in which they indulged ; and General 
Johnson retook the town with very little difficulty. 

Prance could supply her arsenals and flotillas by the m- 
ternal navigation of Holland and the Low Countries ; and 
it was considered necessary to destroy some of the works, 
that should interrupt that communication, lliose of 
Bruges were ordered for destruction, and an expedition 
under Sir Home Popham and General Coote, landed at 
Ostend, from whence they marched to Bruges, where 
they did much mischief to the works : but before the 
English troops could return to their transports the French 
took ^ them prisoners. Tlie French had settled to con- 
demn them to repair the mischief they had done, but. 


by Google 

AifD If Alts OP fiunoYfi. 417 

• A Frtoeh DWUion lamled at Kitlala. 

Upon it Burf ey, it Was foiaid that ail the injury the basod 
liad reeeited coaM b« obviltted at a ntdi expense^ with* 
in a short tinre« v 

The traeitics made use or by tbe oathotics tonrards the 
prtftestanta in Irelmd^ made the rebellion appear more 
fike a snperstttioiis criisade than a straggle for liberty, 
and many of the Uoited Men eagerly withdrew iVom a 
todtesty in which success would only prepare the gibbet 
for themselves and faadlies. 

The King's troops retook Wexlbrd^ and the insurgents 
after one month Were obliged to take shelter [among tho 
hills and fastnesses. Whence they could gain very little by 
any kind ot auxiliary force/ even if their treacheroua 
allies should send one, 

Wexford was stilf in the iurnds of the insurgents, when 
news was brought that Bonaparte had put to sea with his 
armyi convoyed by the flower of the French navy. Time 
passed away but no tidings were heard of the 'General ; 
the alarm increase, and it was but just known that Bona- 
parte had been at Malta» without declaring Usfotmre 
dcstinatton, when accounts stated that a French army bait 
landed on the western coast of Ireland* 

The French Oenerai, Humbert, landed at Killala on 
Ac 23d of Augusti which created such consternation that 
the Lord Lieutenant took Ac field in persoui with a nu- 
merous force. It was a great disappointment to General 
Humbert on his landing, to find that few of the inhabi*^ 
fants were iAcBued to join him; since their late numerous 
defeats made them consider their cause as hopeless. 

General Humbert shewed a display of, great military 
AID, and evittced himself worthy to command on a ha^ 
iardMs expeditien. Although the forces destined to stop 
lis progress were much more nmneron» Ami his own yet 

vou i«— NO. 18« 8 H 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

The French nirrender to Geneial Lake. 

he jadged that slow movements would be against his iii-' 
tore success, and he marched quickly towards Castlebar, 
Inhere General Lake was collecting bis forces. On the 
27th he engaged the British General, and compelled him 
to retreat with the loss of six pieces of cannon, and a few 
men. The troops under General Lake hav^ been stated 
at 6000 men, while those of the French commander were 
under 900» Humbert next marched towards Tuam ; bat 
it was impossible with such a force he could be victorious 
without the co-operation of the people at large. On th« 
7th of September the Lord Lieutenant overtook the ene- 
my near Castlebar, and compelled them .to retrograde* 
General Huntfbert took a circuitous march, and thus fie 
voured the retreat of the rebels. 

The French rear-guard waa overtaken at Ballinnamack 
and summoned to lay down their arms. They shewed no 
signs of compliance, and the British troops attacked them, 
when about 200 of them threw down their arms, hoping 
that their example would be followed by the rest of tbeir 
countrymen, but as General Craddock advanced, thej 
poured upon him a heavy fire, by which he was wounded. 
'. Fresh reinforcements were ordered by General Lake, and 
an attack conmienced against them in every directioQi 
when in about half an hour the whole of them surren* 
dered. About ninety-three of the unfortunate insurgents 
were taken prisoners, and three of tbeir Generals, vis* 
Blake, lloach and Tceling. Four of the rebels, wbo 
had joined the invaders, were hanged at Castlebar by 
order of General Humbert, for plunder and rapine. 

It is manifest something was looked for from this eipe- 
dition, since a brig was seen off the island of Raghlin on 
the 16th of September, and the crew landed, uoong 
mfiom ,wa» General B<ey and Napper Tandy, a general •' 




Lord Corowallis prevails on the People to return to their Doty. 

brigade in the service of France. After inquiring con- 
cerning the troops which landed at Killala, they were 
mach dejected when informed of their defeat ; they 
sounded the inhabitants by manifestoes, bat found tbat 
the sentiments of Irishmen were changed ; they had suf- 
fered from the British military and the tardiness of their 
Gallic friends. Finding matters in such a situation, they 
embarked and put to sea. 

Soon after the French Republic made another attempt 
to subjugate Ireland, but it was ultimately fruitless ; it 
was not made till the Irish coast was protected. A squa- 
dron of one sail of the line and eight frigates sailed from 
Brest, and by the 11th of the ensuing month was dis* 
covered by Sir J. B. Warren* The battle commenced on 
the morning of the I2tb of October, and the Hoche, the 
enemy's line of battle ship, did not strike to the British 
flag till about eleven o'clock, after a resistance which did 
honour to her commander. The frigates crowded all the 
sail fhey could carry, to effect their escape, and were 
chased by the British admiral ; three of them were capi> 
tured during that day, and a like number soon after. 
The whole squadron, with the exception of two frigates, 
were thus totally defeated. 

When the insurgents had been subdued and many exam* 
pies made ef the prisoners, it was thought advisable to take 
measures to weaken the ranks, by the disaffection of those 
who might not be very zealous in the insurrection. With 
this view bills of attainder were passed by the Irish Par- 
liament against the leaders, and a bill of amnesty for 
those who would accept it within a certain time. Lord 
Coimwallis was appointed Lord Lieutenant, and by his 
mild and benevolent manners prevailed on the people to 
return to their usual occupations, and induced th% 

3 H 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

' France M«kt an AUiaaoe wich Uydcr Ally. 

leaders, wbo were still under arrest, to purchase their 
lives by a displosQre pf the ciroiuiwtaiices that led to the 

The strqggle now only existed with a few fool-hardy 
marauders, headed by Holt, an obscure individoal of 
great talent, whose well-contrived stratagems eladed the 
vigilance of bis pnrsuers, ontil they granted him his hk, 
upon condition of his quitting the coontry. 

^^^*^^^^^^SS 9^^^^*^^^9'^*^*'0^^0^*S0^^*'*^^ ^ '^^ 


France had long envied the territorial and conmiercial 
greatness of Britain in the JEast Indies, and evei? thing 
had been made qse of to entangle that country in constant 
hostilitie? with the native governments. In these views 
Hyder Ally, who had usurped the throne and teffitqiy 
of Mysore, entertained a similar hatred to the Sc^Ulb, 
from obstacles which their power opposed to his ^ter^ 
prising schemes. An nlliance between France and Hyder 
obliged the English to be constantly on the alert in the 
East Indies ; and though the British arms were triumphant 
in every contest, the danger increased with the progreap 
of time, inasmuch as the French officers sod engineers 
instructed their allies in all the mysteries of Enropeaii 

Tippoo Saib, son and successor to Hyder, evinced the 



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■■ ' ■I '" ■■ " ■ ■ ' .. ■ ■ ■ .. ■ ' — ^' ..■___: — -—j r 

ExjfMtUfn to £f jpt pl«iined by the French. 

aame diiUt^e and attacbpient* md h^mg severely beatea 
by tb^ En^Iigh just before tbe war which took place with 
the Repvblio tboogbt that likely to afford bim m oppor* 
Pmtj of gratifying bia reaentipeiit ; mutual oouvenieuco 
drew tbe two powers together, and tbe anny of tbe SuK 
tan was officered by ]?Venphmen. The designs of Tippoo 
were not donbted^ but occupied as France was with the 
combined powers of flurope, sho eonld spare no force to 
co-operate with hifp, Whep tbe continental war finished, 
this difficulty was reinoTed ; but there was another, and 
that was the superiority of tbe British na¥y, npw triuni* 
phant in e?ery sea. 

France had reaolved to attack the British pQsses9ions ia 
India, an4 the enterprisiug spirit of Bonaparte was suite4 
to the baaard of tbe undertaking. It w»i resolved to 
seiae upon the territory of Egypt, that by moving th^ 
conunerce of the East through the Red Sea» the new 
French colony should become the gnmd }Mlt^ where all 
{lurope might be supplied with Indiau articles, cheaper 
than they could ^e bad firofu the ^g^sb ; vbilei as a 
military post it could at all tim(Ml transport auxiliaries to 
the coast of Coromandel* This plan was imparted to 
Tippoo, and the govemmeut in India knew it nearly as 
aoon as it was known in London* 

It was the expedition to Egypt tbat the QirecbNy and 
the General were preparing, whilst th^y marked their de« 
signs under the appearance of orga^udng an army of 
:^gland, to co-operate with the United Irishmen, allbough 
the object waa concealed with so much address, tl|at it 
was doubtful, after it was know tbat Malta bad been 
captured, whether the General might not, even from 
thence, b^nd his course for Ireland. 

When the British Government bad most to fear from 


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Booaparte nilt with a gnmd Amumeiit. 

the Irish mHurrection/ and -when it was obliged to guard 
erery French port on.the western ocean, Aat part of the 
Army of England cantoned in the southencports, pat to 
sea, under the command of Bonaparte. .On theSOtb of 
May, 1798, the General pnt <o sea from Toulon on 
board the FOrient, of 120 gons, bearing the flag of Ad- 
miral Bmyes, to take the command of a fleet then as- 
sembling from the •different ports of 'France, which was 
to consist of thirteen sail of the line, besides foar frigates, 
and near four hundred transports. On board the fleet was 
an army of 40,000 men, and a vast number of adventurers, 
who associated their fate with this expedition, without 
knowing more of it than that Bonaparte was at its head ; 
there were a great number of men of science and others, 
all of them capable of contributing to the prosperity of a 
new colony ; and the whole of this, including the sailors, 
made the number engaged in the expedition amount to 
near 70,000 souls. * 

The frigates led the van ; the Admiral followed, and 
the sUps of the line formed the rear ; the transports kept 
in shore, between the Hieres and the Lievant. 

Malta was seen on the 26th of June, and two crazy 
barks came off to sell tobacco. Bonaparte ask^d permis- 
sion to water his fleet, but the Grand Master refused to 
grant his request; this gave Bonaparte an excuse for 
commencing hostilities. 

At day-break on the 11th a lainguid fire was maintain- 
ed ; a bark came out of the port, and was conducted to 
the rOrient ; at eleven, a second, under a flag of truce, 
brought tho^e Knights who chose to abandon Malta. It 
appeared that the garrison was ahnost totally unprovided, 
and at four P. M. there were fewer men than guns on the 
walls of the fort. It was plain that the citizens aad 




He takei the Island of Malta. 

Knights had diBagreed, the gates of the forts being shut, 
and all intercourse between them and the city at an end. 
The General sent his aid-de-camp, Junot, with his ulti- 
matum ; soon after twelve Maltese commissioners cam# 
on board the TOrient, and on the I2thy at half past 
eleven, Malta was in the power of the French. Under a 
salute of 500 guns from the fleet, the French troops took 
.possession of the forts, thus completing the conquest of 
the strongest post in the Mediterranean. 

In the orders issued by Bonaparte at Malta, there is one 
more barbarous than was the Greek in which it was 
written ; when it is considered, that he had only the same 
right to dictate laws at Malta that the robber has when he 
has broken into the house of a peaceable man, and stolen 
his property. 
^ This order began in the usual way. 

Liberty! Equality! 

^ It first relates to the mode of worship in the island, and 
that protection should be given to the Jews who might 
wish to establish themselves there. That all the Greeks 
who should keep any connection with Russia, should be 
put to death ; and all vessels ni^der Russian colours be 
sent to the bottom. He then writes a letter to the Bishop 
of Malta, thanking him for his reception of the French 
troops, telling him the high opinion he entertains of the 
cliaracter of a good priest, and begging him to repair to 
tlie town of Malta, and by his influence to preserve har- 
mony among the people. That he wishes to be intro- 
duced to the different chiefs, and begs the Bishop to be 
convinced of his esteem and consideration. 

Witliin eight days Bonaparte took the island of Malta, 
organized a provisional government, victualled the fleet^ 
t«iok in water, and arranged all the dispositions. He 


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Seiidi a Ff ij^ate to Alexandria for Intelligence. 

quitted it Od the 19th of June, tearing^ the command to 
General Vanbois, and appointed Citizen Menard Com* 
mlssary of Marine. 

On the 26th the Captain of the Jnno received orders to 
make ail sail for Alexandria, now sixty leagues distant, 
ftnd there to learn from the French Consul, whether tho 
expedition had been heard of, and the disposition of the 
inhabitants with regard to the enterprise, litis was td 
be the first vessel to anchor on the African shore, and 
was to collect the Frenchmen ia Alexandria, and shelter 
thetn from the tumalts the arrival of the fleet might ex- 
cite. Thi^ done, the Juno was to return to the rendes* 
vous of the fleet, six leagues off Cape Brui6. By noon, 
on the 27tb, the welcome cry of " Land P* was heard, 
and at six o'clock it was visible from the deck, extending 
like a white stripe along /the dark edge of the sea, while 
nothuig interrupted the monotony of the scene. The 
Juno weathered Cape Durazo ; and a Lieu tenant was sent 
on shore, who returned at midnight with the French 
Consul and Dragoman on board, and the frigate sailed tO' 
join the fleet. 

The fleet having shortened sail to wait for intelligence, 
the General distribated his general orders among the 
forces : he had addressed a Proclamation to the army inn 
'Mediately on his arrival at Toulon, the tendency and de* 
sign of which was to preserve the idea of the expedition 
being about to invade the British dominions. 

If the army liad any conception of the voyage, or of 
the kind of warfare they were about to engage in, before 
they quitted France, probably they would have matinied 
sooner than have engaged in the expedition ; but as tbey 
were promised by the General six acres of land for each 
vutti as the price of the first victoiy, and Ibey imagined 





^ ■ ' — — ^ 

Bonaparte's ProclamatioD to bis Army. 

that they were steering for Englaod^ they embarked on 
the voyage as on a party of pleasure. It vas, however, 
necessary to set England before them, as the goal to 
which they were hasteningi and Egypt as no more than 
an oat-post. 

He addresses them ip a proclamation, statiiig that though 
they had done much, yet much more remained for them to 
do ; that the eyes of Europe were fixed on them ; they mast 
be united, and recollect that in time of battle they stood 
in need of each other; and tells the marines that, though 
formerly neglected, they will be worthy of. the army of 
which they form a part. In another proclamation he tells 
them they {pre going to undertake a valuable conquest, 
and give the English a most sensible blow ; that they shall 
have much to do, and fight several battles ; but that they 
shall succeed in every thing. He then rails against the 
Mamelukes, who, he says, tyrannize over the inhabitants 
of the banks of the Nile; but that they shall cease to 
exist ; that they are going to live amongst mahoineiants, 
and advises them not to dispute their faith ; he desires 
them to treat their Muftis with respect ; he cautionni 
them against pillage, that it dishonoiirs them and de- 
stroys their resources. He then says, the first city 
they shall arrive at was built by Alexander, and that 
they will meet at every step with objects to excite emu- 

He then issues General Orders from on board tlie 
rOrient. He commences by ordering the Generals who 
shall command detached divisions, to seal up the regis^ 
ters of the revenue ; that all the Mamelukes shall b& ar« 
rested and taken tu head quarters. He then makes a dis« 
position of all horses and camels for the use of the ai\-nv; 

VOL. I,— *N0. 19. 81 


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Bonaparte*! Letter to the Commaiider-iii-Cliief at Alexandrra. 

and states the sum to be paid for each by the Quarter* 
Master General ; and concludes by stating, that aH sol* 
diers stealing horses or camels shall be punishsd. 

In a subsequent order he fixes the superintendance of 
the coast, and appoints the officers to dieir situations ; 
and adds a clause, that all saibrsvomder thuty shall be 
put in requisition. 

The Consul arrived on board the Admiral's ship ; ho 
stated, that the appearance of the French frigate caused 
the immediate adoption of mea«ores against the christian 
inhabitants of the city, and that he found great difficulty 
in coming away; he added, that fourteen Engli^ Tossels 
appeared on the 28th of June, within half a league of 
Alexandria, and that Admiral Nelson had directed his 
course towards the north-east; and informed the Genwal, 
that it was determined to defend the city and forts of 
Alexandria, against any troops tiiat should attempt to 

Whereupon the General wrote the following letter : 

Bonaparte, Member of the National Institute, Comman- 
der-in-Chief, to the Commander of the Caraval, at 

Head Quarters, on board the rOiient, July 1. 

** The Be\ s have loaded our merchants with exactfons, 
and I am couic to demand reparation. 

'' I shall be at Alexandria to-morrow; but this ought 
not to alarm you. « You are a subject of our great friend 
the Sultan; conduct yourself accordingly; but if you 
commit the slightest act of hostility against the French 
army, I shall treat you as an enemy, and yon will ha?e 


by Google 

ANl> WABS O^ fiUltOPE. 427 

French An&jr land in £j^t* 

w " ■ 

no one to blame for it but yourself ; for such a thing is 
fitf from my intention^ and from my heart 


** Bonaparte." 

The General in Chief, the same evening, made ar- 
rangements for landing, and fixed oA the Poittt at Mara- 
bou as the spot ; he ordered the fle<$t te dnchof as near 
the Point as possible ; but two ships of Wai^ in preparing 
to execute this, ran fouT of ihA Adiiiind'd ithip, irhich' 
caused the order to be connteniiaiided, and the alma* 
ment remained at its then situatidti. Ifh^ irere at a dis- 
tance of about three leagues froM thd shore, the wiiid 
was northerly, and blew with violence, afid the debarka* 
tion was equally perilous and difflcidt ; but nodiing eouM 
retard the brave men, who wefd €^€t to anticipate tiitf 
hostile dispositions of the inhabitants 

The sea was covered with boats, irtiich tMnmei the 
impetuosity of the wav^s. The gidley ^with *Botiapar1tf 
approached the nearest breakers', Whetide the entrance 
to the creek of Marabou was discovered i he waited for 
those boats that were to join him, bnt (hey arrived not 
till after sun-set, and could no^ during the night, pene- 
trate the ledge of breakers. Eaily id (he morning the 
General in Chief landed, at the h<Bad of the fbtemost 
troops, who formed in the [desert, i&bout three leagues 
from Alexandria/ 

3 I 2 

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Letter of the King of Hollaod to hii Brother Joseph. 


The account of the first proceediogSy as given by Louis 
Bonaparte, lately King of Holland, in a letter to his 
brother Joseph, dated Alexandria, July 6, plainly proves 
the defenceless state of the pe<^le, while it is less bom- 
bastic than other French accounts. 

** At break of day on the 2d we invested Alexandria, 
after driving into the [town several small detachments of 
cavalry. The enemy defended themselves like men*; 
the artillery which they planted on the walls was wretch* 
ediy served, but their musketry was excellent. These 
people have no idea of children's play ; they either kill 
or ape killed. The first inclosure, however, that is to 
say, that of the city of the Arabs, was carried ; and soon 
after the second, in spite of the fire from the houses. 
The forts which are on the coast, on the other side of 
the city, were then invested, and in the evening capitu- 

** Since the 2d of July we have been engaged in dis- 
embarking the troops, the artillery, and the .baggage. 
General Deaaix is at Demanhur, on the Nile ; the rest of 
the army is to follow him. 

* Yet those tender-hearted Frenchmen, who came to visit 
them in pure friendship, to introduce liberty and happiness 
amongst them, couM not be restrained from pillaging the city, 
and massacreing its inhabitants, during the space of four 
hours, until, in the polite and inoffensive languajfe of Bertfaieri 
^ ' a great slaughter took place^^ 


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H'tfl DeacriptioD of the Bedouins. 

" Tbe place where we disembarked is about two . 
leagues from hence, at the tower of Marabou, or Ae > 
Isles des Arabes. The two first days we had a number of 
stragglers out off by the Arab and Mameluke cavalry. I ' 
imagine that we have lost about 100 killed, and as many 
wounded. The Generab Kleber, Menou, and Lascalle, 
are wounded, 

*' I send ybu the proclamation to the inhabitants of the. 
€ounU'y» which has produced an effect altogether astonish^ 
ing. The Bedouins, enemies of the Mamelukes, and who, 
properly speaking, are neither more nor less .than in- 
trepid robbers, sent us back, as soon as they had read it, 
thirty of our people whom they had made prisoners, with 
an offer of their services against the Mamehikes. We 
have treated them kindly. They are an invincible people 
inhabiting a burning desart, mounted on the fleetest 
horses in the world, and full of courage : they live with 
their wives and children in flying camps, which are never 
pitched two nights together in tbe same place. They are 
horrible savages, and yet they have some notion of gold 
and silver ; a small quantity of it serves to excite tbeir 
admiration. Yes, my dear, brodier, they love gold; 
they pass their lives in extorting it from such Buropeans 
as fall into their hands ; and for what purpose ?-^for con- 
tinuing the course of life which I have described, and for 
teaching it to their children. O Jean Jacques! why 
was it not thy fate to see those men, whom thou caUest 
< the men of nature?' Thou wouldest sink with shame, 
thou wouldest startle with horror at the thought of hav- 
kig once admired them ! 

** Adieu, my dear brother, let me hear from you soon* 
J suffered a great deal on our passage ; this climate kiHs 


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BoBaparte't Prodaoiatioa at AlexMMlvia. 

■» ; ¥n» shall b« so altered i^thal you will diseover tiie 
chtfige at • lei^e's distance* 

^ The remarkable etsects here we, Pompey's eoIaam» 
the obelisks of Cleopatra, the spdt where her balhs owe 
stood, a fiomber of ^miiis, a snbtenrdneotts tempte, some 
eataooBibs, mosqoes, and a ft w ehaiehes. But what is 
still more remarkable, is the character and. manners of 
Urn inhabitants ; they are of [4 tmg-fraid absolutely 
astonisiliag ; nothing agitates Ihem ; and deatik itself is to 
Ibem what a voyage to Amerioa is to the £aglisb« 
• ^ Heir enterior is inpositig ; Ae most iiarked phyai- 
o^omies amongst ns are mere efaiUren's eonnteaanecs 
compared to theinu % The women wrap themselves up in 
if piece of cloth which passes over their heads, and de- 
scends in front to the eyebrows.. The poorer sort cover 
the whole of thdr face with linen, leaving only iw<^ smsll 
sfMrinras for the eyes ; so that, if this strange veil bap- 
petm to be a little shriviolled, 6r staincid, they lock like so 

** Their forts and their arttlleiy are the most fidicdloos 
things in natare* They have not ev^b a loek, nut ft 
window to their hoases ; in a word, they are stiU iavolf «A 
in all the blindness of the earliest ages. 

** Oh ! how many misanthi^pes would be oonf erted, 
tf chance shoold conduct them into the midst of the de- 
sorts of Arabia r 

\ Bonaparte, on establishing his head^inarters at Alex* 
andria, issued a proclamation, wherein he states* tta^ 
the Beys from Georgia have desolated the cottotry* and 
oppressed the French merchants in various injs ; tbatbs 
is arrived, and the fate of the Beys is sealed. H^ ^^ 
the inhabitants that the French are come to rescue fteia 


by Google 


The Inliabitaiits ordered to tarreiMier their Armi. 

from the bands of' their tyrants ; that they adore God^ 
and bonaor the propbei and Ihe Koran ; that their fhend^ 
ship shall be extended to aU ^ilio shall join them, ormain- 
tain a stritt neutrality^but for ihe Beys there shall be oq 
deliverance ; that all the villages shall send to the Freach 
General, stating their submission, and will hoist thf 
French flag— every village opposing the French to bf 
Jbnrned ^ that the Cheiks and other pablic oificers do con* 
tinuo to execute their respective functions, and all thf 
people of Egypt offer up their prayers for the destruction 
i^f the Beys. 

The Bedouins alluded to by Louis received some pre- 
sents from this General at their departure ; and the Che- 
riff Coraim, when he saw he was surrounded by thirty 
thousand Frenchmen and a formidahle train of artillery, 
seemed disinclined to make resistance ; yet» when tho 
Bedouins got away, they robbed every Frenchman they 
met with ; and, after the Cheriff hsd been honoured, 
by Bonaparte with a tri-coloured scarf, he kept up a 
correspondence with some of his old friends^ the Hame* 
lukes, in the country, because they were the companions 
of his childhood, smd he had no quarrel with them. 

Bonaparte established himself at Alexandria, as he had 
done before at Malta ; and it will appear by the orders <tf 
the day, that his justice was precbely that of an arrogant 

In those orders, dated at Alexandria, he orders every 
person, except the Muftis, Imans, and Cheikii, to de- 
posit their arms in a given place within twenty-four hours 
after ; that all the inhabitants shall wear the tri-coloured 
«ockade, reserving to himself the right of distributing 
a tri'Coloured shawl to the Cheiks who may dbtingoiah 
tkaoAMWes ; that the troops are tp pay military honours 

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The Arabt hatafi the Freoch DivbkNif. 

to whoever wears a shawl, and that they shall be treated 
with all due respect Foreign agents not to display 
their colours, and the Cmisni only have his name over hb 

Cherishing the idea of the people being only barba* 
rians, Bonaparte treated them as too ignorant to exercise 
any of the reasoning &calties ; the next proclamation 
calls upon them for reliance on his hononr and friend- 
thip/in the very paper which acknowledges him the ally 
of the Grand Seignior, whose territories he had thai 
wrested from him ! 

He states that the Beys who govern Egypt have long 

insulted the French nation, but that their hour is come ; 

I that they have long tyranised over the fiorest part ot the 

r world, but that God has decreed their doom ; that he 

comes to restore the rights of the Egyptians, and punish 

usurpers, and that he reverences God, Mahomet, and the 

Koran ; he continues to rail against the Beys, who he 

says have destroyed all the good that was in Egypt, and 

concluded by denouncing destruction on all who take up 

arms in favour of the Mamelukes ; that they shall all 

\ perish. 

I It was necessary to march immediately against (be 

/, Mamelukes, before they could arrange a system of attack 

[ yr defence ; the General ordered Desaix to take two field 

I » pieces, and proceed without delay on the rout to Cairo ; 

i that General, accordingly, on the 6th arrived at Demen- 

; bur, after being harassed by the Arabs. No one could 

9tir from their columns ; Desaix was nearly taken prisoner 

npt more than fifty paces in the rear ; and Le Meriar fell 

a sacrifice within one hundred paces of tlie advanced 

guard. Within a few yards of the troops, Delanaa, aa 

adjutant, was made prisoner ;nnd the Arabs settled* 

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General lUeber appointed to command at Alexandria. 

qoarrel amongst themselves about sharing the ransom,, 
by blowing out his brains ! The Mamelukes presented 
themselves in front of die army ; these horsemen retired, 
and, certain of victory, ceased to harass a march, which, 
nnd^ a burning sun, gave nothing but hunger and thirst ; 
the soldiers cried for breads while the dazzling sunbeams, 
playing on a sandy soil, displayed such a resemblance 
to water, as to deceive, not only the stranger, but those 
who had before witnessed it. 

^***^* 0>0^0 ^^«^#^^^^#^^>#^ 


Bonaparte having appointed General Kleber Com* 
mandant at Alexandria, ordered the transport vessels to 
come into the port of tfiat city, and land the horses, pro- 
visions, and other things for the use of the expeditiofii 
The utmost diligence was used as well by night as by 
day ; the ships of war remained at anchor at some dts^ 
iance, which made the landing of the battermg cannon a 
•work of great difficulty. 

Bonaparte agreed with Admiral Brueys, that the fleet 
should anchor at Aboukir, whence a communication 
should be kept up with Rosetta and Alexandria ; he 
ordered the Admiral to cause the channel of the old port 
of Alexandria to be carefully sounded and examined, 
wishing that the squadron should^ if possible, enter it ; 
or, if it was impracticable, tibat the floet should proceed 
to Corfu. Every thing required the debarkation to be 

VOL. I. — NO. 19. 8 X 

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„ . ,1 1 ■ I . . . ea 

The French Armv leaves Alexandria. 

as speedily completed as possible ; Iha- Bngiish miglit 
shev themselves, the squadroD therefore must be freed 
from the iooumbrance of the expedition. It was neces- 
sary to march against Cairo, to hinder the Mamelukes 
destroying or removing the magazines, and it was neces- 
. sary to land the troops for this operation. Btmaparte in- 
spected the town and fortifications ; 'he ordered new 
works, and took every step to ensure the tranquillity and 
defence of the city ; and so arranged every thing that 
the troops intended for the purpose were soon enabled 
to march. 

Bonaparte had a small flotilla prepared to proceed up 
the Nile. This flotilla consisted of seven smaU sloops* 
three gun-boats, and a xebeck, and would have been a^ 
great assistance to the army, had the route of Rosetta 
been taken, in carrying the baggage and provisions of 
the troops, but the French had not yet taken Rosetta, and 
by that route Bonaparte would have retarded the progress 
to Cairo at I^ast eight or ten days ; he therefore det^- 
minded to advance though the Desart by Damaabonr» and 
by this way General Desaix wtks ordered to proceed. 

General Dugua had orders to proceed with the dis- 
mounted cavalry to the mouth of the Nile, to cover the en- 
trance of the French flotilla into that river; he was ako in- 
structed to take possession of Rosetta, to establish a Divan, 
erect a battery at Lisbe, and embark a quantity of rice in 
the flotilla ; after which he was to proceed towards Cairo, 
on the left bank of the Nile, to join the army near Rah- 
manieh, and the flotilla was to proceed up the river. 

The main army left Alexandria early in July. The 
Arabs filled up all the wells at Beba and Birkit ; so that 
the soldiers, scorched by the heat of tlie sun, felt a parch* 
ing thirst, which they could not assuage. The wells 


by Google 


The Mameluke Army advances a^inut them. 

were explored, but a little muddy water could only be 
obtained. Many skirmishes took place, in one of 'wliieh 
general de brigade Mireur was mortally wounded. 

When the army was on its march for Ramanieh, the 
paucity of the wells obliged some of the divisions to halt. 
The soldiers soon discovered the Nile : tliey plunged in, 
and drank plentifally of a water comparatively delici« 
ous. But, speedily the drums recalled them to their 
colours ; a corps of about eight hundred Mamelukeg 
were seen approaching in order of battle ; the soldiers ran 
to their arms ; the enemy retired, and went towards Da* 
manhour, where they met the division of General Desaix: 
the discharge of cannon announced an action. Bona- 
parte marched against the Mamelukes, but the artillery 
of General Desaix, had made them retreat, leaving forty 
men killed or wounded ; ten of the infantry were slightly 
w«unded. The troops being exhausted were greatly in 
want of repose ; and the horses, harassed by the voyage, 
required it still more. This induced Bonaparte to halt at 
Ramanieh the 11th and 13th, when he expected the flo« 
tilla, and the divi^on under General Dugua, 
) This General took Rosetta without any obstacle, and 
joined the army at the expected period. As to the flo- 
tilla, he announced th'at it ascended the river with great 
difficulty, from the shallowness of the water ; however, it 
arrived on the 24th, and daring that night the army set out 
for Miniet-el-Sayd, where it rested, and proceeded again 
on its march. 

The Mamelukes, about 4000, were discovered at the 
dbtance of a league, their right covered by the village of 
Cbebreisse, where they placed some |>ieces of cannon, 
and also by the Nile, on which wa» a flotilla of gttn4)datB 
And anned dgenns. Bonaparte ordered the Fr^oh flo- 
3 K 2 

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Tbe Blaoielaket aliack the French, 

tilla to dispose itself so as to act with tbe left of the armv^ 
and to engage the enemy's vessels, wbon die fonner 
should attack tbe Mamelokes and the village of Chebreisse. 
Toe violence of the wind deranged this plan ; the flotilla 
was driven nearly a league higher up» where it engaged 
at a great disadvantage, as it had» at the same time, to 
sustain the fire of the Mamelukes, the peasants, aad 
the Arabs, and to defend itself against the enemy's 

Some of the peasants, led on by a party of Mamelukes, 
possessed themselves of one galley and a gun-boat The 
commander, Perree, made a successful attack in his tuni, 
and retook the galley and the gun-boat Uis xebec, 
which dealt fire and death, destroyed several of the ene- 
my's gun-boats ; ho was powerfully supported ia this 
unequal contest by the coolness of General Andrcoss;, 
and Bouriennoi secretary to Bonaparte, who were on board 
the xebec. 

The noisp of the artillery told Bonaparte that the flo- 
tilla was engaged ; be marched the army au pas de cluurge, 
and, approaching Chebreisse, he perceived tiie Maine* 
lukes raaged in front of t&e viHage* He reconnoitred 
tlie position, and formed the army ; it consisted of five 
divisions, each, division formed a squfu-e ; the artilkry 
was at the angles, and in the centre the cm^Sry and bag- 
gage. The grenadiers of each square formed platoesi 
which flanked the divisions, and were to reinforce the 
points of attack. The miners posted themselves in two 
villages in the rear^ to secure places .of retreat Th« 
Mamelukes suddenly advanced in crowds^ and wheeled 
Itbout on the flanks and on the rear ; others fell on tbe nghi 
and front of the army. They were allowed to ^proacli* 
when the artillery opened, and they were &oon put to 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

AND WAB8 01? EUROPE. 437 

The Mamelnket defeated with Loti . 

flight. Some of the hravest nished upon the platoons 
on the flanks ; these were received with firmness, and 
nearly the whole were killed by the fire of the small arms^ 
or by the bayonet 

Hie army advanced against the village of Cbebreisse, 
wfaicli the right wing was to attack. It was carried after 
a slight resistance ; the defeat of the Mamelakes was com- 
plete, they fled in disorder towards Cairo ; their flotilla 
got np the Nile with all^ possible expedition. The loss of 
the Mamelukes was more than 600 men, more killed than 
wounded ; that of the French was about 70^ besides the 
loss on board the flotilla. 

The commandant, Perree, in his account of the affidr, 
says, ** I cannot describe to you what we suffered in this 
expedition ; we were reduced for several days to subsist 
entirely on water-melons, during which we were con* 
stantly exposed to the fire 'of the Arabs, alAough, with 
the exception of a few killed and wounded, we always 
came off victorious. The Nile is very far from answering 
the description I had received of it: it winds incessantly, 
and is withal very shalfow." 

. One circumstance that attended this skirmish hone of 
the French writers mention, namely, that the Mamelukes 
accomplished their end by a temporary possession of the 
flotilla ; for, when the Republicans recovered their squa- 
dron, they found that they had nothiiq^ left but what was 
on their backs! 

Bonaparte ordered the general of brigade Zayoneheck 
to proceed with about SOO dismounted cavalry akmg the 
right bfmk of the Nile, in a line parallel to the march of 
the army, which advanced on the left bank. The army 
was incessantly harassed on the march by the Arabs ; it 
jcoald not advance farther than a cannon shot without 


by Google 



The Mamelukes afrain attack the iFreiich. 

falling into an ambuscade. All commanication be^ood 
900 toises kam the near of the araiy was cut off, aod do 
inteliigeDce could be forwarded to or received froBi 

h Neither men nor cattle were to be seen ; the soldiers iaj 
upon heaps of corn^ and subsisted only upon some len^is, 
and a kind of thin cakes, which they made themselves by 
bmising the com. The army continued its murch to- 
wards Cairo, and on the 19th of July General Zayoncbeck 
nnitfed with the main army, where the Nile divides itself 
into two branches, those of Rosetta and Damietta. 

On the I9th Murad Bey, at the head of 6000 Mame- 
lukes and a host of Arabs and peasants, was entrenched 
at Embaba, waiting for the French ; and on the 22d 
Desaix, with the advanced guard, ai'rived within two 
miles of the spot. The heat was intense, and the sol- 
diers excessively fatigued, which induced Bonaparte to 
halt But the Mamelukes no sooner saw the army than 
they formed upon the plain ; an appearance so impoaiog 
never yet presented itself to the French ; the cavalry of 
the Mamelukes were covered with resplendent armour. 
Beyond their left were the celebrated Pyramids, whicb 
have survived so many empires, and braved for more 
than thirty centuries the outrages of time ! Behind their 
right was the Nile, the city of Cairo, the hills of Mokat^ 
tarn, and the fields of the ancient Memphis. 

The army was soon ranged in order of battle; BoDSr 
parte ordered the line to advance, but die Mamelukes 
prevented this movement; they made a feint against lli^ 
centK, but rushed on the divisions of Desaix and B^goi^^ 
which formed 4e right : they charged their ooluwo^f 
which reserved their fire until the enemy advanced with- 
in half musket shot ; the Mamelukes in vain strove to 


by Google 


They arc defeated with ^reat Loss. 

lireak tbrougii those walls of fire ; their ranks were thin- 
ned, a number of killed and wounded remained on the 
field, and they retired without venturing to return to tho 
charge. . , 

The divisions of Bon and Menou, supported by tiiat of 
Kleber, then under the command of General Dugua» ad« 
vanced against the entrenched village of Embab^i. Two 
battations were detached to turn the village, and to take 
advantage of a deep ditch that was in the way, to de- 
fend themselves from the enem/s cavalry, and conceal 
their movements towards the Nile. The divisions rapidly 
advanced. The Mamelukes attacked the platoons ; they 
unmasked forty pieces of bad artillery ; but the divisions 
rushed forward, so that the Mamelukes could not re-load 
tbeir guns. The camp and the village of Embaba, were 
soon in the possession of the French. Fifteen hundred 
Mameluke cavalry, and as many pe&sants, whose retreat 
was cut off, occupied a position behind a ditch that 
communicated with the Nile, and performed prodigies 
of valour in their defence ; they would not surrender, 
and they were all either put to the sword or drowned in 
the Nile. Forty pieces of cannon, 400 camels, the bag- 
gage, and the stores, fell into the hands of the victors. 

Murad Bey attended only to his retreat : the divisions 
of Generals Desaix and Regnier had already forced 
his cavalry to fall back : the army pursued the Mame- 
lukes ; and the French, after marching and fighting nine- 
teen hours, occupied a position at Gaza. Never was the 
superiority of disciplined courage over ill-directed valour 
more sensibly felt than on that day. The Mamelukes 
were mounted on superb Arabian horses, richly capari- 
soned, their armour was magnificent, and their purses 
well stocked with gold. * These spoils compensated th» 


by Google 




' Bonaparte Axes hit Head-Quarters at Cairo. 


soldiers for the excessive fatigues they bad suffered. 
Daring fifteen days their nonrishinent W9is a few vege^ 
tables without bread ; the provisions found in the cainp, 
therefore, afforded them a delicious repast. 

The following morning the principal inhabitants of 
Cairo offered to deliver up the city to the French ; they 
were accompanied by the Ki^ja of the Pacha, Ibrahim 
Bey, who had left Cairo during the night, havings carried 
off the Pacha with him. Bonaparte received them at 
Graza ; they' asked protection for the city^ and engaged 
for its submission ; he answered, that the French wished 
to remain in friendship with the Egyptian people and the 
Ottoman Porte, and assured them that the customs and 
religion of the country should be scrupulously respected. 
They returned to Cairo with a detachment under the 
command of a French officer. The populace cooomitted 
some excesses ; the mansion of Murad Bey was pillaged 
and burned ; but order was restored from the prodama^ 
tions that were issued, and the appearance of an anned 

Bonaparte removed his head-quarters to Cairo ; the 
divisions of Generals Regnier and Menou were stationed 
at Old Cairo, those of Bon and Kleber at Boulac^ acorps 
of observation was placed on the route of Syria, and tbo 
division of Desaix occupied an entrenched positioa 
about three leagues in firont of Embaba^ on the route te 
Upper Egypt 


by Google 

And wars op Europe. 441 

Bonaparte tends the Raritieii to Paris. 


Ik quiet posaessioD ofCairOyBenaparte sent hU digpatches 
to Alexandna and to Paris. It was an object witb bim to 
transport the rarities of Egypt to iSie M oseum at Paris, 
and be ordered the Wamelnkes, whom he had taken pri* 
soners, to be transported inr his first collection of natiirai 
oariosities to France. 

A letter was written to Admfral Bnieys, accompanied by 
twelve Mainelafces^ aaased^ whom he wishes to be sent to 
France by the 'first opportonity. He tells the Admiral^ 
that after afanost incredible biurdahips he is at length qaiet 
in Cairo ; deshres liim not to be uneasy abont the sabsis- 
tence of his men^ as the country is rich in provisions si^ 
most beyond imagination ; be urges him to despatch the 
courier ho sends in a frigate, to land Wherever b^ thinKs 
best ; and says^ that he has de^Mitcbed by the Nile a pro- 
digious quantity of provisioDS^r to pay for the fireigfat of 
the transports. 

He also writes to General Kleber, teUs bun there is a 
very excellent mint at Cairo, and desires him to get back 
aM the ingots he had given to die merchants, in Ken of 
whidi he wBl give them wheal and rice, of which he has 
immense qnanlities ; he detaib part of ,tfaeir manoeavrea 
tiU they took possession of Cauro» where they are refiresh« 
ing themselves after the hardsUpa Aey hao suffered ; Im 
says the asmy is in the {;reatest want of its 'baggage, and 

' VOL. I. — NO. 19. 3 L 

. Digitized by VjQOQIC 


Booaptfrte liBae* Otdere Rla(i?e to Ef^ypt. 

that he sends an officer who is to bring it ap. He writei 
for the French and Arabic printing presses, and many 
articles besides, to be sent by sea to Rosetta^ from whence 
there will be no difficulty in their passing np to Cairo. He 
disires General Kleber to, name a Divan and an Ags; 
and to cupse an inventory (o be iaken of every thing 
which belonged to the Mamelukes ; and concludes by 
ordering a general levy of horses to remount the cavabj. 
He ften writes the orders he had issued relative to the 
organization of Egypt; that in each province of Egypt 
there shall be a Divan of seven persons, who shall watek 
over the interests of the place under their jurisdicti^nr and 
call in the French commander to assist them when neoefl- 
sary ; that there shall be in each province an Agaof the 
Janissaries, with a company of arm^d natiyes to keep good 
order, and l&ewise an intendani, charged with the collec- 
tion of all the revenues which belonged to the Mamelukes, 
now to the lU^piiblic ; and that a French agent shall alwiyv 
be whh the intendant to correspond, and learn the system 
of administration. 

: The ingots alluded to were plunder taken atMdtir 
which had been left with General Kleber at Aiexaodria, 
to pay the transports to serve in the expeditioD4 1h^ 
plunder now found was 6f less value to the Grenersl, asd 
he chose to pay for those services in kind instead of in 
money. If there is any credit in the aaikertion in the letter 
to General Kieberi that Cairo had a good mint, bat little 
mottey, it is utterly incompatible irith his des|>atcbe8 1» 
the Directory^ in which he says, '' that the Mamdoles 
shewed great bravery ; they defended fheir fortimes, bf 
there was not one of them on whom our soldiers did not 
Udd three^ four^ or five hundred Louis T 
The . manner in which the General writes for a inpplf 




liCtter of Captain Gay to hli ParcDU. 

vof necessary articles is a strong proof that the baggage 
was taken by the Mamelukes from on boar^ the flotilla^; 
but. if there is any doubt upon that sut>j.ect, }t,i^xfk hard- 
ly sundae the complaints contained in the lejtters whic|i 
•were taken. \':^,, 

Among the intercepted letters was one from a CaptaiQ 
Gay to his parents, complaining of the hardships the 
Moy aoflTered since tlyeir arriyal in Egypt ; be states that 
he was anable to write sinoe his embarkation, from the 
difficulty attending Ae conriers ; tl^at their oaonpaigii 
opened with the taking of Malta, whence they puiBued 
Iheir route to Egypt. They disembarked at Alexandria, 
where they lost a number of brave men ; that the anwf 
marched to Cairo, where they larrived after suffering 
every thing possible to suffer ; that they were seventeen 
days without bread, wine,, or brandy, and five without 
water, and the enemy close at their heels, who used the 
utmost cruelty ou all who fell into their hands. For 
«)Tenteen days, he says, they had no subsistence but 
water-melons, ^and many died of thirst and hungier ; that 
discontent prevailed throughout ; many flung them«ely<vi 
into the Nile, and several blew out their brains. All 
this time they were obliged to march in close order, the 
enemy's cavalry taking advantage of every concision to 
jail on them with much effect ; and in nil tMa confusion 
they had many bA&ttles tp fight 

Arrived near Cairo^ they found the Mamelukes wait- 
ing them in an entrenohed iBamp ; they were defeatei)* 
and three thousaad peridi^d either by the fire of the 
French, or in the jAypr i for they made pot « single prf- 
^per. He regrets his bei^g miable to retire from a shib- 
wipe )R^rein he has constantly suffered, and is ever riik- 
3 L 2 


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The Chcriff ComimMBt Priwe er on boafd tlie rOrient 

tog his life ; and wishes to pass the reauiiiider ef his 
life in peace. 

1 To this proof of the bad state of the aimy others Daek 
stronger might be found in the totercepted correqioi- 
dence, but in this are the sentiments of an 4>flB€er, who 
liad long served in the French army, and never shrank 
from bis duties* 

> General Kleb^r was oocnpied in proeorii^ suppliM, 
and providing for the siok ; both duties were attended 
with much dtCculty, as water was obliged to be tap 
piled fro^^ B4isetta. The commissaiy of the marine, and 
those employed in the victualling service, comphin of 
the pains and trouble it cost to do the most trifling tUDgt 
Kleber laid these obstacles to the hostility of the new Di- 
van ; and, in a fit of ill*hnmour, be caused the old Cbe^ 
riff, Ooraim, to be sent a prisoner on board the TOrieDt ; 
but the Commissaaryy in a letter to Admiral Braeys, de- 
olareS) that it was . owing to not finding scherms (lighten) 
enough at Bosetta to eonvey water and provisions i» 
supply the fleet ; until the 29th of July only five of those 
vessels could be had, and the demand of the fleet ooaid 
net be supplied until more could be prpcured ^^ 

Without water the Aduural conid do litde ehie thss Is^ 
hour to procure it ; yet he did not neglect the best means 
for providing for the security of his fleet 

In a letter to Bruix, the Minister of the Mikrine, l» 
aajs, he disembarked nii the troops and baggage^ ^ 
that being satisfied the ships ef war couM not get iato the 
port, he had anchored his flefet in a line Of battle in the 
bay of Baquiers ; that the troops entered Rosetta, efl' 
the anny was marching rapidly to the conquest of £^^> 


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Adftilnl NelMNi joiflMlir Ckplain Trovbridfe. 

ke ragfeti maoli that Im oannot get the ships mto the 
harbour of Alexandria; that he has offered It^OOO livres 
t^ aay pilot w1m» irill take the squadrdn in, bat they all 
deoUned it ; he has engaged two intelligent oflScers to 
eonnd the entraniBe, and see if by any means they naj 
anceeed in getting' in; he adds^ tkey kavo-heard nothing 
of the English fleet, hot he thinks they have not so nmny 
as fourteen sail of the line, and that lliev do not there- 
lore wish to try strength with them; he loaks with gresit 
anxiety to the time when the con<piest of Egypt shaH ftip- 
nish them with provisions, as they are ohUgsd to aappty 
the ticopa ; that he hasoaly fifteen days bisouit on bilard, 
and eonsnming every thing, and raplacing nothing ; that 
the crews are weak, the rig^;lng ont oi repair, and the 
fleet in want of many thnigs* 

Npthing GOoM be mpre erroneons than the idea suf- 
gested by the French Adnnral, relatiff e to the ifisposition 
of the English. Unit he had reached tiha phce of id^ 
destinatim, landed an amy on a distant shore, and rode 
thirty long day/i in an open' bpqr* was owing to no-fisr: 
bearance of the Batish navy, nor atfy ^inclination tp 
bsaard a renconntre ; bat to a want of intelligence, 
which left the English Adqricil to hnnt after his enemy 
before he coald find hiss. 

BeaiwAdmiral Nekea was in fhe- Medi t e r rane an , comr 
manding a flying squadron, with his flag on boar4 tiie 
Vangaard, bathe i^as kynb aNins equal to a contest 
with thepewefful armanmnt under Admiral Broeys; be 
was reinforced, however, by Captain Trowbridge, with 
ten sail of ihe Une, direclly Aat the Rfaioh expedititti 
was knqwn not to havd gohe for Ireland, fiirfioimtfo Ifel- 
aon p te cie de d , thttefore^ in searob of tiie enemy, with 


tized by Google 


Admiral Nelioo disooven the FkmIi Fltet at Abmikif. 

tbirtocn seveaty-foiur line of . battle ships^ and (Mk» fiSf 
g<m ship*. 

Ifiiiriiig' goBB towards NiploB for iiiliBiiiiatkm» hedfc* 
ivcted hii ooiane towanb Sicily ; lie- heard of the sairea* 
4er of MaltB, and inunediately took on board expert 
|iiotB» and waa the fint commander who over paieed tiii 
JBtaiti of Mesaina with a fleet of men of war. 

He leaned, that after storing only a week, the Frencb 
lad left Maka; he ateeved for C;fandia, and being aesnid 
Ihat 4hey wens destined for Egypt, be sailed ,thith(»» aii4 
arrifed at the mootb of tbe Nile three days before Bosar 
parte. He supposed his infermation to be fidse, be ler 
paired to Bbodes, and actoally passed Bonaparte's fleet 
mthe fog, as they were lying to; for tbe oonvoy. He 
letamed to Sicily, and in the bay of Syracuse procorei 
supplies, of whiehbis sqnadson stood in need. 
t The Englisb Admiral again went in search of thr 
nrewob ezpeditkNi, and being informed that it had arrivedi 
in Egypt some time before, he'again steered for Akxsn- 
dria^ and, as he approached the coasts s^w tbe ebject of 
bis desire. He diaooirered thirteen line of battle sbipi 
lining at anchor, witb one 48 gnn, one 44 gnn, and twe 
96 gnn frigates. One sUp, FOrient, with the flsg of 
Admiral Bmeys, carried 120 gnns, three others csme' 
80 gans each, and each of the remaining nine shqMcar- 
ffied 74 guns. 

The position occupied by ^ Fkrench was in the veiy 
place wbere tbe famous ooBBbat between Augustas Comt 
and Marc Anthony, nineteen hundred years since, itaM 
the empire 4^ the woiid. History will again record a euttar 
almost as important-^ naTul battle between the fleets^ 
two of t^ most powerful states of the civiliaed woiMt <* 


by Google 


Heattncks and defeati them. 

which depended their maritime superiority, the renewdl 
of a bloody war oh the .Eoropcan Continent, and thd 
CTentual conqaest of Egypt by the forces of the power 
by tirhom it was inraded. 

Admiral Neltion, on viewing^ the position of the Frendv 
4fecided on an evolntion neyer before hazarded by any 
commander, and «which was only, perhapn, justified b^ 
bis certainty of the coobiess mf the veteran officers of bii 
fleet, and of the undatmted courage of his sailors, ba^ 
bitaated to victory; Tlie French fleet was drawn up oA 
the margin of deep Water in the Bay of Aboukir, and 
moored as close as* possible to the shoals ; he supposed 
that a channel was left between the ships and the shore ; 
and that Wherever the French could swing the BngUsh 
could floati 

The sun was decKnihg^ and as darkness would prevetil 
the possibility of carrying the experiment into eflbct, h6 
determined on an instantaneous attack, by' plercitfg th6 
line, and to capture or destroy the whole squadron. 
< His account of tbis victory is remarkable for its eatt* 
ciseness and modesty ; but as this threatened to be by 
far the most adverse event that had occurred in the life 
of our hero, we shall give the particulars of it as they are 
stated by his intimate firiend. Admiral Ganteaume. 

He writes to the Minister, that it is with the most heart- 
felt sorrow he is ohliged to give him an account of the 
most fatal of disasters-*>that eleven sail of the line, taken, 
burnt, and lost, and the coast laid open ^to the enemy 
are the dreadtfnl ' results of the engagement. He says, 
that notwithstanding the hasty assembling of their crews, 
they arrived safe and well at Epypt — that on the 31st of 
July the whole of the British fleet hove in sight, and 
bore down with intent to attack them* He then states 




Admiral Gaoteaume*! Oespatcli coDcenilaf Uie Battle of Abookir. 

the accidents which occurred to the French fleet* voi 
that the destruction was coniplete-*4liat he hvfuHt 
escaped from the I'Orient, which was on flre» by getlof 
into a boat, which was under her counter. He tbi 
stales the ships taken, those set on fire, and thoM de* 
stroyed by getting aground— one of them, the TnoleoSi 
by her own Captain, to save her firom the British— Aal 
the sole remains of this great ^rmament are the few tcs* 
sels that remain at Alexandria, and a divbion withOeae- 
ral Villeneuve, who escaped, of two ships of the Gae and 
two frigates. He then gives the names of some of tb 
officers killed ; but cannot give an exaot list of the totil 
loss for want of returns fi'om the officers ; nor that of the 
English, which he says was great, from the oare irith 
which they conceal it. He feelingly regrets the misfor' 
tune they have experienced, and thinks that after so 
dreadful a disaster, nothing but a peaoe can settle Af 
lestablishmenl of their new colony. 


Admiral Ganteaume's despntcbcoDcemflii; the bslde sf 
Aboakir, pokrts the foeling of the officers of theFfenflb 
fleet upon the event; and althooj^ he regrets the Froack 
Admiral's having chosen the position wherein he awaM 
the English fleet, yet it was probably the best sitosliflA' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Abstract of the Battle of Aboukir. 
' ■ - • 

for the ftecaiity oi iiis owo. Ndthiog could have deterred 
the English co&imander from engaging the enemy. Nel- 
son considered it his doty to find out the French fleet 
and to beat it ; it was not a probability of succe38 that he 
calculated upon ; he had promised himself a ^victory, 
and did not reckon on the chance of a defeat. Like 
Bonaparte, when he determined, he employed every 
means to efiect it ; like Bonaparte, his means were ar*- 
ranged with precision, and directed by his own energy 
and intrepidity. What in others would have been rasfar 
aess to attempt, he achieved ; and thus secured a most 
inportant victory for his country,' and enrolled his own 
fame on the records of immortality. 

The abstract of the battle forms another important 
document iof this memorable naval victory. 
• This abstract details the particulars from die first ap- 
pearance of the Eng^h fieet. Signals were thrown out 
to recal all the me& on shore, and making ready for ac^ 
tion ; and the frigates and smaller vessels were ordered 
to send as many men as possible on board the ships of the 
line. He states, that at near six o'clock the British vessek 
bad turned the head of their line, and anchored between 
them and the land, some moored within pistol shot, so 
that most of our ships were between two fires. The at^ 
tack and defence were, he says, desperate ; diat the 
whole of their van was often raked, and the smoke so 
fliifik that with difficulty they could distinguish the dif* 
ferent movements — ^that in about an hour after the action 
had. dommenced, the Admiral was. wonnded twice, and 
soon after killed on the quarter deck-r-tbat while they 
were briskly firing firom the lower deck guns, ihey found 
the quarter deck on fire, wUoh spread so rapidly, that 
aU was soon in flames — ^their pumps and buckets were 

VOL. 1. — NO. 19. 8 M 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Talliea writet to the Directory. 

destroyed — that the flames increased, and made an ahm- 
ing progress ; that they had lost iheir main and misea 
masts, and' the fire rapidly spread ; both Captains wen 
wotmded, bat the scuttles were ordered to be opened, 
and every one to quit the ^hip. At half past ten the ship 
blew up. At day break several ships were discovered in 
possession of the enemy-— two whi6h ran aground were 
attacked and obliged to strike ; four set their sails and 
atood out to sea ; the Timoleonran ashore and was set fire 
to by her crew, to prevent her falling into the eniem/s 
bands— he details the accounts, he says, from memotyi not 
being able to preserve a memorandum of any desoriptioD. 
\ During this time Tallien, of whom we have formerly 
written, was at Bosetta, and in a letter to Barraa the Di- 
rector, he says, '* Consternation has overwhehned us alL 
I set out to-morrow for Cairo, to carry th^ news to Bona* 
parte. It will shock him the more, as be had no idea of its 
bappaaiiig« He will find resources in himself to prevent 
' the disaster being fatal to die army which he oortunands." 

< The' effects of this disaster were soothed by die quid 
Mocess^ thiit attended the forties under the comnnBd 
^ Bonaqparte. When the Preach entered C«in> the 
Jdamdukes Mrere divided into two armies, one commanded 
by Mtirad Bey, which took the route of Upper J^^ ; 
4he otber, under Ibrahim Bey, proceeded towards Syos. 
.Tbe.power of the Bgyptian govetnment had b^en dinid 
between these Beys ; Mumd Bay was at the bead tf UiennE- 
^ly department, while Ibrafann presided in civil atflidn. 

/ Desaix formed an entrenched ^ilip Veyond Oiaa, on 
tiie left bacnk'of the Nile ; Us advanced points sttd those 
•fkf Muraiil Bey were very near eadh other. IbraUnn Be; 
Tetired to BaJbeis, sbd waiteS for die carimm fitim 
Itfecca, to be reinforced by die corpk of Mtimelukes tM 





Genaral lisClefG acfeati • Body of M amelakes* 

«M>ojrted ity to execute a pl^n of iioBtile opei^tioiis ia 
conjunction with Mufsd Bey and the Arabs. From this 
jBww^gemesit^ whatever credit may be dae to the charges 
bmoglit by tlie French against the Beys for mis-rule, they 
did Boft want taienjUi. Ibrahim used every exertios to in^ 
ihice the Feilalis of the Deka, to take arms, and to indte 
the iohabitants of Cairo, ito revolt ; Bonaparte therefore 
lelt it iiecessary to organise a provbional govemmeBt 
IMid regulate every branch of the public service ; he also 
^fiabfid, by putting his forces in entrendied positions, to 
f^ure the French from any soiprise, either of the Mam^ 
Ittkes or the inhabitants. 

As the neighbourhood of Ibrahim Bey was very daor 
gerous. General (le Clerc was despatched from Cairo on 
the 8d of Aug^t; with 900 cavair}', three companies of 
grefiadiers, and a battaloin, with two pieces of light artil^ 
ery, to take a position at Elhanka, and observe his motions. 
Tlie General was attacked by a body of 4000 Mamelukes 
The General was attacked by a body of 4000 Mamelukes 
and Arabs, which a few discharges of artilli^ry soon forced 
to retire. Bonaparte considered Ibrahim of so much conse- 
qnence that he marched against him in person, but could 
not overtake him tiH he was joined by the caravan, and in- 
cjceased his army from the Mamelukes, its escort The 
Fxenph came up with the army of the Bey, but could not 
prevent him reaching the Desart with all his baggage and 
forces. Bonaparte now took measures to fortify Salehieh 
and fislbcM. General Dugua was ordered to Damietta, 
and to subdue the Delta. General Regnier's division 
was posted at Salehieh, to secure the submission of the 
piovioce of C%erkie, and Bonaparte took the rest of the 
troops to Cairo. On his return from this expedition h^ 
received intelligence of the naval action of Aboukir. He 
managed very adroitly to collect the scattered hopes of hia 

•■ 8 M 2 Digitized by Google^ 


BoDaparte'i Deflpatch to the DiKctory. 

foUewerSy by the turn he gave to it in public, and wUck 
his despatch to the Directory wUlelacidate. 
f He states that he wrote to the Admiral to enter the poit 
of Alexandria^ and if not praetieable, to land the arti^ 
lery and stores and return to Corfu, and that he left 
Alexandria satisfied that one step or the otherwould havs 
been taken — ^tbat for a long time he had no inteUigenoa 
from that quarter, a multitude of Arabs being conslaatly 
close to his canip->«tbat at lenght the comnnmication was 
opened, and he heard firom the Admiral with astowsh- 
ment that he was still at Aboukir ; this alarmed him, bat 
on the 29th he wrote that he had heard of the victoiy of 
the Pyramids and the taking of Cairo, and that he bad 
found a passage to enter the port of Alexandria— thail ha 
wrote that letter on the 1st of August, the day die Eeglisb 
fleet attacked him — that when he perceived them he seat 
an ofTicer to acquaint Bonaparte with his plans, but that 
officer perished on the road. 

The destinies, hb soys, wished to prove on this as oa 
many other occasions, that if they gave the ascendance 
on land to the French, they gave the empire of the seas 
to the English ; but that fortune had not forsaken them— 
' that he landed at Aleccandria and attacked it with SOW 
barrassed men without cannon, and in five days was ests- 
blisfaed in Egypt— and he concludes by observing, diit 
when fortune saw her favours were no longer usefiil sb« 
abandoned the fleet to its fate. 

The illiberality of blaming the gallant Bruays after his 
death, is aa unjust as it was ungenerous, if the statemeat 
of the Admiral be true, that he detained the fleet to 
^ratiiy the wishes of the Commander in Chief. It wsf 
perhaps to atone for this that Boniqparte wrote a letter ef 
kiadneas aqd condolenco to Madam Bruyes. 


by Google 


■r - - ■ ■ — 

The Meetioir at ibe Pjrraoiids. 

Whatever was the design of the general in going t^ 
Egypti iU real tendency was to lead to a new opinion of 
bis own character: he had as yet been looked on as an 
able warrior, and the vices of the conqaeror were ob- 
scared by the valour of the soldier; but he now got him- 
self in a snare, whence he could only escape by the arts 
of a cunning knave. The reflections cast upon Brueys 
placed him thus to the people of Europe, and his con* 
duct in Egypt made much the same impression upon bis 
army there. 

Attended by his staff, and the Members of the Na- 
tional Institute, with a powerful guard, and conducted 
by several Muftis and Imans, the General proceeded to 
the pyramids, where, after hastily surveying the five in- 
ferior ones, his attention was directed to that called 
•• Cheops." 

After examining the different apartments, be seated 
himself in a flattened vault* on a chest of granite, eight 
feet long and four feet deep, amongst his attendants, and 
invited the Muftis, Imans, &c. to be also seated, when ho 
commenced a conversation with Sulaman, Ibrahim, and 
Muliamed, the chief Muftis. 

In this interview he endeavours to impress the Muftis 
with an idea of the faith he places in Mahpmet, and his 
veneration for the Koran, and that he hopes to honour 
the 'prophet's tomb in his holy city; but that he mast 
first exterminate the Mamelukes, that God has ordained 
tiieir destruction, and that the angels of death hava 
breathed upon them. After much conversation with the 
Muftis, in which he seems to yield to their religion, he 
tells them to instruct the people of Egypt, to destroy the 
Beys and Mamelukes, and favour the conunerce of the 
Francs in their country, to let them have footing; but H 


by Google 

Head Qoarten at Cairo. 

drive iar away the islanders of Albion, accarsed anong 
the cUMreB of Issa (Qirist) tiiat the friendship and tres- 
aores of the Franes shsdl be theirs, till they ascend to tiw 
seventh heaven, and are seated by the black-eyed houisr 
endowed witfa perpetaal youth and virginity* 

In this conversatioB it is difficult to discover any tbiiy 
more than a contest between cunning and craft \ his in- 
tention was to outwit the priests, but in this attempt b« 


BoNAPAitTE having fixed his head quarters at Cairo^ 
Desaix was ordered to complete the conquest of Upper 
Egypt, where Murad bad taken refuge after the battle of 
the Pyramids. He struck his camp before Cairo, and set 
out, togeth^ with a flotilla, which was to convoy bi» 

Learning that some bai'ks, with articles for the Mame- 
Mlcs, were atReshuasch, Desaix marched to surpns^ 
them ; and, after crossing eight canals, and the lake Ba- 
ten, with the water up to their annpits, came up with 
flie convoy at Benaseh, and made it a prias. Desatxre^ 
joined his division at Abu-jaiijeh, marched to Tsnitei- 
shereef, where he took his position at the Capai ^^ '^ 
seph, to ensure a communication with Cairo. Arrived 
at Siut, he endeavoured to overtake the Mamebkes st 
Beneady, whither they had retired, with their w«i»* 
jand baggage: but, they having joined Murad fiejf '^ 


by Google I 


M and Bey haraMM flie Freneli* 

FaiwaOf Desaix retarned to Sint, to redeaoend to Tarat* 
el-shereef^ where he embarked his troops on the Canal of 
Joseph. Arrived off Mansara, he met Morad Bey, who 
kept up sach a well-directed iBre upon the French on 
tiieir landing, that Desaix ordered them to retom on 
board, intending to fall down to Minkia. The Ifame* 
lakes, having harrassed die barks, some companies of gre» 
nadiers dispersed them : the debarkation being efieetod 
the troops resumed the road to the *I>esart, aecompaaied 
by the barks as far as Manora ; Mnrad Bey was at fonr 
miles distance ; while his reargnard harrassed the Frencll 
he gained the heights, and they saw his araqr open with 
all the magnificence of the east They disoovefed Ins 
person, snrroundred by all the Beys and Kiasohefs onder 
his command. The French marched forward ; and the 
cavalry they had to oppose tamed and fled to Elalamon* 
In following the French left their barks ; they were 
obliged to retnm for biscoit : Morad thought they had 
fled ; he attacked them, and actually carried away two 
prisoners from the pointi of the bayonets, and n^fat de^ 
yvered the French from their valoor. On regaining the 
baiks the French loaded with biscuit, and, after taking 
rome repose, recomsiieiiced fiieir anuroh. 

Muhul Bey had got a stranger to arrive in his anny^ 
with newl that the English had destreyed the Fitenoh at 
Alexandria ; that the ^people ef Caito had naasaanfl 
those who were fai that city ; and dnit there remained in 
Egypt only flie few soldiers whom tiiey had pnt to flight 
ibe. evening before, and when thwy ehonld pnsseittljr de^ 
•troy ; a festival was given, and a sUmbaMfa^ where Iba 
Frendi were represeoted by Arabs, who were ordored l» 
snlfcr themselves to be beaten. The Ibaat fiowluded 


by Google 


ActioD between the Mameiukes tod French. 

with the murder of the two prisoners who had beeo taket 
two days before. 

Desaix resolved to attack when he had left the openind 
cultivated country. Hie night the Mamelakes passed in 
caronsali. At day-break they formed a hoUow sqiiaif» 
flaaked by two leaser bodies : soon after, the French sav 
Marad with his Mamelukes, and eight or ten thoasad 
ArsAs. A valley was between the two armies, wbicli 
must be passed before the French could attack. Ns 
sooner did Marad see them in the disadvantageoos posir 
tion befdre he surrounded them, charging them withs 
degree of fury. The closeness of the French rendered 
bis numbers of no advantage to him ; their musketry ttr 
puked him for the time. Hie Mamelukes stopped, 
wheeled^ as if to fly, and suddenly fell one of thes^sar 
drons, which they levelled ; all who were not killed fell 
down : this uncovered the Mamelukes to the c^ter of 
the French, who instantly gave a heavy fire : Hand 
tfti^ped and wheeled once more ; those of tbe squadroa 
mot killed came into the ranks. The French were agaii 
attacked with the cries of rage ; much vidour was sbeva 
fw both sides ; the barrels of the French muskets weft 
hacked by the sabres of the Mamelukes : their horses feB 
back at the sigU; of the bayonets ; their riders taroed 
them, hoping to force their rai^ks by their kicks : the 
F^neh pressed together wi&ont disorder, carnage w0 
•very where, but there was no battle : the Mamehile^ 
were wild with fiiry ; they threw their arms at As 
French ; and the troops were assaikd with fireloeks, t» 
4ols, battle-axes, and showers of sabres. Those who wen 
dismounted crept under the bayonets, endeavoomg ^ 
xat the ioldiei^s legs ; the dying collected their stmgtii 


by Google 


The French Anny tiiflfera from Ophthalmia. 

and »til( struggled with the dying* aad their blood* which 
mingled while it drank the dost, did not appease their 

Murad bad cotamitfed great daughter among the French ; 
in fUling back he did not fly^ and th* sitoation of the 
Fi^ench was not improved : scarcely had be retreated 
when he opened a battery hilfaerto concealed* whioh 
at each discharge carried off six dr eiglit soldiers. The 
French witre lost in consternation ; th6 ntoiber of the 
wounded increased cTery iistantf: to march was to 
abandon the wounded* and t6 abandon them was to giro 
them np to celtain death. Desaix remained motionless 
a moment : at length* says a Fr^nbhr pbilosoplier* ^' the 
voice of necessity drowned that of the unimrtiiaate 
wounded* and the army began its march/' Murad threat^ 
ened his retreat : his only choice was now between vic- 
tory and absotute destrnction : die army* as one indin* 
dual* determined to force the battery : the Hght artillery 
did prodigies ; and while they dismounted some of tiie 
guns of the Mamelukes* the grenadiers came np; the bat- 
tery was abandoned* the cavaby* panic*stmck* wheeled/ 
fled* ajikd left the French no enemy to oppose. 

Never was a battle more terrible* or a victory morci 
brilliant. The advantage gained by the baftle of Sedi* 
man was detaching the Arabs from the Mamehikes. Mu- 
rad Bey* no longer hoping ta resist tfm French army* re- 
duced them to follow a Hghf and rapid enemy* who left 
it neither repose nor security. 

The army was now afflicted with opUmhnia* arising 
from long marches and great fatigues* in a climate wbere 
the humidity of th« ahr repels perspirationr so as to pioi 
dace a fttix* that attacka eUher the eyes or Ibe bawels. 

Desaix tbougbt himself able to dispute wftb Murad 

VOL. I.— NO. 20. a N 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


FertUiCy of Upper En^ypt. 

Bey the territorial tax, of the rich province of Bene- 
•uef, when he returned to Cairo, to provide himself with 
tlie means of again taking the field. 

When the French entered Upper Egypt the villages 
were so numeronSf that M. De Non counted tweDty-foor 
by which he waa encompassed ; so planted with spread- 
ing trees that they seemed like pictures which travdlen 
have given of the habitations in the islands of the Pacific 
Sea ; abundance and riches were every where to be seen. 

At Djioieh, the capital, the French found provisions at 
very low prices ; bread one sous the pound, twelve eggs 
for two sous, two pigeons three sous, a goose of ive 
pounds weight twelve sous : and this the result of great 
abundance ; for, after a stay of three weeks, when fiTt 
thousand persons had increased the consumption and the 
money in circHlation^ the price of every article renained 
the same^ These were the people called upon by Bona- 
parte to believe that he had hazarded every tliiog purelj 
to increase their happiness, and deliver them from op- 
pressors ! and posterity will not wonder tliat these Egsf- 
tians could not understand the advantages they were to 
. gain by paying the Biiri to the bayonet instead ef tbt 

Ibrahim Bey had retired, with about t006 Mameluiei 
and his treasures to Gaza, where, from Bgezzar, Pacha 
of Acre^ he had the most favourable reception ; tbe Pa- 
cha B04 only protected the Mamelukes, but also threat- 
ened the frontiers of Egypt ; Bonaparte despatched t 
letter, to Dgezzar, assuring him that tbe French wiskd 
to preserve the firiembhip of the Grand Seignior, and 
live in peace with him ; but insisted that Dgezzar, shooki 
rrniOYo Ibrahim Bey and his Mamelukes, and affofd H^ 
no support. The Pacha made no answer, bat, io p^ 




The French establish 'different Worlcs at Cairo. 

aiiger« coDimanded the officer to return, and ordered ail 
l3ie French at Acre to be put in irons. 

No intelKgence arrived from Europe since the action 
jil Aboukir, as the ports of Egypt were closely blocked 
ftp by the^ English. Bonaparte had no official account 
of the issue of the negociation which the Directory 
neant to open with the Ottoman Porte, relative to the 
expedition to Egypt ; but all the accounts received over- 
land announced that the English had formed an alliance 
between England, Russia, and the Porte, against the Re- 
public. Bonaparte, judging that operations would take 
place against Egypt on the side of Syria, and by sea, he 
immediately resolved to march into Syria, and return to 
Egypt time enough to oppose the expected invasion by 
sea, which was not likely to take place till about the end 
ef the (bllowing June. Such was the plan which Bona- 
parte resolved upon, and which he proceeded to execute, 
after arranging a novel system of government for Egypt, 
imd establishing new imposts more productive to the 
French treasury. At Cairo he settled a conmiercial coin- 
pany, to facilitate the exchange and chrculation of all kinds 
ot commodities. An institute was founded, to which a 
Sbrary ^as attached, and a chemical laboratory 'con- 
strueted. A workshop was opened for all the mechluiic 
arts ; the making of bread, and of various fermented li- 
quors was brought to a degree of perfection ; sirftpetre 
was refined, and several hydraulic machines constructed ; 
whilst scientific and literary men proceeded into the in- 
terior of Egypt, where they made many, interesting ob- 
servations and important discoveries, with reference to 
geography, history, md natural philosophy. 
* General Andreossy was to reduce the country sur- 
rounding the Lake Menzale, the Pelnsian Mouths, and 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


r, ■ ' r ' ■ 

The litenry Menbasily employed. 

to tak^e a au^i^y of all these points^ ai well "both in a ici- 
entific and a military point of Yiew« The General soandr 
ed the roads of DainieUat ff( Boogasie. and of those imr 
Bouj(cai and the mouth pf th^ Nile, to determine tlw 
passes o< tii^ ^ogbas, and the form of the bar* 

General j9indreosay afterwards surveyed the lakes of 
Natron, in a vaUey inwards of two leagues broad ; these 
hikes extend about six leagues. The GeneraJ went into 
a large valley, ci^ed the rivpr San*seaa (without waitr) ; 
encumbered with sand, its surface about three kagues in 
diameter; he found numbers of large trees entirely pe* 
trified ; in the valley of the lakes were found seversl 
springs of very good water. T|ic Natron isofaveiy 
good quality* apd wojiild form a.valuabl^ branch of con? 

) AU the men of science who accompanied Bonaparte 
were now .employed in different pursuits which tallied 
with their knowledge ; the latitudes pf the priDC^el 
places were asfpertaineji ; plans taken, and surveys exe- 
cuted ; naituralista examined the animahi and fiah of tlie 
country ; plants and minerals were attf^nded to, and mo- 
liuments of anlix)uity sought aftpf and inquired mto. A 
coUectioi;^ of insects of Syria and the Depart was msdei 
and W]n4nulk and pnachines, till then unknowii uk Eg7P^ 
were constructed. An abnanack and a newspaper ware 
printed, and every person everted .himself in forpiiV 
establi^ments, or making new diseovpries. 

While the preparations were ipaking f(^ the expedn 
tii99 to S^fia, ]Bom;part9 assisted the ^(tvans in their occa* 
pations, 9nd regularly attended the Insti^te. whers esck 
member stated hjs proceedings.. He had settled to viat 
the isthmni^ of Sues in person, and to satisfy &U iP^^ 
pclativo to the canal, which be looked op as one of <k^ 



AMD Wins OV BVROPB. 461 

iBtametloB of Om lahiAitMito of Cairo. 

OKiftt importaat problems in hiBtory ; he had prepared 'for 
this journey when a cabunitous event made him pest« 
pone it 

Tranquillity had hitherto reipied in the city of Oairo ; 
delegates irom the proTinoes deliberated with cafamess 
OB the propositions made by the French commissioners^ 
respeotipg the' oipmization of the Divans, die civil and 
eriminiii code, the establishment and distribation of im^ 
posts^ and qia the v^ous olgects of administrations and 
general police^ Suddenly the French thou^t they saw 
symptoms of an ^Bsurrection : on the 21st of October, at 
day-breaky the inhabitants were assembling in diSerent 
parts, but particularly near the great mosque ; bnt lor 
irhal cause the jealousy of the conquerors would not sufi 
fer them to inquire. General Depoid, the commandanl^ 
advanoed, with a sn^U force, to disperse them, but ha 
was resisted, and, with several oflScers and some dra- 
yoop»» killed, hy a party of the people, The iasarreo* 
tion immediately became real ; all the French who feU iq 
with the insurgents were massacred, pnd a number of 
Aiabfi appeared in force at tiie gates of the city. The 
gtmrok was beat, the French flew to f^pns, and marched^ 
having pieces t^ artillery with them, against the insur^;. 
gento ; the latter repaired to the differtnlt mosques, from 
wheufce they direct^ agnlling fiw against the soldiers: 
the mosques were forced, and a terrible combat ensnedp 
m which the French appeared t6 be actuated by feelings of 
desperation and revenge* Cannon, plaeed on eminences, 
and those of the citadbl, were fiied on the town, and the 
great mosque^ and other slalioas ef the insurgents, were 
set on fire. The animpflity of Ihd French was levelled 
a^iiMt the hoary-headed Goraim; formerly sent on board 
the LJOrient. Aidmiral Brueys had pot hmi on shoiw 




The Cberiff Gonini torn to pieo^. 

before the battle. The old xtma vas found at Rosetta, 
and Menou ordered him to be sent to Bonaparte at Cairii> 
where he fell into the hands of the heroes of the Po and 
the Pyramids, who tore him to pieces, and paraded bis 
bead abont the sfreets upon a pole, a la mode-a'Parisl 
After hundreds of innocent people had been massacred, 
Bonaparte issued a general pardon, and on the 23rd of 
October, order was entirely restored ; but measures wen 
taken that impressed the country with die terror of iw 

Having despatched General Bon with two pieces ef 
cannon to attack Suez, Bonaparte, with some of his etat- 
mojor, some members of the Institute, and escorted bj« 
corps of cavalry, on the 26th of December arrived tt 
that poet, General Bon having got possession withoat 
diiBeulty. The next day was spent in viewing Ihe town 
and coasts and ordering such works as Bonaparte deemed 
necessary. On the 28th of December he passed the Red 
Sea at a (brd near Sues, and returned tbo same tnmi 
to Suez, but it being high water be was obliged to asces' 
to Uie extremity of the Red Sea ; this route was rendered 
Ifie more tedious in consequenee of the guide baviog M 
his way in the marshes, from which they extricatefi theOB* 
selves with difiieulty, being at 'one time up to the middb 
in water. The magazines at Suez clearly shewed ititf' 
once been the enirepAi'ofi^ considerable commerce ; M 
at present only v<$s8el8 of small draught can enter it« 
port ; at the end of a sandbank, whkh runs a league io^ 
tlie sea, fiigates may anchor : this bank is dry at low w>' 
fer, and would admit of the erection of a battery, to pro- 
tect the anchorage and defend the road. 

Bonaparte encouraged commerce, and superseded V» 
old rates and duties by others less severe ; he took »«»■ 




Bonaparte traces the Canal of Suez. 

•ares for the safe carriage of goods fron Suez to Cairo 
and Belbeis^ and made such dispositions 'as were likely 
to restore Suez to its ancient splendour. During his stay 
four ships arrived there from Jedda, and the Arabs of 
^or came to solicit the friendship of the French. Bona- 
parte quitted Suez on the 30th December, and went in a 
northerly direction. About two leagues and a half he 
fi>und some vestiges of the entrance of the Canal of Suez, 
which he followed nearly four leagues ; the same night 
he rested at the fort of Adgeroud ; on the Istof January* 
17^, he arrived at Belbeis ; and on the 3d advanced. to 
Mount Horeb, wliere he thought he discovered soma 
more remains of the Canal of Suez ; this was near its en- 
trance into the fruitful lands of Egypt. He traced iti 
course for several leagues, and persuaded, by this second 
discovery, he ordered an engineer to repair to Suez, and, , 
with a sufficient escort, to take a geometrical level of th« 
course of the canal, tliis would finally resolve the pro- 
blem of its existence. 

. Bonaparte learned that Dgezzar had taken the fort of 
EI Arish, which defended the frontiers of Egypt ; this for- 
tress was occupied by the advanced guard of the Pacha/ 
Confident of being attacked, no alternative remained to 
Bonaparte than an anticipation of hostilities. He quitted 
Suez immediately, but before his coming to Cairo, he 
proceeded to Salehieh, where were cantoned the troops 
to form tb0 advanced guard of the expedition to Syria ; 
these he ordered to march without delay ; he then went 
to Cairo ; where he exerted the greatest celerity in tlie 
preparations, and in collecting the main body of the 
urmy, for the expedition to Syria, 


by Google 


Stale of AiUn te Barope. ; 


Having exiled liiiiiself firom the theatre of his glorj, ve 
mofit retain to Europe, and see iriiat eflfect was prodooed 
hy the absence of that Hero, to whose talents alone boft 
his friends and enemies seemed to ascribe all the soeoeatf 
•f the French arms. 

It will be remembered, that hamg made peace viA 
the Emperor of Germany, Bonq>arte had left France iie- 
gociatiog a treaty with the Princes of the Empire at Bii- 
tadt ; and when the congress opened, the power of tk 
Republic appeared so consolidated, that no donbt cosU 
be entertained but that the empire would accept of peact 
upon almost any terms ; but* the departue of Booaparf* 
with his army inspirited the allied courts, and the delik- 
i-ations were delayed to take advantage of erents. IV 
hungry policy of the Directory gave the eneotes •f 
France a.pretence for g^ing all the time they desired. 
It has been settled the fortresses of Kehl and CsMel 
should be given to the Imperial troops, and Ehreabivit' 
stein handed over to a Rnench garrison* 

Not the smallest succour was conveyed into Ehre&bltr^ 
stein, but the French refused to allow the Austrisns I* 
take possession of ^ other fortresses* The membeiv ^ 
the * congress were encouraged to hope that Eogfaoid wofltl 
find resources fbr a new confederacy if the negodiis* 
should fail, and the supplying Ehrenbreitstein was made Ik 
only point of discussion. Matters stood thus, whea o^ 




^ Tradbles in St. Domingo. 

^-^'^^ ' ■ ' ■ ■ ■ "■■.,'■ — 

armed Ihttt the Freaeh fleet Jiad been de^trpjed ky Ad- 

mbnl NelaoE, and ike hopes of marohing to i^aris revived 
in the bosamii'eCaU ibe eonqaered iK>verQJifns. IntellH 
genee.of that .evtal leaehed St Peterabargby over lan4 
abatistaa soon as it readied Londoa ; and the Empfror 
fiaal ^shewed a diqhDffltHiil ta act against the Republic 
Biora -thattrtbcFBBipjress Catharine^ wbqm he had lately 
Stfeeee4e4«- RumouniiWjBfe.oin^iIated that Great Britain 
i^as! tO;i^iihaidise Raaata, aod that Fr^oe ^»oald be at- 
tached, bf the barbarpUt tribes of the North; bqt tboagh 
tbeiF#eaeb Qoverbmenjt t^taiaed its pride and'viol^ce, it 
had lost all its energy. The Directory .saw Ac storm 
gatfaeting^ bat the cupidiitf ef Msioeaibers b^ so fHs- 
galted the ^otatry ^iHlh theif governmeiit that th^y 
deeadM to 4ic(|iiaiirt the pieople with their 4^ger; 

The DKvai triamphe of the English had annihilated the 
eoHBierpe of Frtoee ^ and the merchants sapv with cha- 
grin the-prodaetiona of their own country depreciated for 
want ol buyers^ whilst those of their rivals inereased so 
muob in yahie tfaat the English merchants grew rich as 
rapid^ a^ ^y went to ruia. These grievances were in- 
ereased by 4e r^paeity of the ministers and officers of tde 
Direetpvy^ wboi ancertjKin as to the duration of their 
poaFor, seemed detcraioed to make the most of their 
plac^ while they heid them. , 

8t DomiogOii the prmcipat scene of the .sanguinary ^ } 

eonttot that took place from the dissolution of slavery^ I 

had been taken possessiw of by the British at a waste of : 

mooeyadd lives; and. the^ inhabitants were not inclined 
4o .i^lura under the French :gevornnient ; but it appeared : 

tha^ th^* restoration of the jsland was insisted on by ! 

France, andi no resistance on the part of the British 
0UJVfslry|.whic)i shewed an intention of retaiaiog it atEi a 

VOL. 1. no* ttd. 9 iJi \ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Keutrals tAtt GM^ Af BnMiy*! Tenelt. 

part of ibt JMtMi ettpi^o ) Ud tii« ^tfodistt ill**M iM 
to preserve ik^ loytiUy llir a fwohnki^M iktiy li tetn 
fhem awaj^ lb VkbAt WiM HmM t^iiiih «Im» ki pnj^ 
lion to thd ItoAgOi bf liAie tlie^ estMiMi H^ The fWfdl 
of Cfibar ^i NegVoMi lirere jokitd hy lb« fteMb Biy 
a1idU» fttid harasised iht' Ifitkdi Ibiwl wider fleind 
ttaitlahd so miich, tlM AH trits i»MiB«dtolu^t«peiid» 
defetish^ and at hat to <Mtor illtd ft IfMCy fof (k ift* 
cuatioti tf tte plact^ ^pHA Tdttsrfttt LouVenw*» a blldi 
4r extrablr^in^^ td^nts^ Wktt h«l'ttrrif«d at Ulb ittk «f 
genera! and coinhiaitder ia (6kUf, kk a ptee iriMttkaM 
fbrtnerfy been lilllAYe! > * 

The conce^kmt «f Ike BftlUiniiiiiftry tipl^mtedBMt 
)b tkvdur of'nrenell eMitt^f^e aM FVeiMdi int^rtsU, te 
any effinl bf fliat eounlr^ to\M htt^ Imm. Ike NAtaeri* 
bans and ofliei^ rtentml ftati4^» opMitdtttNutoforfibt 
paperss^so tliat iiiey t\m\% to DbVer all PreiHsli pnpr^ 
as their o\ni, tod thn^ \i\i\x^ Ihe trade betwaan ftiit^ 
and her colonies, \A defiaircO df *i^ expenaff« Mvy* ^Mii- 
iained by tfib Brittslk people/ ftnd pfsMulMl' lb lie tqrt 
up to wciaken their eft^tnyhy ^eafreyiif Ms c«iifllM^» 

ilttn in th^ neutral etelfs, > kfteim by tliib Bt^ 
^TvS^t^ to be Wo^b stearee mtf ttAAg^ MHentf Imm^ 
possesi^d tf Vth of twtlre HbtfM ttid ceifoet«>ffMNto 
sailing from the enemy's por(i», as Ibeit ^Im pilHM0^ 
WheVi theHe ubipl t^efi» taken, tf Iftrea^b eaMtsslie* A« 
sham o^Mti bad Mt preebrbd the Alae papeta lieWlflif) 
Id blind an Mf;\ak Jadfe, Ibey wei« c<flMMMd t M 
tUv^h out of twelve ol tbeili Hrete HMtei^ tattitil^ftvi^ 
dnienl ^wnetft^ aMlen^ deteetleb in #bd siftgle tott^ 
ptottd teat h« TituI' a hilled ]^iii%r il tbe «ei^d0 ofst^ 

8u€h b«p¥ %to bow beM by telnistiM «f f riakif ** 




Ocwral Beraadolte'a Condnsl at Vienuu 

etjeets by m new war upon the Contiiieiit^ that tbey di«* 
v««to4 4heir means from their owa element, «nd directed 
HMm sfreeii to a mffitmry craeade. A« event iiappened at 
Vteima mUch ttarealjened to add its ehave towards enii- 
brolfing Anstria and BJranee anew. General Qeinadottj(s, 
the French ambassador at Vienna, on taking ap Us msi» 
denoe there, hang an immetase' flag from tlie window of 
his ' hotel, whieh exeited the notiee of the passengers, 
hnd a croud eoHected befcnne his door. This ksnit 
the Ambassador could not submit to. .The crowd 
Wondered what the flag meant, and continued to stare; 
the French servants came to Arive them away ; they re* 
sisted ; the General charged the court of Vienna widi a 
conspiracy to insult htm, demanded his passports, and 
returned home, to perauade his countiymen that the? 
must revenge tiie iqynry by a declaration of war. Tha 
Direetory opened a negoeiation with Austria, which was 
not Kkely to arrive at any conclasien. This, like Iho 
one at Rastadt, was interrupted by the certahity that an 
mnaj of Russians was on its mttrch, and winiM ailfeempi 
to veaoh the French frontier through the Auatrimi staler. 
The Austrians took possesrion of the Orisons without any 
advice to Switzeriand of its intention ; and the iOng of 
Kapies advanced towards the noith, with an mvy pro* 
vided widi every requisile lor the fickl ft waa hnpps* 
siUe for the Directory to retain its apathy any longer, 
and every branch of the wlir deparlnmiit wop pat into At 
greatest aotivityr «• 

'Re 'Neapolitan troops asse mb led ondia fifontien^tiio 
Rommi state, which the Directory had deohmd a repnh^ 
Kc; Ana circumstance was turned into an attack on «n 
dly of France, and the oflfence of Naples was aggravated 
by the feet under AdrntraT Neipon havhig oet with 

8 o 2 

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,f • 


a ■, I., :hi' I ' ii i^a 

Gtnenl Mack deiaandi the KvaottCioD of the Roniui Statei. 

finendly tieatment, whilst Mangoavit, the Sacfeteiy gf tte 
French Legation^ had been refused* and the ambaandor» 
JLacomb St Micbei» treated with cwtenyt Genenl 
Mack stated that Borne was to .be protected by his arnqr* 
by the express commaQd of the govemmeiit of Napleii 
and Qrdere4 General Championnet to evacogte the teiri- 
tory, which Championnet declared to be a TiolationoT 
the rights of nations ; and assured him that he slio'ukl be 
responsible for evenita which would be injurious to the 
eause of humanity. 

General Slack, answered, that the Neapolitan troopi 
had passed the frontier the day before, with the kiog at 
their head, to take possession of the Roman territor;, 
which had been revolutionized f^d usurped since the 
treaty of Campo Formic, and not acknowledged by hii 
Sicilian Majesty, or his all/ the Emperor of Germanj* 
He coneluded with a demand to evacuate the Ronuui 
Republio; without violatiog Tuscany, and that a refusal 
would be considered as a declaration of war, his Siciliaa 
Miyesty being able tp eofprce the demanda addressed to 
him in his naoM^. So great w^s the negligence of the ^^ 
Ttoiorf, that the French army did npt exceed 10,000 m^' 
when not less than 76,000 troops entered the frontiera! 
The magazines were empty; thare were np anns» artu* 
lery, or place of provisions ; and at Givita Vecohia, itfi 
said, there waa not suflkient powder, tp fire at a AirbaiJ 
aorsair, which menaced the port 1 > 

When France received intelligence of the entfy of tb( 
Neapolitan troops, it declared war against the ki^ga ^ 
the twp Sicilies and Sardinia; the King of Sardinia wtf 
soon dispossessed of his continental dominions, aa ia^ 
French had the citadel of Turin for a considerable time. 
The ki9g deliv^r^d up Fieclmont imp t^^ hfiodf( of titf 


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EbmbRifit0ia Mrraidert to the French. 

' ' ■ ! I ' i I " .r . g -^ 

RepublicanSy by an act. which he sigoeii iu December^ 
The king declared himself to have given up all authority, 
and , commanded his subjects to pbejr 'the government 
irUch the French were about to establish. The Piedr 
iDoiitese army was to consider itself as a part of the 
French army of Itaiy» and obey the Bepublieaa goneraL .. 

Neapolitan troops .entered Rome pa the,29th of No- 
Tember, and the fleets of Great Britain and Nicies too): 
the harbonr of Leghorn ; the French retreated, leaving 
a garrison in the castle of St Angelo. The cominander 
«was' summoned to surrender, and Oeneral Mack declared, 
that if the. Neapolitan troops were fired at^ he would put 
to death the siok in the hospitals ; this flourish did not last 
long, foe the Republicans engaged the army of Na|ries, 
and captured 12,000 prisoners, with- 100 pieces of cannon, 
and 20 pair of colours/ Rome was instantly abandoned 
by the king, and .the notorious troops.of the Bepubtio 
9tgmn took possession of it : they pioceeded towards Na- 
ples, and an mrmislke on any tenns waa inqplored by 6e* 
serai Mack. He ursed the inclemency of the weather 
and the dreadM state of the roads as motives for his 4e- 
nand ; but Genend Championnet informed him, thfsy 
would not halt till they had entered Naples in triumph. 

yhe French forces, which had left the right side of the 
Rhine, took a position on* the side of Germany, in oppo- 
eition to Count Mettemich, who presented fresh memo-" 
rials respecting the siege of Ehrenbreitstein; but as it was 
likely that the deliberations at Rastadt would not be Ipng, 
the Republic thought itself warranted in preparing fpr 
<he worst The forces on the left bank of the Biune, 
luuted with the besiegera of Ehrenbreitstein on the 
right bank of the river. After a resistance of eighteen 
norths, it . was At len^h forced to surrender thro«|*l| 




Amifttoe iNlvtoi thft FiMdii 

tmime. The itomi fouiid Ihm by the .BcpoUkm 


The FVeDoh ooHMUider m ehief wae igMnntof Ai 
■tate of the eeirtre asd left miag of hie omj »'« 
Geiiend Dnheme, who wee eqodUy so wkh the d«it 
tiny of the right wing! be had foreed hie mwf Amgl 
a countiy ialereected by riven, and deCmded Vj 
die troope of the enemy. With all its suoeei^ (bt 
French aimy was attacked by aa armed peasaotiy mA 
|ie<^le» and was in great dbtress, when a depatatioQ ^f 
Neapolitaii officers, aathprised by the Vieerey. wsM 
«poa Oenenil Champioaaet, proppriag to deliver ap 
Capua ea being granted an anairtiee as the basitofi 
permanent treaty. 

An armislice was eonchided betneea the fiepaUiW 
Aeneval and the Prince of MiUiano, by which Capos mi 
i^ be delivvred to the French, wilb aH ita arfiUeiy m^ 
ttores. The anny of Championnet was ta imire the cma* 
iry (rom Acenra befcee Naples ; Benetanta, and sbBf 
Ae Adriatio, was to form n line of drmariuitioB ; tke 
porta of Naplles were to ho eyaeuated by ^ ^ ^ 
longing to those at war wiA (he Repnbiip ; aadtheN^^ 
poKtaas were to pay to Fmoee lOfiMfitO of IhrM 
Hostilities were not to oomfnence-tfll three dejrsa^^ 
shoald be given by eitber of fhe parties. The Kiag''^ 
lied to Palermo, learinf the management of afiao ^ 
M. Pignatelli, |is vioeroy, and went en b«nid lbs ^^ 
ships, with In^ oowt, atieaded by the RnaaiaD, Aoi<n^ 
and British sninialers. 

The RepubUean Gknoral« in a secret note ti» die V* 
rectory, wUeh went wiA the capitntetton of Ospa«»^ 
clared that be was aorrovnded en affl sides, diati«^^ 
provi^ons^ aimnuniiiQn, and articiesof-overyUB'^"'^ 


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Genenil Mack Itftvet hU Tni«|M. 

tlw. 1<»M of A kaltle woaU have mined hki wbele army» 
and 1^ -victory eveo^ before Cm)Qa» Woald fcave evaJlei 
Um MtUagi He looked .<» tke poieeeakNi of this pfaui4[ 
aft of the iilveit importanee, since tfaot^ ^aB in it a Mqp^ 
pigr ftr the armj ^ all ita iraatt» and greatly ha«te&ed 
the eeikK|ii^dl of Naples; An ariniatioe granted to a p6e^ 
pie so rail of perfidy y^m no more tl^an a fttrate^em of 
war, and Ike one teW enoetttded eonld be broken by the 
Neapolitens wbenerer they thought pi^pcr ; ttDd that he 
bad no doubt of the con^ueatof Nqplea about the ttni<» 
when the news'of the surrender of Gppna eo«ld reach Hh 
lUraetory/aa be corresponded irith tfie^Heaftetod pArtyi 
whifA was very numenHts. mh» King vaa so dissatisfted 
'tint be refused to con^ue the armistice^ and toM Vie 
Vieeroy* that be must have forgotten be hud aiMd^ter 
when be signed enchn treaty, for the slike of preservhig 
the capital. The Directory passed the e^^est eensnres 
en General Chaaiptoanet for agreeiog to any armibtioe till 
be had subdued the whole kingdom. 

The royalists looked on General Mack lis a traitor, wfad« 
deserted by his soUiera, found no time to diMyerate, and 
sent an oflker before bin to crave preteotion from Gene« 
ral Championnet. So closely was be pursued that be 
leacbed the French camp dlmost as soon as the offi(ber« 
and was received with kindness and affsibiKty. He g^t a 
^idsport> and was escectod to Mihn* ■ Tbb enmged'tiie 
I^MBzareni, they collected their forces in a body, and 
fMUred Ihehr vengeance on the Republioans, at Fonts 
|Utlo» defiNited the advanced guard, wH pushed forward 
to the line of the Frsnch army, "where moltttades were 
pat ito death, and tlii^seat took mAige in Sigbt. ' 

llie PrinOB of Meflftemo iud the addn^s to be chosen 
tinit Ganeval^ but when they leambd tM ie wisbed%r 


by Google 


Attack wi the City of Naples. 

negociato with the >French they deserted his standari 
The Duke Delia Torre and bis brother Gieprent FiloMr 
liuo were first mordered, and then bdmt to ashes, al- 
iboiigh iniimcd to monarchy* As the liaszareni ioA it* 
lacked the ran guard of the Republican army, ChanpioB- 
net looked upon it as a signal for die attack of Naples. 

General Chompionnet evinced his humanity by a pro- 
damation, and sent it by th^ chief' of a squadron ; M 
the messenger was received by a voHey- of musketry ; anl 
after attempting to explain, h# was forced to reton. 
J^ Crenend Cybampionnet hoped that the appeafuce 
ei his army would reduce the LasBaroni to sobmii' 
sion, he deferred the asstflilt till the foHoning ixft 
but the fire they kept up coDvinced* him that they wcnU 
be subdued only by force. Those at St. Elmo acquaintei 
the General in the nighty that the y only waited his codh 
mands to open a dreadful fire upon the city. Tbe tm 
battalions, on Capo di Monte^ had orders to narck at 
night, and form a junction, with the garrison of St IStao^ 
and discharge upon the city .the whole of their artilleiT- 
This was the signal for General Ehle to -commence inof 
upon' ity and the whdle army were to rush impetuoodf 
forward, and bear down all before ft. 
,• Victory was long uncertain. Although night overtook 
them, the firing cootiuued, when tbe Republicans fons^ 
into two divisions, and, exbaosted with fatigue, one ^ 
them charged on tbe gallant enemy, . while the other 
sought some, repose amidst a dismal heap of carnage ^ 
ruins. ^ At the daien of day the battle vsigtd with fo^» 
and it was doubtfol who would be the conquerors. T^ 
end the conflict -General- Ghanpaonnet gave* orders ii^ 
force the passages to the Casteilo Novo and the Fort<l^' 
Canine, at the point of the bayon<it. . A diriBkuairtf^ 


by Google 


The French get PotBettion of Naples. 

on the pabce» and anotfaer to form a janctioki with 
the garrifon of .St* ElmOy already in possesBioa of part ol 
Aa tity* 

Wiiife ai} was yet horror and tfneertsinty. the French 
Qeaeral thoa^ that, ha migbt attack the saperstitioua 
ideas of those sayage people, aad he pabBshad anaoeouat 
of his regard for their great St Janaarius ! This had the 
desired eflfeet ; liis conversion flew tike lightning through 
the eitj, and did more in his fiiTonr than his artillery. 
One of their efaiefs ' deliTered an oration to his soldiers, 
ordered them to stop their firing, and to lay down their 
arms. He was listened to with rererence and obeyed 
with alacrity. This . brought a termination of hostilities^ 
and the horrors of war were followed by acclamations of 

The Laz2[aroni became the advocates of liberty and 
f(|ualLty< They pkiiidered the royal palace, which bat 
a short time befiNfe they would have defended to the hist^ 
aad it required Oeiierai CThampionnet to hinder them 
firom coomitttng the most extravi^ant ex^cesses^ He 
left the conmnmd of the place to General Dufresae, and 
eacampedhis army on the heights around the city of 
Naples. He disarmed the fickle and forioas inhabitants, 
whidi prevented the public peace from deing distarbed^ 
The army^ which had done so much under its able com- 
u^ndert was denoniinated '' The army of Naples.'^ The 
Qeaeral in peraoa proclaimed it to his troops, accom^ 
panied by the shouts of the multitude and the tremendous 
(bonder of cannon. 

The clergy and many of (he nobles celebrated the 
entry of tho French. Te Deom was sung ; the abolition 
of immireby' was deefeed, and the state declared a ror 

VOL I.— NO. 20< 8 p r- T 

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* The Ifllaod of Minorca taken by (be British. 

General GhampionQet, and a(l bis principal offioeis, 
were cashiered by ibe Directory, as traitors ; and Gene- 
ral Serrurier, worthy of such employers, by having seiaed 
the little i^pubBcr of Lucoa, overturned its government, 
and laid it under' a contribution for3,Q0O,00Oof Uvrss, 
received the command of the Amy of Naples. 

«^«^ »*^^»»»»»»^^»^»#»#»»*** # 


Whilst the French were securing 1 he conquest of Italy, 
a ray of wisdom found its way into the cabinet of St 
James's ; and tlie people began to see the importance of 
obtaining a rendezvous for the British navy in the Medi- 
terranean. An expedition was fitted out to take Mmorca, 
an island belonging to Spain, but of infinite valae i0 
England, both to watch the port of Toulon, and to pro- 
vide a coiamercial depot, whence a contraband trade 
might be carried on with the southern French and Spaaisk 
coasts to a vast amount. The British landed without op- 
positioti, and after a few shot the place capitulated wifk* 
out resistance. ' 

:> The SpanisU government were not-more fortunate is 
an attack on the Bay of Hondupa*s, conducted by fte 
Governor of Yucatan, for he was totally defeated by Ike 
British. The English arms achieved another vktorjr io 
ihe capture of Goza, which was followed by the bbck" 

• Digitized by V:iOOQIC 



The Aicfadako CbMlet paatei the Lech. 

■ f' ^ . - , 

ade of Malta, so lately wreathed among the jaarek of our 

The winters of 1796^, were so severe that the Eossians 
and Aiistrians coald not join till early in the spring. The 
plenipotentiaries at Rastadt issued a proclamation on- the 
state of affairs> where it was stated that the govemoient 
wished for peace, and would .order their armies (o fall 
back, if his Imperial Majesty would cause the Russian 
troops to evacuate his donunions. » This was followed by 
an address from General Jourdan, in wliich he breathed 
the same sentiments ; and the ambassadors, wished the 
Emperor io be assured, that the movements of the French 
armies were not forerunners of hostilities, but occasioned 
by the march of the Russians. War was decided on by. 
both parties, and the possession of Switzeriand by the 
French made the government determine to act on the of- 

The French profited by their positions in Switzerland 
to reach the mountjuns of the Black Forest, .and gain the 
.heights about the Lake of Constance, to give strength to 
their attacks. The Archduke passed the River Ijech on 
the 5th of March, on the right side of which were the 
greater part of his forces. His first care was Ulm, which 
he garrisoned and stored, as he meant it should flank the 
right of his army, and having marched his troops by 'the 
way of Donawerth, he fixed his head-quarters at Mem- 
mingen. General Stsarray on the left of the DannbCf 
kept a watchful eye on Bemadotte, and Nauendorf iraH 
chief of the vanguard of the main army. The Republic 
can forces in Swabia and Switserlaod amounted to 80,000 
men, and those of Austria were 110,000. The French 
and Austrian forces on the Rhine were nearly equal, 
about 25,000 each. 

3 p 2 

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HMtilitiBi|Ml«eeB AaiCria «iii Fnofle. 

As the Imperial anny was inoluied ti> kt^tf a Im W 
tween the Lake of Coustance and tiie Daiinbe, instead «f 
marching towards that river, the RepabBeaii Genecal seised 
ou such positioBS as would secore hiacDmniiuiMttioD wilh 
the army of Switaerlasil. The araaea of the boslik 
powers oeoupied the country from .the banks erf* the 
Danube to the Adriatio Gulph. Tfa^ irst hostilitiis 
took place on the right of the two Freaeh armies^ wbkh 
were opposed to the main body of the Anatrians and tht 
chvisions sent to the left under tke Arobduke^s ooflunaal 
General Massena was established at Aktattan^ in Um 
Bheinthal, with an army of 45,000 men* threatenioftbs 
entrance intD the country of the Grisons. While Joiir^ 
dau drew towards the L<ake of Constance^ General Mss* 
scan went to Sargans^ and sammoned AnSenbevg to en« 
cnate the Giisons ; the Imperial General refased to coai- 
ply, and Massena gave orders to make a vigoroost bat 
feigned, attack on Feldkirch, to cMceal his operatioof 
and prevent Hotae from granting aid to General Aafiei^ 
berg, atC<»rc. 

He also sent a division to turn Coire by. the heiglitH 
aiid assault the bridges on tbe fofhs of the Bliiae, fin 
miles farther up the* river than Coive* Hie centre of lii» 
army 'crossed the iww, got possession of BaltaarSj snd 
cut off the eonmuttieation between Feldlurch and the 
Gl*isoBs. The posU of Meyenfeld and Zollbrack wen 
forced ; tbe fort of Luciensteg was carried by i^flaslty 
find the French having got posaessicm of tbe eastis ^ 
HoUenstein, General Auffenberg being m a sitai^ 
wbkii preohided any assistance^ surrendered Coire, sod 
bis whole division becwne prisoners, to the amouol ^ 
7,000 men. 

The French attacked Feldkirch on the 12lh of Ifsrok 




The Imperialitls fetreat. 

but were driven back wiUi great loss. On the 14tb thej 
nmule a simHar attempt, but with no better success ; this 
made the Archdoke place the utmost eoofidence in his 
defensive line of 18,000 men, which covered his left 
wiagt and he pushed on his van-guard towards Stockach. 
Joardan vanted reinforcements ; but as he had little doubt 
of tlie success of General Massena against Feldkircb, he 
united his whole force, and seemed to wait the attack of 
the AutsriaB armj. It was at last impossible to avoid a 
general engagemenlv as the armies were so near it was 
wHh difficulty their advanced guards could perform their 
respective manoeuvres. 

The Arehduke had his vanguard on Ihe heights of Sul- 
gau and Alhausen, and his head-quarters at SchaundorC 
General Jonrdan sent an officer to the camp of the 
Austrian van guard, to inquire whether the despatches 
expected by the French Directory from the court of Vi- 
emia had arrived ; and on being told that they had not» 
he deelared'the armistice at m end* This intimation was 
followed by a severe attack, and the van guard of the 
ImperiaUsts was forced to retreat beyond Klosterbeuren, 
where it got reinforcements from the main body of the 

As Massena had bat one opportunity before the return 
of General Hotse, he attacked Fddkirch in different 
poittts> with a body of grenadiers, forming a junction 
with the troops of Ondioot. This was conducted by 
Massena in person, who was driven back with great loss 
and that of the enemy was not inferior* General Oudl- 
not. crossed the Rhine, occupying Rheineck, at the con- 
fluence of ^t river into the Lake of Constance, which 
made Hotze resume his position at Feldkirch. Flushed 
^itb lis suc<5esses, the Arohduke pursued Jourdan'^ 

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DiflScttlt March of the French Troopi. 

army, which had fallen back beyond Stockach ; and as ke 
was sure that be could secure his retreat by Shaffirascn, 
be determined to attempt to draw the Archduke from tltt 
Lake of Constance. 

He received orders from the Directory to cross tiia 
Rhine, and furce his way into Germany, to wfaidi he 
replied, that his army did not exceed 66,000 mra, is* 
eluding those in Switzerland and on the Danube, whik 
be had to contend with not less than 150,000, in wludi 
case he declared to the Directory, ^t a ccMitest migiit 
make bim iaH wftfa glory, but he could not expect to 
reap any laurels. 

In their march to Munster the Republicans defied diffi* 
cullies which would have stopped those who guide strao* 
gef 9 over the Glaciers ; they cKmed the Wormser, reck- 
oned one of the highest mountains of the Julian Alps, di- 
viding the sources of the Adda and the Adige, in spite oi 
the snows and ice with which it was covered. From tkis 
mountain they might be said to roll into the valley, wbick 
they reached in safety, and all the Austrian troops, bag- 
gage, and c2knnon, fell into the bands of the French. 

Laudohn, with a small number of infantry, forced 
through the Republicans above Glurentz, and.fonned a 
junction with General Bellegarde ; but could not resist 
the impetuosity of the French, and retreated to the prs* 
tection of Bolzen, where they made a demand for lb 
Tyrolean militia. 

All Italy, from the Alps to the mountains of ly^L 
and from Venice to Sicily, was in the bands of tke 
French : but before the campaign was opened there, tkit 
of the Danube was terminated by the retreat of Joo^ 

He was obliged to abandon all offensive opcratiDB>» 

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Rttisiao Troop* appear Id Italy. 

and* onitiag with the anny of Massona, look the left 
bank of the-Rhme, front the GrMons to^ardB the Frenob 
fenritory. General Jourdan va$ recalled,, and Mds$eii» 
was appointed Commander in Chief. 

As the French abandoned the idea of a onioa of the 
amies of Italy andnSwitaierlancI in. the Grisons^ itbe^ 
came an object wilh . tfie Austrivis to get into the vaUejft 
orifae OgUo, so that they would be able to flank the; 
French army, and make! it adopt defensive measares tor 
pfeat^ot ihe Mitatiese : bat this was unavaibng while: 
Creoeral Scherer. could. act on the Adige in. an oiTeiisitre 
mannek'. The Freoob posts, from Bormio, in the Gri« 
sons, to the Lakes of Idrp and Garda, were attacked and 
compelled to retreat to Brescia. 

Tlus was the position of the French and Austriaa armies 
in thiw north of Italy, when the Russian Cniops made their 
appearance ; and Count Metternich, the- Anstriaii Pk£ni*4 
potentiary, gave notice that the war had broken oui- 
again, and that the Minister of the Empire was recalledi 
The French Ministers protested they would repair to Stras-^ 
bnrg, and there receive whatever overtures of peace might 
be presented to them. The Grand Chancellor wrote to 
Colonel Barbacsy, ordering a safe escort to the French 
Plenipotentiaries ; at a late hour he wrote the Ambassa- 
dors that they must quit the territory in twenty-four 
hours. Before the French Ministers quitted Rastadt 400 ' 
^ssars entered the town, and allowed no ^person to go 
•utoroomein. ^ 

- The French Ambassadors took their carriages abodt 
iig^t o'clock in the evening, but did not depart till they 
sent a requisition to the Commandant of the place, wha 
dweU: at the extremity of the town. Tbey succeeded id 
f ettiiHg pemiission« and were escorted by two huss^rs^ 

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FreDcb AmbMifedon muncnd at Rastadt. 

who aftenmAis left ibem^ and retimed: to town. Befoit 
Aejr were dOO paee8 from the Iowa a troop of hasm 
Mdlied Qpoo then, flbd began to execute the hcmi 
orders of their Buperiors. ' The Plenipotentiarf, Jen 
Debry, was furwt, with fab wife |ind chiMren, and hefeU 
mtt his passport to the Rnssiaaa who'surrounded bis cl^ 
liage. This waa not their object : he was dragged eit 
and fell covered with gashes from sabres on diflhreat 
parts of his body. Thmking him dead, they begas la 
plunder the oarriage, while ,he cirawled, unperceivi^ 
into a ditch. The secretary and valel-de-chambre ircr» 
in the second. carriage, and received only a few blows, 
on saying that they were servants : their carriage wtv 
also plundered. The Ambassador Bonnier rode by Iubh 
self« and gave an a£5rmative answer when asked if k 
was such a miniater. He was dragged out and mnideit^ 
in the most inhuman manner, his head, legs, and ami 
hemg cut off. The secretary Rosensteil, seeing tke 
tn^cal scenes actbg before him, leaped oat of 4^ 
6ha^iot and escaped. In his carriage they found a poit- 
manteau full of papers, which they scattered abant, M 
quickly collected again with the greatest care. The Ab* 
bassador Robeijot was in the fifth carriage, with Us wifti' 
Aey found it difficult lo drag hhn out, as Ae ckipi' 
him in her arms : but at last they cut his head is tea 
with a sabre. 

The carriages, ladies, and servants returned to BsilA 
and the secretary, Hosensteit, reached the town alMftt 
eleven o'clock at aight^ by a number ot by-wajv* ^ 
Ambassador, Jean Debry, had got iate a wood, ii' 
hound up his wounds, the coldness df die tif^t ssa^ 
to congeal his blood ; be ventured ottt at dqf l%fatl^ 
fot, unperceived ibto the town. There is Uttle dMM 



Jiim WARf erf «U«€fPC. 481 

Sfletef elteted teto AM DiKetoit. 

r'i'»wr^ ' j eaaaee— pggaaeeaaggggBaaggae 

bm tikat tte {^efp^tratdirs of this MetvaA trftinactSoii Werr^ 
oiRfdf tfs th^y onered-to tMoOc^ to tsNjr oot'lli^ AMtMi^ 
iTTOdH. xn^neAfih Diffctotjr i^bttfgt^'it ift. the ^Mnet 
of l^lMtta; bttt flt^ Atiteift effafg^ed it ctti the Dire6t6rt; 
who; it i^ tM, tr^M afraeid th^ AiDbassaddrs AaM ft* 
ttttu tO' xnElMy Alfu eXpdfiB tiM' iiltfi^fil t^- wlilA Vit 
^leeotHe {hhrtt bad prtfftetiNl fbe j^^ice froitti Belii^ 


Nft V£it iraft a flme ivh<»i 1^ hottaa feteail bMiso id ex- 
peetatikm itf jfi^tiat e^etkUtt^tti€ prtMM. F^aioe sair ber- 
self falling as tiaifliy «b sbelttd risetf, Mfd Aiwfria waM t^ 
i^driiig ber fSMie. The iaIeAtf of fiodapdrte seeint^d 
tbif iMfBtt^ngfk 6t 1b& ft^iMAticy aad &« idea de- 
yriHised Am Vretth as itfttclr as it eaeottraged ffaeir eoe- 
diies. Tttt hntttd agallist Ae Dire^foiy watf greatly di- 
miftished 1^ the efecfi<M of tBe Abbe St^es info tbcft 
body in the rboni of tbtiAff^, and ihe eonteiMbig' ai^ies 
tfAUtti ufNta Oe eitMeit ttpott more oqftfai terM^f than 
tSoy laid tiftft doire fi^ftfet^* 

Th« ArtAdoke fltarevt^iMd the left of Ma^i^mV armr^ 
ittkder dertMIl iSfttOtt^nbo oeonpied Ae deities of Kintzig, 
ivhich caosed General Massena to retreat by Kehl, and 
/ YOL. 1. — NO. 81. 3 Q r^ 1 

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Moreaii conmaBdt the Fr^opU army. 

fix hU bedcl*qmii;tera at JB^sil. .. j({e .vas master of. the 
Bbeinthal audi Rl^eok^ at tfac^ Mpper epd of the Likt 
or CposUiaGf^ ; an^ .kqpjt poas^ioii of iS/^hafflmusea ti 
Uie. posts fun t^^f^ lfft:^ide.sixf)^lid<he fortiQed* Bf^^*^ 
stroBgly garrii^if^. . , I|^ is i^ot « V^^ what ia&neiiced tk 
Ajchduke, yet b'«,p)ade; oply ajpw movemeiite near tht 
la^e of Coii^^ai^e^. lUll j>e.,iiVM^ted Schaflfhansy oa the 
l3th of AprU. General Nauendorf entered the. place 
sword in hand ; the Republicans burnt the bridge as tiiff 
3eft the Iowa. 

The French were unable to keep their position oesr 
Mantua, tliey continued to retreat, and crossed the Choist 
at Asola. TLe Austnans blockadedt this place ; and Be- 
nau became master of the posts which supplied the gv- 
lison, cutliug off the communication between it and Fe^ 
rara. Thirty-two boats, with 200 pieces of artiUeiy^ 
and an equipage of 'p(Aitoons; feitinto the hands of Ge- 
neral Klenam at Lagooscuro. The right wing of the Aui- 
trian army ptnetrated beyond the Lake of Garda ; the 
fleet of boat$ belonging to the French were fi»rced under 
the oaanon pf. fesobi^f^ by. th^.armeil boats of 4he ene 
my from Riya/.. and I^espjifera was>esiege4« ^ . 

. On the. 17th of. April, the^^eaitiquartexs of i)ie Bepsh- 
iicans were at Lodi, faaaous jby. the.xictory oi Bonaparti 
in a former canpaigu.., General .Soberer, kMided ^ 
disgrace, aba^idoi^ed a, statipii tp which ^e shooid net 
baye beea raided; and .wassuf^epded by GcDsriti Ho^ 
reau, when the ^any was re^ilopod <tte half, . . 

Moreau's only, hope of safety depyendedonhis flifht 
The Russians and Austrians had joined,, an^.eyarypb^ 
ou the frontiers of the Cisalpine Repablic was kft to it) 
own resourcts^ and a wish to capitulatf ^w^ daoi^ ^ 


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ANB WASa .OP SVROFE« . «. 483 

MMfCM detett tiie SwiM. 

FefcUenu vA 4Kdl|y.fiion.M«ntu8» had been irigoro«ply 
l«pids«dt*tlMCttille •f F^nara persevered jn its resistance 
«Nl.|h6.ghn|iB0xi«CBre«fiMi 9i«rreii4eved. .{-^.^ . ; 

JifoiekaiMjnatiBg.teWf^rd» tbe llijIai^iErs^*. Gepe^ Mac^ 
domU,. i^ Naples^ikeouo^ w a critical. sitnatiQB ^ for 
the coMDnuBcatttVi .witb Genoa vaaiotercepted^ the pofsts 
oftdie Foy. ej^erdteeitcd or captured by the eiie|ay, and 
the Boaik «f : PanAa and Tnsf^any, whicb bad b^en. seiz- 
ed, by the Fj^enob, were extremely hasardouiw The Re- 
publkmn ^^m) .waa gveatiy rediM^d by the bloody ^ bi^a. 
OB the Adige, and diminished by throwing ganri^ns into, 
sngll ..poets, not one of which coald impede the march of 
the laqierial armies for a single day. 

lUssena allaoked the Swiss of the small cantons on the 
Lake at Sobwita, and Ibjrced theni to lay down their arms; 
and at Altorf 4000 men were either dispersed or cot to 
pieces. General Sonlt fbUowcd tkbr patriotic army to the 
iralley of Ui^ren, to prevent their gaining the pass of 
St Gothard. As the Valteline was left exposed, more 
was necessary to defend the left wing of the French army 
in Switzerland, than ths re->establishment of its interior 
Gommunications. General L'Orison made good his re* 
treat into the Grisons, being forced to abandon part of 
liis artillery, and Liccourbe crossed from the Lower JEnga* 
din to Beilinzone, to protect the pass of St. Gothard, by 
destroying the commonication between tlie small cantons 
and the Swiss Italian baillages. Lecourbe took a position 
at Bellinaone, while the head quarters of General Mas- 
sena were at Znrich, performing ^ variety of manoeuvres 
with bis left wing to delude the Archduke ; but that Ge- 
neral adhered to his original intention of gaining the Gri? 
sons before att<;mpting any t^ng oq tlie Rhine, 
3 l^ 2 


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A large Rmsf aa fovtt joloi the Aaitriani. 

Bent im tikis plan, he sent geutfaseei i— tn to 
A new attadL was plaaaed between H«te ead BiJtngM<ii 
who had reached Len«8» in piuwitw Ibe BapdriMWi 
their retreat fi^ the VpP^ Enj^dM^ whena the 4 ai Wm 
comvanderv were J4Nned ky nomh ew «f the Grimoi » 
arms. The Swiss troops wave eager la fasnilha.TWi 
gaard oT the column to act against Lmenalaifi 9aW adU 
remarkably strong by the French. This 'brt^mus sHosIt 
ed in a narrow defile, formed by airftal i;ooh% wbaae sa0» 
Bttts to the Eastward embrace^ the steep liaights iaeioai 
ing the ▼riiey, half a league in length. ' 

The Archduke, on the Mi of Hay, mm hilbviaed M 
the arrival at GalUcia of a large Bosriaa fcroe, 4ftt^6Mi 
for the Bhine. General Tolstoy went to the Arahddus'i 
head quarters at Stoekaoh, for instr wtions nhmA the im» 
tinatfon of his troops, which were a part of 40,000 MS 
subsidised by Great Aritain, and independent of the anqr 
ti Italy. T]he Bossians were ostmated at 70 000 bms, 
who had arrived, or were on theiir way. 

General Hotae sneeeeded in beooming master of At 
liey of the Orisons, wluch occasioned an taunense wasH 
of blood and treasure. TIm) first of his foar ciolawet 
was to make a feigned ajktapk at the upper end of the ds» 
file ; the second to secure the mountains above Majsi- 
leld, and tp render easy the attack on the iron^ bj s 
descent pn the rear, as the sigmd fbr a serious attack. 
The third column ynm to free the Seeviser Alps on tht 
North and North-east ; and the last, with tha«itillefysBd 
.cavalry, was to storm the passage on the East, hj ^ 
SlapineivJoch. The flrent column was heailed by Hots* 
in person, and t^e other three by General Jeiiacbisk { 
and not ti)l after twelve h^rs march with excessive ftr 


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AKD WARS €» fitTKOPE. 48^ 

SovaiMv iihHtf fovr EjcpedUioM. 

tigw, dH Am AMtnuDt ttrme at tke jrew of Umi RoH>^ 
ttofen MtffMclMMnli^ tho ooly |»lto^ whm) ttiejr cimU 
Ibm « jMoticMi. Botm iomtd tiM imi»» ini4 Mviitf 
MowB Of the gale In dtflifnce of tfie Rqinblioati fire» W 
took Ibo fort coHnandoi bj Oenanl Hwb^r: tU 
Freach 4tli demi-brigade were taimi piiMker^ lUaaoiitr 
in; to 8/100 fliem' 

Tke aaoeoef of 4k combinod amy m Ilalj ba9toiie4 
tho progreN of the AnMdto ' (Aarles. The fbroe9 of 
fla«mmw woio 10 fitf aa|iflrior to those he bad to coateod 
wMi, AAthe eoald oady detadi dilliMnt corps from U» 
amqr to tofco poeteeeum of tb^ vaHiei ia saooessioo^ imd 
ohoek die itepabliea«s in Ihe panes of Smtaerbmd, whidi 
wore to be WcdMd on aa hM by the Fre'neh onder a pro* 
eavioaa t^nwe tkom the spirit of dbafieeUon which tiw 
people discovenid : ttis jqpiiit had been in some dsgroe 
diayed by QeaemI Sonit, who had reached SL GotJiard 
to eo-operote with Leconrtye ; bot« althovgh crushed^ tt 
%raa (ar fron extmguished* 

As Sttwarrow had veadied Lonbardy in a shorter tinio 
than he oxpeotod» after crossing the Adda and making 
himself master of Mihw/ he sent a vaat nnnd>er of his 
troopa on fotir diflbrent oxpoditions* Be determined**- 
First, To prosecute his operations against Moveani that 
be might obMge the French ooaimaDdor to hasten his re- 
treat, and evaeoato Piedmont and Oeaoa hefese ho ooaM 
procure reinfereements.-«-Secondly, To penetrate above 
the lakes, whidi wonld eaaUe liie Atfchdnke moee easily 
to pass with Ms lett wlag* beyond Sfct Golhatd.-^Thwdly, 
beliind him on the. South-east, Oaneral Koay hid siege to 
Maataa wfth90,0M men, while Fenraraand Bohigaa were 
1))ockaded by Kleoao \ the defence of teao pkioes waif 


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Moreao tetrcau in three 

feim^rable to tbe retreat of thctroopftiMmiiMUul<sd by Qtr 
iieitri M9odoiiaid.-i-Foorthhf, He seirt 6M«nil Ott to 
tBaki Klenaa t»: check Geaiatni MbcdiMuddlogwAe 
f«nM» of the J^ppetaodson Upper Hmnmy, mi cit off 
•B interoMBse with thhtv coanirj md. tbe ligurtaB Be- 
pubtm OD iU Norlli-weilw . 

If Genoa had fallen into the hands of the AUies Uu- 
iamM woald ha* e been col off^ and the JEngUsh and Nca- 
pelitan forces might,.tfa^msahres, have de4toyed.his arm;. 
Generid Hortau^ therefore, refBeatsd- in .three cuIiUBBi 
after he crossed' the Adda and .evacikated Mila^;^* 
right took tta way towards Plaoentia ; the centre nsrck- 
ed towards Genoa^ and the iefthj Vigevano and Notshk; 
whib tbe main be<fy nf the annjr. contiMied its retreilt 
npon the Ligiirian Republk ; General Mortam proeeedM 
to TnriD^ where he prepared to evacuate it* UnaUe to 
defend the plains of Piedmont with aaarmy redaced to 
25,000 men, and to vetain the ooiintry of Crenoa totb 
Southward, Moreau left Turin on the 7tb of May, avd 
changed his head-quarters to AleJUUidiSft : he kq)t Sa- 
warrow on the Uft side of the Po to fuToiur tbe retrestrf 
General Maedonald,. br which he took his station uvdtf 
Tortoha, and Ink advanoed posts extended toward tb« 

Snwarrow sent a vangaard to reduce Novarrn and suci 
places as the Bepoblifcans had abandoned, and to naick 
ttp the Po as far. as Turin, and thus call tho attentioo«f 
Genersi Jforean to his* lear^ by fiankif^ his kftviV* 
General HohensEoIlem proceeded towards Placeotia, vi^ 
a part of the combined army, and drove back the tUf^ 
lican vanguard beyond Vogbera. .To gain tbe paii^ 
Into Genoa by way of Hie AppenineSf^Suwarrcw took 


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The RuMifBii ilefiested wtth tess. 

a sti^n at B^bbio, on the road irom PlapeiiCia to 
'Cepoab h 

W^eit Kray wm ■eatbk' ^r Beteii&ai»,. ke went oa to 
Bergofbrte, and assembled the wkale of bis 4roop8 aroaul 
Maatiia, the garHso&'of wbch ttiade fi^quent fforties. 
JLatUtrnmB opened^ siege ef MiKui on-tbe -^h of May* 
4he trendies ibefbro'Pizzhigitone fitving^boeH opened Ihb 
sane dhy by Gemeirhl Kai&i, irUch; after fonr. days,* ma 
forced to smtehfler. Tbh uras atlttbated^tb 'the bkrvin^ 
op of a powder magazine, whidt oafr8ii^d'4l»e> capitulatioa 
«f the garrison^ -amounting to 606 men. Tbeitnonstroils 
army of Sawanow was thus mncVdhdinishedv'yet^ if he 
Irnd equalled Moreah id^ mHitaiy tactic8;-*he might iiave 
atfceeeded m ddstroying' all l!ie Kepttblidan^ m* Italy, and 
penetrated into t)ie Soatbern fponfeters pf ! Frandev and, 
pei^Kips, have restorcsd that country to its' aa^nt mtefb'; 
butithe abiiities'or.Moreatt reiidered both-trnpossibie. . 
: The ^Russian gbnend dtroT)e'tO': (Ksbdge the-'Pfetich 
cota^ander from his <;amp befiind tho'Pevlicitween Vaien*- 
za and Alexandria; General GhastfrrxfitBeked Itertonav 
and blew 'op tM gates in apite of the fire from the castie, 
latb wfaklr the 'Preach had i^tne&ted;i *f''-^ ■: • . ^ 
V If Mofeau had lost a battle he could ni( efl'ect a r^ti^at 
on either i$Sle of the' Apponines. The .sfttack* of Sn war- 
raw oa the left wing of litsartnyt^aas^t^in. execution on 
the'^llth, by the Austri^ui troops, inbo .experienced a. 
warm reception on crossing the Po aboW* Valenza ; but 
•on'the-aett day hostUities. were 'more aerioBS, whan 7000 
BiMsitos, ilknder General Sehabarf, Crossed the river near 
the place where* the Po and Tanaro nhke tbeiir streams, 
!irith a mw to fienetrate the[ lijie ^of Moreaus anay, 
Creaerbl'Qrenieir-s divisioij bore tlie fimi shock of the Ralr 


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Ml Wftlw pMutedi to jnlTMl* 

ma troopi, wheo Moiwn stlaok«d tbetti in fkxk, and tk 
eoDqaest wv» decisive ; numbers of the Rassiaan wm 
atber elaio or pcnthed In llie Pi»,«mBf tima tbrir (som- 
«mider» General flchiibarf. 

. Sawarrow resoked to proceod to Turin ^ith mtet of 
Iu» anBy» fo eompel Merea^to-abaBAoii hb oanp, aad n- 
tttat to tbe JJgtxristk RepabKc or faH back on the freotiot 
of France : VakassOTi^b, on the Hth atta^iked Casdr 
Vernia and- Ponfl^ Stnra^ and Genend Mefaa got vrim 
to take his route towards CandnL It i» doiibtM whetkr 
Jlorean bad 'intelligence of these manoeiiTres^ or mv 
novedients in the Bnsriaan cainp at Torre Oarafofo, iadi- 
cative oi aofltething against whtbh ito was determined to 
gnard ; but doring-' the night he threw a. bridge across fk 
.Bonnida^ and paased it next mommg With 7,900 men, 
coninwndittg^ the cavaby in person : ho broke tbe dwo 
of posts of tbe cossacs ait Marengo, pursoin]g Aeni to 
Santo Jttliano^ and sent a detachment to march agaisst 
General Losignan^ whom he forced to abandon 1m poai- 
|}on» and kept hha sepoffate from a body of aeren Bmm 
battalions ; the French general was al last obliged to nr 
pass the Bormio liter to Alexandria. Thai was the list 
eibrt made by Moreau to retain his position* Snwarrav | 
determined to lose no time in attacking- the RepoUitsD* 
on the left side of tbe Po aboiFe Vtflenza. His lasrchs J 
against Titrin^ were hindered for some days by bes*5 
rains ; and, on the 26lh» Melas effected the passage of tiie 
Sesia» continuqp his ronte to the Store* The troopf ob' 
der Karacsay posted themsetres hi front of the GhsrtiS' 
use. Vukassovich went along the right side of tbe V^ 
takmg a stalton on the heig^bt^ of the GapMhiniy ^ i 
thn city-of Torin v^assni»nionedtotf(irir<mder; tteSrcaik * 

Digitized by VjOOQIC ' 

AND VAB9 OF BVRlWB. . 48* 

s ' ■ I I I I I ■ I I r 

Geflerai Maedooslfl evionalet Naplei. "^ 

coBiiBander replied with ft brisk oaosioiiade* and thebMH 
btrdneat conBneD<^d on the S7tb« . 

Soon after thai firing begaiii 4 hDwe was set oa fire by 
« bomb^ the disorder it occasioned waa need to theadfan* 
iag9 of tbe aUies by tiie anted iahabitaDts, who directly 
opened the gate* llie garrison ikd nto the eitadel# the 
division of.Kaim tooh the town. Prince Bagartion the 
eabitfbs^ and FroUeh and 2!oph filmed a camp of obser- 
hatiQii on tbe soutfa«west elid» leading to Pignerol^ From 
the. time of hostilities oH the Adige tiU Sawarrow eane 
la the fi*9ntiers of France, only ten weeks had elapsed i 
This would bare covered him with, gharf, if thentisnm^ 
MgemenH of the Freilcli government did not aat as n 
4f awbaek opc« ibe wisdom of its enemies. Morean had 
•iad# anothsr itesterljf retreat with ja handful of iheft; 
but Sowartow had a large ariqr ift bis rear, which ho 
limod it neeessaqr to tratck When General Macdonald 
Jheaid that the French troopi had retreated from befero 
Jfantoa*. he evacuated the kingdom of Naples^ and erealed 
a mHaeroQS aatioaal gaard of the Kei^olitaosy who ap« 
p^arpd. willing to defend themselves against the eom* 
biaed pDwet* ) he provisioned Fort St Ehnoir Capua^and 
Gaeta« Ht} proceeded to Florence, by the way of Rome ; 
the first division ibnnd the inimbitauls. m a atate of rebel- 
lion .wbUe it crossed St 6enna«> and Isola: t#o villages 
]Rrere carfied by assaoit, and ail their inhabitants perished i 
the Xei^Utans who were demooiatio cpuM not see the 
retreat of the French without dismay ; and tbe same waff 
expressed by tbe Romans, for whose defence Maedoaafd 
left a garrison, with orders to relreat into 4he ibrt of St 
Aagel^y ifatta^sked by saperior numbers* 
, Oenfi^ Suwaffow: pttsbed on. his ^eges/ whieli pXB* 
vented bnp trom hctfag in .the field widi the jdiief of Iwl 
« VOL. i.«i*No^ SL 3 1^ 


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Italian fortrrMe* torrcfider to tbe Allies. 

army. He sent a remforcement to the siege of Milan ; 
but decisive operations were prevented, Bs he was obliged 
to assist the Prince of Rohan, who was to act against su- 
perior forces, at the entrance into the Itafian bailiwicks, 
where Lecourbe was more than a match for him, although 
he was joined b; the inhabitants who discovered a sprit 
of insurrection. Tbe Republicans retreated from La* 
gano to Beilinssone by Mount Cenere, and atteofipted is 
gain Switzerland ; the imperial forces were recalled, asd 
<he trenches opened, on the 23d of May, agmst Miha, 
tbe commander of which signed a capitulation, and pro* 
cured for his troops, amounting to 2,200 men, a Srte pas- 
sive and the honours of war, but that they afaooM not 
bear arms against the Allie!! Poweis for one year. The 
citadel of Ferrara was forced to capitulate, and 1,SM 
men, of which it consisted, had terms from General Kk- 
nau similar to those granted to Milan. Ravenna sur- 
rendered soon after ; and Anoona capitulated to the com- 
bined fleets of Turkey and Russia. General Kray con- 
tinued the siege of Mantua, who received orders to with 
draw bis troops, leaving behind him only sueh »kc 
might think sufficient to carry on the siege. His first 
object was to force the French to abandon Bologna^ 
whicL was defended witli bravery, the Bolognese sap- 
porting the French : to the Republicans that was . of the 
greatest importance, as it obstructed the road towards 
Tuscany, and protected the retreat of the army 6fN» 

When General Naucndorf passed the Rhine at Schaff- 
hauften, dn the 22d, with the main body of the Archduke's 
army, Hotze alsa effected the passage of that river. The 
Rheintfaal was naw evacuated by tbe Republicaus under 
General da Lorge. and after Hotze had gniaad the post of 


by Google I 


The French rcpvlted at AndMngtn. 

Werdemberg, forded his way into Uie T>ogg«pb«4rg^ by 
tbe rn^r'iive^r. • Wbtle the troops which had orosscd at 
Rheineck were maroliaig toSt«GaU, the,:€olai^ii|^hicb 
keprt th6 x^onrse of the Thqr aitempded-to. raiicb Ti^rgo* 
via by i^'fot-ced AUpxfa; Hotae wished 'ttf joib tli^e[ vi»^ 
guard of OeMral Naw«»derf^ at Aldfjafifigeq^ tp ,ei^ 
Mish the veaftaiiiiiig fiait of the aimy ; as tb^ ^elidi^^ 
wisbetl i& collect all Us forces baSof^ he..'Te9^urfd.a gcr 
neral engagemeiU, : / t . 

General Masseoa liiarolied igaiiMt Ae Ta«goaf])i of Ge- 
neral Namndoirfi t^ prevent a ^jonctioii; and fcastiate a 
msditated attadc^on his fines; job the Liamit nven 6e* 
neral NmiendorTs't^n^giiRrd washeyond the Jeji .side ef 
the Thnir; and he detemtted to^posiB ibe^iraiigpuird of 
General Hotxe, snrprising it*whSe*prQAecuting its reyte. 

Tliese plans led to a veif gangimary afftuia when the 
Bepublioans defeated the hussars that defended the posts 
ef Naoendorf, and saecteded in taking ?the bridge- of 
Andeifingen over the nmr, bat werci at laat« ^liged- tp 
abandon it. As the Avstrians were much fiitign^d^ hav- 
ing inarched the whole of -the preceding dny^ their loas 
was considerable. 

The battle lasted from nine in the morning till fiveii^i 
the evening, and the Aastrians snfferediseverely ; but they 
were finally Yictorio|», and. the French were r^pilked. 
In spite of this opposition the Afchdnke accomplished 
what he hacf in view, changing his head quarters to Pa- 
rodies, and next day retook all ho had lost ou the left side 
of the Thur. He proceeded to Winterthun md Hotve 
having forced the Republicans back to the mountain on 
the road to Zurich^ adYUuced to attack them in front 

Moreau was too feeble to keep up a defrusive line he^ 
tween St, Gothard and the sea, and he was obliged to 
3» 8 


by Google 


GcBtnl Uotwn falU taoft; 

abuMOft tfrii mippoft U^ ids ieft wing, w w^U^tl^ U* ^^* 
muttkatidA WM M«Meim : alter getting' frofi 9«rtwriaa4 
iraeh reiribreeitfeiiU as h« oouid expect fro«i| MapnttN ^0 
feB back la oaVerlka ligurian itfoUic* 1^ to Aimsll 
Macd^M vith the nwaat of retrariiigf OaofFd S«t 
WArrotr taliag Cha fatenral a4neli l[(«eaft C^Uiiqiiidie^ 
fcepit up a war of posto in the paafs^ «{ Swite^Hwd, mA 
reaolvel <ib thtf oaploHB -af Taijn. Jlb«r6ai>> wii^ 
were gratified, which the Russian genect) 4M iM»t cpnyrof 
hend. 'Sowavrow fcand it "imprmAkiMp fithfc to sar- 
roand Mareaa, ta make him abwidaa t)i9 Afff^V^^f ^ 
collect ftyr^en Mpabb' of actiBg on thaafieNm^e in Upper 
Tuscany, as the French, were getting cavtimri reiafom^ 
mentsftom the Vaagmrd afMaedpiialflf 

The eaap 'of Mofeaa atCaai wat ne§tp fifty \99pt$ 
from the advanced paats of Haodanaid /an the firontifis of 
Tuscany, while he withdiaw la the fiiQ^eni of FrsitQfi 
to wait the trUfaig reinfardeneala ha axpeetfd by tk 
eol*de-Tenda« He sent a dinsioo ^ eaabU M^wfii 
to use ofifeasiv^ measuffes, aii4 asipb Itigipria tiy opeojig 
fhe passes* The Itepahli^aas retook HoMf vi, fpdi Uock* 
aded Cevi^ ; hat General Vokassovich rfPOnad thefe t^ 
places, behig at that tiaM ndpstsr Of Carmgiuda M At 
|>a, as also of Chanuco* Moaaatf diTerto^ the attcntias 
of the aWed ai^y aa nmcb as ponihk* mi 4raw off tk 
most part of Ha fereas. / 

Sttwtfrow mamhed tq atftaak Gaofrnl l^b^rean. ^M 
(caving a strong gMnbeii atCantt fc^«»ted to Cdrd^ 
Tendc, on the fth of Jona. IImi bloctodes f^f Tprtoot^ 
Alexandria, and the eitaM of T^^a ^^^ pm^ ^ 
wiA the gnsateft vigaiir and Jfttf^^eim^f 

The Archduke ^ivi»g got pwiessiop «{ St. GoiMi 
^d fearing no dsb|ar t|» hia jta^ mPBk HMt ^^^m^ ^ 



AMP WAVf OF wiLopz: 493 

AleJumAer fiii4 Turia blockaded. 

tegard^ to reiufqr^o tb^ itrmy pf Italy ; tlie remaipder, 
iWi4rr GeMnd H«d4kkr wwsh^tiop^d rt Domo i'Os- 
tpla, oi^r ta march into SfitaierlaQd. or fissUt Uie army 
of lUdy, Mcurqiinstaiices ipi^t require. Bele^arde, with 
^ «trQlg fant» HWfi^fli^d: throi]||r|i l^ilm. The forces of 
General MwdowUmf^^ he 40.000 Dieo, including tbc^' 
Tfainhvocn^uU und^r Gfvieral Yictor ; it could not ex* 
ceed this namber, when we ropoUect thft he led garri- 
spaa at Fort St. ^^% CfpWt, Q^U^ llomei, Civita^Vcci' 
cbia, AncHMUia and athfiV {>|«C^Sr to cover bis retreat. 
, When Macdaoald afrived^inTuscaoj, he first rid all 
the pasaes of thp AppeaiuaQ?^ Ifontremoli was in Uie 
hands of Oiaeral Olt« which Js on the frontier of Tusr 
cany with the UcmianxcptthhOf 

Gencrd MapdonaU atreoglheoed his ri^l^t winj; under 
Moatricb^d, who engaged and repulsed Ktenau. and 
raised the ai^a of Fart Vrbino, The legion of Poleod 
was despatched agahistPontreiiioIi« and ordered to recap* 
liil« this pla<^ fronn the ImperiaUstf at any price. Itfac^ 
dopald fixed his he%A. <inarters at Lucca, and found it 
aa»} to aw w un^ cate. ^th Genoa, become acquainted 
with the poaitiowi and atreagth of the ellied armies, and 
concert subsequent operations with General Moreau : he 
was in a better position than bis hopes piesaged, and 
hoped to open such a scene of operations as would at 
once be new and unexpected. 

Macdonald made a very sanguinary attack in which 
ca^abry and infantry equally sufTered ; and the Austriaos 
gave up Modena, which was plundered. His advanced 
guard obliged General Ott to retreat with 8000 men. 
General Snwarrow, who was besieging the citadel of Tu- 
rin, marched to meet him with all possible despatch. An 
engagement took place, and the rtpublicana were de- 


by Google 


Great tlaoi^hter io Italy. 

feated with much bloodshed on both sides. JAacdooaU 
again attacked them, and the carnage was borrftle. Ti» 
conntry for twelve miles was covered wkb the dead, isA 
the Trebia cboaked np -^witb carcases* The . Polish Re- 
gion was nearly cat to pieces. Macdonald retreated 6ob 
Placentia, being obtigcd to leave 3,000 wounded to the 
mercy of the Aastrians, among them Were four generak ; 
he was himself also woanded*' 

General Moreaa left Genoa with 25^000 men, and tbe 
Austrians were forced to abandon tiieir positions, and re- 
treat across the Bormida kt great precipitation : by tiiis 
be raised the siege of Tortonav Sawarrow parsoed Mac* 
donald beyond Placentia, but unable to overtake him, he 
proceeded to meet Moreau. Turin surrendered^ which was 
of advantage io the allies, as it released General Kaime's 
forces, who marched to join the grand army. The whole 
of Italy might be said io be in the hands of the combisei 
powers ; and a suspension of hostilities took place, » 
both powers waited for reinforcements. It is calculated 
that more men perished in four' months than ever was 
known in modern warfare ; and out of 970,000 which 
the warlike powers broagfat into the field, lull one half 
were lost within that time. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC ^ 


Boii»|)art« mavctie^ to Upper Kfjrpt. 


: Those who have admired die eiiltcrpmiog spirit of Alexr 
ander, the retreat of the ten thousand under Xenopbon^ 
and the fortitude of Charles the Xwe)fUiy will not regard 
the.Talorous struggles of the republican generals whoUy 
unworthy of praise. Bonaparte was placed in situation^ 
where the slightest ommission jwouldhare led to the ineTi- 
table destruction of his army : we left hiip preparing &r 
the expedition to Syria, and he was ignorimt of the s^nle 
of affairs in Europe^, awing to the English blockading the 
mouths of the Nilci and presenting any intelligence pasa- 
ing either in or out of Egypt. Bonaparte ordered Gene- 
ral Desaix, who* had proceeded into Upper Egypt to 
drive the Mamelukes beyond the cataracts of the Nile, 
aad then ordered the departure of his own army. This 
force comprehended the divisions of General iCleber, 
who bad under him Generals Veydier and Junot, of the 
-division of General Regnier, who had under Idm Gene- 
ral Legrange ; of the division of General Lasne, who bad 
under him.Generals Vaux, Robin, and Rambeau ; of the 
division of General Murat, with 900 cavalry, accompa- 
nied by four light 4-pouuders. The artillery was com- 
manded by General SauuuirUn, and the engineers by 
General CafTarelli ; the park of artillery was four twelve 
pounders, three 8-pounders, five howits&ers, and three 
jS-inch mortars ; to each division were two S-pounders, 
two 6-inch howitzers, and two three pounders. To tl^e 
gniit parlies^ cavaliy and ii^antry^ were altftted'/onr 


by Google 


Hit rarioos <Ht|NifltltfM M Ei;y|»u 

8-poaDder8 and two 6-iiich howitzers. The differefll 
corps constituted an army oC about 10,000 men. 

Bodies of troops were stationed at Alexandril^ Ds- 
inietta» and Ciuro, as gancbons^ or formed into morcabk 
columns, to keep the provinces of Lower Egypt in obefi- 
ence, and to protect them against the Arabs. Citiseo 
Pouissiefgue, chief fiftancfclt adtninistfator, remaiiieJ at 
Cafa^ ; the pajmaster-generfiit of the 'army aceompttM 
tte expedition^ Alexandria irmr ^T very great hopoit- 
' anee, it could h«H be giwn ' but to^ an officer^ wbt», kdev 
Engineering and miUtary seience in geneval ; that flv- 
tfess, frony tb^ distimce of Bonaparte, was ahnosf io^ 
pendent df faim '; ad<^d to these, (be Engfish were ia fke 
neigbbottthood, and symptoms of the plague were be 
gihidng Co appear : the geneial tff brigade, Mamoot, « 
>fonng officer of family and fortune, leceked that impart 
tant command* 

llonaparfe ordered ^e officer to whom Daadetla wn 
entrusted, to fortify that place, and tranipwi the stsre* 
and provisions across Lake Heazale to the pott of TV 
iietfa, whence they irere to be soit to Gathieb« a muA af 
about five hours. Some bettering cannoii waa neeeani; 
to reduce Acre, in ease of resiatanee't to bffaig thea ^ 
the'Desart was hnprocticftble ; diey wertB ordmd ot 
board h squadron of four frigaltes, which lay in the rof< 
of Alexandria, and conveyed by sea, ift deflaaeo of tka 
English cruisers. 

< The admird was to cruise' off ^affii^ and ktdf up a 
commtfnication with the «tny : every • diligence was aaci 
at Cairo in g^ttirtg the camels and mules to oollvey Ai 
Held aitiUeryi the stof ei, aimnunftion^ kc^ for the pnsaif 
#f an anai^ tlurougft^ ilM Desarl» 
; Qimtni Ktebef wa»to embark a( 1l»Rniietta^(h0npe«Bk 




y I P I I I . — 11 .1 • , r - 

(■ebenit Reimier Mockadet Kl-Arish. 

r . :j'i: ■ ■. ii ■ , i ., . . — ,.<■...■ .■■■■.,,, . ;, . ^ 

being masters of Lake Menzale, and proceed to Tiueth 
from thence to march to Catfaieh, where he was e^tpeoted 
to arrive on the 4lh of February; General Begnier ar- 
rived at Catbieh on the 4th of February; and joined his 
advanced giiard ; tiieSth he marched for ENArish* which^ 
with tiie fort, was occupied by about 2^000 troops of the 
Pacha of Acfe. On the 8th of February he saw a party 
of*MaineIttke^> but thes^ were soon dispersed^ Next day 
he advanced, and took possession of some sand hills, 
^hich command EIo-Arish. where he took a position and 
planted his artillery. General Begnier ordered Iho 
charge to be beaf, and the advanced gnard rushed* ra* 
pidly on the tight and left of the village, whioh was at« 
tacked by Begnier in front In defiance of the advan* 
tageons position of the etfemy^ in a viUage like an an* 
phitheatre with a few jiouses built with stene, and oo* 
vered by the fort ; notwithstanding a galling fire, the vil* 
iage.was carried by the bayonet, the enemy retired^ and 
barricadoed the doors with' such haste, as to exolode 
about 800- men. who were either killed or taken pn^ 
soners. General Begnier blockaded the fori ^ El- 
Art&h ; a corps of cavalry and infantry were seen 0D*t)ie 
route from Graasa. escorting a convoy of provisions for Bt« 
Arisb ; this reinforcement increased tHI the 18th of Pe* 
bruary. when the Mamelukes advanced, and pitched their 
tents on a plain covered by a steep ravine/ where tbey 
thought themselves safe frotn attack. 

A party of General Regnicr's division rushed ifllo the 
damp, killed a great many, took a number of camels, 
hoi^. and prisoners, with great quantities of provisions 
and warlike stores, and the field equipages of the Mama* 
lakes. On the second day after this affair B^nlipkrto 
if^ared befort El-Arish^ «...%., 

VOL. l^-NO, 21, Si ■ n } 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


£kAriili tumadien to the Freadk, 

'lli« General got an express from Alexandria, stating 
that the English squadron bombarded that city and port; 
he judged this manoeuvre was only meant to diyert him 
from his expedition to Syria, which had already alarmed 
the English and the Pacha of Acre« He quietly soffercd 
thorn to contime their bombardment, which produced 
little effect ; on the 17tli of February he arrived at & 
Arish, ^here he was joined by the divisions of Genmb 
]}ou and Lasne and the corps of artiUeiy. 

General Begnier not being furnished with ammunitioa 
to batter in breach, aammoned the commander of the fort 
and rendered the blockade closer. The army took a po- 
sition before El-Ariah, between the village and the sea : 
Bonaparte ordered one ef the towers to be cannonaded, 
and, when a breach was effected, the place was summoned 
to surrender* The garrison consisted of barbarians with- 
oat regular chiefs, and ignorant of war as carried on be* 
twecn civilised nations* At length the garrison, coonst* 
lug of 1,600 men, surrendered on the sole oonditioa of 
being allowed to retire to Bagdad across the .Desart ; < 
number of the Maograbins entered into the Frencb ser- 
vice. In tlie fort were about 250 horses, two dismounted 
pieces of artillery, and provisions for a few days. Bobs* 
parte w^nt to Cairo the standards taken,' and the Msme* 
kike prjsioners.r 

' General Kleber set out towards Kan-jounoss, a fron* 
tier village of Palestine, ne^r the 'Desart The boad 
quarters were reraeved from £l*Arish and destined for 
Ixan jouness k the general in chief, the staff, ftc^ arrived 
near that phice without having any intelligence of Gene- 
ral Kleber's division* Bonaparte sent some of his escort 
t9. the vitli^e : no French troops had arrived there : 
some Mamelukes, who were there, fled to the camp ^ 




■I . I . 

The Mamelttke cavmlry od the beifrht of Gaza. 

Abdaliah Paoba, at the distance of aboat a league, on the 
route to Gasa* Bonaparte^ oonviiiced that KUeber'« di- 
vision was misled, fipU back towards Santon, three Ieag«e9 
in the Depart. He there found the advancfed guard of 
the cavair} ; the guides had led General Kleb^r astray iii 
the Desart ; but he compelled some Arabs to point out tha 
riglit road.' His dinsion arrived after a ma^ch of forty** 
eight hours/during which he was without water! The dir 
visions of Generals Bon and Lasne were also led astray : 
these three divisions thus arriving at Santott nearly toge>- 
ther, the wells were soon Exhausted ; the soldiers, toi^ 
mented by a burning thirst, sunk wells, but could only 
obtain a very partial supply of water. ' General Regnier 
^as to remain at EI-Arish, to put the fort, which is the 
key of Egypt towards Syria, into a respectable state of 
defence, and to wait until the field artillery should ad^ 
vance. That division was to form the rear guard of thf 

The army marched frqm Kan-jouness towards Guza ; a 
body of the Mameluke's cavalry was perceived upon the 
lieigbts. Bpnap^rte formed the divisions into squares, 
General Kleber formed the left, and wa^ to march against 
Gaza, on the right of the enemy; the division of Gene^ 
ral Bon occupied the centre, and advanced towards its 
front; the right was the division of General X«asne, which 
turned the positions which Abdallah occupied. General 
Murat, with the cavalry, and six pieces of cannon, 
marched in front of the infantry, and prepared to charge 
the enemy* The cavalry of Abdallah made irregular 
movements^ and theur confusion was manifest ; they sud- 
denly advanced and seemed willing to charge ; fliey hoW" 
^, immediately made a retrograde movement. Gene- 
ral 3Iurat pushed forward, but failed in bringing tb^ 
^ 3 s 2 r- T 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Tlw French army mdvances to JaSa. 

^uemy to action ; a party of their riflemen were inter- 
cepted by General lUeber's ^vUpn, by whom 21 were 

Tbe ^rtty advanced beyond Gaisa^ having established 
baad quarters in the town. The fort is of a circular 
form, flanked with towers. It contained 16,0001bs. of 
powder, a great qnantity of cartridge?, apd other war- 
like 8tpre3, with several pieces of cannon. In tbe town 
were alsp ibbout 10Q,0Q0 rations of biscuits, some rice, a 
.number of t^^nts, and u great quantity of barley. The 
inhabitant^ sepding deputies to meet the French, were 
treated as friends. Tbe army remained the 26th and 
87th in this quarter. Bonaparte was employed in organ- 
ising a system of government for the town and district ; 
)ic formed a divan, consisting of tlie principal Tttriush 
inlmbilants of the pli^ce, On the 28th the furmy advanced 
upwards Jaffa, where the Mapielukes and Turks were col« 
lecting their forces. The escorts of provisions and am- 
munition from Catheih, were several days in the rear of 
the army ; but the stores which had been' abapdoned at 
Gaza, enabled the army to aflvance. 

On the 1st of March the army rested at Ezdoud, sod 
the 2d at Ramieh, a town inhabited by Christiaiia ; > 
quantity of biscuit was found there, which the enemy 
could not remove, and as much was. found at the village 
of Lidda. The hordes of Arabs took flight on (he hf 
I proach of the French ^ General Klebei^s division arrived 

iefore Jaffa : the enemy retired into the body of the 
place. The other divisions and the cavalry arrived sooa 
after. General Kleber's division and the cavalry were te 
occupy a position about two leagues on the route to Acre, 
for the purpose of covering the siege of Jafla. ^ 
town was invested by the divisions of Generals Bon &»' 
Lasne. ' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Jaffa takeo^the garrUon put to the sword. 

Jaffa is mfrounded by a wail ; it is flaoked by towers^ 
on which cannon were mounted. Towards the sea are 
two forfSt wbicb command the port and road«. The point 
of attack fixed on was against the highest and;Btrongest 
partofthoworkB. The tr^ob^.were opened, a baltery 
*in breach waa coBslructed against the square tower, the 
most ooinniandiBg part of the whole front of attack. 

On the Gtfa,^ at. four o'cfock tho breach was deemed 
practicable. The besieged made great efforts ; but a 
breach was effected, and the division of Geoer^ Lasne» 
in a shi^rt tin)e, gfiined. ppssession of two forts. J^e di-. 
vision of General Bon now entered the town near tha ^ 
port. The garrison defended themselves desperately^ 
and, refiisiBg to lay down thehr arms, were put to the 
sword ; it consisted of about 12,000 Turkish gunnersi 
about 2^fi00 Maugrabins or Amauts, Threo hundred 
Egyptians, who had sarrendeired, were seat to E^ypt* 
The loss of the French army was inconsiderably 

Tlie command of the place was given to General Ror 
bin. The inhabitants were protected, tliey returned to 
their habitations, and order was restored. In the place 
was found the field train sent to Dgez^ar Papha, by the 
Grand Seignior, of 40 pieces of artillery, cannQq, or (arge 
howitzers ; and 21 guns, brass or iron. In the port were 
15 small trading vessels.. JBonaparte gave orders to put 
t]|0 town and port in a proper state of defence ; and- also 
to establish an hospital and magazines. He constituted a 
divan, of the most distinguished Tdrks of the uKace ; and 
sent orders to the 4-dmiraI, Perree, to sail from Alexaiv 
drta, with the three frigates, and repair to Jaffa. Thi(s 
port wasifieuit tobe the depot of every thing thai should 
be received from Alexandria and Damietta. As it was 
exposed to descents cmd incursions, Bonaparte gave tl;e 

Digitized by V:iOOQIC 


The Fffendi taloe CitUEk 

eoBiBuuid to Oebend GreMier ; bot he 80od dkd there of 

Ckneral Kleber was encamped at Miakj, in fronl of 
<he potttkMiv for caveriiig tbe siege of Jslffiu Tbtt Hmr 
ttons of Oenerab B<hi and Losne mi Ihe h^ad qaarten 
Jetned the ad^aneed guard at Misky ; die army narchiiig 
to Zeta, the ardTanced guard obserred a e^rps ofemvAj, 
Abdattah Pacha was wiOi 2,000 cavaby, on the heights «f 
KorsQDi, having a body eT about 10,000 Turks, who oo^ 
copied a more elerated sitmtioii. The Pacha wished ts 
check the progress of the army* and feroc' it to «i actioa 
among the defiles of Napldnii to retard its mareh t» 
Acie. The divisions of Oenerab Ben and, Klehcr wert 
formed b squares, and advanced aga4n6t4he eavaby* whs 
fled from the contest. General Lasne'h dtvisien, hmn 
away by its ardour, purdiled the Paoba bto the moas* 
tsdn< and attacked tiie Naptoosin fbroe/and put iten- 
tirely to flight ; the fight inftntry pursued ao far as to 
obKge the General to send them orders to desist ; they, at 
length obeyed, and the Ni^louzians, lookmg on lUt 
.movement ses a retreat, pursaed, in their turn, tte light 
infantry ;' being acquainted wttii the sidvantageoud »taa- 
tUms in tbe mountains, they fired upon die French vitfc 
great effbct. The division sought in vain to draw the 
Naplou^ans firom tfie mountahis. 

The ]6th of March General Kleher advanced te Caiffii; 
«bput 20,000 rations of biscuit, and as much nee, wss 
found m the phice. CaiSa is surrounded by wails, flak- 
ed by towers, a castle defends the road and port; a tower 
commands the town at a small distance, but all is aveJ^ 
looked hy the heights of Mount Carmel. The Mauls' 
lukes carried off the artill^y, and all the mflitaiy st«re«. 
Tlie, French garrisooed the castle, and on the 17tb- pr^ 



ANI>.'WARS 09 BUItOPE. 508 

Sir Sydney Smith iAudb wHh the Porte. 

ceeded towards St Jotm d'Aore. The roads were vetj 
bad, 80 that it ws^s iate whe« they arrived at the entranoe 
of the rher, which roas throagfa marshy groands. Tk^ 
passage was datgcrous in the night, as the qavalry and 
infiuitry on the opposite biuik appeared in great foree* 
General Andreossy was dispatched to examine the fords $ 
he passed with a. battalion, and took possession at night 
fall of an eminence overlookmg an entrenohed camp. A 
party of the guards, and two pieces of artiNcry, took a 
position between the works and the river of Acre. 

A bridge was ceastrocted, and the army passed the 
river at day break on the. 8lfa. Bonaparte led the army 
to an eunnence which coouBanded St. John d*Acre. The 
Turks stiD kept their gionnd without the place, in tlie 
gardens which sarronnded it, bnt they soon retired withiii 
the works. 



Sir W. Sydney S5iith, minister to the Porto, had ar- 
rived at Confitantittople early m January. The Syrian 
campaign was concerted between that officer and the 
Turkish Government, and the British forces were ready 
to co-operate with the Pacha 5f Acre when Bonaparte 
readied that place. The English force was small, bnt it 
encouraged- the troops of the Pacha ; and the French 
O^eral experienced an opposition that his power and 
taleuts.eonid not surmount The Republicans took n(< 

Digitized by V:iOOQIC 


j504 history of NAPOLEOK BONAPARTE, 

The French attack St. Jean d'Acre. 

their greund so near the water side, that Sir Sydnej n* 
luted 'them by a galiing fire from his boats, and ebUgvd 
tbep to retire widi precipitation* 

•The siej^e commenced on the 2^Ii of March: on 
the 28tb field-pieces only were ^sed to batter the 
tower iB the line of attack* About three in the evenin; 
a breach wa» made ; at tfaa same time a mine was sprung, 
^hich did little execution. The breach was thought ad 
practicable as that of Jafia; but the French grenadieis 
were arrested by a fosse» fifteen feet deep, connected widi 
a good counterscarp. The fite from the place was teiiible. 
Terror for a moment affected some of the Torlts ; they 
fled, but soon rallied and r^taracd to the breadi, mhiA 
the French in vain tried to mount, its height being near 
ten feet above the rubbish* This gave the Pacha time te 
rally his forces and ascend to the tower, whence they show- 
ered down stones, grenades, and combustible materiab, 
upon the assailants. Some French grenadiers were unable 
to advance, and forced to return to the trenches. 

The French array regarded the works at Acre as of liltk 
importance. The besieged made on the 80th a spirited 
sortie, but were forced to retire within their walls. 

The British ships were driven from Acre by, a stonn, 
which caused the Turks to be left for some days alone in 
the combat; fortunately far them, previous- amugeraepts 
made Bonaparte draw oif a great part of his force about 
the same time. 

Dgezzar had sent among the Naplouziansr and to SidoB* 
Damascus, and Aleppo, to induce all, the Miissaliiiei» 
who c6uld beararms^ to rise en «a^*€, for the purpow 
of combatiBg the infidels. This produced a great.effed« 
large bodies of troops were assembling at Damascos, aaJ 
magazines were establishing at ti^ fort oC Tabarif, vhici 




The Freocb aCfacied bjF the Rcjrptiam. 

was oecupicd by the Mangmbiitt.' Anxioui for t|iese 
forees, Bgeassar oaused sorties to bo oiado dariog the 
first days of the siege, which tfie Ffeaclr Ikoiigbt itere 
with a new of assisting the entiy of ilho$e forces, Booa* 
parte th^efore was eager to i^iiD^t a bfeaoh before ^tbeir 
arrival. He ordered a lodgemeBt io the tower should be 
attempted ; bat the Tarks fitted tfaa breach so with sand 
bags, timber, imd bales of cotton, thut the effort was ipi-* 
pfactidMe; and be was unable to c<HiUBence a nf w At- 
tack. He laboured to establish a mine to blow the tower 
up.; this was a matter of great importance; but the 
Tofks hindered the opesation. . I . 

• Bonaparte now saw that lie mast endeayour tcr prevent 
^^'reinforcements reaching^ the town^ Generid Vjal^ wai( 
sent to Tyre, where ?tbc|iahal>itaails were in favour ^fthf^ 
PacKit. At bis Upptoraph. the inhabiianla took to flight } 
he howevet prooNsedl to protect Ihem^ and having left a 
gbnrison of 1109 OMn to gnard Ahei place^ibe )E|Mitti|d 1? 
OB ibefiihot April. 

r GeneraUmiot learned thatdifc Mahomedans werc.a^ 
sembling in great namberB on the heights of I^aubi, ^nd 
that some had advanced to Ae- Tillage of .IfOfibU. fi^ 
marched with a division, drafted frorn dUfer<|iit* eofps^ 
for the purpose of feceftnoitesing* Be fierce|vMjthe ent*. 
my near Lonbi ; be pursaed his mareb, torue^ ^c moun- 
tab, and was sorrvunded in a plain byitbout. S009 
cavalry. These rushed upon his force, and forced him 
Io giv^ examples of courage; td. his soldiers, who shewed 
themselves ^ordiy of tb^ir intrbpid bMer, aftd dispersed 
the assmlaAts; This atiaiv oAst the French sixty, mfv, 
wfaiek was more to tbftm thaa flm QOO I'l^Oed of ti^ «a* 
tf ves was to #ie Tark^ ,i 

Bonqpfirtto or^^ved Oeaeial Kbber to . siar^ Pgm lk« 
'VOL. I.— NO. 33. 8 T Digitized by Google 


Tbe Tuiki barttst Booaparie. — 

c&inp before Acre with tbe remainder of the adyaoced 
giiard; tx> j^in General Junot at Nazareth. Being ia- 
formed tbftt the enemy were still near Loubi, Iio deter- 
mmed to aflack tbem the next day^. He had sQarcelj 
reached the heights a quarter of a league from Loubi, 
#}ien the enemy rushed into tbe plain. General Kleber 
was sorroanded by near 4000 cavalry, and five or GOO 
foot, w1k> prepared to charge him. The General at- 
tacked the -cavalry, and directed a part of fais^foroe 
aigainst tlie enemy's camp,' whi<^:he carried ; tbe enemy 
retreated in disorder towards the Jordan, and he could 
not pursue them for want of ammunition. Ttie French 
were not long suffered to remab quiet, as tbe Hordes 
htely defeated were- join«l$yy an immense body of&ah 
mai^rfartsr or-Naplouzians* Bonaparte learned that tbe 
country was rising to* attack! liis posts m fbe^wildemess, 
and tesbived that uf battle shouU be fought, {o-.subdne s 
multitude' itho tbe verge of bis camp* 
He gave orders for making the dispositions fi»r the attack 
a^ a distance, and to force them to repass 'tbe- Jordan. 
Ttie rcnite irem Damascas, in crossing tbe Jordan, b 
either x^ t&e right of the Lakb ^Tafaarie, by tbe bridgs 
of Jacob/aftWee leagues distance froin .whicbis situated 
Ihe casUe ot Saflbt ; or on the 1^ of that .lake by tto 
bridge of )SI-Meckanie, a short distaupe fnmk lite fort of 
l^burTe^. 'These two fortvessea are ta tli^ rigbt of tbe 
Jolrdan. ^ : i i. • 

f GeneratMuratiaarebfedffom. before Acre with 1000 
infantry aud a iregtaieit pfi cavahry. Ht was ordieied to 
prciceed to &€ bridge. 6f Jacobs and take possessioD, and 

'U> joik m toon as poiitbb the: troops under jBeneral 
TELieber, who was in want of reiofol'Pii^eplB,. t]paJk*offie«r 

<Hviiiv:s%aiftcdilis. intentitea ^f tifnajr tb» eHemja po- 

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He dtlrtB tbam owf the Jordan. 

sitions, and to endeavour to smrprise tbem by nigiit in 
tbeir camps. 

' Bonaparte set out from the oamp with the remainder of 
the cavalrj* the division of General Bon, jand eight field- 
pieceSy and took a posftion on tiie heights- of Safarie^ 
where the troops were all night under arms. He marched 
add arrived at the heights, from whence le perceived 
the division of Creneral Kleber engaged with the enemy; 
whose force seemed to be about 2&/M)0, aU cavahry, and 
surrounding the French treops, who did not exceed 2000* 
Bonaparte prepared for turning the enemy at a aon^ 
siderabie distance, cut off their retreat to Jenin, where 
their magazines were, and drove them to Jordan, where 
General Mfiratcovid successfully encounter them. 
' Gciheral Kleber iad been retarded by the dilBSculties of 
the way/ and ikt defiles he had to pass; he could not 
come up with the Mamelukes, until they had time to 
make preparations for his reception. The cavalry, to 
the amount of S5,000, surrounded the army of Kleber^ ' " • 
but without success. • The French musketry and grape || 

shot did considerable execution. 

Bonaparte, on arriving ne^ the scene of action, ordered ^ ^ 

General Rampon to attack the enemy on the flanks' and ' / 

in theVear. General Vial Was otdered to force the ene- 
my towards the Jordab; and the infantry guides were \ 
to direct the coarse of the remaining troops towards 
Jenin, so as to intercept their retieat to that quarter. 
Wh«a the eokimn began to advance an eight-pounder 
was &»charged. General K}eber knowing by this signal 
of the approach of the General in Chief, no longer re- 
mamed on the defensive, he advanced to the villag.e of 
•' Fouli, which he carried by the baycoet ; V then ad- 
'vanced towards the ca^salry, putting all wh^ resiste4 to 

3t2 r I - 

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■ " - 

the BW4>id, Disorder prevailed \ the enemy were cut off 

from their magazines, and surrounded by their adtent- 

ries, they determined to seek for refoge in the rear of 

Mount Tabor ; this tiiey gained, and retreated over 

ibe bridge of EtMebinm ; aome were drowpcd in the 


Oeneiml Marat snrpriaed the so* of the Governor of 
Damascus, kflled a great namber of men, and pumed , 
the enemy on tbe rovte to Damascns. A colamn of 
cavalry surprised Hie qan^ of tkn Mametokes, carried off 
000 camels^ killed a number of men, and made 259 
prisoner* InleUigeaoe of the sucoessea were sent to the 
different corps ocoupying Tyre, Cmmrea, the Cataracti 
of the Nile^ the Pelusian mouths, Aie|f:^dria» the j)osts 
on the bordem of the Red St^ 9X 4)e^Ruin| of Kiisain, 
and at AFsinoC;. ' \ // 

The battle of Moiuit Tabor caused the discom6tare of 
95,000 cavairy, and 10.000 infantry* by 4000 French 
iroops ; lAe capture of all the enemy's magaaines in these 
p(irtB, and their flight to Damaacus. Their loss exceeded 
,5000 men ; and they conld not connive bow they cooU 
have been defeated on a line of nine leagues, so little oo- 
tion bad they of combined operations^ 

Bonaparte retumejd to Acre, thinking ttiat he has 
done great things ; bat be bad merely promoted the 
yiews of tbe British andTurkbh commanderB* 

The siege of Acre wsas continued witb the meet invete- 
rate obstinacy on Ike pari of the Fseadk «^ ^^ 
defended by tko BritiBb andTurks ; 4iey laboured at the 
works witbujut cessation, aad though t|^e ¥t%nA ^^^ 
times carried tke outworksi. they., were as oft«n drivee 
from them ; mines were endeavoured to be apruogi hot • 
as often .eowateraetej^. Bpnapa^ was extremely ^^^^ 

d by Google 

Digitized t 


A TttrkM) Fleet MTlftt at Acre. 

tb reduce the plaoe^ end 9p$ttei*j» pains to that effect^ 
but the peffBeferance of the .g«riison,i]id his being bat 
KcaHtify supplied with heavy artillery and ammnmtion,' 
were ebstaeleshe oouM not get over. Hisaieo frequently 
made lodgements in tiie lower opposite ta his batieries^ 
but were constantly driven out; and when they attempted 
to scale the breach they had made, the Turks always 
sent them away, and poured hot liquids, . and throw large, 
stones down, which overthrew the foremost, and caused 
them to drive down those' who foUowedt 

A fleet of Turkish ships from Rhodes anived at Acie» 
when the French had been Upwards of a month before the 
place, laden with troops, stores, and provisions ; seeing 
this reinforcement arrive, he made a desperate attack* 
upon the town befdire they couM arrive to jls assbtance ; 
neithey the determined resistance of the Aaglo-Turks» 
nor the tremendous fire from the batteries were 8a& 
fered to retard their .progress; they spiked a num« * ^ 
ber of cannon, but lost upwards of IfiO officers and w 
men in this attack. The French standard was seen at 
day light flying on the outer angle of the tourer, and a 
lodgement was made by them in the tower to the north 
east The fresh troops just arrived under Hassan Bey, 
were but half way to shorsi and the olaiost exertions 
were necessary to preserve the place till they got to 
hmd. Sir Sydney Smith landed them at the mole and 
to^ them to the breach armed with pikes. The grati- 
tude of the Tarks at the sight of snob a reinforcement 
cannot be described ; many returned with them to the 
breach, still defended by a few brave Turks, who poared 
heavy stones and other missiles upon their assailants. 
Dgezzar Pacha, who commanded at Acre, was sitting, 
according to the Turkish custom^ to reward those whv 

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Acre Mg^ aMawlled, bat repubed. 

brought him tbe^ haad of iin enemy ; his idea was not to 
defoud the breach, bat aoffer the French to enter tbt 
works^ and then destroy them. They mounted nomo- 
lested, and got into the Pacha's garden, where soon tbo 
bravest and most forward lay headless corpses ; the sabre, 
with a dagger in the other hand, proving more than a 
match for the bayonet. Mach confusion prevailed, the 
newly arrived Turks, not distinguished between one hat 
and another, aimed many a severe blow at th^ir friends 
the English ; their mistake was however corrected by the 
exertions of the Pacha ; both sides foqght with the great- 
est braveiy, and Bonaparte saw that his troops wera 
likely to suffer so much, that he ordered them to* re- 

On returning to the camp the French learned that ^i- 
miral Perree had taken two vessels separated ftom the 
Turkish fleet, with field artillery, provisions, monej, 
400 soldiers, and the commissary of die Turkish fleet 
From him it ^>peared» that they were part of an anna« 
ment destined for AIe]iandria, bat that their destinatioo 
was changed at the pressing request of Sir Sydney 

. Bonaparte gave orders for another assault ; a division 
mounted the breach, surprised the outworks, w(I pst 
those they found there to the sword^ but they were 
obliged to retreat in cQnAisipn, Hie grenadiers again 
solicited the honour of the assault, which was granted 
them ; they marched forward, but were so well reiceived 
by the Anglo-Turks that they were again ordered to re* 
treat These three attacks cost them near 700 men killed 
and wounded, wth several officers of rank. The space 
between the two annies was covered with dead bodies 
and the stench was uitplerable. 


by Google 


Proolamatioo addressed to the Freocb amjr. 


^ BoNAPARTB ivrote to the Pac^ for ^ trace, to enable 
botii sides to bury their dead, and demanded an exchaBg;e 
of prisoners ; bat, as he did not mentipn the ]E!u|rli«l| 
commander, Dgezzar paid Sir Sydney Smith the eem* 
pKment of leaving the answer entirelj to him. No aor 
swer was sent tili six days after it bad been received ; 
and the bearer of ike dispatch carried with him a procia* 

This proclamation was addressed to the generak, offi- 
cers, and soldiers of the French army in Egypt. It stated 
that the Directory had led them into an error by sending , « 
them into Egypt, and thus had consigned them to de* 
Mniction* It tells them that innumerable armies are on 
their march to overwhelm them, and immense fleets 
covei' the coast : that those who wish to withdraw from 
the perils that await them must signify their intentions 
to the ctommanders^ of the allied powers, and that they 
shall be fBrnished with passports to protect them. It 
urges them to hasten to accept this favour of tlie Sub- 
lime Porte, and extricate themselves from the abyss into 
whith they have plunged. This was dated at Constanti-^ 
nople, and certified by Sir Sydney Smith, as minister to 
the king of England. 

This proelamation gave great offence, as well as an ex- 
pressLon in the answer to the proposal, ^^ Does he not 
know, asked Sir Sydney, " that is is for me to dispose of 
the ground that lies under my artillery Y' 

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Bonaparte aonoinice* bit retara te £nP^ 
Bonaparte received accounts of various insurrectioos 
in Egypt, which seemed to be connected with a geaeni 
system of external attack meditated against the French in 
Egypt At Caircv and otlier principal towns, tranquil- 
lity was not disturbed, but in the provinces of Benishef, 
Charkie, and Bahere, it was with difficulty these disturb- 
ances were quelled, Mtwithsianding M the activity of 
the French troops and generals^ 7lie most aiarnung 
news/ bow^veri waS| that an EngtisU frigafte bad ap 
|^rofiiche4 Sues, and it was to be feared Uiat a force bm^U 
he landed there, which would plactf the army between 
two fires ; and it was no longer, a matter of ohoic* vbe- 
ther the siege should be raised, and the army tfkt the 
only chance remaining of saving itself. Two jwntfa 
bad nearif passed, and the affairs seetned more dfficult 
than ever ;. i|ideed, Bonaparte only waited fill he coi)' 
make an excuse to abandon his enterprise : be oBliedin 
his outposts, and sent forward his sick and wounded} at 
Ibngth he announced ' bib ' determination to retom ^ 
Egypt in a proclamatioo. 

He tells them tliat they^have traversed the desail whiflk 
divides Africa fi-om Asia, with the rapidity of as Aiab 
force ; the.t' the. army ^hioh was on its march to iovtoa 
%ypt is destroyed ; they have taken all tho i^^^ 
posts which secure the wejls of the desart, and dispersed 
swarms of brigands, colleoted from all ptrt3 of Asia ib 
hopes of plunder; that the thirty ships whiph diey saw 
enter Acre were destmed to attack Alexandria, but were 
compelled to hasten to the rcfief of Acre, and thai many 
of their standards will grace their trtuiiipb^l ^^trf int« 
Egypt ; he telb them, that with a handful of men bavisS 
maintaii|ed the war for threa monthain Sjria, a«d ^^ 
or destroyed several forlifioitioos, and made njany thoa- 

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by Google 


by Google 

Ai^D mrAtiS OP fitkope.^ 513 

The li^fpe of Acre raited. 

sand prisoners, tbey most retom U> Egyp^ where the ap- 
proactiiitg season for landing callii for their presence ; 
that a few days more might g^ve them bopeff of taking the 
Pacha in his palace, but that the castle of Acre is^ not 
. Worth the loss of that time, nor of the men who might 
, fall in the time ; that they have yet much to perform, and 
fresh opportunities of acquiring glory. 

On the 20th of May jat nine in the evening/ the gene-y 
tale was beaf^ and the siege, which Uuted GO days, was 

In a. letter td Lord Nelson, ibed commanding ht the 
Mediterranean, Sir Sydney ably states the conclusion of 
the struggle, that the siege was raised on the 90th of <- 
May, Bonaparte leaving all bis heavy aftiUeiy fa^'nd 
him, either buried or thrown into the sea/ where, hc^ 
.^ver, it could be got at,' and weighed ; that his only prin- ^ 
ciple of action seemed to be to press forward, and that 
lie stuck at nothing to obtain the oljeet of his ambition. 
- Sir Sydney statei), that two attempts made to assassinate 
him failed ; and that a flag of truce was sent into the 
i6wn by an Arab dervise, wtdi a letter for the Pacha, 
proposing a cessattcm of arms, to bury the dead, the 
stench from whi6h was dreadful, and equally to be feared 
f>y either party ; this was agreed to ; a^d while they re* 
Sed upon its effects, the French threw in afir^ of shot an4 
shells, and stormed the town ; the garrison were, how* 
6ver, prepared, and the assailants incre^s^ the number, 
of the dead ; that nothing now remained for them but a 
retreat, which took place on the nrght of the SQth ; the 
Utmost disorder wfl[ft man^sted in the retreat, . and the 
whole way from Acre to Gaza was- strewed with the dead 
bodies of those who sank under Aitigue, or the effects of 
Alight womods ; that the gtm boats annoyed tfi» van of tho 
VOL, 1.— NO. 22, 3 u 

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BaBaimite wtt «>yt from Cairo. 

ptHroy9, and the atrocities exercised .<^mst th» 
^,'bf the fnkabMantl ofihese countries, n^imdantly 
tSifi terrible retaliatiMi,*' 

wotidefniMi#v it tnsn ef bkmoar c6ald dechure, 

bw i^uto^tfkotti tttoB,. tluit mtaaj •f Ibe EfypUansi 

ued the Frencli IIS lNrot&ers,.aad tlatlbo Ei^joufli 

lipofi Cairo as « second country! . . • , 

Anglo-Turkisb fiNrdes having firostfated Uio ^iewi 

f6 Gtnbtdi;^\t was expected they would follow -up 

^aceesse^ ; df this* he laedls to hi^tre been aware; 

oh trk trrdtal ftt Cairoi ha made afraBgenieiita to en- 

IMf t<ypro|ecl 'the s^a^codst and the Syrian frontier. 

Mameltdt^Bliad divided *their forces ; a party had 

|ite1!6 jom Ibrahim B&j, wba had returned to Gaza^ 

ile ffte Mitt^ whh Misrad Bey, had defended to gain 

likkes 'of Natron^ to form a jtlneiioa with tome Araba 

seiiftM Id that qaaner. This aiareh of }if urad Bey, 

Uicated a design of proteclhig a deSeeat*. either at Abou* 

\\t, or At the Tcrwer of the Ajrabs. To prev/i;nt this was 

t>oiftt ^th the French; and ttday skirmishes took place» 

^btch leittfhkated io the loss oTa few of the French, and 

: mimber 6f ^ enemy. The tribes were scattered!^ the 

French harassed, and h was easy to see that such a com* 

test must be fatal to an arvy that caidd i^ot xecniit itself 

;^ettapart^ set out frodi Caj^o^ akid advanced towards 

the pyramids of Gizah, whei^ GMEM |Vqt^ ^as te^oia 

tH^i AtoadnraiBced ffmM ftnmf4lih» Arabs in the rear 

•4ir Unfirf Bey^ who; Khat iiloniltfg, l^egau to ascend to* 

w«rd^ Faynm ; a &wl wefe ki|led|;.and seveial cameb 

taken. General Miii^at pursued Murad Bey for the space 

of fiye leagues. Bonaparte received news from Alex« 

andria, that a Turkish fleel» of 100 sail, had ancbored off 

8 u 2 


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The Torkt Isnd b force tl Aboakir. 

Aboakir, 4tfid^iiiaaifeated hostile design* qn Aleiflndruu 
He departed for 6izah» where be «iade his disporitioni; 
be ordered General Marat t6 proceed to Rahmanieh. A 
part of the divbioii of General Laaoes was to cross tk 
NHe and repair to Rahmanieh ; and also ^ (f|tft of Genet 
ral Rampon's division. The artillery wa^s also pot in mo- 
tion ; and, during the night, all .orders and instroctioBS 
isrere forwarded with the ntmostliaste. • 

Bo>naparte wrote to'Deaaixfor a part of his force, and 
to let General Friant fall into the route of Murad Beji 
and follow him with his flying column whercTfr he went; 
to supply the fortress of Keneh, in Upper Bgn^t, and 
that of Gosseir, npon the Bed Sea, amply with.ammoni- 
tion and provisions ; to leave 100 men in each plsee ,* to 
observe Cairo closely doring the expedition agaiast the 
Turks at AboUkir.; and to concert measures with Gene- 
ral Dugua, commandant at Cairo, for the aecDrity of the 
French interests in that quarter. 

General Kleber was to advance towards Rosetta ; leaf* 
ing a sufficient number of troops to secure Damietta, sad 
the province. Genemd Menon was .ordered to place 200 
Greeks, wtth a piece of ctmnon, in the convents, which it 
was dioug^ht would make excellent places of defence ; lis 
was then to join at Rtdimanseh with the rest of his co- 
lumn. Bonaparte left Oiaab tfie 10th of Jiriy, aiid sr- 
rived on the I9tb at Rahmaaiefi, 
- Bonaparte heard Aat tfc^ IVnrkisb abipB htdflaQdedi 
near the fort of Abonkir about 8000 men^ wiHi artiBeTy» 
and that the garrison sunrendered the same day» Gene- 
ral Marmont (who commanded at Alexandria) acquainted 
the General, that Aboukir bad surrendered on capitula- 
iion ; ihat t^ Turks were landing their artillery ; tbst 



Am> VAmS OF EUROPI&. . JH7. 

Bonapirte -oMch^ to attack them. 

be fed destroyed the jpoutaioDS over the strait which join^ 
the lake Madie with th^ ipad of Abonlnr^ Mid thi^t the 
Tariu were aboiitl9^900' strong. 

From this iufomialiett, Boai^pidrte sent Geneni ^e^ 
AoQ to. Kosetta widi a ranforeemeivt of 4rQ0|>s,i and to de:- 
fend the entrance of* tbe Niiei .• It waa thongHit that the 
enemy wonid proeeKd eHbcr again^ Altsix^ndfia or-Ro^ 
setta ; bnt the Gop^tal ktoied« thatitbej^P^ere. ^tiienohf 
iag themselves in the peninsula of Aboukir ; thskt thq^ 
were fenning magaasineS'biitfaei^rt, aittlprgaoiaingthe 
Arabs, and that.tbey ^ntsd^for Blunad J3i(y aiid.l^is Ma- 
melukes before tb^ Hdfaaoedw. It was, .tberefi^n^» ipnpor- 
tant to take a p09i(ion "wbeaq^lie might be att|U)ked with 
eqnal adfantage, whether he pr^ioef^Qd «|g;ajnst Aosetta 
or invested Alexandria ; siicb- a position, that if the 
enemy remamed at Aboakfar^'they might be attacked 
and compelled to surrender* 

Bonaparte chose a positiofi at the village of JBirkit,^|M 
one eombinittg' tiiose advantagMi ; it is • aitpat^ at' tbe 
point of one of the angles of the Xake Madie, and from 
which he could march with equal fiuiility to fitko, Ro* 
aetta, Aboukir^ or Alexandria : from, which he might, be» 
aides confine the enemy to the paaiasula of Aboukir, 
render his communication with.thfl iaderior OMire diffi- 
cult, and enth-ely intercept the expeded remforcements 
ftom the Arabs and the Mamelukes. .General Marat, 
with the cavalry^ the dMmiedaries^ the grenadiers^ and a 
batlaKon, left Babmaoieh in tbe evening of the 20th of 
Jtily, to proceed to Bidcit He had orderato commufii* 
cote with Alexandria, to reconnoitre tU^ enemy at Abou- 
kir, and to advance his patroks as fai^ as .Btko. The 
army took ita position at Birkit on. the 23d, and miners 
were sent to clear Ae wells at Beda. The bead quarters 


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DlspfwitioB tot Ite attack. 

were, itoiofed t» Aiexaadm; tli9 Omcrai in Chief 
pt^seA th^ «8^ ID Aanihkig Ike /TtfpoTte of the «taar 
tkm of the enemy ftt Aboidur ( U4a9ilftfhed three balta* 
Bobs ^ tke ^^4irieoD.of Akataiidfifi, luider: General Bps- 
taiH^. t« reeonMilf 0, take a. f^ilMi t^etween Aleum- 
dm «ttd AboakiTp and c\ekr theB^acea^ wt^k. Des- 
tak^ reeekeil mlaUilreiiQe.tlifiit Qt^B^€^l .Khlw wasst 
FMiah, ftHowiuf tber^ateof dit lafwy ./v0!u««t to his 
drdert* : ' • | ..-jr .. 

MuBtapha FWka; aomitiaiideK of 4^ifT{iiiu«ih vjhj, 
bad landed with abMi 16,000.]nn» a 4«rge. tram of irtil- 
leiy, Md 100 honaai and bi maekfKslHit worib and en- 
treackiilf liia ferM» BaAfpart^ reaMi^ed from Alexu- 
dm, witk (be Iteaid ^partaas^ toft poaitioii aear Genen) 
B^staing^a station, and tba vaUa between Alevaadoaaod 
Abottkir* Tba oavafay ondar General Marat, and Ivo 
divisions, were to follow inunadiale^.tortliasaiaeftatios; 
If^y arrived m tba momiDg of theSSth, with a coqp9 of 
400 eavabry, froai Upp^ ^1f^ ^ ^ «nny beg^^ ^ 
me^e ; the adtanoad gaird waa otHanuaidad bj Gewxal 
Marat, who had 400 oavriry^ With G^t^M DlestainCrViv' 
-Arae battaliaHa, with fwo field piet^sr The divisisa of 
General Lasaes fon^sd t!he.>rigbli wing, and that of Ge- 
nmral Lamase *a bft ; General Kld^r was ta foin the 
reserve; Hie fawui of artillery, .esoortad b; a sqnadroo 
of hersc, MtoWed the mnnbo^ of the^cpij. Geoeial 
Davoost, wttk t^o aqjaadrona laf haitie^ wd 100 dnw- 
daries, was to take a posMonbelWcaA Al^t«ftdria and the 
amy^ to oppose the Arabs and Munad Btjr who wss 
ht^urlyetpeoted, and to aecnre the. toMNtaicatian witb 
Atexandria* Orders were sent lo Gofleial Meaon tt 
take a position at the entrance af Lakt Madie, on tko 
side of AboukiTi^ to olmDonade any voMds of the eaeoj 




- ■ .. fc. .. xji ■ sea 

The Frenoh attsok tlw Tarlcs. ' 

that iftight be on tke lake, and attempt to harass the amiy 
•on that side. 

Itfasti^a Pacha had his first Hae half a leagne in front 
of the fort of Abonkir ; about 1000 men occupied his 
fight, supported by a viUage, occupied by 1200 metu 
with four pieces of caunon. The left wing, about S009 
men, - with six pieces of cannon,' was in front of tbe 
first Kne ; this position was to protect the wells wwr 
Aboukir* Some guaboats were stationed to. pvote^ th^ 
space. betweWn this position and the sicooad line. The 
Pacha's second position was in the rear of the vilkige^ 
bis centre in and ahont the redoubt, which he took alfirat 
laadmg; Eighty horaemen were Uie soite of tho Pfteba 
who commanded, and the Turkish squadron was at ai^ 
chor in the road, at a small distance. 

The advanced guard came near the enemy, and oMi- 
menced firing. Bonaparte made his diapoaitiotta for tlie 
attack. Destaing, vith his three baMaliom, wai nrdercd 
to carry the height on the right of Ihe enemy, whioh was 
occupied by about lOOOaen; while a piquet of oavahry 
were to ^at off the retreat of tins body to ttie .lillaga. 
Geaerat Lasqea was to advance a^B^ainat the bft of the 
enemy's Kne, where 2000 men and six pieces of cannon 
were stationed : two squadrons *of horse were to watoh 
tliis corps, and e^deavonr to cut off its retreat. The rest 
of the oavafay were to advance against the centre, and 
the division of General Lannnse was to remain in the se- 
cond line. , 

Geaeral Deataing charged the enemy with the bayo- 
net ; they retreated townrdb itho vHlage, but t^e gi%ater 
. part werd cut down by the cavalry. The ooi^s on the 
left. seeing that (Mt the right givo^ wiy,,;tteiempted fo re- 
tire after, disohar^ng m fi^tr cnnnitn shot; but. the. ca- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Tbe Turks make a ptUn^ resiiUttioe. 

Talry and a platooa of gaides cat off iU retreat» vA 
either 'killed or drove tlie whole into the sea. Geimnl 
Destaing^ then marched against the village; this pdtt*be 
turned while it was attacked in: front The Turks imds 
a spirited resistance ; a number were detached to tbe i^ 
lief of the village; but they wei^ charged by thecavslr;! 
Vfao drove the greater part of them into the sea. The 
Tillage was speedily carried, and its defenders pamifl 
to the redoubt» in the centre oi the second position. lUs 
was a very strong post, it was flanked by a worii wbick 
covered the peninsula to the sea ; another woik extesdeJ 
to the left, the rest of the space was occupied by Jln^ts- 
{>ha's '^troops, who were on the sand-hills and in groTci 
of palm-trees* 

% Several pieces of artillery were planted at the vilb^ 
and a fire was opened on the enemy's right -and on the 
fedoubt ; General Destaing's battalions formed the ceD- 
tre, and fronted the redoubt ; they were ordered to ad* 
vance. General Fugieres had orders to nurch along die 
shore, and force, by the hayonet, the right wing of the 
Turks* The cavalry, on the right of the army, charged 
the enemy several times with great impetuosity ; hot 
they could not advance without being placed to tbe fire 
of the gunboats ; they were obliged to fall bach, while 
the'ranks of the Turks Were supplied by fresh troops, 
i The Turks stood the French artillery with the greatest 
courage, and their resistance only encooraged their op- 
ponents to new attacks. The French cavalry nished to 
the very fosse of the redoubt, and though the soldiers 
looked on this afiair as a forlorn hope, they aeeaied de- 
termined to do all the mbohief they could before thcf 
died. Tbe struggle was long and dreadful ; tbe 1^ 
made a sortie from the rigbt^ and fogaged amn to mtfi 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



by Google 


by Google 


AN1>>AKS OF EtROPC. 521 

Mnttapha Pach|i Ukcn prisoner. 

they strove to grasp the bayonets from the French, flung 
tiieir own muskets behind thera and fongbt with sabre and 
pistol. The Frenoh darted into the entrenchments, where 
they soon snSered death, while Turks darted on them to 
cut off the heads of the dead and wounded, to get the 
silver aigrette which their, government gives to every 
soldier who brings the head of an enemy. 

Troops were ordered to advance upon the enemy's left. 
The redoubt was forced, and during that moment Gene* 
ral Murat ordered the cavahry to charge and break through 
the positions of the ^^nemy« This was executed with 
such vigour, that tlie cavalry were ready to cot off the 
enem/s retreat to the fort ; the route of the Turks was 
complete ; the infantry charged them' with the bayonet, 
and the cavahry cut them down witli the sabre ; thousands 
committed themselves to the sea, and few surviyed, as the 
ships were too far distant for many to reach tliem. Mus^ 
tapha Pacha, commander-in-chief of the Turkish army, 
. was made |}risoner witli a number of his troops, and up- 
wards of 2000 killed. The fort of Aboukir did not fii% 
a shot ; it was proposed to tlie garrison, 1200 men, to 
surrender ; many refused, and the day was spent in par- 
leying. Many French officers died of their wounds. In 
the night (he Turkish squadron communicated witli the- 
shore ; the garrison was re-organized, and defended the 
fort, and the French erected batteries for its reduction, i 

The fort was summoned to surrender. The son of the 
Pacha and the officers were willing to capitulate, but the 
soldiers refused. The bombardment was continued ; se« 
veral -batteries were erected, some gun-boats were sunk 
and a frigate was dismasted and forced to put to sea. 
The besieged, who wanted provisions^ got into the i4I- 
lage, which joined the works. General Lasnes advainc* 

VOL.' I.— wo. 22. 8 X r^^^^T^ 

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Bonaparte learos the t^tt of Tippoo Sultaao. - 

ed to attack theai» but was severely wooaded. Geoenl 
MeaoQ succeeded bim in the oonunand of the siege. 

T^e besieged were in great want of prorisions, jet 
they threw down their arms and surrendered at diseietkn. 
The son of the Pacba> the Kiaya^ and the Govenior, wen 
made prisoners. This victory had a direct teadencj to 
establish the French donuninn in Egypt, by shewing tk 
dreadfol consequences of x>pposing them ; but they were 
rapidly wasting, and as they had no means of recroitiB; 
their strength, a victory which cost a few hundreds o( 
men, was equal to a ddeaL The General saw he ^ 
likely to be attacked on every sid^, and that he coaU out 
strengthen one frontier without weakening another; 
ftom the prisoners taken at Abouktr he learned,. the Eif- 
lish had penetrated his design of co-operating with TV 
poo,, and had overthrown that monarch, and siesed all ks 
territories, by which the power of Franoe in the Bail 
Indies was perfectly annihitated. Egypt now lost tt» 
vatue^ and the mind of Bonaparte retired within itscK 
He looked upon ^one as his friends but those who soetk* 
ed him with flattery. He saw but few persons ; BeiAi^ 
and Menou seemed to have most of his eonfideaee. I^ 
was'easy to see thai he was consciotts of hating faiM^ 
but, though he looked on the expedition as haviag viar 
earned, he would not beUeve that any other person's yiev 
met his awn. 

The intercoprse between Franca and Egypt was cot 
affby the English cniizers ; and the AUtes kept the tfo 
eoantries ignorant of each otber^s situation. It htca» 
evident to the British Government from these despatch^ 
and letters, thai Bonaparte could not maiaitaii^ Unsetfi^ 
the new settiemenL. 

A diviaott of the Spamsh fleet in Carthtgeoa was jffiB* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

AKD WARS C¥ fiUHOPe. £38 

Ooasp'raey a^ini t tlie Extesthrv Dtfeetor/. 

ed by the Prencii in spito of the ooBrt)ibed iiigilanoe of 
the Britbh admirals ; they sailed thvongb tbo Straits of 
Gibraltar, 'and anchored at Cadiii, before the British admi^ 
ral hflid infonnatioti df their M>veiiieots, or tie janction 
they effected. They made a tbtal of 47 sail of the Kne, 
and actaally anchored ni Brest irater. This naval expe«- 
drtion seeteed td threaten a desperate* strolie against Bri* 
tsini though it terminated in Nothing but parade* The 
people of Pranc^ thought that sneh a fleet would convey 
tcinrbrcem^at td the armies/ oa^re the Atet of Lord 8t» 
Vincent before Cadiz, or destroy the British And Kuseian 
ships before l^dermb ; but the Directory did not make 
the attempt. » 

The conducf 6f <te Biroefery had caused «iiob dissatisr 
faction that ils^'deslruiiiSon'wds premeditaled^ and the time 
for accomplisldagif at hurt #rt4Ved. 

The Wders 6r th^ coBbphttcy agaiast the Exepati^e 
Power, We^e tiUcten Bonapartei VliBadeisde Nantes, an^ 
Boula^ de Id Mettrthe, ^osevAifii was to throir oat three 
of the members as nnqutdified t thes^ men were marked 
by the DirectoVy as objects of. vAigeanc^; Ibis did nut 
escape their observation, so thiit ftey tiewed their livM 
in contina^I danger, ex6ept wliw seated in tho councils, 
sheltered by their invtelabilHJr. • 

So great Was the oppositfoii of the Cotinbite that they ^ 
wer6 hourly obtaming converts, -and ther oesitending' par- 
ties secured sucli meatus of defence as might renrier them 
victorious, should the difference require to be setlied by 
force of arms. The Directory ftid a goaftt cjT oJMo, 
and the troops in and al>out Paris w^re subject I0kl!befr 
authority ; but the latter were gained over. Hfe offioem 
gained possession of (he military school tIrtthoQt mnch 
^ 8x8 





Clm^ In the Bfeiabeii of the Directory. 

oppositiou, and became masten of all the engines of 
dtatruction, which the IMreotory might have tniaed 
against them. It wan demanded^ that three of the IK- 
rectors, Merlin, IVeilhard, and Lepeanx, shonhl resigii; 
three days were required bj the Disectory to retum tiwir 
answer. The Coimcil had two of the members (Barm 
and Sieyes) on their side, and laboored to procure the 
majority as the easiest, mode of seeming their object 
^at the three members of the Directory were inflexiUd 
considering that constitation as their safeguard wluch 
they did not scrapie to violate. 

' It was fonnd that Treilhard had ceased to be a legiflla- 
tor on the 90th Floreal, and was elected a director on the 
S6tb of the same month next year, wl^ch made his direc- 
torship: unconstitutional ; this he aioknoiirledged, and 
without any straggle, v^^nptariiy resigned his seat 
His place was fiUedbyoM Qohier, minister of jostice. 
3Ierim andLepeaiix lefttbeliuxembouig loaded with co^ 
ses and exeomtifMUiff Iboger Dncos and'HouUns were 
itheir successors ; the former was a legislator with whoa 
the pepple were little iigqaaiuted, and the latt^ made a 
staff-offioel* diiriag the reign of terror. 
/ The Archduke had 9Qf,000 nien, beside the army of ob- 
servation, under General Sowarrow, between the Danube 
^nd the fhmtjeni of the Tjrrol, which was 20,000 strong ; 
the-^nsfiiao^^amouytEd to about 45,Q0O, which, with the 
forces ttnAer other Genends, aiuQunted to 300,000 me% 
destiaed ^igainet t|ie frontiers of France I No efToi la were 
u^ed tQ cauceal the danger of the state ; the BepubKc 
kad n<^ more than 195,000 men to bring into the field, ex- 
.iclusive of the troops of the Batavian Republic, wbicli 
.^ipppntf^d t9 al^out SO^OOO. It was resolved tp raise thp 


by Google 


Ckrdinl Riift> attacks Naples. 

anny to 500,000 men, from every da«3 of the coaBcrip-r 

By official calodations it was staled tbat no lesa 
tbaa •550,000 men would be, ready for actioa in Uueo 
moatiw. Ta n^e these forces effectual, it was pr0pos^ 
ed to jbror the ttattonal guard, of which some were to be 
eliBployed in the intarior, and toreinf^ce tb^ V^was and 
ftirts upon the frontiers ;«and a^mall part sooa. reached 
the amiies of H oreau and Masaana. 

The retieat firom Naples was followed by scenes shock- 
iagto humaaity* Cardinal lUrfEa having the command^ 
was al the gatlssof the city ^itiA a for^ which. he. had 
eollccted in Calabria, and was j^m^d by 2P0Q British and 
90O Russiaa /troops. The 3t«publicaos took jwfoge ia 
the torts, that Ihaj might obtain .aahonoMcable^ capitula(>> 
tion ; they weceiatlncked, bulthaB^yalistf wane repvlsed^ 
Ten days afteiward the Caadinal sent a flag' of taaoe to 
auch as were in the Castallo Novo, and to those ^ho were 
in Fort St Ehno. This last phee c^itobte4 with Car* 
dmal Baffo, who assmnfd the designation of. JTicar ^iie 
Kimg ofNepks. It was ai^pccidt *' That the members of 
« the governiaent and die patriots in the ferfive^ses• aa 
** well as the FVeneb garrison, and the oatioaifl troops^ 
" should march out with the honours of war, with arma 
** and bq^gage, and should be conducted to Toulon.** 
But as no dependence was to be placed on a Catholic, tho 
besieged were not to evacuate St Elmo till every article 
was. performed by the conquerors. The Republicana. 
ware detained in the roads 17 days from contrary winds, 
during ivkich time they experienced no molestation ; but 
the BnCrii fleet aader Lord Nelson appeared before 
Naples, and blocked up tba j^ps appointed to carry tho 


by Google 

Scfierity of the Kii« •t Kapler. 

BepubUcaat to TouIod nd the Kiskf anriv^i aftUnded 
by two British ships of the line. He published a msni* 
fcsto» declaring that a aegoeiation wkh rebM was dsae 
widMut his aathorify. H^ mersed all tlMt "wis doas by 
Cardmal Ilaffo, and several of the B^pnblidaa party we^«t 
hanged, and their houses given np ib plunder.' 
; ThePrinee ofStighano and tbelMte of Camorfofe 
were bebtaded, a^d aiiietein kfies of dss1Jnetioti« sods 
number of officers and «eclesiattios were hanged* T^ 
coart was asfa^medt but tht Uootdy d^eds cannot be ie* 
nied. The cardnial preiestod agai^t ^4lMag tbetf- 
lieles of capHolation^ and .prod^eed k letter froti the 
jprfane miolster, whioh goto hiln anthbtitf tto grant tte 
eanditioo^ npon winch llmr sarreAd^ tras ebtsioei 
Iboasaads were thrown faito prisobr wA ^ifce ttibainl 
execwted the royal nandbte with blooi% paaetaslitf. 
' Ibe Ctffdmal was d^fed of his effico oa Vieeroj b; 
Ihose wbo imagteed tfiat Ae nod of the obveveiga iras 
snficient to 8ore«n the wwratof crines, 

'General Macdonald detemiSned to ovnenato Toscasf, 
and retreat into the tilrritory of Gen4»a. • His ^irvf «^ 
nmch weakened. Hio eoaribjuied j^wei^ ranfofoed Ta^ 
oany imnMfliately after his departare. General Klesatf 
enteted Ftosenee ; the people hdviig difaced every n»* 
of Ae IRepubHcan eonatiliition, ro-establisbad their an* 
eient govemnient, a proof thaf the Freneb power ww set 
so mild as they represented it. (Senefd MscdssiU 
inished his /retreat, beuig obUgied to leave or deitniy b* 
heavy arlilleEQF» cBtnp eqnipage, and tfce rtaaiab ef ^ 
rich spoils of IlalTf Jna nnny being redneed ta RON 
men. Snwnrrow directed Ms march agaihst Genenl Mo* 
reau^ who relreated farther aito the Ligariaia Repoblio, 


by Google 



Mantua siureikterfl to the AUie«. 

Alexandria was besieged by the combmed forces^onder 
General Belfegarde, as Suwarrow oonsideFed its redac- 
tion neeesaary to bis ftilnre operations. General Gar- 
danne was snmmonod to surrender, but refused ; but at 
tengtb, after 210 pieces of cannon were opened on it, be 
found it useless "to contend longer, and the garrison, to 
the anount ot 9800 men, surrendered prisoners of war. 
Suwarrow Axedbis head-quarters at Alexandria ; he the» 
itiYested Conl, and despatched General Haddict with 
12,000 mm to reach the Vallais. The capture of Mim- 
tua was in the estunation of Suwarrow of the last impor- 
taace, as ii would enable him to send reinforcements to 
the Archduke in return for those foiweriy sent to hhn- 
Nothing was left undone to reducie Mantua, and 600 
piecea^of cannon and mortars were to act against it ; the 
army was reinfqroed, and the people for forty miles 
round were compelled to assist at the works ; the garri- 
son was 10,000 men.^ The trenches were opened, and 
vhan it was pereeiTod, the five from the city became ex- 
tremely brisk. General Kray carried some of the out- 
works, and s«it a capitnlatieD, which was accepted, and 
the keys of Mantua were delivered to him. In two days 
the garrison nmrched out, and laid down their arms in the 
glacis. This surrender was of the greatest consequence 
to the combined powers. 

Massenhmade many attempts against the ArcbdtikeV 
army in the small cfmtoos, as he was assured it bad been 
weakened by reinforcingHaddick and Bellegarde : a num* 
ber of actions took place, but no advantage was gained 
by cither party. On the 14th of tvAy an attempt was 
made by General Hotze on the right of the French army- 
little was accomplished by these attacks more than 
had (oimatlv been achieved by the French, only the lat- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Massena attacks the Archdnke. 

ter repkoned among the prisoners the Imperial GeneraU 
Count ile Bey. This was the first operation of the Arch- 
duke which could be called offensive, and had a coBneo- 
tion witli others preparing ip the Upper VaUais, wliero 
tlie inhabitants were in amis to espouse the caose of the 
Combined Powers. 

The French Commander found it necessaiy to rest his 
army, that it might meet a fresh body of Bfissi^ns adnmo- 
ing towards Swabia, under General Bimsi Kprsakow; 
Massena fortified his right wing, under General Iie<>oiiii>e» 
taking care npt to weaken bis centre before Zorich, nor 
his left. On the 12th of August Massena attacked the 
Archduke's position with the left wii^ of has amy, near 
Baden. Next day, in a fog, he sent a oolnnm acroea tho 
JLinunat, which carried one of the main guards, «id cn-> 
tered the camp of the cavalry. The republicans pushed 
forward, and penetrated to the rear of the Archduke's 

The French were taken in flank by two batteries, and 
found it necessary to act on the defensive. Hie Swiss of 
both parties were engaged, and attacked each other with 
the most determined fury. Massena withdrew to the left 
side of the Ldmmat, .and the centres of the contending 
armies resumed their former positions. The columns of 
the French right, amounting to about 80,000 men, di- 
rected their march against the chief posts of the Austrians. 

Lecourbe proceeded up the Lake of Lnc«rne, to eoa* 
tribute to the attack upon Altorf, which he cmnmitted to 
General Person. Some of the troops for this expeditiott 
took the route to Seedorf, and the remainder to Attii^ 
hausen, where some bloody engagements were fought 
and at Fluelen, near the chapel of William Tell. Gene- 
ral Simpscheo eTae.uated Altorf in the eveming, and re- 

Digitize by VjOOQIC 

AK& WA%% OW EUHOPi;* 62m 

Tb« FMMh aCtaok lh» P«Mt of iht Dfi¥W% BfiAge. 

treated idien he bad deatroyed tha bridges od tbe Reuss. 
General Lpieen reached Waieo^ aftw a dtfflsult inarch 
aerost quantities of ice apd aaAw« 
I General Lecourbe determined to ascend the Reass, and 
get before General) I^oiaoa. He continued his jcoutc, «nd 
as hfi theugit it inqpitaotieable to turn the passage of the 
Pierced Rook, hei resalved tQ ibroc the passage of tbe 
])e?fl'ii Bridge^ across the Reass, twentj miles south of 
Altorf. He attacked the Auatrians by four in t)^ 
noon» vho fell hack ta their entreticbptents at ^ 
Be«ii's Bridge, flasked by the im^t^ 0f the Keuss %vA 
inaccessible mountains,. The Frenoh v#re at tha head pf 
the bridge, aad pursiied tht Austrian^ expecting i^ pass 
it along irith tbevn, bat the. bridg!» gikve ^99, ^^d a fhaso^ 
af fifty feet obliged them to return^ expend to a tre^ 
■lehdotts fire from tbe <^ppoaile lade. The bridge Kraa 
repaired duriag the nigbt» and on thf next ipoming 
General Gaudin appeared on the right qf it, having de* 
soeaded by >fae talley of Urseren. Tbe Austrian^ reitisted 
the Republicans with the most delennined bravery. 

Lecourbe vas master of Si< Gpth^rd and tbe whole 
coarse of tbe Reuse in forty-eight bo^rs, when General 
Tureaa*8 division drove the iiustrians beyond the Sempe* 
leu with great loss. The Austrian army began to rally 
on tbe mountains of Crispalt, from whence they could 
easily descend ipto the valley of the Rhiqe ; and tbey 
hhicked up tbe entrance into tbe Grisons by the sources 
of that river. As General iiecourbe thought that the 
Austrittis would strengthen themselves in this position^ 
he omrched after their juneti<tti towards the Lake oi Ober 
Alp> and carried the dffieqlt defile on the iray to Disen'* 
tist defended by three bfittalioas of Kerpen^ Tliis en- 
gagemsnt was very sangufaiary» t}ie hostile generals 

VOL. 1. — NO. 28. 3 Y "* 

d by Google 

Digitized b 


Suwarrow pretsct the Sie^ of Toitooa. 

charg;ed at the bead of their respeofiTe columns ; tb 
regiment of Kerpea wa3 at last eompeUed to yield to tho 
Republicans, and only a sisall part of it made good iU 
retreat to Disentis. 

. The Archduke prepared to streDgtheii his left wing, 
and brought up the first RnssiaA colimiiis to be engaged 
without being permitted to rest. To draw the attention 
of MassenaoD the left, be began to constnicttvo bridges^ 
but the rocky bottom of the Aar rendered this measore 
impracticable. The first divinon of the Russians, under 
General Hotze, marehed upon Regeapurg oo the Itfth 
to stop tbe progress of the French. 

Both sides were now preparing to act whh more 
vigour than ever. Suwarrow, in Italy, would leave no 
place behind him unoccupied, and get possession of the 
flat country ; he pressed the siege of Tortona, blockaded 
Coni, and kept a watchful eye on the Republican posts 
at the'eutranee of the defiles of the Appcnines. General 
Klenau made himself master of Sarzana, Fort Lerici, and 
all the positions on tbe Gulph of 'Spezzia, where tbe Re- 
publicans were already masters of Fort St. Maria. All 
parts of the allied army began to concentrate, when the 
arrival of the army under General Kray was expected ; 
and the capture of the citadel of Tortona was to be the 
signal of future operations. 

Joubert was to descend the Appenines, to bring Savar- 
row to engage him which was to be favoured by som» 
corps of the army of the Alps, now commanded by Cham- 
pionnet, who haO bafiled aH the calamnies of the oU 
Directory. Massena, in Switzerland, was to engage the 
left wing of the Austrian army, and force it to abandon 
the small cantons and St. Gothard, to force the Arch- 
duke to come to the aii} of General Stzarray, or prevent 




Cknend Joobert nortally wonoded. 

bim from reoeiTu^ reinforcements by th^ way of Swa>- 
bia* Tins formed th^ plim jof attack from Schaffhsiusea 
lo tbe ' MediterraneMi* 

^ The RepubKcans oiade an attack on the troops under 
(Seneral Bellegarde» -who were in possession of Trezzo 
and.Bestanga before Aqoi. General Jonbert was deter- 
mined to follow the course <)f Uie mountains, jaud march 
directly against Tortona. This Suwarrow could not pre- 
vent, unless he could ^drive the Republican army from 
their posiGoD, which he resolved to attempt without loss 
of timcy and commenced his attack on the 16th of August. 
The right wing, under General Kray/ began the bloody 
action, who directed all his force against the lelt wing of 
the French, where General. Joubert commanded. 

This gallant oflScer was mortally wounded, whife head*- 
ing and animating the infantry by his presence, who 
were enthusiastically exclaiming, ** Forward ! forvrard !'* 
and General Joubert, to whose military talents and ch%- 
ncter every party in France did justice, exclaimed with 
his expiring breath, '' Forward ! forward !" Novi, nine 
miles firom Tortona, was attempted to be turned by 
General Kray, and attficked in front by the Russian com- 
"mander, Bagration ; but their united assaults were ine^ 
fectual, when Derfelden and Melas were commanded to 
attack, the'pne by the road of Novi, and the other by the 
left side of the Scrivia ; this proved abortive, since the 
Russian conunander, Derfelden, found he could not 
gain the heights to the left of Novi. 

All were now dosely engaged, and the slaughter was 
prodigious. General Kray was driven back about three 
in the afternoon with great loss ; this determined Suwar^ 
row to attack the heights of Novi with the forces under 
Derfelden, Bagration^ and Milloradewitch ; but such wjss 
3 If 2 


by Google 


Dreadful STrti^itiFr'Kt^he tkttHt^tVt^l 

the opposition iX ike Bief)«blioaiii»» thii tbqr ^oM wA 
be tnaae to tibtodoa ^k }fioMim. TheifflitRof tk 
combined army was nearly annihilmod iiy fc cbiigtf 
df thfe Fr^ttch, -whidh*^f<M>i) MfBteiaMl4iyfloiwh>wjritk 
flat ferodofcn thi« of oooiagt fbr ^tOttch 1* hbs a^ 
nWk^re through lUb. 3f«lrea«1M>k>tto*<ibirf!«««Da' 
^et> 'dib dettth ^T MtAn^t, lot (OMiiiyuMMd IuimV ^9 
Ms j)^hspDUl bravcfry. 

Oerteral Selfls, with «ic teft Wlhgf, tciched Ite W 
heights QlfNdw/cin the ^e tf>Bc«CbIa^ ^rithlhb ^visifli 
tif IProlicb h^^ engaj^^S^e tight «dtik «f tte F^focb, "^li^" 
Oeh^era]1Jungnanwas'woim4«d^G^dMMfet]if^ "■ 
t^rinee df LkOitcmslein was iMNl^M'to ui».f«s8MS»> 
pr whaterMr'poinls'beiBigbtdeeei <)r^a4Mita9e. fl^li^ 
ittacSwed the post 6f Novi at «ve hi Yfab J«?«iiittgr* f^ 
which had paused the cfihsi^m cif as taobh >bl#0dr ^ 

> wbrch M onpau had ^eioibkoed %o cov^'Ms^MNtft, fisA 

^ lie now «aV was inevMbte ; but MrWdh hto tijH wtftswsw- 

•pKsh •^tiJl be "^^as nesd^ly surrounded. The co»»w"* 

iion with»6aTi was cnt*o^ »by<the JVioce of JU«*W»**' 

^0 that the -Prc^b^EMBfyoonld only «i»^tr«iit%y^^d^ 

The fetifeat 'wwcontfudM <^«h •ooWiAH^b''*'* 

! l)Utthe tG^^hig%lpefeed wp |iy ^tbe wrtlltoy ^n V*** 

ihrongfh l^brano, fte'rea^•gusltd was'flMWi ^^* 
fusion, and piiirstned "by ^6ene»ai •KanMAay* ^^ 

f pfforts wer« mailfe >tb ^ly the ronrrgf^scrii, *«t «fttfcoilt 

efreet, add nigUt ilbhe 4Ablbea the lOOifltet 

The battle of Noti *ft •2*,«(W -t<<to ^««i«l '^P?** 
field, including bcWhsides, ^3 thfe«=rtcttfiy ^^ ^fj*t 
clsiye'tjll Mclas had'ttfriif^d'tlte right wing of^^^ 

I '^je.^r<jnch army was purso^ by JOeaeral Kart^"^' 

who becRTue master pPthe'field 'Htmtfy'Htt^^^^^'^'* 

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Tonmm ■atw4<rt4o Suvanwv. 

If^roM took .pofl9eaiioB 4>f the Bed M^HMtaJD, to favonpr 
Iris retveat; and the AqiiiblioMi' aimy jraiUM and ff»- 
smned its Ibnner poailMiM. Mweeaii jrepaked to GeBOi^ 
4iid urged CbanpiaiMiet to take: upon kia . 1|ie oommand 
<tf ;tha array. The victory of Novi waa asovibed to Melaa 
kgr Geoieral Sumanom^ which wiHdo koooar to kii 
Mieniory, as k pftavea ke knew kow to give mUilaiy 
«erit ila jutft tribiito of qpplaove ; yet tkejNurt he took 
in the batUo wattkongkt ao iiigkly konoiirakle, that k^ 
Wereig^ oonfcned ott kim 4ke taniaine llaluky upM 
the occaaoa. 

Tlie citadel of Tortona agreed to a capitalation, so 
that the place ahooU.not be giveo ^p for ten days from 
its surrender, unless it should be relieved during that 
period. The situation of Genoa was more alarming ; and 
Klenau, who was master of Fort St. Maria, and Sistri-di - 
livante, proceeded on that aide, while Adnural N#lson 
blockaded ike povt Afiunine was . experienced ky 4ke' 
inhabitants.; imX 4he French did not abwdco «this .onfbr- 
'tonate Aity dnniig the waia in Italy. 
^t. The aflkirs -of Smloeriand made the onmander in 
chief send reinfoicemeoto to that quarter. The first 
column of Sussinmi, under Geaerel fiosenbei^;; ioA the 
rottto by Norarro, intending to pasft 'St. Ootbard by ike 
w^y of BeUinnone. We may-si^ose that Morean had 
notice of this movBaient» for he left his position .the Aext 
day, at the head o( 35,000 jnen, divided mto three 
columns, the first of whiok was directod against Acyui, 
and the two others against Ndvi and Sermvalla. Kniy 
•met ihim with his toft and part of the centre division, a 
desperate engagement took plaoe, which ended in the 
def<;at of the Republicans, and Moreao resumed his for- 
mer positions. The citadel of Tortona surrendered to 

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(i«iieral Moieau aftpotnl^tf io eom mam 4 * tht Freocb Army. 

{Sifwarmw *<Hi tlie 1 lib of- Septemben who hating ek- 
pfessfd his grlititnde t# the Atisbrian geberak* set out for 
'8 trftiif'rfhind -with 4lie »R«*iian rear'^oard. 
• Siiwft^row-s army in 'Italy did n^t e^ccced 90,000^ aW 
tfmuglt it bad a relivforcetaent of about lO^QOC^ neu in 
*ll)e beg^mning of SvAy. The army od its inarch 
'Joined by Su war row, who made every preparation for \ 
attack npoD St. Gothard, and to joia the Inperial 
maodersy Auflenberg aad JeUachicb, who were roasters of 
the frontiers of the Grisons and the small canloDs, ^PP^ 
site to the advanced guards of General Lecoarbe. 


TfiE troops to form the army of the Rkiue, were to be 
commanded by General Moreau, but were under General 
Mnller, until he arrived. Mailer's head-qaarters were 
at Manhcim on the 95(h of August, bisftdvanoed goard 
moving to Ileidetberg and Scliew^tzingen. fie issued a 
manifesto to the anny, ordering them \o regard property 
.which had been too often violated; and this was followed 
by one to the inhabitants, tirgtng tbem to beware of tak- 
ing up arms against the Republicans, if they 'wished to 
' find them friends. He then proceeded to Sdiewetaos- 
gen, and from thence to Wisloch, and forced the hussars, 
under General Szechler, to abandon Heidelberg, of whidi 
he instantly took possession. 

\N'hon the Archduke was acquainted with the move- 
ments of the Republicans in Swabia, be sent eight bat- 
talions of Austrian infantry, part of whom took the route 
lo Villcugpn, axid tlie remainder by the way of the Bris- 




Tlie MilitU joiB the Amtrtan Array. 

gaw. Tills aid was the more impoyrtant 'by the xising q£ 
the p^&asaats and the bnd-stami, to' which they had becoa 
invked by the Elector of Mentz, who ui;ged tbeaa to de^ 
fend their own houses against the Qomvion etiemy. Tba 
Baron d'Aibini thejhead of the .land-stumi, and 
the armed peasants uniting with the Austrian tioops, de- 
feated the Rqpubifcans ', in the vicinity of Seligenstadt: 
The Elector gave them the pay of soldiers, which] he 
wduld continue till it was- prudent to disband them. 

The Aostffians thus received such fo/ce .as they had 
before solicited ia vain; and tlie couragye of the country 
people was. equal, to their terror on a former occasion, 
and produced about 30,000 men. This new-iaised army 
crossed the Maine at Frankfort, and meuaced the^^ity of 

The territory of the Landgrave of Darmstadt was re- 
spected, while he was & bis stipulations, and 
streni^thened the garrison of Darmstadt to preserve neV 
trality. Muller found he had 18,000 men, with them he 
invested Philipsburgh, and had a bridge of boats from 
Mentz, to secure his retreat. On the 7th he bombarded 
Philipsburgh« which was defended by tho Rhingrave of 
Salm and an Austrian garrison. 

Prince Charles had his bead-quarters at <Donawscbin* 
gen, from whence General Stzarray proceeded to the 
relief of Philipsburgh. This was meant to protect Swabia, 
and check the progress of the French on the right of the 
Rhine ; but, though the AlKes were successful during 
the campaign, they couU not rise above the narrow 
spirit that had been fatal to them during the whole war; 
iu place of sending new supplies to meet the French, 
they strengthened one frontier by weakening another. 
General Kray received orders to retrograde with the 

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BspeditlM afiimt HottMd.^p<ped, 

J Mier li» coMMid ; this* widiihe Ruaaan jnni- 

liarie^ki Swkae*Hid> tbose of tiit Prince of GoftAe, aad 
Hw loipcdat army anier the At ohduk* ia &w»hia^ fci»- 
«« a g«?at bam«roA the RUne; but tbe farcca of Md» 
Jwere waUoto nnke a standi mach lesa to acl offcaaiefolf 
Bgainai tt^ iooreasiag French anay» 
: jkn espeditkm wa» concerted Jbetwee^ji England aad 
fKu96ia, and the oonmiand giwn to Sif Ralph Ahercfesa- 
bic. TwcWe battaBons and »ome cavahy weie collected 
at Soath^mptoii. It was peihaps n^asible to keep this 
matter entirelj a eecret ; but it was well kaowa to the 
French governmeiit beSwe it was ripe for exeetOkm. 
The points of attack were however concealed : varioos 
were the places pointed out as the objects of its desti- 
oation. Zealand seemed to be threatened, and tbe 
months of the Mouse and Scheldt ; while others tkongfat 
the Bussiami would enter hj the Weser and tbe Eras inte 
West Friesland and Gronmgen. This opinion wus con- 
firmed by forming magazines at Bremen, and having ths 
officers of tbe former Dutch government meet at lingen. 
Admiral Mitchell sailed from the downs with about 130 
transports, containing the first division of the armv : the 
second was commanded by tbe Duke of York, as Gene- 
raHssimo; hnt to remain at Margate tiH news arrived of 
the first dif iston bavmg landed. This army of the Duke 
' of York was about 45,000 men, British and Russians. 
The naval force of the Dutch at that tune was nine ssH 
of the line, under Admhral Stoiy, at the Texel. BroDt 
was the commander-in-chief; and he provided lor 
the defence of Zealand, where he expected tbe attack 
would be made. On the 19th of August the British 
fleet appeared on the coast of North Holland. Ad- 
mirid Story was snaononed to svrrender, and acfcnov* 

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AK0 wAks of £uROPt!. 537 

The Dutch fleet hoftlEf'tlie Onnge Flar* 

ledge the Prince of Orange as supreme of the coantry : 
he refased to comply^ as did also the officer in command 
at the Helder^ when summoned by General Abercrom- 
bic. Next morning the grenadiers and light inftmtry 
were landed ; Genieral DaendeVs came np with and en- 
gaged them; The British vangaard was successfid : 
their loss, however, was abont 1000 killed and wounded. > 

The British fleet entered the Texel^ and got possession 
of the anchorage, to which Admiral Story had retired. 
Admiral Mitchell commanded him to hoist the Orange 
flag^ Story gave the signd to pitepare for action, when 
the «crews threw the cartridges and balls into the sea* 
Story declared himself and his officers prisoners of Irar^ 
after condemning his diflerent crews, and protesting his 
attachment to the Republic. The orange flag was 
hoisted by the Dutch fleet; several -vessels,* besides those 
under Story, were captured in the TexeL General Abeiw 
crombie asked for a passport to send Geileral Don as 
)})enipotentiary to the Hague ; but this was refused^ and 
he was desired to state his wishes in writing. 

Troops under General Dumoneean marched through 
Amsterdam, while ethers filed ofi^ towards Alkmaer' by 
way of%mont: all the inhabitants were in arms, imd 
/iie complement raised generally exceeded the requisition 
by three or four tunes the number. General Bruno 
pushed on the French ^d Batav Ian division as near as 
possible to the advanced guard of the British. No sop* 
^ plies had arrived from England, except about 6000 men 
under General Don, The Russians had gone to Yar- 
mouth, and were detained by contrary winds, as also 
were the qavahry, md the Duke of York and General 
Abererombie had about 17,000 men, while Bruno's army 

VOL. I— NO. 23. 3 z 


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The D«ke o< York 9xnwt% t tlie T«nt. 

was iBcreased to 35|000» aad remftinacMeiits ivere m 
their nuifch fton the Low Geiiiitries. « 

Tiie RepiiblicBUfl narohedtft «ttack the British: tbt 
tonlefit was furknis : the right wug ww thrown into im^ 
order by the OraagistB wmoog them ehoutiiig oQt, *' Swam 
who can» we are eurroiiDded !'* This induced A/e grea^ 
er pert of DaendePs akvij to betake themselfos t» Ai§ht 
They resumed their ferm«r pofitioB ; and GSvncIni 
Brone ^commanded ,lhe authors of the rente to be UM 
by a court aiarliai. 

The Duke <^ Yorit sailed tnom Taimonthlhe day lb 
lait mentioned battle was fought. The Prmoe ef Onmft 
made a feigwed attack on two points of Oferysael, dii* 
taat from each other : he sammooed CSoovordoiiy waA 
anvched on to Amheim ; but his endeavoars irere inflf^ 
fbotual and bis manifesto prooured no peisoim ho joii 
him ; he therefore left that aeighboariiood to join the 
army of the Duke of York. 

General Bnme kept Oenend Ahevevombie oonfined . is 
his strong posi^ : a^ severe action look place, when the 
British were obliged to abandon their lines ; at this mo- 
ment Ote Duke of York arrived at the TexeU and disem- 
bari{:ed his troops. Thirteen thonssad Bmisiaiis arriTed 
in two days afterwards^ who were ordered to take post 
an Ifae right of the line. 

The combined army amonnted to 85^000 men. Hn 
Bioyal Highness was mduced to attack Ae (Vench before 
it received the expected reinforcements from the Low 
Countries : the battle commenced on the IMl ^f Septooh 
ber» at dawn of day» along the whole Hoe. The Sns- 
sians forced Vandamme's division to retreat, and ad- 
vanced to within half a leagae of Alfcmaer ^ bat baviaf 


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Detpcimle btCtiM between the French and Engliihi 

peahed tee far, ^tj w^e suMenly attaeked en betb- 
flanl^. ▼aadkflMBe engaged ihe Rassiaiis with Ae l^yo- 
mtp and retook the villi^e ef Bergen. The Raesiana 
fbogkt like men in despur: their general/ Herman, was 
made prisoner ; and Cteneral Essen, seeoQd in command, 
desperately womided. C^neral Daendela fboght bo-> 
Borably most of the day, till he was obliged to abandpn 
lus position with great loss. The combined army took 
its former position at tiie 3yp ; ^s enabled General 
Bmne to re^ccnpy the posts he had before the engage* 

About serenty French gun4ioats having airived from 
BonkifkL by the eanab, the entrance ilrom the Zayder* 
Zee to Amstordam was to be defended. The hostile ar- 
mies were etery day more formidable, each receiving 
reinforoemeBts. A rear gnord of Russians of more than 
moo men landed, and a French demi^brigade marched 
through Amsterdam to Alkmaer. . 

The Duke of Toik attacked the enemy on the Sd of 
October, in which he was snccessfhlf There was much 
hard ftghting, and great opposition, but the British were 
ftt length Tjctorions. When Ihey